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PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL PHYSIclt' ' SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



1878-80. 



VOL. V. 



EDINBURGH: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY M'FARLANE & ERSKINE. 

'^'(^MDCCCLXXX. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 



SESSION CVIII. 



Wednesday, 20th Novemher 1878.— John Falconer King, Esq., 
President, in the Chair. 

The Chairman delivered the following opening address : 

It has been my good fortune on more than one occasion to 
have occupied a place at this table, and heard from the lips 
of retiring Presidents, on the occasion of their reading the 
opening address for the session, the most pleasant and 
interesting accounts of the proceedings of the Eoyal Physical 
Society in by-gone years. These reminiscences, although 
in all ways interesting, have had for me both a dark 
and a bright side. There can be no doubt, for example, 
that the Society at one time was in a much more flourish- 
ing state than it has been for the last few years; and 
although it may be very pleasant to hear, and from the 
lips of the very men who themselves have experienced 
what they describe, such graphic accounts of the palmy 
days of the Eoyal Physical Society, still it must be con- 
ceded that there is always a tinge of sadness inseparably 
connected with such recitals, as, however unreflecting and 
unsentimental one may be, we cannot help contrasting, in 
some slight degree at any rate, these grand days of brilliant 
sunshine in which the Society at one time basked, with the 
somewhat overcast and cloudy weather it has in later years 
VOL. v. A 



2 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

been experiencing. On the other hand, however, the reading 
of these " leaves of the past " have even for us a bright side — 
I mean not as warranting or permitting us to rest on our. 
oars, and gaze with complacency on what we once were, but 
bright as being an example and incentive to us, and as calcu- 
lated to inspire us with hope and confidence. What the 
Society has been before it may be, and let us trust and deter- 
mine it will be, again. Now, gentlemen, it is not in my power 
to interest you, or either to grieve or gladden you by giving 
a description of the doings, or by reading an account of the 
state of the Society in by-gone years, as my connection 
therewith has been of comparatively recent date. I have 
prepared, therefore, as this source of an interesting address 
does not exist for me, a very brief account of what I may 
call the origin and early progress of that science of which I 
am a humble student. 

In accordance, however, with a time-honoured and very 
proper custom, it is my duty, before reading the few remarks 
I have prepared, to recapitulate very briefly our doings and 
progress during last session ; and in taking this retrospective 
glance I think we shall find that the session which has just 
closed has been in no way inferior to any of its immediate 
predecessors. 

We had many excellent communications, among which 
may be mentioned the various welcome Ornithological Notes 
of Dr Smith, and the exceedingly interesting remarks on 
Actinia by Dr M'Bain, which he made with reference to the 
well-known specimen " Granny " now in his possession, and 
which he was good enough to exhibit at the meeting. Pro- 
fessor Duns submitted a well-illustrated paper on Evidence 
of Prismatic Structure in Stones of Vitrified Forts ; and our 
indefatigable Secretary as usual favoured us with notes on the 
subject on which he is so well qualified to speak. Mr Peach 
also read a characteristic paper on Hydroid Zoophytes. Then 
came an exceptionally interesting paper from a source, the 
products of which are always peculiarly welcome to us — I 
refer to the article on the Marine Denudation of the Friesian 
Islands, by our late Secretary, Dr Eobert Brown. Mr Grieve 
favoured us with an enjoyable notice of a visit to the Kemains 



President's Address. 3 

of a so-called Tropical Forest ; and from Professor Williams 
we had an interesting note on the Extirpation of the Kidney 
of a Cat. From Mr Ferguson we had a well-illustrated 
paper on some Eaised Beaches in the West of Scotland — a 
communication I listened to with peculiar pleasure, as many 
of the localities to which Mr Ferguson referred, and so 
graphically described, are well known to me. From Dr 
Traquair we had notes on the subject he treats so ably 
— the Fossil Fishes; and Mr Etheridge as usual con- 
tributed some valuable Geological Notes. From Mr Harvie- 
Brown and Mr Scot-Skirving we had interesting notes on the 
Snowy Owl and Wild Goose. Of chemistry notes I am very 
sorry to say we had not many. Mr Hunter read a note on Uran- 
ium Salts, with special reference to the new salt discovered 
by Stillman ; and Dr Drinkwater submitted an analysis and 
remarks on a sample of Phosphorite from Kichinev. From 
Dr Lyon we had a paper giving us some curious results of 
his observations of instances of Hereditary Transmission ; 
and from Mr Gibson we had interesting papers on the Bear- 
ing of the Emu in Scotland, and on the Skull of the Narwhal. 
During the session which has just closed, the Society, I am 
happy to be able to announce, has increased greatly, both as 
regards membership and funds. During that period 37 new 
members have joined, which makes the total membership at 
present 224. We are also now, I am happy to say, passing 
rich, being in the comfortable position of having a substantial 
balance at our bankers. We have all, no doubt, contributed 
a little to bring about this happy state of affairs, but beyond 
all question our thanks are mainly due to our excellent Secre- 
tary, whose untiring efforts to raise the Society to its proper 
place have been productive of such admirable results. Such 
rapid progress indeed has been made under his management, 
that I almost begin to hope that my day-dream, in which I 
have indulged so long, of seeing the Society comfortably 
quartered in rooms of its own, with library, etc., all at hand, 
is yet to be realised. I have of course no desire to anticipate 
rashly, but I think I am quite justified in saying that if we 
have one or two more years as successful as the last, we will, 
at all events, require in some way to secure greater accommoda- 



4 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

tion than we now possess. Whether that should be done by 
purchasing or renting will be a matter for consideration, al- 
though I am inclined to think, judging from my own experi- 
ence, which has been tolerably extensive in these matters, 
that the former would be the cheaper and more preferable plan. 

Almost incredible as it may seem, to those, at all events, 
who have not paid much attention to the subject, the science 
of chemistry, which is, at least in respect of number of workers 
and rate of advancement, the leading science of the present 
day, was a little more than a hundred years ago hardly even 
deserving of the name of science, and was, indeed, as generally 
studied, little more than a species of black art, the majority 
of the men who were the representatives of chemistry in the 
earlier years of last century, being more unmethodical experi- 
menters than anything else, and who could not in strictness 
be called men of science. The principal if not the sole 
object of their most unscientifically conducted researches, 
was the unscientific one of discovering the so-called philo- 
sopher's stone. As we understand it now, one of the essentials 
of the true mode of conducting scientific research is to let 
our results have all possible publicity — to the end that others 
may not only have the benefit of our labours to assist them 
in their work, but also that they may be warned from spend- 
ing time on ground which has already been worked out. The 
very name of chemistry, however, shows that this scientific 
spirit did not prevail with these early cultivators of our science. 
The word chemistry, regarding the derivation of which so 
many conflicting opinions have been expressed, is now gener- 
ally admitted to be of Egyptian origin. According to Plu- 
tarch, Egypt, in consequence of the black appearance of the 
soil, was called Chemia, and the same term was applied to 
the black of the eye, the very symbol of what is hidden and 
obscure. This fact of secret working, and also that of con- 
fining attention to the attempt to discover that which could 
never be discovered, no doubt exercised a most retarding 
influence on the progress of chemistry, and makes the extra- 
ordinary rapid rise of the science in later years the more 
wonderful. 

The year 1774 may be looked upon as the date of the 



President's Address.' 5 

turning-point, or indeed as almost the natal year of chemistry, 
for on the first day of August of that memorable year, Joseph 
Priestley discovered oxygen gas — a discovery, as we all know, 
of the most vital importance, one indeed of such moment at 
that time, that in the then state of chemical matters, it was 
absolutely necessary that it should be made in order that the 
science should be put upon a proper foundation, and should 
be arrested, so to speak, in its backward course. Previous to 
the time of Priestley's famous discovery, the most erroneous 
ideas were entertained regarding the most elementary chemi- 
cal changes, and although Priestley to the day of his death 
was a firm believer in the absurd phlogistic theory, he did 
more than any one else to bring about its destruction, and to 
pave the way for the entrance of truth where gross error 
had erewhile reigned supreme. 

Going back some ten centuries from the time of Priestley, 
we read of a highly cultivated Arabian — who possessed, un- 
fortunately, a somewhat unpronounceable name, but which, 
however, has been supplanted by the more manageable one 
of Geber — who seems to be the first chemical author whose 
works have, to any extent, been handed down to the present 
day. Where Geber — who has been called the founder of 
chemistry — obtained his information, is not very clear ; but 
wherever it was derived, it was for the eighth century by 
no means scanty, although it must be admitted that a great 
deal of error was intimately alloyed with the grains of truth 
which he possessed. Thus he was tolerably well acquainted, 
in some respects, with the metals — gold, silver, copper, iron, 
tin, lead, and mercury ; but he regarded the first six of these 
as being compounds of mercury and sulphur in different 
proportions. Gold and silver, he said, contained more pure 
mercury than the others, and in that way he explained the 
different behaviour of these two metals, and that of the 
others when exposed to heat. These two — the gold and 
silver — he affirmed remain unchanged in the fire in conse- 
quence of so much of the pure metallic quality entering into 
their composition ; while the others, as they contain more 
sulphur and impure mercury, are readily affected by heat. 
He was also of opinion that the baser metals might, by 



'6 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

having their constituents purified, be changed into gold and 
silver. What an amount of fruitless labour the holding and 
promulgation of this unfortunate opinion may have caused, 
it is difficult to conceive. Besides the metals just named, 
Geber was acquainted with some of the salts of the alkalies, 
and succeeded in carrying out an operation, an extension of 
which forms one of the great chemical industries of the 
present day, viz., the conversion of the carbonates of the 
alkalies, or at all events, the conversion of one of these, 
carbonate of soda, into caustic soda, by boiling a solution of 
the carbonate with quicklime. He also succeeded in prepar- 
ing nitric acid, although by a somewhat tedious process, and 
from the nitric acid he obtained aq^ua regia, which, we are 
told, he used for dissolving gold. Other compounds with 
which we work every day he was also possessed of, one of 
which was the famous red precipitate, or oxide of mercury, 
which Dr Priestley used nearly a thousand years after in his 
celebrated experiment, in which he prepared oxygen gas for 
the first time, and which therefore has always, since that 
experiment was made, been invested with a peculiar interest 
to students of chemistry. There can be little, indeed almost 
no doubt, that Geber obtained many of the processes he 
described from some previous worker in the same field, but 
still he is entitled to all praise as being a patient and ap- 
parently an enthusiastic investigator. He was, of course, 
completely on the wrong track when he employed his time 
and talents in the almost childish and absurd work of searching 
for the means of transforming the baser metals into gold and 
silver ; but while we are inclined to regard with feelings of 
pity not unmixed with contempt the spectacle of a man 
devoting his life to such a pursuit, we must not forget that 
while Geber thus plodded on in murky darkness, he obtained 
some really useful results, and practised processes so service- 
able, that they were employed by his successors for centuries 
after his death. 

Passing from the time of Geber over a period of three 
or four centuries, during which interval the schools and other 
educational institutions of Arabia showed their power and 
value by giving to the world some eminent men, but which 



President's Address. 7 

does not seem to have been very prolific in chemical dis- 
covery, we come to the time of the German alchemist, 
Albertus Magnus, who was born in 1193, and who became 
Bishop of Eatisbon about sixty years after. This worthy 
bishop, we are told, was not only a theologian and alchemist, 
but also a magician, and many wonderful stories are related 
describing his powers in the magical art. Albertus followed 
Geber in his idea that metals were composed of mercury and 
sulphur, and he also seemed to believe that the different 
metals were produced by the different combinations of these 
two substances. This, of course, he could not prove, so he 
did not do much good in that direction. He certainly, how- 
ever, made a decided step in advance when he proved experi- 
mentally that sulphide of mercury was composed of sulphur 
and mercury. This he accomplished synthetically by causing 
a mixture of these two substances to sublime. He also 
showed a very simple, but quite effectual mode of separating 
the two metals, gold and silver. His plan was simply to 
treat the alloy or mixture of the two metals with nitric acid, 
when the silver, being soluble in that liquid, disappeared, 
leaving the gold behind in an insoluble state. 

Albertus was a somewhat voluminous author, and among 
other subjects on which he employed his pen, he wrote on 
that never-failing one, the philosopher's stone, and also on 
the origin of metals. 

As a magician he seems to have outstripped his professional 
brethren of later years, as among many other feats of magic, 
he is said, in conjunction with a pupil, to have made a statue 
of brass, which he succeeded in animating by means of his 
elixir. This statue, it seems, was for a time very useful as a 
domestic servant, but unfortunately, like some of its modern 
flesh and blood counterparts, it was very talkative. Its 
excessive loquacity, indeed, proved its ruin; for on one 
occasion it so annoyed a mathematical pupil, who was deeply 
engaged in studying a proposition, that he took a hammer 
and smashed it to atoms, to the great grief of Albertus. 

Contemporary with the great German alchemist just 
noticed was Eaymond Lully, who lived in Spain, and who, 
we are aware, was a voluminous writer, but who does not 



8 Proceedings of the Roijal Physical Society. 

seem on the whole to have contributed much to the common 
stock of chemical knowledge. 

Coming nearer home, we find during the life of Albertus 
Magnus, a celebrated alchemist, and a great countryman of 
our own — Koger Bacon — being tried at Oxford on a charge of 
magic. To this charge he replied in his well-known treatise, 
in which he showed that what had been ascribed to super- 
natural agency was really due to the ordinary operations of 
nature. 

Bacon, there is little doubt, was in advance of his time in 
regard to scientific matters in general ; thus he is said to 
have invented, or at least improved, the telescope, and also the 
camera obscura, and to have made many other discoveries. 
The proof regarding many of the inventions ascribed to him 
is no doubt a little defective, but we have certainly sufficient 
evidence to show that he at all events was possessed of great 
learning, and of many accomplishments which in his day were 
very rare. 

With all these, however, he does not seem to have done 
very much for chemistry, although to him must be given the 
honour of having first pointed out the difference which 
exists between what I may perhaps call theoretical alchemy, 
or alchemy — or, more properly speaking, chemistry — studied 
for its own sake or for the advancement of the science, and 
practical alchemy, or the pursuit of alchemical operations for 
the purpose of personal gain. Whether Bacon invented gun- 
powder is not very certain ; it is probable he did not. It is 
tolerably plain, however, that he was in some degree acquainted 
with it, and he was no doubt the first in England who pos- 
sessed any real information regarding it. Thus he speaks, 
though somewhat obscurely, it must be admitted, of a com- 
pound of saltpetre which possessed extraordinary properties. 
By mixing this salt with certain other ingredients, which, 
although they are not directly named, are evidently sulphur 
and charcoal, he says you can make thunder and lightning 
if you know the method of mixing them. And he furthermore 
speaks of a kind of matter of which a quantity not larger 
than a man's thumb can be made to produce a horrible noise 
and a sudden flash of light. This matter thus darkly hinted 



President's Address. 9 

at was no doubt gunpowder, and yet, although thus early 
known by one man, was not used till the year 1346, or 
about sixty years after the death of one who, if not the 
inventor, was at least well acquainted with its properties 
and powers. Bacon unfortunately had had bitter experience 
of the evil effects of speaking too plainly, and he con- 
sequently adopted an obscure style in his writings, w^hich, 
no doubt, as it made his meaning often difiicult to understand, 
and not unfrequently hid it altogether, retarded very seriously 
the early progress of chemical science. 

When we come to consider the character of a man of the 
mental calibre of Bacon, and remember at the same time that 
he was a zealous alchemist and a believer in the possibility 
of the transmutation of the metals, we are fairly puzzled to 
account for the grounds on which this absurd belief was 
founded. A man of his stamp, even in these early un- 
scientific days, must surely have had evidence of some 
kind on which to found his belief; and yet, from what 
we know, any evidence he could have possessed on this 
subject must have been of the most flimsy description. 
Alchemists, as is well known, believed in the possibility of 
discovering a substance which they called the philosopher's 
stone, and which they said would possess the power of trans- 
muting the baser metals into gold and silver by merely being 
brought in contact with them when in a state of fusion. The 
only reason, and it is a very poor one, which, as far as I am 
aware, they ever had for believing in the existence of any 
power such as was said to be inherent in the philosopher's 
stone, was the fact that certain metals by being melted with 
other substances are changed in colour. Thus it was well 
known before Bacon's time that red copper by being fused 
with oxide of zinc was converted into golden yellow brass. 
This change, however, could not have deceived these early 
experimenters, for, as we have seen already, they knew quite 
enough of chemistry to be able to distinguish gold from other 
metals. What has always appeared to me to be supremely 
ridiculous in this chase after gold is, that the very attainment 
of the end in view would have defeated its object, for gold 
would then have become so plentiful as to have been of little 



10 Proceedings of the Roycd Physical Society. 

value. Absurd, however, as the aspirations of the alchemists 
were in their attempt to produce the philosopher's stone and 
the water of life, they were not altogether without value, as 
frequently in these gropings in the dark they stumbled upon 
some valuable scientific truths, thereby acquiring an ac- 
quaintance, more or less perfect, with very many chemical 
compounds. 

Passing on about a century and a half from Bacon's time, 
we come to Basil Valentine, who was born in the year 1394, 
and who in some respects deserves to be ranked as one of the 
most celebrated of the alchemists. He wrote very extensively, 
and was careful enough to take measures to ensure the pre- 
servation of his works. He buried them in the wall of a 
church at Erfiirt — his native place — where they lay in safety 
for a long time, and were discovered ultimately, many years 
after his death, by the aid of a thunderbolt, which shattered 
the wall and exposed the treasures to view. 

Valentine agreed so far with Geber as to say that the 
metals were composed of sulphur and mercury. He, how- 
ever, added another ingredient, viz., salt — the metals, accord- 
ing to his ideas, being composed of these three substances. 

Valentine was acquainted with many of our chemical pre- 
parations, such as acetate of lead, sulphide of arsenic, ful- 
minating gold, nitrate of mercury, etc. He also, we are aware, 
knew how to manufacture sulphuric and nitric acids. To 
obtain the former he distilled sulphate of iron, a plan still 
practised in Germany for obtaining what is known as fuming 
sulphuric acid, a material much stronger than our English 
acid. Valentine's name, however, is principally identified with 
antimony, and his most important work is one devoted to the 
discussion of that metal and some of its compounds. He 
worked indeed so zealously, and to such good purpose, in this 
field, that up even to the beginning of the present century very 
little, if any, additional information had been gathered respect- 
ing antimony or its compounds. Valentine is said to have 
given the metal the name it now bears, which was derived from 
the result of a physiological experiment he had made. The 
story is told that on one occasion he administered a dose of 
antimony to some of his convent pigs, who thrived upon it. 



Fresidenfs Address. 11 

and became very fat. Observing this good effect, he decided, 
unfortunately, to extend the experiment so far as to try the 
effect of the metal on some of his brother monks. The anti- 
mony, however, had not the same effect on them as it had on 
the pigs, as they — instead of growing more sleek — all sickened 
and died. So, said Valentine, " though good for pigs 'tis 
bad for monks : " hence the name antimony, " adverse to 
monks.'* 

In his otherwise, in great part, useless researches after the 
philosopher's stone, Valentine did good service to early 
medical science by investigating and describing, with con- 
siderable accuracy, the medicinal value of many of the 
compounds with which he w^as acquainted. One great fault 
Valentine possessed, for which perhaps, however, as it was 
the custom of the time with men of his calling, we must not 
blame him too much, was his absurdly operose and obscure 
style of writing, and his extensive employment of symbolical 
designs. 

It is supposed that about the time in which Valentine 
lived, medical chemistry, if it was not actually founded, 
began, at all events, decidedly to take root. Hitherto men 
had apparently in their researches in this direction mainly 
devoted their time and their energies to the attempt to dis- 
cover the elixir vitce, which, as we all know, was supposed to 
be a panacea for every ill. This search, however, which had 
proved fruitless in many other instances, in Valentine's case 
led to the discovery of many potent medicines. 

Paracelsus, who was born in 1493, about a century later 
than Valentine, may almost in strict justice be called the 
father of medical chemistry. Like Valentine, Paracelsus 
held the opinion that matter was composed of three con- 
stituents ; he, however, went a step farther than Valentine 
did, and did not confine this theory to inorganic substances, 
as had been done previously, but held that organic sub- 
stances were likewise composed of three kinds of matter; 
and on this basis he explained the nature of disease. 
As long, he said, as the three components of the body are 
present in their true and proper proportions, health will con- 
tinue ; but if these due proportions are disturbed, then disease 



12 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

will result. By pointing out the value of chemistry as an 
aid to medicine, there is no doubt that Paracelsus did good, 
both by bringing fresh workers into this field, and also by 
removing the attention of men from the vain pursuit of 
the philosopher's stone. Beyond his labours in connection 
with the union of chemistry and medicine, he does not seem 
to have done much original chemical work. Paracelsus was 
born near Zurich, and he spent a portion of his life travelling 
in France, Spain, Italy, and Germany, with the view of 
improving his medical knowledge ; and it has been asserted 
that to some remedies with whicli he became acquainted in 
these journeyings, and by means of which he was enabled to 
perform some wonderful cures, he attained not a mean share 
of his reputation. He has also been accused of boasting 
of being in possession of the philosopher's stone, the elixir 
vitce, etc. Be this as it may, there can be no doubt that 
Paracelsus did good work, even if he had done nothing 
more than effect the junction of chemistry and medicine, 
a service which it is freely acknowledged he rendered to 
science. 

Contemporary with Paracelsus was George Agricola, who 
was considered, and I think justly so, the most celebrated 
metallurgist of his time. 

He certainly must have worked to some purpose in the 
particular branch of the science to which he devoted himself, 
as some of the processes with which he was acquainted are in 
use even in the present day. To technical chemistry he, 
without doubt, lent a valuable helping hand. 

Andrew Libavius, who died about sixty years after Agricola, 
made a praiseworthy attempt to free chemistry from the 
absurdities of alchemy, and yet, curiously enough, he himself 
firmly believed to the end in the transmutation of metals. 
Libavius rendered signal service to the science by the publi- 
cation of his " Alchemia." In this book, which was published 
about twenty years before his death, he sets forth in plain 
and forcible language aU the then known leading chemical 
facts. He was a patient worker, and w^as rewarded by his 
labours resulting in discovery. The useful and most impor- 
tant salt, stannic chloride, which to this day is known as the 



President's Address. 13 

fuming liquid of Libavius, was due to one of his researches. 
The object which he had principally in view in the course of 
his labours was the preparation of medicines, but he was 
also well known for his power of making artificial gems. He 
seemed to be able to imitate almost any precious stone with 
considerable fidelity ; this he did by a process which no doubt 
was not very generally known in his day, but which is now 
common enough. 

About thirty years after the death of Paracelsus, there was 

born in Brussels the celebrated John Baptist Von Helmont, 

who is said to have made such rapid progress in his studies, 

that he delivered public lectures at the age of seventeen. 

Notwithstanding some curious errors into which he fell, or 

rather from which he did not succeed in extricating himself, 

Helmont assisted materially the progress of chemical science. 

Previous to his time the almost universal belief seems to have 

been that when a metal is dissolved in acid, it is destroyed ; 

he showed, however, that this supposed destruction did not 

take place, but that the metal during this action passed into 

a state of solution, from which it could by proper processes 

be recovered. Helmont also was the first who formally 

attacked the old theory of the four elements. He asserted 

that earth could not properly be considered an element, 

as it was possible to convert it into water ; and fire, he 

maintained was not an element, because it had no material 

existence. He certainly was correct in his enunciations, 

that neither earth nor fire are elements, but the reason he 

gives why earth should not be considered an element is a 

remarkably poor one, and not worthy of a man of Helmont's 

powers. The other two elements of Aristotle, viz., air and 

water, he admitted were elementary in their nature. Water 

being a single and true chemical compound, we cannot 

wonder that — in those dark days when chemistry was still in 

its early infancy, being indeed as yet hardly born — it should 

be regarded as being composed of one kind of matter only; 

but it does seem surprising that Helmont, who was so far in 

advance, and who in fact was the first to demonstrate that 

there are different kinds of air, should have been contented 

to consider air as an element. Among the many valuable 



14 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

discoveries made by Von Helmont, one of the most important 
was the discovery of the gas which we in the present day 
call carbonic acid, but which he named gas silvestre. This 
substance, he tells us, is formed during the processes of com- 
bustion and fermentation, and is found in the Grotto of the 
Dog near Naples. By Helmont's labours a very great deal 
was done in the way of overthrowing old erroneous ideas, 
and although he did not accomplish exactly all which we — 
looking from a coign of vantage — think he might have done, 
we must acknowledge that he prepared the way for a decided 
forward movement being advantageously undertaken. Un- 
fortunately, however, his discoveries were not fully utilised, 
and in point of fact many of the most valuable of them were 
neglected and forgotten. 

Contemporary with Helmont was the well-known medical 
chemist, Glauber. Glauber had a happy knack of picking up 
and examining things which other people threw away, which 
peculiarity led, among other things, to the discovery of the 
salt which has for long borne his name. This salt is now 
rightly known as sodium sulphate, but it will be long before 
the old-fashioned familiar title, Glauber salt, is forgotten. 
Like a great many other philosophers of his age, Glauber 
unfortunately wasted a deal of time in a determined search 
for the philosopher's stone, and though he undoubtedly dis- 
covered some useful medicines, it does not appear that he 
promoted in any very signal manner the progress of chemical 
science. 

About the time of Glauber's death, Nicholas Lemery, a 
French chemist, published a work which became exceedingly 
popular, and which influenced greatly the progress of the 
science. In this work there appeared for the first time a 
statement of the distinction between substances of animal 
origin and those of vegetable origin ; and so we may say that 
as early as 1675 was the division which we still in a sense 
retain between organic and inorganic chemistry instituted. 
Lemery regarded earth and water as elements, and it was not 
until the distinguished philosopher Eobert Boyle, who was 
born in Lismore, Ireland, in the year 1627, began his re- 
searches, that the absurd theories of Aristotle concerning the 



President's Address. 15 

four elements, and of Paracelsus concerning the three kinds 
of matter, were proved to be absolutely false. Boyle was 
perhaps as much, or even more, a physicist than a chemist, 
but he certainly rendered very great service to chemistry. 
In fact, had he done nothing more than point out, as he 
did forcibly, that the true aim of chemistry was neither 
to discover the philosopher's stone nor the elixir vitce, but 
was, by means of pure scientific research, to increase the 
store of human knowledge, he would be entitled to be 
honourably remembered by scientific men. Boyle, however, 
as is well known, did far more than this — his whole life 
indeed was devoted, and profitably devoted, to scientific re- 
search. It is to him we owe our first correct ideas reofardins: 
true elementary substances ; and his teachings on this subject 
were really so important as to justify us in dating the com- 
mencement of a new era in the history of chemical science 
from his time. Hitherto men had either inclined to the 
Aristotelian or Paracelsian doctrine of the elements, and had 
regarded chemistry merely as a servant of the physician or as 
something worse of the alchemist. Boyle, however, com- 
pletely overthrew both of these ideas, and by so doing for- 
warded greatly the progress of chemical science. By the 
world in general Boyle's name is best known in connection 
with the discovery of the well-known law — that the volume 
of a gas varies inversely as the pressure — which rightly bears 
his name, although a strong attempt was made, and is still 
made, I presume, to claim the honour of the discovery of this 
important law for a French philosopher, Mariotte. About the 
year 1672, or about a hundred years before the discovery of 
hydrogen was made by Cavendish, Boyle actually prepared 
this gas. He did so by dissolving metallic iron in acid, and 
he experimented so far with the new gas as to prove its com- 
bustible nature. He does not seem, however, to have carried 
his investigations much further than this point, and the 
honour of the discovery of hydrogen is always ascribed to 
Cavendish. Boyle, like many other great men, had a weak 
point, and in his case this consisted in allowing his mind to 
be unduly influenced by what perhaps I may be allowed to 
call a pet theory. He held most tenaciously certain erroneous 



16 Proceedings of the Royal Physiccd Society. 

opinions regarding flame, which action on his part, when we 
remember that these ideas must have been adopted without 
any proof of their accuracy, seems to us certainly a very extra- 
ordinary one, especially in the case of a man gifted with such 
mental powers as he possessed. Like other learned men of 
his day, Boyle was well aware that certain metals, when they 
are heated in contact with the air, produce compounds, or 
calces as they were then called, which invariably weigh more 
than the original metal from which they are formed. He 
made many experiments with the view of determining the 
cause of this increase of weight, but his mind was so much 
influenced by the opinions he held regarding the ponderable 
nature of flame, that he unfortunately, as many other philoso- 
phers have done, attempted to bend the facts to suit his 
theory, and came to the conclusion, as the result of his inves- 
tigation, that fire or flame was of a material nature, and was 
capable of conferring weight. This certainly was a most un- 
fortunate conclusion, and was the means, quite possibly, of pre- 
venting Boyle from anticipating some of the brilliant achieve- 
ments of men M^ho lived nearly a hundred years after his 
death. Boyle, so far as we can ascertain, was the first to 
promulgate correct ideas regarding elements and compounds. 
He said boldly that it was not possible to state — as it had 
hitherto been supposed it was — the exact number of elements, 
but that such substances as could not be resolved into simpler 
forms, and which had been obtained from a compound body, 
and from which the compound could be again prepared, were to 
be so regarded. This certainly comes very near to our modern 
definition. Boyle has been called the first scientific chemist, 
and he certainly merits the honourable appellation, for 
although not purely, or even perhaps principally, a chemist, 
his scientific work, and the clear statements he made regard- 
ing the value of true scientific investigation, well entitle 
him to the distinction. 

In the year 1665 was published Eobert Hooke's "Micro- 
graphia," which contained an account of his remarkable 
theory of combustion. In this, which was perhaps the first 
chemical theory worthy of the name, he declared that the 
air is the universal dissolvent of all sulphurous, or, as we 



President's Address. 17 

should say, of all combustible bodies. The air, however, 
could not effect this action until the sulphurous or combus- 
tible substance was sufficiently heated; and he further ex- 
plained that the dissolving operation produces great heat. 
He also taught that this peculiar dissolving action is caused 
by a substance belonging to or mixed with the air, which is 
like, if it is not the very same as, that which is fixed in nitre, 
and that, while the dissolving parts of the air are but few, 
saltpetre, when red hot and melted, abounds with them. All 
this, of course, seems to us nothing more than very crudely 
stated truisms. When we reflect, however, that this theory 
was propounded more than a hundred years before the dis- 
covery of oxygen, and when phlogiston was just beginning to 
be heard of, we cannot but admire the genius of the author, 
the great success of his experimental research, and the 
wonderfully correct conclusions he deduced therefrom. By 
stating that air was the universal dissolvent of sulphurous 
bodies, he simply meant to say that combustibles exposed to 
the air, under certain conditions, were dissolved by it. We 
say, for example, that a piece of charcoal in a red hot condi- 
tion, exposed to the air, disappears and becomes converted 
into carbonic acid; while Hooke, writing more than two 
centuries ago, says that it is dissolved by the air — a state- 
ment which, it must be admitted, is wonderfully correct. 
Again, he says that the air will not dissolve the body until 
that has been sufficiently heated, w^hich is just what we ex- 
press by saying that different substances ignite at different 
temperatures ; and further, he tells us that fire is the result 
of this action, or this dissolving process. More wonderful 
still, he tells us most distinctly that this dissolving power 
of the air is owing to a substance inherent in itself, which 
is like, if it is not the same as, that which is fixed in 
common saltpetre. We know now, after Priestley's famous 
discovery has been made, that Hooke, writing more than a 
hundred years before the result of that was known, was in 
these statements quite correct. The oxygen, which is the 
principal constituent of saltpetre, is the same element as that 
which confers upon air its " dissolvent power." On another 
occasion Hooke makes the remark, that it is reasonable to 

VOL. V. B 



18 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

think that there is no such thing as an element of fire, but 
that what we call flame is nothing more than air mixed 
with the volatile sulphurous parts of combustible substances. 
Although these explanations of natural phenomena given by 
Hooke are quaintly and imperfectly, and even in some cases 
erroneously, given, still we cannot fail to be struck with the 
clear indications which they afford, that he was certainly on 
the right road, and also by the amount of real information 
which he had acquired, as the result of his valuable and 
remarkable investigations. Hooke expressed his intention, 
if opportunity and life were given him, of prosecuting, im- 
proving, and publishing his theory. This intention, however, 
he did not fulfil; but an Oxford physician, named John 
Mayow, who was born about ten years after Hooke, eagerly 
took up the work, and by means of many well-contrived 
experiments, elaborated and supported Hooke's theory. 
Mayow was among the first who made experiments with 
gases over water ; and his book, in which he treats of what 
he calls spiritus nitro cereus, contains the description of many 
experiments in what is now called pneumatic chemistry. 
The date of the discovery of oxygen gas, which discovery 
is justly reckoned one of the most brilliant ever made in 
chemical science, is engraven on all our minds; in fact, 
August 1, 1774, has been called the birthday of chemistry. 
The more, however, which I read of and ponder on John 
Mayow's experiments, and the conclusions which he deduced 
therefrom, I am the more inclined to think that oxygen was 
almost discovered a hundred years before Priestley's famous 
chef-d'oeuvre; and any one who reads carefully what Mayow 
has done in connection with this subject will, I imagine, be 
much of the same opinion. 

The " dissolving part," as he terms it, of the air and of nitre, 
he calls nitre-air or fire-air. The air, he says, is not com- 
posed solely of nitre-air, for when a combustible substance, 
such as a candle, is burned in a confined space, only a portion 
of the air is consumed. Further, he says, this nitre-air or 
fire-air is contained in nitre, so that substances will burn 
even under water, or in a vacuum, if supplied with a suffi- 
ciency of nitre. Although it was thus known that this fire- 



President's Address. 19 

air was a powerful supporter of combustion, Mayow was 
quite well aware of the fact that it itself would not burn. 
All acids, he goes on to say, contain nitre-air ; sulphuric acid, 
for example, he tells us, consists of a union of nitre-air and 
sulphur. Several changes, such as fermentation, putrefaction, 
and souring of wines, are, he explains, owing to the action 
of this nitre-air. More wonderful still, he, in the face of 
the at-that-time-much-lauded phlogiston theory, distinctly 
taught that, during calcination, metals increase in weight, not 
because they lose phlogiston, but because they absorb nitre- 
air, or, as we say now in language hardly more correct, 
because they oxidise. In fact, so much in accordance with 
our modern theories are Mayow's statements, that if we 
made a few trifling alterations in the names of some of 
the substances he makes use of — such, for instance, as sub- 
stituting the word oxygen for nitre-air — we could almost 
imagine, as we peruse his writings, that we had before us a 
book twenty years old instead of two hundred. A most 
important item in Mayow's work was his recognition of the 
part played by his nitre-air in respiration. He noticed that, 
and he also pointed out the compound nature of the air. 
Mayow was, in fact, far ahead of all his predecessors, and he 
did a great deal to extend the then scanty stock of chemical 
knowledge ; indeed there is little doubt, I think, that if the 
works of this wonderful man had only been a little more 
faithfully studied at the time, the world would not have 
heard so much about phlogiston, and subsequent great chemical 
discoveries would have been made much earlier. 

Another theory than that of Hooke, and one of a very 
different nature, was advanced about the same time as that 
in which Mayow had been making his famous experiments. 
The celebrated phlogiston theory, which shed such a power- 
ful influence on the science of chemistry, first saw the light 
about the year 1669. This theory, which was first promul- 
gated by John Joachim Becher, and afterwards supported, 
and in great part altered, by George Ernest Stahl, was pro- 
posed for the purpose of explaining various chemical pheno- 
mena, but principally that of combustion. There can be no 
doubt whatever that the advancement of this theory of 



20 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

phlogiston created in its day a profound impression, and 
attracted a vast deal of attention; but I think that, in our 
own time, it is very generally conceded that its usefulness 
has, to say the least, been very greatly overrated; and I 
imagine I am tolerably safe in saying, that about the only 
real service it ever rendered, was that of enabling a certain 
amount of method to be introduced into what had been 
hitherto, no doubt, exceedingly unsystematic. It has been 
said, and firmly maintained, by the supporters of this theory, 
that its rapid general adoption showed that it supplied a 
real want, as in point of fact it did. A want, however, may 
be supplied in a wrong way, as was the case in this instance. 
A void certainly did exist, but it is a marvel to me how it 
could have been filled by the absurd phlogiston theory, 
especially in the face of the masterly researches of Hooke 
and Mayow, which, as I have already indicated, were 
being conducted just about the time this theory was first 
brought forward. The phlogiston theory, as most people are 
aware, assumed the existence of a combustible principle, 
which was called phlogiston, and which, I think, I cannot 
better describe than by calling it the opposite of oxygen. 
When a substance is burned, the supporters of this theory 
taught that it lost phlogiston ; and when it was, so to speak, 
unburned, they asserted that it gained phlogiston. Thus 
mercury, if it is heated in contact with the air for a certain 
time, loses its liquid form, and becomes a powdery solid. 
This change, we are told by the phlogiston advocates, is 
owing to the metal having lost phlogiston. If, again, the 
reddish powder, obtained in the way just described, be heated 
a little more strongly, another change takes place — the metal 
reappears, owing, so says Stahl and his followers, to its 
having absorbed phlogiston. That is to say, the metals, such 
as mercury or lead, were regarded by Stahl as compounds, 
whose constituents were phlogiston and the calx, or, as we 
should say, the oxide of the metal. In other words, the loss 
of phlogiston was identical with what we call absorption of 
oxygen, and vice versd. Here, however, a difficulty arose. 
It was noticed that substances, by losing phlogiston, became 
heavier, and that by gaining it they became lighter. The 



President's Address. 21 

phlogistians, however, got over this. They had proposed a 
ridiculous theory, and they were quite ready to support it by 
equally ridiculous assertions. Phlogiston, they explained, 
was a principle of levity, and conferred the property of light- 
ness upon substances with which it was combined, much, 
indeed, in the same way as bladders lighten the swimmer to 
whom they are attached. Although this theory found many 
supporters even among men of genius, as witness the great 
Henry Cavendish, it must not be supposed that it was allowed 
to pass unchallenged. On the contrary, it was assailed from 
many different quarters, and notwithstanding its numerous 
friends, it ere long began to wane. Phlogiston was a sub- 
stance so purely hypothetical, that it now became necessary, 
in order to support the tottering theory, to produce it in a 
tangible form, and as a last resource, hydrogen gas, with 
which Cavendish had recently been experimenting, was de- 
clared to be phlogiston. This was, however, an unfortunate 
step. So long as the phlogistians confined themselves to 
generalities, they were tolerably safe; but when they parti- 
cularised in this decided manner, they stepped on dangerous 
ground. The phlogiston, as described by Stahl, was found to 
be so different from the hydrogen of Cavendish, that the theory 
by this false stroke received its death-blow. Lavoisier, about 
a hundred years afterwards, in a way to be shortly pointed 
out, showed the utterly untenable nature of Stahl's doctrine. 
The time which elapsed between the date of the enuncia- 
tion of the phlogistic theory, and that of its final quietus, was 
one of great progress. We are now at a point in our history 
when we, just emerging from a period of deep gloom, dis- 
pelled only occasionally by the results of the labours of such 
men as Paracelsus, Helmont, Boyle, Hooke, and Mayow, are 
about to enter one of dazzling brilliancy. The latter half of last 
century was the period in which the foundations of modern 
chemistry were fully laid ; and prominent among the workers 
in this field during this fruitful time was Joseph Black, who 
was born of Scottish parents at Bordeaux in 1728. Black's 
great work, and the one which has made his name immortal, 
was the discovery of latent heat, the principles of which he 
expounded to his students in Edinburgh and Glasgow. The 



22 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

discovery of latent heat was certainly Black's greatest work ; 
but that which has, perhaps, most interest for chemists, was 
his researches on the fixed alkalies, the results of which were 
published in 1755, and which rendered signal service in con- 
tributing in no small degree to the final overthrow of the 
phlogistic theory. Black brought a great power to bear on 
scientific research when he introduced the use of the balance 
so extensively in his investigations, and, indeed, it was by 
the skilful use of this invaluable instrument that he was 
enabled to complete satisfactorily some of his most famous 
researches. Thus, before Black's time, the carbonated or 
mild alkali, as it was then called, had always been regarded 
as a substance of a simpler composition than the caustic 
alkali. The latter, instead of being looked upon as something 
less than the former, was regarded as a compound of the 
former — that is, the carbonated alkali — with what was desig- 
nated, somewhat vaguely it must be admitted, the principle 
of combustibility. So that when ordinary limestone, or what 
we call carbonate of lime, was exposed to the heat of a 
furnace, it was supposed to unite with the principle of com- 
bustibility, and thereby to become more complex in its 
nature than was the original limestone. And further, if this 
quicklime, resulting from the heating operation, was boiled 
with a solution of carbonate of potash, the change which took 
place was explained by saying that the carbonate of potash 
became caustic by taking from the quicklime the principle 
of combustibility which the latter had obtained from the 
fire. Black showed, however, by means of the balance, that 
the heating of magnesia alba, which rendered it no longer 
capable of effervescing with acids, was accompanied by 
a loss in weight, which certainly would not have been the 
case had it taken up any principle of combustibility from 
the fire. Black crave us, indeed, the correct information we 
now possess regarding the carbon ating and decarbonating of 
alkalies. He showed most distinctly that carbonic acid, or, 
as he called it, fixed air, is given off from carbonated alkalies 
by certain modes of treatment, and that the change in their 
properties which these substances suffer when thus treated, 
and so rendered caustic, is owing to this loss, and not to the 



President's Address. 23 

absorption of anything from without. This fixed air of 
Black, it is right to mention, was really first discovered by 
Helmont, who called it gas silvestre. Helmont's work, how- 
ever, had been long forgotten by Black's time, so that that 
philosopher really made the discovery anew. The composi- 
tion of this gas — which Black called fixed air, because it 
exists in a fixed or solid form in the alkaline carbonates — 
was first properly demonstrated by Lavoisier, who showed it 
to consist of carbon and oxygen. 

Somewhat less than twenty years after Black published the 
results of his researches on quicklime and other alkaline sub- 
stances, Joseph Priestley was busily engaged in investigating 
the changes produced on air by the breathing of animals, and 
by the burning of combustible substances in it. He found 
and proved conclusively that both respiration and combustion 
altered the character of the air, and also lessened its bulk. 
He also investigated the effects which living plants produce 
on air, and among other things he found, to his astonishment, 
that living plants had the power of undoing, so to speak, 
what the respiration of animals or the burning of combus- 
tibles had done. He found, for example, that a candle after 
having burned a certain time in a fixed quantity of air 
became extinguished, and that the residual air — which would 
no longer support combustion, nor enable an animal to breathe 
— was restored to its original condition by the action of a 
living plant. These experiments, which were made about 
the year 1772 or 1773, were preparing the way for his great 
discovery, which was made in 1774. On the first day of 
August in this year, Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen — a 
discovery deemed so important as to cause this memorable 
day to be called the birthday of modern chemistry. The 
mode in which the great discovery was made is well known. 
Some oxide of mercury, or red precipitate as it was then 
called, was heated in a closed glass vessel by means of the 
sun's rays, concentrated with a lens. The oxide was decom- 
posed, and oxygen was given off. The name oxygen, by 
which the gas is now universally known, emanated from 
Lavoisier; Priestley called it dephlogisticated air. By his 
numerous admirers Priestley has been called the father of 



24 P^'oceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

pneumatic chemistry ; and no doubt his most valuable dis- 
coveries, especially in this department, entitle him to all 
praise, and yet he was not exactly the kind of man we would 
select as being eminently fitted for scientific investigation. 
He had an idea, I conceive, that discoveries are made by 
chance, and although he made a great many most impor- 
tant discoveries, he seems to have passed over without grasp- 
ing, or, at all events, without rightly explaining, results which 
he obtained, and which might, if they had been properly 
utilised, have proved most valuable by paving the way for 
obtaining others. Thus, for example, although he had noticed 
the formation of water by the burning of a mixture of 
hydrogen and oxygen, he seems to have passed it over — 
wonderful as it must have appeared to him — without giving 
any real explanation of the phenomenon. This discovery, 
that is, the discovery of the composition of water, which 
might have belonged to Priestley, is ascribed, and rightly so, 
to Sir Henry Cavendish. Priestley not only produced the 
water by causing the hydrogen and oxygen to combine, but 
he observed and noted it, leaving the explanation of what he 
had done to be given by others. Curious as it may seem, 
Priestley was a firm believer in the phlogistic theory, and con- 
tinued so till the last, although he, by his great life's work, had 
done more than any one else to bring about its overthrow. 

Contemporary with Priestley, and like him in being the 
author of some valuable discoveries, and yet very unlike 
him in the mode of doing his work, was the celebrated Sir 
Henry Cavendish. Cavendish was born in the year 1731, 
and being of independent means, he devoted himself ex- 
clusively to scientific pursuits. He worked zealously and 
faithfully, and though he did not make so many brilliant 
discoveries as Priestley, or perhaps do so much work, yet 
what he did was done more thoroughly and completely. His 
work was greatly quantitative, and as proof of the accurate 
nature of his mode of carrying on his investigations, we find 
him in his experiments with gases making corrections for 
changes caused by the alterations of temperature and pressure, 
a refinement somewhat unusually observed, I am inclined to 
think, in these early days. The great work with which the 



President's Address. 25 

name of Cavendish is inseparably connected is, of course, liis 
discovery of the composition of water. His researches, how- 
ever, upon hydrogen, or inflammable air as he called it, were 
very important and interesting. This inflammable air of his 
he obtained by the action of dilute acid upon certain metals, 
such as iron, zinc, and tin ; and as showing the perfect way in 
which he carried on his experiments, I should mention that 
he clearly determined that the air given off from each metal 
was the same both in quantity and quality, no matter in what 
proportion he added the acid so long as the same amount of 
metal was employed. Cavendish also made a series of ex- 
periments by acting on the metals just named with acids of 
different degrees of concentration. Thus he found that with 
strong nitric acid the effect, to a certain extent, was the same 
as with, say, dilute sulphuric acid, viz., that gas was generated. 
He found, however, that the result was so far different, that 
while in the case of dilute acid the gas which was given off 
was inflammable, in the case of the strong nitric acid the gas 
which was evolved was not inflammable. He also made ex- 
periments in which he treated different metals with strong 
sulphuric acid, the result of which was that what he called 
sulphurous air was evolved. All of which are the same 
results as wd obtain in the present day, and are described in 
language almost identical with ours. From this we have 
good proof that Cavendish was an accurate experimenter and 
observer. Unfortunately in his explanations of these different 
effects, he dragged in the phlogistic theory, in which, strange 
as it may seem, the great Sir Henry Cavendish was a firm 
believer. The gas which was given off when the metals were 
dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid he regarded as phlogiston. 
The metals, it will be remembered, were regarded by phlogis- 
tians as compounds consisting of the calx of the metal united 
with phlogiston. This phlogiston, therefore, as Cavendish 
remarks, is given off alone by metals when they are treated with 
dilute acid, but is evolved in combination with the acid when 
the metals are treated with that in a concentrated state. If this 
absurd phlogistic theory had never been heard of, and therefore 
not instilled into every one who gave any attention to chemical 
matters, as it seems to have been at one time, it is quite pos- 



26 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

sible, indeed I think it is highly probable, that Cavendish, not 
being able to account in the way he did for metals giving off 
gas when subjected to the treatment referred to, might have 
made some experiments to ascertain whether the gas did not 
arise from the other ingredients he was using, and thus have 
anticipated Lavoisier's great achievement. As the result of 
all his training, however, his mind was evidently thoroughly 
imbued with the idea that metals are compounds containing 
phlogiston, and in the circumstances, what was more natural 
than to conclude when he saw the metal, during his experi- 
ment, disappearing, and gas being given off, that the former 
was being decomposed, and that the gas which was generated 
was the phlogiston arising from that decomposition. In the 
year 1781 Cavendish made his great discovery — that one 
with which his name is inseparably connected. Water, as 
we all know, had for long been regarded as an element ; by 
a series of masterly experiments, however, which he carried 
out at this time. Cavendish clearly proved its compound 
nature. He was led to his famous discovery by noticing 
that in making some experiments in which he exploded a 
mixture of inflammable air, or hydrogen as we now call it, 
and common air, there was invariably a certain amount of 
moisture or dew produced. This matter he at once set to 
investigate, and in his own thorough and accurate fashion — 
being careful to work quantitatively, as indeed he did in 
almost all of his investigations. He took an accurately 
measured quantity of inflammable air and burned it with 
about two and a half times as much common air, and, in 
order to be able better to examine the products of the com- 
bustion, he caused the results of the burning to pass through 
a long glass cylinder. By this means he got a deposit of 
dew amounting in all to 135 grains, which, as it had no taste 
or smell, and did not yield any residue or pungent odour on 
evaporation, he rightly concluded must be water. In this 
way, then, but by using many precautions, and making a 
long series of calculations which it is quite unnecessary to 
enumerate here, did Cavendish fairly prove the composition 
of water. It has been suggested, and I believe with good 
reason, that although Cavendish thus showed how water could 



President's Address. 27 

be produced, he had really no very clear ideas on the subject 
of water being a chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen, 
and that in point of fact his own opinion of the matter was 
that the water existed ready formed in the hydrogen or in- 
flammable air as he called it. Cavendish to the last was a 
firm believer in phlogiston, and it seems to me that his strong 
faith in that most ridiculous of theories must have tended 
to warp his mind, and frequently to lead him off the 
path of truth. Thus he says, speaking of the results of 
his researches on water : " From what has been said, there 
seems the utmost reason to think that dephlogisticated air is 
only water deprived of its phlogiston, and that inflammable 
air is either phlogisticated water or else pure phlogiston, but 
in all probability the former," Had his mind not been 
imbued with this theory of phlogiston, would it not be very 
natural to suppose that Cavendish, having put two gases 
together, and after having fired them, finding the gases dis- 
appear and water produced in their place, would come to the 
conclusian that the water had been formed from them, and 
was therefore composed of them. Unfortunately, however, 
the phlogiston was dragged in, and the obvious and simple 
explanation of the result of his experiment was ignored. 

We have now reached what must be considered one of the 
brightest periods in the history of chemical science. Oxygen 
has been discovered by Priestley, Black has experimented with 
fixed air, and Cavendish has made his masterly researches on 
inflammable air. Mtric oxide, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, 
sulphurous acid, and a number of other gases are known. 

The famous discovery of Cavendish leads us to consider the 
valuable results which were being obtained at this time by 
the world-renowned Scheele, then a poor Swedish apothecary. 
Scheele, like some of the other great chemists of his day, was 
a firm believer in phlogiston, and, as might be expected, he 
in consequence, like them, fell into a great many errors in 
explaining the results of some of his experiments. Scheele, 
however, will long be honourably remembered as the dis- 
coverer of chlorine, and also for his valuable researches on 
Prussian blue, which led, among other things, to the isolation 
of Prussic acid. Scheele, it should be noticed, also discovered 



28 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

oxygen. His discovery of this gas was made, it appears, sub- 
sequent to that of Priestley, but it was made quite indepen- 
dently. In consequence, however, of priority, the honour of 
this discovery is always accorded to the English chemist. 
Scheele did not content himself with investigations in inor- 
ganic chemistry alone ; he turned his attention to the organic 
department, and as the result of his labours in this branch, 
he discovered, or, at least, first properly identified, the 
foUowinoj amonsr other acids : tartaric, oxalic, citric, lactic, 
etc., and in doing so fairly broke ground on this fertile field 
of organic chemistry, which has since been cultivated with 
most marvellous results. Scheele also in a manner may be 
said to have laid the foundation of quantitative analysis, as 
he was the first to make use of these distinctive properties of 
substances, in order to effect their detection and separation, 
which are now employed for the same purpose so extensively 
by students of chemical science in our own day. 

From what has been said, it can easily be understood that the 
science of chemistry in the time of Scheele was much further 
advanced than it was before the onward movement given to it 
by Boyle, Hooke, Black, Priestley, and Cavendish. But, not- 
withstanding the valuable labours of all these chemical giants, 
the science was still under a dense cloud. Priestley, Cavendish, 
and Scheele, men of great genius as they certainly were, all 
believed in the phlogistic theory — they regarded the metals 
as being more complex substances than the oxides or calces 
as they called them, and until this great and fatal delusion 
was dispelled, it seems to me chemical science must always 
have remained in a most incomplete state. In this condi- 
tion, however, the science was not doomed to remain. In 
the year 1743 Anthony Lavoisier was born, and ere he died 
he gave the phlogistic theory its death-blow. Lavoisier began 
life under very different circumstances than did poor Scheele. 
He was liberally and carefully educated, and being possessed 
also of a considerable fortune, he was unusually well equipped 
for his future brilliant career. His attention having been 
directed to the discoveries of Black, Priestley, and Cavendish, 
he entered this new field of inquiry with all his characteristic 
ardour and zeal, and obtained many most valuable results, 



President's Address. 29 

which at once set chemical science on a true basis, and made 
his own name immortal. One of Lavoisier's earliest experi- 
ments was connected with a subject in which. Scheele also 
made some investigations. The question which had been 
pretty keenly discussed for some time, viz., whether water on 
being heated was converted into earth, was set at rest by the 
result of this first important experiment. In carrying out 
this experiment he enclosed a certain amount of water in a 
glass vessel, and subjected it to heat for 101 days. At the 
end of that time he weighed the vessel and its contents, but 
could detect no change in weight. He then opened the 
vessel, poured out the water and evaporated it, and found that 
with a slight discrepancy, which he ascribed to experimental 
error, the water left no solid residue beyond that which it had 
taken from the glass, and therefore he concluded that water on 
being heated is not converted into earth. One of Lavoisier's 
most noteworthy contributions to science was his enunciation 
of the fact of the indestructibility of matter. He clearly 
showed that when a chemical change takes place, of whatever 
nature it may be, there is never any loss of matter. Matter 
may change its condition, or it may be transferred from one 
state of combination to another, but still in every case the 
weight of the sum of the ingredients remains exactly the same. 
In the year 1772, that is before he had attained his 
thirtieth year, Lavoisier commenced his famous investiga- 
tion on combustion, which was destined to yield results 
of the greatest value to chemical science. As I have 
already stated, it was the prevailing opinion previous to 
Lavoisier's time that when such things as phosphorus and 
sulphur are burned, they are decomposed, and that some 
mysterious, undefined, and undefinable substance which was 
called phlogiston was supposed to escape. Lavoisier, how- 
ever, clearly demonstrated that when such things as these 
are burned, instead of losing they increase in weight ; and he 
further showed that this increase arose from their having 
absorbed and fixed something from without, which something 
he explained was air ; and he concluded that this absorption 
takes place when other substances besides sulphur and phos- 
phorus increase in weight during the process of combustion. 



30 Froceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

In order fully to prove the truth of his speculations in this 
matter, he performed an experiment, the converse of these in 
which sulphur and phosphorus were burned. In this experi- 
ment he heated some lead oxide with carbon, the result of 
which was quite satisfactory, as showing that the oxide con- 
tained air, which was in union with the lead, and which was 
given off during the heating operation, leaving the pure lead 
behind. The phlogistians would, of course, have explained 
this action by saying that the calx of lead, as they called lead 
oxide, was changed into the metallic state in consequence of 
having absorbed phlogiston from the charcoal. These ex- 
periments of Lavoisier, and the conclusions he drew from 
them, although not quite correct, were certainly a most 
decided step in advance. Lavoisier's next work had 
reference to respiration, combustion, and fermentation, and 
he showed, as Black had done some twenty years before, 
the production of fixed air, as carbonic acid was then called. 
Following these researches, he made some very important 
experiments, in which he heated different metals in closed 
glass globes, and thereby was enabled to prove that the 
heated metal not only absorbed air from without, but that it 
only absorbed a certain part of the air, and that the part 
which was left had properties quite different from those 
possessed either by common or fixed air. Lavoisier, there- 
fore, it is clear, held the opinion at this time (1774) that the 
air was composed of at least two substances. He had not, 
however, yet heard of Priestley's discovery of oxygen, and he 
does not seem at that time to have possessed nearly so much 
information on this point as he showed himself to be pos- 
sessed of some time afterwards, by reading a paper in the 
following year, and after he had heard of Priestley's great 
discovery. In this paper, which was on the nature of the 
principle which combines with metals during their calcina- 
tion, he shows that at last the theory of combustion is fully 
understood. In this paper he calls oxygen vital air, and 
three years afterwards he called it oxygen, the name it has 
since borne. This name is certainly a little unfortunate, as 
whatever Lavoisier's opinion on the point may have been, 
acids exist which do not contain any oxygen. 



President's Address. 31 

We are now pretty well advanced on our journey, and 
phlogiston, that enemy to progress, has well-nigh received its 
death-blow. It was not, however, until the year 1783, when 
Cavendish had made his discovery, that Lavoisier, in con- 
junction with Laplace, by producing water by the direct 
union of hydrogen and oxygen, and so confirming the results 
obtained by Cavendish, silenced for ever the phlogistians. 

As my object in reading this paper has been simply to give 
an outline of the early progress of chemical science, I may, 
perhaps, be excused for passing over rather summarily the 
description of the great dispute which took place as to whom 
the honour was due of having first discovered oxygen — a dis- 
pute so celebrated, that it seems almost a necessity with 
some historians to treat of it at considerable length. There 
cannot be the slightest doubt, I think, that Priestley was the 
first discoverer of oxygen. Lavoisier, unfortunately in this, as 
in at least one other case, acted a little, or, perhaps, to speak 
more correctly, not a little dishonestly. But this, when we 
remember what this truly great philosopher has done for our 
science, is, to say the least, not a pleasant theme to dwell 
upon ; and I think it will suffice if I go on simply noting as 
I pass, that certainly Joseph Black studied the properties of 
fixed air, and Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen, before 
Lavoisier knew of the existence of either one or other of 
these substances. 

My pleasant task, gentlemen, of reading these few notes 
to you is now almost closed. In the year 1794, the great 
Lavoisier was led to the guillotine, but he had done his work, 
and in doing so he erected for himself a noble and lasting 
monument, which shall hand down his justly honoured name 
to many succeeding generations. Although I should hardly 
care to regard Lavoisier as " the immortal father of modern 
chemistry," as he has been styled by some of his admiring 
and enthusiastic countrymen, I would at once agree in 
ascribing to him the honour of making such good use of the 
discoveries and results of experiments m.ade by other men as 
to lay the foundation of modern chemistry. I do not wish 
for a single moment to attempt to detract in the slightest 
degree from the just fame of Lavoisier, and I do not think I 



32 Proceedings of the Royal Pliysical Society. 

do so in saying that I cannot help thinking that, if Hooke 
and Mayow could have had the results of the work of Black, 
Priestley, and Cavendish to guide them as the French chemist 
had, they might in great measure, if not entirely, have anti- 
cipated his brilliant achievements. However, they lived 
before the discovery of oxygen or the discovery of the com- 
position of water had been made, and they left Lavoisier's 
work undone, so that, leaving supposition out of considera- 
tion, and dealing alone w^ith what actually happened, we 
must ascribe full honour to the French philosopher for having 
finally and completely upset Stahl's phlogiston theory, and 
for having placed chemistry on the firm and sure base it now 
occupies. . 

It may be objected, I know, and I admit, with some 
show of reason, that a sketch, superficial though it be, 
such as I have endeavoured to present to the Society to- 
night, which professes to give an outline, however meagre, of 
the early history of chemistry, is by no means complete 
without at least a mention of the names and chief works of 
such men as Proust, John Dalton, Thomas Thomson, Wol- 
laston, Berzelius, Davy, Gay-Lussac, Dulong and Petit, Mit- 
scherlich, etc. • The history of the labours of these chemists, 
however, I think belongs to an era further on than that 
with which I have thought it wise to attempt to deal, and 
therefore I have determined to make the close of last century 
my halting-place, the more so as I feel that I have trespassed 
already sufficiently on your patience, and also that the mere 
mention of what these men have done for our science in this 
paper would prolong it far beyond its legitimate limits. 

It has been said by an able writer on this subject, referring 
to the origin and rise of chemistry, that the basis of the chemi- 
cal edifice is sunk deep in Eastern soil ; that the walls raised 
slowly and laboriously during the Middle Ages were com- 
pleted by Black, Priestley, and Lavoisier, and that the men of 
our own day are working at the roof. I therefore stop at the 
completion of the walls of our noble mansion, and leave the 
task of describing the making and fitting of the prodigious 
roof to some future and more able chemical occupant of the 
honourable position from which I now retire. 



Br Smith's Ornithological Notes. 33 



I. Ornithological Notes. By John Alexander Smith, 
M.D., F.E.S.E., etc. (Specimens exhibited.) 

(Read 20tli November 1878.) 

1. Otis tarda, the Great Bustard.— This fine specimen of a 
female of the great bustard was shot on the island of Stron- 
say, Orkney, in the autumn of 1877. It is the property of 
Colonel Balfour of Balfour, who writes that a male bird of 
the same species was killed in Kent a week after this one 
was shot, and he supposes they may have probably been a 
pair of stragglers which had got separated — driven out of 
their course on the Continent, I suppose, by adverse winds. 
The female is a much smaller bird than the male. It is now 
one of our rarest stragglers, or visitors, to any part of Scot- 
land, very few instances of its occurrence being recorded, 
although in old times it was apparently a permanent resident. 
It occurred more abundantly in England. Mr Keddie, Mr 
Sanderson's assistant, has called my attention to the curious 
fact that the down at the roots of many of the feathers (as 
well as of their accessory plumes) of the great bustard (some 
of which I exhibit) are of a beautiful pink, changing above 
into pale buff colour. This peculiarity is present in the 
feathers in different parts of the body, whether they are 
coloured or pure white above ; it is less so, or absent, on head. 
He also tells me he has noticed a similar peculiarity in the 
little bustard {Otis tetrax). 

2. Hybrid between Capercailzie and Blackcock. — A beauti- 
ful male specimen of this peculiar bird, which at one time 
had applied to it the specific name Tetrao medius. The bird 
was shot at Ardkinglas, Argyleshire, on the 14th of October. 

3. Totamcs glareola, the Wood Sandpiper. — This beautiful 
bird was shot on the 3d October by Sir George Leith Buchanan, 
Bart., on Lochlomond. It is one of our rare or little noticed 
sandpipers. In 1856 I exhibited to the Society a young bird 
which was killed on the 14th August near Heriot, Midlothian. 

4. Anas hoschas. — A pure white variety of this bird, a 
female, the property of David Carnegie, Esq., who writes to 
Mr Sanderson, birdstuffer, that it was recently shot on 

VOL. V. c 



34 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

the river Balvaig, which issues from Loch Voil, about a mile 
from the loch. It was in company with other mallards, 
and was seen occasionally about the loch and river for some 
weeks previously. It has been suggested that the bird 
might have been simply a " decoy duck ; " but Mr Carnegie 
states that George Morison, foreman on his farm of TuUoch, on 
Loch Voil, says that in the spring of 1877 he saw on several 
occasions a brood of six wild ducks when still small and 
unable to fly, two of which were quite white. The one 
exhibited is the only one seen this year. I may mention 
that the bill is of the usual greenish colour, and the size of 
the duck exactly corresponds to that of the wild duck, and 
the eyes being of the natural colour, it cannot be called an 
albino, but is simply a white variety of the wild duck. 

5. Puffinus cinereus, Greater Shearwater. — This bird, a young 
male of the greater shearwater, was shot on the 29th of 
August, off North Berwick, by Eobert Chambers, Esq., pub- 
lisher, Edinburgh. Only a few examples of its occurrence in 
Ireland and England have been noticed, and I am not aware 
of its having been previously recorded in Scotland. Mr Gray, 
however, informed us last session he had seen it with flocks 
of the P. anglorum near the Bass Eock. 

6. Puffinus anglorum, Manx Shearwater. — Is a better known 
bird, as it occurs occasionally in Orkney and Shetland, and 
especially in the Hebrides. On the east coast of Scotland 
it is rare. Five specimens, two males and three females, 
were also shot at North Berwick by different individuals 
about the 19th or 20th of August. It, like the other, gene- 
rally keeps out to sea, and so may be less frequently noticed. 
Mr Gray considers it is now a regular autumn visitor to the 
Firth of Forth. 

I am indebted to Mr Small, bird-stuffer, George Street, for 
sending me these birds, as well as many others, for exhibition 
to the Society. 

7. Alca alle, the Little Auk. — A specimen of this bird, an 
occasional visitor, was driven ashore by stress of weather, and 
taken alive about two miles inland, near Coldingham, on the 
3d of October. Another exhibited was killed yesterday at 
Portobello. 



Mr Scot-Skirving on the Natter al History of Islay. 35 



II. Note of Large Skull of Halichgems gryphus. By John 
Alexander Smith, M.D., F.E.S.E., etc. (Skull exhibited.) 

(Read 20tli November 1878.) 

A very large seal, apparently recently dead, was cast 
ashore on the west coast of North Uist, in October 1878. It 
was much injured about the body, as if from fighting with 
other seals, and probably also from being dashed against the 
rocky shore. Captain Orde preserved the skull which I now 
exhibit. It is nearly quite perfect, and belongs to a very 
large specimen, probably an old male, of the grey seal {Phoca 
gryphus, Fab., or Halichcerus gryphus, Mlsson). It is the 
haaf-fish of Orkney, and the tapvaist of the Hebrides, where 
it seems to be not uncommon. It is rare on our east coasts. 
The skull measures 1 foot in length along its base from the 
occipital condyles to the front of the projecting edge of the 
intermaxillary bone, and 7| inches across the malar bones or 
the zygomatic arches. The teeth of this seal are very strong ; 
large in the lower parts fixed in the alveolar sockets, and 
rather small and conical above; differing in this respect from 
the lobed or serrated teeth of the genus Phoca, etc. The seals 
require to have firm, strong teeth, as, besides feeding on fish, 
they eat up crabs and lobsters, etc. ; and Mr Keddie tells me 
he has often found remains of the large strong feet or claws 
of these crustaceans in their stomachs. 



III. Notes on the Natural History of Islay. By Egbert 
Scot-Skirving, Esq. 

(Read 18th December 1878.) 

The following cursory notes on some of the features pre- 
sented by the natural history of Islay refer almost exclusively 
to its ornithology during the summer and autumn of the 
present year. 

I propose to note the appearance of some of our migrants, 
somewhat after the fashion of our late friend Mr M'Nab, of 
the Botanical Society, who used to chronicle the foliation and 



86 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

the flowering of tlie various trees and shrubs in the garden 
over which he presided. 

Before saying anything of what I may call " the birds of 
the season," I shall, in a very few sentences, notice one or 
two features presented by the trees and plants of Islay. 

Forest trees in Islay, when properly cared for, reach fair 
dimensions, and appear healthy and vigorous, yet I think 
there must be a weakness of constitution somewhere, as they 
lose their leaves a month sooner than they do here. Two 
very different trees seemed to retain their leafy vitality longer 
than the rest. These were the hard-grained oak and the soft- 
fibred lime. 

Though I know I repeat what I once before said here, I 
cannot leave the vegetable kingdom without again noting the 
extraordinary growth of three of the natural plants of the 
island. These are the honeysuckle, the brier, and the whin. 
I wish some botanist would tell me why the long sinuous 
branches of these briers are fanged with such murderous 
thorns. If a divine were to say it was part of the original 
curse pronounced upon the earth, I should be inclined to ask 
if Islay sinned in any special degree, as these terrible briers 
would seem to indicate. I have repeatedly found sheep 
strangled by getting entangled in their serpent-like embrace. 
But the most striking botanical feature of Islay is undoubtedly 
its gigantic whins, the stems of which are tree-like in size, 
whilst their rich and profuse blossoms far exceed in splendour 
the flowering of any gorse I have elsewhere seen. It is in 
the middle of October that these Islay whins burst into 
bloom, and by the first week of November they are all one 
blaze of glowing golden yellow. Each bush seems as if on 
fire, till the whole bright array is generally destroyed in a 
night by the first sharp frost of winter. 

To turn to the birds, I may remark, in the first place, that 
the last breeding season has proved a remarkably favourable 
one for all kinds of game and wild ducks. There is no doubt 
that the numbers of all these were doubled, and in some cases 
quadrupled, comparing 1878 with the previous year. It is in 
some of the western islands that, alone in Great Britain, the 
pheasant is an entirely self-sustaining bird, the mildness of 



Mr Scot-Skirving on the Natural History of May. 37 

the winters enabling it to procure insect and other food at 
every season of the year. ISTumerons as pheasants are in 
many parts of the island, they would be much more so did 
they not persist in choosing marshy places for their nests, 
which are frequently flooded during the breeding season. 

Whilst the ornithologist has so frequently to deplore the 
extinction of breeding-stations, it is pleasant to have to 
record any instance where some innocent and beautiful bird 
is found in increased numbers. This I am able to do in 
reference to the common tern {Sterna liirundo). In the 
centre of a large loch on the property where I live in 
summer there is a tiny islet, not more than twice the size of 
this room, in the centre of which grows a bush of tall sedges. 
The rest of the ground is flat and bare. About three couple 
of terns have been in the habit of nesting there. This 
summer, on approaching the place on the 29th of June, I 
was surprised to see the islet assume the appearance of a 
beehive. Hundreds of terns were hovering and screaming 
round it. Almost every foot of ground was occupied by a 
tern's nest with eggs, no young ones having then appeared. 
Among them were the nests of a few black-headed gulls, 
whilst in the midst of the sedge bush, the apex of the islet, 
sat a red-breasted merganser on her nest, containing eight 
eggs. On the 12th July about half of the terns' eggs were 
hatched, and I found many of the young sickly and many 
dead, which I attributed, perhaps erroneously, to over- 
crowding. 

Another island in the lake, not more than a quarter of a 
mile distant, contained the nests of many of the lesser black- 
backed gull and a few of the larger black-backs, and I was 
rather surprised that I never saw these fine but voracious 
birds visit the islet to relieve it of the supernumerary eggs 
and young of the terns. A much larger breeding-station of 
the same species of tern is situated on the sea-coast, a couple 
of miles distant from the fresh-water loch. From this station 
a person told me he had taken this season, on one day, 
sixteen dozen of eggs. ISTumerous though this species is, 
the beautiful little tern {Sterna minuta) is, so far as my 
observation goes, a stranger to Islay. It has indeed, I fear, 



38 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

disappeared from many places in the south of Scotland, and 
I have not observed a single specimen for years, though I 
remember it breeding in numbers in Aberlady Bay. Wild 
ducks breed in considerable numbers on two islands m the 
above-named loch, and I may mention that a teal succeeded 
this season in hatcliing there no less than sixteen eggs. The 
most remarkable influx of birds which came under my obser- 
vation last summer occurred on the 5th of September, the 
species being the razor-bill {Alca tor da). The island of Islay 
is almost cut in two by an arm of the sea called Loch-in-daal, 
which opens to the Atlantic. Its shore is almost without 
rocks. No sea fowl breed on it, and in early summer it is 
almost destitute of birds, though in winter it becomes a great 
resort of migrants. On Sunday, the 4th of September, not a 
diver of any kind was to be seen on the loch, but on the 
following day there was a remarkable change. That morning 
every man, and woman too, that I met told me the loch must 
be full of herrings, because " the herring birds had come " — 
so they expressed it. On going to the shore I saw a fair and 
interesting sight. Loch-iu-daal is some four miles broad, 
and about twelve miles long. On that 5th of September its 
w^aters were as smooth and as clear as crystal, and its 
glittering surface was literally covered with birds, whilst 
the air was filled with plunging terns. I did not doubt 
at first that the majority of these birds would prove to be 
guillemots, a bird which I consider much more abundant 
than the razor-bill. On rowing out among them, however, I 
was surprised to find that the whole multitude was exclusively 
composed of razor-bills. During a week that these birds 
remained with us, I only saw half-a-dozen of their congeners, 
the guillemots and pufiins. More than this, I was equally 
surprised to find that a vast majority of these razor-bills w^ere 
young birds. I could make no exact computation, but I im- 
agine that not more than one in twenty were old birds. When 
we remember that the razor-bill, like other auks (with one ex- 
ception), lays but a single egg, this vast assemblage of almost 
exclusively young birds struck me as being very singular. 

If the gmllemot is called " foolish," these young razor-biUs 
were not very wise. They were so fearless as to allow boys 



Mr Scot-Skirving on tlie Natural History of I slay. 39 

to hunt them in boats and kill them with sticks, and seemed 
to have no fear of man whatever. It was interesting to 
observe the few old ones among them utter from time to time 
a weird, plaintive, not ud musical call of warning to the 
young generation, which, however, gave little heed to the 
prudent caution and example of their elders. I have said 
that at this period the sea was absolutely calm and translucent. 
Looking down into its depths one saw m}Tiads of minute 
fishes — most of them, I was told, the young of the herring. 
On these countless birds were feeding, whilst larger fishes, 
including vast shoals of mackerel, were devouring an infinitely 
greater number. I could not but think, when I gazed on 
this scene, of much of the evidence given to the Government 
commissions on the herring fisheries, and I regret to say their 
report too. In that document the poor gannets are specially 
singled out as sinners above all other fish destroyers ; but if 
Mr Frank Buckland, who has written on this question, had 
visited Loch-in-daal last September, he might have seen 
that Nature may very weU be left to take care of herself. 
He might have seen that, though not a gannet was near, 
countless thousands of other birds fed on fish, and that never- 
theless the work of the bu^ds was to be counted as nothing 
compared to havoc done on fish by other fish. Had a flock 
of gannets been present they would have killed some thou- 
sands of mackerel, and in so doing they would have dimin- 
ished by that number far deadlier enemies of the herring 
than they themselves are. 

Wherever there is much animal life, there also death is 
busy. Still I was surprised to see so many dead razor-bills 
float ashore. The beach during their short stay was almost 
fringed with their dead. 

I think, but I quote from memory, that ^Ir Gray noticed 
in a paper a remarkable mortality which took place among 
the auk tribe some years ago in the Firth of Clyde, and I 
think he attributed it to a deficiency of food. This could not 
be the case in Loch-in-daal, which swarmed with minute 
fishes. I hardly care to mention a circumstance with regard 
to the dead razor-bills, as I can offer no explanation of it, but 
it was observed by many persons, and was certainly a fact. 



40 Proceedings of the Royal Fhysical Society. 

It was this : some five out of six of the dead birds had one, 
and in some cases both, of their legs mangled, as if crushed 
or gnawed by some animal. Could it be by small crabs after 
the birds were dead ? In a week or ten days the great 
majority of the razor-bills disappeared, though a sprinkling 
remained in the loch. I may note, while speaking of this 
description of bird, that in fine seasons I have never seen a 
single black guillemot (Uria grylle) on i\iQ Atl^iniio, side of 
the island, yet I found them numerous (in their winter garb) 
on the other side in Jura Sound, on the 5th of November 
last. 

Previous to this season I had noted that I had never seen 
a single skua gull of any species in Islay ; but this year, for a 
short time, Eichardson's skua {Lestris Bichardsonii) appeared 
in considerable numbers during very stormy weather in the 
middle of September. Some of them left the sea and betook 
themselves to the fresh-water loch already mentioned. They 
were in the course of their southern migration. 

Of hawks I have little to report. I have seen no osprey, 
as I did last year, when the strange sight of a hawk plunging 
into the sea attracted the attention of several persons as well 
as myself. 

Gamekeepers have exterminated every hawk breeding in 
the island, except the peregrine, the sparrow-hawk, and the 
mouse-devouring kestrel. 

Our most common migrants are the merlin and the hen 
harrier. The males of the latter arrive early in August, and 
are followed some ten days later by their dark feathered 
dames. One or other may generally be seen in any country 
walk. I have often seen two females hunting in couples, but 
I never saw a male and female, or two males, at one time. I 
have also to note, that formerly the males seemed to be in 
the majority. This season the females were, on the contrary, 
as six to one. But this might, to a great extent, be acciden- 
tal as regarded my personal observation. In former years 
both long and short eared owls were occasionally met with. 
This season I have seen neither. Turning to the largest of 
our migrants, as I this year left the island at the beginning 
of November, I saw no swans ; but they are regular visitants, 



Mr Scot-Skirvinr/ on the Natural History of Islay. 41 

and arrive towards the end of November in considerable 
numbers. About seventy swans generally frequent the loch. 
I have mentioned Loch Gurom, which being translated means 
the Blue Loch, and it well deserves its name. 

