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Full text of "Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy"

M' 



dJ 



1 i 




PROCEEDINGS 



PiOYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 



^Y^xh Sprits. 



V L u M p: IV 



\jjJdw6^ Wnjo-» t) ^ • -^^ 




DUBLIN: 

PUBLISHED AT THE ACADEMY HOUSE, 19, DAWSON- STREET. 

SOLD ALSO 

By HODGES, FIGGIS, & CO. (Ltd.), GRAFTON-ST. ; 

By WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 

London : 14, Henrietta-street, Covent Garden. 

Edinburgh : 20, South Frederick-st. Oxford : 7, Broad-st. 

1896-98. 



DUBLIN ; 

friiuil) at tht Sui&nrsit}! '§tths, 

BV PONSOKBY AND WELDRICK. 



The Academy desire if to be understood thai they are not 
ansioerable for any ojnnion, representation of facts, or train of 
reasoning that may apjjear in any of the following Papers. The 
Authors of the several Papers are alone responsible for their 
contents. 



LIST OF THE CONTRIBUTORS. 

WITH REFERENCE TO THE SEVERAL ARTICLES CONTRIBUTED 

BY EACH. 



Ball, Sie, Egbert, LL.D. page 

Amendment to the "Twelfth and Concluding Memoir on 
the Theory of Screws": published in the Transac- 
tions of the Academy, Yol. xxxr., pp. 145-196, . 667 

Brownk, Charles R., M.D. 

The Ethnography of Ballycroy, in the County of Mayo. 

(Plates III. and IV.) 74 

See Cunningham, D. J. — Coefet, Geo. 
Coffey, George, B.E. 

On Prehistoric Cenotaphs, . . ^. . . .16 
On Stone Markings (Ship-Figure) recently discovered at 

Dowth, in the County of Meath, .... 586 
On a Cairn excavated by Thomas Plunkett on Belmore 

Mountain, in the County of Fermanagh, . . 659 

See Plunkett, Thomas. 

Coffey, G., Browne, C. R., M.D., and Westropp, T. J., M.A. 

Report on a Prehistoric Burial near Newcastle in the 

County of Wicklow, 559 



VI 



List of the Contributors. 



CuNNiNeHAM, D. J,, M:.D., and Ero-w>t:, C. K,, M=D. page 

On some Human Remains recently discovered, near Lismore 

in the County of Waterford, . . . . , 552 

CcsACK, Ralph S. 

On tlie Melting Points of Minerals. (Plate V.). . .399 
On Euman Locomotion : Variation of Velocity when 

Walking. (Plate VI.), 526 

The Effect of Change in Temperature on Phosphorescent 

Substances. (Plate VII.), 334 

Dixon, Heney, H., D.Sc. 

On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves, . , 61 
On the Effects of Stimulative and Anaesthetic Gasses on 

Transpiration, (Preliminary ^N'ote), . . .618 

On Transpiration into a Saturated Atmosphere, . . 627 

Haddon, Alfred, C, D.Sc. 

Studies in Irish Craniology : III. A iN'eolithic Cist 
Eurial at Oldbridge, in the County of Meath. (Plate 
XII.), ^ .... 570 

See Ray, Sidxey H. 

JoLY, Charles J., M.A., F.T.C.D. 

Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions and 

Quaternion Determinants, ..... 1 

Vector Expressions for Curves. Part I. TJnieursal 

Curves, 374 

On the nomographic Divisions of Planes, Spheres, and 
Space, and on the Systems of Lines joining Corre- 
sponding Points, . . . . . . .515 

McAedle, Davu). 

Additions to the Hepaticae of the Hill of Howth (County 
of DuhHn), with a Table showing the Geographical 
Distribution of all the Species known to grow there, 1 1 2 

Report on the Musci andHepaticse of the County of Cavan. 

(Plates XXI, and XXII), . . [ , .606 



List of ContribntovH. vii 

Oldex, TnoiiAs, D.D. page 

Remarks supplemcutary to Dr. Joyce's Paper On the 
Occurrence of tlie dumber Two in Irish Proper 
Xames, 636 

O'Reilly, J. P., C.E. 

On the Constitution of the Calp Shale of Dublin. (Plate 

XL), 563 

On the Orientation of some Cromlechs in the neighbour- 
hood of Dublin. Part I. (Plates XIII, to XTIL), 589 

On the Orientation of some Cromlechs in the neighbour- 
hood of Dublin. Part II. (Plates XYIII. to XX.), 600 

On the Pound Tower of Chambles, near Firminy, in the 

District of St. Etienne (Loire), , . , . 644 

-Pluxeett, Tho:!j;as, and Cofeet, Gi:okge, 

Report on the Excavation of Topped Mountain Caim, . 651 

Peaeger, E. Llotd, B.E. 

Eeportupon the RaisedBeaches of the Xorth-East of Ireland 

with special reference to their Pauna. (Plate I.), . 30 

Ray, Sidket H., and TTADDoy, A.lfred C, D.Sc. 

A Study of the Languages of Torres Straits, with A^ocabu- 

laries and Grammatical Xotes. Part II. ■ . 119 

SCIIAEFE,R. P., Ph.D. 

On the Origin of the European Fauna, .... 427 

SioKEs, Geoege T., D.D. 

Concerning Marsh's Library and an Original Indulgence 

from Cardinal AVolscy lately discovered therein, . 414 

TJaSHEE, R. J. 

Discovery of Human and other Remains, with Materials 
similar to those of a Crannoge high above the present 
Valley of the Blackwater between Lismore Castle and 
Cathedral, 550 



viii Li^t of Contributors. 

Westeopp, Thomas J., M.A. page 

On Magh Adhair, in the County of Clare. The Place of 

Inauguration of the Dalcassian Kings. (Plate II.), 55 

The Distribution of Cromlechs in the County of Clare. 

(Plates VIII. to X.), 542 

See CoFFET, Geo. ; Bkowis^e, C, and Wesxkopp, T. J. 



DATES OF THE PUBLICATIOjS" 

OF THE SEVEEAL PARTS OF THIS VOLUME. 

Pakt 1. Pages 1 to 278. December, 1896. 

„ 2. „ 279 „ 426. April, 1897. 

„ 3. „ 427 „ 514. July, 

„ 4. „ 515 „ 588. December, „ 

,, 5. „ 589 „ 668. May, 1898. 

Plates I. to XXII. 




PROCEEDINGS 



or 



THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY. 



PAPERS READ BEFORE THE ACADEMY. 



I. 

QUATERNION INYAEIANTS OE LINEAR VECTOR FUNC- 
TIONS AND QUATERNION DETERMINANTS. Bx 
CHARLES J. JOLT, M.A. 

[Eead June 8, 1896.] 

1. Introductory. — This Paper is, to a certain extent, supplementary to 
a Paper on " The Scalar Invariants of Two Linear Vector Eiinctions," 
wluch was puhlislied in toI. xxx. of the Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy, The notation of that Paper is followed as closely as 
possible, so as to facilitate occasional references to it. 

Thie quaternion invariants being simply exj)ressible as quotients of 
two determinants witli vector constituents, it seems desirable to con- 
sider briefly such, determinants, and to point out the geometrical 
meaning of their vanishing in certain simple cases.^ 

2. Expansion of determinants ivith quaternion constituents. — Because 
quaternion multiplication is not commutative, a determinant whose 
constituents are quaternions is unmeaning until some convention is 
adopted respecting its expansion. If it be agreed that the order of 
the constituents in the expansion shall follow the order of the rows, 
all indefiniteness is removed. 

^ Determinants, whose constituents are alternate numbers, have been considered 
by Clifford ("Mathematical Papers," p. 277). If «i and «2 are any two consti- 
tuents, ii^ = t2^ = 0, and i\iz + izh = 0, these being the defining formulas for 
alternate numbers. 

E.I. A. PEOC, SEE. in., VOL. PV. B 



2 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

On this supposition, 



p 


1 


p' 


1' 


p 


9. 


p 


1 



= P'i - If't ^^t ^0* pi ~ P'l 5 
= ^g- - 2^ = 2 F. F^ Vq, and 



= 'P1-pq_-=^' 



It is also obvious that if a; is any scalar, 



P ? 
/ 9! 



p xp + q 
p' xp' + q' 



but not = 



p p 
q q 

P i 

xp + p' xq-^ q' 



Thus the columns may be treated as in ordinary determinants with 
scalar constituents ; but it is not lawful to treat the rows in this 
manner. The former of these processes is consistent with the con- 
vention that the order of the constituents shall follow the order of the 
rows ; the latter violates this convention. 

3. Multiplication of a quaternion and a scalar determinant. — Again, 



P 9 
p'q' 



X y 



px + qy px' + qy' 
p'x + ^y p'x' + ^y' 



px + qx' py + qy' 
p'x + q'x' p'y + q'y' 



the p and q being here, as elsewhere in this Paper, quaternions, and 
the X and y being scalars. Similar processes hold for determinants of 
any order. 

Further, it is easy to see that, \i p = w ^-ix -^jy + Jcz, with similar 
expressions for the dotted letters, 



p p' p" 




1 ij k 




w X y z 


p p' p" 


= 


I i j k 




w' x' y' %' 


p p' p" 




1 i j k 




w" x" y" %" 



4. Determinants with identical rows. — As geometrical examples, 
observe that if a, y3, y, 8, &c., are vectors, 

a p 



a /3 
a (3 y 
a (3 y 
a ^ y 



= 2ra)8: 



2 (aFJSy + )8 Fya + yVa{3) = 6Sa{3y; 



JoLY — Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions^ 8fc. 3 
and 



= 6 (a/S'/JyS - (3SayS + ySajSB - hSafiy) = 0. 



Determinants of this type enter largely into the treatment of hyper- 
space hy means of a symbolic algebra analogous to qnaternions. 

Generally, also, the determinant of the fourth order whose rows 
are identical, and whose constituents are quaternions, vanishes iden- 
tically. For, if p, q, r, and s are four arbitrary quaternions, the 
transformation 



a/3 


y 


8 


a (3 


y 


S 


a /3 


y 


8 


a(3 


y 


8 



p q r s 




p q r 1 


p q r s 




p q r 1 


p q r 8 




p q r I 


p q r s 




p q r 1 



aSp ^-h8q + cSr + dSs 
d 



(in which 



aVp + hVq + cVr + dFs = 0) 



is the result of adding the first, second, and third columns multiplied 
by a, h, and c to the fourth multiplied by d, and then dividing by d. 

Expanding the transformed determinant by the minors formed from 
the first and second rows, it is seen to vanish identically. 

Again, if ^i, <J32, 4>5, and ^^ are any linear vector functions, 



= 0. 



If 



^itt ^1^ ^ly ^iS 

^2a ^2^ <l>2y <^2S 
<^3a ^3/3 (f>3y ^38 
<jiia <lii/3 ^47 (fiiS 

5. Geometrical interpretations concerning vanishing determinants. — 



a P 
a' yS' 



= 0, or afi' = ^a', 



the four vectors are coplanar ; the angle between a and ^' is equal to 
that between fi and a' ; and, if the vectors are coinitial, the triangle 
determined by a and ^' is equal to that determined by j3 and a'. 

B 2 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



If 



1 1 1 



= 0, 



a P y =0, 

a/3y 
the vectors, if coinitial, terminate on a line. In fact, 

/?-a y-a 

fi-a y-a 
or /8 - a is parallel to y - a. 
Consider the quaternion 



= 2 (a' r^y + /3' Fya + y' Fa^) : 





a' IB' i 


2' = 


a 13 y 




a (3 y 


its conjugate is 




a /3 y 


X^ = 


a ^ y 




a' /3' y 


and its scalar naiay 




a ^ y 


Sq = 


a' 13' i 




« ^,r 



= 2(F/5y.a'+ Fya.y3'+ Vafi.y'); 



= (ya'/3 - ^a'y) + (a/3'y - y^'a) + (^y'a - ay'^), 



the terms teing grouped so that the pairs within the hrackets are 
scalars. This may serve as a particular example of the effect of 
interchanging the rows. 

If a', (3', y' are regarded as the points of application of the forces 
F)3y, Fya, and Vafi, respectively, Vq = expresses that the sum of 
the (vector) moments of these forces with respect to the origin of 
vectors is zero, or that the resultant of the forces is a single force 
through the origia ; Sq = expresses that the virial of the forces 
with respect to the origin is zero ; and generally q = expresses, in 
Hamilton's phraseology, that the forces are equivalent to a single 
force, and that the origin is the centre of the forces, heing that point 
for which their total moment q vanishes, or, more generally, is a 
minimum.^ 

1 "Elements of Quaternions," Art. 414 (16). "What is now called the virial, 
was called by Hamilton the total tension. By Art. 7 of the present Paper the 
relation of these six vectors may be illustrated by means of a quadric. 



Jolt — Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions, 8fc. 5 



6. Quaternion invariant, linear with respect to each of three linear 
vector functions, expressed as a quotient of determinants. — Having, per- 
haps, sufficiently dTvelt on the manipulation, of these determinants "svith 
non-commutative constituents, I shall now show that 

4>io- <;^i/5 <^iy 



(jina ^o/? ^27 
e^stt ^s^ ^jy 



Safiy 



= 2 (s^i) ^2, <;^j) 



is a quaternion invariant of the three linear vector functions ^ in the 
sense that it is independent of the vectors a, /?, and y. This may he 
done hy expressing a, /?, and y in terms of any three vectors such as 
i, j, and h, and using the methods indicated in Art. 3, or hy direct 
expansion, which is to he preferred, as exhibiting more clearly the 
dependence of the determinant on the linear vector functions. Thus, 

q ((^1, <^2, <^3) 'S'a/3y 

= 4^io- (</>2/5^3y - ^2y03/S) + <^ij8 {(^oy^^a. - ^2a<^3y) 

+ ^ly (^2a03^ - 02/3<}!)3a) 
= ^3 (<^i, ^-2, ^z) Sa.l3y 

+ (piaS {cfio/Scjizy - (ji^y^il^) + <^i/5*S'((/)oy^3a - (^oacj^^y) 
-t- <f)^yS ((/)2a03/3 - 02^03^) 

- ^3a^ (^a/^^r/ - <^jy<^i)8) - (f)o/3S (<^3y<^ia - S^sa^^iy) 
- 0jy5(^3a0i/3 - cji^ftcfi^a) 

+ cji^aS {<f}il3cf)2y - <^iyi^iP) + i^i/3S{4>iycji2a - ^lac^oy) 



in which 



SVV'l) V2) 



Saf3y 



is a scalar invariant, noticed in Art. 22 of the Paper already 
referred to. 

Xow, if ^2 is the conjugate of ^o, 

8 (<^2iS<^3y - 4>2y^zP) = 'S (<^3'«^2 - 4>^^z) (^.y = 2Sy,,/3y, 

if 7^23 is the spin vector or non-conjugate part of 4>3 4>2.'^ Hence, if 2 
denotes summation for cyclical transposition of a, /?, and y, 

X4>iO.S (^2^<^3y - 4>zy4>zl^) = 2'2,(J3iaS-r].,_3l3y = 2<^i77o3 . ^SafSy. 
* The vector functions <p3'<p2 and <p2'<p3 are conjugate, since 

SA<pi'(pilJ, = S<pz\([)2fJ. = SfJ.(p2'<pi\. 



6 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

The quaternion is, consequently, reduced to 

q (<^i, ^2, ^3) = 2 (^11723 - <^2'73i + '^z'nn) + k {<ku <^2, ^3), 

and is therefore, as has been announced, independent of the vectors 
a, P, and y. 

Occasionally, the vector 2972s may be designated by 

but care must be taken to distinguish between 

<i>l ^{4>3 4>2 - <}>i^3) • P = 2<^l')723 . P, 

and 

^1 (</>3'^2 - ^2'^3) P = 2^1 Vrjizp. 

7. Special cases of this invariant. — As a particular case of the 
preceding invariant, let ^1 = ^3, and then 

For 

^21 + >7i2 = 0, and yjn = 0, 

and the vector part vanishes. This might have been predicted, from 
an example in Art. 5. If ^3 = t^g, 

S (^15 <^2> ^2) = 4 {<i>ii ^2, ^2) + 4<^3'>7i2 ; 
hence, in particular, if <^2 = I5 

^(<^i, 1, l) = h{<l>i, 1, l) + 4ei; 
in which expression, remembering that 

ci is the spin -vector of <^i. 
Now, 

I3 (^1, 1,1) = 2^1 if ^1' - Wi<^i^ + mzcjii - JWj = 0, 

and, therefore, 

^(<^i, 1, l) = 2(wi + 2e0, 

which is Hamilton's first invariant. Also, in a similar manner, 

9 (<^i> ^u 1) = h (<^i, «^i, 1) + 4<^i€i 
= 2 (mj + 2(^iei) ; 

and this is Hamilton's second quaternion invariant.^ 
S {^D ^h ^1) is easily seen to be equal to dm^. 

1 See Ma "Elements of Quaternions," Art. 349. 



JoLY — Quaternmi Invariants of Linear Vector Functions, 8fc. 7 

8. On interchange of 7~oivs, six quaternion invariants are found ; these 
are equivalent to one scalar, and three vector invariants, — The eSect of 
the interchange of rows was partially considered in the 5th Article. 
Closely connected Trith this is the effect of the interchange of ^i, ^jj 
and 03 in the invariant q (^i, <^2, <^3)- In order to see the connexion, 
it is only necessary to remark, that if 

tti = <Aia, a2 = 4*^^) scu^ a3 = ^sa, 

with similar meanings for ;Si, ^^2, ^3, and yi, y^, 73, 

o-i Pi yi 

q (<^i, <^2. S^s) ^a.py = as A 72 

"3 /?3 73 

For brevity, let /sC^i; ^2. ^s) lie denoted by 4. as in this scalar 
part transposition of the functions is vrithont effect ; ^ then 

9. (^1) ^2, ^s) = 4 + 2 (</)i>723 - S^2'>731 + 03^12), 

i (^3> 02, 0l) = 4-2 (017723 - ^a^/si + 03^12) ; 

? (<^2J 03, 00 = 4 + 2 (0i->723 + 03%1 " 0:i''7l2), 

? (^Ij S^3, 02) =4-2 (01^723 + 02%1 - 03>Jl2) ; 

and 

? (<^3, 01, 02) = 4 + 2 (- 017723 + 02^31 + 03>7l2), 
? (S^2, 01, 03) = 4 - 2 (- 017723 + 007731 + 03'>?12)- 

The quaternions are here grouped in conjugate pairs, and the six 
different values of determinants of the third order formed by the 
same three rows in different orders are exhibited. 

9. Relations connecting vector invariajits. Two reducing formulcB. — 
The six invariants lately considered are equivalent to one scalar and 
three vector invariants. I propose now to consider some reductions 
and relations concerning vector invariants. 

Ptetaining the suffix notation, let ei denote the spin-vector of 0i, 
€2 that of 02, and Ci2 and cai those of 0i 02 and 02 0i, respectively. Let 
01 satisfy the cubic 

01^ - nil 01- + m2 01 - nis = 0, 
and let 0, satisfy 

02^ - mi'cjio^ + rn.'d)^ - mz = 0. 



1 This may be verified by expansion of the determinants, but it is otherwise 
obvious. 



8 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

For an arbitrary vector p, 

= (<^i'<^2 - <^2'<^i) P + 2 rei<^2p + 2<^2' Fkip 

= 2 Ft/ziP + 2 (m/ Feip - r<^2eip) ; 

using the fundamental relation 

m/ Feip = Fei^2P + F<^2eiP + H ^^iP> 

and retaining the signification of •>72i- 

But p is arbitrary, and (^1^2 - 4>2'4>i) P = 2 Feizp, and conse- 
quently, 

ei2 = - •'yiz + W'l'ei - ^2ei. 

Interchanging the functions <^i and <^2, the similar relation 

C21 = + ■>7l2 + Wilf2 - 01^2 

is found. 

If ^1 = ^2j as a particular case of these relations 

10. On cyclical transposition of a product of functions. — Adding the 
two relations found in the last Article, 

C12 + €21 = m/ei + ^162 - ^2^1 - 4>i^i ; 

this formula will be found to be of importance in the reduction of 
the number of vector invariants. By its means the spin- vector of any 
function 6(^ may be expressed in terms of that of ^0, and of the 
results of operation on the spin- vectors of 6 and <l>. More generally 
by repeated application of the formula, the spin -vectors of any cyclical 
group of functions such as (^"^0, 4>0(f>, ^<^^ (in which the symbols 6 and 
(ji are cyclically transposed) may be expressed in terms of the spin- 
vector of any one of the functions {cji'^O suppose) and in terms of the 
results of operation on the spin- vectors of simpler functions. 

11. When a square enters into the product, the spin-vectors are 
reducible. — Eeplacing ^2 by (^2<i>i in the first formulae of Art. 9 (which 
may be written in the form 

r{^,^, - <^/</,/) = r(()f,/<^2 - «^2>i) + m, (c/,2) . r(c^i - </>/) - ^. r{4>, - «^/)) 

^(<^l«j!>2<Al - «^lW<^l') = F(</>/<^2<^l - <^lV<^l) 

4- «h (</.2<^o r{4>, - </>/) - </.2(^i r(<^i - <^i') 

is the result, m^ {^i4>\) denoting the m^ invariant of <^2^i. 



JoLY — Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions, 8fc. 9 

and therefore as p is arbitrary, 

The spin-vector of <^i'<^2<^i is consequently reduced to a result of 
operation on the spin-vector of ^2. 

To see the full bearing of this, observe that by a formula lately 
■written, 

r(<^i^2<^i - ^i'<^2'<^/) = 2w3<^f 'ez + 2»h (</)30i) . ei - 2cf)^4>i^j,' 

Thus the spin-vector of 4>i4>'i4>i is likewise reduced to the results of 
operation on the spin-vectors of simpler functions, and therefore, by 
the last Article, the spin-vectors of (f'l'ffii and (f)24>i^ are similarly 
reducible. Generally, therefore, having formed from any number of 
functions <}> a function $ = <^i<^2^3^i<Ai &c., the spin-vectors of all 
the functions formed by cyclically transposing the ^ in $ are, by 
the last Article, linearly and invariantally expressible in terms of 
the spin-vector of $, and in terms of the results of operation on 
the spin-vectors of simpler functions; and, by the present Article, 
if any one of the <^ is consecutively repeated in $, the spin-vectors 
of the functions of the group are all expressible in terms of the 
results of operation on the spin-vectors of simpler functions. 

12. This is also the case when the same function occurs twice in the 
product. — For two functions, ^i and ^3, the vector invariants are the 
results of operation on the two spin-vectors ci and e.^, and on one of the 
three vectors 612, eji, and 7712- In this case the cyclical group consists 
of the functions <^i(^2 and 4>2.4>i- The group ^i<^2<^i<^2 gives a reducible 
invariant. Before proceeding to the consideration of three functions, 
another general formula of reduction will be given. 

If and \l/ are any linear vector functions, the vector invariants of 
the cycle ^i^^i^^ are reducible. A function of the cycle is xpc^iOt^i and 

by a formula of Art. 9 or 11, the functions ij/cjii and 6(^1 replacing 
■^1 and ^2- 

Now, as in the last article, 

so V{4>,'f. eel,, - <f,,'0' . iA</)0 = m, (<^o . <^-i r(f ^ - ^v)> 

and the theorem just stated is proved. 



10 Proceeding-^ of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Hence, for any rLumber of funetions, it is only necessary to con- 
sider th.e cycles in widch. no function occurs twice. 

Tor three functions these cycles are to be derived from 

0-3^3, <}>3<f>i, 4'i4*2 '} 4*i4^z4^ ^lid oj6;d)i. 

13. SearcA for new vector invariants niay he limited to the considera- 
tion of ijiin-vectors. — Tiiere is no difficulty in seeing that the vector 
parts of any of the quaternions 

?(^^^, 1, 1), ^(<i2^, "in 1), ?(<^i, ^, ^3), &c., 

are linear and invariant functions of the spin -vectors of the five cycles 
of the last article, and of the spin-vectors of 61, c^, and ^3. The 
vectors involved in q{dto(i>z, (j>i, 1) are 

r(0/^.<^-^'^'d>i), «^F(^,^-^'^0, and <^2<^F(<^i-0/). 
The first of these is, by Art. 9, expressible in terms of 

and results of operation. 

Hence, in searching for new vector invariants, it is legitimate to 
investigate the spin- vectors alone of the functions formed by multi- 
plying the given functions together. There is no need to investigate 
separately the spin-vectors of products such as <^i'^2<^j. 

14. Reducing systems of quaternion invariants. — The "reducing 
systems '"' of the previous Paper may be used in the more general 
case of quaternion invariants. It is evident, from the constitution 
of these functious, that 

xq (j/r,^V2! ^i, ^i) + yq {^i4>^2^ ^3, ^i) + zq («/^i«^2, ^3, tl^i) 

= 9 L^i (^«f>" T y<^ + z) 1/^2, ^3, ^i], 

in which x, y, and z are scalars, and ^ and the ij/ linear vector func- 
tions. Xow, as <}> satisfies a cubic equation 

<^' — rni<f>- -r ??^2^ — t/u = 0, 

any rational algebraic function of may be reduced to the form 

f{(j)y = :r<f»- -^ y(f> -t- z, 
and therefore 

q ("Ai/C^) "A2. ^z, ^i) 
is reducible in terms of three simpler quaternions. 



JoLY — Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions, 8fc. 11 

15. Locus of axes of (pi + tcjiz- — ^ few properties of the system of 
linear vector ftmctions <^i + ^^3 may here be noticed. If g^, g-i, and g-^ 
are the roots, and pi, p2) ^'^^ Rs the axes corresponding to a given value 
of t, the vector equation 

4>iP + i4'2P = 9P 

is satisfied for p = pi, and g = gi,'&c. Eemembering that <7i is a root 
of the cubic 

g^ - /»h (<^i + tcjio) + gnh (^1 + tcfiz) - Ms (<^i + t(f)2) = 0, 

the vector equation denotes a cubic cone, the locus of axes of <^i + tcfit ; 
the scalar equation of this cone is 

Sp<liip(f)2P = =/. 

The locus of axes of the conjugate system ^i' + t<p2 is given by 
<kip + t^2p=gp, or by Spcji^'pcfi^'p = =/'. 

If pi is the edge of the cone / ', determined by t and gi, it is at right 
angles to two edges p^ and p^ of the cone / which correspond to the 
same value of t ; the vector Fp/^/p/ or Vpicfi^'pi is the third edge of/ 
at right angles to p/.^' 

Thus the reciprocal of the cone /' is the envelope of the principal 
planes of the system of functions (jti + tcji^. This envelope being of 
the third class, through any line through the origin it is possible to 
draw three principal planes of the system of functions ^1 + t<f)2. 

Equating to zero the discriminant of the cubic in g, it appears 
that six functions of the system have double roots and coincident 
axes ; for this discriminant is a sextic in t. The cone / being of the 
sixth class, and the reciprocal of /' of the third, eighteen principal 
planes of the system <^i + ^^2 are tangent to /, as well as to the reci- 
procal of /'. Six of these planes evidently touch / along the six 
coincident axes, and the other twelve planes probably correspond to 
coincidence of p2 (or of ps) with Fp/<^ip/. 

The planes joining corresponding edges of the two cones (pi, pi ; 
P2, P2'; and p3. Pa'), which answer to the same value of t, intersect on 
the orthocentric line 

F(ei + ^e,)(<^i + ^«^2)(ei + te^). 
As t varies, this line describes a cubic cone. 

* A particular case of this cone was considered in Art. 15 of my Paper on 
"The Scalar Invariants of Two Linear Vector Functions" {loc. eit., p. 721). 



12 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

In the particular case in whicli ^i and ^2 are seli-conjugate, the 
cones /and/' coincide, and every generator of the single cone is at 
right angles to two other generators likewise mutually perpendicular. 

As a solid is strained from any configuration to any other by 
gradually increasing a strain of given type, the locus of the unrotated 
lines is a cubic cone. 

16. Homographic transformations. — Not only is the cone Sp(j}ip(f}2p = 
the locus of axes of <^i + 1(]32, but it is also the locus of axes of the 
system of functions 

{acjji + h(fi2 + c)-^ {a'^i + h'(jiz + c'), 

a, I, c, a', b', and e' beiag arbitrary scalars. 

Por the equation of the cone / may be written in the form 

>S(«<^i + hcji2 + c)p {a'^y + V4,2 + c')p {a"(jii + h"(f>2 + c")p = 0, 

and then in the form 

8p{a<j)i + J<^2 + c)-\a'(f>i + b'(}i2 + Op(«<^i + Hz + c)-\a"(j>^ + h"^)^ + c")p=0, 

or Spxl/,pij/2p = 0. 

To each cone/ corresponds an infinite number of cones /'. If 

>Ai = (<?<^i + H2 + o)~^ {a' 4^1 + h'cli. + c'), 
its conjugate is 

1/^1' = («'0i' + h'^o' + c')(«</>i' + h4>^ + c)-^ ; 

but now the cone corresponding to /= Spif/^pif/^p = 0, with respect to 
the functions ^1 and 1/^2, is Spil/^'pif/^'p = ; and this cone is not the 
same as aSp</)/p02'p = 0, because a'cj>/ +b'<ji2' + c' and {acjiy,' + bcf^^' + c)-' 
are not commutative in order of operation. 

17. Condition that two functions should be expressible in the form 
^3"^$i and $3-i<J>2. — Though an arbitrary cubic cone may be written 
in the form S^.p^^p^^p = 0, in which the $ are self -conjugate func- 
tions, it is not generally possible to express two functions by the 
relations cf>, = ^f^^, and <^2 = $3-1 $2. If p„ p^, and ^3 are the axes 
of <^i, and ffi, 02, and g^ its roots, then, if ^1 = $3-1 $j, 

^iPi = ffi^3pi = o,,g,rp2p„ 

^1P2 = g2^ip2 = ^^2^2 Vp^Pu 



Jolt — Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions, 8fc. IS 



To prove these relations, observe that 

gzSp2^zp3 = Spi^ips = Sp3^ip2 = g^Spz^zpi ; 
and therefore, as $1 and $3 are self-conjugate, 

Spz^sPz = Spz^spi = Spi^3p2 = 0, 



and 



Sp2^1p3 = Sp3^ipi = ^Pi$i/32 = 0, 



provided the roots ffi, ffn, and ^3 are unequal. 

It appears, therefore, that the axes of ^1 are a self -conjugate triad 
of lines with respect to the two cones Sp^ip = and Sp^^p = 0. 

If, in addition, ^2 = ^3~^^2> the axes of ^2 would also be a self- 
conjugate triad with respect to Sp^^p = ; but if two triads of lines 
are self-conjugate to the same quadric cone, both triads must lie on a 
quadric cone.^ The condition is, therefore, the axes of <^i and <^2 
must lie on a quadric cone. 

Eeturning to the functions $1 and ^s, since 

Vpi^iPi = ffi Vpx^zpi = x^gy Vpi Vp2P3 1 1 (<^i - ffi) ei, 

the axes of <^i lie on the quadric cone /S Fp$ip Fei^iCi = 0. This cone 
contains also the axes of <l>i, and, by a little manipulation, its equation 
may be thrown into the form S Vp(j>ip Fki^jei = 0. In like manner, 
the axes of $3 lie on the cone 

Srpcl,,pVe,^,e, = 0. 

18. Triads of lines in 2^ersjpective with their derived triads. — Gene- 
rally the locus of lines p, any one of which is coplanar with its derived 
line ^ip and a fixed vector a, is the quadi-ic cone Spc^ipa = 0. If this 
cone contains a triad of mutually rectangular lines i, j\ and Tc, 

Sa%Vicj)-yi = 0, or Saey = 0. 

1 If the triangle, the coordinates of whose vertices are xi, yi, zi ; xz, yi, zz ; 
and X3, ys, Z3, is self- conjugate with respect to 

ax- + by'^ + cz^ = 0; axzx^ + byzyz + cz^zz = 0, &c., 



= 0. 



and therefore 










1 


1 


1 




Xy 


yi 


\Z\ 




1 


1 


1 




X2 


2/2 


22 




1 


1 


1 




X3 


ys 


23 



14 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

If three lines are in perspective with their derived lines, and if a is 
the axis of perspective, the lines lie on the cone Sp(f>ipa = 0. This 
furnishes an interpretation of the vanishing of the skew scalar inva- 
riant JVs'-JVa, in Art. 19 of the Paper on Scalar Invariants. In the 
notation of that article, if pi, pj, and ps are the axes of <f>, and if 

6pi = Unpi + «12P2 + <?13P3) &C. , Fpi^pi = ff 12 Fpipz + «!i3 FpiPj, 

and 

8 VpiOpi VpiOpi VpsOpi = («12<1!23«'31 - «21«532«'l3) ^ ^zPs ^sPl ^PlPs- 

The skew invariant consequently vanishes, if the derived lines of the 
axes of either vector function with respect to the other function are 
in perspective with them. 

Finally, it may be noticed, that if jS is an arbitrary vector, the 
locus of axes of the functions ^ip + aS^p is the quadric cone Spcf)ipa = 0. 

19. — Co-residual property. — The axis of the functions ^i + t(p2 are 
all co-residual triads of lines on the cubic cone. Por the four lines 
common to the cone 

SaVp{cf)i + t(f>2)p = 

(which contains the axes of <^i + tcf^i), and to the cone Sa Vpcft^p = 0, 
satisfy the equation 

xa = V. Vpcfiip Vp (<^i + tcl>^) p 
= - tpSpcfiipfji^p. 

Three of the lines are therefore on the cone Spcjiiptji^p = 0, and are 
variable with a, but independent of t. The fourth line is, of course, a. 
The three lines common to the cubic, and Sapcfi^p = are therefore 
residual to every triad of axes. 

If the elliptic parameters of the axes of «^i + t(j>2 are Wi, u^, and «,, 
their sum is constant, or 

Unless, therefore, u^ is equal to half Si period, the axes of two func- 
tions ^1 + i5^2 an4 «^i + t'<i>.i will not lie on a quadric cone. 
Again, the four lines common to the quadric cones satisfy 

xp = V. Fa(^ip Fa^2P 

= - aSa(f>ip^2P- 

Consequently, the three edges which lie on the cubic lie also on the 
new quadric 

Sacfiipcfizp = 0. 



JoLY — Quaternion Invariants of Linear Vector Functions, 8jC. 15 

But the equation of this cone may he written in either of the forms 
Scf}f^aVp<J3i-^(j)2p = 0, or Scl>n-^aVpcfif'^(fi^p = ; 

and therefore the axes of <^r^<^2 (or of its reciprocal (j>2~^cjii) also lie 
on it, and are the three residual lines in "which it cuts the cuhic. 
More generally, the equations of the quadric cones comhine into 

Sa Vp (fir^i + h(J3o + <?) p = 0, and Sa Vp {a'cf^i + b'<^2 + c') p = ; 

and, as before, their three lines of common intersection with the cubic 
lie on the cone 

^a (ff^i + 5^2 + f)p («'0i + ^'4^2 + c')p - 0. 

This equation, being thrown into the form 

S {acpi + 14>2 + c)"^a Vp (ff<^i + 502 + cy- {a'4>i + J'^o + c')p = 0, 

shows that the axes of all the functions of the type 

(«<^i + hcf)2 + c)-\a'<^i + b'4>2 + c') 

are co-residual triads on the cubic cone. 



[ 16 1 



II. 

PUEHISTOEIC CENOTAPHS. Br GEORGE COFFEY, B.E. 

[Read November 11, 1895.] 

Should grave-mounds in which no remains of interment have been 
found be regarded as cenotaphs, is a subject that has been much dis- 
cussed. Canon Greenwell rejected the existence of such monuments 
in his work on British Barrows. He writes : — 

"Barrows are sometimes met with in which, upon examination, 
no burial appears to have taken place, since no remains of the 
body are to be discovered. In the greater number of these instances 
there can be little doubt that, in consequence of the imperfect explo- 
ration of the mound, the place of burial has been missed, and in other 
cases that a small deposit of burnt bones or the almost entirely de- 
cayed bones of an unburnt body have been overlooked. . . . But 
there are other cases, and such have occurred to myself, when the 
most careful examination has failed to discover any trace of an inter- 
ment. These empty barrows have been spoken of as cenotaphs, monu- 
ments raised to commemorate but not to contain the dead. Mr. Kemble, 
holding the view that barrows were prepared beforehand, and that, 
from time to time, bodies were inserted in the mounds so set apart, 
believed that the barrows where no burials are found had never been 
used for interment. Neither of these views appears to be a tenable 
one, and both seem modes of accounting for the absence of burials much 
too artificial for such a state of society as may be supposed to have 
existed during the ages when barrow burial was in use in Britain. 
With every wish to defer to the great practical knowledge of 
Mr. Kemble, as well as to the skill with which, as a rule, his mind 
moulded the facts he had accumulated into a consistent and reason- 
able theory, I cannot but regard this opinion as being both unnatural 
and out of harmony with the general mass of evidence which the burial 
mounds a:fford. Nor do I see any difficulty in accounting for the 
absence of bones or other indications of an interment where a careful 
examination has shown that such evidence has not been overlooked 
through a careless or imperfect exploration. In the greater number 



Coffey — Prehistoric Cenotaphs. 17 

of instances, however, as has already been stated, the barrows are 
found empty, not because they are so in reality, but because they have 
not been searched exhaustively. The absence of any signs of a burial, 
where a barrow has been minutely and fully examiued, is due, in my 
opinion, to the entire decay of the skeleton, in cases where no weapon, 
implement, ornament, or vase has accompanied the body."i 

Again, under Barrow xlvh.. Canon Greenwell writes: — 
"It was the most perplexing barrow I have ever met with; and 
but for my complete disbelief that monuments of a more artificial age, 
such as cenotaphs, had any existence during the era of these burial 
mounds, I should feel that it offers a problem very difficult to solve 
on any other supposition."^ 

More recent researches in the barrows of the ITorth of England 
{Archceologia, 1890) have induced Canon Greenwell to modify his 
position. He now reluctantly admits the possibility of cenotaphs. 
This change of opinion is based on the result of the exploration of the 
barrow called "Willie Howe," in the East Eiding of Yorkshire. 
Concerning this barrow he writes — 

" Throughout the whole course of my barrow explorations I have 
never met with anything that I can compare with this mound. It 
was of more than ordinary size, and constructed at the expense of 
much labour, well proportioned and symmetrically made, and in every 
way appeared to have been intended for a place of sepulture. Beneath 
it at the centre was a deep excavation in the solid chalk rock, in which 
were found remains of animal bones almost as sound as when they 
were deposited, a condition which would have equally been incidental 
to human bones, l^o disturbance had ever taken place within the 
grave to account for the disappearance of the body or its accompanying 
relics, and it is almost impossible to believe that an interment had ever 
been made in it. I can attempt no explanation of the very peculiar 
features here manifested, except one which I have arrived at with 
great reluctance. Until I opened WUlie Howe I had always dis- 
believed in the erection of such memorials as cenotaphs at the time 
when these barrows were constructed. That supposition appears, 
however, to be countenanced by the experience of this mound, and I 
am forced to admit the possibility that this very large mass of chalk 
stones was thrown up merely to commemorate, and not to contain, the 
body of some great personage. There is still a difficulty which this 

1 British. Barrows, page 27. ^ I. c, page 202. See also Barrows xci. and cxxix. 
E.I. A. PEOC. SEE. ni., VOL. IV. C 



18 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

explanation does not remove. If it is admitted that a mound like this 
might be raised merely as a memorial, that does not explain why 
beneath it a deep excavation should have been made. On more than 
one previous occasion I have found mounds apparently sepulchral, 
which proved to be entirely wanting in any signs of an interment. I 
came to the conclusion in these cases, though it was sometimes difficult 
to admit it, that the bones had gone entirely to decay, leaving no 
trace behind them. It is possible, however, that in these mounds, as 
in the case of Willie Howe, there had never been any burial within 
them ; and that they, equally with this in question, were memorial 
and not sepulchral."^ 

Canon Greenwell's position may be described as the admission of a 
negative possibility. Speaking generally, the present state of the 
question appears to be that cenotaphs are not yet accepted in prehis- 
toric archaeology, though individual archBeologists support that expla- 
nation of barrows in which interments have not been made.^ 

The hesitation of archaeologists to recognize such barrows as 
cenotaphs appears to be due to a misconception of the essential idea 
of the cenotaph. 

This is evident in the extracts quoted from Canon Greenwell, who 
speaks of such monuments as memorials, whereas they are, in primitive 
logic, true tombs. This point appears to be recognized by Dr. Naue in 
the passage quoted in the note below. 

The error prevails owing to the fact that, as far as I am aware, no 
attempt has hitherto been made to combine the archaeological with 
the anthropological evidence on the subject. "When we do so, it 
becomes evident that it would be more difficult to account for the 
absence of cenotaphs from the remains of a barrow-raising people than 
their presence. 

Before, however, proceeding with this portion of the subject, it 
is desii'able to further develop the archaeological evidence on the 
question. 



1 "Recent researches in the Barrows in Yorkshire, "Wiltshire, Eerkshire, &c." 
Archseologia (1890), vol. 52, p. 24. 

2 For instance, Handelmann, "Les Tumulus et les Cenotaphes de I'Age du 
Bronze dans File de Sylt," "Cong. Prehist." Stockholm, vol. i., p. 516; jSTaue, 
" Quelques tumulus, la plupart tres bien construits, n'ont donne aucun objet — 
tout au plus, et tres rarement, quelques traces de charbons. Je les considere comma 
des cenotaphes, tombes de hauts personnages de la tribu decedes au loin et dont on 
n'avait pu recouvrer les corps." "L'Epoque de HaUstatt en Baviere," Eevue 
Archeologique, 3 S., vol. xxvii. (1895), p. 46. 



Coffey — Prehistoric Cenotaphs. 19 

One of the most conclusive examples of a prehistoric cenotaph, 
probably the most conclusive, occurs in Ireland. It is the principal 
cairn in the prehistonc cemetery on the Loughcrew Hills, Co. Meath. 
The remains of twenty-eight cairns can still be counted in this im- 
portant cemetery. The larger cairns are chambered, and in most cases 
have well-defined passages leading to the chambers. They are sur- 
rounded at the base by a curb of large stones laid end to end, within 
which the cairn is heaped, and the construction is in all such cases 
well and clearly defined. In the two largest of the chambered caii-ns, 
"l" and "t," the boundary stones are sharply curved in at the 
entrances, so that the entrances are clearly marked on the circle of the 
boundary stones. 1 This feature maybe also seen in the great tumulus 
of New Grange, but it is more strongly marked at Loughcrew. Cairn 
"l" is 135 feet in diameter, and the entire length of passage and 
chamber measures 29 feet: Cairn "x," 11.5 feet in diameter, and 
passage and chamber, 28 feet. 

These, as stated, are the largest chambered cairns, but they are 
exceeded by the dimensions of the unchambered Cairn "d," the 
largest in the cemetery, which reaches 180 feet in diameter. 

This cairn is surrounded by a precisely similar curb of great 
stones, which likewise is curved-in apparently to mark an entrance to 
the cairn. 

It is important to note the bearings of the passages to the chambered 
cairns in the cemetery. 

In ten cases with well marked passages, they are given by Conwell 
as follows : — 



Cairn f. 


E. 


10, 


N. 


„ H. 


E. 


10, 


S. 


n I- 


E. 






„ J. 


E. 


10, 


S. 


„ K. 


E. 


15, 


N. 


„ L. 


E. 


20, 


s. 


,, s. 


W. 


10, 


IN". 


n T. 


E. 


10, 


S. 


„ U. 


E. 


20, 


s. 


n V. 


E. 


20, 


s. 



Thus, with the exception of S., the passage of which facea west, 



1 The references are to Conwell's " Discovery of the Tombof Ollamh Fodhla," 
Dublin, M'Glashan & Gill, 1873 ; a somewhat romantic essay, but reliable for 
descriptive details. I have checked the descriptions and measurements on th& 
ground. 



C 2 



20 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the bearings of the passages of these cairns lie between E. 15, N. 
and E. 20, S. In the cases of "l" and ''t," where in addition to 
the passages the entrance is marked by the curving-in of the boundary- 
stones, the bearings are E. 20, S. and E. 10, S. 

Returning now to Cairn " D," I quote Con well's description of the 
cairn and account of its excavation in the years 1865-68 : — 

" This has been the largest of all the cairns in the range, the 
diameter of the base being 60 yards. The north and east sides have 
been left untouched ; but on the south and west for nearly 100 yards 
round the base, and extending inwards to a distance of 24 yards from 
the circumference towards the centre, the dry loose stones comprising 
the cairn have been entirely removed. The height of what remained 
of the cairn, before commencing any of the operations upon it, 
measured 28 paces in sloping ascent from the base to the summit. 
The original circle of fifty -four large flag-stones laid on edge round its 
base is still perfect, and on the eastern side these marginal stones 
curve inwards for twelve paces in length towards a point indicated by 
E. 20, S., denoting where the entrance or passage to the interior 
chambers is to be found. As the cairn at this point — which, judging 
from the analogy in the construction of the other cairns, would indicate 
the direction of the passage or entrance — appeared not to have been 
previously disturbed, Mr. Naper and Mr. Hamilton had from the first 
strong hopes of finding the interior chambers and their contents in their 
original state, such exactly as they had been left in by the builders of 
this megalithic pile. Accordingly, on Monday morning, 4th September, 
1865, about a dozen labouring men commenced to remove the stones, 
and to make a passage inwards from this point. A s they advanced in 
this way into the cairn, the loose stones composing it occasionally fell 
in dangerous masses, filling up excavations already made ; so that it 
was at length determined to make a cutting right through the cairn, 
running east and west, and commencing from the top. After two 
weeks spent in this labour, and with as many men as could be con- 
veniently engaged at it, we did not come upon any of the interior 
chambers ; nor have our labours been more successful on the 3rd, 4th, 
5th, 6th, 8th, 9th, and 10th June, 1868, when, by Mr. Paper's direc- 
tions twenty men were busUy engaged every day in continuing the 
transverse cutting through the cairn, in search of the interior 
chambers. This, however, is now the only one of all the cairns left 
unexamined ; and as the surface level of the ground has been already 
reached for the greater part of the way across the caim, very little 
additional labour would be required to settle the question whether or 



Coffey — Prehistoric Cenotaphs. 21 

not this is a ' Blind tope.' As the cutting proeeeclecl, about midway 
down among the loose stones, were found portions of the skulls, teeth, 
and other bones of graminivorous animals, probably the ox and deer."* 

We have here a most interesting group of facts. It may be set 
down as certain that no chambers were contained in the portion of 
the cairn that had been removed on the south and west sides prior to 
Conwell's excavations. The stones removed from that part of the 
cairn were probably used to build the neighbouring fence walls. 
The large stones round the base have been left untouched, and -vnthin 
the cleared space there are no signs whatever of large stones such as 
would have formed the chamber. Had such existed, they would not 
have been broken up, as the loose stones of the cairn presented plenty 
of suitable material ready to hand. 

Not only are the large stones at the base still there, but the curve 
has not been disturbed, the circle of the base is still clearly and 
regularly marked by them. There is no indication on this curve of 
an entrance at the cleared side. On the other hand, an entrance is 
clearly marked on the boundary stones at the east side at a point 
E. 20, S., which corresponds with the points of entrance to the 
majority of the chambered cairns. Following up this apparent 
entrance, not only was no trace of an interment found, but no indica- 
tion of passage or chamber stones. In the other large cairns the 
passages and chanibers are formed of large stones, and no attempt at 
concealment is made. 

It is improbable that any interments exist in the unexplored por- 
tion of the cairn, and, if any were found, it would be necessary to 
look on them as secondary interments ; they could in no case be regarded 
as the primary object for which the cairn was erected. 

We have, then, the case of a cairn which to all outward appear- 
ance is a chambered cairn, with the entrance properly marked on it at 
the expected point, precisely similar to cairns "l" and "t," but 
which proves, on investigation, to be devoid of passage and chamber, 
to be in fact a blind tomb. In this respect it is, I think, even more 
conclusive than Willie Howe, as in its outward construction it would 
appear that a sepulchral purpose is intentionally simulated. 

We may now consider the anthropological evidence. The idea of 
the cenotaph, we shall find, so far from being artificial, in the sense 
of modern or advanced civilization, is essentially primitive. It is, 
in fact, intimately related to the primitive theory of the soul. 

1 " OUamli Fodhla," Cairn " d." 



22 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

In a most interesting Paper on " Certain Burial Customs as illus- 
trative of the Primitive Theory of the Soul," Mr. J. G. Prazer has 
brought together a host of facts on this subject, from -which I sum- 
marize the following particulars, referring the reader to the original 
Paper for authorities^ : — 

The belief is general that the ghosts of the unburied dead haunt 
the earth. But burial by itself was not sufficient to guard against the 
return of the ghost. Many precautions were taken by primitive man 
for the purpose of excluding or barring the dead from the living. 
Mr. Prazer recounts many customs for the purpose of chasing away 
the ghost from his late home or barring his return thereto. Some 
plans of keeping a ghost down are : to nail the dead man to the coffin 
(the Chuwash6), to tie the feet together (among the Arabs), or hands 
together (in Voigtland), or neck to legs (among the Troglodytes, 
Damaras, and New Zealanders). The Wallachians drive a long nail 
through the skull, and lay a thorny stem of a wild rosebush on the 
shroud. The Californians and Damaras break the spine. ^ The ghost 
of a suicide has always been looked on as especially dangerous, hence 
the custom of driving a stake through the body, and other customs of 
similar import.^ 

" But," as Mr, Prazer asks, " what happened when the body could 
not be found, as when the man died at sea or abroad? Here the 
all- important question was. What could be done to lay the wandering 
ghost ? Por wander he would till his body was safe under the sod, 
and by supposition his body was not to be found. The case was a 
difficult one, but early man was equal to it. He buried the missing 
man in effigy, and, according to all the laws of primitive logic, an 
effigy is every bit as good as its original."* 

' Journal Anthopological Institute, Great Britain and Ireland, vol. xv., p. 64. 

* Miss Florence Peacocke, -who has collected burial customs in Lincolnshire, 
states that skulls are at times dug up with iron nails hammered through them; 
about 1843 a skull was dug up in Messingham Churchyard with a nail through it, 
tmd on the authority of "Bygone Lincolnshire" (Ed. by Wm. Andrews) — " That 
the ' Layer-out ' in some places ties together the feet of the corpse, but it is neces- 
eaiy that they should be unloosed before the coffin is screwed down, or else the dead 
will not rise at the first resurrection." — " The Antiquary," November, 1895. 

3 The general subject of the relations of the ghost to the body may be pursued 
in Tylor's " Primitive Culture," Frazer's " Golden Bough," W. Crooke's " Intro- 
duction to the Popular Eeligions and Folk-lore of Northern India," and the publi- 
cations of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution. 

* Frazer, I. c, p. 95. 



Coffey — PreJmtoric Cenotaphs. 23 

A few illustrations wliicli I extract, with references, from a lengthy 
note to this statement, will make it clearer. 

In ancient !JIexico, when a trader died in a far countiy, the rela- 
tions at home made a puppet of candlewood, adorned it with the usual 
paper ornaments, mourned over, burnt it, and buried the ashes in 
the usual way. SimiLirly soldiers who fell in battle were buried in 
effigy (Bancroft, Native Races, ii., pp. 616, seq.). In Samoa the 
relations spread out a sheet on the beach near where the man had 
been drowned, or on the battle-field where he had fallen; they then 
prayed, and the first thing that lighted on the sheet (grasshopper, 
butterfly, or whatever it might be) was supposed to contain the soul 
of the deceased, and was buried with all due ceremony (Turner, 
Samoa, pp. 150, seq.). The Garuda-purana dii'ects that " if a man 
dies in a remote place, or is killed by robbers in a forest, and his body 
is not found, his son should make an effigy of the deceased with Kusa 
grass, and then burn it on a funeral pile" with the usual ceremonies 
(Monier Williams, Religious Tliought and Life in India, p. 300).^ In 
China, during the reign of the Emperor Chan-tuk, in the first 
century of the Christian era, it was enacted that if the bodies of 
soldiers who fall in battle, or those of sailors who fall in naval 
engagements, cannot be recovered, the spirits of such men shall be 
called back by prayers and incantations, and that figures shall be 
made either of paper or of wood for their reception, and be burned 
with all the ordinary rites. . . . The custom is now universally 
observed" (Gray, China, i., pp. 295, seq.'). 

In Madagascar, cenotaphs are erected for those whose bodies 
cannot be found, and their ghosts are supposed to be allured thither 
(Ellis, Ilisiory of Madagascar, i., p. 255). 

"Writers, who describe the burial customs of primitive peoples, 
rarely mention the case where the body is missing. I have looked 
through Herbert Spencer's Descriptive Sociology, and the only instances 
given there are those from Mexico and Madagascar quoted above. 

The publications of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian 
Institution, which describe so fully the customs of the native races of 
America, are silent on this point. Mr. Frazer appears, in fact, to be 
the only writer who has directed special attention to this branch of 
burial customs. Yet the case of a missing body must have been 
provided for wherever importance was attached to burial. At the 

1 See also W. Crooke's "Popular Eeligion and Folk-lore of iS'ortlieni India," 
p. 231. 



24 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

present day funeral customs in use in many parts of Europe point, in 
survivals, to the widespread recognition by primitive man of the 
importance of providing for such cases. Mr. Frazer cites, amongst 
others, the foUowing instances : — In modern Greece, when a man 
dies abroad, a puppet is made in his likeness, and dressed in his^ 
clothes, and mourning is made over it; it is not stated that the 
puppet is buried. In Albania, when a man dies abroad, all the usual 
lamentations are made at home, as if the body were present; the 
funeral procession goes to the church, but, in the place of the bier, a 
boy walks, carrying a dish on which a cracknel is placed over some 
boiled wheat. This dish is set in the middle of the church, and the 
funeral service is held over it ; it is not, however, buried, but the 
women go and weep at the grave of the relation who died last.^ 

Dr. C. R. Browne, m.e.i.a., informs me that in the islands of Aran 
and in Innisboffin the usual wake is held in the case of a drowned, 
person whose body has not been recovered. Wakes are likewise held 
on receipt of the news of a death abroad. 

Information as to the manner in which primitive peoples provide 
for the case of a missing body is scanty, apparently because it has not 
been looked for, but the examples given are sufficient for our purpose. 

They enable us to understand the essential meaning of the ceno- 
taph to the Greeks and the Romans, which has been obscured by the 
modem association of the idea of memorial, and render available the 
large body of evidence which may be gathered from classical writers.^ 

The primitive thcoiy of the relation of the soul, or ghost, to the 
body is at the bottom of the burial customs of the Greeks and the 
Romans. The same range of ideas, which we find in primitive man, 
are clearly present. 

The importance attached by the Greeks and the Romans to burial 
need not be insisted on. The ghost of the unburied might not enter 
Hades, but must perforce wander till burial was given to the body. 

Thus, in the Iliad, Patroclus reproaches Achilles for neglecting to 
give him burial: — "Bury me with all speed, that I pass the gates 
of Hades. Far off the spirits banish me, the phantoms of men out- 
worn, nor suffer me to mingle with them beyond the river, but vainly 
I wander along the wide-gated dwelling of Hades " (xxiii., 71). The 
description of the unburied dead, and the appeal of Palinurus to ^neas 
in the ^neid, may be also instanced (vi., 295-415). 

1 Frazer, I. c, p. 96. 

- Cenotaphs are treated as memorial in Smith's and in Seyffert's (ed. by 
Nettleship and Sandys) Dictionaries of Classical Antiquities. 



Coffey — Prehistoric Cenotaphs. 25 

The notion that the ghost was a double of the body, and that 
injury to or mutilation of the body took effect likewise on the ghost, 
is apparent in the description given in the ^neid of Deiphobus in 
Hades, "with all his body mutilated" (vi. 494). 

It may be compared with the belief recorded of the Indians of 
Brazil, " that the dead arrive in the other world wounded or hacked 
to pieces, in fact, just as they left this."^ 

Prom, no doubt, a similar belief, in this case to render the ghost 
harmless, Greek murderers used to hack off the extremities of their 
victims.^ This latter instance is compared by Mr. Frazer with the 
practice among the Australians of cutting off the thumb of a slain 
enemy, so that the ghost might not be able to throw the spear.^ The 
same idea may be traced in the practice at Athens of cutting off the 
right hand of suicides.* 

It has not been possible within the limits of the present Paper to 
do more than indicate, by a few striking examples, the general notion 
underlying the Greek and Eoman theory of the ghost. 

These examples show, however, that in Greek and Eoman burial 
customs we are brought face to face with the same primitive concep- 
tions concerning the relations of the ghost to the body which are 
found widely distributed among primitive peoples, and which, indeed, 
still survive among advanced peoples to an extent not generally 
suspected, 

This wider aspect of the subject has been touched on, in order 
that the reader may more fully realize the force of the direct evidence 
of the cenotaphs which we shall now discuss. 

The erection of cenotaphs is frequently mentioned by the Greek 
writers. Throughout Greece, when the relatives had not the body of 
the deceased, they erected cenotaphs, which were entitled to the same 
respect as true tombs.^ 

That the idea of such monuments is burial, and not memorial, 
may be gathered from the following illustrations : — 

When Athene urges Telemachus to seek for his father, she adds : 
"But if thou shalt hear that he is dead and gone, return then to 

' Tylor, "Primitive Culture," i., 451. 

* Aeschylus, " Choephori," 439 : Sophocles, "Electra," 445— see the scholia 
on this verse, Jebb's "Electra," Appendix. 

3 Tylor, "Primitive Culture," i., 451. 

* Daremberg and Saglio's " Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines," 
"Funus," p. 1370. 

5 Ibid., p. 1370. 



"26 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

thine own dear country and pile his mound, and over it pay burial 
rites, full many as is due." — 

(TTJfxd re ol ^eSat koI IttI Krepea Kxepei^ai 
TToXXa fxdX', ocrcra eot/ce. . . . (^Od. I. 291.) 

Xenophon describes the burial of the dead after the battle of 
Calpe : "As the victims were favourable, the Arcadians also accom- 
panied him, and buried the greatest part of the dead where they had 
severally fallen ; for they had now lain five days, and it was no 
longer possible to bring them away ; some of them, however, they 
gathered together out of the roads, and buried as becomingly as they 
could with the means at their command ; while for those they could 
not find they erected a large cenotaph [with a great funeral pile], 
and put garlands upon it " : ov<s 8e fJirj evpia-Kov Kevordfjaov avToli 
iTTOLfjcrav /xiya ^kol irvpav /xeyaA.r/v] koL (TTe(jidvov<; lireO^crav (vi. 4. 9).^ 

In the description in Thucydides of the funeral ceremonies of the 
Athenians who fell in the first year of the Peloponnesian war there is 
no mention of cenotaphs, but the underlying idea of the performance 
of the burial rites of the missing is clearly indicated. 

"When the actual procession takes place, waggons carry coffins 
of cypress-wood, one for each tribe. In them are the bones of the 
tribe to which each individual belongs. One bier is borne empty, 
fully furnished forth, for the missing who had not been discovered at 
the taking up of the dead." — /xta Se KXivq kcvt] ^eperat 'ecTT/aw/xei/i^ twv 
d(f>avwv, OL av jx-q cvpeOwcnv ets dvaipecTLV. (ll. 34.) 

M. Edward Cuq, in the article " Funus " in Daremberg and 
Saglio's Dicfionnaire des Anfiqtittes, has collected the sense of a 
number of passages on cenotaphs from Roman writers. His statement 
so fully covers the ground, it will be sufficient to quote the passage, 
referring the reader, for authorities, to the notes there given : 

"Sile corpsn'apu etre retrouve, la sepulture n'est que ' imaginaire,' 
et le tombeau porte le nom de cenotaphe {eenotaphimn). La con- 
struction des cenotaphes etait due d cette croyance que I'ame detachee 
du corps avait besoin d'une demeure. Si on ne lui donnait un 
tombeau pour asile, elle errait sans treve ni repos, comme un genie 

1 The words koI irvpav fx€yd\r]v are omitted in three good mss. ; they are 
retained in two good mss., and in all the inferior ones. They are retained by 
Dindorf , but rejected by Zeune and others. Zeune remarks that he never heard 
of a funeral pile being erected in conjunction with a cenotaph. When the sepul- 
chral nature of the cenotaph is understood, it is seen that the intrinsic evidence of 
the passage supports their retention. 



Coffey — Prehistoric Cenotaphs. 27 

malfaisant. Aussi, cles que le cenotaplie etait termine, appelait-on par 
trois fois I'ame du defunt pour I'inviter a entrer dans la demeure qui 
lui etait preparee. 

"Les cenotaplies etaient a:ffectes principalement a ceux qui avaient 
peri en mer ou en temps de guerre. Tin monument de ce genre fut 
construit par Germanicus, pour les ames des soldats des legions de 
Yarus. Le cenotaphe etait done un inane hustum, un vacuum sepulcrum 
at la sepulture etait inanis. 

"II y avait une autre espece de cenotaplie erige en memoire d'un 
defunt inhume ailleurs : c'etait un honorarium sepulerum. Tel fut le 
monument construit pour Drusus, sur les bords du Ehin, par les soldats 
places sous ses ordres, tandis que son corps, transports ^ Eome, etait 
inhume au Champ de Mars. Le christianisme a conserve I'usage 
de ces cenotaphes, qui furent eriges en I'honneur des saints. 

"De ces deux sortes de cenotaphes, la premiere a le caractere d'un 
locus religiosuSy mais non la seconde. Telle est la decision d'un rescrit 
de Marc-Aurele et Verus, rapporte par TJlpien."i 

The sepulchral character of the cenotaph, and its relation to the 
primitive theory of the ghost, has now been sufficiently established.'' 
In the grave-goods, weapons, " food- vessels," &c., accompanying pre- 
historic interments, we have evidence of the existence of the same 
fundamental conception of the ghost as a double of the body, which 
underlies the theory of the cenotaph, and it seems the natural con- 
clusion that the empty barrows are cenotaphs. But fortunately I am 
able to relate the evidence collected in this Paper directly to Ireland, 
and thus close, at least for Ireland, the chain of evidence on the 
subject. 

1 "Funus," p. 1396. 

- We should perhaps recognise the possihility of some cenotaphs heing what 
may be described as fictitious cenotaphs. That is to say, where the deceased has 
been buried abroad, a monument might be erected in his own country, not as a 
memorial, but to give his shade a dwelling amongst his o^vn people. The case 
mentioned by Bancroft of a trader dying abroad perhaps is of this class. The 
cenotaph (tumulum inanem) erected by Andromache in Epirus for Hector (buried 
elsewhere), at which she made yearly offerings and "called on Hector's spirit" 
("-Sneid," iii. 300), is also in point. It is conceivable that a people migrating 
from one country to another might erect tombs to their hero ancestors in the new 
country, so that their shades might dwell among them in their new home. There 
is no evidence that this was done, but the idea seems to be within the range of 
primitive logic. Cenotaphs such as Cairn d, the most important cairn in the 
cemetery at Loughcrew, appear to require some such explanation. In any case 
the suggestion is worth throwing out as indicating a direction in %vhich evidence 
may be looked for. 



28 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The Agallamh na Senorach, or Colloquy with the Ancients, trans- 
lated by Mr. Standish H. 0' Grady, from the Booh of Lismore, a ms. of 
the 15th century, is a topographical tract somewhat after the manner 
of the Dindsenchus, but cast'in narrative form. It is, like the Dind- 
senchus, an invaluable store of ancient lore concerning glens, hills, 
lochs, raths, and burial mounds. In some instances the opening of 
grave-mounds and taking therefrom of weapons and gold is recounted. 

The following story, which I extract in full (page 236), is of 
especial interest, as direct evidence of a tradition of the erection of 
cenotaphs in the heroic age in Ireland : — 

" ' Caeilte,' said the King of Munster, * what are these two great 
graves that we see ? ' ' The three 6glaechs that, as above, took 
service with Finn at rditMn na n-ingnadh and had the wonderful 
hound ; it was they that slew the two warriors whose graves those are : 
Donn and Dubhan, the King of TJlidia's two sons out of the North.' 
'How perished they?' asked the king. 'The three lay in a place 
apart from the Fianna,' Caeilte replied, 'with their hound centrally 
between them ; and when once night came, there used a wall of fire 
to surround them so that none might dare even to look at them. On 
the night in question, the King of TJlidia's sons kept watch for Ireland's 
and Scotland's Fianna, and thrice made the circuit of the camp. The 
third time, however, they saw the fiery wall, and Donn said : ' 'Tis a 
strange thing how these three oglaechs are for now a year past, and their 
hound amongst them ; for they have proclaimed that after nightfall 
none must go look at them !' Then the King of TJlidia's sons passed 
inside through the fire-wall ; when they were there they got their arms 
ready to their hands, and so scanned both men and dog. But the huge 
hound which daily they had in the chase was at this instant no 
greater than a lap-dog such as a great lady or man of high estate may 
keep ; one man moreover with his keen sword naked in his hand 
standing sentry over the animal, while to the mouth of the same 
another held a cuach of fair silver; and the choicest of every kind of 
liquor which any individual of the three might require of him, that is 
what the hound kept on ejecting from his mouth into the cuach. 

" Then to the hound, an dglaech of them said : ' It is well, thou 
noble and righteous and high-couraged ! give heed now to the 
treachery wrought thee by Finn ! ' At this the hound wagged his 
tail hard, whereby was created a factitious magic wind that made their 
shields to fall from our men's hands, their swords from their sides, and 
to be cast before their faces into the fiery wall. Hereat the three 
killed the King of TJlidia's two sons ; which being effected, the dog 



Coffey — Prehistoric Cenotaphs. 29 

turned, applied his breath to them, and reduced them to dust and ashes, 
so that nor blood, nor flesh, nor bone "n-as ever found of them. ' Theirs, 
then, are the two mounds concerning which thou questionest me,' 
ended Caeilte : ' but, mould and sand excepted, whosoever should 
open them would not find them to contain the smallest thing.' " 

This remarkable passage, in addition to the evidence it furnishes 
of the erection of cenotaphs in prehistoric times, is of interest as 
showing that the tradition that some mounds were "blind mounds" 
was handed down to a late period. At what time the practice of 
erecting cenotaphs ceased in Ireland we cannot say, or whether or not 
the people of the early Christian period had contemporary knowledge 
of such monuments ; but the fact that the existence of cenotaphs has 
been preserved in tradition seems to explain a circumstance in con- 
nexion with them noted by several observers. 

bounds, which subsequently proved to be "blind," in several 
instances showed no signs of previous disturbance. 

Dr. Naue speaks of blind mounds explored by him as "la plupart 
tresbien construits" (note, p. 18). Canon Greenwell describes Willie 
Howe as " well proportioned and symmetrically made." !N"o sign of 
disturbance was noticed at the apparent entrance to Cairn "n" at 
Loughcrew, the interment in which it was therefore thought would be 
found intact. Can the explanation of a case such as Cairn " n," where 
we find the other cairns of the cemetery have been systematically rifled, 
be that the fact that it did not contain anything was well known in the 
locality, and it was, therefore, passed over by the mound plunderers 
of early times ; or did the knowledge of the treasure-seekers of the 
practice of erecting cenotaphs enable them to detect such empty 
mounds without the necessity of an exhaustive search ? 



[ 30 ] 



in. 



KEPOET TTPOS TffE EAISED BEACHES OE THE XOETH- 
EAST OE lEELAyi). TVITH SPECIAL EEEEEEXCE TO 
THEIE EAU^'A. Er E. LLOYD PEAEGEE. B.E.. il.E.I.A. 
(Plaie T.) 

[Eead jA>-rAET 27, 1896.] 

The present Paper is, to a certain extent, supplementarr to the 
Eeport on the Estuarine Clays of the Xorth-East of Ireland, sub- 
mitted to the Academy in 1892.' It is a matter of regret to me that 
the termination of my residence in the Xorth of Ireland prevented a 
more fnll and detailed survey of the raised beaches of the north-east ; 
but it may be doubted if this would have added much of novelty to 
our knowledge of the characters and fauna of these deposits, as the 
more important localities, such as Lame and Portrush, have now been 
well worked up. 

The raised beaches of the north-east have come in for a good deal 
of attention from geologists, and the literature of the subject is com- 
paratively extensive. Only a few papers, however, contain more 
than short and general descriptions, and but very few contain definite 
information relative to the f axina of the beds. It is to these last alone 
that I shall have occasion to refer. But let it be said, that from the 
writings in general we gather that at frequent intervals round the 
north-eastern coast there exist accumulations of gravel and sand, 
varying in level from high- water mark to about twenty feet above it, 
and containing throughout marine shells of species, in most cases 
still living in the vicinity, and, frequently mixed with these, 
worked flints of distinctly human origin, so that these beds were 
accumulated, and their elevation effected, during the human period. 
The raised beaches frequently rest on bine marine clay, characterized 
by Scrohicularia piperata. Tapes decmsafus, and other littoral shells. 
Overlying the same clay, in the more open bays and estuaries, we 
frequently find a deposit of blue marine clay, filled with shells that 
frequent water of five to ten fathoms in depth. I have elsewhere- 

1 Proc. E. I. Academy, 3rd ser., vol. ii. * Loc. cit. 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 31 

expressed my belief that the series of raised beaches referred to is con- 
temporaneous with this npper clay bed, and that the elevation that 
raised the gravels to their present height, brought up the clays from 
their place of deposit in some few fathoms of water to their present 
position at or near high-water mark. 

Professor Hull has pointed out^ that the elevation above present 
sea-level of the raised beaches of the east coast of Ireland increases 
as we pass northward, varying from high-water mark at Dublin to 
twenty feet above it on the Antrim coast ; and he identifies this Irish 
series with the twenty-flve-foot raised beach of Scotland. Into this 
suggestion (which Mr. A. Bell states^ is not borne out by the fauna) I 
need not at present inquire, but may remark that my observations 
bear out, on the whole, Hull's statement as to a general increase of 
elevation with increasing latitude. 

"Without further preface I shall proceed to my notes on raised 
beaches, and they will be taken in geographical order, beginning with 
the most southern. 

Geeenoee. 

The raised beach at Grreenore forms an extensive spit of low land, 
projecting for half a mile into Carlingford Lough, and it has been 
long known as a locality for rude flint implements. It is composed 
of horizontally -bedded gravels, rising to about fifteen feet above high- 
water mark, and containing marine shells from bottom to top. The 
gravels rest on estuarine clay, with gravelly layers. The fauna of the 
gravels, as observed on a single visit, is as follows : — 

Anomia ephippiwm. Scrohieularia piperata. 

Ostrea edulis. My a arenaria. 

Pecten maximus. Trochus cinerareus. 

Lucina horealis. Littorina ohtusata. 

Cardium edule. L. litorea. 

Tapes decussatus. Turritella terehra. 

T. aureus. Purpura lapillus. 
Tellina lalthica. 

The estuarine clay which underlies the gravels and its fauna have 
been treated of in my report before-mentioned. 

^ " On tie Eaised Beach of the North-East of Ireland," Brit. Assoc. Report, 
1872, and Physical Geol. and Geogr. of Ireland, p. 107. 

2 "Final Eeport . . . upon the Manure Gravels of Wexford," Brit. Assoc. 
Report, 1890. 



32 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

CAELItf&FOED. 

Just a mile from Carlingford Castle, on the "n-ay to Greenore, 
beyond a piece of brackish, water lying inside the railTvay, the road 
makes a slight cutting through a raised beach for a length of about 
one hundred yards. The only section is on the banks by the roadside. 
There is to be seen a solid bed of oyster- shells, at between fifteen and 
twenty feet above high-water mark, and for a few feet above and 
below this layer are shell-bearing gravels. The deposit rests on 
Carboniferous limestone. The shells found were — 

Ostrea edulis. v. c. Patella vuJgata. r. 

Cardium edtde. r. Littorina ohtusata. r. 

Tapes deciissatus. v. r. L. litorea. c. 

Geeencastle. 

On the side of Carlingford Lough opposite to that last-mentioned, 
at the uttermost southern extremity of county Down, an extensive sea- 
terrace is marked on the Geological Survey map. The only place 
here which I have had an opportunity of examining is the shore from 
Cranfield Point north-westwards. At Cranfield Point the great 
deposit of granite detritus, which stretches round the southern slopes 
of the !Mourne ^[ountains, forming in many places a thirty or forty- 
foot clifE facing the sea, gives way to compact blue boulder-clay, with 
large blocks of polished Carboniferous limestone. A little northward 
the boulder-clay is capped by a few feet of marine gravels, eight or 
ten feet above high-water mark, evidently a raised beach. Saxicava 
rugosa, Patella vulgata, and Littorina litorea were collected, the first 
in a limestone pebble. Further northward the Carboniferous lime- 
stone crops out in low reefs on the shore. 

KlLlOUGH. 

At the head of Eillough Bay a low estuarine flat runs inland for 
about a mile, at a level slightly above high water. Drain-cuttings 
here show a foot of sandy clay, then a shelly layer, and under that 
several feet (base not seen) of very fine, tough, piak and grey 
laminated clay, without shells. The shell layer is made up of abun- 
dance of Cardium edule, Tellina laUhica, Scroiicularia piper ata, and 
Littorina litorea. Stretching across the lower end of this flat, a fine 
raised beach faces the sea. The Ardglass railway runs along the top 
of the raised beach, and cuts through it at KiHough Station. At this 



Praegbr — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 33 

spot, it is seen resting on red boulder-clay, its surface being twelve to 
fourteen feet above high water. Shells of a few species are abun- 
dant — 

Cardium edule. c. Trochus umhilicatus. f. 

Trochus cinerareus. c, Osirea edidis. v. r. 

Littorina ohtusata. c. Purpura lapillus. v. r, 

L. litorea. c. Nassa {incrassata ?) v. r. 

Sandeel Bax. 

"Round this little bay, which lies east of Groomsport, extends a 
cliff of fine sand, rising from near high-water mark to a height of 
fifteen feet. A level field extends backwards from its top. The sand 
is stratified horizontally, and is full of marine shells, which occur in 
beds and irregular pockets, some of which almost suggest human 
agency. Patella vulgata, Littorina ohtusata, L. litorea, and the land- 
shell Selix aeutus are the prevailing species. I also observed Pecten 
pusio, Mytilus modiolus, Venus gallina, Tapes virginius, Solen sp., 
Trochus cinerareus, Littorina rudis. 

Balltholme Bay. 

Before the present sea-wall was built, the raised beach here over- 
hung the strand as a cliff of sand and gravel twenty feet in height, 
inhabited by quantities of sand-martins. Shells are rare in this bed ; 
but at one spot, in a sandy layer three feet below the surface, and 
fifteen feet above high water, I obtained Ostrea edulis, Mactra sub- 
■truncata, Trochus cinerareus, Littorina ohtusata. The shells were in a 
very crumbling condition. The gravels, which lie in horizontal beds, 
rest, at about half -tide level, on a thin layer of blue clayey sand, 
representing probably the Estuarine clay zone. Below this is the 
well-known bed of submerged peat, only about six inches thick, but 
containing the upright stumps of Scotch fir and other trees, in their 
natural position. Below this is a thin layer of bluish sandy clay, 
very tough, and full of branches and roots, succeeded by fine red 
sand or fine red clay. To the westward the boulder-clay rises up 
from below this series. 

Caenaiea. 

Mr. W. H. Patterson pointed out to me a rather interesting 
deposit on the shore below Carnalea Station. It consists of a shell 
bed of small extent,, six to twelve inches thick, lying irregularly on 

E.I.A. PROC, SEE. III., VOL. IV. D 



34 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the Ordovieian rocks of the shore, ahout six feet above ordinary high- 
water mark. It is covered "with one foot of reddish clay, evidently 
"washed down from the slopes above. The shells are tightly "wedged 
together, and, though all stni li"ring in the neighbourhood, they are 
of interest as having a much less littoral character than is usual in 
the beds "we are considering — 



Anomia epMppium. f. 


T. magtis. v. r. 


Ostrea edidis. c. 


Littorina oltusata. c. 


Pecten rarius. r. 


L. litorea. c. 


P. opercularis. f. 


Rissoa memhranacea. v. r. 


P. pusio. f . 


Mydrolia uhce. v. r. 


P. maxiiiucs. f. 


Turritella terehra. c. 


Venus exoleta. v. c. 


Cerithium reticulatum. r. 


V. lincta. r. 


Aporrhais pes-pelecani. f . 


V. fasciata. f . 


Nassa reticulata, r. 


Cardium echinatum. c. 


Fmus antiquus. f. 


Cyprina islandica. r. 


F. gracilis, v. r. 


Lutraria elliptica. i. 


Pleurotoma rufa. v. r. 


Solen ensis. r. 


CyprcBa europecea. v. r. 


Patella vulyata. c. 


Serpula vermtcularis. i. 


2)-ochus cinerareus. c. 


Balanus sp. f. 


T. umhilicatus. i. 





ErNTTEGAE, B[oL"rWOOD. 

The Kinnegar is a sickle-shaped bank of gravel, runniag for half- 
a-mile from the slight promontory on the shore belo-w the to"wn of 
Holy"wood, in a direction parallel to the coast. The gravels rest on 
the thick deposit of estuarine clay that fills the upper portion of 
Belfast Lough, and they have been long noted as yielding flint 
implements. At the extreme point the bank bends sharply back- 
wards, so as to form a little hook. In the construction of a rifle 
range in 1887 this hook was cut through, and was found to consist of 
sand and shells, lying on the estuarine clay, and running in under 
the gravels, which rested on it in tolerably even horizontal beds 
(PI. I., fig. 1). The following shells were noted : — 

Anomia epMppium. f. V. gallina. v. r. 

Ostrea edulis. v. c. Tapes viryineus. f . 

Mytilus edulis. v. c. T. pidlastra. r. 

Cardium edide. v. c. T. decussatus. f. 

Venus exoleta. v. r. T. aureus, r. 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 35 

Tellina halthica. f. Turritella terelra. e. 

Mactra suMruncata. v, c. CerWhium reticulatum. c. 

Solen ensis. r. Nassa reticulata, r. 

Patella vulgata. f. Buccinum imdatum. c. 

Trochus cinerareus. r. Fusus antiquus. f. 

Littorina obtusata. c. Murex erinaceus. v. r. 

X. litorea. v. c. Purpura lapillus. f . 

The deposit is, however, practically composed of Ostrea, Mytilus, 
Cardiuyn, Mactra, and Littorina litorea, mixed with sand. Immediately 
above this bed was a layer of grey sand a foot deep, succeeded by 
the gravels which form the Kinnegar. The sand was destitute of 
shells, nor have I found shells in the overlying gravels,^ though they 
have unquestionably been thrown up by the sea as a bank between 
tides, or at low-water mark. And this leads me to repeat that the 
term ' raised beach ' is commonly used to describe not only leaches, 
but also lanlcs and sea-heds, that have been elevated. The Kinnegar 
was imdoubtedly a bank thrown up by currents, rather than a beach ; 
the Cuiran at Lame, to be referred to presently, is a very fine 
example of an inter-tidal or submarine bank which has been elevated. 
A bank of similar character, still at its original level, and, like the 
Kinnegar and Curran, forming a sickle-shaped spit, may be seen at 
low tide at Killowen, near Eostrevor. 

"West Bank. 

Though it cannot be described as a raised beach, being situated 
between high and low-water level, reference may be made to a curious 
deposit of shells occurring atthepoiat of the West Bank, which projects 
eastwards across Belfast Lough, three miles below Queen's Bridge, and 
which, till cut through in the formation of the Victoria Channel, 
formed a barrier round which all vessels approaching Belfast had to 
steer. The point of the bank, which is composed of over thirty feet 
of solid estuarine clay, gleams white at low water on a sunny day 
but it was not until I visited the spot, in 1891, that I learned the 
cause of its brilliance. At low spring tide, amid miles of dreary mud- 
flats, the point of the bank rises out as a steep slope of pure shells, 

1 Canon Grainger has recorded, in "Nat. Hist. Eeview," 1859, Proc, p. 15, 
the following shells from " ten-feet elevation, Eianegar, Holywood": — Anomia 
aculeata, Ostrea edulis, Cardium edule, Mactra subtvuncata, Littorina Uto>-ea, 
Turritella communis, Cerithium reticulatum., jVassa reticulata. 

D 2 



36 Proceedings of the Eoyjl Iriih Academy. 

six feet in height. Jfytiltts edulk, which lives in thousands on the 
gtuTounding flats, constitutes about ninety per cent, of the whole, but 
the remainder include a number of species which do not now live in 
the immediate vicinity — 

Ostrea edulis. f. TrocJius cmerareu.s. r. 

Anomia epTiippium. v. r. Lacuna divarwata. v. r. 

Peeten tarius. v. r. Littorina litorea. v. r. 

P. operculari^. v. r. L. rtidis (juv.). r. 

Nucida nuihus. v. r. Z. ohiusafu. f. 

Venus galJina. v. r. Pissoa m-etnhranacea. f . 

Tapei aureus, f. R.parva. r. 

Cardium eduls (juv.). r. R. alheJh. v. r. 

C. echinafum. v. r. Hydrohiu ulvcB. r. 

C. exiguum. v. r. TurriteJJa Urehra. r. 

Lucina horealis. v. r. Ododomia unidenfata. f. 

Telh'na laltkiea. v. r. Cen'thium reficuhtum. c. 

Mactra suhtrxtmata. v. r. Natica catena, v. r. 

Mya arenan'a. v. r. Ifasm incrassata. f. 

Corbula gihha. v. r. Pleurotoma rufa. t. 

The rarity of Cardium eduh, Tellina lalthica, Sydrolia ulvce, and 
Jfya arenaria, which live in great abundance in the vicinity, as quite 
as noteworthy as the occurrence of many shells which are not now 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood. This accumulation may be paral- 
leled with the wonderful shell-banks of Lough Foyle, which have 
been referred to by Portlock,^ from which, at the time he wrote, over 
59,000 tons of shells, chiefly T. terebra, were removed annually, with- 
out any failure or diminution in the supply. In that case, as in 
the present, most of the shells cannot have lived in the vicinity, but 
must have been brought by tidal currents. 

EXLBOOT. 

The raised beach at KOroot was mentioned, and a short list of its 
shells given, by Hull, in 1872,* the species recorded being Anomia 
ephippium, Cardium edxtU, Patella culgata, Trochus umbilieatm, Litto- 
rina litoraiis, L. litorea, Cerithium reticulatum, Kassa reticulata, 
Buccinum undatum. In the !5Iemoir to Sheets 21, 28, and 29 of the 



•• Geology of Londonderrv," Lc, 1843, p. 163. 
Eepoit of Brit. Assoc., 1872. 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 37 

Geological Survey of Ireland (1876) this list is repeated, with the 
addition of Pecten onaximus. 

Mr. Mark Stirrup, F.G.S., in his Paper on "The Raised Beaches 
of County Antrim," ^ gives a list of " shells of old heach, mixed with 
recent ones," found on the shore at Elilroot : the species which are not 
marked as "recent" are — Mytilus edulis, Patella vulgata, Trochus 
cinerareu-1, Littorina littoralis, L. litorea, Rissoa sp., Purpura lapillus, 
Buccinum undatum, Nassa reticulata. 

The raised beach is seen along the shore west of Kilroot railway 
station. On the foreshore, at Kilroot Point, there is a small exposure 
of estuarine clay of the lower or Scrobicularia zone,^ resting on a 
thin bed of submerged peat, which lies on red boulder-clay. Before 
the present sea-wall was built, the gravels were seen to rest on 
the estuarine clay, so that here we have the typical succession — 

Raised beach. 
Estuarine clay. 
Submerged peat. 
Boulder-clay. 

The raised beach was formerly well exposed in gravel-pits by the 
railway, a short distance west of Kilroot Station, and yielded many 
rude flint implements, as has been recorded by Du IS'oyer^ and others ; 
but these pits are lately worked out. On the shore the raised beach 
may be seen as a thin band of sheU-bearing gravel three to four feet 
above high-water mark, resting on boulder-clay, or on New Bed marls. 
At one point the section is as shown in Plate I., fig. 2. I have the 
following shells noted from the Kilroot raised beach : — 

Anomia ephippium. Patella vulgata. c, 

Ostrea edulis. Trochus cinerareus. 

Mytilus edulis. Littorina oitusata. v. c. 

Cardium edule. L. litorea. v. c. 

Venus exoleta. Cerithium reticulatum. 

Tapes decussatus. Nassa reticulata. 

T. aureus. Purpura lapillus. 

Tellina halthica. Buccinum undatum. 

Mactra sultruncata. Cyprcea europcea. 
truncata. 



^ Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Manchester, xvi. (1877). 
"^ See " Keport on the Estuarine Clays," &c., p. 214. 
■' Joum. Geol. Soc. London, vols, xxiv, xxv. 



38 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



Laene. 



The beds at the Curran at Larne form the classic raised beach, of 
the north of Ireland. Many papers contain references to this deposit, 
especially in its archaeological aspect, as a famous locality for rude 
flint implements. I need only mention such, as refer to its geological 
and palseontological features. Hull^ records, as found in this raised 
beach, eleven species of moUusca. Grainger^ gives a list of twenty- 
five species obtained by him at heights varying from ten to twenty 
feet above high water. In Mr. Stirrup's paper, already referred to, a 
list of nineteen species is given. In the Report of the Belfast Nat. 
Field Club [first] Larne Gravels Committee^ a few species are men- 
tioned, which were determined by Mr. S. A. Stewart. In the Keport 
of the Field Club's second Committee of Investigation,^ which was 
drawn up by myself, fifteen species are noted. I give a full list of 
the fossils which have been found, distinguishing the authorities by 
the initial letters of their names (H. = Hull, G. = Grainger, Sp. = 
Stirrup, St. = Stewart, P. = Praeger) : — 



Anomia ephippixiyn. H. G. Sp. 

St. 
Ostrea eduUs. G. P. 
Pecten varius. G. 
P. maxiinus. S. P. 
Kellia sulorhicularis. G. 
Lucina lorealis. G. Sp. St. P. 
Cardium edule. H. G. Sp. St. P. 
C. exiguum. Sp. 
Cyprina islandica. P. 
Venus lincta. S. 
Tapes pullastra. G. Sp. P. 
T. decussatus. P, 
Tellina balthica. S. 
T. tenuis. G. 
Mactra species. Sp. 



Scrolicularia alba. Sp. 

Corbula gibba. G. 

Saxicava rugosa. G. 

Patella vulgata. H. G. Sp. 

Selcion pellucidum. G. 

M. pellucidum, var. Icevis. Sp. 

Trochus cinerareus. G. Sp. P. 

T. umbilicatus. H. Sp. 

T. magus. G. 

T. zizyphimus. G. P. 

Littorina obtusata. 11. G. Sp. 

St. P. 
L. litorea. H. G. Sp. St. P. 
L. rudis. G. Sp. St. P. 
Rissoa membranacea. H. 
Turritella terebra. G. P. 



' Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1872. 

2 Brit. Assoc. Report, 1874. 

3 Proc. B. N. F. C, 1886-87, p. 519. 
* Ibid., 1889-90, p. 198. 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 39 

Cerithium reticidatum. H. G. Purpura lapillus. G. Sp. P. 

Natica species. Sp. Buccinum undatum. H. G. Sp. 
Naua reticulata. H. G. Sp. P. 

N. pygmma. G. Fusus antiquus. H. 

The molluscan fauna of the gravels is yet by no means thoroughly 
•worked out. Mr. Joseph "Wright has recorded^ sixty species of Forami- 
nifera from these gravels. 

Such full descriptions of the Curran beds have been published in 
the Papers already referred to, that it is only necessary to summarize 
that at their place of greatest development they consist of current- 
bedded gravels, twenty-one feet in thickness, containing marine shells 
and worked flints from top to base, and resting on estuarine clay, the 
surface of which is at high water level. The vertical position of 
certain bivalves proves that they lived buried in the gravels while the 
deposit was accumulating. This, and the bedding, show that the 
deposit is an old inter-tidal, or submarine, bank. Sections on different 
parts of the Curran vary greatly. On the south side of the railway, 
close to the Curran station, was seen the succession just mentioned. 
A hundi'ed yards northward a bank of boulder-clay rises up, till there 
is only two feet of gravel on the top of it= In pits at the old pottery, 
six feet of gravels overlay the estuarine clay, the surface of which 
was here six feet above high water. In a ten-foot-deep trench, made 
in 1887 for the Larne outfall sewer, along the road which crosses 
the Curran near this old pottery, a good section was exposed, as in 
Plate I., fig. 3, which shows the beds actually seen in the cutting 
from the old pottery to the eastern shore. The thick bed of yellow 
sand, which at this place suddenly intervenes between the gravels 
and the estuarine clay, contained many shells. In the ten minutes 
at my disposal on the day when I saw the cutting, the following 
were noted : — 

Anomia ephippiiim. v. r, Zucina horealis. \. r. 

Ostrea edulis. c. Fectunculus glycymeris. c. 

Pecten varius. v. r. Cardium edule. c. 

P. maximus. f. Venus exoleta, c. 

Montacuta bidentata. f. V. fasciata, t. 



1 " Post- Tertiary Foraminifera of X.-E. Ireland," Proc. B. X. F. C, 1879- 
80, Appendix. 



40 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

V. ovata. V. r. Lacuna diva/ricata. v. r. 

Tapes virgineus. v. r. Littorina ohtusata. v. r. 

T. aureus, var. ovaia. v. r. Z. litorea. c. 

Tellina lalthica. c. L. rtidis, var. tenehrosa. v. r. 

Sorohicidaria alba. v. r. Rissoa striata, r. 

;S, piperata. r. Sydrolia ulvcB. r. 

Patella vidgata. c, ^c/^'-s supranitida. v. r. 

Selcion pellucidum. var. ?<et7«s. Cerithium reticulatum. v. r. 

V. c. Purpura lapillus. c. 

Trochus cinerareus. c. Buccinum undatum. r. 

^. umhilicatus. v. r. Murex erinaceus. v. r. 

jT. magus, v. r. Melampus hidentatus. v. r. 

This is by far the most fossiliferous bed yet discovered in the 
Larne raised beach, and ten of the species are additions to the fauna ; 
the shells were in a much better state of preservation than those of 
the overlying gravels. 

Stiri'up^ mentions this sand bed as fringing the present shore from 
Larne [Harbour] northward to "Waterloo, capped by gravels, the top 
of which was five to six feet above high water. The sand contained 
thick beds of shells, consisting for the most part of Patellae, Littorinse, 
and Trochi, which might be traced for several yards at a time, and 
then died away. He notes the following species of fossils : — Patella 
vidgata, P. Icevis, Pectxmcidus glycymeris, Scrolicularia piperata (?), 
Trochus cinerareus, Littorina littoralis, L. rudis, L. litorea, Purpura 
lapillus, tooth of Bos longifrons. The last-named was found firmly 
embedded in the sand at its junction with the overlying gravel, and 
was determined by'Prof. Boyd Dawkins. On account of its smaller 
elevation above the sea, he placed this deposit on a horizon with the 
raised beach at Kilroot, &c., and considered them of a later date than 
that of the Curran (along with which, by the way, he places the 
glacial raised beach of Eallyrudder, which is capped by a thick deposit 
of boulder- clay). Eut in spite of the much better preservation of its 
fauna, there can be no doubt that the sand-bed is of the same age as 
the Curran gravels, and has its place, indeed, near the base of the 
series. Fig. 3 shows clearly how the sand runs in under the gravels, 
and as to the state of preservation of its fauna, it has elsewhere^ 
been stated that the fossils in the lowest bed reached during the 

^ Loc. eit. 

■ Proc. B. N. F. C, 1889-90. 



Praeger — On the liaised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 41 

excavations of the Belfast Field Club Committee, were remarkably- 
fresh and well-preserved, much more so than those of the superior 
beds. 

This completes my own notes on the north-eastern raised beaches, 
but it may be allowed to me to briefly mention any records of fossils 
that have not been already referred to, in order that a complete view 
may be obtained of the raised beach fauna, so far as it is known. 

In Grainger's Paper in "Nat. Hist. Eeview," 1859, already 
referred to, the following marine shells are recorded : — 

White Abbey, thirty feet elevation. — Ostrea edulis, Pecten maxi- 
mus, Mytilus edulis, Cardium edule, Tapes aureus, Tellina balthica, 
Trochus cinerareus, Littorina litorea, L. rudis, L. oltusata, Purpura 
lapillus. 

Geeencastle, twenty feet elevation. — Cardium edule, Tellina lal- 
thica, Littorina oltusata, L. litorea, L. rudis, Sydrohia ulvcs, Cerifhium 
reticulatum. 

Banks op Theee-Mile "Watee, ten feet elevation. — Mytilus edulis. 
Patella vulgata, Balanus sp. 

JoEDANSTOwi]", three feet elevation. — Anomia ephippium, Pecten 
opercularis, Mytilus modiolus, M. edulis, Cardium edule, Venus exoleta, 
V. gallina, Tapes decussatus, Mactra suhtruncata, Tellina halthica, Mya 
truncata, Patella vulgata, Littorina oltusata, L, litorea, L. rudis, 
Turritella terelra, Aporrhais pes-pelecani, Cerithium reticulatum, Pur- 
pura lapillus, Nassa reticulata, N. incrassata, Buccinum undatum, Fusus 
antiquus, Pleurotorna rufa, Serpula vermicularis, S. triquetra. 

Caeeickfeegus, forty feet elevation. — Anomia ephippium, Ostrea 
edulis, Pecten opercularis, Mytilus modiolus, M. edulis, Cardium edule, 
Mactra sultruncata, Trochus cinerareus, Littorina litorea, L. rudis, 
Cerithium reticulatum, Buccinum undatum, Serpula triquetra. In 
"Brit. Assoc. Eeport," 1874, Grainger supplies the additional infor- 
mation, that these were collected in a raised beach beyond Carrick- 
fergus. 

The lists from "one foot elevation" are not worth giving, in the 
absence of any particulars regarding the conditions under which they 
were found. In no case in this Paper, unfortunately, is any information 
given relative to the deposits from which the shells were obtained; those 
from "sixty to eighty feet elevation, Co. Down Eailway cuttings," 
were certainly obtained from glacial beds.^ The remainder which I 
I have quoted above were, no doubt, obtained from raised beaches ; but, 

1 See M'Adam, in Journ. Gaol. Soc. Dublin, vol. iv., part 2, No. 2 (1850). 



42 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

I believe, the heiglit of forty feet at Carrickfergus, thirty feet at "White 
Abbey, and twenty feet at Greencastle (-vrhich the author indicates 
are heights above high water) are exaggerated ; so far as I am aware, 
the most elevated raised beach in the district is that of Larne, which 
rises to about twenty-two feet above high water. 

Mr. "W. A. Traill has noted^ a few fossils of Antrim raised 
beaches : — 

Cra.igvt:llen, three miles S.-E. of Glenarm, at the mouth of the 
stream, four to eight feet above high water. — Venus ^' Itncta or 
obsoleta,^' Patella vidgata, Helcion pellucidum var. Icevis, Littorina 
ohtusata, L. litorea, Troclius sp. 

CLOSEBrEX Bat, five miles S.-E. of Glenarm, in the townland of 
Fourscore, four to eight feet above high-water mark. — Pectuncuhis 
glycymeris, Cyprina islandica, Patella vulgata, Selcion j^ellucidum var. 
lavis, Littorina ohtusata, L. litorea^ Irochus cinerareus. 

Lastly, we have the famous raised beach of Portrush, discovered 
by James Smith of Jordan-hill, and first described by Portlock^: "The 
remarkable accumulation of shells, mixed with sand, which occupies a 
bowl-shaped hollow, about ten feet above the sea on the north side of 
Portrush, and open in that direction to the sea." Portlock gives a 
list of the fossils, eighty-eight ia number, supplied by Smith, and 
adds to these the coral Caryopliyllia Smithii. Smith's own comment 
is worth quoting: — "This shelly deposit seems to have been a sheltered 
bay into which the shells have been drifted, with a small admixture 
of land-shells, washed down by floods ; none of the bivalves have both 
valves together, but they have been but little injured by the action of 
the sea ; I have never met with such a variety in so small a space, 
either in recent or ancient beds." 

Grainger^ gives a list of fifty-four species obtained by him in this 
bed, adding a few species to its fauna ; Stirrup includes in his Paper 
a short list of its fossils ; and Alfred Bell,* from material suppKed by 
local correspondents, has added others, bringing up the total fauna to 
no less than 126 species and varieties. It is not necessary here to 
reproduce this long list, but attention is drawn to the occurrence of 
the following species : — Lima Mans, Venus verrucosa, Venerupis irics, 
Rissoa albella, R. costulata, Odostomia excavata, Adeorbis subcarinatus, 

^ Geol. Surv. Ireland, Memoir to Sheet 20, p. 21. 

* Geology of Co. Londonderry, &c., p. 161. 
3 Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1874. 

* Ihid., 1890; and also Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Ediuburgh, vol. i. (1889-90). 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 43 

Trophon muricattis. The Foraminifera of the deposit, to the number 
of sixty, have been determined and catalogued by Wright.^ It is a 
matter for congratulation that this important deposit has been so 
thoroughly worked up, as some years ago it was destroyed in the 
process of road-making. 

I have now enumerated, or referred to, all records that I know 
concerning the raised beach fossils of the north-east of Ireland ; and it 
will be interesting to compare this fauna with that of the deposits 
which immediately underlie the raised beaches, with that of contem- 
poraneous beds of different character, and with the present fauna of 
the same regions. I would refer to my Eeport on the Estuarine 
Clays, pp. 213-6, for a sketch of the geological succession and general 
character of the post-glacial series in the north-east of Ireland, and 
the changes of conditions which they prove. It may be briefly stated 
that the typical series is in descending order : — 

Raised beaches, ) 

TT 1. • ^ \ Cotemporaneous. 

Upper estuarine clay, ) ^ 

Lower estuarine clay. 

Submerged peat. 

Sands and gravels. 

Boulder-clay. 

The only fossiliferous Pleistocene bed yet discovered below the 
boulder-clay of the district, is the gravel-bed of Ballyrudder, which 
yields a markedly Arctic fauna. 

The boulder-clay of the north-east exhibits the well-known typical 
characteristics. Overlying it, in many places, is a fine hard red clay, 
almost devoid of pebbles or blocks. This bed is more fossiliferous 
than the stony clay which it overlies. Above this, sands and gravels 
attain locally a considerable development, especially in the neigh- 
bourhood of Belfast. These beds require further elucidation : so far 
as they have been examiaed they yield sparingly a fauna similar to 
that of the boulder clay. The peat-bed, which comes next in the 
succession, offers a tempting field for research. Well-preserved plant 
remains, and elytra of beetles, &c., are often abundant, and mamma- 
lian remains occur. ^ We do not yet know much of the fauna and 
flora of this bed, but it contains remains of hazel, alder, oak, willows, 
Scotch fir, sedges, and flags. Resting on the peat bed comes the 

^ Loc. cit. 

^ See "Eeport on Estuarine Clays," &c. 



44 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

loTver or Scrobicularia zone of the estuarine clay, a littoral deposit 
which, imderlies a deposit of deeper water, the upper estuarine clay, 
and, in other places, the raised beach or sea-bed. 

Ve are now in a position to compare the faunas of the successive 
deposits of the series. This will yield the best and most instructive 
results if. eliminating all those species which range both north and 
south of the British area, we select the species which are of distinctly 
northern or southern type — those which either have now their habitat 
altogether outside British waters, or have the boundary (northern or 
southern) of their area of distribution within this region. This should, 
if the material at our disposal be sufficient for such an analysis, give 
us a key to the northward or southward fluctuations of the fauna 
during the periods of deposition of the beds under consideration, I 
may add that nowhere else in Ireland could such a comparison be 
instituted, nor do I kaow of any area of the same size in England or 
Scotland where the glacial, post-glacial, and recent molluscan faunas 
are all so completely represented and so available for comparison. 
The Ballyrudder gravels and Belfast "Waterworks boulder- clay are the 
most fossiliferous glacial deposits in Ireland. The estuarine clays, 
with a total fauna of 340 species, present, so far as I am aware, the 
richest post-glacial fauna in the British Isles ; and the raised beaches, 
with a fauna of about 130 species, also abundantly represent the life 
of the period. Lastly, the extensive researches of Thompson,^ Hynd- 
man,- and Dickie^ furnish us with full information regarding the 
existing molluscan fauna of the north-east. 

For the purposes of this comparison it is necessary to assume that 
the shells found in the various beds lived in the neighbouring seas at 
the time of the deposition of the beds. There is, of course always the 
chance of derived fossils, but this chance is small, to judge from the 
very small percentage of derived forms in recent dredgings or on our 
existing beaches. As regards the present fauna, however, this risk 
has been obviated by admitting only such species as have been taken 
alive in the district. 

The Ballyrudder gravels yield a percentage of exotic forms so 
much higher than that of the local glacial clays, that it has been 
thought advisable to give this deposit a separate column. The term 

1 " Xatural History of Ireland," iv., 1856. 

* "Eeports of tlie Belfast Dredging Committee," Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1857, 
1858, 1859. 

' " Eeport on the Marine Zoology of Strangford Lough," Brit. Assoc. Eeport^ 
1857. 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 45 

glacial clays has been used in preference to boulder-clays, since the fine 
clay, often without boulders, which has been already referred to, has 
yielded more fossils than the boulder-clay proper. The placing of the 
raised beaches after the estuarine clays, is not intended to signify neces- 
sarily a stratigraphical relation ; but it may be assumed, with tolerable 
certainty, that the raised beaches are in no case older than the clays. 

N represents a species of Arctic distribution, not now living in the 
British area. IS" represents a species, whose present distribution 
ranges from Britain northward only : most of these have their head- 
quarters on the Scandinavian shores. S represents a species whose 
present distribution ranges from Britain southward only : most of 
these have their headquarters in the Mediterranean. 

















o 












•Ti 




o 








^ 




.9 


• 


iC 


: Species. 


^ 

^ 








.2 ^ 




r^ 


03 c3 


■*-* ri 


•r-) Ci 






cS 




m ^ 


cj CD 


"y, c3 




pq 


33 


Wo 


PhW 


P^Pm 


Rhynclionella psittacea, 




N 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Mytilus modiolus. 




— 


— 




N 


N 


Pinna rudis, 




— 


— 





— 


S 


Crenella decussata, . . 




— 


— 


N 


— 


IT 


Leda pernula, . . . , ' . 




N 


n- 


— 


— 


— 


Area lactea, . , , . 




— 


s 


— 


s 


— 


Astarte elliptica, ., .. ' . 




N 


N 


— 


— 


— 


A. compressa and var. globosa, ' . 




liT 


N 


— 


— 


— 


A. borealis, 




N 


N 


— 


— 


— 


Yenus verrucosa, 




— 


— 


— 


s 


— 


Venerupis irus, 




— 


— 


— 


s 


— 


Tapes decussatus, . . . , 




— 


S 


S 


s 


— 


Tellina calcarea, 




N 


N 


— 


— 


— 


T. donacina, ,. ., 




— 











s 


Gastrana fragilis, 




— 


— ' 


s 


— 


— 


Lutraria obtonga, 




— 


— 


s 


— 


— 


Thracia pubescens, . , 




— 


— 


s 


— 


— 


Gastrocbaena dubia, . . 




—1 





s 


_ 





Pholas parva. 




S 


— 


- 


— 


— 



46 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 



Species. 




3o 






to 

.S cs 

"W 03 


Chiton marmoreus, . . 


N 


— 


— 


N 


N 


C. albus, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


Puncturella noachina, , , 


N 


— 


— 


N 


— 


Tectura testudinalis, . . . . . , 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


Emarginula crassa, . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


K 


Trochus helicinus, 


— 


— 


N 


— 


N 


T. umbilicatus, . . . . . , 


— 


- 


S 


S 


S 


T. lineatiis, 


— 


— 


— 


— 




T. granulatus, . , . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


S 


T. montaculi, . . , , 


— 


— 


— 


- 


S 


Phasianella puUa, 


— 


— 


s 


s 


S 


Eissoa costulata, . . . , 


— 


— 


s 


s 


— 


Jeffreysia opalina, . . 


— 


— 


s 


— 


— 


Tunitella erosa, 


N 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Odostomia pusilla, . , . . . . 


— 


— 


s 




— 


0. excavata, .. ,. 


— 


— 


— 


s 


— 


Natica affinis, 


N 


N 


— 


— 


— 


Adeorbis subcarinatus, . . 


— 


— 


— 


s 


— 


Tricbotropis borealis, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


Buccinum grenlandicum, ,, 


N 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Fusus latericeus, .. ,, 


— 


N 


— 


— 


— 


Tropbon tnmcatus, . . 


N 


N 


— 


-- 


N 


T. clatbratus, 


N 


N 


— 


— 


— 


T. barvicensis, 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


T. muricatua, , . 


— 


— 


— 


s 


— 


Def lancia gracilis, . . 


— 


— 


s 


— 


— 


Pleurotoma exarata, .. 


N 


— 


- 


— 


— 


P. decussatus, . . .. 


— 


N 


— 


— 


— 


P. trevelyana, .. .. 


N 




— 


— 


— 


P. pyramidalis, . . . . 


N 


— 


— 


— 


— 



Praegeii — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 47 

I believe that if to the above Table were added those species 
whose distribution is mainly northern or southern (instead of entirely, 
as in the Table) the changes in the character of the fauna would be 
rendered still more conspicuous ; but the groups of shells used above 
will sufficiently serve the purpose. 

From an inspection of the above Table the Arctic character of the 
Ballyrudder fauna, and the northern character of the fauna of the 
boulder-clays, is at once apparent. Not less striking is the distinctly 
southern character of the estuarine clay fauna, and of the raised 
beaches, when contrasted with the columns showing the facies of the 
existing fauna. If we add up each column, and reduce the results to 
percentages of the total fauna of each deposit, this result is still 
more striking — 





o 
o 

< 


o 
S?5 


s 

"3 

o 


Ballyrudder, 


25 


15 


3 


Glacial Clays, 


13 


5 


3 


Estuarine Clays, 





2 


6 


Eaised Beaches, 





3 


9 


Present Seas, 





4 


3 



This result may be expressed graphically, as shown below. In 
fig. 1 (p. 48) horizontal distance represents time. We have no data for 
arriving at even a rough comparison of the relative intervals between 
the periods under consideration, so they are assumed to be equal. On 
one side of a base-line the percentage of northern or southern species 
in each fauna is marked off. "We thus get three curves, representing 
the increase or decrease in the northern or southern character of the 
fauna of the north-east of Ireland, from glacial times to the present 
day. 

And furthermore, if, as in fig. 2 (p. 48), we let vertical distance on 
one side of the base-line represent percentage of northern forms, and on 
the other, percentage of southern forms (the one-being, so to speak, of 
opposite sign to the other), and draw a curve, which is the mean of the 



48 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



three curves in fig. l,tliis curve will give an accurate representation of 
the changes in the character of the fauna, as a whole, during the same 



^u^ 



S 

:$^ 



.3 



5* y 





25 


is 






m 


^ 






20 














y> 






N_ 










u 






'\ 












IS 


IS 












■u 






\ 








si 


to 




*%> 


\ 
\ 








V. 






^v 


\ 


n. 






« 






\ 


'\ 




^^^•^^ 






^ 1 




5- 


-^^_^^^-"-'^^ 




^^^s^ 


4 






3 


Sciit^efn, 






' 




Species. 3 





Figure 1. 



period. In these two diagrams we observe the high northern character 
of the Eallyrudder fauna. A rapid dying out of Arctic and northern 




Figure 2. 



species leaves the fauna of the boulder-clay still with a distinctly 
northern aspect. The high northern species now all disappear, and 



Praeger — On the Eaised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 49 

the large increase of southern shells is accompanied by a slight 
further decrease of northern types, till before the next period the mean 
curve, indicating the general character of the fauna, has crossed the 
neutral line, and the fauna of the estuarine clays and raised beaches 
is seen to be of distinctly southern aspect. This is, however, the 
period of maximum dominance of the southern shells. Their number 
is seen to rapidly diminish, while the northern element remains 
almost the same, so that at the present day the neutral line has been 
again passed, and the fauna has assumed a slightly northern aspect. 

A cause for this recent collapse of the southern fauna of the north- 
eastern seas has not, so far as I am aware, been suggested, nor have I 
any explanation to offer. It may be pointed out that the north-east 
of Ireland has, at present, the most northern moUuscan fauna of any 
portion of the country, and this, as the diagram shows, is caused by 
the extinction of southern forms rather than by the immigration of 
northern ones. 

The present Paper may j&ttingly conclude with a detailed account 
of a few of the more striking of these recent emigrations from the 
district. It is to be noted that the north-eastern part of Ireland is, 
both zoologically and botanically, the most boreal. The mild in- 
fluences which characterize the western coast extend right up to the 
most northerly point of Donegal and of Ireland ; and both fauna and 
flora, terrestrial and marine, attain their most northerly aspect only 
when we turn southward round Malin Head, and reach the counties of 
Derry and Antrim. In accordance with this statement, it will be 
seen that some of the shells about to be mentioned, which have now 
forsaken the north-eastern shores, or show a striking diminution in 
numbers, still flourish in the milder climate of Donegal, which is 
actually further to the northward ; while, on the other side, their line 
of retreat has been down the east coast towards Dublin. 

Lima Mans, Gmel. In the estuarine clay period lived in immense 
abundance in Lame Lough, and more sparingly in Belfast Lough, 
and off Portrush. Now almost extinct in the district, a very 
few specimens only having been dredged ; lives in abundance in 
Mulroy Bay, Co. Donegal, and sparingly off Dublin, but is not 
recorded from the south or west. 

Tapes aureus^ Gmel. Its first appearance locally is in the boulder- 
clay at Belfast Waterworks. It attains great abundance in the 
estuarine clays and raised beaches, from Lame to Greenore. 
As a living species it is extremely rare in the district, and in 
Ireland has its headquarters in the west and south. 

K.I. A. PEOC, SEE. in., VOL. IV. ' E 



50 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Tapes decussatus, L. A soutliem shell, wLicli first a^jpeared, like- 
tlie last, in the "Waterworks boulder- clay. Attained immense 
profusion in the estuarine clay period, but has noTv become 
completely extinct in the district, having its limit in Lough. 
S^villy on the one side, and Carlingford Lough on the other. 
Beyond these limits it is a common species round the Irish shores. 

Lucinopsis undata, Penn. Attained an abundant and luxuriant 
development in the estuarine clay period : now almost extinct 
in the district, but found at Portrush and ]y[agilligan. Lives 
in Lough Swilly and westward, and on the eastemside at 
Dublin. 

Gastrana fragilis, L. A southern shell, which appears in the estua- 
rine clays of Strangford Lough. In a living state its nearest 
station is Lough Swilly. Elsewhere in Ireland, its present 
stations are in the south and west. 

Scrohiculariapiperata, Bell. Appears in the "Waterworks boulder-clay. 
In the lower, or littoral, estuarine clay it is almost invariably 
present in immense profusion, along the whole north-eastern 
coast. !N^ow quite extinct in the same area, having its nearest 
stations just outside these limits, in Lough Swilly and in 
Carlingford Lough. Common all round the rest of the Irish 
coasts. 

Rissoa alhella, Loven. Occurs, often in enormous numbers, in almost 
every bed of estuarine clay in the loughs of Poyle, Lame, 
Belfast, Strangford, and Carlingford, as well as in the Portrush 
raised beach. Xow completely extinct, and in Ireland only found 
at Bantry Bay in the extreme south-west. 

Equally instructive is the evidence afforded by certain raised 
beaches of the former extension northwards and eastwards of species 
which are characteristic of the west-coast fauna. 

Vemis verrucosa, L. A southern shell, recorded from the Portrush 
raised beach, and from prehistoric shell-mounds at Piosapenna in 
North Donegal. 1 It is an abundant species in the south-west, 
now finding its limit on the south coast at Youghal, and on the 
west coast in Co. Sligo. 

Venerupis irus, L. Another characteristic west-coast species of southern 
type, not now known north of Bundoran, but occurring in the 
Portrush raised beach. 

1 ^V. H. Patterson, ia Irish Xatiiralist, iii., p. 50 (1894). 



Praeger— Ow the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 51 

Trochus Itneatus, J). C. Abundant at the present time on the west 
coast, as far north as Bundoran. Eare on the east coast, but 
ranges north to Ballywalter in Co. Do-wn. Its presence in the 
raised beach at Fort Stewart, on Lough Swilly, attests its further 
former extension. 

Certain genera also exhibit, as a whole, striking fluctuations. 
Trophon, so characteristic of glacial beds, is, with the exception of 
T. muricatus in the Portrush bed, entirely absent in the estuarine 
clays and raised beaches, re-appearing in the present north-eastern 
seas with three species. Leda, another abundant glacial genus, with 
three species in the local deposits of this age, is represented in the 
estuarine clays and raised beaches by only a single valve of L. minuta 
at Belfast, though two species inhabit our present waters. Astarte, 
with four species in the glacial beds, is completely absent from the 
estuarine clays and raised beaches, re-appearing with two species at 
the present day. Cyprina is, very strangely, almost absent from the 
glacial beds of the north-east; it is likewise extremely rare in the 
estuarine clays and raised beaches, though now living in abundance. 
Tapes, a genus of rather southern proclivities, is not represented in the 
Ballyrudder beds, and but very sparingly in the boulder-clays. In 
the estuarine clays and raised beaches all the British species are 
widely diffused, often in very great abundance, while at the present 
day one species, as already mentioned, has migrated completely from 
the district, and another is almost extinct. Venus, another genus of 
southern tendency, is unknown at Ballyrudder, and very sparsely 
represented (two species only) in the boulder-clays. The estuarine 
clays yield all the six local species, which have, if anything, in- 
creased in numbers since that period. Montacuta, unknown in the 
glacial beds, swarms in the estuarine clay, and is now extremely rare. 

"We have now traced, so far as is possible, the history and 
character of the marine fauna of the north-eastern corner of Ireland. 
We see that, following the Arctic climate that must have obtained 
when the raised beach of Ballyrudder was laid down, somewhat 
warmer seas existed during the boulder- clay period, inhabited by a 
fauna still distinctly northern, but containing a few southern forms, 
along with a diminishing number of Arctic species. It may be 
remarked, in passing, that the character of this fauna closely corre- 
sponds to that of the boulder-clay of KUl-o'-the-Grange, near Dublin, 
recently described by Professor Sollas and the writer.' 

^ Irisli Naturalist, iv., p. 321, December, 1895. 

E 2 



52 Proceedings of the Royal Iriik Academy. 

A long period, represented by the eskers, briek-clays, and sub- 
merged peat, must have intervened before tbe deposition of the next 
bed of the series. 

The peat bed, so far as vre know its flora and fauna, points to a 
climate not much differing from that which exists at present, and to 
an elevation of the land slightly greater than at present. A slight 
submergence allowed the deposition of the lower estuarine clay, with 
its rather southern fauna, and a further submergence was followed by 
the accumulation of deposits of mud in the shape of the upper estua- 
rine clay, of sand-banks, such as the Curran of Lame, and of shelly 
beach deposits, such as that of Portrush. At this period the southern 
element of the fauna attained its maximum. Finally came elevation 
of the land, and with the last change of level came the final fluctua- 
tion in the character of the animal life, a distinct return towards its 
former northern character, which has left the fauna as we now find it. 

Classtfted List of the Pees-cipax Papees, etc., rszD rs- the 
Peepajeatiox of PoEEGors-G Eepoei. 

Glaciax Fauxa. 

1843. Betce (James), and Geoege C. Ht>t)ka>-. — "Xotice of an 
Elevated Deposit of Marine Shells, of the Xewer Pleiocene 
Epoch, lately discovered near Belfast." In Portlock's 
Eeport on the Geology of Londonderry, (§:c., p. 738, 
Appendix. 

1850. M'Adaii (James). — "Observations on the Xeighbourhood of 
Belfast, with a description of the Cuttings on the Co. Down 
Railway," Joum. Geol. Soc. Dublin, iv., part ii., Xo. 2. 

1860. Hts-dslls- (Geoege C). — "Report of the Belfast Dredging 
Committee for 1859," Brit. Assoc. Eeport for 1859. 

1875. Gealn-gee (PiEv. JoKy). — "On the Post-Tertiary Deposits of 
Ireland," Brit. Assoc. Eeport for 1874, Trans, of Sections. 

1881. SiEWAEi (S. A.).— " "Mollusca of the Boulder-Clay of the 
North-east of Ireland," Eep. and Proc. Belfast Xat. Field 
Club (2), I. (1879-80), Appendix. 

1881. Weight (Joseph). — " Post-Tertiary Foraminif era of the Xorth- 
east of Ireland," Eep. and Proc. Belfast Xat. Field Club (2), 
I. (1879-80), Appendix. 

1893. Peaegee (E. Llotd). — "Eeport of the Sub-Committee ap- 
pointed to investigate the Gravels of Ballyrudder, Co. 
Antrim," Eep. and Proc. Belfast Xat. Field Club (2), ra. 
(1892-93). 



Praeger — On the Raised Beaches of N.E. Ireland. 53 

1895. SoLLAs ("W. J.), and E. Lloyd Peaegee. — " Notes on Glacial 
Deposits in Ireland. II. Kill-o'-tlie-Grange," Irisli Natu- 
ralist, IV. 

EsTtTAEINE ClAT FaUNA. 

1850. M'Adam (James). — Loc. cit. 

1859, Geaingee (John). — " On the Shells found in the Post-Tertiary 

Deposits of Belfast," Nat. Hist. Review, vi. 
1871. Stewaet (S. a.). — "A List of the Possils of the Estuarine 

Clays of Down and Antrim," Eighth Annual Eeport Belfast 

Nat. Eield Club (1870-71), Appendix, 
1881. Weight (Joseph). — Loc. cit. 
1888. Peaegee (R. Llotd). — "The Estuarine Clays at the new 

Alexandra Dock, Belfast," Report and Proc. Belfast Nat. 

Eield Club (2), ii. (1886-87), Appendix. 
1858. Htndman (Geoege C). — '' Report of the Proceedings of the 

Belfast Dredging Committee," Brit. Assoc. Report for 

1857. 

1891. Bell (Aleeed). — "Eourth and Einal Report . . . upon the 

Manure Gravels of "Wexford," Brit. Assoc. Report for 
1890. 

1892. Peaegee (R. Lloyd). — "Report upon the Estuarine Clays of 

the North-east of Ireland," Proc. R. I. Academy (3), n., 
No. 2. 

Raised Beach Eaxtna. 

1843. PoETLOCK (J. E.). — "Report on the Geology of the Co. of 
Londonderry, &c.," chap. vi. 

1873. Hull (Edwaed). — " On the Raised Beach of the North-east 

of Ireland," Brit. Assoc. Report for 1872, Trans, of 
Sections. 

1874. Geaingee (John). — Loc. cit. 

1877. Sxieeup (Maek). — " The Raised Beaches of Co. Antrim, their 

Molluscan Eauna, and Flint Implements," Proc. Lit. and 
Phil. Soc. Manchester, xvi. 

1878. Hull (Edwaed). — "Physical Geology and Geography of Ire- 

land," chap. VI. 

1881. Weight (Joseph). — Loc. cit. 

1888. Belfast Nat. Field Club. — "Report of the Committee 
appointed to investigate the Lame Gravels," &c.. Report 
and Proc. Belfast Nat. Eield Club (2), n. (1886-87). 



54 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

1890. Bell (Alpked). — Loc. cit. 

1890. Pkaegee (E. Lloyd). — "Eeport of a Committee on the 

Gravels and Associated Beds of the Curran, at Larne, 

Co. Antrim," Report and Proc. Belfast Nat. Field 

Club (2), m. (1889-90). 
1895. Peaegek (R. Llotd). — " The Raised Beaches of Inishowen," 

Irish Naturalist, rv. 

Peesent Fatota. 

1856. Thompson (William). — Natural Eistory of Ireland, iv. 
1858. Dickie (Geoege). — "Report on the Marine Zoology of 

Strangford Lough, Co. Down, and Corresponding Part 

of the Irish Channel," Brit. Assoc. Report for 1857. 
1858-60. HrNDMAN (Geoege C). — "Reports of the Belfast Dredging 

Committee," Brit. Assoc. Reports for 1857, 1858, and 

1859. 
1863-9. Jefeeexs (J. Gwyn). — British Conchology, n.-v. 
1878. Guide to the County of Dublin. — Edited by A. M'Alister 

and W. R. M'Nab. 
1878. Saes (G. 0.). — Mollusca Regionis Arcticse Norvegise. Bidrag 

til Kundskaken om Norges Arktische Fauna. I. Bloddyr. 
1878-85. Jeefeeys (J. Gwyn). — "On the Mollusca procured during 

the 'Lightning' and 'Porcupine' Expeditions, 1868-70," 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 
1886. Kobelt (W.). — Prodromus Faunae Molluscorum Testaceorum 

Maria Europsea inhabitantium. 
1889. Peaegee (R. Lloyd).—" The Marine Shells of the North of 

Ireland," Report and Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club (2), 

ni. (1887-8), Appendix. 
1892. Haet (H. Chichesxee). — " Notes on Marine Mollusca 

collected on the Coasts of Donegal and Dublin," 

Zoologist (3) XVI. 
1 892. "Waeeen (Amy). — " Contribution towards a List of the Marine 

Mollusca of Killala Bay," Journal of Conchology, vii. 



[ 55 ] 



IV. 

MAGH ADHAIE, CO. CLARE. THE PLACE OF INAUGURA- 
TION^ OF THE DALCASSIAIS" KINGS. By THOMAS 
JOHNSON WESTROPP, B.A. 

(Plate IL) 

[Eead 13th April, 1896.] 

Ma&h Adhair, now Moyare Park, although, one of the best preserved 
places of inauguration in Ireland, and historic as the spot where our 
greatest monarch, Brian, was first made king of the little realm of 
Thomond, has been only noticed, with unaccountable brevity, by our 
antiquaries and historians,^ which encourages me to lay before the 
Academy a description of its site and sketch of its history, with plans 
•of the existing remains. 

In the townlands of Corbally and Toonagh, little over two miles 
north-east from Quin, Co. Clare, the road to Tulla dips into the 
depression through which flows the little streamlet, known by the name 
of the Hell river. North of the bridge, over this rivulet, we find a 
sort of amphitheatre, fenced by crags, and enclosed by a low bank, 
marked here and there by blocks of stone. In the area of this levelled 
space rises a large flat topped mound, girt with a fosse and bank. 
The tumulus (Plate ii., fig. 1) measures from 85 to 100 feet on top, and 
is over 20 feet high ; it is in perfect preservation, and does not seem to 
have been opened. The top has only a few sloe bushes, and a worn 
slab of limestone, level with the ground, on the north side. A sloping 
way, with steep sides, leads across the fosse westward to the level of 
the field. A second but much smaller mound, or rather cairn, of earth 
and large stones, about 10 feet high and 17 feet on top, rises 30 feet 
from the last on the brink of the stream. North of the great mound, 

^ The only attempt at description among our predecessors being that in 
Ordnance Survey Letters, R.I.A., Clooney Parish, Co. Clare, and that only in 
manuscript. See Annals Four Masters, note on 1599 ; Eoyal Society Antiquaries 
of Ireland, Journal, 1891, note, p. 463. 



■56 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and ^vitLin the levelled enclosirre, is a boulder of purple conglomerate, 
embedding pebbles of rose quartz and red porphyry ; it is about 4 feet 
long by 3 feet high, and has, in its upper surface, a small oval basin,^ 
apparently hollowed by grinding. Across the stream, 141 feet to the 
west, in Toonagh, stands a rough slab of limestone, 6 ft. 3 in, high, 
from 3 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. wide, and 10 in. thick, forming a pillar in the 
line of the two mounds and the sloping footway ; between it and the 
stream is a shattered block like the base of a second pillar. 

Half a mile towards the S.-W. we find a large stone fort, Cahercalla 
(Plate II, fig. 2), with the triple enclosure said to characterize a royal 
residence.- It is built of smaller stones and with ruder masonry than 
the beautiful cahers in north-western Clare and its larger neighbours 
at Dromoland and Spansil Hill, still it is an interesting ruin, and of 
sufficiently imposing size. It consists of a massive central cashel, 
1 00 feet internal diameter, with walls 1 7 feet thick, where best pre- 
served, and still 8 feet high, having a defaced gateway to the east, no 
stones long enough for lintels remain in the ruin. The second ring is 
a wall 8 feet and 9 feet thick, and 6 feet high, with gates to S.-E. and 
S.-V., and a break or gate to X.-E., enclosing a space 214 feet in 
diameter. The third, and outer, ring- wall has one existing gateway 
to S.-E., and is 345 feet in diameter; the segment to the X.-"W. is 
levelled. Xihell, the present tenant, states that his grandfather, when 
engaged on its demolition, was suddenly taken ill, and, fancying he 
had been " struck " by the fairy inmates of the fort, desisted from his 
work of destmction ; this fortunately saved the caher, and beyond the 
removal of a small late enclosure in the central ring, no harm has 
since been done. Several shapeless objects of iron were found in this 
part of the wall, and thrown into the rubbish, which was heaped 
against the rampart. This recalls the iron axes, described by Sir 
"William "Wilde, -^ found in Caherspeenaun, near Lough Corrib. There 
are several forts of earth and stone, and an overturned dolmen in the 
adjoining townlands of Caherloghan and Creevaghbeg, which cannot 
be considered part of the group at Magh Adhair. 

Let me briefly indicate those points in which the remains may be 
identified with the ancient ceremonial. Besides the elaborate article 

' Round basins also occur, \ritli prehistoric remains, in Co. Clare in a block of 
the dolmen in Xewgrove, and another block near the de&ced dolmen of Kiltanon, 
both a few- miles distant to the north. 

- As triple Celtic forts exist outside Ireland, from Scotland to Hungary, the 
statement needs further examination. 

* Lough Corrib, p. 245. 



Westropp — Magh Adhair, Co. Clare. 57 

by O'Donovan in the " Genealogies and Customs of Hy Eiachra," we 
have a long account^ of the inauguration of Cathal Crovderg O'Conor, 
who died 1224. From it we gather that the cairn or mound, on 
which the prince stood, had a palisade and gateway, the last guarded 
during the investiture by three chiefs, a fourth alone ascended 
the mound to give the rod to the candidate. The other chiefs, and 
the coarbs of the priacipal local saints, stood below, holding the 
prince's arms, clothes, and horse, and afterwards assisting him to robe 
and remount. The chief faced the north, and, on stepping down from 
the stone, turned round thrice each way, as is still the custom in 
Clare, on seeing the new moon. Martin, in his account of " the 
Western Islands " of Scotland, two hundred years ago,^ describes a 
nearly identical ceremony at the inauguration of a Scottish chief : he 
was placed on a heap of stones, his followers standing round it, and 
one of his principal friends gave him his father's sword, " and there 
was a white rod delivered to him at the same time." Then "the 
chief druid or orator stood close to the pyramid," and made "a 
panegyric, setting forth the ancient pedigree, valour, and liberality of 
the family." In the case of the O'Briens we know very little, save 
that "Macnamara," in whose territory the mound stood, was chief 
officer. A very doubtful line in only one translation of the " Wars of 
Torlough " suggests that Macnamara pronounced the titles and 
descent of O'Brien at a " pillar " among great hosts. This may have 
been interpolated in the sevententh century, but is equally likely to 
preserve a true tradition. An ancient tree also was used in the 
ceremony at an early period. The inauguration probably took place 
on the north side of the great mound. The chiefs guarded a 
gate at the foot of the sloping way ; the principal spectators stood in. 
the levelled enclosure; the "orator" recited on the cairn, and 
possibly the marshal presented the chief to the rank and file of his 
adherents in the level field beside the pillar. As for the basin-stone 
its use is not alluded to in the records cited above, but one occurs 
hollowed in the native rock at Dunadd in Argyllshire, close to the 
footprint which marks the spot where the Dalriadic kings were 
" made."^ The stone at Magh Adhair has no footprint ; such a stone, 
however, exists in Co, Clare at Dromandoora, which, if not of the 

1 Hy Fiachra, p. 432 ; Kilkenny Society Journal, 1852-3, p. 341 ; Royal 
Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, 1870, p. 349, where the closely 
analogous mound, cairn, and pillar of Carnfree are described. 

- Martin's "Western Islands," edition 1703, p. 101. 

^ Soc. Antiq. Scotland, 1878-9, p. 28, paper by Capt. F. Thomas, R.N. 



58 Proceedings of the Royal Irlih Academy. 

native rock, may liave been Lrouglit from ^lagh Adiiair.^ That there 
■were formerly men in Clare willing to expend consideral.le lihoiir and 
money in removing any cnrious stone, is shcmi by the removals of a 
huge block from Birr to Cullane by Tom Steele, of the crosses of 
"Kiln ahoy and Termon to Kilfenora, of the cross of Xilfenora to 
Kill aloe, and of St. Senan's slab to Kilkee. 

HiSTOfir. 

The origin of the monad, like that of so many prehistoric remain^ 
in Clare, is attributed to tlie Huamorian Pirbolgs in the first 
century; the '"'Lay of Cam Chonoill " giving among the names 
and residences of those legendary warrioi^ that of "Adar at Mag 
Adair." 2 It is conceivable that the predecessors of the Dalcassians 
held sacred the grave of some chief, and that their later conquerors 
marked their victory by using it as a place of inauguration for their 
own princes,' from the fifth to the sixteenth century. 

Great obscurity broods over the history of Thomond before the 
middle of the ninth centurv. From Brian's reign it abounded in 
historians and bards, while monastic writers collected the legends of 
its saints, but strange to say, as regards its rulers, we have not even 
a consistent list, still less a history of its early kings. Two divergent 
accounts remain with no name in common, from Conall, son of Eochy 
Balderg, in the fifth century, to Lorcan, grandfather of Brian, in the 
ninth. The less known list seems to bear internal marks of genuine- 
ness, and fits into the required time ; the other is wrong in its chro- 
nology and defective in its succession, but it is supported by the few 
independent facts which do nothing to sux)port its rival. All the 
princes of both lists can be placed in the Dalcassian pedigree, except, 
perhaps, Rebechan, son of Mothla (the latter possibly gave his name 
to Ballyvally, baile ui ttiocIq, near Killaloe, in which the fort of 
Boruma stands). Bebechan's contemporary, Lachtna (Lorcan's father), 
dwelt on Craglea (where the defaced Grianan Lachtna still remains). 
He appears as ruler of Thomond, at the time of the invasion of Felim, 

' Proc. E. I. A., vol. X., p. 441. Other footprints, the Macilahoru atMulloch 
Leaght, Monaghan; Belmont, near Deny ; Arzon Morbihan, Brittany; Dunadd, 
Argyllshire. See also Kilkenny Soc. Journal, v., p. 451 : Ordnance Survey of 
Templemore, p. 441 ; Delandre's Morbihan, p. 214. 

- See Revue Celtique, 1894, p. 479, by Dr. "^^hitlev Stokes. 

' The conquest of Thomond by the Dalcassians seems to have been accomplished 
between eirea 380 and 420. " Silva Gadelica," II., pp., 377, 378. 



Westropp — 31agh Adhair, Co. Clare. 59 

King of Cashel, about 840, in the ancient history preserved in the 
"Book of Munster." Perhaps, as in later times, Thomond was 
divided between rival houseS; whose records perished in the Danish 
v^ars, while the revival of learning under Brian only celebrated that 
great king's ancestors, and their opponents were only remembered in 
dry lists like that in the " Book of Ballymote." 

In face of such obscurity in the ancient histories, it is little 
wonder that the records of Magh Adhair only begin late in the ninth 
century. In 877^ Flan Sunagh of Cashel invaded Thomond. Having 
ravaged Munster from Balboruma to Cork, he thought fit to reduce 
the plain of Magh Adhair, and passing the place of inauguration, 
stopped, in bravado, to play chess on itslgreen. "While thus engaged, 
King Lorcan fell upon him, aided by the stout chief Sioda, ancestor 
of the Macnamaras, and, after a three days' skirmish, so entangled 
him in the country that Flan was glad to surrender, and procure an 
ignominious retreat across the Shannon. 

