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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY
3 1833 01095 6594
Rhode Island literal Socletv
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
List of Officers ......
Abstract of Proceedings .....
vodiiess of the president ....
Report of Committee on Building and Grounds .
Report of Committee on the Library
Report of Committee on Publications
Report of Committee on Genealogical Researches
Report of Committee on Finishing and Furnishing Addi-
tion to Cabinet .....
Address of Vice-President George M. Carpenter
sketch by the Librarian ....
Report of the Treasurer ....
I. ist of Institutions, Corporations and Copartnerships
from which Gifts have reen Received
List of Persons from avhom Gifts have been Received
List of Resident Members, 1802 . .
List of Life Members, 1892 ....
Honorary Member ......
'orresponding members .....
Index . ...
Rhode Island Historical Society.
ELECTED JAN. 12, 1 892.
Vice- Pre* idt 'ids.
George M. Carpenter, E. Benjamin Andrews.
Richmond P. Everett.
STANDING COMN ITTEES.
Albert V. Jencks, James E. Cranston,
Edward I. Nickerson.
Amos Perry, Reuben A. Guild,
Amasa M. Eaton.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
On Building and Grounds.
Royal C. Taet, Isaac II. Southwick, Jr.,
Isaac C. Bates.
On the Library.
William D. Ely, William B. Weedex,
Howard W. Preston.
E. Benjamin Andrews, Wm. F. B. Jackson,
James G. Vose.
Oil Genealogical Researches.
Henry E. Turner, John O. Austin,
George T. Hart.
Robert II. I. Goddard, Charles H. Smith,
Richmond P. Everett.
Lewis J. Chace, Edwin Burrows,
For Newport, George C. Mason.
Woonsocket, Latimer W, Ballou.
JScituate, Charles II . Fisher.
Piiwtucket, Samuel M. Conant.
North Kingstown, David S. Bakkr, Jr.
Hopkinton, George H. Olnry.
Rhode Island Historical Society,
At a meeting held Jan. 27, 1891, Mr. Ansel D
Nickerson, of Pawtucket, read a paper entitled, " Paw-
tucket before Samuel Slater's Time and since."
February 10th, Mr. William E. Foster, of Providence,
read a paper entitled, " Rhode Island Boundary Dis-
February 24th, the Rt. Rev. Thomas M. Clark,
D. D., LL. D., of Providence, read a paper entitled,
''William Blake, Painter and Poet,"
March 10th, Mr. David W. Hoyt, of Providence, read
a paper on the "Topographical Survey and Maps of
Rhode Island." The matter of " Indian Names of
Places in Rhode Island," was informally discussed by
School Commissioner, Thomas B. Stock well.
March 24th, the Rev. Henry S. Burrage, D. D., of
Portland, Me., read a paper entitled, " Waymouth's
Voyage to the Coast of Maine in 1605."
The first quarterly meeting was held April 1st. Re-
ports from several standing committees were read, re-
ceived, and ordered to be placed on file.
8 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
Mr. James Burdick, chairman of a special commit-
.^e on Field Day, reported that arrangi
tee on Field Day, reported that arrangements had been
made for the Society to visit the city of Salem, Mass.,
late in the month of May, or early in June.
The following-named persons were elected resident
members: Herbert Almy, Henry C. Armstrong, Ed-
win A. Burgess, Edward - D. Bassett, George Wash-
ington Bowers Bourn, Joseph Banigan, William H.
Crins, John Edwin Cummings, Lorin M. Cook, Wal-
ter Callender, Francis Colwell, Albert L. Calder,
Henry Williams Cooke, Albert G. Carpenter, Henry
R. Davis, Joseph C. Ely, John Foster, Henry Allen
Fifield, William N. Frederics, Arnold Green, Robert
Post GirTord, Daniel L. D. Granger, Henry T. Grant,
Jr., Clarence F. Gardiner, Henry Van Amburg Jos-
lin, Benjamin Brayton Knight, Richard D. Knight,
F. D. Livermore, John Francis Lonsdale, George Ab-
ner Littlefield, Charles Matteson, David S. Moulton,
Rev. Alfred Manchester, Asa K. Potter, William H.
Pope, Frank K. Potter, Gilbert A. Phillips, William
Carey Poland, Miss Caroline Richmond, James M.
Ripley, Lucian Sharpe, Charles H. Sheldon, George
W. Stafford, Thomas Earle Studley, Charles F. Samp-
son, Amasa C. Tourtelotte, John E. Troup, Benjamin
Francis Thurston, George Joseph West, George H.
Wilbur, all of Providence; Frederic A. Barker, of
Pawtucket, and Moses Fifield of Warwick.
The Library Committee, to whom had been re-
ferred a communication from Mr. George C. Mason,
relative to certain memorials of Commodore O. H.
Perry, reported through its chairman, Mr. William D.
Elv, as follows :
1. That the purpose of the heirs of Commodore Perry is a very
liberal one, and reflects the patriotic feeling towards Rhode Island
which so highly distinguished their illustrious relative.
2. Your Committee further advise the passage of the annexed
Resolved, That the Rhode Island Historical Society accept with
grateful acknowledgments to the heirs of Commodore Perry their
offer of the uniform in which Commodore Perry fought the battle of
Lake Erie, and of the rich and beautiful sword presented him by the
city of Albany as a tribute to his gallantry on that occasion.
Resolved, That the Committee be and is hereby authorized, in
behalf of the Society, to procure such proper case, safe, or cabinet
for the protection and safe keeping of the memorials referred to as
may be agreed on, by and between the heirs of Commodore Perry,
or their representatives in this matter, and the said Committee.
(Signed,) William D. Ely,
William B. Weedex,
Howard W. Preston.
Providence, March 30, 1891.
Vice-President Carpenter reported in behalf of the
special committee appointed at the last annual meet-
ing, that measures had been taken, with the coopera-
tion of the City Council of Providence, to secure the
printing of early State and Town records.
Vice-President Carpenter also reported in behalf of
a special committee appointed at the last July quar-
terly meeting, to revise the Constitution and By-Laws
of the Society. The report was accepted and re-
ferred to the next July quarterly meeting.
April 21st, Adjutant-General Elisha Dyer read a
paper entitled, " The Military Records of Rhode
At the quarterly meeting, July 7th, a letter from
Mr. Charles E. Carpenter was reported.
10 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The librarian stated that 29 bound volumes, 193
unbound, and 6.1 unclassified objects had been re-
ceived during the last three months. One of the most
important books received was a royal 8vo. volume,
containing a record of all Connecticut men who per-
formed military or naval service in the Revolutionary
War, in the War of 181 2, and in the war with Mexico.
On recommendation of the nominating committee
the following-named persons were elected members of
the Society : Jeremiah Briggs Gardiner, and Frank-
lin Baylis Brightman, of Providence, and Nicholas
Ball, of Block Island.
The chairman of the library committee offered the
following resolution, which was unanimously adopted :
Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Edward
Perry Warren, Esq., of Boston, and of Lewes House, Lewes, Eng-
land, for his generous gift to this Society of the admirable portraits
of Governor Joseph Wanton and Mrs. Wanton, his wife.
The Society recognizes the fact that the governorship of Joseph
Wanton marks one of the most interesting periods of the history of
Rhode Island, the throwing off of colonial dependence and the as-
sumption of absolute sovereignty. These striking memorials of thai
period will be placed in the gallery of portraits, and cherished as
speaking witnesses of the kind thoughts and liberal heart of the
On motion of the same it was also
Voted. That the thanks of the Society be, and are hereby pre-
sented to Daniel Berkeley Updike, Esq., of Boston, (a connection
of the Wanton family), for his devotion to the interests of the So-
ciety in procuring the portraits of Joseph Wanton and wife for the
Cabinet of this Society, as belonging more to the history of the
State than to any individual.
It was also
Voted,- That the proceeds of duplicates and publications of the
Society, since January 1, 1890, and hereafter, shall be accredited to
the library account, and be applied by the library committee for the
purchase of books in addition to the annual allowance for increase
of the library.
A motion made by the chairman of the library
committee, that "five hundred dollars be appropriated
for arranging, moving, binding and classifying the
books, newspapers, pamphlets, manuscripts, paintings
and other collections of the Society; the sum to be
expended, as far as needful, under the direction of the
library committee," was referred to the October quar-
terly meeting for action.
Mr. James Burdick, chairman of the committee on
a " Field Day," reported in behalf of that committee,
that over one hundred members and friends of the
Society made a most enjoyable visit to the city of
Salem, Mass., on the 3d day of June, and that after
paying all expenses a small balance was left in the
treasury towards another like occasion.
On motion of the president of the Society the treas-
urer was authorized to pay the bills for renovating and
putting in order the portraits and frames (thereto be-
longing) of Gov. Joseph Wanton and wife upon the
approval of the library committee.
On motion of the president, seconded by the
Secretary, the following resolution was unanimously
Resolved, That this Society gratefully appreciates the unwearied
attentions shown its members on their visit to Salem, June od, and
hereby tenders the Essex Institute, the Peabody Academy of Sci-
12 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
ence, the Hon. Robert Rantoul, Mayor of Salem, and all persons
and organizations contributing to the pleasure of that occasion its
hearty thanks for courtesies by them extended.
On motion of the president it was also
Voted, That the thanks of the Society be tendered to the Adju-
tant-General of the State of Connecticut for "The Record of Con-
necticut Men who served in the Army and Navy, in the War of the
Revolution, the War of 1812, and in the War with Mexico."
All persons who had contributed to the collections
of the Society during the last quarter received a for-
mal vote of thanks.
At the quarterly meeting, October 6th, a letter was
received from Mr. John O. Austin, relative to three
volumes of Rhode Island portraits, gotten up by him.
The proposition of Mr. A., as to the disposal of the
volumes, was referred, on motion of Mr. Everett, to
the library committee, with power to act in behalf of
The question as to the adoption of the Constitu-
tion of the Society, reported by a special committee,
was referred to the annual meeting next January.
The resolution which was offered bv the library
committee, at the July quarterly meeting, and referred
to this meeting, for the appropriation of $500, to be
expended by that committee for library purposes, was
Mr. William D. Ely made a written report in be-
half of the special committee for finishing and fur-
nishing the building, showing what had been done and
what needed to be done to carry out the object of the
Society. Among the improvements most needed, ac-
cording to the report, were additional book-cases, to
facilitate a better classification of the Society's col-
lections ; a platform for the president and speaker
when meetings are held, and the means of lighting
the audience room and picture gallery.
On motion of the president (Vice-President An-
drews in the chair) it was
Voted, That the special committee on finishing and furnishing the
building be requested to furnish a suitable platform and means of
lighting the two main rooms.
On recommendation of the chairman of the nomi-
nating committee, Mrs. Adelia E. A. Traver and Prof.
John Matthews Manly, of Providence, were elected
resident members ; and Isaac Pitman Noyes, of Wash-
ington, and William Warner Hoppin, of New York,
were elected corresponding members.
Mr. William B. Weeden reported that Prof. A.
Howard Clark, of the Smithsonian Institution, was in
the city recently taking measures for a representation
of the early history of this State at the approaching
exposition in Chicago. ,
On motion of Mr. Charles H. Smith the president
and secretary were appointed a committee to com-
municate the thanks of the Society to the heirs of
theiate Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, for the gift
of the jacket worn by the latter at the battle of Lake
Erie, and of the sword presented to him by the city of
Albany, in honor of his patriotic services.
The president announced the death of Hon. George
B. Loring, recalling his contribution to the pleasure
and interest of the late visit to Salem, and paying a
tribute of honor to his memory.
14 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
November 3d, a paper was read by the first vice-
president of the Society, the Hon. George M. Car-
penter, appropriate to the opening of the new cab-
inet, upon " Modern Historical Aims and Methods."
November 17th, Robert F. Swan, Esq., Massachu-
setts commissioner on public records of parishes,
towns and counties, read a paper. Subject: "A Com-
mission on Records ; its Work and Possibilities."
December 15th, the Rev. William Chauncy Lang-
don, D. D., addressed the Society on the Italian Rev-
December 15th, Henry C. Dorr, Esq., read a paper
entitled: "Williams and Harris, or, the Controversy
between the Proprietors and the Freeholders of Prov-
December 29th, Mr. Dorr read the second part of
the paper, entitled: "Williams and Harris, or, the Con-
troversy between the Proprietors and Freeholders of
The seventieth annual meeting of the Societv was
held Jan. 12, 1892, the president, the Hon. Horatio
Rogers, in the chair.
The secretary, Mr. Amos Perry, read the record of
the last quarterly meeting; he also laid before the
Society two letters, received respectively from William
Warner Hoppin, of New York, and Isaac Pitman
Noyes, of Washington, thanking the Society for the
honor of their election as corresponding members,
and expressing a warm interest in the objects of the
The president read his annual address, briefly not-
ing the progress made in the work of the Societv,
and calling attention to measures that in his opinion
>hould be adopted for the attainment of its highest
The treasurer, Mr. Richmond P. Everett, sub-
mitted his annual report, of which the following is a
Receipts, . . $2,991 85
Expenses, , . . . . 2,500 04
Balance on hand, . . . . 491 81
of Publication Fund, . 3,327 78
" of Life Membership Fund, 1,893 7^
" of Building Fund, . . 131 63
At the conclusion of his report the treasurer read a
paper giving an account of changes which had taken
place during his twenty-five years of service, and call-
ing to mind scenes, persons and incidents that proved
of much interest.
On motion of Mr. Wm. D. Ely it was
Voted, That in recognition of a quarter of a century's faithful
and efficient gratuitous service as the treasurer of this Society, Mr.
Richmond Pearl Everett be made a life member,
And before Mr. Everett had any opportunity to
speak, the Society's diploma (on vellum), duly in-
scribed and framed, was placed in his hands ; and fifty
dollars, contributed by fellow-members, was placed in
the treasury as a speaking memorial of gratitude and
respect to the treasurer.
The chairman of the library committee, Mr. Wm.
D. Ely, rendered a report in behalf of that commit-
tee. The expense incurred was $169.00.
Rev. W. F. B. Jackson submitted an unwritten re-
port in behalf of the publication committee.
16 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
Mr. JohrrO. Austin presented a report, which was
read by the secretary, suggesting steps that should be
taken to facilitate genealogical pursuits.
Mr. Alfred Stone presented a report in behalf of
the committee on finishing and furnishing, showing
what has been done and what needs to be done.
Ex-Governor Taft, chairman of the committee on
building and grounds, submitted a report, showing
that $153.19 had been expended.
On motion of the chairmnn of the library com-
mittee it was
Voted, That whereas Mr. John O. Austin has, with his usual
liberality, made over to the Society three volumes of portraits (col-
lected by him) in consideration of a life membership and of fifty
dollars contributed by friends of the Society, therefore John 0.
Austin is hereby constituted a life member of this Society.
On motion of Mr. Ely it was
Voted, That the bill for the safe and its removal to the cabinet,
amounting to $107.00, be paid by the treasurer.
On motion of Mr. A. V. Jenckes, chairman of the
nominating committee, the following persons were
elected resident members: Hollis M. Coombs, Ferdi-
nand A. Lincoln, Horace Arnold Kimball, John Pres-
cott Farnsworth and John Mason Gross, all of Provi-
dence. Corresponding member: Henry Herbert
Edes, of Charlestown, Mass.
On motion of the President, Rev. Dr. Andrews,
Judge Carpenter, and Mr. Amasa M. Eaton, were ap-
pointed a committee to act in behalf of the Society
in securing an increased appropriation from the Gen-
eral Assembly of the State.
The importance of having the by-laws and consti-
tution of the Society so edited and amended as to
accomplish the greatest good for the Institution was
briefly discussed, and a hope was excited that Presi-
dent Rogers would apply himself to this work.
On motion of Mr. Burdick it was
Voted, That a tax of three dollars be assessed upon each resideut
member of the Society for the current year.
Also, on motion of Mr. Burdick, it was
Voted, That the committee on publications be authorized to print
six hundred copies of the proceedings of 1891-92, to include the ad-
dress of the president, and also of the treasurer, the annual reports,
and any other papers the committee shall select, provided that the
whole expense does not exceed two hundred dollars.
On motion of Mr. Charles H. Smith it was
Voted, That the president, the librarian, and the treasurer, be a
committee to provide suitable furniture for the treasurer in the small
room on the lower story, east side, and also to provide suitable fur-
niture for the librarian in the small room of the lower story, west
The thanks of the Society were
Voted to Mr. Esek A. Jillson for an admirable portrait of his la-
mented son, Col. Charles D. Jillson ; and to Mrs. John P. Knowles,
for an admirable portrait of her lamented husband, who was United
States Judge for the District of Rhode Island from 1870 to 1SS1 in-
On motion of Mr. James Burdick it was
Voted, That the thanks of the Society be expressed to Mr. Henry
T. Beck with for his long and faithful services as a member of the
18 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The address of the president and all the reports
were received and referred to the committee on pub-
Voted, That Messrs. Alfred Stone, J. F. Jameson and John T.
Blodgett be, and are hereby appointed a committee to whom shall be
referred all communications in regard to making contributions to the
Historical exhibition in connection with the Columbian Exposition at
Chicago, and who shall report to this Society what action, if any,
they would recommend in regard to the same.
The officers of the Society were then elected for
the ensuing year. A list of them will be found on
pages 5 and 6.
Address of the President.
Gentlemen of the Historical Society:
This year marks the seventieth anniversary of the
formation of our Society, and it is gratifying to be
able to state that never, during its existence, has it
attained greater strength and prosperity than now.
The wisdom of its founders in not restricting its
membership to a limited number, and the more recent
encouragement of all persons of irreproachable char-
acter feeling an interest in its objects to join it, have
given it a hold on the popular favor too often lacking
in more exclusive organizations.
The addition to the cabinet, as originally designed,
has been substantially completed and gives much sat-
isfaction, but it was impossible to determine, in ad-
vance, just how much shelf room would be required
to meet the imperative present and reasonably proxi-
mate future needs of the Society, and it is now real-
ized that the best and wisest course would be to fur-
nish at once all the shelving the building will properly
accommodate, so as to afford a sufficient surplus of
room for each subject or sub-division for future growth,
without beino; obliged constantly, at short intervals,
to rearrange the library, if subjects are to be kept to-
gether, as would be the case should shelf room be
20- 1UIODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
stinted at the start and then added to from time to
time. No provision for such additional shelving and
for cleaning and renovating the old portion of the
cabinet has yet been made, and the contrast between
the old and the new parts of the structure is painfully
apparent. It is desirable that some means should be
devised for obtaining funds necessary to perform this
important supplemental work at an early day, so that
our enlarged cabinet will be congruous in all its parts
and suitably equipped for the best possible service.
It is hoped that the State will aid the Society more
liberally in the future than in the past, as it prac-
tically performs a quasi public function, for the history
of a commonwealth is a public heritage, in the perpet-
uation and illustration of which all alike have a com-
mon interest and a common pride. Sir Archibald
Alison, in referring to America and the Americans, in
his history of Europe, says: "So wholly are they re-
gardless of historical records or monuments that half
a century hence, its history, even of these times, could
only be written from the archives of other States."
Whatever degree of truth there may have been in that
statement when it was made, it is grossly inapplicable
now, for without reference to the general govern-
ment, some of the American States .are so keenly
alive to the importance of their respective histories
that in a number of them the State Historical So-
cieties are supported at the public expense, like any
other public department, while in others large sums
are annually appropriated in aid of such societies,
Wisconsin, for example, contributing yearly towards
the support of its State Historical Society from twelve
thousand to fourteen thousand dollars.
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 21
During the past year three of our resident mem-
bers have been removed by death : John Pitman
Mumford, Henry Lippitt, a former governor of the
State, and John Larkin Lincoln, the venerable senior
professor of Brown University. The casualty list for
the year also includes the names of Benson John
Lossing, Lyman Copeland Draper, George Bancroft,
and Jose Maria Latino Coelho.
Benson John Lossing was elected a corresponding
member of the Society April i, 1873. Among his
numerous historical works the Pictorial Field Book
of the Revolution is, perhaps, the best known ; and
many of the youth of America have had their taste
for the history of their country stimulated, if not first
awakened, by the attractive pages of his interesting
Lyman Copeland Draper was elected a correspond-
ing member of the Society Nov. 10, 1874. This dis-
tinguished antiquarian wrote and compiled many works
during his life, and for a number of years he was the
corresponding secretary of the Wisconsin Historical
Society, and, at his death, its honorary secretary.
George Bancroft was elected an honorarv member
of the Society July 21, 1835, and his fame as the fore-
most American historian of his time, has made his
name a household word throughout the length and
breadth of the land.
Jose Maria Latino Coelho, of Lisbon, Portugal, was
elected an honorary member of the Society, Oct. i %
1S78, being then secretary of the Royal Academy of
Sciences of that kingdom, and he has attained much
distinction from his scientific attainments.
22 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The treasurer's report will furnish the detail of our
finances, and it will be noted witji satisfaction that our
permanent fund has been increased one thousand dol-
lars by a legacy under the will of the late John Wil-
son Smith. This Society has been fortunate in its
treasurers. During its seventy years of existence the
office has been held by but seven persons, namely:
John Brown Francis, for two years; John Howland,
for nine years; John R. Bartlett, for three years;
Thomas Wilson Dorr, for six years ; George Baker,
for twelve years; Welcome A. Greene, for thirteen
years ; and Richmond P. Everett, the present incum-
bent, for twenty-five years. Mr. Everett to-day com-
pletes a quarter of a century of gratuitous care of the
Society's funds, and the organization is under deep
obligation to him for his long, careful, conservative,
and eminently satisfactory administration of its finan-
The report of the library committee will inform you
of the growth of the department under their super-
vision and of the numerous donations to the Society
of books, pictures and other valuable articles, among
the most noteworthy of which are the jacket worn by
Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry in his great naval
victory on Lake Erie, and the sword presented to him
by the city of Albany.
Several books relating to Rhode Island, or written
by Rhode Island men, have been issued from the press
during 1891. The admirable little volume ^entitled,
"The Historv of Historical Writing in America," bv
Prof. J. Franklin Jameson, should be read by every
one having the least interest in American historv.
Our secretary and librarian, the Hon. Amos Perry,
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 23
has supplemented his interesting work on " Carthage
tmd Tunis, Past and Present," by a sketch entitled
''An Official Tour Along the Eastern Coast of the
Regency of Tunis," which affords valuable informa-
tion. on the geography and history of the country and
the manners and customs of the people. The ap-
pearance of this sketch is especially timely as north-
ern Africa is now attracting such general attention.
The indefatigable zeal of Mr. John O. Austin in all
that relates to the genealogy of Rhode Island, has
found further expression in a volume to which he has
given the title of "The Ancestral Dictionary," and
which contains ancestral charts of sixty-four persons
of Rhode Island extraction. ' The genealogical stu-
dent whose lines of research extend to this State, is
under an obligation to Mr. Austin which can never
During the year fourteen meetings of the Society
have been held, at ten of which valuable and interest-
ing papers were read. The following is a list of the
subjects and authors of those papers :
i. Jan. 27, 1 89 1, " Pawtucket before Samuel Slater's
Time, and Since," by Mr. Ansel D. Nickerson.
2. Feb. 10, 1 891, " Rhode Island Boundary Dis-
' . putes," by Mr. William E. Foster.
3. Feb. 24, 1 89 1, " William Blake, Painter and
Poet," by the Rt. Rev. Thomas M. Clark.
4. March 10, 1S91, " Topographical Survey and
Maps of Rhode Island," by Mr. David W. Hoyt.