The wild geese come earlier. All the species of really 
British wild geese visit Islay, but from personal observation 
I can only speak of three. The bean-goose, so numerous in 
East Lothian ; the pink-footed goose, and the gTey-lag (which 
I am told is the common goose of the northern Hebrides), I 
have never met with in Islay. The other three species of 
geese — the brent, the bernicle, and the white-fronted — are 
very common ; but so far as both my observation and my 
information goes, they are strictly, and very singularly, as it 
seems to me, confined to certain special localities. Perhaps 
this may not be absolutely true as regards the brent goose 
{Anser hrenta). This is much more a sea-bird than any of the 
others. It very seldom comes inland, and feeds almost ex- 
clusively on marine vegetation. It arrives early in Loch-in- 
daal, and remains there all the winter. The beautiful 
bernicle goose, so far as I know it, arrives in a flock of about 
five hundred (I am told that twenty years ago fifteen hundred 
was nearer the mark). This flock appropriates to itself a 
small island to the north of Islay, close to the shore, and it 
is only when the season is advanced that it ventures to take 
up its abode on the adjacent coast of Islay itself. 

One of the songs of Islay (and they have many songs there) 
enumerates the distinguishing features of the island. One of 
these is — " Strings of wild geese long and grey." Islay, how- 
ever, is not visited by one grey goose for a hundred that 
come to feed on the broad stubble of East Lothian. My 
information does not serve me as to whether portions of Islay 
which I do not know, are, or are not, visited by wild geese ; 
but a flock of eighty or a hundred come as regularly as clock 
work to the locality which I know best, arriving early in 
October. These are the white-fronted goose {Anser alhifrons), 
and unlike bean-geese. They really are rather stupid geese, 
because they persist in frequenting the small fields of small 
crofters, where there are great opportunities of stalking them, 
whilst every day they fly over several very large fields of oat 



42 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

stubble, where they would be comparatively safe from the 
gun of the fowler. 

I never saw this species of wild goose till I went to Islay. 
I find that the first year's bird has none of the distinguishing 
marks of the white-fronted goose. There is no white on the 
head, and there are no black feathers on the breast. The 
breast is in fact white. Year by year the black feathers seem 
to multiply, forming first in bars, and these widening till the 
breast becomes wholly black. 

Mr Charles St John, a well-known field naturalist, writing 
from personal observation on the habits of wild geese generally, 
states in one of his works that, having managed to approach a 
flock of geese unperceived, he always gave a low whistle or 
made some slight noise, which caused the birds to run to- 
gether, and so offer him a better shot. Now, my experience 
is, that no species of wild goose ever stirs a foot when ren- 
dered anxious or alarmed. They all strike up their heads, 
and stand motionless, listening and gazing intently, and, no 
doubt, exercising their strong powers of scent as well. Then, 
when they are certain of danger, they spring at once, nearly 
perpendicularly, into the air, with considerable exertion of 
wing no doubt, but still far from slowly. 

Just as I have each year reluctantly to leave Islay (at the 
beginning of November), the woodcocks begin to arrive in 
numbers. Some are very plump and fat, and do not seem 
tired. Others are thin, and are at first so weak as to be 
capable of short flights only. They, no doubt, come from 
very various distances. But whether they come chiefly from 
the south, the north, or the centre of Europe, or from all of 
these regions, they must fly across the whole of Great Britain 
before reaching the west coast of Scotland, or, I may add, 
any part of Ireland. It is impossible that they can rest their 
weary wings even for an hour on any part of the east coast 
of Great Britain, as the arrival of the flights would be eagerly 
watched for, and quickly ascertained by hundreds of ardent 
sportsmen. It seems to follow, then, that the great bulk of 
the woodcocks which visit us from other countries, disdain to 
rest till they have reached the districts their instinct tells 
them to select for their winter abode. 



Mr Taylor on some Examples of Torrent Action. 43 

It is pleasant to note that the lively, dapper, and glossy 
chough is as frequent among the sea-cliffs as in recent years, 
and its merry, and not unmusical cry, is often heard at a 
considerable distance from the shore. 

I shall now conclude with a notice of two birds, each 
of a species sufficiently common, but whose plumage was 
abnormal. 

The first was a rock pigeon, a bird which is abundant in 
many parts of the island. Their feathering is singularly 
uniform, considering how apt the domestic pigeon is to vary 
in its plumage. I observed one rock pigeon, however, which 
was of a uniform sooty black. 

The other bird I had a full opportunity of observing. Its 
form showed it to be a barn owl, a bird with which I was 
very familiar in my youth, but which I scarcely ever now 
meet with. This individual was absolutely white all over, 
not even a single tawny feather was to be seen. It is the 
only instance of the barn owl I have observed in Islay. 



IV. Notes on some Examples of Torrent Action near Blair- 
gowrie and Edinlurgh. By Andrew Taylor, Esq. 

(Read ]5tli January 1879.) 

I. In a former paper, I showed how such floods as those of 
Dollar in 1877, the result of a set change of meteorologic 
conditions, may even in modern times be powerful agents in 
making or deforming the geology of the surface. I desire, in 
continuation of the subject, to show how such agencies may 
have accompanied glacial ones, as they do at present in the 
Alps. Much confusion has arisen from attributing aU the 
details of our superficial deposits entirely to ice action. The 
eager advocacy of popular exponents of the power of the 
glacier has caused Alpine observers to ask the question. 
Could glaciers deposit boulder clays ? Here, as mostly 
always, the truth seems to lie in a middle course. Observers 
of glaciers have mostly confined themselves to measuring the 
moraines of such places as the " Mer-de-Glace," to the 



44 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

dilatation or regelatioii of the ice, or otlier minute physical 
experiments requiring such accuracy of observation as to pre- 
occupy the mind from a broad view of surrounding pheno- 
mena. In M. Violet Le Due's "Mont Blanc" we have a 
comprehensive survey of the work of the glacier, with its 
accessories. And there it is laid down that torrents, not 
glaciers, are the immediate cause of the dreaded avalanche of 
the Alpine villagers, as well as the distribution of great 
beds of boulders, sand, gravel, or clay. The glaciers, indeed, 
are only reservoirs of potential water, rendered so when 
loosened from their icy covering by melting spring or autumn 
suns. The glacier does comparatively little in altering the 
surface-contour of the mountains. Its course is marked by a 
long gently-smoothed plain. The side moraines will be there, 
so, too, a thickish deposit of mud ; but the rocks will retain 
their sculpturing they had before being covered by its icy 
sheet. Change, indeed, is only effected when the water from 
its hard sides is melted and flows into the joints and fissures, 
when mountain masses are reft in obedience to hydraulic 
laws. At the same time, the ancient glaciers of the Alps, in 
their recession from a level which was probably at least 6000 
feet below the present ice limit, have left moraines, which 
serve as dams to the descending torrents, till they gain such 
an impetus, when bursting them, to carry the huge boulders 
down to the plains below. The deposits consequent on such 
action are funnel-shaped. The stream drops first the large 
boulders ; next, gravel, great and small ; afterwards, clay and 
sand, as its carrying-power decreases. But it may happen 
that a torrent, instead of bursting an old moraine, may only 
have sufficient energy to cast up the sand and gravel it has 
hitherto carried around its sides, so forming a mountain lake. 
This will become a permanent scenic feature all the more, if 
fed by natural springs. That it has an outlet in nowise 
denies its original mode of forming. We have thus to take, 
as concomitants of torrent action, the more ancient exten- 
sion of the glaciers, and surely, also, accompanied with a 
more powerful torrent energy : the breaking through and 
carrying away of ancient moraines, a power evidenced by the 
existence of mountain lakes where it is only half effected ; 



Mr Taylor on some Examples of Torrent Action. 45 

and that glacier muds and moraines really are only feeders 
to the distributing power of torrents, which readily carry 
away previously-formed boulder deposits on steeply-sloping 
ground. Further, M. Le Due shows that snows remaining 
unmelted on high mountain summits till July or September 
cause even more destructive torrents than those proceeding 
from melting glaciers. 

II. I would refer the Scottish student of these Alpine 
principles of geology in the first place to the course of the 
Ericht above Blairgowrie, not forgetting a general survey of 
the scenic aspects of that favourite entrance to the Aberdeen- 
shire Highlands. 

A survey from the high hill above the town gives perhaps 
the best panorama of all the varied scenic aspects of central 
Scotland. To the east, the Sidlaw Hills, flanking the beauti- 
ful vale of Strathmore ; northward, the great Grampian out- 
liers ; and, in a semicircular sweep westwards, the curiously- 
contorted schistose peaks of the Perthshire and Argyleshire 
Highlands, form their noble setting to the picture. The eye, 
again reverting eastwards, is struck by the characteristic 
single mountain summits round the Trossachs, standing up 
above that great central plain, stretching in almost painful 
uniformity from Perth to near Dunblane. Fife is diversified 
by the peculiar trap-weathered features of the Ochils and the 
Lomonds; with the windings through fertile carses of the 
noble Tay, and bounded by the rough North Sea. No one 
agency could have sculptured this landscape. The great sea- 
wave mentioned by Hector Boece as having destroyed a town 
near the sands of Barry in the reign of Alexander III. may 
also have come on this side of the Sidlaws. Then the popular 
tradition that once the Tay found access to the German 
Ocean may not be solid historic evidence, still it accords with 
some geologic hypotheses as to the incursion of other rivers 
also on the present area of the North Sea. A large chloritic 
boulder of several tons weight on the hill of Caputh, above 
Blairgowrie, is perhaps the best loca,l monument of the 
glaciers. Standing alone in a barren moor, it seems the 
wreck of a large moraine, destroyed by subsequent torrent 
agency. If the long central plateaux along which the whilom 



46 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Scottish Central Eailway runs marks the line of retreating 
glaciers into central Perthshire, no less do the series of barren 
moorland plateaux which stretch in terraces from our coign 
of observation to the Grampians. The series of small shallow 
lochs, of which the six at the Stormonth district are the ter- 
mination, may be the memorials of successive torrents. This 
appears probable, rather than that they are dammed up 
channels of the Tay, from other mountain lochs of apparently 
the same set, being at altitudes of 1000 feet or more. The 
soil round Blairgowrie is a light gravel, much akin to the 
underlying conglomerate rock, more adapted for arboriculture 
than for modern husbandry — very sterile, indeed, in this 
respect, except for the special strawberry crops, to which 
much of it is now devoted. The same characteristics apply 
to the ground flanking the high conglomerate escarpment 
bounding the north-west side of the valley. It is the pro- 
duct, indeed, of these mountain torrent streams — the Ericht, 
the Alyth, and the Isla. When joined into the latter in the 
centre of Strathmore, the current has lost boulder-carrying 
power, and only spreads sand and clay, hence the high 
agriculture round Cupar- Angus. The manner in which the 
Ericht now rapidly cuts out its conglomerate bed may be 
studied in its channel immediately above Blairgowrie. 

The Lornty joins the Ericht about half a mile out from 
Blairgowrie, after a course of about the same length, and 
presents many of the peculiar aspects of a mountain stream 
in miniature. On either of its shelving sides, which owe 
much of their peculiar physiography to the series of trap 
dykes running east and west through this district, and which 
also greatly aid in shaping both the western mural escarp- 
ment of Strathmore, as well as the Sidlaws, on the opposite 
side of the valley, are marks of combs, caused by sudden 
transverse currents, only active in very stormy seasons. The 
side valley on which stands the old ruins of Glascune Castle 
is a very marked example of a comb on a constant feeder ; 
and at its junction with the Lornty will be found a long 
gravel funnel. Nearly opposite, at the head of a grass park, 
the surface soil has slipped down nearly a foot and a half 
from a dry-stone dyke. The inclinature of a field is such 



Mr Taylor on some Examples of Torrent Action. 47 

that a stone hurled from the top speedily finds its way into 
the Lornty, which flows here in great force. The winter 
snows may thus press the soil into the rapid flowing waters, 
and this ultimately goes to form the haughs at its junction 
with the Ericht, near Mr Grimond's flax mill. 

The name Ericht, the Gaelic for rough or rapid, sufficiently 
suggests torrent action. The tourist ascending from Blair- 
gowrie to Glenshee follows its course in an almost south-east 
direction across a series of high table lands to its source in a 
Grampian summit. The normal contour line of that great 
stretch of moors through which, too, the Isla and Alyth run 
in a parallel direction, is 1000 feet. This may have been due 
to a receding glacier ; but the banks of the Ericht show earth 
sculpturing long after the icy sheet was confined to the 
higher ranges of the Grampians, probably at a much loftier 
elevation than now. To this may have been superadded 
torrents from melting snows on the higher mountain peaks 
in summer. The Ericht proper begins near the Bridge of 
Gaily, above which the Ardle and Blackwater join ; but this 
last main stream has had a previous course of nearly twenty 
miles, beginning at Cairnbeg. The traveller by coach road 
to Braemar, after passing through Eattray, and gaining the 
summit of the waterfall above Craigmill, finds the route to 
Invercauld Arms to run along the top of a wide valley in 
which the Ericht runs more than 300 feet below. The bold 
escarpment of conglomerate on which stands Craighall House, 
the Tully Veolan of Sir Walter Scott, shows the last remnants 
of a washed-out conglomerate from the road level. The numer- 
ous cross feeders having their source on the flat moorlands on 
either side are also powerful denuders, except when protected 
by skilful arboriculture, as in Mr Alexander Grimond's 
lovely paradise of Glen Ericht. Along the upper course of 
the Ericht are scenes very like those depicted in Le Due, 
illustrative of the sculpturing work of Alpine torrents, espe- 
cially near the Mains of Drimmie, and at the junction of 
the slate and conglomerate, near Invercauld Arms Inn. The 
contouring of the valley downwards has an interesting con- 
nection in this point of view. In the valley of the Ericht 
the lines fall rapidly from 1000 to 500 feet; its total breadth 



48 Proceedings of the Royal Tliysical Society. 

is two miles. At tlie inn itself, where the conglomerate 
rests on the harder slates, 400 feet is lost in little over 
half a mile. The general slope from the high country above 
the inn down to the junction of the Ericht and Lornty, below 
Craighall, a distance of over three miles, is fully 100 feet. 

III. The observers of the superficial deposits around Edin- 
burgh have noted that their local character dominates over 
their other more general relations to other districts. Beds 
showing turbulent action, and quiet lacustrine deposits, have 
distinctly marked areas round the city. The presence of 
great boulders on Arthur Seat and the Pentlands, which must 
have come from a site several hundred feet above their pre- 
sent localities, are amongst our most noted geological puzzles. 
In view of the general remarks on Alpine torrents at the 
beginning of this paper, might not our local deposits be again 
surveyed ? True notions of the amount of local denudation 
of the rock strata must form the bases of our conclusions. 
Erom several papers recently published, we see that the 
assertion of many thousand feet covering Arthur Seat does 
not meet with its once universal credence. And, if it is 
granted, it is doubted whether the covering beds were those 
of the upper carboniferous beds following the regular strati- 
graphic sequence so dear to text-book geologists. Extensive 
evidences of lateral pressure and shift prevail throughout 
the district. Can it be denied that the contortions, faultings, 
and downthrusts of the surrounding shale and coal fields, 
aftected also the incumbent superficial deposits ? Of course 
the geologist, according to his text-book, holds that either all 
the successive strata up to the Mesozoic, the wrecks of which 
constitute the Western Islands, were successively laid on 
Arthur Seat to be afterwards swept away ; or, that a great 
quiet prevailed through all the time from the Permian to the 
Glacine period. But is this seeking out the true succession 
shown in field observations ? The belief in the plug at the 
summit of Arthur Seat is now questioned. If it be not 
there, may not the old lakes round the hill and the large 
boulders be the relics of torrents from ice-sheets at a higher 
locality now washed away ? Professor Eleming noted that the 
boulder clay takes its colour from the character of the rocks 



Mr Taylor on some Examples of Torrent Action, 49 

it caps. The shales of the Midlothian coal measures give it 
a dark brown colour ; but on passing Cupar it changes to a 
light reddish grey, in accordance with the prevailing tint of 
the subjacent sandstones. Fleming thence argued that prob- 
ably our eastern boulder clays were deposited in two or three 
great lakes, extending from Edinburgh to near Aberdeen; 
all the great rivers now cutting through it, finding access in 
that direction to the German Ocean. Perhaps a series of 
smaller lakes in connection with high glacier or snow 
gathering grounds, now either washed away or warped down 
by those forces evidenced by the cleavage planes of our 
Scottish hills, may come nearer the truth. This system of 
lakes and torrents prevailed long after this, even probably to 
prehistoric times. It is said that branches and stems found' 
in the clays of Boroughmuirhead are identical as to the 
character of the wood with that found in the old timber 
fronts of the High Street. Old residenters still remember 
the sheet of water at Norton Park ; and of many smaller 
sheets in the vicinity of Scotland Street, the inciting cause of 
that aristocratic fever once the cause of great mortality in 
the New Town. Mr Milne Home, at page 29 of his " Estuary 
of the Forth," gives the following section of a cutting at the 
North British Railway workshops of St Margaret's, at Parson's 
Green, 150 feet above the sea-level : (4.) Sand horizontally 
stratified, about 20 feet thick; (3.) Finely laminated brown 
clay, apparently derived from Nos. 4 and 2 ; (2.) Brown clay, 
partially stratified, containing angular fragments of rock and 
coarse gravel ; (1.) Boulder clay resting on the trap-rocks of 
Arthur Seat — very tough. 

Again in the " Lithology of Edinburgh," p. 59, Professor 
Fleming says: "We have already noticed the proof of a 
motion from the west by the boulder clay squeezing east- 
wards portions of the shivers which it overspreads. At the 
junction above of the clay with the sand, angular fragments 
of sandstone frequently occur in considerable quantity, as in 
the recent excavation on the south side of the Canongate and 
north side of St Leonard's valley. Those comparatively flat 
or tabular masses, were generally arranged as we find similar 
flat stones in the channel of a river, dipping in one direction. 
VOL. v. D 



50 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

From the pressure exerted on their surfaces, they cannot rest 
unless either lying horizontally or dipping in the direction 
where the current flowed, or towards the source. In this 
case the current which assorted the boulders in the sand, had 
an easterly direction. It is difficult to find, in the boulder 
clay itself, satisfactory examples sufficiently numerous, among 
the generally rounded blocks, from which to draw any infer- 
ence." 

The destruction caused to property round Canonmills, in 
the autumn of 1877, by the floods of the Water of Leith, was 
evidence of the carrying and carving power of that rather 
insignificant stream in an ordinary season. Geologists had 
previously noted sections of its bed showing rapid action. 
Thus in digging for the foundations on the north side of 
Charlotte Place, to the west of St George's Church, Fleming 
records the finding of a bed of from 2 to 3 feet of angular 
fragments or shivers of bituminous shale, resting on the fixed 
strata of the same material. " The boulder clay rested on the 
shivers, and seemed to have had a motion from west to east." 
In one place it had caused pipes of the shivers, below and 
above the regular bed. In some places again a sand-bed 
interposes betwixt the two layers. Mr John Henderson has 
since described a somewhat similar section in the upper 
course of the stream above Colinton. But at the site of the 
gasometers, beside the once celebrated Tanfield Hall, on the 
road to Newhaven, several of such sections have been noted. 

Both of the companies supplying Edinburgh have depots 
at this locality. 

The following quotation, from Fleming's "Lithology of 
Edinburgh," p. 52, refers to the first and westermost gasometer 
erected by the Edinburgh and Leith Gas Company, on the 
Brandon Street side of the river : " When the foundation for 
the gasometer on the south side of the Water of Leith, at 
Tanfield, was being dug, a similar display of the junction of 
the shivers with the boulder clay presented itself. In this 
case, and the former, the shivers sometimes reached the length 
of 3 or 4 inches. Here they consisted of a light-coloured 
somewhat indurated slate-clay, occasionally arenaceous. This 
mass of fragments, forming a bed from 2 to 3 feet in thick- 



Mr Taylor on some Examples of Torrent Action. 61 

ness, rested on the edges of strata of apparently similar 
materials, and were covered by the boulder clay. There was 
no transition between the one and the other, the line of junc- 
tion being abrupt. At one place a tongue or spit of shivers 
ascended into the till, of nearly 6 feet in length, rising at 
about 20°, and pointing eastward." 

In the figure given with this description, a trap-dyke {d ) 
cuts through the almost vertical rocks, and is marked as 
abraded to allow the shivers to lie on it. In cutting the 
foundations for the most easterly of this company's gaso- 
meters nine years ago, to a depth of 25 feet, this dyke was 
found standing right up in the boulder clay. It had to be 
levelled by blasting. 

The Edinburgh Gas Company occupy the area on the north 
side of the stream by five gasometers, the two westerly ones 
having only been erected last summer. Through the kind- 
ness of Mr Peter Henderson I give a section of the founda- 
tions, which were dug to a depth of 20 feet. They formed 
4 feet humus and soil, 9 feet sand and gravel, and 13 feet 
boulder clay. In this latter bed were found long trunks of 
beeches, 20 feet by 2 feet broad. While digging the founda- 
tions for the gasometer on the opposite bank of the stream 
just referred to in the preceding paragraph, haK-a-dozen stems 
of beech and hazel were dug out. Here, too, the total thick- 
ness of the boulder clay was pierced, which was not done in 
the foundation digging of last summer, and beneath it was 
found, not a layer of shale shivers as in Fleming's section, 
but one of trap-boulders, which were broken up to mac- 
adamise the yard. These finds apparently connect with the 
peat-bed between Leith and Golden Acre, described by Mr 
Milne Home many years ago. Below a bed of sand, some 10 
feet thick, this peat-bed, 1 foot thick, rested on 10 feet of 
laminated blue clay, again superinjacent on the boulder clay. 
In this peat-bed were roots of trees, apparently hazels, which 
evidently had grown in the clay. The bark was alone 
undecayed; there were stems of marsh plants, and small 
seeds not unlike those of the whin which the late Mr M'JSTab 
attempted to germinate without success ; there were also some 
elytra of beetles. Professor Fleming conclusively showed 



52 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

this to be drift peat — and it indicates a continuous set of 
conditions for at least a mile. Perhaps a smaller find, 
reported to have been discovered near Colinton, also may be 
due to torrent action of very recent times. 

At the Botanic Garden and Golden Acre geologists have 
recognised filled-in lakes of silt or sand in the superincum- 
bent boulder clay. As previously stated, such a series of 
lochs would form part of a scheme of the surface deposits 
being laid down by intermittent torrent action. 

In connection with the paper there was shown an iron 
horse shoe of recent make, covered by a ferruginous conglom- 
erate cement, and found 13 feet from the surface, in the sand 
and gravel capping the boulder clay, at the New Leith Docks, 
beside Seafield Baths. The shoe is in the possession of Mr 
Johnstone of the Leith office of the Edinburgh Gas Light 
Company. 



V. List of the Birds which have been observed in the Parish of 
Ccdlander, Perthshire. By J. Hamilton Buchanan, Esq. 

(Read 19th March 1879.) 

The following list is the result of observations made from 
time to time by my father during the last thirty -two years, 
with some additions from my own notes for the past four 
years ; and although it may be still necessary to supplement 
it, it is, I think, as nearly complete as possible. Before pro- 
ceeding to give the list in detail, it may be well to describe 
the physical characteristics of the district. 

The parish of Callander is situated in the south-west of 
Perthshire. It is about eighteen miles long by ten broad, 
and exhibits the usual variety of Highland scenery, except 
at the eastern extremity, where it bounds with the Lowlands. 

There are several lakes in the parish, the chief of which 
are. Loch Katrine, Loch Vennachar, and Loch Lubnaig. The 
shores of the first two are sandy, while those of the last 
named consist mainly of gravel, there being also a marshy 
portion, which forms the breeding haunts of many coots, and 
several pairs of little grebes. Around the shores are to be 



Mr Buchanan on the Birds Observed in Callander. 53 

observed in summer many common sandpipers, and occa- 
sionally a few pairs of oyster-catcliers. The lesser black- 
backed gull also frequents the loch at the same season, but I 
have never been fortunate enouoh to discover its nest. In 
winter, when the water is not frozen, certain species of wild 
fowl are also found there. 

The mountains are mostly in the northern and western 
parts of the district, the chief of which are Ben Ledi and 
Ben Yoirlich, the former 2875 feet above sea-level, and the 
latter 3224 feet. These were formerly the retreats of some 
of our nobler birds of prey, but owing to the short-sighted 
policy of gamekeepers and vermin-killers, few, if any, are 
now found there. 

Probably two-thirds of the area of the parish are moun- 
tainous, and one-third wooded or in tillage. The woods are 
chiefly natural copse, but there is also a considerable extent 
of pine plantation, which varies in age from three to sixty 
years. In these woods are found several interesting birds, 
such as the woodcock, jay, ringdove, and capercailzie. On 
the lower grounds the partridge and several of our smaller 
birds are to be found ; and on the moorland are innumerable 
grouse, blackgame, plover, and curlew. 

From the chain of lakes comprising Loch Katrine, Loch 
Achray, and Loch Vennachar, flows one branch of the Teith ; 
and from Loch Lubnaig there falls another branch down 
through the Pass of Leny. These unite immediately above 
Callander, and being joined by the Kelty at the eastern 
border of the parish, fall eventually into the Forth a few 
miles above Stirling. The natural flow of all the water of 
the parish is into the basin of the Forth, but of late years an 
artificial flow for a large portion has been constructed to 
supply the basins and punch-bowls of Glasgow in the valley 
of the Clyde. 

With reference to geology, the rocks of the district con- 
sist chiefly of slate of the Silurian period, with occasional 
sections of conglomerate and grey sandstone of the Lower 
Devonian strata. There is also a vein of fine mountain lime- 
stone or marble, running from south-west to north-east in 
the hills to the north of Callander. This contains 96 per 



54 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

cent, carbonate of lime, and is probably a cause of the 
fertility of the meadow land in the valley of the Teith. The 
dip of the strata is from north-east to south-west. The soil 
is naturally rather light, but has been much improved by 
draining and tilling, and other agricultural operations. 

One or two botanical notes may be of use, as the distribu- 
tion of birds in a district largely depends upon the food and 
shelter afforded by the plants which it contains, especially 
the trees. I have already observed that there are consider- 
able pine plantations. In the glens are numerous coppices 
of hazel, oak, birch, alder, and many other native woods ; 
while the banks of several of the streams are edged with 
willows. In the natural woodlands there is an abundance of 
the various berry-producing plants; while in many places 
the commoner ferns grow in such luxuriance, as to make it 
difficult to force one's way through them. Formerly there 
-were several of the rarer sorts of ferns, which were so eagerly 
sought after, as to have apparently become extinct. On the 
higher grounds there is an abundance of broom, juniper, 
gorse or whin, and bog myrtle. Heather grows luxuriantly 
on the hill sides, and higher up such plants as cranberries 
are found, while on many of the mountain tops, amidst 
their rocks and peat hags, are the mosses that red-deer delight 
in. 

The average yearly rainfall for the last ten years is from 
56 to 86 inches in various parts of the parish; and the 
temperature for the same period in the summer six months 
is 57°, and in the winter 36°. 

I have given in this paper the Latin, the English, and, 
where practicable, the original and literal translations of the 
local Gaelic names, as given to me by a shepherd resident in 
the district. 

BuTEO VULGAEIS (Leach) ; Common Buzzard ; Clamhan 
(" loosely feathered "). — A few are usually seen about Novem- 
ber, but none breed in the neighbourhood. 

Aquila chrysaetos (L.) ; Golden Eagle ; lolair (" leader, 
shower of the way "). — Almost, if not quite, extinct. The 
former eyries were Ben Ledi, Glenartney, and Balquhidder. 



Mr Buchanan on the Birds Observed in Callander. 55 

In my father's note-book for January 31, 1862, he says that 
he had a shot at an eagle, but failed to secure it. In the 
" New Statistical Account of Scotland," in the chapter referring 
to the parish of Callander, eagles, probably golden eagles, are 
spoken of as being sometimes seen in the Trossachs. 

Pandion haliaetus (L.); Osprey; lolair-uisge ("water 
eagle, eagle fisher "). — Quite extinct. There used to be a pair 
on Loch Menteith, but these were destroyed, probably about 
thirty or forty years ago. 

Falco peregrinus (L.) ; Peregrine Falcon ; Seahhag-seilge 
(" hunting hawk "). — Pare. A pair nested on Ben Ledi in 
1874, but not subsequently. 

TiNNUNCULUS ALAUDARius (Gmelin) ; Kestrel. — Abundant ; 
especially in early spring. 

MiLVUS ICTINUS (Savigny) ; Kite ; Clamhan gohhlach 
(" forked-tailed gled "). — Extinct ; said to be formerly com- 
mon in the Trossachs. I have seen one or two remnants of 
tails, of the parts that are used for salmon flies from that 
locality, and have been told that early in the present century 
rewards were offered there for the destruction of this and 
other birds and beasts of prey. 

AcciPITER NISUS (L.) ; Sparrow-hawk ; Speireag-hheag 
(" little savage "). — Common, but not nearly so plentiful as 
the kestrel. 

Circus cyaneus (L.) ; Hen Harrier. — Very rare ; one shot 
in 1875. 

Strnium ALcrco (L.) ; Tawny Owl. — Tolerably common. 

Otus vulgaris (Flem.) ; Long-eared Owl. — Pretty common 
in early spring. 

Otus brachyotos (Forster) ; Short-eared Owl. — Compara- 
tively rare; one shot in 1874. 

Strix flammea (L.) ; Barn Owl. — Common, but mostly so 
in autumn. 

The local Gaelic name for aU owls is Cailleach oiche, 
" night wife," or " old woman of the night." 

Caprimulgus europgeus (L.); Mght Jar. — Very rare; one 
shot in 1866. 

Cypselus apus (L.); Swift. — Tolerably common. A few 
pairs generally nest about the village of Callander. 



56 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

CoTYLE EIPARIA (L.) ; Sand Martin. — Common. There is a 
small colony of about thirty nests 2^ miles west of Callander, 
Their usual date of arrival is about the 6th of May. 

HiRUNDO RUSTICA (L.) ; Swallow ; Gohhlan-gaoithe (" forked 
wind"). — Abundant. They usually arrive from the 13th 
of April to the 8th of May, and depart about the 2d of 
October. 

Chelidon urbica (L.); House Martin. — Still common, but 
on the decrease. 

Alcedo ispida (L.); Kingfisher; Cruitean ("cymbal"). — • 
Very rare ; two seen in December 1873, another in March 
1877. 

Certhia familiaris (L.); Creeper; Shag ("quick tap"). — 
Common, especially in winter, which, I think, is partly due to 
the fact of the leaves being off the trees, and consequently 
the birds are much more easily seen. 

Troglodytes parvulus (Koch); Wren; Dreadhan (from 
its voice). — Common. 

Sylvia cinerea (Lath.) ; White Throat. — Common. 

Phyllopneuste trochilus (L.) ; Willow Warbler. — Com- 
mon, especially in certain localities along the river sides. 

Eegulus cristatus (Koch) ; Golden-crested Wren. — Very 
common in winter ; generally in flocks of considerable size. 

EuTiciLLA PHCENICURA (L.); Eedstart ; Ean-dhearg ("red 
stern"). — Pretty common in June and July. 

Erythaca rubecula (L.); Eobin; Broinn ("red belly"). — 
Extremely abundant throughout the year. 

Saxicola cenanthe (L.); Wheat-ear. — Almost rare; only 
seen in early spring. I do not think that this bird breeds in 
this neighbourhood, as I have rarely, if ever, seen it after the 
middle of April, and have never found its nest. 

Pratincola rubetra (L.); Whinchat; Gloichuin ("cairn 
frequenter"). — Bred in 1875, and possibly since. 

Pratincola rubicola (L.); Stonechat. — Eare; one shot 
in 1877. 

Accentor modularis (L.); Hedge Accentor. — Extremely 
common. 

Parus major (L.) ; Great Titmouse. — Very common. 

Parus CiERULEUS (L.) ; Bluc Titmouse ; Coichan. — Common. 



Mr Buchanan on the Birds Observed in Callander. 57 

Parus britannicus (Sh. and Dr.); Cole Titmouse. — 
Common, especially in autumn, at which season it assembles 
in tolerably large flocks. 

Parus palustris (L.) ; Marsh Titmouse. — Not common by 
any means, though I shot one or Loch Lubnaig side in May 
1877. 

AcREDULA ROSEA (Blythe) ; Long-tailed Titmouse. — Toler- 
ably common. 

MOTACILLA YARRELLI (Gould) ; Pied Wagtail ; Breac 'n sil 
("speckled one of the seed"). — Common; breeds. 

BUDYTES BOARULA (Penn.) ; Grey Wagtail. — Common; more 
so, indeed, I think, than the preceding. 

Anthus pratensis (L.) ; Meadow Pipit. — Very common. 

Anthus arboreus (Bechst.) ; Tree Pipit. — Pare ; one shot 
in 1876. 

TuRDUS VISCIVORUS (L.) ; Missel Thrush; Liath-truisg 
(" grey bird "). — Very common throughout the year. 

TuRDUS PILARIS (L.) ; Fieldfare. — Common from the end 
of October to the beginning of April, sometimes not leaving 
us until the middle of that month. 

TuRDUS MUSicus (L.) ; Song Thrush; Smeorach. — Very 
abundant. The literal translation is the end of an arrow 
next the bow-string — perhaps from the shape of the tail, or 
from the feathers being used for arrows. 

TuRDUS ILIACUS (L.) ; Eedwing. — Tolerably common, but 
not nearly so much so as the fieldfare. 

TuRDUS MERULA (L.) ; Blackbird ; Lon-dubh (" black impu- 
dent thing "). — Extremely common. Earely pied specimens 
occur. 

TuRDUS TORQUATUS (L.) ; Eing Ouzel. — Pare; one last 
found in 1874. 

CiNCLUS AQUATicus (Bechst.) ; Dipper ; Gohh-uisge {" water 
smith "). — Common, though much persecuted by gamekeepers 
and others, who imagine that they are great enemies of fish 
spawn. 

MusciCAPA GRisoLA (L.); Spotted Flycatcher. — Not common. 

Ampelis garrula (L.); Waxwing. — Very rare. Some seen 
about 1840; another observed by myself on December 29, 
1878. 



58 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Gareulus glandarius (L.) ; Jay; Scriachag choille (" wood 
screamer"). — Not common. There are generally, however, 
one or two nests found every year. 

Pica CAUDATA(Flem.); Magpie; Pioghaid ("parti-coloured"). 
- — Eare, owing to continued persecution. 

CoRVUS CORAX (L.) ; Eaven; Fitheach ("deer-eater"). — 
Eare. One pair still breeds on Ben Ledi, and another on a 
rock in the immediate vicinity. 

CoRVUS CORONE and cornix (L.) ; Carrion and Hooded 
Crows ; Fionnag. — In the last edition of Yarrell these 
birds are described as being one and the same species. With 
us both are common, and breed, but I have never heard of a 
single instance of their inter-breeding. 

CoRVUS FRUGILEGUS (L.) ; Eook ; Bocas. — Tolerably common 
in spite of a great portion of the only rookery having been 
" partly blown or partly cut " down within the last two years, 
which has caused the mass of the birds to migrate to another 
parish. Prior to this disaster, the extent of the rookery was 
about 24 acres, and the number of nests from two to three 
hundred. They first appeared in the parish about sixty or 
seventy years ago. 

CoRVUS MONEDULA (L.) ; Jackdaw ; Cathag (" little quarrel- 
some one "). — Extremely common. 

Sturnus vulgaris (L.) ; Starling ; Druid. — Very common, 
but last year hardly so plentiful as in the preceding one. I 
have been told that thirty or forty years ago this bird was 
rarely, if ever, seen. 

Fringilla Calebs (L.); Chaffinch; Breican-heithe ("speckled 
birch frequenter"). — Plentiful, and on the increase. 

Fringilla montifringilla (L.) ; Brambling. — Eare. 

Fringilla carduelis (L.) ; Goldfinch. — Very rare, owing 
to it being continually persecuted by birdcatchers. 

Passer domesticus (L.) ; House Sparrow ; Gealhhan. — 
Abundant. 

Chlorospria chloris (L.); Greenfinch; Geal-haine. — Pretty 
common. 

Pyrrhula rubicilla (Pall.) ; Bullfinch ; Lasair-choille 
(" woodflame "). — Common in all suitable localities, and on 
the increase. 



Mr BuchoMan on the Birds Observed in Callander. 59 

LoxiA CANNABINA (L.) ; Crossbill. — Very rare, but, I 
believe, forty or fifty years ago a regular winter visitor. 

^GiOTHUS RUFESCENS (Vieill) ; Lesser Kedpole ; Gealan-lin. 
— Comparatively rare. 

LiNOTA CANNABINA (L.) ; Linnet ; Gealan. — Very common. 

Emberiza miliaria (L.) ; Common Bunting. — Not common, 
and becoming much rarer every year. 

Emberiza citrinella (L.); Yellow Bunting, Yellow Broom 
Bird ; Bicidheag-hhealuidh. — Abundant. 

Emberiza schcenicla (L.) ; Eeed Bunting. — Very rare ; one 
shot in 1876. 

Plectrophanes nivalis (L.); Snow Bunting. — Kare as a 
rule. A great many occurred during the winter of 1874-75. 

Alauda arvensis (L.); Skylark; Uiseag ("exalted, digni- 
fied, high-born"). — Still common, though very much on the 
decrease. 

CucuLUS CANORUS (L.); Cuckoo. — Common, especially in 
warm, dry years. They usually arrive about 28th April, and 
depart in the beginning of July. 

CoLUMBA palumba (L.) ; King Dove; Colman-coille. — 
Common, but chiefly in spring and summer. 

Phasianus colchicus (L.) ; Pheasant ; Easeag. — Abundant, 
but only so within the last forty years. 

Perdix cinerea (Briss.) ; Partridge ; Cearc-thomain (" hen 
of the knolls "). — Not common, which is probably due to the 
fact of the absence of crop. 

Tetrao urogallus (L.); Capercailzie; Gabar-coille ("wood 
horse"). — It may be interesting, as Perthshire is still the 
stronghold of this species, to give a few particulars of its 
restoration to the Callander district ; " In 1845 Mr Carnegie 
of Stronvar obtained three female and two male birds, and 
kept them alive for two years, when both the females died. 
This led him to turn out the males, which were shortly 
afterwards found dead. In 1856 they began to appear in the 
pine woods of Laurick, at the south-east of the parish, but it 
was not until 1860 that they became fairly estabhshed there." 
A female was noticed for the first time in Leny woods, 
just above Callander, in 1872, and in 1876 I have good 
reason to believe that they bred there. " There is sufficient 



60 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

evidence to show that they came to the woods around Cal- 
lander from the Braes of Doune, but owing to the isolated 
and not very extensive nature of the woods on Lord Moray's 
property, they probably arrived at Laurick and Blair Drum- 
mond direct from Ardoch and Drummond Castle, as our 
statistics show an earlier date of arrival at Laurick and 
Blair Drummond than at the Braes of Doune." 

Tetkao tetrix (L.); Black Grouse; Corliach-dubh (male), 
Liath-chean (female).— Common, but decreasing. 

Tetrao lagopus (L.); Ptarmigan; Tarmachan ("high 
mounting bird "). — Very rare. In my father's notes he states 
that he shot some on Ben Ledi in 1849 ; and in the latter 
part of December 1874, 1 flushed three on Leny Moor. There 
are still said to be a few on Ben Yoirlich. 

Tetrao scoticus (Lath.); Eed Grouse; Corliach fraoich 
(" red bird "). — Still abundant, though in decreased numbers 
since the appearance of the disease in 1846. 

Vanellus cristatus (M. and W.) ; Lapwing ; Adharcan- 
luachrach ("sprightly changeling"). — Extremely abundant 
in suitable localities during spring and summer. 

Charadrius pluvialis (L.); Golden Plover; Fead-ag 
(" little whistler "). — Tolerably common on the moors in 
spring. 

H^MATOPUS ostralegus (L.); Oyster-catcher; Pioghaid 
cuain (" ocean magpie "). — Pretty common, especially of late 
years. A few pairs breed on the Kelty, and possibly on the 
shores of Lochs Vennachar and Lubnaig. 

Ardea cinerea (L.) ; Heron ; Cor-ghlass (" watchful bird "). 
— Pretty common. There is, however, no heronry nearer 
than the Lake of Monteith, which is several miles from the 
borders of the parish. 

Numenius arquata (L.) ; Curlew ; Guil bneach. — Common 
from February to August. 

ToTANUS CALADRis (L.); Eedshank. — Tolerably common. 
Two or three pairs breed in the parish. 

AcTiTis HYPOLEUCUS (L.); Common Sandpiper. — Very 
abundant along the loch shores in summer. 

Gallinago mesia (Leach) ; Common Snipe ; Gohhn-adhair 
(" sky goat "). — Abundant throughout the year. 



Ml' Buchanan on the Birds Observed in Callander. 61 

Gallinago gallinula (L.); Jack Snipe. — Common in 
winter. Said to breed in Glenartney. I have received eggs 
from keepers from that locality, and have been assured that 
they were of this bird, but from its known breeding-range 
this is extremely improbable. 

SCOLOPAX RUSTICOLA (L.); Woodcock ; Crom-nan-duilloeag 
(" the wounded," from oblique manner of flying). — Common 
throughout the year. It was first noticed to breed in 1848. 

Eallus aquaticus (L.) ; Water Eail. — Not common. It is 
generally in the months of February or March that it 
occurs. 

Ortygometra porzana (Bechst.); Land Eail; Trean-ri- 
trean (" bird of the clearance " made for growing any crop). 
— Common, but not nearly so much so as it was fifty years 
ago. They usually arrive from the middle to the end of 
May. 

Gallinula chloropus (L.); Moorhen.— Very common in 
all suitable localities. I found a nest in the beginning of 
last June in the centre of a tuft of rushes, in an open moor, 
about a mile from the nearest water. 

Fulica atra (L.) ; Coot. — Common, arriving in April and 
leaving in autumn. 

Mareca PENELOPE (L.); Wigeon. — Eare. Sometimes shot 
on Loch Vennachar. 

Anas acuta (L.); Pintail. — Mr Colquhoun informs me 
that he saw a small flock of this species on Loch Vennachar 
about 1840. 

Anas boschas (L.); Wild Duck; ToTi^a^ (" wavelet "). — 
Plentiful throughout the year. 

QuERQUEDULA CRECCA (L.); Teal; Crann-lach ("dwarf- 
duck "). — Tolerably common. 

FuLiGULA CRiSTATA (Eay); Tufted Duck. — Eare. Females 
are sometimes shot on Loch Vennachar. 

Mergus castor (L.); Goosander. — Eare, though it has bred 
on the banks of the Teith. To assure myself of this fact, I 
wrote to the owner of the property where the nest was, and 
I give his reply verbatim : " The goosanders nested in the 
park here, the year before last (1877), but not again last 
year. Their nest was on the grass among the roots of an old 



62 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

ash-tree, about twenty yards from the river. The drake did 
not remain at the time of the nesting, but four young birds 
were to be seen about all the summer." This I can confirm, 
as I saw the old female and the four young birds in the end 
of July or beginning of August of that same year. 

Mergus serrator (L.) ; Red-breast Merganser. — Much 
rarer than the preceding. Sometimes seen on Loch Yennachar. 

PoDiCEPS MINOR (L.); Little Grebe; Spagair toin ("ungainly 
walker"). — Tolerably common. A few pairs generally breed 
on Loch Lubnaig. 

Larus canus (L.) ; Common Gull. — Not common. 

Larus fuscus (L.); Lesser Black-backed Gull. — Common 
in spring, at which season it is frequently caught along with 
the curlew, in traps that are set for hooded crows. 

Larus argentatus (Briinn.); Herring Gull. — Tolerably 
common in spring. 

Chroicocephalus ridibundus (L.); Black-headed GulL — 
Very common. Large flocks of adult birds assemble for the 
evening, in wet seasons, from May to August, in the meadow 
land. They usually arrive about six o'clock, and disappear 
towards midnight. Their nearest breeding-station is about 
eight miles distant. 

I am indebted to Mr Harvie-Brown for much help in the 
Capercailzie note ; and to Mr D. Campbell, Callander, for the 
local Gaelic names and translations. 



VI. The Influence of the Becent Storm on Bird Life. 
By Professor Duns, D.D. 

(Read 19th March 1879.) 

In this communication I wish to submit to the Society 
some facts to illustrate the effects of the recent very severe 
weather on a considerable number of our resident and also of 
our migratory birds. The period embraced in the following 
notes is chiefly so much of December 1878 and of January 
1879 as was marked by exceptional severity. 

With the view of obtaining information, I drew up a set of 
queries, varying according to the physical conditions of the 
districts to which they were sent. The gentlemen from 



Frof. Duns on Influence of Recent Storm on Bird Life. 63 

whom I obtained returns are all trustworthy observers. By 
their painstaking kindness, and as the fruit of my own obser- 
vation, I am in circumstances to lay before the Society a 
good deal of accurate information on the subject of this 
paper, gathered from Aberdeenshire, Argyleshire, Banffshire, 
Berwickshire, Inverness-shire, Linlithgowshire, Midlothian, 
Perthshire, Stirlingshire, and Wigtownshire. The topics to 
which the attention of correspondents were directed related 
mainly to the supply of bird-supporting berries last autumn, 
the number of birds found dead from starvation, the species 
which had suffered most, the condition of our winter birds of 
passage, and the occurrence of stragglers. 

Aberdeenshire. — Mr Ferguson of Kinmundy has put at my 
disposal some interesting notes made by him in answer to 
my queries. He says (10th March 1879) : " (1.) The supply 
of bird-supporting berries, such as haws, rowans, service 
berries {Pyrus tormincdis), was not only below the average 
last autumn, but at Kinmundy, Pitfour, and the district of 
Buchan, Aberdeenshire, it was almost nil. (2.) Many birds 
have died from starvation during the recent storm. Even the 
robin has succumbed in many instances, and since the snow 
disappeared great numbers of the skeletons of partridges 
have been seen. (3.) Woodcocks this winter have been excep- 
tionally few. When at Kinmundy, where, however, there is 
not a great deal of cover, we only saw three or four. At 
Pitfour, where there are thousands of acres of wood, they 
were very scarce. Those obtained were not less fit for the 
table than usual. (4.) The migi-atory birds have been later 
than usual. Up to this date only an occasional lapwing has 
been seen, and as there are always a few which remain with 
us over the winter, these exceptional individuals may have 
wintered here. The starlings are making their appearance 
again, but I am not satisfied that they leave us at all, though 
they are not seen in the dead of winter. (5.) In December and 
January, when the ground was completely, to a great depth, 
covered with snow, the wood-pigeon migrated in immense 
flocks to the coast, where the snow covering was more partial. 
They were seen in immense numbers, for instance, in the 
parish of St Fergus, which lies along the coast to the north 



64 Proceedings of the Eoyal Tliysical Society. 

of Peterhead. The Highland piet, or fieldfare, seemed to 
become unusually tame, and numbers of them took refuge in 
the small gardens of the town of Fraserburgh, and were fed 
by the people along with the robins. I saw a considerable 
flock of them this month in the garden of the Free manse at 
New Deer. As soon as the soil began to be visible in this 
neighbourhood, the wood-pigeons returned in innumerable 
quantity, and have caused great destruction among turnips. 
(6.) The only further remark which occurs to me is, that I am 
struck with the absence of common birds in their usual 
numbers, such as blackbirds, thrushes, linnets, and even 
sparrows. During the severity of the storm partridges and 
even grouse fed quite tamely among the ricks in the farm- 
yards, and the former frequented cottage gardens quite 
familiarly." A newspaper correspondent writing from Aber- 
deen on the night of Tuesday, the 31st December, said : " As 
showing the severity of the weather, it may be stated that a 
number of partridges have found their way to the city, where 
several were caught during the day." 

Argylesliire. — Under date December 18, 1878, Mr John 
Campbell, Ledaig, near Loch Etive, writes: "Yesterday I 
found a number of little birds dead and dying — redwings, 
common thrushes, a pair of a kind, one of which I send you, 
chafiinches, etc., etc." "Ledaig, December 25. — I received 
your note this morning, and send you a few more birds which 
I found dead in the garden to-day — a thrush the same as the 
last to make a pair, two redwings, a little bird I don't know 
by its English name; our Gaelic name for it means the 
heather chatterer. The redwings are dying in dozens. To- 
day I got some blackbirds, chaffinches, hedge sparrows, and 
common thrushes." "Ledaig, Decemher 26. — The contents 
of the box I forward to-night I found frozen to death in 
different parts of the garden. The woodcock illustrates the 
great severity of the weather. The weasel was one of the 
prettiest I have ever seen." " Ledaig, January 16, 1879. — 
I send you a little bird I got at the roadside, near my house. 
I have never seen such a small snipe here before. I have 
been inquiring after what you wish to know. The game- 
keeper says the grouse stood the last storm well, as there was 



Prof. Duns on Infiiience of Recent Storm on Bird Life. 65 

plenty of heather, swept bare over large areas by the high 
winds. As to number, I shall give you what I have seen 
myself within the range of a common gunshot — 18 redwings, 
9 thrushes, 6 blackbirds, 2 woodcocks, 2 curlews, 1 black- 
headed bush-chatterer, 1 hedge sparrow, 1 chaffinch, 1 snipe, 
a weasel and a mole ; they were all about or near the garden. 
I account for so many in such a small space by their seeking 
shelter from the north and east winds under the southern 
face of the high overhanging rock behind my house." In a 
note of date 4th current, Mr Campbell says that, since he last 
wrote, he has picked up in the neighbourhood 9 curlews 
{Nnmenius arciuata), 2 golden plovers {Pluvialis aurea), and 
many more of the kinds referred to previously. With refer- 
ence to these notes, I may point out that the so-called 
heather-chatterer is the black-headed bush-chat, or stone- 
chat as it is sometimes called (Silvia rubicola) ; it is occa- 
sionally found in Scotland during the winter, though it is 
not frequent. The pair of thrushes referred to are fieldfares 
(Turdus pilaris), about whose identity Mr Campbell hesitates. 
One hardly wonders at this hesitation, their forms, which I now 
show to the Society, are so much more beautiful than usual. 
The plumage of the woodcock is also very fine, though the bird 
was in very poor condition. It seemed literally to have lost 
all its flesh. The keel of the sternum was almost sharp as a 
knife, and the body of the sternum felt as if its only covering 
was a hard thin skin, the plump padding of muscle having 
been lost. The weasel (Mustela erminea) noticed above merits 
a word. As described, it was very pretty when it reached 
me, more so than now, though it is even yet attractive. The 
fur is only partially whitened. I refer to it chiefly with the 
view of asking. Is it a young form, and does complete 
albinism take place only when its second winter sets in ? 
If so, what becomes of the disguise theory ? I have another 
specimen similarly marked, which was killed in the dead 
of a severe winter, and have seen others. But this by the 
way. 

Banffshire. — Both Mr Ferguson and my Ledaig correspon- 
dent refer to grouse. On the 30th December 1878 the fol- 
lowing note appeared in the Scotsman : 

VOL. V. E 



66 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

" Sir, — During the height of the present severe storm 
grouse were observed to take wing from the high rocky coast 
between Helmsdale and Berriedale, and proceed right out to 
sea. Fishermen tell me that they had seen them fly in packs 
over their heads when about three miles from shore, and by 
the direction they took would strike land somewhere on the 
Banffshire coast, after a flight of about forty miles. It would 
be interesting to know if ever they reached, but which I very 
much doubt, as these birds are not adapted for making such 
long journeys without rest. — I am, etc., A. B." 

Being curious to learn if the arrival of these very venture- 
some birds had been noticed, at my request an acquaintance 
of Mr Thomas Edward wrote to "the Banffshire Naturalist," 
and received the following reply : 

" Low Shore, Baxff, January 17, 1879. 
" Dear Sir, — There have been grouse seen, and shot, too, 
on our coast during this stormy weather, but whether they 
came from Sutherland, or only down from our own hills, I am 
not aware. That they, as well as other birds and beasts, have 
suffered dreadfully, there is no doubt. — Yours sincerely, 

" Thomas Edward." 

Berwickshire. — From John Wilson, Esq. of Wellnage, Dunse, 
I have the following : " I have been so little out of doors for 
a month past, that I could not give you the information you 
asked about the wild birds, of my own observation. I have 
how had the opportunity of questioning several of my farmer 
friends, and shall give you the results. I know from my own 
observation that the crop of haws and berries was this year a 
very poor one. Dog hips were plentiful, but nothing else. 
There were a few berries on some of my hollies, but they dis- 
appeared with the very first days of snow. A few dead 
fieklfares have been noticed lying about, but not many, and 
I liear of nothing else. When the snow was at the deepest, 
the wood-pigeons were desperate. A regular shooting went 
on daily in most of the gardens about Dunse. Above a dozen 
were killed in my own. Tliey were in a fair condition, but I 
hear of both them and rabbits being very lean. For a time 



Prof. Duns on Influence of Recent Storm on Bird Life. G7 

the pigeons were seen in sucli incredible numbers, that I have 
no doubt there had been an arrival from Scandinavia.'' 
(Perhaps these were the Linlithgowshire birds noticed by- 
Colonel Gillon below as having deserted that district.) " One 
friend has seen a flock of snow buntings, after an interval of 
thirty years since he had seen them before. At Bogend a lot of 
partridges, with some water-hens, wood-pigeons, and smaller 
birds, came close in front of the farmhouse, attracted by 
crumbs thrown out to them. The front door being purposely 
left open, several of the partridges actually came into the 
lobby." 

Inverness-shire. — I am indebted to Arthur Forbes, Esq. of 
Culloden, for the following valuable note as to his locality : 
" January 1, 1879. — In reply to your esteemed favour, I may 
state that the last severe and protracted frost told severely 
on birds in this district, although not so much so as in some 
previous winters. Eooks, wood-pigeons, partridges, and some 
kinds of smaller birds were found dead, and woodcocks 
became so poor as to be quite unfit for the table. Wild 
swans were seen on the coast, and gTeat numbers of wild 
duck. Grouse forsook their accustomed moorland haunts ; 
some were seen and shot close to the sea-shore. There were 
unusually few berries on holly, hawthorn, shrubs, etc., this 
season, and even turnip-tops — very much the winter food of 
wood-pigeons — were covered with snow, which lay on the 
ground to about a foot in depth. I consider it w^as want of 
food rather than the severe frost that killed the various birds. 
The lowest temperature in the air was 13° 8', and 6° on the 
grass. For twenty-three nights the thermometer was below 
the freezing-point, and the average temperature for the whole 
month was only 33° 38', being 3° 63' below that of 1860. — 
Yours sincerely, Arthur Forbes." 

Linlithgowshire. — Colonel Gillon of Wallhouse, Bathgate, 
writing on January 9, says : " I may begin by stating that, 
having delayed covert shooting a little too long, the snow 
came on in such earnest, that I had to abandon that sport 
and take to wild fowl and snipe shooting along the rivers and 
burns, chiefly however on Couston and its tributaries. A 
good many birds have died of starvation. Since the storm 



68 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

began I have only seen one woodcock, and when we shot it 
we immediately remarked, ' How thin I' As to pheasants, 
the near feeders, which have grain put down for them, have 
kept their condition well ; but those in outlying coverts have 
suffered much, and two have been picked up starved. Some 
ducks and snipes were in poor condition. Eegarding the 
latter, I may mention that when the rivers were all but 
frozen up, I went into Ballbardie Park, where there are two 
warmish streams, one from the distillery, the other from the 
pits, and in an hour and a half I bagged six couple. Examin- 
ing their crops or throats, I found they had been living on 
slugs of a grey colour. Is this usual ? Before the storm there 
were numbers of wood-pigeons roosting in the Desert and 
Nethermuir, which tried to subsist for a time on the shawls of 
the turnips, but a fortnight ago they disappeared. Where have 
they gone ? Two autumns ago I noticed large flocks of wild 
pigeons coming in to roost, as well as covering some fields 
during the day. I shot two and found they w^ere foreigners 
— smaller than the cushat, of a slaty blue, and without the 
ring. I never saw fewer berries. Our old hollies last year 
had a splendid crop. On December 16th I shot a kingfisher 
— a rare bird here; five years ago a greenshank (Totanus 
glottis), and in 1870 a quail {Coturnix vulgaris)!' 

Midlothian. — The autumnal supply of bird-supporting 
berries was much below the average, the fruit in some cases, 
as in the hawthorn, falling far short of the promise in the 
form of bloom. When the December storm began to moder- 
ate, many birds, chiefly blackbirds and common thrushes, 
were found dead in the gardens and by the highroads in 
country districts. In one garden at Portobello six thrushes 
were picked up. By notes in the newspapers, public attention 
was called to the matter and many instances given. The 
w^eakness of the birds through cold and hunger was taken 
advantage of by youngsters to whom the handling of a gun 
has ever a charm. One could not but sympathise with the 
vigorous protest of "Avis" in the Scotsman. He says : "Any 
one may hear all day long, and in all directions, what might 
almost be termed a 'rattle of musketry,' which is simply 
nothing else but men shooting at, and I presume killing, 



Prof, Duns on Infliience of Recent Storm on Bird Life. 69 

blackbirds, thruslies, starlings, and even sparrows. . . . 
Where is the glory or even the sport of killing small birds. 
I too have seen poor birds under the hedgerows scarcely able 
to fly. Where is the glory or sport in killing a half-dead 
bird ? " 

Perhaps nowhere so well as in the neighbourhood of a city 
can the effects of a severe winter on bird-life be estimated. 
If the instances of death from starvation be many in a 
locality where most things favour the chances of picking 
up a livelihood, what must the state of matters be in districts 
where everything is unfavourable ? A great amount of feeding 
is practised in the outskirts of a city especially ; and to the 
points where crumbs, etc., are regularly laid down, many 
different species congregate, some of them, to judge from 
the state of their plumage, from the country. I have for 
many years, not during the winter only, but, though to a less 
extent, in summer also when at home, been in the habit 
regularly at eight in the morning, of laying down food of 
different sorts in one spot. In severe weather the company 
that flocks together is both numerous and various. Some I 
know have paid a morning visit for several years. There is, 
for example, a sparrow lame of foot and w^ith a strong tend- 
ency to albinism, which I first noticed four years ago, wdth 
one unusually light coloured primary quill, which is now 
prettily mottled all over with white. Perhaps, I should say, 
ivas thus marked, because it has not appeared for several 
days. One morning I counted an assemblage of eight rooks, 
three jackdaws, seventeen starlings, five blackbirds, three 
thrushes, more than two dozen of sparrow^s, one chaffinch 
(male), two large tits {Parus major), two blue tits (P. ca^rio- 
leics), two hedge-sparrows, and one redbreast. When ten 
days ago blinks of more genial weather deceived us into the 
belief that winter had passed, the flock, with the exception 
of about a third of the sparrows, two blackbirds, a pair of 
starlings, and the hedge-sparrows, all disappeared till Tues- 
day of last week, when they again reported themselves in 
large numbers. On Sabbath last all were again present in 
even greater force than before. This near approach to so 
many species has had one great advantage. Aspects of habit, 



70 



Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 



bearing on tlieir association with one another, on modes of 
feeding and the like, with which one can become acquainted 
only in such circumstances, are brought strongly out. All 
of them are worth noting, while some are very interesting. 
But it would delay us too long to refer to these more 
fully. An unusual number of kingfishers have recently 
appeared in our neighbourhood and elsewhere. Mr Hope, 
birdstuffer, George Street, alone preserved nine between 
December 7, 1878, and January 11, 1879. These may be 
tabulated thus : 



Sex. 


Localitj'. 


Date. 


Male, 


. Liberton, . 


. Dec. 7, 1878. 


Female, . 


. Liberton, . 


. Dec. 14, 1878. 


Female, 


. Liberton, . 


. Dec. 14, 1878. 


Male, 


. Ratbo, 


. Dec. 18, 1878. 


Female, 


. Dolphinton, 


. Dec. 25, 1878. 


Female, . 


. Burntisland, 


. Jan. 1, 1879. 


Male, 


. Ormiston, . 


. Jan. 4, 1879. 


Male, 


. Yetholm, . 


. Jan. 7, 1879. 


Male, 


. Jedburgh, . 


. Jan. 11, 1879. 



The Dolphinton specimen was shot at a cottage door at 
some distance from the water. Some of the birds were in 
extremely low condition. 

Perthshire. — In answer to queries, Mr Hew Miller, Wester- 
ton, Ochtertyre, near Crieff, says, 13th March : " The supply 
of bird-feeding berries last autumn was far below the average. 
Many birds have died, particularly the mavis, blackbird, 
chaffinch, etc. Only five woodcocks have been shot here 
this season. At the same time last year forty had been shot. 
This year they all made off when the severe weather set in. 
Grouse stood out pretty well. They appear to be quite 
strong and healthy in the Grampians. Partridges are also 
strong and healthy." 

Stirlingshire. — A fellow of the Society, Mr Eobert Kidston, 
has shown me a communication, dated 11th March, from 
David Bruce, Esq., Stirling, in which the following remarks 
occur : " Few birds were visible long before the end of the 
severe weather. It is, however, difficult to know whether 
their absence is occasioned by death, or departure farther 
south." Referring to the town of Stirling, he says ; " The few 



Prof. Duns on Influence of Recent Storm on Bird Life. 71 

birds visible were chiefly sparrows and blackbirds. In the 
early period of the storm there were many redwings to be 
seen in the Back Walk — say a flock of about sixty or 
seventy. I watched them for about a week or ten days, and 
noticed that they got gradually weaker and fewer. Boys had 
little difficulty in catching them with the aid of their caps. 
They seemed too weak to get away, and I have no doubt 
every one of them perished. Strange, I have seen only one 
fieldfare this winter, and it seemed always to keep about 
fifty yards away from the redwings. The paucity of the 
feathered tribe about us is now marked." 

Wigtoicnshire. — The Kev. George Wilson, writing on the 22d 
of January 1879, says : " I have heard of a few small birds 
being seen dead below hedges, and one man reports he had 
seen a good many dead blackbirds." On the 18th of February 
Mr Wilson informed me that the mortality had been much 
greater than he was aware of previously. Many linnets, green 
and grey, had been found dead. The gulls at Luce Bay had 
suffered much in consequence of the freezing of the shore 
between tide marks, and, as he believes, because the surface- 
swimming fishes had gone out of the reach of the gulls 
because of the intense cold. Gulls alighted and fed along 
with the barn-door fowls. 

These notes supply a good deal of material for speculative 
questions of great interest. For example, the common im- 
pression indicated in the lines — 

* ' Sae lang as it snaws 
The birds will hae haws," 

not only shows that there is some ground for the belief that 
the supply of food for birds generally answers to their 
necessities, but it raises a question which lies further out of 
view. May there not be purpose when the provision is not 
equal to the wants ? Then there is a deeper question still, 
which would lead us to expect the existence of an analogy 
between such seasons of wide-spread havoc among groups of 
animals, say birds, and periods of great mortality among men. 
Both questions seem to me susceptible of a thoroughly 
satisfactory discussion from the point of view of creative 



72 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

interference. But this would lead us into a field which 
properly lies outside of the work of our Society. I merely 
hint at the existence of this field. It is one of immense 
interest to the philosophic naturalist. Leaving such topics, 
however, I conclude from the foregoing notes : 

1. That the supply of bird- supporting berries was much 
below the average last autumn. 

2. That the number of our winter birds of passage has been 
smaller this season than usual. 

3. That the present winter has been one of very excep- 
tional mortality among birds. 

4. That the forms which have suffered most are those (1.) 
which depend on berries, and those (2.) which depend on 
worms and slugs — the mixed feeders having an advantage. 

5. That certain species are enabled to some extent to 
neutralise the exceptional severity of the weather by having 
recourse to partial migrations. 



VII. Note on the Migration of the Pied Wagtail (Motacilla 
Yarrellii). By A. B. Herbekt, Esq. 

(Read ]5th January 1879.) 

Walking along Inverleith Eow one evening, just before 
sunset, in the middle of last September, I heard repeatedly 
the well-known call-note of the pied wagtail, and, looking up, 
saw on two of the houses a large assemblage of these birds, 
sixty or seventy at the least ; and there may have been 
double this number, as I could see only one side of the roofs. 
Many others kept continually arriving, and I noticed that all 
came from one direction, namely, from the north-east, exactly 
from the same quarter whence I observed a large flock of 
fieldfares {Turdus pilaris) in the first week in November. I 
have no doubt the wagtails were migrating, for they seemed 
tired and glad to rest, and I need scarcely remark that tliey 
are not as a rule gregarious in their habits. Mr Gray informs 
me he has observed similar migrations in the west of Scot- 
land, and Mr Scot-Skirving says he once saw some two 
hundred of these birds resting on the roof of the General 



Mr Hcrhert on the Migration of the Pied Wagtail. 73 

Post Office in Edinburgh. The question naturally arises, 
whence come these birds and whither do they go ? As far as 
my observation extends, we have no perceptible increase or 
decrease in their numbers in the winter either here or in the 
middle of England, nor am I aware that this is the case in 
the south of the island ; and it has occurred to me, though of 
course this is merely a conjecture, that these migrations may 
be from Scandinavia to the Continent, or even farther south 
to Africa. Of the winter habitat of the hirundines, thanks 
to Canon Tristram and other observers, we are now pretty 
well informed, but of that of these migratory wagtails we 
seem to kno^v little. I am aware that both Gould and 
Yarrell, and our friend Mr Gray, draw a distinction between 
the Continental species, Motacilla alba, and our own, and I 
would suggest that it is j^ossihle these migrants may be the 
Continental species, but I could discover nothing in their 
call-notes, mode of flight, etc., to induce me to think those I 
saw were any other than our common species ; but this point 
could be easily solved by shooting one of the migrants ; and 
I have ventured to make these few remarks in the hope of 
eliciting from some of our members information on the sub- 
ject. I know no tribe of birds more interesting than the 
three common species of Motacilla of these islands ; beautiful 
in colour, elegant in form, sprightly, joyous, and agile in 
habits, they at once attract our attention, and they are per- 
haps the quickest runners for their size of any birds we 
possess, not proceeding by a series of small jumps like the 
chaffinch and so many others, but running in the ordinary 
mode, and with such rapidity that the eye can scarcely 
follow their movements. I consider the yellow species (if. 
Bayi), which is truly migratory and a summer visitant, the 
most beautiful and graceful of the three; it is more attenuated 
in form, and the fine shadings of yellow and greenish brown 
render it an attractive and extremely pretty bird. Often, as 
a boy, have I sat on a common in summer to watch a pair of 
these birds feeding close to a cow, with whom they seem 
to establish a sort of friendship, as they fearlessly and with 
great adroitness capture flies within a few inches of her 
mouth or legs, for all the tribe are expert fly-catchers, no 



74 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

doubt to the mutual gratification of both bird and quadruped. 
Any one wishing to observe the habits of the grey wagtail 
{Motacilla loarula) can do so without difficulty on the Water 
of Leith, for it is almost impossible at any time, winter or 
summer, to walk from Stockbridge to Dean Bridge without 
seeing several, and they are also frequently to be seen on the 
same stream at Bennington. A favourite place for the nest 
of the pied wagtail is the ivy against our dwellings, and a 
well-kept lawn a favourite feeding ground. They are met 
with at a distance from streams more frequently than the 
grey wagtail, and the yellow species seems to me to be as 
much a frequenter of pastures and commons as streams. The 
grey-headed wagtail {Motacilla flava) is unknown to me, 
though Mr Gray records its having been seen at the Water of 
Leith. 



VIII. On an Abnormal Specimen of Eiiplectella aspergilhtm 
(Owen). By George Leslie, Esq., Demonstrator of 
Zoology, University of Edinburgh. 

(Read 16th April 1879.) 

The specimen which I now exhibit to the Society is one 
which attracted my attention while lately examining the 
zoological collection in the museum of the Albert Institute 
of Dundee. It was sent from Manilla in the Philippine 
Islands, together with a fine Meyerina and examples of the 
normal form of Eiiplectella, and was very kindly entrusted to 
me for description by Mr John Maclauchlan, the curator of 
the museum, to whom I would now tender my best thanks. 
Before describing the specimen, a few observations on the 
history of our knowledge of Eitplectella, and on its general 
structure and contour, may be profitable. 

This beautiful sponge was first described by Professor 
Owen, who in 1841 communicated a paper on the structure 
of an example received from the Philippines to the Zoological 
Society of London. This was subsequently printed, accom- 
panied with an excellent figure in the Transactions of the 



Mr Leslie on a Specimen of Euplectella Aspergillum. 75 

Society.* Professor Owen supposed that the narrower 
extremity of the sponge, with its prolongation of siliceous 
fibres, was the upper free end, and that the wide extremity 
was embedded in the mud or sand of the sea-bottom. It is 
now known that the narrower end is basal, its fibrous terminal 
appendages serving as an anchor to the organism. A similar 
misconception was long current in regard to Hyalonema, the 
glass-rope sponge of Japan, which was described and figured 
as if the cup-like sponge was the embedded part, while the 
siliceous rope, with its encrusting pcdythoa, was free. It is 
thus necessary, in reading Professor Owen's description, 
to reverse his terms of upper and lower, apical and 
basal, etc. 

In 1857 Professor Owen described -f a second species of the 
same genus, Euplcctella cucumer, differing from E. aspergilkim 
by its ventricose shape, the absence of the lateral wavy 
ridges, and in other characters. This specimen was received 
from the Seychelles. Up to this period no second example 
of E. aspergillum seems to have reached this country, as the 
author still terms it unique. In the same paper an account 
is given of the capture of the type specimen of Euplectella 
asjjergilhtvi. It was said to have been got by a fisherman off 
the island of Bohol on a rocky bottom, at a depth of ten 
fathoms. Considering the extreme reluctance of the Philip- 
pine islanders to show the fishing-grounds of Euplectella, and 
the facts that they have been obtained by Europeans at 
depths of not less than ninety fathoms, and on a soft muddy 
bottom, it is probable that the ingenious mariner's account of 
its capture in ten fathoms on a rocky bottom displayed a 
greater share of sagacity than of candour. 

Within recent years the skeletons of Eujjlectella aspergillum 
have been brought to this country in large numbers, so that 
from being one of the rarest of zoological treasures, it has 
now become a very familiar object in our museums. Its 
beauty and symmetry have procured for it the popular name 
of " Venus's fiower-basket." More lately it has been obtained 
with the sarcode or sponge-flesh adhering to it, and Sir 

* Vol. iii., X). 203. t Trans. Liuii. Soc, vol. xxii. 



76 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Wyville Thomson lias kindly permitted me to exhibit a 
specimen in this condition. 

In 1868 Drs Herklots and Marshall described* a new 
form, to which they gave the name of Euplectella Owenii. 
Five examples of this species were brought from Japan by 
Major von Siebold, and these are now in the Leyden Museum. 
Unfortunately no indication of the depth from which these 
were obtained is given. Moj^leciella Oivenii is oval instead 
of round in transverse section, and wants the apical frill. 
This species and a number of other hexactinellids are de- 
scribed at length by Dr William Marshall in his admirable "Un- 
tersuchungen iiber Hexactinelliden." f This author regards 
E'lL'plectella aspergillum and cucumer (Owen) as being specifi- 
cally identical — an opinion now very generally accepted. It is 
worthy of notice in this connection, that Dr Marshall con- 
templates the possibility of the existence of ramose or colonial 
forms of Euplectella, as he writes, J '* Es wiirde mich wenig 
wundern, wenn z. B. Formen gefunden wiirden, die nicht 
mehr aus einer Person bestanden sondern einen Cormus 
bildeten." The contour of the abnormal specimen now 
exhibited seems to favour this hypothesis. 

Sir Wyville Thomson has recently described § and figured a 
third species, Euplectella suberea, obtained during the voyage 
of the " Challenger," at a depth of 1090 fathoms, ninety miles 
south-east of Cape St Vincent. This is the only Atlantic 
form of the genus at present known; but Sir Wyville 
believes in the existence of others from fragments obtained 
during dredging, too imperfect indeed for description, 
but evidently belonging to distinct species. Euplectella 
aspergillum was obtained in the living state in considerable 
numbers by the naturalists of the '* Challenger " off the 
island of Zebu, one of the Philippines, at depths of 95 to 100 
fathoms. All the "Challenger" specimens possess the 
normal form. 

Captain Chimmo, E.N., has recently published an interest- 

* Archives neeiiandaises, Bd. iii. 

-t- Zeitschrift fiir Wiss. Zool., xx. Bd. Suppl.-Heft. 

X Loc. ciL, p. 209. 

§ "Voyage of the ' Challenger '—The Atlantic," voL i., p. 133. 



Mr Leslie on a Speeimen of Euplectella Asjpergillum. 77 

ing account of Euplectella* in which he describes the means 
employed by the natives for its capture, and their manner 
of preparing its skeleton. He states that it is to be found 
only within a very limited area, and at a depth of 120 to 
140 fathoms. It is known, however, that it has a rather 
greater bathymetrical range than this, as shown by the " Chal- 
lenger " specimens. Captain Chinimo figures two abnormal 
forms, neither of which resembles that now exhibited, in 
which one tube is a diverticulum of the other, both of his 
specimens being double tubes, with equivalent longitudinal 
axes. 

Eitplectella belongs to the family Hexactinellida, which is 
characterised by its members always possessing six-rayed 
siliceous spicules. The skeleton consists of a cylindrical 
tube closed at its upper and lower extremities. The internal 
cavity is simple, and is often inhabited by commensal crusta- 
ceans. The average length of specimens, exclusive of the basal 
fibres, is from eight to twelve inches, but some which have 
attained the length of two feet are recorded. The normal form 
which I now exhibit, and on which I shall base my descrip- 
tion, is 24 centimetres = 9^ inches, in length. Its transverse 
diameter at the apex is three centimetres, and this remains 
almost uniform throughout the upper half of the sponge, but 
it rapidly diminishes in the lower half, so that the transverse 
diameter of the basal extremity is rather less than two centi- 
metres. The lower third of the cylinder is sharply bent, and 
this curvature also affects, but to a much less degree, the 
upper part. A concave and a convex side are thus deter- 
mined. In some specimens a secondary curve is seen near 
the upper end, so that the side which is strongly convex 
below, becomes slightly concave above. 

The parietes of the sponge are formed by white glistening 
siliceous fibres, which are arranged in a very definite manner, 
there being a transverse, a longitudinal, and an oblique set. 
The transverse fibres are internal, and form annuli, which are 
very marked when we examine the internal cavity. Each 
annulus is composed of a considerable number of parallel 
siliceous fibrils. They form a very regular series for the 
* ^' 1^2ii\xxdiX History oi Eupleddla aspergillum.^' London, 1878. 



78 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

whole length of the sponge, and are placed at a distance of 
about three millimetres apart, but of course this varies with 
growth. 

The longitudinal fibres, which are external to the trans- 
verse, are also compound. In the apical portion of the sponge 
they are arranged at intervals of about three millimetres. 
They enter largely into the formation of the coronal plate, 
and sometimes bifurcate, so that a band which is simple 
throughout the greater part of its length, is continuous with 
two peripheral trabeculse of the plate. Towards the lower 
extremity each band is resolved into its constituent fibrillse, 
the basal prolongations of which form the root of the sponge. 
These terminal fibres are barbed along their margins and at 
their extremities. 

The transverse and longitudinal bands are bound together 
by oblique fibres. These are not arranged in bundles, but 
consist of a delicate network of primitive fibrilke, which pro- 
ject into the large quadrangular spaces left between the two 
former sets, reducing them to small rounded or irregular 
openings. From the sides of the cylinder some of the fibrils 
are produced outwards, forming the lateral ridges characteristic 
of this species. The ridges are arranged in a number of 
interrupted spirals. They are most marked towards the 
upper extremity. 