In the winter of 941 a more friendly stranger, Murchad " of the 
leather coats," of Aileach, after his daring king hunt round Ireland,- 
brought Callaghan of Cashel and other captives through the friendly 
state of Thomond, camping a night " on the beautiful cold Magh 
Adhair." In Brian's reign Malachy, the Ard High, overran Thomond 
in 982, and cut dowa "the ancient tree of Magh Adhair," after it had 
been dug from the earth, with its roots. This insult was repeated on 
a later tree, in 1051, by Aed 0' Conor, King of Connaught. After 
this second disaster we hear little of interest about the place. In 
Macgrath's " Wars of Torlough "^^ it is often mentioned but in merely 
a historic formula. O'Brien (Conor, 1240; Brian, 1267; Torlough, 
1277; Donough, 1306; Dermot and Murchad, in opposition, 1311; 
Donough, in opposition, 1313) goes to Magh Eir, and is inaugurated 
by Macnamara, who proclaims his regal title, and the chiefs and their 
hosts consent and rejoice. So strongly conservative was public feeling 
that Lochlan Macnamara, so far as is recorded, without hesitation or 
protest, inaugurated his enemy Dermot O'Brien, the rival of his friend 
Murchad, and soon afterwards willingly invested the latter with the 
chieftainry. The odes on these and later occasions to the reign of 

' "Book of Munster," E. I. A.; Annals Four Masters, at 877; Todd's 
" Wars of the Gaedhill with the Gaill," p. cxiii. 

^ "The Circuit of Ireland." 

^ I use the older name as more familiar at present than that of ' * The 
Triumphs." See Mr. Standish Hayes O'Grady's translation, pp. 2, 6, 10, 32, 
47, 48, 69. 



60 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Elizabeth preserved by Macgratb and others tell us nothing definite 
of the place or ceremonial,^ 

In the T. C. D. list of castles, 1584, Toonagh appears to have been 
called **Tuanamoyre." I have not met the name again till 1839, 
when the adjoiaing field, in Corbally, was still Moy Eir, or Moy Ri, 
being marked " Moyross Parks" on the six-inch Ordnance Survey, for 
no apparent reason. I found it Moy are Park in 1891. The older 
peasantry remembered its great meetings, held down to the time of the 
famine, no doubt a survival of the ancient fair, or merrymaking, of 
Eanagh Magh Adhair, which was held as early as 877 : they also said 
that the mound was a king's grave, and that Cragnakeeroge was not 
its name, but that of the crags to the north-east. IS'ow, the recent 
Survey has overlaid all the genuine traditions, and when last year 
I went again over the ground, it took no small amount of cross- 
questioning to drive my informant to confess that it was not from his 
elders, but a " sapper," that he " had heard tell that it was the place 
where they made a king of Brian Boni."' 

1 In "Annals of the Four Masters," 1579, Donnell O'Brien, native chief of 
Clare, died, and his son Torlough was " installed." This may have been the last 
formal inauguration. 



NOTE ADDED IN PRESS. 

The Book of Ballymote explicitly states that Lughad Meann seized 
on Thomond as an eric for the death of the Ard Righ Crimthann 
(378). The Annals of Inisfallen, however, say that Lughad's son 
Connal Eachluadh became King of Munster in 366, which would put 
back the date of the father's reign to 340. Among contending autho- 
rities, it is perhaps more safe to take the later date, as the Dalcas- 
sians, evidently, had only obtained the southern part of the present 
Co. Clare in St. Patrick's time. 



[ 61 ] 



ON THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE IN THE CELLS OF LEAVES. 
By HENRY H. DIXON, B.A., Assistant to the Professor of 
Botany, Trinity College, Dublin. 

[Read June 8, 1896.] 

[COMMTINICATED BT DE. E. P. WEIGHT.] 

In a Paper in the Proceedings of this Acadeniy,^ I have advocated the 
view that the sap is drawn up in trees in a state of tension, and that 
under normal conditions this tension is established by means of the 
osmotic attraction of the cell-sap in the parenchymatous cells of the 
leaf, exercised on the water in the upper terminations of the water 
conduits. 

Accordingly, it seemed to me of interest to investigate the osmotic 
pressures actually existing in the cells of the leaves of plants, in order 
to discover if these pressures are sufficient to account for the raising of 
the sap in the conduits by the attraction exercised by the solutions 
which give rise to these pressures. 

Yarious methods have been adopted in estimating the osmotic pres- 
sures in cells. The most usual is to immerse the cell or group of cells 
to be investigated in solutions of varied concentration, and finding what 
concentration is necessary to balance the attractive forces of the cell- 
sap. This may be done by direct examination of the cells, which, 
when the surrounding solution is too dilute, will expand ; because the 
amount of water attracted into the more concentrated cell-sap will be 
greater than the amount drawn from it into the surrounding liquid 
which is more dilute. If, however, the surrounding solution is too 
concentrated, more water is drawn from the cell-sap than it can attract 
to itself, and consequently the vacuoles in the cells diminish in size. 
This leads to a contraction of the protoplasm of the cell, leaving the 
cell-wall as it contracts, till finally it will form a small ball lying 
within the cell-wall. It is evident that when the concentration of the 
surrounding solution is such that it neither causes extension nor plasmo- 
lysis, the attractive forces of the solution are equal to the attractive 

\" Eole of Osmosis in Transpiration," vol. iii., ser. 3, p. 767, Jan., 1896. 



62 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



forces of the cell-sap ; and we may conclude that the pressure in the 
cell, if it is freely supplied with water, is equal to the osmotic pressure 
which this solution could exert. Such a solution is said to be isotonic 
with cell-sap. Another way of determining when a solution is isotonic 
with the cell-sap, and so finding the osmotic pressure exerted by the 
cell-sap, is to observe tentatively what concentration is necessary in a 
solution which will cause no alteration in form in a piece of turgescent 
tissue. If the tissue expands in the solution, the latter is too dilute ; 
if it contracts, the solution is too concentrated. 

By these methods various osmotic pressures have been determined, 
3^ to 21 atmospheres in various tissues ; but, so far as I am aware, the 
pressures obtaining in the tissues of the leaf have not yet been ascer- 
tained. 




The method I have adopted in this research for estimating the 
osmotic pressures existing in the leaves is the following : — A branch 
bearing a number of leaves is enclosed in a strong glass cylinder, 
capable of resisting high gas-pressure {e.g. 50-100 atmospheres), and 
the pressure is raised in this vessel by means of an air compression- 
pump, or by attaching it directly to a cylinder containing liquid CO2. 
The lower portion of the branch projects from the cylinder and dips 
into a glass vessel containing a weighed quantity of water. These 
arrangements are shown in the above figure. 



Dixon — On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves. 63 

It is evident that -when the gas- pressure in the glass vessel sur- 
rounding the branch is raised and maintained above the osmotic pres- 
sure of the cells of the leaf, that water will be forced from these cells 
back into the conduits of the branch and into the vessel beneath. 
This will become apparent in two ways : firstly, by the flagging of 
the leaf, inasmuch as the rigidity of the leaf is due to the internal 
pressure of these cells, so that when this pressure is overcome by the 
external gas pressure the leaf will flag ; secondly, by the increase of 
weight in the vessel beneath containing the water into which the 
branch dips. For every branch, then, we may expect to find a pres- 
sure above which water will be forced back from the leaves into the 
stem by reason of the squeezing out of the osmotic cells, and below 
which water will rise through the conduits to the leaves, on account 
of the osmotic attraction of the cell-sap of the osmotic cells. When 
this critical pressure itself is maintained around the branch, water will 
remain stationary in the plant. In carrying out these observations, 
the form of apparatus I have used consists of a strong glass cylinder 
of specially well-annealed glass, 50 cms. long, 10 cms. in diameter, and 
with walls 1 cm. thick. Such a glass cylinder should, according to 
calculation, be capable of resisting an internal pressure of at least 100 
atmospheres. The ends of this glass cylinder are closed by means of two 
heavy gun -metal castings, which project over the side of the cylinder 
so as to take three long bolts with nuts, which draw the castings 
together on the cylinder. Leather-washers, soaked in bees' wax and 
turpentine, are inserted between the ends which are ground flat and the 
cylinder to make the joints air-tight. The lower end is perforated 
centrally, and in the perforation is sealed hermetically a narrow brass 
tube, about "5 cm. in diameter, projecting into the cylinder. This tube 
includes the stem of the plant to be experimented with, the lower end of 
which projects out of the cylinder while its leaves are enclosed. To 
make an air-tight connection between the tube and the stem, a stout 
rubber tube is first bound on to the upper end of the brass tube. The 
branch is then inserted into the rubber tube, and, before it has been 
pushed completely down, a portion of it just above the rubber is coated 
witli thick glue, so that when it is shoved down into its final position 
with reference to the tube, it carries this glue down into the rubber tube. 
When it is in position, a copper wire is bound tightly round the rubber, 
and draws it into close contact with the glue. To complete the joint, 
a little glue is smeared over it. This form of joint is simple and highly 
satisfactory. The upper end of the cylinder is also perforated centrally 
to admit the gas coming from the pump or bottle. This is a simple 
screw-joint, made tight by a leather- washer. To the upper end, and on 



64 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the inside, are also attached three hooks, from which are suspended a 
"wire hasket, caiTving drying materials, and a manometer. The latter 
consists of a simple, straight glass-tube, closed at one end ; the other 
end dips into a small vessel containing mercury. This tube is marked 
off with \, ^, \, i, &c., of its length from its closed end, and the posi- 
tion of the mercury index tells directly the pressures in atmospheres. 
When the upper end of the glass-cylinder is in position, the drying 
materials and manometer hang in the cylinder. The connection be- 
tween the glass-cylinder and pump or bottle of CO2 is made by means 
of a flexible lead tube with screw couplings. 

The results described in this Paper are necessarily only preliminary, 
as I was unable to procure, by the pump at my disposal, air-pressures 
above 8-10 atmospheres. Higher pressures were obtained by means 
of liquid CO,, as there seemed a priori no reason to believe that the 
presence of CO2 would falsify the results of experiments which were 
not continued for a long duration. However, subsequent experimental 
work showed that the presence of this gas profoundly modified the 
beha-viour of the leaves when exposed to high pressures, and conse- 
quently rendered the experiments made with CO2 of little value in 
estimating the actual osmotic pressures obtaining in the leaves under 
normal conditions, although they have an important bearing on the 
question as to whether the tension is established in the sap directly by 
evaporative or osmotic actions in the leaf. 

I hope immediately to proceed with the investigation of this ques- 
tion {i.e. the actual osmotic pressures obtaining in the cells of leaves), 
as I have been, through the kindness of ilr. S. Geoghegan, C.E., put 
into a position of dealing with high air-pressures. 

In the first experiment, a short branch of Acer macropliyllum was 
sealed into the high-pressure apparatus, and the pressure raised by 
means of an air-pump, and maintained for fiiteen minutes at a pressure 
between 8 and 10 atmospheres. During this time gas was continually 
bubbling out from the lower end of the branch, showing that the pres- 
sure had been transmitted to the inner tissues. ITo loss of turgescence, 
however, of the leaves could be observed. 

In a second experiment, a similar branch was exposed to a pressure 
of 8 or nearly 8 atmospheres duiing fifteen [minutes, and during this 
time showed no loss of turgescence. 

From these two preliminary experiments, it appears that the 
pressure within the cells of the leaves of Acer macrophyllum, which 
internal pressure confers rigidity on the leaves, was greater than 8 atmo- 
spheres. The osmotic attraction which would give rise to this pres- 
sure would be capable of drawing up a column of water 240 feet high. 



Dixon — On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves. 65 

In a similar experiment, a branch of Cratcegus oxyacantha was 
exposed to a pressure of about 8 atmospheres for fifteen minutes 
without showing signs of loss of turgidity. 

As the pump I had at my disposal was unable to compress air 
above a pressure of about 10 atmospheres, I discarded it in favour 
of using a bottle containing liquid CO2. This was connected with 
the high-pressure apparatus by suitable couplings ; and, by carefully 
opening the valve at the mouth of the bottle, the pressure could be 
adjusted at will to any pressure up to 60 atmospheres. This has the 
additional advantage that careful observations are possible while rais- 
ing the pressure, which cannot be done while using the pump unless 
an assistant is employed. 

By means of this arrangement, the pressure was raised round the 
same branch as was used in the last experiment, to 16 atmospheres, 
and was maintained at this for fifteen minutes. But even at this 
pressure the leaves showed no loss of turgescence. When the pres- 
sure reached 10 atmospheres, the bubbling of gas through the stem 
became very marked. 

As it appeared possible that a certain amount of collapse of the 
osmotic cells of the leaves might take place without making itself 
noticeable by the flagging of the leaves, a number of experiments were 
made in which the branch dipped into a vessel beneath, which latter 
was weighed before and after the experiment. Any increase in weight 
of this vessel would be due to the forcing backwards by the external 
pressure of the cell-sap contained in the cells of the leaves, which 
would in turn displace a certain amount of water from the conduits 
of the branch into the vessel. A decrease, on the other hand, of the 
weight of the vessel would show that the external pressure had not 
crushed the osmotic cells, and that they had, in spite of its action, 
drawn up water from the vessel. 

The first experiment of this kind was made on a branch of Acer 
macrophyllum, which bore 14 well- grown leaves. This branch was 
sealed into the high-pressure apparatus, and kept at a pressure of 
8 atmospheres ; during one hour of intermittent sunlight this branch, 
drew up 0*1 gr. from the vessel below. 

A similar branch, similarly arranged, and exposed to a pressure 
between 8 and 9 atmospheres, drew up, in one and a-half hour's 
sunshine, 0'342 gr. of water from the weighed vessel. 

From these experiments, it follows, that the osmotic cells of the 
leaves of Acer macrophyllum were able to remain turgescent and draw 
up water against a pressure of 8 atmospheres. Consequently, the 
osmotic solution in the cells must be capable of generating a tension 

K.I. A. PEOC, SEK. m., VOL. IV. P 



66 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

equivalent to 8 atmospheres pressure, "by attracting water from the 
conduits. Sucli a tension would be capable of drawing up a column 
of water 240 feet high, provided the column of water was submitted 
to such conditions that it would not break. Dr. Joly and myself 
have shown elsewhere that these conditions obtain in the conducting 
tissues of plants.^ 

All the trees I have experimented with up to the present do not, 
however, show that their leaves possess such high osmotic pressures 
when surrounded with COj. Thus the specimens of Cytisus lalurnum, 
investigated by means of the high-pressure apparatus, showed that 
they were unable to transpire against an external pressure of more 
than 6 atmospheres. Above this pressure the leaves begin to collapse, 
and water is forced back from them into the stem. It is, however, very 
probable that all the leaves are not put out of activity in transpiration 
simultaneously. Thus, I have observed, with Cytisus laburnum, that 
the old leaves begin to show collapse by losing their glossy surface, and 
rolling back from the edges at a pressure of 6-7 atmospheres, while 
the young, small leaves, which are composed of growing tissues, remain 
stiffi and turgescent, even at 16 atmospheres. This is quite in accor- 
dance with Wieler's observations on the internal pressure of the cells 
of the cambium, which he estimated at 13-16 atmospheres. 

A preliminary experiment on Cytisus laburnum showed that the 
leaves of this plant flagged markedly after an exposure of five to ten 
minutes to a pressure of 16 atmospheres. The flagging in this case is 
indicated by the folding down of a leaf from the base of its petiole, 
and the folding back of its leaflets, so that the whole leaf has the 
appearance of the leaf of a sensitive plant {Mimosa pudica) which has 
been stimulated. Besides these motions, the surface of the leaf loses 
its gloss and becomes dried-looking, the edges of the leaf roll up, 
and the expanded portion becomes crumpled. The general appearance 
of the leaves after twenty minutes exposure to 16 atmosjiheres is that 
of a leaf which has been exposed to a high temperature and afterwards 
dried. Microscopic examination of the cells of these leaves shows 
the protoplasm contracted from the cell-wall just as it is in plasmolysed 
cells. This appearance is probably brought about by the cell -wall being 
pressed in on the protoplasm, and causing the latter to force out its 
watery contents. "When the pressure is relieved, the cell-wall, by 
virtue of its elasticity, recovers its form, while the protoplasm remains 
contracted within. The space included by the cell-walls does not, 
however, attain the dimensions it possessed when the cell was 

1 Phil. Traus. Roy. Soc, vol. 186 (1895), B. 



Dixon — On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves. 67 

turgescent, as in that case it was distended by internal pressure, and 
consequently the leaf formed of such collapsed cells is flaccid. 

After I had obtained this result, I set about to determine the 
critical pressure for this plant, i.e. the pressure at which Cytisus 
lalurnum would cease to draw up water in transpiration, and above 
which the cells of the leaf would be forced to collapse, and water 
would be driven back from them into the stem. 

(1). In the first experiment, a small branch of this tree carrying 
9 leaves was fixed in the apparatus. The pressure was maintained at 
16 atmospheres. During one hour of diffused light, while the condi- 
tions within the apparatus were kept favourable to transpiration, i.e. 
the space was dried by calcium chloride, 0-950 gr. were forced from 
the leaves through the stem into the flask below. During the first 
ten minutes of this experiment the leaves began to flag, and soon 
showed all the appearances described above. 

(2). A branch of the same tree, carrying 12 leaves, some old and 
some young, was submitted to a pressure of 8 atmospheres. After one 
hour of bright sunshine the vessel into which the branch dipped was 
found to have gained 0-400 grs. During this time the old leaves had 
become flaccid, while the young leaves remained turgid. Even the 
old leaves did not become markedly flaccid during the first forty 
minutes of the experiment. 

(3). A branch with 8 leaves was exposed to a pressure of 6 atmo- 
spheres during one hour of mostly bright sunshine. During this time 
the leaves showed no signs of becoming flaccid, but the surface lost 
some of its gloss. On weighing, it was found that the vessel below 
had lost 0-007 gr. of water. This amount, however, comes within 
the limits of error of the experiment, and consequently we may assume 
that neither upward nor downward motion of water occurs in these 
branches when the leaves are exposed to a pressure of 6 atmospheres. 
In this experiment, when the pressure was removed, the leaves re- 
covered their gloss. 

(4). Against 4 atmospheres, the same branch, in intermittent sun- 
shine, transpired 0-622 gr. in one hour and twenty minutes, while all 
the leaves remained quite turgid. 

At the conclusion of this series on this branch I|measured tlie 
amount it transpired at normal pressures still surrounded with CO3 
gas, and found it to be 1-244 gr. in one hour and jlO minutes. In 
air at normal pressure the same branch transpired in one hour 
0-96G gr. During these last two experiments, the leaves were 
slightly faded. These experiments are summarized in the following 
Table. 



68 



Proceedings of the Royal L-hh Academy. 



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Dixon — On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves. 69 

The decrease in the rate of transpiration with the increase of pres- 
sure which is indicated by these results is, doubtless, more marked 
than here appears, as it is well known that the rate of transpiration 
of a branch falls off rapidly from the time of cutting it. In the ex- 
periment C at 6 atmospheres which was the second to be made with 
this branch, this decrease would have been small, but in the succeeding 
experiments would have become more exaggerated. 

It may be noted that the amount transpired at normal pressures 
was not diminished by the presence of the CO3 surrounding the leaves. 

As it appeared quite possible that different examples of the same 
species might have different osmotic pressures in their leaves, these 
branches were all taken from the same individual, and from a height 
of about 6 feet from the ground. This last precaution is necessary, as 
it may be that at different heights in the tree, different pressures 
obtain. I propose investigating these points at a later date. 

In this series of experiments there are two sources of error tending 
to make the critical pressure appear lower than it is in reality : — 
1st. The mechanical crushing of the conduits themselves owing to the 
external pressure. When the osmotic cells experience the pressure, 
they may, without themselves suffering any collapse, move in on the 
conducting tissues, which, although they are specially provided to 
resist external pressure as well as internal tension, are elastic to some 
extent, and consequently will become somewhat contracted. This will 
expel a certain quantity of water from them into the vessel beneath ; 
and, as the vessel was taken away immediately after the pressure in 
the glass cylinder was lowered, the conducting tissues may not have 
had time to reassume their former volume. Ey this means a quantity 
of water would be forced back into the vessel and remain there, and 
would tend to counteract the loss due to transpiration. As the greatest 
amount of water I have observed forced back in this way from a 
branch, which was larger than the branch used in these experiments, 
was about 0*1 gr., as will be seen later, we may place the critical 
pressure of the branch of Cystisus lalurnum at 6-8 atmospheres. The 
second source of error is more difficult to allow for. The presence of 
the CO2 surrounding the leaves undoubtedly acts injuriously on the 
cells of the leaf, so that a leaf which has been surrounded with COj 
for several hours, sometimes shows a darkened appearance, and collapses 
at a lower pressure than one which has been put in fresh into the 
apparatus. "With this plant ( Cytisus lahimum), however, the injurious 
effects of CO2 are not so marked nor so rapid in their manifestation 
as in others. Thus the leaves do not become blackened, nor is the 
critical pressure markedly lowered, so far as my present observations 
have gone, within the first six hours immersion in CO2. All the 
experiments quoted above were made within this time. 

As an illustration of how the CO2 affects the transpiration and tur- 
gescence of the leaves, I will add the two following Tables of experi- 
ments on Tilia americana, which I have found very sensitive to this gas. 



70 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



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Dixon — On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves. 71 



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72 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Experiment C. in Table III. is subject to a correction for the 
elasticity of the branches' conduits. In determining the amount of 
"water transpired, the vessel beneath was placed in a position before 
the pressure was raised in the glass cylinder and removed for its second 
weighing, while the pressure was still maintained. Consequently 
some water was squeezed back from the conduits, owing to their 
elastic yielding to the pressure, and remained in the vessel, diminishing 
the amount of transpiration observed. In order to estimate how much 
ought to be allowed for this, an experiment was made in which the 
same branch was raised to a pressure of 6 atmospheres for ten minutes. 
While the pressure was maintaiued a weighed vessel containing some 
water was supplied to its protruding end, and then the pressure was 
lowered to normal atmospheric pressure. After ten minutes the vessel 
was reweighed and was found to have lost 0408 gr. due to the elastic 
recovery of the conduits. When this allowance is made in experi- 
ment C, Table III., the amount transpired becomes 0-219 gr., instead 
of 0-111 gr.i 

In order to determine whether this elastic contraction of the con- 
duits occurred chiefly in the conduits of the stem or leaf, experiments 
were made in which a branch was first exposed to a pressure of 
6 atmospheres for ten minutes, and while the pressure was still 
maintained, a weighed quantity of water was supplied to its lower 
end which protruded from the high-pressure apparatus. The pres- 
sure was then immediately lowered, and the branch was left to draw 
up water from below for ten minutes by means of its elasticity, and 
the amount which is drawn up is measured by a second weighing. 
When this amount is compared with the amount drawn up in a similar 
experiment with the same branch when all the blades of the leaves 
are removed, it is found that the former is very much greater than the 
latter quantity. Thus with a branch of Tilia americana bearing 11 



1 Tlie fact that the presence of CO2 in contact with the leaves modifies so pro- 
foundly their power of drawing up water against pressure, appears as an additional 
argument for believing that the osmotic properties of the mesophyll-cells is a more 
important factor in transpiration than the imbibition or capillary phenomena of the 
ceU-wall. For we can hardly believe that the solution of this gas in the water 
could possibly reduce the surface-tension sufficiently to account for the difference 
observed ; whereas it is readily comprehensible that the presence of CO3 would 
greatly reduce the osmotic pressure of the cells by introducing changes in the pri- 
mordial utricle (possibly owing to the exclusion of oxygen and consequent intra- 
molecular respiration), or even by forming insoluble substances with the solutions 
in the vacuoles. 



Dixon — On the Osmotic Pressure in the Cells of Leaves. 73 

leaves, the first amount Tras O'lOS gr., while the latter -svas only 0-02 
gr., an amount which approaches the limits of error of the experiment. 
Prom this we may conclude that the elastic contraction takes place 
chiefly in the conduits of the leaves. 

I am at present making arrangements of repeating my experiments 
conducted in CO2 with air, in view of the difference in the critical 
jjiessure obtained in the two methods. 



[ 74 ] 



THE ETHyOGEAPHT OF BALLTCEOY, COUXIT ^JLiTO. 
By CHARLES E. BEOWXE, X.D. 

(Plates III. A^'D IT,) 

[Eead ilth Mat, 1896.] 



I. IXTEODrCTIOX, 

u. — Phtsiogeaphy, . 

m. — A>THBOPO GRAPH X : — 



CONTEXTS. 

PAGE 

. 74 

. 75 

76 



1. Methods, 


76 


2. Physical Characters, 


77 


(a) General characters, . 


77 


(b) Statistics of Hair and 
Eye Colours, • 


82 


(c) Physical Proportions, 


84 


(d) Detailed List of Mea- 
surements, 


85 


3. Vital Statistics (General 
and Economic) — . 


90 


(a) Population, 

(b) Acreage and Eental, 

(c) Language and Educa- 

tion, 


90 
91 

91 


(d) Health, . 


92 


(e) Longevity, 


94 



vn. 
Tin. 



PAGE 
-AXTHKOPOGEAPHT — COntiiVMd. 

94 

97 

97 

97 

99 

101 

101 

102 

102 

103 

103 

106 

106 

106 

107 

108 

110 

111 



4. Fsychology, 

5. Folk-names, 
-Sociology: — 

1. Occupations, 

2. Family -life and Customs 

3. Food, . 

4. Clothing, 

5. Dwellings, 

6 . Transport, 

-FOLK-LOEE, 

1 . Customs and Beliefs, 

2. Legends and Traditions 
-Aech^ology : — 

1. Survivals, 

2. Antiquities, . 

-HiSTOEY, . 

-CoxcirDixG Eemaeks, 

-BiBLIOGEAPHT, . 



I. IlTIEODr CTIOy . 

The usual local ethnograpiiic survey undertaken anuaUy as part of 
the Tvork of the Anthropological Laboratory, Trinity College, -^as 
last summer carried out by me in. the district known as Ballycroy, a 
portion of the barony of Erris, Co. Mayo, which was considered 
worthy of study, owing to the differences, said to exist, between its 
inhabitants and the natives of other parts of the same barony. 

As the Mullet, Iniskea, and Portacloy were the subjects of last 
year's inquiry this may be considered as a supplementary survey, 
practically completing the barony of Erris, and for this reason such 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 75 

census returns as apply to the whole of Erris, taking no account of 
smaller divisions, are quoted in this Paper. 

Though, in some ways, not at all so primitive in habits and modes 
of life as the people of the districts previously described, the popula- 
tion of this district is worthy of notice, as being originally a colony 
from another part of Ireland, which have remained practically un- 
mixed with the local peoples until the present day. 

In his extremely valuable and interesting little work on Erris, 
Mr. Knight makes a statement which even now, after the lapse of 
sixty years, needs but little qualification, when he says: "I have 
said that there was a difference between the inhabitants of this 
district and the other parts of Erris. The Irish Channel scarcely 
makes such a difference between the inhabitants of the sister islands 
as TuUoghaan Bay makes between Ballycroy and Erris proper." 

The facilities and difficulties experienced in carrying out the work 
of inquiry differed considerably from those experienced in other loca- 
lities, the greatest of the latter being the extremely scattered nature 
of the population, and the absence of any assemblage of houses large 
enough to be termed a village or even a hamlet. 

II. PnXSIOGEAPHY. 

Ballycroy has tolerably well-defined boundaries, it lies along the 
coast-line, about eighteen miles south of the Mullet, and is separated 
from the rest of Erris ; TuUoghaan Bay and the Owenmore river 
form its northern boundary; and the mountains of Maamthomas, 
I'I'ephin Beg, and Gorslieve bound it on the east and south-east. The 
length of its sea-coast, counting indentations, is about forty- seven 
miles (this estimate, however, includes the islands of Annagh and 
Inisbiggle, and some smaller islets which do not belong to Ballycroy 
proper). 

As a rule the waters are shallow all along the coast, which, 
though rising in some places to a considerable height, is, as a rule, 
rather low. 

The surface of the district does not present any very great variety ; 
it gradually slopes upwards from the sea-coast to the mountains, and 
has a more or less hilly or rolling surface, with an average elevation 
of not more than two hundred feet above the sea-level. A large 
portion of this surface is bog, most of it still in a virgin state. 
Mr. Knight estimated that of the area of over 30,000 acres, about 
3075 would be '■'■green acres.^^ The underlying rock is mica slate or 



76 Proceedings af the Royal Iriah Academy. 

granular quartz. In the lower parts of the district there are several 
lakes. 

The climate is very mild, there being hut little frost or snow in 
winter ; but, as might he expected from the situation of the locality, 
it is very moist, rains being both heavy and frequent, and storms of 
great violence often sweeping over the region from the westward. 
Vegetation flourishes well, owing to the mildness of the climate, a 
good example of which is the fact that palms and other exotics grow 
well in the open air in the grounds of General Clive at Claggan, 
in the southern part of the district. Trees of various kinds flourish 
in the valleys, and wherever sheltered from the prevailing winds. 
In the valleys among the mountains, the red deer used, at one time, to 
be met with in some numbers, but, witliin the past forty years, they 
have become quite extinct. Wild fowl, in great numbers, visit the 
lakes and coast-line in the winter-time, among them wild swans, 
which principally frequent Lough Fahey, near the coast. The- 
number of the smaller wild animals is very considerable. 

III. — Antheopogeapht. 

1. Methods. — The modes of measurement and of taking observa- 
tions were precisely the same as those employed in the visit to the 
Mullet district in 1894, the observation forms and nigrescence cards 
were also of the same patterns ; as all these have been described in 
previous reports, they need no further mention here. 

The instruments employed were those used in the other surveys, 
with one exception, a " Trinity " tripod camera of " half -plate " size, 
made by Messrs, Curtis Bros., of Suffolk-street, Dublin. This instru- 
ment, which is very light, strong, and compact, did its work well, 
and stood a good deal of rough handling, without suffering in the 
least. The "Trinity" hand-camera by the same makers, which did 
good work the previous year, continued to do well, though the 
weather was not very suitable for " snap-shot" work, and the braud 
of plates used was not quite satisfactory. The value of a hand- 
camera for field-w'ork, as an aid to, or substitute for the heavier and 
more slow tripod stand-camera can hardly be overrated, as it can be 
employed for taking the portraits of persons who cannot be induced 
to get photographed by the other instruments, and it can also be used 
on very rough ground or in high winds, where the other camera could 
not be kept steady ; for objects in motion, and local customs or occu- 
pations, it is invaluable. The chief difficulties met with were : the 



Browne — Etlmogvai^hy of Ballycroy^ Co. Mayo. 77 

scattered state of tte population, and the absence of villages in which 
many people might be seen together, also the difficulty in reaching 
many parts of the district, owing to the paucity of roads and the soft 
boggy nature of much of the land. In some instances (more than a 
third of the whole) the men measured were at work in the bogs 
preparing the way for a new road, a long distance from any public 
highway, and the weather being broken and rainy, the bog was soft, 
making walking difficult. 

Here, as in some other places previously described, the custom of 
cropping the hair rather close made it very difficult to ascertain the 
exact shade of colour. 

A considerable number of photographs were taken, including 
portraits and groups, illustrative of the customs, modes of life, 
and habitations of the people, besides several views showing the 
nature of the surface and coast-line, and several of the antiquities of 
the district. 

2. Physical Characters. 

(a.) General characters. — There is, on the whole, a great unifor- 
mity of appearance in the people of this district, though, on closer 
inspection, at least two distinct types may be discovered. 

The general appearance of the people is rather pleasing, many of 
the men are handsome, and the women, too, are often good-looking, 
but, as observed in the reports on the other districts surveyed, both 
sexes seem to age rather rapidly, and some of the men become wrinkled 
very early. 

Stature and hulk. — The men are usually stoutly built, and of 
about the middle stature, though extremes, in this respect, are more 
common than observed in the Mullet or the Inishkea islands. 

A few men of small stature were met with, and about an equal 
number of tall men. 

The average height of the fifty men measured was 1721 mm., or a 
little under 5 ft. 8 in., the extremes were 1576 mm. (5 ft. 2 in.) and 
1838 mm. (6 feet). 

The shoulders are broad and square, and the upright carriage of 
many of the men is very noticeable. 

Mead. — The head is massive and well-shaped, usually broad just 
above the ears ; it is usually either braehycephalic or mesaticephalic, 
though a few cases of dolichocephaly were observed, one of a very 
marked degree (70*7, or when reduced to the cranial standard, 68"7), 



78 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

■whicli might be fairly called scaphocephalic. The mean cephalic 
index, when reduced to the cranial standard by the subtraction of two 
imits, is 78-5 (or almost exactly that of the natives of Inishbofin).^ 

The cranial cnrre rises to a fair height (mean altitudinal index, 
65'6), sweeps evenly backwards, and descends rather abruptly to the 
external occipital protuberance. 

The forehead is broad, seldom receding, and not very high ; the 
skin is often a good deal wrinkled, even in comparatively young men, 
but not so much so as in the case of the fishing populations. The eye- 
brows overhang the eyes considerably, and are thick and rather leveL 
The glabella and superciliary ridges are often large 

Face. — The face, though often long, is rather oblong in outline, 
owing to the breadth of the jaws in the bigonial region. The cheek- 
bones are, as a rule, prominent. The ridge or fold of skin at the 
root of the nose is not as common, nor when seen, of as large size as 
in the men of the fishing populations. The eyes have usually blue or 
light grey irides, seldom hazel or brown, but it should be noted that 
the percentage of " light " eyes in adults, 78 •? (a much lower figure 
than observed in any of the districts yet reported on) shows a larger 
proportion of dark-eyed people in the population of Ballycroy. 

The eyes are deeply set, and are placed rather wide apart ; there 
are often wrinkles around them, as is generally observable in the 
west. The eyelashes are dark and long. 

The nose is straight usually, sometimes sinuous, seldom aquiline 
or retrousse. The mean nasal-index is 63-9. 

The mouth is large, and the lips of medium thickness. The teeth 
are, when not spoiled by excessive smoking, small, white, and very 
even. The angles of the jaw are rather pronounced and square, 
which gives an oblong outline to the face when viewed from the 
front. The chin is often prominent. The ears are usually flat, but 
in about a third of the cases observed are outstanding. But few 
abnormalities of this organ were observed; in twenty -two instances, 
out of the fifty men noted, the lobule was attached ; in one case it 
was absent, and in another extremely small, but great variations in 
the form of the pinna, such as were observed in some parts of the 
Mullet, were not noticeable in Ballycroy. 

Skin. — The complexion is fair or ruddy, seldom freckling ; sallow- 
ness is not common, even in those with dark eyes. As noted in other 
sections, wrinkles seem to come rather early. 

' Of the fifty men measured, 18 'were brachycephalic, 26 mesaticephalic, and 
6 dolichocephalic. 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croyy Co. Mayo. 79 

Hair. — The hair is usually a dark brown; next, in order of 
frequency, comes the lighter shades of brown; then black, which is 
commoner here than in the Mullet ; then fair, and lastly red. The 
growth of the hair is fairly abundant, though baldness is not un- 
common. It is often wavy or curly. The beard is usually some- 
what lighter in colour than the hair of the scalp, and, if allowed to 
grow naturally, seems to have, in many cases, a tendency to fork at 
the end. 

The nigrescence index, for the adults of both sexes, is 57"7l, show- 
ing a larger percentage of dark and black hair than in any district as 
yet surveyed. 

The foregoing description is, of course, a general one, applying 
only to the prevailing type ; there is, however, a second type not 
unfrequently met with, the chief characters of which are, long oval 
face, with but slightly marked angles to the jaws, less prominent 
cheek bones and sharper features. 

The figure seems to be slighter in youth, but to exhibit a tendency 
to put on flesh with advancing years. The hair, in this type, is 
usually lighter than the prevailing tint, but may be of any colour, 
owing to admixture. 

The various authors who have written respecting the men of 
Ballycroy are fairly agreed concerning them. They usually describe 
the people as of below the medium height, dark -haired, and athletic. 

In Knight's " Erris in the Irish Highlands,"^ they are „thus 
described : *■ ' This colony of Ulstermen, at whatever time they settled 
in this country, still retain the ancient dialect of language used in 
the north ; intermarry almost exclusively with one another ; a hardy, 
low-sized, dark-featured race ; bold, daring, and intrepid in danger ; 
not good-tempered, but hospitable to an extreme." And again : 
" The mountaineers are remarkably stout and healthy. . . . The 
journeys they make are quite extraordinary. A fellow in Ballycroy 
thinks nothing of taking a ten-gallon keg of whisky, weight 150 lbs. 
at least, and crossing the mountains to Newport, a distance of twenty 
miles, sells it, and returns home in the evening, without the slightest 
appearance of fatigue, and carelessly resumes his usual occupation." 

Maxwell ^ gives the following description of the peasantry of Co. 
Mayo, including the people of Ballycroy, his own locality : — 

" In personal appearance the western peasantry are very inferior 
to those of the other divisions of the kingdom. Generally they are 

1 Page 106. 

~ " Wild Sports of the West," chap, xliii. 



80 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

nndersLzed, and by no means so good-lootmg as their southern 
neighbours ; and, I should say, in other points they are eq^ually 
deficient.- To overcome their early lounging gait and slovenly habits 
is found by military men a troublesome task ; and while the Tipperary 
man speedily passes through the hands of the drill-sergeant, the Mayo 
peasant requires a long and patient ordeal before a martial carriage 
can be acquired, and he be perfectly set up as a soldier. These 
defects once conquered, none are better calculated for the profession. 
Hardy, active, patient in wet and cold, and accustomed to indifferent 
and irregular food, he is admirably adapted to endure the privations 
and fatigue incident to a soldier's life on active service, and ia dash 
and daring no regiments in the service hold a prouder place than 
those which appertain to the kingdom of Connaught." 

Though there are some men of small stature in the community, 
there are also some above the middle height, and the majority are 
of about the middle stature. 

Ballycroy being pre-eminently the district of County llayo, 
inhabited by a colony of Ulster origin, it may not be out of place to 
repeat here what was written about people of similar origin iu the 
Mullet, that there appears to be no foundation whatever for the 
statement made originally by an anonymous writer, and quoted 
repeatedly since by several writers both in this country and abroad, 
to the effect that the descendants of the dispossessed Ulster tribes, 
who settled in the counties of Sligo and Mayo, have through inter- 
marriage and deficient food dwindled to an average height of five feet 
two inches, and become prognathous, pot-bellied, and utterly de- 
generate. As before stated, the average stature of the fifty men 
measured was 1721 mm., or barely under 5 ft. 8 in.; no selection 
whatever was practised beyond excluding some ungrown young lads ; 
and this average is perhaps a little below the true figure, as it was 
said by several of the people that most of the best grown men were 
away working as migratory labourers in England. Only three men 
whose height was less than five feet three and a half inches were met 
with, and they seemed to be exceptional cases. Only one dwarf is 
known in the district. 

^ This 13 a matter of opinioii, in which I can by no means agree ^th this 
author. 



Browne — Ethnography of Ballycroy, Co. Mayo. 81 



Cephalic Indices, Corrected foe Comparison with Skuus. 



No. 


Index. 


A. Corrected Indices. 


4 


86.8 


~] 




12 


85-9 






49 


85-9 






48 


85.6 






10 


85.0 






7 


84-5 






3 


84.2 






15 


84.2 






5 


83-9 


► 18 


Brachycephalic. 


45 


83.8 






34 


83.2 






37 


83-0 






32 


82.9 






41 


82.8 






20 


82.5 




> 28 Brachycephals. 


16 


82.3 






43 


82.3 






13 


82.0 


J 




39 


81.4 






40 


81.4 






8 


81.3 






28 


81.2 






27 


80.9 






31 


80.7 






46 


80.6 






I 


80.6 






2 


80.4 






14 


80.4 


J 




33 


79.8 


^ 




36 


79.8 






17 

44 


79-4 
79-4 


> 26 


Mesaticephalic. 


24 


79.2 






6 


79-1 






II 


79.0 






23 


79.0 






38 


78.8 






5° 


78.0 




> 20 Mesaticephals. 


22 


77.8 






29 


77.8 






18 


77.6 






47 


77.6 






9 


77-5 






42 


77.0 


, 




35 


76.8 


> 6 




21 


76.5 




26 


75-0 


Dolichacephalic. 


30 


7S-0 






19 


74-3 




2 Dolichocephals. 


24 


70.7 


^ ' 1 



R.I. A. PROC, SER. ni., VOL. IV. 



82 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



(b.) Statistics of Sair and Eye Colours: — 

ADriTS. — I. Males. 







E^-ES. 








Hair. 








Totals. 


Percentage 
Hair Colours. 


Light. 


Medium. 


Dark. 


Red, 


4 


1 


1 


6 


3-97 


Fair, 


17 


— 


— 


17 


11-25 


Brown, 


42 


3 


— 


45 


29-81 


Dark, 


44 


17 


4 


65 


43-05 


Black, 


12 


2 


4 


18 


11-92 


Totals, 


119 


23 


9 


151 


100-00 


Percentage ) 
Eye Colours, j' 


78-81 


lo-23 


5-96 


100-00 





Index of ^Nigrescence, . . 51-67. 



AnrxTS. — II. Females, 



Hair. 


Eyes. 


Totals. 


Percentage 
Hair Colours. 


Light. 


Medium . 


Dark. 


Red, 


3 


— 


— 


o 


3-75 


Fair, 


2 


— 


— 


2 


2-50 


Brown, 


24 


3 


— 


27 


33-75 


Dark, 


32 


5 


3 


40 


5000 


Black, 


1 


3 


4 


8 


10-00 


Totals, 


62 


11 


7 


80 


10000 


Percentage | 
Eye Colours, ) 


77-0 


13-75 


8-75 


100-00 





Index of Xigrescence, . . . 63-75. 
Combined Index (both sexes), . 57*7 1. 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 



83 



Chudeen. — I. Boys. 



Hair. 


Eyes. 


Totals. 


Percentage 
Hair Colours. 


Light. Medium. 


Dark. 


Eed, 

Fair, 

Brown, 

Dark, 

Black, 


1 

3 

13 

13 

1 


1 
2 
1 


— 


1 

3 

14 

15 

2 


2-86 

8-57 

40-00 

42-85 

5-72 


Totals, 


31 4 


— 


35 


100-00 


Percentage \ 
Eye Colours, j 


88-58 


11-42 


— 


100-00 


— 



Index of Nigrescence, 



42-76. 



CniLDEEiir. — II. Girls. 



Hair. 


Eyes. 


Totals. 


Percentage 
Hair Colours. 


Light. 


Medium. 


Dark. 


Eed, 

Fair, 

Brown, 

Dark, 

Black, 


1 
2 
5 
8 


■J 


2 

1 


1 

2 

5 

13 

1 


4-55 

9-08 

22-73 

59-09 

4-65 


Totals, 


16 


3 


3 


22 


100-00 


Percentage \ 
Eye Colours, ] 


72-72 


13-64 


13-64 


100-00 


— 



Index of Nigrescence, .... 54-54. 
Combined Index (Tboth sexes), . 48-65. 



84 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(c.) Physical Proportions. — The proportions borne by the main 
measurements to the stature (taken as 100) are given in this Paper as 
in its precursors. They are considerably different from those of the 
inhabitants of the localities previously visited, and especially from 
those of the people of the neighbouring district of the Mullet, and 
from the islanders of Iniskea. 

Face. 

The face, though long in proportion to the stature, is, on the 
average, shorter comparatively than is the case in Aran, Inishbofin, 
or the Mullet and Inishkea, The average is 7-29 (canon 6"60), as 
against 7'61, 7*48, and 7-36, respectively, for the other localities. 
The extremes noted in Ballycroy are 6-52 and 8-68. 

Up2Jer Face. — The mean is 4-16, as against 4-42 for Inishbofin, 
and 4-30 for the Mullet, thus showing the comparative shortness. 

Nose. — As has been noted previously, this does not bear a very 
constant proportion to the stature. The extremes are 3'56 and 2*59, 
and the mean 3-25, or something less than the canon (3-30). 

Sitting Height. 

The sitting height appears to be somewhat greater proportionally 
tlian in the Mullet, &c., as the mean is 53-05, as against 51-33. The 
extremes were 50*71 and 56-60. 

TJppEE Limb. 

Span. — No case of a span-stretch less than the stature was met 
with here ; in fact, in nearly all cases this measurement is propor- 
tionately very great. The average for the fifty men measured is 
105-75, with extremes of 111-04 and 101-18. As the limbs are not 
exceptionally long, this shows considerable stoutness of build. The 
mean for Aran was 101-94 (not much above the Ballycroy minimum) ; 
for Inishbofin, 104-95 ; and for the Mullet, &c., 104-36. 

Hand. — The hand is decidedly short, the mean being only 11*31, 
but varying from 10*28 to 12*08 : this mean is about the same as that 
for Inishbofin (11*33). 

Forearm. — This section of the arm is proportionately long, the 
mean beiag 15*30, with extremes of 16-28 and 14*02. The forearm is 
thus shorter than in the Mullet, and intermediate between it and 
Inishbofin (15*03) and Aran (15-18). 











(B.) 


Detailed List of Measurements :- 


— 








No. 


Indices. 


Proportions to Stature. — Height = 


100. 


_o 


"Si 


.-: 


'c 
o 


o 


[3 


•6 

C3 


E 

u 



c 







n ^ 


6 




"a, 

V 




'u 


to 


> 

< 


(3 







a. 

■S} 


Wx 




fa 


t3fa 




;2; 


1 


80-6 


68-1 


98-5 


78-9 


93-7 


57-9 


11-07 


15-28 


105-62 


51-79 


7-50 


4-37 


3-24 


2 


80-4 


64-9 


103-0 


80-6 


96-8 


71-0 


11-45 


15-87 


108-93 


51-12 


7-49 


4-19 


3-07 


3 


84-2 


64-2 


120-3 


91-1 


100-0 


63-3 


10-83 


14-56 


104-54 


52-71 


7-16 


3-84 


2-85 


4 


86-8 


69-2 


109-2 


90-S 


93-8 


54-1 


11-39 


15-80 


110-61 


51-35 


7-33 


4-35 


3-44 


5 


83-9 


70-4 


113-8 


84-6 


100-0 


55-6 


11-00 


15-62 


106-15 


50-71 


7-69 


4-26 


3-20 


6 


79-1 


66-3 


121-2 


92-4 


99-0 


78-0 


11-05 


16-02 


103-53 


52-60 


6-52 


3-48 


2-76 


7 


84-0 


62-9 


122-0 


103-4 


100-0 


61-5 


11-86 


15-54 


107-38 


53-96 


7-14 


4-22 


1 3-15 


8 


81-3 


62-5 


120-3 


91-5 


101-0 


70-6 


12-08 


15-24 


107-91 


53-04 


7-02 


4-29 


3-04 


9 


77-5 


64-9 


104-9 


88-5 


103-3 


75-0 


11-05 


14-97 


104-31 


56-60 


7-16 


4-31 


3-05 


10 


85-0 


72-0 


104-2 


76-4 


89-4 


50-0 


10-95 


14-66 


102-65 


52-79 


8-68 


4-51 


3-49 


11 


79-0 


62-6 


108-1 


85-5 


102-2 


51-8 


11-01 


14-80 


104-50 


52-69 


7-34 


4-44 


3-19 


12 


85-9 


67-7 


116-6 


91-3 


92-4 


63-0 


11-26 


14-94 


105-85 


51-29 


6-99 


4-22 


3-20 


13 


82-0 


69-4 


104-4 


87-6 


103-2 


60-3 


10-89 


14-80 


102-01 


51-90 


7-45 


4-23 


3-15 


14 


80-4 


64-8 


110-4 


82-1 


93-0 


51-7 


11-42 


14-53 


104-32 


51-30 


7-94 


4-68 


3-44 


15 


84-2 


71-3 


115-9 


90-5 


96-8 


66-0 


11-00 


14-75 


101-18 


54-35 


7-41 


4-30 


3-11 


16 


82-3 


64-1 


104-4 


85-3 


99-0 


63-6 


11-98 


14-46 


107-26 


55-04 


8-02 


4-72 


3-24 


17 


79-4 


66-5 


119-3 


98-2 


100-0 


72-9 


11-74 


14-52 


106-30 


54-51 


7-05 


3-96 


2-97 


18 


77-6 


65-5 


115-4 


92-3 


101-9 


70-4 


11-27 


15-28 


107-91 


52-44 


6-94 


4-06 


2-88 


19 


74-3 


62-4 


108-4 


91-6 


94-9 


57-9 


11-72 


16-15 


105-48 


51-19 


7-45 


4-43 


3-24 


20 


82-5 


68-0 


104-5 


90-9 


98-0 


57-4 


11-15 


15-41 


106-40 


54-65 


7-67 


4-30 


3-14 


21 


76-5 


64-2 


125-2 


99-1 


98-0 


65-5 


11-90 


16-25 


110-00 


53-45 


6-84 


3-92 


3-45 


22 


77-8 


63-9 


110-6 


89-4 


100-0 


70-0 


10-68 


15-72 


106-76 


51-61 


7-29 


4-09 


3-56 


23 


79-0 


61-0 


120-7 


90-9 


103-2 


70-0 


11-23 


15-17 


104-10 


52-50 


6-79 


3-82 


2-81 


24 


79-2 


64-4 


109-4 


84-4 


103-1 


60-3 


11-55 


15-34 


106-77 


52-74 


7-47 


4-49 


3-38 


25 


70-7 


61-6 


101-6 


89-6 


98-9 


61-1 


10-98 


14-95 


111-04 


55-13 


7-57 


4-60 


3-19 


26 


75-0 


63-0 


105-6 


86-4 


102-2 


08-0 


11-48 


15-80 


104-55 


52-48 


7-35 


3-97 


2-92 


27 


80-9 


68-6 


118-7 


94-3 


103-2 


64-7 


11-07 


16-07 


103-21 


54-46 


7-32 


4-22 


3-04 


28 


81-2 


66-0 


97-9 


75-8 


103-1 


71-4 


11-78 


14-89 


104-96 


50-74 


7-91 


4-20 


3-06 


29 


77-8 


68-2 


109-2 


83-1 


103-0 


59-6 


11-64 


15-69 


102-82 


54-40 


7-35 


4-24 


2-93 


30 


75-0 


63-9 


112-2 


91-1 


100-0 


64-2 


11-39 


15-13 


105-58 


.55-41 


7-08 


4-37 


3-05 


31 


80-7 


63-5 


110-6 


86-2 


101-1 


64-7 


10-28 


14-94 


105-11 


53-80 


7-00 


4-21 


2-90 


32 


82-9 


68-4 1107-1 


86-6 98-9 


62-0 


11-68 


15-57 


105-39 


54-73 


7-61 


4-67 


3-00 


33 


79-8 


65-7 il09-5 


83-0 102-0 


50-9 


11-60 


14-66 


108-65 


52-14 


7-34 


3-93 


3-18 


34 


83-2 


63-9 120-3 


96-6 103-2 


73-5 


12-06 


15-12 


110-00 


52-65 


6-94 


4-24 


2-90 


35 


76-8 


64-6 


104-5 


83-0 104-1 


70-0 


11-08 


15-34 


104-14 


54-05 


7-76 


4-37 


2-92 


36 


79-8 


63-6 


116-0 


90-8 ' 98-9 


75-6 


11-18 


15-22 


106-61 


51-50 


6-97 


3-69 


2-64 


37 


83-0 


66-0 


121-2 


95-8 1 93-3 


72-3 


11-71 


15-51 


110-13 


54-43 


7-47 


4-11 


2-97 


38 


78-8 


62-2 


120-0 


91-7 104-5 


68-6 


11-18 


15-43 


101-61 


— 


6-92 


3-86 


2-94 


39 


81-4 


61-9 


117-4 


97-5 102-2 


62-0 


11-63 


16-28 


105-41 


51-74 


7-03 


4-19 


2-91 


40 


81-4 


64-4 


108-6 


92-2 102-4 


67-3 


11-58 


15-67 


107-49 


52-92 


7-49 


4-09 


2-86 


41 


82-8 


70-4 


120-3 


90-7 100-0 


75-6 


11-05 


15-28 


103-03 


53-63 


6-76 


3-72 


2-59 


42 


77-0 


65-0 


115-7 


89-3 104-4 


61-7 


11-19 


14-64 


106-62 


53-54 


7-03 


3-88 


2-75 


43 


82-3 


65-1 


115-3 


91-2 100-0 


65-1 


10-95 


14-52 106-05 


53-03 


7-20 


4-27 


2-82 


44 


79-4 


63-4 


118-1 


92-9 100-0 


56-4 


11-42 


16-16 1110-07 


52-40 


7-43 


4-04 


3-22 


45 


83-8 


67-0 


110-8 


86-6 100-0 


62-3 


11-55 


16-26 106-32 


52-76 


7-30 


4-14 


3-05 


46 


80-r, 


64-8 


117-7 


87-1 102-1 


64-0 


10-57 


16-35 102-92 


53-53 


7-24 


4-14 


2-92 


47 


77-6 


66-3 111-4 


86-9 97-9 


61-2 , 


11-12 


14-02 103-62 


53-37 


7-22 


4-02 


2-90 


48 


85-6 


68-6 123-1 


104-2 98-9 


63-5 


11-64 


15-42 104-29 


53-28 


7-60 


3-84 


2-94 


49 


85-9 


62-8 


118-3 


90-0 101-1 


66-7 


11-30 


15-63 104-98 


54-04 


7-02 


4-45 


2-98 


50 


78-0 


63-5 


109-1 


86-0 ; 92-8 


56-6 


11-01 


14-48 102-61 


52-94 


7-00 


4-06 


3-07 


Kean 


80-5 


65-6 


112-6 


89-4 101-4 


63-9 ' 


11-31 


15-30 |105-7o 


53-05 


7-29 


4-16 


3-25 



[85] 



86 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



No. 


Name. 


Age. 


Locality of 


Eye 
Colour. 


Hair 
Colour. 


Skin. 


Ears. 












Father's 


Mother's 
















people. 


people. 










1 


*Coiiway, AntHony 


30 


Ballycroy 


Ballycroy 


blue 


fair 


ruddy 


Outstanding 


2 


*Cleary, Denis, . 


30 


5> 


)> 


dark- 
grey 


dark 


ruddy 


Flat 


3 


Keane, Anthony, 


24 


>) 


■>■> 


blue 


brown 


ruddy 


Outstanding, lobes 
attached 


4 


*MacMenanion, 
John, 


45 


>> 


" 


blue 


brown 


ruddy 


Flat 


5 


Lenahan, Patrick, 


22 


>) 




light- 
grey 


dark 


pale 


Flat 


6 


*Cleary, Michael, . 


38 


>) 


" 


dark- 
grey 


black 


ruddy 


Outstanding, lobes 
attached 


7 


♦Sweeney, Maners 


30 


5> 


>5 


blue 


fair 


pale 


Outstanding, lobes 
attached 


8 


•Campbell, John, . 


25 


>> 


>) 


dark- 
grey 


dark 


pale 


Outstanding, lobes 
absent 


9 


*Doran, Hugh, . 


— 


') 


>> 


blue 


fair 


pale 


Flat, lobes attached 


10 


*Cleary, John, 


25 


" 


Newport, 
Mayo 


blue 


far 


ruddy 


Flat 


11 


*Keane, Philip, . 


41 


') 


Ballycroy 


blue 


dark 


pale 


Flat 


12 


*Conway, James, . 


40 


" 


>> 


dark- 
gi-ey 


dark 


ruddy 


Flat 


13 


*Cleary, James, . 


35 


>) 


Newport 


blue 


fair 


ruddy 


Flat 


14 


*Corrigan, James, 


40 


J> 


Ballycroy 


dark- 
grey 


dark 


pale 


Flat 


15 


*Cleary, Bertie, . 


19 


)) 


Newport 


dark- 
grey 


dark 


pale 


Flat 


16 


*Sweeney, James, 


28 


>> 


Ballycroy 


green 


dark 


pale 


Flat 


17 


Tighe, Thomas, . 


30 


)> 


>> 


green 


dark 


ruddy 


Flat 


18 


*Cleary, Martin, . 


35 


)) 


J) 


blue 


black 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes attached 


19 


M'Gowan,Eoger, 


24 


M 


>■> 


light- 


dark 


ruddy 


Flat 


20 


Con\ray, Ezra, . 


33 


" 


Sligo 


grey 
blue 


Hght- 
brown 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes attached 


21 


Ginty, Patrick, . 


22 


)) 


Ballycroy 


blue 


black 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes very 
small, & attached 


22 


•Murray, Patrick, 


35 


>J 


)) 


light- 
grey 


dark 


pale 


Flat 


23 


*Kane^, John, 


22 


)) 


)> 


green 


brown 


ruddy 


— 


24 


♦Conway, Michael, 


42 


». 


M 


blue 


fair 


ruddy 


Flat 


25 


Bradley, Daniel, . 


45 


" 




dark- 
grey 


dark 


ruddy 


Outstanding 



Note. — All those whose names arc marked with an asterisk (*) claimed that 



Browjne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 



87 



Cephalic. 


Facial. 


Nasal. 


Auricular 
Radii. 


Height. 


Forelimb. 


g 


1 


he 

a 
<u 

(U 

o 

nl 


.a 

i-ti 

to a 

ft lU 

p..—' 
nl 


n! 
u 

eq 


'5 -a 

O rt 

beg 
Mpq 


c 


.a 

nl 

lU 

u 

m. 


.J. -a 

U 

D O 
M O 


o 

u 

> 




u 

S 

"o 

> 
< 


bi) 

a 
■3 

1 


bij 

.s 


n* 

ni 

1/) 




i 

o 


191 


154 


132 


77 


130 


104 


57 


33 


32 


130 


95 


89 


1761 


912 


1860 


195 


270 


194 


156 


134 


75 


138 


108 


55 


39 


30 


126 


93 


90 


1790 


915 


1950 


205 


284 


190 


160 


123 


66 


148 


112 


49 


31 


30 


122 


91 


91 


1717 


906 


1795 


186 


250 


182 


158 


130 


77 


142 


118 


61 


33 


31 


126 


96 


90 


1772 


910 


1960 


202 


280 


186 


156 


130 


72 


148 


110 


54 


30 


32 


131 


90 


90 


1690 


857 


1794 


186 


264 


196 


155 


118 


63 


143 


109 


50 


39 


34 


130 


97 


96 


1810 


952 


1874 


200 


290 


194 


164 


118 


70 


144 


122 


52 


32 


30 


122 


90 


90 


1653 


892 


1775 


196 


258 


192 


156 


118 


72 


142 


108 


51 


36 


34 


120 


93 


94 


1680 


891 


1812 


203 


256 


191 


148 


122 


68 


128 


108 


48 


36 


32 


124 


90 


93 


1576 


892 


1644 


174 


236 


200 


170 


144 


80 


150 


110 


62 


31 


30 


144 


94 


84 


1773 


936 


1820 


194 


260 


195 


154 


124 


75 


134 


106 


54 


28 


28 


122 


92 


90 


1689 


890 


1765 


186 


250 


198 


170 


127 


71 


148 


116 


54 


34 


34 


134 


92 


85 


1673 


958 


1771 


199 


250 


206 


169 


137 


78 


153 


120 


58 


35 


32 


143 


95 


93 


1838 


954 


1875 


200 


272 


199 


160 


134 


79 


148 


110 


58 


30 


34 


129 


100 


93 


1687 


866 


1762 


193 


245 


202 


170 


126 


73 


146 


114 


53 


35 


36 


144 


95 


92 


1700 


923 


1720 


187 


250 


192 


158 


136 


80 


142 


116 


55 


35 


34 


123 


97 


98 


1695 


933 


1818 


203 


245 


194 


154 


114 


64 


136 


112 


48 


35 


32 


129 


97 


97 


1618 


882 


1720 


190 


245 


206 


160 


130 


76 


150 


120 


54 


38 


34 


135 


104 


106 


1872 


981 


2020 


212 


286 


202 


150 


131 


78 


142 


120 


57 


33 


30 


126 


98 


93 


1758 


910 


1912 


206 


284 


194 


160 


132 


74 


138 


120 


54 


31 


32 


132 


98 


96 


1720 


940 


1830 


191 


264 


204 


156 


115 


66 


144 


114 


68 


38 


33 


131 


99 


97 


1680 


908 


1848 


200 


273 


194 

i 


151 


123 


69 


136 


110 


50 


35 


30 


124 


91 


91 


1686 


870 


1800 


180 


265 


JOO 


158 


121 


68 


146 


110 


50 


35 


34 


123 


95 


98 


1780 


936 


1853 


200 


270 


J02 


160 


128 


77 


140 


108 


58 


35 


30 


130 


96 


99 


1714 


904 


1830 


198 


263 


198 


140 


128 


74 


130 


114 


54 


33 


34 


122 


91 


90 


1694 


934 


1881 


186 


252 



their families originally came from " the North.' 



}■ In Irish, O'Cahan. 



88 




Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 






No. 


Name. 


Age. 


Locality of 


Eye 
Colour. 


Hair 
Colour. 


Skin. 


Ears. 


Father's 
people. 


Mother's 
people. 


26 

27 


Lenehan, John, . 
*Murray, James, . 


70 
45 


BaUycroy 
>> 


BaUycroy 
>> 


light- 
grey 
Ught- 


dark 
dark 


pale 
pale 


Outstanding, 

attached 
Flat 


lobes 


28 


*M'Gowan, Bryan, 


— 


>> 


j> 


grey 
dark- 


black 


pale 


Flat 




29 
30 
31 


Bradshaw, Michl. 
*Giaty, Thomas, . 
*Conway, Peter, . 


30 
22 


>> 
>> 


>> 
>> 

Newport 


grey 
hlue 

light- 
grey 
blue 


brown. 

dark 

black 


ruddy 
ruddy 
ruddy 


Outstanding, 
attached 

Outstanding, 
attached 

Outstanding 


lobes 

! 

lobes 


32 


*Gaughan, John, . 


23 


j> 


BaUycroy 


Hght- 


brown 


ruddy 


Flat 




33 


*0'Boyle, Andrew 


33 


>> 


j> 


grey 
Ught- 


black 


ruddy 


Outstanding 




34 


*M'Guire, James, 


— 


)> 


9> 


grey 
blue 


brown 


ruddy 


Outstanding 




35 

36 


*Lenehan, Patrick, 
Gilroyi, Michael, 


50 

20 


>> 




light- 
brown 
dark- 


black 
dark 


dark 
ruddy 


Outstanding 
Outstanding 




37 
38 
39 
40 


*Kane, Patrick, . 
*Conway, Neal, . 
*M ' Gowan, Patrick 
♦Conway, Patrick, 


25 
58 

40 


>> 


Ne^ 
BaU 


'port 
ycroy 


grey 
light- 
grey 
light- 
grey 
light- 
bro^TQ 
Hght- 


fair 
black 
black 
black 


ruddy 
pale 
ruddy 
ruddy 


Outstanding, 
attached 

Outstanding, 
attached 

Flat 

Flat 


lobes 
lobes 


41 
42 


*Keane, Bernard, . 
Finn, Edward, . 


20 
55 


>> 






grey 
blue 

blue 


brown 
brown 


pale 
pale 


Outstanding, 

attached 
Flat 


lobes 


43 


*Cafferky, Michae! 


35 


)> 






blue 


black 


pale 


Flat, lobes attached 


44 


*Conway, Michae 


35 


>> 






blue 


fair 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes attached 


45 


*Conway, James, . 


40 


>> 






green 


red 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes attached 


46 


*Cafferky, Hugh, . 


46 


j> 






blue 


brown 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes attached 


47 


*Cafferky, James, . 


19 ? 


j> 






blue 


black 


ruddy 


Flat, lobes attached 


48 


*Sweeny,Loughlin 


20 


>> 






blue 


brown 


ruddy 


Outstanding 




49 


*Conway, Peter, . 


25 


)) 






blue 


fair 


ruddy 


Flat 




50 


*Conway, Hugh, . 


19 


>» 






green 


dark 


ruddy 


Outstanding 


1 



Note.— All those whose names are marked with an asterisk (*) claimed that their families originally 



Browne — Ethnography of Ballycroy, Co. Mayo. 



89 



Cephalic. 


Facial. 


Nasal. 


Ai 


jricular 
Radii. 


Height. 


FORELIMB. 


■s. 

ho 
a 


t-i 


a 
o 


.a 
S o 

p (J 

n! 


(D 


eqm 


•2 

bo 
□ 

-1 






1 


."5 


c 

< 


bo 

a 

s 

•l-a 


bo 

.9 




■a 

c 

n! 


E 

ru 
u 
o 


192 


144 


125 


68 


132 


108 


50 


29 


32 


122 


93 


95 


1715 


900 


1793 


197 


271 


188 


152 


123 


71 


146 


116 


51 


33 


30 


129 


93 


96 


1680 


915 


1735 


186 


270 


197 


160 


145 


77 


142 


110 


56 


40 


39 


130 


97 


100 


1833 


930 


1924 


216 


273 


198 


154 


130 


75 


142 


108 


52 


31 


31 


135 


99 


102 


1770 


963 


1820 


206 


276 


208 


156 


123 


76 


138 


112 


53 


34 


30 


133 


99 


99 


1738 


963 


1835 


198 


263 


192 


155 


123 


74 


136 


106 


51 


33 


30 


122 


94 


96 


1760 


947 


1850 


181 


263 


193 


160 


127 


78 


136 


110 


50 


31 


31 


132 


90 


89 


1670 


914 


1760 


195 


260 


198 


158 


127 


68 


139 


106 


55 


28 


31 


130 


98 


100 


1730 


902 


1880 


201 


264 


202 


168 


118 


72 


142 


114 


49 


36 


34 


129 


95 


98 


1700 


895 


1870 


205 


267 


198 


152 


132 


75 


138 


106 


50 


35 


33 


128 


98 


102 


1715 


927 


1786 


190 


263 


198 


158 


119 


63 


138 


108 


45 


34 


33 


126 


95 


94 


1708 


872 


1823 


191 


260 


188 


156 


118 


65 


143 


113 


47 


34 


34 


124 


90 


84 


1580 


860 


1740 


185 


245 


193 


152 


120 


67 


144 


110 


51 


35 


32 


120 


88 


92 


1735 


— 


1763 


194 


263 


194 


158 


121 


72 


142 


118 


50 


31 


32 


120 


91 


94 


1720 


890 


1813 


200 


280 


194 


158 


128 


70 


139 


118 


49 


33 


31 


125 


82 


84 


1710 


905 


1838 


197 


268 


186 


154 


118 


65 


142 


107 


45 


34 


31 


131 


92 


92 


1747 


947 


1800 


193 


265 


200 


154 


121 


67 


140 


108 


47 


29 


33 


130 


90 


94 


1707 


914 


1820 


191 


250 


192 


158 


125 


74 


144 


114 


49 


32 


33 


125 


96 


96 


1735 


920 


1840 


190 


252 


194 


154 


127 


69 


150 


118 


55 


31 


31 


123 


97 


97 


1708 


895 


1880 


195 


276 


191 


160 


127 


72 


140 


110 


53 


33 


33 


128 


93 


93 


1740 


918 


1850 


201 


283 


196 


158 


124 


71 


146 


108 


50 


32 


34 


127 


96 


98 


1713 


917 


1763 


181 


270 


196 


152 


122 


68 


136 


106 


49 


30 


30 


130 


97 


95 


1690 


902 


1751 


188 


237 


194 


166 


117 


68 


144 


122 


52 


33 


33 


133 


89 


88 


1770 


943 


1846 


206 


273 


199 


166 


120 


76 


142 


108 


51 


34 


32 


125 


92 


93 


1708 


923 


1793 


193 


267 


200 


156 


121 


70 


132 


104 


53 


30 


34 


127 


97 


90 


1725 


913 


1770 


190 


250 



came from " the North." 



^ Mother's name Kane, = in Irish, O'Keon, not O'Cahan. 



90 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



3. Vital Statistics {General and Economic) : — 

(a.) Population. — The population of Ballycroy has fluctuated a 
good deal within the last sixty years, but on the whole has not dimin- 
ished as much as that of more thickly peopled parts of the country. 
The Table given below shows the population of the district at each 
census since 1871 ; also the number of houses inhabited, average 
number of inhabitants per house, and number of acres per head of the 
population at each of these periods : — 



Census. 


ij„ 1 »• tr Inhabitants, i Acres per 
Population. Houses. per house. head. 


1871 
1881 
1891 


2041 
1991 
2036 


346 5-89 
324 ( 6-17 
344 ' .5-92 


25-38 
26-06 
25-53 



This Table shows the great sparsity of the population, about 25 
per square mile. Ballycroy is thus probably the most thinly peopled 
district of its size in Ireland. 

The region is subdivided into two districts, North and South 
Ballycroy, the latter of which is the larger, and the more thinly 
populated. The distribution of population, inhabited houses, and 
outbuildings between these two districts in 1891, was as given 
below : 





1 A,^, 


Population. 


Houses. 


Outbuild- 
ings and 

Farm- 
steadings. 




1 
Persons. Males. | Females. 


N. Ballycroy, . 
S. Ballycroy, . 


20,510 10 
31,372 2 18 


1191 
845 


588 
424 


603 
421 


197 
147 


163 
198 


Totals, . . . 51,882 2 28 


2036 


1012 


1024 


344 


361 



From, this it will be seen that the females slightly exceed the 
males in number. 



Browne — Ethnography of Ballycroy, Co. Mayo. 



91 



In Knight's " Erris" the following are given as results of a census 
in 1831 (p. 99):— 



Houses inhabited, .... 






424 


Number of families, 






505 


Number of persons, male and female, 






2925 


Number of males, .... 






1420 


Number of females. 






1505 


Number of males over 20, 






473 


Employed as handicrafts {sic), 






59 


Employed in agriculture, &c.. 






817 


Farmers of first class. 






16 


Farmers of second class, 






489 



(b.) Acreage and Rental. — The total area of the district is 51,882 
acres, and the valuation £1937. 

The holdings are small, averaging about 4|- acres under tillage : 
the whole would average some 15 acres, with a rental of about £5 for 
the better class, about £3 for the poorer. The tillage land is in 
many cases held in strips, often by two or more men in partnership. 
There is but little commonage, as most of the "mountain" or moor- 
land is in the landlord's hands, and let out for grazing. In 1891 
there were 76 holdings of between £4 and £10 valuation, 289 of £2 
and under £4, and 96 of under £2. 

^Formerly in Ballycroy, as in the rest of Erris, the land was held 
by communities, under a head man or king, who parcelled out the 
collops, or holdings, by lot every third year, as described by Mr. 
Knight, and quoted in last year's Report. This system has ceased to 
exist for many years, and the holdings are now mostly held at judicial 
rents. 

(c.) Language and Education — Language. — The people may be said 
to be practically bilingual, as most of them speak both Irish and 
English. A number of older people speak Irish only, but they are 
rapidly becoming fewer. The dialect they speak is somewhat diffe- 
rent from that of the other peoples of Erris, though not so much so as 
formerly, and has most of the characters of Ulster Irish. The exact 
proportion of those speaking Irish only, and Irish and English, was 
not ascertainable, as the census only gives language returns by baro- 
nies. In 1891 the barony of Erris, with a population of 16,504, had 
726 who spoke Irish only, 5394 Irish and English. 

Education. — There is a very considerable proportion of illiteracy 
in the district ; but here again I am unable to give the exact amount, 
as the returns on this subject are made by parislies, and Ballycroy 



92 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



forms only a part of the parish of Kilcominoii, as all Erris outside of 
the Mullet is designated. In 1891 the condition as regards educa- 
tion of this very large parish was as given in the Table : — 





Persons. 


Male. Female. 


Xiimber above 5 years, 
Illiterate, . 
Percentage, 


10,988 
5382 
48-9 


5310 
2266 
42-7 


5688 
3116 
54-8 



The chief reason for the high rate of illiteracy prevailing in 
Ballycroy seems to be the scattered nature of the population, and the 
long distances of many of the houses from any of the schools, of 
which there are three in the district. 

(d.) Sealth. — The following notes regarding the health of the 
people were obtained, for most of which I have to return my best 
thanks to Dr. P. M'Hale, of Ballycroy, who kindly afforded me the 
opportunity of seeing many of the cases personally, and also allowed 
me access to notes of cases. On the whole, the population is a healthy 
one, and there is but little serious disease, though there are many 
trivial ailments, for the most part attributable to the nature of their 
food and dwellings, and of their occupations. 

Consanguineous Marriages. — Marriages between relatives are of 
pretty common occurence in this district, for several reasons ; one of 
these is the strong clannish feeling of the people, another the nature 
of their relations with the inhabitants of the surrounding districts ; 
and, lastly, the difficulties of communication which prevent much 
movement of the population. These unions are not commonly of 
nearer degree than second cousins, which seems to be the most usual 
relationship in these cases. In addition to these there are many, if 
not the majority, of the marriages in which the parties are related 
more or less distantly to one another, often in no very distinguishable 
degree. 

The kindness of the Eev. Henry Hewson, p.p., of BelmuUet, who 
supplied me with the list of marriages and of dispensations for 
maniage on account of relationship fi-om the year 1875, extracted 
from the record of dispensations for the diocese which he has kept 
since that year, enables me to give actual figures. In the Eoman 
Catholic parish of Ballycroy,^ which contains about 320 families, there 

' It is not a parish in the Census Ketums, but forms part of Kilcommon, Erris. 



Browne — Ethnography of Ballycroy, Co. Mayo. 93 

were in that period 147 marriages altogether, and of these 50, or 34 
per cent., were consanguineous,^ This long-continued intermarriage 
does not appear to have produced any of the degenerative effects 
ascribed to it by M. Devay and others. As before stated, the people 
are well grown and healthy as a rule, and the proportion of serious 
disease, especially congenital, is but small. The people themselves do 
not appear to attribute any evil effects to this purity of strain. Its 
only effect seems to be, as noted in other districts, the strong personal 
resemblance among many of the people of the district which must at 
once be noticeable to a stranger arriving among them. 

Diseases, — The following, as far as could be ascertained, is the 
state of the population as regards disease. Figures are given where- 
€ver they can be accurately known. The principal diseases may be 
classed as follows : — 

Insanity is said to be very rare in the district, but the actual 
number of cases could not be obtained. 

Idiocy and Imhecility. — There are no idiots properly so-called, but 
there are two, or at most three,^ individuals who are said to be " weak 
minded," though shrewd enough in most things where their own 
interest is concerned. 

Epilepsy. — Several cases are known to exist, but as these do not 
usually seek professional aid, the actual number is not ascertainable. 

Deaf-mutism and Deafness. — There is one deaf mute (a female): 
parents so far as could be learned not relatives. There are also two 
•cases of deafness consequent on acute diseases. 

Blindness.— ThQXQ is no congenital blindness, but several old 
people are blind either from cataract or as the result of injuries. 

Malformations. — Congenital malformations are very rare. There 
is a case of hare-lip in one family, parents not relatives. 

Serni(B. — Three cases have been noted within recent years. 

Albinism. — There are four albinoes in one family ; the father is 
dark-haired, the mother red-haired, they are not in any way related 
so far as they know. 

Fevers. — No information obtained. 

" Constitutional " Diseases. — Phthisis and struma are not at all 
imcommon. It is also noticeable that many of the young girls are 



1 The total number of marriages for the -whole harony of Erris in the same time 
was 1210, and of these 265 were between relatives of a degree requiring dispensa- 
tions, a percentage of 21*9. 

2 Here my informants differ. 



94 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ansemic in spite of the open-air life they lead {query, is this due to 
the almost exclusively vegetable dietary ?). 

No information was obtainable respecting malignant disease. The 
cases probably fall into the hands of " wise " men or women, or into 
those of cancer-curers such as practise in the Mullet district. 

Rheumatism seems to be very common, especially in the old. 

Tonsillitis, too, is not unfrequently seen. 

Hysteria is by no means unknown. 

Dietetic diseases. — Owing to the nature of the food, dyspepsia is 
very prevalent, and the increasing use or abuse of very strong tea at 
all meals seems to deserve a large part of the blame which is ascribed 
to it by some of the older people. 

Ento-parasites are said to be of common occurrence. 

Respiratory diseases. — Bronchitis is very common in the winter 
and spring months, especially among the older people. 

Local affections are, as was noted in the Mullet, few, and usually 
of but little importance. Several cases of ophthalmia, and some of 
senile cataract, also one of " Jacob's " ulcer have been noted of late. 

The teeth are usually short, broad, even, and white ; but dental 
troubles are by no means uncommon. 

Female troubles seem to be very prevalent. The one most often 
noted was menorrhagia. 

Venereal diseases. — As is the case commonly in Irish rural districts, 
venereal complaints may be said to be practically non-existent. 

Skin. — A number of skin diseases come for treatment, the prin- 
cipal of which are eczema, impetigo, scabies, and tinea tonsurans. 

Accidental injuries are of frequent occurrence, amongst the most 
common of which are cuts and contused wounds, fractures, and bums. 

(e.) Longevity. — Though there are no centenarians now in Bally- 
croy, yet there are two persons living who are over ninety years of 
age, still hale and hearty, and a good many cases of people over 
eighty years of age. 

4, Psychology. — A sketch of the mental character of the people, 
as well as the physical, is necessary to the completeness of a report 
such as this, and accordingly inquiries were made on this point of 
people of all classes and conditions who have daily dealings with them, 
as well as such observations as could be made personally during a stay 
among them of limited duration, and the result is, on the whole, very 
creditable to the community at large. As is the case with most such 
communities as this, isolated by reason of origin and customs, the 
people of the other parts of the barony seem to look upon the inhabi- 



Browne — Ethnograiihy of Bally croy^ Co. Mayo. 95 

tants of Ballycroy with a good deal of distrust, and many tales are 
told to their disfavour, for which the usual allowance must be made. 
Trustworthy informants, however, seem to agree in the statements 
following : — The people of Ballycroy are reputedly sharp and shrewd 
in matters of business; they are good judges of character in their 
customers, and can readily adapt themselves to their peculiarities, 
and, their neighbours assert, are not over-scrupulous about taking any 
advantage which offers. As a rule, however, creditable informants 
state they are very honest in their dealings with one another. 

They are fond of amusement, especially music and dancing, and 
show more signs of artistic taste than were observed in any district 
yet reported on, though their choice in colours may not be always 
classically correct. They are sharp at repartee, and a good deal 
given to j oking, often of a very practical nature. Formerly this district 
was noted, like the other parts of Erris, for the litigious character of 
its people, but this spirit has largely died out. The faction fights 
which used to occur between the peoples of iN'orth and South Bally- 
croy are a thing of the past, though some few remaining signs of the 
old feeling on this poiut were noticed. The Ballycroy people used 
formerly to be noted for their quarrelsome nature, which is almost 
proverbial in the other parts of Erris ; but this no longer characterises 
them to the same extent, a change which is said to be in part at least due 
to the almost complete suppression of illicit distillation in the district. 
When quarrels occur the men seldom go the length of a stand-up 
fight, man to man, but make use of abusive language, and throw stones, 
or several will set on one. They are not, as a rule, given to drink, 
and in their everyday life are sober and quiet, but on, fair days, or at 
races or other public occasions, a good deal of drinking takes place. 
When in liquor they are very boastful, and the local pride, which is 
evident in them at all times, shows out more strongly. Most of them 
seem to look upon themselves as far superior to all the neighbouring 
peoples. This pride, by cultivating a sense of self-respect, seems, in 
some cases, to be the moving spring of a manly and independent 
spirit which is exhibited by many. In connection with this, one 
curious feeling may be noted. It was some years ago considered to 
be an indelible disgrace to any Ballycroy woman to sell butter. 

To strangers the people are obliging and kindly, ready to afford 
information, and extremely hospitable. To one another they are 
generous, especially in times of trouble or adversity, when, even though 
in straitened circumstances themselves, they are ready to help those 
worse off. 



96 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The moral character of the people is very good, as illegitimacy, 
though not imkno-wTi, is of very rare occurrence. There is practically 
no crime in the district, and it is a long time since any serious ofPence 
was committed there. They are said to be devout in their religious 
observance. 

This section may be concluded by quoting the accounts given of 
the people by -writers on the district. Mr. Knight's description,' 
■written sixty years ago, is practically accurate as applied to the people 
at the present day. He says that they are "bold, daring, and intrepid 
in danger ; not good-tempered, but hospitable to an extreme. A 
stranger seldom enters their country without having the usual salute 
of 'you are welcome to the country, stranger,' given him, be he known 
or not. They are considered generally very intelligent, and haviag 
that degree of cleverness and acuteness, particularly in bargaining, said 
to be peculiar to their northern origin. They are the material of a 
fine people, if properly managed." 

With this account, that given by the novelist Maxwell (long a 
resident in the district) closely tallies. "Writing a little earlier in 
the century he says^: — 

" The inhabitants of this district are extremely hospitable to 
passing travellers, but by no means fond of encouraging strangers to 
sojourn permanently among them. This latter inherent prejudice 
may arise from clannnh feelings, or ancient recollections of how 
much their ancestors were spoliated by former settlers, who, by 
artifice and the strong hand, managed to possess the better portions 
of the country. They are also absurdly curious, and will press 
their questions with American pertinacity, until, if possible, the 
name, rank, and occasion of his visit, is fully and faithfully detailed 
by the persecuted traveller. 

" On the score of propriety of conduct, I would assign the female 
peasantry of this district a high place. When the habits of the 
countiy are considered, one would be inclined to suspect that exces- 
sive drinking, and the frequent scenes of nocturnal festivities which 
wakes and dances present, would naturally lead to much immorality. 
This, however, is not the case : broken vows will, no doubt, occa- 
sionally require the interference of the magistrate or the priest ; but 
generally the lover makes the only reparation in his power, and 
deceived females or deserted children are seldom seen in Erris." 

' Erris, p. 106. 

2 ''Wild Sports of the West," Chap, xlvii. 



Browne — Eihnograjjhy ofBallycroy^ Co. Mayo. 



97 



5. Folk-names. — The following list of the surnames of the district 
was ohtained. It contains all the surnames now in Ballycroy, with 
the exception of a few families recently settled in the region : — 





Number 




Number 


Surname. 


of 


Surname. 


of 




Families. 




Families. 


Bradley, 


2 


Kane, or Keane, . . 


16 


Bradsliaw, . 






3 


Kilroy, 


2 


Cafferky, 






25 


Little,! 


1 


Cadden, 






1 


Lenahan, 


20 


CalYey, 






8 


Loftus, 


1 


Campbell, . 






7 


M'Ginty, or Ginty, 


14 


Carey, 






1 


M'Gowan, .. 


5 


Cleary, 






1 


M'Guire, .. 


4 


Cooney, 






2 


M'Greal, . . 


1 


Conway, 






31 


M'Hugli, .. 


2 


Cormack, . 






3 


M'Manamon, 


16 


Corrigan, . 






15 


M'Neely, .. 


6 


Deane, 






2 


M'Tighe, . . 


3 


Dooher, 






4 


Malley, 


2 


Doran, 






6 


Masterson, . . 


1 


Dyra,i 






1 


Molloy, 


3 


FaUon, 






1 


Monaghan, . . 


1 


Finn, 






2 


Moran, 


3 


Gallagher, . 






5 


Murray, 


9 


Gaughan, . 






2 


O'DoniieU, .. 


8 


Grealis,2 . 






1 


O'Hora, . . 


1 


Gruddy, 






1 


O'Boyle, . . 


5 


Henry, 






2 


Sweeny, 


25 






Togher, 


4 



Some of the less numerous of these surnames are comparatively 
recent importations from the surrounding districts. Some names once 
common in the district have now died out. One of these was Lynott, 
one of the old Anglo-ITorman names. 

The families whose ancestors came "from the J^orth" take great 
pride out of it, and rather look down upon those who are the descen- 
dants of the aboriginal inhabitants. 

lY. — Sociology. 

1. Occupations. — Though the district is maritime, the population 
is almost a purely pastoral one, sea-fishing not being practised as a 
mode of livelihood by any considerable portion of the people. The 
majority of the farms are of very small size, averaging about 4 to 4^ 
acres for the poorer class, 15 acres for the better off, under tillage, 



! Not native. 
E.I A. PEOC, SEE. m., VOL. IV. 



- From Inisbiggle. 



98 Proceedings of the Royal Trkh. Academy. 

but usually haTiug a large mountain run, over which, the tenant has 
grazing rights. The average rent for a holding of the better class 
would be about £5, £3 for the poorer. As in the Mullet, the land is 
not usually well fenced. The principal crops are potatoes, barley, 
and rye. Spade labour is almost universal. Sea-weed is the prin- 
cipsd mamire. A plot of land is cropped until worn out ; then a fresh 
piece is reclaimed and fenced, and so on. During the summer ui nths 
the cattle were formerly moved to the mountain runs ; some of the 
younger people going o^S to tend them there, and living, while thus 
engaged, in roughly-built huts called boothies. TLis :_:-:: 12 -vas =till 
in vogue until about thirty years ago. 

ilany of the men — my informants stated the number at about 130 — 
annually go to England or Scotland every summer to work as migratory 
labourers, returning to their homes for the winter months. 

Along the coast-line a good deal of kelp is m^ade, on which no royalty 
is paid. The sea-weed for this purpose is sometimes brought by boat 
to points where it is to be burned, but Knight mentions a method of 
conveying it common in his time, and still practised. A description 
of it is best given in his own words : " Transporting sea-weed from 
one part of these sheltered shores to another, either for burning into 
kelp or for manure, in large masses, without any other means than a 
man standing on the heap, and pushing it forward with a long pole, 
is a very common practice, and hundreds of these may be seen float- 
ing with the tide up and down the sound of Achill, or on the Ballycroy 
shores, in the fine summer days ; while a single man sits quietly on 
the heap, roasting his potatoes and limpets, or other shell-fish, for his 
evening meal, carried forward towards his destination without any 
trouble or exertion from him until the tide slackens, or that he is 
obliged to pole it forwards in some parts against the current.'" 

As before stated, there is practically no sea-fishing ; a few coal-fish 

^ 1 am indebted to my friend ilr. G. H. "K^inahan for the following note on the 
cutting and transportation of sea-weed : — " During springs the weed-cutters must 
be on the claddagh (the foreshore left dry during low water) when the tide is one- 
third gone ; the men with hooks cut the weed, while the boys and girls pile it in 
heaps like hay-cocks ; these heaps must be properly built to gire them solidity. As 
the tide comes in, the men come back and put a tuggaun, made of sea- weed, round 
the butt of each heap, or two viggaum, one above the other, if there is a rough 
sea. If the sea is rotigh, they often fasten a rope to the heap, and tow it into shelter 
as the tide rises. If there is a quiet sea, a man Trill sit on the heap, and, as it rises, 
will direct it with a pole to wherever he wants it to go ; he will even go out into 
he tidal race, and run with it to the place he wants to land the weeds, goierally 
ome harbour or coose where it can be easily landed, and carried to the land." 



Browne — Ethnography of Ballycroy, Co. Mayo. 99 

are taken occasionally ; periwinkles are gathered in large quantities on 
the sea-shore, and large lobsters are sometimes found among the 
crevices in the rocks. About forty men are employed netting salmon in 
the chief river of the district. There is not much regular employment 
for labourers, for whom the average rate of pay is about 9s. a-week. 
Tradesmen are few ; there are four hand-loom weavers, and two 
blacksmiths. During the winter months there is little work of any 
sort done. 

Like the Mullet district, Ballycroy exports very large quantities 
of eggs, most of which are sent to "Westport and thence to the English 
market. Eggs are said to be occasionally used for barter. The 
women, besides the ordinary domestic duties, carding, spinning, &c., 
take part in all field labour with the men, and gather sea-weed for 
manure ; the only kind of outdoor work they do not engage in is 
cutting turf, which is the main fuel of the district. Some of the turf 
is exported to Inishkea and the lower extremity of the Mullet. 

2. Family Life and Customs. — The family life of the people of 
Ballycroy is on the whole very similar to that of the people of the 
other parts of Erris and of the natives of Inishbofin, and so need not 
be described at any length, the reader being referred for details to 
the previous report. 

The children of a family are sent to school young, if at all, but 
their attendance is stated to be rather irregular, owing to the long 
distances the children have to go and the wild nature of the country. 
They leave school young, and then enter into the ordinary work of the 
family. 

The people do not as a rule marry as early as those of some other 
parts of the country, many girls not getting married until 25 years of 
age. Business and family interests have usually more to do with the 
matches than romantic attachment, the matter being arranged as a 
rule by the parents beforehand. After all has been settled, the young 
man goes, taking with him a spokesman to explain his errand, and a 
bottle or two of whiskey, and the girl's consent is asked ; if this be 
given, the parents then arrange about the dowry, and at this stage 
the match may be broken off if satisfactory terms be not arrived at. 
A calf or a pig may be the cause of upsetting the arrangement. 
Weddings are occasions of great feasting and merriment, and usually 
are concluded by a dance. Straw boys {clommeraglis) go round to 
these dances as described in the report on the Mullet. It is not 
considered etiquette in Ballycroy that these strawboys should take any 
drink at a wedding. The taking of the bride to her husband's house 

H 2 



100 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

is another occasion of festixity, though not now of so uproarious a 
nature as it was ia the earlier part of this century, when it was thus 
described by a writer who was long resident in the district : — 
" 'Dragging home ' is the bringing the bride to her husband's house. 
An immense mob of relatives and clevines of ' both the houses ' are 
collected on the occasion, and as an awful quantity of whiskey must 
of necessity be distributed to the company, this high solemnity seldom 
concludes without subjecting the host's person and property to demoli- 
tion." 

The ceremonies and observances relating to deaths are very fully 
kept up. Wakes are still held, but only in the case of old people, 
the yoimg not being waked. Most of the old games and observances 
are still kept up, but it is very difficult to obtain information respecting 
them. The corpse is lifted on to the bier at the house, and off it at 
the graveyard, by the relatives on the male side of the family at one 
side, and by those of the female side at the other. It is considered 
unlucky for the party whose side of the bier touches the ground first. 
The coffin is always taken to the graveyard by the longest route. On 
reaching the cemetery the coffin is carried to the place where it is to 
be interred, and then the people all scatter to kneel and pray at the 
graves of their own relatives. After this, new pipes and tobacco are 
served out to those present, who sit down and smoke. ^ After the 
pipes have been smoked, the weeds are cleared away and the grave is 
dug. It may be worthy of remark here that a grave is not dug on a 
Monday if possible, and if for any reason a burial has to be made on 
that day, a sod is raised the day before. After the grave has been dug 
and the coffin lowered into it, a band of women gather round it and 
sing the caoine, which here has not degenerated into mere discordant 
wailing, as it has in some other places, but is often really very musical 
and plaintive. "When this has been done, the mourners are sprinkled 
with holy water and then engage in prayer; after which the grave is 
filled in, covered over with rough stones, often white in colour, and 
the unused pipes placed upon it. ITntil the prayer is over, it is con- 
sidered both bad taste and extremely unlucky to leave the graveyard. 
To stumble in a cemetery is believed to indicate that the person who 
does so will die within the month. 

Unbaptised or still-bom infants are buried at night in separate 
burying grounds, by themselves. One of these infant cemeteries is 
at Bunmore. 

' In some cases it is said that a small turf fire is lighted at •which the smokers 
light their pipes, but I have not seen this personally in this district. 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 101 

One social function, going for the sand-eels, ought not to pass 
without mention ; it is the cause of considerahle gatherings of the 
young people on the sea-shore on moonlight nights, the ohject 
being as much the amusement as the sand-eels themselves. The 
mode of taking these latter is by passing a blunted reaping-hook or a 
knife through the sand. 

3. Food. — The dietary of the bulk of the people is almost ex- 
clusively vegetarian. As a rule it consists of potatoes, boxty (or 
potato-bread), flour-bread, and, to some extent, eggs and milk. A 
great deal of imported meal and flour is consumed, and tea is now 
used at nearly every meal, which, as it is made very strong, and 
drunk in large quantities, is probably responsible for a very large 
part of the digestive trouble so common among the people. A 
good deal of Indian-meal stirabout is taken during the summer 
months. 

Fish, when used, is obtained from Newport or Achill. 
The people usually take three meals in the day. 

4. Clothing. — The population, as a whole, seems to be well and 
comfortably clad on public occasions, though many of the poorer 
people are rather ragged in working attire. The clothing is very 
largely imported, and quite modem in style ; but a good deal of 
greyish-coloured and other home-spun is still worn, some of which 
is of a very high class. The dress worn by the women on working 
days is still of the old style, a short petticoat of a very bright red, 
dyed with madder or an aniline dye, a dark bodice, and a small tartan 
shawl over the shoulders, and a red handkerchief tied under the chin 
covers the hair. The old-fashioned heavy cloak of dark blue cloth 
is worn when at work away from home. Of late it has become a 
common practice among some of the better-to-do farmers to send the 
wool of their own sheep to the woollen mills at Foxford or to Scotland 
to be made up for them. A good deal of home-made flannel is worn 
in shirts, and the blankets too are of local manufacture. The wool 
for the homespuns is oiled, corded, and spun by the women, and then 
sent to one of the weavers. The regular charge made by these weavers 
is threepence a yard for frieze or flannel, fourpence per yard for 
blanketing. 

Some of the old dyes are still made use of. A yellow is obtained, 
as in Bofin, from a lichen {Ramalina scopulorum ?) which they gather 
from the rocks ; a greenish colour is got from the tops of the heather, 
also a black from some other plant, no specimen of which could be 
obtained. 



102 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The men wear boots as part of their everyday attire, but the 
women and children usually go barefooted, wearing boots only on 
Sundays and other public occasions. 

5. Dwellings. — The houses in this district are, as a rule, of a 
superior class to those to be seen in the northern portion of Erris, 
They are usually solidly built of stone and mortar, and whitewashed 
outside ; but few either of the dry-stone or of the " sod houses " now 
exist, though a few, some of which were evidently not long built, 
were seen. A typical Ballycroy house is built of stone and mortar, 
and thatched with straw or bent, laid on over " scraws " of grass turf, 
and held in place by sougans (straw ropes), which are attached to 
stout pegs driven into the walls, instead of stones or beams as seen 
in the Mullet. The house consists of a room and a kitchen. The 
kitchen is a large apartment, entered by two doors, one in front, the 
other in the rear, opposite to one another ; the floor is flagged, or of 
beaten clay. At one end of this room is the fireplace, a large open 
hearth, with a wide chimney. Beside the fire, at one side, is a bed 
of the usual Erris type. At the other end of the kitchen is a place 
for the cattle, usually paved, and provided with a small channel in 
the floor, which runs out under the gable. Over this part of the 
kitchen is a half loft, in which are kept agricultural implements, &c., 
and there is usually a small square hole or window in the gable of 
this end, which affords ventilation and some light. Across the 
apartment stretches a straw rope, on which articles of clothing are 
hung to dry. The walls are whitewashed inside, and are often 
decorated with cheap pictures, usually religious in character. The 
furnitui'e of the kitchen consists of the bed before mentioned, a table, 
a dresser, with some cheap crockery ware, a large chest, a settle or 
form, and two or three chairs or stools. The kitchen utensils are the 
usual three-legged pot, a skillet, a griddle, a few wooden piggins, a 
bucket, a boran or sheepskin sieve, a wool-wheel, and some cards. 

Cheap lamps of modern form are in most houses, but in some the 
rude " flare," described in the report on the Mullet, is still in use. 

The "room" is a smaller apartment, and usually contains two or 
more beds, of the usual Erris pattern, and with feather ticks ; it con- 
tains a table and a couple of chairs. The floor is often boarded. 

6. Transport. — The means of transport are, with the exception of 
the method of conveying seaweed mentioned in another section, the 
same as those prevailing in the Mullet district. There are compara- 
tively few carts in use, and turf, manure, and articles for market are 
usually carried in the pardoges or panniers on the backs of donkeys 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 103 

or horses. The better-to-do among the people possess saddle-horses, 
and, as distances are long, and houses far apart, live a good deal on 
horseback. As in the other part of Erris, it is common for two to 
ride on one horse, the man in the saddle, and a woman en croupe. 
For short distances and domestic purposes panniers, carried on the back, 
are used, chiefly by the women. 

For transport by sea a good many boats (about seventy) are kept 
along the coast (mostly row-boats). As before mentioned, the people 
do not fish as a means of livelihood, so the boats are not employed 
except for transport. A good deal of turf for fuel is sent by boat from 
Ballycroy to the lower extremity of the peninsula of the Mullet. 

In the early part of this century, when Mr. Maxwell wrote, there 
was " no road on which a wheel could turn " in the district, and, as a 
consequence, no wheeled vehicles. The main road was constructed 
about 1841, and others since. I^eed has long been felt for a direct 
road to BelmuUet, and one is now being constructed by the Govern- 
ment which will certainly prove of great benefit to the people. The 
smaller roads are very indifferent, and mostly used only for foot- 
traffic, and ponies carrying panniers. 

v.— FolkLoee. 

Though Ballycroy is reputedly very rich in its traditional lore, 
but little information could be obtained on the subject, as the people 
are very reticent with strangers about such matters. The follow- 
ing notes, however, were obtained : — Many ancient songs and 
traditional tales in Irish are still preserved among the older people, 
and repeated around the firesides in the long winter evenings ; 
but the old beliefs seem to be losing their hold on many of the younger 
portion of the population. The principal legends of the region have 
been recorded by Mr. Maxwell in a somewhat popularised form. 

For the following notes I am chiefly indebted to the kindness of 
Messrs. James, John, and Eobert Cleary, of Ballycroy, and Mr. John 
M'Manamon. Some other informants have requested that their names 
should not be mentioned. 

1 . Customs and Beliefs. — As remarked in the other localities re- 
ported on, the number of actions or events considered of lucky or 
unlucky import is very large. It is unlucky to meet a red-headed 
woman on starting out in the morning on any business, especially if 
fishing or shooting be the object in view. Some object to meeting 
any woman as the first individual encountered on the road in the 



104 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

morning, and people have been kaown to desist from the projected 
undertaMng on tids account. It is also unlucky to have a hare cross 
one's path., but not so much so as the meeting of a red-headed person. 

HI fortune also follo-svs the digging of a grave on a Monday, the 
change of residence on that day, the removal of one of the pipes ofp a 
grave, giving fire out of the house on May Day, and the molesting of 
the \rild swans which visit the coast in winter. To stumble or fall 
in a graveyard is looked upon as a sign that the person so doing will 
die within the month. The death- warnings mentioned in the report 
on the Mullet are also believed in here, as is the evil eye ; the con- 
sequences of which may be averted in the manner mentioned therein 
{I. c. 631). It is considered by some to be very unlucky to rescue a 
drowning man, as he will be certain to do some evil to his rescuer. 
The old belief that blood will start from the body of a murdered person 
at the touch of the murderer, is still prevalent. Fairies are believed 
in by many, and many tales of their actions are related. They are 
believed to be a class of fallen angels who took part with Satan to 
some extent, but whose guilt was not sufficient to condemn them to 
the infernal regions, and were, instead, made to wander through the 
universe. Michael Conway, who has a local reputation for his know- 
ledge of their ways, says that they are of three classes — the first were 
made dwellers in the air; the second, in the sea ; and the third, on 
the earth. They are accused of doing much mischief, both to men 
£uid to domestic animals. Cattle becoming suddenly ill are said to be 
"shot" by them, and the "cure" applied by a wise man who possesses 
a fairy stone (arrowhead) is the passing of the said flint arrowhead 
over the back and under the belly of the animal thrice, accompanying 
the action by suitable incantations. 

Changelings are believed in, and tales are told of cases of this nature. 
Quite recently the fairies were supposed to have stolen away a child, 
and carried him to a distance of three miles. Michael Conway states 
that he knew a man who, when out one night, heard sweetmusic of pipes, 
and in an ecstasy he danced to the music ; he died within the year. 

The people do not meddle with an old rath or fort, even though in 
the centre of cultivated land, as they believe these to be favoui-ite 
dwelling-places for the fairies. A man built an addition to his house 
upon a "fairy hill " : he died within the year (was drowned), and later 
on his brother also died. A hearth should always be swept clean, 
and new fixe put down when going to bed for the fairies to wann 
themselves at. 

The devil, as usual, bulks largelv in the local tales ; he is said to 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 105 

have appeared to one woman in chapel ! Satan explained to her that 
he went to the church because people were so thoughtless there, and 
the women went there mostly to criticise each other's clothes. Demo- 
niacal possession is believed in, and a tale is told of a possessed man 
near Mount Jubilee, between BelmuUet and Ballycroy. 

Considering the wild nature of the country, it is not wonderful 
that ghosts should be met with, and phantoms of various kinds. The 
people used to dread passing a spot on the main road after dark, as 
the ghosts of people slain in faction fights there (it being on the 
boundary between north and south Ballycroy) were believed to appear 
there, and to haunt especially the families of the slayers. The ghost 
of a sportsman, who many years ago met his death on the mountains, 
is said to be sometimes seen. 

On the road between Ballycroy and Bangor, Erris, a phantom dog 
sometimes appears, as does a white cow, whose appearance is looked 
on as a death-warning. Several of the lakes are thought to be inhabited 
by "water horses," which sometimes come on land and endeavour ta 
coax unwary people to mount them, and then, having got them mounted, 
carry them oif into the water. They are believed to be seen once in 
every seven years. 

Among the customs observed may be mentioned wakes, at which 
all the old games are kept up. These wakes are now only held on old 
people, not on younger ones. 

The funeral observances have been described in another section. 
A straw cross is placed in the roof of some of the houses on All 
Hallows' Eve to avert evil. Eires are lighted on St. John's Eve 
(June 24), as described in last year's report. 

At one time the most inviolable oath taken in this district was 
that sworn with the hand on a skull; this is still believed in, but never 
practised now. 

Straw boys (clommeraghs) go round to weddings, and dance with 
the bride as in the Mullet. 

Practically no information could be obtained as to the leechcraft, 
or folk-medicine, of the district. Several "wise" men and women 
practise in it, but they keep their remedies secret as far as possible. 
Head-measuring, the application of various unguents and charms 
for the rose (erysipelas), and the use of charms for toothache, as 
described in the other part of the barony, were all that any informa- 
tion could be obtained about. Many local herb remedies are said to 
be in use, but beyond this vague statement no further information 
could be got. The only treatments of interest in the diseases of cattle. 



106 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

of vhich any description could be got, were the treatment of fairy- 
"sliot" animals described above, and tbe tying of the "worm-knot" 
■with, the object of destroying entoparasites. 

2. Legends and Traditions. — As has been already stated, there are 
a good many local traditions, mostly of a minor character ; but, owing 
to the reticence of the people on this subject, only a few could be 
obtained, the chief of which have been recorded by Mr. ilaxwell. 
The "Legend of Knock-a-Thample " is still told practically as given 
in his well-known work, "The Wild Sports of the "West," and the 
grave of the "Eed Pedlar" pointed out. Tales are told of a daring 
robber who, in past times, lived in a cave in the mountains, and who 
was at last hunted down and killed. Lough Curafin, in the mountains, 
is said by the country people to owe its origin to the massacre of a 
priest and his people (in the time of Cromwell, they say) on the spot 
where the lake now is ; the ground sank down and the water covered 
it, thus forming the lough. The water is dark- coloured, and the 
people say that waves are on it even on the calmest days when there 
is no wind ; they also say that the fish in it will never take a fly. 
Strange to say, though such a conspicuous character as Grace 
O'Malley held the Castle of Doona, and lived for some years there, 
local tradition is almost dumb about her ; the story of a fight in 
the courtyard, where the O'Malleys captured the castle from the 
M'Mahons, seems to be almost the only trace of her memory which 
is preserved here ; while a few mUes off, in Achill, there are many 
legends about her. This is probably due to the ancestors of the 
present population supplanting the aborigines. 

VI. — Aech^ologt. 

This district contains much that is interesting to the archaeologist, 
but, as in. former reports of this nature, all that can be done here is 
to indicate what is worthy of notice to those who make Irish 
antiquities their study. 

1. Survivals. — Owing to the greater comfort of the people, these 
are fewer than in the northern part of the barony. Querns are no 
longer in use, though they were until quite recently ; the type of 
wool-wheel, the sheep-skin sieve, panniers on the horses' backs, and 
the use of hooped piggins are the chief amongst the remaining articles 
not yet deposed by our modem appKances. The clothing has been 
before referred to. One article still in use is worthy of notice, the 
otter, an implement of very ancient origin in Ireland, is used some- 
times for fishing in the fresh-water lakes. 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. 107 

2. Antiquities. — There are not many ancient buildings or monuments 
in Ballycroy, which must always have been a thinly-populated district, 
and of those that exist, all, or nearly all, are of far earlier date than 
the Ulster colony. The remains still in existence are in much the 
same condition as when O'Donovan noted them in 1838; the people 
generally respect these old monuments, and so the only destroyer in 
the meantime has been the weather. 

The object of this section is to point out the objects worthy of 
note to archaeologists, not to enter upon a description at length, which 
is left to more competent hands, and so only a short notice is given 
here. The most ancient remains seem to be a cromleach near Claggan, 
a " druidical circle" at Tallagh, and numerous small earthen forts 
scattered through the district. At a place called Kildun ( Cill-a-dhuin), 
where a peninsula juts out into the bay, is an ancient buryiag-ground, 
and an upright monumental stone or slab inscribed with a cross within 
a circle. The other buildings and monuments are apparently of more 
modern date ; they comprise churches, holy wells, two castles, and a 
monument. At Bunmore there is the ruin of Tempull Mma (St. 
Enda's Church), a small ancient building of which, as in O'Donovan's 
time, there is but little standing ; not far from the church is Tola/r 
Mma (St. Enda's Well), ^ which is covered by a beehive-shaped struc- 
ture of stone, on the front of which is a slab rudely marked with a 
cross. The church and well are the scene of the "Legend of Knock- 
a-Thample," which has been already referred to in this paper. Not 
far from the well is what is poiated out as "the Red Pedlar's Grave," 
in which the murderer is said to be interred. At Claggan, in the 
south of the district, outside of the graveyard, is, or was. Teach 
Fiontainne (the house of St. Eintanny), the site of a small church. 
O'Donovan says that " St. Eintanny was the author of the Pagan 
History of Ireland, and is said by tradition to have lived longer than 
Methusalem {sic), and to have been contemporary with the very old 
woman called Cailleach Bheartha." Inside the graveyard is the "Well 
of St. Eintanny, where stations are performed. Just outside this 
graveyard is a small rocking-stone. 

At Castlehill [KnocTc-a-chaislean) there are the foundations of a 
castle torn down for building materials some time in the last century; 

1 Some call this -well St. Catherine's ; it is helieved hy the people to possess 
anti-Ma] thusian properties ; also, to be efficacious in curing eye troubles, abscesses, 
and dog-bites. Stations are performed here. 

At Bunmore there is also a killeen, or ancient burial-place. 



108 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

of tlie founder or possessors of this castle local tradition is altogether 
silent — no one kno-^-s "who they vere. 

The best known of the ruins of this district is the Castle of Doona 
{Dun atha), of -vrhich. many contradictory traditions are in existence. 
Some ascribe its origin to tbe famous Grace O'AIalley, "n^ho is said to 
have spent some of her life there ; others assert that she captured it 
from the MacMahons. 'Donovan, whose informant was a 3Ir. Cormic, 
whose family was of old standing in Erris, says that it was built by 
Brian Eevagh O'Kelly, who was married to one of the Barrets, and 
flourished here in the reign of Elizabeth ; another account agaia states 
that it was built in the time of BomJinall Buall hwee, a Damnonian 
chief who lived before the time of Christ. If there was ever a dun 
here it seems to have been entirely removed. The castle is built of 
rough rubble stones, and the walls are very thick ; but the greater 
part of it is in a very ruinous condition. The main tower was split 
in two many years ago by the accidental firing of a turf stack in its 
Ulterior ; one half fell, the other is still standing. The court-yard 
and passage to the landing stiU remain. Part of the castle has been 
transformed into a modem farmhouse and offices. 

Not far from the castle is Doona Church, a building about six 
centuries old; it is about 50 feet in length, by some 20 in breadth. 
It was somewhat modified in form about two centuries ago, when 
certain additions were made to it. The interior is used as a burial- 
place, and is choked up with graves which have raised the soil far 
above the original floor level,' 

The most modem of all the monuments of Ballycroy is Lachta 
Bdhya Ban (_Fair David's Bed), a monument on the top of Corslieve 
Mountain, between Ballycroy and Tirawley. "Fair David" was a 
notorious robber chief who lived in a cave in the mountains, and was 
a scourge far and wide ; he was hunted down and killed at this spot 
about two centuries ago. 

Til. HlSTOET. 

The earlier history of the district is the same as that of the rest of 
Erris, which has been given at length in the Eeport on the Mullet, 
Inishkea, and Portacloy, and so vrill only receive a brief notice heru. 



' O'DonoTan remarks that the skulls of the Kinnelconnell tribe, which he saw 
in Doona Church, were "higher in the forehead and broader than those of the 
Connacians." 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally crop, Co. Mayo. 109 

Erris was anciently inhabited by the Damhnanns, or Damnonii, a 
Firbolg tribe, who held the territory for some centuries. They were 
conquered by Tuathal Teachtmar, a Milesian king, some time in the 
second century. The family of O'Caithniadh (O'Kane) now held sway 
until about the beginning of the 14th century, when the Anglo- 
]S"orman and Welsh families of Burke, Barret, Lynnot, and others 
obtained a foothold in Erris, and eventually became the rulers of it. 
In or about the middle of the 17th century the district was colonized 
by the ancestors of most of the principal families now in existence 
there. The exact date of this immigration does not seem to be clearly 
known, but, from some pedigrees collected by O'Donovan in 1838, the 
families he mentions would seem to have been in the district for six 
or seven generations. He notes that the people '^ have no other 
chronology but the number of generations since their emigration, a 
very primitive mode of calculating time." Counting a generation as 
thirty years, eight or nine must have now elapsed, giving the colony 
the probable age of 240 to 270 years, O'Donovan also states that 
" Ballycroy and Ballymonnelly (an adjacent district) were colonized 
by tribes from Tirconnell about two centuries ago " ; " Ballycroy was 
colonized by several families from the same county, who settled under 
O'Donnell " ; and adds, ''the principal surnames among them are 
M' Sweeny, O'Clery, 0' Gallagher, Conway, MacManamon, and O'Friel. 
These still speak the TJltonian dialect of the Irish, and are called by 
their neighbours na hUUaigh, i.e. the Ulstermen." The colonists are 
said, by tradition, to have come to the district by sea, and to have 
landed at Fahy, near Doona Castle. 

In the Appendix to the " Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy 
Eiachrach," in the notes on the O'Clery family, the following mention 
is made of the movement of this family into Ballycroy from Donegal : — 
" CucoigcricTie, or Peregrine 0' Clery, the eldest son of Lughaidh. — He 
married one of the Mac S weeny s, of the county of Donegal, by whom 
he had two sons, Diarmaid and John. It appears from an inquisition 
taken at LifEord on the 25th of May, 1632, that he held the half 
quarter of the lands of Coobeg and Doughill, in the proportion of 
Monargane, in the barony of Boylagh and Bannagh, in the county of 
Donegal, from Hollantide, 1631, until May, 1632, for which he paid 
eight pounds sterling per annum to William Earrell, Esq., assignee 
to the Earl of Annandale ; but, as the document states, being ' a 
meere Irishman, and not of English or British discent or sirname,' he 
was dispossessed, and the lands became forfeited to the king. Shortly 
after this period he removed, with many other families of Tirconnell, 



110 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

to Ballycroy, in tlie sontli of the barony of Erris, in the county of 
Mayo, iinder the guidance of Rory or Eoger O'Donnell, the son of 
Colonel Manus, who was slain at Benburb in 1646, and the ancestor 
of the present Sir Richard Annesley O'Donnell, of Newport."^ This 
would place the settlement at about 1640, thus agreeing closely with 
the traditional number of generations since the families concerned 
came to Erris. 

More modern history can scarcely be said to exist. Owing to the 
wildness and remoteness of the region, it became in the last century 
a resort for smugglers, of whom many tales are told which belong 
more to legend than to history. 

In the first half of the present century, about 1840, the district 
was opened up by the construction of the first good road, and brought 
more into contact with the outer world ; but it still remains greatly 
isolated and comparatively unknown. 

VIII. — Concluding Remaeks. 

Little remains to be said in conclusion. As this paper, like its 
precursors, is a record of facts observed, collected as means of forming 
a basis of comparison between different parts of Ireland, theories and 
personal opinions are not ventured upon. 

The tradition as to the origin of the greater part of the people of 
Ballycroy seems to be fiiUy borne out by facts, but it seems probable 
that all the aboriginal families were not driven out by the colonists, 
and that some of them, remaining in the district, have become 
absorbed into the mass. It was stated by some of the people that the 
familes whose ancestors " came from the North" rather looked down 
upon some of their neighbours, whose people were there before them, 
as they do on the inhabitants of the surrounding districts. The 
physical differences between the Ballycroy people, and those of the 
rest of Erris, are more noticeable in the casts of features and darker 
nigrescence than in their physical proportions, though, as before 
mentioned, some of these are noteworthy. 

IX. — BiBLIOGEAPHT. 

The literature referring to this region is very scanty, but the 
following make more or less mention of it : — 

Anonxhous. — " The Saxon in Ireland" (London, 1851). 

Bald.—" Map of the County of Mayo " (1813). 

^ His family were hereditary historians to the O'Donnells. 



Browne — Ethnography of Bally croy, Co. Mayo. Ill 

Bennett. — " Six Weeks in Ireland" (1848). 
The Fouk Masters (<?/. O'Donovan). 

Knight, Pateick, C.E. — " Erris in the Irish Highlands and the 
Atlantic Railway" (Dublin, 1836). 

MacFiebis, Dtjald {of. O'Donovan). 
Maxwell, W. H. : 

" Wild Sports of the West " (1829). 

" The Dark Lady of Doona." 

O'Donovan, John : 

"MSS. Letters to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland" (1838). 

In the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. 
" The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland," by the Four 

Masters. Translated and Annotated by John O'Donovan, 

LL.D. 
" The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs, of Hy Fiachrach, 

commonly called O'Dowda's Country. From the Book 

of Lecan in the Eoyal Irish Academy, and from the 

Genealogical MSS. of Duald Mac Firbis, in the Library 

of Lord Eoden " (DubHn, 1844). 

Official : 

" Census of Ireland, 1891," vol. iv., No. 3. 

" Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Ireland." 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES III. AND IV. 

Plates III. and IV. are from original photographs of the people 
taken during this visit. 



[ 112 ] 



YII. 



ADDITIONS TO THE HEPATICJE OE THE HILL OE HOWTH, 
WITH A TABLE SHOWING THE GEOGEAPHICAL 
DISTRIBUTION OF ALL THE SPECIES KNOWN TO 
GPOW THERE. Bx DAYID McARDLE. 

[COMMTTNICATED BY P. W. MOORE.] 
[Eead April 13th, 1896.] 

In the summer of 1893, shortly after writing a provisional list of 
the " Hepaticse of the Hill of Howth," which the Royal Irish Academy 
did me the honour to puhlish,^ I was engaged in making further research 
on the hill ; and I was fortunate in gathering a liverwort, which was 
new to me, growing in some quantity amongst the limestone rocks 
near Ballykill. I had very little difficulty in determining its correct 
name to he Jungermania attenuata. It belongs to the barlata group, 
and was figured by Sir William Hooker in his fine work on the 
British Hepaticse, under the name of Jungermania harhata, (3 minor. 
A specimen collected by Mr. E. M. Holmes at Abbey Wood, Kent, 
which is included in Carrington and Pearson's excellent Fasciculus 
(No. 74), quite settled the identification. 

This was apparently the first discovery of Jungermania attenuata in 
Ireland. It grows most luxuriantly in company, and mixed with a 
pretty moss Tetraphis pellucida, which also seems hitherto to have 
escaped notice in the county Dublin district. Professor Lindberg, in his 
" Musci Scandinavica," calls the former Jungermania gracilis, Schleich ; 
and Mr. M. B. Slater, f.l.s., to whom I sent specimens of the Howth 
plant, says : — " It is a pity the name attenuata has priority, as gracilis 
is more expressive of its habit of growth." 

This interesting find was encouraging, and Mr. Moore wrote to 
Captain Rochf ord (Lord Howth' s agent) for permission to collect in the 
demesne, which was kindly granted for the first four months of last 

^ Proceedings, 3rd Ser., vol. iii., p. 108. 



McArdle — Additions to the Hepaticce of the Mill of Hoioth. 113 

year, during wliich time I paid it several visits ^yith good results, and 
the list would not be so extensive if this request had not been granted. 
Such species as the rare Jungermania minuta, Scapania (Bquiloba, 
and Lejeimea flava var., grow in great luxuriance. The last, in 
company with the commoner species Lejeunea serpyllifoUa^ clothes the 
large stones, and the stems of trees which margin a small stream. 
The pretty Lejiidozia reptans and L. cupressina grow in large cushion- 
like patches, and such exuberant growth I have only found at 
Killarney. The centre of the demesne is sheltered on all sides, 
ancient lianas of honeysuckle hang from tree to tree, and on these 
and the fallen and decaying logs, with the damp genial atmosphere, 
liverworts and mosses grow in profusion. I do not know a prettier 
sight than the banks of Pellia epiphylla, and Lophocolea lidentata, 
yards in extent, with their white pellucid fruit stalks glistening 
with dew-drops, rising from the green velvet carpet of fronds, which 
I enjoyed in the wood one April day. The outer portion is backed 
up with stately conifers and rare shrubs, which quite surround the 
historic castle. The termination of the demesne at the hill is a natural 
rockwork, planted with choice rhododendrons, which grow luxuriantly, 
some of them attaining large dimensions, and, when bearing their 
trusses of bloom, are a sight well worth going there to see. 

To my former list I have added nineteen species. One of these is 
new to the Irish Elora, and foui'teen are additions to the Co. Dublin 
list of Hepaticse ; also seven varieties of more or less botanical 
interest. The total number of species now known to grow on the 
"FTin of Howth is fifty-five. The appended Table, which shows their 
geographical distribution, will, I trust, be interesting, and I have 
endeavoured to make it as complete as possible, so far as the material 
for doing so at my disposal would allow. A glance over it will show 
that some of the Howth plants are local in Ireland. At the present 
time Howth is the only locality recorded in Ireland for Ceplialo%ia 
Francisci, and Jungermania attenuata. Plagiochila asplem'oides is rarely 
found in fruiting condition, so I have given a description of the male 
plant, which does not seem to be well known. The range of most of 
the species in Scandinavia and the Pyrenees is very striking, and it 
is interesting to note that the Hill of Howth plants extend mostly 
over the northern continent of Europe to North America, and from 
Pikes Peak, across the Rocky Mountains, to Cape Horn, Australia, 
New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope, West Indies, and Java. Pour ai'e 
found on the Island of Tenerilfe, others in the Azores and Canary 
Islands. All the species, excepting three, are also found in Yorkshire 

K.I.A.PKOC, SEE. in., VOL. IV. I 



114 Proceedings of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

at various elevations. The West Eiding has moorland hills up to 2000 
feet. East Eiding has void chalk hills to 850 feet (cultivated). The 
North has moorland hills up to 2500 feet. Por this information, and 
many other valuable hiats as to the identification of critical species, 
I offer my best thanks to the •n^ell-kno^-n Yorkshire botanist, Mr. 
M. B. Slater, f.l.s., of Malton ; also to Lord Howth, for granting 
through his agent, "William Eochfort, Esq., j.p., of Cahir, permission 
to collect in the demesne. 

1^ asterisk (*) hef&re a name denotes that the species, or variety, is new to 

the Co. Dublin. 

'^ Frullania dilatata, Linn. (Dum.). Proliferous form, bearing leafy 
shoots on the stems, and leaf margins, which reproduce the 
plant. Sah. — On rocks by the side of a stream near the Baily 
Lighthouse, February, 1894. 

1. Lejemiea serpyUifolia (Mich. Dicks.). Libert. Carrington and 

Pearsons, Exic, Xos. 135, 195. Bythe side of a smallstream 
in the demesne, on stones, and on decaying -wood, plentiful. 
April, 1895. 

2. ^L^eunea flava, Swartz var. On stones and on the trunks of trees 

in the demesne. April, 1895. 
Sub-sps. '^•Lejeiinea Moorei = L. Moorei, Lindherg, Act. Soc. Sci. 
Fenn. x., p. 487. Dr. D. Moore on " Irish Hepaticse,"^ p. 615, 
"with excellent figure on plate 44. 

3. Lepidozia cv.pressina, Sw. (Dum.). Jungermania reptans, (i. pin- 

nata, Hook. Brit. Jung., t. 75. Z. tionidida, Taylor. On 

peat amongst rocks, Ballykill, April, 1894 ; in the demesne, on 

damp peat, March, 1895. 
*CephaIozia catenidata, Huben., var. pallida. Spruce. Amongst 

Tetraphis pellucida, Ballykill, bearing perianths, February, 

1894. 
*Cephalozia divaricata, Smith (Dumort), var. starh'i (= J. starlcii). 

Funck. !N'ees. Hep. Eur. ii. Syn. Hep. 134. On a damp bank 

near the Baily Lighthouse, April, 1893. 

4. Zophocolea heterophylla, Qchiad. Journal Bot. i. p. 66. Hook. Brit. 

Jung., t. 31. On decayed wood, Ballykill, April, 1893; 
Howth demesne, April, 1895. 

1 E.I. A. Proc, Ser. n., vol. ii., Science, p. 590. 



McArdle — Additions to the Sepaticce of the Hill of Howth. 115 

5. ChiloscypJms polyanthus, Goxdio.. Hook. Brit. Jung., t. 62. 13y the 

side of a stream in the demesne, April, 1895. 

6. Saccogyna viticulosa, Mich. (Dumort). Hook. Brit. Jung., t. 60. 

On a damp bank, Howth demesne, March, 1895. 

7. "^'Scapania (equilola, Dumort. Carrington's Brit. Jung., p. 81, 

n. 3, pi. 8. fig. 26, ex parte, 1875. In the crevices of the 
rocks, Ballykill (very fine), 1894-5 ; plentiful in the demesne, 
April, 1895. 

8. ^'Scapania aspera, Miill. Pearson, in Journal of Botany, December, 

1892, tab. 327. On rocks amongst moss in the demesne, April, 
1895. 

9. Scapania resupinata, Dumort. E. Bot. t. 2437. Amongst rocks 

in the demesne, April, 1895. 

Scapania resupinata, Dumort, var. recurvifolia, Hook. Brit. Jung., 
t. 21, fig. 8. On a peaty soil amongst the heather, Ballykill, 
1894, in the demesne, April, 1895. 

10. PlagiocJiila asplenioides, Linn. (Dumort). Hook. Brit. Jung., t. 13. 

On a damp bank, and on stones in the demesne, bearing 
perianths, which contained unfertilised archegonia. Male 
plant smaller, with a stout stem one inch or more in length, of 
a brown colour, arcuate, flagelliferous at the base, with coj)ious 
root-hairs, apex suddenly incurved. Leaves distant below, 
small, obovate or cuneate at apex, increasing in size upwards, 
more crowded, and overlapping, decurrent at the dorsal side, 
which has the margin plain to the apex, the ventral ciliato- 
dentate. Amentse, at the incurved apex of shoots, formed of 
from four to seven pairs of altered leaves, saccate at the base, 
overlapping for one-third upwards, and enclosing the anthe- 
ridia, which are large, obovate to sphserical in shape, with a 
well-marked hyaline ring, pseudopodia as long as the anthe- 
ridia, of which there are three in the saccate base of each 
altered leaf. 

11. Jtmgermania harhata, Schreb. Hook. Brit. Jung., tab. 70. Among 

rocks in the demesne, April, 1895. 

12. '^"Jungertnatiiaattenuata, JjindenbeTg. J. harhata, jB mi^ior. Hook. 

Brit. Jung., t. 70, figs. 18-22. Carr. and Pearson's Exic, JSTo. 
74. J. gracilis, Schleich, Lindb., in Mus. Scand. p. 7. Amongst 
rocks growing with Leiicohryum glaucum, Hampe, and with 



116 Pi'oceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

TetrapTih peUucida, at EaUykill plentiful, June, 1893, Feb. 
1894. Ho-^h demesne very fine, April, 1895. Xew to the 
Irish. Flora. 

13. *Jungerma.tua ventricosa, Dicks. Hook. Brit. Jung., tab. 28. 

Among rocks, Ballykill, 1894-5. In the demesne, 1895. 

14. '^'Jungerrnania aJjpestris, Schl. Exs. II. -59. Carrington and 

Pearson's Exic, 109, On a damp bank at the rabbit-warren 
near the "Ben," very rare, April, 1893. 

15. '^ Jung er mania hicrenata, Lindenberg. Syn. Hep., p. 82. Under 

J. excim, Sm. Eng. Bot., tab. 2497. On the hard peaty soil at 
Ballykill, 1893-4, in the demesne, April, 1895, very rare. 
PeUia epiphylla, Linn., var. endhcBfolia, Dicks. Thallus linear, 
elongated. Dioecious. In a marshy place at Ealrock Quarries, 
1893. 

16. Blasia pusilla, Linn. Sp. PI. 1605. Hook. Brit. Jtmg., tab. 82- 

84. Boggy place at BaUykiU (fertHe), March, 1894. 
'^Jletzgeria furcata, Lian. Proliferous form, with young plantlets 
budding from the margin of thallus of the parent plant. On 
the stems of trees near the ground by the side of a stream near 
HoTTth village, March, 1894. Damp bank at a small bog. 
Ballykm, 1895. 

17. *Riccardia Jatifrons, Lindberg. JJ'at. See. Fl. Fenn., 13, p. 372. 

Hook. Brit. Jung., tab. 45, figs. 4-7 et 12. Autoecious, rarely 
paroecious, large, pellucid, thallus long and broad, divided into 
^ride stag-hom-like lobes, more or less oblong, -svedge-shaped, 
very obtuse, and emarginate, plano-convex. Cells large, oblong, 
rhomboid ; perichaetial bracts few ; calyptra large and less 
verrucose than in R. rnvdtifida. Androecium, narrow, oblong, 
almost aflSxed to the side of the perichaetium, Lindbergh in 
Hejyaticm in Sibernia mense Julii, 1873, hctcR. On a small 
bog at Ballykill, 1893-4, in the demesne, fertile (paroecious), 
April, 1895. 

18. ^Zunular ia cruciata, liinn. (Dumort.), Z. vulgaris, Micheli. ^ov. 

gen. 4 t. 4. On damp ground in the demesne, April, 1895. 

19. Conocenhalus conicus, Ifeck (Dumort.), Marchantia conica, Eng. 

Bot. t. 504. Bank of a small stream which flows into the sea 
near the Baily Lighthouse, February, 1894, Stream near 
Howth village, April, 1893. 

^ Acta Societatis Scientiaram Fennic^, x. 







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Extra 




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European. 




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W. E. N. 














Frullania dilatata, . . . 


X 


X 

W. N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Teneriffe. 


,, tamarisci, . . 


X 


X 

W. N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. & S. America. 


Lejeunea serpyllifolia, 


X 

E&SW 


X 


X 

8. W. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. & S. America. 


,, flavavar., . . 


X 


W.E.N. 


X 


•• 






•• 


W. Indies ; S. 
America. 


Eadula complanata, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.Indies, C.B.S.; 
Madeira ; Tene- 
ritfe ;_ N. & S. 
America ; N.Z. 


Kantia trichomanes, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


jS". & S. America. 


Lepidozia reptans, . . 


X 

E&SW 


X 

w. rare 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. America. 


„ cupressina, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


•• 


•• 


X 


X 




W. Indies ; N. 
America. 


,, setacea, . . . 


X 


X 

W. N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. & S. America. 


Cephalozia cateniilata, 


X 

E. 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


,, multiflora, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. & S. America. 


,, bicuspidata, 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 

? 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Java; C.B.S., 

Falklands. 


,, Lammersiana, . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


•• 








N. Ameiii-a. 


,, comuTens, . 


X 


X 

W. &N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 




— 


,, curvifolia, . . 


X 

Howth. 


X 

N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


S. America. 


,, Francisci, . . 


X 

E. &W. 


X 

N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


,, fluitans, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


•• 


•• 


X 


X 


X 


— 


,, sphagni, . . 


X 

E&S"W 


X 

N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Abyssinia ; N. & 
S. America. 


,, denudata, . • 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 




X 






X 


N. & S. America. 


,, divaricata, . . 


X 

S. &E. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


,, elachista, . . 


X 


W.E.N. 


X 


• • 




X 


X 


— 


Scapania resupinata, . . 


X 

N.&E. 


X 

W. N. 


X 


• • 


•• 




X 


TeneriSe. 


,, seqiiiloba, . . 


X 


X 

W. N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


,, aspera, . . . 


X 


X 

W. N. 


•• 




•• 


X 


X 


— 


,, nemorosa, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Java ; N. & S. 
America. 


,, undulata, . . 


X 


X 

W.E.N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Canaries. 


Diplophyllum albicans, . 


X 

E & SE 


X 

W. N. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Madeira; N. &S. 
America. 


,, minutimi, . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 

















































o 










J 




>| ■ 










.— 
















'6 




•a 


o 


o 




rJ 


rt 


5 M 




c 


c 


s 




"3 


c 


o 


>. 




o 


rt 


'-' 


W 


C/3 


e-i 


En 


o 


Oj 



Extra 
European. 



Lophocolea bidentata, 

,, lieteropliylla, 
CMloscyplius polyanthus, 
PlagiocMJa asplenioides, 
Nardia crenxilata, . . 
5, gracillima, . 
,, scalaris, . . 
Jimgenrania sphserocarpa, 
barbata, . 
altenuata, 
ventricosa, 
alpestria, 
bicrenata, 
incisa, 
inflata, 
Saccogyna viticulosa, 
Cesia crenulata, 
Pellia epiphylla, 
„ calycina, 
Blasia pusilla, . . 
Metzgeria f urcata, 

„ conjugata, 
E.iccardia rnultifida, 

,, latifrons, 

„ pigunis, 
Lunularia cruciata, 
Conocepbalus conicus, 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 

Howth. 
X 

X 

X 

ES&-W 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

E. &S. 

X 
X 
X 
X 



TV.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


•W.E.X. 










1 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W. X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W. X. 












X 


X? 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W. X. 












X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


W. X. 












X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


w 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.X. 












X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


w. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X? 


, , 








W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


.. 


X 


X 


W. N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W. N. 












X 


X? 


.. 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


N. 


p 










X 


X 








X 


W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


W.E.N. 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



W. Indies ; N. 

America ; N.Z. 
Canaries ; 

X. America. 
X. America. 

jS". America. 



Pike's Peak, N. 
America. 



Pike's Peak, N. 
America. 



JN". America. 



Canaries ; Tene- 
riffe. 



N. America. 
[Spitzbergen.] 
N. America. 
Australia ; N.Z. 

X. & S. America ; 

Australia. 
N. America ; W. 

Indies ; Falk- 

lands ; N.Z. ; 

Australia; 

[I^oTaZembla.] 

N. & S. America. 

Azores; Canaries. 

Azores ; N. Ame- 
rica. 



L 119 ] 



VIII. 

STUDY OF THE LANGUAGES OE TORRES STRAITS, 
WITH VOCABULARIES AND GRAMMATICAL NOTES. 
(Part II.) By SIDNEY H. RAY, Member of the Anthropo- 
logical Institute, and ALFRED C. HADDON, M.A., Royal 
College of Science, Dublin. 

[Continued from the Pkoceedings, Ser. iii., Vol. ii., p. 616.] 

CONTENTS OF PAET II. 



XI. Sketch of Daudai Grammar. 
XII. Specimens of the Daudai Lan- 



Tiii. Sketch of Saibai Grammar. 

IX. Specimens of the Saibai Lan- 

guage. 

X. Saibai-English Vocabulary. 

VIII. — Sketch of Saibai Gkammae. 

There is only one text available for the elucidation of Saibai 
grammatical forms. This is a translation of the Gospel of Mark (16) 
made by Elia, a native of Lifu, who was placed on the island of 
Saibai by the London Missionary Society. Sharon's Vocabulary 
(MS. 8) contains the terminals and pronouns, and there are also a few 
sentences taken down at Muralug by one of us, and others from 
Saibai and Boigu at the end of Sir W. MacGregor's Vocabulary (23). 
But by far the most valuable grammatical notes on the language are 
those found in the Kowrarega (Muralug) Vocabulary of Macgillivray, 
which represent substantially the same language as the Saibai trans- 
lation.^ 

With these materials we have done our best to draw up a Grammar 
of the Language, but it is doubtful whether the whole is strictly 

1 These were based on communications made by Mrs. Thomson (Gi'om), a -white 
■woman who had been held in captivity by the natives of Muralug for more than 
four years [" Voy. Eattlesnake,' " i., p. 301]. 