The subject of " Indian Names of Places in Rhode
Island," was also informally-discussed by Mr. Thomas
24 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
5. March 24, 1891, " WaymoutrTs Voyage to the
Coast of Maine, in 1605," by the Rev. Dr. Henry S.
6. Nov. 3, 1891, " Modern Historical Aims and
Methods," by the Hon. George M. Carpenter.
7. Nov. 17, 1S91, "A Commission on Public
Records; its Work and its Possibilities," by Mr.
Robert T. Swan, Massachusetts commissioner of pub-
lic records of parishes, towns and counties.
8. Dec. 1, 1S91, "The Italian Revolution, 1859-
1871," by the Rev. Dr. William Chauncey Langdon.
9. Dec. 15, 1891, " Roger Williams and William
Harris, or the Controversy between the Proprietors
and the Freeholders of Providence," by Mr. Henry C.
10. Dec. 29, 1891, a continuation of the last paper,
by Mr. Henry C. Dorr. •
In addition to the meetings just mentioned the
Society made an excursion to Salem on the third of
last June for the purpose of visiting the numerous ob-
jects of historic interest in that quaint old city. The
party consisted of just one hundred ladies and gentle-
men, and the day was one of pleasurable satisfaction,
the kindly hospitality extended by the mayor of the
city and the officers and members of the allied so-
cieties forming the Essex Institute leaving nothing
undone that would contribute to the enjoyment of the
occasion. It was the unanimous verdict of the par-
ticipants that the Salem visit was one of the most
successful excursions the Society had ever made.
On the 24th day of last January the president, ac-
companied by the secretary and treasurer, attended
the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 25
the Massachusetts Historical Society, in Boston.
The literary exercises of the occasion, at the Arling-
ton Street Church, were of a very high order, consist-
ing of addresses by the Rev. Dr. Ellis, president of
the Society, and by the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, a
former president, together with an extended oration
by Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson. A recep-
tion at the residence of Mr. Winthrop formed an
exceedingly enjoyable feature of the arrangements,
and the whole affair reflected much credit upon that
venerable Society, the first of all the State Historical
Societies to complete a full century of existence.
The so-called march of improvement is rapidly
sweeping away historic old buildings. Early in the
year that has just drawn to a close, the ancient Sabin
Tavern, at the corner of South Main and Planet streets,
in this city, the rendezvous of the party that burned
His Britannic Majesty's armed schooner Gaspce on
that memorable night in 1772, was demolished. For-
tunately the most interesting and historic room in the
house has been preserved by Mr. William R. Talbot
and added to his residence, the old Tavern estate hav-
ing formerly been in the family of his wife for many
Soon after the recommendation contained in my last
annual address the city council of Providence elected
three record commissioners from the members of this
Society, namely, the president, the first vice-president,
and Mr. Edward Field, clerk of the Municipal Court
of this city, and it affords me pleasure to be able to
state that the first printed volume edited by them is
nearly through the press, and ere long will make its
26 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
It is gratifying to note the increasing interest in
everything relating to America since the close of the
late civil war. Numerous societies for the prosecu-
tion of historical research have been formed all over
the land, and students seeking to throw light on ob-
scure passages are pushing their inquiries in every
direction. No State presents a more inviting field to
the historian than Rhode Island. Its founding was
utterly unlike that of any of the other States, either
in the importance of its cardinal principle, or in the
picturesqueness of its planting and growth. Her sons
should never weary in striving to have the history of
their little commonwealth properly understood and
faithfully portrayed, for, as is too often the case with
communities as well as men that take a stand not in
accord with the views prevailing at the time, they are
liable to be misconstrued, and the misconstructions of
more than two centuries ago have in some cases left
traces upon the descendants of those who were not in
unison with our ancestors, and not infrequently color
the writings of to-day. This coloring, though unin-
tentional, is caused by misapprehension of the exact
standpoint of our Rhode Island progenitors, and hence
we who have breathed the atmosphere of the State
and have imbibed and digested the traditions that have
come down to us, should spare no effort to have others
see the clear light of events as they appear to us. In
this way the great authors of the country, whose
works are read throughout the world, and who look for
their material, in a measure, to local writers, will be-
come imbued with a proper appreciation of the men
and events of Rhode Island, and will aid in dissemi-
nating views more in accord with our own feelings
than is too often the case at present.
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 27
It is pleasant to know that several works on Rhode
Island subjects are .now in course of preparation,
among them two biographies of Roger Williams, one
by our fellow-member, Dr. Reuben A. Guild, and the
other by the Hon. Oscar S. Straus, of New York,
who was the United States minister to Turkey during
the administration of President Cleveland. Our fellow-
townsman, Mr. Sidney S. Rider, is now engaged on a
history of the Dorr War, so-called, and of the causes
thereof. No one has a more encyclopaedic knowledge
of Rhode Island matters than Mr. Rider, and his col-
lection of material on the subject in hand is unsur-
passed, so that there can be no doubt that his work,
when completed, will shed much light upon that not-
Two notes received by your president during the
past year, in his efforts to disseminate what he be-
lieves to be correct views of one passage in our his-
tory, can hardly fail to interest you, though in sub-
mitting them to you I beg you will excuse the non-
omission of reference to myself, as it seemed prefer-
able to give them entire rather than garble them for
mere personal reasons. They were elicited by send-
ing to the writers the publication of this Society, en-
titled " Rhode Island's Adoption of the Federal Con-
stitution." The first, from Prof. James Bryce, the
distinguished member of Parliament for Aberdeen,
and author of " The American Commonwealth," was
written in Sweden, and is as follows :
■Kalmar, Sept. 14, 1891.
My Dear Sir : I thank you sincerely for your kindness in send-
ing me your address on one of the most interesting periods ot Rhode
Island history. As soon as I return to England 1 shall read it with
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
great interest, having always felt a particular curiosity with regard
to the annals of Rhode Island, a State which has seemed to me to
offer a closer parallel than most of your States do to the republics
of classical antiquity. If the remarks in my book upon Rhode
Island appear to disparage that State I am sorry for it, for such was
far from being my intention. Rhode Island has had a history full
of variety and instruction, and as the State of Roger Williams she
deserves special honor at the hands of those who prize religious free-
Let me say further that I am very sensible of the compliment you
pay me in desiring to furnish me with the means of correcting errors
or deficiencies in my book, and I hope to profit by such means. Re-
newing my thanks for your courtesy and for the good opinion you
express of my book,
I am very faithfully yours,
The other note is from Prof. John Fiske, the cel-
ebrated writer on American history, whose magnetic
and attractive style fascinates every reader. He writes
Cambridge, Dec. 21, 1891.
Hon. Horatio Rogers :
Dear Sir: Accept my sincere thanks for your very able pam-
phlet, which I have read with much interest. It presents some points
to which I shall be glad to give consideration. It is not my wisli in
writing history to mete out praise and blame, so much as to trace
causes and effects ; and here your paper will be of much use to me.
I hope some time to return to the subject of Rhode Island in connec-
tion with the history of Washington's administration, and also in a
volume on New England in the Eighteenth Century — planned, but
when to be written the Lord only knows.
With kind regards,
ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 29
There are such ample opportunities for local stu-
dents to throw light upon our history, so many un-
worked mines of the richest material, that I cannot
forbear calling attention to one or two of them in the
hope that persons with antiquarian tastes may pros-
ecute work in those directions. Especially are court
and town records of two centuries ago replete with in-
formation of the manners and customs of the times.
The court proceedings show us how crude were the
notions of our forefathers on what seem to us the
most rudimentary and fundamental ideas of law and
justice. The estates of accused persons were se-
questered before conviction, and persons acquitted by
juries on charges of crime, were, nevertheless, sen-
tenced to banishment and mulcted in costs ; and upon
one occasion, at least, a person found guilty on an in-
dictment which was adjudged by the court to charge
no punishable offence, was continued in imprison-
ment and in chains, to see if the General Assembly
would not pass an ex post facto law by which he could
But this address must be brought to a close. I have
adverted to the old records and the opportunity for
research within their covers, in the hope of inducing
some of our members with leisure at their disposal to
explore their pages and bring to light the treasures
therein contained. The fame of our State and the
character of our ancestors are precious legacies which
we of this Society should do all in our power to il-
lumine in our day, and to hand down with honor to
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON
BUILDING AND GROUNDS.
The Committee upon " Building and Grounds " of
the Rhode Island Historical Society, respectfully re-
port that they have approved of the following-named
bills for the past year, namely:
City of Providence, water
Henry W. Goff,
Rhode Island Concrete Co.,
W. S. Hogg, .
C. L. Richards,
Rhode Island Concrete C
Burdick Brothers, .
W. S. Hogg, .
ROYAL C. TAFT, ^
ISAAC C. BATES, I
ISAAC H. SOUTHWICK, JR. J
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 31
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE
The Committee on the Library, on this seventieth
annual meeting of the Society, respectfully report:
That the Library has been open during the year,
Mr. Amos Perry, secretary of the Society, being the
In accordance with the policy of the Society, pending
the construction of the new Cabinet, the number of
books purchased during the past year has been small,
and confined to such as seemed indispensable in its
The accessions to the Library of the Society dur-
ing the year have been :
Bound Volumes, .... 292
Unbound Volumes, . . M53
• .Miscellaneous, .... 264
Total, . . . . 1,709
The expenditures of the Committee for the year
on the Library, have been :
For Books and Periodicals, . $64 97
For Binding, .... 102 00
For Insurance and Miscellaneous, 2 03
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
THE PORTRAIT GALLERY.
The Portrait Gallery, twenty-seven feet square, with its domed
ceiling and skylight in the roof, has fulfilled the highest expectations
of the Society. The portraits were hung, and the gallery lighted
and opened for members and visitors for the first time on the 3d of
November last, at the first lecture of the season, with much enthu-
siasm on the part of those then present. It is remarkably well
lighted, both by day and night, and admirably fitted for the display
of the portraits and other paintings.
The principal accessions to the gallery during the year have been
the large and impressive portraits of the last colonial governor, Jo-
seph Wanton, and his beautiful wife, sent -ns by Edward Perry
Warren, of Sussex, England ; and the brillliant painting (by Lin-
coln) of Col. Charles D. Jillson, a late member of the Society, in
the uniform of the United Train of Artillery, presented by his father,
Esek A. Jillson, of this city, a warm friend of the Society..
THE MUSEUM (THIRD FLOOR, WEST.)
To this hall have been already transferred most of the miscella-
neous engravings — portraits, caricatures, etc., which are of much
interest and value, with facilities for hanging them. This room
has also been assigned for the miscellaneous collection of antiquities
and curiosities, which have been accumulating for so many years.
These, it is proposed to arrange, as far as may be, in historical se-
quence, placing at the rear of the hall the Indian relics, imple-
ments, and monuments, then those of the earliest colonial days, and
so coming clown gradually to the present time. Such a chronological
series would exhibit the changes and progress of construction and of
art, in their various forms, from one generation to another. With
such a classification, each new contribution should readily fall into
its special place and order, and the whole form an interesting exhibit,
which would, in a measure, compel and reward the attention of the
COMMODORE TERRY'S SWORD AND UNIFORM.
Pursuant to the vote of the Society, and with the approval of the
heirs of Commodore Perry, required by that vote, your committee
have procured a large and fire-proof safe for the preservation of his
sword and valuable relics. Such a safe was also needed as a pro-
tection for other valuable gifts, as well as manuscripts and volumes,
which can never be replaced.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 33
On this point, also, Mr. Oliver H. Perry, who represents Com-
modore Perry's heirs, wrote*: " If you secure a safe, I think you
will find many valuable. donations will be made to the Society." Mr.
0. H. Perry has also expressed himself satisfied with the action of
the Society, and Mrs. Mary H. Perry, widow of a son of Commo-
dore Perry, has sent us the beautiful sword, with a silver scabbard,
presented to Commodore Perry by the city of Albany, after the bat-
tle of Lake Erie, and the " sailor's blue jacket," worn by Com-
modore Perry himself during that battle.
The protrait of Commodore Perry, above the safe, is framed in
the oak of his flag-ship, " Lawrence."
The shelving of the new Cabinet, absolutely required by the ex-
isting conditions of your Library, was completed only in December
of the year just closed.
The time has now arrived for a systematic separation, distribution
and classification of all its volumes. A commencement has been
made and carried through in the newspaper department, the results
of which are very satisfactory. The work of separation has been
begun in other departments.
More than the regular annual appropriation has been required and
expended for binding and preserving volumes, almost exclusively
newspapers, exposed to destruction, and which could only, at large
expense, if at all, have been replaced in case of loss. Among these
are fifty-one volumes of the Newport Mercury (the oldest newspaper
of the State) covering sixty years of its publication.
THE NEWSPAPER DEPARTMENT.
The third floor, east side, has been assigned to the newspaper de-
This valuable collection of newspapers, containing 1,606 volumes,
which, bound and unbound, some in cases and others in piles, were
scattered over every vacant space of the old Cabinet, from cellar floor
to the roof, have been newly arranged. They have also been so sep-
arated and classified chronologically, as well as according to their
places of publication, that reference to any desired set or series of
papers, may be easily made. Ample room is also left on the shelves
for future issues of all Rhode Island papers for many years to come.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY",
In the old building the newspaper cases occupied about 120 square
feet of floor space, while in the new they have some 800 square feet
of floor space.
Though to a certain extent any arrangement must be controlled by
the construction of the building, and the variety of the collection :
and, though an absolute order of time in arrangement is often set
at defiance by overlapping dates of partially contemporaneous papers,
still, it has been found practicable, in the main, to arrange them ac-
cording to the respective dates of their origin, and to separate those
published in different localities, so as to give easy access to any par-
ticular series. At the same time a complete record of the volumes
on the shelves has been made, and the material procured and put on
paper for a full catalogue of the newspaper collection, to be made
The system of shelving adopted in the new cabinet is the same as
that of the new library of Yale University, which seems more simple,
economical, and readily varied, than any other which has yet ap-
peared. Still, much work of minor detail remains to be done here,
in properly marking the various sections and many of the older
volumes ; renewing the titles and numbers, obliterated by time and
As the newspaper department is the only one in which the re-
organization is practically complete, it is important briefly to refer
Its general arrangement is as follows : The book-cases are divided
into sections. The oldest paper in the State, the Newport Mercury,
dating from 1758, comes first, on the left hand upper shelf of the
west wall, tit the head of the staircase. It is followed by the New-
port Daily News and other newspapers of Newport County. The
remainder of the west wall, as well as the north wall, are assigned
to the other newspapers published in the State and outside of Provi-
dence. Bound duplicates occupy the lower and otherwise vacant
shelves of the north, or first alcove.
The north side of the second alcove begins at the upper left hand
corner with the Providence Gazette of 1762, and embraces all the
Gazettes, and the other papers, which, in the course of succes-
sion and absorption by the leading Journal, bore the name G
on the title page, (whether witli or without other titles). Com-
mencing in 17G2, it extends to 1832 (a period of seventy years) and
immediately following in order comes the ProVtdenet Daily Journal
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY.
f.»r 1833 (the first hound volume of that paper in our possession),
n!i<l the remaining volumes of that series continue under the same
name down to the present time.
This Gazette and Journal series covers the period from 1702 to
1892, one hundred and thirty years, and constitutes a continuous
chronological record from the birth of the first Providence news-
paper to the present year. In fact, including the weekly and semi-
weekly Journals and the evening papers issued during the same
period, from the same office and the same editorial hands, this
record fills move than three hundred well bound volumes. The early
origin, the continuity, the magnitude and high authority of this se-
ries of papers, demand that it shall be treated as a unit, and make
it a constant object of examination, reference and consultation, both
by our own citizens and those of other States.
As now arranged and separated, any one of these volumes can,
with the greatest facility be reached and its contents ascertained.
Next to this series come other Providence papers, of later origin
than the Gazette, in tne order of their respective births ; many of
the papers of high ability and general interest.
The third alcove contains papers of later origin and less duration
than the Journal ; the variety corresponding somewhat to the indi-
viduality commonly ascribed to Rhode Island character and politics.
On the shelves of the last case (to be eveutually a part of the
fourth alcove), are provisionally arranged various newspapers, pub-
lished outside of the State of Rhode Island, among which will be
found valuable volumes of the Pennsylvania Journal, of 1701-1771 ;
the Maryland Journal, of 1 773-84-87 and '91 ; the Virginia Jour-
nal, of 1785'; the National Intelligencer, of Washington, 10 volumes ;
the New York Journal of Commerce, the Massachusetts Centinel, of
1790; the Boston Journal, of 1857-02 ; the New York World, etc.,
etc., and a complete set of the Liberator.
The arrangement of papers is such, with regard to future issues
that their relative location can be maintained for an indefinite period
The total number of volumes now in this department is 1,000.
A large table and counter in front of the alcoves allows a number
'I the largest volumes to be spread open and consulted at the same
:i «ne. Beneath is ample room, arranged for shelves, where unbound
papers can be safely kept till ready for the bindery.
36 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
With regard to the other rooms of the Library :
1. The first floor, east side, has been designated for the Eastern
States, exclusive of Rhode Island.
2. The first floor, west side, for the other States and Territories
of the United States.
3. The second floor, west side, for the general publications of
the United States government.
4. The front room, same floor, for United States Scientific and
ft. The front room, second floor, east side, for class and text-
6. The second floor, east side, for the general library of mis-
cellaneous and foreign works, not relating to America.
7. The audience room, or main hall, is to retain all works relat-
ing especially to Rhode Island, and, so far as space may admit, select
volumes and the works proper to a library of reference.
8. An ample room in the basement, dry, airy and well lighted.
provides admirably for the proceedings, collections and "duplicates"
of the Society.
9. The gallery is appropriated for the large and valuable collec-
tion of pamphlets, etc., etc.
10. The third floor, east, to newspapers, as before stated.
11. The southeast corner room of the Cabinet has been assigned
to the librarian.
12. The destination of the remaining rooms will be determined
by the future requirements of the Society.
The full capacity of the building is about 50,000 volumes, wit 1 ..
easy access to all.
The new shelving of the Cabinet, as at present erected, is fully
sufficient for 20,000 volumes (corresponding in average size to those
of the Brown University library) and including the newspaper de-
partment, while at an expense of about $750.00, (on double alcove
cases), full shelving for 20,000 more volumes can be procured.
The architectural separation of the Cabinet into ten or more
tinct rooms, or halls, forces on the library, for its great primary di-
visions, a fixed location ; but admits a relative location tor the sec-
The primary divisions are so distinct that they readily fall into the
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON T1IC LIBRARY. 37
ten principal halls, or rooms, which have been designated for them
as above described.
They all lend themselves naturally to a classification suited to our
needs, and while many (especially the old) libraries, retain a fixed
location for the whole, or a limited portion of their volumes, still the
more modern institutions express a want of satisfaction with the old,
and are putting themselves in line with the new, at least so far as a
decimal system is concerned. This seems to be a coming necessity
as libraries become extensive, and the inconveniences of a fixed loca-
tion of minor classes increase.
So far as classification has gone forward to completion in the Cab-
inet — that is, in the newspaper department — the different journals of
this city, of this State, and of other States have, in the hall on the
third floor, east side, a common and fixed location. But within this
hall, not only are these three classes separated from each other, but
the various series of volumes issued as independent papers either in
city or country, are separated, and journals published out of the
State are separated from those published within the State. Then,
too, the journals of one town, or county, and the city papers are
separated, as between themselves, from one another.
With all this, ample space has also been provided for the annual
growth of each, for an indefinite period, without disturbing their rel-
ative position toward each other. That the volumes of any one
journal, or series of journals, should never be separated from one
another by intervening volumes of another set, or series of journals,
seems a simple and obvious principle. If we take up almost any
other of the great primary divisions of the Cabinet, we find the
same principle or system is demanded.
On the lower floor, allotted to the States of the Union, the nat-
ural lines of division are generally as clear as those of the States,
and it would seem intolerable that volumes relating to Massachusetts
should be divided from one another by volumes relating to Vermont,
or New Hampshire ; or that historical volumes of New York should
he separated by intervening volumes of New Jersey history. We
can hardly think that auy scholar, or student of history, would fail
to say that all volumes relating to each particular State should be
kept together, side by side, at all times, in an order unbroken by
foreign volumes, both for the convenience of consultation and greater
ease of administration by the Librarian.
38 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The same principle applies to the United States and Smithsonian
divisions ; War Department volumes are not to be mixed with those
of Agriculture, nor'those of the Navy with those of the Indian De-
partment, and so as to others.
In this United States and Smithsonian department, the volumes in
each department of science must be classified and brought together
bv themselves. The natural lines of division here also are verv strong.
The '• Duplicate" department and "Class and Text-Books " stand
on the same ground.
With the space at the command of the Society, ample provision
can be made for the annual increase in the several departments with-
out disturbing the relations of one class to another.
When this is done, you will have a fixed location as to the great
divisions, and a relative location as to the minor divisions. This is
but a simple and practical response to the demands of the building
itself and an advancing science.
The committee, after much investigation and study, recommend
this as the simplest system that can, in this" building, adapt an old
library, limited and fragmentary in its collections, to the needs and
uses of more books and larger circles of readers. Much of the
classification adopted would be substantially similar under any pos-
Further than this, the system herein advised keeps our arrange-
ment open and elastic, so that the library can advance on any lines of
development — lines which no one can exactly foresee to-day.
If, then, your library is to be put and kept abreast of the times.
and move forward in the line of progress which the activity and in-
terest in library science has developed, the work of classification is
not to be left to chance, or accident, but is to be carefully considers 1
and studiously performed, so that the volumes of each class, shall, in
their special division, stand distinct and clear before all students o\
history and all who have occasion to consult their pages.
This is the more imperative, because in no department of library
science have greater demands, greater study, or greater progress bee:.
made, of late years, than in the science and system of classification.
As the time and space allotted for this report does not permit an
enumeration here of all the volumes and other gifts presented to the
Society, it is proposed to print a list in . the Proceedings as an ap-
REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX THE LIBRARY. 39
Of a number of the volumes presented, some special notice seems
to be required.
From Jesse Metcalf, the Society has received a collection of six
valuable manuscript Revolutionary volumes, beautifully bound, five
of which are orderly books of various officers in the Revolutionary
war. as follows, namely :
1. Orderly book of Christopher Lippitt's regiment, operating near
New York, 13th March, 2d November, 177G.
2. Orderly book, Sullivan's army, 1778-9.
3. Returns of Captain Carlisle's company of Robert Elliott's reg-
iment of artillery, 16th March — 16th July, 1778.
4. Regimental orderly book of the Rhode Island Army of Ob-
servation, under command of Col. Daniel Hitchcock, at Prospect
Hill, near Boston, Mass., 31st May — 2Sth September, 1775.
5. Orderly book of a portion of the American army, in camp at
Prospect Hill, near Boston, Mass., 31st July— 29th September, 1775.
6. A diary of Major Daniel Lyman (a Connecticut officer),
1780; with classical and statistical notes, frequent descriptions of
social life at that date, and some notice of events of the Revolution.
To Charles H. Denison, of Brooklyn, N. Y., we are indebted for
the gift of a large number of ancient legislative schedules, and a re-
markable collection of Rhode Island colonial money.
The family of the late Zachariah Allen has presented to the Society
the orderly book of Glover's brigade (Sullivan's army) or "Gen-
eral Orders from October 23d, 1778, to 9th of May, 1779, wrote by
James Sumner, Jr." An inscription on the title page states that
"this record of general orders was given by Col. Ephraim Bo wen,
of the Revolutionary Army, to Zachariah Allen."
