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Volume VII— 1922 

New Jersey Historical Society 

16 West Park Street 

Newark, N. J. 



Facing Page 
Scott, Dr. Austin ......__- 257 

Shippen Manor, Oxford Furnace, N. J. - - - - - 177 


The Stirling Baronetcy Patents and General William Alex- 
ander's Claim ----------i 

Some Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' Letters, 

i683-'84 4 

Quit-rents in Colonial New Jersey as a Contributing Cause 

for the American Revolution. By Hon. James C. Connolly 13 
Two Loyalist Officers of New Jersey — Barnes and Antil. By 

E. Alfred Jones ---------- 21 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts (Continued) - 25 
Some Muster Rolls in Military Companies in Somerset - 32 
Lettfj? Concerning the Battle at Germantown, 1777 - - 34 
The New Brunswick of Over a Century Ago. By John P. IVall. 35 
A Slave Bill of Sale of 1724 .---.-.40 
Correspondence Relating to the Morris Family - - - 41 
A Young M.\n's Journal of 1800-1813 ------ 49 

Some Recent New Jersey Books -------59 

Necrology of Members ---------60 

Historical Notes and Co.mments. By the Editor - - - 67 
Queries and Miscellany --------74 

Annual Meeting of the Society ------ 79 


Travel Across New Jersey in the Eighteenth Century and 

Later. By William H. Benedict ------ 97 

Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' MSS. - - - 119 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 (Continued) - - - 122 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts (Continued) - 134 
The Preakness Valley Settlement and the Dey Mansion. 

By John Neafie --------- 140 

The "Washingto.n Headquarters" in Montclair. By Major 

W. I. Lincoln Adams -------- 143 

Americans at the Second Battle of the Marne - - _ 145 

Necrology of Members --------- 148 

Historical Notes and Comments. By the Editor - - - 158 

Queries and Miscellany -------- 164 

New Jersey Historical and Patriotic Societies - - - - 175 



The Boakd of Proprietors of East Jersey. By David McGregor 177 
PkOFESSOR Benedict Jaeger, Early Entomologist of New Jersey. 

By Harry B. Weiss 196 

New Jersey Over a Century Ago, as Seen by a Frenxhman. By 

Joseph F. Folsom 207 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 (Continued) ... 210 

The Growth of Our Postal Facilities. By William H. Benedict 217 

The Figure He,\d of Jackson. By Frederick A. CanftelJ - - 221 
Number of Soldiers in the Revolution. By Cornelius C. Ver- 

vieule ...-------- 223 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts (Continued) - 227 
The Old Shippen Manor at Oxford Furnace. N. J. by Dr. 

George S. Bangcrt - - - - - -- - - 232 

Notes on the Aten (Auten) Family. By the Editor - - 235 

ANNU.A.L Meeting of the Woman's Branch . . - - 241 

Necrology of Members --------- 243 

Historical Notes and Comments. By the Editor ... 250 

Queries and Miscellany -------- 255 


In Memoriam — Dr. Austin Scott. By Rev. Dr. W. H. S. Detn- 

arest 257 

George Scot, of Pitlochy. By Edith H. Mather - - - 260 
James W. Marshall, the New Jersey Discoverer of Gold. 

By Elias Vosseller 278 

English Convicts in the American Army in the War of Inde- 
pendence. By E. Alfred Jones ------ 286 

Judge Symmes on Indian Hostilities ------ 291 

Witches in New Jersey. By Joseph Fulford Folsom - - 293 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813. (Continued) - - 305 

Some Books Received --------- 314 

Necrology of Members --_-.---- 316 

Historical Notes and Comments. By the Editor - - - 324 

Queries and Miscellany .----.-- 330 

; New Series 

JANUARY, 1922 

Vol. VII, No. 1 

rr^S^:.i^r£:^;^2;'iS2E2g2^ l^SSa^ E^SS^S^SrT!S!r^gSSeE5S^iSS!SiIv"/:iS3SS:^ 






Devoted to 
New Jersey History, Biography and Genealogy 


Entered as second clnsa matter Au{,'U3t 18. 1917, at the post oiiice at Soraonrille, 
New Jersey, under the Act of Auijust 24, 1912. 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 
. - Society 

3Poun&c& In tbe 13ear 1845 

Publication Committee: 




k. Page 

K The Stirling Baronetcy Patents and General William. Alex- 

I.K' ander's Claim __-_-___-i 

kr- Some Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' Letters, 

\r _ i683-'84 4 

it - Quit-rents in Colonial New Jersey as a Contributing Cause 

r FOR the American Revolution. By Hon. James C. Connolly 13 

I.- . Tv/o Loyalist Officers of New Jersey — Barnes and Antill. By 

l... E. Alfred Jones ---------21 

\:r-- The Condict Revolutionary Record Aestkacts (Continued) 25 

' Some Muster Rolls in Military Companies in Somerset - 32 

Letter Concern ing the Battle at Germantown, 1777 - - 34 
f.. - The New Brunswick of Over a Century Ago. By John P. Wall 35 

I7 A Slave Bill of Sale of 1724 -- - - - - -40 

P.". Correspondence Relating to the IsfoRRis Family - - - 41 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 •■- .- - - - 49 

I- Some Recent New Jersey Books - . , - - - - - 59 

i-. Necrology of Members ---------60 

;-• Edward W. Barnes — Milton Demarest — Dr. Calvin Ncyes 

|'j_ ,• Kendall — Camillus G. Kidder — Gen. Alfred Alexander 

jV- WoodhuU — I'Vederick Halsey Doremus — Mrs. Stephen H. 

Plum, Sr. — Jerome Taylor. 
Historical Notes and Comments ------ 67 

Famous "No. i, Broadway" and Its History — The Early 
Codrinpton Place a Public Park — The Name of Von Steu- 
: ben — The Death of a Pioneer Suffragist — The Origin of 

'\i' ■ "Rip Van Winkle" — A Unique Centennial Celebration — A 

f. John Woolman Memorial Association — New Jersey Scholar 

' Goes to Denmark — The Judge Connolly Article on Quit- 

rents — Princeton's Great Library. 
ir ■ Queries and Misceli^vny .-__---. 74 

»; '- Kirkpatricks of Scotland — John Fenwick's Arrival — Graves in 

i Churches — Moore-Smalley — Drake Family — Allen-Wyckoff 

- — Albertson Family — Breese — Paterson — Bebout — Clark — 

Annual Meeting of the Society ------ 79 

Minutes of Annual Meeting — Report of Board of Trustees — 
t._. " Report of Corresponding Secretary — Report of Library 

«. Committee — Report of Woman's Branch — Report of Alem- 

bership Committee — Report of Treasurer. 
Officers for I92i-'22 -____-__-96 

The Procef-Dings is issued Quarterly, on the first of January, April, 
July and October. Terms included in Membership Dues; to others, 
$2.50 a year in advance; single numbers, 65 cents. Address: 

16 West Park St., Newark, N. J. 

S2.50 Per Annum 
New Seriea 

APRIL, 1922 


Single Number, 65 cents 

Vol. Vn, No. 2 


New Jersey 





fcA^si*^ ^^'t 

'■^^ ^r^ ^/^ ]i f^']f%f 

A Quarterly Magazine 

Devoted to 
New Jersey History, Biography anc! Genealogy 


? 1 



Entered as second clat3 matter Aug-usi. 18, 1917. at the post oflic* at SomerrUle, 
New Jcrsoy, under tba Act cf Au^pist 24, 1911. 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 


3foun^cO fn tbc Kear 1845 

Publicaiion Covimittee: 
JOSEPH F, FQLSOM, Ckainnnn. 





Travel Across New Jersey jn the Eighteenth Century and 

Later. By William H. Benedict 97 

Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' MSS. - - - 119 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 (Continued) - - - 122 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts (Continued) - 134 

The Preakness Valley Settlement and the Dey Mansion. 

By John Neafie __------- 140 

The "Wasiiingion Headquartfj^s" in Montclair. By Major 

IV. I. Lincoln Adams 143 

Americans at the Second Battle of the Marne - - - I45 

Necrology of Members --------- 148 

Col. Frederick G. Agens— Edv/ard Theodore Bell— J. Edward 
Borden— William H. lUnaett— Henry Mead Dorcmns— 
Robert I. Hopper— James Lawrence Kearny— Ephraim 
Morrison — Joseph Ridgcway Such — Francis Cuyler van Dyke, 
Jr. — Hon. Bennet Van Syckel. 

Historical Notes and Comments ------- 158 

Getting to New Orleans, 1800, 1839, 1922- "The Stirling 
Baronetcv," etc. — The "Printer's Door" from Burlington — 
Our Neglected Public Records— Hall of Fame for Old Trees 
^— The Preparation of a Family History— Sussex County's 
Historical Home. 

Queries and Miscellany - - - - - -_- - 164 

Governor Livingston's Family — Governor Ogden's Elizabeth 
Office— Postoffices in New Jersey in 1800 — Coddington — 
Long, the Tory Schoolmaster — Gordon — Graves in New Jer- 
sey Churches — Burnet— Casier — Van Arsdale — Flying, or 
"Air Ship," of 1817 — Governor Hamilton's Correspondence 
— Soldiers in the Revolution — Barclay. 

New Jersey Historical and Patriotic Societies - - - - 175 

The Proceedings is issued Quarterly, on the first of January, April, 
July and October. Terms included in Membership Dues; to others, 
$2.50 a year in advance; single numbers, 65 cents. Address: 

16 West Park St., Newark, N. J. 

$2.50 Per Annum 

New Series JULY, 1922 

Single Number, 65 cents 

Vol. VII, No. 3 



IT tf ® 



A Ouarteiij MagaziSe 

Devoted to 
New Jeri^ey Histdry; Bioip'^iphy and Genealogy 



1 •:i3E?:-i^r^i^:^-'^K^irvs:3^.^[ES^:iiESJ^ ^'':: ;• J 



Hnltirod aa second cl.i'-fi matter Aupust lii, 1917, at tho po.-it orlice lit Sorn«rrUV9, 
I-Jfiv. Joisay, uiidor tJia Act of Au«ru;4t 24, l'J12. 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 


jfounDcCt in tbc i;?car 1845 

Publication Committee: 
JOSEPH F. FOLSOM. Chaifman. 




The Board of Proprietors of Fast Jersey. By David McGregor 177 

Professor Bknedict Jaegek, Early Entomologist of New Jersey. 

By Harry B. Weiss 196 

New Jersey Over a Centuky .Ago, as Seen by a Frenchman. By 

Rev. Joseph F. folsoin -------- 207 

A Young Man's Journal of i8(XD-i8i3. (Continued) - - - 210 

The Growth of Our Postal Facilities. By IVilliam H. Benedict 217 

The Figure Head of Jackson. By Frederick A. Canficld - - 221 

NuMDER of Soldiers in the Revolution. By Cornelius C. Ver~ 

mculc .--_----.-- 223 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts. (Continued) - 227 

The Old Snin-EN AL\nor at Oxford Furnace, N. J. By Dr. 

George S. Bangert --------- 232 

Notes on the Aten (.\uten) Family, By the Editor - - 235 

Annual Meeting of the Woman's Branch - - - - 241 

Neckolocy of Members --------- 243 

Miss Mabel Baldwin Bcardsley — Rev. Cornelius Brett, D. D. — 
William H. Burnett— Hector Craig Fitz Randolph — George 
Jotham Hagar — Rev. Roswell Randall Hoes — Alfred Rogers 

Historical Notes and Com.ments - - - - - - - 250 

Some Interesting Facts About the Quibbletown Encampment 
— General Knox's Headquarters — Soldiers in the American 
Revolution— :The "Board of Proprietors" Article. 

Queries and Miscellany - - - - - - -.- 255 

Holcouib-Barber — Johnson-Kclley — Mickle — The Kingston, N. 
Y., Baptismal, Etc., Records — Kirkpatricks in Scotland — 

The PkocEicDrNGS is inssicd Quarterly, on th<: first of Jr.n';!:,ry, April, 
July and October. Terms included in Membership Dues; to others, 
$2.50 a year in advance; single numbers, 65 cents. Address: 

16 West Park St, Newark, N. J. 

New Series 

OCTOBER, 1922 

Vol. VII, No. 4 


^ew Jersey 

TT Tfft 





A Quarterly Magasine 

Chiefly Devoted to 
Nev/ Jersey Kistory, Biography and Genealogy 



Entered as second clasa matter Au^ 18. 1917, at the post offlce at SoEQ«rTll<«, 
New Jen^7, under the Act of ▲ug:uat 24. iiJlS. 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical 


3founJ)c& in tbe L'cat IS45 

i Publication Coinmiitee: " , 


t JOSEPH F. FOLSOM, Chairman. 




i ' 

I ■ 



i In l^iEMosiAM — Dp. Austin Scott. B3' Rev. Dr. IV. H. S. Devi- 

i crest - ~ - ' -•..---- 257 


i G::ORGE Scot, cf Fitlochy. By Ediih H. Mather ■ - - - 260 

[ James W. Marsh.\ll, the New Jersey Discoverer of Gold. 

By Elias Vosseller -.---.--- 278 

y English Convicts in the American Army in the War of Inde- 

I ' PENDENCE. By E. Alfred Jones ------ 286 

I Judge Symmes on Indian Hostilities - - - - - - 291 

't Witches in New Jersey. By Joseph Fulford Folsom - - 293 

\- _ A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813. (Continued) - - 305 

' Some Books Received - - - -- - - -- 3x4 

Necrology of ^Members --------- 316 

Andrew Lemuel Cobb — James vS. Higbee — Dr. Austin Scott — 
Rev. John Preston Searle, D. D. — Augustus C. Studer — Dr. 
Thcron Ycomnns Sutphen — John Lowrance Swayze — La Rue 
Vredenburgh, Jr. 

1 Historical Notes and Comments -_-._- 324 

I President Harding- Elected an Honorary Alember of the Soci- 

'\ ety — An "Air Ship" of 1817 and An Early Poem — A Patriotic 

! Negro of tlie Revolution — Col. Charles Stewart as Commis- 

\ sary General — The Article on "English Convicts" — Additions " 

I to and Corrections in th.e List of Patriotic Societies — The 

; Urquehart Indian Relic Collection. 

I Queries and Miscellany - - - - - - '- - 330 

j Breece-Van Zandt-Tunison — Gordon Family — Kirkpatrick — 

1 Love-Lore-Loree — Board of Proprietors — Burnet — EHza- 

j bethtowu Minutes — New Orleans Letter, 1833. 

The Proceedincs is issued Quarterly, about the first of Januar\', 
April, July and October. Terms included in jMcmbership Dues ; to 
others, $2.50 a year in advance; single numbers, 65 cents. Address: 

16 West Park St., Newark, N. J. 


of the 

New Jersey Historical Society 

New Series 
VUl^. Vil. JANUARY, 1922 No. 1 


I It is three hundred years ago since the charter was given to 

I the early Sir William Alexander, through whom the General 

I William Alexander of Basking Ridge, this State, known in 

I American history as Lord Stirling, claimed his right as a peer. 

I Some account of the General's visit to Europe to secure the 

I earldom appears in Duer's "Life of Lord Sterling" (Coll. N. 

[ J. Hist. Soc, Vol. II, pp. I0-.-8), but we have nowhere seen 

[ until now a clear statement of the reasons for and basis of the 

I claim. The following from the "New York Sun" of Sept. 

I 19, 1921, by the Marquise de Fontenoy, if in detail correct, 

I must prove of interest to many of our readers. After stating 

;■ that Nova Scotia, which has been celebrating its tercentenary, 

"is the only surviving colony of Scotland," having been "offi- 
cially Scotch from the beginning," the article continues: 

"It [Nova Scotia] was granted by James VI. of Scotland 
(who was also James I. of England) by charter to Sir William 
Alexander, as its hereditary Lieutenant-General, just 300 years 
ago 'to be holden of us from our Kingdom of Scotland as a 
part thereof,' and is the only Province of the Dominion of Can- 
ada that has a flag of its own — a blue St. Andrew's Cross with 
the Scottish lion rampant in gold. 

"Sir William Alexander, who may be regarded as the real 

father of Nova Scotia, was a favorite of this King James and 

was in turn a gentleman in waiting to Henry, Prince of Wales, 

and to his younger brother, afterward Charles I. According 


2. Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 

to Scottish genealogy, he belonged to the same family as the ; 

Macdonalds, Lords of the Isles, one of his ancestors, Alexander | 

Macdonald, a younger son of the Lord of the Isles, obtaining j 

a grant of certain lands in the county of Clackmanan, where j 

his descendants abandoned the name of Macdonald and adopted j 

that of Alexander. 1 

"Among them was the above mentioned Sir William Alex- 1 

ander of Clackmananshire, who had, like the Macdonalds of ! 

the Isles, the blood of King Robert II. of Scotland in his veins. | 

Just 300 years ago he received from James I. enormous grants j 

of land in America, embracing Nova Scotia, and even the • 

greater part of what is now Canada. Sir William's enterprise, 
-despite King James' offer of a baronetcy to everyone who i 

would furnish 'one thousand Markis Scottis money' and six j 

men 'armed, apparelled and victualled for two years' toward \ 

Scotland's new colony, did not prove very successful in a fman- | 

cial way, and when Charles I. succeeded to the throne he auth- j 

orized Sir William, who had meanwhile been created Viscount i 

Canada and Earl of Stirling, to sell baronetcies on this side of 1 

the Atlantic, the purchasers receiving in addition to the so- I 

called Nova Scotia baronetcy a grant of land in New Scotland, 1 

which they undertook to colonize. j 

"Lord Stirling is known to have had two hundred patents 1 

for baronetcies, if not more, signed by Charles I. in blank, ! 

given to him for the purpose. According to some authorities, ' 

the number of these blank patents was even still larger. 

"The viccisitudes of Lord Stirling's colonial baronetcy pat- 
ents were such — Nova Scotia afterward falling into the hands 
of the French — that no record was kept of those thus sold, most 
of the data on the subject, such as they may have been, having 
been lost. This led to the springing into existence in the nine- 
teenth century of so many pseudo baronets, quartering the arms 
of Nova Scotia with their own, and whose dignity reposed 
solely on their own statements that they were descended from 
one or another of the American colonists to whom Lord Stirl- 
ing had sold the Nova Scotia baronetcies at his disposal, that 
Kmg Edward issued a royal warrant declaring that no one 
should make use of the hereditary title of baronet, or be offi- 

The Stirling Baronetcy Patents 

daily or judicially recognized as such, who was unable to 
establish his rights thereto to the entire satisfaction of a bar- 
onetage committee of the Privy Council, which he appointed 
for the purpose. 

"All baronets were thereupon called upon to submit their 
titles to investigation by this committee, and the result was that 
some 150 bogus baronets, some of whose titles had been unlaw- 
fully used by their fathers and grandfathers before them, were 
deprived of these ornaments to their name, and shorn of their 
I stolen feathers. 

I "It may be as well to explain here that there is no difference 

i between the baronets of Nova Scotia and the baronets of Scot- 
! land; that is to say, the baronetcies created by the Scottish 

\ crown during the eighty-two years that elapsed between the 
1 institution of the order, in 1625, and the union of Scotland with. 
I England in 1707, all later baronets, of Scottish nationality being 
? styled 'of Great Britain,' or 'of the United Kingdom.' These 

J baronets of Scotland and of Nova Scotia, however, differ 
; from all other baronets by their enjoyment of the right to bear 

I a distinctive badge, consisting of an enamelled medallion worn 
I from the neck by an orange hued ribbon, the medallion show- 

I ing the arms of Scotland upon a small shield borne upon a 

larger one, charged with a St. Andrew's Cross and surmounted 
by a crown. 

"The right of selling baronetcies lasped with the death of 
the first Earl Stirling, Nova Scotia becoming a French posses- 
sion in 1638, and remaining as such until 171 3. The first Lord 
Stirling died in 1640, being succeeded in his honors — he had no 
longer any estates — by his grandson William, who died a few 
months later, the peerages then going to his uncle Henry, a 
younger son of the first Earl. Henry was succeeded in turn 
by his son and grandson, and when the latter died without issue, 
the titles became extinct. 

"Near twenty years afterward the Earldom of Stirling and 
Viscounty of Canada were claimed by William Alexander, son 
of James Alexander, Surveyor-General of New York and New 
Jersey. William Alexander served, first as commissary and 
then as aide-de-camp, to Gen. Sir Robert Shirley, at the begin- 

4 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

ning of the French and Indian war, and in 1758 accompanied 
Gen. Shirley to England, where he put forward claims to the 
peerages in question, basing it upon the fact that he was 
descended in a direct male line from the brother of the father 
of the first Earl of Stirling. This in itself was of course suffi- 
cient to bar him from the inheritance of the honors, since the 
peerages bestowed upon the first Earl were limited to his 
descendants in the male line direct. . . . 

"The soi disant Lord Sterling of the War of Independence, 
had two younger brothers, Robert and Gerard. The latter took 
up large tracts of land on the Potomac, where the city of Alex- 
andria, which takes its name from him, now stands. Robert, 
the elder brother, had no less than five sons, whose descendants 
in the male line direct, settled in Virginia and Kentucky, have 
a perfect right to the arms of the Alexanders of Clackman- 
nanshire, but not to those of the Earls of Stirling, nor yet to 
any of their titles." 

«j* 0* «5* «»• 


Continuing some of the documents in the Bamberger pur- 
chase as noted in our last number (Vol. VI, p. 227), we now 
present a few letters, etc., in the collection from or concerning 
the Scotch Proprietors of East Jersey. 

The first is an original letter in the handwriting of Govenor 
Robert Barclay, of Urie, Scotland, dated June 28th, 1683, to 
his uncle, Robert Gordon, of Clunie, one of the first of the 
Scots to become a Proprietor of East New Jersey. After 
requesting his uncle to transfer a half share of his, which he 
had sold to Arent Sonmans, to Gawen Lawrie, he briefly refers 
to the excitement in political circles in London, due to the Rye 
House plot exposure, in which his intimacy with the Duke of 
York is shown, and in which he mentions his uncle's brother 
and several other friends of his as being implicated in it, and 
that some of them were imprisoned in the Tower of London, 
while others had fled the country. 

'. Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' Letters 5 

I "London, the 28th of the 4th mo., 1683. 

^ "Dear Uncle : By the last post, which I hope will come to 

i. thee in due course, I wrote to thee desiring thee immediately 

« upon the receipt thereof to transfer thy half [Proprietary inter- 

*■■ est] bought by A. S. [Arent Sonmans] to G. L. jGawen 

i Lawrie], which I hope thou will exspeed, and think thyself 

i well fitted in a partner which I again recommend to thee, and 

!■. desire thee to cause deliver the inclosed. Wee are now ended 

H with G. L., who goes over in 2 months hence; so [I] order thy 

y 5 lib toward his charge to be rem.itted. I hope thou will con- 

g tribute what thou can to dispatch the ship at Aberdeen ; wee 

f have many encouraging things [which] I remitt to meeting. 

I "The great newes here is the plott. All the dissenters seeme 

:, deeply engaged in it. Friends only excepted, as the Duke told 

: nie this afternoon, which is a great mercy and a strong argu- 

ment for us. Algernon Sidney, Major Weilman, thy old friend 
Major Homes, and the Lord Russell are conimitted to the 
Tower. Lord Gray of Nark ( ?) made his escape goeing far 
out of the messenger's hands. The Duke of Monmouth is 
fled upon it. One Ferguson, our countryman, is a great man 
in it, and, as I hear this cvennig, has debas'd Dr Owen, who 
[the rest of the letter is too much torn to decipher intelligently]. 
"I am. Your affectionate nephew, B." 

Another document contains instructions by the first six Scots 
Proprietors to David Barclay, Jr., Arthur Forbes and Adam 
(John?) Barclay, as their agents, for the settlement of their 
plantations in East Jersey, authorizing them to "sit in Coun- 
cil." This was written sometime between I\Larch 23rd and 
July 27th, 1683, and partly concerns the first buildings to be 
erected at Perth Amboy. The Surveyor-General alluded to 
was Samuel Groom. (See in this connection Whitehead's 
■"Early History of Perth Amboy," p. 5 et seq.). 

/ "Instructions for such as goe over in summer, 16S3, to the 

Province of New East Jersey in America, in behalf of the 
Scots Proprietors, to be carefully minded by them, when it 
shall please God to bring them saif there. 

"i. Since the Deputy Governor, Tho. Rudyard, and the 
. Surveyor, Samuel Groom, by their last letters inform us, that 

(, there is 6,000 acres of good ground over against Ambo-point, 

, to be kept for the use of the Proprietors, whereof the 4th part, 

being 1500 acres, will belong to us, we give order that, instantly 
upon your arrival, you have our 4lh part thereof sett out, to 

6 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

settle our servants and overseers now sent over thereupon; 
and in case that cannot be got presently done, you neverthe- 
less (that our people be not idle) are to fix upon what place 
of the aforesaid 6,oqo acres you judge most convenient for 
your discounting what you possess for so much of our 4th 
part when set out, which, notwithstanding your being settled, 
you are to press may be sett out without delay. 

"2. You are to press that, without all delay, the 10,000 acres 
heretofore ordered to be set out to each 24th Proprietor may be 
forthwith done, if it he not already, and show that the resolu- 
tion is not to be departed from upon an}-- account whatsoever. 
Item, you are to endeavour that the land thus set out to the 
Scots Proprietors may, if possible, lye adjacent together, and 
that each 10,000 acres lye contiguous, and, if that cannot con- 
veniently be got, let the division fall upon these Proprietors that 
are divided, which all ours are except Arent Sonman's and R. 
Barclay's. So that, where a propriety is in two, as Perths and 
Tarbets, each may have his 5,000 acres together, and, where 
■there cannot be so much had together, let that fall where a half 
propriety is subdivided, as R. Burnett's half ; that is in 4 or 
6 hands, so that each there may have his 2,500 acres, or 1,250 
acres, or 625 acres, together, according to their interests ; of 
which you are to have memorandums apart from each Propri- 
etor to know how his propriety is subdivided ; and we hope that 
in this whole matter you will take all dew care that, so far as it 
can consist with justice and equity to others, our proportions 
be so set out as may be most convenient for us and most suit- 
able for the incouragement of transplanting people from this 

"3. The same care and method you are to follow as to our 
shares on Ambo-point, whereof, of 150 shares, one 4th part 
comes to 36, which, at 10 acres to a share, is 360 acres, which 
wants 15 acres of the just 4th part of 1,500 acres, [and] which 
we leave undisposed of until we see what may be taken up for 
public uses. For thus there will be 60 acres left on that 
account, whereof, if 20 serve, as we suppose it will, there will 
be 37 shares fall to us. Of this let there be measured off the 
2 shares we have given off to our overseers, one to David 
Barclay younger, and 2 sold on the public account, in all 5 
shares ; so that there will rest to us 32 shares, which is 5 shares 
behind to each of us six, and 2 to be divided among us, which, 
being 20 acres, makes 3 acres and 1/3 to each. The subdivis- 
ions of these 5 shares falling to each Proprietor must be 
ordered according to particular memorandums to be given in 
by them who have partners, which they may do without tying, 
themselves to the precise number of 10 acres to a share. 

Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' Letters 7 

"4. It is to be minded that in this, as well as in the setting 
out of the divisions and subdivisions of the 10,000 acres, there 
be authentick instruments thereupon made, signed by the Sur- 
veyor and Surveyor-General, the Governor and Register or 
.Secretary, according as the law and custom of the country 
requires, and sufficient duplicate thereof sent over here, express- 
ing the boundaries of each portion to the parties here who are 
concerned ; and this we recommend to the special care of the 
Governor Rudyard, who is known in the law, as he will be 

"5. That, tho' that parcell of land on Ambo-point which 
was taken off as the 7th part belonging to the Proprietors from 
Woodbridge Corporation contain but 900 acres and 100 of 
meadow, yet, since Widow Carteret offered 200 lying well to it, 
we desire it be accepted, and that 300 acres of what is most con- 
tiguous and adjacent be laid to it to make it up the number of 
1,500 acres as was first proposed, and as R. Barclay wrote in 
his letter dated in March last to Thomas Rudyard. 

"6. Since by the first concessions the 7th part of all the 
[ tov/nships belongs to the Proprietors (and, as we understand, 

1 all the land already taken up upon quit rents is so) we desire 

I that, without delay, an exact account of these 7 parts may be 

I taken and they distinguished from the rest, and the number 

of acres they come to calculated, and that then there may be 
made a just division among the 24 Proprietors ; or, if others 
Ije not so disposed, at least they may be cast in 4 equall shares, 
that we may know our proportions of them, the number of 
acres, the situation and convenience, that accordingly we may 
give order for a division among us, since [as to the] servants 
we may send over for our particular plantations for our own 
private uses or our ffriends, we may order them to settle upon 
our shares of those 7ths. 

"7. We desire you to take particular inspection into the 
state of the quit rents ; how much is now paid and acknowl- 
edged dew beyond all controversie ; and what of this is resting ; 
how much of it is debatable, either on their account that pretend 
right by purchase from the Indians, or from Coll. Nichols after 
the date of the grant given to Barclay and Cartaret. We must 
know distinctly what the proportion of each of these is, and in 
f, whose hands, and how much land there is whereof the quit rent 

'i is wholly discharged, and the land sold off by our predeces- 

I sors ; for we are not resolved to part from our right in the 

^ cases above mentioned, according to the advise of Councell sent 

I over with William Gibson, until we hear further and deliberate 

i thereupon; and, therefore, we do [not?] absolutely discharge 

8 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

any who are there, whatever be their character, or under what 
pretence soever, to dispense with our right, however they may \ 

dispose of their own. j 

"8. We desire a particular account of the land untaken upon i 

the sea side from Shrewsbery town to Little Egg Harbour at | 

the south point of the line of division ; as also of the land back- i 

ward untaken up : and that it be not set out nor sold off, without I 

our particular order and assent, seeing each will have enough 1 

to sell or set out for a good whyle, of the io,ooo acres. But ; 

if the rest be desirous to dispose of the said other land, we j 

order that what is designed to be disposed of, or set out, be i 

first cast in 4 equall lots, and our share left to be ordered ! 

according to our orders. j 

"g. Since order is already given to the Deputy Governor and | 

Surveyor-General to build some houses upon Ambo-point with i 

that of the public stock which they have there in their hands, | 

if so be they build 24 houses, we desire that 6 of them by an j 

equall lott may be reserved by you on our account to be dis- i 

posed of by our order ; and, if the number of the houses be i 

fewer, that you see a division made accordingly, and give us | 

advise that we may give direction in disposing of them; and 
in the mean time w-e order you to use them and improve them i 

to the best you can for our advantage. ! 

"10. Tho' Sam. Groom, the Surveyor-General, may make 
use of the old surveyor in all the great and first division, which 
we acquiesce in, and leave him to do therein as he sees meet, 
yet, in all other subdivisions wherein we are concerned, we 
hereby order that John Reid, one of our overseers, may do it, 
who, being obliged to do it for us, we hereby appoint and 
authorise him for that effect, ordering the Surveyor-General,. 
if it be needfull, to give him a special commission or warrant 
for that end; or so to supervise his surveying of the land by 
his subscriptions and approbation that it may stand good to all 
intents and purposes without further difficulty. 

"For the performing and taking care to the fullfilling of 
these instructions, or any others given by us apart, wee do 
authorise and commissionate in our names and behalf David 
Barclay, Junior, Arthur Forbes and Adam (John?) Barclay 
to act for us and sit in Councell, they having interest in several 
proprieties under us, as our proxies, and this to continue for a 
year after their arrival to the country. 

"In witness whereof, as we have hereunto set our hands and 

seals the day of , 1683, so we desire that, upon 

production hereof, to the Deputy Governor, it may be regis- 

Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' Letters 9 

trated and inrolled in common form as a sufficient authority 
for them to act in the premises." 

[Endorsed as "Delivered to David Barclay"]. 

The following is a most interesting letter by Robert Gordon, 

of Clunie, to Gawen Lawrie at Amboy, about July, 1684. Lavv- 

rie had arrived at Amboy as Deputy Governor about February 

of that year. This Robert Gordon, (born 1641) to whom we 

have before referred, was a brother to the Thomas Gordon, 

(born about 1653) who came to Amboy in October, 1684, with 

i his v;ife Helen, four children and seven servants, and settled on 

I Cedar Brook, in present Plainfield. He became Attorney-Gen- 

i eral, etc., and died in 1722 at Amboy. Robert never came over. 

,; Whitehead says ("East Jersey under the Proprietary Govern- 

f ments," p. 199), that he "was one of those Proprietaries who 

I appear to have engaged in the East Jersey enterprise with no 

other object in view than pecuniary profit," but the fact now 

seems to be, as his letter shows, that he hoped to settle in 

New Jersey. Some of the long sentences in this letter are not 

clear, but are given as they appear to have been written. 

I [Not dated]. 

I "Friend Gawen Lazvry : I was glad when I heard of 'hy hav- 

I ing safely landed in that place. I wrote to thee long since about 

[ my afifairs there, but I know not if thou hast received it or not. 

'' "Therefore I have taken the occasion of my nephew, John 

Barclay, his going, by him to resume what I can remember of 
^; my former letter. And also further to acquaint thee that, 

I having some concern there as a Proprietor in the Government, 

I I have appointed under my hand one George W'illox, who hath 

f a share, viz., an eighth part, to be my proxie. In respect he is 

J my neighbor here, and at his going over I did it for his further 

I incoragement with the advise of my nephew, Robt. Barclay. 

i I have also constituted John Barclay, my nephew, bearer hereof, 

j my attorney to [in] reference to what concerns me in that Pro- 

i vince as to property, wherein I have recommended him to thy 

? assistance and advice, partly because of his youth, being yet 

; not well acquainted with such matters, and partly because not 

only of our old acquaintance, but also our being equall [in] 
shares in our propriety wherein I do expect that, as thou dost 
for thyne own, thou wilt do the same for myne. For betwixt 
I us at any time when a partition is necessary it shall be done by 

lo Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

thyself, wherein I question not thy justice, so that we shall not 
fail to agree. 

"The chiefest thing for my settlement there is to get out the 
allottment of the 10,000 acres to each Proprietor, and of ours 
among the rest, wherein our advantage will be to get as much 
as we can together, at least betwixt us 2,000 acres contiguous 
in one place, which I very much desire for our neighborhood, 
which cannot but be convenient to us at present, and also to 
ours after us, by recommending to our children after us to 
entertain the same friendship together as now is betwixt us. 
And for the shares at Perth town, I would gladly to have a 
hous and aikers there, out of the shares that fall to me out 
of it, wherein I might at present lett my attorney for his incor- 
agement to possess in my name, or else to let it to the best 

"[How] things there are relating to quit rents and /ths, 
wherein still we are alike concerned as a Proprietor with the 
rest, and whereof I wait for an account from thee, after an 
allottment of 2,000 aikers, or more if can be, that we can call 
our own divided property, whereof I can contribute from hence 
to further its plantation, shall not be wanting after advertise- 
ment from thee. 

"Aly first desire of being a Proprietor in that Province was 
in behalf of my son Augustin. whom (since I had not estate 
whereby to make him a Scotch laird, that he might not hang on 
his elder brother) I have bound a 'prentice to an apothecary 
surgeon, and intend to have him hereafter a planter there; 
and therefore I would do what I could in the meantime to have 
some particular plantation there ; and, having so great a share 
in the whole, the least I expect to be divided to me with thyself 
equally betwixt us is 2,000 aikers lying contiguous together out 
of the 10,000 acres. 

"But, as I wrote to you in my letter last, I have, since thy 
being there, a very great inclination of going to that Province 
myself to dwell there the rest of my dayes. I confess (I bless 
God) I have a house and a conpetent estate to Hve upon in this 
country, as an ordinary laird here, yet there are considerations 
before me which makes me inclyne very much to be an inhab- 
itant as well as a Proprietor in that country ; only I would be 
first informed how I may live there, that I may satisfy those I 
am nearly concerned to be with me there, who tell me I am now 
old and have here a home and settlement wherein to pass away 
my dayes, and what like that can I expect there in an unplanted 
country, especially since I am not a person myself in capacity 
to work as a planter, and in many things of the country (but 

Unpuhlished Scots East Jersey Proprietors' Letters ii 

I of little worth) overseer, vvherefor that it would be necessary 

I for me, ere I venture to raise my family to set it clown there, to 

i have some sons to go, and something or other to maintain a 

I family with beside setting down servants to make a new planta- 

I tion. I know none there can now better inform me, nor whose 

I information I will credit more into, so that I intreat [thee] 

I vvith the first occasion to give me (for encouragement or dis- 

I couragement) thy thought thereon. Several are willing to go 

\ with me with their families, but expect that I should propose 

I some rationall incouragement to them to invite them over on 

f such ground as I can venture myself, of which no man can 

\ better inform me than thyself. 

\ "I want to know how many aikers of ground I could secure 

I to them, and how they ly, whether neer a river or not, and what 

i kind of soyl, and at what pryce per aiker to lett it at, and what 

\ were necessary either for them or myself and family to bring 

f. over for our first settlement. 

: "Since I wrote this letter I have seen letters or copies of 

\ them from there, which gives me great incouragement to fol- 
low my design, at least to further my plantations there. I have 

J therefore resolved, God willing, against the next yeir to have 

t persons ready to send over to be settled there, either on our 
joynt account or on my own account, as thou pleaseth. I shall 

^ indeavor to be looking after it here, and if it be possible let 

\ me hear from thee in return to this. R. G." 

\ Accompanying the above letter is a copy by Robert Gordon, 

\ of the memorandum to John Barclay, as mentioned therein. It 

- will be noticed that Amboy is spoken of in this memorandum 

\ as "Perth town." In other documents of the time it is called 
"New Perth." John Barclay, a brother to Governor Robert 

] Barclay, had come over in March, 1683, but almost at once 

: returned to England ; the next year he returned to New Jer- 

\ sey, and perhaps settled first at Elizabethtown, then at (pres- 
ent) Plainfield, and in 1688 at Amboy. Eight years later 

\ (1692) he was appointed Receiver-General and Surveyor-Gen- 
eral. He died in 1731. 

\ "Copy of my mem'ni to my nephew, John Barclay. 

\ "Whereas I have given thee power by letter of attorney to 

I act in my concern in East New Jersey: In reference to my 

I right of propriety there, as having a 48th share of the whole, 

; the propriety being divided betwixt me and G. Lawry, wherein 

12 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

I quest thy care or diligence, yet in respect of thy being young j 

and the less experienced in business of that kind, I advyse thee i 

to follow G. Lawry's counsell, to whom I have wrtiten to the j 

same purpose. j 

"In what thou layst out for me, if nothing there arise to pay j 

it, I shall take care to salary thee on advertisement, as also for j 

thy pains in my business. 1 

"I sent from London, when S. Groom went first, my short j 

deed for my 24th part to be registrated there ; see if it be done. j 

G. La wry can acquaint thee, and keep it with thy papers for me. i 

"Item. Look after our shares of aikers and houses in Perth j 

town. G. Lawry will acquaint thee of it. See by his advise to j 

improve it, either wholly with him or by partition as he thinks j 

fit. I 

"Item. Be informed by him about quit rents, and 7ths, and , 

my concern in them, to settle it by his advise. I 

"Item. To enquire about the London stock committed to S. \ 

Groom, and the Scots' stock committed to thy brother David. j 

Send me account of these, as what Jn. Reid, overseer, and the 1 

servants sent with him are doing. | 

"Item. About the 10,000 acres, to know what's done in it, ] 

to get as much of it as can together. 1 

"Item. To enquire into the progress anent purchasing from ! 

ofif the Indians. I 

"Item. To write to me as often as he can by his brother to I 

Ury. _ I 

"Item. I advanced to my nephew fyve pound sterling upon | 

On this is attached this receipt : j 


"I grant me to have received five pounds sterling, upon the i 

accoumpt of this memorandome, as witness my hand the twen- \ 

ty-second of the month called July, '84. j 

John Barclay." 

[Note. — In the preceding article (Vol. VI, p. 227), it was stated that 
the papers now being quoted were "in the possession of the family and 
descendants of Governor William Burnet." But Mr. David McGregor, 
who has transcribed the documents for us, states that they belonged 
"to the family of Robert Burnet of Lethentie, one of the tirft of the 
Scots Proprietors of East Jersey." On page 233, line 17, "42 men" 
should read "48 men," and, same page, the cost of passage for 48 ser- 
vants should read 84 instead of "48 lib" (lbs.). Mr. McGregor states 
there is positive proof that Gawcn Lawrie was a Scotchman, and re- 
sided in Edinburgh before going to London. — Editor]. 

. Quit-Rents in Colonial New Jersey 13 





f One subject, in my view, deserves some elucidation, although 

I it has been ably discussed from a different standpoint by the 

' iate Chancellor Magie in the Proceedings of the New Jersey 

I Historical Society for the year 191 7 (New Series, Vol. II, pp. 

i 67, 131). I refer to the question of proprietory quit-rents and 

i its influence in regard to the American Revolution. 

I From the foundation of the Colony, practically until the 

f French and Indian War, and perhaps later, this question greatly 

! disturbed the Governors and Proprietors on one side and the 

I colonists on the other. A great deal might be written pro and 

1 con on the subject. But a general resume will be sufficient for 

I the occasion . 

I The English Crown claimed dominion over the lands em- 

l braced within the States of New Jersey and New York, by 
\ virtue of the discoveries of John Cabot (Caboto), who, accom- 
{ panied by his son, Sabastian, sailed under the protection of 
Henry VII. of England, and passed down the coast in 1598. 
^ Cabot made no settlement, but that was considered of no vital 
• consequence, as the English Kings subsequently claimed empire 

\ over the land, and the right to dispose of it as they willed. 
I The navigators of other nations came later. Varrazano sailed 

j into the harbor of New York in 1524. Gomez was there in 
1525, and Henry Hudson came and sailed for some distance 
up the river, to which his name now attaches, in 1609. Fol- 
lowing the visit of Henry Hudson, the Dutch East India Com- 
pany in 1 610 sent vessels to trade for furs v;ith the natives, 
settlements were established, and in 1623 New Netherland 
became a province and embraced, outside of New York, the ter- 
ritory between the Delaware and Hudson rivers. The Dutch 
made settlements on the south bank of the Hudson in 1630 at 

^Part of an address delivered before the Union County Historical 
Society. See, further, under "Historical Notes and Comments," post. — 

14 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Pavonia (Jersey City) and other points below the Palisades. 
Shortly thereafter they held out liberal terms to immigrants 
from Holland as well as to the neighboring colonies, and this 
brought many applicants for permission to settle. Between 
1653 and 1664, when Elizabeth was settled, the population 
increased from 2,000 to 10,000. 

Imagining that the Dutch were in permanent occupation of 
the country, and learning of the liberal conditions offered to 
settlers, at the same time fearing the turn that affairs might 
take as a result of the restoration of the Stuart dynasty, certain 
inhabitants of Long Island, being outbranches of the New 
Haven colony in Connecticut, viewed the site now occupied by 
the city of Elizabeth, and made application to the Dutch for 
permission to make a settlement here. The conditions made by 
Stuyvesant and his government were not acceptable to the 
would-be settlers, and so matters remained in abeyance. In the 
meantime Charles II., who had been restored to the throne in 
1660, made a grant of all the territory lying between the Dela- 
ware and Connecticut rivers, as well as other lands, to his 
brother James, Duke of York. The right of the King to make 
this grant was founded on the discovery of Cabot. The patent, 
or deed, was made on March 12 (22), 1663 (1664). An expe- 
dition was immediately fitted out and placed under the com- 
mand of Colonel Richard Nicolls, (originally so spelled in 
Leaming and Spicer, but later spelled Nicholls), to make good 
the title of the Duke to the country conveyed to him by his 
brother, the King. On April 2nd, (12th), 1664, Nicolls was 
commissioned Deputy-Governor by the Duke. He arrived 
before New Amsterdam on August 29 (N. S.), and the Dutch 
surrendered on September 8 (N. S.). Nicolls was proclaimed 
Deputy-Governor at the same time. 

The Long Island people who had been unable to come to 
terms with Stuyvesant, now seeing the English in undisputed 
control, made application to Nicolls to make a settlement at the 
place referred to in the petition to the Stuyvesant government, 
and he gave his approval to the application. Desiring to sat- 
isfy the Indians who claimed to own the land, the new settlers 
negotiated with them on Staten Island, and on October 28 

I Quit-Rents in Colonial Nezv Jersey i$ 


\ (November 7), 1664, secured a deed, giving to the aborigines 

I what we would consider a trifling consideration, but it was a 

i bargain satisfactory to all concerned. The Indian deed was 

I then laid before Nicolls, and on December i (11), 1664, he 

! made a deed granting the land to the settlers. The description 

I in both deeds agree and included all the land lying between the 

\ Raritan and Passaic rivers (although Chancellor Magie con- 

j tends that the northerly boundary was Bound Creek, which lies 

f a few miles south of the Passaic river), and running westerly 

{ into the country twice the length of the breadth so described. 

I Among the provisions contained in the deed was one which 

I provided that the grantees should "pay yearly to his Royal 

\ Highness, the Duke of York, or his assigns, a certain rent 

\ according to the customary rate of the country for new plan- 

^ tations." At the same time the Deputy-Governor promulgated 

■ rules to govern property acquired by settlers. Among the rules 

« thus announced, one read as follows : 

t "The purchasers are free from all manner of assessment or 

I rates for five years after their town platt is set out, and when 

; the five years are expired they shall only be liable to the public 

? rates and payment according to the custom of other inhabitants, 

both English and Dutch." 
i We must retrace our steps at this point in order to ascertain 

j the trend of affairs in England. 

i Col. Nicolls had hardly left on his voyage for the New 

World when the Duke of York, on the 24th of June, 1664, 
made a deed of release, which, from a recital therein, appears 
to have been based on a lease made the day previously to John 
Lord Berkeley of the King's Privy Council, and Sir George 
Carteret, also of the Privy Council, for all the land between the 
Hudson and the Delaware, now comprising the State of New 
Jersey. The conveyance was made by what lawyers called a 
lease and release, a species of conveyance not in vogue in these 
times, and consisted in making a lease for a year, whicii placed 
the lessee constructively in possession, and then in making a 
release, which, with the lease, efifccted a complete conveyance 
of the land. The release was made "in consideration of a com- 
petent sum of money" ; the habendum also called for the pay- 

l6 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

ment of "twenty nobles of lawful money of England, if the 
same shall be demanded, at or in the Inner Temple, at the feast 
of St. Michael the Arch-Angel, yearly." 

This conveyance, it will be seen, was made on June 24th, 
1664 (O.S.), and the deed from NicoUs, the Duke's Deputy- 
Governor, to the settlers from Long Island, was made Decem- 
ber I, 1664 (O.S.), or at a time when the Duke had parted with 
his interest in the land ; but this fact was unknown to any of 
the parties at the time of the making of the grant by Nicolls. 
On February 10, 1664, Berkeley and Carteret, the Proprietors, 
appointed Philip Carteret to be their Governor for the Colony, 
which now received the name of Nova Csesarea, or New Jer- 
sey, and on the same day signed their "Concessions and Agree- 
ment," providing for the control and management of the Col- 
ony. One of its provisions read as follows : 

"Item: That in laying out lands for cities, towns, villages, 
boroughs, or other hamlets, the said lands be divided into seven 
parts ; one seventh part thereof to be by lot laid out for us, and 
the rest divided to such as shall be willing to build thereon, they 
paying after the rate of one penny, or one-half penny per acre 
(according to the value of the land) yearly to us, as for their 
other lands, as aforesaid ; which said lands in cities, towns, 
&c., is to be assured to each possessor by the same way and 
instruntent as is before mentioned." 

It also provided that plantation tracts were to be taxed one- 
half penny, nothing being said with regard to value. 

On the same date, also, the Proprietors gave a letter of 
instructions to Philip Carteret, the newly appointed Governor 
of the Colony, directing him to make conveyances for lands, 
and on the conditions therein set forth, viz., "reserving for 
every acre English measure, which by virtue of this authority 
you shall grant to any person or persons, one-half penny, law- 
ful money of England, yearly rent, to be paid to us, our heirs 
and assigns forever, on every five and twentieth day of March 
according to the English account, the first payment thereof to 
begin on the twenty-fifth day of March, which shall be in the 
year of Our Lord, according to the English account, 1670." 
(In England the year began on ]\Iarch 25th, and so Continued 

I Quit-Rents in Colonial Neiv Jersey 17 


I until 1 75 1, when the Gregorian calendar was adopted, and 

I January i made the beginning of the year ; so that the "Conces- 

I sions and Agreement," etc., of Berkeley and Carteret, which 

I bears the date February 10, 1664, would read, if the modern 

{calendar were used, February 20, 1665.) 
The "Concessions and Agreement" also provided for the 
I appointment of a surveyor-general to survey and lay out all 

I lands granted from the Proprietors to settlers, "and all other 

I lands within the said Province which may concern particular 

I men, as he shall be desired to do, and a particular thereof 

certify to the register to be recorded as aforesaid." 
We may resume, at this point, our story of the progress of 
I events in the new settlement. 

I It is generally believed that some of the new settlers, now 

! called the Associates, came to the settlement, even before Nic- 

j oils signed the patent, or grant, on December i, 1664, and oth- 

I ers came thereafter and built houses on the north side of the 

f" river, and in the vicinity of the place where we are now assem- 

\ bled. 

\ On July 29, 1665, Philip Carteret arrived at New York, and 

<: came here with his servants, and some new settlers about 

I August I. Now for the first time the Associates and founders 

■ of the town learned of the sale of the territory by the Duke 

J of York to Berkeley and Carteret, on June 24, 1664, and of the 

i contents of the ''Concessions," issued by the Proprietors. 

I It seems that Philip Carteret, the Governor, paid little atten- 

I tion tothe instructions which he had received from the Propri- 

I etors, and purchased from one of the Associates his allotment, 

I and thereby became an Associate, but those who came with him 

from his island home and from England did not meet with a 
i cordial reception, and in a short time had to endure actual 

hostility. The question of quit-rents, that is, the payment of 

one-half penny per acre, required to be paid under the "Conces- 
f sions" issued by the Lord Proprietors, did not assume impor- 

[ tance until the time approached w hen payment was to be made. 

I There can be no doubt, however, that the payment was always 

in the mind of the Governor and those who were of his party, 
j and some of the Associates, and all of the settlers who had 

i 2 

i8 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

acquired allotments under the Governor, had them surveyed 
and registered. The most assertive of the settlers, or Asso- 
ciates, and those who claimed under them, failed to have their 
allotments surveyed or registered, resting content with the title 
acquired from the Indians and the NicoUs' grant. 

The settlers at Middletown and Shrewsbury, whose lands 
had been acquired in the same manner as those held by the 
Elizabethtown Associates, held an assembly of their own call, 
and declared their immunity from Proprietary quit-rents. They 
also brought the question of quit-rents before the assembly held 
at Elizabeth on November 3, 1668, but it seems they were dis- 
missed, not being wilHng to take the oath of allegiance and 
fidelity. When the rent day arrived, on March 25, 1670, many 
of the Elizabethtown Associates refused to pay, claiming that 
their title antedated that of the Lords Proprietors. The people 
of Newark complied and paid the rent every year as the same 
became due, and even passed resolutions directing distress to 
be made against such persons as should refuse to make pay- 

In Elizabethtown the people and the Governor became 
estranged, and threats were exchanged, and on May 14, 1672, 
the representatives from Newark, Elizabeth, Woodbridge, Pis- 
cataway and Bergen met at Elizabeth, and, in the absence of the 
Governor, (who claimed that they were acting without author- 
ity in the absence of the Council and himself) elected James 
Carteret, President, claiming the right to do so under the 
"Concessions" of the Proprietors. They were acting possibly 
without authority of law% and their conduct goes to show the 
feelings by which they were animated. They recognized James 
Carteret as "President of the Country." He was the son of 
Sir George Carteret, and stopped at Elizabeth on his way from 
England to Carolina, where he was to represent his father. He 
claimed to have authority from his father to represent him in 
New Jersey, and to assume control of the government. Gov- 
ernor Carteret issued a proclamation calling on the people to 
support the Lords Proprietors, but with the people of the 
Colony against him he was without any authority that he could 
enforce, and was compelled to look to England to restore his 

5 Quit-Rents in Colonial New Jersey 19 

^ In 1672 the Governor, and at least four of his friends, went 

r to England, to represent the condition of affairs in the Colony, 

i leavhig John Berry as Deputy-Governor; and in May, 1673, 

I three of these, Bollen, Pardon and Moore, returned with a 

I letter from the Duke of York to Governor Lovelace of New 

I York, directing him to take notice that the grant of Nicolls to 

f the Associates on December i, 1664, was void, on the ground 

I that the Nicolls' grant was posterior to the deed of lease and 

\ release to Berkeley and Carteret. This letter was dated No- 

f vember 25, 1672, and was produced before Lovelace at New 

« York on May 25, 1673. King Charles was also induced to 

I take notice of the controversy, and on December 9, 1672, wrote 

I to Deputy-Governor Berry, calling attention to the disturbances 

{ of the inhabitants of Elizabethtown, and requiring him to notify 

\ all persons to obey the laws established by the Lords Propri- 

1 etors, who had the sole power to settle and dispose of the 

I country on such terms and conditions as they thought fit, and 

\ that on failure to observe those laws the violators would meet 

\ with his high displeasure and be proceeded against with due 

» severity of law. At the same time the Deputy-Governor re- 

1 ceived written instructions from Lord Berkeley and Sir George 

I Carteret, dated December 10, 1672, calling his attention to the 

j letter sent to Governor Lovelace (a copy of which accompanied 

! the instructions) and to the Duke's declaration that the grant 

; of Nicolls to the associates was posterior in time to the sale of 

[ the territory by the Duke to Berkeley and Carteret, and that 

the title was solely in the Proprietors. 

In the month of August, 1673, the Dutch took possession 
of the country, to the evident joy of the Elizabethtown people, 
but, as the captured territory was returned to the English the 
next year, this incident had no bearing on the question of quit- 
rents, and as the resumption of English rule might be regarded 
as the commencement of a new power in the Crown, Charles 
made a new patent for the territory covered by his previous 
deed to the Duke (March 12, 1664) on June 29, 1674, and on 
the same date the Duke executed a deed or grant to Sir George 
Carteret for East Jersey. 

On the previous June 13, 1674, King Charles had written a 

20 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

letter to Sir George acknowledging him to be seized of the 
Province of Nova Caesarea, or New Jersey, in America, and 
requiring all persons inhabiting within the Province to yield 
obedience to the laws established by Sir George, "who hath sole 
power under us to settle and dispose of the said country, upon 
pain of incurring our high displeasure and being proceeded 
against according to law." 

Still the agitation and disputes continued,- and litigation was 
resorted to from time to time, with varying success, sometimes 
in favor of the settlers and sometimes against them. This we 
see from the contents of a petition addressed to King William 
III., sometime after 1693, which is set out in full in Leaming 
and Spicer (p. 688). It was signed by sixty-five of the inhab- 
itants of Elizabethtown on behalf of themselves and others, 
and set forth the facts concerning the Indian deed and the 
grant from Nicolls, and referred to a case in ejectment, in 
which the Indian title of one JefTery Jones was sustained by a 
jury, but which was set aside by the Justices, who in turn were 
overruled by His Majesty. The petition concluded by praying 
for annexation to New York, or for the appointment of a Judge 
by His Majesty to administer justice. Nothing appears to have 
resulted from the petition. 

During the long contest the Associates were not in want of 
encouragement, and were sustained by the people generally. 
For instance, on November 18, 1729, a committee of seven of 
the Elizabeth people was appointed to take action looking to 
the defense of the Associates under the Indian title, and we 
hear of a riot concerning quit-rents so late as 1746 taking place 
at Perth Amboy. 

The attitude taken by the people of Elizabethtown finally 
drove the Proprietors to take legal action in the Court of 
Chancery, and on April 13, 1745, a bill was tiled in that Court. 
The bill was long and cumbersome, and intended to deal with 
the whole question and not with single individuals. The amount 
of arrearages had grown to a large sum, and the interest of the 
parties concerned and their sympathizers was intense. An 
answer was filed to the bill in the summer of 1751. It is diffi- 

'See N. J. Arch. Vol. 2, p. 84. 

Two Loyalist Officers of New Jersey 21 

cult to say why such a long time should have elapsed between 
the filmg of the bill and the filing of the answer. The issue 
joined was never brought to a final hearing, and even the bill 
and the ansvv^er have disappeared from the files of the Court. 
The fact that the case was never brought to issue may be due 
to the death of counsel for the Proprietors shortly after the 
filing of the answer, and to the fear that Governor Belcher, 
who was Chancellor by virtue of his office, and a resident of 
Elizabethtown, as well as a friend of its people, might take 
a view favorable to the defendants. Whatever the cause, the 
case was never tried, and the Revolution set the question 
involved at rest forever. 

What effect did this question have upon the minds of the 
people of New Jersey in the cross currents preceding the Revo- 
lution ? The Stamp Act, which imposed an internal tax on the 
people of the Colonies, and the customs tax which was imposed 
on goods coming here, are usually referred to as the prime 
causes that brought about the Revolution, but it is doubtful 
whether these illegal acts alone would have precipitated the 
conflict in New Jersey if they had not been preceded by a long 
Hne of objectionable legislation by the British Parliament, and 
by usurpations of the administrative officials of the Crown. 

There can be no doubt that here in New Jersey the question 
of quit-rents was one of the causes that produced the feeling 
of hostility and opposition which finally led to the Revolution. 


by e. alfred jones, m. a., f. r. hist. s., london, eng. 
Major John Barnes. 

Whatever may be said of the political views of the American 
Loyalists, the double fact can hardly be denied, after a study 
of the unpublished Loyalist documents in the Public Record 
Office in London, that very many of them were men of high 
character and abilities, devoted to America as warmly and as 
conscientiously as the most ardent combatant on the other side. 

22 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Although the subject of this note was not one of the most 
conspicuous LoyaHsts, yet his name deserves to be recorded 
in the annals of his native Province of New Jersey. This 
worthy man was one John Barnes, of Trenton, where he had 
lived for many years as a distiller in Queen street (now Greene 
street) before the Revolutionary War. He had taken an active 
part in public affairs of the State, first as a Lieutenant, from 
August 23, 1746, in the Company of Captain John Dag worthy. 
Junior, in which he was granted a commission on the represen- 
tation of that officer to John Hamilton, President of His 
Majesty's Council and Commander-in-chief of the Province of 
New Jersey, as an acknowledgment of his services in recruiting 
men for the intended expedition to Canada. His original com- 
mission, in which he is described as gentleman, is preserved in 
the PubHc Record Office in London. (A. O. 13 ; 108). 

He was afterwards appointed by Governor William Frank- 
lin to the dignified office of "High Sheriff of Hunterdon 
County," a lucrative office, which produced him an annual 
income of about £600 in fees, in New Jersey currency, and 
which he held until the Declaration of Independence. Hav- 
ing espoused the Loyalist cause he was deprived of this office 
at that time. We next hear of him with the British army at 
Brunswick in November, 1776, when he was appointed Major 
in the First Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers. He lost 
his life in the attack on the British posts on Staten Island, 
New York, by General Sullivan, being wounded on August 22, 
1777 and dying nine days later. 

This Loyalist's house at Trenton is described as a large and 
commodious mansion, two stories high, with stables and other 
buildings, the whole of which property was confiscated and 
sold by the State. 

In his will he left his estate to his wife, Mary, and, after her 
dece.-'se, to his niece, Sarah Hooton Barnes, whom failing, to 
the daughters of his sister, Rachel Stelle (perhaps the wife of 
Pontius Stelle, a member of the Assembly of New Jersey and 
a Commissioner for the disbursement of the funds for the 
expedition to Canada, for which Major Barnes had been so 
zealous in recruiting). Flis widow lived upon a Loyalist pen- 


{ Two Loyalist Officers of Nezv Jersey 23 


^ sion granted by the British Government until her death, April 

■ 14, 1807. 

Stryker describes this Loyalist as "much lamented as a 

i worthy man and a gallant soldier." 

5 The references for the official documents in this case (in Lon- 

j don) are: A. O. 12:14, ff. 260-267; A. O. 12:100, f. 147; 

I A. O. 12:109; and Ind. 8229. Another source which may be 

I consulted is the Historical MSS. Com. Report on the Amer- 

I ican MSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. IV, pp. 284, 318. See 

\ also Stryker's "N. J. Volunteers (Loyalists)" in the Rev., p. 31, 


' Major John Antill.^ 

Major John Antill was the son of Hon. Edward Antill, of 
Perth Amboy, New Jersey, and was born about 1745. He was 
admitted to the New Jersey Bar in 1767. He held several 
public offices with general approval before the War, namely. 
Secretary of the Supreme Court of Judicature, Surrogate, 
Keeper of the Records and Clerk of the Council, all of which 
were obtained by purchase for the sum of £2,900 sterling and 
yielded an annual income of £600. He was also the holder of 
other offices before and during the War, such as Clerk of the 
General Post Office in America from 1775 "^o 1778, Agent for 
the packet boats, and one of the six Clerks of Chancery. 

As an "obnoxious Tory" this lawyer was under the necessity 
I of taking refuge on board H. M. S. Phoenix in :\Iarch, 1776, 

I and remained there until the arrival of the British army. With 

i his brother-in-law, Lieutenant-Colonel John ]Morris, of Shrews- 

^ bury, New Jersey, (a retired Lieutenant in the 47th Regiment 

I of Foot in the British Army) he was instrumental in raising in 

I 1776 the Second Battalion of the well-known Loyalist Regi- 

I ment, commanded by Cortlandt Skinner, the New Jersey Vol- 

I unteers. To his mortification, Major John Antill, as he then 

\ was, was later cashiered (Aug. 15, 1780) for making false 

I A notice of this Major Antill appeared in the Proceedings of 1817 

I (art. by William Nelson, Third Scries, Vol. II, p. 47). but the present 

I sketch supplements that article by giving facts chiefly obtainable in 

1 England. — Editor. 

24 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

returns and drawing provisions for more men than the effective 
strength of his battalion, but was shortly afterwards re-in- 

With Lieutenant-Colonel Elisha Lawrence, Antill was one 
of the accredited agents of the seconded officers of the Loyalist 
Regiments to secure settlements for them in Nova Scotia. 
Parr, the Governor of that Province, was dissatisfied with his 
conduct there, and wrote, on 15 August, 1783, to General Sir 
Guy Carleton, complaining of his "unreasonable demands and 
illiberal ideas" on behalf of the seconded officers. Carleton, in 
his reply, expressed regret that those officers had "made choice 
of so improper a person as Major Antill to act as their agent." 

John Antill married (i) on 21 April, 1770, Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Alexander and Elizabeth (Nicholls) Colden, of New 
York, who died in Canada, in 1783; and (2), his deceased 
wife's sister, Jane Colden. By his first wife he had three chil- 

For the loss of his real estate in New Jersey he was awarded 
by the British Government the sum of £2,900, as well as X340 
for the loss of his annual professional income. In addition to 
these grants he received a pension and half-pay as Major until 
January, 1813, when they ceased, probably after his death. 

Major John Antill was also the owner of about 9,000 acres 
of land in his own right in the Province of New York, and 
between 3,000 and 4,000 acres in right of his first wife, valued 
by him at £3,000 sterling, besides a large tract devised to him 
by Cadwallader Colden, late Lieutenant Governor of New 
York. Debts due to him on bonds and notes amounted to about 
£3,500 sterling. 

References to him may be found in Public Record Office, 
London: A. O. 12:14; 12:100, f. 248; 12:109; 13=93. 108, 
113; Ind. 56o5-'6, Also in Hist. MSS., Com. Rep. on the 
American IMSS. in the Royal Institution, Vol. IV, pp. 60, 280, 
334; Stryker's "N. J. Volunteers (Loyalists)" p. 31; "N. J. 
Archives," Third Series, Vol. II, p. 47, and authorities there 

The Condict Revolutioftary Record Abstracts 25 



I [Continued from Vol. VI, Page 176] 

I Record of Henry Williams^ 

I Henry Williams: Examination Apr. 22, 1834, in respect to 

1 five months' service in Craig's Company. . . . Col. Jaques 

■ had command of mihtia in and around Rahway. He author- 

I ized, as I then understood, a Co. of fine months' men to be 

I raised expressly for the defense of the frontier between Eliza- 
beth Town Point and Trembly Point, about 4 or 5 miles. This 

! was our ground guard and we mounted regularly at Elizabeth 

\ Town Point, at De Hart's Point or Halstead's Point, Morris 

1 Mills, Trembly's Point and occasionally at places between. 

\ Elizabeth Town was our regular station. Every night we 

I mounted guard at those places. Our station at Elizabeth Town 

i was, part of the time, at William McAdams', near the wooden 
bridge. Most of the time our provisions were issued by one 
Woodruff. We entered on this duty latter part of June and 

-^ time expired about last of November. 

\ Before my time was out our Co. was called out to prevent the 

i rescue of a Tory, or Refugee, by the name of Long, who had 

I been guilty of taking and carrying off leading Whigs. In the 

i Winter before he came over with a party of 12 or 15 from 

I Staten Island, surrounded my father's house, took my oldest 

I brother, John, and carried him to the enemy ; would not allow 

I him to put on his great coat ; took him to New York to the 

1 Sugar House. He took and carried off 6 or 7 others about that 

1 time, James Anibort ( ?), Caleb Potter, John Hainer and three 

! others. The enemy then possessed Elizabeth Town and Rah- 

I way. They kept the men at Rahway till they collected seven 

! and then took all off to the Sugar House. My brother, John, 

I and ID others made their escape the Summer following and 

( got back to their friends. 

I The same Long had been a schoolmaster at Rahway ; was an 

'In the April. 1921, Proceedings a brief record of Henry Williams 
appeared. The following is more in detail, bein^ discovered later in the 
"Abstracts," and seems sufficiently interesting to give quite fully. — 

26 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Englishman. He came the next Fall as a spy, was taken pris- 
oner by strategem in Nichols' barn near Rahway, was tried by 
court martial over which Col. Jacques presided and sentenced to 
be hanged, and was hanged at Kinsey's Corner, not far from 
Rahway. It was so near the enemy that it was thought they 
might attempt his rescue, and our Co. was ordered on this duty, 
to see the sentence enforced. A few nights afterward some 
Whigs, willing to sport with Long's carcass, dug him up at 
night and placed him on his feet against the door of another 
Tory, an Englishman, Richard Cozens, with a milk pail over his 
head. It v.^as cold and the body froze stiff, and, opening the 
door in the niorning. Long's body fell into the room. This 
was intended as a warning to Cozens. The gallows was by the 
corner of his garden and distant not more than four or five 
rods from Cozens' window. Ellis Thorp was compelled to be 
hangman. Long had enticed him to carry letters to different 
characters in the different neighborhoods. 

Suggests as witness Frazee Craig. He may remember 
Charles Clark and Henry Williams taking some sheep which 
were about to be carried from Trembly's Point to the enemy. 
The sheep were taken from their concealment in a skiff to the 
creek, when Clark and Williams seized them. They were taken 
to Capt. Craig's, father of Frazee Craig. . . . David 
Thurston v/as orderly sergeant. 

I enlisted as private, but in less than a week was regularly 
appointed sergeant and drew pay as such the whole time. . . . 
I regularly belonged to Capt. S. Williams Co. till he resigned, 
and did duty under him till the five months' service. Then 
Capt. Thomas Mulford was appointed. Did duty under other 
Captains. Did duty under Captain Laing at Woodbridge and 
elsewhere, Capt. Wood, Capt. John Scudder'and Capt. Elisha 
Dunham. Had three brothers in the Long Island Battle, one, 
John, an ensign in Swan's Co., and two, Cornelius and David, 
privates. This Battle was fought while we were at Bergen ; 
we saw the lights of the guns flashing and heard all the firing. 

Frazee Craig: (Verified much of preceding). Drew the 
timber to make the gallows on which Long was hung and 
assisted in burying him the second time. 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 27 

Record of Frazee Craig 

Frazee Craig: His militia service was, first, under Capt. 
I Morse at Springfield, when it and Connecticut Farms were 
f burnt. Was in the fight at the cross roads below Elizabeth 
i Town toward the Point. Following the enemy near Springfield 
I and near to Capt. Amos Morse a field piece ball from the 
I enemy struck the under rail of the fence and rolled along on the 
\ ground. One of the soldiers picked it up and put it in his 
\ knapsack. 

] Toured with his father on Staten Island in the hard Winter ; 

I crossed on the ice; part crossed at Blazing Star and part at 
,' Elizabeth Town Point. The British in New York, by crossing 
[ the Hudson on the ice, with field pieces, relieved the British 
I fort at Richmond, sometimes called Cuckolds town, where the 
,; whole garrison would have been captured had it not been 
reenforced. Stirling commanded us. Was on the Island two 
days. We kept down the Island to near Decker's ferry ; from 
I there turned oflF toward Richmond. At Deckertown took a 
;. British guard, which the enemy always stationed there, prob- 
\ ably as many as 20 men. 

\ On another Tour we took an armed vessel anchored in the 

' stream opposite the fort at Richmond. The fort was an old 
I stone barn in which was a field piece, 18- or 24-pounder. We 
j brought the vessel to near the flats at Elizabeth Town, dis- 
i masted it, took out the sails, provisions (beef and pork) and 
j ammunition and set fire to her. The enemy came suddenly and 
extinguished the fire before she was consumed, retook the 
vessel and got her out at high water. Father had command of 
I the large, flat-bottomed vessel on which we went out from 
Elizabeth Town ; this Tour was under his father's command. 

Another Tour was with Hezekiah Thompson in charge of a 
heavy team of 6 or 8 yokes of oxen and a heavy wagon. We 
collected from around Rahway and neighborhood and went to 
the mountain above Springfield. We took the alarm gun in the 
night, carried it to opposite Amboy, planted it in the night on 
high ground, and got in readiness to open fire, as soon as it 
was light, upon a guard ship or tender then in the stream. We 

28 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

opened a heavy fire within point blank range ; could see the tim- 
bers of the vessel fly. The enemy slipped her cable and made 
off, but no guard vessel ever returned there. 

Performed militia duty almost constantly from time of enter- 
ing, 1780, until he entered the year's service under his father 
in one of the N. J. levies, when his father and Capt. Amos 
Morse were his officers, stationed at Jud. King's and at Sign of 
the Ship in Rahway. . . . Was once out as ensign in cold 
weather, the snow having crust over it, when a man passing in 
the night was suspicioned. Haled him; snapped piece three 
times at him. He proved to be Jerry King, who was taken 
next night at Morristown by Sheriff Arnold and hung for horse 

Record of Israel Lee 

Israel Lee: (May 31, 1834). First Tour was in Dec, 
1776; at Battle of Springfield, probably under Capt. Joseph 
Beach (substitute for IMills). Was with Capt. Hathaway when 
he was wounded below Coo's (?) ferry. A Company of about 
30 Waldeckers was taken prisoners. Was at Connecticut 
Farms when Mrs. Caldwell was shot and at the fight below 
Elizabeth Town. Had Tour at Newark Mountains and New- 
ark under Capt. Bates and ]Major Bott. Served 2 months as 
substitute for John Mills, his master. At Chatham on a Tour ; 
the guard shot ; Reese Williams and Jacob and John Garrigues 
were the guard; Williams was tipsy and took hold of the sen- 
try gun; the other guards came up and shot him through the 

In Oct., 1777, served one month at Acquackanonk ; one 
month, June, 1778, in Monmouth; one month, Feb., 1779; one 
month, Oct., 1779; one month, May, 1780; one month, Jan., 
1 78 1, at the gaol; in all served loYi months. 

Was called out on an alarm when the British came out from 
New Brunswick toward Bound Brook ; was under Capt., or 
Lieut., Bockover ; we marched to Long Hill to C. " "-—'<;; 
went across the mountain and found the enemy had disap- 
peared ; returned by Turkey and were stationed there 8 or 
10 days near Parson Elmer's ; heard him preach. . . . Was 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 29 

on guard duty at Morris when Richard Dowe Stevens was hung 
as a counterfeiter of paper money, about the last year of the 

William Lee: Knew Israel Lee on duty at Springfield, Eliz- 
abeth Town, Chatham, guarding Morris gaol, when two Tories 
were hung, etc. [corroborating above]. 
% Robert Young [Corroborates in detail]. 


Record of Jacob Sisco 

Jacob Sisco, of Hanover, Morris Co,, in 75th year: Served 
in Jan., 1776, under Capt. Robert Nichols, being stationed in 
Newark in John Ogden's storehouse; was on guard duty 
against Refugees and Tories ; volunteered always — was never 
drafted. Belonged to Capt. Reeves' Co.; 10 or 15 men were 
sent from each Co. to form the force Nichols commanded. 
Guards were mounted every night and stationed at different 
parts of the town to guard the people. The enemy had fre- 
quently plundering parties sent out and took leading men ; 
Caleb Bruen, David Morehouse and one Ball were taken by one 
Hetfield, a noted Tory. Staid till May i. 

When the British landed in New York and the Long Island 
' Battle was fought was out by orders of Capt. Reeves. Was 
I out one month at Powles Hook under Major Hays. In Fall 
'' following was another month at Newark under Nichols ; guard 

I duty at Ogden's house and schoolhouse at lower end of town. 
I Whole Spring, Summer and Fall of 1777 was under Reeves 
I and IMajor Hays, and chased Refugees and Tories across the 
i lines. In 1778 guarded salt works near Barnegat under Capt. 
p Laing. In 1779 was on guard duty at Newark under Nichols. 
I In 1780 same duty at Newark and one month at Elizabeth 
I Town at Stackhouse's above the stone bridge ; was at fight 
', when Farms and Springfield were burnt. Reeves commanded 
J and was wounded at Springfield in June, a ball passing in the 
I side and lodged in the back. He was carried in a horse '•*^*-*»r 
f from the field to Stephen Parkhurst's mill. Gen. Washington 
arrived after the fight and saw the wounded officer ; dis- 
mounted and examined the wounds. ... In 1781 had 3 
or 4 months guard duty at Newark under Nichols. Was born 

30 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Jan. I, 1760; father died when young; was born in Spring- 
field township ; lived in Springfield when entering service. 

Record of Joseph Lyon 

Joseph Lyon: (June 20, 1834). First Tour was in 1779 
under Reeves, as a substitute for his father. Was on guard 
duty at Newark under Major Hays; at Moses Ross's (?) 
house on Main street. . . . Second Tour was under Og- 
den ; stationed at Capt. Ogden's father's in Newark — old Judge 
Ogden — on guard duty. Some Refugees crossed over from 
Bergen and took ofif cattle from Newark Neck; we followed 
and recovered part which they could not get on board their 
boats. Third Tour, of 10^ months, was under Edwards, part 
of time substituting for my brother-in-law, Samuel Taylor; 
was again at Newark, at Ogden's, under Alajor Hays ("Bark- 
knife"). Fourth Tour was under E. Squire at Newark at 
Ogden's ; the second month under Jeroloman at Second River ; 
was quartered at Col. Cortlandt's, on houseguard duty. Third 
month under Nichol's at B. O. Baldwin's as substitute for Sam- 
uel Taylor. Fourth month at Newark at Benjamin Coe's, 
Esq. . . . Served this Tour for his father. Fifth Tour 
was in 1780; was 28 days under Capt. Williams, at New- 
ark. . . . Refugees and Tories burnt the house of one 
Neale at Newark. . . , Enlisted for a year under Capt. 
Neale, who resigned before the Company was filled up, and 
Gillan was elected Capt. in his place; served the whole year. 
Gillan never headed his Company at all ; was accused of being 
a coward by Lieuts. Burnet and Shea, and Burnet took com- 
mand. Gillan was tried by court martial at Chatham and 
broken. Had a skirmish with Refugees and Tories at Neale's 
house, Mulberry street, when the house was burnt ; drove them 
with field pieces to the old ferry. Ben Williams' lightning 
rod was cut off by the fire of the Refugees who had a 
4-pounder ; this skirmish lasted all day. In Orange county lay 
by a Block House. Had a skirmish at Dobbs' ferry. [Wit- 
nesses named as Linas Baldwin (too ill to travel) and Thomas 
Harrison, who lives in Troy. Declaration specifies 21 months 
and II days service]. 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 31 

B Record of Daniel Skellinger 

I David Skellinger: (July 3, 1834). First Tour was in Sum- 

I mer of 1776; at Battle of Long Island. Had removed in the 

i Spring from Bridgehampton to Chester, Morris Co.; was 

I born in Canterbury, Conn., but, when two years old, moved to 

\ L. Island. Birthday, Mar. 12, 1757. In 1776 belonged to Capt. 

I N. B. Luse's Company, Col. Martin's Regt. ; volunteered my 

I services. Marched through Morristown, Newark, Powles 

[ Hook to New York; thence to L. Island a week before the 

i Battle. After six weeks was discharged. Second Tour was 

\ in Sept., under Capt. Nathaniel Horton ; on guard duty at 

I Elizabeth Town, Col. Drake and Gen. Heard commanding. In 

\ Nov. was at Elizabeth Town on guard duty under Capt. Hor- 

I ton, Cols. Drake, and Ford, Major Bott or Adjutant Bell and 

Gens. Heard and Williamson. Was discharged and went home. 

In 1777, March, out a month under Capt. Terry and Gen. 

I Winds at Vermeule's ; a large body there ; w^as discharged and 

^ went home. In May out a month under Capt. N. Terry 

(Winds, Colonel) ; marched to Elizabeth Town, thence to 

Newark and Acquackanonk ; then was discharged. In latter 

part of June was out under Capt. Horton, Col. Drake and Gen. 

I Winds at Elizabeth Town on guard duty; also a month in 

I August and September, and a month in November. 

In 1778 out one month in March and April at Elizabeth- 
town under Horton and Drake and Winds ; a month in Ivlay 
i and June. We started for Monmouth but heard bridges were 
f gone and Winds returned to Elizabeth Town; then was dis- 
i charged. In August out one month, same place; out also in 
I November, when Jabez Bell was accidentally shot and killed. 
I In 1779 at Elizabeth Town under Horton; in June or July 

i under Capt. Terry and then went after the Indians on the 
\ Delaware. They had burnt the Minnisiuk settlement; Gen. 
I Winds commanded; went through Newton and Dingman's 
[ ferry; the Indians had burnt and run. 

[ In 1780, April, out under Horton; in June at Elizabeth 

\ Town, Connecticut Farms when burnt and Mrs. Caldwell was 
i shot, and at Springfield after it was burnt. Was on duty when 

32 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Bell was shot ; David Horton was with him ; Aaron Voorhees 
was with him at ]Minnisiuk. 

David Horton and Elisha Skcllinger: (Corroborated in de- 

Record of David Am merman 

David Ammcrman: First service (1776) was under Capt. 
John Read of Hunterdon co. Served at [New] Germantown 

one month ; was at Elizabeth Town in Spring in board tents — j 

at the Point. Large body of militia there under Col. Winds ] 

and Gen. Dickinson. Second Tour was under Capt. Godfrey i 

Rinehart at the Point, making breastworks and on guard. j 

Third Tour was under Van Ess (Van Nest) and Frelinghuy- j 

sen below Van Veghten's bridge, at Isaac Becker's. Fourth j 

Tour was under Capt. Peter Salmon at Elizabeth Town, one i 

month. Fifth was under Capt. Stephen Brown; stationed at 1 

Col. Spencer's old house in Elizabeth Town ; two months. j 

Three Waldeckers were shot ; lay dead and stripped naked ; j 

assisted to bury them in a sink hole. Sixth, under Capt. (after- | 

ward Col.) Nathan Luse. Seventh, under Jeremiah Stark at 1 

Elizabeth Town and Point near Amboy; was also in skir- j 

mishes near Quibbletown ; was one month at Hackensack and • 

one month at Acquackanonk. Was at Bound Brook, and at I 

Bertrand's ; 9 Hessians were taken prisoners at Bound Brook. j 

In 1777 helped build a fort at Elizabeth Town; was at 
DeHart's Point, Newark; at Bound Brook, etc. Was under 
Capt. Stephen Brown, Capt. Luse, Capt. Stephen Dotz. (]\Ien- 
tions Col. Mehelm, Col. Meddard, etc.). 
{To he Continued) 

Jn *5* ^* ^^ 


While muster rolls of soldiers in the militia of New Jersey 
of later date than the Revolution are of less general interest 
than those pertaining to the War of i776-'83, yet they have 
often some interest to descendants of such militiamen. Accord- 
ingly we may publish some from time to time. 



r Some Muster Rolls in Military Companies in Somerset 33 


i We have before us now the roll of two Somerset Companies, 

J- viz. : 

I I. "The First Company of the Second Regiment in Somerset 

Brigade" : 

Officers : Captain, Daniel IMelick ; Lieutenant, William Ful- 

? kerson ; Sergeants, William Smith, Martin Bunn, Gilbert Blair. 

I Date, 1806. 

I Privates: Jacob Barker, Hugh Barkley, Peter Blair, Philip 

I Case, Josiah Cole, Aaron Crook, Alexander Dawson, Harden- 

berg Dow, Henry Dow, John Dumond, Richard Duyckinck, 

^ WilHam Duychinck, Daniel Henry, Enoch Hunt, Stephen 

I Hunt, John Irvine, Archibald Kennedy, Derrick Lane, Guis- 

1 bert Lane, John Lane, John McBride, Aaron Melick, Stephen 

i D. Minton, Annanias Mulford, Charles Ogden, Isaac Powelson, 

f John Powelson, Henry Quick, Benjamin Sigelear, William 

Simpson, Harry Sloan, Joseph Smith, Stoffel Thorp, David 

Todd, William Todd, William Van Arsdale, Harris Van Kirk, 

"}■ Cornelius Van Nest, Jeremiah Voorhees — 39. 

I 11. "The Second Company of the Second Regiment of the 

I First Battalion of Somerset Brigade." Date, June 2, 1818. 

I Officers : Lieutenant, John Craig ; Ensign, John H. Arrow- 

l smith; Sergeants, William J. Todd, Cornelius L. Wolfe, Dan- 

I iel Todd, Hardenberg Dow ; Corporals, John Alizner, John 

J Mullin, Jacob Castner, William Stites ; Fifer, William Gay; 

I Drummer, Simon S. Vliet. 

f Privates : John Alpaugh, Albert Ammerman, David Ammer- 

I man, Jr., Bailey Breece, Lewis Chapman, Benjamin Conaway, 

I Garret C. Conover, Jeremiah Craig, Moses Craig, Robert Craig, 

^ Robert A. Craig, Thomas Cuningham, Peter Demott, Edward 

I Demund, Nicholas Ditmarse, John Felmly, Moses Felmly, Dr. 

\ Samuel K. Gaston, Michael Golder, Daniel H. Hagaman, 

I Dennis Hagaman, Simon Hagaman, Jr., William H. Honey- 

I man, William Irvine, Shobal Luce, Cornelius Messier, Wil- 

j Ham Messier, John Parrish, Gilbert Poulson, John C. Poulson, 

i John Runk, Jacob Smith, Henry Stothoff, David Thorn, Abra- 

1 ham Tiger, Jacob Tiger, Jr., John Tiger, John Flavel Todd, 

I William Todd, Jr., Abraham Van Dike, Isaac Van Dike, Aaron 

! Van Dorn, Jr., Isaac Van Dorn, Joseph Van Dorn, William A. 

34 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 

Van Dorn, James Van Pelt, Simon Vliet, Abraham Voorhees, 
Isaac Voorhees, Jacob Voorhees, Jr., James Voorhees, Jr., Jere- 
miah Wolfe — 52. 

^c^ tS^ t^ ^C 


The following letter was published in the "Monmouth Dem- 
ocrat" of Freehold on Sept. 24, 1875. The writer, Asher 
Holmes, was then First Major in the First Regiment of Mon- 
mouth militia, and subsequently was Colonel in the State 
troops. As letters concerning this Battle are a rarity, we give 
it herewith : 

"Camp on the mountain near Perkamie Creek, 29 miles west 
from Philadelphia, Oct. 6, 1777. 

"Dear Sally: The day before yesterday there was a gen- 
eral engagement. The first part of the day was much in our 
favor. We drove the enemy for some miles. Gen. Howe 
had given orders for his army to retreat over the Schuylkill 
River, but the afterpart of the day was unfavorable to us. Our 
line of battle was broke, and we were obliged to retreat. 

"The battlevvas near Germantown. The attack was made 
by dififerent divisions in different quarters, nearly at the same 
time, but the morning being very foggy was much against us, 
and the severe firing added to the thickness of the air, which 
prevented our seeing far, therefore a great disadvantage to us. 
The Jersey Militia and Red Coats under Gen. Forman, and 
the Maryland Militia, with some 'Listed troops under Gen. 
Smallwood, were on the left wing of the whole army. We 
drove the enemy, when we first made the attack, but by the 
thickness of the fog the enemy got into our rear. Therefore, 
had to change our front, and then retreated until a proper place.' 

"Gen. McDougal's 'Listed men then formed to the left of 
us, and Gen. Green's 'Listed men to the right of us, but ihey all 
gave way except the Monmouth Militia, and Gen. Forman's 
Red Coats stood firm and advanced upon the British Red Coats, 
who were at least three times our number, to a fence, when we 
made a stand. The fire was very severe, and the enemy ran. 
They brought a fieldpiece to fire on us with grapeshot, but our 
Monmouth men stood firm until their anmnmiiion was nearly 
exhausted and tlie enemy advancing round our right flank. 

The N'B^v Brunszvick of Over a Century Ago 35 

jr Gen. Forman then ordered us to retreat, which we did in 

r pretty good order, until our Continental troops broke and ran 

i a second time, and their running through our men broke them 

I entirely. Our Jersey Brigade suffered yery much by storming 

't a strong stone house in Germantown, which first stopped our 

I progress, and I believe was one great cause of breaking our 

\ line in that quarter. 

f "I have seen brother John Holmes, Capt. Mott, Capt. Pur- w^ 

I rows, and Bostwick, and most of our Monmouth officers, who 

I are all well, since the battle. Our army is in good spirits, ^', 

\ although our duty has been very severe. The night before the ^ 


i Battle our men marched all night and had very little sleep the 

f night after. Providence seems to have protected our Alon- 

t mouth Militia in a particular manner, as we have lost very few, 

i if any, killed, and not many wounded, although the Enemy ^Y^ 

I was within 120 yards of us in the hottest of the fire, and their ^^ 

I fieldpiece firing on us with grapeshot great part of the time. I 

I have escaped without being hurt, although I was much exposed 

I to enemy's fire. 

i '*From your ever affectionate, 

^ "To Mrs. Sarah Holmes. ASHER HOLMES." 


i x^ 1^ «J* Jf 




I The city of New Brunswick was long the depot for the recep- 

I tion of grain from the counties of Warren, Hunterdon, Sus- 

I sex, Somerset, Northcumberland, Pa., and the country along the 

I upper Delaware. Large Conestoga wagons, drawn by four and 

I six horses and carrying as much as twenty-eight barrels of 

I flour each, would come down the Amwell and the river roads. 

I It is said that as many as five hundred of these vehicles would 

I sometimes come down the valley of the Raritan in a single day. 

I The Raritan Landing was at this time a depot where many 

I stopped and sold the grain to John Pool and Michael Ganish. 

I Large storehouses at this time occupied the immediate neigh- 

1 borhood and received the grain for shipment down the river. 

f The sloops used in this traffic would sail up the river and take 

j in half a load and then drop down to the city during the high 



36 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

tide, complete their cargoes and proceed to their destination. 

It is said that during the year 1816 there was frost occurring 
each month during the year, and that, during that year, Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt brought shad from New York in his peri- 
auger and sold them for eight dollars per hundred. 

The grain business of New Jersey was carried on largely 
in New Brunswick, where cash was paid for the merchandise, 
as distinguished from Newark and Philadelphia, where barter 
was used. 

The White Hall tavern was headquarters for news for these 
merchants, where they would congregate to get the one New 
York newspaper. They would then agree among themselves 
as to the price to be paid for grain and thus make the market. 

Many of the merchants owned one or more vessels. John 
Dennis, whose place of business was on Little Burnet Street, 
had the "Cluster Valle", the "May" and "Elizabeth", and- the 
"General Lee." The wharf of the latter was where the Rolfe 
Lumber yard now stands. Other vessels were also owned in 
New Brunswick and plied between this and other ports ; in 1792 
a boat known as "Duy Knick's Boat"; in 1776 the "Gernatia," 
owned by James Richmond; "The Hope for Peace," indicating 
the weariness of war, of which Nicholas Auten w^as master; 
the "Independence," showing the unconquerable patriotism of 
the times ; in 1784, "The Neptune," a schooner, Andrew Brown 
master, which was succeeded by the "Poet Moses Guest." 

These vessels made voyages to the Bermudas, Bahamas, 
Jamaica and Hispaniola in the West Indies; also to Charles- 
ton, S. C. ; to Wilmington, Del.; to New Bern, N. C. ; to 
Savannah, Ga. ; to Edentown, N. C. ; to Newport, R. I., and to 
Sunbury, Mass. 

In 1788 we find the "Polly," Barnet D. KHne owner; in 
1796 the "Catherine," a sloop of forty-five tons burthen, James 
Richardson master and probably owner ; subsequently, John 
Thompson was master, and, following him, Peter Thompson. 
In 1797 "The Sally," of forty tons burthen, John Voorhees 
master, and "The Maria," a sloop of fifty tons burthen, Simon 
Hillyer, master. David Abeel was master of this vessel in the 
year 1798; during this year was also the "Ranger," a sloop 

I The New Brunswick of Over a Century Ago 37 

t of thirty-four tons burthen, Caleb Anthony master. In 1799 

'; "The Hannah," a sloop of forty-five tons, John Brush master ; 

\ and "The EHza," a sloop of fifty nine tons burthen, James 

I' Richmond master. Also a sloop named the "Lawrence," during 

|- the early part of the last century, which was so large that she 

I could not navigate the Raritan above the city. She was owned 

I by Peter I. Nevius, and wharfed just above the outlet lock. 

I Among the cargoes shipped from New Brunswick were some 

I as follows: September loth, 1798, to New Bedford, 34 tons 

f; of iron ore; July 17th, 1799, to Boston, 1,800 bushels of grain, 

I 26 barrels of pork, 22 sides of leather; August 20th, 1799, 

^ to Wareham, 35 tons iron ore ; also 50 tons on the same date, 

f Ayers & Frelinghuysen did a southern business ; sent carriages 

I South and brought back sweet potatoes and other products. 

^ The vessels varied from 30 to 70 or 80 tons burthen, and used 

^ lateral boards for centre boards. 

r With the restoration of peace came a revival of business in 

■ the year 1788, and a consequent great increase of travel between 

i New York and Philadelphia. The roads were in wretched 

I condition, and merchants gladly availed themselves of any 

I transit by water as less tiresome and much more comfortable 

t than the bolstered wagons, which were the stage coaches of 

I that period. Accordingly, it was common to take a packet 

\ sailing to Elizabeth Town Point or to Amboy. 

t The successful application of steam for purposes of naviga- 

\ tion was, however, in a short time to entirely revolutionize the 

[ slower methods of our fathers. Although the "Clermont," 

in the year 1807, was the first steamboat to navigate the w^aters 
of the Hudson, it was reserved for the "Bellona," upon the 
waters of the Raritan, to afford occasion for one of the most 
noted legal controversies of the century. The State of New 
York had granted to Livingston and Fulton the exclusive right 
of steam navigation. Under this grant, John R. and Robert 
James Livingston had purchased the right of navigating the 
waters of the Raritan up to New Brunswick. They accordingly 
built a boat called the "Raritan," which ran between New York 
and New Brunswick for two years at a loss, but eventually 
proved profitable. In the mean time, Thomas Gibbons, during 

38 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

the year 1818, placed upon this same route the "Bellona," a 
steamer of one hundred and sixteen tons, regularly registered 
at the port of Perth Amboy for the coasting trade under the 
United States law. This resulted in the suit of Gibbons against 
Livingston for damages resulting from an injunction restrain- 
ing the plaintiff from the use of his boat, Livingston claiming 
the exclusive right of steam navigation, and Gibbons denying 
said right. 

This important suit enlisted the powers of the ablest legal 
talent of the period, Mr. R. H. Stockton and Ogden being- 
employed for the defendant and I\Ir. Geo. Wood for the plain- 
tiff, the presiding Justices being Judges Rossel and Ford, with 
Chief Justice Kirkpatrick presiding. 

After the most elaborate arguments, involving principles of 
the greatest importance, and learned and exhaustive opinions 
by the presiding Justices, judgment was rendered for the plain- 
tiff (Rossel, however, dissenting), thus establishing one of the 
most important principles which had occupied the attention of 
our judiciary, viz., the right of comity in steam navigation 
between adjoining States under the Federal Constitution. 

The "Bellona" was a small, single-decked, plainly-finished 
steamboat ; her cabin accommodations were meagre, being 
confined to a small saloon abaft the wheel on the main deck. 
She was originally operated in conjunction with the steamboat 
"Nautilus," as the following advertisement indicates: 

"The Vice President's steamboat Nautilus will leave New 
York every day (Sunday excepted) from White Hall wharf 
at eleven o'clock A. i\L From her the passengers will be 
received without delay into the superior, fast-sailing boat Bel- 
lona, Captain Vanderbilt, for New Brunswick; from thence 
in post chaises to Trenton where they lodge, and arrive next 
morning at ten o'clock in Philadelphia with the commodious 
and fast-sailing steamboat Philadelphia, Captain Jenkins." 

The transfer of the passengers at the New York end was at 
the Kills. This boat, with her companion, the "Thistle," which 
was soon put upon the route, formed the "Old Union" line to 
Philadelphia. Passengers were received from Elizabethtown 
Point and other landings of the Jersey and Staten Island shore 

I: The Nezv Brunswick of Over a Century Ago 39 


K on the journeys to and fro. This enterprising company did 

I not, however, enjoy the full profit from this important route 

I for the "Citizens Line" soon had an opposition boat called the 

f "Legislature," which was owned in New Brunswick, and of 

'■■' "which Isaac Fisher was Captain and his brother, Low Fisher, 

the pilot. The rivalry of the competing lines was most active 

[ and it was whilst racing with the "Thistle" that the "Legisla- 

I ture" had the misfortune to explode her boiler, by which acci- 

f. dent many were scalded and a colored boy lost his life. Many 

I and various were the excitements caused by the rivalry of these 

I boats. The inhabitants turned out in crowds to welcome the 

I arrival of the coaches with their living freight ; in fact, one 

* spectator says that the cheering and enthusiasm was equal to 

* an election. 

) The whole region of Bordentown and Burlington (which at 

\ that time was a great peach growing section) sent wagon load 

■' after wagon load of peaches down to the New Brunswick 

] wharf in bulk, where crowds of boys and men would sort them 

■; out for shipment and enjoy, as part of their compensation, a 

stomach full of the luscious fruit. 
I Soon after the decision in the famous steamboat case, which 

\ was rendered in the year 1826, the Delaware and Raritan 

I Canal, which had been talked of since the year 1804, was com- 

I pleted, viz., during the year 1833, thus greatly stimulating the 

i shipment of products, which were already so large that it is 

! said that the annual exportation of corn reached as high as 

I 300,000 bushels, and of rye, 57,000 bushels. During the year 

I 1830, and a few years after, the enormous sum of 1,000,000 

bushels of grain passed down our river, and so great was the 
! magnitude of trade that the Raritan was esteemed as one of 

the three greatest rivers of the country for her tonnage. With 

this increase of business many other steamboats were called 

into requisition. 

40 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 


In the Proceedings of 191 5 (Vol. X, Third Series, p. 11 1). 
there was printed an indenture conveying "a certain negro or 
mulatto wench" in the year 1774. This Society has now in 
possession a bill of sale of a slave of 1724, fifty years earHer. 
While the instrument was not made in New Jersey, but on 
Long Island, two of the parties named therein shortly after- 
ward removed to and became heads of large families in this 
State. The following is the instrument, written in a large, 
excellent hand and, for a wonder at that period, in correct mod- 
ern spelling: 

"Know all men by these Presents, That I, Christopher Cod- 
wise, of the Ferry in Kings county upon Nassau Island in the 
Province of New York, for and in consideration of the sum of 
Thirty-eight pounds, current money of the Province aforesaid, 
to me in hand paid at and before the ensealing and delivery of 
these Presents, by Petrus Stoothof of the same county, island 
and Province aforesaid, yeoman, the receipt whereof I do 
acknowledge and myself to be therewith fully satisfied and paid, 
and thereof and every part thereof do hereby acquit and dis- 
charge the said Petrus Stoothof, his executors, administrators 
and assigns, have granted, bargained and sold and by these 
presents do fully, clearly and absolutely grant, bargain and 
sell unto the said Petrus Stoothof a certain negro boy called 
Port Ryall, to have and to hold the said negro slave unto him 
thesaid Petrus Stoothof, or his executors, administrators and 
assigns forever; and I, the said Christopher Codwise, for 
myself, my executors, administrators and assigns, do warrant 
and defend the sale of the above-named negro slave against all 
persons whatsoever. 

"In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal 
this fourth day of January, Annoq. Domini, 172^)4. 

"Chpistopher Codwise [L. S.]. 
"Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
"Coert A. Van Voorhies 
"William Van Voorhies." 

Coert Albertse Van Voorhies, first witness to the will, was 
born about 1693 at Flatlands or New Utrecht, L. I., and was 
the son of Albert Coerten (as he signed his name), b. 1716, 
and Sara Willemse Cornel of the places above named. Albert's 
father, Coert, came with his father, Steven Coert (who signed 

Correspoyidence Relating to the Morris Family 41 

his name "Steven Koerten") from "in front of the hamlet of 
Hees," Holland — whence the family name became Van Voor- 
hees — in 1660, and Steven, as is well known, was the common 
ancestor of the Van Voorhees, Voorhees, Voorhies, etc., fam- 
ilies in America. This Coert Albertse, who witnessed the 
slave instrument, removed in 1726 to Harlingen, Somerset co., 
N. J., and had a large number of descendants living in that 
county up to a recent period. The other witness, William Van 
Voorhies, we have been unable to identify. 