120 Proceedings of the Royal Iruh Academy. 

accurate. It -will, however, form a basis for future investigation and 
may thus lead in the future, to more accurate knowledge. Macgillivray 
felt the want of accuracy in his materials, and in the introduction to 
his Yocabulary writes thus : — 

"For the materials composing the Kowrarega Yocabulary, I am 
almost entirely indebted to Mrs. Thomson. Unfortunately, however, her 
total want of education prevented her from acquiring any idea of the 
construction of the language ; nor could she always be made to under- 
stand the meaning of a question — however simple in its form — framed 
to elicit information on this point. Even by carefully sifting at 
leisure hours the mass of crude materials obtained from her and 
written down at each interview, day by day, I did not make sufficient 
progress in the grammar of the language to enable me to pursue the 
subject further, until her value as an authority had so far declined 
that it was prudent to reject it altogether. JSTearly all the words 
originally procured from Mrs. Thomson were subsequently verified 
either by herself or by our Kowrarega visitors " [ ' ' Voy. ' Rattlesnake,' " 
II. p. 277]. 

The Saibai translation was printed in Sydney, and was apparently 
never revised by the translator or by anyone conversant with the 
language. It contains numerous typographical errors; words are 
wrongly divided, and probably often mis-spelled. Many phrases defy 
all attempts at analysis even when the English and Lifu equivalents 
are well known. The translation had therefore to be very cautiously 
used. It has been necessary to consult throughout the version in the 
translator's native tongue, and many references to the latter will be 
found in the pages of the Grammar. 

The Saibai version was no doubt made from the Lifu New Testa- 
ment of 1873. Of this we find evidence as follows : — 

1. Mark, i. 19. The Saibai has /«X-o5om Ze5e<frt?'o, James o/Zebedee, 
following the Lifu idiom in lakoho i Zehedaio. {Lehedaio is a printer's 
error for Zehedaio.^ 

2. Mark, vi. 35. "The time is far passed," is translated paiipa 
kutrapa, literally the Lifu heji he, it is evening. 

3. Mark, vi. 48. In senabi waci Tcuhil tonar foa, the fourth watch 
of the nigbt, waci is the English word watch (Lifu c = ch) and occurs 
in the Lifu version in the same place ; nffone la waci nejinte hna elcen. 

4. Mark, x. 4. "Put her away" is tvansiatedi 2}al(imidpa gudo 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 121 

waean, put them two away, and follows the Lifu mate sei nyidoti pi. 
PalmiuJpa and nyidoti are dual pronouns. In Lifu a married woman 
is supposed to have a child, and is usually addressed by courtesy as 
'^ you twoy 

5. Mark, x. 34. "The thii'd day" is translated ^o?^» tJirin, from 
the Lifu la drai hna thrin. In both versions thrin is the English 
numeral three with the Lifu causative suffix n. Cf. a similar instance 
in Miriam, Pt. i., p. 525. 

6. Mark, xvi. 10. The words "she went" are rendered ^a/^te 
uzarman from the Lifu linei nyidoti hna tro, they two went (lit. by 
them two gone). Mary Magdalene, being regarded as a married 
woman, is spoken of as though having a child. 

7. The word a is frequently used as a verbal particle in the Saibai 
translation, and especially when it is so used in the corresponding Lifu 
phrase. Cf. in Mark, xiv. 37. Saibai : Noi mangizo a iman tana a 
utui. Lifu : Il7iei anganyideti hna hlepeti a ohnyi ungate a mehol. 

8. The characters o, e, tr for ^ dr for d, show the Lifu basis of 
the orthography. 

9. English, Greek, and Samoan words introduced have the same 
form in Lifu and Saibai ; e. g. ivan (one) ; gavana (governor) ; waina, 
(wine) ; hiona, (x'^'') '■> setaiiro, {a-ravpov) ; kumete, (Sam. 'umete). 

There are some interesting instances of adaptation by the translator. 
These give us glimpses of the life of the Torres Straits' natives. The 
exact rendering of the Lifu has, in some cases, been modified in order 
to obviate the necessity of explanation or to suit the comprehension 
of the native mind. Thus the statement in Mark, ii. 3, "When they 
could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof 
where he was, and when they had broken it up they let down the 
bed whereon the sick of the palsy lay," is plainly inapplicable to 
the Torres Straits house. The native dwelling is usually a frail 
structure of bamboo, often with a sloped roof and thatched with 
leaves. The idea of four men carrying another upon the roof would 
be absurd. Though the Lifu version states that the bearers went to 
la hune uma, the top of the house, a phrase which is just as inapplicable 
to the sugar-loaf shaped houses of Lifu, it must be remembered that 
the Lifu version was made by a European, and that it was no doubt 
made clear in teaching that the house referred to was strong and flat- 
roofed. The translator of the Saibai Gospel avoided both explanation. 



122 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and absurdity by stating tbat tana a/rahato putran lagou Tcalangu, ' ' they 
cut a bole from tbe back of tbe bouse," whicb, Avitb 'n-alls of pandanus 
leaves, could vexy easily be done. 

Again, in !5Iark, v. 38, tbe pbrase wbicb is inEnglisb '-tbem tbat 
wept and wailed greatly," and in Lifu, angate a iluilu me iteijen me 
teije-lceleq^'e, is translated into Saibai as, mura raai adan, a maino 
liunaran paruia nidizb, all sbed tears and made mourning witb fore- 
heads of lime. In tbe islands of Mabuiag and Tud, mourners cover 
tbeir bodies witb a mud or paste made fi'om crusbed coral. (See 
Haddon, "Etbnograpby," in Joum. Antb. Inst., xix., pp. 403, 416.) 
Anotber curious pbrase gives us a picture of tbe sick native running 
to tbe missionary or teacber for gougu, "pbysic." It occurs in tbe 
leper's appeal (Mark, i. 40), sike uhinemepa ngidaig ngona lutupatan 
gougnan aima, "if thou wilt, tbou canst cleanse me, making pbysic." 
Jairus is made to say (Mark, v. 23), hapuza ngi ngapa-uzar nginu getii 
nahepa gamutariz a gouguan mani, a na igiletiga^ "a good tbing tbou 
come, tby fiwger toucb ber, and bring pbysic and sbe lives." 

In Mark, viii., "Peter took bim," is translated: '■'■ Petelu dimunu 
pagean, Peter pincbed him. A passage, similar to those here given, 
occurs in tbe Miriam Gospels (Mark, xv. 16). Gair polmnan le^uhebi 
metaem tegared, nei Praitorio a polisman nosik taraisare ; tbe policemen 
took Jesus to a little house, name Praetorium, and bring a band 
(i.e. a row) of policemen. In tbe Straits tbe policemen stationed on 
each island are the representatives of authority. 

As the Miriam Gospels were revised by the English missionaries, 
such phrases would no doubt be modified, but they have escaped 
notice in tbe unknown and unrevised Saibai version. 

In tbe following grammar, examples from the Gospel are unmarked. 
"Words and phrases from Macgillivray are marked (ir), and from 
Sharon (s), MacGregor (b). 

BiaUcts. 

It is extremely difficult to define tbe dialectical differences in tbe 
speech of the western islanders of the Straits. There are certainly 
variations in pronunciation and enunciation, and these have caused 
various travellers to spell the same words in different ways. There is 
also, to some extent, a difference in tbe words used : — 

1. Kauralaig. — In this division tbe natives of Muralug have been 



Ray & Haudon — The Languages of Torres Straits — 11. 123 

considerably influenced by those of Australia, in the neighbourhood of 
Cape York. There has no doubt been a large amount of intercourse 
with the G-udang blacks, but this has not apparently affected, the 
grammatical structure of the languages. The Gudang Yocabulary of 
!MacgilliYray shows numerous words identical with those of the islands, 
yet the agreements are all in the names of objects, not in verbs or 
pronouns. In ATuralug words, as they appear in the vocabulaiy, the 
slurred pronunciation of words is often marked by the insertion of r. 
Example: larit, man, sarima, Tcdrala, for hait, rnai, saima, haba, &c. 

2. Gumulaig. — The speech of these islanders, in the centre of the 
Straits, probably represents the purest form of the language. 

3. Saihailaig. — The islands inhabited by this division (Boigu, 
Dauan and Saibai) are very near to the Daudai coast, and have 
probably received words thence. ISIacGregor found that Saibai words 
were known to the natives of ITowat and Dabu, who, ignorant of 
•each other's dialect, had to open a conversation in the island dialect. 
The names given to the natives of the mainland, opposite Saibai and. 
Boigu, Dalu-Jai, and Toga-lai, show what is probably the Saibai 
termination for a clan, laig. The names Dabu and Toga may be the 
Saibai, darjja and tuga, bush and mangrove. On the mainland, in the 
same neighbourhood, is the ]lylai Xussa, which in Saibai means Pearl 
Pdver. In Boigu final 6 is more clearly pronounced than in Saibai. 

4. KidJudaig. — These people occupy the eastern portion of the 
Straits, and are nearest to the lliriam. The language of Hasig shows 
more words like the ^Miriam than that of any other of the islands. 

§ I. — Alphabet. 

1. YowELS. — a as yd. father ; a as in a^ ; e as fl in date ; e as in ?^^ ; 
e as Lifu e and Prench emle; i 0.% ee in. feet ; ? as in «Y ; o as in own ; 
6 as in on ; o as German d in schbn, or nearly as English o in forty ; u as 
00 in soon ; m as in up. 

3IacGregor's Yocabulary has a few words with d {mdi, dadu- 
gciiga), but no indication is given of the sound intended. In the 
other vocabularies these words are spelled with a or 6. The vowel 6 
represents a sound which varies between a and o, and some words 
appear to be spelled indifferently with a, e, o,ox o : e. g. hai, Jcei, Tcoi, 
or Jcoi', sahi or soli; hasa or hosa ; mart or rnori. A few words in 
ilacgregor have 6 where others have u : e. g. moi for 7mu. The 



124 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Gospels have tdridiz for tauradiz ; tanoriz for tanuriz. At the end of 
a -word o is very common, and in that position was written a by 
Macgillivray. MacGregor notes that/^in Boigu, final o is more clearly 
expressed than in Saibai. 

In a few cases e changes with i, geto, gitalenga. 

2. Diphthongs. — ai as in aisle ; au as ow in coiv ; ei as ay in may. 
Macgillivray wrote ei where the translation has ai. 

3. Consonants. — h, g; t, d; p, h; io;j) s, %; r, I; m, n, ng. These 
are sounded as in English, ng being the 97g in sifig. 

There is some confusion between the sounds of t and d, p and b, 
s and s. 

In the Saibai Gospel t and d are often found with r, as fr and dr. 
These are not written in the vocabularies, and must therefore be 
regarded as due to the Lifu translator's pronunciation of the Saibai, as 
in Lifu, t and d are commonly strengthened with r. 

Examples : drtirai, padra, drudritpizo, for durai,pada, dudupizo and 
tradiz, tridan, tronar, Tcatro, for tadiz, tidan, tonar, Icato. 

Macgillivray wrote th in a few words, thi, thung. Th is also found 
in introduced words. F, in fad, lohof is a change from p. The distinc- 
tion between iv (consonantal) and ii (vocal) has been better observed in 
Saibai than in Miriam. J is not found in the Gospels, and, in intro- 
duced words, is represented by i. MacGregor has / in a few words 
where others have z, ja^ndaika, japudamino, jaji, for zapulaig, zapu- 
damoin, zazi. Macgillivray also has/ for z ; haje, ajir. S and z often 
interchange, 2;?<r//s and pudiz ; musur, muzura ; susu, suzu. In some 
words ]\Iacgillivray wrote ch for s, chena, china, for sena, sina ; and also 
used sh in shuma for sumai. He noted also that the Gudang tribe of Cape 
York substituted ch for s in pronouncing Kowrarega {i.e. Muralug) 
words. "Words in ch and sh will be found in our vocabulary under y. 

R is rarely found as an initial (cf. Miriam), but is common as a 
medial and final. It sometimes interchanges with I, tar dan, larpudan 
for taldan, balptidan. Eor the insertion of r in Muralug words, see 
the preceding note on Dialect. 

A few interchanges are found between tig and n ; ngursala and 
nursak. MacGregor has gn as well as ng, but this is probably an error 
in transcription, 

4. Compound Consonants. — The only real compound consonants 
found (with the exception of dr and tr already noted) are gio and kw. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 125 

A few others result from the justaposition of two simple consonants 
through the omission of a rowel, ^acgillivray wrote ts for s in tsiJca 
for siho. 

5. CoxxRACiioxs. — A vowel is often dropped between two con- 
sonants, e.g.Mak, for kalak ; hrangipaiov korongaipa, prateipa^ purteipa, 
in past, piirutan. The final o or i is often very indistinctly pronounced 
and is very frequently omitted. ]5J!acgillivray has the following note 
on contractions in !Muralug : — 

"Eegarding the allusion to a terminal vowel, it may he mentioned 
here that as most Kowrarega words end in a vowel, its absence, when 
a vowel commences the following word, is commonly owing to elision. 
Ex. — ' iidzu uniai, - my dog,' becomes ' udz^umai.'' When the last 
consonant in a word is the same as the first in the following word, one 
of the letters is omitted. Ex. — ' ajya pining^ = soft ground,' becomes 
ap'irujig.' There are numerous other contractions, as ' ai ' for 
' aidu, = food ' ; ' aige ' for ' aigewel, = come here ' ; ' mue utsem, = the 
fire has gone out,' for ' mue utst'mem,' ^c." [ii. 279.] 

§ II. — Pronouns. 
1. PEESoifAi. — These are declined as nouns by means of suffixes. 
Oender is distinguished in the first and third person. 
The simplest forms are as follows : — 
(a) Nonwiative. 

Singular, 1. oigai, I (masculine); ngazo^ ng6%o, I (feminine). 

2. ngi^ thou. 

3. noi, nu (s); nue (m), he, it (masculine); na, she. 
Dual, 1. inclusive of person addressed, aba (m) ; exclu- 
sive of persons addressed, ngalhe, ngalahe, 
alhei (m), he and I. 

2. ngipel, you two. 

3. pale, palae, they two. 

Plural, 1. (inclusive), ngalpa, alpa (ir), you and I; 
(exclusive), 7igoi, ngoi, we, they all and I. 

2. ngita, ngitana (ji), you all. 

3. tana, ari (ii), they all. 

An. analysis of the pronominal forms is not without interest. The 
na of the third person singular (fem.) is no doubt the same with the 
demonstrative particle na, and is found also in the third plural ta-7ia 



126 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

combined with a plural demonstrative ta. Tn the second plural ta is 
combined with, the pronominal word ngi as ngi-ta, and Macgillivray 
gives it with na also as ngi-ta-na. In the third person masculine nu or 
noi (with its drawled Muralug pronunciation nue) is probably the same 
as the feminine na, for o frequently varies to o and a (see § I., 1). 
The affix i, which is also found in the first person masculine, may, 
perhaps, mark the masculine, but is more likely to be the same with 
the demonstrative i. It occurs also in the first plural inclusive ngo-i, 
which is probably the same as nga-i. 

The pel, palae of the dual is also found combined with the demon- 
tratives, and is the root of the verb palan, to divide, open. It may 
also be used as a numeral. Latham suggested the meaning of 'pair,'' 
and pointed out that the root p-l, or some modification of it, is the 
equivalent for two in very many of the Australian languages. Latham 
also noted the close correspondence of the Saibai (Kowrarega) use 
with that of the Western Australian language. " These so closely 
agree in the use of the numeral tico for the dual pronoun, that each 
applies it in the same manner. In the third person it stands alone, so 
that in Western Australian hoala and in Kowrarega pale = they two, 
just as if in English we sa.\(\.pair or both, iastead of they loth (the pair); 
whilst, in the second person, the pronoun precedes it, and a compound 
is foiTaed ; just as if in English we translated the Greek o-^oJt by thou 
pair or thou hoth.''^^ 

The affixes Ihe and Ipa have a certain amount of likeness, though 
their presence in the exclusive dual and inclusive plural cannot be 
explained. The I may probably be the same as the plural suffix ^(see 
§ III.), whilst le andj:?ff may be compared with the demonstrative hi, 
or with the dative suffix j?«, towards, and the directive suffix j9«. 
Without the affixes and demonstratives, the pronomial forms are 
reduced to two only, yiga and oigi (for ngo or ngo in the plural exclusive 
is the same as nga, see § i). These two are, as Latham pointed out,^ 

1 "Remarks on Voyage of the ' Eattlesnake ' " in Opuscula, p. 225, and 
Macgillivray, ii. p. 333. 

- The difference between the first and second persons being expressed by 
different modifications {nga, ngi) of the same root {ng), rather than by separate 
■words, suggests the inquiry as to the original power of that root. It has already 
been said that, in many languages, the pronoun of the third person is, in origin, a 
demonstrative. In the Kowrarega it seems as if even the basis of the first and 
second was the root of the demonstrative also. ["Remarks on Voyage of the 
' Rattlesnake,' " p. 333, and Opuscula, p. 225.] 



Bay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 127 

probably modifications of the same root ng, and have a demonstrative 
origin. Nga is also the interrogative, who ? and is found in the 
directive nga-pa, hither, to here. 

(3) Indrumental case. 

Singular, 1. ngat'd^ ngatu (m), (masc.) ; ngozo (fem.) 

2. ngido, ngidu (m). 

3. noido, nudu (m), (masc.) ; nado, nadu (m), (fem.) 

^0 instrumental forms have been found in the dual and plural 
numbers. The suffix du, to may be compared with the Miriam de. 
There seems little doubt but that this case corresponds to what has 
been called in Australian Grammars the nominative of the agent. 
As used in the Saibai Gospels, they express the person as the agent of 
an active verb. 

Example : ngato tanamulpa waean, I sent them away ; sihe mata 
ngozo gamuia tradi% nongo dumawahuia, wa, ngd%o igililenga, if only 
I touch his garment, then I live ; loane siei ngato huiko patan, John 
there I beheaded, or beheaded by me ; ngido ngona Jcasa wanan, you 
have left me alone ; ngido ngona mina mahaegado maipa, you make me 
a good man, i.e. call me good ; noido mamain ita seven areto, he took 
seven loaves ; noido nubepa iman, he saw him ; noido noino waean tana- 
mulpa, he sent him to them; mi watri pawa noido mani? what evil 
has he done ? nado Petelun iman, she saw Peter ; nado ngaeapa mani, 
she has done (it) to me. 

The examples of the use of the nominative and instrumental pro- 
nouns collected by Macgillivray were too few to generalize upon. He 
noted, however, that ngatu, ngidu, nudu, nadu appeared "to be used 
only with a certain class of verbs, of which an example is afforded by 
the sentence ' ngatu, nudu matumina = I struck him ' ; and the use of 
the second set of these pronouns (i.e. the nominative) is illustrated by 
' ngainue ' (not ngatunudu) mulem, &c., =1 told him, &c.," [ii., p. 299). 
The difficulty in Macgillivray' s examples is that both subject and 
object have the same affix, but according to the analogy of the Gospel 
the sentence should be ngato noino mataman, with an objective in no. 
His second example would be ngai nubepa muliz, I told to him. In 
many cases the ordinary form of the nominative is used instead of the 
instrumental forms. 



128 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(c) Objective. 

"Wlieii directly governed by an active verb, the singular pronouns 
take a suffix 7ia or no. 

1. ng'ona, ngona; ana (id:). 

2. ngino. 

3. noino, nu (s), (masc.) 

The dual and plural do not differ in form from the nominative. 

Example : Mingu ngita tigma 7iutan ? why do you try me ? ngita 
ngona gasamoiginga, ye did not take me ; ngi adapa uzar a ngino malupa 
taen, go out and cast thyself into the sea ; noino gasaman, take him ; 
noino ngapa ngaeapa poiban, give him here to me. 

Ana is found only in Macgillivray's notice. He gives it as equi- 
valent to "me or my," and states, "I do not understand the exact 
meaning of this, ... so give an example," '■'■ ana gamu lupeipa = T:ir^ 
body is shaking (or I have the ague) " [ii. p. 299]. He also gives 
" ana pilci lalkall = I had a dream " ; " qiiilcu hikiri ana mizzi = I have 
a sick head, or a head-ache"; " ana pibur aidu = give me (some) 
food." 

{d.) The Possessive is formed as with nouns by the suffixes w, n, 
ne, or nu. 

Singular, 1, ngau, ngaumun (masc.) ; uzu (m); (fem.) 

2. nginu. 

3. nongo, nungu; nunu (m) ; 7ie (s), (masc.) 

nam,u, (fem.) 

Dual, 1. flSflwe (ii), inclusive ; fl^Sewie (m), exclusive. 

2. ngipen; ngipeine (m). 

3. palamun ; paldman (m, s). 

Plural, 1. ng alp an {mohisiYe) ; n^omMW (exclusive). 

2. ngitamun; ngitanamun (u). 

3. tanamun; tanaman. 

The mu in the plural indicates number. Cf. Dative. 

Example : JVgau apu, my mother ; ngau iadai, my message ; ngau 
nel, my name ; nginu lag'o, thy house ; nginu getd, thy hand ; nginu 
apu, thy mother ; 7iongo kuiku, his head ; nongo kaimil, his relations ; 
nongo kutaig, his brother ; nanu apu, her mother ; nanu lag'd, her house ; 
nanu ngulaig, her ability ; albeine kaje (m), child of us two ; ngipen 
paru, the front of you two ; ngipen ieudepa, the asking of you two ; 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 129 

kaje chena ngipeine (ii) ? is tliat the cMld of you two ? palamun tati, 
the father of them two ; ngalpan Augada, our God ; ngalpan zapul, 
our properties ; ngoimun muraza, all oiir things ; ngtfatmm fati, your 
father ; ngitamim horhak, your hearts ; tanammi horhah, their hearts ; 
tanamun purulca, their eyes. 

The word ne given in Sharon's vocabulary as "his," is probably 
the noun suffix n or ne. No examples are given of its use, 

[e) The Dative is expressed by the suffix -pa. 

Singular, 1. ngaeapa. 

2. ngihepa. 

3. nulepa (masculine) ; ndbepa (feminine). 

Dual, 1. inclusive (no^/owwf?) ; wya/Je/^a (exclusive). 

2. ngipelpa. 

3. palamulpa ; palenipa (m). 

Plural, 1. ngalpalpa (inclusive) ; ngoimulpa (exclusive). 

2. ngitamulpa. 

3. tanamulpa. 

The le of the second and third singular, and the pel of the dual, 
have, no doubt, a demonstrative origin. In the plural and third dual 
mu is probably an indication of number. (Cf. moi, mi in verbs, and 
the mu of mura., all.) The I inserted before the suffix when mu is used, 
may be compared with the noim suffix ?, though mxd itself may repre- 
sent mtira, all. (Cf. la in Miriam pronouns.) The ni in Muralug 
third dual cannot be explained. 

Examples : Ngi ngaeapa iapupoiM%, you ask me ; yigai ulinmepa 
ngihepa ngaeapa poihan loane hapataisou kuiko, I wish for thee to 
give to me John Baptist's head ; noi iapupoihiz nulepa, he asked him ; 
ngalle ulinmepa ngilepa a ngi ngallelpa poilan senahi %a, we two wish 
for thee (that) thou give to us two that thing ; ivara malaeg ngipelpa 
iamuli%, any man says to you two ; mi malaeg ngalpalpa hdmaJcoma 
maiginga, whoever is not opposed to us ; ngoimulpa muli%^ tell to us ; 
moidemin ngoimulpa, prepare for us ; ngai ngitamulpa iamuliz, I say to 
you ; lesu modolia iamuliz tanamulpa, Jesus answered them. 

Macgillivray has ngai-ailcelca, = for myself, and nxCalepa, = for 
himself, and gives the examples : — ailceka mule = tell me ; mi'alepa 
chena wir = give that to him [n, 299]. 

E.I.A. FEOC, SEE. HI., VOL. IV. K 



130 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(/) The Ablative is shown by the suffix -ngi'., fern. s. 

Singular, 1. nyawngu. 

2. nginungu. 

3. nongonongo,nungungu, (masculine); noi gvngu^ 

nanuz (feminine). 

Dual, 1. {not found). 

2. {not found'). 

3, palamidngu. 

Plural, 1. {not found). 

2. ngitamulngu. 

3. tanamulngu. 

In the singular ngu is added to the possessive forms, except in the 
third feminine, which has the ablative suffix s (or zi) ordinarily 
used with demonstratives. (See Adverbs, § vi.) In the plural and 
third dual mul is inserted as in the dative forms. 

Examples : Tanamun TcorJcaTc ngaungu Icoi sigal, their hearts are far 
from me ; ngi adapadan, watri mari, nungungu malaegongu, come thou 
out, bad spirit, from him, from the man; horodan kadaipa mani nabi 
ai not nungu, the earth brings forth the food from itself ; noido sevene 
demoni nguroiceidan nannz, he had cast out seven demons from her; 
tana getowani palamulngu, they released them two. 

{g) The Ergative. — This is shown by the suffix ia which is given 
in Sharon's Vocabulary as the equivalent of "with." The Gospel 
usually agrees, but in some cases it is difficult to apply this translation. 
(See more fully in !N'ouns, §ni.) 

Singular, 1. ngaihia. 

2. ngibia. 

3. nubia. 
Dual, {not found). 

Plural 1. {not found). 

2. ngitamunia. 

3. tanamunia. 

In the singular ia is added to the nominative, with the demonstrative 
hi inserted. In the plural ia is added to the possessive forms. 

Example : Ngaihia Icaimi, foUow me (be mate with me) ; nga 
mahaeg ngaihia garaho tradiz f Who touched me ? tanamun utuild ita 



Rat & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 131 

ngaihia, they have been (their abiding is) with me ; mdbaeg ina 
sihuwanan ngihia amadmi, love the man near thee ; lesu nubia gimal 
tanoriz, Jesus sat on top of him ; palae matadohura getoivaniz senahi 
-palamun api a nubia Tcaiim., they immediately left their nets and 
followed him ; Tceda maigi ngitamunia, don't let it be like (that) with 
you ; areto mid'6 siei ngitamunia ? how many loaves have you (what 
loaves there with you) ? ngoi muia utiz tanamunia, we enter into them ; 
tanamunia ai aiginga, they have no food. 

For the suffix ia, in the sense of " have, possess," see Nouns, 4 [g). 

(h) The Locative suffijs -nu is not found in use with pronouns. The 
suffixes nanga and nge are discussed in the section on JS'ouns. 

(/) A suffix ka appears with the pronouns ngi and ngita, but its 
meaning is not very clear. It may be an abbreviation of the future 
particle Tcai. 

Example : Ngika laho uzar nginu lagopa, go home again to thy 
house ; ngitaha mata horawaig ? don't you perceive ? 

(/) Self is expressed by the addition of Tcusaig to the singular 
pronouns ngai and ngi ; ngaihusaig, myself ; ngilusaig, thyself. In 
the plural the pronoun is reduplicated, ngoingoi, ourselves ; ngitangita^ 
yourselves ; tanatana, themselves. In the third singular, himself is 
expressed by the simple pronoun noi. 

Example : Mipa ngitangita ia uman ? why did ye dispute among 
yourselves ? aipa baropudaipa tanatayiamiilpa, to buy food for them- 
selves ; durai noido igilipaliz, a horaivaig noino igilipalan^ he saved others, 
and he cannot save himself; Tcapuza noi ubigiasin noi, let him deny 
himself ; Kusaig is also used for " alone." lesu mata nongo Icusaig siei 
lagonu, Jesus (was) there alone (only Himself) on the land. 

2. Inteeeogatxve Peonouns. 

{a) The personal interrogative is Nga ? who ? declined as fol- 
lows : — 

Nominative, nga ? who ? 

Instrumental, ngado ? by whom ? 

Accusative, ngano ? whom ? 

Possessive, ngonu ? whose ? 
The dative, ablative, locative, and ergative do not appear. 

Example : Nga ngulaig igililenga ? who can be saved ? ngau 
dumawaliuia ngo garabotradiz ? who touched my clothes ? ngai nga ? I 
am who ? nga ngibepa poiban senabi mura %a ina ? who gave thee all 

K 2 



132 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

these things ? ngadd mani ? who took it ? ngado hula taean ? who 
rolled away the stone ? ngonu paru ina ? whose face is this ? 

Nga is sometimes added to other words. Example : N'ga mahaeg 
ngailia garahotradiz ? who (what man) touched me ? nginu nelenga ? 
who is thy name ? (cf. the Melanesian use of ' who' in asking a name). 

(J)) The interrogative used of things is miei? what? The follow- 
ing forms are found : — 

Nominative, instrumental, and accusative, miei ? mido ? what ? 
Dative, mipa ? for what ? why ? 

Ablative, mingu ? from what ? concerning what ? why ? 
The distinction between miei and mido is not clearly made out in the 
Gospel, but m,idd from its form should be instrumental. 

Example : Mido ngai ? is it I ? or, do I do it ? miei ngi uhinmepa f 
what do you wish ? kuihulumai vine apangu miei mani ? what did the 
lord of the vineyard ? ngai mido mepa ngihepa ? I do what for thee ? 

Miei is sometimes reduplicated. Mieimiei sena noi keda augadapa 
ipidado-pugan ? why does he thus blaspheme God ? mieimiei is also used 
for ';wMch ? ' (of two) in Mk. n. 9. 

(c) Mil the root of miei, mido, is used prefixed to nouns as an 
interrogative adjective with the meaning ' what ? ' ' what sort of ?' 

Example : — Miza ? what thing ? mi watripawa ? what evil ? mi 
tonar ? what sign ? mi lag'o ? what place ? mi ia umamoipa ? what dis- 
cussion ? mi muamu ? what wisdom ? Ngalpa Augadan haselaia mi 
ngadalnga minapa ? we make God's kingdom like what? 

For mipa and mingu, see Adverbs, § vi. 

3. Demonsteative Peonohns and Adjectives. — These are formed 
by various combinations of particles, of which the separate meanings are 
not very clear. It seems possible, however, to classify them as follows : — 
na, hi, simple demonstratives, directing attention. 

p, ( i, place near ; here. 

( se, place, distant ; there. Cf. adverb, siei, sei, there. 

I pel, pal, dual. Cf . pronouns, palae, they two ; ngipel, 
you two ; verb, palan, divided. 
> ta, plural. Cf . pronouns, tana, they two ; ngita, you two. 
The combinations give the following words in the vocabularies and 
Gospel : — 

ina, ino, this one, the, here ; ndbi, inahi, this, the, a ; inabidAJt/rai, these. 
nahi, that, the. 



Bay & Haudon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 133 

ipal, the, these two, both. 

ita, the, these ; often used as a kind of plural article. 

sena, that ; senali, the, those ; senali durai, those. 

sepal, those two, both ; sepalhi, those two. 

seta, those ; setabi, those. 

tabi, those. 

Example : Ina, ino : ina hoi sabi, this (is) the great law ; wara 
tanamun ino, this is one of them ; nffai ino, it is I ; Keriso ino, here is 
Christ. 

nabi : nabi ia, the word. 

inabi : inabi hawa, the people. 

ipel : ipel, both (Macgillivray). 

ita : ita watri maril, the evil spirits ; ita ha%iel, children. 

sena : sena noi, that same is he. 

senabi: senabi mabaeg utun, the sower; tana iman senabi mabaeg, 
they saw the man ; senabi lalcobon Jcutaig, the brother of James ; senabi 
nongo igalaig, his friends ; senali parpar ina, such mighty works. 

sepal : ngipel sipalsei hai mangeman, you two there, shall come. 

sepalbi : sebalbi sobi, those two laws. 

seta : 

setabi: setabi magina hoziel, those little children. 

tabi : tabi goiga siei, those days there. 

Some of these words are used with a locative sense, and as equiva- 
lents to the Lif u prepositions ngone, howe, etc. , with the article, Cf . § vn. 

4. Indeeinite Peonotjns and Adjectites. — Wara, a, one, any, 
another, a certain, cf. numerals ; du, ita du, durai, some ; mura, many, 

all ; sepal, both ; urapa, the same ; wara wara, the one . . . the other ; 

wagedd, the other ; manarimal, a few ; za, zangu, something (existing) ; 
pawa, something (performed) ; ia, something (said) ; mi mabaeg, 
whoever, what man. 

§ III. — Nouns. 

1. NoTXN FoEMs. — A verb or adjective may be used as a noun 
without change of form ; ngulaig, to be able, able, ability. 

The suffix i%inga, and its plural moizinga, appear to form nouns 
from a verbal root, and are thus used in the Gospel with possessive 
pronouns. 



134 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Example : nidizo, to do ; nonyo nidaizinya, Ms doing (Lifu, la 
hnei nyideti Jina huca, the by him deed) ; tanamun nyurupai%iny, 
their doctrine ^ nyitamun Tcdrnyaizinya, what you have heard ; 
tanamun imaizinya, thing they had seen ; mabaeyau tautumoizinya, 
men's commandments (Lifu, la ite thina hna ahnithe hnei at, things 
ordered by men) ; Anyadan Jcalmel manamoizinya, Grod's joining 
together (Lifu, la hnei Akotesie hna icasiheun, the by God joined) ; 
wara koi nyahad yimal poidamoizinya a hiitupataizinya, a large room 
above, furnished and prepared. 

These suffixes appear to be used of persons, as well as of things. 
Tana nulepa nyuroweidan yetolanyaizinya, they cast him out, shame- 
fully handled {lit. a spoiled thing). 

A suffix lai seems to form a verbal noun in the words: toitupayailai, 
prayer, from toitupayaipa ; nyinu Tcapuahasilai, your faith, from kapua- 
kashi ; silamailai, an uproar, from silamai, to fight. Other examples 
present some difficulty. Tana yetowanizo senali umaulai ddyam tUui, 
they let in the bed wherein the sick man lay. 

The person performing an action is denoted by the noun mabaey, 
plur. malaeyal, following the verbal root ; api-anyai mabaey, fish-trap- 
setting man; mamoe danalpatai mabaey, shepherd, sheep-watching 
man ; minaro polai mabaey, writer, mark-cutting man. Persons 
belonging to a place are distinguished by the suffix laiy : Nazareta 
laiy, man of iffazareta ; Saibai laiy, Badulaiy. Hence also the names 
of the islanders of the Straits, though these are formed from the names 
of parts of the body and not from names of places : Kaura-laiy, ear- 
people ; Gumu-laiy, body-people ; Kulka-laiy, blood-people. Similarly 
laiy is used with other nouns : kikiri laiy, sick person or people ; 
maidelaiy, sorcerer ; iyalaiy, kinsman. 

la Mark, ix. 50, laiy is abbreviated to ly, and appears in the plural : 
kapuza nyita alasilyal, have salt in yourselves, lit. good thing (if) ye fare) 
salt people. Ln Mark, vii. 26, is ly, with the dative suffix, demonilyopa. 

The word iyal, suffixed, appears sometimes to form a personal 
noun, but its use is not very clear. Nyita muamuayiyal, nyita 
imaiyiyal, you (are persons) without understanding, you do not see. 
Li these examples the first y represents the negative. The affirmative 
has zi. Tana imaiziyal, they that saw it. 

Some adjectives are used with the word idaiy, plur. idaiyal, to form 
presonal nouns. Nydlkai idaiyal, hypocrites ; tratra idaiy, a stammerer. 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 135 



I, mail also appears as an affix forming nouns from verbs : 
umamail, the dead ; hurugdmulmael, the harvest, the ripening ; igilile- 
mael, the living ; housagimael, the non-fruiting ; nongo iutapoiaizimael 
his healings, those he had healed. The last three examples show the 
insertion of the affixes le (possessing), igi (wanting) and zi (thing). 
In mael, ma may be compared with the ma, mu of plural verbs, and / 
with the noun plural. 

The instrument with which an action is performed is sometimes 
expressed by the word za, (thing) following the verb. 

Example : niai za, a chair, sit-thing. 

2. NuMBEE. — The dual is expressed by the numeral uhasar, two, by 
the dual demonstratives, sepal, sepalbi, or by the dual pronoun, palae. 

JJkasa/r wapi, two fishes ; ukasar dimur, two fingers ; sepal gigino 
kazi, two sons of thunder ; sepal magina mani, two Kttle (pieces of) 
money ; sepalli soli, two laws ; palae api-angai malaeg, two fisher-men. 
Sometimes numeral and demonstrative are both used. Sepalhi ukasar 
ungai-dumawaku, two garments. 

The plural is indicated in various ways. 

(«) By suffixes, -?, -al, -el, -ol, -Id : Umail, dogs ; talul, snakes ; 
saiil, laws ; kusal, beads ; mahaegal, men ; bahatal, sisters ; pui-tamal. 
branches ; kaziol, children ; ianalo, baskets. 

(I) By the plural demonstrative ita with or without the suffix : 
Ita kazil, children ; ita apal, lands. 

(c) By the plural pronouns : Tana minarpolai mabaeg, the scribes. 

(d) Definitely by numerals, with or without the adjective gorsar : 
Tuelv iana, twelve baskets ; tuelv gorsar nanu watal, twelve were her 
years ; foate koigdrsa/r goiga, forty days. 

(e) By the adjectives durai, some; mura, all; gorsar, many, or 
koigdrsar, great many, with or without the demonstrative or suffix : 
Durai nginu kutaig, thy brothers ; durai kikiri, some sick ; mura 
kikiri laig, all the sick folk ; ita durai mahaegal, some men ; mura 
mabaegau kdziel, men's sons. 

(/) ^y context : Ngapa mangiw urui palgizo a purutamoin, forth 
came birds and ate {purutamoin, plur. verb). 

Macgillivray has the following note on plurals in Kowrarega 
{i.e. Muralug) : — 

" To form the plural of a noun or adjective, the rule appears to be 
to add le as a postfix, sometimes previously supplying a terminal 



136 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

vowel if required. Example : ^geta = hand' becomes ^getale' in the 
plural ; kuku = foot, kuJcule ; ' kutai = yam, kutaile ' ; ' ipi = wife, 
tpile ' ; ' kerne = lad undergoing a certain ceremony, kernele' ; ^makaow 
= mat, makaowle ' ; ' horn = fruit of pandanus, homale.' There are 
exceptions, however ; ' mart = shell ornament,' makes ' marurre ' in 
the plural ; ' gul = canoe, gulai ' ; ' tawpei = short, tawpeingh ' ; all 
nouns ending in ra have the plural in re, as ' kowra = ear, kowrare ' ; 
and all ending in kai gain jille in the plural, as ' ipikai = woman,^ 
ipikatj'ille' " [n. 279]. 

We have found no examples of plurals in re, ai, ing, oy jille in the 
Gospel. 

3. Gekdee. — Sex can only be expressed by the use of the words 
gara, inile, male, or ipi, madale, female. Garahazi, male person, boy, 
man ; ipikazi, woman, female person ; ipikaji hurumo (b), a sow ; 
inil-tiam, a male turtle. For literal meaning of inile, madale, see 
Vocabulary. 

4. Case. — The noun is declined by means of suffixes. There 
appear to be nine cases, Nominative, Instrumental or Nominative of 
the agent. Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Locative, Ergative, 
and Yocative. 

(a) Nominative and Instrumental. 

The nominative is the bare root. The instrumental is shown by 
a suffix. To agree with the pronouns, the suffix should be do or dui 
but examples are not easily found, though we have in Mark, ix. 24, 
maido wokailnga, cried out with tears. In most cases no suffix is used, 
and in others the termiaation {-n) is the same as the accusative. 

Example 1 : Without suffix. — Goiga palgizo, the sun rose; gulo 
papudamiz, the wind ceased ; tati tarai walmizin, the father quick cried 
out ; mui usimoiginga, the fire is not quenched. 

Example 2 : With suffix n : — Borodan kadaipa-mani nahi ai, the 
earth brings forth food ; nongo gamu kulan lapan, cut his body with 
stones ; xoar mabaegan Augadan haselaia ugan, a man waited for God's 
Kingdom ; adapa idumoin moroigan, to be rejected by the elders ; dvrai 
kawakun noino gasaman, some young men laid hold of him. 

(b) Accusative. 

As a general rule the noun in this case does not diJSer in form from 
the nominative, but a suffix -n is also found, especially with proper 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 137 

names. This agrees witli the accusative suffix in the pronouns ngona, 
ngino, noino. There seems, however, to be some confusion between 
the nominative and accusative. 

Example 1 : Withoxit suffix : — Noi purutan puhato, he eat locusts ; 
tana iadupalgan tanamim watri pawa^ they declared their bad deeds ; 
nginu doham mani, take thy bed. 

Example 2 : With suffix : — JVado Petelun iman, she saw Peter ; 
Ta7ia lesimd gasammi, they took Jesus ; gouguan mani, bring medicine ; 
danal patamoiziu ita minarpolai malaegan, watch the scribes; hulun 
tariz, to kneel [kulu, knee). 

(c) Genitive or Possessive. 

This is shown by the suffi:ses u or w, ne. 

Example in u : — Koziu tati, the child's father ;pudau kuta, a reed's 
point ; ludaialaigau huiTculunga, Jew's King ; mahaegau iautumoizingay 
man's commandments ; alasiu ter, salt's flavour. 

n : — Augadan haselaia, God's kingdom ; Mosen tusi, Moses' book ; 
Simonane lago^ Simon's house ; gigino Tcazi, thunder's child ; asinan 
kazi, asses' child (foal) ; Simonan ipiu apu, Simon's wife's mother. 

There seems to be no distinction between u and n. It is indiffe- 
rently augadau or augadan, asinau or asinan. There is a peculiar use of 
the genitive to denote " son of," e.g. lahohou Alefaio, James son of 
Alpheus ; laholou Zeledaio. This is evidently not a Saibai idiom, and 
is due to the translator's imitation of the Lifu lahoho i Alefaio, 
lakoho i Zebedaio, in which i is the genitive preposition. The 
meaning has, however, been curiously reversed, the Saibai being 
" Alphseus of James" and the Lifu "James of Alpheus." 

{d) Dative. 

The dative denoting motion to, or purpose for which a thing is 
intended, is shown by the suffix pa. It may be compared with the 
directive ngapa and the verbal prefix pa. 

Example : mahaegopa, to a man ; padapa, to a hill ; daparpa, to the 
sky ; muiapa, into the fia'e ; wara mahaegopa mulaigi, don't tell (to) 
any man. 

In names of persons I is usually inserted between the name and the 
suffix, Cf. I in the pronominal suffix mulpa. 

Example : Simonalpa, to Simon ; lesulpa, to Jesus. 

With names of places, the suffix is used, Galilaiapa, to Galilee j 



138 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and the meaning of "into" is also expressed by the word au before 
the noun. Noi mangiz au Kaperenauma, or by the adverb sei, there. 
Tana mangiw sei Kaperenauma, they went there {i.e. toj Capernaum. 
For verbs governing the dative, see Syntax. 

(e) Ablative. 

The ablative expressing motion from, or origin, is shown by the 
suffix -ngu, and may be translated " from, through, or concerning." 

Example : Ngukingu, from the water ; sunagngu, out of the 
synagogue ; noi ngitamulpa hapataiso maringu, he baptises you from the 
Spirit ; nado Petelun iman muingu Jcoamapa^ she saw Peter warming 
himself from the fire ; pepe haradarangu, from the thinness of the earth. 

With personal nouns I is inserted as in the dative. 

Example : Heroda loanelngu ahan, Herod feared John ; ma/rilngu, 
from the Spirit. 

Por verbs governing the ablative, see Syntax. 

(/) Locative. 

The locative meaning on, in, or at, is expressed by the suffix nu. 

Examples : — I)oidd7iu, in the wilderness ; ialugudanu, on the road ; 
nongo puruJcanu, on his eyes ; tanamun Icoikaknu, in their hearts; lagonu, 
in the house. 

There is another way of expressing the locative by the word au, in. 

Example : — loane lapataiso nuhepa au loritana, John baptised him 
in Jordan ; taimanu au Dehapoli, on the border in Decapolis ; au gulai, 
in a ship. 

The demonstrative senahi is very often used to translate the Lifu 
ngone la, in the. 

Example : — Nurd walomizin senahi doid, a voice crying in the desert ; 
mv/ra mud'6 garoweidamoin senahipasa, all the crowd assembledatthe door. 

(g) Ergative. 

The ergative expresses the doing of a thing by means of, or at the 
same time with, another It is shown by the suffix ia, and is trans- 
lated " with" in Sharon's vocabulary, but the exact meaning seems 
difficult to define. A reciprocal meaning is sometimes present, e.g. 
when two things come in contact ia is used. Sometimes the meaning 
" by, alongside." Cf. the following examples : — 

Noi uzar a nahepa getia ielepan, he came and took her by the hand ; 
lago ngipen paruia, village in front of you ; nongo igalgia, among or by 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 139 

Ms kinsmen ; mata harengemin not siei ipoJcozia hazilaig ngawahazi, but 
heard of him there by a woman having a daughter ; tana wanan mura 
mabaegia paruia^ they put them before all the men ; noi kalia znagi.^ 
he looked back ; guho paruia, wind (was) contrary ; lesu muia utiz lagia, 
Jesus was come into a house ; noi maluia u%ar, he walked on the sea ; 
muia utemin ita lurumia, entered into the pigs. 

Since this suffix gives the meaning of the Lifu, thei, with, which 
is idiomatically used for " have," we often find it used for " have " in 
the Saibai version, especially with pronouns, e.g. areto sei ngitamunia 
mid'o ? what bread have you? (Lifu, ije areto thei nyipunie, how many 
loaves with you ?) 

(A) Vocative. 

The vocative is shown by the suffix ae or ee. 

Example : — ngurupai-malaegae, teacher ; ngau kaziae, my 
daughter ; Davitan kaziae, son of David ; ngawahaziei, damsel. 

The words Bala I my father ! Ama ! my mother ! are used instead 
of the common tati and apu. For a few other examples, see §ix., 3. 

{%) There are other noun terminations, of which the use is not 
very clear. All that can be done here is to give some examples. 

These endings are nge, nanga, tai, ai, du, bo, hou, utu, asin, gar. 

Example : JVge : Ngi ngbnanumaiginga Augadau ia, a malaegau 
iange, thou rememberest not God's things, but men's things ; ngode 
puinge, like trees ; vineu ap ivara mahaegpange turan, give the vineyard 
to other men ; ngita muasin nuhepa kidotaean sakai puru malaegou 
lagonge, ye have made it a den of thieves ; noi keda ngadalnga uman- 
gange, he was as one dead ; ngau kusaig launga toridiz, a hahange ngona 
waean, receiveth not Me, but the Father that sent Me. 

Nanga : Poilan Mose nanga iautumiz, offer the things Moses 
ordered ; palae iamuliz tanamulpa keda lesun iananga iautumiz, they 
said to them as Jesus ordered ; mido ngita ngaeapa boie uzar keda puru 
mabacg nanga mido ? are you come out to me as against a thief ? keda 
angela nanga, like the angels ; koigorsar mabaeg ivagel-nanga kulainge, 
many men last (shall be) first ; imati keda noi nanga mido palamulpa 
iamuliz, found as he had said to them. 

Nenga is found in : Nongo kapu minanenga, his glory. 

Tai: Nongo notai nidiz, touched his tongue; 7nura mabaeg alasenu 
taean muitai, every man shall be salted with fire. 



140 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Ai: Gulai patiz, get into tlie ship. Macgillivray gives ^M?fl!« as 
the plural of gul, but there are no examples in the Gospel. (See 
Plurals, p. 136.) 

Du: Ngita tana aidu poilan, give ye them food. The common 
form is ai, food. Macgillivray has (ii., p. 313) :" As examples of the 
various forms of this word, I may give, ana pihur aidu = give me (some) 
food ; ina aio ? = is this eatable ? ai = it is eatable." 

£, ho: This appears to be another spelling of the dative suffix ^a. 
Waliz guiai, walizo, climb up into the ship, WaU% gulpa is also found. 

Boii : Koialou, with a loud voice. Koia for hoi ia. 

TJtu : This is, no doubt, connected with the verb utui, to lie down. 
Ngawakaziutu lag, the place where the girl was lying. 

Asin : Perhaps connected with the verb-preposition asin, to be 
with. Senali nginu melcatasin, in thy glory ; mehata, shining, 
radiance. 

Gar : Palae getowanizo Zehetaiogar palamun tati, they left Zebedee 
their father ; nanu aigar harpudan, all her living. 

Some of these terminations are also found with pronouns. For 
examples, see Pronouns, § ii. 

(/) The possessive case of a pronoun is used with nouns in all cases. 
In this the Saibai use differs from the Miriam. (See Miriam Grammar, 
§m.^.) 

Example : Nongo hiilmigau nelpa, to his brother's name ; ngau 
nelngu, through my name ; nongo purukanu, on his eye. 

§ IV. — Adjectives. 

1. A few adjectives are used in a simple form. Xbi, hai, big ; magi, 
little ; hapu^ good ; ivati, bad ; pepe, thin. 

2. A distinctly adjectival form is given to a word by the affix nga. 
Keinga, large ; mapunga, heavy ; towanga, easy ; piranga, pirung (m), 
wet ; gogainga, weak. 

A few adjectives have the termination na instead of nga ; magina, 
little ; suniein (m), cold. 

Adjectives of quality are formed by adding le (Muralug, re, ri) to 
the name of a quality or thing, with or without the ending nga. 

Example : Mita, taste ; mitale, mitalenga, mitalnga, tasty ; hula^ 
stone; kulale (m), stony; nisoy leaf; nisalnga, leafy; hulka, blood; 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 141 

hulhale, red ; huama, heat ; huamalnga, hot ; kaura, ear ; Icaurare 
hauralenga, possessing ears ; geto, hand ; gitaUnga^ possessing a hand. 

The negative of adjectives in le or lenga is formed by adding igi, 
gi, or ge to the noun, with or without the ending nga. Cf . Miriam 
adjective in hah, Daudai tato. 

Example : Sola, slow ; solaginga, smart ; tari, quick ; taregi, 
slow ; h6%i, child, hoziginga, childless ; mahaegogi, deserted ; mitai- 
ginga, tasteless. 

When persons are qualified gigal is sometimes used. Ngita 
muamuagigal, ngita imaigigal, you (are) without understanding ; you 
don't see. 

A few adjectives are formed by reduplication as in Miriam. 

Example : Idi, oil, idiidi, fat ; huhi, charcoal, hulihubinga, black ; 
mudo, crowd, mudomudo, crowded. 

Macgillivray has the following note on this method of forming 
adjectives : — 

" The formation of many adjectives can be clearly traced : in fact, 
one of the most obvious features of the language — imperfectly as it is 
understood — is the facility with which many nouns may be converted 
into either adjectives or verbs. Thus, ' mapei = a bite,' becomes 
' mapeile = capable of biting,' and is the root of the verb ' mapeipa -to 
bite.' The positive adjunct * leg,^ and its negative * aige,'' are also used 
to convert nouns into adjectives : the former follows the same rules 
as those before given for forming the plural : — ^ gi%u = sharpness,' 
becomes either ' gizule = sharp ' or ' gizuge = blunt,' literally, ' sharp- 
ness possessing, or, possessing not' : from ' nuhi = water,' we get the 
form * nuhile mar am = the well contains water,' or, ' nuhegi mar am = 
the well is dry': ' <?flf^^fly^ = blind,' literally means, 'eye possessing 
not ' : as a further example, I may give, * ipihai ajirge wap'ina ladale 
mapeip = the shameless woman eats this sore-producing fish'" [n. 
p. 301]. 

A few adjectives are formed by the addition of thung, meaning 
" like, the same as." Macgillivray gave the example, gariga thung = 
like the sun, or, as bright as daylight. No examples of this are found 
in the Gospel. 

Colours. — Macgillivray noted that: — "There are two forms of 
each adjective denoting colour, except grey and white. Thus, 
' black ' is rendered either ' huli-huhi-thung ' or, ' kuU-huU tha 



142 Proceedings of the Royal Imh Academy. 

garmde,'' both meaning 'like,' or, 'the colour of the charcoal procured 
from ^ Icuhi-lculi' =\/iuch.-^oodi.'' 'Blue, green, and red ' are denoted 
by compounds, signifying resemblance to • deep water, a leaf, and 
blood,' respectively" [n. 303]. 

Ifone of these forms are found in the Gospel, where " white " is 
gatnul or gamuldnga ; " red, purple," hdukal; " green," maludonga. 

In Haddon's iiss., however, there is a series of colour names 
from Tud, similar to those of Macgillivray, but with da instead of tha. 
These names are : — 

Eed, Iculka-da-goinola. Yellow, deica-da-gomola. 

"Wliite, Jcohi-lcohi-gomola. Blue, malu-da-gomola. 

Black, kaibro-do-gomdia. Green, eldra-da-gbmola. 

There are numerous compound adjectives, e.g. hoikutalnga, long, 
high; lit., possessing big ends; kdiridanga, hard; lit., very bony. 
Macgillivray gives the examples wati-ngarare, lame, bad-footed ; wati- 
gayiule, stinking, bad smelling ; icati-mitale, bad tasted ; wati-kaurare, 
biid-eared, deaf, &c. 

3. Comparison is made by two positive statements, or by a 
periphrasis. 

Example : Magina modolia Sodoma a Gomora senahi tonar halhai- 
fn'dan senahi lagaJ, a little punishment Sodom and Gomorrah (in) time 
of rectifying (than) those cities; matangadagido ngi muia utizo nahi 
igililenga a ngimi geto paunapa patan a ukasuhisuJco, kahnel geiiapa taean, 
senahi mui usimoiging, worthy (better) thou enter into life and thy 
two hands cut off (than to be) thrown with them into Gehenna, into 
unquenchable fire. 

Likeness is expressed by ngdde or ngada, or in adjectival form, 
ngadiiJgna. 

Example : ngdde puinge, like trees ; keda ngadalnga sinapi kousa, (it 
is) like a mustard seed ; ngalpa Augadan haselaia mi ngadalnga tninapa ? 
we make God's kingdom like what ? 

4. A superlative is expressed by means of the word adapudiz ; lit., 
coming out beyond. 

Example : nga adapudiz ? who is greatest ? durai nia adapudiz, the 
chief seats ; wara salli aiginga adapudiz sehalhi sohia, have not any law 
beyond these two laws ; Augadau kazi adapudiz, Son of God most high ; 
mina koiza adapudiz senahi pui mura, real great thiugs beyond all trees. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 143 

IToi is used as a prefix to intensify the meaning of an adjective, as 
koisigal, very far ; Tcoimapunga, very difficult. Macgillivray gives tlie 
example, kelcamanale, very warm. — [ii. 303]. 

5. The peculiar adjectival expressions noticed in Miriam are found 
also in the Saibai Gospel. Zagi, zaginga, poor ; lit., nothing, not 
having a thing; mpu, rich; lit., mother of things; zapulaig, a rich 
person; hasa-Tcupal, naked; lit., bare-bellied. 

§ V. — Verbs. 

1, Many nouns and adjectives may be used in their simplest forms 
as verbs, e.g. noi mm, he weeps ; ngi mina, you are true. "Where 
verbal roots have been found in the vocabularies, they invariably end 
in a vowel : ngurapai, teaching ; mulai, speaking ; pdlai, cutting. 

2. Yeebal "Forms. 

(a) Causative. — There seems to be no definite way of expressing the 
causative. In many cases it is shown by a suffix pa, which is the 
same as that forming the dative case of a noun, and the same formation 
as that found in Miriam, where the causative in em is also the dative 
suffix. (See Miriam Grammar, p. 536 of Part I.). Macgillivray 
regarded the suffix pa in Muralug as the ending for the present tense 
of the verb ; and in Haddon' s mss. it is also found as a present 
tense ending. As used in the Saibai Gospel pa expresses an infinitive 
rather than a present tense, and is very often used with another 
verb. 

A very common way of expressing a causative is by the use of the 
verb mepa, to do, or make, the tenses of which (mizi, mani), as given in 
the vocabularies, often form verbs from nouns. 

Example : Launga-mani, to rebuke, make nothing of ; ubi, uhin, a 
want ; ubin-mepa, to wish, want ; adapa, out ; adapa-mani, to put out ; 
ngapa, hither, come hither ; ngapa-mani, make come hither, i.e. bring ; 
mina-man, to measure, span, make a mark ; mari-man, to pine, become 
a spirit, &c. Other verbs are used in a similar way. (See Verbal 
Prefixes.) 

{h) Negative. — The negative verb is formed by affixing igi or iginga 
to the root. This is analogous to the formation of negative adjectives 
from nouns, and the verb usually has a participial or adjectival 
meaning. 



144 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Example : Tana hapuaTcasi ginga, they do not believe, or ttey are 
unbelieving ; mui usimoiginga, tbe fires are not quenched, or they do 
not quench the fires ; ngita getotridaiginga, you have not read ; ngita 
■a/raiginga, you do not flee. 

In some cases a negative is formed by means of the adverb launga. 

(c) Interrogative. — The words nga and me and their cases, ngadii, mipa, 
jwwyw, introduce aninterrogative sentence. (See Pronounsand Adverbs.) 

In many cases mido, what, is found instead of mi. Mido ngi mangiz ? 
hast thou come ? Ilido mata ngadogidd nidi%i hapu pawa ina salath ? 
is it right to do good deeds on the sabbath ? 

Sometimes the interrogative sentence does not differ in form from 
the affirmative. Ngita getotritraiginga ? Have you not read? 

{d) Quotations. — These are introduced by ^e(?a (Miriam, kega). 

Example : Mura iamuliz Iceda, noi umanga, all said, he is dead ; noi 
walmizin keda, lesuae Davitan Kazi, ngona siluwanan, he cried out, 
Jesu, David's son, pity me ; noi iapupoihiz nuhepa keda, ngi wa/ra iman f 
he asked him, do you see anything ? 

((?) Substantive verb. — There is no substantive verb, though in 
Sharon's vocabulary in'o, ina, noi, ita, and nu are all given as 
equivalents for " is." These words have already been shown as 
demonstratives, § ii. A few examples of sentences without verbs 
may be given here. 

Example : — Nginu nelenga ? thy name (is) who ? kain ngurupai 
mingadahiga ina ? new teaching like- what (is) this ? ngau nellegeona, 
ita ngoi koima, my name (is) Legion, these we (are) many ; ngai ino 
Keriso, I here (am) Christ. 

The meaning of the English " to be," in compounds, is often ex- 
pressed by a circumlocution. 

Example : koigorsa/r. mahaeg kulai taiz, a lako wagel taiz, many men 
that are (lit. occupy) first place, again (or next time) are last ; ngau 
zageto launga poiban, it is not mine (not my work) to give. 

3. Moods and Tenses. 

In the various vocabularies of the Saibai (with the single excep- 
tion of Macgillivray's valuable Muralug (Kowrarega) list, there is a 
great want of exactness in the meanings given to the verbs. For 
example, the verbs 'give,' 'drink,' and 'eat' appear in the five 
principal lists as follows : — 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 145 



Macgillivray, 


. piheipa, 


wanipa, 


purteipa 


MacGregor, 


. paiiano, 


wanin, 


pourtano 


Maefarlane, 


. poilan, 


warn, 


purtan. 


Stone, 


. paihan, 


toanika, 


prutiJca. 


Sharon, 


. poiiaipa, 


loaniz, 


purutan. 



Macgillivray alone assigns any definite meaning to the words given 
(the forms in pa being given as present tense). An examination of the 
Gospel translation does not make the subject much clearer, even after 
a careful comparison with the Lifu version used by the translator. 
In Lifu, verbs undergo no change of form to express time or mood, 
all variations in meaning being expressed by separate words or par- 
ticles ; and hence, no doubt, the Lifu translator's difficulty in using 
the Saibai affixes. The compilers of the vocabularies seem to have 
taken the words as given in the Gospel in a general sense, and with 
no attempt to discriminate their meaning. That the discrimination is 
difficult, appears from the remarks of Macgillivray, whose notice of 
the verb is the only one in which an endeavour has been made to 
ensure accuracy. Por this reason it is here given in full. He 
says [ii., p. 307] : — 

" After tabulating 100 Kowrarega verbs in all the different forms 
in wMch they had occurred to me, I yet failed in arriving at a know- 
ledge of their mode of formation, owing to the deficiency of data on 
one hand, and the presence of some apparently defective and irregular 
verbs on the other. Still, some of the results are worth recording. 
Leaving out the consideration of the irregular verbs, I can speak with 
certainty of only two moods, the indicative and the subjunctive, 
of the present and the past (probably really further divisible) tenses 
of the former, and the present of the latter. As an example I may 
give the verb ' to strike,' of which the root is assumed to be 
* matum = a stroke.' 

Indicative present, nudu ngatu matumeipa = I am striking him. 

,, perfect, ,, „ matumina = I struck him. 

,, future, ,, ,, mafumeipaJcai = 1 shall strike him. 

Imperative present, ,, ngidu matumur = strike him. 

"Assuming a root to each, I find 94 of the verbs under examina- 
tion to agree in having the present tense of the indicative terminating 
mpa : of these, 70 end in eipa,'^ 14 in ipa, 6 in epa, and 1 in aipa. 

^ Misprinted aipa in the original. 
E.I.A. PEOC, SEE. in., VOL. IT, L 



146 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



" The perfect tense (setting aside some inexplicable irregularities) 
exliibits a great variety of terminations, for the formation of which 
no rule can yet he given : these are cw, ana, ani ; in, ina, eina ; em, 
etna ; eima, eiun ; and tm. 

" The future tense alone is perfectly regular ; it is simply formed 
by adding hai to the present. 

" The present tense of the imperative mood in those verbs having 
the present of the indicative ending in ipa, terminates (with one ex- 
ception in ^) in ir : in the others the terminations of this tense are ur 
(the most frequent) ; ar (the next in order of frequency), ara, ari ; 
ada, eada ; e, eio, eir, erur ; and o. 

"After all I am inclined to suppose that the Kowrarega verb, 
although apparently complicated, is of simple construction ; and that 
its various modifications are caused by the mere addition to its root of 
various particles, the exact meaning of which (with one exception) is 
yet unknown. That exception is the particle aige or ge, the mode of 
employment of which is shown by the following examples : — 

Wawp^ yinu ngai purteip purteipaige = I am not eating your fish. 
,, ,, ,, purteitmaige = I did not eat your fish. 

,, ,, ,, purteipakaige = I shall not eat your fish. 

,, „ ,, nanu ngi purtaige = Don't eat his fish. 

"A few examples may be given in illustration of the preceding 
remarks : — 



English. 


Present. 


Past. 


Future. 


Imperative. 


Eat, 


purteipa. 


purteiun, 


purteipakai, 


purtar. 


Bite, 


mapeipa, 


mapana, 


mapeipakai, 


mapur. 


Take away, . 


tneipa, 


mani. 


meipakai. 


mari. 


Tell, 


muUpa, 


mulem. 


mulepakai, 


muleada. 


Lie down. 


yimeipa, 


yunnm. 


yuneipakai, 


yunur. 


Leave behind, 


yuneipa, 


yunem, 


ynneipakai, 


yunur. 


Shoot, 


uteipa, 


uttm, 


uteipakai, 


utur. 


Enter, 


titeipa, 


utema, 


uteipakai. 


uterur.^' 



"We now proceed to discuss the expression of moods and tenses as 
found in the Gospel, reference being made to the foregoing notice by 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 147 

Macgillivray, and to the Lifu Testament of 1873, from which the 
Saibai version was made. 

(1.) Mood:— 

(a) Imperative. — The verbal root is sometimes used indefinitely as 
an imperative. Ngapanagi ! behold ! look here ! 

Only one instance is found in the Gospel of the suffix -r given by 
Macgillivray as imperative. Ngi gedo pagaear, stretch out thy hand. 

The word with the ordinary (tense) ending is used in the impera- 
tive. Kadaitarizo, stand up ! Iman senahi ngitamunhorngaizinga, take 
heed what ye hear ! (lit. find your hearings) ; Ngalpa meamaipa 
wadohapa, let us go to the other side ! lagiasin, gudo mumi ! be quiet, 
be still ! Ngi adapadan ! you come out ! Ngaeapa muliz, tell me ! The 
plural imperative has in some cases an affix ziu, miu. Ngita Tcarenge- 
miziu, hear ye ! ngapanagemiu, look ye ! Magina Jcozingu getowanemiu 
ngapa ngaeapa, let little children come to me ! A dual ending moriu 
is seen in, Ngipel uzarmoriu, go ye two ! from uzar, go. 

A prohibitive is expressed by the verbal root with the negative 
affix. War a mabaegopa mulaigi, tell not any man ! Usually, however, 
the word maigi (from mai, the root of mepa, mani, to do, and igi) is 
used to prohibit an action. Maigi puru, do not steal ! Maigi akan, 
do not fear ! Maigi harengemin, do not listen ! 

The Lifu imperative expressed by hi e, it is good that, is literally 
translated by the Saibai hapuza, good thing. Kapuza ngita ladun, go 
ye ! (Lifu, hi e troje nyipunie) ; Jcapuza ngi ngapa uzar, you come 
here ! Cf. Miriam deleU (Pt. i., p. 537). ' Must ' or ' ought ' is trans- 
lated, as in Miriam, by the noun meaning ' work,' zageto (hand thing) 
with the possessive pronoun. Ngau zageto mieinidiz ? what must I do ? 
Nginu zageto lehovalpa ngonanumani, thou must remember Jehovah. 

(J) Infinitive. — There is no special sign for the infinitive, one verb 
simply following the other. Kuilcainian koima maumizin, began to 
preach much ; ngai ngapa mangizo turan mdbaeg hahlaiginga launga, 
I came not here to call upright men. 

(c) Desiderative. — A wish is expressed by the word uhin-mepa, to 
make a wish, to want. Miei ngipel uhin-mepa ngai ngipelpa poihan ? 
What do you two want me to give you? War a lago muia utiz, a uhin- 
mepa ita durai mahaegal nuhepa imaiginga, went inside another house 
and wanted men not to find him. 

L 2 



148 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(d) Potential. — Ability to perform an action is expressed by the 
■word ngulaig, knowing, or to know how. Ngangulaig get6wani% senahi 
watri pawa? who can forgive sins? In Mk. xiv. 8, ngulaig is used 
with a possessive pronoun. Na inuasin nidizi nanu ngulaig, she has 
done her ability, i.e. what she could. The negative of ngulaig is 
korawaig. Tana Tcorawaig aipurutan, they could not eat ; noi Tcorawaig 
u%a/r, he could not go ; ngai Tcorawaig, I don't know. 

(e) Subjunctive and Conditional. — There seems no definite way of 
expressing a dependent sentence, and there is no change of form in 
the verb. The words used to introduce a conditional sentence are 
sihe, if ; ha, if ; toma, tuma, lest ; tomalca, perhaps. The adverb wa, 
yes, is often used between the protasis and the apodosis : the dependent 
sentence is frequently in the future. 

Ex. Sike ngalpa iamuliz daparngu, kai noi mulepa, Mipa ngita 
nuhepa toradoiginga? if we.' say, from heaven, he will say. Why have you 
not received him ? Ngalpa tizar senahi amadan lag'6, ngai maumizineka 
siei, we go to the next place, that I may (will) preach there ; sike 
kauralaig, wa, noi ka/rengeniin, if (he) possesses ears, then he hears ; ha 
ngato tanamulpa waean, tana umuwalepa siei iahugudanu, if I send them 
away, they (will) faint there on the way ; ngai ngihia kahnel umanga, 
wa, ngai nginungu gudotodaiginga, if I die with thee, I do not deny 
thee ; sike kuilculunga iaupain toraiginga senahi goiga sena, wa/ra mdbaeg 
igiliginga, if the Lord had not shortened those days, any man (would) 
not live ; tuma noi tarai mangizo a iman ngita a mata utui, lest he come 
quick and find you still asleep ; noi iautumiz nongo niaikazi magina 
gulpa noino ugan, ino mahaeg koigorsar, toma tana nuhepa kai garona- 
namiz, He ordered His disciples for a little boat to await Him, the men 
(were) many, lest they should crowd Him ; I^ga mahaeg kain waina 
paieudan senahi au dopuza, tomaka papalamizo kae senahi dohu huiu, what 
man pours new wine into an old thing, perhaps the old bottle will 
burst. 

(2.) Tense :— 

Three apparent tense endings appear in the Gospel, but the distinc- 
tion between them is difficult to make out. These endings are pa, iz, 
and n. 

{a) Pa. — This ending was given by Macgillivray for the present 
tense (see p. 145), but is of comparatively rare occurrence in the 
Gospel. Even when used it seems to express an infinitive of purpose 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 149 

rather than a present tense, usually translating the Lifu infinitive 
sign troa. In the following examples there seems to be no indica- 
tion of present time. Getowani mabaegopa danalpataipa a/p6, left 
men to look after the garden ; iautumizo senabi pasau danalpotai mahaeg , 
poipimipa^ ordered the man looking after the door, to watch (Lifu troa 
hmeken) ; na ngulaig nabepa nidaipa, she knew what was done to her ; 
aipa la/ropuddipa, to buy food (Lifu, troa ito xene). This use of the 
suffix pa expresses the same idea as in the dative case of nouns. 

In a few cases, the Gospel shows pa as a present tense ending, 
Nongo niai ha%i nulia puzipa, His disciples follow Him ; mi za ngai 
ieudepa ? what do I ask ? ngita danalpataipa a poipiam, a toitupagiz, 
take ye heed, watch and pray. In these three examples the Lifu 
has in the first case the past, in the second the future, and in the third 
an imperative without tense sign. 

{h) Iz, izo, izi. — It is by no means certain that these suffixes are 
identical in meaning. Macgillivray refers to the ending izzi only once. 
In a note on the words soha, sali, he says : — " These two words appear 
to have the same meaning, but are used differently: * soh^atchin = sali- 
mizzi,^ and both express ' having been sick.' " [ii., 304.] 

As used in the Gospel z, zo, zi usually express the present tense 
of an intransitive verb, and correspond to the particle a in the Lifu 
version. Ngai ngihepa mulizo^ I say to thee (Lifu, ini a qaja hoi eo) • 
noi iautumiz nongo niai hazi, He orders His disciples ; noi hadaip waliz 
pada/pa, he climbs up a mountain. The suffixes iz, izo, izi, do not 
always express a present tense. In many cases they are used to 
translate the Lifu past sign hna. Lurai siei putizi iahugudanu, some 
there fell on the path ; goiga palgizo, the sun rose (Lifu, hna hoj'e la 
Jo) ; noi Jcadaitarizi, he arose ; lesu nubepa nagiz, Jesus looked at him. 

(c) -n, -ni. — The ending n was given by Macgillivray for the per- 
fect tense. As used in the Gospel, it usually expresses the simple past 
of a transitive verb, and translates the Lifu past participle, hna, or the 
present perfect, M, ha. Noi minarpalan senali tusi, he wrote that 
book ; Tana nubepa angan setahi magina hoziel, they brought to Him 
little children ; noi iman senali suJce Icoisigal nisalnga, he saw a fig-tree 
afar o:ff having leaves. 

Just as the suffixes iz, izo, izi are sometimes found expressing past 
tense, so also n is frequently used in the Gospels in the present tense. 
Ngai iman mabaeg uzar, I see men walking. 



150 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

{d) There is another, and probably more correct view which may- 
be taken of these three endings pa, i%, n. It is to regard them as 
suffixes of a similar nature to the Melanesian transitive endings, and 
indefinite in tense. Then pa simply states the action generally, iz 
states it as performed indefinitely, w as a transitive action performed 
upon some object. Compare imaipa, imizi, and iman in the following 
phrases : — Noi danal wani mdbaegpa imaipa, he looked round to see the 
man (Lifu, anganyideti a goe goeene troa xajawatine la ate^ ; tana imizi 
a iman senali hula, they looked and saw the stone (Lifu, angate a 
goeene ame hna ohne la ete). Cf. also, lesu noino geto ielpan, a nubepa 
hadai ta/ran, a noi hadai ta/ri%, Jesus took him by the hand and raised 
him, and he arose. 

(e) Perfect Tense. 

The verb muasin, meaning ' to finish,' is used with other verbs to 
express the completion of an action. Ngita muasin harengemin, ye have 
heard ; na muasin nidizi nanu ngulaig, she has done what she could 
(lit., her ability) ; noi muasin tanamulpa waean, when he had sent ; 
noi muasin iamuliz, as soon as he had spoken. 

The meaning of the present perfect is often expressed by the adjec- 
tival ending -7iga. Kazi umanga, the child is dead (Lifu, meci M la neko). 

(/) Pluperfect. 
A. kind of pluperfect is expressed by the termination izinga, which 
forms a verbal noun, and is used with the possessive pronoun. Tana- 
mun imaizinga, things they had seen, lit., their things seen. (See 
Nouns, §iu., 1.) 

{g) Future. 

This tense is shown by the word kai {ka, kae), usually following 
the verb, but sometimes preceding. It is used with the root, or with 
the endings pa, iz, n. Cf. (d) above. Mangi kai senali tona/re, a 
time will come ; ngita iman kai mdbaegau kazi, ye shall see the son of 
man ; kai noi mulepa, he will say ; ngita kai toridiz, ye shall receive. 
Macgillivray also gives examples. See p. 146. This kai must be dis- 
tinguished from the kai or ki of emphasis. The verb ladun, to go, is 
also used to express the future. Ngalpa ladun iman, we are going to 
see. The Lifu future particle tro is also the verb ' to go.' 

' This phrase is in the ceremonious language used to chiefs in Lifu. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 151 

(7i) Continuance. 

The word mata is used to translate tlie Lifu pete ho, while, and 
•expresses the continuance of an action. Tana mata waTcaiasimoin, 
while they mourned ; noidoha mata utuipa, as he sowed ; tana mata 
iagiasin, they were silent. Magillivray has gul mata pongeipa = the 
canoe is still under sail [n., 305]. 

(^) Repetition. 

The word laho expresses repetition. lesu lako mangiz au Kaper- 
nauma, Jesus again came to Capernaum ; ngai lako uhinmepa danalpa- 
taipa, I wish to open eyes again; ngai laho wbnigi, I will not drink again. 

{j) Emphasis. 

A verb or verbal phrase is rendered emphatic by the word kai, at 
the end of the sentence : Noi mamu hai, he was well. This is pro- 
bably the same as the (m), Kowrarega hi of which Macgillivray remarks 
(ii., 312) : — " The meaning of this is, to a certain extent, doubtful; 
however, it enforces an afl&rmation ; Ex. ina muggi^ki = this is very 
little : it is frequently used after pronouns ; arri hi halapahai = we 
shall go to the dance." 

The Li£u emphatic particle hi is translated by wa = yes, verily. 
Ka/rengemin, wa harengemin a wahain-tamamoiginga, hear, yes hear, and 
not understand. In Lifu : troa deng, a denge hi, ngo tha trotrohnine pe. 

4. Ntjmbeb. 

A verb is used with a singular, dual or plural pronoun with the 
simple endings. Ngai iamuliz, I say ; palae iamuliz, they two say ; 
tana iamuliz, they say. 

In some cases, especially when the pronoun or other method of 
marking number is not used, a syllable is inserted between the root 
and the verbal ending. The following examples are found in the 
Gospel : — 

Dual. — Nongo ukasar haura paleman, his two ears were opened ; 
ngipel sipalsei hai mangeman, you two shall come ; palae uzarman, two 
went. The usual forms of the verbs are palan, mangiz, and uzar, but 
the examples present some difficulty, and do not agree ; the infixes 
being em, ma. The verbs mangiz and uzar, come and go, do not else- 
where appear with the suffix n. 

Plural. — The plural appears to be distinguished by the infix moi, 
mai, or mi. In Sharon's vocabulary, patmnoin is given as the plural 



152 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

of patan, to cut. Examples from the Gospel are : — Ngalpa mulemipa, 
we say ; mura demoni nubepa ieudemipa, all tlie demons besought him ; 
ngau ia idimoiginga^ my words shall not pass away ; durai patan pui- 
tamal a idbugudanu a poidmnoin, some cut branches, and spread on the 
road ; mura mudo garoweidamoin, aU the crowd assembled. 

Many words which naturally have a plural agent are rarely found 
except in the plural form, such as, garoweidamoin, to assemble together ; 
gudamoin, to discuss. 

5. Verbax Prefixes. 

The Saibai verb is rarely found in the Gospels or vocabularies 
(except in Macgillivray's) in a simple form. It mostly appears with 
a prefix, which, to some extent, serves the purpose of an adverb and 
defines the meaning- It is in some cases difficult to ascertain the 
exact meaning of the verb itself, or of its connection with the idea ex- 
pressed by the prefix, but the meanings of the latter are in most cases 
clear. The prefixes may be conveniently classified as corporal, 
nominal, modal, and directive. 

(1.) Corporal Prefixes. — These are names of parts of the body. 

1. Bag, cheek ; lag-taean, to promise. 

2. Ban, dana, eye ; dan-paliz, to open the eyes, be awake (eye- 

divide) ; danal-pataipa, to watch (put out eyes) ; dan-taean, 
to exhort (roll or throw eyes). 

3. Gamu, body ; gamu-diwapa, dance ; gamu-doidanu, tired 

(body in wilderness) ; gamuia-mataman, to murder ; gamu- 
tariz, to touch. 

4. Get, geta, geto, hand ; geto-nitun, to point ; geto-pagaean, to 

apprehend ; geto-waean, to loose, let go ; geto-pudeipa, to 
scrape hands, etc. 

5. Gud, guda, gudo, mouth ; guda-moin, to discuss ; guda- 

palamiz, to overflow ; guda-purutan, to be insolent (eat- 
mouth) ; gudo-nitun, to advise ; gudo-tapaman, to kiss. 

6. Kakura, kuhu, foot, toes ; hakura-pataean, to step across ; 

kukuna-mapeipa, to kick. 

7. kuiko, kuiku, head ; kuiku-iman, to begin (find head) ; kuiko- 

patan, to behead ; kuiko-taean, to nod, etc. 

8. Madu, flesh ; madu-paman, to start, be afraid. 

9. Ngona, breath, heart ; ngona-pudiz, to take a long breath, to 

rest ; ngonanu-mani, to remember (bring into the heart). 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 153 

10. Paru, forehead, face; paru-idun, to deceive. 

11. Silu, liver ; sibu-wanan, to pity (perhaps " cheer up ") (put 

a liver) ; silo-pajyalamiz, to doubt (liver flies away). The 
liver is probably regarded as the seat of courage. 

12. Talai, shoulder; tahal-uradiz, to carry on the shoulders. 

(2.) Nominal prefixes are names of objects, and are not so easily 
distinguished as the preceding. 

1. Bard, grass; })ar6-pxi,daipa, to buy (i.e. barter, put down on. 

the grass) ; cf. za-pudamoin, to sell (put down a thing). 

2. Bupo, the bush; lup-ari%, to flee (run to bush). 

3. Butu, sQ-ndL; hutu-pataipa, to cleanse; hutu-paliz, to shake ofl, 

4. Guia, wind ; gubal-puian, to blow. 

5. Gud, opening (see mouth) ; gud-paliz, to bud. 

6. la, iadu, word ; ia-muliz, to say ; iadu-palgan, to confess j 

iadu-turizo, to inform ; ia-Tcaman, to inform ; ia-utumizi, 
to command. Most verbs expressing the saying of some- 
thing take this prefix. 

7. Suj:), covering ; sup-nuran, to cover [nuran, to wrap). 

(3.) Modal prefixes. — These mostly describe the manner of the 
action expressed by the verb, and might almost be classed with the 
directives. 

1 . Dada, in the middle, between ; dada-mangiz, to meet (come 

in middle). 

2. Garo, together; garo-guimani, to shake, quiver, earthquake; 

garo-pataman, to collect food ; garo-taean, to press ; gar^- 
nanamiz, to crowd ; gard-weidamoin, to assemble. 

3. Kido, over ; hido-taean, to turn over, overthrow. 

4. Kun, back; kunia-tidiz, to return. 

5. Pa, motion; pa-toridiz, to carry along; pa-ielpan, to lead 

along ; pa-ieudiz, to pour ; pa-waliz, to land, climb on 
shore ; pa-taean, to throw ; pa-zilamiz, to move agaiast, 
to attack ; pa-nudiz, to press, nib along, etc. Nearly all 
verbs of motion begin with pa, and it is also used with 
the dii'ectives. Cf. also the dative suffix and verbal 
ending pa. 

6. Pal, double (cf. dual demons) ; tu-pal-taan, to fold {tu = 

EngKsh two). 



154 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(4.) Directives. — These are often combined witli the prefix of 
motion, pa. 

1. Ngapa, hither (cf. prons. nga-i, I; nga, who?) ; ngapa-uzwr, 

come hither ; nga/pa-mani., bring hither ; ngapa-nagemiu, 
look hither. Macgillivray has the following note upon 
ngapa : — 

"Ngapa. — This is a word which, from the variety of 
its modes of application, long puzzled me. Careful 
examination of sentences in which it occurred led to 
the following results : — 1st. It may be used as an 
independent word to denote motion towards the speaker, 
the pronoun which would otherwise be required being 
omitted. Example : ' adur = go out,' but ' ngapi' adur = 
come out (towards the speaker),' ' lah^ ngapa = to come 
again, to return.' 2nd. It is also used as a postfix to 
denote motion towards the object to which it is joined. 
Example : ' laga' p^ [yigapa) aigewel = come to the hut,' 
' mue' pa teir = throw it into the fire.' 3rd. It is used in 
a third sense. Example : ' wawpi' pa = to go fishing,' 
' kaia 'pa = to go to a dance. 4th. It is often used as an 
equivalent to ' give me,' the hand being held out at the 
same time. Example : ' ngapa = let it come to me.' " 
[ii., 308]. 

The first of these uses is the directive ; the second the 
dative ; the third the verbal suffix. 

2. Ada, adapa, thither, outward ; ada-taen, adapa-taean, to 

throw away ; ada-pudiz, high (to be out beyond some- 
thing else); adapuidan, to eject; adapa-mani, to take 
away ; adapakadaman, to peel, to tear away. Cf. Mir. 
ode, outside. 

3. Kadai, Jcadaipa, up ; Icadai-tariz, to stand up ; kadai-nagiz, 

to look up; kadaipa-waliz, to climb up. Cf. Mir. Tcotor, 
up, sky. 

4. Apa, down; apa taean, to throw down; apa-tanu, to sit 

down ; apa-sin, to stoop ; apa-nian, to sit on the 
ground. 

5. Mulpa, down ; mulpa-pogamiz, to descend. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 155 

6. Nguro, out ; nguro-taean, to keep out ; nguro-weidan, to 

cast out. 

7. Siga, afar; siga-taean, to convulse (tlirow afar) 

There are apparently many other similar verhal prefixes of •which 
the meanings are not clearly made out. See words beginning -with toi 
{toitu-pagaipa, garo-toi-taean), wahai, ngoro, and giu in the Saibai 
Yocabulary, 

6, Vekbal Suffixes. 

These do not appear so prominently as in Miriam. Besides those 
already noted {pa, i%, n^izinga, etc.) there are found the endings ilamiz^ 
mani, mi%in, asin, ae, and ai. 

1. Ilamiz has a verbal form and means 'against'; muliz- 

ilamiz, to accuse (speak against) ; pa-zilami%, to attack 
(move against) ; ngurs-ilamiz, to wink (prob. from nurse. 
See Yoc). 

2. Mani means give, bring, take, etc., and has been already 

noted. Cf. meipa. 

3. Mizin appears to be connected in meaning with mani and 

and nieipa. 

4. Asin means to be with, and has a plural, asimoin, and 

negatives, asiginga, and asigi. 

5. Ae. Ngoi Tcorawaigae, we cannot tell, we don't know ! 

This is almost equivalent to an exclamation. Cf. the 
vocative suffix ae. 

6. Ai. Ba poilanai, for it shall be given. Mark, iv. 25. 

9. Peculiar phrases used to supply the place of verbs are :— Mai 
■adan, weep, put out tears ; mai mani, make tears, mourn ; ipidado 
jOif^Tfl^i, blaspheme ; igili paJan, to ssiveYde; walmizi7i, to shout, make 
a coo-ey ; apa niain ngbnamani, to meditate, sit on ground to think ; 
tanamun mart adapa Tcato palagizo ahan, they were amazed, their spirit 
flew out of (their) neck with fear ; tana mehenmepa malaeg tanamulpa 
amaean, they love salutations, they like men to crawl to them. 

§ VI. — Adverhs. 
1. Inteeeogative. — Interrogative adverbs are formed by means of 
the cases of miei, mido (see Interrog. Prons. p. 131) or by prefixing 
mi to nouns. 



156 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(a) Place. — Milapiu? (in what place) where? Nago, naga (s), 
na^er (m), where ? Nago mi ngadahiga ? where (is) the likeness ? 
Nalaga ? (what place) where ? nalaga a ngoi hitiipatan ? where (is) 
thy wish that we prepare ? Nalaga^ii ? (from what place) whence ? 
Nalagazi pa adan senahi zageto ina nubia ? from whence has this man 
these things ? 

■ (h) Time. — Migoiga ? (what day) when ? Mi tonar ? (what sign) 
when ?^ Mi tonar mangiz senahi pawa ina ? mi tonar minaipataman 
senahi mura zasei ? When shall these doings come ? what sign shows 
all these things? Kamoit? when? (Macf arlane) . How long? is 
translated by Icurxisipa mido? till what? or by mihuta? Ngai 
ngitamulpa haminadan kttrusipa mido ? How long shall I suffer you ? 
Mihuta nubepa ma?igiz ? How long since (it) came to him ? 

(c) Cause. — Mipa? (for what) why? Mipa nidiz sena? why do 
that ? Mipa ngita nuhunuko poihiz ? why make ye this ado ? Mingu ? 
(through what) why ? Mingu ngita ngona nutan ? why do you tempt 
me ? Minguzo ? (through what things) why ? Minguzo senahi 
maihiiko a luman inahi tonar ? why does this generation seek a 
sign ? 

{d) Manner. — Mido-paru ? (what appearance) how ? Mido paru 
ngoi Tioraicaig nuhepa ngiiroweidan ? How (was it) we could not cast 
him out ? Mingadalnga ? (what like) how ? Ngalpa mi ngadalnga 
nuhepa minaman ? we shall measure it how ? 

{e) Numher. — Mida Tcuhi ? how many ? {lit. what many) is given 
by Macgillivray, but no examples of its use is found in the Gospel, 
which has mido only. Areto mido siei ngitamunia f how many 
loaves have you ? lana mido gudia-ieudiz ? how many baskets full ? 

2. Place. — Ino, ina, here ; sei, siei, there ; sena, senao, that there ; 
bradar (b) here ; mata launga, not here ; gurugui, around ; worgi, 
worogi, on, upon ; mulpa, malupa (m), downward, below, lit. to sea ; 
nakdreipa (m), upward, above ; kulaihulai, before ; kapitaig (m), a long 
way off ; amadan, near. 

Adverbs denoting positions are mostly formed from nouns by the 
suffix I or lo. C£. Adjectives. Adal, on the outside, away, off; apal, 
apalo, on the ground, down, under, below ; dadal, in the middle ; 

^ The natives regulate their occupations during the various seasons of the year 
by the constellations, which are thus signs (Saib. tonar ; Mir. mek) of the seasons. 
See vol. II., p. 548. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 157 

matadodalo (b), inland ; gimal, on the top, over, above ; sigal, at a 
distance ; wagel, last. Sigal is declined in dat. and abl, sigapa, 
to a distance ; sigazi, from a distance. The vrord ho, meaning the 
place close by, is declined like sigal : hopa, to a little distance ; Tcozi, 
from a little distance ; hou, of a little distance. 

Example : lesu Kopa amadan u%ar, Jesus went forward a little ; 
noi kozi gurtigui uzar, he had gone a little further on ; kozi Tcain gbiga 
palagizo, a little after new sun rose ; ita hou nitaman, sit hereabouts. 
Macgillivray has Tcareki, hereabouts. Siei is also declined ; sieiTci, 
from there. 

Emphasis is given to adverbs of place and time by prefixing kbi 
{kai, hei) great, very ; Icbi-sigal, very far, etc. Examples occur in 
all the authorities, and Macgillivray uses also Tcwra with the same 
meaning ; Icaramalupa, a long way down, far below. 

3. Time. — Ndbi, now, at present ; nali-gbiga, to-day ; mata-dolura, 
immediately ; kaihb, Icaibu, now, soon, to-day ; kulu Icubo, anywhile ; 
tumatuma, by-and-by, presently ; hafainga, in the morning ; langal, 
to-morrow ; matalangal (ii), a week or so hence ; ngul, ngulb, yester- 
day ; war-gaiga (b) (other day) yesterday ; hul, two or three days 
ago ; matakul, a week or two ago ; Jcorehida, a long time ago ; muasin, 
after ; laJcb, again ; tnaia, continually, still, yet ; ngaru, ever, always. 

4. Ma y NEB,. — IToi, kai, kei, very ; laTco, more ; mata, only ; mamu, 
carefully ; samidb, really ; tomaha, perhaps ; purke (m), well, etc. ; 
hasa, just, only (cf. kusaig and Mir. no) ; kasa-kupal, just a body, 
naked ; kasa-talu, only a snake, i.e., a harmless one ; kasa wanan^ 
forsake, leave alone ; nainonibe, separately. 

5. Some adverbs have a reduplicated form. Ikalikal, gladly ; 
moil/moil, sadly ; kulaikulai, before ; tumatuma, by-and-by. 

§ VII. — Postpositions and Local Nouns. 

These take the place of the English prepositions. 

1. The postpositions used as suffixes to nouns and pronouns are : 
u, n, mun, of ; pa, Ipa, mulpa, to, for ; ngu, muhigu, from through, 
concerning ; nu, at, on, in ; do, du, by, by means of ; ia, lia, munia, 
with ; le, possessed of ; igi, gi, without. 

The use of these words has been fully illustrated in the sections on 
pronouns, nouns, and adjectives. 



158 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Ki, to, for ; and z«, from, are only added to demonstratives, and 
then form adverbs or conjunctions. 

Macfarlane gives mani as a suffix, meaning by, but there are no 
examples of its use. 

2. Some nouns are used with postpositions to express relations of 
place. These are faru, forehead or face ; ada^ outside ; mui^ inside ; 
huado, side ; gima, top ; kalo, back. 

They appear as parunu, before ; paruia, opposite to, contrary ; 
adapa, out of ; muinu, inside, within ; muia, into ; huadia, beside ; 
malu huadia, by the sea-side ; gimaimi, over, above ; gimaingu, from 
above ; gimia, on the top ; Jcalanu, after, behind ; Tcalapa, to, behind. 

The word mai with the genitive case is the equivalent of the 
Miriam hes, ' sake.' Serodian mai, for the sake of Herodias ; hedazou 
mai, for the sake of that thing ; mepaiangu mai, for the world's sake ; 
ngau mai, my sake. 

The verb asimpa, asin, plural asimoin, neg. asigi is used with the 
meaning ' be with.' 

"With, referring to persons, is translated by a noun kalmel. Wara 
ngau kalmel ai purutan, one eating food with me, lit. one my com- 
panion eating food ; ngai ngilia kalmel umanga, I die with thee. 

A few other words are given as prepositions in the vocabulary, but 
they are mostly compounds such as nungu, from (from it). 

§ YIII. — Conjunctions. 

1. A, and, also, but; ha, for, and if ; mata, but, for; sike, if; 
tuma, till, until ; tomaka, perhaps ; kurusipa, until. 

Macgillivray gives ia, and, with an example : Uleip' Alurdia, 
Salalallia, Wagelia, Mania = Alurde and Salalle and Wag el andi Manu 
are approaching. — [ii., 306.] Cf. this ia with the ergative suffix. 

2. The word keda, like, thus, with the noun z6, thing, is declined 
to form causal conjunctions. Kedazou, for ; hedazopa, therefore ; 
kedazingUf kedazongu, kedazinguzo, therefore, because. 

§ IX. — Exclamations. 

1. Ua ! wa ! yea! yes! Misai! yes! Samido ! yes! Wagar ! 
yes! Guirel (m) no! Ae / ah! (of sorrow). Au / akamiz / oh! 
(of surprise). Igur ! poor thing ! 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 159 

2. The salutations are: lawa ! good-bye! farewell! Sangopa! 
good morning! The latter is perhaps a corruption of the Samoan 
alofa. 

Similar expressions are : Kami ! (m) homi ! (n) my dear ! I 

say! look here ! (said by a female to a male). Kawhi! (m) Tcilci! (n) 

with the same meaning are said by a male to a female. Beagi! (m) 

a call to a blind person. Maige ! (m) maigi ! (s. b) wan-nur ! (m) 

don't ! 8ina ! china ! (m) stop ! enough ! Tuma ! (b) wait a bit !. 

Aie! come! 

3. The vocatives ama ! and lala ! have been noticed in the section 

on nouns. 

§ X. — Syntax. 

The following are the chief syntactical rules : — 

1. The Subject precedes the verb. Goiga puti%6, the sun sets. 

2. The Direct Object follows the subject and precedes the verb. 
Tana arahato putran, they cut a hole. 

3. The Indirect Object often follows the verb. lesu iamuUz 
tanamulpa. 

4. Adjectives and possessives precede the noun. Kain dumawaJcu, 
new garment ; ngau Jca%i, my son ; lagou hala, house's back ; nginu 
watri paiva, thy evil deeds. 

5. The adverb precedes the verb. lesu mamu iman, Jesus carefully 
looked ; tana muasin putra, after they had cut. 

6. Government of Verbs. — There is a great variety in the cases 
used with verbs, depending apparently upon the nature of the action 
expressed by the verb. An examination of the commonest words in 
the Gospel show them governing cases as follows : — 

{a) With accusative or no case ending, when the verb expresses 
the direct action of one thing upon another. Examples — ^baptise, 
behold, cast out, cleanse, confess, cut, do, drink, eat, forgive, make, 
pour, preach, prepare, send, take. 

(h) With dative when action of one thing influences or is directed 
towards another. Examples — ask, believe, betray, blaspheme, call, 
come to, convulse, fear (for), give, have dealings with, inform, kneel 
to, know, lead, minister to, pity, punish, rebuke, say, see, seek, send, 
show, teach, tell, tempt, testify, throng, watch. 

(c) "With ablative when the action arises from the influence of 
another. Examples — fear (arising from something), issue. 



160 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(d) With ergative, wten subject and object are both afiected in 
ihe same 'n-ay. Examples — enter {utiz, Macgillivray uteipa, approach), 
follow (go when something else goes), touch (two things come in 
contact. 

§ XI. — Numerals and Measures. 

1. The Numeral system of the "Western tribe of Torres Straits 
islanders, collectively called in this Study the Saibai^ has been very 
fully discussed in the Ethnography. (See Journ. Anthropological 
Institute, vol. xix., 1890, pp. 303-306.) "WTiat follows is mainly a 
reprint of that notice, with some additions from the Gospel. 

Throughout the "Western islands of Torres Straits there were 
practically but two numerals, ura/pun and oTcoHa, which are, respec- 
tively, one and two. Three is oko&a xLrapon^ four is oleosa ohosa, five is 
okosa oleosa urapon, six is oleosa oleosa oleosa, beyond that they usually 
say ras, or " a lot." 

There is a decided tendency to count by twos or couples. 

The following Table shows the variations in the numerals as they 
appear in the various vocabularies : — 



1. wardpune, 

2. quassur, 

3. uguassur-wdrdpune, 



Kowrarega (sic). Macgillivray 
[n. p. 301]. 



The "Western tribe as a whole. 



1. waraoon, . . . . \ 

n I The "Western tribe a 

2- «"^^*'^' .... ^^^^ (Jill ^p 225] 

3. warahon-auaosa, . . . / 



1. warapon, . . . , 

2. ukesar, . . . . ; Masig. D'Albertis [n. p. 387]. 

3. uleesar-warapon, . . . J 



1. urapon, . . . . 

2. kusa, . . . . > Masig. Stone [p. 252]. 

3. kusa urapun, . . . ' 

1. wara, urapon, . . ■ \ ^ •■, • 

, 5 Saibai. Sharon us. 

2. uka, . . . . ) 



Eay & Haddox — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 161 



1. urapon, 

2. ttlcasar, 

3. uha-modoligal, 
A. uhOfSar-uhasar, 

1. war a, tirapon, 

2. td-asar, 

3. uhamodoligal, 

4. uTca-iiTca, 



1. droptm, orapimi, urapun, 

2. oJcosd, 
8. oleosa oropun, 

1. ivtirapu, 

2. olcasara, 

3. oJcasara-icurapu^ 



Saibai. ATacfarlane lis. 



Gospel. 



Moa, Eadu, Mabuiag, Kagir, and 
Tiid. [a.c.h.]. 



Tud. Curr [i. p. 684.] 



[Muralug. [a.c.h.]. 



1. urdpum, ordpum, 

2. iil'osa, dl'osd, 

3. Idddgili, 
One hand, v.rapuni-getul, probably stood for five objects, and two 

hands, oleosa getal, for ten, but it is doubtful whether ten would be 
recognised as being composed of five twos, i.e., oleosa, oleosa, oleosa, 
oleosa, oleosa. A Badu and a Moa man both gave tcdgetdl icugetdl for ten. 
In Ifuralug laddgili suggests that they originally counted up to 
three, probably through Australian influence.^ The word ladagili is 
a derivative from hagadi, perhaps meaning all or both (the other 
numbers). Badaginga, another derivative from the same root, is used 
in the Gospel for " whole, entire."^ 

1 The foUoTving are some examples of Australian numerals : — 



"West Australia, 
Gudang (Macgillivray), 
Cape Tork (W. W. Gill), 
Eaffles Bay, 
Moreton Bay, 
Lake Macquarie, 



1. gain. 

1. epidmana. 

1. pirman. 

1. loca. 

1. kamarah. 

1. wakoL 
• Badagi itself maybe a derivative from a root h'oda, w-hich appears in hcda- 
dogam, the left {i.e., the other) side. Bod<igi would thus mean " not the others " 
{i.e., first aud^second fingers) or the remaining three. 

E.I.A PEOC, SEE. in., VOL. IV. H 



2. 
2. 


gudJaJ. 
eldbaiu. 


3. 
3. 


icarhrang. 
da ma. 


2. 


labai. 


3. 


ilanamina 


2. 
2. 


orica. 
bulla. 


3. 
3. 


orongarie. 
mud y an. 


2. 


buloara. 


3. 


ngoro. 



162 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadetny. 

There was also obtained at ]iluraliig ina noMyet (tliis liere hand), or 
nablget (this hand) for five ; naliget naliyet for ten : nahihoku (this 
foot), for fifteen; and nalikohi nabiJcohi for twenty. Naliget can 
hardly he said to be the name of the number five, but that there were 
as many of the objects referred to as there are fiDgers on one hand.^ 
In the same island maura was given for 100 (probably nmra " all "), 
and Jcaiyasa for 1000 (Jcoi gorsar, a great many), hut these are not true 
numerals. 

The words icara, itTca which appear in the Saibai its. and in the 
Gospel for one, two, are probably the root forms of the numerals. 
War a is also used for other, a certain, in the Gospels, and uha appears 
as a verb, ukamoin, to double. Uha-modohigal, used for three in the 
Gospel is also formed from ulca. Modohigal means " the fellow which 
makes up (three) " from the verb rnodobia^ to answer, pay, i.e. give in 
return, and the noun igal. Cf. Daubai modohe, to make up. 

The demonstratives i?w (singular), tpdl (dual), and ifa (plural), are 
sometimes used with one, two, and three. One Muralug informant 
gave 1 = ino nrapuni (this one), 2 = ij)al ukosa (those two), 3 = ita 
badagili (those not the other two), 4 -ipal nTcosa ulcosa, 5 = ipal ulcosa 
ino urapi'Jii, and 6 = ipal ulcosa ukosa ukosa or tcara badagili. 

CoTinting is usually performed on the fingers, beginning with the 
little finger of the left hand. This was probably the original method. 
There was also a system of counting on the body by commencing at 
the little finger of the left hand, kotodimura, then following on with 
the fourth finger, kotodimura gornyozinga (or guruzinga) ; middle finger, 
il get ; index finger, kJak-netoi-get (spear-throwing finger) ; thumb, 
kabaget (paddle -finger) ; wrist, perta or tiap ; elbow joint, kudu ; 
shoulder, zugu Tcwoik ; left nipple, susu madu (breast-flesh) ; sternum, 
hosa, dadir ; right nipple, susu madu, and ending with the little finger 
of the right hand. (These names were obtained at 3Iabuiag ; those 
used in Tud and ICuralug are somewhat difPerent).^ This gives 
nineteen enumerations, of which eleven to nineteen are merely inverse 



• These are suggestive of the Lifu vigesimal system, and are, perhaps, imitations 
of it. 

2 Mac-farlane's its. gives a similar list for Saibai: — 1. urapon; 2. wardadim 
(other finger) ; 3. (f(?rfa<fi>H (middle finger) ; 4. A-a/«Z:oni<«, spear thrower ; 5. Jcuiku- 
<?iw(0, chief finger or thumb ; 6. j?«"ia, wrist ; 7. X-m/^j/ (elbow) : 8. r?/^f<, shoulder ; 
9. sum, breast ; 10. habu, back ; 12. u:adegam zugu, shovilder on the Other side. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 163 

repetitions of one to nine. The names are simply those of parts of the 
body themselves, and are not numerals.^ 

An unexplained word laelo is used, with numerals in Mk. vi. 7. 
See Yocabulary. 

This system could only have been used as an aid to counting, like 
using a knotted string, and not as a series of actual numbers. In a 
question of trade a man would remember how far along his person a 
former number of articles extended, and by beginning again on the left 
little finger he could recover the actual number. 

Only the old men are acquainted with this method of enumeration, 
and it is now superseded by the European system. 

All the numerals now in use are borrowed from the English. 
Simple arithmetic is taught in the Mission Schools, and the ciphers 
are all introduced. 

SEASOlfS. 

" There was no division of the year into months or days, and the 
years were never counted. Time was usually reckoned by suns or 
days, and by moons or months." — {Ethnography, p. 303.) 

The year wato is divided into two seasons — aibu, the period of the 
south-east winds, and huki, the season of the north-west monsoons- 
Macgillivray gives aibow, summer or dry season ; kuM, winter or rainy 
season. With regard to other seasons there is some uncertainty, and, 
perhaps, a confusion of names. Macfarlane gives hiM, spring ; and h^ct^, 
autumn, as divisions of the year sa%iwaur. In the Gospel (Mark, xiii. 
18) winter is translated aigi tonar, foodless time ; summer (Mark, xiii. 
28) is dokal natizo • and harvest, hurugomel (Mark, iv. 29). Macgil- 
livray gives also malgui {i.e. growing) as spring and autumn, and 

' A similar system of counting is found in parts of New Guinea. Chalmers' 
"Pioneering in New Guinea," p. 75, gives fourteen numerals of Kaevakuku 
Elema as follows: — 1. harohapo, small finger of left hand; 2. orahoka, next 
finger ; 3. irohiho, middle finger ; 4. hari, fore finger ; 5. hue, thumb ; 6. 
ukova, wrist; 7. para, fore arm; 8. ari, elbow; 9. /ifff?, upper arm; 10. hero, 
shoulder; 11. korave, neck ; 12. avaku, ear; 13. icbuhai, eye; 14. uvira, nose. 
It is then continued down the right side to the small finger of the right hand. 
Also in describing the Orokolo (Elema coimtry) counting he says : — "In counting 
they begin with the small finger on the left hand and go up to the arm— by the 
neck, ear, eye, and nose— to the other side, then down the right arm, ending at the 
small finger thereof." (" "Work and Adventure," p. 163). 



164 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

sulangi, the turtling season. " Surlangi, the season ■when the turtle is 
' fast ' (i.e. copulating) ; this, at Cape York, usually extends from 
about the middle of October until the end of ^S'oyember, but the limits 
are not constant." — {Ethnography, p. 350.) 

The times at Trhich certain constellations {Dorgai) appeared were 
noted, and these became the tonar or signs for particular dances or 
occupations. Thus in Tud, the star KerherTci, which appeared when 
food was ripe, became the sign for the dancing of the hap garig (see 
Ethnography, pp. 303, 365). The Dorgai waralaig was one of the 
constellations of Aihu [Legends, i., p. 31), while the Dorgai huhilaig, 
and Bu, the Pleiades, appeared at the dancing season in huhi (^. c, p. 31). 



Points of the Compass. 

As in Miriam, these only approximately correspond to the European 
terms, and are named from the prevailing winds. The authorities 
often differ, and some of the words are probably descriptive of the 
position of the speaker rather than true names. "We have found the 
following words : — 

!N"., JVaigai, Nangap, Naida-dogam (north side). This is probably 
the Miriam Naiger. 

N.-"W. wind, Kuki. MacGregor gives Nukagnabaguha. 

S., Je (MacGregor) ; {Pin)nangap, Zadogam (Macfarlane). 

S.-E. wind, Waura, Aihu. 

E., Palagiz (rising), Poipetegam (look out side), Waradogam (other 
side). Macfarlane also gives Pinapai. 

E. wind, Waura. 

W., Gaiga pudizo {sun sets), Wagedegam {hehind side), J^ukidogam 
(side of west wind). 

AV. wind, Kuki. (MacGregor). 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 165 

IX. — Specimens of the Saibai Language. 

1, The Healing op the Leper. 

{Marh, i. 40-45.) 

40. "Wara lepera inibepa uzar, a nrnlpa patritiz nubepa a iamuliz 
teda, nginanga sike ubineinepa, ngulaig ngona butupatan gougan 
aima. 

41. lesu nubepa -wakaeasin, a noi geto pagaean a nubia nidiz, a 
iamuliz keda, Ngai ubimepa ngi mamu. 

42. Noi muasin iamuliz mata dobura adapamizin nongo lepera, a 
miiia ngadalenga. 

43. lesu koima gudo wadan nubepa a waean nubepa, a iamuliz 
nubepa keda. 

44. Wara mabaegopa mulaigi, wa uzar, ngibepa iakman wakaia 
uiamai mabaeg, a poiban Mose nanga ia utumiz tana mulpa tonar 
tritran ngi wara ngadalngange. 

45. A noi uzar, kuikaiman koima maumizin, a garouian senabi ia, 
keda zingo noi kora waig uzar senabi lago ; noi iawaig siei mabagi 
lago, tana nainanope uzar nubepa sieiki. 

2. The Sowek. 

{Mark, iv. 3-9.) 

3. Ngita karengemiziu, ngapanagemiu, ngapa uzar senabi wara 
mabaeg utun a utun. 

4. A noido ka mata utuipa, durai siei putizi iabugudanu, ngapa 
mangizo urui palgizo a purutamoiu. 

5. Durai gimal muko putizi ina magina baradar, mata dobura 
malegui-adan, pepe baradarangu. 

6. A goiga palgizo, baradar koamasin, a kainga, wa ramoginga. 

7. Durai tutizi pui patralai dadal, kadaipa malegui adan pui 
pratralinge a apapa ngurotaeamoin, a kousagimael. 

8. Durai putizi ina mina baraduranu, a tarotaiz, a sirisiri, akousa- 
lenga ; a koupa aidainga tborte nainonop a sikiste, a wan banded. 

9. !N'oi iamuliz tana mulpa keda, mi mabaeg kaura aidainga, noi 
karengemin. 



166 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academt/. 

3. The Wicked Husbandmen. 
{Marh, xii. 1-9.) 

1. lesu lako kuika iman tana mulpa iamuliz ia mina matangada- 
gid, keda, wara mabaeg vineu Apo sowagai a papagan, apo kuiko 
mamu nanitan, a moidan senabi lago apau danal patai lago, geto 
wani mabaegopa danal pataipa apo, a uzar koisigapa. 

2. A aingu tonar, noi waean wara niai kazi tana mulpa siwagoiu 
mabaegopa, a durai vine kousa mani. 

3. Tana ki nubepa gasaman, a mibepa mataman, a nguro weidan, 
a noi iaginga. 

4. Noi waean "svara niai kazi tana mulpa ; tana nubepa kula taean 
kuikupa papdlamciipa a nubepa nguro weidan geto langaizinga. 

5. Noi waean wara, tana nubepa uma mataman ; a durai koigorsar, 
a durai mataman a durai uma mataman. 

6. Mata siei nubia noidail kazi, noido noino waean tana mulpa, 
a iamuliz keda, Tana ngau kazipa akan. 

7. Tana sowakaiu mabaeg ia uman sei, keda, Butapa ina ngalpa 
nubepa mataman, a uongo za ngalpan zapul. 

8. Tana nubepa gasaman, a uma mataman, avineapangu adataean. 

9. Kuikulumai viue apangu miei mani ? a noi mangizo tana 
mulpa sowaki lagopa mataman, a vineu ap ; wara mabaeg pange turan. 

4. Thk Last Passovee, Betkayal and Trial of Chkist. 
{^Mark, xiv. 1-72.) 

1. Muasin ukasar goiga ina paseka, senabi areto levene giiiga; 
tanamun koi gorkoziu wakaea uiamoin, a tana minarpolai mabaeg 
tana lumau wara iabugud noino gasaman senabi paruidan, a noino 
uma mat an. 

2. Tana iamuliz, keda, Maigi senabi ta mura mabaegongu silamai- 
lai. 

3. lesu Bethanianu apatanori senabi Simonan lago ina lepera ; noi 
apatanori a aipuratan, wara ipokazi boi mangizo binibini laig alabasu 
muinu muro mina za ; na muasin papalamoin senabi binibin alapasa, 
na paieudan nongo kuikunu. 

4. Durai mabaeg tabukiri, a iamuliz, keda, mipa kasa pa ieudau 
senabi muro ? 



Bay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 167 

5. Sike muasin, zabutamoin sena, ukamodobigal magina ina 
landede, senabi denari modobia zagi mabaegopa poiban tana nabepa 
tabukiri. 

6. lesu iamuliz, keda, maigi nabepa tabukiri ; mipa ngita nabepa 
ipi dado mani ? kapu za geto ina nado ngaeapa mani. 

7. Mata sena ngita munia zagi mabaeg, ngita ngulaigo nidizi kapu 
zageto tana mulpa senabi tonar ngita ubin nieamaipa ; ngai ngaru 
.niaiginga ngita niiinia, ino. 

8. Na muasin nidizi nanu ngulaig ; na sulan ngau gamunu a 
zamiak ngaeapa maramatoiaipa. 

9. Mina ngai ngita mulpa iamuliz, keda, senabi lago mura ina 
apal maumizin ina evangelia sena iadu palgan senabi nanu zageto, 
nabepa ngona numani. 

10. Wara tuelv kiiiku mabaeg nel, luda Isakariota, a uzar koi 
garekaziu wakaeuiamoin, noido noino gudaran tana mulpa. 

11. Tana karengemin, tana ikatiaipa a tana nubepa puzariz a 
mani nubepa poiban. Noi iabu luman a lesun gudaran. 

12. Senabi kulai goiga ina areto levene ginga, senabi tonar urui 
mataman a pasekapa wakaia uiamoin, nougo niaikazi iamuliz nubepa 
keda, Nginu ubin mai nalaga, a ngoi butupatan a ngi purutan senabi 
paseka ? 

13. Noiwaean ukasar nongo niaikazi, a iamuliz pala mulpa, keda, 
ngipel uzar senabi lagapa, a ngipel dadamangiz wara mabaigia a buiu 
ngukulnga patra uradiz ; a nubepa peltaean ; 

14. Senau noi muia utiz, iamuliz lagau lagopa, jS'gurupai mabaeg, 
keda, nalagi azazi mabaeg, senabi ngai pasekanu purutan a ngau nia 
kazi? 

15. Noido sesitaman ngipelpa wara koi ngabad gimal, poidamoi- 
zinga a butupataizinga, kapuza moidemin, ngoi mulpa siei. 

16. Senabi nongo niai kazi palae uzareman, a mangeman senabi 
lagonu, a iman keda noi nanga mido pala mulpa iamuliz, palae butu- 
patan senabi paseka. 

17. A kutrapa, lesu mangizo kalmel tuelv mabaeg. 

18. Tana apa nitaman aipa purutaipa, lesu iamuliz, keda, Mina 
ngai ngita mulpa iamuliz, keda wara ngau kalmel ui purutan ngona 
gudaran. 

19. Tana kuika iman watri wakasin, a iananab nubepa iamuliz, 
keda, Mido ngai ? wara keda, mido ngai ? 



168 Proceedings of the Royal Irkh Academy. 

20. lesu modobia iamuliz tana mulpa kecla, "Wara tana mun 
tuelv mabaegangu, senabi mabaeg ngaii kalmel ai pagan senabi 
peleit. 

21. Kapuza senabi mabaegou kazi kecla ngadalnga minaipalan 
nubepa, ngau kupalenga senabi mabaeg ino mabaegan kazi gudaran. 
sike kazi mani aiginga "v^a noi mamu. 

22. Tana purutan, lesu areto mani, a eso, a maginii mr.ni, a tana 
mnlpa poiban, a iamuliz, keda, mani, purutan, senabi ngau gamu. 

23. Is^oi mani senabi ngukiai, a eso, a tana mulpa poiban, a tana 
muxa -waniman. 

24. lesu iamuliz tana mulpa, keda, Xgau kiiluka ina kain ia 
utumiz paieudan tana mulpa mura mabaegopa. 

25. Mina ngai ngita mulpa iamuliz, keda, ngai lako "svonigi senabi 
■vinau kousangu kurusipa inabi goiga ngai lako nungu ngu wanizo 

kain senabi Augadau baselaia. 

26. Tana muasin na poidan -waia na. Tana uzar senabi pado 
Elaio. 

27. lesu iamuliz tana mulpa, keda, Xgita mura getovanizo 
ngaunguzo nabi kubi kubilo ina, muasin minar palan, keda, l^gai 
mataman mamoe danal patai mabaeg, a mura mamoe nainonob uzar. 

28. Muasin, a ngai lako igililenga, ngai kulai uzar ngita mun 
parungu Galilaiapa, nigita kai -svagel. 

29. Petelu iamuliz nubepa, keda, Sike tana mura nginungu geto 
waniz, ngai kai launga. 

30. lesu iamuliz nubepa, keda, Mina ngai ngibepa muliz, ngi 
ukamodobigal ngaungu gudo tadiz, nabi kubilu ina, a kalakala ukasar 
poibaiginga. 

31. iXoi koi ma iamuliz, keda, !N'gai ngibia kalmel umanga, Tva, 
ngai nginungu gudo todaiginga, Matakeda tana mun mura ia. 

32. Tana mangizo wara lago, Getbesemane nel, lesu iamuliz 
nongo niai kazi, keda, Apatanoromoiu ina, kurusipa ino muasin ngai 
toitu pagizo. 

33. Xoi Petelulpa angan, a lakobo, a loane a kuika iman korkak 
koamasin, a mazarpagan. 

34. Xoi iamuliz tana mulpa, keda, ngau mari mina koi kikiri, keda 
kikiri umo nanga mido ; ita kou nitamau a poipiam. 

35. lesu kopa amadan uzar, a baradaranu apatanoriz, a toitu 
pagiz, a nubia mangaginga senabi haua siei nubia sike ngulaig. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 169- 

36. lesu iamuliz, teda, Aba, Baba, ngi ngulaig zanguzangu mura 
ngaungu mani senabi binibini ina, ngau ubilnga lako maigi, kapuza 
nginu ubilnga. 

37. Noi mangizo a iman tana a utui ; noi iamuliz Petelu, keda, 
Simonae, ngi ntui ? ngi magao ginga poipiam senabi baua urapon. 

38. ]S"gita poipiam, a toitu pagiz ngita muia utaiginga senabi 
nutan ; mari magao, a gamn gogainga. 

39. lesu lako uzar toitu pagizo, a iamuliz, senabi urapu ia. 

40. IN'oi lako kunia tridizo a imiz tana a lako utui, tana mun 
puruka maitui, tana korawaig nubepa modobia iamuliz. 

41. lesun uka modobilgal mangail a tana mulpa iamuliz keda, 
ngita mun utui, ngonapudizo ; keda mangizo ina haua; ngapanagemiu, 
Mabaegau kazi muasin kobegad karumpalan setabi mura mabaegau 
"watri geto. 

42. Kadaini tamau, ngalpaldui pa ; ngapanagemiu, amadan 
senabi mabaegan ngona gudaran. 

43. Noi kozi muliz, luda mata dobura mangizo wara kalmel tana 
munia tuelv mabaeg, noi kalmel mura mabaeg koi kuiai turik a 
gabagaba patra uradiz, tana mulngu wakai uiamoi mabaegangu, b 
minar polai mabaeg, a durai moroigal. 

44. Noido senabi mabaegan noino gudaran, tana mulpa iamuliz, 
keda, senabi mabaeg ngato gud5 tapaman, wa, sena noi, noino gasaman, 
a koima kai puzaromoin. 

45. l^oi mangizo, noi mata dobura lesulpa uzariz, a iamuliz keda,. 
Eabi, Eabi, a noino gudo tapaman. 

46. Tana nubepa geto pagaean, a noino gasaman. 

47. "Wara tana murungu kadaitariz, a kuiai torik dokopingu 
pardan, a mata man senabi mabaegau wakaia uiamoi lagau niai kazi, a 
no no kaura patan. 

48. lesu iamuliz tana mulpa, keda, Mido, ngita ngaeapa boie uzar 
keda puru mabaeg nanga mido, kuiai torik a gabagaba patra uludiz 
ngaeapa mataman ? 

49. Ngai ngita munia wakai uiaipa puzipu senabi dana ngoro 
ngomai lagopa, a ngita ngona gasamoiginga, mata ngadagid senabi ia 
minarpalan. 

50. Tana mura nubepa geto wanemin, a arizo. 

51. "Wara kawa-kuig nubia asin, nongo gamu abizo dumawagu sak 
"wali lino abaiginga; durai kawakun noino gasaman. 



170 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

52. Xoi geto vraniz senabi sake wall lino a kasa kupai arizo. 

53. Tana lesun gasaman tana nmlpa koi gorkozipa Tvakai uiamon 
mabaegj a tana minar polai mabaeg. 

54. Petelu nubia ^agel gabudan ulaipa senabi ngabado, koigorkozin 
wakai ninai lago, a kalemel niai kazi apata nori, a mnipa koamapa 
kalmel niai kozia apatanori. 

55. Tana dnrai koigorkoziu wakaia niamoin, tana ia balbaigi palan, 
a nubepa wakain pagaipa a noinci mataman ; a imaiginga. 

56. Koi gorsar mabaeg nubepa ngolkai iamuliz, a tana nainonobe 
iamuliz. 

57. Durai kadaini taman nubepa ngalakai ia taean, keda. 

58. Xgcii karengemin noi iamuliz, keda, Xgato idimoin senabi 
lago getau moidai zioga, seta uka modobilgal goigoU, ngato wara 
moidan getau moidaiginga. 

59. Tana urapon iabu ia mulaiginga. 

60. Tana mun wakai uiai mabaeg dadal kadaitariz, a lesulpa 
iapupoibizi, keda, Xgi modobia iamulaigia ? tana mun ia miei 
ngibepa imulizilamizo ? 

61. lesu ia mulaiginga, a modobia maiginga. A tana mun koigar- 
kazi wakaia uiamoin a luko nubepa iapupoibizi, keda iamuliz, nubepa, 
ngi Keriso, ngi ^Mamal totiu kazi ? 

62. lesu keda, Xgai ino ; ngita iman kai Mabaegan kazi getadogam 
apa tanori senabi Parpar, kalmel daparau zia uzar. 

63. Senabi koi gorkoziu -wakai uiamoin noido nongo dumawaku 
paiele gamoin, a iamuliz, keda, 3Iipa wara ia imulizilamizo ; 

64. Xjiita muasin karengemin Augada gegeto pugan ; ngita mun 
wakai tama main mido ? Tana mura kuduman keda mata ngadagid 
noi umanga. 

65. Durai mabaeg kuika iman noino mosan sulupan, a nongo para 
supu nuran, getan nubepa mataman, a iamuliz nubepa keda, pa perofeta 
lako, tana niai kazi noino mataman 

66. Petelu apatanori ngabadonu muinu, wara ngawakazi uzar 
koigorkoziu waia tiiamai lagau niai kazi. 

67. Xado Petelun iman muingu koamapa, na nubepa nagizo a 
iamuliz, keda, Xgi senabi mabaeg kalmel lesu Xazaretalaig ? 

68. Petelu gudo tadiz, a iamuliz, keda, Xgai korawaig, ngato 
mamu ngurupaiginga senabi nginu la, Xoi adapadan ioungapa, a 
kalakala poibiz. 



EiAY & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 171 

69. Lako noino iman senabi ngawakazi niai kazi, a kuika iman 
iamuliz kadain sei mabaegopa, keda, Wara tana mun ino. 

70. Petelu lako gudo tadizo, soabaginga a senabi kadai tarai 
mabaeg a iamuliz Petelu, keda, sike niina ngi wara tana mun mabaeg 
ngi Galilailaig, ngita mun urapon iangukudu. 

71. Petelu kuika iman bogailbogail gudo tadiz, keda, ngai kora- 
"waig nabi mabaeg ina ngita mulpa iamuliz. 

72. A kalakala ukasare poibizi, Petelu ngonanu mani senabi lesun 
ia nubepa mulizo, keda ngi uka modobilgal ngaungu gudo tadizo, a 
ukasar launga, kalakala poibiz, noi ngona numani, a noi mai. 



X. — Saibai akd English Yocabulakt. 

This Yocabulary, of about 3400 words, is compiled cbiefly fi'om the 
Mss. of Sharon (irs. 8), Macfarlane (ms. 6), and Haddon (ms. 3), but 
all the words contained in other vocabularies have been added. 
Words unmarked may be regarded as the common language, and are 
found in the Translation (16) and in Macfarlane's list (ms. 6); in 
other cases the exact locality in which the word was obtained is 
marked as follows : — 

s. Saibai, from Sharon (ms. 8). 

M. Muralug, or Prince of "Wales Is., from Jukes (Port Lihou) (1), 
Macgillivray (Kowrarega), (2), and Haddon (ms. 3). 

B. Eoigu, or Talbot Is., and Saibai, from MacGregor (23). 

Mg. Masig, or Yorke Is., from Jukes (Masseed), (1), Stone 
(Machik), (10), and D'Albertis (9). 

T. Tud, or Warrior's Is., from Curr (15). 

lib. Mabuiag, or Jervis Is., from Savage (ms. 7). 

The lists collected by one of us, contain words from all of the 
above, as well as from (n.) Nagir, or Mount Ernest, Moa, or Banks' 
Island, and Badu, or Mulgrave Island. 

The cases of nouns and verbal expressions are given with the 
simplest form in square brackets. The numbers in curved brackets 
refer to the pages in the Ethnography (" Journ. y^Luthi-op. Inst." xix. 
1890), where the object mentioned is described. 



172 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Sailai-UnglisJi Vocabulary. 

A, conj. and, also ; but. 

aba (m), pron. dual, us two. 

abaiginga, a. not covered, uncovered, bare, naked. 

abal, n. a single fruit of the pandanus. 

aban (m), pron. our (inclusive dual). 

abeipa (m), v. to cover over, overshadow, [aban]. 

abizo, n. a covering. 

abul = abal ; abul-dan' (lit. pandanus-eye), the kernel of the pandanus 

fruit, 
ada, ad. out. 

adabada-mitalnga (b), n. brackish water, 
adabadu (b), n. salt water, 
adabu (m), n. salt water, 
adadadagainga (b), v. to dine, 
adadogam, n. outside, [adadogapa.] 
adakado, ad. through, 
adal, ad. out. 

adan, a. open, opened ; v. from adeipa. 
adapa, ad. out, away, off. 
adapadan, a. past ; v. to issue, 
adapagan, v. to come out ; adapagan gulngu, come out from the ship. 

Mark, vi. 54. 
adapakadaman, v. to peel, 
adapamani, v. to remove, to take away, 
adapamizin, v. to depart, to go out, to escape, 
adapa-tacan, v. to throw away, 
adapa-tamoin, v. to escape, 
adapa-waean, v. to disperse. 

ada-pudiz, adaputiz, a. superior, highest; ad. beyond, 
ada-puidan, v. to eject, extend. 
ada-taean, v. to leave, to abandon, to reject, 
adautubaba (b), n. a wing feather. Cf . baba. 
ada-wakaimizin, v. to spite. 
adeipa (m), v. to go out ; to perforate, cf . adan. 
adi (m), n. a mythical person turned into a rock. (Legends, i. 181). 

Cf. Miriam Ad. 



Eay & Haddon— 2%e Languages of Torres Straits — II. 173 

adi (b), n. a story or tale. 

adia (?), Mark, iv. 11, 

adigila (t), adizela (t), n. a wig. 

ado (b), n. a goose. 

adoama (m), n. an uncle; mother's brother. Cf. tati, keuba tati, 

waduam. 
adudziolai (t), n. a wig. Cf. adigila. 
adzar (m), a. forbidden as food, 
ae, exclam. ah ! Mark, xv. 29. 
aewidan, 

aga, n. an axe ; aga-turik, aga-turi, an iron axe. 
agaleg (m), n. an eagle, 
agu (Mb), n. a platform on which the shells of turtle were preserved 

(406). 
agu (m), n. a cairn of stones ; the back of a turtle. 
ai, n. food, [aidu, aipa, aingu.] 

aibo (m), aibu, n. the south-east monsoon; name of the dry season. 
aidai, v. to have, to possess. 
aidainga, a. having, possessing. 

aideigan = aidainga. Mark, iv. 25 (or ? = not to havej. 
aidu, n. food. Cf. ai. 
aidu-poiban, v. to give food, to feed. 
aie, V. imperat. come ! (from a place near), 
aic-wel (m), v. imperat. come here ! 

aigar (?), nanu aigar barpudan, all her living. Mark, xii. 44. 
aigi, suffix to adjectives implying negation, 
aigiasina (b), ripe, 
aigina, suffix, none, not; tanamunia aiaigina, they have no food. 

Mark, vi. 36. 
aiginga, aigingo, a. not having. 

aigi-taean, v. to spend, to finish (?). Mark, v. 26 ; xii. 22. 
aigi-tonar (s), n. famine time ; winter, 
aikeka (m), pron. myself, 
aima (?), ngona butupatan gougan aima, make me clean. Mark, 

i. 40. 
aimaipi, aimipa, aimeipa, aimoipa, v. to make, to do, to build. 

[aiman.] 
aimiz, v. to commit adultery. Mark, x. 19 ; to destroy, Mark, iii. 6. 



174 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

aimiz-gudaran, r. to betray. 

aimizi, v. to betray. !M!ark, iii. 19; to kill, Mark, vi. 19. 

ai-purutan, v. to eat food ; n. a feast. 

ai-za, 71. food. 

ajir (ii), M. shame. 

ajiran (m), a. ashamed. 

aju, (ir), 71. a shell, {Cypraa). 

aka, 71. fear. 

akagi, v. not to fear ; do not fear. 

akaginga, a. not fearing. 

akamaiza, w. a shield. Probably a made-up word. Cf. aka, mai. za. 

akamiz, exclam. oh! 

akano, v. to fear, 

akir (nb), a word used in connection with the " small name" (406). 

akul, akulo, 7i. the clam shell, i^Cyraena) ; used as a spoon; also used 

as a knife in making masks and other objects. 
akur (ir), n. the intestines, 
alae, n. alai (m), husband, 
alako, 71. a rent, a tear. Mark, ii. 21. 
aliiliz, V. to puzzle. 

alase, «. salt. A Greek word introduced via Lifu. [alasiu, alasenu.] 
alasilgal, n. salt persons ; Mark, ix. 50. kapu za ngita alasilgal, good 

thing (if) ye (are) salt people. Eng. = have salt in yourselves. 
alasue, 

albei (m), pro7X. we two. 
albeine [zi), pro7i. our (exclus. dual), 
albinipa (ii), pron. for us two (exclus. dual). 
algadi (h), «. the barb of the javeKn = (tun), 
alidan (t), n. a groin shell used when fighting. Cf . lorda. 
alka (ir), a spear (333), probably kalak. 

alopa (ii), 71. the melon or scoop shell, {C'ymbtuni). Cf. alup, salop. 
aloto (b), n. salt, 
alpa (m), pron. let us ; shall we ? 
alub, 
alup (aluk ii), w. the melon, bailer, slipper, or scoop shell, {Cyinlmm). 

Cf. Salop. 
am = amu. 
ama, n. mother; mother's sister. Used only in the vocative. Cf. apu. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 175 

amadan, a. near. 

amaean, v. to creep, to crawl. 

amai, n. a native oven, often called kopamauri. The latter is an 

introduced term, 
amaipa, v. to make, create, 
amaizo, v, to beg. 
amal (b), n. a cloud, cumulus, 
amamu, ad. well, 
amau (s), mother, = ama. 
ame. Cf. amai. 

ameipa (m), v. to be affected with. 
amori (s), n. a sail. 

amu, n. a plaited native rope used with the dugong harpoon, 
ana (ii), pron. me, my. 
anaga (m), ad. where ? 
anamii, a. hale. 

angai-dumawaku, n. coat. Mark, vi. 9. 
angan-toridiz, v. to carry, 
angeipa, v. to hold, to carry, [angan] . 
angemina (b), v. to swallow. 

angizo, anguzo, v. to put on (of clothes.) Mark, vi. 9. 
anwar (ug), n. finger-nail, 
aona (m), 7i. the sting ray. Cf. tapi. 
ap = apa, apo. 
apa, n. ground, earth, soil, country ; pi. apal. [apau, apapa, apangeu, 

apia.] 
apa, apal, apalo, ad. and prep, down, under, below, 
apa-dokam, n. the under side, the bottom (lit. ground side). 
apai, a. low. 
apal, n. the bottom ; kuikaiman gimal kurusipa apal, from the top to 

the bottom. Mark, xv. 38. 
apalapal (s), n. the world (lit. below), 
apapui (?), apa, pui. Mark, iv. 32. 
apasin, v. to stoop. 

apataean, v. to be cast down, to be offended. Mark, iv. 17. 
apatanu (b), apatanor, apatanur, v. to sit down, [apatanoriz.] 
apatanori, v. abide (imperative). Mark, vi. 10. 
api, n. a fishing net. 



176 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

api-angai-mabaeg, n. fisherman (lit. net-holding-man). 

apia (? from apo) ; ina kai umai apia pjirutan laulauiu magina Traziu 

borupudaizing, the dogs under the table eat the children's 

crumbs. Mark, vii. 28. 
apia-iaunano (b), v. to lie down. 

apiga, n. the Malay apple, a Eugenia. Cf, List of Introduced Words, 
apnu (s), n. a village (lit. in country). 

apo, n. a field, garden, plantation ; konau apo, n. corn field. Cf . apa. 
apopauna, n. the hand, 
aporega, n. a bird, the " native companion." 
apu, n. mother ; mother's sister. The common noun, [apupa.] Cf. 

ama. 
arage (m), arake, a. silent, 
arai (s), n. rain, = ari. 
araiginga, v. not to flee ; ngita araiginga, ye flee not. Mark, xiii. 

18. 
arakato = arkato. 
arang (m), n. armpit, 
ararapa (m), n. a small bat. 
arawi (?), arawi-gul (s), n. a ship. 
arepa, v. to shield. 
ari, n. a black louse, 
ari (m), pron. we, us. 
ari, n. rain. 

arien (m), pron. of us, our. 
ariga (m), n. a fishing line, 
arinipa (ji), pron. for us. 
ari-pudeipa (m), v. to fall ; (lit. rain falls). 

ari-puilaig (lib), n. the rain-man ; a sorcerer producing rain (401). 
ariug (m), n. a fishing line, 
ariz, arizo, v. to flee. 

arkato (b), arakato, n. a hole ; arakato putran, v. to make a hole, 
aro, n. dawn, daybreak, 
arodardo (?), tanamulpa arodardo garo ngalekan mai kapuakosiginga, 

upbraided them with their unbelief. Mark, xvi. 14. 
aropugiz, v. to cry out. Mark, xv. 39. 
asaro, v. to sneeze. 
asigi, a. not with. Mark, ii. 19. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 177 

asiginga, a. not being with, not accompanyiiig or following. Mark, 

ix. 39. 
asima, 
asimpa (?), noi gnrugui nagepa puruka borbarado gamu asimpa tanamul- 

pa, he had looked round about on them with anger. Mark, iii. 5, 
asin, V. to be with ; prep. with, 
asir, n. shame. 
asiran, a. ashamed, 
ata (m), n. the belly of a turtle, 
atadonga, a. broad, wide, 
atadrun (s), n. native bread, 
atang (m), a. flat ; (see ata). 

ati, n. the octopus. Cf. sugu and arti, Miriam Yocab. 
au, particle expressing the locative, used before names of places, 
au, exclam. oh ! 

auak (Mg), n. a woman. (Stone). Cf. awash, 
auar, n. a claw, = awar. 
auei, n. paint. 
atigada, augado, n. God (introduced meaning). Cf. augud, Mir. agud. 