The upper opening of the cylinder is provided with a coro- 
nal plate formed by a number of stout anastomosing fibres, 
which leave very irregular interspaces. The fibrillar enter- 
ing into its composition are very intimately united, and the 
coronal fibres have a dull, opaque, fused appearance, very 
different from those of the parietes. This plate is convex 
outwardly. At its periphery the parietal fibres are produced 
upwards into a delicate frill, about four millimetres in height. 
In this process the transverse and longitudinal bands are not 
present. It consists entirely of very delicate reticular fibrils. 

From the consideration of the normal form of Euplectella 
aspergillum we shall now turn to that of the abnormal 
specimen which forms the subject of this paper, and we shall 
find that its peculiarities relate entirely to the contour of the 
sponge, not to its general structure or the arrangement of its 



Mr Leslie on a Specimen of Ettplectella Aspergillum. 79 

spicules. It presents a primary axis, consisting of a hollow 
curved tube, closed below by the siliceous coil, and above by 
a coronal plate, just as in the typical form. When the longi- 
tudinal fibres are traced upwards from the base to the apex, 
on one of the lateral surfaces, they are seen to be perfectly 
continuous throughout, and regular in their arrangement. 
The primary tube differs from ordinary specimens, in that the 
arcuation is stronger in the lower half, and in the upper half 
the direction of the longitudinal axis is changed, producing an 
oblique lateral curvature. The greatest transverse diameter 
is at the junction of the lower and ujDper halves of the tube, 
where it measures four centimetres, while the widest diameter 
of normal specimens is at or near the apex. Its length, 
measured along the curvature of the convex side, is twenty- 
four centimetres, so that it must be regarded as a dwarfed 
specimen, being more robust and wider than the normal form 
we have exhibited, but not exceedin;:!: it in lenoth. 

The most remarkable feature of this sponge, however, and 
that on which the irregularities of the primary tube depends, 
is a diverticulum, which leaves its convex side near the 
junction of its middle with its upper third. This forms a 
shortened elliptical tube, of which the greater transverse axis 
is oblique to the longitudinal axis of the parent sponge. It 
thus presents an infero- and a supero-lateral surface. The 
cavities of the two tubes are continuous with each other. The 
infero-lateral wall is three centimetres in length ; the supero- 
lateral measures from one to two centimetres. The structure 
of the walls of the diverticulum is fundamentally the same as 
Ave have previously described, consisting of transverse, longi- 
tudinal, and oblique fibres, but these are disposed with less 
regularity. It is closed above by a convex reticular coronal 
plate of the ordinary structure, above the periphery of which 
the parietes are produced into a delicate frill. 

That part of the upper wall of the parent sponge continuous 
with the supero-lateral angle of the diverticulum is much 
distorted. It is twisted downwards, and the longitudinal 
bands which enter into its composition meet those of the 
lower part at a considerable angle, instead of having the 
same direction. The structure of the opposite wall is j)er- 



80 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

fectly normal. It should also be observed that the diameter 
of the tube decreases towards the apex, which measures only 
three centimetres across. In the ordinary form we found that 
the greatest transverse diameter was at the upper extremity. 

I was at first inclined to consider this specimen a ramose 
varietal type of E. aspergillum, but, after an examination of 
it, have come to the conclusion that it is to be regarded as an 
abnormality. The sponge, while yet in a very young con- 
dition, had received an injury, by which a small portion of 
its wall had been torn away. The process of reparation of 
this lesion consisted not of a mere bridging across of the 
aperture, but of a slight and irregular lateral outgrowth of its 
margin, and of the partial occlusion of the tube so produced 
by a coronal plate. This increased in size with the growth 
of the sponge, and has been the cause of the irregularity of 
the upper part of the primitive cylinder, which has been 
already noticed. 

The perfect regularity of the lower part of the tube, the 
asymmetry of the diverticulum, and the distortion of that 
part of the parent sponge implicated in its growth, are facts 
which disprove the hypothesis that this is to be regarded as a 
normal variety of Euplectella. I have not seen any record of 
a similar malformation in the literature of the subject, but 
believe that there is a specimen exhibiting it in the Elgin 
Museum. My friend, Mr F. Jeffrey Bell, of the British 
Museum, informs me that there are no branched specimens 
in the national collection. 



IX. Tlie Old Bed Sandstone, of Shetland. By B. N. Peach, 
Esq., A.E.S.M., E.G.S., and John Horne, Esq., F.G.S. 
(Plate I.) 

(Read 19th February 1879.) 

The Old Pted Sandstone of Shetland, though inferior in 
development to that of Caithness or Orkney, claims special 
attention on account of the interesting proofs which it affords 
of the previous extension of that formation, as well as the 
remarkable history of the volcanic phenomena which charac- 



Messrs Peach & Home on Old Red Smidstone of Shetland. 81 

terised that period. Though the areas now occupied by the 
sedimentary rocks are limited in extent, there can be little 
doubt that they convey but a faint impression of the original 
extension of this formation in the Shetland Isles. The fine 
mural precipices of Old Eed Sandstone which are visible in 
some of the islands, notably in Bressay and Foula, furnish a 
striking proof of the importance of the relics which have 
escaped denudation. 

As far back as the year 1811, Dr Fleming pointed out the 
occurrence of vegetable impressions in the sandstones of 
Bressay, in a paper published in the Memoirs of the Wer- 
nerian Society, vol. i, entitled, " A Mineralogical Account of 
Papa Stour." Since that time numerous plant remains have 
been found in the members of this formation at different 
localities in Shetland. 

In 1853 Dr Hooker referred some plant remains collected 
from the Lerwick sandstones, by the Eight Hon. Henry 
Tuffnell, to calamites ; while, in 1858, Sir Eoderick Murchison 
intimated the discovery of Estheria in the Lerwick beds, 
which linked these strata with those of Caithness and 
Orkney. 

Dr Hibbert, in his admirable work on the Shetland Isles, 
laid down approximately the limits of the different Old Eed 
Sandstone areas. In 1877 Dr George Gibson published a 
thesis descriptive of these rocks ; and in 1878 Professor 
Geikie, in his exhaustive monograph on the Old Eed Sand- 
stone of the North of Scotland, described the relations of the 
Shetland representatives to the other members of this forma- 
tion in Orkney and Caithness. He refers specially to the 
proofs of volcanic activity in Papa Stour, the geological 
structure of whixih is given in detail. 

During the summer of 1878 we made some traverses in the 
islands for the purposes of determining the disputed question 
of their glaciation, and in the course of these traverses we felt 
it to be necessary to map out with as much minuteness as 
time would permit the boundaries of the various Old Eed 
Sandstone areas, on account of the important evidence which 
they furnish regarding the movements of the ice in the 
glacial period. We were induced to work out the order of 

VOL. V. F 



82 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

succession on the eastern side of the Mainland as well as the 
relations of the associated contemporaneous and intrusive 
igneous rocks in the western districts. 

While pursuing this object we were fortunate enough in 
discovering in the Walls district a rich series of plant remains 
in rocks which have been hitherto considered as forming 
part of the metamorphic series. Mr C. W. Peach has kindly 
named the plant remains for us, and from his description it 
is evident that they are identical with the plants found in the 
Old Eed Sandstone formation of Caithness and Orkney. 
The rocks in which they are embedded must therefore be 
relegated to that period, though they seem to have under- 
gone a considerable amount of metamorphism. 

In this paper we propose to give a brief sketch of the 
different areas occupied by these rocks in Shetland, indicat- 
ing as far as possible the succession of events and the rela- 
tions of the contemporaneous and intrusive igneous rocks. 
We shall endeavour to show that during the early phases of 
that period, the Mainland, which is the largest of the Shet- 
land group, must have formed an island somewhat smaller in 
size than now, round whose coast-line the basement breccias 
accumulated ; but eventually as the land slowly sank beneath 
the sea-level, the higher deposits overlapped on to the gneissose 
rocks, and ultimately buried them. The long process of 
denudation to which the Shetland archipelago has been 
subjected has removed in a gTcat measure the greater portion 
of these deposits ; those which now remain being protected 
in part by the liard gneissose rocks against which they have 
been brought by dislocations of the strata. 

The order of succession on the east side of the Mainland is 
as follows : 

e. Flaggy group of Bressay and Noss. 
d. Lerwick sandstones. 
c. Eovey Head conglomerates. 
h. Brenista flags. 

a. Basement breccia, resting unconformably on the under- 
lying schists. 

Owing to a series of faults which form the boundary line 



Messrs Peach <Sc Home on Old Red Sandstone of Shetland. 83 

over a great part of Lerwick, Quarff, Conningsburgh, and 
Dunrossness, it so happens that different zones in the fore- 
going vertical section are brought into conjunction with the 
gneissose rocks. The true base of the series, however, is 
exposed in the neighbourhood of East Quarff on the north 
side of the bay, and again on the south side towards Flada- 
bister, while still another locality in which the basement 
breccias occur, is to be seen near Loch Spiggie in Dunross- 
ness. In each of these localities the breccia varies in charac- 
ter according to the nature of the underlying rock. Perhaps 
the finest exposures of this breccia are to be seen on the hills 
to the north of East Quarff, and round the shore towards 
Brenista ]N"ess. Here it forms well marked cliffs, the beds 
being inclined to the east at an angle of 25°, and resting on 
a highly eroded platform of the metamorphic schists. The 
prominent ingredient in this deposit round the bay of East 
Quarff is the underlying rock, which consists mainly of grey 
schists. Blocks of this material sometimes measure three 
feet across, retaining their angular edges and showing little 
trace of aqueous action. 

Near Loch Spiggie, in Dunrossness, the fragments mainly 
consist of pink syenite and serpentine derived from the under- 
lying rocks which form the floor on which the breccia rests 
in that neighbourhood. The occurrence of fragments of these 
rocks in the basement breccia is of great moment, as it helps 
us to fix the age of the pink syenite and serpentine between 
Quendale Bay and Loch Spiggie. 

In the bay west of Brenista, the overlying series of the 
Brenista fiags is thrown against the breccias and underlying 
schists by a fault which is traceable inland in a IJ^.N.W. 
direction. Between East Quarff and Eladabister, however, 
the relation between the two is seen in several fine exposures 
which show the gTadual passage from the breccia into the over- 
lying chocolate fiags. But farther, about half-way between 
these two localities, the basement breccia, which is upwards 
of 200 feet thick on the shore, thins out inland to a few feet, 
and in some places disappears altogether, so that the Brenista 
fiags rest directly on the underlying rocks. This interesting 
phenomenon evidently points to a gradual sinking of the 



84 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

area during the deposition of the successive members of this 
formation. 

Eeturning to the shore section north of East Quarff, we 
find a gradually ascending series from the Brenista flags 
to certain coarse conglomerates seen in a small stream 
at the head of the bay of Gulberwick, which are totally 
different in character from the breccias already described. 
The included pebbles are well rounded and are to a large 
extent composed of different materials from the basement 
beds. These beds are traceable up the slope of the Gulber- 
wick hollow to the road between Lerwick and Scalloway, 
where they form crags on the hill face. They are also trace- 
able across the hills northwards to Eovey Head, about two 
miles north of Lerwick, where they are thrown against the 
metamorphic rocks by a fault which is well seen on the shore. 
From Rovey Head southwards to the ridge overlooking the 
head of Fitch Dale, this fault forms the boundary line between 
the metamorphic rocks and the conglomerates. It follows, 
therefore, that the underlying Brenista flags and the base- 
ment breccia have been thrown out along this line. 

Again, on the shore south of Eovey Head, and to the east 
of Gulberwick, the Eovey Head conglomerates are succeeded 
by a thick series of coarse sandstones, passing into pebbly 
grits, with occasional conglomeratic layers. These have been 
termed by us the Lerwick sandstones, because they are most 
strikingly exliibited in the neighbourhood of the capital of 
Shetland. 

The patches of Old Eed Sandstone rocks which occur 
between Ocraquay and Aith's Voe, and between Sandlodge 
and Hoswick, are faulted against the metamorphic ?.'ocks, as 
described by Professor Geikie and Dr Gibson. The strata in 
these isolated areas, as well as in the island of Mousa, belong 
to the series of the Brenista flags. Near the fault they are 
highly inclined, but at some distance from it they dip towards 
the south-east, at angles varying from 15° to 20°. The well- 
known veins of copper and iron ore at Sandlodge, which 
we had ample opportunities of examining through the kind- 
ness of Mr Walker, occur in these rocks. 

Again, at Levenwick, the fault is seen on the shore, which 



Messrs Peach <&) Home on Old Bed Sandstone of Shetland. 8 5 

brings this flaggy series into conjunction with the metamor- 
phic rocks. It may be followed southwards along the base of 
the hills towards the Dunrossness Manse, where it probably 
dies out, as the flags succeed the basal breccias of Loch 
Spiggie without any apparent dislocation. Round Boddam, 
and southwards towards Lambhoga Head, the characteristic 
features of the Lerwick grits and sandstones are displayed, 
the underlying Rovey Head conglomerates being represented 
on the shore west of Sumburgh Head, and west of Boddam. 

On the eastern side of the Mainland, therefore, the highest 
beds are represented by the Lerwick sandstones, and it is only 
when we pass to the east side of Bressay that the overlying 
series is to be met with. Along the eastern shores of 
Bressay, and in the island of Noss, the beds consist of gTcy, 
blue, and red flags, with occasional bands of breccia and 
reddish grey sandstones, which remind one forcibly of the 
flaggy series in Caithness and Orkney. The appearance of 
these beds encourages the hope that ichthyolites will yet be 
found in them, though a careful search failed to bring any to 
light. At the base of Noss Head we discovered a zone of 
dark shale, with limestone nodules, which strongly resembles 
the well-known fish-bed on both sides of the Moray Firth. 

The flaggy strata of Bressay and l^oss are pierced by a 
remarkable series of volcanic pipes, which we shall refer to 
presently when we come to discuss the igneous rocks asso- 
ciated with this formation. 

In the peninsular tract of country which lies between 
Weesdale and the western shores of Walls and Sandness 
there is a great series of rocks, which have hitherto been con- 
sidered as forming part of the metamorphic series. At the 
north-west corner of this area a small strip of ground, border- 
ing the coast at Melby House, about a mile and a half in 
length, is occupied by Old Red Sandstone rocks, which have 
been referred to by previous observers. The strata in this 
small patch consist of reddish sandstones, with dark blue 
flags and shales, which are faulted against the quartzites and 
shales of Sandness Hill. 

With this exception, however, the strata in the tract now 
referred to consist of red and grey quartzites, with red and 



^6 Proceedings of the Royal Ph^jsical Society. 

pale shales. The quartzites are traversed by joints in all 
directions, which are abundantly coated with peroxide of 
iron, and in many places they have a marked 'Schistose 
character. We were fortunate enough in discovering an 
abundant series of plant remains in these altered rocks, some 
of which are tolerably well preserved. Mr C. W. Peach has 
referred the plants to Psilophyton and Lepidodendron nothum, 
and regards them as identical with the plants occurring in 
the Old Ked Sandstone rocks of Caithness and Orkney. It 
follows, therefore, that the rocks in which they are embedded, 
altered though they be, must be relegated to this formation. 

Contemporaneous Igneous Rochs of Old Red Sandstone Age. 
— In the western district of North Mavine, between Stennis 
and Ockren Head, there is an important development of lavas 
and ashes, associated at certain localities with ashy sandstones 
and red flags, which belong to this period. These porphyrites 
and tuffs resemble in every respect the volcanic rocks of the 
same age in the Ochils. Excellent sections of these rocks 
are exposed in the coast-line from Braewick to Stennis, and 
thence to Ockren Head, where they have been tunnelled in a 
wonderful manner by the action of the sea. The structure of 
the area is comparatively simple, as the beds lie in a 
synclinal fold, the dip near Braewick being to the north of 
west, while along the western shore the porphyrites and tuffs 
dip to the south of east. On the west bank of Eoeness Voe, 
about a mile from the mouth of the sea loch, the porphyrites 
are thrown against the intrusive quartz-felsite by a fault, and 
in Braewick Bay it is highly probable that the same relation 
exists between the two, though the evidence is obscured by 
the sandy beach. 

In the Holm of Melby a bed of slaggy porphyrite occurs, 
dipping to the west; and again in Papa Stour Professor 
Geikie* has described a similar series of volcanic rocks, 
exposed here and there along the base of the cliffs underneath 
the sheet of pink porphyry. These are likewise associated 
with beds of sandstone and conglomerates, and are doubtless 
on the same horizon as the volcanic rocks of North Mavine. 

* See "The Old Red Sandstone of Western Europe," vol. xxxviii. Edin. 
Roy. Soc. Trans., p. 345. 



Messrs Peach & Home on Old Bed Sandstone of SJietland. 87 

On the eastern shore of Bressay, opposite the north end of 
the island of ISToss, we discovered a bed of tuff, interbedded 
with the flags, which is probably connected with the vol- 
canic pipes in that neighbourhood. 

Intrusive Igneous Rocks of Old Bed Sandstone Age. — In 
North Ma vine, as well as in the districts of D citing, Sand- 
ness, and Sandsting, on the Mainland, there is a series of 
intrusive masses, which doubtless belong to this period. 
These intrusive rocks vary considerably in lithological 
character, but they all agree in possessing a large proportion 
of silica, while the felspar is almost invariably orthoclase. 
The dome-shaped mass of Eoeness Hill is formed of this 
material, while northwards it extends to the shores of the 
Mainland, opposite the island of Uya. It likewise crosses 
the peninsular tract west of Hillswick to the Heads of 
Grocken, reappearing in the Drongs, and on the west side of 
Meikle Rooe. From the marked columnar structure which 
characterises these rocks on the banks of Eoeness Voe, and 
between the Heads of Grocken and Braewick Bay, as well as 
from the manner in which the Eoeness mass spreads over 
the edges of the metamorphic rocks, we are inclined to believe 
that the granite and quartz-felsite in that district is an 
intrusive sheet, which was injected between the underlying 
metamorphic rocks and the overlying Old Eed Sandstone 
strata, which have been long since removed by denudation. 
The quartz porphyry of Papa Stour, which covers nearly the 
whole of the island, is an intrusive sheet injected along the 
lines of bedding of the Old Eed Sandstone rocks, as numerous 
sections clearly show. Indeed, a smaU patch of red sandstone 
is still to be met with resting on the pink porphyry at the 
Horn of Papa. Though no trace of the once superincumbent 
strata is now visible on the Eoeness mass, this is not to be 
wondered at, when we consider the great denudation which 
has taken place since Old Eed Sandstone times. 

In the district of Sandsting there is satisfactory evidence 
to prove that the granitic mass between Gruting and Skelda 
Voes has been injected along the lines of bedding of the 
altered Old Eed Sandstone rocks. While the inclination of 
the granite mass is nearly the same as that of the quartzites 



88 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

and shales, it may frequently be observed cutting across the 
sedimentary rocks, and sending veins of pink felsite across 
the lines of bedding of the quartzites. We are inclined to 
believe that the nietamorphisni which the Old Eed Sandstone 
rocks have undergone between Weesdale and Sandness may 
be due to the existence of masses of granite not far from the 
surface, for it is highly probable that the isolated masses of 
highly siliceous intrusive rocks in the west and north of the 
Mainland are connected underneath, though this cannot be 
proved to be the case on the surface. 

On both sides of Noss Sound, in Bressay and Noss, we dis- 
covered a series of volcanic pipes filled with a coarse 
agglomerate made up of fragments of the stratified rocks 
pierced by these vents. There is a singular absence of blocks 
of porphyrite in the agglomerate, but a thin vein of this rock 
is traceable for a short distance along the side of the old 
orifice. 

Farther on the shores of Eoeness Voe, as well as in Meikle 
Eooe, the quartz-felsites are traversed by a series of porphy- 
rite dykes running in a north and south direction, which 
probably represent the last indications of volcanic activity 
during the Old Eed Sandstone period in Shetland. 



X. On the Classification and Affinities of the " Tahidate 
Corals!' By H. Alleyne Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc, 
F.E.S.E., Professor of Natural History in the Univer- 
sity of St Andrews. 

{Read 29th May 1879.) 

In the present communication I purpose giving a very 
brief general sketch of the structure and relationships of the 
so-called " Tabulate Corals," a group of Ccelenterates which 
I have been long engaged in investigating by means of 
modern methods of research, and which I shall treat of in 
considerable detail in a work now passing through the press. 
In the following remarks I shall confine myself to giving 
merely a short account of the results which have been 



Prof. NicJwlson on Classificatio7i of "Tabulate Corals." 89 

arrived at by tlie combined observation of living and extinct 
forms, indicating the groups into which the so-called " Tabu- 
late Corals " may be divided, with the structure and zoolo- 
gical affinities of these groups, so far as at present known. 

The "Tabulata," as originally understood, constitute one 
of the four primary divisions of the Zoantharian Adinozoa, as 
laid down and defined by Milne-Edwards and Haime in their 
great works on the fossil corals (Brit. Foss. Cor., Intro., 1850, 
and Pol. Foss. des Terr. Pal, 1851). The distinguished 
authorities just mentioned included under the name " Tabu- 
lata" a large number of corals, ranging from the Silurian 
period to the present day, and often of very different struc- 
ture, but characterised by the possession of well-developed 
" walls," by the fact that the visceral chambers of the coral- 
lites are traversed by horizontal partitions or " tabulse," and 
by the rudimentary condition of the septa. Of these char- 
acters the essential one is the division of the cavities of the 
coralUtes into successive storeys by means of "tabuhe" or 
transverse plates, since the walls are often more or less 
largely perforate, and the condition of the septa is quite a 
secondary matter. Milne-Edwards and Haime divide the 
" Tabulata " as follows : 

Family 1. Millepoeid^. — CoraUum principally composed 
of a very abundant coenenchyma, distinct from the w^alls of 
the corallites, and of a tubular or cellular structure. Septa 
not numerous ; tabulae numerous and well formed. Genera 
— Millepora,'Ldi'm.', Heliopora, J)q Blainv.: Ildiolites, Dsma, ; 
Flasmopora, E. and H.; Fistnlipora, M'Coy; Fropora^ E. 
and H. ; Axopora, E. and H. ; and Zohopora, E. and H. 

Family II. Favositid^. — Corallum essentially formed by 
lamellar walls, with little or no coenenchyma. Visceral 
chambers divided by numerous and well-developed complete 
tabulae. 

Tribe 1. Favositince. — Corallum massive; walls perforated; 
septa rudimentary; no coenenchyma. Genera — Favosites, 
Lam.; 3fichelinia, De Kon.; Koninckia, E. and H.; and 
Alveolites, Lam. 
Tribe 2. Chcetetince. — Corallum massive ; w^aUs not per- 
forated; neither septa nor coenenchyma. Genera — 



90 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

Chcetetes, Fisclier; Dania, Edw. and H. ; Stenopora, 
Lonsd.; and Constellaria, Dana. 
Tribe 3. Ralysitince. Corallum composed of corallites 
constituting vertical laminae or fasciculi, but more or 
less free laterally, and united by means of connecting 
tubes or mural expansions; walls well developed and 
not porous ; septa distinct, but small. Genera — ffaly- 
sites, Fischer ; Karmodites, Fischer (subsequently aban- 
doned for Syringopora, Goldf.); and Thecostegites, E. 
and H. 
Tribe 4. PocilloporincB. — Corallum massive, gibbous, or 
subdendroid, with thick imperforated walls, forming 
towards the surface an abundant compact ca?nenchyma; 
septa quite rudimentary, Genus — Pocillopora, Lam. 
Family III. SERiATOPORiDiE. — Corallum arborescent or 
bushy, with an abundant compact coenenchyma; visceral 
chambers filling up by the growth of the columella and the 
walls, and showing but few traces of tabul?e. Genera — 
Seriatopora, Lam.; Bendropora, Mich.; Phahdopora, E. 
and H. 

Family IV. Thecid^. — Corallum massive, with an abun- 
dant, compact, spurious ccenenchyma, produced by the septa 
becoming cemented together laterally; tabulae numerous. 
Genus — Thecia, E. and H. 

Various additions, modifications, and improvements in the 
above classification of the ''Tabulata" were made by Milne- 
Edwards and Haime during the progress of their classical 
monograph on the fossil corals of Britain ; many new genera 
were added, and the tribe of the Stylophyllinco (to include the 
Cretaceous Stylophyllum, Reuss) was inserted in the family of 
the Favositidm. Most of the changes here indicated will be 
found by those interested in the subject in the systematic 
account of the "Tabulata" given by Milne-Edwards in his 
masterly "Histoire Naturelle des Coralliaires" (vol. iii., 1860). 
The first serious attack upon the classification of Milne- 
Edwards and Haime, and upon the position of the " Tabulata," 
was made by Professor Louis Agassiz, who in 1857 examined 
the living animal of Millepora, and arrived at the conviction 
that this well-known genus was truly Hydrozoal (Amer. 



Prof. Nicholson on Classification of " Tahnlate Corals!' 91 

Journ. Sci. and Arts, ser. 2, vol. xxvi., p. 140, 1858, and Proc. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. vi., p. 373, 1859). This conclusion 
has since been fully confirmed by the researches of Moseley, 
as I shall subsequently show, but it by no means affords a 
sufficient basis for the generalisation put forth by Agassiz — 
namely, that in view of the hydrozoal nature of Millepora, 
all the "Tabulate" corals (as well as the Bugosa) should be 
removed from the Actinozoa to the Hydrozoa. 

Another very important discovery was made at a later date 
by Professor Verrill, who showed, from an examination of 
the living animal, that the genus Pocillopora, Lam., is truly a 
Zoantharian, and referable to the large and widely-distributed 
group of the Aporose corals, in the neighbourhood of the 
family Oculinidce (Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. i., pp. 2, 523, 1870). 
Moreover, in another important memoir, we find the same 
high authority strongly urging the identity of a great many 
of the " Tabulate Corals " with the ordinar}^ Zoantharia, and, 
in particular, maintaining the view that the great group of 
the Favositidm is truly referable to the Porosa, and probably 
to be actually placed in the existing family of the Poritidce 
(Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, ser. 3, vol. iii., p. 187, 1872). 

In the year 1872 was also published the well-known 
" Third Pteport on the British Corals," by Professor Martin 
Duncan (Ptep. Brit. Ass., 1872). In this important memoir. 
Professor Duncan deals very largely with the structure and 
affinities of the "Tabulate Corals," his wide knowledge of 
both living and extinct Actinozoa rendering his views upon 
this subject peculiarly valuable and suggestive. Dr Duncan 
retains the " Tabulata " of Edwards and Haime as a great 
sub-division of the Zoantharia, and his principal conclusions 
will be readily seen by a glance at the following table of the 
families and genera of the " Tabulata " as adopted by him : 

Families. 

„-.,- , \ Milleporidce. Coenenchyma cellular. 

With ccenenchyma. | ^,^,^,,^,v^,,, Ccenenchyma compact. 

^^^.,, , C Favositidce. Walls perforated. 

Without coenen- J j^^iy^i^^i^^ WaUs imperforate, 
chyma. \^Alwolitidai. Septa tridentate. 



92 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

Geneka. 

f Millepora. 

I Heliolites, Heliopora, Polytremacis. 
Propora, Plasmovora. Thecia. 

MILLEPOKID^. ^ ^,^4^; 

Thecostegites. 

Axopora. 
( Acropora, Seriatopora, Pocillopora, Dendro- 
\ para, Bhabdopora. 

{Favosites, Koninckia, Favositipora,Michelinia. 
Poemeria, Emmonsia. 
Syringopora. 
AtUopora. 
( Halysites. 
I Stylophyllum. 
Halysitid^e. \ Chonostegites. 
I Cohimnaria. 
[ Beaumontia. 
( Alveolites. 
\ Ccenites. 



ACROPORIDiE. 



FAVOSITIDiE. 



Alveolitid^. 



_ ^ T C Fistulipora. 
Incerte sedis. [ ^i^^.j^f^^^^ 

Alcyonaria. 
Ghcetetes, Moiiticulipora, Pernio, Stellipora, Zahechia. 

Another very important memoir upon the "Tabulate 
Corals" was published in 1873, by Dr Gustav Lindstrom 
(Ofversigt af Kongl. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl. 1873 ; Trans. 
in Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. xviii., p. 1, 1876). 
In this paper Dr Lindstrom entirely discards the " Tabulata" 
of Milne-Edwards and Haime, as a distinct division of corals; 
Lahechia, E. and H., is placed among the Hydrozoa ; Monti- 
ctolipora, D'Orb., Fistulipora, M'Coy, and some other forms, 
are regarded as Polyzoa ; the Favositidm are placed in the 
Poritidce, among the Perforate cerals; the Heliolitidm are 
considered as forming a special group of uncertain zoological 
position ; Columnaria, Goldf., is placed in the Eugose corals, 
among the Cyathophyllida^ ; Fletcher ia, E. and H., and 
Michelinia, De Kon., are referred to the Cystiphyllidce ; and 



Frof. Mcholson on Classification of "Tahulate Corals!' 93 

Syringcypora, Goldf., is regarded as a Eugose coral, allied to 
Litliostrotion or Diphyphylliun. 

Passing over a paper by M. Dollfus (Comptes Eend,, t. 
Ixxx., 1875), we come next to the exceedingly important 
papers by Mr Moseley on the anatomy of the recent Millepora 
and Heliopora (Phil. Trans., 1876 ; Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1876 ; and Pliil. Trans., 1878), which have thrown a flood of 
light upon the subject of the structure and affinities of the 
Palaeozoic " Tabulata." Without entering into Mr Moseley's 
discoveries in any detail, it is well known that their general 
result was to complete the disintegration of the " Tabulata " 
of Edwards and Haime, and to fairly remove from the Zoan- 
fJiaria certain groups that had previously been referred to 
this order of the Adinowa. Thus, Millepora and its allies, as 
formerly asserted by Agassiz, are now definitely proved to be 
true Hydrozoa, of which class they form, with the Stylasteridm, 
the new order of the Hydrocorallince ; Hcliolites and its 
numerous alKes, instead of being relations of Millepora, are 
shown conclusively to be Actinozoa, but to be at the same 
time referable to an unsuspected order of this class, namely, 
to the Alcyonaria ; while various familiar types of the 
Palaeozoic " Tabulata " are brought by these discoveries into 
more or less probable relationship with either the Hydrozoa 
or the Actinozoa ; and light of the most important character is 
afforded as to certain structural peculiarities in the Palaeozoic 
types, which have hitherto proved obscure or inexplicable. 

The foregoing brief sketch will render it evident that 
recent researches, though still incomplete, are so far advanced 
as to render the abandonment of the " Tabulata " as a distinct 
group of the Zoantharian a hardly avoidable step, while the 
removal elsewhere of some of the principal forms previously 
included under this head is already a fact accomplished. It 
is indeed now quite clear that the principal character relied 
upon by Milne-Edwards and Haime in their definition of the 
" Tabulata " — namely, the presence of " tabulae " — is one of 
very limited classificatory importance. Thus, " tabulae " are 
now known to occur in Pocillopora, Cyatliophora, Coelastrcea, 
Clausastrxa, etc., among the Zoantharia aporosa ; in Alveo- 
pora and the allied Favositipora, among the Zoantharia per- 



94 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

forata ; in Heliopora and its allies, among the Alcyonaria ; 
in the great majority of the Rugosa ; in Millepora and its 
allies, among the Hyclrozoa ; and, lastly, in a few extinct 
types of the Polyzoa {e.g. Radiopora and Heterodictyct). The 
mere fact of the occurrence of " tabulae " in so many forms 
of such diverse zoological affinities, is sufficient proof that 
these structures cannot be used in framing a classification of 
the corals; but it is at the same time conclusive that the 
" tabula3 " of these different types, though undistinguishable 
in appearance, and performing identical functions, cannot be 
precisely and in all cases homologous structures. As to the 
" tabulae " in the true Actinozoa, Professor Verrill is doubtless 
right in believing that they are partitions formed after each 
discharge of the ova, the vacuity thus formed being useless, 
and being therefore cut off by a " tabula " from the visceral 
cavity above. Upon this view, the " tabulae " of the Actinozoa 
are essentially of the same nature as the " dissepiments " of 
most of the Zoantharia, only they are formed after the simul- 
taneous evacuation of all the ovaries at successive periods ; 
whereas the latter are produced after the successive discharge 
of the different ovaries, in the different intermesenteric 
chambers, at diff'erent times. How far, however, there is really 
an identity in structure and origin between the "tabulae" 
and the " interseptal dissepiments " is a question into which 
I cannot enter here. If, however, the "tabulae" of the 
Actinozoa are periodic partitions formed after the discharge 
of the ova, then it is clear that they cannot be homologous 
with the apparently similar structures found in certain sec- 
tions of the old group of the " Tabulata." Thus, Mr Moseley 
has shown that the Milleporidce are undoubted Hydrozoa, and 
that their ova are therefore not produced within the visceral 
chamber at all. It is consequently clear that in this family 
the "tabulae" cannot be partitions produced subsequent to 
the extrusion of the ova. It must also be admitted that any 
transverse partitions which may be found to intersect the 
cells of undoubted Polyzoa (such as Heterodictya, Nich.) must 
be fundamentally different in their nature from the " tabulas " 
of either the "tabulate" ^ci5mo2;o(X or of the Milleporidce, though 
they may not be distinguishable from these in appearance. 



Prof. NicJiolson on Classification of "Tabulate Corals" 95 

With the abandonment of the " tabulae " as structures of 
classificatory significance, the "Tabulata" of Edwards and 
Haime must necessarily be broken up and redistributed. It 
remains for consideration, however, what groups are really 
included under the old name of " Zoantharia TahUata," and 
whether or not this name may be still retained, in a restricted 
sense, for any of the forms originally included under it. 
By the investigations of Agassiz, Yerrill, Lindstrom, Duncan, 
Moseley, Eominger, and others, we have been made ac- 
quainted with the true structure and relationship of several 
of the groups which constituted the old division of the 
" Tabulata," and my own researches upon the varied and 
numerous Palaeozoic types have enabled me to throw more 
light upon the nature and affinities of some of the others. 
Our present knowledge is admittedly imperfect, but it would 
appear that the division of the Zoantharia tahulata, as 
until very recently understood, comprised about twelve dis- 
tinct groups of animals. What these groups are, and what is 
their ascertained or probable position in the zoological series, 
will appear from the following very brief synopsis : 

I. MiLLEPORlD^. — The corallum of Millepora, the type of 
this group, has long been well known. Its form is usually 
foliaceous or lobate, and it is composed of an extremely 
porous coenenchyma, traversed in every direction by tubular 
canals, which freely communicate with one another and also 
with the visceral chambers of the polypites themselves. The 
surface exhibits two sets of openings, one large, the other 
small, the latter much the most numerous. The large open- 
ings (the true " calices ") are the mouths of tubes which are 
crossed by well-developed transverse partitions or " tabulae," 
the smaller tubes being similarly and more closely tabulate. 
From the researches of Mr Moseley, we now know that these 
two sets of tubes are occupied by two sets of zooids of cor- 
respondingly different sizes. In the large tubes are contained 
large zooids (" gastrozooids "), which are short, with four 
tentacles, a distinct mouth, and a digestive cavity, and which 
carry on all the work of digestion and assimilation. The 
small tubes enclose smaller zooids (" dactylozooids "), which 
are long and slender, carry numerous clavate tentacles in 



96 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

successive whorls, and have no months. They surround 
the laxger zooids in definite systems, and perform all the 
functions of prehension, supplying the latter with food. The 
structure of the various zooids of the colony is such as to 
leave no doubt as to the fact that Millepora is not an 
Actinozoan at all, but that the genus is referable to the 
Hydrozoa, in which class it constitutes the type of the new 
order Hydrocorallince. Millepora is a Tertiary and living 
genus, but the Cretaceous Porosjphcera, Steinm., appears to 
be closely related to it, and therefore also to belong to the 
Hydrocorallince. The Tertiary Axopora, E. and H., with its 
fasciculate columella, may also belong here, but its affinities 
are not quite clear. 

II. PociLLOPORiDiE. — The type of this group is the Eecent 
Pocillopora, Lam., in which there is a dendroid or foliaceous 
corallum, composed of numerous tubular corallites, sur- 
rounded by an imperforate compact coenenchyma, provided 
with twelve to twenty-four septa (sometimes obsolete), and 
intersected by complete tabulse. Professor Verrill, as before 
stated, has shown that the polypes in Pocillojpora are pro- 
vided with twelve nearly equal tentacles, and are in all 
respects identical with the polypes of the ordinary Zoan- 
tharia aporosa. The genus must therefore be retained 
among the true " corals " in the neighbourhood of the Ocu- 
linidce. From the close general resemblance between the 
corallum of the recent Seriatopora and that of Pocillopora, 
we may conclude that the former is also one of the Zoan- 
tharia aporosa, so that we may abolish the family of the 
Seriatoporidce, as understood by Milne-Edwards and Haime. 

The genus Pocillopora is Eecent and Kainozoic, and it is 
questionable if any fossil forms of Seriatopora are known. It 
may, at any rate, be taken as certain that the alleged forms 
of Seriatopora in the Pala30zoic deposits will be ultimately 
found to have different affinities. The Palceozoic genera, 
Trachypora, Dendropora, and Bhabdopora, usually associated 
with Seriatopora, Lam., are, again, truly perforate corals, desti- 
tute of a true coenenchyma, and referable to the Favositidce. 

III. Favositidce. — The corallum in this family is composed 
typically of polygonal, more or less closely contiguous, coral- 



Frof. Nicholson on Classification of " TahUate Corals." 97 

lites, which possess well-developed walls. The walls are, 
however, perforated by a larger or smaller number of rounded 
apertures — the "mural pores" — which place the visceral 
chambers of neighbouring corallites in direct communication. 
There is no ccenenchyma; the septa are usually spiniform, 
sometimes obsolete, rarely lamellar; and the tabulse are 
numerous and usually complete. 

After an extended study of the minute structure of the 
Favositidw, I cannot doubt that Professor Verrill and Dr 
Lindstrom are correct in referring the family to the Zoan- 
tharia perforata. I also recognise the numerous points of 
resemblance between the Favositidm and the Poritidoe, but I 
cannot follow the above-mentioned high authorities in re- 
garding the present group as a mere sub-family of the Pori- 
tidce. On the contrary, I believe that the Favositidce, as 
here understood, embraces a large number of types (mostly 
Palaeozoic), all of which are more or less closely allied to the 
Poriiidce, and some of which are perhaps undistinguishable 
from the latter family, but which really represent a series of 
separate but allied groups. 

The Favositidce constitute by far the largest and the most 
important group of the so-called " Tabulata," and it is quite 
impossible that I should discuss here, even in the briefest 
manner, the different types which belong to the family. I 
can, therefore, only content myself by subjoining here a list 
of the genera which I believe to properly belong to this 
great family, and I have no doubt that future discoveries 
will show that this table must be enlarged : 

Genus. Geological Eange. 

Favosites, Lam., . . . Silurian to Carboniferous. 
Alveolites, Lam., . . . Silurian to Devonian. 
Vermipora, Hall, . . Silurian to Devonian. 

C Upper Silurian ?, Devonian, 
Michelinia, De Kon., . . < and Carboniferous (perhaps 

( =Pleurodictyum, Goldf). 
Pletcr odictyicm, Goldl, . . Upper Silurian ? and Devonian. 
ChonosUffites. E. and H. ) Devonian. 

{—Haimeophyllunfi, Bill.), ) 
Pachypora, Lindstrom, . . Upper Silurian and Devonian. 
VOL. v. G 



Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 



GENUS. 

Striatopora, Hall, 
Trachypora, E. and H. (with 

Deiidroioora, Mich., and 

BhaMopora, M'Coy), 
Cmiites, Eichwald, 
Columnopora, Mch., 
Koninckia, E. and H., 
Favositipora, Sav. Kent 

(? Poritidce), 
Arwopora, Nich. and Eth 

jun. (? Poritidce), 
Rcemeria, E. and H. (? Syrin 

goporidm), 
Syringolites, Hinde, 
Nyctopora, Mch., . 
Eomingeria, Mch., (=Quen 

stedtia, Eominger), 
Stenopora, Lonsd., 
Billingsiay De Kon., 

.? Laceripora, Eichw. 

Nodidipora, Lindstr., 



GEOLOGICAL RANGE. 
Upper Silurian and Devonian 

I Devonian and Carboniferous. 

Silurian and Devonian. 

Silurian. 

Cretaceous. 

> Kecent. 

> Devonian. 

> Devonian. 

Upper Silurian. 
Lower Silurian. 

!- Devonian. 

Carboniferous. 

Devonian, 
f Upper Silurian and Carboni- 
( ferous. 

Upper Silurian. 



IV. CoLUMNARiAD^. — Under this head I provisionally 
place a few Palaeozoic corals, of which CohimnaHa aheolata, 
Goldf. (= Favistella stellata, Hall), is the type-form. In 
this type the corallum is massive, composed of polygonal, 
usually more or less closely contiguous, corallites, with well- 
developed imperforate walls, destitute of " mural pores," and 
with complete lamellar septa, some of which usually extend 
to the centre of the visceral chambers of the tubes. There is 
no columella and no coenenchyma, and the tabulae are re- 
markably well developed. We may provisionally place in 
this group the singular genus Lyopora, Nich. and Eth., jun., 
in which the septa are rudimentary, and the walls are re- 
markably thickened. Both genera are Lower Silurian. 

As to the precise position of the typical Goliimnarice in 
the zoological series, it does not seem possible to speak with 
any certainty. The typical forms of the group exhibit 
certain curious Eugose features in the disposition of the 
septa, and may really form an aberrant group of the Rugosa. 



Prof. Nicholson mi Classification of " Tahulate Corals^ 99 

On the other hand, they present some conspicuous points of 
resemblance to the Astrxida'- among the Zoantharia aporosa. 

V. SYEiNGOPORiDiE. — The type of this group is the Palaeo- 
zoic genus, Syringopova, Goldf, in which the corallum is 
fasciculate, and composed principally of long cylindrical 
corallites which grow up side by side, rarely absolutely 
touching one another, and are enclosed by strong and com- 
pact walls. The visceral chambers of contiguous corallites 
are placed in direct communication by means of hollow con- 
necting-processes ; and there are usually marginal and rudi- 
mentary septa. The tabulae are well developed, more or less 
funnel-shaped, and sometimes giving rise to a central tube 
in the median line of the visceral cavity. 

I cannot agree with the opinion of Dana, Hseckel, and 
Zittel, that Syringopora and its allies should be placed among 
the Alcyonaria, in the vicinity of the Eecent Tuhijpora. Nor 
can I accept Dr Lindstrom's view that Syringopora is truly 
a Eugose coral with af&nities to Litliostrotion and Dijphy- 
pJiyllum. On the contrary, I am at present disposed to 
believe that the real relationship of the Syringoporidce is 
with the Favositidce, and that they should therefore find a 
place — though a special one — in the division of the Zoan- 
tharia perforata. Upon this view, the hollow connecting- 
processes of Syringopora are the homologues of the " mural 
pores" of the Favositidce; and the singular genus Syringo- 
lites, Hinde, is a direct connecting link between these two 
apparently dissimilar gTOups, since it possesses the mural 
pores of the latter, conjoined with the infundibuliform 
tabulae of the former. 

VI. AuLOPOPJDiE. — Taking Aulopora as the type of this 
group, we find it to comprise singular parasitic corals which 
grow upon the exterior of shells and corals in deposits of 
Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous age. The corallum 
consists of a network of creeping prostrate tubes, which send 
up at intervals conical tubular corallites which have marginal 
and rudimentary septa, and which, in some instances at any 
rate, possess well-developed horizontal tabalse. The visceral 
chambers of the corallites are not placed in communication 
by means of mural pores or hollow connecting-processes. I 



100 Proceedings of the Eoyal Physical Society. 

cannot enter here into the structure and affinities of this 
group, but I may say that I do not think there is sufficient 
evidence for the union of the Auloporidce with the Syringo- 
poridce, as supposed by some palaeontologists ; and I think it 
not unlikely that the former will prove eventually to be re- 
ferable to the Alcyonarian division of the Actinozoa. Clado- 
chonus, M'Coy (= Pyrgia, Edw. and H.), seems to be insepa- 
rable from Aulopora; but the Carboniferous G. crassus, 
M'Coy, is a special generic type, destitute of all affinity with 
the group with which it has been hitherto associated. 

VII. Halysitid^. — This group is typified by the common 
chain-corals (Ilalysites) of the Silurian rocks. In this genus 
the corallum is composed of long cylindrical corallites, united 
to one another by their sides only, along their whole length, 
but otherwise free. Between each pair of corallites — typi- 
cally, but not invariably — is situated a single much smaller 
tube, which is destitute of septa, and possesses numerous 
close-set tabulae. The larger tubes have complete, com- 
paratively remote " tabulae," and often have minute spiniform 
septa. The walls of all the tubes are imperforate, and neither 
mural pores nor hollow connecting-processes are present. 

The family of the Halysitidm was made by Milne-Edwards 
and Haime to include Syringopora and its allies; but the 
fact that the visceral chambers of contiguous corallites com- 
municate in the latter directly by means of hoUow connecting- 
processes, whereas the tubes of Haly sites are enclosed by 
imperforate walls, sufficiently proves the distinctness of these 
two types. Upon the whole, I am inclined to think that 
Halysites will find its nearest ally among the Helioporidcc, 
which it resembles in one important particular, namely, in the 
general possession of two sets of tubes, indicating the exist- 
ence of two sets of zooids. Moreover, the tubes of the one 
series are of large size, with remote tabulae and with radiating 
septa ; while those of the other series are small, have close- 
set or vesicular tabulae, and are destitute of septa. If this 
conjecture be correct, then Halysites must be removed to the 
Alcyonaria ; but it will in any case form the type of a dis- 
tinct group. 

VIII. TETKADiiDiE. — This group includes only the singular 



Prof. Nicholson oii Clctssification of Tabulate CoraUr 101 

Silurian genus Tetradium, Dana, in which the corallum is 
massive, and is composed of polygonal corallites, of great 
length, and in close contiguity. There are no " mural pores ; " 
the tabulae are mmierous and complete; and there are 
generally four septa, which look as if they were formed by 
inflections of the wall. 

Tetradmm resembles Halysites in its long imperforate 
corallites, and occasionally in its mode of growth, while its 
peculiar septa, except in number, remind one of the " pseudo- 
septa " of the Helioporidm. Upon the whole, it seems pro- 
bable that this curious genus should be referred to the 
Alcyonaria, though I know of no group in this order to 
which it could be definitely referred. 

IX. Thecid^. — This group comprises only tlie singular 
Silurian genus Tliecia, E. and H., the corallum of which 
forms laminar expansions, covered below by an epitheca, and 
having the calices placed upon the upper surface. The 
tubular corallites cannot be said to be bounded by distinct 
proper walls, but they are embedded in and surrounded by a 
dense tissue composed of minute vertical tubuli. A few 
blunt septal ridges are present in each corallite ; the tabulse 
are well developed ; and the visceral chambers of contiguous 
tubes communicate by horizontal canals. 

This extraordinary genus forms in many respects a Irak 
between the Perforate corals and the Alcyonarian family of 
the Helio2ooridw. It resembles the former in the fact that 
the visceral chambers of contiguous corallites communicate 
directly with one another; and it approaches the latter in 
the fact that the ordinary poljrpes are surrounded by what 
has usually been regarded as a tubular " ccenenchyma," 
though not really of this nature. Judging from the analogy 
of the recent Helio]pora, the so-called " coenenchymal tubuli " 
are really tenanted by special zooids, and cannot, therefore, 
be properly coenenchymal. In the possession, then, of a 
series of large polypes, surrounded by a much more numerous 
series of small specialised polypes, Thecia agrees with Helio- 
'pora and Heliolites ; and the genus, therefore, is probably 
Alcyonarian. It differs from the Helioporidce, however, in 
the presence of distinct and direct channels of communication 



102 Proceedings of the Boy at Physical Society. 

between the larger polypes, in the nature of the septa, the 
absence of a differentiated wall to the larger tubes, and the 
apparent want of tabulae in the interstitial tubuli. 

X. HELiOPORiDiE. — This family has been constituted by 
Mr Moseley (Phil. Trans., vol. clxvi., p. 92, 1876) for the 
reception of the extraordinary Eecent Heliojiora and the ex- 
tinct Heliolites and its allies. The corallum in this family is 
composed of two sets of corallites, a larger and a smaller, the 
latter hitherto improperly spoken of as " coenenchymal 
tubuli." The larger tubes are furnished with delicate septa 
(generally twelve in number), and are traversed by remote 
tabulae. The smaller tubes everywhere surround the larger 
ones, have no septa, and are crossed by close- set tabulae. 

Mr Moseley has shown that the polypes of Heliopora are 
of the Alcyonarian type, with eight pinnately-fringed ten- 
tacles and eight mesenteries. The septa, thus, do not cor- 
respond with the mesenteries, and are, therefore, to be 
regarded as "pseudo-septa." The small interstitial tubes 
are occupied by rudimentary sexless zooids, without mouths, 
but freely communicating with the body-cavities of the 
sexual zooids by means of transverse canals. Heliopora itself 
is Eecent, Tertiary, and Cretaceous ; Polytremacis is Cretace- 
ous ; while Heliolites, Plasmopora, and Propora are Palaeozoic. 

XI. CH^TETiDiE. — This group is made up of very hetero- 
geneous materials, and will undergo disintegration when sub- 
jected to a sufficiently searching investigation. As it is even, 
the lines along which this disintegration will take place are, 
to some extent, discernible. Taking the group as it stands 
at present, no other general definition of it seems possible 
than that it comprises very variously -formed corals, composed 
of contiguous, thin- walled, mostly prismatic corallites, which 
have imperforate walls, are intersected by well-developed 
tabulae, and are destitute of septal laminae or spines. 

The typical members of the group, such as Chxtetes radians, 
Fischer, and its few immediate allies, possess coralla in all 
essential respects similar to those of the Favositidm, except 
that '' mural pores " or other openings in the walls are want- 
ing, while there are (in reality) no trace of septa. These two 
last-mentioned differences are, of course, sufficient to show 



Prof. Nicholson on Classification of " Tabulate Corals" 103 

that the place of Chcctetes in the system must be very far 
removed from that of Favosites. I am, nevertheless, satisfied 
that Cha^tetes radians, Fischer, and the forms immediately 
related to it, are genuine Actinozoa, though I am not able to 
assign to them any certain place in this class. So far as one 
can judge, they seem to have more affinity with the Alcy- 
mmria than with any other group. 

The position of the numerous forms referred to, Monticuli- 
pora, Fistulipoj-a, and other allied types, is, again, most un- 
certain. Strong evidence has been brought forward to prove 
that all these forms are really Polyzoa; but it certainly can- 
not be said that this conjecture has, as yet, been sufficiently 
proved. Some of these forms may very probably turn out to 
be true Polyzoa ; but I am disposed to think that the majority 
Avill prove to be referable to the Actinozoa. This seems to 
be indicated as a general conclusion by their close resem- 
blance, in many cases, to types of an undoubted Coelenterate 
nature ; by the fact that their coralla are often composed of 
two sets of corallites, pointing to a heteromorphic condition 
of the zooids, such as is highly characteristic of many of the 
Codenterata ; and lastly, by the fact that no forms possessing 
their characteristic features in conjunction have as yet been 
pointed out as existing either among recent or fossil Polyzoa. 
Their alliances with Chmtetes proper are slight, and they 
should be regarded as constituting a special group, to which 
the name of Monticuliporidm may be given. 

XII. Labechiid.e. — This extraordinary group comprises 
only the anomalous genus Lahechia, E. and H., at present 
only known as a Silurian fossil. The skeleton in this genus 
fornis a laminar or expanded mass, the under surface of which 
is covered by an epitheca, while the upper surface shows an 
apparently imperforate expanse, rising above which are close- 
set tubercles. Microscopic sections show that these tubercles 
are the projecting summits of short calcareous and solid, 
but apparently primitively tubular, columns, separated from 
one another by a loose vesicular tissue, formed by the anas- 
tomoses of curved, calcareous lamellae. Dr Lindstrom has 
strongly supported the view that Lahechia — originally placed 
by Edwards and Haime among the Chmtetidce — is truly a 



104 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Hydrozoon allied to Hydractinia. The peculiarities in its 
structure are, however, so numerous, and the apparent total 
absence of any superficial openings of any kind is so puzzling, 
that I do not at present see how it can be placed among 
either the Hydrozoa or the Actinozoa ; nor can I give any 
definite opinion as to its affinities beyond the negative one 
that it cannot at present be referred positively to any known 
group of corals, and that it certainly has no relationship to 
Ghmtetes proper. 



XI. Note on the Destruction of Fish in Linlithgoiv Loch during 
the Winter of 1878-79. By R. Scot-Skieving, Esq. 

(Bead 29th Maij 1879.) 

The fish of Linlithgow Loch consist of roach, perch, pike, 
and eels. There are no trout. The right of fishing is held 
by the Crown, and let to Mr Jameson, fishmonger, Edin- 
burgh. Mr Jameson has been in the habit of taking annu- 
ally a considerable quantity of fish, and in particular a very 
large number of eels, many of which were of the largest size. 
Last month one of Mr Jameson's shopmen happened to 
mention to me that they had this season no supply of eels, 
as the fish in Linlithgow Loch had been destroyed by the 
severity of the winter. I was quite convinced that mere 
cold, however intense, could not have destroyed the fish ; as 
I had often read of fish being exposed to more intense frost 
than ever occurs in this country, and that even though 
actually frozen for a considerable period, they have ulti- 
mately survived. 

On subsequently seeing Mr Jameson himself, he gave me 
the following information regarding the fish, and suggested 
what I have no doubt was the true cause of their destruc- 
tion. He said that during the continuance of the frost, 
while the loch was thickly covered with ice, boys were con- 
stantly to be seen taking dead or dying eels from any small 
openings in the ice at the margin of the loch ; and T may 
here mention that I had personally observed this, and I find 
that several of my friends did so also. These dying eels 



Mr Buchanan on the Breeding of the Pochard. 105 

quickly attracted the attention of a number of local poachers, 
and these men, Mr Jameson informed me, despatched at 
least seven tons of diseased eels to the London market. 
When the ice finally broke up, it was found that the edges 
of the loch, chiefly at one extremity where the water flowed 
out, were literally lined with dead fish, which it was necessary 
to remove and bury. Mr Jameson had twelve cart-loads of 
these offensive dead fish buried. They consisted of about 
two-thirds eels and one-third roach and perch, but not a 
single pike was found dead. The cause of this destruction, 
in Mr Jameson's opinion, was that the very considerable 
amount of sewage which is always discharged from the town 
into the loch is rendered less noxious in ordinary seasons by 
evaporation. This year the gases could not escape, being 
bound down under thick-ribbed ice. This was very obvious, 
Mr Jameson said, as on holes being bored in the ice, very 
offensive effluvia was immediately felt. This fact I cannot 
corroborate, in so far that I happened to see a gentleman 
testing the depth of the loch through a hole he had made in 
the ice, and I did not observe any smell, though I have no 
doubt Mr Jameson did on other occasions. The fact that 
no pike were found among the dead fish is interesting, and 
seems to show that these tyrants of the lake possess stronger 
constitutions than their co-habitants, including eels, or else 
some habit in the pike had tended to its preservation. 



Xll. Note on the Breeding of the Pochard (Fuligula ferina) 
in the SoiUh-iuest of Perthshire. By J. Hamilton 
Buchanan, Esq. 

(Bead 29th May 1879.) 

The accompanying series of eggs were collected by Mr 
Gibson and myself at a loch in the south-west of Perthshire, 
on the 22d of this month. It includes six pochards which 
we were fortunate enough to secure. The nest was placed 
among very tall reeds. It seemed to be somewhat similar to 
a coot's in structure, and was lined with a small quantity of 
down. When we approached within ten yards of it the 



106 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

female flew off, and both Mr Gibson and myself obtained an 
excellent view of her. The ground on which the nest was 
placed was so marshy that the keeper was enabled to reach 
the eggs almost from the boat. They were deeply incubated, 
and the embryo fully confirmed the species. They are six in 
number, though the gamekeeper had taken two from the nest 
on the previous Monday. They vary in measurement from 
2| in. by 1^-^ in. to 2-5^ in. by If in. 

As far as we are aware, this is the first Scotch nest, as Mr 
More states in his paper on " The Distribution of Birds in 
Great Britain in the nesting season,"* that it has never been 
taken north of Yorkshire, and rarely in Britain at all. 

We also saw several wigeon, but we did not succeed in 
finding a nest, though the gamekeeper believes that they 
breed there, and that he has taken the eggs. 



XIII. On the Genus Nemagraptus {Nematolites) of Emmo7is. 
By Chas. Lapworth, Esq., F.G.S., etc. [Plate II.] 

{Read lUh May 1879.) 

Among the numerous Lower Palaeozoic fossils described by 
Dr Emmons as characteristic of his disputed Taconic System, 
some of the most remarkable were the forms to which he 
gave the generic title of JSfemagraptus.f They were origin- 
ally discovered by himself in the comparatively barren and 
partially metamorphic shales and flagstones that floor the 
eastern slope of the valley of the Hudson Eiver. He 
appears to have had no doubt of the propriety of classifying 
them with the true Graptolites, though he distinctly ad- 
mitted his inability to detect upon them the characteristic 
marginal serratures of the Graptolitidce, or indeed any appen- 
dages whatever available for nutrition. The genus is char- 
acterised by him as follows : 

"Nemagraptus (new genus). 
"Axis elongated and thread-like; simple or compound 

* Ibis, 1865. 

t Emmons ; "American Geology," vol. i., ]>. 109. 



Mr Lapworth on the Genus (Nemagraptus Nematolites). 107 

branches, round at the base and flattened at the extremities ; 
cells appear to be arranged on the flattened part of the axis 
instead of the margin." 

Two species of Nemagra'ptus are described and figured in 
the "American Geology," * viz : Nemagra'ptus elegans and 
Nemagraptus capillaris. 

The figure of Nemagraptus elegans shows a Graptolite-like 
fossil with a slender arcuate stem of about half an inch in 
length, giving off six simple, elegantly-curved, and very 
slender branches at sub-equal distances along its convex 
margin. According to Emmons's description, these branches 
expand somewhat towards their distal extremities, but show 
no trace whatever of marginal serrations. Under the micro- 
scope the surface of the fossil is seen to be " slightly dotted, 
so as to give the appearance of the mouth of cells." 

The second species, Nemagraptus cajnllaris, is a remark- 
able thread-like form, with a main stem of about seven inches 
in length, and of almost equal diameter throughout. It 
appears to have been highly flexuous, and is irregularly coiled 
up into a space of little more than a square inch. This main 
stem throws off a few simple branches, apparently from both 
margins, at distant and irregular intervals. These are capil- 
lary and flexuous like the main stem, but do not exceed one- 
fourth of an inch in length. 

In the first volume of the " Palseontology of New York," 
issued in 1847, and about eight years previous to the publi- 
cation of Emmons's "American Geology," Professor James 
Hall had already described and figured numerous Graptolites 
from the slaty rocks of the valley of the Hudson Pdver. 
Among these, one,i" named by Hall Grap)tolitlius gracilis, bears 
at first glance a striking general resemblance to Emmons's 
Nemagraptus elegans, as figured in the "American Geology." 
Accordingly, in 1865, we find HaU in his fine work on the 
" Graptolites of the Quebec Group," very naturally claiming 
Emmons's Nemagraptus elegans as " part of an individual of 



* Emmons : "American Geology," PI. i., figs. 6 and 7. 
t Palseontology of Xew York, vol. i., PI. Ixxiv. 



108 Proceedings of the Boy at Physical Society. 

Graptolithus gracilis, or of some similar species." * Three 
years later the progress of our knowledge of the Graptolites 
in Britain compelled Hall to recognise the generic distinct- 
ness of this Graptolithus gracilis; and in the Twentieth 
Annual Eeport of the State Cabinet of New York, published 
in 1865, we find Hall placing Gra^ptolithus gracilis and some 
allied forms in a new generic group designated Cmnogra^tus,f 
of which he implies that he regards Graptolithus gracilis 
as forming the type species. In this connection he again 
very properly calls attention to Emmons's species and genus 
(p. 236), and distinctly admits the possibility of the generic 
identity of Nemagraptus and Coenogra;ptus ; but with the 
reservation that Emmons's remarks regarding the absence 
of cellules would, if eventually verified, exclude the typical 
species from that group. This is probably meant to glance 
at Emmons's second species, Nemagraptiis cajpillaris, which 
Hall had already more than, once referred to, but without 
attempting to identify it,| as he held that its relations could 
scarcely be determined from the figure given. 

The generic distinctness of Hall's Graptolithiis gracilis had 
already been pointed out by Dr H. A. Mcholson,§ who pro- 
posed for it the title of Helicograptus, which however he 
subsequently suppressed on becoming aware of what Hall 
had done. 

In 1871 Mr Jno. Hopkinson, accepting Hall's suggestion 
of the probable identity of Nemagraptus elegans, Emm., and 
Gcenograptus gracilis^ Hall, and carrying out the recognised 
rules with regard to priority of zoological nomenclature, 
applied Emmons's generic title of Nemagraptus to the whole 
of the forms previously included under Coenograptus, Hall, 
Cladograptus, Carr., and Pleiirograptus, Mch.|| In 1873 
these special forms and their most intimate allies were classed 
by myself as forming a distinct family of the Graptolites ; and 
I laid aside my proposed title of Leptograptidcc for this family 

* Graptolites of the Quebec Group, p. 43. 

+ Loc. cit., p. 236. 

X Graptolites, Quebec Group, p. 43. 

§ Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1868, p. 25. 

il Geological Magazine, vol. viii., p. 5. 



Mr La'pworth on the Genus Nemagraptus {Nematolites), 109 

in favour of the MS. term of Nemagrajptidce, proposed by Mr 
Hopkinson.* At the same time, however, I felt that if Hall 
was correct in his view of the identity of Ccenographos gracilis, 
Hall, and Nemagraptus elegans, Emmons, it would be better 
to regard Nemagraptus capillaris, Emm., as the type of 
Emmons's genus, and thus both these generic terms would 
be preserved to science. I was confirmed in this opinion by 
the discovery of several peculiar forms of Graptolites in the 
Moffat shales of the south of Scotland. These occur in 
association with Ccenograptus gracilis, H., and are most 
intimately allied to that species; but they show most dis- 
tinctly the capillary stem, the short, irregular, simple 
branching, and the flexuous character of Emmons's Nema- 
graptus capillaris. On the other hand, however, when 
tolerably well preserved, they are seen to be most indubi- 
tably celluliferous throughout the whole of their extent. 
Thus Emmons's name Nemagraptus was provisionally re- 
stricted to these new forms, and Hall's title of Cceno- 
graptus confined to Graptolithus gracilis, H., and its allies. 

In 1874 the numerous Graptolites collected by Dr Hicks 
and others from the Arenio- and Llandeilo rocks of St David's 

o 

were placed in the hands of Mr Hopkinson and myself for 
description. Among them was a most peculiar form which in- 
stantaneously reminded us of Emmons's problematical Nema- 
graptus capillaris. The fragments of the Arenig species were 
in precisely the same state of preservation as the accompany- 
ing Graptolites; and beyond the apparent absence of any- 
thing like marginal serrations, there was nothing to suggest 
their belonging to a different zoological group. The puzzHng 
and abnormal nature of this fossil wiU be apparent from 
our description at the time.-j- One point, however, was 
tolerably clear. If this form were specifically, or even 
generically, identical with the Nemagraptus capillaris of 
Emmons, ,the Moffat GraptoHtes previously placed under 
Nemagraptus would have to be removed from it. 

In 1875 numerous fossils, belonging, without question, to 
the same generic group as the Nemagraptus capillaris of 

* Geol. Mag., November 1873. 

+ Quart. Journal Geol. Society, vol. xxxi., p. 631. 



110 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

St David's, were detected by myself in the Lower Palaeozoic 
rocks of Girvan, Ayrshire. They occur here in extraordi- 
nary abundance, and apparently in a good state of preserva- 
tion. The examples collected showed at once that in this 
genus we are no longer dealing with a compou-nd symmetrical 
siculate Graptolite, like Ccenogra^ptus gracilis, H., but with an 
extraordinary thread-like fossil, forming an irregular mesh- 
work, and occurring in unbroken nets, probably several feet 
in diameter. The filiform branches appear not to be strictly 
confined to a single bed, but pass irregularly through a slight 
thickness of the rock. Even in the calcareous shales, where 
the other organisms are preserved with their full relief, few 
of these branches show any appreciable thickness. Where 
they are best preserved they appear to be cylindrical. As in 
the American and Welsh forms, there is nothing that can be 
interpreted as the remains of hydrothecm or cellules beyond 
an irregular ill-defined crenulation of the margins of the 
branches. These fossils rarely occur in association with the 
true Graptolites, but when they are so associated, the dis- 
tinctness of the two is placed beyond question, as these net- 
like forms, even when best defined, show nothing of that 
carbonaceous character so marked among the Graptolitidce. 
The thread-like branches vary in colour, from dark grey or 
green to purple, according to the varying composition and 
texture of the matrix. They are generally bordered with a 
strong discolouration, about one-tenth of an inch in width. 
This feature, however, is not invariable, and in rare cases is 
altogether absent. 

I have recognised similar fossils in the Bala rocks of 
North and South Wales, in the Skiddaw slates of the Lake 
District, and in many localities among the Silurian rocks of 
the south of Scotland. It may be regarded as certain that 
they are widely scattered through the Lower Palaeozoic 
sediments ; but that their unsatisfactory state of preservation 
and enigmatical character has hitherto caused them to be 
neglected by the palaeontologist. 

The Girvan species appears to be restricted in its range to 
a definite formation, and it may be expected that other species 
will eventually be found to possess a certain geological value. 



Mr Lapworth on the Genus Nemagraptus (Nematolites). Ill 

Of the systematic position and the probable alliances of 
this strange group of fossils it is at present extremely hazardous 
to conjecture. I would suggest, however, that they are 
possibly the remains of the creeping stolons of some sertu- 
larid hydrozoon, or the like. It is clear that they are not 
Bhdbdopliora or true Graptolites. The absence of anything 
like carbon in the fossil is decisive upon this point. They 
occur also in incredible multitudes in beds from which Grap- 
tolites are altogether absent. 

We cannot, it is true, be absolutely certain that our 
British forms belong to the same genus as Emmons's Nema- 
graptus cajpillaris ; but if his figure and description of this 
species are reliable, its generic identity with the Arenig form 
from St David's is highly probable. In view, however, of 
the doubtful character of Emmons's type species, and of the 
undoubted distinctness of our British examples from the true 
Graptolites, it becomes a matter of necessity to avoid the use 
of Emmons's title of Nemagrapius for these forms. I propose 
to substitute the parallel title of Nematolites, by which I have 
usually designated them in the field. 

Nematolites (gen. nov.) {—'INemagraptus, Emm.). 

Polypary(?), compound, net-like, consisting of numerous 
filiform and apparently smooth branches, dividing dichoto- 
mously, or throw^ing off at irregular intervals similar secondary 
branches, which anastomise and form an irregular network. 

The whole of the forms known to myself are very similar 
in their general aspects, and it is by no means easy to decide 
upon the characters which may serve to separate the different 
species. The main points of distinction appear to be the 
greater or less tenuity of the branches, their comparative 
remoteness, their greater or less flexibility, the varying angle 
of their divergence from each other, and the form and size of 
the resultant meshwork. 

Three forms will here be noticed, which appear sufficiently 
distinct for specific titles. The first is characteristic of the 
Upper Caradoc rocks of Girvan, the second is peculiar to 
the Skiddaw slates, and the third is present in the Upper 



112 Proceedings of the Royal Ehysical Society. 

Arenig rocks of St David's. They may very properly be 
dedicated to those scientific investigators who have made 
these respective formations the subject of special study. 

Sp. 1. Nematolites Grayi, sp. nov. ; Plate II., figs. 4, 5. — 
Branches of great tenuity, about one-hundredth of an inch 
in average diameter; slightly and irregularly undulating; 
bifurcating or giving origin to similar branches at distances 
varying from half an inch to two inches apart, and anasto- 
mising and forming an irregular network of large meshes, 
which are occasionally invaded by a secondary network of 
smaller and more closely arranged branchlets. 

The characteristic peculiarities of this form are the extreme 
tenuity of its main branches, and their wrinkled or irregu- 
larly undulating character. 

Locality — U^pper Ardmillan or Nematolites beds (Upper 
Caradoc) of Girvan, Ayrshire ; at Shalloch Mill, Penwhapple 
Glen, Quarrel Hill, etc., in great abundance. 

This species is dedicated to Mr Eobert Gray, F.E.S.E., to 
whom all palaeontologists are under a heavy debt of obligation 
for his zeal in the discovery and publication of the Girvan fossils. 

Sp. 2. Nematolites Nicliolsoni, sp. nov. ; Plate II., fig. 6. — 
Branches rigid, about one-fiftieth of an inch in average 
diameter; slightly undulating; bifurcating or throwing off 
similar branches from their convex margin, at right angles to 
its general direction, sometimes at intervals of half an inch, 
sometimes in dense groups. 

This form is distinguished from the foregoing in several of 
its characters. Its branches are much stouter, and the 
manner of their subdivision is different. The slender branches 
of Nematolites Grayi can often be followed for long distances 
without undergoing any marked deflection from the same 
general direction, and the chief meshes are rhomboidal or 
triangular in form. In the present species, on the other 
hand, the new branches are apparently formed by the bifur- 
cation of the older ones, which consequently repeatedly alter 
their line of direction, and the resultant meshes are sub- 
rectangular in form. 



Dr R. H. Traquair on Fossil Fishes from Oil Shales. 113 

Locality — Barff, near Keswick. From the Shiddaw slates. 

This species is named after Professor H. A. Nicholson, 
who was the first to make known the rich Graptolite fauna of 
the rocks of the Lake District. 

Sp. 3. Nematolites Hichsi, Plate II., fig. 3. — It is possible 
that the Nematolites from the Arenig rocks of St David's, and 
identified by Mr Hopkinson and myself with the Nemagraptus 
capillaris of Emmons, may prove to be distinct. Should this 
eventually be found to be the case, it may be designated 
Nematolites Hicksi, after its discoverer, who was the first to 
attempt the subdivision of the Arenig rocks of South Wales. 

The highly flexuous character of its main branches forms 
its chief peculiarity. The form of the meshes is as yet 
unknown. 

Locality— lldinVixn Quarry, near St David's. From the 
Upper Arenig rocks. 

Explanation of Plate. 

Fig. 1. Nemagraptus elegaiis^ Emm.; after Emmons : "American Geology," 
Plate i., fig. 6. 

Fig. 2. Nemagraptus capillaris, Emm. ; ibid. , Plate i. , fig. 7. 
Fig. 3. Nematolites Hicksi {s^. nov.)(?); Llanvirn, St David's. 
Figs. 4, 5. Nematolites Grayi (sp. nov. ) ; Shalloch Mill, Girvan. 
Fig. 6. Nematolites Nicholsoni {s^. nov.); Barff, Keswick. 



XYI. Fossil Fishes from the Edinhicrghshire and Linlithgow- 
shire Oil Shales. By E. H. Traquair, Esq., M.D., 
F.G.S., Keeper of the Natural History Collections in 
the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. 

(Ptead 18th December 1878.) 

The strata from which the fish remains to be described or 
noticed in the present communication were obtained, are the 
bituminous shales now extensively wrought for the manu- 
facture of paraf&n oil at West Calder, and Oakbank, near 
Midcalder, in Edinburghshire, and at Broxburn, in Linlith- 
gowshire. These shales are already well known for the fossil 

VOL. V. H 



114 Proceedings of the Roycd Plujsical Society. 

plants which they contain, but as yet no attempt has been 
made to describe or catalogue the fish remains which also 
occur in them, though much more sparingly. Mr C. W. 
Peach was the first who directed my attention to the fact 
that certain ironstone nodules found among the debris in the 
pit banks at West Calder occasionally contained remains of 
fishes ; and during the year (1878) now drawing to a close 
I have, with the kind aid of several friends, been able to 
bring together a considerable number of similar relics from 
that locality, as well as from Oakbank and Broxburn. And 
before proceeding to their enumeration and description, I 
must express my best thanks besides to Mr Peach, also to 
Professor Geikie, director of the Scottish Geological Survey ; 
the Pev. Professor Duns, of the N'ew College, Edinburgh; 
Messrs John Gibson and T. Stock, assistants in the Natural 
History Department of the Edinburgh Museum ; and Messrs 
Lumsden and Galletly, of Young's Paraffin Oil Works, West 
Calder, both for the loan of specimens and for information as 
to their localities. 



I. Fishes from West Calder and Oakbank. 

The geological position of the West Calder Oil Shales is in 
the uppermost or " Houston coal " group of the Calciferous 
Sandstone series, a set of strata intervening between the 
"Burdiehouse Limestone" and the Lower Marine Limestone 
series, and containing, besides the Houston coal seam, which 
has at various times been wrought in localities in the district, 
also the well-known " Binny Sandstone." The fish remains 
occur in the " deep shale," which lies at a considerable distance 
below the Houston coal, the Binny Sandstone intervening, and 
are principally found in hard pyritous nodules of clay iron- 
stone, which form a band near the bottom of the seam. Such 
fossils are of rare occurrence in the shale itself. 

From the complex manner in which the strata of the 
district are folded, as well as disturbed by innumerable 
faults, it is more difficult to determine the exact position 
of the shales wrought at Oakbank, about four miles to the 



Dr B. H. Traquair on Fossil Fishes from Oil Shales. 115 

north-east; but in Professor Geikie's opinion they belong 
to the same general horizon as those at West Calder. The 
fish remains, which they contain, occur in nodules which are 
very similar in character to those of the last-named locality. 

(1.) Acanthodes sp. 

The remarkable group of extinct fishes constituting the 
family Acanthodidce, concerning whose structure and system- 
atic position so much has still to be learned, is, as is well 
known, abundantly represented by genera and species in the 
Lower Old Eed Sandstone of Scotland. Of these Old Eed 
Acanthodians (Acanthodes, Cheiracanthus, Dij^lacanthtts, Eua- 
canthus, Climatms, Farexus) the writings of H. Miller, Agassiz, 
Sir Philip Grey-Egerton, and Powrie, contain abundant illus- 
tration. Above the Old Eed Sandstone the family seems 
to have fallen away in numbers and importance, though the 
remains of fishes belonging to it are traceable through the 
carboniferous into the Lower Permian. The latter forma- 
tion has in Germany, though only one genus {Acanthodes) is 
represented, yielded the beautiful specimens from which the 
elaborate descriptions of Quenstedt,* Troschel,-!* Eoemer,:]: 
and Kner,§ have been drawn up. 

A great deal has, however, yet to be done in the way of 
working out the Acanthodidce of the carboniferous strata. 
Eemains of Acanthodian fishes are, it is true, pretty generally 
diffused throughout this formation in Great Britain. De- 
tached spines, bones, and portions of the shagreen-like scaly 
covering, are not uncommon in the Calciferous Sandstone 
series of Scotland, from the Wardie shales upwards, as well 
as in the " edge coal " strata of the Carboniferous Limestone 
series ; while both in England and Scotland such relics are of 
frequent occurrence in the fish-bearing shales of the coal- 

* Handbuch der Petrefactenkunde, Tiibingen, 1851. 

t Beobaclitungen iiber die Fische in den Eisennieren des Saarbriicker Steiu- 
koblengebirges, Verh. naturh. Ver. des preuss. Bheinl. xiv. 1857. 

t Ueber Fiseb und Pflanzen-fiibrende Mergelscbiefer des Kothliegendes, 
etc. Zeitscb. der deutscben geol. Gesellsch, ix. 1857. 

§ Ueber Conchopoma gadiforme, nov. gen. & sp., und Acanthodes aus dem 
Eotbliegenden von Lebach bei Saarbriicken in Eheinpreussen, Sitzungsb. 
Wien. Ac, Ivii. 1868. 



116 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

measures. But specimens which are at all entire are rare ; 
indeed, it is only in the North Staffordshire district that any 
number of specimens approaching completeness have been 
found. 