Petrus Stoothof, to whom the slave was deeded, was a broth- 
er-in-law of Coert, having married his sister Margaret. He 
was born in 1700 at Flatlands, and died in 1727. and was the 
grandson of Capt. Elbert Stoothof, the emigrant of 1637 from 
Holland and common ancestor of the Stoothoff (as usually 
spelled) family in this country. Petrus also removed to Som- 
erset county, N. J., previous to his death. Of the grantor of 
the deed, Christopher Codwise, we only know that he was a 
business man of affairs at the Ferry in present Brooklyn dur- 
ing the period named. 

oe «>t js je 



A PREVIOUS article (Vol. VI, p. loi), concerned Robert Morris, 
Chief Justice of New Jersey (i777-'79), and Judge of the U. S. 
District Court for New Jersey (1790-1815) ; the present relates 
to his father, Robert Hunter Alorris, who was also Chief Jus- 
tice, from 173S to Jan. 27, 1764, when he died, and who, from 
Oct., 1754, to August, 1756, was Lieut. Governor of Pennsyl- 

Only a little more than a year before the death of Robert 
Hunter ]\Iorris, an assumed relative, one Valentine Morris, 
who had estates near Tintern, England, wrote a letter from 
London to the Chief Justice, presumably called out by knowl- 
edge of the death of Governor Lewis Morris, Robert Hunter's 
father. This letter inquired concerning their probable rela- 
tionship. The Chief Justice replied at length. The original 

42 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

interesting letter from London and a draft of the Chief Jus- 
tice's more interesting reply are in the possession of an official 
of the New Jersey Historical Society, and are given below. 

It may be noted in this connection that old historical ac- 
counts of the Morris family disagree on various facts, but the 
relationship of its various members, so many of whom were 
influential men in their day in New Jersey, appear to be at last 
fully and correctly given in Stillwell's "Hist, and Gen. Miscel- 
lany," 1916 (Vol. IV. pp. 14-70; see also "Chart of the De- 
scendants of Lewis Morris," published by Elizabeth ^lorris 
Lefferts in 1907, and Lee's "Gen. and Mem. Hist, of N. J.," p. 
1536).^ It is also to be said that few families in this State were 
intermarried with so many other noted families, such as those 
of the Duke of Aberdeen, Gordon, Van Cortlandt, Antill, 
White, Graham, Kearny, Gouveneur, Lawrence, Randolph^ 
Rutherford, Kean. 

The letters given seem to add some facts concerning the 
Morris family not hitherto published, although it is apparent 
that the Chief Justice could not go back in his family line 
beyond his grandfather, Richard. We now know Richard 
Morris, the immigrant from England, was the son of a William 
Morris, who owned the estate of "Tintern" in England, near 
to Tintern Castle. (See Stillwell's and also Lee's work, ante). 

Letter to Hon. Robert Hunter Morris 

"London, Nov'br the 8th, 1762. 
"Sir: You will, perhaps, be much surprised at the being 
troubled with a correspondence from one you hitherto have 
never seen or known, but your surprise will. I hope, cease and 
I stand acquitted of impertinence in writing this, when I in- 
form you 1 have the honor of being related to you and that 
not very distantly. I am the only son of Colonel Valentine 
Morris, of the Island of Antigua, sometime since deceased, 
and who, some time before he died, bought an estate in Mon- 
mouthshire, called Piercefield. Now I well know my father's 

*As late as 1849, more than a hundred years after the death of Gov- 
ernor Lewis Morris, a "Memoir" of him appeared in the Proceedings 
(First Series, Vol. IV, p. 19), by Rev. Robert Davidson, D. D., of New 
Brunswick, but even then the various correct facts now known, some of 
which appear in the following letter of Chief Justice Morris written in 
^7(>3, were not stated. — Editor. 

Correspondence Relating to the Morris Family 43 


I family was originally of Barbadoes, from which Island I have 

I always understood one branch of the family separated to go 

; to North America ; from which branch, I apprehend, and have 

I alwaysbeen informed you. Sir, are descended; the other went 

I to Antigua, of which your present correspondent is the imme- 

i diate descendant. 

1 "My father's death during my minority, and my early attach- 

» ment to a rural life, has hitherto kept me much in ignorance 

I of my own relations, and of very many anecdotes relating to 

I my own family that I not only think would be very amusing 

\ to me to know but is in a great measure incumbent on me. It 

I was with great pleasure that I had lately formed an acquaint- 

j ance with my cousin, Colonel iMorris, now lately gone to the 

I East Indies, to return I hope covered with laurels and enriched 

I by conquest. On my asking him several questions relating to 

i not only the family of the Morris's, but also to where their 

\ possessions lay before the troublesome times obliged them to 

• quit England, although I received some information, he yet 

\ said you. Sir, were fully acquainted with all the circumstances 

I requisite to gratify my curiosity, and that you had in your 

r custody all the papers that could elucidate all my questions of 

- either ctiriosity or real utility, together with the original grants 

to certain lands in Monmouthshire on which a ruined Abbey, 
called Tintern, now stands, and which is within two miles of 
my present seat. I have bought almost up to the Abbey, but 
the site of the Abbey and other lands belonging to it are now 
possessed by the Duke of Beaufort's family, which, not only 
from my cousin's discourse, but from what I have elsewhere 
learnt, and from part of the possessions now in your branch 
of the family in North America being called Tintern at this 
day, I have great reason to think were formerly possessed' by 
our ancestors; and I would gladly know how those lands 
changed their masters. 

"I should be glad to know also whether we are not descended 
from the Col. Morris, who so gallantly defended Pontcfract 
Castle against Oliver Cromwell, and whether it is not in virtue 
of that action my cousin Morris, who married the Dutchess of 
Gordon, gives a Castle in flames as his crest, instead of the 
old family crest, the lion rampant. If it is, it is a great pity 
an action so honourable to all of us should not be perpetuated 
m a proper, authoritative manner, for, on my enquiring at the 
Herald's oftice here, they said (to use their terms) that it was 
now only a crest of assumption, without a legal title to it, as 
no application had ever been made for leave to take it, which 
leave, when obtained with all the requisite form, would have 
been entered properly in that office; and that, till that was 

44 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

done, they never took any cognizance, nor admitted of the 
right' of taking it. An application of this sort is very easily 
made, and on the allegations appearing at all founded would 
be immediately granted, and then the family right to that crest, 
together with the reasons of taking it, would stand on record 
forever. In which [matter], or in any other application in 
which I can be of service to you. Sir, or to any of your friends, 
I shall with pleasure obey your commands. 

"I will only add that I shall think myself much obliged to 
you to transmit to me all the intelligence you can possess of 
the family, together with its pedigree, and copies of all the 
memorandums you shall think will be agreeable, together with 
an abstract of any claim your family may have on any lands in 
England (which I am informed you have). In case you would 
wish to employ me in taking proper opinions on those abstracts, 
1 shall with great pleasure pay to your order in London the 
expenses that will attend it. 

"I married Mary Mordaunt, daughter to a younger brother 
of the Earl of Peterborough, whose achievements in Spain are 
so well known as to have acquired him the title of The Great 
Earl of Peterborough. By her. also, I am related to the Dutch- 
ess of Gordon, whose first husband's mother, notwithstanding 
the disparity of years, was my wife's cousin-german; which 
disparity was owing to one of the brothers marrying very 
young, immediately having children, who followed their fath- 
er's example in marrying very early, and the others not marry- 
ing till he was far advanced in life, and his son doing the same. 
By her I stand related to an infinite number of people of the 
very first rank in these three Kingdoms, many, very many more 
than, without a monitor at my elbow, I should be able to recol- 
lect even the twentieth part of. Should you, however, be desir- 
ous to receive any further particulars of these, I will transmit 

"Col. Morris, before he quitted England, told me that in 
1755 there were two old ladies of the name of Morris nearly 
related to us, in Wales, with whom you. Sir, or your brother 
had corresponded ; he could not give me the particular direc- 
tions to them. I have, therefore, not been able to see or to 
write to them, but I shall be glad by receiving their directions 
to know how to do it. He also promised me he would pave the 
way to the trouble you now have, by acquainting you [that] 
you would be wrote to by, and bespeaking your forgiveness 
of, Sir, 

"Your most affectionate kinsman and obliged humble ser- 

"Val. Morris. 

Correspondence Relating to the Morris Family 45 

"P. S. — Please to direct to me at Piercefield near Chepstow 
in Monmouthshire." 

Draft of Reply by Hon. Robert Hunter Morris 

[Not dated, but probably early 1763]. 
"Sir: I have the honor of yours of Nov. the 8, 1762, which 
gave me great pleasure and was long expected, as the Dutchess 
I of Gordon mentioned to me your intention of writing, and a 

I nephew of mine, Mr. Ashfield, also informed me that you 

I intended me that favor. 

I "That we are related and not very distant, I have the great- 

! est reason to believe, not only from what you mention but 

J from an account that has always been received in tlie family, 

I that a branch of it went from Barbadoes and settled in 

! Antigua; but how near that branch was to those that came 

; to the northward, we never could reduce to a certainty, for 

I reasons that will occur to you in the course of this letter, which 

t I intend as the best history I can collect of our branch of the 

I family. 

\ "Lewis and Richard Morris, the latter my grandfather and 

I the former my great-uncle, were brothers. Lewis, the eldest, 

1 raised and commanded a Regiment in the Parliamentary ser- 

vice in the reign of Charles the First, and his brother, Richard, 
I was a Captain in the same Regiment, when Cromwell medi- 

j tated an attack upon the Spaniards in America. He sent my 

great uncle, Col. Lewis Morris, to the West Indies with orders 
i to make himself acquainted with those seas, then little fre- 

I quented by the English — which he accordingly did, as we find 

i by some fragments of a journal he then kept. At Barbadoes 

he purchased an estate, and either brought his brother, Rich- 
ard, with him, or he came to him afterwards, with his wife, 
whose maiden name was Pole. [She] appears, by some jewels 
of value which she left, to have been a woman of fashion, 
but from whom she was descended we are totally ignorant. 

"When Cromwell sent Penn and Venables to attack His- 
paniola, he sent out a vacant Regiment for Col. Morris and a 
commission to him to command it, which the General delivered 
at Barbadoes, where the fleet was ordered to rendezvous. This 
appears by Admiral Penn's Journal, now in the hands of his 
grandson, Thomas Penn, Proprietor of Pennsylvania. This 
expedition you know miscarried, and I have often heard my 
father say that it was owing to their not pursuing Oliver's 
orders, which were, to follow the advice of Col. Morris as to 
the place of landing. 

46 Proceedings Nczv Jersey Historical Society 

"After the Restoration my great-uncle resolved to move to 
North America, where he imagined he should be more out of 
the notice of the government, as this country was then but 
newly settled. To that end he sent his brother, Richard, be- 
fore him to New York with directions to purchase lands for 
him. Richard, accordingly, came with his wife and Hved for 
some time in the town of New York, which had been sur- 
rendered by the Dutch to the English in 1664. That town was 
then very small, having only one street, in which my grand- 
father, Richard Morris, then lived, which, from the number 
of pearls which his wife wore in her dress, was then and is 
still called Pearl street. 

"Some time after his arrival at New York my father [Gov. 
Lewis jMorris] was born, and, about six months afterward, 
both his father and mother died within a few weeks of each 
other, leaving him an orphan in the hands of servants and 
strangers. In the year 1673 the Dutch retook New York, and 
such part of my father's property as escaped the pillage of 
their soldiers and his own servants, was put into the hands of 
two of their most considerable men, who were appointed his 
guardians by the Dutch government ; but nothing of conse- 
quence was ever recovered from them, nor did he ever get any 
books or papers belonging to his father. Col. Morris, his uncle, 
hearing of the birth of his nephew and death of his brother 
and sister, as soon as New York was restored to the English, 
sold his estate in Barbadoes and moved to North America, 
where he purchased several tracts of land, one about ten miles 
from New York, which, after his own name, he called 'Mor- 
risania' ; the other in a part of New Jersey, to which he gave 
the name of 'Monmouth County,' and called the estate he 
bought 'Tintern,' as we have always understood after an 
estate that had belonged, or did then belong, to him or his 
family in the county of the same name in Wales, but by the 
corruption of the word it has for a long time and is now called 

"Col. Morris, when he grew old, some little time before 
his removal to North America, married his maid servant. 
who used every means to set the old gentleman against his 
nephew, that she and her poor relations might share his for- 
tune, and, though she did not entirely succeed, she so far pre- 
vailed as to make his life very uneasy. To avoid her tyranny 
he [the nephew] ran away from his uncle, traveled on foot 
to Virginia, whence he went to Bermuda and so to Jamaica, 
where he staid til! his uncle learnt where he was and sent a 
vessel for him. He returned time enough to see his uncle alive 
and that was all, for he died about a week after his arrival. 

[= Correspondence Relating to the Morris Fatnily 47 

having been ill for a long time before. During his illness his 
wife and one Bickley, his first servant, destroyed every paper 
', that could give the least insight into his family or affairs, 

•: expecting to divide between them what was left, and had 

t secreted great sums of money and many other valuable ef- 

i fects. Upon the old gentleman's death his will was pro- 

I duced, by which he devised most of his lands and all his per- 

I sonal estate to his widow, but the will was so interlined and 

I carried with it such marks of fraud that the Governor and 

I Council, upon a full examination, declared it a forgery, and my 

f father, then but 19 years of age, took possession of his uncle's 

I estate as heir-at-law. His aunt survived her husband only 

I eight days, and, though ray father collected part of the family 

5 plate and kept all the negroes, yet he could never recover other 

? parts of his uncle's personal estate, which was very consider- 

I able. 

I "Bickley from a servant became a considerable merchant, 

I settled at Philadelphia and built large houses. Col. Morris, 

■; being stern in his natural temper and prejudiced against his 

.< nephew, kept him at a great distance, and never communicated 

i anything to him about his family, and what Vv-as among his 

1 papers as to that matter was destroyed, so that we remain very 

I ignorant of the source from whence we sprung. What we 

I were before the troubles we know not, nor how we stand con- 

I nected with people of the same name in Britain. 

"That Col. Morris was not of mean family we conclude 
from some of his letters that escaped, from the respect that 
was paid him by every person of consequence that came to 
America, and, above all, by the property he brought with him, 
the things of value that belonged to him, and the Port in which 
he lived. He brought with him from Barbadoes a relation of 
his own name, Lewis Morris, and others by the name of 
Weobley. For these he provided, giving to Morris an estate 
about ten miles from this, whose descendants are now very 
numerous, living on small farms scattered about this county. 
"My father married very young to Isabella, the daughter of 
James Graham, Attorney-General of Boston and New York, 
who called himself a relation of the Marquis of Montrose and 
was sent abroad by his interest. By her he had fifteen chil- 
dren, of which I am the youngest, but left behind him at his 
death only two sons and five daughters. My brother died last 
year, leaving four sons and six daughters by two wives. Those 
by his first wile are all grown up and well settled in the world ; 
those by his second are as yet children. 

"The arms we now bear my father found on a gold seal that 
belonged to his uncle. When it was cut and how long it had 

48 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

been in the family we know not, nor can we account for the 
quartering. The crest is also upon that seal on many pieces 
of plate, but how we came by it I never learnt. I imagine not 
from Col. John Morris, that defended Pontefract Castle, for, 
the castle being in flames, and the motto ('tandem vincitur') 
seems to allude to a conquest rather than a defense. Besides, 
I should think the seal from whence it is taken rather older 
than that transaction. 

"My great-uncle, Lewis Morris, was contemporary with that 
Col. John Morris, and could not therefore be descended from 
him. They were both of dilTerent sides in the dispute, but 
might notwithstanding have been near relations, for those 
unhappy troubles divided families, and even brothers took dif- 
ferent sides. 

"Our family have always understood that my great-uncle 
had relations. We have always understood that a branch of 
the family went from Barbadocs to Antigua, but how nearly 
related to us that came to the northward was never reduced 
to any certainty. The reason will occur to you upon consider- 
ing the conduct of my great uncle's wife and servant while my 
father, his only relation known in this part of America, was 
at Jamaica, and his life and return very uncertain. 

"My father inherited from his uncle and father a very con- 
siderable estate for this country, which in the course of a 
long life spent in the service of the Crown and with great 
opportunity of augmenting he rather lessened than increased. 
My brother's eldest son, whose name is Lewis, now enjoys the 
greatest part of the family estate called Morrisania ; the other 
part of that estate, after the death of my brother's widow, 
goes to his second son, Col. Morris, your acquaintance. The 
part of Tintern, or Tinton, which my father had not parted 
with in his lifetime, he gave to me and my present habitation 
is upon it, but, the situation not being agreeable, I have sold 
part of it and purchased lands in other parts of the Province, 
and intend to sell the remainder. My nephew is mistaken 
in thinking that any grants or papers remain in the family 
relating to Tintern. There are indeed numbers of deeds and 
conveyances for lands during the troubles, but these I have 
ever looked upon as given for the maintenance of soldiers. 

"If there be anything in this part of America in which I 
can be at all useful to you, I beg you will command me, as I 
shall esteem it a happiness whenever I have an opportunity of 
showing you how nnich, I am. Dear Sir, 

"Your afTectionate kinsman and obedient huniblt- servant." 

[Unsigned in draft]. 


I A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 49 


I William Johnson, of Newton, born June 7, 1779, was the 

I son of Captain Henry Johnson, an officer of the Revolutionary 

I War. The latter was born at Readington, Hunterdon county, 

in 1737 and died at Frankford, Sussex county, in 1826. His 

( wife was Susannah Hover. He had six sons and two daugh- 

I ters. One of the sons, John, was the grandfather of former 

I Senator WilHam M. Johnson, of Hackensack. The youngest 

I of the sons was the William first above mentioned, whose 

I "Journal" is the subject of this article. 

I William Johnson spent his early days in Newton, where 

I his father was one of the founders of the Presbyterian church, 

1 and an elder of it from its organization until his death. He 

I was as a young man full of life and activity, and also versatility, 

\ with a special tact for business in which he was chiefly suc- 

I cessful as a New York merchant until his health failed, when 

I he retired to a farm at Lebanon, Hunterdon county, where he 
I died in 1828 at the age of forty-nine. In 1809 he was con- 
j cerned in the lottery which related to a part of the present 
borough of Somerville in Somerset county, particulars of which 
may be found in the "Somerset Co. Hist. Quar.," (Vol. IV, p. 
87), where, also, is a more extended account of his life. 

On June 7, 1800, when twenty-one years of age, he began to 
keep a "Journal," which he continued until February, 181 3. 
The reference in it to persons in Sussex and other counties and 
in New York City are very numerous, some of which might but 
much of which would not now interest the general public. 
Lengthy portions from it are in the possession of Mr. Wil- 
liam M. Johnson, by whose courtesy we are permitted to make 
such excerpts as would fit the purpose of the Proceedings. 

For the present we give most of the detailed account of the 
author's journey to New Orleans and return, occupying from 
September 30, 1800, to July 19, 1801, and embracing a variety 
of incidents on the sea on the return journey, which add 
special interest to the story. The contrast between a journey 
to New Orleans in 1800 and to-day is a striking one, which 
every reader will appreciate. 

5© Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

In order to get to Pittsburgh from Newton, Mr. Johnson 
purchased a bay mare for $75, and then the diary takes up the 
journey : 

The Diary 

"1800, Sept. 29. — Making preparations to start for Pitts- 
burgh, at which place I expect to meet brother Sammy, from 
thence we go on in company to New Orleans, and embark from 
thence to New York or Philadelphia, by sea. This day got my 
certificate of being a natural American-born, and other recom- 
mendations. I start tomorrow as far as Johnsonburg. 

"30. — After taking leave of my good friends and kind rela- 
tives in Newton, Sussex county, N. J., I started 3^ post mer- 
idian for Pittsburg, Pa. Called at my father's, who gave me 
very salutary advice respecting my journey, the necessary 
steps to be taken through life, after which we took filial and 
affecting adieu. Brother John came on with me as far as Mr. 
Roy's, where we dined. Dr. Hunt then accompanied me to 
Johnsonburg, where I stayed at brother Henry's, (distance 
10 m.). 

"Oct. I. — In the morning started from Johnsonburg. Brother 
Henry came with me as far as Levi Howell's. Arrived at 
Belvidere at 12 o'clock (26).^ Started at i o'clock and crossed 
the river Delaware and bid adieu to Jersey for about one year. 
I am somewhat loath to part with my native State, which gave 
me birth, but in hopes that it will be to my advantage, I there- 
fore let Fates have their ascendency and resign to them. Rode 
through a German settlement. Some very fine farms, some of 
which were entirely clear of stone. Arrived at Nazareth at 
about half past 5 P. M. (40). Nazareth is a neat little village, 
having about 30 houses, the streets regular. There is one large 
public building, wherein boys are taught and are of the Mor- 
avian Society. Entertainment but tolerable. Stayed all night. 

"2. — At half-past 6 started. Rode through a small village, 
crossed the Lehigh. Arrived at Allentown 10 A. M. (54). 

[He then proceeds to give an account of his trip day by day, 

'These figures.^ frequently so occurring, indicate the miles travelled 
on horseback. — Editor. 


\ A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 51 

passing through Reading, Lebanon, Harrisburg, Shippensburg, 

Bedford, Greensburg, etc. He usually found the roads bad, 

being very muddy and mountainous. Arrived at Pittsburg at 

half-past six, on Tuesday, 9th of October, having gone a total 

i, distance of 338 miles. Put up at "Green Tree," on the banks 

; of the Monongahela river, corner of Market street]. 

■• "10. — This morning arose quite early, in order to inquire 

■ where brother Sammy was. Went through the boarding houses 

=■ and at last got information that he was at my uncle Manuel 

Hover's, about 25 miles up the Monongahela river. At 10 

I o'clock started to see him and crossed the river; rode on as 

fast as possible and arrived at Squire Hover's at sunset, where 

I found brother Sammy, which was to me a great pleasure, 

not having seen him before in nearly three years. After a long 

dish of conversation went to bed quite contented. 

"11. — Stayed all day at my uncle's. My horse, I must 
observe, performed the journey exceeding w^ell indeed, being 
nearly in as good order as when I started. 
\ "12. — My uncle has a very pleasantly situated and hand- 

l some plantation lying on the bank of the Monongahela. It 
I contains nearly 300 acres, half of which is river flats. It is in 
I Followfield Township, Washington county. Saw a number of 
I my acquaintances. 

I "13. — Brother Sammy this day agreed to purchase a load of 

•j flour, whiskey, etc. in partnership, and go to New Orleans 
I with it, and from thence take Spanish produce, and get it 
I freighted to New York. Contracted with John Beedell to have 
I our boat done by the 25th inst, calculated to carry 30 tons. 
I Rode to Mr. Kirkendell's on Peters Creek. Stayed all night. 

"14. — In the morning, after breakfast, went to Nottingham 
Election. Saw numbers who have wheat and whiskey to sell, 
but purchased none. 

"20. — Ezekiel Hover and I went to Black Horse Tavern. 

"21. — Brother Sammy and I concluded the bargain with 

Samuel Quimby for 500 bushels of wheat at half-a-dollar per 

bushel. He is to take a horse for $75. and residue in cash. 

[There are various entries of purchase of wheat, cider and 

52 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 

brandy from different people, and arrangements to have wheat 

"24. — Bro. Sammy, Ezekiel Hover and I went squirrel hunt- 

"31. — I went again to see if our boat was finished; price is 

"Nov. 3. — Went to Thomas Carson's and ordered him to take 
the 50 barrels of apples and cider that Sammy bought of him 
to the river. Rode to Dixon's mills in order to see about the 
manufacturing of the wheat. 

"16. — According to my intentions I yesterday bought of 
Wm. Thomson one hogshead of whiskey and 10 bbls. of apples. 
Owing to brother Sammy's being called to Chillecothe, I find 
that the fatigues I have to encounter to see the loading ready 
myself is very severe. Not a moment of my time have I to 
rest, being every minute on foot. I also find it will be very 
doubtful whether I can get ready time enough to go down this 
fall, owing to Mr. Quimby not being able to thresh all the 
wheat in time enough to get it manufactured by the time the 
river rises or before the river freezes, but, if exertions on my 
part will be any means of preventing the delay, it shall not 
be wanting. 

"17. — Went up to Mr. Quimby's to hurry him up with the 
wheat, etc. 

"26. — Jos. Hover and I brought down 10 barrels of apples in 
a boat. 

"Dec. 10 — From the present prospect of the weather, the 
season being also so far advanced, there is little probability of a 
fresh before the river freezes up, and I therefore have con- 
cluded to give up my idea of starting for New Orleans before 
Spring, at which time I can be fully ready, have all the wheat 
manufactured, and shall then escape the danger of being frozen 
up in the ice, to the great detriment of those who have that 
circumstance to encounter. Accordingly I have this day hauled 
my apples and cider into Uncle's old house, and covered them 
well up for the winter. 

"i4- — Cousins Sally and Caty, Mr. and Mrs. Castor and 
myself took a sleigh ride to Mr. Wm. Fenton's. 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 53 

"28. — This day rode to meeting at Followfield ; a crowded 
house. The people in this Western World are very religious. 
At Cross Creek congregation sometime since, at Sacrament, 
there were upwards of 600 communicants, and at Mingo meet- 
ing-house, same time, there were upwards of 400. They are 
chiefly Presbyterians. There are a great number of meeting- 
houses, and pastors to each. 

31. — [Describing a ball which he had attended at Williams- 
port and he says:] "The company consisted of 16 couple and 
the music could not be surpassed. The ladies were beautiful 
and elegantly dressed. At 6 the ball opened under the direction 
of three managers. They had all been to dancing school and 
danced elegantly. At 10 partook of an elegant supper served 
by six waiters, after which a number of songs were sung and 
dancing then recommenced and continued truly pleasing till 
four o'clock. Everything that promoted the wishes of the 
company was attended to by the managers. At 4 the dance 
concluded and all went home. Unity and friendship prevailed 
throughout the whole. 

"1801, Jan. I. — New Year, the first day of the Nineteenth 
century, January ist, 1801. 

"25. — The Alonongahela begins to rise, which makes me 
begin to think of being ready to start to New Orleans. 

"2S. — This day rode in company with a gentleman to Tough- 
oighiny river, in order to see a boy by the name of Eli Yarnall, 
whom I have often heard of as a boy possessed of a supernat- 
ural gift, he being without doubt a prognosticator and an ex- 
pounder. He is now between the age of 13 and 14. When he 
was but 5 years old he told of things that had happened to an as- 
tonishing degree, so that his name and what he predicted, was 
published in most of the newspapers in the U. States. The first 
thing of the kind that happened him was at the age last men- 
tioned. His father being on a journey, and passing over the 
Allegheny mountains, his keg of whiskey slipped away from 
him. He ran to catch it as it rolled — just at the same instant 
the boy. playing by his mother at home, laughed out heartily 
and told of the circumstances, also many other things that T 
will not insert here. People go from almost all quarters to him 

54 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

for different purposes, great confidence being placed in what 
he says. The purpose for which I went to see him was to ask 
him some questions respecting Bernard Van Deren, who left 
Philadelphia last Spring with a quantity of money, and, after 
he got to Easton on his way home, he was never heard of, 
and the general opinion is that he was inurdered. I told him 
that there had a friend of mine left Philadelphia last Spring 
who had never been heard of since he arrived at Easton. He 
shut his eyes about half a minute and then replied: 'He was a 
middle-size man, with dark hair and complexion.' I asked him 
if he was alive ; he answered he was not. I then asked him if 
he died a natural death ; he said no. I asked him if he was 
murdered. He replied that after he left a town he crossed a 
river, and after he traveled awhile he stopped ; then he went on 
till he got out of sight of the house where he stopped, when two 
men met him, one of which struck him with a club and knocked 
him down and he never spoke afterwards. They then took 
him into the woods to the right-hand of the road a good ways 
and killed him dead, took his money and some of his clothes, 
and buried him by the side of a log ; threw brush and leaves 
over him. They then went down the river together and, after 
travelling a while, they divided the money took from Van 
Deren. He told also a great many other things respecting him 
which I shall here omit. He informed me that, when he shut 
his eyes, he applied for what he wanted to know, which was 
immediately prefigured to him. 

"Feb. 8. — Started with two hands to Red Stone for my boat. 
I found it ready and took it to Dixon's Mill and put in my flour 
at that place. Started for my other loading; got as far as 
Mr. Fry's, where I stayed all night. 

"9. — By day-break I had my brandy and cider put in and 
started on as far as my uncle's, and, at 12 o'clock, started on 
and v/ent on as far as Williamsport, where I loaded the whis- 
key and fruit at that place. 

"10. — At day break I started on and stopped at Bentley's 
mill for my flour, after which I put out and got as far as 
McKeesport, distance 17 miles. 

[He now starts on his trip and proceeds to give an elaborate 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 55 

description of Pittsburgh and the adjacent country. His 
brother "Sammy," who was at Steubenville at that time, joined 
him, and they proceeded on their journey. Detailed descrip- 
tion is given of each day's travel and of the places along the 
river. He arrived at Cincinnati on March ist, and arrived 
at Nachez April 7th]. 

"Apl. 8. — (Natchez), This morning brother Samni}' and I 
concluded it was better that one should stay here awhile in 
order to sell the whiskey and brandy, and the other should 
proceed to New Orleans with the flour, there being such vast 
quantities of flour to come down that the market in town will 
be glutted before we could do our business and get down to- 
gether. Accordingly, this day at 12 o'clock started on with the 
flour and passed on till dusk, at w'hich time I landed on the 
\ Mississippi Territory shore, having taken four hands along." 
[Next day he had a narrow escape from having his boat lost. 
[ He gives an elaborate account of the affair]. 
I "14. — Set sail this morning all well and at 9 o'clock A. IM. 

v we, with inexpressible pleasure, arrived at the City of New 
i Orleans a distance from Pittsburgh of 2,120 miles. Though 
1 not taken from actual measurement, yet it will not be found to 
i vary very materially, from the true distance. New Orleans is 
I a large and beautiful town, containing about 1,600 houses and 
j about 11,000 souls. The streets are narrow but regular; the 
j houses have principally flat roofs, and are mostly elegantly 
I built. The whole city is inclosed in either w^alls or pickets, at 
1 every convenient part of which are iron gates through which 
I all persons or carriages must pass to go in or out of town. 
I Sentinels are kept night and day both at the gates and at every 
j short distance on the walls and pickets. A garrison is con- 
j tinually kept in the city and contains three regiments of Mexi- 
i can and Havana troops. A Governor and attendant are the 
■ principal officers of justice before whom all causes of whatso- 
ever nature must inevitably come. It is considerable of a 
maritime town. The exports are cotton, sugar, rice, indigo, 
hides, skins, furs, etc., and imports mostly articles of 
European manufacture. The town lays 35 leagues from the 
mouth of the Mississippi, which is in some instances difficult to 

56 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

ascend. The tides not setting up any distance whatever is the 
principal cause. The inhabitants are Spanish and French ; 
the French language is mostly in use, though there are a num- 
ber of Americans in town. New Orleans is the seat of justice 
and capital of Louisiana Territory, belonging to His Catholic 
Majesty, the King of Spain. 

"15. — This day went to the Custom House and made entry 
of my cargo, and am to have permission to unload and sell 

"17. — Last night I was taken severely with the cholera mor- 
bus, which lasted the principal part of the night. I am this day 
in consequence quite indisposed, but able to walk about. This 
evening made sale of my flour, to very good advantage. 

"19. — This day went to church. The house is elegant, orna- 
mented inside with a variety of gods, goddesses and saints, etc. 
Likewise an elegant altar wath rich statues and vessels of gold 
and silver, the whole of which exhibited a beautiful scene, and, 
if it was theatrical instead of being a place of worship, it would 
be truly elegant ; but such a hypocritical way of paying rever- 
ence and kneeling to a pack of false gods, pictures, etc., is too 
much even for savage barbarity. One thing, however, made the 
time less disagreeable ; it was the music. In the morning the full 
set of organs played, and in the afternoon the band of military 
music, being a full one, was far preferable. They began with 
the President's JNIarch, played Washington's March, and sundry 
other Spanish ones, and dismissed the Catholics with a horn- 

"20. — This day sold the boat load of flour that Br. Sammy 
and I purchased of Martin Lincoln on our passage down the 
Mississippi and made a tolerable good speck. 

"21. — The boats now come in very fast and the price of flour 
begins to decrease. 

''22. — I believe the boarding-houses in this town are full as 
good as any in the United States, but the price of board is 
high, being from six to twelve dollars per week. 

''2T,. — Arrived at this Port to-day, the ship 'Ocean,' Capt. 
Harrison of New York, 600 tons burthen, copper-bottomed. 
She expects to take a cargo of flour and cotton for Charleston. 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 57 

"25. — Some talk in town that the 'Ocean,' of New York, is 
an English ship under pretence of American owners, and that 
she will be detained here as good prize to the Spaniards. 
"26. — Br. Sammy arrived from Natchez, all well. 
"^7- — There being no vessels in town that will sail to any 
port of the United States within some time, Br. Sammy and I 
talk something of purchasing flour again, which we can do at 
a much cheaper price than what we sold at, and go with it 
to some of the West Indies, and from thence take passage to 
New York or Philadelphia, and, if we go to the Havana, or 
Cuba Island, we can in all probability make that voyage and 
be as soon home as if we were here to wait the sailing of some 
vessel immediately to New York or Philadelphia. 

"28 — We finally concluded on the Havana voyage, and 
agreed with Capt. Manwarring of the ship 'Ocean,' of Portland, 
for freight. 

"29.— Partly agreed with a man for 300 barrels of flour; 
to see him in the morning. Br. Sammy went up the coast to 
see how flour sells there. 

"May I.— Seven vessels arrived at this port, the most of 
which want to purchase flour. One is the ship 'Neptune,' of 
Philadelphia, Capt. Hackquin, and wants freight for New 
York. Quite indisposed. 

"2. — This evening took an oyster supper, when 13 of us 
drank 27 bottles of long-cork claret. 

"3.— I found the long-cork had a good effect on me. I feel 
this day tolerable well. The 'Ocean' takes in her cargo very 
fast, but I expect she will have to cease a while for the holiday, 
during which no work can be done here. 

"4-— Flour begins to rise, large quantities being wanted for 

"5-— Agreed with Capt. Manwarring to pay him $3.25 per 
barrel to Havana, and that we have cabin passages free, we 
paying or finding sea stores; to sail in 10 days. 
^ "8.— I was this day surprised to see a circumstance of rela- 
tionship take place between a Creole and his nephew. The 
Creole was a Captain in His Catholic Majesty's service, and 
boarded at the house I did; his name was McCabe; an impious. 

58 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

tyrannical fellow. His nephew resides on the Coasts, and ihis 
day unfortunately happened at the coffee-house, where Capt. 
McCabe was sitting with some gentlemen drinking wine. After 
he saw the Captain he walked to him and said : 'How do you 
do, uncle?' upon which the enraged Captain ripped out some 
vile execrations at him for calling him 'uncle,' and stepping to 
the door, ordered two of the guard to take him to the callaboos, 
where he actually remained some days only for calling his 
relation by the right epithet. He was not dressed so very well, 
yet, notwithstanding, I think he had nothing in his manner of 
behavior or address that was a dishonor to the great Capt. 
McCabe. I should think it extremely inhuman if either of my 
uncles was to put me in gaol for calling him by that name. But 
away with monarchical governments, I say. 

"10. — It being the custom of the place to have dances on 
Sunday nights during a great part of the year, and having had 
an invitation, I this night, in company with a number of gentle- 
men, had a curiosity of going to the Ball. At 8 o'clock we got 
there ; I will only say that the room was elegant, the ladies very 
beautiful, the music good, and everything that could render the 
evening amusing and agreeable was well adapted. 

"11. This day Br. Sammy and I got orders to have our flour 
alongside, which we did and commenced putting it in ; but are 
fearful that, the ship being already so full, ours will not go in; 
and this we cannot blame the Capt. for, because we were tlie 
last that contracted, and, although he expected the ship would 
contain ours and more too, exclusive of his previous engage- 
ments, yet was not certain and mentioned it at the time. 

"12. — This afternoon we found our flour would not go in, 
sure enough. Well, what are we to do? Part is nov/ in the 
ship and part on shore. We at last concluded that it would be 
most advisable to sell again that which the ship will not contain, 
for which cotton can be obtained at a low price, and that I, 
instead of going to Cuba with Br. Sammy, should get a pas- 
sage and freight it to New York with me, and let Br. Sammy 
go on with that now in the ship to Havana, and from thence 
to New York. 

"13. — Accordingly, we this day bartered our flour for cot- 

Some Recent New Jersey Books 59 

ton, and have also fortunately obtained freight in the ship 
'Neptune,' Capt. Hacquin, bound in about 12 days for New 
York ; am to pay him $5. per hundred for cotton and $50 for 
passage exclusive of sea stores, which will cost me as much 

"14. — Tomorrow the 'Ocean' sets sail, and as the Neptune 
will be here yet 10 or 12 days, I have concluded to get all ready 
and go in the 'Ocean' with Br. Sammy, as far as the Balise, at 
the mouth of the IMississippi, and there stay till the 'Neptune,' 
in which I go to New York, shall come down. Accordingly, 
got my cotton aboard and finished custom house ceremonies, 
got my bills of lading and passport. 

"15. — This morning Br. Sammy and I went on board the 
'Ocean,' and at 12 o'clock set sail. After getting under way 
Capt. Manwarring fired a Federal salute, after which, and usual 
ceremonies, we went into the cabin and drank a few bottles of 
long-cork claret wine, accompanied with some excellent patri- 
otic toasts. 

"16. — Last evening the 'Ocean' came to an anchor at dark. 
Wind arose this morning and she again set sail. Cast anchor 
at sunset. 

"17. — Set sail this morning and came to Pluckamin Fort, 
where we had to come to and show our passports, papers, etc. 

"18. — Set sail, wind fair, and at 2 o'clock arrived at Fort 
Balise, where I leave the ship and crew in order to wait till the 
'Neptune' arrives. Came to anchor, all well. 
[To be Continued]. 


The accessions to our Library are too many to note even the 
new books on New Jersey with proper critical notices, but the 
following 1 92 1 works, recently added to the collection, seem to 
deserve special notice : 

"In the Footsteps of Washington, Pope's Creek to Prince- 
ton," by Albert H. Heusser, of Paterson, while on an old subject 
so far as Gen. Washington is concerned, is so handsomely 

6o Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

printed and well illustrated, and contains so much interesting 
matter in its 304 pages, that we feel it is a book to be prized. 
Many New Jersey pictures appear in the volume. It is a pri- 
vately printed work, but some copies are to be had of the 
author, for $3.50. A second volume is to follow. 

"History of the Press in Camden County," by Charles S. 
Boyer, is an informing work of 64 pages, and is illustrated. 

"Geography and History of New Jersey," by Albert B. Mer- 
edith and Vivian P. Hood, published by Ginn & Co., Boston, 
the well-known school book publishers, gives just such funda- 
mental facts about our State as every advanced scholar in our 
schools should know. It contains 1S4 pages and is illustrated. 
Its three general divisions are. Geography, History and Civics. 

(^» ^5* ^* t?* 


Edward W. Barnes, former Mayor of Perth Amboy, died 
at his home in Brooklyn, Aug. 24, 1921, after a brief illness. He 
was born at Summit Hill, Pa., Feb. 2, 184S. Later, his parents 
removed to Rondout, N. Y., then to Perth Amboy, then to Tam- 
aqua, Pa. In 1864 he went to Perth Amboy as a clerk; later 
rapidly advanced in positions as cashier, etc., of New York City 
firms and a banking establishment. He served as School Com- 
missioner in Perth Amboy i89i-'4, and in the la?t named year 
was President of the School Board. In the same year (1894) 
he was elected Mayor of the city. He was for 37 years an 
elder of the First Presbyterian church, and long Superinten- 
dent of the Sunday School. In 1908 he removed to Brooklyn. 
In 1880 he married Miss Idelette L. Hall of Metuchen, who, 
with five children, survive him. His many acts of beneficence 
will long be remembered in Perth Amboy. He became a mem- 
ber of the New Jersey Historical Society in 191 1. 

Milton Demarest, of Hackensack, ex-Judge of the Court 
of Common Pleas of Bergen county, died suddenly of heart 
failure on Oct 21, 1921. He had been in his office in usual 
health the preceding day. Judge Demarest was born at Middle- 

Necrology of Members 6i 

town, N. Y., June 8, 1855. His parents removed to New York 
City in 1856; later to Nyack; thence to Hackensack. His pri- 
mary education was at Nyack; afterward at the Hackensack 
Academy. At Hackensack he learned the trade of upholsterer, 
at the same time devoting his evenings to the study of the 
law. He was admitted to the Bar of New Jersey at the June 
Term, 1877, and became counselor three years later. He at 
first practiced with his brother-in-law, the late Walter Christie ; 
then alone until 1894, when the firm became Demarest & 
DeBaun. Recently the firm had become Demarest, DeBaun 
& Westervelt, the other partners being Abram DeBaun and 
Warner W. Westervelt, Jr. 

Judge Dem.arest, of fine private character and an excellent 
lawyer, gave the public many years of useful service. He 
was counsel for the town of Hackensack from 1897 to 1904. 
In 1 90S he became Judge of the Common Pleas of Bergen 
county, serving one term. For fourteen years (1894-1908) he 
was a member, and for half that period President, of the Board 
of Education of Hackensack. He was an active member of the 
First Reformed church, at one time Superintendent of its Sun- 
day School ; was a member of the Holland Socieiy of New 
York City, and (i905-'o6), Vice-President of that Society for 
Bergen county. He also belonged to the Masonic and Odd 
Fellows' orders. Pie married first, Dec. 15, 1880, Carrie W., 
daughter of Jonathan L. and Charlotte (Beemer) Christie; 
after her decease, second, Adeline, widow of Walter Christie, 
who survives him, with several children by the first marriage. 
He became a member of the New Jersey Historical Society in 

Dr. Calvin Noyes Kendall, late Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for New Jersey, died on Sept. 2, 1921, at Knoxboro, 
Oneida county. New York, to which place he had gone a few 
weeks before his death to visit a brother, Edward M. Ken- 
dall. For the past two years or more Dr. Kendall had not been 
well although he kept steadily at his post, and in consequence, 
in February last, he declined to serve the State longer under a 

62 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 

new appointment by the Governor. His death was caused by 
Bright's disease. 

Dr. Kendall was born at Augusta, N. Y., February 8, 1858, 
the son of Leonard J. and Sarah M. Kendall. He received his 
fundamental education in the public schools and later attended 
Hamilton College, from which he was graduated in 1S82 with 
the degree of A. B. For three years after leaving college he 
taught in private schools in the West and in 1885 became prin- 
cipal of the High School in Jackson, Mich. He served in this 
capacity for a year and then resigned to become Superintendent 
of the Jackson schools, a position he held four years. In 1890 
he went to Saginaw, Alich., where he was Superintendent of 
Schools until 1892. Then he left educational work and engaged 
for three years in business. It was not, however, to his liking, 
and in 1895 he accepted a position as Superintendent of the 
Public Schools in New Haven, Conn. He remained in this 
position until 1900, when he went to Indianapolis, where he 
became Superintendent of Schools and a member of the Indi- 
ana State Board of Education. In this dual capacity he served 
till July, 191 1, when Governor Wilson otTered him the office 
of Commissioner of Education for New Jersey for a term of 
five years at $10,000 per year. Mr. Kendall accepted, and 
became the successor of Charles J. Baxter. He was reap- 
pointed for five years by Governor Fielder in February, 1916. 

In October, 191 1, Dr. Kendall was made President of the 
New Jersey State Museum Commission, and a year later was 
named as a member of the Committee on Civic Education for 
1912 and 1913. 

As School Commissioner of New Jersey he had great suc- 
cess. His literary and intellectual interests were varied, and 
everything of a public nature that stood for betterment, and 
for a finer culture, enlisted his sympathy. He emphasized the 
need of more training schools for teachers; favored the teach- 
ing of elementary agriculture in the public schools, and advo- 
cated making use of farm activities for this purpose. He urged 
rural school uplift and better practice of teaching in High 
Schools. Pic advocated free transportation of children who 
lived more than two miles away to and from school and a law 
to this eflfect was enacted. 

Necrology of Members 63 

Dr. Kendall received the honorary degree of A. M. from 
Yale in 1900 and from the University of Michigan in 1901. 
In 191 1 he was awarded the degree of Litt. D. by Hamilton and 
by Rutgers in 1912. From the University of Maine in June, 
1920, he received the LL. D. degree and from New York Uni- 
versity in 1913. 

In February, 1920, Dr. Kendall was elected President of the 
Department of Superintendence of the National Education 
Association. In this capacity there devolved upon him a vast 
amount of work in arranging the program of this most impor- 
tant educational convention of the year. In May, 1920, he was 
made a Trustee of the Grover Cleveland Birthplace Memorial 
Association. On Feb. 2, 1921, Dr. "Kendall sent his formal 
declination of reappointment to the State Commissionership to 
Governor Edwards, pleading ill health as his reason for not 
accepting a third term. 

In 191 3 he became a Life member of the New Jersey Histor- 
ical Society, and his interest in the Society was evidenced by an 
unusual benefaction. He transfered his royalties of a book, of 
which he was a part author, wholly to the Society, which 
enjoyed for about eight years a considerable income from this 
source. The book was "A History of the United States for 
Grammar Schools," in the authorship and compiling of which 
the late Reuben Gold Thwaites, Corresponding Secretary of 
the Wisconsin Historical Society, and Dr. Kendall, collabor- 
ated. The history has been successful and stands as an author- 
ity in its field. In 1921 Dr. Kendall was elected an Honor- 
ary member of the Society. After Dr. Kendall had declined 
reappointment as Commissioner on account of failing health 
the royalties from his "History" were relinquished by the 
Board of Trustees of the Society, and a resolution of "deep 
concern" over his illness, etc., was passed (on Mar. 7, 1921 ; 
see Procekdings for April, 1921, page 114). 

Dr. Kendall was married June 30, 1891, to Miss Alia Per- 
kins Field of Jackson, Mich., who died in December, 1918, at 
Princeton, aged fifty- four. For a few months Dr. Kendall 
lived in Trenton, but soon went to and maintained a home in 
Princeton. The Doctor is surviv^ed by his son, David Wal- 

64 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society | 

bridge Kendall, now eighteen, who is studying in Princeton 1 
University. j 

Camillus G. Kidder, for nearly 40 years a leading citizen j 
of Orange, died at his New York residence on Oct. 20, 1921, j 
after a ten days' illness of pneumonia. Mr. Kidder was born j 
in Baltimore July 6, 1850, and was graduated from Harvard ] 
University in 1872, and from the Harvard Law School in j 
1875. He was admitted to the New York Bar in 1877, and was i 
in several law firms as a partner, though residing in Orange. > 

For about ten years past he served on the Essex County Park j 
Commission. He had also served on the Orange Board of ] 

Excise, being President thereof for several terms and where he j 

was able to reduce the large number of licensed saloons. From | 

1890 to 1893 he was on the Orange Board of Education; he \ 

was also on the Advisory Board of the Orange Memorial Hos- I 

pital ; a trustee of the Orange Free Library and a director of ] 

the Orange National Bank ; an organizer of the former Essex j 

Co. Electric Light & Power Co., and its counsel ; also a mem- j 

ber of various important clubs. In 1885 he was a founder of | 

All Saints' church at Orange and one of its first wardens. "To j 

his many other qualities he added a grace and charm in public \ 

speaking, and a warm and genial personality." Besides his | 

wife there survived a daughter, Mrs. Eugene Y. Allen, of j 

Chestnut Hill, Pa., and two sons, Jerome F., headmaster of 
Mohawk School for Boys and Herrick G. F. Kidder of Minne- 
apolis. He became a member of the New Jersey Historical 
Society in 1920. 

Gen. Alfred Alexander Woodhull, of Princeton-, died at 
that place Oct. 18, 1921, in his 85th year, after a long illness. 
He came from a truly patriotic stock, being the eighth in 
descent from the first of the name who settled in this country 
in 1648, and counting among his direct ancestors President 
John Witherspoon, of Princeton, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. He was ranked with the late Moses Taylor 
Pyne as one of Princeton's most loyal sons. He graduated 
under President MacLean and as the first formal class secre- 

Necrology of Members 65 

tary welcomed at every step the advances made by Princeton 
through the administrations of MacLean, McCosh, Patton, 
Wilson and Hibben and was especially proud of the record of 
Princeton in the World War. His parents were Dr. Alfred A. 
and Anna Maria (Solomons) Woodhull. 

General Woodhull was born in Princeton, April 13, 1837. 
He received his early education at Lawrenceville Academy and 
was graduated from the College of New Jersey in June, 1856. 
He was elected class secretary and held this office until his 
death. After Princeton, he took up the study of medicine 
at the University of Pennsylvania, and received his degree of 
M. D. in March, 1859. He received the degree of A. M. from 
Princeton in June, 1859, and in 1894 was awarded the honor- 
ary degree of LL.D. by his alma mater. He commenced the 
practice of medicine in 1859 at Leavenworth, Kansas. When 
Fort Sumpter was fired on by the Confederates he took an 
active part in raising a company of mounted rifles for the Kan- 
sas militia, and was commissioned a Lieutenant. In the fall of 
1 861, he was commissioned a medical officer in the regular 
army. During the four-year conflict he was assistant to various 
medical directors and was Acting Medical Inspector of the 
Army of the James in 1864. In March, 1865, he was brevetted 
Lieutenant-Colonel for his faithful and meritorious services 
during the war, and attained the actual rank in 1894. He was 
advanced to the rank of Brigadier General on the retired list in 
1904. He was a member of the Association of Military Sur- 
geons of the United States, the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation, and the Military Order of the Loyal Legion. He repre- 
sented the United States Army at the Seventh International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demography at London, 1891 ; was 
instructor in Military Hygiene at the Infantry and Cavalry 
school, Fort Leavenworth, 1886-1890, and was commanding 
officer of the Army and Navy Hospital at Hot Springs, Ark., 
1892-1895. He was also Medical Director of the Department 
of Colorado, 1895, and Chief Surgeon of the Department of 
the Pacific (Philippines) in 1899. He was Gold Medallist of 
the Military Service Institution in 1885 and Seaman Prize Es- 
savist in 1907; a member of the Board of Managers of the 

66 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

New Jersey Geological Survey and Vice-President of the New 
Jersey Society of Sons of the Revolution. He was also the 
author of many books on military hygiene and military medi- 
cine, as well as of various patriotic addresses. He married, 
Dec. 15, 1868, Margaret, daughter of Elias Ellicott, of Balti- 
more, who survives him. 

Gen. Woodhull became a member of the New Jersey Histor- 
ical Society in 1912. 

Frederick Halsey Doremus, son of the late Elias Osborn 
Doremus and Harriet Peck, died at his home, 3 Beekman 
Road, Summit, N. J., July 4, 1921. He was born at 56 Wash- 
ington St., Orange, and lived there until twelve years ago, 
when he removed to Summit. He began business life with 
George W. Bassett, crockery importer, 49 Barclay St., New 
York City ; subsequently entered the firm with George T. Bas- 
sett and Edward F. Anderson as his partners ; the firm later 
removed to 72 Park Place. Mr. Doremus was a member of 
various New York City Clubs, also of the Passaic Chapter, S. 
A. R., and the Washington Association of Morristown; also a 
former trustee of the Central Presbyterian Church of Summit. 
He was greatly interested in historical subjects. Fie married, 
April 24, 1895, Marie E. Undershell, of East Orange, who, 
with two daughters, Elizabeth Underbill and Eleanor Osborn, 
survive him. He became a member of the New Jersey Histor- 
ical Society in 1907. 

Mrs. Stephen H. Plum, Sr., died suddenly at her summer 
home. Long Hill road, Millington, N. J., on Sept. loth, 1921. 
She was the daughter of David Coriell Runyon and Lydia 
(Dodd) Runyon and was a descendant of many early New 
Jersey families. Mr. Plum died in 1906. The surviving chil- 
dren are Mrs. Henry G. Atha, Miss Martha J. Plum and 
Stephen H. Plum, Jr. Mrs. Plum had been a Life member of 
the Society since 1896. 

Jerome Taylor, long a trust oftker of the Fidelity Trust 
Company in Newark, N. J., died Sept. 10, 1921, at his summer 

'^ Historical Notes atid Comments 67 

home in Chatham, in his eighty-eighth year. Although so aged 
he was regularly at his desk in the office of the company until 
recently. He had sound business judgment and his opinion 
■. of the value of securities and real estate was highly regarded. 
I He was born in Danbury, Conn., and was first engaged in the 
I hatting industry. Removing to Newark more than half a 
( century ago, he identified himself with the Fidelity when it 
I was organized and about a score of years ago became its Trust 
f Officer. Later he was chosen director and a member of the 
\ finance committee. Mr. Taylor for many years resided at 
i Broad and Chestnut streets, Newark. He is survived by his 
I wife and a daughter, Mrs. C. Edwin. Young. He became a Life 
member of the New Jersey Historical Society in 1885. 

Members of the Society are urged to solicit their friends to 
become members. The Society should have 2,000 paying mem- 
bers, so that it may increase its output of historical matter. 
Send proposed names to the Treasurer, at 16 West Park St., 
Newark, N. J. 

^* 4?W V?* ^^ 


Famous "No. 1, Broadway" and Its History 

In November last the new, or largely new, eleven-story 
building erected at No. i, Broadway, New York City, was 
opened as the home of the International Mercantile Marine 
Company and with various person therein as tenants. The 
history of this site is worthy of thought. Chronologically it is 
as follows : 

1626 — Peter Minuit, Director General of the Nieuw Amster- 
dam settlement, bargained with the Indian owners of Manhat- 
tan in the clearing that is now Bowling Green, and bought the 
island for $24. The scene of this historic transaction lies under 
the windows of i Broadway. 

1640 — Peter Koeck, a Sergeant in the Dutch garrison, built 
a tavern facing the Bowling Green, on the corner of the Heere 
Street, the site now covered by i Broadway, (the date is 

68 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

approximate). This he left to his widow, who became known 
as Ann Cox. A ship Captain of the period wishing to report 
to the Governor, found that official according to an old record, 
"attending a wedding at the Widow Cox's," which indicated 
that the quality of the colony frequented the tavern. 

1756 — The site of i Broadway, having been owned succes- 
sively by Frederick Phillipse and Abraham de Peyster, mer- 
chants and men of substance in New York, was purchased by 
Archibald Kennedy, a Captain in the Royal Navy, who built 
thereon a spacious mansion. 

1776 — Captain Kennedy, who upheld the King, having with- 
drawn from New York, his hom.e was occupied by General 
Israel Putnam, of the American Army. Here for some weeks 
General George Washington came frequently from his head- 
quarters at Richmond Hill to confer with his officers. Later 
the house was occupied in turn by Sir William Howe and Sir 
Henry Clinton, British commanders. It was from this house 
that Major Andre wrote the letters to Benedict Arnold which 
preceded the American's officer's betrayal of his trust and 
Andre's capture and execution. 

1783 — The Kennedy mansion was restored to its owner, who 
later sold it to Nathaniel Prime, one of New York's leading 
merchants and financiers, one of whose activities was in financ- 
ing the New York water supply company organized by Aaron 
Burr (Vice President of the United States 1801-5). 

1794 — The Kennedy mansion became a house of public enter- 
tainment, known as the Washington Hotel. As such at one 
time it housed Talleyrand, Napoleon's exiled Minister. (In 
its later years the old mansion was converted to an office build- 

1882 — Cyrus W. Field, famous for laying the Atlantic cable, 
bought No. I Broadway, and erected on the site a 12-story 
office structure, then the tallest in lower New York, known as 
the Washington Building. 

1919 — No. I Broadway was bought by the International 
Mercantile Marine Company, and work of rebuilding the struc- 
ture began. 

1921 — The rebuilding of the structure was completed, five 

[■ Historical Notes and Comments 69 

^ floors being reserved for occupation by the American Line, the 

' Atlantic Transport Line, the Leyland Line, the Panama-Pacific 

Line, the Red Star Line, the White Star Line and the White 
i Star-Dominion Line, the constituent Hnes of the International 

I Mercantile Marine Company, whose fleets, aggregating 120 

I vessels of 1,300,000 tons, ply to all parts of the world. 

I The Early Codrington Place a Public Park 

I So far as known the first house built in Somerset county was 

t at present Bound Brook. Thomas Codrington, an Englishman, 

• one of a number of New York men who purchased a large 

;■ tract of the Indians in 1681, located on 877 acres in 1683, and 

i built a house on it, and, with additions and alterations, the house 

I stood till 1854, when Daniel Talmage, brother to the famous 

I Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, D. D., took down the entire building, 

and gave to the new house the name "The Evergreens." Re- 
cently it was also known as the La Monte homestead, the last 
I owner being Miss Caroline B. La Monte, one of the leading 

I and most useful ladies of Bound Brook. During the past Sura- 

I mer Miss La Monte turned over "The Evergreens" for the 

\ Episcopal Diocese of New Jersey for a Home for the Aged. 

j Part of the accompanying land, 3^ acres, owned by Mr. 

j George M. La Monte (recent Commissioner of Banking and 

j Insurance of this State) was, later, presented to the borough 

] of Bound Brook for a public park, to be known as "Codring- 

1 ton Park." 


j The Name of von Steuben 

I If there is any German name of which Americans may well 

' be proud it is that of Baron von Steuben, who came over 

from Germany in 1777, tendering his services, just as did 
Lafayette, to Washington, was ranked as a Major-General, 
reorganized the poorly drilled army, served at Monmouth and 
Yorktown, wrote a manual of army regulations, died in I794 
and lies in a lonely grave in the State of New York. Some 
time since the Board of Education in a township in Bergen 
county, this State, voted to name a new school building after 
the Baron, largely because of the fact that in that locality the 

70 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Federal Government had presented him with a tract of land on 
which he had built a residence, but also in order to honor a 
great national patriot. Strenuous objection was made, but a 
clear-headed Board overruled it and the honor was properly 
conferred. Bryant, in his "History of the United States" 
(Vol. Ill, p. 598), says: "Of all the European officers who 
sought service under the new Republic, he did more than any 
other in aid of its complete establishment." 

The Death of a Pioneer Suffragist 

In the Proceedings of 1920 (Vol. V, New Series, p. 257) 
attention was called to Rev. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, D, 
D., and something said of her great age, fine character and 
unusual abilities. This learned and useful lady died on Novem- 
ber 5th last, at the home of her daughter, Mrs. S. T. Jones, 
at 334 El Mora Ave., Elizabeth, having passed her 96th birth- 
day on May 20, 1921. She is believed to have been, at the 
time of her death, the oldest woman minister in America, as 
she was, in fact, the first of her sex to be ordained in this coun- 
try. Her whole life was one of usefulness in the causes of 
Anti-Slavery, Social Hygiene, Temperance and Philosophical 
Science, aside from that of Woman Suffrage, of which she was 
one of the earliest supporters. Her long residence in New 
Jersey conferred an honor upon the State, and her beautiful 
private life added distinction to the Womanhood of America. 

The Origin of "Rip Van Winkle" 

In our issue of July last (p. 186) we printed what seemed 
to be the real origin of Irving's character, "Rip Van Winkle." 
A correspondent thought the fact of Irving's residence abroad 
in 1819 must throw doubt upon the story. He wrote : "In 
view of the fact that Irving went to England in 181 5 and did 
not return until 1832 I am a little inclined to think that the 
story of the origin of the title is not an actual fact." On refer- 
ring this letter to our original informant in Paterson he calls 
our attention to the fact our later correspondent doubtless over- 
looked, that the book referred to in the Proceedings' note, 
"The Sketch Book of Goeffrey Crayon, Gent.," of 1819, was- 

I Historical Notes and Comments 71 


f not stated to be the first appearance of the Rip Van Winkle 

{ story, but the pamphlet once seen by him in Mr. Nelson's hands 

i was, as he thinks, an earlier one, also printed by Cornelius S. 

I Van Winkle. He believes the first publication was prior to 

181 5. In this connection he calls our attention to a transpo- 
sition of dates in our July note, viz. : Simeon Van Winkle was 
"born Apr. 4, 1752 and not Jan. 13, 1785; the latter date was 
the birthdate of the printer, Cornelius S. Van Winkle. 

Although out of the country in 1819, the fact was that Cor- 
nelius S. Van Winkle published "The Sketch Book" contain- 
ing Rip's story that year. He either used the matter as one 
previously in type, or Irving sent the MSS. to him from 
Europe. In either case the origin of "Rip" could readily be as 
Mr. Van Winkle, of Paterson, stated. If he did not get the 
""Van Winkle" from his printer, from whom else was it likely 
to have been obtained? 

A Unique Centennial Celebration 

On September 5, 1821, the Rev. Gabriel Ludlow was installed 
as pastor of the Reformed Dutch church at Neshanic, this 
State. On Oct. ist, 1921, his successor, Rev. John Hart, reared 
from the pastorate of the church, and a celebration was held 
to commemorate the fact that two ministers only had had 
charge there for one hundred years. This is probably the only 
instance of the kind in New Jersey. Another notable fact in 
connection with the stone church edifice is that it is still the 
original building, the erection of which was begun in 1753, with 
a slight enlargement since at the pulpit end. 

A John Woolman Memorial Association 

The noted John Woolman, a Friend's Missionary preacher, 
who was born at Northampton, Burlington county, in 1720, 
and whose reform writings on Slavery, Religion and other 
subjects proved him to be one of the finest characters Quaker- 
ism ever produced in this country, had a home at 99 French 
street, Mt. Holly, which has been purchased by the above 
named Association, of which Mrs. Francis G. Gummere, of 
Haverford, Pa., is President. The intention is to make it a 

'^2 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

permanent memorial of the man and his character. It has 
already spent $5,300 upon the project, and is endeavoring to 
raise $10,000 more for improvements. The object is most com- 

New Jersey Scholar Goes to Denmark 

Our State is honored by the President, who has commis- 
sioned Prof. John Dyneley Prince, of Ringwood Manor, Pas- 
saic county, as United States Minister to Denmark. He sailed 
on November ist. Prof. Prince has been State Senator from 
Passaic county (i9io-'i3), and, for a time, was Acting-Gov- 
ernor ; later was President of the State Civil Service Commis- 
sion (i9i7-'2i). He was appointed Professor of Sem.itic 
Languages at New York University in 1893, holding the post 
for nine years, for five of which he was Dean of the Graduate 
School. In 1902 he was called to Columbia as Professor of 
Semitic Languages in co-operation with Professor Richard J. 
H. Gottheil. He published many scientific articles on the 
Sumerian language problem, the pre-Semitic idiom of the 
Euphrates valley and a book on "Materials for a Sumerian 
Lexicon" which has attracted the attention of Oriental scholars, 
everywhere. He also published a "Commentary on the Book of 
Daniel" which discusses at length the Babylonian connection of 
the Biblical prophet Daniel. 

When the Slavonic Department was founded at Columbia in 
1915 Professor Prince resigned as Professor of Semitic 
Languages and became Professor of Slavonic Languages and 
head of the department. From a small class of some half dozen 
students in Russian, the work has been broadened to include 
the Russian language and literature, Polish, Czech, Slovak, 
Serb, and, during the past year, Bulgarian. The average enroll- 
ment is between 200 and 300 students. The Slavonic Depart- 
ment has for the past two years also administered Columbia's 
courses in Chinese and Japanese, pending the organization of 
this work in separate departments. 

Professor Prince's recreation has been the study of the Eas- 
tern Algonquin Indian languages, especially the Passamaquod- 
dy-Melicite of Maine and New Brunswick, Canada, where he 

Historical Notes and Comments 73 

has spent many Summers. He has published many articles in 
this field, as well as a grammar and texts of the Passama- 
quoddy tribe. Professor Prince composed the music usually 
sung to Kipling's song, "The Road to Mandalay." 

The Judge Connolly Article on Quit-Rents 

The address elsewhere published on the subject of quit- 
rents in East New Jersey during the early Colonial period 
calls attention to a rather new phase of historic causes for the 
American Revolution, so far as our State is concerned. Other 
States had their peculiar differences with Great Britain, but 
Judge Connolly concludes that the spirit stirred up in this 
State by the quit-rent matter, lasting, as it did, for so long a 
period, embittered the people of the State to an extent so great 
that it must be considered an important element ' as affecting 
local views in relation to over-the-seas sovereignty ; perhaps as 
much of a factor as the much-spoken-of vStamp Act. The 
thorough discussion upon "The Elizabethtown Controversy,'* 
which appeared in the Proceedings of 191 7 by the late Chan- 
cellor Magie, did not lay stress upon the quit-rent subject as 
tending toward the War of the Revolution, nor are we aware 
that any of the general historians mention the matter as a con- 
tributary cause in New Jersey. For this reason, and because 
it gives in a short and distinct article the leading facts of a 
peculiar controversy in this State, we give space to the writer's 
suggescion as "food for thought." 

Prmceton's Great Library 

As is well known, Princeton University has now one of 
the great libraries of this country, numbering some 435.000 
volumes. This requires a card index system of magnitude, 
and such a system is being thoroughly revised under the 
direction of the new librarian, Mr. J. T. Gerould, formerly 
librarian of the University of Minnesota. The classitlcation of 
this huge storehouse by subjects and by authors' names has 
been abandoned for the dictionary system. 

Under this latter method every card in the index will be in 
strict alphabetical order, whether it relates to a topic or to an 

74 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

author's name, and all such cards will be in one alphabetical 
arrangement instead of in two, as at present. Thus, under the 
title, "Milton, John," will be found not only all the works by 
that poet, but also all books and articles dealing with his life or 
writings. Those volimies, which are critical studies of a par- 
ticular subject or author, are indicated by a special red band 
at the top. 

The installation of this dictionary system, for which many 
more card-index cases have had to be procured, is but one 
feature of the policy of the new librarian. In an effort to con- 
vert the place from a musty volume-container to a center of 
pleasure, as well as of profit, books "for the specialist" have 
been taken out of the general reading room in the Chancellor 
Green Library and relegated to the stacks in the Pyne Library. 
In their place have been put books of general reference and 
of widespread appeal. A section is being built up in one part 
of the Chancellor Green reading room where the latest volumes 
of fiction, essays, poems and drama will be kept, and special 
groups for suggested reading will be formed. Books on sub- 
jects of current importance will be placed on that stack as a 
guide to intelligent reading. 

(^5* (,5* ^* (^^ 


KiRKPATRiCKS OF SCOTLAND. — The New Jersey line of Kirk- 
patricks has been quite fully published, including their assumed 
descent from Alfred the Great, although the accounts of their 
Scottish ancestry do not fully agree. • (See Browning's ''Amer- 
icans of Royal Descent," Pedigree 134; Lee's "Gen. and Mem. 
Hist, of N. J.," p. 458; "Som. Co. Hist. Quar.," Vol. V, p. 
171 ; Ibid, Vol. Ill, p. 268). We still have some inquiries 
from Western descendants about the family in Scotland. Cer- 
tainly Closeburn, in Dumfrieshire (originally spelled Klyose- 
bern) was the ancient seat of the family, which, in 1232, was 
granted by Royal Charter by King Alexander III to Ivone de 
Kyrkepatric. The ancestral estate, as reported in 1919, con- 
sisted of about 14,000 acres, but we are not informed if the 

Queries and Miscellany 75 

original grant was so large or not. In that year it was adver- 
tised for sale by its then owner, W. P. Kirkpatrick. The pres- 
ent holder of the Baronetcy, (first conferred in 1685 by 
Charles II. upon Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick), is Sir Charles 
Sharpe Kirkpatrick, born in 1874, ninth holder of that order of 
nobility, a resident of England. He was once in America as 
Captain of a football team. A present four-year old nephew 
is the next heir to the family honors. A recent mention of 
the family gives this interesting notice of one noted member 
of the ''House of Kirkpatrick": 

"One of the most famous members of the House of Kirk- 
patrick of Closeburn was that Achilles Kirkpatrick, by whom 
England's supremacy over the great Indian State of Hydera- 
bad was largely brought about. Achilles Kirkpatrick was an 
English Resident and Envoy at the Court of Hyderabad, but 
had in some manner incurred the wrath of Lord Wellesley, 
at that time Governor-General of India, who wanted to dismiss 
him. Kirkpatrick, however, had not only become a great favor- 
ite of the Nizam, or ruler of the State, but had also won the 
heart of the Nizam's daughter, and the result was that the Niz- 
am gave Lord Wellesley to understand that his signature to the 
treaty acknowledging the suzerainty of Great Britain was con- 
ditional upon Kirkpatrick's retention in office as Resident, his 
restoration to the good graces of the Governor-General and the 
latter's approval of Kirkpatrick's marriage to the Princess of 
Hyderabad. Kirkpatrick still lives in the memory of the people 
of that part of India as Hashmad Jung, which means 'the mag- 
nificent in battle,' and of his union with the Princess was born 
Carlyle's famous Kitty, whom the Sage of Chelsea described, 
it may be remembered, as a 'strangely complexioned young 
lady, with soft brown eyes, amiable, graceful, low voiced, 
languidly harmonious, a half Begum ; in short, an interesting 
specimen of semi-Oriental Englishwoman.' " 

John Fenwick's Arrival. — In Mr. Benedict's article, "New- 
Jersey as it Appeared to Early Observers," in the July, 1920, 
Proceedings, spoke of John Fenwick (on p. 154) as settling in 
Salem, this State, in 1673. His attention being called to the 

y6 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

matter, he writes to say that it should have been 1675. The 
previous mention of Fenvvick in Edmundson's "Journal" (Ibid, 
p. 151) should have stated it was on Edmundson's second visit, 
1675, '6 or '7. The best sketch of Fenwick published in this 
State was written by the late Judge John Clement and pub- 
lished in 1875, being a remarkably interesting pamphlet of 95 

Graves in Churches. — As is well known, the old churches 
in Europe usually have graves in them, generally with slabs 
stating name, dates, etc. The feet of worshippers pass over 
them, with scarcely a thought of the living about the dead 
beneath. Some time ago an inquiry came from England as 
to whether this was not the ancient custom in New Jersey, 
especially in Episcopal churches. Our reply was in the neg- 
ative. If any of our readers know of such burials in this State, 
as a custom in any particular church building, we should like 
to be apprised of it. It has come to our knowledge that, about 
191 3, when a portion of the basement of the Presbyterian 
church at Basking Ridge was being excavated, some old graves 
were found, but we judge that these date from a time when the 
first church erected there (perhaps of logs and about 1720) 
did not cover the portion of the basement so excavated. 

Moore-Sm ALLEY.— "Have you any records of John Moore, 
one of the first settlers of Passaic Valley? His daughter, 
Tabitha, married Jacob Smalley, a Revolutionary soldier from 
Somerset county." G. F. R. (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.). 

[Jacob Smalley was the son of John Smalley, Jr. Tobitha 
Moore, dau. of John Moore, was b. 1787; d. May 27, 1847. 
There is a reference to Jacob Smalley as a soldier in the last 
July Proceedixgs, (p. 176), but we have no knowledge of John 
Moore, except that he lived "near Paterson." — Editor]. 

Drake Family. — "Can you put me in touch with some mem- 
ber of the Drake family, who is interested in his family history? 

Queries and Miscellany yy 

]\Iy wife descends from Elisha Drake, frequently mentioned in 
'Andrew Johnston's Journal/ i75o-'6o." 

F. W. A. (Washington, D. C). 
[The best informed person of whom we know on the Drake 
family is Wilbur A. Drake, Plainfield, N. J. — Editor]. 

Allen-Wyckoff.— "John Allen and Rachel Wyckoff were 
married in New Jersey in i78o-'90, I think. They came to 
Dearborn co., Indiana Territory, about 1800, and bought large 
tracts of land from the Government; laid out the town of 
Harrison; then came to Daviess co., Dec, 1816. Can I trace 
their families in New Jersey?" H. A. (Washington, Ind.). 

Albertson Family. — A genealogy of this family is being 
prepared by George F. R. Albertson, of Hillsdale, N. J. 

Breese. — "I desire to know the name of the father of 
Euphemia Breese, who married Francis Pullin in Middlesex 
CO. in 1799; also the father of Francis Pullin." 

C. L. B. (Washington, D. C.). 

[Euphemia was the daughter of James Breese, who died 
in February, 1809, and left a will in Middlesex co. Cannot 
reply as to Pullin. — Editor]. 

Patersox. — "Has your Society any data on William Pater- 
son, who helped draft the U. S. Constitution? My grandfather, 
George Patterson, was a lineal descendant. He was b. Aug. 
8, 1807 and d. June 8, 1857." D. M. B. (Chadron, Neb.). 

[Clearly a mistake. Governor Paterson had but one son, 
William Bell Paterson, and he had only three sons, none of 
whom were George. See "Somerset Co. Hist. Quar., Vol. I, 
p. 253, note. — Editor]. 

Bebout.— "Wanted, dates of John Bebout, Revolutionary 
soldier i775-'78 and who was in the Battle on Long Island. 
Was he the father of Benjamin Bebout, b. Dec. 4, 1758; d. 
Nov. 8, 185S; m., Dec. 7, 1784, Hannah Mortlett (or Mor- 
P^iett)." L. N. K. (Morocco, Ind.). 

78 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

[John Bebout was a resident of Vealtown (Bernardsville) 
in Revolutionary times, said to have gone West and died June 
I, 1788. No other facts available. — Editor]. 

Clark. — "I wish data concerning Thomas Clark, a Revolu- 
tionary soldier from Essex county. The Clark tradition is 
that he was a son of Abraham, the Signer. Thomas married 
Rebecca Lyon of New Jersey. His children were: Joseph, 
who m. Sarah, (or Barbara) Smith; William, who m. Hannah 
Smith ; James, who m. Susan Smith ; Thomas, who m. Annie 
Stout ; John Clark, w^ho m. Sara Hettield ; Samuel, who m. 
Lyria Straus (parents of Benjamin C, of Cincinnati) ; Abi- 
gail, who m. William Stoner ; Sarah, who m. John ]\IcGinnis ; 
Betsey, w-ho m. John Strawn ; Mary, who m. James ; Thomas. 
(Not in order, of course). Joseph came to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
about 1800." Mrs. G. M. K. (Chicago, 111.). 

[So far as we have been able to discover, Thomas Clark, 
named above, was not the son of x'^braham Clark, the Signer. 
One of our best genealogists, C. C. Gardner, who has given 
attention to the various Clark lines, suggests he was probably 
the son of a Richard and Hannah Clark of EHzabeth ; at all 
events that Abraham Clark's ten children were the following: 
I. Aaron, b. about 1650; m. Susan Winans (dau. of Benjamin 
Winans), and removed to Ohio about 1788. He had several 
children "and was the only child of Abraham Clark w-ho left 
descendants in the male line." 2. Thomas, b. about 1752; 
took an active part in the Revolution, but died childless May 
13' 1789- 3- Abraham, b. 1755 ; d. July 26, 1758. 4. Hannah; 
m. Capt. Melvyn Miller. 5. Andrew ; died unm. before his 
father. 6. Cavalier, b. i762-'3 ; d. Nov. 4, 1764. 7. Sarah; 
ni. 1792, Clarkson Edgar. 8. Elizabeth. 9. Abigail ; m. Thom- 
as Salter. 10. Abraham (2nd), b. Oct., 1767; d. July 28, 1854; 
m. 1791, Lydia Griffith; had one ch., Eliza, who m. Dr. J. P. 
Beekman. (For an account of this Dr. Abraham, see "Pro- 
ceedings," 3rd Series, Vol. lY, p. 97). 

A publication by E. K. Adams, of Cranford, N. J., 1914, 
gives, as one of the ten children of Abraham, the Signer, a 
Robert. A Pennsylvania lady has joined the D. A. R., claiming 

Annual Meeting of the Society, ip2i 79 

to be descended from Noah, a child of Abraham, born 1763 and 
died 1847. (D. A. R. Lineage Book, Vol. 37, No. 36,473). For 
years our Society has had inquiries on this same subject, but, 
unless otherwise proven, we must consider Mr. Gardner's 

■i investigations as closing the matter with as much correctness as 

\ records show. — Editor]. 

': Gamble. — "I am interested in the record of the late Lieut.- 

I Col. John M. Gamble, U. S. Marine Corps, who figured very 
I conspicuously in the War of 1812. In the 'Navy Register' 
I of 1836 he is shown as a citizen of New Jersey. Gamble 
served with Porter when the latter made his attack upon British 
whalers in the South Seas, and was left in command of two 
officers and twenty men on an island of the Marquisan group, 
j He later set sail in a prize manned by a slender crew, and was 
captured after a difficult voyage, in the vicinity of Hawaii, by 
the consort of the British vessel that forced Porter to strike 
his colors off South America. He was sent as a prisoner to Rio 
de Janeiro, and the next year permitted to return to New York. 
As this time Gamble was a ist Lieutenant. He was subse- 
quently brevetted Major and Lieutenant-Colonel for gallantry, 
and died in 1836, a permanent Major of Marines. H there 
be any portraits or sketches of Gamble, or if any direct or indi- 
rect descendants live to-day, I should be most grateful for 
information concerning their whereabouts." 

Capt. L. E. F. (Quantico, Va.). 

^* t^ ^ f^ 


OCTOBER 26, 1921 

The annual meeting of the New Jersey Historical Society convened 
at 12 o'clock noon, and was called to order by the President, Justice 
Francis J. Swayze. The invocation was offered by the Right Reverend 
Edwin S. Lines. Bishop of the Diocese of Newark. 

The minutes of the previous meeting, held October 2y, 1920, were 
read and approved. 

8o Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

The report of the Board of Trustees was read by Charles M. Lum, 
and was approved. 

The President appointed a Nominating Committee to present the 
names of trustees, five in number, to serve for three years. The Com- 
mittee consisted of Charles M. Lum, Charles S. Boyer and Walter F. 
Hayhurst. The Committee was granted leave to retire. 

The report of the Corresponding Secretary, A. Van Doren Honey- 
man was presented. 

The Treasurer, J. Lawrence Boggs, presented his report, previously 
found correct by the Auditing Committee, and it was adopted. 

The Library Committee, through the chairman, Frederick A. Can- 
field, reported. 

The report of the Membership Committee was read by Chancellor 
Edwin R. Walker. 

The report of the Woman's Branch was presented by the President, 
Mrs. Willard W. Cutler. 

At this time the Nominating Committee returned and reported for 
nomination the following persons to serve as trustees for three years, 
succeeding themselves : Frederick A. Canfield, William S. Disbrow, 
M. D., Edwin R. Walker, Philip V. R. Van Wyck, and Louis Bam- 
berger. There being no other nominations presented the Recording 
Secretary, on motion, was directed to cast the ballot electing the above 
named nominees, and the President declared them elected. 

The meeting then took a recess for a social hour of refreshment 
and friendliness. 

At two o'clock the Society re-convened and listened to a scholarly 
and most instructive address by Dr. Ernest C. Richardson, Director 
of the Library of Princeton University, on the subject of "Local 
History and Library Co-operation." A vote of thanks was given Dr. 

The following resolution was presented by Frederick W. Kelsey and 
was unanimously adopted : 

"Whereas, The Conference by the leading world powers soon to be 
held in Washington, has for its object the reduction of national arma- 
ments, thus eliminating one of the principal incentives of war with 
the corresponding inception and enlargement of international doubts, 
suspicious and other causes leading directly to war; and, 

"Whereas, The cordial reception already given the disarmament 
plan by those in official authority, by the public and by the press, both 
in the United States as well as in foreign countries, and the hearty 
reception given to the national delegates from Japan, Italy and other 
countries that have arrived for the Conference, reflect the pop- 
ular desire of the people everywhere for the settlement by mutual agree- 
ment and understanding of this first step toward a further binding asso- 
ciation agreement between all nations toward preventing another world 
holocaust ; 

' Annual Meeting of the Society, ig2i 8i 

f "Resolved, That this Society, at this, its seventy-sixth annual meet- 

\ ing, heartily approves the plan and purpose of the Conference for the 
limitation of armaments, and the Secretary is hereby requested to for- 
ward a copy of this preamble and resolution to each of the four United 

i States delegates to the conference, Hon. Charles E. Hughes, Hon. 

\ Elihu Root, Hon. Oscar Underwood and Hon. H. C. Lodge." 

? The Society also passed a resolution regarding the possible demolition 

\ of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, requesting the proper authorities to 

\ prevent the destruction of an historical landmark so honored. 

j The meeting adjourned. 

\ Joseph F. Folsom, 

I Recording Secretary. 


The Board of Trustees would report that generally progress has been 
been made in the work of the Society. The reports of the several com- 
mittees will show in detail the progress made. It will be shown that 
in membership there has been a falling off, due to various causes, and 
a recognition of this fact should spur the members of the Society to 
more zeal in interesting the people of New Jersey in our work and 
securing new members. Personal work serves best in this matter, and 
a missionary spirit will do great things. 

Financially, through the Marcus L. Ward bequest of $20,000, we 
have gone forward during the year. The accessions to our store of 
historical materials, in books, documents and historical relics, have 
been larger than in any of the recent years past. The Society has 
ceased to be a depository of Government publications, and this will save 
much room for the care of other material. As the Newark Free 
Public Library is a depository the needs of the locality, in the field of 
Government documents, are well served by that institution and we are 
relieved for other work more related to our purposes. We have sent 
many duplicates of these documents to the Public Library, covering 
the period previous to the Library becoming a depository. This is 
in the way of cooperation, of which to-day we shall hear much, and, 
quite incidentally and appropriately, it might be added that Princeton 
University Library has sent us files of the Trenton "Gazette" and the 
Newark "Evening News" to fill the spaces in our collection. 

Much matter, yet to be examined, has come to us from the Marcus 
L. Ward estate, and there is evidently here a valuable mass of new 
local material. 

The Board reports, with deep regret, the death of one of its members, 
Joseph M. Riker, on December 22,, 1920. Board resolutions have 
stated in sympathetic and appreciative words the high regard in which 
he was held, and the great loss the Society suffered through his untimely 

82 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 


I have received during the year about lOO letters and v/ritten about 
130. As a matter of course the letters received have included the 
usual number of genealogical questions. Some of these, as to specific 
problems, have already appeared in the department of "Notes and 
Queries" in the Proceedings; various others will appear in the Jan- 
uary number and need not be noticed in this report. As heretofore 
some asked for all the children and sometimes the grandchildren of 
Abraham Hart, the signer of the Declaration of Independence, a 1 - 
quest neither my better-informed predecessor nor myself have hitherto 
been able to answer, though, I think, inquired about every year. One 
lady was especially anxious to know if Thomas Clark, of Essex County, 
said to be a Revolutionary soldier, whose wife was Rebecca Lyon, was 
of that family. I wish this Hart family could really be cleared up. 
The January Proceedings will note some believed-to-be facts con- 
cerning this line. 

Another question which I suppose could be readily answered con- 
cerned a son of Governor Livingston. He had a son, William, Jr., who 
was for a time during the Revolution the Governor's secretary, also 
Register of the Court of Admiralty, as may be determined by his 
signature of documents printed in our "Archives;" later, in 1780, be- 
came a lawyer in Nev/ Jersey. He is said by tradition to have gone 
to Schoharie county, New York, and been murdered by the Indians. In 
the Governor's main will this sou was disinherited ; but in a later codicil 
the Governor gave to trustees one-seventh of his estate for the son's 
benefit provided he mended his ways in a year from a date therein fixed. 
The dates of his birth and death, whom he married, etc., have thus far 
eluded me. In all, it is said the Governor had thirteen children., 
we know, was drowned in early youth near Hackensack, and five others 
died previous to the Governor's death in 1790. One son, Henry 
Brockholst, was a distinguished lawyer of New York City and died as an 
Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court at Washington 
in 1823. 

One of our officers, Mr. H. E. Deats, of Flemington, who is doing a 
great deal historically for Hunterdon county, has compiled a genealogy 
of the Bellis Family, which he describes as "an essentially Hunterdon 

A Weller family, the head of which came from Germany in 1730 
and settled at Amwell in Hunterdon County, has been written up, 
with descent complete for several generations, by Rev. Dr. Frederick 
D. Viehe, of Binghamton, N. Y., and awaits publication in some form 
or other. 

At intervals from 1900 to 1902 the late Mr. Nelson prepared and 
published in the Proceedings genealogical articles on the Van Buskirk 
Family. I am informed by Mr. Mahlon van Booskirk, a lawyer of 

Annual Meeting of the Society, 1^21 83 

Philadelphia, who had assisted Mr. Nelson somewhat in the published 
articles, that he has completed lines beyond the first and second gen- 
"^ erations as published. As the present policy of the Proceedings is not 

if to include long genealogies of particular families, these additions will 

I not appear therein, but this matter is mentioned for the benefit of those 

k interested. 

i An English correspondent asked to have the record of the Rev. 

" Henry Waddel, who was a clergyman of an Episcopal church in Tren- 

5 ton and died there January 20, 1811. He was informed that M . 

^ Waddel was pastor of Christ church at Shrewsbury from 1788 to 1799, 

\ although in 1798 he began devoting half his time to St. Michael's church, 

\ Trenton. I could not inform him of the place and date of his birth. 

« The same correspondent desired some facts respecting Lieut. Mar- 

j shall Davis, Capt. Thomas Clark, once sheriff of Hunterdon county, 

\ Capt. Robert Farmer and Lieut. Lewis .Stevens, all of whom were 

f "surviving officers from New Jersey in Gooch's American Regiment, 

i who went on the expedition to Carthagena in 1740." There was no 

I trouble about Capt. Robert Farmer, of Perth Amboy, as Whitehead 

I gives particulars of him, and I stated that Lieut. Lewis Stevens was 

I probably the 8th child of the John Stevens who heads the well-known 

j Stevens family of Hoboken, etc., Lewis being born in 1720; died 1772. 

I His brother, Capt. Campbell Stevens (i7i4-'7o) was a captain of note in 

\ the Provincial service. 

' Through a newspaper clipping I have found that an old church exists 

j in Delaware Township, Hunterdon County, dating from 1733. In the 

j only complete history of that county, by Snell, it is probably there 

i referred to (p. 380) as a German Baptist (Dunker) church, and is there 

j dated "about 1750" It also says the only existing church records date 

I from 1835. But the article gives a full list of the pastors since 1733, 

! and perhaps the older church records have been found. It is now called 

I "The Amwell Church of the Brethren," and is located near Sergeants- 

i ville. Some facts respecting this very old church will be published later. 

One of the interesting letters of the past year came from a member 
of the Burnet family in Athens, Georgia, the Librarian of the Univer- 
sity of Georgia, Mr. Duncan Burnet. He had not seen the article by 
the Hon. Thomas T. Kinney in our Proceedings for 1897, nor other 
references to the family by Mr. Nelson, but he knows of some import- 
ant new facts, and has promised to contribute them when time permits. 
Of course our members generally have observed that there is being 
published in our Proceij)ings extracts from a lengthy record, kept by 
Dr. Lewis Condict about 90 years ago, of testimony from Revolutionary 
soldiers or dependents, giving War records. These state incidents and 
give hundred of soldiers' names which must interest many descendants 
of the actors in that conilict. This record is being published when not 
crowded out, but ought to be finished in the Proceedings in about two 

84 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

On being advised, last Spring, that several thousand New Jersey 
Revolutionary pension cases (3,482 to be exact) had been collected and 
classified in the Adjutant-General's office in Trenton, our Board un- 
dertook to inquire when and how they might be printed. The Ad- 
jutant-General stated that he expected to publish them in connection 
with a revision of Stryker's "OtTicers and Alen in the Revolution," 
within a brief period of time — whatever that may mean. It is cer- 
tainly to be hoped that the publication will not be too long delayed. 

As is well-knov/n of many of us who used to visit the New Jersey 
State Library at Trenton in years long past, the former State Librarian, 
Col. Morris Hamilton, was engaged nearly every evening for years 
upon a "History of New Jersey." Some of us have wondered since his 
death, in 1901, just what progress he had made and what had become 
of his manuscript. I recently made inquiry about it, and find that he 
had completed the matter for Vol. I of the "History," and Vol. li 
was only partially completed. A daughter, Mrs. Osborne, residing in 
Newark, is in possession of the MSS., and, naturally, desires to see 
Vol I published, or used by some one on a similar New Jersey work. 

Mr. C. A. Hoppin, of New York City, has been anxious to ascertain 
the whereabouts of the marriage records and the death records, if any 
exist, of the Knowlton First German and English Congregation 
Church, the baptisms of which from 1766 were published in the Pro- 
ceedings of 1918 and 1919. It is known the marriage records existed 
a few years ago. The old township book of that locality was recently 
found in a barrel in a storeroom of the town clerk. Mr. Hoppin, who 
has been looking for certain old records in Warren, Middlesex, and 
Monmouth counties, advises me that "the most perfectly organized and 
most completely indexed and cross-indexed collection of county rec- 
ords" he "has ever seen in 20 years' experience" is that completed by 
Mr. Harvey S. Hopkins, Clerk of Sussex County, who did the work 

This subject leads me to remark that the Department of Public 
Records of this State, organized under a law of last Winter, is efficiently 
at work under the superintendence of the Director, Dr. Carlos E. 
Godfrey, of Trenton, who intends to see that old records are hunted 
up in counties and townships and properly preserved. He has cour- 
teously advised me of some finds in Middlesex and Monmouth Coun- 
ties, which perhaps we might copy and publish. For example, in 
Monmouth County, inserted in a book of "Alanumissions of Slaves," 
some 50 pages contain proceedings and evidence taken concerning the 
services of Revolutionary soldiers for the purpose of procuring pen- 
sions ; also, in a Book of "Executions," the proceedings on forfeited 
estates of Tories, beginning in 1779. 

Our Board, having learned of an official movement in Washington, 
owing to the lack of room for documents in the public buildings, look- 

Annual Meeting of the Society, 1921 85 

ing to the destruction of such of the Census Records and Schedules of 
Population of the United States for 1890 as were not destroyed in an 
unfortunate fire of January 10, 1921, joined other historical bodies in 
protesting against it and requested our State Senators to aid in defeat- 
ing the project if it came before Congress, as we were advised it would. 
Senator Edge sent us a response (dated May i6th last) stating he was 
glad to receive our resolution and would look into the subject at once. 
We have not heard more about it since. 

The desire of many of our members, but especially of various pub- 
lic libraries who receive our published works, for the completion of 
the one missing year of our ''Revolutionary Newspaper Extracts," and 
another volume of Wills, led our Board to instruct me to see what 
number of subscriptions to these volumes, or either one of them, could 
be secured. If they were sufficient to defray the actual cost of print- 
ing the Society proposed to undertake it; if not, not, as we have no 
fund for such printing. Accordingly I sent out circulars with return 
cards enclosed to about 750 of our members and to all Public Libraries 
which had received the previous volumes of Archives. The result was 
much less satisfactory than we had hped ; 266 pledges to the one 
volume and 146 to the other. The public libraries generally subscribed, 
but not over 20 per cent of our members. This would not nearly meet 
the probable expense. It is now to be hoped that the State will finish 
its work in this direction, as it ought to do, and print at least the needed 
two more "Archives." If not, we may have to see if a special fund 
can be raised in the future to effect this object. 

During the present month some of the New York newspapers have 
called attention to a famous "Salmagundi punchbowl," formerly in use 
by Washington Irving and his circle of friends in "Cockloft Hall," 
the building still in existence in Newark, N. J. The bowl has just 
been presented to the New York Historical Society. This Hall was 
erected previous to 1750 by Nicholas Gouverncur, and Washington was 
often a guest there, though Irving, in "Salmagundi" partially immor- 
talized it. Recently "Cockloft Hall" changed hands and its total 
destruction has been feared. A New York gentleman who is greatly 
interested in such historic buildings wrote to the Society in Septem- 
ber about this very Hall, saying : 

"Recently observing in a newspaper that old 'Cockloft Hall' man- 
sion in North Newark is likely to be demolished soon, and feeling 
much interest in it, I went over there with my family about a week ago 
and went through and around the house, which has been much mod- 
ernized. It is over 200 years old." [This is uncertain]. Continuing, 
he says: "It was nearly 100 years old when Governor Kimble owned 
it and when Irving, Paulding, Brevoort and several other first-class 
young men and talented writers were entertained there. ... In 
a history of Newark I find a picture of the West front of the house 

86 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

as it was originally, but have been unable to find an illustration of the 
East front, that looked out on the Passaic river, which undoubtedly 
was the most attractive front It is a pity that the old struc- 
ture is to be torn down. Should not the city of Newark possess. 
restore and keep it as one of its most interesting relics?" 

Of course these old houses should be preserved in some manner, if 
possible. In the last Proceedings you have noticed what was said of 
the "Dey Mansion" at Preakness. That assuredly should be taken in 
hand by some Society and held for the public benefit In PI infield 
the new local historical Society has done this for the oldest house 
in the city, dating from before the Revolution, but just how much be- 
fore is unknown, though perhaps from 1756. It is erroneously called 
a "Washington Headquarters," but it is quite certain that Washington 
was a visitor in it. 

So far as I have information two new local Historical Societies have 
been formed the past year: the Plainfield and North Plainfield His- 
torical Society and the Union County Historical Society. A Perth 
Amboy Historical Society is in process of organization. To each of 
these Societies we extend, of course, our good wishes. And we must 
again acknowledge our peculiarly great indebtedness to our own Wo- 
men's Branch, for its interest in our work, and the additions it has 
made to our Library and Collections and to our 75th Anniversary 

A. Van Doren Honeyman, 

Corresponding Secretary. 

Plainfield, N. J., October 19, 1921. 


The number of persons using our Library and visiting our Mu- 
seum continues to increase, the attendance for the past year being 
4,143. We are also receiving an increasing number of letters. About 
five hundred communications having been received and as many writ- 
ten since last October. Mrs. Pierce has been engaged in cataloguing 
our books since last March and quite a good deal of work has been ac- 
complished in that line. 

We think that it can safely be .-aid that the Society never received in 
any single year so large an add i' 'on to its collection of books, as was 
received during the year just pa^i. The books received number 2,523; 
the pamphlets 1,400; the manuscripts 299, to which should be added 
those received from the estate of the late Marcus L. Ward. The 
miscellaneous gifts were 75; the total number of accessions received, 
4,297, not including the manuscripts received from Mr. Ward's estate. 
About 125 individuals contributed to our collections during the year, 
and books and pamphlets were received from about as many societies 
and institutions. 

Annual Meeting of the Society, l<)2i 87 

The late Marcus L. Ward bequeathed his library to the Society, 
and we received from that source 2,185 volumes and 700 pamphlets, 
most of which had been the property of his father, the Hon. Marcus 
L. Ward, Governor of New Jersey, i865-'68, and Congressman from 
i873-'75- We also received from Mr. Ward's estate some thousands 
of manuscripts, nearly all of which were the papers of Gov. Ward and 
most of which relate to the Civil War period, though a few of them 
date back to the Seventeenth century. 

The most valuable collections of old manuscripts received by thv.. 
Society for many years were presented to us during the year by Mr. 
Louis Bamberger. The larger part of these relate to the history of the 
Colony of New Jersey, but some of them deal with the Revolutionary 
period in this State. 

We are also especially indebted to the Library of Princeton Univer- 
sity for one hundred and ten volumes of newspapers published during 
the past twenty years. 

A list of the individual donors will be printed in the Proceedings as 
soon as room for the same permits. 

Frederick A. Canfield, Chairman. 


It is a pleasure to report the work of the Woman's Branch for the 
year just ending, because I feel that we have accomplished a number of 
worthwhile things, somewhat different from other years. 

A year ago last May, Mr. Boggs, the Treasurer of the New Jersey 
Historical Society, told us of his desire to raise a fund of $10,000, in 
honor of the "75th Anniversary of the founding of the Society," and 
asked the Woman's Branch to secure $1,000 of that amount. A com- 
mittee was appointed and went to work at once, sending out simple 
and concise appeals to all of our members, receiving a ready response, 
which resulted in the sum of $1,025.75, which amount was handed to 
Mr. Boggs last June. 

A year ago I reported the purchase, by the Woman's Branch, of the 
Stockton collection of family records, which consists of a large card 
cabinet, containing about seventy-five thousand cards, on which are 
given relationships, dates of births, deaths and marriages of many of 
the early New Jersey families. The price was five hundred dollars, 
and in March of this year we made our last payment. We feel that 
this collection is a great addition and advantage, as our Library is 
being used more and more every day, especially in genealogical and 
reference work. 

Other purchases during the year are: Genealogies of Long Island 
Families; Southold Records; Willis Family of New England an^l 
New Jersey; Exploration of a Munsee Cemetery, near Montague, X. 
J-; Spaulding's Historical Handbook of New Jersey; Record of Sei- 

88 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

vice of Connecticut Men in the War of the Revolution and the War of 
1812 • Record of Service of Connecticut Men in the Army and Navy 
of the United States, 1861-1865 ; Parker in America, by A. C. Parker ; 
and Old Roads from the Heart of New York, by Sarah Comstock. 

We have purchased a number of manuscripts, among which are: A 
Contemporary Affidavit of an American Officer Regarding Benedict 
Arnold; a document signed by Gov. Jonathan Belcher in 1740; a 
Bond of the Heirs of the Rev. James Caldwell to Elias Boudinot in 
1797; and an autograph letter of Thomas Dunn English in :"-t4. We 
have also purchased two hundred pasteboard boxes for fihng pamph- 

Among the gifts received during the year are a number of valuable 
books including Kilpatrick and Our Cavalry; Johnson's New Fam- 
ily Atlas; Mayflower Pilgrim Descendants in Cape May County; His- 
toric Houses of New Jersey; Six Generations of Le Rues and Allied 
Families; History of Plymouth, Connecticut; Tonne's Memorial— 
Ransan, Baldwin, Moore and Allied Families; Edmund Lewis, of 
Lynn, Massachusetts, and some of his Descendants ; and William Nel- 
son's History of Paterson, N. J. 

Among the manuscripts given us are an Index to Snell's History of 
Readington Township; a copy of the Sessional Records of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Stockton, N. J. ; and a very fully and carefully 
illustrated manuscript, entitled "Historic Burlington," prepared and pre- 
sented by Mr. Henry S. Haines. A collection of valuable South Jersey 
deeds were given us by Miss Mary S. Hunter. 