[augadau, augadan, augadapa, augadano, augadal.] 
augosa = uka, ukasar, two ; warabon augosa, three, 
augud, n. a totem, 
auwa, n. a mat. 

auwai (ii), n. the pelican, = awai ; auwai-kap = awai-kap. 
awai (M-b), n. the pelican ; awai-kap, the pelican dance (362). 
awar (b), n. a claw, 
awash (m), n. a woman's covering, 
awiali, 

awidizo, v. to honour. 
awido (b), 71. an oyster, 
azar (m), forbidden as food, 
azazi (? travelling), azazi-san, n. shoe, sandal ; azazi-mabaego, n. 

a guest ; nalaga azazi mabaeg, n. guest chamber. Mark, xiv. 

14 ; azazi-zana (b), n. foot. 
azipa (m), v. to become. 

aziro (b), a. ashamed ; v. to blush ; n. shame, 
aziran, a. ashamed, 
azugerka (i), n. name given by a giii to her sweetheart. Cf. rogaig. 

E.I.A. PEOC, SEE. ni., VOL. IV. N 



178 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Ba, conj., for, if ; ba poibanai, for there shall be given. Mark, iv, 

25 ; ba ngato tanamulpa waean tanaraiin lagopa, if I send them 

to their houses. Mark, viii. 3. 
baba, babo, n. father, in vocatiye only, [babange.] 
baba, n. a feather ; (m), quill of an eagle, 
babad, n. sister, =babat6 or babud. 
babange; see Grammar, p. 139. 
babat, babato, n. sister ; (see barabato) ; a sister without children (b), 

pi. babatal. 
babasum (t), n. the eyebrows, 
baba-wangu (s), n. father, 
babud, n. a man's sister or a woman's brother, 
babu-iabu, n. a ditch (lit. a stream of the road), 
babun, n. the tail of a fish, 
babur, n. a scar. 
bada, bado, n. an ulcer, a sore, 
bada (b), n. a shield, 
badagili (m), three, 
badaginga, a. whole, entire ; nginu korka badaginga, all thy heart. 

Mark, xii. 30. 
badalaiga (b), n. the yaws, 
badale, a. sore ; (m), a. sore producing, 
badalenga = badale. 

'badanga, a. on the left, left-hand. Cf. boda-dogam. 
badar (ir), n. the toad fish, 
badi, 
badoulai pa (?), lesu nogain mamu badoulai pa, Jesus looked round 

about. Mark, x. 23. 
bag, bago, 7i. the chin, lower jaw ; the cheek, 
baga (b), n. a duck, 
bagabogub (ir), n. a stone headed club, 
baga-mina, n. a cicatrix on the face (367). Cf. mausa usal. 
bagai (?), noino bagai solman, railed on him. Mark, xv. 29. 
bage, n. a cloud, 
bager, n. a long spear, 
bag-iata, n. whiskers, (Kt. cheek -hair), 
bag-taean, bago-taean, v. to promise, 
bagumo (m), n. lightning. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 179 

bagur (m), n. pus. 

bai (s), n. grass. 

baibuli (b), n. an insect. 

baidam, baidamo, n. a shark ; baidam togui, a shark's fin, baidam- 

sai-togui, a shark's tail, 
bai-ib (sr, m), n. the eyebrows. 
baiidun, n. a shark, = baidamo. 

baili n. a basket made of the leaf of the coco-palm - boi. 
bait (t, m), n. the cuscus (opossum of Cape York), = barit. 
balbado n. coast. 
balbai, a. crooked, bent, 
balbaigi, a. not bent, straight, 
balbaiginga, a. = balbaigi. 
balbaig-palan, v. to put straight, to explain, 
balbainga, a. crooked, wrong, 
balbai-pudiz, v. to peep. 

balbai-tidan, balbai-tridan, v. to make straight, 
balbai-tilam, v. to bend. 

balbai-tridaipa, v. to make straight, to rectify. 
balo, n. breadth. 
balopudan, see baropudaipa. 

balpudai (? root of baropudaipa), balpudai-doid, n. a market, 
balopudan, balpudan, see baropudaipa. 
baltariz, v. to stand still. Mark, x. 49. 
bami-nadan (?), v. to put up with ; to suffer. Mark, ix. 19. 
ban, misprint for bau. Mark, iv. 37. 
bangal, n. the morrow, the next day, the day before. Mark, xv. 42 ; 

(m), two or three days hence. 
banitan (?), Pilato koisarkoisar banitan sisike noi umanga, Pilate 

marvelled if he were already dead. Mark, xv. 44. 
barabato (ii), n. a man's brother or woman's sister. In vocative only, 
baradai (s), n. earth, soil. Cf. apa, J. 
baradar, barador, n. earth, soil, ground. Cf . apa. [baradau, baradoran, 

baradaranu, bara doronu, baradarangu.] 
baradi, n. a stony hill, 
bardo, n. thatch. 
bari (m), n. grass. 
baribara (b), n. a coconut, used for drinking purposes. 

N 2 



180 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

barit (t, m), n. the cuscus, = bait. 

baropudaipa, barpudan, balopudan, v. to buy ; nanu aigar barpudan, 
her living, i.e., her food buying. Mark, xii. 44. 

baruder (m), n. mud. Cf. baradar. 

batainga, n. the morning ; (m) to-morrow. 

bau, n. the sea ; a wave of the sea ; bau sik, n. waves. Mark, iv. 37. 

bau, n. a spear. 

baua (m), a. flat, plain, 

bauka (?), mosan bauka weidaman, to foam at the mouth. Mark, ix. 
18, 20. 

beagi (m), exclam. a call to a blind person. 

beara, n. the ribs. Cf. hero. 

bege, n. a cloud. 

beibasa, n. eyebrow. Cf. babasum. 

beidum (m), n. a shark, = baidam. 

bepa, suffix, for. 

berai (?), berai-pungaipa v. to be easy. Mark, x. 25. 

beribei kar, n. a rope fence. 

bare, n. the ribs, chest, side of the body. Cf. beara. 

bero-pui, n. a lath (lit. rib-wood). 

bete (m), n. drift-wood. 

bia, suffix. 

bidu (m), n. the porpoise. 

bigu, n. a bull roarer with a low and deep note (406). 

biia (m), n. a bird, the goatsucker. 

biiu, n. the mangrove. " A gray slimy paste used as food, and pro- 
cured from a species of mangrove ( Candelia ?), the sprouts of 
which, three or four inches long, are first made to undergo a 
process of baking and steaming — a large heap being laid upon 
heated stones, and covered over with bark, wet leaves, and 
sand — after which they are beaten between two stones, and 
the pulp is scraped out fit for use." Macgillivray, ii. p. 26. 

bila (m), n. the parrot fish. 

binibini (s), n. a cup ; (b) a soup-plate (?) ; binibini alabasa, an ala- 
baster box. Mark, xiv. 3. 

bipi (?), (s), n. the nose. 

biraig, n. a table. 

birgesera. (Ethnography, p. 415). 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — 11. 181 

bisi, n. the sago palm ; sago. 

bis-uab, n. mourning armlets and leglets made of hisi leaves. 

bizar, (m), n. the purple yam. Cf. ketai. 

boa (m), n. the conch shell, = bu. 

bobata (m) n. a grandfather. 

boboam (m), n. a shell, {Ovulum). 

boboum (t, n), a shell ( Ovulum) = buboam. 

bobu, n. a rill, a stream, = bubu. 

boda-dogam (s), n. the left side. 

boda-get, w. the left hand. 

bogail bogail (?), Petelu kuikaiman bogailbogail gudotadiz, Peter 
began to deny with cursing and swearing. Mark, xiv. 7 1 . 
Cf. List of Introduced Words. 

bogi (s) n. a staff, a walking-stick. 

boi, boi, V. to come, = boie. 

boia (b), n. light, = buia. 

boibasamu (b), boibisom, n. the eyebrows, = babasam. 

boibata, n. a sister (see babato, barabato). 

boie, V. to come, = boi. 

boie (s), n. the voice. 

boil (Mb), n. a basket made of coco-palm leaf, Cf. baili. 

bokadongo, n. a circle. 

bom (m), n. a cluster of pandanus fruit. 

boradar, n. earth, = baradai, baradar. 

borbarado (?), noi gurugui nagepa puruka borbarado gamu asimpa 
tana mulpa, he looked round about on them with anger. 
Mark, iii. 5. 

borodan, = boradar. . 

borupudaizinga, n. crumbs ; magina kaziu borupudaizinga, the chil- 
dren's crumbs. Mark, vii. 28. 

botainga = batainga ; mdge botainga, morning long before day. 

botaiginga, 

bradar (b), ad. here. 

bru, n. an anklet (332), 

brua (Mb), n. an anldet made of coco-palm leaf. 

bru-mada (m), n. the calf of the leg. 

bru-rida (m), n. the shin bone. 

bu, n. the conch shell, Fusus proloscidiferus, used as a trumpet 



182 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

bu, n. the Pleiades. Cf . kusali. 

bua (ir), n. the how of a canoe, 

bua (lib), n. tbe -vrild yam ; (m) Calladium esculentum. 

buai (ji), n. tbe bow of a canoe, = bua, 

bubu (m), n. a stream of fresb water. 

buado, n. tbe side, [buadonn, buadia] 

buboam (m), tbe egg cowrie sbell. {Ovulmi). Cf. boboam, 

bubu (s), n. the tide. 

bubuam (sib), a shell. ( Ovulum). 

bud, 71. paint made from crushed coral used in mourning, hence 

n. mourning, 
budadigamo. (b), 71. the left side, = boda-dogam. 
budaman (m), a. flooded (lit. made muddy). 
budi (m), w. a shell, the small periwinkle, 
bug (lib), n., ratan. 
bugiri (b), a. blind. 
buia, n. blaze, flame. 
buieli (m), ?i. flame ; (prob, pi. of buia). 
buiu, n. a glass bottle ; buiu ngukulnga, a^ pitcher of water. Mark, 

xiv. 13. Cf. boii. 
buji (ir), a cane {Flagellaria). 
buk (Mb), n. a small mask. 
buk, n. a common Siluroid. 
buko (s), n. sand. 
buli, n. a fly. 

bume (m), n. the frontlet of the Ari. 
bupa (s, b), n. the bush, the forest, uncultivated land ; iamuliz 

nubepa senabi bupau kuikungu, spoke to him in the bush. 

Mark, xii. 26. [bupau, bupapa.] 
bupariz, v. to flee. Mark, v. 14. Cf. bupa, ariz. 
bupur, n. floor. 

bura, n. a leaf (?). Cf. urapabura, 
burbur (t), n. a small drum, = buruburu. 
burdo (m), n. grass, thatch. Cf. bardo. 
barker (ir), n. charcoal, 
burkui, n. a leak, 
burom, n. a pig. 
burubura, n. a small cylindrical drum, Cf . burbur. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 183 

burugamul, burugomul, a. ripe ; burugomul kousa, when the fruit is 

brought forth. Mark, iv. 29 ; burugomul mael, n. harvest 

Mark, iv. 29. 
burugo (m), 71. the horsefly {Scematopodd). 
burum, bururao (m, b), n. a pig, pi. burumal. [burumau, burumepa, 

burumia.] 
burum (s) = biirum. 
buta (m), n. the wing of a bird, 
buta (?), senabi buta haua ukamodobilgal, luta haua sikis, buta haua 

nain, about the third hour, sixth hour, ninth hour ; senabi 

goigdi butanu moidemin, the day of the preparation. 
buta (b), n. a gate, a passage ; butaginga, no passage. Mark, ii. 2, 
butapa, n. a heir, 
buto, n. autumn. 

butu (m), n. sand, a sandy beach, 
butupalizi, v. to shake off ; butupalizi ngitamun sanangu poi, shake 

off the dust from your feet. Mark, vi. 11. 
butupataipa, v. to cleanse, prepare, mend, heal, [butupatan, butu- 

pataizinga.] 
butupataiginga, v. not to clean, 
butupataizinga, n. washing, 
butapotaiginga = butapataiginga. 
buzar, n. and a. fat. 
buzo, n. a reed, 
buzu (ir), n. the back stays of a boat. 

Da (b), the breast or bosom. 

•dabai, n. the booby bird. 

dabari, n. = dabai. 

daboi, n. the king fish (^Cylium). 

dabu (Mb) = daboi. 

dada, dado, n. the middle ; dadaget (Moa) the middle finger ; dada- 
kubilu, n. midnight; dada-dim, dada-dimu, n. the middle 
finger ; the number three, in counting on the fingers ; dada- 
goiga, dado-goiga, n. mid-day, noon. 

dadaig (m), n. the third brother. 

dadalo, n. the centre, middle. 

dada-mamain, dadomamain, v. to divide. 



184 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

dada-mangizo, v. to meet (lit. come to tlie middle). 

dadan, jorep. tetween. 

dada-pasa, n. a window. 

dadeima-matameipa (ii), v. to kill. 

dadeipa (m), v. to die. 

dadia, n. Mark, v. 22, 30 ; dadia adan, came out to meet ; mabaegia 

dadia mura, in the press. Cf. dada. 
dadir (sib), the sternum. Cf. kosa. 
dadu, n. a flag-like streamer made from coco-palm leaf. 
dagam (x, ii), n. tbe bird of Paradise {Paradisea Eaggiana) ; the 

head-dress made of paradise feathers used in war. 
dago, a. weak, 
dagoi (m), n. a head-dress made of cassowary feathers used in a dance ; 

dagoi sam (t). Cf. samerar. 
dagori (ii) = dagoi. 
dai-bradara (b), n. clay, 
daje (m), n. a petticoat, = gagi. 
dak, dako, n. the temples. 

dalnga (s), a. kind (lit. possessing a bosom ; see da.) 
dalpimau-mabaig, n. lust. Cf. darpiam. 
damu (s), sea-grass ; ialdamu, kadapadamu, paradamu, different species 

of Cymodocea. 
dan, dano, 7i. the eye ; pi. danal ; dano-ngumgomizo, n. religion 

([Macfarlane) ; danal-pataipa, v. to watch. 
dana (t), a tooth ; pi. danala. 
danagi, a. blind (lit. without eyes.) 
danakuku (b), danakoko (sr), n. the ankle, 
danakukuro (i, 3i), n. an anklet, made of coco-palm leaf. 
danaleg (ai), a. alive (lit. possessing eyes). 
dana-muktaean, danomukiotaean, v. to glance at, to watch, 
danal-patai, v. to look after, watch, 
dana-pataipa, danal-pataipa, v. to watch, 
dana-nuki (ii), n. a spring. Cf. the Samoan, etc., mata-rai, spring, 

the (m) and Samoan are both literally eye-water, 
daneipa (m), to rise, as the sun. 
dang (b), n. a border or edge. Cf . dang, teeth, 
dang, dango, n. the teeth. 
danga-kikiri, n. tooth-ache. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 185 

dangal, n. the dugong {Salicore australis). 

danga-mai (iib, t), n. a crescent-shaped ornament of pearl shell (lit. 

tooth of pearl) (340). 
danga-mari (ii), n. = danga-mai. 
dani, n. a tree. 

danilkau (lib), oi. one of the performers in the funeral dance (404). 
dano-paliz, v. to be awake, 
dan-taean, v. to exhort, 
dannle (ir), a. "wanton, 
daoma (ir), n. yellow ochre, 
dapar, n. a cloud (ir) ; the sky, heaven, [daparao, daparan, daparpa, 

daparngu, daparnu.] 
dapurkup (t), n. necklace, 
daraba, n. a plantation. 
darai = duxai. Mark, yii. 4. 
darbanu (?) 

darpapa, n. a bush (?). Cf. daraba. 
darpar (?) = dapar. 

darpiam, n. fornication. Mark, yii. 21. Cf. dalpimau. 
darubi (if), n. a bamboo jaw's harp, 
darubiri = darubi. 
daui (s), a banana. 

daualban, n. a row ; v. to row. Mir. segise. 
dauda-laig, n. heathen. 
dauma (ii), n. the period of mourning, 
dawal, V. to look (?). 
dawb (ii), n. a yam. 
dega (Mg), n. the sun. 

deka (?), ngoimulpa deka muliz, tell us. Mark, xiii. 4. 
dela (ar), n. a plant {Scaevola Koenigii). 
delupeipa (ii), v. to drown, 
der (aib), a kind of breast plate made of coco-palm leaf, which 

formed a sort of yoke round the neck and extended down 

the chest, being tucked beneath the wakawal. 
derabu (ii), n. a wild yam. 
deri (s, ji), 7i. a white feather head-dress, = dri, 
dewa-dagamola (i), a. yellow. 
dia, n. a cloud. Mark, ix. 7. Cf. jia, zia. 



186 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

diabo. Mark, v. 13. 

diadi, n. a sponge. 

dibago, n. dew ; (b) a fog. 

dibidib, dibidibi, n. a round shell ornament, the top of a cone sliell 

ground flat ; a dish, made of shell, 
digidigi (ii), n. a white duck, 
dimunu-pagan, v. to pinch. Cf. dimur. 
dimur (jvrb), n. a finger, 
dipaman, n. an oath, 
dirdimai = dorodimoin. 
diuidu, V. to retain ; ngitamun pawa diuidu, your tradition. Mark, 

yii. 13. 
diwanamani (b), v. to rejoice (prob. = diwana-mani, make a dance), 
diwapa, v. to dance. See gamu-diwapa. 
diwi (m), n. a scorpion. Cf. idiidi. 
do, n. a bridge. 

doam (Mb), n. the cross ties inside a canoe, 
doar, n. a black sea fowl. 

doba-buada, w. the wayside. Mark, iv. 15. Cf. buado. [dobabuadanu.] 
dobu (s), a. old, rotten, 
dobunga, a. rotten. 

dobura, dobura (always with mata) ; mata dobura, ad. immediately, 
dodolae, w. the second brother. Mark, xii. 21. Cf . dada, alae, dadaig. 
dogam, n. a place ; a bed ; table. Mark, vii. 4 ; the floor, [dogamunu, 

dokamnu.] 
dogaman (? dogamanu, from dogam), in its place. Mark, xiii. 14. 
dogei (ii), n. the planet Jupiter (?) Cf. dorgai. 
doid, doido, n. a plain, a wilderness ; balpudai doid, a market, [doidpa 

doidonu.] 
dokal (?), ngita ngulaig amadan dtikal natizo, ye know summer is nigh. 

Mark, xiii. 28. 
dokam, dokam = dogam. 
dokap, dokopi, n. the thigh ; kuiai torik dokopingu pardan, drew a 

sword from the thigh. Mark, xiv. 47. Cf. drakapi. 
dongan, 

donga-wakasin, n. a savage (Macfarlane). 
dopuza, n. an old thing ; dopu = dobu. 
dora-tudan, v. to weed. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 187 

dordiman, v. to draw out. 

dordimoin = dorodimoin. 

dorgai, n. a kind of bogey or spirit ; a constellation. 

dorgai kukilaig, n. a constellation (Haddon, Legends i. 31). 

dorgai waralaig, n. a constellation (Haddon, Legends i. 31). 

dorodimai-lago, n. prison (lit. bondage-house). 

dorodimoin, v. to bind ; to imprison ; to hang. 

dorodimoizinga, a. tied ; n, fetters. 

drakapi (in), n. the thigh. Cf. dokap. 

dri (lib), n. the cockatoo (?) (Legends, p. 29). Cf. wem. 

dri, n. a head-dress made of white karbai feathers. 

dri grer (irb), dri girer (m), n. the dance in which the dri was worn 

(362). 
drudrupizo, v. to drown. Cf. dudupizo. 
drurai = durai. 

du (?), ita du tonaral, these signs. Mark, xvi. 17, 
dua (m), n. the cashew nut. 
dub (s), n. a swelling, 
dubidubia, v. to murmur, 
dubiruna (b), n. a wound, 
dudupizo, V. to overthrow, drown ; to overwhelm ; to dip in a liquid ; 

dudupan senabi pagara vineganu, dipped a sponge in vinegar. 

Mark, xv. 36. [dudupan.] 
dugunga, a. blunt, 
duia-adan, v. to be convalescent, 
duiumo (m), n. thunder. Cf. gigino. 
dukun, n. a tree with hard wood, 
dulbor (m), n. a fish. (Jukes.) 
dumawagu, dumawaku, n. calico, cloth (cf. waku), pi. dumawakul. 

angai-dumawaku, n. garment, [dumawakuia.] 
dumawaru (b), n. cloth, 
dumawk (m), clothes, 
dun (m), n. the eye-ball. (See dan.) 
duna-kukur (m), n. an anklet of coco-palm leaf. Cf . brua. 
duna-samu (b), n. the eyelid. 

dungal, n. the dugong {Halicore australis). Cf. dangal. 
dungulo (m), n. an opossum. 
dupu (b), n. elephantiasis of the legs = dub. 



188 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

dupu (m), n. tlie bronzed ant ; the ague. 

diira (m), n. the breast, chest, mammae, = da. 

durai, a. some ; inabi durai, these ; senabi durai, those. 

durai-ina, a. these. 

durai-siei, a. those. 

durai-wanan, v. to remain (lit. some are left). 

duro, a. = durai ; tana gasamizo ita duro tabul, they shall take up 

serpents. Mark, xvi. 18. 
durpum-gigo (s), n. thunder. 

duru (?), kusa duru (di), a band of beads worn on the wig. 
duru zonga, a. some things ; duru zonga lupaliz, some wonders. Cf. 

durai. 

Ege (?), kawaku ege kutau pawa, lasciviousness. Mark, vii. 22. 

ejena (m), n. an insect {Cicada). 

oka, V. to wish. 

el, suffix denoting the plural of nouns. 

elari, n. a fruit ( Wallrothia) (308). 

eldrada gomola (t), a. green. 

elma (t), n. a species of snake. 

enti (m), n. a spider. 

esc, V. to thank. 

Fad, V. a bird's nest, 
fada = fad, pad. 

Ga, n. a hornet. 

ga, n. the central star in the constellation dorgai-kukilaig. 

gabagaba (m), n. a club with a plain stone disc. 

gabagup (iib), n. a stone club, = gabagaba. 

gabau, n. a yam. 

gabogabo (b), n. a stone club, = gabagaba. 

gabudan, v. to be slow. 

gabu-maita (b), n. bowels. 

gabunga, a. cold, cool. 

gaet (s), n. coral. 

gaga (Mg) = gagari. 

gagadinga, a. weak, faint ; defeated. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 189 

gagai (m), n. a bow ; (b), a gun ; a dance (362). Cf. gagari. 

gagal (m), n. pi. bow and arrows. 

gagari (t), n. bow and arrows ; triger gagari, a gun. 

gagauro (b), n, a bowstring. 

gagi, n. an ear-ring. 

gagi, n. a shrimp. 

gagi (m), n. a large petticoat made of sbredded leaves, and worn by 

women, 
gaibur (m), n. the sbe-oak ( Casuarina). 
gaidesa (t), n. a shield, 
gaiga (b), n. the sun, = goiga. 
gaiga-buia (b), n. twilight, 
gaigai (t), n. the king fish ; the white fish, 
gaiga-pudiso (b), n. the west (lit. sun-down), 
gaima (m), an abscess, boil, 
gaina (b), n. taro, = goen. 

gainau, gaino, n. the Torres Strait pigeon {Carpophaga luctuosa). 
gainowa (m), n. a white pigeon (see gainau). 
galalupa (Mg), v. to be cold (Stone), 
galupan, v. to shake ; gamu galupan, v. to tremble, 
gam (t), n. skin, 
gam (t), fat. 

gamakauwasina (b), a. lazy. 

gamalunga (b), n. an albino. Cf. gamul, gamulnga. 
gamu, n, the body, [gamupa, gamungu, gamuia.] 
gamuasin (?), puruka paro mado gamuasin, an evil eye. Mark, 

vii. 22. 
gamu-diwapa, v. to dance, 
gamu-doidanu, v. to be tired. Cf. doid, nu. 
gamu-dumawaku (s), n. clothing ; a dress, 
gamnia-m ataman (b), v. to murder; gamuia-mataman-mabaeg (b), n. a 

murderer, 
gamuidan, v. to ignite, to burn, 
gamuji (m), a. itchy, 
gamul, a. white. 

gamulnga (m), gamulonga, a. white, red (?). 
gamunguzilamiz, a. wild (gamungu, from body, zilamiz, run), 
gamutariz, v. to touch. 



190 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ganguimizi (?), see garoguimizi. 

ganguro (m), n. a large lizard. 

ganu, n. a smell; pi. garnil. 

ganul, a. possessing smell, scented ; gannl pui, n. sweet spices. Mark,. 

xvi. 1. 
ganupulman, v. to smell, make a smell. 
gapu, n. tlie sucker fish {Echeneis naucrates), used by the natives in 

catcliing turtle (349). 
gar, suffix. 

gara (m), n. Pandanus spiralis. 
garabo (? gara, n. the edge) ; tana kai garabo tradiz nongo dumawa- 

kuia, they might touch the border of his garment. Mark, 

vi. 56. 
garagar (b), a. feeble, 
garguimizi = garoguimizi. 

garakazi, n. a boy, a male (lit. male person), [garakaziu] garakaziu. 
garbad (jib), n. the gunwale of a canoe, 
gariga (m), = goiga ; gariga-titure (ir), n. the morning star; garig 

kap (t), a dance held in May when fruit is ripe, and connected 

with the star kererki (365). 
garkai (m), n. a man (black man), 
garkaije (m), n. a tribe ; men, women, and children, 
garo, garo. Prefix. 
garoguimai (b), n. an earthquake, 
garo-guimiz'i, v. to quiver, to swing, [garoguimani], garoguimizin, 

n. earthquake, 
garo-nanamiz, v. to throng, crowd, 
garo-ngalkan, n. hypocrisy, 

garo-palagiz (?) ; noi matadobura tanamulpa garopalagiz, he im- 
mediately talked with them. Mark, vi. 50. 
garo-pataman, v. to collect food in large quantities. Sam. to'ona'i. 
garo-taean, v. to press or touch (?). 
garo-toitaean, v. to repent. 
garouian, v. to spread about (?), garouian senabi ia, to blaze abroad the 

matter. Mark, i, 45. 
garowalgaipa, v. to wash, [garowalgan."] 
garowalgaigiaga, a. not washed, 
garowaragan, v. see garowalgaipa. 



B.AY & Haddon —The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 191 

garo-weidanioin, v. to assemble, gather together ; to approach. 

garu (m), n. the sugar cane, = geru. 

garmdamaino (b), n. a load. 

garur (m), n. a small wasp. 

gasa (m), = gorsar. 

gasameipa, v. to catch with the hands, to press, seize, squeeze ; (b), to 

hunt (kangaroo), [gasamizo, gasaman, gasamoiginga]. 
gasamoiginga, pi. v. not to take, 
gat (Mb), n. a coral reef, 
gata (m), n. shallow water. See gat, gato. 
gatapogai (b), v. to dig ground for a garden, 
gato, V. to ebb. See gata. 
gauada (m), n. a salt water swamp, 
gaugu, n. medicine. 
gaur, gauro (?), ngita mulpa gaur irun, more shall be given to you. 

Mark, iv. 24 ; nabi kawa ina ngaeapa gauro irun senabi iragud, 

this people honoureth me with lips. Mark, vii. 5. 
gawai (Mb), name of a plant; "rope along bush," chewed in the 

initiation ceremonies (398). 
gawata (b), n. a lagoon (see gauada). 
gedo = geto. 

gegeda (s), n. faintness ; a. faint, 
gegeto-pugan (?), Augada gegeto pugan, the blasphemy. Mark, 

xiv. 64. 
ger, n. a water snake, 
geriga (m), n. sun, = goiga. 
gerka, n. the gall bladder (of a turtle). 

geru, n. the sugar-cane ; g'ru tha mitale (m), sweet tasted. Cf . garu. 
gerukizi (t), n. a man, male, = garakazi. 
get, geto, n. the arm or hand ; pi. getal ; gerukisi get (t), n. a man's 

arm. [getau, getan, getangu, getia.] 
geta-digamo (b), n. the right side, = geto dogam. 
getal (ii), n. fingers. 
getaU (m), n. a large crab, = gitalai. 

getauza (Mb), n. rayed discs held in the hand whilst dancing. Cf . kababa. 
get-idiz, V. to read. 

get-matamizo, v. to strike the hands together, to clap, 
geto, get, 11. the hand, fore-arm, (m) a finger. 



192 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

geto-dogam, n. tlie right side, [geta-dogamuii-a.] 

geto-langai, v. to despoil, damage, appropriate, [getolangan, getalan- 

gailai.] 
geto-langaizinga, a. injured ; shamefully handled. Mark, xii. 4. 
geto-nitun, v. to point at. 
geto-oidan, v. to push. 

geto-pagaean, v. to lay hands on, to apprehend [stretch hands.] 
getd-pudeipa, v. to scrape hands, the native mode of salutation, 
geto-titai, v. to read. 

geto-tridai, v. to read, = geto-titai. [geto-tridizo.] 
geto-tridaiginga, geto tritraiginga, v. not to read, 
geto-uian, v. to reach. 
geto-wani, geto-waniz, v. to let go, release, abandon; to allow; to 

lose ; forgive, [getowanemiu, getowanemin.] 
geto-wonaiginga, v. not to allow. Mark, vii. 12 ; not to forgive. 

Mark, xi. 26. 
gi, n. a knife ; gi-turik, n. an iron knife. 
gi, n. a tusk. 

gi, n. laughter ; gi-waleipa (m), v. to laugh, 
gi (b), n. an old dry coconut, 
gi (m), a. ripe, 
gi = igi ; zagi, a. poor, 
gia-paleipa (m), v. to cook, 
gido, 

gigal, suffix, used with adjectives, 
gigi, n. thunder, [gigino.] 
gigo, gigd, suffix expressing the want of anything ; za gigd, without a 

thing, poor, 
gigu (t), gigub, n. a nose ornament. Cf. gub. 
gima-nanitan, v. to run over ; tana gima nanitan siauki, they ran there 

afoot. Mark, vi. 33. 
gimal, gimald, ad. Q.udi p-ep. on, over, up, above, [gimaingu, gimainu.] 
gimael, suffix. 
gimamani, v. to reap, 
gimia, ad. over, 
gin (irg), n. taro. 

ginga", suffix (denoting non-possession, 
gio (b), n. laughter, = gi. 



Eay & Haddon— TAe Languages of Torres Straits — II. 193 

girar, n. a dance. 

girer (b), n. a dance. 

girka, 

gitalai (b), n. a crab, = getali, gitulai, gitila. 

gita = get, geto. 

gitalenga, a. having a hand. 

gitUa, n. a crab, = gitalai, gitulai. 

gitri (irg), n. a knife. 

gitulai, n. a crab, = gitalai, getali, gitila. 

giu (s), n. laughter, a laugh. 

giun-pungaipa, n. foolishness. 

giung (ir), a. cooked. 

giure (m), ad. no. 

giusalman, v. to deride. 

gi-waleipa (m), v. to laugh, [gi-waliz.] 

gizu, n. a point, an edge, a cape ; (m), sharpness. 

gizuge (ji), a. blunt (lit. without point). 

gizule, a. possessing a point ; sharp. 

gizu-paleipa, v. to cut a point, to sharpen. 

go, 

goa (s, t), n. the seeds of Payigium edule used as rattles. Cf. gua. 

goagalnga, n. a leak. 

goalnga, a. leaky. 

goba (b), n. a stone axe. 

gobai (m), n. the larva of the ant-lion {Myrmeleon). 

goen, n. taro. 

gogadiaga, a. feeble, weak. 

gogainga, a. weak. 

gogob, 

goguta (m), n. the cotton tree {Bomhax). 

goiga, n. the sun, daylight, day; pi. gdigoil. [goigoinu.] 

goigoi = goiga. 

gomola, stiffix used with names of colours. 

gomu = gamu. 

goinau, n. the Torres Strait pigeon ( Carpophaga,) 

gonau, n. the skin. 

gongau, n. the scalp. 

gonza (s), n. health (? gouga). 

E.I.A. PEOC, S£fi. m., VOL. IV. O 



194 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

gopagop (m) = gabagaba. 

gorbotot, n. a -wooden club. 

gorkozi = garakazi. [gorkoziu, gorkozipa, gorkozingu.] 

gorokozi = gorkozi. 

gorsar, a. many (usually with koi, koi-gorsar). 

goru-riclo, n. the back-bone, spine. Cf. taburid. 

gorzo, n. the bowels. 

goua (b), n. a ditcb. 

gouga, n. a bat. 

gouga, gougu, n. a doctor (see gaugu) ; medicine, [gouguan, 

gougungu.] 
goura (b), n. a pigeon, 
gragri n. fever. 

graka (arg), n. man, = garakazi. 

graz (m), n. a fisb trap or weir built of stones on a reef, 
grer (m), n. a dance, = girar. 
grido (Mb), n. tbe back. Cf. gorurido. 

gua (lib), n. seeds used as a rattle, = gooa -jpL gual, Cf. goa, 
guago, n. a bole, 
guai, a. bald. 

guapi (m), n. klakaguapi, tbe shaft of a klak. 
gub, guba (m), n. a nose stick. 

guba, gubo, n. the wind, pi. gubal ; koi-gubo, n. a storm, 
gubaguba = gabagaba. 
gubal-puian, v. to blow, 
gubau, 71. a yam. 
gubau-puilaig (Mb), n. the wind-man, a sorcerer producing wind 

(401). 
gubo = guba. 
gud, gudo, n. the mouth ; an opening ; iragud (m), n. the lips ; pasa- 

gudo n. a door ; maram gudo, n. a pit door, a tomb. Mark, xv. 

47, xvi. 2. 
gud (Moa), n. a mouth board. (404). 
gud (Mb), n. a coconut water vessel. (404). 
gudago (?), korawaig tana ai gudago asigi, they cannot fast. Mark, 

ii. 19. 
gndaguda, 
gudalnga (?), ngi sigo gudalnga, thou art not far. Mark, xii. 34. 



Eay & Haddon— T/«e Languages of Torres Straits — II. 195 

guda-mageda (m), ?i. the moustache. 

guda-moin (s), v. to discuss. 

guda-palamiz, v. to overflow. 

guda-purutan, v. to he insolent. 

gudaran, v. to hetray ; aimiz-gudaran (s), v. to betray. 

guda-taean, v. to sacrifice. 

guda-toridan = gudo-toridan. 

guda uiailai, v. to he forgiven. Mark, iv. 12. 

guda-Tvodian, v. to dismiss. 

gudawali (Mh), n. the lashing fastening the head of a javelin to its 

shaft, 
gudazi-poidizi, v. to save, to heal, 
gudia-ieudaipa, v. to fill, to be full, 
gudop, n. the beard, 
gudo-matamiz (?). Mark, iii. 5. 
gudop-iata, n. the moustache, 
gudo-nitun (s), v. to advise, 
gudo-tadiz (s), v. to deny, 
gudo-tapamoin, v. to kiss, 
gudo-todaigiaga, v. not to deny, 
gudo-toridan, v. to compel, 
gudd-waean, v. to unload, to unloose, 
gudd-wadan, v. to be quiet, hold one's peace. Mark, x. 48 ; to allow. 

Mark, v. 37. 
gudd-waig, v. to unloose, to forgive, [gudauiailai, gudowaeamai]. 
gudo-wodian, 
gud-paliz, V. to bud. 

gudria-ieutiz [?], press of men. Mark, ii. 4. 
gudu = gudo. 

gudu-tapaman, v. to kiss. [gudd-tapamoin.] 
guele (m), a. bald, = guai. 
gugure (m), 71. a bow, = gagai. 
gugus, V. to dig. 
guigui, n. a collective name for the firesticks, (385) ; (_hence, matches). 

Cf . salgai, sagai, ini, iaka. 
gui-waliz, V. to mock. 
gul, guld, n. a boat, canoe ; pi. gulai. [gulab, gulpa, guldpa, gulngu, 

gulai]. 



196 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

gulab, gulabo = gulpa. See gul. 

gulan (?), iegese gulan, v. to cast lots. Mark, xv. 24. 

gulgupo, gulugupo, ad. round about ; gulugupo nagepa,to look round 

about. Mark, xi. 11 ; kobia gulgupo zilamizo, ran roimd about 

througb. Mark, vi. 55. 
gulngn-rugal, n. a cargo ; baggage or goods from a sbip. 
gulugul, 

gulnngu = gulngu. 
gul-waku, n. a sail, (lit. boat-mat), 
gumi, a. secret ; v. to conceal ; ad. privately, secretly ; gumi turan. 

V. to call aside. 
gumiginga, a. not bidden. 

gumule, suffix used with names of colours. Cf . gomola. 
gungau (b), n. skin, (see gonau, gongau). 
gurabi (m), n. a white lily {Crinum ?). 
gurba (m), n. a small crab, 
gurgu-uzaru. See gurugui, uzar. 
gurgui (?),pawa gurgui, n. tradition. Mark, vii. 9. 
guru, 

gurugui (s), gurgui, ad. around, round about, 
gurugup = gulgspo. 
gusi (s), n. a pillow, 
guzi, n. a pillow, = gusi. 

gwarabatutu (ir), n. a stone club with numerous blunt projections, 
gwarapatutu (b), n. a stone club, = gwarabatutu. 

la, n. a word ; language. 

ia, suffix to nouns. 

ia, n. the throat; (b), the oesophagus, [iapa, iangu]. 

ia, conj. and. 

ia, a. loud. 

iabu, n. a path, a road ; babu-iabu, a ditch (lit. stream-road) gubau- 

iabu, a vent (lit. wind's path), [iabuia]. 
iabu-gudii, n. a path, a road, [iabugudapa, iabugudanu, iabugudia]. 
iabuiawai. Mark, viii. 14. Cf. iabu, iawa. 
iadai-iadai, n. a messenger. 
iadal (nb), n. string, 
iadi, n. a stone anchor. 



E.AY & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 197 

iadu-palgan, v. to tell, relate, confess, reveal, [iadupalgailai]. 

iadu-titan, v. to caution. 

iadu— turizi, v. to iniorm. 

iadn-wadan, v. to caution. 

iaga (s), n. silence. 

iagamiz, v. to wonder, Mark, v. 42. 

iagasin (s), a. dumb. 

iagetamani (b), n. a message. 

iagi, a. dumb, without words ; iagi-mari, a dumb spirit. Mark, ix. 17. 

iagiasin, v. to be silent. 

iagi-bodai, iagi-botai, a. dumb. 

iagigo, a. dumb. 

iaginga, ioginga, a. no words, nothing. 

iagudagudangu (?), tana iagudagudangu toeaipa, they were making a 

tumult. Mark, v. 38. 
iaia, 

iaiame, v. to burn, = ieame. 
iaiamiso (b), v. to bum. 
iaka, (ii) n. the sheath which protects the ends of the two fire-sticks, and 

keeps them dry, and]usually decorated with shi and timi kapul. 
iakaman, iakman (s), v. to acquaint, to inform, to declare, 
iakanoriz, v. to forget. 

ial, n. the hair of the head ; a wig (m) ; feathers. 
ial-ai (sib, n), 7i. hair twisted in curls. 
ial-bupo (Mb, n), n. hair when short. 
ialdamu (iib), 7i. a species of Cymodocea. Cf . damn, 
ial-kapo, (b), n. curly hair, 
ial-pat (n, t), n. a comb. 
iamar (m), n. a species of coral, branched, 
ia-mui-taean, v. to command. 
iamulaigia, iamulaiginga, v. not to say. 
iamuli, v, to speak. 
iamuHzo, v. to speak, 
iana (t), n. a basket; a bag ; a sack. Usually made of coco-palm or 

pandanus leaf, [iananu.] 
ianalo, pi. of iana. 

iananab (?), iananab nubepa iamuliz, say to him one by one. Mark, 
xiy. 19. 



198 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

iananga, see Grammar. I^otms, 4, i. 

ianga, 

ianga-kudru (s), n. language. 

ianga-ngadalnga (s), n. a metaphor, a parable. 

iange (?). Mark, viii. 33. 

iangu-kudu, n. speech, language ; ngitamun urapon iangukudu, your 

language (is) one. 
iangu (?), ina pawa iangu ngadalnga, the parahle. 
iapalado, n. the lungs. 
iapar, n. a band (?) ; kula iapar taizi nongo katro, a stone band put 

on his neck. Mark, ix. 42. Cf . next word, 
iaparal (Mb), n. pi. ornamental bands worn on the body in the merkai 

dance, red, black, and white, 
iapepa (m), v. to choose, to select, 
iapopoibiz, v. to ask, to question, to beg. 
iapopoizo, v. to ask. Mark, iv. 10. 
iapupoibepa, v. to ask. 
iaragi (s), a. angry, 
ia-supaman, v. to bear false witness, 
iata, n. the beard, whiskers, etc. 
iatai, n. a band or company, a row of men ; pi. iatial ; ad. in ranks. 

Cf. Mir. nosik. 
iataman, v. to be angry, 
iata-patizo, v. to shave. 

iataran = iaturan, v. to contend, to be divided against, see iatormai. 
iatial, pi. of iatai. 
iatizi, V. to ooze, to come in, of water ; ban sik iatizi gulcipa, waves 

beat into the ship. Mark, iv. 37. 
iatormai (?), iatormai kuikulunga, v. to make insurrection ; tonar ia 

taramai, insurrection time. Mark, xv. 7 ; iatord moipa, ad. for 

envy. Mark, xv. 10. 
iatu (t) = iata, n. the beard, 
iaturan^ v, to coDtenti. 
lauakazouedan, n. a noose, 
iau-kawa, n. a market, 
iaumai-laig (s), n. a council house, 
iauman, v. to discuss, 
iautiz, V. to hoist. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 199 

iautumiz, v. to command ; n. command, [iautumizi.] 

iautumoizinga, n. pi. teacliings, commands. 

iawa, V. imperat. farewell ! good-bye ! 

iawaig (?), noi iawaig siei mabagi lago, be was without in desert 
places. Mark, i. 45. 

iaweipa (m), v. to see, look after, watch. 

iba-eba, (m), n. sandstone. 

iban (s), v. to rub, to scrape. 

ibara (m), n. a crocodile (perhaps introduced from Daudai). Cf. kodal. 

ibopoidan (b), v. to hunt (men). 

ibu (m), ti. the chin, lower jaw. 

ibupoidan, v. to help, to assist. 

id, ido, n. a small bivalve shell. 

idai = iadai, mina idai, n. gospel, Mark, i. 14 ; waro idai, some mes- 
sengers; setabi idai, those people. Mark, xvi. 14. 

idaig (?), suffix; tratra idaig, stammerer; ngolkai idaigal, hypocrites. 

idara, n. a beetle. 

ideipa, v. to unloose, untie. 

ideipa (mc), v. to scold. 

idi, n. oil. 

idiidi (ii), n. a scorpion. Cf. diwi. 

idiidi (m), a. fat. 

idiman (?), tana kuik idiman they wagged their heads. Mark, xv. 
29. Cf. idun. 

idimizi, v. to destroy, to erase. Cf. idumai. fidumoin, idumoiginga. j 

idin (?), noi kuikuiomo nida idin senabi durai kikiri. Mark, vi. 57. 

ido, n. a small bivalve shell. 

idoi (?). Mark, xvi. 12. 

idumai v. to vanish, [idimizi]. 

idumiz, v. to melt. Cf . idumai. 

idun, V. to mock. 

ie, 

ieame, v. to burn. 

ieda, n. the gill of a fish. 

iedai (b), n. a rumour, = iadai, 

ieda-waiano, v. to warn. See iadu-wadan. 

lege, 

iege-palan, iege-paran, v. to mock, to revile. 



200 Proceedings of the Eoya.I Irish Academy. 

iegese (?), iegese gulan, v. to cast lots, ^ilark, xv. 24. 

iegiadon, pleased (?). Mark, \i, 22. Cf. ia, gia, adan or dan. 

ielai (m), n. tlie crest of a cockatoo. 

ielpaman, r. nongo kalmel ielpaman ita watri mabaegal, he "vras num- 
bered "^thbad men. Mark, xv. 28. 

ielpan, ielepan, v. to lead ; niaipa-ielpano, v. to lead to a seat, to 
marry. 

iena (m), n. a basket, = iana. 

iengu (?), ngau iengu mai, for my name's sake. Mark, xiii. 13. 

ierka (m), n. wax. 

ieso, V. to praise, to thank. Cf . eso. 

iete (jf), n. the spider shell {^Pteroceras). 

ietu (m), n. a barnacle shell found on the turtle. 

ieudan (?), makiam ieudan, cried out. Mark, \i. 49. 

ieudapa. See gudia ieudaipa. 

ieude. See ieudepa. 

ieudepa, v. to ask, to beg. [ieudizi, ieudemipa.] 

ieudiz, ieutiz, v. to put. [ieudan.] 

igalaig, n. a kinsman, a friend ; pi. igalgal. [igalgopa, igalgia.] 

igalaigu (b), n. an uncle. 

igaligal (s), a. glad ; ad. gladly. 

igi, suffix expressing want or non-possession. 

igUi, n. life. 

igililemael, n. the living. 

igUilenga, igiUlcinga, a. possessing life, alive. 

igili-paliz, v. to give life, to save. [igUi-palan.] 

iginga, suffix expressing non-possession. 

igipali = igili-paliz. 

igur (m), exclam. of pity ; poor thing ! 

iiwi (yiwi) (s), «. a mosquito, = iwi. 

iilo (yilo) (b), n. the gall bladder. 

ika, n. joy, gladness. 

ikai (m), n. milk ; sap ; nipple of breast. 

ikalikal, ad. joyfully, gladly. Cf. igaligal. 

ikane, 

ikan-pungaipa, v. to please. 

ika-tiaipi, v. to please, to rejoice, to be glad. 

ikur (s), n. a rope. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 201 

ilagiz (?), lako kai pa ilagiz, the rent will again fly open. Mark, ii. 21, 

See palagiz. 
ilamiz, suffix, against, 
ilarkoubo, n. flax (Macfarlane). 
il-get (Mb), n. the middle finger ; the index finger in Moa. Cf. 

klaknetoi get. 
ima, 

imaiginga, v. not to see. 
imaipa, imeipa (m), v. to see, to find; paru-imamoin, they saluted. 

[imiz, imizi, iman, imamoin.] 
imaizigal, n. the person seeing a thing, 
imana (b), n. the world. 
imi (b), n. a spouse, husband, 
imi (n), n. a sister-in-law. 

imi-garkazi (b), n. a son-in-law (lit. husband-son), 
imuliz-ilamizo, v. to say things against, to accuse, to envy, 
imuso (b), a species of grass. 
ina, ino, a. the, this ; ad. here, 
inabi, a. the, this; a, an. 
inabi-durai (s), pron. these, 
ina-nabiget (m), n. this hand ; five, 
inguje (m), v. to urinate. 

ini, n. the penis ; the vertical firestick. (385.) 
inile, a. male (lit. possessing ini). 
inil-tiam, n. a male turtle, 
injura (m), n. a small lizard, 
ino = ina. 

inur (m), n. darkness, night. [inuria.J 
iobuia, n. by the way. See iabu. 
io, 

ioipa, V. to incline, 
ioka V. to recline, 
ionan v. to recline, 
iongu — iangu. 

iounga, n. a porch, [ioungapa.] 
ipal, ipel, pron. both, two. 

ipatamaiginga (?), ngi minaipatamaiginga, carest thou not. Mark, iv. 38. 
ipataman, v. to finish. 



202 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ipato, V. to finish. 

ipatomaiging a. not believed. iiTark, is. 12. 

ipi, n. female, -svife, spouse. [ipiu, ipipa.] 

ipiapo, (b) w. a fan; v. to fall. 

ipidado, n. evil, sin ; a. bad. 

ipidadd-pugan, v. to cnrse, to blaspbeme. 

ipikai (m), n. female, "^oman = ipikazi. 

ipikai-kaje (m), n. a girl. 

ipika-merkai (nb), a man dressed as a woman in tbe funeral dance. 

ipi-kazi, n. a female, Avoman, wife (lit. female person). 

ipoibiso (b), n. a noise. 

ipokazi = ipikazi. 

ipokozi = ipikazi, pi. ipokoziel. [ipokozia.] 

ipukaja burumo (b), n. a sow (lit. female pig). 

ira (m), n. father- or mother-in-law. 

irada, irado, n. shade, shadow, [iradopa.] 

iradu-aban, v. to shade. 

iragud, iragudo, n. the lips. 

irka (ii), n. resin, used in fixing the heads and joints of spears and 

throwing-sticks. Cf. ierka. 
inm (s), a. mere. 

irun (■?), maita koiza irun, they were filled. Mark, vi. 42. 
isau (m), «. a honey-comb, wax 
isoa (Mg), ad. all right, 
ita, demons, pi. those, the, 
ita (m), n. an oyster. Cf. itro. 
ita durai, demons, pi. some. 
itar, n. a spotted dogfish ( Chiloscyllium). 
itra = ita. 
itro, n. an oyster. 

iuamai (?) wakaiuamai mabaeg, n. priest, 
iudepa, v. to ask, beg, = ieudepa. [iudiz.l 
indiz-mulan, c. to pour (?). 
iuna (Mg), w. sleep. 

iuneipa (m), r. to lie down ; to leave behind 
iungu-ngulaig (b), v. to interpret. 
inrdiz, v. to flow. 
ixitan, n. a grave. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits— H. 203 

iuteipa (m), v. to pull, to drag. 

iutizi = ielpan. Mark, xiii, 1 1 . 

iwai, n. the cloth-like spathe at the base of coco-palm leaves. 

iwi, n. the mosquito. 

Ja (Mg), n. grass. ' 

jag, n. a small species of fish. 

jaga (m), n. a fish [Lefhrinus), 

jaji (b), n. a petticoat. See gagi. 

jamo (m), n. the emu. 

japudamino (jb), v. to buy. See za-pudamoin. 

japulaika (b), n. wealth, property. See zapulaig. 

jaro, n. name of a card game. Probably introduced. 

jawur (chawur) (m), n. a convolvulus with edible roots. 

je (b), n. the south ; (m) n. the sky. 

jena (chena) (m), demons, that, these, those = sena. 

jia, n. a cloud ; scud. 

jid (zheed) (m), n. a cloud. Cf. jia. 

jina (china) (m), v. stop, enough ! = sina. 

jub (Mg), n. the arm, shoulder. (Jukes.) 

juma (shuma) (m), n. cold. Cf. sumai. 

jur (m), n, the shoulder. (Jukes.) 

Ka, n. the waist. 

kab, kabo, n. a dance, = kap. 

kaba, n. a paddle, an oar ; kaba-nitun, v. to paddle, to row. 

kababa (m), n. a disc held in the hand during a dance. Cf. getauza, 

kabuzapla. 
kaba-get (Mb), n. the thumb, 
kabai, n. an egret, 
kaba-koku, n. the great toe. 
kaba-mineipa, v. to dance, 
kaba-nitund, v. to paddle, to row. 
kaba-sia, n. the great toe. 
kabi-get, n. the thumb, 
kabi-kok, n. the big toe. 
kabo-nadur (t), w. a tail ornament worn in dances. Cf. nadur, nadual* 

zamozamo. 



204 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kabu, n. tlie breast bone ; chest (irg) ; the number ten in counting on 

the body, 
kabu = kababa ; kabu-zapla (t), a disc held in the hand while dancing. 

Cf. getauza, kababa. 
kabudan, kabutan, v. to set on, to put on, to put before, 
kadai, kadaipa, directive ad. up, upward ; ■y. to stand, 
kadainitaman, v. to stand by. Mark, xv. 35. 
kadaipa, v. to stand, 
kadaipa-palagiz, v. to spill, 
kadaipa-poidan, v. to ordain, 
kadaipa-waliz, v. to ascend, to climb up. 
kadai-tanure, v. to stand up, to rise. 

kadai-taraiginga, n. not to stand; not to endure. Mark, iv, 17. 
kadai-taran, v. to lift up. 
kadai-tarizo, v. to stand up, to rise, 
kadai-tazo, = kadai-tarizo, 
kadai-wapa, 
kadalo, 
kadaman, v. to tear ; adapa kadaman, v. to peel ; gamu kadaman, v. to 

tear the body, Mark, ix, 18, 
kadapadamu (Mb), n. a species of Cymodocea. Cf. damn, 
kadazou = kedazou, 

kadig, n. a gauntlet or arm-guard, (331.) 
kadig-tam (ir), n. the ornament of the kadig. 
kadig-tang (lib), n. = kadig-tam. 
kadik, n. a gauntlet or arm-guard, 
kado (b), blood clots, 

kadro = kadai ; kadro palagiz. Mark, i, 10. 
kae = kai. 
kaet, 

kaga (m), n. a grave, 
kagiza, 
kai (b), a. large, big ; ad. very = koi ; kai gulo (b), n. a ship ; kai- 

■waiwai, n. elephantiasis of scrotum, 
kai (Mb, s), n. a 'Sew Guinea mat. Cf. kaii, 
kai, particle indicating the future tense ; at the end of a sentence it is 

emphatic and = ki. 
kai-alo (b), n. elephantiasis of the scrotum. Cf , kai, waiwai, kaiwaiwai. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 205 

kai-ari (b), n. a flood (lit. great rain). 

kaiaru (b), n, a crayfish, = kaier. 

kaiba, 

kai-biribiri, 

kaibo, ad. now, soon; to-day (b). 

kaibrodo-gomola (t), a. white. 

kaibu (m), ad. now, immediately, = kaibo. 

kaied, n. a grandmother. 

kaier, n. the crayfish ; spiny lobster, Cf . kaiaru. 

kaig (s), n. a post, 

kaigas (nb), n. a kind of shark, perhaps Rhina. 

kaigasa (m) = koigorsar, a great many. 

kaigerkitalgaka (i), a warrior, Cf. kerketegerkai. 

kaigob (Mg), n. an arrow. 

kai-gorsar = koigorsar. 

kai guba (b), n. a gale (lit. big wind). 

kai gui (?), kaigui malu, n. the sea. Mark, ix. 42. 

kai-gursaro = koigorsar. 

kaigutal piti (b), n. a snout (lit. very long nose). 

kaii (t), n. a mat made from the leaf of the Pandanus and 
imported from Mowatta. 

kai-ib (s), to-day, = kaibu, kaibo. 

kai-ipiki, n. an old woman. 

kaikai, n. a feather ; (m) a quill. 

kai-kosano, 

kai-maitalnga (b), a. corpulent (lit. possessing a big body). 

kai mapunga, a. heavy. 

kaimi (n), n. a brother-in-law. 

kaimi, n. a mate, a companion, a follower ; pi. kaimil ; nongo kaimil, 
they that had been with him. [kaimia.] 

kain, kaine, a. new ; kain ipi, bride ; mabaeg kain ipi gasaman, bride- 
groom. 

kainga (?) Mark, iv. 6. 

kaingulpa (?), burumal koi umen nanitan, diabo a padria, kaingulpa 
malupa, the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea. 
Mark, v. 13. 

kainidung (m), n. the new moon. 

kaining (ii), a. new, little used. 



206 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kaiptii (b), a. a tree (lit. big tree). 

kaisigalo = toisigal. 

kaisigapa = koisigapa. 

kaiwaiwai, n. elephantiasis of the serotuni. Cf. waiwai : kaialo. 

kaiza (b), a. big, large (properly kai-za, big thing}. 

kaje (m;}, n. a child, = kazi; ipikai-kaje, a girl ; mugi-kaje, an infant j 

netnr-kaji, a son. 
kak (y), the framework on which a corpse was dried. Cf. sara. 
VftVftI V. to appear (?) ; noi kalai kakal Marialpa adapadan, he appeared 

first to Mary, ilark, xri. 9 ; palamulpa kakal adan, appeared 

to two. 
kakera (ifg), n. tortoise-shelL 

kaki (y), exclam. I say ! Look here ! Cf . kawki, kami, komi. 
kakiam (nb, s), n. the bird of Paradise. 
kaka, 

kaknr, ». an egg, ovary of a fish; the testicles (m). 
kakura, kakuro, n. the feet, 
kakurupataean, kakurpataean, r. to step across ; prep, across ; tana 

muasin tarodan kakurupataean, when they had passed over. 

Mark, vi. 53. 
kal, kala, kalo, n. the back ; the hinder part ; the outside. iTark, riii. 

15 ; (m), the back of the hand ; kalapa, at the back, behind; 

kalanu, after that, then. 
kalak, kalaka, klak, n. a spear (333) ; or rather a javelin, as it is 

thrown with the kubai. 
kalakala, n. a fowl, 
kalakcinita = klak-nitu. 
kalapi (m), n. a large bean, = kolapi, " the produce of a vine-like 

creeper with legumes a foot in length, eaten with biiu." 

Macgillivray, ii., p. 27. 
kalemel = kalmel. 

kalmel, ad. or n. together, [kalmelpa.] 
kalmel-monamoin, v. to unite, 
kalmel-uzar, r. to accompany, 
kalum-rida (m}, n. the collar bone. 
kalupi, 
kamadi (m), n. a belt worn obliquely across the chest, made of young 

coco-palm leaf. Cf . naga. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits— 11. 207 

kamado (b), 7i. a necklace. 

kaman (m), n. keat, steam. 

kamanale (ir), a. ■n'arm. 

kama-taiixadiz, v. to nurse. 

kami (ir), a. dear (used by a female to a male, see kawki). 

kamikamo (b), n. ring-^'orm. 

kamizingi, "vrux kamizingi, flood tide. 

kamu (iig) 71. the body, = gamu. 

kamus n. another name for the ^Jtlai'wa ceremony. 

kangu (ir.) n. a frog. (Pronounced kang-gu). 

kanguru ( ?) ; kanguru-pagamoin, v. to be spread abroad ( ?). 

kap, n. a dance. See kab. 

tape (m), good, pretty, = kapu. 

kape-ganule (ii), sweet, fragrant (lit. possessing a good smell). 

kape-parure (ir), a. pretty -faced. 

kap-garig, n. name of a dance. Cf. garig-kap. 

kapi, n, the thigh ; the legs (irg). 

kapi-kisuri (ir), w. moonlight. 

kapi-taig (ir), ai. a long way off. 

kapu, a. good, beautiful. 

kapu, 71. seed ; tomi kapu, timi kapu, small red and black seeds, 

(crab's eyes), 
kapua, 

kapua kasiginga, kapuakosiginga, 7i unbelief ; v. not to believe. 
kapua kasilai, n, faith. Mark, v. 34. 

kapua kasin, v. to believe ; w. faith, hope, [kapuakamoui]. 
kapuka-tete, n. the west ; kapuka = kibuka. 
kapukuiku, 
kapu-minar, a. best (lit. good mark, probably a phrase adopted from 

the mission schools). 
kapu-mitalnga (b), a. edible (lit. possessing a good taste), 
kaputo, 71. the other side (of a river), [kaputopa]. 
kapuza = kapu za. 

kar, 71. a fence ; beribei kar, a rope fence. 
kara (nb), name of a tree ; the raw fruit is eaten in the initiation 

ceremonies (398). 
kara (ir), = kai, koi. 
karaba (u), n. a paddle, = kaba. 



208 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

karabai (i), n. an egret, = karubai, karbai. 

karaba-tapeipa, v. 

karab (ng), n. nostril. 

karabn (ir), n. nostrils. 

karaig, 

kara-malupa (ii), ad. a long way down. 

kara-nagri (Mg), ad. enough. (Stone). 

karar, n. the shell of a turtle. 

karar-asin, v. to like, to obey. 

karauaig = korawaig. 

karawaigo = korawaig. 

karbai, n. an egret ; karbai ial, karbai plis, or kaikai, feathers of the 

egret ; (m), the blue heron, 
kareki (m), ad. hereabouts. Cf. ko, of which the (ii) form would be 

kore. 
karengaigo, a. not hearing. 

karengemin, v. to hear, to listen, to obey, [karengemiziu.] 
karget (ii), n. little finger. (Jukes.) 

karingi (t), n. a lad during the initiation ceremony. Cf. kemge. 
karmiu, n. name of a fish, = karmoi. 
karmoi (m), n. a fish. Scatophagus muUi/asciatus. 
karomat (m), n. a brown snake, 
karta (m), n. the throat, = kato. 
karubai (m), n. an egret. 

karudan (t), n. a shell frontlet, a drum pattern, 
karum (t, s), n. the monitor lizard, Varanus ; called " iguana." 
karumatapi, (karum swimming) n. a dance (362). 
karuma-gam (t), 7i. the skia of the monitor, 
karuma-gungau (m), n. the skin of the monitor, 
karum -palan( ?), betrayed. Mark, xiv. 41. 
karusa (jig) = kaura. 
kasa (m), n. the bed of a stream, a river. Mai Kasa, Wai Kasa, names 

of rivers in New Guinea, 
kasa, n. the pandanus. Cf. kausa. 
kasa, V. to lend. 
kasa, ad. only, just, 
kasa iagiasin, v. to be quiet, 
kasa-tabu (b), n. a harmless snake. 



Rat & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 209 

kasa-kupal, a. naked. 

kasa-paibano (b), n. a present, gift, 

kasa-wanan, v. to forsake, to leave alone. Mark, xv. 34. 

kasigig, a. childless. Cf. kaziginga. 

kasur (m), n. a salt water creek. Cf. kasa. 

kat (jib), n. neck. 

kata-kazi (b), n. twins. 

katam, n. a bunch, a crowd. 

katamo, n. a banana. 

katamiz, a. narrow, 

kata-plagis (b), ad. upwards. See kat-palagiz. 

kata-pulgeipa (ii), v. to jump, to leap. 

katauoi (t), n. the green parrot, 

kateko (b), n. a frog, 

kato, (n), the neck, throat, 

kat-palagiz, v. to escape, leap, [kadro palagiz.] 

katramizo = katamiz, 

katro = kato. 

kaua = kawa, 

kauburu (s), n. a gourd. 

kaubasin, v. to strain, labour ; noi iman tana kibu kaubasin kaba 

nitun, he saw them toiling in rowing. Mark, vi. 48. 
kaukwik (lib), a young man ; the ceremony on arriving at puberty 

(405). Cf. kernele. 
kaukwoiku (ii), n. a young unmarried man after initiation, 
kaura (ir, iib), n. the external ear. 
kaura, n. the nautilus, 
kaura (ji), n. an island = kawa. 
kaura-apuso, n. the ear hole ; ieudan ukasar dimur a uiasar kaura 

apuso utun nubepa, put his fingers into his ears. Mark, 

vii. 33. 
kaura-kikire, n. the ear-ache. 

kauralenga, a. possessing ears ; itamuamuai kauralenga, the deaf, 
kaurare (ir), a. possessing ears; wati-kaurare, deaf (having bad 

ears), 
kaura-tarte (ii), n. a hole in the lobe of the ear. 
kauru (ii), n. the laughing jackass, 
kauruta (ir), n. bunions. 

E.I. A PKOC, SEE. m., VOL. IV. P 



210 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kausa, n. fruit, seed, nut, =kousa. 

kausa, kausar, (ir), 71. Pandamis pedunculata. Cf. kasa. 

kausi (t), n. a hawk. Cf. kudzi. 

kausur (11), n. a flower. 

kauturi (ir), n. a blue crab. 

kawa, n. an island ; people ; iau kawa, n. a market, [kawapa.] 

kawakawal, kawakawial, n. pi. islands, nations, [kawaka-wapa."] 

kawakuig, kawa-kuiko, w, a young man. Cf. kernele. 

kawki (ir), a. dear (used by a male to a female) ; see kami. 

kawp (m), n. a seed. 

kawruta, 

kazi, n. a person, a child ; niai kazi, 7i. a scholar, a disciple (lit. a 

sitting person) ; pi. kaziel, kazil. [kaziu, kazipa, kazingu, 

kaziae.] 
kaziginga, a. uninhabited (lit. child not possessing). 
kazilaig, a. having a child. Mark, vii. 25. 
kaziol, pi. of kazi. 

keda, ad. thus, as, saying ; a word introducing a quotation, 
keda, v. to be like, to resemble ; keda aiginga, v. to differ. 
keda (m), v. to cut. 
kedamizin, 

kedangadanga, n. length. 
kedangadal, kedangadalnga, a. like, like this ; noi kedangadalnga 

umangange, he "was as one dead. Mark, ix. 26. 
kedawara, kedazingu, keda-zinguzd, conj. for this cause, therefore. 
kedazou (?), conJ. for ; kedazou mai Joane iamuliz Heroda, for John 

told Herod. Mark, vi. 18. 
kedazongu (s), because (lit. from the thing thus), 
kedazopa, conj. therefore (for the thing thus), 
kedazopuzigopa (?), kedazopuzigopa nidaipa, (who) had done thus. 

Mark, v. 32. 
kegoba, 
kei = kai, koi. 
kei-galein (m), a. dumb, 
kei-gariga (ir), n. noon-tide (lit. big sun). 
ke'ipikai (m), n. an old woman, - kai-ipiki. 
kei'kuku (m), w. the great toe. 
keimagi (ii), n. an associate, a friend. Cf. kernele. 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 21 i 

keinga (m), a. large ; ad. very, = kai, koi. 

kekedi (m), a. gorged. 

kekeri, n. a bird with red breast. 

kekermisina (?), purka kekermisina (b), n. ophthalmia. 

keki (m), n. a gull. 

kekochipa (m), v. to forget. 

kemus = kimus, sabu kemus, n. a needle. 

ke-pramek, 

kerer (m) = kerer. 

kererki, n. the name of a star. Cf. garig kap. 

kerisa (m), n. the blue mountain parrot. 

kerkato = kerket. 

kerkato-palan, v. to torment. 

kerket (m), n. anger, rage. 

kerketale (m), a. vindictive, furious. 

kerketegerkai (nr), n. a warrior. Cf. kaigerkitalgaka. 

kemele (m), kernge (n), a lad who is being initiated into manhood. 

Cf. karingi, zungri, kankwik, keimagi (405, 409, 433). 
ketai, n. a yam [Dioscorea), Cf. kutai. 
ketal (m), n. a thread, 
ketekete, 
keuba-tati, n. uncle (lit. tati, father, keuba, perhaps for kopa, a little 

way off), 
keusa, m. fruit, = kausa, kousa. 
ki (m), an affix of emphasis. Cf . kai. 
kiamusa (b), n. the point of an arrow, = kimus. 
kibu, n. the loins, the lower part of the back ; padau kibu, the slope 

of a hill. Mark, v. 11. 
kibuka (kibupa), n. a mythical island to which the mari of deceased 

persons go (318), "Hades." 
kibu-mina, n. a totem cut on the small of the back of a woman (lit. 

loin mark) (368). 
kicha (Mg), n. the sun, the moon. Cf. kisuri, kizai. 
kida (m), a. left, 
kidakida-nagepa, v. to gaze. 

kidakidan (?), tana kidakidan ia uman, they said among themselves. 
kido (?), 
kido-taean, v. to turn, to overthrow ; see kita-toeailai. 

P 2 



212 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kidu-\raru (iib), the finish, of the turtle (surlangi) season. 

kiMmizi, 

kikira, 

kikir, kikiri, n. disease, pain, affliction ; a. sick, iH ; kikiri-laig, n. a 

sick person ; koiku-kikiri, headache ; dang kikiri, toothache ; 

kanra kikiri, earache. 
VJTmis (s), n an arrow. 

kin (31b), n. a creeper used in making makamak. 
kirer, n. an artery, a rein, a sinew, 
kirkup, n. a nose ornament. Cf . gigu. 
kisigan (ng), n. a mountain. (Stone), 
kisnri (m), n. the moon. 

kita-toeailai (?) to be converted, ilark, iv. 12. See kido-taean, 
kizai (s), n. the moon, 
klak-nitu (s), klak-netoi-get (iib), kalako-nitu, n. the index finger ; 

the number four in counting on the body. 
ko, n. a place near, a little distance. Cf. kareki. [kou, kopa, kozi.] 
koakan, a. round. 

koam = kaman, kuamo, fever. Mark, i. 31. 
koamala-nagiz, 
koamapa, v. to warm oneself ; nado Petelun iman muingu koamapa, 

she saw Peter warming himself. 
koamasin = kuamo, asia ; korkak koamasin, sore amazed, ilark, xiv. 

33 ; gamu koamasin, n. fever (lit. with hot body). 
kob (x), n. the tail of a dog. Cf. kouba. 
koba (m) =kob. 

kobai (ji), ». the throwing stick (334). Cf. kubai. 
kobai-ngur (>ib), n. the peg or hook of the kobai. 
kobai-piti (31), n. the peg of the throwiag stick. Cf. ngurr. 
kobaki (k), n. a cough. 
kobaris (m), a. tmripe, uncooked, 
kobebe (mo), n. a bird (Legends, p. 29). 
kobegada, a. this kind. Mark, is. 29. 
kobi (n), a. black, 
kobia (?), tana ladun a maumizia kobia gulugul, they went forth and 

preached everywhere. Mark, xvi. 20 ; noi gurugui uzar kobia 

gurugup ngurupaipa, he went round about the villages 
teaching. Mark, vi. 6. 



E.AY & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 213 

kobikobi (t), w. the charred shell of the coconut, charcoal ; kobikobi 
marukai or gumule (m), black men, Cf. kubi. 

kobikobigamol, kobikobigomola (t), a. black. Cf. kubikubinga. 

koboi-nguru (ivib), n. the hook of the kobai, = kobai-ngur. 

kobu, n. war, enemy, battle, = koubu. 

kobura (b), n. a lime gourd. Cf. Mir. kabor. 

kodal, n. a crocodile, = kudal. 

kodu, n. a part. 

kogwoi (m), n. the throwing stick, Cf . kobai. 

koi, a. large, great, big ; ad. very, = kai, kei. 

koi-abou (koi-iabou), ad. with a loud voice. 

koi-ad (s), n. an anchor. 

kdi adumeipa, v. to rave. 

kdi-gakazi (s), n. a chief. 

koigaraka, n. a chief. 

koi-gerza - koi-gorsar, 

koi-gdrkozi, n. a chief ; koigdrkozi wakaiauiamoin, chief priests. 
Mark, xiv, 55. 

koi-gdrsar, a. many. 

koi-ia, a. loud (lit, big voice). 

koiko-dim (s), n. the thumb (lit. head-finger). 

koik-patan = kuiko-patan. 

koikoro, n. a head-dress worn by young men, a pattern on a drum.. 

koiku (m), n. the head = kuikd. 

koiku-kikii'i, 71. head-ache. 

koikutalnga, a. long, high, tall (having big ends), 

koim, koima (s), a. many, much. 

kdi-magaulnga, a. strong. 

koi-magu, n. a bunch, 

koimai (t), n. the scarified mark on the shoulder. 

koi-maita (b), n. the gizzard of a fowl (lit. big stomach), 

kdi-malu, a. deep (lit, big sea), 

koi-mapu-bodali, a. sick. 

kdi-mapunga, a. difficult, heavy (having great weight). 

kdingar, n. elephantiasis of the leg (lit. big leg). 

kdi-ngona-poidan, v. to sob. 

koiop, = kuidpa. 

kdi-pui, n. a log (lit. big wood). 



214 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kdiridanga, koiridango, a. hard (lit. very bony). 

koisarkoisar (?), Pilato koisarkoisar korkak banitan sisike noi umanga, 

Pilate marvelled if lie were already dead. Mark, xv. 44. 
koisigal, a. far, remote ; koisigapa, ad. afar, to a distance. 
kdi-sigazi, ad. from afar, 
koi-wamen-udiz (s), n. ebb tide, 
koi-za, a. big, large, great (lit. large thing), 
koi-zarasan. 

kokam, kokan, n. a ball, 
kdkaper, n. a spark, 
kokata (m) = kwokata. 
koki (m) = kuki. 

koki, n. the season for turtle feasts. Cf . kuki. 
koko (ji), n. the foot. Cf. kakura, kuku. 
koko-geta. 

koko-kaleri (m), n. the sole of the foot, 
koko-moi (m), n. the sole of the foot, 
koko-moka (m), n. the sole of the foot, 
kola (m), n. a rock, = kula. 
kolab (t), n. the shoulder-blade, or scapula, 
kolam (m), n. the shoulder-blade, 
kolan (Mg), n. the shoulder. 

koli (lib), n. a paddle when used for steering. Cf . kuli. 
kolkar, (m), n. blood, = kulka. 
kolo (m), kolu (m), n. the knee, = kulu. 
komakoma (s), a. separate, opposed to ; ngalpalpa kdmakdma maiging, 

not against us. 
komalenga, a. hot, = kuamalnga. 

komi (n), exclam. I say ! Look here ! (see kami, kawki, kaki). 
kdnamiz, v. to spy. 

ken, n. com (English word com) ; konau-apo, a corn-field. 
konga, 

konil, 11. a bundle of arrows. 
kdpa. Cf. ko, 

kopazi, an error for kdzipa. Mark, viii. 1 . 
koper (m), n. a tree. 
kopi, n. the half, a lump, 
kopuru (m), n. a fish, whiting {Silago). 



Eay & Haddox — The Languages of Torres Straits — II, 215 

kora (t), n. a crocodile, = kodal, kudal. 

korabu (ii), w. the septum narium. 

korawaig, korawaigo, v. to be unable, cannot. 

korekida (ji), ad. a long time ago. 

korkak, «, the throat ; the seat of the affections, the mind, [korkaknu 

korkakonu.] 
korkako-bado, v. to sigh. Cf. korkak, bado. 
korkar (s), w. the mind. 
korkor, (m), n. a cro"W". 

komgaizinga, fi. things heard. See korongaipa. 
koro, 

korongaigigo, a. deaf, = karengaigo. 

korongaiginga, v. not to hear, = karengaigo, korongaigigo. 
korongaipa, v. to hear, 
korokak = korkak. 
korpusonga, a. tender ; nongo tamo korpusonga, when its branch is 

tender. Hark, xiii. 28. 
korsi, n. the hammer-headed shark {ZygcBna). 
koru, n. a corner, [korupa.] 
korul, n. the heel. 

kosa (lib), n. the sternum. Cf. dadir. 
kosa, n, a river, =kasa ; kosa loridana, river Jordan ; kosa Galilaia, sea 

of Galilee ; mai kasa, Pearl Paver. Cf. native names of places. 
kosi (?) = kazi. See next word, 
kosiman, v. to rear, bring up. 
kosiman (?), noi iautumizi tanamulpa niano kosiman tana senabi 

imuso maludonga, he commanded them to make all sit down 

by companies on the green grass. Hark, vi. 39. 
kota-dimu (s), n. the little finger, 
kota-get (iioa), n. the little finger, 
kotaig (Badu) = last. 
kotale (h), a. long, high, tall. 
koteko (b), n. a frog, = kateko. 
koto-dimura (iib), n. the little fijiger ; kotodimura gomgozinga (or 

guruziaga), the fourth finger. 
kotuka (?), keda ngadalnga sinapi kousa a utun kulai sena mina kotuka 

minakousakoizaina apal, like a mustard seed which when it is first 

so wn is less than all the seeds that be in the earth. Mark, iv. 3 1 . 



216 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kou. Cf. ko. 

kouba (s), n. the tail of a quadruped, = kob. 

kouba (s), n. war, battle, an enemy. 

kouba-laba (s), n. the tail of a bird. 

koubu = kouba. 

koulka (ir), a. red. Cf. kulka. 

koupapa (s) = koupupa. Cf. kouba. 

koupupa, n. a -warrior, a soldier. 

kousa, n. fruit, seed, = kausa. [kousau, kousangu.] 

kousalenga, a. possessing fruit ; in Mark, xi. 13, a mistranslation for 

nisalenga. 
kcizi, n. = kazi, pi. k62del. [kdziu, kozipa, kozingu.] 
koziginga, a. - kaziginga. 
krabu (m), n. nostril, 
krameipa (m), v. to steal. 

krangipa (ji), v. to hear, to understand, = korongaipa. 
krar (m), n. a mask. Cf. buk. 
krem (ir), n. the white heron. 
kris, n. a parrot, 
kua, 

kuai (m), n. a red berried Eugenia ; the crown of the head, 
kuamalnga, a. hot, warm (lit. possessing heat), 
kuamo (b), a. warm (see kaman), hot ; n. heat. 
kuato, 

kubai (b), n. a throwing-stick ; a sling (Macfarlane). Cf. kobai. 
kubaki, 

kubi, n. charcoal, touchwood. Cf. kobikobi. 
kubi (m), a. many, plenty 
kubiger, 

kubikubinga, a. dark, black, 
kubil, kubilo, n. night, darkness ; a. dark, 
kubilu = kubilo. 
kubii'k (irg) = kobaki. 
kuchi (ji), n. a rattan, 
kudal (s), n. a crocodile, = kodal. 
kudapa = kutapa. 
kudrugu, n. a small dove, 
kudu, kudru, n. the elbow ; the number 7 in counting on the body. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — TI. 217 

kudu (?) ; noi balbaigi iangu kudu taean, he spake plain. Mark, 
vii, 35. 

kudul, n. the elbow, = kudu. 

kuduman, v. to admit, to accede to. [kudumamain.] 

kudzi-kwik (t), n. a carved wooden bird's ( ? hawk's) head for decora- 
tion of a canoe. Cf . kausi. 

kugi (m), n. the young of sapur. 

kui, 

kuiai (?), kuiai torik, kuiai turik, n. a sword. Mark, siv. 45, 47. 

kuibur (?), kuibur torodiz, v. or a. tame. 

kiulur (m), n. a mangrove. 

kuik = kuiko. 

kuika-iman, v. to begin, to commence. 

kuika-longa = kuikulenga, etc. 

kuik-gasamiz, v. to wail. 

kuiko, 71. the head ; the skull, 

kuiko-patan, v. to behead. 

kuik-taean, v. to nod. 

kuiku = kuiko ; kuiku ipi, n. a chieftainess. [kuikupa, kukungu, 
kuikuau.] 

kuiku, n. root, [kuikungu, kuikunu.] 

kuiku-dimo, n. the thumb ; the number five in counting on the body. 
See koiko-dim. 

kuikui, 

kuikuiga, n. brother, [kuikuigau.] 

kuiku-kikiri, n. head-ache. 

kuikukazi, n. brother. 

kuikulenga, kuikulnga, kuikulonga, a. chief. 

kuikulumai, n. a lord, a chief, master ; kuikulumai vine apangu, n. the 
lord of the vineyard. Mark, xii. 9. [kuikulumaipa, kuikulu- 
maingu.] 

kuikulunga, a. chief, [kuikulungae.] 

kuiku-oimo = kuikaiman. 

kuikutanga (b), a. tall. 

kxdku-waipa, v. to talk over to take counsel, usually with ia pre- 
ceding, noi ia mura kuiko waipa tana mulpa, he expounded 
all things to them. Mark, iv. 34. 

kuiopa (b), n. the dragon fly. 



218 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kuisimi, n. height. 

kuiur (m), n. the dart of the dugong harpoon (wap). Cf. kwiuro. 

kuki, n. the "West wind ; the North West monsoon ; the rainy season ; 

winter ; spring (Macfarlane). Cf. koki. 
kuki-dogam (s), n. the West. 
kukopalan, v. to save (?), mi mabaeg nongo igilenga koi kukopalan, 

whoever will save his life. Mark, viii. 35. 
kuku (m), n, the foot, toes. 

kukuama, n. a flower, a blossom ; kukuamnge, Mark, iv. 28. 
kukuikozipa, dat. of kuikukazi. Mark, xiiii. 12. 
kukule (h), n. an elder brother or sister, 
kukuna-mapeipa (m), v. to kick, 
kukup (m), n. the buttocks. Cf. keep, 
kukutalinga = koikutalnga. 
kul (m), a. first, 
kul (m), ad. two or three days ago ; mata kul (m), ad. about a week 

ago. 
kula, n. a stone, rock, [kulapa, kulanu.] 
kula (n), n. flat stones with faces painted on them connected with 

ancestor worship (321). 
kula (s), a. red. 

kulai, V. to precede, to go before, 
kulaikulai, ad. before. 

kulai-tai, v. to advance, to go before, to pass by. [kulaitaiz.] 
kulale (m) = kotale. 
kulale (m), a. stony. 

kulau-amai, 7i. lime (lit. oven of stone, i.e. burnt coral), 
kulba, kulbang (ji), a. worn, old from use, ancient, 
kulbulo (b), n. an owl. 

kuli, n. the steering board of a canoe ; kuli-toidiz, v. to steer. Cf . koli. 
kulka, n. blood ; kulkale (m) a. bloody ; kulkthung, a. red. [kulkau.] 
kulkadagomola, a. red, blood colour, 
kulka-ieudiz, v. to bleed, to pour blood, 
kulkale, a. from kulka. 
kulkau (s.), n. blood, 
kulkuigau, 

kulkulkuma (b), n. dysentry (lit. bloody excrement), 
kulapi (ji), n. a large bean, = kalapi. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 219 

kulpa (s), a. old, = kulba. 

kulu, n. the knee. 

kulu-damanu, 

kuluka = kulka. 

kulukal, a. red, purple. 

kulukubo, kulukubu, n. a long time. 

kulun-tariz, v. to bow the knee, Mark, xv. 19. 

kuma, n. dung, excrement, rust. 

kumakuma (s), a. secret. See kumi. 

kumar (iib), name of a plant used in tbe initiation ceremonies (399). 

kumaskumas, 

kumete, n. a busbel. Prom the Samoan 'umete via Lifu kumete. 

kumi (s), n. a secret. Cf . gumi. 

kun, n. the hinder part; gulngu kun, the hinder part of the ship. 

Mark, iv. 38. 
kunakanange (s), a. strong, tough (of cloth), 
kunamin, 

kuna-poibiz, v. to groan, to moan, 
kunaro (b), n. lime ; maino kunaran paruia nidizo, made mourning 

with faces of lime. Mark, v. 38. See Introduction to Saibai 

Grammar, 
kunia ( ? from kun), noi ubigosia kunia onailai, he would not reject 

her. Mark, vi. 26. 
kunia-tidiz, kunia-tridiz, v. to return, 
kunumeipa (m), v. to tie. 
kunur (m), 7i. ashes. 
kuote (Mb), n. the back of the head, 
kup (Mb), n. the buttocks. Cf. kukup. 
kupa (m), n. a white berried Eugenia. 
kupa (m), n. the hip ; maita kupa n. navel, 
kupado, n. a bay. 
kupai, n. a share, = kopi. 
kupai (s) = kupor, 
kupalabo (b), n. a tail, 
kupai baba (b), n. a tail feather, 
kupalenga, a. fromkupar, ngau kupalenga, I pity ; woe. Mark, xiii. 

17. 
kupa-luba (m), n. the tail of a bird. 



220 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

kupar, n. the navel. Cf . Mir. kopor. 

kuparo, n. a worm. 

kupe (t), n. a medicinal plant. 

kupor (s), tlie umtilical cord. Cf. kupa, kupar. 

kupur, n. the navel. 

kupuza = kapuza. 

kupwa, 

kurdai (x), n. a kind of native rope. Cf. kwodai. 

kuri (lyr), n. a gum tree. (Jukes.) 

kurkagamulno (b), a. red. Cf. kulka, gamu, kulkadagomola. 

kursai (t), n. the ear, = kaura. 

kursimi (s), n. a height. Cf. kuisimi. 

kurtumiz v. to scratch ; n. itch. 

kurtur (m), n. a worm ; (s), v. to crawl. 

kuni, 

kuiiigat (b), 71. the post of a house. 

kurusipa, conj. untO.. 

kusa (b), n. a river. (See kasa). 

kusa, n. Coix lachrymae, Job's tear seeds, ^Z. kusal; (hence a bead); 

a belt made of these seeds (m) ; kusa duru (m), a bead band 

worn on the wig. 
kusa kap, n. a mythical gigantic bird, born parthenogenetically from a 

woman. (Legends, i. 3.) 
kusaig, kusaigo, n. self ; a. alone, 
kusal, n. a necklace (lit. beads), 
kusali (m), n. the Pleiades, 
kusu (Mb, m), n. a coconut water-bottle. 

kusu kusulaig (Mb), n. a broom, the dance name of piwul (404). 
kut, n. the neck, 

kut (m), kuta (s), w. evening, afternoon, = kutapa. Cf. kuto. 
kuta, n. the end, = kuto. 
kuta-dimur, n. the little finger, 
kutai (m), n. a fibrous yam {Bioscorea). Cf. ketai. 
kutaig, n. a younger brother or sister ; pi. kutaigal. Cf. kuto. 

[kutaigou.] 
kutaigan-nge, 
kutal, n. length, 
kutalnga, a. long. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 221 

kutam ( ?), kutam titui, a species of hawk. 

kutapa, n. the evening. Cf. kut, kuta. 

kutapatai, 

kutau, 

kuto (s), n. the end, extremity of anything ; kabndan senabi pudau 

kutanu, put on the end of a reed. Mark, xv. 36. 
kutoka (s), n. the end, = kuto. 
kutra, n. evening, = kuta. [kutanu.] 
kutrapa = kutapa. 
kutuman = kuduman. 
ku-u-rug (m), n. the ground dove. 

kuza. Mark, ix. 5. Apparently a misprint for kapuza. 
kuzi (t), n. a species of hawk. 
kwai (m), n. top of the head (?). 
kwaimai (b), v. to scarify, to cut the skin so as to cause a raised 

cicatrix. (366.) 
kwali (m), exclamation to arrest attention, 
kwalamo (b), n. the shoulder blade. Cf. kolam, kolab. 
kwasur, (quassur Macgillivray) (m), two, = ukasar. 
kwateia (m), n. the back of the head. Cf. kuote. 
kweada (m), n. the gromets on the backstays of a boat, 
kwig (t), n. the head or skull, = kuiko. 
kwik (Mb) = kwig ; merkai kwik, a head-dress used in the funeral 

dance ; kwik'uro (m) n. the general term for a fiUet worn on 

the head. Cf. uro. 
kwir (s), n. a fight, 
kwitoaean (quitoaean), v. to lose. 

kwiuro, n. the dart of a dugong spear " wap." Cf. kwoioro, kuiar. 
kwod, n. the house set apart for men, or the open space in which 

sacred ceremonies take place. Mir. siriam ; taiokwod (t), 

n. the sacred meeting place for the initiation ceremonies 

(409). 
kwodai, n. twisted native rope. 

kwoioro (Mb), n. the dart of a wap or dugong spear (351). 
kwoikwig (b), first. 

kwokata (m), n. a frontlet of coco-palm leaf, 
kwual, 11. a curlew, 
kzoiol = kaziel. 



222 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

L, suffix denoting the plural of nouns. 

labaipa (m), v. to cut. [laban, lapan.] 

ladeipa (m), v. to tear. 

ladiak (Mg), n. a chief. (Stone.) 

ladon, 

ladu, V. to go. [ladun.] 

laelo (?), kuikaiman tanamulpa waean mata ukauka laelo, began to 

send them forth two and two. Mark, vi. 7. 
laga (m), n. dwelling place, hut, house, pi. lagal. [lagau, lagou, 

lagapa, lagopu, lagongu, lagonu, lagia, lagonge.] 
lagilaig (s), n. countryman. 

lago (s), n. house, dwelling-place, land. See laga. 
lai, suffix. 

laigo, laig (s), n. country, island, place, 
laig, suffix denoting persons in a group, a clan, a sect, a tribe, 
laka (m), ad. again, = lako, 
lakadano (b), n. war. 
lako, lako, ad. more, again, 
lakoboi (b), v. to return. Cf. lako, boie. 
lakonge = lagonge. 
lalkai (m), n. a lie Cf. ngolkai. 

lalkeipa (m), v. to lie, to be false ; piki lalkeipa (m), v. to dream, 
lamcipa (m), v. to copulate, 
lapan, see labeipa. 

laulau, n. a table (introduced from Samoa vid Lifu). [laulauiu.] 
launga (s, b"!', a. no, not ; mata launga, a. absent, 
laungamaiginga (?). Mark, ix. 38. Apparently the two negatives 

with adjective termination, 
laungaman, launga, mani (s), v. to repudiate, to rebuke, to refuse. 

[launga mizin."] 
le (m), a plural suffix to nouns, 
le (m) = li. 

leara, n. a species of cashew {Anacardium) (308). 
leg (ji), suffix denoting possession, 
lenga, suffix to adjectives denoting possession. 
li (iib, s, ji), n. a basket made of the leaves of the pandanus. 
liwak, 71. the chameleon, 
logi (m), 2^re2>. near, close to. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 223 

logo = lago. 

loia (b), n. the tongue. Cf. noia. 

lokof (Mb), n. medicine ; sorcery. Cf. gouga, maid, and Mir. lukup. 

longa (s), n. colour. 

longa (m) = launga. 

lorda, n. the shell worn on the groin when fighting. Cf. alidan. 

luba, 

lubu (?). Mark, xi. 15, niai za lubu ngorotaran, overthrew the tables 

of the money changers, 
lulko (m), n. a large palm {Seaforthia) ; a water basket made of its 

leaves. 
lumado (?), sana-lumado (b), n. the instep, 
luman (s), v. to seek, to search, to guess, 
lunga (s) = launga. 
lunurano, prep, around, 
lupalan, be of good cheer (?). Mark, vi. 50. 
lupaliz, lupalizo, v. to be astonished, to marvel, 
lupeipa (m), v. to shake, 
lurug (m), n. the haunch bone, 
luwaiz (s), V. to be cured, 
luwaean (s), v. to shave. 

Ma (b), n. a spider, a cobweb. 

mabaginga (?), mekatia mabaginga, not shine abroad. Mark, iv. 22, 

Probably mabaeg with the negative adj. termination, not having 

men, where men are not. 
mabaeg, mabaego, n. man ; pi. mabaegal ; ngurpai-mabaeg, n. disciple ; 

koi zongu ubi mabaeg, one who covets. Mark, vii. 22. 

[mabaegau, mabaegou, mabaegan, mabaegopa, mabaegangu, 

mabaegengu, mabaegongu, mabaegia, mabaegae.] 
mabaegogi, mabaegoginga, a. deserted, having no men ; mabaegogi 

lago, a desert place, 
mabaeg-purtan, n. a cannibal, man-eater, 
mabagi = mabaeg. 

mabaro (b), n. the windpipe. * 

mabeto, n. a baby. 
mabi (m), n. the tail of a fish, 
mabiag, n. man, = mabaego. 



224 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

mad, mada, n. pudendum muliebre. 
madale (m), a. female (lit. possessing mada). 
madi, suffix, by (Macfarlane). 

madu (ir, b), n. flesh; pi. madul, tliigh (Macfarlane) ; hip (b); thigh. 
(b) ; bru-madu (ii), n. calf of leg ; "wapi madul, fl.esh of fishes. 
Mark, vi. 41. 
madubo, n. a charm, an image or idol, 
madugi (?). Mark, ix. 42. 
madugo, «. a fine ; v. to fine. 

madu-paman, v. to start, be startled, [madu-pamemin.] 
madu-pawizo, 

mae (ii), n. the bark of which daje is made, 
mael, suffix. 

mag (t), n. sweat. Cf . mordg. 
magao (s), n. strength, 
magaolnga, a. strong. 

mageda (ii), n. hair of groin ; guda magdda, n. moustache, 
magi, magina (s), a. small ; magina-kazi, child ; magina-ipikazi, 

girl ; magina-malil, a nail ; magina tiiriko (b), tomahawk, 
magiso (b) = magiz, v. to spew, 
magi-tiom (s), n. boy ; pi. magi-tiomal. 
magiz, V. to vomit, 
magd, V. to perspire ; n. sweat. 

magus (s), a. enduring. (Perhaps a ms. error for magao). 
mai, n. pearl-shell ; maidan, a pearl-shell eye inserted in a skull. 
mai (s), n. sake ; Herodian mai Filipon ipi nongo kutaig, for the sake 

of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. Mark, vi. 17. 
mai (s), a well, pool. 

mai, v. to mourn; n tears, [maidd, maind.] 
mai-adan (s), maiadi (b), v. to weep, put out tears, 
maid, maiid, n. sorcery. Cf. lokof, purapura. 
maideg (i), n. a small grass petticoat, big in front and behind, imported 

from Mowat. Cf. Maiwas. 
maidelaig (irb), n. a sorcerer, 
maierchipa (m), v. fo cry, howl like a dog. 
maige (m), maigi (s, b), v. imper. don't ! do not ! 
maiginga (?), lesu nubepa kudu maiginga, Jesus did not allow him. 

Mark, v. 19. 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 225 

maigu (s), blind; v. to shut one's eyes (b). 

maiguma, maigumua, n. a blind man ; senabi maigumau goto, the blind 

man's hand. Mark, viii. 23. 
mai-id, n. sorcery, = maid, 
maiko (b), n. widow. 

maikuik, maikuiko, maikuika (b), = markuik6. 
maingu, 
mainguzi (s), n. birth ; nongo mainguzi goiga, his birthday. Mark, 

vi. 21. Cf. mani (b). 
maipa (s), v. to bring, 
maipa (?) mipangido ngona mina mabaega do maipa, why callest thou 

me good? Mark, x. 18. 
maita, n. the belly, stomach ; bowels (b) ; koimaita (b), n. gizzard of 

a fowl ; kai maitalnga (b), a. corpulent, 
maita-iginga, a. hungry ; v. to starve, 
maita-kupa, n. the navel. 

maitaleg (m), maita-laig (s), a. pregnant ; n. pregnancy, 
maitarun, a. filled with food. Cf. maita, irun. 
maitui (?) tanamun puruka maitui, their eyes were heavy. Mark, 

xiv. 40. 
maiwa (m), n. the great clam {Tridama gig as). 
maiwa (n), n. the performers at a ceremony during the wangai season. 

Of these there were two (magina and kaiza) who danced in front 

of a waus. (321.) Cf. kamus. 
maiwas (t), n. a small leaf petticoat imported from Mowat, small in 

front. Cf. maideg. 
maiwazo (Mb) = maiwas. 
maja (b), maji (ii), n, a coral reef, 
mak (m), n. a breakwind of bushes, 
makamak, maka (m), n. narrow, circular, twisted leg ornaments, from 

one or two to thirty or more in number, worn round the leg 

just above the calf, 
makaso, n. a mouse, a rat. Probably introduced. 
makiara, n. a scream; makiam ieudan, wondered. Mark, vi. 51. 
makikak = makamak. 
makupui (b), n. a flag, 
makuz (m), n. a mouse, = makaso. 
mal (m), n. deep water, =malu. 

E.I.A. PEOC, SEE. ni., VOL. IV. Q 



226 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

malakai, n. a word employed by the South Sea teachers for spirit, ghost,. 

etc., i.e. merkai or markai, the r is changed into 1, and a vowel 

is inserted between the two consonants, 
maladugomola, a. sea colour, blue, 
malapan (Mg), n. the moon, = malpal. 
malegui = malgui, 

malegui (ji), v. to fill (with a fluid). 

maleguia-adan, v. to spring up, of plants ; to put out a stem, 
maleipa, v. to fill with a fluid. Cf. mal, malegui. 
malgui (m), malegui, spring, autumn ; v. to grow (s) ; n. blade of 

grass ; a stem (s) ; a stalk ; malegui kai palgin, a stalk will 

come up. Mark, iv. 32. 
malil (s), metal ; malil dibidib, brasen vessel. Mark, vii. 4 , malil 

urukam, w. a chain, 
malila (b), a fish spear, 
malo (b), n, a passage in the reef, 
malpal, malpel (s), n. moon, 
malpamiz (?), tana ina gar malpaniz senabi zapunu, they that trust in, 

riches. Mark, x. 24. 
malthagamule (m), a. blue ; sea colour. Cf. maladugomola. 
malu (s), n. the sea. [malupa, malunu.] 
maluda (b), blue, 
maludonga, maludunga (b), blue, green (lit. sea colour) ; imuso malu- 

donga, green grass. Mark, vi. 39. 
malulonga, 
malupa (m), ad. below, downwards ; kara malupa (m), ad. far 

below, 
mamain, v. pi. from mani, take ; kudu mamain, they took counsel, 
mamal, mamalenga, a. holy, 
mamamoizinga, n. things taken, 
mamu (s), ad. well, carefully ; mamu-ngurpa, v. to perceive ; mamu 

danal-pataipa, v. to take heed, 
mamus, fi. a chief or head of an island. This is a Miriam word and 

introduced. Cf. Mir. Yoc. 
manamoizinga, a. joined, 
mana-rimal (s), a. few. 
mang (ii), n. a branch, 
manga, conj. but. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 227 

mangaiginga, v, not to come. 

mangemin, pi. of mangizo ; kulai mangemin, oyertook, overwent. 

Mark, vi. 33. 
mangepa (m), v. to return. Cf. mangiz. 
mangi, v. to come.- Mark, ii. 20. 

mangiz, mangizo, v. to come, arrive, to overtake, [mangeman.] 
mani (s), v. to give, bring, take, fetch, remove, 
mani, s%iffix, by. 
mani (b), n. birth. 

mani, n. money. An English word, [maniu,] 
mani-angan, 

maniginga, a. having no money, (mani = English money), 
mapa (m), the gums. Cf. Daudai mapu, base, foundation, 
mapar, n. the teeth (Macfarlane). Cf. mapa. 
mapeipa (m), v. to bite, 
mapeia (?) kukuna mapeia, (m), v. to kick, 
mapeto (s), n. a baby, pi. mapetal. 
mapu (m), n. weight; nongo korkak mapu poidiz, he was displeased. 

Mark, x. 14 
mapule (m), a. heavy, 
mapunga (s), a. difficult, heavy, 
marama (m), maramo, (b), n. a hole in the ground, a grave, a pit ; a 

well, 
marama-teipa (m), v. to put in the ground, bury, plant, sow. 
maramatiai-lagd, marama-toiai, n. a tomb. Mark, v. 2., vi. 29. 
marama-toiaipa (s) = marama-teipa. 

marap (m), marapi (m), marapo (b), n. a bamboo, = morap ; a bow. 
mari (m), n. pearl-shell ; an ornament made of pearl-shell. Cf. mai. 
mari, n. a spirit, a ghost, the soul, a shadow, a reflection ; mario-kwik 

(t), a leafy mask used in the funeral ceremonies; pi. maril. 

[maringu.] 
maridan (s), maridano (b), glass, a mirror, a telescope ; maridan dibidib, 

cup. Mark, vii. 4. 
mari-geta (Mb), (spirit hand), n. the person who watched a corpse during 

the first night after death to see if anything happened (402, 421). 
marilaig (s), a. possessed. 

maiiman (s), v. to pine away (lit. become a spirit). 
mari-o-kwik, cf. mari. 

Q 2 



228 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

markai, n. a spirit, a demon, a white man. Cf. merkai. 

markei (ii), n. a heavy cttmnlus cloud. 

markiiiko '^s), n. a generation. 

mardkai = markai. 

maruk, n. fowl (Enropean). Probably introduced. Malay or Poly- 
nesian manu. 

marukai (:m:), n. white man ; kobikobi marukai (m) n. a black man. 

masia-todimiso (b), r. to smile. 

mat (31), «. pumice ; mata (Mg), n. a stone. 

mata(ii;, ad. always, constantly, still, only; aprefijs: expressing a con- 
tinuance of the action of a verb. 

mata (s), a. legal. 

mata (s), a. equal, only ; conj. but, for. 

mata-bangal (m), ad. a week or so hence. 

mata-dobura (s), ad. immediately, quickly, fast. 

matadodalo (b), ad. inland. 

matakazupa (s), conj. but. 

matakeda (s), a. like to, similar. 

matakul (m), ad. a week or two ago. 

matalaunga, a. absent. 

matama (s), to beat, strike ; to kill. See matupeima. 

matamari, n. a bruise. 

matamiz, 

matangadagido (s), a. worthy, equal to, alike, same, even, uniform 

matangadagidiginga, a. unlike. 

matar, mataro (s), mataru (b), n. calm. 

mater (? = mata). 3Iark, iv. ii. 

mato, n. a joist. 

matu (m, s), n. a whale. 

matumeipa (m}, c. to strike, to beat, to kill ; umalizo matumeipa (m), p. 
to wound. 

maumisino (b) = maumizin. [maumizineka], 

maumizin (s), n. preaching. 

maura (m), n. a hundred. Cf. mura. 

mausa-usal (m), n. a scarified mark on the cheek (367). 

mauwaigerk (x), mauwaigerko (i), the instructor of a lad during the 
initiation ceremonies (411). 

mawago-laig (s), n. adultery. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 229 

mawclia (m), n saliva. Cf. Mir. mos. 

maza (m), n. the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot. Cf. koko- 

moi. 
mazan (t), n. reef. 

mazar (?), Mark, v. 15. mazarpagan, mazarpagizo, sore amazed, 
meakata (b), a. bright. Cf. meketia, mekata. 
meamai (b), v. to go in. 
meamaipa, v. pi. to do. 
meamoipa, v. have done {pi). 
mee (ng), n. heaven, 
megi (Mg), meik (t), n. white, 
mego (b). n. a lime spatula. 
meipa (m), v. to take away, 
mek (t), a. white, = meik. 
meka (s), v. to wish, 

mekata (s), n. radiance. See meakata, meket. 
mekatasin, n. glory. Mark, x. 37. 
mekatia = meket, meketia. 

mekenmepa, v. to like, to wish, to want. Cf. mokenmepa. 
meker (m), n. a tree {Heritierd). The leaf, when rolled in to a cylinder, 

is used to distend the lobe of the ear. 
meket, meketia (sj, v. to shine. Cf. meakata, mekata. 
mekikula (Mg), n. a canoe (Stone). 
melpal (Mg) = mulpal. 

memain, pi. of mizin. Mark, vi. 32, 33 ; viii. 10. 
menaro (m) = mina. 
menir (m), n. the stern of a canoe, 
mepa, v. to do. 
mepaia, n. the world (?) ; mepaiangu mai, for the world's sake. 

Mark, iv. 17. 
merkai, n. a white man (m), a spirit, the death dance ; the flesh of a 

corpse (lib) ; merkai mud (nb), the store-house of a maidelaig ; 

ipika merkai (Mb), a man in the dance dressed as a woman 

(403) ; merkai kwik (Mb), the head dress used in the dance 

(403) ; turkiam merkai (n) (421). Cf. markai. 
met, n. a fin. 
mi, prefix^ the root of miei or mido, used as an interrogative. 

Cf. migoiga, miza, mimabaeg. 



230 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

miai (b) = miei. 

miakula (ir), a. grey; any light tint; miakali (iig), n. white. 

mida-kubi (ii), ad. how many ? 

mideipa (ii), v. to build, as a hut. Cf. moidai. 

mido (m), pron. what ? which ? how ? in what manner ? 

midoparu, «£?. how ? (Macfarlane.) 

miei (s), pron. what ? [mieinge. Mark, viii. 36.] 

mieimiei (?), pron. which of two ? what ? whether ? 

migoiga, a^?. interrog. when ? what day ? 

milagnu, ad. where ? in what place ? 

milo, 

mimabaigo (b), what man ? who ? 

mina (m), a. peii uctly good, true (s, b) ; mina (m), a. precious, right ; 

n. truth ; tusi mina, Bible ; mina get, right hand. 
mina, minar, n. a mark ; susu mina (ii), on the breasts ; kibu mina 

(m), on the loins (367). 
minai-pataman (s), v. to confess, to sbow. 
mina-man (s), v. to measure, to span ; n. an example. 
minananga (s), minanenga, a. rigliteous, holy. 
minar, n. colour (ilacfarlane). 
minara (x) = mina. 
minapa (?), ngalpa Augadan baselaia mi ngadalnga minapa, we liken 

God's kingdom to what ? Mark, iv. 29. 
minara-polai, minaro-polai, minar -palai, v. to cut or make a mark, to 

write, 
minarpolaiginga, v. not to write, 
minasizinga, n. a custom ; v. to accustom, 
min'azipa (m), v. to finish, said of men's work, 
mineipa (? v. to mark) ; kaba mineipa (ir), v. to dance, 
minera = mina ; tru minera (i), n. a mark on the side of the face, 
minga (s), pron. what ? 
mingadalnga, a. like what ? of what kind? 
mingu, ad. why ? 
minguzo, ad. why ? 
mipa (m), ad. why ? 
misai (s), ad. yes. 

mita, mito (s), n. sweetness, taste ; mita poitom (s), a. brackish, 
mitaiginga (s), a. sour, tasteless. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 231 

.mitale, mitalenga, mitalnga, a. sweet, tasty ; g'ru tha mitale (m), 

a. sweet tasted ; adabada mitalnga (b), n. brackish water, 
mitinit, n. a chain, 
mito (m), n. taste. Cf . mita. 
.mitun, 

miza, interrog. pron. which ? what thing ? 
mizin (s), to sail ; tana gumi mizia inabi gul, they departed by ship 

privately. Mark, vi. 32. 
moa, 

moaizinga, n. an iilcer ; a. impure, 
.moamai (?), moamai kauralnga, a. deaf, 
moamoa (s), a. eminent (man), 
moamu (s), n. art. Cf. muamua. 

mobalmobal (?), mobalmobal palan, v. to pluck. Mark, ii. 23. 
modobaig. Mark, xii. 21. 
modabia, modobia (s), v. to answer, to pay ; to punish ; to pay the 

blood price or were geld, 
modobigal (?the fellow answering); uka modobigal, three. Cf. 

numerals in Grammar, 
moeai, v. to enlarge, 
modobigipa, v. to be unrewarded ; modobigipa launga nubepa, he shall 

not lose his reward. Mark, ix. 41. 
mogi-botainga, ad. in the morning, long before day. Cf. mugi 

bateing (m). 
moi (b), fire, = mui ; moi i asimis (m), moi i usimi (lib), a stamping 

dance (362). 
moidai, moidan, v. to build ; lagau moidai mabaeg, builder. Cf. 

mideipa. 
moidemin, v, to prepare. 

moiga (?), ngalpa moiga kaziol, is on our part. Mark, ix. 40. 
moigi (s), n. dawn. Cf. aro. 
moi-id (t), n. an eruption of pimples, 
moilmoil, ad. sadly ; a. grieved, 
moin, pi. suffix to verbs, 
moi-nitun, v. to float, 
moken (s), n. want, 
mokenmepa, v. to wish, to want, 
molpalo (b) = mulpal. 



232 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

monamoin, a. joined together, united ; kalmel monamoin, v. to unite 

(Macfarlane). Cf. manamoizinga, 
moosa (b), v. to expectorate. Cf. mos. 
mooso (b), n. the lungs. 

mopa (?), mani mopa korupa, made head of the comer. Mark, xii. 10* 
morap (t), morap (s), n. bamboo ; sukub-morap (n), sukubu-morap 

(t), n. a native bamboo tobacco pipe, 
morbaigorabmi (m), n. the name of a fish (Legends, n. 180) (? the 

jumping-fish, Periophthalmus). 
mori = mari, pi. moril. 
morilaig, a. possessed ; watri morlog, possessed with an evil spirit. 

Mark, vi. 7. [morlogia]. 
morimal, n. & v. lean, 
morlogia. See morilaig. 
moro (m) = muru. 
moroigo, a. old, aged, of persons only ; pi. moroigal. Cf. kulba.. 

[moroigau, moroigdu, moroigan.] 
mortu (t), a house. 
mos (b), n. spittle, 
mos-aladiz, v. to spit. 
mosan (?), mosan bauka, mosobauka vreidaman, v. to foam. Mark, ix. 

18, 20. 
mosial (?), noi mosial piobizi, he marvelled. Mark, vi. 6. 
mowiga (s), n. an elder. Cf. mdroigd. 
muamu, n. knowledge, wisdom, 
muamuagigal, a. without understanding, 
muamuai = moamoai. 

muasin (s), ad. after ; v. to finish ; conj. then, when, 
mubia (?), Mark, iv. 15. 
muchi (Mg), n. hair. Cf. Mir. mus. 
mudamudo, a. crowded (?). Mark, ix. 14. 
mudo (s), n. a house, dwelling place ; village (b). 
mudd (s), n. a multitude. 
mu, 

mue (m), n. firewood, fire ; mue-kemeipa (m), v. to kindle a fire. 
mudu (m), n. a camp. Cf. mudd. 
mudul (m), mudula (b), n. the neck, 
mue-daje (m), n. a small petticoat, worn by women. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 233 

miigara (t), n. a large fish, called "barracoota" by the settlers. 
mugi = magina ; miigi kazi, mugi kaje (m), a child ; mugi kalakala, 

chicken, mugi bateing (m), morning, 
muging (m), a. small, few, a portion of. Cf. Mir. mog. 
mugu, n. termites ; the mound of termites (m). 
mugu (b), n. a remnant. Cf. Mir. mog. 
mui (m), n. the inside ; muia utizo, muia utem, v. to enter (s) ; mui 

teipa (m), v. to put inside, to hide, conceal ; muinu, pre^). 

inside, within ; mui-ariz, n. a redoubt, refuge (Macfarlane). 
mui, n. fire, a fire brand, [muiapa, muitai.] Cf. mue. 
muia-utiz, v. to enter in, to go in. [muia-utemin.] 
mui-ilinga (s), a. square (possessing an inside), 
muile (m), a. hollow. 

muingu (?), muingu trapot, w. the pelvic fin. 
mui-teipa (m), v. to put inside ; mui taean, to charge. Mark, ix. 

25. 
mui-wazo (Mb), n. the smaller under leaf petticoat, 
muki (Mg), n. water. Cf. nguki. 
mukmepa, a. and v. loose, 
muko (s), n. rock, stones. Cf. kula. 

muku-boidan (b), v. to fasten ; to tie a thing. Cf. dorodimoin. 
muia, 

mulai (s), v. to speak. [mulaUai. Mark, viii. 30.] 
mulaigi (s), v. not to speak ; n, nothing (i.e. no words), 
mulagia = mulaigi, 
mulaiginga, a. not to speak, 
mulaigo (b), v. = ngulaig, to know. 

mulaizi (?), nongo mulaizi ia, his oath (? word). Mark, vi. 26. 
mulaka (s), ad. down, 
mulepa (m), v. to speak, tell, [muliz, mulemipa, mulai, mulan, 

iamuliz, mulailai.] 
muli (b), v. to answer, reply, 
mulizo, V. to speak, to talk, 
muingu, sujix to plur. pron. from, 
mulpa, stijix to plur. pron. to, for. 
mulpal (m), n. the full moon, 
mulpange, szijix to plur. pron. 
mulsipa (377). 



234 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

mulupa (s), ad. down ; v. to descend, 
mumugu-sigaman (?), see wakai mumugu-sigaman. 
mun (s), a suffix to plur. pronouns forming the possessive case, 
munia, suffix to plnr. pron. 
mimia (s), suffix to plur. pron. with, have, 
mura Cs), a. all, entire, whole ; mura-urui, n. insect, 
murar, (iig), n. a clay tobacco-pipe, 
mura-wardan (b), n. warrior, 
murda-gamulnga (b), a. yellow, 
murda nmaizi (t), n. a plaited string, 
muri, see Legends, p. 180. 
murimari (t), poor, lean, 
muro (m) = mura, all. 

muru (m), n. the cabbage palm. Corypha. See moro. 
murug (m), n. sweat. Cf. mago. 
musi (b), n. a piece. 

musigiaga (?), tanamun korokak musi ginga, have no root in them- 
selves. Mark, iv. 17. 
musi-teipa (ir), v. to scratch, pinch, 
musu (m), n. a green ant. 
musur, musuro, n. armlets ; plaited bracelets, 
mutalo (b), n. a young coconut with water and no kernel, 
muti, 11. an ear-ring ; the pendulous portion of the ear. 
mutu (?), mutu trapot, the pelvic fin. Cf. muingu. 
mxizu, n. termites. Cf. musu, mugu. 
muzura (s) = musur. 

Na, pron. she. 

na, n. a song, hymn. 

nabepa, pron. to her, for her. 

nabi, ad. now, at present, this ; nabi goiga, to-day. 

nabi-get, ina nabiget (m), a. five ; nabiget-nabiget, ten. 

nabikoku (ji), fifteen ; nabikoku-nabikoku, twenty. 

nabing (m), a. this, these. 

nad = neet. 

nadalai, n. the hair of the groin. 

nadamai (b), v. to chew. 



E.A.Y & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 235 

nadan C?), ngai ngita mulpa bami nadan kurusipa mido ? how long 

shall I suffer you ? Mark, ix. 19. 
nado, pron. she. 
nadu (s), pron. her. 
nadu (m), n. a grass tail, 
nadual (lib) = nadur. 

nadulza (t), n. the hair on the pubes. Cf. nadalai. 
nadur (ir), n. a tail ornament worn in a dance, = nadual. 
naga (ir), n. a belt worn obliquely across the chest. Cf. kamadi. 
naga (s), ad. where ? 
nagai, 

nagalag, n. a hawk, the sea-eagle, 
nagalug, n. a hawk, = ngagalaig. 
nagapa (s), nagepa ; v. to look, [nagemipa.] 
nagemiu, exclam. behold ! look ! See nagiz. 
nagemilu, 

nagepa, v. to look, [nagiz, nagemipa, nagemiu.] 
nager (m), = naga. 

nagiz, nagizi, nagizo, v. to look, to stare, 
nago ad. where ? 
naii, n. the tongue, = noia. 
naidai, naidai-dogam (s), n. the north. 

naigai (b), n. the north. 

nainanope, nainonob, nainonop (together?), thorte nainonop, thirty 
fold. Mark, iy. 8, tana nainanope uzar nubepa sieiki, they 
came to him from every quarter. Mark, i. 45 . 

naipuiso (b), v. to lick. 

najeronajero (t), n. the dodder (a pink climbing parasitic plant). 

nakareipa (m), ad. above, upwards. 

nalaga, ad. where ? which ? ; koiza nalaga senabi sabi ? which is the 
great commandment in the law ? Mark, xii. 28. 

nalagazi, ad. whence ? 

nalagi (s), pron. which ? 

namoit, ad. when? (Macfarlane.) 

nana, 

nanimiz, see garo-nanamiz ; tana nanamoin, they consulted. 

nanga, a suffix. 

nangap, n. the north ; pin nangapa, n. the south (Macfarlane). 



236 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academe/. 

nanitna (s), v. to ran, ran ; a. erect. 

nanu, pron. her, hers. 

narnie (:!j:) = nanu. 

nanuz, pron. from her. 

nanuza, pron. her thing, hers. 

napa, (^rg), v. to bring, = ngapa. 

na-poidan (s), v. to sing ; to laugh. 

nar, (Hg), n. foot, = ngar. 

narang (ii), n. the armpit; narang suka (m), the hair of the armpit. 

narangi, 

narberit, 

narminamis, n. a moth. 

nataizinga, n. a thing that is burnt ; senabi mura gudataean natizinga, 

all whole burnt ofEerings. Mark, xii. 33. 
natam (ir, lib), n. a namesake ; v. to change names with another, 
natiz, natizo (?), vhite. ^Mark, ix. 3 ; ngita ugulaig amadan dokal 

natizo, ye know that summer is nigh. Mark, xiii. 28. 
nau (s), n. hymn. Cf. na. 

na\ir (m) n. the peg of the kobai or throwing stick (334). Cf. ngurr. 
ne (s), pron. his. 

neet, a dugong platform (351). Cf. nad. 
negal (?), ina mura demoni negal iapa, suffered not the devils ta 

speak. Mark, i. 34. 
neipoiz, v. to lick, 
nel, nelo, w. name, [nelpa.] 
nele = nel ; lesun nele adaputiz, Jesu's name was spread abroad^ 

Mark, vi. 14. 
nelea (?) = nel. Mark, vii. 2. 
nelenga = nele, nga. 

nelginga (s), a. fameless (lit. not having a name), 
nep (if), n. a grand-child, 
nerawkai (m), n. an unmarried woman, 
netur-kaje (m), n. a son. 
nia, suffix, with, at ; mido ngalpan-nia launga senabi nongo babat 

are not his sisters here with us? Mark, vi. 3. 
niai, v. to sit ; niai-kazi (s), an attendant, sei-vant ; contract boy (b). 

niai za, n. chair ; niai lago, n. a seat ; niaipa ielpano, v. to 

marry. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II, 237 

niaiginga, a. not sitting. 

niain = niai. 

niano = niai. Mark, vi. 39. 

nida (?), noi kaikuoimo nida idin senabi durai kikiri, he began to lay 

bis bands upon a few sick folk. Mark, vi. 5. 
nidai, (?) root of nidaipa. 
nidaiginga, v. not to do. 
nidaipa (s), v. to do. 
nidaizinga, n. things done, 
nidapa, v. to touch, 
nide, 

nidemin, v. to touch, 
nidiz, nidizi, nidizo (s), v. to do, to make, act ; done ; n. mode 

(Macfarlane). 
nido, 

nigita = ngita. 
niki, n. a fern, 
niki (?) ; koi tamo lako niki adan, shoots out great branches. 

Mark, iv. 32. 
nikiagul (Mb), n. a marine insect {Halolates). 
ningaibia (? = ngibia), ningaibia gnulai ga (b), v, to translate, 
nipa (m), suffix, for. 
nisalnga, a. having leaves, 
nis, niso (b, m), n. a. leaf, 
nis-thung (m), a. leaf like, green, 
nitamau (?), noi iaiitumiz mura mabaegal apa nitamau, he commanded 

the people to sit down on the ground. Mark, viii, 6. 
nitun, nituno, v. to put out, push out ; kaba nituno v. to row. Cf. 

geto-nitun. 
iiizo (?), a misprint for nidizo. Mark, v. 38. 
no, suffix to nouns, 
nobaba (s), n. skin. 

nogaipa, v. to look. Cf. nagiz. [ndgain.] 
noi, n. a light framework erected over the fire on which to dry and 

smoke fish (311). 
noi, pron. he. 
noi, noia, (s), n. tongue, 
noidail, noidail, a. beloved. 



238 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

noidal = noidail, 

noidizo, v. to honour. Mark, vii. 10. 

noido, pron. he. 

noidoka (?), noido, ka. 

noino, noino, pron. him. 

noitai, (s), n. tongue. 

none (s), pron. his. 

nongo (s), pron. his. 

nongongo (?). Mark, viii. 30. 

nonobo, 

noriza (b) (?) ; uro noriza (b), n. ebb tide. 

nu, suffix denoting the locative case, in, at, on. 

nu (s), pron. he, him, it. 

nu' abepa (m), pron. for himself, = nubepa. 

nubepa, pron. to or for him. 

nubepe = nubepa. 

nubia (s), pron. him. 

nudan, v. to rub. 

nudi (m), n. tears. 

nudu (m), pron. he. 

nuo (m), pron. he. 

nukangaba guba (b), n. the north-west wind. 

nukenmepa (?) = mokenmepa. 

nuk' enei (m), a. thirsty. 

nuki (m), n. fresh water; dana nuki (m), a well (lit. water eye). 

Cf. Polynesian mata-vai, which also = water eye. 
nukmeipa (ii), v. to thirst, 
nukunoko, 
nukunuko (?), nukunuko iamulizo, to reason, to think about. Mark, 

ii. 6, 8 ; mipa ngita nukunuko poibiz ? why make ye this ado ? 

Mark, v. 39. 
numaiginga. See ngona-numaiginga. 
numani. See ngona numani. 
nungu, pron. his, = nongo (Macfarlane). 

nungu (s), prep, from ; nungu korkak, from the heart. See nu, ngu. 
nungungu, prep, from, from it ; nungungu umanga, from the dead, 
nunu (m), pron. his. 
nupado (?), nupado-taean, v. to roll. 



Bay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 239 

nur, nuro, n. a noise, a roar, a voice, 

nurage (m), a. quiet. 

niirai, n. a sound, = nur. 

nnreipa (ii), v. to wrap round, to coil, to twist, [nuran.] 

nuremizingi (?), wur nuremizingi (m), n. low water. 

nurezingi, wur nurezingi (m), n. ebb tide. 

nurile (ji), a. noisy. 

nurinuri (aig), 11. a sweet potato. 

nuriz, 

nuro, n. a crack, an echo = nur. 

nursak, n. the nostrils. Cf. sakai, nui'se. 

nurse (ir), n. the white of an e^^ ; tbe mucus of the nose. 

nutan, v. to try, to tempt, to taste. 

1^ gSi, pr on. who? what? (person). 

ngabado, w. a room ; noido sesitaman ngipelpa wara koi ngabad gimal^ 

he (will) show you a large upper room. Mark, xiv. 15. 
ngadagido, ngadogido, a. equal, lawful, 
ngadal, n. number, size ; iangu ngadal mura, all parables. Mark, 

iv. 13. 
ngadalenga, ngadalonga, n. a picture, image ; iangu -ngadalnga (s), n. a 

parable, [ngadalngange.] 
ngadalenga, a. numerous, 
ngadalngange. Mark, i. 44. 
ngadapalepa, v. to be proud, to boast, 
ngadazia (s), a. legal, 
ngado, 

ngadu, pron. who ? 

ngaeapa, ngaiapa, pron. to me, for me. 
ngagalaig, n. a hawk. Cf . nagalug. 
ngai, pron. I. 

ngai-aikeka, pron. for myself, 
ngaibia, pron. with me ; me, after v. to follow, 
ngai-kusaig, pron. myself. 

ngaingai, n. a boar's tusk used for polishing a wap. 
ngainge. Mark, x. 29. 
ngalabe, pron. we two (exclusive), 
ngalakai = ngolkai. 
ngalapipa, v. to lie ; n. falsehood. 



240 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ngalbe, pron. we two (exclusive). 

ngalbelpa, pron. to us two, for us two. 

ngalkan, 

ngalnga (s), a. kind. 

ngalngal, n. a liana or climbing plant ; one of tbe figures in womer 

(361). 
ngalpa, pron. we {pi.) inclusive of person addressed, 
ngalpaldui, 

ngalpan, pron. our {pi). 
ngalpalpa, pron. to us. 
ngana, n. the breath, = ngona. 
nganakapo (ar), n. the heart, = ngonakapo. 
ngano, pro7i. who ? 
nganu (m), pron. whose? 
ngapa (ii), prefix indicating motion to speaker ; to bring (s) ; to come 

from a distance (b). 
ngapamani, ngapamaro (b), v. to bring, 
ngapanagemiu, see ngapa, nagepa. 
ngapanagi, exclam. behold ! lo ! 
ngar, ngaro (jt), n. the leg ; foot (s) ; ngara-pusik, a dance (362) ; 

ngara-taiermin, n. a dance (362); ngaraupila, the fibulse. 
ngaraki, n. a young woman, 
ngarba (b), n. the collar-bone (ngarba-rid (Mb.) ). 
ngaru (ii), the monitor lizard, 
ngaru (s), ad. ever, eternal, always, never (Macfarlane) ; ngaru 

poidaipa, v. to trouble, i.e. to always be asking. Mark, v. 35. 
ngato, ngatu (ii), pron. I. 

ngaubato (b), n. a woman's brother. Cf. babato. 
ngau, pron. mine, my. 
ngauakazi = ngawakazi. 

ngaukalo = ngau, kalo, after me. Mark, i. 7. 
ngaumun, pron. my, mine, 
ngaungu, pron. from me, through me. 
ngaunguzo, 
ngauwoni, 
ngawa, 
ngawakazi, ngawakozi, n. daughter, [ngawakaziu, ngawakaziutu 

lag, ngawakiee.] 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 241 

ngazo (s), pro7i. I. 

ngi, pron. thou, you [sing.). 

ngibepa, pron. to thee, for thee. 

ngibia, pron. with thee. 

ngido, pro)i. thou, you (sing.). 

ngidu, pron. thou, 

ngika. Mark, v. 19. 

ngi-kusaig, pron. thyself, yourself. 

ngimipamapa (b), n. purpose (apparently a phrase, ngi mipa meipa ? 
you do it why ?). 

nginanga (?), nginanga sike ubinemepa, if thou wilt. Mark, i. 40 ; a 
mabaeg sibuwanan a ngibia amadan apatanori keda nginanga 
mido, and love thy neighbour as thyself. Mark, xii. 33. 

ngingalkailaiga (b), n- idiot (lit. you liar). 

ngino, pron. thee. 

nginu, pron. thy, thine. 

nginungu, pron. from thee. 

ngipeine (m), pron. of you two, yours. 

ngipel, pron. you two. 

ngipelpa, pron. to you two, for you two. 

ngipen, pron. your, of you two. 

ngita, pron. you (pi.). 

ngitaka, ngitaka mata korawaig, perceive ye not yet. Mark, viii, 17. 

ngitamulngu, pron. concerning you (^pl.) ; among you. 

ngitamulpa, pron. to you. 

ngitamun, pron. your, yours (pi.). 

ngitamunia, pron. with you, among you. Mark, x. 43. 

ngitana (m), pron. you (pi.). 

ngitanamun (ir), pron. your (pi.). 

ngitangita, pron. yourselves. 

ngodalenga = ngadalenga. 

ngode, a. like ; ngode puinge, like trees. Mark, viii. 24. 

ngddo (s), a. like to. 

ngoi, ngoi, pron. we (pL) exclusive of the person or persons spoken to. 

ngoimulpa, pron. to us, for us. 

ngoimun, pron. our [pi.). 

ngoingoi, pron. ourselves. 

ngolkai (s), a. false, n. falsehood ; liar (b). 

E.I.A.PEOC, SEK. m., VOL. IV. K 



242 Proceedings of the Eoyal Tri-sh Academy. 

ngomai, 

ngona, ngona, pron. me. 

ixgona, M. breath ; ngona-pudiz, e". to rest, to stay (b) : ngona -ntmia, -a. 

to remember ; ngona-poidan, r. to sigli ; ngona-ptddan (?), 

n. palm (Macfarlane). 
ngonakapo, n. heart, mind, lit. the seed " kapo " of the breath 

" ngona." The ^firiam word has a similar derivation from 

" ner," breath and '•' kep," seed. 
ngonamani, 

ngonannma, r. to remember; ngonannmaiginga, c. to forget 
ngona-pudiz, c. to rest, 
ngonu ;5;, pron. whose ? 
ngomgomai, ngorongomai (?), dana ngorongomai lago, n. the temple. 

Mark, xi. 11, 15, 27. 
ngorotaran (?). Mark, x. 15. 
ngou-pamani, a. meek. 

ngozo, pron. I (apparently only nsed by a female speaking). Cf. ngazo. 
ngn, sufix from, concerning, through, 
ngudi, ». a tear. 

ngugiai, n. a cup of water. Mark, vs.. 41. 

nguki (s^, n. fresh water; nguki-tuidan, c. to urinate. [ngukingu.J 
ngukiai, n. a cup of water, 
ngukulnga, 

ngul 'm}, ngulo (s), yesterday, 
ngulai, a. possible ; ngulai za koigorsar, many things are possible. 

Mark, vs.. 23. 
ngulai g (s}, ngulaigo, p. to be able, can, to know how, to understand; 

«. ability, [ngulaignu.] 
ngulai gasin, 
ngulaigopa, r. to know. 
ngulaik = ngulaig. 
ngulaizi, a. chosen, 
ngulaizinga (s), a. and n. chosen. 

ngulamai, a. obscene ; ngulamai za, n. an abomination. Mark, xiii. 14. 
ngulamoin, r. to hate, abhor ; to be disgusted with ;^to sneer, 
ngu-mabaeg = nga mabaeg. 

ngurapai, n. teaching, doctrine ; ngurpai-mabaeg, n. teacher, 
ngurapipa, p. to teach; to learn, to know, to recognize. 



E-AY & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 243 

ngumgomizo (?), dano ngurngomizo, n. religion. See ngomgomai. 

ngurd (s), n. yoice. Cf. nur, niiro. 

nguro (b), n. the beak of a bird. 

nguro-taean, v. to keep out, to crowd out ; n. a wall (s) ; ngurd-taeamoin, 

they were choked, crowded out. Mark, xiv. 7. 
nguro-weidaizinga, n. a casting out. 

ngurd-weidai, v. to cast out, to expel, dismiss, [nguro-weidizi.] 
ngurpai = ngurapai. 
ngurpan. See ngurapipa. 
ngurr (m), n. the hook or peg of the throwing stick (kobai). Cf. 

naux, ngurd (334). 
ngursaka (ii) = nursak. Cf . nur, saka. 
ngursilamiz, v. to wink, 
nguru-oidan, v. to dismiss =nguro-weid. 
ngurupaipa = ngurapipa. |_ngurupan.] 
ngurupai = ngurapai. 
ngurupaizinga, n. things taught, doctrine. 

Oebada (m), n. soft turtle eggs. 

oka (m), n. a grub found in dead wood. 

okosa (iioa, lib, k, t) = ukasar ; okosa oropun, three. 

onailai (?), noi ubigdsia kunia onailai, he would not reject her. Mark, 

vi. 26. 
00] a (i), n. a small cowry. Cf. uza. 
orapuni = urapon. 
oripara (m), n. the rainbow, 
oropun, orapuni (iroa, nb, n, t) = urapon ; okosa oropun, three ; okosa 

getal, two hands, ten. 
dsilai (? from asin) ; noi guddwadan tanamulpa kaimi dsilai, he 

allowed no man to follow him. Mark, v. 37. 
oudazi (?) tanamulpa oudazi poidan, healed them. Mark, vi. 13. 

Cf. udas. 

Pa, prefix to verbs indicating motion ; pa-uzari, go away ; pa-ieudiz, 
pour out ; pa-lagiz (pa-ilagiz), fly up ; pa-pagan, to extend 
round, «S:c. 

pa, suffix to nouns, to, for. 

K 2 



244 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

pa (s, b), n. a fence, either for garden or as a protection in fighting. 

Cf. ara. 
pad (lib), n. the tympanum of the native drum, 
pad, n. a bird's nest. Cf. fad. 
pada, pado (m, s), n. a wooded hill, a mountain, [padau, padapa, 

padria.] 
pada-kwik, n. the skull or head. Cf. pada, kwik. 
padamo (m), n. a nest, 
padap (s) = pada. 

padatrong (aib), n. a bamboo rattle (375). 
pado. See pada. 
padotu. See Legends, p. 180. 
padra (s) = pad, n. the skin used for the tympanum of the native 

drum, 
pa-drouradiz = pa-toridiz ; ukauka tana padrouradiz, four carried. 

Mark, ii. 3. 
paekau, n. a butterfly. Cf. paikau. 
paga (s), V. to throw. 

pagaean, v. to stretch out, to extend, [pagaear.] 
pagamoin (s), v. to sew, to mend; api pagamoin, v. to mend fish 

traps, 
pagamoin, pagomoin (?) ; kanguru pagamoin, ad. round about, 
pagamoman (?), v. pagamoman sepal azazi san, be (ye) shod with 

sandals. Mark, vii. 9. 
pagan (s), v. to throw, to descend, to sting, to pierce, 
pagara, n. a sponge. Mark, xv. 36. Cf. pazara, diadi. 
pagaru (b), n. coral. Cf. pagara. (In Jukes' Muralug (Pt. Lihou) 

Yocab. this word = seaweed.) 
paget (?), paget-wanizo, v. to slip, 
pagiz, pagizo (?), mazar pagizo. Mark, v. 15. 
pai, 

paibano (b), v. = poibano. 
paielega, paielegamoin (s), v. to tear, 
pa-ieudiz, v. to pour, to add (a liquid ?). [paieudan.] 
paigamozinga (s), n. a split, 
paikau (b), n. a butterfly, = paekau. 
paiwano (?), v. paiwano-pagan, v. to display, 
paka, n. a maiden. 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 245 

pakado, n. a bird's nest, a cage (b). Cf. pad, fad. 

pakai (t), n. the name given to the tail of a mask from Nagir. 

pakazal (?), koi kutal toitu pogai pakazal ngalkan, for a pretence make 

long prayers. Mark, xii. 40. 
pakolgal (?), kedazingu kai mura kikiri laig nubepa pakolgal iman, 

nnbepa garotaean, insomuch that they pressed upon him for to 

touch him as many as had plagues. Mark, iii. 10, 
pakomari (n), n. a wig. Cf. adizela, adiidziolai. 
pala, pron. they two. 
palado (?), ia palado, n. the lungs, 
palae, pron. they two, both. 

palagis (b), n. the east, i.e. the rising (of the sun). Cf. palagiz. 
palagiz, palgizo, v. to rise, spring up, fly ; goiga palgizo, n. sunrise ; 

urui palgizo, ?^. bird ; kadro palagiz, v. to fly down on. 
palaguso, n. an oven, hence a cooking pot or saucepan, 
palaipa, v. to split, to divide, to open, to pluck (corn), Mark, x. 51 ; 

to open (the eyes or ears), dano-palaipa, kaura paleman ; 

kerkato-palan, v. to torment. Mark, v. 7. [palan, paleman, 

palamoin.] 
palaipa (s), a. sick. 

palaman (m, s), pron. of them two, theirs, 
palamiz (?), guda-palamiz, v. to overflow, 
palamulngu, pron. from them two. 
palamulpa, pron. to or for them two. 
palamun, pron. of them two, theirs. 
palan (?), kuko -palan, to save. Mark, viii. 35. 
pale (m), pron. they two. 
palealnga, a. dry. 

paleipa (m), v. to crush, to pound with stones, 
palelapudi (s), a. dry. 
paleman, dual of palaipa, to open, 
palenipa (m), pron. for themselves (dual), 
palepa {?), ngada-paiepa, v. to boast, to be proud, 
palgan (? from palagiz), iadu-palgan, v. to tell, relate, declare, 
palgapalan (s), v. to smash, 
palge (m), ad. completely, into pieces, 
palgin (s), V. to fly, to spring up, = palagiz. 
palgino (b), v. to flog. 