Three species of carboniferous Acanthodians have been 
described, and these are usually referred either to the genus 
Acanthodes of Agassiz, or to Acaiithodopsis of Hancock and 
Atthey. And here the question as to genus is of very great 
interest. The genus Acanthodes was instituted by Agassiz 
to include these forms, in which, as in the type species A. 
Bronnii of the Lower Permian of Lebach and Saarbriicken, 
there are, besides the pectoral spines, two ventral, one dorsal, 
and one anal, all supporting their respective fins, and the 
dorsal being situated behind the anal one. In this category 
the following species have been included : From the Old Eed 
Sandstone of Scotland — A. pitsillus, Ag., A. Peachii, Egert., 
A. corrugatus, Egert., and A. Mitchelli, Egert.; from the 
carboniferous formation — A. sulcatus, Ag., and A. JVardi, 
Egert. ; and from the Lower Permian of Germany — A. 
Bronnii, Ag., and A. gracilis, Beyrich. By Agassiz the teeth 
are stated to be ''fines," and " disposees en une simple rangie; " 
and in A. pusillus he describes the mouth as being " garnie de 
tres petites dents qui meme sous une tres-forte loupe ne paraissent 
que comme de petits points noirs." * Troschel could, however, 
find no certain evidence of teeth at all in A. Bronnii, nor 
Eoemer in A. gracilis ; but on the other hand, Kner describes 
both jaws in the former species as bearing "feine kleine Spitz- 
zdhne in ziemlich dichter Reihe" in this respect corroborating 
the statement of Agassiz as to A. pusillus. 

Messrs Hancock and Atthey, however, drew attention in 
1868 to certain peculiar dentigerous bones, or jaws, which 
are not uncommon in the shale overlying the " Low Main" 
coal seam at Newsham, near Newcastle-on-Tyne.f Each of 
these bears five or six large triangular-looking teeth, laterally 
compressed, confluent at their bases, and having their sur- 

* Poissons Fossiles du vieux Gr^s rouge, p. 35, 36. 

t "Notes on the Remains of some Reptiles and Fishes from the Shales of 
the Northumberland Coal Field," Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), vol. i., 
pp. 364-368. 



Dr B. H. Traquair on Fossil Fishes from Oil Shales. 117 

faces finely and irregularly striated. In some instances the 
peculiar styliform bone — described by some authors (Eomer, 
Grey-Egerton) as the mandible of Acanthodes, by others 
(Troschel, Kner) as the hyoid — was found lying closely along 
the inner and lower margin of the dentigerous bone in ques- 
tion. All doubt as to these jaws with their singular teeth 
being Acanthodian in their nature was, how^ever, removed 
by their occurrence in situ in a few fragmentary specimens 
of fishes of this family, some of which Messrs Hancock and 
Atthey referred to the Acanthodes Wardi of Sir Philip Grey- 
Egerton, constituting for it, on account of the peculiar denti- 
tion, the new genus Acanthodoysis ; others they referred to 
a new species of the same genus, viz., Acanthodopsis Fgertoni. 

There does not, however, appear to me to be any real 
evidence of the identity of Acanthodopsis Wardi of Hancock 
and Atthey with the Acanthodes Wardi of Egerton. I have 
carefully examined the specimens (now in the Newcastle 
Museum) which were used by Messrs Hancock and Atthey 
for their descriptions, and I must own that they seem to me 
to be too fragmentary to justify any such identification. It 
is also somewhat remarkable that in the North Staffordshire 
fish shales, where Acanthodes Wardi is abundant, the jaws of 
Acanthodojms have not yet, so far as I am aware, been 
found ; indeed, Mr Ward, whose experience as a collector in 
that district is so well known, writes to me that he has 
never yet seen the jaw in question. Although Acantho- 
dopsis occurs sparingly in the coal measures of Scotland, as 
at Falkirk and at Smeaton, near Dalkeith, such jaws have 
also as yet never occurred in the Calciferous Sandstone series, 
or in the " edge coal " strata of the Carboniferous Limestone 
group, in which other Acanthodian remains are by no means 
uncommon. 

The true dentition of the fish named Acanthodes Wardi by 
Sir Philip Grey-Egerton has not yet been determined, and 
until that is the case, I think it preferable to retain it in the 
genus Acanthodes, as distinct from Acanthodojms Wardi of 
Hancock and Atthey. In similar circumstances, a similar 
treatment should be accorded to other Acanthodes-like fishes 
from the carboniferous formation. 



118 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

ISTumerous remains of a pretty large Acanthodian fish 
have been collected at West Calder by Mr Peach, and at 
Oakbank by Messrs Gibson and Stock, which may be re- 
ferred to Acanthodes, though it would be premature to 
identify them with any described species. They consist of 
fragments of the body; the best, from Oakbank, in the 
collection of Mr Gibson, displays nearly the entire pectoral 
fin, in addition to a crushed and unreadable portion of the 
head. The scales are proportionally minute, smooth, and 
shining on the outer surface, and without any trace, so far 
as I have seen, of the longitudinal furrow or sulcus described 
by Agassiz as characteristic of his Acanthodes sulcatus from 
Wardie. It is, however, unfortunate that A. sulcatus was 
founded upon a very small fragment (now in the Oxford 
Museum) of the scaly covering of the body, so that its satis- 
factory comparison with other fragmentary specimens is 
attended with difficulties. Meanwhile, it seems safer to 
wait for the acquisition of further material before deciding 
as to the species of these Acanthodians from West Calder 
and Oakbank. 

(2.) Nematoptychius Greenochii, Ag. sp. 

Pijgopterus Greenochii — Agassiz: "Poissons Fossiles," t. ii., pt, 2, p. 78. 
NematoptijcMus G^remocM— Traquair: "Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist." (4), xv., 
1875, p. 258. 

Several heads of this large and beautiful Palseoniscid fish 
have been found at Oakbank by Messrs Gibson and Stock, 
and there is one badly preserved in the collection of fossils 
at the West Calder Oil Works. One specimen in the collec- 
tion of Mr Gibson shows, besides the head, a portion of the 
body, in the abdominal part of which there are contained 
portions of the shagreen-like scaly covering of a small Acan- 
thodes, of which the larger fish had evidently made a meal 
shortly before its death. 

The remains of Nematoptychius Greenockii are of frequent 
occurrence in the Lower Carboniferous rocks of Scotland. 
Besides West Calder, the following localities may be quoted : 

In the Calciferous Sandstone Series — Wardie, and Water of 



Dr R. H. Traqiiair on Fossil Fishes from Oil Shales. 119 

Leith near Juniper Green, in Edinburghshire ; Burntisland 
and near Anstruther, in Fifeshire. 

I?i the Carhomferous Limestone Series — Loanhead, West 
Edge near Gilmerton, and Borough Lee, in Edinburghshire ; 
Possil, in Lanarkshire. 

(3.) Elonichthys tenuiserratus, sp. nov. 

Among the fish remains collected by the Geological Survey 
of Scotland — for the privilege of examining which I am in- 
debted to the kindness of Professors Ramsay and Geikie — I 
observed a small portion of shale from Hermand, near West 
Calder, covered with dislocated scales of an apparently new 
species of Elonichthys. Subsequently ]\Ir Stock confided to 
me for description a specimen contained in an ironstone 
nodule, which he found on the bank of a shale pit in the 
same district, and which jDresents us with the head and 
greater part of the body of a fish of the same species, the 
caudal and anal fins, however, being deficient, and the body 
scales jumbled up and squeezed together. 

Description. — The head in Mr Stock's specimen is 2 
inches in length, and, judging from the usual proportion 
which the head bears to the total in allied species, the 
entire length of the fish cannot have originally been less 
than 9 inches. The cranial roof-bones are minutely and 
closely granulated. The external facial bones are covered 
with very fine and closely placed raised striae or ridges, 
which tend to become irregularly ramified and intercalated. 
The lower margin of the maxilla bears a number of large 
conical laniary teeth, w^hose apices are, however, concealed by 
the matrix ; and besides these, a few of the more externally 
placed smaller teeth are also visible. About ten branchios- 
tegal plates may be counted, passing from the interoperculum 
round beneath the powerfully developed mandible. 

The pectoral fin is acuminate in shape, and equals in 
length two-thirds that of the head ; about twenty rays may 
be counted in it, but it is also evident that the whole of the 
more delicate rays on its medial aspect are not exhibited. 
Excepting the first two or perhaps three on its lateral edge, 
which are comparatively short, and do not reach the apex. 



120 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

all the pectoral rays are articulated up to their origins, the 
articulations being tolerably close, although the joints for the 
most part appear a little longer than broad. In the case of 
the ray forming the lateral margin of the fin towards the 
apex, the joints are, however, shorter than elsewhere — in 
fact, shorter than broad. The marginal fulcra of the pectoral 
are very minute and closely set. The ventral fin is imper- 
fectly preserved ; its rays are seen to be coarser than those 
of the pectoral, but similarly articulated, the joints being 
longitudinally striated, and the fulcra coarser and more 
obliquely set. The dorsal is in still worse condition than the 
ventral, and is, moreover, displaced forwards by the distor- 
tion of the body. Only a few of the anterior dorsal fin-rays 
are seen, and these are tolerably coarse and divided by trans- 
verse articulations, which are so close as to render the joints 
nearly square; externally the rays are finely and closely 
striated longitudinally. 

The scales are rather large; one from the middle of the 
flank in Mr Stock's specimen measures ^ inch in height, ex- 
clusive of the articular spine, by -^ inch in breadth ; while 
most of those in the specimen belonging to the Scottish 
Geological Survey are a little larger. They have the usual 
shape found in the genus — the flank scales having their 
upper margin rather concave, and showing a well-marked 
articular spine, the lower margin being correspondingly 
convex, while the anterior marginal covered area is very 
narrow. The posterior margin is very minutely serrated — 
so minutely that the serrations are with difficulty percep- 
tible, even with a strong lens. The exposed surface is sculp- 
tured with very delicate furrows, which form a pattern essen- 
tially similar to that seen in E. striolatus and other species 
of the Rolisoni type ; but here these furrows are much more 
numerous and minute, in proportion to the size of the scale. 
As in allied forms, the furrows commence oblique to the 
anterior margin of the scale, and proceeding downwards and 
backwards, curve round so as to become more or less parallel 
with the lower one; towards the middle of the scale they 
usually become faint, and more or less replaced by minute 
punctures, which are more especially brought out when the 



Dr R. H. Traqxiair on Fossil Fishes from Oil Shales. 121 

scale is held in certain positions. Towards the posterior 
margin the furrows become again more marked, and terminate 
between the minute serrations of the edge. No satisfactory 
view is afforded of the scale sculpture behind the region of 
the ventral s. 

Remarks. — Scanty as are the materials for the description 
of E. tenuiserratus, its characters are so clear and striking 
that it cannot be confounded with any other species hitherto 
described. We have before us a fish allied to those species 
of Elonichthys which may be classed together as the " Rohi- 
soni type," but at once distinguishable from all of them by 
the fineness and closeness of the ornament on the cranial 
bones ; and as regards the scales, by the extreme delicacy of 
their sculpture and the minuteness of their marginal serra- 
tions, which the comparatively large size of the scales renders 
all the more conspicuous. The pattern of the ridges on the 
facial bones differs also somewhat from that in allied forms ; 
but for purposes of diagnosis, a single scale from the flank 
is sufficient. 

(4.) Elonichthys pectinatus, Traquair. 

Elonichthys (1) pedinatus— TiaqvLSiiT : " Proc. Roy. Soc, Edin.," May 1877, 
p. 430. 

In the " Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh " 
for May 1877, I described, under the name of Elonichthys (?) 
pectinatus, certain scales from the Carboniferous Limestone 
Series of Gilmerton, Levenseat, and Carluke, referring them 
provisionally to that genus, until further information could 
be had regarding the fish to which they' belonged. The 
description which I gave at that time I may here quote in 
full: 

" Flank scales about ^ inch broad, and usually a little 
higher, exclusive of the articular spine; moderately thick. 
Upper margin with prominent articular spine ; anterior 
covered area narrow; exposed surface brilliantly ganoid, 
sculptured with oblique, sub-parallel prominent ridges, occa- 
sionally branching, anastomising, and intercalated, and ter- 
minating behind in delicate denticulations of the posterior 



122 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

margin ; about seven or eight of tliese ridges in the space of 
\ inch. Under surface of scale with feebly marked keel ; a 
narrow area along the posterior margin is obliquely grooved, 
the short grooves terminating between the denticulations of 
the posterior margin, so as to produce a pectinated appear- 
ance. Scales from apparently the ventral aspect are lower 
than broad, and with more produced anterior superior angles ; 
others, from their more regularly rhomboidal shape and 
scanty development, or absence of the articular spine, and 
more prominent keel of the attached surface, were probably 
situated more towards the caudal extremity. In all cases 
the external sculpture is similar, and the under surface dis- 
plays the same peculiar pectinated appearance at the posterior 
margin. 

"Associated with these scales, there is on a specimen from 
Carluke, in the collection of Mr Grossart of Salsburgh, a 
small fragment of the edge of what must have been a pretty 
large jaw. This fragment is nearly 1^ inches in length, and 
displays the stumps of five stout conical teeth, with traces of 
smaller ones external to them ; the external surface of the 
bone is beautifully tuberculated." 

I might also have added that the tubercles on the portion 
of jaw referred to are, when examined under a lens, seen to 
be ornamented with minute striae passing upwards upon them 
from their bases. 

From the oil shale pits at West Calder and Oakbank, 
Messrs Peach, Gibson, and Stock have collected a consider- 
able number of specimens, which I must refer to the same 
species. Many of these consist, like the originals upon 
which the species was founded, only of masses of dislocated 
scales ; there are, however, others which, though still rather 
fragmentary, throw a considerable amount of additional light 
upon the structure of the fish itself. All are contained in 
ironstone nodules, save one, which was shown to me by Mr 
Lumsden at the West Calder Oil Works, in which the scales 
are found imbedded in a portion of the oil shale itself. 

Between the scales of the West Calder and Oakbank 
specimens, and those forming the original types of E. pecti- 
natus, I can see no essential difference either in configuration 



Dr B. H. Traquair on Fossil Fishes fro^n Oil Shales. 123 

or sculpture, although in the former the ridges are in some 
cases rather finer, and are also occasionally themselves orna- 
mented with a few very delicate striae running longitudinally 
or obliquely along their sides. Earely is the internal surface 
of the scale exhibited, but in one case at least the posterior 
margin seen from this aspect is distinctly pectinated in the 
same peculiar manner as in those previously described. 

A specimen in the collection of Mr Gibson shows a large 
portion of the body, with remains of the dorsal, ventral, and 
anal fins, and is 7^ inches in length by 5 inches in greatest 
depth. The nodule is unfortunately broken across just in 
front of the ventral and a little behind the anal fin; but, 
judging from the proportionate dimensions of the part of the 
body exhibited, the original length of the fish could not have 
been less than 18 inches. The fins are badly preserved, not 
much more than their bases being shown, and those are 
imperfect ; the dorsal is placed opposite the interval between 
the ventral and the anal. The fin-rays are stout, their 
articulations are rather close, and where their internal surface 
is shown, it is brilliantly ganoid, and conspicuously striated 
longitudinally. 

Another specimen belonging to Mr Gibson consists of a 
large clavicle, with a portion of the appended infraclavicular 
plate, and in connection with this clavicle there is the 
greater part of the pectoral fin. The portion of the fin pre- 
served is nearly 2^ inches in length by 1^ inches in breadth ; 
but as the rays are abruptly disturbed and broken off, it is 
perfectly clear that the extremity of the fin is gone, and 
judging from what remains, its original length cannot have 
been less than 3 inches — probably more. A fish of very 
formidable proportions is therefore here indicated, at least for 
a member of the Palaeoniscidse. The principal rays of this 
pectoral are, as in Elonichthys Egertoni, and in the genera 
Acrolejois and Nematoptychius, unarticulated for some distance 
from their origin — as much as 1 inch at the lateral margin — 
beyond which they are closely jointed. Careful examination 
shows that the jointed portions of the rays were sculptured 
externally with longitudinal and, in some cases, oblique stride. 

In another specimen, also belonging to Mr Gibson, a por- 



124 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

tion of a large mandible is shown, which at its thickest part 
is no less than l^V inches in depth. A fracture displays, in 
vertical section, a large incurved conical tooth, whose height 
above the jaw-margin cannot, however, be accurately deter- 
mined, as the apex is deficient. The outer surface of the 
dentary bone is sculptured with closely-set, sinuously-con- 
torted, and interrupted ridges, passing into tubercles, the 
sides of which are again ornamented with delicate vertical 
striae. On the edge of the specimen is also seen a portion, 
3 inches in length, of the dentary margin of the maxilla, the 
outer surface of which is closely tuberculated in the same 
way as the portion of jaw shown in Mr Grossart's specimen 
from Carluke — the tubercles, sometimes round, sometimes 
confluent, being again ornamented with exceedingly delicate 
strise. The maxillary teeth are, except the impression of a 
small external one, covered up by the intractable matrix; 
but the bone being broken longitudinally through a little 
above the dentary margin, the basal pulp cavities of four 
large laniary teeth are opened into in the space of 1^ inches. 
The portion of maxillary margin exhibited is 3 inches in 
length, but it is broken off at both ends, and, judging from 
its curves and the thickness of the bone itself, it must have 
originally been considerably longer. 

Mr Stock also possesses a specimen showing the posterior 
or expanded portion of the maxilla displayed, the outer 
surface of which is covered by a close tuberculation entirely 
similar to that above described, and the scales associated 
with it are sufficient for its identification as belonging to 
the same fish. Two large laniary teeth, with a few of the 
more externally placed smaller ones, are visible on the 
margin. 

A nearly entire head is seen in another of Mr Gibson's 
specimens, and again in one collected by Mr Peach. In 
both the cranial bones are much crushed and broken, and 
their external sculpture not exhibited; but the skull is 
clearly seen to be constructed on the ordinary Palseoniscid 
type, with oblique suspensorium, wide extent of gape, etc. 
In Mr Peach's specimen, which is rather a small one, the 
left ramus of the mandible is shown in its entirety, and 



Dr B. H. Traquair on Fossil Fislus from Oil Shales. 125 

measures 2^ inches in length, by ^-^ inch in depth, near its 
posterior extremity. These proportions would indicate for 
Mr Gibson's fragmentary mandible, already described, an 
original length of at least 6^ inches, and somewhere between 
3 and 4 feet as the probable length of the entire fish to 
which it belonored. 

Remarks. — This splendid Palaeoniscid seems to have rivalled 
Acrolepis Bankinei in bulk, with which its remains may also, 
on superficial examination, be easily confounded. The scales 
of Elonichthys 2^ecti7iatus may, however, always be easily 
distinguished by their greater relative thinness, by the 
narrowness of their covered area, and by the pectination 
of their posterior margins. These scale-features induce me 
to class the fish rather in Elonichthys than in Acrolepis, 
although it agrees with the latter genus in the structure of 
the pectoral fin. But the small Elonichthys Egertoni also has 
the principal rays of the pectoral unarticulated for about one- 
third of their length. The genus Elonichthys will therefore 
fall into two divisions — the first comprising those species 
{E. semistriatus, striolatns, tenniserratus, etc.), in which the 
pectoral rays, except one or two short ones immediately on 
the lateral edge of the fin, are all articulated up to their 
origins ; and the second those other species (E. Egertoni, 
Portlockii, pectinatus) in which the principal rays of the fin 
are unarticulated at their origin for about one-third of their 
length. The second division forms a transition to Acrolepis. 

(5.) Eurynotus sp. 

On a slab of shale in the collection at the West Calder Oil 
Works there are numerous scattered scales of an Eurynotus, 
which I cannot distinguish from those of E. crenatus. Mr 
Stock also possesses a small and not very perfect specimen 
of Eurynotus preserved in an ironstone nodule, from a pit in 
the vicinity, concerning which it is better at present to ex- 
press no opinion as to species. 

(6.) Gyracanthus tuberculatus, Ag. 

A considerable portion of a large spine, lent to me by Mr 
D'Arcy W. Thompson, who obtained it from the West Calder 



126 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, 

Oil Works. It occurred in the productive oil sliale, and is 
not contained in a nodule. 

(7.) Spine allied to Sphenacanthus. 

A mere fragment found by Mr Peacli at Hermand, West 
Calder. Another fragment, still more imperfect, is in the 
collection of Mr Gibson. 



II. Fish from Broxburn. 

The oil shales wrought at Broxburn, in Linlithgowshire, 
are considered by Professor Geikie to occupy a lower position 
in the series than those of West Calder and Oakbank. Fish 
remains seem to be excessively rare in the present workings, 
but I am indebted to the Eev. Professor Duns for the loan of 
a beautiful specimen of a hitherto undescribed fish, which he 
found some years ago on the bank of a shale pit now disused. 
I have, therefore, great pleasure in naming the species after 
its discoverer. 

Elonichthys Dunsii, sp. no v. 

Professor Duns's specimen presents us with a fish entire in 
all respects, save that the extremity of the tail is shown only 
as a somewhat obscure impression. In length it measures 6 
inches, in greatest depth If inches. The shape is deeply fusi- 
form, the depth of the body at the commencement of the 
dorsal fin being contained about three and a half times, the 
length of the head about five times, in the total. The head 
appears, therefore, short and deep; the anteriorly-placed 
orbit and projecting snout are well defined, as well as the 
wide gape and the oblique position of the hyomandibular 
element. A thin layer of the matrix obstinately adhering to 
the surface of the bones prevents their further description, 
save that the sculpture of the cranial roof-bones is seen to be 
of a finely tuberculo-rugose character; the lower end of the 
clavicle is, however, clearly exhibited, and is ornamented 
with rather coarse, well-defined, flattened rugte. The scales, 
of which forty oblique bands may be counted between the 



Br E. H. Traquair on Fossil Fishes from Oil Shales. 127 

shoulder and the commencement of the lower lobe of the 
caudal fin, are of medium size, and in their general form are 
similar to those of other species of Elonichthys. Their pos- 
terior margins show, even as far back as the termination of the 
dorsal fin, where the appearance tends to become obsolete, an 
extremely delicate oblique serration, which distinguishes them 
from the scales of every other species of the genus with which 
I am acquainted, save E. tenuiserratics. Immediately behind 
the shoulder girdle the scales are highly ornate, the free sur- 
face being marked by delicate furrows, interrupted, inter- 
calated, and mostly parallel with the lower margin, tending 
also to pass into punctures posteriorly. Soon after passing 
this region, the furrows become limited to the anterior margin 
of each scale, and the greater part of the exposed area is 
covered with thickly clotted punctures. 

The left pectoral fin is visible, as well as the anterior 
margin of that of the right side, but both are only seen 
through a thin layer of the matrix. They are acuminate in 
shape, each as long as the lower jaw, and their principal rays 
are clearly seen to be articulated up to their origins. Both 
ventrals are also exhibited, but in indifferent preservation. 
The dorsal is placed over the interval between the ventrals 
and anal ; it is large, acuminate, and contains about thirty 
rays. These dichotomise towards their terminations; their 
articulations are longer than broad in the proximal halves of 
the longer rays, but distally, and in the short rays of the 
hinder part of the fin, they become very short. These ray- 
joints, brilliantly ganoid, are each marked by a longitudinal fur- 
row, in front of which again are usually a few oblique streaks, 
the posterior margin being, like that of the scales of the body, 
ornamented by a delicate oblique serrature, the denticles of 
which point upwards and backwards. The anal fin is some- 
what smaller than the dorsal, but possesses the same general 
configuration, and the same mode of ornamentation of its 
rays. The caudal is unfortunately very badly preserved as 
regards clearness of detail, though its general shape — strongly 
heterocercal and inequilobate — is traceable, partly in impres- 
sion, partly as seen through a thin layer of matrix similar to 
that which has obscured the head bones, as well as portions 



128 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

of all the other fins. On the anterior margins of all the fins 
well-marked fulcra are observable. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr John Henderson, 
Curator of the Phrenological Museum, Edinburgh, for a 
specimen from the Water of Leith, near Juniper Green 
(Wardie Shales), which is probably referable to the present 
species. Unfortunately the scales and fin-rays are so dis- 
located and jumbled up, that it is hardly possible to say more 
regarding it than that the scales, in configuration and sculp- 
ture, closely resemble those of Professor Duns's specimen. 

Remarks. — Although the dentition of this species is still 
unknown, its position in the genus Elonichthys seems to be 
indicated by its general aspect, the configuration of its scales, 
and the structure and position of its fins. Its most salient 
peculiarities are the very minute denticulation of the pos- 
terior margins of the scales, and the serration of the posterior 
margins of the joints of the fin-rays — characters which, when 
taken togetxier, distinguish it from every other species with 
which I am acquainted. 



XVII. Evidence as to the Predaceous Habits of the Larger 
Palceoniscidce. By K. H. Teaquair, Esq., M.D., 
F.G.S., Keeper of the Natural History Collections in 
the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. 

(Eead 29tli May 1879.) 

That the larger fishes of the Carboniferous and other 
periods were, like those of the present day, in the habit of 
feeding upon their smaller brethren, is a fact long ago well 
attested by the frequency with which scales and small bones 
occur in coprolites, which, in our own district, constitute so 
abundant a fossil wherever fish remains are to be found. 
The mail-clad skins of the smaller Ganoids seem to have 
formed no protection against the powerful jaws and conical 
teeth of their superiors in bulk. The small jaw, from the 
German Kupferschiefer, named by Mtinster Glohulodus elegans, 
were discovered in a coprolite.* The original specimen of 

* Beitrage zur Petrefactenkunde, v., 1842, p. 47. 



On the Fredaceous Habits of the Larger Falceoniscidce. 129 

the large Liassic ccelacanth, Holophagus gido, "has the 
stomach distended with a recently -swallowed Fapedius" 
which circumstance seems to have suggested the very ex- 
pressive name given to the fish by Sir Philip Grey-Egerton.* 
Nor do the very formidable spines with which the fins of 
fishes of the genus Acanthodes were armed, seem to have 
formed any efficient obstacle to their being swallowed and 
digested ; indeed, Acanthodes seems to have formed rather a 
common article of food with some of the larger Falceoniscidce ; 
for Acanthodian spines may be very frequently detected 
lying in the abdominal cavities of large specimens of Fhab- 
dolepis — a Palaeoniscid genus common in the ironstone no- 
dules of Saarbriicken and Lebach in Ehenish Prussia. 

Of the larger Palseoniscidse of our Scottish Lower Carboni- 
ferous strata, none would seem to be better adapted for a life 
of the kind usually termed " predaceous " than Nematopty chins 
Greenochii. Its slender body, covered with comparatively 
small scales, and its large fins, bespeak a rapid swimmer, 
while its powerful jaws, armed with formidable incurved 
conical teeth, and, above all, its enormous extent of gape, 
would enable it to capture and swallow with ease other fishes 
of a very considerable size, including also those strongly- 
spined Acanthodians, which I have already mentioned as 
frequently forming the prey of the Lower Permian Rhahdo- 
lepis. 

I have, in my recent paper on the Fishes of the Edinburgh- 
shire and Linlithgowshire Oil Shales, mentioned a specimen 
of Nematoptychius Greenochii from Oakbank, in whose ab- 
domen distinct remains of an Acanthodes are to be found. 
And I have just lately obtained from the blackband ironstone 
of Borough Lee, near Dryden (Middle Carboniferous Lime- 
stone series), an example of the same species, which affords 
a still better instance of the same phenomenon. In its ab- 
domen there may be seen, lying over the region of the 
ventral fins, first, the slender styliform bone of an Acanthodes, 
variously considered by different authors as belonging to the 
mandible or to the hyoid apparatus ; then, proceeding from 
behind forwards, we find the two pectoral spines each \\ 

* Dec. Geol. Survey, x., 1861, p. 19. 
VOL. V. I 



130 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

inches in length, and having their apices pointing towards 
the mouth of the larger fish ; then a smaller one, probably- 
one of the ventral spines ; lastly, there are here and there 
exposed portions of the shagreen-like scaly covering, the 
little quadrangular scales being mostly still in apposition. 

It might be suggested that here we have simply the re- 
mains of two fishes accidentally squeezed together, one above 
the other. But careful examination of the specimen, and 
comparison of it with the " counterpart," indisputably demon- 
strates that the Acanthodian remains are situated, not outside 
the body of the Nematoptychius, but between its right and 
left abdominal walls. For as the stone has so split, that 
part of the substance of the large fish adheres to one slab, 
and part to the other, the scales of the two sides of the body 
can readily be distinguished, separated by a thin layer of 
matrix. And looking at the slab on which the Neniatopty- 
chius seems to lie on its right side, nothing can be clearer 
than the position of the Acanthodian remains helow the left 
and above the right body wall, and imbedded in the thin 
separating layer of matrix to which I have alluded. More of 
the Acanthodes could certainly be exhibited by careful work- 
ing out, but so obstinately does the aforesaid layer of matrix 
adhere to the delicate shagreen-like scales, save where it has 
already split off naturally, that it is hardly possible to clear 
it away without injury to the latter. Enough is otherwise 
shown to demonstrate the relative position of the two fishes 
to each other. 

In conclusion, two points may be noted in connection 
with the specimen chronicled above : 

1. The swallowed fish must have been of very considerable 
size in proportion to its captor, judging from the length of its 
pectoral spines. This shows rather forcibly that the enor- 
mously wide gape characteristic of the Palseoniscidse was not 
bestowed in vain upon the larger species of the family. 

2. The Acanthodes was swallowed head foremost, as is 
clearly shown by the position of its remains in the body of 
the larger fish. This must necessarily have been the case, as 
in any other position its formidable spines would have proved 
an insuperable obstacle to its being swallowed at all. 



071 the Occurrence of the Stockdove in Berwickshire. 131 



XVIII. Note on the Occurrence of the Stockdove (Columba 
?enas) in Berwickshire. By Egbert Geay, Esq., 
r.RS.E. 

(Read 19th March 1879.) 

In April last year, shortly after the concluding meeting of 
the session had taken place, I was favoured with a note from 
Mr Charles Watson, solicitor, Dunse, in which lie informed 
me that the stockdove was a well-known bird in Berwick- 
shire, and must have bred there in some numbers for several 
years. I at once wrote to that gentleman to say that his 
communication was of the greatest interest to me, and that I 
should be glad if he would enable me to verify the informa- 
tion, by sending me a specimen of the bird, and thus give me 
an opportunity of submitting it at a meeting of this Society. 
Mr Watson most kindly replied that he would have pleasure 
in complying with my request in time for an early meeting 
of the present session, and he would, doubtless, have done so 
before this time, had the birds not shifted their quarters at 
the commencement of the severe weather which has been so 
prevalent during the present winter. On the 11th of this 
month, Mr Watson, in a letter which I received from him, 
mentioned that he had some time ago asked Mr Hay of 
Dunse Castle, to allow his gamekeeper to procure a specimen, 
and that on the morning of that day one had been brought 
to him, which he had at once sent off to my address. Mr 
Watson added that the keeper had seen more than a dozen 
of these birds on the day in question. About three months 
previously, the flocks frequenting the woods at Dunse Castle 
had all left the district, but had returned a few days before 
the specimen now exhibited was shot. On asking Mr Watson 
for further information, which I might communicate to the 
Society this evening, I was favoured with a second com- 
munication, in which he writes as follows : 

*' Clouds, Dunse, N.B., \Zth March 1879, 
"About a year ago Mr Eobert Wait, bird-stuffer here, 
brought to me a dove which had been shot by the gamekeeper 
at Dunse Castle. I at once was satisfied it was a stockdove. 



132 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

and on making inquiries, found that numbers of these birds 
had bred in the woods about Dunse Castle for several years. 
They had first attracted the keeper's attention by the differ- 
ence of their call. They are increasing every year in num- 
bers. Shortly after seeing the bird, I observed in a report of 
a meeting of the Eoyal Physical Society a notice of its 
occurrence in Perthshire, and I then wrote to you on the 
subject. At the commencement of the snowstorm in Decem- 
ber last the colony migrated, I suppose, to the coast, and 
returned about a week ago. 

" Last year the keeper, Alexander Hewit, secured a pair of 
young birds from the nest, and has them still. They are 
rather wild, but perhaps that arises more from want of 
society than from inherent wildness. They are perfect 
beauties." 

Prom this information, it would appear that the stockdove 
has been a regular visitant in the woods of Dunse Castle, 
and in all probability other parts of Berwickshire, for years 
past, and that it has regularly bred there. Ornithologists are 
certainly indebted to Mr Watson for having recognised this 
interesting bird when submitted to him last year, and for 
having announced the fact of its being now a native of Scot- 
land. Personally I have to thank him for having brought 
the facts now communicated under my notice, and I now 
place them on record in the Proceedings as facts of interest, 
inasmuch as they give an extended range to the distribution 
of the stockdove in Britain. 



XIX. Note on the Occurrence of the Starry Bay (Eaia radiata 
of Donovan), in the Firth of Forth. By Chas. W. 
Peach, Esq., A.L.S. 

(Read 19th Marcli 1879.) 

A short time ago Mr G. Dickson Moffat, fish merchant, of 
38 Dundas Street, sent me two fine specimens of the Starry 
Pay, Baia radiata of Donovan and of Fleming's, "British 
Animals," p. 170, sp. 20. As it is rare to me, and was so both 
to Yarrell and Couch, the former having seen one from Ber- 



Mr A. B. Herhert on the Harvest Mouse. 133 

wick and two from tlie Firth of Forth, the latter only one 
(" the dried skin " Yarrell had), I have thought it might be 
interesting to the members to exhibit mine to-night. Yarrell 
has figured and described this ray at page 585, vol. ii., second 
edition, of " The British Fishes." The figure was taken from 
the one got in Berwick Bay — a female specimen — and it 
agrees well with the specimens I now exhibit, although more 
so when they were fresh and their colours bright. Yarrell's 
figure was taken from a female example; mine are both 
females, and agree in length with it and other particulars. 

Couch's figure of this fish, plate xxiii., page 103 of his 
" History of the Fishes of the British Islands," was taken 
from Donovan's plate. Couch gives no dimensions, etc., and 
as I have not Donovan's work, I am unable to give particulars 
as to size, etc., or locality. There is, however, sufficient in 
the figure to identify it as a starry ray. I rather think it 
must have been a larger specimen than mine, judging by the 
large spines and robust appearance shown in the plate. 
Couch adds nothing to the description given by Yarrell. 

My specimens were taken in the Firth of Forth ; Parnell 
sent Mr Yarrell two from the same locality. I regret that I 
have not been able to examine Parnell's " Fishes of the Firth 
of Forth." I am not aware that I ever saw any other speci- 
men of this pretty fish. If I had, I am sure that its well- 
marked character would not have escaped my notice. To 
" educate " our young friends has been a strong inducement 
to bring them here, as well as to express my best thanks to 
Mr Moffat for his kindness in sending me such a welcome 
present. 



XX. Note on the Harvest Mouse (Mus messorius). By A. B. 
Herbert, Esq. 

(Read 16th April 1879.) 

The harvest mouse {mus messorius) designated by Pallas Mus 
minutus, is the smallest of British quadrupeds, and seems not 
to have been known as a distinct species till Gilbert White 
called attention to it in the year 1767. They breed as many 



134 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

as eight or nine at a litter, in a round nest composed of 
the blades of grass and wheat. White thus describes one 
of these nests : " It was most artificially plaited and com- 
posed of the blades of wheat, perfectly round, and about the 
size of a cricket ball, with the aperture so ingeniously closed 
that there was no discovering to what part it belonged. It 
was so compact and well filled that it would roll across the 
table without being discomposed, though it contained eight 
little mice, which were naked and blind. This wonderful 
procreant cradle, an elegant instance of the efforts of instinct, 
was found in a wheat field suspended in the head of the thistle." 
They are found in Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Devonshire, 
Warwickshire, and probably in many other English counties, 
also in Wales, and, I am informed, are sometimes to be met 
with in Scotland. Mr Gray, secretary of this Society, has 
mentioned that he has procured specimens from various 
counties, the farthest north being Kincardineshire. Their 
food consists of all kinds of grain, but especially oats. Those 
I now exhibit are fed on oats, wheat, soaked bread and milk, 
and canary seed, and are very partial to the latter. They are 
fond of flies, and would probably eat other insects also. The 
Eev. W. Bingley says they lay up in their burrows a store of 
grain for the winter. I have placed the four I possess in an 
empty aquarium, with glass sides and perforated zinc top, 
and in this fixed a small apple bough, with a few pieces of 
string hanging from it. They are wonderfully agile in spring- 
ing from one twig to another, and running up and down the 
strings, and their tails being prehensile, they steady them- 
selves by curling these round the twigs and strings, and often 
suspend themselves momentarily by their tails before drop- 
ping to the floor of the cage. The prehensile nature of this 
member must be of great assistance to them in ascending 
and descending the straws of grain. They, seem capable of 
much domestication, and have no offensive smell like the 
common house mice. I procured them from Surrey, and they 
met with an adventure in transit, being detained in St Martin 
le Grand for forty-eight hours, the post office authorities re- 
fusing to forward them, as the conveyance of live animals by 
post is contrary to the official regulations. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 135 

My Surrey correspondent informs me that in some seasons 
they are not uncommon in oat ricks in that county, but some- 
times they are scarce and difficult to procure. I have not 
met with any recorded instance of their rearing their young 
in confinement. There can be no doubt this is the smallest 
British quadruped, as it takes six full grown mice to weigh 
an ounce. It is said that dogs will eat them, but cats 
will not. 

XXI. 3fiscellaneo2is Notes. 

1. On Spawning Season of Hyas araneus. — In December 
last I collected three specimens of this crab in spawn, all 
taken in the Firth of Forth, off JSTewhaven, two of which are 
now exhibited. The spawn is attached to eight tubes, four 
arranged on each side of the apron, which is well shown in 
the larger specimen. In Bell's " British Crustacea," it is 
said, on page 34, " Mr Hailstone states that this crab spawns 
in February ; this, however, cannot be universally the case, as 
I took several females at Sandgate early in May, in the year 
1843, every one of which was carrying her load of spawns." 
It would appear, however, that the season of spawning of this 
species extends over a much longer period than was generally 
believed. — Eohert Kidston, 19t7i February 1879. 

2. On Bamose Form of Plantago maritima. — The variety of 
Plantago maritima, which I now show to the Society, was 
collected by me near Banff last September. Its peculiarity 
lies in its flowering heads being ramose. The leaves were of 
the usual form. The root, which was growing beside a great 
number of the ordinary type, had from twenty to twenty -five 
flowering heads, measuring about 12 inches each, and did not 
present any appearance of deformity, but was the only speci- 
men of the kind I observed. 

I have not found any reference in botanical literature to 
varieties of this sort in Plantago maritima. 

For comparison, I have made a diagram of this variety, 
alongside of the typical form. — Eohert Kidston, 19th Fehruari/ 
1879. 



136 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

3. On the Occurrence of the Grasshopper WarUer (Calamo- 
dyta locustella, Lath.) in Midlothian. — On 28th May last, 
while walking on the Old Penicuik Eoad, about a mile beyond 
Morningside Toll, my attention was attracted by a sound re- 
sembling that of some large gryllus, which proceeded from a 
clump of whin in the field immediately opposite Mortonhall 
west gate. As daylight was nearly gone — it being about 
half-past eight in the evening — it was not easy "to discover 
the little warbler. This, however, only required a little 
patience, and with the assistance of my brother, who resides 
at a farm near the spot, I was fortunate enough to secure the 
specimen — a male — which is now exhibited. This was the 
only one observed. — W. Evans, 19th March IS7 9 (^communi- 
cated hy the Secretary). 

4. White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera). — On 12th 
July 1878, two of these birds — male and female — alighted 
on the Anchor Line steamer "Victoria," when about five 
hundred miles from Newfoundland, on the outward voyage 
from Glasgow to New York. It was our sixth day from 
Glasgow, and the wind had been blowing from the west 
pretty strongly all the time. Both birds were caught alive, 
and that now exhibited is one of them. The other, the 
female, died the day after it was taken. — W. Evans, 19th 
March 1879 (communicated hy the Secretary). 

5. On the Nesting of the Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) in 
Midlothian. — The nest was placed among coarse grass in a 
wood principally composed of alder, about a mile and a half 
above Penicuik, on the south bank of the Esk. The eggs 
were taken on the 1st July 1870, but had then been left for 
some days by the parent birds, which had been disturbed by 
people felling trees in the vicinity. There were four eggs in 
the nest, but incubation was so far advanced that only two 
could be preserved. — William Evans, 16th April 1879 {com- 
municated hy the Secretary). 



PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 



SESSION CIX. 



Wednesday, 19th Novemher 1879. — Eamsay H. Traquaie, 
Esq., M.D., President, in the Chair. 

The Chairman delivered the following opening address : 

Gentlemen, — This evening the Eoyal Physical Society of 
Edinburgh enters upon its one hundred and ninth session, and 
I must heartily congratulate the members present upon the fact 
that, old as the Society is — in fact, the oldest in Edinburgh — 
it does not at present show any signs of disease or decay. Our 
Society has indeed had its periods of sickliness, but has sur- 
mounted them all, and now displays a greater amount of 
vigour and health than it has done for many years. Includ- 
ing ordinary, non-resident, corresponding, and honorary mem- 
bers, our roll now musters 229 names. Mere numbers, 
however, it may well be said, do not constitute any criterion 
of the efficiency of a society whose object is supposed to be 
the promotion of scientific study and research, although in 
this case, as in the case of a private individual, the word 
" prosperity " must always mean one thing, and that — a well- 
filled purse. But the fasciculus of our Proceedings for the 
past session, now in the press, will show when it appears 
that we have amongst us a goodly number of members who 
are devoting themselves heartily to practical work in the 

VOL. V. K 



138 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

various branches of science in which they are interested, and 
that their work is not quite in vain. 

I need hardly say, what all of you must already feel, how 
much of this renewed vigour is due to the ability, the enthu- 
siasm, and the unflagging industry of our worthy secretary. 
For by its secretary a society like ours will rise or fall ; with- 
out a secretary around whom men will rally, and with whom 
they will consider it an honour and a pleasure to be asso- 
ciated, any society will languish and finally expire. The 
treasurer also has a most important share in the well-being of 
a society. If the secretary supplies the nervous force, the 
treasurer gathers in a very necessary kind of material food, 
without which the body will starve. And we may, I think, 
also congratulate ourselves that we have secured the services, 
as treasurer, of a gentleman whose business capacity and 
training, as well as his zeal for the prosperity of the Society, 
eminently fit him for the task which he has undertaken. 

Our first meeting for the present session has, however, its 
aspects of sadness as well as of rejoicing, for during the past 
year Death has taken from us more than one of our prominent 
members. We must all of us deeply regret that we shall 
never again see amongst us the genial and familiar face of 
our old and respected friend, Dr M'Bain, so many years an 
active member of this Society, of which he was twice presi- 
dent, and the contributor to its Proceedings of so many able 
and interesting papers. A hand more able for the task than 
mine will, however, perform the duty of laying before you a 
suitable memoir of our departed friend, for Mr Grieve, whose 
acquaintance with the late Dr M'Bain was long-standing and 
intimate, has undertaken to do so at our next ordinary 
meeting. 

We have likewise to deplore the loss of our late treasurer, 
Mr E. W. Dallas, a zealous fellow-member, a regular attender 
of our meetings, and one who, in the office whose duties he 
latterly undertook, most efficiently co-operated with the secre- 
tary in reviving the prosperity of the Society. IVIr Dallas, 
brother of the eminent assistant-secretary of the Geological 
Society of London, was a man of wide sympathies and 
extensive culture, and his amiable disposition, the interest 



President's Address. 139 

v/hich he took in the well-being of our Society, and the zeal 
with which he performed the duties of treasurer, awaken our 
siucerest regrets at his loss, and entitle his memory to our 
lasting respect. 

By the death of Professor David Page of Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, one of the most eminent names upon our roll of corres- 
ponding members has been struck off. A native of Scotland, 
his face was long familiar to us as a citizen of Edinburgh, as 
a lecturer, as a member of our scientific societies, until his 
removal to Newcastle to fill the Chair of Geology in the 
newly established College of Physical Science there. In 
the prime of life overtaken by a lingering malady, Dr Page 
devoted his time and applied his extensive stores of know- 
ledge to the production of those clearly-written handbooks, 
which have made his name so widely known as a teacher of 
Geology, for many must be the students who, like myself, 
have derived their first notions of the science from his works. 

It is now exactly twenty years ago since I first joined the 
Eoyal Physical Society of Edinburgh. I well remember the 
feelings of awe and reverence with which I first surveyed 
the circle of members sitting around the table in the old 
room at No. 6 York Place, among whom were many well- 
known naturalists now departed from us, such as Dr Stret- 
hill Wright, Mr Alexander Bryson, Mr Andrew Murray, Dr 
M'Bain, and Dr Coldstream ; others I am glad to see are still 
with us, and taking an interest in the life and progress of 
the Society. In those days the Society was, intellectually at 
least, in a flourishing condition, for besides the honoured 
names which I have just mentioned as taking an active part 
in its proceedings, there still rested upon it the shadow and 
influence of two eminent men, whom it was never my good 
fortune to see, both having been called to their last resting- 
place shortly before my admission. These men were John 
Fleming and Hugh Miller. 

Of Fleming's merits as a naturalist it is superfluous for me 
to speak. His name is known to every student, and will be 
ever remembered in the annals of British Natural History as 
that of one of the most eminent men of his time. 

Among the many ways in which Science profited by the 



140 Proceedings of the Boijal Physical Society. 

labours of Fleming was the interest which he took in 
palseontology, a branch • of inquiry which at his time was 
much neglected in Scotland, and the collection of fossils 
which he left behind him contains a large number of original 
types, the value of which can only be properly appreciated 
by those who have themselves worked in this department. 
His contributions to carboniferous palaeontology chiefly relate 
to invertebrate forms of life ; but he was also one of the first 
to discover and to publish the occurrence of the remains of 
fishes in the Old Eed Sandstone of Scotland. 

And the enthusiasm of Hugh Miller as a collector, and his 
wonderfully vigorous and graphic style as a writer, have been 
in a very remarkable way the means of arousing an interest in 
these strange old fishes which inhabited the waters in which 
the Old Red Sandstone — so important an element in the 
geological structure of Scotland — was deposited. 

Now, as it is my duty this evening to resign my position 
of president, to which you did me the honour three years ago 
to elect me, and in so doing to address you upon some topic 
connected with our scientific work, what better subject can I 
choose than the history of the progress of our knowledge of 
Scottish Fossil Ichthyology, a branch of study in which these 
two illustrious deceased members of our Society took so deep 
an interest ? 

A tolerably uninteresting subject withal, some may say, 
for the spell of the writings of Agassiz and of Hugh Miller 
seems to have died away, and the entire subject of fossil 
remains seems at present not to occupy a very exalted posi- 
tion in the estimation of the general public. The notion seems 
to be pretty extensively abroad that the study of fossils is 
merely the most uninteresting branch of geology, and that 
he who occupies himself with their investigation has no claim 
to the dignity either of the geologist or biologist, but is a 
mere " palaeontologist," a paltry sort of creature, whose utmost 
function is to follow in the wake of the geologist, drawing up 
long lists of long names of things found in this stratum or in 
that, and whose work, after all, is of very doubtful value or 
importance. Moreover, it is extensively supposed that the 
appropriate place to bring forward a " palteontological " com- 



President's Address. 141 

munication is the meeting room of a Geological Society, or 
section of a Society, not that of a Zoological or Botanical 
one. 

True it is, that the study of organic remains affords most 
valuable assistance to the geologist in his investigations into 
the history of the earth's crust ; true it is also, that the re- 
searches of the geologist reciprocally invest such studies with 
their crowning interest. But true it is, nevertheless, that 
genuine scientific palaeontology is essentially a part of zoology 
or botany, as the case may be, and is no more a subordinate 
department of geology than are the sciences of physics, 
chemistry, mineralogy, or meteorology, or any other branch 
of know^ledge which the geologist may call to his aid. The 
man, who satisfactorily investigates the structure, or deter- 
mines the systematic position of a fish or reptile preserved in 
stone, is as much a zoologist as he who describes a similar 
creature preserved in spirits, though with this difference, that 
the former task is in some points rather the more difficult, 
seeing that we have only the hard parts to go upon, and these 
generally in a crushed, fragmentary, or scattered condition. 
And without a genuine interest in, as well as a thorough 
know^ledge of recent biology, no one can hope to produce 
work of any value in palaeontology. He can only blunder, 
or, at the best, become a mere manufacturer of so-called 
genera and species, and such blundering and manufacturing 
can only tend to bring his subject into disrepute, and to per- 
petuate that artificial separation between the study of recent 
and of fossil organisms which is so much to be deplored. 

Viewed in this, as it seems to me, the only proper light, 
the study of organic remains becomes invested with intense 
interest. Wonderful indeed is the variety of strange and 
unaccustomed forms, now no longer living, which the rocks 
disclose to us. But more than this, if any further light is 
to be thrown upon the vexed question of Evolution, it is 
through palaeontology, working hand in hand with recent 
morphology and embryology, that the light must come. 

And to the student of vertebrate morphology no class can 
be of greater interest than that of fishes, and among these 
the strange forms which stand, as it were, on the confines of 



142 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

the type of the modern fish, and that of vertebrata higher in 
the scale, and which, represented in the present era only by 
a few isolated forms, attained an immense development in 
ancient periods of the world's history. And for the study of 
these, we may safely say that, on the whole, no country 
affords better opportunities than this northern division of our 
Island of Great Britain. 

Although works containing notices of fossil fishes had ap- 
peared on the Continent as early as the fifteenth century, we 
find no mention of such remains in Scotland until David Ure, 
in his " History of Eutherglen and East Kilbride," which was 
published in 1793, figured, among other carboniferous fossils, 
several relics of the fishes of that epoch. These are mostly 
the teeth of Selachii or sharks, but there is also a figure repre- 
senting what is most undoubtedly a portion of the mandible 
of the gigantic ganoid fish now known as Phizodus Hihberti. 
In those days, however, there were very few people in Scot- 
land who troubled themselves about fossils, and it was not 
until the end of the third and commencement of the fourth 
decades of the present century that its palseichthyological 
treasures began to attract any real attention. 

In the year 1827 the Eev. Prof. Sedgwick and Mr, after- 
wards Sir Eoderick, Murchison, who had been exploring the 
sedimentary rocks of the north of Scotland, despatched to 
Baron Cuvier, for his opinion, a number of fossil fishes which 
they had found in the dark schists of Caithness ; other speci- 
mens they sent also to Messrs Valenciennes and Pentland. 
In 1828 the first-named gentlemen communicated the results 
of their labours to the Geological Society of London, in a 
paper entitled, "On the Structure and Eelations of the 
Deposits contained between the Primary Eocks and the 
Oolitic Series in the North of Scotland," and in this paper 
they founded the genus Dipterus, giving excellent figures of 
four supposed species. Baron Cuvier's opinion regarding 
these fishes was to the effect that they were allied to the 
Zepidosteus, or bony pike of North America, and belonged, 
like it, to his division of Malacopterygii dbdominales. The 
genus Osteolepis was also mentioned on the authority of 
Valenciennes and Pentland, and a figure is also given of 



President's Address. 143 

what is apparently a plate of Coccosteus, but which the 
authors at the time considered as having belonged to a 
" tortoise nearly allied to Trionyx." 

But in 1827 Dr Fleming had also obtained from the Upper 
Old Red Sandstone of Drumdryan, near Cupar, in Fifeshire, 
certain organic remains, of which in the same year he pub- 
lished a preliminary notice in a local newspaper. These 
were, in fact, the scales of the fish, which afterwards received 
the now well-known name of Holoptychius. 

A year afterwards, scales and plates of fishes were found in 
the upper " Old Red" of Clashbennie, in Perthshire, and were 
by some, among whom, according to tradition, was no less a 
personage than Dr Anderson of Newburgh, at first considered 
to be oyster shells ! But Fleming, who lost no time in going 
to see them, at once perceived their real nature, and accord- 
ingly prepared a short notice, " On the Occurrence of the Scales 
of Vertebrated Animals in the Old Red Sandstone of Fifeshire," 
which he read before the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh in 
May 1830, and which was published in the Edinburgh Journal 
of Natural and Geographical Science for February 1831. In this 
little paper, illustrated by a plate, the Clashbennie fossils are 
also noticed, and one of them, a portion of the body of a fish, 
was supposed by him to be "probably identical with the 
Dipterus macropterygius of Professor Sedgwick and Mr Mur- 
chison," but from the figure it is impossible to hazard a guess 
as to the genus to which it really belongs. Another (fig. 3), 
of which he says that, " in external appearance it bears a very 
close resemblance to some of the scales on the common stur- 
geon," looks like a plate of Pterichthys major. 

Immediately after these beginnings were being made in 
opening out the rich storehouse of ancient fish-life contained 
in the Scottish Old Red Sandstone strata, the equally inter- 
esting treasures of the carboniferous rocks in the neighbour- 
hood of Edinburgh had begun to attract notice. The greatest 
possible interest was excited among Edinburgh naturalists by 
Dr Samuel Hibbert's discovery of the fossiliferous nature of 
the limestone of Burdiehouse, a member of the Lower Carboni- 
ferous series, and the Royal Society of Edinburgh co-operated 
energetically with that gentleman in securing a large coUec- 



144 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, 

tion of the animal remains which it contained. These com- 
prised not only entire specimens of numerous small fishes, 
but also large detached spines and scales, and, above all, 
enormous conical teeth, some of which attained a length of 
3f inches, and a width of 1^ inches at the base. These teeth 
were really identical with some which Ure had forty years 
previously recognised as belonging to a fish, but his figures 
had long since been forgotten, and it was therefore not 
astonishing that Dr Hibbert, whose practical knowledge as a 
zoologist was perhaps not quite equal to his enthusiasm as a 
collector, should have rushed to the conclusion that he had 
unearthed the remains of a huge reptile. One of these teeth 
was figured by Hibbert and considered as " Saurian," in a 
paper read by him before the Koyal Society of Edinburgh on 
17th February 1834. 

The dawn of a new era in fossil ichthyology had already 
commenced, for in the year 1833 the first Zivraison of 
Agassiz's " Eecherches sur les Poissons Fossiles " was given 
to the world. 

We have already seen that, long before the publication of 

Ure's "History of Eutherglen," fossil fish-remains had in 

other countries attracted attention, and as years passed on 

towards the period at which we have now arrived, a goodly 

array of continental writers had published accounts and 

figures of fossil fishes from various strata. Of these may be 

mentioned : Mylius, Knorr and Walchner, Wolfart, Scheuch- 

zer, Volta, Bronn, Cuvier, and De Blainville; and a few 

also in England, such as Lhwyd, Mantell, and Sowerby, had 

made observations upon similar fossils which had come under 

their notice. Large collections, both public and private, had 

also been formed. But as yet no satisfactory basis had been 

found for the comparison of fossil with living forms, and the 

vast treasures which were to be added to our knowledge of 

the succession of ichthyic life on the globe were, it may be 

said, as yet entirely unknown. It was reserved for Agassiz 

to lay the first secure foundations for this knowledge, and to 

become, as he is so often and so worthily styled, the father 

of fossil ichthyology. 

Upon the studies to which he now directed his attention, 



President's Address. 145 

and which were so largely to contribute to his world-wide 
reputation, Agassiz brought to bear the indispensable qualifi- 
cations of an intimate acquaintance with recent ichthyology 
as well as with zoology and comparative anatomy in general . 
And in pursuing his investigations into the ichthyology of 
bygone ages, he soon became aware that no satisfactory place 
could be found in the Cuvierian system of classification for an 
extensive array of extinct fishes, which prevailed especially 
during the great palaeozoic and secondary epochs. They 
bore affinity both to the sturgeon, classed by Cuvier among 
the Pisces cartilaginei, and to the American Zepidosteus and 
African Polypteriis, whose place was then considered to be in 
the Malacopterygian or soft-finned division of the Pisces Ossei. 
The point in their configuration, by which Agassiz was more 
especially struck, was their possession of strong, bony, and 
usually glistening scales, the last-mentioned peculiarity sug- 
gesting the term *' ganoid," as expressive of their distinctive 
aspect. The study of these ancient " enamelled-scaled " fishes 
seems to have formed the spring to the conception of his new 
classification of fishes, according to their scales, into the four 
orders of Gcinoidei^ Placoidei, Ctenoidei, and Cycloidei. Work- 
ing on the basis of this classification, he commenced the pub- 
lication of his great work, and had already, as he tells us, 
become acquainted with six hundred species of fossil fishes, 
when, in 1834, he visited Great Britain for the first time, and 
his studies received a fresh impetus from the wealth of new 
forms which he found in English collections. In Scotland, 
too, collectors had been bestirring themselves, for besides 
what we have already noticed as having been done by Messrs 
Sedgwick and Murchison, and by Dr Hibbert and the Eoyal 
Society of Edinburgh, Professor Traill had made a valuable 
collection from the Old Eed Sandstone of Orkney ; Dr Knight 
of Aberdeen from the same formation at Gamrie; Lord Greenock 
had discovered the richness, in fish-remains, of the carbonifer- 
ous shales at Wardie ; and many Scottish specimens had also 
been collected by Professor Jameson, Mr Jamieson Torrie, 
Professor Buckland, and others. 

The British Association met that year at Edinburgh, and 
on Wednesday, the 10th of September, Agassiz was intro- 



146 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

duced by Dr Buckland to the geological section immediately 
after Dr Hibbert had read a paper, in which he considered 
the gigantic teeth and bones found at Burdiehouse to ''resemble 
those of Saurian reptiles." Their piscine nature was, however, 
at once detected by the accomplished Swiss naturalist, and 
the requisite material having been willingly handed over to 
him, he prepared and read on the following Friday a " Eeport 
on the Fossil Fishes of Scotland," in which several new genera 
are named. Most of the Scottish material obtained by Agassiz 
at this time was published in detail in the fasciculus of his 
great work, which appeared in 1835, the Devonian forms in- 
cluding, the genera Cephalaspis, Acanthodes, Cheir acanthus, 
Cheirolepis, Pijoterus, and Osteolepis ; while those from Car- 
boniferous rocks were referred to Amblypterus, Palceoniscus, 
EurynotuSy Pygopterus, Megalichthys, Gyracanthus, Tristichius, 
Ctenoptychius, etc. 

Agassiz revisited Scotland in 1842, and was present at the 
meeting of the British Association held that year at Glasgow. 
By this time the material for the further study and descrip- 
tion of Scottish fossil fish-remains had vastly increased. 
Large collections from the Old Bed Sandstone beds of Crom- 
arty and Morayshire had been made by Hugh Miller, Dr 
Malcolmson, Lady Gordon-Cumming, and Mr Alexander 
Eobertson. The collections of Lord Enniskillen and Sir Philip 
Grey-Egerton, which already, at the time of Agassiz's first 
visit to Great Britain, afforded a magnificent display of 
English and foreign species, now contained a choice selection 
also from Scotland. Carboniferous forms had also been assi- 
duously collected by Dr Eankin of Carluke, and others. The 
large accession of material from the Old Bed Sandstone en- 
abled Agassiz in 1842 to lay before the British Association a 
" Eeport on the Fossil Fishes of the Devonian System," which 
finishes with a list of fifty-five species belonging to twenty 
genera. 

His great work, the " Eecherches sur les Poissons Fossiles " 
was completed in 1843, and in it was inserted a general list 
of all the fossil fishes which had till then come under his 
notice. Here we find ninety-nine species named from Scottish 
deposits, but, unfortunately, descriptions only of twenty-five 



President's Address. 147 

were included in the text. The others he reserved for a 
projected series of supplementary monographs, of which only 
one ever appeared, namely, that on the fishes of the Old Eed 
Sandstone, which was completed in 1846. In this work sixty- 
seven Scottish species are figured and described, and some 
improvements in classification effected by the establishment 
of the new families of Cephalaspidce, Acanthodidce, and Sauro- 
dipterini, the two former being dismembered from the old 
heterogeneous Zepidoidei, and the latter partly from the 
Lepidoidei and partly from the so-called Sauroidei. 

But the undescribed carboniferous species enumerated in 
his larger work remained undescribed, and to many of these 
there is now no longer any clue. It is evident that in such 
cases, should the identity of any of them with species subse- 
quently described under different names by other authors be 
satisfactorily proved, Agassiz's names can have no right to 
priority, but must be simply cancelled. 

In offering a few words of comment upon the labours of 
Agassiz in this department, the highest tribute of honour 
must be paid to him for the position to which he raised the 
science of fossil ichthyology, as well as for the enormous 
amount of work which he accomplished in so short a time. 
Eminent as well in other branches of zoology, his name will 
go down to posterity as that of one of the greatest naturalists 
of the present century. To him we owe the establishment of 
the order of Ganoid fishes, the description of an enormous 
array of genera and species, and the first valuable generalisa- 
tions as to the history and succession of ichthyic life on the 
globe. An opponent of the so-called vertebral theory of the 
skuU, as held by Oken, and modified by Owen and others, as 
well as of the doctrine of descent, he nevertheless pointed out 
what, as Professor Marsh says, " is now thought to be one of 
the strongest points in favour of evolution," namely, the cor- 
respondence between the heterocercal character of the tail in 
the embryo.B of modern osseous fishes, and the prevalence of 
that form among the adult fishes of the older formations, 
stating, in fact, that " les poissons fossiles du vieux gres rouge 
representent reellement I'age embryonique du regne des 
poissons." But it is hardly possible for the zoologist of the 



148 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

present day to suppress some feeling of wonder that a man, 
so well versed in general zoology and anatomy as Agassiz, 
should have based his classification of fishes upon characters 
so trivial as the mere external aspect of their scales, or that 
he should have distinguished many of the families into which 
he divided the order of Ganoids by characters equally super- 
ficial. We may quote, for instance, his inclusion among the 
Ganoids of the Pipe-fishes, Siluroids, Globe-fishes, and Trunk- 
fishes, merely on account of their bony scutes ; the entirely 
artificial nature of the distinction which he drew between his 
Ganoid families of " Lepidoids" and " Sauroids," and the con- 
sequent utterly heterogeneous character of both ; the similarly 
unsatisfactory nature of his family of Ccelacanthi, into which 
he even introduced the recent Teleostean Arapaima ; — and so 
on. However, it is at the same time only natural that he 
should have been imperfectly acquainted with the anatomy 
of the ancient Ganoids, considering the as yet comparatively 
scanty material at his disposal, and it is also evident that, had 
he devoted more time to the elucidation of osteological detail, 
he could not possibly have gone over the same enormous 
amount of ground within so limited a period. 

Agassiz's classification of fishes was at first eagerly accepted 
by geologists and others, largely on account of its supposed 
convenience. It could not, however, stand the test of ana- 
tomical inquiry, and was soon superseded by the system pro- 
posed by Johannes Miiller in 1844, which, with various minor 
modifications, is the one still adhered to by most zoologists. 
Such, however, was the influence of Agassiz, and such the 
supposed "convenience" of his system, that we find it in use, 
especially amongst geologists and "palaeontologists," years 
after Miiller's great paper " Ueber den Bau und die Grenzen 
der Ganoiden" was published. 

To us in Scotland, no fossil fish can be more interesting 
than that huge creature, whose laniary teeth, sometimes four 
or five inches in length, suggested the idea of a " Saurian 
reptile" to Dr Hibbert, when he first came upon the fossil 
riches of the Burdiehouse Limestone. We have seen that, at 
the meeting of the British Association in 1834, Agassiz dis- 
pelled the reptilian fancy concerning these remains, and on 



President's Address. 149 

that occasion he also bestowed on this mighty fish the not 
inappropriate name of Megalichtliys Hihherti. With its 
remains, however, those of a much smaller fish, with glossy 
angular scales, were at the time unfortunately confounded, 
but there can be no doubt that the name Megalichtliys was 
suggested by the large teeth, and properly belonged to their pos- 
sessor. Nevertheless, some time afterwards, on visiting Leeds, 
and finding in the Museum there the head of an example of the 
smaller fish, Agassi z described and figured it in a subsequent 
number of the " Poissons Fossiles" as MegalichthysHibberti, while 
for the real and original Megalichtliys, along with some Old Eed 
species he founded the genus Holoptychius. Professor Owen, 
however, in his well-known work, ''Odontography" (1840-45), 
elevated the Carboniferous " Holojptychiiis " Hihherti into the 
new genus Rhizodus, giving also many important details 
regarding the microscopic structure of the teeth. The claims 
of Ehizodits to generic distinction were stoutly disputed by 
Agassiz in his work on the fishes of the Old Eed Sandstone. 
Subsequent investigation has, however, not only proved the 
validity of Rhizodus as a genus, but also that it cannot even 
be included in the same family with Holopty chins. 

In the same work ("Odontography") Professor Owen 
described the remarkable microscopic structure of the conical 
teeth from the Old Eed Sandstone of Morayshire, to which he 
gave the name of Dendrodus. 

The next writer on Scottish fossil fishes who claims our 
attention is our own countryman, Hugh Miller. We all 
know the wonderful history of this remarkable man ; how 
that, born of humble parents, educated at a village school, 
and entering upon life first as a quarryman, then as a stone- 
mason, he finally became the editor of an Edinburgh news- 
paper, and one of the most eloquent writers of the English 
language that Scotland has produced. The attention of his 
leisure moments was early drawn to Natural History, and 
his wonder and interest being excited by the rich deposits of 
fossils, both Jurassic and Old Eed, which he found near his 
native place of Cromarty, he in time amassed a magnificent 
collection both from these deposits and from the Carboniferous 
rocks of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, which is now safely 



150 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

housed in our Museum of Science and Art. To fishes Hugh 
Miller devoted his chief attention, and his collection of Old 
Eed forms furnished many of the types described and figured 
by Agassiz in his "Monographic des Poissons Fossiles du 
Vieux Gres Eouge," and many were also figured by himself in 
his own works. 

Hugh Miller's fame, however, rests considerably more upon 
his literary than upon his purely scientific achievements, and 
he did much more for the progress of fossil ichthyology by the 
interest which his wonderfully graphic powers of popular 
exposition excited in the subject, than by original research of 
a technical character. Yet what he did accomplish in the 
latter direction shows that he had all the eye, the tastes, and 
the instincts of the true scientific man, and we can hardly 
suppress a sigh of regret, when we think what Hugh Miller 
might have done, had he had a professional education from 
the beginning, and had he been able to devote his life to the 
prosecution of original research, while steering clear of the 
troubled waters of ecclesiastical controversy. 

Among such of Hugh Miller's works as deal principally 
with geological and palseontological science, beyond a doubt 
his healthiest and happiest effort is the " Old Eed Sandstone," 
also one of his earliest (1841). Amidst the fascinating 
popular descriptions of the scenery, geological structure, and 
fossil fishes of the region, in which he first wrought as a 
geologist, we find some genuine touches of original palaeonto- 
logical observation, which quite sufficiently indicate what his 
powers in that direction might have been, had they been pro- 
perly developed. We find, for instance, that he was quite aware 
that Cheirolepis was not an Acanthodian, though it was 
classed by Agassiz in that family. We find a very creditable 
restoration of Osteolepis, infinitely superior to that given by 
Agassiz some years afterwards, and hardly inferior to that 
given by the accomplished Pander ; and we find him correctly 
interpreting as the ventral surface of P^mcA^Ays that aspect of 
the creature erroneously represented by Agassiz as the dorsal. 
In his " Footprints of the Creator," published in 1849, he also 
showed that Agassiz's Folyphractus, supposed by him to be a 
genus allied to Pterichthys, was nothing more than the cranial 



President's Address, 151 

shield of a Dipterus, and we find chronicled his discovery of 
the dentition of Dipterus, which, with the structure of the 
palatal aspect of the skull, here also beautifully figured, after- 
wards proved of such importance in determining the affinity 
of that genus to the recent Dipnoi. Many important original 
observations and figures are here also given regarding the 
cranial osteology of Osteolepis and Diplopterus, as well as of 
the gigantic Asterolepis, though, misled by Agassiz, he did 
not recognise the affinity of the latter genus to Coccosteus, 
though he described one of its median dorsal plates as 
" hyoid," and though he also attributed to it the scales, teeth, 
and jaws of a large Gl^/ptolepis, a fish belonging to a totally 
different family. The work was, however, mainly written as 
a counterblast to the well-known publication, the " Vestiges 
of Creation," and is almost entirely occupied with a fierce 
denunciation of the doctrine of Evolution. Bitter and impas- 
sioned indeed are the words with which the volume concludes. 
The doctrine of Evolution was at that time, however, still in 
its crude Lamarckian stage. What would poor Hugh Miller 
have thought, we may imagine, had he lived to the present 
day when the genius of Darwin has given to the theory of 
Descent an entirely new impulse and aspect, and has totally 
revolutionised all our ideas as to zoological classification and 
morphology ! 

We may now pass to the consideration of what was done 
by Professor M'Coy while engaged in naming and describing 
the palaeozoic fossils of the Woodwardian Museum at Cam- 
bridge, among which were a considerable number of Scottish 
fossil fish-remains, principally from the Old Eed Flags of 
Orkney. Professor M'Coy's work among these, published in 
the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History" for 1848, is 
more of a systematic than anatomical character; he assidu- 
ously set himself to work in naming and describing genera 
and species, but it is greatly to be feared that the enormous 
field over which his other palaeontological researches extended 
had not afforded him the time and opportunity to acquire the 
necessary experience in deciphering fish-remains, without 
which the liability to error is not only natural but imminent. 
He did not seem, for instance, to realise the extreme caution 



152 ProGceclings of the Royal Physical Society. 

which should be exercised in accepting proportional measure- 
ments as specific characters in the case of palaeozoic fishes ; 
how different specimens of the very same species may be 
distorted, squeezed up, or lengthened out into forms ap- 
parently the most diverse ; and how that different modes of 
preservation, different degrees of perfection of specimens, 
afford room for the occurrence of fallacies in observation, the 
avoidance of which requires all the acuteness which a prac- 
tised eye can muster. Hence it is to be feared that some of 
M'Coy's genera, and many of his species of Ganoids at least, 
must fall to the ground. For instance, regarding the genus 
Triplopterus, said to differ from Osteolepis by having only one 
dorsal fin, I can, from examination of the original specimen, 
fully confirm the suspicion expressed by Pander that it is 
only an Osteolepis compressed from above downwards so as 
to exhibit both ventral fins, one of which was interpreted by 
M'Coy as the single dorsal and its fellow as the opposed 
anal fin ! 

To M'Coy we owe, however, the separation of the true 
Cephalasyidce from the other fishes, Pterichthys and Coccos- 
teus, with which Agassiz had associated them, and the estab- 
lishment of the latter as a group by themselves under the 
name of Placodermata. And to him we also owe the term 
" diphycercal," applied to that form of fish-tail in which the 
vertebral axis is, as in the heterocercal form, gradually at- 
tenuated, but runs straight backwards instead of turning up, 
and the fin-rays being developed equally, or nearly so, above 
and below, a more or less rhombic and symmetrical form of 
caudal fin is produced. 

Eegarding the diphycercal tail of Diplopterus, he remarks, — 
'' Those who think the theory of ' progressive development ' 
worth refuting, may be glad to find that some of the oldest 
known perfect remains of fishes have not exclusively hetero- 
cercal embryonic types of tail as was hitherto supposed." 
Here, in the first place, we are, I think, justified in altogether 
objecting to the spirit in which this remark is made. It is the 
truth, and nothing but the truth, which the true man of science 
is " glad to find," not merely the corroboration of some pet 
preconceived idea of his own. In the second place, our author 



President's Address. 153 

was completely out of his reckoning. The diphy cereal tail is 
in reality a more primitive or emhryonic form than even the 
heterocercal, of which the modern homocercal tail is again a 
further specialisation. That this is the case is evident enough 
to any one who will carefully compare a proper series of tails 
of recent and fossil fishes, but Professor Alexander Agassiz 
has recently put the matter in a perfectly clear and unmis- 
takable light by showing that the tail in embryo Pleiironec- 
tidce is first diphycercal (leptocardial), then heterocercal, and 
finally assumes the homocercal form of the adult in which 
the heterocercy becomes to external appearance completely 
obliterated. 

At this stage of our sketch of the history of Scottish Fossil 
Ichthyology, it will be appropriate to refer to what has been 
done by Sir Philip Grey-Egerton, glad as we all are that the 
veteran naturalist is still living amongst us, and continuing 
to take the warmest interest in the progress of the science 
to which he has himself contributed so much. 

Sir Philip has not in his writings sought to alter the clas- 
sification of Agassiz save in one or two points of secondary 
importance, but he has busied himself with the description 
of new genera and species, so largely supplied by his own 
magnificent collection as well as by that of his close personal 
friend, the Earl of Enniskillen, to whom also the friends of 
fossil ichthyology owe a lasting debt of gratitude. Although 
Sir Philip's descriptions mainly relate to fishes from the 
newer formations in England, he has also made some im- 
portant contributions to our knowledge of Scottish forms. 
In his paper on Pterichthys (1848), written in conjunction 
with Hugh Miller, he corrected some of the mistakes into 
which Agassiz had fallen with regard to the arrangement of 
the plates in that genus. In another communication, " On 
the Nomenclature of the Devonian Fishes," he offered some 
able criticisms on Professor M'Coy's work in that department, 
and added as a supplement a series of interesting extracts 
from letters by Hugh Miller on the structure of Coccosteus. 
The tenth decade of the Geological Survey, published in 1861, 
contains also from Sir Philip's pen a description of Tristi- 
chojpterus alatus, one of Mr Peach's most interesting dis- 

VOL. V. L 



154 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

coveries in the Old Eed Sandstone of John o'Groats, as well 
as of several beautiful little Acanthodian fishes, two from 
Caithness, also discovered by Mr Peach, and others from the 
grey beds of Forfarshire, brought to light by several indus- 
trious Forfarshire collectors, among whom were the Eev. 
Hugh Mitchell, the Eev. Henry Brewster, Mr Walter M'Nicol, 
and Mr Powrie of Eeswallie, of whom more anon. To Scot- 
tish carboniferous ichthyology Sir Philip Grey-Egerton also 
contributed descriptions of two new selachian species, Gtena- 
canthus hyhodoides and C. nodosus ; and his paper on the pro- 
bable identity of Agassiz's genera, Pleuracanthus and Di;p- 
lodus, is also of equal importance to the investigator of the 
fossil contents of the Scottish as of the English coal mea- 
sures. 