The record is very clearly arranged, and well written, on stout
paper, letter size, with a heavy browu paper cover. It was orig-
inally a book of about 190 pages, from which, at the present time,
twenty pages are missing. Twelve of these evidently covered the
orders from the 7th to 23d of January, 1779, inclusive, and four,
apparently, those from 1st of March to 9th of May, 1779, inclusive.
In all other respects it has been admirably preserved. The first or-
der, 23d of October, 1778, promotes, on the report of Colonel Lau-
rens and Colonel Fleury, Aaron Man to the rank of captain ; Sergt.
Levi Hoppin, to the rank of lieutenant ; Sergt. George Porter, to
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
the rank of second lieutenant ; and Sergt. John Westcott to the rank
of. ensigu, for gallant behavior (in covering the retreat after the bat-
tle of Rhode Island).
Arnold says (Hist. R. I., I. 421,) that two Continental brigades,
Varnurri's aud Glover's, were sent east and arrived at Rhode Island
on the 3d of August, 1778. This was only one week before Gen-
eral Sullivan crossed from Tiverton to Rhode Island, the battle of
Rhode Island being fought on the 29th. It also appears (Essex: In-
stitute, V. 119-131,) that Glover was ordered to recruit his brigade
in the east, which he did in Boston, Salem and Marblehead.
The Boston " Independent Company" and the " Salem Volun-
teers" enlisted for a very limited period. The Boston company re-
turned home the day before the battle, its term having expired.
While Glover doubtless secured some good men, there was little
time for discrimination and a more than ordinary share of hard or
worthless characters seem to have fallen to his lot. It is difficult to
account for the disorderly and mutinous conduct he had to contend
with among his soldiers in Providence, subsequent to the battle, ex-
cept as arising from raw, hastily collected and wholly undisciplined
recruits. He was an able and devoted officer and enjoyed the per-
sonal esteem of Washington. On the night of Christmas, 1776, he
had volunteered with his brigade, largely men of Marblehead, and
had ferried Washington and his army across the Delaware, in the
midst of snow, sleet and floating ice. He had also brought back
Sullivau's army from Rhode Islaud to Tiverton, across the Seacon-
net river ; and, in 1779, after thearmy had gone into winter quarters,
his brigade remained in the field, on the east side of the Hudson
river, on the 25th of November, U with 800 men, without either
shoe or stocking." *
From the adjutant-general of the State of Connecticut we have
received the Record of Connecticut Men in the War of the Revolu-
tion, the War of 1812, and the War with Jlexico. Compiled by
authority of the General Assembly, 1889. This is a very remark-
able volume of nearly 1,000 pages, quarto size. The records of the
* Essex Institute V. 160.
NOTE.— In a letter to General Lincoln, 17 March, 1753, General Glover says : «• I thank
God my present poverty cannot bo charged to idleness or extravagance ; it arose from an
Anient Zeale to serve my country, which I have done for Seven LoJftg years to the lust o(
my abilities, the Last five of which I have not received but barely three months' pay."—
Autograph Xo. S08, Libbte's Cut., p. 58, Boston, 1$:>J.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE OX THE LIBRARY. 41
Revolutionary soldiers fill 779 pages ; those of the War of 1812,
1C9 pages ; and those of the War with Mexico, 11 pages.
The number of separate^ names in the Revolutionary lists reaches
a total of twenty-seveu thousand eight hundred and twenty-three
(27,823). In numerous cases the same name represents several in-
dividuals. A complete record would embrace several thousand in
addition to the above, so that thirty thousand (30,000) is only a
reasonable estimate for the total number.
One of the most remarkable exhibits relates to the volunteering of
the Connecticut colonists immediately on the Lexington alarm (April
19, 1775). A letter from Wethersfield, written only four days af-
ter, says : " We equipped from this town yesterday (the 22d, only
three days after the Lexington fight) one hundred young men, vol-
unteers, well armed and in high spirits, with twenty-days' provisions
and sixty-four (64) rounds per man. We shall by night have sev-
eral thousand from this colony on their march." In fact the Con-
necticut volunteers who marched to the relief of Boston from forty-
eight towns and other places, nearly all of the central and eastern
counties, amounted to about four thousand in number, and were the
flower of the Connecticut troops, as well as the most completely
armed. They were a representative body, largely descendants of the
original settlers, and including all the professions and classes in the
community. After the Lexington alarm, the State raised eight reg-
iments, adopted as ''Continental," to serve to the end of 1775.
She furnished eight regiments for 1776, and eight more, with a
large additional quota for the three years' term from 1777 to 1781.
From 1781 to 1783, the number of regiments was reduced by con-
The number of officers and soldiers that entered the Continental
service (as distinguished from the State militia service) from Con-
necticut, during the war, may be placed at about 15,000.
It thus appears that out of an entire population of about 220,000
souls, there were 30,000 officers and soldiers raised by Connecticut
in the Revolutionary war, one-half at least of whom entered the
Continental Line and served outside of the State and under Wash-
ington's immediate command.
An equal number of State troops, or militia, defended the borders
of the colony, exposed on three sides to attack from British land and
naval forces, and sudden forays, like those against Daubury, Fair-
42 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
field, New Haven and New London. In brief, from the Trumbull
correspondence, from the calls for temporary service, and from the
town and militia lists, it appears that, barring a small Loyalist el-
ement on the borders of New York, nearly every able-bodied man
in Connecticut rendered, or was enrolled as notified and prepared to
render some kind of service during the Revolutionary war.
Regarded as one of the four strong States, Connecticut ranked in ca-
pacity next to Massachusetts, Virginia, and Pennsylvania. It is
also in evidence that the capture of Ticonderoga was projected
by some of the principal gentlemen of the Assembly at Hartford, on
Friday, April 28, 1775, in order to secure the cannon there, " to re-
lieve the people of Boston." The expedition was made (as stated
by Col. Ethan Allen) " by the order of the General Assembly of
the Colony of Connecticut," the money for it raised on the indi-
vidual notes of a few of her patriotic citizens, and within twelve
days the fort at Ticonderoga with all its guns and military stores,
was in the possession of Connecticut.
In response to such a record Rhode Island is loudly called on to
take up this subject, and cause a similar record to be made of her
soldiers and sailors, the heroes of her colonial days. It is time for
her to shake off the reproach of indifference to the truth of her own
history, and of having too long suffered her advanced aims and prin-
ciples, in the matters of State as well as religion, to be obscured and
misrepresented by men whose political or religious aspirations would
have been compromised by their adoption. Let her record in that
great struggle be made plain. It should be known what suffering
Note.— In November, 1777, Congress " earnestly recommended" a levy of $5,000,000
by the respective States. " The proportions " assigned to these four States and a few-
others, were as follows, namely:
Massachusetts Bay, $$20,000
Pennsylvania, . 880,000
New York, $200.0iV
New Hampshire, ......... 800,000
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, ...... 100,000
— B. Coicell, Spirit of '76% pp. 142-3.
Notk.— "The Americans gained with the fortress nearly fifty prisoners, more than BM
hundn d pieces of cannon, one thirteen-ineh mortar, and a number ot swivel*, stores tad
small arms."— Bancroft, V. .$'., VII., 840,
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE LIBP.ARY. 43
she endured as an invaded territory: — a large portion of her citizens
driven from their homes ; Newport, her largest town, and the most
fruitful portion of her territory, in the hands of the enemy; her no-
ble bay possessed by hostile fleets, and the commerce by which she
subsisted crushed out by an impassable blockade. There should be
shown, also, her unswerving loyalty throughout the war to those
neighboring colonies, who had refused her any association with their
own early Union of " the United Colonies," had treated her as an
outlaw, invaded her territory, levied war against her, denied her
ammunition while they sold it to the savages around her, and threat-
ened her very existence for so many years.
From William L. Stone, of New York, we have received a volume
entitled Revolutionary Letters. A limited edition in quarto form of
269 pages. The letters are those of Brunswick and Hessian officers
during the American Revolution, translated by William L. Stone,
the donor, with one valuable letter from Baron Steuben, major-gen-
eral in the Continental army. The letters contain .much new and
valuable information relating to places and persons of prominence,
with graphic descriptions of the Continentals and militia, and by far
the best narrative, by an eye witness, of the battle of Saratoga,
which has yet appeared. Two of the letters are written from Rhode
Island, one just after the battle at Quaker Hill.
One officer writes from Boston that "the French and the Amer-
icans do not at all like each other," and Baron Steuben says : l * Six
foreign officers cause me more trouble than two hundred American
ones," and " I am always nervous and apprehensive when a baron
or marquis announces himself."
By another officer the surrender of Burgoyne's army is described.
He says : " All the (American) regiments, as well as the artillery,
were standing under arms. Not a man of them was regularly
equipped. Each one had on the clothes he was accustomed to wear
in the field, the tavern, the church, and in every day life. No fault,
however, could be found with their military appearance, for they
stood in an erect and soldierly attitude. They remained so perfectly
quiet that we were utterly astonished. Not one of them attempted
to speak to the man at his side. All were so slender, tine looking,
and sinewy, that it was a pleasure to look at them. Nor could we
but wonder that Dame Nature had created such a handsome race.
The men of America are far ahead of those in the greater portion
44 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of Europe, both as respects their beauty and stature. Seriously
speaking, this entire nation has great military talent. Not a man
among them ridiculed, or insulted us, as we marched by."
What nobler tribute could an enemy and an officer pay to the ap-
pearance, the discipline, self-respect aud self-control of the best sol-
diers of any nation. And these statements being reliable, what did
it matter if it were true, as the St. James Chronicle said, that
'• there were not three good coats, jackets, or breeches, in the whole
The author also pays a high .tribute to the president of this So-
ciety for his able work in editing Haddeits Journal, and adds that
his writings cannot be too highly valued by the historical student.
From James Mifflin we have received Memoranda Relating to the
Mifflin Family, by John Houston Merrill. Printed for private dis-
tribution. This is an octavo volume of nearly one hundred pages,
whose object is to preserve in convenient and durable shape, infor-
mation of value, relating to this old and prominent family. While
not a genealogy, it has a large amount of genealogical information.
Copies of valuable records and letters are inserted and many anec-
dotes are given of a personal, social and military character, at the
period of the Revolution. We learn from a letter to Mrs. Mifflin,
that on New Year's day, 1776, they could have no organ music in the
church at Cambridge, because the organ pipes had been cast in:o
bullets for the American soldiers in the battle of Hunker; Hill.
It also appears that General Mifflin, who wore a heavy military
coat, buttoned up to the chin, when dining with Mrs. Livingstone.
in New York, on a very hot day, was asked by her why he did no:
unbutton his coat. As he merely bowed in reply, she said, k * I sup-
pose some new army regulation." At last, in a ludicrous manner.
he said, " Madam, I cannot do it, I have no shirt on, and have been
without one for weeks. (There were no cotton shirts then.) We
gave up our linen for the wounded soldiers, and I do not believe
there is an officer at the table who has a shirt on."
From James Junius Goodwin, the Society has received a voluim 1
of some eight hundred pages, entitled The Goodwins 0/ Ha\
Connecticut. Descendants of William and Ozias Goodwin. Hart-
William Goodwin, who had also a brother Ozia>. was one of the
little band which arrived at Boston, from England, in the ship Li .
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 45
on the 16th of September, 1G33. " We learn from the volume that
this body of settlers, immediately after they landed, were designated
as the k ' Braintree Company," or " Mr. Hooker's Company " — that
is, they had a common sympathy with the views and opinions of the
Rev. Thomas Hooker, and by his advice had placed the wide Atlan-
tic between themselves and the home of their fathers. The Good-
wins have been generally men of substance, of exceptional ability,
and force of character. Their posterity has prospered, and lineal
descendants of Ozias Goodwin still reside at Hartford, and retain the
confidence and esteem of all in the city which their ancestors helped
From "William Wallace Tooker the Society has received a volume
of addresses delivered at the celebration of the 250th anniversary of
the settlement of the village and town of Southampton, Long Island.
June 12, 1890. 1640-1890. 105 pp., 8vo. Sag Harbor, N. Y. :
John H. Hunt, publisher.
From Nicholas Ball, of Block Island, has beeii received The
Pioneers of '49, a history of the excursion of the Society of Cali-
fornia Pioneers of New England, from Boston to the leading cities
of the Golden Gate. April 10-May 17, 1890; a volume of nearly
three hundred pages, illustrated with more than one hundred fine
This is a work of much interest, full of reminiscences of the
early days of California gold discovery, and of interesting descrip-
tion and lively anecdotes of those ,exeiting times. The prospecting
and mining for gold; the wonderful rush of humanity in every
form to this land of promise ; the sad and tragic fate of emigrants
overwhelmed by blizzards, or in the desert, and left to die upon the
trail, while the story of the members who perished in the parched
sands and. dust of the alkali wastes, are told in a manner to move
the hardest heart. The success of some, the disappointment of
most ; the hordes of villains who rushed to San Francisco from the
penal settlements of New South Wales, are all vividly described, as
well as the condign punishment inflicted by the "Vigilance Commit-
tee," that strange and vigorous offspring of the Common Law, which
seems ordained of heaven, to faithfully try, judge and summarily
punish crime, in that last necessity when the regular ministry of law
is crushed and broken down by criminals themselves : — i% Solus populi
suprema lex." Were it not thus justified, it would, as Mr. Ball says,
46 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
indeed be " strange that the Vigilance leaders, especially of 1856,
lived such exemplary "lives and are held in such universal honor and
esteem, while in almost exact proportion to the prominence of a man
in the so-called 4 Law and Order party,' has proved the darkness
of his. subsequent fate."
The Chinese question is very ably treated, and the various forms
of agriculture (which is now more conspicuous than the mining in-
dustries of the State) receive an interesting notice.
An attractive description is also given of the Stanford University,
and the magnificent endowment in estates of over 83,000 acres of
the best land of California, appropriated for its support and develop-
From J. O. Austin the Society has received his Ancestral Dic-
tionary, just published, in octavo size, in which he has tabulated
the pedigree, for three generations, of sixty-four persons, nearly all
of them Rhode Islanders. The work in all its parts seems to bear
the stamp of accuracy and clearness which so distinguishes all the
work of Mr. Austin, and blank tables are left at the end of the vol-
ume, which can be filled with the names of the members of any
From Charles Carlton Coffin has been received the Souvenir of
the 24th National Encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic.
This is a beautiful quarto volume of 300 pages. It is prefaced by a
beautiful portrait of Charles Devens, late commander-in-chief of the
Grand Army of the Republic, and a worthy dedication to his mem-
ory. It contains more than eighty illustrations, with several me-
morials to prominent officers, and an excellent likeness of Gen. W.
T. Sherman, with a tribute to his memory, closes the volume.
About twenty pages are given to the " Camp-tire of the Woman's
Relief Corps," with numerous portraits and remarks by various
persons of prominence, among which is the statement of Julia Ward
Howe, that the ;; Battle Hymn of the Republic" was the result of
the first of the many visits she made to the soldiers in their camps.
From Francis I. Sessions has been received Jlaterials for a His-
tory of the Sessions Family in America^ a handsome genealogical
volume of 25*2 pages, with many portraits and local illustrations.
The appendix contains many interesting anecdotes of early Now
England life and biographical sketches of various members of tin'
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 47
An Official Tour Along the Eastern Coast of the Regency of Tunis,
has been presented by Mr. Amos Perry, late consul at Tunis. This
is an interesting volume of about one hundred pages, and virtually a
supplement to the valuable work on Tunis published by Mr. Perry
a number of years ago.
It completes his survey of the regency, its population, resources,
and of the habits and customs of its people, in a lively manner, and is
illustrated by twenty engravings, mostly of persons with whom the
author was closely associated in official duties and dignities.
A correspondence maintained with Tunis, since lie left the Consulate,
has enabled the author to present the main features of the changes
which have occurred in the regency during this generation, most of
which he is said to have foreseen, and which resulted in the estab-
lishment of a French protectorate over the country in 1882.
From Hezekiah Conant we have received A History and Genealogy
of the Conant Family, an octavo of 640 pages, privately printed, at
Portland. This is an elaborate work, illustrated with many por-
traits and photogravure fac-similies of ancient manuscripts and sig-
natures. It also contains numerous biographical sketches, among
which is an interesting one of the giver of the volume, the head of
the Conant Thread Company, a member of and a willing contributor
to this Society, as well as a large benefactor of the town of Dudley,
Horatio Rogers, president of the Society, has presented to your
1. The Assault on Stony Point, by Gen. Anthony Wayne. July
16, 1779. A large octavo of 156 pages, with numerous maps, fac-
similies, and illustrative notes.
2. Jfelvin's Journal. A journal of the expedition to Quebec, in
the year 1775, under the command of Col. Benedict Arnold, by
James Melvin, a private in Captain Dearborn's company. Large
8vo, 30 pp. Illustrated with several portraits of general and other
3. Penhalloxus Indian Wars, with an appeudix, in which is re-
printed Lion Gardener's Pequot Wars. Small 4to, pp. 174.
4. Dt Tries' Voyages from Holland to America, by David Peter-
son De Vries. Translated from the Dutch by Henry C. Murphy.
Large 4to of 200 pages.
5. The Olden Time in New York, by a member of the New York
Genealogical and Biographical Society. Large 8vo, 1872.
48 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
6. Washington in Domestic Life, from original letters and manu-
scripts, by Richard Rush. 8vo,.pp. 85, 1857.
7. Oldmixon's America. 2 vols., small 8vo. London : 1741.
8. TheCaptors of Major Andre, by Egbert Benson, 8 vo, 1865,84 pp.
. 9. Catlin's American Indians. 2 vols., large 8vo. Amply illus-
trated. London : 1850.
10. The History of Women, from the Earliest Antiquity to the
Present Time, u giving some account of almost every interesting par-
ticular concerning that sex," by William Alexander, M. D. Large
4to. Two volumes in one. London: 1779.
In regard to this work, the only recourse of an inquirer as to
" every interesting particular concerning that sex." must be to the
We cannot close without reference to one other work procured for
the library :
The Genesis of the United States, by Alexander Brown, with 100
portraits, maps and plans, in two volumes of 1,151 pages. River-
side Press, 1891. This is a " Narrative of the Movement in Eng-
land, 1605-1616, which resulted in the plantation of North America
by Englishmen. It discloses many details of the protracted contest
between England and Spain for the possession of the soil now occu-
pied by the United States of America. It sets them forth through
a series of historical manuscripts now first printed and corroborates
them by a reissue of contemporaneous tracts, accompanied by bib-
liographical memoranda, notes, and brief biographies."
Perhaps the most striking feature of this whole history is the rev-
elation made of the real position and policy of Spain during this in-
cubating stage of North American colonization. It shows, her steady
purpose of unrelenting hostility, and her avowed readiness and plans
to sweep these colonies out of existence, either by Indian massacres,
or by her own arms. It makes plain, too, her dissimulation, her
crafty methods and her Jesuitism at every step, till one wonders how,
agaiust this then powerful monarchy, these feeble plantings in the
remote wilderness, and nearly the whole continent in the end, were
saved to Protestantism and to English liberty, unless by Divine pro-
tection. To the student of our early history the publication is as timely
as it is beautiful in its illustrations ; it is also replete with historical
material brought out and now printed for the first time.
In behalf of the committee,
WILLIAM D. ELY,
Jan. 1*2, 1892. Chairman.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS. 49
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON
The Committee on Publications respectfully report
that the only business done by them the past year has
been to issue the Annual Report of the Proceedings
of the Society for the year 1890-91, and the Gaspce
documents, compiled by Prof. J. Franklin Jameson,
which were printed with the Proceedings.
For the Committee,
E. BENJ. ANDREWS,
50 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON
The Committee on Genealogical Researches re-
spectfully reports : The work of your committee rarely
requires any extended remarks. Our best work must
always be in personally aiding that increasing number
of persons who seek genealogical light, but do not at
first see clearly how to work towards it themselves.
The suggestion in last year's report has been carried
out, and an address book provided for entering the
names of persons having materials for family history.
The plan has proved a good one, and any member of
the Society, or other person, who has such material, it
is hoped will register- in the book, which is in the Li-
brarian's care. We note with especial interest that
both the city and State are helping forward the print-
ing of manuscript records, that will much aid the fu-
ture genealogical student. We congratulate ourselves,
also, that the enlarged accommodations of the Soci-
ety make it possible for these students to work much
more effectively and agreeably than formerly. Not-
ably is this seen in the new and admirably arranged
newspaper department— for newspapers supply much
to the genealogist that one fails to find elsewhere. It
REPORT ON GENEALOGICAL RESEARCHES. 51
is hoped that the time may come when a copy of the
marriages and deaths, from such papers as the New-
port Mercury and Providence Gazette may be arranged
and printed in a bound volume. Such a book would
prove an invaluable guide, not only to special students
but also to a far wider number of persons, who make
now a random search, and often a vain one, in the old
files of these unindexed newspapers.
For the Committee,
JOHN O. AUSTIN.
52 KHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FINISHING
AND FURNISHING ADDITION TO
CABINET OF THE R. I. HIS-
The Committee to whom was assigned the duty of
finishing and furnishing; the addition to the Cabinet
of this Society, beg leave to report that they have at-
tended to the duties assigned to them, by painting the
portrait gallery and hanging therein the painted por-
traits belonging to the Society, which portraits include
those of all its deceased presidents, and other dis-
tinguished Rhode Island men; by fitting up the room
in the third story on the east side, with shelving for
newspapers, and placing the rich collection owned by
the Society, as far as possible, chronologically upon
the shelves; by putting up picture mouldings in the
third story room on the west side, which has been de-
voted by the Library Committee to engravings, wood
cuts, etc. — many of which have been hung — and to
miscellaneous curiosities which have not yet been ar-
ranged and about which they have a suggestion to
make near the end of this" report ; by putting up
shelving around the sides of the rooms in the first
and second stories, both wings, but no alcove shelving"
REPORT OX FINISHING AND FURNISHING CABINET. 53
has been put up, except in the newspaper depart-
ment, and by partitioning off a room in the basement
of the west wing and putting up plain shelving of
ample capacity in which to place our duplicates, and
to store the publications of the Society, which are kept
for exchange, for sale, or to send abroad.
The shelving which has so far been provided has
made it possible to clean up the main cabinet, and to
distribute on to proper shelving, in accordance with a
system of classification which has been adopted by
the Library Committee, the stacks of books which
were inaccessible, and which encumbered the old cab-
inet to such an extent that the more rich we were in
the amount of our treasures the more unable were we
to use and profit by them.
The old drop scene which has for several years
been rolled up and laid upon the gallery floor, has
been hung at the north end of the cabinet, and the
need of repairing and painting the old cabinet was
never more apparent than it is now.