246 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

palisa (ir), n. the do^;vii of a bird. Cf. plis. 

paliz. See palaipa ; dan paliz, opened the eyes. Mark, s, 52. 

palngin, palengin, v. to scourge, to flog. 

palpagipa (m), to finish (said of women's work). 

pam (s), V. to mean. 

paman (s), v. to dig. 

pamizin, n. rape. 

pamizo (?), madu-pamizo, v. to be affrighted. Mark, i. 27. [madu- 

paman, madu-pamemin.] 
pananamano (b), v. to kick, 
pange, 

panin (s), n. adze, 
panudiz, v. to press, 
papagan, v. to enclose ; vineu apo so-wagai a papagan, planted a garden 

and set a hedge about. Mark, xii. 1. 
papalamizo (s), v. to burst, to open, to break, 
papataina (?), apo papataina (b), v. to plant a garden. 
papolamoipa, v. to burst, to open, to break, [papalamoin.] 
papoliz (s), V. to bruise, 
papudamiz, v. to cease ; gubo papudamiz, the wind ceased. Mark, vi. 

51. Cf. pudeipa. 
paradamu (lib), «. a species of Cymodocea. 
parama (t), n. red ochre, paint made from red ochre. 
paran (?), paran matapa, parana matampa (b), v. to snore. 
paran, (s), v. to cut, = palaipa. 
paranudan (iib), v. to rub noses and embrace heads, 
parapar, n. power ; pi. poraporal. 
pardan, v to draw. 

parma, n. red ochre (m) ; red (n) ; clay, 
paromatam, n. a female pig. Cf. burum. 
parpar, n. power ; pi. poraporal. 
paru (m), n. the forehead, the face, the front ; prep, by (s) ; parunu, 

prep, in front, before. 
paru-iman, v. to salute, [paru imamoin.] 
paruidan (s), n. guile, decit. Mark, vii. 22. 
paruidizo, v. to deceive, 
paruma (Jib), a. red. Cf. parama. 
pasa (s, b), n. a doorway, gate, the opening. Cf. tamudara. [pasanu.] 



Eay & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 247 

pasagud (s), n. a door. Cf. pasa, gud. 

pasei (ir), n. a tree, the liglit wood of whicli is used for making sarima 

and karaba. 
pasia, w. a pass, = pasa. 
pasikaig (s), n. a post, 
pasim, 

pat (badtj), n. a short spear, 
pataean (? throw out). Mark, vii. 21. 
pataipa (? to put or jut out), danal-pataipa, danal-pateipa (s), v. to 

watch, [danal-patamoiziu.] 
patalai (? prickly, sticking out), pui-patalai, n. thorns, 
patamoin, v. pi. from patan. 
patan (s), v. to cut; kuiko patan, to behead, Mark, vi, 16; gudo 

patan, to gnash the teeth ; butupatan, v. to heal, [patamoin, 

patamoiziu.] 
patapi (s), a. finished, 
pataraidizo (s), v. to dispute, 
patauradiso (b), v. to carry on the shoulder, 
pate = pado. 

pateipa (m), patepa, v. to come here, 
pati (s), n. a bell. A Lifu word. 

patidan (s), v. to break (perhaps to fall down, and hence break some- 
thing), 
patidiz, V. to bow ; to fall down, 
patiginga, from pataipa ; danal-patiginga, not looking after, not 

watching, 
patiliz (s), a. reverenced, 
patiz, patizo (s), v. to sit in ; gulai-patiz, v. to get into a ship, Mark, vi. 

45, to be in a ship, Mark, i. 19. 
pato, n. a fork. 

patoridai, v. to question with, to dispute, [patoridizo, patoridaizinga.] 
patralai = patalai. 

patrauradiz, v. to bear, to carry. Cf. toridiz. 
patrediz, v. to deny. Cf . gudo-tadiz. 
patridiz = patidiz. 
patritrizo=patridiz, patidiz. 
paudo (b), peace, 
paudalag, n. peace. 



248 Proceedings 0/ the Royal Irish Academy. 

pauimizo, 

patina (s), n. leather. 

paimap, patmapa (?), noi patmap a Tuniziii, let "him die tte death. 

ilark, vii. 10 ; nginu ngaro patmapa patan, thy feet cut off. 
paupa (?) paupa kutrapa, no-n" the time is far passed ; paupa kadapa, 

■when the even was come ; Lifa, heji he, e hej, it is evening. 

Mark, vi. 35, 47. 
paupusa (1), an ornament of the kadig (371). Cf. kadig-tang. 
panto, n. peace, = pando. 
pauto (b), n. the forehead. 
pauzari, v. to go away ; pa, uzar. 
pawa, n. a hahit, a deed, a thing done ; manner ; pi. pavral. Tpawau, 

pawangn.] 
pawadan, v. to rebuke. 

pawagLQga, n. nothing (done). Cf. iaginga, zaginga. 
pawaliz, v. to land; to draw to shore. Mark, vi. 53. 
pawalman (s), v. to arouse, to wake up. 
pawizo, 

paza (n), n. a flat fish (poisonous), 
pazara (s), n. sponge, Cf. pagara, diadi. 
pazilamiz, r. to attack (move against), 
pearku, n. a kind of fish. 

pel, n. the tail of a fish ; the breast of a fish (m). 
peneipa (m), v. to dive, 
peno, V. to dive (Macfarlane). 
penunamez, v. to dive, =peno (Macfarlane). 
pepedu, ». a bamboo flick or whip, same as the Miriam " lolo." 
pepe, pepenga, a. thin ; pepe baradarangu, because it had no depth of 

earth. Mark, iv. 5. 
perta (iib), n. the wrist, the forearm ; six, in counting on the body. 

Cf. Grammar. 
pia, ». the bark of a tree, 
pibeipa (m), r. to give, = poibaipa. 
pichi (Mg), = piti. 
pid (t), n. a black bee. 
pideipa (m), v. to dig. 
piepa (?) sagul piepa (m), p. to sing. 
pigin taean, v. to dream. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 249 

piki (m, b), n. a dream ; piki-lalkeipa (m), v. to dream. 

pikuri (t), = pikuru. 

pikuru, n. a head dress of teeth ; pattern on a drum, probably derived 

from the head dress, 
pinapai, n. the east. 

piner (t), n. the name of a tree, M-ythrina (409). (Legends, 12). 
pingapa (b), prep. at. 
pingi (b), n. a fishing net (? basket). 

pingulpa (?) piugulpa iabugudia, in the way. Mark, x. 52. 
pinin (s), v. to anoint, 
piniteipa (m), v. to shave. 

piobizi (?), noi piosial piobizi, he marvelled. Mark, vi. 6. 
pipai (s), 71. paper. Perhaps English "paper." 
pipai (?). Mark, iii. 8. 
pira, a. soft ; pira kuma (b), n. diarrhoea, 
piranga (s), a. soft, = pirung. 
piroan (m), n. a black snake. 

pirung (m), a. soft, swampy, spongy, pliable, = piranga. 
pis (m), n. a crack, an opening, 
pisalinga (b), n. a leak, 
pisamaino (b), n. rheumatism, 
piti (t, m, b), the nose ; piti terti (m), piti sek (m), the perforation in 

the septum narium (406). 
pitu, n. a ring, 
piwer (m), n. the mullet, 
piwul (lib), n. a broom. Cf. kusu, kusulaig. 
plagusi (b), n. a pot, = palagus ; turik plagusi (b), n. an iron pot. 

plis (t), n. feathers. Cf. palisa. 

pogai, 

pogamiz. See pagan. 

poi (s), n. dust, powder. 

poibaipa, v. to give, [poiban.] 

poibaigi, v. not to give. 

poibanai (? from poibaipa), ba poibanai senabi mabaeg aideigan, for 

there shall be given to the man that has not. Mark, iv. 

25. 
poibi (s), V. to croak. 



250 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

poibizi (s), V. to crow ; mipa ngita nukunuko poibiz, why make ye 

this ado? Mark, v. 39. 
poidamoin (s), to spread, 
poidan (?), oudazi-poidan, v. to heal. Mark, vi. 13; udas-poidan, to 

save, rescue (Macfarlane). Perhaps for udu-zi poidan, to hang 

from or on the arm, hence to protect, save. 
poidaipa, poidan (s), to choose, to pu.ll, to pluck ; kadaipa poidan, v. 

ordained. Mark, iii. 14 ; nga-poidano (b), na-poidan, v. to sing 

a song, 
poidano (b), v. to hang. 

poidiz (?), korkak mapu poidiz, v. to be displeased. Mark, x. 14. 
poimanak (?), poimanak-palan, v. to murder, 
poipetegam, n. the east, 
poipiam, v. to watch. Cf . danal-pataipa. 
pokani (?), pokani wapi (nb), n. the flying fish. Cf. puwi. 
pokerai, n. a girl, 
pokii'ido (b), n. the kidney, 
pokoko (m), pokuk, n. the heel. 

polai (? a cutting), minaro polai, n. writing, i.e. cutting marks, 
pongeipa (m), v. to sail, 
ponipan, n. lightning ; v. to shine. 

poniziuga (?), mabaeg ponizinga, n. a carpenter. Mark, vi. 3. 
pordai-za, n. a hook, 
potaipa, = pataipa. 

potaiziraail (?), nongo buta potaLzimail, he had healed many, 
potur (m), n. a digging stick. 
prak, n. coral, pi. prakil. 
prateipa (m), to eat. 
pratralinge. See patalai, pui. 
prue (m), n. a tree (the general term). Cf. pui. 
prutika (iig, Stone), prutai (ug, D'Albertis), n. food, 
puban (s), ». paddle, 
pudaizinga, «. things that fall; borupudaizinga, crumbs. Mark, 

vii. 28. 
pudam (s), v. to pull, to pluck, 
pudamoin (?), za-pudamoin, v. to sell, 
pudan, V. to open, 
pudand (b), v. to dig taro. Cf. poidano. 



Ray & Haddon — TJie Languages of Torres Straits — II. 251 

pudeipa (ii), v. to fall doTni ; gaiga pudico (b), w. west. 

pudemin (s), v. to make oteisance. 

pudiso. See pudeipa. 

pudiz, V. to undress. 

pudizi (s), V. to retain ; balbai-pudiz, v. to peep ; ngona-pudiz, to 

rest, 
pudo (Mb), n. the shaft of a javelin, 
pugan (?) ipidado pugan, v. to reprobate, to blaspbeme ; a. profane ; 

rimarim pugan, v. to find fault. Hark, vii. 2 ; watri pugan, v. 

to speak evil, 
pui, n. a tree ; a log ; -v^ood ; pui-patalai, pui-patralai, n. tborns 

[puinge, puia.] 
puian, V. to blow. 

puidan, v. to hang ; ngona puidan, n. a palm (Macfarlane). 
puidiz, V. (to hang ?), paru mapu puidiz, to hang a weight in front. 

Mark, ix. 42. 
puidiz = poidiz, korkak mapu puidiz. Mark, iii. 5. 
puie (m), n. the fore fin of the turtle. 
puiman, v. to suck, 
puinge (?) trees. 

pukato, n. a locust ; a grasshopper (b). 
puki, n. a hump, the side of the abdomen, 
pukuk (ii), n. the heel. Cf. pokoko. 
puiman (?), ganu-pulman, n. smell, 
pungaipa (s), giun-pungaipa, v. to be foolish ; berai-pungaipa, v. to be 

easy. Mark, x. 25 ; ikane pungaipa, v. to be glad. Mark, 

xii. 38. 
pupariz (s), to flee. Cf. bupariz. 
pupui, 71. a flute, 
pupumiz, V. to heal, 
pura (ii), n. the eyelid, 
pura (m), skin, 
purapura, n. the producing of disease or sickness by magic (puripuri), 

a Daudai word rarely used in the islands. Cf. maid, 
purapar = parpar. Mark, vi. 5, 
puridan (?), guda-puridan, v. to be insolent, 
puriddralenga (?), gamu puradoralenga, whole, well in body. Mark, 

ii. 17. 



252 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

purka, n. the eyeball, the eye ; purka kekermisina (b), n, ophthalmia. 

purkapa, 

purke (m), ad. well, many. 

purpi (m), n. the bee-eater. {Merops ornata.) 

purtan = purutan. 

purteipa (ii), v. to eat. 

puru (s), V. to steal, rob ; n. theft. 

puruka = purka ; puruka paro mado gamuasin, an evil eye. Mark, 

vii. 22. [purukana."! 
purur (m, n. the bark of a tree, 
purutaiginga, v. not to eat. 
purutan, v. to eat, ate ; pi. purutamoin. 
pusarisd (b), v. to pull a rope. Cf . puzarizo. 
putage (m), a. many. 

putiz, putizi, putizo (s), v. to fall ; gorga putizo, the sun goes down, 
putra, putran (? = pudan), tana arakato putran lagou kalangu, they 

made a hole from the back of the house. Mark, ii. 4. 
puwi, n. the flying-fish. Cf. pokani-wapi. 
puzarizo (s), to compel, to haul, to constrain. 
puzida, V. to imitate. 
puzik (?), ngara-puzik, n. a dance (362). 
puzipa, V. to follow, 
puzo (putso) (b), n. a white pigeon. 



Rabo (m), n. a mast ; rab' waku, n. a mat used as a sail. 

rada (m), n. a sharpened stick used for for spearing fish (333), a 

simple javelin. 
raji (m), a. withered. 

ramoginga, a. unshaded, without shade. Cf. rimo. 
ranai (ng), n. a girl (D'Albertis). 
rangado (b), n. a mast, 
rapepa, a. lame. 
rapii, n. a claw. 

ras (m), n. a driving cloud, scud. 
ras, n. a lot. 

rebata (m), n. aunt, father's sister. Cf. ama, apu. 
rid, rido, n. bone, skeleton ; hence horn. 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 253 

rid (Mg), n. the tongue (D'Albertis). 

ridanga (s), a. hard, bony. 

ridau, n. enemy ; v. to oppose. 

ridu (b) = ridau. 

rimarim (s), v. to err, to mistake ; a. mad, mistaken ; n. a fool ; 

pi. rimarimal. 
rimo, n. a shadow. Cf. ramoginga. 
rogaig (t), n. name given by a lad to his sweetheart. Cf. azugerka, 

rugeiga. 
ruamon (s), v. to understand, 
rud (m) = rada. 

rugabu (m), n. the sweet potato. 

rugalo (b), n. baggage ; gulngu rugal, n. cargo, baggage from a canoe, 
rugeiga (u), n. a sweetheart. 
rugu (?) kudru rugu, a small kind of dove, 
rumbadi (m), n. a species of water lily. 



Sabi (Mb), n. tabu, prohibition ; law (s) ; hence, sacred ; pi. sabil ; sabi 

lago, n. a church, 
sabukemus, n. a needle, 
sabukiri (s), v. to reproach. 

sadeo (m), n. a cicatrix on the breast (sadawa, sadau). 
sag, saga (s), sago (b), n. a centipede, 
sagad, n. a worm. Cf. kupar. 

sagai (m), n. the horizontal fire stick (385). Cf. ini, guigui, salgai. 
sagu (m), n. a kind of purple yam. 

sagul, sagulo (m, b), n. a joke, play; sagul piepa, v. to sing, 
sagul (s), V. to examiue. (Perhaps introduced English " school '). 
sai, n. a bog ; mud ; shallow water on sea shore. Mark, iv. 1. [sainu.] 
eaima (b), n. the float of the outrigger of a canoe. Cf. sarima. 
saka (m), n. a boue needle; a splinter (s). 
saka (m), n. the lungs. See palado. 
sakai (m, b), n. a hole in a rock, a cave ; sakai puru mabaegou lagonge, 

a den of thieves. Mark, xi. 17. 
sakangu, see sako. 
sako (s), n. cloth, [sakangu.] 
sakaro (b), n. a web. 



254 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academj/. 

sakar-taean, v. to surname ; noi palamiilpa sakaria-taean Boanerege, 

he siimamed. them Boanerges. Mark, iii. 17. 
sakar-toeam ( ?), amadan pasanu siei sakar-toeam, near a door where 

tvro ways met. Mark, xi. 4. 
saladnnga (b), n. a foreigner, a white man. Cf . saradonga. 
salgai (m), n. sticks used for producing fire (collectively) (385). Cf. 

ini, sagai, guigui. 
sali (m), a. sick, 
salo, V. to bale out 

Salop, n. the melon or bailer shell. Cf. alopa, alup. 
salpaman, v. to lave. Cf. salo, paman. 
salpumeipa (ir), v. to bale. 
Bam = samu. 
sam (ji), a. cylindrical, 
samera (ii, t), n. a head dress made of cassowary feathers ; ji?/. same- 

ral. Cf. dagoi. 
samido (s), ad. yes; really. Mark, xii. 26. 
samu, n. the cassowary of Kew Guinea ; samu widizi (s), n. crest or 

head dress made of cassowary feathers. 
samuda, n. the eyebrows, 
samudana (ii), n. the eye lashes, 
samudung (ir), 7i. the eye lashes, 
san (m), Sana, the sole of the foot ; the foot; sana-lumado (b), n. the 

instep ; azazi san, a sandal, shoe ; nginu sananu worogi wazin, 

thy footstool. Mark, xii. 36 [sanangu, sananu.] 
Sana (ng), n. the cuscus. 
sangopa, ezclani. a greeting ; good morning ! 

sapara (irg), n. hatchet (Jukes). Perhaps derived from Eng. chopper. 
sapi ( ?), Mark, xii. 42. 
sapor, sapur (ii), sapura, ?i. a large fruit-eating bat or flying fox, 

Fterojitis. 
sapurokimus, n. a needle (lit. a hair from sapur), sapurokimuseu goag, 

a needle's eye. Mark, x. 25. 
sara, n. a white gull, 
sara, n. posts on which the platform for corpses were supported 

(402). Cf. kak. 
saradonga, a. white. Cf. sara. 
saragi (m), n. a small stick. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 255 

sari (m), n. tlie netting of a canoe. 

sarima (ir), n. the float of an outrigger ; sarim' pati (m), n. the pegs 

of the sarima, Cf. saima. 
saroka ( ?), noi wara sardka iobuia uzar, as he passed by. Mark, ii. 

14. 
sarupa (m), a. drowned, 
sasanmepa, v. to decorate, 
sasiman (s), v. to rinse, to squeeze, 
sau, n. a rafter, a house post (b). 
sazi (b), n. a creeper used to poison fish, 
saziwaur, n. a year, 
seadadaget (Moa), n. the ring finger (probably siau-dada-get, outside 

the middle finger), 
seautari, v. to stop, 
sebalbi, pron. these two. 
sei, ad. there = siei. 
seiwadadaig (b), next, 
sek (m), n. a hole (Jukes), 
sena, a. and jpron. that ; ad. there, 
senabi, a. and pron. that ; senabi durai, pi. those ; senabi is often used 

as eqiUTalent to the Lifu ngdne, in the. 
senao, pron. that = sena. 
senaoki, conj. therefore, 
senau, demons, a. the, the same. 
senebi, senobi, = senabi. Mark, iii. 8. 
sepal, pron. both, they two. Cf . palae. 
sepalbi, pron. those two. 

serasera (s), ct. a white sea or shore bird; serasera birgesera (415). 
sesere (Mb), n. the name of a legendary hero who was changed into- 

a bird (L. 23), probably same as serasera. 
sesitaman, sestaman (s), v. to show, guide, [sesitomaelai.] 
seta, pron. those. 

setaura (s), n. cross. From Greek crraupos. 
setabi, pron. those. 

shi (m), n. a strip of the yellow epidermis of an orchid, 
si (m), n. the forehead. Cf. paru- 
sia (m), n. the toes, ; kaba-sia, the great toe. 
siaizi, conj. because. 



^56 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

siau (? = siei, sena), siau adal (s), n. outside. 

siauki, ad. thitlier. 

sib (b), sibu (ii), n. the liver- 

sibo-papalamiz, sibu papalamiz, v. to doubt. 

sibu -^anan (s), v. to liave sympatliy, to love, to pity. 

siee = siei. 

siei, pron. that, ad. there; sienu, thereon; sieLz-", siezi, therefrom, 

thence ; durai siei, those ; sieiki, thither. 
sier (ii), n. the toes. Cf. sia. 
sieri (?). Mark, iii. 8. 

siga, sigal (s), n. a distance ; koi sigal (s), a. far. 
sigaman (?). Mark, v. 15, xii. 36. See -svakai, mumugu. 
sigataean (s), v. to convulse ; gamu sigataean, to tear the body, 
sigazi (s), ad. distance ; koi sigazi, a. far. 
eigo (? = sigal), ngi sigo gudalnga a launga senabi Augadan baselaia, 

thou art not far from God's "Kingdom. Mark, xii. 34. 
sik, sike, conj. if, 
sikekai (? if "n-ill), mido mido sike kai nubepa karengemin inabi gubo 

a ina malu ? "\S'hat sort (of man) if -will hear him, the wind and 

the sea. Mark, iv. 41. 
sikiru (s), n. an arrow for shooting pigs. Cf. skuri, sukori. 
eiko (b), n. foam, 
silamai, v. to fight, to scold, 
silamiz (?), ngur silamiz, v. to wink, 
silimailai (s), n. an uproar, a tumult, 
sinapi, n. mustard. The Greek trivaTri. 
sinupa (s), n. illustration, 
sinupasinupa (?), tana tuelv gorsar a iapopoizo nubepa keda, mido 

paru sinupasinupa ino, the twelve asked of him the parable. 

Mark, iv. 10. 
sinuseikai, ad. while (?), noi sinnseikai mulizo, while he yet spake, 

Mark, v. 35. 
sipalsei, pron. you two there, 
sipoibi, V. to hiss, 
sirasira (m), n. name of a tree, the bark of which is made into fishing 

lines, 
sirisiri, v. to grow up (?). Mark, iv. 8. 
eirisor, v. to grow, = sirisiri. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 257 

sirsimo (?). Mark, iv. 19. 
siwagoi = sowagai. [siwagoiu.] 
sizi = siezi, from there, 
skiiri = sukori. 
sobaginga, a. smart, 
sobaidiz, v. to be slow. 

sobara, n. a dish, charger, Mark, vi. 25, perhaps an introduced mean- 
ing for sobera. 
sobera (t, n), a mat made of pandanus leaves used in the initiation 

ceremonies (410). (Cf. tiro of Daudai vocabulary.) 
sobi = sabi. [sob^'a.] 

soger (t, Mb), n. a mourning dress ; (368) pi. sogerl. 
soka (m), a-, sick. 

soki, n. a spike made of cassowary bone, a dagger, 
solsimizi (m, s), v. to wallow, 
soroi (n), n. entrails, "guts." 

sorsimiz, v. to move (perhaps move about). Cf. solsimizi. 
sowagai, v. to plant, 
sowakai, = sowagai. [sowakaiu.] 
sowaka, 

sowaki = sowagai. 

sowar (m), n. a species of yam. Cf. ketai, 
sringi (m), n. a cane loop or sling for carrying heads, 
suagai (b), n. witchcraft. 

sugu (m), n. the cuttle fish ; the octopus (Badtj). Cf. ati. 
suguba, sugubo (m), n. tobacco ; sugubo wanipa (m, b), v. to smoke in 

Papuan fashion, i.e. drink tobacco ; sugubo marapi (m), n. a 

tobacco pipe (of bamboo). Cf. sukub. 
suidaninipa (b), v. to crouch, 
sukori {n.), an arrow with head made of a narrow, split bamboo, used 

for shooting pigs. 
suka (m), n. tobacco (Jukes), 
sukub, (n), sukubu (t), sukuba 'b), n. tobacco; sukuba-marap (s), 

n. tobacco pipe ; sukuba supo (b), n. a cigarette. 
sulan (s), V. to pour, 
sulan (?), tana akan sxdan mabaegongu, they feared the people. 

Mark, si. 32. 
sulangi (m), = surlangi ; n. the turtling season (m). 

E.I.A. PEOC, SEE. in., VOL. IV. S 



258 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

suliz, sulizo, n. a drop ; juice. 

sulupan (?), kuikaiman noino mosan sulupan, began to spit on him. 

Mark, xiv. 65. 
sulur (m), n. the green turtle, 
sumai (m, b), n. cold ; sumainuwedan (b), v. to tremble (to be out in 

the cold). 
sumein (m), a. cold. 

suna-suro (ir), n. the hind fins of the turtle, 
sungi, n. a sling for carrying heads. Cf. zinge, sringi. 
sund (m), n. the tail of the dugong. 
supa (b), n. a white louse. 

supamipa, v. to bear false witness. Mark, x. 19. Cf. ia supaman. 
supnuran (s), v. to cover ; a. wrapped, covered. 
supd (bj, n. a cover ; a bale ; sukuba supo (b), n. a cigarette, 
surka, n. the scrub turkey {Megapodius) (wild fowl) ; surka pada, the 

mound of the megapod. 
surlal, n. the pairing of the turtle. 

surlangi, n. the turtle season, or the season when turtle pair (350). 
suro (b), n. a pole for poling a canoe, 
suru (m), poles or yards of sails. 
surum, n. sand. 
8U8U (m), n. the breast ; gum, milk ; nine, in counting on the body ; 

wadegam susu, eleven, in counting on the body ; susu gud 

(m), n. the nipple ; susu nur (Macgillvray), n. the nipple ; 

susu madu (nb), the nipple ; susu mina (Mb), a scarified mark 

on the breast, 
suzu (s), V. to suck, = susu, 

Ta (s, b), n. a feasts 

tabai, n. the shoulder, pi. tabal. 

tabal-uradiz (s), v. to carry on the shoulder. 

tabai, demons, those. 

tabom (m), n. a long petticoat. 

tabu, n. a snake ; pi. tabul ; umal tabu, a poisonous snake ; kasa tabu, a 

harmless snake, 
tabu, n. pith, perhaps also the spinal cord, 
tabukiri, n. hate, anger ; v. to be offended at. 
taburid (nb) n. the spine. Cf. goruridd, tabu, rid. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 259 

tadar, w. a large fly, the blue-bottle. 

tadaunaizimael, n.pl. fragments. 

tadaunaizinga, n. things remaining, fragments. Mark, vi. 43. Cf. 

unaizo. 
tadin, tadina (s, b), v. to covet ; to shoot an arrow. Perhaps really means 

attain, reach something aimed at; tademin. Mark, xvi. 20, 

confirm, 
tadin (s),t'. to rub. 
tadiz (s), V. to rub. 

tadu, n. a kind of crab ; tadu kap (Mb), n. the crab dance (362). 
taeak, n. an arrow. Cf. tarek, taiak. 
taeamoin, v. to pick, to choose, [taiamoin.] 
taean (s), v. to throw, to dash; to invert, shove ; to roll ; tubal-taean, a. 

round ; kuik-taean, v. to nod ; guda-taean, v. to sacrifice, [taea- 

man, taeamoin, toeaipa, toiaipa, toeailai.] 
taga (m), n. the mangrove, Cf . biiu. 
tagi (? language). 
tagir (s), a. dull. 

tagur (ir), the name of a plant, a species of flag {Philydnmi). 
tai (lib), n. a place for mourning; probably any open place where 

ceremonies or dances are held. 
taiai (n), (Legends, 180). 
taiak (b), n. an arrow, 
taiamoin = taeamoin. See taean. 
taiek (ivib) = taiak. 
taidisa (b) = toidai. 

taiermin (?), ngara-taiermin, n. a dance with jumping (362). 
taima, n. a partition, a boundary. Cf. toimia [taimanu."] 
taimi (s), n. boundary. 
taiokwod (t), n. the sacred meeting place of men for the initiation 

ceremony (409). Cf. tai, kwod. 
taiwa (b), n. the coast. Cf. tawala. 
taiz, taizo (s), n. position ; wakai-taiz, v. to recollect ; kulai taiz, 

V. to be first ; wagel taizo, to be last. Mark, is. 35. 
takam (n), n. the name of a fish. 

taku (ii), n. a three- or four-headed fishing-spear (333). 
tai, n. a finger-nail, or toe-nail ; the oval piece of melon-shell cemented 

on to the handle of the kobai, or throwing-stick (333). 

S 2 



260 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

taldan (s), v. to cross ; ad. across. Cf , tardan. 

talpura (m), n. glass, a bottle. Cf. Mir. tarpor. 

tarn, tamo (s, b), n. a branch, a bough ; pi. tamal. 

tamaiginga, a. without branches. 

tamain, 

taman, v. to witness, bear testimony. Mark, xv. 4. 

tamiz, V. to leave. 

tamamoiginga, see wakaintamamoiginga. 

taman (s), n. the shore. Cf. taiwa, taima. 

tamananga (s) = tamo. 

tamoi (b), n. the " iguana." 

tamu (m), n. the platform of a canoe (Macgillivray). Cf. the Mir. 

turn, top. The correct word is, no doubt, natara. 
tamudan (s), v. to shut, to close. 

tamudara (b), n. a door, that which closes the opening. Cf. pasa. 
tana, pron. they, 
tanabado, a. blue, 
tanaman (m, s) pron. their, 
tanamul (s), pron. them, 
tanamulngu, pron. from them, 
tanamun, pron. their, theirs, 
tanamunia, pron. with them. 
tanatana (s), pron. themselves, [tanatanamulpa.] 
tanenipa (m), pron. for themselves, 
tang. Cf. tam (371). 

tangu (s), n. a feast. Cf. ta ; tangu tonar, feast time. Mark, xii. 39. 
tanigi (m), n. name of a fish, JDiacope octoUneata. 
tanoriz, v. to sit ; kadai-tanoriz, v. to arise, 
tanu, V. to sit (?) tana nubepa geto asin tanu, them that sat with him. 

Mark, vi. 22. 
tanure, kadi tanure (m), to stand up. 
tanureipa (m), v. to sit down, 
tanuriz ■= tanoriz ; kadai tanuriz, v. to arise, 
tapamoin. See guda-tapaman. 

tapan (m), n. a species of yam, Convolvulus. Cf . ketai, sowar, 
tapeipa (m), v. to swim, 
tapi, n. the sting ray. Cf . waki. 
tapi (s), n. position ; v. to spread, to swim. 



Eay & Haddon— 27^6 Languages of Torres Straits— II. 261 

tapi (m), n. a part of anything ; a half. Cf . mugu. 

tapimula (Mb) = tapi, sting ray. 

tara, n. the shin. 

tarai, a. quick, suddenly = tari. 

taraitarai (b), n. haste. i 

taran (? to cut), Mark, xiii. 20, noido taupain kai taran, he will cut 
short. 

taratar (s), tartar (b), v. to boil. 

tarhar narberit (ir), n. the shoulder. Cf. tabai. 

tardan (s), tarodan, v. to cross ; ad. across. Cf. taldan. 

taregi (m), «. slow. 

tareipa (m), v. to touch. 

tarek (m), n. an arrow. Cf . taiak, terig. 

tari (m), ad. quickly, = tarai. 

tarika (m), n, a gun. 

tariza (s), v. to arise ; the word seems really to refer simply to a move- 
ment of the body ; kadai-tariz, to arise ; kulun-tariz, to kneel 

tarizelam, tarizilamiz. v. to run. 

taro (m), n. the nails of finger or toe ; the claws of a bird. Cf. tal. 

tarodan = tardan. 

taroiginga (?), mabaeg worogi taroiginga, whereon never man sat. 
Mark, xl. 2. 

tarotaiz, v. to take in, to go in (of plants and seed) ('?). Mark, iv. 8. 

tarotoiaiginga, v. not to take in, not to understand (?) ; tanamun 
korkak tarotoiaiginga senabi ia, they understood not that 
saying. Mark, ix. 32. 

tarpeipa (m), v. to sew. 

tartaean, v. to delve. Cf . tarotaiz, tarte, taean. 

tarte (m), n. a hole ; tarte paleipa (m), v. to bore a hole. Cf. terti. 

tarteipa (m), v. to turn over. 

tatagamulinga (b), a. brown. 

tata, tataia, v. to stammer. Cf. tratra. 

tati (m), n. father ; the general term, not vocative ; keuba-tati, n. 
uncle, [tatipa.] 

tatureipa (m), v. to make (said of men's work). 

tauanga, a. light, easy. Mir. pereper 

taumi(B),w. an ant. 

taupainanga (s), a. short. 



262 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

taupain, taupainga, a. short; taupain toraiginga, not to shorten. 

Mark, xiii. 20. 
tauradiz = toridiz, kama-tauradiz, v. to nurse in tke arms, 
tawala (s), n. the shore. Cf . taiwa, taima. 
tawpei (h), a. short, low. Cf. taupainga. Mir. teupai. 
tazo, 

teio, teipa (m), v. to throw into, 
ter, tera (m), n. bitterness ; savour (in Gospel), v. to flavour ; alasiu ter, 

the saltness, Mark, ix. 50 ; ter unaipa, to leave a taste, to 

savour, 
teralnga, a. sour, 
terari (m), a. sour, 
terig (m), n. an arrow, 
terku (t) = turku. 
terti (jib), a hole ; piti terte, n. a hole in the septum narium (406). Cf . 

tarte. 
tete (b), n. the leg. 
thi (m), n. a cliff, 
tholpen (?), sepal magina mani keda wadogam sapi tholpen, two mites 

which make a farthing. Mark, xii. 42. 
thung (ir), suffix, like, same as. 
ti(B), w. bread fruit, 
tiap (lib), tiapi (ir), the wrist, 
tiati (b), n. a traitor, 
tiapururu (nb), n. a string armlet (394). 
tidaimipa (b), n. joint, 
tidan (? to make or put out) ; balbai tidan (s), v. to rectify, make 

straight ; tonar tidan, tonar tidano, v. to testify, to mark, to 

prove, 
tideipa (ir), v. to break, as a stick, 
tidiz, V. to retreat ; kunia tidiz (s), v. to return, 
tigi (s, b), n. the brain, 
tigu, n. headache, 
tikat, n. a flea. 

tiki(M), n. the name of a shell {Sanguinolaria). 
timi, n. the name of a plant, Alries precatorius ; timi-kapu, n. small 

red and black timi seeds (crabs' eyes) pi. timi-kapul. 
tiom (?), magi tiom (s), n. boy. 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 263 

tira (Mb), n. the holes bored in a canoe and its gunwale. 

tira (m), n. the leg ; the ancle. 

tiriap (Mg), v. to sneeze. 

tiridisa (b), v. to lif t, = toridiz. 

titan, 

titoi (b), n. a star, = titui. 

titu, n. a star, pi. titul. 

titui (s), n. a star. 

titui (?), kutam-titui, n. a species of hawk. 

titure (m) = titui ; gariga titure (m), n. the morning star ; titure uzarizi 

(m), a falling star, 
toad (s), n. the roof of a house, 
toaizinga, n. things that are thrown ; ngitamun kakurupa toaizinga, 

things thrown to your feet, your stumbling blocks or trespasses. 

Mark, xi. 25. 
tobai (t), n. a mat. 
tobud (?), senabi tobud burumau ulak, a great herd of swine feeding. 

Mark, v. 11. 
toda, n. a bee. 
todi (m), n. tortoise-shell. 

todi (m), a fish hook (? made of tortoise or turtle shell). Cf. tudi. 
todipa (?), apia todipa, to pass by (apia, from apo). 
toeaipa. See taean. 
togui, n. fin (?) ; baidama togui (n), n. shark's fin ; baidama sai togui 

(n), n. a shark's tail, 
toiai. See taean. 
toiaipa. See taean. 
toidai (s), v. to bite, [toidiz.] 
toidail, a. wild, i.e. bitiug ; toidail urui, n. wild beasts. Mark, i. 

13. 
toidai (s), n. animals. See toidaU. 
toidan, v. to dip ; kuli toidiz, v. to steer, 
toidi (s), toidiz, v. to bite, 
toimia (s), n. boundary, = taima. 
toitupagailai, n. prayer. 

toitupagaipa, toitupagaipa, v. to pray ; n. worship, [toitupagiz. ] 
tokiup, n. a man's brother, or woman's sister. Cf. babud, tukeap. 
tokoiap = tukeap. 



264 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

tokniapo (b) = tokoiap. 

toma (?) = tuma ; senabi nubepa toma ngonanumani senabi korkak 

badaginga, to love Mm with all the heart. Mark, xii. 33 ; lest. 

Mark, iii. 9. 
tomaka (s), ad. perhaps, 
tomamiz. See iikaiii. 
tomamoiginga, 
tomar, 
tonar (s), n. a sign, time ; a mark or cicatrice ; an exhibit (s) ; aingu 

tonar, food time. Mark, xii. 2. The equivalent of the ^Silir. 

mek. tonar tidano, tonar tridan, v. to testify, to mark, to prove ; 

pi. tonaral. 
tonga-vra (?). Mark, ix, 42. 
topi, n. the name of a bird, 
tora, n. a ridge. Cf. koru. 
toraiginga (?), urapon ia ina ngibepa gamu tciraiginga, one thing thou 

lackest. Mark, x. 21. Probably a misprint for toridaiginga. 
toridaiginga, toridoigiaga, v. not to receive, 
toridan (s), v. to sail, 
toridan, n. a neighbour, 
toridiz (s), V. to cany, lift, raise ; to accept, receive ; kuibur-torodiz, 

V. to be tame, 
tormai. See ia tormai. 
totaku (iib). n. the hull of a canoe. 
toti = tati. [totiu. ] 
towanga, a. easy, light. Cf. tauanga. 
tra, n. the hills of the termites. 
tradiz = tadiz. 
tragor, a. hard (? = tagir, dull) ; tanamun tragor korkak, theii- heart 

■^as hardened. !Mark, vi. 52. 
trapot, n. the dorsal fin of a fish ; muingu trapot, mutu trapot, n. the 

pelvic fin. 
tratra, a. deformed ; stammering, having an impediment in the 

speech ; tratra idaig, n. stammerer, 
tridai, 
tridaiginga, 
tridan = tidan. 
tridiz = tidiz. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 265 

tridizo = toridiz. 

tritraiginga. See geto tritraiginga. 

tritraizi, a. withered ; tritraizi gitalenga, having a withered hand. 

Mark, iii. 3. 
tritran = tidan. 
tronar = tonar, 

tru (?), tru minera (t), n. a mark on the side of the face, 
trukuiap - tukuap. 
tsika (m), n. a foam. Cf. siko. 
tu (Mb), n. a petticoat made of shredded coconut leaves worn by men 

when dancing (365). 
tu (s, b), n, smoke ; dust (Macfarlane). 
tuana, 

tubal (?), tubal-taean (s), a. round, 
tubo (?), tana ngitamulp tubo nidaiginga, whosoever shall not receive 

you. Mark, vi. 11. 
tudan (?), dora tudan (s), a. weeded. 

tudi (m), n. a fish hook. Cf. todi. 

tuga (m), n. a mangrove swamp. Cf. taga. 

tugo (Mb), n. pole of outrigger. 

tuginga, a. clean. 

tuidan (?), nguki-tuidan, v. to urinate. 

tukeap (m), n. a man's brother or a woman's sister (Macgillivray) ; 

a friend, a guest, a cousin (b). 
tukuap (s), n. a companion, a mate, 
tulaiginga, a. clean, 
tulainga (s), a. dirty, 
tuma (b), v. wait-a-little ; conj. until ; tuma lako kai igililenga 

mabaegau kazi umangu, till shall be living again the son of 

man from death. Mark, ix. 9. 
tumai, 

tumatuma (m), ad. by and by, presently. Cf. tuma. 
tumaiauian (s), a. attending, 
tumawaean, v. to compel, 
tumi (m), n. a small black ant. 
tumit (m), n. dirt, 
tumitale (m), a. dirty. 
tun, tuna (m), a. a large barbed javelin or " spear " (333). 



^66 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

timaii (jig), V. sleep (D'Albertis). 

tuo (m), n. smoke. Cf. tu. 

tupaltaean, v. to fold (= tu, Eng. two, pal = pala, taean). 

turam (?), iadu turam, v. to infoiin. 

tureipa (ir), v. to call for ; turan (s), v. to call, to bid (b). 

turik, turika, n. iron, a blade ; aga turik, n. an axe ; gi turik, n. a 

knife ; elap turik, n. hoop iron ; turik plagusi (b), n. an iron 

pot. 
turk, turko (n), n. tbe bowl of a bamboo tobacco pipe, 
turkekai (m), n. a man. 
turkiam (n), (?) turkiam merkai. 
tui'kikai, n. a cock-fowl, 
turku (s) = turk. 

turong (m), a. light. Cf. towanga. 
tusi, n. a letter, a book. A Samoan -word introduced vid Lifu ; bence, 

tusi mina, Bible, i.e. precious or true book, 
tutio, 

tutu, w. a rod. 
tuwa (377). 



IT, suffix denoting the possessive case, of. 

ua (m), ad. yes. 

uari (i), n. lime. 

ubalo, n. bladder ; ubal-madu (b), n. tbe calf of tbe leg. 

ubi (si), n. greediness; v. to want (s). 

ubigasin, v. to dislike (ITacfarlane). 

ubigiasin (s), v. to ignore, to be without a wish for. 

ubigosia (?), noi ubigosia kunia onailai, lie would not reject ber. 

Mark, vi. 26. 
ubile (m), a. greedy. 
Tibilnga, n. will, wish; ngau ubilnga lako maigi, kapuza nginu 

ubilnga, not my will but thy will. ITark, xiv. 36. 
ubimepa = ubinmepa. 
ubin, n. a wish, 
ubinmepa (s), ubinemepa, v. to wish, to desire, to like, [ubin- 

meamaipa.] 
ubinmizi (s), v. to love. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 267 

Tibu (m), n. the name of a plant {Melaleicea (?)). See wobu. 

ubur (m), n. the name of a plant {Mimusops Icauhii.) 

udar (irg), n. an oar. Cf. Mir. uzer. 

udas-poidan, v. to rescue, to save. See oudazi. 

udu, (m), n. the arm, the upper arm. 

uduma (b), n. dirt. 

udup, n. hiccough. 

ugan, ugano (s), v. to wait. 

ugauganpagaip, n. noise. 

uiai, 

uialai. See gudauiailai. 

uiamai, uiaman, uiamoin, uiamon. See wakaea-uiaman. 

uiu, n. side. 

uka, (s), a. two. 

ukailenga (?), lesu muasin walmizin senabi koiabou ukailenga, after 

Jesus cried with a loud voice. Mark, xv. 37. 
Tikain (?), senabi warwar ukain tomamiz, the cares of this world. 

Mark, iv. 19. 
ukamenamo (b), a. double, 
ukamodobigal, a. three, thrice (Macfarlane). 
ukamodobilgal, a. third, 
ukamoin (? double), tana lako worgi ukamoin umanga, these shall 

receive greater punishment. Mark, xii. 40. 
ukasar, a. two ; ukasar-ukasar, four, 
ukasukusuko (?), mata ngadagido ngi muia utizo nabi igilelenga a 

nginu geto paunapa patan a ukasukusuko kalmel genapa taean, 

it is better thou enter into life maimed, than having two hands 

to go into hell. Mark, ix. 43. 
ukasure = ukasar. 
ukatam, a. ripe. Cf. katam. 
ukauka (b), a. four ; ukauka modobai, five, 
ukesar (Mg), a. two,= urapon ; ukesar warapon, three, 
uki (Mg), n. fresh water (Jukes). Cf. nguki. 
Tikosa (m), n. two, = uka. 
ukwasur (uquassur, Macgillivray) (ii), a. two. (uquassur warapune, 

three ; uquassur-uquassur, four.) 
xdadiz, 
ulaig (?), tanamulpa gougu ulaig, healed them. Mark, vi. 5. 



268 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ulaipa, V. to follow. Mark, xiv. 54. 

ulak (?), senabi tobud burumau ulak, a great herd of swine feeding. 

Mark, v. 11. 
uleig (m), a. wet. Cf. urainga. 
uleipa (m), v. to come, to approach.. 
um (s), = nma. 
uma (m), a. dead ; n. death; v. to kill (s); uma-matan (s), v. to drown, 

umau lago (s), n. house of dead, tomb ; uma kazi, n. abortion ; 

uma mataman, v. to murder ; umau nguki, poison, [umau ; 

umapa, umangu.] 
umagigal, a. not dead, 
umaginga, v. not to die. 
uma-gud (s), a. stale, 
umai, n. the dog,^Z. umail ; umai-dangal (nb), n. a necklace or coronet 

of dogs' teeth, 
umal (b), a. venomous, deadly. 

umaliza, n. (a deadly thiag ?) ; umalizo matumeipa (m), v. to wound, 
umamail, n. the dead, 
■iimamoipa (?), ngita ia umamoipa tana mulpa? What question ye 

with them? Mark, ix. 16. 
uman (?), ia uman, v. took counsel, Mark, iii. 6 ; tanatana ia uman,. 

they said to one another. Mark, iv. 41. 
umanga, a. dead, sick ; v. to die ; n. death. 

umangange (?), noi kedangadalnga umangange, he was as one dead- 
Mark, ix. 26. 
umanguzo, n. all. from the dead (?). 
nmapa (s), v. to kill. Cf. uma, umanga. 
umaidai (?), tana getdwanizo senabi umaulai ddgam utui, they let 

down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. Mark, ii. 4. 
umeipa (m), v. to make (said of women's work). Cf. tatureipa. 
umem (ng), n. death. Cf. uma. 
umen (?), burumal koi umen nanitan, the swine ran down a steep 

place. Mark, v. 13. 
umizin (?), noi paunap a umizin, let him die the death. Mark, vii. 

10. 
umkuki (humkuki) (Mg), n. water, 
umu, probably = gamu. 
nmuwalepa (s), n. palsy ; a. faint, trembling. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 269 

una, 

unab (s), a. safe. 

unabo (s), v. to bless. 

tinaigi (?), geto mina unaigi, hath never forgiveness. Mark, iii. 29. 

unaipa (?), terunaipa, to savour (taste remains). Cf. unaizi. 

unizimaen, n. fragments, remain 

unaizi, unaizo (s), v. to remain behind, to be left ; senabi kalapa unaizo 
ipokazi, the woman that remained behind. Mark, xii. 19. 

nuao (m), n. the hawk's-bill turtle. 

unawa, n. turtle-shell. Cf. -wanawa. 

ungwakazi (b), n. woman. Cf. ngawa kazi. 

uotiz, V. to disappear. 

upi, n. a large bamboo knife. 

upiri (b), n. poison. 

upiuz (s), V. to whistle. 

upu (m), n. a chain of ponds ; a blister. 

ur, uro, n. water, brackish water (b) ; ur budaman (b), n. raft ; uro 
waisa (b), n. flood tide ; uro noriza (b), n. ebb tide. Cf. wer. 

ur (Mg), n. fire. Cf. miriam ur. 

urab, urabo, urap, n. the coco-nut, the drinking nut ; urab a bura (m), 
n. coco-nut leaf. Cf. mutale, gi, baribara. 

urai. See ur, uro ; urai dudupisa (b), v. to drown. 

urainga, a. wet, moist. 

urapa (s), a. the same. 

urapon (s, b), a. one. 

uraponia, v. to agree. Cf . urapon, ia. 

urapu = urapon, urapa ; urapu ia, the same words. Mark, xiv. 39. 

urapun, urapuni (m), a. one, = urapon ; urapuni-getal, five. 

urazi (nb), n. the olive shell. 

ure (m), n. a bird, an insect, a shell, = urui, uroi ; natam-ure, n. a tem- 
porary name for us, quartz. (338). 

urge (m), a. wet. Cf. urai, ur. 

urge (?), urge daje (m), n. a long petticoat. 

urilonga (m), a^ nothing (Macgillivray). 

urimano (b), v. to strike. 

urma (m), n. dew. 

urmi (s), a. ferocious. 

uro (m) = uru. 



270 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

uroi (m, b), n. an animal, a bird, an image ; uroi lagd (b), n. a cage ; 

nrui palgiz, n. bird, 
"urpu, V. to anoint. 
Tiru (ii), a. white. 

uru (iib), n. rope nsed for turtle fishing, 
urn (arg), n. the sea. Cf. ur, urd. 
urudan (sv), a. obscured. Cf. iradu. 
urugaban (s), urugabao (b), n. sweet potato. Cf. rugabu. 
nrui {^) = uroi, a mask. 

nrukamd, n. rope, string; mapil urukam (s), n. chain. 
uruwain (ub), a stone used in sorcery (399.) 
Tirupugan (s), v. to bathe, 
urza (m), n. the loggerhead turtle, 
lis, n. a cut, a cicatrix, 
us (m), 71. quartz. 

usa (m), n. the kangaroo. Cf. usaru, usur. 
usabutu, n. salt. Cf. alas. 

usal (?), mausa-usal, n. a scarification of the cheeks, = bagamina (367). 
usar (s), V. to walk, go. 

Tisaru (b), n. the kangaroo, wallaby. Cf. usa, usur. 
usimai (s), v. to extinguish, 
usimaipa gub, v. to kill the wind (427). 
usimoi (s), v. to extinguish, 
usimoiginga, v. not to extinguish, 
usur (ii), 71. the kangaroo, = usa, usam. 
utaiginga, v. not to enter, 
ute (m), 71. sleep, 
uteipa (m), v. to sleep. 
uteipa (m), v. to enter, to go out of sight, [utem, uteman, utemin, 

utiz, utizi, utizo.] 
utiz, utizi, utizd (s), v. to hide, to go into, to enter. 
ntoi = utui. 
utointiaipa, v. to doze, 
utdmoin, v. to join, 
utu (m), n. honey. 

utu (m), 71. a small palm {Seaforthia). 
utui (s), v. to lie down, to sleep ; a. asleep. 
utuilo (s), V. to dwell. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 271 

utuipa, V. to lie down, to sleep. 

utulag (Mg), n. a house (Stone), lit. = sleeping-place. 

utumiz, utumoin, utumoizinga. See iautumiz. 

utuipa, V. to sow. 

utuna (b), v. to plant. 

uza (t), 71. a small cowry. Cf. ooja. 

uzai (m), a. putrid. 

uzameipa, 

uzar, V. to go, to walk, to depart, [uzaripa, uzariz, uzareman, uzarman,. 

uzarmoriu.] . 
uzaripa (m), v. to go away. 

Tizarizi (ii), v. to go away ; titure uzarizi (m), n. a falling star, 
uzarmoriu v. imperat. go ; ngipel uzarmoriu, go ye two. 
Tizimeipa (ii), v. to go out (as a fire). Cf. usimai, usimoi. 
uzu (m), pron. mine (if a female). 
uzur, 

Wa, ad. yes ; v. to acknowledge ; particle of emphasis preceding verbs, 

wa kapuza ina ngita adataean Augadan sabi, full well ye reject 

God's law. Mark, xii. 9. 
waba, n. doYe. 

wad (Mb), n. a fish with blue spots, 
wadai (t), n. a large, red, flat bean or seed, 
wadan (s), v. to caution, to detain, 
wadegam = wadogam, wadegam susu, eleven, wadegam-zugu, twelve, 

in counting on the body, 
wadogam, n. the farther side,^Mark, x. 1 ; wadokapa, to the other side, 
wadokam (s), n. half, the other side ; wadokam malu, the other side 

of the sea. Mark, v. 1 . 
wadokapa. See wadogam. 
waduam, n. uncle. Cf. keuba-tati. 
waean (s), v. to send, [waeaman.") 
waeapa, v. to swim, 
wagal (s), ad. behind. See wagel. 
wagar, exclam. yea ! yes ! 
wagedegam, n. the west, 
wagedo (s), a. other, 
wagedoka, n. the other side. Cf. wadogam. 



272 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

wagel (m, s), ad. last, after, v. to come after. Mark, xiv. 28. 

wagetal-wagetal (moa, badtt), ten (lit. one hand and one hand). 

wahu, exclam. 

waia, 

waiginga (? maiginga), iahuia "waiginga, nothing by the way. Mark, 

. vi. 8. 
waiitntu (m), n. the saw-fish ; waiitutu kap, n. the saw-fish dance, 
"wainis (nh), n. a small hull-roarer with a shrill sound (375). 
waipa (b), n. a land-shell. 

waipat (nb), n. a head-dress consisting of a single plume, 
waisa (?), uro waisa (b), n. flood tide, 
waitud (]ttb) = waiitutu. 
waiwai, n. the testicles. Cf. waiwi, mango, 
waiwi (lib), n. an armlet made from the shell of the Conus millepunc- 

tatus (339). 
waiwi, n. the mango. 

wakabi (nb), n. an instrument used in mat making, 
wakadar, n. a dale, valley, 
wakaea, 

wakaean, v. to chase, to pursue, 
wakaeangan, v. to be patient, 
wakaea-uiamoin (?), v. ; koi gorkoziu wakaea uiamoin, n. chief priests. 

Mk., xiv. 1. [wakaea-uiamoin, wakaea uiamon, wakaia-uiamai.] 
wakai, «. ecclesiastical (Sharon); wakai mumugu sigaman(?) Mark, 

V. 15, xii. 36. 
wakai (?), kapu wakai boie dapamgu adapadan, a voice came from 

heaven. Mark, i. 11. 
wakaia-uiamai. See wakaea-uiamoin. 
wakaiasin, v. to pity, to regret ; to have sympathy, to mourn ; n. 

grief, [wakaiasimoin.] 
wakaimizin, v. (?) ; ada wakaimizin, n. spite, 
wakaintamamiz (s), wakaintomamiso (b), v. to think, to consider, 
wakaintamamoiginga, wakaintomamoiginga, v. not to consider, not to 

think. 
wakaisin = wakaiasin. 
wakaisupaman, v. to lead astray. 

wakaitaiz, v. to recollect, to understand, [wakaitamain.] 
wakaitamamai, n. thought. 



E.AY & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 273 

wakaiuiaipa (?), ngai ngitamunia wakaiuiaipa puzipu, I was daily with 

you teaching. Mark, xiv. 49. 
wakasin (?), donga wakasin, a. savage. 
wakasin = wakaiasin. 
wakasu, n. oil ; kaigorsar kikirilaig wakasunu pinin, anointed with oil 

many sick persons. Mark, vi. 13. [wakasunu.] 
wakau (s, m, b), n. a belt, the band of a petticoat ; pi. wakawal. 
wake (b); n. the hornbill. Cf. worke. 

waki (m), n. a sting ray ; a spear armed with spines from the stingray. 
wakiantamizo = wakaintamamizo. 

waku (m, s), n. a mat ; gul waku, n. a sail ; duma waku, n. clothing, 
waku (b), v. to sell. (Perhaps a misprint for sail). 
walaika (ng), v. to walk, 
walap, n. a hat ; patralae pui patan walap, plaited thorns (for) a hat. 

Mark, xv. 17. 
walchi (m), n. the name of a plant, Xerotes Banhsii. 
waleipa (m), v. to climb, 
waleipa (?), gi waleipa (m), v. to laugh, 
walepa. See umuwalepa. 
walgan (b), n. an adze, 
wali (m), n. name of a creeping plant, a vine used for making fishing 

lines, hence a fishing line ; a cord, twine (b). 
waliz, walizo (s), v, to climb, ascend, 
walkadun (m), n. a wallaby, 
walmizin, walomizin, v. to call, to proclaim, to cry out. Cf. walo. 

[walmer, walmeamain.] 
walnga (Mb), n. "rock-fish." 
walo (b), n. a cry ; a cooey. 

waltidun, v. to cry out {pi.). Mark, xv. 13. ; they cried out. 
walunga, n. the steering board, " rudder " of a canoe, 
walupa (s), v. to plant. 

wama (t), wamo, n. honeycomb ; wamau-idi (x), honey (lit. honey- 
comb's oil). Cf. isau. 
wamen (s), v. to walk quick. 

wamenudiz (s), koi wamenudiz (s), v. to ebb, of the tide, 
wamulaigo (b), n. a sister who has children, 
wanan, v. to put, leave, deposit (s) ; durai wanan, v. to remain ; sibu 

wanan, to pity, [wanemiu.] 
wanawa (b), n, turtle shell. Cf. warn kara, unawa. 

K.I. A. PKOC, SEK. HI., VOL. IV. I 



274 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

wanemiu. See getowaniz, 

wanes (m) = wainis. 

wangai, n. the "wild plum." 

wangepa (m), v. to fill (with, solids), seven ianalo wangamoino, they 
filled seven baskets. Mark, viii. 8. 

wani (Mb), n. the soft turtle. 

wani, n. drink. 

waniman. See wanipa. 

wanin (b), v. to drink. 

wanipa, v. to drink ; suguba wanipa, to smoke, i.e. to drink tobacco, 
[wanin, waniu, waniman.] 

wanizo (s), v. to drink. 

wanizo (?), paget-wanizo, v. to slip. 

wan-nur (m), v. don't. 

wap, n. a dugong spear (351). 

wapada (m), n. the cotton tree {Bombax.) 

wapai (m), n. the forearm. 

wapi, n. a fish ; pokam wapi (ub), n. the flying fish. 

wapu (m), n. the shaft of a dugong spear. Cf. wap. 

war= wara ; war dadim, a. two in counting on the body. 

wara (ir, s), a. another ; a, an, one (s) ; wara . . . wara, the one . . . the 
other. 

warabon = urapon, one ; warabon augosa, three. 

waradogam (s), n. east. 

waralaig(?) ; dorgai waralaig, name of a constellation. (Legends, 31). 

warange (s) = wara. 

waranis (m), n. a green pigeon. 

warapon (Mg) = urapon, one; ukesar-warapon, three. 

warapune (m), a. one, = urapon. 

wara wara, 

waraz, n. the olive shell. Cf. urazi. 

wardadim. See war. 

wardan, n. an eclipse. 

wargaiga (b), n. yesterday. 

waro = wara. 

waroi (nb), n. a common siluroid. 

warogiawaliz (?) ngaukalo ngapa uzar parpar waro giawaliz, after me 
Cometh another mightier than I. Mark, i. 7. (giawaliz per- 
haps =giuwaliz.) 



Eay & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 275 

waru, n. a turtle ; tortoise (ng) ; warukaz, a young turtle ; kidu 
waru, the end of the turtle season ; waru kara, turtle shell. 
Cf. iniltiam. 

warup, n. a drum. 

warwar (?) senabi warwar ukain tomamiz, the care of the world. 
Mark, iv. 19. 

wasalolnga, a. rough. 

wasili (t), n. a kind of basket. 

wata (s), n. dry wood, fuel! 

watal, 

watang (m), a. dry. 

wata' pateipa (m), v. to dry up ; wata patain (s), n. dry ground ; wato 
patan nanu kulka, her blood dried up. Mark, v. 29. 

watar, wataro, n. firewood, fuel. 

watekum (m), a. sorry. 

wati, a. bad, evil, abominable ; wati ngarare (m), a. lame (bad footed) ; 
wati ganule (m), a. stinking (bad smelling) ; wate mitale (m), 
a. bad tasted ; wati kaurare (m), a. deaf (bad eared) ; wati 
parure (m), a. ugly (bad faced) ; wati kikiri (s), n. sin. 

watipawa (s), n. sin, evil deeds. 

watiza, n. a bad thing. 

wato (s, b), n. a year ; pi. watal ; aigi wato, famine, foodless time. 
Mark, xiii. 8. 

watri = wati. 

watripawa = watipawa. [watri-pawangu.J 

watro = wati. 

watu (Mg), V. or n. whistle. 

watur (m), n. a log. See wata, watar. 

wau (b), n. the betel nut (not eaten in Torres Straits) ; wau iana, 
n. a purse. Mark, vi. 8. 

waura (b), n. the east wind ; the south-east wind. 

wauri, 

wans (n), n. a funeral screen (320). Macgillivray, ii. 37. 

wawpi (m) = wapi. 

weama (m) = wem. 

webasa (Mg), n. the eyebrow. Cf. babasam, boibasamu. 

weiam = woiara. 

weibad, n. turtle eggs. 

weidaman (?), mosobauka weidaman, foaming. Mark, ix. 20. 



276 Proceedings of the Royal Irkh Academy. 

weidan, a. greedy. 

weidan (?), kula mura weidan, senabi mura kula weidan ina, 

buildings. Mark, xiii. 2. Cf. nguro-weidan. 
weidizi, 

welmeipa (m), to waken. Cf. wal, walmizin. 
wem, n. the cockatoo. 
wer (s), n. water, 
wera (m), the stomach. 

weragi (m), hungry (lit. no stomach). Cf. maita iginga, Mir. wererge. 
wiamo (b) = weiam, woiam. 
wibu (m), the name of a plant {Parina/riwm). 
widan (s), v. to sew. 
widizi, 

wiepa (m), v. to give, 
wier (m), n. the palm of the hand, 
wila (m), n. a species of freshwater herring, 
winipa (m), v. to get up. 
witiganu, n. a stink. Cf. wati, ganu. 
wobar, w. a fruit = ubur. 
wobu (m) = ubu. 
woiam (s), n. a joint, 
woibado, n. spawn. Cf. weibad. 
wokailonga (?), lesu walmizin senabi koi nurainga kapu wokailonga, 

Jesus cried with a loud voice. Mark, xv. 34. 
wokau (t), n. a belt, = wakau. 
wokowai, n. a belt, = wakau. 
womar = wome. 

wome (t), n. a string game " cat's cradle" (361). 
womer (m) = wome. 

womer (t), n. a sea bird, perhaps the frigate bird. [canoe, 

womiraukwik (t), n. a carved wooden bird's head for decoration of a 
wonigi = wanigi, v. not to drink, 
wonizinga, n. drinking, 
worgi = worogi ; maigi wara kulanu worgi wan an kalmel pudailai, 

there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not 

be thrown down. Mark, xiii. 2. 
worke, n. the hornbiU. Cf. wake, 
worogi (s), ad. upon ; mabaeg worogi taroiginga, whereon never man 

sat. Mark, xi. 2. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straifs— II. 277 

woropii-taean, to throw down, to stumble, to offend. Mark, ix. 

43, 45, 47. 
worpnpudaiginga (?). Mark, vii. 4 (not wash?), 
wuko (b), n. gum. 
wunu (m), n. a fog. 
wur (m), n. the sea ; wur pusakuradun, high water ; wur nuremizingi, 

low water ; wur kamizingi, flood tide ; wur nurezingi, ebb 

tide, 
wurup, 

Za, z6, n. a thing; niai za, n. chair. 

za (m), affix, expressing the thing spoken of. 

zabai, n. the pectoral fin of a fish. 

zabudamoin, v. to buy. 

zadogam (s), n. the south. 

zaget, zageto, zagito (s), n. work, labour. Cf. za, geto. 

zagetolaig, a. having work ; noi zagetolaig kuikulumaingu, he has 

work from the Lord, the Lord needs him. Mark, xi. 3. 
zagetopawa (s), n. a deed, a doing. 

zagi (s), zagigal (s), a. penurious, poor (lit. without a thing), 
zaginga, a. having nothing, empty, 
zagitapa, v. to prepare, get ready, 
zagita (s), n. work ; pi. zagital. Cf. zaget. 
zai (?), zai adu palgano (b), n. a signal, 
zalaunga (?), mina zalaunga senabi gouga tanamulpa gamu puridora- 

lenga, they that are whole have no need of the physician. 

Mark, ii. 17. 
zamiak (?), na sulan ngau gamunu a zamiak ngaeapa maramatoiaipa, 

she is come aforehand to anoint my body (pour on my body) to 

the burying. Mark, xiv. 8. 
zamozamo (s), n. a tail ornament made of cassowary feathers used in a 

dance. Cf. nadur, kabonadur. 
zamu (s), n. the cassowaiy. Cf. samo. 
zanga (s), n. a thing. 

zanguzangu (?), things, ^^. Mark, x. 27, xi. 11. 
zapawaean, v. to send, 
zapla (?), kabu zapla (t), n. discs held in the hand during a 

dance, 
zapudamoin (s), v. to compensate, to gain, to sell. 

K.I.A. PEOC, SER. III., VOL. IV. U 



278 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

zapul (s), n. riches, wealth. See za, apu. [zapunu, zapuia.] 

zapulaig (s), a. wealthy. 

zapupamoin (?), misprint for zapudamoin. 

zaputamoin = zapudamoin. [zaputamoigigal.] 

zaram (m), v. name of a fish, Pelates. 

zarzar (nb), n. leafy twigs. 

zasei, = za, sei, these things. 

zaungalaig (s), n. a shelf. 

zazi (Mb), n. a large leaf petticoat. Cf. gagi. 

zazuman, n. firewood, fuel. 

zeinga, a. level, smooth ; n. a plait, a flap. 

zelamiz = zilamiz. 

zeza, n. a creek. 

zi, stiffix to pron. from. 

zia (s), n. a cloud, [ziangu.] 

zilamiz (s), v. to run. 

zinga, suffix. 

zinge (s), n. a sling for carrying heads, = sunge. 

zirasan, 

ziziman, v. to drive. 

z6 = za. 

zogo (m) = zugu. 

zorki, n. a spike of cassowary bone, used for husking coco-nuts. 

Cf. soki. 
zubnanamiz, zubo-nanaraiz (s), v. to throng, 
zugu (m), n. the arm, upper arm; eight in counting on the body; 

wadegam zugu, twelve, in counting on the body, 
zuguba, zugubu (s), n. tobacco, 
zugukwoik (lib), zugu kuiku (b), n. the shoulder, 
zunga, n. a boy or lad before initiation. Cf. karingi, kemge, 

kaukwik. 
zunga, n. the name of a tree, 
zungri (n), n. = zunga. 
zurana (m), a. boiling. 



Rec'cL June 1 --C>3t.25 »7 

Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 279 

XI. — Skf.tch of Datjdai Grammar. 

Tha materials available for the elucidation of Daudai Grammar are 
of tlie most meagre and scanty description. They comprise: (1) A 
few notes in the Eev. E. B. Savage's Yocabulary of Murray, Mabuiag, 
and Daudai (ms. 7). (2) Some phrases and sentences at the end of 
Sir "W. MacGregor's Kiwai vocabulary (22). (3) A few sentences and 
hymns printed for Mission use, by Eev. E. B. Savage. We believe that 
as a matter of fact the translations were partly due to a Miriam native 
teacher. The greater part of the latter, is printed in the Specimens of 
the Daudai Language. 

It is very evident that what is known of Daudai Grammar has been 
obtained by means of the Miriam language. The Eev. E. B. Savage's 
Yocabulary has the Miriam, but no English equivalents to the Daudai 
words, whilst the translation and hymns correspond word for word, 
and often inflexion for inflexion with the Murray versions. For these 
reasons it is obvious that too much stress cannot be laid upon the 
accuracy of what is here set forth, and much is certainly left for 
further explanation and exhibition. 

In this sketch notes taken from MacGregor are marked (b.), those 
from Savage's ms. are marked (ks). 

Dialects. 

The words given in Savage's ms. represent the western portion of 
the district in which the Daudai language is spoken, though some 
words are marked as representing the dialect in use at Perem (Bampton 
Island) or at Kiwai. The vocabularies of D'Albertis and Beardmore 
represent the language about the mouth of the Binature or Katau 
river, especially of the village of Mowat (Moatta or Mouatta). 
MacGregor's vocabulary was " drawn up chiefly at the village (on the 
Island of Kiwai), usually called 'Kiwai,' but named by its own 
people 'lasa,' and is "used by aboriginals of Ipisia, Saguana, Samari, 
Mabudamu, Auti, Wiorubi, and Sumai villages." ^ 

" With dialectic differences, the language is understood all over the 
Island of Kiwai, and round the coast as far as the Mai Kusa, and for 

1 Annual Report on Britisli New Guinea, 1890, p. 124. 
E.I. A. PUOC, SEE. ni., VOL. IV. X 



280 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

80 or 100 miles up the Ply river. Kxxbira and Doropodai use a diffe- 
rent language, but many members of those tribes have a knowledge of 
the Kiwai tongue."^ 

The principal dialectical variation consists in the loss of a sibilant 
or guttural in Mowat or Perem, which is retained in Kiwai, 

Example : Sera (k), era (m), breath ; ivisa, wia, buy ; sito, ito, 
outside ; soro, oro, bone ; sopu, opu, earth ; lesere, iuere, girl ; sepate, 
epate, ear ; sio, io, dog ; muso, muo, hair ; loso, loo, fight ; iriso, irio, 
food, eat ; osiia, ou, sky ; siiroma, uramo, north ; snsua, no, wind ; osio, 
oio, young man, etc. 

Kara (k), ara (m), fence ; kerigedio, erigedio, work. 

In some cases the dialects have different words. 

Example : Sai (k), iicio or ihiu (m), day ; irisina (k) ; arimina (p), 
fish; iroidiro (k), erauidiro (k), mitidiro (v), hear; osua (k), om (p), 
aroma (m), sky; damari (k), euri (p), see; didiri (k). auana (p), men;. 
sagana (k), garmmo (31), moon, etc. 

MacGregor notes that "the Sumai people speak very indistinctly, 
and as if the tongue were folded, and they slur over the words so as 
to produce many contractions which puzzle the ear at first." ^ 

§ I. — Alplialef. 

1, Vowels. — a as yd. father ; & an in at ; ^ as « in date ; e as in let ; 
i as ee in feet ; ? as in ^Y ; as ow in own ; as in ow ; u as 00 in soon ; 
M as in tip. 

The orthography of Beardmore's ms. is very uncertain, and in many 
words difficult to make out. The consonants present little difficulty, 
but the vowels and diphthongs are sometimes puzzling, as the indeter- 
minate English spelling is used. Thus the syllables da, de, di, do, du, 
are written, dah or dar, day, dee, dow or doh, doo. The short sound of 
the vowel is expressed by doubling the following consonant : — Terrico 
for t^iko, dubhi for diihi, attah for ata. We have transcribed Beard- 
more's vocabulary in the uniform orthography. 

Besides the vowels given above, there seems to be in Mowat a 
broader sound. In Beardmore's ms. this is frequently written or, oar, 
or ar. Thus, tvoworgo for wowogo, dorhee for doli, loor for loo, torp- 
orloar for topo-olo. Beardmore also, in some Mowat words, wrote u 

^Ibid., p. 124. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 281 

"where D'Albertis used o, and vice-versa. Mortu for moto, moh-or for 
■muo, do-or for duo. Beardmore also used o for short a. Toggaha for 
tagaa, gohha gohha for g&bagaba. 

2. Diphthongs. — at as in aisle ; au, as ow in cow. 

Beardmore usually has y or i for ai, ow for au. Savage apparently 
uses ou for axi. 

3. CoNSONAi^is. — Ic, g ; t, d; p, b; w; s, z; h; r, l\ m, n. 
Beardmore and D'Albertis often have gh where others have g. 

They also use c. In the former it is always equivalent to an English c 
in a similar position, as copo-or for Jcopoa, coolar for kula, cow-e-tar-too 
for Tcawitato^ care for hea. D'Albertis uses it also for Jc in camicami, 
for hamihami, cunaro for hmaro, caco for haho ; hut in ace it is possible 
that the Italian c or English ch in chin may he intended, especially as 
Ic is written before e in other words, healcea, Tcersimae^ etc. 

D'Albertis has I for Savage's u and Beardmore's lo. Ibiu for min 
or iwia^ olera for ouera or icera. In one case he has v for m, vi'^r* for 
uiari. 

In ^20(?/«(? for soX-e, D'Albertis has tz for s and ch for X*. It is 
douhtful whether h should be used. It is written hy Beardmore and 
D'Albertis, and in a few words in Savage's irs. MacGregor only uses 
it in the words sihua, polio, tumaho, and hanualoi. The last is a ITotu 
word. 

§ II. — Pronouns. 

1 . Peksoa'al : 

These are declined by means of suffixes. The cases found are the 
JS"ominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, and Ergative. 

(«) Nominative. — The simple forms of the pronouns are as follows : 

Singular, 1, mo, I; 2, ro, thou; 3, nou, he, she, or it. 

Plural, 1, nimo, we ; 2, nigo, you; 3, nil, they. 

For mo and ro, MacGregor writes Mou and rou 

Dual and Trial forms also appear thus : — 

Dual, 1, nimo-to, we two; 2, nigo-to, you two; nei-to, they two. 

Trial, 1, nimo-ili, we three; nigo-ili, you three; 3. 

Nimo-to and the trial are given only hy MacGregor. Savage has 
nimo'ihi-na with the possessive as the equivalent of the Miriam posses- 
sive meriha, so that it appears as a special form for the inclusive ratlier 
than as a trial. 

z2 



282 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The instrumental forms of the pronoun do not appear. MacGrregor 
has nimo-sirio, nigo-sirio, we all, you all. 

(5.) Accusative. The objective or accusative case does not differ 
from the nominative except in its position in the sentence. 

(c.) The Genitive or Possessive case is irregularly formed. 

Singular, 1. mo-ro ; 2. ro-ro ; 3. nou-na. 

Dual or plural, 1. nimo-ta, nimo-na, nimo-ihi-na ; 2. nigo-nai ; 
3. nei-nai. 

Ro does not appear as a possessive suffix elsewhere in Daudai. I, 
may he compared with the Miriam ra. The suffix na in nou-na. 
nei-na, nimo-na is the same as that used with nouns. The plural 
forms nimo-ta, nimo-ibi-na, nigo-nai, nei-nai are given by Savage who 
also has a 3rd dual, neito-nai. Nimona is only found in the text. 
MacGrregor gives oro as well as roro, for thy ; oro tu, thy hand ; oro 
epuni, thy head. In the plural both MacGrregor and the text have the 
simple form of the pronoun as a possessive. JVimo kigiro, our life ; 
tiimo tu (k), our hands ; nigo moto, your house. 

(d.) The Dative of the personal pronouns is shown by the suffix 
-gido. This is usually added to the possessive of the first and second 
persons singular, and to the simple forms of the other pronouns. It 
is translated "to" or "for," and in some phrases is difficult to dis- 
tinguish from an accusative. 

Singular, 1. moro-gido, mo-gido ; 2. roro-gido, ro-gido ; 3. nou- 
gido. 

Plural, . 1. nimo-gido ; 2. nigo-gido ; 3. nei-gido. 

Ro mogido tcosa, thou givest to me ; nimo tiohoi rogido erudomoti, we 
here pray to thee ; gesona nougido sihomuguruti, good (it is) to believe 
on him ; nei nougido orirai ouato satauro, they hanged him on the cross ; 
noil nimogido uarahai, he helps us ; Mose emetiodoi neigido, Moses com- 
manded to them. 

Some sentences given by MacGregor are : — Moro gido oosa, roro 
{gido) oosa, nou gido oosa. These are translated — I give you, thou 
givest you, he gives you, etc. In the plural — 7iimo gido oosa, nigo gido 
oosa, nei gido oosa. The first two of these agree with the above if 
divided, mo rogido oosa, ro rogido oosa, but the remainder present a 
difficulty, gido being used as if a pronoun, " you." 

{e.) The Ablative is shown by the suffix -gaut, from. In the first 
and second person singular it is joined to the possessive form. 



Kay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits— 11. 283 

Singular, 1. moro-gaut; 2. roro-gmit ; 3. nou-gaut. 

Samuito lepera-tanar oritorai nougaut, quickly the leprosy departed 
from him. This is the only example found. 

(/.) The Ergative is shown by the suffix -gomoa, which corresponds 
in meaning to the Miriam -dog and Saihai -lia, and may be translated 
"with." The suffix is added to the possessive in first persons. 

Singular, 1. moro-gomoa ; 2. ro-gomoa ; 3. nou-gomoa,no-gomoa. 

The only example is : — Eleriti uaramai mcmahu, nougomoa numa' 
bnia, take away the false thing, with him (is) the real thing. 

(y.) The equivalents of the Miriam haralalu, ttiabu, talabu are 
expressed in Savage's ms. by means of the word imarai, joined to the 
personal pronouns. 

Mo-imarai, myself ; imarai, thyself ; no-imarai, himself. In the 
text : — nou noimarai kigiro, he himself is life. 

The MS. also gives simarai, himself, but, in the text, simera is 
"yourself." Oguitogu! simera arapoi nougido muguru buaraigo, Go I 
show yourself to. him the sacred chief. 

2. Interrogative PROiioirNS : 

The personal interrogative is Botur ? who ? (MacGregor, betiiro ?) 
This is declined like the personal pronoun nou. Botu-na f whose ? 
hotugido ? to whom ? Who ? is used in asking a person's name as in 
the Melanesian languages. Ro paina ro beturo ? or, Ro paina heturo ? 
who is your name ? (k). Savage has however Bedar roro paina ? 
what is your name ? 

What ? is ebeta ? beda ? or bedar ? MacGregor gives also boro, and 
nunamabu, and the examples : Neleta, nebetaro ? what is this ? 
Nebetarerea/ro ? what is that ? Beda mutu noosari ? what do you want 
for this ? leda didiri rogu ? what man comes ? Ebeta is declined, 
Ebito-gido '? for what ? why ? 

The only example in the text is — Bedar roro paina ? what is thy 
name ? 

3. Demonstrative Peonotjns and Adjectives : 

The MS. does not distinguish between the nearer and remote 
demonstratives this and that, but the words given are goina, goi noma. 
Abara, abra, now, appears as a demonstrative equivalent to " this" in 
abra-sai (k), to-day ; abra-duo (k), to-night. Cf. Miriam, abele. 

MacGregor has tatari, this, but the word is properly an adverb, 
"near." He also gives gido, mosia, that. 



284 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Wou tau goina arago (ks), lie said this ; goina tau iporigai (ks), that 
is finished ; sirio aruhi nougido ogii goi dirimorogaut (ks), many ni(^n 
came to him from that country. 

4. IwDErns^iTE PEOifoms's anb Adjecxites : 

Ata, natura (k), another ; gotaonaosa (k), each ; leturo (k), some 
others ; niriihiro (k), any one ; arua (ks), some ; nauto nari (k), all 
the same ; sirio, many, plenty. 

§ III. — Xouns. 

1. NoTJN FOEirs. — A verb may be used as a noun Tvithout change of 
form. Nou Tcigiro, he lives ; nimo kigiro emadi, our life (he) bought. 

In Mark i., 44, the ablative suffix -gaut is used to form a noun in 
karadahiti-gaut, a sign. The whole phrase, however, in which it 
occurs corresponds so closely to the Miriam, that it is probably a mere 
imitation and not an idiom. 

Cf. Karadahuti-gaut ro tau dodiai, 

with atame-lam mama emetu idigiri. 

sign thou finish heal. 

Adjectives when used as substantives appear to have a terminal 
na. Geso, good ; gesona, a good thing ; durupi geso numabu, gesona 
uaito uagoria, the body is a good thing, (it is) good (to) carefully look 
after it ; gesona nougido sihomuguruti, good (it is) to believe on him ; 
geso ouera, a good word. The demonstratives goi, goina show the same 
distinction. 

The persons performing an action or ];ossessing a quality are indi- 
cated by the words duhu, man, or aruhi, people, following or preceding 
tbe verb or adjective. Ahidiru duhu, an oarsman ; koropa aruhi, sick 
people ; arichi uihu, black people. So also in MacGregor's list of tribes 
Kadowaruhi, Kaiau people ; Tudoruhi, Tud people ; Aitaruhi, Dararubi 
etc. 

The suffix idai is also found with names of people, and may be the 
Saibai idaig. Cf. in MacGregor's list : Bawanidai, Dauan folk ; 
Bigomidai, Boigu folk ; Saihodai, Saibai folk. A few words show the 
Saibai laig in the form raig. Moaraigo, Moa people ; Badaraigo, Badu, 
people. 

Many words in the list of tribes end in darimo. This is probably 
the word dirimo, land. Hence, Bawaredarima, Dauar land ; Naki- 
daritno, Nagir land ; Baramodarimo, Perem land, etc. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 285 

2. 1^'uMBEE. — The dual is shown by the numeral netoa. Moro tuo 
netoa, moro airo netoa, your two hands, your two feet. 

MacGregor states that in Kiwai the plural is sometimes formed by 
adding ro to the singular. Some words in the vocabularies to which a 
plural meaning might be assigned end in ro, though they are not given 
as plural. Such words are dirimoro (ks), dirimo (k), land ; dodo (k), 
beach, shore ; dodoro (k), coast. 

In the text the plural is formed by the word mabu following the 
noun. Mabu literally translates the Miriam gi%, and has the same 
meaning of "origin or foundation." luio malu, days; koimi mabu 
(Mir. haimeg giz), disciples. 

The adjectives sirio and rorodia are also used to express the plural. 
Sirio aruhi a numabu, many men and things ; sirio tanar, every act. 

Some nouns appear to have an irregular plural. Dubu, a man ; 
urubi, didiri, men ; orolo, a woman ; upi, women. 

These methods of expressing the plural are sometimes combined. 
Iwio mahu rorodia, all the days ; sirio sai mabu (k), many days ; arubi 
mabu keahe a arubi uibu, arubi numabutato a sirio buaraigo, white men 
and black men, poor men and chiefs. 

3. Gendee. — There is probably no gender. There are no examples 
of the method of distinguishing sex. 

4. Case. — The noun is declined by means of suffixes. The cases 
found are the Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Ablative, 
and Locative. 

(«) Nominative. — This is the simple form of the noun. 

(b) The Accusative does not differ in form from the Nominative, 
but is known by its position following the verb. Oradubu atauti sirio 
numabu, God made many things ; nou dodiai sirio horopa artibi, he 
healed many sick men. 

Often, however, the accusative precedes the verb as in Miriam and 
Saibai. Kigiro agiuai, give life ; moto odoro, enter the house ; wadura 
waopo, prepare the pipe. 

(c) The Genitive or Possessive is shown by the suffix -na. Oradubu- 
na mere, God's son ; lesuna ouera, Jesus' word ; girop-na numabu, 
thing of the heart ; didiri-na ouera, men's word. 

id) The Dative is formed by the suffix -to or -ito. Savage's ms. 
gives ou-to for Mir. kotor-em, to heaven ; opu-ifo, to the world, Mir. 
^eseb-em ; mauro-ito, to a place ; Mir. uteb-em. 



286 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

In tlie text, Nimo nau oputo aue iuio Sabath, we to one place come- 
great Sabbath day. In MacGregor, oromoito, to deep water ; potoito, 
to shallow water. The suffix -gido, used with pronouns, is found 
with Proper nouns also. Ogu lesugido, come to Jesus ; erudomoti 
lesugido, pray to Jesus. 

{$) The Ablative is shown by the suffix -gaut, from. Opu-gaut, 
from the ground ; solo mere-gaut, from a little child ; roro %ugu moto- 
gaut, from thy holy house ; sirio dirimorogaut, from many lands ; 
Oraduhu na mere ougaut ororua, God's son came down from heaven ;. 
uha tanar eheriti nimogido girop-gaut, bad deeds take away for us from 
the heart ; sirio daricbi a mimahi notma tuogmit, many men and things 
(are) from his hand. 

(/) The Locative appears to be formed by the suffix -ato. It is 
apt to be confused with the Dative. 

lesu oiiato omiei, Jesus dwells in Heaven ; poputo omiei, to kneel,, 
rest on knees ; nou teapariato omiei, he stayed in a barren place. 

§ IV. — Adjectives. 

1. Many adjectives are used in a simple form as uha, bad; eTce, 
small ; geso, tvade, good ; auo, big. 

2. Adjectives are formed, as in Miriam, by the reduplication of a 
noun. Tamatama, thin, skinny, from tama, skin ; ipuipu, dirty, from 
ipua, dirt ; ururu, deep, from ur, sea. 

In many cases the root of a reduplicated adjective is not separately 
found. Borohoro, rotten ; galugalu, cold ; Jcolohoho, weak ; uniumue, 
whole, entire ; torutoru, easy. 

The usual effect of reduplicating a simple adjective is to intensify 
the meaning. Ekeluri (k), little ; ekehuriehehuri (k), very little ; 
auo, big ; auoauo, very big. 

3. Adjectives expressing the negation of a quality are formed by 
the suffix -tato, which corresponds in meaning to the Miriam hilc, 
Saibai igi. Kawilcawi, crooked ; hawitato, straight, not crooked ; 
iuaitato, dislike ; numaiutato, poor, no things. 

Some times the ordinary negative pua is found instead of the suffix. 
Adina pxia (m), bad, not good. 

4. The suffix -na seems to form a noun from an adjective. See 
Nouns, 1. 

5. Adjectives are also found with a suffix -imi, but the meaning is 



Eay & Hat)Don — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 287 

not clear. It often appears with adverbs. -Oo</o, doffoaitni, doguawii,. 
yet, still, continually ; sopuimi, short ; taga/ra, taga/raimi, old ; tuturu, 
tutiiruimi, all ; natura, naturaimi, another ; soho, small ; soptiimi, 
short, low. 

5. There is a kind of adjectival suffix, ia, which gives the meaning 
of "real, true, or very," when added to a noun. Oraduluia, real 
or true God. 

§ V. — Verhs. 

1 . Most verbal roots commence with a vowel. When they do not 
so commence, it is probable that a prefix is present or that the word is 
a compound. 

2. Verbal Forms : 

(a) Causative. There is one example in the hymns of a causative 
formed like the Miriam by means of the dative suffix. This is the 
word erapo-ato, to make strong, from erapo, strong. 

(b) Negative. The JS'egative is indicated by the adverb pua, pai,. 
or puai not, preceding the verb. Sai puai emereuti, sun does not 
shine ; puai oroto, not cry ; pai ha/ramarago^ not scold ; nimo pai Tcorio, 
we do not play. 

{c) Interrogative. This is shown only by the use of the Interroga- 
tive pronouns or adverbs. 

{d) Quotations. The word gebo is the equivalent of the Miriam 
hega, Saibai, Iceda. Nougido a/rago, gelo, mora diriuo, ro dodiai, said to 
him, thus, my wish, thou (art) clean. 

((?) There is no substantive verb. 

3. There is very little data for the study of the moods and tenses 
of the Daudai verb. MacGregor gives some forms for the Kiwai with 
the remark that "the inflection of verbs is apparently complicated, and 
is not mastered." A few notes are found in Savage's Vocabulary. 
Others may be gathered from the text. All these show that the 
verbal root is modified by prefixes and suffixes to express variations of 
mood, time, and number. 

4. Mood : 

{a) Imperative. This does not appear to differ from the indicative. 
Uaito dama/ri ! carefully consider ! Oguitogu ! go ! So also the prhiobi- 
tive : Puai arago ata didiri ! don't tell any man ! Toretato ! fear not ! 

{h) Infinitive. The infinitive is shown by the word no preceding 
the verb. Nou nimogido uarabai no geso tanar auagati^ he teaches us 



288 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

to do good actions ; 7iimo nauoputo no erudomoti, we assemble to pray ; 
nitnoihina girop omiei no uha tanar eberiti^ abide in our hearts to take 
away bad deeds. 

(c) Besiderative. A wish is expressed by diriuo. Mo diriuo 
emopuU roro gem tusi, I wish to read your good book ; nimo diriuo 
higiro, we wish to live. 

The negative is diriuotato, or pai diriuo. lesu pai diriuo nimo no 
oriai, Jesus does not wish us to die. 

{d) Potential. A kind of potential is expressed as in Miriam by 
the word umoro, to know how ; in the negative, timorotato. lesu 
umorotato tamai airogu goina dirimorogaut, Jesus could not openly walk 
about that country ; 7no umorotato, I cannot. 

{e) Subjunctive and Conditional. These are indicated only by the 
conjunctions. 

5. Time: 

In Savage's MS., and in the text, the verbs undergo no change to 
indicate Tense. MacGregof gives the verbs go, give, eat, and preach, 
in Present, Past, and Future. An analysis of his examples shows as 
follows : — 

(«) The Present is the simplest form of the verb. Oosa, give ; ogu, 
go ; iriso, eat ; totomo auera, preach. 

(J) The Past has the prefix n-, in all persons and numbers : — 
Mou duduata nogu, Nimo duduata nogu, I, we went. 

Rou duduata nogu, Nigo duduata nogu, Thou, you went. 

Nou duduata nogu, JVei duduata yiogu, He, they went. 

Moro gido suhuba tao noosa, I gave you tobacco. 

Roro nori tao niriso, Thou atest sweet potatoes. 

Moro totoma tao nauera, I preached. 

In these examples duduata is a noun " yesterday," and tao a verb 
'' finish." 

(c) The Perfect is shown by the verb tao. Savage uses tau to 
form a past, and also as a separate verb, " to finish." HacGrregor has 
tao with all the examples of oosa, 7ioosa, in the past. Hou gido sukuba 
tao noosa, he gave you tobacco, etc., and also with the verbs " to eat, 
preach." See examples above. 

The text has : Nou tau ogu, he has come ; goi7ia tau iporigai, that 
is finished ; nou tau edea nouna numabu, he has put down his things. 

{d) The Future is shown in MacGrregor's examples by the suflix -ri. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 289 

Nou gido suhuba dogo oosari, he will still give you tobacco ; nimo gido 
suhuha dogo oosari, we will still give you tobacco. 

With the verbs " to eat" and "to preach," the suffix -ri is used 
with the prefix n-. Moro nori dogo nirisori, I will still eat sweet 
potatoes ; moro totoma auera dogo narogori, I will preach, I will 
preaching word still say. 

In the singular number of these verbs "eat" and "preach" 
MacGregor's examples have the forms moro, roro, instead of mou and rou. 

In the text the particle no seems to mark the future. Nimo no 
oguitogu, we will go ! lesu pai diriuo nemo no oriai, Jesus does not 
wish that we sball die. Cf. Remarks on Infinitive Mood. 

(e) Continuance of an action is shown by the word dogo, yet, con- 
tinually. Nei dogo aue amadi, they continually rejoice; dogo oiiito, 
gradually grew up. See also examples in future {d). 

6. l^UMBEE AND PeKSON : 

Some verbs are marked as plurals in Savage's Vocabulary, but they 
are so few that they cannot be classified. 

Sing, aidimai; Plur. aradimai, to cover. 
„ aru ; ,, iboriti, to sow. 

In MacGregor's example of the verb "to go," there appear 
prefixes varying with the number and person of the verb. Thus ai, 
ogu, meaning go ; ahrasai and doguaimi, to-day ; duduato, yesterday ; 
dudua, to-morrow, we have the following : — 

Present : 
Sing. — 1. Mou abrasai doguaimi nai. Plur. — 1. Nimo ahrasai nimairi. 
,, 2. Rou abrasai doguaimi «ai. ,, 2. Nigo ahrasai imairi. 

„ 3. JVou abrasai doguaimi nsi. ,, 3. Nei abrasai vimogMiri. 

Past : 
Sing. — 1. Mou dudtcata nogu. Plur. — 1. Nimo duduatanogu. 

,, 2. Rou duduata nogu. ,, 2. Nigo duduata nogM. 

,, 3. Nou duduata nogu. ,, 3. Nei duduata nogu. 

Future : 
Sing. — 1. Mou dudua wai. Plur. — 1. Nimo dudua nimairi. 

,, 2. Rou dudua wairi. „ 2. Nigo dudua imaS.r%. 

,, 3. Nou dudua nnXri. ,, 3. Nei dudua vimsdri. 

Probably with a fuller knowledge of the language the exact 
meaning of these variations may be explained. 

7. DlHECTIVES : 

It is probable that certain particles are used as directive prefixes, 
but their exact determination is difficult. 



290 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Oro, down. Orodoli, to set (of the sun), go down; ororua, come 
down ; orogurio, to blow ; m'omiado, to sit down. (D'Albertis has omiay 
to sit, and oiiiiei in other vocabularies is given for stay, remain.) 

Ori, up. Oriboa, to stand up. 

Oto, away. Otohoa, to leave ; otumai, to send away ; otoai, to cut 
down (away). MacGregor has mdo-ogu, go away. 

Cf otigi, to put out ; otoi, to leave ; ototoro, to tear ; otaauti (k), to 
divide. 

Benu. Bemipedudi, to believe ; le7iumuguruti, to repent. 

8. Suffixes : 

Certain syllables are commonly affixed to verbs which sometimes 
appear without them, and hence they must be regarded as suffixes. 
Such syllables are ti, di. Aratoro, arotoridi, ask ; arogo, aroguti, 
speak ; auodi, auoduti, pour ; bodoro (Mir. deskemer), lodorodi (Mir. 
deskemereda), persecute. 

There is also an appearance of suffixes in the words aurai, auamOy 
to prick, sew ; epuriio, to hide; emeretds, to scorch; emereuti, to light up. 

Several verbs denoting mental operations end in diro. Erauidiro, 
iroidiro, mitidiro, to hear; kitamodiro, to teacli; atamudiro, to inter- 
pret {atamiiai, teach) ; meragidiro, emeragidiro, to remember, think. 
Iroruodiro is "to drown." 

9. As an example of the variety of verbal forms we give the verb 
ogu^ go, as it appears in the vocabularies. Unfortunately, the compilers 
of these have rarely given the exact shades of meaning, 

(k). Auto-ogu, go away ; mi-ogu, bring ; hutdu-ogu ? where are 
you going ? ogu, come, walk ; im-ogo-riano, to beckon to come ; ragot- 
ogo, to beckon to go ; rogo, go ; wiroguri, he comes ; nitariguro Kananiy 
Kanani comes. 

(Savage iis.) Aguitogo, go (Mir. kei hakeam) ; air-cgu, walk ; 
arogoto, go ; gxdt-ogu, go ; kim-ogu^ bring ; n-ogo-dumo, go ; ogu, go ; 
ogu-nita, go, (Mir. kei tahakeani), ogu-itogu, gone ; ogu-nita, came. 

(D'Albertis). Agoitogo, walking; nitago-ogo, coming, 

§ VI. — Adverbs. 
1 . Inxeeeogative : 

(a) Place. — Boro? where? Buaraigo boro'^ Where is the chief ? 
Gabo boro ? Where is the road ? 

MacGregor also has : Pe boigaro ogu ? Where has the boat gone ? 
Butauogu ? Where are you going ? 



Eay & Haddon — T//e Languages of Torres Straits — II. 291 

(h) Time.—Bedaiuio ? When ? What clay ? 
■ {c) Cause. — Ehitagido ? Why ? What for ? Ehitagido nou oriai? 
Why did he die ? 

{d) Number. — Bedamota? (ks), bedanmtu? (k). How much? 
How many ? 

The word ledar or leda (k) translates the Miriam naho ? Beda 
didiri rogu ? What man comes ? 

2. Place : 

Naitawatawa (k). here ; noloi rom (k), here ; gonou, there (Mir. 
dali), noloi, there (Mir. penoka) ; neletaromi (k), there ; gido (k), 
further ; gaime, distant ; giatoa (k), distant ; mureso, far off ; uru, uru 
■ajpuo, out of sight ; uapureto, next ; taugo (ks), first ; dogole, round ; 
eregetei (k), downwards; uege, back, alongside ; osua (k), upwards. 

3. Time: 

Ahara, now ; oiti, then ; diidiio, to-day ; ahrasai (k), to-day 
{(Iraduo (k), to-night ; duo, in the night ; araporio, near sunrise 
dudueri, duduaere (k), in the morning ; duduo sai (k), to-morrow 
tvaraoit or uaro-ito (m), to-morrow; (^o^^'o, dogoaimi (k), by-and-by 
duduata, duduata sai (k), yesterday ; duotau (m), yesterday ; duomutu 
(k), day before yesterday, day after to-morrow ; duatata, on the third 
day; tagara, tagaa (m), for a long time, long ago; nanito, always; 
iporigaitato, unending, for ever ; sai siro, every day, daily. 

4. Mani^er : 

Dopi, likewise, also ; dogo, yet, continually ; mina, again, always ; 
garigari, in vain; menae, secretly; uaito, carefully; naturai, only; 
nouororo, like ; tamai, openly. 

§ VII. — Postpositions and Local Nouns. 

1. The use of the simple postpositions, used as suffixes, have been 
illustrated in the sections on Nouns and Pronouns. 

They are ro, na, of ; gido, to, ito, to, for ; gaut, from ; ato, at, in ; 
gomoa , with, by. 

2. As in Miriam and Saibai, some nouns are used with suffixes to 
indicate positions. Those found are : ou, sky, top ; niro, inside ; iri, 
back ; magumo, bottom ; tatari, a place near ; turi, middle. They 
appear as ouato, above ; niroato, in the inside ; iriato, under ; irito edea, 
put behind ; magumoato, under ; tatarito, to near ; turiat, among, 
between. Sito, outside, is probably a word of the same kind. 

3. Other words given in the vocabularies as equivalents of the 



292 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

English, prepositions are : Apuo, beyond ; goloromi, at ; paa, paha, 

with, in company of, equal with ; pope, along with, equal to ; ro, 

with ; stigu (p), outside ; wabutu, behind. Uagecliai, around, is also a 

verb, to surround. 

§ VIII. Conjunctions. 

1. E, also, and; nuairomi, whether, or; numada, if; goinagaut, 

from this, because, for ; gelo, thus, saying ; gedageli, gedogiho (k), so, 

like, as. 

§ XI. — Exclamations. 

le ! yea ! lyvuuo ! (k) Farewell ! 

§ X. — Syntax. 
"Words seem to be arranged as in Miriam and Saibai, but the texts 
available are too scanty to afford much guidance. 

§ IX. — Numerals and Measures. 

1. NtTMEEALS. — Only two distinct numerals appear to be in use. 
These are : nau, nao (k) one ; and netau, netoa, or neteiva (k) two. 

MacGregor gives them repeated for higher numbers, tlius : Netewa 
nao, three ; netewa netewa., four ; netewa netewa nao, five ; netewa 
neiewa netewa, six ; netewa neteiva netewa nao, seven ; netewa netewa 
netewa netewa, eight ; netewa netewa netewa netewa nao, nine. For ten 
and numbers above he also gives modohoima, modohoima nao, etc. In 
these modohoima is probably a hybrid word composed of the Motu ima, 
hand or five, and the Daudai word modobe, to complete. It would 
thus mean the hands or the finish of the hands, i.e. all the fingers. 

Savage's lis. has potoraimi, four. 

The English numerals will no doubt be introduced. Thri for 
" three " is used in the text. 

2. Measttre. — The only unity of length is the fathom, dodobu, 
measured as in JJiriam. 

§ XII. — Points of the Compass. 
These are given thus : — 

N. or X.W., suroma (k), uramo (m). 

S. sie-raragoro (k). 

S.E. tiroa (m), susu-rarugoro (k). 

S.AV. sia (k). 

E. dibiri-duha (k). 

W. sie (k), irara-sukumai (k). 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 293 

XII. — Specimens of the Daudai Language. 
1. — The Healing of the Lepek. 
{MarTc, i. 40-45.) 
{From the Rev. JE. B. Savage's translation.) 

40. Nougido ogunita ata leper a, a poputo omiei, a 

To him came a certain leper and on knee sits and 

nougido arago, geto, numada ro diriuo, ro umoro mogido 

fo him ask thus if thou wish tkou can me 

dodiai. 

heal. 

41. Jesu nougido nirimogari, a tuo otuturo, a nougido 

for him pity [had) and hand stretches out and him 

orogiama, a nougido arago, gebo, Moro diriuo ; ro dodiai. 

touches and to him says thus My wish thou heal. 

42. IS'ou tau goina arago, samuito lepera tanar oritorai 

He finish this saying quick leper fashion rises up 

nougaut, a nou dodiai. 

from, him and he is healed. 

43. Jesu nougido emeteodoi, a nougido emeriai, a nougido 

to him comtnands and him sends away and to him. 

arago, gebo. 

says thus. 

44. Uaito damari ! puai arago ata didiri ; oguitogu ! 

Carefully look not speak another person go 

simera arapoi nougido muguru buaraigo, a agiuai irio 

thyself show to him holy chief and give food 

numabu Mose emeteodoi neigido ; karadabutigaut ro tau 

thing Moses commands to them a sign thou finish 

dodiai. 

heal. 

45. Lepera oguitogu, a mabuedea no ouera arago, a 

Leper goes and begins to word say and 

arago uagediai ; goinagaut Jesii umorotato tamai airogu 

says around through that catmoi openly zvalk 

goina dirimoro ; nou teapariato omiei, a sirio arubi nougido 

thai coutitry he j« barren place stays and many men to him 

ogu goi dirimorogaut. 

cam.e that country froyn 



294 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academi/. 



2. — OEADrBr. 
{From the same as preceding .) 
Oradubu atauti sirio numabTi — sai, a iioog, a opu, a 

God Tnakes all things day and animals and earth and 

•Oil, a oromobo, a didiri. Xou noimarai kigiro. Ata didiii 

sky and sea and man. He himself life. Other Tnan 

pai atauti, umorotato. Sirio anibi, a numabn nouna tiiogaut. 

not make cannot. Many men and things his liandfrom 

Xou iributi arubia, a sirio tanar opuato. ^JsTou nimogido 

He takes knozv ledge of men and all dcings on earth. He us 

auo nirimogari. youna mauro ouato. Xou pai diriuOj 

greatly loves. His dzvelling in sky. He not Tvish, like. 

gumasa tanar. Xou dogo meragidiro arubi rorodia, a 

^\had actions. He continually remembers men all and 

neigido agiuai aue geso numabu, giropna numabu. Xou 

to them. gives many good things of heart thing. He 

uaito erauidiro didirina ouera kudu. !Xou Oradubuia. 

■carefully hears men's speech. He True God. 

Gesona nougido sibomuguruti. Baba eso ! yimo au amadi. 

Good thing to him to believe. Father thanks. We greatly rejoice. 

3. — Jesxj. 
{From the same.) 
Jesu Oradubu na "M'ere. Tagara, nou ororua opuato, no 

yesus God's so?t. Formerly he carne down to earth to 

■arapoi Oradubu na gabo. Nou dogo omiei sirio urate, 

show God's path. He remained stayed ?na?iy year 

sobo meregaut. Nou erhaigiri Betblihenci, a dogo opito. 

little from child. He vcas born and gradually grevu up. 

Pai uba tanar auagati. Xou dodiai siro koropa arubi — 

No bad action did. He healed many sick persons 

togiri, damaruperi, a sirio durupi tematema. Uba arubi 

sliaking blind and many bodies sick. Bad TTien 

nougido opio para Saturo. TJapureto, thri sai, nou mina 

him struck dead cross. Afterwards three days He gain 

kigiro oritorai, a ioro ouato. Ebitagido, nou orichiai ? Xo 

life rose and ascended to heaven. Why he die. To 

eberiti nimo gumasa mabu. Nou nimogido uarabai no geso 

put away our evil nature {origin). He us helps to good 

tanar auagati. Gesona nimo uaratai. 

■actions do Good thing vae pray. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 295 



4. — SlRIO POHO. 

{Symns. From the sheet of Hymns. Bibliography, No. 20. For com- 
parison, the corresponding Miriam version is added from the Symn- 
BooTc, No. 13.) 
Daudai. 
2. Ebudomoti. 
1. Baba, nimo noboi, 

Father we here 

Eogid erudomoti : 

to Thee fray 

E.0 pai araribia, 

Thou not put out 

Mmo diriuo kigiro. 

We wish life. 

E,o nimo mitidiro, 

Thou us hear 

Nimo roro uaratai 

We Thee pray 

Au numabu midobo, 

Great thing suitable 

No nimogido uagori. 

to for zis care for. 

Nouna Oboro Zugu 

His Spirit holy 

Nimogido agiuai, 

to us give 

Nimogido erapo 

us strong 

luio rorodia. 

days all. 

Nouna gabo arapoi 

His path show 

Nimogido arubi ; 

for us men 

Uareuo nimo girop, 

open our heart 

E,oro ouera mitidiro. 

Thy Word hear. 

E.I. A. PEOC, SEE,, ni., VOL. IV. 



90. Sajbath. 

1. Baba, keriba ike, 

Marim esorerapar : 
Ma nole ki imuda, 
Ki edede lagelag. 

2. Ma keribi asoli 
Keribi mare damos 
Gaire lu abkoreb 
Ko keribi nagri 

3. Ma keribi ikuar 
Mara Lamar Zogo 
Ko keribi saserim 



Gaire geregere. 



4. Mara gab natomelu 
Keribim uridili 
Diski keribi uerkep 
Ko mara mer asoli. 



296 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

42. UlABA KO OBAPIT KOIOE GE. 

1. ileriba au sererege 
Ade ra mer nagri, 



5. Oeobai Oxtato. 

Meetiiig Above. 

Ximn dogo au amadi 

We still greatly rejoice 

lesu na ouera 

Jesus's Word 

Arubi girop uarui 

men heart turned 

ITba eberiti. 

bad taken away. 

Tau Tesu nirimogari 

Finished love 

Ouato Sataiiro, 

on cross 

Sirio nouna koimi 

all His follcnuers 

Orodai ouato. 

meet above. 

Xumada nimo koropa, 

If we sick 

Aue tematema, 

great pain 

A nimo iuaitato 

and -we not like 

Goina opuato, 

(to be) this land zn 

Nimo dogo au amadi, 

We still greatly rejoice 

A lesu au eso, 

and greatly thank 

Goinagaut nimo umoro 

because iL'e know 

Orodai ouato. 

meet above. 

Arubi maou keake, 

Men vuhite 

A arubi iiibu ; 

and men black 



Le la nerkep depegili 
A uite giz adem. 

Emetu lesu erapei 
Tumeme satauro 

Gaire abara uerem 
Obapit kotor ge. 

Ese meriba gimegim 

A au asiasi 
A meriba obogai 

Abele geseb ge ; 
^Meriba au sererege 

A esoao Adim, 
Abelelam meriba ko 

Obapit kotor ge. 

Gaire kakekake le 
Pako golegole ; 



{ 



Hay & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 297 

Gaire le nole lu kak 

A gaire Opole ; 

Uiaba lesu ra uerem 



Arubi rmmabutato, 

7nen poor 

A sirio Buraigo. 

and many chiefs. 



Nei Oradubu na mere 

They God's Son 

Sibomuguruti, 

believe. 

Sirio dirimorogaut, 

many lands-frovi 

Orodai ouato. 

meet above. 

Puai oroto noboi, 

Not cry there 

Pai karamarago ; 

not scold 

Nei puai durugeri, 

they not hungry 

Puai tematema. 

not sick. 

Nei dogo aue amadi, 

They still greatly rejoice 

Sirio sai mabu, 

every day 

Sirio lesu na mere 

All Jesus's children 

Orodai ouato. 

meet in heaven. 

9. Iesu Oeoetja. 

Jesus came down. 

1. Oradubu na Mere, 

God's Son 

Ougaut ororua, 

from heaven came down 

No kigiro agiuai 

to life give 

Arubi rorodia. 

men all. 



Gaire gedelam, 
ITiaba uridili ko 
Obapit kotor ge. 

4. Nole ezoli abele, 

Nole ataparet, 
Uiaba nole uererege, 

Nole asiasi ; 
Uiaba au sererege 

Gaire gereger, 
Gaire lesu ra uerem 

Obapit kotorge. 

24. Iestj Ade ea Uerem. 
1. Iesu Ade ra Uerem, 
Kotolame uatabu, 
Ko edede nakuare 
Le gize uridili. 

y2 



298 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 

2 



2. Au tauar kauitato 

Great actions right 

lesu uaito arapoi 

carefully show 

Nou nimogido uosa 

He to tis gives 

NoTina geso jauali. 

His good Book. 



Gaire tonar barkak 
lesu natomertare : 

E meribi nakuare 
Abara jauali. 



Nou satauro oriai, 

He cross died 

Nou mina oritorai, 

He again rose 

Nou ouato omiei, 

He in heaven sits 

No nimogido auri. 

to for us. look 



3. E emetu eumida : 
E edede akaida : 
E emri kotore ge, 
Kg meribi dasmere. 



Nimo aue uaratai 

We greatly ask 

Nouna Oboro Zugu, 

His Spirit holy 

Nimogido uarabai, 

us help 

luio rorodia. 

days all. 



4. Meriba abi damos 

Abara Lamar Zogo 
Meribi upinati 
Gaire geregere. 



10. IeSTJ NA XlEIMOGAfil 

Jesus' s love. 

Satauro ! Satauro ! 

Cross Cross 

Kimo dogo eso, 

We still thank 

lesu ovato oriai, 

upon (zV) died 

No kigiro uosa. 

to life give. 



22. Sataijeo Dukiapoe. 
1. Satauro ! Satauro ! 
Meriba esoao, 
lesu emetu eumida 
Mi edede nakuar. 



Bay & Haddon— J7?e Languages of Torres Sfraifs — II. 299 



2. Au nirimogari 

Great pziy 

lesu nimogido ; 

for us 

lesu ouato omiei, 

z« heaven siis 

'^0 nimo uarabai. 

to -US help. 



3. lesu pai diriuo 

not wish 

Mmo no oriai ; 

T,s to die 

Nou ninio nirimogari, 

He us loves 

iN^inio rorodia. 

us all. 



2. lesii mi omare 

lesu mi aseser 
lesu kotor ge emeri 
E meribi dasmer 

3. lesu nole la kak 

Meriba eumida 
E gaire le au omare 
Le giz uridili. 



4, ISTimo eberiai 

We cast avjay 

Aue uba tanar, 

many bad actions 

JSTo lesu geso Buraigo, 

to good chief 

Auri kauitato. 

follow right. 



4. Mi naba ademe 

Gaii'e adud tonar 

Ko lesu debe Opole 

Irmili barkakem. 



5. lesu geso Masta, 

good Master 

Nimo atamuai 

us teach 

Eoro diiiuo auogati, 

Thy ■wish do 

Sirio sai mabu 

all days. 



5. lesu dcbe Kole 
Ki ereuereme 
Mara lagelag ik 
Gair gereger. 



300 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



XIII. — Datjbai and English Vocabulaet. 

This Vocabulary, of some 2000 words, is compiled chiefly from the 
MS. Yocabulary of Rev. E. B. Savage (ms. 7), the Mowat Vocabularies 
of Haddon (ms. 2), and Mr. E. Beardmore (iis. 1), and has been 
greatly extended by the Kiwai Vocabulary of Sir William Mac Gregor 
(Nos. 22 and 23). Words have also been added from the texts (Nos. 
19, 20), and from D' Albertis (No. 9). ir indicates the Mowat dialect ; 
MB, the Mowat of Beardmore ; p, Perem ; k, Kiwai of Mac Gregor ; 
K8, the Kiwai of Eev. E. B. Savage; f, mouth of the Fly Eiver, from 
some MS. notes by the Eev. James Chalmers, relating to some 
ethnographical specimens, many of which are in the British Museum ; 
the figures in brackets refer to the illustrations of these objects 
in Ethnographical Album of the Pacific Islands, by Edge Partington 
and Heape (vol. n.). A few words have also been added from 
Domori Islands in the Fly Estuary. 

abara (m), w. to-day. 

abara, abra, ad. now. 

abarkai, v. to come. Mir. tabarki. 

abea (m), n. a woven bag, like a net. 

abera, n. father. Cf. baba. 

aberaburu (k), n. aunt. 

aberuti (k), v. to boil ; obo aberuti, v. water boils. Cf . bibiriti. 

aberuti (k), v. to leak. 

abidiro, abidiru (k), v. to paddle. Cf. aibi. 

abidiru dubu (k), n. oarsmen. 

abo (k), w. house posts. 

abodo (k), n. a song. Cf. wasare, poho. 

aboriora (mb), to micturate. 

aborohi, n. good spirits who inhabit the Megapodius mounds. They 
come to men in their sleep, and tell them where to find 
dugong, turtle, and fish, and where to make fruitful gardens. 
Ann. Eep. 1894, p. 58. 

abraduo (k), n. to-night. 

abrasai (z), n. to-day. Cf . doguaimi. 

adabuai, v. to marry ; a. married. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 301 

adabuti, v. to meet in one place, to add, to spell, to place one upon 

the other, 
adagauri, v. to step over, 
adiga (m), adigo, n. an armlet of rattan worn to defend the left arm 

from the bowstring, 
adimo, n. evening ; afternoon. Cf . erasugumai. 
adina (m), a. good, 
adina-pua (m), a. not good, bad. 

adiowera, adiowara (m), n. good talk. Cf. adina, wera. 
adipirudureru (k), a. bright, 
adiriti, v. to smear, to anoint, 
ado (k), n. a cap. 
ado, V. to allow, 
adorowa (k) = adoruti. 
adoriiti (k), v. to thatch (?) ; weri adoruti, weri adorowa, v. to make a 

roof, 
aga, n. an anchor, 
agaba (?) agaba teriko (m), v. to cut with a tomahawk ; agaba giri (m), 

V. to cut with a knife, 
agadioti (ks), v. to stir up. 
agamu (m), n. the cheek. Cf, ogomu. 
agareba (m), n. a fern used as food, 
agasipi (k), n. a turban, 
agati (k), v. to wave, of feathers, 
agiriti, v. to haul. 

agiwai, v, to give. Cf. ua, uosa, nimoria, noosa. 
agoago (k), n. a yellow dye. Cf. so^ora, madira. 
agoita (m), v. get out of the way. 
agoitago (m), n. walking, 
aguitogu = Mir. kei bakeam. 
agumaaakai (p), n. a charm stuck in a canoe when going turtle or 

dugong fishing (pi. 203). 
agurabai (?) 
agurabuti (k), v. to pluck ; pasa agurabuti (k), v. to pluck feathers 

from a bird, 
agurubai (k), v. to dig. 

ahima, v. to go in a boat, to pass over the sea. Mir. atiem. 
ahera, n. a centipede. 



302 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

ahamna, v. to arise. 

ai (k), v. to go. 

aibi (m), n. a paddle oar; abidiro (k), aibidira (m), v. to paddle; 

abidim dubu, n. oarsmen. 
aida (p), n. motber. Cf. man, ida. (Also given as k by Mac Gregor.) 
aidimuti, t. to eboke. 
aidomai. v. to cover (sing.), 

aiena (m), n. a species of snake (Saib. elma), tbe same as bigu. 
aimagoiti, conj. then, so that. 
aiodori (k), v. tide goes do-mi tbe river, 
aipura (k), n. a handle. Cf. dudu, dudupo. 
aira (m), n. tbe lower limbs. 

airerea, v. to have, get, possess. Mir. nagri. Cf. iriuia. 
airimaheruo, a. bright, shining. (Mir. zorom). Cf. airimerua. 
airimerigodoi (k), v. tide goes out. 
airimenia, n. lightning, 
airimetaruti, v. to look round. Mir. egeU. 
airioridoro (k). v. to rise, of the sun. Cf. oritorai. 
airo, n. the foot : airona, stocking (?), Mir. teter wali ; airo gabo, 

sole of foot, shoe. Cf. sairo. 
airodori (?) 

airogabo, n. sole of foot, shoe, 
airogo, airogu, r. to ^valk, to walk about, 
airoriro (k), r. tide comes in. 
airororo = Saibai, gurgui uzar, Mir. digemili (zs). The meaning is 

not given (probably means going round about. Cf. airoriro). 
airorosoriauti (k), n. ache, 
airupata (m), n. the feet. Cf. airo. 
aiwadi (?) misprint for amadi. In (ks) given as equivalent to Mir. 

sererge. 
amadi, v. to rejoice. Mir, sererge. 
amaditi, v. to biad round, 
amahaudia, v. to go down. 

amahiri, amairi, v. to squeeze, press together, connect, join, 
amamurika, v. to fight, 
amario, v. to fast, go without food, 
amawitu (k), n. a venomous snake, 
ame (?), n. a kind of dye. 



Bay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits— 11. 303 

amedei (k). a. inland, to the bush. 

ameduti (k), v. to t'ndst, of a snake. Cf. garamaduti, amaditi. 

ameopuro (ii), n. a gourd for carrying lime. 

amesosogoro (f), n. a charm, shaped like a sausage, fastened to the 
holes in the rim of the ear of lads when initiated, made of 
young frond of sago palm, and dyed with ame (pi. 193, 4). 

amiaupu, n. a bottle (? water skin.) 

amiditi (k), auera amiditi, n. a rumour. 

ami-igerai (ii), v. to haul taut. 

amiopuru (k), n. a lime gourd, = ameopuro (m). 

amo (m), n. the breasts; milk, (k). 

amoiopo (m), n. the mammas. Cf. amo, iopu. 

amoisi (k), v. to suck, of a child at the breast. Cf. amo. 

amu (m), = amo. 

amura (e), oi. the bird of Paradise, Paradisea Raggiana. 

amutia v. to put out the hand or foot. Mir. itir. 

anega (ir), n. Calladium esculentum ; taro. 

apararubi n. a guest, a stranger. Mir, sub le. 

aparatara, n. an ant. 

apate (ii), w. = epate. 

aperarubi (k) = apararubi. 

apisau (e), n. a spider. Cf. gaira. 

aporu (m) = epuru. 

apuo, prep, beyond, on the other side of, Mir. apek ; n. a part, remain- 
der. Mir. kaier. 

aputi = Mir. atatko, Saib. malan (es). 

ara (ii), n. a fence. 

araberumo v. to fight, to strike. Cf. korodia. 

aradimai, v. to cover over [plur.). Cf. asidimai. 

aradiri (ii), n. red eai-th. 

aragiria (m), v. fight hira. 

arago, v. to speak. 

aragotai, aragoto, v. to carry on the shoulders. 

araia (m), n. heat, sweating. Cf. era, eraia. 

araigii-i, v. to be born, to go out. (Mir. osmelu). Cf. erhaigiri. 

aramiditi v. to keep one waiting when another has sent him. (Mir. 
bamesili, Saib. nurai). 

aramorubi (k), n. God, apparently from aromo, sky, and arubi, man- 
kind. Cf. oradubu. 



304 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

arapoi, v. to show. 

arapori, araporia, v. to differ, to divide. 

araporio, n. time near sunrise. Mir. gereger osakeida. 

ararabia, araribia, v. to cast out, to thrust out. 

ararupo, v. to burst. Mir. arperik. 

aratabuti (k), a. all. 

arategere (k), v. to carry under the arm. 

aratiaiado, v. to taste. Mir. tepdesker. 

aratoro, v. to ask [aratorodi, aratorodoi]. 

arawai, v. to clothe. Mir. ami. Saib, angai. 

ari (m), v. to sing. 

ariaga (m), n. a fishing line. 

aribamo (k), n. a species of banana. 

arigiti (k), v. to scratch, shave. 

arigoita (m), v. to get out of the way. 

arima, n. blood ; arima ne, dysentery. 

arimina (pm), n. a fish. Given as K also by Mac Gregor. Of. 

irisena. 
aro (m), n. a large rattan cane. 

arogo. V. to speak ; to ask, bid (e) ; 71. a message (k). 
arogoto, V. to go. 
aroguti, v. to speak. Cf. arogo. 
aromi (?) 
aromo (m). n. beaven, the sky. Said to be inhabited by white people 

with white hair and beards, 
aromorubi (k), n. the inhabitants of aromo ; n. earthquake. Cf. 

momorua. 
aru, V. to sow (sniff.). Cf. iboriti. 
arua, a. some. Mir. uader, Saib. durai. 
arua (m), n. a species of snake (Saib. tabu) ; erawa arua (m) ; n. a 

poisonous snake, 
arubi, n. mankind (ii) ; many men (ks) ; an assembly (k). (Mir. gaire 

le.) Cf. dauari, auarubi. 
arubia, v. to fly. Cf. uarubia. 
arumo, n. the penis. 
arumo (k), n. a heavy thunder shower. 

aruo, n. neck. (Given in Savage's Voc. as equivalent of Mir. tabo.) 
asidimai (k), v. to cover. Cf. aradimai. 
asio (e), v. to cut with a knife. Cf. itouti. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 305 

asio, V. to sneeze. 

asioro (k), v. to bale ; obo asioro, to bale out water. 

asisopu (k), n. the armpit ; asisopu-muso, the hair of the armpit. 

asumo (k), n. a variety of sweet potato ; keakea asumo, a white variety ; 
dogodogo asumo, a red variety. 

ata, a. another, other. 

atamuai, v. to teach. 

atamudiro (k), v. to interpret, translate. 

atapia (m), n. paper. 

atari (k), n. the lobe of the ear, (when long and torn). Cf. usia. 

atatiai, v. to detest, hate, be disgusted with. 

atauti, V. to make. 

ateria, v. to out-run, to pass by. 

atima (Domori), 7i. cap used by Obere, bush tribe, in dancing and 
fighting (pi. 191, 3) ; atima-ata, net worn by Obere on head 
when in mourning for parents or wife (pi. 191, 2). 

atio (m), n. a fern. 

ato, suffix, in, at, on. 

atiimiai (k), v. to fill up. 

atumiai, v. to catch fish. 

aturupo (k) (f), n. the bowl for the waduru or pipe (pi. 188, 1;. 

au (?), au-tuburo (m), n. the stomach. 

auagati, v. to do, make. Cf . wogati. 

auaguama, v. to speak ill of, (Mir. desauersili. Saib. gegedopugan.) 

auana (p), n. a man. Cf . didiri, arubi, dauari. 

auarubi (p), n. many men. Mir. gaire le. The Mir. le giz is trans- 
lated by the Daudai dauari. 

auaruo, v. to sew. 

aue, a. tight, fast, firm. 

aue, a. plentiful, numerous. 

auera (k), n. speech, language; quera amiditi, 7i. rumour. Cf. ouera. 

augaruharuru, v. to follow. Cf. ougi. 

aula, a. bigger. Cf. Mir. kale. 

aumaro (k), n. a species of banana. 

auo, a. large, great, big ; auo obo, n. deep water. Cf. oromoito ; auo 
pe, n. a ship. 

auo durupi dubu (e), a. corpulent, lit. big body man. Cf. Motu, nuana 
bada, corpulent, lit. his belly big. 

aiioauo, a. very large. 



306 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

auodoi, V. to spill. 

auodiiti, V. to spill. 

auogu (k), v. to bring. 

auomaro (k), n. a species of banana. 

auoto, V. to plait. 

aurai, anri, v. to put forth. 

anti (?) otaauti (e), v. to divide. 

autoogu (x), 'V. to go away. 

autuburo (m), n. the stomach (D'Albertis). Cf. auo, tuburo. 

awadau, n. a species of banana. 

awado (?) tepetepe terisi awado (e), v. to flog. 

awaia (k), n. a jDelican. 

awo (k), a jelly fish. 

awogu (m), v. come here. Cf. ogu. 

awua (m), n. plenty. Cf. ane, auo. 

awugo (f), n. belt worn by young men. 

Baba, n. father (in vocative only). Cf. abera. 

baga = bago ; bagamuo (m), n. the beard. 

bage (k), n. white shells (?). Cf. bata. 

bagi (m), 71. a belt worn in a dance ; a girdle (k). 

bago (m), n. the chin ; bagamuo, n. the beard. 

bagoro (k), 7i. a variety of sweet potato. 

bagu (m), = bago. 

baika, baiko (k), 7i. a trade bag, a sack ; auo baiko, large sack ; sobo 

baiko, small sack. (Probably introduced from Eng. bag.) 
bana (ii), n. a partner (in dance), 
bane inatoroa. Mir. be iwaokai, streaks of light at simrise. Cf. Mir. 

be, iwaokai. 
bani, n. the faint light before daybreak. 
banc (k), n. a long, thin centipede, 
bara, ». a sheet of metal. Cf. malili, mariri. 
barahoro (ii), w. the ribs. Cf. barasoro. 
barako (k), n. a variety of yam. 
baranedo (k), n. a variety of banana. 
barasoro (k), n. the ribs. Cf. barahoro. 
bari, n. the end (k), n. blade ; point of a palm frond ; bari-ato, at the 

last, until. 



J 



Kay & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 307 

baribari, a. young, of a coconut. 

baroma (k), n. a pig. 

basabasa (k), n. a net for fish. 

bata, n. a girdle, belt; a long band used for carrying firewood ; cuirass 

of cane. (Mir. wak.) ; bage bata (k), a leather belt; poto 

bata (e), a belt with white shells. Cf. bagi. 
bata (k), a. thick, 
batamere, (p), n. a frontlet, 
be, 

bedaiuio ? an interrogative particle. Mir. na ? 
bedamota ? bedamutu (k), ad. how many ? Mir. naket ? 
bedana (k), ^ro». which one. 

bedar ? ^row. interrog. what ? Mir. nako. Cf . bertu. 
begube (f), Jew's harp. Cf. pekupe. 
benupedudi, v. to think, believe. Mir. odaratare. 
benumuguruti, v. to repent. Mir. obazgeda. 
beo (m), the liver, 
her, n. a boar's tusk, 
bereburo (m), n. a girl, 
berego (k), n. a variety of banana, 
beromamu (f), n. a kiad of arrow, 
berseai (k), v. to throw away ; leave of£ ! Cf . isiro. 
bertu (m), ^row. what ? 
besere, beseri (es), n. a girl, an unmarried woman ; daughter (e). 

Cf. bueri. 
besi, a. slow, difficult, moist, heavy (of the eyes). Mir. beber, wapum. 
beturo (e), pron. interrog. who ? Cf . botur. 
beu (e), n. the liver ; imuru beu (e), n. the spleen, 
bibiriti (e), v. to boil (active) ; iro bibiriti, to boil food, 
bidibidi (e), n. a pendant of shell worn from the neck. ?dibidibi. 
bidu (e), n. a shark. Cf. biju. 

bigi (m), n. the coccyx ; the loins (e) ; the back (Beardmore). 
bigu (m), n. a species of snake, so called by the bush men. (Saib. 

elma.) 
biju (m), n. a porpoise. Cf. bidu. 

bio (f), n. post of house on which trophy-skulls are suspended, 
biroro (m), n. scolding, (D'Albertis). Cf. wiroro. 
boa (e). n. a variety of yam. 



308 Proceedings of the Eoyal L'is/i Academy. 

bobo. n. a lagoon, a pool ; a bog, STramp (k) ; an excavation, well, 

water bole (e) ; obo-bobo (s), a lagoon, 
boboku (f), a kind of arrow^. 
bobua (? bobo), edea bobna (k), n. a grave, 
bodoro, n. tbe breast ; tbe chest, bosom, 
bodoro, V. (? to bunt or persecute) in Savage's ms. as equivalent of 

Saibai wakaean, Miriam deskemer. Plur. bodorodi = Mir. 

deskemereda. 
boia (k), n. a variety of banana. 
boigaro (?) 

bomakiwa (f), n. boar's tusk "woi-n as a pendant from neck. Cf. boromo. 
borne (f), n. a headdress worn in fight and dance. 
boo (m), v. to fight. Cf . boso. 
borguborgu (k), n. baggage = burgoburgo ; borguborgu srrio (k), n. 

■wealth or property (plenty of baggage). 
boro, ad. interrog. where ? 
boroboro, a. rotten. 

boromapoa, n. a dance held before a pig hunt. Cf. boromo. 
boromo (k), n. a variety of banana, 
boromo (m), = baroma, buruma. 
boso (k), v. to fight; n. war; boso didiri, n. a warrior; wasare boso, 

n. or r. whistle. Cf. boo. 
botama (ii), n. cloth ; kari botama, n. white cloth, 
botuna, pron. interrog. whose ? 
botnr, pron. interrog. who ? 
bramgerama, bramgerima (m), n. sister, 
buama (k), n. the cowry shell. Ovxdum. 
buaraigo, n. a chief. Mir. opole, tarim le. Cf. mamoosi. 
bubu (k), «. a fog. 
bubuama (k), n. a variety of banana. 
bubuere (k), n. a cloud, 
bubugiro (k), n. a variety of banana, 
budano (k), n. a variety of yam. 

buere (p), «. a girl, an unmarried woman. Cf. beseri. 
bu^rmeri (p), buere-mere (m), ??. a little girl. Cf. buere, mere, 
bugomu (k), n. a cicatrix. Cf. nato. 
buku (k), n. an owl. 
bumese (k), n. a white Hly. 



Rat & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 309 

burgoburgo (k), ??. baggage. 

burkoma (e), n. "v^hitebait ; burkoma orobai, v. to catch whitebait. 

buroburo (f), n. the cylindrical drum with amiular ends (pi. 189, 6). 

bum (k), v. to break. 

buru, a. empty ; obo-buru, empty of water. 

bum, n. the outside ; buru-mouro, the outside of a place. 

buruma (ir), n. a pig. 

buruma (k), 7i. a variety of yam. 

burumamaramu (f), a bull-roarer : when used all women and children 
leave the village and go into the bush. The old men swing it 
and show it to the young men when the yams are ready for 
digging (May and June). The name evidently signifies "the 
mother of yams " (pi. 201, 2). 

bururu (Domori), n. a headdress used in dancing and fighting. 

busere (k), n. a girl ; busera (p), a young girl. 

butauogu (k), v. where are you going? 

dadara (?), dadara dubu (k), n. a fool. Cf. karatai duba. 

dadu (k), n. a bunch of grass tied on a pole and stuck up on a canoe, 

hence, a flag, 
dagoi (ir), n. a head-dress made of cassowary feathers worn in 

dances, 
daguri (k) (f), n. a head-dress of black feathers. Cf . dagoi. 
damari, n. the eyes (Mir. pone) ; the eyeball (k) ; damari muo (ir), n. 

eyelash or eyebrow ; damari tama, eyelid (k) ; damari gede 

(k), n. ophthalmia. 
damari, v. to shut the eyes, to consider. (Mir. erkepasam.) 
damarupere, a. blind. Mir. sadmer. 
damedame (e), to swim. 

damo (k) (?), oromo damo, n. the ocean. Cf. oromo. 
dajDurkup (ii), n. a necklace. 
daradari, a. foolish. 
darapi (?). 

darimo (m), n. a house for men. 
dau (m), sago. 

dauari, n. men. (Mir. le giz.) Cf. auarubi, arubi. 
daunomu (k), a stone axe. 
dawane (k), w. the summit. 



310 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

debiridaguri (Domori), w. short head-dress worn in dancing and fight- 
ing (pi. 191, 4). 

dewara (k), n. the yaws. 

di (k), n. a pig net. 

dibadiba, n. a dove. 

dibi, a. full. Mir. osmeda. 

dibidibi (m), n. the round shell ornament. 

dibiriduba (k), n. the east. 

didididi, a. fast, quick ; v. to be quick. 

didii-i (ks), n. man, mankind; men (k). Cf. auana, dauari, arubi. 

diridiri (k), a. brown ; n. a variety of sweet potato. 

dirimo (k), n. the ground. 

dirimoro, «. land, country. 

diriovo (k), a. venomous, of snake ; n. a venomous snake. 

diriuo, v. to desire, to wish ; diriuo-tato, pai diriuo, a. unwilling. 

diro. 

diruo (k), n. or v. purpose. 

diware (k), = diwari. 

diwari (m), n. the cassowary. 

diwari (f), n. dagger made of leg bone of cassowary, also used for 
opening coconuts (pi. 193, 2). 

doa, V. to murmur (Mir. wekuge) ; don't want to go (m). 

dobari (m), = dubari. 

dobi (m), = idobi. 

doburu (m), n. the pelican. Cf. awaia. 

dodiai, v. to save, to heal, 

dodo, n. a bed. 

dodo, n. the shore, beach, coast, land. Cf. dodoro, tuturuo. 

dodobu (k), n. a fathom. 

dododenamati (m), v. to forget. 

dodogonimati (k), v. to forget. 

dodonamatigi, v. to forget. Mir, okataprik. 

dodoro (k), n. the coast. Cf. dodo, tuturuo. 

dogo, n. a torch, flame, lamp. Mir. be. Saib. buia. 

dogo, ad. yet, still, by and by, continuously (Mir. mena) ; v. imperative, 
hold on ! wait a bit. (Mir. warem.) 

dogoaimi (k), ad. by-and-by. 

dogobe (k), a. round ; dogobe sagana (k), n. full moon. 