A third great era in the history of palaeozoic ichthyology 
may be said to have commenced with the publication of the 
researches of the distinguished Eussian naturalist, Dr Chris- 
tian Heinrich Pander. With his first great work, the 
" Monographic der Fossilen Fische des Silurischen Systems 
des Eussisch-baltischen Gouvernements," published in 1856, 
we have here nothing to do, save to remark that if the singular 
little tooth-like bodies, known as " conodonts," be in reality 
what many at the present day suppose them to be, namely, 
the teeth of Myxinoid fishes, then we shall have abundant 
evidence of the prevalence of these lowly organised fishes far 
back in Lower Silurian times. It is his three subsequent 
publications, on the " Placodermi," on the " Ctenodipterini," 
and on the " Saurodipterini, etc.," appearing respectively in 
1857, 1858, and 1860, which attract our attention, dealing as 
they do with the fishes of the Old Eed Sandstone, and very 
largely with Scottish specimens. Fish remains are of fre- 
quent occurrence in the Old Eed Sandstone of Eussia ; many 
had been previously described by Eichwald as far back as 
1839, as well as by Agassiz in his Monograph of the fishes 
of the Old Eed Sandstone. These remains are, however, 
mostly very fragmentary; to read them aright, comparison 
with more entire fishes was necessary, and this want was 
supplied by the liberality and enthusiasm of a member of 
the Eussian Academy, Herr von Hamel, who undertook a 



President's Address. 155 

journey to Scotland, and, having collected a large number 
of specimens both in Caithness and in Orkney, packed them 
in barrels, and shipped them off bodily to St Petersburg. 
There they were placed at Pander's disposal for descrip- 
tion, and the results are embodied in the three works last 
quoted. In these works Pander does not concern himself 
very much with species, but in one case, that of Pterichthys, 
he maintained that Agassiz and Eichwald together had upon 
its fragmentary remains constructed certainly not less than 
fourteen genera, and that five others probably belonged to 
the same category. British palaeontologists have, however, 
not yet accepted his views as to the necessity for cancelling 
the name Pterichthys, on the ground that the fragments pre- 
viously named Asterolepis by Eichwald in reality belonged 
to the Pterichthys of Agassiz, and that consequently the 
name Homosteus of Asmuss must be substituted for Astcrolepis 
of Agassiz and Hugh Miller. The question is certainly a 
very difficult and delicate one, owing to the very fragmentary 
nature of the remains from which Eichwald took his descrip- 
tions and figures. The main feature in Pander's work was 
his elucidation of structure, and his clear insight into the 
fact that only by careful and laborious investigation into the 
structural features of the skeleton, external and internal, can 
we hope to determine the natural affinities of fossil fishes. 
Here his achievements surpassed all that had been previously 
done in palaeozoic ichthyology. The structure of the Placo- 
dermata (Pterichthys, Coccosteus, Asterolepis, Heterosteus) is 
minutely described and illustrated, as also of the Saurodip- 
terini (Osteolepis, Diplopterus). A like treatment is accorded 
to Dipterus, for which he institutes the family Ctenodipteriiii, 
in which he also provisionally includes Geratodus, then only 
known as a mesozoic fossil, and to Cheirolepis, which he also 
erects into a distinct family, fully corroborating the views of 
Hugh Miller and of Giebel as to its place not being among 
the Acanthodei, as Agassiz had imagined, as well as indicat- 
ing that he was not unaware of its resemblance to Palceoniscios. 
The singularly beautiful and complicated microscopic struc- 
ture of the Old Eed Sandstone teeth, so well known as 
Dendrodus, Lamnodus, etc., is minutely described and mag- 



156 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

nificently delineated, but we shall see that he was not quite 
so successful in his conception of his family of "Dendrodonts," 
from which he excluded Holoptychius and Glyjptolepis, making 
the latter indeed into the type of yet another distinct family. 
From his elaborate and truly scientific researches, Pander 
derived one interesting generalisation, which presently rose 
to extreme importance. Johannes Mtiller had long before 
shown that the recent Lepidosteus and Polypterus, classed 
together by Agassiz in one family, that of the so-called 
Sauroidei, were representatives of totally distinct groups of 
Ganoids; but among all the fossil fishes of the order, he 
could for Polypterus find no ally. Pander, however, pointed 
out that, far from Polypterus having no ally in past ages, it 
is to it rather than to Lejpidosteus that the affinities of many 
of the Old Eed Sandstone Ganoids point, and more especially 
those of the group known as Saurodipterini. 

The researches of Pander were soon afterwards brilliantly 
followed up by the publication, in 1861, of Professor Huxley's 
masterly "Essay on the Systematic Arrangement of the 
Fishes of the Devonian Epoch." Huxley had already, in 
1858, published observations on the genera Cephalaspis and 
Pteraspis, and the Eev. Dr Anderson's " Monograph " of the 
Yellow Sandstone of Dura Den and "its remarkable fossil 
remains," which appeared in 1857, is rescued from oblivion 
and contempt by its including descriptions, furnished by 
Huxley, of the new genera Glyptolmmus and Phaneroplettron, 
with observations on the genus Holoptychius. The study of 
these interesting forms led Professor Huxley to re-examine 
the whole subject of the classification of the Ganoids, and 
especially of those of the Old Eed Sandstone, and his results 
appeared in the essay above quoted, which forms part of the 
Tenth " Decade " of the Geological Survey. 

Pander, we have seen, noticed the fact that many of the Old 
Eed Sandstone Ganoids were more allied to Polypterus than to 
Lepidosteics. Huxley, proceeding farther in the same direction, 
instituted the sub-order Crossopterygidce, of which Polypterus 
and Calamoichthys are the sole living representatives, but which 
in palaeozoic times included an extensive assemblage of forms, 
collectively equivalent to Agassiz's Coelacanthi and Saurodip- 



Presidents Address. 157 

terini. The heterogeneous nature of Agassiz's " Codacanthi " 
was pointed out, and the term very properly limited to the 
peculiar genera Ccelacanthus, Undina, Holophagits, and Mac- 
ropoma, none of which are, however, found in the Old Eed 
Sandstone. The remaining Agassizian coelacanths {Holopty- 
chius, Glyptolepis, etc.) were placed in a new family, that of 
the Glyptodipterini, and here are also included forms both 
with rounded and rhombic scales. Pander's family of 
" Dendrodonts" he will not have, considering it extremely pro- 
bable that Dendrodus and its allies will turn out to be the 
teeth of fishes belonging to the Glyptodipterini. But the 
Eussian author's family of Ctenodipterini and Agassiz's 
Saurodipterini are retained and likewise placed in the 
Crossopterygian sub-order, which lastly includes also the 
Phaneropleurini, constituted by the singular genus Phanero- 
pleuron. 

The next important point in Professor Huxley's " Essay " 
is the attention which he drew to the singular ties which con- 
nect the recent genus Lepidosiren (the Australian Ceratodus 
being at that time still undiscovered) with the cycloidal- 
scaled members of the Crossopterygidm. And although he 
was not fully aware of the extreme closeness of the relationship 
between the recent Sirenoids and one of his Crossopterygian 
families, the Ctenodipterini, he, nevertheless, touched the 
spring which subsequently disclosed to us the true position 
of that family, when he compared the teeth of Lepidosiren 
with those of Dipterus. 

On the other hand the American bony pike or Lepidostcus is 
made the living type of another great assemblage, of which the 
Old Eed Sandstone genus CheiroUpis " ought perhaps to be re- 
garded as the earliest known form." To this sub-order of Lepi- 
dosteidce merely a passing and imperfect notice is accorded, 
but it is nevertheless clear that the author means it to embrace 
both the heterocercal Palceoniscidce of the Upper Palaeozoic 
rocks, and that great array of semi-heterocercal rhombic 
scaled forms (Lepidotus, Dapedius, Pholidophorus, etc.), which 
in mesozoic times constituted the great bulk of the Ganoid 
Order. 

These two great sub-orders of Ci^ossopterygidce and Lepi- 



158 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

dosteidce, with the addition of the recent Amiadce, are equiva- 
lent to Johannes Miiller's Ganoidei Holostei. The other 
sub-order of the Berlin anatomist, that of the Chondrostei or 
Sturgeons, was accepted, and to it the remarkable Old Red 
family of Gephalaspidce was referred, provisionally at least ; 
while into a fifth sub-order was erected the problematic group 
of Acanthodidce, which, in their organisation, seem to combine 
so many of the characters both of Ganoids and of Sharks. 

Undoubtedly, the weakest point in Professor Huxley's 
"Essay" is the attempt which he made to show, by comparison 
of the exoskeletal plates of Coccosteus with the bones visible 
on the exterior of the skeleton of many recent Siluroids, that 
there was a possibility at least of the enigmatical group of 
Placodermata turning out to belong to the great order of 
Teleostei, or ordinary bony fishes, " hitherto supposed to be 
entirely absent from formations of Palaeozoic age." Recent 
discoveries in the Palaeozoic rocks of America point, as we 
shall presently see, to another, and perhaps more probable 
solution of the question. 

The Twelfth Decade of the Geological Survey, published in 
1866, contains a description, by Professor Huxley, of a 
beautiful specimen of the Glyptodipterine Glypto'pomus minor 
from the Old Red of Elgin, and also an exposition of the struc- 
ture of the family Goelacanthidce as restricted in the celebrated 
"Essay." Though the descriptions of Ccelacanthidce are 
taken from English specimens of the family from the car- 
boniferous to the chalk inclusive, they are equally important 
as regards Scottish fossil ichthyology, as the remains of the 
type-genus Gcelacanthus are of frequent occurrence in the 
Carboniferous rocks of the northern part of our island. 

Professor Huxley's writings on fossil fishes supply us 
indeed with a pattern of the method and spirit in which such 
investigations should be conducted. Few in number as they 
are, they have nevertheless contributed more to the real 
scientific advancement of palaeozoic ichthyology than the 
works of any other living author. 

I have already mentioned the name of Mr Powrie of Res- 
wallie in connection with the beautiful Acanthodian fishes 
from Forfarshire, figured by Sir Philip Grey-Egerton in the 



President's Address. 159 

Tenth Decade. Mr Powrie has also himself contributed 
several papers on the fishes of these beds, and to liim we owe 
the definition of the genus Euacantlms, comprising four 
species, and also of a new species of Parexus. 

The remarkable group of Cephalaspidcv, so characteristic of 
the Old Eed Sandstone in particular localities, has been ably- 
monographed by Professor E. Eay Lankester, whose work, in 
two parts, appeared in the volumes of the Palseontographical 
Society for 1868 and 1870. 

The true affinities of the Old Eed Sandstone genus Dipterus, 
and the carboniferous Ctenodus, foreshadowed by Professor 
Huxley in 1861, were thoroughly cleared up by the discovery 
of the living Ceratodus Forsteri in the rivers of Queensland. 
The Ctenododipterini were definitely placed among the Dipnoi 
by Dr Gunther in his account of the structure of Ceratodus 
(Phil. Trans., 1871), and subsequent observation has amply 
confirmed the correctness of his views on this point. 

The discovery in the Devonian rocks of North America of 
the gigantic Placoderm, named by Professor Newberry 
Dinichthi/s, seems at last to throw some light on the position 
of that remarkable group of extinct fishes. In Dinichtliys 
we have a form, apparently closely allied to Coccostens, but 
also possessed of a dentition in many respects resembling 
that of the recent Zepidosiren. It seems, therefore, not 
unlikely that the Placodermata will eventually turn out to 
have been an aberrant group of loricated Dipnoi. 

Eecent progress with regard to the structure and affinities 
of Scottish Carboniferous fishes is so inseparably connected 
with the study of the fishes of the same great period in 
England, that here the sister kingdoms cannot easily be 
treated separately, except as regards local and stratigraphical 
lists of genera and species. Descriptive papers dealing with 
English specimens are of equal importance to the student 
resident in Scotland. Scottish fossil ichthyology is therefore 
equally indebted to Professor Young for his descriptions 
(published in 1866) of the remarkable Platysomid genera 
Amphicentrum (= Cheirodus, M'Coy) and Mesolepis, as well 
as of the little Platysomus parvulus, a species named but not 
described by Agassiz, as all of them occur in the Scottish 



160 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

coal measures, although Professor Young's descriptions were 
taken from the more perfect examples furnished by the North 
Staffordshire district. Professor Young, in the same paper, 
also correctly pointed out the affinity to Mesolepis, and conse- 
quently also to Platysomus, of our well-known Scottish Lower 
Carboniferous genus Eurynotus, but I fear we cannot accept 
his sub-order Zepidopleuridce, in which he sought to include 
both the Platysomid and Pycnodont fishes. His paper on 
" Carboniferous Glyptodipterines " (Rhizodopsis, Rhizodus, 
etc.), also published in 1866, deals largely with Scottish 
specimens, and with forms which constantly come under 
the notice of the Scottish collector. Professor Young has 
given, besides, several other notices of fish remains from 
the Carboniferous rocks of the West of Scotland, as has also 
Mr James Thomson, of Glasgow, among whose contributions 
may be specially mentioned his description and figure of an 
enormous Acanthodes from the Palace Craig Ironstone of 
Lanarkshire. Of purely local work, a very creditable example, 
though requiring some revision, is the list of carboniferous 
fishes in the "Catalogue of the Western Scottish Fossils," com- 
piled by Messrs Young and Armstrong, published first in the 
Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow, and after- 
wards issued as one of the "British Association Guide Books" 
on the occasion of the meeting of that body at Glasgow in 1876. 
I cannot conclude this part of our subject without alluding 
to the great services which have accrued to Scottish fossil 
ichthyology by the singular abilities, as an observer and 
collector, of our genial friend Mr C. W. Peach. Mr Peach's 
keen eye has, in whatever part of the country he has been 
located, been always on the outlook for something new in 
Natural History, whether recent or fossil ; and in the case of 
fossil fishes it has not looked in vain. To him we owe the dis- 
covery of the Old Eed forms Tristichopterics alatus, Pterichthys 
Dickii, Acanthodes Peachii, Acanthodes coriaceus ; and the 
large collections which he made in various parts of Caithness, 
selections from which occupy important places in many of 
our museums, afford valuable material for the study of the 
structure, species, and distribution of the Old Eed fishes of the 
north of Scotland. 



Mr Etheridge on a Small Naticiform Gasteropod. 161 

To the late Mr Robert Dick, of Thurso, Hugh Miller was 
indebted for many of his most valuable specimens from the 
Caithness Flags, and these, along with the others which passed 
into the possession of the late Mr John Miller, are, I am glad 
to say, safely under cover in the Museum of Science and Art. 

Here we must for the present take leave of our subject. 
Much remains still to be done both as regards general research 
into the structure and classification of palaeozoic fishes, and as 
regards the rectification of species, and the compiling of reli- 
able catalogues of those which occur as well in Scotland as 
in other divisions of our common country of Great Britain. 
The work must, however, necessarily be slow, as nothing is 
more injurious to the cause of palaeontology than undue haste, 
whether in descriptive work or in attempted generalisation. 

I fear I have wearied you out with long names and tire- 
some abstracts and lists of what to most people are very dry 
and technical works. But my task is accomplished if I have 
succeeded in clearly laying before you the facts that Scotland 
presents an unrivalled field for the study of palaeozoic ich- 
thyology, and that the study of Scottish fossil fishes has, in 
former days at least, occupied the attention of men of eminence 
and power. And more especially, I have tried to impress 
upon you that palaeontology, however intimately connected 
with geology, is neither a part of geology nor a science by 
itself, but is simply a part of biology, and that the study of 
fossil organisms must always be thoroughly unsatisfactory 
unless they are dealt with according to the same method as 
recent ones, and by men of the same biological training. 



I. On the Occurrence of a Small Naticiform Gasteropod, 
showing Colour-Bands, in the Cement Stone Group of 
Fifeshire. By R. Etheridge, Jun., Esq., President. 
[Plate III.] 

(Read 21st January 1880.) 

Introduction. — In a paper on the " Invertebrate Fauna of 
the Wardie Shales,"* I described, amongst other fossils, a 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, Lond., xxxiv., p. 18. 



162 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

small Gasteropod found at Drumsheugh, near Dean Bridge, 
by Mr Gall, and previously to this at Eaw Camps Quarry, by 
Mr J. Bennie, and to which I gave the name of Littorina 
Scotolurdigalensis. Mr Gall's specimens, lent to me through 
Mr John Henderson, were clear of the matrix, but not in a 
good state of preservation, and only enabled me to draw up 
the very meagre description referred to above, and which still 
left much to be desired. Those found by Mr Bennie consti- 
tuted a band of thin, shelly limestone at the base of the 
Burdiehouse Limestone at Eaw Camps Quarry, and locally 
known as " Buckie-fake." As may be supposed from the 
nature of the rock, specimens suitable for description were 
almost unobtainable, but Mr Bennie was fortunate enough to 
find one or two specimens of what appeared to be the same 
shell in the black shale connected with the shelly limestone. 
It was upon this material that my previous description was 
drawn up. The occurrence of this little shell in beds which 
had previously proved, comparatively speaking, so unproduc- 
tive of MoUuscan life, was a point of much interest. 

The great augmentation which has taken place within the 
last three or four years in the number of recorded species of 
Invertebrata from the Lower Carboniferous rocks of Scotland 
is almost entirely due to the careful and painstaking researches 
of Messrs James Bennie and John Henderson, who have con- 
jointly brought to light a by no means inconsiderable fauna 
from what were before considered barren and unprofitable 
rocks. In fact, it may be said, that with the exception of the 
late Mr Salter's investigations, since the days of Fleming, 
Hibbert, and Ehind, little had been done towards an elucida- 
tion of the invertebrate denizens of the old seas in which 
those beds were accumulated, until Messrs Bennie and Hen- 
derson commenced their labours. Under these circumstances, 
it may well be imagined with what pleasure I have from time 
to time examined their gatherings. Mr Bennie has lately 
forwarded me many examples of a small shell, from Craig- 
kelly, apparently identical with that met with at Drumsheugh 
and Eaw Camps, and rendered all the more interesting by the 
preservation of its colour-bands. In addition to this, Mr 
Bennie has obtained a specimen direct from a mass of decon;i- 



Mr Etheridge on a Small Naticiform Gasteropod. 163 

posed " buckie-fake," so that we now have much more satis- 
factory material for placing this little Gasteropod on a firm 
basis. The material thus to hand is briefly this: 

a. Specimens from the Shale in connection with the 
Shelly Limestone at Eaw Camps Quarry, Collection 
of the Geological Survey of Scotland — Mr Bennie. 
h. Specimens from Shale of the Wardie Series at Drum- 
sheugh, in the collection of Mr Gall. 

c. Specimens from the Shale of Craigkelly Quarry, 

obtained by Mr Bennie. 

d. A specimen and portions of others from decomposed 

Shelly Limestone at Piaw Camps Quarry — Mr 

Bennie. 
Description of the Specimens. — When first described, these 
little shells were, as before stated, referred to the genus 
Littorina. After a lengthened and careful consideration of 
them, and comparison with many genera both of recent and 
extinct MoUusca, I have come to the conclusion they must be 
referred to a separate genus, allied to Platyostoma (Conrad), a 
genus met with in the Silurian and Devonian rocks of the 
United States, and for which I propose the slightly dis- 
tinctive name of PlcUyostomella. Eeasons for this step will 
be given subsequently. I shall in the first place give the 
generic and specific characters and observations thereon, and 
afterwards pass on to a consideration of the generic affinities. 

Genus Platyostoma — Conrad. 

(Jour. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, viii., p, 275.) 

Sub-Genus Platyostomella, s-gen. 7wv. 

Char. — Shell dextral globoso-naticiform ; spire low ; body 
whirl much expanded; aperture rotund-ovate, or transversely- 
broad-oval; outer lip thickened and inner reflected; the 
former rounded, with its upper portion almost at right angles 
to the inner or coUumellar lip, which is remarkably straight, 
direct, prominent, and pronounced, sometimes so far reflected 
as to form a small callosity, but plain, never twisted or 
plaited. Umbilicus probably present. Surface marked with 
fine microscopic striae of growth. 



1G4 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Platyostomella Scotoburdigalensis — Mheridge, Jun. 
[PL III, Figs. 1-9.] 

Littorina Scotoburdigalensis. Eth. Jun, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc.,1878, xxxiv., 
p. 18, PI. II., Figs. 26, 27. 

S'p. Char. — Shell small, thin, and naticiform in shape, of 
from 3^ to 4 whirls, the last or body whirl being large and 
far exceeding the united measurements of the others ; spire 
short and more or less depressed, but not flattened. Each 
whirl is somewhat flattened above, near its union with the 
preceding whirl, the line of separation, or suture, being well 
marked, and to some extent channelled, the larger the speci- 
mens the more marked the channelling ; body whirl inflated 
and somewhat prolonged in the direction of its growth. 
Aperture vertically-round-oval, higher than wide ; outer lip 
thickened and erect ; inner lip reflected, to a greater or less 
extent, over the nearly straight pillar to form a flattened 
callosity. The surface is ornamented with the finest pos- 
sible sharp, thread-like, close, uninterrupted, oblique striae, 
with longitudinal, or transverse bands of colour. 

Obs. — The channelling of the suture is seen in a more pro- 
nounced form only in the larger specimens, but in some 
of the latter it is particularly well marked (PL III., Fig. 1), in 
others it is not more than ordinarily so. The spire varies in 
height to some extent ; in certain individuals it is depressed, 
giving to the shell quite a neritina-\^Q aspect, in others it is 
more elevated and distinct. This is more particularly the 
case with those specimens obtained from the " Buckie-fake," 
although both forms are present amongst the examples from 
Fifeshire. The thread-like lines of growth which cross the 
whirls obliquely, are, as a rule, very finely preserved (PL III., 
Fig. 9), but occasionally they are only to be seen on the 
shoulder of each whirl just below the suture ; this is a very 
characteristic feature of the genus Naticopsis. The callosity is 
of variable extent and development. In some examples the 
reflection of the inner lip hardly amounts to this character, 
being merely a thickening (PL III., Fig. 7) ; in others, on the 
contrary, there is a decided spreading outwards (PL III., Fig. 
7a). In a few of those with the callosity little developed, and 



Mr Etheridge on a Sinall Naticiform G aster opod. 165 

in some young specimens, I believe I can detect a small um- 
bilicus ; but when the inner lip is at all reflected, the shell is 
to all intents and purposes non-umbilicate. 

Not the least interesting feature about these little shells is 
the retention of the bands of colour. This phenomenon is 
occasionally met with in Carboniferous Mollusca, more par- 
ticularly those from the Derbyshire Limestones. It has been 
noticed in some forms of Terebratula, Lingida, and Aviculo- 
pecfen, and in some Gasteropoda. In the present instance the 
bands of colour are displayed after two different patterns, 
horizontal and vertical to the longer axis of the shell, and 
always confined to the body whirl. The horizontal bands are 
two in number in every case (PI. III., Figs. 4 and 5), one oc- 
cupying the periphery, or most prominent point of the whirl 
(PL III., Fig. 4), the other much lower down towards the base 
(PI. III., Fig. 5). These bands are of variable width, in some 
cases broad, and occupying nearly the whole of the whirl, in 
others quite narrow, linear, and far apart. In the second 
variety the colour bands are much more numerous, and more 
or less vertical to the longer axis, i.e., they follow and coincide 
with the thread-like lines of growth. 

Even amongst this latter form of the Craigkelly univalve 
variation is likewise apparent. In one specimen the bands 
of colour are numerous (PL III., Fig. 1), in others less so 
(PL III., Fig. 3), and further apart ; in one placed at equal 
distances apart, in another arranged in contiguous pairs (PL 
III., Fig. 2), with a wide interspace separating them ; lastly, 
the bands are either direct, or zig-zag (PL III., Fig. 6), and 
in some instances broken or interrupted in their course over 
the body whirl. In no case have both vertical and hori- 
zontal bands been observed in the same specimen. 

Generic Affinities. — We may now pass on to consider the 
af&nities of these remarkable little shells. In the first place, 
some writers might possibly be induced to separate the shell 
from Eaw Camps, from that found at the Craigkelly Quarry, 
on the strength of the somewhat higher spire of the former 
variety ; but when we consider to how great a length varia- 
tion undoubtedly goes in some of the commoner Mollusca of 
our shores at the present day, I think the little fossils from 



166 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

these localities may be allowed to remain as one and the 
same. 

In the globular form, depressed spire, ventricose body 
whirl, and thick reflected inner lip these shells more or less 
resemble the genus Ampullaria ; or so far as the form is 
concerned, they are not unlike some Neritinm. If, however, 
our shells possess an umbilicus they cannot be referable to 
either of these genera, to say nothing of the internal absorp- 
tion seen in Neritina, and of which we here know nothing, or 
of the denticulated inner lip of the latter genus, which is cer- 
tainly not present in our little fossils. 

The globular few-whirled form and small spire equally 
relate them to Natica as to Ampullaria, and they further 
agree with the former in the callous inner lip, covering and 
obliterating the umbilicus, if it existed. There is, however, 
a group of Palaeozoic shells, British and North American, 
consisting of the genera Naticopsis (M'Coy), Platyostoma 
(Conrad), and Strophostylus^ (Hall), all closely united, with 
many characters in common, so that it is at times difficult to 
separate them, but still, when a series of individuals are col- 
lected, it is at once seen that they distribute themselves in 
these groups, more or less separated by distinctive characters. 
The abbreviated descriptions of these genera, taken from their 
respective authors, are as follows : 

Genus Naticopsis (M'Coy, 1844). — Globose elliptical shells, 
with a small spire of few convex whirls ; a large, broad, ovate 
aperture, rounded in front. The columella is thick, callous, 
flattened, and either plain or obliquely striated. (?) Umbilicus 
present and small. Operculum concentric, and non-spiral. 

Genus Platyostoma (Conrad). — Globose shells with low 
spires; aperture very large, sub-orbicular, and dilated. 
Outer and inner, or columellar lip, thickened and reflected ; 
last volution, or whirl, much expanded. 

Genus Strophostylus (Hall, 1879).* — Sub- (or ovoid) globose 
shells with low spires, and a large ventricose body whirl; 
aperture round-ovate, or transversely broad-oval; outer lip 
* Pal., N. York, iii., p. 303. 



Mr Etheridge on a Small Naticiform Gasteropod. 167 

thin, not reflected ; columellar or inner lip not reflected, but 
twisted or spirally grooved within. Umbilicus none. 

Naticopsis, according to the original description,* differs from 
the typical Natica, in the absence of an umbilicus, and in the 
presence of a peculiar operculum and flattened columella. In 
an amended description,^- published in 1853, Professor M'Coy 
modified his previous definition by stating that a "minute um- 
bihcus only visible in the casts " existed. Practically, this 
reduces the dissimilarity between Natica and Naticopsis to the 
presence of the concentric instead of spiral operculum of the 
former, and the flattened columella. My own impression is that 
Professor M'Coy is right in both his descriptions ; in other 
words, in young forms of Naticopsis, or perhaps even in some 
species, the umbilicus may be visible ; in others, on the con- 
trary, hid by the inner lip, which is usually reflected to a 
greater or less extent. 

Writing still more recently, the eminent American Palaeon- 
tologists, Messrs Meek and Worthen, point out \ that, whether 
Naticopsis be umbilicate or not, its separation from Natica is 
ensured by the condition of the operculum. In the latter it 
has a spiral structure, but in Naticopsis the operculum accord- 
ing to the above authorities is thick and shelly, oval or sub- 
circular in form, with a lateral or sub- marginal nucleus, and 
shows not the slightest traces of the spiral or sub-spiral 
structure, and articulating projection of the Neritidce. On the 
inner side the operculum of Naticopsis shows a distinct uni- 
form scar of attachment, and on the outside the fine, but dis- 
tinctly concentric, lines of growth. The Geological collection 
of the British Museum contains a very fine example of Nati- 
copsis elliptica (Phill. sp. T), with the operculum in place, and 
I am able in consequence to confirm many of the preceding 
observations made by Meek and Worthen. As before stated, 
the little shells now under consideration were formerly re- 
ferred by me to the genus Littorina, but from wretched mate- 
rials. A study of Mr Bennie's recent gatherings, which I be- 

* Synop. Carb. Lime Foss., Ireland, 1844, jp. 33. 

+ Brit. Pal. Foss., pp. 301 and 543. 

X Illinois Geol. Survey Keport, ii., p. 364. 



168 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

lieve to be identical with the above, lead me to believe them 
distinct from Naticopsis, and for these reasons — the inner lip 
is not reflected to the same extent as in JVaticopsis. In no 
single instance have I seen it plaited, or striated, and the re- 
markably straight, continuous, and direct course it pursues is 
so very unlike the callous, reflecting, corresponding structure in 
M'Coy's genus, that I do not see how our little shell could be 
considered as congeneric with its species. The umbilicus being 
a debatable point, it is perhaps better at present not to refer 
to it as a means of comparison. One point of resemblance 
exists with Naticopsis, in the stronger form of the fine striae 
immediately around the suture, and also with some species of 
the genus, in the deep channelling of the latter. 

In washing the shale in which P. Scotohurdigalensis occurs, 
Mr Bennie endeavoured to obtain traces of opercula, but I 
am sorry to say without success. The acquisition of this 
structure would go far towards proving, or on the other hand 
disproving, the view of its affinity now advocated. 

Another point which presents itself is — does the condition 
under which P. Scotohurdigalensis is met with at Eaw Camps 
and Craigkelly represent the mature or immature form ? I 
think the well-defined mouth, thickened outer, and reflected 
inner lip can point only to one conclusion — that the shells 
are mature. This is, in a great measure, borne out by the 
great quantity in which the shell is found, and in no case at 
these localities exceeding a certain size, although in itself 
very small. 

From Strophostyhcs (Hall), the little shells I have termed 
Platyostomella, are distinguished at once by the reflected lip, 
both inner and outer, and by the absence of twisting or 
spiral-grooving on the former. The general form is, to some 
extent, similar, as, indeed, it is in the whole of this group, 
Naticopsis, Strophostylns, and Platyostoma. Again, if an 
umbilicus exists in Platyostomella, there is still here a furthe^ 
departure from Strophostylus, as Professor Hall distinctly say^ 
there is none in the latter. 

The resemblance to Platyostoma, on the other hand, is 
very marked, especially in the form of the mouth, reflected or 
thickened lips in particular, and the almost at right-angles- 



Mr Ether idge on a Sinall Naticiform Gastewpod. 169 

position of the upper portion of the outer lip in regard to the 
longer axis of the shell. In contrast to this, is the much 
more prominent, outstanding, and longer inner lip, giving to 
the aperture a somewhat more angular appearance. Lastly, 
there is no evidence of an umbilicus in Platyostoma, which, 
if it exists in Flatyostomella, as I suspect it does, will form a 
further point of divergence. To express the general resem- 
blance to Conrad's genus, and, at the same the trivial 
differences, I have proposed the name here used. 

Zoc. and Horizon. — Eaw Camps Quarry, near Midcalder, in 
a bed of shelly limestone, known as " Buckie-fake," at the base 
of the Burdiehouse or Queensferry Limestone {Mr J. Bennie) ; 
Drumsheugh, near Dean Bridge, Edinburgh, in shale (?) 
{Mr Gall) ; Craigkelly Quarry, near Burntisland, in shale asso- 
ciated with Spirortis pusillus (Martin) ; Entromostraca, and 
fragmentary bivalves (Mr J. Bennie), where it occurs in 
thousands. The little bivalve is an aviculiform shell, but 
I have not seen sufficiently well preserved specimens to ven- 
ture on a description. 

At a point on the Fife coast, near Fifeness, a bed of limy- 
shale occurs in the Lower Carboniferous, or Calciferous Sand- 
stone series, which there constitute the coast line, crammed 
with a form of Naticopsis in almost as great a profusion as 
the Platyostomella is to be found at Craigkelly. The follow- 
ing is a description of this shell : 

Genus Naticopsis — MCoy, 1844. 

(Synop. Carb. Lime Foss., Ireland, p. 33; Brit, Pal. Foss., fas. 3, 
pp. 301 and 543.) 

Naticopsis, sp. ind. (PL III., Figs. 10-12). 

Sp. Char. — Shell, in general form, more or less oval, glo- 
bose, with little or no obliquity, of four or five convex whirls. 
Body whirl convex, inflated, greatly exceeding the other com- 
bined whirls in size, which form a short but well-marked 
spire. The upper part of the body whirl, or that next the 
suture horizontally flattened to a greater or less extent, pro- 
ducing a shoulder-like appearance. Suture, especially that 
between the two last whirls, well marked and channelled rather 
VOL V. M 



170 Proceedings of the Royal Pliysical Society. 

deeply ; mouth irregularly oval, longer than wide ; outer lip 
sharp and erect ; inner lip thickened, and reflected over the 
body whirl to form a more or less developed, elongated cal- 
losity, without platings or other markings. Surface usually 
plain, but in some specimens finely striated over the whole 
surface, especially that of the last, or body whirl. Umbilicus, 
no distinct trace. 

Qls. — This little shell, of which the largest specimens before 
me measure about three and a quarter lines in length, has 
many points in common with a much larger species of the 
genus, Naticopsis plicistria (Phillips),* with the type speci- 
mens of which I have carefully compared it. So much so is 
this the case, that I hesitate to apply to the present shell a 
distinctive name, although the two forms are in all proba- 
bility distinct, and it is difficult to consider one which does 
not increase beyond the size mentioned above, so far as the 
specimens show, identical with one assuming gigantic propor- 
tions in comparison, an average size of iV. plicistria being one 
inch seven lines long. 

The two shells resemble one another in the great dispro- 
portion of the body whirl to the others, it being in each case 
many times larger, in the shoulder-like form of the upper 
part of the body whirl, in the deep channelled condition of 
the sutures, and in the form of the mouth. On the other 
hand, they differ in the great inequality of the size, in the 
generally more oblique form of iV. plicistria, in the more 
pronounced and larger spire of the Fifeness specimens in 
proportion to the total size of the entire shell in each case, 
and in the absence on the columellar lip of the latter of the 
oblique strise or ridges seen in JSf. plicistria. 

It will be better to avoid giving this shell any definite 
name at present, but in the event of its proving distinct both 
from N. plicistria and the other described forms of N'aticopsis, 
it may perhaps be called JSF. communis. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Shore near Fifeness, N.E. coast of Fife ; 
in the Calciferous Sandstone or Lower Carboniferous series — 
Coll. Geol. Survey, Scotland, and Mus. Pract. Geol., collected 
by the late Mr E. Gibbs. 

* Geol. Yorkshire, p. 225, t. 14, f. 25. 



Mr Traill on the Algce of the Firth of Forth. 171 

Description of Plate III. 
Platyostomella Scotoburdigalensis. 

Fig. 1. An example seen from above, showing the deeply channelled suture 
of the body whirl, and the single, equidistant, vertical colour-bands. Fig. la. 
The same specimen, seen from the side. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 2. Another specimen, seen from above, in which the colour-bands are 
arranged in pairs. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 3. A very small individual, in which the colour-bands are less in num- 
ber and further apart. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 4. An example of the second variety, seen rather obliquely from the 
side, with one transverse colour-band exposed to view. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 5. Another similar specimen, seen more from the side, and somewhat 
from below, with two colour -bands visible. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 6. A further specimen of the vertically- banded variety, in which the 
bands of colour are to some extent zig-zag. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 7. An example without colour-bands retained, seen from in-front, ex- 
posing the mouth, with the reflected margins of the lips, and the straight, 
strong, inner, or columellar lip. Fig. 7a. Another example, in which the 
mouth is somewhat imperfect, but the reflection of the inner lip is well shown. 
Craigkelly Quarry. 

Fig. 8. One of the original specimens fi'om the shale associated with the 
** Buckie-fake " of Raw Camps Quarry, near Midcalder, without colour-bands. 
Fig. 8a. Mouth of the same. 

Fig. 9. A specimen in which the fine microscopic striae are seen to advan- 
tage. Craigkelly Quarry. 

Naticopsis, sp. ind. 

Fig. 10. A specimen, seen from the back. Fifeness. 

Fig. 11. The largest example observed, showing the mouth, with its sharp 
outer lip, and reflected inner lip. Fifeness. 

Fig. 12. Another and somewhat more elongated example. The short spire 
is well seen in both Figs. 11 and 12. 

(The Figs. 1-9 are multiplied ten diameters; the size of Figs. 10-12 is 
shown by the indicators. The whole of the originals are in the collection of 
the Geological Survey of Scotland; those of Figs. 1-9 were collected by Mr 
James Bennie; and those of Figs. 10-12 by the late Mr Richard Gibbs.) 



II. The Algce of the Firth of Forth. By George William 
Traill, Esq. (Communicated by Professor Duns.) 

(Read 17th December 1879.) 

In submitting to the Koyal Physical Society of Edinburgh 
the following list of the Algse of the Firth of Forth, I bear 
in mind that the district has been worked in former years 
by such distinguished naturalists and successful collectors as 



172 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Lightfoot ("Flora Scotica," 1789), Greville ("Flora Edin- 
ensis/' 1824, and "Algse Britannicse," 1830), M'Bain (see 
List of Alg^ in "East Neuk of Fife," 1st edition, 1862), Sir 
J. Eichardson, Arnott, Hassall, and others. On consulting 
these and other sources of information on the subject, how- 
ever, I find that little appears to have been done in particu- 
larising the localities where many of the rarer species are 
obtained ; and since these are, for the most part, described so 
vaguely as to afford but little help to other collectors, it has 
been my endeavour to remedy this by going over the ground 
afresh, and stating the localities as explicitly as possible. 
A number of new species and many good localities are also 
now for the first time recorded, so that it is hoped the list 
may be found of service to those studying the Algse of the 
Firth of Forth. 

The classification adopted is that of the late Professor 
Harvey, as modified and improved by Professor Agardh of 
Sweden. 

CHLOKOSPEEME^. 

Order CoNFERVACEiE. 

Cladophora rupestris, . . Common, between tide marks. 

„ laetevirens, . . Eocks to the east of Lady's 

Tower, Elie; fine at Chapel- 
ness, Earlsferry {G. W. T.); 
fine at Prestonpans {G. W. T), 
between tide marks. 

„ refracta,. . . Eocks to the east of Lady's Tower, 

Elie; very fine at Kincraig 
pools, Earlsferry, near low 
water {G. W. T). 

„ alhida, . . . Elie (M'Bain). 

„ lanosa, . . . Black Eocks, Leith, on Fttrcel- 

laria fastigiata {Arnott and 
Greville) ; Longniddry Point, 
parasitic on Polyides lumhri- 
calis and on some of the 
smaller alg« {G. W. T.) ■ Elie, 



Mr Traill on the Algce of the Firth of FmHh. 173 



Cladophm^a uncialis, 



arda. 



„ glaucescens, 
Chcetomorpha cerea, . 
„ implexa, 



tortuosa. 



melagoniiim, 



at the Lady's Tower, etc., near 
low water. 

Lady's Tower, Elie (M'Bain), 
and Fish Eock, Earlsferry {G. 
W. T), on the surface of flat 
rocks, near low water ; abun- 
dant. 

Earely, and of small size, in 
pools, near low water, at 
Lady's Tower, Elie (M'Bain 
and G. W. T.). 

Do., do. 

Elie {M'Bain). 

Caroline Park Rocks, near Edin- 
burgh, in Spring, intimately 
attached to tufts of Sphace- 
laria cirrhosa (Greville) ; Elie 
(M'Bain), 

Black Eocks, Leith (Arnott and 
Greville) ; Elie (M'Bain and 
G. W. T.); very fine and large 
at Eudden's Point, east of 
Largo Bay, in shallow pools, 
at half tide, July 1879 (G. 
W. T.) ; Longniddry, common 
{G. W. T.). 

Elie; Kincraig, Earlsferry, fine 
and common in rock pools, at 
low water {G. W. T.) ; Joppa, 
in pools, atlow water (G. W. T.). 



Order Oscillatoriace.e. 

Calothrix confervicola, . . Common in Autumn on small 

alffee, between tide marks. 



Bryopsis plumosa, 



Order Siphonace^. 

. . Joppa pools (original locality) ; 
abundant in shallow pools 
between Levenhall and Drum- 



174 Froceediiujs of the Royal Physical Society. 

more {G. W. T.); common and 
fine in sliallow pools at Pres- 
tonpans (G. W. T.) ; very fine 
and abundant in sliallow pools, 
from half tide to low water, at 
Longniddry Point {G. W. T.); 
pools " beyond Kincraig " 
(M'Bain); pools at M'Duff's 
Cave {G. W. T). 
Bryopsis hyp7ioides, ... At Prestonpans, on the authority 

of the late Br Hassall, but the 
species seems now to have dis- 
appeared. Plants somewhat 
resembling Bryopsis hypnoides 
are found at Prestonpans, 
Drummore, and Joppa, but 
are referred by competent 
authorities to delicate forms 
of Bryop)sis plumosa (G. W. T., 
1879). 

Order Ulvace.^. 

Porphyra laciniata, . . . Common, between tide marks. 
„ vulgaris, . . . Common at many places, such 

as Joppa pools. 

Ulva latissima, .... Common. 
„ lactuca, Elie; west of Kincraig, Earls- 
ferry, where there is a fresh- 
water stream (G. W. T) ; 
sometimes at the fresh-water 
stream at Joppa {G. W. T.) ; 
at Longniddry {G. W. T) \ 
at the three last localities at 
half tide. 

„ linza, Pools at Caroline Park Eocks 

(Greville) ; fine at the Joppa 
pools {G. W. T.) ; Elie {M'Bain), 
at about half tide, 

PJnteromorpha compressa, . Common. 



Mr Traill on the Alt^ce of the Firth of Forth. 



i'O 



Enteromorpha intestinalis, Common, chiefly where fresh- 
water streams run into the sea. 
„ ereda, . . Firth of Forth, not infrequent, 

as at Burntisland, in rock 
pools {Greville) ; Lady's Tower, 
Elie (G. W. T.), at about half 
tide. 

Bangia fusca-purpureo, . Burntisland Pier (Arnott). 



MELANOSPEEME^. 

Order CnoEDARiACEiE. 
Char daria flag elliformis, . Common, between tide marks. 



Machista fucicola, . . 
„ flaccida, . . 

„ scutulata, . 

Zeathesia tuberiformis, . 

Mesogloia virescens, . . 



„ vermicularis, 
Ealfsia verrucosa, . 



On Fucus serrattis and vesiculosus, 

common. 
Frequent, chiefly on Fucus 

nodosus and vesiculosus {Gre 

ville). 
Not uncommon on Himanthalia 

lorea, Elie (M'Bain and G. 

W. T). 
Common at Longniddry, Kin- 

craig, etc., from half tide to 

low water. 
Common at the Elie district, 

especially in pools midway 

between Lady's Tower and 

St Monance, at half tide, 1879 

{G. W. T). 
Elie, but much less frequent 

than the above. 
Common, between tide marks. 



Order DiCTYOTACEiE. 

Asioerococcus echinatus, . . Near Pettycur and Kirkcaldy 

(Greville) ; abundant in shal- 
low pools, near high water, at 
Chapelness, Earlsferry, usu- 
ally parasitic on Cladophora 



176 



Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 



Tujpestris, and having Myrio- 
trichia filiformis as a parasite; 
fine in July 1879 (G. W. T). 
In shallow pools at the west 
side of the Lady's Tower, Elie. 
Asperococcus, var. vermicularis, Associated with the above at 

Chapelness {G. W. T). 

In rock pools, Black Eocks, 
Leith, and Newhaven (Light- 
foot) ; Aherdour {Greville) ; 
near low water, Elie (M'Bain). 

Common, Joppa, etc., in rock 
pools, at about half tide — 
sometimes parasitical on other 
algse. 

On old fronds of Chorda fllum, 
Elie, rare. 

Eirth of Forth {Arnott) ; near 
Burntisland, on Punctaria 
plantaginea (Greville) ; on 
Alaria fronds and frondlets, 
fine. Lady's Tower, Elie, and 
Chapelness pools, Earlsferry 
(G. W. T). 

Caroline Park, not common 
(Greville) ; Elie (M'Bain) ; 
Earlsferry, to the east of Kin- 
craig, in shallow sandy pools, 
from half tide to low water 
(G. W. T). 

A single specimen in rejecta- 
menta, near Portobello (Gre- 
ville). 



Dictyota dichotortia, . 

Dictyosiphon foenicidaceus, 

Litosiphon pusillus, . . , 
„ laminarice, .. . 



Punctaria plantaginea, . 



Taonia atomaria, 



Order Ectocarpace^. 
Cladostephus verticillatus, 



spongtosus, 



In rock pools (Lightfoot) ; pools, 
Lady's Tower, rare (M'Bain). 

Caroline Park (Richardson) ; 
near Newhaven and near 



Mr Traill on tlie Akjce of the Firth of Forth. 177 



Vhcetopteris plumosa* 



Edocarpus siliculosus, 



fomentosus, 



littorcdis, . 



granulosus, . 



sphcerophorus, 



Kirkcaldy (Greville) ; abun- 
dant at Longniddry, on rocks, 
near low water {G. W. T). 

Firth of Forth {Richardson 
and Greville) ; Joppa (Bev. D. 
Landsborough, jun., about 
1848), where it is still found 
fine in muddy pools, at low 
tides ; Caroline Park Kocks, 
in muddy pools, at low water 
{G. W. T); Longniddry {G. 
W. T) ; fine and abundant in 
a clear pool in a creek, in the 
shade, at M'Duif's Cave, near 
Earlsferry {G. W. T.); cast 
ashore, Elie {M'Bain). 

Near Caroline Park {Greville) ; 
Joppa, Longniddry, Lady's 
Tower, Elie, etc., in pools. 

Not uncommon on algae, chiefly 
on Ficcus vesicitlosus. 

Common on fuci between tide 
marks. 

Kincraig, Earlsferry, July 1879, 
stunted {G. W. T.) ; Caroline 
Park Eocks, August 1879, 
stunted {G. W. T,) ; Joppa, 
September 1879, good {G. W. 
T.) ; Drummore Eocks, Sep- 
tember 1879, good {G. W. T.) 
— in each case in fruit, and 
growing on the rock, in pools, 
near low water; first time 
recorded. 

Earely on Polysip)honio. nigres- 



• Since the above was written, the fruit of this species, new to Britain, 
has been discovered by G. W. Traill on Firth of Forth plants. Plurilocular 
sporangia on long pedicels in December, and unilocular sporangia in abun- 
dance in January and February 1880. 



178 



Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 



Myriotrichia filiformis, 



Sphacelaria scoparia, 
„ cirrhosa, 



radicans, 



racemosa. 



cens, Lady's Tower, Elie 
{M'Bain); common, and in fruit, 
in July 1879, on Ptilota ele- 
gans, at Lady's Tower {G. 

Parasitic on Asperococcus echi- 
natiLS, in clear shallow pools, 
near liigli water, W.S.W. of 
M'Duff's Chapel, Earlsferry, 
common in July 1879 {G. W. 
T.); in shallow pools at the 
west side of the Lady's Tower, 
near high water, on Asperococ- 
cus echinatus, but not common 
{G-. W. T.) ; occasionally at 
Joppa on Chorda lomentaria 
{G. W. T.) ; first time recorded. 

Firth of Forth (Greville) ; not 
frequent. 

Not uncommon in the Firth of 
Forth (Greville)', Elie {M'Bain); 
Kincraig pools, Earlsferry, 
especially in a creek near 
M'Duff's Cave, parasitic on 
ChmtopterisplnmosaiG. W. T.). 

Black Eocks, Leith (Arnott and 
Greville) ; at Caroline Park 
Eocks and at Joppa, in some 
abundance, at both places on 
muddy sandstone, at low tides 
(G. W. T). 

Found by Sir J. Richardson in 
fruit in February 1821, on 
rocks opposite Caroline Park, 
but this species, though re- 
peatedly searched for, has 
eluded the vigilance of subse- 
quent collectors of the Firth 
of Forth Algse. 



Mr Traill on the Alyce of the Firth of Forth. 179 



Order FucACEiE. 



Cystoseira granulata, 



Fvjcodium canaliculatmn. 



„ nodosum, 
Fncus vesiculosiis, 

„ ceranoides, . 

„ serratus, 
Halidrys siliquosa, 



Himanthalia lorea. 



About Leitli and Newhaven 
{Yaldeii), but never found 
since the time of Lightfoot. 

Common, between high water 
and half tide. 

Do., do. 

Common, between tide marks. 

Near Cramond {Maughan). 

Common, at half tide. 

Not uncommon at many places ; 
abundant at Earlsferry ; 
stunted variety at Caroline 
Park Eocks at half tide. 

Common at rocky exposed places, 
such as Lady's Tower, Elie, 
near low water. 



Alaria esculent a. 



tomentosa, 



Order Laminakiace^. 
. . . Exposed places at low water. 
Common at the Elie district. 

Chorda filum, Common, chiefly in quiet sandy 

bays. 

Cast ashore in some abundance 
from deep water some 300 or 
400 yards E.S.E. of M'Duff's 
Cave, Earlsferry, July 1879 
{G. W. T.) ; first time recorded. 

Common in tide pools. 

Common on rocks at low water 
and in deep water. 

Do., do. 

Not uncommon at many places ; 
usually abundant in Spring in 
the Joppa pools at low water 
{G. W. T). 

Joppa pools, at half tide, early 
Summer {G. W. T.); first time 
recorded. 



„ lomeniaria, . 
Laminaria digitata, . 

„ saccharina, 

„ phyllitis, 



fascia, 



180 



Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 



Sacchorhiza hulbosa, 



Exposed places, at low water, such 
as Kincraig, but not common. 



Order SpoROCHNACEiE. 



Arthrocladia villosa, 



Desmarestia ligulata, 



jaculeata. 



viridis, 



Sporochnus peduncidatus, 



Found by Pr Hassall only " near 
Prestonpans." 

At Newhaven, but not common 
{Lightfoot) ; Caroline Park 
Eocks (Maughan), but at both 
places in rejectamenta. 

Seafield Eocks, Pife {Greville) ; 
cast ashore, Elie {M'Bain)\ 
growing in pools in fine large 
bushy plants, at the low water 
of spring tides, 200 or 300 
yards E.S.E. of M'Duff's Cave, 
Earlsferry, 1879 {G. W. T). 

Near Caroline Park Eocks {Rich- 
ardson) ; Seafield Eocks, Fife, 
and near Dysart,Fife (Greville); 
cast ashore, Elie (M'Bain); 
growing in fine large bushy 
plants associated with D. 
aculeata at Earlsferry as above, 
1879 {G. W. T.). 

Found on fishermens' nets at 
Prestonpans by the late Dr 
Hassall. 



EHODOSPEEME^. 

Order Ceramiace^. 



Ccdlithainnion plumnla, 



Tnrneri, 



arhuscula. 



Opposite Caroline Park {Richard- 
son) ; rarely at Joppa and 
Elie, at both places of small 
size, near low water. 

Elie {M'Bain) ; on Poly ides lum- 
hricalis and other small algae, 
near low water, at Kincraig, 
Earlsferry {G. W. T). 

Firth of Forth (Arnott and 



Mr Traill on the Algce. of the Firth of Forth. 181 



Ccdlithamnion Brodicei 



Hookeri, 



roseum. 



Greville) ; opposite Caroline 
Park (Richardson) ; Joppa, 
Elie, etc., not uncommon; 
very fine, and in fine fruit of 
both kinds, in the shade, on 
reefs near low water, below 
South Street, Elie, September 
1879 {G. W. T.). 

On reefs at low water, in the 
shade, at Earlsferry, to the east 
of the Fish Eock (G. W. T)-, 
in fine fruit September 1879 ; 
first time recorded. 

Joppa, on mud-covered rocks at 
half tide; Kincraig, Earls- 
ferry ; very abundant and fine 
at Lady's Tower, Elie. 

Joppa and Caroline Park Eocks 
(Richardson); at Kincraig, near 
Earlsferry, chiefly in a creek 
near M'Duff's Cave, in the 
shade, not uncommon (G. W.T.). 
polyspermum, Elie (M'Bain) ; Kincraig, Earls- 
ferry (G. W. T.) ; Largo Pier 
{Dr Landsborough) ; Joppa and 
Caroline Park Eocks at half 
tide, in the shade (G. W. T). 

Largo Pier (Dr Lanclshoroitgh). 

Abundant on the large stones 
under the woodwork of Leith 
Pier (Greville, 1824); on the 
east side of the East Pier, 
Leith, between high water and 
half tide, but not abundant in 
1879 ; abundant at Joppa, on 
rocks, near high water (G. W. 
T) ; Caroline Park Eocks 
(Richardson) ; in caves at Kin- 
craig, Earlsferry (M'Bain). 



gramdatum, 
Rothii, . . 



182 



Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 



Callithamnion Dawiesii, 

„ virgatulum, 



Ceramium ruhrnm, . . . 
„ Deslongchampsii, 



dia'phanum, 
fastigiatum, 
flahelligerum, 

ciliatum, . . 
acanthonotum, 



Corynospora pedicellata, 



Griffithsia corallina, 
„ setacea, . . 



Elie {M'Bain). 

{Secundatum Ag.). Common on 
Phodymenia palmata, near low 
water, at Lady's Tower, Elie 
(G. W. T.) ; first time recorded. 

Common, between tide marks, on 
rocks, and on small algae. 

Firth of Forth (Greville); Joppa 
(G. W. T); plentiful at Long- 
niddry {G. W. T.)\ Kincraig, 
Earlsferry {G. W. T.); plenti- 
ful on Ptilota elegans at the 
east side of the Lady's Tower, 
Elie (G. W. T), from half tide 
to low water. 

Not uncommon on rocks and 
small algse between tide marks. 

Firth of Forth (Greville) ; Joppa 
(Pev. D. Landshorough, ju7i.). 

Joppa, Longniddry, Elie, etc., 
not uncommon in pools at 
about half tide {G. W. T.) ; 
first time recorded. 

Opposite Caroline Park {Pichard- 
son); Elie (M'Bain), on rocks 
at the pier. 

Joppa ; fine at Longniddry 
(G. W. T)', Elie (M'Bain)', 
common at Kincraig, Earls- 
ferry {G. W. T.); not uncom- 
mon in the Firth of Forth 
generally, on rocks from half 
tide to low water. 

At Joppa in a pool, in fine fruit, 
November 1 848 (Pev. D. Lands- 
borough, jun.). 

Dredged, Elie (M'Bain). 

Cast ashore, Elie (M'Bain) ; 
growing in pools off Earlsferry 



Mr Traill on the Algce of the Firth of Forth. 183 



Halurus eqicisetifolius, 



Ftilota plumosa, 



elegans, 



Polyides lumhricalis, 



Links at the low water of 
spring tides {G. W. T.); com- 
mon at Longnicldry (G. W. T) ; 
at Joppa, but of small size, on 
rocks at low tides {G. W. T). 
Found hj Mr Yalclen ohovii 1770 
{Lightfoot)) but never since 
met with. 

. . On Laminaria digitata, but sel- 
dom of large size in the Firth 
of Forth, though very large 
and fine at Dunbar. 

. . Fine at Lady's Tower, Elie, from 
half tide to low water, on per- 
pendicular sides of rocks, 
shaded by fuci {G. W. T.). 

Order Chondrie^. 
. . Caroline Park Eocks {Maughan) ; 
near Kirkcaldy {Stewart and 
Greville); Elie; Fish Eock, 
Earlsferry, at low water (G. 
TV. T). 

Not uncommon on rocks near low 
water at rocky coasts, such as 
Elie, etc. ; on rocks and fuci 
at Longniddry {G. W. T). 

Cast ashore at Largo {M'Bain). 

Not uncommon between tide 
marks at exposed places, but 
generally small. 

At Joppa, Caroline Park, etc., 
above half tide, not uncommon 
{G. W. T). 

Firth of Forth, very rare {Gre- 
ville). 

Order Corallinace^. 
CoraUina officinalis, . . . Common in rock pools, between 

tide marks. 



Lomentaria articulata. 



„ kaliformis, . 

Laurencia pinnatifida^ . 



hyhrida, 



obtusa, 



184 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Jania 7mhens, Elie (M'Bain), on algae between 

tide marks. 
Melohesia polymor'pha, . . Common. 

„ 'pustulata, . . . On Gigartina mamillosa, Joppa 

{G. W. T). 



Order CRYPTONEMIACEiE. 



Ahnfeldtia plicata, 



Callophyllis laciniata, 
Catenella opuntia, . 



Chondrus crispus, 
Chylocladia clavellosa, 



Cystoclonium purpurascens, 



var. cirrhosa, 



Dumontia filiformis, 



Chiefly on the Fife coast (Greville)', 
Lady's Tower, Elie ; Longnid- 
dry Point {G. W. T) ; at the two 
last places in sandy pools at low 
water; Caroline Park Kocks. 

Elie on Laminarim ; in rejecta- 
menta, Firth of Forth {Gh^e- 
ville). 

Caroline Park (Greville) ; Kin- 
craig Caves (M'Bain), but 
stunted ; near Musselburgh 
{Lightfoot) ; abundant on a long 
reef at Longniddry at about 
high-water mark, on the shady 
parts of the reef, 1879 {G. W.T). 

Common on rocks at low water. 

Caroline Park {Greville) ; Elie 
(M'Bain); growing on sandy 
rocks near the limit of the low 
water of spring tides between 
Kincraigand Chapelness, Earls- 
ferry (G. W. T). 

Between Newhaven and Caroline 
Park {Greville) ; common at 
the Elie district ; chiefly in 
rock pools from half tide to 
low water. 

Characteristic at Kincraig, Earls- 
ferry ; in rock pools near low 
water {G. W. T.). 

Common from half tide to low 
water. 



Mr Traill on the Algce of the Firth of Forth. 185 



DumontiaflliformiSj var. crispata, At Joppa at half tide, where 

a fresh-water stream enters the 



Furcellaria fastigiata, . . 

Gigartina m,amillosa, . . 
Gloiosiphonia cajpillaris, . 



Phyllophora ruhens, . . . 
„ memhranifolia, 

„ Brodicei, . . 



Schizymenia edulis, 



VOL V. 



sea. 

Common, Elie, etc. ; chiefly in 
sandy pools near low water. 

Common on rocks at low water. 

In a pool W.S.W. of M'Duff's 
Chapel, Earlsferry, near low 
water {G. W. T) ; in pools at 
low water some 250 yards 
E.S.E. of M'Duff's Cave, Kin- 
craig, 1879 {G. W. T.); also 
washed ashore there ; first 
time recorded. 

Dredged in the Firth of Forth 
{Greville). 

Firth of Forth, frequent {Gre- 
ville) ; between tide marks, 
Elie {M'Bain). 

Joppa (Sir J. Richardson) ; near 
Caroline Park {Stewart) ; 
Black Eocks, Leith {Greville)\ 
Fish Eock, Earlsferry, 1879 
{G. W. T) ; Longniddry 
{G. W. T.) ; in sandy pools at 
low water at the two last- 
noted localities. 

Black Eocks, Leith {Sir J. F. 
Smith) ; at low tides among 
the large stones between New- 
haven and Caroline Park {Gh-e- 
ville); near the Lady's Tower, 
Elie {M'Bain) ; common at the 
Fish Eock, Earlsferry, and 
uncovered at low tides 
{G. W. T)\ very large in 
creeks at Elincraig {G. W. 
T.), but nearly always sub- 
merged. 



186 



Proceedings of the Hoyal Physical Society. 



Order Gelidiace^e. 

Gelidi^tm corneum, var. Clavatum, Caroline Park Eocks 

(Richardson). 



Dasya coccinea, 



Odonthalia dentata, 



Polysiphonia urceolata, 



fibrata, 



elongella., 
elongata, 



Order Ehodomelace^. 

. . Near Kirkcaldy (Greville) ; at 
Elie, on Laminaria roots ; 
rather rare {M'Bain and 
G. W. T.). 
. . Growing abundantly between 
Burntisland and Starley Burn 
(Greville) ; Elie (WBain) ; 
growing at Joppa at low water 
of spring tides, and sometimes 
cast ashore there from deep 
water in abundance ((x. W. T). 

Seafield Eocks, Fife {Greville)-, 
Chapelness, Earlsferry, com- 
mon (G. W. T) ; Elie (M'Bain) ; 
Caroline Park Eocks (G. W.T.); 
Joppa (G. W. T), near low 
water. 

Common at Earlsferry and Elie, 
especially at Chapelness and 
Lady's Tower, in shallow pools 
from half tide to low water, 
August and September. 

Earlsferry and Elie, near low 
water ; rather rare. 

Caroline Park (Pichardson) ; near 
Kirkcaldy (Greville), in both 
cases among rejectamenta ; 
Elie (M'Bain): at Kincraig, 
Earlsferry, chiefly on stones 
and old shells, and seldom 
between tide marks, in fine 
fruit of both kinds, in July 
1879 {G. W. T). 



Mr Traill on the Algce of the Firth of Forth. 187 



Polysiphonia molacca, 



Brodicei, . . 



nigrescens, 
atro-ruhescens, 



fastigiata, 
parasitica, 



Ehodomela lycopodioides, 



suhfusca, . 



Not uncommon in shallow sandy- 
pools, near low water, to the 
east of the Fish Eock, Earls- 
ferry (G. TV. T), in fruit in 
Aucrust; Elie, east of the 
Lady's Tower. 

Elie, at the Lady's Tower ; fine 
in pools at Kincraig, at low 
water, at the basaltic columns, 
July 1879 {G. W. T) ; fronds 
7 or 8 inches long. 

Common in pools between tide 
marks. 

Wardie {Richardson); Caroline 
Park (Greville); Elie {M'Bain); 
common and fine on sand- 
covered rocks at the low water 
of spring tides, opposite Earls- 
ferry Links, 1879 {G. W, T) ; 
fronds 6 inches long. 

Common on Fucus nodosus, be- 
tween high water and half tide. 

At Newhaven, on the larger 
marine plants, rare (Richard- 
son) ; on Melolesia, at low 
water, rare, Elie, and cast 
ashore there. 

Opposite Seafield Baths, on the 
larger algae, very rare {Richard- 
son) ; cast ashore at Earlsferry, 
attached to shells, in July 1877 
{G. W. T). 

Opposite Seafield Tower, Fife 
{Greville) \ not uncommon on 
Laminaria stalks, Earlsferry, 
etc., cast ashore from deep 
water. 
Common in pools, especially at 
Caroline Park Kocks,in March. 



188 



Proceedings of the Eoyal Fhysical Society. 



Order Ehodymeniace^. 



EiitJwra cristata, 



Maugeria sanguinea, 



Plocamiuin coccineum, 



Rhodymenia palmata, 
Bhodophyllis bifida, . 



Only one specimen among re- 
jectamenta, July 1823 {Gre- 
ville). 

Fine at Lady's Tower, Elie 
(M'Bain) ; common at the 
Fish Eock, Earlsferry, dry at 
low tides, underneath shelv- 
ing rocks {G. W. T.); Long- 
niddry {G. TV. T) ; cast ashore 
at Joppa. 

Common at Earlsferry, etc. ; 
narrow variety at the Black 
Eocks, Leith. 

Common. 

On alg^, Elie {M'Bain). 



Order Sph^rococcoide^. 



Delesseria sinuosa. 



alata, . 
hypoglossum, 



Nitophyllum laceratum. 



„ pundatum, 



Elie ; Joppa, in one pool only, 
annually, at half tide, under- 
neath a boulder {G. W. T) ; 
Black Eocks, Leith, etc. 

Common at many places on rocks 
and algse, at low water. 

Near Caroline Park Eocks {Rich- 
ardson) ; opposite Seafield 
Baths, very rare {Gremlle) ; 
occasionally parasitic on Odon- 
thalia dentata, at Joppa {G. 
W. T.) ; near Lady's Tower, 
EHe {M'Bain). 

Firth of Forth {Lightfoot) ; rarely 
in rejectamenta {Mrs Martin; 
Greville) ; Elie, cast ashore 
on Laminaria digitata, but 
rare. 

Among rejectamenta. Firth of 
Forth, very rare {Greville) \ on 



Mr Buchanayi on the Distribution of the Goosander. 189 

algse, Lady's Tower, Elie 
(M'Bain) ; on Desmarestia 
aculeata, at Longniddry, 1879 
{G. W. T). 

Order Squamari^. 

Criwria pellita, .... On stems of Laminaria digitata 

and on stones, Earlsferry {G. 
W. T.) ; first time recorded. 



III. On the Distribution of the Goosander (Mergus merganser) 
in Scotland during the Breeding Season. By J. Hamilton 
Buchanan, Esq. 

(Read 17th December 1879.) 

The goosander {Mergus merganser) is a well-known bird 
in Northern Europe, and is met with in many counties in 
England as a regular winter visitant. 

In Scotland, it is, perhaps, more widely and abundantly 
distributed ; and of late years it has been known to remain 
and breed in some of the more remote parts of the country. 
So far as one can judge, it appears to be extending its 
breeding range southwards. Mr John Macgillivray found it 
breeding, in 1840, near Loch Maddy, from whence Dr Dewar 
obtained a nest of eggs in 1858. Mr Gray, in his " Birds of 
the West of Scotland," seems to have no doubt of the fact 
of the breeding of the goosander in JSTorth Uist; but Mr 
Harvie-Brown, who has visited the locality, does not consider 
it properly authenticated, nor the ground the least likely to 
harbour the birds in the breeding season. In the " Birds of 
the West of Scotland," page 403, Mr Gray, in referring to 
Dr Dewar's nest, writes as follows : " One of the eggs taken 
at that time is in my possession; it is larger than a mer- 
ganser's egg, cream coloured, slightly darker in shade, and 
easily recognised when placed in a group of eggs belonging 
to the common species." Mr Harvie-Brown, on the other 
hand, who has seen the eggs taken by Dr Dewar, is of the 
opinion that they are those of the red-breasted merganser. 



190 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

The goosander makes a deep, well built, and spacious nest, 
generally in the hole of a decayed tree. It is composed 
almost entirely of the bird's own soft down, placed upon a 
substratum of small chips and pieces of the decayed wood of 
the tree in which the nest is situated. It is sometimes placed 
on the ground under the shelter of the forking roots of trees, 
or on a sloping bank by the margin of one of our Scottish 
lochs. There are, however, no trees in North Uist, except 
in garden enclosures, but Mr Gray has informed me that the 
nest taken by Dr Dewar was among sedge, so that the bird 
most probably adapts the situation of its nest to the locality 
in which it breeds. 

The first Scottish nest which can be considered as indis- 
putable was procured from the north of Perthshire, in 1871, 
by Mr Harvie-Brown, and as the circumstances of the capture 
may not prove uninteresting, Mr Brown has kindly allowed 
me to transcribe the following passage from his Egg Book : 

" On the 29th July 1870 a gamekeeper in Perthshire gave 
me the following piece of information, ex ore — * I got a nest 
too, for the first time this year, of the dun diver. It was in 
the hole of an old tree, and had ten eggs. I had the bird in 
my hand.' In 1871 this keeper, with permission of the 
lessee of the shootings, was employed by me to collect birds' 
eggs for Captain Feilden and myself. No directions were 
given to him regarding ducks' eggs or down, as sufficient 
importance had not been attached to his communication of 
July 1870. Under date of May 1871, the keeper writes: 
' I have some eggs which I shall be glad to send to you, if 
you care for them. They are as follows — dun divers, etc' 
At this time I was in Norway. The eggs were sent to 
Dunipace unblown during my absence. They contained full- 
grown chicks; no down was sent with them. They were 
blown by the keeper and his son at Dunipace. One Qgg was 
destroyed in blowing and two others were badly broken, but 
the pieces were carefully preserved. On my return home I 
compared these eggs with eggs of scoters and goosanders taken 
this season (1871) in Norway, and also with a number of 
mergansers' eggs collected by Captain Feilden and m)^self 
in the Hebrides and Sutherland, and, after a careful examina- 



Mr Buchcman on the Distribution of the Goosander. 191 

tion, I came to the conclusion that they could scarcely belong 
to any other species than to the goosander. I then wrote to 
the keeper, asking him to try to secure a portion of the down 
from the nest. Towards the middle of September I received 
his answer, in which he enclosed a single feather in every 
respect answering to a feather from the flank of a female 
goosander in our collection. The feather was sent to Mr H. 
E. Dresser, who confirmed my comparison, and in answer 
said — ' I congratulate you on the first recorded Scottish nest 
of Mergus merganser! " 

In the Field of July 29th and August 12th 1871— the 
same year in which Mr Harvie-Brown obtained eggs in Perth- 
shire — Mr J. Graham (James Street, Liverpool) records that 
he saw a female goosander, accompanied by seven young 
ones, on Loch Awe, Argyleshire, and that in 1868 he saw the 
same in Orkney. 

Mr J. Watson, in a letter to Mr Harvie-Brown, under date 
of November 1872, states that he took a nest that season in 
the " west of Scotland." " The nest contained six eggs, and 
was placed on a ledge of rock quite open and within three 
feet of the water." 

In 1873, Captain Feilden and Mr Harvie-Brown saw two 
goosanders, on the 13th and 14th of June, at the same locality 
from whence Mr Brown obtained the eggs in 1871. In 1876 
Mr Dresser and Mr Brown found the nest at the same spot. 
The eggs had, however, been unfortunately taken, but the 
down was left. The keepers and shepherds are in the habit 
of destroying the eggs, on account of the supposed harm the 
birds do to fish. In 1877, Mr Brown knew of the goosanders 
breeding again at this locality. 

Mr MaUoch, naturalist, Perth, informs me that he saw a 
brood of nine young birds at the same spot on the 1st of 
August 1878. This was probably a second hatch, as the 
boatman informed him that he had taken the eggs in June 
for a London gentleman. 

A pair of goosanders have frequented the Tay, about eight 
miles above Perth, during the whole of last summer, and 
from this one may infer that they possibly breed somewhere 
in that locality. 



192 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

In 1877 I knew of a nest on the banks of the Teith, near 
Callander, a detailed description of which will be found in 
my List of the Birds of the Parish of Callander, published in 
this Society's Proceedings, and in 1878 I have reason to 
believe that there was at least one nest on one of the lochs in 
the south-west of Perthshire. 

The Kev. Alexander Stewart, Ballachulish, has informed 
me that it probably breeds in Mull, and also on Loch Craig- 
nish, near the northern end of the Crinan Canal. His reasons 
for thinking so are that he saw an old female goosander and 
a young bird not many weeks old shot on Loch Sunart, 
opposite Glenborrodale, in Ardnamurchan, and he has no 
doubt that it nested on one of the fresh-water lakes or salt- 
water lochs of the Island of Mull. This was in 1867. In 
August 1869, Mr Stewart saw a young goosander which Mr 
Mulholland of the yacht " Hecla " had shot at the mouth of 
Loch Craignish, and which was believed to have been bred in 
that immediate neighbourhood. He is also inclined to believe 
that about twenty-five or thirty years ago goosanders bred on 
an island on Loch Arcaig, near Lochiel's Castle of Auchnacarry . 
I have been told that they occur on the Tweed during 
• summer, but I have been unable to procure any direct 
evidence of their breeding there. 

There is an egg in the Dunrobin Museum, taken near 
Tongue, which is reputed to be that of a goosander, and Mr 
Sim of Aberdeen informs me that he has had what he con- 
siders to be goosanders' eggs from that locality; but Mr 
Harvie-Brown, who has paid much attention to the ornitho- 
logy of Sutherland, does not consider that it occurs in that 
county during the breeding season. 

In '' Scenes of Animal Life and Character from Nature and 
Recollection," by Mrs Hugh Blackburn, mention is made of 
the goosander nesting on an island in Loch Ailort. 

A gamekeeper near Aberfeldy writes to me that he saw 
this year (1879) a pair of goosanders on Loch Tay, on the 
20th of May, and although he could not find their nest, it is 
most probable that they were breeding somewhere in that 
neighbourhood. 

There can be but little doubt that the goosander has bred 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate Fauna of Lanilash Bay. 193 

in Scotland much oftener than in the few instances which I 
have given, but it is extremely difficult to obtain reliable 
information on the subject, as the majority of gamekeepers 
and shepherds, who have the most frequent opportunities 
for observation, confound it with either the shieldrake or 
merganser. 

In collecting the foregoing notes I have to express my 
indebtedness to several gentlemen who have obligingly and 
readily answered my questions with reference to the breed- 
ing of this interesting bird, and especially to the Eev. Alex. 
Stewart, The Manse, Ballachulish ; Mr Mackenzie, Dornoch ; 
Mr Gray, etc., etc., as well as to Mr Malloch, naturalist, Perth, 
and Mr Sim, naturalist, Aberdeen. I am also more than 
obliged to Mr J. A. Harvie-Brown of Dunipace, for the extract 
from his Egg Book, and for much other valuable assistance 
and advice. 



IV. On the Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. By 
William Abbott Herdman, Esq., B.Sc. [Plate IV.] 

(Read 21st January 1880.) 

Lamlash Bay has probably been as much worked by the 
naturalist's dredge as any other area of similar extent on the 
coast of Scotland, yet the published lists of the animals found 
in it are, as regards many groups, far from being exhaustive. 

Dr Landsborough, in his "Excursions to Arran" (1852), 
gives a list of the Mollusca and Foraminifera which had been 
found there by himself and others. 

A more complete marine fauna of the district is to be found 
in Bryce's " Geology of Arran and Clydesdale." The lists 
in this work were drawn up by Dr Miles, and include the 
species dredged by Dr Landsborough and Major Martin, in 
addition to those obtained by Dr Greville and Dr Miles him- 
self, which latter constitute the list given in a paper published 
in the British Association Report for 1856. These conjoined 
lists were finally revised and supplemented by Dr Carpenter, 
and appear in this their most complete form in the 4th edition 
of Dr Bryce's work (1872). As far as regards the Mollusca and 
EcTiinodermata, they are very full. 



194 Proceedings of the Eoyal Physical Society. 

In the summer of 1877 upwards of twenty members of 
the Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society 
visited Arran and dredged for a week, chiefly in Lamlash 
Bay, where they found two species {Thy one papillosa and 
Elysia midis) not previously recorded. A large party of 
members of the same society returned to Lamlash in the 
following summer (1878) and took three species of Nudi- 
branchs, two at least of which were new to the locality. 

These, as far as I am aware, are the only published lists of 
the fauna of Lamlash Bay. Trom the fact that each suc- 
cessive investigator has been able to add to the recorded 
fauna, it may reasonably be inferred that further work will 
not be fruitless, and that, although this part of the coast has 
received more than its just share of attention from marine 
zoologists, much dredging and careful investigation will still 
be required before we can have anything like an accurate 
knowledge of the inhabitants of even this much searched 
locality. 

I ought to mention that very complete lists of the Fora- 
minifera, Actinozoa, Ostracoda, and Mollusca of the Clyde 
district are to be found in the " Fauna and Flora of the West 
of Scotland," published by the British Association. Doubt- 
less most of the species would also be found at Lamlash if 
those groups were as thoroughly worked out there as they 
have been at C umbrae. 

My chief dredging ground was at the north and south 
entrances to the bay and along the Lamlash side of Holy 
Island. A few hauls were taken in most of the other parts 
of the bay, but the localities above specified were found to be 
the most productive. 

At each place where the dredge was let down the depth 
was carefully ascertained, and, except when the haul was very 
poor, a list was kept of the animals brought up in the net. 
There are forty-three such lists which I have arranged in 
twelve stations or localities referred to by their numbers in 
the following record. 

Among the animals collected between tide marks the 
locality of those species which rarely occurred is given. 
The others are marked "littoral." Those taken only at 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate Faunxi of Lamlash Bay. 195 

spring tides, or by wading beyond low water-mark, are 
designated as " upper laminarian." 

The Ascidians were especially interesting to me, and 
engaged a good deal of my attention. 

As I wish to examine them carefully, and have not yet had 
sufficient time, the list of Tunicata is reserved for a future 
paper. 

LIST OF STATIONS. 

Station. [See Plate IV.] 

ISTo. 1. Depth 3i to 7^ fathoms. 

Bottom seaweedy, chiefly Laminaria, 
No. 2. Depth 14 to 21 fathoms. 

Bottom zoophytic and shelly. 

No. 3. Depth 2 to 5 fathoms. 

Bottom seaweedy. 
No. 4. Depth 10 to 20 fathoms. 

Bottom nullipore, dead shells, and algae. 
No. 5. Depth 10 fathoms. 

Bottom algae and zoophytes. 
No. 6. Depth 15 to 25 fathoms. 

Bottom zoophytic. 
No. 7. Depth 5 to 15 fathoms. 

Bottom sand, shells, and zoophytes. 
No. 8. Depth 14 to 16 fathoms. 

Bottom zoophytic and shelly. 
No. 9. Depth 3 to 10 fathoms. 

Bottom sandy and zoophytic. 
No. 10. Depth 7 to 13 fathoms. 

Bottom nullipore. 
No. 11. Depth 9 to 13 fathoms. 

Bottom nullipore. 
No. 12. Depth 10 to 15 fathoms. 

Bottom nullipore and shells. 

The ground covered by these stations is, as far as I am 
capable of judging, the best part of the bay for dredging pur- 
poses. The remainder of the area is mostly clean sand. 



196 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

LIST OF SPECIES. 

PORIFEEA. 

I. Calcarea — 

Grantia compressa (Fabr.). 

G. ciliata (Fabr.). 

Leucosolenia hotryoides (Ell. and Sol.). 

Z. coriacea (Flem.). 

II. SiLICEA — 
Cliona celata (Grant). 

In Pecten opercularis. 
Halichondria panicea (Pall.). 
Dysidia fragilis (Mont,). 
A few specimens which I am unable to determine. 



GOELENTEBATA. 

HYDROIDA. 
I. Athecata — 

Clavid^. 
Clava multicornis (Forsk,). 

Litt., on Fucus, etc. 