The Committee has appended to this report a state-
ment of the expenditures made to date, and in this
connection wish especially to acknowledge an addi-
tional contribution from Hon. Rowland Hazard, of
$200, to enable them to complete the shelving. There
is now a balance on hand of $i 19.63, and, feeling very
strongly the need of doing additional work to put the
building into proper shape, they have taken upon
themselves a self-imposed task and beg your indul-
gence that they may be permitted to submit their
suggestions to this meeting, and to place before you
estimates which they have obtained of the cost of do-
ing the work, all of which estimates are based on
54: 1 Z I5LA3T) HISTORICAL SOCIZTT.
bona-fidc re : ready :
Thev would suggest this room be : :i
repaired and 1 1 fan te i; that new plate g ss wind:
be put in, in place of the eight -:ws,each
window having but :w: lights :: plate _- 155
side srallerier be :onnected : 1 ^a rrv
north end of the cabinet that die stabs tc uth
gallery be taken oat and the bookcase beexfeendc
the east wall thattheante-foomsbenttc : :ak
and waiting-rooms, and the st: rcase t : =
out; tha: alcove shrives should be
second stories, both wings Inst and air-tig
cherry and glass counter cast- 1 Be in 1 ■
bod v Museum of Archaeology and £ — 2 "
vard College be arranged on the Eoor sides ::
portrait gallery, with an of ight glass ase
iron safe now stands for the pmp o se ::
and displaying re li . : s . coins m 1 r e : :
are now scattered about the p : e ises c
over-crowded cal inets ?n eac't side of the
that the location of the safe be c ged by remov. r
it from the portrait gallery ; that a map cas 1
in the west wing, first story that glass I
panels of the inner vestibule ioors : gi -
tte vestibule that the vestibule be ne
and that the outside of the bnilding - :
The renovation of the interior, inc lud >
the vestibule, takiu^ ;..: stairs I
lery. and the new windows :osf $667 DO
The crallerv across the north end
building will cost. . . . 100 00
REPORT ON FINISHING AND FURNISHING CABINET. 55
The new cases in the portrait gallery will
cost, if all are put in, . . . . $850 00
And painting the outside will cost, . . 215 00
Twelve alcove shelves, holding about 20,-
000 volumes, ..... 480 00
When the work, which is now proposed has been
completed, it is not expected that any large outlay
on the building will be required for twenty-five or
thirty years, and the cabinet of the Rhode Island
Historical Society will be housed in a building second
to none for the purposes to which it is devoted, and
one which will be worthy of the valuable collection
which it contains ; but the cabinet, is, however, but
an instrument of service, and vour Committee in clos-
ing their report feel that they would be remiss in their
duty did they not call attention to the real work and
objects of this Society, which are to preserve, ar-
range, classify, and catalogue the material which we
now have, and which we hope hereafter to receive.
They would also remind those interested in its ob-
jects, who are able to assist in promoting them, that
never has the Society been in a position to do such
effective work as can now be accomplished, if the nec-
essary funds can be procured.
G. M. CARPENTER, \ Committee on
ALFRED STONE, \ Finishing and
AMOS PERRY, J Furnishing.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Since the last annual report the following sums have
been paid by- the order and approval of the Commit-
tee, to balance the unsettled accounts for the erection
of the addition to the cabinet :
George D. Lansing, assignee of J. W
J. AY. Dornsife, .
Stone, Carpenter & Wilson,
D. F. Logan,
Previously reported, ....
Total sum expended in the erection of the addition, be-
fore the Committee on Finishing and Furnishing
had begun their work, ....
The bills which have been approved by the Finishing
and Furnishing Committee (a schedule of which
will be found below) amount to
Making the total outlay to date,
Ehode Island Historical Society.
Memorandum of payments approved by Stone, Carpenter
son, and paid by the Committee :
July 16. H. M. Horton, on account, . . 81
Sept. 1. H. M. Horton, on account,
Sept. 16. Joseph Bardsley (painting) on account,
Sept. 30. J. M. Bumham, .
Oct. 13. H. M. Horton, balance,
Oct. 13. Joseph Bardsley, balance, .
Oct. 16. Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., (picture hooks)
Oct. 31. G. F. Warner Mfg. Co., .
Nov. 5. Wm. G. Heath & Co., gas piping,
Nov. 18. H. M. Horton, extra,
Nov. 23. Boston Electric Co. (electric gas lighting of
Dec. 17. Wm. G. Heath & Co., gas piping,
Dec. 19. Joseph Bardsley, painting,
REPORT ON FINISHING AND FURNISHING CABINET.
John R. Shirley,
Jan. 5. H. M. Horton,
Jan. 11. F. W. Marshall (portrait hanging),
Total amount paid H. M. Horton,
" " " Joseph Bardsley,
58 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
MODERN HISTORICAL AIMS AND
[An address delivered at the opening of the enlarged cabinet of the Rhode
Island Historical Societ}\ Nov. 3, 1S91, by George Moulton Carpenter.
First Vice-President of the Society and United States District Judge for the
District of Rhode Island.]
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen :
I join with much satisfaction in the feeling of congratulation
which is shared, I think, by every member of the Society, as we en-
ter upon the occupancy of our cabinet, enlarged and beautified, and
at last adequate for our purposes. The work, as you will readily
see, is not yet completed. It is true, indeed, that the addition to the
building is finished and nearly furnished with so much shelving as
can be at present made useful in the work of classifying and arrang-
ing our collections ; but only a single glance is needed to show
us that the fresh and orderly aspect of our new rooms serve-.
among other things, to remind us that the main apartment, which
occupied the whole building before the recent additions, andiu which
will be held our meetings hereafter as in the past, stauds very much
in need of restoration, and of some, not very extensive, improve-
ments. The expense of the work thus far done has been met by
voluntary subscriptions of the members and friends of the Society,
and there is abundant confidence that in due time, and when the de-
mand shall arise, there will be provided the means to make such fur-
ther improvements as may be judged necessary, without using any
part of our invested funds.
For I think it not out of place on this occasion, and indeed on
every occasion when the affairs of our Society are under consider 1
ation, to call to mind the vital importance of preserving unimpaired
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. 59
the capital, so to say, with which we have been provided by the gen-
erosity of several of our members, and which constitutes the solid
basis on which we may reasonably rely for the permanent success of
this institution. 1 call our Society, advisedly, an institution of the
State. It has that character because it is not only a permanent es-
tablishment, but is also a part of the organism of our modern civil-
ization. For the success and usefulness t>f our Society, as well as of
all the enterprises of men, it is but common wisdom that the only
reliable foundation is a sound financial policy.
It will be wise to take, promptly, every step in advance for which
the means shall be at hand from our regular income and from such
additions as our members may feel free to make. But a regard for
what we may reasonably believe would have been the opinions and
wishes of those to whom we are indebted for our present prosperous
condition, no less than the considerations of sound business prudence,
dictates that the principal sum of our invested funds shall on no ac-
eount be diminished. My confidence in the future prosperity of this
Society is wholly based on my belief that in so saying I speak the
minds of nearly if not quite all our members.
It has been, perhaps, observed with surprise that I have spoken of
the necessity we are now under of entering on the work of classify-
ing and arranging our collections. This necessity now arises by no
means from any lack of appreciation heretofore of the importance of
orderly arrangement, still less from any unwillingness on the part of
our officers and committees to do tjieirfull part in this regard. We
are now provided with sufficient space so that orderly arrangement
becomes possible ; we have already made a substantial progress in
this direction; and we may reasonably hope in no long time to see
our property in such a condition and arrangement as shall be credit-
able to ourselves and worthy of the subject of our care. Under
these circumstances Ave may confess to ourselves that the condition
of our cabinet in the past has been very far from what we could
wish and very far from what visitors would have the right to expect.
This condition of things has resulted solely from the physical exi-
gencies of our situation. This building, in the form in which it was
fust constructed, has served us and our predecessors for nearly fifty
years ; but for the last fifteen years, to speak moderately, it has been
Entirely inadequate for the purpose. Every department of the li-
hrarv has overflowed the limits which we could allow. We have
60 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
filled the shelves with double rows of books ; piles of books have
found an insecure and undignified repose on the tops of book-cases,
in closets and along the margin of the balcony until they have lit-
erally threatened the integrity of the structure, and have finally been
deposited on floors and in very large numbers in the basement. Un-
der these circumstances any attempt at order or system was, of
course, hopeless. Our cabinet had become literally only a store-
house. We were able to offer but little assistance to any investi-
gator who might wish to consult the treasures of knowledge which
are here collected, and could hold out still less hope to him that his
own researches would be adequately rewarded. This state of things
will soon materially change for the better ; and we shall be able to
offer to visitors and students prompt and convenient access to all our
collections, and shall, I doubt not, have occasion to congratulate our-
selves on the rediscovery of many a valuable book and manuscript
which has for years lain buried under our unorganized, unknown,
unappreciated and constantly increasing accumulations.
At about the time when it was determined in this important way
to increase our material facilities in preserving and utilizing the ma-
terial which we have collected, and which has been entrusted to us.
a no less important advance, as it seems to me, was made in the
theory and practice of the constitution of the Society itself. An
historical society may be on the one hand a learned body, all whoso
members are, or are supposed to be engaged, or to have been en-
gaged, either directly or indirectly, in historical work or criticism ;
or, on the other hand, it may be a popular society, some of whoso
members will perform work in the direction of the collection or pres-
ervation of historical material, or in the direct preparation of his-
torical writings and the large remainder of members will aid the
work by material contributions and by encouraging appreciation.
A number of the historical societies are learned bodies, in the sense
in which I have thus used the words. They doubtless find an ad-
vantage from this theory of membership and function, and in pursu-
ing a radically different policy we would by no means be understood
to imply any doubt of the wisdom of those who may be differently
situated and who may find it their task to suit the genius of people-
different from ours.
Our own Society, although always scrupulous and ofteu exactiug
in scrutinizing the character and qualifications of those who b»v<
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. 61
been proposed for membership, has never been distinctly a learned
body ; and of late it has become our settled policy to welcome to our
association any reputable person who feels a sufficient interest in the
promotion of historical science to lend his aid in sustaining the en-
terprises which it comes in our way to undertake. This policy is
quite in accord with the Rhode Island idea. The existence of spe-
cial or privileged classes, or of classes or bodies of men to whom is
exclusively committed any function of general public concern, was
especially repugnant to the founders and early inhabitants of this
State. Even professional men were looked on with suspicion. For
this feeling the colonists had excellent reason. It is a commonplace
of history to observe that the professional class is always and every-
where the extreme conservative class. The members of each pro-
fession have always been observed to be tolerant of proposed changes
of theory and of practical policy when they fall outside the domain
of their own profession, but resist to the last any suggestion of im-
provement within those limits. All advance and all reform has thus
far been made against the corporate opposition of the professional
class, to whose department of human thought or activity it especially
belonged. This general statement is not invalidated, but on the con-
trary is rather emphasized by the fact, which ought not to be for-
gotten, that the greatest leaders of reform and of improvement have,
in many cases, been members of the professional class. For these
reasons it has come to pass that between those who have been called
to contend for human rights and those whose place it has been to
profess and to defend the received and established theories there has
always been and still is a steady feud.
The Rhode Island settlers were radical reformers. Their theory
of government was, I believe, so far as history or tradition disclose,
first embodied in a compact of government on the soil of this town.
So far as I know, no society had before that time been organized
among men on that theory. I think it may safely be said that at the
time the government of this town was organized there were no per-
sons outside her limits who were willing openly to defend that theory.
At that time, and for generations after that time, in the proposal to
restrict the power of magistrates to civil things, the town of Provi-
dence stood against the world. The men of Providence were there-
fore inclined to feel, and by many hard experiences were made to
feel, that those who were not with them were against them.
62 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The contest which was thus began has been long since ended so
far as we are concerned. We have practiced our doctrine without
variation on our own soil from that day to this ; we have caused the
substance of the Providence compact, although perhaps in less felici-
tous words, to be made part of the Constitution of the United States,
and have thereupon become part of the nation under the protection
of that guaranty ; we have seen all the states of the nation follow our
example, some of the most highly educated and refined communities
among them having taken this step within the memory of men now
living, and we now observe the ablest statesmen of the old world
anxiously and earnestly addressing themselves to the problem which
the founders of our town encountered and solved above two hundred
and fifty years ago. But the spirit of the founders still remains
among us ; and that spirit, no longer needed as the inspiration to
conflict, teaches us in every department of human activity to open
wide the door of opportunity and of privilege to every human being
who has the ambition and the capacity to improve and to enjoy them.
We therefore have welcomed to the privileges and responsibilities of
our membership all orderly persons who show a disposition to join us.
I have much satisfaction in saying that our membership is thus
open to all persons. I bear in mind that this is not an opportune oc-
casion to enter on the question whether there be any good reason to
say that a woman, as such, should be refused any privilege which is
offered to the rest of humanity, but I find it especially appropriate to
congratulate you that women are now among our members. Some
of them have taken an important part in the improvements whose
completion we now celebrate.
The important advance which we have made in improving our
means of work comes, too, at a time when such improvement is es-
pecially needed in view of the new and improved methods of histori-
cal work which have of late years been adopted. The demands upon
us in the line of collecting and preserving historical material have
very much increased since the Society was founded, and it behooves
us to be prepared, so far as possible, to meet these increased de-
mands. It has, therefore, been thought useful and appropriate to
this occasion that we should briefly consider in what particulars mod-
ern historical methods and aims differ from those which formerly
were approved by the best authorities and also to consider in what
way we may contribute to the advance of thought in this direction]
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. 63
and how far we may be able to bring our own practice up to the de-
mands and the standard of the.present time.
Historical work, including that in which our Society is engaged,
and several other branches to which I shall advert, has for the chief
ultimate aim the production of historical writings. But the produc-
tion of a sound historical writing must be begun years before the
author puts pen to paper. In fact if the history is to be in all re-
spects what could be desired, if it is to be such as to answer to the
present standard of completeness and excellence, the preparation of
the history must begin at the same time with the series of events
which are to be recorded and even in many cases generations before
that time. The complete preparation, collection and preservation of
the materials of history is the indispensable condition for the produc-
tion of a complete and wholly satisfactory historical writing, as we
now understand the requirements of such work. The materials of
a history, if they were theoretically complete, would consist at the
least of a full and accurate statement of every fact, physical and
mental, occurring in the countries and during the period covered by
the proposed history.
Some notion can be gained of the difficulties under which the
writing of histories must now be accomplished when Ave reflect that
by far the largest part of this material with which they must work
has perished beyond recovery. Written or other material records
older than the Christian era are by comparison few and far between,
and, where they exist, they relate almost exclusively to broad facts
of governmental history and throw little light on the character, dis-
position and history of the people. Whole tracts of history are ut-
terly a blank ; for other vast tracts we have only tradition, which,
although of great consequence in certain aspects of the questions
which arise in all historical investigations is still subject to the de-'
feet that it easily and by gradations not entirely perceptible to crit-
ical observation at this day, shades off. into the mists of allegory and
of fable. This state of things arose largely from the absence of in-
expensive means by which permanent records could be made ; still
more from the lack of the art of printing ; but most of all from the
want of any adequate appreciation of the importance of preserving
a record of current events and of current habits and methods of
The historical instinct has, indeed, never been wholly wanting ;
audi there remain to us, of course, in actual quantity and number
64 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
much historical material of the greatest interest and many historical
Writings of high value not only for information of history but as
artistic productions of the greatest merit. But, by comparison with
what we might conceivably have had, the history of the ancient
world has perished. Complicated and refined systems of civilization
have risen and flourished and perished, leaving hardly a distinguish-
able trace behind. Mechanical arts have reached in several direc-
tions a degree of perfection for which we still vainly strive and have
left no record of their principles or their methods, but only rare sam-
ples of their results to be the despair of succeeding ages. Systems
of philosophy which have dominated the thought of races of men,
have been laid aside and forgotten. Doubtless they have been re-
vived in the course of the revolving cycle of human thought, but
their history has perished. Most notable of all, the development of
the life of the individual and of the family, the evolution of personal
material and mental life, which is the basis and the type of national
life and of civilization has, until modern times, had no annalist.
This defect in our materials for history springs from two causes.
The first is the failure to make at the time a competent record of
events, and the second is the failure to preserve such records as have
been made. The failure to make sufficient contemporaneous records
applies particularly to the more important facts and transactions.
The things which we of this day would chiefly desire to know re-
garding the nations and peoples of the past are, of course, those facts
which were most important to them at the time and which con-
sequently most distinctly impressed themselves upon the minds of all
the members of their communities. But it unfortunately happens that
in the greater number of cases the things which everybody knows are
the very things as to which no record will be made. They are fa-
miliar to all, no record or remembrance is needed for present use,
and the most favorable time for collecting and arranging the neees-
sary information is long past before any suggestion is made as to the
importance of a permanent record. This defect in the records has
continued down to the present time, and we have doubtless in the
present age been guilty of great omissions in this regard. I refer w
a few illustrations of particulars in which this defect has occurred.
They are not of equal historical importance, but they will all serve.
perhaps, to make clear the error and to suggest a reformation.
The systematic record of the dates of births, marriages and death?
is a very modern practice. The dates of these events were for fam-
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER.
ily purposes, and for the satisfaction i»f those most nearly concerned,
sufficiently well carried- in the memory and seemed to require no
record. In the matter of governmental and municipal action, the
results only have in most cases been preserved. This was, of course,
necessary in order to the efficiency of such action. But in interpret-
ing a legislative enactment, and still more in understanding its his-
torical cause, effect and meaning, it is often of the greatest con-
sequence to know the process of discussion and perhaps of compro-
mise through which the conclusion was reached. This was vividly
in the minds of all who were concerned in the discussion and has ac-
cordingly escaped narration. When old buildings and other struc-
tures, interesting from their architectural design or from historic as-
sociation have been destroyed to make way for modern improve-
ments, it has not often occurred to those who stood by that it was
most desirable to perpetuate the aspect of such structures by paintings
or drawings, or other sufficient representation. In this particular the
art of photography has lately been most usefully employed as an as-
sistant to history. Thousands of discourses have been delivered
which would throw much light on attitude and method of thought,
and which have had a powerful influence in determining great ques-
tions of public moment, and yet it has not occurred to any person
to preserve the very words of the speaker. His portrait, too, and
the portraits of other prominent actors of the time, would be val-
uable in suggesting to after ages the spirit and temper of the people
and of the time, and would recall to us those leaders of men whose
features and aspect were familiar to those who lived and walked with
them. The familiar personal and domestic life, the every-day
thought of the people, although of the greatest consequence in pre-
paring for posterity an accurate picture of the time, is, no doubt,
more difficult and in many respects impossible to be recorded. But
in this direction most interesting and priceless collections of mate-
rials have in a few instances been put together by those who would
closely observe and frankly report their observations and their ex-
perience. Diaries and autobiographies are among the most valuable
of our materials. If one of the settlers of Providence, no matter
what the degree of his personal importance and prominence, had
commenced, and his descendants had continued to this day a record
of the family life, noting the dates of the capital events, as births and
marriages, and deaths, and describing the ceremonies and parapher-
66 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
nalia and festivities, both gay and grave, which marked those events ;
describing the successive dwelling-places of the family, as to cost,
situation, structure, furniture and appointments ; noting the changes
in color and construction of articles of personal dress and ornament,
describing the methods of their manufacture so far as those methods
are matters of domestic concern, recording the wearing qualities of
fabrics and the degree of permanency of their colors, adding samples
of all such fabrics and other articles which enter into the dress ; de-
scribing at length the social and domestic amusements and recrea-
tions of the members of the family, with the programmes, play-bills,
and all other relics of such festivity ; including copies of all news-
papers, pamphlets, and advertisements received in the household ;
giving an account of the method and extent of the education of each
member of the family, both at school and at his trade, business or
profession ; describing the methods of such handicrafts as were prac-
ticed by any member ; delineating the degree of personal comfort
and convenience which from time to time became attainable by each,
and the method and means of such attainment with a description of
the various articles of personal convenience and ornament which
were in use ; describing the church life of the people and reporting
sermons and other discourses and stating the amounts disbursed for
church work and charities ; giving a full account in general of the
cost of all articles of domestic use and the amounts consumed from
year to year; and adding a multitude of other particulars which
will readily occur ; if, I say, such a record could now be deposited
in our cabinet, it would probably be the most valued and useful of
our possessions. And if that record also contained a statement of
the opinions aud mental experiences of but one person in each gen-
eration, it would perhaps do more to open to us the real inner life
aud growth of the Rhode Island people than all the rest of our care-
fully accumulated collections.
But the preparation of contemporaneous records is of but little use
unless they be preserved. The great cause of the loss of such records
in past times has been the natural tendeucy of men to destroy such
things as are not useful to themselves or which appear to them at
the moment to have passed their usefulness. Even the public record?
of the states have m notable instances suffered from this natural
The charter of our State has been preserved, but the seal has
fallen off, probably from decay of the ribbon which attached it, and
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. 67
it was not thought of sufficient importance to be preserved. The
earliest charter has, I believe, entirely disappeared. It is only
within a few years that our Legislature has thought it necessary
that the public statutes should be properly engrossed. We are but
just now beginning to copy in print the records of our town, whereby
alone they can be preserved from any, even the most remote chance
of loss. The records of the first proprietors of land in this town
were destroyed by fire within a very few years, having been pre-
served in wooden boxes in a building easily combustible and situated
in a neighborhood peculiarly liable to conflagrations. In the depart-
ments of social and private records and memorials the losses even in
late years are literally appalling to those who have had occasion to
consider the subject. Fire is a great purifier of houses and a most
ready means of disposing of useless lumber. I have no doubt that,
even in the way of destruction, it has done much more good than
harm. But the domestic fire-place and the kitchen stove have been
the grave of many a valuable relic and document. But for the
trained eye of a scholarly visitor, certain leaves of the only complete
and very ancient manuscript of the New Testament Scriptures which
now remains would have been used to kindle a fire, and, strange to
say., a fire on a convent hearth.
I can only in a general way suggest on what principles the modern
historical investigator would wish us to proceed when we have to
consider the question of preserving or destroying a paper or an an-
cient object. In a general statement it may be said that very few
original written or printed papers are entirely without value. The
presumption is always in favor of preservation. I will make, how-
ever, a single suggestion of detail, which, in many cases, will serve
to solve the question. A paper or book is ofteu most valuable, not
for the purpose for which it was originally designed, but for the side-
light which it throws on the condition and opinions of those by
whom or for whom it was prepared. Old account books are of no
value as proofs of indebtedness, but they are often of the greatest
consequence in preparing tables of prices for the use of economic
investigators. Old letters which have served their purpose as ve-
hicles of information and even as remembrances of affection, often
are most useful in delineating manners, in picturing the hopes and
fears and aspirations of the society from which they spring, and even
occasionally as tending to prove the continued life of the writer or
his presence at a certain place at the time of writing. Even the fact
6S RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
that a certain letter was writteu, irrespective of the contents, may
often be important as showing the interest of the writer in the con-
, cerns of him to whom it is written or the fact that they were in cor-
respondence. In the beginning of our late war there appeared in
the publication called Harper's Weekly, a rude cartoon purporting to
represent a cabinet council of Mr. Lincoln with his advisers. They
were represented in unbecoming attitudes, all more or less under the
influence of strong drink and apparently engaged in conversation the
most inappropriate for the time and the place. That cartoon would,
I suppose, no longer be useful for the political purpose for which it
was intended, nor for information as to the character and personal
habits of the great president and the great men who surrounded him.
But it is still useful; It throws light on the history of the progress
of wood engraving, on the intellectual and moral character of the
publishers, who at that time were the chief purveyors of literary
wares in this country, and on the state of the information, opinions,
prejudices, and taste of the people with whom those publishers thought
that such a picture would be effective.
To recur to the process by which histories are built up, the next
process in order, the materials of history having been produced and
preserved, is to interpret and to criticise them. To interpret them
is to ascertain what they say, and to criticise them is to ascertain by
whom they were written and with what information and with what
purpose, and in short to assign to them their true historical value
and weight. These both are the province of very modern sciences.