EiAY & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 311 

dogodogo (e), a. red ; dogodogo asumo, n. a red sweet potato, 
doguaimi (e), n. to-day. 

dokatota (k), v. to hack, said of the sago palm, 
dokitotiti (k), n. the fireplace frame in a house, 
dopi, n. the stomach. Mir. kem. 
dori (f), n. a headdress worn in the dance only, 
dorogra, a. false, 
doto (e), n. the hip. 

don (k), n sago ; dou iopn, a cone of sago ; dou tarame, n. sago in a 
small roll; isi dou (m), n. cooked sago. Cf. siahu. " Sago is 
prepared by the women ; it is put up in small rolls about two 
inches in diameter, called ' dou tarame,' and in large bundles 
about one foot or nine inches in diameter, and about three feet 
in length, wrapped round in leaves, and stiffened by the midrib 
of sago leaves tied on to it. These bundles are called ' dou 
siahu.' It is eaten roasted in leaves or on the coals, or made 
into a pie with clams in the shell." — Mac Gregor, Report, 1890, 
p. 40. 
doua (e), v. to kill (a mosquito). 
dri (m), n. a white feather head-dress, 
driomoro (m), n. earth, soil. Cf. dirimoro. 
dua. 

duatata, ad. the third day since, the third day hence, 
dubari (m), n. banana. 

dubi (m), n. the upper part of a water spout, 
duboro (e), n. pandanus ; duboro pasa, n. pandanus leaf ; tiro, n. mat 

made from pandanus. 
dubu, a. male ; n. a husband ; man (m). 
dudi (e), n. the mainland on the right bank of the Fly Eiver. 
dudu (e), n. a handle ; a fanshaped tomahawk. Cf. dudupo, aipura. 
dudu (e), n. a reed, 
dudu (e), n. a variety of banana, 
duduaere (e), n. the morning, 
duduaereta (e), n. the fore-noon. 

duduata (e), n. yesterday ; duduata sai (e), n. yesterday, 
duduere, ad. in the morning. 

duduo, ad. yesterday, to-morrow ; duduo sai (k), ad. to-morrow, 
dudupo (e), n. a handle, Cf. dudu, aipura. 

K.I. A. PKOC, SEK. III., VOL, IV. Z 



312 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

dumehe, n. a roTv of men, a generation. Mir. nosik. 

dunini (k), (?), in Mac Gregor's voc. given for ' squirrel,' but there 

are no squirrels in Kiwai. 
duo, n. night, ad. in the night. (D'Albertis gives duo, day.) 
duomuto, duomutu, n. to-day (m) ; ad. the day after to-morrow, the 

day before yesterday ; after. 
duotau (m), 11. yesterday ; 
dupamutu (f), n. a kind of arrow, 
dupu (m), n. elephantiasis. 

dujugere, v. to be hungry ; n. hunger ; obo durugere, a. thirsty, 
durugi (k), v. to dine, 
durugi, 71. darkness ; a. dark, 
durugidurugi, a. dark, 
durupi, n. the body ; trunk or stem of a tree ; durupi-nibo, n. a 

perfume, lit. body scent. (The Mir, geme-lag has the same 

meaning) ; uibo durupi (k) an albino ; durupi tato (k), a. feeble 

(no body) 
durupiwoa (m), a. lazy. 



E, conj. also, and. Mir. pake. 

ea (k), n. a spade. 

eamo (k), v. to squeak, of birds. 

eberiai, ad. away ; v. to put away. 

eberiti, v. to cast away, to throw away. 

ebeta, pron. interrog. what ? what thing ? Mir. nalu. 

ebia, v. to break. 

ebiari, v. to be unable. Mir. nab. Saib. ian. 

ebiba (m), n. stone. Cf. nora. 

ebitagido, ad. interrog. how ? why ? lit. for what thing. Cf . ebeta, 

gido. 
ebonupoe (k), n. the heel. 

edamari = damari, idamari; edamari muso (k). eyebrow, 
ede (k), n. a snake ; kiso ede, n. a snake said to be poisonous, 
edea, v. to put, to place, to put down ; to bury (k) ; edea bobua (k), 

n. a grave. 
ediai (m), v. to come up from below, 
ege, n. (? the outside) ; ege auana, n. heathen. Mir. nog le. Cf. buru. 



Ray & Haudon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 313 

egediuti (p), v. to stir up. Cf. agadioti. 

egethia (k), v. to put the burning tobacco into the mouth to blow 

smoke into the waduru. 
eka (k), 11. lime ; white paint ; eka iriso, v. to eat lime, 
eke (k), a. little, 
ekeburi (k), a. little, young ; n. a remnant ; ekebure obo, n. shallow 

water, 
ekeburiekeburi, a. very little, 
emaaiiopu (k), n. stone axe, 
emadi, v. to buy. 

emado (m), n. the leg ; emadu-kako (m), n. the tibia, 
emapura (k), n. son-in-law. 

emaserue (k), lightning. (? lightening in MacGrregor's list.) 
emera, v. to leave, put aside, 
emeragidiro, v. to think. Cf. meragidiro. 
emerewis, v. to scorch, 
emereuti, v. to lighten, to light up. 
emeriai, v. to send ; to give up ; leave m. 
emeriuidiro, v. to lighten, light up. 
emetiodoi, v. to speak, to pour out words, to command. (Mir. mer. 

tigri.) 
emeuti, v. to make straight, to adjust, judge, 
emherai, v. to stop any one from fighting. Mir. daismuda. Saib. 

guduadan. 
emiserai, v. to comfort, console, 
emoa (m), n. a stone hatchet, 
emoaiopu (f), n. the stone of the old stone axe, now placed round 

graves, " but it is not now known what they were used for in 

the long ago." (pi. 198, 2.) Cf. emoa, iopu, emaiiopu. 
emoputi, v. to count. Cf. oputi. 
emososiriti (e), v. to tie a man by the hands, 
enadi (e), v. to shake hands, 
eneauri (x), v. to see. Cf. idamari. 
eneene (x), n. a small brown ant. 
epate (m), n. the outer ear. (Mir. laip.) Cf. sepate. 
epe (m), v. a fern. 

epeduai (x), v. to throw, to throw the tete, Cf. berseai, isiro. 
epi(?) 

Z 2 



314 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

epidabia (k), n. the ring finger. 

episuromoroa (k), n. a door. 

epoo (k), v. to plant. Cf. ibauti. 

epora (it), n. enclosures of wood. 

epuko (ir), n. the head. 

epurkod, n. a hat. Mir, aper. 

epuro (M), = epiim ; epuro-muo, n. hair (of head). 

epuru, n. the head ; skull ; epuru muso (k), n. hair (of head) ; epuru 
temeteme, n. headache ; epuru ivi (f), n. frontlets worn by 
old men. 
epnruo, v. to take away, to hide, 
era, n. fire ; light (k) ; era ota, fire wood ; era itai (k), v. to roast. 

era eragido itai (k), v. to warm. 
era (k), n. a snake, said to be poisonous, 
era, hera (p), n. breath; eratato, a. without breathing, continuous. 

Cf. sera, seratato. 
erabai (p), v. to grasp, catch. Cf. orobai. (Mir. erpei.) 
eraera, n. heat, sweat ; a. hot. 
eragumito, v. to burn. Cf. era, fire, and suffix ito, 
eraia (m), v. to roast. 

eranapar, v. to take breath, to rest. (Mir. nerezi.) Cf. era. 
erape uibu (k), n. coal, lit. steam ship charcoal. Cf. era, pe, uibu. 
erapo, a. strong, well. Mir. saserim. 
erapotato (k), a. strong. 

erasugumai (k), n. evening, sunset. Cf. adimo. 
eratato, a. continuous, Kt. without breathing. Mir. nerkak. 
erau, n. anger. 

erauidiro (ks), v. to hear. Cf. mitidiro. 
erawa (m), a. poisonous ( ? fierce) ; erawa arua, n. poisonous snake. 

♦ Cf. erau. 
erawabu (k), n. a venomous snake, 
erawo (k) n. a variety of yam. 

ereberiai, v. to rise, as the sun ; n. sunrise. Mir. gereger eupumada. 
eregedioti (k), v. to hang, 
eregeduti, v. to fall, 
eregetei (k), ad. downwards, 
eregeti, v. to lose, to fall, [eregetidi.] 
eregetuti, v. to destroy. Mir. eogerdi. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 315 

erehia (m), a. tired. 

eremeterai, v. to turn round. 

ereno, inter, an exclamation of wonder or surprise. Mir, waiai. 

eresa (k), n. a border or edge. 

eresapua (k), n. half. Cf. sapua, 

ereta ( ?) 

erhaigiri, v. to go out, to be born. 

erigedio (p), n. work. Cf. kerigedio. 

erudomoti, v. to pray. 

esee (k), n. an edible snake, said not to bite. 

esirigo (k), n. the calf of the leg. 

eso, V. to thank. 

esume (k), n. an artery or vein ; skin. 

etaauito, v. to glance. 

ete (k), n. the little finger. 

etebeai (e), v. to double ; to catch (m). 

etebuti, v. to roll up, 

eteturi (m), n. the ring finger. 

euri (p), V. to see, Cf. damari. 

Ga (e), n. a cockatoo. 

gabagaba, n. a stone club. 

gabigabi (k), n. a straw cross belt worn in dances. Cf, genaio. 

gabo, n. a path or road ; sole or shoe ; (airo gabo = Mir. teter gab) a 
gate (k) ; doorway (m). 

gabu, V. to warm one's self. 

gabu, n. cold, (Mir. ziru.) 

gabugabu, a. cold. 

gadi (k), n. fat, flesh. Cf. sirigo. 

gagama (k), n. the spoonbill. 

gagari, n. bow ; bow and arrows ; ' trigger ' gagari, a gun ; a bamboo 
(k). " The bow is made of a piece ef bamboo, nearly an inch 
thick, about two inches broad in the middle and tapering to 
the ends. The inner surface is on the convex side." — Ann. 
Eep. 1890. 

gagi (m), n. an ear-ring. 

gagimere (f), n. an ear-ring worn by all. 

gaime (k), a. distant, far, far away. Cf. giatou, mureso. 



316 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

gaira (k), n. a spider. Cf. apisau. 

gama, n. a cylindrical drum with jaws at one end ; teriko-gama (m), n. 
a piano or other European musical instrument (Beardmore). 

gamada siea (k), n. Piper methysticum. 

gamasa, a. bad. 

gamo, n. the turtle ; gamo soro, turtle shell. Cf . tumanua. 

gamosusu (k), n. a variety of sweet potato. 

gamu (ii), n. a turtle. 

gamuno (m), n. the moon (in D'Albertis). 

ganoni (ix), «. the moon ; ganoni gerger (m), n. the moon (in Beard- 
more Mss.). Cf. gamuno, sagana. 

garahia ( ?) apate garahia (m), n. the di'um of the ear. Cf. epate, gare, 
ia. 

ganopa (k), n. a cavity. 

ganumi, n. the moon ; ganumi mere, n. white people. 

garagaro (f), n. a kind of arrow. 

garamaduti (k), v. to twist, of twine. Cf. ameduti, amaditi. 

garaoro (f), n. loop on which an enemy's head is suspended. 

gare (k), n. the external ear. Cf. sepate, epate. 

garetato (k), a. deaf, lit. without ears. 

garigari, ad. in vain. Mir. sagim. 

garigari (k), v. to loiter ; garigari dubu, 71. a loiterer. 

garo (k), n. a baler, made of the spathe of the leaf of the coconut 
palm. 

garoroa (k), n. a snore. 

gate (k), n. mud ; gato titi, v. to smear or paint with mud in mourning. 
Cf. Saibai bud. 

gatotiti (k), v. to smear or paint with mud. 

gaua (k), n. a creek. Cf. oromo turi, gou. 

gaumabu (k), n. an armlet made of wedgewood ware. 

gaut, suffix, from. 

gebo, ad. sign of quotation, thus, saying thus; Mir. kega. Saib. keda. 

geborara (k), v. to speak, to say. 

geboso (k), n. a noise. 

gedagebi, n. proverbs. (Mir. babisdari mer) ; a. like, the same way. 
(Mir. mokakalam.) 

gede (?) 

gedogibo (k), ad. all the same. Cf. gedagebi. 



Rat & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 317 

gege (k), n. a creseent-shaped breast ornament ; nese gege, a breast 

ornament of pearl shell, 
gemaiopo (m), n. an extraordinary swelling of the glands of the groin. 
gemede, v. to rail at, to abuse, 
gemedi, n. adultery, 
genaio (ir), 71. a necklace or crossbelt of dogs' teeth ; (f) ornament of 

dog and wallaby teeth worn by men and women when they 

fight or dance, 
geradu (k), v. to spit, 
geraduru (k), w. saliva, 
gere (?) 
gesere (k), n. a shrub " grown usually in the (? sweet) potato gardens, 

with leaves nearly like those of the ash, but smaller. Eaten. 

as a vegetable." — MacGregor, Rep. 1890, p. 40. 
geso, gesona, a. good, 
gia (m), n. resin. 

giatou (k), a. distant. Cf . mui'eso, gaime. 
gibo (k), v. to answer, reply. Cf. waratai. 
gidinaro (k), demonst. pron. that, 
gido, suffix, to, for. 
gido (e), a. fiirther ; ad. there, 
gigido (11), n. the spinal marrow, 
gimai (e), n. a white pigeon, 
gimini, n. the back ; gimini-kako (11), n. the spinal column ; gimini 

poa (e), n. the back; gimini soro (k), the backbone. 
gimini (21), n. a sand bank, 
giri, n. an iron knife, 
giri (e), fingers. Cf. igiri, tuigiri. 
gixiopu (e), n. the sternum. 
giromi (e), nJa, variety of banana, 
girop, n. the heart. Mir. nerkep. 
giwari (e), n, poison. 
gobodo (k), n. a variety of banana, 
goboromi (e), prep. at. 
godio (?) 

gogonea (f), n. a large conical fish-trap made from spines of sago palm. 
gogu (e), v. to go. 
goi (?) 



318 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

goina, a. this, tliat, 

goinagaiit, conj. because, for, through, this. 

goinoina, a. this, that. 

goiri (k), n. an oyster. 

goma (Domori), n. a drum. 

gomasai (m), bad. Cf. gamasa, gumasa. 

gomia (?) obo tao gomia (k), n. flood. 

gomoa, suffix, along with, belonging to, with, alongside. (Mir. dog, 

Saib. bia.) 
gonia (k), n. a fish-catcher, made of wicker work, " shaped like a 

candle extinguisher, about 1 8 inches in diameter at the lower 

end, and about 3 to 5 feet high. They chase the fish, in 

sliallow water, and place this implement over it, then press 

the sides together to secure the prey." — MacGregor, Rep. 

1890, p. 40. Cf. gogonea. 
gonimati. 

gono drogu (m), v. are they, is he, is it coming here. Cf . ogu. 
gonou, ad. far away. Mir. penoka, also given as equivalent of Mir. 

dali, he there, 
gope (k), n. a shield^' ; (f), figure-head of a canoe, it gives a good 

passage (pi. 185, 3). 
gopegope (f), w. an ellipsoidal slab of wood carved with designs of the 

human face or person, and hung on a new house for good luck, 
gore (k), 71, the betel nut. 
gorogoro (k), n. a white duck, 
goropo (m), n. a stone club, with star-shaped disc, 
gorumo (k), n. a feather (from the breast of a bird). Cf. pasa. 
gotaonaosa (k), a. each, 
gou, goua, n. a river ; n. a passage in a reef (ii) ; goua bara (k), n. the 

bank of a river ; pari goua (k), n. a drain or ditch, 
gu, n. kinsman, friend, neighbour, probably one of the same clan or 

totem. Mir. boai. Saib. igalaig. 
gubadora (k), n. or a. cold, 
gubiri (k), v. to bury. Cf. edea. 
gubo, n. a path. Cf. gabo. 



* "No shields are used about the Fly Eiver, neither is the spear seen." — 
Chalmers ms. This word is probably introduced. Cf. South Cape, opea, shield. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 319 

gubii (k), n. a hammer. 

gucligudi (m), n. a button, an auger. 

gudoguclo, a. thick. 

guere (k), n. stingaree, sting ray. 

gugi (k), n. a star. 

gugi (k), n. a stone club with round disc. 

gugu (p), n. head-dress worn in dancing and fighting (pi. 192, 2). 

guguba (e), n. a plant " with large five-lobed leaves which are eaten 
cooked. We found this not unpalatable, the taste and feel 
being that of a plant belonging to or allied to Malvacea." — 
MacGregor, Eeport, 1890, p. 40. 

gugurta (e), n. a species of lizard. 

guitogu, V. to go. Cf. oguitogu. 

giimasa, a. bad. 

gumi (k), a. ripe. 

gupuru (k), n. the navel. Cf. Mir. kopor. 

guri (m), n. the forehead ; the face. 

guri (k), n. a shrub ; guri sirigo, n. guri fibre. 

gururu, n. thunder. The noise made by the Aromorubi cutting fire- 
wood. 

Hari (m), v. to sing. Cf. wasare, poo. 

harubi (m), n. = arubi.. 

hera, n. a breathing. Cf, sera. 

heranapar, v. to rest, to take breath. 

heratato, a. continuous (lit. not breathing). 

hoihoi (ii), n. a boy. 

hoUogo (m. D'Albertis), n. bird. Cf. wowogo, uoog. 

bono (ii), 71. gall. 

huhua (m), n. the wind. Cf. susua, uo. 

huraaua (mb), n. a bag. 

la, an emphatic suffix to words ; a. true, real. Oradubuia, true God. 

ia (ks), n. a fence. 

iadohia, v. to speak. Mir. ditagi. 

iano (f), n. a kind of arrow. 

iapo (k), v. to bring. Cf . auogu. 

iaprumu (ir), n. a wig. 



320 Proceedings of ilie Royal Irish Academy. 

iaprupat (m), n. a comb. 

iaxabuti, v. to answer, to speak. 

iare (k), n. an edible snake, said not to bite. 

iaroguti, v. to preach. Mir. okadeskeda. 

iambo (k), c. to fly. 

ianira, v. to so^v. 

iawa (k), n. a tootb, teeth ; baroma iawa, n. a boar's tusk ; iawa 

temeteme, n. tooth-ache. 
ibaba (k), n. a species of beetle, 
ibauti (k), v. to plant. Cf. epoo. 
ibirorogomai (ir), n. evening. 
ibiu (m), n. the snn; ibiu-irogoro (ii), n. morning. 
ibonara (m), n. teeth, 
iboriti, v. to sow (plnr.). Cf. am. 
ibubu (k), n. a variety of banana, 
ida {111), n. mother. Cf. aida. 
ida baba (m), n. mother. 
idamari (m), n. the eye ; v. to see (k) ; idamari duduo (ie), blind, lit. 

eye-dark. 
idi (?), idi sirigo (k), n. a fibre, perhaps a kind of taga sirigo. 
ididi (k), v. to build ; moto ididi, to bmld a house. 
idiidi (k), a. coloured, white and blue, 
idobi, n. crying ; v. to weep, cry. 
idobisuo (k), n. tears. Cf. idobi. 
idopi= idobi. 

igiri (ii), n. the naUs (of fingers or toes) ; claw (k) ; middle finger (k). 
ihehea, v. to pluck, 
iio (k), n. a curlew, 
ima (k), n. the ankle, 
imadi, v. to carry, bear. Mir, tekau. 
imadi (z), v. to rob. Cf. piro. 
imairi (k), (r. to go ?) 
imarai, pron. thyself, 
imo. In Ann. Eep., 1894, p. 59, n. sun. Perhaps a mispiint for 

iwio, or ino. 
imogorumo (k), v. to beckon to anyone to come. Cf. ragotogo. 
imoria, v. to feed. Mir. desisi. 
imoriatorimo, v. to feed. Mir. derasisi. 



I 



Eay & Haddon— The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 321 

imorio, v. to give. Mir. aisuer. 

imuru (?), imuru-beu (k), n. the spleen. 

inaitato, v. to dislike. Mir. obogai. 

ini-ipa, n. noon. 

ino (ks), n. sun. 

inoriro (k), v. tide goes up river. 

io (k), n. the edge (of an axe) ; point of an arrow. Cf. eresa, bari, 

muba, 
io, ad. yes. 

io (p), a. fast, quick. (Mir. wamen). Cf. sio. 
iopu, a. ripe, 
iopu, n. fruit, a seed ; an egg ; gamo iopu, turtle's egg ; wowogo 

iopu, bird's egg ; dou iopu, n. a cone of sago. 
ioputi (k), v. to read, 
ioritoroi (k), v. to return. 

ioro, V. to climb up, to ascend ; to hoist up (m). 
ioto (e), n, an ulcer, 
ipa (k), n. the clam ; ipa soro, the clam shell, used as a knife, and also 

for making lime, 
ipare (k), n. a native pie, made of clam and sago, 
ipauipau (e), a. light green. Cf. sisiasisia. 
iperiti, v. to snatch. Cf. uaigiri. 
ipi, n. a piece, a part. Mir. mog. 
ipipu, a. plentiful, 
ipiriti (e), n. the face. 

ipogi (k), n. a comb, also in Perem and Mowat. 

iporigai, n. end ; v. to finish ; tau iporigai, to have finished. Cf . tau. 
iporigaitato, a. without end, eternal, 
ipu, n. the lips. 

ipua (e), n. dirt. Cf. opu, sopu. 
ipuaipua (k), a. dark blue, 
ipuipu, a. dirty. 

ipusu (e), n. the upper lip. Cf. ipu. 
ipusuata (e), n. the lower lip. 
ipuu (m), n. the whiskers, 
iragido (?) 

irako (f), n. a pillow, 
irao (e), n. an insect. 



322 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

irao (k), n. a variety of yam. 

irao (f), n. a Kiwai pillow used by old men. 

irara (?), irara-sukumai (e), n. the west. Cf. sie, sia. 

iri ? V. to shout, to call. 

iri, n. the underside ; iri-ato, p7~ep. under, underneath. Mir. mud-ge. 

iriato, prep, under. 

iribu (k), n. a variety of banana. 

iributi, v. to take knowledge of, to detect, find out. Mir. opasereret. 

iridou (m), n. cooked sago. Cf. dou, irio. 

irigiri (m), n. the foot. Cf . sairo, airo, igiri. 

irimo (k), n, the name of a tree, the wood of which is used for canoes. 

irio, a many. Cf. sirio. 

irio, V. to eat, to bite. Cf . iriso, topo. 

iriona (p), n. food. 

iripuadoi (k), v. to burn. 

irira (m), a. lost. 

irisai wada (k), n. enemy. 

irisina (ks), w. a fish. (MacGregor gives both irisina and arimina as 

"fish" in Kiwai) ; irisina tudi (k), n. a fish-hook, 
irisino = irisina. 

iriso (ks), n. food ; v. to eat (k). Cf. iris, topo. 
iritocdea (k), v. to put behind. Cf. iri, ato, edea. 
iriuia, v. to have, get, possess. Mir. nagri. Cf. airerea. 
iriveitorai (?), n. power, strength, 
iriwoto (k), v. to hunt men. 
ii'o = irio (k), iro bibiriti, v. to boil food, 
irobouai (k), v. to jump, 
iroidiro (k), v. to hear. 

irorisiai (k), v. to die. Cf. uparu, utua, para, 
iroruodiro (k), v. to drown, 
irosorai (k), v. to crouch. 

irumai (k), v. to call; n. signal (k). Cf. wiroro, koromai. 
isio (?), isio karamatiai (k), v. to carry a child astride on the neck. 
isiro (k), v. to throw away, 
isisaia (k), n. a variety of banana. 
isisira (k), n. plaited rope, string, cord, twine. 
isisira (k), a. sour ; thin, 
isosirai (k), v. to fasten. Cf. mopo, emososiriti. 



Eay & Haddon— r^e Languages of Torres Straits — II. 323 

itai (m), v. to heat; era itai (k), v. to roast ; eraera gido itai, to warm ; 

" kettle " itai (m), v. boil the kettle, 
itira (m), n. cord or twine. 
ito (m), n. a basket, 
ito-dubu (k), a. generous, liberal, 
itouti (k), a. to cut with a knife. Cf. asio. 
itoiriti, v. to bind. 

in, V. to run ; iu uarario, v. to run along with, 
iuea (m), a. inquisitive, 
iui = iuio. 

iuio, n. the sun; daylight (p) ; ipipu iuio, daily ; iuiipa, noon. Cf. sai. 
iuo (m), salutation, good-bye. 
ivi (m), n. rope, 
iwia (m), = iuio; iwia beriai. n. daylight, sunrise; iwia daugemi, 

sundown, 
iwio, n. the sun; iwio-mere, n. all people who have yellow skin, 

e.g. Japanese, Manilla men. 
iwiopoa (m), ?^. a sweet potato, 
iyvauo (k), farewell. 



Kabi, n, a tomahawk, axe ; wari kabi (e), a stone axe. 

kadami (x), n. a shrimp. 

kadau, a. wild, not tame. 

kadaudiro (xs). Given in Savage's ms. as the equivalent of Mir. 

marmar gem. 
kadig (m), n. an armguard. Cf, adigo, kadigo (Domori). 
kaegasi (p), n. charm worn by Osio, uninitiated lads, in dance, 
kago, n. a branch. 

kaiani (x), n. a rat ; a masked dancer ; a variety of banana, 
kaiara (x), n. a species of beetle, 
kairadubu (m), n. a brother, 
kakaba (x), n. a fowl, 
kakau (m), a. crooked. Cf. kauitato. 
kakikawi (x), a. curly, 
kako (ir), (? n. bone). Cf. tukako. 
kameka (x), n. the scrub turkey, 
kamikami (m), n. a waterfall. 



324 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy. 

kanega (f), n. carved wooden implement stuck into trophy-skulls 

(pi. 197, 5, 6). 
kani (k) n. ginger. 

kani (k), n. a leprous spot. Cf. nato. 
kara (k), n. a fence ; pari kara, garden fence. Cf . ara. 
karadabutigaut, n. a sign, mark. (Mir. atamelam.) 
karai (k), n. rope. Cf. sawaivi. 
karakara (k), a. salt ; karakar-aba (ir), n. water not for drinking ; 

karakara obo, salt water. Cf. karokaro, oromoboa. 
karakarai (k), a. bad. 
karamarogo, v. to scold, quarrel, 
karamtiai (?), isio karamtiai (k), v. to carry a child astride on the 

neck, 
karamusio (k), v. to kick, 
karao (k), w. a variety of yam. 
kararo (f), n. "mask worn by men in last stage of initiation; men 

are getting on for forty when these are worn ; they dance with 

these on, and are called oboro (spirits), of which women and 

children are terribly afraid. It is the Semese of the Elema." 

— Chalmers. 
kararu, n. a lath. 

kararuso (k), n. rafters. Cf. kararu. 
karatai (k), v. to know not, be unable. Cf . umorotato ; karatai auera 

(k), a. dumb ; karatai dubu (k), n. a fool. Cf. dadara dubu. 
karaudina, n. clothes. 
kari (k), n. rope. 

kariko (k), n. calico. The English word, 
kari-botama (m), n. white cloth. Cf. botama and kea. 
karokaro (k), a. hot, pungent, of Chili pepper ; immature, unripe, 

green. 
karo (f), n. small conical fish trap, baited inside, made of " loire palm " 

(rattan) spines (pi. 194, 6). 
karu (?), karu-auana, n. sower, 
karum (m), n. the " iguana," Monitor or Varanus. 
kashu (m), n. cough. Cf. kosea. 
kaua-aupu, a. folded ; z;. to fold, 
kauarubai, n. master, ruler. Mir. sirdam. 
kaudo (k), n. a top-knot. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II, 325 

kauitato, kawitato (e), a. straight; v. to square (k). 

kauta, n. a plank. 

kawi (k), n. a variety of yam. 

kawikaur, a. crooked; curly (k). 

kea (m), a. white. 

keakea, a. white. Mir. kakekake ; n. a "womaii's petticoat (m). 

keakea didiri (e), n. a white man ; keakea dubu (k), n. white men ; 

keakea sopu, n. whiting, got from Manouetti, and used as 

paint in dances, 
keanenese sirigo (e), n. a variety of fibre. 
keau (e), n. a tree frog, 
kekuti, V. to break, 
keneobira (e), n. a variety of banana, 
kepeduti (m), n. the beating of the heart. 
kerere (e), n. iron. Cf. malili, turika. 
kerigedio (es), n. work ; v. to do work. Mir. dorge, lugem, Cf. 

erigedio. 
kergedioia (e), = kerigedio. 
kersemae (m), n. the croton. 
kes, n. a shield. (In MacGregor's Yocab. probably the Motu, kesi, 

Kerepunu, gehi. Cf. note to gope.) 
kigiro, a. alive, w. life, 
kikop (es) (?). 

kimogu, V. to bring. Mir. taraisare. Cf. omidai, uabogoi. 
kiochi (m), n. a little stick for lime, 
kiokio, n. a piece. Mir. mizmiz. 
kiri (e), v. to laugh. This is, no doubt, a Motu word, and introduced 

through Motu interpreters. The proper Daudai word is wari. 
kisoede (e), n. a venomous snake. Cf. ede. 
kitamodiro, v. to teach. 

kiwura, n. the dart of a dugong harpoon. Cf. wap. 
kobodo (e), n. a variety of sweet potato, 
kobokobo, a. weak. 
kodoboa, v. to tempt, to try. 
kodoruti (e), n. a variety of yam ; kodoruti keakea, white yam ;. 

kodoruti dogodogo, red yam. 
kogomupi (f), n. the open end of a pipe, waduru. 
koidumo (e), n. a variety of banana. 



326 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

koikumo (k), n. a variety of banana. 

koimi, n. cousin. Mir. kaimeg. 

koka, n. a dream. 

kokaiam (ii), n. the Bird of Paradise ; a head-dress made of these 
feathers, worn in war. 

koko (k), n. a variety of mango. 

kokowa (k), n. a large edible crab. 

kokuri (k), n. a variety of banana. 

kolodiri, n. sister, llir. berbet. Saib. babat. 

kolotoi, V. to deny. 

komogurti (k), v. to tremble. 

kono (k), n. bread. Cf. kunu. This is apparently the same as the 
Miriam kon, Saibai kona, and a corruption of the English word 
com. 

kopadi nimabu (m^b), n. curses. 

kopago (m), n. a wild duck. 

kopo (k), n. a piece ; a. short (k). 

kopoa (m), a. red. 

kopume (k), = kopo, short. 

korikori (k), n. a parrot. 

korio, n. a game, play, fun. 

korodio (k), v. to strike with the fists. Cf. araberumo. 

korodiriai (k), n. a man's elder sister. Cf. mabia, kolodiri. 

koromai (?) koromai gido (k), v. to call. Cf. wiroro, irumai. 

koropa, a. sick ; n. fever (k). 

koropoduti (ks), = Mir. akeulam. Meaning not given. 

korosodo (Domori), 7i. a head-dress. 

korotoi, V. to dispute. 

korpaguti (k), n. skin disease, chloasma ; korpaguti magore n. ring- 
worm, not scaly. 

korutia, v. to accuse. 

kosa (m), 71. the seeds known as Job's tears. Coix lachrymce. 

kose (k), v. to expectorate. 

kosea (k), n. or v. cough. 

koteretuti (f), n. a kind of arrow. 

koumiri (k), ». the bough of a tree. 

krupu aromo (m), n. beche-de-mer. 

kruti (m), a. cranky. 



E;AY & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 327 

kubira (k), n. a bay. 

kudu, n. voice, tune ; ouera kudu, language. Mir kodomer. 

kuekere (Domori), n. a knife used for cutting off heads. 

kuikui-hopo (m), n. the heart. 

kukra, a. lame. 

kula (m), n. a plate. 

kumo (k), n. a variety of banana. 

kunaro (m), n. cinders. 

kunu (k), n. Indian corn. Introduced. Cf. note on kono. 

kuraere (k), n. a stone. 

kurakura (m), n. a fowl. (Perhaps introduced from Saibai.) Cf. 

kakaba. 
kusa (k), n. beads (i.e. seeds of Coix lachrymcB. Cf. kosa.) 
kuto (ks). Given in Vocab. without Miriam or Saibai equivalent 

(? a man's end). 

Ma (?) 

mabi (m), a. small. 

mabia (k), n. a man's younger sister. 

mabu, n. basis, foundation. 

mabu (k), a. false ; n. " gammon," untruth. 

mabu-auera (k), v. to lie, speak untruths. 

mabuedea, v. to begin, lit. to put a foundation. Cf. mabu, edea. 

mabumaro (k), n. a variety of banana. 

mabuniuorodu (?), v. to pick out at the roots ; iawa raabuniuorodu (k), 

V. to pick the teeth, 
mabuo (e), n. a shell armlet, 
mada (?) 

made (k), n. a variety of banana, 
madia (? madio) madia wowogo (e), n. a head-dress composed of a ray 

of white feathers ; madia wowogo pasa (e), n. a head-dress of 

feathers, ten feet high, 
madigo (f), n. belt worn by all. 
madio (e), n. a dance. 

madira (e), n. a yellow dye. Cf. sowora, agoago. 
madirimo (e), n. a black dye. Cf. uibu. 
maja (bm), n. a coral reef, 
magai (e), n. the sugar cane. 

R.I.A. PROC, SEE, III., VOL. IV. 2 A 



328 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

magata, n. tte mouth. 

magatasia (k), ». the month, (magata, and sia, hole). 

magi (ii)j n. the cuscus. 

magore (?) 

magnmo, n. the bottom of a thing ; (Mir. lokod) magnmo-ato, prep. 

under, beneath, 
maidek (m), n. a petticoat, 
mai-was (ir), n. a small petticoat, 
makamak (ii), n. leglets. 

malili, n. a sheet of metal. Cf. List of Introduced "Words, 
mamaru (k), v. to spevr. 
raamoko (k), n. an island, 
mamoosi (k), n. a chief. Introduced from the islands in the Straits. 

Cf. note in Miriam-English Yocabulary under roamus. and 

Introduced "Words, 
manakai (k), n. a devil, soul. Cf. urio, and Introduced "Words, 
maniapu (k), w. the Papaya. (Mammy apple) (?) English, 
mao (m), n. the neck ; mao-kako (ii), n. the cervical vertebrae, 
mapoi, r. to name ; paina mapoi, v. to call by name (^Mir. nei atker). 
mapu-wara (m), = mabu auera. 

marabo (k), n. bamboo ; obo marabo, n. bamboo water-vessel. 
marai (ks), «. self. 

maramu (k), n. mother. Cf. aida, ida, mau, 
mari (si), n. son, boy. Cf. mere. 
mari (k), n. a mirror, looking-glass. Cf. Saibai man, and maridan in 

Introduced "Words. 
mariri = malili. 
maru (?). 

marugu, n. a blade of grass, a shoot. Mir. wai. 
masea (k), n. a variety of yam, 
mataro (k), a. calm, 

mate, f. to deride, to laugh at. Mir. neg. 
matigi, v. to deceive. Mir. okardar. 
mau (zs, k), n. mother. Cf. ida, aida, maramu. 
mauku (k), n. a variety of banana, 
maumora (m), n. the dugong. 
maupo (k), n. a butterfly, 
maura (k), mauro, n. a place, a dwelling place, village. Mii-. uteb. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 329 

mautu (m), n. a house. Cf. moto. 

me (?). 

megamo (k), n. family. 

megedubu (k), n. an edible snake, venomous and much dreaded. 

megemege (k), n. a variety of yam. 

mekalgamalung (m), n. a white man. 

menahe, ad. secretly. 

meragidiro, v. to think. Cf. emeragidiro. 

mere, meri, n. a child, boy, son ; sobo mere (m), n. boy or son. Mir. 

omasker, werem. 
merigodoi (?). 

miari (m), n. the upper part of a water-spout, 
mibomibo (e), a. difficult, heavy, weighty. 
midiri (k), n. the name of a shrub ; midiri sirigo, n. fibre from 

midiri. 
midobo, ad. the same, according to (Mir. abkoreb). 
mimiamo (f), n. image shown at initiation, same as Uvio. 
mina, ad. again, also, 
miniminiai (m), n. a small rattan cane, 
minoko (k), n. a variety of yam. 
miradu, n. brother. Mir, keimer. Saib. kutaig. 
miriuao, n. fruit, 
miro (k), n. peace. 

miruu (m), n. a sweet potato (D'Albertis) ; a yam (Beardmore). 
miti (e), n. root. 

mitidiro (p), v. to hear. Cf. erauidiro. 
mo, pron. I. 

mo (m), a. good ; mo buere, n. good girl, 
mobere, n. digging stick and used for fighting by women (pi. 

202, 5). 
mobini (k), n. a species of Draccena. 
moboa (?). 

mobuo (k), n. a dove, 
moburo (k), n. rain, 
modobe, v. to complete, fulfil, 
modoboima (k), a. ten, apparently a hybrid from Daudai, r. modobe, 

and the Motu ima, hand, " completed hand." 
mogido, pron. to me. 

Z A 2 



330 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

moguru umuru bum (f), n. wooden female figure fastened round neck 

and hangs down in front ; girls like young men to wear them. 

Cf. uvio-moguru, urumuruhuru, etc. 
moimarai, pron. I myself. Cf . mo, imarai, 
moini, v. to love, to pity, 
momi, n. to leave waiting. Mir. naokaili. 
momo (k), n. an edible snake, said not to bite. 
momogarina, n. fabulous animals like pigs with spiked claws. They 

live in hollow logs, roam at night, and devour men, pigs, and 

dogs. — Ann. Eep. 1894, p. 58. 
momogo, v. to serve. Mir. memeg. 

momogosio (k), n. a fire-place, made in the house or on a canoe, 
momoro (k), n. a variety of yam. 
momorua (m), n. earthquake. Cf. aromorubi. 
monobainomi (k), v. to stay. 
monoboi, pron. I here. Mir. kakanali. 

mopo, a. fastened, fixed ; n. a knot ; v. to fasten (k). Mir. mukub. 
mora (?). D'Albertis has mora api, stone. 
more, pron. mj, mine, 
moro, n. honey. 

morogomoa, proti. with me. Cf. mo, gomoa. 
moromoro (k), n. wax knobs on the gama. 
moronamiradiibu (k), n. friend (lit. my countryman.) Cf. moro, 

namira, dubu. 
mosia (k), a. that, 
mosore, n. husk, 
motai (31), n. a bed. 
moto, n. a house ; a house for women (31) ; wowogo moto, (e) n. a 

bird cage, 
motu (m), = moto. 
mou (k), pron. I. 

mu (k), n. the flower of the double red Hibiscus, 
muapo (m), n. testicles. Cf. muopu. 
muba, n. a beak ; a point of land, cape (k) ; muba-muso (k), u. beard, 

moustache, 
muguru, a. tabu, holy, sacred. Mir. zogo. Cf . zugu ; hence Oboro 

Muguru, Holy Spirit. (Mir. Lamar zogo.) Cf. moguru. 
muo, n. hair. Cf. muso. (Mir. mus.) 



Rat & Haddox — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 331 

muopu, muhopo, n. the testicles ; scrotxun (k) ; miiopu ra sigiri (k), 

n. elephantiasis of the scrotum, 
mure, v. to be silent, to hold one's peace, ilir. bazeguar, bamer. 
mureso, a. far off, distant. Mir. muriz-ge. 

miuni, a. kno-^ng ; muru anana = Mir. le pardali, n. a "^ise man, 
musiboo (x), n. or v. "thistle. 
mnso (k), n. hair. 
mnto (k), n. a variety of yam. 
mutu (?), mutu dubu, n. master, OAvner. ilir. kem le ; dirimoro 

mutu dnbu, «.■ owner of country; namutu dubu, n. a native 

thing. 

Na, a possessive suffix to nouns. 

nagoria, v. to be grieved. 

nai (k) (?), nai tawatawa (e), ad. here. Cf . noboi rom. 

nairi (?) 

nakobokoba (?) 

namabu = numabu; namabu owaigati (e), «. work. 

namaderagediai (x), v. look here 1 

namira (k), n. one's native place ; country. 

namu (k). n. a man or woman's elder brother. Cf, niragerema. 

namutu-dubu, n. a native thing. 

nani (e), a. true. 

nanihe, a. true, to be depended upon. 

nanito, n. always. Mir, niai karem. 

nanito (k), n. this "way. 

nao (k), a. one. 

napar. Cf. era, eranapar. 

naramdu, n. the eldest child. Mir. narbet. Saib. kuikuigo. 

nari (?) 

nati, n. a mosquito. 

nato, n. a wound ; a cicatrix ; leprous spot (k). Mir. ziz. Cf. bugomu. 

kani. 
natura (kj, a. another, 
natural, a. only, alone. Mir. tebteb. 
naturaimi (k), a. another, different. Cf. ata, natura. 
nau, a. one. 
nau-ouputo, v. to assemble (lit. to be in one place, Mir, netat gedim). 



332 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

nauto nari (k), a. all the same. Apparently nau, tonar, wrongly- 
divided. 

ne (?) n. excrement ; arima ne, n. dysentery. 

nebeta (k), pron. interr. what is this ? 

nebetaro (k) = nebeta. 

nebetaromi (k), ad. there. 

nei, pron. they, 

neigido, pron. to them. 

neina, pron. poss. theirs. 

neitararoro, pron. they two, those two. (Mir. ui darali.) 

nemabu (k), n. a tbing. Cf. numabu. 

ncpiri (r), n. a notch cut in a bamboo beheading-knife; each notch 
indicates that a head has been cut off. 

neragiwai, v. to stumble. 

nese (k), n. pearl shell ; nese gege, n. a pearl-shell breastplate, nese 
orogori, n. a pearl necklace. 

netewa (k), a. two. Cf. netoa. 

netoa, a. two. Cf. netewa. 

netowa = netoa. 

ni (?) 

nibo, V. to stink. Mir. semelag ; v. to smell (k) ; gamasa nibo (k), 
71. stink. 

nibonibo(?) piro nibonibo, v. steal greatly (?). (Mir. au eruam.) 

nibonibo (k), n. a smell. 

nigo, pron. you ; your. 

nigoibi (k), proti. you three. 

nigoto (k), pron. you two. 

nigosirio (k), pron. you all. Cf . sirio. 

nimairi (?) 

nimidai (k), v. to bxiy. Cf. uosa. 

nimo, pron. we. 

nimo (k), n. a louse. Cf. nimu. 

nimogido, pron. to ' us. 

nimoibi (k), pron. we three. 

nimona, ^row. our. 

nimoria, v. plur. to give. Cf. agiwai, ua, uosa. 

nimosirio (k), pron. we all. Cf. sirio. 

nimoto (k), pron. we two. 



Ray & Haddon — Tlie Languages of Torres Straits — II. 333 

nimu (k), n. a flea. 

niragerema (k), a man or woman's younger brother. Cf. namu. 

nirimagari (k), n. a present. Cf. nirimogari. 

nirimogari, v. to pity. Mir. omare. Cf. moini. 

niriso, v. to eat. Cf. Grammar. 

niro, n. the inside, the belly, bowels, entrails, tripe (k). (Mir. Saib. 

mui) ; niro-ato, prep, in the inside, within ; niro temeteme (k), 

diarrhoea or stomach ache. 
nirubiro, 

nitago-ogo (m), n. coming, 
nitara (k), (?) nitara wameai (k), v. to return, 
niti (?) 

no, cofij. that, so that, 
noadu, v. to give, 
noboi, ad. here, there, 
noboirom (k), ad. here. Cf. nai tawatawa. 
nogerebu (k), n. a generation, 
nogereburo (k), n. an uncle, 
nogodumo, v. to go. 

nogomoa, pron. with him. Cf . nou, gomoa. 
nogu (?) 

noimarai, pron. himself. 

nono, ad. there, pron. demons, he there. Mir. peike, pedali. 
noora, n. coral. Cf. nora. 

noosa (k), v. to give. Cf. agiwai, ua, uosa, nimoria. 
nopo (m), n. the tail of a fish ; the handle of a spoon, 
nora, n. a stone ; nora-api (m), n. stone. 

nori (k), n. a sweet potato ; nori agurubai, v. to dig sweet potatoes, 
noridori (k), v. the tide comes in. 
notiderai, v. to bring, 
nou, pron. he. 

nouea, v. to espy {sing.). Cf. ouea. 
nougaut, pron. from him. 
nougido, pron. to him. 
nouido, ad. so much. Mir. absaimarsaimar. 
nouna, pron. his. 

nouororo, a. like in features. Mir. kaise. 
nowai (k), n. the Polynesian chestnut. 



334 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

nuairomi (k), ad. whether, or. 
nuku, n. a dish. Mir. tanelu. 

numabu, n. any thing, thing; numabu mutu dubu, n. owner of pro- 
perty. Mir. lukem le. 
numada, conj. if, though. 
nuna (k), a. edible ; n. a thing, 
nunamabu (k), pron. what ? 
nupu (k), n. tail = nopo. 
nusaso (e), v. to cut up, chop ; era ota nusaso, to cut up firewood. 

Oa, V. to give. Cf. ua, uosa, agiwai, nimoria. 

oa, (m), n. a sail; turi oa (m), n. the foresail; wami oa, (m), n. the 
jib ; wapu oa, (m) n. the mainsail. 

oagoberai (k), a. square. Cf. kauitato. 

obera (m), n. speaking. 

oberi (k), n. bush men. 

obira, n. banana. 

obiriodoi, v. to undress. 

obo, n. fresh or drinking water ; wade topo obo (k), drinking water ; 
obo tao gomia (k), n. flood ; auo obo omio (k), n. flood tide, 
(deep water stays) ; ekebure obo, n. shallow water ; obo 
durugere, a. thirsty; oboairodori, n. ebbtide (water to shins) ; 
obo iroridoro, n. flood tide (water drowns). 

oboro, n. a spirit, a ghost ; obora-tama, shirt, a sash, cloth, lit. ghost- 
skin. 

oboronepe (k), n. a variety of banana. 

oboturao (ir), the wind-pipe. 

obu bum, a. empty. 

odarai, v. to put in, to lay in. 

odio (m), v. to do, to make. 

odio, V. to eat, to drink, to smoke tobacco in Papuan fashion by 
swallowing the smoke ; to dine (k) ; obo odio (k), v. to eat 
water, to drink ; tutu odio, v. to drink from the hand. 

odiodoi, V. to touch. 

odiro (?) 

ododa (k), v. to beat ; gama ododa, to beat a drum. 

odomuto (k), n. a variety of yam. 

6doodo (m), n. the breast. 



Eay & Haddox — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 335 

odoro, V. to enter, go in ; eaten (k). 

odotorapi, odotorupi, n. the tongue. Cf. -^atatorope. 

oduara (e), n. the collar hone. 

odnmu (k), v. to shrink. 

oea (ii), n. looking, guarding. 

ogerihai (ii), v. to catch. Cf. ogu, erahai. 

ogirio, (k), v. to crawl. 

ogomu (k). n. the cheek. 

ogu, V. to go ; to come ; to "^alk. 

oguitogu, V. to go. 

ogunita = Mir. kei tahakeam (? to go forth). 

ogurumo, v. to spread. 

oi, n. a coconut ; oi haribari, a young nut ; oi samaga, an old nut; 
oi (m), n. a coconut shell ; oinimo, coco fibre ; oi mosore, 
coconut husk ; oi mosore sirigo, fibre made from husk ; oi obo, 
coconut milk ; oi sugu, coconut cloth ; oi pari, coconut grove. 

oio (p), n. a young man. (]Mir. makeriam, Saib. kernele). Cf. osio. 

oiobai, v. to take up. 

oisusuopu (k), n. kidney. Cf. oi, susuopa. 

oiti, ad. then. 

oiwo, n. grief; oiwono nagoria. v. to be grieved. ]y"ir. okasosok, 
okabatageli, 

oiwoli (k), a. lazy. 

omia (m), n. sitting. 

omidai, v. to bring, carry, take up ; to find (k). 

omidiro, v. imperative, stay here ! you stay ! Mir. nawa. 

omiei, v. to sit, stay, stop ; poputo omiei, v. to sit on the knees. 

omio, (k), v. to kneel. 

omioi (k), v. to stop; auo obo omio (k), n. flood tide, lit. deep water 
remains. 

omo (p), a. short. Cf. sopuimi. 

omo (k), n. a green ant. 

omogu, V. to cany, receive. 

omoriti, V. to prime, thin out. Mir. paret. 

omu, 71. a boundary. 

onatato, n. open. Mir. paret kak. 

oosa (k), v. to give ; wisa oosa (k), v. to pay. Cf . agiwai, noosa, uosa. 

opai, V. to shut. 



336 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

opia (k), v. to kill = opio ; didiri opia, v. to murder ; didiri opia dubu, 

n. a murderer, 
opio, V. to strike ; opio para, v. to kilL (Mir. ipit.) 
opito, V. to grow. Mir. omeili. 
opo(?) 

opu, n. soil, land, earth ; the -world, 
opuo (m), n. yam. 
oputi, V. to count, 
era, V. to seek, to look for ; ebiari ora, to be unable to find. (Mir. nab 

deraimer.) 
oradubu (ks), n. the word used in the translations for God. Cf. 

aramorubi. Oraoradubu is another name for uvio-moguru. 
oraruo (k), v. to take down ; tiro oraruo, v. to take down sails. Cf. 

ororua. 
oriai (p), a. dead. Cf. orichiai. 
oribo, V. to rise. 

oriboa (m), n. standing up ; v. to get up, 
oriboo (k), v. to wake from sleep, 
orichiai (ks), a. dead ; v. to die. Cf. oriai. 
oridiro (?) 
orimiriti, a. dead, 
orio, a. new, clean, fresh. 

orio (k), v. to blow ; tuture orio, to blow the tuture. 
oriodoi, v. to return, retreat. Mir. takomeda. 
oriouiu (k), 71. a variety of banana. 
oriora (m), n. the first of the south-east monsoon, 
oriou (f). Cf. ouou. 
orirai, v. to remain. 

oritorai, v. to rise up ; airi oridiro (k), v. to rise, of the sun. 
orkienkok (m), n. the hornbill. 
oro, n. bone. Cf. soro. 
oro, n. the sea. Cf. uro. 
orobai, v. to catch, to grasp ; to carry in the hand (k). Cf. erabia. 

(Mir. erpei) ; usaro orobai, (k), v. to hunt kangaroos, 
orobere, n. saliva. 

orobo, n. sing, a woman, wife, spouse. Cf . upi. 
orodai, v. to meet. Mir. obapit. 
orodai (?) = Mir. babisdari. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 337 

orodobi, v. to set (of tlie sun). 

orodu (k) (?), pe orodu (e), v. to pole a canoe. 

orogiama, v. to touch. 

orogori, v. to put on (clothes) ; nese orogori, w. a (pearl) necklace. 

oroguriato, v. to bow the head. 

orogurio, v. to stoop. 

oroi (m), n. a star. 

oromai, v. to shout, to call to. 

oromaturuo (ir), n. the oesophagus. 

oromiado (p), v. to sit. 

oromidi, v. to strike, scourge. 

oromo (k), n. a river. Cf . goua ; oromo turi, n. a creek ; oromoito, to 

deep water, a term used in steering. Cf. ito ; ororao damo, «. 

ocean, 
oromobo, ororomoboa, n. the sea ; sea or salt water (k). 
oromoria (m), ^j. to share out. 
oroomai, v. to be silent, quiet, 
orooro (e), n. a thorn. 
orooti, a. full. Mir. mitkar, osmeda. 
oropio (k), v. to smash. 

orori (?), orori mawa (k), n. the howl of a dingo, 
ororo, 71. the face ; the front of anything ; moto ororo, the door, the 

front of the house. Mir. op meta. 
ororua, v. to come down, 
ororuso (k), n. meeting, 
orosa (k), n. sweat, 
orosidiro (k), n. the shoulder. 
orosiodiro, v. to make or get ready, 
oroto, V. to weep, 
orotodum, v. to weep, 
orourai (k), v. to prick with spear, 
orowoduti, v. to ooze, 
oruria, a. withered. 
oruso (k), v. to chew, 
osa (k), n. the joining of point to arrow, 
osio (ks), n. a young man, youth ; osio (k), n. an infant ; osio-mere, 

male baby ; osio-besere, female ; (f) uninitiated lad. Mir. 

makeriam, Saib. kemele. Cf. oio. 



338 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

osio (k), n. a wound. 

osomeai (k), v. to lick. Cf. osomiai. 

osomiai (k), v. to kiss. 

osoruo (k), v. to go down, to go outside. 

osua (k;), n. the heavens. Cf. ou. 

osua (k), v. to put up, ad. upwards ; tiro osua, v. to put up sails. 

osuderuti (k), v. to sweep. 

osupata (k), n. the instep. 

ota, n. a tree ; wood, flagstaff (k) ; ota tama, bark ; ota arima, gum^ 

sap. Cf. peere, soro. 
otaauti (k), v. to divide, 
otai-hopo (m), 7i. the loins, 
otakapuki (k), n. the heart. Cf. tusuopu. 

otaota (f), n. nose ornament worn by women when dancing (pi. 194, 1,2). 
otapara, a. dry (lit. dead wood). Cf. ota, para. 
otigi, V. to put forth. 

oto, n. the thumb ; oto-turi (m), n. the forefinger. 
oto (k), n. a wooden or steel adze for sago making. Cf. otoai. 
otooto (Domori), ?^. a kind of arrow, with numerous barbs. 
otoai, V. to split, cut, divide. 
otoboa, V. to stand up, arise. Mir. tekue. 
otoi, V. to leave, put aside, 
otoirai, v. to bind. Cf. itoiriti. 

otoiriti (m), v. to make fast a rope. Cf. otoirai, itoiriti. 
oto sairo (k), n. shoes. 
ototoro, V. to break, rend, tear. 
otouri (k), v. to stamp with the foot. 
otumai, v. to send away, 
otuturo, V. to stretch forth. 

ou, n. sky, a. high ; prep, ou-ato, at the top, above. Cf. osu, 
ouea, V. to espy, to see {plur.). Cf. nouea. 
ouera, n. a word ; ouera kudu, language ; oueramito, things = Mir. 

merkem. Same as auera. 
ougi, V. to follow. 

oumiriti, a. dead (of things). Mir. eumilu lu. 
ouou (f), n. ear pendant used as a weight to distend the lobe of the 

ear(?oriou), (pi. 190, 1-4). 
owaigati (k), namabu owaigati, n. work. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 339 

Paa = paha. 

paara (k), a. dead. Cf. para. 

padi (k), n. the brown cuscus ; uibuuibu padi, the black cuscus ; 

keakea padi, tbe white cuscus. Cf. parima. 
pae, n. a great number, a lot ; a. plenty. Mir. lakub. 
paba, a. equal, like, accompanying ; prep, along with. Cf . pope. Mir. 

kemem, okakes. 
pai, ad. no, not ; (used before other words). Cf. puai ; pai diriuo a. 

unwilling. 
paii (p) a Kiwai pillow made from sago palm, 
pai auri dubu (k), n. a blind man. Cf. idamari, auri. 
paina, n. a name. 

pako, n. a sound ; v. to explode (k). 
papu (m), 71. the knee. Cf. popu. 
paputa, n, a porch. Mir. maisu. 
para (p), v. to die ; a. dead. Cf . uparu, paara. 
para, a. ripe. 

parako (k), n. a variety of sweet potato. 
paramuti (k), n. burnt corkwood ; paramuti uibu (k), v. to paint body 

black for dancing, 
parani (k), n. a net for fish. 

parapara (m), n. the lungs. Cf. barahoro, barasoro. 
pari, n. a plantation, a garden ; pari goua, n. a ditch or drain, 
parima (m), n. the cuscus. Cf. padi. 
paromiti (f), n. a wooden female image shown only once a year at the 

initiation ceremony. It is kept wrapped up in tiro matting 

(pi. 195, 3). Cf. uvio moguru. 
paruiana (f), n. a kind of arrow, 
paruparu, n. elephantiasis of the leg. 

pasa, n. a leaf. (Mir. lam. Saib. nguzo) ; a feather (k). Cf, gorumo. 
pasaro, n. hill, mountain. (Mir. paser). As there is only one small 

hill, Mabudauan, in the whole of Daudai, this word is probably 

introduced from Miriam. Cf. podo. 
patara {s), n. the platform or deck of a canoe ; a raft, 
pate (k), 71. a bell. A Lifu word introduced from Miriam or Saibai. 
pato (k), 71. a variety of yam. 
patu (?) 
patura (k), 7i. breadth. 



340 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

paudo (k), ??. a treaty. Cf. Mil-, paud, Saib, pauto, from which this 
is probably introduced. The proper •word is roiro. 

pauna, n. skin (of an animal). Mir. paur. 

pauoko (k), n. a cloth worn as a kilt. 

pauoro. pauoro gagari (k), n. a gun ; pauoro, Eng., powder, gagari, 
bow. 

pe, n. a canoe or boat ; ekeeke pe (k), a whaleboat ; auo pe, n. a ship ; 
era pe, 71. a steamer. 

peba (k), m. a book. The English word " paper." 

pedua, V. to shoot. Mir. itimed. 

peere (k), n. wood. Cf. soro, ota. 

pekupe (f), n. Jew's harp played by young lads (osio). Cf. begube 
(pi. 197, 4). 

pare, a. the left side ; pere tuo, the left hand. 

peredara (k), 7i. a variety of sweet potato. 

piago (f), n. pan pipes. 

pida (k), n. a torch made of coconut fronds. 

piperiti, v. to squeeze. Cf . amahiri. 

pipiauri (k), n. a black duck. 

pira (m), r. to have none. 

piro, V. to steal ; piro nibonibo, to steal greatly. (Mir. au eruam.) 

piro (? n. wing) ; piro pasa (k), n. a wing feather. 

pitu (k), n. the buttocks. 

pitu (k), n the nails ; sairo pitu, toe-nail ; tugiri pitu, finger-nail ; 
oto pitu, thumb-nail. 

pitupitu (k), n. a species of beetle. 

piu (k), n. the midrib of a leaf. 

piu (k), «. the cross beams connecting the outrigger float with the 
canoe ; thwarts. 

piuri (k), n. an armlet made with Coix lachrymm; (f) the cross- 
shoulder belts and armlets decorated with coix seeds worn when 
going to fight. 

piuri (k), n. a variety of yam. 

po, n. song ; po-abo, v. to compose a song. Cf . poho. 

poa (m), «. nothing. Cf. puai, pua ; adina poa, a. no good. 

poa (k), «, a skin disease, Eczema marginata ; ringworm. 

podo (k), n. a hill. (Saibaipada.) Probably introduced. Cf. pasaro, 
and note. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Tonnes Straits — II. 341 

poduti, V, to tear, to destroy. 

poho, n. a song, a word ; tune (k). Mir. wed. Saib. na. 

poniponi (m), n. lightning. 

poo = poho. 

poitoi-ita (ir), v. to keep off the wind, in sailing. Cf. poto. 

pope, a. along with, equal. Cf. paha. Mir. okakes. 

pope (k), n. a bale, bundle ; sukuba popo, n. a cigarette. 

popu, n. the knee. 

popuipa (k), n. the knee, = popu. 

poputo-omiei, v. to kneel, lit. to sit or rest on the knees. 

poputomioi (k), v. to kneel, = poputo-omiei. 

poro (k), n. an edible snake, said to be very fierce. 

poto (? n. shallow water) ; potoito {s), n. to shallow water, in steering. 

poto (?) ; poto bato (k), n. a belt, Cf. bata. 

potoraimi, a. four, given in Rev. E. B. Savage's Yoc. as the equivalent 

of the Mir. neis a neis, two and two. 
pou (k), n. the Biri palm ; pou sirigo, n. fibre made from pou leaf, 
poubari (k), n. plaited rope, 
pua = puai. 

puai, ad. no, not (used after other words). Cf. pai, poa. 
puda (m), n. the handle of a club, 
pukai (k), ad. = puai. 
pupu (k), n. or v. fan. 
puripuri, n. magic, witchcraft, 
puruao (f), n. a headdress from Debiri (pi. 191, 5). 

Ea (?) 

ragotogo (e), v. to beckon to anyone to go. 

raguta (k), v. to carry on the shoulder. 

rarugoro (?) 

reresebo (k), n. a joint. 

ro, pron. thou, you [sing.). 

ro, prep. with. 

roa (?) 

robeturo (?) 

rodiro (?) 

rodori (k), v. tide goes down river. 

rogomoa, pron. with thee. Cf . ro, gomoa. 



342 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

rogu(?) 

roriro (k), v. tide goes up river. 

Toxo, pron. thine, your {sing.). 

rorodi, rorodia (p), a. all. !3Iir. uridili, Cf. tuturumi. 

roro-oto (k), v. to grow. 

rorota (k), n. birth. 

rosidiro-auana, n. a writer, scribe. ^Mii'. aotale. 

rukupo, n. medicine, paint. !Mir. lukup. 

rupi (k), 71. a venomous snake, edible. 

Sabi, n. tabu, prohibition, law ; v. to tabu. Perhaps a Saibai word. 

saemiti, n. corkwood (burnt) to blacken the face. 

sagana Ck), n. the moon ; sagana gege, crescent moon. Cf . gege ; 

dogobe sagana, full moon ; sagana suokara, a halo round the 

moon, 
sagarunepe (k), n. a species of snake, probably a lizard resembling a 

snake, 
sagigi (m), n. a swelling. 
sai (ks), n. daylight ; sun, day (k) ; sai sirio, ad. daily ; sai epi, 

n. noon ; sai iri sukumai, the sun sets. Cf . iuio. 
saimabu (k), n. a watch (time-piece). Cf. sai, mabu. 
saipo (k), n. a dance, hopping on one foot. 
eairidoro (k), the shins. 

sairigiri (k), n. trotters (foot-claw). Cf . sairo, igiri. 
sairo (k), n. the foot, leg. Cf . aira, airo ; sairo oto, n. a boot ; sairo 

pata, n. the sole of the foot, 
samaga, a. old, of coconut, 
sami, n. bad spirits, in the form of dwarfs, with immense heads. 

They carry large bows and arrows, are blackened with charcoal, 

and decorated with cassowary plumes. They can endow men 

with power of flying, cause snakes to bite and kill, pigs to 

destroy gardens, winds to wreck and drown. — Ann. Eep. 1894, 

p. 58. 
samo (m), n. a cassowary, 
samo (k), n. a feast, 
samo, 71. pride, boasting ; samo patu, v. to be very proud. Mir. au 

bauspili. 
samoito (k), samuito, a. quick ; v. to hasten. Mir. sobkak. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 343 

samuitoi, v. to be quick. Mir. kabdigili. 

Sana (m), v. will give. 

sano (m), n. the tail of a quadruped. Cf. nope. 

sapua (k), n. a side, remnant ; ere sapua, sapua nao (k), n. half. 

saputa (k), n. or v. purchase. 

sarima (e), n. the outrigger float. Cf. Mir. and Saihai. 

sarimisa (ii), n. a coloured man. 

sarina (k), n. a traitor. 

sarugosio (k), n. the nostrils. 

sarusaru (k), n. a centipede. 

saso (k), n. taro. 

saui, n. a post. 

savori e ipa (f), n. shell used in sharpening a bamboo knife (weri), 

sawa, n. canoe; sawa ota, n. the mast of a canoe; sawa tiro, n. the, 

sail of a canoe ; sawa ivi, n. the stays of canoe mast ; sawa 

peere, n. wooden step used for supporting the mast of a canoe 

(pi. 194, 3). 
sawaivi (k), n. a cord made of split creeper. 
sawasawa (k), n. twilight, 
sebeda (k), n. a land shell, 
segudo (k), n. a dragon-fly. 
sene (e), n. a variety of yam. 
seneniti (k). n. an iron anchor, 
sepate (k), n. the lobe of the ear. Cf. epate, gate. 
seporo (k), n. a cigar wrapper, 
sera (k), w. breath. Cf. era, hera. 
serao (e), <?. wild ; n. work, 

seratato, a. continuous, lit, without stopping to breathe. Mir. nerkak. 
sere, n. a net. 
si (m), v. be quiet ! hush ! 

sia (k), n. the south-west ; sie rarugoro, n. the south, 
sia (k), n. a hole (in lobe of the ear) ; wadi sia, n, a hole in the 

septum nasi, (f) the hole in a bamboo pipe in which the bowl 

is inserted, 
sia (k), n. a nut used as a rattle in dances, 
siahu (k), n. a large bale of sago, 
sibara (k), n. a crocodile ; a variety of banana, 
sibo (k), n. the lungs. Cf. torutoru. 

E.I. -A. FEOC, SEE. m., VOL. IV. 2 B 



344 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

sibomuguruti, v. to believe ; (Mir. oituli) ; pai sibomuguruti, v. to 

disbelieve. (Mir. Tvatur kak.) 
sidiro (?) 

sido, 71. tbe spirit which controls death, 
sidobari (k), n. the croton. 
sido oradubu, n. God. 

sie (k), n. the -^est. Cf. sia, irarasukumai. 
siea (?) 

sige (ir), V. to finish. Cf. tan. 

sigiri (? n. s-n-elling) ; mnopu ra sigiri (e), elephantiasis of scrotum, 
sigubia (k), n. a variety of banana, 
sihua (k), n. a bale of sago, 
sikara (k), n. the crayfish, 
simarai, pron. himself, 
sime (k), n. a variety of banana ; sime sirigo, n. fibre from banana 

stem, 
simera (ks), pron. yourself, thyself (in Text jS'o. 19). 
sio (k), n. dog. 

sio (ks), a. fast, quick. (Mir. -svamen.) Cf. io. 
siremasepate (Domori), n. a kind of arrow, 
siri (k), n. the Chili pepper, 
sirigo (k), n. flesh ; fibre of plants. For varieties of fibres see : gui'i, 

idi, keanenese, midiri, oi, pou, sime, sosome, taga, toma, turio. 
sirio, a. many, all. Cf. irio. 
siripo (k), n. shame, siripo ia, a. ashamed, 
siro = sirio. 

siro (k), a myriapod [lultcs). 
sisiasisia (k), a. Hght green. Cf. ipauipau. 
sisiuna (k), «. a parrot, 
sito (ks), n. the outside. Cf. sugu. 

sito (k), n. a basket made of coconut leaves. Cf. ito, tito, 
siuia kikop, a. thorny, prickly. Mir. zigerziger. 
so (Domori), n. ornament of strips of dog's skin, fastened in girdle 

behind and worn in dances (pi. 192, 5). 
sobo, sobu, a. small, little ; sobo mere, n. lad, boy; sob ota, n. a little 

thing, 
sobomara (k), n. a variety of banana, 
sobu mere (k), n. an idiot. Cf. sobo. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 345 

sodo (k), n. a cartridge. 

soge (k), n. the flying fox (Fterojms). 

sogere (k), witchcraft. Cf. puripiiri. 

sogeri (k), n. armlets and leglets of twine ; (f) worn by widows 

round neck, hanging down back and front, when in mourning 

for husbands, 
soke (k), n. a variety of banana, 
sokeri (f), n. arrow used for long distances, 
soki, n. a stick to husk coconuts with ; a walking stick, a staff. 
sopu (k), n. clay ; uibuuibu sopu, black clay for painting the body, 

obtained at Kiwai ; dogodogo sopu, red clay from Dudi. 
sopuanotoi (k), n. Hell, 
sopuimi (ks), a. short. Cf. omo. 
sopunii (k), n. a snake, said not to bite. 
sorea (k), n. a snake, said not to bite. 
soro (k), n. bone ; shell ; wood after the bark is peeled off ; ipa soro, 

clam shell, (f) used as a knife for taking out the kernel of 

the coconut, 
sosido (k), n. a variety of banana, 
sosome (k), the hibiscus, Hihiscus tiliaceus (Fiji, Vau.) ; sosome 

sirigo, n. fibre from the hibiscus, 
sosoro (k), n. the forehead. 

sosugoro (k), n. ear ornaments of worsted or twine, 
sou (k), n. famine, 
sowora, sowore (k), turmeric, used as a yellow dye. Cf. agoago, 

madira. 
suabi (k), n. grasshopper. 

suago (e), n. grass ; suago pasa, grass leaf ; suago miti, grass root, 
sugu (p), n. the outside. Cf. site. 
sugu (k), n. coconut cloth. 

sugumai (k), = n. sukumai ; era sugumai (k), n. sunset, 
sukiiba (k), n. tobacco ; sukuba popo (k), n. a cigarette, lit. tobacco 

roll, 
sukuba (k), ii. scaly ringworm, 
sukumai (k), = sugumai, v. to set, of the sun ; irara sukumai, the west. 

Cf. sie, sia. 
sungei (m), n. the cane sling by which heads are carried, 
suokara (k) n. a halo. 

2 B 2 



346 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadenvj. 

sura (m), n. a flower. 

snroma (k), n. the north, or nortli--we3t. 

sum (m), n. beacon, a mark. 

susa (k), n. a land shell. 

susi (k), p. to sit. 

susu (k), n. bladder. 

susu (?), susu rarugoro (k), n. the south-east. 

susua (k), r. to blow ; susua epuro, v. to blow with the mouth. 

susuo (k), = susua ; auo susuo, n. a gale, lit. big blow. 

susuome, susuomi (k), ». a fly ; the house fly. 

susuome (f), n. an arrow with a sharp conical tip which brea"k= off 

in the wound, 
susuruwia (k), n. a rainbow. 

Tabaro (k), n. a mat. 

taga, n. the pandanus root ; taga sirigo (k), fibre from pandanus root. 

tagaa (m), ad. a long time ago. Cf. tagara. 

tagara, a. old ; ad. formerly, a long time ago ; tagara ia, ad. from of old. 

tagaraimi (k), ad. formerly; tagaraimi gogu, ad. long ago, lit. going 

a long way back, 
tagu, n. time. 
taira (k), n. a cobweb, 
taiua, n. a rock. Mir, neid. 
tama (m), n. skin ; ota tama, n. bark ; oboro tama, n. cloth, a sash. 

C. esume. 
tamai (ks), ff<?. openly, 
tamari (?), tamari muba (k), n. a snout- 
tamatama, a. thin, lit. skinny. Cf. tama. 
tamo (si), tamu (k), n. wing of a bird, 
tanar, n. custom, habit, fashion. Mir. tonar. 
tanu (?), tanu-auana, naked, 
tao (k), v. to finish. Cf . tau. 

tarame (k) (?), dou tarame, n. sago in a small roU. Cf. siahu. 
tararoro (?), nei tararoro, pron. they two. Savage i£5S. 
tariguro (?) 
,taro (k), v. to come, 
taropura 'k), n. a bottle for lime, a glass bottle. Perhaps introduced 

from Miriam tarpor. 



Eay & Haddon— TAe Languages of Torres Straits — II. 347 

tatamu (ir), n. the chin, lower jaw. 

tatari, a. near. 

tatarito, inter, a form of greeting. (Mir. maiem.) 

tataritu (k), v. he comes. 

tato, suffix no, not. Mir. kak. Saibai igi. 

tau, V. to finish ; sign of the past tense. 

tau ima godio (x), v. to swallow. 

tango, a. first. 

tawatawa (?), nai tawatawa (k), ad, here. Cf. noboi rom ; tawatawa 

tuturu (k), n. the world, 
tea, V. to stand. Mir. akur. 
teapariato, n. grass. Mir. soge. The Daudai word is apparently a 

compound of tea, ' stand,' pari, ' garden,' ato, ' in.' The proper 

equivalent of soge is suago. In the us. translation appended 

to the Daudai text, teapariato is explained as 'in a barren 

place.' 
teere (f), n. collective name for arrows. 
tema, era tema, n. smoke. 

tematema, a. painful, sick, sore ; v. to suiffer pain ; n. disease, 
temeteme = tematema ; niro temeteme, n. diarrhoea or stomach ache. 
tepe (m), n. fresh-water bivalves ; mussel, 
tepere daredare (k), n. a bird, the spurred plover, 
tepetepe (?), tepetepe terisi awado (k), v. to flog, 
teraiai (Domori), n. a kind of arrow, 
tere (k), n. an arrow. Cf. were, teere. 
tere (k), n. flooring made from the Te palm, 
tereniri (k), n. a species of Dracaena. 
terisi (?), tepetepe terisi awado (k), v. to flog, 
terik, teriko = turiko ; terik-arubi (m), n. a white man ; teriko-gagari 

(m), n. gun. 
teriko (mb), n. tomahawk. 

tete (k), n. a fish spear ; epeduai v. to spear with the tete. 
tibi, n. root. 

tidi (k), n. a species of gourd, 
tigiri, n. the shoulder, shoulder joint; tigiri-kako (m), v. the 

shoulder blade ; tigiii soro (k), n. the shoulder blade, 
tigiro, n. the brain, 
time (?). 



348 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

tirikarubi, n. a white man. Cf. terik. 

tixo (k), n. a mat made of broad strips of the leaf of the pandainis 

fastened together, used for sleeping mats and sails ; tiro 

cranio, v. to take do"vvn sail ; tiro osua, v. to put up sail ; saT\ a 

tiro, n. a sail. Cf. oa. 
titi (k), n. a basket made Trith a small and fine plait. Cf . ito, sito. 
titi (k), n. a carving on -o-ood, v. to tattoo. 
titi (k), v. to smear, to paint, to rub, into the skin as ointment ; gato 

titi, V. to smear with mud in mourning ; titi rosiodiro, v. to 

write, 
titi (k), a. beautiful, smart, "flash." 
tiwa (k), 71. the pole for poling a canoe, 
toabuti (k), v. to bite, 
toboro, n. a cloud, 
togiri, a. trembling ; n. palsy, 
toia (k), n. foam, 
toka (k), n. a lime spoon. 
toma (k), n. bread fruit ; toma sirigo, n. fibre made from breadfruit. 

"The seeds are eaten, but the pulp is usually thrown away." 

— MacGregor, Eep. 1890, p. 40. 
tooto (Domori), n. a wooden implement used for opening coconuts. Cf. 

oto (pi. 194, 5). 
topo (k), n. food ; good (m) ; wade topo obo, topo opo, (k), 7i. drinking 

water. Cf. tupobo. 
topo (k), n. a venomous snake, 
tore, a. frightened, afraid ; v. to be afraid ; n. fear. 
toribo (k), n. twins, 
torope, 

torotoru (k), ad. light, 
torutoru, a. easy, light. Mir. perper. 
torutoru (k), 7i. the lungs. Cf. sibo. 
toto, 71. an iron nail. 
toto (k), 71. a ladder (staircase), 
totoboa, V. to stand. 

totoma, totomo, v. to exhort, preach ; n. a story, a tale (k). 
totototo, a. sorry, grieved, 
tsime (ks), w. a banana. Cf. sime. 
tu (m) = tuo. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 349 

tuburo (m), tuburu, n. the inside (Mir. teibur) ; the stomach (k). 

tudi (m), n. a fish-hook ; irisina tudi (k), n. a fish-hook. 

tue (k), n. the fore-arm. 

tugiri (m) = tuigiri, 

tugu (k), n. the sticks fastening the piu to the sarima. 

tuhai (m), n. veins. 

tuigiri (k), n. the hand. Cf. giri, igiri, tue. 

tuiopo (m), n. the finger. Cf. tue, 

tuipikako (m), n. the ulna. 

tukako (m), n. the shoulder. 

tumaho (k), n. the wrist. 

tumanababa (k), n. a stone club with star shaped disc. 

tumanua (k), n. a fresh-water turtle. 

tumodi, a. right, on the right side ; tumodi tuo, n. the right hand. 

tumodia (m), v. to go straight. Cf . tumodi. 

tumi (k), n. a mushroom. 

tumu, n. the bush, forest, uncultivated country. Mir. sumez. 

tuo, n. the forearm and hand ; tumodi tuo, n. the right hand ; pere 

tuo, n. the left hand, Cf. tue. 
tuo (k), n. ashes, 
tupata (m), n. the hand, 
tupi (k), n. the upper arm. 
tupoa (k), n. the elbow. 

tupobo (m), n. drinking water, fresh water. Cf. topo, obo. 
tupopo (m), n. the elbow. 
tupuo (k), n. the elbow. 

turi (?) oromo turi, n. a creek. Cf . gaua gou. 
turi (m), n. the middle (finger?); oto-turi (m), forefinger; turi-hia 

(m), the middle finger (lit. real middle : cf. ia) ; ete-turi (m), 

the third or ring finger (lit. little middle : cf , ete). 
turi-oa (ii), n. the foresail. 
iux\?it,prep. in the middle, in the midst, 
turihia (m), n. the middle finger, 
turik, turika, turiko, n. iron ; a. foreign (k) ; turiko wedere, n. an iron 

oven ; turik-arubi (m), n. a white man. Cf. List of introduced 

words, 
turio (k), n. a creeping plant ; turio sirigo, n. a fibre made from turio. 

The root of this plant is sometimes eaten. 



350 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

turo (k), v. to go. 

tnnibe (e), n. the centre. Cf. turi. 

turuo (ii), tumturuo (k), n. the throat. 

turuoturuo (z), n. the ■wind pipe. 

tusase (k), w. a plaited armlet. 

tusoro (k), v. to squeeze. 

tusuopu (k), n. the heart. Cf. otakapuki. 

tutai (ir), «. an armlet worn near the shoulder. The musur of 

Saibai. 
tuto (?) 

tutuopu (k), «. a wooden hook, used for hanging things upon, 
tuture (k), n. the conch shell [Fums or Triton) used as a trumpet. 
tuturo, tuturu, a. long ; tall (k) ; tawatawa tuturu (k), n. the 

world, 
tuturuimi (ks), all. (!5Iir. uridili.) Cf. rorodia. 
tuturuo (k), w. the coast. Cf. dodo, dodoro. 

TJa (p), V. to give. Cf. uo, uosa, agiwai, nimoria. 

uaa, (k), v. to bathe. 

uabogoi, V. to bring. 

uabugoi, V. to guide. 

uada, a. blessed. (Mir. werkab.) 

uadi (31), n. the nose ; uadi-muti (m), n. a ring worn in the nose. 

uadoro, v. to speak good, praise. 

uadow, V. to wonder. 

naeriiyi (f), n. a frontlet worn by youths before initiation. 

uagediai, v. to surround ; ad. around. 

uagi (m), n. the thigh ; uagi-kako, u. the thigh bone. 

uagi (r), 71. implement used for husking coconuts made of leg bone of 

a cassowary, 
uagori, v. to take. 

uagoria, r. to look after, to care for. 
uagumai, v. to wag the head. 
uai, a. strong. 

uaigiri, v. to snatch away with the intention of stealing. 
uaito, ad. carefully ; uaito uagoria, v. to take great care of. Mir. 

mamoro. 
uaiuai, a. hard. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 351 

uapa, n. a woman's petticoat ; (f), the narrow petticoat which is tucked 
between the legs. (D'Albertis says that this word is not used 
on coast at Mow at, but only in the interior.) 

uapaibi (r), n. carved steering paddle (pi. 202, 3). 

uapureto, ad. next, after. 

uarabai, v. to help, to comfort. Mir. upinati, upiatidar. 

uaramai, a. false. 

uararai, v. to lose, take no heed; a. thoughtless. (Mir. didmirki,. 
Saib. dantadumain.) 

uaratai, v. to ask. 

uarekabo (m), n. a bone spoon. 

uareuo, v. to open. 

uari, V. to laugh. Cf. mate. 

uariu, v. to turn over, to turn up. Cf. uarui. 

uaro (m), n. feathers. 

uaro (f), n- a wig worn by old men. 

uaroito (m), n. to-morrow. 

uarubia, v. to fly. Cf. arubia. 

uarui, v to turn over. C. uariu. 

uaruo, V. to receive sight. Mir. bakaerti. 

uatotorope (m), n. the tongue. 

uba, ubana, v. bad. 

uba, ubaru (e), n. an edible snake, venomous. 

ubagouaidumo, v. to defile. Cf. uba, goua. 

uege, jorep. on the bank, along-side. 

uere (m), n. arrows. 

ugaeai (k), v. to bark. 

ui (ks), v. to cry out, shout. 

uia, V. to pay back. Cf . uisa. 

uiai (p), n. rain. Cf. uisai. 

uiari (m), n. a shower of rain. 

uibo (m), uibu (k), n. coal, charcoal ; uibo durupi (k), n. an albino. 

uibuna (k), a. light blue. 

uibuuibu, a. black. 

uisai (ks), n. rain. Cf. uiai. 

uiui (k), n. a variety of mango. 

umamu (k), n. a yam. 

umiriti, v. to wash. 



352 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

umo (m), n. a dog. 

umoro, V, to know how. Mir. umele ; umorotato, v. not to know, to 

be tinable. Cf. karatai. 
Timumue, a. whole, entire. Mir. kemerkemer. 
uo (m), n. night. 

no, w, the wind. Cf. susuo, huhua. 
uo (ks), inter, no. 
uo (k), v. to sleep ; uo utua (e), v. to lie down to sleep, Cf. utua, 

utuo. 
uomo (k), n. a boundary, 
uoog, n. an animal, a bird. Cf. wowogo. 

uorogomai (?), given in Savage ms. as equivalent to Mir. lem. = sun. 
uosa, V. to give (ks), to buy (k). Cf. nimidai. 
upara (k), n. death. Cf. paara, para, uparu. 
uparu, V. to die ; a. dead ; poisonous (of snake), (k). Cf . para, 
upi, n. plur. women ; woman (k) ; upi baroma (k), n. a sow. Cf . 

orobo. 
upuro (m), n, the navel. Cf . gupuro. 
ura, ure (m), n. an island or small reef. Cf. mamoko. 
ura (m), n. a flower. Cf. sura. 
urai (?) 

uramo (m), n. the north-west wind. Cf. suroma. 
uramu (k), n. husband, wife, spouse. 
uraoa (m), n. a bag. 

urato, n. a year. Mir. urut, Saib. wato. 
urio (k), n. a demon, ghost ; the soul. Cf . manakai. 
urio (? n. dagger) ; urio soro (k), n. a dagger made of cassowary bone, 
uro (z), n. the sea. Cf. oro. 
uroa (ii), n. the south-east wind, 
uroro, V. to shut partly, to shut a little way. 
urouro (k), n. the hold or inside of a canoe. 
uru, n. the south-east. Cf. oro, the sea, which is to the south-east 

of Daudai. Mir. sager. 
uruapuo, a. out of sight, probably from the preceding word. Cf. 

uru, apuo, and Mir. sagerop from sager. 
uruma (k), n. a variety of banana ; (f), a head-dress worn by bush 

tribes in dancing and fighting (pi. 192, 3). 
urumi (f), n. a drum (warup). 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 353 

Tirumurubiiru (f), n. charm in form of wooden female image, worn by 
young uninitiated lads (pi. 198, 1). Cf. moguru-umuru-buru, 
uvio-moguru. 

ururu, a. deep. 

ururudo, prep, at the back, behind. Mir. sor-ge. 

usaro (k), n. a kangaroo ; a dance held before a kangaroo hunt. 

userio (k), n. a variety of yam. 

usia (k), n. the lobe of the ear (in its natural state). Cf. atari, sia. 

utua (m), n. to sleep ; to lie down, to die (k). Cf. irorisiai, upara, 
para. 

utuo, V. to sleep. 

uumohoro (ii), n. the pelvis. 

uuwo, n. the place of departed spirits. (Supposed to be somewhere 
on the Fly Eiver.)— Ann. Rep. 1894, p. 59. 

uvio-moguru (f), n. wooden female image, used during initiation, not 
to be seen by women and children. Cf. oraoradubu, mimiamo, 
paromiti, moguru-umuru-buru, urumuruburu (pi. 195, 1). 

uwere (f), n. bamboo pointed arrow used in killing pigs. Cf. were. 

Vedasi, n. the pubic shell, used also as money. Ann. Eep. 1894, 

p. 58. 
vaduru (f), waduru. 

vaene (f), n. carved and painted dance staff (pi. 202, 6). 
vedere ere (f), n. pubic shell worn by men when fighting and dancing 

(pi. 204, 4). 

"Wabagoii (k), v. to guide ; wabagoii dubu, n. a guide. 

wabi (k), n. a species of lizard. 

waboda (k), n. a variety of banana. 

wabutu (k), prep, behind. 

wada (k), n. a bowstring, formed of " a piece of bamboo about one- 
fourth inch broad and half as thick." — Ann. Eep. 1890. 

wada (?) ; irisai wada (k), n. enemy. 

wadai (m), n. red flat seeds. 

wade (k), a. beautiful, fine, good ; wade topo obo, n. drinking water ; 
wade odio, a. edible ; wade sai, n. fine day. 

wadere (m), a. good. Cf. wade, adina. 

wadisia (e), n. a hole in the septum nasi. Cf . wodi, sia. 



354 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

■wadoa (k), tlie pepper eaten wdth betel nut. 

waduni (k), tlie native bamboo tobacco-pipe (pi. 188, 2). 

waea (k), n. the hornbill. Cf. orkienkok. 

wagi (k), n. the thigh. 

waia (k), v. to warn. 

waiati (k), w. a water melon. 

wairi (m) ad. forward (for'ard). (? whether this is not the Motu vaira, 

face, front ; vaira lao, to go forward.) 
wakani (Domori), n. bag in which dress of all kinds is held (pi. 

191,1). 
wameai (?) nitara wameai (k) v. to return, 
wami (h), 

wanogoro (k), n. a coral reef, 
waopo aibi (k), v. to steer. Cf. aibi. 
wap, n. a dugong spear. Cf. Saibai. 
wapa (k), n. a petticoat. 

waperbi (m), v. to come aft and steer. Cf. waopo aibi. 
wapu (ii), wapu oa (m), n. the maiasail of a canoe. 
warame (k), n. deceit, falsehood, "gammon"; warame dubu, n. 

a liar. Cf. mabu. 
waraoit, 

waratai (k), v. to answer, reply. Cf. gibo. 
waratoto (k), n. a bridge, 
warea (k), n. a venomous snake. 

wari, V. to laugh, smile ; wari patu (m), v. to laugh greatly. Cf . kiri. 
warikabi (k), n. a stone axe. 
wariu (k), n. a hawk, 
waro (m), n. rope; perhaps introduced. Cf. Motu, varo, Kerepunu, 

waro, Sinaugolo, walo. 
waromi (k), v. to dwell, 
waroti (k), v. to wash, 
warubai (k), n. a load. 

waruku (k), n. an edible snake, said not to bite, 
wasare (k), n. a hymn ; wasare boso, n. or v. whistle. Cf . poho. 
wasi (?) wasi nakobokobo (k), a. lazy. Cf. oiwoli. 
watatorope (k), n. the tongue, 
wateripi (m), n. the tongue, 
waupi (?) 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 355 

waupo (k), v. to make, prepare. 

wedere (k), n. a large slipper shell ( CymMum) said to be imported 

from Mowat ; hence, n. a basin, bowl, clay cooking pot, sauce- 
pan ; turiko wedere, n. an iron oven, 
wera (m), n. speech, talk, Cf. auera, ouera. 
were (m). n. clay. 

were (m), n. an arrow ; (p) a bamboo beheading knife, 
weri (m), n. a bamboo knife, 
weri (k), n. leaves of palm for thatching roof ; a roof ; weri adoruti, 

weri adorowa, v. to make a roof, 
wibu, a. black ; wibu arubi (m), n. a black man. Cf . uibi. 
wieri (m), n. rain. 

wieri (ii), n. sandy beach. Cf. wio. 
wihari, n. rain. The overflow from the rivers and swamps of 

Aromo. 
wio (k), n. sand, the beach, a sand bar. 
wiora (m), v. to hoist up. 
wiroguri (k), v. he comes, 
wiroro (k), v. to call. Cf. irumai, koromai. 
wisa (k), n. payment; wisa oosa, v. to pay. 
wiwi, n. the mango, 
wodi, n. the nose, 
wogati (k), v. to do. Cf. auagati. 
woito (k), n. or v. dream, 
woka (f), n. a small dish for holding food and sometimes used as 

pillow (pi. 193, 3). 
wopa (m-), n. a large petticoat. Cf. wapa. 
woperbi (m), v. to steer, 
woroworo (k), n. anger, 
wo to (?) 
wowogo, n. a bird ; wowogo moto (k), n. a bird cage ; wowogo toto 

(k), n. a nest. 
wowogo ia (k), n. a white crane (lit. real bird) ; wowogo ia maru ma, 

a sooty crane with white neck. 

Zoke (m), n. a dagger made of cassowary bone. (Written tsoche by 

D'Albertis.) 
zugu, a. tabu, holy, Mir. zogo. 



356 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



XIV. — List of Inteodtjced and Adapted "Woeds. 

In this list all words not otherwise marked are derived from the 
English, and are commonly used in both Miriam and Saibai. m: denotes 
that the word is used in Miriam, s in Saibai, d in Daudai, m in Mowat, 
K in Kiwai. 

Ad (m), God, a deity. 

alahasa, alabaster. 

alas (m), alase (s), salt. Lifu alase from Greek aXs. [Alase-nu (s), in salt ; 

alasiu ter (s), flavour of salt, saltness ; alasilgal (s), salt people.] 
angela, angel. 
ao (s), a tomb, lit. a pit. 
aper (m), a hat. 
apiga (s), the Malay apple, Eugenia sp. Probably introduced with the 

fruit from the Mclanesian islands. Fiji havika\ Banks' Islands 

gaviga ; Efate hafiha ; Malckula havih ; Santo aviga. 
aposelo (s), apostola, apostle. 
aramoheri (k), God, sky-man. 
arem (m), heaven, lit. sky. 
arenw, lamb. Greek dpvos. 
ai'etOj bread, loaf, sacrament. Greek, apTo<;. 
aromo (m), heaven, lit. sky. 

asina, ass. Lifu, asina, Latin asma. [asinau, asinan (s).] 
Augado (s), God. This appears to be the same word as Aug-Hd, a totem, 
azazi (s). This word probably means ' travelling.' Azazi-san, 

(travelling foot), shoe, sandal ; azazi-mahaeg (travelling-man), 

traveller, guest. 

Bao - hau. 

bapataiso, to baptize, baptism. 

haroma, a pig. Probably introduced with the animal from New 

Guinea. Motu, laroma. 
haselaia, kingdom. Greek, /SacrXXeid. [Basclaiapa (s).] 
hathi {-a), a measure. Lifu lathe from English [5«^7i. ("Bath" was 

used to translate the English " firkin " as being approximately 

the same measure. — Eev. J. Sleigh). 
hau (m), chair, lit. seat ; bau-lu, a table. 



Eay & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 357 

holes, box. 

hdgaill)dgail{^), cursing and swearing. Mk. xiv. 10. (?), plur. of bogai, 
from Eng. slang term. 

hoonarri. This word is given by Jukes for ^^ coconut,''^ and is the 
native pronunciation of " bow and arrow." "When ships first 
visited the islands these were common articles of trade. The 
natives may have known that '■^hoonarrP^ signified the weapons, 
or they may have thought that it was the English for " cocomd." 
It is certainly not a Torres Strait word. 

borom = iaroma, 

luhet, bucket. 

burum = laroma. 

but, boot. 

Bana-nulci (s), a spring of water. This is a curious word given in 
Sharon's vocabulary, and literally means eye-water. It 
corresponds literally to the Samoan mata-vai, also meaning a 
spring of water. Dana = mata, eye, nuhi = vai, water. The 
Lifu word for spring is qeqe (pronounced whewhe). 

dapar (s), heaven, lit. sky. 

debe merhem (m), the Gospel, lit. debe, * good,' merhem, * speech ' or 
' message.' 

demoni (s), demon, devil ; demonilgopa, to one possessed. 

dia, a club, imitated from a Lifu model. Lifu jia (pronounced dhia). 

diabolo, devil. Greek StdtySoAos. 

diakona, deacon. 

dihedib, a dish, lit. a sp. of shell. Cf. dibidibi in Vocabs. 

Bisemba, December. 

Eden, Eden. 

eit, eight. 

ehalesia, church. Greek iKKXrjcria. 

elefen, eleven. 

Ellene, a Greek. Greek "'EXK-'qv. 

erurwur (m), to smoke a tobacco pipe in native fashion, lit. to drink 

beat. 
esorapa (m), to pray, lit. sit with bended head. 
esorgiru (m), to pray, lit. to bow the head in worship. 
etage (m), to read, lit. to point to, to count. 



358 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

etheni (s), heathen ; ethenlgdpa, to the heathen. 
ethohei (m), to bury, lit. to lay a corpse on not in the ground. 
euangelia (m}, evangelia (s), Gospel. Greek euayye'Atov. 
e%er, a dish, lit. Cymbium shell. 

JFaihoiho, marriage. Lifu failoilo ; Samoan fa^aipoipo. This was a 
Rarotongan word, akaipoipo, introduced into Samoa for a 
"marriage with a religious service." From Samoa it was 
taken to Lifu and thence to the Straits. Fa, fa^a, aha is the 
Polynesian causative prefix, ipo has reference to loving. Tahit. 
ipo, a darling. Haw. ipo, a sweetheart, paramour; Gambier 
Isd. ipo, married. 

faif, five. 

falaua,flaua, flour. 

farthen, farthing. 

faul, fowl, 

Februari, February. 

Jifete, fi%. 

fiva, fever. 

foa, four. 

foati, forty. 

Gavana, governor, fgavanalpa, (s).] 

gem-wali (ir), shirt, chemise, lit. body-cloth. 

gena, hell, [genapa (s).] Heb. Gehenna. Samoan, hena, Lifu, gena. 

geru (s), sugar cane. Cf. Hayter Islands and South Cape garu. 

getidiz, geto-tidiz (s), to read, lit. to put out the finger, to point. 

giz-mer (m), sermon, lit. many words. 

glas, glass. 

gold, gold. 

government. 

grin, green. 

Sanded, hundred. 

hamtaboi (k), night. This word is only found in MacGregor's Kiwai 
list, and is perhaps due to a Motu interpreter. It is the Motu 
word for night and is, literally, hanua, country ; hoi, dark, the 
common Melanesian words vanua and hongi. 

haua, hawa, hour, 



J 



Ray & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 359 

Helru, Hebrew. 

Sedis, Hades, hell. Greek aS?;?. 

hooh, hook. 

Idolu (m), money, lit. precious thing. 

Isa/raela, Israel ; Isaraela logau kuikulunga, the king of Israelites. 

Januari, January. 

jauali (m, d), paper, letter, book. A Miriam word with an introduced 
meaning, and should properly be spelled ziauwali. Ziau is the 
dura-mater, the parchment-like membrane covering the brain, 
wali is calico or cloth, especially European cloth. 

Judaia-le (m), Jew. 

Julai, July. 

Jun, June. 

Kaikai, food, a meal. This word is in use all over the South Seas, and 
is derived from the Polynesian hai. 

kaip, a spoon, lit. a shell ; haip tulik, an iron spoon. 

kamela, camel. 

kapsize, capsize. 

kask, cask. 

kaf, eat. 

kau, cow ; kimiar hau (m), bull, lit. male cow ; haura paur (m), leather, 
cow's skin. 

keneturio, centurion. Greek KevTvpioiv. [keneturialngu (s)."] 

ki, key. 

hiona, snow. Greek x^wj/. 

klok, clock. 

kolar^ vessel, cup, dish. Probably from English copper. 

koJiena, priest. Heb. IH^ 

kon, com. 

kopa, dried coconut, the copra of commerce. 

k6pamauri, the earth-oven_^(properly ame (m) dmai (s) ). This word is 
as widely spread in the South Seas as kaikai. Dr. Codrington 
informs us that it is compounded of kopa = English '■'■copper'''' and 
mauri = maori, i.e. a native of ]S"ew Zealand. Hence it is the 
maori's copper, a term used by whalers, traders, etc., to 
designate the native method of cooking. 

E.I. A.. PROC, SEE. ni., VOL. IV. 2 



360 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

hot, coat. 

hot meta (m), court-house, judgment hall, [kot-em, to the court.] 

hotor (m), heaven, lit. above. 

humala, sweet potato {Ipomaea chrysorrM%a). Lifu humala from Samoan 
^umala. Pratt in his Samoan Dictionary says it is an introduced 
word. The word is widely used in the Pacific. Tongan 
gumala; Marquesas, humaa; Banks Is., Fiji and Maori, 
humara. 

kumete, basket. Lifu himete from Samoan 'umete, a wooden bowl. 

hunu (k), maize. English, corn. 

Lamar (ir), demon, devil, lit. le, man, viar spirit. 

lamei)a, lamp. 

laulau, table. Lifu laidait from Samoan laulau, a tray made of plaited 

coconut leaf. 
le neg (ii), reapers, lit. men (of) seeds. Cf . meta-neg. 
lepera, leper. 
leuen, levene, leaven. 
lino (s), linen. 

lino-wali (m), linen. English and Miriam. 
luho, wolf. Greek Avkos. 
luhup (m), medicine, paint. Perhaps from Miriam lu and Saibai 

kupe, a medicinal plant. 

Main, an iron plate, a sheet of metal ; malil-lager (m), a chain. 
Perhaps from Lifu melele, thin. 

>wfl!»iO(9, sheep. Lifu and Samoan ?w«»Joe. Introduced into Samoa from 
Tahiti and also used in Ptarotonga. 

mamus, chief. A Miriam word introduced into Saibai and Daudai. 
It seems to have originally been a personal name, Mam-mm, 
Eed-hair, but is now applied to the native placed in authority 
on each island by the Queensland government. 

manahai (d), soul, ghost. Cf. Malakai in Saibai vocab. 

mani, money, [maniu, maniginga (s).] 

map, map. 

maram-gudo (s), a tomb, lit. a pit with mouth. 

maridan (s), miiTor, looking-glass, lit. spirit-eye, i.e. by which one 
sees the spirit or reflection of anything. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 361 

Mark, March. 

tnasita, master. 

Met, May. 

met, an anniversary, a festival. The term is taken from the annual 
gatherings in London knovpn as " May-meetings." In the 
Straits ''mays" have no reference to the time of year, but 
simply denote the annual examinations, sports, etc., at the 
mission schools and stations. 

mer-ahesmii (m), oath, swearing, lit. fall down word. 

meta-neg, a barn, lit. house (of) seed. Cf. le-neg. 

minarpalai (s), write, writing, lit. minar, mark, palai, cutting ; 
minarpalai mdbaeg (s), a writer, scribe. 

minuta, minute. 

misinare, missionary. 

mog-wali (m), towel, lit. bit (of) cloth. 

Monde, Monday, 

monki, monkey. 

muro, myrrh. Greek /xvpov. 

JVa, hymn, lit. song. 

nain, nine. 

naipo, knife. 

nani, goat. English, nanny. 

nerkep (m), the mind, heart, soul, lit. Icep, seed, ner, breath. 

net, net. 

ngonalcapo (s), mind, heart, soul, lit. Icapb, seed, ngona, breath, 

nidel, needle. 

nog-le (m), heathen, lit. outside men. 

Novemba, November. 

numela, number. 

Ohtola, October. 

osua (k), heaven, lit. sky. 

ou (p), heaven, lit, sky. 

Faip, pipe. 

pama, palm-tree. 

pasaro (d), hill, from Miriam paser. 



362 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

pmeha, passover. Greek Trda-xa- [pasekapa (s),] 

pat, bell. Lifu pate ; pat ipit (m), to ring a bell. The Lifu pate is a 
piece of wood hollowed out like a canoe, and struck with 
one or more sticks. The Miriam ipit is " strike." 

paun^ pound. 

pauoro (k), gunpowder. English powder. 

peleit (s), plate, dish. 

pen, pen. 

peni, penny. 

pensil, pencil. 

pentekosta, Pentecost. Greek TrevrrjKocrTos. 

p^riper (m), mirror, looking-glass. A Miriam word with introduced 
meaning, lit. lightning. 

peritom, circumcision. Greek Treptro/xT;. 

perofeta, prophet. 

pes, candlestick. The proper meaning is " handle." 

pi (m), gunpowder, lit. wood ashes. 

podo (d), hill, from Saibai pada. 

poi (s), gunpowder, lit. ashes. 

polisman, policeman. In the Miriam Gospel, Mark, xv. 16, this word 
is curiously used for " soldier." Gair polisman lesu keli 
tneta-em tegared, nei Praitorio, a polisman nosilc taraisare, 
Policemen Jesus little house-to took, name Praetorium, and 
policeman-band called together. 

pusa, cat. English, puss. 

Rahi, rabbi. 

Ring, ring. 

Sabath, sabbath, [sabathau, sabathini, and sabathipa (s)."] 

sagul (s), school, v. to examine. 

saima (s) = sarima. 

salmo, psalm. 

sarima (d, s), outrigger float. Probably from Hayter Island, sarime, J 

Motu, darima. ■ 

Satana, Satan. Satanara uteb (m), hell, lit. Satan's abode. 
satauro, cross. Greek a-Tavpo? ; satauroem (ji), to crucify, [satauropa, 

sataurangu (s).] 
sefen, seven. 



Ray & HADDO^' — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 363 

Sejjtemia, September. 

setadia, furlong. Greek o-raStov. 

sJiippo, ship. 

sihes, six. 

sinapi, mustard. Greek aivaTn. 

sole, a nail, really a spike made of cassowaiy bone ; sole tuliJc, an iron 

nail. 
sokop^ siiTcub, suhiba, etc., tobacco. 
sor tulih, a cup, lit. iron sbell. 
sjmn, spoon. 
stor, a store, shop. 

suhe, fig, figtree. Greek uvkov. [sukeu, (s).] 
sunag, sunagog, synagogue. Greek crwayuy?;. 

Tabo hauhau, a trade necklace of beads, from talo, neck, hauhhaub, 

baUs. 
taim, time. 
talani, talent. 
talofa, talojja, to greet, to shake hands (an introduced custom). 

Samoan tdlofa for ta alofa, the ordinary salutation, from 

alofa, to love, compassionate. 
tanelu (m), a dish, plate, basin. Samoan tdnoa, a dish or plate, and 

Miriam lu, thing. 
taual, towel. 
teihur-tulih (ii), a s"svord, lit. pith-iron, i.e., the iron which is inside a 

sheath, like pith in wood. 
telona, a publican, taxgather. Greek TeAtovT^s. 
ten, ten. 
teriko-gagari (s, d), gun, musket, to shoot with a gun. English 

trigger, and gagari, to shoot. 
thausan, thousand. 
therte, thorte, thirty. 
thri, three. 
Thursde, Thursday. 
iik-a-tik, a watch. 
tifi (d), to write, lit. paint. 
tornahauh, axe. English, tomahawk. 
triger-gagari, a gun, lit. "trigger bow and arrow." 



364 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

tu, two. 

tuelf, t-svelre. 

tuente, twenty. 

tuli^ tulih, turiJi, iron. Crawford (Grammar and Dictionary'fcf tlie 

Malay language, p. clxxv.) says ttiat tuli, tudi, turi is 

probably the English word "tool." 
turik-aruhi (d), a white man. From turilc, iron, ariili, man. 
Tusde, Tuesday. 
tusi (s), book. Samoan tmi, lit. to mai'k native cloth, hence writing, 

letter, book. Introduced into Lifu from Samoa. 

Uviau-lago (s), tomb, lit. lago, house, umau, of the dead. 

Vina, wine. 
vinega, vinegar, 

TFaci, watch. Tliis is the English word spelled in Lifu fashion, 

c = ck in chin. 
waina, wine, vine. 
wali, European cloth or calico ; icali denied, a curtain or veil, lit. 

shutting cloth. 
ican, one. 

Wensd'e, Wednesday. 
werkah (m), happy, blessed. Perhaps fi'om wer, appetite in sense of 

desiiing, wishing, kah, to dance. 
wik, week. 

Zogo, holy, lit. a charm or fetish ; zogo-jiauicali, Holy Scripture ; 
zogo-le, a priest ; zogo meta, a church. 

When the introduced word differs in pronunciation from its 
English original, such as numela, viasita, the alteration is due to Lifu 
influence, as the natives of Torres Straits have no difficulty in 
correctly pronouncing such words as numher or master. Lifu and 
Samoan require every consonant to be followed by a vowel, and hence 
the modification of the English and Greek words introduced by the 
Lifuan teachers. 

In the detection and derivation of Lifu words we have derived 
much assistance from the Eev. J. Sleigh, for many years resident on 
Lifu. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 365 

XV. — Concluding Rema-eks. 
(A) JBihliography. 

The following additions have to be noted : — 

(27) {n. (I.) Htkn Book. — Saibai. 

[Mentioned by D'Albertis, New Guinea, p. 350.] 

(28) 1880. D'Albeetis, Ltjigi Maeia.. — Alia Nuova Guinea: cib cbe 

ho veduto e cio che ho fatto. Torino, Londra. 8°. 

pp. xvi and 588. 

[Contains : p. 567. Vocaboli usati nell' Isole fork, Torres 
Straits, p. 568. Vocaboli usati dalla gente di Moatta, alia foce del 
Fiume Katau.] For English. Version, see No. 9. 

(29) 1883. ISTew Guinea jS'umeeais. Letters by Messrs. A. H. Sayce, 

Krebs, A. H. Keane, and Coutts Trotter. In Academy, 

vol. XXIV. (1883) pp. 285, 302, 317. 

On p. 317, a letter by Mr. Coutts Trotter contains the Saibai 
numerals. 

(30) 1892. Queensland. — Annual Report on British New Guinea, 

from 1st July, 1890, to 30th June, 1891, with 
Appendices. Brisbane : By authority, James C. Beal, 
Government Printer, "William-street. 

Contains, among other vocabularies : pp. 128-132, " Abo- 
riginal Vocabulary of the Dabu tribe. Table showing certain principal 
words, &c., used by aboriginals of the Dabu tribe, and more or less 
understood by other tribes between Mowatta and the Mai Kussa, on 
the coast of British New Guinea. (Some words have been taken from 
the neighbouring Toga tribe, when the two dialects differ.) 

This vocabulary is discussed in the next section. 

(31) 1892. Thomson, J. P., F.E.G.S.— British I^ew Guinea. Lon- 

don : George Philip and Son. 

An Appendix.— " VI. New Guinea Dialects," contains: pp. 
286-292, Vocabulary of the Kiwai Language ; pp. 292-294, Vocabulary 
of the Langiiage spoken at Saibai, Dauan, and Boigu, and understood 
on the adjacent coast of New Guinea ; also, on pp. 320—322, Aboriginal 
Vocabulary of the Dabu Tribe. The Kiwai and Saibai vocabularies 
are from the Annual Eeport on New Guinea, 1890 (See Bibliography 
in Part I. of this study, No. 23, p. 470), and the Dabu from No. 
30, above. There is nothing original in this book. 



366 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(32) 1892. ScHTLEyBiiEG, Db. a. GrEAF V. D. — Grammatik, Vocabu- 

larium und Sprachproben der Spracbe von Hurray 

Island. Leipzig : Yerlag von "WiUielin Friedrich, 

K. E. Hofbucbhandler. 

The whole of this -work is founded upon the t-vro Miriam 
Gospels (see Xo. 13 in Part I., p. 469). Ko reference is made to any 
other sources of information. 

(33) 1893. Haddox, Peof. A. C. — " Tbe Secular and Ceremonial 

Dances of the Torres Straits," in Internationales 

Arcbiv fiir Ethnographic. Bd. ti. 1893, pp. 131- 

162. 

Contains, on p. 148, the "Waiitutu Kap Kudu, or couplets of 
the saw-fish dance of Thui-sday Island, with a note on Xew Guinea 
songs. 

(34) 1893. Eat, Sidney H. — " The Languages of British Xew 

Guinea," in Transactions of the Xinth Interna- 
tional Congress of Orientalists, held in London in 
1892, vol. n. pp. 754-770. 

This contains a suggested division of the dialects of British 
New Guinea into Melanesian and Papuan, with a classification. On 
pp. 760-762 the Miriam, Saibai, Dabu, and Kiwai pronouns are com- 
pared with those of other dialects. An Appendix contains twenty-five 
words and Numerals in the Torres Straits and other New Guinea 
dialects. 

(35) 1893. Keen, De. H.— Eeview of the " Study of the Languages 

of Torres Straits. Part I." Contaiaed in Intema- 

nationales Archiv fiir Ethnographie." Bd. vi. p. 181. 

Dr. Kern points out that more stress is to be laid on the con- 
struction than on the vocabulary, when determining the relationship to 
other languages. "We fully appreciate this. 

(36) 1894. Eat, Sidxet H. — " The Languages of British Xew 

Guinea," Journal of Anthropological Institute, vol. 
xxiv., pp. 15-39. 

An amplification of No. 34, antea. 

(37) 1894. QrEExsLAXD. — Annual Eeport on British New Guiaea, 

from 1st July, 1892, to 30th June, 1893 ; with Appen- 
dices. Brisbane : By authority, Edmund Gregory, 
Government Printer, "William- street. 1894. 

Contains : 
Appendix I. — Eeport of the Eesident Magistrate for the Western 
DiN-ision. 



Eay & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits — II. 367 

Appendix P. — Native Habits and Customs in the "Western Division, 

by B. A. Hely, Resident Magistrate. 
Appendix U. — Nos. 1-4, Land Tenure of the Tribes of the Daudai 
Coast, by J. B. Cameron and B. A. Hely. 

These Appendices contain numerous words and names used 
in the Daudai district. They have been added in XIII. and XIV. of 
this Study. 

(38) 1894. Queensland. — Annual Eeport on British New Guinea, 

from 1st July, 1893, to 30tli June, 1894, with Appen- 
dices. Brisbane : By Authority, Edmund Gregory, 
Government Printer, William-street. 1894. 

Contains : pp. 50-55, Appendix L, Eeport of the Resident 
Magistrate for the "Western Division. 
[Contains native names.] 

(39) 1895. Rat, Sidkey H. — A Comparative Vocabulary of the 

Dialects of British ITew Guinea, with Preface by Dr. 

R. IS". Oust. London : Society for Promoting Christian 

Knowledge, Northumberland-avenue, W.C. 

A comparison of fifty-two British New Guinea Dialects, in- 
cluding the Kauralaig, Saibai, Dabu, Mowat, Kiwai, and Miriam of 
Torres Straits and the adjacent coasts of New Guinea. 

MS. 11. FisoN, Rev. Lokimee Fison. — Saibai compared with Nineteen 
New Guinea Dialects in twelve words of common use 
(pp. 2-3). 

"Words common to Saibai and Kaurarega, pp. 4-6 ; 
words common to Kaurarega and Gudang, pp. 6, 7 ; pro- 
nouns, p. 8. 

[The examples are taken from MacgilUvray and the Saibai 
Gospel.] 

B. Connexion op the Languages. 

The publication of a vocabulary of the language used by the 
Dabulai and Togalai people on the mainland opposite Saibai Island 
(contained in the Annual Report, 1892, Bibliog. No. 30), is of some 
assistance in indicating the relationship of the islanders of the Straits 
to those of the mainland. Sir "Wm, MacGregor points out (Rep. 
p. 43) the great difference which exists between this language and 
those of Kiwai and Saibai. Some Saibai words in the Dabu vocabu- 
lary are no doubt owing to the Saibai language being the means 
through which the words were obtained. It is very remarkable, 
however, that there are numerous agreements between the Dabu and 



368 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



the Miriam, which are not exclusively confined to trade words, 
and can hardly be due to a recent contact of the peoples. The 
following lists will exhibit the connexion of the four languages, 
Dabu, Miriam, Saibai, Daudai : — 



ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


MIRIAM. 


SAIBAI. 


DAUDAI. 


bead, 


kusa. 


kus. 


kusa, 


kusa. 


cassowary, 
father. 


diram, 
baba, 


sam, 
baba, 


samu, 
baba. 


samo. 
aba. 


Kangaroo, 
seed, 
snake, 
tobacco. 


tar, 

kapa-biu, 
dibe, 
sakaba. 


usar, 
kep, 
tabo, 
sokop. 


usa, 
kapu, 
tabu, 
suguba, 


usaro. 
iopu. 
topo. 
sukuba. 


yes, 


ao. 


wao. 


wa. 


10. 



ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


MIRIAM. 


SAIBAI. 


bay. 


kopa. 


kop. 


kupado. 


boat. 


gara. 


nar. 


gul. 


crocodile, 


kaja, koje. 


kadal. 


Kadal. 


di-iim. 


arap. 


warup. 


war up. 


flea. 


totok. 


titig. 


tikat. 


flesh, 


mid, 


med. 


madu. 


knife. 


turik-ata. 


kor-tulik. 


gi-tulik. 


game [play), 


tongoi. 


segur. 


sagul. 


gum, 


tauto, 


sus, 


susu. 


jaw. 


tebu. 


ibu, 


ibu. 


matches, 


guigui, 


goigoi (Jire-stieJc,), 


guigui [Jire-stick). 


paddle, 


kaba, n. 


ireb, v., 


kaba, karaba, n. 


peace. 


piuda, 


paud. 


pautci. 


shark. 


baidamo. 


bezam. 


baidamo. 


pipe. 


turku. 


tarkok (pipe-bowl), 


turku (pipe-botvl). 


rat, 


makat. 


mokeis, 


makas. 


sago. 


bisi. 


bisi. 


bisi. 


vomit. 


maunjeje. 


megi. 


magiz. 



ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


MIRIAM. 


DAVVAl. 


beach, 


dardar, 


dodo-mer, 


dodo. 


coconut, 


ngoi. 


ue, 


01. 


hand. 


tang, 


tag, 


tuo. 


knot. 


mukup. 


mukub. 


mopo. 


plenty. 


uog. 


au, 


auo. 


shoulder, 


dago-kut, 


tugar. 


tigiri. 


snore, 


gararam, 


gegermer, 


garoroa. 



Eay & H ADDON — The Languages of Torres Straits. — II. 



369 



ditch, 
fish-hook, 
reef, 
sneeze. 



gorai, 
tudi, 
maja, 
achi. 



goua, 
tiidi, 
nuizam, 
asio. 



goua. 
tudi. 
maja. 
asoro. 



'•ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


MIRIAM. 


ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


MIRIA Jl . 


banana, 


opa, wo, 


kaba. 


husband. 


gnnmua, 


kimiar. 


beetle. 


seresere. 


isiri. 


nipple, 


nono. 


nano. 


belly. 


kom, kam. 


gem, kem. 


' palm {hand), 


dhiig, 


tag -gab. 


blood. 


mem, mam, 


mam. 


red. 


niamam. 


mamam. 


breast, 


gnam, 


nano. 


salt, 


gagor. 


gur {salt 


eyeball. 


ikapa, 


irkep. 


' 




water). 


fly> 


arko. 


narger. 


smoke, 


imo. 


kemur. 


foot, 


mak. 


mek {foot- 


star. 


piro. 


wer. 






print. 


water, 


me, 


ru. 


friend, 


tabad, 


tebud. 








heaven. 


utali. 


kotor. 









ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


SAIBAI. 


ENGLISH. 


DABU. 


SAIBAI. 


ask, 


mulagan, 


mulai {speak). 


necklace, 


amuta. 


kamado. 


basket. 


enyaunga. 


lana. 


oyster. 


it, 


ita, itro. 


bid. 


muleige. 


mula,i {speak). 


pole. 


sur, 


sure. 


bite, 


dangdang, 


dang {tooth). 


reed. 


boch. 


buzo. 


black {dark), 


kuta, dabar. 


kuta-pa 


salt water. 


adabour. 


adabu. 






{evening). 


sand, 


chirum. 


surum. 


call. 


mule. 


Tii\A3.i{s2}eak). 


sea, 


bau. 


bau. 


cloud {dark), 


dabar-dag, 


dapar {sky). 


shrimp. 


guiji, 


gagi. 


come. 


wia. 


aie, boie. 


south east. 


\\'ura. 


waiira. 


flog, 


metamar. 


mataman. 


turtle. 


warn. 


warn. 


God, 


augad. 


augado. 








hasten. 


taramani, 


tarai {quick). 









demon, 
man, 



kabor, 
rabu. 



oboro. 
dubu. 



ulcer, 
wood, 



ute, 



ioto. 
sore. 



These comparisons and those in Pt. I., pp. 505-507, show that the 
island languages (Miriam and Saihai) are more alike than tliose of the 
mainland (Daiului and Dahu). They also show that Miriam is more 



370 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



like the mainland languages taken together, than it is like the Saihai^ 
and that Miriam is more like Daiidai than the Saibai. The 
correspondences bet"vreen the island languages and the Dabu are 
equal. These results may be tabulated thus : — 





MIRIAM. 


SAIBAI. 


DAUDAI. 


DABU. 


Miriam, . 




109 


94 


51 


Saibai, . 


109 




25 


51 


Daudai, . 


94 


25 




19 


Dabu, 


51 


51 


19 





Other Papuan vocabularies published in the Reports, 1892-1894^ 
are those of : ( 1 ) Domara and Mairu (central portion of South Coast of 
iXew Guinea and Island of Mairu) ; (2) Toaripi (the same as the 
Motumotu); (3) Orokolo (nearly the same as the Toaripi) ; (4) Maipua 
(on the Purari Delta). These show no correspondences (beyond those 
iu Pt. I., p. 509) with the Torres Straits or Daudai languages. 

The distinction between Melanesian and Papuan first indicated in 
the first part of this study, has been more fully illustrated as to 
language in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute (1894), 
and in the "Decorative Art of British New Guinea" — Cunningham 
Memoirs, Royal Irish Academy, 1894. It has been adopted by Mr. 
A. H. Keane in his work on " Ethnology," Cambridge, 1896 ; and is 
further confirmed by the existence in German New Guinea of non- 
Melanesian dialects.^ In the Katedong or Rush language in the 
Hinterland of Pinschhafen, nouns and pronouns are declined as in 
Miriam. The verb has complicated forms : — 

mama, father, 
mama-dsi, 



Indefinite case, 

Case of author, 

Pinal, 

Locative, 

Vocative, 

Praedicativc, 



mama-te, 
mama-he, 
mama-mai, 
mama-tine, 



oiengo, mother, 

nengo-dsi, 

nengo-te, 

nengo-he, 

nengo-mai, 

nengo-tine, 



maleng, earth. 
maleng-dsi. 
maleng-te. 
maleng-go. 



^ See Zeitschrift fiir afiikanische und oceanischc Sprachen, I. Jahrgang. 
1 Heft., 1895, p. 83. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Kai-Dialekte auf Grund des 
von Herrn Missionar Job. Fliert in Simbang gesammelten Materials bearbeitet von 
W. Griibe. 



Ray & Haddon — The Languages of Torres Straits. — II. 371 



The Katedong numerals are mo, one ; jejahe (pronounced yeyahe), 
■combined as in Miriam, y«/ie a mo, three -^jahe ajahe, four ; fne mo (one 
hand), five. 

C. MiEiAu: Geamitae. 

The Murray Island Grammar of Dr. A. Graf. v. d. Schulenberg 
(Bibliog. No. 32) is based on the translation of the Miriam Gospels 
(No. 13), which formed part of the material for our grammar in 
Part I. Dr. Schulenberg makes no reference to other sources of 
information, although a vocabulary and notes on the language were 
published by his relative, v. d. Gabelentz, in 1882 (No. 11). The 
omission, no doubt, arose from the translation being styled "Murray 
Island Language," whilst the vocabulary (based upon Jukes, Macgil- 
livray, and Stone) is called the language of Errub and Maer. 

Dr. Schulenberg's work is thus arranged : — 

{a) Grammatik, i. Laut- und Betonungslehre, j)?- 1-2. 

II. Der Sprachbau, . . ,, 3-6. 

ni. Wort- u. Formenbildung, . ,, 7-58. 

IV. Hilfsworter, . . . ,, 59-67. 

V. Zum Satzbau, . . . ,, 68-77. 

{b) Vocabularium, ......,, 79-114. 

Lehnworterverzeichnis, . . . ,, 115-116. 

(c) Sprachproben, . . . . . . ,, 117-133. 

Considering the faulty character of the translation used, and the 
absence of outside information, Dr. Schulenberg has made a fair 
attempt to elucidate the forms of Miriam Grammar, but it is manifest 
that when the soi-disant translators of the Gospel express themselves 
ignorant of the grammar, we cannot expect an entire absence of 
error from the work of those who attempt to analyse their productions. 
It will be convenient here to give a summary of Dr. Schulenberg's 
Grammatical forms for comparison with our grammar in Part I. : — 

1. Nouns. — Case endings: Possessive, r, ra; Dative, im; Illative, 
em ; Ablative, or Elative, lam ; Causal and Instrumental, 
de ; a second Instrumental, m ; Locative, ge ; Emphatic 
Article, with Proper names, et ; probable accusative 
(obsolete), ending i. 

Plural by gair, gaire, gai or giz. Plural prefix tc in 
ugab, uader, uridili. 



372 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



2. Adjectives. — Same as E, and H. Pt. I., p. 534. 

3. Numerals. — Neisiem and neisem are noted, but they are not 

shown as causative. 

4. Pronouns. — As in E, and H. Pt. I., p. 527. The word dali 

is called a verb, and translated thus : — 

haica nali, ich bin es. darali, zwei (beide) sind, waren. 

mama nali, du bist es. idali, 
e dali, er ist es. pedala, ' 
Other forms given are uadali, iamdali, iadali, edali. 



hier, dort, sein. 



Yeebs : 

de, causative. 

di, causative or directive outward. 

da, directive thither. 

e, emphasises author of the action, 
when action goes out to the 
third person. 

a, gives negative character to the 
sentence. 

a, in positive sentence only with 
tager, is reciprocal. 

dara, plural, and summarises. 

na, uncertainty and futurity. 

ha, expresses a mournful or some- 
times excited condition of the 
roind. 

te, motion thither or hither. 

Suffixes. 
er, ar, ir, or, ur, no special meaning, mlc 
em, corresponds with noun ending 

for accusative. 
l{am), corresponds to ending for 

ablative. 
iam (?) 
lu, perfect, the realization of an 

expectation. 
U, perfect and continued action. 
i, nearly same as li. 
{l)ei, action goes out to two persons. 
{r)ti, perfect. 
are, plural subject. 



Prefixes, 
tara, instead of te in sentences 
which indicate completed 
action. 
/, conditional or accidental. 
0, direction from before, or from 
above. 

only in word iolaru, position 
before. 

direction from above, 
only in iauatala and iadali 
has demonstrative meaning. 
ao, on, on upper side, above or higlu 
esa, (?) 
(?) 
(?) 
ue[e), on upper side. 



iO, 

ua, 
ia. 



oga, 
olca, 

ue(e) 



action from below. 
rik, up, thither. 
ot, into. 
meida, down. 
eder, participal meaning. 
ua, oa, out down. 
le, mankind. 
ao, action in solemn or serious 

fashion. 

^. (?) 

0, probably same as prefix o. 

OS, doubtful. 



Eay & H ADDON — The Languages of Tonnes Straits. — II. 373 

Most of these meanings are conjectural. Hence, as we have 
stated in Part I., much is yet to be done in the study of the Miriam 
verb. 

As Dr. Schulenberg was unacquainted with the Lif u origin of his 
translation he has not distinguished loan words from Lifu, andSamoan 
from the native words. In his Lehnworterverzeiehniss, the word 
ares, said to be Greek, is native, luotem is derived fi'om the EngHsh 
court, not fi'om cot or cottage. Telona is Greek. 

Concerning the relationship of the languages, Dr. Schulenberg has 
only the following note : — " An das Malayische erinnem mehr oder 
minder entfemt die Personalpronomina : ka = ich, ma = du, e = er. 
Murray t statt mal . s konnte man finden in (de) taut : sahut = 
antworden, (ne-)tat : suatu, satu = eins, (ne-)te : alifuru sei = wer ?" 

In biinging to a close this Study of Languages, which are probably 
destined to pass away before the advance of civilization in jS'ew 
Gtiinea,^ the authors would express their obligations and thanks ta 
all who have aided in bringing it to a successful conclusion, especially 
to the generous friend who gave the sum of £30 to enable the 
Academy to print the Second Part of this Study ; we regret that his 
modesty will not permit us to record his name. Any fui-ther 
information on the languages, verification or corrections of the 
grammar notes, would be welcomed by the authors, at the Ajithro- 
pological Institute, 3, Hanover-square, London. 

^According to Eev. J. Chalmers (Globus, lxii. 21, p. 336), tLe population of 
Torres Straits in 1893 was only 1473, distributed as follows : — Saibai, 242 ; York 
Is., 95; Dalrymple, 62; Stephen, 26; Damley, 137; Murray, 340; Mabuiag, 
195; Badu, 124; Moa, 92; Tauan, 30 ; Boigu, 130. 



L 374 ] 



IX. 

VECTOR EXPRESSIOIs^S FOR CURVES. Br CHARLES JASPER 
JOLT, M.A., F.T.C.D. 

Paet I. — Unicursal Cuetes. 

[Eead December 14, 1896.] 

1 . Vector equation for a unicursal curve of the n*^ degree. 

Let ao, tti, 02 ... a„ be any given and constant vectors, and «o, a^, a-i 
. . . a„ be given scalars ; tben the general vector expression for a 
unicursal curve of order n may be written in the form 

a^^" + naxV^^ + . . , + a„ 

ft = , 

«o^" + "ffi'^"'^ + . . . + a^ 

in which Hs a variable scalar parameter, and p is the vector to a point 
on the curve. For, consider the number of points on this curve locus 
which lie in an arbitrary plane 8\p - 1. This number is equal to the 
order of the scalar binary equation in t, which is obtained by substi- 
tuting in the equation of the plane the vector to a point on the curve 
expressed in terms of the parameter t. Arranged in powers of t, the 
result is 

(SXao - flo) ^" + « (-SXai - ffi) f "-1 + \n {n-\) {SXoo - a^) t"-- + &c. = 0, 

which gives n values of the parameter, or determines n points in the 
plane, where t" is the highest power of t in the numerator or in the 
denominator of the given vector expression. 

2. Vector equation for a tangent line and osculating plane. 

It is sometimes convenient to suppose the numerator and the deno- 
minator of the vector expression to be rendered homogeneous in x and y, 
where ty = x. In this case 

^ (apai • • • «, . )(^y)" ^ <^(^y) 

and here ff){xg) is a binary quantic with vector coefficients, and/(:ry) 
a binary quantic with scalar coefficients, and in general both quantics 



JoLY — Vector Expressions for Curves, 375 

are of the order n. The point on the curve determined hy x = Xi and 
y = yi may be called the point Ziyi. 

Vector expressions for the tangent line and the osculating plane at 
Xi^i may he readily assigned. 

The equation of the tangent line is 



d d 

X — - -r- y 

dx-^ difi 



^(x^i) 



""k^'-^iiy''"'^'^ 



where x^yi are given, and xy variable. This is in fact the equation of 
a right line passing through Xiyi, as appears on putting x = Xi and 
y - yi, and also passing through the consecutive points Xi + dxi and 
yi -5- dyi, as also appears on putting x = Xi^ ndx-i and y = yi -f ndy^, and 
using Euler's theorem on homogeneous functions. 

The vector expression for the oscnlating plane at the same point 
is, if u, V, and to are variable parameters ("whose ratios only are 
essential), 



P = 



^d^^'-'d^r''dij;y^'^'^^ 

d? d' d'\., ' 

dx,- dx.dy, dy^j' ' '^'^ 



Retaining only terms of the second order, it is obviously possible 
to expand 

(^ [x^ + dx^ -f ^d-x^, yi + dy^ + ^d'-y^) 
in the form 

/' ^ cT- ^ dr-\ 

in -which u^, i\, and Wi are independent of the coefficients of A, and 
involve only Xi, yi, their deriveds, and the nxunber n which determines 
the order of the binary (}>{xy). This being so, the vector expression 
lately written involving linearly two independent parameters (the 
ratios of u, v, and tc), is seen to represent the osculating plane at Xjyi, 
as in the neighbourhood of the point the deviation of the curve from 
the plane is a quantity of the third order. 

K.I. A. PEOC.. "^ER. m., VOL. IV, 2D 



376 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Aeadem?/. 

3. Example. ^Poles of chords of a conic. 

I pass on now to consider the vector expressions for a conic, the 
the pole of a chord, and the centre of the curve. 

By the first article, the general equation of a conic is 

Oya:^ + 2aixy + a^y'^'' 

and, by the second article, the tangent at x-^y^, is 

_ X {a^^ + aiyi) 4 y {a^x^ + a^y^) 
X {a^i + a,y,) + y {a^x^ + a.jjy) 

Given both x^yx and Xj^o, the point 

a^xXn + ai {x\y^ + x.y^) 4 aiyiy2 
a^x^Xi + ay {x,yn + x.y{) + a^y^y^i 

is situated on the tangent at x^yu and on that at x^yz- This point is 
consequently the pole of the chord joining the two given points on the 
curve. 

Two points on the curve may be considered as given by the quadratic 
equation 

h^-" + 2hxxy + hnf- = 0, 

the vectors to these points being determined by substituting the roots 
of this qiiadratic in the vector expression for the conic. The pole of 
the line joining these two points is 

since ari?/2 + ^2yi =- 25], and 2:1^:2 = ^2. if 3/1^2 = ^o- 

The points at infinity on the conic are determined by the quadratic 

a^pc^ + la^xy + awy"- = 0, 

since, when this vanishes, the vectors to the points determined are 
infinitely long. The pole of the chord joining these points, or the 
centi"e of the conic is 

_ Oyflj - 2aiai + a^a^ 
P'^ 2{a,a,-a,') 



. Jqly — Vector E.rpressions for- Ciin-e&. 377 

4. Invariants of Unary qiiantics with non-commutative coefficients. 

Tlie following rule may consequently be stated : — In order to deter- 
mine the pole OT of the chord joining the points determined by 

l^x^ \1hixy \l-Af- = ^^ 

foi-m the (12)' invariant of this scalar quadratic, and of the vector 
quadratic 

(a^ - ttip) x^ + 2 (tti - a{cij) xy + (^Zg - a^^Ts) y-, 

and equate to zero the result. 

This suggests consideration of invariants derived from binary func- 
tions of xy whose coefficients are not commutative. In other words, 
the investigation is suggested of those functions of the coefficients of 
the various powers of x and y in the expressions 

{PoPiP^ ■ ' • PnX'^l/T, and (Ml • • • 5'»')(^y)"'» 

which remain unaltered when a linear scalar transformation is effected 
on X and y. As it is generally impossible to determine values of x and y 
which shall make these binary functions vanish, it is most convenient 
to treat these invariants by means of differential operators. 
Suppose 

x = IX+ m Y, and y = I'X + ni' Y, 

and suppose that when this scalar transformation is made, 

{PoPl ■ • . Pn){xyr = (Po?l . . . PnXXYf, 

and 

{q,q,...q,,)[xyr={Q,Q,... a^XXF)"'; 

or, in other words, suppose that the binaries on the left-hand side of 
these equations transform into the binaries on the right. 
!Now, for this linear transformation, 

d d d ■!!., fi;:: 

^dY-'''dX=^^''-^"'^dy^ 
and 

and, consequently. 



378 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Hence 

( d d\" 
{Im' - l'm)\{p,p, . . .p„) f — , - — j . (^0^1 . . . q,,){xyf' 

= {P,P, . . . P,.) {J^ - ^y. ( Q„Qi . . . Q,. XXYf ; 

and this is a definite covariant quantic of the order n' -nva. x and y, 
provided the order of multiplication of the non-commutative coefficients 
j9 and q, and P and Q is preserved. In this case the operator is written 
to the left of the operand. The new covariant 

{Im' - rm)"{q,q, . . . q,„){zy)"'. {p,pi . . .p„) (^— , - -- j 
= {Q,Q,...Qn){XYnP^,...P,.) 



[dY' dX 

is found when the operator is written to the right of the operand. 
This covariant differs from the former only in the oider of multiplica- 
tion of the p and q, and of the P and Q. Here p is always to the right 
of q, and P to the right of Q ; in the other case, p is always to the 
left of q, and P to the left of Q. 

When n = «', these are invariants for the linear transformation. 
It is easy to extend this theoiy to any number of binary quanties, 
but the order in multiplying the coefficients must be carefully 
attended to. 

5. 2^e vanuhing of a vector invariant with respect to the parameter 
determines the pole of a given chord of a conic. 

Forming the (12)^ invariant of the vector quadratic (in which zj is 
an arbitrary, but given vector), 

(a^ - aQi3)x'^ + 2 (tti - flit7)a:y + (a2 - «2w)yS 

and of the scalar quadratic 

h^ + 2lxxy + l^y'^, 
the result is 

(ttp - AqTO) ho -2 (tti - a^zy) 5i + (oj - ^2^) ^o* 

The invariant vanishes if, as in the third article, zs is the vector to the 
pole of the chord joining the points determined by equating to zero 
the quadratic 

h^x- + 2hixy + Jay*. 



JoLY — Vector Expressions for Curves. 879 

6. For any unicursal curve the vanishing of a corresponding invariant 
determines a definite point, the ^'pole" of n given points.^ 

Take the general twisted curve of the w"* degree, and suppose the 
vector to a point on it to be given by 

^ ^ {^, y) ^ (ao«i • ' • (^n){xyy ^ 
^ f (^> y) (<^o^i • • • an){xyY " 
Take also a scalar binary of the w"* degree 

whose vanishing determines n definite points on the curve, and con- 
sider the (12)" invariant formed between this and 

ra/(a;y) - ^{xy\ 

It may be written in the form 

^(/i^)„-(c^i^)„, 

where {fF\ is the (12)" invariant formed between the scalar binaries 
f{xy) and F{xtj), and {<i>F)„, that formed between fj>{xy) and F{xy). 
If this invariant vanishes, a definite poiut is determined by the 
vector 

and, for the sake of brevity, this point may be called the pole of the 
n points on the given curve determined by F{xy) = 0. 