Other interesting gifts received are: An album containing photo- 
graphs of prominent men of the Civil War period; some brass andirons 
from Hopewell, N. J., about 1820; French War maps and posters; a 
chopping bowl of Revolutionary date; a pair of linen mitts about two 
hundred years old; a blue and white woolen blanket woven over a 
hundred years ago by Martha Hulbert, of Mt. Freedom, N. J. ; a sword 
presented to Major George B. Halsted, in December, 1862, by the citi- 
zens of Newark as an evidence of their appreciation of his fidelity and 
valuable services to his country; a cane which once belonged to the 
Rev. Alexander ;MacWhorter; five old pitchers, one of which was in the 
family of Noah Brooks, the author, for more than two hundred years ; 
a watch made from the steel plates of the battleship Maine; and the 
door of the office, in Burlington, N. J., occupied by Samuel Jennings, 
secord Governor of New Jersey, and later occupied by the then State 
printer, Benjamin Franklin, who printed the colonial currency and the 
New Jersey Laws, and, later still, by Isaac Collins, who published the 
first newspaper, "The New Jersey Gazette." 

Tombstone inscriptions from the Abel I. Smith farm burying- 
ground at Sccaucus, and the Van Houtcn burial ground at Totowa were 
copied and presented by Mr. John Nealie. Inscriptions from the 

Annual Meeting of the Society, ig2i 89 

church-yard of the "Yellow Meeting House" at Freehold, N. J., were 
given to us by Mr. William J. Conkling. 

Autographed photographs of President Harding and nine members 
of his cabinet have been received ; also one of Gov. Edward I. Ed- 

Our meetings have been held regularly, with good attendance and 
much interest shown in the work. 

Our membership has been increased during the year by 62. We have 
lost 6 by death and n by resignation, leaving a total membership in t'' . 
Woman's Branch of 620. 

Our mid-winter meeting was held in Somerville and was a pleasant 
affair in every way. In preparing for it, we decided upon a "box 
luncheon," to be supplemented by soup, coffee and ice-cream, and thus 
to eliminate an item of great expense. We have felt for a long time 
that, although these mid-winter meetings were most desirable and bene- 
ficial to the Society, the expense incident 'to the luncheon was a great 
handicap to our other work and we, therefore, thought it well to try 
tl)e "box luncheon." It proved so successful that 1 am sure we shall 
want to do it again. With the money thus saved we were able to em- 
ploy a cataloguer for about four months and to do a number of other 

Upon arriving at Somerville we went first to Wallace House, where 
we were greeted by Miss Otis and her committee, and where we wan- 
dered about at will, looking at the many interesting things of early days, 
all so well arranged in that charming old house. We then went over 
to the chapel of the First Reformed Church, where many little tables 
had been spread for our convenience. We opened our boxes, and soup 
coffee and ice-cream were served by the young women of Miss Otis' 
committee and the "box luncheon" was voted a success. After luncheon 
Senator Case, in a few well chosen words, welcomed us to Somerville 
and then introduced Mr. J. Lawrence Boggs, who gave us a most in- 
teresting and instructive talk on "How the Posters Helped in the War," 
displaying many posters about the room. 

We held our annual meeting on May eleventh, at which time Profes- 
sor William Starr Myers, of Princeton, gave us a splendid and most 
interesting address on "Practical Internationalism — 1865 to 1921." 

Alt HA Hatch Cutler, 
President of Woman's Branch. 

90 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 



Elected Died 

Gen. Horace Porter 1883 May 29, 1921 


Joseph E. Booth 1896 Sept. 7, 1920 

J. Edward Borden 1891 ? 

Wallace Durand 1890 July 17, 1921 

Dr. John Faber 1897 Nov. 18, 1920 

Hon. John Franklin Fort 1890 Nov. 17. 1020 

George J. Hagar 1887 July 25, 1921 

Dr. Charles M. Howe 1904 Dec. 18, 1920 

Hon. John B. Jackson 1901 Dec. 2C, 1920 

Charles H. Jones 1891 Dec. 11, 1920 

Dr. Calvin Noyes Kendall 1913 Sept. 2, 1921 

Dr. Ephraim Morrison 1906 May 10, 1918 

Walter S. Nichols 1886 Feb. 9, 1921 

Mrs. Stephen H. Plum 1896 Sept. 10, 1921 | 

John Poinier 1898 June 14, 1921 | 

Moses Taylor Pyne 1896 April 21, 1921 | 

Lewis V. F. Randolph 1869 Jan. 2, 1921 j 

Joseph M. Riker 1913 Dec. 23, 1920 \ 

Mrs. Joseph M. Riker 1913 Dec. 21, 1920 | 

Gideon Lee Stout 18S5 Nov. 2, 1920 | 

Jerome Taylor 1885 Sept. 19, 1921 | 

Calvin Tompkins 1896 March 13, 1921 


Edward W. Barnes 191 1 Aug. 24, 1921 

Edward T. Bell 1895 Aug. 12, 1921 

Frederick A. Borcherling 1911 Dec. 27, 1920 

Edward Brunsen Camp 1911 April 6, 1921 

Charles M. Decker 1907 Aug. 28, 1920 

Milton Demarest 1919 Oct. 21, 1921 

Mrs. George T. Dixon 1910 Feb. 28, 1921 

Frederick H. Doremus 1907 July 4, 1921 

Hon. Henry M. Doremus 191 1 Jan. 16, 1921 

Dr. Joseph Fewsmith 1887 April 9, 1921 

Harrie T. Hull 1909 May 13, 1921 

Camillus G. Kidder 1920 Oct. 20, 1921 

Frank P. McDermott 1911 Jan. 3, 1921 

Annual Meeting of the Society, ip2i 91 

Stelle Fitz Randolph 1911 May 21,1921 

J. Ridgeway Such 191 1 June 8, 1921 

Joseph Ward, Jr 1907 June 2, 1921 

Gen. Alfred A. Woodhull 1912 Oct. 18, 1821 


Since our last annual meeting the following new members have 
been elected : 



Dr. Calvin Noyes Kendall, Trenton (since deceased) . .March 7, 1921 


Miss Agnes Blackfan, Elizabeth Jan. 3, 1921 

William Clark, Newark March 7, 1921 

Alfred M. Heston, Atlantic City Feb. 7, 1921 

Rev. Edwin Watson Rand, Princeton Feb. 7, 1921 


Charles C. Black, Jersey City Feb. 7, 1921 

Charles S. Boyer, Camden Feb. 7, 1921 

John P. Brennan, East Orange Sept. 12, 1921 

Miss Mary Clarke, Newark May 11, 1921 

Mrs. Andrew L. Cobb, Boonton Nov. i, 1920 

Miss Lillian Crosby, Paterson June 6, 1921 

Weston P. Dimock, Elizabeth Nov. i, 1920 

Mrs. John D. Everitt, Orange Nov. i, 1920 

Ferdinand J. Herpers, Newark Feb. 7, 1921 

Henry F. Herpers, Newark Feb. 7, 1921 

Mrs. A. V. D. Honeyman, Plainfield June 6, 1921 

Mrs. Caroline S. Howell, Boonton May 11, 1921 

C. H. Imhoflf, Hopewell Nov. i, 1920 

Miss Irene I. Kehoe, Newark June 6, 1921 

Clarence L. Lersner, Ridgewood Dec. 6, 1920 

Ray E. Mayham. Westfield March 7, 1921 

Eugene Miller, Rahway April 4, 1921 

Mrs. George Reuck, Newark March 7, 1921 

Leroy F. Vermcule, Belleville July 11, 1921 

George A. Whitleigh, Newark Dec. 6, 1920 

Miss Frances C. Willis, Glen Ridge Feb. 7, 1921 

Eleven members have resigned. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. Lawrence Boggs, 
Chairman, Membership Committee. 

92 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 


For the Year Ending September 30, 192 1 



Balance on hand Oct. i, 1920 $1,410 31 

Received from Annual Dues 2 - 6 -.x) 

Rent from Property No. 22 W. Park St, 

Newark, N. J 2,894 52 

Income from Investments : 

Account David A. Hayes Fund 432 50 

':" Hadfield-F. M. Tichenor Mem'l 

.- Fund 20 00 

Ingleton Donation 15000 

L. Cotheal Smith Legacy 80 00 

" Marcus L. Ward Bequest 446 25 

Young Bequest 20 00 

Capital Fund 451 15 

Interest on Bank balance 9206 

Donations 68 00 

Woman's Branch, Loan paid 50000 

Sundries i qq 


Received from Sale of Archives, Proceedings, etc 355 61 


Received from Life Membership fees 200 00 


Received from Subscriptions from Members 2,817 25 

Executors Estate Marcus L. Ward, Bequest, 

i" full 20,000 00 

"^ot^^ $32,28465 



For Telephone 5_^ g^ 

Taxes and Water Rent 2 087 87 

Salaries 2217^6 

Repairs t-, -- 

13 /D 









1 84 


50 50 





22>7 35 









Annual Meeting of the Society, 1^21 93 

" Insurance Premiums 

" Payment of Note at Bank 

" Coal 

'\ " Printing and Stationery 

f " Luncheon at Annual Meeting 

" Interest and Stamp Tax on Notes 

V " Postage 

i " Electric Light and Gas 

J " Sundries and Petty Cash 

5 " Woman's Branch, Income from L. Cotheal Smith 

I Bequest 

• " Inheritance Taxes on Marcus L. V/ard Bequest 

\ " Accrued Interest and Commission on Bonds purchased 

} for Investment 

f " Loan to Woman's Branch 




j Cost of Bonds purchased for Investment I39 00 



i Cost of Bonds purchased for Investment 2,925 00 


j Cost of Bonds purchased for Investment 19.401 50 



Printing Quarterly, etc 1,223 81 

Balance on hand Sept. 30, 1921, on deposit in Merchants' 

& Manufacturers' National Bank, Newark, N. J 1,132 40 

Total $32,284 6: 



Balance on hand Oct. i, 1920 $747 83 

Received Life Membership Fees 200 00 

$947 83 

94 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 


Bought $ioo, par value, 4^ Fourth Liberty Loan 

Bond 89 00 

Bought $50, par value, 3j^7o First Liberty Loan 

Bond 50 00 

Balance on hand Sept. 30, 1921 808 83 



Balance on hand Oct. i, 1920 $535 00 

Subscriptions received during year from Members 

of Society 1,792 50 

Subscriptions from Members of Woman's Branch 1,024 75 


Bought $3,000, par value, American Dock & Im- 
provement 6% Bonds $2,925 00 

Balance on hand Sept. 30, 1921 427 25 



Amount received in payment of Bequest $20,000 00 


Bought $20,000, par value. Fourth Liberty Loan 

434% Bonds $17,564 00 

Bought $2,000, par value, Lehigh Valley Terminal 

R. R. Co. 5% Bonds 1,837 5o 

Balance on hand Sept. 30, 1921 598 50 

947 83 

3,352 25 

3,352 25 

20,000 00 

20,000 00 



Par Value 
City of Newark, N. J., Water Bonds, 4%, 1922.. $6,500 00 
The United N. J. R. R. & Canal Co., 4%, 1929 3,000 00 

Annu-al Meeting of the Society, ip2i 95 

West Shore R. R. Co., 4%, 2361 1,000 00 

U. S. Liberty Bonds, 454% 1,25000 

U. S. Liberty Bonds, 3^% 50 00 

U. S. Victory Notes, 414 % 100 00 

■; $11,900 00 


Baltimore & Ohio R. R., 3>^%, 1925 $2,000 00 

N. Y. Telephone, 4^^%, 1939 4,500 00 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. Co., 4%, 1995.. 2,000 00 
Allegheny Valley R. R. Co., 4%, 1942 2,00000 

\ 10,500 00 



I The United N. J. R. R. & Canal Co., 4%, 1944.. $2,000 00 

t 2,000 00 


I City of Newark, N. J., Water Bonds, 4%, 1922 $500 00 

500 00 


Bond and Mortgage, 5%, C. F. Eberhard, on prop- 
erty No. 88 Arlington St., Newark, N. J... $3,000 00 


City of Newark, N. J., Water Bonds, 4%, 1922.. $500 00 


American Dock & Improvement Co., 6%, 1936 $3,000 00 


U. S. Fourth Liberty Loan, 4},i% $20,000 00 

Lehigh Valley Terminal R. R. Co., 5%, 1941 .... 2,000 00 

3,000 00 

500 00 

3,000 00 

22,000 00 

$53,400 00 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. Lawrence Boggs, Treasurer. 

96 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 


OFFICERS FOR 1921-'22 


Vice Presidents 


Corresponding Secretary 


Recording Secretary Treasurer 



Term expires, 1922 
Henry Young 
Hiram E. Deats 
Charles B. Bradley 
Henry G. Atha 
W. I. Lincoln Adams 



Term expires. 1924 
Frederick A. Canfield 
William S. Disbrow 
Edwin R. Walker 
Philip V. R. VanWyck 
Louis Bamberger 

Charles M. Lum 
Wallace M. Scudder 
J. Lawrence Boggs 
Henry Young 

Frederick A. Canfield 
Joseph P. Folsom 
William S. Disbrow 
J. Lawrence Boggs 
Charles W. Parker 

William S. Disbrow 
Frederick A. Canfield 

J. Lawrence Boggs 
Austin Scott 
Edwin S. Lines 
Edwin R. Walker 
Louis Bamberger 

Term expires, 
James J. Bergen 
Wallace M. Scudder 
Edwin S. Lines 
Frank Bergen 
William M. Johnson 

COMMITTEES, 1921-'22 
Finance and Building 

James J. Bergen 
Charles B. Bradley 
William M. Johnson 
Louis Bamberger 


Mrs. W. W. Cutler 
Edwin R. Walker 
Frank Bergen 
Henry G. Atha 
Philip V. R. VanWyck 

Cabinet and Museum 

Hiram E. Deats 
Mrs. W. W. Cutler 


Frank Bergen 

Henry G. Atha 

W. I. Lincoln Adams 

Philip V. R. VanWvck 

A. Van Doren Hon'eyman 

A, Van Doren Honeyman 


Frank Bergen 
Joseph P. Folsom 

Genealogy and Statistics 
The Woman's Branch— President, :Mrs. Willard W. Cutler 

Austin Scott 

Ernest C. Richardson 

Joseph F. Folsom 

Joseph F. Folsom 
Edwin R. Walker 
Austin Scott 

Colonial Documents 

A. Van Doren Honeyman 

James J. Bergen 
^r T T , Hiram E. Deats 
W^. I. Lincoln Adams 


William M. Johnson 

Hiram E. Deats 

A. Van Doren Honeyman 


of the 

New Jersey Historical Society 

^^\^ rPRIL?Y9?2 No. 2 



The early traveller who crossed New Jersey in the first fifty 
years of its history either walked or rode horseback and ar- 
ranged for his own transportation, sometimes buying a horse 
for his journey; and it is not till 1723 that we find a proposal 
to transport passengers and goods on a definite day and over a 
particular route. 

The three first roads across New Jersey v/ere : the Upper 
Road, starting at Elizabethtown and going by Bnmswick, 
Princeton and Trenton to the Delaware ; the Lozvcr, which 
branched off from this road west of Brunswick and went by 
Cranbury and Crosswicks to Burlington and the Delaware ; 
while a "road from Pcarth Tozvn" was opened in 1684 and ran 
to Burlington, starting from Redford's Ferry (now South 
Amboy). On this latter road a man named Dellaman was 
given the exclusive right by Governor Hamilton to haul freight 
over it, which caused great dissatisfaction. In 1707 Governor 
Cornbury was petitioned that this exclusive right was contrary 
to the statute respecting monopolies and should be withdrawn. 
The Governor replied, saying, that "by this arrangement every- 
body was sure once a fortnight of an opportunity to send goods, 
and that the wagon, instead of a grievance or a monopoly, was 
the means, and no other, by which trade had been carried on 
between New York, Amboy, Burlington and Philadelphia, 
which was never known before." This privilege was abrogated 
later (1710). 

98 Proceedings Nexv Jersey Historical Society 

The notice of 1723 referred to above is exceedingly modest 
and reads : 

"If any person or jiersons may have occasion to pass or re- 
pass, or convey goods from Philadelphia to Trentown and back- 
ward, their goods may be secured at the house of John Wol- 
lard at Trentown, in order for further conveyance. Such per- 
sons may enquire or rej^air to the liouse of the said John Wol- 
lard in Trentown, or to the mill there, or at the Crooked Billet 
in Philadelphia." 

Benjamin Franklin stopped at this tavern on first coming 
to Philadelj.ihia; the Crooked Billet Tavern. 

It is to be noted that John Wollard does not say that he con- 
veys by land or water, wagon or boat. He goes on to say in his 
notice : 

"Passengers may come and goods may be convey 'd from 
Trentown every ]\Ionday or Tuesday, and from Philadelphia 
every Thursday or Friday." 

This adventure hinges upon whether there shall be any de- 
mand for the service and will be furnished once a week, and 
upon one of two days, as the demand may warrant. I believe 
that this was boat service, from the Crooked Billet Wharf in 
Philadeliihia to the mill in Trenton. 

We have in Benjamin Franklin's trip to Philadelphia this 
same year, 1723, a specimen of how the man who could not 
afTord to buy a horse travelled. Franklin was going to Phila- 
delphia to work in a printing ot^fice. There was a ferry boat 
between New York and Amboy on which he took passage. 
It was a boisterous day on the water, and, finally, when night 
came on, to prevent being blown on the Long Island shore, they 
cast anchor and tossed about there all night, getting to Amboy 
the next day. The following morning (the third day) he 
crossed Red ford's Ferry to what is now South Amboy and set 
out a-foot for Burlington. At noon he arrived at a "poor inn," 
where he stayed till next day, then (the fourth day) walked to 
Dr. Brown's Inn, where he spent the night. The next, and 
fifth, day he walked into Burlington and found that the Satur- 
day boat had sailed and that the next would not go until Tues- 
day. While strolling along the river bank he found a row boaJ- 

V Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 99 

l and some men intending to row to Philadelphia. He joined 
\ them. They rowed until midnight, when some, thinking they 
I had passed Philadelphia, would row no more, and pulled into a 
5 small creek, where they lay till morning, when they found they 
; were not far from Philadelphia ; and they got in between 8 and 
i 9 o'clock Sunday morning, (the sixth day). Franklin says he 
! had one silver Dutch dollar and a shilling in copper, which latter 
; he paid for his ride in the boat, although he rowed as much 
as the others. 

Lee, in his "New Jersey as a Colony and a State," mentions 
the three ferries of Inians, at New Brunswick, Billop's and 
Radford's. We shall have occasion in this sketch to cross 
j Cooper's at Philadelphia, Ramsey's at Trenton, Coryell's, about 
i five miles above Trenton, now Lambertville, use the "New 
Blazing Star" vessel on the Kil von Kull to Staten Island, 
cross back again to Bergen Point by the "John Beck," take the 
ferry over the Passaic and also over the Hackensack, and finally 
the Powles' Hook ferry to New York. In addition we have the 
ferries, or rather water portions of the earliest routes, viz., 
Philadelphia to Trenton, to Burlington, or to Bordentown — 
three routes ; and from Amboy, Woodbridge, Blazing Star and 
Elizabethtown Point to New York — four other routes ; all of 
which will appear in the various advertisements of Stage boats 
and Stage wagons in the next sixty years. 

It is six years to the next advertisement (1729), when in the 
"Mercury" of Feb. 18-25, 1728-29, we notice that — 

"The plantation called Redford's Ferry, over against Am- 
boy, is to be let, with a good dwelling house, kitchen and stables, 
scow and canew. Any person that has a mind to hire it may 
apply himself to Gabriel Stelle, who lives at the said place, and 
agree at reasonable terms. N. B. — There is also a stage wagon 
kept at said ferry for transporting of passengers and goods 
from thence to Burlington, and doth attend whenever freight 

Here is the first definite mention of a stage wagon, but not 
yet a schedule of days ; it only goes when business "presents." 

An item in the "Penn. Gazette" of Sept. 13-20, 1739, gives 
an idea of the roads : 

lOO Proceedings A'ezv Jersey Historical Society i 

"We hear from Gloucester county in the Jerseys that on Sat- ] 

urday last one John Matson was riding in his cart ; the wheel \ 

passing over a stump overset the cart on him and killed him on i 

the spot." I 

The water journey was not without its excitements also, as I 
the "American Weekly Mercury" of April 16-23, 1730, notes: • 

"Amboy, April 19. On Tuesday last we had a sudden storm ; 
of wind and rain in which a canow that was going over the \ 
ferry here was overset and three persons drowned." I 


The stage wagon waiting at the Amboy ferry for such travel ] 

as might present itself in 1729 is improved upon in 1733 by the i 

establishing of a regular wagon, once a week from Burlington \ 

to Amboy Ferry. The "IMercury" of March 13-20, 1732-33, 1 

says : 1 

"This is to give notice unto Gentlemen, Merchants, Trades- 1 

men, Travellers and others that Solomon Smith and James 1 

Moon of Burlington keepeth two stage waggons intending to ] 

go from Burlington to Amboy and back from Amboy to Bur- i 

lington again, once every week, or oltt'er if that business pre- | 

sents. They have also a very good store house, very commodi- 1 

ous for the storing of any sort of merchant's goods, free from | 
any charges, where good care will be taken of all sorts of goods, 
by Solomon Smith and James Moon." 

Now we have a definite proposal, but still contingent on the 

demand. This New York-Amboy-Burlington-Philadelphia j 

route is in opposition to the Philadelphia-Trenton route, and | 

from now on added attractions by one route are met by similar j 

efforts on the other. In 1738 a stage wagon to connect up the I 

water sections at each end is advertised in the "Mercury" 'Jan. | 
31-Feb. 7, 1 737-3S: 

"To accommodate the Public. There will be a stage waggon \ 
set out from Trenton to Brunswick twice a week and back again \ 
during next summer. It will be fitted up with benches and 
covered over so that passengers may sit easy and dry. and care 
will be taken to deliver goods and messages safe. Note : The 
waggon will set out for the first time from Wm. Atlee's and 
Thomas Hooton's in Trenton" [Thomas Hooton lived at Tren- 
ton Ferry] "on Monday, the 27tli March next, and continue 
going every ]\Ionday and Thursday from Trenton, and return 
from Brunswick every Tuesday and Friday." 

r Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century loi 

. The water ride to Trenton, stage to Brunswick, and water 

;- again to New York, make now two opposition routes from New 

V York to Philadelphia. Water accidents were not rare. We 

I read : 

^ "Nov. 26, 1729, Perth Amboy. Last Saturday our ferry 

I boat, coming over from the other side with seven men and 

i seven horses, a gust of wind arose and overset the boat, by 

[' means whereof two men and two horses were drowned. The 

\ rest were saved." 

I Again : 

? "Philadelphia. Oct. 21, 1731. On Tuesday last one Samuel 

; Crosley, a baker, going from this city to Burlington in a pas- 
■ sage boat, fell overboard near Pennypack and was drowned. 
His body is not yet found." 

And again on another date : 

"Three persons were drowned by the upsetting of a wherry 
from Burlington hither" [to Philadelphia] ; "five other persons 
in it were saved." 

The stage wagon of 1738, Trenton to Brunswick, was not a 
success and was discontinued in 1739. as appears from a notice 
in the "Penna. Gazette" of Apr. 10, 1740. William Atlee had 
associated himself with Joseph Yeates and gave notice : 

"W'hereas there was a stage waggon went twice a week from 
Trenton to Brunswick and back again in the summer season, 
1738, the conveniency of which, from its certainty and cheap- 
ness, and the inconveniences people labour'd under from being 
detain'd and paying extravagant rates, has induced several peo- 
ple to apply to the owners promising their assistance and en- 
couragement : This is to give notice that the stage waggon will 
be continued and go twice a week certain, from Trenton ferry 
every Monday and Thursday, and from Brunswick Ijack again 
every Tuesday and Friday during this simimer. The waggon 
will be covered over so that passengers may sit easy and dry, 
and care will be taken to deliver goods and messages safe. To 
encourage people to travel and send goods by the said waggon 
the following low prices are fixed : l-lvery passenger, 2s. 6d. 
IMerchant goods, 2s. per C. Household goods, boxes, etc., at 
the cheapest rates. Perform'd by William Atlce and Joseph 
Yeates. Note. — The waggon will set out Monday, the 21st of 
this instant April, from the ferry at Trenton." 

102 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

The Amboy ferry and Burlington route of 1733, by Smith and 
Moon, is not again mentioned, but Joseph Borden, the energetic 
promoter of "Borden's-Town" in 1740 gives notice that — 

"On the first day of May next, will be ready and well fixed 
a stage wagon to carry passengers or goods between Perth- 
Amboy and Borden's-Town, which will attend at Amboy ferry 
on every Tuesday and Borden's-Town every Thursday, on 
which days all persons intending to transport themselves or 
goods may be carried from either of said places to the other 
for four shillings a passenger, and all goods at reasonable rates. 
Security is given by the wagoner for the safe conveying all 
goods delivered into his charge. All persons having goods to 
transport, as aforesaid, may send them to Joseph Borden at 
Borden's-Town, or Pontius Stellc at Amboy, who will take 
proper care that they shall be sent according to order." 


Joseph Borden also established stage boats to Philadelphia 
from Borden's-Town to head off his growing rival, Trenton. 

The next year (June, 1741) William Meghee advertises a 
stage by the Amboy-Borden's-Town route, probably a weak op- 
position. He gives notice that he will "attend on Monday every 
week excepting the winter season," and "will go twice a week 
when there is occasion, if the passengers will pay what is rea- 
sonable in that case." We hear no more of Meghee. Borden 
and Stelle had a supplementary notice in 1740 to get the Bur- 
lington trade also, viz., that — 

"Their stage wagon will attend at Perth Amboy ferry every 
Tuesday and at Burlington every Thursday, they being the two 
most convenient places for a speedy transportation of any yet 
practised from New York to Philadelphia. Said wagon will 
go the old post road from Amboy as far as Crosswicks Bridge, 
and, if lading presents, will go with it to Burlington ; or it may 
be carried at a small expense from Bordenstown to Burlington 
or Philadelphia by water in a few hours' time. Passengers will 
be carried . . . for four shillings." 

This advertisement was also printed in Dutch. 

The next notice, June 7, 1744, is of the Trenton-Brunswick 
route, hitherto run from the Trenton end by Atlee-Hooten and 
Atlee-Yeates. Now it is a Brunswick man, William Willson, 
who heads the venture, and the start is from Brunswick, and — 

I Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 103 

"Goes certainly twice a week on the following days : from 
Brunswick every Monday and Thursday, and from Trenton 
every Tuesday and Friday, in which waggon passengers and 
I goods may be carried safe and dry. All persons sending goods 
\ from Philadelphia are desired to direct them to the care of 
\ Thomas Hutton in Trenton, and those from New York to Wil- 
1 liara Willson in New Brunswick, where care will be taken to 
f forward them speedily and in good order." 


i This is the first notice by this route that considers through 

I business between New York and Philadelphia. 

i The vrater portions of both routes were subject to many acci- 

I dents. On April 29, 1742, we read : 

I "A boat with passengers in her passage from New York to 

[Brunswick] was overset and the daughter of one Solemn was 
drowned. The rest of the passengers were taken up by another 
boat then in company." 

And the next year it is stated that a boat between Philadelphia 
and Burlington, a shallop, in which were seven passengers, was 
overset by a violent gale of wind, and four of them were drovrn- 
ed before assistance could come. On Aug. 19, 1745, a boat 
from New York to Brunswick, Mr. Brooks boatman, took in 
seventeen passengers, and tliree women and three children were 
drowned by being overset. 
i The next notice (1750) is of the Bordenstown and Amboy 

! route in the "New York Gazette and \\'eckly Post Boy" by 
Daniel O'Brien : 

"This is to give notice to all gentlemen and ladies that have 
occasion to transport either themselves, goods, wares or mer- 
chandise from New York to Philadelphia, that by the subscriber 
there is now a stage boat well fitted for that purpose kept, and, 
if wind and weather permit, shall attend at the late Col. Aloore's 
wharf in New York every Wednesday in every week (and at 
other times if occasion), and to proceed to the ferry at xA.mboy 
on Thursday, where on Friday morning a stage waggon well 
fitted will be ready to receive them, and immediately proceed 
to Borden's-Town, where there is another stage boat ready to 
receive them and proceed directly to Philadelphia. All people 
may depend on the best usage, and all passengers antl mer- 
chandise shall be transported at the same rates as are customary 
from New Brunswick to Trenton. And as the passages by 
water are much shorter and easier performed than the Bruns- 

I04 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

wick way, and the roads generally drier, it is hoped that this 
way will be found the most deserving of encouragement." 

Here we have the first distinct recognition of the two routes 
and a strong bid for patronage by the Amboy one ; and the 
claims are all well made, for the water route to New Brunswick 
must pass right by the Amboy Ferry and then come all the 
way up the River to New Brimswick, while the water route 
from Trenton is a little longer than from Bordentown. We 
also have here the first notice of an effort to connect up the 
various links of the route and convey the passengers all the 
way through under one management. 

The next notice, in the "Pennsylvania Gazette," May 14, 
1752, is that by Joseph Borden, Jr., and others : 

"There is a stage boat well fitted and kept for that purpose, 
and, if wind and weather permit, will attend at the Crooked 
Billet Wharf in Philadelphia every Tuesday in every week, 
and proceed up to Bordentown on Wednesday, and on Thurs- 
day morning a stage wagon with a good awning, kept by Joseph 
Richards, will be ready to receive them and proceed directly to 
John Cluck's" [the old Redford Ferry of 1684] "opposite the 
City of Perth Amboy, who keeps a house of good entertainment, 
and on Friday morning a stage boat well fitted and kept by 
Daniel Obryant will be ready to receive them and proceed di- 
rectly to New York, and give her attendance at the White Hall 
Slip, near the Half IVIoon Battery. If people be ready at the 
stage days and places, 'tis believed they may pass the quickest 
(30 or 40 hours), the cheapest and safest way that has yet been 
made use of. . . . All passengers or goods that shall come 
to Bordentown on Sunday or >\Ionday in ever\^ or any week 
by any Trenton shallops. White Hill shallop, or Bordentown 
shallops or boats, or in any other whatsoever, whose wagon 
hire shall amount to i6s. or upwards, shall upon first notice 
have a wagon and be transported to the above John Cluck's, 
opposite Amboy, where if the stage boat is not ready to receive 
them (but 'tis intended she shall), it must be allowed they have 
the greatest chance for despatch of any other place whatsoever. 
For all the Brunswick, the place above Brunswick called the 
Landing, and all the river boats must pass that place in whom 
people may have passage." 

Attendance was to be at the Crooked Billet Wharf, Phila- 
delphia every Friday and Saturday, to proceed to Bordentown 

I Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 105 

on Sunday, and on Monday the stage wagon would set out for 

Amboy. The "30 or 40 hours" evidently refers to actual time 

of travel, and does not include the layovers at the taverns, as 

the actual time of arrival and departure covers three days and 

seventy-two hours. 

jt They seem to have taken turns in advertising O'Brien, the 

f New York end, Richards, the stage section, and Jan. 2, 1753, 

i Joseph Borden, Jr., and Nicholas George, "Master," the Phila- 

f delphia end, when it is stated that "'tis believed they" [the 

I people] "may pass the quickest by 24 hours than any other way, 

f as our land carriage is only 10 miles shorter than by the way of 

f Burlington," and "our waggon does not fail to go through in a 

J day ;" to which an appended note adds : 


J "Joseph Borden's shallop, Charles Yandike Master, will also 

I be at Philadelphia every P>iday and Saturday in every week. 

I Enquire for him at the Queen's Head. He proceeds up to 

j Bordentown on Sunday, and the stage waggon also proceeds 

j to Amboy every Monday in every week." 

} In June, 1753, we have another step forward : 

"Abraham Webb, being provided with a boat exceeding well 
) fitted with a very handsome cabbin and all necessary accommo- 

dations, proposes to give his attendance at the White Hall Slip 
I every Monday and Thursday, and the same day, wind and 

j weather permitting, to proceed from Amboy Ferry to John 

I Cluck's, where a wagon, kept by John Richards, will be ready 

I .... to proceed with them to Borden's-Town, where a stage 

I boat will be ready to carry them to Philadelphia." 

[ We now hear again from the Trenton and Brunswick route. 

Andrew Ramsey, an innholder of New York, received a lease 
Sept. 26, 1750, of the Brooklyn ferry for the term of two years 
and six months for £455. He was bound to keep one or more 
scows and one or more boats for the transportation of cattle, 
one of which was to be always in readiness on the New York 
side of the river at Wall street. His lease having expired in 
1753. ^''^ gives notice to all travelers between New York and 
Philadelphia : 

"That the Trenton ferry is now revived by Andrew Ramsey, 
late of Long Island Ferry, where all travellers who arc pleased 

io6 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society | 

to put up at his house may depend on having good entertain- \ 
ment for themselves and horses. Said Ramsey is providing a 1 
stage waggon to go from Brunswick to Trenton, and a stage sj 

boat from Trenton to Philadelphia. . . . Notice will be given 
what days in the week the boat and waggon will proceed from 
stage to stage." 

With the revival of the Trenton route the Burlington route 
is also revived and the Bordentown line has now two competi- 
tors, and the rivalry becomes active. The same year (1753) \ 
'James Wells and John Weggery with a commodious stage boat i 
will attend at the Crooked Billet Wharf twice a week and Wed- | 
nesday proceed to the house of Jonathan Thomas in Burlington, 1 
who keeps a good stage wagon ready, which on Thursday will j 
proceed to Perth Amboy ferry, where a good house of enter- ] 
tainment is kept by Daniel Obryant, where a commodious stage 
boat on Friday morning will proceed directly to New York to 
the White Hall slip, at the house of Scotch John, returning 
Saturday. Monday, the stage kept by John Prigmore will set 
out for Burlington, where Wells and Weggery will complete 
the trip to Philadelphia Monday.' 

Although the owners of the Bordentown stages have been 
pleased by way of hyperbole to advertise the aforesaid passage 
by 24 hours sooner than any other stage, they omitted to inform 
the public, as Wells and Weggery do, that — 

"Their stage boat from Philadelphia to 'Borden's Town' is 
frequently three tides upon the water, or the greatest part there- 
of, two tides of flood and one of ebb. during which time the 
Burlington stage is capable of landing her passengers at Perth 
Amboy, and upon cases of emergency, is capable of performing 
the whole stage from Philadelphia to New York in the space of 
24 hours. And as an undertaking of this kind tends to the gen- 
eral good of mankind, in increasing and facilitating trade and 
commerce between the two places, besides many other advan- 
tages to the subject, we hope that those gentlemen who have 
occasion to transport themselves or goods from either of the 
places aforesaid to the other, will encourage so public a good," 

The foregoing notice is signed by "Jonathan Thomas, John 

Prigmore, James Wells, John Weggery and Daniel O'Bryant." 

There seems yet to have been room for more stage boats, 

Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 107 

for, on Aug. 30, 1753, Patrick Cowan, Master of two commodi- 
ous stage boats, will attend at the Crooked Billet Wharf and 
connect with Jonathan Thomas at Burlington. And, Sept. 30, 
1753, "John Predmore (?) and Daniel O'Bryan" give notice 
that the stage from Perth Amboy will change horses and driv- 
ers at the house of John Predmore in Cranbury and proceed to 

; Burlington the same day. (Here we get the first mention of a 

^ relay of horses). 

) On April 11, 1754, the Bordentown Line retorts : 

i "Our adversaries have been pleased to advertise that they can 

give people greater dispatch than we can, so that we appeal to 
fact : As we were the promoters of this scheme, as yet of no 
:^ advantage to any but the public, and take pay for 13 miles less 

• land carriage than the Burlington people do, we hope all well- 

j minded people will lay their commands upon their humble ser- 

1 vants, Joseph Borden, Jr., Joseph Richards, James Wells." 

.' It took the Burlington people a year to reply. On April 17, 

I 1755, they say: 

I "The owners of the Bordentown stage, in their last advertise- 

ment, unkindly call us their adversaries, and in a manner, too, 
that seems as if they were angry, but for no other reason that 
we know of tlian a dislike to the increase of our business. In 
return, without calling names (a practise unbecoming for the 
advertisers, pro bona publica), we assure them v/e intend to im- 
prove the natural advantages of our situation to such general 
satisfaction as neither to be thought adversaries ourselves, nor 
to harbour such an ill opinion of our neighbors; so we remain 
the public's friends, Jonathan Thomas, Joseph Hancock." 

These advertisements are curiosities, and we hear but little 
further from these two routes ; new and more expeditious 
routes apparently crowded them out. That the roads were still 
rough and the water routes still dangerous these few notices 
show : 

Aug. 12, 1751. "We hear from Elizabeth-Town that two 
women have been kill'd within these few weeks past near that 
place by falling out of riding chairs" [high two-wheeled ve- 
hicles, much lil<e that used today for tandem driving]. 

Jan. 9, 1753. "On Christmas day, as three persons were 
attempting to cross Raritan in a canoe, they were overset by 
the ice and two of them drowned." 

io8 Proceedings Ncru Jersey Historical Society 

June 10, 1754. "A Brunswick boat, in coming across our 
[New York] bay at the time the squall happened, was overset 
thereby, and five out of 18 passengers in her drowned in the 
cabin, entirely owing to the obstinacy (or rather unskilfulness) 
of the boatman." 

We now have notice of a new stage line and route. Hitherto 
the stages have started from Trenton, Burlington and Borden- 
town : 

"Notice is hereby given that we, the subscribers, John Butler, 
of Philadelphia, at the sign of the Death of the Fox in Straw- 
berry Alley, begins his stage on Tuesday, the 9th. of this instant 
November, from his House, and will proceed with his waggon 
to the House of Nathaniel Parker at Trenton ferry; and from 
thence .... over the ferry to the house kept by George 
Moschel where Francis Holman will meet the above John But- 
ler and exchange their passengers, etc., and then proceed on 
Wednesday through Princetown and New Brunswick to the 
house of Obadiah Airies in Perth Amboy, where will be a good 
boat with all conveniences necessary, kept by John Thompson 
and William Waller . . . ., who will proceed on Thursday 
morning without delay for New York and there land at White- 
hall, where the said Waller and Thompson will give attention at 
the House of Abraham Bockeys until Monday morning follow- 
ing, and then will return," etc. Signed by John Butler, Francis 
Holman, John Thompson and William Waller. 

The above route extended the land route to Perth Amboy. 
The Bordentown line, to meet this, gives notice, Jan. 4, 1757: 

"Whereas the subscriber hath been instrumental of propagat- 
ing a stage between Philadelphia and New York, and by ex- 
perience finding some difticulty sometimes to pass by water from 
Amboy ferry to New York : Notice is hereby given that a 
stage waggon is erected, to proceed from Air. Isaac Bote's, 
opposite to Perth Amboy, on Alonday, the 17th. instant, Jan- 
uary, and to pass through Staten Island, load or no load, to 
Mr. John Watson's" [Elizabcthtown Point Ferry], "Airs. 
Dacket's, and Air. Vantile's" [Bergen Point ferry], "and on 
Tuesday proceed back to the aforesaid Dote's, and so in like 
manner every day in the week, where due attendance will be 
given by me. Joseph Richards. N. B. — To hinder dispiues or 
resentments that may arise hereafter, I have thought fit to in- 
form the public of my price and custom : Each passenger to 
pay 3s. before they proceed on their journey and proportion for 
other things (except letters, which are to be carried gratis)." 

Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 109 

This was to go to a New York and Staten Island ferry, evi- 
dently at Vantile's, though the notice fails to state that fact/ 

John Butler promptly meets the change by a rearrangement of 
his own route and Francis Holman, instead of proceeding Wed- 
nesday to Amboy proceeded to Brunswick only, where Isaac 
Fitz Randolph met him and took his passengers to the New 
Blazing Star, Jacob Fitz Randolph's, where Ruben Fitz Ran- 
dolph with a boat well-fitted would receive them and take them 
to New York that night, cutting about ten miles out of the 
water carriage and avoiding the lower Bay, and by the night 
ride saving a day. 

In 1759 we find a new stage line opened through an entirely 

I *Staten Island abounded in ferries. Its geographical position made 

I it a desirable link in the New York-Philadelphia stage route, saving a 

I considerable detour, if the Newark route is considered ; and the routes 

* across the Island were many. One could cross at Amboy to Isaac 

* Dole's as per the advertisement just read, stopping at the Blazing Star 
I ferries and at the Elizabethtown Point ferries (two each) to pick up 
I passengers and continuing to the Bergen Point ferry, and on still 
i further to the New Brighton ferries (again two). The stages crossed 
j at the Blazing Star or Elizabethtown Point ferries and crossed back 
I again at Bergen Point ferry. If one began at the southwest end of the 
I Island opposite Amboy for the first, or Billop's, ferry, then came the 

Old Blazing Star ferry at Sewaren ; next the New Blazing Star Ferry, 
now Linoleumville, proprietored by Jacob Fitz Randolph in 1757 and 
Joshua Alersereau in 1774. There were also the two Elizabethtown 
Point ferries, John Watson's noted ferry in 1764, William Douglas in 
1769. About 400 yards below was Simonson's, 1769; then Jesse John- 
son's. Then, coming to Joseph Carson's, 1753 (probably the first New 
York ferry, as Booth in his "History" says the first ferry to Staten 
Island was in 1754. while the "Alemorial History of New York" says 
1755, but certainly not the first to Staten Island, as Billop's and the Old 
Blazing Star must have been older), John Beck in 1764 operating it, 
though owned and offered for sale in that year by Abraham Vantile and 
John Alersereau. This was the Bergen Point and sixth ferry. Then 
came John Ryer's ferry, not certainly located, to New York from what 
is now, I believe. New Brightc^i, in 1769, and adjoining it was Hilli- 
ken's ferry. These were oppositions, Ryers charging 25c and Flilli- 
kens 18c. David Mersereau bought both out and combined them. Here 
appears the third Mersereau owning and operating ferries, and. as they 
were sons of Joshua and Maria Corson Mersereau, and Joseph Corson 
has the first ferry on record, they nearly controlled the ferries on tiie 
Island. Isaac Decker in 1774 maintains his ferry is but one to two 
hours from New York, and that it is ten or twelve miles shorter to 
Philadelphia then by Powles' Hook. He was operating in opposition 
to Mersereau and the Powles' Hook and Bergen Point route. Otto 
Vaa Tuyl otTcrs what seems to be this ferry for sale in 1774, noting 
it "h.'.s long been a ferry." One more ferry was that at the Narrows 
to L;r'<oklyn. Among the early ferrymen was Cornelius Vanderbilt, but 
later than the period we are considering; about 1810 he sailed his pas- 

no Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

different territory, more for the convenience of Mount Holly, 
Middletown and Shrewsbury than for passengers to New- 

"Notice is hereby given to the public that we the subscribers 
have erected a stage waggon to transport passengers, etc., from 
Mr. Daniel Cooper's ferry, opposite the City of Philadelphia, 
to Mount Holly, from thence through the county of Monmouth 
to Middletown, and from thence to the Bay near Sandy Hook" 
(probably at Middletown Point or Middletown Harbor where 
there used to be a ferry to Long Island. William Edmond- 
son the Quaker preacher crossed New Jersey about this route 
in 1672) "where a boat is to attend to convey passengers, etc., 
to the City of New York." 

This was probably a five or six day trip. The Coopers were 
a ferrying family and this Cooper's ferry to Philadelphia was 
maintained for many years by members of the Cooper family. 
And the well-known Daniel Cooper of Somerset county, who 
died in 1799, aged 100, said that, when a boy, he and his sister 
rowed passengers over the ferry at Brunswick ; this must have 
been about 1710, or a little later. 

On Oct. 14, 1762, Joseph Borden, Jr.. gave notice that the 
magistrates of Philadelphia having forbidden his boats sailing 
upon the Sabbath, it put him under the necessity of changing his 
stage days, and hereafter the boats would sail Monday and 
Thursday. Here we have an instance of the enforcement of 
the "blue laws." It is to be noted, also, that in 1762 the Bur- 
lington stage was nmning as usual, the last we hear of this line 
for ten years. 

On Aug. iS, 1763, Jonathan Biles, living in 3rd street, a 
few doors above Race in Philadelphia, announced he had pro- 
vided a stage wagon to go to Trenton ferry on Monday, Tues- 
day, Thursday and Friday, "where other stage waggons will 
carry to Brunswick and from there to Elizabethtown or Amboy 
as passengers may choose." He seems to have succeeded John 
Butler, who, by the next notice, has joined with John Bucking- 
ham. The latter, in June, 1764. gives notice that he will drive 
a stage to Bordcntown from 3rd and Race streets to proceed to 
Dunks Ferry (a new ferry on the Delaware) where John 
Butler would meet and exchange loads and proceed to Borden- 

Travel Across Nezv Jersey in Eighteenth Century ill 

town every Wednesday and Saturday, and so cutting out the 
boat ride to Bordentown. Biles, above named, soon tired of 
his venture, and in June, 1764, sold his stages to John Barn- 
hill, who continued the line, but starting from his house, the 
"Golden Ball" in Elm street, near Vine, 

Now we find the monotony of these notices changed by an 
entirely new route. 

On Oct. I, 1764, "Sovereign Sybrandt .... sets out 
from Philadelphia on Mondays and runs from thence to Tren- 
ton, from Trenton to Brunswick, from Brunswick to said Sy- 
brandt's House" [known by the sign of the Roebuck, two miles 
and a-half of Elizabethtown] "and from said Sybrandt's house 
by the new and lately established post road (on Bergen, which 
is now generally resorted to by the populace, who prefer a pas- 
sage by said place before the danger of crossing the Bay) to 
Powles' Hook, opposite to New York where it discharges the 
passengers ; from which last place it returns on Wednesdays 
and is in Philadelphia the Friday following. Each single per- 
son only paying at the rate of two pence half -penny per mile 
from said Powles' Hook to said Sybrandt's House (as it's the 
longest stage and is obliged to return back the same day it ar- 
rives at said Powles' Hook), and at the rate of two pence for 
every mile after." 

We now have an all-land route, excepting for the ferries, in 
three days. 

There had been, without doubt, a road from Newark to 
Bergen and to Powles' Hook from an early date, though not 
such a road as would accommodate stage travel. But on the 
completion of the post road and the establishment of the ferry 
in 1764 (opened June 18 by Abraham Mesier of the New York 
side, first at foot of Grand St., then foot of Thomas St., and 
then foot of Cortland St., as I have found by different authori- 
ties, probably at different dates at each of them, and by Michael 
Cornelisse, who built a tavern on Powles' Hook and operated 
the ferry under a lease from Cornelius Van \'orst, who owned 
all of Powles' Hook and continued to do so until 1800). Van 
Vorst improved the road from the ferry to Bergen Point Ferry, 
corduroy for the swamj)y portions, and so opened a new route 
across Staten Island, and by the Blazing Star Ferry, near 
Woodbridge, back to the main land. And John Mersereau was 

112 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

not slow in taking advantage of it, for early in 1765 he gives 
notice : 

"That his waggon sets off from Powles' Hook every Wed- 
nesday and Saturday morning between 7 and 8 o'clock ; is met 
at the Blazing Star at 12 the same days by William Richard's 
waggon, which proceeds immediately to New Brunswick. From 
Brunswick John Downey's waggon proceeds to Trenton on 
every Monday and Thursday mornings, between 7 and 8 
o'clock ; from Trenton Mr. John Barnhill's waggon proceeds to 
Philadelphia on every Tuesday and Friday." 

This trip is made in three days at the farthest. Fare 4s. 
per stage, or 12s. New York to Philadelphia. 

There were five ferries on this route : Trenton, Brunswick, 
Blazing Star, Bergen Point and Powles' Hook, and five on the 
new post road route : Trenton, Brunswick, Passaic, Hacken- 
sack and Powles' Hook, which, now that the delays and dangers 
of the water portions have been eliminated, are referred to as 
an unmitigated nuisance. Sybrandt had to ferry his wagon 
over all four ferries, while by IMersereau's route and wagon 
from ferry to ferry he only transfers the passengers at Blazing- 
Star, Brunswick and Trenton, which was much simpler than 
taking over the horses and stage. - 

We find records of stage accidents from time to time. A 
New York item of Aug. 15, 1765, says: 

"On Tuesday the week before last, one of the Bordentown 
stage waggoners, named Bliss, on returning home from Amboy 
ferry, endeavored to get before one of the other waggons, and. 
turning out of the road for that purpose, run against a small 
stump, by which he was flung out of the waggon, and the wheel, 
going over his head, crush'd it, instantly, and kill'd him, with- 
out his speaking a word." 

'The water danger was still to be reckoned with, notwithstanding 
that John Beck, ferryman at Bergen Point ferry, in 1764 gives notice 
that there was a fine road to Powles' Hook, so that a short, safe and 
convenient way is fixed by means of these two ferries for all travelers 
passing from Xew York to any of the southern governments. We have 
a news article regarding this ferry in 17o7. The stage, in which some 
of the passengers had remained seated, while crossing in the scow, was 
overturned into the water and Mrs. Morris and her maid were drowned. 
Mrs. Morris was an actress, and her husband was then playing King 
Henry in "Richard the Third" in the old playhouse in John street, 
New York. 

Travel Across Nezv Jersey in Eighteenth Century 113 

The next effort is to shorten the journey to two days. On 
Feb. 13, 1766, John Barnhill and John Masherew [Mersereau] 
gave notice to tlie public — 

"That the stage waggon kept by John Barnhill in Elm St., 
near Vine St., Philadelphia, and John IMasherew at the Blazing 
Star, New York, intend to perform the journey from Phila- 
delphia to New York in two days, and from there to Philadel- 
phia in two days also, commencing the 14th day of April, next, 
- and to continue seven months, viz., to the 14th of November." 

This was over roads that Franklin, in 1768, says were seldom 
passable without danger and difficulty. The wagon seats vrere 
I to be set on springs, and the notice continues : 

I "They purpose to set out from Philadelphia and New York 

j on Mondays and Thursdays, as they now do, punctually at sun- 

;; rise, and change their passengers at Princetown and return to 

I Philadelphia and New York the following days." 

The price was to be los. to Princeton, and los. to Powles' 
Hook with ferriage free, and 3d. each mile any distance be- 
tween. This also brought Princeton into prominence as the 
half-way house. The stages in this advertisement are desig- 
nated "flying machines." 

The New York "Post Boy" of May 9, 1768, calls attention 
to the fact that, with two wagons and four sets of horses, per- 
sons might then go from New York to Philadelphia and back 
in five days, and remain two nights and one day in Philadelphia. 
The stage wagon would put up at the Hudibras Tavern in 
Princeton, kept by Jacob Hyer. And the "Post Boy" of June 
20, 176S, gave notice that there "is a ferry now at Hackensack 
River on the Powles' Hook route," which would indicate that 
it had been discontinued since Sybrandt used it in 1764, the 
stages going by Bergen Point. 

We now have still another new route, in an effort to reduce 
the number of ferries. A lengthy notice of Sept. 25, 1769, 
signed by Joseph Crane and Josiah F. Davenport, gives a route 
over the Old York road, "through the finest, most pleasant and 
best inhabited part of New Jersey," viz., by way of Powles' 
Hook, Newark, Elizabeth Town, Bound Brook, and so on to 
Ringocs, Lambertville and Philadelphia, where the end of the 

114 Proceedings Nczv Jersey Historical Society 

line was at the "Sign of the Bunch of Grapes" in Third street. 
The exchange of passengers was at Obacliah Taylor's at "the 
South Branch of Raritan." 

By a notice of April 21, 1770, we learn that the Burlington 
and Amboy stage has been dropped for some time past, but 
Joseph Haight revives it for the convenience of people who 
want to go that route ; but it is a three-day trip against two by 
the all-land route, and with the uncertainties of the water sec- 

On May 28, 1770, Abraham Skillman gives notice that he 
will take passengers through to Philadelphia, via Powles' Hook, 
Newark, Elizabeth Town, Woodbridge, Brunswick, Prince- 
town, Trenton and Bristol, in two days for 20s. or 3d. per mile 
to any distance. He will keep two sets of horses but will drive 
the same wagon through himself. He limits his load to eight 

On Jan. 14, 1771, J. Mercereau (so spelled) and J. Barnhill 
again remind the public that they continue to run their stages. 
Now competition really becomes keen. Abraham Skillman, 
though only one year in the business, dubs his stage a "Flying 
Machine," and gives notice that it will leave Powles' Hook Tues- 
day morning and be in Philadelphia Wednesday at 12 noon, 
starting at 5 :oo A. M. and making the trip in one day and a 
half. John ]\Iercereau follows Skillman and gives notice that 
his "Flying Machine" will also perform the journey in a day 
and a half, and make three trips a week in summer and two 
trips a week in winter. This is the quickest time made as yet 
and will not be equalled for many years to come. 

On July 23, 1772, a Philadelphia stage coach, from the "In- 
dian Queen," by way of Bristol, Trenton, Brunswick, Eliza- 
beth and Newark (fare 30s.) will leave each Friday and go 
through in two days, with four good horses, and will accom- 
modate eight passengers. This notice is by Joseph Hart. Here 
we have the use of the word "coach" for the first time; it 
has been "waggon," "stage waggon," "stage," "flying machine," 
and now "coach." This is a revival of the Newark and post 
road route. The Bordentown and Burlington stage to South 
Amboy is continued (Dec. 2, 1772) and advertised by Joseph 

Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 115 

Borden and Joseph Folwell; these two old competitors seem 
to have combined. The fare is 5s. between Amboy and Bor- 
dentown, and 6s. to BurHngton. They were still running in 
1773, as there is a note of stages passing through Cranbury 
that year. 

The Philadelphia and New York state coaches from "Indian 
Queen" begin Apr. 13, 1773, and exchange at Princeton, mak- 
ing the trip in two days ; fare $4.00 ; but instead of Joseph Hart 
they are now operated by Charles "Bessnot" & Co. In Jan., 1774, 
Joseph Hart is again operating this line on the same schedule ; 
baggage now limited to 14 lbs. In June, 1774, John Mercereau 
has dropped back to two days, starting now from the Cross 
Keys, Philadelphia, and exchanging at Princeton. The day and 
a half was too much for him. But Abraham Skillman con- 
'; tinued the day and a half schedule, leaving now Arch and 

^ Second Sts. and going by Newark, as before. 

^ In Sept., 1774, the Philadelphia and New York stage wagon 

\ from Cross Keys, Philadelphia, exchanges at Princeton; fare 

I 20s. ; trip two days ; and is again advertised by Charles Besso- 

} nett. Apparently the "Bessonett & Co." is composed of Besso- 

j nett & Hart. 

j In 1775 ^ change of stages at the Hackensack ferry was 

i made to save the delay in ferrying. 

I We are now at the end of the pre-Revolutionary stage coach 

i days. The war is upon us. There is but one more notice of a 

I through stage, on July 9, 1776, to the effect that the Borden- 

I town stage boat will leave Sundays only ; passengers to be con- 

veyed to Powles' Hook, "the usual route being interrupted by 
the enemy's fleet." This is from the Philadelphia "Evening 
Post," July II, 1776. 

In March 31, 1777, there is this notice of a ferry between 
New York and Amboy, under the auspices of the British : 

"The Subscriber, having permission from their Excellencies, 
the Commanders-in-Chief, to establish a stage boat from this 
city" [New York] "to Perth Aml)oy, has engaged for that 
purpose a very commodious vessel and proposes "^sailing from 
New York every Monday and Thursday." 

ii6 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

It is signed by William Demayne, and the rate for each pas- 
senger is 3s. That there was an effort, however, on the part 
of others to keep communications and a semblance of transpor- 
tation open through New Jersey the following abstracts of 
notices indicate : 

Dec, 177S. The Bordentown stage from Crooked Billet 
Wharf to go on Saturday or Sunday, wagon to Brunswick 
Monday, to Elizabeth Tuesday and return to Brunswick same 
day. This by Joseph Borden, who repeats this notice in 17S0. 

Feb. 15, 1779. To go from Burlington to Brunswick; from 
Crooked Billet Wharf in Philadelphia Wednesday, and Thurs- 
day to Brunswick. This by John Willis. (Back to boat and 
stage once more). 

June 6, 1780. Stage wagon to go from New Brunswick; 
ferry to Elizabeth every Tuesday. This by W^illiam Rider. 

Sept. 6, 1780. Stage wagon by John DeGrove, innholder and 
ferry keeper, on "this side Raritan River in New Brunswick," 
to go to Elizabeth every Tuesday. Also horses, or a horse and 
chair to be hired. 

Sept. 2y, 1780. Stage wagon from Cross Keys Tavern, 3rd 
and Chestnut, Philadelphia, to Trenton, on Tuesdays, and re- 
turn Wednesdays. This by Jonathan Scholfield. 

Oct. 20, 1780. Elizabethtown stage from Cross Keys, Phila- 
delphia, Wednesdays and Saturdays at 10, proceeding to Prince- 
ton, to meet stages from Elizabethtown engaged to be there 
on Thursday at noon. The route is from Cross Keys to Four 
Lanes End (now Langhorne), Wednesday; Thursday to Tren- 
ton, to house of J. G. Bergen for breakfast ; thence to Princeton 
to Col. Jacob Hyers, and return to Trenton same evening ; Fri- 
day by Four Lanes End to Philadelphia. Fare, two silver dol- 
lars. This by Gershom Johnson. 

Apr. 30, 1781. Elizabethtown stage wagon, with four horses, 
to change every 20 miles, Monday and Thursday; to breakfast 
at Four Lanes End (now Langhorne) and shift horses; cross 
new ferry at Trenton and drive to Bergen's at Princeton; 
shift horses and lodge in Brunswick; next day to Elizabethtown 
at 10 A. M., at Dr. Winant's Tavern. This by George Johnson 
and James Drake. Here we have an attempt to revive the 

Travel Across New Jersey in Eighteenth Century 117 

regular and scheduled routes of pre-war days, making Phila- 
delphia to Elizabeth in less than a day and a half. 

May, 1781. The so-called Trenton and Elizabeth stage by 
Young and Grummond. Really a Philadelphia and New York 
line operated as far as the war would permit. 

August, 1 781. Johnson and Twinning will take the Phila- 
delphia end to Princeton, and Grummond & Drake the Eliza- 
beth end, a two-day run. 

April, 1782. Johnson & Grummond now run this line via 
Bristol ; dine at Princeton ; Brunswick that night ; Elizabeth- 
town next day. Fare 35s. 

1783. "Through travel to New York" resumed by Aaron 
Longstreet & Co. by the Communipaw ferry. They make it 
known that a boat is in constant attendance at the ferry stairs 
to bring passengers to Communipaw, where the Newark stage 
would be ready to carry them to Newark, and there, "by the 
excellent New York and Philadelphia running machine," in one 
day to Philadelphia. 

In 1786 this route was superceded by the Powles' Hook ferry 
route, as the ferry stairs in New York was being repaired. 

1793. Charles William Jansen made the trip from New 
York to Philadelphia, crossing at Powles' Hook ferry to "Paulus 
Hook ;" then the stages had the horses hitched to them and 
were all ready to leave, the stages being literally a kind of light 
wagon holding 12 (three on a seat), but only the rear seat with 
anything to rest the back against ; to arrive at Trenton, 66 miles, 
late in the day, and leaving at 6 next morning, arriving in Phila- 
delphia at 2 in the afternoon. 

There is a dearth of information in books of history and 
travel, etc., as to means of travel between New York and Phila- 
delphia after this period. We know that stages called at the 
Indian Queen Tavern at New Brunswick in 1797, and there 
were one or more stages running from Newark to Powles' 
Hook in 1799 and in 1800. Tuttle's Newark and "Paulus Hook" 
Federal stage commenced running July 21, 1799, New York to 
Philadelphia, arriving at the latter place the fourth day. 

The enterprises and rivalry that brought about the day-and- 
a-half trip had now disappeared, but with the new century came 

ii8 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

in a great impetus and improvement in travel. First the turn- 
pikes : Trenton & New Brunswick in 1804; Jersey City to 
Hackensack in 1804; New Brunswick to Newark in 1806; to 
Bordentown and Burlington in 1806. Then followed closely 
by the steamboats; the "Phcenix" to New Brunswick in 1807. 
And that was only a little ahead of the railroad. 

Powles' Hook, or "Jersey," as it was called at one time, 
deserves here a few words. By 1804 upwards of 20 stages a 
day arrived at and departed from there, and the future of the 
place began to be seen. In 1S05 the rent of the ferry to Major 
David Hunt, who operated it, was $1,500 annually, and Anthony 
Dey, acting for his associates, Mr. Varick and Mr. Radclifif, 
purchased the Hook from Van Vorst for an annuity of $6,000 
(Spanish milled dollars), the title being first passed upon by 
Alexander Hamilton and Josiah Ogden Hoffman, eminent law- 
yers, whose fee was $100. The amount of land upon the Hook 
was 117 acres. The Act of Incorporation designated the pur- 
chasers as "The Jersey Company," the place being then called 
"Jersey," and a charter was asked for the "City of Jersey" 
to balance up the City of New York on the other side of the 
river. The inhabitants in 1802 consisted of Major Hunt's fam- 
ily, John Murphy and wife, Joseph Bryant and employes, 13 
or 15 persons in all. A charter of Jan. 23, 1829, was entitled 
"An Act to Incorporate the City of Jersey," while in the body 
of the Act it was unwittingly written "Jersey City," and Jersey 
City it has remained. 

The Jersey Company of 1804 offered Robert Fulton special 
terms to locate his shipyard there, and he acquired one block 
for $1,000, payable in five years without interest. 

To return to our stage travel. John Voorhees ran a coach 
to Elizabeth in 1805, three times a week; fare 6]^ cents a 
mile. In 1805 the ferry to New York, from Elizabethtown 
Point, consisted of six boats, and they made two trips in the 
forenoon and two on the afternoon, every day. 

In 1806 there were stages from the City Hotel, Brunswick, 
to Powles' Hook three times a week. In 1807 Joseph Letson 
ran a stage from New Brunswick, and Stevens' steamboat. 
"Phoenix," ran for a while to New Brunswick. Her trip to 

Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors Mss. 119 

New Brunswick was made in nine hours and thirty-two min- 
utes, and her return in nine hours and twenty m.inutes. Ful- 
ton's "Raritan" succeeded her in 1809, but from 1811 to 1815 
there were no steamboats to New Brunswick. In 1810 Samuel 
Brush made the trip from Philadelphia to New York ; drove to 
^ Trenton the first day and slept there ; dined next day at Bruns- 
^ wick and slept at Elizabeth, arriving at New York before noon 
I next day. 

In 1816 the "Raritan," second of that name, gives notice of 

I travel from city to city (25 miles by land) , fare $4.50, Monday, 

j Wednesday and Friday, from north side of the battery at 9 

i A. M. Passengers lodge at Trenton ; Philadelphia next day at 

I II A. M. Here, with a steamboat at both ends (the "Phccnix" 

I was on the Delaware) the time has about got back to Skillman's 

j day-and-a-half in 1771— forty-five years before. 

I In 1818 the "Bellona," Captain Vanderbilt, and the "Olive 

I Branch," the Livingston-Stevens boat, with William Gibbons' 

1 stages, occupied the field with other steamboats until the rail- 

j road carried us another stride forward 

I Jl J* jl ^ 


\ [Co7itinucd from Page 12] 

Among the documents in the recently acquired collection of 
MSS. respecting the Scots East Jersey Proprietors, there is a 
letter from John Barclay, brother to Governor Barclay, dated 
at Perth Amboy in 16S6, on his second visit to East Jersey. 
(See, as to him, Whitehead's "East Jersey," p. 42). It is a 
letter to Robert Burnet, of Lethenty, Scotland : 

.._,„ "Amboy Perth, 20th March, 16S6. 

When John Lamg came first ashore I got him what ac- 
commodation I could, for him and his servants, but. the winter 
coming on suddenly after his landing, he was not wilHng to go 
into the woods to settle upon land I had taken up for tiiee and 
my Uncle before he came here ; so he takes two acre lots here in 
the town, one for thee and another for my Uncle, which he 
cleared and fenced this winter. After that he went into the 
woods, where I got him a hous and some ground already 

120 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

cleared within half a mile to my own plantation, which I 
bought for 15 lib in this country-money from Thomas Gordon, 
he and his wife not willing to dwell there. So I take up that 
for thee and my Uncle, which I did for the best, because I can 
the better assist John Laing, he living so near me. 

"There is about 3,000 acres of land taken up for thee and my 
Uncle and 2 lotts at New Perth. As for the land at Wicking- 
ton [Wickatunk], it is divided in 24 parts and there there falls 
to thee and my Uncle 500 acres." 

There is also the copy of a letter from George Keith to the 
same Robert Burnet : 

"Amboy, 29th March, 1686. 
"I have surveyed for thee and thy partner, Robert Gordon of 
Cluny, 1,000 acres neer John Barclay's plantation; the whole 
tract by order being divided in 24 shares for the 24 Proprietors, 
to each a share, amounting to about 500 acres. What other land 
I receive order to lay out for thee I shall be carefull to do it well 
and to best advantage. After some time I may give thee a par- 
ticular account of all thy land I have surveyed for thee and 
what I reckon dew for it. John Laing and his family are well 
and lyke to do well, and so John Sym and his family. Also 
thou hast thy share laid out at Wickington" [Wickatunk]. 

Present Wickatunk, as our readers know, is a brief distance 
east of Freehold, in Alonmouth county. George Keith was of 
an Aberdeen family, "an eminent Quaker, although originally 
a Scotch Presbyterian," who arrived in East Jersey in 16S5. 
He located and found Freehold, and, as Surveyor-General, 
did much excellent work in his line of duty for four years, 
when he went to Pennsylvania. Thereafter he led a curious 
life of religious propagations and dissentions as our readers, 
doubtless, well know. 

One of the interesting memorandas among the documents 
referred to is the following, undated and unsigned, but which is 
evidently of the same period as the foregoing letters. It in- 
dicates just what the Scots Proprietors wished to know con- 
cerning East Jersey, before coming over themselves or sending 
too many settlers : 

"Memorandum for East Jersey 
"Item. To inquire of the breadth and length of that Province 
and what number of acres may be estimated to be in the whole 
Province, and what quantity of meadow ground is in it. 

Unpublished Scots East Jersey Proprietors Mss. I2I 

"Item. To enquire if there be ground not covered with wood, 
and what nature it is and for what use, and what barrens are 
in the Province, and whether they be for pasturage of sheep, 
or any other use, and what store of sheep is in the country. 

"Item. To inquire how many towns in the Province, how 
their houses are built and streets paved, and what greatnes 
they are off by the number of families in a town. 

"Item. To inquire into Ambo where they intend a town, 
what a place, how convenient for shipping, and what the land 
is from Sandy Hook to Little Egg harbor, and what the nature 
of the sandy land is, and the place called "Burning Hole."' 

"Item. To inquire if store of fish there, sea or river fish, 
and if there be boats and fishermen. 

"Item. To inquire what rivers are in the country, either 
faling on the sea, or Hudson River, and if navigable and how 

"Item. To inquire what they reckon an acre there and how 
much English wheat it will sow. 

"Item. To inquire what wild beasts are there, hurtfull or 
for food or otherwise. 

"Item. What corn grows in the Province, whether store of 
English wheat, barley, rye, peas, hemp and flax. 

"Item. What is the chief food and drink in the country, and 
what servants are entertained with, and what fire they make 
use of. 

"Item. What Summer, Spring harvest and winter is there, 
and about what time they begin. 

"Item. Inquire whether there be any geese, hens, capons, 
cocks, eggs, dark turkies, and what wild fowl. 

"Item, What vines for grapes, peaches, apricots, apples, 
plums, peas, cherries, gins, mulberries with silk worms, and 
quinces, or others. 

"Item. Whether oxen, horses, cows, hogs, store of milk, btit- 
ter, chess. 

"Item. Inquire how they bring in ground, how easily or 
soon, how its plowed and manured when brought in, when 
sowed and reaped. 

"Item. To inquire about a deed of mine sent over to be reg- 

"Item. W^hether tenants may be gotten there to take un- 
manured ground on leases for yiers, or on deeds for ever, upon 

[To be ContiiiKcdl 

122 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 


[Continued from Page 59] 

At the Mouth of the Mississippi 
"May 20, 1901. Still calm and clear weather. Received an 
invitation to dine at the Commandants of the Balise; in con- 
sequence of which the Captain. ^Ir. Parsons and myself went on 
shore, where we were sumptuously entertained. The dinner 
was excellent, consisting of a great variety of dishes of the best 
kind and well cooked, and, what added to its grandeur, was the 
presence of the Commandant's three daughters, who were truly 
handsome and amiable. Returned to the ship at dusk. 

"21. — No appearance of wind yet, and, should it blow, it 
will answer no purpose, unless from a northwest course, and 
that at 10 o'clock A. M. at which time it is high water. The 
pilot says there is not water sufficient on the Bar unless it is in 
high tides, and then the wind and current will force the ship 
through the sand and mud, even should she draw more water 
than is over the Bar, but the above circumstances must prevail. 
"24. — This morning the wind, as expected, blew from the 
N.E. The Pilot came on board and. at 9 o'clock, weighed 
anchor and set sail. I, being anxious to stay as long as I could 
before I departed, and wishing to know how the ship got over 
the Bar, concluded to stay on board and return in the pilot boat 
to Balise. Sailed on and passed the old wrecked ship 'Star,' at 
which place the pilots and all the men pulled off their hats and 
huzza'd, thinking themselves out of all danger; but what was 
our mortification when, in about one minute afterwards, the 
ship ran aground in ii feet of water, she at the same time 
drawing 13 feet 10 inches. The pilots tried many ways to get 
her off, but all failed. Fortunately, the schooner 'Parragon' 
lay about a league off, the Captain of which (Capt. Nichols) 
came on board. After he saw we were aground, Capt. ]\Ian- 
warring employed him to lighten the 'Ocean' for the sum of 
$600. Capt. Nichols then warped alongside his schooner, and 
at 4 P. M. began to discharge the cargo of the ship and put it 
aboard the 'Parragon.' Having the crew of both vessels, they 
at 2 o'clock in the morning had the 'Ocean' floating, after which 

I A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 123 

she dropped a little down and anchored in five fathoms of 

"25. — The 'Ocean' being now ready to reload, the schooner 
dropped alongside and commenced the business immediately at 
4 P. M.. This day they got all her cargo in again. It now be- 
came time for me to depart, as the ship was soon to sail. Ac- 
cordingly, after bidding Brother Sammy and the passengers 
adieu, I left the ship and went in the pilot boat to the Balise, 
and took up my residence with Commandant Ronguille, until 
the ship 'Neptune' arrives. At six o'clock from the lookout 
house I saw the 'Ocean' weigh anchor and set sail, and God 
) grant them a prosperous voyage ! 

"I received the utmost good usage from Co. Ronguille and 
\ family. They are all Spanish, but just speak enough English 

\ as to make out to be understood a little ; in other cases they have 

I an interpreter. This evening Madamoiselle Fanetta Ronguille 

\ had a severe fit of, I think, hysterics. She is subject to them, 

t which is a great pity indeed, for she is a very amiable and 

I beautiful girl, as also her two sisters. 

( "28. — Went aboard the 'Neptune' and found my fellow pas- 

sengers, consisting of nine, all clever fellows with much the 
i appearance of gentlemen, and I begin to think we shall have an 

agreeable voyage to New York. The cabin is large and con- 
I tains good berths and other accommodations. As the number, 

I including the Captain and mates, will make but thirteen, we 

j shall not be incommoded by numbers. 

I "The 'Ocean' of New York arrived here this day from New 

I Orleans, and drew upwards of 16 feet water. Captain Harri- 

i son has employed a schooner to lighten her to go over the Bar, 

i for which he is to pay $1,200. 

"29. — In the fore part of the day Capt. Harrison of the 
'Ocean' and his lady, Capt. Hacquin and two passengers came 
on shore, and dined at the Commandant's, after which they 
and Madam Ronguille, the three Mademoiselles Rouguilles and 
myself went on board of the 'Ocean' and drank tea ; returned 
8 P. M. ; we had a very sumptuous entertainment. 

"30. — Capt. Harrison and lady, with a number of gentlemen 
from the 'Ocean' and 'Neptune,' came on shore after tea and 

124 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 

had an agreeable dance ; the company consisted of those above 
mentioned, the three Mademoiselles Roiiguilles and two other 
young ladies living near by, and myself. At 2 A. M. dispersed, 
all well. 

"June I. — This day Capt. Harrison, Capt. Habir of the Span- 
ish man of war, IMr. Osborn and myself, went out on the beach 
to shoot rabbits ; went in a yawl to a place called 'The Garden,' 
where was a number of fruit trees, such as figs, oranges, pears, 
peaches, etc. ; saw a number of rabbits, but could not stay to 
shoot them on account of the flies and gallynippers, which were 
so numerous that it was impossible to keep them out of our 

Off for New York but Soon ox Rocks 

"2. — This day there arose a breeze. Capt. Hacquin sent for 
me to come on board. At 10 o'clock the anchor weighed and 
we set sail, as also did the 'Ocean' of New York. After we 
came within a mile of the Bar we discovered the 'Ocean' to be 
aground, she being before us. Our Captain was then alarmed 
for fear we should experience the same fate, which he soon 
realized. The 'Neptune' also stuck on the Bar exactly op- 
posite the 'Ocean,' but Capt. Hacquin immediately started the 
water off the decks, after which a little breeze sprang up, and 
she again got under way, and fortunately got safe over, after 
which we anchored in order to take in water again. At 9 
o'clock P. M., the ship having watered and all things righted, 
we weighed anchor for the last time, set sail and put to sea. 
Course S.E. by E. We left the 'Ocean' fast on the Bar in, I 
think, about nine feet of water. As we got properly to sea, the 
ship began to rock, but I was not so much of a sailor as to walk 
steady or even keep my feet without catching hold of the quar- 
ter-railing, shrouds, or anything I could get hold of, in order to 
keep from falling. I had anticipated the effects the motion of 
the ship would have on me. and knew it would make me sick ; 
I therefore kept on deck, but soon found my expectations were 
not ideal, for at 10 o'clock I leaned over the gunwail and, in 
spite of every effort, hollered out : 'The ship is made of oak, 
oak, oak.' After a few transactions of this kind I made out to 
crawl to my berth and, though as sick as a horse, by some means 
or other I fell asleep. 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800- i8i 3 125 

"3. — This day the wind blew brisk and the ship danced about 
merrily. I ate nothing this day. I shall not make many ob- 
servations you may depend — oak, oak, oak ! 

"6. — All the passengers are getting able for their allowance 
again. Fell in with a schooner bound for Havana — all well. 

"y. — This is my birthday and makes me twenty-two years 
of age, which day I generally eat strawberries in Jersey, for the 
first time in the year, but I don't think I should find any if I 
were to walk out to-day ; therefore I shall stay in the ship, and 
by that means get my feet wet in the sea hunting them. Still 
unfavorable winds from the S.E. 

"10. — Winds as usual, and makes but little progress on our 
voyage. This evening bathed in sea water. I believe I shall 
now weather the oak, but it has pulled me down confoundedly, 
though. I have got a good appetite, and if I don't get some 
fever, or some sickness, I think I shall like a sea life very much. 

"16. — This morning found a current setting two and half 
knots to the N. N. \V. Capt. Hacquin and mates could not 
account for it, not knowing of any such in the Bay. They, 
therefore, began to think that the currents had, during the 
calms, taken the ship into the Gulf of Florida, as the stream sat 
in that direction. At 12 by the quadrant we proved to be in 
latitude 25° 49', which made them almost positive, as every 
circumstance spoke loudly in favor of the idea, of being in the 
Florida Gulf, which, if true, must have been good news to us. 
because it would be a distance of 150 leagues nearer our port 
of destination. The Captain, therefore in order to make sure 
of such a supposition, laid the ship due west, to see if he could 
discover land, the Gulf being but 20 leagues wide at this place, 
or at the place in which we supposed we were. But judge our 
mortification this evening at sun set, after sailing a distance far 
enough to discover the keys on the west shore, when no land 
could be seen from the masthead, and we were consequently 
obliged to 'bout ship and stand to the S.E., it being reduced to 
a certainty that we were yet in the Bay of Mexico, and a 
greater distance from the Gulf that we had been six days 

"18. — Find the water beszins to jrrow low. 

126 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

Putting Passengers and Crew on Allowance | 

"19. — Capt. Hacquin informed us that the water was in a | 

likely way of being exhausted before we should get to our port \ 

of destination, or where we could get a fresh supply, owing 1 

to a number of casks, upon examination, being found empty, | 

having leaked out ; and that he feared it would be necessary to : 

put passengers and ship's crew under allowance and thereby 
prolong its duration by being less profuse; which we readily 
agreed to, not from choice, but from fear of suffering, as there 
appeared a necessity for so doing. Two quarts per day was 
agreed upon. This afternoon a violent gale arose attended with 
rain. Sails all closed. Landsmen very much frightened. 

"20. — I find that fresh water is a very great luxury at sea. 
Two quarts per day is not enough for coffee or tea twice a day, . 
to cook dinner with, and what is wanted to drink. However, 
if we get no less before we arrive in New York, I shall think 
all is well. Under way of 3 knots. 

Contemplating Destruction by Water Spout 
"21. — Light winds till 5 o'clock P. M., when a circumstance 
happened that had nearly cost us our lives. We observed a 
squall of wind and rain rising in the southward, which drew 
quite near us, when we perceived a very large water spout in a 
cloud that attended it ; which spout the wind was driving ex- 
actly towards the ship. The Captain endeavored to run to the 
windward of it, but, before he could effect it, the water spout 
drew so near the ship, and the suction was so great, that he ■ 
was obliged to have all the sails clewed up, and lay the broad- 
side of the vessel toward the spout to prevent the effects of the 
suction. It was, nevertheless, so great that it drew the ship 
down quite on her beam ends. The Captain then took the helm, 
very much alarmed indeed ; looked as white as chalk and only 
said : 'For God's sake don't alarm the sailors !' This was the 
critical time, as from every appearance the ship would in a few 
minutes strike the spout, the effects of which would be that all 
the water contained in it, between the cloud and the ocean, 
would immediately fall on the ship ; and how could she stand 
the effects of thousands of tons of water falling on her at one 
dash? The solution is that there could scarcely a vestige re- 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 127 

main and not a soul could escape immediate destruction. While 
everyone was contemplating his fate, then apparently immedi- 
ately impending, and while death stared in all its ghastly forms 
before us, being then within one hundred yards of the spout, 
we, with all the ecstacies of joy possible to conceive, observed 
it begin to cease, and the ship gradually to right, and soon be- 
come so favorable as to admit of the sails being set ; and by that 
means was able to get to the windward. 

"22. — This day a fresh sea breeze, lat. 24° 32'. We now use 
frugality in all our sea stores. 

"23. — This day w^e overhauled our biscuit and found it scant, 

for the prospect of our remaining passage ; we, therefore, con- 

• eluded to come under allowance, conceiving it better to eat a 

little less and make it last thirty days than to eat it all in twenty 

; and go without the other ten. Our poultry is yet in abundance. 

Water and biscuit are all that are lacking. 
J "24. — Wind tolerably fair and quite brisk; course E. S. E. 

{ We this day begin to think we are not far distant from the 

I Tortugas, and keep a good lookout for them, as every person 

1 on board is very anxious to see them ; the currents are so fluctu- 

I ating and various in the Gulf, that the Capt., etc., have lost the 

, longitude. \\^e have, in consequence, been beating about here 

I 22 days, and know nothing of where we are, except it be our 

i latitude, which we find to be to-day in 25° 5'. 

i The Near Double Shipwreck 

I come now to relate a circumstance which occurred this eve- 
; ning of a most serious nature. At 5 o'clock P. M., one of the 

! sailors from the masthead cried out 'Land !' which appeared on 

the starboard bow, upon which the Captain and other officers, 
from what calculations they could make, thought it could be no 
other than the Tortugas, [consisting of] three small, dry reefs 
lying to the S. W. end of the Floridas. He, therefore, put about 
the ship and stood S. S. E. in order to run between the Tortugas 
and the Colorados, which last lays to the N. W. end of Cuba 
Island, and consists of shallow water full of small reefs, rocks, 
etc. Continued this course till sunset, when the Captain sound- 
ed, but could find no bottom at 100 fathoms, and laid her S. E. 
by S. The wind at this time was fair and was making about 

128 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

three knots ; the moon shone bright, the evening pleasant and 
everyone seemed overjoyed to think we were in a Hketthood 
of getting into the Gulf Stream of Florida, as the common run 
from there to New York is about 12 days; and we began to 
think of taking off the allowance of biscuit and water. We 
were thus all on deck amusing ourselves, and anticipating a 
speedy arrival at our much-wished-for port, when, at three- 
quarters past seven, what was our surprise, astonishment and 
mortification as the ship all at once struck a rock. All were 
amazed, all confounded; no one could speak; no one could tell 
what was the matter ; at least five minutes were spent in this 
insensitive manner when the Captain ordered the sails clewed 
up and, with the lead line, found that at the starboard side lay 
a rock but 9 feet under water, the ship at the same time drawing 
upward of 16. And on the larboard side there were two rocks 
not more than 12 feet below the surface of the sea. This was 
a critical time ; and what was to be done ? The ship lay hard 
and fast between the above-mentioned rocks, and lay with her 
keel on others, and began to surge, and every sea that came she 
was in danger of being dashed to pieces like an egg-shell. What 
made us fear this event more was her being a vessel upwards 
of 20 years old, and consequently her timbers not in a situation 
to stand hardships. This circumstance induced us to pray 
for the wind to cease blowing, and thereby occasion less swells 
to cause the ship to encounter severe surging ; and here I must 
mention that it seemed as if the wind ceased to blow, almost 
immediately after we struck, on purpose to secure our preserva- 

The first thing done in order to extricate and float the ship 
was to get the sheet anchor out, in order to do which the long 
boat was hoisted. When in the act of letting the anchor in this 
boat, she was so leaky that she had nearly sunk before the 
anchor could be raised out of her again. This would have 
been a great misfortune, provided the long boat had sunk, as 
in all probability it was to be our last resort. The next expedi- 
ent was to get a spar on the large starboard rock, with a watch- 
tackle, to see if she could not be thrown out of her present situa- 
tion by hard straining; this too proved abortive. All seemed. 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 129 

therefore, to offer nothing favorable. One means were yet to 
be used, which, if that failed, all was inevitably lost, and this 
the Captain and other officers asserted was the only way to 
preserve the vessel and crew from destruction. This was no 
other than to throw overboard so much of her cargo until she 
could get afloat. The second mate took the yawl and found 
that, if the ship could be put immediately about after getting 
afloat, there was a passage through which she might pass, being 
about three fathoms deep. This gave us some hope ; and every 
passenger and man aboard went to throwing overboard cotton, 
as this was the only loading that could be got at. We con- 
tinued throwing over cotton till 2 o'clock, at which time we 
had discharged 20 tons, and she still kept surging on the rocks 
and apparently as fast as ever. 

"All were now disconsolate, as from every circumstance there 
appeared but very little hope, and few thought of nothing else 
but perishing. We began now to think of having some other 
resort than the wreck, and, as the long boat was the only one, 
we concluded to have her hauled up and caulked, take the main 
top sail down and spring it taut over the boat for a kind of 
deck, erect a little mast and fix a sail thereto, put a sailor at 
the helm, and tie the sheet of the sail around his middle, and in 
this manner put to sea. This would carry about two-thirds of 
the crew. We were, therefore, to cast lots who should go in 
and who should stay aboard of the wreck. For my part I 
should have been indifferent about the result of my chance, for 
I should as leave stay and perish aboard the wreck as to starve 
to death in the long boat, as no one could have taken more 
provisions than he could have put in his pockets ; on account of 
the anxiety of taking as many as possible in it, and the reason 
of it being so laden with the crew, no provisions or water would 
have place. The probability of getting to any inhabitants in 
such situations before all or most perished, is very uncertain 
and very seldom happens. The long boat for the above purpose 
was drawn up and caulked, etc., by which time daylight ap- 

"25. — Everyone seemed struck with redoubled despair, on 
seeing our situation by daylight ; rocks on every side every- 

130 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

where interspersed about us, some dashing their ghastly ap- 
pearance out of the water every surge. Nothing but gloom 
and despair now seemed characteristic in every countenance, 
and, if anyone spoke a word, it would be, 'We shall all perish.' 
What mind that never experienced such a shock could feel our 
distress on being told the ship had sprung a leak ! Both pumps 
were set at work, but, on sounding the water in the hold, it was 
found to increase. This was a severe misfortune, and everyone 
was called up to attend to his fate in the issue of casting lots 
to take to the long boat. With countenances that indicated the 
feelings of their hearts all appeared, and with feelings which 
did honor to human nature, and words that would melt the 
heart of adamant, the Captain informed us all was lost; no 
means that seemed to the bounds of human capacity could 
now save the ship, and it was our indispensable duty to try 
every means in our power to save what lives the little proba- 
bility the long boat afforded. He was only sorry, and lamented 
it could not contain the whole crew; and therefore wished im.- 
mediately the die to be cast, to know on whom the lot fell to 
go in the boat ; upon which those at the pumps cried out that 
they began to lower the water, which broke up our proceedings 
for the present, as every one grasped at the least hopes of 

"It was now concluded to open both hatches and discharge 
her cargo as fast as possible, and see if she could not be sot 
afloat, as the leakage ceased so much that one pump could dis- 
charge the water as fast as she made it. After throwing over- 
board about ten tons more of cotton, with inexpressible joy we 
observed she moved a little. The Captain immediately had her 
sail set, and she rubbed and squeezed, and went ofi' a distance 
of twenty yards, but, not being able to get her under steerage 
way, and thereby put her in the channel, the second mate had 
discovered she again ran with her bow against .'nother reef of 
rocks, only eight feet under water. This was a second severe 
misfortune, as to float her over this the whole lading must have 
come out ; and what, I ask, will a ship do at sea without ballast? 
The anchor was ordered to be prepared to endeavor to draw her 
off to the leeward, while doing which she took a sheet and, 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 131 

stern foremast, swung off again and got afloat. With every 
possible expedition her sails were trimmed ; the Captain went 
up on the foretop gallant yard in order thereby to be in a bet- 
ter situation of seeing the channel and depth of water ; the mate 
was at the helm and every sailor at his post ; and in this manner, 
after the greatest exertions and good management and running 
about a mile, with our hearts in our mouths, for fear of getting 
again on rocks, we all at once got off soundings, at 8 o'clock 
A. M. 

"What heart can realize our joy, or what mind is susceptible 
of our feelings, torn from despair, and I may add from the 
most poignant grief and death itself, to pursuing our voyage 
as usual ! I am incompetent to describe our danger and grief, 
and also our delivery and joy. 

"At 12 o'clock this day there arose a severe squall of wind 
and rain which continued about four hours. What would have 
been the event if we were in the situation we were in four 
hours before, I mean on the rocks? all, all, inevitably would 
have been lost ! 

"26. — At 1 1 o'clock this night we were boarded by the Brit- 
ish frigate 'Juno,' Capt. Dundas ; after a slight examination 
[he] was dismissed, and treated politely through the whole. 
Not New York H.\rbor but Cuba 

"July I. — This afternoon ran within half a league of the 
Island of Cuba not far from the Dolphin Head. It is a beau- 
tiful prospect indeed. Spoken by the 'Jui^o' again. Severe 
squall off Cuba. Lat. 22° 25' N. This day bore S. S. E. till 
12, when we got in sight of the Cuba shore again and put about 
to the N. N. E. At sunset saw land to the eastward. Our 
Captain said it was the Double Head Shot Keys ; consequently 
we are near entering the Gulf of Florida. Lay to this night for 
fear of getting on shoals in the dark. 

"July 4, Independence Day. Huzza ! — This day we found 
ourselves in the Gulf Stream, which is very acceptable news, 
for if we had got into a western current before we took this 
stream, in passing through between the Floridas and Cuba, we 
should in all probability have been swept back into Mexico be- 
fore we could have beat up against the trade winds to this 

132 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

place. This makes 32 days we have been at sea, and therefore i 
all very much dejected, on account of the length of the time for ] 
the distance to come ; but now, as the current is favorable, | 
whereas it was unfavorable before, we have hopes of getting to | 
New York in ten or twelve days. I 

"I am this day homesick, knowing that the day will be cele- \ 
brated in Jersey as it ought to be, and I am sick to think I ] 
cannot partake of the enjoyment ; however, being at sea, must j 
celebrate it as a seaman does. l 

"In the morning guns were fired to usher in the day. At ,1 
dinner we partook of an excellent repast, consisting of a turkey. | 
two ducks and four chickens, with an excellent plum pudding, i 
after which we drank some patriotic toasts with wine and por- i 
ter, which made it resemble the hilarity of the day. \ 

"6. — This morning saw a large sail to the southward, stand- ; 
ing down upon us. It being calm we could not discover what ; 
it was till 12 o'clock, when we found she was a man-of-war. '■. 
At 2 P. M. she came alongside. She proved to be an English 
80-gun ship, called the 'Cumberland.' After boarding us, and a 
slight examination, she dismissed us with all possible politeness. 
Lat. 29° 34'. 

"8. — Stiff wind almost ahead ; make but little on our voyage. 

"10. — Severe squall. Wind very heavy. I find that, owing 
to my being so much unwell, the allowance of biscuit is not so 
great a hardship, though if I had more water I should find it 
very acceptable. 

"11. — At 10 A. M. began a very severe gale; had to lay to 
till one P. I\I., at which time the wind shifted to the S. E., which 
was what we desired, as from adverse winds we have not 
progressed on our voyage but 17 degrees this week, and sea 
stores are almost gone. 

"12. — Stiff wind exactly aft. so that we can run before it and 
keep our course. Can only carry fore sail. Very heavy sea. 
Off Charleston, S. C. Saw and spoke a small sloop, with her 
main mast sprung. 

"13. — At 12 the wind increased and became a proper gale; 
were in consequence obliged to run under our poles, not being 
able to keep a foot of canvas up, but that it would be in an in- 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 133 

stant split to pieces like paper. Increased till 12 at night, when 
it moderated and the wind shifted to the north again. During 
this storm I have been perfectly well and hearty. 

"14- — Quite pleasant weather; are now off of the Capes of 
Virginia from our latitude, and Capt. Hacquin informed us 
that he expected to be on soundings to-morrow, and that if no 
head winds prevail we shall see Sandy Hook lighthouse by 
Sunday next. From which information we, with no small 
degree of satisfaction, had our allowance of biscuit and water 
taken off. 

"i5- — Quite calm this morning. Saw a schooner to the 
northward. Our Captain bore down upon her and boarded her, 
in order to get some provisions. She was from Philadelphia, 
bound to the West Indies. Could get nothing from her but a 
little sugar and coffee. 

"16. — Stiff breeze from the S. S. W. Fine prospect of get- 
ting into the Hook. Got, on soundings, 28 fathoms water. 
Lat. 39° 41'. 

The Welcome Jersey Shore 

"17- — This morning saw two schooners and three brigs to 
the windward. Wind again shifted to the N. E. At 4 o'clock 
P. M. a sailor from the masthead cried out 'LAND!' which, 
upon a nearer approach, proved to be Little Egg Harbor on the 
Jersey shore ; a sight very welcome and agreeable to me, being 
my native shore, and I have reason to believe all the crew rel- 
ished the prospect. 

"18. — Drove last night out of sight of land, and at 8 this 
morning were in a dead calm. We once more came under al- 
lowance of biscuit and water. 

"19- — This morning we, with pleasure, saw the high lands 
of Neversink. Having a gentle breeze at 10 o'clock, came up 
nearly to the light house at Sandy Hook, where we got a pilot 
on board, the tide being favorable. We, at 2 o'clock P. 'M., 
anchored safely on the quarantine ground oft' Staten Island. 
The physician came on board shortly after, and pronounced us 
healthy; accordingly gave permission to go into New York, 
which we did at 4 o'clock P. M. With infinite pleasure I put 
niy feet on shore. Took lodgings at 37 Dey St. 

134 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society 

"20. — Saw at the Coffee House Capt. Brasier of the ship 
'Peggy' from Havana, who informed me the ship 'Ocean' had 
arrived at the Havana safe, and that they had sold their flour 
for $18, purchased sugars at $6.25 and wer6 to come in the 
same ship to New York. Brother Sammy and all the crew 
were well. 

[To be Continued] 

(^% t^w t^* t^^ 


[Continued from Page 32] 

Record of Peter Hendrickson 
Peter Hendrickson : Was born in Hunterdon co., four miles 
from Asbury, about 1760- '61 ; precise time not known. Wife 
is four years younger, and was born in 1765. Lived with 
father until after W^ar ; removed to Sussex co., at close of War, 
with father. Lived there 8 years ; then lived in New York City 
22 years; then removed to where he now lives, near Logans- 
ville, Morris co. First duty at Pompton, under Capt. Albert 
Opdike. Second Tour at Vealtown, one month, under Opdikc. 
In May or June, 1778, out under Capt. Francis Crane; near 
Trenton two weeks, then marched to Englishtown, Monmouth 
Court House and in battle a little while in the morning; then 
was ordered on guard to baggage wagons. Beavers was Colonel. 
Was at Succasunna Plains one month, Capt. Duryee ; one 
month at Scotch Plains ; another month at Scotch Plains where 
two refugees were hanged. Did duty under Winds at Ver- 

Note as to Thomas Larrison 
A note here states that Thomas Larrison, soldier, who died 
in 1834, had children living in Ohio, viz. : Sylvester at Martins- 
burg ; James in Licking co. ; Mahlon, probably in Knox co. ; 
Mary Stimson, in Knox co. 

Record of John Hall 
John Hall (Nov. 6, 1834): Now living in Somerset co. r 
has lived several years in Benton, Yates co., N. Y. ; went there 
40 years ago (1794). W^as born in Bernards twsp., Somerset 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 135 

CO., June 18 (O. S.), 1752. In 1776 belonged to Capt. Mc- 
Coy's Company. First Tour in June, when alarm given of 
British arriving in New York ; stationed near Bryantown. Jacob 
Ford and Col. Quick commanded the Regiments, one from 
Morris, one from Somerset. Saw the British fleets come in 
the bay; troops v/ere landed on Staten Island. Was on top of 
Patrick Dennis's house in the city with a spyglass watching the 
enemy. Then was one night at Newark; moved to Bergen 
^ till after the 4th, and returned home last of July. Was home 

[ 3 o^" 4 days when drafted, with about one-fourth of Co.. on 

\ second Tour, the Captain going with his men. William Darison 

i was 1st Lieut.. John Boylan 2nd Lieut., George Grant Ensign. 

) Then one month at Newark on guard duty. James Linn was 

; Major. Quartered at John Crane's house on the hill; Capt. 

j McCoy quartered at Bank's. Company then dismissed, except 

i those hiring as substitutes. I hired in place of my brother, 

i Richard Hall. This third Tour was under Capt. William 

I Logan. From Newark moved to Aquackanonk, where lay a 

I month in September. Then staid as substitute for brother, 

I Jacob Hall, under Capt. Nathaniel Porter, at Newark, Eliza- 

I bethtown Point and Rahway ; time expired last of October, was 

i at home two or three nights when alarm given that British 

I were overrunning New Jersey, and was ordered out with whole 

I Company in November. Went to Springfield, Scotch Plains, 

; Quibbletown, Vermeule's and near Bound Brook, guarding 

roads and passes. Was out till Lee was taken prisoner near 
Basking Ridge; was then below Pluckemin. Staid 2 months 
till Hessians were taken and Princeton battle fought. Then 
was dismissed and remained home not over 10 days, when or- 
dered with a large body of militia to Vermeule's. where on 
guard duty under McCoy and Gen. Winds. Had some fighting 
at Short Hills, Ash Swamp (where Nathaniel Lyons was killed 
and also Robert Downer; and Major Cook wounded), and 
Martine Wood. Continued on this station all winter till April ; 
then was ordered by Capt. McCoy as express [rider] to carry 
an order from Q. M. Haines to Major Abram B. Sherrerd, at 
Moraira Town, Sussex co., who had charge of Continental 
horses of U. S., to have them shod in readiness for army ser- 

136 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

vice. Had them shod and, with others, brought 15 horses to 
Morristovvn. About last of May, 1777, went on same errand 
again, and carried an order from Col. Dunham to Col. Hoops of 
Sussex for flour, and 8 or 10 teams brought the flour to Morris- 

Next Tour was at Elizabethtown Point, on guard ; quartered 
at Milton's towards Rahway; McCoy, Captain. Whole Regi- 
ment of militia out under Col. Taylor. Was out a month in 
September ; at home three months ; out again in December at 
Elizabethtown at Widow Graham's; discharged in January. 
In March, 1778, out under McCoy a month at Rahway, watch- 
ing refugees, Jacques, or Drake, the Colonel. In August out 
a month under Capt. John Parker of Vealtown, at Elizabeth- 
town, at Milton's house, guard duty ; one month near Acquacka- 
nonk and Second River, under Capt. McCoy and General 
Winds and Frelinghuysen. In Dec, 1778, was inoculated for 
smallpox. In Spring following out under McCoy at Rahway 
under Col. Frelinghuysen. In Fall (1779) served one month 
under Parker at Newark (Hays, the Major, and Matthias 
Ward, the Colonel) at Canfield's house. In Feb., 1780, another 
month, watching refugees ; in the Spring near Springfield, but 
not at the battle, but in all over 2 years ; cannot remember the 
other Tours. 

Record of John A. Hight 

John A. Hight (Nov. 17, 1834) : Was a Sergeant, regularly 
appointed in 1776 by his Company. First Tour in Gordon's 
Co., Dec, 1775. Crossed from New York at Hell Gate to 
Jamaica, Hempstead, and to edge of Suffolk co., disarming 
Tories ; brought off swords, guns, etc. ; returned home, same 
route, in January, through snow and severe storms. Steamers 
"Asia" and "Phoenix" lay in the river. Gen. Hurd commanded. 
Second Tour under Schenck, who preceded Capt. Gordon and 
had raised a Company of 5 months men ; out 2 months till 
August, one month for self and one month for David Hight. 
Home a week or two ; then ordered out under Schenck ; served 
another month for David under Longstreet. Latter advised 
him to go home in a Suttler's wagon ; was sick all Winter ; out 
again in April at Amboy, "Blazing Star," Woodbridge, Rah- 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 12)7 

way and along shore opposite. Col. Jacob Heyer, Major Duy- 
chink and Gen. Dickinson commanded. 