Neither of these sciences can be said to have had an existence much
above a hundred years ; and they have been organized and expanded
and have entered on their full and rijrlitful functions onlv within the
The matter of interpretation, in the limited sense in which I have
used that word, would seem, at first thought, to present little diffi-
culty. To report correctly the contents of a written instrument
seems to be within the powers of any person who can read and write :
and yet it is a fact that such reports, exactly accurate according to
our standards, are rarely found. My owu experience shows that
especial care is requisite in order to obtain even from practical pen-
men an accurate duplicate of a modern writing in a hand familiar to
the copyist. Still more difficult has it proved to obtain faithful tran-
scripts of ancient writings. The compact of government of this
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER.
town is contained in one page of manuscript and about a dozen lines
of printed letters. Jt has been twice printed in books — once by a
public official, under the authority of the State, and once by one of
our most faithful and careful annalists. The two copies are not
alike, aud neither of them is correct.
To answer to the present standard of excellence in such work it is
necessary that the copies of ancieut documents shall accurately rep-
resent every letter of the original, taking note even of such peculiar-
ities in chirography as may have any bearing on the force of what is
written. The importance of this high degree of care and accuracy
has been especially brought to mind by the liberal action of the city
council in providing for the production of printed copies of our early
town records — a work which, as is known, has been entrusted to
members of our Society, and which will, I make bold to say, be per-
formed under a full sense of the responsibility of the undertaking.
The new science of historical criticism whereby it is sought to
ascertain the authorship and date of ancient documents, the circum-
stances under which they w-ere written and the character and pur-
poses of their writers, has made immense additions to the stock of
knowledge in the historical field by bringing the differeut portions of
the available material into due proportion each with the other, by
pointing out subtle variations of meaning aud effect which are to be
appreciated only by consideration of the mental attitude and the en-
vironment of the writer, and by distinguishing between what is gen-
uine aud original and what has been added to or interpolated in the
documents which have come down to us. This work is difficult in-
deed, and in many cases seems almost impossible of accomplish-
ment. It would have been in truth impossible, and in fact was not
attempted until after a scientific system had been elaborated by
which the investigations of the critic might be guided.
Consider for a moment one of the simpler problems of this science.
It is desired to ascertain whether a certain ancient writing is or is
not the composition of the person whose name it bears. On this
question direct evidence is usually entirely wanting. If there be re-
ported any statement of the supposed author, either denying or affirm-
ing his responsibility for the writing, there is introduced into the
midst of the original problem the perhaps still more difficult and often
impossible task of deciding on the veracity of the reporter ; and in
some cases even if the investigator becomes satisfied that the sup-
70 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
posed author has claimed or has repudiated the writing it becomes
necessary to consider the question of his probable truthfulness.
Other external evidence, as it is called, that is, such evidence as can
be gathered outside an inspection of the writing itself and its con-
tents, is not likely, in most cases, to throw much light on the ques-
tion at issue. Such evidence consists, for the most part, in the testi-
mony of contemporaries, which is given either by direct statement
or by quotation, or allusion, which implies a belief on the part of
the writer. This sort of evidence is usually fragmentary, some-
times suspicious, and, in rare cases, is almost conclusive on the whole
question or some one of its branches. For example, the question
has been long mooted among theological historians whether the gos-
pel of John was the composition of the apostle of that name. The
direct testimony of contemporaries is wholly wanting, and there is no
trace of any statement on the question from the apostle himself out"
side the limits of the writing. The value of the traditions which are
traced to a point within oue generation of the apostle are the battle-
ground on which this lon^-fought contest has been waged. But the
evidence of quotations from, and references to the general teaching
of that gospel make it evident, as I think is now on all hands con-
ceded, that the book was in use and was recognized as an authorita-
tive record before the close of the first century of the preseut era.
The area of controversy is thus so far limited, and the final appeal
must be made to the internal evidence ; or, in other words, to such
considerations as arise from an inspection of the contents of the writ-
ing. This is, in fact, the final appeal in all questions of this char-
acter, and the manner in which that appeal is managed is the highest
test of the qualifications of the historical critic.
It has, no doubt, already been observed that the decisiou of a
question of this kind is not, and in the nature of the case cannot be
a matter of positive knowledge. These questions must be solved by
a nice balancing of probabilities. This is most especially true in re-
gard to considerations of internal evidence. There are in the first
place questions of physical probability which involve the balancing
of material facts and their corresponding inferences, and in the second
place questions of psychological probability which involve the balanc-
ing of mental facts and their corresponding inferences. To put it in
another way, the investigator has to consider first, what a certain
persou probably did write, and, secondly, what, from his known or
probable mental constitution, and from his known or probable eir-
ADDRESS -OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. 71
cumstances and surroundings he was likely to write. The first of
these questions arises usually and perhaps solely in cases where a
manuscript exists which is known or alleged to be the original auto-
graph of the work under consideration. Such a problem, for in-
stance, was presented to those experts before whom was laid the un-
doubted original manuscript of the letters of Junius, and whose task
was to ascertain by whom they were indited. In questions of this
sort it is necessary at different times to be familiar with the history
of the manufacture of paper so as to be able to judge whether the
material on which the writing is made could probably have been in
existence at the alleged or supposed time of its composition ; it is
necessary to know what methods of spelling and what methods of
writing certain letters and of contracting certain words were in use
at different times so as to judge in like manner whether the manu-
script is probably of the age at which it is supposed to have been pro-
duced ; and, in some cases, as in the case of the letters of Junius,
to which I have referred, it becomes necessary to master the whole
learning of the comparison of handwritings.
But it is in determining what a certain person, at a certain long-
past period of time would probably write, and hence to infer what
lie did write, and whether he did write the paper which in the orig-
inal or in a copy lies before him, that the critical investigator finds
his most exacting task. He is called on, in fact, for an exercise of
the pure scientific imagination. He must reproduce in his miud the
whole form, organization, and temper of a society which has long
since perished, of a society composed of men and women of a race,
a temperament, an education and a genius foreign to his own ; aud
he must produce for himself the mental image of the life, social or
religious, or both, as the case may be, of that society; he must
image to himself a single man living in that society and by a su-
preme dramatic effort he must project the form of that man's mind
upon his own so that for the time he becomes that man, thiuks and
feels as he thought and felt, and can then take in his hand a written
paper and say, as well as that man could say if he were now present,
whether the writing be or be not the production of his brain.
But this is not all. The problem is not always so simple as that
which I have suggested. The writing maybe and usually is, neither
entirely genuine or reliable, nor vet entirely spurious and untrust-
worthy. It then becomes necessary to disentangle these elements
and to mark out, as nearly as may be, their respective limits. It
72 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
must be observed, also, that whenever a forgery is discovered to
have been committed the task of critical investigation is, in most
cases, not finished.- Even a forgery often has a high historical value.
It has been whispered that there are systems of ethics and even of
theology which no longer have a value for purposes of instruction
and guidance, but still retain a value as an index to the state of mind
of those by whom they have been constructed. And in like manner
the forged document, while it may have no weight as showing the
opinion or allegation of the person to whom it was attributed, still
less in establishing the soundness or truth of that opinion or alle-
gation, still may have great historical importance in that it shows
the opinions and mental attitude of those who have concocted the
fraud and of those upon whose credulity it was imposed or sought to
be imposed. It has been often observed that the code of constitu-
tions which in the middle ages was falsely attributed to the authority
of the apostles, while it throws no light on the ecclesiastical theories
of the apostolic age, in which it was pretended to be written, is yet
full of instruction as to the theory and teaching of the church in the
age in which in reality it was written.
I have thus briefly sketched, in mere outline only, the task of the
historical critic. He performs this task and reaches his result by the
use of materials which in most cases seem absolutely inadequate.
The process is carried on by the pure imagination and by the pure
intellect. When successfully carried on it involves, it is believed,
the highest exercise of the reflective powers of which the human
mind is capable.
Such a task as I have thus briefly described was in former times
not even attempted. All writings were taken to be, in the baldest
sense, either genuine or forged. There are subtle and difficult cases
in which language not uttered by a person and not believed to have
been uttered by him is yet honestly imputed to him, the intention
in the mind of the writer being to impute not the words used but
the sentiments which are therein contained aud which were known
or believed to have been entertained by him. Such cases have not
been known or suspected, and certainly have not been adequately
appreciated until within comparatively modern times. The earlier
method was to lay wholly out of the account all spurious and doubt-
ful evidences, and on the other hand to assign to all writings proved
to be genuine substantially the same authoritative rank. So lately
as the time of the Lutheran reformation it was possible for Eras-
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. 73
inns, perhaps the best scholar of the day, to speak of the man-
(•scripts of the New Testament in terms which clearly imply that he
considered them of equal or nearly equal authority. And yet at the
present day there are three manuscripts whose concurrent testimony
on a question of textual criticism would, I think, in the opinion of
all scholars, overwhelmingly outweigh the testimony of all the rest
of the hundreds of manuscripts brought together on the opposite
\ shall refer but briefly to textual criticism, which is a subordi-
nate but most useful and difficult branch of historical criticism. To
take a great mass of manuscript copies of a book, of different ages
and of different origins, and containing thousands of divergent read-
ings, and from them alone, aided by ancient translations and quota-
tions, to reproduce with substantial certainty the veritable words
which the authors wrote or dictated, is another problem which at
first thought appears impossible to be solved. And yet it yields to
scientific investigation. The men who can accomplish this form a
profession by themselves. They are few in number and their rivals
are still less. To read the account of their methods and to examine,
even with an uncritical eye, their results ; to see them first construct-
ing their tools, the critical apparatus of their profession, and then to
watch them apply that apparatus to the difficult material in which
they work, is to become acquainted with one of the most marvellous
triumphs of the human intellect.
It is true, indeed, that the method of history to which I refer has
been made the object of much adverse criticism, and sometimes with
L'uod reason. The professors of this learning are, perhaps, some-
what too ready to announce results, and too strenuous in ascribing
certainty to conclusions which, for the present at least, can only be
considered probable. But notwithstanding these drawbacks, it still
remains true that they have added greatly to the stock of human
knowledge ; that they have exposed much error and brought a strong
support to the truth of history; that they have smoothed many diffi-
culties and reconciled many apparent contradictions between docu-
ments which are taken on all hands to be authentic, and that they
nave brought many an historic fact and doctrine out into the light of
i -ear comprehension and full appreciation.
Such are the methods by which the materials of history are now
-' altered and interpreted. We come now to the consideration of the
method* in which is written the historical work for whose sake all
74 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
this elaborate preparation has been made. Broadly speaking it may
be said that historical writings were first annals, in which facts alone
were simply and clearly set down in the order in which they oc-
curred ; then picturesque histories, in which a selection of facts was
made with the view to artistic effect ; then polemical histories, in
which the facts were marshalled and depicted in such way as to sup-
port the theories, political or otherwise, of the writer ; and finally
scientific histories, in which the attempt is made to represent to the
mind in one view the whole character of the nation or the age which
is sought to be depicted. I do not mean that these different methods
of writing have been successive in point of time. I rather mean
that they mark the degrees of the development of the historic instinct.
All these methods of historical writing are found in most ages of
much literary activity, and they are all in use to-day. But I think
the historical writing which is characteristic of our time is that which
contemplates a nation or a people as a living, organic whole, formed
on the same model with the individuals and the families which com-
pose it, and having a corresponding origin, growth and destiny.
This method combines the advantages of all the others. The facts
of history are better stated and in better proportion when they group
themselves into an organism ; they assume that unity and due order
and subordination which are necessary to the production of a work
of art. So, too, when the origins of laws and institutions are con-
sidered in connection with their development and final results, they
serve most persuasively lo support sound principles and well-founded
theories of the conduct and true purpose of human society.
How, then, can our Society aid in the performance of these use-
ful labors and investigations? In the first place, we may see to i:
that in all matters within our own control the best and most com-
plete records shall be preserved. Such matters, however, will mo-:
likely be of comparatively small importance. We may accomplish
something by recommending right methods to our own members and
to the public. But we are, I think, most useful in this regard by
the very fact of our existence. The fact that we are organized for
the purpose of collecting and preserving the materials of history will
operate more persuasively in the future than in the past to sug^-'
the preparation of full and complete statements of contemporary
events, seeing that we are now better than ever equipped to receive,
to arrange, and to preserve such materials. Our main function,
doubtless, will always be that of preservation. In the manner in
ADDRESS OF VICE-PRESIDENT CARPENTER. iO
which this duty shall be performed we ought to resolve that we will
leave nothing to be desired. In the critical reproduction of docu-
ments, so as to make them generally available, we have done some-
thing aud in the future may do much more. There are tasks of this
sort to "which we may address ourselves which do not call for so large
an expenditure of time and labor as is required for the production of an
history or historical treatise. Some of these tasks we may reasonably
hope, therefore, from time to time, to accomplish. But what is most to
be desired is tha*t some member of our Society shall produce another
important historical work. The subject of such a work is ready at
hand — it is the history of our own State. We have valuable histories
and valuable monographs on the subject, but I think it no injurious
reflection on previous writers to say that the history of the people of
Rhode Island, considered as an individual, social organism, is still
to be written. The development of the Rhode Island idea, the his-
tory of the Rhode Island intellect, still remain to be traced. We
have good authority, both domestic and foreign, for the belief that
the history well deserves to be written. I venture to suggest the
general plan on which it might well be constructed. The author
would begin by describing the first discovery of America by Euro-
peans and would depict the scene which lay before the eyes of the
astonished Northmen when, first of all white men, they ga^ed on
the fertile meadows and vine-clad slopes of the South County.
He would then describe our fertile soil, our incomparable climate,
our remarkable geological and topographical formations, the abun-
dant products of our shore and bay, and finally the interesting race
of people who then inhabited our territory and who have bequeathed
to us not only an example of fidelity to engagements but also the
knowledge of the dwelling place of the Providence river oyster and
the Narragansett turkey, and the profonnder learning which presides
over the preparation of coarse-ground Indian meal and the con-
struction of the genuine clam-bake.
He would then transfer the scene of his story to the Bay Colony,
and, in tracing the life and mental history of Roger Williams, he
would show how the fair flower of truth may spring up in the most
unpromising and unfriendly soil. Him and his friends and associates
he would follow through the snows of the wilderness to East Provi-
dence, across the Seekonk to the foot of Power street, again around
India Point aud Fox Point to the spring on the margin of the river,
76 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
where at last they found rest for themselves and for their weary
wives and children and an abiding place for the ark of Jehovah.
He would then describe how the little band first returned thanks to
the God of Jacob, who had delivered and preserved them, then
named the soil for all time, dedicating the hill which rose above their
heads to the perpetual remembrance of the divine beneficence and
care ; and then proceeded to found the first free state which is re-
corded in the history of the human race. He would then recount
the history of this new experiment in civil government, describing
the organization of the towns and the gradual growth of our govern-
mental theory and practice, the struggle of the settlers with cold and
hunger, and with enemies both savage and civilized, the negotiations
and intrigues which marked the efforts to obtain our charter rights,
the development of government under the last charter, the growth of
industry and of commerce, our part in the Revolution and in the
adoption of the Constitution, and our peaceful history from that time
until our people were again called, but this time not alone, to face
privation and death in the defence of truth and of justice. His last
scene would fitly open in the spring of 1861 and he would show us
the steady line of our infantry, and the graceful form of their heroic
leader ; the plain blue blouses and the black hats with the gilded
eagle; the solemn guns of the Marine Artillery; and the last flutter
of flags and gleam of bayonets as the best loved sons of the State
marched southward, bearing the heart of Rhode Island with them,
" to blow before the heathen walls the trumpets of the North."
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN.
THE LIBRARY OF THE RHODE ISLAND
A Brief Sketch by the Librarian.
[Printed by Vote of the Society.]
The character, scope and marked features of this library are best
understood by glancing at the history of the institution to which it
This Society was organized seventy years ago by men who were
deeply interested to secure a truthful history of the State and to per-
petuate the memory of its founders and benefactors. The work of
collecting material to this end was begun at once, and has been car-
ried forward with more or less interest to the present time. During
its first twelve years the Society was provided by the General Assem-
bly (which early made it, and has continued it, the custodian of
valuable documents) with a room in the State House for its meetings
and for the safe keeping of its collections. During its next ten years
it had quarters elsewhere (three years in Brown & Ives' counting-
room and seven years in the Arcade), and during its last forty-eight
years it has occupied its own two-story building, which was, until a
recent date, only 30 by 50 feet, and is situated on lots 66 and 6S
Waterman street. With this building has been joined a structure
which greatly enlarges the Society's accommodations and increases
its means of usefulness.
The collections of the Society are considered as belonging to one
of the three following classes :
B. Printed matter.
C. Other things that properly belong to an historical museum.
* See Index, page
78 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
A. The manuscripts of the library, gathered from various sources
and a good number of them rescued from fire or pulp-vats by zealous
antiquaries, constitute one of the marked features of the library.
Thus, saved from impending destruction, these manuscripts will
repay a careful scrutiny. They relate to almost every department
of government, branch of business, and social, religious and political
question of the day. The collection of family papers is noteworthy,
and the fact can hardly escape attention that most of the families
represented by one or more volumes of papers had relations more or
less intimate with our nation as well as with our State.
The terms manuscripts and papers are often used here synonymous-
ly to indicate the titles rather than the Contents of certain volumes.
These manuscript volumes, many of them called papers, consist of
letters, diaries, sermons, military-rolls, pay-rolls, mercantile ac-
counts, post-office records, deeds, wills, official reports on the build-
ing of Revolutionary war ships, etc. Some. of them belong to the
Colonial period of our State and country, some to the Confederation
period and some to a later period. Some are State records, some
town records, court records, society records, church, family and
personal records, and some are accounts of remarkable events and
incidents from the settlement of the State to a recent period.
The library contains a good collection of Orderly Books relating
to a part of our Revolutionary history enacted on Rhode Island soil
or by Rhode Island troops. Six nicely-bound volumes of this class
have been recently presented by Mr. Jesse Metcalf ; also, a well-
bound copy of Col. Sylvanus Reed's Orderly Book, kept in camp at
Providence during the summer of 1778, is the gift of Mrs. Caroline
Gallup Reed, of New York. It is due to say, however, that the
original documents of this class have not yet received, owing to the
hitherto crowded condition of the cabinet, the attention thev merit.
Many of the manuscripts are arranged with some regard to chrono-
logical order, or to their subject matter. First on this list are the
papers of Moses Brown, who was merchant, manufacturer and phil-
anthropist. He was born in Providence in 1738, and died there in
1836. His eighteen folio volumes are in two series. The first
series has fourteen volumes, whose contents are arrauged in chrono-
logical order as follows :
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN. 79
Moses Brown Papers.
Vol. I. 1735-1770. Contains many letters written within this
period, among which are several from Governor Joseph Wanton,
1769 and 1770, Nicholas and John Brown, Obadiah Brown and
many leading men in different places.
Vol. II. 1770-1778. Coutains a copy of Moses Brown's formal
act, manumitting his slaves in November, 1773. Also many letters
showing the situation of the State and country between 1770 and
Vol. III. 1778-1782. Contains an appeal from President James
Manning of the Rhode Island College to Moses Brown for the poor
of Providence, dated March, 1770. Nicholas Brown tells his
brother, Moses, of the pitiful condition of a man who came from
Newport in ' 4 the Fiagg," meaning, probably, under the "flag of
Vol. IV. 1782-178-4. Contains a pretty full representation of
Moses Brown's relations to his brothers and his brethren in the
Vol. V. 1784-1787. Letters and copies.
Vol. VI. 1787-1789. In this volume, as in Vol. V., are letters
from Rev. Dr. Samuel Hopkins of Newport to Moses Brown, who
co-operated with him in the anti-slavery movement.
Vol. VII. 1789-1792. Interesting correspondence between the
brothers, Moses and John Brown.
Vol. VIII. 1792-1796. Moses and John Brown correspond and
Samuel Slater's name appears.
Vol. IX. 1796-1799. William Rotch of New Bedford is a
Vol. X. 1830-1804. Contains appeals for charity.
Vol. XI. 1801-1810. Bill of John B. Chace for nice China
table-ware, bought in Canton for Moses Brown.
Vol. XII. 1810-1816. Contains numerous letters from persons
whose names are now familiar, like John Pitman, B. How land,
Noah "Worcester, John Osborne, J. G. Chadsy and Moses Brown's
sou, Obadiah. (1771-1822.)
Vol. XIII. 1816-1832. Letters from Samuel Coates, of Phila-
delphia, in which the name of Stephen Girard occurs, and the ques-
80 KHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
tions of anti-slavery and a branch at Providence of the U. S. Bank
are referred to.
Vol. XIV. 1822-1842. Replete with interest. July 3, 1822.
William R. Staples notified Moses Brown in a circular that the
General Assembly granted, at its June session, the Charter of the
R. I. Historical Society, and that he (Mr. Brown) had been elected
a member and was invited to attend a meeting to be held on the 19th
of July for the adoption of by-laws and the election of officers. At
that meeting Mr. Brown presided and for twenty-six years the 19th
of July was observed as the anniversary of the society and of the
King Charles II. Charter.
The second series is as follows :
Moses Brown Papeus.
Vol. I. Miscellaneous. 1722-1803. Contains Backus's list of
Presidents and Governors of the Rhode Island and Providence
Plantations with their ecclesiastical belongings, and many other
curious and interesting documents.
Vol. II. Miscellaneous. 17G2-1824-. The contents of this
volume relate mostly to family, religious and business matters ; only
a few of the papers are dated. Interspersed are lottery tickets,
epitaphs and amusing letters. One lottery ticket is to help re-build
Faneuil Hall in Boston, November, 1769. There is a list of voters
at Providence town meetings, and also a concise statement of how
many voted the Federal ticket and how many the Democratic in each
town in the State from 1809 to 1812 inclusive. Also "A List of
Persons who Proxed for General Officers in the Town of Cranston
agreeably to Law, April 15, 1807."
Vol. III. Miscellaneous. 1 078-1 824. Contains Dr. John
Clarke's Will, dated April 20, 1G76. Deed of land in Pawtuxet
by Andrew Harris, October 9, 167S, and other interesting old
Vol. IV., which is the eighteenth volume of the whole series, has
been recently collected and arranged. It consists of genealogies of
Rhode Island families and biographical notes with interesting scraps
and bits of information about Pardon Tillinghast and other noted men
of an early period. It has a plat of Providence, which is believed to
be one of the oldest extant. Further on in this compilation (p. 90)
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN. 81
are notices of other contributions by Moses Brown to our local
The Theodore Foster volumes, eighteen in number, are less bulky
and less uniform in size, title and arrangement, causing much incon-
venience in shelving them. Chronological order is almost ignored.
One of these volumes is made up exclusively of printed matter, and
several of them are of a mixed character. While most of the
volumes are folios, one of them is of extraordinary dimensions, and
two or three of them are quite small. Theodore Foster, who col-
lected these papers, was born in Brookfleld, Mass., in 1752 ; gradu-
ated at Rhode Island College in 1770; studied law and settled in
Providence; married a sister of Gov. Arthur Fenner : was town
clerk of Providence" and United States Senator 1790-1803. He
died in Providence in 1828. The Foster papers constitute two
series, the first of which is as follows :
Vols. I, II and III. 1640-1801. Contain some copies and many
original documents relating to the early settlement of Providence;
also some Revolutionary War papers, and some papers collected by
Mr. Foster while in the United States Senate.
Vols. IV and Y. 1649-1754. Contain original documents of
Roger Williams, Samuel Gorton, John Whipple and others. Also
Vol. VI. Contains wills, genealogies, court dockets and law
Vol. VII. Contains printed hand-bills, etc.