In particular, when these n points lie in a given plane <SAp= 1, the 
binary F{xy) = is replaced by the binary 

SX4>{xy)-f(xy) = 0. 
In this case 

{fF\ = SX{fc}>)^-(ff)„, and (<^F)„ = (<^-SA<^)„ - (<^/).., 
where 

(/<A)» = «'o«« - '>^aiO-n-i + &C. + (-)"ff„ao = {-T{<kf)n 
and 

(^(f>S\(ji)n = ao<SAa„ — naiSXa^-i + &C. + [—Ya^SXa^f 
and 

(//)» = «'o«'n - W«l«n-1 + &C. + (-)X«0 = (-)"(//)«• 

^ The use of the -word "pole " in this extended sense is due to Professor "W. K. 
Clifford, who has given the theorems of Arts. 7 and 8 for curves of the >;"> degree 
in «- dimensional space. " Classification of Loci," collected works, p. 312. 



380 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Thus the pole of tlie n coplanar points is given by 

'SA(/<^)„ -(//)„' 

In particular, as the poiats at infinity are determined by f{xy) - 0, 
the pole of the points at infinity is 

^ (//)V 

7. Distinction between curves of odd and even order. WTien n is odd, the 
pole of n copJaiiar points lies in their plane. Thehctis of poles of 
paralld planes is a right line parallel to a fixed direction. 

It is now convenient to consider separately curves of odd and curves 
of even order. Taking in the first place curves of odd order, (//)„ = 0, 

(<;5)/;„ = a,<7„ -o^a^-n (aiff„_i - a^-xa^ -i- &c. = - (/^)„, 
and 

(^<fiSX(f)]n = a(,<S'Xa„ - a„SXan — «(ai5Aa^i - a„_iiSAai) + &c. 

= V. V{a^a„ - naiaL„.i + ^n {n - 1) ootv-s - &c.) X. 

Thus the pole of the points in the plane S\p = 1 is given by the 
equation 

TXk-^l 

in which 

t = ttofif, - a„ffo - n (aiff^i - a„-iffi) ^- &C. 
and 

*« = ^("ott,. - WaiOT.-! + &C.)- 

In particular, the pole of the points at infinity is situated at the point 
at infinity on the line parallel to t, since {ff]n = 0- 

Again, the pole of n coplanar points lies in their plane ; for 

oAt 

Further, the locus of the poles of a system of parallel planes SXp = t, 
is found by replacing A by ^^A, and is the right line 



P 



Ski 



These locus lines are all parallel to the vector i ; that is, they all pass 



JoLY— Vector Expressions for CurDes. i 381 

throuah the pole of the points at infinity. Again^ the locus of poles 
for the system of planes -,,.-.., 

Sp {t\ + sfji) = t + s, 
which pass through a fixed line, i&the line 

V{t\ + S/Ji) K + {f + S) L 

^ [tX -» Sfj.) t 

8. When n is even, the pole of the points in a plane is the same as the 
pole of the plane ivith respect to afixedquadric. 

In the second place, for curves of even order, 
(//)» = 2 (ffoff.„ - na^ar,.^ + &c.) = 2/, suppose ; 

■ . C^/)'. = (/</>)» = «o«^« + "«^o - ^.* {p-\(^n-\ + a«-i«'i) + &c. = 2i ; . ; - - . - 
and '^ J 

(_c}iSX(f>)n = ag«SXa„ + a„SX.aQ — w(ai<SAa„_i + a„_iSX.ai) + &c = 2dX, 

where ^ ia a seli-con jugate linear vector function defined by the equa- 
tion just given. And now the pole of the points in SXp - 1 is, by 
Art. 6, 

ex-i 
""-s^^r -^ 

and the pole of the points at infinity is 

Just as in the last article, the locus of poles of the system of parallel 
planes SXp = t is 

ex-ti 
^~ sxi-tr 

and, as X varies, all these locus lines pass through the point w^, the 
pole of the points at infinity. 

For curves of even order, it is possible, by taking the origin at the. 
point OTg to render the vector l zero — at least, when / is not zero. 
This may be verified directly by changing the origin, and then form- 
ing the invariant t ; but it is otherwise obvious that this is the case, 
since /(a-y) is unaltered by a change of oiigin, and therefore /remains- 



382 Proceedings of the Royallrish Academy. 

unchanged. Or directly, changing the origin, the expression for the 
curre of order n (odd or even) becomes, when the origin is at po, 

_ ("o - guPo> «i - Cipw •••«»- c-npo) {^yf _ 
(«o«i . . . <?„) {xyf 
The invariant 

(ctfl - ttoPo) «» - « («! - «iPo) S'i + • • • + (-)" (a„ - fi?„Po) ^i^o 

may, when n is even, by choice of p^ be made to vanish ; but when n 
is odd, it is independent of po, and cannot be made to vanish by chang* 
ing the origin. 

Thus, for curves of even order, the pole of the points in SXp - 1 is, 
if the origin is taken at the pole of the points at infinity, 

zy = - 1-^6 (X), 

and the locus of the poles of the system of parallel planes SXp = ^ is 
the line 

p = - ir' 1-^6 {\). 

Let the quadric SpOp = const, be constructed, then the locus of the 
poles of points in a system of planes at right angles to a given radius 
vector to the quadric is the central perpendicular to the corresponding 
tangent plane. 

In this case, also, the locus of poles of the system of planes 

S {tk + Sfji) p = t + s, 

which pass through a given line, is the line 

__6{t\ + sp.) 
^~~ I{t + s) ' 

The pole of the plane S\p = 1 being given by t? = - IWX, will not 
lie in the plane (as in the case of curves of odd order) unless 

skTs = - i-'sxex = - iSzye~'zT = i . 

Thus the locus of poles which lie in the corresponding planes is the 
quadric surface ISp6~^p = - 1. The tangent plane at ot to this surface 
is 

ISpO~''z} = - 1 or SpX =1, 

and the quadric is also the envelope of the planes which contain their 



JoLY — Vector Expressions for Curves. 383 

poles. More generally, the pole of the plane SXp = t with respect to 
this quadric is the point 

TO = - t-'i-'dx, 

and this is precisely the point which is the pole of the points in 
which the twisted curve meets the plane with respect to that twisted 
curve of even order. 



9. Standard vector expression for curves of even ordsr. 

Hemembering the definition of {(pSXcf))^ = 26 (A.) in Art. 6, it follows 
that, if A and /a satisfy the relation SKOfx = 0, the (12)" invariants 
derived from the two scalar quantics SXcji [xy) and aS^^ {xy) vanishes. 
Hence, if X, fj., and v satisfy 

SixBv = Svex = sxefx, 

and if 

cfi {xy) SXfxv = VfjLv A {x, y) + VvX B {x, y) + VXjx C{x, y), 

where 

A {x, y) = SX<j> {x, y), &e., 

the (12)" invariants (-5C)„, {CA)„, and {AB\ of the scalar binaries all 
vanish. If, further, SXOX = -I, the (12)" invariants 

{AA\ = {££)„ = {CC%^-2I. 
If, again, 

/a = - ex, 1/3 = - Ofx, and ly = - Ov, 

it follows at once, since 

SXa = 1, and Sfxa = Sva - 0, that aSX/xv - Vfxv, &.Q., 

and that a, /5, and y are conjugate radii of the quadric surface 

ISpe-'p = -l. 

Hence the vector equation of the curve of even order may be written 
in the form 

_ aA {xy) + IBB {xy) + yC{xy) 

where 

{AA),, = {BB),, = ( CC\ = - (//)„ ^ - 2/. 
and 

(i?C), = (C^),. = (^5), = 0; 



384 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and, because- . 

. = 0, or a{Af\ + ^{B/)„ + y.{Cf)„ = 0, . . 

{Af\ = {Bf)„ = {Cf\ = Q. 

If a, /?, and y are taken to be the principal axes of the quadric 

ISp(r'p = - 1, 

the additional simplicity of the mutual rectangularity of the coordi- 
nating vectors is obtained. 

10. Introduction of a second invariant, ivkich, cannot generally he made 
to vanish when n is odd, and is then a vector. 

Again, consider the invariant (12)", obtained by operating "with the 
operator derived from the quantic 

{^^,(3,...l3„){xyr 

on the quantic itself. This is, by the principles of Art. 4, 

ySoiSn - ^^Ai3„-i + . . . + (-)"/3„i8o. 

First, taking the case in which ?i is odd, the invariant is a vector, 
and its half is 

V{/3J3„ - n{3,(3„., + &c.), 

For example, if the binary quantic is 

p (ffloOi . • . an){xyf - (ttotti . . . a„){xyf, 
the invariant is 

^[(p«o - ao)(p«n - On) - » (pfli - ai)(pff„_i - a„_i) + &C.] 
= Vp [a^a„ - a„a^ - n {a^a^.^ - a„.iai) + ...]+ r(a„a„ - ?mia„_i + &c.) 

= Fpt + K 

in the notation of Art. 7. This invaiiant cannot in general be made 
to vanish by change of origin of vectors ; if it vanishes, Slk = 0, and 
this is not generally true. In fact, it is easy to see that, on change 
of origin, the invariant k becomes k + Vp^L, where p^ is the vector to 
the new origin, and thus the scalar Skl is quite independent of the 
position of the origin, as it has been shown already that t does not 
change with change of origin. 



JoLY— Vector Exjjressions for Curves: 385 

As an example, take the case of the general twisted cubic 

Here 

t = ttQ^s - o.->fl,Q — 3 [o-xa-i — a^(l\), 
and 

K = Faottg — 3 Vo-xa-i. 

The origin may be supposed to be taken on the curve, so that ag = 0. 
Then if i = 0, a,,, ai, and a^ are coplanar, and the curve must be plane ; 
if 8iK = 0, 8a^p.xa.<i = 0, and again the curve is plane ; if k = 0, ai is 
parallel to a2, and here again the curve is plane. 

11. But when n is even, it is scalar, and its vanishing determines the 
director sphere of the quadric of Art. 8. 

"When n is even, this invariant is a scalar, and its half is 

^ySoi8„ - nSPxIB^^^x + &c., 

in which the last coefficient must be halved. 
The binary quantic 

p {a^ax . . . a„){xyY - {a^ax . . . a„){xy)" 

affords the invariant 

S{a^p - aQ){a„p - a„) - nS{axp - ax){a„.xp - a„_i) + &c. 

= p^I — 2SpL + {Sa^an - nSaxa^-i + &c.), 

using the notation of the 8th Article. 

If this invariant vanishes, the vector p must terminate on a sphere 
whose centre is the point /~^t - the pole of the points at infinity. For 
this point as origin, the equation of the sphere is 

p^/+ Sa^a^ - nSaxa„_x + &C. = 0. 

Consider an ellipse referred to its centre as origin with a and /3 for its 
axes major and minor ; the equation of the ellipse is 

p = acosu + B Binu= —^- ^- — — , it t = tan ht. 

For this curve, /= 1, and the equation of the sphere is 

p~ = a- + (3-; 



386 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

that is, the sphere contains the director circle of the conic as a great 
circle. A similar result holds for the hyperbola 

p-a cosh u + p smh w = — -— , ii t = tanh f w. 

Taking the equation of the general unicursal cuitc of even order in 
the standard form given in Art. 9, the invariant of the present article, 
being the (12)" invariant of the quantic 

pfi^y) - «^ {^y) - P^{^y) - y ^ («y). 

reduces at once to 

p2 - a^ - /32 - y- = 0, 

and the sphere is the director sphere of the quadric 

ISp6-'p = -\. 

Referring to the list of vanishing invariants which is given at the close 
of the aiticle cited, there is no difficulty in proving this. 

12. Formation of a system of curves called '■'■ Emanants^'' projective with 
the original curve. 

From any binary quantic n system of emanants may be derived by 
the aid of operators of the type 

d d 

In connexion with a curve 



' dx dy 



^ 7(^y) 



^{xy) 

X^y) 

of order «, may be considered the emanant curve 

of order p, if x, y are regarded as variable, and Xi, i/i as given. Now, 
if \p is any linear vector function, the original curve is projected by 
operating by i/^, and replacing xpp by p. Thus 

, ^ixy) 



Joi.Y — Vector Expressions /or Cur res. 387 

is the equation of the projected curve, and as the constant function t/^ 

and the operator 

d d 

dxx dyx 

are commutative in order of operation, the emanant curves project into 
t^manants of the projected curve. 

The emanants of any order p defined by x^yx, have the same tangent 
line and osculating plane at the point 

at which they meet the original curve. For, at any point x = Xi^ V^y-i 
on the emanant, the tangent line is 

Id d\l d dY\r ^ 



P = 



id d\( d d y-' .. ■ 



and this becomes identical with the tangent line at Xiyi to the original 
curve when x^^Xi and y% = yi. 

In like manner, the osculating plane at X2y-i on the emanant is 

d^ d? d^\( d d y-^ , , , 

^ ' d' d~ d^\i d d y-' ^ , ' 

and this is, when x^ = x^, and yi = ya, the same as the osculating plane 
at Xiyi to the original curve. 



13. General properties of the emanant curves. 

The emanant at x^y^ of order p intersects the emanant at x^y., of 
order n-p. In fact, 

is a point common to the two curves. Again, as the equation of the 



388 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Acadeimj. 

tangent line at the point whose parameter is a-o : tfo on the emanant at 

r^i of order p may be written in either of the forms 

^ ( d d \' d d \^' .. ' 

V </jri -^ d'A,^ -dx^ ^ dyj •' ^ ^'^ 
or 

^ / (/ d\( d d\'-^.. ' 

\ dx. ^ dy.l\ V^2 ^^ dy.) ^ ^ ■^•' 

the emanant at x-^yx of order ^ has a common tangent line with the 
emanant at x-aj^ of order n -j? + 1. 

And, similarly, as the osculating plane at the point x-^y-, on the 
emanant of order p at ar,yi is 

■ ■^~ I d' d" d' \( d d Y- ^, ' 

or 

/ <r- /f^ d" ^ f d d y"-p , , , 

this plane osculates likewise the emanant at x^y^ of order n- p -^2. 
Again, if both Xiyi and x^y^ vary together, 

d 



'Ux 



d X" 



is the equation of a surface which is the locus of emanants of order/?, 
or of order w -p. In particular, the first emanants and the tangent 
lines are curves on the developable whose cuspidal edge is the given 
curve. 

Mixed emanants may also be considered ; but it seems to be desir- 
able to explain, in the first instance, a notation which may be con- 
veniently used in discussing their properties. 



. JotY—Vecfdr Expresswiisfur Curves'. 389 

14. Syzygy of points, curvesj and planes. 

Take for example a conic. Let the point x-^y^ on it be denoted by 
the symbol (11), and the tangent line thereat by the symbol (1). A 
point on this tangent line may be denoted by the symbol. (12) or (^1),' 
and the second tangent through this point may be denoted by (2), and 
its point of contact by (22). 

Again, for a cubic, the first or conic emanant at x^yi may be sym- 
bolized by (1), the tangent line at the point by (11), the osculating 
plane by [1], and the point itself by (111). The point whose para- 
meter is x^ : yt on the conic (1) may be called (122), and the tangent 
line thereat (12) or (21). In general, the order in which the figures 
occur within the brackets is arbitrary. 

Two figures complete a syzygy for a conic, consisting of two points 
(11) and (22) on the conic, their pole (12), and the tangents (1) and (2). 

15. Description of a syzygy for the twisted cubic. 

For a cubic a complete syzygy of points, curves, and planes may be 
derived from three figures. In the osculating plane [l] lie the points, 
lines, and the conic involving the figure 1 in their symbol. The planes 
[1] and [2] intersect in the line (12). The lines of intersection of the 
three osculating planes [1], [2], and [3] are (23), (31), and (12), and 
they intersect in the point (123). This point has been called in Art. 6 
the pole of the three points (111), (222), and (333). 

In the plane [1] are the lines (11), (12), and (13), and these are 
tangents at the points (111), (122), and (133) to the conic (1). The 
points (122) and (133) are the points in which the tangents (22) and 
(33) to the cubic meet the plane [1]. But since the lines joining the 
points of contact of a conic inscribed in a triangle to the opposite ver- 
tices concur, the lines joining (111) to (123), (122) to (113), and(133) 
to (112) concur in some point Pi. If P2 and P3 are points similarly 
formed in the planes [2] and [3], the following groups of collineations 
may be written down : — 

(HI), (123), P,; (122), (113), P,; (133), (112), P,; 

(222), (123), P,- (233), (221), P,; (211), (223), P,; 

(333), (123), P3; (311),(332), P,; (322), (331), P,. 

Again, taking a plane through thepoints (113), (221), and (332) ; 
in virtue of the collineations it passes through Pj, Pj, and P3. In like 



390 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

manner, a plane tLrough (112), (223), and (331) passes througli Pi, 
P-i, and P3 ; and since these planes do not in general coincide, Pi, P2, 
and P3 must lie on a line. Hence it follows that (111), (222), (333), 
and (123) lie in a plane, as has been more generally proved for curves 
of odd order in the 7th article.^ 



16. Linear construction for this syztjgy. 

The properties proved in the last article give a means of construct- 
ing, not only the conies, but the three points of osculation, when the 
osculating planes and tlie tangents are given. 

The intersections of the planes determine the lines (23), (31), and 
(12). In the plane [1], the five points (112), (113), (122), (123), and 
(133) arc given, since they are points of intersection of the given and 
constructed lines. The point Pi is constructed by joining (122) to (113), 
and (133) to (112) ; and the point (111) lies on the line joining Pi to 
(123). The conic (1) in this plane is uniquely determined, as it has 
to touch the three lines (11), (12), and (13) at the constructed points 
(111), (112), and (113). 

It should be remembered that it has been proved, in Art. 13, that 
these conies lie on the tangent-line developable of the cubic. The 
theorem respecting the locus of their centres, given in Salmon's " Three 
Dimensions," will be generalized in a future article of the present 
Paper.'' 

17. Syzygy for the twisted quartic. 
The syzygy for the twisted quartic 

_ (g^^aia oaaaj) {xy)*' 

^ ~ («o«i«2«3«ij {xyY 

consists of the following system : — Denoting a point on the curve by 
(1111), the first emanant (a twisted cubic) at this point by (1), the 
second emanant (a conic) by (11), the tangent line by (HI), and the 
osculating plane by [11] ; there are four sets of points, cubics, conies, 
lines, and planes, whose symbols involve only one of the four figures 
1, 2, 3, and 4. In addition, there are the mixed emanant conies (12), 
and their planes [12]. The conic (12) may be described either as the 

' See Art. 337 of Dr. Salmon's "Three Dimensions." 

2 See " Three Dimensions," Art. 340 ; and Art. 21 of this Paper. 



JoLY — Vector Expressions for Curves. 391 

conic emanant at the point (1222) on tlie cubic (1), or as that at (2111) 
on the cubic (2). This conic (12) is related to the conies (11) and (22) 
as follows. The planes [11] and [12] intersect in the line (112) which 
touches the conic (11) at (1122), and also the conic (12) at (1112). 
Similarly, the line (122) lies in the planes [22] and [12], and this 
line touches (22) at (1122), and (12) at (1222). The line of inter- 
section of [11] and [22] cannot be expressed by a symbol of the kind 
here used, but (1122) is a point on it. The point (1122) lies on each 
of the conies (11) and (22), and the plane [12] touches both the conies 
at this point, as it contains the tangent to each. Again, this point 
(1122) is the pole of the chord joining (1112) and (2212), two points 
on the conic (12). These points lie on tangents to the quartic, and 
generally (12) meets the tangents (111) and (222), tangents to the 
quartic, and to the conies (11) and (22) respectively. 

Again, for three figures, there is the line (123), through which the 
planes [23], [31], and [12] pass, and which is a tangent to the three 
conies (23), (31), and (12) at (1123), (2231), and (3312), respectively. 
Similarly, introducing a fourth figure, three new lines (234), (314), 
and (124) are found, and these lines intersect with (123) in the point 
(1234), which is the pole of the four assumed points. Through this 
pole pass the six planes of the type [12], which intersect by threes in 
the lines of the type (123). 



18. Remarks on the general sy%ygy. 

In general, for a curve of the w*^ degree, the pole of n points 
Xiyi; x^y-i'i . . . ^„y„ may be denoted by the symbol (1, 2, . . . »). 
Through this point pass ^n {n-\) planes of the type [1,2,.,. (w- 2)], 
whose symbols involve only (» - 2) of the n figures. These planes 
intersect in n lines (1, 2, . . . (?z- 1) ), through each of which n-\ 
planes pass. Given n -\ points, and combining them with an arbi- 
trary w"* point on the curve, the locus of the poles is the line 
(1, 2, . . .{n—V)). Given only (?i-2) points, and combining them 
with two arbitrary points, the locus of the poles is the plane 
[1, 2, . . . (w-2)] ; but if the same arbitrary point is taken twice 
over, the locus is the conic (1, 2, . . . (?^ - 2) ). In general, the ema 
nant curves may be considered as loci of poles. Thus the first emanant 
(1) is the locus of the poles of the system consisting of a given point 
iCi^i, and an arbitrary point xy taken n-\ times. 

R.I A. PKOC, SEE. UI., VOL. IV. 2 E 



392 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



19. The osculating planes of the quarfic envelop the quad/ric of 
Art. 8. 

More especially for the quartic curve, it is easy to show that its 
osculating planes envelop the quadric ISp6~^p = - 1 of Art. 8. Taking 
the point x^yi three times over, and an arbitrary point Xojjo once, the 
pole is (1112), and it lies on the tangent (111) to the quartic. iN'o'u-, 
in the osculating plane [11] the points are x^yi taken three times over, 
and the fourth point x^^y'i, in -which the plane meets the curve. The 
pole (1111') of these four coplanar points lies in their plane, and con- 
sequently lies on the quadric ISpO~^p = - 1, and the osculating plane is 
the tangent plane thereat. It should be noticed also that, taking the 
point (1111) twice, and two other points 0:33/3 and z^i, which lie in a 
phme with (1111) taken twice, that is to say, the points which lie in 
a plane through the tangent line (111), the locus of their poles (1134) 
is a right line in the osculating plane. For, the points being coplanar, 
the theorem of Art. 8 holds good, and the locus of poles of a system of 
planes through a line with respect to a quadric surface is a right line. 
This line meets the conic (11) in two points. Corresponding to these 
poles, the variable plane touches the quartic in a second point, or it 
contains two tangent lines, or every tangent to the quartic meets two 
others, or the rank of the developable formed by these tangent lines 
is 6,^ as will be otherwise proved later on. 

It wiU also be shown that there are four planes which pass through 
four consecutive points on the curve. The theorem of Art. 8 holds with 
respect to one of these points taken four times. These four points con- 
sequently lie on the quadric ISp6~^p = - 1, and as the osculating planes 
touch the quadric, the quartic touches it likewise at each of the four 
points. 



20. Characteristics and reciprocal of unicursal curves. 

There is no difficulty in determining the characteristics of these 
unicursal curves, using the principles laid down in Arts. 326 and 327 
of Salmon's "Three Dimensions." In accordance with Dr. Salmon's 



' See " Three Dimensions," Ait. 330. The number of tangents which meet a 
given tangent is r — 4, where r is the rank. 



JoLY — Vector Expressions for Curves. 393 

notation, suppose the degree of the curve to be m. The scalar equa- 
tion of the osculating plane is 

\dx- ' dxdi/ dif dxdy ' dif- dx' d\f ' dx- dxdy ] 

d'cfi d-(f> dr(ji 
' dx^ dxdy dy"^ ' 

and as this inrolyes x : y in. the degree 3 («» - 2), the number of oscu- 
lating planes through an arbitrary point is w = 3(m - 2). 

In like manner, if the tangent (in which x' and y' are variable) 

, d<^ , d(fi 

x'j^ + y'^ 

_ dx dy 

dx dy 
meets an arbitrary line p = a + t^, 

\dx ' dy dy ' dxj dx dy ' 

and as this involves x : y \n. the degree 2{jn - 1), the rank of the 
curve is r = 2(;«- 1). From these three all the characteristics may 
be deduced. 

It is simpler, perhaps, to notice that the curve is the reciprocal 
with respect to the sphere p^ + 1 = of the plane 

Sp<i,{xy)+f{^xy) = 0, 

which involves the parameter x-.yin. the degree m. The characteristics 
of the curve are thus the reciprocals of those given in Art. 329 of the 
"Three Dimensions." They are, in Dr. Salmon's notation, 

a = 4(w-3); x = 2{m-\){ni-2>) \ h = i{m-l){m-2) ; 
^ = 0; y^2{m-2){m-3); ff = i{9>n--o3m+80). 

In Art. 349 it is shown that the quartic considered in Art. 17 of 
the present Paper is the excubo-quartic through which only one 
quadric surface can be drawn, 

2E 2 



394 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



21. Extension of a theorem of Cremona) s. 

The extension of Cremona's theorem, referred to in the note Jto 
Art. 16, is as follows : the locus of the pole of the points in which a 
variable first emanant meets a fixed plane, is a conic section. Or still 
more generally, let the first emanant be 



d 



d 



'^Tx^y^Ty]"^ 



Xj, 



d d\.' 

— +1/. — f 



dx^'^d^j 



f 



and consider the locus of the pole of the points determined by the first 
emanant 

dF dF 

^'^^^'^ = '' 

where F{xy) = is a scalar binary of the n'^ degree. In the notation 
of Art. 6, the pole is 

d d 

^ dx ^ dy 



--D-L. 



dx 



l'^i^y^ty)^\'^rx-'y^^)^ 



,id<i> dF 



~(d4y dF\ [d4 dF\ -| Jd^ dF 
\dx ' dy )„_i \dy' dx j„_y J ^Kdy'dy 



dF\ 

/n-\ 



'df dF\ 



^df dF\ 
\dx ' dy /,^i ' \dy 



Jdfd_F\ -\...JdfdF\ 



'^hh'^. 



dy 'dx j,^i 



/ /7fK /7 7P\ 

Here, as in the article cited, ( 7- • ;^ ) is the (12)""^ invariant of 

\dx dx /,ij 

the binaries of the order n - 1, and it is evident, that if ^1 : yi varies, 

the locus of the poles is a conic section. 



22. Vm'cursal curve reyarded as the locus of the mean centre of corre- 
spondiny points on any tiumber of homoyraphically divided lines. 

The general unicursal curve admits of a simple geometrical con- 
struction. Let e-iCz . . . f-n be the roots of f{t, 1) = 0, and let the 
curve be 

^{t, 1) (a^ai . . . a„) (^, 1)" 



P = 



f{t,\) {a,a,...a„){t, If 



JoLY — Veeto7' Expressions for Curves. 395 

Now 

^Oo a,ci> (0 - aj{t) 

^ % m 

^^05 rto<^(gi)-ao/(gi) 

by the method of partial fractions ; or, if 

- - p = — + i 



is the equation of the curve. Here €1, e^ . . . 6„ are the vectors parallel 
to the asymptotes, and the construction is : — Take a system of n lines 
thi'ough a point, and divide them homographically ; the locus of the 
mean centre of corresponding points on the homographically divided 
lines is a unicui-sal curve of the most general kind. If the lines are 
real, and the homographic divisions also real, the curve has n real 
asymptotes to which these lines are parallel. 

The line p = is homographically divided when e^ is given and 

t variable. The corresponding point on the line parallel to €2 is 

, and adding all these and dividing by w, the validity of the con- 



e^- t 

struction is evident. 

Suppose, however, that /(^, 1) = has a pair of conjugate roots, 

61 ± -y - 1 e-l. The terms arising from these are : 






Thus, when two of the roots of f{t, 1) = are imaginary, the cor- 
responding homographically divided lines are imaginary also ; but they 
combine into a real ellipse. In a similar manner, if two roots are equal, 
a parabola replaces two of the lines. 



396 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The quartic having four real asymptotes may be described as the 
locus of the mean point of a tetrahedron Tvhose vertices determine 
homographic divisions on four given lines. If only two asymptotes 
are real, the locus is the mean point of a triangle, two of whose 
vertices determine homographic divisions on two lines parallel to the 
asymptotes, while the third vertex determines homographic divisions 
on a conic. Finally, if the curve has no real asymptote, it is the locus 
of the middle point of a line joining homographic points on two given 
conies ; or, more generally, it is the locus of a point dividing in a given 
ratio the line joining corresponding points on a pair of conies homo- 
graphically divided.' 

To form the equation of an asymptote of p = 2 7, notice that 

the equation of a tangent is 

ci(«?i-0 •-• ^1-^ 

p = 2 7 -1-; ; or, writing x 



"When tQ-e^ 



p = a;ei + 2 — — 



is the equation of the asymptote parallel to ci, the sign 2 including 
(»- 1) terms. 

Thus, for a conic, the centre is , as the vector to this point is 

$1 — e-i 

on both asymptotes. The equation of the conic referred to its centre 

is easily seen to be 

Cl €>> - t Co Bi — t 
p - . — h ^^ . , 

Ca-^'i 61 - t Ci—e^ 62 -t 



p = cosh u + sinh u, where e" = — 

^ - «! ^2-^1 61- t 



' Two curves are homographically divided when there is a one-to-one corre- 
spondence between corresponding points. 



JoLY — Vector Expressions for Curves. 397 



23. Curve constructed hy three developalles. 

Unicursal curves may also be regarded as generated by the poicts 
of intersection of homographic planes of three unicursal developables. 
If three developables are the envelopes of 

Spi>,{t)=f,{t), Sp<^,{t)=f,{t), and Spcf.,{t)=f,{t), 

the points common to three corresponding planes is 

_ /l (0 y<f>2 (0 <^3 (0 +/2 {t) V^, {t) <f>, {t) +./3 jt) r4>, {t) Cf>, it) 
^ 6'c^l(0<^3 (0*^3(0 

The degree of the curve is «i + /ij + **3) where ??i, %, and n^ are 
the degrees in which the parameter occurs in the expressions for the 
planes of the developables. Thus, in particular, a tvtdsted cubic ia 
the locus of intersection of three corresponding planes of homographic 
systems through right lines ; here 

ni = 7i2 = % = 1. 



24. Inverse and pedcd curves. 
The inverse of the curve 

^~ f{^y) ^~ ^i^i/y 

if the radius of the sphere of inversion is unity. Multiplying above 
and below by <^{xy), the equation of the inverse is 

P T^4.{xy) 

This is of the form considered in the present Paper, the vector to a 
point on the curve being expressed as the quotient of a vector binary 
quantic by a scalar binary. 



398 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

The pedal of the curve p = - ^) ' ( , or the locus of the feet of per- 

pendiculars from the origin on the tangent lines, is easily seen to be 
given by 

_ dx dy 



df dcji dcf> df 
dx ' dy dx ' dy 



or by 



^dx dy dy dx 
This curve is in general of the degree 4 (?? - 1) 



yyd^dj, fdj, d_l_d4 df 

_ ' dx dy ' \dx ' dy dy ' dx 



[ 399 ] 



X. 

ON THE MELTING POINTS OF MINERALS. 
By RALPH CUSACK. 

(Plate Y.) 

[commtjnicated bt peof. g. f. fitzgerald, m.a., scd, f.k.s. f.t.c.d.] 
[Eead NovEMBEK 9, 1896.] 

Hitherto mineralogists appear to have made no efforts towards obtain- 
ing; tlie melting points of minerals in tlieir natural state, though the 
subject is one full of interest, especially in the case of ejected igneous 
rocks and lavas, which at the time of ejection were subject to no 
great pressure from the surrounding strata. There is also the theoretic 
interest attached to such minerals as are the only known representa- 
tives of a particular molecular grouping. 

As will be seen from the determinations given further on, melting- 
points afford in many cases an easy and very convenient means of 
identifying minerals, and may be used for this purpose where only 
minute quantities of the mineral can be obtained. 

The instrument used for the following determinations is Dr. Joly's 
meldometer — an instrument fully described by him in a Paper 
published by the Royal Irish Academy.^ The working of this instru- 
ment depends entirely on the expansion of a platinum ribbon heated 
by an electric current under suitable control. The instrument shown 
in the accompanying figure'^ is the latest form of the meldometer, as 
made by Messrs. Yeates & Son (see page 400). • It consists of a 
rectangular piece of slate cut as shown, on which are affixed two 
forceps, one of which is rigid, and the other free to rotate round a 
vertical axis, the lower end of which axis dips into a trough of 
mercury, to ensure good electrical contact. A small spiral spring 
attached to the vertical axis of the movable forceps, which may be 
seen at the left-hand side of a figure, serves to keep the platinum 
ribbon stretched when it is fixed in position. Projecting from the far 
end of this forceps is a flat steel spring, on the further end of which is 
fixed a small gold plate with which the platinum point of the micro- 
meter screw, when carried forward, makes contact, which contact 

1 Proc. K. I. Acad. vol. ii., Ser. 3, p. 38, PI. vi. 
^ Kindly lent by Yeates & Son. 



400 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



closes the circuit tlirough a galvanometer, not seen in the figure, but 
situated inside the eyepiece of the microscope. The instrument I 
used had not the microscope attached to the bed plate, but separate 
from it ; otherwise the instrument was identically the same as that in 
the figure. The forceps are bent over at the ends, allowing a trough 
to be raised, and surround the ribbon when in position. This trough 
can be lowered when necessary, and has been found very advantageous. 




as it helps greatly m excluding draughts, which are fatal to accurate 
working. This trough, however, forms a dust-trap, and will give rise 
to trouble if not very carefully and frequently cleaned, as the particles 
of the minerals dealt with fall into it, and the slightest breath of air 
blows them on the ribbon, wliich is thereby rendered too dirty, and so 
useless for further determination. The rheostat used was the same as 
that employed by Dr. Joly, except that German silver wire was used 



CusACK— Ow the Melting Points of Minerals. 401 

in place of the carbon rods. An additional self-'^'orking rheostat was 
introduced for convenience. This rheostat was formed of a carbon 
rod, about 2 feet in length, enclosed in a glass tube in an upright 
position ; mercury is allowed to flow in from an adjoining vessel and 
surround the carbon, thereby reducing the resistance. Without any 
attention being paid to the rheostat, the flow of mercury can be 
regulated so that the resistance alters either slowly or rapidly as is 
convenient to the observer. 

It would be as well, perhaps, to explain the operation of fixing 
the ribbon between the forceps, and also how the curve for the 
expansion of the ribbon is arrived at. 

The ribbon used was supplied by Messrs. Johnson & Marthey, and 
weighs 0"0073 grammes per centimetre, 3'80 inches of which were 
taken, and clipped at each end at about 30°. The ends thus clipped 
were fixed in the forceps, and adjusted, so that when a suitable current 
was passed through, the entire ribbon was uniformly heated. 

The ribbon, when adjusted so that it is heated uniformly, is raised 
to a bright red heat, and left thus for a few minutes ; the current is 
then cut off, and the whole apparatus allowed to cool before calibra- 
tion is commenced. To calibrate a ribbon the milled head of the 
micrometer screw is turned until the point of the screw comes in 
contact with the spring projecting from the other arm of the movable 
forceps from that to which the ribbon is attached ; the number of 
divisions through which the head has moved are then read off ; a 
speck of silver chloride (the melting point of which is assumed from 
the determination by Carnelly) is then placed on the ribbon, the 
current is turned on, and the resistance to the current is reduced by 
the rheostats in the circuit, till the AgCl is seen to melt, a micro- 
scope being used to aid the eye. I may here observe that a small 
concave mirror was found very convenient for illuminating the sub- 
stance under observation. The ribbon is not sufficiently luminous of 
itseK until the melting point of cupric oxide is reached. The expan- 
sion of the platinum ribbon should be carefully followed with the 
micrometer screw till the substance melts, and should then be instantly 
stopped. The point of the screw can be kept in contact with the 
spring by use of the galvanometer in the eyepiece ; this becomes 
quite easy after a little practice. The number of divisions moved 
through is again read on the head, and this reading, miaus the previous 
reading, gives the expansion of the ribbon for AgCl. This expansion 
is then marked off to scale on an ordinate, the temperature at which 
AgCl is known to melt on another ordinate at right angles ; and 



402 Proceedings of the Hoi/al Irish Academy. 

thus one point on the curve is obtained, the normal temperature of 
the room (about 12°) being subtracted from the known melting point 
of the substance used to calibrate. 

A similar process is gone through with each of the other substances 
used in calibration. I have always found potassium bromide, black 
copper oxide, and paladium, most convenient. Sometimes a specimen 
of actinolite was used as coming conveniently between CuO and pala- 
dium, but with very slight advantage, as the curve was found always 
to pass very close to the point thus obtained. Actinolite presents 
considerable viscosity, and thus has no very definite melting point, 
but still was useful as a verification of the cui've. A numerical 
example may be useful as to the method of finding the curve of expan- 
sion for a ribbon. Thus, in the case of black oxide of copper the 
reading of the screw-head at starting was 1986 divisions from zero, 
when the CuO melted ; the head was reading 2329 divisions ; so that 
2329 minus 1986 gave the number of divisions, the head moved 
through between the normal temperature of the room (12°) and the 
melting point of CuO, so the screw-head advanced 343 divisions. 
Each of these divisions represents the ^oiuu part of an inch, therefore 
the screw advanced through if^w parts of an inch ; the ribbon when 
cold measured 3-83 inches. 

Dividing 343 by 38,300, the number 0-008955 is obtained. This 
is plotted on the ordinate to a convenient scale of 0*002 to an inch. 
Logaritlimetic paper can be procured ruled to this scale. The known 
melting point of CuO, 1055°, minus the temperature of the room, 12°, 
was plotted on the ordinate at right angles to the temperature scale 
at the point corresponding to 1043° C. CuO is then marked on the 
curve at the point corresponding to 1055° C, the temperature at which 
CuO is known to melt. The first melting in the case of tliis sub- 
stance, CuO, must always be used as any subsequent melting is 
higher. Other substances used for calibration are dealt with in the 
same manner. 

A curve once obtained for a ribbon (see Plate V.), the determination 
of a melting point is calculated from an observed expansion by 
calculating the value (of I2-I1) divided by li, corresponding to the 
expansion ; then plotting the ordinate and finding the temperature 
corresponding to this ordinate, and adding the number of degrees 
corresponding to initial temperature. 

A great portion of one's time would be taken up plotting curves if 
the above operation was necessary for each new ribbon that was used ; 
as a ribbon very soon gets dirty, the melted particles of the minerals 



CusACK — On the Melting Points of Minerals. 403 

adhering to it. By cutting a number (say ten) of ribbons at the same 
time, so as to have them all the same length, and being very careful to 
have the ends cut away to exactly the same extent, the necessity of 
plotting a new curve for each ribbon is done away with. After many 
trials I found that ribbons carefully cut and adjusted properly in the 
forceps, so that the head of the screw read the same for each ribbon 
permitted of such being used to the one curve. 

The amount the ribbons are cut away at the ends is very impor- 
tant, and great care should be used in seeing that they are cut away 
an equal amount if a common curve is to be used for a number of 
ribbons. The best method is to cut each separately on a steel with 
a very sharp knife, but they may also be marked with a needle point 
and afterwards cut with a scissors. 

When one requires to determine the melting point of a mineral the 
first step necessary is to reduce that mineral to the finest powder ; for 
this purpose a diamond mortar and two agate mortars are indispensable. 
It has been found most convenient to prepare say ten specimens at a 
time, and keep the specimens when powdered in little well-corked 
bottles, as, if the powder gets damp, it is harder to put it on the 
ribbon so nicely as when quite dry. I have always found the best 
method of placing the powdered mineral on the ribbon is to use a 
moderately fine needle. By putting the point of the needle into the 
powder and then placing the point gently on the ribbon, some of the 
mineral is found to have remained on the latter. If too much remains 
the superfluous portion may be removed with a clean camel's-hair 
brush. The smaller the portion under observation is the easier it is 
to determine its melting point ; especially in the case of minerals that 
have a tendency to pass through a period of viscosity previous tO' 
melting. The specimen should always be placed on the ribbon when 
cold, and the micrometer should be read every day before starting 
work, also when work is finished. I never found the ribbon to 
permanently expand more than the 10,000th of an inch when care 
was taken not to overheat it. The ribbon should always be allowed 
to cool to its normal temperature before reading, as otherwise it 
would not have regained its original position. 

The minerals dealt with in this paper are those of very common 
occurrence, along with such specimens of rarer minerals as could be 
obtained in their crystalline state, in as pure a condition as possible, 
to make up a group. 

Considerable difficulty arises, dealing with the subject of the 
melting points of natural minerals, in obtaining authentic specimens. 



404 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Fortunately this difficulty is considerably lessened by the fact that 
only small quantities of minerals are required, and these can often be 
obtained from a museum specimen without injuring the specimens in 
any way. 

In many cases without a quantitative analysis it is quite impos- 
sible to give the composition of a mineral with accuracy. In such 
cases all one can do is to give the locality from which the specimen 
was obtained as a clue to possible peculiarities in its composition ; 
although in the exact sense one would not be likely to find many 
specimens of exactly the same chemical composition even when taken 
from the same locality. 

Small variations in chemical compositions do not appear to effect 
the molting point seriously. Several specimens of the same minerals 
from different localities show melting points that vary very little ; 
only about 2 or 3 per cent, as will be seen by the tables at the end. 
Thus a specimen of augite from Terra del Fuego and one from 
Yesuvius differed in their melting points only by 12°. That from the 
former melted at 1187°, and the latter melted at 1199° C. 

"WTien one finds that the hardness and specific gravity of two 
specimens of augite vary very considerably with their composition, it 
is not surprising to find that their melting points also vary some- 
what. But whereas in extreme cases the specific gravity of augite 
varies nearly 10 per cent., the melting point only varies, as far as 
observations have been made, 1 per cent. The greatest variation 
observed is that of Diallage, one specimen melting at 1264°, and 
another at 1300°. In this case I may have chanced to hit on extreme 
specimens, for the first specimen melted at 1300°, and the second I 
tried melted at 1264°, but when the other three specimens I had 
obtained were determined it was found that they only varied 14°. 
Diallage is slightly viscous, so has no definite melting point. I have 
to thank Dr. Sollas for his kindness in giving me out of the museum 
several specimens I would otherwise have been unable to obtain : 
and I have also to thank Dr. Joly for his kindness in lending me 
instruments, for many specimens, and for the assistance he frequently 
gave me. 

It would be interesting perhaps to give an account of the behaviour 
of some of the specimens when on the ribbon. 

Actinolite. — Of the four specimens examined, three were of the light 
green fibrous variety, and one a dark olive green crystal quite destitute 
of fibrous structure, and yet the melting points differ by only 16°, that 
of the granular specimen being the lowest ; this might be accounted 



OusACK — On the Melting Points of Minerals. 405 

for by the fact that it is nearly impossible to reduce a fibrous substance 
to powder ; its appearance under the microscope resembles particles of 
finely chopped hay rather than a dust. Actinolite is viscous, but it is 
possible to determine a point at which it is decisively melted ; in fact 
all the silicates present a period of viscosity in a greater or less degree, 
so that none of them can be said to melt at any definite temperature, 
but one can say a substance is melted at this temperature, and is not 
at that. The difference between the two temperatures is never more 
than about 10°, so that leaving a margin of 5° on either side of 
the temperatures given, the substance may be said to melt witbin 
that range, except in very exceptional cases, which are especially 
mentioned. 

Tremolite. — The two specimens were to all appearance similar, and 
behaved the same as actinolite. 

Hornblende undergoes a short period of viscosity which is only 
perceptible with difficulty. 

Diopside. — The specimens examined were all transparent, two were 
of a pale green, the other was nearly white ; their behaviour was 
similar to hornblende. 

Biallage — Different specimens of this mineral varied very much as 
to their melting points, more so than any other mineral examined, but 
this has been remarked on elsewhere. The period of viscosity varies 
with different specimens, and the way the substance is ground was 
also found to affect the melting point ; only after the greatest difficulty 
was it reduced to a sufficiently fine powder to obtain the results 
given ; the previous results with the same specimens were very much 
higher. 

Augite is not distinguishable from hornblende on the ribbon. 

Spodumene behaves rather like the felspars, and has to be reduced 
to the very finest dust ; it bubbles at about 1200° C. 

WoUastonite. — Both specimens were white, and presented fibrous 
structure ; their viscosity was hardly observable. 

Endatite. — A specimen of the variety Bronzite was observed to be 
viscous at about 8° below its melting point, which is slightly more 
than is the case of most minerals. 

Olivine is the most viscous mineral met with ; one specimen was 
viscous at 1323°, and only fiowed freely at 1407°, but after careful 
observation it was found to be melted at 1378°, but to retain a globular 
form, which was hard to distinguish from the surrounding dust, as 
only the very smallest particles are seen to melt at this temperature. 
If the larger particles are watched on the ribbon it will be seen that 



406 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

the side next the rihhon is melted, and that the upper side is not 
altered, or at least only softened slightly. In some minerals ^vhen the 
under side is melted the rest of the particle is not supported on it, so 
that it in its turn comes in contact Tvith the rihhon, and is melted when 
the rihhon is left at the temperature at which the under part was 
ohserved to melt, hut in the ease of Olivine and a few other minerals 
this is not so ; as, when the underside melts, the upper portion is 
supported on it, and if the temperature is not raised it will stay thus 
never melting, radiating heat as rapidly as it ahsorbs it. As this 
temperature is the same as the temperature at which the minutest 
particles melt, I have put it down as the melting point in the case 
of Olivine, and several other equally viscous minerals that behave 
similarly. 

Garnet. — The specimens of Almandine garnet examined were not 
of any particular interest ; they were slightly viscous, and melted at 
very much the same temperature. One was found at the junction of 
the granite and the gneiss near Carrickmines ; it was transparent and 
dark red. 

Vesuvianite presents no viscosity, and bubbles up at about 1100°. 

Epidoie changes colour as it is heated and bubbles up at about 
1000°; one specimen of epidote was fibrous, and it melted at a higher 
temperature than the granular specimen. 

In Meonite, Nepheline, Sodcdite, and Leucite nothing remarkable 
was observed ; they were all observed to bubble slightly, except 
Nepheline, when fused. 

The Felspars. — Two specimens of Adulaiia were examined, both 
transparent, and melting practically at the same temperature. Adularia 
bubbles up at about 1230°, which the other felspars have not been 
observed to do ; it can thus easily be recognised. All the felspars are 
viscous to a large degree ; a margin of 15° is allowed from the time 
the substance is first observed to soften till it melts. The figures 
given are those at which the smallest particles of the dust were 
observed to be melted on the ribbon. When melted they look more 
transparent. This is a very good means of observing when the 
substance is melted, for then the ribbon looks like a strip of paper 
with a number of pinholes in it held up to the light, and after a few 
trials it is possible to catch the temperature at which the pinhole 
appearance first occurs. Before this temperature is reached, however, 
the little particles are observed to tumble about the ribbon showing that 
they are going through a period of viscosity before the melting point 
is reached. The felspars are not distinguishable from one another by 



CusACK — On the Melting Points of Miner ah. 407 

their behaviour on the meldometer, except Adularia, which bubbles 

Tip. 

The Tourmalines are the most erratic minerals observed, as will be 
seen from the temperatures given in the tables, ranging as they do 
over an extent of 90°, a specimen of dark green tourmaline which was 
quite transparent, having a melting point as high as 1102° C, while 
one specimen of Schorl from the Wicklow granite melted as low as 
1012°, and another at 1018°, a specimen of E,ubbellite melted at a 
temperature nearly intermediate between these, at 1068°; but when 
the great variety in composition of the tourmaline is considered, the 
variation in their melting points is not surprising. 

The Oxides present no peculiarity as far as their melting points 
are concerned ; some are quite infusible, or rather infusible below the 
fusing point of platinum. Entile melts at 1560° C, or 60° above the 
melting point of the jDaladium, and the melting of Brookite is not 
distinguishable from it. These very high temperatures are very 
difficult to deal with, as the glare and heat of the ribbon are veiy 
great, and very trying to the eyes. The fact that Brookite and Entile 
melt at the same temperature tends to show that the melting points 
of substances of the same chemical composition are not influenced by 
the molecular structure or difference of symmetry. Zircon probably 
melts at about 1760°, as when the platinum fused the Zircon dust was 
stuck on to the ribbon, and was apparently rounded at the edges as if 
partially melted. It was not observed to melt under the microscope. 
The specimen of Uranite was rather earthy, but was the only one 
obtainable, and perhaps the observation is not very trustworthy. 
Corundum showed no signs of fusion even at the highest tempera- 
ture. 

Quart% melts easily, but undergoes a long period of viscosity ; 
nearly 20° of a margin ought to be allowed on either side of the 
given melting point ; it was observed to be soft at 1406° C, and only 
ran freely at 1440°, but was liquid at 1425°, being at this temperature 
observed to flow like thick glycerine when the temperature was kept 
constant. When the temperature was very slowly raised it was observed 
to flow more and more easily till at 1440° it flowed like water. 

The Phosphates are interesting as they vary a great deal in their 
melting points. "Wavellite being quite infusible, while Yivianite, 
iron phosphate, is fusible at 1114°. Several attempts were made to 
obtain the melting point of Turquoise, but with no success. It is 
certainly infusible at 1500°. A specimen of perfectly transparent 
Apatite from Switzerland was fusible at 1221°. 

E.T.A. PKOC, SEE. ni., VOI. Til. 2 F 



408 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Of the Sidphides, Stibnites, Galena, and Zinc Elende were easily 
determined, but some of the sulphides were either decomposed or 
oxidised immediately on fusion, if not before, so that their melting- 
point could not be satisfactorily determined. Iron pyrites suddenly 
decomposed at 642° ; whether it is fused at that temperatui'e or not it 
is impossible to say, as the specimens suddenly became a greyish yellow 
colour, or rather a substance of that colour was suddenly formed on 
the ribbon. "What the substance was could not be satisfactorily 
discovered, as the quantity was so small that it could only be seen 
under the microscope, but probably it was sulphur. Galena behaved 
somewhat similarly, only the substance formed was white. Eealgar 
and Orpiment both changed colour as the temperature was raised, but 
I noticed that if the temperature was kept constant the colour did not 
change during the time the temperature remained constant. 

The subject of the sulphides is perhaps the most interesting in 
connexion with the meldometer when the pyro-chemical side is con- 
sidered, as the charges that take place can be so much better observed 
on the ribbon under the microscope, than when observed in connexion 
with the blowpipe. As this Paper deals exclusively with the points 
of fusion of minerals, very little can be said in connexion with 
the sulphides, which nearly all appear to decompose at low tempera- 
ture. 

A remarkable phenomenon which still remains unexplained was 
observed to occur in the case of some minerals just before the point 
of fusion was reached, and was particularly remarked in the case 
of CuO. 

"When the temperature of fusion was nearly reached, it was 
observed that round a single grain of the substance under observation, 
a halo had formed, which increased in size as the temperature con- 
tinued to rise. If the temperature remained constant the substance 
did not fuse, but the halo continued to increase in size for a consider- 
able period, but very slowly after the first thirty seconds, stopping 
altogether in about two minutes (this was observed in one case with 
CuO). One is inclined to think that material from the undersurface of 
the substance formed some compound with the platinum of the ribbon, 
and that this, being more fusible than the CuO, flooded out on the 
ribbon, causing the halo appearance. But what combination could 
occur between CuO and platinum? Again if the substance was 
viscous, and a very bad conductor of heat, it might have been caused 
by the undersurface in contact with the ribbon being melted first, and 
flowing over the ribbon, which actually occurred in the case of olivine. 



CusACK — On the Melting Points of Minerals. 409 

This substance is, however, very viscous, whereas CuO has a very 
definite point of fusion, so this explanation will not account for the 
case of CuO. The roughness of the fragment of CuO, and the move- 
ment and regularity of the halo, appear to negative any explanation 
depending on the reflection of light. In fact I have not been able to 
arrive at any satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon. 

The meldometer, as will be seen from this Paper, can be used as 
a high temperature thermometer up to the melting point of platinum, 
reading with ease to 2° C. In the present instrument no attempt 
has been made to magnify the expansions of the ribbon ; this could 
best be done by lengthening the arm, especially for a short range, 
say of 300°, and thus obtain closer readings. 

A far more interesting use the meldometer could be put to is that 
of analysis in place of the blowpipe. Here it would be of enormous 
advantage — one would have no waste, and could always have the use 
of a microscope, and use only very small quantities of the minerals. 
In the meldometer, not only can the reduction or oxidisation of a 
mineral be observed under the most favourable circumstances, but 
also the temperature at which such changes take place can be recorded. 
The meldometer is also much cleaner to work with (and one never 
gets a red-hot spark into one's eye as is sometimes the case with the 
blowpipe), and it is very much easier to handle in every respect than 
the blowpipe. Sublimates can also be very easily obtained with the 
meldometer, as any one who has read Dr. Joly's Paper,^ on the 
"Melting points of Minerals," will have seen. He there describes 
many of the sublimates he obtained, and also the means used for 
obtaining them. 

It is interesting to consider what the melting points of minerals are 
influenced by, whether it depends entirely on the chemical composition 
of the mineral, or if the molecular structure influences it also. 

As an example : both riitile and brookite fuse at the same tempera- 
ture, though of different forms of symmetry ; but topaz and kyanite, 
though nearly of the same composition (some of the oxygen in the 
kyanite being replaced by fluorine in the topaz), show in the case of 
kyanite a fusing point of 1090°, whereas topaz is quite infusible. Can 
the infusibility of topaz be accounted for by the presence of fluorine ? 
It would appear as if the laws of fusion were very complicated. 

The following list of the minerals whose melting points have been 
determined may be of interest. The procedure in arriving at the 

^ Loc. cit., p. 38. 

2 F2 



410 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

melting point of a particular specimen, once the curve is got, is the 
following : — First a tiny speck of the mineral is put on the ribbon, 
then the micrometer screw is adjusted till the point is just in 
contact with the spring of the arm ; the galvanometer will then 
oscillate if the head be moved the slightest bit back. The contacts 
can be made so that a movement of the 20,000th of an inch of the 
point of the screw will make or break the circuit through the galva- 
nometers. This forms a very delicate means of reading the expansion 
of the ribbon. "WTien the screw is thus adjusted the trough is raised 
so as to surround the ribbon, and then the microscope can be placed 
so as to have the q^eck in the field of view. This is difficult, 
and it was found convenient to use a pointer of a little piece of 
platinum wire to find the speck. If the mineral is expected to melt 
before a temperature of 1000° is reached, a ray of light should be 
thrown on the speck by means of the mirror previously mentioned ; 
the current is then turned on, and the resistance in the circuit 
decreased till the mineral is observed to show signs of melting ; the 
screw is kept following the expansion of the platinum all the time, 
till the substance is observed to melt, then stopped, and the expansion 
calculated as previously shown. The first determination is generally 
too high, and at least four or five trials are made before the melting 
point is satisfactorily arrived at, but generally ten to fifteen are found 
necessary when dealing with a viscous body. If one knows about the 
temperature at which the body may be expected to fuse, five or six 
are, however, generally sufficient. The expansion at each trial is 
generally less than the previous one, and thus a point can be arrived 
at, which is the lowest at which the mineral under observation is 
observed to be fused. One can in a similar way determine the lowest 
point at which a substance is soft, as when soft it can be seen falling 
about on the ribbon. 

The following example may illustrate this. The mineral was a 
specimen of Diallage. When cold the ribbon was 383 inches long, 
the head reading 1812 divisions : — 



1st 


trial, 


2276 


was 


reading of head 


2nd 




2284 






yrd 




2263 






4th 




2267 






5th 




2260 






6th 




2264 







CusACK — On ihe Melting Points of Minerals. 



411 



I then concluded Eiallage "was melted at temperature corre- 
sponding to 2260 - 1812 ^ 3-83 = 0-01169 or 1264° C. 

By making similar trials I found that the little particles fell 
about first at a temperature of about 8° lower. 



SILICATES. 

BlSILICATES. 



Actinolite (green) — 

A. 1288°, Greenland. 

B. 1282°, Glenely, Scotland. 

C. 1272°, Tyrol. 

D. 1275°, — . 



Treraolite — 

A. 1223°, — . 

B. 1219°, Bunbeg, County 

Donegal. 



Hornblende — 

A. 1187°, Arendal, Xorway. 

B. 1196°, YesuTius. 

C. 1200°, — . 

Diopside — 

A. 1187°, Ala, Piedmont. 

B. 1192°, — . 

C. 1195°, — . 



Biallage — 

A. 1264°, 

B. 1300°, 

C. 1278°, 

D. 1284°, 

E. 1270°. 



A^iffite — 

A. 1188°, Tyrol. 

B. 1199°, Yesuvius. 

C. 1187°, Terro del Greco. 

Spodumene — 

1173°, Killiney. 

Enstatite — 

1295°. Bronzite. 

Wollastonite — 

A. 1203°, New York. 

B. 1208°, Manta Somoma. 



412 



Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 



Unistlicates. 




Olivine — 


Ifeionite — 




A. 1378°, Vesuvius. 


1281°, 


Vesuvius. 


B. 1363°, Yesnvius. 

C. 1372°, \ 


Nepheline — 




softens > Carthagena, Spain, 
at 1342°, ) 


A. 1070°, 

B. 1059°, 


Arendal, Norw 
Vesuvius. 


Garnet, Ahnandine — 


Sodalite — 




A. 1264°, — . 


A. 1133°, 


Vesuvius. 


B. 1268°, Dublin granite. 


B. 1127°, 


Vesuvius. 


C. 1263°. Bohemia. 


Leucite — 




Vesuvianite — 
A. 1024°, Binn. 


1298°, 


Vesuvius. 


B. 1035°, Vesuvius. 


Adtdaria — 




JEpidote — 

A. 954°, Portrane. 


A. 1168° 

B. 1164°, 


Ceylon. 
Switzerland. 


B. 976°, Arendal, Norway. 


Alhite— 




Zoisite — 


1172° 


Mourne Mount 


995°, — . 


Microcline — 




Dioptase — 


1169° 


BiuTientlial. 


1171°, — . 


Lahrodorite- 


_ 


Axinite — 


A. 1235° 


• 


995°, Switzerland. 


B. 1223°, 


Basalt, Howth. 



Tourmalines — 

A. 1018°, Schorl., Dublin. 

B. 1012°, Abs, Norway. 

C. 1068°, Eubbellite, Massa- 

chusets. 

D. 1102°, Dark green. 

E. 1013°, yellow. 

Cyanite — 

1090°, Donegal. 



SuBSIIICATES. 

Topas, infus. 

Titanite — 

A. 1142°, green, Switzerland. 

B. 1 1 27°, pink, Switzerland. 



Staurolite — 

1115°, Wicklow. 

Andalusite — 

1209°. — . 



CusACK — On the Melting Points of Minerals. 



413 







OXIDE?. 




Zircon, 


. infus. 




Broolite, 


. 1560° 


Cuprite, 


. 1162°. 




Uraninite, . 


. 1188° 


^incite, 


. 1260°. 




Corunduf/i, 


. infus. 


Ca-ssitirite, . 


. 1127°. 




Quartz, 


. 1425° 


Rutile, 


. 1560°, 




>> 


softens, 1406° 



PHOSPHATES. 



Vivianite, . 
Wavellite infus 



1114= 



CorTi. 



Apatite — 

A. 1221°, S^tzerland. 

B. 1227", Eengrew, Canada. 





SriPHIDES. 




Moli/hdeyitte, 


. 1185°. 


Galena, 


. 727°. 


Realgar,"^ . 


. 377° (•?). 


Zincblende, 


. 1049°. 


Orpiment,^ . 


. 325° (?). 


Iron Pyrites 


. 642° (?).t 


St Unite— 




Marcasite, . 


. 642° (?).t 


A. 518°. 








B. 523°. 









* If Eealgar or Orpiment are suddenly raised to the above tempei-atuies they 

appear to melt before subliming. 
t Oxidizes suddenly. 



[ 414 ] 



XI. 



coNCEExiyG :maesh's libeaey axd ax oeigixal 
ixDrLGE>X'E rEo:ji caedixal tvolsey lately 

DISCOYEEED THEEEIX. By EEY. GEOEGE THOMAS 
STOKES, D.D. 

[Read FEBRrABT 8, 1897.] 

"Whex Archbisliop Benson visited Dublin last September, he paid a 
visit to Marsh's Library. I met him at the door, and, as -v^'e entered, 
I told him that this was the library once owned by Bishop Stillingfleet 
of "Worcester, and described upon his monument by the great critic 
Bentley as " a library the like of which was not anywhere else in the 
world." "Oh, no!" he replied; "this cannot be Stillingfleet's 
library ; because when I was at Hartlebury Castle, the other day, 
the Bishop of "Worcester told me he had Stillingfleet's library there 
and he showed me some books which once belonged to Stillingfleet." 
" "Well, your grace," replied I, " the bishop may have some few books, 
the relics of his library, but the corpus or body of Stillingfleet's library, 
is now before yoxir eyes ; and I wiU show you proofs thereof in various 
presentation volumes, made to Dr. Stillingfleet by various authors, 
even before his consecration." And so I did, showing the archbishop, 
for instance. Cave's " Lives of the Fathers," with the autograph inscrip- 
tion of Dr. Cave, describing Dr. Stillingfleet as " that illustrious and 
learned man. Canon of Canterbury and of St. Paul's." But Marsh's 
Library contains much more than Stillingfleet's collection. It is a 
composite institution. It contains three episcopal libraries, an ordi- 
nary clergyman's library, and a portion of another library, the 
property of a vicar-general. Let me describe it somewhat in detail. 
First of all, Stillingfleet's library is the basis of the whole collection. 
Then, there is Steame's library ; and Steame was the learned Bishop 
of Clogher. Then there comes Archbishop Marsh's own library, 
largely composed of Oriental works, Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac — 
though he gave many of such works to the Bodleian. For Marsh was 
a great Oriental scholar, and is described by a contemporary Oxford 
divine as " the greatest pLUar of Oriental learning in the "West since the 



Stokes — Concerning Marsh's Libran/. 415 

time of Ussher."^ The fourth lihrary is that of the Rev. Dr. Bouhereau^ 
the first librarian of the institution, which completely fills the present 
reading room of "Marsh."- And the fifth library, largely, perhaps, 
it might be said, entirely composed of manuscripts dealing with Irish 
history, was the property of that eminent canonist, historian, and Ori- 
entalist, Dr. Dudley Loftus, who lived and died in Upper Exchange- 
street, as it is now called, or as it was then styled the Blind Quay, at the 
back of Parliament-street. The library thus constituted was for long the 
onLj public library in Dublin, and continued such down to the earlier 
part of the present century. The late Dr. Stubbs of Trinity College, 
not so Tery many months ago, came into it one day and showed me 
the Latin dictionary for the sake of which, as he told me, he used to 
frequent " Marsh's" in the " thirties," and out of which he gathered 
all the Latin which took him on to fellowship ; and, to show the 
marvellous conservatism of the atmosphere and of the place, he went 
and put his hand upon it, standing in the very spot where it stood 
sixty years before.^ ^Now, as naturally may be supposed, the contents 



^ Mai-sli despaired of Oriental learning in Ireland, and therefore bestOM'ed nearly 
1000 codices, Hebrew and Syriac, upon the Bodleian Library. His own private 
library, whieli now forms a portion of that founded by himself and called after him, 
is largely composed of Oriental books. It is curious that Marsh should have so 
despaired of his own favourite study and its fate in Ireland, seeing that his friend 
and contemporary, Dr. Dudley Loftus, was a Dublin Orientalist whose fame was, 
just then, world-wide : cf. a paper by me on Dr. Dudley Loftus in the Journal of 
the Eoyal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland for 1890-91, pp. 17-30. Dudley Loftus 
printed Sp'iac works here in Dublin more than 200 years ago. I wonder what 
became of his fount of Syriac type ? It can scarcely have been that used ux th& 
printing of Dr. Gwynn's learned work on the text of the Apocalypse. A paper on 
Oriental Scholarship in Dublin since 1600 would be veiy interesting. Ussher, 
Loftus, Huntingdon, Marsh, form a goodly succession of Orientalists. 

2 Bouhereau was the first librarian. He was originally a Huguenot physician. 
He came to Dublin after the Eevocation of the Edict of Xantes, and became the 
pastor of the Conformist Huguenots, who worshipped in the Lady Chapel of St. 
Patrick's. He was also the first librarian of "Marsh," and was Under Secretary as 
well to the Lord Lieutenant of that day. He was the ancestor of the family of 
Burroughs. He was a good scholar, and among bis books in ' ' Marsh " is a French 
translation of Origen against Celsus which he printed at Amsterdam in 1700. This 
translation is praised both by Mosheim, in his German translation of the same, 
published in 1745, and by Dr. "Westcott, in his article on Origen in the Diet, of 
Christian Biography, vol. iv., p. 122. 

2 The lexicon which had proved thus useful to Dr. Stubbs was Gouldman's 
"English and Latin and Latia and English Dictionary," pubhshed at Cambridge 
in the year 1669. It had been Archbishop Marsh's own property, as 



416 Proceedings of the Royal Iriah Academy. 

of Marsh's Library, composed of such materials, are largely eccle- 
siastical and historical ; but they are by no means exclusirely so. 
Ecclesiastics are physicians for the soul ; but in ancient and modem 
times alike, they liave magnified their office and loved to be physicians 
for the body as "svell ; and, in consequence, there is no place "vrhere you 
are so sure of curious " finds" in the region of ancient medicine as in 
these old ecclesiastical libraries of the seventeenth centiuy ; and not 
in medicine merely, but also in law, ecclesiastical and civil, botany, 
poetry, music, and various other directions which modern physicians 
will maintain, come more legitimately under a clergyman's cognizance. 
Some time ago I had an American oculist in the libraiy, and I 
presented him with a treatise on diseases of the eye dating from the 
days of King Charles I. He looked over it with great interest, and 
assured me that there were several remedies aud drugs there mentioned 
which are now used as the very latest ideas by American practitioners. 
While again, if the Bombay Government would only communicate 
with me, I could easily send them notes fi'om several works giving 
them the concentrated experience of the physicians of England, France, 
tSpain, and Italy, concerning the plague in the days of Charles II. 

The poet, however, tells us that "our little systems have their 
day " ; and so it was with " Marsh." 

It had its day more than half a century ago, and then sei-ved its 
generation well as a public library ; but it has been cut out by other 
pubKc libraries, which have since sprung into existence and are more 
accessible, while the mother of all the really public libraries in Dublin 
has been left stranded up under the cathedral shadow, and stranded 
so completely that I found on my appointment as its " keeper" that 
the number of visitors and readers for the previous twelve months had 
been exactly two. ^ "Well, we are better now. The learned treasurer 
of this Academy and even some stray members of the Council, at times 
appear there, and prove the magnitude of the resources of which I 
have spoken. The vrise man, however, assures us that God has made 
all things double, one against another, and that He has made nothing 
unequal ; and so it has been with " Marsh's." 

proved by the motto ■which he inscribed in all liis books, iravraxfi rrjv 'Ax-fideiav. 
It is very useful to young students, because it marks all the quantities both of 
proper names and of ordinary -words. 

' Perhaps nothingwill show the depth of ignorance prevalent still about " Marsh," 
as the fact told me by several persons of late that the very police who live next door 
to the library in the ancient Archiepiscopal Palace have assured inquirers that they 
did not know where it was, and had never heard of it. The constables who said so 
must have been comparatively young members of the force. 



Stokes — Concerning Marshes Library. 417 

The very neglect into which the library has fallen has had a 
counterbalancing advantage. It has had, for instance, a marvellous 
preservative influence upon it. Nothing has been more destructive 
of ancient work than the keen desire for restoration which has seized 
like a fever upon the public mind. The first thought which an ancient 
building suggests now-a-days is this — "Here we have something to 
restore"; and, under the restorer's hand, much genuine ancient work 
has disappeared which the ignorant contempt and neglect, and white- 
wash of our forefathers handed down to us. So it has been with 
" Marsh." It was for long years handed over to dust and oblivion; but 
dust and oblivion have preserved its treasures, while knowledge and 
use would have brought literary thieves and literary loss in their train. ^ 
And so it is that in Marsh's Library you will find books still which even 
the British Museum does not contain, and certainly would much desire 
to possess, a specimen of which I now desire to bring under your notice. 
During the Christmas holidays I happened to be reading the 2nd edition 
of Maskell's great work, called Monumenta Ritualia Aiiglicana, origi- 
nally published about 1845, and re-published, in 1882, by the Clarendon 
Press. That work is very interesting to a librarian, a bibliographer, 
or a ritualist, in the technical sense of that word, but is uninteresting 
to any one else. It goes into great details about ancient service books, 
whether manuscript or printed, specially of the use of Sarum, the use 
which prevailed in Irish churches from 1200 to, say, 1550. Mr. 
Maskell always speaks as if the only places where you could see 
specimens of those distant times were the British Museum or else 
the libraries of Oxford, Cambridge, and Lambeth. He makes an 
occasional mention, but very " occasional," indeed, of the Dublin 
University Library as a place where some few ancient copies are 
preserved, but ignores every other Irish institution. I must confess 
that thereupon the fire kindled, and I thought within myself — well, 
I will look and see what " Marsh" can do in this matter. Let us see 
whether the British Museum, and Oxford and Cambridge, are the 
only places which possess ancient printed copies of Sarum Service 
Books. I at once set to work, and found in "Marsh," between 

1 During the period when the library was much used a large number of the most 
valuable books were stolen. The thieves showed great discrimination in the books 
which they abstracted, as they were always rare and even unique editions. This 
fact led the Governors, about 120 years ago, to order that no one should read save 
in the reading room, and that every reader should be searched on his departiu'e. 
This order is still, in its original shape, exhibited on the walls of the library, dated 
Oct. 14th, 1779. 



418 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Breviaries, Missals, Processionals, Manuals, Psalters, and sucli like^ 
fully a dozen at least original Sarum and York Service Books, some 
of which, like the one I now exhibit, are not found in any of the great 
collections to which alone Mr. Maskell referred.^ Here now you may 
fairly ask me how comes it to pass that " Marsh's Library " is so rich 
in these ancient service books. The best explanation of that richness 
will be found in the original constitution of that library, as I have 
already explained it. Its main constituents are three great episcopal 
libraries. The three owners were wealthy men for their times. Two 
of them. Marsh and Stearne, were old bachelors — and all three were 
book-lovers. All three, too, belonged to the seventeenth century, 
when the great Eebellion and its troubles had broken up old households 
and flung large libraries on the market ; and hence the owners of 
these libraries had unique chances of picking up rare old works, of 
which they diligently availed themselves.- 

Now amongst the books to wliich I first turned, when I wished to 
find out the riches of " Marsh," were those formerly belonging to Dr. 
Stearne, once bishop of Cloghcr, and, previous to Swift, Dean of 
St. Patiick's.' There I found a Psalter according to the use of Sarum 

' The reader will see at the end of this paper a tolerably complete list of all the 
ancient printed English liturgical works still in " Marsh." Some of them contain 
most interesting manuscript notes and notices. 

- In the same way the Irish Land Acts and Irish Land troubles have already 
brought some rare old books into the Irish market. Twenty yeais ago I picked up 
in Cork an uncut copy of Du Pin's '* Ecclesiastical History " in the original Dublin 
edition of 1724, printed by George Grierson, at the sign of the Two]Bibles, in Essex- 
street. The ancestor of the modern owner had been a Dublin judge of that period. 
He was of literary taste, which was more than could be said for his descendants, 
and he subscribed for this great work in 3 folio volumes. And there in his house it 
lay unnoticed till necessity forced its sale. A short time since I picked up again, 
for a few shillings, a copy of a celebrated mediasval work, the "Pupilla Oculi " 
of John De Burgh, composed about 1300 and printed in 1504. This work was the 
theological handbook of the English clergy from 1300 to 1560. 

2 Steame was a learned man and an antiquary of no mean powers. He was, like 
the late Bishop Reeves, an indefatigable scribe. He was connected through his 
grandfather with Ussher, while his ancestors had been Meath clergymen during the 
whole of the seventeenth century. Steame copied Ussher's and Dopping's Surveys 
and Records of Meath and left them to Marsh's Library, where they now remain. 
They are full of information about the parishes of Meath in that period of obscurity 
which followed the Reformation. The "Steames" often spelled their name 
" Sterne." Thus, this very month of March, the Rev. Dr. Groves presented 
" Marsh " with a copy of a work, " A Defence of the Protestant Faith," by Enoch 
Sterne, LL.D., Clerk of Parliament, Dublin, 1755. He was a member of the same 
family once seated at Garrycastle, near Athlone. The name is, however, always 
wiitten *' Steame " in the Matriculation Book of Trinity College. 



Stokes — Co)icernmg Marsh's Library. 419 

and York, together with the Latin hymns in daily use in these churches. 
Now these ancient English Psalters require a word of explanation. 
They are no longer in use either in this country or on the Continent, 
having been superseded by changes in the service books made by the 
Pope subsequent to the Council of Trent. They are not what are 
now called Psalters in the Church of England. Maskell defines them 
as "books in which the Psalms are contained, divided into certain 
portions for matins and the hours, so as to be gone through in the 
course of a week." The Sarum and York Psalters were simply the 
Prayer Books of the educated laity in the year 1500; and as such 
they are generally like modern Prayer Books, convenient in size, 
either small octavos, or else smaller still. Maskell states that there are 
three of these Sarum and York Psalteries, or Prayer Books, in the 
Museum Library; one printed at Paris in 1516, for much of English 
printing was then done at Paris and at Bouen ; another printed at 
Antwerp in 1 524 ; and athird, dated in 1 529, without any colophon. But 
not one of these Sarum and York Prayer Boohs ivas printed in Enyland. 
j^ow the very first book I took down from Bishop Stearne's collection 
was this unique volume, " A. Psaltery and Hymnery according to the 
use of Sarum and York," dated in the year 1524, and 2>rinted in the 
city of London. All the Sarum Prayer Books in the British Museum 
mentioned by Mr. Maskell were printed alroad, while this one in 
"Marsh" was printed in London. But this was not the only curious 
and interesting point about it. The colophon, or imprint, of this book 
was, as usual in that age, at the end of the book, and on the very last 
page, instead of on the title-page, as is the present custom. This 
colophon ran as follows: "Explicit Psalterium cum Antiphonis do- 
minicalibus et ferialibus, suis locis insertis, una cum hymnis Ecclesiae 
Sarum. et Eboracen. deservientibus. Impressum in civitate London, 
per Bichardum Pynson regis impressorem Anno Domini MDXXIIII." 
Now let me give you a brief description of this unique Prayer 
Book. It is an octavo volume in the original binding of embossed 
sheepskin. The title-page consists simply of the words " Psalterium 
cum Hymnis," underneath which are the letters B. P., being the 
initials or device of the printer, Bichard Pynson. The contents 
of the book 1 need scarcely refer to, as they are too strictly theo- 
logical for this Academy. There are some points, however, of general 
interest to which I may briefly refer. The Calendar prefixed to the book 
is an interesting specimen of the method of computing time in the early 
sixteenth century, which has, indeed, in more ways than one left its 
impress upon modern life and practice. The number of days is 
appended to the name of each month, and the length of the nights in 



420 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

each month is duly giyen. Some few Celtic saints — St. Brigid, St. 
Patiicji, St. Petroc, St. David — are commemorated, but they are very 
few indeed. Then comes the Psalter, followed by the Canticles from 
the Old and IS'ew Testament, and the Te Deum, where a rubric ia 
added, stating that this hymn was said by some to have been composed 
by St. Ambrose and St. Augustine at the baptism of St. Augustine ;■ 
but that this was a mistake, as it really was composed by St. Mcetus, 
of Treves, as Cassiodorus declares in his work about the Institution of 
Holy Scriptiire.^ This statement gives us a glimpse of the condition 
of historic knowledge at that time, as Cassiodorus lived a clear hundred 
years before St. Nicetus, so that he must have been a prophet to 
be able to tell what Nicetus would compose a hundred years after 
Cassiodorus had died. However interesting the book may be on 
these questions, they have more attraction for a Historical Society than 
for such a body as ours devoted to literary subjects from an antiquarian 
point of view. Looking at the Psaltery from that standpoint, the most 
curious topic is its printer, Richard Pynson.^ He was, as I have said, 
the earliest printer in the city of London, as printing was first establislied 
by Caxton in Westminster, where Caxton was succeeded by his son- 
in-law, Wynken de "Worde. 

Richard Pynson and Do "Worde were fellow apprentices to Caxton 
and great friends all through life. Pynson established his printing 
press at Temple Bar, where he printed his first work in 1493, under 
the title of "The Dialogue of Dives and Lazarus upon the Ten 
Commandments," which ought to be very useful and edifying reading 
for the wealthier members of this Academy, though we can scarcely 
be quite certain about the authenticity of the reports.^ Three years 
later he printed there the first classical work published in England, 



1 Cf. the article on St. Nicetus (3) 25th Archbishop of Treves in the Diet, of 
Christ. Biog. iv. 38. 

^ AU hooks dealing with the history of printing, such as Palmer, Mattaire, Cotton, 
Humphreys, Blades, are full of Pynson ; cf. the article on him in the Dictionary 
of National Biograplnj. 

2 Pynson also printed the "Ship of Fools," in which the first fool was the 
" Book Fool " or Bibliomaniac, who is thus represented : — 

" I am the first fool of the whole navy, 
To keep the pompe, the helme, and eke the sayle. 
And this is my minde, and this one pleasure have I 
Of books to have great plenty and aparyle, 
Yet take no wisdom by them, nor yet avayle." 

He has them only for show and for their fine bindings. 



Stokes — Concerning Manh's Library. 421 

■whicli was the " Comedies of Terence." From that press he continued 
for forty years to pour forth numerous hooks of every sort and 
condition, among which was the " Booke of Cookery" in 1500, and 
the first edition of Henry the Eighth's work against Luther a 
short time before he printed this Prayer Book under our notice. 
Tou will observe, too, in the colophon of it, he calls himself the 
king's printer, thus correcting a mistake made by ITr. Maskell, who 
states that he was not appointed king's printer till the death of 
Eastell, in 1536, the brother-in-law of the celebrated Sir Thomas 
^lore, who up to that time, held the post. This colophon shows 
that Pynson was appointed some twelve years earlier at least.^ But 
I have reserved to the last, the point for the sake of which I have 
called the attention of this Academy to our Sarum Psalter. In 
proceeding to examine this old book, I had a keen eye to the 
advice of Mr. Bradshaw, about closely scrutinising the linings of 
the binding, as in them IMr. Bradshaw made some of his own most 
curious discoveries. The binders of the early days of the sixteenth 
century had to get linings for their book covers, and as manuscripts 
were then plentiful they often used up an old manuscript which, 
then regarded as useless, is now of untold value and importance. 
Well ! pasted inside the front cover I found a printed document which 
I proceeded to examine and found to be an indulgence from Thomas 
Wolsey and Laurence Campeggio, soKciting liberal alms for the comple- 
tion of the north porch and chantry chapel of Hereford Cathedral.- 
The document was evidently a pew bill which had been dispersed 
through the church in modern fashion, which some pious Christian 
had fastened, nearly four hundred years ago, inside his Prayer Book, 
for future use, and there it lay till I found it on the 18th day of last 
January. I shall now proceed to give a brief abstract of it, but inas- 
much as the original owner of it seems to have used the book a 
good deal, the document has been cracked and torn right through 
from top to bottom, rendering the meaning at times very difficult 
to make out. The document which is about 8 inches long by 5 
inches broad, ^ proceeds thus — "Be it knowen to all cristen people 

1 Humphreys, in his " History of Printing," tells us that Pynson died in 1530. 
Eastell may have been appointed on Pynson's death. 

- Hereford Cathedral has, in the past, owed a good deal to such documents. 
The hull of John XXII. canonising Bishop Thomas Cantelupe seems to have touched 
upon this topic ; cf. Dean Merewether's pamphlet on the condition of Hereford 
Cathedral, a.d. 1841. 

2 A similar document of the same period was found by Mr. French in Trinity 



422 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

that there is a porche of the Cathedral Church of Hareforde hinl- 
ded in honour of our Lord through ohlacion and Alms of Chiisten 
people that have had confluence unto the most reverent fathers in 
Ood, Lord Thomas Legate of the Apostolic see of Eome, Arch- 
bishop of York, and Primate of England, and Laurence Compegus 
also Legate of the Pope of Piome." 

The document then goes on to state the desire of these two digni- 
taries for the completion and due furnishing of this chapel, in order that 
the " Chapell Preste " there singing for the time being, might have 
€very due convenience for his sacred office, and then grants to every one 
duly contributing to this object and confessing in the said chapel and 
performing certain other specified religious duties upon Christmas 
Day, St. Ethelbert's Day, the feast of St. Thomas of Hereford,^ and 
certain other suitable feasts, an indulgence of one hundred days ; and 
further announces that the Archbishop of Canterbuiy, the bishops of 
London, Salisbuiy, Coventry, and Lichfield, the bishops of Hereford, 
Rochester, Bangor, Llandaff, St. Asaph, St. David's, and curiously 
enough, Thomas Bishop of Leighlin, had agreed to add forty days' 
indulgence to every such person who thus qualified. jS'ow there are 
special points of interest in this indulgence of which I have merely 
given an abstract. The first is the local one for ourselves. What 



College more than twenty years ago. It is some ten years or so older than "W"olsej 's 
*' Indulgence," and is in Latin, not English. It is printed in much the same style. 
It can be inspected in the glasscases in the Long Room of the CoUeire Library. 

1 The two feasts of St. Ethelbert and St. Thomas of Herefoid were specially 
observed in the cathedral of Hereford, which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
and to St. Ethelbert. Ethelbert was king of the East Angles, and was murdered 
by OfEa of Mercia in a.d. 794. He was buiied at Fernlega, afterwards Hereford, 
where a miraculous image celebrated his fame. (See the Article by Dr. Stubbs on 
Ethelbert (.3) in the Dictionary of Christian Biography). Ethelbert's feast was cele- 
brated on May 20th. St. Thomas of Hereford was the special local saint. He had 
been Thomas Cantelupe, Bishop of Hereford. He died with a great reputation for 
sanctity in 1282. His fame as a miracle worker was widespread. The possession 
of his relics was a source of great wealth to the cathedral. See more about him in 
Bishop Swinfield's " Household Eoll " and its notes, p. clxvxiii, pubKshed by the 
Camden Society in 1855. His feast was celebrated on Oct. 2nd. He was canonised 
by Pope John XXII. in 1320, upon the petition of Bishop Swinfield, supported 
by Edward II. He was, even before his canonisation, a very popular saint in 
England. Surius tells us, in his Lives of the Saints, that more than sixty persons 
had been raised from the dead at his tomb. In Swinfield's Boll, p. 1, we learn that 
Edward I. gave the greatest proof of his belief in Cantelupe's powers ; for M'hen one 
of his favourite hawks was ill, he sent an offering for him to Cantelupe's shrine. 
He is one of the saints who have been Lord Chancellors of England. 



Stokes — Concermng Marsh's Library. 423 

brought the Bishop of Leighlin there amongst these English and 
"Welsh bishops, and who was he ? Well, "Ware will tell us that he 
was Thomas Halsey, Bishop of Leighlin from a.d, 1515 to 1521. 
He was an Englishman, and never once saw his diocese in the centre 
of Ireland. He was appointed Bishop of Leighlin by the influence of 
Archbishop Baimbridge, "Wolsey's predecessor in York, who was just 
then acting as Ambassador for Henry YIII. in Eome, when the see 
of Leighlin fell vacant. Halsey was an Englishman in high office at 
the Vatican, was Prothonotary for Ireland, and Penitentiary for the 
English nation in Eome. He was a great favourite with Archbishop 
Baimbridge, and the Archbishop's influence secured his appointment. 
He never saw or visited his Irish diocese ; but managed it through 
his deputy and Yicar-General, Charles Cavanagh, Abbot of Duisk, 
and then dying in London, in the year 1521, was buried in the Savoy. 
The second point of interest about this Indulgence is its date. If 
the Bishop of Leighlin is mentioned in it as granting an indulgence, 
it is clear that it must have been issued before his death, which took 
place, as I have now said, in 1521. This seems contradicted by two 
facts : (1) Campeggio is mentioned in it as legate, and he notoriously 
came to England in 1528 as special Legate of the Pope in the matter 
of the divorce of Henry VIII. ; (2) The date of the Prayer Book 
stated in the colophon is 1524. This would seem to prove that this 
indulgence was issued, in the year of Campeggio's residence, about that 
question of divorce, which Mr. Brewer's great work, "Letters and 
Papers of Henry VIII.," states to have been from September, 1528, 
to about the same date in the next year. But then comes a difficulty. 
If this indulgence was issued in 1528 or 1529, how do there appear in 
it the names of several bishops like that of the Bishop of Leighlin, 
who had been dead several years ? Could dead bishops grant indul- 
gences to living men ? But the Bishop of Leighlin, too, is not the 
only difficulty if we date the Indulgence in 1529. EichardFitzjames, 
Bishop of London, is named in it ; and he died seven years before, in 
January, 1521. Edmund Audley, Bishop of Salisbury, is mentioned ; 
and he died in 1524, five years before.^ William Attwater, Bishop of 
Lincoln, is named; and he died in 1520. These difficulties led me 

1 Audley was succeeded by Campeggio himself as Bishop of Salisbury, and yet 
he does not give himself that title in the Indulgence. Heniy VIII. took such a 
fancy to Campeggio on his first visit to England, that he bestowed on him the see 
of Salisbury when it fell vacant, M'hich brought with it a splendid palace in Eome : 
cf. "Campeggio's Life," p. 164. Campeggio was made a cardinal in 1517: cf. 
Godwin's Fraesules. 

E.I. A. PBGC, SEE. m., VOL. IV. 2ft 



424 Proceedingii of the Royal Irish Academy. 

to seek another solution. This was not Cardinal Campeggio's first 
visit to England.^ He came here and spent a year, in 1518 and 
1519, striving to induce Henn* Till, to join the Pope and the 
other Christian princes of Europe in a crusade against the Turks, 
in defence of Hungary, giving him a conditional promise, if he did 
so, of the title, subsequently bestowed for quite a different reason, 
of " Defender of the Faith." He also utilized his spare time, in con- 
junction with "Wolsey, in striving to introduce extensive disciplinary 
reforms amongst the English clergy ; and a reference to this Trdpepyov 
on Campeggio's part we find in the words of the Indulgence, which 
speaks "of the great confluence of Cristen people unto the most 
reverent fathers in God, Cardinals "Wolsey and Campeggio." But 
then you may say, what about the date of the Prayer Book, 1524? 
Does not that prove that the Indulgence mast have been later ? My 
solution, simply, is : the Indulgence was printed and dispersed in 
Hereford Cathedral in 1518. It lay there for some years, and then, 
after the Psalters or Prayer Books were printed in 1524, by Pynson, 
some clergyman, perhaps, took up a copy, and, wishing to preserve it 
for future reference, stuck it into the front of his book, where I found 
it. Our Indulgence has, then, this great historic interest. It is a 
sample of the Indulgences issued by Tetzel for the rebuilding of St. 
Peter's, which caused, just at that time, such a storm against papal 
authority ; and, therefore, is a specimen of a document issued at least 
fifteen years before there was any rumour of religious differences in 
England, and, as such, occupies a unique position, so far as I know, 
amongst the remains of the past, in Irish libraries at least. I did 
intend to call your attention to some other documents of interest as 
regards Dean Swift and some other topics ; but, as I think it is far 
better to send the Academy away longing rather than loathing, I 
propose to defer the consideration of them to some future occasion. 

The following is a complete list of the Sarum books in Marsh's 
Library, so far as we have been enabled to identify them up to the 
present : — 

I. Missale ad Usum Sar. Paris, F. Pvegnault, a.d. 1531. 
Iterum, Eothomagi (Rouen), 1554. 

ir. Psalterium cum Hymnis Sar. et Ebor. Lond., R. Pynson, 1524. 
Itenxm, Psalterium ms. Saec. xiv. 

' See Ligorius, in his "Life of Cardinal Campeggio," pp. 160-164 : Paris, 1678. 
Ligorius was a great friend of the Campeggio family, which had produced many 
distinguished lawyers at Bologna in the fifteenth century. 



Stokes — Concerning March's Library. 425 

III. Portiforiura seu Breviarium Sar. 8vo. Paris, F. E,egnault, 1555. 
Iterum, pars aestivalis tantum, ad Us. Sar. 

This is a large 8vo edition. Its title-page and (Jolophon are 
inconsistent. The title-page is dated Londini, 1555. Its 
Colophon is dated Paris, F. Eegnault, 1535. I suppose the 
explanation is that Regnault printed a large edition in 1535. 
During the latter part of the reign of Henry VIII. the sale 
fell off. "When Mary ascended the throne, that sale revived. 
Regnault stuck in a new title-page, and sold oflt' the old 
edition, and at once went to press with a new and much 
handsomer edition of the Sarum hook. 

IV. Processionale ad Us. Sar. Lond., 1555. 

This volume has on the last page a Latin inscription which 
plainly represents the feelings of the Ecclesiastical owner 
towards Edward VI. and his party. It runs thus : " This book 
pertains to the Parochial Church of St. John-super- Sore in 
the year one thousand five hundred and fifty-three, being the 
first year of Queen Mary, to whom may God grant the years 
of Methuselah, and more than that, &c. John Drury, Vicar." 
Fronting the title-page a Latin hymn is written, and on one 
of the fly-leaves the name of the owner in 1634, Robertus 
Apriceus (Ap-Rys). Drury's inscription seems inconsistent 
with the Colophon. 

V. " Horee B.Y.M. Sec. Us Sar." Paris, F. Regnault, 1519. 

"Whose name and device are on last page ; but the 

Colophon says it was printed by Nicolas Hickman, at the 

expense of Francis Byrckman, of Cologne. It is beautifully 
ornamented with pictures. 

VI. Marty rologium Sar. London, 1526, "Wynken de Worde. 

This is Whitford's translation of the Martyi-ology of Sion, 
lately reprinted by the Bradshaw Society. 

VII. Manuale ad Us. Sar. Eothomagi (Rouen), 1554. 

VIII. Postilla ad Us. Sar. ; or, Exposition of the Epistles and Gospels 
for the whole year. London, 1509. 

Printed, as the Colophon tells, by Julianus Notarius, 
Bookseller and Printer, at Temple Bar, at the Sign of the 
Three Kings. 



426 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

"Expositio sequentiarum etHymnorum totiusAnniSee.Us. Sar." 

Printed by "Wynken, or Wynandus de "Worde, a.d. 1515. 
Original stamped binding. The Colophon, ■which calls it 
" Prosarum," tells us that "Wynken de Worde was then living 
in the parish of St. Erigid, Fleet-street. The "Expositio" 
is bound up with some works of St. Chrysostom on the 
monastic life, addressed to his friend Stagirus ; his Sermon 
on the Dignity of the human Origin and the prophecies of 
Julianus of Toledo. Some of these were translated by an 
Abbot Ambrose, dedicated to the Emperor Sigismund, and 
printed in the town of Alost, in Flanders, by Theodore 
Martin, who introduced printing into Belgium in 1473 : 
of. Mattaire, Annul, i. 106. 

Iterum : Lond. 1515, Wynde de "Worde. In the Colophon it is 
called Prosarum Sec. TJs. Sar. 

IX. Primer according to Sarura use. 

Upon the title-page occurs the following : — " This Prymer 
of Salysbery use is set out a long M-out ony serchyng, with 
many prayers and goodly pyctures in te kalender in the 
matyns of our lady in the houres of the crosse, in the vii 
psalmes and in the dyryge. And be newly enprynted at 
Rowen 1538." 

Printed by N. Le Kour. 

Published by F. Eegnault, Paris. 
Original binding and many pictures. The spelling is curious. 



P.S. — No. IV., as above, is a Processional which seems to me on 
further investigation to belong to York, not to Sarum. In the front 
of this book is a short MS. Service with brief rubrics beginning : — 

Sacerdos dicat hunc versum sequentem " En rex venit 
mansuetus tibi Syon ; filia mystica humilis, sedens super 
animalia, quem venturum jam predixi lectio prophetica." 

In another book there occur the following notes, showing that the 
worthy owner at times used his book for secular purposes : — 

" Item I shoulde (sold) a black Hoggehrele for is. 3d." 
" Item I shoulde thre shepe (sheep) for 15*. 4^." 



Bec'd June 1 --0°^-^ 



-XII. 

ON THE OEIGIN OF THE EUEOPEAN FAUNA. Br E. F. 
SCHARFF, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.Z.S., Keeper of the Natural History 
Collections in the Dublin Museum of Science and Art. 

[Read Novembek 9, 1896.] 

Two years ago I communicated to the Eoyal Irish Academy a short 
report on the origin of the Irish Land and Freshwater Fauna {76 a).^ I 
then stated that a careful study of the Irish Fauna would enable us, 
not only to prove the former existence of a land- connexion between 
Ireland and Great Britain, but also to approximately ascertain the 
time of its arrival from the continent of Europe. I showed that 
the Mammals of Ireland, both recent and extinct, and also the Mollusca 
were perhaps more serviceable in a research of that nature than other 
groups of animals. At the same time I emphasized the importance of 
a study of the freshwater fishes in elucidating the extent of the land- 
connexion. 

The range of the species of Coregonus in the British Islands and 
that of the Chars, which I referred to, seemed to indicate the former 
existence of a fresh-water lake between England and Ireland. Pro- 
fessor James Geikie has since pointed out to me that he had long ago 
come to the same conclusion on purely geological grounds (35 b, p. 512), 
though, as we shall see further on, he assumes that the fresh-water 
lake came into existence at a time when, according to my opinion, it 
must have already been converted into an arm of the Atlantic. At 
the end of my report, I mentioned that, so far, my inquiries into the 
origin of the Irish fauna had led me to the following conclusions : 
" Ireland was in later Tertiary times connected with Wales in the 
south, and Scotland in the north, whilst a freshwater lake occupied 
the present central area of the Irish Sea. The southern connexion 
broke down at the beginning of the Pleistocene Period, the northern 
connexion following soon after. There is no evidence of any subse- 
quent land-connexion between Great Britain and Ireland." 

1 J'ide Bibliograpliy at end. 
E.I.A. PROC, SEK. III., VOL. IV. 2 H 



428 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

I have not changed my rie^vs since/ and hope to be able to show 
in the subsequent pages that I have very strong evidence for this 
belief. From my previous remarks on the land-connexion, it is evi- 
dent that the -whole of the Irish fauna therefore must have reached 
Ireland at the commencement of or before the Glacial Period, and sur- 
vived the latter in that country. 

As the origin of the Irish fauna forms the key to the solution of 
the problem which I propose to discuss, I intend to deal with it more 
fully than has been done, before entering on the larger subject of the 
general European fauna. 

The researches which are at present being carried on into the Irish 
fauna and flora by a Committee appointed by the Eoyal Irish 
Academy, have established many facts possessing important bearings 
on the origin of the plants and animals of Ireland, and these facts 
have been of much use to me in the preparation of this Paper. 

Professor Sollas has been good enough to discuss the whole subject 
of the origin of the European fauna with me, and I should like here- 
with to express my gratitude to him, as he has induced me to reinvesti- 
gate some of the more important issues raised in this essay. 

I have also to acknowledge the kind assistance rendered me by 
Prof. Giglioli on Corsican Mammals, and by Prof. 0. Boettger, Prof. 
Penck, Prof . Deperet, Prof. Suess, Prof. BoydDawkins, Prof. Haddon, 
Messrs. Carpenter, Praeger, "VTelch, MArdle, Halbert, and many others 
for information on various subjects. 

I7te Bivisiom of the Irish Terrestrial Faxoxa. 
A careful study of any section of the Irish fauna and flora 
reveals the fact that there are in it minor groups of animals or plants 
which on the Continent live altogether in the north, some which 
inhabit exclusively the south, and others again to which no particular 
limit of range can be assigned. Besides these there are a small 
number of species peculiar to Ireland, which we need not consider 
here. Taking the fauna as a whole, we find that we can establish 
three distinct divisions as follows : — 

I. Animals with a wide distribution, 
II. ,, with a Xorthem distribution. 

III. ,, with a Southern distribution. 

^ It -w-ill be seen later on that my conclusions point to the Glacial Period being 
of much longer duration than is usually assumed, that in fact the earlier part of 
it, corresponds to what is now generally looked upon as later Pliocene. According 
to this view the migration of the bulk of the Irish fauna would naturally have 
taken place during the Glacial Period. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 429 

I. Those of the first division comprise all animals -whose origin is 
obscure. Many of them may at some time or other have been intro- 
duced by man, such as the rat or the mouse. The majority, however, 
I think, are of great antiquity, and their origin dates from some remote 
geological age. They appear to be mostly indifferent to changes of 
temperature, and many thrive equally well in cold and in hot 
countries. The small brown slug {AgrioUmax laevis), the Painted 
Lady butterfly {Vanessa car did), and the bam owl {Strix flammea) are 
familiar examples. 

II. To the animals of the second division belong those of which we 
have distinct evidence, from their geographical range, that they are of 
Arctic origin. As I hope to prove later on, 'they have arrived in 
Ireland directly from the north. Among the Mammals, the reindeer, 
which formerly inhabited this country, the Irish stoat, and the Irish 
hare form part of this northern section. The beetles Pelophila hore- 
alis and Blethisa midtipunctata, the butterfly Coenonympha typjion, 
the small shell Vertigo alpestris, as well as the common stickleback 
{Gasterosteus aculeatus) have all reached Ireland from the north. ^ 

III. The third division includes the bulk of the Irish fauna. In 
the first place, we have to consider those animals whose birth-place 
appears to be in South-western Europe, then we have those which 
originated in the Souther South-central Europe, whilstthere are others 
which came to Ireland from the south-west, though they may j)rimarily 
have migrated there from central Asia across Southern Europe. I^o 
very strict line can be drawn between the animals of South-central 
and those of South-western European origin, but we may with Edward 
Forbes (33 «, p. 12), regard the most southern as the oldest. A good 
many of these are altogether absent from England, whilst they are 
mostly confined to the west coast in Ireland. Taking all the Irish 
southern types into account, we find that the majority are confined, 
in the remainder of the British Isles, to the south-western parts of 
England and "Wales. In some cases they appear again in the extreme 
north of England and in Scotland without, however, being known in 
the intermediate tracts. 

"We can sub-divide this southern fauna, therefore, into a south- 
western and a south- central one : to the former belong the well- 
known bullfinch [Pyrrliula europaea), the dipper {Cinclus aquaticus), 

1 Among the Irish, plants we have some species, such as Spirantlies Romanzoviana, 
Eriocaulon septangulare and Sisyrhynchium angustifolium,v!^ic)i appear to belong to 
the same division. 



430 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and the natterjack toad {Bufo calamita) ; also the following MoUusca, 
Geomalacus rnacidosus, Pupa anglica, Selix fusca and B.. imana ;— the 
beetles, Rhopalomesites Tardyi, JEurynelria complanata, and Otiorrhyn- 
chus aurojnmctatus. Among the Irish woodlice, Platyarthrus Hoffman- 
seggii belongs to this first division, as well as the Hemipteron Lygus 
atomarius, and the millipede, Polydesmiis gallicus. Some of the species 
peculiar to Ireland have their nearest relatives confined to the south- 
west of Europe, e.g. Tegenaria hihernica, which is closely related to 
the Pyrenean Tegenaria larva.^ 

The badger {Meles taztis), is for our purposes a South European 
type of the second sub-division, though it originated probably in Asia. 
The following MoUusca also belong here : — Helix aculeata, H. rufescens, 
R. virgata, S. acuta, H. nemoralis and many others ; also the beetle. 
Strangalia aurulenta.^ 

Fan7ia of Great Britain and Ireland. 
In treating of the fauna of Great Britain and Ireland, I have found 
the need of a suitable term in contrasting the faunas of the two islands, 
as "British" is understood zoologically to include the fauna as a whole. 
At Dr. Sclater's suggestion, I adopt the term Anglo- Scotian for the 
fauna of Great Britain, and Hibernian for that of Ireland. "When we 
compare the Anglo- Scotian with the Hibernian fauna, we find that in 
the former we also have the general, the northern, and the southern 
constituents just as in the latter ; the fauna being, however, richer, 
we have more of the northern forms (confined chiefly to the north of 
Scotland), and more of the southern, principally seen in the south of 
England. But we have in addition an eastern division, composed 
mainly of immigrants from Siberia and Eastern Europe, which is 
apparently quite wanting in Ireland (see map 1). Some of the more 
quickly-spreading Siberians have overrun the whole of Great Britain, 
but the majority of them are confined to the south-eastern parts of 
England, and their range scarcely extends to Scotland or "Wales. 
Botanically, this division corresponds to some extent with "Watson's (91) 
" Germanic type of plants.'' 

The Zoogeographical provinces of the British Islands. 

Not very many attempts have been made, to my knowledge, to 
Bub-divide the British Islands into zoological or botanical provinces of 

1 The following Irish plants may be mentioned : — Arbutus unedo. Euphorbia 
hiberna, Simethis bicolor and Sibihorpia europaea. 

* Cotyledon umbilicus, and other plants probably belong to this type. 



ScHARFF — On tlie Origin of the European Fauna. 431 



the great Palaearctic, or, as I should prefer to call it, the Holaretic 
Eegion (76 c). Only one or two of those who deal with the subject, 
treat it at all exhaustively, I believe Mr. H. C. Watson was the first 
to group together the British flora into six provinces, and this idea was 




1. — Map of the Britisli Islands indicating roiighly the tracts principally 
occupied hy — 

— the northern fauna ; 
\ the southern fauna ; and, 
/ the eastern fauna. 

afterwards more completely carried out in his " Cybele Britannica " 
(91). Messrs. Moore and More adopted similar divisions in their 
" Cybele Hibernica " (58). Only five botanical provinces were 
recognized by the late Prof. E. Forbes (33 a), who added in each case 
examples of animals, which seemed to him to belong to these provinces. 



432 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

On a previous occasion, however, he had separated the British Isles 
into ten districts, according to the distribution of their MoUuscan 
fauna (33 c). In an endeavour to reduce the number of these districts 
I en-ed in the opposite dii'ection, in recognising only two, yiz. one, 
including the south-vrest of England and "^ales with the whole of 
Ireland and Scotland, and the other, the larger part of England and 
Wales (76 d). It was only subsequently that I learned that a dis- 
tinguished French conchologist, Dr. Fischer (31), had also divided the 
British Islands into two provinces, from a study of their ILolluscan 
fauna. But his provinces are somewhat different from mine — the 
south-west of England, "Wales, and the west of Ireland form one ; the 
remainder of England, Scotland, and the rest of Ireland the other (31, 
pp. 51-84). An important point, relating to the subject I am about 
to discuss, is that Dr. Fischer's first province represents in his scheme 
only part of a larger " Atlantic province " of the European sub-region, 
•\A liile the second, which includes the greater part of England and 
Ireland, and the whole of Scotland, is a portion of his " Germanic 
province." 

Anotlier division of the British Islands into two districts has been 
proposed by Mr. Jordan (44, pp. 45-52). Both are portions of his 
large Germanic sub-region of the Holarctic region. One of them 
includes Scotland and the north of Ireland, the other the remainder 
of Ireland, England, and Wales. The latter province forms only 
part of a larger "Celtic district" to whicli belong also Holland, 
Belgium, North, Central, and South-west France. 

In describing the collections illustrating the geographical distribu- 
tion of animals in the Dublin Natural History Museum, Mr. Carpenter 
referred to the fact that he had, in one of the cases, roughly grouped 
the animals of the British fauna in thi'ee divisions, i.e., those with a 
wide range over the British Islands, those characteristic of the south- 
eastern and lowland districts of Great Britain (which he calls the 
" Teutonic Fauna"), and those characteristic of Ireland, and of the 
western and highland parts of Great Britain. The animals of the latter 
division he has tenned the " Celtic Fauna" (16 r/, p. 117). He recog- 
nized more recently that it contained two distinct groups of animals, 
one including those of northern and the other those of southern origin 
(16 h, p. 215). Lastly, Dr. Kobelt, in a short paper on the Distribu- 
tion of the British Mollusca, expresses the opinion that the British 
fauna takes its origin from various sources, and that there are probably 
more than three distinct groups (52, p. 83). 

The significance of these facts has been greatly minimized by the 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 433 

advocates of accidental introduction — a subject of much importance, of 
which. I have now to treat. 

Accidental Means of Dispersal. 

This includes, of course, also introductions by man, and, following 
Darwin, it should more properly be called " occasional means of 
distribution." Darwin (21 a) has shown that seeds of plants may be 
easily transported to islands by wind, or by floating logs of wood, or 
even by birds. He has also referred to the fact that locusts and other 
insects, and eggs of fish and snails are sometimes blown to great 
distances from the land. He has given many other instances of the 
manner in which animals and plants might have reached islands. 
Mr. Wallace, and other naturalists, have likewise collected examples 
of these occasional introductions. Moreover, all that is known of the 
means of dispersal of land and freshwater Mollusca has recently been 
brought together by Mr. Kew (50) in a painstaking and excellent 
work. It is astonishing how many cases of accidental introductions 
are known to this author, but nevertheless he remarks (p. 97) : "It 
must be admitted that neither freshwater nor land shells are really 
well furnished with means of dispersal ; the transportal of a species 
of either group over a large expanse of ocean, or to great distances on 
land, with subsequent establishment, must be an extremely rare and 
exceptional occurrence, and one which happens only once or twice in 
many hundreds of years." 

All these views, however, do not particularly refer to the fauna or 
flora of Ireland, and the only hint that at least a portion of the flora 
owed its existence in that country to an accidental introduction, was 
given by Prof. Hennessy (39). He suggested that, as there were 
times of prolonged and intimate intercourse between the people of the 
northern coast of Spain and those of Ireland, the conditions for bring- 
ing the seeds of various plants from one country to the other probably 
existed, and that to this fact is due the similarity in the flora of the 
two countries. 

I have already admitted (p. 429) that some of the Irish Mammals 
may have reached Ireland by means of an accidental introduction 
through the agency of man. That many of the non-resident birds, and 
even, perhaps, some residents, are brought to this country by an 
occasional means of dispersal is undoubted. The same we may assume 
to be the case with a few shells, worms, wood-lice, spiders, and 
centipedes, and to a greater extent, perhaps, with insects. But 



434 Proceedings of the Royal Trhli Academy. 

in the great majority of cases, it is easy to distinguish between a 
true native and one which has only strayed to Ireland accidentally, 
and the latter only form an extremely small and insignificant per- 
centage of the Irish fanna and flora. Mr. Murray (60, p. 16) was 
of opinion that only a slight intermixture occurs in the flora of an 
island from occasional dispersal, and he was disposed to reckon the 
proportion of such colonization at not more than two per cent, in the 
most favonrable circumstances. In the fanna he thought it mnst he 
much less. • 

As regards Ireland, I believe the animals derived from accidental 
or occasional means of dispersal amount to five per cent, of the whole 
fauna at the most. Land and freshwater MoUnsea are generally 
looked upon as particulariy liable to accidental dispersal. 

If they had been to any great extent carried to Ireland by 
occasional means of dispersal instead of gradually spreading to that 
country on a former continuous land-surface, spectilations based on their 
range would be futile. Dr. Blandford (8, p. 43), who speaks with an 
authoritative voice on the subject of distribution of mollusca, says : 
"The prevalent idea that land- mollusca, or their eggs, are trans- 
ported by floating logs, appears to me extremely improbable in a great 
number of forms, because, so far as is known, very few hibernate in 
wood, or lay their eggs there ; and as the wood is carried to the sea 
during floods caused by heavy rains, which would certainly make 
every snail leave its hiding place, the notion that some would remain 
ensconced in the clefts appears to me quite opposed to the habits of 
the animal." 

Darwin (21 a, p. 353) tells ns how Baron Aucapitaine immersed a 
number of Cyelostoma eUgam for a fortnight in the sea, by way of 
experiment, and that almost all survived the treatment. He naturally 
concluded that the operculum, with which these shelb are furnished 
was of distinct advantage in enabling them to float across arms of the 
sea to an island. Supposing Ireland had been stocked in this manner 
with shells, we should expect operculate species, or even such which 
provide themselves with a membranous diaphragm during winter, to 
be abundant. But this is not the case. Xeither Cychstoma eleyans 
nor Helix pomatia, the two species which were experimented on, 
inhabit Ireland, though both occur in England and in France. More- 
over, as a matter of fact, the shells of the former species have again 
and again been washed ashore within recent years on the Irish coast ; 
but though this mnst have been going on for centuries, yet Cyclostoma 
elegant has not established itself in this country. The only Irish 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Euro2)ean Fauna. 435 

operculate land-shell {Acme lineata) lives permanently underground, 
and is therefore less liable to accidental transportal than other species. 

Owing to the facility with which the rabbit was successfully in- 
troduced into Australia, and to the fact that many European weeds 
flourish far away from their native land after having been accident- 
ally transported, perhaps with ballast, we get quite an exaggerated 
idea of the facility of artificial introductions of both plants and 
animals. 

It is fully admitted that many animals and plants are easily 
transported to new countries by accidental means or voluntarily by 
man, but, in most cases, they have not been able to retain a per- 
manent footing in their newly-adopted home. There are innumerable 
instances on record of species having been planted on spots where 
they did not previously exist, and the introducers claim that it is 
highly interesting to watch their progress. In the great majority of 
cases we find that, fortunately, these species utterly vanish after a 
few years. 

Sportsmen have for many years tried to permanently establish the 
English hare, Lepus euroj^aeus, in Ireland. Lord Powerscourt tells me 
that he imported a number of them thirty years ago, and that they at 
first increased, but that latterly they have decreased considerably. 
They have never spread during all this time, but remained in close 
proximity to the house where they were originally turned out. From 
Southern Sweden we hear of similar experiences. Now it cannot be 
said that a species which thrives so well in England from north to 
south, could not stand the Irish climate, or that of Southern Sweden, 
which is not unlike that of Northern Germany, where this hare is 
common. It is, therefore, manifest that the difficulty of establishing 
the English hare permanently in these countries is altogether uncon- 
nected with climate or food. I shall refer to this subject more fully 
later on when dealing with the Irish hare. 

Attempts have frequently been made to acclimatise snakes in Ire- 
land, but the experiment has always failed. Even the Natterjack 
toad {Bufo calamita), which is common about Dingle Bay on the west 
coast of Ireland, has been imported in large numbers to Dublin, with 
a view to establishing it in such suitable localities as the Phoenix 
Park. Not a trace, however, lemained of it a few years after the 
introduction. 

These few instances will suffice to show that it is by no means so 
easy as it is generally supposed, to establish an animal in an area 
which it was previously not known to inhabit, and that really only 



436 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

a very small percentage of the Irish, fauna can be due to an occasional 
means of dispersal. But it will be well to examine the views on tbe 
origin of tbe Irish fauna of the leading zoologists, botanists, and 
geologists who have made the geographical distribution of animals and 
plants their special study. 

Th^ Irish Fauna and Flora migrated to Ireland on Land. 

Few naturalists were more thoroughly acquaiuted with the British 
terrestrial and marine fauna and flora than the late Prof. Edward Forbes. 
His view (33 «, p. 65) on the subject is therefore of special importance : 
" The greater part," he says, " of the terrestrial animals and flowering 
plants now inhabiting the British Islands are members of specific 
centres beyond their area, and have migrated to it over continuous 
land before, during, or after the Glacial Period." Dr. Wallace 
remarks in "Island Life" (89, p. 338): " AThen England became 
continental, these (animals of Central Europe) entered our country ; 
but sufficient time does not seem to have elapsed for the migration to 
have been completed before subsidence again occun-ed, cutting off the 
further influx of purely terrestrial animals, and leaving us without 
the number of species which our favourable climate and varied surface 
entitle us to." If we turn to Prof. Boyd Dawkins' works, we find 
the following sentences bearing upon the point at issue (22<?, p. ii.) : 
" The wild animals are of equal interest to the geologist, the archae- 
ologist, and the historian; for they afford to the first a means of 
classifying the deposits with which he has to deal, while in archse- 
ology and history they bear a direct relation to the members and 
civilisation of the human dwellers in the same region. They are also 
valuable to the geographer and physicist, since the occurrence of the 
same animals in islands as on the adjacent continent implies a con- 
tinuity of land between them in former times." I have already 
quoted Prof. Leith Adams in my note on the oi'igin of the Irish 
fauna, and I would only reiterate the statement, that he agreed with 
Prof. Dawkins' views on this subject. Speaking of the southern 
fauna of Ireland, Mr. Carpenter remarks (16i, p. 218) : " The land- 
tracts over which these distinctly Pyrenean and Mediterranean 
animals had travelled to Ireland, were covered by the waters of the 
sea, while early races of men were still able to ramble into Britain 
over an isthmus where the waves of the Straits of Dover and the T^orth 
Sea now roll." 

These are some of the opinions expressed by zoologists. As for 
botanists, Mr. Watson is, pei-haps, the highest authority on the 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 437 

geograpMcal distribution of British plants. His yieTT, as expressed 
in the "Compendium of the Cybele Eritannica " (91, p. 72), is as 
follows: " As a "whole the flora of this country sufficiently accords 
with the belief of a former land continuity between England and 
the Continent." 

^Most geologists maintain in a general way that, in later and post- 
Tertiary times, the British Islands were connected by land with the 
Continent ; but the opinion is chiefly derived from the fauna, and we 
do not, therefore, get any fresh evidence from a diflerent soui'ce. 
'Few, except Prof. J. Geikie, moreover, express themselves clearly as 
to their views on the fonner physical geography of Western Europe 
during these times, ilr. Jukes-Browne, however, gives a more 
definite, though somewhat guarded, decision on the subject (46, p. 34) : 
"It is quite possible that England was joined to France by land 
which united the Tertiary and Cretaceous basin of Hampshire with 
the northern part of Erance, its southern border being perhaps a 
range of high chalk downs, which extended south-eastward fi'om the 
Isle of "Wight, and was continuous with the chalk districts of 
Normandy. It is conceivable that the Oligo-miocene upheaval had 
lifted this tract of country to a considerable elevation above the sea, 
the rise being greatest over the southern, or Isle of "Wight, axis, but 
the whole country sharing in the uplift. If this were so, the ti'act in 
question would for-m an isthmus between the eastern and the south- 
western seas, and may never have been wholly submerged until late 
Pleistocene time." Speaking of the English Eorest-bed 'SLr. Clement 
Pieid says (72 «, p. 186): " The large number of ITammals already known 
from the Eorest-bed seems clearly to point to a connexion with the 
Continent, and to wide plains over which the animals could roam." 
Prof, de Lapparent (54, p. 1382) deduces from the similarity of 
the Pleistocene Mammalia of England, with those of the Continent, 
the existence of an isthmus connecting these countries, which he 
thinks cannot have been ruptured until a comparatively recent date. 
Finally, if everyone were of Prof. J. Geikie's opinion, I would 
have been spared the writing of this paragraph, for he says (35 3, 
p. 505). " jSTo one doubts that the flora and fauna of our islands 
could only have immigrated by a land-passage." But even if none of 
these naturalists had expressed theii' opinions on the fonner land- 
coimexion between the British Islands and the Continent, anyone who 
carefully thinks over the subject must come to the same conclusion. 
It is difficult enough to imagine how, under the present configuration 
of Ireland, the mammoth, the wolf, and the bear reached the island. 



438 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

But when we come to the less coiispicuoiis Invertehrates, we are 
confronted with cases which give us even less chance of escaping 
from the inevitable assumption of a land-connexion with the Continent. 
How are we, for instance, to suppose that earth-worms reached 
Ireland, or Testacella, a slug-like mollusc, which spends its entire 
existence under ground, or Platyarthrus Hoffmansegyii, a blind wood- 
louse, which also lives below the surface of the soil, in the nests of 
ants, unless by slow migration on land ? Having decided then that 
the bulk of the Irish fauna migrated to Ireland on land, we have 
next to consider what was the nature of that land-connexion before 
we proceed to discuss the views as to the time when the migration 
took place. 

On the Nature of the Lani- connexion. 

Prof. J. Geikie refers to the now submerged land between Great 
Britain and Ireland in the following terms (35«, p. 248): "If the 
whole area of the British Islands were elevated so as to convert the 
adjoining seas into dry land, we should find an elongated lake extend- 
ing from the Scottish Highlands southwards to the regions between 
"Wales and AVicklow county in Ireland, a length of not less than 
240 miles, with a maximum depth of 594 feet." In a beautiful map, 
reduced from the Admiralty charts, Prof. Geikie gives still more 
details, Tlie soutlicru shore of the lake was in the latitude of 
Wicklow. It then stretched almost due north, sending off an arm 
towards the Firth of Clyde, and another to the Sound of Jura. 
The extreme north-west shore was situated between the Co. London- 
derry in Ireland and Argyl(;shire in Scotland. A little further to the 
west lay the watershed which divided the rivers draining into the 
lake to the east from those flowing directly west towards the Atlantic. 

Such an elevation of land, as that described, is supposed by 
Prof. Geikie to have taken place after the Glacial Period, and Mr. 
Kinahau's views agree with this in the main points (51 V). Prof. 
E. Forbes believed that some of the Irish plants at present confined 
to the west coast arrived long before the rest of the fauna and flora. 
(33 rt, p. 14). According to his theory there was, at an ancient p re- 
Glacial Period, a geological union or close approximation of the west 
of Ireland with the north of Spain. The flora of the intermediate 
land was a continuation of the flora of the peninsula. The destruc- 
tion of this land had taken place before the Glacial Period, but a 
number of the southern species had meanwhile reached Ireland. 
Only the relics, he thought, of this most ancient of our island floras 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 439 

are now left, the mass of the less hardy species having been destroyed 
by the climatal changes of the Glacial Period. 

These views cannot possibly be upheld any longer. Ireland may 
have had a southern extension as far as Spain in early Tertiary times, 
though, as far as I know, no geological proof can be adduced to 




2. — Map of the Britisli Islands during Pre-Glacial Times. The shaded parts 
represent the sea and lakes, the light parts the land. (Elvers have 
only heen inserted on the west coast). 

support such a view. But it is a mistake to suppose that the 
Lusitanian flora, and, as we know now, it is accompanied by a similar 
fauna, is peculiar to Ireland. Fragments of it occur, undoubtedly, in 
the south-west of England, in the Channel Islands, and along the west 



440 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

coast of Prance. That flora migrated, therefore, along the ancient 
sea-border from the south, across the south-west of England, or the 
land that lay beyond it. (See map, fig. 2.) 

Another feature in the physical geography of Ireland, which is 
worth mentioning, is that there seems to be some reason for supposing, 
as Mr. Close has pointed out (17, p. 242), that the west coast was 
formerly higher, relatively to the east, than it is now. 

By means of these data we can, therefore, construct the annexed 
map, showing approximately the geographical conditions of Ireland 
at the time when the earliest migrants reached the country from the 
south. 

Under such geographical conditions as prevailed in ancient Ireland 
any animal could have walked, or any plant could have progressed, 
on terra Jirma, from the north of France to Ireland, across the south 
of England. True, the large river, which emerged from the southern 
end of the lake referred to above, might have arrested their progress 
to some extent, but probably much less than a bog or a series of hills 
might have done. A river, as a rule, changes its course frequently 
in the course of time, and large slices of country which formed the 
left bank may, in this way, be suddenly transformed into the right, 
with their fauna and flora, without any effort on the part of the 
animals or plants. They also had the option apparently of traversing 
England northward, and entering Ireland from Scotland. Prof. Leith 
Adams (la) and Mr. Alston (3) believed that all the Irish Mammals, 
and Prof. Geikie thinks that many of the smaller ones, may have 
adopted this more circuitous route. The range, however, in Ireland 
of the southern fauna points emphatically to its having entered that 
country from the south, and not from tlie north. A very large 
number of the southern animals are altogether absent from Scotland, 
and become scarcer as we proceed north in Ireland. 

The northern animals and plants undoubtedly came across from 
Scotland, and in the county of Londonderry, which part of modem 
Ireland they first touched, they still are more common than in any 
other portion of the country. But they did not originate in Scotland. 
Under the present geographical aspect of Great Britain they could 
only have come from the south. The majority of the northern 
animals and plants not being known, however, south of JSTorthern 
England, throws doubt upon such a view. We might suppose 
that they arrived in the south, when the climate was colder, 
and that they were exterminated in the present more unsuitable 
climate of Southern England, while they suiwived in Scotland. The 



ScHAEFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 441 

difference of climate is much too slight, however, between these two 
countries to produce such an absolute extinction of the northern fauna 
and flora in the south of England, and we are forced to the conclusion 
that they arrived from the north. Especially as a geologist of such 
eminence as Prof . Judd tells us that (45, p. 1008): "Down to post- 
Glacial times, Scotland and what are now its out-lying islands, re- 
mained united with Scandinavia. But at a very recent period, and 
indeed since the appearance of man in this part of our globe, the 
separation of the two areas, so long united, was brought about." 

It was from Scandinavia, therefore, that our northern animals and 
plants came. Many of them possibly originated there, but the home 
of others lies no doubt far beyond even the confines of Scandinavia, in 
the Arctic Regions. 

Thus Ireland had, as we have seen, two land-connexions with the 
continent of Europe— one by way of the south of England to France, 
and the other by way of Scotland to Scandinavia. 

Prof. Leith Adams believed (1 J, p. 100) as stated above, and in this 
view he is supported by Mr. Alston (3, p. 6), that Scotland was 
connected with Ireland long after the latter became disconnected from 
England, and that the whole of the Irish Mammalian fauna migrated 
to Ireland by way of Scotland. 

On the Time of the Migration. 

Before discussing the views current among zoologists and botanists 
as to the geological period during which the Irish fauna and flora 
migrated to Ireland, I should like again to draw attention to the fact 
that the Eorest-bed is now more generally recognized as constituting 
the most recent formation in the Pliocene Series, which is succeeded 
by the Pleistocene. As the Glacial Period is supposed to have formed 
a phase of the Pleistocene Epoch, the term "pre-Glacial " throughout 
this memoir, will apply to the pre-Pleistocene times, and will include 
the Eorest-bed. It must be remembered that I adopt these terms for 
convenience sake only, and in order to make my views more clear, and 
not because I agree with them. I shall endeavour to show later on 
that it is not at all justifiable to place the Eorest-bed in the Pliocene 
Series. 

The questions which I have dealt with in the preceding pages 
have been comparatively simple and easily answerable, but the problem 
as to the particular geological Epoch or Period during which the fauna 
arrived in Ireland is an extremely difficult one. With the exception 
of Prof. Eorbes, no one has really attempted to seriously set himself to 



442 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

uni'ayel the problem, and I need therefore only briefly state the views 
current among the leading naturalists, who have given some thoughts 
to it. 

Prof. Forbes (33 r/, j)- 14) believed, as already mentioned, that the 
south-western Lusitanian flora is not only the oldest, but that much 
of it survived the supposed severity of Pleistocene climate in Ireland. 
Next in age, comes the northern or Arctic flora, which he held to be 
glacial (p. 11), and finally the great mass of the fauna and flora 
migrated to Ireland, in post-Glacial times (p. 10). The deficiencies in 
the Irish fauna of certain Mammals and Reptiles met with in Great 
Britain, he explained by the assumption that the migration of the 
species less speedy of diffusion was aiTestedby the breaking up of that 
land-passage which united the two islands. The latter explanation 
has been adopted by almost every naturalist since. 

Prof. Leith Adams treats of the Mammalia only, but I presume 
his observations apply to the whole fauna. He thinks (1^, p. 86) 
they migrated from Scotland into Ireland during post-Glacial times. 
" The absence of the slow-travelling mole and other local species," he 
says, " together with the amphibian and reptilian evidence furnished 
by Thompson, seem to me to still further strengthen the belief that 
the land-communication between Great Britain and Ireland, at the 
close of the Glacial Period was neither extensive nor probably of long 
duration." 

Dr. Wallace (89, p. 338), differs from the preceding naturalists in 
60 far as he recognizes that we possessed before the Glacial Period " a 
fauna and flora almost or quite identical with that of the adjacent 
parts of the Continent and equally rich in species." The submergence 
he says, destroyed this fauna or at least the greater part of it, and the 
post-Glacial elevation and union with the Continent cannot have been 
of very long duration. " The depth of the Irish Sea being somewhat 
greater than that of the German Ocean, the connecting-land would 
there probably be of small extent and of less duration, thus offering an 
additional barrier to migration ; whence has arisen the comparative 
zoological poverty of Ireland." Dr. Wallace does not specify whether 
his " we possessed'''' includes Ireland, but it is evident that he believes 
the mass of the Irish fauna and flora to be of post-Glacial origin. 

We obtain something more definite from Prof. Boyd Dawkins 
(22 h, p. 152), for he tells us that it is highly probable that the bear, 
wolf, fox, horse, stag, Alpine hare, and also the mammoth and rein- 
deer, have lived in Ireland before the Glacial Period. Whether tliese 
became extinct during the Glacial Period and remigrated to Ireland 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 443 

afterwards lie does not mention. During later Pleistocene times, 
he continues, Southern and Eastern Britain were inhabited by an 
abundant Mammalian fauna, while ice and sea acted as barriers 
to their free migration into Ireland and Scotland. This is a 
very important point and one with which I thoroughly agree, viz. 
that a barrier prevented the fauna during later Pleistocene times from 
invading Ireland and Scotland. As Prof. Dawkins looked upon the 
Pliocene Forest Bed as early Pleistocene, it is a mere change of phrase- 
ology to speak of the barrier as having existed throughout what we 
now call Pleistocene times. At the close of the Glacial Period the 
British Islands stood, according to Prof. Dawkins (p. 151), at least 
600 feet above their present level, and were joined to the mainland. I 
cannot quite agree with him here. The whole west coast of the British 
Islands must have been at a higher level than it is at present through- 
out the Pleistocene Epoch and joined to IS'orway, not separated as he 
indicates on the map. No doubt there is a deep hollow running 
along the south-east coast of that country, but it becomes shallower 
as we go north towards the Atlantic. The hollow, however, is 
probably of recent origin, as has, I think, been suggested by Prof. J". 
Geikie. 

That the bulk of our recent fauna migrated to Ireland at this time 
is evidently Prof. Dawkins' belief, though I cannot find that he 
expresses a definite opinion on the subject. Prof. J. Geikie solves the 
problem of pre-Glacial or post-Glacial migration without much trouble, 
for he remarks (35 a, p. 505) : " As neither our animals nor our plants 
could have existed here" (in the British Islands) "during the last 
Glacial Epoch ; it follows that they must be of post-Glacial age." 
Similarly, Mr. Kinahan informs us (51 J, p. 6) that the great northern 
ice-cap, which was moving south over Ireland, crushed all before it. 

The evidence as to the existence, however, of a fauna in Southern 
England at any rate, daring the Glacial Period, is so overwhelming 
that I can hardly believe that many naturalists will accept Prof. 
Geikie's views. Nevertheless, there are certainly some who do, and 
among them Mr. Clement Reid, the distinguished author of the 
" British Pliocene Deposits," who remarks (72 J, p. 300) that, "in the 
Britain of the present day, we may study the re-peopling of a country 
over which everything had been exterminated." 

Though Mr, Carpenter (165) admits that what he has termed the 
"Celtic fauna" of Ireland is much older than the Teutonic, he 
seems disposed towards the view that the migration took place " in 
Pleistocene times, as the ice passed away." He concurs therefore 

K.r.A. PROC, SEE. III., VOL. IV. 2 I 



444 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

with most of preceding -writers in the vie^v that the migration was 
j)Ost-Glacial.^ 

IMr. Lyclekker (57 h) does not wish to offer a definite opinion on 
the subject, though he prefers to incline towards Dr. Wallace's view. 
Mr. Earrett-Hamilton (4, p. 68) thinks that there is much in 
favour of the yiew I expressed in my short preliminary note (76 a), 
but til at an adaptation of Mr. Bulman's views to Ireland might account 
for the peculiarities of the flora and fauna of the south and west. This 
brings us to "Mr. Eulman (14 a). He dissents from the conception that 
the British fauna and flora was totally destroyed during the Glacial 
Period, and is satisfied that survivals from pre-Glacial times persist 
in the British Islands to the present day. As the south of England 
was free fi'om ice, we had, as he observes, '* an area capable of afford- 
ing an asylum to a considerable number of our plants and animals." 
I perfectly agree with him, especially in his suggestion that there 
may have been other areas in the British Islands besides the south of 
England fitted to preserve temperate life during the Glacial Period. 

The opinions expressed by zoologists, botanists, and geologists is 
ovei'whelmingly in favour of the post-Glacial'age of the present British 
fauna. It is believed, even by most of those who admit that the 
Biitish Islands were inhabited by a very similar fauna and flora in 
pre-Glacial times, that a vast destruction of animal and vegetable life 
took place during the Pleistocene Epoch, and that veiy few, if any, 
species survived the change of climate brought about by the Glacial 
Period. As I have already indicated, I do not share these views. 
However, before stating my arguments, not only as to the time of the 
migration, but as to the changes in the physical geography of Europe 
on which it depends, T will briefly summarize my conclusions. 

Cojiclmions. 

At the commencement of the latter half of the Pliocene Epoch, or 
we might say about the time of the deposition of the Bed Crag, the 
Athinticwas closed in the north by a continuous land-connexion between 
northern Scandinavia, Spitsbergen, Franz Joseph's Land, Northern 
Greenland, and Arctic Is'^orth America. (See fig. 6, p. 466.) The 
Pacific was likewise separated from the Arctic Ocean by a land-barrier 
between Alaska and Kamtchatka. The Arctic fauna and flora was 
thus enabled to spread into ^s'ortheni Europe and Xorth America. 
England was also connected with France and Ireland, and Scandinavia 
and Ireland with Scotland. (See p. 441). 

' Mr. Carpenter has changed his opinion since (see " Irish 2s'at.," 189^, p. 6-5). 



I 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Eui'opean Fauna. 445 

A marine expansion from the "White Sea then spi'ead across Northern 
Hussia into the North European plains, and the sea thus formed, which 
I propose to call the North European Sea, joined the united basins of 
the Aralo-Caspian and Black Seas. The Siberian fauna was, therefore, 
unable to enter Europe, while the more southern Central Asiatic 
fauna continued to migrate into Southern Europe, as in Miocene and 
early Pliocene times, by a land-connexion which Joined Asia Minor 
and Greece. 

A gradual retreat of the North European Sea to the north opened up 
a passage in Eastern Europe by which the Siberian fauna poured into 
Central Russia, Germany, Erance, and England. (See fig. 5, 461.) There 
is distinct geological evidence that this vast migration of the Siberian 
fauna and flora occurred after the deposition of the lower continental 
boulder-clay. The advance guard composed of Mammals arrived in 
England during the deposition of the Eorest-bed. This marks, there- 
fore, not only the time of the first retreat of the North European 
Glacial Sea, but also that of the disconnexion of Engk\nd and Ireland, 
since none of the Siberian Mammals entered the latter. 

Meanwhile the Central and South Asiatic Mammals, which, as I 
mentioned, had rambled into Southern Europe, spread into Northern 
Africa and Western Europe along the shores of the Mediterranean. 
Many subsequently invaded Central Europe, and also spread north 
into Great Britain and Ireland. These and the Arctic Mammals 
mostly retired before the Siberian invaders. Hence the purely Arctic 
species had also reached "Western and Central Europe before the 
advent of the latter. 

The Siberian Migration. 

As my conclusions contain much with which many geologists will 
probably disagree, I shall commence by making some statements, 
which are universally acknowledged to be founded on reliable evidence. 

There is a general concurrence of opinion among geologists that 
the climate of Europe in early Tertiary times was almost- tropical, 
and that during the succeeding epochs the temperature became more 
and more temperate, and at last intensely cold, culminating in the 
Glacial Period, and that since that time the climate has again amelio- 
rated. To quote Sir Archibald Geikie's words (34, p. 837) : " At 
the beginning the climate was of a tropical and sub-tropical character, 
even in the centre of Europe and North America. It then gradually 
became more temperate, birt flowering plants and shrubs continued to 
live even far within the Arctic Circle, where, then, as now, there 

2 12 



446 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

miist have been six sunless montlis every year. Gro-vring still cooler, 
the climate passed eventually into a phase of extreme cold, -^hen 
snow and ice extended from the Arctic regions into the centre of 
Europe and Isorth America. Since that time the cold has again 
diminished until the present thermal distribution has been reached." 