In June, 1778, was in Monmouth Battle. Before that went 
towards Philadelphia by Mt. Holly; was in skirmish at Cross- 
wicks' Bridge ; out two months on this Tour. Richard Runyon 
■ was on this Tour ; Col. Scudder commanded the Middlesex 

militia. In 1779 and '80 was out each year, at Princeton, at 
" Amboy guarding Court and along Sound. Schenck the Cap- 

tain for most part. Was in skirmish at Connecticut Farms 
when Mrs. Caldwell was killed; at Newark i or 2 months, 
, Elizabethtown 3 or 4 months. Kept guard at Princeton several 

^ months. Served iS^.-^ months as Sergeant and i month as 

\ private. 

j Hugh Run yon, Richard Runyon and Edzvard Howell cor- 

j roborates Hight, whose residence was Jersey, Steuben co., 

I N. Y. [Residence when in New Jersey during War not stated]. 

' Record of Brown Brookfield 

j Brown Brookfield: Was born Mar. 5, 1760, at Rahway. On 

I Mar, I, 1777, was drafted into Capt. Moses Jaques Co., Lieut. 

i Amos Moore, Ensign David Rose, Col. Samuel Potter; duty 

j was patrol and guard between Rahway and Amboy, where Brit- 

1 ish lay; out one month. In October same duty, at Trembly's 

Point. Then served one month, Feb., 1778, to prevent Tories 

from driving oxen and trading with British ; one month under 

Capt. Winans at Mussa (?) Mills; one month in April, 1779, 

at Elizabeth Town under Capt. Moore; one month, June, by 

draft under Capt. Benjamin Winans at Murres (?) Mills; one 

month, August, under Major Hays at Elizabeth Town, thinks 

under Capt. Chandler ; one month under Col. Frelinghuysen 

and Capt. Morse at Trembly's Point in October, when a strong 

body of British came up to Connecticut Farms and returned to 

New York by way of English Neighborhood ; one month in 

November under Capt. C. Williams ; in April, 1780, under Capt. 

Morse; in June, as volunteer, on alarm one week when the 

Farms was burnt, under Col. Crane, Gen. Heard ; was at the 

house where ]\Irs. Caldwell was shot by a soldier under Knip- 

hausen and was engaged in a skirmish near Springheld when 

I fired a dozen rounds. Was at home when a party of the enemy 


138 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society i 

came over at Trembly's Point, surrounded the house (the father j 

and family escaping by the back door), pillaged the coimtry \ 

and went back by way of the "Blazing Star." In August, 1780,. I 

served under Capt. Williams; in October under Capt. Chandler. 1 

Living near the enemy, was out as a minute man one-half the ] 

time from 1778 to 1781, upon continual alarms, often without ^ 

officers. Remember after seeing Generals Washington, Dayton,. ] 

Putnam, Maxwell, Winds. Father then removed to the moun- | 

tains in Essex county. 1 

Record of Samuel Reynolds ; 

Samuel Reynolds: Volunteered in 1780 in Capt. Aiken's ' 

Co., Col. Cooper's Regiment, for express purpose of allowing 
father to remain home, he being upwards of 80, and, though not 
compelled to do militia duty, he would go to defend his country. 
Three brothers, two older than myself, was also out in militia 
service. Principal duty was to guard shores of Hudson and 
Orange counties and was performed day and night. Was 
usually home once a week to change clothes, returning back 
same day. Always served in Aiken's Co. ; headquarters at 
Nyack, Tappan, Haverstraw, where whole Regiment was some- 
times assembled. Company consisted of 200, or nearly, and 
when on duty was divided into squads of 12 to 15, 20 or 25, 
and stationed under an Ensign, Lieut, or Sergeant to guard 
the river shore from plundering and trading parties. . . . 
Never received pay even in Continental money. . . . Three 
guns from an alarm post was a signal for all to assemble. In 
Winter (i7Si-'82), a party of Refugees attacked Col. Cooper's 
house at dusk, burst open the upper door and fired five guns 
into the house. A Continental officer, Post, and his guard of 
five men were at Cooper's ; one had three balls through his 
breast and was killed ; another, shot through the shoulder, re- 
covered. Our Co. pursued them to Hackensack but did not 
overtake them. Some neighbors had their teams and drivers 
taken ofif; we recovered all four teams near Hackensack, and 
brought back the horses and one driver, who, in attempting to 
escape from the Refugees, had been shot through the thigh, and 
afterward died from mortification of the wound. 

In Spring of '82 was again out as volunteer under Aiken; 

The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 139 

served till Fall. Duty was performed six weeks in 1780, seven 
months in 1781, six months in 1782. Removed from Orange 
(county?) to Somerset county 45 years ago (1790). 
Record of Samuel Shipman 

Samuel Shipman : Enlisted in Capt. Brittin's Co. for 3 
months at Chatham Jan. i immediately following the retreat 
through the "J^^-'^cy mnd rounds" (year not remembered) ; and 
previously was out on militia duty, and retreated with Wash- 
ington's army from New Brunswick to Bound Brook, Plucke- 
min, Vealtown and Morristown to Chatham. Barney Adams, 
Farry Price and Aaron Ball (he is still living) were neighbors 
and enlisted in same Company. Thinks he joined Clark's At- 
tillery Co. of militia immediately on being discharged from 
Brittin's Co. ; this was the same which Capt. Eliakim Little 
afterwards commanded. Often was substitute for his father. 
Record of Abraham Westbrook 

Abraham JVcstbrook, of Montague twsp., Sussex county. 
Enlisted in cold weather. Capt. Edsall was expected to com- 
mand the Co., but believe he never had command. Capt. Harker 
was always present with me on duty. Enlistment was for one 
year but discharge took place in the Winter or late in the Fall. 
The Indians were troublesome only in the warm seasons and the 
corps had been raised to guard against their depredations. W' as 
73 on Mar. 7th last (1835) by Bible record. The 10 months 
service was on the Delaware exclusively. Sergeant David 
Silsbury was in the same Co. as Sergeant : he is now a pen- 
sioner. Helm is pensioned in another Company. Nathan 
Spencer, of Raskin's Co., in same service, is pensioned. 
Record of Capt. Stepiiex Baldwin 

Jonathan Morgan : Knew Baldwin well at beginning of 
War ; he lived at Parsippany, was a farmer there and com- 
manded a militia company. Saw him often parade his men and 
exercise his Co. at Parsippany ; saw him on duty at Elizabeth 
Town, commanding his Co. Thomas Cobb, John Ball, Na- 
thaniel Halsey, Richard Smith, all knew him. [Above appears 
to be only substantiating testimony to a previous statement, not 

140 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Record of Daniel Swayze 
Robert Young: Was well acquainted with Swayze; were j 

boys of an age ; often saw him in service at time he states, at ] 

Elizabeth Town, Rahway, Springfield, Vermeule's, Amboy and i 

Brunswick. Was not in same Co. but under same Colonel and } 

General. Saw him more or less every year of the War; [he] j 

was at Aquackanonk under Winds when Ball was shot. Re- 
member Luce running away from Bonhamtown skirmish and 
Winds calling him back. 

[To be Continued] 



The EXCELLENT article in the last October Proceedings (p. 
217) can be amplified somewhat, and a few corrections made, 
from a close investigation of the subject recently undertaken. 
First, as to the corrections : 

It is said in the article that "Jacob Berdan, a Hollander 
. . . . is reputed to have been the first settler" at Preak- 
ness, "in 17 15." It was Jan Berdan who, in November, 1720, 
purchased land there, but he was not the first settler. The 
actual earliest settlers were David Danielson Hennion, Johannes 
Doremus and Derrick Dey,^ and, possibly, some of the Garret- 
son family, who owned Preakness property as early as October, 

Anthony Dey was not a "General," but his father, Richard, 
was the General of militia. The Col. Theunis Dey, stated to be 
in the N. J. Assembly "1776 and 1783," was there as early as 

The Deys did not remove to New York City "about 1800." 
The Dey Mansion was sold by Gen. Richard Dey in 1801, and 

rrhat Derrick Dey was at Preakness as early as August 14. 1715. is 
shown by the record of a commission to him as Ensign in the "Foot 
Company, Precinct of Saddle River, Bergen Co.," under command of 
Col. John Johnston, with Capt. George Ryerson, Jr.. as Captain and 
Lucas Kierstead as Lieutenant. (Lib. A.'V>\ Comms., Sec. State's office, 

The Preakness Valley Settlement and the Dey Mansion 141 

he then removed to a new stone house built by him at Little 
Falls, Bergen county side, opposite to what is now the Beattie 
Carpet Mills. Here he resided until his death, October 6, 
181 1 (not 1812). This house was burned down in 1848, and 
was then occupied by a Mr. Ogden Hall. 

Thomas Dey is spoken of as "probably a son of Theunis." 
He was a son of the Derrick Dey of Two Bridges, who mar- 
ried Sarah Toers December 11, 1736. Thomas was bom De- 
cember 8, 1747, and married, about 1768, Abigail Lewis. It 
has not been ascertained just what the exact relationship was 
between the Derrick Dey who married Jane Elanchard Decem- 
ber 16, 1725, and who built the Dey Mansion at Preakness 
about 1740, and the Derrick Dey of Two Bridges, Morris 
County side, only a few miles away and who purchased land 
there in 1730. The house of the last named Derrick Dey was 
burned about 1846 or 1847 ^^^ "o^ J" 1842. 

The list of Generals known to have been in the Dey Mansion 
in 1780, when General Washington had Headquarters there 
(as given by the Editor on p. 257 of the October, 1921, Pro- 
ceedings) can be extended to include Major-Generals Robert 
Howe, Samuel H. Parsons and Benedict Arnold; also Briga- 
dier-Generals John Paterson, Alexander Scammell, Nathaniel 
Peabody, William Irvine, John Stark, Enoch Poor, James 
Clinton and Edward Hand ; also Colonels Thomas Proctor, 
Josiah Warner, Clement Biddle and Samuel B. Webb. 

On April 13, 1780, the Continental Congress appointed a 
"Committee of Cooperation at Headquarters," composed of 
Major-Gen. Philip Schuyler of New York, John Matthews of 
South Carolina (afterwards Governor) and Brig.-Gen. Na- 
thaniel Peabody of New Hampshire. This Committee made 
numerous reports to Congress until its final report in November, 
1780. During the period Washington was at Headquarters at 
Preakness the Committee was stationed at the Dey house. 

The unsuccessful expedition of Gen. Wayne with a Penn- 
sylvania Brigade to capture the Block House at Bull's Ferry, 
Bergen county (on the North River, opposite present West 80th 
Street, New York City) was arranged July 21, 1780, at the 
"Headquarters" in Preakness. This attack caused Major John 
Andre to write his satirical poem on the "Cow Chase." 

142- Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

One of the important matters heretofore overlooked by all 
who have written of the Dey Mansion is that Benedict Arnold 
twice visited the house in July, 1780. He left Philadelphia, 
ostensibly, to transact some private business in Connecticut. 
and on the way called on the Commander-in-Chief at "Head- 
quarters" to "pay his respects." On his return he again called 
there and broached the subject of obtaining command of West 
Point. A third time he essayed to see Washington at Preak- 
ness, but the army had left New Jersey and were then crossing 
the Hudson river. On August 3 he obtained the command 
desired from Gen. W^ashington (who had made his Headquar- 
ters at the Birdsall house, Peekskill. from Aug. 1 to 5), which 
he held until Sept. 25, when his treason was discovered. 
(Spark's "Amer. Biog.," Vol. 3, pp. 1^6- j; Lossing's "Field 
Book," Vol. 2, p. 145). On August 5. 1780, Arnold sent a 
letter to "Col. Richard Varick at Colonel Dey's, Parakanis," 
inviting him to become one of his (Arnold's) secretaries. 
Varick sent his acceptance, dated Hackensack, August 7. The 
unsuccessful attempt to capture Arnold in New York by the 
desertion of Sergeant John Champe, on Oct. 20, 1780, was plan- 
ned by Washington with ]Major Henry Lee in the Dey house. 
(Lossing's "Field Book," Vol. 2, p. 207), 

On Oct. 18, 1780, Washington issued a circular to the various 
States, showing the critical condition of the army. A facsimile 
of this letter, headed "Headquarters, near Passaic," is printed 
in Avery's "Hist, of the U. S.," Vol. 6, pp. 254-'5. On Oct. 22 
he appointed Major-Gen. Nathaniel Greene to command the 
Southern Army, superseding Major-Gen. Gates, who had made 
a failure of his campaign. This was headed, "Headquarters, 
Passaic Falls." Both, no doubt, emanated from the Dey house. 

Washington's letters from the Dey IMansion were headed in 
these various ways : "Col. Dey's House," "Col. Dey's," 
"Preakness," "Passaic Falls," "Near Passaic," "Near Passaic 
Falls," "Bergen County," and plain "Headquarters." 

The following letter in my possession, which has not been 
published, shows that in July, 1780, the Committee of Congress 
was at "Headquarters" in Prcakness : 

The "Washmgion Headquarters" in Montclair 143 

"Preakness, July 11, 1780. 
"Sir: I am directed by the Committee of Congress to re- 
quest you will procure and forward, for their use, as soon as 
possible, three or four gallons of the best ascid. I am, Sir, 

Your Most Obedient Serv't 
"Colo. Blaine. Benjamin Brown, D't Sec'y." 

The direction on the outside reads : 

"Colo. Ephraim Blaine, C. Gen'l Purchases, Philadelphia." 
Ph. Schuyler." 

Colonel Blaine was the great-grandfather of the late Hon. 
James G. Blains, of Maine, and Gen. Schuyler, who franked 
the letter, is, of course, well known. 

4^ t^ t5* t5* 



The interesting paper on the Preakness Valley in the Octo- 
ber, 1921, number of the Proceedings by Mr. Folsom, with its 
special reference to the old Dey Mansion, once used as a "Head- 
quarters" by General Washington, has reminded me of another 
Headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief in New Jersey, 
which not only fell into rather bad repair, similar to the present 
condition of the Preakness Headquarters, but was unfortunate- 
ly actually razed to the ground some years ago to make space 
for a modern dwelling. I refer to the old Crane Homestead, 
which stood for many years, with its picturesque well-sweep 
nearby, at the intersection of Valley Road, and Clairmont Ave- 
nue (in the "Old Road," as it was called in my boyhood) in 

This fine old stone Colonial homestead was said to have been 
built by Nathaniel Crane about 1700. or a little later, and was 
for a time, in the Colonial period and during the Revolutionary 
War, used as a public house. It was the most commodious 
dwelling in the old settlement of Cranetown (as ;Montclair was 
then called) and was, moreover, situated at the crossroads of 
the two principal Colonial highways. Nathaniel Crane was a 

144 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society | 

grandson of both Joseph Crane. St., and Robert Treat. He 1 

was born about 1680 and married Elizabeth Gibson, by whom | 

he had six children. He first settled "near a spring," which \ 

was not far from the present D. L. & W. R. R. Station in i 

Montclair. Later, he, or his son, William, built the old stone i 

Crane Mansion on Valley Road. Nathaniel was a son of • 

"Deacon" Azariah Crane and Mary Treat. This xA.zariah Crane, 
and his brother, Jasper Crane, Jr., both moved out from New- 
ark to that part of "the Mountains," then called "Cranetown," 
about 1680 to 1690, and were the original settlers of what is 
now Montclair. They were both sons of Jasper Crane, Sr., 
who was one of the original settlers of the New Haven Colony 
(June 4, 1639), and, with Robert Treat, led the colonists to 
Newark, where he headed the list of signers and church mem- 
bers of the First Church of Newark, June 20, 1667. 

It was, therefore, most natural for General Washington to 
select the Crane house as a Headquarters in the fall of 1780, 
when he was with his troops in the neighborhood. General 
Lafayette was there with him for part oT the time between the 
last of October and the middle of November that year (1780). 

The last Crane to own the old homestead in Alontclair was 
my life-long friend and schoolmate, Alfred J. Crane, now of 
Monroe, N. Y., who was seventh in direct line of descent from 
Jasper Crane, Sr.. and who, like his father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather, was born in the old Crane mansion. He 
had heard from his elders, when a boy, the traditions concern- 
ing the old house; and many were the times we talked them 
over together. The docimientary evidence of these interesting 
historical events, however, were just brought to our attention 
in 1894, when a chapter (VH) in the History of Montclair 
(compiled by Henry Whittemore and edited by the writer of 
this article), entitled "Cranetown during the Revolutionary 
War," was contributed by the Rev. Oliver Crane, D. D., LL.D., 
which quoted orders of General Washington dated at "Crane- 
town" or "Crane's Gap," and messages of General Lafayette ' 
addressed to him at the same place. 

These military communications were first printed, I think, in 
"General Washington's Revolutionary Orders," issued during 
the years 1778-1782, and edited by Lt. Col. Henry Whiting, U. 

Americans at the Second Baffle of the Manic 145 

S. A., New York (1844), and in the "Memoirs of Lafayette" 
by his son, George Washington Lafayette, pubHshed in EngHsh 
in New York (1S37). In the f^rst volume of the latter work, 
on pages 481-2, appears a letter by General Lafayette to the 
Commander-in-Chief, dated at Elizabethtown, October 26, 1780, 
addressed to him at "our position of Crane'stown," and 'in the 
former volume appears an order by General Washington, dated 
October 2^, 1780, in which he directs certain troops "to take 
post on the most convenient ground, to the Cranetown Gap 
and the Notch," thus again fixing ihe time and place of his 
temporary Headquarters. 

To those who are interested I venture to urge that they will 
read this entire interesting historical contribution by the late 
Rev. Dr. Oliver Crane in the "History of Montclair" above 
referred to, as those and other military orders and messages are 
quoted in full and the significant circumstances prevailing at 
the time are described in detail. 

At the time when General Washington was occupying the 
old Crane Mansion as a Headquarters, William Crane, the 
owner, who was then about sixty years old, and certainly four, 
if not five, of his sons, were performing active military duty in 
Washington's Army. 

In view of the fact that the important Dey INLmsion at Preak- 
ness has fallen into hands which do not keep it in adequate re- 
pair, and that the more temporary Headquarters of Washington 
which stood for so many years in Montclair no longer exists, 
it seems timely to suggest that other similar historic landmarks 
in New Jersey should be acquired by those who are sufficiently 
interested to properly maintain and preserve them, before it is 
too late. 

^ ^ ^ ^ 




The following eye-witness account, by a German Officer, of 
that part of the second Battle of the ALarne in which he per- 
sonally participated, was obtained, with some other similar 


146 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

papers of German origin, and sent to Major W. I. Lincoln 
Adams, of Alontclair, by a young relative of his, who is In- 
telligence Officer, now stationed with our military forces on 
the Rhine. The narrative describes, from the German point of 
view, of course, the first appearance of our soldiers in action 
in the Great War, and is of particular interest because it gives 
an apparently sincere and truthful account of the impression 
the American soldiers made upon their German adversaries. 

The account begins with a graphic description of the advance 
to the River Marne, and then proceeds as follows : 

"We cross the river comparatively quickly. We look at our 
watches : Tor heaven's sake, the barrage is already advancing!' 
l^orm ranks!' New objectives are given the companies, since 
everythmg has turned out differently than was planned. 

'The railway is crossed, the station of Varennes taken after 
a short combat, across the Moulins-Varennes road— we are 
already 1000 meters south of the Marne— and up the southern 
slope of the valley. Sharp firing and cries come from the right 
Jn the early fog, raiding parties in brown uniforms are seen 
advancmg through the high cornfields,— Americans ' They 
stand still now and then, and fire. Our soldiers run toward the 
rear. The situation is extremely critical. Where are our neioh- 
bors, the 6th Grenadiers ? Their attack must have failed. dScs 
the artillery see nothing? They are continuing their rolling 
fire according to plans.' That lasts until 1 1 A. M , and theS 
they are ready for other tasks. But even then thev probably 
would not have been able to accomplish them, because the ob- 
servation of the battle is very difficult; the mist on the ground 
renders the view indistinct ; the corn is high ; movements are 
made invisible by the numerous small woods and orchards 
1 he leaders of the 2nd and Fusilier Battalions, Captains von 
l^lehwe and Lben, who are at the front of their companies rec- 
ognize that there is grave danger in delay. Evervone'who 
knows how to shoot turns toward the rvj^ht flank of the enemy 
We must admit that he is tremendously courageous. Only 
after the hail of the machine guns and the desperate firincr of 
the infantry have reaped a bloody harvest in his ranks does he 
come to a standstill. We feel relieved. But everyone renhzes 
that our own attack has failed. We must see that we hold the 
positions gamed with our weak forces, numerically inferior 
to the enemy, 

"The railway seems well-adapted for defense. It is some- 
what elevated and also affords shelter against fire, but, on the 

; Americans at the Second Battle of the Marne 147 

other hand, it is naturally a good target for the enemy's ar- 
! tillery. The units farthest advanced are methodically with- 

■ drawn to this point. The right flank, which is exposed, is 

strongly protected. Connection with the neighbor on our left 
;'. is established about 11 A. M. His advance was somewhat 

f easier, but he is having a hard time fighting now. Strong 

S elements of Grenadier Regiment No. 6, which had been placed 

i to our right for the attack, crossed the stream, but then met 

I a too-powerful enemy and were destroyed. Great numbers of 

I the regiment are marching off as prisoners through the Sur- 

•5 melin Valley, through which we were to have made the attack. 

•; One of our companies — the 6th, under command of 2nd Lieu- 

\ tenant Oberg — which, strangely enough, had penetrated the 

I enemy's lines, takes them to be advancing German troops and 

. goes forward 4 kilometers on the eastern slope of the Sur- 

\ melin Valley, straight towards the enemy. Below, to the right, 

I American infantry columns are marching ; above, to the left, 

I the enemy batteries are firing incessantly, until at last the small 

I group is noticed. It is having a hard time now, but holds out 

I courageously until evening. Its brave leader and a few men 

fight their way back in the night through the enemy's lines to 
another German unit and rejoin us. That was a bright spot, 
but the only one during this operation, and that is why I men- 
tion it. 

"On the afternoon of July 15th [1918], we succeeded in 
improving our line somewhat, as the enemy withdrew his a 
little, probably for fear of a double flanking movement. But 
that changed nothing in the final result of the day, which was 
{ the worst defeat of the war. It was only necessary to descend 

I the northern slope of the Marne Valley. I have never seen so 

I many dead, never such fearful scenes of battle. The Ameri- 

! cans had annihilated two entire companies of ours in close com- 

bat on the opposite bank. They had lain in the corn in a semi- 
circle, had permitted them to approach and then, at a distance 
of 30 to 50 paces, shot down almost all of them. It must be 
admitted that this enemy had good nerves. 'The Americans are 
killing everybody!' was the cry of horror on July 15th, which 
long remained in the memory of our men. But people at home 
scoffed at the insufficient training of the enemy, at the American 
'bluff' and at other things ! That we left, in dead or wounded, 
on the battle-field, more than 60% of the troops which had been 
led into battle, is chiefly due to the Americans." 

The name of the German Officer who wrote this interesting 
account is not given ; the young American officer who procured 

148 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society j 

and sent it to Major Adams is Captain John Cheney Piatt, Jr., [ 

U. S. A., a member of the Montclair Chapter, Sons of the j 

American Revolution, j 

^% ^* (^* ^* 4 


Colonel Frederick G. Agens died on Dec. 2, 1921, at the | 

home of his son, Sylvester H. M. Agens, at 357 Parker street, | 

Newark. He was born in Newark Sept. 10, 1836, and was, J 

therefore, in his 86th year. His parents were Thomas and | 

Eliza Crane (Osborn) Agens. His grandfather, James Agens, j 

wintered at Valley Forge with Washington's army. On his • 
mother's side he was a descendant of Jasper Crane, one of the 

well-known earliest settlers of Newark. Colonel Agens was ;, 

educated at Wesleyan Institute, and entered the hat factory of \ 

his father, located where the Newark post office now stands ; 

and was long active in the city Fire Department. When the j 

Civil War broke out he was Lieutenant in the "Union Blues," | 

under command of General (then Colonel) Theodore Runyon. ] 

He then resigned to join the famous New York Seventh Regi- I 

ment as a private, and served through the Civil War, receiving | 

the title of Colonel afterward when serving on the staff of 1 

Governor Leon Abbett of New Jersey. At the close of the j 

War he engaged in the fire insurance business in New York j 

and, later, at Newark. He was President of the Underwriters' ] 

Protective Association. He belonged to several patriotic so- j 
cieties, including the S. A. R. and Washington Association of 
Morristown, and various other national and local societies. In 
1868 he married Emma Louise Moore, widow of Frederick C. 
Liese, and long had a home at High and Spruce sts., Newark, 
where he possessed a large collection of art objects and books. 
He is survived by two sons, Frederick G. Jr., and Sylvester 
H. M., and three grandchildren. He became a Life member 
of the New Jersey Historical Society Jan. 16, 1868. 

Edward Theodore Bell, banker, of Paterson, N. J., died 
Aug. 12, 1 92 1. He was born at Stanhope, N. J., March 26, 
1843, the son of Edward Sullivan and Catherine Louise 

Necrology of Members 149 

(Beach) Bell. After a preparatory education in the public 
schools and a finishing course at the Collegiate Institute, at 
Newton, N. J., he began business life in 1S60 as a messenger 
for the Hackettstown Bank. In 1864 he became teller of the 
Bank of Jersey City, and later, in the same year, was elected 
cashier of the First National Bank of Paterson. The latter 
office he held until 1875, when he retired, still retaining his 
connection, however, with the corporation through his position 
on the board of directors. In 1882 he was elected Vice-Presi- 
dent and in 1894 he became the President of the bank. The 
preparation of the charter and organization of the Paterson 
Savings Institution, in 1869, ^^'^s largely due to his efforts, and 
he became Vice-President of that institution; also President 
of the Paterson and Passaic Gas and Electric Company, and 
director of the Paterson and Ramapo Railroad Company. He 
was a member of the New Jersey Commission to the Paris 
Exposition in 1878; also one of the original Park Commis- 
sioners of Paterson and much credit was due him as a mem- 
ber of that commission, as well as for being the originator of 
the idea of the erection of a City Hall as a Centennial Me- 
morial. His religious affiliations were with the Church of the 
Redeemer (Presbyterian), of Paterson, in which he was Presi- 
dent of the board of trustees. He was President of the Eye 
and Ear Infirmary, Paterson; honorary member of the board 
of managers of the Paterson General Hospital Association; 
member of the advisory board of various charitable institutions, 
and also a member of many societies and clubs. He married at 
Newton, June 9, 1870, Anna A., daughter of Judge Daniel 
Stewart Anderson. Mrs. Bell died Nov. 23, 1908. His chil- 
dren were: Mae Anderson, now Mrs. Edward Van Ingen; Ed- 
ward T. (deceased), and Thornton Beach. Mr. Bell became 
a member of the New Jersey Historical Society in 1895. 

J. Edward Borden, of Eatontown, N. J., died at his home 
Jan. 7, 1921. He had been a life-long resident of that place, 
being a civil engineer. He had served several terms as a mem- 
ber of the Eatontown Township Committee; was an exempt 
fireman and member of the Eatontown Hook & Ladder Co. : 

1,50 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

was also one of the largest owners of property in that place 
and active in real estate transactions. His wife, who was 
Julia Harned, died a nun]1)er of years ago. He became a Life 
member of the New Jersey Historical Society Jan. 27, 1891. 

William H. Burnett, residing at 623 Prospect street, 
Maplewood, N. J., died Jan. iS, 1922. He was the son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Abner Ball Burnett of Newark, and was 84 years 
of age at the time of his death, after an illness of several 
■months. For many years he and a sister, the late Miss Rachel 
Burnett, were in business as W. H. & R. Burnett in Academy 
street, Newark. He was a former furrier, but in recent years 
President of the Newark Realty Co. On his retirement he be- 
■gan the development of property in the iMountain View sec- 
tion of Maplewood. He was also a veteran of the Civil War, 
serving in Co. G. of the 2nd Regiment. N. J. Volunteers, from 
May 28, 1861, to June 21, 1864, with the rank of Corporal. 
He is survived by his wife and one daughter. He became a 
member of the New Jersey Historical Society Jan. 4, 1904. 

Henry Mead Doremus, former Mayor of Newark, died at 
his home, 294 Mt. Prospect Ave., Newark, Jan. 16, 192 1. He 
was born in what was known as Jacksonville, Pequannock town- 
ship, Morris county, May 25, 1851, and was the son of Peter 
G. and Susanna Doremus. both of the same place. His early 
American ancestors were from Zeeland, Holland, and settled 
in New Jersey soon after coming to America. The old home- 
stead in Morris county still stands, though built in 1774. The 
Doremus family is among the oldest in New Jersey. 

Henry M. Doremus received his primary education in the 
public schools and at the age of seventeen came to Newark, 
being apprenticed to the carpenter trade. While thus employed 
he attended night school. He served four years in this em- 
ploy and then bought an interest in a grocery business, which 
he sold out four years later, to go to Topeka, Kan., where he 
worked at his trade as journeyman-carpenter. In 1879 ^^^ ^'^' 
turned to Newark and engaged in the contracting and building 
business. Mr. Doremus failed in business once, due to his 

Necrology of Members 151 

accommodation indorsements on other men's notes; went 
through bankruptcy, was cleared of his debts and started busi- 
ness anew. Years afterwards he gave a dinner at which all 
of his former creditors were guests, and at each man's plate 
, was laid a check for the full amount of the old debt, plus in- 
I terest. He was treasurer of the Franklin Savings Bank, direc- 
I tor of the Fidelity Trust Company and of the North Ward 
I National Bank, and Vice-President of the North Jersey and 
: Bridgeport Traction Company. He was Past Master of North- 
ern Lodge, F. and A. AL, and was also a member of the old 
.■ North End Club, the former Northern Republican Club and the 
^ Sons of the American Revolution. For many years he was a 
\ member of the Second Presbyterian church of Newark. 
( Mr. Doremus served two terms in the State Legislature, hav- 

; ing been first elected in 1884. In 1896 he was elected sheriff of 
f Essex county. He attended nine consecutive Republican Na- 
I tional Conventions as delegate, beginning in 1888 and continu- 
• Jng up to the Chicago convention of 1920. He was elected and 
I served as Mayor of Newark, i()02-'oy. It was during his 
j regime as Mayor that the present City Hall was completed. 
i He was responsible for a number of important innovations, 
I including free band concerts in the city and free excursions for 
I poor children. These departures marked the beginning of a 
I new epoch, in which the city government recognized in tangible 
I form the desirability and the need for providing wholesome 
j entertainment and recreation for both the children and their 
elders. ALiyor Doremus worked for the removal of poles and 
over-head wires from the city streets and for the abolishment 
of unnecessary noises. He kept up the crusade, which Mayor 
Seymour had begun, for the abolishment of grade crossings. 
He started a civil service system in the Police and Fire Depart- 
ments. The present Municipal Camp Newark, at Avon, is the 
direct outcome of a welfare work inaugurated by him. He laid 
the foundation of Newark's extensive playground system. He 
created the Shade Tree Commission in order to make a begin- 
ning in the work of preserving the trees that cool the walks 
and avenues in mid-summer. He was keenly jealous of the 
city's beauty spots and waged a war against unsightly signs 

152 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

and billboards. He closed up the old girls' dormitory at the 
City Home and established in its place a probation system. It 
was largely through his instrumentality that an old insurance 
ring was broken up and that changes were made in the condi- 
tions of the franchise held by the Public Service Railway Com- 
pany. In 1875, he married Miss Phoebe G. Baldwin, and was 
survived by his wife and several children. He had been a mem- 
ber of the New Jersey Historical Society since 191 1. 

Robert I. Hopper, long a prominent attorney in Paterson, 
died there Jan. 24, 1922, after a few days' illness from a gen- 
eral breakdown. Mr. Hopper was the son of the late Judge 
John Hopper and Mary A. (Imlay) Hopper, of Paterson, and 
was born in that city May 28, 1845. After a public school edu- 
cation he entered Rutgers College, being graduated there in 
1866. He studied law with his father and became a New Jer- 
sey attorney at the June Term, 1869, and a counselor three 
years later. For many years father and son were associated in 
practice in Paterson, being severed only because the father 
was elevated to the Bench. In 1878 he was chosen counsel to 
the Passaic Board of Chosen Freeholders and served as such 
for ten years. He was also secretary to the Paterson & Hud- 
son River Railroad (now part of the Erie R. R.), holding that 
office at the time of his death. He was active in the National 
Guard of New Jersey, having been Major and Judge Advocate, 
and was prominent in Masonic circles and in various clubs. His 
wife, who was Miss Ida E. Hughes, died April 24, 1878. Mr. 
Hopper became a Life member of the New Jersey Historical 
Society May 20, 1875. 

James Lawrence Kearny died at Perth Amboy on Decem- 
ber 16, 1921, in the house where he had lived all his life and 
his father before him. He was the son of Commodore Law- 
rence Kearny, a distinguished officer of the navy and native of 
Perth Amboy, of whom and of whose home mention is made in 
Mrs. Bcekman's paper, "A Colonial Capital," in the issue of 
the Proceedings for January, 191S (pp. 15, 16). James Law- 
rence Kearny, the son, was bom April 19, 1846, and was edu- 

Necrology of Members 153 

catecl principally at Eagleswood Academy, then a mile from 
Perth Amboy. He showed an aptitude for the sea but was 
f discouraged by his father, and entered into business life in 

■' New York, which, later, he was obliged to give up on account 

I of his widowed father's health. During a life of over 75 years 

\. he remained a citizen of Perth Amboy, filling various offices of 

I public and private trust. By nature an ardent sportsman, he 

I became a skilled fisherman and an accurate shot with rifle and 

I fowling piece. Having also the gift of the pen he contributed 

1 many articles over a long series of years to sporting papers, 

I especially "Forest and Stream," and was also local corre- 

i spondent of the "Evening Post." He was an admirable sailor 

I and a leading spirit in the local Yacht Club until commerce 

I drove yachting away from Perth Amboy. A natural musician, 

clever with the piano and guitar, with a ready wit and the 
[ merriest of laughs, lie was the life and soul of any social party. 

I In January, 18S1, he married Miss Margaret A. Rowlett, 

daughter of John Rowlett of Petersburg, Va., whose death in 
! 1898 was a blow from which he never recovered. There was no 

j child of the marriage. Of recent years he had been accustomed 

I to spend the winters in New Bern, North Carolina, 

j Mr. Kearny served many years as vestryman and warden of 

j St. Peter's Church, Perth Amboy, and lies buried in its church- 

yard within two squares of his former home. He was much 
interested in the New Jersey Historical Society, of which he 
became a member Jan. 11, 191 1, and was a regular attendant 
at its meetings until prevented by illness. He made a number 
of contributions to its library collections, including an oil por- 
trait of his father, which hangs in the main room. His personal 
character was above reproach, and it is the testimony of one 
who has known him intimately for half a century, that his rec- 
ord was never tarnished by a small or mean action. 

Ephraim AIorrtson, physician and banker, of Newton, N. 
J,, died May 10, 1918. He was a native of St. John's, New 
Brunswick, where he was born Aug. 18, 1852. At the age of 
fifteen he entered the employ of a druggist in his native city. 
Being early embued with the idea of becoming a physician, he 

This belated notice, which should have been published in 1916, has 
been prepared by Headmaster A. F. Jamieson, of the Lawrenceville 
School. The reason this and other occasional notices of death of mem- 
bers of the Society are late, sometimes several years late, is because 
either of inability to secure earlier obituary notices, or because the Soci- 
ety has been uninformed of the fact of death. 

154 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society \ 

emigrated to the United States and worked his way through the | 

College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York, from which ! 

institution he graduated in 1875. He went to Newton, where i 

he engaged in the drug business with his brother-in-law, the ' 

late A. F. Fellows, and later with John H. B. Howell, but con- ] 

tinued in practice. For fifteen years he was connected with the • 

Merchants' National Bank, Newton, having become a director | 

in 1902, Vice-President in 1906 and President in 1912, an office \ 

which he held at the time of his death. He was a member of i 

Newton's first Board of Health, a former member of the Board • 

of Education, President of an Association that was instru- | 

mental in establishing the Sussex County Farm Bureau, and i 

was a member and had held office in numerous medical societies, i 

having been President at one time of the Tri-County Medical ] 

Society. He was a director of the State Home for the Feeble- \ 

Minded at Vineland. He was one of Newton's best and most 
prominent citizens and was ever foremost in movements for the : 

town's betterment. Dr. Morrison was survived by his wife, 
form.erly Miss Charlotte Holten ; a son. Dr. Frank Morrison ; 
a daughter, Mrs. Lola iMorrison Hull, of Newton, and a 
brother. Dr. John B. Morrison, of Newark. He became a Life 
member of the New Jersey Historical Society in 1906. 

Joseph Ridgeway Such, of South Amboy, N. J., died in 
New York City June 8, 1921. He was a son of the late George 
Such and Anna (Ridgeway) Such, and was 56 years of age 
at the time of his death. He became a member of the New 
Jersey Historical Society in 191 1. 

Francis Cuyler vanDyke, Jr.,^ was born December 26, 
1873, ^"d died January 25, 1916. His mother was a physician 
and his great-grandfather a noted singer. At five or six years 
of age Mr. vanDyke began to show interest in both vocal and 

Necrology of Members 155 

instrumental music. When he entered the Rutgers Preparatory 
School he had already mastered its rudiments, and he was play- 
ing an organ at fifteen. At sixteen he was organist in a church. 
In 1890 he was graduated at school and entered Rutgers Col- 
lege. During the four years at college he was a successful mem- 
ber of the Glee Club, and also a member of Delta Upsilon. 
Though he took the classical course, he covered also all the 
scientific branches, showing equal facility in linguistic and 
scientific studies. His father's success in teaching physics at 
Rutgers must have been an incentive in that subject. Upon 
graduation in 1894 Mr. vanDyck began to teach science in New- 
ark Academy. Later on, he taught private pupils in music and 
was organist in the Stelton Baptist Church, the Second Re- 
formed Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, all of New 
Brunswick ; and at a still later time in the Westminster Presby- 
terian Church at Elizabeth. It was here that he was married 
to Florence Whiton Whedon, of Elizabeth, on Dec. 22, 1898. 

In 1899 Mr. vanDyck was engaged to teach mathematics 
at the Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville, N. J., and in 1900 
he was given charge of the school organ, and the development 
there of the larger life in music dates from that period. Every 
year something new and fine came from his fertile genius. He 
practically constructed the organ in Alexander Hall, Princeton, 
and was given control of the enlargement of the organ at 
Bethany Church, Trenton, which he opened with several re- 
citals. His advice was asked when the large organ was built 
in the High School at Trenton, where he gave many recitals, 
particularly on the music of different nations. He was survived 
by his widow and three daughters, Mary (Mrs. Louis Fair- 
banks Kendall), Penelope and Florence; and by his father, his 
brother William van Bergen vanDyck, and his adopted brother, 
Pierre vanDyck. Throughout his life he was universally ad- 
mired and loved by all who had the privilege of his acquaintance 
and friendship. The following excerpts from a poem written 
by a colleague at Lawrenceville well expresses the truth of this 

"Cuyler, old man, 
They little know or you or us 
Who say : 'He is not here.' 

IS6 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

How eagerl}' the tendrils of your heart reached out 

To clasp and hold our hearts ! 

How happily 

The vintage of your soul expressed its wine 

To gladden other souls less blest! 

Each day begins with you — 

The chimes that call us to the house of God. 

The organ notes that move our hearts to prayer, 

The morning hymn of praise — 

Your face an inspiration for the day — 

The garden that you worked, 

The trees where hung your hammock. 

All the links, where you and Pop 

Played horse at golf — 

Where else? 

Why, everywhere ! 

Yet most of all, deep, deep within the hearts 

Of those who, knowing, I 

Never cease to love." 1 

Hon. Bennet Van Syckel, former Justice of the Supreme \ 

Court of New Jersey, died Dec. 20, 192 1, at his Trenton resi- | 

dence, following a brief illness of bronchial pneumonia. He | 

was in his 92nd year and the oldest alumnus of Princeton 1 

University. He was the son of Aaron and Mary Van Syckel, 1 

of Bethlehem, Hunterdon county, and was born there April I 

17, 1830. His father and his grandfather were country mer- I 

chants, whose ancestors came with the old Dutch settlers to 1 

that part of New Jersey. His father was considered wealthy 1 

in those days and was able to give his four sons, (one of whom j 

was the late Chester Van Syckel, also a lawyer, of Fleming- 1 

ton, N. J.) an excellent education. When Bennet was nine ; 

years old he was sent to a boarding school at Easton. At the 
age of thirteen he completed his preparatory studies and entered 
Princeton in the Sophomore class. Three years later (1846) 
he was graduated with high honors and for one year was resi- 
dent graduate Assistant Professor to Joseph Henry, who oc- 
cupied the chair of Natural Philosophy. He next took up the 
study of law in the office of Alexander Wurts of Flemington, 
and was prepared to take his law examination some time before 
he was of age, but as he could not be admitted to the Bar while 
under twenty-one was forced to wait. On the twenty-first an- 
niversary of his birthday, at the April Term of the Supreme 
Court, 1 85 1, he was admitted to the Bar, and became counselor 
at the June Term, 1854. He at once opened office in Flem- 

Necrology of Members 157 

ington, and practiced there with unusual success until February, 
1858, when Governor Randolph appointed him Justice of the 
Supreme Court. At that time he was the youngest member of 
the Court. His Circuits were in the counties of Salem, Cum- 
berland, Atlantic and Cape May. When the number of Su- 
preme Court Justices was increased from seven to nine and the 
districts were readjusted. Justice Van Syckel was assigned to 
Union and Ocean counties, where he presided twenty-nine 
years. He was five times reappointed. Only a few months 
after his last appointment in 1904 he resigned because of ill 
health and increasing age. 

After his retirement Justice Van Syckel was made the guest 
of the New Jersey Bench and Bar, at Trenton, upon which 
occasion a portrait of him painted in oil was presented to the 
State, to be hung on the wall of the Supreme Court room at the 
Capitol. A few months later another portrait was hung in 
the new courthouse in Union county, in honor of the Justice 
who had presided there for so many years. In 1880 Prince- 
ton conferred upon him the honor of LL.D. 

During his term of service Justice Van Syckel delivered some 
of the most important opinions of the Supreme Court and of 
the Court of Errors and Appeals. In the prosecution of the 
Linden and Elizabeth race track gamblers in 1893 ^^^ proved a 
terror to poolsellers, bookmakers and evildoers. It was Justice 
Van Syckel who wrote the opinion of the Supreme Court when 
an effort was made to challenge the majority cast in favor of 
the anti-gambling amendment to the State Constitution, and 
his opinion upholding the adoption of the amendment was 
sustained by the Court of Errors and Appeals. At the time of 
his death a membership in the directorate of the Prudential 
Life Insurance Company was the former Justice's sole business 
afifiliation. His activity in connection with this post caused his 
associates to marvel. He attended all the meetings and was 
as alert as the youngest of his colleagues. At the Princeton 
Alumni Reunion in June, 1920, he led the Parade around the 
baseball field and got a big ovation from the throng in attend- 
ance. In his automobile he arose repeatedly and raised his hat 
in acknowledgment of the applause. In 191 1, Woodrow Wil- 

158 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society j 

son, when Governor, appointed him and former State Attorney- \ 

General Edmund Wilson, of Red Bank, as a commission to | 

study the proposed abandonment of the Morris Canal. The | 

report was adverse to the State taking over the canal. The ] 

Justice aided in the drafting of the "Seven Sisters" Acts, passed | 

during the Wilson administration, which were designed to curb j 

the activities of the trusts in New Jersey. | 

Justice Van Syckel was a lover of outdoor sports. In his *i 

younger days he played town ball and football and later was a ] 

great admirer of baseball. He rode horseback, played golf 1 

and was a fine wing shot. In politics he was a Democrat, but j 

politics had no place with him while he sat on the Bench. Mr. | 

Van Syckel married Miss Mary Elizabeth Sloane, daughter i 

of Mr. and Mrs. William Hand Sloane. He is survived by two \ 

sons, Charles S. and William S., and a daughter, Bessie. He j 

became a member of the New Jersey Historical Society in • 
March, 1917. 

J* Jt jx j» 



Getting to New Orleans, 1800, 1839, 1822 

Historical matter, especially when it deals with a near ship- 
wreck, is not supposed to be humorous, but few of our readers 
will peruse the "Young Man's Journal of iSoo," etc., in this 
issue without seeing a humorous side to it. No one should 
miss reading it, as it is as interesting as a novel. The voyage 
from the mouth of the Mississippi to New York, occupying 
48 days, appears to have been as hazardous in the year 1801 as 
the voyage of the Apostle Paul, nearly 1900 years earlier. But 
we suspect the Captain of the "ship of Alexandria sailing into 
Italy," A. D. 62, was a better informed man as to how to navi- 
gate the seas than the Capt. Hacquin of the "Neptune" of the 
narrative. On this subject of the slowness of travel before the 
days of railroads, a correspondent, Mr. William H. Benedict, 
of New Brunswick, says (quite corroborative of the Johnson 
experience) : 

Historical Notes and Comments 159 

"I have found an article in 'Niles' Register' of 1839, en- 
titled 'Travel as it Was and Is,' being from New York to New 
Orleans in 1800 and then in 1839. The person traveling thus 
notes it : 

" 'April 3, 1800. Left New York on ferryboat for Jersey 

City; thence by a two-horse coach to Philadelphia, arriving 

on fourth day, at 4 P. M. Left Philadelphia next morning in 

one-horse shay, with mail-bag behind, for Lancaster, where 

k we arrived the third day. Bought a horse, and in 9 days reached 

I Pittsburgh. Bought a flat boat for $18, and, with some others, 

f left for New Orleans, floating with the current. After divers 

.* adventures and escapes from great peril by land and by water 

I ■ we reached Natchez, the 57th day after leaving Pittsburgh, and 

I arrived at New Orleans 13 days thereafter; all told 84 days, 

a which our friends in New Orleans said was expeditious. My 

i personal cost was £27.11. 4%. 

f " 'Now, in 1839, I had occasion to make the journey again. 

I Left New York Jan. 21, at 6 A, M. ; took train at Jersey City 

I and arrived in Philadelphia ten minutes past 12 ; time 6 hrs., 

I 10 min. ; cost $4. At 2 P. M. left by railroad for Baltimore 

I and arrived at 8 P. AL ; time 6 hrs. ; cost $4. Left Baltimore 

I next P. M., at 4, in mail chariot for Wheeling; arrived five 

I minutes before 12 Saturday noon; time 43 hrs., 50 min.; cost 

I . $23. Left Wheeling next morning in stage for Cincinnati ; 

arrived in 59 hrs., 30 min. ; cost $24.50. Left Cincinnati at 

1 10 next morning, on steamboat 'Pike,' and reached Louisville 

at 10 P. M. ; time 12 hrs. ; cost $4. Left Louisville next morn- 

j ing at II in steamboat 'Diana.' and reached Natchez the sixth 

I day, 149 hrs. ; cost $35. Left Natchez the same day and reach- 

i ed New Orleans next evening; time 30 hrs. ; cost $10. Expenses 

I at Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati and Louisville, $10.00. 

i Total, 306 hrs., 30 min., or 12 days, 18 hrs., 30 min.; cost 

i $114.50. Difference in time about 71 days, and difference in 

j expense $25 in favor of 1839. This was a winter journey; a 

i summer trip could be made for $80.00 and in less time.' " 

! "And now in 1922," says ]\Ir. Benedict, "the New York 

and New Orleans Limited via Philadelphia will reach New 

Orleans in i day, 16 hours; fare, with Pullman, meals and tips 

included, about $75.00 ; gain in time 1 1 days, 2}^ hours ; cost 

about the same as the summer trip in 1839." 

"The Stirling Baronetcy," etc. 

In relation to the first article in the last Proceedings under 
the foregoing title, the authorship of which, as therein stated, 
was credited to the Marquis de Fontenoy, we have a letter 

i6o Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society i 

from Mr. Livingston Rutherfurd, of 18 West 25th St., New \ 
York City, which says : | 

"I desire to call your attention to an erroneous statement in | 
the concluding paragraph of the [above named] article. I own \ 

James Alexander's family Bible. The records it contains are all 5 

in his writing. He records the birth of a son, James, who d. I 

in infancy, and William, afterward called Lord Stirling, and \ 

no others. (See chart facing p. 24 in my book, 'Family Records 
and Events,' in the Library of your Society). I read the same ■'. 

article in the 'Evening Sun,' and a few days later they published l 

my correction." \ 

In printing the de Fontenoy article we were impressed with j 

the statement therein that Lord Stirling "had two younger ? 

brothers, Robert and Gerard," and wondered why they had ] 

never been mentioned in print before, and why there was no ^ 

hint of them in Duer's "Life of Lord Stirling." It now ap- * 

pears they were not sons of James Alexander, and we are glad | 

to note herewith Mr. Rutherfurd's correction. \ 

The "Printer's Door" from Burlington j 

Some interest attaches to the door recently presented to the ] 

New Jersey Historical Society by Mr. Henry S. Haines of \ 

Burlington. It originally swung in a house in Burlington which ; 

was said to have been occupied by Samuel Jennings, Deputy j 
Governor (i68i-'84). Mr. Haines himself says of the house 
and door : 

"This old building stood on the westerly side of High street 
about eighty feet southwardly from Pearl street. It was de- 
molished in the year 1881 to give place to a residence now 
occupying the principal part of the ground on which it stood. 
In order to justify the well-authenticated tradition that Samuel 
Jennings occupied it as an office when Deputy-Governor, al- 
though reliable evidence is wanting, it must be conclusive that 
it was built by Thomas Budd about 1680. the premises being 
then owned by him. Jennings subsequently became possessed 
of it and so remained at least as late as 1695, from wdiich date 
until i726-'7 its occupancy is unknown to me. At the date last 
named, Samuel Keimer, having obtained a contract for printing 
the Colonial money for the Province, employed Benjamin 
Franklin to execute the work, which he successfully performed 
in this house. As to its use from that date until 1765. I am 
ignorant; but in the year last named. Smith's 'History of New 

f Historical Notes and Comments i6l 

Jersey' was printed there by James Parker upon a press brought 
from Woodbridge and returned when the work was completed. 

'; At a later date Isaac Collins, who had succeeded Parker as 

i King's Printer, produced there the Continental money of Rev- 

I olutionary times. Many valuable publications issued from his 

I press, one of its chief productions being the 'New Jersey 

I Gazette.' Collins' establishment was removed to Trenton about 

h 1778, after which time no printing was done in the building. 

I "As to the authenticity of the door itself, I may say that my 

I home was immediately opposite and I played around it in my 

i early boyhood and had perfect knowledge of its parts. This 

[ door, with another which I presented to the Burlington County 

I Historical Society, was removed from the premises by myself, 

f and sirice certified to me as genuine by one who occupied the 

; house more than three score years ago, the exact location of 

I each door as it originally stood being by him pointed out to me." 

j Our Neglected Public Records 

I Some of the newspapers of the State have published an ab- 

I stract of, or commented upon, the first annual report of the 

I new New Jersey Public Record office, of which Dr. Carlton E. 

! Godfrey, of Trenton, is Director. We have not space to note 

i all, or even a part, of the statement of the Director, which in 

I compact shape states the condition of many of the municipal 

I offices in this State. As there are 586 independent municipali- 

I ties it is clear that it would take a long time for the Director to 

I make a personal examination of the condition of matters in 

j even all the important municipal districts, and, naturally, cor- 

i respondence in reference to them will often fail to secure re- 

sults needed. This report is highly valuable as showing what 
county records are missing and how lightly township and bor- 
ough officials have treated their minutes, whether pre-Revolu- 
tionary or in later years, as deserving of preservation for his- 
torical purposes. It is now to be hoped that what does exist of 
past municipal records will be better cared for in the future. A 
removal of every record (except county records) up to, say 
25 years ago, to Trenton, to some accessible and fire-proof 
place in or near the State House, would be an ideal disposition 
of them. 


l62 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Hall of Fame for Old Trees 

The American Forestry Association has instituted a "Hall j 

of Fame for Trees." Among the number thus far nominated | 

one only has been named as from New Jersey. This is known | 

as the Crosswicks oak, being in the town of that name standing ] 

•close to the old meeting house built in 1773. The church was \ 

used as a hospital during the Revolution and at one time was j 

occupied by a regiment of Hessians. The oak is said to be one ] 

of the largest in New Jersey, having a circumference of 26^ j 

feet at a height of three feet above the ground. The tree is | 

87 feet high, having a spread of 123 feet. U these dimensions | 

are correct, it is a trifle larger than the immense swamp oak i 

which still graces the churchyard of the Basking Ridge Presby- I 

terian church, and which shelters about 100 gravestones; its \ 

circumference is 24 feet 6 inches one foot above ground, and ^ 

the spread of its branches is 120 feet. It is thought to be 400 
years of age, which, of course, is a mere estimate. 

The Preparation of a Family History 

Many are the ways of preparing a family history for pub- 
lication. If all ancestral and many collateral lines are to be 
included, an excellent model in most respects is that of the 
Welles family, a pamphlet of 382 pages prepared by Rev. 
Theodore W. Welles, of Paterson, and published in 1903. But 
there are so many other and larger family publications, by 
New Jersey and other authors, consultable in our Society's 
library, that it would be an invidious distinction to single them 
out as "models ;" few, indeed, are such, akhough most of them 
have their distinctive merits. When it comes, however, to a 
strict adherence to one male line of a family, beginning with the 
•first American immigrant, there is no other work ever pub- 
lished in this State written with the literary charm and interest, 
and arranged with the skill, of the privately-printed small 
volume entitled "The Raritan : Notes on a River and a Family" 
(1915), by Prof. John C. Van Dyke of New Brunswick. The 
book is not in the market, being for private circulation among 
one line of Van Dykes, but our Society is fortunate to possess 
a copy. 


1 Historical Notes and Comments 163 

Sussex County's Historical Home 

The Sussex County Historical Society is to be congratu- 
lated on possessing a building of its own, which was dedi- 
cated with a banquet on Feb. 13th last. Former Judge Wil- 
liam H. Morrow, of Belvidere, was the principal speaker. 
Mr. John J. Van Sickle was toastmaster. Mayor Elwood D. 
i Shuster, of Franklin, also made an address on the opening 

I and development of the zinc mines in Sussex county. 

I A novelty in this building is the mammoth fireplace, contain- 

I ing stones of historic significance and is dotted with a variety 

i of multi-colored pieces of rock taken from the mines of the 

I New Jersey Zinc Company at Franklin and Ogdensburg. Two 

large stones, one on either side of the base, were taken from 
the foundation of the old Anderson house in Newton, where 
I General Washington slept in Revolutionary days. Next in or- 

I der are pieces of rock from each of the four old forts, Shipa- 

j cong, Nomanock, Shapanock and Walpack, that were built by 

I New Jersey in 1755 to protect the State from invasion. Stones 

I from the first church, built at Walpack Bend in 1737, and of the 

I first parsonage at Fort Nomanock, built in 1741, are also 

I studded in the facing. 

j The first bridge across the Delaware, at Phillipsburg in 1796 ; 

I the first ferry. Walker's Ferry, at Shawnee, 1732, and the old 

I copper mines at Pahaquarry, opened in 1640, also are com- 

I memorated. Cut in two pieces and set on either side of the 

center, above the mantel, is the first millstone that ever ground 

by water power in Sussex county. It was taken from the 

Van Campen mill in Walpack Township. There is a piece of 

Moody's rock, on the shores of the Muckshaw, which the noted 

Tory made famous, and a portion chipped from a milestone on 

the Deckertown-Owego turnpike, opened at the start of the 

Nineteenth century. A stone from the Indian trail leading from 

the mouth of the Shrewsbury River to the village of Minisink 

and a piece of Indian pottery found in the Indian cemetery at 

Minisink are included in the collection. 

Pieces of stone from the highest and lowest points in New 
Jersey, both of which are in Sussex county, are shown. One 
is from the topmost rock on High Point, 1,823 feet above sea 

164 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

level, and the other from the Ogdensburg mine of the Xew 
Jersey Zinc Company, over 2,000 feet below the bed of the 
Walkill River and about 1,200 feet below sea level. 

The mantel, eight feet long and one foot wide, is of rough- 
hewn granite and comes from the quarries at Glenwood, as do 
the stones that comprise the arch. Studded in the center, about 
three feet above the mantel, is a piece of quartz, the largest 
ever found in .Sussex county. It is used just as it was found. 
but Nature had fashioned it so perfectly that it looks as though 
it had come from the hand of a diamond cutter. Mr. George 
Sharp of Lafayette, who built the fireplace, employed the square 
type of pointing, in use about 200 years ago. 

The Ward Library. — The late IMarcus Lawrence Ward, 
of Newark, left to the New Jersey Historical Society by will 
his fine collection of books, numbering over 2,000 volumes. 
These books are now being catalogued and placed in the So- 
ciety's Library, and will form a most valuable addition thereto. 

fc5* t?* fc?* fe?* 


Governor Livingston's Family. — In the last Proceedings 
(p. 82), it was stated that there did not seem to be, in print, a 
list of all the children of Governor William Livingston (1723- 
1790), the well-known first Governor of this State after In- 
dependence, his service being for about 14 years (1776-1790). 
Mr, Alexander Campbell, lawyer, of i Broadway, New York 
City, writes that in "The Livingstons of Livingston ]\Ianor," 
by Edward Brockholst Livingston, published in 1910 (by pri- 
vate subscription), the following appears in an Appendix: 

"Family of William Livingston : The War Governor of 

New Jersey 

"William Livingston was born in November. 1723, and was 
the seventh son of Philip Livingston, second Lord of the 
Manor; baptized at Albany, N. Y., S Dec. 1723; married, about 
1745. Susana, daughter of Philip French and Susana Brock- 
holies (or Brockhurst) ; died at Elizabethtown, N. J., 25 July, 
1790. Mrs. Livingston was baptized at New York 19 June, 

'' Queries and Miscellany 165 

1723, and died also at Elizabethtown, N. J., 17 July, 1789. 
{ Their children were : 

\ "I. A son, born in 1746; died in infancy. 

r; "II. A son born in 1747; died in infancy. 

I "III. Susanna, born 1748, married 10 Sept., 1794, John 

\ Cleve Symmes, of New Jersey, Colonel of militia 1775; mem- 
} ber of State Convention, 1776; Associate Justice of Supreme 
\ Court of New Jersey in 1777, and a Judge of the Northwest 
f Territory in 1786. She was his third wife, 
j "IV. Catharine, born 16 Sept., 1751 ; married (ist) Mat- 

i thew Ridley of Baltimore. 14 Apr.. 1787; (2nd) John Living- 
1 ston, of Oak Hill, 3d Nov., 1796; died 8 Dec, 1813. Her 
\ second husband was the 5th son of Robert, 3d Lord of the 
I Manor, and she was his 2d wife. This marriage took place 
\ at Governor John Jay's official residence. Government House, 
I New York City. 

"V. Mary, born 16 Feb., 1753; married 27 May, 1771, 
; James Linn. 

I "VI. William, born 21 March, 1754; married Mary Len- 

1 nington ; died 1817. 

i "VII. Philip Van Brugh, baptized at New York 28 July, 

: 1755; died unmarried. 

1 "VIII. Sarah Van Brugh, born 2 Aug.. 1756; married 28 

I April, 1774, John Jay, Chief Justice State of N. Y., 1777; min- 

I ister to Spain, 1779: one of American Commissioners who 

I signed Treaty of Peace with Great Britain in 1783; Chief Jus- 

tice Supreme Court U. S., 1789; died at Bedford, New York, 
28 May, i8c2. 

"IX. Henry Brockholst, born in New York 25 Nov., 1757; 
married (ist) Catharine, daughter of Peter Keteltas and 
Elizabeth Van Zandt, 2 Dec. 1784: (2d) Ann, daughter of 
Gabriel Henry Ludlow and Ann Williams; (3d) Catharine, 
daughter of Edward Seaman and widow of Captain John 
Kor'tright; died 18 March, 1823, at Washington. D. C. 

"X. Judith, born 30 Dec, 1758; married John Watkins; 
died 7 July. 1843. 

"XI. Philip French, born Sept., 1760; drowned at Hacken- 
sack. N. J. 

"XII. John Lawrence, born 15 July. 1762; lost at sea 18 
March, 17S1, with the 'Saratoga.' man-of-war. 

"XIII. Elizabeth Clarkson.^born 5 April, 1764 ; died young." 

We may add to the foregoing the following: The tenth 
child, Judith, according to Bolton's "Hist, of Westchester Co.," 
N. Y., vol. 2, was buried in the Jay plot in that county, the 
tombstone reading: 

l66 Proceedings A^cw Jersey Historieal Society 

"In memory of Judith, relict of John W. Watkins, Esq., and 
last surviving daughter of WilHam Livingston. Governor of 
New Jersey, who departed this Hfe July /th, 1843, in the 83d 
year of her age." 

If born in 1760, as per the work first quoted, she must have 
been nearly 85 at death instead of 83 ; perhaps the latter is a 
misprint. The eleventh child, Philip French, was drowned in 
May, 1768, as a newspaper extract in the "N. J. Archives," 
vol. 26, pp. 176, 177, relates. The life history of the ninth 
child, Henry Brockholst, who died while an Associate Justice 
of the U. S. Supreme Court, is too well known to need further 

GovERxoR Ogden's ELIZABETH Office. — 'Tn the interesting 
article by Hon. Frederick \V. Gnichtel on "The End of Duel- 
ling in New Jersey," which appeared in the July, 1921, Pro- 
ceedings, in speaking of the challenge posted by Gibbons on 
the door of Colonel (Governor) Ogden's office, he states (on 
p. 151) that the office was located in the wing of a dwelling 
house on Broad street, Elizabeth. This would appear to be a 
mistake in location, as my present residence on East Jersey 
street was, at the time referred to. and for many years, owned 
and occupied by Aaron Ogden, who had his law office in a wing 
at the west end of the old building. This wing was removed 
many years ago, but I am told forms part of a house in Mor- 
rell street. A photograph of this historic house, as it exists 
to-day, is on exhibition in the New Jersey Historical Society's 
rooms in Newark." W. R. D. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 

[Perhaps we should call attention also, even at this late date, 
to the fact that the Thomas Gibbon, of the article referred to. 
was Thomas Gibbons, the final "s" being left off the name in 
the article by an error of the typist of Judge Gnichtel's con- 
tribution. — Editor] . 

PosTOFFiCES IX New Jersey IX iSoo. — According to the 
official records in Washington the following were all the post- 
offices in this State in 1800: 

Queries and Miscellany 167 

Place Established 

Allentown January i , 1 796. 

Amboy March 20, 1793. 

Atsion January i , 1 798. 

Booneton (Boonton) April i, 1793. 

Bridgetown East (Rahway) November 16, 179c. 

^ Bridgetown West (Bridgeton) March 20, 1793. 

I Burlington April i, 1798. 

I Elizabethtown February 3, 1790. 

I Flemington January i, 1795. 

i Hackensack April i, 1798. 

i Hacketstown July i, 1795. 

I Hamburg October i, 1795. 

j Johnsonburg January 20, 1796. 

f Middletown Point April i, 1795. 

I Monmouth January i, 1795. 

I Morristown March 20, 1793. 

I Newark February 16, 1790. 

I New Brunswick October i, 1797. 

I New Germantown January i, 1795. 

I Newtown (Newton) July i, 1797. 

j Pittston (Pittstown) January i, 1795. 

i Plainfield April i, 1800. 

\ Prmceton February 16, 1790. 

Rahway October i, 1797. 

Rockaway March 20, 1793. 

South Kingston October i, 1797. 

Trenton February 16, 1790. 

Tuckerton January i, 1798. 

Woodbridge July 31, 1792. 

Woodbury March 20, 1793. 

Woodstown March 20, 1793. 

CoDDiNGTOX. — "David Coddington, who is buried at New 
Brunswick, N. J., was born July 31, 1801. Desire to know the 
place of his birth and name of his father." 

V. C. S. (Strafford, Pa.) 

l68 Proceedings Nctv Jersey Historical Society | 

Long, the Tory Schoolmaster. — "In the last Proceedings ] 

(January, pp. 25, 26) mention is made in the Revohitionary 1 

Record of Henry Williams of one Long, a Tory schoolmaster, i 

of Rahway, N. J. An unpublished document in the Public j 

Record Office in London (F. O. 4/1) gives a different version j 

of the execution of Thomas Long (to give him his full i.ame). 1 

According to this document, which is a petition of a conspicu- \ 

ous New Jersey Loyalist, John Smith Hatfield, a native of 1 

Elizabethtown, Long was executed after enduring the barbar- 
ous punishment of chopping oft his fingers and toes for the 
kindly action of informing Loyalists of the condition of their | 

separated families. As a reprisal for this execution, one Ste- \ 

phen Ball, a self-confessed spy and one of the leaders in in- j 

flicting this torture upon the schoolmaster, was apprehended I 

and executed. \ 

"Captain Cornelius Hatfield, of the New Jersey Volunteers, I 

hailing from Elizabethtown and probably a brother or kins- i 

man of John Smith Hatfield, was responsible mainly for the | 

capture and execution of Ball. (See Stryker's *N. J. Volun- | 

teers,' p. 49). i 

"John Smith Hatfield in his petition says he (Hatfield) | 

acted during the Revolutionary War as a guide for the British j 

Army in New Jersey and as a pilot for naval vessels. With ] 

Captain Cornelius Hatfield and Samuel Man he went to Spring- 1 

field, N. J., and captured Colonel Ogden and Captain Daton and \ 

took them to New York as prisoners. He was also instrumental | 

in capturing Matthias Halsted, a Justice of the Peace, Colonel j 

Thomas and Captain Smith, as well as a number of 'other \ 

notorious rebels and persecutors of the Loyalists, so that all \ 

of them dreaded and hated him.' j 

"The petition of this New Jersey Loyalist is a contemporary ] 

piece of evidence of the extreme bitterness of the personal j 

enmity between the Revolutionists and the Loyalists. None 
were more active and zealous on the Loyalist side than those 
of American birth." E. A. J. (Pwllheli, Wales). 

[The interested reader may consult further, as to Capt. 
Hatfield, Clayton's "Hist, of Union and Middlesex Cos.," p. 94. 
— Editor]. 

f Queries and Miscellany 169 

Gordon. — "I notice on page 9 of January Proceedings you 
state that Robert Gordon was a brother of Thomas Gordon. 
Thomas had a brother Robert, but this is not he. Thomas was 
of the Pitlurg family, while Robert Gordon was of the Clunie 
family of Gordons, separate branches of the Gordon family." 
I D. McG. (East Orange, N. J ) 

I "There is a slight error on page 9 in the January Proceed- 

I INGS, stating that Robert Gordon, whose letter therein appears, 
I is the brother to Thomas Gordon. You will recall that Thomas 
I Gordon was of the Pitlurg family, whilst Robert Gordon 
1 bought Clunie and described himself as 'Robert Gordon of 
I Clunie,' but, in fact, he was of the Gordonston family. His 

;■ eldest brother was Sir Ludowick Gordon of Gordonston and 

! their sister married David Barclay, which thus made him the 

I uncle of Robert and David Barclay mentioned in the article. 

I His son Augustin, calling himself an apothecary, had lands 

I near Freehold in 1701, but died in London in 1712, leaving a 

! wife, Margaret, and a son, William, mentioned in his will filed 

i at Somerset House, London. If he had other children, he does 

! not mention them. A more elaborate statement about this Rob- 

j ert, besides other Gordons, will be found in No. 5868 of 'Jersey 

I Genealogy,' as published in the Newark 'Evening News.' 

Therein I stated as a theory, that Robert Gordon of Clunie 
'was doubtless too advanced in years to emigrate,' and Robert 
Gordon in the letter states as a fact : 'There are considera- 
tions before me which makes me inclyne very much to be an 
inhabitant, as well as a Proprietor in that country ; only I would 
be first informed how I may live there, that I might satisfy 
those I am nearly concerned to be with me there, who tell me 
I am now old and have here a home and settlement," etc. 

W. W. G. (Savannah, Ga.) 

Graves in New Jersey Churches. — "On p. 76 of the Janu- 
ary Proceedings you ask for knowledge of New Jersey 
churches in which burials beneath the church floors have been 
permitted. One such, I feel sure, is the old Episcopal church, 
St. Mary's, in Burlington. The first Grand Master of Masons 
in the Province is buried there, viz., Col. Daniel Coxe, b. 

170 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

in England about 1664 and died at Trenton, N. J., in 1739; one 
of the Justices of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. In 1905 
a resokition introduced by me in the Grand Lodge, F. and A. 
M. of New Jersey, was passed providing that a bronze tablet 
mark his grave, and such tablet was placed on the wall near 
the chancel of the church." E. A. P. (Newark, N. J.) 

"The statement regarding the Presbyterian Church of Bask- 
ing Ridge has suggested to me the conditions at St. John's 
Church, Elizabeth, of which I am senior Warden. There is 
no cellar under the greater part of the church building, but 
some years ago, when the flooring was taken up for some 
changes which were being made, we found that there were 
graves under the church. The probable explanation, however, 
is the same as at Basking Ridge. The original church, the erec- 
tion of which was begun in 1706, was a small brick building 
and occupied only a portion of the site of the present large 
Gothic structure erected in 1859. From this it would appear 
that the graves in question were outside the original building, 
though of course it is possible that some interments were made 
in the old church in accordance with English custom." 

W. R. D. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 
"Regarding graves in churches, it was a very common cus- 
tom for the pastors and official members of a church to be 
honored with burial in their own church. See p. 155 (foot- 
note) in vol. 12, First Series, 'N. J. Archives.' 

F. H. S. (Woodbury, N. J.) 
[The reference referred to by "F. H. S." states that Archi- 
bald Home, of Trenton, member of N. J. Council under Gov- 
ernor ^lorris, who died in March, 1744, was "buried in a vault 
under the broad aisle of the First Presby. church in that city; 
this vault was revealed when the church was taken down in 
1805."- — Editor]. 

Burnet. — "Information is wanted concerning the descend- 
ants of Moses Burnet, of Brookhaven, Long Island, who de- 
ceased 1741. leaving two sons, Justus and William. The latter 
removed to Gloucester Co., N. J., about 1760. He died at Egg 
Harbor 1S19. Justus and his sisters probably removed to Essex 

Queries and Miscellany 171 

Co., N. J. Three of the sons of WilHam, viz., Joshua, Robert 
and Jonas Burnet, went to Clermont co., Ohio, about 1816." 

F. H. S. (Woodbury, N. J.) 

Casier. — "In the Proceedings of iS/S-'jj (Second Ser^'es, 
vol. IV, p. 187), it is noted that Judge Samuel Johnston, of 
Hunterdon co., m., as his second wife, in 1740, Mary Casier. 
Can she be connected v.-ith Phillipe or Peter, grandsons of 
PhilHpe Casier isi, mentioned in Riker's 'History of Harlem,' 
p. 220? From Harlem the family went to Staten Island in 
1676." A.'C. P. (Brooklyn, N. Y.) 

Van Arsdale. — "During the year 1740, a settlement of Hol- 
landers and French Huguenots was made near Gettysburg, 
Adams county, Pa., which, until 1800, belonged to York county. 
From indications, these settlers came to Pennsylvania from 
Bergen and adjoining counties of New Jersey. Among these 
settlers were Van Arsdales. Cosines, jNIontforts, Cozarts and 
others. Simon Van Arsdale, who became a IMajor in the Revo- 
lution, was one of these early settlers. He is supposed to have 
been married to Ellen Cousine (or Cosine). I should like to 
know the date of the birth of Simon Van Arsdale and that of 
his wife, and the time of their marriage." 

G. R. P. (York, Pa.) 

[It is not certain to us that i\Iajor Van Arsdale was born in 
New Jersey, although there were families of those named 
above who went from Somerset county to Conewago, York 
CO., Pa., previous to the Revolution. Those from Bergen 
chiefly bore other names, such as Brinckerhof, Bogart. Dem- 
arest, Ackerman, etc. \\^e more than suspect that Major Simon 
was born in Bucks co., Pa., a descendant of the Simon Van 
Artsdalen (b. 1697) and Yannetje Romeyn, who were of Som- 
erset county in early life, but later went to Bucks county. Pa. — 

Flvinx., or "Air Ship," of 1817. — A copy of "The Times." 
of New Brunswick, dated Nov. 13, 1817, lying before us, gives 
an account from "a German Journal" (without naming it) of 

172 Proceedings Nezc Jersey Historical Society j 

an "Air Ship" invented by a country clergyman in Lower Sax- J 
ony. It says: "The machine is built of hght wood; it is made I 
to float in the air chiefly by means of the constant action of a • 
pair of bellows, of a peculiar construction, which occupies in : 
the front the position of the lungs and neck of a bird on the I 
wings. The wings on both sides are directed by thin cords. \ 
The height to which the farmer's boy (lo or 12 years of age), j 
whom the inventor has instructed in the management of it, had ^ 
hitherto ascended with it, is not considerable, because his atten- 
tion has been more directed to give a progressive than ascend- 
ing motion to his machine." It then states that a forest ranger 3 
used it between Alanheim and Schwerzinger and back, ordinar- •■ 
ily four hours by post-travel, within one hour. The weight was ^ 
50 pounds ! Who shall now say that Wright invented the air ] 
ship ? j 

Governor Hamilton's Correspondences. — Colonel An- •/ 

drew Hamilton, who was Governor of East and West Jersey J 

from 1692 to 1697, and held other important offices, besides j 

that of Postmaster-General for New Jersey and Pennsylvania, I 

is well represented in our "New Jersey Archives," but chiefly i 

from Colonial documents in the State Paper offices in London. t 

A correspondent of the Proceedings, Mr. George A. Taylor, 1 

who has been searching in the "Massachusetts Archives De- I 

partment" in Boston, sends us some early correspondence of j 

1692, which does not explain itself, and which arouses our \ 

curiosity as to just what it means. The Governor did not ar- ? 

rive here, after his appointment as Governor (although he had 1 

been in New Jersey before as Deputy-Governor, 1687-1690) ; 

until September, 1692. On Jan. 6, 1693. he ^vrote this peculiar j 

letter to "Secretary Addington," of Massachusetts, as the en- j 

dorsement shows, and, according to such endorsement, "desir- j 

ing the favor of Massachusetts" (we do not follow the pecu- j 
liar ancient abbreviations of the letter, as that only makes the 

reading difficult) : 1 

"Sir : These humbly kiss your hands and intreat a convey- \ 

ance for the inclosed. Their purport is to interest his Excel- \ 

lency's assistance and countenance in a project recommended to 1 

Queries and Miscellany 173 

him by the Queen, which I have begged his Excellency to move 
in Council, and he and Council to recommend it to the General 
Assembly. The further account I refer to her Majesty's let- 
ter, which please deliver to his Excellency in Council. I thought 
to have delivered it in my own hand, as I have written to his 
Excellency, but upon second thoughts I find it most convenient 
to forward them in case the Assembly might now be sitting, or 
may sit before I can reach Boston, and I am unwilling any op- 
portunity should be lost in this useful undertaking ; and I am. 

"Your most Humble Servant, 
"New York, 6th Jan'y, 1692 [-3]. And. Hamilton." 

;. The draft of answer was as follows : 

f "Sir : I received yours of the 6th current, together with the 

i inclosed, which were delivered according to your directions, 

I and her J^Iajesty's letter was read in Council the next day. I 

I doubt not but you will have all necessary assistance and coun- 

i tenance in the management of the affair thereby recommended. 

\ "The Assembly have been up ever since the i6th of Decem- 

I ber, and have a recess until the 8th of February next; at such 

I time they may have the consideration of what is proper for 

j them therein. I shall be glad to be serviceable unto you in 

I anything within my Province at your coming into these parts, 

I and in the meantime crave to kiss your hand. Sir, 

I "Your Humble Servant, 

: "Boston, Jan'y 21st, 1692/3." 

I Foregoing not signed because original draft. Now, what 

; were the instructions, or desire, in "her Majesty's letter"? We 

have found nothing directly bearing upon it in the documents 

printed in the "New Jersey Archives," Vol. i, nor elsewhere, 

but would like to know to what matter these letters referred. 

Soldiers in the Revolution. — Various works on the Revo- 
lutionary War may be consulted without the discovery of how 
many men in all were engaged in the various States on the 
American side from 1775 to 1783. Usually the number is pop- 
ularly supposed to have been small, because Washington never 
had many thousand under his command at one time. But a 
compilation made by the War Department at Washington (date 
not at hand) showed these figures. Of course they embraced 

174 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

all who in anyway were recognized in Continental or State ser- 
vice (Line or Militia), yet they are far more than is generally 
understood. The compilation is given as follows : 

Massachusetts 92,562 New Jersey 19,282 

Virginia 52,718 New Hampshire 18,289 | 

Connecticut 42,831 Georgia 12,579 I 

Pennsylvania 34^965 Rhode Island 11,692 j 

South Carolina 3i»358 Delaware 3.763 I 

New York 29,843 j 

Massachusetts 23,476 Total 395.-324 i 

North Carolina 21,969 1 

In this connection it may be noted that the population of the I 

thirteen States in 1790 (the nearest Census to the War time) = 

was 3,172,444. ■ I 


Barclay. — "In Chambers' 'Early Germans of New Jersey,' 1 

(p. 254), it is stated that Robert and David Barkley were two { 

of the Proprietors to whom the Duke of York gave the grant, | 

or sale, of East New Jersey, i682-'3 ; that Robert was appointed ^ 

Governor ; that in part Robert's rights descended to his brother | 

John, who came to East Jersey ; and suggests that the families j 

of Barclay and Bartley in Somerset county descended from | 

this John. Can this be proven?" } 

(R. L. K., St. Paul, Minn.) j 

[The correct spelling of the Governor was Barclay, not Bark- 1 

ley. Whitehead says ("East Jersey," p. 43), that John Bar- I 

clay left "one son, John, of whom nothing was known, except- I 
ing that he was alive in 1768." So far as we know the line of 
late and present Barclays in this State has not been printed. — 

New Jersey Historical and Patriotic Societies 175 


State Society 

New Jersey Historical Society, 16 West Park Street, New- 
ark. Organized 1845. Corr. Secretary, A. Van Doren 
Honeyman, Plainfield, N. J, 

County Societies 

Atlantic County Historical Society, Pleasantville. Organized 

1913. Corr. Secretary, Mrs. Franklin G. Turner, Ab- 


Bergen County Historical Society, Hackensack. Organized 

I 1901. Secretary, Theodore Romaine, 158 Main St., 

f Hackensack. 

I Burlington County, The Historical Society of, Moorestown. 
I Organized 1908. Corr, Socretary, William T. Reeve, 

I Moorestown, 

I Camden County Historical Society, Camden. Organized 1889. 
j Secretary, John F. Harned, 424 Market St., Camden. 

\ Gloucester County Historical Society, Woodbury. Organized 
I 1903- Secretary, William M. Carter, Woodbury. 

I Hudson County Historical Society, Jersey City. Organized 
1908, Corr, Secretary, Ripley Watson, 15 Exchange 
Place, Jersey City, 
Hunterdon County Historical Society, Flemington, Organ- 
ized 1885. Corr. Secretary, Elias Vosseller, Fleming- 
Monmouth County Historical Association. Organized 1898. 
Corr. Secretary, Mrs. Isabella Hull Hallock, i Pros- 
pect Ave., Red Bank. 
Salem County Historical Society, Salem. Organized 1884. 

Secretary, George W. Price, Salem. 
Somerset County Historical Society, Somerville. Organized 

1882. Corr. Secretary, John F. Reger, Somerville. 
Sussex County Historical Society, Newton. Organized 1904. 

Corr. Secretary, Charles E, Stickney, Newton. 
Union County Historical Society, EHzabeth. Organized 1920. 
Secretary, James C. Connelly, 120 Broad St., Elizabeth. 

176 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Other Historic and Patriotic Societies 
New Brunswick Historical Club, New Brunswick. Organ- 
ized 1870. Secretary, Prof. Richard Morris, Ph.D., 
New Brunswick. 
New Jersey Society of the Colonial Dames of America. Head- 
quarters at "The Old Barracks," Trenton. Corr. Sec- 
retary, Mrs. William McKendree Morris, Bordentown. 
New Jersey Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots 
of America. Organized 1896. Secretary, George J. 
Gedney, 50 Montclair Ave., jMontclair. 
New Jersey Society Sons of the American Revolution. (See 

Proceedings, April, 1921, p. 128). 
Perth Amboy Historical Society. Just organized. 
Plainfield and North Plainfield Historical Society. Organized 
1921. Corr. Secretary, Maximilian P. E. Groszmann, 
Princeton Historical Association, Princeton. Organized 1900. 
Corr. Secretary, Ernest C. Richardson, Ph.D., Princeton, 
Revolutionary Memorial Society of New Jersey, Somerville. 
Organized 1S97. Corr. Secretary, Mrs. James J. Ber- 
gen, Somerville. 
Sewaren History Club, Sewaren. Organized 1908. Corr. Sec- 
retary, Mrs. C. A. de Russy, 89 Rahway Ave., Wood- 
Society of Sons of the Revolution in the State of New Jersey. 
Organized 1891. Secretary, Horace F. Nixon, 317 
Market St., Camden. 
Trenton Historical Society, Trenton. Organized 1919. Sec- 
retary, Dr. Carlos E. Godfrey, P. O. Box 495, Trenton. 
Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society, Vineland. Or- 
ganized 1864. Secretary, Frank D. Andrews, Vineland. 
Washington Association of New Jersey, Morristown. Organ- 
ized 1874. Corr, Secretary, Henry C. Pitney, Morris- 
Washington Camp Ground Association, Bound Brook. Organ- 
ized 1889. Secretary, H. A, Suydam, Bound Brook. 
Woman's Burlington County Historical Society, Burlington. 
Organized 1915. Secretary, Mrs. Charles F, Allen, 

^ ' 


1/ 03 


i of the 

New Jersey Historical Society 


? VOL. VII. JULY, 1922 No. 3 

i — 




I When Philip Carteret was appointed Governor of Nova 

I Caesarea, or New Jersey, on February lo, 1665, by the Lords 

I Proprietors, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley, he was 

I empowered by them to "nominate and take unto him twelve 

J able men at most, and six at least, to be of his Council and as- 

I sistance, or any number between six and twelve unless we 

I have made choice of, or shall choose all or any of them.'" 

I The Governor, by and with the advice and consent of his 

I Council, or any three or more of the six, or five or more of a 

greater number, was given full and absolute authority to let, 
I sell, convey and assure the lands of the Province in accord- 

I ance with the "Concessions and Agreements" of the Lords 

j Proprietors; also to make, do, perform, and execute all matters 

I relating or concerning the governn]ent of the Province, both 

civil and military.' They, along with twelve Representatives 
i to be chosen by the Freeholders, were to constitute the General 

! Assembly of the Province, meeting at a time and place of their 

own appointing, under the Presidency of the Governor or his 
Deputy, to enact such laws, acts and constitutions as would be 
necessary for the well government of the Provinte, these to be 
in force for one year and no more, unless confirmed by the 
Lords Proprietors; also to establish Courts, impose taxes, 
create ports, grant charters, constitute military companies, 
grant naturalization, provide for the support of the Governor, 
defray all government expenses, and collect the quit-rents free 

'For convenience, the references given in the body of this article are 
placed at the end. — Editor. 

178 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society i 

of cost to the Lords Proprietors; the Representatives of the ] 

Freeholders to have the right to make direct appeal to the Pro- \ 

prietors, without the consent of the Governor and Council, i 

concerning any grievance they might have against them. | 

In relation to land grants, the General Assembly was to pre- | 

scribe the amount of lands, known as headlands, to be allotted to ^ 

the heads of families and their servants, who came out to settle | 

in the Province, not to exceed the definite amounts allowed to ] 

each by the Proprietors' Concessions, and to make rules for \ 

the casting of lots for land and the laying out of the same; * 

while the final disposal of lands was reserved to the Governor | 

and his Council, he, with the approval of a majority of them, to r^ 

make warrants and seal grants in accordance with the Con- | 

cessions and the prescriptions of the General Assembly. * 

The General Assembly met for the first time at Elizabeth- | 

town on May 26, 166S, and enacted laws for the government of { 

the Province, but dissensions soon arose between the Assembly- | 

men on the one hand and the Governor and Council on the | 

other, as to their relative legislative functions and respective | 

powers ; the former claiming the right to sit and deliberate with | 

the latter in all matters as one legislative body,' while the Gov- | 

ernor insisted that they sit and act as a separate and subordinate | 

branch of the Legislature. | 

Carteret's interpretation of the Concessions in this matter 1 

was eventually approved of by the Lords Proprietors, who, on 
the 6th of December, 1672, issued "A Declaration of the True 
Intent and Meaning of the Concessions,"* in which they stated 
that it was their understanding that the Governor and Council 
were to sit by themselves, and the Deputies or Representatives 
by themselves, their acts being subject to the approval of the 
Governor and Council. At the same time they ordered that, 
among other things, the Assembly should have nothing further 
to do or say in regard to the disposal of lands or the issuing of 
warrants for the same, these matters to be acted on by the 
Governor and Council, ivithout the Assembly, and in case the 
Council or any part of them be not present, the grants were to 
be rendered effectual if signed by the Governor and Secretary 
only; thereby taking the matter of land grants entirely out of 

f The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 179 

the hands of the Assemblymen, and placing it in the hands of 
the two chief officers of the Province, with or without the 
advice and consent of the Council. 

When the Province was divided in 1674 between Sir George 
Carteret and Lord Berkeley into East and West Jersey, these 
Concessions and "Interpretations" were confirmed by Sir 
George Carteret as applying to East Jersey,' and they con- 
tinued in force until the possession of it passed into the hands 
of the twenty-four Proprietors, whom we shall refer to as the 
General Proprietors, to distinguish them from the Lords Pro- 

The new Proprietors appointed Robert Barclay of Urie to 
be Governor,' and selected two of their number, Thomas Rud- 
yard and Samuel Groome, "honest and prudent men," to rep- 
resent them in the Province. The former had two commis- 
? sions, one for Secretary and Register, and the other for Deputy- 

I Governor; while the latter had also two commissions given 

I him, one for Surveyor-General and the other for Receiver- 

I General, all dated September 16, 1682. 

I It is doubtful, however, whether it was the intention of the 

f Proprietors that Rudyard should hold two such important 

[ offices as Deputy-Governor and Secretary at one and the same 

I time, especially in view of the absolute authority it would give 

I him in regard to the making of land grants, as his signature 

alone would then be sufficient to validate all such grants ; and 
i when we read the commission given him as Secretary and 

Register,^ the incongruity of his being Deputy-Governor at the 
same time is very apparent. It appears, rather, that it was the 
expectation of the Proprietors that Philip Carteret would con- 
tinue in their service as Deputy-Governor, and give them the 
benefit of his extensive knowledge and experience in the affairs 
of the Province, and that the Commission given to Rudyard 
for Deputy-Governor was a provisional one, to be used only 
in case Carteret should withdraw from the office or die, and 
until such time as another might be appointed in his place. 
This is borne out by the fact that while Rudyard took the office 
of Secretary on December i, 1682, eighteen days after he 
arrived at Elizabethtown, Carteret continued to act as Deputy- 

i8o Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Governor,' and it was not until Carteret's sudden death on De- 
cember lo that Rudyard assumed the office of Deputy-Gov- 
ernor and appointed his Council," and not until ten days later 
that he took the oath of office as such." 

New instructions were issued" by the General Proprietors 
for the guidance of the officers and Council, accompanied with 
a letter to the planters and inhabitants, bespeaking their kindly 
interest and co-operation in the promotion of their joint inter- 
ests. It is unfortunate that no record of these instructions are 
now available so that we might be informed as to the details ; 
the only reference to them that we know of, apart from the 
fact that they were issued, is to be found in the Proprietors' 
instructions to Governor Lawrie, dated July 20th, 1683, where 
mention is made of the "sixteenth and seventeenth paragraphs" 
thereof," relating to the collection of quit-rents. We have, 
however, good reason to believe that the Proprietors had 
decided to introduce a new element into the administration of 
the affairs of government in East Jersey, particularly in regard 
to the making of land grants, by authorizing the resident Pro- 
prietors, or their proxies, to take part in the deliberations of 
the Council, thus introducing a third factor in the composition 
of that body. This we infer from the records of the early 
meetings of the Council under Rudyard, where the names of 
the Proprietors then in the Province appear as being in attend- 
ance at the meetings, and are bracketed together under the 
appellation of "Proprietors,"" to distinguish them from the 
other members present, who are classed as "of the Council." 
A document very recently brought to light confirms this as- 
sumption. It is a letter of instructions from the Scots Pro- 
prietors, written in 1683 "for such as go over there," in which 
they "authorize and commissionate in their name and behalf, 
David Barclay, Arthur Forbes, and John Barclay to act for 
them and sit in Council, they having interest in several pro- 
prieties under us as our proxies."" 

It is further to be inferred that it was to be the particular 
duty of the resident Proprietors, or their proxies, to consult 
with and advise the Council in all matters pertaining to land 
grants in which they as Proprietors were particularly inter- 

f The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey i8i 

ested. This is evident from the fact that on March 2, 1683, 
when such matters were for the first time brought before Rud- 
yard's Council for consideration and action thereon, the claims 
of John Inians (founder of New Brunswick) and Josepi; Ben- 
bridge were considered "by the Proprietors alone and also in 
Council,"'' the Proprietors then present being William Penn, 
Thomas Rudyard and Samuel Groome. When Thomas Warne 
came out two months later his name also appears in the Coun- 
cil records as being in attendance as a Proprietor, and he was 
present on May 31, 1683. when several petitions for lands 
I were referred by the Council as a whole to "the Deputy Gov- 

I ernor and Proprietors now in the Province" for their consider- 

I ation and determination ; while on August 30 of the same year 

I a resolution relative to grants of land was passed in the name 

I of "The Governor, Proprietors and Council. "^^ 

I It was evidently the purpose of the General Proprietors that 

l the making of land grants should not be exclusively in the 

I hands of the Governor and his Council as heretofore, and 

I doubtless their instructions to Rudyard included an order that 

I the consent of the resident Proprietors would be henceforth 

I necessary to render any such grants valid, 

j On assuming the office of Deputy-Governor, Rudyard con- 

f tinued the personnel of the Council as it existed under Carteret, 

I w^ith the addition of the Proprietors on the place, and on March 

I 3. 1683, appointed James Emott to be Deputy-Secretary during 

I his pleasure,^^ which it appears he had no authority to do.^* 

! For a time harmony seemed to prevail between the Governor, 

Proprietors and Council, but there soon arose differences be- 
tween the Proprietors and the other members of the Council 
in regard to the laying out of lands; the Councilors siding 
with the Governor against the other Proprietors. The partic- 
ular cause of this dissension was the requirement that one- 
seventh part of all allotments of land should be reserved for 
the exclusive use and benefit of the General Proprietors, as 
called for in the General Concessions of 1665. Surveyor 
Groome insisted upon carrying out these instructions to the let- 
ter, and absolutely refused to make any surveys without such re- 
servations, even although ordered to do so by the Governor 

l82 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

and Council, in which he was supported by Thomas Warne, 1 

the only other Proprietor then in the Council.^^ As a result, I 

the Governor and Council went over Groome's head and ap- | 

pointed Philip Wells, Surveyor-General of New YorK and | 

resident of Staten Island, to act as Deputy-Surveyor for East \ 

Jersey, and make the surveys as they directed. ^° This brought \ 

about a disruption between the Council and the resident Pro- \ 

prietors, and the latter refrained from further attendance at ^ 

any of the meetings of the Council during the remainder of j 

Rudyard's administration as Governor. j 

It was the intention and expectation of the General Pro- \ 

prietors that Robert Barclay should go to the Province and ; 

there assume his duties as Governor. This, however, he de- 
clined to do, and they having learned that things were not 
progressing satisfactorily, and that many "dissatisfied and self- 
ended persons"^^ were seeking to subvert their just interests in 
the Province, at the same time realizing the danger of permit- 
ting Rudyard to hold the two most important offices, au- 
thorized Governor Barclay to appoint another person to hold 
the office of Deputy-Governor. He selected Gawen I_^w- 
rie, one of the Scots Proprietors, and sent him out with the 
view of "better settling" the difficulties that prevailed there. 
His commission was dated July 27, 1683," as were also other 
two blank commissions, one for a Surveyor-General and the 
other for a Receiver-General, "to be given to such proper per- 
sons as may be found upon the place, "^^ in case Groome should 
decline to serve further, his proprietory interests having been 
sold by his son to William Dockwra on July 20th of that year.^* 

Lawrie arrived in the Province about the first of January, 
1684, and assumed the office of Deputy-Governor on February 
28th,2' retaining Rudyard as Secretary and Register. He re- 
appointed those who had remained active in the Council and 
selected four other men to fill the vacancies, making eight in 
all, whose names were Colonel Lewis Morris of Shrewsbury, 
Major John Berry of Bergen, Major William Sandford of 
New Barbadoes, Captain Thomas Codrington of Rackawack- 
hacca (Bound Brook), Benjamin Price of Elizabethtown, 
Richard Hartshorne of Middletown, Samuel Dennis of Wood- 

The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 183 

"bridge, and Henry Lyon of Elizabethtown ; from which it will 
be seen that the Provincial Council was a representative one. 
consisting of prominent men chosen from among the inhabit- 
ants of the towns then in existence, the Capital being repres- 
ented by two, one of whom was the direct ancestor of the 
present Register of the Board of Proprietors, the Hon. Adrian 
Lyon of Perth Amboy. 

In the mean time Samuel Groome had died, rendering vacant 
the offices of Surveyor and Receiver-General, and Lawrie, un- 
able to find two persons suitable and eligible to hold them as 
instructed, gave both commissions to his son-in-law and fellow 
countryman, William Haig of Bemerside."® 

The General Proprietors had given orders to Lawrie to ob- 
;. serve the instructions last sent over in regard to the disposing 

^ of lands (presumably those given to Rudyard but not now on 

i record), "and to mind putting them in execution, and prosecut- 

f ing them as if they were particularly repeated and renewed."^' 

i As to legislation and the administration of government, they 

I prepared and sent out with him a brand new scheme, of which 

} they felt they could say "without vanity, it is both just and kind 

j to every inhabitant in the Province ;"-^ a scheme which it is not 

I necessary here to discuss at length, as it was never put in force. 

! By this so-called "Fundamental Constitution for the Prov- 

I ince of East Jersey" there was to be established a Great Coun- 

I cil, consisting of the twenty-four Proprietors or their proxies, 

i and seventy-two representatives of the towns and counties, a 

• two-thirds majority being required to decide all matters of 

legislation; this majority in every case to include at least one- 
half of the Proprietors and one-half of the Representatives 
present, which meant that in a full house thirteen Proprietory 
votes could prevent the enactment of any law, even though all 
of the seventy-two Representatives voted in its favor. There 
was also to be established a Common or Executive Coimcil for 
the continuous government of the Province, which was to 
consist of twenty-four Proprietors and twelve Representatives 
selected out of the Great Council, these to be divided into three 
committees, each consisting of eight Proprietors and four Re- 
presentatives, the latter to be changed annually, one of these 

184 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

committees "to be for plantations and regulating of all things, 1 

as well as deciding all controversies relating to them." | 

This was a distinctly reactionary measure, seeking to put the j 

Government of the Province in the absolute control of the \ 

Proprietors, and was a radical departure from the purely | 

democratic character of the Government conceded to West \ 

Jersey but six years before by the Quaker Proprietors, the most 1 

prominent of whom were also Proprietors of East Jersey; of | 

which Government William Penn wrote: "There we lay a \ 

foundation for after ages to understand their liberty as men 1 

and Christians, that they may not be brought in bondage, but j 

by their own consent, for we put the power in the people." a 

Such a decided change in policy, emanating apparently from ; 

the same source, prompts an inquiry into the cause of it. It 
will be noted, in the first place, that when each of the original 
twelve Quaker Proprietors sold half of their share of East 
Jersey to another person, making twenty-four Proprietors in 
all, there was introduced into the Proprietorship men of dis- 
tinctly different characteristics and affiliations, both political 
and religious, among whom were the two brothers, James and 
John Drummond, otherwise known as the Earl of Perth and 
the Earl of Mel fort, men of pronouncedly autocratic tenden- 
cies, who stood high in the counsels of King Charles II, and 
who, under King James VII, became the virtual rulers of Scot- 
land. It was their influence and standing which gave them at 
once places of prominence in the Proprietors' Council. They 
took an active interest and leading part in the affairs of the 
Province to begin with, and the first to sign this new scheme of 
Government was John Drummond, Earl of Melfort (as did 
also the Earl of Perth and others of the Proprietors), which 
would suggest that he had had an active part in its preparation, 
if not being its author ; and, as the spirit of the scheme was in 
perfect keeping with the principles that guided both these men 
in the direction of home affairs, it does not appear amiss to 
hold them both responsible for the radical change involved. 

It would almost appear that this change had been forced 
upon the Proprietors without due consideration, from the fact 
that, within a year, several instructions were sent out by the 

! The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 185 

Proprietors making further alterations in the proposed Con- 
stitution, and that before any attempt had been made to put it 
into effect. 