Vol. VIII. Contains genealogical accounts of families by the name
of Pincheon,, Foster, Williams, Olney, Crawford, Arnold, Westcott
Vol. IX. Contains the first chapter of a History of Rhode
Island aud copies of old records.
Vols. X and XI. Contain muster-rolls, letters, etc. 1777-1825.
Vol. XII. Contains genealogies and historical sketches.
Vol. XIII. Contains writs and judicial proceedings.
Vol. XIV. Contains the census of Rhode Island in 1782.
The second series of Foster papers is as follows :
82 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Vols. I and II. 1746-1791. Contain original and copied letters
from leading citizens of the State and the country, such as John
Brown, Alexander Hamilton, Welcome Arnold, David Howell,
Gov. William Greene, Gen. Henry Knox, Henry Marchant, etc. ;
also correspondence with the Earl of Loudoun in 1756.
Vols. Ill and IV. 1795-1823. Contain a collection of letters
from Dr. Solomon Drowne and many leading citizens belonging to
the State in the latter part of the last century and the early part of
this century. On page 72, the Act establishing, under King George
and the Governor of the Colony, the United Company of Artillery,
April 2, 1775, is duly certified by the Secretary of State, Henry
Ward, April 24, 1776.
Theodore Foster left a good number of inter-leaved almanacs
which he statedly used as diaries and note books. For the lack of due
supervision, or for some other reason readily surmised, several of
these have disappeared. Two almanac diaries kept at the old fulling
mill in Warwick during the years 1756 and 1757, by a descendant
of Elder Pardon Tillmghasf, are still preserved. One of the most
curious almanac diaries in this library was kept by the Rev. Dr.
Ezra Stiles in 1789. On the 13th of February he made the follow-
ing minute : " Gen. Ethan Allen of Vermont died aud went to Hell
While the Moses Brown and Theodore Foster papers are the most
numerous, best known and hold a prominent place in this department
of the library, there are other series of papers in some respects more
interesting and valuable, as will appear from the following very
imperfect list :
These papers, comprising four volumes, relate in some way to the
military affairs of the Colony and State from 1757 to 1S09. They
consist of pay-rolls, letters, receipts for provisions, etc.
Vol. I. 1775-1781. Has for its first paper a letter from Col.
Israel Angell, written in camp at Prospect Hill (now Somerville.
Mass.), Dec. 1, 1775. In this letter he speaks of a successful
privateering feat by which the army at Cambridge was greatly
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN
Vol. II. 1757-1780. Begins with an official announcement
made May 6, 1757, by Gov. William Greene, that the Earl of
Loudoun, the commander-in-chief of all His British Majesty's forces
in North America, had demanded of this Colony 450 able-bodied,
effective men to be employed in His Majesty's service for and during
the ensuing campaign.
Vol. III. 1780-1787. Has for its first paper the muster-roll of
Capt. Benjamin West's company in Col. John Topham's regiment.
Vol. IV. 1778-1809. Contains lists of different military com-
panies, muster-rolls and pay-rolls, before, during and after the
William Harris was one of the first settlers of Providence. He
was baptized by Roger Williams in March, 1639, and died in Lon-
don about 1690. He was for many years the recognized leader of
the party opposed to the policy of Roger Williams. Here are some
original and many copied papers of an early date. The earliest date
is 1657 and the latest 1716.
Papers with the title as above constitute four thick folio volumes
chronologically arranged. The person most prominent is Jonathan
Tillingiiast, who was born in Newport in 1760 and died in Provi-
dence in 1806. He was a descendant of Elder Pardon Tillingiiast in
the fourth generation, and displayed in a brief period remarkable
vigor and energy. The papers illustrate the mode of doing business
at the close of the last century and at the beginning of this century.
One navigation paper is signed by President John Adams and his
Secretary of State, Timothy Pickering. Some of the family papers
are also of interest. The dates of the volumes are as follows :
Vol. I. 1738-1798.
» II. 1798-1801.
44 III. 1801-1803.
44 IV. 1803-1824.
84 EHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Nicholas Cooke, to whom many of these papers once belonged, is
usually designated as the Revolutionary War Governor of Rhode
Island. Fie was born in Providence in 1717 and died there in 1782.
He is regarded as having been one of the most public-spirited and
patriotic citizens of his time. The volumes are thus labelled :
Vol. I. Miscellaneous. 1732-1801.
44 II. Revolutionary Correspondence. 1775-1781.
Isaac Backus was born in 1724 and died in 1806. He was a
Baptist preacher and rendered valuable service as an historian. The
two volumes of manuscripts compiled by him, with dates from 1638
to 1731, comprise original and copied papers relating to the early
history of these Plantations.
Esek Hopkins was the first commodore of the Continental Navy.
The volumes contain his official documents and correspondence with
John Paul Jones, members of the Marine Committee of Congress,
and other well-known citizens. These papers are of decided historic
value. Their dates are as follows :
Vol. I. 1776-1777. -
44 II. 1728-1786.
44 III. 1776-1778.
Rhode Island Manuscripts.
Vol. I. Original papers of R. Williams, Wm. Harris, Gregory
Dexter, Gov. Benedict Arnold, and others.
Vol. II. Original papers of Pardon Tillinghast, William Arnold,
Vol. III. Original communications, in which the names of
Richard Waterman, Stukeley Westcott, William Carpenter and
William Wickenden are prominent.
86 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
Miscellaneous M ANuscitrrTs .
This volume contains a variety of original documents, or frag-
ments of original documents, relating to the, early history of Provi-
dence. For example, here are warrants for. town meetings ; requests
for favors from the town" ; also, leases, deeilsv 'bonds and agreements,
on some of which may be found the autographs of Daniel Abbott,
John Whipple, Roger Williams, Pardon Tillinghast, and Gabriel
Bernon. •:/..• . . . ' ' : -;. ' : -'\
This is the title of seven manuscript volumes, whose character
is indicated as follows :
Vols. I and II. 1643-1845. Contain many original documents,
such as a letter from Gen. John Stark to Col. Wm. Barton, Oct. 25,
1779 ; a letter from Col. Joseph Stanton, Jr., to Lieut. Col. Barton,
camp at Tiverton, R. I., July 5, 1777; ifc^tter from Brig. -Gen.
Ezekiel Cornell to Col. Barton, Newport*^ Nov. 17, 1779; Gen.
Wm. Barton's Narrative of his particular relation to the capture of
Vols. Ill and IV. 1092-1833. ' Contain original letters and
official documents from several governors of Rhode Island and of
Massachusetts, and a paper relieving a soldier from service, with
Vol. V. 1651-1790. Contains writs, warrants, deeds and other
Vol. VI. 1695-1743. Mostly sermon^; one deed given by
Nicholas Power in 1733, and one deed by Obadiah Brown and
Vol. VII. 1600-1779. Private land title deeds, all original and
most of them valuable. Stephen Hopkins and Arthur Fenner's
names appear. Here is the original commission of John Morley
Greene as ensign in the Continental army, March 1, 1779.
This volume, recently compiled, contnhw papers of Capt. Arthur
Fenner and of his descendants. Capt. Feuuer was born in England.
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN. 87
1022, and died in Providence 1703. He was a member of Crom-
well's army and a leader in the Providence Plantations. These
papers were presented to the Society by Mr. and Mrs. Pardon Fenner
Brown of Man ton, R. I. They comprise genealogies and original
An interesting collection of papers presented to the Society by
Wm. Field of Stafford Springs, Conn. The first paper is an agree-
ment, signed in Providence by William Field (immigrant), March 6,
1639, and witnessed by Roger Williams. Some official papers are
in the collection.
Who collected or presented these papers does not appear. The
autographs of Cornelius, Esek, John and Henry Esten are found in
this collection, together with original wills, bonds, letters and docu-
ments that convey some idea of old charter feuds. On page 8 is a
proclamation by Gov. Stephen Hopkins, which is dated May 1,
1762, stating that King George declared war against France, May
17, 1756 ; other papers of like import are found here.
These are from the collection of the Updike Family of Narra-
gansett, being portions of the papers of Lodowick (1616-1 730),
Daniel (1694-1757), Lodowick (1725-1S04), Daniel (1761-1842.),
and.Wilkins Updike (author of Narragansett Church), (1784-1867.)
Given to the Society by Daniel Berkeley Updike.
These relate to Rhode Island.
Vol. I. 1638-1679.
Vol. II. 1680-1740. These are all copies of original documents,
giving a vivid idea of certain disputes between the two colonies.
88 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island Manuscripts.
Vol. I. 1641-15G5.
Vol. II. 1665-1831.
Vol. III. 1635-1831.
These volumes contain documents, letters, etc., pertaining to Rhode
Island history, all copied from the files of the General Court of
Massachusetts by Joshua Coffin, who was a member of the Massa-
chusetts Historical Society and author of the History of Newberry.
His essays on the Lord's Prayer.
This volume exhibits the exquisite penmanship as well as
the thought and expression of the first settler of the town of "War-
wick, who was born in England about 1600 and died in "Warwick in
Two volumes. One of the first deeds in Volume I. is signed Sept.
10, 1692, by John Blaxton, son of William Blaxton, the first settler
of Boston. The deed is witnessed by Thomas Olney and Anthony
Papers Relating to Providence.
This volume contains a good number of original papers that have
come down from the first settlers.
Samuel Eddy's Private Papers.
Samuel Eddy was born in Johnston in 1769 and died in Provi-
dence in 1839. He was Secretary of State, 1797-1819 ; member of
Congress, 1819-1825 ; chief justice, 1827-1835. These papers were
given to the Society by the late James Eddy Mauran, of Newport.
These papers are labelled 1733-1791, yet the first paper is dated
1661. They once belonged to the Whipple family, from the early
immigrant, John, and include one paper of Commodore Abraham
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN. 89
Whipple, dated 1761, and scores of commercial and official scraps,
some of which throw light on the time when they were made out.
Dr. Usher Parsons.
Two volumes. One volume contains his diary on board the Java,
1818-19 ; the other volume contains his diary during the Lake Erie
Dr. Parsons was born in Alfred, Me., in 1788, and died in Provi-
dence in 1868. He was the surgeon of the fleet that won the battle
of Lake Erie in 1813 ; was five years a professor in Brown Uni-
versity ; was remarkably industrious and the author of several sci-
entific and historical works.
Boundary Line Papers.
This volume contains an account of the Controversy about the
Bouudary Line between Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and has
the Journal kept by the late Judge Stephen Branch in 1844-5.
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument.
A well-bound folio volume containing all the correspondence rel-
ative to the erection and dedication of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Mon-
ument. The volume was compiled by the late John R. Bart-
lett, and was presented to the Society by his son, Capt. John R.
Bartlett, United States navy.
The Society's Correspondence and Reports.
These comprise five thick folio volumes. The autograph letters of
eminent men who were honorary or corresponding members of the
Society are here arranged in chronological order and possess much
interest. The volumes are dated as follows :
Vol. I. 1822-1833.
Vol. II. 1833-1838.
Vol. III. 1838-1845.
Vol. IV. 1845-1852.
Vol. V. 1852-18G0.
90 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Canal Market Corporation.
Five well bound volumes of its records.
No mention has thus far been made of two large autograph books ;
the Society's record books during its seventy years' existence ; read-
ing-room records ; hotel records ; custom house records, including a
valuable collection kept by- William Ellery while he was the custom
house officer at Newport ; and records of various social, charitable,
religious and industrial institutions.
The large collection of carefully written genealogical papers left
by the late Rev. J. P. Root is worthy of special mention.
The following are some among many manuscript papers not bound :
Letter to Tristam Burges in 1836 on Rhode Island Commerce.
Account of the Yellow Fever in Providence, from 1791 to 1797.
Materials towards the History of Friends in New England.
Dr. Solomon Drowne.
Some of his papers copied and arranged by his son, William Drowne,
who was an author and a philanthropist. Dr. Drowne was born in
1753; graduated in Rhode Island College in 1773 ; was a surgeon
in the Continental army ; a professor in Brown University, and died
in 1834. The manuscripts of Dr. Drowne and of his branch of the
Drowne family would constitute a good folio volume.
Capt. Stephen Olney.
His Account of his Services in the Revolutionary War, from the
Battle of Bunker's Hill, in 1775, to the Capture of Yorktown, in
Col. Christopher LirpiTT.
His Autobiographical Sketch of his Life and Services for the
cause of Independence.
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN. 91
Providence Post Office Records.
From October, 176-1, to April, 1775.
During this time Samuel Chace was succeeded by William Goddard
as postmaster of Providence.
Miscellaneous and church matters.
The names of all the Freemen who voted at the Presidential elec-
tion in Providence Nov. 2, 1840.
Dr. E. M. Snow.
History of the Asiatic Cholera in Providence in 1832.
Census of Providence.
Capt, John Gallup.
Who was slain in the Great Swamp Fight on the 19th of Decem-
ber, 1675. Historical sketch of his family by Mrs. Caroline Gallup
Reed, of New York.
French Memorial Papers.
The library contains copies of several papers read before the So-
ciety and deposited here in compliance with a special vote. It also
contains the original copies of several books printed years ago, in-
cluding much material left by a devoted friend of the Society, the
late Rev. David Benedict, D. D.
One of several relics of the colonial period that reached this cab-
inet through the hands of Drs. Ezra Stiles, Abiel Holmes, Usher
Parsons and Charles W. Parsons, is a small volume labelled thus on
the last inside page : " Manuscript sermons wrote from the Mouth
92 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
of the Preacher chiefly at New London, by Christopher Christo-
phers, Esq. Gov. Saltonstall's Sermons, A. D. 1C90." The
inscription on the first inside page is: "January 14, 1769.
Given by Mr. Jno. Coit to the Ecclesiastical library of Rhode
Island. Received by Ezra Stiles. Vide Holmes' Life of Stiles,
p. 104." Rev. Gurdon Saltonstall was graduated at Harvard Uni-
versity, in 1684, settled in New London, 1691, and was governor of
It is not possible here to enumerate the papers of various kinds
that have come into the cabiuet from various families and various
quarters of our State and country. The need of clerks who possess
the judgment and skill to properly assort, put in order, record and
index the various kinds of historic material that have accumulated
during nearly three-quarters of a century is quite apparent.
The library has more than a hundred folio volumes of manuscripts,
more than twenty smaller volumes, and a good number of unbound
volumes, besides numerous unassorted manuscripts contained in
trunks and drawers, many of which are worthy of being classified
and arranged in folio volumes. Some of these unassorted papers re-
late to early admiralty courts, some to State taxation, some to crim-
inal trials, political and religious controversies and family and per-
B. Printed matter, constitutes the second kind of historic ma-
terial in the library. The -founders of the Society and their succes-
sors have put forth special efforts to collect such books and pamphlets
as relate to Rhode Island history, including in this list works pro-
duced by Rhode Island authors and those published on Rhode Island
soil. Their zeal and enterprise have resulted in bringing together
books, pamphlets, newspapers, and other printed documents that are
decidedly helpful to students of our local history, and they have also
secured many works that have a different scope and aim.
There are estimated to be in the cabinet more than lo,000 books
and two or three times that number of pamphlets besides the large
collection of newspaper volumes (1,710) referred to further on. Ot
the different kinds of books and pamphlets that constitute the library
it is observable that town histories and family genealogies are mosl
sought and consulted and the newspaper room is a favorite resort.
Iu this collection are some rare works, which, however attractive tn
relic hunters and traders, could not be estimated in dollars and cent>
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN,
— works which have been presented as expressions of friendly in-
terest in the objects of the Society and are regarded as sacred trusts.
Each of the thirty-six municipal corporations of the State has an
appropriate place for its historical sketches, tax-books, school re-
ports, census returns and various documents, and each town is here
more or less represented. The library has numerous maps and
charts, very few of which are rare. It has a good set of Rhode
Island Schedules ; Acts and Resolves ; a partial set of public laws
and digests ; Supreme Court Reports ; all the directories of Provi-
dence ; all but one of the directories of Pawtucket, and also of Woon-
socket ; a partial set of the directories of Newport and of the towns of
the State, together with a partial set of other municipal publications.
The liberal contributions of friends and of kindred institutions with
which the Society is in correspondence, will appear to advantage
when the re-classification of the library has been accomplished.
There is a well-arranged duplicate room in the basement of the
new building. The lower story of the old cabinet is still to serve a9
an audience room and also for Rhode Island publications and
reference books. The upper story of this room is devoted to
pamphlets arranged in three classes, in a thousand or more pamphlet
Among the collections of the Society newspapers hold, and have
held from the outset, a prominent place. In the upper room, in the
east wing of the cabinet (there being in both wings six rooms, each
19Jx47Jfeet) are shelved more than seventeen hundred bouud
newspaper volumes, varying in the date of their publication from
1761 to 1891. The Society's records give some idea as to whence
many of its newspaper volumes have come. Long before the State
began to deposit (in 1875) its volumes in the cabinet, the Society
had a good collection. The late William G. Goddard, who succeeded
his father as a journalist, and was one of the founders of this insti-
tution, presented to the Society a numerous collection of newspaper
volumes, ou some of which is written the name of his father. A mem-
ber of the same family has since added to these gifts.
Among the newspapers thus received are fifteen or twenty thick
volumes published (either in Philadelphia, Baltimore or Alexandria),
between 1761 and 1791. From various other sources have been re-
ceived many contributions of the same general character, as, for
94 RHODE ISLAND HISTOIUCAL SOCIETY.
example, the Liberator, 1837-18G5 ; the Boston Journal, 1857-1867 ;
the National Intelligencer^ 1810-1830, except for the years 1811,
1815, 1817 and 1825 ; the Journal of Commerce, 1843-1849 : Ship-
ping and Commercial List, 1842-1845, and many other broken sets
of highly prized old newspapers. Gifts of valuable newspapers con-
tinue to be received. Many volumes are added by purchase. In
March, 1889, over two hundred volumes were thus procured.
. More than nine-tenths of the newspapers of which the Society is
either the owner or the custodian, were published in Rhode Island.
A beginning has been made in the work required in the newspaper
room. The volumes of each series of papers are arranged, as they
should be, in chronological order, though not catalogued, and the
different series of a city or town are placed near each other.
The Newport Mercury, the oldest Rhode Island newspaper, occupies
the foremost place in the room. Its early volumes are wanting.
Though its publication was begun in 1758, the first volume found
here is that of 1772, and there are many serious breaks in the list
after that period.
The next series in order of time is the Providence Gazette, which
was begun in 1762. This was absorbed by the Providence Journal,
and has been continued under the latter name to the present time, —
one hundred and thirty years. Though each year is represented in
the Society's collection by either a weekly, a semi-weekly or a daily
issue, a volume of one or the other of these kinds is here and there
At one end of the long shelf row of these volumes is the volume of
1762, which, bound up with the volumes of five other years, consti-
tutes a volume of very moderate size and thickness, while, at the
other end are the three large thick volumes of 1891. The Mercury and
Gazette-Journal series of papers are followed by other series of de-
cided interest and value. With improved lists of all our local papers,
especially those of an early date, the hope is entertained that at no
distant day a history of the newspapers of the respective cities and
towns of the State may be compiled.
One of the six large new rooms, referred to above, is devoted
to the publications, duly grouped, of all the New England States, ex-
cept Rhode Island. Another of these rooms is devoted to the
publications of all the Slates of the Union except those of New Eng-
land. Here each State speaks for itself. In the New England
group Massachusetts has the most inviting show. Of the States out-
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN'. 95
side of New England, New York probably appears to best advantage.
In another room are to be classified and arranged the publications of
the United States government and of the Smithsonian Institution,
and in still another room are to be the publications of foreign coun-
tries and collections of miscellaneous literature.
C. The third class of historic material consists of paintings, en-
gravings, badges, medals, flags, swords, and relics or memorials of
various kinds (not written or printed) that illustrate local history.
The upper room in the Avest wing of the building is devoted
to this class of material and to constitute an historic museum where
will be found, it is presumed, illustrations of the Indian period of
Rhode Island history, of the colonial period, and of the industries,
manners, customs and events of various periods. Some of the arti-
cles that will find here an appropriate place are Indian money, Indian
domestic utensils, Indian implements of war, together with relics of
King Philip's War, the French and Indian War, the Revolutionary
War, the War of 1812, the Dorr War, the War of the Rebellion,
and, it is hoped, also emblems of peace and good will among men.
In a large fire-proof safe is the blue jacket worn by Commodore
Oliver Hazard Perry on the 10th of September, 1813, when he
fought and won the battle of Lake Erie ; and near it is the elegant
and costly sword, on which is engraved the following inscription :
OLIVER H. PERRY, Esc^.,
OF THE CITY OF
Another article of much interest belonging to this class of material
is a panoramic view of Providence as it appeared eighty years ago to
a person standing at the junction of Broadway and At well's avenue
and looking eastward. This picture, which was painted by Mr.
Worrall, was begun in 1808 and completed in 1812. It served for
nearly a score of years as a drop scene in the old Providence theatre,
which stood on the site of Grace Church. After bavins been laid
96 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
aside most of the time for threescore years it is now unrolled and
exposed to view on the north wall of the old cabinet where it gives
a good idea of a portion of the town when many of the Revolutionary
fathers were daily seen upon the streets.
Other illustrations of this class are in the portrait gallery which
constitutes a marked feature of the enlarged cabinet. This gallery is
twenty-seven feet square and has a sky -light which shows to advantage
the valuable paintings already hung on its walls. Under this dome is an
inviting place for the portraits of Rhode Island men and women who
have done honor to themselves, their State and their country.
Some of the portraits and pictures in the portrait gallery are as
James Fenner, artist, Lincoln, copied by Miss Chapin ; John
Howland, artist, Lincoln ; Albert G. Greene, artist, Lincoln ;
Samuel G. Arnold, artist, Miss Chapin ; Zachariah Alleu, artist,
Lincoln ; William Gammell, artist, Breuil ; Thomas M. Clark,
artist, Heade ; John Callender, artist, Feke ; James McSparran,
artist, Smibert, copied by Miss Updike; Mrs. J. McSparran, artist,
Smibert, copied by Miss Updike ; Henry Barnard, artist, Lincoln ;
Charles D. Jillson, artist, Lincoln ; Thomas F. Carpenter, artist,
Lincoln ; Elisha Dyer, artist, Lincoln ; Samuel Eddy, artist,
Alexander ; Tom Howland, artist, Blanchard ; Oliver H. Perry, frame
made from apiece of his flagship, the Lawrence ; Daniel Webster,
John H. Mason, Joseph Belcher, Joseph "Wanton, Mrs. Joseph
Wanton,William Barton, Catharine R. Williams, John H. Eddy, Enos
Hitchcock, Thomas Coles, James Burrill, Lewis L. Miller, Francis
Wayland, Abraham Whipple, Joseph W. Fearing, Ambrose E. Burn-
side, William E. Channing ; A Scene at the Great Bridge during
the September Gale of 1815, artist, Wall, copied by J. R. Bartlett ;
Federal Hill as seen from Canal street in 1829, artist, Harris ; India
Point in 1847, artist, Kinsley C. Gladding; Wall Street, New York,
No detailed account of the library can here be given. Some idea
of its scope and character may, however, be gained from a considera-
tion of the facts already stated and the classification adopted. Be-
sides its various manuscripts, the library consists of 15,000 books,
many of which are of a high order and well bound; 35,000 pam-
phlets, 1,700 volumes of newspapers and numerous relics, memorials
and works of art that properly belong to an historic museum. Many
curious and interesting articles of the last kind have not been re-
A BRIEF SKETCH BY THE LIBRARIAN. 97
moved from their quiet resting places for years, and, in the opinion
of the librarian, should not be disturbed until cases are prepared to
receive and to protect them from fingers that have done some mis-
chief and are ready to do more.