HYDRACTINIIDiE. 
Hydractinia echinata (Flem.). 

Always on shells inhabited hy Pagurus. Sta- 
tions 5, 9, 11; also upper lam., King's Cross. 

CORYNID^. 

Coryne pusilla (Gaertn.). 

Litt., on Fucus, etc. 
G. vaginata (Hincks). 

Litt., in rock pools. King's Cross. 
Syncoryne sarsii (Lov^n.). 

Litt., King's Cross. 

EUDENDRIIDiE. 
Eudendrium rameum (Pall.). 

Stations 2, 6. 
E. ramosum (Linn.). 

Stations 4, G, 7. 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate FmiTia of Lamlash Bay. 197 

ATRACTYLIDiE. 

Bougainvillia rainosa (Van Ben.). 
Stations 2, 5. 

TUBULARIID^E. 

Tuhilaria coronata (Abildg.). 

Station 4. On Laminaria growing from 
(a) wreck near Holy Isle, (h) buoy. 

T, simplex (Alder). 

Stations 3, 7, 8, 10, 12. 

II. Thecaphora — 

Campanulariid^. 

Clytia johnstoni (Alder). 

Upper lam. 
Ohelia geniculata (Linn.). 

Upper lam., on Laminaria and Zostera. 
0. dichotoma (Linn.). 

Litt. 
0. flabellata (Hincks). 

Litt., on Fucus. 
Campanularia verticillata (Linn.). 

Station 2. 
CJlexuosa (Hincks). 

Litt. Also Station 3. 

Lafoeid^. 
Lafoea dumosa (Flem.). 

Stations 2, 4, 5. 
L.fruticosa (Sars). 

Station 2. 
Filellum serpens (Hass.). 

On other zoophytes. Stations 4, 6. 

Haleciid^. 

Halecium halednum (Linn.). 

Stations 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 
H. beanii (Johnst.). 

Station 2. 



198 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Sertulaeiid^. 
Sertularella polyzonias (Linn.). 

Stations 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11. 

aS'. rugosa (Linn.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross and Clachland. 

Diphasia rosacea (Linn.). 

Station 2. 
D. piimster (Ell. and Sol.). 

Station 1. 
D. tamarisca (Linn.). 

Stations 2, 4. 
Sertidaria piwiila (Linn.). 

Litt. 
S. filicula (Ell. and Sol.). 

Stations 2, 4, 6. 
Hydrallmania falcata (Linn.). 

Station 6. 

Plumulariidte. 
Antenmdaria antennina (Linn.). 

Stations 6, 8. 
A. ramosa (Lam.). 

Stations 2, 4, 5, 6, 7. 
Plurmdaria pinnata (Linn.). 

Stations 2, 6, 7, 8, 12. 
P. setacea (Ell,). 

Stations 5, 11. 

MEDUSOID GONOPHORES. 

(Taken in the Surface-net at the south end of the Bay.) 

Oceania octona (Flem.). 
Thaumantias thompsoni (Forb.). 
T. aeronautica (Forb.). 
Euphysa aurata (Forb,). 

One specimen. 

ACALEPHA. 

Cyancea capillata (Bast.). 
Aurelia aurita (Linn.). 



Mr Ilerdman on Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. 199 

ACTINIARIA. 

In considering its Malacodermata, Lamlash Bay must be 
included in Gosse's " Hebridean Province " (extending from 
Canty re to the Orkneys). The author of the '* Actinologia 
Britannica " records, in the table of geogTaphical distribution, 
only six species as inhabiting this province. Of these six, 
four have been taken very rarely and only in other parts of 
the area, thus reducing the list of those likely to occur at 
Lamlash to two species. These two along with three others 
are given by Dr Miles. I am able to add three more, of 
which the localities are given below. 

SAGARTIADiE. 

Actinoloha diantJms (Ell.). 

Litt. and upper lam. Occurs in two locali- 
ties; (a) in small pools in the basalt at 
King's Cross are a few specimens of the 
variety sindonea; (h) sticking to a wreck on 
a sandbank near the pier are many speci- 
mens of the varieties sindonea and ruhida. 

Sagartia bellis (Ell. and Sol.). 

Litt., near King's Cross. 

>S'. troglodytes (Johnst.). 
Litt. 

Adamsia palliata (Bohadsch). 

Stations 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. This is a common 
species, especially in the southern part of 
the bay. Its beautifully spotted body 
and streaming rose-coloured acontia were 
to be seen in the dredge almost every 
haul in the neighbourhood of the buoy. 
It was always in conjunction with Pagurus 
prideauxii. 
Also upper lam., sands, King's Cross. 

ANTHEADiE. 

Anthea cereus (Ell. and Sol.). 

Litt. and upper lam., attached to Fucus 
and Zostera. Probably the most abundant 



200 Proceedings of the Royal Fhysical Society. 

species of anemone at Lamlash. The 
majority of the specimens seem to be- 
long to Gosse's variety rustica. Two of 
var. smaragdina and one of alabastrina 
also occurred. 

ACTINIAD^. 

Actinia mesemhryanthemum (Ell. and Sol.). 
Litt. 

BUNODID^. 

Tealia crassicornis (Mtill.), including T. coriacea (Cuv.). 
Litt. 

Capnead^. 
Corynactis viridis (AUman). 

Under a large stone at low water-mark 
near Clachland Point. 



ECHINODEBMA TA. 

CRINOIDEA. 

Comatula rosacea (Linck). 

Stations 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12. This was 
dredged frequently, but always in the 
mature condition. It was probably too 
late in the season to take it in the stalked 
stage. The curious ecto-parasite Myzosto- 
miim occurs in abundance on some speci- 
mens of Comatula, while others are en- 
tirely free from it. 

OPHIUEIDEA 
Ophioglypha lacertosa (Penn.). 

Stations 4, 6, 7. One very large specimen 

measured lyV inches across the disc. 
0. albida (Forb.). 

Stations 2, 7, 10. 
Ophiothryx rosula (Forb.) = 0. fragilis (Mtill.). 

Stations 2, 6, 7, 10, 12. 



Mr Herdmcm on Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. 201 

Ophiocoma nigra (Miill.). 

Stations 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12. Orange variety 
common. 

OphiopJiolis hellis (Forb.) = 0. acuhata (MUll.). 

Stations 6, 7, 10. Forbes mentions a 
variety having a yellow star on the red 
disc. Some of my specimens had these 
colours transposed, the disc being yellow, 
and marked with a red star. 

Amphimna negleda (Forb.) =;= A. elegans (Leach). 
Litt. and upper lam. 

ASTEEOIDEA. 

Asterias glacialis (Linn.). 

Stations 3, 11, 12. 
A. riibens (Linn.). 

Stations 3, 6, 7, 8, and litt. 
Solaster p)apposus (Linn.), 

Stations 3, 12, and litt. 
Crihella oculata (Penn.). 

Station 12, and upper lam., Clachland 

Point. 
Palmipes placenta (Penn.) = P. membranaceics (Retz.). 

Station 4. 
Porania pulvillus (Miill.). 

Stations 2, 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, and upper lam. 
Luidia savignii (Aud.) ^= Z. fragillissima (Forb.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross on sand. 
Astropecten irregularis (Penn.). 

Station 4. 

ECHINOIDEA. 

Echinus esculentus (Linn.). 

Stations 1, 6, 10, 11, 12, and upper lam. 
E. miliaris (Leske). 

Stations 4, 6, 7. 
Echinocardium cordatum (Penn.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross, in a sand bank. 
VOL. v. 



202 Proceedings of the B.oyal Physical Society. 

Echinocyamus angulosus (Leske) = E. pitsillus (Forb.). 
Stations 10, 11, 12. 

I did not meet with any Holothuridea, although a Chiro- 
dota and a Thyone have been recorded as dredged in the 
bay. 

VERMES. 

ANNELIDA. 

GYMNOCOPA. 

TOMOPTERIDiE. 

Tomopteris oniseiformis (Eschsch.). 
In tow net. 

NOTOBRANCHIATA. 

Maldanid^. 
Clymene horealis. 
Owenia filiformis (D. Ch.) = Ammochares ottonis (Gr.). 

POLYNOID^. 

Lepidonotus sqiiamatiis (Linn.). 
Evarne impar (Johnst.). 
Nychia cirrosa (Pall.). 
Harmothoe imhricata (Linn.). 
Polynoe floccosa (Sav.). 
Halosydna gelatinosa (Sars). 

SiGALIONIDiE. 

Sigalion mathildce (And. and Ed.). 

NEPHTHYID.E. 

Nephthys longisetosa (Oerst.). 

PHYLLODOCIDiE. 
Eulalia viridis (0. F. Mull.). 

SYLLID.E. • 

Syllis armillaris (0. F. Mull.). 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate Fauna of Zamlash Bay. 203 

Nereid^e. 
Nereis pelagica (Linn.). 
N. diversicolor (0. F. MiilL). 
N. dtcmerilii (And. and Ed.). 

Opheliid^. 
Ammotrypane aulogaster (Kath.). 

ARENICOLID.E. 

Arenicola piscatorum (Lam.). 

CEPHALOBRANCHIATA. 

PHERUSIDiE. 

Trophonia phimosa (0. F. Miill.). 

AMPHICTENEIDiE. 

Pectinaria helgica (Pall.). 
Amphictene auricoma (0. F. MlilL). 
Nicomache lumhricalis (Fabr.). 

Sabellid^. 

Sabella penicillus (Linn.). 
aS^. pavonina (Sav.). 
Frotula protensa (Gr.). 

Serpulid^. 
Serpula serrulata. 
S. vermicularis (Ell.). 
Pomatocerus triqueter (Mont. ). 
Spirorhis nautiloides (Lam.). 

There are some other Annelides which I am unable to name ; 
also a few Tnrhellaria, and several Gephyrea. 

POLYZOA. 

CHEILOSTOMATA. 

CELLULARIADiE. 

Canda reptans (Pall.). 

Upper lam., on Zostera. 



204 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Scrupocellaria scrwposa (Linn.). 

Stations 2, 4, 6, 7. 

SCRUPAEIAD^. 

ScTUparia chelata (Linn.). 

Stations 8, 11. 
Hip2^othoa divaricata (Lam.). 

Station 4. 
jEtca tnoncata (Landsb.). 

Stations 2, 4. 

Gemellariad^. 

Gemellaria lorieata (Linn.). 

Stations 2, G. 

BlCELLARIAD^. 

Bicellaria ciliata (Linn.). 

Station 8. 

Flustrad.^. 
Flustra foliacea (Linn.). 

Station 2. 
Carbasea papyrea (Pall.). 

Station 9. 

Membraniporid^. 

Membranipora memhranacea (Linn.). 

Stations 1, 4, 7. 
M. pilosa (Linn.). 

Station 3. 
Lepralia coccinea (Abildg.). 

Station 4. 
L. ciliata (Linn.). 

Stations 1, 4. 
Z. trispinosa (Johnst.). 

Station 6. 
L. hiforis (Thomp.). 

Station 7. 
Z. hyalina (Linn.). 

Station 7. 



Mr Herdman on Invertehrate Fauna of LamlasJi Bay. 205 

Lepralia peachii (Johnst.). 

Station 4. 
L. variolosa (Johnst.). 

Stations 4, 12. 
Z. annidata (Fabr.). 

Stations 4, 11. 
L. tenuis (Hass.). 

Station 1. 
L. hassalli (Johnst.). 

Station 4. 

Celleporid^. 
Cellepora pumicosa (Linn.). 

Station 4. 
C. ramulosa (Linn.). 

Station 1. 

ESCHARID^. 

Eschara foliacea (Ell. and Sol.). 
Stations 4, 9. 



CTENOSTOMATA. 

VESICULARIADyE. 
Bowerhankia imhricata (Adams). 

Station 2. 
Valkeria sp. 

Station 5. 

Alcyoniad^. 

Alcyonidium hirsutum (Flem.). 
Station 6. 
Flustrella hispida (Fabr.). 

Station 5. 



CYCLOSTOMATA. 

CRISIADiE. 
Crisidia cornuta (Linn.). 

Station 7. 



206 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Crisia ehicrnea (Linn.). 

Station 6. 
C. denticulata (Lam.). 

Stations 3, 4, 5. 

TUBULIPORID^. 

Tuhulipora flahellaris (Johnst.). 

Station 7. 
T. serpens (Linn.). 

Station 1. 
Diastopora patina (Lam.). 

Stations 1, 4. 
Discopo7'ella hispida (Fleni.). 

Station 4. 

ENTOPEOCTA. 
Pedicellinid^e. 
Pedicellina echinata (Sars). 

Stations 2, 6, 8, 9. Generally on Plumu- 
laria pinnata. 



CRUSTACEA, 

DECAPODA. 

Leptopodiad^. 

Stenorhynclius phalangium (Penn.). 

Stations 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 1, 11, 12.. 
Inachus dorsettensis (Penn.). 

Stations 6, 7, 8, 9. 

Maiad^. 
Jlyas arancus (Linn.). 

Litt. and upper lam., King's Cross. 
.77". coarctatus (Leach). 

Station 2. 

Parthenopid^. 
Eurynome aspera (Leach). 

Stations 6, 7, 8, 11. One is a female with 



Mr Herdman on Inverteh^ate Fauim of Lamlash Bay. 207 

eggs. It was taken in the end of August, 
two months later than the spawning time 
given in Bell's " British Crustacea." 

Cancerid^. 

Cancer payurus (Linn.). 

Litt. and upper lam. 

PORTUNIDiE. 

Carcinas mannas (Penn.). 

Litt. 
Forhmus puher (Linn.). 

Station 3, and upper lam., King's Cross. 
P. arcuatus (Leach). 

Stations 3, 11. 
P. de'pxiTator (Linn.). 

Station 3. 

Leucosiad.e. 
Ehalia pennantii (Leach). 

Station 12. 

Pagurid^. 

Pagurus hernhardus (Linn.). 

Stations 4, 5, 11; also litt. and upper lam. 
P. prideauxii (Leach). 

Stations 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and upper lam.. 

King's Cross. 
P. cuanensis (Thomp.), 

Station 11; also upper lam., Clachland. 

One specimen was in a shell of Ajporrhais 

])es-pelecani. 

PORCELLANADiE. 

Porcellana platycheles (Penn.). 

Station 7. Litt., King's Cross and Clach- 
land Point. One specimen is interesting. 
Its left great leg is normal, the other is 
represented by a roundish knob slightly 



208 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

bilobed at the end. The limb has evi- 
dently been lost, and this is a new one 
in process of budding. 

Porcellana longicornis (Penn.). 

Stations 7, 12. Frequently in the nulli- 
pore "nests" made by Limahians. 

Galathea sqiiamifcra (Leach). 

Station 3. Upper lam., King's Cross, and 
Clachland Point. Among some specimens 
from Clachland one has an abnormal 
rostrum, there being five lateral spines on 
its left side. Four is the proper number, 
and forms a specific character. The addi- 
tional spine is placed anteriorly, but is 
truly lateral, not being caused by a bifur- 
cation of the central spine. 

G. ncxa (Embl.). 

Station 10. I have only one specimen, 
and it has a curious swelling on the cara- 
pace, increasing the posterior half of the 
thorax on the right side to twice its 
normal size. 

G. anclrewsii (Kin.). 

Stations 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10. Very common. 

CRANGONIDiE. 

Cranrjon vidgaris (Fabr.). 

Station 4. 

PALiEMONID^. 

Hippolyte varians (Leach). 

Station 10. 
Paiidalus cmmdicornis (Leach). 

Stations 3, 11, 12. 
Palccmon serratus (?) (Penn.). 

Station 5. 
P. squilla (Fabr.). 

Stations 7, 9, 10. 



Mr Her dm an on Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. 209 



AMPHIPODA. 

Gammarid^e. 

Montagua monoculoides (Mont.). 

Upper lam. 
Anonyx holholli (Kroy.). 
Ampelisca gaimardii (Kroy.). 
Monoculoides stinipsoni (Sp. Bate.). 
Dexamine spinosa (Leach). 
Gammarus locusta (Linn.). 

Station 3. 

COROPHIID.E. 

Amphitlwe ruhricata (Leach). 

Station 3. 
Fodocerus pulchellus (M. Edw.). 

On Laminaria at the buoy. 

HYPERIIDiE. 

Lcstrigonus kinahani (Sp. Bate.). 

In Aurelia aurita. 
Hyper ia galha (Mont.). 

In Anrelia aitrita. 

Caprellid^. 

Froto pedata (Flem.). 
Frotella phasma (Mont.). 

Station 6. 
Caprella linearis (Linn.). 
C. hystrio: (Kroy.). 
C. acanthifera (Leach). 

ISOPODA. 

Idotca trimtspidata (Desmar.). 

Station 12, and litt. 



210 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

CIRRIPEDIA. 

Balanus balanoides (Linn.). 

Litt. 
B. porcatus (Da Costa). 

Stations 6, 7. 

There are a number of small crustaceans, taken in the sur- 
face-net, which I have not yet had time to go over. Most of 
them seem to be Copepoda. 

PANTOPODA. 

Pycnogonum littorale (Fabr.). 

King's Cross and Clachland. 

o 

Nymphon gracile (Fabr.). 

Station 4. 
Pallene brevirostris (Johnst.). 

Station 2. 



MOLLUSCA. 

LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 
ANOMIIDiE. 

Anemia ephippium (Linn.). 

Stations 4, 5. 

OSTRAEID.E. 

Ostraea edidis (Linn.). 

Station 6, 

Pectinid^. 
Pecten opercularis (Linn.). 

Stations 9, 10. 

P. varius (Linn.). 

Station 11. A single valve in a Lima's 

" nest." 
P. tigrimts (Mull.). 

Station 6. 
P. tigrimts, var. c^stata. 

Station 6. 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. 211 

Pecten similis (Lask.). 

Station 7. 

P. maximus (Linn.). 

Stations 6, 7, 12. 

Lima hians (Gmel.). 

Stations 6, 9, 10, 11, 12. Common off the 
north end of Holy Isle. It builds its nest 
out of the nuUipore Melobesia calcarea 
which forms the bottom there. 

Mytilid^. 

Mytilus edulis (Linn.). 

On wreck, Holy Isle, etc. 
M. modiolus (Linn.). 

Upper lam.. King's Cross. 
M, pMseolimos (Phil.). 

Upper lam.. King's Cross. 
Modiolaria discors (Linn.). 

Litt., in pools, King's Cross. 

ARCIDiE. 

Nucida nucleus (Linn.). 

Stations 2, 12. 
N. nitida (Sower.). 

Stations 7, 11. 

Kelliid^. 
Lepton nitidum (Turt.). 

Station 4. 

LuCINIDiE. 

Lucina horealis (Linn.). 

Litt., north of Lamlash. 
Axinus Jlexuosus (Mont.). 

Station 12. 

Cardiid^. 

Cardium echinatum (Linn.). 
Station 7. 



212 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Cardium exiguum (GmeL). 

Station 9. 
C. nodosum (Turt.). 

Station 7. 
C. edule (Linn.). 

Litt., sands, Lamlash. 
C. norvegicum (Speng.). 

Station 8. 

Cyprinid^. 
Gyprina islandica (Linn.). 

Station 6. 
Astarte sulcata (Da Costa). 

Station 12. 
A. compressa (Mont.). 

Station 12. 
Ci7'ce minima (Mont.). 

Stations 9, 11. 

Venerid^. 
Venus exoleta (Linn.). 

Station 9. 
V. lincta (Pulten.). 

Station 9. 
V. fascicdct (Da Costa). 

Station 12. 
V. ovata (Penn.). 

Station 7. 
V.gallina (Linn.). 

Stations 5, 7. 
Tapes virginea (Linn.). 

Station 10. 
T. pidlastra (Mont.). 

Litt., near King's Cross. 

Tellinid^. 
Tellina halthica (Linn.). 

Litt. 
T. tenuis (Da Costa). 

Litt. and upper lain., Station 3. 



Mr Herdman on Inverteh^ate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. 213 

Tellina f alula (Gronov.). 

Upper lam., and Station 3. 
T. donacina (Linn.). 

Stations 9, 11. 
Fsammobia ferroensis (Chemn.). 

Station 6. 
F. vespertina (Chemn.). 

Station 6. 

Mactrid^. 
Mactra solida (Linn.). 

Litt., sands, Lamlash. 
3L solida, var. truncata. 

Litt. and upper lam. 
M, subtruncata (Da Costa). 

Litt. and upper lam. 
M. subtruncata, var. striata. 

Station 3. 

SOLENID^. 

Solen pellucidus (Penn.). 

Station 9. 
>S'. ensis (Linn.). 

Upper lam., sands, Lamlash. 
S. siliqua (Linn.). 

Litt. and upper lam. 

Anatinid^. 
Thracia papyracea (Poli). 

Sands, Lamlash. 

Myid^. 
Mya truncata (Linn.). 

Litt., sands, near King's Cross. 

Saxicavid^. 
Saxicava rugosa (Linn.). 

Stations 6, 7. 
S. rugosa, var. minuta. 

Station 5. 
S. rugosa, var. prcecisa.. 

Upper lam., Clachland. 



214 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Pholadip^. 

Pholas crispata (Linn.). 

Upper lam., in sandstone, Lamlash. 

TEREDINIDiE. 

Teredo norvegica (Spengl). 

In pieces of old pier, Holy Isle. 

SCAPHOPODA. 

Dentaliid^. 
Dentalium entalis (Linn.). 

Station 12. 

GASTROPODA. 
Prosobranchiata — 

CHITONIDiE. 
Chiton cinereus (Linn.). 

Stations 4, 6. 
C. marginatus (Penn.). 

Litt. 
G. ruher (Lowe). 

Station 4. 
C. marmoreus (Fabr.). 

Station 7. 

Patellid^. 
Patella vulgata (Linn.). 

Litt. 
Helcion pellucidum (Linn.). 

Upper lam., Clachland, and Station 8. 
Tectura testudinalis (MUlL). 

Stations 4, 8. 
T. virginea (Mull.). 

Stations 4, 6. 
T.fulva (Mull.). 

Station 10. 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay. 215 

FlSSUKELLIDiE. 

Emarginula fissura (Linn.). 

Stations 4, G. 
E. fissura, var. suhdejoressa. 

Station 10. 

Capulid^. 
Capidics Imngaricus (Linn.). 

Stations 11, 12. 

Trochid^. 
Troclmts magus (Linn.). 

Stations 5, 6, 9, 
T. magus, yslv. alba. 

Station 4. 
T. tumidus (Mont.). 

Stations 6, 9. 
T. cin^rarins (Linn.). 

Litt. 
T. umbilicatus (Mont.). 

Litt. 
T millegranus (Phil.). 

Stations 4, 7, 8. 
T. zizyphimcs (Linn.). 

Stations 4, 6. 

LiTTORINIDiE. 

Lacuna divaricata (Fabr.). 

Upper lam. 
L. pallidula (Da Costa). 

Upper lam. 
Littorina obtusata (Linn.). 

Litt. 
L. rudis (Maton). 

Litt. 
L. littorea (Linn.). 

Litt. 
Rissoa jparva (Da Costa). 

Upper lam. 



216 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

Rissoa sohcta (Phil.). 

Station 4. 
B. memhranacea (Adams). 

Upper lam,, on Chondrus crispa. 
Hydrohia ulvce (Penn.). 

Litt., north of Lamlash. 

TUERITELLID^. 

Turritella terehra (Linn.). 

Litt., sands, Lamlash. 

Pyramidellid^. 

Odostomia rissoides (Hani.). 

Upper lam., Clachland. 

Naticid^e. 

Natica alderi (Forb.). 

Stations 5, 12. 
N. montacuti (Forb.). 

Station 10. 

VELUTINID.E. 

Velutina laevigata (Penn.). 

Station 4. 



Aporrhaid^, 

Aporrhais pes-pelecani (Linn.). 
Station 11. 

Cerithiid^. 

Cerithium reticulatiim (Da Costa). 
Station 11. 

BUCCINIDiE. 

Purpura lapillus (Linn.). 

Litt. 
Buccinum undatum (Linn.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross. 



Mr Herdman on Invertebrate Fcmna of Zamlash Bay. 217 

MuKICIDtE. 

Trophon truncatus (Strom.). 

Station 6. 
Fusus antiquus (Linn.). 

Station 2. 
F. gracilis (Da Costa). 

Station 4. 

NASSIDiE. 
Nassa reticulata (Linn.). 

Station 5. 
N. incrassata (Strom.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross. 

PLEUROTOMATIDiE. 

Defrancia leufroyi (Michaud). 
Station 10. 

D. linearis (Mont.). 

Station 6. 

CYPEiEID^. 

Gyjyrcea eitropcea (Mont.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross and Clachland. 

NUDIBRANCHIATA — 

DORIDID^. 

Boris testudinaria (Eiss.) = D. planata (Aid.). 

Station 8. 
D. tuherculata (Cuv.). 

Litt. and upper lam., and Station 3. 
D. pilosa (Miill.). 

Upper lam., Clachland. 
D. hilamellata (Linn.). 

Litt. and upper lam., Clachland. 

POLYCERIDiE. 

Goniodoris nodosa (Mont.). 

Upper lam., Clachland. 
VOL. V. P 



218 . Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, 

Polycera quadrilineata (Mtill.). 

Upper lam., King's Cross, and Stations 

4,7. 

Triopid^. 

Ancula cristata (Aid. and Han.). 
Station 5. 

EOLIDIDiE. 

PJolis papulosa (Linn.). 

Litt., King's Cross. 
K coronata (Forb.). 

Stations 2, 4, 9. 
E. rufihranchialis (Johnst.). 

Stations 7, 10. 
K tricolor Q) (Forb.). 

Station 5. 

CEPHALOPODA. 

Eledone cirrhosits. 

Upper lam., King's Cross. 

In regard to the distribution of species in the bay, I am 
convinced that the number of dredgings was not nearly 
sufficient to warrant me in drawing conclusions in any 
detail; still, a few cases impressed themselves strongly on 
me, and may, I think, be mentioned with safety. Three 
species of Hydroids — Halecium halecimom, Sertularella poly- 
zonias, and Plumularia pinnata — seem to range over all the 
area explored. Many others were found at one or a few 
places only, but none appeared specially characteristic of any 
particular spot. Among Echinoderms, Comatula and Porania 
were very generally distributed, while Palmipes and Astro- 
pecten were only taken at the south end of Holy Isle. 
Echinocyamus on the other hand occurred only at Stations 
10, 11, and 12, off the north end of Holy Isle. 

In the Crustacea we find Stenorhyiichus phalangium and 
Galathea andrewsii in all parts of the bay, while Eurynome 



Professm^ Geikie on the " Pitchstonc " of Eskdale. 219 

aspera and iTUtchits dorsettensis are only seen in the northern 
half of the bay, and Fagurics prideatcxii only in the southern 
half. Among the Molluscs rather a well-marked case is 
seen in Lima, which is only found in the northern part of 
the bay, and in greatest abundance off the north end of Holy 
Isle — about Station 10. 



V. The " Pitchstonc " (Vitreous Basalt) of EsMcde : A Retro- 
spect and Comparison of Geological Methods. By Archi- 
bald Geikie, LL.D., F.E.S., Director of the Geological 
Survey of Scotland, and Murchison Professor of Geology 
and Mineralogy in the University of Edinburgh. [Plates 
V. and VL] 

(Read 18th February 1880.) 

Part I. — Eetrospective. 

In a remote pastoral valley among the southern uplands 
of Scotland a group of green hills rises on the west side of 
the river Esk, not far from the manse of Eskdalemuir. These 
eminences, known in the district by the names of Wat 
Carrick, Watch Craig, and Castle Hill, stand out from among 
the gentle grassy slopes of the dale with a certain ruggedness, 
or at least with a broken character of summit, which forms a 
pleasing relief from the monotony of the surrounding undula- 
tions. They were introduced to the attention of geologists in 
the beginning of this century, by Professor Jameson of Edin- 
burgh,* but since that early date, so far as I am aware, no 
further geological description of them has been given. As they 
offer in themselves matter of considerable interest, and since 
the questions they raise naturally bring out into strong con- 
trast former and present methods of geological research, I have 
t bought that in recalling them once more to notice, it might 
c profitable to offer at the same time a brief review of the 
state of geology in this country at the date of Jameson's 
observations, more especially with reference to the interpre- 
tation of what we now know as igneous rocks. 

* Mineral ogical Description of Dumfriesshire, 8vo, pp. 185, Edinburgh, 
1805. The Dedication of this work is dated "College of Edinburgh, October 
10, 1804." 



220 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Looking back to the two closing decades of last century, 
we find Geology in the full vigour of its spring-time at Edin- 
burgh. In the year 1785, Hutton, after many years of patient 
but enthusiastic research, at last communicated his " Theory 
of the Earth " to the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh.^ The 
publication of this great memoir, and of its enlargement ten 
years afterwards into two octavo volumes,*!' niarked one of the 
most notable epochs in the progress of science. Geological 
dynamics were now treated with the bold, broad, far-reaching 
hand of a consummate master. Men were taught that instead 
of indulging in the construction of fanciful systems of cos- 
mogony, it was their first duty to study the actual records of 
the earth's history which have been preserved among the 
rocks. They were told that the interpretation of these 
records was supplied by familiar and daily operations upon 
the earth's surface ; that the existing economy of nature was 
alone to be employed in the investigation of past time, and 
that no imaginary causes of change were to be invoked 
merely because those now in progress seemed on a cursory 
view inadequate to explain the vicissitudes through which the 
planet had passed. One prominent feature in the Huttonian 
theory was the recognition of a vast cycle of revolutions, of 
which the evidence could be traced in the rocks of the 
earth's surface. Hutton found everywhere proofs of continual 
disintegration. The soil under his feet was in his eyes a 
monument of the decay of the terrestrial surface, alike neces- 
sary for the well-being of plants and animals and for the for- 
mation of land hereafter to be upraised from the bed of the 
sea. In the strata composing most of the dry land he saw 
the ruins of a former world — debris that had been worn from 
earlier continents, and had been laid down upon the fioor of 
the sea. In the heated interior of the globe he recognised a 

* Theory of the Earth ; or an Investigation of the Laws observable in the 
Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe, by James 
Hutton, M.D. ; Trans. Roy. Soc, Edin., i., pp. 209-304, read March 7 and 
April 4, 1783. 

+ Theory of the Earth, with proofs and illustrations, in 4 parts, 2 vols. 
8vo, Edinburgh, 1795. [A third volume in MS. is referred to by Playfair 
{Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., v., part iii., p. 86) as having been left by the author, 
but it was never published, and no trace of its existence can now be found.] 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitchstone " of Eskdale. 221 

grand source of energy, whereby the marine sediments, com- 
pressed and hardened into stone, are from time to time 
elevated into new land. 

Living in a country where so many conspicuous memorials 
of ancient volcanic activity obtrude themselves on the notice 
of every passing traveller, Hutton at an early date recognised 
the fact that, while stratified rocks have been hardened and 
upheaved through the operations of underground heat, they 
have likewise been invaded by masses of molten rock that 
have risen from below. He observed this circumstance 
among rocks of different ages in a region remote from any 
active volcano, and in which he found no trace of volcanic cones 
or craters. In Glen Tilt he discovered, as he had anticipated, 
that the granite of the Highlands sends out veins into the sur- 
rounding rocks in such a manner as to show that it must once 
have been in a state of fusion. So great was his glee over this 
corroboration of liis theoretical deductions that, as his bio- 
grapher narrates, the Highland gillies who accompanied him 
concluded that nothing less than the discovery of a vein of 
silver or gold could call forth such exultation.* In the low- 
lands of Scotland also he instanced many examples of rocks 
that had certainly been erupted in a molten condition, and 
had been injected among the ordinary sedimentary strata.f 

The publication of Hutton's " Theory of the Earth" did not 
immediately awaken much sympathetic interest in his doctrine. 
This arose partly from the somewhat cumbrous style in which 
he wrote, but chiefly because he was so far in advance of his 
age, that men were unprepared to recognise in his teaching a 
wide induction from carefully observed facts, instead of the 
speculation of one of the visionary enthusiasts of whose pro- 
ductions the world was now getting weary. He met, eventually, 
with determined opposition from De Luc and Kirwan — the 
latter of whom even insinuated a charge of atheism and 
impiety against him. Kirwan's was a formidable name, for 
his reputation as a chemist and mineralogist stood high. His 
capacity for geological research, however, will now be placed 
in a very subordinate position by any one who can find time 

* Playfair, Trans. Hoy. Soc. Eclin. , v. , part iii. , p. 68. 

+ Theory of the Earth, part i. , chap. i. , sect. 3 and 4 ; chap. v. 



222 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

and patience to read his " Essays." * This work, and his pre- 
vious memoir, entitled, " Examination of the Supposed Igneous 
Origin of Stony Substances," i* have long since passed out of 
the familiar literature of Geology. They deserve, however, 
to be remembered, if only because it was the appearance of 
the memoir that stimulated Hutton to expand and republish 
his " Theory " in the form in which he left it. 

Among Button's personal friends there were two who, 
while earnestly and loyally sympathising with his doctrine, 
had the ability to render it the most essential service. John 
Playfair, the genial Professor of Mathematics in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, from constant intercourse with Hutton, 
both in the city and among the hills, had thoroughly mastered 
his friend's teaching. After Hutton's death in 1797, finding 
that the Huttonian Theory still met with but little attention, 
Playfair prepared and published his classic "Illustrations." J 
Gifted with a pen as facile and graceful as that of his master 
was heavy and obscure, he unfolded the new doctrine with 
consummate skill, and produced a volume which will serve 
as a perpetual model of luminous and fascinating exposition. 
It was from the appearance of this work rather than of 
Hutton's ponderous chapters that the real influence of the 
Huttonian Theory began. 

Sir James Hall of Dungiass was a man of a wholly 
different temperament. Quick, original, inventive ; with an 
enthusiastic love of science, and a determination to take 
nothing on trust, but to subject every statement where pos- 
sible to the test of experiment, he became a follower of 
Hutton, as it were against his will, and only by degrees, as 
he succeeded in disproving one by one the objections which 
at first the Huttonian Theory awakened in his vigorous mind. 
He had travelled abroad. In particular he had visited some 
of the volcanic districts of Italy, and had there seen the 
phenomena of volcanic action partly under the guidance of 
Dolomieu.§ Not long after the first publication of the 

* Geological Essays, 1 vol. 8vo, London, 1799. 

+ Memoirs of the Eoyal Irish Academy, vol. v. (1793), p. 51. 

X Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth, 1vol. 8vo, Edin., 1802. 

§ Trans. Boy. Soc. Edin., v., 56. 



Professor Geihie on the " Pitchstone " of Eskdale. 223 

Huttonian Theory, Hall is found reflecting on the objections 
made to Hutton's views, that had granite, porphyry, and 
whinstone ever been in a fused condition, they would have 
resembled glass, instead of presenting the stony crystalline 
aspect in which they are now found. It occurred to him 
that their present structure might be due not merely to the 
effect of consolidation under pressure as Hutton supposed, 
but more especially to extremely slow cooling. The occur- 
rence of an accident at the Leith Glass Works supplied him 
with an actual corroborative example — a large pot of glass 
having cooled down slowly into a mass which had completely 
assumed a stony structure. Convinced that this was a true 
cause of change in the internal constitution of fused masses 
he communicated his views to the Eoyal Society of Edin- 
burgh in 1790,* and determined to pursue the subject by 
instituting a series of experiments. On making known his 
intention to Hutton, however, he received but little encour- 
agement from him. Hutton judged that the degree of heat, 
and the scale on which it had been manifested in nature, were 
such that no experiments could be expected to bring any real 
elucidation of the subject. As he afterwards expressed the 
idea in his reply to the strictures of Kirwan, there are some 
" superficial reasoning men who judge of the great operations 
of the mineral kingdom from having kindled a fire and looked 
into the bottom of a little crucible."f 

But, though unconvinced, Hall, out of deference to his 
master's feelings, forbore to put his design into execution. 
The year after Hutton's death, however, he gave to the Eoyal 
Society of Edinburgh his first great paper — an essay which 
must be regarded as one of the landmarks of science, for it 
really laid the foundations of experimental geology.J He 
proved by a series of ingeniously contrived and carefully 
executed experiments that the internal structure of igneous 
rocks has been in great measure determined by their rate 
of cooling ; that where they congealed rapidly from a state 
of fusion they appear quite glassy, while, where they were 

* Op. cit., iii., part i., p. 10. f Theory of the Earth, i,, p. 251. 

X Experiments on Whinstone and Lava (read March 5 and June 18, 1798). 
Trans Roy. Soc. Edin.^ v., p. 43. 



224 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

allowed to cool slowly they have acquired a stony structure. 
Out of the basalts of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh and 
the lavas of Sicily, Vesuvius, and Iceland, he thus produced 
at one time glass, at another, lithoid masses (" crystallites " 
as he called them) not unlike the original rocks. 

It would be beyond the scope of my present slight sketch 
to enter more fully into these remarkable researches, or to 
trace the course of Hall's subsequent career as an experi- 
mental philosopher of a high order. Every one of his 
memoirs is replete with original observation, careful induc- 
tion, and suggestive speculation. In particular his memorable 
essay on " The Effects of Compression in Modifying the 
Action of Heat,"* formed the starting point for the long 
succession of brilliant researches by which subsequent 
observers, notably Delesse and Daubree, have thrown so 
much light on the still obscure subject of metamorphism. 

The Scottish school of Geology, of which Hutton, Playfair, 
and Hall were the three great founders, dealt with the grand 
dynamical principles of the science rather than with ques- 
tions of detail. Its range was necessarily much more re- 
stricted than that which is now open to us. It knew almost 
nothing of organic remains, and had no intimation of the ex- 
tended vista into the past history of our planet which organic 
remains have since opened up. Its most strenuous admirers 
will not now contend for the accuracy of all its doctrines, nor 
for the validity of all the arguments by which principles true 
in themselves were sustained. As yet the facts of the science 
were comparatively few, and our wonder should be, not that 
these men fell into what we now know to be obvious errors, 
but that with such limited experience they should have erred 
so seldom, and should have attained to such breadth and 
clearness of perception. In the domain of igneous action, 
with which we are more specially concerned at present, they 
showed that granite, and the series of rocks which they in- 
cluded under the term "whinstone," have most certainly been 
erupted from beneath, and have in many cases hardened and 
otherwise altered the stratified masses through which they 
rose. 

* Trans. Boy. Soc. Edin., vi., p. 71 (read June 3, 1805). 



Professor Geikie on the " PitcJistone " of Eskdale. 225 

While such was the state of inquiry here, the origin of 
such rocks as basalt was by no means a settled question on 
the Continent. For many years much controversy had been 
carried on, and scientific societies even offered prizes for the 
solution of the problem as to the volcanic or non-volcanic 
origin of basalt.* In France, indeed, the question had been 
answered confidently by independent observers, who found in 
the singularly interesting district of Auvergne streams of 
basalt connected with still perfect cones and craters, as well 
as isolated portions of similar basaltic sheets capping hill-tops, 
and separated from any cones. The writings of Desmarest,-(- 
Montlosier,j Dolomieu,§ and others, ought to have settled for 
ever the truly igneous origin of the basaltic rocks. 

While this question was still in dispute, Werner began his 
career at Freiberg. Devoting himself with great industry 
and enthusiasm to mineralogy, he was thence naturally led 
to consider the formation of rocks. The hills of Saxony 
furnished him with material, out of which he constructed a 
system that was meant to explain the structure of the globe. 
He taught that instead of framing theories of the history of 
the planet, it was needful first of all to ascertain the nature and 
distribution of the strata composing the earth's crust. This 
investigation he termed " geognosy." But his own example 
serves to illustrate the fact that we cannot go on as mere 
machines, laboriously collecting facts, without consciously or 
unconsciously framing some hypothesis to give them a living 
connection. While disclaiming the theories of the cosmolo- 
gists, Werner himself framed a theory not less crude and un- 
founded than the wildest of those which he opposed. Turn- 
ing his extensive knowledge of mineralogy to the investigation 

* In the year 1787 a natural history society at Berne proposed as a subject for 
investigation the question " What is basalt? is it volcanic or is it not ?" and 
adjudged the prize to Widenmann's essay, in which non-volcanicity was 
maintained. In 1804 a similar subject was offered for a prize essay by the 
Gescllscliaft Naturforschender Freunde at Berlin. — K. C. von Leonhard's 
"Basalt-Gebilde," vol. i., p. 2, note. 

i Histoire de I'Academie Royale des Sciences Naturelles, ami. 1771, pp. 23, 
705 ; ann. 1777, pp. 39, 599. 

X Essai sur la Theorie des Yolcans d'Auvergne. Clermont, 1789. 

§ Journal des Mines, No. 41, p. 393; No. 42, p. 405. 



226 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

of rock-masseS; he introduced into their study a precision of 
nomenclature such as had never before been attempted. The 
rocks thus strictly defined were traced by him in what he 
believed to be a certain order throughout his little domain of 
Saxony; but, full of enthusiasm in his subject, he easily per- 
suaded himself that what seemed to him to be the sequence 
in that territory was the normal sequence for the whole globe. 
His system of geognosy, being thus simple, and capable of 
ready application elsewhere, soon acquired notoriety. It 
saved labour in investigating the geological structure of a 
country, since it assumed that, when once the true nature of 
the rocks had been determined, a reference to Werner's table of 
sequence would show what must needs be their relative posi- 
tion. It was enforced, too, with such eloquence, that men 
from all parts of Europe came to listen to the Freiberg teacher, 
who had discovered a key to unlock the hitherto hidden his- 
tory of the globe. Though Werner wrote almost nothing him- 
self, yet his many illustrious pupils have fully expounded his 
teaching.* 

The fundamental idea of the Wernerian doctrines was that 
the visible portion of the earth's crust consists of successive 
layers which were deposited universally, chiefly as chemical 
precipitates from an original ocean that overspread the whole 
globe. Werner assumed that there had always been inequali- 
ties of the earth's surface, and that on the retirement of the 
waters the first rock to emerge was the earliest that had 
been thrown down from solution, viz., granite. In this way 
he accounted for the position of this rock along mountain 
crests. Next in succession came deposits of gneiss, mica- 
schist, and clayjslate, with porphyry, quartz, and other crystal- 
line masses. The highly inclined position of these strata, 
which had been adduced by Hutton as irrefragible proofs of 
disturbance and upheaval, were calmly regarded by the 
Freiberg school as the original form in which the material 
had been deposited, though the effect of subsidence in pro- 
ducing disturbance of the masses was sometimes admitted. 
In none of these higher and older rocks had any organic 

* The best expositions in English of the Wernerian geognosy are those of 
Jameson, quoted in subsequent pages. 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitchstone " of Eskdale. 227 

remains been found. It was accordingly inferred that they 
had been formed before the appearance of plants and animals. 
As the sea still retired and additional land came to be exposed, 
mechanical deposits were necessarily mingled with those of 
a chemical nature. These strata received the name of " tran- 
sition " rocks, and were regarded by Werner as having been 
" deposited during the passage or transition of the earth from 
its chaotic to its habitable state " * and as marking the grada- 
tion from the primitive purely chemical depositions to the 
more recent mechanical accumulations of gravel, sand, and 
mud. It was at the epoch of their formation that plant and 
animal life made its entry upon the earth. The transition 
strata, necessarily occupying ground lower than the mountain- 
ous protuberances of the primitive masses, were by the con- 
tinued subsidence of the ocean in part uncovered, and being 
consequently attacked by the waves, served to supi3ly some 
of the detritus which was now spread over the sea floor to 
form what were called the " floetz " rocks. These, consisting 
partly of chemical, partly of mechanical deposits, extended 
over the whole globe as "universal formations." They in- 
cluded what were called the " Floetz-traps," "greenstones," 
basalts, porphyries, and other rocks which Hutton and his 
school in this country, and Desmarest, Montlosier, Voight, 
Dolomieu, and many others on the Continent had insisted 
were of igneous origin. These crystalline masses were 
regarded by the Wernerians as chemical depositions " formed 
by a deluge, that is, by a sudden rising and retiring of the 
waters of the globe." i* 

These crude notions taking their rise within the narrow 
confines of Saxony, bear witness to the limited experience of 
their founder, who with his keen powers of observation would 
assuredly have vastly modified them had it been his good 
fortune to enlarge his views by extended travel. His dicta, 
expressive of authoritative certainty, were implicitly accepted 
by his followers, not as mere hypothesis, but as indisputable 
fact. Seldom in modern times has there been such uncondi- 
tional acceptance of a master's i])se dixit by his followers. The 

* Jameson: "System of Mineralogy," vol. iii., 1808, p. 145. 
t Jameson, op. cit. 



228 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

fact that Werner had made a statement on any subject was 
cited as a sufficient answer to any objection or argument. At 
the same time it is amusing to read the ill-suppressed contempt 
which these writers express for theorists. " We should form," 
says one of them, " a very false conception of the Wernerian 
geognosy were we to believe it to have any resemblance to 
those monstrosities known under the name of Theories of the 
Earth." It seems never to have occurred to them that under 
the belief that they were making nature her own interpreter, 
they were themselves so blinded by theory as to be incapable 
of realising some of the most simple and obvious facts in 
geological structure. 

Looking back from the present stand point of science we 
cannot but wonder on what chemical principles the Wer- 
nerians satisfied themselves that the rocks of the earth's crust 
could have been precipitated from aqueous solution, and by 
what physical principles they explained the retirement of the 
ocean. They would admit of no subterranean movement. 
They asserted that the original ocean must have reached at 
least as high as the highest mountain peak. Whither did 
the retiring waters escape ? Some Wernerian writers sup- 
posed them to have found their way into subterranean 
cavities. This absurd notion was ridiculed by others who 
frankly confessed that they could not solve the difficulty. 
" But," says Jameson very naively, " although we cannot give 
any very satisfactory answer to the question " [he prudently 
gave no answer at all] "it is evident that the theory of the 
diminution of the waters remains equally proiaUe. We may 
be fully convinced of its truth, and are so, although we may 
not be able to explain it. To know from observation that a 
great phenomenon took place is a very difi'erent thing from 
ascertaining how it happened." * A very different thing 
indeed! Yet one would suppose that the impossibility of 
explaining the "theory" might have suggested doubts whether 
the "observation" on which it was based could really be 
reliable. 

But besides the difficulty of accounting for the progressive 
retirement of the ocean still greater complication was intro- 
* 0}}. cit., vol. iii., p. 82, 



Professor Geikie on the " PitcJistone'' of Eshdale. 229 

duced into the problem by the assertion that during the 
general subsidence there were occasional intervals when the 
level of the sea rose again. By what conceivable mechanism 
this rise took place is not explained. 

The existence and influence of subterranean heat were 
quietly ignored by the Wernerians. They refused to recog- 
nise any proofs of general subterranean heat, and consequent 
volcanic action. They could not deny the existence of vol- 
canoes, but they minimised their importance as much as 
possible, regarding them as merely local and superficial 
phenomena due to the inflammation of beds of subterranean 
coal. They asserted that volcanoes occur only in coal dis- 
tricts that have been covered with sheets of basalt, and that 
the coal, undergoing spontaneous combustion with access of 
water, gives out so much heat as to melt the overlying basalt, 
and cause it to flow into the hollows, whence it is expelled by 
the force of ascending aqueous vapour.* 

If modern volcanoes, with their copious outflows of lava 
were thus explained, we need not wonder that the idea of 
the existence of ancient lavas all over the world, of diverse 
ages, and utterly independent of any coal deposits, was 
ridiculed as one of the " monstrosities" of speculation against 
which the sober, inductive spirit of Wernerianism had to 
wage unrelenting warfare. So prejudiced were the Wernerian 
geognosts that they refused to admit the igneous origin even 
of obsidian and pumice, rocks in which an illiterate peasantry 
had long recognised the traces of fire. They had even the 
boldness to assert that pumice had been " ascertained to be 
an aquatic product," because it alternates with basalt and 
porphyry, passes into obsidian and pearlstone, and "has 
never been observed to flow in streams from the crater and 
sides of a volcano," and because " no one ever saw it forming 
a stream in countries containing extinct volcanoes." -f- 

The genius of Werner may be estimated, if not from his 
writings, certainly from the number of his followers and the 
enthusiasm with which they left Freiberg to apply his 
system to the elucidation of the geognosy of all parts of the 

* Jameson, op. cit. iii., p. 219. 
t Jameson, op. cit, iii., p. 196. 



230 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

world. It is noteworthy, however, that the most illustrious 
of them, after loyally striving to uphold their master's teach- 
ing about universal formations and the aqueous origin of the 
crystalline rocks, were compelled by the evidence of nature 
herself to abandon it. L. von Buch, Humboldt, and Daubuis- 
son are memorable examples of this conversion. 

The first Wernerian propagandist who appeared in this 
country was Eobert Jameson. Having devoted himself more 
especially to mineralogy, he made a series of journeys through 
the Shetland, Orkney, and Western Islands, and published 
the results in two works. He adopted the system of Werner, 
and in his " Mineralogy of the Scottish Isles," published in 
the year 1800, gave the first account of that system which 
had yet appeared in England. In this essay he declares 
emphatically his dissent from the views of those who would 
maintain the volcanic origin of basalt. " I do not hesitate a 
moment in saying," he remarks, " that in my opinion there is 
not in all Scotland a vestige of a volcano."* 

Attracted by the fame of the Freiberg school, Jameson 
went thither in the year 1800 and studied under Werner. 
In his absence, the " Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory" 
appeared in 1802. But that the leaven of Wernerianism 
introduced by him was already at work was shown a few 
months after the issue of Play fair's volume by the appearance 
of an anonymous answer to it, in which the respective merits 
of the Plutonist and Neptunist systems were contrasted greatly 
to the detriment of the former.-I* 

In 1804, Jameson, fresh from Freiberg, was appointed to 
the Chair of Natural History in the Edinburgh University, 
vacant by the death of Dr Walker. Never did a more un- 
compromising disciple leave the Saxon school. Not only was 

* Mineralogy of the Scottish Isles, vol. 1., p. 5. This assertion was made in 
reference to the observations of Fanjas St Fond, who, visiting Scotland in 1784, 
had been struck with the abundant traces of volcanic rocks, and had stated 
his views in his interesting "Voyage en Angleterre et en Ecosse, et aux lies 
Hebrides," 2 vols, small 4to, Paris, 1797. 

+ This work, first published anonymously, but forming the fourth volume of 
Murray's "System of Chemistry, " was afterwards translated into French by 
C. A. Basset, and published at Paris, together with a French edition of the 
"Illustrations" in 1815. 



Professor Geikie on the " Fitchstone " of Eskdale. 231 

he imbued with Werner's doctrines, his writings now bristled 
with German words, and with English phrases built on a 
thoroughly German model.* 

To Jameson's enthusiasm for science, and his great ser- 
vices, not only to his own favourite department, mineralogy, 
but to the cause of natural history, which he taught here for 
half a century, the best testimony is to be found in the crowd 
of distinguished naturalists who have been trained under him. 
With sincere veneration for his memory, and a grateful recog- 
nition of his eminent services, I must confess my own convic- 
tion that his early influence on the progress of geological science 
in this country was disastrous. He returned from Freiberg at 
a time when Button's views were beginning to attract general 
attention, and when Hall was in the full pursuit of his ex- 
perimental researches. Had the university teaching of geo- 
logy been in accord with the distinctively Scottish school, 
what might not have been achieved by the labours of the 
devoted band which the geniality and the energy of the new 
professor now gathered around him ! But from the first he set 
himself stubbornly against Plutonist views in any shape ; 
could scarcely, indeed, restrain some contemptuous expression 
when he had occasion to refer to them. It is true that the 
opposition which he raised to these views kept alive an in- 
terest in the subject, and indirectly advanced the science. 
But the advantaoe derived from this source cannot be re- 
garded as having afforded more than a very slight compensa- 
tion for the injury done by the arrest, and almost extinction, 
which Wernerianism under Jameson effected on the progress 
of true geology here.-f* 

* Among the characters of minerals, for example, we find such definitions 
as * 'not particularly difficultly frangible," "not particularly heavy, approach- 
ing to light," "between hard and semi-hard," " saltly bitter," "metallic 
glimmering," etc. — these phrases being followed by the German terms of 
which they were translations. -7-(Treatise on the External, Chemical, and 
Physical Characters of Minerals.) 

+ It is interesting to read the judgment pronounced on Jameson's standing 
by one of his German contemporaries, K. C. von Leonhard, published in 
1832: "Jameson wurde in Freiberg so fest und unerschiitterlich fiir die 
anti-vulkanische Lehre eingenommen dass er sich von ihrer Unhaltbarkeit nicht 
iiberzeugen konnte. Sie gait ihm als feste und unveranderliche Grundlage. 
Von dieser Vorstellungs-Art hatte er allerdings um so mehr abkommen soUen 



232 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

One of the first tasks undertaken by Jameson after his ap- 
pointment as Professor of Natural History was the publica- 
tion of a " Mineralogical Description of the County of Dum- 
fries." This work was dedicated to Werner and Kirwan, a 
conjunction of names which must have been to the Huttonians 
ominous of the line to be taken by the new professor. The 
book was intended to be the first of a series of similar essays, 
in which the mineralogy of every part of Scotland should be 
described ; but it remains the only one of the series ever com- 
pleted. It may be taken, like Daubuisson's " Monograph on 
the Basalts of Saxony," as a typical example of the Wernerian 
geognostical method. 

In introducing his volume to the notice of its readers, Jame- 
son informed them that its plan, being that which he intended 
to follow in all his future labours in geognosy, was different 
from any hitherto proposed ; but that, from its concordance 
with the principles of the Wernerian geognosy, he believed 
that it would be found to give a clear and comprehensive 
view of the external aspect and internal structure and mate- 
rials of a region. He begins with a sketch of the physical 
geography of Dumfriesshire, which gives an opportunity for 
introducing the Wernerian cosmogony. He then proceeds to 
describe the distribution of the various kinds of rock or 

da sein heimathliches Land ganz vorzuglich. geeignet ist die Verhaltnisse der 
Diuge zu durctschauen. AUein im Unglauben an vulkanische Wirkungen 
wurden die Beobachtungen einseitig aufgenommen und Erklarungs-Weisen 
gewalilt welclie die Schwierigkeiten nur weiter hinausschoben, ohne sie zu 
lieben, ja im Gegentheile unauflosliche Zweifel enstehen liessen. So musste 
Jameson beim besten Willen mid bei der grossten Walirheits-Liebe in gewissen 
Irrtliiimern verliarren ; selbst bei manchen seiner neuern Schriften glaubt man 
in eine viel altere Zeit hiniiberzublicken. " Full justice is then done by this 
writer to the value of Jameson's geognostical work. — {Die Basalt-Gelilde. 
Stuttgart, 1832. Band, i., 39.) In another passage of the same book, von 
Leonhard thus writes of the influence of Wernerianism in Scotland : " Ob- 
wohl Schottland die Heimath des beriihmten Stifters der plutonischen Lehre, 
wo das schone Licht vulkanischen Wissens, des freiern Denkens sich entziin- 
dete, seit den lezten Jahrzehnden viele undhochst wichtige Aufklarung geboten 
liber den Gegenstand, welcher uns beschaftigt \i-e., die Basalte], so bedarf es 
dennoch nur einiger Kenntniss der neuern dortlandischen Litteratur, um zu 
wissen, das selbst auf diesem, fiir den Yulcanismus so musterhaften Boden, 
die antineptunische Meinung keineswegs die Jierrschende gewesen." — (O?;. city 
p. 21.) This was deliberately published even so late as a quarter of a century 
after the founding of the Wernerian Society. 



Professor Geikie on the " Fitchstone " of EsMale. 233 

formations. But beyond the fact that the greywacke and 
slate are the oldest formations over which come the " inde- 
pendent coal formation," and the "newest fioetz-trap," he 
gives hardly any indication of the geological structure of the 
country. Each variety of rock is described with care, but 
with reference to the Wernerian sequence rather than to 
their relations to each other as constituents of the rocky 
crust. In particular, the interesting lava beds interstratified 
at the base of the Carboniferous series of the south of Scot- 
land are dismissed in three pages, in which their position over 
the red sandstones and their trend from the Annan to the 
Esk are the most important circumstances narrated. In this 
and the other geognostical productions of the time the writers 
kept before them two main subjects of inquiry — the minera- 
logical nature and varieties of rocks and their superficial dis- 
tribution. The Wernerian sequence of formations settled 
the order of succession among the rocks, and happily put out 
of sight those problems of geological structure which every 
field geologist must now grapple with at the outset. 

In the course of his examination of Dumfriesshire, Jameson 
came upon the " pitchstone" which has been already referred 
to. He was disposed to consider his discovery of it as a 
matter of some importance, for he mentions it among the 
more notable results of his survey. As his description of the 
rock, besides its connection with the subject of the present 
communication, is a fair example of Wernerian geognosy, I 
give it here in full. 

'' At Todshaw HiU, and the hills called Castle Hill, Watch 
Craig, and Wat Carrick, near the manse of Eskdalemuir, 
which are composed of compact greywacke, there are several 
summits covered with greyish -black -coloured pitchstone. 
The pitchstone is unstratified, and lies over the much 
inclined strata of greywacke. In the same hills there is 
porphyry slate which, like the pitchstone, occurs in globular 
and columnar distinct concretions. Sometimes contem- 
poraneous masses of pitchstone are to be seen enclosed 
in the porphyry - slate or basalt, and globular distinct 
concretions, whose centres are pitchstone, but the sur- 
faces of a substance much resembling porphyry-slate. We 

VOL. v. Q 



234 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

can also observe the transition from pitclistone to porphyry- 
slate or basalt.* 

" This pitchstone, from its occurring along with porphyry- 
slate, and lying over transition rocks, is to be referred to the 
newest floetz-trap formation.-[- 

" Odservatio7is. 

"Werner has hitherto described but one pitchstone for- 
mation, and it belongs to the primitive rocks. Several years 
ago I observed, in the highly interesting island of Arran, 
pitchstone alternating with floetz greenstone that lay over the 
independent coal forniation.J Afterwards I saw it in veins 
traversing floetz-trap rocks in the Isle of Eigg§, and among 
similar rocks in the Isle of Mull.|| 

" Since that time Werner has examined the black pitch- 
stone of Zwickau in Upper Saxony, which he considers to 
belong to a similar formation. Mr Humboldt, the celebrated 
and enterprising Prussian traveller, whilst on the summit of 
the Pic of Teneriffe, observed beds of pitchstone among floetz- 
trap rocks ; and I have seen in the interesting collection of 
Captain-General von Charpentier specimens of a similar fossil 
that was found in the basaltic country of the Veronese. We 
have thus proofs that this pitchstone is subordinate to the 
floetz-trap formation, and that it is widely distributed." IF 

Three years after the appearance of the volume from which 
these extracts are taken, Jameson gathered his followers 

* "This pitclistone like that of Glencloy, in the island of Arran, will pro- 
bably be found to contain bituminous or carbonaceous matter. The pitch- 
stone of Glencloy, when powdered, emits a bituminous smell, and colours the 
sulphuric acid slightly ('Mineralogy of the Scottish Isles,' vol. i., p. 48). 
Basalts and other rocks belonging to the same formation contain, according 
to Klaproth and Lampadius, bituminous or carbonaceous matter ; and Mr 
Pepys has discovered carbonaceous matter in wood opal and wood stone, — 
Parkinson on Petrifactions, vol. i." 

t " Dr Reuss, of Bilin, is of opinion that porphyry-slate occurs in older 
formations than the floetz-trap ; and Captain-General von Charpentier says 
that basalt sometimes occurs in primitive mountains. Both these observa- 
tions, as I have shown in my book on Mineralogy, are incorrect." 

t "Mineralogy of the Scottish Isles," vol. i., p. 23. 

§ Ibid., vol. ii., p. 44. 

W'Ibid., vol. i., p. 213. 

IT Mineralogical Description of Dumfriesshire, pp. 115-117. 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitclistone " of Eskdale. 235 

together and founded the Wernerian Society, of which he 
was first President, and, whilst it existed, its main buttress. 
At one of the earliest meetings of this institution he pro- 
pounded a series of mineralogical queries, among which we 
find the following — "What are the extent and particular 
geognostic relations of the black pitclistone of Eskdalemuir, 
in Dumfriesshire ? " 

This query, so far as I have been able to discover, received 
no further elucidation from Jameson himself, and has not 
been regarded by any subsequent investigator. The answer 
which now can be given to it will be in some measure an 
indication of the progress of petrography during nearly three- 
quarters of a century. 



Part II. — Stratigraphical. 

The first point to be noticed refers to the name bestowed 
by Jameson upon the substance he described. The Wer- 
nerians, being especially proud of their mineralogy, seldom 
lost an opportunity of pointing out the defectiveness of that 
of their Vulcanist opponents. It is curious, however, to find 
that Jameson was himself in error when he identified this 
Eskdale rock as pitchstone. He states that the rock passes 
into basalt. But true pitchstone, such as that with which 
he was familiar in Arran and elsewhere, contains some- 
where about 65 per cent, of silica, while in basalt the pro- 
portion of this oxide is not more than from 45 to 55 per 
cent. It is incredible, therefore, that crystalline basic basalt 
can pass in the same little hill into vitreous acid pitchstone. 
Some years ago, being confident that the rock could be no 
other than one of the vitreous conditions of basalt which I 
have found in many basalt dykes both on the mainland and 
among the Western Islands, I made an excursion into Esk- 
dalemuir, and found that this was undoubtedly the case. 

Another and more important mistake was committed by 
Jameson in his determination of the geological structure of 
the locality. He says that the hill- tops are covered with 
pitchstone, which overlies the much-inclined strata of grey- 
wacke. N^ow, in reality, the vitreous rock forms only a part 



236 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

of the black mass of these summits (which is in great 
measure crystalline dolerite), and, instead of lying upon the 
ends of the greywacke beds, rises through them as a massive 
dyke. This dyke has been carefully traced and mapped by 
my colleagues in the Geological Survey, Mr B. N. Peach and 
Mr H. M. Skae, from the Leadhills in Lanarkshire all the 
way to Liddesdale (a distance of fully forty-five miles), and 
Mr J. G. G. Wilson has followed it for some miles farther into 
England. It forms one of the vast series of basalt dykes 
which traverse the north of England and a great part of 
Scotland, in a general east and west or south-east and north- 
west direction. Many years ago I pointed out that these 
dykes may be traced westwards in ever-increasing numbers, 
till they reach the Miocene volcanic plateaux of the north 
of Ireland and the Inner Hebrides ; that they cross rocks of 
different ages, including the chalk and the older parts of the 
Tertiary volcanic sheets ; that they cross large faults without 
deflection or interruption* From these facts I afterwards 
inferred that the dykes must be on the whole of Tertiary age, 
and that they form part of that remarkable series of volcanic 
eruptions which produced the terraced hills of Antrim, Mull, 
Morven, Eigg, and Skye.i" Subsequent investigation has fully 
borne out this inference. 

When the extraordinary number and the remarkable pre- 
valence of these dykes are considered, together with the 
extensive area over which they may be traced, they are found 
to present problems of great difficulty. I have observed 
them among the Orkney Islands and in Caithness, and have 
followed them southwards along the whole length of Scotland 
into the north of England. In some districts, particularly as 
they approach the great basaltic plateaux of the west, they 
become so numerous as to form one of the most prominent 
features in the scenery as well as the geology of the districts. 
The remarkable dykes of the coast lines of Cumbrae, Ayrshire, 
Arran, Jura, Islay, Pabba, and Skye are familiar to all passing 
travellers. It seems hardly credible that such prodigious 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Eclin., 1860, xxii., p. 650, 

+ Trans. Roy. Soc. Eclin., 1866-67. Britisli Association Eeport for 1867, 
Sect., p. 52. 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitchstone " of Eskdale. 237 

quantities of molten rock should have ascended so many 
fissures over such an extended area without somewhere flow- 
ing out at the surface. Yet to the east of the line of great 
basalt plateaux there are no proofs of any such superficial 
outflow having occurred, unless certain erupted sheets in the 
Lanarkshire and Stirlingshire coalfields can be so regarded. 

That an enormous amount of the general denudation of 
this country has taken place since the extravasation of the 
dykes is shown by innumerable instances in which the dykes 
run along the crests of hills and cross important valleys. It 
is manifest that the hills could not have had their present 
form and altitude, otherwise the basalt, if it reached the sur- 
face along their crests, would have poured down their sides. 
It is equally obvious that where a dyke runs as a bold pro- 
minent rib down either side of a valley, the valley, at least 
at its present depth and form, must have been eroded since 
the dyke was erupted. By evidence of this kind it can be 
shown that to a large extent the existing valleys of this 
country have been excavated since Miocene times.* In this 
vast denudation it is possible tliat sheets of basalt that were 
formerly spread over various parts of the country as outflows 
from the dykes, have been wholly removed. But when we 
consider the durability of this rock in massive sheets, we are 
led to doubt whether any extensive superficial outpourings 
ever took place except over the great western plateaux.f 

During many years of exploration among the Tertiary 
volcanic rocks of this country, I have been often struck with 
the remarkable infrequence of traces of any true associated 
volcanic vents, such as those which occur so abundantly in 
connection with the Palaeozoic igneous rocks. Over the wide 
area of the mainland of Scotland and northern England — an 
area thousands of square miles in extent — where the basalt 
dykes can now be traced at the surface, not a single 

* See Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1871, p. 310., and Trcms. Roy. Soc. Edin., 
loc. cit. 

+ That veteran geologist, Dr Ami Boue (who still lives to take an interest 
in Scottish geology), realised the difficulties presented by the dykes, but con- 
ceived that the melted rock might have been supplied from above by super- 
ficial sheets of moving lava, though he admitted that this idea involves the 
necessity of enormous denudation.— ^sg'ia'sse Geologiquc sur VEcosse, p. 272. 



238 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

"neck" or pipe can be referred to the Tertiary period. 
Among the terraced basalt plateaux of Antrim and the Inner 
Hebrides one finds the same want of evidence of cones and 
craters from which these wide sheets of lava proceeded.* 
Mile after mile the beds of basalt may be followed in nearly 
horizontal position with wonderful persistence and unifor- 
mity of thickness. Very rarely, too, are they separated from 
each other by beds of tuff. Unlike the mingled sheets of 
lava and ashes constituting the materials ejected from such 
cones as Vesuvius or Etna, the Miocene basalts form nearly 
the whole of their great plateaux, with here and there thin 
bands of clay or coal full of the remains of the terrestrial 
vegetation covering the land which they overflowed. I am 
persuaded that the explanation of the origin of these widely 
extended sheets of basalt is to be sought not in the familiar 
or Vesuvius type of a volcano, but in those great fields of lava 
which cover such wide tracts in the Western States and terri- 
tories of North America and in the Deccan. According to 
Whitney, the area covered by lavas between the Sierra Nevada 
and the Eocky Mountains fully equals the whole extent of 
France. As has been well shown by that geologist, by Kicht- 
hofen, King, Hayden, and many other observers, these basaltic 
floods belong to the closing epochs of volcanic activity, after 
a long succession of earlier rhyolitic and trachytic eruptions. 
In a recent visit to the basalt plain of the Snake Eiver, 
in Idaho, I was greatly impressed by the analogies presented 
by it to some of the more notable features of our Tertiary 
basalt plateaux. The basalt of that arid plain has flowed 
along the base of the hills, running in and out exactly as a 
lake of water does round the bays and promontories of its 
margin. Many of these hills are formed of trachyte which 
had been much eroded into hollows before the eruption of the 
basalt. The great Canon of the Snake Eiver has been exca- 
vated through the cake of basalt and partly in the under- 

* Mr Judd {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxii,, p. 292) has described 
what he believes to have been some of the miocene vents of the West High- 
lands ; but even on this view they are altogether inadequate to have supplied 
the immense volume of lava, while they leave unexplained the persistence, 
horizontality, and regularity of the basalt sheets and the absence of tufl'is. 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitchstone " of Eskdale. 239 

lying sheets of trachyte. Mr Clarence King states his belief 
that some single sheets of basalt have flowed at very gentle 
angles for 50 or 60 miles.* The sheets, however, are so flat 
and so like each other, that unless a given bed were followed 
without any breach of continuity in the observation, it could 
not, I fear, be certainly identified at distant points. Here 
and there small puy-hkQ cones have been formed more 
recently upon the basalt floor of this region, but these are 
few in number, and do not much affect the extraordinary 
monotony of the apparently limitless desert plain. I could 
nowhere see any trace of tuff between the sheets of basalt, 
but here and there lay beds of sand and gravel, or a thin 
seam of red bole appeared, like those which occur in Antrim, 
Skye, and Mull. 

The absence of any cone or cones which could have sup- 
plied such a vast flood of basalt and the remarkable horizon- 
tality and persistence of the successive sheets seem to me 
strongly to favour Eichthofen's suggestion of fissure eruptions, 
by which the basalt welled out from many openings without 
the emission of accompanying ashes and scoriae. The surface 
of the basalt plain likewise bears its evidence in the same 
direction. When looked at from above it seems nearly level, 
but on closer examination is found to be traversed by wave- 
like undulations of columnar compact basalt, many of which 
have split along the crest so as to show a trench with ranges 
of columns on either side. 

That in Britain during Miocene times there were many 
thousands of fissure eruptions, without accompanying frag- 
mentary discharges or the production of cones, is certain 
from the evidence of the innumerable east and west dykes. 
I am disposed to look upon the great basalt plateaux of the 
north of Ireland, the west of Scotland, and the Faroe Islands, 
as representing part of the subserial outflow from some of 
these fissures. From this point of view the dykes acquire 
a new interest, inasmuch as they reveal to us some of the 
features of a remarkable type of volcanic action, and stand 
to fissure eruptions in the same relation that " necks " do to 
eruptions from distinct cones. 

* Geological Exploration of the 40th Parallel, vol. i. , p. 593. 



240 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

The Eskdale dyke has thus more than merely local interest. 
It forms one of a vast series of fissures up which, during 
Tertiary time, lava has risen, and its careful study may do 
something towards the elucidation of the mechanism of the 
eruptions to which it owes its origin. 

The north-western - limit to which this dyke has been 
traced may not be its actual termination in that quarter. A 
short way further north several similar dykes appear and 
continue in the same direction for many miles towards the 
north-west. It is not always possible to find continuous 
evidence of the presence of dykes at the surface, partly of 
course from the depth of soil or superficial drifts, but partly 
also, no doubt, because a dyke, though continuous at some 
depth below, did not everywhere rise equally near the sur- 
face. The remarkable series of dykes which runs through the 
high ground round the sources of the Tweed, Annan, and 
Clyde may therefore be parts of one subterranean mass of 
igneous material which, running on towards the north-west, 
reappears in great force at the surface along the shores of the 
Firth of Clyde. The coast-line from Ardrossan to Gourock is 
traversed by many large and small veins of basalt. The con- 
vergence of the dykes in the counties of Ayr, Eenfrew, Dum- 
barton, Stirling, and Lanark towards the angle of the Clyde 
estuary, opposite the mouth of Loch Long, is remarkable. 

From where it first appears among the high ground to the 
north of the village of Leadhills, the Eskdalemuir dyke runs 
in a tolerably straight course towards the south-east, across 
the range of the Lowther Hills, the valley of the Powtrail 
Water, and the high grounds surrounding the upper part of 
the valley of the Clyde, until it descends into the broad plain 
of Annandale below Moffat. Here it is lost under the alluvial 
floor of the valley, but it reappears immediately among the 
slopes on the east side, whence it pursues a persistent though 
somewhat tortuous course across hill and dale until it reaches 
the Esk, where Jameson's observations were made. Crossing 
this river, it keeps along the line of the valley as far as 
Langholm, where, mounting up into the moors drained by 
the Tinnis Water, it finds its way across into the dale of 
the Liddel, and passes thence into England. How much 



Professor Geihie on the " Fitchstone " of Eskdale. 241 

further it continues towards the south-east I have not yet 
ascertained. 

Tln'oughout this long course the breadth of the dyke 
varies considerably, averaging probably about forty feet. 
Where the edge of the dyke permits observations to be 
made, the basalt always appears to fill a fissure, either 
vertical or inclined at a high angle with the horizon. 
For most of its course the dyke runs through steeply- 
dipping, folded, and fractured Lower Silurian rocks; but 
the fissure up which it has risen has been opened in 
these rocks as a long persistent dislocation, that has been 
little, if at all, affected by the structure of the rocks through 
which it runs. In Eskdale the dyke enters the Upper 
Silurian belt, likewise without deflection, though it is ob- 
served to curve round with the trend of the valley of the 
Esk. Beyond Langholm it crosses the volcanic zone at the 
base of the Carboniferous Series, and then the overlying 
sandstone, shale, and limestone groups, ^^ith equal indifference 
and continuity. 

Part III. — Peteographical. 

Throughout most of its course this dyke consists of an 
ordinary crystalline-granular dolerite, weathering into the 
usual rudely spheroidal blocks which, scattered over the 
hills along its route, indicate its position. In Eskdale it 
presents a more complex structure. It there consists of 
three portions (PL V., fig. 1). On either side lies a zone of 
the usual dolerite, about eight feet broad. Between these 
two marginal zones comes a central band, sixteen to eighteen 
feet broad, of a very compact, vitreous basalt — Jameson's 
" pitchstone." In the two outer belts of rock there is no 
feature of special importance to be noted. Along their 
junction with the highly inclined grey^vacke and shale, 
they assume the normal fine-grained texture, but show no 
trace of a glassy character. The central vitreous band, on 
the other hand, presents several curious features which 
are readily visible in the field. The line of demarcation 
between this band and the marginal dolerite zones is quite 



242 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

sharp. The vitreous rock stands up prominently as a wall, 
on the outer surface of which a curious series of polygonal 
reticulations may be observed. These, as shown on PL V., 
fig. 2, consist of prominent ribs, each about ^ a couple of 
inches broad, enclosing shallow, cup-shaped hollows. This 
external sculpturing arises from the internal prismatic struc- 
ture of the vitreous band. The prisms are, of course, ap- 
proximately horizontal, being directed from the nearly ver- 
tical walls of the band. Each consists of a central core of 
vitreous rock, with an external sheath of dull and, to the 
eye, apparently more crystalline and devitrified rock. It 
is the union of the sheaths of contiguous prisms which has 
formed these prominent ribs. Each rib is thus composed 
of the outer shell of two prisms, the dividing line between 
which is marked by a suture along the centre of the rib. 
Moreover, each rib is cut into small segments by a system 
of close joints, which are placed generally at a right angle 
to the course of the rib. (Plate V., figs. 2, 3, and 4.) 

On breaking open the vitreous cores of the prisms, we 
perceive that the rock, deep iron-black in colour, has a 
peculiar vitreous glaze quite unlike that of an. ordinary 
basalt ; that here and there the black glass of the base is 
segregated into kernels or irregular patches, in which can 
generally be detected one or more amygdules of chalcedony, 
but some of which have a black empty internal cavity, and 
that throughout the rock devitrification has proceeded so far 
as to allow of the individualisation of the triclinic felspar 
(of which distinct facettes can be seen with a lens), and 
evidently also of other minerals. Occasionally rounded green 
grains may be observed, which recall the olivines of common 
basalt. The rock is remarkably close-grained, breaking with 
a splintery, sub-conchoidal fracture. It is tolerably homo- 
geneous in texture, the most prominent feature being the 
patches of black glass of all sizes up to that of a small bean, 
and the occasional amygdules of dull white chalcedony. 