Lawrie was requested by the Proprietors to let the people 
rightly understand the advantages yielded to them by this 
scheme of government and how much it exceeded the former 
Concessions, which, if rightly understood by them, it was hoped 
would be a great means to satisfy them, and to order it passed 
by the Assembly. Although, as one of the Proprietors, he had 
signed this document before his departure for America, Lawrie 
soon realized the danger of total disruption in the government 
of the Province, that was sure to follow any attempt on his 
part to force its adoption by the General Assembly, and he 
decided to exercise his own judgment and discretion in the 
matter, advising the Proprietors two months after his arrival 
that "it was not possible for them to understand what is good 
I for the Province, as he did who was here."^^ 

I It was not until April, 1686, that he formally presented it 

i to the Council and Assembly for their consideration, when it 

I was summarily rejected on the grounds that "it did not agree 

I with the Constitution of these parts." The delay in bringing 

j it up for action, and the lack of any recorded protest on the 

j part of Governor Lawrie or the Proprietors on its rejection, 

! would seem to indicate that the Proprietors as a body were not 

at all enthusiastic as to its adoption. In fact they had in the 
j meantime adopted another method of partially accomplishing 

the desired result, without being in serious conflict with the 
established methods of government in the Province, viz., the 
I establishment of the Board of Proprietors in East Jersey. 

j About the time of Lavvrie's arrival in the Province the Gen- 

eral Proprietors had been informed of the dispute between 
Groome and Rudyard in regard to the one-seventh reservations 
in the laying out of lands, and at once wrote Laurie, under date 
of January 2, 1684, highly commending Groome for the stand 
he had taken rendering void the surveys made by Philip Wells, 
and declaring that "they would never consent to such a pre- 
parative [prerogative?] that the Governor and Council there 
shall dispose of our lands there, without the consent of the 

1 86 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

greater number of the Proprietors or their proxies," which ] 

further bears out the presumption that the instructions given to j 

Rudyard required that the Proprietors on the place, oi their 1 

proxies, should take an active, if not a deciding, part in the | 

making of all land grants. j 

When this communication was read to the Council on May \ 

30, 1684, the Councilors gave evidence of their resentment \ 

against such a curtailment of their powers by refusing to take ^ 

official notice of it, ostensibly on the ground that it was directed j 

to "the Governor and fellow Proprietors in Council," and not | 

to the Council as a whole f^ but Secretary Rudyard voiced the j 

real reason when he entered in the minutes of the Council his \ 

personal protest against it, in which he declared it "to be against 
my just interests and rights, and the known received practices 1 

and privileges of the Governor and Council of this Province, ; 

in v/hom is the right of granting land by the General Conces- \ 

sions of this Province. "■'^* In thus reverting back to the orig- | 

inal Concessions as granted by Carteret and Berkeley in 1665,. I 

Rudyard completely ignored the instructions which had been i 

given him, and we are almost inclined to charge him with hav- | 

ing deliberately suppressed them, in order to serve his own \ 

ends, which may be the reason that the document is not now on 1 

record. ] 

In view of this determined opposition on the part of the | 

members of the Council to the admission of the resident Pro- \ 

prietors or their proxies as active members of the Council, and 
their persistent claims as to their prerogatives in the making of 
land grants, and also in view of the fact that quite a few of the 
Proprietors or their proxies had come out to settle in the Prov- 
ince in the year 1684, the General Proprietors, equally deter- 
mined to enforce what they considered their just rights as 
owners of the soil, issued^^ further instructions to Governor 
Lawrie^® under the date of August i, 1684, and sent them out 
with George Keith, a noted Scottish Quaker, to whom they had 
given a commission as Surveyor-General, to replace William 
Haig in that office. 

This document created a new and distinct body to taken care 
of land grants, and may be looked upon as the Charter of the- 

The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 187 

Board of Proprietors of East Jersey. This body was to con- 
sist of all the Proprietors and Proprietors' proxies th^n resi- 
dent in the Province, and such others as may later come upon 
the place, they to act as Commissioners along with the Deputy- 
Governor, "with full power to act and do for us, such as we 
ourselves could do, if present, for the good of the Province." 
The names of these first Commissioners, or charter members, 
of the Board of Proprietors, were Thomas Rudyard, Thomas 
I Warne, David Toshack, John Campbell, Robert Fullerton, 

Thomas Fullerton, David Mudie, James Johnstone, John Bar- 
clay, David Barclay, Thomas Gordon, Arthur Forbes, George 
I Willocks and Captain Patrick McGregor, nine of whom were 

I to form a quorum, the Governor having two votes ; their ap- 

i pointment was further confirmed by an order dated July 3, 

I 1685.^^ It is interesting to note that, with the exception of 

! the two first mentioned, they were all Scotsmen, as was also 

i the Receiver-General, the Surveyor-General and the Governor, 

I who were also members of the Board by right of their office, 

j They were to "approve and confirm such Acts of the Assembly 

f as from time to time there shall be found a necessity to estab- 

i lish, before copies can be sent hither for our consideration, 

j but, when the Fundamental Constitutions are passed in the 

j Assembly, then to proceed according to them," from which it 

! will be seen that this legislative function, as part of their duties, 

was only a temporary one, to be abrogated when the Great and 
Common Councils were established. The principal and per- 
manent duties devolved on them by this instrument were to 
settle all disputies between the Proprietors and the early plant- 
ers, as to their titles to land and the payment of quit-rents ; to 
dispose of lots in Perth Amboy; make all purchases of land 
from the Indians ; set out lands throughout the Province for 
rent ; grant warrants for headlands, and run the division lines 
between East Jersey and the adjoining Provinces. 

Thus it will be seen that these Commissioners were ap- 
pointed, as William Dockwra the agent of the London Pro- 
prietors said, "for the affairs of land." and all official com- 
munications sent to them from the General Proprietors were, 
to begin with, addressed to "The Deputy-Governor and Com- 

and three of his (Provincial) Council were to continue issuing 
deeds or patents as before, without referring them to the Com- 
missioners for their approval, but all other land grants were to 
be made by the Governor and three of his (Provincial) Coun- 
cil, or four if more than six were in the Council, subject to the 
consent and approval of at least five of the Commissioners, 
they to signify such approval by signing their names to a copy 
of each warrant in a book kept for that purpose ; while the 
patents issued on such approved warrants were to be signed 
and sealed by the Governor and three of his (Provincial) 
Council. In other words, all warrants issued by the Governor 
were first to be approved by the Commissioners, and then the 
patents for the same were to be issued by the Governor and 
Council, after being duly surveyed and properly registered by 
the Surveyor-General and Receiver-General. 

1 88 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society \ 

missioners appointed, or to be appointed, for the setting out 
of lands and other aflairs relating thereto in the said Province," \ 

but later abbreviated to "The Deputy-Governor and Council ! 

of Proprietors." | 

There were thus from that time on two Councils in existence \ 

in East Jersey, both under the presidency of the Deputy- < 

Governor, viz., the Provincial Council and the Council of Pro- | 

prietors, and considerable confusion has arisen in the interpret- ^ 

ation of the records from the similarity of names, the words | 

Council and Board being used indiscriminately to designate ' 

either body. I 

On November 13, 1684,^^ the General Proprietors issued | 

further instructions enlarging upon and altering somewhat | 

those already mentioned. By them the Governor and any five I 

of the Commissioners, or a majority, if less than five are upon | 

the place, were empowered to ratify all laws that had already | 

been confirmed, or would thereafter by act of Assembly be j 

made; such Acts to continue in effect for a period of three j 

years, unless confirmed by the Proprietors ; and to approve all 1 

appointments made by the Governor in filling any vacancy that I 

might occur in the offices of Secretary, Chief Register, Sur- | 

veyor-General, Receiver-General, or any such place, these of- j 

fices pertaining chiefly to the Council of Proprietors, j 

In the matter of land grants to servants, etc., the Governor J 

The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 189 

There was thus estabHshed a dual authority, both in the 
matter of land grants and in legislation, which under the cir- 
cumstances was bound to lead to friction and confusion. It 
was in the nature of a compromise between the established 
custom of the previous administrations and the desire of the 
Proprietors to put the control of all land grants entirely in the 
hands of the resident Proprietors or their proxies, and at the 
same time to secure for them an immediate supervision over 
the Acts of the General Assembly. 

The Commissioners, however, soon realized the mistake in 
thus allowing the Provincial Council to have anything to do 
or say, in the making of land grants. On June 11, 1685,^^ they 
entered their objections to Article Five of the Instructions 
covering this matter, and in January, 1686,''° they passed a 
resolution that Governor Lawrie sign all warrants for survey 
of land as formerly, after being granted by the Council (of 
Proprietors), and the same to be sufficient, "any instrument, 
writings or orders to the contrary" (from the Proprietors in 
England) "notwithstanding," thus taking the matter in their 
own hands and prohibiting the Provincial Council thereafter 
from meddling in the afifairs of land. 

The first and only occasion, of which we have any record, 
when the Commissioners exercised their legislative functions 
was on November 15, 1684,*^ when they ratified, or rather re- 
ratified, laws that had been enacted under Rudyard, from 
March ist to December 15, 1683,*- and formally ratified by 
Governor Lawrie and Secretary Rudyard on March i, 1684.*^ 
This they had done immediately after receipt of the charter 
dated August ist, and it was evidently their first act as Com- 
missioners. The proclamation making known this ratification 
was addressed, "To all Christian people and others to whom 
these presents shall come," a phraseology in common use at 
that time in public documents, deeds, etc., and was signed by 
Gawen Lawrie, Thomas Wame, Thomas Fullerton, George 
Willocks, David Mudie, Thomas Gordon, John Barclay, and 
Robert Fullerton; the name of Thomas Rudyard being con- 
spicuous by its absence, consistently in line with his declared 
antagonism to the authority of the Council of Proprietors. 

IQO Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society i 

After the formal organization of the Commissioners into | 

what is now known as the Board of Proprietors of East Jersey, | 

on April 9, 1685, in Elizabethtown, they did not exercise any \ 

further ratifying authority in these matters, while at the same | 

time the Provincial Council ceased to have anything further to \ 

do with the making of land grants, confining itself exclusively | 

to its legislative and executive functions. Whether this separ- \ 

ation of legislative functions and real estate transactions was | 

brought about by the voluntary and mutual agreement of the ^ 

Provincial Council with the Council of Proprietors, or by an i 

order from the General Proprietors, it was a most desirable | 

change ; and while it was not until the surrender of the govern- ] 

ment of the Province to the Crown in 1702 that the General \ 

Proprietors ceased to exercise even a semblance of government- j 

al powers through the Governor and Provincial Council, the • 

Board of Proprietors of East Jersey has been from its organ- | 

ization, purely and simply a society of landowners, its estate 1 

being the Eastern Division of New Jersey. } 

It may not have any bearing on this subject, but it is, how- ; 

ever, interesting to note that in a recently discovered copy of j 

the Charter above referred to" (once the property of Robert 1 

Gordon of Clunie, a prominent Scots Proprietor, and now in ! 

the possession of the New Jersey Historical Society) the pre- ] 

amble states : "Whereas we having considered the necessity in ; 

order to a full settlement and good government of our Prov- 
ince," etc, while the printed copy of same to be found in Leam- 
ing and Spicer's "Grants and Concessions" reads : "in order to 
a full settlement and good of our Province." The omission of 
the word "government" in the latter, if it was not a mistake of 
the copyist, would seem to indicate that it had been the original 
intention of the Proprietors to have the Board of Proprietors 
exercise a controlling influence in the government of the Prov- 
ince, but had, on more mature consideration, decided to with- 
draw that function from it. 

Another document recently acquired by the New Jersey 
Historical Society, entitled "The Case of the Earl of Perth," 
written about a century later, shows clearly the original func- 
tions of the Board of Proprietors as then understood. It 

The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 191 

states that "soon after this grant" (of East Jersey to the Twen- 
ty-four Proprietors) "they established a Board or Council of 
Proprietors, who were to make orders and regulations with 
regard to the management of their landed property in that 
district. This Board consisted of such of the Proprietors who, 
by themselves or their attorneys, were resident in New Jersey, 
and they took upon themselves the care of the lands belonging 
to the General Proprietors, and from time to time examined 
the rights of the particular Proprietors who applied to them for 
allotments of land, and granted warrants to the Surveyor- 
General (who is an officer and under their control as being 
chosen by them) to survey, allot, and appropriate, such lands 
as they think proper to each Proprietor for the purpose of 
making those allotments in a proper manner." 

The records of the Board of Proprietors as contained in their 
minutes date from April 9, 1685, when they met and organized 
at Elizabethtown. An order was then passed that minutes of 
their meetings should be kept in a book to be provided for the 
purpose, and that their meetings should be secret. The mem- 
bers present on that occasion were Governor Lawrie, Thomas 
Rudyard, Thomas Warne, John Campbell, James Johnstone, 
Thomas Fullerton, Thomas Gordon, John Barclay and David 
Mudie.** The meetings continued to be held in Elizabethtown 
until July 8, 1686, when they were transfered to Perth Amboy, 
which became, and still is, the headquarters of the Board of 
Proprietors of East Jersey. 

The lack of Proprietory representation on the Provincial 
Council proved at times a serious handicap to Governor Lawrie 
while seeking to carry out the instructions of his superiors, but 
the feeling against it seemed to be so strong that it was not 
until Lord Neil Campbell succeeded him as Deputy-Governor 
on October 8, 1686, that any attempt was made to change this 
condition of afTairs. He brought about a decided change in 
the personnel of the Provincial Council by making its member- 
ship partly Proprietory, a characteristic which was maintained 
by his successor, Andrew Hamilton, during his first adminis- 
tration as Deputy-Governor of the Province. 

This was no doubt in line with instructions received from 

192 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

the Proprietors, or at least in pursuance of their wishes, their 1 

feelings in this matter being expressed in an address they I 

presented to King James in June, 1687, in answer to a demand \ 

he had made on them to surrender the government of the \ 

Province into his hands, wherein, after making several conces- \ 

sions in order to secure his good will and yet retain the right j 

to govern, the General Proprietors requested his Majesty "to | 

direct that some of their proxies in the Province shall be al- ^ 

ways of the Governor's Council/'*^ so that they might thus be ] 

able to exercise some influence in the government of the Prov- | 

ince, and preserve their own interests ; showing how much they ] 

realized that it had become necessary to have a Royal mandate \ 

to support them in their attempt to break the long-established 
custom in the selection of Councilors. \ 

While the General Assembly ceased to have anything further 
to do with the granting of lands, there is one occasion on re- 
cord, March 3. 1699, when they passed an act to correct and 
validate some patents issued by Philip Carteret that were de- 
fective in the wording. This was done against the protest of 
George Willocks, acting as the agent of the General Proprie- 
tors. His authority as agent for the Proprietors as well as the 
authority of the Council of Proprietors itself was then ques- 
tioned by the General Assembly, but to prove his case Willocks 
presented his commission as agent, as well as the commission 
of the Council of Proprietors,'*^ which doubtless was the Char- 
ter already referred to. 

Willocks was at the time a member of the Assembly, repre- 
senting Perth Amboy, and in retaliation for his attempted inter- 
ference in this affair, and with the view of further curtailing 
the activities of the Proprietors or their proxies in matters 
political, a law was passed rendering it unlawful for a Proprie- 
tor or Proprietor's Proxy to be chosen as a Representative to 
the General Assembly. This, however, was not of permanent 
effect, for in the records of the House of Representatives now 
available, beginning in 1703. their names appear frequently 
among the members of that body. 

The strong feeling that existed from the very first against 
the Lords Proprietors, not only as to their rights to govern, 
but also as to their claim of paramount rights of ownership in 

The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 193 

the soil of the Province, had its origin among the grantees of 
land from Governor Nicolls of New York, acting as the re- 
presentative of the Duke of York, prior to the actual taking 
possession of New Jersey by the Lords Proprietors, and was 
further aggravated by the new Proprietor's insistence on the 
collection of quit-rents from all land holders, which was looked 
upon by them as an obnoxious and intolerable imposition, even 
although all grants of land made by the Proprietors were made 
subject to the annual payment of such fees. 

The quit-rent was a relic of the old customary laws of the 
mother country, being a yearly payment made from time im- 
memorial by freeholders to the lord of the manor, in lieu of all 
other services, and carried with it an acknowledgment of sub- 
jection to the lord, and its imposition here was not in accord 
with that spirit of freedom and absolute independence in search 
of which the settlers had left their native land. It was a 
f continued cause of disagreement between the Colonists and the 
I Proprietors, not only in New Jersey but in all the other Pro- 
l prietory Governments in the Colonies. In recognition of this 
I persistent demand for unencumbered possession of their lands 
1 by the grantees, the General Proprietors allowed their agents 
i to sell their quit-rent claims to the owners of land for a 
j specified number of years rent, but this proposition met with 
I little success. 

j When the Proprietors were finally compelled by the force of 

circumstances to surrender the Government of the Province 
to the Crown in 1702, they did so on condition that their Pro- 
■; prietory rights, including that of collecting the quit-rents, were 
I properly safeguarded, and in accordance therewith Queen Anne 
t gave instructions to Lord Cornbury, the first Royal Governor 
of the Province, to secure the passing of such Act or Acts, 
"whereby the right and property of the General Proprietors 
to the soil of the Province may be confirmed to them, according 
to their respective rights and titles, together with all such quit- 
rents as have been reserved, or are or shall become due, to them 
from the inhabitants of our said Province, and that the partic- 
ular titles and estates of all the inhabitants of that Province 
and other purchasers claiming under the said General Pro- 
prietors be confirmed and settled as of right does appertain."" 

194 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Also to render it unlawful for any person or persons, besides 
the General Proprietors or their proxies, to purchase land from 
the Indians within the limits of the Province. 

The requirement respecting the Indian purchases was mndc 
a law during the first session of Assembly held under Combury 
m I703.*8 A bill was introduced at the same session to "con- 
firm and secure the Proprietors in their right to the soil of this 
Province," and was passed by the Assembly; it failed, however, 
of being enacted into law through opposition in the Council,' 
even although Cornbury had urged the adoption of such a 
measure, stating that nothing would contribute more to the set- 
tlement of the people and the country. This recommendation 
he repeated at the opening of every succeeding session, but to 
no purpose. 

Similar instructions were given to Governors Ingoldsby, 
Hunter, Burnet, Morris and Belcher, who in turn urged the 
passage of such Act or Acts as would comply therewith, but 
with like results, for, as Governor Hunter wrote : "The Jerseys 
are so divided about their titles and claims to land that nothing 
could be accomplished" by legislation. As a last resource the 
Proprietors applied to the Court of Chancery for a decision in 
their favor against the Elizabethtown claimants, as a test case, 
the claims and counter-claims of the contestants being pre- 
sented in great detail in what is known as the Elizabethtown 
Bill in Chancery, filed in 1745, and the Answer thereto, filed in 
1751- The Bill was prepared by James Alexander, a noted 
lawyer and the Surveyor-General of the Province, assisted by 
Joseph Murray, and presented in the names of the Earl of Stair 
and others of the General Proprietors, while the Answer was 
submitted by Livingston and Smith representing the Elizabeth- 
town Associates. This was the final action in the long-drawn- 
out controversy between the rival claimants, and it was never 
judicially settled. 

Although the Board of Proprietors of East Jersey was never 
legally incorporated, Doctor John Johnstone, one of its very 
active and prominent members, tried to have it done during 
the administration of Governor Hunter, and again while Wi^ 
liam Burnet was Governor of the Province, but without avail, 
his action having been looked upon with suspicion by some who 

The Board of Proprietors of East Jersey 195 

thought he was actuated by sinister and selfish motives.*' 
Nevertheless it has come to be legally recognized as a corpor- 
ation "by prescription," Vice Chancellor Pitney's decision to 
that effect being affirmed by the Court of Appeals in June, 
1893. The Board is officially known as "The General Pro- 
prietors of the Eastern Division of New Jersey," with offices 
in a small building immediately north of the City Hall of Perth 
Amboy, the lintel over the door bearing the inscription "Sur- 
veyor-General's Office." Here the records of the Pro- 
prietors are carefully preserved, and meetings are held semi- 
annually, persons holding at least a ninety-sixth part of a share 
being entitled to a seat in the Council. 

The first minute book, marked "A. B. No. i," is entitled 
"The Journal of the Procedure of the Proprietors and Proxies 
to Proprietors of the Province of East Jersey, from and after 
the 9th day of April, Anno Dom., 1685," and covers a period of 
twenty years. The record of the following twenty years meet- 
ings is missing, but, with the exception of a few years during 
the Revolutionary War, the record from March 25, 1725, is 
complete to date, and is contained in books "A," "B," "C," and 
"D," covering in all a period of two and a-third centuries, an 
exceedingly interesting record of the oldest private corporation 
in the country still doing business at the old stand. 


(1) N. J. Archives, Vol. i, p. 20. (2) Ibid, p. 22. (3) East Jersey 
Under the Proprietors, p. 9. (4) N. J. Archives, Vol. i, p. 99. (5) 
Ibid, p. 175. (6) Ibid, pp. 411, 454. (7) Ibid, p. 377. (8) Ibid, Vol. 
13, p. II. (9) Ibid, p. 3. (lo)- Commissions, etc., in Proprietors' Office, 
Vol. C, p. 2. (11) N. J. Archives, Vol. i, p. 454. (12) Ibid, p. 428. 
(13) Ibid, Vol. 13, p. 8. (14) Burnet Doc. in N. J. Hist. Society's 
Library. (15) N. J. Archives, Vol. 13, p. 10. (16) Ibid, p. 97. (17) 
Ibid, p. 12. (18) Ibid, Vol. i, p. 378. (19) Ibid, Vol. 13, p. loi. (20) 
Ibid, p. 105, and Commissions, etc., in Proprs.' Office, Vol. C, p. 41. 
(21) Ibid, Vol. I, p. 455. (22) Ibid, pp. 423, 489. (23) Ibid, p. 432. (24) 
Ibid, Vol. 21, p. 58. (25) Ibid, Vol. 13, p. 120. (26) Commissions, 
etc., p. 81. (27) N. J. Archives, Vol. i, p. 426. {z'i) Ibid, p. 457. (29) 
Ibid, Vol. 13, p. 151. (30) Ibid, Vol. i, pp. 395-411. (31) Ibid, pp. 
446, 447. (32) East Jersey under Prop., p. 419. {2Z) N. J. Archives, 
Vol. 13, p. 131. (34) Ibid, p. 130. (35) Ibid, Vol. i, p. 460. (36) Ibid, 
p. 480. (37) Ibid, p. 409- (3S) Ibid, p. 477. (39) Proprs' Minutes, 
AB No. I, p. 44. (40) Ibid, p. 15. (41) Commissions, etc., p. 07. (42) 
Grants and Cone, p. 277. (43) Ibid, p. 281. (44) Proprs' Minutes, AB 
No. I. (45) N. J. Archives, Vol. i, p. 538. (46) Ibid, Vol. 13, p. 256. 
(47) Ibid, Vol. 2, p. 517. C48) Jour, of House Rep., 1703, p. 22. (49) 
N. J. Archives, Vol. 5, p. 57. 

196 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 



My interest in Prof. Benedict Jaeger was first aroused by 
reading m Mr. John D. Sherman's "Catalogue 10 of Books on 
Insects," the following statement referring to Prof. Jaeger's 
book on "The Life of North American Insects :" "famous as the 
most worthless of all American Insect books." Such a sweep- 
ing statement as this aroused my curiosity as to Prof. Jaeger's 
entomological activities and how he came to write a book merit- 
ing such severe criticism. Upon finding out that he was once 
a resident of New Jersey, no other course was open than to 
rush belatedly to his defense, or at least to attempt to explain 
why his book should not be judged too severely. However, I 
am not as much concerned with Prof. Jaeger's writings as I am 
with his entomological activities and interests, and the present 
paper is written mainly for the purpose of bringing together 
the scattered bits of published and unpublished information 
which I am able to collect. At present the various cyclopedias 
contain, for the most part, only the date of his death and a 
reference to one or two of his books. 

Prof. Jaeger was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1789 and was 
educated in the University of Vienna. He entered the service 
of Alexander of Russia, who conferred on him the rank of 
Lieut.-Colonel and placed him in charge of valuable collections 
in the Natural History Museum of the University of St. Peters- 
burg. ^ Upon the accession of Nicholas he was sent to explore 
the Crimea and embodied his researches in "Travels from St. 
Petersburg to the Crimea and countries of the Caucasus." He 
subsequently visited Santo Domingo to collect specimens for 
the Imperial Cabinet of Natural History at St. Petersburg. 
References to his travels in these countries are found scattered 
throughout the pages of his book, "The Life of North Ameri- 
can Insects" (1854), and the following extracts from this book 
enable one to secure glimpses of his entomological activities at 
that time. Writing about grasshoppers, he states : 

"In 1825 the Russian empire was again alarmed by the ap- 

Prof. Benedict Jaeger, Early Enionwlogist of New Jersey 197 

pearance of an innumerable quantity of grasshoppers, of which 
I had the pleasure (if pleasure it may be called) of being an 
eye-witness.^ I left the city of Moscow in the beginning of the 
month of April, 1825, in order to visit the Crimea, the Caucasus 
and the countries lying between tlie Black and Caspian Seas. 
Passing through the well-cultivated States of Moscow, Orel, 
Rasan, Charkow, Kiew and Woronesch, the Vv^hole population 
of these States expressed in a lamentable manner their fear of 
perishing by famine on account of the enormous quantity of 
the then wingless grasshoppers which inundated the desert 
prairies between Kiew and Odessa and between the Don and 
the Wolga tov/ards Astrachan and the Caucasus." (P. 146). 
"But the more majestic view of one of their flying swarms 
presented itself to me in Asia, in the Island of Phanagoria, 
after having crossed the Black Sea at Panticapacum, the 
modern city of Kertsch, on the Bosphorus." (P. 148), 

During his discussion of the Carabridse he says : "The 
splendid, blue-colored, large Carabus {Procrustes violaceus) 
still brings to my mind the most pleasing recollections of the 
disinterested hospitality and affectionate kindness of the Tar- 
tars who dwell in the lovely Pennisula of the Crimea. It 
was in the month of June, 1825, that I visited that delightful 
country. The romantic valley of Baidary, covered with lux- 
uriant and variegated flowers and a great variety of the most 
beautiful insects, ofi'ered me an immense field for collecting 
plants and insects, a catalogue of which I published in St. 
Petersburg in 1827." (P. 29). 

While still on the subjects of beetles he mentions the fact 
that "General Count Dejeau, Aide-de-camp to Napoleon Bon- 
aparte, was so anxious to increase the number of specimens in 
his entomological cabinet, that he even availed himself of his 
military campaigns for this purpose and was continually occu- 
pied in collecting insects and fastening them with pins on the 
outside of his hat, which was always covered with them." Af- 
ter relating how General Dejeau was struck in the head and 

'Description of the Natural Riches, Extent and Population of the 
Russian Provinces beyond the Caucasus. By B. Jaeger, Member of sev- 
eral Learned Societies, Leipzig, 1830. 

198 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

knocked senseless from his horse and his specimens ruined 
by an enemy shot in the battle of Wagram in 1S09, Prof. 
Jaeger writes: "Six years after this, in 181 5, I met Count 
Dejeau at Fiume on the Adriatic, and made several entomolog- 
ical excursions with him." (P. 4q). 

Further along he relates : "The celebrated Prince Paul, of 
Wurtemberg, another passionate naturalist, whom I met in 
1829 at Port-au-Prince, being one day at my house, shed tears 
of envy when I showed him the gigantic beetle Actseon, which, 
only a short time before, had been presented to me by the 
Haitien Admiral Banajotti, he having found it at the foot of a 
cocoanut palm-tree on his plantation." (P. 49). "During our 
frequent nature-historical excursions in the interior of St. 
Domingo, he often spoke of his prospect of being elected 
King of Greece, for which office he was a candidate, but, when 
he afterwards learned that the Emperors of Russia and Aus- 
tria had rejected him on account of his radical principles, he 
became very low-spirited and even melancholy. So great, how- 
ever, v/as his passion for entomological specimens, that a col- 
lection of one hundred species of splendid insects, made in one 
day, forever expelled all thoughts of the Grecian royal crown 
from his mind, and restored his former cheerfulness." (P. 

Prof. Jaeger also traveled in Denmark as indicated by the 
following : "In Altona, in Denmark, I became acquainted 
with a gentleman who raised in his conservatory several spe- 
cies of the large moths, natives of North America, as the 
Cecropia, Luna, Polyphemus and Promethea, which he sold 
readily at two dollars apiece, and of which he rrised on an av- 
erage a thousand specimens a year." (P. 181). 

In 1831 Prof. Jaeger visited the United States, and in 
1832 was engaged by the College of New Jersey, now Prince- 
ton University, to put the Zoological Museum in good order. 
In June of that year the College conferred on him the hon- 
orary degree of Master of Arts. In the following Septem- 
ber he was appointed curator of the Museum and Lecturer on 
Natural History at a salary of $200 per year. He was also 
appointed Professor of German and Italian to give instruction 

Prof. Benedict Jaeger, Early Entomologist of New Jersey 199 

to such students as desired it. In 1836 he was appointed to 
■ teach French. In April, 1839, he offered the College his 
private cabinet of Natural History, consisting of about "150 
specimens of mammalia, reptiles and birds, and a scientifically 
arranged entomological collection of about 2,000 specimens 
which he had procured at considerable expense of time and 
money" (Minutes of Board of Trustees), asking in return that 
his salary be paid in advance. His proposal was accepted. He 
resigned in September, 1841, and his account with the College 
seems to have been left in confusion, for in December, 1846, a 
committee of the Board was appointed to settle the contro- 

Following his resignation he was, according to his obituary 
in the Brooklyn "Eagle" (Aug. 18, 1869), invited by Hon. Joel 
^ R. Poinsett, Secretary of War, to go to Washington to assist. 

{ in planning the Smithsonian Institution. This statement is 

I probably not entirely correct for, upon requesting the present 

: secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for information con- 

I cerning Prof. Jaeger's activities along this line, I received the 

) following reply from Mr. H. W. Dorsey, Chief Clerk : "Refer- 

1 ring to your letter of November 8, I am authorized to say that, 

I after careful search, no record can be found of Professor 

j Jaeger's activities in connection with the inception of the Smith- 

I sonian Institution. The Institution was not established until 

! 1846 but, in 1840, the Honorable Joel R. Poinsett organized the 

\ National Institution, and Professor Jaeger may have been as- 

I sociated with Mr. Poinsett in that work." 

; I was unable to find anything showing how active Prof. 

i Jaeger was in connection with the National Institution, but in 

the "Bulletin" of the Institution containing its crnstitution and 
list of officers and members. Prof. Jaeger's name is mentioned 
in the list of corresponding members and his address is given as 
Princeton, N. J. According to the proceedings of the meeting- 
of June 14, 1841, Prof. Jaeger presented the library of the 
Institution with a copy of his "Analytical Table of a Course of 
Lectures on Zoology." 

According to the publication, "The Genesis of the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum," by G. Brown Goode (Rept. U. S. Nat. Mus.„ 

200 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

1891) the National Institution for the Promotion of Science 
organized in Washington May 15, 1840, "was for some years 
the most prominent exponent of the idea of a National Mu- 
seum." For nearly eighteen years (1841 to 1858) the National 
Institution v/as the official custodian of the Smithson bequest 
and other museum materials belonging to the nation. On July 
27, 1842, it was incorporated as the National Institute. On 
the occasion of the first annual meeting of the National Insti- 
tute, April, 1844, members of the American Philosophical 
Society and the Association of American Geologists and Nat- 
uralists were present. The work of the Institute was highly 
commended and President Tyler held out the hope that the 
Government would "continue to it a fostering care" and expres- 
sed in a general way the hope that it should be identified in 
some way with the future National Museum and Smithsonian 
Institution. However, Congress adjourned without appropri- 
ating any money for its needs. This was a death blow from 
which the Institute never recovered. Mr. Poinsett declined 
reelection as President, publications were discontinued, and the 
list of 350 resident and 1,250 corresponding members grew 
shorter. An effort was made to revive it in 1S47 and in 1855 
it came into existence as a local scientific society. 

In 1857 the Smithsonian Institution took over the collections 
which had been deposited with the National Institute except 
some objects directly under the control of the Institute. All 
of this material was housed in the Patent Office. In 1861, 
shortly before the Institute's charter expired, the remnants of 
the collection (much had been destroyed or stolen, having re- 
ceived no care while in the Patent Office) were turned over to 
the Smithsonian Institution by the Secretary of the Interior. 

This ended the National Institute in which Prof. Jaeger was 
undoubtedly interested. From 1841 to 1845 he resided in 
Alexandria, D. C., and this period included the stormy days of 
the Institute. For the next few years it is recorded that he 
was engaged in preparing a "Class Book of Zoology." In 1849 
he went to Providence. R. I., where he resided over six years. 

His "Class Book of Zoology" was printed in New York in 
1849 and a third edition appeared in i860. The complete title 

Prof. Benedict Jaeger, Early Entomologist of New Jersey 201 

of this book is, "Class Book of Zoology, Designed to Afford to 
Pupils in Common Schools and Academies a Knowledge of the 
Animal Kingdom, with a List of the Different Species Found 
in the State of New York." This work covers such subjects 
as mammals, birds, snakes, worms, insects, etc., and includes 
lists of the species designated by their common names. In his 
"List of some Insects" found in New York, 119 species in vari- 
ous orders are mentioned, and some of them, especially in the 
Coleoptera, can be recognized now. At the end of the book are 
various testimonials from his former associates and friends at 
the College of New Jersey, Alexandria, Washington. Trenton, 
New York and Brooklyn, testifying to his knowledge of natural 
history, to his ability as a linguist, to his gentlemanly deport- 
i ment, his amiable disposition and his sober and industrious 

: habits. From one of such testimonials it appears that Prof. 

I Jaeger once gave a course of lectures at the Rutgers Female 

\ Institution of New York, or Brooklyn. The New York "Tri- 

I bune" of October 23, 1848, announcing a lecture by him before 

j the New York Historical Society, speaks very flatteringly about 

I him. 

I His book, "The Life of North American Insects," in the 

I preparation of which he was assisted by H. C. Preston, M. D., 

i was first issued in parts, six in all, each with a colored plate. 

j The title page of the bound volume, which was printed at 

I Providence by Sayles, Miller & Simons in 1854, bears the state- 

1 ment, "Published for the Author." This edition contains an 

account of the life of Sir Hans Sloane, M. D., founder of the 

British Museum, which is missing from later editions. The 

colored plates accompanying the first edition were, according 

to Prof. Jaeger, "drawn and painted from nature' by his 

friend Washington Hoppin, ALD., "who occasionally relieved 

the monotony of professional life by this display of his native 

talent." (P. 41). 

In the introduction Jaeger states that he is "about to lay 
before the North American public the fruits of my entomo- 
logical investigations pursued for many years during my ex- 
tensive travels in Europe, Asia and on this Continent." He 
also states that at that time there were no general works on 

202 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society I 

North American insects, except a few numbers of the "Ameri- 1 

can Entomology" by Thomas Say ; Major Leconte's "Iconogra- | 

phy of some Genera of Butterflies," and Dr. Harris's elaborate | 

report on the injurious insects of Massachusetts. He further -. 

remarks that it is his design "to make this work a valuable | 

ornament for the parlor table as well as an instructive and | 

amusing companion." | 

The entire book is written in a style which reminds one very | 

much of the popular books on natural history published in | 

England about 1830, in which natural history is sandwiched | 

between anecdotes, personal reminiscences and semi-philosophi- j 

cal mcanderings. Prof. Jaeger's book, as he states in the | 

introduction, is a very general work on insects, intended to be t 

instructive and amusing. Nothing additional is claimed, and \ 

that it succeeded in this aim is indicated by the fact that three j 

editions were published. It will not bear comparison at all \ 

with Harris's "Insects Injurious to Vegetation," published in ? 

1841, and I believe that Prof. Jaeger intended and was satisfied I 

to reach a different class of readers. It was his idea to popu- j 

larize entomology. The title of the book is rather misleading, | 

because very little information is given about the life histories * 

of North American insects. Mistakes are evident, a few of j 

which were apparently copied by later writers. | 

Returning to Prof. Jaeger's movements, particularly in the I 

United States. On page 82 he writes : "I had the pleasure of I 

spending a week last summer at Bristol, R. I., at the residence j 

of my esteemed friend Mr. Dimon, the President Governor of \ 

Rhode Island, whose acquaintance I made twenty-five years ago ] 

in Port-au-Prince when he was United States Consul for the j 

Republic of Hayti." Writing of the silkworm and expressing | 

regret that the people of the United States were not more per- ] 

severing and successful in raising their own silk, he says : "I | 

was happy to be able to purchase some fine silk handkerchiefs j 

at Rapp's Economy, eighteen miles below Pittsburgh on the I 

Ohio, which were manufactured there out of silk of their own I 
raising." (P. 199). 

While on the subject of Dermestids, he says : "The late 
General Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, pre- 


i Prof. Benedict Jaeger, Early Entomologist of New Jersey 203 

j sented me in 1834 with two large boxes of splendid South Amer- 
\ ican beetles and butterflies, but, much to my regret, on opening 
\ them I found the largest and handsomest specimens destroyed 
■ by this little enemy of naturalists." (P. 65). On the subject 
I of metamorphosis he writes entertainingly as follows : "Such 
I changes, however, are not confined to insects, but are also 
: common throughout the animal kingdom, as well in the highest 
I as the lowest classes, and would seem to be something more 
I than a mere freak of nature. The daughter of a hairdresser in 
\ Paris, on account of her extraordinary merits, was made, by 
j Louis XV, Duchess of Dubarry, with an annual income of a 
I hundred thousand dollars, and the same individual, when 
I eighty years old, was brought on a butcher's cart, clad in rags, 
I to the scaffold, where she was beheaded." (P. 178). 

Regretting "that in our so-called halls of learning so little 
attention is paid to the study of the objects of Nature," he 
writes : "The fact that the study of Nature tends directly to the 
civilization of a nation was well understand more than a century 
and a half ago by that ingenious self-made man, Peter the 
Great of Russia. He conceived the idea that a love for this 
department of science would contribute much towards the 
civilization of his barbarian subjects, and accordingly he estab- 
lished, at an enormous expense, a large museum of Natural 
History at St. Petersburg; and in order to induce his whisky- 
loving subjects to go there, he ordered a glass of brandy to be 
presented to every visitor." (P. 71). 

^^ Writing of the periodical Cicada, we f^nd this statement: 
"Now it is a fact that during my twenty-two years' residence 
in this country not a single summer has passed without my 
seeing some of these red-eyed Cicadas in one or other of the 
States, and hence I must maintain that the name 'Seventeen- 
years Locust' is neither correct nor proper." (P. 95). In the 
1859 and 1864 editions of his book (published by Harper & 
Bros., New York) he still sticks to this statement, but includes 
a letter from Dr. Harris, dated January 10, 1855, in which it is 
explained that, while the periodical Cicada appears only once 
in seventeen years in the same place, it may occur in other 
places during other years. 

204 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Both the 1859 and 1S64 editions, while written in the same 
style as the first, contain much additional matter, the portions 
on economic insects having been taken from Dr. Harris's "In- 
sects Injurious to Vegetation," to which due credit is given. 
Both of these editions lacked colored plates and the less said 
about all of the illustrations the better. In the introductions 
Prof. Jaeger omits the statement appearing in the first edition, 
that it is his design to make the book a "valuable ornament for 
the parlor table," etc. 

Returning to the subject of Cicadas, Mr. W. T. Davis calls 
my attention to the statement of Jaeger (P. loi, Edition of 
1854, and p. 71, Edition of 1859), made on the authority of 
Pontedera, that some Cicadas live two years in the immature 
condition. Jaeger applies this to our species, and this state- 
ment, more or less modified but substantially the same, has ap- 
peared in American textbooks on entomology issued as recent- 
ly as 1921. Mr. Davis says that, so far as he is aware, the 
only Cicada life cycle that is known is that of the 17-year one. 
Pontedera was an Italian botanist who lived between 1688 and 
1757, and in his book ("Compendium Tabularum Botanicarum 
in quo Plantae 2/2, etc., Patavii, 1718"), pages XIV to XXIII 
are devoted to the Cicada. 

Prof. Jaeger died from heart disease on August 17, 1869, 
at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. A. Haasis, Bedford 
Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., with whom he had resided for some 
time previous to his death. He was buried in Evergreen 

In the library of Princeton University I examined his "Ana- 
lytical Table of a Course of Lectures on Zoology, Including 
Comparative Anatomy," printed at Princeton in 1835, by R, E. 
Hornor; also his manuscript, "Museum Neo-Caesariensis," 
dated Princeton, 1832. His "Analytical Table," etc., is a 48- 
page book, containing 27 outlines of lectures on mammals, 
birds, insects, etc. About 16 pages are devoted to insects. 
Each outline is a bare skeleton of suggestions on which the 
lecture is to be built, and is followed by a list of some of the 
species of animals found in the United States as examples for 
a discussion of their natural history. According to this book 

Prof. Benedict Jaeger, Early Entomologist of New Jersey 205 

Prof. Jaeger was a member of the "Imper. Academy Naturse 
Curiosorum" at Moscow and of the Albany Institute. Accord- 
ing to the "Proceedings of the Albany Institute," Jaeger joined 
in 1833 as a Corresponding member from Princeton. 

The manuscript, "Museum Neo-Cassariensis," is a catalogue 
of the natural history specimens in the College museum. It 
consists of 32 pages (foolscap size), written in longhand, 
dated Sept. 25, 1832, and signed by Prof. Jaeger. Both scien- 
tific and common names are used except for the insects, and 
some items are followed by the names of the contributors. 
Eight hundred and forty-five items are listed. This number 
I includes 63 species of mammals, 207 species of birds, S^y species 
I of reptiles, jy species of fishes, 108 specimens of shells, 51 
j specimens of starfish and 252 species of insects. The insects 
I are listed as follows: Coleoptera, 34 species; Hemiptera, 14 
I species ; Lepidoptera, 85 species ; Neuroptera, 8 species ; Hy- 
I menoptera, 13 species; Diptera, 3 species; Aptera, 6 species; 
I 4 wasp nests and 85 species (probably various orders) ; all 
I collected at Princeton by B. Jaeger and presented to the Col- 
i lege. I made an effort to locate some of this material and also 
I the Jaeger collection acquired by the College about 1839 but 
1 with incomplete success. It was suggested that probably these 
I collections perished when the entire interior of Nassau Hall 
! was destroyed by fire for the second time on March 10, 1855. 
j However, Dr. Walter M. Rankin of the Department of Biology 
i very kindly offered to try to locate some of this material and, 
under date of Dec. i, 1921, wrote to me in part as follows : "I 
am quite positive that 19 of the 25 turtles are in our present 
museum, also 2 anteaters. These specimens would naturally 
be more likely to survive than alcoholic specimens or than the 
birds. It is probable that I may be able to locate other mater- 
ial after further examination. . . . I understand that these 
collections were probably housed in what is now known as 
Stanhope Hall, or in what was known as Philosophy Hall, 
now no longer in existence. I am inclined to doubt the prob- 
ability of their having been placed in Nassau Hall and de- 
stroyed in the fire of 1855." 

In the library of the New York Botanical Garden, Dr. John 

2o6 Proceedings Nexv Jersey Historical Society 

H. Barnhart showed me six letters written by Jaeger to Dr. 
John Torrey, bearing dates from 1837 to 1842. In the one 
dated Nov, 21, 1837, from Princeton, Jaeger proposes to send 
to Torrey a collection of his duplicate plants for the purpose 
of furnishing Torrey with material which could be exchanged 
with European correspondents. Jaeger states that his material 
was carefully prepared and that a large number of his speci- 
mens bear roots and fruits. He asks Dr. Torrey for an im- 
mediate answer if his proposal is accepted as he (Jaeger) has 
the duplicates packed and ready. This letter is signed "Your 
devoted friend, B. Jaeger," and is accompanied by a list of 
duplicates containing the names of 183 species and a list of 
desiderata numbering 186 species. In the letter dated Sept. 
13, 1838, from Princeton, Jaeger thanks Torrey for some plants 
and promises to send him a list of plants collected in Virginia, 
the western part of Pennsylvania and the vicinity of Princeton. 
Under date of Nov. 3, 1838, Jaeger writes from Hopewell, 
N. J., referring mainly to one of Torrey's publications and 
regretting that he was unable to collect the money for subscrip- 

Under date of Sept. 21, 1840, Jaeger mentions that, at the be- 
ginning of the vacation period, he sent Torrey a few tortoises 
for his little daughter and also a letter containing $30 for his 
flora. In this letter (Sept. 21, 1840) Jaeger enclosed $3. which 
he had received from Prof. Moffat at Lafayette College as a 
subscription. The remainder is devoted to plants and parts 
of Torrey's work which Jaeger wanted. Writing from Prince- 
ton, Sept. 25, 1840, Jaeger acknowledges Torrey's letter of Sep- 
tember 4 and also the receipt of a beautiful doll which one of 
Torrey's daughters had sent for Prof. Jaeger's daughter, 
Fanny. In this letter Jaeger promises to send some 
tortoises and other articles to Torrey for his daughter's cabinet 
of natural history. Among other matters, he acknowledges 
with thanks the invitation for him to consider Torrey's house 
his own if he should visit New York. The last letter is dated 
Nov. 12, 1842, at Alexandria, D. C, and informs Torrey that 
he (Jaeger) had advised a Lieut. Tremont, who had collected 
plants in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains, to send his col- 

New Jersey Over a Century Ago, As Seen By a Frenchman 207 

lection of several hundred specimens to him to be named. 
Jaeger states that he examined a few specimens thought 
worthy of being looked at by Dr. Torrey and Dr. Gray. All 
of the letters are in the handwriting of Prof. Jaeger and are 
signed by him. 

For information concerning Prof. Jaeger's activities at the 
College of New Jersey, I am indebted to Mr. V. Lansing Col- 
lins, Secretary of Princeton University. Mr. Calvin W. Foss, 
of the Brooklyn Public Library, generously supplied me with 
an abstract of Prof. Jaeger's obituary printed in the Brooklyn 
"Eagle," August 18, 1869. Through the kindness of the 
Princeton University Library, Dr. John H. Barnhart, of the 
New York Botanical Garden, Mr. A. J. Mutchler, of the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History (through the courtesy of Dr. 
F. E. Lutz), and Mr. W. T. Davis, Staten Island, I was able 
to examine all of Prof. Jaeger's books and the manuscript and 
letters mentioned above. 

icJM ((5* ^* t^ 



The "Journal'' of the travels in New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania of the French financier, Theophile Cazanove, during 
1794, is now translated and published by the Pennsylvania 
History Press, the editing having been done by Rayner W. 
Kelsey, Ph. D., professor of American history in Haverford 

The book brings back a very interesting period in American 
history, when travelers from abroad came to look us over and 
report back to the old country as to our manners, customs and 
financial standing. We were a young nation, just toddling 
along, and our friends across the sea came to watch us tod- 
dle or to toddle with us, if by so doing they could get in on the 
ground floor in land deals and other speculations. A complete 
series of the books or journals coming under the general title 
of "Travels in the United States," written during these early 

2o8 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

days of the republic, would make an instructive library. Caza- 
nove came over in 1790, as a representative of the Holland 
Land Company, to learn as much as he could about business 
openings, and remained until 1799. 

The book contains a folded map of Cazanove's journey 
across New Jersey into Pennsylvania as far as Chambersburg 
and back to Philadelphia. The route through New Jersey in- 
cluded Nev/ark, Springfield, Chatham, Hanover, Troy, Boon- 
ton, Morristown, Long Valley, Washington, New Village and 
the crossing, opposite Easton, of the Delaware. The first page 
of the "Journal" takes in Newark, and it is here given entire : 
"On October 21, 1794, left New York at 10 o'clock, in a 
carriage drawn by 2 horses ; my saddle horse, the coachman and 
Petit. Arrived at Newark, New Jersey, 8 miles distant, at 
4 o'clock : lodged at GifiFort's. 

"Oct. 22, meeting of the directors and stockholders of the 
Manufacturers' Company established in Paterson, 14 miles 
from Newark. Learned that a large cloth-printing factory is 
going to be established in Pompton, situated 8 miles from 
Paterson, under the directions of Mr. John Davies [Daniels?]. 
They do not know who furnishes the money for this undertak- 
ing — they suspect D. 

"Academy of Latin and English and reading and writing 
and French: prepares for college; 90 scholars, 6 pounds per 
year, 25 pounds room in town, boarding and lessons. A Lib- 
erty bonnet on a pole in the middle of the village, a furnace 
where cast-iron stoves are made. The city, very pretty, full 
of shoemakers, and shoe and boot factories, sell from ten to 
thirteen thousand dollars worth a year. Undertook yesterday 
20 thousand pairs of shoes for the army, at 8 dollars a pair. 
A factory for cotton and wool and cotton stockings. Eight 
looms [tended] by young boys [make] excellent white and 
blue stockings, but at los.,— a dollar and a quarter. 

"Mrs. Capron keeps a girls' school of 20 scholars, boarders 
and day pupils. She teaches them French, drawing, sewing 
and embroidery, for $10 a quarter. Tuition and board, laun- 
dry, heat, etc., cost 52 pounds, or $130 a year, without the after- 
noon session, arithmetic, music, geography; for these ladies 

New Jersey Over a Century Ago, As Seen By a Frenchman 209 

can go at small cost to the Academy and take lessons under the 
supervision of the Newark teachers. 

"Someone broke into the carriage at night and carried off 
some pieces of luggage — these were recovered because the 
parties were detected in the act." 
\ To those familiar with Newark history, Giffort's means 

I Archer Gifford's tavern at Broad and Market, and Mrs. Cap- 

I ron's school and the Academy were well known institutions. 

J Newark was very "pretty" and yet full of shoemakers and 

i doing a rushing business for those days. Cazanove felt no 

I grudge against Newark, even if his luggage was stolen — and 

I recovered. 

I Cazanove went on to Springfield and covers the subject of 

I that historic village with forty-three words, ending with "a 

f Liberty-bonnet on a pole in the center of the village." Nobody 

: reminded him of the famous battle of some fifteen years prev- 

I iously, and he apparently did not hear about "Give 'em Watts, 

I boys." He rode on to Chatham, where he noted a big Bible 

on the table under the mirror in Day's tavern. The Chatham 
farmers raised cattle. They had cut off most all the wood, and 
walnut for burning in the stove was up to $2 a cord. At Han- 
over he found better ground for cultivation and fifteen bushels 
of wheat could be got from the acre. At Patin's well-conducted 
inn he found another English Bible on a table under a mirror. 
A half mile away Charles Marr's paper mill was located, where 
in Cazanove's judgment the best paper in the States was made. 
Goose quills could be bought of one Ferris for two cents, the 
dozen ready for sharpening. The traveler went on to Troy 
and then Bonn Town (Boonton) and visited Faesch's iron 
works, where was rolled the pig iron that was made at Mount 

Morristown seems to have taken Cazanove's fancy, for his 
account of it requires almost four printed pages. He lodged 
at O'Harra's tavern, though mine host was away with the 
militia to quell in Pennsylvania the Whisky Rebellion. Many 
free negroes lived in Morristown, and in his opinion were not 
getting up very rapidly in morals or finances. There was a 
dancing hall in the village for winter recreations, and a little 

2IO Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

public subscription library. Land fronting on the village 
streets sold as high as £ioo per acre. Plenty of schools and 
churches and a good prison, with no criminals and three debtors. 
The "college" had for its head Gilpen Russel, and he had built 
a small theatre in which the scholars could play little comedies. 
The town was situated on a hill near which ran a stream, and 
there was a tall liberty pole erected with a Liberty bonnet. 
Cazanove seems to have heard nothing about Washington hav- 
ing made there his headquarters for many months. 

The traveler moved on to Black River, now Succasunna, 
and has much to say about cider and whiskey, for which the 
■ inhabitants seem to have been noted. Whiskey was bringing 
the farmers from 50 to 60 shillings the hogshead, whereas a 
few years previously it had brought but 20 shillings. There 
were 104 gallons to the hogshead. There was a great export 
of spirits to New York, and from there to the South. The farm- 
ers found the apple business prosperous in the way indicated, 
and were planting many orchards. 

He went on to German Valley, to Van House's tavern, and 
then over Schooley's Mountain to Miller's tavern on the Mus- 
conetcong creek, through wooded and uncultivated lands and 
then on to Easton, Pennsylvania. Cazanove mentions this 
route through New Jersey as being universally taken by the emi- 
grants to the West, hundreds of families passing through each 
year from New England to Kentucky and Ohio. 

<^ ^ ^ ^ 


[Continued from Page 134] 
In continuing extracts from this "Journal," we shall note 
only such facts as give names of persons in Sussex county and 
elsewhere who were active members of society, or were en- 
gaged in business, some 120 or so years ago ; also such as throw 
light upon methods and slowness of travel in those days. It 
will be noticed from the following instalment that sometimes 
New York could be reached from Newton, N. J., in a little 
less than two days, while sometimes the longer route going 
or returning, for example by New Brunswick, occupied three 

A Young Man's Journal of 1 800-1 813 211 

or four days. All this seems curious enough to-day. The 

"young man," who kept the "Journal," evidently had not only 

an eye to business, but to social enjoyments, and his. descriptions 

of what went on in society in Sussex county at the beginning 

i, of the last century cannot fail to have at least a partial interest 

I for many of our readers. Being only 21 years of age when he 

I began his diary, he was naturally susceptible to the company 

of good ladies. 

"1802, June 10. — At Newton, making preparations to start 
I to New York to purchase goods. Mr. Stoll and I rented Col. 

I Thompson's store house. We shall set out for New York next 

I Sunday. 

I "19. — This day Brother Johnny paid me $300, being the 

\ money I lent him on my return from New Orleans. Also 

\ rec'd of Br. David $70. 

I "20. — Mr. Stoll and I started for New York in a chair; 

\ arrived at Morristown at 8 P. M. and stayed all night. 

j "21. — Proceeded on; got to Elizabethtown Point at 10; took 

i passage and arrived at New York at 2 P. M. ; took lodgings at 

I Mr. Lansbury's, in Front Street. Walked out ; found goods 

i tolerable low ; shall begin to purchase tomorrow. 

^'22. — Purchased our groceries ; hardware, Queensware, sta- 
j tionery, etc. 

I "24. — Received of John Van Deren in cash $244. Pur- 

I chased our dry goods, etc. 

I "25. — Had all our goods put on board of Mr. Dayton's 

j sloop and will sail tomorrow for Elizabethtown. 

I "26. — Settled all up for our goods, and at 10 o'clock we set 

sail for Jersey ; arrived at i P. M. ; started on and got as far as 

*'2y. — Proceeded on ; got as far as Sparta by i and arrived 
at Newton at 4 o'clock. 

"28. — Started up 7 teams for our goods; went to Johnson- 
burg and returned. 

"July 2. — Some of our goods arrived this evening. 
"5. — This morning Mr. Stoll and I opened store and com- 
menced business. Independence today ; celebrated it in New- 
ton at Mr. Johnson's. 

212 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

"23. — Rode to Johusonburg with Mr. Van Tile Coursen; I 

stayed all night at Brother Henry's. | 

"25. — Went to Church, after which Jacob S. Thomson and I | 

rode to P. Smith's, etc. ' | 

"Oct. 3. — T. O. Anderson and I rode up to Frankf ord ; | 

took tea at Capt. Haggerty's and returned. I 

"5. — Thos. O. Anderson and I rode up to Vernon to the ^ 

races; spent the day very agreeably. 'Hardware' took this J 

day's purse. Stayed all night at Mr. Seward's. I 

"6. — The races again commenced. 'Honest John' took the s 

purse, after which the scrub race run, Mr. Jedediah Sayre and I » 

started and rode to Deckertown and stayed all night at his ] 

house. I 

"y. — After breakfast I rode across the mountains to IMilf ord ; ] 

stayed all night at Mr. Wickham of Bloominggrove. | 

"8. — Returned over the river to Milford and stayed till after- ' 

noon, when Brother Sammy and I came over and met Col. 
Chas. Longstreet and Mr. Peter Smith, when the business of 
Jonathan Johnson, deceased, was finally settled, at $200, with 
Charles Longstreet. Stayed all night at Mr. Wickham's. 

"9. — Started on for Newton. Breakfasted at Capt. Martin 
Westbrook's. At widow Baldwin's fell in with Peter Smith, 
Esq., who accompanied me to Newton. 

"12. — Election of Members of Council and the General As- 
sembly of the State of New Jersey, commenced. 

"13. — Election closed, but the result will not be known 
till Saturday next. 

"16. — The election resulted in the reelection of the old mem- 
bers, viz. Council — \Vm. C. McCullough ; Assembly — Silas 
Dickinson, Jno. Linn, Abram V. Shaver and Levi Howell ; 
SheritT — George Bidleman, all Democrats. 

"22. — The election in the State has concluded in a 
majority of one of Democrats, in the Council, and in the As- 
sembly of one of Federalists, making joint meeting 26 on 
either side; how they will appoint a Governor, etc., I cannot 

"28. — Miss Polly Bond from Philadelphia, who has been in 
Newton about two weeks, this day started for Belvidere. 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 213 

"29. — Purchased about $1,000 worth of goods of Conrad 
Vanhouten, on advantageous terms. 

"Nov. I. — My partner, Mr. Stoll, started for New York to 
purchase more. goods. 

"4- — Loaded and started off three teams to Ehzabethtown for 
goods in the afternoon. Dr. Hunt and I rode to Deckertown 
and sat in Farmer's Lodge. 

"Dec. 5. — Reading Robinson's 'America.' 

"23. — Started at 10 o'clock for New York; arrived at Mor- 
ristown at 5 P. M. and put up. 

"24 — Proceeded on and arrived at Ehzabethtown Point at 
2 P. M.; took passage at 3 and arrived at New York at half 
past 4. Took lodgings at Mr. Lansbury's in Front street, and 
went to the theatre. King Richard the Third performed. 

"25. — This being Christmas, I went over on Long Island 
and took a Christmas dinner in Brooklyn v/ith Mr. Holly, etc. 

''2y. — This day applied myself to business. Purchased a 
handsome assortment of drygoods of Messrs. Sayre & John 
and Mr. John Haggerty. 

"28. — Purchased groceries of Messrs. McCullen & Johnson, 
and finished my sale and purchases. 

"29. — At two o'clock set sail in a boat for E. Town Point. 
Our passage was so long and tedious we did not arrive till 9 
P. M. Stayed at Col. Crane's all night. 

"30. — Started on, and at sunset arrived at Col. Drake's, where 
I stayed all night. 

"31. — After breakfast set out and arrived at Newton at 2 
P. M. Found all well and all is well that ends well, and so 
ends this year one thousand eight hundred and two. 

"Apr. 3, 1803. — This day Wm. T. Anderson and myself rode 
up to Frankford, and drank tea at Capt. Armstrong's, with a 
numerous concourse of ladies and gents from Hamburg, Deck- 
ertown and in the vicinity of Frankford. In the evening we 
walked over to Capt. Haggerty's and stayed all night. 

"4. — This afternoon this party rode up to Deckertown with 
Miss Susan Sayre to her father's, where we were very politely 
and agreeably entertained, with every kind of amusement, cal- 
culated to render the time as happy as possible. 

214 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

"6.— This day I have been obh'ged to change my board, as 
Brother Johnny has moved from his tavern to his roadhouse. the 
upper end of town, day before yesterday. I, therefore, shall 
board at Mr. Bassett's till Doctor Hendric takes possession of 
Brother Johnnie's tavern house, which will be the 15th inst. 

"^2-— This day the gentlemen of Newton concluded to have 
a ball ; that the ladies of Hamburg, Sparta, Deckertown and 
Frankford be invited to attend ; the ball to be at J. J. Hendric's 
the 26th inst. Job S. Halstead, William T. Anderson and my- 
self were appointed managers. 

"18.— Sent tickets of invitation to the ladies and letters to 
the gentlemen, requesting the honor of their attendance at the 

"21.— Mr. William T. Anderson and myself rode up to Ham- 
burg,^ dined at Mr. Reynold's and drank tea at Judge Law- 
rence's; returned in the evening. 

"26.— This being the day appointed for the ball, Mr. Wm. T. 
Anderson and myself at 11 o'clock rode up in coaches to 
Frankford, where we took in five amiable young ladies, and 
escorted them to Newton at 7 o'clock P. M. We all assembled 
in the ball room and prepared to dance. The company con- 
sisted of Mrs. Duboise, Mrs. Baldwin, Miss Susan Sayre, Miss 
Nancy Haggerty, Miss Polly Haggerty, Miss Betsey and Miss 
Peggy Armstrong, Miss Maria Lawrence, Miss Ann Ryerson, 
Miss Rebecca Ogden, Miss Betsey Rorback, Miss Ellinor Con- 
over, Miss Ann Mclntyre and Miss Clara Broderick, together 
with the like number of gentlemen. At 8 o'clock the ball opened 
m due form. The evening was spent with all the hilarity usual 
on such occasions. At 12 o'clock took some refreshment, tea, 
coffee, etc. 

"27- At I A. M. again commenced dancing and continued 
till 3, when we all dispersed in perfect harmony and good or- 
der. After breakfast Mr. Anderson and myself again escorted 
the ladies to Frankford ; bid adieu and left them, after which 
we returned to Newton. 

"29.— Brother Johnny and I rode in a chair to Belvidere 
and stayed all night. 

"30.— Returned by way of Knolton and Stillwater to New- 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 215 

"July 20. — This day Jacob S. Thomson and Job S. Halstead, 
Esq., together with myself, went in the Goshen and Easton 
stage to Belvidere, at which place we arrived at 2 P. M. ; took 
dinner at Mr. Rockefeller's ; from thence we walked over to 
Mrs. Paul's, where I had the pleasure of being introduced to the 
amiable Miss Sally Ann Paul, possessed of wit, beauty and 
accomplishments, and in that every requisite to constitute that 
man happy who shall be the possessor of her charms. Drank 
tea at Mrs. Paul's; at 8 walked over to Mr. Todd's; was in- 
troduced to Miss Shippen. Major Roberdeau came to Belvi- 
dere in the evening, and invited us to ride over tomorrow and 
dine with him. At 12 Mr. Thomson and I went to Mr. Rocke- 
feller's to bed. 

"21, — Breakfasted with Mrs. Paul. At 11 o'clock Capt. Kin- 
ney, Mr. Gordon, Doctor Guinness and we three rode over to 
Major Robcrdeau's, where we were sumptuously entertained ; 
indeed, I believe we drank a dozen bottles of good Madeira 
wine. At 4 started for Belvidere and, I believe, a little tipsey. 
At 5 arrived ; drank tea by invitation of Henry Hankinson, 
Esq. Spent the evening at Mrs. Paul's. Lodged at Mr, Rock- 

"22. — At six started for Newton. Breakfasted at John- 
sonburg with H. Johnson. Arrived at Newton at i P. M. On 
the whole we had truly an agreeably trip in every respect. 

"Aug. 8. — Mr. Jacob S. Thomson and myself rode to Mr. 
Gustin's ; from thence to Armstong's, and from there to Deck- 

"25. — Rode in company with Mr. Maybry and Messrs. Rob- 
ert and Job S. Halstead to Sparta ; dined at Robert Ogden's. 

"Oct. 4. — In the morning Brother Johnny and I rode to 
Mr. De Puy's and dined, after which we continued on and ar- 
rived at Milford at sunset; at 8 went to Milford Lodge; re- 
turned to our lodgings at 2 A. M. 

"5-— Took breakfast at Gen. Seely's, and at i P. M. walked 
up to Col. Brodhead's and dined with him; returned at 5 
P. M. 

2i6 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

"6. — After breakfast, started for Newton, arrived at 6 
P. M. 

"15. — This being the day for canvassing the votes of the 
County the following appeared to be elected, to wit : Council 
— William McCullough ; Members of the General Assembly | 

— John Linn, Abraham Shaver, Levi Howell and John John- i 

son ; Sheriff — Charles Pemberton ; Coroners — Abraham Cour- 1 

sen, Samuel Griggs, Alex. White, all Democrats. 1 

"Nov. 29. — This day Mr. Thomson and myself accompanied | 

General Seely, 'Squire Dimmick and Brother Sammy over the | 

mountain. Mr. Thomson and I stayed at Mr. Ennis' ; a lit- 1 

tie dance there. f 

"30. — After breakfast Mr. Thomson and myself rode on to j 

Milford. In the evening we were treated with an elegant ball. | 

"Dec. 2. — Making preparations to send to New York to | 

lay in goods. j 

"4. — At 6 A. M. set out on horseback. Breakfasted at ] 

Widow Seward's ; dined at Rockaway ; drank tea at Kip's ; ■ 

arrived at Paterson at 8 P. M. Put up at ]\Iajor Gordon's. 

"5. — At 7 A. M. set out; arrived at Powles Hook at 11 and 
took breakfast. At 12 crossed the North River; arrived at 
New York and put up in William street at i o'clock. At 6 
went to the theatre ; saw the 'Castle Spectre' performed. 

"9. — At 10 A. M. left New York. Started from the Hook at 
II ; arrived at Newark at i ; rode to E. Town ; from thence to 
New Brunswick, at which place I arrived at 8 P. M. and 
put up. 

"10. — At 10 o'clock started for Sussex; got as far as 

"11. — Started on at 8 ; arrived at Newton about 6 P. M. 

"14. — This day departed this life Col. Mark Thomson. A 
man universally beloved and esteemed by all who had the pleas- 
ure of his acquaintance. An old Revolutionary officer, long a 
member of the American Congress, a firm patriot and genuine 
Federal Republican. I am unable to give the least shade or 
faint coloring to so worthy a character. The esteem I bore 
him is a sufficient culogium." 

[To be Continued] 

r ■ 

The Growth of Our Postal Facilities 217 



When one sees our wonderful postal facilities of to-day— not 
only letters, papers, periodicals, but also the special delivery, 
registered mail, insurance and parcels post— and then looks 
back 229 years to the beginning in 1693, he cannot help being 
astonished at the contrast. 

There were some independent efforts before 1693, ^"t none 
that could be called a beginning of postal service. In 1639 
Massachusetts enacted legislation looking to postal facilities, 
and Richard Fairbank's house in Boston was designated as a 
Post Office. 

In 1657 Virginia took sim.ilar steps. The Directors of the 
West India Company, in 1652, wrote Peter Stuyvesant "that 
they, for the accommodation of private parties, had put up a 
; box at the new warehouse for the collection of all mail, which 

■ will be sent by the first ship sailing, and inform you thereof 

j so you may do the same." Stuyvesant did not act upon this 

i suggestion, which was repeated in 1654 and 1655. 

\ On the completion of the new road from New York to 

{ Harlem under Governor Francis Lovelace in 1672, a monthly 

\ mail to Boston was inaugurated (January i. 1673). and a locked 

j box was put up in the office of the Colonial Secretary in New 

I York, where the mail could accumulate until the next monthly 

j post started out. The incoming mail, postage being paid, was 

j left on a table in the Coffee House until called for, thus carrying 

I out the suggestion made to Peter Stuyvesant in 1652, twenty 

I years earlier. This arrangement and post are mentioned as the 

• greatest act of Governor Lovelace's administration. 

William Penn established a post-office in Philadelphia in 
1683 and granted Henry Waldy authority to hold one. 

In 1687 William Bradford was Deputy-Postmaster. The 
office was sought by printers who then sent their own newspa- 
pers by the post-riders and excluded all rival papers. 

In 1691 a patent was issued Thomas Neale with authority 
to establish post-offices in the chief seaports in the colonies. 
Neale does not seem to have availed himself of this privilege. 

2i8 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

In 1692 Governor Andrew Hamilton was appointed Post- 
master-General of America under a patent that made the mails 
his personal perquisite. 

In 1693 Governor Fletcher, of New Jersey, advised a grant 
of £50 to provide postal facilities in the Province, which the 
Council voted as desired. All the efforts hitherto had been 
detached and local, but in 1693 service began under Hamilton's 
patent, with a weekly post from Portsmouth, New Hamp- 
shire, to Boston, Saybrook, New York, Philadelphia, Maryland 
and Virginia. Five riders covered each of the five stages twice 
a week in summer and fortnightly in winter. Just what com- 
prised the five stages is not clear, but we know that Henry 
Pratt rode the post from Philadelphia to Newport, Virginia, 
and took twenty-four days to make the round trip. What 
New Jersey received in the way of service from the New 
York-to-Philadelphia route is not stated. The £50 voted 
Governor Fletcher would indicate something; probably a mail 
left at Amboy, 

Massachusetts established a general letter office and rates of 
postage ranging from two pence to two shillings, in 1693, ^" 
addition to the earlier move in 1639. 1693 ^^^s quite a stirring 
year in postal matters ; the Provinces seem to have tried to 
cooperate with Governor Hamilton. In 1703 Governor Hamil- 
ton died and his son. Col. John Hamilton, succeeded him under 
the patent, and the service continued. 

In 1704 it is noted that post-riders went as far north as Bos- 
ton and as far south as Charleston. 

In 1707 the Crown purchased the good will of the American 
post routes from Hamilton, but continued him as Postmaster- 
General, now under the control of the General Post Office in 
London. (Incidentally, New York is reported to have num- 
bered 1,000 houses in 1708). 

In April, 1709, Gov. John Lovelace, of New Jersey, a grand- 
son of Governor Francis Lovelace, of New York, procured the 
passage of a bill settling a post-office in the Province, the first 
positive knowledge we have of a New Jersey post-office. He 
seems to have followed in the footsteps of his grandfather, 
who put up the mail box in New York thirty-six years before. 

The Grotvth of Our Postal Facilities 219 

In 1710 there was an Act of Parliament for reorganizing the 
postal system of Great Britain and establishing posts under au- 
thority common to all Colonies — a general post in the Queen's 

In 171 1 it is noted that a post-office was established in New 
York. The "Boston News Letter," Jan. 28 to Feb. 4, I7ii-'i2, 
has an advertisement of the Philadelphia-Burlington-Amboy 
and New York route, with the rates of postage, which gives the 
route across New Jersey and mentions two post-offices. Here 
we have something positive from which to date. 

In 1716 a statute of Queen Anne placed the Post-office De- 
partment under the Crown, pursuant to the purchase of 1707. 

In 1720 it would appear that the post towns were still con- 
fined to seaports, and they were given as Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, Amboy and New York; although, in 1717, a weekly 
post between New York and Williamsburgh, Virginia, is re- 
ferred to. 

Col. John Hamilton seems to have been succeeded by Col. 
Alexander Spotswood in 1731 (although the date is uncertain), 
but on or about 1731 (date again uncertain) there was a change 
in the postal route across New Jersey, said to have been made 
by Col. Spotswood. The route via Burlington and Amboy was 
abandoned and a new route established via Bristol, where mail 
for Burlington was left. Trenton was a distributing centre for 
at least forty-eight surrounding points, which sent there for 
mail ; Brunswick for some twenty-two surrounding points ; 
Woodbridge, where the mail for Amboy was left, and Elizabeth- 
town Point, where the mail left by water for New York. This 
change is given in detail in a letter by Benjamin Franklin, who 
had received a letter from Gov. Boone complaining of the 
change because the Governor's residence at Amboy and his 
seat of government at Burlington had been left off the route. 
We are also indebted to this letter for a number of facts and 
dates connected with the early post routes. Franklin says the 
change was made on application to Col. Spotswood about thirty 
years before. As his letter was written in 1761, this gives us 
the date of the change as about 1731. Franklin, though only 
Deputy-Postmaster since 1753, had been Postmaster of Phil- 

220 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

adelphia since 1737, and he says: "Have been concerned in 1 

the management of the post-offices between Philadelphia and ^ 

New York for twenty-four years, or since 1737." He gives a \ 

sketch of the old and new routes, and says that the old route | 

crossed from Bristol by a long ferry about one and one-half | 

miles to Burlington, another long ferry nearly two miles at ^ 

Redford's, and ferries again to Staten Island, Long Island, \ 

about three miles, and New York, — five ferries in all. I do | 

not find this route described anywhere else. Then he reviews I 

the new route, with a short ferry at Trenton and at Raritan, i 

and a good ferry from Elizabethport to New York, with post 3 

offices on the new route at Bristol (where the mail is left con- i 

veniently to Burlington), Trenton, Brunswick, Woodbndge | 

(where the mail for Amboy is left), and he "don't see that i 

either place suffers. But if it is the wish of the authorities \ 

in London that the mail shall go by the Governor's house \ 

(though unfortunately the Governors have selected in turn dif- ' 

ferent places of residence) will be governed accordingly." j 

In corroboration we have two items. In 1733 letters were left ! 

at the house of James Neilson, in New Brunswick, and in- ] 

1734 it is noted that "there is now a post-office settled in Tren- ' 

ton in the house of Joseph Read, and his son Andrew is ap- 
pointed postmaster." From the word "settled" I infer that 
there had been an earlier temporary arrangement. 

William Bradford had been postmaster in Philadelphia from 
1732-1737, and was succeeded by Franklin, as already stated. 

In 1745 John Dally, Surveyor of the State of New Jersey, 
made a survey of a road from Trenton to Amboy and set up 
marks every two miles. Theretofore the road had been from 
Burlington to Amboy ; how much of this was a new road and 
how much followed the old road is not clear, nor does it seem 
to have had any connection with the mails, though it is so in- 
timated. There is reason to believe that the post-ofifice in the 
old towns of Burlington and Amboy were retained, as we have 
a note that Jonathan Thomas was postmaster in Burlington in 
1750 and John Fox was postmaster in Amboy in 1751, long 
after the change of route. In 1752 there was only one mail in 
two weeks throujjh the winter from New York to Philadel- 


f The Figure Head of Jackson 221 

phia. Col. Spotswood died in 1740 and Col. Hamilton in 1746. 
f There are thirteen years between the death of Spotswood and 

the appointment of Franklin and William Hunter as Deputy- 
Postmaster-Generals in 1753. 

In 1753 great activity in postal matters began. Post-oflices 
i were established ; the advertising of uncalled-for letters by the 

I post-offices was introduced ; every post-office in the Colonies, 

I except Charleston, was visited and put upon an improved foot- 

I ing. In Woodbridge, in 1754, the postmaster was James Park- 

s' er, another printer. Brook Forman was postmaster in New 

» Brunswick in 1764 and Michael Duffy in 1767, both innkeepers. 

I It is from the advertising by Trenton and Brunswick of 

I uncalled-for letters, Sept. 23rd and Sept. 28th, 1754, that we 

\ get the names of the surrounding places dependent on these 

\ two for their mail ; also showing that the new law was promptly 

] put into effect. 

j Franklin was removed in 1774, but reinstated in 1775. He 

i was followed by Richard Bache in 1776, and by Samuel Osgood 

I 1789 to 1791. 

j ^* c?* t^ tc^ 



' On July 3RD, 1834, the "Boston Daily News" published the 

following item of news : 

"The Figurehead. — A report is in circulation this morning 
that the Figure Head on the U. S. Ship Constitution has been 
DECAPITATED. It is rumored that it was effected last 
night. As to the truth of this report we cannot vouch." 

This was the first announcement of an event which quite con- 
vulsed the political world. The newspapers took sides ac- 
cording to their love or hatred for President Jackson. The 
Whig papers published acres of sarcastic sympathy, and the 
country was deluged with tears of rage and of the crocodile 

Commodore J. D. Elliott was Commandant of the Boston 
Navy Yard at that time. Under the date of July 23, 1834, he 
wrote a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, in which he says : 

222 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

"A large party was held a few evenings back when the 
trophy was exhibited and I understand has been cut up and a 
portion held by each individual ; a small portion came to me as 
you will perceive ; this return me if you please." 

Mahlon Dickerson, of New Jersey, was Secretary of the Na- 
vy during both terms of Jackson's administration. He kept a 
diary faithfully, for over sixty years. In this connection this 
extract from the original notes is of interest: 

[1835] "Wed. I April. A delightful spring day; went to 
see the wild beasts, etc. P'd Latimer $100 and Logan $100. 
Capt. Sam'l W. Dewey called on me and informed me that he 
was the person who mutilated the Figure Head of the Frigate 
Constitution in July last ; that he had brought on with him the 
part sawed off, and was desirous of delivering it up to me; 
that he would submit to the laws and abide any punishment 
that might be inflicted on him. Said he was a friend to Gen. 
Jackson, but was opposed to the Figure Head because he had 
heard so much said against it by merchants and others at Bos- 
ton ; that he had no doubt the ship would have been destroyed 
if the Figure Head had not been removed ; that Rich, the East 
India Merchant, had much to say against it ; that no one was 
concerned with him in the act; that on going from home for 
a few days he left it with a friend, who lent it to a company at 
a great feast and supper at Boston, where it was exhibited, and 
where the company cut off a part of its ears ; that he was ex- 
tremely angry at this, and got the head back again ; that he had 
intended to deliver it up, but was prevented by some Whigs, 
who had him seized and confined 8r days in New York as a mad 
man ; that Barnabas Bates of New York married his aunt, but 
was not consulted as to his confinement. Says he is not a mad 
man and that he will prosecute them for false imprisonment; 
says that Rich was at the great supper, but that Biddle had left 
it before the Head was exhibited. I at first refused to have 
anything to do with the Figure Head, but finally, at his solicit- 
ation, consented to take it, and he brought it to my lodgings at 
>^ after 4 P. M., and gave it me in a small trunk. It was the 
crown of the Head very neatly sawed immediately below the 
nose and ears. He said Captain Elliott was at a party at Bos- 
ton the night it was done ; that he did not get to the Navv Yard 
till midnight in a horrible rain; that he sculled himself in a 
small boat to the Constitution; that he mounted the side and 
that_ there was not a soul or watch aboard; that there was a 
sentinel on board the Columbus and another on board the 


Number of Soldiers in the Revolution 223 

Independence; that their lights enabled him to do his work; 
that he was 23/2 hours about it." 

The diary contains no other allusion to the Figure Head. 
But a few additional facts are pertinent. 

In June, 191 1, Mr. W. H. Pierce, of Spring Water, N. Y., 
published an inside history of the decapitation. He says : 

"One day, while sitting in the counting-room of William and 
Henry Lincoln on Central Wharf, the subject of the Figure 
Head came up. Capt. Dewey remarked 'I have a great mind 
to go over and cut it off.' To that William Lincoln replied in 
a bantering way; 'Dewey, if you will, I will give you $100.' 
'Done,' said Dewey, 'I will take that.' " 

It was done. Mr. Dickerson took the Head to his home in 
New Jersey, where it remained until the sale of his effects in 
June, 1854. The purchaser of his library claimed the Head 
because it was placed on the top of one of the book-cases. It 
is nearly fifty years since the writer has seen the Head. Its 
present location is unknown, but there is no reason to think 
that it has been destroyed. 

^* fc?* i^^ ^?9 



The estimate of the number of soldiers furnished by each 
Colony in the Revolution, which appeared in the April Proceed- 
ings (p. 173), has been quoted from time to time for many 
years, but can be proven to be very inaccurate. Either it in- 
cludes reenlistments or, as seems more probable, it was an at- 
tempt to determine the whole number of men of military age. 
The writer has given this matter careful consideration and has 
found it possible to arrive at a much more accurate conclu- 
sion, based upon known facts and proportions. 

In the Congressional Library there is a copy of a report by 
Henry Knox, Secretary of War, which includes a return, bear- 
ing date May loth, 1780, of the troops in service in 1776. 

'See also comment under "Historical Notes and Comments," post.- 

224 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

This should be considered a high authority as to that particular 
year. General Knox was of Boston, and was a valued officer 
of the Revolution, who took part in the fighting in New Jersey 
and in other Colonies. The return is of especial interest to 
Jerseynien as it covers the year of the great retreat and is first 
hand evidence as to New Jersey's real contribution to the fight- 
ing forces that year. It is as follows : 

Men in 
Continental Militia 


New Hampshire 3.0I9 

Massachusetts I3>372 4,000 

Rhode Island 798 1,102 

Connecticut 6,390 5.737 

Delaware 609 145 

Maryland 637 2,592 

Virginia 6,181 

North Carolina 1,134 

South Carolina 2,069 

Georgia 351 

New York 3,629 1,71 5 

Pennsylvania 5,5i9 4,876 

New Jersey 3,193 5,893 

Grand Totals 46,891 26,060 

This shows that New Jersey contributed 9,086 men out of 
a total of 72,951 for all the Colonies, or one-eighth, although 
her population was less than one-twentieth of the whole. 

It is well known that the Province had a considerable Quaker 
population, conscientiously opposed to war, and the census of 
1745 shows they constituted at that time seventeen percent of 
the whole, and during the Revolution one-fourth of all the 
churches belonged to this denomination. Including other sects 
it is safe to estimate, therefore, that at least twenty per cent, 
of the population of New Jersey consisted of people conscien- 
tiously opposed to war. Excluding these, the men under arms, 
in 1776, represented forty-six per cent, of all free men of 
military age, as computed later. Furthermore, nearly two- 
thirds of these men were paid by the State and only one-third 
by the Continental Congress. 

Number of Soldiers in the American Rcvohction 225 

Stedinan, of General Howe's staff, gives the following as 
the strength of Washington's army in 1776-7 : August, 16,000; 
November, 4,500; December, 3,300; March, 4,500; June, 8,000. 
Washington, himself, gives his total in March as not exceeding 
4,000, but otherwise Stedman's figures, so far as we have the 
data, agree quite closely with Washington's own return. 

When our army was at its lowest ebb, from November to 
March, it can be shown that from one-third to one-half were 
Jerseymen. It must be remembered that the Jersey Militia 
were not usually included in Washington's reports, which re- 
ferred to the Line only. The Militia came out in force in 
emergencies, and between calls many of them returned to their 
homes, so the number in the field constantly changed. General 
Knox's return shows that the Jersey line and Militia largely 
outnumbered Washington's whole army. It must be apparent 
that the other twelve Colonies contributed very few men to the 
war in New Jersey during this period, at most not more than 
2,500 from November to March. 

It is possible to calculate quite closely the number of men of 
military age (sixteen to forty-five years) in 1780. The com- 
pendium of the census for 1850, gives a rather full review of 
previous enumerations back to 1790, with some Colonial sta- 
tistics, and De Bow's estimate of 2,803,000 population in 1775. 
But the most accurate calculation is that of W. S. Rossiter, 
Chief Clerk of the Census Bureau, made in 1909. ("A Century 
of Population Growth in the United States. 1790-1900;" Bu- 
reau of Census, 1909). The total population in 1780, given in the 
table below, is from his report. The number of slaves at that 
time is usually estimated at 500,000, but there was an actual 
enumeration in 1790, and, if we assume that the slaves in- 
creased in the same proportion as the other population, then the 
number in each Colony in 1780 may be taken to be seventy per 
cent, of the 1790 figures, on which basis the estimate of slaves, 
in the table, is made up. The total population less the slaves 
gives the free population in each Colony, and the Census return 
for 1800 and 1810 show that the men of military age averaged 
nineteen per cent, of the total, which gives us for this item the 
figures in the fourth column. This last column of the table 
gives the percentage of free men of military age w^ho were in 

226 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

service in 1776, according to General Knox's return. There is 
little room for error in this calculation, which is certainly as 
accurate as the estimate of total population, made by a com- 
petent statistician who consulted the best authorities as to each 
Colony : 

Total Free Men 

Population Slaves of Mili- Per cent. 

Including Estimated tary Age in Service 

Slaves 1780 1780 in 1776 

New Hampshire .. 84,500 no 16,034 18.9 

Massachusetts 362,500 . . 68,875 25.2 

Rhode Island 52,000 672 9,753 19-I 

Connecticut 203,000 1,855 38,219 31.7 

New York 240,000 14,840 42,780 12.5 

New Jersey 137,000 7,994 24,511 37.0 

Pennsylvania 335,000 2,597 63,157 16.5 

Delaware 37,ooo 6,221 5,851 12.9 

Maryland 250,000 72,125 33,796 9.6 

Virginia 565,000 213,541 66,777 9-2 

North Carolina 300,000 72,938 43,141 2.6 

South Carolina 160,000 74,966 16,157 12.7 

Georgia 55,000 20,485 6,558 5.3 

Totals 2,781,000 488,344 435,609 16.8 

We have eliminated the slaves because, while there were a 
few notable exceptions, it is well known that they were not 
much depended upon. While some men older than forty-five 
served, the number was unquestionably small. The total number 
of free men of military age, is shown by the table to be 435.609. 
The Colonies most menaced put the largest percentages of their 
available men in the field. In 1776, when the menace to the 
New England Colonies was greatest, they had from 18.9% to 
31.7% of their men of military age under arms, the average 
for all New England being 26%. New York and Pennsylvania 
each had a larger quota in 1777 and 1778 than in 1776; and 
the same was true of New Jersey, although her percentage in 
1776 was very high. 

War Department estimates give the total number of troops 
engaged as 309,791, which include reenlistments. The num- 
ber of individuals in the war is estimated at 184.038, which 
would be 42% of the men of military age. The percentage 
was probably 55 in Connecticut and New Jersey, and 45 to 50 


The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 227 

in the rest of New England and the Middle States. In the 
South it was not much over 30. 

The number of men ascribed to certain Colonies, in the 

estimate quoted in the April Proceedings, exceeds their whole 

number of men of military age, which is impossible. We must 

; allow for the conscientious objectors, Friends, Mennonites and 

others, who constituted about 20% of the population; for the 

Loyalists, who existed in all Colonies, probably not less than 

: 10% ; for those physically unfit and those living in inaccessible 

; regions. Also many were needed to maintain production on 

1 the farms and elsewhere, so that the names of many men of 

I military age who were neither Friends, -Mennonites nor Loyal- 

I ists will not be found on any roster; therefore we must con- 

! elude that the estimate of 184,038 men is large enough. 

t^* V^ <<5* ta^ 


[Continued from Page 32] 

Record of Daniel Swayze (Continued) 

Ephraim Games (Apr. 21, 1836) : In my 79th year; knew 
Swayze from boyhood through the War and up to this time; 
saw him, as I believe, every year during the War. I was in 
Cook's, Cozad's, Dod's and Day's Cos., while Swayze was in 
Luse's. At Elizabethtown Point built forts and was on guard 
duty. Knew him at Hackensack, at Aquackanonk, when Bell 
was killed; near the bridge at Vermeule's under Winds and 

Isaac Bedell: A fifer. Knew Swayze in the War. He 
had a lump on the corner of his left eye (yet visible). Knew 
him at Vermeule's in Winter of 1777. ... As a fifer I 
volunteered sentry duty, being only 14 years old, in Layton's 
Company. James Ennis, my neighbor, was sick, and I vol- 
unteered in his place on sentry duty until relieved by Swayze. 

Daniel Szcayce (in original declaration) : Was born Oct. 
18, 1756. Belonged to Luse's Company, afterward Colonel 

228 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society l 

Luse; did duty under Luse, Horton, Brown, Budd, Salmon. i 

etc. In 1776, in summer, out a month's tour at Elizabeth 1 

Town point building forts — Capt. Luse, Col. Drake, Gen. ] 

Heard. In August or September dismissed. Soon after | 

enlisted as minute man under Capt. Budd for 3 months. In \ 

October at Elizabeth Town, duty as before. Was there when | 

Gen. Washington retreated through Jersey ; followed on after \ 

him; was dismissed before I got to New Brunswick, and re- t 

turned home via Pluckemin; on this tour 2J/2 months. In a i 

few days out on alarm — enemy from Staten Island to Spring- ] 

field ; Stark, Capt. and Drake, Colonel. In skirmish with Hes- i 

sians at Springfield. Out 3 weeks. In Jan., or Feb., 1777, at \ 

Vermeule's near Ouibbletown ; large force commanded by \ 

Winds and Dickinson; skirmishes often; took a wagon load I 

of clothing going to the enemy. Discharged April ; 2^.4 months. \ 

In hay season Tour under Capt. Stark at Elizabeth Town ■ 

Point, and at Rahway under Cook and Stark ; i month. In 
September a month under Horton ; in November under same 
near Amboy Sound. 

In Spring of '78 a month at E. Point under Luse and Hor- 
ton ; in June under Winds marching toward Monmouth ; heard 
that the bridge was broken up and so returned to Rahway and 
E. Town after the Battle. Brown commanded ; out one month. 
In Sept, and Oct. a month near Hackensack and Aquackanonk, 
under \\' inds ; fight near the bridge. Jabez Bell, a neighbor, 
was accidently shot and taken home; was out i^^ months; 
Frelinghuysen, Stark. Seeley, Capt. Norton. In '79 out two 
Tours, Spring and Summer, under Horton. In the Fall one 
month at Morristown guarding stores — Lieut. Pierson. In 'So 
one month. May and June, at E. Town and Connecticut Farms ; 
at skirmish at Farms, killing of Mrs. Caldwell ; at Springfield 
Battle. In Sept. and Oct. at Elizabeth Town on guard duty, 
Capt. Peter Salmon, i month. In latter part of War, because 
of an alarm in consequence of Pennsylvania revolt, was ordered 
to march under Capt. Salmon ; went as far as Pluckemin ; 
staid 2 weeks. Other sendees performed amounting in all to 
more than two years. 


The Condict Revolutionary Record Abstracts 229 

Record of John Blowers 

John Bloivers (Record stated, though witness for Capt. 
Samuel Baldwin) : Was 86 years old, Sept., 1836. Belonged 
to Kinney's Horse ; Kinney at first of War, then Arnold 
chosen Captain, on K's resignation. But first Tour not in 
horse; in Capt. James Jacobus's Co — infantry, probably in Fall, 
before Long Island Battle. Company being called together to 
draft men, stepped forward declaring I would not be drafted 
but would volunteer, and was immediately followed by Samuel 
Farrand, John Esler, Philip Price and as many more as re- 
quired. Jacobus commanded. Marched through Newark to 
New York City ; quartered there 6 weeks making breast-works 
to defend against expected invasion ; then marched back through 
Newark to Amboy ; was 6 weeks longer on guard duty ; dis- 
charged. Finding militia duties likely to be frequent, joined 
Arnold's Horse. Stephen Baldwin was trooper there and did 
duty as Sergeant — an active and good soldier. The Co. was 
divided into 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, etc., as circumstances required ; often 
used as videttes to watch movements and carry orders and 
tidings of enemy. Each man found his own horse and equip- 
ments. Lay at Morristown when Lee was taken prisoner.. 
Had my horse stolen from me at Parsippany; recovered him.. 
Served with Baldwin at Millstone, Second River, Raritan 
River, Springfield, Connecticut Farms, Elizabeth Town, New- 
ark, Aquackanonk. Baldwin left the Horse in '"/j or '78. 

In '76-'77, Winter, when Winds lay at Vermeule's, was sta- 
tioned on the Raritan of one Ten Eyck near the bridge. Did 
duty at Princeton and Trenton, carrying orders and exi)resses 
into Sussex. At Paramus had like to have been taken prisoner 
near a British fort, neighborhood of Flackensack. 

Memoranda as to Theodore Sanders 

Was a pensioner under Act of 1818; died May 15, 1827;- 
married to Mary Rose Oct. 10, 1782, by Justice Babbet of 
Mendham, now deceased. Dr. Upson, Joel Homans, Nehem- 
iah Day, Ephraim Carnes. Ziba Norris can testify to marriage. 
Children : Eunice, Mary. Aaron, William, Phoebe, Margaret, 
Elizabeth, Absalom ; all living except Aaron, Phoebe and Ab-- 

230 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 1 


salom. Sanders died at house of Hiram W. Cummings. Mrs. I 

Sanders had lived there ever since and has since married. \ 

Ziba Norris knew Sanders well in 6 months' service at Hacken- 1 

sack and along the North River, when Thomas Dickinson was | 

Captain, Seth Raymond Lieutenant and Samuel Minton Ensign. i 

Memorandum as to Victor Killan 

Had deposited in General Land Office a warrant in his favor, 
11,368, granted to him as late private in Roswell's Co., 15 Regt. 
of Infantry, being for 160 acres in Territory of Illinois. Given 
at Washington Nov. 14, 1817. 

Record of Samuel Allen 

Nancy Allen : Former name Anderson, widow of Samuel 

Allen. He was a soldier under Capt. Silas Howell in Col. j 

Wind's Regiment; enlisted for one year and served two years i 

before discharged. Served on Northern Tour near Quebec; I 

afterward in militia under officers, names unknown, at Esopus | 

and elsewhere. Lived in Bernards twsp., Somerset Co. ; mar- 1 

ried March 17 by David Thompson, Esq., of Mcndham, in year j 

of revolt of Pennsylvania Line (1780). Had 11 children, 9 ! 

living, if one in Ohio is living. She born in Morristown; i 

when one year old parents moved to Bernards. \ 

[Corroborated by Mary, widow of Timothy Sanders, Wil- 1 

Ham Cummings, who boarded with them, and Malachi Mc Col- \ 

lum, who was a teamster under Henry Southard]. S 

Record of Capt. Thomas Hill | 

Job Love: Of Mendham; knew Capt. Hill, of Sussex Co.; I 

both were on Tour at Elizabeth Town Point in cloth tents in ; 

1776 under Capt. Pierson and Col. Ford. Hill commanded a 
Sussex Company; was struck with his good conduct and de- ; 

portment as a Captain. Saw him particularly at Springfield 
Battle; was at Vermeule's Winter of i/yO-'yy under Gen. 
Winds and Capt. Cozad, and believes Hill was there; remem- 
bers him when the enemy came out of a piece of corn near 
Quibbletown and skirmish was had under Winds about a mile 
from Quibbletown. Some 2 years afterward was stationed at 

The Condici Revolutionary Record Abstracts 231 

E. Town at Price's barn ; saw Hill at head of his company for 
2 months ; believes he continued as Captain throughout the 
War ; saw him last time previous to surrender at Yorktown. 

Isaac Bedell: Remembers Capt. Hill on duty at Fort Cham- 

I bers in Sussex Co. ; witness then lived in Sussex with his 

1 uncle and was 17 years old; this was in October, 1780. 

* Aaron Robinson, Henry Westbrook, Peter Smith and Henry 
Bunn (all now dead) were with me at Fort Chambers. Hill 

\ was Captain, Rosenkrantz Colonel and Samuel Westbrook 

I Major. Some in Company with him were Caleb Kimble and 

i David Shay. Believe he was in fight with Indians, and in 

i August, 1779, was at Shcholi ( ?) under Major Samuel Meeker 

( of Sussex and Col. John Seward. Daniel Talmage, of Pennsyl- 

\ vania, was killed in the Battle, and Bedell shot in the thigh. 

1 Saw him in cloth tents at Elizabeth Town in 1776. Wilson 

I Johnson was Hill's Lieutenant on Indian expedition and Wil- 

I helmus Westbrook Ensign. 

I Charily Hill (widow of Capt. Thomas) : Is daughter of 

j John Jeroloman ; was born in Bergen Co ; where Paterson now 

I is; age 82 in February (1836). Father moved to Sussex 

1 when witness was 12, settling at Sparta ; was married there 

i to Thomas Hill, who had lived there 3 or 4 years prior, by 

i Rev. Mr. Cox, Baptist minister at Peppercotten Dec. 20, 1773. 

i Husband died Aug. 18, 1814. His first service was along 

frontiers of Delaware, in Indian warfare; never went on duty 

except as Captain, and was engaged from beginning to end of 

War every year. He owned a mill and tannery in Sussex, 

which she attended during his absence, which was usually a 

month or six weeks on alarms. (Names many places he was 

at). Her brother, John Jeroloman, drove the baggage wagon 

for the Company. (Bible shows Thomas Hill was born May 

31, 1747; son of John and Margaret Hill, In all 2iy^ mos^ 

service proved). 

Record of Joseph Sutton 

Martha Sutton : Widow of Joseph, who belonged to Capt. 
McCoy's Somerset Company, was married March, 1773. He. 

232 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

was out, more or less, every year in the War; thinks he 
was Corporal. Was in Monmouth Battle and Mud Rounds 

Isaac Bedell: Saw Sutton serving November, 1776, at Eliz- ■ 

abeth Town in McCoy's Company; at Vermeule's in Winter 
following. Again in 1777 and '7^,; always called "Sergeant 
Sutton." Before his marriage Sutton lived near Basking ' 

Ridge. (Corroborated by John Johnson). - 

Record of Capt. Nathan Luse 

Damaris Luse: Widow of Capt. Luse; 80 years old in '■ 
April (1836?). He was Ensign before the War; was chosen 

Captain in 1775 and enlisted for 5 months service. Officers, i 

she thinks, William Corwin, Lieut. Hayes and Ensign King. \ 

Swerved in Long Island Batrle. In 1776 spent 5 months in New ; 

York and Long Island. Was out afterward in monthly tours I 

till War closed. We were married before the War by Judge ^ 

Woodhull. Commission often seen but destroyed. He was ^ 

afterward appointed Colonel. He was 7 years older than she. | 

Her father was David Brown. [D. Ammerman, Ab. Eairchild i 

•and John Johnson corroborated]. \ 

[To he Continued] | 

^ ^ ^^ ^ j 




This house (shown in the frontispiece in this number) was 1 

l)uilt by Dr. William Shippen, Sr.,^ a member of the Continen- | 

tal Congress. He was a grandson of Edward Shippen, the first I 

Mayor of Philadelphia, Pa. Dr. Shippen purchased the land j 

(10,000 acres) from Jonathan Robeson, (immigrant from j 

England and ancestor of Hon. George M. Robeson. Secretary j 

of the Navy under President Grant), who had already built ! 

^rl^i genealogy of tlie Shippen Family, see PROcrF.niNGS, New Series 
Vol. 1, No. I (1916), p. 30; also "N. J. Law Journal." Vol. 44. p. 293 

The Old Sliippen Manor at Oxford Furnace, N. J. 233 

the blast furnace in 1742. The date of the first transfer to 
Dr. Shii)pen was in 1749, so the old house was probably built 
about 1750. 

The son of Dr. William Shippen, St., was Joseph William 
Shippen, who was placed in charge of the estate by his father 
for over thirty years. This Joseph William Shippen was a 
brother of Dr. William Shippen, Jr., v.'ho was Surgeon Gen- 
eral of the American Army during the Revolution. He was 
also a first cousin once removed of Peggy Shippen, who mar- 
ried Major General Benedict Arnold of the American Army. 
He was likewise a Paymaster in the Army Hospital during the 
Revolution. He died Sept. 13, 1795. 

Joseph William Shippen occupied the old Manor for thirty 
years with his family. Every fall friends would visit him from 
New York and Philadelphia and a grand hunt with the hounds 
would take place. All during the winter the old stone house 
would echo with the sounds of revelry, as the guests warmed 
under the stimulating effect of the well-fiHed wine cellars. 

It has been said that most of the cannon balls in the Revolu- 
tion were made here, it being one of the most important factors 
of the War. The British were unable to capture it, although 
several expeditions were sent into West New Jersey for that 
purpose. The Government had charge of the furnaces until 
the close of the War. Some of these cannon balls are now 
at Washington's Headquarters, Morristown, and at Indepen- 
dence Hall, Philadelphia. 

Tradition has it that General Benedict Arnold was enter- 
tained over night at the house. 