If the work laid out is carried forward as it should be, this insti-
tution will supplement and elevate the system of public education of
which the people of the State are justly proud.
The Society* has become by force of circumstances a recognized
medium of communication with institutions and individuals engaged
in kindred pursuits, and it has thus had devolved upon it a large
amount of correspondence to conduct which requires time and effort.
Its cabinet is a resort for persons seeking historical and genealogical
information and local statistics. Rhode Islanders and their descend-
ants residing in different parts of the country come or send here to
gain information about their family lines and ancestral homes.
Some come to settle titles to real estate ; some to consult newspapers,
and learn about scenes and events of which they have heard ; and
some to ascertain whether they are entitled to become members of
the Order of the Cincinnati, or of the Society of the Sons or of the
Daughters of the Revolution.
The collections of the Society, as shown in the foregoing very im-
perfect sketch, are not all that could be wished; nay, they are not
what they would have been if the Society had been organized a third
of a century earlier and provided with a suitable cabinet ; yet these
collections, however fragmentary, are of such value that were they
destroyed, the State of Rhode Island, with all its material wealth,
would be thereby impoverished.
The enlightened policy inaugurated by the founders of this Society
of seeking to preserve the archives of the State and various papers
that illustrate the fundamental principles of our social and political
fabric is now endorsed by several of our most progressive states and
most advanced statesmen. They regard historical societies as a part
of an expanded system of public education. There is authority for
the statement that papers illustrating the fundamental principles of
government often serve as means of amicable settlements of questious
that would otherwise involve expensive litigation.
The Society has a sphere of action of unquestioned importance.
Though it is threescore and ten years old, it seems just setting out
on a career of increased usefulness. It has recently acquired a pub-
* Formed April ly, and chartered June 15, 1S22.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
lication fund of S3, 000, and a general fund of $25,000. It has now
a cabinet whose floor area is five times greater than that of the old
cabinet and whose book-shelf and pamphlet-case capacity is ten times
greater. Still its needs and wants are pressing on every hand. It
needs to have its building finished and furnished. It needs to have
its financial resources so increased that it can sustain an efficient su-
pervisory and clerical force. It needs means to procure facilities for
historical research and investigation, including encyclopedias, his-
torical and genealogical dictionaries, town histories, and various
other works of reference. Lastly, it needs and should have, with
the least possible delay, such an ample publication fund as will en-
able it to issue from the press each year a volume of collections as
well as of proceedings. Thus prepared for its work, it will be in a
way to enrich and ennoble the life of the State, make a substantial
return for favors received from kindred institutions with which it is
associated, and perpetuate the memory of the founders and benefac-
tors of the Society as well as of the State and of the nation.
Index of Papers and Topics in Foregoing Sketch.
Asiatic Cholera, 91.
Backus Papers, 84.
Boundary Line Papers, 89.
Brown (Moses) Papers, 79,80,90.
Canal Market Corporation Re-
Comer Diary, 91.
Connecticut Manuscripts, 87.
Cooke Papers, 84.
Deeds (Ancient), 88.
Drowne Papers, 90.
Eddy Papers, 88.
Ellery Custom House Records, 90.
Esten Papers, 87.
Fenner Papers, 86-87.
Field Papers, 87.
Foster Papers, 81-2.
French Memorial Papers, 91.
Gallup, (Col. John), 91.
Gorton (Samuel) Essavs, 88.
Harris Papers, 83.
Historical Museum, 77, 95.
Hopkins Papers, 84.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island
Military Papers, 82-3.
I Miscellaneous Manuscripts, 86.
i Miscellaneous Papers, SG.
I Newspapers, 93-4.
J Olnev (Col. Christopher) Papers.
Olney (Capt. Stephen) Papers, 90.
Orderly Books, 78.
Papers Relating to Providence,
Parsons (Dr. Usher) Papers, 80.
Perry Sword and Uniform, 95.
Portrait Gallery, Contents of, 96.
Providence, Census of, 1790. 91.
Providence Post Ollice Records, 9 1 .
Providence Voters, 1841, 91.
Reed. (Col. Sylvanus) 78.
Rhode Island Manuscripts, S4-5.
Saltonstall (Rev. Gurdon) Ser-
Society's Correspondence, 89.
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument.
Stiles (Ezra). 82, 92.
Tiliingliast Papers. 83.
Updike Papers. 87.
Whipple Papers, ^8-9.
REPORT OF THE TREASURER.
REPORT OF THE TREASURER.
Richmond P. Everett, Treasurer, in account -:ith the Rhode Island
To cash on hand,
Income from investments of Samuel M
and Henry J. Steere legacies,
State of Rhode Island,
Taxes from 241 members,
Fees of admission, 44 members.
From a friend,
Sale of books,
Interest from Life Membership fund,
Salaries of librarian and assistant,
Postage, meetings, and express, .
Proceedings for 1S91-92,
Fuel and gas.
Building and grounds.
Insurance on new extension of building,
Cash on hand,
Rhode Island Hospital Trust Company, . 491 Si
RICHMOND P. EVERETT,
Providence, Jan. 11, 1S92.
We have examined the above account and find it correct.
Lewis J. Chace,
Henry T. Beckwith.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Life Membership Fund.
Richmond P. Everett, Treasurer, in account zvith the Rhode Island
Jan. 13. To cash on hand, ....
April 10. John L. Troup, for membership,
Arnold Greene, "
Walter Callender, "
16. Lucian Sharpe, "
Joseph Banigan, "
Aug. 20. Interest from Providence Institution for Savings
for January and July, 1S91,
Interest from Mechanics Savings Bank for Jan
uary and July, 1891,
Aug. 20. Interest from Providence Institution for Savings
for January and July, 1891,
Interest from Mechanics Savings Bank for Jan-
uary and July, iS9t , .
Carried to general account.
To cash on hand,
Providence Institution for Savings,
Mechanics Savings Bank, .
$r,S 9 3 76
Providence, Jan. 11, 1S92.
We have examined the above account and find it correct.
Lewis J. Chace,
Henry T. Beckwith,
A u dit Co m m ititt •
REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 101
Richmond P. Everett, Treasurer, in account -with the Rhode Island
Jan. 13. To cash on hand, ..... $3,230 82
May 16. S. R. Honey, for seventh volume of Proceedings, 2 50
Oct. 31. Interest from Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co., 94 46
Jan. 12. To cash on hand, ..... $3,327 7S
Deposited in the Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co.
Providence, Jan. 11, 1S92.
We have examined the above account and find it correct.
Lewis J. Chace,
Henry T. Beckwith.
102 rhode island historical society,
Richmond P. Everett, Treasurer, in accoiait with the Rhode Island
To cash on hand,
George J. West,
James Coats, .
Frank F. Olney,
Mrs. Elizabeth Gammell,
F. S. Hoppin,
John W. Danielson, .
Charles W. Parsons,
Wm. Jones Hoppin, .
John E. Weeden,
Robert H. I. Goddard,
Thomas J. Hill,
George M. Carpenter,
Henry A. Hidden,
William G. Weld,
Julia Bullock, - .
Mrs. H. G. Russell, .
Wm. D. Ely, .
Julia Bullock, .
A. L. Ord way,
Marsden J. Perry,
D. Russell Brown,
Wm. H. Hoppin,
Arthur H. Watson,
D. L. D. Granger,
George C. Nightingale, Jr.,
Charles H. George, .
Henry B. Gardner,
J. B. Gardiner,
For the sale of old furnace.
Interest from Rhode Island \
Tan. 6. Rowland Hazard,
REPORT OF THE TREASURER.
Worcester Steam Heating Co.,
P. O. Connor;
Boston Electric Co., .
John R. Shirley,
George D. Lansing, assignee for J
balance of account,
George D. Lansing, assignee,
J. W. Dornsife,
Stone, Carpenter & Wilson, bill of services
ing to $16,196, at 5 per cent., . $809 So
Express on plans to G, W. F. Smith & Co., 15
Telephone to Worcester Steam Heating Co., So
Credit by contribution,
Henry M. Horton, on account
D. F. Logan, .
Henry M. Horton.
Joseph Bardsley, 011 account
J. M. Burnham,
Henry M. Horton,
Brown & Sharpe Manufactu
G. F. Warner Manufacturing
W. G. Heath & Co., .
Henry M. Horton,
Boston Electric Co., .
W. G. Heath & Co., .
John R. Shirley,
Henry M. Horton,
To cash on hand,
Providence, Jan. 11. 1S92.
We have examined the above account and find it correct.
Lewis J. Chace,
Henry T. Beckwitii,
, • •
g Co., .
104 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY
Samuel ML Noyes (Legacy), ..... $12,000 00
Henry J. Steere (Legacy), ..... 10,00000
Invested as follows :
Mortgages, . . . . . $i5-7 ;:
Bonds, ...... 3 .500
Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co.. participation ace':. : .75:
No restrictions in regard to interest.
Ira B. Peck (Legacy). ...... 1.000 00
William Gammell, ^Legacy), ..... 1,000 00
Albert J. Jones, (Legacy), ..... .1,000 oc
Interest to Oct. 3, 189.1, . . . . . . 906c
Restricted — the interest to be expended for publications in that
Deposited in Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co., p.v. . : ~.-
Examined and found correct.
Providence, Tan. n, 1892,
Lewis T. Chace.
Henry T. Beckwith.
John Pitman Mumford was born in Newport,
Rhode Island, Feb. 24, 1S15, and died in Providence,
Feb. iS, 1S91.
He was the eldest son of Thomas Gardner and
Mary (Lynden Wilson) Mumford.
He attended the schools in his native town. At
the ao-e of fifteen he came to Providence and found
employment in a store in Simmonsville.
He was afterwards for a short time in the marble
business, but the greater part of his life was spent in
the wholesale orocerv business.
He first formed a partnership with Stillman Per-
kins. In 1856 Mr. Perkins retired from the firm, and
Mr. Mumford formed a partnership with James \Y.
YVinsor. This partnership, under the name of YVin-
sor & Mumford, lasted until 1S59. Mr. Mumford
continued in the business until 1S69, when on account
of poor health he was obliged to retire from active
He was a thorouQ-hlv self-made man, honest and
upright in all his dealings with his fellow-men.
He was twice married. A son of his first and a
daughter of his second marriage survive him.
Mr. Mumford became a resident member of this
Society in 1S77, and a life member in 1SS3. He mani-
fested a warm interest in the objects of the Society,
visiting its cabinet and attending its meetings as often
as his health and strength would permit,
10(5 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Hon. Henry Lippitt. The subject of this sketch
was born in Providence, Oct. 9, 18 18, and died there
June 5, 1 89 1. He was the son of Warren and Eliza
(Seamans) Lippitt, being descended from John Lip-
pitt, who came to Rhode Island in 1638. He was one
of our five governors who owed descent to Lewis
Latham, Falconer of Charles I. His ancestors,
Christopher and Charles Lippitt, were prominent in
the Revolutionary War, and were among the pioneers
in the manufacture of cotton.
He was educated at the academy in Kingston, leav-
ing school to be employed as clerk for four years by
Burr & Smith at Warren. In November, 1S35, he
became bookkeeper for Josiah Chapin & Co., Provi-
dence, continuing in that capacity three years. In
1838, with Edward Walcott and Amory Chapin
(special), he formed the partnership of Walcott & Lip-
pitt for a commission business in cotton and printing
cloths. In 1840 Mr. Walcott retired, and the firm be-
came Amory Chapin & Co. until the death of Mr.
Chapin in 1846. Robert L. Lippitt was then associ-
ated with his elder brother until his death in 1S5S,
under the firm of H. & R. Lippitt. Henry Lippitt's
manufacturing operations began in 1S48; he was in-
terested in a great number of enterprises — chiefly
for making cotton goods — at Danielsonville, Ct,
Newport, Woonsocket,Smithfield, Manville and Prov-
idence. The Social Manufacturing Company at
Woonsocket owns about 150,090 spindles. Mr. Lip-
pitt was President of the Rhode Island National
Bank, Rhode Island Institution for Savings, Lippitt
Woolen Company, Silver Spring Bleaching and Dye-
ing Company, Wheaton (/. f., Narragansett) Hotel
Company, Providence Opera House Association,
Dyer Street Land Company, Colonia Warehouse and
Dry Dock Company of Uruguay, and was Treasurer
of the Social Manufacturing Company. He was
prominent in founding and conducting the Board of
Trade in Providence.
He married Dec. 16, 1845, Mary Ann, eldest daugh-
ter of Dr. Joseph Balch; she died Aug. 31, 1889.
Three sons and three daughters, Charles Warren,
Jeanie, Henry Frederic, Mary Balch, Robert Lincoln,
and Abby Francis survive Governor Lippitt.
Mr. Lippitt's best mill, the "Social," was burned in
1874. He was one of the few who can turn adverse
circumstances into the opportunity for success. Im-
mediately he built a much larger and better equipped
establishment ; the facilities thus acquired giving him
a more extensive and more certain market. In this,
as always, he moved directly for the best that was to
be had. Once, when remonstrated with for selling-
some fairly good machines, he said, " My life is not
long enough to be spent in handling old machinery."
Not lonor after, through the misfortunes of a neio;h-
boring manufacturer, Mr. Lippitt became liable for
heavy endorsements. A large debt must be met at
once, and it was a crucial time. Whether he could
pay all that he owed was by no means certain ; every
one felt that he would try ; in that purpose and con-
scious strength rested the main hope of all interested.
The many creditors rather hoped than believed, and
said, " Let us pull together and with the debtor, hop-
ing for the best." None suffered, and they all re-
ceived full satisfaction.
108 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Hardly were the foundations of his business and his
fortunes made firm again beneath his feet, when his
public career opened out into new prospects. He had
been. Lieutenant-Colonel of the Marine Artillery,
serving actively in the Dorr War. Early in the fifties
he was conspicuous in the government of Providence,
especially in moving the city in behalf of the railway
to Hartford. The elders could not always brook the
impetuous energy of this young leader. But the late
Samuel Dexter, a man of careful judgment, going
home from a public meeting, surprised his wife by the
saying, "Young Henry Lippitt had the meeting in
hand and handled it easily."
He was ambitious for political distinction. Spirited
and energetic, always exerting himself freely in public
affairs, he looked eagerly for promotion by his native
commonwealth — the state that he dearly loved. He
had served the United States faithfully, being com-
missioner for the county of Providence to enroll and
draft men under President Lincoln's call for 300,000
men in 1862. He had always worked for the Repub-
lican party, and his opportunity came in 1S75, when it
gave him the nomination for governor. But our state
politics have often developed personal oppositions and
the clashing of personal interests. A severe contest
in convention led to a split and a divided election.
The contestant never faltered, but fought his way
steadily to the chair of state. In the centennial year,
1S76, the Providence Journal, which had opposed his
first election, voiced the public sentiment in these
words : "As a leader in political and popular move-
ments, he earned a reputation for executive ability,
which his experience for one year in the chair of
state has fully justified. Even those who most earn-
estly opposed the- election of Mr. Lippitt last year
concede that his official duties have been discharged
with a high degree of ability, judgment and intelli-
Governor Lippitt knew not much of the learning of
the schools, though he highly prized education, and
despised that shallow depreciation shouted by inferior
men of a knowledge they have not. He knew little
and cared little for formal dialectics. He had what
was better. His eager eye quickly caught the move-
ment of things ; his dome-like head carried a brain
that marshalled facts readily, assimilated principles
and set forth prompt deductions, appealing forcibly to
his hearers. He was a powerful speaker on any mat-
ter that interested him. He could move the convic-
tions or the prejudices of his hearers.
His strength and his limitations were in this active,
energetic, even restless personality. He managed
public trusts admirably and his own affairs success-
fully, as we have sketched. But he was not a good co-
operator in an ordinary enterprise. His constant and
somewhat aggressive personality did not fall into mo-
saic with other men. Severely critical and naturally
irascible, his irritability was upon the surface rather
than deep going. In all essential doings he was a
thoroughly kind-hearted man. Generous and loyal,
he never turned back on a friend.
" Strong as a tower in hope,"
our late associate loved his country, was kind and
generous to his family and friends, paid his debts, and
conducted large enterprises to successful results.
110 KHODK ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Prof. John Larkin Lincoln, LL. D., died in Provi-
dence, Saturday, Oct. 17, 1 89 1, in the seventy-fifth year
of his age. He was the son of Ensign and Sophia
Olive (Larkin) Lincoln, and was born in Boston,
Feb. 23, 181 7. His father was the senior partner in
the publishing house of Lincoln & Edmunds, and
was noted for his activity as a lay preacher among
the weaker churches of the religious denomination to
which he was attached. The oldest son, Rev. T. O.
Lincoln, was for many years a Baptist preacher of
repute in the State of Maine. Another son, the late
Rev. Dr. Heman Lincoln, after a long pastorate in
Providence, was, until his decease, a professor in the
Newton Theological Institution. The subject of this
sketch was educated in the schools of his native city,
entering the Boston Latin School at the early age of
nine, and graduating with the valedictory. In 1832,
at the age of fifteen, he entered the Freshman Class of
Brown University. Immediately after graduating he
was appointed a tutor in Columbian College, Wash-
ington, where he remained one year. In the fall of
1837 he entered the Newton Theological Institution,
where he remained two years, when, having been ap-
pointed a tutor in Brown University, he removed to
Providence. This position he held two years, teach-
ing with success, and winning the love and confidence
of his pupils and associates. President Wayland,
whom he greatly venerated and loved, advised him to
make teaching his profession for life, and, accordingly,
in the fall of 1841, he went abroad to pursue his
studies at the German universities. He spent one
year in Halle with Professors Tholuck, Muller,
Gesenius and Bernhardy. Another year was spent
in Berlin under Professors Neander, Hengstenberg
and Boeckh. He made excursions to Geneva, Paris
and Rome, returning home in 1844.
In the fall of 1844 he entered upon his duties as
Assistant Professor of Latin. The following year he
was made Professor of the Latin Language and Lit-
erature, and this position he held until his decease, a
period of forty-six years. In 1857 he went abroad a sec-
ond time, partly on account of his health, and was ab-
sent six months. Upon his return he took charge of a
school for young ladies in Providence, which had
been established by the late John Kingsbury, ll. d.
This he taught with distinguished success for eight
years, during which time he retained his connection
with the college, giving partial instruction in the
Latin department. In the summer of 1878 he took
a third trip to Europe, and ten years later a fourth
and last trip, this time remaining a year. In 1859 he
received from his Alma Mater the honorary degree
of LL. D. He has prepared editions of Livy, Horace
and Ovid, which have been well received by classical
scholars all over the land. He has been a prolific
writer, contributing to the columns of the Providence
Journal, the Watchman, the Examiner, the Baptist-
Quarterly, and other periodicals. The University has
long been dependent on him for the Latin of its
diplomas and triennial catalogues.
For more than half a century Professor Lincoln
has been intimately connected with the affairs of the
University. His presence in the meetings of the
Faculty, and in all the social gatherings has been an
inspiration. To the students he was always a per-
sonal friend, sympathizing with them in their trials
112 RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
and discouragements, and rejoicing with them in all
their successes. His portrait in Sayles Memorial
Hall, the Lincoln Memorial Fund, the Lincoln Field,
and the Lincoln Library Association, are proofs of
the estimation in which he is held by the graduates ; —
and they will serve to hand down his name- and his
merits to coming generations. Mention should be
made of his religious character. He was not an
ascetic, but he was a sincere and devout Christian,
attached to the principles of the Baptists, and liberal
and catholic in all his views. For nearly a quarter of
a century he was an active deacon of the venerable
First Church. He was President of the Society,
Superintendent of the Sunday School, President of
the Baptist Sunday School Convention, President of
the Baptist Social Union, and in all ways thoroughly
identified with the best interests of the church, the
college, and the Baptist denomination.
Professor Lincoln was married July 29, 1846, to
Laura Eloise, daughter of Earl Douglas and Lydia
(Wheaton) Pearce, of' Providence, who survives him.
Their children are William Ensign, Arthur, John Lar-
kin, Laura, and James Granger. All the sons, and
the son-in-law, Charles Sidney Waldo, are graduates of
the University. In 1879 he was elected a member of
this Society. He has read papers on " Tacitus, the
Historian," on " The Emperor Marcus Aurelius," and
on "The Historian Leopold von Ranke." For many
years he has been a member of the Standing Com-
mittee on Lectures.
INSTITUTIONS, CORPORATIONS AND COPARTNER-
SHIPS FROM WHICH GIFTS HAVE BEEN RECEIVED.
Advance Club, Providence.
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester,
American Philosophical Society, Philadel-
Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.
Boston Associated Charities, Boston.
Boston City Messenger, Boston.
Boston Public Library, Boston.
Brooklyn Library, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Brown University, Providence.
Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo, N. Y.
Canadian Institute, Toronto, Canada.
Cayuga County Historical Society, Au-
burn, N. Y.
Chicago Board of Trade, Chicago.
Columbian Bicycle Co., Boston.
Columbian Exposition Committee, Chica-
Connecticut Adjutant General's Office,
Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford,
Coombs H. M. & Co., Providence.
Coop & Boms, Providence.
Dedham Historical Society, Dedhani, Mass.
Delaware Historical Society, Wilmington,
Demit Dispensary, New York.
Dominion Land Surveyors' Association,
Denmark Royal Society of Northern Anti-
quaries, Copenhagen, Den.
Essex Institute, Salem, Mass.
General Theological Seminary, New York.
Halifax Historical Society, Halifax, N. S.
Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford,
Harvard University, Cambridge.
Huguenot Society of America, New York.
Hyde Park Historical Society, Hyde Park,
Iowa State Historical Society, Iowa City.
Irrepressible Society, Providence.
Johns Hopkins Universitv, Baltimore,
Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka,
Longman, Green & Co., New York.
Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn,
Lowell Old Residents' Historical Society,
Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles,
Maine Historical Society, Portland, Me.
Massachusetts Board Railroad Commis-
Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.
Massachusetts State Library, Boston.
Michigan State Library, Lansing, Mich.
Michigan University, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.
Nebraska State Historical Society, Lin-
Nebraska, University, Lincoln, Neb.
Newberry Library, Ciiicago.
New England Historical and Genealogical
New Haven Colony Historical Society,
New Haven, Conn.
New London Historical Society, New
New York Historical Society, New York.
New York State Library, Albany, N. Y.
Norwegian University, Kristiania, Nor-
Ohio Historical and Philosophical Society,
Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y.
Pawtucket City Council Centenary Com-
Pennsylvania Historical Society, Phila-
Philadelphia Numismatic and Anti«iuariau
Providence Art Institute, Providence.
Providence City Messenger, Providence.
Providence National Bank, Providence.
Providence Journal Co.
Providence Public Librarv, Providence.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Quebec Literary and Historical Society,
Redwood Library, Newport.
Rhode Island Peace Society, Providence.
Rhode Island State, Providence.
Rhode Island State Charities and Correc-
Rhode Island State Government, Provi-
Rhode Island State School for the Deaf,
Rhode Island Women's Club, Providence.
Royal Historical Society, London, Hanover
Salem Press Publishing and Printing Co.,
Salem Public Library, Salem, Mass.
Sampson, Murdock & Co., Providence.
Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
Southern California Historical 'Society,
Los Angeles, Cal.
St. Louis Public Library, St. Louis, Mo.
Travelers' Insurance Co., Hartford, Conn.