The hard prominent ribs which divide the vitreous cores 
along the margin of the central band of the dyke, present 
to the naked eye a texture which recalls that of many some- 
what decayed felsites. The rock, instead of the vitreous 



Professor Geikie on the " Fitchstone " of Eshdale. 243 

lustre of the central portions, has a dull aspect, with numerous 
minute glimmering points, and many dispersed crystals of 
triclinic felspar. A minutely crystalline structure is indicated 
by the abundant kaolinised felspars on its weathered surface. 
Yet, different though they are in outward aspect, there can 
be no doubt that these ribs, or rather sheaths, and the in- 
ternal vitreous cores which they surround, were originally 
parts of the same molten mass, and that the present contrast 
of texture must be referred to some subsequent alteration. 
The real nature of the difference of texture, however, could 
only be satisfactorily examined by the aid of the microscope. 
In nothing does the petrography of to-day stand out in 
greater contrast to that of Jameson's time, than in the employ- 
ment of the microscope as one of the great instruments of 
research. In this connection it is interesting to remember 
that it was here, in Edinburgh, that William Mcol first 
devised the method of making sections of mineral substances, 
which, cemented with Canada balsam on glass, could be 
reduced to any desired degree of thinness and transparency. 
The applicability of this method to the study of rocks, was 
not perceived for many years. The late Mr Alexander 
Bryson, our fellow-townsman, had for some time employed 
it in the preparation of slices of quartz and other minerals in 
granite, showing cavities partially filled with fluid. It was 
the examination of his collection that suggested to Mr Sorby 
the important aid likely to be afforded by the microscope 
to some branches of geological inquuy.* Mr Sorby soon 
set to work on the subject, and produced in 1857 his great 
paper on the '' Microscopical Structures of Crystals, indicating 
the origin of minerals and rocks." -|- With the appearance of 
this memoir a new era began in the study of rocks. Not long 
after its publication, the subject was taken up by Zirkel in 
Germany, where it has been since pursued with ever increas- 
ing interest and enthusiasm by a continually augmenting 
band of observers. The literature of microscopic petro- 
graphy is already voluminous, and bids fair to go on in rapid 
multiplication, for geologists have now very generally recog- 

* See Mr Sorby 's paper, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, xiv., p. 454. 
t 0}} ciL, p. 453. 



244 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

nised that the old methods of study are inadequate. They 
admit that a chemical analysis, on which they used implicitly 
to rest, can after all tell us only the chemical elements of a 
rock or mineral. What may be the combination of these 
elements must be a matter of inference, unless the actual 
internal structure of the rock can be scrutinised. But it is 
here that the microscope comes in to our aid, laying open to 
the eye the forms in which the chemical constituents 
have been combined, and the structure of the rocks 
which they compose. Hence as questions of structure 
necessarily involve questions of origin, the genesis of rock- 
masses can often be followed with singular clearness by 
microscopic research. Moreover, all rocks exposed to the 
influence of the atmosphere or of percolating water, are 
subject to more or less alteration. In the microscope we are 
furnished with an admirable implement for tracing these 
changes from their first beginning onward until the total 
obliteration of original structure and composition. 

I offer here the results of a microscopic examination of the 
Eskdale dyke, first of the doleritic external band and then of 
the vitreous centre. 

(1.) Microscoijic Structure of the Dolerite forming the 
marginal hands of the dyke. 

I have already remarked that the dolerite on either side of 
the Eskdale dyke shows the usual crystalline character, 
except towards the line of contact with the surrounding 
greywacke and shale, where, at the Shaw Burn and else- 
where, it presents the close-grained texture commonly to be 
observed in an intrusive mass along its contact with the 
rocks which it has invaded. The general character of this 
fine-grained, or chilled, edge of the dolerite, as seen under 
a magnifying power of forty diameters, is represented in 
fig. 1 of PL VL There can be no doubt that the marginal 
portions of dykes and intrusive sheets represent earlier 
stages in the solidification of the once molten masses. Chilled 
by contact with the surrounding rocks, the basalt or dolerite 
was rapidly congealed; while further away, where cooling 
was more prolonged, the conditions were more favourable 



Professor Geikie on the " Fitchstonc " of Eskdale. 245 

for crystallisation. The marginal portion, therefore, repre- 
sents more nearly than the central part what was the condi- 
tion of the rock at the time of emission from below. 

The fine-grained outer layer of the Eskdale dyke shows 
under the microscope no glass. It has been entirely devitri- 
fied. Its most abundant mineral is the triclinic felspar 
(probably labradorite) which occurs in thin prisms, ranging 
fi'om ^^0 to less than yoVo of an inch in diameter. In the 
specimens I have examined no large porphyritic prisms occur 
among these minute forms. The augite may be observed in 
its two common forms, minutely and irregularly granulat'ed or 
drop-like, and also in well-defined crystals not unfrequently 
twinned. Among the granules sometimes crystalline faces 
and angles may be observed, and they always act on polarised 
light, so that they are not mere glass. The augite prisms, 
with well characterised forms, have sometimes a diameter of 
tV of an inch, and thus attain a considerably larger size than the 
felspar — a relation the reverse of that which I have usually 
found to obtain among the dykes and intrusive sheets in 
Scotland. The magnetite occurs in exceedingly minute octa- 
hedra, which may average perhaps ^oVo of an inch in diameter. 
They are found both singly and ranged in small rod-like 
aggregations. I observed no olivine. On rotating a slice of 
the rock between crossed Nicol prisms, no portion remains 
persistently dark, but between the recognisable crystals inde- 
finite fibres and granules make their appearance, which no 
doubt represent the devitrification of an original glassy base. 
A slight alteration from weathering, which the rock has 
undergone, seems to have affected the indefinite ground-mass 
more than the crystalline constituents. 

The central or more thoroughly crystalline portion of the 
dolerite presents, under a magnifying power of forty diameters, 
the general character represented in fig. 2 of PL VI. It is a 
dolerite of the normal type among the Tertiary and Carboni- 
ferous volcanic rocks of Scotland. At Shaw Burn this charac- 
ter is well exhibited. The large, clear, and striated prisms 
of labradorite are there the most conspicuous constituents of 
the rock, when examined under the microscope. The augite 
occurs in small prisms, which from their imperfection often 



246 Proceedings of the Royal Ehysical Society. 

assume the form of irregular crystalline granules. The mag- 
netite occurs in abundant and tolerably well defined crystals. 
No olivine was observed. These minerals are dispersed 
through a base relatively small in quantity, and with distinct 
action on polarised light. This substance is crowded with 
minute clear microliths, which are often to be observed 
specially abundant round the augitic ingredients. There 
occur also curved, club-shaped, opaque microliths, which 
occasionally radiate in a tufted manner from a common 
centre. The rock has undergone some alteration, as is shown 
by filaments of calcite and a good deal of diffused " viridite " 
and "opacite." A specimen taken from Wat Carrick Hill, 
rather fresher in condition, shows a large proportion of 
base of a pale brown tint, dusty or granular, and crowded 
with fine curved dark-brown to black hairs and straight 
yellow rod-like microliths. The felspar contains in some 
of its prisms abundant yellow granules and rods which are 
probably augite. The augite is well crystallised, but its 
prisms are remarkably small. The magnetite occupies a less 
prominent place in the rock, both as to quantity and size of 
individuals, than at Shaw Burn, its octohedra ranging from 
-gig- of an inch to exceedingly minute form. 

(2.) Microscopic Structure of the Central Vitreous Band. 

The vitreous central band of the Eskdale dyke, or Jameson's 
" pitchstone," is full of interest when studied with the micro- 
scope. Examined with even a low magnifying power it is 
readily seen to consist of a clear glass through which are 
diffused abundant crystals of striated felspar, augite, magne- 
tite, and many small microliths. 

The Glass. — The abundance of this substance at once marks 
a strong contrast between the central band and the marginal 
zones of dolerite. Though black and opaque in thick fragments, 
the glass in extremely thin sections appears pale brown or 
almost colourless, and perfectly transparent. For the most 
part it is remarkably homogeneous, and remains absolutely 
inert in polarised light. But it is marked by the occurrence 
of clots and streaks of a rich dark-brown tint, which are also 
quite unindividualised. The clot-like patches, which may 



Professor Geikie on the " Fitchstone " of Eskdale. 247 

frequently be observed in interspaces between groups of 
felspar or augite crystals, vary in size from extremely minute, 
microscopic portions up to these prominent kernels already 
referred to as so conspicuous to the naked eye. Sometimes 
streaks may be noticed proceeding from the clots, and 
following a sinuous course among the crystals. In other 
cases the clots themselves are made up of confluent streams 
of dark-brown glass curving round and enclosing groups 
of crystals or microliths. Curdled patches and streaks of 
similar darker glass appear all through the rock, and by their 
current-like flow between the felspars and augites show' with 
great beauty and distinctness the former extremely fluid con- 
dition of the mass. 

• The frequently observed bleaching of a volcanic glass round 
its enclosed crystals may be here observed in many examples ; 
likewise the contrary effect where the glass attains its blackest 
opacity along the margins of crystals, especially of the felspars. 
The bleaching may be observed more particularly round the 
augite and magnetite, as if the colouring iron oxide had been 
drawn out of the still unsolidified glass by the attraction of 
these ferruginous minerals. 

It is evident from the beautiful fluxion structure of this 
glass round its enclosed crystals of felspar, augite, and mag- 
netite, that these minerals had already assumed crystalKne 
forms while the rock still possessed great internal liquidity. 
Large enclosures of the glass may be noticed in many of the 
clear felspars. The devitrification of the rock occurs in its 
incipient stages even in the most glassy parts, and can be 
traced until the characteristic brown glass disappears among 
the crowded crystallites. 

Crystallites. — Of these rudimentary forms of crystallisation 
the sections of the rock examined by me present, at least, three 
kinds — 1st, Globulites. What appears under a low power to be 
a homogeneous, structureless, or sometimes slightly dusty glass 
can in some places be resolved into an aggregate of globules or 
granules so minute as just to be visible with a magnifying 
power of 400 diameters. There appears to be a tendency 
throughout the glass to assume this globulitic character. It 
is only here and there, however, that the globulites become 



248 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

large enough to attract notice with low powers of 30 to 50 
diameters. In occasional eddies of the fluxion structure, or in 
interspaces between the crystals, the glass appears with a 
IJ-inch objective to be somewhat dusty, the dust grains being 
drawn out into the fluxion streaks, accumulated in little centres 
between the currents, or massed into clot-like patches. With 
a higher power these portions are seen to consist of crowds 
of minute, pale-yellowish, clear, drop-like granules, distributed 
with considerable uniformity. Applying a magnifying power 
of 800 diameters, we find that while most of these granules 
are spherical, not a few are elongated and dichotomous at 
one or both ends (see fig. 5, PL V.). Whatever be their 
form they are invariably inert in polarised light. The largest 
do not exceed on an average about ^o^oo of ^^ i^^h in diameter, 
the ordinary spherical globulites averaging perhaps about 
•lowoo- I^ the dusty areas where these globulites are most 
developed they are not only to be observed in patches and 
streaks through the glass, but are specially noticeable crowded 
upon the pale microliths to be immediately described. 

2. Opaque Grains and Eods. — Eound the augite and mag- 
netite crystals some parts of the glass are rendered dark by 
a quantity of black dust formed of minute, black, opaque 
particles, and short, straight fibres. This black border is 
usually separated from the enclosed crystals by a very narrow 
interspace of clear glass. Its component grains and straight 
rods may be magnetite. They are often to be noticed round 
isolated magnetite crystals, and sometimes arranged in chief 
mass at two opposite ends of a crystal as if by a kind of 
magnetic polarity. They also encrust translucent microliths. 

3. Microliths. — These are of two varieties — {a) Pale- 
yellowish, clear, straight dart-shaped rods, ranging from less 
than YoVo- ^P to fully -j-^ of an inch in length. In some cases 
I noticed them curved, and even spiral. They may be observed 
in all parts of the glass, but chiefly round the crystals and 
crystalline granular patches of augite. Solitary prisms of this 
mineral occur in the glass, bristling all round with an arma- 
ture of these fine spines, and reminding the observer of some 
radiolarian and foraminiferal forms of life (fig. 5, PI. VI.). 
These microliths, so constantly and abundantly divergent 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitclosfone " of Eskdcde. 249 

from the augite, show such an affinity for that mineral as to 
suggest that they are themselves augitic; though it is 
remarkable to find such well-formed crystals, microliths, and 
globulites in this conjunction. (b) In areas where the 
globulites are most developed, the dart-shaped microliths, as 
above mentioned, are crusted with these bodies. Owing to 
the irregular way in which this incrustation has taken place, 
endless variety may be noticed in the resulting club-like 
shape of the microliths. But through them all may be 
detected the original simple, dart-like rod, with its envelope 
of crowded globulites. The more elongated globulites have 
attached themselves usually by one end. (Fig. 5, PL V.) 

3. Trichites. — Under this name may be grouped a series of 
straight, curved, or coiled hair-like opaque fibres, sometimes 
translucent and isotropic, and then varying in tint from a 
pale yellow, through shades of dirty green or brown, to 
black, and in length up to -5^ of an inch or more. Some 
of them consist of an internal pale yellow translucent hair, 
coated with black opaque matter. These so resemble the 
microliths that they may be only a form of these bodies. 
Curved fibre-like microliths, not crusted with globulites but 
sometimes coated with black opaque matter, occur in pro- 
digious numbers in the Eskdale dyke at Kirkburn, above 
Langholm. Their general character in mass at that place is 
shown in fig. 6 of PL VI. The interspaces which, in the 
more vitreous parts of the rock are occupied with pale brown 
glass are there crowded with these microliths and with 
globulites, and are no longer inert in polarised light, but 
present a mottled glimmering from many points, but with- 
out any distinct crystalline forms. This is the most complete 
devitrification which I have met with in undecom posed parts 
of the Eskdale dyke. It presents not a little resemblance to 
portions of some of the intrusive basalt-rocks of Carboniferous 
age in central Scotland. 

A remarkable devitrification of the rock is to be observed 
in those hard '* ribs " which I have described as projecting 
from the wall of the vitreous centre of the dyke, and forming 
the outer envelope or crust of the vitreous columns. The 
specimens which I have examined were all obtained from the 

VOL. V. R 



250 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

weathered face of the rock where the contrast between the 
core and the external sheath is to be seen. Their dull finely 
crystalline aspect is found to arise mainly from a change in 
the vitreous magma, whereby the enclosed crystalline con- 
stituents are allowed to stand out more prominently. In 
general arrangement and relative proportion of ingTcdients 
the rock does not differ in any marked degree from the 
glassy portion ; but, unfortunately, it is considerably decayed. 
The felspars are somewhat dull and granular. The augite is 
plentifully surrounded with diffused " viridite," and the mag- 
netite has no doubt furnished most of the limonite which 
gives a prevalent yellowish hue to the rock. 

The most singular feature, however, in the internal struc- 
ture of these ribs is the disappearance of the abundant and 
characteristic glassy base. At first, indeed, when a thin 
slice is examined under the microscope, the numerous pale 
brown interspaces which it presents are naturally taken 
by the observer for the usual glassy substance, though in a 
somewhat modified form. They even retain what evidently 
represents the fluxion structure as in the portion drawn in 
fig. 3 of PI. VI. But they are no longer passive in polar- 
ised light. They have all acquired a crystalline structure, 
indicated by abundant points of light in the dark field of the 
crossed prisms. They show under a magnifying power of 
400 diameters, traces of globulites and dart-like microliths, 
with amorphous granules and shred-like filaments. 

How far this change in the base is an original one or 
due to subsequent weathering, the specimens in my posses- 
sion do not enable me to decide. In ordinary columnar 
basalt the sutures between the prisms offer convenient 
channels for the passage of percolating water, and it is evident 
that where this percolation takes place, the outer parts of the 
prisms may be more altered than their inner parts. In such 
cases, however, the greater degree of alteration is usually 
evident in a more oxidised crumbling aspect. But in this 
Eskdale dyke it is these inter-columnar parts which stand 
up most prominently, while the vitreous cores are hollowed 
out. 

The Felspars. — The great majority of the clear prisms so 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitchstone" of Eshdale. 251 

abundantly dispersed through the vitreous base are well 
striated triclinic felspars. Among them occur water-clear 
unstriated Carlsbad twins which are probably sanidine. The 
felspars seem to have been the first minerals to crystallise 
out of the original magma. They are remarkably sharply 
defined against the surrounding glass, and vary in size from 
less than xoVo to fully -gV of an inch in diameter. They 
frequently enclose portions of the glass, and drop-like 
granules of augite. 

Though they commonly appear in the usual form of elon- 
gated strips, with abrupt or indefinite terminations, they also 
present examples of pyramidal endings, occasionally com- 
pound where different groups of twin lamellae have their own 
crystallographic termination. Here and there one or more 
of these lamellae may be observed projecting in a pectinate 
manner beyond the end of a strip-like prism. 

Tlie Augite occurs in well-defined forms. Seen with a low 
power these appear as pale greenish yellow granules, some- 
times dispersed singly through the glass, but more frequently 
aggregated into groups. That the apparent granules have 
really definite crystalline contours, however, may be seen 
even with a weak magnifying power. More highly enlarged 
they are found to present abundantly the characteristic mono- 
clinic prisms and terminations of the volcanic variety of 
augite. The smaller prisms project from the groups with 
clear sharply defined forms, while the inner portions of the 
groups have a fissured granulated character. The prisms 
average perhaps about -g-J-g- of an inch in length. Very 
perfect isolated prisms occur, which, when cut perpendicular 
to the vertical axis, present the well-known eight-sided 
sections. Besides the small abundant prisms, there are also 
to be observed much larger and less perfect forms, having an 
internal flawed structure as if they were built up of an 
aggregation of granules, yet polarising uniformly and not 
with reference to the individual granules. These larger 
flawed crystals sometimes contain abundant and large glass 
cavities. There are likewise to be observed large macroscopic 
kernels or patches which to the unassisted eye appear like 
fragments of compact basalt, caught up in the dyke. These 



252 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

on being submitted to microscopic examination prove to be 
aggregations chiefly of crystalline grains and imperfect prisms 
of augite with very small triclinic felspars, and also scattered 
magnetite. They have no definite external contour. The 
crystals project from them into the surrounding glass, which 
can also be traced among interstices even in the midst of the 
kernels. These patches therefore are original aggregations 
of the components of the rock, and not extraneous included 
fragments. 

The Magnetite presents no features requiring special remark. 
It is well crystallised in the forms usual in basalt, but on 
the whole is less abundant than in many of the basalts of 
central Scotland. Its smaller octohedra are crowded round 
the augite prisms, forming here and there a kind of black 
border. Its dust-like grains appear in the most globulitic 
parts of the glass, and it is probably they that encrust 
some of the minuter forms of microliths, which consequently 
appear as opaque rods or needles. 

I have not succeeded in detecting olivine in any of 
the slices yet prepared. There occur indeed here and there 
rounded kernel -like aggregations of dull green serpentinous 
matter whicli may represent this mineral. But they are 
comparatively infrequent, so that even if olivine be present 
it must take but an insignificant part in the constitution of 
the rock. 

(3.) Chemical Composition of the Eshdale Bock. 

To complete this account of the so-called " pitchstone " of 
Eskdale, there remains for consideration the question of its 
chemical composition. It is evident that while the rock is 
not to be associated with the acid pitchstones, neither on 
the other hand are its affinities to be sought among the more 
basic basalts. It is well known that among the vitreous 
forms of the basalt-rocks varieties occur with a much more 
acid character than normal crystalline basalt. If we take 
the analyses recently collected by Eoth * of the crystalline 
felspar-basalts, the proportion of silicic acid may be set down 

* Beitrage zur Petrographie der Plutonischen Gesteine Abhandl. k. Akad. 
Wissensch. Berlin, 1869, p. 195. 



Professor Geikie on the " Pitchstone" of Eskdale. 253 

as ranging between 50 and 55, though in some varieties it 
sinks below the lower limit, and in others rises above the 
higher. In the series of basalts collected during the Geologi- 
cal Exploration of the 40th Parallel in the Western States 
and Territories of the American Union, the percentage of 
silica varies from 48*4 to 54-8.* 

But if w^e pass to the vitreous types associated with the 
basalt rocks we encounter a still higher proportion of silica. 
Thus in the pitchstone-like external crust (0*03 metre thick) 
of a dyke (0-2 metre broad) in Lamlash Island, Arran, 
Delesse found the composition to be : silica, 56*05 ; alumina, 
1713; peroxide of iron, 10-30; protoxide of manganese, a 
trace; lime, 6-66; magnesia, 1'52 ; potash, 0-98; soda, 3-29 ; 
water, 3*50 = 99-43.i- He found the composition of the 
crystalline portion of the dyke to be nearly the same, but 
the specific gravity to be 2-649, while that of the glass was 
2-714. 

At my request my colleague, Mr J. S. Grant Wilson, has 
subjected the Eskdale dyke to chemical analysis. The 
specific gravity of a normal portion of the glassy rock is 2-7. 
An average sample of the same rock was reduced to powder, 
and allowed to remain in hydrochloric acid for ten days. It 
was thereafter boiled. At the end of this treatment the pro- 
portion of the rock dissolved in the acid was found to be only 
16*8 per cent. 

Another portion of the powdered rock submitted to quan- 
tative analysis gave the following results : 



Silica, .... 


58-67 


Alumina, .... 


14-37 


Peroxide of Iron, 


1-64 


Protoxide of Iron, . 


6-94 


Protoxide of j\Ianganese, 


trace 


Lime, .... 


7-39 


Magnesia, .... 


4-65 


Potash, .... 


1-42 


Soda,. .... 


3-01 


Water, .... 


2-02 



100-11 

* Explor. 40tli Parallel, vol. i. ; Table of Analysis, xii. 
t Ann. des Mines, xiii. (1858), 369. 



254 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Some of the isolated kernels or particles of black glass dis- 
persed through the rock were picked out and found by Mr 
Wilson to yield 65*49 per cent, of silica; with alumina, 
14-66; protoxide of iron, 5*44; lime, 3-73; magnesia, 1"57; 
the alkalies, owing to the small quantity of the material 
available, were not determined. 

In its specific gravity and high proportion of silica the 
Eskdale rock agrees with other known vitreous basalts. It 
is worthy of remark also that its glass kernels contain about 
7 per cent, more of this acid than the general mass of the 
rock. 

Comparing its characters with those of the various hyalo- 
melans and tachylites which have been described by Zirkel, 
Mohl, Fischer, Eosenbusch, and others, we observe that it 
differs from all of them as they in turn differ from each other. 
If we follow the not very satisfactory classification which 
ranges as tachylite those glassy forms of basalt, which are 
more or less readily soluble in acid, and, as hyalomelan, those 
which resist the acid, we see that the Eskdale rock takes an 
intermediate position, rather inclining to hyalomelan. Yet 
its internal structure, abounding in microliths, but with no 
spherulitic concretions or gas-pores, links it rather with the 
described forms of tachylite. I have recently had sections 
prepared of other vitreous basalts from different parts of 
Scotland, and hope in another paper to bring forward addi- 
tional information regarding this interesting and still imper- 
fectly understood condition of our basalt-rocks. From what 
has now been laid before the Society, it will be seen how 
much more detailed must be the work of the geologist and 
the petrographer than was possible in the days of Jameson, 
and how vastly greater are now the facilities for this research. 
There can be no doubt that the rocks of Scotland present a 
marvellously rich field for the application of modern methods 
of petrography. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Section of Eskdale dyke near Eskdalemuir Manse : a, a, Highly 
inclined Silurian greywacke and shale ; h, b, Dolerite, c, vitreous basalt of 



Obituary Notice of the late Br M'Bain. 255 

central band showing a prismatic structure, the prisms being directed inwards 
from the outer walls of the vitreous zone. (This and the three following 
figures have been drawn from his own observations by Mr B, N. Peach. ) 

Fig. 2. View of a square yard of the outer wall of the vitreous central 
band, showing the polygonal arrangement of the prisms and their investing 
sheaths or ribs. 

Fig. 3. View of a smaller portion of the same wall to show the detailed 
structure of the ribs {a, a) and their vitreous cores (&, b). 

Fig. 4. Profile of a part of the weathered face of the wall, showing the 
way in which the hard ribs or sheaths project at the surface. 

Fig. 5. Microscopic structure of the vitreous core. This section shows a 
crystal of augite, enclosing magnetite and surrounded with microliths, each 
of which consists of a central rod of pale yellow glass crusted with pale yellow 
isotropic globulites. The glass around this aggregation is clear, but at a 
little distance globulites (many of them elongated and dichotomous) abound, 
with here and there scattered microliths, some of which are curved and spiral. 
(800 diameters. ) 

Plate VI. — Microscopic Sections of Eskdale Dyke. 

Fig. 1. Portion of the outer or chilled edge of the outer dolerite band 
(6 of fig. 1 in PI. v.), Shaw Burn. (70 diameters.) 

Fig. 2. From the more coarsely crystalline central part of the same 
marginal dolerite. (70 diameters.) 

Fig. 3. Structure of the hard rib or sheath surrounding the vitreous core 
(a, a, in fig. 3 of PL V.), Shaw Burn. (70 diameters.) 

Fig. 4. Structure of the vitreous core {b, b, in fig. 3 of PI. V.), Shaw 
Burn. The colourless crystals are the felspars, the greenish are augite, the 
black are magnetite. The pale brown glass with its beautiful fluxion strac- 
ture and crowded microliths forms the largest part of the rock. 

Fig. 5. Structure of the vitreous central band, Wat Carrick. This 
section shows with a magnifying power of 250 diameters the fluxion structure 
of the glass, the aggregation of the globulites and darkening of the glass 
against the felspars, and the bleached unindividualised character of the glass 
round the augite and magnetite. The augites are seen to bristle with micro- 
liths usually straight and loaded with investing globulites. (See fig. 5, PI. V. ) 

Fig. 6. From centre of vitreous part of dyke, Kirkburn above Langholm. 
The base is here crowded with pale yellow and greenish globulites and 
curved fibre-like microliths. (250 diameters. ) 



VI. Obituary Notice of the late Br Jctmes M'Bain. 
By David Grieve, Esq., F.G.S. 

(Kead 17th December 1879.) 

Dr M'Bain, on his deathbed, gave me some particulars of 
his early career, which with some additional matter I 
propose to read to the Society. 



256 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

I need hardly remind those of our number who have for 
«ome years been connected with the Society, of the deep and 
lively interest which Dr M'Bain always took in its business. 
I have reason to know from himself that its prosperity was 
ever a source of anxiety to him, and that no other Society 
with which he was connected had such a place in his affections. 
It is only fitting therefore that some kind words in memoriam 
of our worthy departed friend should find a place in our 
Proceedings. 

Dr James M'Bain was born at Logic, in the parish of 
Kirriemuir, Forfarshire, on the 30th November 1807. He 
received his elementary education at the Parish School of 
Kirriemuir. At the age of thirteen he became apprentice to 
Mr David Stewart, surgeon, Kirriemuir, and remained with 
him for three years. He thereafter went to Edinburgh, in the 
Session 1823-24, to prosecute the study of medicine, making 
two voyages to Davis Straits during the summer months (as 
was then the custom) as surgeon to the " Estadge " whale 
ship, Captain Deuchar. In March 1826, he passed his 
examination at Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh, and received his 
Diploma when only a few months over nineteen. 

In 1826, he graduated in Medicine at St Andrews 
University, and in August 1827, he passed the examination 
for Assistant Surgeon, Royal Navy, and shortly after received 
an appointment on board H.M.S. "Undaunted" just then 
commissioned at Chatham by Sir Augustus Clifford to take 
out Lord William Bentinck as Governor-General of India. 
The ship in due course arrived in the Hoogly at Diamond 
Harbour, and Dr M'Bain resided for three weeks at Calcutta 
as the guest of the Governor-General at Fort- William. 

For several years Dr M'Bain remained attached to the 
" Undaunted," cruising among the Azores and Cape de Verde 
Islands on the outlook for pirates, and on other special service, 
during which period he had many opportunities for scientific 
observation, and of thus laying a good foundation for the 
working life of a naturalist. 

In 1832, Dr M'Bain was appointed Assistant Surgeon to 
H.M.S. " Investigator, " surveying vessel, commanded by 
Captain George Thomas, who was then employed in the 



Obituary Notice of the late Br M'Bain. 257 

Survey of the Shetland Islands. This Survey was completed 
in 1834, and in the autumn of that year the "Investigator" 
proceeded to the Orkney Islands to commence the Survey of 
that group. Whilst thus employed, Dr M'Bain, along with 
Lieutenant F. W. L. Thomas, carried on a system of dredging 
round the shores of the Orkneys, and in deep water between 
the Orkney and Shetland Islands. The result w^as, that large 
and interesting collections of the Marine Invertebrata were 
made, the rarer specimens being handed over to Messrs Forbes 
and Hanley, then engaged in preparing their splendid work on 
the British MoUusca. Fine collections were also made of the 
British Marine Algse, the rarer specimens of which were sent 
to Dr Harvey when engaged in bringing out his great work, 
the "Phytologia Britannica." In this work many of Dr 
M'Bain's discoveries will be found recorded. 

At this time Dr M'Bain commenced a lifelong friendship 
with the late Dr Bowerbank, of London, whose constant 
correspondent he became, supplying him from time to time 
with many rare and unique specimens of Sponges found in 
Shetland and the Orcades, and which are mostly figured in 
Dr Bowerbank's '' Monograph of the British Spongiadae." On 
this subject, it may be here mentioned, Dr IM'Bain contributed 
to our Proceedings an able paper, which will be found in Vol. 
IL, p. 233. 

In 1848, H.M.S. "Mastiff" which had superseded the 
"Investigator" in 1836, was paid off at Woolwich, having 
comjoleted the Survey of the Orkneys, and Dr M'Bain did 
not again serve afloat. 

In 1849, Dr M'Bain took up his residence at Elie, in Fife, 
where he remained four years. Here he was by no means 
inactive; Marine Zoology engaging much of his attention, 
and in the Eev. Mr Wood's work, " The East Neuk of Fife," 
will be found a most exhaustive list of the MoUusca and 
other Invertebrata of the Firth of Forth, which forms perhaps 
the " cream " of his work in that neighbourhood. 

Having been appointed i^aval Medical Agent at Leith, Dr 
M'Bain removed to Pirniefield there, where he became the 
intimate friend and constant companion of the late Professor 
John Flemincr, who then resided at Seaorove in the same 



258 Froceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

neighbourhood. They had frequent Natural History excur- 
sions together, in which they were often accompanied by 
another intimate friend, the late Mr Alexander Bryson, also 
a fellow of this Society, and who was always hailed as an 
acquisition of scientific strength by the exploring party. 

In connection with Dr Fleming it may be here mentioned 
that at his death the celebrated Actinia " Granny," which 
originally belonged to the late Sir John Graham Daly ell, came 
into the possession of Dr M'Bain, it having been presented to 
him by Mr Fleming, and the life history of this remarkable 
Actinia was the last contribution made by him to the Eoyal 
Physical Society. " Granny" was handed over by the Doctor 
to Mr John Sadler, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Edin- 
burgh, on the 1st March 1879, shortly before his death, 
with many earnest and pathetic injunctions relative to the 
care and treatment of this aged and historical zoophyte. 

Dr M'Bain eventually took up his residence at Trinity, 
where he dwelt for many years, and where he died. 

He joined this Society as a resident Fellow in 1857, 
having for some years previously been on the non-resident 
list of Members. During the time he was connected with 
the Society, not a session, I believe, elapsed without various 
interesting communications from his pen having been read 
at our meetings, and it may also be noticed that he was 
twice elected to fill, for the usual term of years, the Pre- 
sidential Chair of the Society. 

In 1861, Dr M'Bain was elected a Fellow of the Eoyal 
Society of Edinburgh, and was at one time a Member of the 
Council of that learned body. He was also a Member of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh, and took an active share in 
its business. 

Dr M'Bain's tastes and studies were on the whole zoologi- 
cal, notwithstanding that other branches of science had a 
share of his attention. He was a good comparative anato- 
mist, and had an excellent knowledge of osteology ; which 
latter skill may be traced to his having been a pupil of the 
late celebrated anatomist, John Barclay, who very generally 
succeeded in imparting to his students a thorough acquaint- 
ance with that branch. Dr M'Bain subsequently supple- 



Obihcary Notice of the late Dr M'Bain. 259 

mented his knowledge of bones by attending the lectures of 
the celebrated Professor Owen, of London. In this direc- 
tion he studied very minutely various species of marine 
animals of such orders for instance as the Finnipedia and 
Cetacea, and many of his papers on such osteological subjects 
are scattered throughout our printed Proceedings. Indeed, 
had it not been for the sake of brevity, I would willingly 
have here enumerated the more remarkable of Dr M'Bain's 
papers, but must for the reason given content myself w^th 
simply referring to the Society's published Proceedings. 

Dr M'Bain, it may be said, in conjunction with the late 
Professors John Fleming, John Goodsir, and George Wilson, 
Dr Strethill Wright, Messrs Andrew Murray, Alexander 
Bryson, and other eminent naturalists, who, ala>s ! with our 
friend, are all now departed from us, contributed much to 
the attraction of the meetings of our Society, and filled bright 
pages of its history, which will never be forgotten. 

Dr M'Bain may be said to have been a lover of science 
for its own sake. He lived, moved, and had his being in 
science. He was in politics an advanced Liberal, but he 
seldom or ever thought or talked of politics, unless the sub- 
ject was thrust upon him. His all absorbing topic, whether 
in the house with his microscope, or abroad in the fields with 
his pocket lens, was Natural History in some shape or form. 
In later years he gave a good deal of attention to Geology, 
and went much among the rocks, hammer in hand. He 
delighted in illustrating the wonderful works of Nature, 
as well in their atomical minuteness, as in the gigantic rock 
masses, which form the earth's crust; and such illustra- 
tions were always copious and lucid, displaying a complete 
mastery of the subject in hand. He was particularly fond 
of pedestrian excursions, in which he was a most enjoyable 
and instructive companion. As a geologist he was well 
acquainted with field work, and in many excursions in our 
own country, replete as it is with striking geological features, 
he would point out to the tyro the structure of the landscape, 
drawing at times on the roadside sand or dust with a 
borrowed walking-stick, diagrammatic sections in rough 
illustration of his descriptions. With the mature geologist 



260 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

again, he would quietly discuss tlie nature and course of 
apparent phenomena. Several important papers on geologi- 
cal subjects, notably one on strata of Lower Carboniferous age, 
underlying the basalt on the north-east portion of Arthur 
Seat, will be found in our Proceedings, and are worthy of 
attention. 

Dr M'Bain was a good botanist, and rarel}^ ever went 
on his walks without his vasculum — picking up here and 
there, by the way or hillside, or in the woods, weeds and 
wild flowers, discoursing thereon as he went along. 

Our friend had antiquarian proclivities, but there was 
another branch of science to which he was very partial, viz.. 
Geographical Science. This occupied much of his attention, 
and few men were better acquainted with the ancient writers 
on this subject than he was — no one could quote Strabo, 
" chapter and verse," more readily and aptly than he. He 
took great interest in modern geographical discovery, and 
more particularly so of the Arctic regions. His early 
voyages to these parts gave us a cue to his well-known 
enthusiasm on this subject, and his ever anxious sympathies 
on behalf of explorers. It may here be mentioned that his 
interest in this direction led his friend Dr Eobert M'Cormick, 
E.N., to remember him, and to name a headland in Welling- 
ton Channel in his honour. In the parliamentary paper, 
"relative to the recent Arctic Expedition of 1854," will 
be found (p. 190) a woodcut of the headland named Cape 
M'Bain, and in illustration of M'Cormick's report of the 
boat voyage, which he commanded during the "North 
Star" Expedition in search of Sir John Franklin and his 
crews. 

The bent of Dr M'Bain's mind was eminently utilitarian 
and practical ; he dealt little in the hypothetical, so that in 
some respects he might be considered by some as being rather 
behind Science workers, according to the fashion of the 
present day as regards at least their plans of working. His 
writings were devoid of ornament ; no word painting adorned 
his periods, and certainly it must be admitted, that he never 
would have excelled as a popular author. In fact Dr M'Bain 
was somewhat slow at composition ; he thought a great deal 



OUtuanj Notice of the late Br 31' Bain. 261 

over his subject, which was always well and thoroughly 
elaborated before being committed to writing. Facts and 
deductions from facts were alone valued by him ; all else he 
considered absolutely superfluous. 

After Dr M'Bain's death I received a letter from an old and 
valued friend of his,* in which there are some very apt 
critical remarks, which may be here appropriately quoted. 

" Dr M'Bain," says this friend, " was not a man who formed 
opinions hastily. In science as in politics, as might be 
expected, he was a Liberal, and I may say shared most of the 
advanced views promulgated of late years, but having once 
formed an opinion on any subject he was singularly tenacious 
of it ; it was only a perfect tour de force of facts that would 
compel him to quit his old anchorage, and either remove to 
another or set himself adrift on the world of doubt once more. 
It was the same with his friendships. He was slow to 
take to a new man, but having once formed a favourable 
opinion of him, his regard and attachment were firm and 
enduring. Hence Dr M'Bain's opinion went a long way with 
good men, and his influence was equally great with those who 
knew the perfect disinterestedness with which he took up any 
object dear to him, and the slowness but sureness with which 
he arrived at his conclusions. 

"His knowledge of science was very extensive. As a 
naturalist he might not have been a great authority in any 
one department of science, for his range was great. But 
whatever point he took up he made it his own, and on that 
question at least he was thorough. He had little rhetoric, 
and the scientific use of the imagination was strange to him. 
One fact, as I have often heard him say, was worth all the 
poetry of Christendom." 

"As regards the Doctor's personal character" (the same friend 
adds) " I need not speak. His contempt for anything mean 
or little was as thorough as that of any man of my acquaint- 
ance. Morally the words of an old epitaph I have some- 
where seen might well be applied to our friend — 'He was 
a despiser of sorry persons and little actions' " 

* Dr Robert Brown, formerly the respected secretary of this Society, now 
resident in London. 



262 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

An amiable trait in our deceased friend was the encourage- 
ment lie gave to young men studying at the University 
by inviting them to his house, and by giving them every 
assistance in his power in the prosecution of their scientific 
studies, bestowing on them the fruit of his experience, as 
well as the benefit of his advice. Frequently, indeed, he 
assumed to act in loco parentis, not even sparing his censure 
when he thought that was needed. Many of these students 
are now scattered in distant lands, and not a few in after- 
life continued to correspond with him. 

It is needless to say how beloved Dr M'Bain was in the 
circle of his intimate friends. His unobtrusive sociality and 
genial suavity of disposition threw a charm into the bond of 
friendship, and for one to be able to look back on the many 
pleasant days of rational and social intercourse spent with 
our friend, not unfrequently in the green fields under the 
blue canopy of the heavens, is a melancholy joy to be 
cherished, and while memory has a place, is not likely to be 
easily obliterated. 

Apart from this inner circle, Dr M'Bain's popularity was 
great in various quarters. He was well liked by his brethren 
of the Medical profession, with whom he always worked 
harmoniously, and then again from having spent a large 
portion of his life in the Eoyal Navy, a strong feeling of 
good fellowship always existed between him and the 
commissioned officers of that service. But his main and 
conspicuous popularity was with the crews of the Guard 
and Hospital ships, and Coastguard men, over whom, as 
Medical Agent, he had the professional health supervision. 
These crews looked up to him with truly filial affection. 
Irrespective of his functions of Medical Attendant, he may 
be considered as having been the permanent Father Con- 
fessor of the Firth of Forth Fleet; for not only did these 
honest fellows confess their peccadillos, but they poured 
their joys, their sorrows, and their secrets into the capacious 
bosom of our friend. We have his own authority for saying 
that these unsophisticated sailors received and acted on his 
advice on all sorts of miscellaneous matters with the faith 
and simplicity of children, often seeming to feel — by experi- 



Mr Etlieridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 263 

encing relief— as if they had actually received the rite of 
absolution. 

For nearly two years before his death, Dr M'Bain was in 
delicate health ; he never well recovered from the shock of 
his wife's sudden death, which greatly prostrated him. He 
was a man much domesticated, and iMrs M'Bain took a large 
share of the burden of life from his shoulders — her loss 
therefore greatly aggravated a painful disease to which he 
was subject, and which ultimately cut him off. For several 
months before his death he suffered much, and the cessation 
of life in his case could only be considered as a happy and 
blessed relief. 

Dr M'Bain died at his residence at Logie Villa, Trinity, on 
the 24th March 1879. 



VII. On a Collection of Fossils from the Boiven River Coalfield 
and the Limestone of the Fanning River, North Queens- 
land. By E. Etheridge, Jun., Esq., F.G.S., of the 
British Museum, President. [Plates VII.-XVII.] 

(Read 18th February 1880.) 

1. Introduction. — The collection described in the foUoAv- 
ing pages was forwarded to me for investigation by my former 
colleague Mr E. L. Jack, F.E.G.S., F.G.S., etc., Government 
Geologist for North Queensland. 

The specimens were collected either personally by Mr Jack, 
or under his direction, during a survey of the Bowen Eiver 
coalfield and its neighbourhood, and may be looked upon as 
supplementary to those of the Daintree Collection described 
by my father,* and brought together through the exertions of 
my late lamented friend Eichard Daintree, C.M.G., F.G.S., 
during the time he held the post now occupied by Mr E. L. 
Jack. 

The present collection comprises fossils from three forma- 
tions, viz., the Devonian of the Fanning Eiver, the Car- 
boniferous of the Bowen coalfield, and the Cretaceous series 
of the Tate Eiver. 

* Description of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Fossils of Queensland. Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc, 1872, xxviii., pp. 317-360. 



264 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Before proceeding to describe the species of these three 
formations in their respective order, I purpose giving a brief 
outline of Queensland geology and palaeontology, in so far as 
the districts from which the present collection was obtained 
are concerned. To this section will be added some additional 
notes forwarded by Mr Jack, and bearing on his collection. 
The description of the species will next occupy attention, fol- 
lowed by a few deductions drawn from a study of the species 
in general, and in conclusion will be found a tolerably full 
bibliographic list, bearing on the palseontology of Queensland 
generally. The corals, which are few in number, have, in 
conjunction with those collected in North Queensland by 
Mr Daintree, formed the subject of a separate paper by 
Prof. H. A. Nicholson, M.D., and myself 

The second part of the report will be occupied with a 
description of the plant remains which accompany the Mol- 
lusca now described. I have found it necessary to retain 
these for further consideration, as I believe I am in a posi- 
tion, from a study of them, to throw some additional light of 
an important nature on the much vexed question of the age 
of the Australian coal-beds. 

2. Geological and Pal^eontological Notes on the 
Devonian, Carboniferous, and Cretaceous Beds of the 
Fanning Eiver, Bowen Kiver, and Tate PtivER respect- 
ively. — (1.) Devonian — Fanning Biver Limestone. — Mr Jack 
writes * me that this limestone, from which a small packet of 
fossils has been obtained, is the equivalent of Daintree's 
Burdekin or Broken Eiver limestone, and is probably the 
same as that of Eed Gap and Double Barrel Hill, where 
a few obscure corals were met with; but the limestones 
and accompanying strata are so metamorphosed that it has 
been quite impossible to make much out of the specimens. 
Speaking of his Burdekin limestone at Terrible Creek, the 
late Mr Daintree observed that " the limestones, where little 
alteration has taken place, are a mass of aggregated corals." f 
These are the Lower Devonian or " Siluro-Devonian " beds of 
my father's classification. He says, J " There cannot now be 

^ Letter dated '* Towns ville, " 12th Oct. 1878. 
f Loc. cit., p. 290. J Loc. cit., p. 324. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 265 

any doubt that the Broken Eiver limestone beds, containing 
Favosites, etc., are the lowest fossiliferous deposits in the 
Queensland area, and their age is undoubtedly Lower Devo- 
nian or ' Siluro-Devonian.' These are succeeded by the 
Gympie group, a liigher series, with the Star Eiver and 
Mount Wyatt beds succeeding, rich in Lcpidodendra and 
Spiriferce. These Devonian rocks yield generally Lepidoden- 
dron, LcptopMccum, Produdus, Spirifera, etc. — indeed possess 
a fauna and flora closely allied to tliat of Canada of the same 
age." The corals in question, contained in the Daintree Col- 
lection, were not described at the time the remainder of the 
collection was worked out ; but, as before stated, they have, 
with those forw^arded by Mr Jack from the Carboniferous 
beds of the Bowmen coalfield, formed the subject of a separate 
paper by Prof. H. A. Nicholson and myself. 

Mr Jack informs* me that the Broken or Burdekin lime- 
stone is perhaps 450 feet thick, and rests on granite. Its 
upper limit was not observed, but it was believed to dip under 
a series of brown and green sandstones seen at Dalrymple 
and Dotswood. Mr Jack's observations quite bear out the 
position assigned to these limestones by my father, as com- 
pared with the succeeding series. He says in the same 
letter, " The last-named beds I understand to be lower in 
position than those of the Star basin, although these are also 
seen resting on granite and mica-schist." 

The fossils from the horizon of the Fanning limestone con- 
sist of five species of Brachiopoda from the limestone itself, 
and two species of the same class from the shale above it. 
The limestone at Bed Gap and Double Barrel Hill, which Mr 
Jack thinks may be the same as that at the Fanning Eiver, 
has yielded some corals ; but, as before observed, they are 
undeterminable. 

(2.) Carhoniferous — Boiven River Coal-Beds. — The Bowen, 
according to Mr DaintreCj-f* is one of the rivers draining the 
northern or palaeozoic coalfield of Queensland, and from it 
and Eoper Creek he mentions the following fossils : Streptor- 
hynchus crenistria (Phill.), Spirifera striata (Martin), >S'. con- 

* Letter dated " Townsville," 21st May 1878. 
t Loc. cit, p. 285, et scq. 
VOL V. S 



266 Froceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

valuta (PhilL), a Spirifer allied to S. Usculcaia (Sow.), and 
Procluctits Clarkei (Eth.). In a small branch of the Bowen 
Eiver, near the Nebo road-crossing, an interesting section was 
discovered by Mr Daintree, in which a Fresh- Water Series 
with three coal-seams, and containing Glossopteris, is overlaid 
by Productus and Spirifer beds.* At the Pelican Creek, a 
tributary of the Bowen, a coal-seam of the Fresh- Water Series 
was overlaid by a coarse-grained sandstone, with casts of shells, 
and an arenaceous limestone band containing Streptorhynchus 
crenistria, a shell common throughout all the Lower Marine 
series. 

Mr Jack writes me i" that he does not see any cause for 
alteration in the classification of this portion of the Queens- 
land rocks, adopted by Messrs Daintree' and Etheridge, viz., 
in descending order : 

a. Bowen Eiver Coalfield Series. 
Unconformity. 

h. Star Eiver Series (= Mount Wyatt beds). 

? 

c. Devonian Sandstones (Keelbottom and Dalrymple). 

Conformity. 

d. Burdekin Eiver Limestone (=: Fanning Eiver do.). 

" Siluro-Devonian " {Etheridge). 

According to Mr Jack, the Bowen coalfield is divisible 
into an Upper or mainly Fresh- Water Series, and a Lower or 
Marine group, both with interstratified coal-seams, and the 
former with a few well-marked marine bands. Plant remains 
are common to both, but much more abundant in the Fresh- 
Water Series, plenty of Glossopteris but no Lepidodendron. The 
sandstones of both the Marine and Fresh- Water Groups have 
pockets and nests of pebbles, and sometimes large isolated 
boulders, highly suggestive of ice action, but perhaps to be 
accounted for by the presence of large silicified trees found 
lying horizontally, which may have had something to do 
with their transport. The silicified wood is present in quan- 

* Daintree, loc. cit., p. 286, fig. 9. 

+ Letter dated "Don River," 6th August 1878. 



Mr Ether idge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 267 

tity and of large size, some stumps possessing more tlian 
forty rings of growth.* 

MrR B. Smyth, F.G.S., has, in the ''First Sketch of a 
Geological Map of Australia," coloured the Bowen Kiver coal- 
field Carbonaceous (Mesozoic), in a similar way to that of the 
great JSTew^ South Wales coalfield, instead of Carboniferous. 
Setting aside any deductions to be drawn from the plant 
remains found in these fields as so much mere controversial 
matter, it is difficult to imagine how Mr Smyth can reconcile 
this mapping with the well-known occurrence of fossils of 
true Upper Pal{?eozoic age in them, and about wdiich there 
never has been any dispute. 

The fossils from the Bowen coalfield forwarded by Mr 
Jack are numerous as to specimens, and tolerably so as to 
species. They form the bulk of the collection, and afford 
some valuable information, especially in relation to the pre- 
vious investigations of Mr Daintree. Unfortunately for des- 
criptive purposes, they are, as a rule, in a most miserable 
state of preservation. The Brachiopoda are well represented, 
and have proved a very troublesome series. Under this head 
I am much indebted to Mr T. Davidson, F.E.S., who, with his 
ever-ready kindness, has devoted time and trouble to several 
obscure and difficult points wdiich have presented themselves. 
The Polyzoa are not in great force as to species, and have 
been anything but an easy group, from their always appear- 
ing as badly-preserved casts. The Gasteropoda are almost 
unrepresented, and the Cefhalojpoda only by one genus. The 
Bchinodermata are quite absent, even to the usually ever- 
occurring fragments of Crinoid stems, whilst the Bivalves, 
although, as ever, an interesting group of fossils, are, like 
Polyzoa, rendered unsatisfactory by their state of preserva- 
tion, 

(3.) Cretaceous — Tate Biver Series. — The geology of the 
North Queensland Cretaceous Formation has only, so far as I 
am aware, been written on by the late Mr Eichard Daintree.-(- 
Beds of Cretaceous age were first shown to exist in North 

* Letters dated "Don River," August 6th, and *' Townsville," October 
12th, 1878. 
t Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1872, xxviii., p. 278. 



268 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Australia, on pala?ontological evidence, by Professor M'Coy, 
who, in 1865, described a small collection of fossils made by 
Messrs Sutherland and Carson on the Flinders Eiver.* These 
were described in 1866 and subsequently,-]- and numbered in 
all eight species, three of Reptilia, three Cephalopoda — Am- 
monites Flindersi (M'Coy), BeUmnitella diptycha (M'Coy) ; 
and Ancyloceras Flindersi (M'Coy) — and two Bivalves — Ino- 
ceramus Carsoni (M'Coy), and /. Sutherlandi (M'Coy). Not- 
withstanding that Professor M'Coy was the first to indicate 
the presence of cretaceous rocks in Australia, with any cer- 
tainty, it is nevertheless certain that Mr F. T. Gregory was 
the first to collect qretaceous fossils, as we learn from Mr 
Charles Moore, F.G.S.j (who examined Mr Gregory's collec- 
tion), that a chalk ammonite was present amongst the fossils 
from Western Australia, sent by Mr Gregory. 

Mr Moore supplemented M'Coy's list by a new species of 
Crioceras, 0. Australe (Moore), § from the Upper Maranoa 
District in Queensland, and to these my father added || a 
large and interesting series of cretaceous fossils collected by 
Mr Daintree from Maryborough, Hugh end en Station, Mara- 
thon Station, and Flinders Eiver. Another collection is 
referred to, IT although not described, made by Mr W. Hann, 
and derived from the Bowen Downs, head of the Thompson 
and the Barcoo Eiver beds. 

The immense extent of the Queensland cretaceous rocks is 
well shown on Mr Daintree's map, attached to his paper pre- 
viously quoted, extending as they do from lat. 18° S. to lat. 
29° S. 

In his " First Sketch of a Geological Map of Australia," ** 
Mr E. B. Smyth dismisses the cretaceous and other secondary 
formations of Australia and their fossils in a very uncere- 
monious manner. After quoting the limited number of 
species, described at various times by Professor M'Coy, from 

* Annals Nat. Hist., 1865, xvi., p. 333; Trans. Eoy. Soc. Vict, 1866, 
vii., p. 49. 

+ For Bibliography see list of papers appended to this Report, and my 
*' Catalogue of Australian Fossils." 

t Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., xxvi., p. 227. § Loc. ciL, p. 257. 

II Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, xxviii., pp. 338-346. H Loc. ciL, p. 348. 

** Geol. Survey Vict, Progress Report for the Year 1876, iii., pp. 45-67. 



Mr Etlicridgc on Fossils from Boivcn River Coalfield. 269 

these beds, he tells us, " ' Sections of Strata and a Description 
of the Cretaceous Eocks of Australia/ as given in the Quar- 
terly Journal, etc., etc." Of the fossil contents of these rocks, 
or the information deducible from the study of them, nothing 
is said, so that we are obliged to conclude that Mr Smyth 
has overlooked the important papers by Mr Charles Moore, 
F.G.S.,* and Mr E. Etheridge, F.E.S.,t which is not saying 
much for the " First Sketch." 

Mr Jack has forwarded to me a very well-marked, and 
what appears to be new, Crioceras, from the Tate Eiver, North 
Queensland, which will be described further on. 

3. Description of the Fossils. 

Devonian Species — Brachiopoda. 

Genus Spifjfera — J. Sowerhy, 1816. 

(Mill. Con. ii., p. 41.) 

Spirifera curvata — Schlotheim (?). 

Anomia TerebratuUthes curvatus, Schl., Nachtrage zur Petrefact, 1822, p. 68, 

t. 19, f. 2. 

Spirif era curvata, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Dev. Brach., 1864, p. 39, t. 4, f. 29-32; 

t. 9, f. 22, 26, and 26a, 27 and 2.1 a-c {for synonomy). 

Obs. — Much doubt must of necessity attach itself to the 
shell referred to this species, from its crushed and partly 
decorticated condition, but on one portion of its surface there 
are visible traces of the characteristic concentric imbrications 
with the peculiar vertical serrations crossing them. Mr 
Davidson considers that it strongly resembles Schlotheim's 
species. 

Loe. and Horizon. — Fanning Eiver Limestone, North 
Queensland. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq., F.G.S., etc. 

Spirifera, sp. ind. — PI. VII., fig. 1. 

(Compare S^j. euryglossus (Schnur), Palffiontograpbica, iii, p. 209, 
t. 36, f. 5, a-d.) 

Ohs. — Another Spirifer occurs in the Fanning Limestone, 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, xxvi., pp. 226-261. 
t Ibid., xxviii. pp. 37-50. 



270 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

of which we at present have only one specimen. It is quite 
decorticated, much smaller than the preceding, with a deep 
well pronounced sulcus in the ventral valve extending well 
up into the beak, and bounded by strong ridge-like margins. 
In the dorsal valve there is a corresponding medial fold 
although not relatively so prominent as the sulcus. The 
hinge line was less in length than the width of the shell. 
It appears to resemble some of the Spirifera glabra group, 
but the loss of the shelly matter renders identification diffi- 
cult, especially as we have only one specimen. A close 
resemblance exists between Spirifer euryglossus (Schnur), and 
the present species. 

Zoc. and Horizon. — Fanning Eiver Limestone. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Atrypa — Palman, 1828. 

(Kongl. Vet. Acad. Handl. for ar 1827, p. 102.) 

Atrypa reticularis — Linnaeus. — PL YIL, fig. 2. 

Aiiomia reticularis, Linn., Syst. Nat., 1776, 12th Ed., i., pt. 2, p. 1152, 
Atrypa ,, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Dev. Brachiopoda, 1864, p. 53, 

t. 10, f. 3 and 4. 

Ohs. — One very well marked example of this cosmopolitan 
species has been forwarded by Mr Jack, and it affords me 
much satisfaction to be able to introduce it from Queensland 
rocks of Devonian age. The ventral valve is much better 
preserved than the dorsal, and although the characteristic 
decussating frills or laminae are preserved on both, they are 
seen to much greater advantage on the ventral. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Limestone of the Fanning Eiver. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Atrypa desquamata — J. de. C. Sowerby. — PI. VII., figs. 3, 4. 

Atrypa desquamata, J. de. C. Sow., Trans. Geol. Soc, 1840, 2d. ser. v., Expl. 
of t. 56— t. 56, f. 19, 20. 
„ ,, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Dev. Brach., 1864, p. 58, t. 10, 

f. 9-13, t. 11, f. 1-9 {for synono7ny). 

Ohs. — From the series of figures of Atrypa desquamata 
given by Mr Davidson, it is quite clear that the species is 
one of considerable variation, both in the relative dimensions 



Mr EtJieridge on Fossils from Boiucn River Coalfield. 271 

of the shell, from the hinge line or beak to the front margin, 
and also latemlly, from side to side, the result being that the 
length of the hinge line is also variable, short in some 
varieties, longer in others. 

We possess three shells from the Fanning Eiver beds, 
which I think are more than probably this species. If we 
take the best preserved of the three, we find that it is very 
much more transverse than those represented by Mr David- 
son on PL X. of his Devonian Monograph, but not more so 
than some of the figures of PL XI. of the same work. 
Again, the relative convexity of the valves when in apposi- 
tion is very much less than Mr Davidson's fig. 15 of PL 
XI., but is a little more pronounced than the fig. oa of the- 
same plate. Even among the three Queensland examples 
the shape varies somewhat. The ribbing of the valves cor- 
responds with that seen in A. desqiiamata, and there are 
also traces of concentric laminse. Mr Davidson lays stress 
on the exposure of the foraminal aperture and presence of an 
area. Both are to a certain extent visible in one of the 
Queensland specimens, and of the former I give an enlarged 
figure. 

Professor M'Coy appears to have been the first to describe* 
the spiral appendages in A. desqicamata, and they have since 
been figured in their entirety by Mr Davidson.f It is inter- 
esting to note that two of the specimens under description 
(PL YII., fig. 4) exhibit traces of these arms from the shell 
having been removed by weathering. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Limestone of the Fanning Eiver, and 
shale above the Fanning Limestone, at Fanning Old Station. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Ehynchonella — Fischer, 1809. 

(Notice Foss. Gouv. Moscou, p. 35.) 
Rliynchonella, sp. ind. — PL YII., fig. 5. 

(Compare R. primipilaris (Von Buch), Davidson, Mon. Brit. Dev. 
Brachiopoda, 1865, p. 6Q, t. 14, f. 4-6.) 

Ohs. — We have five specimens of a EhyncJionella, which 
appear to be very close to if not quite identical with this 

* Brit. Pal. Foss,, p. 379. + Loc. cit, t. 11, f. 7, 8. 



272 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

species. Like the Spirifers, previously described, their preser- 
vation is unsatisfactory, but they appear to correspond better 
with the characters assigned by Mr Davidson to Von Buch's 
species than to any other. The shape of the shell appears to 
be much the same, and there is the bending down of the front 
margin of the dorsal valve quite apparent in all the speci- 
mens. On submitting the specimens to Mr Davidson he 
replied that " the Bhynchonellce seem to be very close to the 
B. primi^ilaris of the Devonian." 

Loc. and Horizon. — Fanning Old Station, in shale above the 
Fanning Limestone. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Orthotetes — Fischer, 1829. 

(Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, p. 375.) 
Orthotetes crenistria, Phillips, var. 

S2nrifera crenistria, Phillips, Geol. York, 1836, ii., p. 216, t. 9, f. 6. 
Streptorhynchus crenistria, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Dev. Brach., 1865, p. 81, 

t. 18, f. 4-7. 

Orthotetes crenistria, De Koiiinck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, 

pt. 3, p. 212, t. 10, f. 8. 

Ohs. — A very well marked and clear specimen of this 
variable shell was forwarded with the other specimens, but 
unfortunately through a mishap to the parcel containing it, 
when passing through the post, the specimen was lost. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Limestone of the Fanning Eiver. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

CAEBONIFEEOUS SPECIES. 

Class Actinozoa. 

This class is represented by two species of Lonsdale's genus 
Stenopora from the fossiliferous and decomposed nodular 
ironstone of Coral Creek, Bowen Eiver coalfield, and there is 
one specimen of a rugose coral from a similar bed on Parrot 
Creek, four and a half miles up. These corals have been 
described in a separate communication by Professor H. A. 
Nicholson, M.D., and myself* 

* Annals Nat. Hist., Sept. and Oct. 1879. 



Mr Etluridgc on Fossils fro7n Bowen River Coalfield. 273 

At the present moment it may simply be stated that the 
two species of Stenopora, are S. ovata (Lonsdale), and an un- 
doubtedly undescribed and peculiar form, which we have 
distinguished as aS'. Jackii. 

Class Polyzoa. 

The Polyzoa from the Bowen Eiver coalfield are few in 
species, and their state of preservation is exceedingly badj 
and in this resembling to a great extent most other examples 
I have been accustomed to see from the Australasian Palaeo- 
zoic rocks. The geological collection of the British Museum 
contains some very fine slabs from various localities, chiefly 
Tasmanian, but all of them, almost without exception, are, 
like the Queensland examples, in the state of casts. In such 
specimens the whole of the substance of the polyzoarium has 
been removed, leaving usually not the slightest trace of the 
cells, but is merely represented by the hollow spaces from 
which the stems and branches have disappeared, and the 
casts of the mesh-like fenestrules. This state of preservation 
has rendered identification very difficult, a difficulty not 
decreased by the obviously perplexing manner in which the 
characters of the species appear to run into one another. 

The principal forms which have been described from the 
Australian Carboniferous rocks are Fenestella atnpla (Lonsd.), 
F. internata (Lonsd.), and F. fossula (Lonsd.), and according to 
the descriptions and figures given by Mr Lonsdale in Mr 
Darwin's and Count Strzelecki's works appear well esta- 
blished and distinct species. When, however, I came to 
examine a suite of specimens in the British Museum from 
tjrpical Tasmanian localities, in conjunction with the Queens- 
land specimens, I found that, in the absence of definite infor- 
mation concerning the nature of the cells, it became very 
difficult to distinguish between them, so little reliance can 
be placed upon the size and relative distance apart of the 
meshes of the polyzoarium. The number of intermediate 
forms which appear to exist between any two hitherto con- 
sidered species is so great as to almost preclude any satisfac- 
tory conclusion being arrived at. 

With the view of assisting in the correct determination of 



274 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

these specimens, I have endeavoured to obtain access to the 
types of Lonsdale's species of Fenestella, forming a portion of 
the collection formed by Dr Darwin, F.R.S., and described in 
his work on "Volcanic Islands." Unfortunately these are 
not now forthcoming, and appear to have been altogether lost, 
so that for the future the determination of these species must 
always remain on an unsatisfactory basis. An exception 
to the unsatisfactory state of things amongst the Queens- 
land Polyzoa exists in the form of a much crumpled, con- 
torted, and curled polyzoarium of large extent, easily recog- 
nisable by its strongly marked characters, when seen in the 
form of casts. In this particular it is clearly allied to the 
typical condition of Fenestella ampla (Lonsdale), . but differs 
essentially in the perfectly circular form of the casts of the 
fenestrules, their quincuncial arrangement, and wide separa- 
tion from one another, thus denoting a large extent of inter- 
stitial surface on the stems and branches. 

The next example in regard to the size of its constituent 
parts is what at first sight might be taken for Lonsdale's F. 
ampla, but on a critical comparison with the figures given in 
Count Strzelecki's work, it will be observed that the casts of 
the fenestrules are smaller and very much closer together 
than in the latter. The difference between the size of the 
fenestrules as represented by their casts and the distance of 
one from the other in the two specimens will become ap- 
parent at once. So far they are distinct, but there are in the 
British Museum Collection intermediate forms so intimately 
uniting these by insensible gradations that I hesitate to 
separate them, notwithstanding the noteworthy points of 
difference between the two extremes. It may not be out of 
place to mention that the smaller form agrees very much 
better with Professor De Koninck's representation of Fenestella 
ampla than with the late Mr Lonsdale's, from which De 
Koninck's figure differs in many particulars. 

The third and last form we have to deal with possessed a 
frond still finer in the mesh than the preceding, the fenes- 
trules being very much closer together and almost round. 
As it stands by itself, it is quite separable from any of the 
others, yet there are here, as in the former case, a number of 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Boiven River Coalfield. 275 

specimens intermediate between it and the supposed F. 
ampla referred to above. In point of texture the one now 
under consideration compares most favourably with Lonsdale's 
F. fossula. 

That one and all of these are a single variable species it is 
difficult to believe, and I do not for one moment so assert it ; 
but it is nevertheless quite clear that, taking certain well- 
marked forms amongst these Australian Carboniferous Polyzoa 
as fixed points, we then have a series of intermediate ex- 
amples so varied and so numerous that it is exceedingly dif- 
ficult, and at times I believe quite impossible, to draw a line 
of demarcation where one species begins and the other ends — 
what is one and what is another. Some observers would 
doubtless endeavour to make every slight variation a specific 
diff'erence ; but with this I do not agree, and were they to do 
so in the present instance, a difficult and much obscured sub- 
ject would become still more complex. 

Genus Protoretepora— Z^e Koninck, 1877. 

(Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sucl., pt. 3, p. 178.) 

Obs. — This genus was established by Professor De Koninck 
for the reception of certain species hitherto placed in Fenestella, 
Polypora, and other genera. According to the original defini- 
tion of Fenestella, as laid down by Lonsdale, the celluliferous 
face of the polyzoarium is external.* He says, " One row of 
pores on each side of the branches externally;" and again 
M'Coy, in describing the genus, adds, " two rows of prominent 
pores on the external carinated face of each interstice." f By 
the redefinition of M'Coy, and again of King,| the original 
Fenestella of Lonsdale became restricted to those fan-like or 
infundibuliform reticulate Palaeozoic Polyzoa in which the 
vertical or radiating ribs (interstices) are alone poriferous, 
and the connecting bars (dissepiments) not so. By this judi- 
cious restriction there were eliminated from Fenestella (Lonsd.), 
such colonies as Polypora (M'Coy), Ptylopora (Secular), Phyllo^ 
pora (King), and the like. Polypora (M'Coy), includes those 

* Murcliison's "Silurian Syst.," 1839, p. 677. 

+ Synop. Carb. Limestone Foss. Ireland, 1844, p. 200., 

X Mon. Perm. Foss. England, 1850, p. 35. 



276 Froceedings of the Royal PhysiGal Society. 

reticulate colonies in which both the interstices and dissepi- 
ments are cell-bearing, in contradistinction to Fenestella."^ 
Phyllopora (King), on the other hand, contains those forms in 
which there is no definite separation into interstices and dis- 
sepiments, but the whole of one surface of the colony, the 
outer or external, is celluliferous,*!- having a general and out- 
ward resemblance to the recent Betepora. It appears, how- 
ever, that the names Fenestella and Folypora had been indis- 
criminately used by some writers for colonies which really 
possessed the characters of Phyllo^pora, except that the cell- 
bearing face or aspect of the polyzoarium was internal instead 
of external, as expressly stated is the case by Professor W. 
King in his genus. It is for these infundibuliform and inter- 
mediate Fhyllopora-Yike forms that Professor L. G. de Koninck 
has proposed his genus Frotoretepora. In a few words, it may 
be said to differ from the allied genera as follows : from Fenes- 
tella, by having the whole of one face of the polyzoarium cell- 
bearing, and that the internal instead of the external, and the 
cells limited to the interstices only ; from Polypora, by the 
absence of a well-defined separation of the polyzoarium into 
interstices and dissepiments, and the disposition of the aper- 
tures of the cells on the internal instead of the external face, 
although, like Phyllopora, the whole of the cell-bearing face 
is celluliferous ; lastly, from Fhyllopora, simply by the fact 
that the celluliferous aspect is internal, and not external, the 
arrangement and disposition of the cells being exactly the 
same. 

Protoretepora would at first sight appear to have close rela- 
tions to the recent Retepora, and it appears to me that the 
only reason assigned for their separation by Professor De 
Koninck scarcely seems sufficient. He says that " in Rete- 
pora properly speaking the branches are arranged (contour- 
nees) in such a way as to form meshes, and not regular rows 
of ' oscules' or fenestrules" (i.e. as in Protoretepora). I must 
confess that after examining carefully a specimen of the 
recent Retepora Beaniana (King), I cannot see that the differ- 
ence pointed out by Professor De Koninck is of sufficient im- 
portance in itself to base a generic separation on. On the 

* M'Coy, loc. ciL, p. 206. + King, loc. cit., p. 389. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 277 

other hand, if we look a little more minutely into the subject, 
we shall, I think, find a much more satisfactory reason for 
the separation of the two forms. 

Lonsdale long ago pointed out, in describing* his Fenestella 
avijjla, that the polyzoarium was bilamellar, the outer layer 
or back of the branches being "composed of a uniform 
crust," upon which are seated the tubular cells, at right 
angles, or a little obliquely to the former. This structure is 
exceedingly well shown in Mr Lonsdale's figure given in 
Count Strzelecki's work;*!* but we are indebted for a further 
and fuller exposition of it to Professor W. King. This author 
showed^ that in his genus Phyllopora, and some other Palaeo- 
zoic genera, the frond was bilamellar or bistructural, consist- 
ing of a lamina of capillary tubes, called the basal plate, and 
an outer lamina of cellules, arranged more or less at right 
angles to and on this. On the other hand, he states that in 
the Elasmoporid(E (== Beteporidcp, auct.) the frond is uni- 
lamello-celluliferous, " composed of one lamina, consisting 
simply of cellules or polypidoms." As before stated, this 
bilamellar structure has been shown to exist in Frotoretepora 
amyla by Lonsdale, and it appears to me a character of much 
more generic value than the mere arrangement only of the 
fenestrules. 

Two forms of Protoreteyora occur amongst Mr Jack's fos- 
sils — one, a bold and distinctly marked form, which I propose 
to call P. Koninchii; the other possessing all the character of 
P. amyla, the type of the genus, except that it is of a much 
smaller habit. 

Protoretepora Koninchii, sp. nov. 

Sp. char. — Polyzoarium infundibuliform, curled and much 
crumpled, of large extent. Fenestrules, small round, separated 
by wide interspaces (interstitial), and arranged in quincunx. 
Interstitial surface occupied by from five to ten rows of cell 
apertures between contiguous fenestrules. Cells with hexa- 
gonal or polygonal bases. Basal plate thin and striated. 

* Darwin's "Volcanic Islands," pp. 163, 164. 

+ Ihicl, t. 9, f. U. 

X Annals Nat. Hist., 1849, pp. 383-90; Alon. Perm. Foss., p. 42. 



'278 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Qls. — The above imperfect characters are derived from 
numerous casts occurring in the fossiliferous and feruginous 
sandstone nodules of Coral Creek, and notwithstanding their 
brevity, will, I think, enable the form to be recognised, its 
characters are so prominent and marked. 

The fenestrules are smaller than in typical specimens of 
P. ampla (Lonsdale), but the increased interstitial surface 
separating the circular fenestrules gives to P. Koninckii a 
very marked appearance, which is still further increased by 
the large extent of the curled and crumpled infundibuliform 
frond, with its numerous ramifications displayed to great 
advantage in the nodular matrix in which it is entombed. 

Unfortunately for a proper illustration of the species, I am 
at present only acquainted with casts, and whenever any 
trace of the cells is left, it is always the hexagonal or poly- 
gonal bases, with the basal plate worn oft". 

From amongst the other species which Professor De Koninck 
indicates as belonging to Protoretepora, the present one may 
be distinguished thus : From P. {Polypora) Halliana (Prout) * 
by identically the same points which separate it from P. 
am/pla (Lonsdale), only in a more marked degree, and from 
P. (Polypora) Ramiltonensisf by the generally enlarged con- 
dition of all the characters in P. Koninckii, as compared with 
those of the last named. 

Log. and Horizon. — Coral Creek, below Sonoma road-cross- 
ing, Bowen Eiver coalfield, in a decomposed nodular iron- 
stone, associated with Stenopora and numerous other fossils 
(Marine Series, Nos. 77, 80, 85, 98, 123, etc.). 

Collector. — R. L. Jack, Esq. 

Protoretepora, sp. ind. 

(Compare P. (Fenestella) ampla (Lonsdale), in Strzelecki's "Phys. Descrip. 
N. S. Wales," etc., 1845, p. 268, t. 9, f. S-^d, and more particularly De 
Koninck's figs., Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, t. 8, f. 5-5c.) 

Ql)s. — Of equal frequency with the last is another form, 
the second referred to in the introductory remarks on the 
Polyzoa, having more or less the character and appearance of 

* Illinois Geol. Survey Eeport, ii., t. 21, f. 4 and ia, b. 
t Ibid.y ii., f. 6 and 6a. 



Mr EtheTidge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 279 

P. ampla (Lonsdale), the type of the genus Protoretepora, but 
with this exception, that the entire habit of the polyzoarium 
is on a smaller scale. Whether to consider this as a variety 
only of P. ampla, or as a distinct form I am at a loss to 
decide, a state of uncertainty which is not diminished by the 
regular gradation traceable through a series of specimens pre- 
viously referred to, as in the British Museum Collection. 
Careful measurements of the number of fenestrules in the 
space of an inch vertical on the surface of these examples 
shows that, from the typical P. ampla, where there are pretty 
constantly 9 or 10, we pass through such gradations as poly- 
zoaria with 14 or 15, another with 16 or 17, and an extreme 
of 18 to 20, and this it must be borne in mind without any 
material change in the other features, beyond such as would 
of course be caused by increased or decreased growth. I 
have investigated this matter somewhat fully in company 
with my colleague, Dr "Woodward, F.E.S., who agrees with 
me as to the difficulties attending specific separation amongst 
these Australian Polyzoa. Of course it is just possible that, 
had we the perfect fronds to deal with, matters might be 
simplified, but as they are at present only known to me as 
casts, little more can be said just now. 

The non-celluliferous face of the present Queensland speci- 
mens is minutely striated, the fenestrules are oval and of 
medium size. The cellules are arranged in quincunx, and 
in from three to six oblique rows on the interstitial surface, 
but more commonly the rows are four. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Identical with the preceding species 
(Nos. 64, 81, 93, 109, etc.). 

Genus Fenestella — Miller and Lonsdale, 1839. 

(Murchison's "Silurian System," p. 677.) 
Fenestella^ sp. ind. 

(Compare F. fossula (Lonsdale), in Strzelecki's "Phys, Descrip. N. S. Wales," 
1845, p. 269, t. 9, f. 1 and la.) 

Ohs. — This is a dense probably infundibuliform species, in 
which the number of rows of cells on the interstices varies 
from two to five, the increase taking place a short distance 



280 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society, 

before the bifurcations of each branch, the normal number 
however appears to be five. The specimens, like those just 
described, exhibit none of the true substance of the poly- 
zoarium, but consist of mere casts in various states of pre- 
servation. The fenestrules are very closely set and almost 
round. The state of preservation does not permit of any 
definite description being given. 

Log. and Horizon. — Identical with the preceding species 
(Nos. 84, 112, and 130, etc.). 



CLASS BEACHIOPODA. 

Genus Spirifeea — J. Sowerhy. 
S;pirifera glalra — Martin. 

Conch. (Anomites) glaber, Martin, Pet. Derb., 1809, t. 48, f. 9, 10. 
Spirifera glabra, Davidson, Mon, Brit. Carb. Brachiopoda, pp. 59 and 264, 
t. 11, f. 1-9, t. 12, f. 1-5, 11 and 12 {for general synonomy). 
,, ,, Etheridge, jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 56 {for 

Australian synonomy). 

Ohs. — I refer to this species a portion of a single specimen 
of a ventral valve, showing the umbo, visceral region, area, 
and part of the sinus. There are also traces of the broad 
concentric laminae which make a prominent feature in the 
Australian forms of this species. It is of frequent occurrence 
in the Carboniferous rocks of this Continent. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Stonelumpy Creek, Bowen Eiver coal- 
field (Marine Series, No. 164). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Spirifera convoluta — Phillips. — PI. VII., fig. 6. 

Spirifera convoluta, Phill., Geol. York., 1836, ii., p. 217, t. 9, f. 7. 

,, ,, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Carb. Brachiopoda, p. 35, t. 5, f. 

2-15 {for general synonomy). 
,, „ Etheridge, jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 55 {for 

Australian synonomy). 

Ohs. — A small cast in a friable micaceous sandstone appears 
to possess all the chief characters of this species — elongated 
hinge line, acute alar angles, and bifurcated ribs, which 
gradually disappear on the wings. 



Mr Ether iclge on Fossils from Bowe7i River Coalfield, 281 

Loc. and Horizon. — Parrot Creek, four and a quarter miles 
up (Marine Series, No. 140). 

Spirifera Darwinii — Morris (?). — PL VIT., figs. 7-10 ; 
PL VIIL, fig. 11. 

S. Darwinii, Morris, Strzelecki's "Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," etc., 1845, 

p. 279. 
S. subradiaius, Morris {non Sow.), loc. ciL, t. 15, f. ha (fig. ccet. exclusis). 
S. Darwinii, Dana, Geol. U.S. Exploring Exped., p. 684 ; atlas, t. 1, f. 7. 
,, De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, p. 