Of the Colonial mansions left by time there are few that sur- 
pass in interest, preservation and location the old Shippen 
Manor at Oxford Furnace among the hills of Warren county, 
N. J. It is one of the oldest habitable house in Northern New 
Jersey, being about 172 years old, and rich in historical associ- 

Dr. Shippen chose for his country estate a sheltered spot on 
a green hillside. He built better than he knew, for the oaken 
beams of the mansion and the massive walls of stone are as 
solid to-day as in 1750, when the erection of such a structure 

234 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

meant many days of toil with axe, saw and hammer. Even j 
the nails had to be hammered out on an anvil. Many of these i 
hand-wrought nails are in evidence in the house to-day. \ 

Situated on the old stage coach road from Scranton to New .* 
York, which is intersected at this point by the highway leading \ 
from Washington, N. J., to Belvidere, the house had such a | 
commanding position that it acquired the name of "The Castle." \ 

At the time the house was built. New Jersey being a slave \ 
State, the Shippens were slave owners and near the old mansion i 
still stands a slave cabin, also of stone, and, although it has '. 
since been put to many ignoble uses, it bears traces of having | 

been the abode of favored house servants. On the hillside a | 
piece of land was set apart for a slave burial ground. \ 

The stone walls of the manor are about three feet thick. \ 

It has four large chimneys that start from the cellar and rear \ 

themselves far above the sloping roof, resembling huge towers '• 

built within the house. The fireplaces, seven in number, are j 

large openings in the chimney walls and are lined with iron \ 

plates. The back plates are ornamented with the British coat- \ 

of-arms. Some of these fireplaces have been walled up. \ 

The rear of the house is on a lower level than the front, as | 

the house stands on the side of a hill. There are two front s 

entrances, both having picturesque porches. At the rear is | 

a porch running across the house and which seems from the ; 

back view to be on the second floor. This floor has seven large | 

rooms, and the floor above has five rooms. The large base- 
ment is not now used except as a store room and cellar, but 
formerly the kitchen was in the basement, where also was a 
large fireplace. There is also a Dutch oven. From the con- 
struction of the house there is much space unaccounted for, and 
so possibly, if fully opened up, it might reveal some hidden pas- 
sage or room. 

The house has a beautiful setting of old trees and the spac- 
ious lawn is like a velvet carpet. Magnificent elms, stately 
pines and a giant sycamore, in which the birds love to hold 
their musical entertainments, guard the house like sentinels. 
Ancient boxwood, which in its younger days encircled old 
fashioned flower beds, wisteria, sweetbriar, lilacs and syringa 

Notes on the Aten (Aiitcn) Family 235 

form a perfect tangle of shrubbery, not often seen in these days 
of landscape gardening. To lovers of old roof trees and to 
antiquarians, this house would prove an interesting study. 

Among the early owners of the house and of Oxford Furn- 
ace were (after Dr. Shippen and members of his family), 
Morris Robeson (i 809-1823), son of Jonathan, the founder; 
his widow (1823- 1849), ^^^ Col. Charles Scranton, with 
associates. Judge William P. Robeson, father of Hon. George 
M. Robeson, Secretary of the Navy under President Grant, 
with Capt. John Maxwell of Revolutionary fame, were lessees 
from 1823 for a number of years, and Secretary Robeson is said 
to have been born in the old manor house. 

v^ v^ ^* V* 



Fkom New Jersey to the far West and Southwest are various 

families bearing the name of Aten and Auten, all descending 

( from Adriaen Hendrickse Aten, who came to New Amsterdam 

j from (sup.) Doesburg, Holland, about 1651. Some twenty- 

j five years ago a Mr. Henry J. Aten, of Hiawatha, Kans., a 

I veteran of the Civil War, began a long search of members of 

I the general family in this country, and in the course of it 

I investigated records in New York, on Long Island, etc. A 

j very large collection of his letters to the late Rev. Dr. John B. 

; Thompson, of Readington, N. J., concerning the New Jersey 

! Atens are now in possession of Rutgers College Library, but 

I unfortunately, not the replies. The family work he intended 

to publish was not published owing to his death. His MSS. 

fell into the hands of his widow, but recent correspondence has 

failed to show her present whereabouts. The Editor of the 

Proceedings having also made an independent investigation 

into the family, by request of certain Western members an 

outline of the "family tree" is herewith given. A very large 

number of facts and dates not here presented for want of 

spaces are, nevertheless, in the writer's possession concerning 

the families in New Jersey. 


The loss of the early Flatbush records is undoubtedly the 
reason why we cannot find dates of baptisms of any of the 
children of Adriaen by his first marriage, but we know them 
to have been (order, however, not certain) : 

236 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Dr. Thompson came to the conclusion that "the family was 

originally Scotch, but many of its members fled from per- | 

secution on account of their religion, first to France and then to ] 

the Netherlands." This remains to be proven. The Aytoun, ^ 

de Aten, Ayton, etc., families of Scotland produced many dis- j 

tinguished men from the Barons de Aeton (1307) to a quite | 

recent member of Parliament, but there is no known way of j 

connecting the earlier Aytons, etc., with the Dutch family. | 

Adkiaen Hendrickse Aten, was, of course, the son of a I 

Hendrick, who, however, so far as known, did not come to j 

America. He located at Flatbush. and in 1C65 was chosen | 

constable. Various land transfers to and by him are on the j 

Long Island records, and his name is on the Flatbush rate | 

sheets in 1675, 1676, 16S3 and 1698. In 1687 he and his sons ] 

Hendrick and Thomas took the required oath of allegiance I 

to the King of Great Britain. ("Doc. Hist, of N. Y.," Vol I, 

pp. 429, 430). He died about April, 1700. When or where he ] 

first married and to whom is unknown, but in 1677, or earlier, i 

he married, second, Elizabeth (Thomas) Lubbertse, widow of \ 

Gysbert Lubbertse, as both "Adriaen Hendrickse and wife \ 

L\'sbeth" were then entered as members of the Church at Mid- I 

... I 

wout (Flatbush). He and Elizabeth made a joint will Mar. < 

20, 1696, which was recorded May 9, 1700, at Flatbush (Flat- \ 

bush Records, Liber A, p. 224). Adriaen's will only names 1 

his daughter "Marrittee" and stepson "Lubbert Gysbertsen," j 

so his other children must have been provided for in his life | 

time. The following is an exact reproduction of Adriaen's I 

signature, taken from a deed made by him in the year 1680: 

Notes on the Atcn (Auten) Family 237 

Children of Adrian Hendrickse Aten 

1. Hendrick Aten ; m. Maria De Mott (dau. of Michael De 
Mott and Annetje Westbrook, of Kingston, N. Y.), who was 
bapt. at Kingston, Dec. 22, 1678. As Hendrick took the oath 
of allegiance in 16S7, it is evident she was much his junior. 
No date of the marriage is found, but it was probably not later 
than 1694. On May 22, 1698, there is a record at Flatbush 
that "Hendrick Aten and Antie Aten" were witnesses to a 
baptism, this Antie being probably his sister, or a niece. On 
Oct. 7, 1707, "Hendrick Aten and Pietertie i\ten" were wit- 
nesses to a baptism, she being certainly a sister. Hendrick 
resided at Foster's Meadow, near Jamaica, L. I., where he 
owned much land, as various records there show. He died 
there July 19, 1750, as we know from an ancient Bible record. 
so that he probably lived to be about 90 years of age. He 
made his will Feb. 10, 1749, probated Feb. 4, 1751. In it he 
names his wife, Mary, and children: Aderayon (Adriaen), 
Powel (Paul), Elizabeth Rainer and Mary Alburtis, and "sons- 
in-law Anthony De Mott" (a slip for brother-in-law), "John 
Alburtis and Aaron Place." 

2. PiETERjE Aten, who m. at Flatbush, Apr. 25, 1689, Chris- 
tian Snedeker; he died 171 5. 

3. Annetje Aten, who m. Thomas Skillman. of Newtown, 
L. I.; he d. 1740. (For him and their ch., see "N. Y. Gen. & 
Biog. Record, "Vol. 37, pp. 25, 26. He was the son of Capt. 
Thomas Skillman and Sara (Scofield) Pettit, who were m. in 

4. Thomas Aten, a weaver, who m. Elsje Skillman, sister 
of Thomas Skillman, supra. He at first was at Newtown, L. I., 
but on Apr. 26, 1709, with his brother John (5), purchased of 
Thomas Purcell 400 acres of land in Piscataway township, 
Middlesex county, near New Brunswick. Their children, 
mostly baptized in New York or Brooklyn, were : Adriaen, 
Thomas, Jr., Jan, Jannetje, and perhaps others. Thomas, Jr. 
(wife Sytie, or Hilletjc) had ch. bapt. at Raritan, N. J. (Somer- 
villc), Powel, Helena, Powel (2nd), Dirck, Thomas, Feyte, 
Yacn and Aaron, between 1732 and 1761. Jan, who m. Eliz- 

238 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

abeth Sutphen, had ch. bapt. at Somerville and at Readington, 

N. J., between 1730 and 1746, Koosie, Antje, Jacob, Jan, Elsje, I 

Thomas, Lisabct and Maria. Powell (2nd), if same above, had i 

wife Maria, and had ch. bapt. at Raritan, between 1762 and i 

1775. Thomas, Voelkert, Jaen, Myra and Roelf. Of Adriaen 1 

we know nothing. I 

5. Jan Aten, who m. Elizabeth Skillman, another sister of I 
Thomas Skillman. He and his brother Thomas Aten, and i 
their wives, were charter members of "The River and Law- I 
rence Brook Dutch Church," at Three-Mile-Run, near New ] 
Brunswick, in 1717. He lived on 230 acres in Franklin town- \ 
ship, Somerset county, in 1735, and died in 1744, when his will ] 
was probated (Trenton Wills, Book D, p. 136). His chil- \ 
dren named in will were : John, Jr., Thomas, and Elizabeth \ 
(Smith). A child, Martha, was also bapt. at Jamaica, L. I., in \ 
1705. Of Thomas we know nothing, but John, Jr., with wife > 
Jannetje (Nevius?) had ch. bapt at Raritan and New Brans- | 
wick, between 1735 and 1742, viz., Jan, Catlyne, Roleph, and 1 
Thomas. j 

6. Child, who died 1688, name unknown; father paid "for j 
use of shroud." j 

7. Helena Aten (supposed), as she was witness to a bapt- j 
jsm at Jamaica, June 2y, 1704. I 

By his second marriage, with Elizabeth Lubbertse, Adriaen ] 

Hendrickse Aten had : I 

8. Maritee Aten, bapt. Mar. 31, 1678, at Flatbush; m., | 
before 1707, Johannes De Mott (sister to Maria De Mott, wife j 
of Hendrick, i) who d. 1715. They had 5 ch. bapt. at Jamaica. | 

9. Paulus Aten, bapt. Nov. 14, 1680, at Flatbush; probably | 
d. 1684 or 1689, as father then paid "for use of a shroud." | 

10. Another (sup.) who d. in 1684 or 1689, when father ' 
paid "for use of a shroud." 

(So far as we know there are in New Jersey, now, no male | 
descendants of any of the sons of Adriaen Hendrickse Aten. ex- 
cept of Hendrick, with, possibly, the exception of the Auten 
families of Somerset county. The latter descend from an 
Aaron Auten, who resided at Somerville, N. J., and had vari- 
ous children, many of whom were prominent in Somerset coun- 

Notes on the Alten {Auten) Family 239 

ty a half century ago, and some representatives are still in that 
general locality. This Aaron was b. about 1740 and died in 
1784. His parentage has long been an enigma to the writer. 
He may have been a descendant of Jan (5), or Thomas (4), 
but this has not been ascertained. Aaron's ch. were John, 
Aaron, Thomas, James, Abraham, Isaac, Peter and Anna, 
most of whose descendants are traceable.) 


(Order not certain) 
I. Adrian Aten, of near Readington, N. J. b. probably about 
1696; d. Dec. 10, 1757; m., about 1718, Jacobje Middagh (dau. 
of Dirck Middagh and Cathelyne Van Neste), who was b. Oct. 
24. 1693, and d. in Northampton co., Pa., May 16, 1782. (This 
Adrian has been usually considered as the son of Thomas Aten 
(5, above), and so published, e. g., in the "N. Y. Gen. & Biog. 
Rec," Vol. 37, p. 26, but an old Bible record discovered in 
Western Pennsylvania proves Hendrick Aten and Maria (De 
Mott) Aten to have been his parents). Jacobje, Adrian's wife, 
was a remarkably saintly woman, always known as "The Pious 
Jacobje." Adrian settled near Readington (toward Center- 
ville), about 1735. On May 31, 1744, he purchased 300 acres 
of land in Northampton co., Pa., in Mt. Bethel twsp., probably 
for his eldest son Dirck, who soon after removed there. Ad- 
rian's will of Dec. 8, 1757, probat. Feb. 28, 1758 (Trenton Wills, 
Book 8, p. 566), refers to his eight then living children. In all 
he had ten children, viz.: (i) Antje, b., 1719, who m., first, 
Nicholas Schamp, and second John Sutphen. (2) Dirck, k. 
Aug. 22, 1721 ; m., first, Dec, 1745, Judith Van Fleet; second, 
August., 1749, Adaranche Langstraat; third, Catherine Warner. 
He was farmer, blacksmith and ferry master at "Aten's Ferry," 
crossing the Delaware, in Northampton co.. Pa., and is said to 
have had 13 children. (3). Hendrick, b. Sept. 3, 1723; m. 
Mary — and also resided in Mt. Bethel twsp., Northampton co., 
Pa. Probably d. before Nov. 13. 1778. He had ch., Hendrick, 
Thomas, George, John, Sarah, and perhaps others, who general- 
ly settled in Western Pennsylvania. The descendants of this 
Hendrick (b. 1723) and Mary, includes the late Henry F. 

240 Proceedings Nczv Jersey Historical Society | 



Auten, of Little Rock, Ark., a prominent lawyer. His descent j 

is from this Hendrick to son John, his son Henry, and then | 

Henry, the lawyer. The latter has a sister, Mrs. E. J. Corkin. ; 

who resides at Loyalton. S. Dakota. A Thomas Aten of near 1 

Clinton. Allegheny co., Pa., traces his descent from the same | 

Hendrick (b. 1723), through a son Thomas, (b. 1760; d. 1855) i 

of Northumberland co., and, later, Allegheny co., Pa., grand- j 

father of the Thomas of Clinton. (4). Cathalyntje, b. Jan. 27. \ 

1726, who d. in infancy. (5). Martyje. b. Jan. 15, 1728, who m., 
Aug. 24, 1748, William Van Fleet. (6). Cathalyntje (second), 
b. July 29, 1730, said to have m, an Insley. (7). Jan. b. Dec. 
22, 1732; m. Elizabeth (Boydyn?). (8). Gerardus, (twin with 
Jan) ; m., 1756, Dinah Johnson and resided in Harmony twsp., 
Sussex (now Warren) co., N. J. (g). Judith b. July 9, 1735; 
d. July 22, 1819; m., Apr. 6, 1770, Joseph Morehead, grand- 
father of the late Judge Joseph P. Thompson, of Readington, 
N. J. (See Snell's "Hunt, and Som. Co.," pp. >.i90, 491). (10) 
Adrian, b. Nov. 7, 1737; m. Elizabeth Stryker.- He went to 
Northampton co., Pa. about 1764 and was living in iSoi, after 
which no further record of him. ; 

2. Pow^ELL (Paul) Aten, b. about 1700 ; d. about May, 1782 : 

m. Maria Van Neste, dau. of Pieter Van Neste of Brooklyn. j 

His will of 1782 (if the same Paul) names his son George and 5 

daughters Anna and Mary. - i 

3. Elizabeth Aten, bapt. at Jamaica, 1713 ; m. Rainer. ! 

4. Marie Aten, bapt. at Jamaica, 1715, m. John Alburtis. ] 
(Undoubtedly there were others whose names have not come | 

to light). j 

Note. — A Hendrick Hendrickzen, from Doesburg, Holland, who may \ 

or may not have been a brother to Adriaen Hcndrickse Aten, was m., j 

June 12, 1655, in the New Amsterdam Dutch ch., and had children, Hend- ] 

rick, Johannes and Grietje. The two sons became the ancestors of the i 

Dusenbury families (corrupted name of Doesburg). | 

An Adrian Hendrickse, from Berckeloo (now Borcalow), Holland. •, 

who arrived in New Amsterdam, May 24, 1662, in the ship "Faith," with \ 

wife Grietje Warnarts and two children, !ias been mistaken for Adriaen \ 

Hendrikse Aten, but his male descendants took the name of Sip (or j 

Sipp). \ 

We are greatly indebted to Mr. John Neafie, genealogist, of New York \ 

City, for many dates and facts concerning the earlier of the fon.p,c)iiig ; 

lines; only his close scrutinizing of New York and Long Island records i 
has brought them to light. — Editor. 

Annual Meeting of the Woman's Branch 241 

Tpie annual meeting of The Woman's Branch of the New 
Jersey Historical Society was held in the Society's Building, 
Newark, on Wednesday. May 3rd, 1922. At twelve o'clock 
the President, Mrs. Cutler, called the meeting to order. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and ap- 
proved. The Corresponding Secretary reported many pieces 
of mail received and hundreds of letters, invitations, and notes 
sent out. Report accepted with thanks. The Treasurer, Miss 
Hudnut, reported a balance in the treasury to date of $702,75, 
with all bills paid. Report accepted with thanks and appreci- 
ation. Mrs. Cutler's report, embracing the year's work, re- 
corded our entire membership as 636, including 65 new mem- 
bers admitted during the year. Additions to the Library have 
been made by the purchase of rare books and maps, many in- 
teresting relics have found a place in the Museum, and the 
fine portrait of Walt \Miitman acquired by purchase was con- 
sidered a wise expenditure of $100. 

Reference was made to the largely attended mid-winter meet- 
ing at Elizabeth with Rev. Robert Watson, D.D.. as speaker 

. upon the subject, "Aly Definition of 100% American." Dr. 

{ Watson stressed the great responsibility resting upon us in 

whose veins courses the blood of the pioneers in "the venture 
at self-government in the forests of America," cautioning his 
audience never to forgei that our country was founded in the 

j fear of God and in the belief in the atonement of Christ. 

j . Mrs. Cutler paid tribute to the Board, which has loyally sup- 

I ported her every undertaking, and she closed with an appeal 

for active work not only by the Board members but by the 
entire membership of the Society. Mrs. White urged increased 
membership and suggested that there be a concerted movement 
to secure data concerning New Jersey families, which, in the 
early days, went as colonists to the West. The report of the 
nominating Committee, Mrs. Henry R. Howell. Chairman, -was 
then presented, with Miss D'Olier in the chair : 

Officers for I922-'23 
Prt >ident, Mrs. Willard W. Cutler, Morristown ; First Vice- 
Presuient, Mrs. George Batten, Montclair; Second Vice-Pres- 


242 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society \ 


ident, Mrs. Richard V. Lindabnry, Bernardsville; Third Vice- \ 

President, Mrs. Henry T. White, Red Bank; Recording Sec- \ 

retary, Miss Mary Louise Wheeler, Llewellyn Park; Cor- I 

responding Secretary, Mrs. Harrie P. Whitehead, Elizabeth; \ 

Treasurer, Miss Isabel Hudnut, Princeton; Historian, Miss \ 

Margaret L. Terhune, Matawan; Auditor, Mrs. Henry J. | 

Horner, Newark. | 

County Managers I 


Atlantic — Miss Eliza S. Thompson, Atlantic City. | 

Bergen — Mrs. William H. Westervelt, Hackensack. < 

Burlington — Miss Margaret T. Haines, Burlington. j 

Cape May — Mrs. David G. Baird, Beverly. I 

Essex — Mrs. Edward S. Campbell, Miss Florence Congar, 
Mrs. Samuel C. Howell, Mrs. Arthur H. MacKie, Miss' H. 
Rose Nichols, Mrs. Sydney N. Ogden, Mrs. William R. Ward, 
Mrs. Austen H. McGregor, all of Newark. 

Hudson — Mrs. Henry Budd Howell, Jersey City, 

Mercer — Miss Henrietta O. Magie, Princeton. 

Middlesex — Miss M. Josephine Atkinson and Miss Mary 
Demarest, New Brunswick. 

Monmouth — Mrs. Jacob B. Rue, Red Bank. 

Morris — Mrs. Charles M. Lum, Chatham. 

Ocean — Mrs. George W. Holman, Jr., Toms River. 

Passaic — Mrs. William Nelson, New York City. 

Salem — Mrs. Trueman H. Clayton, Salem. 

Somerset — Mrs. John S. Clark, Middlebush. 

Sussex — Mrs. Robert V. Armstrong, Augusta. 

Union— Miss Mary G. Van Vrankin and Miss Agnes Black- 
fan, Elizabeth. 

Warren— Mrs. Arthur G. Smith, Belvidere, and Miss Kath- 
arine W. Stryker, Phillipsburg. 

As there were no nominations from the floor the Secretary 
was authorized to cast the ballot for the election of the above 
named nominees. At this point a recess for luncheon was 

The afternoon meeting convened at 2 o'clock, with prayer by 
Rev. Joseph F. Folsom, after which Mrs. Cutler introduced 
Miss Alice Forman Wyckoff, whose address was entitled 
"Ourselves as Ancestors." The obligation resting upon us to 
transmit to those who in their turn shall follow us the wonder- 
ful heritage, which is ours not to barter away but which is a 

Necrology of Members 243 

sacred trust, was emphasized many times by the speaker, who 
closed with a plea for earnest, thoughtful living. After a ris- 
ing vote of thanks to Miss Wyckoff for her address, on motion 
the meeting adjourned. 

Annie Hull White, 

Secretary pro tern. 

*5* «<5* *r* »^ 


Miss Mabel Baldwin Beardsley, who died April 12, 1922, 
was the daughter of Theodore R. and Elizabeth (Baldwin) 
Beardsley. She was born in Newark, N. J., in Nov., 1861, 
and lived in that city the greater part of her life. In 1920, 
she went to Seattle, Wash, to visit her brother, Theodore S. 
Beardsley. Shortly after her arrival there she was stricken 
ill and went to Glenwood Springs, Colo., where another broth- 
er. Judge Arthur L. Beardsley, is city attorney. She died at 
. the Glenwood Sanatorium, Glenwood Springs, Colo. Besides 

; the two brothers mentioned, Miss Beardsley is survived by a 

i sister. Miss Grace Sargeant Beardsley of Glenwood Springs. 

\ Miss Beardsley's father came to Newark from Sussex county, 

j and the old homestead of the family is still standing at Ham- 

i burg. Miss Beardsley was a member of the Ray Palmer 

i Club of Newark for many years. She possessed consider- 

i able ability along literary lines and many of her short stories 

I were published in newspapers and magazines in the East. She 

I was a lover of Nature and took keen delight in making long 

trips into the mountains. She went to Glenwood Springs in 
' 1900, staying five years, then returning to Newark. She had 

been a member of the New Jersey Historical Society since 

Rev. Cornelius Brett, D.D., died on Feb. 24, 1922, at the 
residence of his son-in-law. Rev. Dr. William H. Boocock, 
Buffalo, N. Y. Dr. Brett was born in New York City Nov. 
25, 1S42, being the son of Rev. Philip Millcdoler Brett, D.D., 
and grandson of Rev. Philip Milledoler, President of Rutgers 

244 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

College i825-'52. He was also a grandson of Cornelius 
Bogert, a former well-known lawyer of New York City. He 1 

was descended from Lieutenant Roger Brett, of the English \ 

Navy, who, in 1703, married Katrina Rombout, a daughter j 

of Francis Rombout, mayor of New York in 1679. He pre- j 

pared for college at the Brooklyn Polytechnic Preparatory • 

School, being a graduate of its first class, in 1858. He entered \ 

New York University, and was graduated in 1862. From j 

there he went to the New Brunswick Seminary, and was grad- j 

uated in 1865. k 

His first charge was the Flatlands Reformed Church, of i 

Brooklyn, N. Y., where he was pastor from i865-'70. He | 

was in Newark, N. J., as pastor of the Second Reformed ] 

Church, from 1870-73, and then went to Montgomery, N. Y. j 

In 1876 he was called to the Bergen Reformed Church, of I 

Jersey City, where his great work was carried out. For forty- ■ 

two years he was pastor, and at his resignation in 1918 he was | 

elected pastor emeritus by the people he had loved and served j 

so well. For many years he was the leader of the Christian En- i 

deavor in city, county and state. The fresh air camp main- 
tained by the Endeavorers of Hudson County, N. J., is named 
Camp Brett in remembrance of his whole-hearted service for 
the under-privileged children. He served as Chaplain of the | 

Fourth Regiment, N. G., N. J., for eight years. In 18S1 he \ 

was President of the Particular Synod of New Brunswick. i 

In 1893 he was President of General Synod. He was Presi- 
dent, for a period of years, of the Council of Hope College. 
He was for years a member and for a part of the time the 
President of the Board of Domestic Missions. He was an 
authority on ecclesiastical law, and was asked often to serve on 
important committees of the church. In recognition of his 
scholarship Ursinus and Rutgers Colleges honored him with 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He served as President of 
the Phi Beta Kappa Society of New York, and for a number 
of years was Chaplain of the New Jersey Society of Colonial 
Wars. He married Oct. 19, 1S65. Helen B. Runyon, daughter 
of Clarkson and Matilda (IMundy) Runyon, of New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

Necrology of Members 245 

Dr. Brett was a great lover of local history and genealogy. 
He was almost always found at the annual meetings of the 
New Jersey Historical Society. One of his published pam- 
phlets was on "The Dutch Settlements in Hudson County" 
(1908). He made extensive researches on the Roger Brett 
family, and founded and was President of the Brett-Rombout 
Association. He had travelled abroad extensively, and while 
in England spent much time in Kent, in search of records bear- 
ing on the Brett family and origin. When in London he met 
Lord Esher, who was formerly Sir Reginald Brett, whose 
arms are the same as those brought over by Lieutenant Roger 
Brett. Lord Esher was the most intimate friend of the late 
King Edward VH, and President of the Army Commission, 
as well as the chosen biographer of the late Queen Victoria. 
Dr. Brett found him cordially interested in his researches. Dr. 
Brett is survived by two children : Maud Runyon, who mar- 
ried Rev. William H. Boocock, D.D., and Philip 'b,i., who mar- 
ried Margaret Strong. He became a Life member of the 
New Jersey Historical Society in 1909. 

William H. Burnett died at his home in Maplewood, N. J., 
Jan. 18, 1922. He was born in Newark in 1837. His an- 
cestors came from England in 1640 and settled at Lynn, Mass. 
He was a direct descendant of Edward Ball, one of those 
who came from Connecticut and founded Newark in 1666. 
The site of the L. Bamberger and Co. store was once a part 
of the Ball farm. Mr. Ball's great-grandfather, Abner Ball, 
served throughout the Revolutionary War, and another grand- 
father, Robert French, served as a minute man, participating 
in the Battle of Springfield. Mr. Burnett was educated in the 
public schools of Newark, at Mr. Hedges' private school and 
at the Wesleyan Institute, now the Newark Academy. He was 
graduated from the latter institution at the age of fifteen. 
Shortly after the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted as a 
Corporal in the Second New Jersey Infantry. After the first 
Battle of Bull Run he was appointed postmaster of the Regi- 
ment, and, later, was Brigade and Division Postmaster under 
Generals Tucker, Kearny and Sedgwick. In 1866 Mr. Burnett 

246 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society j 

established a fur business in Newark, buying and selling raw i 

skins and manufacturing fur garments. In 1892 he disposed I 

of the business and entered the real estate field. Later, the j 
Newark Realty Company was formed and he was elected 

President in which capacity he served until his death. He \ 

was a member of Lincoln Post, No. 11, G. A. R. ; Kane Lodge j 

F. and A. M., and of the Sons of the American Revolution. ' 
He was a Republican and one of the founders of the Wide 

Awake Company of Newark in i860. He is survived by his , 

wife and a daughter. Miss Frances Burnett. He became a | 

member of the New Jersey Historical Society in 1904. \ 

Hector Craig Fitz R.\xdolph died at his residence, 135 ; 
West 85th street, New York City, Mar. 23, 1922 of a cancerous 
aflFection. He was the son of William B. F. Randolph and 
Laura M. (Craig) Randolph of New York City, and was 
born there Nov. 21, 1844. He graduated from Columbia Col- 
lege in 1867, but was never engaged in any active business, j 
and always remained a bachelor. For many years he passed j 
much of his time in researches into the genealogy of the Fitz i 
Randolph family, and left a large collection of valuable MSS. ': 
concerning that family. He is survived by two brothers, | 
Franklin F. and William F. Randolph, both of New York City. I 
Mr. Randolph became a Life member of the New Jersey His- I 
torical Society Jan. 28, 1896. 

George Joth.^m Hag.\r. one of the most voluminous of \ 

modern writers and compilers, died in Newark, N. J., July l 
25, 1921. He was born in Newark, Sept. 12, 1847; was of 

New Jersey parentage, being the son of Jotham Meeker Hagar | 

of Bloomfield and Harriet Denman (Ross) Hagar of Spring- j 

field, N. J. He was educated in the old Fourth Ward School ^ 

and in the Newark High School. He began his literary career ] 

while at the latter school, being one of the editors of the "High j 

School Annual" in January, 1863. As a young man he was 1 

prominent in the old First Presbyterian Church, especially in 1 

Sunday School work. He was well known in Odd Fellow ! 

circles, having been Noble Grand Master of his Lodge, one of i 

Necrology of Members 247 

the organizers of the Odd Fellows Mutual Life Insurance 
Association, and Commander of the Uniformed Patriarchs. 
Mr. Hagar was always interested in collecting clippings from 
newspapers, magazines, etc. At his home he had one of the 
largest private collections in the country, being the result of 
sixty years' labor. These clippings were filed in envelopes, 
arranged in cyclopedic form for ready reference and embraced 
all subjects. Upon his death, this collection and his library 
of reference books were presented to the Newark Public Li- 
brary, of which he was Assistant Librarian in the late 8o's, 
and where he introduced the card catalogue system. He re- 
signed from the Library to engage in cyclopedia and editorial 
work. For years he was news editor of "Frank Leslie's Illus- 
trated Newspaper." He was one of the compilers on or con- 
tributors to a score or more encyclopedias and other works of 
references, among which were the "Columbian Cyclopedia," 
"New Standard Cyclopedia;" "Appleton's Cyclopedia of Amer- 
ican Biography," and also their "New Practical Cyclopedia;" 
"Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History," which he 
enlarged from two to ten volumes, and President Wilson's 
"History of the American People," for which he collected and 
arranged documents, enlarging the work from five to ten 
volumes. He also compiled the "Chronology of the World" 
in the "Standard Dictionary," edited the "New Universities 
Dictionary," was Centennial editor of "Crabb's English Synony- 
ons," revised "Eggleston's History of the "United States," etc., 

During the Civil War he was a member of the Sanitary Com- 
mission (the forerunner of the Red Cross) and was engaged 
in hospital work at the old Center St. Hospital, Newark, and 
at Point of Rocks, Virginia. On Nov. 27, 1878, he married 
Emma L. Hubbard of Newark. At the time of his death he 
was a member of Howard Lodge, I. O. O. F., having been a 
member of the order over fifty years; of Kane Lodge, F. & 
A. M., the National Geographic Society and the Newark Mu- 
seum Association. He had been a Life member of the New 
Jersey Historical Society since Jan., 1887. He is survived by 
a son, Arthur P., and a daughter, Clara H., both of Newark. 

248 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society % 

Rev. Roswell Randall Hoes, while only a Corresponding^ ^ 

member of the New Jersey Historical Society (elected in 1889), 1 

was so well and favorably known as an historian that a ^ 

mention of his useful life seems fitting in this place. He died « 

at Washington, D. C, on Oct. 26, 1921. About a yea • before j 

he had been run down by an automobile and, after a lingering | 

illness therefrom, failed to recover. Mr. Hoes was the son ] 

of Rev. Dr. John C. F. Hoes and Lucy Maria (Randall) Hoes, ] 

pastor of the Reformed Church of Kingston, N. Y., from 1845 i 

to 1867, and was born in Kingston Feb. 28, 1850. He was | 

graduated from the Kingston Academy in 1867; attended for ; 

a while Amherst College, then Princeton, from which he was ? 

graduated in 1871, and then Princeton Theological Seminary, \ 

graduating 1875. He was pastor of a Presbyterian church at J 

Mt. Holly, i875-'78 and at New Rochelle. N. Y., i878-'8i. -; 

He became Chaplain of the U. S. Navy July 26, 1882, and was I 

commissioned with rank of Chaplain-Captain Mar. 2, 1903. | 

He was retired Feb. 28, 1912, on reaching 62 years of age. I 

He had a sea service of nearly eight years, and shore or other t 

duty for i8j^ years. He was with the fleet in the Spanish ] 

War. In 1900 he was made Chaplain of the Ancient and j 

Honorable Artillery Co. of Boston. I 

The particular interest of historically-inclined persons in j 

Chaplain Hoes lies in the fact that, more than any other one 1 

man, he recovered for old Ulster county. New York, a wealth 1 

of material of immense and lasting value. His one monumen- \ 

tal publication, "The Baptismal and IMarriage Records of the \ 

Old Dutch Church of Kingston," has put all genealogists in | 

permanent debt to him. But his other writings in various New i 

York publications, addresses before historical societies, his I 

invaluable collections of old records in Ulster, his aid to Rev. | 

Edward T. Corwin, D.D., in "The Ecclesiastical Records of \ 

New York" by actual assistance in Holland, and other public j 

and semi-public acts prove his great usefulness, industry and 
ability. His personality was charming and his friends almost 
innumerable. He was twice married, his second wife, and, 
in all, four children, survive him. The widow still resides in | 

Washington. He was buried in the family plot in Wiltwyck 
Cemetery, Kingston. 

Necrology of Members 249 

Alfred Rogers Turner, who died at his residence in Pat- 
erson, N. ]., on the ist of June of last year, was a native 
of Maiden, Mass., the son of Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Rogers 
Turner, whose ancestors were among the early settlers of that 
State. He was born Oct. 3, 1851. After a common school 
education and some years in the hands of private tutois, Mr. 
Turner associated himself in the business of a commission 
house, the name of the firm being Ross & Turner. In this way 
he became acquainted with Thomas Barbour, one of the two 
Barbour brothers who established the f^ax spinning industry 
in Paterson, and who induced him to go to New York and look 
after the business interests of the Barbour Flax Spinning 
Company. When the Linen Thread Company absorbed the 
business of the Barbour Company, together with numerous 
other textile concerns in the country, Mr. Turner was elected 
vice-president ; as such he had charge of the selling end 

I of the business. Mr. Turner was quiet and unassuming, and 

apparently averse to appearing in public, a diffidence he over- 
came during the World War, when he became very prominent 
in various activities, notably the Red Cross of Paterson, of 

I which he was chairman. In this capacity he assumed a leader- 

ship acknowledged and admired by all. He not only took 
the initiative but followed each activity through to its ultimate 
fruition. His liberality to this cause is still amply testified 
to by the equipment of the present Red Cross headquarters. 
His business activities, in addition to his connection with the 
Linen Thread Company, were in the directorship of the Pat- 
erson National Bank, the Hamilton Trust Company of Pat- 
erson and the United Shoe Machinery Company of Bos- 
ton. He was a member of the Hamilton Club of Paterson and 
its President for two terms ; also of the Areola Country Club 
and the North Jersey Country Club, and of the Union League 
and Merchants' Club of New York. He was married to Miss 
Anne M. Hutchins and had three sons, Roger C, William H. 
and Howard C. .Six grandchildren and a brother, W. G. A. 
Turner, of Boston, attended the funeral. Interment was made 
at Everett, Mass. He became a member of the New Jersey 
Historical Society August 10, 1907. 

250 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society \ 


Some Interesting Facts About the Quibbletown Encamp- \ 

ment I 

One of the matters made plain by the publication of various \ 

of the "Condict Revolutionary Abstracts" is that the En- \ 

campment of American Soldiers in the Winter of i'j'j6-'j, i 

known as the "Quibbletown Encampment," was on the Ver- ] 

meule place. It was in what is now Plainfield, N. J., midway • 

between Clinton and Grant avenues, alonf^ the southeast bank -; 

of Green Brook. We have already referred to this (see I 

Proceedings of April, 192 1, pp. 85, 118), but a study of the 'i 

matter leads us now to further comments. Quibbletown was | 

the name given to what is now New Market, but was applied \ 

in a general way to the country for several miles around it, I 

since there were no existing towns nearer than Scotch Plains j 

to the East and Bound Brook to the West. We had known -^ 

of the fact of a Camp from various historians, but its exact i 

site had, apparently, escaped the notice of any modern writer. \ 

The Vermeule plantation, dating from 1735, we find com- i 

prised in all 1,200 acres and extended from Washington Rock I 

across the valley to about the line of present Eighth street, 1 

Plainfield. The Encampment, as we now know, was on about i 

95 acres of this plantation, and on it was a fort, about 200 \ 

yards square. From at least December, 1776, to June, 1777, \ 

a body of soldiers occupied it, as we have abundant proofs ; 

in the "Condict Abstracts." Then, Lee says, in his "New 5 

Jersey as a Colony and a State" (Vol. 2, p. 136), that, about | 

the latter part of June. 1777, "to be nearer the enemy Washing- | 

ton moved his Headquarters" [from Middlebrook] "to Quib- | 

bletown." So Gordon in his "Gazetteer of New Jersey," p. | 

245, and other authorities. And in the "N. J. Archives" (Vol. \ 

I, p. 409) is a letter from Washington dated "Camp at Quib- j 

bletown, June 25, 1777," in which he states that the day before \ 

he had moved his whole "army" there (three Brigades). This 1 

certainly fixed the time and the place of his Headquarters as j 

at the "Camp," which was on the Vermeule farm. Naturally > 

it would have been there, where the troops under General 

Historical Notes and Comments 251 

Winds were, as at and around Quibbletown itself there were 
constant depredations by and skirmishes with the enemy, and 
that hamlet would have had no safety spot for the Comman- 
der-in-Chief. The natural place was at the Encampment it- 
self, Washington was there on this occasion but a few days, 
when he took his three Brigades back to Middlebrook. He 
was doubtless there, however, as a visitor to the camp, on 
preceding and succeeding dates. 

There stood on the Vermeule place a large Dutch house, 
with overhanging eaves ; no other house, so far as we can 
learn, was on the camp grounds. The modest claim of a Ver- 
meule descendant, (Mr. Cornelius C. Vermeule, of East Or- 
ange, to whose notable article on "Some Revolutionary Inci- 
dents in the Raritan Valley" we have already referred in our 
first-above reference) that "the Chieftain was his" (th-e Rev- 
olutionary Cornelius Vermeule's) "guest v.-hen he went to the 
Rock to watch the movements of the enemy," is well borne out 
by all the circumstances. There was a direct path from 
the farm to the Rock. But the additional Vermeule tradition 
as to this fact not only, but as to Washington making the 
house a "Headquarters," seems to be substantiated by his own 
letter from the "Camp" and by other facts. 

Cornelius Vermeule (b. 1716; d. 1784) was the most prom- 
inent patriot in the region of Quibbletown, which was only two 
miles from his house. He had served in the Provincial Con- 
gress in October, 1775, and on the Somerset County Committee 
of Correspondence of the previous July, and he had several 
sons in the War. His house was large and commodious. His 
wife was Mary, daughter of Ida Marselis. His granddaughter, 
Judith, who was the wife of the Rev. James Phillips, of Chapel 
Hill, N. C, a lady of very high character, in the verses printed 
with the article referred to, speaks of Washington as her fath- 
er's "guest." Her early letters showed that she had examined 
a trunk full of her grandfather's and father's correspondence; 
her father being Cornelius, Jr., who served in the militia 
throughout the War. We are fortunate enough to possess a 
copy of one letter written by this Judith (Julia, as she signed 
her name) Philips, written to her nephew, Adrian Vermeule, 

252 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

of Raritan Landing, N. J., from Chapel Hill, N. C, in "The ] 

Winter of 1870," in which she says: | 


"You have heard, perhaps, that Washington was often at | 

our grandfather's, where he would watch the movement of the • 

British while they were in possession of New York. The | 

Rock, you know, bears his name, as well as the Spring near by, ! 

where, the old people used to say, he would sit alone in deep | 

thought." \ 


At an earlier date, June 28, 1852, Dr. Richard Middagh 

Vermeule (b. 1786; d. 1861 : named for Col. Derrick Middagh | 

of Revolutionary memory and with whom he lived until about | 

twelve years of age, when the Colonel left for the Genesee | 

country) wrote some facts and recollections of his ancestors, a ! 

copy of which is also at hand. In it he says, referring to ■ 

Cornelius Vermeule, Sr., his grandfather : | 

"My grandfather fed and lodged all the officers of one of j 

General Washington's Regiments about one year in the gloom- 1 

iest period of the national struggle, and never asked or received | 

pay of the Government." \ 


When Cornelius, Jr., was married to Elizabeth Middagh, ' 

dau. of Lieut. -Col.. Derrick Middagh, of Somerville, they re- \ 

ceived from General Washington, as a wedding present, a I 

handsome set of china, which passed down to a Clarkson line | 

of the family: another proof of Washington's interest in ; 

both the elder and younger Cornelius. I 

In 1814, Rev. Cornelius Vermeule, D. D., (b. 1786; d \ 

1859), previously pastor of the Reformed Dutch church of i 

Harlem, N. Y., from 1816 to 1836, but then Professor of ; 

Languages in Rutgers College (he was a brother of the Mrs. , 

Judith Phillips, above referred to) visited Mt, Vernon and was l 

entertained there most hospitably by Judge Bushrod Washing- 
ton, a proof that social relations existed between the Wash- 
ington and Vermeule families. 

The Vermeule house was built in 1736 and stood about one 
hundred yards back of the present house which, with the ad- 
joining land, belongs today to Mr. Augustus J. Brunson, Presi- 
dent of the First National Bank of Plainfield. The old 
house, like the present one, stood along the Green Brook 

Historical N'otes and Comments 253 

road, in North Plainfield township, Somerset county, and was 
pulled down about 1830 by Mr. Jeremiah Van Deventer, the 
then resident owner. It had a private road, or lane, leading 
to present Front Street, which road is now Clinton Avenue. 
The fort on the Vermeule place, the boundaries of which were 
traceable until a few years ago, was located southeast of and at a 
considerable distance from the house. Near the house to the 
west was an immense Dutch barn, and near it also was and is 
the old Vermeule farm burying-ground fenced in and well- 
preserved. Half a mile to the northeast still stands the farm 
house of Cornelius Vermeule, Jr. (son of the first Cornelius), 
built in 1784, and yet in wonderful preservation, though some- 
what altered. Not far away lived Adrian, brother of Cor- 
nelius, Jr., who was captured by the British and died in a New 
York prison-house. Two other brothers, Eder and Frederic, 
were also in the Revolutionary Army. Clearly here was a 
whole family of patriots. 

General Knox's Headquarters 

As everybody well knows, one of the most charming, not to 
say able. Generals who served under Washington in the Revo- 
lution was Henry Knox. All historians writing of that 
period put stress on his engaging manners and handsome 
mien, and the attractiveness of Lady Knox. In the midst of 
the War, when only about 33 years of age, he had headquarters 
near present Bedminster church, a few miles from Plucke- 
min, in a house still preserved and which ought, at least, to be 
honored with a tablet. We refer to this subject now because 
of the fact that near the small village of Vails Gate, about 
four miles southwest of Newburgh, N. Y., his military head- 
quarters there, known as "The IVIanor House," for quite a 
long period, not only stands, but has been recently purchased 
by a "Knox Headquarters' Association," to preserve it as a 
future shrine. Says a writer : 

"Washington himself and his friend Lafayette were frequent 
visitors to the old mansion. General Nathaniel Greene also 
lived in the Knox house at one time, and doubtless many im- 
portant plans relating to the American army were formulated 

254 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society | 


there. Rochambeau and General Horatio Gates of Washing- = 

ton's staff were other distinguished visitors at the Manor House, j 

where General Knox lived with his charming wife, Lucy Knox. • 

"In Revolutionary days the Manor House was known as the > 

'John Ellison House,' for it was built for a merchant of New \ 

York City, father of John. Another house owned by the ■ 

Ellison family nearer the river was occupied by Washington j 

as headquarters at various times during the Revolution. There ', 

are more than a score of rooms in the historic Knox Mansion, | 

and almost every one has some interesting incident connected .: 

with it. The main structure of stone was built in 1754 and I 

the easterly extension of the house, a frame building, dates ■ 

back to 1734, twenty years earlier. I 


Soldiers in the American Revolution .] 

In publishing an item in the April Proceedings giving the I 

number of soldiers engaged on the American side in the Revo- | 

lutionary War, we had misgivings, but could not then disprove ] 

the figures. For example, Massachusetts was credited with I 

nearly five times as many as New Jersey and Virginia nearly i 

three times as many, although we know that the chief battle l 

ground for many years was in New Jersey, where almost every l 

citizen capable of bearing arms patriotically engaged in trying \ 

to cast off the invader. Besides this, it seemed as if nearly I 

400,000 could not possibly have shouldered arms in the War. 1 

But the figures had come from a purported report of the Secre- ? 

tary of War in 1790, copied from some source by us, not clear- 1 

ly remembered, and we pubHshed them in the hope that, if j 

erroneous, the facts might be brought out. Since then we j 

have learned that the Massachusetts Society, S. A. R., about j 

1890, claimed to obtain the figures from a "Report of the Secre- 1 

tary of War of May 10, 1790," and that Society probably then | 

printed them ; at all events that was the source from which, at j 
second-hand, the figures reached us. 

In an article in this issue we are told that some of these 1 

figures are impossible and others so doubtful that the truth 1 
must be that only about one-half of the claimed 395,324 soldiers 
is more likely to be near the facts. We doubt if an exact state- 

Queries and Miscellany 255 

ment of soldiers engaged from 1776 to 1783, including, as it 
must, so many transients serving on "calls," can ever be made, 
but Mr. Vermeule's article deserves careful consideration, and 
certainly it puts New Jersey in a better light than the former 

The "Board of Proprietors" Article 

So much has been published in the Proceedings and else- 
where in years past concerning the Board of Proprietors of 
East Jersey that we had at first some doubts about giving up 
much space to any new treatment of the subject. However, 
the very careful research of Mr. McGregor, to whom every- 
thing in New Jersey history of a Scotch or semi-Scotch nature 
awakens in him his great assiduity of marshalling exact facts, 
seems worthy of publication as presenting in an orderly form 
old and new points on this historic Board, and, accordingly, 
it appears on preceding pages of this number. There are still 
several detailed and somewhat curious documents of very early 
, date concerning the Scots Proprietors recently acquired by the 
\ New Jersey Historical Society from which we hope to make 
j gleanings in the future. 

I J< ^ Jt J2 


Holcombe-Barbek. — The Holcomb family, mostly of Hun- 
terdon county, whose intermarriages were with the Prall, 
Quick, Emley, etc., families, is being worked out genealogically 
by Dr. R. C. Holcombe, Commander U. S. N., now or recently 
at the League Island Navy Yard. The Barber family of the 
same county is being put in shape by Mr. Hiram E. Deats, of 

Johnson-Kelley. — "Robert Johnson, of New Jersey, said 
to have been Scotch, with wife Mary, had a dau., Rachel, b. 
in same State Oct. 22, 1769. Rachel m. Ebcnezer T. Kelley 
Dec. 2, 1790. Ebenezer was b. Oct. 2, 1763; his father was 
Samuel Kelley of Somerset co., N. J., whose wife was Eunice. 
Information wanted as to the above Robert Johnson, who re- 
moved to Virginia about 1788, and Samuel Kelley." 

I. J. P. (Greensboro, N. C), 

256 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society \ 

MicKLE. — "Information is wanted concerning the genealogy 1 

of the Mickle family of old Gloucester county, particularly the \ 
second and third generations, in which there seems to be a lack 

of information." \ 

C. S. B. (Camden, N. J.) j 
The Kingston, N. Y., Baptismal, Etc., Records. — Occas- ' 

ionally inquiries come to hand as to whether the large volume \ 

of Kingston records, entitled "The Baptismal and Marriage ; 

Records of the Old Dutch Church of Kingston, N. Y.," is | 

wholly out of print or yet purchaseable. This wonderful * 

thesaurus of information on one of the very old Dutch churches 

in America, dating from 1659, can still be had, we are informed. 

from the widow of the compiler, who is Mrs. R. Randall Hoes, 

her address being The Dupont, Washington, D. C. It sells 

for $15. I 



Kirkpatricks in Scotland. — "In the January issue of your ' 
Proceedings I note a brief article on this family. I wonder if 

you know the little book, 'Chronicles of the Kirkpatrick family.' \ 

by Mr. Alexander de Lapere Kirkpatrick, privately printed in •' 

1898. This was made the text of an illustrated article by my- ] 

self, The Curious Career of the Kirkpatricks and how they j 

begat the Empress Eugenie,' in 'The Sketch,' London. March ? 

16, 1898. Her descent is traced tabularly in Miss Jane. T. I 

Stoddart's 'Life of the Empress Eugenie,' London, 1906 (p. 1 

301). A great deal about the Kirkpatricks has appeared from j 

time to time in 'Notes and Queries,' London, notably between \ 

February i, 1873, and May i, 1875, and also in October, 1918 \ 

(4s. xi, 89-91, 200, 426-427, 453: 5s. iii, 350: I2S, iii, 299, j 

398.") j 

G. M. B. (Editor "The Graphic," London, Eng.) 1 

LusE. — "Wanted, ancestry and particulars of Capt. Henry | 

Luse, of Sussex county, who served through the Revolution." j 

D. H. K. (Pineville, La.) ] 



of the 

New Jersey Historical Society 

VOL. VII. nrToVnS':'il22 No. 4 

OCTOBER, 1922 





Dr. Austin Scott, President of Rutgers CoIle<,e from 1891 to 
1906 and member of the faculty from 1882 until now, died at 
his summer home, Granville Center, Massachusetts, Tuesday, 
August 15th, at the age of seventy-four. His death was sud- 
den, an incalculable loss to the College ; a great shock and 
grievous sorrow to his associates in the College life, in the 
church and in the City of New Brunswick. He had com- 
pleted his year's work, an especially arduous year, without a 
day's faltering, although warned by occasional distress outside 
the classroom that his life was none too secure; and he was 
looking with fine satisfaction to greatly developed work in his 
department, work arranged for by him with the President dur- 
ing recent months. He must have gloried that his departure 
was after the finished work of a year and while he still stood 
ready for his task. 

Dr. Scott was born near Toledo, Ohio, August 10, 1848, was 
graduated from Yale in 1869, and received the degree of A. M. 
at the University of Michigan a year later. He studied at 
Berlin and Leipzig for three years and received his Ph.D. 

'The following account of the late Dr. Scott was published in the 
"Christian Intelligencer" of New York on August 23, last, and is repro- 
duced hy the courtesy of the writer, the present President of Rutgers 
College, who, perhaps, knew him more intimately than anyone else. 
The work of Dr. Scott in connection with the New Jersey Historical 
Society is commented upon in the department of "Historical Notes and 
Comments" in this issue. — Editor. 


258 Proceedings NcziJ Jersey Historical Society \ 

from the latter University in 1873. In 1891 he received the \ 

degree of LL.D. from Princeton University. He was the | 

instructor in German at the University of Michigan, 1873 ^o \ 

1875, and from 1S75 to 1882 he was associate in history at -. 

Johns Hopkins University. During much of this time, both | 

abroad and in this country, he was associated with Mr. George i 

Bancroft, gathering material and otherwise helping in the j 

preparation of Mr. Bancroft's great works, the "History of the 1 

United States" and the "History of the Constitution." \ 

In 1882 Dr. Scott was called to Rutgers, and in 1883 he re- \ 

ceived the full title of Professor of History, Pohtical Economy j 

and Constitutional Law. He at once gave strength to the Col- \ 

lege and gained the high esteem of all associated with him. \ 

His ability and force of character were such, and his grasp \ 

of general College affairs became so apparent, that, on the * 

resignation of President I^Ierrill E. Gates, he was chosen, in \ 

1890, to succeed him. During his administration as President i 

the Robert F. Ballantine Gymnasium and the Ralph Voorhees ■ 

Library v/ere erected, substantial gifts to endowment were re- ] 

ceived, and the educational program of the College was dis- | 

tinctly advanced and strengthened. Executive work was not i 

as agreeable to Dr. Scott as teaching, however, and after fifteen -^ 

years of presiding over the College, he asked that his resigna- \ 

tion be accepted, and he returned, in 1906, to full work as Pro- | 

fessor. He had continued to teach somewhat while President: j 

history, however, had been committed to other professors : j 

and, with the growth of the College and the increase of in- \ 

structors in recent years, it fell to him to give his time quite \ 

entirely to his paramount subject, political science, constitu- j 

tional and international law and civics. With rare vigor and \ 

enthusiasm, since returning from the President's office now for \ 

sixteen years, he has carried on his very distinguished class- 
room work. 

Dr. Scott was one of the greatest teachers of his time. He 
had natively a keen mind and an eagerness of the search for 
truth, and his training, academic and later, was of the best. 
His learning was wide and accurate : his intellectual resources 
were always at instant and apt command : he had the teaching 

In Memoriam — Dr. Austin Scott 259 

gift in rare degree. Before his students he was a master in- 
deed. Vital, alert, incisive, original, he commanded definite 
and unfailing interest, compelled intellectual reaction, and gave 
forth riches of experience as well as learning. Forty classes, 
one after the other, have given him supreme respect and ad- 
miration and gratitude as a teacher. 

As teacher and as President he was an unswerving champion 
of the College, all its honor and welfare. He had adopted it 
entirely as his ov.m. It was unceasingly upon his heart. He 
ti gloried in its distinction and its usefulness. After his retiring 
I from the office of President he gave to his successor, his one 
f time student, the most unwavering and complete support in 
t word and deed and the warmest, intimate friendship. 
I In the City of New Brunswick Dr. Scott has been for many 

I years an outstanding figure. Devoted to training his students 
I for best citizenship, he could not fail to give public service him- 
I self as chance appeared. He was ready to enlist in all good 
I civic movements. He was willing even to accept public office : 
he served a term as Mayor of New Brunswick and fulfilled the 
duties of the office with rare faithfulness and with high cour- 
age in difficult circumstances. He served on one board and 
another of public administration. He was counted on as a 
speaker on philanthropic and patriotic occasions. In such a 
group as the local Historical Club, of which he was President, 
he was the leading and moving spirit, strongly sustaining its 
whole enterprise and sharing constantly its productive work. 

Like his predecessors in the President's office since the Sec- 
ond Reformed Church of New Brunswick was organized, and 
like his successor, he has been connected with that church. He 
was a devoted churchman, a strong supporter of the denomi- 
nation, an elder frequently chosen to the consistory. In him 
the pastor always found a warm and helpful friend : special 
movements for the church welfare always commanded his best 
effort. He held the religious life as the essential foundation of 
all good life and citizenship. He was gifted in religious ad- 
dress and in prayer. He was well known in General Synod 
and at times played important parts in its counsels. 

Dr. Scott leaves, beside his widow, seven children. The 

26o Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

eldest son is Assistant Professor of History at the University , 
of Rochester and the second son is Professor of Law at the 
Harvard Law School. 

^% t^i fe?* ^?* 



The first volume of the "Collections of the New Jersey His- \ 
torical Society" is a history of "East Jersey Under the Pro- \ 
prietary Governments," by William A. Whitehead, one of his \ 
many invaluable important contributions to New Jersey his- I 
tory. He has given in an "Appendix" a reprint of "The ', 
Model of the Government of East New Jersey in America and \ 
Encouragements for such as Design to be Concerned There," i 
by George Scot of "Pitlochie," "now first reprinted from the | 

original edition of 1685." Although one of the most important ; 

sources of early New Jersey history, only four copies of the ] 

original edition were known to be in existence in 1846, when | 

this reprint was made. At that time those four copies were | 

distributed as follows : one in the Advocates' Library at Edin- | 

burgh, one in the Gottingen Collection, one belonged to John ' 

A. King, Esq., of Long Island, and the remaining copy in 
Harvard College Library (not then a University). 

The "Model Government" has been largely drawn upon by 
later historians and is the sole source of information concern- 
ing the condition of the Province at that time. It was believed, 
by the Scots Proprietors, to have exercised so great an influence 
on emigration that they gave the author 500 acres of land in 
East New Jersey. He was intimately connected with an im- 
portant period of our history, and was a man not only of most 
noble and illustrious lineage but of considerable importance in 
his own right, although overshadowed by his much more dis- 
tinguished father. 

George Scot, of Pitlochy, was the son of Sir John Scot of 
Scotstarvet and his second wife, Margaret Melville, a daugh- 
ter of the famous Sir James Melville of Hallhill, author of the 

George Scot of Pitlochy 2O1 

"Memoirs." This branch of the Scot family was a cadet of 
the noble house of Buccleuch, whose thrilling deeds and whose 
chief residence, Branksome Castle, are celebrated in Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel." 

Sir John Scot, of Scotstarvet, was born in 1586, and suc- 
ceeded his grandfather as heir to the lands and barony of 
Knightspottie, when only seven years old. In 161 1 he ac- 
quired the lands and barony of Tarvet, in the county of Fife. 
These he called Scotstarvet, from, which he took his title, and 
here he built Scotstarvet Tower, a gloomy, feudal-looking build- 
ing near the town of Cupar. He was in great favor with King 
James VI (James I of England), who knighted him in 1617, 
and he was made Director of the Chancery as soon as he came 
of age. Douglas says of him (in his "Baronage of Scotland," 
p. 220), that "he had a liberal education, was a man of extra- 
ordinary parts and made a great figure in his time." He was a 
member of the Privy Council under James and also under 
Charles I, who made him one of the Senators of the College of 
Justice and gave him four charters under the great seal for 
many lands and baronies. He was a devoted loyalist for which 
Cromwell fined him £1,500. During the Protectorate he re- 
tired to his country estates of Scotstarvet and lived very quietly, 
taking no part in public affairs. Douglas goes on to say that 
"he survived these troublous times and got a charter under the 
great seal from Charles II." He died in 1670. 

Sir John Scot married three times. His first wife was Anne 
Drummond, daughter of Sir John Drummond of Hawthorn- 
den, a cadet of the house of Perth. By this m.arriage he had 
two sons and seven daughters. His second wife was Margaret 
Melville, previously mentioned, the mother of George, of Pit- 
lochy. His third venture was Margaret Monipenny, daughter 
of Monipenny of Pitmilly and widow of William Rigg of Aith- 
ernie, by whom he had Walter Scot of Edinshead. 

Fife is a very picturesque county on the east coast of Scot- 
land, between the Firth of Forth on the south and the Firth 
of Tay to the north. Cupar, on the river Eden, is the capital, or 
county town ; and about two miles away is Scotstarvet Tower. 
It is built of hewn stone with walls from six to seven feet thick 

262 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

and about fifty feet high. It has few windows and a narrow 

wheel-stair leads to the six stories. A detailed description of I 

this dwelling may be found in "Castellated and Domestic Arch- ] 

itecture of Scotland," together with an exterior view, the in- | 

terior plan, and a drawing of one of the three fire-places. This i 

last is ornamented with the arms of Scot and Drummond, their \ 

initials, and the date, 1627. There is also a panel at the head of. i 

the stairway which bears the same date and has the arms of \ 

Scot and Drummond impaled. Three fire-places and not many \ 

more windows would seem cheerless to the modern mind, but ] 

at that time they were doubtless considered a great comfort, if \ 

not luxury, for a barony of that size. | 

It was probably here that George Scot was born, but the j 

exact date has not been verified. It seems fairly safe to assume I 

that it was somewhere near 1640. He was married in 1663, | 

so he must have been twenty, or thereabouts, at the time, but ] 

probably not much older, his mother being Sir John's second 1 

wife. I 

His youth was spent in the most advantageous surround- 1 

ings. He received a fine education and probably attended St. 1 

Andrews University, as his father was a great patron of learn- ] 
ing. A pleasing picture of Sir John Scot and his home is given 
in a "History of Fife and Kinross," by J. G. Mackay, pp. 137, 

"In one of the later castles of Fife, whose single unpretend- | 

ing but striking tower stands on the depression between the 1 

hill where the Generals of Mary of Guise met the Generals of j 

the congregation, and the ridge of higher ground to the west, ■ 

one of the smaller barons of Fife led a life divided between the j 

practice of politics and the pursuit of knowledge." ... j 

"No one of his class and time did more for learning. He found- I 

ed the Humanity, or Latin, Chair at St. Andrews and scholar- 1 

ships for poor boys at Glasgow. He encouraged Arthur John- 
ston in the compilation of the 'Delitise Poetarum Scotorum' 
. . . The sixth volume of Blaeu's 'Atlas' was published 
largely at his cost. It marked a step of progress when Scot- 
land was given a distinct place in the Atlas of Europe. 'At 
length,' wrote Gordon of Straloch to Sir John Scot, 24 Jan., 
1648, 'our Scotland presents itself to the world. It will now 
hold an honorable place among the other countries of the earth 

George Scot of Pitlochy 263 

in the grand and celebrated 'Atlas' of Monsieur John Blaeu, to 
which the world has seen nothing comparable.' . . . The 
hospitable house of Scotstarvet was a centre for the literary cir- 
cle of his countrymen. One of Scot's visitors — his brother- 
in-law, Drummond of Hawthornden — was induced to write the 
'History of the Jameses' by his suggestion," 

He, himself, wrote a curious little book, called "The Stag- 
gering State of Scots Statesmen." This is not a dissertation on 
Temperance, but a circumstantial account of the misfortunes 
and scandals that have overtaken various prominent nobles. 
f; Some have considered it a malicious satire on his political ene- 
l mies; but Carlyle says it is "not a satire at all, but a homily 
\ on Life's Nothingness enforced by examples." In pursuing his 
I active career he travelled to London and back twenty-four 
I times and made two trips to Holland, no mean accomplishment 
\ for those days. 

\ Thus it will be seen that Scot's education was a liberal one — 

i as liberal as could be acquired in that age, torn as it was with 
j its violent religious hatreds. While liberty of conscience was 
j the final result of these fierce dissensions among the sects, it 
i certainly was not the aim of any. Heresy was as deadly a sin 
to the devout Presbyterian as to Archbishop Laud, or Tor- 
! quemada himself. They only differed as to whom the term 
I should be applied, and their methods in dealing with it were all 
I much the same. Toleration was anathema to the Calvinist as 
j well as to the other sects. In fact, the chief objects of the 
i National Covenant, 1638, and the Solemn League and Cove- 
nant, 1643, were to make Presbyterianism the sole religion of 
Scotland ; to force it on England, and to exterminate all other 
sects. The Covenanters were the forerunners of liberty, chron- 
ologically speaking, but by no stretch of the imagination could 
they be called its apostles. 

Centuries of border warfare and clan feuds had bred a vig- 
orous and warlike race, democratic and turbulent, keen intel- 
lects delighting in argument and incapable of being overawed. 
It seemed as if religious dissensions were a welcome outlet to 
their energies when the union of the crowns put an end to the 
border wars. Scotland was distracted by this bitter strife, 

264 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

with complications throughout the entire career of George I 

Scot ; indeed, the entire century was devoted to it. Bitter is a \ 

mild expression to use in describing these quarrels. They were I 

ferocious on all sides. , 

The Covenanters hated Charles I, and with reason, for try- ■ 

ing to force upon them a religion they did not want ; but they i 

hated Cromwell still more for putting a stop to their persecu- 1 

tions. He forced on them "that vomit of toleration," which | 

eloquently expresses their opinion of freedom of conscience. 5 

The feuds of great nobles also played an important part in the | 

general disorders. Religion never brought enemies together, i 

except when Charles I offended their entire class by threaten- | 

ing to restore lands taken from the Church. This made practi- j 

cally all of them Covenanters for a time, but as soon as this | 

danger passed they separated again to assume their respective ] 

religious (?) attitudes and continue the struggle for each oth- I 

er's possessions. 1 

Sir John Scot seems to have belonged to the moderate wing j 

of the Presbyterian party, for there was a moderate, reasonable ^ 

faction, as in all other parties. The extremists being very 1 

vociferous and aggressive, with a passionate greed for power, | 

dominated the masses by the sheer force and fervor of their 1 

hatred. Besides war on "Prelacy," "Popery," and all the other j 

"sectaries," the Kirk itself was rent by the quarrels between 
the "Resolutioners," or more moderate preachers, and the "bit- 
ter enders," called "Remonstrants" and "Protesters." Each 
regarded the other as a highly magnified Judas. 

The Restoration was hailed with delight by all classes of 
Scotch people. By none more than by the Covenanters, who 
felt they were about to enter on the pleasing task of forcing 
Presbyterianism on England and annihilating the hated "sec- 
taries," for Charles II had been forced to sign both Covenants 
during his unhappy sojourn in Scotland. They were speedily 
undeceived. Instead of forcing the Covenants on England, 
Charles repudiated his oath and forced Episcopacy on Scotland ; 
that is, the Episcopal form of church government was estab- 
lished and the hated bishops restored. More money could be 
brought into the treasury by these means. The Liturgy was 

George Scot of Pitlochy 265 

not brought in, nor the Articles of Perth. Presbyterian min- 
isters were licensed to preach under certain restrictions, such 
as singing the doxology some time during the service and re- 
peating the Apostles' Creed at baptisms; otherwise there was 
no change in the Presbyterian form of worship. They were 
also required to confine their sermons to religious subjects and 
avoid "seditious libel." This was a severe measure, as many 
gifted preachers relied more on their powers of invective than 
on religious instruction. 

In reality, Charles' quarrel with the Kirk of Scotland was 
political rather than religious. He was in favor of religious 
toleration, but the English Parliament would have none of it, 
and it was quite as unpopular in Scotland. He was, however, 
like all the Stuarts, jealous of his prerogative, and with that 
the Kirk came in violent conflict. "Rigid Presbyterianism" of 
that day claimed all the "divine right," "passive obedience," 
and absolute despotism that they denied the King. Their min- 
isters were inspired, infallible. They excommunicated "heret- 
ics" and had them punished by the civil Courts until Cromwell 
conquered Scotland and abolished the General Assembly. 
Either the Kirk or the State had to govern ; there was no union 
between them, and "rigid Presbyterianism" became branded as 
synonymous with disloyalty. 

Those ministers who acceded to the terms required by the 
government were known as "Indulged," and were objects of 
hatred to the elect, who often maltreated them. Many, how- 
ever, sternly rejected any such compromise with their con- 
sciences, and three or four hundred ministers were turned out 
of their parishes. This gave rise to meetings, called conventi- 
cles, in private houses and in the open fields or glens. These 
were forbidden and the whole Kirk came under suspicion on 
account of a few riots started by the incendiary sermons of 
some of the covenanting preachers. 

It was in 1663, in the midst of all this excitement, that 
George Scot was married. His bride was Margaret Rigg, 
daughter of William Rigg of Aithernie and of his second wife, 
Margaret Monipcnny, daughter of Monipenny of Pitmilly. 
William Rigg was a merchant burgess of Edinburgh, a man of 

266 Proceedings Neiv Jersey Historical Society I 

considerable wealth, and an ardent Covenanter. He is men- 1 

tioned by Calderwood in his "History of the Church of Scot- ] 

land," of which he was a generous benefactor. He died be- ^ 

fore 1644 and was survived by his second wife, who became \ 

Sir John Scot's third wife. ("East Neuk of Fife," by Rev. W. \ 

Wood, p. 40). It seems likely that this marriage occurred be- \ 

fore that of her daughter. \ 

Just when George Scot became the Laird of Pitlochy has I 

not been ascertained, but it would have made a most fitting i 

to J 

wedding present, and his father probably bestowed it upon him ^ 

at that time, if not before. Whenever or however acquired he i 

had "a pretty house with good enclosures" in the picturesque ] 

country of v»'estern Fife at the head of the river Edin. It was 1 

not far from the village of Strathmiglo, which lay about a \ 

mile to the east, with the beautiful hills of East and West | 

Lomond to the southward. In this charming spot, as we as- j 

sume, he spent eleven peaceful and happy years. Here his \ 

children Eupham and James must have been born, and possi- 3 

bly others, but these tv*'o were all who survived him and we 1 

have no record of any others. 1 

In 1670 died Sir John Scot, at the age of eighty-four, a great 1 

man in his day. While the barony of Scotstarvet and the bulk \ 

of the estates followed the law of primogeniture, his literary \ 

tastes were inherited by his third son, George, of Pitlochy. He ' 

recognized this fact and left with him some manuscripts of con- \ 

siderable value. I 

It was not until a few years later that George, of Pitlochy, I 

came in conflict with the State, as understood by Lauderdale, 
and his serious misfortunes began. On the twenty-fifth of 
June, 1674, he and his wife were fined £1,000 for attending 
conventicles in the county of Fife, and imprisoned in the Tol- 
booth of Edinburgh. The following month their fines were paid 
and they were released on the twenty-third of July. "Registry 
of the Privy Council of Scotland," Third Scries, Vol. 4, pp. 207, 

Conditions in Scotland had been going from bad to worse. 
The Kirk was rent in twain by the most bitter dissensions. The 
distracted country was being thoroughly misgoverned by the 

George Scot of Pitlochy 267 

Duke of Lauderdale, a violent and corrupt man, cruel and ra- 
pacious, who had secured the most important and lucrative of- 
fices for himself and his family, while the affairs of the Church 
were run by James Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrews, de- 
scribed by Lauderdale as "a poltroon of serviceable ability, and 
a liar whose lies can be reckoned upon. . . . When dirty 
work had to be done he did it really well." Both one time 
Covenanters, they were illustrious examples of the "one rene- 
gade" proverb. 

As increasing numbers of the Presbyterian clergy availed 
themselves of the acts of Indulgence, the extremely "rigid" be- 
came alarmed and roused the most devout of their congrega- 
tions to furious endeavors. One of the favorite forms of dis- 
order was to "rabble," that is mob, the "Indulged" and drive 
them out of their parishes in fear of their lives. Women were 
said to be the most violent and irrepressible of the religious agi- 
tators. Carried away by the preacher's eloquence they repeat- 
edly precipitated serious riots. 

The government was powerless to restore order, but it 
forced people to go to church, and passed laws against conven- 
ticles of such severity that they could not be enforced. How- 
ever, it aflForded a golden opportunity for extorting fines and 
brought great profit to officials. The method of collecting un- 
paid taxes and fines was to quarter soldiers on the delinquent 
until the money was paid. This grievous form of tyranny was 
especially hard on the poor, who had no redress for military 
outrages. It seemed as if both sides expended all their brains 
and energy on exasperating each other instead of devising any 
adjustment of difficulties. 

The west of Scotland was the hotbed of disorder, but Fife 
was one of the strongholds of Presbyterianism and the resi- 
dence of one of the chief objects of hatred. Archbishop Sharp 
of St. Andrews. The inhabitants were thus brought into close 
contact with one of the sources of oppression. 

Lady Pitlochy had a cousin, Archibald Riddell, an "obnox- 
ious preacher," and it is doubtless through her and her family 
connections that her husband became involved with the extreme 
faction. The rest of his family had a certain amount of caution 

268 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society I 

and avoided the agitators. His writings do not indicate a man \ 

of intemperate zeal, but rather the calm, inquiring scholar. His \ 

sense of justice has probably been deeply offended and, evi- » 

dently, he had inherited some of the spirit of his ancestor, the | 

"bold Buccleuch." i 

On July 20, 1676, George, of Pitlochy, and -his wife, with 1 

others, were again accused of attending conventicles and "re- \ 

setting" and "intercommuning" with rebels and fugitives, and \ 

to have been present at house and field conventicles. "The said j 

Mr. George Scot of Pitlochie has also convocated divers num- \ 

bers of people from time to time to these field conventicles and i 

was present at one where the said Mr. James Kirktoune sol- ] 

emnized a disorderly marriage . . . one of his own ser- \ 

vants, he giving the said bride into the hand of the said bride- ? 

groom," — truly a heinous offense! (Ibid, Vol. 5, p. 12). For 
this they were denounced at the market crosses of Cupar, 
Perth, Edinburgh, and "other places needful and their goods 
to be escheated." He must have proved contumacious, for in 
the following year, February i, 1677, he is declared fugitive 
for not appearing before the Council. (Ibid, p. 105). He was 
apprehended in Edinburgh and brought before the "committy 
charged with the said crymes." He was further charged with 
"uttering several insolent expressions against his Majesties 
government and those entrusted by him in the exercise thereof, 
which was instantly proven against him ; he refused to declare 
any thing there anent, or to give assurance for his future good 
carriage. The committy considering the said Mr. George Scot 
to be a person of most pernitious and factious practices, and al- 
together irreclaimable, notwithstanding all the fair meanes and 
endeavoures used for that effect," they then order him 
"transported to the isle of the Basse until the council shall 
consider what further course to take with him." 

It would be interesting to know just what these "fair meanes 
and endeavoures" were. The "isle of the Basse," to which 
he was transported, is a huge rock in the Firth of Forth, about 
a mile in circumference, and two miles from the nearest shore. 
A landing can be made from one side, only, as the other three 
are perpendicular. The government bought it in 1671, built 

' George Scot of Pitlochy 269 

thereon a castle Avith dungeons, and used it as a prison for the 
Covenanters. A lonely and gloomy exile with no hope of 
escape, except by pardon. 

Probably concern for his family as much as the discomfort 
of his own imprisonment induced Scot to petition for freedom. 
This was granted and on October 5, 1677, he wac liberated on 
condition that he confine himself to his own land. (Ibid, p. 


During his absence Lady Pitlochy had not been idle, for on 
August 7, 1677, she was accused of attending conventicles, 
prosecuted and fined 1,000 merks. 

For a while they succeeded in keeping out of trouble, but 
conditions were continually growing worse ; so it is not sur- 
prising that he was again brought before the Council, at Edin- 
burgh, May 13, 1679, together with a Mr. Andrew Kennedy 
of Cloburne, "for keeping conventicles and for other disorders 
of that nature, and they found caution as follows, viz. : Mr. 
George Scot by a bond dated 20 Oct., 1677; found Col. David 
Cunninghame, David Scot of Scotstarvet [his nephew] and 
Walter Scot of Letholme, cautioners for him to confine himself 
I to his own lands under a penalty of 10,000 merks and to live 

'■■ orderly, . . ." (Ibid, Vol. 6, p. 198). They were accused 

i of having deserted ordinances, kept conventicles, reset rebels 

f and had children baptized at these meetings. Andrew Ken- 

I nedy "refused to depone" and was committed to the Tolbooth 

\ of Edinburgh unless he immediately gave bond for 1,000 merks. 

I They delayed consideration of George Scot's case "until to- 

j morrow." The next day his case was taken up. He acknowl- 

i edged that one conventicle had been held in his house, but re- 

j fused to tell the name of the preacher. On being questioned as 

I to having "intertained, intercommuned or corresponded with 

j any intercommuned persons," and particularly John Balfour of 

I Kinloch, he refused to answer. This was considered a confes- 

I sion and he was fined 3,000 merks of the 10,000 "contained in 

the bond before the last day of this month, and supersede as to 
the rest of the sum until it appear what will be the said Mr. 
George Scot's future conduct ;" and they allow him until the 
22nd inst. to return to his confinement. "John Balfour of Kin- 

270 Proceedings Nczv Jersey Historical Society 1 

loch (called Burley)" was the leader of the party of men who, | 
ten days before, had murdered Archbishop Sharp in a most | 
cruel manner. If he is the same, as the names would indi- ^ 
cate, with whom he was accused of nitercommunmg, it seems | 

like a serious situation. There is no evidence of Scot being a \ 
fanatic who would advocate murder, especially in so shocking I 

a manner. One might have uttered "insolent expressions j 

against his Majesties government" without departing from 1 

either truth or good sense. Whatever his attitude may have 4 

been, he was fortunate to escape with merely a fine and "being 1 

confined to his own land," considering the circumstances and | 

the temper of the government. I 

Whitehead says ("History of Perth Amboy," p. 25) that he ] 

was fined £700 in February, 1680, for "absence from the | 

King's host and subsequently, but at what time, or for what i 

special offense has not been ascertained, was again imprisoned | 

in the Bass," that he petitioned the Council for release, "engag- 
ing to go to the plantations and promised to take with him 
Archibald Riddell, his wife's cousin and one of the obnoxious 
preachers." Also, that he was released April i, 1684. Evi- 
dently Archibald Riddell was a disturbing element in the 

If Scot were liberated on that date it is likely that he was 
imprisoned sometime during the previous autumn. The year, 
1683, was a period rife with conspiracies. The Rye House 
Plot in England had ramifications in Scotland and a number 
of the most respectable gentry were arrested and put to the 
torture. Renwick, a fanatical preacher of the most extreme 
type, also started his activities about the same time. With his 
ferocious slogan of "Blood and no quarters," he went about 
preaching at conventicles and inciting rebellion. He was not 
an orthodox Presbyterian, but had his own peculiar brand of 
religion (?), and the great body of the Kirk repudiated him 
and his works. But it is not the habit of governments to be 
very discriminating at such times and many innocent had to 
suffer. These conditions gave a fresh impetus to persecution. 
"The country was thus harassed by oaths, tests and fines in- 
flicted for even conversing with fugitive rebels, and for not 


George Scot of Pitlochy 271 

denouncing- them. , . . Not only peasants and tradesfolk, 
but gentlemen like Scot of Harden and many others were 
heavily fined, often for the Presbyterian devoutness of the 
women of their families." (Lang, "Hist, of Scotland," Vol. 

3. P- 375)- 

It is not at all probable that George of Pitlochy was a Ren- 
wickite. Renwick was too anarchistic to appeal to the gentry, 
but it is within the bounds of possibility that Lady Pitlochy and 
Archibald Riddell may have listened to his eloquence. 

In 1683 George applies to the Privy Council for sequestra- 
tion of the estate of a Col. Walter Scott. "Supplication by Mr. 
George Scot of Pitlochie, as follows : The deceased Col. Wal- 
ter Scott, by irrevocable disposition dated nth July, 1668, dis- 
poned to him 48,000 guilders; and he finding himself obliged 
;. to go to Holland for prosecuting his right, did, to eschew a 
I tedious and expensive lawsuit in Holland (albeit he had ana 
I expres warrand from the Prince and the States to put under 
I arrestment all the Colonel's fortune until his claims were de- 
I termined) passe from his arrestment upon desyre of Andrew 
^ Boswall in Balmuto, nearest of kin to the Collonel." ("Regis- 
f tcr of the Privy Council of Scotland," Third Series, Vol. 8, 
j p. 238). What relation this Col. Scott was to him has not been 
discovered. Surely Scot displayed great patience in waiting for 
1 his legacy, and he must have needed it sadly, being mulcted for 
I so many fines. 

The same year it appears in the records that "Walter Scot 

j of Pitlochie" was appointed one of the Justices of the Peace 

for the shire of Fife. (Ibid, p. 199). This cannot be a mis- 

i print for George, as it argues confidence in the officer's loyalty. 

' Evidently it is his half-brother (and his wife's also), mentioned 

in the Douglas "Baronage" as Walter Scot of "Edin'shead." 

In the description of Fife before cited, it says: "The next 

place we notice is Edin'shead, where the river of Edin has 

its source. A pretty house with good inclosures ; the seat of 

Walter Scot, son of Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet, of whom 

formerly. This land and house was formerly named Pitlochy." 

(Sibbald's "Hist, of the Sheriffdoms of Fife and Kinross," p. 

38S). George Scot was doubtless in debt by this time and was 

2^2. Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society | 

obliged to sell his estate to his brother. He continues, however. 1 

to retain the title. 1 

It was in this same eventful year that Scot published his j 

grandfather's "Memoirs." Sir James Melville, born in 1535, \ 

was a younger son of Sir John Melville of Raith, one of the ] 

most ancient and honorable families of Fife." He went to | 

France as page to Mary Queen of Scots. He travelled exten- \ 

sively in Europe, was soldier and diplomat; and when Mary I 

returned to Scotland he was sent for and given an appoint- \ 

ment in her household. After faithful and distinguished ser- I 

vice to his country, he retired to his estate of Hallhill, where \ 

he wrote his "Memoirs of my own Life," a valuable historical 1 

record of the period. He died in 1617. These "Memoirs" \ 

were first published by George Scot, who wrote the biography \ 

that prefaces the work. 

In 1684 the Earl of Perth, who came into power after Lau- 
derdale's retirement, was made Lord High Chancellor of 
Scotland. It was evidently through him that Scot obtained 
his final release. Perth being related by marriage to the Scots- 
tarvet family seems to have been willing to exert his influence 
in behalf of his disaffected kinsman. 

In this same year George brings another petition before the 
Privy Council, or rather renews an old one. "Sir George 
Scott of Pitlochy recommended to his Majesty's bounty for his 
preservation of manuscripts of his father. Sir John Scott of 
Scotstarvet, and his offer of them to the Lords of Session." 
He states in his petition that he was offered by private persons 
a considerable amount for his father's manuscripts (they seem 
to have been abstracts of documents that passed through his 
office while he was director), but, instead, he offered them to 
the Lords of Session, Dec. 13, 1674, who perused them, con- 
sidered it a great service, and recommended him for his Majes- 
ty's bounty.' The Lords of Session reported favorably on it 
Mar. 3, 1675, but evidently nothing further was done. It 
seems that Sir John Scot had been made Director of the Chan- 
cellary for life, but Charles II wanted it for a friend, and asked 
Sir John to give it up to him, which he did, "being a great loser 
thereby." ("Reg. Priv. Coun. Scot.," Third Series, Vol. 8, pp. 

George Scot of Pitlochy 273 

This seems to be Scot's last encounter with the Privy Coun- 

From the time of his liberation he must have devoted him- 
self to preparations for his emigration, and to the writing of 
the "Model Government." This is a really notable work and 
worthy of perusal. It throws an illuminating light on the 
mental attitudes and methods of reasoning of that period. Ev- 
idently there were serious objections among the devout to leav- 
ing their own country for a foreign land. The reasons they 
gave, whether real or feigned, were the deeply superstitious 
(which they mistook for religious) type, then in vogue. These 
opinions were not shared by George Scot and men of his 
culture and education, but they took them seriously, and he 
devotes a large portion of the book to dispelling these doubts 
and objections by presenting numerous precedents, drawn from 
- . the Bible, in favor of "extraordinary undertakings" for those 

i who have an "extraordinary call." 

I Scot deals with this subject in a highly satisfactory manner, 

I goes into the origin of Indian tribes and how they arrived in 

I America. He shows a thorough familiarity with the great 

j writers of the day on history and kindred subjects. He is not 

j ahead of his time, but entirely up-to-date. After the historical 

I survey and the effort to satisfy sensitive consciences, he pro- 

I ceeds to give his reasons for preferring New Jersey to the 

! other colonies. This constitutes a most glowing description 

of the government, the soil, the climate, the harbors, and many 
other advantages, which, he thought, made it the most desirable 
spot from Maine to Florida. He inserts the "Grants and Con- 
cession" from the Lords Proprietors to the settlers, the deed 
from Charles II to the Duke of York, and from the Duke of 
York to the Twenty-four Proprietors. He gives an account of 
the towns and settlements, their size and condition ; and finally 
adds numerous letters from Scotchmen, recently settled in the 
country, to their friends and relatives at home. He proves his 
case and deftly appeals to all classes. 

The dedication of the book is to "James, Earl of Perth, Lord 
Drummond and Stobhall, etc., Lord High Chancellour of Scot- 
land," to Perth's brother, "John, Viscount of Melfoord, Lord 

274 Proceedings Ncxv Jersey Historical Society | 

Drummond of Gilston, Secretary of State for the Kingdom of ! 

Scotland, one of the Members of His Majesties most Honoura- | 

ble Privy Council in both Kingdoms ;" and also to "George, Vis- \ 

count of Tarbet, Lord ]\IcCloud and Castle-Haven, Lord Clerk, | 

Register of Scotland, and one of His Majesty's most Honour- | 

able Privy Council there." He expresses deep gratitude to these \ 

"noble Lords" for many favors received from them. Perth | 

and his brother were two of the Twenty-four Proprietors, | 

while George Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbet (not the "Bluidy \ 

Mackenzie" of evil memory) owned a number of proprietary '| 

shares. It was a business venture in which some of the Scotch | 

nobility, gentry and merchants were interested. They were ] 

the "Scots Proprietors." \ 

For the curious conclusion of this book, see Whitehead's \ 

"East Jersey under the Proprietary Governments," (pp. 331- | 

333). This states what ships had already sailed for and ] 

reached New Jersey, and speaks of the "Henry and Francis," | 

which, it was announced, would set sail "against the 20 day of j 

July" for New Jersey. ( 

In the meantime a great deal had happened in Scotland. \ 

Charles H had died and been succeeded by his brother James 
n, the last and worst of the Stuart Kings. Argyle's ill-advised, 
poorly managed and meagerly supported "rising" had been 
thoroughly extinguished and Argyle himself executed. Of his 
unfortunate followers some were hung, others escaped with 
mutilation ; some were banished and others thrown into prison, 
which last seemed about the worst fate of all. About 200 of 
these unfortunates, imprisoned in Edinburgh, were sent north 
and confined in Dunnottar Castle. They were all Covenanters 
and mostly peasants. The horrors of their captivity were due 
to the cruelty of the deputy-sheriff of the Alearns, one George 
Keith, of infamous memory. Even the Privy Council disap- 
proved of his atrocious treatment, and his wife interceded for 
them but to very little purpose. "Even water was begrudged 
them, and some died, a few escaped and the soldiers tortured all 
whom they caught. Many who would not take an oath involv- 
ing the Royal supremacy were banished." (Lang. "Hist, of 
Scotland," Vol. 3, p. 408). The "banished" were those gifted 

George Scot of Pitlochy 275 

to Pitlochy. Did the "gift" of these poor people represent 
the "King's bounty" to which the Council had recommended 
Scot on account of his father's manuscripts? It has all the ear- 
marks of Stuart generosity. 

Volume 14 of the Scottish Historical Society Publications is 
"Erskine of Carnock's Journal," 1683-1687, and on page 154 is 
the following entry : 

"All that were in Dunottar, except those who were sick, were 
now brought back and disposed of other ways, many of them 
being banished, and gifted to Scot of Pitlochie, who was in a 
few days to sail for Jersey in America. Mr. Archibald Riddell, 
who was prisoner in the Bass, having got his liberty that he 
might go with him, was now shipped with his family, several 
gentlewomen and others having gone voluntarily." (Another 
account may be found in Chambers' "Annals of Scotland," 
Vol. 2, pp. 479-481). 

A long account of the whole disastrous voyage is given in 
Wodrow's "Sufferings of the Church of Scotland," Vol. 2, 
pp. 565-567, a brief notice of which is in Whitehead's "His- 
tory of Perth Amboy," p. 24. It contains a partial list of the 
passengers and the narrative is by one of the banished. The 
"gifted" were not at all joyful on leaving Scotland and their 
persecutors, but were most resentful and full of righteous in- 
dignation at being sent to an "uncovenanted country," conse- 
quently without religion. The account contains some inaccur- 
acies, due to violent prejudices, which is not unnatural, but 
gives a vivid picture of this tragic journey. The narrator has 
a grudge against Scot who seems to have fallen from grace. 
"Vexed Presbyterian" he may have been, but evidently not 
one of the elect. His wife is referred to as "his cxcellerit 
i Lady." Undoubtedly she was the truly orthodox member of 

the family. 

"The prisoners." the account says, "lay some time in the 
Road of Leith before all was ready and sailed the 5th of Sep- 
tember. Informations before me bear that Pitlochie tampered 
with some of them, particularly James Forsyth, to get money 
before they sailed, otfcring for five pounds sterling, paid now, 
to let him at liberty as soon as they came to land. But James 
answered he would give no money to carry him out of his na- 

2"]^ Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

tive land, adding, he had done nothing worthy of banishment. ; 

After they had turned the Land End, the fever began to rage ' 

in the ship, especially among such who had been in the great \ 

Vault of Dunnotter. Not a few of them were sick when they ; 

came aboard, and no wonder, considering the barbarous treat- 1 

ment they had met with. In a month's time the fever turned ] 

malignant, and few or none in the ship escaped it, insomuch' ; 

that it was usual to cast overboard three or four dead bodies in 
one day. Most of the ship's crew, except the Captain and boat- 
swain, died. Pitlochie, who had freighted the ship, with his 
excellent Lady, died likewise, and so enjoyed nothing of the 
produce of near a hundred prisoners gifted him by the Council, 
and near seventy persons died at sea. Many were the disasters 
of this voyage. The ship was at the utmost hazard by the \ 

breaking up of a leak of two several times. They had several i 

calms and som.e pretty severe storms. Very much for the ad- ^ 

vantage of the passengers and prisoners, the wind turned \ 

straight for New-Jersey and they were forced to sail with it. s 

There they arrived about the middle of December, after they | 

had been about fifteen weeks at sea." | 

Could there have been a more pathetic ending to a troubled 1 

career than that of poor Scot? And how many tragedies fol- 
lowed that frail little ship that sailed out so bravely into the 
North Sea that 5th of September, 16S5 ' 

Scot's prospects were of the brightest. He had been granted 
a patent for 500 acres of land (July 28, 16S5), "as a present 
for having written a pamphlet inviting him to emigrate to New 
Jersey and for freighting the 'Henry and Francis,' Richard 
Hutton, Master, in which the said Scot, wife, servants and 
passengers, in all about 200 persons, are going over, the 500 
acres to be laid out in the right of George, Viscount Tarbett, 
Lord McLeod and Castlehaven." (Liber A of Deeds, p. 384: 
or "N. J. Archives," ist Series, Vol. 21, p. 85). This land was 
in the region of Wickatunk; and he had obtained from Lord 
Neil Campbell an "obligation" to dispose to him 1,000 acres in 
East Jersey, contiguous to the land lately of "George, Viscount 
Tarbett." (N. J. Archives, ist Series, Vol. 21, p. 170). 

He was started on the right road to become a greater "Laird" 
than Scotstarvet himself. His broad acres, however, he was 
never to see. His death must have occurred about the first of 
November; that of his wife at an earlier date, as she is not 

George Scot of Pitlochy 277 

mentioned in his will, dated "the last of October, 1685," and 
proved February 26, 1686, (as per Trenton, N. J., records. For 
abstract, sec "N. J. Archives," First Series, Vol. XXIII, p. 

Eupham Scot took counsel with one of the advisors named 
in her father's will. John Johnstone evidently advised her to 
marry him, which she did, thus relieving the others of respon- 
sibility. As the wife of Dr. John Johnstone, eminent physi- 
cian, loved and respected, one of the most distinguished men in 
the Colony and great landed proprietor, her position was all 
that her father could have wished for her and to v.'hich she was 
entitled by birth. She was able to realize her poor father's 
dream of peace and prosperity. 

Of the son, James Scot, the record is very meagre. He is 
mentioned in the will of his relative, William Rigg, also a pas- 
senger on the "Henry and Francis," and victim of the fever. 
("N. J. Archives," Vol. 21, p. 70), as follows, the surname 
being spelled "Scott"]. ^ Also this appears: 

"Att a Council held at Amboy Perth in East Jersey, 30th 
Sber, 1686. James Scott (sonn of George Scott of Picklockey, 
late of the Kingdom of Scotland, Deceased) came before the 
Councill, being a jNIinor and made choyse off Mr. John John- 
stone and Mrs. George Willox to bee his guardians, who were 
admitted accordingly, they giving in sufficient security to bee 
accomptable to the sd James Scott when he shall attaine the 
age of one and twenty years." (Ibid, Vol. 13, p. 170). 

On Dec. 24, 1686, there was recorded in East Jersey Deeds 
a confirmation to James Scott of ^/^othe of ^/^s^h share, pur- 
chased of David Barclay, of 550 acres of land on the northeast 
branch of the South River in Monmouth county. ("N. J. 
Archives," First Series, Vol. XXI, p. 93), 

In 1690, James Scott was a witness to a deed of James 
Johnstone, a brother of Dr. John Johnstone. He does not ap- 
pear again in the New Jersey records. It is likely that he re- 
turned to Scotland, and died there at an early age, or perhaps 

'Both in the last will of George Scot and the references to his son 
James, the surnames are spelled "Scott." It was an a.i^c of niucli indif- 
ference as to the spelHng of proper names. So "Pillochy" and "Pit- 
lochie" were spelled without uniformity. — Editor. 

278 Proceedings Nczu Jersey Historical Society 1 

was lost at sea, like David Barclay, the Governor's brother, 1 

Douglas in his "Baronage," says that George Scot of Pitlochy | 

left no succession; so he evidently left as little record in Scot- | 

land as here; all which indicates an early death. I 

The Laird of Pitlochy and his "excellent Lady" have a great | 

number of descendants in this country, but all through their i 

daughter, Mrs. Eupham Scot Johnstone, a union of two il- j 

lustrious lines of Scotch ancestry, famous for courage, intel- 1 

lect and strength of character. - '\ 

^ JS jsl ^ I 




The father of James Wilson Marshall was Philip Marshall, \ 

and his mother Sarah Wilson, who v.-ere born at Marshall's ] 

Corner, Hunterdon county, New Jersey. About 181 6 they re- | 

moved to Lambertville in the same couaty. They were people I 

of good repute, and both were prominent in the organization I 

of the First Baptist Church there, Feb. 10, 1825. On Feb. 1 

25, 1825, Philip Marshall was elected a deacon in that church. ] 

He was born July 20, 1786, and died Sept. 25, 1834. Sarah • 

Wilson was born Jan. 28, 1788, and died Sept. 3, 1878. They i 

were married Dec. 15, 180S. To them were born five children: 

1. James Wilson Marshall, born Oct. 8, 1810; died in Cali- 
fornia, unmarried, Aug. 10, 1885. 

2. Abigail, born May 13, 1S13. 

3. Rebecca, born June 5, 1820. 

4. Mary, born July 13, 1822. 

5. Sarah H., born Sept. 13, 1827. 

James Wilson Marshall had no educational advantages be- 
yond that of the common school. Pie learned his trade of 
coach and wagonmaker in his father's shop. There he re- 
mained until he was of age, leading a quiet, humdrum life, with 

^Valuable a'^sistance in the preparation of tli's article is aclcnov, lodged, 
from Mr. Walter F. liayhurst and Mr. G. Howard Carr, of Lambert- 
ville, and from Air. Hiram E. Ucats of Flcmington. 

/. IV. Marshall, the New Jersey Discoverer of Gold 279 

no features of special interest. Having reached his majority 
he began to experience the impulse for a more active and excit- 
ing life. He heard and read much about the great opportuni- 
ties for success in the West, and decided to journey in that 
direction. So, packing up his few belongings and bidding 
farewell to those in the old home, he went as far west as 
Crawfordsville, Indiana. He worked there as a carpenter for 
a few months and then moved on to Warsaw, Illinois. He 
stayed there but a short time, when, becoming restless and 
feeling the urge for further adventure, he again took his way 
westward, and this time reached Northwest Missouri. Here he 
seemed to have reached the end of his journeying, for he located 
a homestead and, with farming and herding, appeared to be on 
the high road to prosperity. But fever-and-ague caught him, 
and, after struggling against it for a number of years, he found 
he would have to move on or die. In that neighborhood people 
were talking much about a wonderful country in the extreme 
west called California. It was pictured as an earthly paradise, 
with a moderate, healthy climate, fertile soil, abundant streams 
and fine timber in profusion. It abounded in game, fish and 
wild fruits, and, what especially appealed to him, there was no 
fever-and-ague there. All this greatly interested him. If 
he remained in the low bottom lands of Missouri he could not 
live more than a year or two, his physician told him. If he 
undertook this journey he might lose his scalp to the hostile 
Indians on the way, but that would be no worse than being 
shaken to death by fever-and-ague. The desire for further 
adventure was still burning within him, and he decided to go. 

In a company of about forty men, on horseback, packing 
their provisions, he made his way into California by the way 
of Oregon in the spring of 1845. Going down the Sacramento 
valley the company separated, some going to Yerba Buena, 
now San Francisco, others, among whom was Marshall, to 
Fort Sutter, now Sacramento. Then, for several years, his 
interests were so interwoven with Capt. Sutter's that perhaps 
it may be of some interest to turn aside and speak of Capt. 
Sutter's previous life. 

Capt. John Augustus Sutter, "pioneer," was born in Kan- 

28o Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

dern, Baden, Feb. 15, 1803. He received a military education \ 

in Switzerland and joined the Swiss Guards, with whom he saw ! 

some active service, remaining with them until 1834, when he « 

emigrated to the United States, settled in Missouri and became 1 

a naturalized citizen. \ 

Hearing of the beauty and fertility of the Pacific coast he i 

decided to go there. With a half-dozen companions he reached } 

Oregon, descended the Columbia river to Vancouver ; then \ 

went to the Sandwich Islands, where he bought and loaded a ■: 

vessel, going with it to Sitka, Alaska, then a Russian possession, | 

on a trading expedition. His venture was successful ; so, sail- j 

ing for the Bay of San Francisco, he arrived there in July, 1839. "; 

On the bank of the Sacramento river he built a fort, gathered J 

a little company about him, set various industries in motion and I 

accumulated a great fortune in live stock, furs and grain. Sut- j 

ter's Fort became a hospitable resort of explorers on the west- 1 

era coast. Lieut. John C. Fremont experienced his kindness. | 

Sutter gave him enough fresh horses to remount his whole ] 

command. Later, Sutter had some trouble with the Mexican | 

authorities, who, jealous of his success and influence, tried to j 

drive him out of the country. Hearing of this, Fremont pro- 
ceeded to the fort with his troops, hoisted the American flag | 
over Fort Sutter and thus took the first step toward making I 
California a State of the Union. 

On Jan. 24, 1848, gold was discovered on his estate in the 
Coloma Valley by Marshall, (Indian, Coo-loo-ma, beautiful 
vale), as will be related presently. This discovery was a great 
misfortune to Capt. Sutter. As a consequence he lost his land 
grant of thousands of acres made by a Mexican Governor. His 
Indian trappers, his herders and his farmers deserted him for 
the gold diggings ; his grain was ungathered, his horses, cat- 
tle and sheep stampeded or were stolen, and he was reduced 
to poverty. There was no authority to which he could appeal. 
Mexico had lost her grip and the United States had not yet 
taken hold. 