Tennessee State Board of Health, Nash-
Tufts' College, College Hill, Mass.
United States Bureau of Education, Wash-
ington, D. C.
United States Bureau of Statistics, Wash-
ington, D. C.
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey,
Washington, D. C
United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.
United States Department of State, Wash-
ington, D. C.
United States Department of War, Wash-
ington, D. C.
United States Life Saving Service, Wash-
ington, D. C.
Union for Christian Work, Providence.
Vermont State Library, Montpelier, Vt.
Virginia Historical Society, Richmond,
Washington State Historical Society, Ta-
Wisconsin State Historical Society, Mad-
Westchester County Historical Society,
White Plains, N. Y.
World's Fair Committee, Chicago.
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Young Men's Christian Association, Provi-
PERSONS FROM WHOM GIFTS HAVE BEEN
Adums, Charles Francis, Boston,
Addeman, Joshua 31., Providence.
Aldrich, Xelson W., Providence.
Ames, John G., Washington, D. C.
Anthony, Lewis W., Providence.
Arnold, Rev. Henry T., New York.
Austin, John O., Providence.
Ayer, Mrs. William F., Providence.
Bailey, William W., Providence.
Baker, Miss Virginia, Warren.
Ball, Nicholas, Block Island.
Ballon, Latimer W., Woonsocket.
Barlow, George, Brooklyn. N. Y.
Beckwith Henry T., Providence.
Benedict, Miss Maria M., Providence.
Benjamin, Walter R., New York.
Bliss, George X., East Providence.
Boon, Charles E., Xarraganselt Pier.
Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., Boston.
Brayton, John S., Fall River, Mass.
Browne, Keyes D , Providence.
Bucklin, Elisha W., Pawtucket.
Calder, Albert L., Providence.
Carpenter, Rev. C. C, Andover, Mass.
Carpenter, George M., Providence.
Catlin, Charles A , Providence.
Chace, John A., Washington.
Chapman, A. F., Boston.
Clark, Rt. Rev. Thomas M., Providence.
Coffin, Charles Carlton, Boston.
Collins, George L., M. D., Providence.
Conant, Hezekiah, Pawtucket.
Cranston, George K., Providence.
Cranston, Henry C, Providence.
Davis, Henry It., Providence.
Davis, John W., Pawtucket.
Denison, Charles H., Brooklyn, X. Y.
Denison, Rev. Frederic, Providence.
De Peyster, J. Watts, Tivoli, Duches3
. County, N. Y.
Dickinson, Thomas A., Worcester, Mass.
Dodge, James II., Boston.
Drake, William, Providence.
Draper, Daniel, M. D., New York.
Drowne, Henry T., New York.
Drowne, Rev. T. Stafford, Flatbush, N. Y.
Dufoss6, E., 27 Rue Guenegard, Paris.
Dyer, Elisha, Providence.
Earle, Charles R., Providence.
Eaton, Amasa M., Providence.
Eddy, Albert & Co., Providence.
Ely, William D., Providence.
Everett, Richmond P., Providence.
Farnham, J. E. C, Providence.
Fillmore, C. W., M. D., Providence.
Fisher, Charles 1L, M. D., Providence.
Flagg, Charles O., Kingston.
Folsom, A. A., Boston.
Foster, William E., Providence.
Freeman, E. L. &Co., Providence.
Fritz, George, Jr., Providence.
Frost, Walter B., Providence.
Gardner, C, New York.
Giddings, Rev. Edward, Housatonic, Mass.
Ginn & Co., Boston.
Glezen, E. K., Providence.
Goodwin, Almon K., Providence.
Goodwin, James J., Hartford, Conn.
Gorton, Charles, Providence.
Green, Arnold, Providence.
Green, Samuel A., M. D., Boston.
Greene, Maria L., Boston.
Greene, Samuel S., Worcester, Mass.
Greene, William B., 128 Broadway, X. Y.
Griffin, Rev. William Elliot, Boston.
Guild, Reuben A., Providence.
Hale, Rev. Edward E., Boston.
Hassam, John T., Boston.
Hazard, Rowland, Peace Dale.
Hill, Thomas J., 1'rovidence.
Hoadley, Charles J., Hartford, Conn.
Holt, Henry, Xew York.
Hooker, John, Hartford, Conn.
Hopkins, Charles \Y., Providence.
Houghton, George W., Boston.
Howard, George E., Lincoln, Xeb.
Howard, Rev. R. B., Boston.
Hubbard, Luther P., Xew York.
Hunt, Miss Ellen G., Providence.
Jameson, J. Franklin, Providence.
Jecht, Richard. M. D., Gorlitz, Prussia.
Jencks, Albert V., Providence.
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Jones, C. C, Augusta, Ga.
Jones, Daniel L., 40 McKibbin street,
Brooklyn, N. Y.
Jones, Henry C, New York.
Joslin, H. V. A., Providence.
King, Moses, Boston.
Knowles, Edward R., Providence.
Knowles, Mrs. John M., Providence.
Ladd, Warren, New Bedford, Mass.
Lee, Charles A., Pawtucket.
Lincoln, Frederic \Y., Boston.
Low, Seth, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Maine, Rev. A. E., Ashaway.
Manchester, Rev. Alfred, £ > rovidence.
Manchester, Edwin H., Providence.
Mason, George C, Newport.
McComrick, William H., Providence.
McDowell, William O., New York.
McGuiiiness, Edwin D., Providence.
Meader, Lewis H., Providence.
Metcalf, Jesse, Providence.
Mifflin, James, Philadelphia.
Miller, Albert P., Providence.
Moore, George H., New York.
Moore, Rev. Edwin C, Providence.
Morse, Edward F., Salem. Mass.
Moseley, William H. T., Providence.
Nisbet, William D., Providence.
Noyes, Isaac P., Washington, D. C.
Noyes, Robert F., M. D., Providence.
Olney, George W., New York.
Pabodie, B. Frank, Providence.
Paine, Amasa, heirs of, Providence.
Paine, Frederick, Minneapolis, Minn.
Paine, Robert H., Baltimore.
Parker, 3Irs. Joel and family, Freehold,
Paul, David E., Johnston.
Peckham, Samuel W.. Providence.
Peckhara, Stephen F., Providence.
Pegram, John C, Providence.
Pell, Howland, New Y'ork.
Peet, Rev. Stephen D., Mention, 111.
Perry, Amos, Providence.
Perry, Aaron F., Cincinnati, Ohio.
Perry, Rev. A. L., Williamstown, Mass.
Perry, C. M., No. 1 Broadway, New York.
Perry, John G., Wakefield.
Perry, Lucian N., Providence.
Perry, Mrs. Mary A., Lowell, Mass.
Perry, Rt. Rev. William S., Davenport, la.
Pettis, James L., Johnston.
Pettis, George II., East Providence.
Porter, Rev. E. G., Lexington, Mass.
Preston, L. E., 247 Broadway, N. Y.
Rice, Franklin, P., Worcester, Mass.
Rider, Sidney S., Providence.
Reid, J. A. & R. A., Providence.
Rhodes, Edwin S., Providence.
Rhodes, Samuel B., Providence.
Rogers, Horatio, Providence.
Rose, Henry B., Providence.
Rounds, John M., Providence.
Rusk, J. M., Washington, D. C
Sessions, Francis I., Albany, N. Y".
Sheffield, William P., Newport.
Shinn, J. H., Philadelphia.
Sibley, Alden W., Pawtucket.
Slafter, Rev. Edmund F., 249 Berkeley
Smith, Charles 1L, Providence.
Smith, Charles Sydney, Providence.
Smith, Nathan J.. Providence.
Snow, E. H., Providence.
Spaulding, J. A., Hartford, Conn.
Spencer, William B., Providence.
Spooner, Henry J., Providence.
Stark, Charles R., Providence.
Starkweather, Joseph V., Providence.
Staples, Rev. Carlton A., Lexington, Mass.
Staples, William, Providence.
Stone, Mrs. Ellen A., E. Lexington, Mass.
Stone, L. M. E., Providence.
Straus, Oscar S., 42 Warren street, New
Swan, Jarvis B., Providence.
Swan, Robert T., Boston.
Taft, Miss Emma A., Providence.
Taylor, Charles F., Providence.
Thompson, J. C., Providence.
Tillinghast, Charles E., Providence.
Tillinghast, James, Buffalo, N. Y".
Tooker, William Wallace, Sag Harbor,
Traver, Mrs. William H., Providence.
Yalpey, Thomas H., Providence.
Wadlin, Horace G., Boston.
Wall, Caleb A., Worcester, Mass.
Wall. James H., Worcester, Mass.
Wan-amaker, John, Philadelphia.
Waterman, Rufus, Providence.
Watson, S. M., Portland, Me.
Webb, Rev. Samuel H., Providence.
Webster, Rev. Kugene C, E. Providence.
Weeden, William B., Providence.
Weld, William G., Newport.
Whitaker, Alfred, San Francisco, Cal.
Williams, J. Fletcher, St. Paul, Minn.
Woodhouse, Charles, M. D., Uutland, Yt.
Wood, William G., Providence.
Wright, Carroll D., Washington, D. C.
•RESIDENT MEMBERS— JANUARY, 1892.
1885. Aldrich, Elisha Smith
1574. Aldrich, Nelson Wilmarth
1S90. Allen, Miss Candace
1890. Allen, Edward S.
1891. Almy, Herbert
1575. Ames, William
1SS5. Andrews, Elisha Benjamin
1876. Angell, Edwin G.
1880. Anthony, John B.
1891. Armstrong, Henry C.
1889. Arnold, Fred. W.
1889. Arnold, Newton Darling
1574. Arnold, Richard James
1877. Arnold, Stephen Harris
1890. Atwood, Charles H.
1881. Bailey, Richard Arnold
1853. Bailey, William Mason
1881. Baker, David Sherman, Jr.
1891. Ball, Nicholas
1890. Ballon, William Herbert
1884. Ballon, Latimer Whipple
1891. Barker, Frederick Augustus
1890. Barker, Henry R.
1872. Barrows, Edwin
1880. Barstow, Amos C, Jr.
1890. Barstow, George E.
1888. Bartlett, John Russell
1879. Barton, William T.
1889. Bartow, Evelyn Pierrepont
1S83. Bates, Isaac Comstock
1890. Battey, Thomas J.
1858. Binney, William
1889. Binney, William, Jr.
18S7. Blake, Eli Whitney
18^0. Blodgett, John T.
1878. Bogman, Edward Young
1891. Bourn. George XV. B.
1881. Bradley, Charles
1883. Brown, D. Russell
1883. Brown, H. Martin
1575. Brown. John Adams
1S70. Bugbee, James H.
1884. Bullock, Jonathan Russell
1884. Burdick, James
1891. Burgess, Edwin A.
1891. Calder, Albert L.
1859. Calder, George Beckford
1880. Campbell, Daniel G.
1870. Campbell, Horatio Nelson
1873. Carpenter, Charles Earl
1S90. Carpenter, Miss Esther B.
1874. Carpenter, Francis Wood
1880. Carpenter, George Moulton
1889. Catlin, Charles Albert
1888. Chace, James JI.
1S80. Chace, Jonathan
1S80. Chace, Julian A.
1S79. Chace, Lewis James
1808. Chace, Thomas Wilson
1857. Chambers, Robert B.
1S84. Chapin, Charles Value
1890. Chase, Thomas
Ls83. Child, Charles H.
1887. Claflin, Arthur W.
1S78. Clark, Thomas March
1880. Coats, James
1S77. Codman, Arthur Amory
1885. Collins, George Lewis
1892. Colwell, Francis
1890. Comstock, Louis H.
1880. Comstock, Richard W.
1891. Conant, Samuel Morse
1872. Congdon, Johns Hopkins
1892. Cooke, Henry W.
1877. Cranston, George K.
1874. Cranston, Henry Clay
1881. Cranston, James E.
1891. Crins, William II.
1891. Cummings, John E.
1870. Cushman. Henry I.
1891. Daggett, Frederick J.
1890. Danforth, Charles
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY
1SSG. Dart, Edward Merrill
1S91. Davis Henry R."
1SS7. Day, Albert C.
1S81. Day, Daniel
1S74. Day, Daniel Eugene
1S81. De Wolf, John James
1SS6. Dews, Joseph
1881. Dixon, Xathan Fellows
1877. Doringh, Charles IT. R.
1877. Dorrance, Samuel Richmond
1858. Douglas, Samuel Tobey
1SS2. Douglas, William Wilberforce
1875. Dunnell, William Wanton
1877. Durfee, Charles S.
1849. Durfee, Thomas
1590. Dyer, Elisha
1873. Eames, Benjamin Tucker
1S8C. Earle, Charles B.
1856. Ely, James W. C.
1891. Ely, Joseph Cady
1802. Ely, William Davis
1892. Farnsworth, John P.
1891. Field, Edward
1591. Fifield, Henry Allen
1891. Fifield, Moses
1878. Fisher, Charles Harris
1890. Fiske, George McClellan
1S85. Fitzgerald, O. Edward
1891. Foster, John
1S8S. Foster, Samuel
1881. Foster, William E.
1892. Fredericks, William X.
1855. Gammell, Asa Messer
1875. Gammell, Robert Ives
1SS4. Gammell, William
1S91. Gardner, Clarence
1SS9. Gardner, Henry Drayton
1859. Gardner, Rathbone
1885, George, Charles H.
1891. Gilford, Robert P»
1881. Goddard, Moses Brown Ives
lSS0.,^Goddard, Robert II. Ives
1850!" Goddard, William
1883. Goodwin, Daniel
1891. Granger, Daniel L. D.
1875. Grant, Henry Townsend
1891. Grant, Henry T., Jr.
1S7S. Greene, Edward A.
187G. Greene, Henry L.
18S7. Greene, Thomas C.
1877. Greene, W. Maxwell.
1892. Gross, J. Mason
1572. Grosvenor, William
1887. Guild. Reuben Aldridge
1890. Hall, Mrs. Emily A.
1882. Hall, Jenison C.
1878. Hall, Robert
1578. Harkness, Albert
1S74. Harrington, Henry Augustus
1SS3. Harson, M. Joseph
1889. Hart, George Thomas
1S90. Hazard, George J.
1871. Hazard, Rowland
1888. Hazard, Rowland Gibson
18SL Hersey, George D.
1573. Hidden, Henry Atkins
1891. Hill, Mrs. Elizabeth C.
1574. Hill, Thomas Jefferson
1874. Holbrook, Albert
1874. Hopkins, William II.
18S7. Hopkins, William II.. 2d
1S71. Hoppin, Frederick Street
1SS9. Hoppin, William Jones
1890. Howard, Hiram
1891. Howe, Marc Antony De Wolf,
1885. Howland, Richard Smith
1552. Hoyt. David Webster
1589. Hudson, James Smith
1S82. Jackson, William F. B.
1888. Jameson, John Franklin
1590. Jefferson, George A.'
1807. Jencks, Albert Varmun
1885. Johnson, Oliver
1880. Jones, Augustine
1891. Joslin, Henry V. A.
1889. Kelly, John B.
1553. Kendall, Hiram
1880. Kenyon, James S.
1892. Kimball, Horace A.
1870. Kimball, James M.
1S85. King, George Gordon
1884. King, William Delnm
1579. Knight, Edward B.
1891. Knight, Richard D.
1890. Knight, William
1S83. Ladd, Herbert W.
1SS9. Lapham, Oscar
J 890. Leete, George F.
1892. Lincoln, Ferdinand A.
1878. Lippitt, Charles Warren
18S0. Lippitt, Christopher
1881. Littlefield, Alfred H.
1891. Livermore, Frank D.
1891. Lord, Augustus M.
1891. Manchester, Alfred
1891. Manly, John M.
1886. Marcy, Fred. I.
1877. Mason, Earl Philip
1877. Mason, Eugene W.
1877. Mason, George Champlin
1877. Mason, John H.
1891. Matteson, Charles
1S89. Matteson, George Washing-
18S9. McCrillis, Aaron B.
1891. McGuinness, Edwin D.
1891. Mead, William B.
1S83. Header, Lewis II.
1890. Metcalf, Alfred
1876. Metcalf, Henry B.
1S75. Miller, Augustus Samuel
1881. Miner, Francis Wayland
1891. Moulton, David C.
1890. Moulton, Edmund T.
18S6. Mowry, Raymond G.
1880. Munroe, Wilfred IT.
18S0. Nichols, Amos G.
1891. Nicholson, William T.
1876. Nickerson, Edward I.
1874. Nightingale, George Corliss
1889. Nisbet, William Douglas
1890. Olney, Frank F.
1S79. Olney, George Henry
1S70. Pabodie, Benjamin Frank
1558. Packard, Alpheus S.
1885. Page, Charles II.
1559. Paine, Charles E. (C. E.)
1890. Parker, Edward D. L.
1S47. Parsons, Charles William
1857. Peck, Walter A.
1849. Peckham, Samuel Wardwell
1887. Peckham, Stephen Farnum
1875. Pegram, John C.
1858. Perry, Amos
1880. Perry, Marsden J.
1874. Persons, Benjamin Williams
1891. Phillips, Gilbert A.
1S73. Phillips, Theodore Winthrop
1878. Porter, Emory Huntington
1891. Potter, Asa K.
1887. Preston, Howard Willis
1SS9. Reynolds, AVilliam Job
1891. Richards, Henry F.
1891. Richmond, Miss Caroline
1877. Richmond, Walter
1891. Ripley, James M.
1881. Roelker, William G.
1558. Rogers, Arthur
1866. Rogers, Horatio
1890. Rugg, Henry W.
1856. Sabin, Charles
1877. Seagrave, Caleb
1874. Shedd, J. Herbert
1881. Sheffield, William Paine, Jr.
1559. Sheldon, Charles Henry, Jr.
1885. Sheldon, Nicholas
1S79. Shepley, George L.
1S77. Slater, Horatio Nelson
18S3. Slater, John Whipple
1888. Smith, Benjamin West
1882. Smith, Charles IT.
1875. Smith, Edwin Augustus
1855. Smith, Sanford Billings
1890. Snow, Louis F.
1S69. Southwick, Isaac Harrison
1885. Southwick, Isaac Hinckley
1880. Spicer, William A.
1890. Spink, Joseph Edwin
18S1. Spooner, Henry Joshua
1869. Staples, William
188S. Stark, Charles Rathbone
1879. Stiness, John Henry
1881. Stone, Alfred
1891. Studley, Thomas E.
1880. Sturges, Howard O.
1856. Taft, Royal Chapin
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
1883. Talbot, Frederick
1ST4. Taylor, Charles Frederick
1881. Thomas Charles Lloyd
1890. Thornton, George M.
1890. Thurber, William II.
1S91. Thurston, Benjamin F.
1S90. Tillinghast, Charles E.
1SS9. Tillinghast, James
1801. Tourtellott, Amasa C.
1S9i3. Tower, James H.
1891. Traver, Mrs. Adelia E. A.
1875. Trippe, Samuel Gardner
1SS5. Tucker, William A.
1874. Turner, Henry Edward
1SS5. Updike, Daniel Berkeley
1890. Vincent, Walter Borodel
1881. Vose, James Gardner
1S84. Walton, William A.
1801. Waterman, Rufus
1890. Webb, Samuel H.
1SG8. Weeden, William Babcock
1887. Welling, Richard Ward Greene
1891. West, George J.
1S90. Whitaker, Nelson Bowen
1889. White, Hunter Carson
1884. White, Stillman
1ST4. Whitford, George Washing-
1884. Wilbour, Joshua
1891. Wilbur, George A.
1884. Williams, Alfred Mason
1881. Williams, Zephaniah
1891. Willson, Edmund R.
188(3. Wilson, Ellery H.
1888. Wilson, George G.
1890. Wolcotr, Henry
1887. Wood, William H.
1S76. Woods, Marshall
LIFE MEMBERS— JANUARY, 1892.
George Taylor Paine,
Henry Truman Beckwith,
Holden Borden Bowen,
Amasa Mason Eaton,
Jarvis Bowen Swan,
Thomas Pointon Ives Goddard,
Henry Grinnell Russell,
William Gordon Weld,
John Nicholas Brown,
George Peabody Wetmore,
John Weaver Danielson,
Le Boy King,
Miss Julia Bullock,
Joseph Da vol,
Mrs. Mary II. Knowles,
John L. Troup,
John O. Austin,
Richmond P. Everett,
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
James Burrill Angell, ll. d.,
Ann Arbor, Mich.
1SS8. James Tillinghast,
1888. William Frederick Poole, ll. d.,
1SS8. Samuel Smith Purple, M. d.,
1888. Edward Amasa Park, d. d.,
1SS8. Abby Isabel (Brown) Bulkley,
1SS0. William Henry Watson, m. d.,
1890. Rev. William R. Bagnall,
1S90. Franklin Pierce Bice,
1800. William Harden,
1891. Henry Fitz Gilbert Waters,
1891. William Warner Hoppin,
1891. Isaac Pitman Noyes,
1S92. Henry Herbert Edes,
For list of Honorary and Corresponding Members elected
Buffalo, N. Y.
Brooklyn, X. Y.
Utica, X. Y.
Washington, D. C.
at previous dates, sec Pro-
Address of the President .
" " " Yiee-President
Austin, Mr. John O., made a life member
Beckwitli, Mr. Henry T., thanks to
Burdick, Mr. James, report on Field Day,
Burrage, Rev. H. S., D. D., paper read by
Carpenter, Mr. Charles E., letter from .
" Hon. George M., paper read by
Clark, Kt. Rey. Thomas M., D. D., LL. D., paper read by
Dorr, Henry C, Esq., papers read by
Dyer, Adjutant-General, paper read by .
Everett, Mr. R. P., made a life member
Foster, Mr. William E., paper read by .
Hoppin, William Warner, letter from
Hoyt, Mr. David W., paper read by
Individuals, gifts received from .
Institutions and Corporations, gifts received fr
Jillson, Col. Charles D., thanks to
Knowles, Mrs. John P., thanks to
Langdon, Rev. W. C, D. D., paper read by
Library, Sketch of .
Loring, Hon. George B., death of
Members, Corresponding, list of .
Life, 1S92, list of
" Resident. 1892, list of .
" " elected
8, 10, 13, 16
RHODE ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
Lippitt, Hon. Henry
Lincoln, Prof. John L., LL. D.
Mumford, John Pitman ....
Nickerson, Mr. Ansel D., paper read by
Noyes, Mr. Isaac Pitman, letter from .
Officers of the Society .....
Perry, Commodore, thanks to heirs of .
Report of Committee on Buildings and Grounds
i4 " " " Finishing and Furnishing
" " " " Genealogical Researches
■" u " " Library
" " " " Publications .
" " Special Committee on Printing of Early Documents
" " " " . " Revising Constitution
Reports of Standing Committees
Report of Treasurer . . .
Resolutions proposed by Library Committee .
Swan, R. T., Esq., paper read by ...
Treasurer, Report of . . . .
Tax voted . . . . . . .
Votes of thanks
Form for a Devise of Land,
I give arid devise to tl\e Rl)cde Isldr\d Historical
Society, a corporation created by tf\e General Hsserqbly
of tt]e State of Rt\ode Island, Sc, and its assigns, [here
describe the laud to be devised."]
Form for a Bequest,
I^give and beqUeatlj to trie Rljode Island Historical
Society, a corporation created by tr\e General Assembly
of tl|e State of Rt)ode Island, <5a, [here state the sum of
money, or describe the personal property to be bequeathed.]
F £V5? 7 ¥7