The late Prof. E. Forbes pointed out, as I have already mentioned 
(p. 429), that the Lusitanian element in the flora of the south-west of 
Ireland is the oldest ; and so much was he impressed with that idea, 
that he held that it must have arrived long before all other British 
plants. Ve know now that many of the animals belonging to that same 
migration, e. g. GeomaJacus maculosiis, offer examples, as well as many 
of the plants, of what is known as " discontinuous distribution.''^ And 
this alone is a proof of the great antiquity of that Lusitanian element 
in the Irish fauna and flora. " Discontinuity," says Dr. Wallace (89, 
p. 69), " will therefore be an indication of antiquity; and the more 
widely the fragments are scattered, the more ancient we may usually 
presume the parent to be." Xow, the original home of that fauna 
and flora is South-western Europe, possibly even some area still 
further south, of which some of the Atlantic Islands may be the last 
remnants. The homes of all other components of the British fauna 
and flora lie further north. Tlie bulk of the Irish fauna and flora, 
though soutl-.em, is derived, as I stated (p. 429), from South-central or 
Central Europe. Their distribution is continuous across England, and 
they are distinctly of more recent origin than the Lusitanian element. 

"We then pass on to the northern or Arctic division of the Irish 
fauna and flora which came last, and which has scarcely penetrated 
the island. Hence, there is no doubt that the sequence in the origin 
of the fauna and flora of Ireland from the temperate to the Arctic 
agrees perfectly with what we have just learned was the succession 
of the climates during the more recent geological epochs. "When the 
climate was mild in Ireland the southern animals and plants migrate d 
north ; as it gradually became colder they ceased coming north, and 
species accustomed to more temperate climes took their place, until 
at last the Arctic ones began to arrive. 

In speaking of the Irish Arctic fauna, we must not, as so many 
naturalists have done, confuse animals of an Arctic with those of 
a Siberian origin. It is very important to distinguish these two 
elements, both of which are present in the faima of Great Britain, 
though only the fonner has reached Ireland. 

It is now a good many years ago since Mr. Bogdanov (9, p. 26) 
has brought under our notice that the Arctic animals which have 



ScHARFF — 0)1 the Origin of the European Fauna. 447 

been discovered in the Pyrenees, viz. the reindeer, th.e Arctic hare, 
the -willow grouse, &c., have nothing to do with the animals which 
invaded Europe from Siberia during the Glacial Period. In that they 
are, indeed, of quite a distinct origin, and that they came from Scan- 
dinavia, I fully agree with him, but will leave the discussion of the 
Arctic migration until I have considered the origin and history of the 
Siberian fauna. 

In order to show the importance of the Siberian element in the 
English fauna, I will give a list of the species of the Mammals which 
have migrated to Great Britain from Siberia, marking those with a * 
which still exist or only became extinct in historic times in the 
country. There is no reason to suppose that any of the latter became 
extinct and have since been re-introduced. 

Canis lagopus, Myodes leminus. 

Gulo luscus. ,, torquatus. 

**Mustela erminea. ^-'Mus minutus. 

* ,, putorius. *Arvicola agrestis. 

^''' ,, vulgaris. * ,, amphibius. 

*Sorex vulgaris. ,, arvalis. 

llyogale moschata. *>' ,, glareolus. 

Lepus diluvianus. ,, grrgiilis. 

*' ,, europaeus. ,, ratLieeps. 

Lagomys pusillus. E(]^uus caballus. 

*Castor iiber. Antilope saiga. 

Cricetus songarus. Ovibos moschatus. 

Sphermophilus eversmanni. Alces latifrons. 

,, erythrogenoides. ,, machlis. 

Eangifer tarandus. 

We have geological evidence that most of these twenty-nine 
species of Mammals emigrated from Siberia to Europe across the 
Steppes of Southern Pussia. Along with them came a large number 
of other forms of life, and also plants; and as we advance eastward 
from England, we meet with them in increasing numbers to the pre- 
sent day. But not only on the Continent do we find these survivals 
of the vast Siberian migration which has been so ably described by 
Prof. ISTehring (62 rt & b), no less than ten species still live in Great 
Britain (including the recently extinct beaver). On the other hand, 
not more than three of the species mentioned on the list above have 
been found fossil in Ireland, and only one still survives. This very 
significant fact will be referred to more fully later on. Meanwhile 



448 



Proceedings of the Royal Iriah Academy. 



it should be remembered tbat these three species, viz. Ili'.steJa 
errninea, Equics calallns, and Bangifer tara'/idus, occur in Ireland in 
varieties distinct from those found in Central Europe ; and on this 
and other grounds, to be more fully discussed in another chapter, I 
believe that they came by a different route from those found in Eng- 
land, and that Ireland \ras not connected with England at the time 
of the arrival of the Siberian emisrants in the latter countrv. 




3.— Map of Europe on which the strtam of the Siberian migration, as revealed 
from fossil evidence, is roughly indicated by dots. The principal 
mountain ranges have been marked in black. 

It may be asked, how do we know that these animals migrated 
from Siberia, and what route they came by? In the first place a 
large number of them still inhabit Siberia or Southern Eussia, and 
many closely related species which have never reached Europe are 
confined to Asia. Take, for instance, the genus Ai-vicola. Over 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 449 

forty species live in the Holarctic region, while only a few enter the 
boundaries of the adjoining regions. The majority of them are 
entirely confined to North America and Asia, while none have a very 
wide range in Europe. But we have also undoubted geological evi- 
dence from the remains discovered in the Tchernosjem district of 
Southern Russia, and described by Prof. Nehring (62(?), that a migra- 
tion on a vast scale must have taken place. And as we proceed 
westward, we still find in strata of a similar age traces of the same 
invasion, but in such diminishing numbers of both species and indi- 
viduals, that there can be no doubt whatsoever as to its direction from 
east to west. Even at the present day there are occasional recur- 
rences of these events of past ages, though on a much smaller scale. 
It is not many years ago that an announcement was made to the 
naturalists of Western Europe that enormous flocks of Pallas's sand- 
grouse {Syrrhaptes paradoxus), a native of Central Asia, had suddenly 
appeared in Eastern Germany. A few weeks later they invaded 
England, and a good many even came as far as Ireland. 

The accompanying map has been constructed from data furnished 
by fossil remains of the Siberian fauna, ^ and is intended to show more 
clearly the direction of the migration throughout Europe in past 
times. More recently many of the survivors of this migration in 
Europe have spread into regions to which they had originally no 
access. Thus many have penetrated into Scotland, Scandinavia, Italy, 
and the Spanish peninsula long after the bulk of the invasion had 
either become extinct or had retired to their native home. 

According to the prevalent views of the origin of the Alpine fauna,- 
tlie more Arctic members of the Siberian invasion should have found 
a congenial home in the Alps, but they did not survive there any 
more than in the plains. Such typical Arctic species as we find there, 
for example the Arctic hare, either originated in the Alps, or migrated 
to them at a much earlier period (see p. 471). 

"We have still to inquire into the causes which led to the Siberian 

migration, and to ascertain the geological period during which it took 

place. In order to arrive at a more satisfactory conclusion on these 

j)roblems, it is of some moment to study the extinct fauna of Siberia. 

"The Siberian palaeontologist," observes Tcherski (88, p. 487), 



' The distribution of fossil Mammalia has].been compiled from Nehring (62 h), 
Woldrich (93), Woodward and Sherborn (95), Harle (38). 

- Compare these views with those expressed on this subject by Prof. Th. Studer 
<82, p. 28). 



450 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

"is confronted "^ith enigmas of the very contrary nature to those 
■vrhich the learned men of Europe have striven to unravel. He vainly 
attempts the solution of the problem of ho-n- to account for the remains 
of a southern fauna in the ice-bound northern latitudes of his o"vm 
country, wliilst the latter marvel at the past range of Arctic animals 
to Southern Europe." 

The brilliant researches of this distinguished Eussian naturalist 
have been collected together in a memoir on the scientific results of 
an expedition to the Xew Siberian islands (88). We learn from this 
interesting Tvork that remains of tlie Saiga antelope, tiger, European 
bison, mammoth and rhinoceros have been discovered not only in 
the extreme northern limits of the mainland of Siberia, but even 
in the Ifesv Siberian Islands, which are situated in the same latitude 
as the northern part of I^ovaya Zemlya. "It is evident," says- 
Toherski (p. 451), " that these large animals could only have lived 
in these extremely northern latitudes under correspondingly favour- 
able conditions of the vegetation, viz. during the existence of forests, 
meadows and steppes." 

It is generally assumed, he continues, that the European fauna 
which was driven south during the Glacial Period, regained gradually 
their former territory in post-Glacial times. 

If we applied the same principle to Siberia, and if it is assumed 
that the remains discovered on the New Siberian Islands are of post- 
Glacial origin, we must also inquire into the causes which produced 
such remarkable changes of climate in Xorthem Asia within recent 
times. Or we might, resumes Tcherski, suppose that this migration 
from the south to the Arctic regions of Siberia, took place in the 
so-called Interglacial Period. But if such an abnormal amelioration 
of climate had happened within the Arctic Circle in Northern Asia, it 
is e-\-ident that similar or even more intense effects, must have been 
produced in. Europe, which entirely disagrees with the palaeontological 
data. Moreover, interglacial deposits are wanting almost all over 
European Kussia, and as there are no indications (p. 462) that Siberia 
was glaciated during tlie earlier portion of the Glacial Period, it seems 
all the more unwarranted to conceive such climatic fluctuations. 

Tcherski believes (p. 468) that there is no doubt that the gradual 
lowering of the temperature, which has been clearly demonstrated \o 
have occurred in Europe and !North America during later Tertiary 
times must also have affected Siberia, and as some Siberian forms of 
life had already made their appearance in Western Europe in pre- 
Glacial times (Forest-bed), a considerable southward extension of the 



ScHAUFF — On the Origin of the Enr02)ean Fauna. 451 

Siberian faiina must have taken place dining tlie post-Tertiary (Pleis- 
tocene) Epoch. " We have evidence," he says (p. 472), " that at the 
beginning of that epoch, the Arctic Sea extended further south than it 
does now in I^orth --vrestern Siberia, and that throughout the country 
the climate "was moister, though this only led to isolated and unim- 
portant giaciation in the mountainous regions." 

After a careful study of the geological data collected on the 
mainland and the jSTew Siberian Islands, Tcherski finally concludes, 
(p. 474) that the southward retreat of the ISTorth -Asiatic fauna was 
continued, though very slowly, throughout the Pleistocene Epoch 
without breaks or fluctuations, even duiing the time of the most 
important glacial developments in Europe. At last the frosts gradually 
penetrated the soil, and the former haunts of the large Ungulates 
were then probably only visited during tlie summer migrations. In 
exceptional cases the carcases of mammoths, musk oxen, and other- 
animals were preserved in the frozen soil of these northern latitudes 
to the present day, and there, what are now Arctic species, had 
undoubtedly lived together with those of southern origin. 

Yery similar views were held by Brandt, who was j)robably the 
highest authority on the Siberian fauna. He was of opinion (12, 
p. 249) that the northern half of Asia was inhabited already in Tertiary 
times by the present fauna, with the addition of several species now- 
extinct, and that Europe and Asia subsequently underwent a change 
of climate. In consequence of the increasing cold the vegetation 
of ]S"orthern Asia suffered severely, and both plants and animals 
migrated during the Glacial Period towards the south and west, 
where they found more genial conditions. 

Against these views of Tcherski and Brandt, it might be urged 
that, as certainly the bone beds in the Liakov Islands (^New Siberian 
Islands) rest upon a solid layer of ice of nearly seventy feet thick, 
the Mammals must have migrated north after the amelioration of the 
Arctic climate which prevailed there during the formation of this ice. 
Asa rule, however, these layers of ice contain seams of mud and sand,, 
and it has been suggested by Dr. Bunge, who visited tlie Xew Siberian. 
Islands recently at the instance of the Imperial Academy of St. 
Petersburg, that the ice has formed, and is still forming, in fissures 
of the earth (15). To look upon these so-called glaciers as fossil 
ice, and as having survived from the Glacial Period to the present 
day, is a view which, therefore, lacks confirmation. 

During the earlier part of the Pleistocene Epoch iu Siberia there 
occurred a marine transgression in North-western Siberia, and to judge- 



452 Froceedings of the Royal Iri^h Academy. 

from the numerous lacustrine and fluviatile deposits in the low grounds, 
Vae, country seems to have been studded with numerous lakes. 
Prof. J. Geikie informs us (35 «, p. 699) that the Hain-Hai or great Dry- 
Sea in Central Asia was, during Glacial times, a much better watered 
region than it is now. We have also strong evidence that the Caspian, 
towards the commencement of the Pleistocene Epoch, extended not 
■only considerably further north, but also further to tlie east, and was 
indeed joined to the Sea of Aral. The slight extension of local 
.glaciers in tlie Sibei'ian mountains, during those times, does not, 
therefore, indicate a cold climate, but is the natural result of the 
more humid conditions which prevailed in Siberia. Tcherski thinks 
"that there is no evidence to show that the Siberian rivers formerly 
flowed in a different direction from that at present, as has been 
supposed by Sir Henry Howorth (40 V) to have been the case. 

Eastern Siberia seems to have been more elevated than it is at 
present, for the J^ew Siberian Islands must have been joined to the 
•continent. A considerable area in the Behring Straits was also 
raised above sea-level, so as to unite Asia and North America. By 
means of this land-connexion, the red-deer, mammoth, grisly bear, 
and other large Mammals migrated across to the J^ew World ; and, on 
the other hand, Asia received the woodland caribou, and possibly also 
the horse, in excliange. An enormous extension of the Siberian fauna 
evidently occurred in later Pliocene times ; but, nevertheless, there 
is strong evidence for the assumption that no direct emigration to 
Central Europe took place then. An indirect emigration, which will 
be referred to more fully later on, did, however, occur to some extent. 

A southern variety, Lepus europotus mediterr emeus, of the common 
European hare inhabits the Mediterranean region ; and since it reached 
the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and also Northern Africa, which 
■can be clearly demonstrated to have been separated from the mainland 
-of Europe at a comparatively early geological period, it must have 
migrated from Asia much before its more northern relative. We 
have a similar case in the bullfinch {Pyrrlnda europmC), with the 
difference that it wandered a good deal further than the Mediterranean 
hare. On its arrival, in the extreme western limit of the Mediterra- 
nean, it turned north and invaded even the British Islands, and 
•spread also into Western Germany from France. But a larger form, 
known as the Russian bulMnch {Pyrrhda major), emigrated from 
Siberia at a later period, and occupied the greater part of Central and 
Eastern Europe. 

I mentioned already, on a previous occasion (76c, p. •436-474), 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 453 

that this migration passed across a hmd-connexion which united Asia 
Minor and Greece, but that the later Siberian one took a very dif- 
ferent course, as we shall see presently. 

'Now, several naturalists, who have studied the problem of the 
former Siberian emigration of Mammals, have felt that if the physical 
geography of Eastern Europe in later Pliocene times had been what it 
is at present, we should have some evidence in that region of a migra- 
tion from Asia. But in the older strata no Siberian Mammals are to 
b3 met with, and it has been suggested that nothing less than a very 
formidable barrier could have prevented the Siberian fauna from in- 
vading the neighbouring continent. 

I think the distinguished llussian zoologist, Prof. Brandt, was the 
first to draw attention to this circumstance. In referring to the 
former occurrence of mammoths in I^orthern Siberia, he says (12, 
]). 86) : — " The large extension of forests in the north may have taken 
place at a time when an arm of the sea stretched from the Aralo- 
Caspian to the Arctic Ocean, and conducted warm water to it from 
Central Asia. The gradual disappearance of this connexion may have 
induced a steady decrease of warmth inlTorthern Asia, so that ice and 
frozen soils formed, which lowered the temperature still more. All 
this may have happened at the time the Glacial Period commenced in 
Europe. The large Mammals of Northern Asia migrated southward in 
•consequence of the deleterious influence of the cold on the vegetation 
in the north. From there, they were now able to gradually proceed 
west, as the arm of the sea, which formerly had prevented extension 
of range in that direction, had disappeared." Prof. Boyd Dawldns 
•expressed himself in very similar language, a year later (22c), as 
follows: — "Before the lowering of the temperature in Central Europe 
the sea had already rolled through the low coiintry of Bussia, from 
the Caspian to the Wliite Sea and the Baltic, and formed a barrier to 
western migration to the Arctic Mammals of Asia." 

But the view of Professor Dawkins differs from that of Prof. 
Brandt, and also from that of Mr. Koppen (53, p. 42), who likewise be- 
lieved in a connexion between the Caspian and the Arctic Ocean, in one 
material point, in so far that he places his connexion to the west of 
the Ural Mountains instead of to the cast. Since Tcherski has shown 
that Western Siberia is largely covered by freshwater deposits, the 
iissumption that the Aralo-Caspian had been in direct communication 
with the Arctic Ocean, as recently as the Pliocene Epoch, can no 
longer be maintained ; biit, as we shall see presently, there is some 
•evidence in favour of a European connexion between the two seas. 



454 Proceedings of the Royal Irkli Academy. 

Some of those ^vlio take for granted tliat liuge glaciers OTerran 
IS^orthem and Central Europe in early Pleistocene times will be more 
inclined perhaps to favour the view that, if there existed any barrier 
shutting out the Siberian fauna from Europe, this took the fonn of a 
glacier. This indeed is the oyjinion expressed by Bogdanov, who in- 
forms us (9, p. 26) that an immense glacier, covering the greater 
part of the Ural fountain, prevented the Sibenan fauna from entering 
Europe, while a northern fauna, including the reindeer, spread from 
Scandinavia, as far south as the Pyrenees. 

To judge from the mildness of climate in Siberia, duiing the Plio- 
cene and even during the greater part of the Pleistocene Epoch, it is. 
extremely unlikely that Bogdanov' s theory could be correct. The 
barrier, if there was one, must have been of a character not at variance 
with the teraperate climate, evidently prevailing in Xorthern Asia in 
Pliocene times. As I mentioned before, there is not only evidence in 
favour of such a barrier, but also that it was of an aqueous nature. 
As the existence or non-existence of this barrier plays an important 
role in the history of the Siberian migration, it is necessary for me to 
dwell on this subject for some little time before following the final 
entry of the fauna on European soil. 

Professor Karpinski mentions (47, p. 183) that, during the first half 
of the post-Tertiary (or Pleistocene) Epoch a large brackish inland sea 
covered the south-eastern portion of Itussia. This not only included 
the whole of tlie Caspian and the Sea of Aral, which were counected 
with one anotlier, but it stretched far to the north of their present boun- 
daries, as far indeed as the mouth of the Kama, in Xortheru Bussia (see 
map on opposite page). This vast inland sea communicated probably 
by a system of lakes and channels, with the Northern Ocean. Professor 
Karpinski's last assumption is based on the occurrence in the Caspian 
of some Arctic maiine forms of life, but he does not consider that theii- 
presence warrants the belief in a direct communication between it and 
the Arctic Ocean. Unfortunately Professor Sars has not quite com- 
pleted his investigations into the Crustacean fauna of the Caspian, but 
what has been known for many years of its general facies, has lead 
many naturalists to conclude that a direct communication between the 
inland sea and the ocean must have taken place in comparatively 
recent times. As Professor Sars in the " Crustacea Caspia " (75 5, p. 
401) remarks, " The Mysidae are generally regarded as being of true 
marine origin, and of this family eiglit species are now known from 
the Caspian, half of which also occur in the Black Sea." Of the Order 
Cumacea, which is exclusively marine, ten species aie described in 



ScHARFF — Oil the Origin of the European Fauna. 455 

Professor Sars' work, but none of these or the Mysidae seem to range 
heyond the Black Sea. It was formerly believed that Mysis relicta 
of the Arctic Ocean, inhabited the Caspian, but this does not appear 
to be the case ; however, the nortliern marine Isopod, Idotea entomon 
has been shown to exist in it. Moreover, a closely allied form of the 
Arctic seal, viz. Phoca caspica, lives in the Caspian, while the Caspian 
herring {Clupea caspica) is related to the northern herring, and a 
still more closely allied species, Clupea pontica, occurs in the Black 
Sea. 




EUROPEAN 
RUSSIA 



4. — Map of European Russia (after Karspinski). Tlie faintly clotted parts 
indicate the former extension of land-ice, the strongly dotted ones 
represent the Aralo-Caspian and other post-Pliocene basins. 

These latter species are certainly of northern origin, but of the 
€rustaoea mentioned by Professor Sars, we can only say that they have 
•certainly descended from marine ancestors. The probability, however, 
is strongly in favour of their having entered the Caspian area from the 
north, since it has been proved by Professor Suess (83, vol. i, p. 437) 
that the Black Sea and Caspian were, until quite recent times, certainly 



456 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

up to the post-Glacial Period, separated from the Mediterranean.- 
"Whether the Caspian -was even after that time connected witli the- 
Mediterranean indirectly through the Bhick Sea appears somewhat, 
problematical. 

I think we have therefore grounds for the belief, from purely 
faunistic reasons, that the Aralo-Caspian, which was probably joined 
to the Black Sea, Avas actually connected with the Arctic Ocean,, 
or at least that part of it known as the "White Sea, during the- 
earlier part of the Pleistocene Epoch. Mr. Jamieson came to a 
similar conclusion on metereological grounds (41). As heat and dry- 
ness were much lessened during the Glacial Period, he thought there 
must have resulted a much smaller evaporation from such inland seas 
as the Black Sea and the Caspian. The level would therefore have- 
risen, until their surplus waters were discharged along the east flank 
of the Ural Mountains into the Arctic Ocean. This view presupposes- 
a cold climate over Central ilussia, but as we have seen that the- 
temperatui'e must have been more equable and perhaps even milder 
than at present, the waters of the inland sea for this reason did not 
overflow at all. On the contrary, the large Russian inland sea was- 
merely a remnant of a still larger sea reaching west as far as Croatia, 
during the early Pliocene Epoch. Evaporation in fact exceeded pre- 
cipitation, just as it does at present in the Mediterranean, with the 
result that as soon as the junction between the southern and the 
northern seas Avas effected, a steady current began to flow from the 
latter to the former. 

We are told by Professor Karpinski (47, p. 182), that at the time 
when the Aralo-Caspian Sea extended north as far as the Kama River, 
huge glaciers descended from the Scandinavian Mountains across the 
Russian plains similar to those now being formed in Greenland. Traces 
of this southward extension have been met with, as far south as the 
51st parallel of latitude. Professor Kai-pinski and the majority of 
Continental geologists are of opinion that the boulder-clay or 
" Geschiebe-Mergel," covering not only JSTorthern Russia, but a 
lai'ge part of Germany, represents the ground-moraine of these 
huge glaciers referred to. If they are contemporaneous, therefore, 
with the above-mentioned Caspian deposits, it is perfectly clear that 
the sea in which the latter were laid down could not have communi- 
cated Avitli tlie White Sea, nor does it seem to me possible how a 
temperate climate could have existed in Siberia, whilst the whole of 
A'^orthern Europe was shrouded in a mantle of ice. It might be urged 
that the Caspian deposits are not contemporaneous with the boulder- 



►ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Euvopean Fauna. 457 

clay. Mr. Sjogren (78), however, has shown that hitherto all the- 
observations have pointed to the fact that the former do not overlie 
the boulder-clay, but occur side by side, a circumstance which cer- 
tainly speaks for the contemporaneousness of the two formations. 

We have to choose consequently between one of two alternatives — 
either I^orthern Eussia was covered by a mass of ice, and then Siberia 
must have been practically uninhabitable, or tlie climate of both 
Europe and Siberia were more temperate than they are now. In the 
face of the numerous works which have been written in recent years 
by Prof. J. Geikie, Prof. Penck, Mr. Palsan, Prof. Bonney, and many 
other distinguished geologists, on the proofs of a cold and even Arctic 
climate in Europe during the Glacial Period, it may seem futile to 
doubt what is put forward as a well-established fact. But with 
Tcherski I hare been led to conclude, that Siberia had a compara- 
tively mild climate in Pleistocene times. jSTorthern Europe could 
not — that being the case — have been glaciated in the manner above 
described. Before following the migrations of the Siberian fauna to 
Europe, I must therefore dwell for a little while on the origin of the 
Continental boulder- clay. 

What is now looked upon as such an established fact, was ex- 
plained in cj^uite a different manner fifty years ago. Murchison, 
de Yerneuil, and von Keyserling, who studied these identical Eussian 
boulder-clays, which are now regarded as ground moraines of huge 
glaciers, came to the conclusion that they were laid down by the sea, 
and as regards the origin of these clays the following is their verdict 
(59, p. 536) : — " If, as we believe, it is impossible to imagine that 
the detritus in question should have been carried across the Baltic 
Sea, and from the level of that sea several hundred miles up the 
streams, under any coneeivable terrestrial conditions, it follows from 
these considerations alone that all theories to account for the move- 
ment of such bodies over the dry surface of the earth are inadmissible. 
The hypothesis of glaciers advancing up-hill for the distance of 700- 
800 miles involves, in fact, a physical absurdity." The present 
champion of the theory of the marine origin of the boulder-clay in 
Germany, Mr. Berendt has, in a lengthy essay, published about sixteen 
years ago, given his reasons for still adhering to the old views (6). 

A good many of the facts brought forward by this writer seem to 
be equally well explained by either the terrestrial or tlie marine 
theory; but Prof. Penck (66 3) in an article, wiitten in answer to 
Mr. Berendt, certainly adduces several, which, I believe, have never 
been satisfactorily elucidated by the marine mode of origin of the 



458 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

"boulder-clay, siicli as the occurrence of giant kettles, the absence of 
marine shells over large tracts of country, &c. 

According to Prof. J. Geikie (35 «, p. 432), the boulder-clay which 
has been traced over a vast area in Northern Europe, exactly resembles 
in all important particulars the similar accumulations met with in the 
British Islands. They resemble one another also in the occasional 
occurrence of sea-shells, the frequent appearance of bedded deposits, 
iind the often inexplicable course taken by boulders from their sourct; 
of origin. It is well, therefore, to weigh the words recently uttered 
by Prof. Bonney (lOrt, p. 280) before rushing to tlie conclusion that 
this boulder-clay necessarily represents a ground moraine. " The 
singular mixture," he says, *' and apparent crossing of tlie paths of 
boulders, as already stated, are less difficult to explain on the hypo- 
thesis of distribution by floating ice than on that of transport by land- 
ice, because, iu the former case, though the drift of winds and currents 
would be generally in one direction, both might be varied at par- 
ticular seasons. So far as concerns the distribution and thickness of 
the glacial deposits, there is not much to choose between either hypo- 
thesis ; but on that of land-ice it is extremely difficult to explain the 
intercalation of perfectly stratified sands and gravels and of boulder- 
clay, as well as the not infrequent signs of bedding in the latter." 
The view of the marine origin of the British boulder-clay has been 
most carefully worked out by Mr. Mellard lleade (71), whilst Mr, 
Bulman (143) brought forward some additional objections to the ter- 
restrial liypothcsis. Sir Henry Howorth (40 r/) has gathered together 
a sui-prising number of facts in favour of the marine theory, and has 
embodied his wide knowledge of glacial geology in a work which is 
quite a storehouse of information. With his conclusions, however, I 
cannot agree. It seems to me that the distribution of the drift can 
be explained without invoking a great diluvial catastrophe. 

I think that I shall be able to advance some additional evidence in 
favour of the view that the boulder-clay of Europe is a marine deposit, 
and that Northern Russia and Germany were not covered by glaciers 
during the Pliocene or Pleistocene Epochs, 

It has been urged by many writers, both on zoological and geo- 
logical grounds, that at some time during the Pleistocene Epoch, or 
perhaps even later, the "White Sea and the Baltic were joined across 
Northern Russia, and that then also the lowlands of Northern 
Gex-many. and those of Sweden and Norway were partially flooded. 
The zoological evidence alone, that such a junction has taken place, 
within recent geological times, is very strong indeed. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 459 

The Arctic seal {Fhoca annellata), which, as tvg have learned, is 
closely allied to the Caspian seal, is also found in the Gulf of Bothnia, 
and in Onega and Ladoga lakes, bnt is quite absent from the remainder 
of the Baltic and the west coast of Scandinavia. We have a similar 
case of distribution in the four-horned sting-fish ( Cottvs quadricornis) 
which inhabits the White Sea and then again the Baltic as far south 
as Gothland, and also the lakes Wetter and Wener in Sweden, but 
does not occur on the west coast of Scandinavia. Its principal food 
consists in the isopod Idotea entomon, which also inhabits the Caspian, 
and is a typical marine form. It occurs in many of the Eussian, 
Finnish, and Swedish lakes, and also in the Baltic, but is absent from 
the west coast of Scandinavia. Perhaps the best known form, with a 
similar range, is the schizopod Mysis relicta. It is clearly a descen- 
dant from the Arctic Mysis oculata, of which it was formerly con- 
sidered a mere variety. The araphipods, Gammaracantlius relictus and 
Pontoporeia affinis, are two additional well-known Arctic Crustaceans, 
whose European range differs but little from those above mentioned. 
But there are others (see Dr. Norquist's writings (64)). 

Rudolph Leuckart first applied the name " Reliktenseen " to such 
lakes as the north Bussian ones and the Swedish, containing marine 
organisms, and supposed to have been flooded by, or to have been in 
close connexion with the sea at some former period. Loven, 0. Peschel, 
and others worked out his views more in detail, and strengthened his 
position in regard to the Beliktenseen. More recently Dr. Norquist 
(64) strongly defended these views, and so has Prof. Sars (75a, 
p. 124), who remarks, when referring to Pontoporeia affinis, that "it 
constitutes most probably a remnant of the ancient Arctic fauna, 
existing off th.e coasts of Europe and JS'orth America during the Glacial 
Period, a part of which still remains in the more isolated marine 
basins, as the Baltic ; whereas another part, by the subsequent rising 
of the land, was left behind in some of the lakes, where the present 
species, under certain circumstances, was enabled to adapt itself to 
live in purely fresh water." 

While recognizing the claims of some of the Swedish lakes to be 
looked upon as "Reliktenseen," Prof. Credner (19) denies altogetlier 
that either the Onega or the Ladoga lakes can be regarded as belong- 
ing to that class, or indeed that the Baltic ever had any connexion 
with the White Sea. Moreover he does not believe that the occur- 
rence of marine organisms in inland lakes can be adduced as a convinc- 
ing proof of the marine origin of such lakes. His chief contention 
against the relic theory is the fact that marine molluscs are entirely 

E.I.A. PKOC, SEK. m., VOL. IV. 2 K 



460 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

absent from the relic lakes. Had Prof. Credner been acquainted uitb 
Prof. Sollas' ingenious explanation of the origin of freshwater faunas 
(79), no doubt be would have greatly modified his views. Dr. Sollas 
shows that all freshwater organisms in their early stages of develop- 
ment are provided either with some process enabling them to attach 
themselves to a foreign object, or that they pass this period within 
the body of the parent. This is a provision of nature to prevent 
freshwater organisms from being floated out to the sea, where tbey 
would perish, until they have reached maturity, and can cope with 
floods and currents. But the larv« of marine mollusca are all free- 
swimming. Tliey are a prey to the slightest current, and have no 
chance of settling down in freshwater lakes permanently, unless a 
radical change were to take place in their mode of development. 

To judge from the relic fauna in the iXorth European lakes, we 
may safely assume that the area occupied by the plains in the extreme 
north of Piussia and in Finland and Sweden was, in recent geological 
times, occupied by the sea. But we have still to take into conside- 
ration the views expressed by geologists on this subject from ]iurely 
geological evidence. 

I have already mentioned, what Murchison, de Temeuil, and von 
Keyserling's opinions were on this point. In speaking of some Arctic 
shell-beds, which underlie the boulder-clay on the coast-lands of the 
Baltic, Prof. J. Geikie {25 a, p. 442) remarks : — <* It would seem, tljen, 
that before the deposition of the lower boulder-clay of those regions, 
the Baltic Sea had open communication with the German Ocean. 
Some geologists have supposed that the Arctic fauna of the East 
Prussian clay-beds may have immigrated from the north rather than 
from the west. But [there is no direct evidence that the lands lying 
between the Baltic and the "White Sea were under water during the 
formation of the shell-bed in question." Prof. J. Geikie, however, 
admits that at a later period the Baltic and "White Sea were joined : — 
"The dissolution," he says (p. 486), "of the great Baltic glacier was 
accompanied and followed by the depression of a considerable portion 
of the Scandinavian peninsula. Communications thus obtained between 
the Isorth Sea and the Baltic by one or more straits across Central 
Sweden, and there was likewise wide communication between the 
Baltic and the "White Sea, by way of Lakes Ladoga and Onega." 

The assumption that the Arctic mollusca were admitted from the 
Atlantic to the German Ocean before the deposition of the lower 
boulder clay, and then found their way into the Baltic, is altogether 
unwarranted, as I shall show later on. It is extremely probable that 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 



461 



Scotland was connected with Scandinavia till a much more recent 
period (see p. 441). It is likely, therefore, that a marine transgression 
from the White Sea took place at the time when the Aralo-Caspian 
extended much further north than its present boundaries, that the 
Arctic mollusca migrated from the Arctic Ocean direct to the Baltic, 
where the pre- Glacial deposits exhibit a curious intermingling of the 
ancient southern fauna with the newer immigrants from the north. 




5. — Map showing land-connexion between Europe and Greenland in later 
Pliocene times (marked white). ^ The shaded parts were covered 
by the sea at that time. 

Deposits containing Arctic marine mollusca were also discovered below 
the boulder-clay near the shores of the Wliite Sea, another proof of 
the former extension of the Arctic Ocean in this direction. 

I can only allude at present to an important feature in the physical 
geography of jS'orthern Europe, which will be dealt with more fully 

1 During deposition of lower continental boulder-clay, or, we might say, in 
pre-Forest-bed times. 

2 K 2 



462 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

(p. 473), viz., the former continuation of the Scandinavian coast- line 
in a north-westerly direction to Spitsbergen and North Greenland 
(see map, p. 461). The cold waters of the Arctic Ocean did not com- 
municate at all with'the Atlantic at the time when the above-mentioned 
changes occurred in Northern Europe, but they poured into the Baltic 
and the German Ocean, which was then a closed bay, and brought 
with them the characteristic fauna of the Arctic regions. 

The Aralo-Caspian communicated with this large northern sea, 
which had formed on the North European lowlands, and which we 
may call the " North European Ocean," at a time immediately pre- 
ceding the deposition of the upper boulder-clay. But the barrier which 
prevented the Siberian fauna from entering Europe was the strait or 
straits which connected the two seas. We can, therefore, accurately 
fix the period of the beginning of the migration, for it must have 
occurred as soon as this barrier disappeared ; or, if we are able to 
ascertain stratigraphically the first appearance of the Siberian immi- 
grants in Central Europe, the disappearance of the barrier must have 
immediately preceded that period. 

Thanks to the researches of Prof. Neliring (62 3), who gives us a 
vivid picture of Siberian life in Europe as reconstructed from his 
discoveries of vast stores of fossil remains in Northern Germany, we 
now know that the migration from Asia took place undoubtedly after 
the deposition of the lower boulder-clay, or, as we might say, after 
the first Glacial Period. Prof. Nehring (62 ^•, p. 223) seems inclined to 
think that the migration occurred immediately after the deposition of 
the lower boulder-clay, that is to say, during the Interglaciul phase of 
tlie Glacial Period. Prof. Penck agrees with liim in so far as that he 
regards the "Loess " in which these remains are found as belonging 
to the Interglacial Age (66c, p. 15). However, we also know that 
m England remains of Siberian Mammals occur from the Eorest-bed 
iipward, whilst none are found in older strata. It seems safe to 
conclude, therefore, that the Siberian migration took place after the 
deposition of the^lower continental boulder-clay, and during or just 
previous to the formation of the Forest-bed. But the latter has been 
lately recognized as a pre-Glacial formation, and it certainly underlies 
the English boulder-clay. How can we then reconcile these two 
apparently so very contradictory conclusions — that a migration which 
undoubtedly set out from the East arrived in Western Europe before 
it reached Central Europe ? 

I have shown in a previous Paper (7Gc, p. 448) that such was 
certainly the case with some Southern Asiatic Mammals, which entered 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 463 

Europe from Greece, and migrated along the Mediterranean coast to 
"N'orthem AMca at a time when a land-bridge still existed between 
it and Southern Italy, and then recrossed again to Spain, where at 
last they turned north to appear in Western Eui'ope, without having 
crossed the central parts of the continent. Such, however, could not 
possibly have been the course of migration of the Siberian Mammals, 
since they are not found in Southern Europe or in i!^orth Africa. 
Hence one of the two alternatives must be accepted, either some 
radical mistake has been made in the previous arguments, or the 
Forest-bed is an Interglacial deposit, and contemporaneous with the 
" Loess " formation in which the Siberian animals have been discovered 
in J^orthern Gennany. I believe in the latter hypothesis. If this 
view should be correct, the whole of the British Pliocene strata or a 
portion of them, must be of the same age as the lower continental 
boulder-clay. The marine fauna which made its way west from the 
Arctic Ocean across the IS^orth Russian plains, and reappeared again 
on the Baltic coasts just before the deposition of the boulder-clay, 
must have entered the German Ocean and left its traces behind in 
the strata which, formed on the east coast of England. And this is 
precisely what occurred. "In the oldest member of the Pliocene 
system," remarks Prof. J. Geikie (35«, p. 329), "in the Coralline 
Crag, the general facies of the fauna clearly indicates a wann, tempe- 
rate climate, for all the living species are southern forms. In the 
Peg Crag, however, northern forms begin to appear, and increase in 
numbers as we pass upwards to the higher members, while at the same 
time the extinct and southern forms gradually die out." If the view 
that the Eorest-bed represents an Interglacial deposit is correct, as 
indeed has already been suggested by Professor Geikie (35 a, p. 479), 
the whole of the newer Bi'itish Pliocene is synchronous with the 
lower continental boulder-clay. I will not dwell on this subject any 
longer, as it will be more fully dealt with later on, but in the succeed- 
ing pages a good many facts in support of this theory will be brought 
forward. 

Let us once more return to Eastern Europe. It will be objected to 
that, though there may be evidence of a marine trangression from 
the Arctic Ocean before the lower boulder-clay was laid down, there 
are such cogent reasons for believing in the terrestrial origin of the 
latter, that the marine connexion between the Aralo-Caspian and the 
White Sea which formed a barrier to the passage of the Siberian fauna 
could no longer have existed. Foremost among the objections to the 
theory of the marine origin of this boulder-clay is the absence of 



464 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

marine shells in this deposit throughout almost the "whole of Eussia, 
and the fact that the boulders from Scandinavia evidently travelled 
steadily in a south-easterly direction for a considerable time. 

The peculiar conditions of the physical geography of Xorth em Europe, 
viz. the complete isolation of the cold Arctic from the warm Atlantic 
waters, must have produced an excessive precipitation on the Scandi- 
navian mountains in the foim of enow (see map, p. 461). Glaciers were 
formed abundantly on these mountains, as the snowfall during the 
winter months must have exceeded the amount of snow dissolved 
during summer. On the west coast of Scandinavia they seem to have 
hardly reached the sea, as was pointed out by Sir Henry Ho worth (40 a, 
p. 709), but on the Swedish coast icebergs were detached from the 
glaciers as soon as they readied sea-level. As the current at first 
flowed from north-east to south-west, the icebergs travelled in that 
direction, and many were stranded, as we know from the occurrence of 
Scandinavian boulders in the British upper Pliocene deposits, on the 
east coast of England. When the level of this Xorth European Ocean 
rose to a sufficient height to join, by means of several straits, the 
Ponto-Caspian Sea, a current would naturally flow in that direction, 
as I have already explained (p. 456). We have evidences of this 
current in tlie so-called Glacial striae which are occasionally visible 
on the underlying rock. Prof. Geikie teUs us (35 a, p. 474) that in 
Finland, and the adjacent tracts of Russia, two systems of Glacial 
striae are apparent. The striae of the older system run in parallel 
directions, and extend far east and south-east of the terminal moraines, 
the younger system crossing the other at various angles. Again 
(p. 426), he remarks : " At Eiidersdorf (Berlin), there are two set« of 
striae, one set trending towards south-east, the other and later series 
being directed towards the west." In speaking of the boulder-clay of 
Iforthern Germany generally, he says (p. 463) : " There is usually a 
well-marked distinction between the boulder-clays of the lower and 
upper diluvium. The former are generally tougher and more abun- 
dantly crowded with stones and boulders — the colour of the clay 
being often dark gray or grayish-blue. Moreover, the included 
erratics have travelled in directions which do not correspond to 
tliose followed by the stones and blocks in the upper boulder- 
clay." 

A persistent current, however, carrying icebergs, laden with 
detritus in an already turbid sea, would have the inevitable result of 
preventing any tender marine organisms, such as mollusca, from 
settling down in its track, and to this fact, I think, is due the absence 



1 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Eurojjean Fauna. 465 

in the Russian boulder-clay of organic remains, though the free- 
swimming laxvEe of Arctic mollusca must have been present in this 
sea which deposited the boulder-clay. 

Throughout the German boulder-clay we have evidence that small 
colonies of molluscs were able, here and there, to find sufficiently 
sheltered localities, where, perhaps, for a few generations they could 
survive the discomforts arising from the turbidity of their new home. 

Prof. Jentzsch (43) discovered in Eastern Prussia no fewer than 
ninety such localities of shells ; but in the majority of them he found 
Arctic, North Sea, and freshwater mollusca, equally mixed. The 
mean thickness of the boulder-clay is about 200 feet, and more than 
half of this consists, according to this author, of stratified aqueous 
strata. Prof. Jentzsch (p. 669) thinks that the occurrence of fresh- 
water shells points to the existence of islands free from ice during the 
diluvial period. Prom the point of view I have adopted, viz. that 
the boulder-clay is a marine deposit, it seems to me that the occur- 
rence of freshwater shells, along with marine forms, indicnles changes 
in the salinity of the J^orth European Ocean. When the waters 
became more brackish, many purely freshwater species would migrate 
to the ocean from the coast ; and, as at the present day, Tellina halthica 
and Cardium edule live side by side in the Baltic, with such fresh- 
water forms as Limncea lagotis, L. ovata^ and Neritina fluviatilis, it is 
not impossible to suppose that Vahata piscinalis, Paludina diluviana, 
and Breyssensia polymorpha, which were the principal species found by 
Prof. Jentzsch, actually inhabited the ocean for some time during its 
existence. 

The occurrence of Dreyssemia polymorpha in the German boulder- 
clay is particularly interesting. It suddenly makes its appearance in 
the German lower boulder-clay, but then entirely disappears again, 
and is not known from the subsequent more recent deposits.^ In the 

1 This species is unable to exist in water containing more than a certain 
percentage of salt. It does not even occur in the southern part of the Black Sea, 
and, of course, is quite absent from the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the 
German Ocean. It is now found in canals and slowly-floAving rivers in Northern 
Continental Europe and in England. It is supposed to have suddenly appeared in 
England in 1824, and though the late Dr. Gwyn Jeffreys (42) denied that there 
was any foundation for such a supposition, it is still quoted in text-books as an 
artificially introduced species. So deeply rooted, indeed, is that belief, that even 
the recent discovery by Mr. Woodward (94, p. 342) of some specimens in a post- 
Pleistocene deposit in London, fifteen feet below the surface, has not effected a 
change, and conchologists persistently cling to the favourite hypothesis which 
offers such a vast field for pleasant speculations. It is almost certain, however 



466 



Proceedings of the Royal Trkh Academy. 



loT^er boulder-elay, moreoTer, it becomes rarer as Tve go west, being 
most abundant in Eastern Germany. Vhen "R-e take into consideration 
that the origiQal home of the genus Dreyssensia, and of its ancestor 
Congeria, is the Caspian (65), the natural inference from the fact of its 
sudden appearance in Northern Germany alone seems to me sufficient 




6. — Map showing the land-connexion hetween Europe and Greenland during 
Interglacial times, and the manner in which a way Mas opened to 
Europe from Asia by the recession of the sea. The light parts 
rej^resent the land at that time ; the shaded ones the sea. 

to conclude that there must have existed some communication between 
the IN'orth European and the Caspian Seas at the time when the boulder, 
clay was deposited. As we have seen in the preceding pages, many 
other facts point to the same conclusion. Again, its non-appearance in 
the upper boulder-clay and the more recent deposits of yorthem 

that Lreyssensia polymorph a suiTived in Xortheni Europe in some isolated lakes ever 
since the deposition of the lower houlder-elay, and only spread with such rapidity 
in recent years owing to the introduction of canals. The larva being a free-s^-im- 
ming one, the species cannot exist in rapidly -flowing riveis. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 467 

Europe shows, not ouly that it died out owing to the conditions in the 
North European Ocean becoming unfavourable to its existence (no 
doubt, owing to the sea growing more salt), but that the commu- 
nication between the two seas ceased to exist, preventing further 
migration. 

We can show clearly then, as pointed out before, tbat a land 
passage was opened up between the shores of the receding Northern 
Sea and those of the Ponto- Caspian, enabling the Siberian fauna to 
enter Europe. 

On the accompanying map 6 are shown the probable geographical 
conditions of Europe at this time. The land-surface, which separated 
the Ponto-Caspian from the North European Sea, formed the bridge, 
by means of which the Siberian migrants crossed over to Europe. 
Long before this event took place, it had been a land- surface, but the 
sea, as we have learned, had broken through it in several places, thus 
forming an impassable barrier to the Siberian fauna. As the Northern 
Sea retired during Intergiacial times, the bridge became passable again. 

The origin of this land-surface has long been a source of many 
elaborate geological speculations. It occupies a vast region in Southern 
Russia between the Carpathian Mountains and the Ural, and has a 
world-wide fame, being known as the Black Earth of Russia, or 
" Tchornosjem." Murchison (59) believed it to be a marine silt, 
derived from the black Jurassic shale of Northern Russia. More 
recently, after a careful chemical analysis, Mr. Ruprecht (73) demon- 
strated that this black earth had been produced chiefly by the 
decomposition of tufts of grass, no roots of trees or of bushes having 
been found in it. "We may assume, therefore, that this tract of land, 
over which the Siberian fauna wandered, consisted of a vast prairie. 
On their arrival in the more central parts of Europe, the Siberian 
Mammals spread into Austria, Hungary, and Northern Italy, through- 
out the greater part of Germany and Prance, and into England (see 
map, p. 448). They scarcely touched any part of Southern Europe, 
and their progress in France was apparently arrested by the Garonne, 
as no typical Siberian foims are found fossil south of that river in the 
Pyrenees or in Spain. Of course, more recently the Siberian survivors 
in Europe have spread not oialy into Southern Italy and Spain, but 
also throughout Great Britain and Scandinavia. But, as previously 
stated (p. 448), none of them entered Ireland, and I have given this as 
one of my reasons for the belief that this country became separated 
from England about the time when the Porest-bed was laid down, and 
has never been since joined to it. 



468 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

It is evident that during the deposition of the rorest-bed, the 
south of England was joined to France. But the two countries must 
have been united for a considerable time previously, and this is quite 
in accordance with the opinion expressed by geologists. Mr. Jnkea- 
Brown (46, p. 347) believes that in early Pliocene times there was an 
Eastern Sea or German Ocean which spread over a portion of Southern 
England, but that there is no proof of the existence of an English 
Channel. Again (p. 350), he remarks: " It is tolerably certain that 
in Miocene time the whole of England and of North-eastern France, 
with the intervening channel area, was land." In later Pliocene times, 
the channel was still closed, according to a map (p. 358) which he 
gives us of the geography of that period. 

Quite recently, Mr. Dollfus, of Paris, who has made this subject 
his special study, communicated a note to the British Association 
(25, p. 690) agreeing in all essentials with the views expressed by 
Mr. Jukes-Brown. England, he says, was always in direct continental 
communication with France during Pliocene time; tlie English Channel 
was not open at all. 

As regards the Scandinavian peninsula, the total absence of 
Mammalian remains in Pleistocene deposits indicates that this country 
was not connected with tlie Continent during that period. 

The presence, on the other hand, of Mammalian remains in more 
recent deposits, chiefly in Southern Sweden, implies that toward the 
end of the Glacial Period, a land passage must have existed between 
North-western Gennany and Sweden across Denmark. In referring 
to the absence of fossil elephants and other laige Mammals from the 
Scandinavian Pleistocene strata, Prof. Polilig (69, p. 314) expresses 
the belief that Scandinavia must either have been hardly free from 
ice during the whole of the Glacial Period, or, if free from ice during 
Interglacial times, it could then only have had an imperfect connexion 
with the Continent. That of these alternatives the former was not 
the case Avill be proved in the next chapter, and if, as I believe, the 
bulk of the fauna and flora sui-vived the Glacial Period in the country 
itself from pre-Glacial times, there is no necessity for supposing that 
any connexion existed between tlie Continent and Scandinavia in 
Interglacial times. 

The Arctic Migration. 

The animals belonging to the Siberian migration did not reach 
Ireland, as I have shown in the lust chapter, but the effects of a 
migration which undoubtedly did, and which preceded from the north — 



I 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Eiirojjean Fauna, 469 

either from Scandinavia or from the Arctic regions — must now be 
considered. On p. 429, 1 have refeiTed to the fact that both the fauna 
and flora of Ireland included an Arctic element, and I may also 
mention that these Arctic plants and animals are generally confined 
to the northern and -u'estern parts of the island, as if some barrier had 
prevented their migration along the east coast, or to the central plain, 
or as if they had been exterminated there in more recent times. 

Three of the Irish Alammals, one of ^vhich, the reindeer, is noTv 
extinct, appear to me to have come direct from the north. Several 
birds, among the most striking of which may be mentioned the grouse 
{Lagopiis scoticus), have formed part of that northern migration. All 
the Salmonidae have come to us from the north, whilst a still more 
noteworthy example of a northern migrant is the stickleback {Gaste- 
rosteiis aculeatus). The land-shells Selix lamellata and Vertigo 
alpestris, the beetles Pelophila horealis, Dytiscus lapponiciis, Blethisa 
multipunctata, and the moth Crymodes exulis, all belong to the same 
migration. Xo doubt these and the Xorth American freshwater sponges 
which Lave been recently discovered on the west coast by the Eoyal 
Irish Academy Fauna and Flora Committee (37) have found theii- way 
to Ireland along an old land connexion which formerly united that 
counti'y with the Arctic regions. In the latter may have originated 
many of these forms, as well as the plants referred to on page 429, and 
have migTated to both the Old and the aS'ew "World. Of course I have 
selected only a few of the more prominent examj)les. As our know- 
ledge of the geographical distribution of the species, which is as yet 
in its infancy, increases, many other of these northern forms will no 
doubt be discovered in Ireland. 

If we cross over to Scotland, we find a very large increase of 
typically Arctic species of animals and plants, and as these are absent 
from England, or confined to the northern counties, there can be no 
question as to their having migrated direct from the north to Scot- 
land by a foiraer land passage. It may be urged that these Arctic 
species have spread over the plain of Europe, have then entered Eng- 
land from the south, and have subsequently been exterminated, 
except in their most northern stations in the British Islands. But 
whilst we have only very slender geological evidence that such might 
liave been the case ; there is, I think, strong evidence for the belief 
that, until comparatively recent times, Norway and Scotland were 
joined (45, p. 1008), so that animals and plants had no need to 
migrate by that enormously circuitous route by way of Denmark, 
Holland, Belgium, and England, and across the manv large rivers, 



470 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

wMch would have impeded their journey. In Scandinavia, Arctic 
animals and plants form a large proportion of the fauna and flora, and 
as we proceed northward, southern forms hecome more and more 
scarce. According to Mr. Peterson, no less than thirteen species of 
Arctic Lepidoptera occur in Northern Europe and North America, but 
are absent from Asia, and he assumes the probability of a direct land 
connexion between the two countries by way of Greenland before 
the Glacial Period, and a survival of these in Eujope (67, p. 57). 

My assumption that the Arctic element of tiie fauna and flora, 
which undoubtedly exists in the British Islands, and which is now 
confined more or less to the northern parts of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, niigi-ated by a direct route from Scandinnvia, is not founded on 
geological data alone, but has been suggested to me in a great measure 
by the present range of the Arctic species. Let us take some examples. 
I have referred to three species of Mammals, viz. tl'e hare {Lepus 
variabilis), the stoat {Miistela erminea), and the reindeer {Rangifer 
tarandiis), which I suppose to huve migrated to Ireland diiectly from 
the north, or more correctly the north-east, and it is essential that I 
should dwell on the history of each of these for a little, as their past 
range is so much better known than any of tlie other members of the 
Arctic migration which we have to deal with. 

Lepus variahilis. — To those who are not acquainted with the fact, 
I may mention that this hare is the only one inhabiting Ireland, and 
that it lives in tlie plain as well as in the mountains. In Great 
Britain it is confined to the mountains of Scotland, wliil^t the plain 
is inhabited by the European hare {Lepxis europceus), which, I have 
shown, came originally from Siberia. L. variahilis is found on such 
widely separated mountains as the Pyrenees, Alps, Tatra, Caucasus, 
and the Akita and Mioko-san mountains in Japan, whilst quite absent 
from the plains surrounding them. It is perfectly clear that at some 
time or other it must have inhabited these plains, but it has since 
disappeared from them, thus producing discontinuous distribution, 
wliich, as I have already stated, is a proof of antiquity. Besides, 
the vastness of the range alone indicates this, and its migration south- 
ward must have taken place at a very remote period. On the 
continent of Asia and North America it is confined to the northern 
parts. In Northern Europe we find it in Scandinavia, and almost 
everywhere in the Arctic regions. Its home is therefore in the north ; 
During the Glacial Period it is supposed to have been driven south, 
and its occurrence in the Caucasus, the Alps, and the Pyrenees is 
looked upon as a standing testimony to the extreme refrigeration of 



ScHAKFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 471 

the climate, for when the cold passed away, the plaiu is believed not 
to have suited the hare any more, and it retired to the more congenial 
atmosphere of the mountain tops. This view, first promulgated, I 
think, by Edward Forbes, has been almost universally adopted (see 
p. 449). Certainly, as Darwin has remarked (p. 21a, 331), it explains 
the presence of Arctic forms on the Alps and other mountains in a most 
satisfactory manner. Still, I venture to think the Glacial Period did 
not play so important a role in the present distribution of the Arctic 
hare. We need only look at Ireland and at Sweden. In both countries 
this hare inhabits the plain as well as the mountains. Moreover, it 
flourishes in the former country where there is hardly any snow, and 
where the temperature in winter approaches that of Southern Europe. 
It seems to me unlikely, therefore, that this hare should have left the 
plain of Central Europe and France, on account of the passing away 
of the cold, and we must seek for other causes to explain its peculiar 
geographical range. The European hare {Lepus europaeus) never 
lived in Ireland, but it did inhabit Sweden, where it is now extinct. 
Attempts have been made in both countries to introduce it, but 
without success. On the other hand, we find it stated, in the 
" Zoologia Danica " (97), that, in severe winters when the Sound 
between Southern Sweden and Denmark becomes covered with ice, 
the Arctic hare migrates across to the latter country. Nevertheless, 
although this migration must have taken place on very numerous 
occasions for centuries past, it has never been able to settle down in 
the country, whilst the European hare thrives there. Both hares can 
stand extremes of temperature perfectly well, but their range does 
not overlap anywhere, and their distribution seems to me to indicate 
that the two species will not live together. The European hare being 
probably the stronger of the two, has driven the other out of the 
European plain into the mountains, whilst in small colonies, as in 
Ireland and Sweden, it may be overwhelmed by the superior numbers 
of the enemy. Not the change of climate, but the sudden advent of 
a [strong rival from the east probably confined the Arctic hare in 
Central Europe to regions where, owing to the superior adaptability 
of its fur to changes, of colour, it still reigns supreme, as a survival 
indeed, but not of an Arctic climate. 

As I mentioned before, the Arctic hare is undoubtedly a very 
ancient species and must have inhabited Europe before the European 
hare made its appearance there. Had they arrived at the same time 
from the east, there is no reason why both should not have reached 
Ireland. The Arctic hare probably entered Asia from North America 



472 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

across the old Bekring Sea connexion. It could not have come from 
Asia before the European hare, as I have clearly demonstrated (p. 453) 
that a barrier kept back the Siberian fauna. The only way it could 
have entered Europe is from the north, its original home. I shall 
bring for^ivard evidence to show that Scandinavia and Spitsbergen, 
were connected before and during the Glacial Period (see also page 462). 
I believe that the Arctic hare migrated along that land to Scandinavia, 
and then to Scotland and Ireland, which were at that time all united, 
that is to say, in pre-Forest-bed times, when Scandinavia, as I have 
mentioned, was not directly connected with continental Europe (see 
map, p. 461). It then spread into England, where its remains were 
found in the Mendip Hill Cave (not in any true Pleistocene deposits) 
and subsequently to the Pyrenees and Alps. 

JIustela erminea. — The well-known fact that the stoat, like the 
Arctic hare, generally changes its fur to white iu winter, is suggestive 
of a nortliern origin. Even in Ireland both species often become 
partially white in the winter months, though there may be little 
or no snow on the ground. 

Its absence from the Mediterranean region and from Portugal and 
Southern Spain proves, that it did not enter Europe from the south. 
"We have learnt (p. 447), that the stoat came with the weasel and pole- 
cat from Siberia, and with them invaded England, after having 
traversed the central plain of Europe, but, as I have stated before, I 
consider it improbable that, of the Siberian immigrants, it almost alone 
should have reached Ireland. Still the stoat undoubtedly did migi'ate to 
Ireland. "When we consider, however, that the Irish stoat is very dis- 
tinct from the ordinary English and continental form, so much so, that 
Messrs. Thomas and Barrett-Hamilton have recently raised it to the 
rank of a distinct species (86), the view that it belongs to a different 
migration will perhaps be more readily accepted. The stoat is certainly 
of northern origin, and it is one of the few Mammals which still 
inhabits the Arctic regions. It has been observed in Grinnel Land, 
Greenland and Spitsbergen, so that provided a land-passage existed 
connecting the latter with Scandinavia, it could easily have entered 
Europe direct from the north. It spread from the Ai'ctic regions to 
North America, and from there into Asia, being still found on the 
islands of the Aleutian chain (36) which used to form the highway 
between the two continents. A branch of the Asiatic stock even pene- 
trated into Xorthem Africa (85), possibly by way of Greece and 
Southern Italy, though not found in Southern Europe at present. 
But this Algerian form is. as Mr. Oldfield Thomas mentioned to me. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 473 

more closely related to the typical European tlian to the Irish stoat, 
so that any near relationship between the African or the Asiatic forms 
and the Irish is excluded. 

Rangifer tarandus. — Two distinct races of the reindeer, viz. the 
large "Woodland and the smaller Barren-ground caribou, have long been 
distinguished in North America. In the latter the antlers are more 
rounded and slender than in the other race. 

If we turn to the Old World we find that two very similar races 
occur, but whilst both inhabit Europe, one only, viz. tlie Woodland 
form, lives in Asia, and there is no record that the other existed there. 
This startling fact suggests that the Barren-ground caribou has either 
come to Europe from America by a different route from that of the 
other race, or that it has originated in the Polar regions, and thence 
spread to America and to Europe from its original home. But what- 
ever view we adopt, the present geographical conditions could not have 
prevailed when these migrations took place, and an extensive land 
connexion between IS^orthem Europe and the Polar regions must then 
have existed. That such a connexion did actually exist, is proved 
by the occurrence of the reindeer in Greenland, Melville and Disco 
Islands, and Spitsbergen. However, if we had not this proof, the 
mere knowledge of the distribution of the fossil remains of the rein- 
deer in Europe would render it highly probable. In Ireland alone of 
all the countries in the Old World do we find only the remains of the 
Barren-ground reindeer. In Great Britain the two forms occur mixed. 
The Scandinavian reindeer is also the Barren-ground form, but the 
Lapland race is intermediate between the two. On the Continent the 
Barren-ground reindeer is entirely confined to Western Europe, and 
it seems to occur there in older deposits, as a rule, than the other 
race. 

All this clearly points to a double migration of the reindeer to 
Europe — an older one of the Barren-ground race from the north, and a 
more recent one of the Woodland race from the east. The known 
facts of the present and past distribution of the two races perfectly 
agree with this view. The Barren-ground reindeer occurs in Green- 
land and Spitsbergen ; then, again, as we have seen, in Scandinavia. 
It migrated along an old land-connexion to Scandinavia at a time 
when that peninsula formed not a part of the Continent of Europe, 
but an elongated isthmus which stretched south from Spitsbergen, 
which latter again was joined to Greenland. The reindeer then 
invaded Scotland and Ireland (see map, p. 461), and crossed over 
into France, where it penetrated as far as the Pyrenees. It is, as 



474 Proceedings of the Roijal Irish Academy, 

Mr. Harle lias pointed out (38), the only Arctic Mammal of which 
remains have been discovered in these mountains. It is even possible, 
Mr. Harle thinks, that some bones which he obtained in the province 
of Gerona, in the extreme north-east of Spain, may be referable to the 
reindeer. The important fact, as has already been referred to by 
Lartet (55), is that these French reindeer remains belong to the 
Barren-ground race, whilst Gervais has shown (see Beyer, 7, p. 68) 
that those from jS^orthern France agree with the ones from the Central 
European deposits, and belong to the "Woodland form. Then, again, 
Dr. Beyer informs us (7, p. 68) that, in one of the oldest Pleistocene 
deposits of Geimany, at Risdorf, all the reindeer remains belong to 
the Barren-ground race. All these remains of the Barren-ground 
reindeer occur cither in caves or in early Pleistocene deposits. 
Indeed Struckmann (81, p. 764) quite recognizes that in Southern 
Europe (Pyrenees) the reindeer is found, as a rule, in older strata 
than in the more northerly localities,^ 

Struckmann (81, p. 766), and also "Woldrich (93, p. 124;, believed 
that, as far as Europe is concerned, the reindeer entered it fi'om. Asia ; 
but Mr. Bogdanov felt that a distinct northern migi-ation, which even- 
tually reached the Pyrenees, and among which was the reindeer, must 
have originally issued fi-om Scandinavia (9, p. 26). The latter view 
harmonises with my own, in so far as that I agree with him that one 
of the races entered Europe from the direction of Scandinavia ; and 
this is really the principal point at issue. 

It is a well-known fact that reindeer are in the habit of travelling 
considerable distances on ice ; and it might be urged that it had 
traversed the distance from Spitsbergen to Norway during the Glacial 
Period, when the sea in these noi'thern latitudes was supposed to have 
been frozen over, or covered by a huge glacier. Extensive land- 
connexions are assumed by some geologists to have existed in the 
Arctic regions after the Glacial Period, by means of which the fauna 
and flora are supposed to have migrated north again, after having 
been driven south by the cold.- 

^ He, no doubt, has the German deposits in view — not the British or Scandi- 
navian. 

* A natural sequence of my vie-ws is that there must have been a survival of a con- 
siderable fauna and flora throughout the Arctic regions during the Glacial Period. 
Even Prof. IS'atborst admits (61 «, p. 200) that a small portion of the pre-Glacial 
flora might have persisted through the Glacial Period, whilst Mr. 'Warming (90) 
maintains that the main mass of the present flora survived in Greenland, and that 
the remainder have been accidentally introduced by birds and winds. Few natural- 
ists, however, are more intimately acquainted with the Arctic regions than Col. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Euroj^ean Fauna. 475 

It seems to me that such a supposition is entirely unwarranted 
from the known habits of the reindeer and its powers of endurance. 
The distance which it would require to traverse between Spitsbergen 
and the most northern point of the Scandinavian peninsula is at least 
700 miles, though Bear Island, which is about 250 miles south of the 
former, might form a resting place. To travel in search of food on 
such exceedingly difficult ground as rough ice with crevasses for even 
a couple of hundred miles would have been quite beyond its powers. 

There are in Ireland a few American species of plants, and also 
some Invertebrates which in Europe only occur in the west. They 
are altogether absent from Eastern Europe and from Asia. It seems 
to me probable that these have migrated during later Tertiary times, 
either from North America by means of the former land-connexion 
which I have referred to, or from the Arctic regions to both Europe 
and America, and thus form part of the Arctic migration. In Ireland 
these so-called American species are almost altogether confined to the 
northern and western counties. 

The first of these, a pretty white-flowering orchid {Spiranthes 
romanzoviana), does not occur anywhere in Europe outside Ireland, 
Until recently it had only been met with in a few isolated localities 
on the west coast, but Mr. Praeger has since added another station in 
the north of Ireland (Co. Armagh). The second is the narrow-leaved 
SisyrincMum anceps which is found in boggy and heathy places in the 
counties of Galway and Kerry. It has not been met with anywhere 
else in Europe. The next two, viz. the slender Naiad and the jointed 
Eriocaulon are freshwater plants, and have a somewhat wider range 
than the others. The Naiad {Naias flexilis) is found in Connemara, in 
the west of Scotland, and in a few isolated localities in Northern 

Feilden, and he is certainly in favour of a survival of part of the i)lants through 
the Glacial Period, where they now live (29, p. 50). Mr. Geldart expressed 
similar views in an interesting address, recently delivered to the Norfolk and 
Norwich Naturalists' Society. 

The idea that everything within the Arctic Circle was covered hy snow and ice 
during the Glacial Period can no longer be maintained. Some, indeed, hold that 
the climate in those regions was then much milder than it is now. 

Col. Feilden remarks (30, p. 57) : " It is suggestive that all the Glacial deposits 
which I have met with in Arctic and Polar lands, with the exception of terminal 
moraines now fonuing above sea-level, in areas so widely separated as Smith's 
Sound, Grinnell Land, Northern Greenland, Spitsbergen, Novaya Zemlya, and 
Arctic Norway, should be glacio-marine beds. Throughout this broad expanse of 
the Arctic regions I have come across no beds that could be satisfactorily assigned 
to the direct action of land-ice." 

E.T.A. PEOC., SER. Ill , VOL. IV. 2 L 



476 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Continental Europe, -u-Hlst the Eriocaulon {Eriocaidon septanguJare) 
occurs on the north and west coasts of Ireland, and on some of the 
islands off the west coast of Scotland.^ All these species of plants, as 
I mentioned, are commonly distributed in IS'orth America. 

Among animals no doubt a good many similar examples occur, 
though probably few of such very restricted range. I have already 
referred to the common stickleback ( G^«rs#ero«^eM« aculeatus),Mv\a.ch.\s, 
found in Greenland, J^orth America, and Europe, but is quite absent 
from Asia, though an allied species inhabits Kamtchatka. The nine- 
spiued stickleback {Gasterosteiis pungitius) is confined to Western 
Europe and Xorth America, whilst an allied species {G. sinensis) lives 
in China, and has probably penetrated there from the Xew "^orld 
across the old Behring Straits land-connexion. Europe has many 
land and freshwater mollusca in common with Xorth America, also 
many butterflies, moths and beetles, but the Asiatic distribution of the 
insects generally is not sufficiently well known to permit us to 
definitely assert their absence in Asia. The freshwater sponges of 
Central and Northern Europe have been fairly well worked, and it 
must be sui-prising to many to hear that we possess in Ireland three 
Korth American species which have not hitherto been discovered 
elsewhere in Europe or Asia. These three, viz. Ephjdatia craterifar- 
mis, Heteromeyenia Ryderi, and Tubella pennsylvanica, were recently 
described by Dr. Hanitsch (37, p. 125) in the "Irish ]S'aturalist.'* 
They all inhabit lakes on the west coast of Ireland. 

The spider {Porrhomma rnyops), which was discovered by Mr. 
Carpenter in Mitchelstown Cave in Ireland (16 c), is, as he remarks, 
probably identical with a Noilh American species, and in Europe is 
confined to the west. I think all these instances of a close relation- 
ship between the European — and chiefly Western European — and the 
iNorth American fauna and flora are to be explained by a former land- 
connexion between these two continents in the manner described 
on p. 462 (see map, p. 461). 

Many eminent geologists have held that the Glacial Period was 
produced by a rising of the land in the Arctic regions. Sir Charles 
Lyell was an adherent to that theory. Professor Dana suggested that 
an elevation of the Arctic land sufficient to exclude the Gulf Stream, 
might have been the source of cold during the Glacial Period (20, p. 

' Two additional Ifortli American plants, viz. Juncus tenuis and Polygonnm 
sagxtlifolium, have recently been discovered in the west of Ireland by Dr. Scully, 
and one {Sisyrinchium californicum) by Mr. Marshall on the coast of Wexford 
("Irish Nat.," 1896). 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 477 

540). He adds (p. 542) : " If the cause of the Glacial cold was con- 
nected with the closing of the Arctic regions against the tropical 
currents of the Atlantic, the I^orth Atlantic Ocean would have 
had greater warmth than now, and this would have produced unusual 
evaporation, and hence unusual precipitation on its cold herders." 
Croll, on the other hand, in referring to this harrier of land, says : 
" I have never been able to find any evidence that any such harrier 
did exist during the Glacial Period." 

In a Paper on the history of the vegetation of Greenland (61ft, p. 
185), Prof. Nathorst speaks of Spitsbergeii as a northern continuation 
of Europe — not only geographically, but also botanieally and geologi- 
cally. All the flowering plants of Spitsbergen, with the excejjtion 
of but three species, are also found in I^orthern Europe and jS'ovaya 
Zemlya. He is of opinion that Spitsbergen must have been partially 
connected with Europe during the Glacial Period. On the other 
hand, the occurrence of a number of American plants on the west 
coast of Greenland seems to point to a former land-connexion between 
the latter country and jS'orth America. Prof. Engler observes (26, p. 
12) that, as Spitsbergen, Eranz-Joseph's Land, and ISTovaya Zemlya 
lie on a sub-marine plateau which is less than 200 fathoms below sea- 
level, and is probably continued northward, the insular position of 
these islands might only be a temporary one. These islands might, 
he says, have formed a connexion between Greenland and Arctic 
Europe, by means of which a migration of plants from North America 
and Greenland to Northern Europe became possible. At any rate, he 
continues, the reasons in favour of this Arctic connexion of America 
vdth Europe are stronger than those of a connexion between Green- 
land, Iceland, the Faroes and Great Britain. He thinks too 
(p. 143) that many species of plants belonging to the Alpine flora of 
Arctic Siberia seem to have travelled from Scandinavia via Greenland 
and North America to Eastern Asia, and not direct from Scandinavia 
to Siberia. Among Irish naturalists I may mention the late Dr. 
Moore and Mr. A. G. More, who were both of opinion (58, p. xx.) 
that the presence in the west of Ireland of several American plants in- 
dicated a former land-connexion between Europe and North America. 

The most important geological contribution which has been 
published on this problem of a former northern land-connexion is 
tliat hy Professor Petterson (68). He tells us that, according to 
recent surveys, a high su.b-marine plateau, with a sharp fall of 1000 
fathoms towards the Atlantic Ocean, rises from Northern Norway, 
and continues as far as Spitsbergen. From this plateau arise several 

2 L 2 



478 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

islands, such as Bear Island, King Charles' Land, and others, which 
must be looked upon as the remains of a much larger mass of land. 
The sea has broken thi'ough and diminished tliis land considerably in 
the course of time, as is very evident in the case of Bear Island. 

In referring to a number of shallow- water mollusca, common to 
the coast of Greenland and Finmark, the late Prof. Forbes said 
(335, p. 36) : " that these littoral mollusks indicate, by their presence 
on both sides of the Atlantic, some ancient continuity or contiguity of 
coast-line, is what I firmly believe. The line of migration of most of 
these shell-fish was most probably from west to east, from America 
to Europe, during a different state of physical conditions from those 
which now prevail on our side of the ocean." It was probable, there- 
fore, that a current existed in the Arctic Ocean, from west to east, 
and this offers an explanation for the very remarkable and sudden 
appearance of no fewer than eighteen American species of mollusca in 
the newer crags of the east coast of England. In the last chapter, 
p. 461, I explained how the German Ocean was connected with the 
White Sea across Northern Russia, at a period which certainly ante- 
dated that of the Forest-bed ; and that was, no doubt, the way in 
which these mollusca above referred to, which had been brought to 
the White Sea by the westerly current, reached the east coast of 
Britain. Had they come straight across the Atlantic from America, 
we should find some traces of them in such beds as those of St. Erth, 
in Cornwall, which is probably of about the same age as the newer 
crags. But Messrs. Kendall and Bell (49), who have studied these 
deposits carefully, do not report the occurrence of auy of these 
American forms, while, from the absence of Arctic species, they are 
led to think that the Arctic Ocean did not then open into the Atlantic. 
They suppose that a land-communication must have existed between 
Europe and America, so as to form a barrier of separation between the 
Ai'ctic and Atlantic Oceans. 

I think it has been clearly shown that a former land-connexion 
must have existed between Scandinavia and Greenland on the one 
hand, and between Scandinavia and the British Islands on the other, 
and that it formed the highway for an extensive migration from the 
north, and vice versa. Most naturalists, indeed, admit this, but many 
deny that it could have been anything but post-Glacial. I believe 
that the migration took place chiefly in later Pliocene times, i.e. 
during the deposition of the newer crags and of the lower continental 
boulder-clay. The Arctic animals and plants certainly reached the 
British Islands long before the Sib(;rian immigrants. Throughout the 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 479 

Glacial Period (inclusive of the period when the newer crags were 
deposited) the White Sea remained connected with the Baltic and the 
German Ocean, forming the great sea which I yentnred to call the North 
European Sea (p. 462). Long before the Arctic migration reached 
the British Islands, another migration advanced from the south ; first, 
as I explained, from South -western Europe, and, as the climate became 
colder, fi'om Southern and Central Europe. Many of the animals and 
plants which arrived with the latter straggled northward into Scandi- 
navia, and even at the present moment they seek to extend their 
I'ange in a northerly direction. There is no evidence that their 
progress was checked by the Arctic climate, which is supposed to have 
prevailed during tlie Glacial Period; but this subject will be dealt 
with more fully in the next chapter. As I have given a detailed 
account of the nature of the southern migration in a paper recently 
published in Prance (76 c), it will be found sufficient to merely repeat 
the salient features, and add a few instances of distribution not 
previously recorded. 

The Southern Migration. 

I have already mentioned (p. 429) that the bulk of the Irish fauna 
and flora belongs to this migration, and that we can divide its members 
again roughly into those of South-western and those of Southern or 
Central European origin. But, in reality, the origin of this migration 
is an exceedingly complex one, and is all the more difficult to trace, 
as migrations from the south to the north have apparently proceeded 
uninterruptedly during many of the past geological epochs — certainly 
during the whole of the Tertiary Era. Whilst most of the larger and 
short-lived forms have died out again, some of the less conspicuous 
Invertebrates are undoubtedly of very ancient origin, and have 
witnessed vast changes in the fauna and flora surrounding them. 
ITany of these, though their general distribution indicates a southem 
origin, baffle all attempts at solving the problem of the location 
of their ancestral home. In some respects the southeni migration 
merges into the Siberian one ; for there are a good many English species 
of animals and plants which, though absent from Ireland, belong 
certainly to the former. The dormouse {Muscardinus avellanarius), for 
instance, is probably of Central European origin ; but it nevertheless 
is absent from Ireland. Its general range, however, proves that it is 
of very recent origin, and it has only spread from its original home, 
which may be in the Alps, after Ireland was already disconnected 
fi'om Great Britain. It has never reached Scotland, Spain, Korway, 



480 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Russia, Greece, or any of the Mediterranean islands, except Sicily, 
where it is present, according to Doderlein ^24). Then there are 
forms -vrhich, though they have come to the British Islands from 
Southern Europe, have probahly not originated there, but in Central 
or Southern Asia. Certaia of these Asiatic species have joined what 
I call this " SoutTiern Migration,'''' but subsequently they have invaded 
Europe along with the Siberian migration. In most of these instances, 
however, the members of the earlier southern migration belong to a 
different variety from those of the later one, or exhibit such racial 
cliaracters, that naturalists are able to distinguish them from one 
another, and thus differentiate between the two migrations. On p. 452, 
I referred to two of such cases, viz. those of the European hare and 
the bullfinch, and I shall mention others directly. 

I have more than once drawn attention to the important role played 
bv the land mollusca in elucidating former changes of land and sea. 
1 he mollusca of islands are of great importance in studying geo- 
graphical distribution. A knowledge of the moUuscan fauna of such 
islands as Ireland, Sardinia, and Corsica will help us to solve many of 
the problems associated with their former continental connexions. 
Especially is this the case with the slugs. As the sea forms an 
impassable barrier to slugs, being deadly both to themselves and their 
eggs, the occurrence of the same species on an island and the adjoin- 
ing mainland, proves that these were formerly connected by land. 

The chief centres of the creation of species in the Holarctic region 
are all in southern latitudes, as Dr. Simroth has pointed out (77, 
p. 20). One active creative-centre lay, according to this learned 
malacologist, in South-western Europe, another in the Caucasus. 
Tliis agrees perfectly with the data which we possess of the geo- 
graphical range of slugs. For instance, the genus Arion undoubtedly 
originated in South-western Europe. Most of the species are stiU 
confined to the Spanish peninsula, and if we proceed south, east, or 
north, the number of species gradually decreases, and outside Europe 
and Ifortherii Africa the genus is quite unknown. If we suppose the 
French west-coast to have been continued north as far as the Irish, an 
Avion, proceeding to migrate from its original home in South-western 
Europe, would have had about as far to go to Ireland as to Germany, 
and, indeed, an equal number of species inhabit both countries. But 
in the more distant Piussia, Scandinavia, and Turkey the numbers of 
species of Arion are much fewer. 

Then we have the peculiar genus Geomalacus almost confined to 
the Spanish peninsula, which genus, owing to its discontinuous distri- 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 481 

bution, must be looked upon as an ancient one. There are about three or 
four Portuguese species, one of which, Geomalacus macuhsus, migrated 
as far north as Ireland, and has survived there, though it appears tohave 
become extinct in the intermediate tracts of country, which it, no doubt, 
once inhabited. Testacella is another typically Western European genus, 
and it is of exceptional interest from a distributional point of view, 
owing to its subterranean habits. There are about a dozen species, of 
which three have reached Ireland, while none occur in Central or 
Eastern Europe. The close relationship between the South-west 
European molluscan fauna and that of Ireland is altogether very 
striking, but, as I have had occasion to mention, there is no need of 
invoking a direct former land-connexion between that country and 
Spain, as has been done by the late Prof. E. Forbes, in his classic 
memoir, in attempting to trace the origin of the Irish flora (33«). An 
indirect connexion between Ireland, the west of England, andErance, 
which has so often been suggested, is sufficient to explain all the 
minutiae of distribution. In every group of Invertebrates, the Irish 
fauna exhibits strong affinities with France and the Spanish peninsula, 
certainly much more so than with Germany and Eastern Europe. 
But in all these cases it might be urged (by those naturalists, 
especially, who adhere to the view that everything is explainable by 
accidental introduction) that Ireland, being within easy reach of the 
Spanish or French coasts, many of these forms were either carried by 
migratory birds or with floating wood, etc. I will instance, therefore, 
a case which, I think, cannot j)ossibly be attributed to any of these 
agencies, viz. that of the blind woodlouse {Platyarthrus hoffmmiseggii). 
The genus of Platyarthrus is confined to Western Europe and 
jSTorthern Africa, and it has formed such a close alliance with ants, 
that it never is found outside an ant's nest. One species inhabits 
Scotland, Ireland, the south of England, and Western Continental 
Europe, and is always found in the nest of the common red ant. As 
the nests of these ants are almost invariably under stones, and ihe 
woodlouse itself is hidden in the subterranean burrows of its host, the 
fact of the occurrence of this species in Ireland admits of but one 
explanation, which is that it migrated to that country when the latter 
still formed the northern part of France. As the migration of these 
lowly animals progresses exceedingly slowly, this land-connexion 
must have been one of very considerable duration. How long it 
lasted, and especially during what geological epoch it existed, will be 
considered later on. Meanwhile, we must return to the subject of 
the southern migration. 



482 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Among tlie birds, which have arrived in Ireland with the southern 
migration, may be mentioned the Dipper ( C«?c?2/s aqimticus). It 
inhabits the Pyrenees, France, the south-west of England and "Wales, 
Ireland, Scotland, and the outer Hebrides, and just enters the western 
parts of Germany, Holland and Belgium. Unlike the animals con- 
sidered above, it has not, however, originated in South-western Europe. 
It has only migrated to Ireland from there, though a race known as 
Cinclus melanogaster may have developed in South-"Wcstern Europe 
and have spread north more recently, for, according to Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe, it is only found in the east of England. Beyond the British 
Isles it is known from Scandinavia and even Northern Tlussia besides 
the Spanish Peninsula. A second race ( Cinclus albicollis) inhabits the 
whole Mediterranean region, spreading north into Switzerland, and it 
forms the link as it were between the true Dipper and the Asiatic 
form, Cinclus caslimeriensis. The other species of Cinclus are divided 
between Asia and America, but the genus is probably of Asiatic origin. 
The path of migration from Asia into Europe across the Aegean Sea, 
followed by the Dipper was, as I have mentioned (76 c, p. 458), the 
regular route at that time. It remained indeed the only means of 
communication between the tw^o continents for a long while. 

I was under the impression that these same conditions prevailed 
during the whole Pliocene Epoch and only changed then ; but Prof. 
Charles Deperet is of opinion that the extensive land-connexion which 
prevailed in the Mediterranean during the Miocene Epoch ceased to 
exist in early Pliocene times. I have not ascertained the reasons for 
his thinking that such had been the case, but I presume that he holds 
the Sicilian Pliocene deposits to indicate that a submergence must have 
occurred then, I would fain accept the verdict of such a high authority, 
but as those deposits contain northern species of mollusca, which must 
have reached the Mediterranean from the Atlantic, I venture to think 
that their true age has still to be decided, after it is definitely known 
when these mollusca entered the Atlantic. 

The bullfinch {Pyrrhida euroimea) has a distribution very similar 
to that of the Dipper, but whereas the latter only took part in the 
southern migration, a fonn of the other known as the Russian bullfinch 
{Pyrrhula major) joined also the Siberian migration. Such cases 
occur again and again, and are most instructive. The ordinary bull- 
finch inhabits the Mediterranean region and Western Euroj)e. One 
other species or race, as some prefer to call it, inhabits the Continent 
of Europe and one the Azores, but all the other seven species are 
Asiatic. We have here, therefore, another instance of a bird of 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of tJie European Fauna. 483 

imdoubted Asiatic origin enttring Europe in the south-east, then 
travelling along the [Mediterranean to South--svesteru Europe, and 
only then turning north along the shores of the Atlantic. 

Among the Mammalia, I might mention the red deer {Cervus 
elajylxus) as a species which has probably reached Ireland from South- 
western Europe. Not that I would place its centre of origin in 
that part of the world, for it almost certainly originated in Asia, 
but that geographical conditions at the time of its migrations to 
Europe were such (as I have already indicated) that it had na 
proper means of spreading over the central and northern portions 
except fi'om that particular region. 

In tracing the present range of the red deer, we have to bear 
in mind that there are a nujnber of forms very closely allied to 
Cervtis elaphus^ viz. C. canadensis, C. maral, C. corsicanus, C. harharus, 
C. cashnerianiis, C. affinis, C. eustepliamis, and C. ccanthopygus. Sir 
Victor Brooke (13) has already referred to the fact that the antlers of 
C. eustephanus cannot be distinguished from those of C. canadensis. A 
great similarity is said by Prof. [N'ehring (62 1) to exist between many of 
the antlers found in European post-Glacial depositsand the recent antlers 
of C. canadensis ; and he is inclined to refer them, along with the large 
antlered Asiatic C. eustephanus, C. xanthopygus, etc., to the same species, 
and with this view Prof . "Woldrich agrees (93). Then again C. maral 
is looked upon as a variety of C. canadensis, and identical with C. 
eustephanus and C. xantJiopygv.s, by Tcherski (88) ; and there can be no 
doubt as to the specific identity with C. elaplms of C. corsicamis and 
C. larlarus. 

It seems altogether probable that all these forms are but races or 
varieties of the red deer (C. elaplius). However, in the shape of the 
antler, we can separate two groups, one with short and the other with 
long and powerful ones. The former inhabits jS"orthem Africa, the 
Mediterranean islands, Ireland, and "Western Europe generally, gradu- 
ating towards the east into the larger form which occurs in Asia, I!^orth 
America, the Crimea, and in the Caucasus, but is now practically 
extinct in other parts of Europe. 

Sir Tictor Brooke indicated, in his interesting monograph of the 
Cervidse (13), that their early ancestors spread probably from the 
eastern Palsearctic and the Indian regions westward into Europe, and 
eastward to I^orth America. Of the twenty-two species of Cervidae 
confined to the IS'ew ^'orld, no less than twenty-one belong to Sir 
Tictor Brooke's division of the Telenietacarpi, C. canadensis being 
tlie sole exception. This fact alone would point to the latter belonging 



484 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 

to a distinct and much more recent immigration into America. 
■which. Yie^v is supported by its range in that continent, it being 
confined to the Northern States. 

The centre of distribution of the whole Cervus elcqjltus group lies in 
Central Asia, a fact which had beenbefore noticedby Koppen (53, p. 51), 
who believed that the more accurate position of this centre was some- 
where between the Altai and the Tian-Shan ^Mountains, just as we have 
had two migrations from Asia of the bullfijich, so we have had the same 
number of the red deer. The older one of the small-autlered race 
passed into Greece and spread along the borders of the Mediterranean, 
at the time when Corsica and Sardinia were still connected with 
Sicily and Greece on the one hand, and with Tunis on the other. 
Arrived in Spaiu, this small race probably spread north and east. 
But it is only in the isolated regions, such as Irekind, that this 
race has been still preserved, for owing to the advent of the large- 
antlered form in Central Europe during the Interglacial Period, 
which probably interbred with the older one, we have there a race 
somewhat intermediate between the two. 

I may mention that we have fossil evidence of the great antic[uity 
in Europe of the small race of the red deer. It was found associated 
in Malta with the pigmy hippopotamus, and an extinct elephant 
(18), and has been obtained in caves at Gibraltar (57 r/), in Spain {\c), 
and Ireland (2). All the animals of the southern migration, which I 
have referred to in the preceding pages, formed part of an exceedingly 
ancient stream which issued forth from South-western Europe. As I 
indicated, they did not all originate there, but the natives of that 
region were joined by those of Central and Southern Asia, which had 
wandered to South-western Europe, across ancient land-connexions, 
by way of Greece, Sicily, and Xorth-west Africa. Tliat the fauna of 
!North-west Afiica had come from Europe, and that the latter was not 
stocked from Africa, has already been maintained by the great palae- 
ontologist Riitimeyer (74, p. 42), and by Bourguignat (11). 

Owing to the breaking up of old land-connexions across the Medi- 
terranean, and to the disappearance of barriers in other places, the 
Asiatic stream of the southern migration entered Central Europe by a 
more direct route than before, and was now joined by animals of 
Central European origin in its northern course. The south-western 
animals and plants ceased to migrate north, possibly owing to a 
refrigeration by slow degrees of the climate, and at the present 
moment many of the members of that early migration, which reached 
Ireland, have become extinct ; most of the survivors, still holding 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the Eurojyean Fauna. 485 

their ground in gradually decreasing numbers, discontinue to spread. 
The older members of the southern migration are therefore in Ireland 
more or less confined to the south-western counties. ISTot only are 
they there in a climate more in accordance -nith their original habitat, 
but what is of more importance, the struggle for existence is less 
keen there, as comparatively few of the later immigrants from Southern 
and Central Europe have penetrated to that part of Ireland. It must 
be remembered that these changes went on very gradually step by 
step. Though the number of the south-western species that migrated 
north probably grew less as the more eastern forms increased, there 
can be no doubt that some continued to advance north even after 
Ireland was separated from England. 

We come now to the consideration of the Central European branch 
of the southern migration. This includes, as we have seen, chiefly 
species of South and Central European origin, but others of Asiatic 
origin joined in it. Thus the badger {Meles taxus) belongs to the 
last group. It is undoubtedly of Asiatic origin. Pour allied species, 
ITeles leucurus, M. chinensis, If. ca?iesce)is, and M. analcuma, inhabit 
Asia, whilst two, viz. If. ^^olali, and M. maraghaniis are known from 
the Upper Miocene of Persia. That on entering Europe it has not 
been able to make use of the ancient land-connexions above referred 
to, is indicated by the fact of its absence from Sicily, Sardinia, and 
Corsica, as well as from Northern Africa. On the other hand, Greece 
was still united with Asia Minor at that time, for it is an inhabitant 
of several of the islands in the Greek archipelago (27). 

As examples of the first group migbt be quoted a number of land 
mollusca, such as Selix rufescens and S. ericetorum. Most of the 
nearest relations of the former are confined to Central Europe, and it 
does not range to the south-west. The allies of S. ericetorum have a 
wider distribution, and some even penetrate into Western Asia. 

If, as I think, it may be taken as an established fact that the 
south-western branch of the southern migration is the first, and the 
Siberian migration the last, which reached tbe British Islands, Ire- 
land must liave become disconnected from England during the period 
intervening between the two. It was, therefore, at the time while 
tlie migration from Southern and Central Euj-ope was in progress, that 
the old land-connexion uniting the two countries was severed. That 
migration, however, did not stop when the Siberian animals invaded 
Europe. Again, we find the southern forms joining in with those of 
totally different origin in their wanderings, just as the south-western 
fauna and flora joined with the Central European. We still have, 



486 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

confined to Sontli- eastern England, many of the latest immigrants 
from Central Europe, such as Helix pomatia, S. cartlmsiana, 
S. canfiana, BuUminus montanus, and others. A large number of 
species of plants might be mentioned, and also animals from almost 
all the groups of terrestrial Invertebrates, which apparently had only 
reached England before it became disconnected from France, and 
which are still more or less confined to the south-eastern parts of that 
country. Tlie majority of these arc of Central or South-eastern 
European origin. 

Of the Invertebrates we have little or no palteontological proof of 
the period of their migration to England. But with the Mammals it 
is veiy different. We know that the vanguard of the Siberian migra- 
tion reached England at the time when the Forest-bed was deposited 
(see p. 462). Every geologist is acquainted also with the fact of the 
extraordinary mixture of Siberian and southern types of Mammals 
contained in this bed, as well as in the succeeding Pleistocene ones, 
and that it has been established beyond a doubt that they must have 
then lived together, though tlieir original homes often were situated 
thousands of miles from one another. 

" The occuiTence," says Mr. Lydekker (57 ^i, p. 310), " of the hip- 
popotamus in association with the musk-ox, glutton, and walrus, pre- 
sents us with another of the puzzles which almost break the heart of 
the paleontologist." With regard to the epoch of the English 
caverns and brick-earths, which are by Mr. Lydekker included in the 
Pleistocene Epoch along with the Forest-bed, he remarks (p. 300) : 
" The most remarkable feature connected with this fauna is the apj^a- 
rently contradictory evidence which it affords as to the nature of the 
climate then prevalent. The glutton, reindeer, Arctic fox, and musk- 
ox are strongly indicative of a more or less Arctic climate ; many of 
the voles (Arvicola), picas (Lagomys) and sousliks (Spermoi)hilus), 
togetlier with the Saiga antelope, appear to point equally strongly to 
the prevalence of a steppe-like condition, while the hippopotamus 
and spotted hyaena seem as much in favour of a sub-tropical state of 
things." Prof. Dawkins (22 J, p. 113) thought that this anomaly 
might be explained by the supposition that in the greater part of 
Britain the winters were cold and the summers warm, as in the 
middle of Asia and IVorth America, where large tracts of land extend 
from the Polar region towards the Equator, and offer no barrier to 
the swinging to and fro of the animals. In the summer time the 
southern species would pass northwards, and in the winter time the 
northern would swing southwards, and thus occupy at different times 



ScHAHFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 487 

of the year the same tract of ground as is now the case with the elks 
and reindeer. Since, however, as Mr. Lydekker tells us (p. 300), " it 
has now been ascertained that the remains of both tropical and Arctic 
forms have been found lying side by side in the same bed, it is per- 
fectly certain that such an explanation will not meet the exigencies of 
the case." 

The land and freshwater mollusca known from the Forest-bed are 
not Arctic, as one should have expected from the foregoing account of 
the migrations. According to Mr. Clement Eeid (72 a, p. 186), of the 
fifty -nine species now determined, forty-eight are at present living at 
Norfolk, six are extinct, two are Continental forms living in the same 
latitude as Norfolk, and the other three are southern forms not now 
living in Northern Europe. The flora also is not Arctic. 

Looking at the fauna of Ireland as a whole, there seems no reason 
to suppose that the whole of it could not have reached Ireland at or 
just previous to the time when the Forest-bed was deposited in the 
manner I have attempted to explain in the preceding pages. But 
since there is very strong geological evidence to show that a Glacial 
Period, accompanied by an immense sheet of ice which covered the 
greater part of the British Islands, succeeded the Eorest-bed Period, it 
is perfectly clear that the present fauna could not have survived it in 
the country. 

Mr. Clement Eeid believes that a large portion, probably most, of 
the native British plants were exterminated during the Glacial Period, 
to be reintroduced when the climate ameliorated (72 c, p. 182). 
" With glacial conditions in Scotland and the hilly grounds of Eng- 
land and Ireland," remarks Prof. James Geikie, " neither temperate 
flora nor fauna could have existed in our country" (S5 e, p. 169). 
According to Dr. Wallace, the fauna was destroyed during the Glacial 
Period by a submergence (89, p. 338). 

Whether the destruction of the fauna and flora was caused by ice 
or water matters little. Almost all British geologists and zoologists 
are agreed that the bulk of the Irish fauna and flora migrated to Ire- 
land after the Glacial Period, because they are somehow or other con- 
vinced that it must have been destroyed had it reached the country 
before that period. I have mentioned before that I do not share these 
views, and I have shown that the range of species within the British 
Islands is incompatible with the notion of a repopulation after the 
Glacial Period. "There are few points," says Prof. J. Geikie {35c, 
p. 169), " we can be more sure of than this, that since the close of 
the Glacial Epoch — since the deposition of the clays with Arctic shells 



488 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

and the Saxicava sands — there have been no great oscillations, but 
only & gradual amelioration of climate. It is qvAte imjxjssihle to believe 
that any warm period could have intervened between the last Arctic 
and the present temperate conditions, vrithout leaving some notable 
evidence in the superficial deposits of Scotland, Scandinavia, and 
North America." In the same way, I think, there are few points we 
can be more sure of than that the South-western European fauna and 
flora in the British Islands is more ancient than the Siberian or the 
Arctic. If Prof. James Geikie were right, it ought certainly to be 
the other way round. But the evidence as to the climate in the 
British Islands during the Glacial Period is so contradictory, the very 
nature of that period is so complex, that few scientific subjects during 
this centui-y have raised more angry discussions, and none have jjro- 
duced a vaster amount of literature. That I should help to increase 
the latter still more is to be regretted, especially as the subject is not 
my own ; but having been led by faunistic evidence to regard this 
vexed problem from a side from which it has hitherto received but 
little attention, I hope I may be excused for venturing to add my 
own views to those already known. 

The Glacial Period. 

"With regard to the climate of this period, the views of the various 
authorities are not altogether in harmony. Those of Prof. James 
Geikie and Mr. Clement Eeid have already been stated. Somewhat 
similar ones are held by Prof. Kehring and many other zoologists, by 
Prof, ^athorst and many leading botanists, and also by Prof. Penck 
and a number of geologists, but still there is a sufficiently wide disparity 
between their views as to the temperature necessary to produce the 
enormous increase of glaciers all over the Xorthem Hemisphere. 
Prof. Bonney holds that a lowering of the temperature amounting to 
18° Fahr., if only the other conditions remained either constant, or 
became more favourable to the accumulation of snow and ice, would 
suffice to give us back the Glacial Period (105, p. 373). On the other 
hand, Piof. ^s'eumayr was of opinion (63, p. 619) that the reduction 
of temperature in Europe could not have been more than 6° C, 
which is considerably less than 18° Fabr. The very low snow-line in 
the British Islands, he thought, proved that even then, under the 
influence of the Gulf Stream, a comparatively mild climate existed, 
and in fact that the climatic conditions between the various parts of 
Europe were about the same as now (p. 619). By compaiing the 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 489 

snow-line during the Glacial Period with that of the present day, 
Prof. Penck came to the conclusion that during the fonner, the 
temperature of the Earth must have been 5° C. lower than it is 
now (66 «, p. 75), whilst Mr. Bruckner does not allow that it was 
more than 3-4 degrees lower. Prof, de Lapparent argues that the 
decrease in tempei'ature during the Glacial Period was probably caused 
by an increase of humidity ; that humidity indeed was the great factor 
of the Glacial phenomenon (54, p. 1391). Mr. Falsan believes that 
the mean annual temperature in France ranged between six and 
nine degi'ees C. in Glacial times (28, p. 230). As the latter estimate 
of temperature is something approaching that of Scotland at the present 
day, a luxuriant fauna and flora could perfectly well have lived in that 
country under those thermal conditions. Indeed, Mr. Falsan admits 
that an abundance of vegetation, such as herbs, bushes, and trees must 
have flourished in close proximity even to the glaciers (p. 240). There 
is no doubt that a mild climate is not incompatible with the existence 
of glaciers. I need only refer to IN'ew Zealand, where a semi-tropical 
vegetation exists in close proximity to glaciers. We are reminded 
by Prof. Penck (66 d, p. 222) that wheat is cultivated close to the Aar 
glacier in Switzerland, and that even in IS^orway fruit ripens on the 
shores of Hardangerfjord, a couple of miles only from the inland ice. 
But the most remarkable fact in connexion with this subject is that 
pointed out by Darwin, viz., that in Tierra del Fuego glaciers descend 
right down to the sea, whilst in the same country evergreen trees 
flourish luxuiiantly. Humming birds maybe seen sucking the flowers, 
and parrots feeding on the seeds of the " Winter's Bark" in lat.55° 5', 
that is to say, within two degrees of Tierra del Fuego {211, p. 176). 
According to the same author the mean annual temperature of that 
part of South America is 44° Fahr., whilst that of Dublin is 49°. 
It is six degrees colder in Tierra del Fuego in winter than in Ireland, 
and no less than nine and a half less hot in summer. 

It has even been been argued by geologists that a large extension 
of ice and snow is possible without any considerable change' in the 
present climatic conditions. Prof. Whitney remarks (92, p. 38) 
"that the Glacial Period was a local phenomenon, during the occurrence 
of which much the larger of the land-masses of the globe remained 
climatologically entirely unaffected." But thei'e are also adherents to 
the view that a higher temperatiire, than obtains at present, reigned 
during the Glacial Period. Thus the eminent French botanist, Henri 
Lecoq, maintained (56, p. 15) that the former greater extension of 
glaciers in Europe was caused by a greater snowfall, and indirectly by 



490 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

a more active evaporation of water, which niiist have been produced 
by a warmer climate. 

To judge from the above opinions, and taking an average estimate 
between the extremists on either side, it seems quite conceivable that 
the present Irish fauna and flora could have survived the Glacial 
Period in Ireland, if we supposed that perhaps a few local glaciers 
existed in that country at the time. Such a suppositiou, however, is 
altogether denied by Irish and other geologists, ilr. Close believes 
that practically the whole of the present surface of Ireland was covered 
by ice — at any rate for some time — during the Glacial Period (17). 
According to Air. Xinahan, '• it would appear that at one time there 
was a general south-south-westward movement of a thick sheet of ice 
across Ireland" (51 a, p. 241). Prof. James Geikie informs us (35 «, 
p. 415) that during the epoch of maximum glaciation all Ireland was 
smothered in ice — only the tops of the higher mountains appearing 
above the surface of the mer de glace as Kunatalcker. 

That under such conditions no fauna or flora to speak of could 
have outlived the Glacial Period in Ireland is obvious. As I think, 
however, that I have brought forward weighty reasons in favour of 
the present fauna and flora having survived that period in Ireland, 
we have, in order to uphold my contention, either to suppose that a 
sufficient former southward extension of land existed on which the 
animals and plants accommodated themselves during the glacial con- 
ditions which prevailed on more northerly \imi% of the island, or that 
the views of the geologists as above expressed are eiToneous. 

If the whole island had been glaciated in the manner indicated, 
the whole fauna and flora would have had to seek refuge in a supposed 
southern extension of Ireland. Prof. E. Forbes (33 ff, p. 14), as I have 
already mentioned, believed that the Lusitanian element in the Irish 
flora must have survived the Glacial Period on such a now sunken 
part of the island, and that afterwards, as niore favourable conditions 
set in, the remnants of it took possession of the south-western coun- 
ties. It evidently never occurred to Prof. Forbes that the whole of 
the present fauna and flora might be pre-Glacial, and could have been 
driven to this submerged land to seek refuge from the ice. But if 
such an emigration and immigration fi-om and to the present land 
surface of Ireland had taken place, we certainly should perceive clear 
indications of it in the composition of the Irish fauna and flora. 
There is one thing absolutely certain, however, and that is, that the 
most an< ient Lusitanian forms are more or less confined to the south- 
west, the northern forms to the north and west, and the most eastern 



ScHAUFF — On the Origin of the Eurojyean Fauna. 491 



ones to the east and centre. They, indeed, still occupy the tracts 
where they originally arrived in the country. Had all the animals 
and plants reached the island from the south-west, where the sunken 
land is supposed to have been situated, that part would probably be 
the richest in species, whilst it is in reality much the poorest, and 
nothing strikes a naturalist more forcibly than the absence there of a 
large number of the commonest Irish species. 

Let us take an example from the mollusca. Pour species of Helix, 
belonging to the subgenus Xerophila, inhabit Ireland, viz. Helix vir- 
gata, H. intersecta, S. erieetorum, and S, larlara {acuta). They rarely 
make an attempt to hide themselves, are 
extremely conspicuous, and always occur 
in abundance wherever found. They 
inhabit almost the whole of Ireland, but 
are especially common round the coast. 
For some years I have carefully collected 
statistics as to their occurrence, and have 
specially visited many parts of the coast, 
and have invariably found one or more of 
the four species ; but the only strip of 
coast-line in Ireland where they are com- 
pletely absent is that between Yalentia 
Island and Baltimore — that is to say, all 
along the Kenmare River and Bantry 
Bay — the very coast |where we should 
expect them to occur plentifully if the theory of their survival on the 
southern sunken land were correct. As they presumably entered 
Ireland from the east, and then travelled both inland and along the 
coast, it must be surmised that they have not yet been able to colonize 
the extreme south-west. 

That the whole Irish fauna and flora could have survived on a 
now sunken southern extension of Ireland is, therefore, impossible. 
They must have remained within the present boundaries of the island 
during the Glacial Period, though it is probable that it did extend 
somewhat more to the west, south, and north, then it does now, and 
that those parts of the countiy stood at a relatively higher level to 
the east ; so that the Shannon and some other rivers, which now 
drain into the Atlantic, emptied their waters into the Irish Sea 
(see 76a). 

The nature of the Pleistocene Mammalia of Eastern England is not 
such as to lindicate an Arctic climate in the British Islands. The 

E.I.A. PKOC, SEE. III., VOL. IV. 2m 




' . — Map of Ireland on which 
the distribution of the Xero- 
philous Helices is indicated 
hy dots. 



492 Proceedings of the Boi/al Irish Academy. 

presence of northern forms is due, as "vre have seen, to an immigration 
of Siberian animals ; but, as they lived in company with southern 
types, many of which required an abundance of green food, the 
winter temperature in the British Islands may have been as high or 
higher than it is now, though with a lower summer temperature, and 
with a copious snow-fall in winter, glaciers were generated in the 
mountainous regions. A number of land and freshwater shells are 
quoted by Prof. J. Geikie (35 a, p. 337), from the Arctic freshwater 
bed on the coast of Norfolk, in evidence of a rigorous climate. These 
are spoken of by him as high northern forms ; but in this he is 
mistaken. Every one of them are inhabitants of Ireland at present^ 
and all but one very common. 

But if the fauna does not indicate Arctic conditions during the 
Pleistocene Epoch in the British Islands, we are told that what is 
known of the flora, at any rate, is such as to exclude the possibility 
of its existing under anything but an Aictic climate. The same 
Arctic freshwater bed just referred to contains, besides the shells, 
some plant-remains, and these, according to Mr. C. Eeid, imply a 
lowering of the temperature by about 20- F. The plants of the Eorest- 
bed, Mr. Clement Eeid tells us [12a, p. 186), are not Arctic. Though 
the land and freshwater molluscan fauna remains much the same in 
the later deposits, the plants alone, it appears, are quoted as indica- 
tors of temperature. Prof. Xathorst has made the Pleistocene flora 
the subject of his special study, and to his writings we must appeal 
for information on this subject. It appears, from his interesting essay 
on the distribution of the Arctic plants in Europe during the Glacial 
Period (61 h), that all the localities but one, in which remains of such 
vegetation have been discovered, lie either within the limits of the 
maximum extension of what is known as the northern ice-sheet, 
or within those of the Alpine glaciers. It is conceivable, therefore, 
that the remains of the vegetation in question were carried down 
from the mountains by glaciers, and deposited far from where they 
originally flourished. Such a transportation from a distance is still 
more easily conceived when we consider that, as has been suggested, 
the limits of the maximum extension of the Scandina-vian ice-sheet 
merely represent the shores of a Xorth European sea, and that the 
plants, along with the boulders, have been left by stranded icebergs, 
where we now find them. The Arctic willow {Salix 2JoIari8) and the 
dwarf birch 'Betida nana], which occur in the so-called Arctic fresh- 
water beds of Norfolk, might have reached their destination from 
Scandinavia in that manner, without influencing the British climate 



I 



ScHARFF— 0;j the Origin of the JEuropean Fauna. 493 

Tcry seriously. But it is more likely that these plants lived where 
their remains are now foimcl, especially since there can be no doubt at 
iill that some Arctic species grew formerly in the south of England. 
The exception, above referred to by Prof. ISTathorst — namely, of 
a locality where deposits of Arctic plants occur not within the limits 
of the former range of glaciers — is that of Bovey Tracey in Devon- 
shire. Though the age of this deposit in not quite settled, it does 
not matter very much. The fact remains, that Arctic plants did here 
flourish some time or other within a recent geological epoch, and do not 
do so now. Prof J. Geikie (35 a, p. 398) remarks, " during the climax 
of Glacial cold, it is unlikely that Southern England had much, if any, 
vegetation to boast of." "It is certain, however, that it was clothed 
and peopled by an Arctic flora and fauna when the climatic condi- 
tions were somewhat less severe, relics of that flora having been, 
detected at Bovey Tracey." 

The Arctic plants that have been discovered there comprise Betula 
nana and^. alha, Salix cinera and Arctostafhylos uva-ursi. iN'ow three 
of these four species are still natives in the British Islands and all are 
forms which probably came to us with the Arctic migration which I 
described. They travelled south with the reindeer and other Mam- 
mals, and probably covered tracts of country from which, with the 
increased struggle for existence later on, they have again been evicted 
by stronger rivals. But a discovery of their remains does not neces- 
sarily indicate that a great change of climate has taken place. Indeed 
when we carefully examine the present range of Arctic plants in the 
British Islands, a curious fact presents itself which no doubt has been 
fre(]Xiently noted by botanists, viz. that some of the most characteristi- 
cally Arctic species and some which are often quoted by glacialists in 
support of their theories of the former presence of an Arctic climate in 
the British Islands — flourish at the i)i'esent moment in very mild 
situations. I need only remind those interested in the history of the 
Glacial Period that the Mountain Avens {JDryas octoiJetala) abounds in 
the west of Ireland (Co. Galway), down to sea level. iN'ow it is well 
known that the mean winter temperature of that part of Ireland 
resembles that of Southern Europe, being no less than 12° E. above 
freezing point. Alpine plants when cultivated in Irish gardens seem 
as a rule to thrive exceedingly well. It would be rash therefore to 
argue, from the occurrence of Arctic or Alpine species of plants in any 
deposit, that the locality must have passed through an Arctic climate. 
Indeed Dr. Thiselton-Dyer has shown that for the most part Alpine 
plants are intolerant of very low temperature (84, p. 581), and that 

2 M 2 



494 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

at Kew Gardens they are obliged to winter tte collection in frames, 
thus exposing them to a higher temperature than what at present 
obtains in the British Islands. It seems to me probable, therefore, 
that the extensive migrations of Alpine and Arctic plants, which un- 
doubtedly took place in past ages, did occur long before the Glacial 
Period, during a milder and more equable epocli, and that they have 
since become adapted to live in countries where they receive sufficient 
moisture during summer and are protected from severe frost in the 
winter by a cover of snow. 

I believe that neither the animals nor the plants which have 
been discovered in British Pleistocene strata indicate the presence 
of an Arctic climate in the British Islands during the so-called 
•'Ice Age." The theory of a general glaciation of these islands — 
the south of England excepted — has, however, been so universally 
accepted by geologists, that it has almost passed the stage of con- 
troversy, and is more generally regarded as an established fact. I 
am not sure whether even those who are in favour of the view 
of the marine origin of the boulder-clay, disbelieve in a previous 
general glaciation. Yet it is not long ago that the generally 
accepted view was that all the plienomena now attributed to land- 
ice had been produced by the action of floating icebergs, Tbe 
rock-scorings, " crag and tail," boulder-clay, scratched stones and 
drumlins were all believed to be due to the action of the sea 
assisted by floating ice. 

I will not, however, venture to discuss this extremely intricate 
subject of land ice versus floating ice, and hope that geologists may 
t hink fit to reconsider their final verdict in the light of the con- 
clusions I arrived at from a study of the geograpliical distribution 
of animals. 

There is one factor of importance in connexion with this theory 
of an ice-sheet, which may throw some light on the subject, and 
that is, the configxiration of Ireland during the Glacial Period. Mr. 
Close remarks (17, p. 241): "Some sufficient increase of relative 
height towards the west or "W. S. ^ ., with a corresponding extension 
of the land in that direction, is required, if we are to account for 
the general glaciation of Ireland by the movements of a univer- 
sal ice-covering formed upon her own surface"; whilst Prof. Bonney 
seems to think that the coast margin in the earlier part of the 
Glacial Period may have roughly corresponded with the present 
hundred-fathom Line {10 a p. 194). The land-connexion between 
Scandinavia, Scotland, and Ireland formed, as we have seen, a 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 495 

liighway for the migration of tlie Arctic animals and plants. "When the 
lowlands of Ireland were covered by the sea, which event I presume 
happened some time during the Glacial Period, a broad belt of land 
probably remained separating the Atlantic from this westward 
extension of the Irish Sea. 

The boulder-clay which covers such vast tracts of country in 
the British Islands and the Continent is now generally believed to 
be the ground moraine of huge glaciers, but I am inclined to think 
there is equally strong evidence in favonr of its marine origin. 
Shells of Mollusca and Eoraminifera are very frequently present, 
especially in Ireland, and a remarkable number of species have been 
identified in that country by Messrs, Praeger and Wright (80), 
though the specimens as a rule occur in a broken condition. When 
we consider that the clay in which the shells lived has probably 
been subjected to considerable movements, it is not surprising 
that they should be in a fragmentary condition and that shore 
forms should be often found mixed with those inhabiting deeper 
water. 

Before concluding these notes on the Glacial Period, I will give 
a short sketch of what I think may have been the course of events 
during that time. 

It is probable that before the Glacial Period began, a warm current, 
not necessarily theGulf Stream, supplied the Arctic Ocean with warmth . 
The cessation of this current gave the first impetus to the formation 
of ice near the IS'orth Pole, the Arctic Ocean being then a closed 
basin. Two extensive transgressions of the Arctic Ocean now took 
place, one inundating the plains of Arctic America, and the other 
those of Northern Russia. The latter transgression covered a portion 
of jSTorthern Continental Europe, and joined the great inland sea, the 
Ponto-Caspian, by some narrow channels, so that Asia became almost 
isolated from Europe. The Siberian fauna was, therefore, unable to 
migrate to Europe, but a number of Asiatic Mammals invaded North 
America, which was accessible by means of a land-passage across 
Behring Straits. Meanwhile, Arctic marine species found tlieir way 
to Northern Germany, and to the western portion of the newly-formed 
North European Sea, now the German Ocean. 

The first occurrence of Arctic forms of life in the newer Tertiary 
deposits on the east coast of England, marks therefore the period 
when this marine transgression took place, the German Ocean being, 
at that time, closed on all sides, except to the east. As Arctic marine 
species make their first appearance in these Englisli strata in the newer 



496 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

crags, the latter are synchronous with the lower Continental boulder- 
clay, in -vrhich these same species are first met with. This reasoning 
might be found fault with, but I have clearly shown (p. 462) that the 
Tast immigration into Europe of Siberian ITammals took place after 
the deposition of the lower Continental boulder-clay, duiing the so- 
called Interglacial phase of the Glacial Period. Now, as the advance 
guard of this migration reached England during the time when the 
Eorest-bed was laid down, the supposition of the contemporaneousness 
of the newer crags with the lower Continental boulder-clay seems to 
me correct. There is no reason to suppose that the interglacial era or 
Forest-bed Period was characterised by a much milder climate than that 
preceding it, but, as it was probably much drier, the glaciers which 
had formed on the Alps and in Scandinavia, receded considerably. 
The immediate result was a diminution in the amoimt of detritus 
carried to the Xorth European Sea by icebergs, so that more extensive 
colonies of marine animals were able to establisli themselves on the 
sea floor than during the preceding stage of the Glacial Period. The 
narrow straits, which had formed across the Tchtrnosjem district ia 
Central Russia, between the Northern Sea and the greatly enlarged 
Caspian, ceased to exist in the Interglacial phase, owing to the 
gradual withdrawal of the Arctic waters from Northern Europe. A 
sliglit refrigeration of the Siberian climate was the consequence, and 
the barrier which prevented egress to Europe being now removed, the 
Northern Asiatic fauna swarmed across the plains of the newly-opened 
continent. 

During all this time, Scandinavia remained connected in the north 
with Greenland, and in the south and west with Scotland and Ireland, 
but it had no direct communication with the Continent, being separated 
from it by the North European Sea. England and France were united 
throughout the Glacial Period, but the connexion between the former 
and Ireland broke down during, or shortly after, the deposition of the 
Forest-bed, so that none of the Siberian migrants, which now poured 
into England from the Continent, reached Ireland. 

Extensive areas of Eastern Yorkshire, according to Prof. James 
Geikie (35 a, p. 3o4), are covered by boulder-clay, with intermediate 
beds of gravel and sand. Two divisions, viz. a lower and upper clay, 
are recognizable. The former contains many far-travelled erratics 
and marine shells, and only a moderate amount of local chalk. But 
in the purple or upper clay, erratics of home-origin are more con- 
spicuous (p. 364). Prof. Geikie explains these facts in the following 
manner : — That the basement clay is the direct product of a great 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 497 

mer de glace, which crept in upon the land from the north-east, and 
brought the erratics ; and that the ice-sheet, which formed over Great 
Britain, was kept back for a long time by this superior mass, which 
flowed outwards from the Scandinavian peninsula, but that, as the 
North Sea ice-flow diminished in bulk, the British ice, which formed 
the purple clay, was enabled to reach the coast-lands. 

It seems to me that the theory of the marine origin of the boulder- 
clay offers the following simpler explanation. After the Interglacial 
phase of the Glacial Period had passed away, a renewed transgression 
of the Arctic waters must have occurred, but the sea did not again 
invade Central Russia. As Prof. J. Geikie has pointed out (35 a, 
p. 463), the erratics included in the upper boulder-clay of Northern 
Uontinental Europe have travelled in a different direction from those 
contained in the lower. A change of current, therefore, evidently 
took place, owing to the fact that the Northern European Sea was not 
now connected with the Ponto-Caspian basin.' 

A large number of erratics would therefore be brought by Scandi- 
navian icebergs stranding on the east coast of England, which was 
gradually being submerged by the advancing marine transgression. 
As the water rose, the local glaciers which had begun to form on the 
mountains of the north of England and Scotland, cast off icebergs 
which scattered detritus and boulders over the plain. 

On p. 366, in speaking of the upper boulder-clay of Holderness, 
Professor J. Geikie refers to the reappearance of the great mer de 
glace in the North Sea. He infers its presence from the fact that 
many of the erratics which occur in the clay have been brought down 
from the high grounds of England to the sea coast, and thereafter 
have travelled southwards. " Obviously," he says, " the British ice 
was unable to flow right out to sea ; its progress in that direction was 
barred, and its course determined by the presence of another Scandi- 
navian ice sheet." 

An interesting observation which might lead one to a similar con- 
clusion was made by Mr. Kendall, from a study of the erratics in the 
north of England (96, p 155). It would appear from this, that a portion 
of the Solway glacier was pushed over the watershed into the valley 
of tlie Tyue, that is to say, from the west coast of England to the 
east coast. " The fate," he says, " of those elements of the Solway 
glacier which reached the sea is not left entirely to conjecture." 



1 Tliis again is of great importance in establishing the contemporaneousness of 
the upper Continental boulder-clay with the whole of the British clays. 



498 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

" The striated surfaces near the coast of jSrorthumlierland indicate a 
coastTvise flow of ice from the northward, probably fi'om the Firth 
of Forth — and the glaciers coming out from the Tjne and Tees were 
deflected to the southward." 

These facts, read by the light of the marine theory, would imply 
that there was a current from north to south along the east coast of 
England. Eut, as 1 have repeatedly stated, the north of Scotland 
stood at a higher level then, and -was connected with Scandinavia ; 
and the south of England also was considerably elevated and joined 
to France. The advancing marine transgression from the east invaded 
therefore, first the low4ying parts of England, viz. the midland counties, 
60 that a current in that direction was established from aU portions of 
the east coast. Icebergs coming from the Scottish coast would natu- 
rally travel along the present coast line to those parts of the lowlands 
upon which the sea had encroached, and there, perhaps, press up into 
some of the valleys. Later on, the whole of the lowlands of the mid- 
land and northern counties of England were submerged, and the 
waters of the North Sea joined those of the Irish Sea, and even 
flooded the plain of Central Ireland.^ A communication, moreover, was 
now established between this westward extension, fonned by the North 
European Sea (see map on opposite page) andthe AtlanticOcean, byway 
of the Severn valley, and the Irish Channel. At the entrance into these 
two straits, the sea must have risen for a time to a very considerable 
height, as evidenced by tlie occurrence of marine shells with sands 
and gravels, on the Thi-ee Kock Mountain in Ireland (1300 feet) ; on 
Moel Tryfan, in "Wales (1350 feet) ; and at Macclesfield, in Cheshire 
(1200 feet). That an iceberg which originated from the Solway 
glacier should cross the watershed, and flow in an eastward direction 
and then southward, which would be the explanation of the pheno- 
menon observed by Mr. Kendall, is no doubt curious, but though I 
think there must have been one main current from the noi-th-east to- 
the south-west, a number of minor ones may have existed round the 
archipelago of islands which marked the site of Northern England at 
this period. At any rate the case referred to must be looked upon as 

' "We have an excellent zoological proof of the former direct communication of 
the Baltic witli the Irish Sea, •which latter I suppose extended over the plains of 
Ireland, in the marine relic fauna of some of the Irish lakes. I drew attention 
(p. 459) to the occuiTence of the Arctic marine crustacean Mysis relicta, in some of 
the Swedish lakes, as a proof of the former suhmergence of the country. This 
interesting crustacean has not yet heen discovered in England, but it occurs again 
in Lough 2seagh in Ireland, thus showing the former continuity of the sea which 
covered Sweden and that which covered Ireland. 



ScHAiiFF— Ow the Origin of the European Fauna. 499 

an isolated one. Professor J. Gcikie{o5a, p. 377) tells us that an 
ice-sheet traversed North Lancashire and the adjacent parts of York- 
shire and Westmoreland, the general trend of wliich was towards^the 
south or south-south-east, and that from this might justly be inferred 



8. — Map of the British Islands] dining the latter] part of the Glacial Period, 
showing approximately the ancient land now covered by sea (lightly 
shaded). 'The darkly-shaded parts represent the extension of the 
sea at that time, and the white parts land. 

that some barrier existed in the Irish Sea, by which the Ecglish^ice 
was prevented from following the slope of the ground, which is 
towards the soutli-west. 

Here again, I think, the marine theory would explain in a more 
satisfactorv manner than the terrestrial one, the fact of the erratics 



500 Proceedinr/s of the Royal Irish Academy. 

"being carried in a direction contrary to the natural flow of a glacier, 
if we remember that probably a strong current existed from the more 
or less closed North European Sea to the open Atlantic. The occur- 
rence in almost all the English boulder-clays of marine shells tells 
strongly in favour of the view that these clays are of marine origin. 
Moreover, they are found to contain Arctic species, and these are 
mixed with southern forms as we approach the lands adjoining the 
Atlantic, where an almost purely Mediterranean fauna had hitherto 
■existed. Arctic forms of life now found their way, not only into 
the Atlantic, but by the newly opened Straits of Gibraltar they 
entered the Mediterranean, and are preserved to us in some remark- 
able deposits in Sicily. 

We liavc evidence from the St. Erth beds, to which I have already 
had occasion to refer (p. 478). that whilst northern forms made their 
appearance on tlie east coast of England, the fauna on the west coast 
remained a purely southern one. This fact induced Messrs. Kendall 
and Bell (49) to advance the liypothesis that not only were the 
Straits of Dover closed, but that a land barrier was thrown across the 
Atlantic from the north of Scotland to Greenland, while the St. Erth 
beds were laid down. 

That the southern marine fauna was once continuous from the 
west coast of Ireland to the west coast of France, soon becomes appa- 
rent to any one who takes the trouble of studying, especially the 
littoral animals. It is a well known fact that many shore forms 
which occur along the west coast of Portugal and Erance reappear 
again on the south-west coast of England, and on the south and west 
coast of Ireland : thus clearly indicating the former continuity of 
range now broken by the English and Irish Channels.^ 

On the Irish side of the Channel, near "Wexford, almost opposite 
St. Erth, there is a deposit in many respects similar to the one just 
referred to. These Wexford shelly sands and gravels contain, as Mr. 
Bell (5, p. 623) remarks, " a number of forms of Pliocene Age, and 
otliers of a northern type, the relative proportions suggesting that the 
northern fauna was gradually superseding the decaying southern one." 
In the low level drift deposits in the Isle of Man, Mr. Kendall has 
found (48, p. 17), "besides some Boreal forms, many species charac- 

^ The following species may be quoted as examples : — Strongylocentrotus 
lividits, Achaeus m-anchii, Inachus leptochims, Gonoplax angxilata^ Thia assidua, 
Aepophihts Bonnairei, Blennius galerita, and Lepodogaster Decandollii. 

I am indebted to Mr. Nichols for the following additional ones: — Bonaxpolitus 
•and Amphidesma castaneum. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 501 

teristic of warmer waters and a notable percentage of extinct species 
■of mollusca." It seems probable, therefore, to judge from these de- 
posits, that, after the St. Erth beds were laid down on the coast of 
Cornwall, the sea gradually crept up the Irish Channel from the 
south, and with it the southern fauna ; but that shortly after it had 
taken possession of the Irish Sea, the advent from another direction 
of a distinctly northern one, checked all further progress of the 
southern species, and exterminated a number of them. ISTo one, how- 
■ever, has made a more thorough study of the fauna contained in the 
xecent deposits in the north-east of Ireland than Mr. Praeger, and his 
Tiews on this subject are tlierefore of value in elucidating the history 
•of the Irish Sea. In the gravels of Ballyrudder, Co. Antrim, which 
Tinderlie the boulder- clay, he obtained fifteen species of mollusca of a 
distinctly Arctic character (70 «, p. 521). In speaking of the boulder- 
clay of the north-east of Ireland generally, he remarks (70 5, p. 51) : 
•" Somewhat warmer seas existed during the boulder-clay period, in- 
ihabited by a fauna still distinctly northern, but containing a few 
southern forms, along with a diminishing number of Arctic species." 
"A long period, represented by the Eskers, brick clays, and submerged 
peat, must have intervened before the depositions of the next bed of 
the series." " A slight siibmergence allowed the deposition of 
the Lower estuarine clay with its rather southern fauna." Then 
followed a further submergence, during which the southern element 
attained its maximum, and finally came, according to Mr. Praeger, 
eleviition of land and a distinct return of the fauna towards its 
northern character. 

Mr. Praeger does not offer any explanation of the causes which 
have produced these very remarkable changes, which he has traced 
with such skill through the various dexDosits from the Ballyrudder 
:gravels underneath the boulder-clay to the most recent surface beds. 

The distinctly southern element in the Ballyrudder fauna is 
exceedingly small, amounting only to three per cent. It is very unlikely 
that it came into the district at the same time as the northern. It is 
much more probable that it must be looked upon as a mere remnant of 
an older southern fauna, since it has been shown that such a fauna 
undoubtedly existed in pre-Glacial times in the Atlantic. According 
to the conclusions I arrived at from a study of the terrestrial fauna of 
Ireland, this southern element in the Irish sea was admitted by the 
breaking down of the southern connexion — the connexion between 
Wicklow and Wales. When the sea with its Arctic fauna invaded 
Jllngiand from tlie east, and finally joined the Irish Sea, the southern 



502 Proceedings of the Royal Irhh Academy. 

forms were probably to a great extent exterminated, but, as soon as the 
eastern current diminished in strength, the southern species -^oiild 
seek to return to their old quarters. Finally, when the old land- 
connexion between Scotland and Scandinavia broke down, the waters 
of the !N"orth-European Sea found an outlet in that direction, and 
brought Arctic species directly into the iN'orth Atlantic. "WTien at last 
Scotland and Ireland became separated, a northern fauna would once 
more supplant the southern one in the Irish Sea. Thus, I think, ITr. 
Praeger's conclusions as to the changes in the marine fauna of the 
north-east of Ireland agree in the main points with those which I 
arrived at from an independent inquiry into the origin of the terres- 
trial faxma of that island. 

From the careful study of terrestrial faunas, indeed, has been 
gained not only the knowledge of the changes of climate which have 
passed over the world, but, in the main those geographical revolutions 
which have been produced in^NTorth Europe in recent geological times. 
To put our knowledge of the origin of the European fauna on a firmer 
basis has been my object in this memoir, and, although much work 
still remains to be done in clearing up obscure points in its history, I 
hope that I have clearly indicated the manner in which future research 
should be conducted. 

I trust also that I have succeeded in strengthening the old Lyellian 
theory on the origin of the Glacial Period which has received such 
strong support from no less an authority than Lord Kelvin (87). 

Summary. 

p. 427 In this paper I have endeavoured to show how the present fauna 
of Europe originated. For that purpose it was found advisable to 
commence the inquiry by the study of the past and present fauna of 
an island. The British Islands, and in particular Ireland, seemed to 
me most suitable for that object. 

p. 432 The fauna of Ireland as well as the flora is found to consist mainly 
*? of two elements, one of which camefi'om the north and the other from, 
the south. In the fauna of Great Britain the same two elements, 
occur, but there is, ia addition, athird — an eastern one — chiefly confined 
to the eastern counties. The southern element contains aninialswhicli 
came originally from South-western, and others which migrated to the 
British Lshinds from the South and Central Europe. The former are 
confined to the south-western counties of England and Ireland, whilst 
the latter are chiefly found in the south-west of England, "Wales^ 



ScHARFF — Oil the Origin of the European Fauna. 503 

Ireland, and the west of Scotland. The nortliern element chiefly 
occurs in Scotland, the north of England, and the north and west of 
Ireland. 

Though it may be admitted that a small percentage of the British p. 433 
fauna reached the British Islands by occasional means of dispersal, the 
bulk of it migrated on land. A land-connexion must therefore have 
existed formerly between Great Britain and Ireland, and the Continent 
of Europe. 

The late Edward Eorbcs believed that the Lusiranian or south- p. 444 
western element in the Irish flora (it was not known at the time that 
there was also a similar fauna) came to Ireland in Miocene times and 
survived the Glacial Period on a now sunken land which lay to the 
south-west of that island. Almost all other authorities are convinced 
that both flora and fauna were entirely exterminated in Ireland during 
the Pleistocene Epoch, and that what exists there now, migrated to it 
after the Glacial Period. 

A short statement of the general conclusions arrived at with regard p. 444 
to the geographical changes in Europe during later Tertiary times, 
and the chief migrations of animals now follows, so as to facilitate 
the comprehension of the principal arguments advanced in favour of 
the view that there were two distinct invasions of northern species, 
and that the Irish fauna is altogether pre-Glacial. 

To judge fi'om the range of the South-western European plants p. 445 
and animals in Ireland, it is evident, as Eorbes suggested, that they 
came long before the other southern species or the northern ones. 
Last of all came the eastern or Siberian migrants. These never reached 
Ireland, but as we have such abundant evidence of the time of their 
arrival in Europe, the history of their migration is of great importance, 
since it furnishes us with a clue to the date of earlier migrations. 

We have geological evidence that a vast migration jjroceeded from p. 445 
Siberia, and entered Europe between the Caspian and the Ural Moun- 
tains. A large number of Mammals came with this Siberian invasion, 
and no fewer than twenty-nine species reached England, ten of which 
still inhabit Great Britain. There is no evidence that any of them 
ever lived in Ireland. 

In the succeeding pages I have endeavoured to ascertain the causes p. 450 
of that migration and its geological date. Both Tcherski and Brandt, 
the two highest authorities, are of opinion that the present Siberian 
fauna lived in the country already in pre-Glacial times, and that, with 
the addition of some now extinct forms, such as the Mammoth, it 
flourished as far north as the New Siberian Islands. Since the advent 



504 Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 

of the Glacial Period, the fauna is supposed to have very gradualljr 
retreated from these high northern latitudes, "which are no"w almost, 
uninhabitable, 
p. 4-51 Against these views it has been urged that, to some extent, the 
Mammalian bones and carcases found in the K'ew Siberian Islands, rest 
on a solid layer of ice, and that as this ice was probably formed during 
the Glacial Period, the migrations must have taken place in post-Glacial 
times. This presupposes an extraordinary amelioration of climate 
in Siberia, the effects of which certainly would have been felt in 
Europe, but of which we have no evidence, 
p. 452 There is geological evidence that a marine transgression took place- 
in Northern Russia in early Pleistocene times, and that at the same 
time the united waters of the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral covered 
a large tract of the central parts of that country. It is supposed by 
some naturalists fand in favour of this view I have collected some 
additional facts) that the "White Sea and this large inland sea were 
connected right across Kussia, thus forming a barrier by means of 
which the Siberian fauna was prevented from migrating to Europe. 
It is also suggested that the whole of the Continental boulder-clay is a 
marine deposit, and that its maximum southward extension approxi- 
mately marks the shores of a Xorth European Ocean, 
p. 4C.5 In support of this view are quoted a number of Caspian species 
which must have come from the Arctic Ocean, and the fact of the 
occurrence of Dret/sseymia pohjmorpha, in the lower and not in the upper 
Continental boulder-clay, thus proving that a migration took place in 
both directions. 
p. 466 As all the deposits in Continental Europe, containing remains of 
Siberian Mammals, are of a later age than the lower boulder-clay, 
it seemed to me that the connexion between the Aralo-Caspian 
and the ^hite Sea must have ceased to exist during and after the 
Interglacial phase of the Glacial Period, which would also explain 
the absence of Dreyssensia in the more recent beds. The Siberian 
fauna probably began to pour into Europe immediately after the 
deposition of the lower Continental boulder-clay. But since the first 
Siberian Mammals made their appearance in England, during the 
deposition of the Forest-bed, the British newer Pliocene beds must be 
contemporaneous with this boulder-clay. Further proof of this will 
be mentioned later on. 
p. 46S Some further evidence is now given in favour of the marine origin 
of the boulder-clay, and the causes of the absence of marine shells in the 
Russian deposits are explained. 



ScHARFF — On the Origin of the European Fauna. 505 

"We hare geological proofs that the Siberian fauna migrated to p. 46& 
Europe on a tract of country, known as the " Tchemosjem " or black 
earth, of Russia, and that this originated from the decay of grass which 
grew there during long ages. This fauna then invaded Central 
Europe and Great Britain, In Prance its further progress was 
arrested by the Eiver Garonne. England and Erance must there- 
fore have been connected ; whilst the absence of deposits contain- 
ing Siberian Mammals from Scandinavia proved that it was sepa- 
rated from the Continent. 

The jS'orthern or Arctic element in the Irish fauna must have p. 469 
come directly from the north. It is more or less confined to the 
northern and western parts of Ireland, and forms a large proportion of 
the fauna of Scotland and Scandinavia. It suggests that a land- 
connexion between the latter