In 1864 the Legislature of California granted him a pension 
of $3,CK)0 per year. His last years were spent in Lititz, Penn- 
sylvania. He unsuccessfully importuned Congress to grant him 

/. W. Marshall, the New Jersey Discoverer of Gold 281 

some indemnity for his great losses. He died in Washington, 
D. C, June 17, 1880. 

Marshall being an ingenious mechanic, Capt. Sutter found 
him useful, and kept him busy making tables, chairs, plows, 
ox yokes, wagons and even spinning wheels. Life at the fort 
was very crude. There were no comforts and but few neces- 
sities. Tea, coffee and sugar were unknown. Their flour was 
prepared in an Indian mill, a hollow in a rock into which the 
grain was poured and beaten with a pestle until the grains were 
broken up. Having no candles they retired when it was dark. 

In 1846 occurred the Bearflag war, so called because the flag 
the American settlers carried had on it the picture of a bear. 
The Mexicans in California under General UeCastro intended 
to destroy all the American settlements and hand the province 
over to the British Government. The settlers joined Fre- 
mont's forces, and, under his leadership, not only were these 
settlements saved, but Gen. DeCastro was driven out of Cali- 

Marshall was v/ith the settlers who fought for their homes. 
After spending a year in these campaigns, he returned to Fort 
Sutter and then to a small ranch he had purchased and stocked, 
but only to find that his live stock had been stolen and driven 
away. This was a severe blow to him, for up to this time he 
had accumulated little property. For this year's service and his 
risk of life he received no compensation, and during his ab- 
sence his business had gone to ruin. He looked about now to 
see what he could undertake with some prospect of success, 
and decided to try the lumber business. He conferred with 
Capt. Sutter about this. The latter tried to dissuade him, for 
he needed the services of this handy and dependable man him- 
self. However, Marshall persisted and set out to fmd a suitable 
location for a saw mill. He found an ideal location on the 
south fork of the American river, in Coloma valley, with am- 
ple water power and fine timber, about forty miles east of the 
fort. He then returned and told Capt. Sutter of his success. 
A partnership was arranged, Sutter agreeing to furnish the 
capital if Marshall would build the mill. This was in August, 
1847. Marshall hired Peter L. Weimer and his family and 

282 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

other workmen, and, with wagon loads of tools and provisions, 

returned to Coloma, and at once began work on the new ] 

venture. | 

We are on the eve now of the greatest event, not only in j 

the life of IMarshall and of Sutter, but in the history of Cali- ] 

fornia, and which, when announced, like the shot of the "em- j 

battled farmers," was "heard round the world." There have | 

been many accounts of the actual finding of gold by Marshall, \ 

one of which was an endeavor to give the glory to another man. \ 

There are two accounts which appear to be at first hand and | 

which quite agree. 1 

The workmen were engaged in digging the raceway for the I 

saw mill. The larger sized stones were thrown out in the day j 

time, and at night, by raising the gate of the forebay, the water i 

rushed through and carried away the smaller stones, gravel 1 

and sand. This was what was going on Jan. 24, 1848. I 1 

quote : | 

"On that memorable morning IMarshall went out as usual \ 

and, after closing the forebay gate, thus shutting off the water, | 

walked down the tail race to see what sand and gravel had been j 

removed during the night. Having strolled to the lower end I 

of the race he stood for a moment examining the mass of j 

debris that had been washed dov/n, when his eye caught the | 

glitter of something that had lodged in a crevice, covered with j 

a few inches of water. Picking it up, he found it was very i 

heavy, of a peculiar color, and unlike anything he had seen | 

there before. Recalling all he had heard or read about miner- \ 

als, he concluded this must be either sulphate of copper, or | 
gold. Knowing that sulphate of copper was brittle, and gold 
malleable, he placed the specimen on a flat stone and pounded 
it with another. It did not crack or scale off. It simply bent 
under the blows. This, then, was gold !" 

Mrs. Peter J. Weimer, who was the cook at Marshall's camp, 
puts her husband and their little son in the story, thus : 

"As Marshall and my husband walked along the tail race 
from which the water had been shut off, they noticed a bright, 
shiny object, which Marshall picked up. Our little son, Mar- 
tin, was with them, and Marshall gave him the specimen with 
instructions to bring it to me, which he did in a hurry. I said, 
'This is gold and I will throw it into my lye kettle, and if it is 

/. IV. Marshall, the New Jersey Discoverer of Gold 283 

gold it will be gold when it comes out.' A plank was brought 
for me to lay my soap on later in the day, and, as I cut the soap 
into chunks, the nugget was not to be found. At the bottom of 
the kettle was a double handful of potash, which I took out, and 
there was my gold, as bright as could be." 

Of course Marshall watched closely now for further speci- 
mens and in a few days collected several ounces. He then went 
to the fort, and showed the gold to his partner. "Impossible," 
said Sutter. It is an interesting fact that Lieut. W. T. Sher- 
man (afterward Gen. Sherman, of "j\Iarching-through-Geor- 
gia" fame), tested these nuggets and, pronouncing them gold, 
dispelled whatever doubts remained. 

It was impossible to hide this discovery, and, as the news 
spread, the rush to Coloma began, leading up to that tidal wave 
of humanity, "the Forty-niners," which brought with it men 
from the uttermost parts of the earth. They came from the 
slums of the great cities, from penal colonies, from the ranks of 
the discontented, from those in debt and from those who feared 
the law. Good men with honest purposes came also, but per- 
haps there never was a community which contained such a large 
proportion of lawless characters as gathered there. There was 
an organization known as "The Hounds," whose business it was 
to rob and even to kill in order to obtain gold. This serious 
condition led up to the formation of Vigilant Com.mittees, who 
undertook to establish order. Many of the ring leaders were 
caught, proven guilty and hung. Because of this, Placerville, 
now a thriving town, was for a long time called "Hangtown." 

Marshall continued working at the mill, varying this occu- 
pation with prospecting. He was closely watched, for the rab- 
ble believed that, because he had discovered the gold, he knew 
where the rich diggings were, and they threatened to hang him 
if he did not disclose their locations. So serious did this be- 
come that his friends provided means for his secret escape. He 
was obliged to remain away for six months. On his return his 
property was covered by squatters and he was unable to dis- 
possess them. 

With labor at sixteen dollars per day, the cost of running the 
mill made the enterprise hopeless and so that business was 

284 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

closed. His misfortunes did not end here, however, for the 

same men who stole his land now appropriated the timber of | 

the mill itself, to line shafts and tunnels, and the whole build- | 

ing was dismantled and the mill-dam destroyed. i 

It was natural that he should desire to protect his rights to ^ 

the land which he legally claimed as an original settler, and that I 

he should dispute the authority of strangers to seize and pos- ] 

sess themselves of his property, appropriate his horses and cat- | 

tie and destroy his improvements, but, unfortunately for him, | 

a great many people in Coloma were interested in defeating his j 

rights. They had squatted on his land and were disposed to 3 

keep it. All their interests were opposed to his, and they ] 

wielded a large influence in the community ; so all the litigation < 

went against him. He tried other enterprises. With a partner | 

he kept a hotel and he planted a vineyard, but was unable to 1 

recoup his losses. | 

Nothing remained now for him to do but to return to his i 

. . . . 5 

prospecting. In this he was watched, and time and again he ] 

was driven away from the diggings by those who still beheved \ 

he knew the best locations. On one of his expeditions he came | 

upon a man lying by the wayside, apparently sick unto death. j 

He gave the sufferer refreshment and learned that he had been | 

out prospecting Avith several comrades, and that, being taken j 

sick, his heartless companions had gone off and left him to die. \ 

He put him on his own horse and, walking beside, carried him | 

to his camp. Then he nursed him, supplying the lack of med- 1 

icines by such simple remedies as his Indian experience had i 

taught him to use. During this stranger's convalescence Mar- 
shall found that his family in New York, thinking he was 
sowing his wild oats with too free a hand, had sent him off to 
California, hoping that his rough experience there would sober 
him. Marshall loaned him his horse for a short ride every 
day and, as his strength returned, suggested that he undertake 
a little light work, to which the young man cheerfully consented. 
He mounted the horse for his usual ride and trotted off. That 
was the last time Marshall ever saw him. He simply vanished. 
With him disappeared the horse, saddle and bridle. 

This ignoble act, added to the persecution of the miners and 

/. JV. Marshall, the Nezv Jersey Discoverer of Gold 285 

the outrages of the squatters, was a cruel blow to Marshall's 
faith in humanity. 

At one time Marshall owned a ferry. Desiring to go on a 
prospecting trip in the mountains, he told his assistant that he 
might never come back, in which case he could have the ferry. 
But, he said, he expected to return by a certain date, which was 
named. He did not return on that date, so his assistant promptly 
sold the business, pocketed the money and disappeared. For a 
long time after he boarded with a very poor family, in which 
he was well cared for. At his departure he wished to give the 
mother a gratuity, but, having no money he could spare, he 
handed her a lottery ticket, expressing the hope that it would 
draw one of the prizes for her. That hope was realized. The 
ticket drew ten thousand dollars! 
, After an absence of about forty years he returned to Lam- 

p bertville, N. J., his early home, and spent two weeks with rel- 

I atives and friends. Most of the time he was on the farm of his 

i sister, Mrs. Rebecca Marshall Carr, whose husband passed 

j away August 28, i860. Their son, G. Howard Carr, is now 

I in possession of the farm, about two miles south of Lambert- 

1 ville. The latter went with his uncle on long hikes, through 

the hills and valleys adjoining the Delaware river, looking for 
i gold. ]\Iarshall seemed obsessed with the thought that in every 

hill there was gold, if one could only find it. He brought a 
number of specimens of rocks home and "roasted" them, but 
I not a trace of precious metal could he find. On his return to 

California he tried the lecture platform. But neither his story 
nor his oratory gripped his small audiences, and this effort, 
like so many others, failed. 
I He certainly had a claim to consideration because of his dis- 

covery of gold in California, which made that great State what 
it is. It built her large cities, it put commerce on her rivers 
and in her splendid ocean harbors, it brought on a population 
with unusual rapidity, it built churches, schools, colleges, hos- 
pitals, and asylums. It led to enlightenment and general pros- 

Referring to the fact that the Legislature of California had 
voted a pension to Capt. Sutter and had refused one to him. 

286 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

he said, in a letter to a friend : "I see no reason why the 
Government should give to others and not to me. In God's | 

name, can the circumstance of my being the first to find the ] 

gold region of California be a curse to deprive me of every ! 

right pertaining to a citizen under the flag?" | 

He continued to live on his little ranch near Coloma, became • 

a member of the local Agricultural Society, and in later years | 

became a Spiritualist. In 1872 he v/as voted a pension of 
$200 per month for two years. This was kept up for four 
years. Then it was reduced to $100 per month for two years. 
He drew no pension for the last seven years of his life. 

He died alone in his cabin August 10, 1885, his estate amount- 
ing to less than $400. Later a monument, surmounted by a 
life-size statue of Marshall, was erected, at a cost of $5,000, 
at Coloma, with the first finger of his left hand pointing to the 
exact spot where he found that first nugget of gold. 

fe?* ^* %^f t^9 9 




Neither side in the Revolutionary War, whether American or 
British, can look with pride on many of the methods adopted 
to obtain recruits for the fighting forces. 

A blunder of the first magnitude was committed by the j 

British in employing German mercenaries. Cordially disliked i 

by the British regular army in America and by the American ] 

Loyalists, the Hessians in particular gained an unenviable repu- | 

tation as plunderers and were a source of great and constant 
anxiety to the Commander-in-Chief, Sir. William Howe.^ 
Their incompetent General, De Heister, was not only averse 
to taking his men into action, but he became known to his un- 
happy victims, the Loyalists, when quartered at their well- 
furnished houses, as the "arch plunderer." His recall at the 
insistent demands of Howe was accomplished none too soon, 

^See remarks in our "Historical Notes and Comments," post. — Editor. 
'Hist. MSS. Comm., Report on Stopford-Sackvillc MSS., Vol. II, p. 54, 

English Convicts in the American Army 287 

for he had by his zeal in plundering brought the whole British 
army in America into disgrace. General Haldimand's views 
of the German troops are also most unfavorable. His name 
would not be brought into this article but for one interesting 
comment in a letter dated from Quebec, 13 September, 1779, to 
Lord George Germain, in which he speaks not only in disparag- 
ing terms of German troops, but also to the great encourage- 
ments offered to the deserters from the Hanau Chasseurs by 
"Rebel emissaries," who appear to have offered them induce- 
ments to join their fellow-countrymen in the German settle- 
ments in Pennsylvania.^ 

The competition between the Americans and the British for 
the support of the Indians was exceedingly keen, ending in 
success for the latter. The controversy on the subject of en- 
gaging Indians as combatants may be dismissed with the re- 
flection that the efforts of the Americans to wean them from 
their loyalty failed for the most part. 

Prisoners of war were taken into active service by the British, 
a notable example being the formation of the Duke of Cum- 
berland's Regiment, sometimes called the Loyal American Ran- 
gers, commanded by Lord Charles Greville Montague, formerly 
Governor of South Carolina. A large number of prisoners of 
war taken by the British at the surrender of Charleston in 
South Carolina in May, 17S0, and after the defeat of Gates by 
Lord Cornwallis at Camden on i6th August following, were 
drafted into this Regiment in the West Indies in February, 

Passing from these random introductory notes, I take up 

the subject of this article, and base my evidence on the "Old 

j Bailey Sessions Papers" of which a complete series may be 

j consulted in the Guildhall Library in London. 

I The first case is that of Thomas Cox, tried for forgery at 

Salisbury Assizes in 1773 and sentenced to transportation to 

America. He had returned to England before the expiration 

of the term of transportation. His history in the War is 

briefly as follows : He was engaged in business at Baltimore 

"Public Record Office, C.0.42/39,ff. 524-5. 
*State Papers Domestic, Military, 29. 

288 Proceedings New Jersey Histarical Society 

when a Captain Grice, in command of a Company of Provin- 
cials, entreated and almost insisted upon Cox joining his Com- j 
pany. Joseph Thompson, a witness from Baltimore, stated | 
that Cox was not forced to join the American forces, but hav- 1 
ing been refused civil employment for his alleged loyalty he j 
was compelled to do so or submit to starvation. According i 
to the evidence of Thompson those who refused to join the | 
American militia were punished by the usual tarring and feath- | 
ering. From this invidious position both Thompson and Cox \ 
escaped by sailing on a ship bound for Lisbon, in which Cox I 
worked his passage. This vessel, however, was captured at \ 
Norfolk in Virginia, where it was compelled to put in, having | 
sprung a leak. He was presumably allowed to continue the | 
voyage upon the repair of the ship. At his trial at the Old ] 
Bailey Cox was found not guilty and discharged. | 
The second case is that of William Harding who was tried j 
for and convicted of a highway robbery in 1773, but after- I 
wards received the King's pardon on condition that he was 1 
transported to America for seven years. On arriving there he | 
was "sold," as he describes it, as an indentured laborer, to a I 
Mr. Davis, who became a Captain in the American Army and | 
who forced Harding to join him in the army at Philadelphia. I 
After being there for four days, Harding heard that the British j 
troops had landed at the Head of the Elk and he forthwith | 
deserted from the Americans, having no wish to fight against | 
his King and country. Harding was, however, captured by 1 
American light horse, put under guard for desertion and sent 
back to Philadelphia, where he was kept a prisoner for a month 
after the Battle of the Brandywine. He was then ordered to 
be shot as a deserter, but escaped the extreme penalty on ac- 
cepting General Washington's alternative to take the oath of 
allegiance to America and accept service in the American 
forces. Rather than face death. William Harding accepted 
these conditions and fought in one battle, which he does not 
name, hoping all the time to find an opportunity to escape once 
again to the British. The American army having retreated to 
a place, called Kensington by Harding, he remained there a 
month, until a deserter told him that the British Commander- 

English Convicts in the American Army 289 

in-chief, Sir William Howe, had issued a proclamation, offer- 
ing all deserters from the American army a free pardon, upon 
which Harding and six others deserted and joined Howe's 
army in Philadelphia and took the oath of allegiance to the 
King. In consequence of this proclamation he set sail for 
England with one Captain Milne. 

One William Wheeler was indicted for feloniously being 

at large in the City of London before the expiration of the 

term for which he had received sentence to be transported on 

31 October, 1775. Prisoner's defense was that he had been 

living in Virginia, where he was forced to take up arms against 

the British forces at Boston, but he declined to fight against 

his King and country. An attempt was made to cajole him by 

picturing him as a slave transported by a tyrannical system, 

but to this cajolery his answer was that he did not think "he 

was hard done by" in being transported as a felon. Wheeler 

was, however, drafted against his will into the American forces, 

and a coat was put on him with the inscription, "Death or 

I Liberty," on one side of it. While on a march he escaped and 

I eventually got to Norfolk in Virginia, where he settled until 

? another demand was made for his services with the Americans. 

[ Escaping again, this felon reached a seaport and got on board 

I an English vessel bound for England, only to be appre- 

j hended in the City of London and sentenced to death at the 

Old Bailey for returning to England before the conclusion of 

[ his term of transportation. 

' The case of an Englishman, who fled from Philadelphia to 

I England rather than fight in the American army and was 
i found guilty in December, 1779, at the Old Bailey for theft 
I of money before Mr. Justice Blackstone, the celebrated author 
of Blackstone's "Commentaries," deserves passing notice here. 
Phineas Bond, of the Middle Temple, an eminent lawyer and 
Loyalist, of Philadelphia, and Andrew Allen, the exiled At- 
torney-General for Pennsylvania, gave evidence in support of 
Hudson, whom they had known as an honest man at Philadel- 
phia, before they had been compelled to quit there on account 
of their allegiance to the Crown. 

One more example from an unpublished source may be cited, 

290 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society i 

namely, that of William Tonks, gunsmith, who was sentenced | 
to death at Stafford Assizes in 1774, but afterwards transported 1 
to America for fourteen years; and John Ward and Thomas | 
Allen, both gunsmiths, sentenced for common felony to trans- * 
.portation for seven years. In 1775 these three men were \ 
induced by American officers to accept employ nient as gun- /» 
smiths in the American Army, but being dissatisfied with their \ 
lot applied for protection to Governor Tryon, of New York, | 
who sent them to England. Here they were arrested for being | 
at large, but received a free pardon.^ | 

According to a William Ellis a great part of the troops \ 
raised in Maryland were convicts and indented servants, who t 
seized every opportunity to desert.^ \ 

The carrying of a shipload of convicts across the Atlantic ] 
was a hazardous business. An exciting affair occurred in Au- | 
gust, 1783, shortly before the termination of the War, when I 
the "Swift" was bound for Halifax in Nova Scotia with a cargo | 
of 143 men and women convicts. Just after leaving the Downs \ 
several convicts managed to release themselves from their | 
irons and rushed out from between decks into the Captain's j 
cabin and bound the captain and mate, as well as the crew of | 

eighteen. The vessel was sailed by the convicts towards the | 
English coast, between Dungeness and Rye, where they cast | 

anchor. Here the boats were hoisted out and forty-eight con- j 

victs escaped on shore. The remainder, fearing danger to \ 

themselves if the wind should get up, released the crew, who j 

navigated the ship into Portsmouth. Thirty-seven of the con- \ 

victs were afterward captured and sentenced to death at the 
Old Bailey. 

The chief interest in these notes is that the Americans had no 
compunction in forcing English convicts in America into their 
army, so long as they could be of any practical service. For 
many years before the outbreak of the War in 1775, America 
was the dumping ground for the convicts, and it would be an 
interesting story if the careers of the large number of these 

•C.0.5/iS4.ff.i 14-118. 

'Letter from Ellis to Governor Eden, July 23, 1777, "Maryland Hist. 
Mag.," Vol. II, p. 109. 

Judge Syvimes on Indian Hostilities 291 

men could be traced. Many, perhaps, fought with maHcious joy 
against their own fellow-countrymen, as representatives of 
the Kingly authority which had condemned them to the ardu- 
ous life of a convict, a virtual slave, in a foreign land, while oth- 
ers took up the sword with reluctance and with genuine pain. 
In the latter class were to be found deserters from the Ameri- 
can army, especially after Howe's proclamation offering a free 
pardon to deserters, previously mentioned. 

^W fe?* ^* fc?* 


One of some early letters now in possession of the New 
Jersey Historical Society was written in 1790, from Lexington 
by Judge John Cleves Symmes, the well-known Jerseyman 
who removed to Ohio about 1788, when he was appointed by 
Congress to act as one of the Judges of the Northwest Terri- 
tory. Judge Symmes was one of the Sussex county, N. J., 
Judges before the Revolution and until 1777, when he became 
a Justice of the Supreme Court of this State, serving until 
1783. The "Lexington," from which he dates his letter, we 
cannot suppose to be the present small town of Lexington, in 
Richland county, Ohio, but Lexington, in Kentucky, as his 
daughter, the wife of Major Peyton Short, resided in that 
locality, and, he says, he had been visiting her. 

Elias Boudinot, to whom the letter was directed, was one of 
his associates in the purchase of a large tract of land in Ohio. 
He was the well-known patriot of that name, who had resided 
at Elizabeth, this State (although the letter is directed to him 
at New York), He had been President of the Continental 
Congress (i782-'3), and was a member of the United States 
Congress from 1789 to 1795; during that period and later he 
resided at Burlington. The letter speaks for itself. Of course 
the reason for it lay in the fact that Mr. Boudinot was influen- 
tial in Congress and Judge Symmes desired him to have that 
body view the Indians of the Northwest as only enemies to 
civilization, who should be dealt with harshly. 

292 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 1 

"Lexington, May the ist, 1790. \ 

"1 make no doubt, my dear Sir, of your receiving multiplied ] 
accounts of Indian hostilities in all parts of this country; no j 
corner escapes their ravages; murders, piracies and rob- \ 
beries, both on land and the rivers, are every day perpetrated 1 
by the savages. I believe, of every western nation, however { 
some of them may pretend to peace and friendship. The fact ; 
indubitably is that the young men of every nation and tribe \ 
embrace every occasion of going to war. It is the only path to j 
honor and repute among them. They have no ambition for ] 
wealth — they have no thirst for science. They have no value i 
for a man of moderation and virtue; they have no means of \ 
acquiring so much property as a state of nature demands, but I 
by plundering their neighbors — the white people. They are i 
idle in the extreme and yet they must live ; they must have arms 1 

and ammunition, but know not how to attain them so easily I 
as by war and theft. They kill men and take their riiles; 1 
they steal horses and sell them at Detroit, or to British traders j 

for blankets and ammunition. ] 

"And can nothing arouse the government to avenge the na- » 

tion of these insults? Must the people of the Western coun- i 

try forever submit to these provocations? Will nothing but i 

vain treaties suffice, when repeated experiment shows us the | 

futility? Pray, Sir, turn your eyes to the blood-stained banks \ 

of the Tennessee; what is the voice of the blood of our late ■] 
worthy friend, Major Doughty, and those brave slaughtered j 

soldiers with him? Was he not going to the Indian country \ 

with the olive branch in his hand? From the Mississippi to j 

the Big Beaver not a village, not a neighborhood, but can \ 

point you the place where, and name you the person, and give ^ 

you the time when, one or many of its inhabitants fell victims I 

to savage barbarities. I 

"I will not attempt an enumeration of these murders for I 

they really are not to be counted up by an individual. This \ 

you may rely on, my good Sir, that whatever may be pretended | 

to the contrary, the Indians are generally hostile through all | 

the western nations ; they may pretend peace, but their safety 1 

dictates this, that they may war with impunity. 1 

"Chiefs of the Shawnees, Wyandots and Delawares have | 

been with me at various times in the preceding year. I always | 

endeavored to inculcate harmony and friendship with them and 1 

at no inconsiderable expence of property. They always prom- j 

ised fair, but how have they kept their promises!* In the j 

space of one year past they have killed nine men at Miami, \ 

made three prisoners, and stolen upwards of fifty horses from ! 

Witches in Neiv Jersey 293 

the settlers on the purchase. And if this is the treatment which 
they bestow on those with whom they avow to Hve in peace, 
what then must be their depredations against the district of 
Kentucky, inhabited by a people who, from the long and set- 
tled inveteracy borne against them by the Indians, are called 
the Big-Knife, against whom not a single Indian will hesitate 
to tell you that they wage eternal war? 

"I flatter myself that by this time you begin at leas*- to pause 
and to doubt whether it may not be true that the Indian tribes 
are hostile as nations. I left Miami on the 19th of last month; 
have been but twelve days from home, on a visit to my daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Short, and by the enclosed you will see that one of 
our citizens at Northbend has been killed by the Indians and 
that within sight of the houses and within the City limits, as 
I remember the place and very stump where the Indian lay. I 
learn that many settlers have fled to Louisville on this occasion, 
from Miami. 

"Give me leave, my dear Sir, to conclude by saying that noth- 
ing short of a formidable campaign carried into the heart of 
their country will ever give us peace. 

"I am with every sentiment of respect. 
"Your obedient servant, 

"Hon'ble Mr. Boudinot. Jno. C. Symmes." 

[Addressed to "The Hon'ble Elias Boudinot, Esquire, New 
York. By the care of Capt. Howell"]. 

(^* t,5* ^S^ ^* 



Whether in the mystic Orient, the jungles of Africa, re- 
ligious Europe, or primitive America, always and everywhere 
the witch and her craft essentially have been the same. The 
variations and modifications have been many, but back of it all 
are certain characteristic types of the black art which pos- 
sibly had their origin in Adam's experience with the notorious 
serpent whose witchery, or wizardry, upset the domestic status 
quo of the first domestic circle. After this dramatic appear- 
ance of Exhibit A in the evidence, history proceeded to record 
an unending list of others, all presumably related directly or 
collaterally to the distinguished A, but modified by geographical, 
racial, religious, intellectual, temperamental or literary condi- 

294 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

tions and circumstances. No doubt the makers of history have | 

made wrong judgments and mistakenly have accused good I 

folks of being witches, or have without good reason attributed I 

mysterious happenings to the black art; but the resultant | 

comedies or tragedies are now past revision, though not past j 

being a warning, and the subject is become a romantic re- } 

search rather than a scientific investigation. \ 

The compiler of the following unorganized medley of * 

sketches of witchcraft in New Jersey would preface them i 

with the statement that years ago they were mostly gathered | 

through conversation with older people and may claim orig- | 

inality. Though unscientifically considered they at least re- | 

veal what New Jersey witchcraft was, and what New Jersey \ 

people thought about it. The hunt for material revealed that \ 

usually the informants at first felt a reluctance to admit they | 

ever had been interested in witches, wizards or witch stories; | 

and as often prefaced the interview with the solemn assertion | 

that they did not believe in such things. Further conversa- I 

tion, invited by reassuring disavowals of any suspicions on ] 

the part of the visitor that they ever did hold such beliefs, | 

brought out many good old stories that probably had been \ 

taboo in the most intelligent families except around the inti- | 

mate fireplace, or were heard only among the "old boys" gath- < 

ered at the country store. Some of the best of the materials, | 

however, came from the best educated and most refined folks. | 

Their intelligent comment was of more value and accuracy than j 

the crude, garbled accounts of some others. 1 

The stories told show the popular view of witches, wizards I 

and illusions. They evidence certain characteristics going to ■ 

prove European influence as well as influences derived from 
American Indian sources. 

The witchcraft delusion in New Jersey was a sober convic- 
tion, a drama, often a comedy, but rarely a tragedy. There 
were no persecutions here as in New England. The people of 
Salem in their day killed their witches, but the dwellers behind 
the Palisades took them much less seriously. One Salem 
witchcraft delusion was quite enough for the New World, and 
our fathers who peopled these hills and valleys had the benefit 
of that tragic lesson without the cost of experience. 

Witches in New Jersey 295 

By very teinperament and mental equipment the Jerseyman 
was separated from fanaticism. In him the tense mentality 
of the extreme Puritan was somewhat relaxed in the British ele- 
ment and blissfully absent in the Dutch, without, we like to 
think, the loss of a single religious virtue. He loved his wife, 
his comfort, his pipe and his acres ; he loved his own strong 
throb of independence and the garden flowers gulping the sun- 
shine. Moreover, he loved a religion which could mother 
the whole circle. His belief in witchcraft did not drive him 
forth with the sword of extermination, nor cause him great 
unrest of soul. While they left his fields, his cattle and his 
household still unmolested, he waked and slept with a good 
conscience, indifferent to witches. But when his corn was 
blighted, his milk dried up, his butter checked or his family 
diseased, he disquieted himself and took proper measures to 
break the charm or "burn the witch." 

To a genuine Old Country witch-burner, the Xew Jersey way 
of doing business would have seemed insufferably tame, if not 
positively ridiculous ; for. while the Jerseymen had real lire and 
real witches, they were wanting in those very necessary acces- 
sories to a proper exhibition, the faggot and the groan. Here 
the fire never touched the witch, and, though that personage 
usually showed the scars therefrom, it is a question whether 
she ever felt actual pain. It was all done by proxy. Some- 
thing signifying untch was burned and the real culprit got the 
scars. Old women reputed to be witches and old men wiz- 
ards were frequently found when laid out to be horribly tat- 
tooed with burns and scorches inflicted through many past at- 
tempts to bring them to terms. It was believed that when some 
article belonging to these troublesome people was burned, the 
scorching resulting therefrom upon their bodies compelled them 
to suspend operations on their victims. 

A veracious man tells this story, related by his parents years 

A good housewife, not far from Somerville, after long 
churning without any result, concluded that her churn-beam 
was bewitched. Examination confirmed her opinion, for the 
butter had been checked completely. A brief search brought 

296 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

forth an old horseshoe, which she laid on the coals with the 

greatest secrecy. When it had become red-hot and there was i 

no one about to mark it, she dropped it sizzling into the milk. | 

That settled the witch business for her churn, but there is more 1 

to the story. A man living thereabouts, known to be a wiz- • 

ard, from that time forward carried on his face the scar of a i 

horseshoe. In her zeal to make it hot for a witch she had j 

burned a wizard. 1 

This simple anecdote alone proves to every unbiased mind j 

the gentle but effective character of witch-burning in New ■ 

Jersey. j 

A slight modification of the use of fire to cure witchery will j 

be remarked in the following narrative, vouched for by a i 

nephew of the leading figure : j 

When the dam was built at Greenwood Lake many acres of ] 

farm land were submerged. One of these farms was owned by | 

a prosperous farmer of Dutch descent. He was a firm believer I 

in witchcraft, and, when night came down on old Long Pond, j 

many a hushed tale was heard at his fireside. He often related ' 

a misfortune he had suffered through the black art. He had 
at one time possessed a very fine cow, to which he attached 
(which was unusual for him) a sentimental value. This flower 
of the herd one day hung her head, lost the lustre of her eyes, 
staggered somewhat, and finally lay down. Happily she re- 
tained her cud, and that inspired hope. An animal that had 
enjoyed the good care of this one, could, in her fond owner's 
mind, have no ordinary distemper. It was witchcraft. Some- 
body had "witched" her ; no other explanation would go. Re- 
sources were not wanting in those days, and Uncle Abram set 
in motion a sure course of treatment. With some misgivings 
and no little commiseration he had a small piece of his pet's 
ear cut off and carried to the kitchen. Laid on the ashes it 
sent upward an incense, which hung about the dooryard for a 
while and then dispersed to the four winds. Leaving with his 
good wife the most positive injunction that she was to feed no 
one at her door that day, he went about his many concerns. In 
his absence, long enough after these orders for his wife to get 
settled down to her usual work and state of mind, two inno- 

Witches in Nezv Jersey 297 

cent-appearing women knocked at the door and requested a 
little rest and refreshment, which was not remarkable in those 
hospitable days. Of course they should not go away hungry. 
The pantry was taxed, a short chat was soon over, and the 
good old ladies passed down the road. 

When Uncle Abram ate his supper that evening he learned 
incidently of this visit, and with some feeling at once declared 
them witches, prophesying gloomily the doom of his heifer. 
Silence fell upon the household, and during the night the witch- 
plagued animal stiflfened out dead. As he explained it so often 
in happier days, the feeding of these two women, who were 
witches, neutralized his efforts. They had smelled the witch 
smoke from a distance and had been drawn to the house. Had 
they been sent away hungry, their spell, according to his firm 
belief, would have been broken ; the cow would have lived. 

We submit again to the fair-minded antiquarian our opinion 
that such a narrative as the preceding one leaves no doubt as 
to the orthodoxy of our local fathers on the witch question. It 
is true their zeal lacked in realistic detail, but we can fall back 
on a good old text that suggests mercy to be better than burn- 
ings. Thus we have presented some explanation to the seem- 
ingly absurd statement, that in New Jersey they burned witches 
without faggots. 

In gathering material for a "Witch Lore of New Jersey," 
the collator of these stories could not but remark the oft- 
times vague notions betrayed by his clientage on the personality 
of witches. Many had never beheld a witch, nor had tlieir an- 
cestors left them any description sufficiently precise to discover 
one. They had, perhaps, a general notion of some old woman 
who lived in some indefinite locality, or of some eccentric itin- 
erant who passed for a wizard, but beyond this they knew lit- 
tle. The witch was better known through her arts than her 
person. For the benefit of the curious we shall suggest some 
of the characteristics which, as avouched by intelligent men and 
women still among us, go to make up a real witch. Afterward 
we shall more briefly describe a wizard. 

There is really nothing original in the New Jersey witch, 
nor have we ever heard of a Jerseyman to claim her to be better 

298 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

or worse than her sisterhood of other times and lands. She 
might live under a hill, in the heart of the woods, or even in 
some farm tenement on a back road. Usually she dwelt at a 
distance, which always lends mystery as well as enchantment. 
The witch that lived near by served the needs of the next vil- 
lage. Occasionally, however, one did live near folks, but her 
reputation for magic was apt to fall into contempt through fa- 
miliarity, though her scoldings and peculiarities were ungrudg- 
ingly acknowledged. Her proportions were spare and angular, 
her nose running rather to the Roman mould, and from a profile 
view it was usually a little forward of her bonnet. Her loco- 
motion might be conveniently characterized as hobbling by day 
and gliding by night. Her chief, not to say inevitable, occupa- 
tion in public was spinning, and, though her industry was seem- 
ingly enormous, the disposal of the product was unknown. She 
inclined to a very black tobacco pipe, and kept a black cat at her 
feet; and the sight of her sitting at dusk before her hovel door 
was true to the oldest description. It was this style of witch, 
modified in details by different minds and in different locali- 
ties, which dwelt in our hamlets and lived in the imagination of 
our fathers. She drank many a cup of good tea poured to re- 
tain' her favor by credulous housewives. She received many a 
candle and many a loaf, and found shelter in many a chimney 
corner through the dread of her wrath. 

That the foregoing statem.ents may not seem merely random, 
and that the scientific character of the collator's researches 
may be vindicated, if need be, we venture to relate briefly this 
true anecdote: 

There was an old pipe-smoking witch at Belvidere who lived 
to the advanced age of ninety-three years. She one time re- 
quested that a little baby boy belonging to a respectable family 
in that place be allowed to sleep with her. The parents most 
positively refused this request, not perhaps without some fore- 
bodings. The angered beldame declared with froth that she 
"would put a gloom on that house" and departed. The baby, 
then but seven weeks old, began to fail and continued sickly 
till it was a year old, seemingly near to death. A good neigh- 
bor who was keen in such matters advised the woman to con- 

Witches in New Jersey 299 

ciliate the witch by inviting her to her house, to drink a cup of 
tea. The anxious mother gave the invitation, poured the bev- 
erage, and as she drank besought her to release her child. 
After the supper the witch took the child, undressed it and blew 
in its face. Then she went home. From that day the child 
began to mend and grew to be quite hearty. He died, however, 
at the age of seven years. 

The part played by the cup of tea will be noted by the care- 
ful reader, and the simple faith of the characters of the story is 
indicative of the common belief in witchcraft in the days gone 
by. Only those who have no historic consciousness will scoff 
or commiserate a homely scene like this, for here, at least, was 
a real suffering child and an anxious mother. Besides, our 
fathers and mothers had not gotten much beyond John Wes- 
ley, who said in the year 1768: "The giving up of witchcraft 
[the belief in] is, in effect, giving up the Bible." And they 
dragged faggots in Alexico as late as 1873. 

Character, however estimable, may have its limitations. The 
limit to patience of the oldtime New Jersey housewife was 
often strained on churning days. In those back years, with a 
woman at the beam, butter-making under normal conditions 
•was not considered hard, but when, as was firmly believed, a 
witch got into a churn, stopping the butter sometimes for hours, 
then it was labor indeed. Whenever this misfortune entered a 
household, composure fled, and the harassed housewife, with 
a score of duties dragging behind, pounded and tugged and 
fretted like any other mortal. Why a witch should plague 
womankind no man can say, but her preference for churns is 
■not strange. The churn was at the centre of the domestic 
economy, and a blow there sent ripples throughout the circle. 
And other reasons there were, more covetous than mischievous, 
■which will appear later. 

With some it was the churn-beam, while other localities had 
it that the churn itself as a whole was bewitched, the effect be- 
ing the same. The methods for disenchantment also differed 
and are of interest to the close student of folk customs. 

A redhot horseshoe was the chief and most popular remedy. 
The manner of its use seems to have differed in localities. 

300 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Usually it was heated in the fireplace or stove, and dropped into 
the churn, making the milk sputter and boil. This, as the be- 
lief had it, "burned out the witch," and allowed the butter to 
come. Sometimes it was stated rather facetiously that the 
witch sat down upon the horseshoe and suffered in consequence, 
but such wit must be a later addition made at a time when the 
black art was less respected. The idea that the use of the 
horseshoe must be secret prevailed in some regions. The whole 
attempt at disenchantment must be under cover, for in the I 

event of anyone's seeing it, the cure would fail. Probably it 
was not expected that this act could be hidden from the witch, 
for if she could get into a churn without being seen, certainly 
she ought to be able to spy a thing or two about the house. It i 

is reasonable to suppose that this condition of secrecy, like the \ 

wit, is a later growth, developing when the skeptical smirk of \ 

a neighbor was dreaded by the faithful. In earlier times there i 

could have been no need of hiding from each other such im- \ 

portant measures, especially when everybody would expect | 

them to be used. | 

Two fair questions might be asked at this stage : Was the | 

treatment described actually used, and did it cure when so I 

applied ? Both could be answered generally by saying that for J 

the hundreds of people who imagined their churns "witched," \ 

perhaps not two would go so far as to make such trouble, and \ 

the number that would take witchery into practical considera- 
tion was, of course, limited. 

Here is a story from the lips of an elderly but erect and 
vigorous former resident of Somerset county. He and his 
wife churned one day till noon without any result, and, almost 
discouraged, decided with more or less faith to try the hot 
horseshoe to drive out the witch, if, indeed, one were charming 
the churn. He had bought but recently a number of machine- 
made shoes, which had never been fitted to any hoof, and were 
perfectly clean. One of these was made red-hot and dropped 
into the stubborn fluid. Immediately there was a commotion 
of sputtering and sizzling so violent that the milk welled up out 
of the churn, and caused them to clap the top on at once to save 
it. This agitation seemed mysterious, and partly confirmed 

Witches in New Jersey 301 

their suspicion of witchery. They then began to churn and the 
butter was there in twenty minutes, and was apparently of ex- 
cellent quality. But they were distrustful of it and could not 
get themselves to use it. They tasted it slightly; declared it 
good ; but it went to the wagon-house for the base use of greas- 
ing axles. In explaining why they did not eat the butter, the 
narrator first reaffirmed the cleanness of the iron used, and 
reiterated that the butter was most sweet to the taste, and then 
said : "We thought it best to be on the safe side." 

If the assertion, that in the age when they make machine 
horseshoes men still believe in magic, is scouted, we can only 
retort, "They didn't eat the butter," and leave the reason to 
other minds. 

The heating of the milk, of course, would tend to accelerate 
the butter, for hot water is sometimes used with the same good 
result. But there was a time years ago when such a material- 
istic explanation would have been scouted. 

Another usage was this : To burn the impression of the shoe 
on the bottom of the churn when empty, leaving thus a per- 
manent counter-spell against all magic visitants. A gentleman 
of Newark remembers well this efficacious antidote in his 
grandfather's churn in Morris county. Around West Milford 
they used another instrument of cure. They drove out the 
witch by beating the churn with a hickory stick. A method so 
convenient and simple was presumably less effective, for we 
hear little about it. It was incidental to the more general way. 

It is a strange fact, but a true one, that a gentleman who 
was brought up in a certain valley where the tradition of the 
horseshoe was certainly known and repeated, said that he had 
never heard of its use, but had heard of putting a knife under 
the churn to drive out the disturber ; it being supposed the witch 
did not like steel. This practice must have been strictly local, 
if not confined to a family or two. 

Off on Somerville Mountain there once lived an eccentric 
negro character, who got the unenviable reputation of being a 
witch. Events seemed to prove the justice of the common 
opinion, for her visits to the neighboring farmhouses were 
attended with ill-luck. She chose churning days and made it a 

302 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

habit to assist in the work if allowed to do so. A resident of 
the neighborhood has vouched for the fact, however explain- | 
able, that when this woman touched her churn-beam the but- ] 

ter was always retarded, if not stopped altogether. When it j 

was given up, in despair, the witch solicited and got the butter- i 

milk, which, as was learned, she afterward churned out sue- \ 

cessfully at home. Here we have the covetous type of witch, j 
using her arts for mercenary ends. Better the broomstick I 

rider, or the out-and-out Salemshocker than this commercial j 

half-sister. This same character once requested the good wo- \ 

man, whose milk she plagued, to give her a little glass vase, ; 

much prized, that stood on the mantel. The request was re- \ 

fused ; consequently a day or two later the vase was found to | 

be cracked, no one in the house having disturbed it. I 

We leave the churns at this place, with the conviction grow- = 

ing stronger with accumulating evidence, that should witches j 

ever be called to account for their misdeeds, not the least of | 

their deserts will fall upon them for their meanness in keep- I 

ing back New Jersey butter. \ 

The witch of this State, like her sisterhood everywhere, took \ 

a cruel delight in harassing, and sometimes killing domestic ani- -; 

mals. The farmer's cherished stock was at her mercy, and | 

many a disaster came from her interference. Near IMendham a \ 

covetous witch, who had been refused a little pig, plagued it till \ 

it could not stand on its feet. Then she got it, carried it home I 

and raised it to a fat porker. | 

Up in the northern part of the State a favorite pastime with | 

this mischievous folk was target practice with cow's hair-ball. i 

Cattle would die suddenly, mysteriously, and when cut open | 

would reveal the presence of a bunch or ball of hair in their I 

stomachs. These were supposed to be shot into them by j 

witches. I 

When a farmer found in the morning his horses fagged out, I 

with mane and tail knotted and in disorder, he would some- 1 

times say that witches had ridden them overnight. That he 1 

never suspected his boys, who may have had sweethearts the I 

other side of the mountains, is more a tribute to his orthodoxy ' 

on the witch question than an evidence of a mistrustful spirit. 

Witches in New Jersey 303 

One more brief anecdote will suffice to illustrate the belief, 
a hundred years ago, in animal possession. 

One day, probably at evening, when the sun had gone down 
behind old Bear fort Mountain, and the light was dying out and 
leaving Long Pond gray and mysterious, a farmer was in the 
"swamp" loading rails on his heavy wagon. He believed in 
witchcraft, and the subject was a practical, not a literary, con- 
cern. Doubtless to his mind the writer of stories would be put 
down as a little daft, while the believers in magic would be 
considered sensible citizens. The load was on, the horses 
ready, the word given, but there was no start. The team stood 
stockstill. All urging, mild and otherwise, failed to move 
them, until finally their sage driver grasped the logic of the 
situation — the team was bewitched. Disenchantment was then 
begun. Loosing his whiffletrees, he drove the horses forward 
a few steps, till their tails were at the end of the wagon-pole, to 
which, using his halter strap, he lashed the whiffletrees. This 
course was intended to break the charm, and immediately suc- 
cess rewarded his clever ruse. The load started, and, presum- 
ably, when the charmed boundary was passed, he put things 
back into normal shape, otherwise disasters would have followed 
when some hill was descended. This story was often repeated, 
and we can scarcely doubt that in the telling there was self- 
pride commensurate with the successful exploit. 

Thus far we have kept near to facts, dipping but sparingly 
into the region of legend and imagination. Back in the times 
that have left no evidence or living witnesses, or even tradi- 
tion, there were doubtless greater credulity and more exciting 
adventures. We have presented evidential situations, leaving 
the explanation of apparent causes and effects to the critic and 
the philosopher. It has been the aim of the collator to find the 
data and tell the story. The Jerseymen certainly believed years 
ago, if not perhaps in a subtle sense to-day, in witchcraft. 

One classic legend will be enough to show that there were 
stories told of the magic art which lacked basis in fact, and 
confirmation in experience. Such were witch-stories pure and 
simple, made up from the whole cloth. 

There was a young man living toward the central part of the 

304 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 


State who was possessed by a witch. He was known to al- \ 

tend, of course by magic compulsion, many dances at the dead "^ 

of night. In the wildish aerial frolic his familiar witch was I 

always his partner. He attempted at times to seize her and I 

force her to release him, but always failed. He was advised by 1 

a wiser head to carry a halter to the next meeting and at the 1 

first opportunity bridle his tormentor. He carried the halter 5 

and, when the occasion was ripe, he harnessed her, but, to bis I 

amazement, she was transformed, probably to hide her identity, "j 

into a horse. He led her home, and the next mornins^, to 1 

' to' j 

further materialize his acquisition, he drove her to the black- \ 

smith shop for shoeing. Then, wonderful to relate, another \ 

transformation ensued, possibly at the magic touch of the red- | 

hot horseshoe, and the blacksmith's wife stood before them, a I 

circumstantially confessed witch. We need not dilate on this j 

evident fabrication. It is too smooth and symmetrical to be an | 

historical event. I 

We have said enough, we trust, to bring the witch before the \ 

interested as a real person that lived, ate and drank. We must i 

not pass by the wizard. In defining him, a he-witch, we state | 

his nature and place exactly, for he did but imitate, in his \ 

bungling way, the finer technique of the witch. He was some- j 

times called a wizard doctor, and in that character eftected the I 

cure of warts, wens and what-not through strange and out- 1 

landish treatments. He was a combination herb doctor, faith \ 

curist and scientist healer in one, this wizard ; and every ec- i 

centricity he could take on was pressed into active service. He i 

was less a mystery than the witch, and played a minor part on « 

the stage of magic. He was a traveller, and we miss in him | 

those picturesque and local touches which made the witch in- 1 

teresting. Plis antics over a patient were sometimes v.-orthy a I 

dancing dervish. He effected cures, however, and had the I 

respect, if not the esteem, of his contemporaries. WHien he | 

made trouble with his sorceries, he was burned as conscienti- I 

ously as was the witch, but, being unable to stand as much j 

scorching, he played less pranks. j 

These simple stories of old-time beliefs are inseparable from j 

any true study of human character in all ages. The people j 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 305 

who told them were generally honest and faithful, and con- 
science and the duties of life suffered no whit by their harm- 
less imaginings. To some the preservation of folk-lore may 
seem profitless, but others will say that humanity is one, re- 
gardless of age or place, and that whatever has affected, moved 
or interested mankind is worth knowing, and should not be 
indifferent to this age which has problems as momentous as had 
the past. 

t^f c?* ^* i^w 


[Continued from Page 216] 

We continue extracts from this Journal for the years 1804 
and 1805, using, however, only such as give names of persons 
or events which may be of interest in one way or another to 
some of our readers. Besides showing the slowness of meth- 
ods of travel in those days, the enjoyments of life in the Win- 
ter season and the methods of elections, there are quaint and 
amusing reflections, and also good lessons of thrift. It is again 
to be called to mind that the writer was only twenty-five, and 
already a successful merchant and great traveller. 

"1804, Jan. 2. — Major Anderson and I went to Col. Con- 
over's. At 3 Mr. Halstead, the Major and I started for Frank- 
ford; arrived there at sunset; went to Deckertowu and, at 9 
P. M., met at Mr. Hull's, where we had an elegant ball. 

"15. — This day Jacob S. Thomson, Esq., Brother Johnny and 
I started for Milford, for the purpose of going to Brother Sam- 
my's wedding, which is to take place to-morrow evening. Got 
to Mr. De Puy's at 2 P. M. Arrived at Milford at 6 P. M. 
Walked up to Col. Brodhead's and spent the evening. 

"16. — After taking a sleigh ride with the ladies we all re- 
paired to the house, where the bride lived, to wit, John Brod- 
head, Esq., her brother-in-law, and at 7 o'clock P. M. the Rev. 
William Grandin tied that connubial and eternal knot which 
nothing but death can remove. 

"17. — In the evening we all repaired to General Seely's, 


3o6 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 


where the whole of the ladies and gents in town assembled. At i 

9 an elegant ball was opened in due form. I 

"26. — In the evening the gentlemen and ladies of Newton I 

gave an elegant ball at Dr. Joseph I. Hendries. | 

"2-;. — Messrs. Brodhead and Johnson started for Milford. | 

In the evening Mr. Thomson, Mr. Stoll and myself by invita- \ 

tion went to Deckertown and there joined a party from Goshen, I 

Frankford, etc. ; had another ball. | 

"29. — At 4 P. M. Mr. Edw. Sharp and I started for Harris- j 

burg; stayed all night at Marksborough. | 

"30. — Started on, arrived at Changewater at 2 P. M. \ 

"31. — Mr. Robert C. Thomas and I rode to Oxford Furnace; | 

shot some fine partridges and returned. Found j\lr. Shaver 1 

and Dr. Hughes at Changewater in the evening with their I 

wives, as also Miss Nancy Hughes and Miss Hetty Johnson. | 

At 6 P. M. we all started for Major Roberdeau's. Mr. John- \ 

son. Miss Nancy, Miss Hetty, and Miss Susan V. Woodruff '3 

(who had come to Changewater a few days since from Tren- \ 

ton) and myself got into one sleigh and the residue in two j 

more. ' 

"Feb. I. — Mr. and Mrs. Thomson, Miss Susan Woodruff 
and myself rode over in the sleigh. In the afternoon Mrs. 
Roberdeau, accompanied by Major Roberdeau with the Ger- 
man flute, etc., played on the piano forte. 

"5- — Rode up with Doctor Fowler, IMiss Eliza Anderson and 
Miss Nancy Thomson to Franklin and to Hamburg with the 

"6. — In the forenoon Jacob S. Thomson, the ladies and my- 
self went to Hamburg, spent the day at Mr. Lawrence's and 
Ryerson's and returned to Newton. Had the pleasure of seeing 
Miss Susan Bray at Doctor Hendries; a charming, beautiful 

"7. — After breakfast took IMiss Eliza Anderson to Change- 
water in the sleigh. 

"Mar. II. — Started for Minisink for the purpose of rent- 
ing the brick house stand, in order to move to that place, as 
there appears to be a grand vacancy for business. Stayed all 
night at Baldwin's. 

A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 307 

"12. — Rode up to Roger Clark's. Saw Austin & Granger; 
made proposals to buy them out; their good will amounts to 
about $1,500. 

"13. — This day rented of Jonathan Dexter, Esq., the whole 
property at White Brook, brick house, store, etc. 

"14. — Bought out Austin & Granger at prime cost. 

"Nov. 2'/. — Court opened at twelve o'clock ; got Jo. Mullinor 
indicted for breaking gaol. Shall now have him tried on the 
two indictments of breaking our store and the breaking of 

"28. — Had Jo. Mullinor brought to the Bar and charged on 
the first indictment ; plea not guilty. Judge Kirkpatrick as- 
signed tomorrow at 10 o'clock for his trial. I feed Aaron 
Ogden, Esq., and Isaac Williamson, Esq. 

"29. — At 10 o'clock came on the trial of Jo. Mullinor, and, 
after hearing the evidence and the pleadings of the four at- 
torneys employed in the cause, at 3 P. M. the jury retired to 
make up their verdict and, after a few minutes, they returned 
and brought in the prisoner "guilty." 

"30. — At 10 o'clock according to appointment, the prisoner 
was brought to the Bar to receive his sentence. To the second 
indictment he pleaded guilty. The Court then sentenced him 
to three years solitary imprisonment at hard labor in the State 
Prison. The sentence is too mild. Never was there a greater 
villain under heavens, that has escaped the gallows than this 
same Jo. Mullinor. He ought to continue in the State Prison 
the full extent of the law. 

"Dec. 24. — This morning started for Philadelphia. Went 
in the sleigh in company with Brother Sammy, Sister Rebecca 
and Mrs. StoU to Newton. 

"26. — At 5 A. M. set out in the stage. Breakfasted at John- 
sonburg; dined at Belvidere; arrived at Easton at 6 P. M. 

"27. — At 5 A. M. set out in the Philadelphia j\Iail stage. Pas- 
sengers : Mrs. Shields, Samuel Longcope and two other gen- 
tlemen. Breakfasted at Davidson's. Dined at Doylestown ; 
arrived at Philadelphia at ^ past 6 P. M. Repaired to Mrs. 
Hay's Inn, No. 124, Fourth St., and took lodgings. 

"28. — Rode up to Blocley above Schoolkill, to Wm. Hamil- 

3o8 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

ton's, Esq,, and returned. Was introduced to General [Fred- 
erick] Muhlenberg. 

"29. — Went to business with the greatest despatch. This 
evening was highly entertained at the new theatre. Saw Mr. 
Cooper perform 'Hamlet' in the celebrated tragedy of that 
name; his first appearance since he arrived from Europe. 

"30. — Purchased at auction and elsewhere an elegant assort- 
ment of goods. Called on Col. Bond respecting his lands in 
Wayne county ; also on E. Tillman, Esq. This day went up to 
Mr. Hamilton's again. In the evening went to the theatre; 
saw the 'Wheel of Fortune' performed. Cooper played Pin- 
ruddock to admiration. 

"Jan. 2, 1805. — At 5 A. M. set out for home. Passengers an 
elderly, queer lady, Mr. Longcope and myself. Breakfasted 
at McCalea's ; dined at Mrs. Backhouse's ; arrived at Easton 
at 7 P. M. Repaired to Mr. Bullman's in the evening at Phil- 

"3. — At 6 A. M. set out in the Goshen Mill stage for Newton. 
Breakfasted at Belvidere; dined at Johnsonburg; arrived at 
Newton at 3^ past 6 P. M. 

"5. — Started from my father's at 8 A. M., on horseback. 
Dined at Packaquarry and arrived at Brother Sammy's in 
Middle Smithfield at 5 P. M. 

"6.— Started for Minisink at 10 A. M. Dined at Mr. Ridg- 
way's and arrived at Montague at 4 P. M. 

"14. — Mr. John Van Deren from New Brunswick came up; 
took him in my sleigh to Frankford; went on to Lodge at 

"May 2. — At 4 P. M. set out for New York; got as far as 

"3. — Took the Goshen stage at Newton ; arrived at Goshen 
at 6 P. M. 

"4. — This morning took a seat in the New York & Albany 
line and arrived at Hoboken at 7 P. M. 

"5. — This morning crossed the Hudson River and arrived in 
New York at 8 A. M. Took lodgings at Tuttle's Hotel in Nas- 
sau St. 

"8. — This day employed making settlements with old mer- 
chants of whom we bought our goods. 

A Young Man's Journal of iSoo-iSis 309 

"9. — This day I paid every one of them off to the uttermost 
farthing, so that I can say, perhaps, what very few can, that I 
do not owe to my knowledge a cent in the world. This being 
out of debt is a comfortable thing. 

"17. — Walked out on the Battery this evening with a party 
of ladies and gentlemen. Spent the evening in Columbia Gar- 

"21. — Mr. John and I went in a gig to Harlem Races; very 
fine sport. Three horses run — Bond's 'Financier,' Mathew's 
'Pine' mare, and Terhune's bay colt. The former won the 

"24. — At 8 A. M. left New York and took passage in a 
sloop for New Brunswick; arrived there at 5 P. M. Took 
lodgings at Voorhis's in Albany street. Drank tea at Mr. Van 

"26. — Heard Mr. Ira Condit preach an elegant sermon in the 
morning, and in the afternoon Mr. Grant preached in the Brick. 
Went to Mr. John Bray's and spent the evening. At 11 o'clock 
P. M. set out for Elizabethtown in the mail stage ; arrived at 
Elizabethtown at 3 A. M. Melancholy ride. 

"2y. — Hired a horse and chair and went to jMorristown. 

"28. — Hired another horse and chair and arrived at Newton 
at 12 o'clock. Court at Newton commences to-day. Thomas 
Anderson, Esq., is dangerously ill and his life despaired of. 

"29. — This evening, at 6 o'clock, Thomas Anderson, Esq., 
1 closed his well spent life and resigned his soul to the mansions 

( of bliss. In Mr. Anderson were united all the virtues which 

I constitutes the venerable patriot, the able statesman, the sound 

I jurisprudent, the kind parent, the endearing husband, the hos- 

pitable friend and the best of neighbors. He fell in the 62d 
year of his age, with a billions fever, which he bore with Chris- 
tian fortitude (of which persuasion he was a sincere and faith- 
ful follower), and breathed his last in the full enjoyment of 
his faculties and senses without a groan or struggle. i\Ir. An- 
derson was the oldest practising attorney and counsellor in the 
State of New Jersey; has resided in Newton upwards of 40 
years, during which time he has constantly held a number of 
offices, all of which he discharged with uncommon zeal and 

3IO Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

fidelity, without a murmur. He has left a very amiable widow, 
a daughter and two sons, the eldest of whom, Wm. T. Ander- 
son, Esq., I have the honor of being intimate with, and I here \ 
declare there is not a gentleman in the world I more esteem. j 
This night sat up at Mr. Anderson's. \ 

"30. — As Mr. Anderson was the founder of Masonry 17 j 
years since in Newton, the Harmony Lodge of the place, of \ 
which he died Worshipful Master, thought proper to offer to » 
the friends of the deceased their wishes of burying him with j 

the honor of Masonry. I was one of the committee who waited i 

on the friends ; they very politely acquiesced. I 

"July 23. — I forgot to mention that each week a party from 1 

Frankford, consisting of Misses IMary Haggerty, Susan Sayre, \ 

Peggy Armstrong, Ann Bunce and ]\Ir. John Granger, likewise 1 

Mrs. Hopkins, Miss Rebecca Hopkins and Mr. Hector Hop- 1 

kins, from Goshen, together with Mr. and Mrs. Barton and • 

Mrs. Stoll from Milford, etc., paid us a visit, and, on Tuesday \ 

evening last, we had at Mr. Hull's a very elegant ball. | 

"Aug. 21. — Started for Newton Court. Dined at Vantile | 

Coursen's. Arrived at Newton at 5 P. M. 1 

"23. — Finished my business in Court and rode up to my j 

father's in the afternoon. Had a little concert last night at | 

Doctor Hendries'. Mr. Christy. ]Mr. Anderson. Mr. Dicker- 
son, Mr. Thomson and myself on the flutes and violiub. 

"24. — This morning started for home via Mr. Armstrong's, 
Mr. Haggerty's and Mr. Coursen's. Got home at 3 P. M. 

"2y. — This evening I rode up to Capt. Van Auken's, where 
I was introduced to Mrs. Samuel Hull. 

"Sept. 2. — Rode to Newton, being nomination day. Asses- 
sors also met. 

"12. — Rode to Simon Cortright's; helped him make out his 
duplicate of the assessment of tax of Sandiston. 

"15. — Doctor Hunt came from Newton and informed me 
my father was very dangerously ill. 

"Oct. I. — Electioneering, I shall take up John Linn for Coun- 
cil, Levi Howell, Joseph Sharp, Wm. Kennedy and Wm. Arm- 
strong for Assembly, Charles Pemberton for Sheriff, and Sam- 
uel Hull, Peter Klim and John Lock for Coroners. 


A Young Man's Journal of 1800-1813 311 

"7. — Went electioneering to three trainings down the river. 
To-morrow election commences. I believe I shall attend Sand- 
iston poll to-morrow. 

"8. — Election. In the morning rode down to Sandiston. At- 
tended all day, took in 61 votes ; every one my ticket. 

"9. — Election closes to-day. I shall attend our own election 
in Montague to-day. Rode up to the poll at Mr. Wickham's. 
Took in this day 71 votes, and only one against my ticket. 

"10. — In Montague and Sandiston ; took in 216 votes and out 
of the whole lost but 25. 

"11. — This day rode to Newton. To-morrow the votes of 
the whole county is to be canvassed at that place. 

"i2.- — On the result of the election I have carried my whole 
ticket exactly, except John Linn for Council; lost him about 
40 votes ; George Bidleman got in by lies and intrigues. 

"13. — Stayed at Brother Johnny's. He will go next week 
to Trenton, as he is a candidate for the Clerk's office, for 
which reason he declined running as a candidate for the Legis- 
lature, as he thought it improper. A man should have the least 
I appearance of being the means of putting himself into office. 
I The members of the Legislature, in Joint Meeting, vote in the 
I Clerk. Jacob S. Thomson and Daniel Stuart, Esq., are the 

\ other candidates. 

"14. — Brother Johnny and I rode up to John Linn's, Esq., 
and returned in the evening; rehearsed the 'Busy Body,' and 
I had, at a tea party at Judge Holmes', a very elegant little 
i dance. 

f "16. — I have concluded that, as money is scarce, and those 

who- owe me are not able to pay on that account, without great 
sacrifice, I will purchase up a drove of cattle. I can get 
about 100 head for debts which will oblige them, and I can 
turn them into money. 

"18. — Rode out at Milford and bought cattle. 
"22. — At 7 A. M. started to purchase me a horse of Mr. 
Gideon Wickham. Bought a gray horse of him; paid him 
$100 in cash. Rode to Deckertown. 

"29. — This day collected my cattle to the number of about 
100 and started on. Got as far as Joseph Hornbeck's and 
stayed all night. 


312 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

"29. — Started on early. Cattle drove very wild. At dark 
got to Hope and put up. In my journey this day I called at \ 
Col. Abraham Shaver's, where I heard the pleasing news (jf I 
Brother Johnny's having been appointed Clerk of the County ; 
of Sussex, he having 34 votes and Jacob S. Thomson 7 in | 
Joint Meeting. \ 

"31. — Crossed the Muskenekunk and got to Robinson's, near | 
Pittstown, in Hunterdon. 

"Nov. I. — Dined at Ringoes old tavern, after which I ordered 
my drivers to go as far as Pennington with the cattle and stay 
all night. I rode on and got to Trenton at dusk. 

"2. — Rode up and met my drove. Went on through Tren- 
ton; got as far as Friend Lowery's, a very rich Quaker, who 
solicited me to stay all night with him. Found him much of a 
gentleman and accepted his offer. Sold him some cattle. 

"3. — Put our cattle in a good field of pasture at Cross- I 
v/icks, three miles from Mr. Lowery's. \ 

"4- — This morning sold a considerable number of cattle. \ 
Went on. Stopped at Recklestown and sold more cattle. Went ? 
on to Col. Black's and stayed all night. Col. Black is an old \ 
Revolutionary officer, a good Federalist and much of a gen- \ 
tleman. He has been County Collector of the county (Burl- \ 
ington) twenty-one years. Is very rich and has a handsome | 
daughter whose name is Mary. 1 

"5- — Breakfasted and dined with Col. Black. Afternoon j 
rode round the country. Stayed all night at Jobstown. Sold ! 
more cattle today. j 

"6. — Rode up to Col. Black's and concluded to proceed on ! 
to Gloucester. Got as far as Slabtown ; stayed with Mr. i 
John Child's, a Quaker. Sold more cattle. 

"7- — After breakfast started. Called at Mount Holly, the 
county town of Burlington. Viewed the Courthouse in com- 
pany with Col. Black. It is elegant ; cost $30,000. Got to the 
'Green Tree' and stayed all night. 

"8. — Sold more cattle. Find that in consequence of the ex- 
treme drought they have had in this country the graziers are 
extremely loth to purchase cattle, as fodder is scarce. Very 
few will purchase and those who will do not want many head. 
Went to Haddonfield and stayed all night. 

A Young Man's Journal of i8 00-18 is 313 

"9. — Started on. Left my drove at Mr. Hugg's, on Timber 
Creek, and rode to Woodbury, the county town of Gloucester, 
nine miles below Philadelphia. 

"10. — The people in Burlington and Gloucester are princi- 
pally Quakers ; a very good sort of people. I like most of their 
principles and habits much, and I think their society is a good 
one. I this day went to Quaker Meeting in Woodbury. Had 
two sermons. 

"11. — This morning rode up to Mr. David Henry's; took 
him up to see my cattle ; sold him the whole I had on hand 
at 30 days' credit. Returned to Woodbury and started for 
Philadelphia. Arrived at Philadelphia at 7 o'clock P. M. and 
went up to John Hay's, 4th St. Dismissed my drivers. 

"13. — Rode up to see School Kill [Schuylkill] bridge. This 
is the most superb and elegant piece of architecture I ever 
beheld. It is really a picture. It cost $275,000. The western 
pier is 41 feet, 9 inches under the surface of the water. The 
eastern pier better than 20 feet; it is all covered and en- 
closed as tight as a house ; painted elegantly. The 2d of this 
instant w'hen at Trenton, General Shin, Judge Lee, Doctor 
Thomson, i\Ir. Sharp and myself went to see the Trenton 
I Delaware bridge; it is also very superb and is 1,100 feet 
> span, built on a new construction ; has 5 piers ; the walk or 
I passage is hung from the arch with iron chains. At Morris- 
' ville we saw General Moreau, the celebrated French exile. He 
} is very plain in his dress and manners. 

I "14. — Started at 6 o'clock A. M.; rode on to Dunck's ferry. 

I Breakfasted ; crossed the Delaware ; passed through Burling- 
ton;, stopped at Mr. Child's and dined. Rode on to Cross- 
wick and proceeded on. Got to Trenton at 9 o'clock P. !M. 

"15. — The Legislature still sitting. Went to the State 
House, and was much surprised to see such a shabby set of fel- 
lows to represent the most of the counties of this State. This 
day the Assembly adjourned till first Tuesday in February next. 
[Evidently a lapse here]. 

"25. — After breakfast bid a reluctant farewell and started 
on. Dined at Hackettstown. Arrived at Newton at 7 P. M. 
Went to Brother Johnny's and stayed all night. Had the 

314 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 


pleasure of congratulating him on his appointment of Clerk \ 

of Sussex. He informed me that Brother Sammy was ap- \ 

pointed Treasurer of the county of Wayne. | 

I think my two brothers are tolerably well provided for ; -? 

their salary is one thousand dollars a year, which in these days ! 

is not to be sneezed at; so much for Democracy. But, hang I 

my skin if I would not rather be a Federalist and die in a ditch"^ ] 

than have all the brown loaves and boney fishes in New Jer- I 
sey on condition I must be a Democrat to obtain them. 
[To he Continued] 

^5 %5* t^ (^ 


The large number of books, pamphlets, etc., received by the 
New Jersey Historical Society each month are usually noticed 
by titles and donors once a year. Special ones sent in by pub- 
lishers are only noted when so requested, unless of peculiar 
interest to New Jersey. Among such lately received are the I 

following : 

George Washington and the University of Pennsylvania 

By Horace Mather Lippincott. Philadelphia: Generai 

Alumni Society, 191 6. | 

The opening sentence reads : "Upon a wall in the Library of 1 

the University of Pennsylvania there hangs a photograph of a \ 

diploma given to George Washington when he was made a Doc- | 

tor of Laws. For some strange reason nothing has ever been I 

written about this important event, or of Washington's connec- 1 

tion with the University." Then follows the account, of much \ 

interest, as the Commencement at which the degree was given I 

was a notable one, and after it excellent sketches of Uni- | 

versity men who served as officers, etc., in the Revolution, | 

with many photo-engraved likenesses of these men. A book I 

worth while making. \ 

Rev. Hannibal Goodwin, Inventor of the Moving Picture 

Film. N. Y.: I. M. Dowbey, 1821. Pp.35. 

A small pamphlet, not containing as much matter about the 

inventor or preacher as we should like to know. He was Rector 

of the House of Prayer in Newark, N. J., 1867 to 1887; was 

Some Books Received 315 

born in 1822 and died 1900. The writer says: "The film 
process was brought to a practical reality through the unfalter- 
ing desire of an Episcopal Priest to find a way to impress upon 
the minds of the children of his Sunday School and congrega- 
tion all the sacred scenes of the Bible, by presenting to the eye 
pictures of the personages and scenes." Surely few know this 
as the origin of moving pictures. He first applied for Letters 
Patent for his invention in 1887 and it was not until Sept. 
13, 1898, that they were granted. We are glad to be able to 
credit New Jersey as the place where moving pictures and the 
telegraph and phonograph were harnessed to the activities of 
the age. 

Secession in Embryo. Address by Coleman Randolph before 
Morris Co. Chapter, S. A. R., 1921. Pp. 4. 
A fine, brief address referring to the beginnings of the State 
Rights doctrine, showing how statesmanship was in opposition 
to public sentiment when the U. S. Constitution was formed. 


Souder. Vineland: Channon-Souder Co., 1922. Pp. 100. 
A unique volume, giving every kind of item accessible about 
such of the 850 Vinelanders, or thereabouts, who served in the 
late War. Where possible portraits of these soldiers appear. 
The amount of information in this work, to be used for refer- 
ence by present and future citizens of Vineland, is im.mense 
and does great credit to its author. The N. J. Historical So- 
ciety is glad to possess it. 

Invention, the Master-Key to Progress. By Rear Ad- 
miral Bradley A. Fiske, LL.D. New York : E. P. But- 
ton & Co., 1921. Pp. 356. 
Admiral Fiske, who invented the Naval Telescope Sight, the 
Stadimeter, the Turret Range Finder, the Torpedoplane, etc., 
has written a work that shows a wide range of reading, as about 
everything important ever invented is named by him, with 
the inventor, time, etc. We know of no other work like it. 
Beginning with primeval days, the Old Stone Age, etc., he car- 
ries us along to the newest inventions and insists all inventions 
have made civilization a progressive state. He puts down 

3i6 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Alexander the Great as one of the chief inventors of his period. 
But the book must be read to be appreciated. It is intensely 
interesting throughout, and full of novel views as to the effect 
of inventions, and, of course, notices our many New Jersey 

^ ^ ^ ^ 


Andrew Lemuel Cobb, who was one of the most prom- 
inent men in ]\Iorris county, died in the Morristown Memorial 
Hospital, July 27, 1922, from a fractured skull, the result of a 
kick from a horse. He was the only son of Andrew Bell and 
Frances E. (Condit) Cobb and was born in Hanover Town- 
ship, Morris county, N. J., Sept. 5, 1867. He attended the 
schools of South Williamstown, Mass., graduating in the year 
1887. After the completion of his studies, he devoted his 
time to the administration of the large and valuable estate left 
to the family at his father's death and became one of the lead- 
ing agriculturists of his section of the State. He was also a 
director of the First National Bank of Morristown, and a 
director of the Children's Home, in which both he and his 
father had taken much interest. Scrupulously honorable in all 
his dealings, he bore an enviable reputation, and, being sociable 
and genial, he had a host of friends. The immigrant ancestor 
of the Cobb family in America was Henry Cobb, who was 
born in the county of Kent, Eng., and came to Plymouth, Mass., 
in 1629. One of his descendants, Edward Cobb, removed from 
Mass. to N. J., locating near Parsippany more than 150 years 
ago. His son, Col. Lemuel Cobb, was prominent in military 
affairs and in politics, and his grandson. Judge Andrew Bell 
Cobb, was one of the leaders in developing the iron interests 
of the county, besides filling many offices of public trust. An- 
drew Lemuel Cobb married, Sept. 15, 1892, Mary Righter, 
daughter of George E. Righter, and their children are : An- 
drew Lemuel, Marion and Frances Condit. He was a mem- 
ber of the Washington Society of New Jersey and in 1919 be- 
came a member of the New Jersey Historical Society. 

Necrology of Members 317 

James S. Higbee, of 1013 Broad street, Newark, N. J., 
died Aug. 30, 1922, after an illness of over one year. He was 
born in Pennsylvania in 1841, and went to Newark, when a 
young man, to be associated with his uncle, James R. Sayre, in 
the firm of James R. Sayre & Co., selling building material. 
At the time of his death he was treasurer of the firm of Sayre 
& Fisher. He was once President of the Newark Museum As- 
sociation, President of the old Board of Trade and a mem- 
ber of the Shade Tree Commission. He was well known also 
for his religious and charitable work, and was the first treasurer 
of the South Park church at its organization in 1881. He was 
a director in the Newark Fire Insurance Company, the Na- 
tional Newark and Essex Bank and the Mutual Benefit Life 
Insurance Company. He left surviving three daughters and 
a son, Harrison S. Higbee. He became a member of the New 
Jersey Historical Society Jan. 25, 1887, and a Life jMember Oct. 
27, 1897. 

Dp. Austin Scott, of New Brunswick, N. J., Vice-President 

of the New Jersey Historical Society, died suddenly at his 

summer home, Granville Center, Mass., on August 15, 1922. 

Particulars of his life and life's work appear on a preceding 

page (page 257). It should be recorded here that Dr. Scott 

was one of the most interested and constantly attending mem- 

i bers of the Board of Trustees of this Society. He loved its 

t work and took an interest in every proceeding which enhanced 

i the value of the Society to the public. Often at much personal 

j inconvenience, if not discomfort, he went regularly every 

month from his home in New Brunswick to Newark to meet 

with his associates and discuss plans for the improvement of 

the Society. He was made a Life Member of the Society 

Jan. 15, 1S85. 

At the annual meeting Jan. 25, 18S7, he read a paper before 
the Society on "Early Cities in New Jersey," (published in 
Proceedings, Second Series, Vol. IX, p. 149), and the next 
year took a position on the Committee on Publications, and 
later (1914) on the Committee on Colonial Documents, and as 
on this latter committee he was a member up to the time of his 

3i8 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society I 

death, it made his real activity in the Society one of thirty-five | 

years duration. In 1889 he made an address on behalf of the j 

Society in presenting a gold medal to President Benjamin Har- j 

rison. This striking and eloquent address was entitled "A I 

Highway of the Nation" and appeared in the Proceedings \ 

(Second Series, Vol. XIII, p. 355). In October, 1895, he was j 

elected Vice-President of the Society and continued as a Vice- 1 

President until 1904; became such again in 1916 until his i 

death. At the annual meeting in 191 2 he gave an address be- | 

fore the Society on "William Paterson ; the New Jersey Ex- • 1 
ponent of American Principles." He became a Trustee of the I 

Society October 29, 1913. He served from time to time on | 

various other important committees, as on Membership, etc. At \ 

the annual meeting in October, 1920, he made an address before \ 

the Society (which proved to be his last) on "Blazing the Way \ 

to Final Victory — 1781." This appeared later in the Pro- \ 

CEEDiNGS (New Series, Vol. VI, p. i). To the published Pro- | 

CEEDiNGS he also contributed "A List of the Freeholders of the | 

County of Essex, 1755" (Second Series, Vol. XIII, p. 25) ; | 

"List of the Freeholders of Middlesex, about 1750" (Ibid, p. \ 

89). As Chairman of the Colonial Documents Committee he \ 

edited Vol. V of the Second Series of the "New Jersey Arch- | 

ives," being all newspaper extracts on New Jersey published j 

from October, 1780, to July, 1782, practically to the end | 

of the Revolution, and he had expected to assist in the editing j 

of the one remaining volume of newspaper extracts (for 1775), i 

now in course of publication by the Society. All this work for \ 

the Society was in addition to his long-held position as Presi- 
dent of the New Brunswick Historical Club, as an active Pro- ' 
fessor of History in Rutgers College, and as contributor of his- 
torical matter to various outside publications, legal period- 
icals and encyclopedias. He was a tireless worker, an enthusi- 
astic historian and a man of wide and close friendships, and his 
associates on the Board of the New Jersey Historical Society 
will long miss his genial handshake, his unnumbered personal 
courtesies and his close devotion to his official tasks. 

Necrology of Members 319 

Rev. John Preston Searle, D. D., President of the New- 
Brunswick Theological Seminary, died on July 26, 1922, at 
Cragsmoor, Ulster county, N. Y., from a stroke of paralysis, 
which he suffered two days previously, and from which he did 
not recover consciousness. He was summering at that place 
and had been in poor health for many months, but was hop- 
ing to return to his cherished work at New Brunswick in the 
fall. Dr. Searle was born at Schuylerville, N. Y., Sept. 12, ■ 
1854, being the son of Rev. Samuel Tomb Searle, a pastor of 
the Reformed church in New York State. He was graduated 
from Rutgers College in 1875 and from the New Brunswick 
Seminary in 1S78, and licensed to preach by the Cassis of Pas- 
saic. His first charge was at Griggstown, N. J., iS/S-'Si ; at 
First Raritan (Somerville) i88i-'93; then became Professor 
of Didactic and Polemic Theology in the New Brunswick Sem- 
inary, 1893-1902, in which latter year he became President of 
the Seminary. In 1882 he married l\Iiss Susan Bovey, of 
Cherokee, Iowa, who, with one son, Rev. Robert Wyckoff, an 
associate pastor of the Fort Washington (New York) Collegi- 
ate church, survive him. Previously, in 1920, he lost a son, 
who had just begun a law practice, R. Bovey, and, later, a 
daughter, Helen E., losses which he felt deeply and which un- 
doubtedly impaired his health. The Doctor was President of 
the General Synod of the Reformed Church in America in 
1917. He received his doctorate degree from Rutgers in 1893. 

Dr. Searle was a man who had hosts of friends. His pas- 
torates were unusually successful, as was his vigorous teaching 
and beautiful personal example to students, and his executive 
control of the Seminary. His genial manners and wide ac- 
quaintance, the love borne for him by his parishioners and, 
later, his students, were marked in a high degree. He became 
a member of the New Jersey Historical Society February 6, 

Augustus C. Studer, editor and publisher of the "Montclair 
Times," died June 9, 1922, in Thun, Switzerland, where he had 
lived as a boy, from a heart attack. He went abroad May 13th 
with his wife and daughter, expecting to remain until October. 

320 Proceedings Nczv Jersey Historical Society 

He was born of Swiss parents in Newark, N. J., May lo, 1854. 
His parents came to Newark in 1850; in 1858 on account of \ 

the cholera epidemic, then raging, they returned to their native 1 

land. In the country of his ancestors Mr. Studer spent his 1 

early youth and attended the schools of Thun and Geneva. In ^ 

1864 the family came again to the United States, for it was the 1 

father's desire to aid in the preservation of the Union, and as a I 

member of Company A, Fifteenth New Jersey Infantry, went ] 

to the front, serving until the close of hostilities. The son at- i 

tended the schools of Newark and, although he could not speak 1 

a word of English, his previous training enabled him to take | 

an advanced position, which he maintained until his graduation. f 

His journalistic training began at the age of sixteen in the com- 
posing room of the Newark "Daily Journal," and he was sub- 
sequently assigned to reportorial duties. In 1876 he started a 
jobbing office. In May, 1877, he assumed the management of 
the "Montclair Times," of which only about three numbers 
had been published. In 1888 Mr. Studer received the appoint- 
ment of Engrossing Clerk to the State Legislature and two 
years later was elected to the Legislature by a plurality of 683 
votes. He was re-elected for a second term. 

Mr. Studer married Miss Elizabeth M. Ziegler, of Newark. 
Besides the daughter, who was with him when he died, another 
daughter, Mrs. William T. West, of Haverford, Pa., and a son, 
Augustus C. Studer, Jr., member of the law firm of McCarter 
&: English, of this city, survive. Mr. Studer was elected a mem- 
ber of the New Jersey Historical Society June 3, 1912. 

Dr. Theron Yeomans Sutphen, of 992 Broad street, New- 
ark, N. J., died at his summer camp, Meddybempe, near Calais, 
Me., on August 24, 1922, of apoplexy. He had been there since 
June, having spent his summers in that camp for some thirty 
previous years. Dr. Sutphen was born in Walworth, Wayne 
county, N. Y., June 6, 1850, being the son of Dr. Reuben Mor- 
ris Sutphen. His elementary education at the Walworth 
schools was supplemented by a course at the Newark High 
School. In 1 87 1 he entered the ]\Iedical College connected 
with Bellevue Hospital, New York, being graduated two years 

Necrology of Memben 321 

later, when he began the practice of medicine in Newark. 
Shortly afterward he was appointed attending physician to the 
City Dispensary. After three years of general practice he be- 
gan to devote his attention to diseases of the ear and eye. In 
1889 he became attending physician at the Newark Eye and 
Ear Infirmary, then a charitable institution. He also was in 
charge of the eye and ear department at St. Michael's Hos- 
pital. For sometime he was attending surgeon on the eye and 
ear department of All Soul's Hospital, Morristown, and con- 
sulting ocuhst of Memorial Hospital, Orange. He also served 
in connection with St. Michael's Hospital in the latter part of 
191 9 and shortly afterward opened offices with his son in the 
Medical Arts Building at 1019 Broad street. Clubs to which 
Dr. Sutphen belonged included the Practitioners', The Essex 
County Medical Society, New Jersey State Medical Society, 
New York Academy of ]\Iedicine and the American Opthal- 
mological and Anthological Societies. He was made a Fellow 
01 the American College of Surgeons in October, 1920, being 
one of six Jerseymcn thus honored, 
i Dr. Sutphen was twice married. His first wife was 

Miss Sarah Locke Vail, daughter of Dr. William P. 
Vail, of Johnsonbiu-g, N. Y. Three children were born 
of the union, Dr. Edward Blair Sutphen, Robert Morris 
Sutphen and Margaret M. Sutphen. Mrs. Sutphen died m 
1907. Dr. Sutphen again married in 191 1, his bride being 
Miss Emma G. Lathrop, for many years Regent and Historian 
of the New York Chapter, D. A. R., and one of the board of 
managers of the Female Charitable Society of New York. She 
died in 1912. He became a Life Member of the New Jersey 
Historical Society May 19, 1887. 

John Lowrexce Swayze, of 212 Ballantine Parkway, 
Newark, N. J., died August 12, 1922, suddenly at Glen Springs 
Sanitarium, Watkins Glen, N. Y., following an acute heart at- 
tack. He had been in poor health since January. Mr. Swayze 
was born in Newton, N. J., October 18, 186S, being the young- 
est son of the late Jacob L. Swayze, founder and President of 
the Merchants' National Bank of Newton. His mother's 

322 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society ] 


maiden name was Joanna Hill. He was educated at the New- ] 

ton Collegiate Institute and the Phillips-Exeter Academy. Af- ; 

ter leaving school he represented the Equitable Life Assurance ] 

Company, of New York, in northern New Jersey, being asso- ■ 

ciated with John C. Eisle, of Newark, and later was general I 

manager in Chicago of the Standard Cash Register Company. \ 

He returned to Newton soon after and studied law in the j 

office of Theodore Simonson. While studying law, in the nine- ■; 

ties, he became Journal Clerk of the New Jersey House of \ 

Assembly. He was admitted to the Bar in November, 1894, . \ 

and became counselor three years later. Mr. Swayze became \ 

chairman of the Republican County Committee of Sussex in ] 

1897, following some energetic work, during which, for the first j 

time in its history, Sussex County, normally Democratic, gave I 

majorities for Gubernatorial and Congressional candidates on | 

the Republican ticket. He became Prosecutor of the Pleas in ? 

his home county in 1898. Appointed private secretary to the ' 

late Governor Franklin Murphy in 1902, he served until April | 

I, 1904, when he became Assistant Attorney-General. Dur- ] 

ing his service for the State, he entered the legal department I 

of the American Telegraph & Telephone Company in New York ;■ 

for special work, but soon became general counsel. \ 

It was while secretary to the Governor he drafted the Child I 

Labor bill of 1903, also the New Jersey Labor Department ! 

Acts, still in existence, and recognized as one of the best de- I 

partments of the kind in the East. For several years, until j 

his labors for the Telephone Company became so extensive, j 

he was President of the Merchants' National Bank of New- \ 

ton. Mr. Swayze joined the legal department of the American ; 

Telephone & Telegraph Company on April 11, 1905, and re- I 

mained with that corporation until December, 191 2, when he \ 

was appointed general counsel of the Eastern group of Bell • 

Telephone Companies, consisting of the New York Telephone • 

Company, the Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania and j 

the Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company. When this i 

group of companies was dissolved in October, 1919, Mr. ' 

Swayze became general counsel of the New York Telephone ' 

Company and advisory counsel of the Bell Telephone Com- 

Necrology of Members 323 

pany of Pennsylvania, which offices he held until his death. 
He was a member of the original Employe's Benefit Fund Com- 
mittee of the New York Telephone Company from January 
I, 1913, to January i, 1920. He was also one of the active 
organizers of the Sussex County Society of New York. 

In 1902 Mr. Swayze married Miss Eva Couse, of Hamburg, 
a daughter of the late Dr. Joseph P. Couse, and a niece of Mr. 
Joseph Coult, of Newark. Besides his wife he is survived by 
seven sons : John Lowrence Swayze, Jr., an undergraduate 
of Harvard University ; Joseph Couse Swayze, Francis J. 
Swayze 2d, Henry S. Swayze 2d, Robert McCarter Swayze, 
Richard Hill Swayze and Peter Jacob Swayze. He is also 
survived by two brothers. Justice Francis J. Swayze, of the 
New Jersey Supreme Court, and Henry Seward Swayze, of 
Stamford, Conn., and one sister, Mary C. Swayze, of New 
York City. He became a member of the New Jersey Histori- 
cal Society June 7, 1920. 

L.\RuE Vredenburgii, Jr., of Somcrville, N. J., died at his 
residence there on June 3, 1922, after an illness of ten days, of 
\ pleurisy and heart affection. Mr. Vredenburgh was born in 
i Somerville July 29, 1S55. being the son of LaRue Vredenburgh, 
\ Sr., and Blandina Elmendorf. His father was long a druggist 
I and then Cashier of the old Somerset County Bank. Young 
} LaRue studied in the classical school of Rev. William Cornell 
;. and at Rutgers College ; then became a law student of the late 
I Judge Bartine in Somerville, and was admitted to the Bar as 
[ attorney at the November Term, 1879. He practiced but 
I slightly in Somerville, as his health failed and he changed his 
: residence to Colorado. Later he returned and accepted a po- 
sition in the Somerset County Bank. When that institution 
went out of existence he took a clerkship in the First National 
Bank. About 1S90 he was appointed a State Bank Examiner, 
and about 1914 he became a special Deputy Banking and Insur- 
ance Commissioner. He thus became well-known to the banks 
about the State and to all insurance companies. For four years 
past he had been Receiver for the Roseville Trust Co. of New- 
ark and the Mutual Trust Co. of Orange. Being a tireless 

324 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 1 

worker, not sparing himself, he shortened his life by it. At i 

the time of his death he was President of the Somerville \Va- J 

ter Co. He never married and is survived only by a sister ^ 

with whom he lived. He became a member of the New Jersey ] 

Historical Society May 21, 1891. I 

^* (^ ^^ tJC 3 



President Harding Elected an Honorary Member of the i 

Society | 

At the June meeting of the Trustees of the Society Mr. i 

Boggs suggested that it would be eminently fitting, in connec- 1 

tion with the visit of the President to New Jersey to dedi- \ 

cate the Princeton Battle Monument and to receive the degree ] 

of LL.D. from Princeton University, to elect him an Honorary \ 

Member of the Society. The suggestion met with hearty ap- \ 

proval and he was forthwith elected. A committee, consisting \ 

of Charles M. Lum, Vice-President, Chancellor Edwin R. j 

Walker, W. I. Lincoln Adams, J. Lawrence Boggs and Miss \ 

Isabelle Hudnut, was appointed to call upon the President at "; 

Princeton and advise him of his election and to present a mem- I 
bership certificate. All the members of the committee visited 

Princeton on June 9th, a memorable day in the history of the | 

old college town. The exercises in connection Vv'ith the dedica- j 

tion of the monument and the conferring of the degree were \ 

dignified and impressive. The President and Mrs. Harding I 

received a most hearty welcome and evidently thoroughly en- | 
joyed the occasion. A convenient opportunity was afforded 1 
by Bayard Stockton, President of the Monument Commission, j 
for the notification of the President, which, as prepared by j 
Mr. Lum, was read to him by Chancellor Walker. Mr. Lum < 


"Mr. President, it is my pleasant duty this day to advise you \ 

that at the last meeting of the Board of Trustees of the New : 

Jersey Historical Society you were elected an Honorary Mem- 
ber, This honor has never been lightly conferred and the So- 

Historical Notes and Comments 325 

ciety has very few Honorary Members. The Society was or- 
ganized seventy-seven years ago by a group of the best and 
most prominent men of the State, and its object is to discover, 
procure and preserve whatever relates to any department of the 
history of New Jersey, natural, civil, literary or ecclesiastical, 
and generally of other portions of the United States. It now 
has a collection of much interest and great value. You have 
the affection, esteem and confidence of the people of the United 
States to an unusual degree, and we trust that under your vig- 
orous and forceful leadership the history of your term of of- 
fice will be among the most important in the archives of our So- 
ciety. I hand to you a Certificate of Membership and trust 
that you will honor the Society by accepting such member- 
ship. This will be a further inspiration to the officers and trus- 
tees of the Society in continuing their work." 

The President accepted the honor, and the Society later re- 
ceived from Washington the following letter of thanks : 

"The White House, Washington, June 12, 1922. 
"My Dear Mr. Lum : 

"The President asks me to thank you, and through you the 
Trustees of the New Jersey Historical Society, for his selection 
as an Honorary Member. I do not need, I am sure, to tell 
you that the President is very much interested in all work of 
this kind, and finds a pleasure to be even so remotely associated 
with it. Yours sincerely, 

"Geo. B. Christian, Jr., 
"Secretary to the President. 
"Mr. Charles M. Lum, Vice-President, New Jersey Historical 
Society, Newark, N. J." 

An "Air Ship" of 1817 and an Early Poem 

A copy of "The Times," of New Brunswick, dated Nov. 13, 
181 7, being No. 129 of Vol. HI, has fallen into our hands, and 
gives us the news that a German had invented an "Air Ship." 
Of course it did not fly very high, but it is curiously described 
as follows, which is taken from "a German Journal :" 

"A country clergyman in Lower Saxony has been so happy as 
to succeed in accomplishing the invention of an AIR SHIP. 
The machine is built of light wood ; it is made to float in the air 
chiefly by means of the constant action of a pair of bellows, of 
a peculiar construction, which occupies in the front the position 
of the lungs and the neck of a bird on the wings. The wings 

326 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society | 

on both sides are directed by thin cords. The height to which 1 

the farmer's boy (10 or 12 years of age) whom the inventor has | 

instructed in the management of it, had hitherto ascended with I 

it, is not considerable, because his attention has been more di- * 

reeled to give a progressive than ascending motion to his ma- | 

chine. The ranger of the forest of Baron Charles Von Drais, ] 

has made some highly satisfactory trials of this new-invented \ 

travelling machine, without horses. On the 12th of July he i 

went from Manheim to the Relay-house at Schwezingen and j 

back again." ] 


Evidently our American Wrights will have to take a back \ 

step as to being inventors of a flying machine ! The same 
newspaper, like other journals of that period, has no local news, 1 

but various essays and items from afar, and three columns of | 

Legislative proceedings. In poetry it has sixteen four-line | 

verses on "The Death of Rev. Dr. Finley," who was the pas- ] 

tor at Basking Ridge, this State, from 1795 to April, 1817, and | 

who died Nov. 3, 1817. They are of the character of much of 
the newspaper verse of that period, and begin: 

"What doleful sound is this I hear, 
That brings sad tidings to my ear; 
Which fills my heart with throbs and fears, 
My eyes with sorrow's trickling tears. 

"Ah ! Rev'rend sweetest Finley's dead ; 
Low in the dust he laid his head ; 
In silent earth he now doth lie, 
Whose solemn prayers oft'n pierced the sky." 

A Patriotic Negro of the Revolution 

The "Hunterdon County Democrat" is republishing from its 
flics "of a hundred years ago" various items, although, as a 
matter of fact, they are from that newspaper of 1826. On 
that date this was ptiblished : 

"The following anecdote was last week related to us by an 
officer of the Revolution who lives in this county, and we were 
the more interested to see his eyes fill with tears of a soldier's j 

patriotism as he finished his story. During the Battle of Mon- I 

motith, a part of Col. Shepherd's Massachusetts Regiment were | 

ordered to lay prostrate upon the ground to escape the raking | 

fire of the enemy's artillery. Gen. Washington was seen at a 
distance, mounted on his charger, directing the movements of 

Historical Notes and Coimnents 327 

the troops. An officer passing the men as they lay on the 
ground and seeing a black soldier belonging to Capt. Wright's 
Company standing up, said to him : 'Lie down, or you will 
be killed.' The negro, pointing to Gen. Washington, replied, 
'No massa, when Gen. Washington lie down, I lie down, and 
not before.' " 

Col. Charles Stewart as Commissary General 

A sketch of Col. Charles Stewart, of Hunterdon county, who 
was Commissary General on W'ashington's Staff from 1776 
to the end of the War, appeared in the January, 1921, Pro- 
ceedings (p. 14). His account book for a part of 1776 and 
1777, has recently been shown to us by a descendant. It is 
much mutilated, but gives one an idea of the kind of supplies he 
ordered and received for the army. The two headings are : 

"Provisions received for the troops in camp under the com- 
mand of His Excellency, George Washington, Esquire, Com- 
mander-in-Chief for the month of , 177-." 

"Return of Stores and Provisions received at the diflferent 
Posts and Magazines in the Middle Department for the Month 
of , 177-." 

So much of the leaves at the beginning and end of these ta- 
bles are destroyed that we cannot obtain a full statement from 
any one of them, but, in part, this shows totals of what was 
received at Camp, and gives an idea of the kind and amount 
of supplies used by the army. One month, probably February, 
1776, the list shows: 

Pork, 18834 barrels, 4 hogsheads, 8,009 pounds. 
Cattle, 1,312 head. 
Fresh beef, 443,719 pounds. 
Salt beef, 12 barrels. 
Sheep, 20 head. 
Veal, or mutton, 5,127 pounds. 
Butter, ^y"/ pounds. 
Spirits, 280 gallons. 

Rum, 10^ hogslieads. 3 tierces, 16 barrels. 
Whiskey, 21 hogsheads, 19 tierces, 56 barrels, 4,414^/2 gal- 

Vinegar, i gallon. 

Salt, 5 tierces, 52 barrels, 85^4 bushels. 

Rice, 5^ tierces, 744 pounds. 

328 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

Fish, 49 barrels, 36 pounds. 

Soap, 9 boxes, 112 pounds. | 

Candles, 2j boxes, 325 pounds. | 

From the foregoing it is evident the soldiers were not suffer- \ 

ing that month from a full supply of ardent spirits, nor of pork 3 

and beef especially fresh. Yet we know that late in the War | 

there was great dearth of army food. | 

For the same month the return of stores for the Middle De- | 

partment showed very little excess over the foregoing for \ 

the total supplies, many items being just the same as sent to ] 

Camp, the chief excess being in fresh beef, total received being | 

664,567 pounds. ] 

It is greatly to be regretted that the complete books of the f 

Commissary General are not to be found. It would throw j 

much light on what the Revolutionary War cost in supplies and | 

provisions. The small sample preserved is written out in beau- j 

tiful handwriting and the tabular work is executed most care- j 

fully. j 

The Articles on "English Convicts" and George Scot * 

In this issue we publish an article on some unfortunate fea- | 

tures of the Revolutionary War from the pen of one of our | 

esteemed English correspondents. The fact that it embraces ; 

an English view of the case is no reason why it should not j 

appear in an American historical magazine. We are pleased i 

to read whatever any papers in the Public Record Office in I 

London bring to light. Clearly, however, the statements of | 

convicts sent to this country by way of banishment, and after- | 

ward captured by the English, are not to be taken too seriously ! 

as embodying the truth. To save their heads they would need 
to declare they were "impressed" in the American service, and, 
one says, punished by "tarring and feathering," and this might 
be so in those instances or might not. All the same we are 
having a view-point from London documents and it can do no 
one now any harm. What we would chiefly take issue with, 
in this particular article, however, is the view that the Hes- 
sian soldiers were worse than the English in their various 
raids, which were mostly in New Jersey. The evidence is j 

Historical Notes and Comments 329 

overwhelming that our American people were desperately an- 
gered by the employment of Hessians, but at the same time that 
in local raids the Hessians frequently, if not always, acted bet- 
ter than the English military. In "The Story of an Old 
Farm" (1889), a New Jersey historical work which has re- 
ceived great praise in England as elsewhere, Chapter XXV 
treats of this subject conclusively. Of course, however, there 
were things occurring on both sides in that struggle which 
sober-minded men and women then and now would object to, 
as not according to civilized views of war. Happily that is 
past history, and it is sincerely to be trusted that no blood will 
ever again be shed between England and America, which are 
and ought to be forever the firmest of friends. In this we 
know our English correspondent agrees. 

The exceedingly interesting article on the Scotch Laird, 
"George Scot, of Pitlochy," is one which greatly supplements 
what Whitehead wrote of him in his "Early History of Perth 
Amboy" (pp. 24 et seq.), and, so far as we know, is the fullest 
account ever published in this State of one who might well be 
denominated the earliest historian of New Jersey, notwith- 
standing he did not live to reach America and become a set- 
tler, as was his desire. 

Additions to and Corrections in the List of Patriotic Societies 
In our issue of April last we published a list of New Jersey 
Historical and Patriotic Societies (see also the number for 
April, 1921). Since then our attention has been called to 
the following: 

New Jersey Chapter, Daughters of Founders and Patriots of 
America. Organized by Agnes Blackfan, Elizabeth, N. J., 
Jan. 14, 1919, and its first and present President. National 
Society founded June, 1898, at Washington, D. C. State So- 
ciety has 54 members. Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. William 
C. McPherson. 

New Jersey Society of the Order of the Founders and Pa- 
triots of America. Present Secretary is Chauncey R. Mc- 
Pherson, 655 Salem Road, Elizabeth. Permanent Headquar- 
ters, 33 Lombardy St., Newark. 

330 Proceedings Nciv Jersey Historical Society 

Camden County Historical Society. The Secretary is Charles 
L. Maurer, of Camden. 

The Urquhart Indian Relic Collection 

There has been presented to the Newark Free Public Library 
the large collection of Indian relics gathered by the late Frank \ 

J. Urquhart, author of a recent "History of Newark" and an | 

Associate Editor of the "Sunday Call," the collection being I 

given by Mrs. Urquhart. It fills five cases occupying the entire I 

length of the west corridor on the fourth floor of the Library. i 

The articles consist of arrow-heads, bowls, hammers, gorgets. ] 

and other articles, together with works of reference on New \ 

Jersey Indian lore. The idea is to make this collection the \ 

nucleus for additional material bearing on New Jersey Indian I 

memories that may come to the museum. The hunting of In- j 

dian relics in this State was a favorite rest-time diversion of \ 

Mr. Urquhart for many years. His careful study of this sub- 1 

ject and his practical acquaintance with it as the result of years | 

of search in Passaic and Morris counties made him an au- | 

thority on this subject. The collection contains a map of New ^ 

Jersey showing the location of the principal Indian remains a 

discovered in this State. Their camps and villages were gen- 1 

erally near fresh water, and it is in such sites that the flint I 

chips, pottery fragments, etc.. have been found. Shell heaps \ 

from clams and oysters are found in great abundance near salt 1 

water, wiiere they constitute the refuse heaps of the old camps. s 

Their burial places were usually on sandy, hilly ground near | 

their village sites. The collection made by the late Dr. J. Her- j 

vey Buchanan, of Plainfield, is in the possession of the New 
Jersey Historical Society, but, from want of proper room, has 
been only partly put on view. 

v^ *^ ^* t?* 


Bref.ce-Van Zandt-Tumson. — "Wanted, names of par- 
ents of William Brcece, who m. Susan Compton (both buried 
at Metuchcn), Richard Van Zandt, who (perhaps) m. Rhoda 

Queries and Miscellany 331 

Caywood, and Runyon Tunison. These all lived in Middlesex 
and Somerset counties." 

E. L. F, (New Brunswick, N. J.). 

Gordon Family. — "The series of letters of the 'Scots East 
Jersey Proprietors,' running in the Proceedings and hitherto 
unpublished, is most valuable. May I make a slight correc- 

"In the January number, Vol. 7, p. 9, it is stated that Thomas 
Gordon, of Perth Amboy, was the brother of Robert Gordon, 
of Clunie. He was the brother of Robert Gordon, of Pit- 
lurg, 'commonly designated of Stralloch.' In Volume IV, 
of the New Jersey Archives, First Series, p. 177, there is an 
affidavit from Dr. Inness, minister of Monmouth county, in 
East Jersey, as to the character of Thomas Gordon, Esquire, 
Member of Governor Hunter's Council, etc. After testifying 
to his 'high character and exemplary life in exact accordance 
with the Church of England,' he says : 'He is a person of an 
university education and, being born in the same neighborhood 
and by the more than common friendship between our parents, 
I can certify with a good conscience that he is descended from 
an honorable, orthodox and loyal family, being grandchild by 
the eldest son to the memorable Robert Gordon, of Pitlurg and 
Stralloch, who, for wisdom and learning, was reputed inferior 
to none in his time in the Kingdom of Scotland, and that I be- 
lieve the said Thomas Gordon for learning, honesty and integ- 
rity of life is inferior to no layman in the Province where he 
lives,' etc. It is signed 'Alexander Inness, Presbiter.' The 
biography of this distinguished grandfather may be found in 
Chambers' 'Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen.' Thomas Gor- 
don's tombstone distinctly states (in Latin) that he was of the 
family of Gordon of Pitlurg ("Pitlurgi," unfortunately having 
been translated into 'of Pitlochie' — an estate belonging to 
George Scot) instead of the literal and true one. 

"The lineage of Gordon of Pitlurg may be found in 'Burke's 
Commoners of Great Britain.' According to this authority, 
Robert Gordon, of Pitlurg and Stralloch, (Thomas' grand- 
father, according to the affidavit), married Catherine Irvine, 
dau. of Alexander Irvine, of Lenturg. His eldest son (father 
of Thomas, according to the affidavit) was also Robert Gor- 

332 Proceedings Nezv Jersey Historical Society 

dan, born 1609; married 1638, Catherine Burnett, dau. of Sir 
Robert Burnett, Baronet, of Leys ; succeeded his father in \ 

1661 ; died 1681 ; succeeded by his eldest son, Robert Gor- 1 

don, the 'Laird of Stralloch' mentioned in the Gordon and 1 

Fullerton letters in Scot's 'Model Government of East New I 

Jersey.' (See Whitehead's 'East Jersey under the Proprie- 1 

tors,' pp. 304, 313, 324, 326). j 

"Neither Thomas Gordon nor his brother Charles are men- \ 

tioned by Burke, but he does mention their brother. Dr. John \ 

Gordon, of Coliston, to whom a number of these letters are \ 

addressed, and his marriage to Catherine Fullerton, dau. of | 

John Fullerton, of Kennaber, which shows how he came to be \ 

a brother-in-law to Thomas Fullerton. (See p. 304, 'E. J. ] 

Under the Proprietors.') | 

"There were so many Gordons who bought land in East \ 

Jersey that it is a matter of some difficulty to keep them sep- \ 

arated. That Thomas and Charles, of Perth Amboy, were \ 

brothers of John Gordon, of Coliston, is clearly proved by | 

numerous deeds. Charles Gordon, of Monmouth, was not the 1 

brother of Thomas; and 'Sir John Gordon, of Edinburgh, ^ 

Knight and Advocate,' was an entirely different person from \ 

'John Gordon, of Coliston, Doctor of Medicine in Montrose.* . 

"According to 'Collins Peerage,' (Vol. 5, p. 212), Gor- < 

don of Clunie was a cadet of the House of Huntly, the bar- j 

onetcy having been created in 1625. Their estates lie in Aber- \ 

deenshire and Clunie Castle is the chief seat. (See also, \ 

'Scotch Clans and Their Tartans.') | 

"Sir Robert Gordon, of Gordonstone, Soctland, was another | 

owner of a proprietary share. He was the third Baronet, b. j 

Mar. 7, 1647, ^^^ succeeded his father, Sir Lucovic Gordon, i 

in 1688; died 1701. He was also a first cousin of Governor 
Robert Barclay. Barclay's mother was Katherine Gordon, dau. 
of Sir Robert Gordon, of Gordonstone, ist Baronet, second son 
to the Earl of Sutherland, and second cousin to King James 
VL, of Scotland. (See Douglas' 'Baronage of Scotland,' p. 
2; Douglas' 'Peerage of Scotland,' p. 578-9; 'Barclay Gene- 
alogy,' by E. B. Moffat.") 

E. H. M. (Bound Brook, N. J.). 

Queries and Miscellany 333 

[While the correction first above noted was made in the 
April number (p. 169), yet because of the important other 
facts noted we are pleased to print the foregoing communica- 
tion. — Editor]. 

KiRKPATRiCK. — "Am in search for the ancestry of William 
Kirkpatrick (wife Margaret), who was granted a large tract of 
land in Paxtang, Pa., in 1738. William was born in 1720 and 
died in 1760, but where he came from is unknown, unless he 
came from Ireland along with the other Scotch-Irish about 
that time. WilHam had. a son John, who married Jane, dau. 
of John Wilkins, and from an old MSS. record John settled 
in Eastern Tennessee after living in Rockingham Co., Va., 
where most of his eight cliildren were born. John left many 
descendants in the South, one, Gen. E. W. Kirkpatrick, of Mc- 
Kinney, Texas, b. 184^1, is having a search made for his an- 
cestry. Gen. Kirkpatrick's grandfather was Wilkins, who 
lived in Jefferson Co., Tenn., and died in 1837, and his great- 
grand fther, John according to the record, married a Miss 
Wilkins, of Pennsylvania. In Eagle's 'Pa. Genealogies,' John 
married Jane, dau. of John Wilkins, and no doubt this is the 
same John, as age agrees, and the fact that no record of his 
family is given, although that of his sisters is given. Now the 
question is, is William connected with the New Jersey fam- 
ily? In Vol. I of the 'Somerset Co. Hist. Quarterly,' under 
Basking Ridge church-yard inscriptions, there are early Kirk- 
patricks, unaccounted for in Vols. Ill and V, as, e. g., John 
K., d. Oct. II, 1753, aged 60; Margaret, wife of John, d. 
1752 ,aged 53; and James, Esq., d. Feb. 24, 1786, aged 61. It 
is possible that William, of Pennsylvania, and this James, Esq., 
were sons of John, b. 1693, and Margaret." 

A. C. H. (Washington, D. C). 

LovE-LoRE-LoREE. — "In the July magazine, N. J. Histor- 
ical Society, on page 230, is used the name of 'Job Love.' I am 
very sure this should be Lore (or Loree), as he served in the 
war and his gravestone is still standing, or was two years ago 
in the Presbyterian churchyard at Mendham. I have done a lot 

334 Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society 

of work on this family, and the name many times has been \ 

taken for Love." J. C F. (Brooklyn, N. Y.). \ 

["Loree" is the correct spelling, as appears in entries subsc- 1 

quent to that published in our last number. — Editor]. i 

Board of Proprietors. — "Referring to the article by Air. \ 
David McGregor in the last Proceedings (p. 177). It is not I 
clear just what lands were disposed of by the Governor and ] 
Council. The questions as to title were, I take it, as per the \ 
example of John Inians (p. iSi), solely in regard to sales made \ 
under Nicholls and Sir George and Lady Carteret prior to the \ 
purchase by the Proprietors. Inians bought under Lady Car- \ 
teret 1678; also, adjoining, Cornelius Longfield 1681, and ] 
Thomas Lawrence in 1681. This extended this group of pur- \ 
chases to South River. The Proprietors, alarmed at the in- \ 
roads made in their purchase from Lady Carteret, consistently \ 
disputed all previous sales. Longfield did not obtain a clear j 
title till 1697. (See Reed's Map, designating large tracts on j 
the pretended bounds of so-and-so). I have not understood \ 
that any disposal for cash was made, except in the dividends I 
to the Proprietors, first in 1684, second in 1698, and again in j 
1740. If in the article mentioned it is intended to convey the | 
idea that the Governor and Council disposed of lands by sale, \ 
how was distribution made to the Proprietors ?" | 

W. H. B. (New Brunswick, N. J.). I 

Ansivcr by Mr. McGregor 
"When the 24 Proprietors took possession, the direct sale of 
land by the Governor and Council was discontinued and allot- \ 
ments of acreage were made by the Board of Proprietors to \ 
each individual Proprietor in proportion to his share. These j 

were made at certain times in the nature of dividends, and • 

when locations of these grants were agreed upon and properly j 

surveyed and recorded, the individual Proprietor disposed of ! 

his land for cash or other consideration as he saw fit, sub- 
ject to the quit-rents, which were the only monetary returns \ 
that the Board of Proprietors as a body was entitled to 1 
receive according to the Concessions. The disputes as to title ' 

Queries and Miscellany 335 

were based on the Nicholls' grants, which were declared invalid 
by the Duke of York, under whose authority Nicholls had 
acted, no doubt in good faith. As to the grants to Inians, 
Longfield, etc., under the Carteret regime, this was a dispute 
as to the accuracy of the surveys rather than a question of 
title." D. McG. (East Orange, N. J.) 

Burnet — "In the April number of the Proceedings is an 
item for query under 'Burnet,' page 170. It might be interesting 
for F. H. S. to know that Moses Burnet of Brookhaven, Long 
Island, had a daughter Dorothy, who married Enos Croell. 
Enos died in 1784, and the widow, Dorothy, married Jonathan 
Stiles as his third w'ife. Dorothy died January 18. 1804, aged 
68. Enos and Dorothy had a daughter Nancy, who married 
Edward Lewis. Enos Croell was born at Woodbridge and 
moved to Morris County and died there. Jonathan S'iles and 
his wife Dorothy lived at New Vernon where they both died." 

E. W. L. (Newark, N. J.) 

Elizabethtown Minutes — "I have occasion to refer to the 
Elizabethtown Minute Records, which are not in possession of 
the City Clerk of Elizabeth. Where are they?" 

C. E. G. (Trenton, N. J.). 

[It is to be hoped this inquiry may soon be answered by 
some reader of these Proceedings. — Editor]. 

New Orleans Letter, 1833 — A correspondent suggests 
publication of a letter from New Orleans, Nov. 13, 1833, re- 
specting the cholera, then raging, the shooting stars (a metn- 
orable year for that), etc. It originally apearcd in the "Maga- 
zine of American History," June, 1S87. The letter was written 
by Charles ]\Iorgan, cousin to Gen. Daniel Morgan and cousm 
to Daniel Boone, an early settler of Louisiana. The recipient 
was Jacob V. W. Plerbert, of this State. 

"I am glad to hear the cholera has not visited New Jersey as 
it has our State. I believe we are at present without 
a case of that terrible scourge. The valley of the Mis- 
sissippi and Ohio has suffered greatly. It is now twelve 

33^ Proceedings New Jersey Historical Society \ 


months since it appeared in New Orleans ; the loss in \ 

this State in slaves is estimated at four millions of dol- \ 

lars. The death rate in the city of New Orleans is said to have | 

been ten thousand souls in the last twelve months. ... \ 

"Last night, or this morning, at three o'clock A. M., we had ] 

a brilliant illumination of the heavens, from three to five o'clock. | 

There came on a complete shower of stars. They fell for two * 

hours from the clouds, as thick and fast as a July shower of j 

rain, and continued until the sun destroyed their light. I \ 

thought at one time all the stars in the sky would fall, but I ^ 

could not see that they grew thinner there. The earth was so j 

illuminated at intervals, that a pin could be seen at any moderate ' 

distance. It v/as the most elegant display of hreworks that I { 

ever witnessed. The thermometer sank from 45° to 35'' in an \ 

hour. The night was very fme, clear ; wind W. N. W. and at i 

six o'clock shifted to S. E. The stars had a falling angle of 35" \ 

from N. E. to S. W. ; wind light. I was out with all the instru- \ 

ments I could raise. The negroes were so frightened, 1 | 

could scarcely get them to work. A thousand stories were 1 

afloat among them. One said those that had died of cholera . 

were not well satisfied, and all cholera subjects were being j 

kicked out of heaven because they went there too suddenly ; ; 

not bad for negro wit! Let me know if the shower of stars j 

was seen in New Jersey. I 

"Now for politics. I like Webster ! I like a Jackson hick- \ 

cry pole with a Tecumseh head on it, or rather I like Wm. I\L I 

Johnson. I know less of Van Buren than any other 'big fish' \ 

in the United States, but I shall not make my choice for a year j 

at least and, when I do, my vote shall not be lost. Webster i 

and Clay are the greatest men of our day, but whether they will j 

be the choice of the people is a matter of great doubt. They I 

are sure to politically damn themselves if they travel about and j 

make stump speeches. I should not vote for a Washington nor | 

a Jackson if I knew he harangued the populace. The people j 

know men and their character without being led like sheep. 1 

You northern people are perfect enthusiasts — as hot as Jacobite i 

Frenchmen. You spoil everyone that goes to New York. I i 
suppose you would give dinners to Calhoun if he were to visit 

New York. Such a fellow should not have a dodger from my I 

oven, and if he wanted water he could go to the devil to get j 

it; he should not have it from my hand! Are you not quite • 

surprised that the Jerseys have come to their senses and become ! 

all good Jackson men ? A pretty story, to have seventy-five | 

Jackson men in a hundred, in your Legislature ! As you get old j 

become wise. ..." i 


Abbelt, Gov. Leon, 148 
Abeel, David, 36 
Aberdeen, Scot., 5 

Duke of, 4 2 
Ackerman, 171 
Adims, Barney, 139 
K. K., 78 

W. I. Lincoln, 96, 324; article 
by, ]43; 146 
Aeton, Baron do. 236 
Asens. Kliza C, 148 

Col. Frederick G., obituary, 148 
Frederick G., Jr., 148 
James, 148 
Sylvester H. I.I.. 148 
Thomas, 148 
Aiken, Capt., 138 
Airship of 1817, 325 
Aitherine, Scot., 201. 265 
Albertson, George F. R., 77 
Alburtis, John, 1:37, 240 

Mary. 237 
Alexander, James, 3, 160, 194 
William, IGO; the baronetcy of, 

1-4; (see Stirling, Lord) 
Sir William, 1 
Alexandria, D. C. 200 
Alexandria, Va., 206 
Alfred the Great, 74 
Allegheny mountains, 53 
Allen, Andrew, 289 
Mrs. Charles F., 17G 
Mrs. Eugene T., 64 
John, 77 
Nancy, 280 
Samuel, 230 
Thomas, 290 
Allentown. 50. 167 
Alpaugh. John, 33 
Altona, Denmark, 198 
Ambo-point, G, 7. 8 
Amboy Sound, 228 
Amherst College, 248 
Ammerman, Albert, 33 
David, 32, 232 
David, Jr., 33 
Amwell, 82 

Anderson, Anna A., 149 
Daniel S.. 149 
Edward F., 66 
Eliza, 306 
Major, 305 
Nancy, 230 
Thomas, 309 
Thomas O., 212 
William T., 213, 214, 310 
Andre. Major John. 68, 141 
Andrews, Frank D., 176 
Anlbort, James, 25 
Anne, Queen. 219 
Anthony, Caleb, 37 
Antigua. Island of, 42, ib, 48 
AntUl. 42 

Edward, 23 
Major John, 23. 24 
Aquackanonk, 28, 31, 32, 135, 186, 

140. 227, 228. 229 
Argyle, Marquis of, 274 
Armstrong. Mr., 215, 310 
Captain, 213 
Betsey, 214 
Peggy, 214, 310 
Mrs. Robert V., 242 
William. 310 
Arnold, Captain, 229 

Gen. Benedict, 68, 88, 141, 142. 

Sheriff, 28 
Arrowsmith. John H., 33 
Asbury, 134 
Ashfleld, Mr., 45 
Aten family, notes on, 235 
Aaron. 237 
Adrian, 239. 240 
Adriaen Hendrickse, 235, et seq. 
Annetje, 237, 238, 239, 240 
Catlyne, 238, 240 
Dirck, 237, 239 
Elizabeth, 240 
Elsje, 238 
Feyte. 237 
George, 239, 240 
Ccrardus, 240 
Helena, 237, 238 
Hendrick, 236, 237, 239 
Henry J., 235 
Jacob, 238 
Jan, 238 

John, 237, 239. 240 
John, Jr.. 238 
Judith, 240 
Koosie, 238 
Maria, 238. 239. 240 
Marittee. 236, 238 
Martha, 238 
Paul, 237, 238, 240 
Pietertie. 237 
Roleph. 238 
Sarah, 239 
Sytie, 237 

Thomas, 236, 237, 238, 240 
Thomas Jr.. 237 
Voelkert. 238 
Aten's ferry, 239 
Atha, Henry G., 96 
Mrs. Henry G., 66 
Atkinson, M. Josephine, 242 
Atlee, William, 100, 101 
Atsion, 107 

Austin & Granger. 307 
Auten, Aaron, 238, 239 
Henry F., 239 
Nicholas. 36 
Ayers & Frelinghuysen, 37 
Ayres. Obadiah, 108 
Aytown family, 236 



Babbet, Justice, 229 
Bache, Richard, 221 
Backhouse, Mrs., 308 
Baidary, 197 

Baird, Mrs. David G., 242 
Ball, Mr., 29, 140 
Aaron, 139 
Abner, 245 
Edward, 245 
John, 139 
Stephen, 168 
Baldwin, Mr., .•?0G 
Mrs. 212, 214 
B. O., 30 
Elizabeth, 243 
Linas, 30 
Phoebe G., 152 
Capt. Samuel, 239 
Capt. Stephen. 139, 229 
Balfour, John, 269, Fort, 59 
Balmuto, Scot., 271 
Baltimore, Md., 61, 66, 81, 159, 

Bamber^-er, Loui.s, SO, 87, 96 
Bancroft, Georpe, 238 
Bangrert, Dr. George S., article by, 

Barbadoes. 43, 45, 48 
Barber family, 255 
Barbour, Thomas. 249 
Barclay, Adam (?), 5, 8 

David, 109, 174, 180, 1S7, 277, 278 

David, Jr., 5, 6, 8 

John, 5, 9, 11, 12. 119, 120, 174, 

180, 187, 189. 191 
Robert, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 119, 169, 
174, 179, 182, 332 
Barker, Jacob, 33 
Barklcy, Hugh, 33 
Barnegat, 29 

Barnes, Edward W., 90; obituary, 
Major, John, 21, 22 
Mary, 22 
Sarah H., 22 
Barnhart, Dr. John H., 206, 207 
Barnhill, John. Ill, 112, 113, 114 
Bartine, John D., 323 
Barton, Mr., 310 

Mrs., 310 
Basking Ridge, 1, 75, 135, 170, 232, 
oak at, 162 
Basse. Isle of, 268, 275 
Bassett, Mr., 214 
George T., 66 
George W., 66 
Bates, Barnabus, 222 

Capt., 28 
Batten, Mrs. George. 241 
Baxter, Charles J., C2 
Beach, Catherine L., 149 

Capt. Joseph, 28 
Beardslev. Arthur L., 243 
Elizabeth, 243 
Grace S.. 243 
Mabel B., obituarv, 243 
Theo. R., 243 
Thoo. S.. 243 
Bearfort Mountain, 303 
Beaufort, Duke of, 43 
Beavers, Colonel, 134 
Bebout, Benjamin, 77 

John, 77, 78 
Beck, John, 109, 112 
Becker, Isaac, 32 
Bedell, Isaac, 227, 231, 232 

John. 51 
Bedford, Pa., 51 
Beekman, Mrs. 152 

Dr. J. P., 78 
Bell, Adjutant, 31 
Catherine L., 148 
Edward S., 148 
Edward T., 90, 149; obituary, 

Jabez, 31, 32, 227, 228 
Mae A., 149 
Thornton B., 149 
Belcher, Governor, 21, 83, 194 
Bellis Familv. 82 
Belvidere, 1C3, 212, 214, 215, 234. 

298, 307. 308 
Eemerside, 183 

Benedict, Wm. H.. 158, 175; ar- 
ticles by, 97. 217 
Bentl-^y's mill, 54 
Benton, X. Y.. 134 
Berdan, Jacob, 140 

Jan, 140 
Bergen. 18. 30, 135 
Frank, 96 
James J.. 96 
Mrs. James J., 176 
J. G., 116 
Bergen Countv, 60, 182, 140 et seq. 
Bergen Point. 99, 112 

ferry at, 109. 
Berke'ey, Lord. 15, 16, 17, 19, 177, 

179, 186 
Bermuda, 46 
Bernards twsp., 134, 230 
Bernardsville, (see Vealtown), 78 
Berry, Gov., John. 19 

Major .John, 1S2 
Bertrand, Mr., 32 
Bessonett, Charles, 115 
Bethlehem. 156 
Bicklev, Mr., 4 7 
P.iddlc, Col. Clement, 141 
BidJeman, George, 212, 311 
Biles, Jonathan. 110 
Billop's ferry, 99 
Birdsall. Mr., 142 
Black. Colonel, 312 
Charles C, 91 
Mary, 312 
Blackfan. Agnes, 91. 242. 329 
Black River, 210 
Blackstone. Justice, 289 
Blackwell, Rev. Antoinette B., 70 
Blaen, John, 263 
Blaine, Col. Ephraim, 143 

James G.. 143 
Blair, Gilbert, 33 

Peter. 33 
B'anchard, Jane, 141 
Blazing Star inn, 27. 99, 112, 113. 

Bloc'ev, Pa., 307 
Bloomfiold, 246 
Hloominggrove, 212 
Blowers. John. 229 
Bockeys. Abraham. 108 
^Bockover, Lieut.. 28 
Podine, r;iizabeth. 240 
Boeart, 171 



Bogrert, Cornelius, 244 

Boggs, J. I^awrence, 80, 87, 89, 91, 

yo, S6, 324 
Bollen, Mr., 19 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, 197 
Bond, Colonel, 308 

Phineas, 289 

Polly, 212 
Boocock, Rev. Wm. H., 243, 245 

Mrs. Wm. H., 245. 
Boone, Governor, 219 

Daniel, 335 
Boonton, 167, 208, 209 
Bootli, Joseph E., 90 
Borcalow, HoHand, 240 
Borchcrling, Frederick A., 90 
Borden, J. Kdward, 90; obituary, 

Joseph, 102, 105, 114, 115, 116 

Joseph, Jr., 104, 105, 107, 110 
Bordentov.'n, 33, 102, 103, 104, 106, 

108, 115, 116 
Boston. Mass., 37, 217, 218, 221, 

222, 224, 249 
Bostwick, Capt., 35 
Eoswell, Andrew, 271 
Bott, Major, 28, 31 
Eoudinot, Elias, 88, 291 
Bound Brook, 28, 32, 69, 113, 135, 

139, 250 
Bound Creek, 15 
Bovey, Susan, 319 
Boycr, Charles S., 60, 80, 91 
Boylan, John, 135 
Bradford, William, 217, 220 
Bradley, Charles B., 96 
Brank.'some Castle, 261 
Brasier. Capt., 134 
Bray, John, 309 

Susan, 306 
Breeco (Breese), Bailey, 33 

Euphemia, 77 

James, 77 

William, 330 
Brennan. John P., 91 
Brett, Itev. Cornelius, obituary, 

Maud R., 245 

Philip M., 245 

Rev. Philip M., 243 

Mrs. Philip M., 245 

Sir Regrinald, 245 

Lieut. Roger, 244, 245 
Brevoort, Mr., 85 
Bridf^^ehampton, 31 
Bridseton, 167 
Bridgetown East, 167 
Bridgetown, West, 167 
Brinckerhof, 171 
Bristol, Pa., 114. 117, 220 
Brittin, Capt., 139 
Brockhurst, Philip F., 164 

Susanna, 104 
Broderick, Clara, 214 
Brodhead, Col.. 215, 305 

John, 305, 306 
Brookfield, Brown, 137 
Brookhaven. I.. I., 170. 335 
Brooklyn. X. Y., 60. 213 
Brooks, Mr., 103 

Noah, 88 
Brown. Doctor, 98 

Andrew. 3 6 

Benjamin, 143 

David. 232 

Capt. Stephen, 32, 228 
Bruen, Caleb, 29 
Brunson, Augustus J., 252 
Brush, Samuel, 119 
Bryant, Joseph, 118 

William Cullen, 70 
Bryantown, 135 
Bucoleuch, 261, 268 
Buchanan, Dr. J. Hervey, 330 
Buckingham, John, 110 
Budd, Captain, 228 

Thomas, 160 
Buffalo, N. Y., 243 
Bullman. Mr., 308 
Bull's ferry, 141 
Bunce, Ann, 310 
Bunn, Henry, 231 

Martin, 33 
Burlington, 97, 98, 99. 100, 101. 
105. 106, 107. 108, 114, 115. 116, 
100, 167, 169, 219, 220, 291. 

ancient door from. 160 
Burnet family, 83 

Dorothy, 335 

Duncan, 83 

Jonas, 171 

Joshua, 171 

Justus, 170 

Lieutenant, 30 

Mose.s, 170, 335 

Robert, 6, 12. 119. 120. 171 

Gov. William, 12. 194 

William. 170 
Burnett, Abner B., 150 

Catherine, 332 

Frances, 246 

Rachel, 150 

Sir Robert, 332 

William H., obituary, 245 
Burr, Aaron, 68 
Butler, John, 108, 109, 110 

Cabot, John, 13 

Sabastian, 13 
Calais, Me., 320 
Caldwell, Rev. James, 88 

Mrs. James, 28, 31. 137. 228 
Calhoun. John C. 336 
Camden County. 60 
Camp. Edward B.. 90 
Campbell. Alexander. 164 

Mrs. Edward S.. 242 

John, 187. 191 

Lord Neil. 191, 276 
Canfleld, Frederick A., 80, 87, 96; 

article by, 221 
Canterbury. Conn., 31 
Capron. Mr.s.. 208, 209 
Carleton, Sir Guy. 24 
Carlyle. Thomas. 75. 263, 264 
Carnes, Ephraim. 227, 229 
Carr, G. Howard. 278, 285 

Rebecca M.. 285 
Carson, Joseph, 109 

Thomas, 52 
Carter, William M.. 175 
Carteret, Sir George, 7, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 177, 179, 334 

Philip, 16, 17. 177, 179, 192 
Carthagena, 83 
Case, Clarence E., 89 

Philip, 33 
easier, Mary, 171 



: Peter, 171 

Phillipe, 171 
Castner, Jacob, 33 
Castor, Mr., 52 

Mrs. 52 
Caywood. Rhoda. 331 
Cazanove, Tiieophile, 207, 208, 209. 

Cedar Brook, 9 
Chanipe, John, 142 
Chandler. Capt., 137, 138 
Chang-ewater. 306 
Chapel Kill. N. C, 251, 252 
Chapman, Lewis, 33 
Charles I., 1, 2, 261. 264 
Charles II. 14, 19, 45, 75, 184, 261. 

264, 272, 273 
Charleston. S. C. 36, 56, 132, 218, 

221, 2S7 
Chatham, 28, 29. 30, 67. 139, 208 
Chepstow, 4 5 
Cherokee, Iowa, 319 
Chester, 31 
Chestnut Hill, Pa., 64 
Child, John, 312 
Chillecothe, Ohio. 52 
Christie. Mr., 310 

Adeline, 61 

Carrie W., 61 

Charlotte fBeemer), 61 

Jonathan L., 61 

Walter, 61 
Christian, Geo. B.. Jr., 325 
Churches, prraves in, 7G, 169 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 55, 159 
Clackmananshlre, 2 
Clark, Aaron, 78 

Abigail, 78 

Abraham, 78 

Andrew, 78 

Benjamin C, 78 

Betsey, 78 

Cavalier, 78 

Charles, 26 

Elizabeth, 78 

Hannah, 78 

James, 78 

John, 78 

Mrs. John S., 242 

Joseph. 78 

Mary, 78, 91 

Noah. 79 

Roger, 307 

Samuel, 78 

Sarah, 78 

Thomas. 78, 82 

Capt. Thomas. 83, 139 

"William. 78. 91 
Clay, Henry, 336 
Clayton. Mrs. Trueman H., 242 
Clement, John, 76 
Clinton. Sir Henry, 68 

Gen. James. 141 
Cloburne. Scot.. 269 
Closeburn, Scot.. 74 
Cluck, John. 104. 105 
Clunie, Scot., 4, 9. 190, 169 

Castle, 332 
Cobb, Andrew B.. 316 

Andrew L., obituary, 316 

Andrew L.. Jr.. 316 

Mrs. Andrew L.. 91 

Edward. 316 

Frances C. 316 

Frances E., 316 
Henry, 316 
Col. Lemuel. 316 
Marlon. 316 
Thomas, 139 
Cockloft Hall, 85 
Coddington, David, 167 
Codrington. Thomas. 69. 182 Christopher. 40 
Coe, Benjamin, 30 
Coert, Steven, 40 
Coerten, Albert, 40 
Colden, Alexander, 24 
Cadwallader, 24 

Elizabeth, 24 

Jane, 24 

Margaret, 24 
Cole, Josiah, 33 
Coliston. Scot.. 332 
Collins. Isaac. 88, 161 

V. Lansing, 207 
Coloma, Cal., 280, et seq. 
Colorados Islands. 127 
Communipaw ferry. 117 
Compton, Susan. 330 
Comstock, Sarah. 88 
Conaway, Benjamin. 33 
Condict. Dr. Lewis. 83 

Rev. record abstracts. 25, 134, 
Condit, Rev. Ira., 309 

Frances E.. 316 
Conewago, Pa.. 171 
Congar. Florence, 242 
ConklinpT. William J.. 89 
Connecticut Farms, 27, 28, 31, 137, 
228, 229 

River. 14 
Connelly, James C, 73. 175; ar- 
ticle by, 13 
Conover. Colonel, 305 

Ellinor, 214 

Garret C, 33 
Cook. Captain. 227. 228 

Major, 135 
Cooper. Mr., 308 

Colonel, 138 

Daniel, 110 
Cooper's ferry, 99 
Coo's ferry, 28 
Corkin, Mrs. E. J.. 240 
Cornbury. Governor, 97 
Cornelisse. Michael, 111 
Cornel, Sara Willemse, 40 
Cornell. Rev. William. 323 
Cornwallis, Lord, 287 
Corson. Joseph, 109 

Maria, 109 
Cortlandt, Colonel, 30 
Cortright, Simon. 310 
Corwin, Rev. Edward T., 248 

William, 232 
Coryell's ferry, 99 
Cosine. 171 

Ellen. 171 
Coult. Joseph. 323 
Coursen, Abraham. 216 

Van Tile, 212. 310 
Couse. Eva, 323 

Joseph I*., 323 
Cowan, Patrick, 107 
Cox. Ann. 68 

Rev. Mr.. 231 

Thomas. 287 
Coxe, Col. Daniel. 169 



Cozad. Capt., 227, 230 
Cozart, 171 
Cor.ens, Richard, 26 
Cragsmoor, N. Y., 319 
Craig, Captain, 25 

Frazee, 26, 27 

Jeremiah, 33 

Lieut. John. 33 

Laura M., 245 

Moses, 33 

Robert, 33 

Robert A., 33 
Cranbury, 97, 107. 115 
Crane, Colonel. 137, 213 

Alfred J., 144 

Azariah, 144 

Capt. Francis. 131 

Jasper. Sr., 144 

Jasper, Jr., 144 

John, 13C 

Joseph, 113 

Joseph, Sr., 144 

Nathaniel. 143. 144 ;■ 

Rev. Oliver. 144, 145 

William, 144. 145 i ,, 

Cranetown. 144 ii 

Crav/fordsville. Ind., 279 
Croell, Eiios, 335 \i:\ 

Nancy, 33 5 
Cromwell, Oliver, 43 
Crook, Anron, 33 ' 

Crooked Billet tavern, 98 I 

wharf, 98, 104. lOG. 116 J , 

Crosby, Lillian, 91 1 • 

Crosley, Samuel, 101 . 

Cross Creek, Pa., 53 ] . 

Crosswicks, 312, 97 '■■ 

brldg-e, 102 
Cuckoldstown, N. Y., 27 
Cumberland, 132 
Cummings, Hiram W., 230 

William, 230 
Cuningham, Thomas, 33 
Cunninghame, Col. David, 269 
Cupar, Scot., 261, 268 
Cutler, Mrs. AVillard W., 80. 89, 
96, 241 

Dacket. Mrs., 108 
Dagworthy, Captain John, 22 
Dalley, John, 220 
Danbury. 67 
Darlson. William, 135 
Davenport. Josiah F., 113 
Davidson, Kev. Robert, 42 
Davidson's tavern, 307 
Davies, John. 208 
Davis. Mr.. 288 

Lieut. Marshall, 83 

W. T.. 204 
Dawson. Alexander, 33 
Day. Captain. 227 

Nehemiah. 229 
Dayton. Mr.. 211 

Captain. 168 

General, 138 
Dearborn co., Ind., 77 
Deats, Hirsm E., 82, 95, 255, 278 
DeBaun. Abram, 61 
De Bow, Mr.. 225 
De Castro. Gen., 281 
Decker, Charles M., 90 
■ Isaac. 109 
Decker's ferry, 27 

Deckertown. 27, 212. 213, 214, 305, 

306, 311 
de Fontenoy. Marquis, 1, 159 
DeGrove. John, 116 
De Hart's Point. 25. 32 
De Heister, Gen.. 286 
Dejeau. General Count, 197 
Delaware. 97 

Delaware River. 14, 15, 163 
Delaware and Raritan Canal, 39 
Delaware township, 83 
Dellaman, Mr., 97 
Demarest, 171 

Demarest, Milton, 90; obituary,. 
Mary. 242 

De. W. K. S.. article by, 257 . 
Demayne, William, 116 
De Mott. Anthony, 237 
Johannes, 238 
Maria, 237, 238. 239 
Peter, 33 ; " 

Michael. 237 
Demund. Edward, 3a 
Dennis, John, 36 
Patrick. 135 

Samuel, 182 ; 

de Peyster, Abraham, 68 i 

De Puy. Mr., 215, 305 
de Russy, Mrs. C. A., 176 
Dewey, Capt. Samuel W., 222, 223 
Dexter. Jonathan, 307 
Dey mansion, 86, 140 
Anthony. 118, 140 
Derrick, 140, 141 
Gen. Richard, 140 
Col. Theunis, 140 
Theunis. 141 
Thomas. 141 
Dickerson, Mr., 310 
Mahlon, 222 
Cant. Thomas, 230 
Dickinson, Gen.. 32, 137, 227, 228 

Silas, 212 
Dimmick, Squire, 216 
Dimock, Weston P., 91 
Dimon, Gov., 202 
Disbrow, William S.. 80, 96 
' Ditmarse. Nicholas. 33 
Dixon. Mrs. George "T., 90 
Dixon's Mill. 52, 54 
Dobbs' ferry, 30 
"Dockwra, William, 182, 187 
Dod, Capt., 227 
Dodd. Lydia. 66 
Doesburg, Hoi.. 235. 240 
D'Olier, Mis.s Alice C, 241 
Dolphin Head. 131 
Doremus. Eleanor O., 66 
Elias O.. 66 
Elizabeth U., 66 
Frederick H., 90; obituary, 66 
Henry M.. 90; obituary, 150 
Johannes. 140 
Peter G., 150 
Susanna, 150 
Dorsey. H. W.. 199 
Dote. Isaac, 108, 109 
Dotz. Capt. Stephen, 32 
Doughty. Major. 21)2 
Douglas. William. 109 
Dow, Hardenberg, 33 

Henry, 33 
Dowbey, I. M., 314 



Downer, Robert. 135 
Downey, John, 112 
Doylestown, Pa., 307 
Drake, family, 76 

Colonel, 31, 213, 228 

Elisha, 77 

James, 116, 117 

Wilbur A., 77 
Drummond, Anne, 261 

John, 184 

Sir John, 261, 263, 274 

James, 184 
Duboise, Mrs. 214 
Duchess of Dubarry, 203 
Duffy, Michael, 221 
Duke of York, 193, 335 
Dumfrieshlro, Scot., 74 
Dumon, vTohn, 3 3 
Dunks ferry, 110, 313 
Dundas, Capt., 131 
Dunham, Capt. Elisha, 26 

Colonel, i;'6 
Dunnottar Castle, 274, 275, 276 
Durand, Wallace, 90 
Duryee, Capt., 134 
Dusenbury, family, 240 
Duychinck, Major, 137 

Richard, 33 

William, 33 

Eagleswood Academy, 153 

Earl of Melfort, 1S4 

Earl of Perth, 1S4 

Easton, Pa., 54, 156, 208, 210, 307, 

East Orang-e, 66, 177 
Eatontown, 149 
Eben, Captain, 146 
Eberhard. C. F., 95 
Eden, Governor. 290 
Edentown, X. C, 36 
Edgar, Clarkson, 78 
Edg-e, Walter E., 85 
Edinburgh, Scot., 265, 266, 268, 

Edin river, 266, 271 
Edin's head, Scot.. 271 
Edmondson, William, 110 
Edsall, Capt., 139 
Edward VII, 245 
Edwards. Gov. Edw. I., 63, 89 
Eisle, John C, 322 
Ellzabethport. 220 
Elizabeth (Elizabethtown), 11, 

14, 18, 19, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 

32, 70. 97, 109, 113, 114, 116, 

117, 118, 140, 166, 167, 168, 
178, 179. 182, 183, 191. 194, 213, 
228 229 232 291, 309 

Elizabethtown "Poin't' 25. 37. 38, 99. 

118, 135, 211, 213, 219, 227, 228. 

ferry at. 109 
Ellicott. P:iias, 66 

Margaret, 66 
Ellin, William, 290 
Elliott, Com. J. D., 221. 222 
Elmendorf, Blandina, 323 
Elmer, Rev., 28 
Emott, James, 181 
English. D., 88 
Englishtown, 134 
Ennis, Mr., 216 

James. 227 
Esher. Lord, 245 

Esler, John, 229 
Esopus, N. Y., 230 
Eugenie, Empress, 256 
Everett, Mass., 249 
Everett, Mrs. John D., 91 

Faber, Dr. John, 90 
Faesch, Mr., 209 
Fairbanks, Richard, 217 
Fairchild, Ab.. 232 
Farmer, Capt. Robert, 83 
Farrand, Samuel, 229 
Fellows, A. F.. 154 
Felmly, John, 33 

Moses, 33 
Fenton, William, 52 
Fenwick, John. 75 
Ferguson. Mr.. 5 
Ferris, Mr.. 209 
Fewsmith, Dr. Joseph, 90 
Field, Alia P., 63 

Cyrus W., 68 
Fielder, Governor, 62 
Fifeshire, Scot., 261 
Finley, Rev. Dr., 326 
Fisher. Isaac, 39 

Low, 39 
Fiske, Admiral, 315 
Fitz Randolph, Stelle, 91 (see 

Flanders, 216 
Flatbush. L. I., 236 
Flatlands, 40 
Flemington, 156, 167 
Fletcher, Governor, 218 
Florida, Gulf of, 125. 131 
Followfield, Pa., 51. 53 
Folsom. Joseph F., 81, 96, 143, 
207. 242; articles by, 207, 293 
Folwell, Joseph, 115 
Forbes, Arthur. 5, 8, 180, 187 
Ford, Colonel, 31. 230 

Jacob. 135 

Judge, 38 
Forman, Gen.. 34, 35 

Brook. 221 
Forsyth, James, 275 
Fort Chambers, 231 
Fort Leavenworth, 65 
Fort McHenry, 81 
Fort, Gov. John Franklin, 90 
Foss, Calvin W.. 207 
Foster's Meadows, L. I., 237 
Four Lane's End. 116 
Fowler. Dr., 306 
Fox, John, 220 
Frankford. 49, 212, 213, 214, 305, 

306. 308, 310 
Franklin, 163, 306 
Franklin. Benjamin, 88, 98, 113, 
160, 210, 221 

Gov. William. 22 
Freehold, 89, 120 
Frelinghuysen, Gen. Fred., 32, 

136, 137, 228 
Fremont. John C, 280 
French, Robert, 245 
Fry, Mr.. 54 

Fulkerson. Lieut. William, 33 
Fullerton, Catherine, 332 

John, 332 

Robert. 187. 189 

Thomas. 187, 189, 191, 332 
Fulton, Robert. 37 



Gamble, Col. John M., 79 
Ganish, Michael, 35 
Gardner, C. C, 78 
Garretson family, 140 
Garrigues, Jacob, 28 

John. 28 
Gaston, Dr. Samuel K., 33 
Gates, Gen. Horatio, 142 

Dr. Merrill E.. 25S 
Gay. William, 33 
Gedney, George J., 176 
George, Nicholas, 105 

Viscount Tarbet, 274, 276 
Germain, Lord George, 287 

Battle of, 34 
Germantown, 34, 35 
German Valley, 210 
Gerould, J. T., 73 
Gibbons, Thomas, 37, 16C 

William, 119 
Gibson, Elizabeth, 144 

William, 7 
Gifford, Archer, 209 
Gillan, Capt., 30 
Gilston, Scot., 274 
Gla.sgow, Scot., 262 
G'.enwood, 164 
G!cn\vood Springs, Col., 243 
Gloucester, 100, 312, 313 
Gnichtel, Frederick W., 1G6 
Godfrey, Dr. Carlos E., 84, 161, 

Colder, Michael, 33 
Gomez, 13 

Goode, G. Brown, 199 
Goodw in. Rev. Hannibal, 314 
Gordon, 42, 215, 262 

family, 231 

Major, 216 

Augustin, 10, 169 

Charles, 332 

Duchess of. 43, 44, 45 

Helen. 9 

Dr. John, 332 

Katherine, 332 

Sir Ludowick, 169, 332 

Margaret, 169 

Robert, 4, 9, 11, 120, 169, 190, 

Sir Robert, 332 

Thomas. 9, 120, 169, 187, 189, 
191, 331. 332 

William. 169 
Gordonstone, Scot., 332 
Goshen, K. Y., 215, 30C, 308. 310 
Gottheil, Prof. Richard J. H., 72 
Gouveneur, 42 
Gouverneur, Nicholas, 85 
Graham, 42 

Widow, 136 

Isabella, 47 

James. 47 
Grandin. Rev. Wm., 305 
Granger. John, 310 
Grant, Rev.. 309 

George. 135 

Gen. L'lvsses S.. 232, 235 
Granville Center, Mass., 257 
Gray, Dr., 207 

Lord, 5 
Green, Chancellor. 74 
Greene. Gen. Nathaniel, 24, 142, 

Greonsburg, Pa., 51 
Greenwood Lake, 296 

Grice, Capt., 288 

Griffith, Lydia, 78 

Griggs, Samuel. 216 

Griggstown. 319 

Groome, Samuel, 5, 8, 12, 179, 181, 

182, 183, 185 
Groszmann, Maximilian P. E., 176 
Grummond, Mr., 117 
Guest. Moses. 36 
Guinness. Dr.. 215 
Gummere, Mrs. Francis G., 71 
Gustin. Mr., 215 
Gysbertsen, Lubbert, 236 

Haasis, Mrs. A., 204 

Habir, Captain, 124 

Hackensack, 32, 49. 60, 61, 112^ 

138. 167. 227, 228, 229, 230 
Hackensack river. 9b 
Hackettstown, 167, 313 
Hackquin, Capt., 57, 59, 123, 124,. 

125, 126, 133, 158 
Haddonfield, 312 
Hadfield. 92 
Hagaman, Daniel H., 33 

Dennis, 33 1 

Simon, Jr.. 33 
Hagar, Arthur P., 247 

Clara H.. 247 

George J., 90; obituary, 246 

Jotham M., 246 
Haggerty. Mr., 310 

Capt., 212 

John, 213 

Mary, 310 

Nancy, 214 

Polly, 214 
Haig. William. 183, 186 
Haight, Joseph, 114 
Hainer, John, 25 
Haines, Quartermaster. 135 
Haines. Henry S., 88, IGO 

Margaret T., 242 
Haldimand, Gen., 287 
Half Moon Battery. 104 
Hall, Idelette L., 60 

Jacob, 135 

John, 134 

Ogden, 141 
Hallhill, Scot., 260, 272 
Hallock, Mrs. Isabella H., 175 
Halsey, Nathaniel, 139 
Halstead, Mr., 305 

Job S., 214, 215 

Matthias. 168 

Robert, 215 
Halstead's Point, 25 
Halsted, Major George B., 88 
Hamburg, 167, 213. 214. 306 
Hamilton, Alexander, US 

Gov. Andrew, 97, 172, 173, 191, 

John, 22 

Col. John, 218, 219, 221 

Col. Morris, 84 

Wm.. 30 7, 30 8 
Hamilton College, 63 
Hancock, Joseph, 107 
Hand, Gen. Edward. 141 
Hankinson. Henry. 215 
Pl.nnovcr, 29, 20S, 209 
Harding, Pres. Warren G., 89, 324, 

William, 288 



Harker, Capt.. 129 
Harlingen, 41 
JHarned, John F.. 175 

Julia, 150 
Harris, Dr. 202, 203, 204 
Harrisburg, Pa., f.l, 306 
Harrison, 77 

Captain, 56. 123, 124 

Thomas, 30 
Hart, Rev. John, 71 

Joseph, 114, 115 
Hartshorne, Richard, 182 
Harvard University, 64, 260 
Hashmad Jung, 75 
Haskin, Caot., 139 
Hatfield, Capt. Cornelius, 168 

John S., 168 
Hathavi^av. Capt., 2S 
Havana, 57, 5S. 125 
Havorford, Pa., 71. 320 

College, 207 
Haverstraw, N. Y., 138 
Hav,-aii, 79 

Hav/thorr.den, Scot., 261, 263 
Hay, John, 313 
Hays, Major, 2y, 30, 136, 137 
Hay's inn, 30 7 
Hayc.s. Lieut., 232 

David A., 92, 95 
Hayhur.^t, Waltor F„ 80, 278 
Heard, Gen.. 31, 137, 228 
Hedges. Mr., 24.') 
Hecs, Holland. 41 
Hell Gate, N. Y.. 136 
Hempstead, N. Y., 136 
Hendric. Dr. Joseph I., 214, 306 
Heiidrickson, I'eter, 134 
Hendrickzen, Hendrick, 240 

Grietje, 240 

Johannes. 240 
Hennion David D., 140 
Henry VII. 13 
Henry, Prince of Wales, 1 
Henry, Daniel, 33 

David. 313 

Prof. Joseph, 156 
Herbert Jacob V. W., 335 
Herpers, Ferdinand J., 91 

Henry F.. 91 
He-ston. Alfred M., 91 
Hetfield, Mr., 29 

Sara, 78 
Heusser, Albert H., 5!) 
Heyer, Col. Jacob, 116, 137 
Hiawatha, Kans., 235 
Higbee, Harrison S.. 317 

James S., obituary, 317 
Hight, David. 136 

John A., 136 
Hill. Charity, 231 

Joanna, 321 

John, 231 

Margaret, 231 

Thomas, 231 

Capt. Thomas, 230, 231 
Hilliken's ferry, 109 
Hillsdale. 77 
Hillyer, Simon. 36 
Historical Societies in New Jer- 
sey, 175 
Hoboken, 308 
Hoes, Rev. John C. F., 248 

Rev. R. Randall, obituary, 248 

Mrs. R. Randall, 256 
Hoffman, Josiah Ogden, 118 

Holcomb family, 255 

Holcombe, Dr. R. C, 255 

Holland, 14 

Holly. Mr.. 213 

Holman, Mrs. Geo. W., Jr., 242 

Francis, 108, 109 
Holmes, Major, Asher, 3 4, 35 

Judge, 311 

John, 35 

Mrs. Sarah, 35 
Holten, Charlotte, 154 
Homans. Joel, 2li9 
Home, Archibald. 170 
Homes, Major, 5 
Honeyman, A. Van Doren, 80, S6, 
96, 175, 235 

Mrs. A. Vazi Doren, 91 

William H.. 33 
Hood, Vivian P., 60 
Hoops, Col., 136 
Hooton, Thomas, 100 
Hope, 312 

College, 244 
Hopewell. 88, 206 
Hopkins. Mrs. 310 

Harvey S.. 84 

Hector, 310 

Rebecca, 310 
Hopper, Ida E., 152 

Judge John, 152 

Mary A., 152 

Robert I., obituary, 152 
Hoppin, Washington, 201 

C. A., 84 
Hornbeck, Joseph^ 311 
Horner, Airs. Henry J., 242 
Hornor, R. E.. 204 
Horton. David, 32 

Capt. Nathaniel, 31, 228 
Hot Springs, Ark., 65 
Hover, Ezekiel, 51, 52 

Joseph, 52 

Manuel, 51 

Susannah, 49 
Howe, Dr. Charles M., 90 

Gen. Robert, 141 

Sir William. 6S, 286, 289 
Howell, Mrs. Caroline S., 91 

Edward, 137 

Mrs. Henry R., 241, 242 

John H. B., 154 

Levi, 50. 212. 216, 310 

Mrs. Samuel C. 242 

Capt. Silas. 230. 293 
Hubbard, Emma L.. 247 
Hudibras tavern, 113 
Hudnut, Miss Isabelle, 241, 242, 

Hudson, Henry, 13 
Hudson River. 13, 15, 37, 121 
Hugg, Mr., 313 
Hughes, Doctor, 306 

Charles E., 81 

Ida E., 152 

Nancy, 306 
Hulbert, Martha. 88 
Hull, Mr., 305, 310 

Harrie T., 90 

Mrs. Lola M., 154 

Samuel. 310 

Mrs. Samuel. 310 
Hunt. Doctor. 50. 213, 310 

Major David, 118 

Enoch, 33 

Stephen, 33 



Kunter, GoYcrnor, 194 

Mary S., 88 

William, 221 
Hunterdon County, 22. 49, 134 
Hurd, Gen., 136 
Hutchins, Annie M., 249 
Hutton, Richard, 276 

Thomas, 103 
Hyderabad, Princess of, 75 
Hver, Jacob, 113 
Hyers, Col. Jacob, 116, 137 

Imhoff, C. M., 91 
Imlay, Mary A., 152 
Indian Queen inn, 114, 115 
Indian hostilities, 292 

langruapes, 72 

relics, 330 
Indianapolis, Ind., 62 
Ingleton, Mary K., 95 
Ingroldsby, Governor, 194 
Inians John 181, 334 
Inians ferry, 99 
Inniss, Rev. Alexander, 331 
Insley, Mr., 240 
International Mercantile Marine 

Co., 67 
Irvine, Alexander, 331 

Catherine, 331 

John, 33 

William, 33 

Gen. William, 141 
Irving, Washington, 70, 85 

Jackson, Mich., 62, 63 

Gen. Andrew, 202, 336. 221 
Jacobus, Capt. James, 229 
Jacques, Col., 25, 26, 137 
Jaeger, Prof. Benedict, 196 
Jamaica Island, 46 
Jamaica, N. Y., 136 
James, Mr., 78 
James I, 1 
James VI, 1, 261 
James VII, 184 
Jamieson, A. F., 154 
Jansen, Charles W., 117 
Jay, Gov. John, 165 

Sarah V. B., 165 
Jenkins, Captain, 38 
Jennings. Samuel, 88, 160 
Jeroloman, Captain, 30 

John, 231 
Jersey City, 14, 159 
Jobstown, 312 

Johns Hopkin's University, 258 
Johnson, David, 211 

Dinah, 240 

George, 116, 117 

Gershom, 116 

Henry. 50, 215 

Capt. Henry, 49 

Hetty, 306 

Jesse, 109 

John, 49, 50, 211, 215, 216, 232, 
305, 311, 312. 313 

Jonathan, 212 

Mary, 255 

Rachel, 255 

Robert, 255 

Samuel, 50, 123, 124, 305, 307, 

William, 49 

■William M., 49, 96, 336 

Lieut. Wilson, 231 
Johnsonburg, 50, 167. 211, 212, 

215, 308, 321 
Johnston, Arthur, 262 

Col. John, 140 

Judge Samuel, 171 
Johnstone, Eupham S., 278 

James, 187, 191 

Dr. John, 194, 277 
Jones, Charles H., 90 

E. Alfred, articles by, 21, 2SG 

Jeffery, 20 

Mrs. S. T., 70 

Kandern, Baden, 280 

Kean, 42 

Kearny family, 42 

James L., obituary, 152 

Com. Lawrence, 152 

Gen. Philip, 2*5 
Kehoe, Miss Irene I., 91 
Keimer, Samuel, 160 
Keith, George, 120. 186, 274 
Kelley, Ebenezer T., 255 

Eunice, 255 

Samuel, 255 
Kelsey, Frederick W., 80 

Rayner W., 207 
Kendall, Dr. Calvin N., 90, 91; 
obituary, 61 

David W., 64 

Edward AI.. 61 

Leonard J., 62 

Louis F-. 155 

Mary, 155 

Sarah M.. 62 
Kennedy, Andrew, 269 

Archibald, 33 

Capt. Archibald, 68 

William, 310 
Kensington, 288 
Kent, Eng., 316 
Keteltas, Catharine, 165 

Peter, 165 
Kidder, Camillus G., 90; obituary, 

Herrick, G. F., 64 

Jerome F., 64 
Kierstead, Lieut. Lucas, 140 
Killan, Victor, 230 
Kil von Kull. 99 
Kimble, Caleb, 231 
King. Mr.. 23 2 

Jerry, 28 

John A., 260 

Jud.. 28 
Kingman's ferry. 31 
Kingston. N. Y., 237, 248 

records, 256 
Kinney. Captain, 215, 229 

Thomas T., 83 
Kinsey's Corner. 26 
Klrkendell, Mr.. 51 
Kirkpatrick, family in Scotland, 
74. 256 

Achilles, 75 

Alex, de L., 256 

Andrew, 3S, 307 

Sir Charles S., 75 

Gen. E. W.. 333 

Ivone de. 74 

James, 333 

John, 333 

Margaret, 332 



Sir Thomas, 75 

WilUam. 332 

W. P.. 75 
Kirktoune, James, 268 
Klim, Peter, 310 
Kline. Barnet D., 36 
Knig-htspottie, Scot., 261 
Kniphausen, General, 137 
Knowlton, 214 

records of, 84 
Knox, Gen. Henry, 223, 224, 225, 

headquarters of, 253 

Lady I.ucy, 253, 254 
Knoxboro, N. Y., 61 
Koeck, Peter, 67 
Kortright, Capt. John, 165 

Lafayette, General, 69. 164, 253 

George \V., 145 
Lafayette College, 206 
Laing, Capt. John, 26, 29, 119. 120 
■Lambertville. 99, 113, 278, 285 
La Monte, Caroline B., 69 

George M., 69 
Lancaster, Pa., 159 
Lane, Derrick, 33 
Guisberl, 33 
John. 33 
Langstraat, Adaranche, 239 
, Lansbury, Mr., 211, 213 
« Larrison, James, 134 
Mahlon, 134 
Mary. 134 
Sylvester, 134 
Thomas. 134 
Lathrop, Emma G., 321 
Latimer. Mr., 2 22 
Laud, Archbishop, 263 
Lauderdale, Duke of, 267 
Lawrence, Mr., 42, 306 
Judge. 214 
Col. Elisha, 24 
Maria, 214 
Thomas, 334 
Lawrenceville, 155 

Academy, 65 
Lawrie, Gawn, 4. 5, 9. 11. 12, 180, 

182, 183, 185, 186. 189 
Layton. Capt.. 227 
Leavenworth, Kansas, 65 
Lebanon, 49 
Lebanon, Pa., 51 
Leconte, Major, 202 
Lee, Judge, 313 
Major Henry, 142 
Gen. Charles, 135, 229 
Israel, 28, 29 
William, 29 
Lefferts, Elizabeth Morris, 42 
Lehigh river, 50 
Leith, Scot.. 275 
Lennington, Mary. 165 
Lenturg. Scot., 331 
Lersner, Clarence L., 91 
Le Rue family. 88 
Lethenty, Scot., 12. 119 
Letson, Joseph, 118 
Lewis. Abigail. 141 
Edmund, 88 
Edward, 335 
Lexington, Ky., 291. 292 
Leys. Scot.. 332 
.Llese, Frederick C, 148 

Lincoln. Henry, 223 
Martin, 56 
William, 223 
Lindabury, Mrs. Richard V., 243 
Linn, Major James, 135 
James, 165 

John 212. 216. 310. 311 
Mary L., 165 
Lines. Bishop Edwin S., 79, 95 
Linoleumville, 109 
Lippincott, Horace M., 314 
Lititz, Pa.. 280 
Little, Capt. Eliakim, 139 
Little Egg Harbor, 8, 121 
Little Falls, 141 
Little Rock, Ark.. 240 
Livingston. 37 
Ann, 165 
Catharine, 165 
Edward B., 164 
Elizabeth C, 165 
Henry B., 82, 165, 166 
John, 165 
John L., 165 
John R., 37 
Judith, 165, 166 
Mary, 165 
Philip, 164 
Philip F., 165. 166 
Philip V. B.. 165 
Robert. 155 
Robert J.. 37 
Sarah V. B., 165 
Susanna, 165 
Gov. William, 82, 194; family of, 

family of, 164 
William, 165 
William, Jr., 82 
Lock, John, 310 
Lodge, Henry C, 81 
Logan, Capt. William, 135 
Logansville, 134 
London, Eng., 5, 42, 65 
Long, Mr., 25 

Thomas, 168 
Longcope, Samuel, 307, 308 
Longfield. Cornelius, 334 
Long Hill, 28 
Long Island, 14, 98 

Battle of, 31. 229, 232 
Long Pond, 296, 303 
Longstreet, Captain, 136 
Aaron, 117 
Col. Charles, 212 
(See Langstraat) 
Long Valley, 208 
Loree, Job, 333, 230 
Louis XV, 203 
Louisiana Territory. 56 
Louisville. Ky.. 159, 293 
Love, Job 333 (see Loree) 
Lovelace, Governor. 19, 217, 218 
Lowery, Mr., 312 
Loyalton. S. D., 240 
Lubbertse, Elizabeth, 236. 238 

Gysbert, 236 
Ludlow. Ann, 165 
Ann W.. 165 
C 28 

Rev. Gabriel, 71 
Gabriel H.. 165 ^^^ ^^^ 

Lum, Charles M.. 80, 96, 324, 325 

Mrs. Charles M.. 242 
Luse (Luce). Captain. 227, 228 
Damaris, 232 



Capt. Henry. 256 

Col. Nathan, 31, 32, 227, 228 

Shobal, 33 
Lutz. Dr. F. E., 207 
Lynn, Mass., 245 
Lyon, Adrian, 1S3 

Henry, 1S3 

Joseph, 30 

Kebecca, IS, 82 
l^yons, Nathaniel, 135 

MG.A.dams, William, 25 

McBride, John. 33 

McOabe, Capt.. 57, 58 

McCalea, Mr.. SOS 

McCarier & English, 320 

McCloud. Lord, l74, 276 

McColiuni, Maiachi, 230 

McCoy, Captain. 135, 1S6, 231, 232 

MoCullen & Johnson, 213 

McCuliough, William, 216 

William C, 212 
McDermott, Frank P., 90 
McL'>ougal, Gen., 34 
McGinnis, John, 7S 
McGregor, Mrs. Austin H., 242 

David, 12, 255, 3 34; article by, 

Capt. Patrick, 187 
Mclntyre, Ann, 214 
McKeesport, Fa., 54 
McKinney, Texas, 333 
Mcpherson, Cnauncey R., 329 

Mrs. William, 32J 
Macdonald, Alexander, 2 
Mackay, J. G., 2G2 
Mackenzie, George, 274 ' 

MacKie, Mrs. Arthur H., 242 
MacLean, President, 64 
JIacWhorter, Rev. Alexander, 88 
Magie, Henrietta G., 242 

William J., 13, 15 
Maine, University of, 63 
Maiden, Mass., 249 
Man, Samuel, 168 
Manheim, Germany, 326 
Manwarring, Capt., 57, 59, 122 
Maplewood, 245 
Marksboroug-h, 306 
Marne, Battle of the, 145 
Marr, Charles, 209 
Marselis, Ide, 251 

Mary, 251 
Marshall, Abigail, 278 

Mary, 278 

Philip, 278 

Rebecca, 278 

Sarah, 278 

Sarah H., 278 
Marshall's Corner, 278 
Martin, Colonel, 31 
Mary of Guise, 262 
Mary, Queen of Scots., 272 
Mather, Edith H., article by, 260 
Matson, John. 100 
Matthews, Gov. John, 141 
Maurer, Charles I^., 329 
Maxwell, Capt. John, 235 
Maxwell, Gen. William, 138 
Maybry, Mr., 215 
Mayham, Rav E., 91 
Meddard, Colonel, 32 
Meeker, Major Samuel, 231 
Mephee, William. 102 
Mehelm, Col. John, 32 

Melick, Aaron, 33 

Capt. Daniel, 33 
Melville, Sir James, 260. 270 

Margaret, 260, 2C1 
Mendham, 229, 230, 233 
Meredith, Albert B., 60 
Mersereau, David, 109 

John, 109, 111, 113, 114, 115 

Joshua, 109 

Maria Corson, 109 
Mesier, Abraham, 111 
Messier, Cornelius, 33 

William, 33 
Metuchen, 330 
Mexico, Bay of, 125 
Miami, Ohio, 292 
Michigan University, 258 
Mickle family, 256 
Middagh, Dirck, 239 

Col. Derrick, 252 

Jacobje, 239 

Dr. Richard, 252 
Middle Smithfield, 308 
Middletown, X. Y., 18, SI, 110, 1S2 
Middletown Point, 1G7 
Milford, Pa., 212, 215, 305, 310, 

Milledoler, Rev. Philip, 243 
Miller, Eugene, 91 

Capt. Melvyn, 78 
Miller's tavern, 210 
Millington, 66 
Mills, Captain, 28 

John, 28 
Millstone, 229 
Milne, Capt., 289 
Milton, Mr., 136 
■Mingo, Pa., 53 
Minnesota. University of, 73 
Minnisink. 31, 32, 163, 306, 308. 
Minton, Samuel, 230 

Stephen D., 33 
Minuit. Peter, 67 
Mississippi, 55 

River, 55 
Mizner, John, 33 
Moffat, Prof., 20 6 
Monipenny, Margaret, 261, 265 
Monmouth, P. O., 167 

County, 46, 120 

Battle of, 232 

Duke of, 5 
Monmouthshire, 42, 43, 45 
Monongahela river, 51, 53 
Monroe, N. Y., 144 
Montague, 87, 308, 311 

Lord, 287 

township, 139 
Montclair, 145, 146 

Washington Headquarters at, 
Montfort, 171 
Montgomery, N. Y., 244 
Montrose, Marquis of, 47 
^loody's rock, 163 
Moon, James. luO, 102 
Moore, Mr., 19 

Lieut. Amos., 137 

Captain, 137 

Colonel, 103 

Emma Louise, 148 

John, 76 

Tabitha, 76 
Moraira Town, 135 
Mordaunt. Mary, 44 





Moreau, Gen., 313 
Morehead, Joseph, 240 
Morehouse, David, 29 
Morgan, Charles, 335 

Gen. Daniel, 335 - 

Jonathan, 139 
Morris family, 41 

Mrs.. 112 

l-,ewis, 41, 42, 182, 194 

Col. John, 23, 48 

Prof. Richard, 176 

Robert, 41 

Robert Hunter, 41 

Valentine, 41, 42 

William, 42 ^ 

Mrs. William McK., 176 
Morris county, 29, 31, 134 
Morrisania, 46, 48 
Morris Mills, 2d 

Morrison, Dr. Ephraim, 90; obit- 
uary, 153 

Dr. Frank, 154 

Dr. John B., 154 

Lola, 154 
Morri.stown, 28, 31, 136, 139, 167, 
208, 209, 211, 213, 223, 229, 
230, 309, 316, 321 
Mortlett, Hannah, 77 
Morrow, Judge William H., 163 
Morse, Capt. Amos, 27, 28, 137 
Moschel, Georg-e, 108 
Mott, Captain, 35 
Mount Freedom, 88 
Mount Holly, 71, 110, 248 
Mount Hope, 209 
Mount Vernon, Va., 252 
Muckshaw, 163 
Mudie. David, 187, 189, 191 
Muhlenberg-, Gen., 308 
Mulford, Ananias, 33 

Capt. Thomas. 26 
Mullin, John, 33 
Mullinor, Jo., 307 
Mundy, Matilda, 244 
Munsee cemetery, 87 
Murphy, Gov. Franklin, 322 

John, 118 
Murray, Joseph, 194 
Mu.sconetcong, 210. 312 
Mutchler, A. J., 207 
Myers, William Starr, 89 

Nark (?), 5 

Natchez. Miss, 55, 57, 159 

Nazareth, Pa., 50 

Noafie, John. 88, 140, 240; article 

by, 14 
Neale, Mr., 30 
Captain, 30 
Thomas, 217 
Necrology of members, 60, 148. 

243, 316 
Neilson, James, 220 
Nelson, William, 23, 82, 83, 88 
Mrs. William. 242 
■s.Neshanic church centennial, 71 
Netherland, New, 13 
Nevius, Jannetje, 238 

Peter I., 37 
New Amsterdam, 235 
Newark, 18, 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 66, 
113, 114, 115. l.-^S, 148, 150. 167, 
207. 208, 209, 216, 229, 243, 244, 
245, 317, 320, 321 
Newark Mountains. 28 

Newark Neck, 30 
New Barbadoes, 182 
New Bedford, 37 
New Bern, N. C, 36, 153 
New Blazing Star ferry, 109 
■■New Brunswick, 22, 28, 42, 97, 99 
101, 102, 103, 104, 106. 112, 
114, 116, 118, 119. 139, 140, 158. 
167, 181, 196, 210, 216, 219, 
220, 228, 244. 257, 259. 308. 
Newburgh. N. Y.. 253 
New Germantown, 32, 167 
New Hampshire, 141 
New Haven, Conn., 14, 62 
-New Jersey, Early travel in, 97 
Historical Society, annual 
meeting, 79 ; officers for 1921- 
•22, 96 
Patriotic, etc., Societies in, 175 
Witches in, 293 
New Market, 250 
New Orleans, 49, 51. 55. 56. 158, 

159, 211, 335 
New Perth. 11 
Newport, R. I., 36 
Nev/port, Va., 218 
New Rochelle. N. Y., 248 
New Scotland. 2 

Newton, 31, 153. 154, 163, 167, 210, 
211, 214, 306, 308, 309, 310, 311, 
313, 321, 322 
New Utrecht, L. I., 40 
New Vernon, 335 
New Village, 208 

New York City, 31, 97, 99, 100, 
101, 103. 113, IIG, 119. 135. 159, 

193, 218, 219 
Sugar House, 25 
University, 244 
Nichols, Mr., 20, 26 
Captain, 122, 29 
Gov. Richard, 7, 14. 15, 16. 193, 

334, 335 
H. Rose, 242 
Walter S., 90 
Nixon, Horace F., 176 
Nomanock, fort, 163 
Norfolk, Va., 289 
Norris, Ziba, 229. 230 
North Bend, Ind., 293 
Northampton, 71 
Norton. Captain, 228 
Nottingham, 51 
Nova Scotia, 1, 2, 3, 24 
Nyack, N. Y., 61, 138 

Oberg, Lieut., 147 

O'Brien, Daniel, 103, 104, 106 

Ogden, Captain, 30 

Colonel, 168 

Judge, 30 

Aaron, 166, 307 

Charles. 33 

John, 29 

Rebecca, 214 

Robert, 215 

Mrs. Sydney N., 242 
Ogdensburg mine, 163, 164 
O'Harra's tavern, 209 
Ohio. 134 

Oneida county, N. Y., 61 
Opdike, Capt. Albert, 134 
Orange, 64 66 



Orange county. N. Y., 30 
Osborn, Mr., 124 

Eliza C, 148 : 

Osborne. Mrs., 84 
Osgood, Samuel, 221 
Otis, Miss Caroline, 89 
Owen, Doctor, 5 
Oxford Furnace, 306 

Pahaquarry, 163, 308 
Palisades, 14 
Paramus, 229 
Pardon, Mr., 19 
Parker, A. C, 88 

Charles W.. 96 

James, 161, 221 

Capt. John, 136 

Nathaniel, 108 
Parkhurst, Stephen, 29 
Parrish, John, 33 
Parsippany, 139, 229, 316 
Parsons, Mr., 122 

Gen. Samuel H., 141 - 
Passaic, 112 

county, 72 

falls, 142 

river, 15, 99 
Paterson, 59, 70, 76, 148. 208, 231 
Paterson, Gen. John, 141 

William, 77, 318 

William B., 77 
Patin, Mr., 209 
Patterson, George, 77 
Paul, Mrs., 215 

Prince, 198 

Sally Ann, 215 
Paulding, 85 
Pavonia, 14 
Paxtang, Pa., 333 
Peabodv, Gen. Nathaniel, 141 
Peck, Harriet, 66 
Peekskill, N. Y., 142 
Pemberton, Charles, 216, 310 
Penn, Admiral, 45 

Thomas, 45 

William, 181, 184, 217 
Penning:ton, 312 
Pennsylvania, University of, 65 
Pennypack, 101 
Peppercotten, 231 
Perkamie Creek, Pa., 34 
Perth. Earl of, 272, 273 
Perth, Scot., 268 
Perthtown, 10, 11 
Perth Ambov, 20, 23, 27. 37, 38, 60, 
97, 101, 102, 104, 106, 108, 114, 
115, 119, 140, 152, 153, 167, 183, 
187, 191, 192, 195. 218. 219, 220, 
Peterborough, Earl of, 44 
Petersburg, Va., 153 
Peters Creek, 51 
Peter the Great. 203 
Petit, Mr., 208 
Pettit. Sarah, 237 
Philadelphia, 34, 36, 38, 47, 54, 
83, 97. 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 105, 
106, 108, 115, 116, 117, 119, 159, 
212 307 
Phllflps, Rev. James, 251 

Judith, 251, 252 
Phillipsburg. 308 

first bridge at, 163 
Phillipse, Frederick. 68 
Pierce. Mrs.. 86 

W. H., 223 
Plercefleld, 42, 45 
Pierson, Captain, 228, 230 
Piscataway, 18 
Pitmilly, Scot., 261, 265 
Pitlochy, Scot, 260 et seq. 
Pitlurg, Scot., 331 
Pitney, Henry C, 176, 195 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 50, 51. 159 
Pittstown, 167, 312 
Place, Aaron, 237 
Placerville, Cal.. 283 
Plainfield, 9, 11, 77, 167, 250, 252, 
Piatt, Captain John Cheney. Jr., 

Pluckemin, 135, 139, 228, 253 
Plum, Martha J., 66 

Mrs. Stephen H., Sr., obituary, 

Stephen H., Jr.. 66 

Mrs. Stephen H., 90 
Plymouth, Conn., 88 
Plymouth, Mass., 316 
Poinier, John, 90 
Poinsett, Joel R., 199 
Point of Rocks, Va., 247 
Pole, Miss, 45 
Pompton, 134, 208 
Pontefract Castle, 48 
Pool, John, 35 
Poor, Gen. Enoch, 141 
Pope's Creek, 59 
Port-au-Prince, 202 
Porter, Gen. David, 79 

Gen. Horace, 90 

Capt. Nathaniel, 135 
Portland, Me., 57 
Portsmouth, N. H., 218 
Post (officer), 138 
Postofflces in New Jersey in 1800, 

Facilities, growth of, 217 
Potter, Caleb, 25 

Col. Samuel, 137 
Poulson, Gilbert, 33 

John C, 33 
Powelson. Isaac, 33 

John. 33 
Powles Hook. 31. 99. 112, 113, 114, 

117, 216 
Pratt, Henry, 218 
Preakness, 140, 142, 143 

settlement of valley. 140 
Predmore, John, 107 
Preston, H. C. 201 
Price, Mr., 231 

Benjamin. 182 

George W., 175 

Farry, 139 

Philip., 229 
Prigmore, John, 106 
Prime, Nathaniel, 68 
Prince, Prof. John D., 72 
Princeton, 59. 63, 64, 89, 97, 113, 
114. 115. 137, 155, 157, 206, 229 

University, 64, 73, 80, 198. 204, 
207, 258, 324, 73 
Proctor, Col. Thomas, 141 
Providence, R. I.. 200. 201 
Public records, neglect of, 161 
Pullin, Francis. 77 
Purcell. Thomas. 237 
Purrows, Capt.. 35 
Putnam, Gen. Israel. 68. 138 
Pyne, Moses T.. 64. 90 



Quebec. 230 

Quibbletown, 32, 135, 228, 230 

Encampment, 250 
Quick, Henry, 33 
Quick, Solomon, 135 
Quimby, Samuel, 51, 52 
Quit-rents in New Jersey, 13 

Rackawackhacca (Bound Brook), 

Radcliff, Mr., 118 
Kahway, 25, 2G, 27, 135, 136, 140, 

167, 228 
Rainer, Mr., 240 

Elizabeth, 237 
Raith, Scot., 272 
Ramsey. Andrew, 105 
Ramsey's ferrv, 99 
Rand, Rev. Kdwin W., 91 
Randolph, Coleman, 315 

Franklin P., 246 

Hector C. F.. obituary, 246 

Isaac F., 109 

Jacob F., 109 

T^ewis V. F., 90 

Reuben F., 109 

Gov. Theo. F., 157 

William B. F.. 246 

William F.. 24 5 

(see Fitz Randolph) 
Rankin, Dr. Walter M., 205 
Raritan, 107. 220 

landing:, 35 
^ river, 37, 229 
Raymond, Lieut. Seth, 230 
Read, Andrew, 220 

Capt. John, 32 

Joseph, 220 
Reading:. Pa., 51 
Readinpton, 49 
Recklestown. 312 
Redfnrd's Forry. 97, 98, 99, 220 
Red Stone. Pa., 54 
Reeve, William T., 175 
Reeves, Capt., 20, 30 
Reper, John F., 175 
Roid. John. 8. 12 
Renwick. Rev.. 270, 271 
Reuck, Mrs. Oeore-e, 91 
Revolution, number of soldiers in, 
173. 223, 254 

soldiers' records, 25. 134, 227 
Reynold, Mr., 214 
Reynolds. S.imuel, 138 
Rich, Mr., 222 
Richards, John, 105 

Joseph, 107, 108 

William. Ill, 112 
Richardson, Dr. Ernest C, 80, 96, 

James, 36 
Richmond Hill. 68 
Richmond. N. Y.. 27 
Richmond, James. 36 
Rlddell, Archibald, 267, 270, 271, 

Rider, William. 116 
Ridpway. Mr., 308 

Anna, 154 
Ridley, Catherine L., 165 

Matthew, 165 
RiR-tr, Margaret, 265 

William. 261, 265, 277 
Rlprhter, George E., 316 

Mary, 316 

Riker, Joseph M., 81, 90 

Mrs. Joseph M., 90 
Rinehart, Capt. Godfrey, 32 
Ringoes, 113, 312 
Ring-wood Manor, 72 
Rio de Janeiro, 79 
Roberdeau, Major, 215, 300 

Mrs., 306 
Robert II, King, 2 
Robeson, George M., 232, 235 

Jonathan, 232, 235 

Morris, 235 

William P., 235 
Robinson, Mr., 312 

Aaron, 231 
Rochester University, 260 
Rockaway, 167, 211 
Rockefeller, Mr., 215 
Rolfe. Mr., 3 6 
Romainc, Tlicodore, 175 
Roinbout, Francis, 244 

Katrina, 244 
Romeyn, Yannetje, 171 
Rondoiit, K. Y., 60 
Ronguille, Commandant, 123 

Fanetta, 123 
Root. Hon. Elihu, 81 
Rorback, Betsey, 214 
Rose, David, 137 

Mary, 229 
Rosenkrantz, Colonel, 231 
Ross. Harriet D., 246 

Moses, 30 
Rossel,, 38 
Rossiter, W. S., 225 
Roswcll, Capt., 230 
Rowlett, John, 153 

Margaret A., 153 
Rudyard, Thomas, 5. 7, 179, 180, 

181, 185. 186, 187, ISO, 191 
Rue, Mrs. Jacob B., 242 
Runk, John, 33 
Runyon, Clarkson, £44 

David C, 66 

Helen B., 244 

Hugh, 137 

Lydia D., 66 

Matilda, 244 

Richard, 137 

Theodore, 148 
Russel, Gilpen, 210 
Russell, I,ord, 5 
Rutgers College, 63, 152, 155, 244, 

318, 319 
Rutherfurd. Livingston, 160 
Ryall, Port, 40 
Ryer, John, 109 
Ryerson, Mr., 306 

Ann, 214 

Capt. George, Jr., 140 

Saddle River, 140 

Saginaw, Mich., 62 

Salem, 75 

Salem. Mass., 294 

Salmon. Capt. Peter, 32, 228 

Salter, Thomas, 78 

Sanders, Aaron, 229 

Absalom, 229 

Elizabeth. 229 

Eunice, 229 

Margaret. 229 

Mary, 229, 230 

Phoebe, 229 

Theodore, 229 



Mrs. Theo., 230 

Timothy, 230 

William, 229 
Sandford, Major "William, 182 
Sandiston twsp., 310, 311 
Sandwich Islands. 280 
Sandy Hook, 121 
San Francisco, Cal., 279, 280 
Santo Domingo, 196 
Savannah, Ga., 36 
Say, Thomas, 202 
Saybrook, 218 
Sayre, Mr.. 213 

James R., 317 

Jedediah. 212 

Susan, 213. 214, 310 
Scammell, Gen. Alexander, 141 
~ Schamp, Nicholas. 239 
Schenck. Captain, 136. 137 
Scholfield. Jonathan, 116 
• Schooley's Mountain, 210 
Schuyler. Gen. Philip, 141, 143 
Schuylcrville. N. Y., 319 
Schuylkill Paver, 34 
Scofield, Sara. 237 
Scot. David, 269 

Eupham. 266, 277 

George, 328 

James, 266. 277 

Sir John. 260 et seq. 

Walter. 261. 269. 271 

(see Scott) 
Scotch Plains. 134. 135. 250 
Scotland, 1, 4. 260 et seq. 
Scotstarvet. 260 et seq. 
Scots East Jersey Proprietors, 119 
Scott, Dr. Austin, 96; in memor- 
iam, 257; obituary, 317 

Col. Walter, 271 

Sir Walter, 261 

(see Scot) 
Scranton, Col. Charles, 235 
Scudder, Colonel, 137 

Capt. John, 26 

Wallace M.. 96 
Seaman. Catharine, 165 

Edward, 165 
Searle, Helen E., 319 

Rev. John P., obituary, 319 

Rev. Robert W., 319 

Raymond B.. 319 

Rev. Samuel T.. 319 
Seattle, Wash., 243 
Secaucus. 88 
Second River. 136. 229 
Sedgwick. Gen.. 245 
Seeley, Captain. 228 
Seely, Gen.. 215. 305 
Sergeantsville, 83 
Sewaren, 109 
Seward, Mr., 212 

Mrs., 216 

Col. John. 231 
Seymour, Mayor, 151 
Shapanock, Fort, 163 
Sharp, Mr., 313 

Archbishop James, 267. 270 

Edward, 306 

George, 164 
. Joseph, 310 
Shaver. Mr., 30G 

Abraham, 216. 312 

Abram V., 212 
Shawnee, 163 
Shay, David. 231 

Shea, Lieut., 30 
Sheholi, 231 
Shepherd. Colonel, 326 
Sherman. John D., 196 

Gen. W. T.. 283 
Sherred. Major Abram B., 135 
Shields, Mrs. 307 
Shin, Gen., 313 
Shipacong, fort, 163 
Shipman, Samuel. 139 
Shippen. Miss. 215 

Edward. 232 

Joseph William, 233 

Peggy, 233 

Dr. William. 233. 235 
Shippen Manor at Oxford Fur- 
nace, 232 
Shippensburg, Pa., 51 
Shirley, Sir Robert, 3 
Shooting stars. 336 
Short. Major Peyton, 291 

Mrs. Peyton, 293 
Shrewsbury, 8. 18. 83. 110, 182 

river, 163 
Shuster, Elwood D., 163 
Sidney. Algernon. 5 
Sigelear. Benjamin, 33 
Silsbury, David, 139 
Simon. Major. 171 
Simonson. Theodore. 322 
Simonson's ferry, 109 
Simpson. William, 33 
Sisco. Jacob, 29 
Sitka, Alaska. 280 
Skellinger. David, 31 

Elisha, 32 
Skillman, Abraham. 114 

Elizabeth, 237, 238 

Thomas, 237 

Capt. Thomas, 237 
Skinner, Cortlandt, 23 
Slabtown, 312 
Slave sale of 1724, 40 
Sloan, Harry 33 
Sloane, Sir Hans, M. D., 2«1 

Mary E.. 158 

William H.. 158 
Smalley, Jacob. 76 

John. Jr.. 76 
Smallwood. Gen.. 34 
Smith. Mr.. 194 

Captain, 168 

Abel I., 88 

Mrs. Arthur G., 242 

Barbara, 78 

Elizabeth, 238 

Hannah. 78 

Jacob. 33 

Joseph. 33 

L. Cotheal. 92. 93. 95 

Peter, 212, 231 

Richard, 139 

Sarah. 78 

Solomon. 100, 102 

Susan, 78 

William. 33 
Snedeker, Christian. 237^ 
Solomons. Anna Maria. 65 
Sonmans. Arent. 4. 5. 6 
Somerset county. 41, 49. 134 
Somerville. 49. 89. 295. 323 
Souder. H. J., 315 
South Amboy, 97, 98, 154 
Southard. Henry, 230 
South Branch river, 114 



South Carolina, 141 

South Kingston, 167 

Southold Records, 87 

South river, 277, 334 

South Williamstown, Mass., 316 

Sparta, 211, 214, 215, 231 

Spencer, Colonel, 32 

Nathan 139 
Spicer, Mr., 190 
Spotswood, Col. Alexander, 219, 

Springfield, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 135, 
137, 140, 168, 209, 228, 240 

Battle of, 228, 230 

Township, 30 
Spring Water, N. T., 223 
Squire, E., 30 

St. Andrews University, 262 
St Domingo, 198 
St. John's, N. B., 153 
St. Petersburg, 197 

University of, 19 6 
Stackhouse, Mr., 23 
Stages in 18th Century, 97 
Stair, Earl of, 194 
Stamford, Conn., 323 
Stanhope, N. J., 148 
Stark, Captain, 228 

Jeremiah, 32 

Gen. John, 141 
Staten Island. 14, 22, 25, 38, 99, 

135, 207, 228 
Strathmiglo, Scot., 266 
Stedman, Col., 225 
Steele, Gabriel, 99 
Stelle, Rachel, 22 

Pontius, 22, 102 
Steubenville, Ohio, 55 
Stevens, Capt. Campbell, 83 

John, 83 

Lieut. Lewis, 83 

Richard Dowe, 29 
Stewart, Col. Charles, 327 
Stickney, Charles E., 175 
. Stiles, Jonathan, 335 
^^ Stillwater. 214 
Stirling, Gerard, 4, 160 

Lord, 1 et seq., 27, 159, 160 

Robert, 4, 160 
Stites, William, 33 
Stockton, 88 

Bayard. 324 

Richard H., 38 

Records, 87 
Stoll, Mr., 211, 213, 306 

Mrs., 307. 310 
Stoner, William, 78 
Stoothof, Petrus, 40 
Stothoff, Henry, 33 
\ Stout, Annie, 78 
* Gideon Lee, 90 
Strauss, Lyria, 78 
Strawberry Alley, 108 
Strawn, John, 78 
. Strong, Margaret, 245 
■'*Stryker, Katharine W., 242 

William S., 23, 24 
Stuart, Daniels, 311 
Studer, Augustus C, obituary, 319 

Augustus C, Jr., 320 

Elizabeth M., 320 
Stuyv'esant, Gov. Peter, 217 
Succasunna, 210 

Plains. 134 
Such, Anna. 154 

George, 154 

J. Ridgeway, 91; obituary, 154 
Sullivan, General, 22 
Summit, N. J., 66 
Summit Hill, Pa., 60 
Sunbury, Mass., 36 
Surmelin Valley, France, 147 
Sussex county, 49, 50, 134, 135, 

Historical Society's home, 163 
"Sutphen, Dr. Edw. B., 321 

Elizabeth, 238 

John, 239 

Margaret M., 321 

Dr. Reuben M., 320 

Robert M., 321 

Dr. Theron Y., obituary, 320 
Sutter, Fort, 279, 280 

Capt. John A., 279, et seq. 
Sutton, Joseph, 231, 232 

Martha, 231 
Suydam, II. A., 176 
Swan, Capt., 26 
Svvayze, Daniel, 140, 227 

Francis J., 79, 96, 323 

Francis J., 2nd, 323 

Henry S., 323 

Henry S., 2nd, 323 

Jacob L., 321 

John L., obituary, 321 

John L., Jr.. 323 

Mary C. 323 

Peter J., 323 

Richard H., 323 

Robert M., 323 
Sybrandt, Sovereign, 111, 112 
Sym, John, 120 
Symmes, John Cleve, 165 

Talleyrand. 68 
Talmage, Daniel, 69, 231 

Rev. T. DeWitt, 69 
Tamaqua, Pa., 60 
Tappan, N. Y., 138 
Tarvet, Scot., 261 
Taylor, Col., 136 

George A., 172 

Jerome, 90 ; obituary, 66 

Obadiah, 114 
Ten Eyck, Mr., 229 
Terhune, Margaret L., 242 
Terry, Capt. N., 31 
Thomas, Colonel, 168 

Elizabeth, 236, 238 

Jonathan, 106, 107, 220 

Robert C, 306 
Thomson, Mr., 215 

Dr., 313 

Mrs. Jacob S., 306 

Jacob S., 212, 215, 305, 306, 310, 
311, 312 

Col. Mark, 216 

Nancy, 306 

William, 52 
Thompson. Col., 211 

David, 230 

Eliza S., 242 

Hezekiah, 27 

John, 36, 108 

Rev. Dr. John B., 235. 236 

Joseph, 288 

Joseph P., 240 

Peter, 36 
Thorn, David, 33 



Thorp. Ellis. 26 

Stoffel, 33 
Three-Mile Run, 238 
Thun. Switz., 319 
Thurston, David. 2G 
Tichenor. F. M., 92. 95 
Ti&er, Abraham, 33 

Jacob, Jr., 33 

John. 33 
Tillman, B., 308 
Timber Creek, 313 
Tintern, 43. 46, 4S 
Tintern, England, 41 
Todd. Mr., 215 

Daniel. 33 

David. 33 

John Flavel, 33 

V/illiam, 33 

William, Jr., 33 

William J., 33 
Toers, Sarah, 141 
Toledo, Ohio. 257 
Tompkins. Calvin. 90 
Tonks. William. 290 
Topeka, Kan., 150 
Torrey, Dr. John, 206. 207 
Tortusas, 127 
Toshack. David, 187 
Totov/a, 88 

Toughoighiny river, Pa.. 53 
Travel, early in N. J., 97 
Treat. Mary. 144 

Robert, 144 
Trees. Hall of Fame for. 162 
Trcmbly's Point, 25, 26, 137, 138 
Tremont, Lieut., 206 
Trenton, 22, 38, 83, 97, 98, 99, 100, 
101. 102, 103, 104. 106. 108, 
112, 114, 117, 119, 155. 156, 161, 
167, 219, 229, 312, 313 
Troy, N. Y., 30, 208 
Tyron, Governor, 290 
Tucker, General, 245 
Tuckerton. 167 
Tunison, Runyon, 331 
Turkey. 28 
Turner, Alfred R., obituary, 249 

Howard C, 249 

Roger C, 249 

William H.. 249 

W. G. A., 249 

Mrs. Franklin G., 175 
Tuttle's hotel, 308 
Twaites, Reuben G., 63 
Twinning, Mr., 117 
Two Bridges. 141 
Tyler, President. 200 

Undershell, Marie E., 66 
Underwood, Oscar, 81 
Upson. Dr., 229 
Urie, Scotland, 4, 179 
Urquhart, Frank J.. 330 
Mrs. Frank J., 330 

Vail, Sarah L., 321 

Dr. Wm. P., 321 
Vails Gate, N. Y., 253 
Van Arsdale, Simon, 171 

Wllll.Tm, 33 
Van Auken, Capt., 310 
van Booskirk. Mahlon, 82 
Van Buren, Pres. Martin, 336 
Van Campen mill, 163 

Van Cortlandt, 42 

Vancouver, 280 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 36, 38, 109. 

Van Deren, Bernard, 54 

John, 211, 308, 309 
Van Deventer, Jeremiah, 253 
Van Dike, Abraham, 33 

Charles, 105 

Isaac, 33 
Van Dorn, Aaron, Jr., 33 

Isaac, 33 

Joseph, 33 

William A., 34 
Van Dyck, Florence W., 155 

Pierre, 155 

William V. B., 155 
VanDykc. Florence, 155 

Francis C. Jr., obituary, 154 

Prof. John C, 162 

Mary, 155 

Penelope, 155 
Van Fleet, Judith, 239 

William, 240 
" Van House's tavern, 210 
Van Houten, 88 

Conrad, 213 
Van Ingon, Mrs. Edward, 149 
Van Kirk, Harris, 33 
Van Nest, Capt., 32 

Cornelius, 33 
Van Neste, Cathelyne, 239 

Maria, 240 

Pieter. 240 
Van Pelt, James. 34 
Van Sickle, John J.. 163 
Van Syckel. Aaron, 156 

Bennet. obituary, 156 

Bessie, 158 

Charles S.. 158 

Chester, 156 

Mary, 156 

William S., 158 
Vantile. Mr.. 108 
.Van Tuyl, Otto. TOO 
%yan Veghtcn's Bridge, "2 
Van Voorhies. Cocrt A., 10 

Margaret, 41 

William, 40 
Van Vorst, Mr., 118 

Cornelius, 111 
Van Vrankin, Mary G., 242 
Van Winkle, Cornelius S.. 71 

Rip, 70 

Simeon, 71 
Van Wyck, Philip V. R.. 80, 96 
Van Zandt, Elizabeth, 165 

Richard, 330 
Varennes. France, 146 
Varick, Mr., 118 

Col. Richard, 142 
Varrazano. 13 
Vallev Forgo, 148 
"-Vealtown, 78, 134. 136. 139 

(see Bernardsville) 
Venables, 45 

Vermeule, 134. 140, 227, 228, 229, 
230, 232, 250. et seq. 

Adrian. 251, 253 

Cornelius, 251, 252 

Cornelius, Jr., 253 

Rev. Cornelius. 252 

Cornelius C, 251, 255: article 
by. 223 



Eder. 253 

Frederic, 253 

Leroy P., 91 
Vernon, 212 

Viehe, Rev. Frederick D., 82 
Vienna, Austria, 136 

University of, lb6 
Vineland, 315 
Virgrinia, 46 
Vliet, Simon, 34 

Simon S., 33 
von Drais, Baron, 326 
von Plehwe, Captain, 3 46 
von Steuben, Baron, 69 
Voorhees, Aaron, 32 

Abraham, 34 

Isaac, 34 

Jacob, Jr., 34 

James, Jr., 34 

Jeremiah, 33 

John, 36, lis 
Voorhis. Mr., 309 
Vosseller, Eiias, 175; article by, 

Vredenburgh, La Rue, 323 

La Rue, Jr., obituary, 323 

Waddel, Rev. Henry, 83 

Waldy, Henry, 217 

Wales 44 46 

Walker, Edwin R., 80, 92, 324 

Walker's ferry, 163 

Walkill river, 164 

Wall, John P., article by, 35 

Wallace House, S9 

Waller, William, 108 

Walpack Bend, 163 

Walpack, fort, 163 

Walpack township, 163 

Walworth, N. Y., 320 

Ward, John. 290 

Joseph, Jr., 91 

Marcus L., 81, 86, 87, 92, 93, 94, 

Col. Matthias. 136 

Mrs. William R., 242 
Wareham, 37 
Warnarts, Grietje, 240 
Warne, Thomas, 181, 182, 187, 189, 

Warner, Catherine, 239 

Col. Josiah, 141 
Warsaw, 111., 279 
Washington, N. J., 208 
Washington, Gen. George, 29, 59, 
68, 69, 138, 141, 142, 143. 144, 
163, 210. 225, 228. 250, 251. 
288, 314, 326, 327 

Bushrod. 252 

Encampment at Quibbletown. 

Headquarters in Montclair. 143 
Washington county. Pa., 51 
Washington, D. C. 248 
Watkins Glen. X. Y., 321 
Watkins, Judith, 166 
Watson, John, 108, 109. 165, 166 

Ripley, 175 

Rev. Robert, 241 
Wayne, Gen., 141 
Webb, Abraham. 105 

Col. Samuel B., 141 
Webster, Daniel, 336 
Weggery, John, 106 
Weilman. Major. 5 

Weimer, Martin, 282 

Peter L., 281 

Mrs. Peter J., 282 
Weiss, Harry B., article by, 196 
Weller familv, 82 
Welles, Rev. Theodore V/., 162 
Wellesley, Lord, 75 
Wells, James, 106, 107 

Philip, 182, 185 
Weobley, 47 
Wesley, Rev. John. 299 
West, Mrs. Wm. T., 320 
Westbrook, Abraham, 139 

Annetje, 237 

Henry, 231 

Capt. Martin, 212 

Major Samuel, 231 

Wilhelmus. 231 
Westervelt, Warner W., Jr., 61 

Mrs. Wm. H.. 242 
West Miiford. 301 
Whedon. Florence W., 155 
Wheeler, Miss Mary L., 242 

William, 2S9 
T\Tieeiing, Vv'. Va., 159 
White, Alexander, 216 

Mrs. Henry S.. 241, 242 
White Brook. 307 
WTiite Hall Slip, 104 
White Hall Tavern, 36 
Whitehead, Mrs. Harrie P., 242 

William A., 5, 9, 260, 270 
White Hill. 104 
Whiting, Col. Henry, 144 
Whitleigh, George A., 91 
Whitman, Walt., 241 
Whittemore, Henrv, 144 
Wickatur.k, 120, 276 
Wickham, Mr., 212 

Gideon, 311 
Wilkins, Jane, 333 

John, 333 
William III, 20 
Williams, Ann, 165 

Captain C, 30, 137, 138 

Ben., 30 

Cornelius, 26 

David, 26 

Henry, 25, 168 

John, 25 

Reese, 28 

Capt. S., 26 
Williamsburgh, Va., 219 
Williamson, Gen., 31 
Williamsport, Pa., 53, 54 
"Willis family, 87 

Frances C, 91 

John. 116 
Willocks, George, 9, 187. 188. 192 

Wilmington, Del., 36 
Wilson, Woodrow, 62, 157 

Edmund. 158 

Sarah, 278 
Willson, William, 102, 103 
Winans. Capt. Benjamin. 78. 

Susan, 78 
WInant. Dr.. 116 
Winds, Gen. William. 31, 32 
135, 136, 138. 140. 2S0. 
228. 229 
Witherspoon, John, 64 
Wolfe, Cornelius L., 33 

Jeremiah, 34 
Wollard, John. 98 




Wood, Captain, 26 Wyckoff, Alice F.. 242 

kIv!"^V;266 ^"^^^^' '' 

Woodbridg-e. 7, 18, 26, 99, 114, 136, Y„rr,nii vv, k-i 

161. 167, 182, 219, 220, 221, 335 Yate^ po v ^4 ... 

Woodbury, 167, 313 v , ^ t' ^- J-'.P*" 

V/oodhull, Judge, 232 ^*^^^^^-^J"^sePh. 101 

Gen. Alfred A.. 91; obituary, 64 Z'Zt'^ ^"J^"^' p^ ., 279 

Anna M., 65 v ^V ^^^^.°^' ^^ 

Woodruff, Mr., 25 Yorktown 69 

Susan v., 306 ^'*^V"^•^-^^J;■^ ll^ 
Woodstown, 167 ^l^^- ^- Edwin, 67 

Woolman, John, 71 S^k'"^: o^ ,.« 

World War. Battle of the Mams, Robert, 29, 140 


Wright. Capt.. 327 Zealand, Holland. 150 

Wurts. Alexander, 156 Ziegler, Elizabeth M.. 320 


26 3 2 X