230 ; Atlas, t. 10, f. 11, t. 11, f. 10, t. 16, f. 1. 
,, Etlieridge, jun.. Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 55. 

Ohs. — I have referred to this species a few small Spirifers 
from Coral Creek and other localities, with a deep wide sinus 
in the ventral valve, bordered on each side by three pro- 
minent ribs, and the rudiment of a fourth. In the dorsal 
valve the fold is broad and well marked, and there are the 
same number of ribs as in the ventral. There are indications 
of the divided mesial lobe or fold in one of the specimens, 
but in the other dorsal valve the fold is too much pinched up 
to show this distinctly. The characteristic concentric laminae 
are also visible in another of the specimens. I have com- 
pared the Queensland examples with the type contained in 
the Strzelecki Collection, and also with a very typical speci- 
men from the cliffs at Woollongong, New South Wales, for 
which I am indebted to my friend Professor A. Liversidge, 
F.C.S., F.G.S., etc., of Sydney University, and I find that, 
allowing for difference of age and state of preservation, it 
may safely be concluded that the specimens collected by Mr 
Jack belong to this species. 

I am quite in accord with Professor De Koninck in refer- 
ring one of the shells figured by Professor Morris as Spirifer 
suhradiatus (G. Sowerby) to the present species. I have com- 
pared this particular specimen with Morris's type of the latter.* 
In justice to Professor Morris, it must be borne in mind that 
he himself hinted at this union. Again, I think it not at all 
improbable that Professor Dana is correct in placing *S'. pau- 
cicostata (G. Sow.) as a synonym of S. Dariuinii (Morris). 

Loc. and Horizon. — Coral Creek, below Sonoma road-cross- 

* Strzelecki's "Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," p. 279. 
VOL. V. T 



282 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

ing (No. 83) ; Parrot Creek, four and a quarter miles up (No. 
148) ; both in Marine Series. 
Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Orthotetes — Fischer. 

Orthotetes erenistria, var. senilis — Phillips. — PL VIIL, 
figs. 12-15. 

Spirifcr senilis, Pliill., Geol. Yorksh., 1836, ii., p. 216, t. 9, f. 5. 
Btrcptorliynchus erenistria, var. senilis, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Carb. Brach., 

t. 27, f. 2-2«, 3-3a, and 4. 
Leptcena senilis, M'Coy, Brit. Pal. Foss., 1853, fas. 3, p. 45a. 

Ohs. — There can be no mistaking this semi-conical, irregular, 
and gnarled-looking variety of the widely spread Orthotetes 
erenistria. The ordinary form of the species has been before 
recorded from Australian Carboniferous rocks,* but, so far as I 
am aware, the variety senilis has not previously been met with. 

The Queensland specimens have, in common with British 
examples, the semi-conic ventral valve, with step-like inter- 
ruptions, " produced by two or three very large and irregular 
concentric undulations," the elevated but not incurved beak, 
and the wide area with its convex deltidium. Similarly, the 
dorsal valve exhibits the straight hinge line, evenly convex 
surface, and much less marked undulations. The striation of 
the valves likewise appears to be identical, and there are also 
the same concentric laminations of the area and deltidium as 
seen in some British examples. In these shells from Queens- 
land the sheUy matter is decidedly and distinctly punctate, 
and when the surface is at all worn the punctee are every- 
where visible, and more especially on the area. I believe the 
punctate structure of the shell in Orthotetes (= Streptorhyn- 
ehiis) has not been generally recognised, for in the generic 
descriptions of it given by all the best authors, the shell is 
said to be impunctate. However, that most accurate observer, 
Professor W. King, has not omitted to notice this peculiarity 
in a Permian species of the genus, 0. pelargonatus (Schlo- 
theim).-f- On mentioning the existence of these perforations 
in the Australian shells to Mr Davidson, he informed me 

* De Koninck : "Foss. Pal. Nonv-Galles du Sud.," 1877, pt. 3, p. 213. 
+ Mon. Permian Foss. England, p. 109. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Boioen River Coalfield. 283 

that he had recently seen the same structure in some British 
OrtJiotetes. 

The punctse on the exterior of the shells appear as small 
rugosities scattered at random over the surface of the ribs or 
striae and intervening valleys ornamxcnting these shells, but 
when worn to any extent their perforate character at once 
becomes apparent. They are in particular very numerous on 
the area and deltidium. 

These prominent examples of Orthotetes senilis to some 
extent resemble the variety rohusta (Hall), figured by Mr 
Davidson from Indian Carboniferous rocks,* only, in the 
latter, the ventral valve appears wider across the hinge ; the 
umbo, however, projects upwards and backwards, as in the 
Queensland examples. 

Log. and Horizon. — Pelican Creek, three-quarters of a mile 
above Sonoma road-crossing (Marine Series, JSTos. 54 to 57 
inclusive). Havilah-Byerwin Eoad, one mile south of Eosella 
Creek crossing. The geological position of this species in the 
Bowen Eiver coalfield is both interesting and peculiar. 
According to Mr Jack's notes, it is found at a second locality 
in a marine band, in his Fresh -Water Series, which is 
characterised by the predominance of the much-disputed 
genus Glossopteris, and other so-called Oolitic plants (Nos. 
190, 194, 212). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Productus— /. Sowerhj, 1814. 

(Min. Con., i., p. 153.) 

Productus subquadratus — Morris (?). 

P. suhquculratus, Morris, Strzelecki's "Pliys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," etc., 
1845, p. 284. 
,, De Koninck, Mon. Productus et Chonetes, 1847, p. 100, 

t. 14, f. 1. 
,, Etheridge, jun.. Cat. Australian Fossils, 1878, p. 53. 

Ohs. — A single, large, quadrate, and gibbous cast of the 
exterior of the united valves of an individual appears from 
the arrangement of the spines and general appearance to be 
* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, xviii., p. 30, t. 1, f. 16. 



284 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

referable to this species, if species it be, and not, as Professor 
De Koninck has pointed out, only a form of P. 'brachythmriis 
(G. Sow.). The ventral valve of the Queensland example, judg- 
ing from the cast, was very much vaulted and covered with 
the elongated tear-like bases of spines disposed irregularly, 
but in the greatest number over the visceral portion of the 
valve, and on the ears. 

The form of the dorsal valve is peculiar, on account of the 
marked concavity, following closely the curvature of the 
ventral valve, and uniting with the latter in its front pro- 
longation, which is almost at right angles to the body of the 
shell. Besides the tear-like spines, the shell appears to have 
been covered with delicate vertical striae. 

In the only specimen which has come under my notice, 
the spine bases are finer and more numerous than repre- 
sented in the figure given by De Koninck. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Pelican Creek, two and a half miles 
above Sonoma road-crossing (Marine Series, No. 59). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Productus hrachythcerus — G. Sowerby. — PL VIIL, fig. 16 ; 
PI. IX., figs. 17, 18. 

P. hrachythcerus, G. Sow., Darwin's "Geol. Obs. Volcanic Is. , " 1844, p. 158. 
„ Morris, Strzelecki's " Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," 1845, 

p. 284, t. 14, f. Ac (non 45). 
„ De Koninck, Mon. Productus et Clionetes,1847, p. 102, 1. 10, 

t la and h (non Ic and d). 
P. undulatus, M'Coy, Annals Nat. Hist., 1847, xx., p. 236, t. 13, f. 2. 
P. hrachythcerus, De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, 
p. 198, t. 10, f. 4 and 4a, t. 11, f. 1. 
„ Etheridge, jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 51 {for 

synoiiomy). 

Ohs. — This characteristic Australian species is represented 
in Mr Jack's collection by specimens from two localities. 
All who have written on P. hrachythwrus lay stress on the 
shortness of the hinge line, as compared with the width of 
the front. This, with the elongated decurrent bases of the 
spines, forming channels in the shell, are particularly charac- 
teristic points in G. Sowerby 's species. The channelling of 
the shell by the spine bases is seen in many species of Pro- 



Mr Etluriclije on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 285 

ductus, but it appears to be peculiarly distinctive of P. 
hracliytliccrus. The length of the hinge line varies according 
to age, in large and old individuals it becomes longer, and the 
shell, which is very convex and geniculate, loses some of its 
convexity, and widens out likewise. 

In describing this species Professor Morris, F.G.S., referred 
to it two shells of very different aspect and state of preser- 
vation. One of these is a cast in sandstone, showing the 
general form, and more particularly the channels formed by 
the decurrent bases of the spines. The other specimen is a 
decorticated silicious cast, and displays the internal characters 
of both valves to great perfection. On the ventral valve are 
exposed the node-like prominences of the cardinal muscles, 
the scars of the more elongated adductor muscles, and the 
internal cast of the beak. The dorsal valve shows the scars 
of the adductors, and the cast of the septum, which in this 
individual reaches almost to the front margin of the valve, 
an unusual length in the genus Productus. The vascular 
impressions are also preserved and come very far forward 
like the septum. These details are important as will be seen 
from the sequel. 

In his recently published work on the " New South Wales 
Fossils of the Clarke Collection," Professor De Koninck has 
expressed an opinion that the two shells in question referred 
by Morris to P. Irachytlueims are different, and do not belong 
to the same species, one being possessed of a short septum in 
the dorsal valve, and less marked muscular scars, the other 
on the contrary with a very long septum, and strongly marked 
scars. In working out Mr Jack's Proditcti it became essential, 
for anything like a correct determination of the specimens, 
that some more satisfactory solution of this subject than 
mere opinion should be arrived at. 

In the first place I endeavoured to obtain access to Mr G. 
Sowerby's type specimen, contained in the collection made 
by Dr C. Darwin, F.E.S., but although the latter most cour- 
teously informed me of the supposed whereabouts of his 
collection, it cannot, after a thorough search, be found, so that 
I am afraid this, and the other specimens, all of them of 
great interest, must be accounted lost. Next in order of 



286 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

importance, from a typical point of view, are the specimens 
used by Professor Morris, and forming a part of the Strze- 
lecki Collection, now in the British Museum. In the 
absence of Mr G. Sowerby's type these specimens must be 
so accepted, and to their structure all future appeals must be 
made in determining the identity of P. Irachythcerus (G. Sow.), 
Morris. Now, as stated above, Professor De Koninck regards 
the silicified cast* with the long septum, described by Morris 
as P. Irachythcerus, to be specifically distinct from the true 
P. hrachythcerus^f a name which he considers should be 
retained for a form with a short septum, amongst other 
characters. Now the silicified cast figured by Morris in 
Strzelecki's work (PL XIV., f. 4a and h) has for one of its most 
distinctive characters a long septum in the dorsal valve, as 
previously pointed out, and on looking this matter up it 
became a question with Dr H. Woodward and myself 
whether the view advanced by De Koninck was not the 
correct one, especially as the example of P. Irachythcerus 
represented by the sandstone cast accorded much better with 
Sowerby's description of his species, than did the silicious 
example. The specimen in question,]: as then exposed, was 
that of a ventral valve backed up with matrix, so that it 
became a nice point, whether, on the removal of this, in itself 
a very delicate operation with so fragile a specimen, the cast 
of the dorsal valve would be visible and the septum exposed, 
long or short as the case might be. After due consideration 
we determined that an effort should be made, and the speci- 
men was accordingly handed over to Mr Barlow, the Depart- 
mental Lapidary at the British Museum, for manipulation. 
Extreme care enabled Mr Barlow to remove the whole of the 
matrix without very much damage to the specimen, consider- 
ing the delicacy of the operation, and with this result, that it 
was found to possess, so far as we are able to judge, a short 
septum, so probably confirming in a remarkable manner 
Professor De Koninck's surmise. The matter then stands 
thus — the figure given by Morris in Strzelecki's work on 
" New South Wales," PI. XIV., f. 4c, is the true P. Irachythcerus, 

* Strzelecki, pi. 14, f. 4a and b. + Loc. city f. 4« and h. 

X strzelecki, loc. ciL, jpl. 14, f. 4c. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 287 

characterised by the presence of a short septum and a little 
developed muscular system. On the other hand (PL XIV., f. 4a 
and h of the same work), the silicious cast, with a very long- 
septum and great muscular development, is a distinct and 
separate species ; its identity will be considered further on. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Professor T. M'K. Hughes, 
M.A., for the loan of the specimen of P. Irachythcerus from the 
W. B. Clarke Collection of the Woodwardian Museum, referred 
to by Professor M'Coy in his celebrated paper on the New 
South Wales Fossils,* and also for the type of Proditctus 
undulatus (M'Coy), from the same collection. The Cambridge 
specimens of P. hracliythmrus do not call for any particular 
notice beyond the fact that they show the species to be in 
outward appearance not unlike the variety pugilis (Phill.) of 
the European species, P. semiretimlattcs (Martin) — a peculiar 
streaky appearance is given to the exterior of the shell by the 
decurrent bases of the spines. With regard to M'Coy's P. 
undulatus, Professor De Koninck-f refers it to P. hrachythwrus ; 
but a careful examination of the type forwarded to me from 
the Woodwardian Museum has not so thoroughly convinced 
me of the advisability of this step as I could wish. I have 
not seen such peculiar undulating strise upon any specimen 
of P. hrachythccrus I have examined. 

Finally, a few words must be said on tlie subject of Pro- 
ductus fragilis (Dana). My own impression, taken merely 
from the description and figures of the species by Professor 
Dana, is that P. fragilis is nothing more than a condition 
of P. hrachythoirus. Professor De Koninck is of a contrary 
opinion, and has furnished an elaborate description of it in 
his recent work. J With all due respect, however, I would 
venture to suggest that Professor Dana's description and 
figures are totally inadequate for any palceontologist to deter- 
mine, with anything like certainty, what is, or is not, Pro- 
ductus fragilis (Dana). I looked forward to being able to 
throw some light on this subject by means of a direct com- 
parison of authenticated specimens of P. fragilis, with the 
Morrisian type of P. Irachythcerus. Unfortunately, however, 

* Annals Nat. Hist., 1847, xx., p. 235. 

+ Foss. Pal. Kouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, p. 198, X Loc. ciL, p. 201. 



288 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Professor J. D. Dana, in a very kind letter lately received,* 
informs me that the specimens of his P. fragilis are supposed 
to have been destroyed in the disastrous fire which toolv place 
some years ago at the Smithsonian Institution, where the 
"Expedition Collection" was deposited. Here, again, we 
shall, in all probability, be for ever left in doubt as to the 
correct identity of a species. 

To return to the Queensland shells once more — their iden- 
tification with P. hracliythcerus is fully borne out by the 
shortness of the hinge, tendency to expand towards the front, 
concavity of the dorsal valve, geniculate or bowed character 
of the ventral, and the exposure in one of the specimens of 
the short septum. 

Log, and Horizon. — Stonelumpy Creek — Marine Series (No. 
165) ; Havilah-Byerwin Eoad, one mile south of Eosella 
Creek crossing, associated with Streytorhynclms crenistria var. 
senilis, in a marine band in the Upper or Fresh- Water Series 
of the Bowen Eiver coalfield (No. 193). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Strophalosia — King, 1844. 

(Annals Nat. Hist., 1844, xiv. p. 313 ; Mon. Permian Foss. England, 
1850, p. 93.) 

Ohs. — The presence of the genus Strophalosia in the Pala30- 
zoic rocks of Australia has already been satisfactorily indi- 
dicated by Professor L. G. de Koninck,f who has described S. 
prodicctoides from the Devonian beds of Kempsey, New South 
Wales. In a collection made by Mr A. C. Gregory on the 
Mantua Downs in 1856, and submitted by the late Eev. W. 
B. Clarke, F.E.S., to Professor M'Coy in 1861, the latter re- 
cognised certain forms which he considered indicative of 
Permian rocks, viz.: a shell resembling Productus horridus, 
and another near Aulosteges or Strophalosia.l Lastly, my 
father, although he considered the existence of a Permian 
fauna in these regions required confirmation, § noticed the 

* Letter, dated *' New Haven," Feb. 17, 1879. 

+ Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1876, pt. 1, p. 83. 

t Trans. R. Soc. Vict., 1865, vi., p. 46. 

§ Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1872, xxviii., p. 32. 



Mr Etlicridgc on Fossils from Bowcn River Coalfield. 289 

occurrence of a shell on the Noyoa Eiver, which was pro- 
bably a Strophalosia, but may have been only a Produchis.^ 

It now affords me much satisfaction to be able to definitely 
announce the occurrence of the genus Strophcdosia in the 
Upper Palaeozoic rocks of Queensland, for, through Mr Jack's 
exertions, numerous specimens of this genus have been col- 
lected. These I have provisionally separated into two species. 
On the one hand there is the shell called by my father Fro- 
ductus Clarhei, which, on a more complete investigation, turns 
out to be a Strophalosia. On the other hand are certain 
other examples, perhaps only a variety of the foregoing, and 
which may have ultimately to be united with it, but, through 
the absence of intermediate forms, I have thought it better to 
keep distinct from S. Clarhei for the present. With the con- 
currence of Mr T. Davidson, these have been referred to 
Strophalosia Gerardi (King). 

The British Museum Collection contains another form of 
Strophalosia from New South Wales and Tasmania. The 
specimens were presented by the late Professor Jukes and 
Dr J. Milligan, and Mr Davidson also possesses a few. This 
form is, in many ways, a remarkable one, agreeing with both 
the preceding species in some respects, and differing in others. 
Pending the arrival of further material, I have adopted a 
similar course in this case, and have provisionally applied to 
them a name. 

Stroiohalosia Clarhei — Etheridge. — PL IX., figs. 18<x-21 ; PL X., 
figs. 22-28 ; PL XL, figs. 29-31 ; PL XII., figs. 32, 33. 

Produdus Clarkei, Etheridge, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1872, xxviii., p. 334, 
t. 17, f. 2 and 2 a, b. 
,, ,, De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Xouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, 

p. 203, t. 10, f. 5, t. 11, f. 2. 
,, ,, Etheridge, jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 51. 

S'p. Char. — Ventral valve strongly gibbous, or inflated; 
very prominent and convex about the visceral region, sloping 
gradually off to the front, but non-geniculate and unproduced. 
Hinge line straight, but not equal to the width of the shell. 
Ears flattened, small when compared with the general pro- 
* Loc. cit., p. 334. 



290 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

portions of the valve. Beak large, short, and blunt, but not 
overhanging the hinge line; immediately under it are two 
large obliquely-placed teeth, which fit into the sockets of the 
dorsal valve. In the umbonal region of the shell, proceeding 
from the beak towards the front, is a fine ridge or septum 
(a groove in casts), with, on each side of it, the dendritic 
adductor muscular impressions, each bounded on its outer 
margin by a well-defined groove (ridges in the cast). Im- 
mediately in front of these adductor impressions is a large, 
blunt prominence (in the cast becomes a hole or fossa of 
varying depth, and of a very marked character), with the 
outer edge much less precipitous than the inner. On each 
side this prominence are the depressed scars of the cardinal 
muscles, much deeper and more impressed on their inner or 
umbonal margins, and gradually dying out laterally towards 
the sides of the valve ; they are vertically grooved and ridged. 
(In the cast these impressions become ridged prominences, 
projecting or scarp-like along their upper edges, and they 
impinge somewhat on each side over the deep fossa just 
described.) The interior surface of the valve is pitted and 
ridged, producing in the cast granules and grooves; the former 
are continued over the surface of the blunt prominence (fossa 
in the cast) : the ridges seen on the interior represent the 
decurrent bases of spines. The exterior surface of the valve 
is unknown to me, but is described by Mr Etheridge, F.E.S., 
as " covered with fine, vertical, wavy lines, projecting from 
which are numerous slender spines." 

The dorsal valve is oval, flat, and very thick, bevelled out- 
wardly from the interior on the front margin. The latter is 
apparently continuous, and not indented in any way. Hinge 
line with rounded alar " angles ; area well marked, but not 
broad. Cardinal boss thick, strong, and prominent, project- 
ing from the hinge line at an angle of 119°, with the exterior 
plane of the valve centrally divided by a groove, which is 
flanked on each side by a kind of shoulder. Sockets for the 
reception of the teeth of the ventral valve deep, broad, and 
so far surrounding the boss as to produce an appearance of 
isolation in the latter from the remainder of the valve. The 
cardinal boss is supported on each side by indistinct, oblique 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from- Bowen River Coalfield. 291 

alar ridges. Septum strong and ridge-like, extending for 
more than two-thirds the distance between the cardinal boss 
and the front margin, terminating in a small button. Imme- 
diately under the boss is a deep depression, divided in the 
middle line by the septum, and in which are situated the 
dendritic adductor muscular impressions. This depression is 
separated by a transverse ridge running across the valve from 
a second depression similarly divided by the septum. The 
reniform impressions are narrow, semilunar, much incurved 
and abrupt at their front termination, and bounded outwardly 
by a deep groove or linear depression following their course. 
The internal bevelled edge is marked with very fine granules 
or pustules and small veinings, being the indications of the 
vascular system. The shell has a silky appearance, and when 
weathered or decorticated, the shell-substance is marked by 
a series of fine, wavy, vertical lines. The valve is exter- 
nally ornamented with a number of close, concentric, scaly 
laminae, and similar spines to the ventral. A series of spines 
are also placed along the hinge of the ventral valve (fig. 33), 
erect, and graduating outwards from the umbo. 

Qls, — This interesting species is known to us under two 
conditions — internal casts of the ventral valve in sandy-mud- 
stone, and dorsal valves retaining more or less of their shelly 
matter. Examples with the valves united, retaining the true 
shell, I have not seen ; but that both conditions I have placed 
under the name Strophalosia Clarkei belong to one species, 
will, I think, be self-evident, after a careful study of the 
figures given. Further, the specimens occur together at the 
same locality. 

The history of Strophalosia Clarkei is a brief one. It was 
originally described by my father as a Productus, from indif- 
ferent material in the Daintree Collection, and the external 
characters defined. Subsequently Professor De Koninck 
placed under this name a shell in the W. B. Clarke Collec- 
tion, and described it in his N'ew South Wales work. In my 
" Catalogue " I follow both these authors in placing the spe- 
cies under the genus Frodicctus. 1 had not then enjoyed an 
opportunity of examining specimens. 

To return to the fossils. Let us first examine the internal 



292 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

casts of the ventral valve, and compare the casts from Aus- 
tralia with the fine interior of >S'. Golclfussi (Munster), figured 
by Mr Davidson.* It will be observed that in Mr Davidson's 
fig. 9, representing a cast in a similar state of preservation to 
our specimens, there is, as in the latter, the correspondingly 
blunt and gradually attenuated but prominent beak (figs. 29 
and 30, i, i), and deep pits left by the teeth of the ventral 
valve (fig. 30, a). Again, compare in fig. 10 of the " Permian 
Monograph" the concave or grooved back of the umbo with 
that of the Queensland cast (figs. 27-30, h). Thirdly, the 
position of the adductor scars in the same Permian figure is 
quite comparable with that of the Australian specimens (figs. 
26-30, c, c, c, c), and more particularly with fig. 27. In Mr 
Davidson's figure the deep pit or fossa in front of these im- 
pressions is not so marked as in our fig. 29 ; but this is itself 
a variable point in the Australian shells. It is not as deep 
in fig. 26, and still less so in fig. 27 or 33. With regard to 
the cardinal muscular scars, we observe a perfectly similar 
arrangement — the position identically the same, similar ridg- 
ing and grooving, the only apparent difference being that in 
the Permian >S'. Goldfitssi the abrupt or scarp-like side appears 
to be towards the front, whereas in S. Clarkei it is towards 
the umbo or hinge-line (figs. 27 and 29, e, e, e, e). 

Having, I hope, at least shown the resemblance of the 
sandstone casts to the genus Strophalosia, it may perhaps be 
well to say a few words on their relation one to the other, 
chiefly on account of the great disproportion in the develop- 
ment of the central eminence, causing the deep pit in casts, 
and from the less marked appearance of the muscular scars 
and internal portions generally. I find the central eminence 
to be a very variable character amongst these shells. We 
have one extreme in fig. 29, and the other in fig. 33. Be- 
tween these two there is every gradation (figs. 26, 27, 28, d, d, d) 
in depth, and the same may be said of the muscular impres- 
sions, although they appear to be less open to variation than 
other parts. 

We may now pass on to a consideration of the dorsal 
valves of S. Clarkei, and for this purpose the material we 

* Mon. Permian Bracli., Pal. Soc, t. 3, figs. 9 and 10. 



Mr Ether idge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 293 

possess consists of examples with the shell preserved, and in 
a few cases retaining their internal characters in a fine state 
of preservation. 

It is strange that out of the large series forwarded by Mr 
Jack so few specimens should retain traces of the septum, 
reniform impressions, and other anatomical details. The 
usual condition under which the dorsal valves of >S^, Clarkei 
are presented to us in the Queensland Collection is shown by 
figs. 18a, 19, and 20, a flat, bevel-edged, more or less oval 
silky shell, and although viewed from the interior in each 
case, no trace of the marked characters of figs. 21 and 23 are 
visible, but on the contrary there is, in the place of the strong 
cardinal boss and septum, an oval gap in the shell substance. 
This discrepancy between such examples as figs. 18a and 21 
I believe can be accounted for simply by decortication, be- 
cause on several specimens before me I find traces of much 
shelly matter remaining, and which, if wholly preserved, 
would bring the shell up to the thickness required to make it 
correspond with fig. 21 or 23. A more complete demonstra- 
tion may be made by means of figs. 20, 24, and 25. In fig. 
25 we have a young example, in which the septum, alar 
ridges, and dental sockets are clearly visible. In fig. 20 these 
are all absent, but we have left the front termination of the 
right reniform impression (fig. 20), and again, in fig. 24, we 
have a further advance in traces of the great central depres- 
sions and the actual presence of the reniform scars, clearly 
leading up to figs. 21 and 23. I think that, putting together 
the information deducible from these several specimens, all 
the examples similar to figs. 18a and 19 may be fairly said 
to have intimate connection with the more perfect figs. 21, 
etc. On the receipt of Mr Jack's collection, I was at once 
struck with the appearance of fig. 2-3, and sought the opinion 
of Mr Davidson on the subject. In reply he sent me two 
corresponding valves (fig. 21) forwarded to him some time 
ago from New South Wales by the Eev. J. E. T. Woods, F.G.S., 
and which had been placed by Mr Davidson in his cabinet 
under the name of Strophalosia Woodsi (m. s.). On working 
through the Queensland Collection, it became apparent from 
the form, structure of the shell, and general characters of 



294 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

the specimens in question, that they could be no other than 
my father's Productus Clarkei, and identical with the well- 
marked fig. 23. Holding this in view, I forwarded my notes 
and specimens to Mr Davidson, and after a lengthened corre- 
spondence, and the production of satisfactory evidence, I 
was able to convince him of the identity of his Strophalosia 
Woodsi (m. s.) and >S^. Clarkei (Etheridge). 

It is hardly necessary to compare S. Clarkei with other 
described species, except S. Gerardi (King). This will be 
done in connection with the description of that species, 
and there will then be discussed the possibility, first sug- 
gested by Professor W. King, and concurred in by Mr 
Davidson, of the latter's S, Woodsi being identical with 
S. Gerardi (King). 

IjOc. and Horizon. — Pelican Creek, five miles north of 
Sonoma Station; Pelican Creek, opposite Palmer's Old 
Station; Parrot Creek, four and a half miles up (Marine 
Series, Nos. 3, 10, 21, 36, 135, 138, etc., etc.). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Strophalosia Gerardi— King (?).— PL XII., figs. 34-37 ; 
PI. XIII., fig. 38. 

8. Gerardi, King, Annals Nat, Hist., 1846, xviii., p. 93. 

„ De Koninck, Mon. Productus et Chonetes, 1847, p. 137. 

, , Mon. Permian Foss. England, 1850, p. QQ, t. 1 9, f. 6 and 7. 

,, Davidson, Mon. Brit. Foss. Brachiopoda, Introduction, t. 8, 

f. 211. 

Sp. Char. — Shell large, ovato-rotund, at times becoming 
almost deltoid, strongly concavo-convex; ventral valve con- 
vex, most so about the umbonal and visceral regions ; umbone 
prominent, rounded, and overhanging the area to some extent ; 
dorsal valve very concave, following closely the contour of 
the ventral, assuming a more or less deltoid form, usually 
much longer than wide ; hinge line short, not as wide as the 
shell; area broad and well marked, elongately triangular; 
deltidium conspicuous, convex ; surface of the ventral valve 
concentrically laminated, and giving rise to numerous ad- 
pressed tapering spines, which, when worn off, leave the 



Mr Etlieridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 295 

valve covered by a series of short, blunt, somewhat projecting 
tubercles ; surface of the dorsal valve similarly ornamented, 
but the concentric lamina3 appear to be closer, the spines 
more numerous, closer toQ-ether, and longer than on the ven- 
tral valve ; near the front edge of the valve the lamellae 
become very close and numerous, and assume a strongly 
imbricated appearance. The greatest concavity of the dorsal 
valve is just below or in front of the hinge line, where it 
appears to become much pressed in. The shell at times 
assumes a slightly irregular aspect, with an inclination or 
oblique tendency towards one side or the other; the front 
margin is rounded and continuous, and shows no indication 
of an indentation or sinuosity. 

Ohs. — After much consideration of the subject in all its 
bearings, and a long correspondence with my friend Mr 
Davidson, I have provisionally kept apart from the previous 
S. Clarhei certain Queensland Strophalosice with very concave 
dorsal valves, and have referred them to Professor King's >S'. 
Gerardi. On tliis subject Mr Davidson wrote me as follows : 
" The dorsal valves are so very concave that I should hardly 
like to consider S. Clarhei and S. Gerardi as one, and to place 
your father's species as a synonym of S. Gerardi. We have 
not as yet, so far as I can see, any reliable interiors of the 
ventral valve of S. Gerardi, and I think it would be safer to 
keep it and >S'. Clarhei separate, unless you have some speci- 
mens to lead you to positively combine the two in one." 

To the courtesy of Professor W. King of Galway I am in- 
debted for the loan of the type of his S. Gerardi, which has 
enabled me to make the closest of comparisons with the 
Queensland shells I have here provisionally placed under 
that species, and the only essential difference that I can point 
out is, that in the type of S. Gerardi, the form of the shell is 
much more transverse than in the Queensland examples now 
under notice, the general form of the latter being decidedly 
inclined to the deltoid. I, however, presume that in such a 
variable genus as Stro2olialosia this would, in the absence of 
other characters, count for very little. 

Notwithstanding the flat valve of typical specimens of S. 
Clarhei, it is just possible that it and the shells now referred 



296 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

to S. Gerardi, with the concave dorsal valves, may, after all, be 
one and the same. I am led to this impression by the otherwise 
general resemblance of the shell structure, habit, and co- 
occurrence. At present I am in this difficulty — on the one 
hand we have a series of dorsal valves all flat, and no ventral 
valves attached (= S. Clarhei) ; on the other hand a number 
of bivalve examples, with very concave dorsal valves (? = S. 
Gerardi)y but all from the same localities, and with many 
points of minute structure the same — Are they identical? 
I am afraid the question must remain at present an open one, 
as the material to hand is not sufficient to solve the problem. 
The more deltoid form of S. Gerardi, in particular the dorsal 
valve, would hardly be sufficient to found a separation on, 
more especially as it is not constant, but a gradation in out- 
line exists, which would, in all probability, in a series of 
specimens, gradually lead up to the oval or transversely 
elongated outline of S. Gerardi. The same remarks apply to 
the ventral valve, for the limited number of specimens of >S'. 
Gerardi known renders it difficult to assert what would be 
the average form of this valve. It may be oval, as in the 
type specimen, or there may be a gTadation towards the 
less regular outline of the Australian shells I have referred 
to it. 

Should my surmise as to the identity of >S'. Gerardi and S. 
Clarhei ultimately prove correct, my father's specific name 
will of course have to be abandoned, that is to say, presum- 
ing the identity of the Queensland shells with King's S. 
Gerardi to be correct. 

In his description of S. Gerardi Professor King does not 
mention the existence of spines on the dorsal, but I find, on 
a close examination of his typical specimen, what appears to 
be the bases of insertion of the spines. 

Log. and Horizon. — Pelican Creek, five miles north of 
Sonoma Station; Pelican Creek, opposite Palmer's Old 
Station; Bowen Paver, between Traverse Stations 25 and 
26 ; Parrot Creek, eight miles up (Marine Series of Bowen 
Pdver Coalfield, Nos. 12, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 34, 68, and 157, 
etc.). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 



Mr Ethcridgc on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 297 

CLASS PELECYPODA. 

Genus Aviculopecten — M'Coy, 1851. 

(Annals Nat. Hist., 1851, vi., p. 171.) 

Avicidopecteii suhquinquelineatus — M'Coy. — PL XV., fig. 52. 

Peden complies, Dana (non M'Coy), American Jour. Sc, 1847, iv., p. 160. 
,, subquinqudineatus, M'Coy, Annals Nat. Hist., November 1847, xx., 

p. 298, t. 17, f. 1. 
,, comptus, Dana, Gaol. U.S. Explor. Exped., p. 704, Atlas, t. 9, f. 5. 
,, subqinnquelineatus, M'Coy, Proc. Roy. Soc. V. D. Land, 1851, 1., 
p. .322, t. 17, f. 1. 
Aviculopecten ,, De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Slid., 

1877, pt. 3, p. 295, t. 22, f. 2. 
,, ,, Etheridge, jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 6G, 

Ohs. — This is a large, strong, and distinctly marked species, 
at first sight resembling A. Fittoni (Morris),* but easily dis- 
tinguishable from it by the plain and unsubdivided condition 
of the radiating costae, whereas in A. Fittoni the latter are com- 
posed of a series of smaller radii. In both species the con- 
cavities between the ribs are filled with subordinate costse. In 
Morris's species there is only one between each pair of ribs, 
but in McCoy's there are from three to five. In A. suhquiii- 
quelineatus the ears are large and radiately striated, and tlie 
whole shell must have grown to some considerable size. It 
appears Professor Dana's name of F. comptus has precedence 
of M' Coy's by a short time, and would be the accepted one 
for this species, were it not that the name comptus had 
already been used by Professor M'Coy -f for an Irish carboni- 
ferous limestone shell. Professor Dana's name has therefore 
to give way to the subsequently described P. sid)quinque- 
lineatus. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Bowmen Eiver, at No. 25 Traverse Station, 
in a hard flinty micaceous sandstone of the Marine Series. 

Collector.— 'R. L. Jack, Esq., E.G.S. 

* Strzelecki's " Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," t. 14, f. 2. 
t Synop. Carb. Limestone Foss. Ireland, 1844, p. 90, t. 15, f. 14. 
VOL. V. U 



298 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society ~ 

Aviculopecten, sp. ind. 

6)6s.— There is a single specimen of a large species of 
Avicidopecten, with portions of the valves in apposition. It 
is a mere cast with remains of shelly matter here and there, 
but appears to correspond to a great extent with A. limce- 
f or mis (Morris).* The shell is very jnequivalve, one valve 
being moderately convex, the other almost flat, or even 
towards the ventral margin a little concave. These features 
are also to be seen in A. limceformiSj but the surface of the 
cast of the convex and larger valve retains traces of almost 
too many radiating ribs for the species. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Coral Creek, below Sonoma road- 
crossing, in a deconjposed nodular ironstone of the Marine 
Series (No. 121). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq., F.G.S. 

Genus Pterinea — Goldfuss, 1832. 

(Naturg. Atlasses, Th. iv., p. 73.) 
Pterinea macroptera—^ovns. 

P. 7nacroptcra, Morris, Strzelecki's " Pliys. Descrip. N. S.Wales," etc., 1846, 

p. 276, t. 13, f. 2 and 3. 
„ M'Coy, Annals Kat. Hist., 1847, xx., p. 299. 

„ Dana, Geol. U.S. Explor. Exped., p. 704. 

,, Grange, Dumont-d'Urville's *' Voy. au Pole Sud., Geol.," 1854, 

ii., p. 96. 
Clarke, Southern Goldfields of N. S. Wales, 1860, p. 287. 
,, De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, 

p. 305, t. 16, f. 12. 
,, Etlieridge, jun.. Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 77. 

„ Clarke, Sed. Formations, N. S. Wales, 1878, 4tli edit., 

pp. 122, 125, 141, etc. 

Ols. — Mr -Jack has forwarded a Pterinea, clearly this 
species, but only one specimen, and that without a part of 
the posterior wing. The small anterior lobe is only partially 
preserved, the hinge line was clearly somewhat less than the 
width of the shell, and there are distinct remains of concentric 
laminse, although the specimen is only a cast. The cast of 
one of the characteristic teeth is also preserved. 

IjOc. and Horizon. — Coral Creek, below Sonoma road- 

* strzelecki's " Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," etc., p. 277, t. 13, f. 1. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Boivcn River Coalfield. 299 

crossing, in decomposed nodular ironstone of the Marine 
Series, associated with Stenopora, Protoretepora, Fenestella, 
etc. (No. 111). 

Collector.— K L. Jack, Esq., F.G.S. 

Genus JSTotomya— J/'Coy, 1847. 

(Annals Nat. Hist., 1847, xx., p. 303.) 

Section Mceonia — Dana, 1847.* 

(American Jour. Sc, 1S47, iv., p. 158. Emended, U.S. Explor. Exped., 
Geology, p. 694.) 

Ohs. — In my recently published " Catalogue of Australian 
Fossils ""I" I have called attention to the difficulties attending 
a proper subdivision of the species of Dana's genera Mceonia 
(vel. Myonia), Pyramia (vel. Py ramus), and Cleohis as pointed 
out by the late Dr Stolitzka.^ In Professor Dana's first paper 
on Australian Palaeontology contributed to the pages of the 
American Journal of Science, the three were described as 
separate and distinct genera, but in the more extended ac- 
count of the geology of the Wilke's Exploring Expedition 
they were united under the one name Mceonicc. Dana at the 
same time stated that his Cleohis was identical with Notomya 
(M'Coy). The arrangement adopted in my Catalogue was a 
purely provisional one, proposed more as a temporary or 
provisional arrangement than as an accurate solution of a 
difficult and obscure subject, and such it must remain until 
this group of Palaeozoic Bivalves can be examined and studied 
as a whole. At the same time I gave my reasons for adopt- 
ing the name Notomya (M'Coy), in preference to any of the 
others. 

Notomya {Mceonia) recta — Dana. 

CleoUs recta, Dana, American Jour. Sc, 1847, iv., p. 154. 
Mceonia{^)„ ,, Geol. U.S. Explor. Exped., p. 698, Atlas, t. 7, f. 2. 
Mceonia „ Clarke, S. Goldfield's " K S. Wales," 1860, p. 287. 
Notomya ,, Etheridge, jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 73. 

Obs. — The chief characters of this species are its very 
inequilateral and oblong form with the parallel dorsal and 

* ISTon Myonia, Adams, 1860. f Tbid., pp. 71 and 72. 

:J: Pal. Indica., iii., p. 83. 



300 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society. 

ventral margins. Professor Dana's specimen measured three 
and a half inches in length, but the shell I refer to N. recta 
measures seven and a quarter inches in the same direction. 
Like all the bivalves in Mr Jack's collection the state of 
preservation is very bad, but there appears to be the remains 
of an obscure posterior slope, a character which I do not find 
mentioned in Dana's description. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Coral Creek, below Sonoma road- 
crossing, in a yellow, micaceous, decomposed ironstone (No. 
116). 

Collector.— V^.. L. Jack, Esq., F.G.S. 

Genus Pachydomus — Morris, 1845. 

(Strzelecki's "Physical Descrip. N. S, Wales," etc., p. 271.) 
Pachydomus (?) carinatus — Morris. — PI. XVI., fig. 53. 

P. carinatus, Morris, Strzelecki's " Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," 1845, p. 273, 

t. 11, f. 3 and 4. 
Cypricardia rugulosa, Dana, American Jour. Sc, 1847, iv., p. 157. 
P. carinatus, M'Coy, Annals Nat. Hist., 1847, xx., p. 301. 
McBonia (?) carinata, Dana, Geology U.S. Expl. Exped., p. 696, Atlas, t. 6, 

f . 1 a and h. 
PUuropliorus (?) carinatus, De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 

1877, pt. 3, p. 283, t. 19, f. 8. 
Pachydomus carinatus, Etheridge, jun,, Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 74. 

Ols. — The strongly marked umbonal ridge and the slightly 
concave posterior slope at once mark this species as peculiar. 
Two specimens in a moderately good state of preservation 
have been forwarded; both have the entire shell removed, 
and are therefore in the form of casts, but with the exception 
of some slight displacement of the valves, the general out- 
line is retained. I am inclined to doubt the reference of this 
species to the genus Pleiirophorus made by Professor De 
Koninck, although no doubt it departs considerably from the 
true Pachydomoid type as exemplified by P. antiquatus and 
P. globosus, the typical species. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Coral Creek, as before — (N'o. 102); 
Bowen Eiver, at No. 25 Traverse Station (No. 136) ; Marine 
Series. 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Boicen River Coalfield. 301 

Pachydomus globosus — J. de C. Sowerby. 

Megadesmus glohosKS, J. de C. Sow., Mitchell's "Three Exped. Int. E. Aus- 
tralia," 1838, i., p. 15, t. 3, f. 1 and 2. 

Pachydomus ,, Morris, Strzelecki's "Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," 
etc., 1845, p. 272, t. 10, f. 2 and 3. 

(?) ,, „ De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-GallesduSud., 1877, pt. 

3, p. 272, t. 18, f. 5. 
,, ,, Etheridge, jun.. Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 75. 

Ohs. — The fossiliferous rock of Pelican Creek lias furnished 
a ponderous example of this species, but in a wretched state 
of preservation, without any trace of shelly matter remaining, 
and the whole substance of the cast having assumed the form 
of a decomposed feruginous ironstone nodule. The specimen 
measures roughly about eight inches by five and a half with- 
out the shelly matter. Across the dorsal region, from the 
one rounded diagonal ridge to the other, the shell measures 
at least five inches. This will give some idea of the gTeat 
breadth attained by this species, and its general globose or 
gibbous outline. The umbones are very large, incurved, and 
quite anterior. Judging by the space occupied by matrix 
between the cardinal edges of the two valves, the external liga- 
ment must have been of great dimensions and strength. The 
collection contains two examples of this species, that from 
which the foregoing notes are taken, and a smaller one, which 
I believe to represent the young condition of the species. 
The latter, when held in certain lights, shows indistinct traces 
of radiating striae in the cast. Upon examining the remark- 
ably fine specimen figured by my friend Professor Morris, 
r.G.S., in the late Count Strzelecki's work, I find that it also, 
where the shelly matter is worn off, exhibits similar radiating 
ridges. The latter specimen might almost stand for the 
original of the figure, by Professor J. D. Dana, of his Mceonia 
grandis* so close is the resemblance. To avoid any cause of 
error in this matter, I sought the kind assistance of Professor 
Morris, who at once pronounced the specimen in question, in 
the Strzelecki Collection, to be his type of James de Carle 
Sowerby's species Megadesmus glohosus, and it was then un- 
questionably apparent both to Professor Morris and Dr H. 

* Geol. U.S. Exploring Exped., p, 696, t. 6, f. 7 and 7a, 8 and 8a. 



302 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

AVoodward, F.E.S., who also entered into the question, that 
Mceonia grandis (Dana), can only be regarded as a synonym of 
Pachydomus glohosus (J. de C. Sowerby). 

Log. and Horizon. — Pelican Creek, half a mile above 
Sonoma road-crossing, in a highly fossiliferoiis concretionary 
and feruginous mtidstone. Pelican Creek, in a sandstone 
above the Garrick coal seam, both horizons in the Marine 
Series (Nos. 58 and 63). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

Genus Sanguinolites— if' C'o^/, 1844. 

(Synop. Carb. Limestone Foss. Ireland, p. 47 ; Brit. Pal. Foss., 1852, fas, 2, 

p. 276.) 

Sanguinolites, sp. ind.— PL XVI., fig. 54. 

Compare Sanguinolites clava (M'Coy), Brit. Pal. Foss.j 1853, fas. 3, p, 504, 
t. 3F, f. 12.) 

Ohs.^With the exception of a somewhat shorter and more 
gibbous form, I am unable to distinguish this species from 
Professor M'Coy's S. clava. The specimen is, I believe, a 
cast of the exterior, as there are no traces of muscular impres- 
sions left, and the valves have by pressure been slightly 
displaced. Notwithstanding this, it is easily seen that the 
shell possessed a much more gibbous and rotund habit than 
S. clava, the relative convexity of the valves immediately 
below the beaks being greater. The rapid attenuation of the 
flanks towards the ventral margin and the thinning-off of the 
posterior end are as in S. clava, and there also existed a well- 
marked lunette and escutcheon, although the latter was much 
shorter than in M'Coy's species. Lastly, the posterior slope 
is more defined in the Australian form, and the valves were 
closed posteriorly. Taking all these characters together, it must 
be conceded that, in all probability, the two species are distinct. 
A useful comparison might be made between Mr Jack's shell 
and two Australian species described by Dana, did we only 
know more about them, viz., Edmondia (?) {Pkoladomya) 
Glendonensis* and Sangicinolites or Edmondia (?) (Pkoladomya) 
undata.f The first, as figured by Dana, is a crushed-down 
* Geol. U.S. Exploring Exped. Atlas, t. 2, f. 12. f Loc. cit., f. 11. 



Mr Ether idge on Fossils from Boiven River Coalfield. 303 

shell, without form or character, and is simply unrecognis- 
able ; all one can say is, that it appears to be a shorter form 
than that now under discussion. The second is a very San^ 
guinolites-like shell, and is clearly separated from the latter 
by the position of the beaks, more than subcentral in position, 
and the consequently larger anterior end; 

A glance at the species of Sanguinolites lately described* 
from the Carboniferous beds of N. S. Wales by Professor De 
Koninck {S. Etheridgei, S. Mitchellii, S. M'Coyi, and S. Teni- 
soni) will show how little resemblance they bear to the 
Queensland fossil. Of them, >S'. M'Coyi is certainly more nearly 
allied to the latter than any of the others. 

Log. and Horizon. — Coral creek, below Sonoma road-cross- 
ing, in decomposed concretionary and highly fossiliferous 
ironstone (No. 126). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq. 

In addition to the bivalves just described, there are three 
others which it is quite impossible to determine with any 
degree of accuracy. One of them (No. 118) is a shell allied 
io Sanguinolites undata (Dana),-)* or S.Mitclicllii (De Koninck), | 
but it is much crushed. The two remaining shells (Nos. GO 
and 205) are both Pachydomi or Astartilm, and are perhaps 
nearer to A. cyprina (Dana)§ or A. cytherea (Dana) || than to 
any other of the described forms. Neither of them show any 
trace of the supplementary anterior muscular scars, although 
both internal casts. 

Loc. and Horizon. — No. 118 is from the fossiliferous beds 
of Coral Creek, below Sonoma road-crossing (Marine Series) ; 
No. 60 was found in similar beds on Pelican Creek in the 
same neighbourhood (Marine Series) ; No. 205 is of consider- 
able interest on account of its occurrence with Orthotetes crenis- 
tria var. senilis, in a marine bed in the Presh- Water Series, 
at Havilah-Byerwin Eoad, one mile south of Piosella Creek 
crossing. 

* Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, pp. 261-265, t. 16 and 17. 
+ Pholadomya, Geol. U.S. Explor. Exped. Atlas, t. 2, f. 11, a and b. 
t Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, t. 16, f. 3. 
§ Loc. cit., t. 3, f. 6, a-f. \\ Ibid., t, 4, f. 1, a-g. 



304 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

GASTEEOPODA. 

The remains of Gasteropoda are of rare occurrence amongst 
the fossils from the Bowen Eiver coalfield, and are confined 
to the fragmentary remains of one or two indeterminable speci- 
mens. They are of interest only because of their occurrence 
in marine bands in Mr Jack's " Fresh- Water Series ; " and it is 
to be the more regretted on this account that there is such a 
paucity of remains. 

The fragments in question were found at Eosella Creek, 
two miles above Havilah Paddock, and at the Havilah-Byer- 
win Eoad, one mile south of Eosella Creek crossino:. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

Genus Goniatites — De Haan, 1825. 

(Mon. Ammonites et Goniatites, p. 39.) 

Goniatites micromphalus — Morris. 

Belleroplwn micromj^halus, Morris, Strzelecki's "Phys. Descrip. N. S. Wales," 

etc., 1845, p. 288, t. 18, f. 7. 
,, ,, Dana, Geology, U.S. Explor. Exped., p. 708 ; 

Atlas, t. 10, f. 6. 
Goniatites „ De Koninck, Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 

1877, pt. 3, p. 339, t. 24, f. 5. 
,, ,, Etheridge, Jun., Cat. Australian Foss., 1878, p. 89. 

Ohs. — Two specimens of this species have been collected by 
Mr Jack, both of them casts, without any trace of shelly 
matter remaining. The form of the shell and character of the 
umbilicus in the Bowen Eiver coalfield specimens correspond 
quite well with Professor Morris's description and figures, 
but the depth of the body whorl near the mouth is not so 
great, although the disparity is greater in one of our speci- 
mens than in the other. However, this need be dwelt on 
less, since I find Professor Dana has given such a figure * of 
G. micromphalus, and on examining those in the Strzelecki 
Collection I see the same aperture is presented by some of 
the specimens there. 

* Geol. U.S. Expl. Exped. Atlas, t. 10, f. 6a. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen Riccr Coed field. 305 

Loc. and Horizon. — Head of Pelican Creek, near Mount 
Diolin (Marine Series, Nos. 1 and 2). 

Goniatites, sp. ind. 

A second species is present differing from G. micronij^halus 
in having a very much sharper back. It appears to be nearer 
to G. striatus (Dana)* than to Morris's species. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Eosella Creek, two miles above Havi- 
lah Paddock. This is an important fossil, as it is another of 
those occurring in a marine band in the Fresh- Water Series 
(No. 187). 

Collector. — E. L. Jack, Esq., etc. 



CEETACEOUS SPECIES. 

Cephalo]JodcL 
Genus Crioceras — HEveilU, 1837. 

(Mem. Soc. Geol. de France, ii., p. 313.) 

Crioceras Jackii, sp. nov. — PL XVIL, figs. 55-58. 

Sp. Char. — Shell non-involute, with the whorls close but not 
touching; round or slightly flattened at the sides; tubercles 
blunt and node-like, arranged in six rows, two on each side 
or flank of the whorl, and two on the back or dorsal ed^e ; 
those on the sides become less apparent and entirely disappear 
ultimately as the end of the last volution is approached, but 
those on the dorsal edge remain. The costae are of two sizes, 
the non-tuberculate ribs being all of one size, whilst those 
bearing the tubercles are larger and separated one from the 
other sometimes by two, sometimes three, of the former ; they 
are all entire and scarcely at all curved. 

Ohs. — Doubts existed on the first examination of the two spe- 
cimens before me as to their identity with the genus Crioceras 
owing to the contiguity and close approximation of the whorls ; 
the length and size, however, of the dorsal tubercles on the 
inner volutions clearly demonstrated that the whorls were 
separate from one another. 

* Loc. cit, f. 5, a and b. 



306 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Careful examination into the history and literature of this 
genus of Cephalopoda has failed to discover any species 
to which I can refer the Australian form, but the nearest 
species appears to be the IsTeocomion, Crioceras Duvalleii 
(L'Eveille). The whorls in the latter are more open and not 
so contiguous as in C. Jackii, and the tubercles or spines 
are finer and much more slender in the French and British 
species. 

The Cretaceous rocks of Australia have as yet only yielded 
one species of Crioceras, described by Mr C. Moore, F.G.S., as 
C. Australe, from the Upper Maranoa district.* The deep 
sulci separating the costse or ribs will at once distinguish this 
from our C. Jackii, in which the former are very much re- 
duced in their dimensions from the contiguity of the latter ; 
neither are the ridges acute but well rounded in C. Jackii ; 
and lastly, Mr Moore describes only two bosses in his species 
on each side. 

The allied genus Ancyloceras is also represented in the 
Cretaceous beds of Queensland by one species, A. Flindersi 
(M'Coy), and briefly described -f by Professor M'Coy as long 
ago as 1867. It is stated to be allied to the French Cretace- 
ous species A. Tabarelli (Astier) ; and even supposing the 
form now under discussion to be an Ancyloceras rather than 
a Crioceras, as has been suggested to me by Dr Woodward, it 
cannot be this species. The British Museum Collection con- 
tains the " Astier Collection," and having compared it with 
the type of A. Tabarelli, I can safely affirm that it has not the 
slightest connection with the latter. Under the name of 
Crioceras Jackii T have included two shells, which at first 
sight appear to differ from one another in certain particulars ; 
but I think they are merely forms of the same species. In 
the more robust of the two (fig. 55) the six rows of tubercles 
are continuous along the greater part of the largest whorl, 
the dorsal pair being quite so. In the second specimen (fig. 
58), on the other hand, there are no tubercles at all visible 
on the body whorl, and they are only perceptible on the inner 
whorls when separated. The other characters of the two 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, xxvi., p. 257. 
+ Annals Nat. Hist,, 1867, xix., p. 356. 



Mr Ether idgc on Fossils from Bo wen Elver Coalfield. 307 

specimens are identical, and in the face of this I do not think 
the above difference is of sufficient importance to base a 
separation on. 

Loc. and Horizon. — Tate Eiver, N. Queensland, from beds 
of Cretaceous a^e. 

Collector.— 'R. L. Jack, Esq. 

Appendix. 

I take this opportunity of describing a Strojjlialosia in the 
collection of the British Museum, and in that of Mr T. David- 
son from New South Wales and Tasmania respectively. I 
first observed this form in a collection of fossils made by 
the late Professor J. B. Jukes, F.R.S., in Australia, and now 
in the British Museum. I provisionally apply to them the 
name of Strojplmlosia Jukesii, as they may be only a variety of 
the species just described, S. Gera7'di{T)^ but as explained 
further on, the want of intermediate forms has induced me 
to consider them as at present distinct. 

Strophalosia Jukesii, sp. nov. (?). — PI. XIII., figs. 39-43. 

Sp. Clrnr. — Shell subquadrate, sometimes contorted, oval, 
or approaching the deltoid, almost plano-convex when the 
valves are in apposition. Ventral valve very convex and 
gibbous, most so about half-way between the umbo and the 
front of the valve, with a shallow but distinct mesial sinus, 
lateral angles rounded ; front margin rounded, and sometimes 
a little indented, or occasionally a constriction, or slit, occurs 
either in the centre of the front, or to one side of it. Hinge 
line much shorter than the width of shell ; umbo depressed, 
projecting a little over the hinge line, but not at all promi- 
nent. Area elongately-triangular, a little concave, longitu- 
dinally striated ; fissure narrow and badly defined, covered 
by a small convex deltidium. Dorsal valve quadrate to 
deltoid, flat or very slightly concave, the concavity having 
no comparison to the convexity of the ventral valve ; area 
small and triangular. Internal characters strongly marked ; 
cardinal boss prominent, projecting at an angle of about 119° 



308 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

with the plane of the exterior of the valve, continued for- 
wards on the interior surface of the valve for nearly two- 
thirds of the distance between the boss and the front margin. 
Immediately in front of the base of the boss is a depression 
in which are placed the adductor muscles ; the oblique dental 
sockets on each side of the boss are deep, large, and a little 
triangular. The reniform impressions are a marked feature, 
being very large and strongly auriform, and occupying the 
greater part of the interior of the valve from close under the 
hinge line to the front. They are bounded on their external 
margins by grooves between them and the bevelled edges. 
The latter bear granules and small elevations, indicating the 
vascular system. 

Ols. — The characters of this very remarkable shell are 
wholly and entirely different from the Devonian S. prochtc- 
toides, which, according to Professor De Koninck, has been 
found in Australia. In the first place S. Jukesii is an 
exceedingly convex and gibbous shell, with a flat, or nearly 
flat, dorsal valve, without any trace of the concavo-convex 
outline of Murchison's species. The latter, speaking gene- 
rally, assumes a much more transversely elongated appear- 
ance than S. Jukesii. 

The alliance with the Permian forms S. Goldfussi and S. 
lamellosa is closer, both in the form of the shell, and relative 
convexity of the valves. Were we dealing only with the 
external characters I should have felt much inclined to refer, 
provisionally at least, the Tasmanian and New South Wales 
shells to one or other of the species just mentioned. The 
Australian form has the shape, rounded angles, occasional 
indented front margin, short hinge line, convex ventral valve 
with its shallow sinus, concentric lamellae of growth, and 
characteristic spines of one or other of the above species. 
When, however, we compare the internal characters of the 
respective shells many points of divergence may be noticed. 
Thus, in the great disproportion of the reniform impressions 
appears to lie a well-marked difference. Their larger size, 
different shape, and much greater development in aS'. Jukesii 
will be at once apparent if the figures now given be compared 
with those of S. Goldfussi and S. lamellosa in the monographs 



Mr Mhcridge on Fossils from Boivcn River Coalfield. 309 

of Messrs Kiiifx, Davidson, and Geinitz. Airain, if I mistake 
not, the septum has in S. Jukesii a much greater extension 
towards the front. 

The chief point to be borne in mind when reviewing the 
specific reLations of the present shells is, their connection with 
those previously described under the name of aS^. Gerardi and 
S. Clarkei. At first sidit the difference in outline between 

o 

the deltoid or quadrate form of S. Jukesii, and the oval S. 
Clarkei, would induce separation, but when we take into 
consideration the extreme variability of species of Stro- 
phalosia, and the very close correspondence between the 
massive internal characters of figs. 21 and 23 and those 
displayed by figs. 41 and 42, I think it is just an open 
question, whether the presence of a series of intermediate 
forms would not necessitate the union of all in one variable 
species ? The view here hinted at receives some support 
from the flat exterior of the dorsal valve in both, and the 
remarkable condition of the concentric laminae which consti- 
tute the surface of the valves. Finally, as regards S. Gerardi (?), 
tlie ventral valves both of it and S. Jukesii are alike, very 
convex, but in the former the dorsal valve is very concave, 
in the latter quite flat, except in one example, which is a 
little inclined to the concave condition. 

It would not surprise me if eventually we have to unite 
the shells now described as Stroijhalosia Clarkei (Etheridge), 
>S'. Gerardi (King ?) and S. Jukesii (Etheridge, jun.), in one 
variable species, although, as I have before said, such a pro- 
ceeding would be premature, as the material to hand is not 
sufficient in itself. In the meantime the subdivision now 
made will serve for the illustration of the specimen, and can 
be altered if occasion should arise. 

Localities. — New South Wales, Jukes Collection, Brit, 
Mus., (?) Carboniferous, or Permian ; Tasmania, Coll. of T. 
Davidson, Esq., F.K.S., to whom I am indebted for the loan 
of specimens, (?) Carboniferous or Permian. 

The following is a description of the silicified Productus (?), 
figured by Professor Morris under the name of Productus 
h-rachythcerus (G. Sow.). 



310 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Productus (?), sp. ind.— PL XIV., figs. 44-49. 

Sp. char. — Ventral valve convex, gibbous, with a slight 
mesial sinus ; umbo large, projecting a good deal beyond the 
hinge line, and a little curved downwards ; hinge line straight, 
scarcely as broad as the shell. Adductor impressions elon- 
gated, divided by a groove (ridge in the cast), and placed on 
a central prominence between the two deep depressions form- 
ing the scars of the adductors. The latter are strongly marked 
with vertical ridges and grooves. The dorsal valve is flat, or 
nearly so, and of considerable thickness. In the interior the 
cardinal process is strong and prominent, projecting vertically 
above the hinge line; the alar ridges at the base of the cardinal 
process are strong and thick ; alar angles apparently rounded ; 
the cardinal process is continued towards the front of the valve 
into a very well-marked entire septum, extending to within a 
very short distance of the margin, and terminating in a slight 
enlargement or button (in the cast this is seen as a groove, and 
the alar ridges as broad depressions). Adductor impressions 
rather posterior, dendritic, and extending outwards laterally. 
Reniform or vascular impressions apparently well marked, 
their upper margins cutting the septum at about a third from 
the umbo ; the expanded or terminal portion almost circular, 
and not large for the size of the valve. In the cast the sur- 
face of both valves is grooved and pitted, the pits (represent- 
ing granules in the true shell) are very plentiful in the dorsal 
valve towards the front margin. External surface of shell 
not preserved. 

Ohs. — I have already explained (p. 286) the grounds upon 
which this form has been separated from Prod, hrachythcerus. 
Professor De Koninck has suggested that it may be referable 
to Productus fragilis (Dana). Pleased as I am to be able to 
confirm Professor De Koninck's views on the separation 
of the two specimens referred by Morris to P. Irachy- 
thcerus, I most emphatically dissent from his suggestion 
that the silicified example may be P. fragilis (Dana), for 
the following reasons : Productus fragilis (Dana), of which 
De Koninck gives a long description, was so very generally 
described, and illustrated with such unsatisfactory figures, 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Boivcn River Coalfield. 311 

that I consider any identification made by means of these 
to be in the highest degree problematical. As previously 
pointed out, a direct comparison with the type or types 
of P. fragilis cannot now be made, and I think it not 
improbable that it is only a form or variety of P. hrachy- 
thcerus (G. Sow.). 

On comparing the figures of the present Productus with 
those of StropJmlosia Clarkei (figs. 26 and 27), one would at 
first sight be inclined to think them identical ; but on a close 
examination this is not so clear. It is quite true that in the 
ventral valves of the two (figs. 26 and 46) we observe the 
same large beak, elongated adductor scars, deep ridged cardinal 
scars, and convex gibbous form. In the dorsal valve both 
have a long septum, extending nearly to the front margin, 
and the adductor scars occupy the same position. In the 
ventral valve of S. Clarkei the thick prominent beak occa- 
sionally overhangs the hinge line ; but in the silicified cast, 
on the contrary, it projects some distance beyond it, even 
allowing for the specimen being a cast (fig. 44). In the dorsal 
valve of aS'. Clarkei the boss, or cardinal process, projects from 
the hinge line at an angle of about 119° ; but in Productus sp. 
it assumes the regular Productoid type, and is vertical to or 
at rio[ht angles with the hineje line. In Strzelecki's silicified 
Productus (?) we observe the reniform impressions, with the 
laterally elongated, and oval or circular extremities usually 
met with in the genus (fig. 44) ; but in S. Clarkei (figs. 21 and 
23) these impressions assume very much more the semilunar, 
vertically elongated scars seen in some species of Stro- 
phalosia. Figs. 21 and 23 represent the interior of the 
dorsal valves of aS^. Clarkei, and at /, /, are distinctly visible 
the dental sockets for the reception of the teeth of the ventral 
valve. Fig. 48 is a wax cast taken from the ventral valve of 
the silicified specimen (fig. 44), and on it no sockets are 
visible. I believe this does not arise from the absence of 
teeth, but from their non-preservation. Figs. 44 and 45 may 
be those of a Strophalosia rather than a Productus, perhaps 
identical with S. Clarkei. I hope to return to this subject, 
as I now have additional material from Point Puer, Tasmania, 
whence probably the Strzelecki specimen came, and by means 



312 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

of whicli I hope to place these Australasian Strophalosicc on a 
more satisfactory basis. 

If a Productus, it evidently comes very close to the Per- 
mian P. horridus. The less perfect state of preservation of 
the Australian shells does not permit an opinion to be passed 
on the lateral wings ; but so far as the mesial sinus of the 
ventral valve is concerned, it is decidedly less in the latter 
than in typical examples of P. horridtis (figs. 50 and 51). 
Internally, however, the two forms very closely resemble 
one another. There are the same strongly developed cardinal 
muscular impressions in the ventral valve, similar prominent 
overhanging beak, and long septum in the ventral valve ; in- 
deed, the whole habit strongly reminds us of the well-marked 
Permian form alluded to. 

Loc. — Tasmania. (Strzelecki and Jukes Collections, Brit. 
Museum.) 

4. Stratigeaphical jSTotes on the preceding Species. 

Having in previous pages given a description of the fossils, 
it now only remains to be seen how far the grouping of the 
species in localities will assist in the consideration of the stra- 
tigraphy of the districts collected from. 

A. Devonian. 

1. Fanning Paver. — A limestone at this locality has yielded 
to Mr Jack's researches a small parcel of fossils, which appear 
to have a strong Devonian facies. They are — two species of 
Spirifer, one close to S. curvata (Schlotheim), and another 
after the S. glabra type ; two species of Atrypa, A. reticularis 
(Linn.), and A. desquamata (Sow.), or at any rate a shell so 
close to the latter that it is difficult to make a separation be- 
tween them ; and lastly, Orthotetes crenistria. 

2. Fanning Old Station. — The shale above the Fanning 
Limestone has yielded, at this locality, the Atrypa desquamata 
and several specimens of a Rhynchonella, which are as simi- 
larly near to B. pirimipilaris (Von Buch) as the large Atrypa 
is to Sowerby's species. 

Looking upon the fossils from the Fanning Eiver Limestone 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 313 

and its accompanying shale as a whole, the first fact which 
strikes us is the co-occurrence of two such typically distinc- 
tive fossils as Atrijpct reticulans and Orthotetes crenistria. If 
we take either of these fossils alone, we are not assisted in 
any very great degree. A. reticularis ranges from the Upper 
Silurian to Devonian, although it may be taken to be es- 
sentially a representative Upper Silurian species. Similarly 
Orthotetes crenistria ranges from Upper Devonian to the 
Uppermost Carboniferous, but, like the former species, it has 
its accumulative horizon, the Carboniferous Limestone. Had 
we met with either of these species alone, their stratigraphical 
indication of Upper Silurian or Carboniferous Limestone, as 
the case may be, would not have been so strong, but in com- 
pany their strictly individual bearing becomes lost, and we 
have to accept their combined testimony, which certainly 
indicates a Devonian age for the beds in question. 

Spirifera curvata appears to be a Middle Devonian fossil ; 
so does Atrypa desqnamata and Rhyn. primipilaris. On the 
other hand, Orthotetes crenistria is an Upper Devonian and 
passage form, whilst Atrypa reticidaris is a Lower and 
Middle Devonian species. On the whole, the Middle 
Devonian appears to put in a strong claim, but, pending 
further researches into this subject, I shall content myself by 
simply calling the beds in question Devonian. 

Mr T. Davidson, F.E.S., was kind enough to examine the 
above fossils, and expressed the following opinion on them : 
" The small lot of specimens you forward for me to look at 
are, as you say, all Devonian, and can, with a little research, 
be identified, I think, with known species."* Any addi- 
tional evidence bearing on the Devonian beds of Queensland 
is of great interest to me. The presence of rocks of this age 
was first shown in the colony in question by my father, who 
refers to this period the Star Eiver and Gympie Series,i- and 
has described a copious fauna. J 

This determination has, however, been objected to by 
several authors. For instance. Professor M'Coy believes that 
there is " no reason for considering the Gympie beds Devonian, 

* Letter dated ''Brighton," February 13, 1879. 

t Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, xxviii., p. 325. X Loc. cit, pp. 326-333. 

VOL. v. X 



314 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

the great balance of palseontological evidence, in my opinion, 
indicating rather the Lower Carboniferous age." * 

In the description of " The First Sketch of a Geological 
Map of Australia," by Mr E. Brough Smyth, we are told that 
the Carboniferous beds '•' extend from the south part of Vic- 
toria to the northern parts of Queensland. . . . Professor 
M'Coy has examined the fossils from these beds, and, after 
giving careful consideration to all the evidence which is avail- 
able, he lias come to the conclusion that the so-called Devonian 
rocks of Queensland are in reality of Carboniferous age/'i* 

Lastly, Professor L. G. de Koninck considers Mr Etheridge 
wrong in referring Procluctus cora, and " several other Car- 
boniferous species," from Queensland to Devonian beds. J 

Upon the relative value of the determinations on which my 
father based his conclusions, I am unable to pass an opinion, as 
I have not examined the specimens. Be this as it may, how- 
ever, it gives me infinite pleasure to be able to bring forward 
further facts tending to show the general correctness of his 
conclusions. 

B. Carboniferous (?) 

Only the more important localities under this heading will 
be referred to at present : 

1. Pelican Creek, five miles north of Sonoma Station. — This 
is a very interesting locality from the exclusive occurrence of 
Strophalosia Clarkei and the specimens referred to S. Gerardi 
(King ?). Of the former there are no less than forty-one 
specimens in various degrees of preservation, and seven of the 
latter. 

2. Pelican Creek, three-quarters of a mile above Sonoma 
road-crossing. — At this locality a hard feruginous grit con- 
tains Orthotetcs crenistria, var. senilis. This characteristic 
shell was noticed by the late Mr Daintree as occurring in an 
arenaceous limestone-band on the Pelican Creek, and over- 
lying a coal-seam.§ 

* Prodromus Pal. Vict., Decade 1., 1874, p. 38. 

t Geol. Survey Vict., Keport of Progress for Year 1875, No. iii., p. 61, 
Melbourne, 1876. 
X Foss. Pal. Nouv-Galles du Sud., 1877, pt. 3, pp. 185 and 235. 
§ Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., xxviii., p. 288. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 315 

3. Pelican Creek, half a mile above Sonoma road-crossing. 
— Pachydoimts glohosus occurs here in company with Prod, 
suhquadratus, bivalves, either Pachydomus or Astartila, and 
another shell which may be either a Productus or Strophalosia. 

4. Pelican Creek, opposite Palmer's Old Station. — Like the 
first locality mentioned, we have here again a profusion of 
Strophalosia Clarkei, accompanied by S. Gerardi (?), and casts 
of Polyzoa referable to the genus Protorctepora. 

0. Coral Creek, below Sonoma road -crossing. — As the 
Strophalosicc were predominant at several of the preceding 
localities, we have their place taken here, so far as regards the 
number of individuals, by two species of Protorctepora, two 
well-marked Stenoporm, and numerous Mollusca, such as 
Spirifera Dariuinii (Morris), Pterinea maeroptera (Morris), 
Pachydomus carinatus (Morris), Mceonia recta (Dana), Avicic- 
lopecten limccformis (Morris ?), a shell allied to Allorisma (?) 
curvcdum (Morris), a Sanguinolites (near S. clava, M'Coy), 
and a badly-preserved form which may be either Productus 
or Strophalosia. 

6. Parrot Creek, four and a quarter miles up. — The fauna of 
localities 1 and 4 is here repeated, except that there are ilo 
Polyzoa, but, on the other hand, two species of Spirifera, S. 
convoliita and >S'. Darwinii (Morris). 

7. Stonelur/ijjy Creek. — Here occur Spirifera glabra and 
Productus hrachythmrus. 

The prevalence of Strophalosia Clarkei in at least two of 
these localities, and a similar preponderance of Fenestella, Pro- 
torctepora, and Stenopora at a third appear to be the most 
striking facts brought out by this grouping of the species in 
their localities. These data will probably be of some use to 
us in considering to what position in the Upper Palaeozoic 
scale the beds yielding them should be assigned. It must be 
borne in mind that much difference of opinion has existed in 
the grouping of the Australian and Tasmanian coal-bearing 
rocks. One party, led by the late Eev. W. B. Clarke, F.E.S., 
etc., considered the whole series as continuous and of Palaeo- 
zoic age.* The other party, led by Professor M'Coy, have 

* It must, however, be borne in mind that Mr Clarke modified his views 
considerably, as regards the upper part of this series, some time before liis death. 



316 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

always maintained that the rocks in question were divisible 
into two great sections — one, the upper, characterised by the 
presence of certain plant and a few fish remains, they con- 
sidered to be of oolitic, or at any rate of secondary age ; the 
other, the lower, containing a copious Palaeozoic fauna, was 
admitted by them to be a part of the Upper Palaeozoic Series. 
Indeed, so far as the actual presence of the old fauna in this por- 
tion of the Australian sedimentary deposits is concerned, little 
or no diversity of views has existed, but there has been merely 
an expression of opinion as to the precise horizon to which tlie 
fauna should be referred in the Upper Palaeozoic Series. 

The Kev. W. B. Clarke assigned to the fossils in question a 
position analogous to the European, or perhaps more properly 
speaking, the British Lower Carboniferous rocks. Professor 
J. Morris, in a very able summary of the results of his exami- 
nation of Count Strzelecki's Collection, said that, omitting 
two localities, the deposits containing these fossils " probably 
belong to that division of the Palaeozoic Series usually termed 
Carboniferous." * 

Professor M'Coy's examination of the collection deposited in 
the Woodwardian Museum led him to a similar conclusion, for 
he remarks, " so that the age, even if tve only look to the generct 
of the fossils, is clearly limited to the Carboniferous period." 
An examination of the species led to a still more definite 
opinion, for he states that they place the deposits yielding 
them nearly on a parallel with the base of the Carboniferous 
system in Ireland.*!- 

The summing up of this question by Professor J. D. Dana 
is also one of much importance. After discussing the ques- 
tion in an able manner, he assigns a Lower Carboniferous 
age to the fossils lying immediately below the great coal 
seams of New South Wales; or taking the whole series 
(including the upper or debatable plant section) as one con- 
tinuous and conformable series of beds, which he evidently 
believed them to be, they are assigned to the " Upper Car- 
boniferous, or partly the Lower Permian era." j 

* strzelecki's "Phy. Descriptions," p. 296. 

t Annals Nat. Hist., 1847, xx., pp. 310, 311. 

X Geology, U.S. Exploring Exped., Capt. Wilkes, p. 495. 



Mr Etheridgc on Fossils from Boiven River Coalfield . 317 

I shall conclude this portion of my subject by simply 
quoting the view of the late Professor Jukes. Like Professor 
Dana, Mr Jukes had the advantage of studying these beds in 
sit It, in company with tlie Eev. W. B. Clarke, and his opinion 
is therefore one of much importance. He regarded them as 
the representatives of the British Silurian, Devonian, and 
Carboniferous periods, or to use his own words, " I should for 
the present hold the rocks of Australia now under considera- 
tion simply as Pcdccozoic, and only assert that their age w^as 
included within that of our Silurian, Devonian, and Carboni- 
ferous periods."* 

It is now necessary to investigate the evidence afforded by 
the Queensland fossils, and find what influence has the 
frequent occurrence of Strophalosia on the question ? Accord- 
ing to Mr Davidson this genus ranges in time from the 
Devonian to the Permian inclusive and there dies out.f A 
species has been described by the same author from beds 
containing a copious carboniferous fauna in the Salt Piange 
of the Punjaub, but so far as represented in the collection 
examined by Mr Davidson, of rare occurrence.^ Mr J. S. 
Miller § gives two American carboniferous Strophalosicc, S. 
horrescens (Geinitz, non de Vern. and Keys.), and S. suhacu- 
leata (Murchison), from the Coal Measures. The first of 
these is not a Strophalosia at all, according to the researches 
of the late Mr Meek, || but is identical with Productus nehras- 
censis (D. D. Owen), at any rate the second clearly indicates 
that there is at least one species of American carboniferous 
Strophalosia. 

The above quotations show that Strophcdosia to a limited 
extent occurs in rocks of Carboniferous age, but there is no 
doubt that the genus " attained its greatest numerical develop- 
ment in the Permian age, above which no authenticated 
example has yet been discovered." ![ The preponderance of 
so typically Permian a genus as StropJudosicc in the Bowen 

* Phys. Structure of Austr., p. 22. 

t Geol. Mag., 1877, iv., p. 260. 

X St. Morrisiana (King), Quart. Jour. Geol. See, xviii., p. 32, t. 2, f. 8. 

§ American Pal. Foss., p. 135. || Pal. E. Nebraska, p. 165, 

11 Davidson, Introduction, p. 116. 



318 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Eiver Series insensibly leads us to the questions, What claim 
have these deposits to be considered as of Permian age ? or 
as containing a mixed Carboniferous and Permian fauna ? 
To answer these questions we must go a little deeper into the 
subject, and pass in review the other species occurring in 
them. In the first place as to Stenopora. The recent researches 
of Professor H. A. Mcholson and myself show this genus to be 
a sound one, and not identical either with Chcetetes or Monticu- 
lipora, as has been so stated by numerous authors. Further, the 
genus is, we believe, characteristically a Permian one, although 
it may be represented in carboniferous and lower rocks to some 
small extent, in other words, the long array of species of the 
latter age which have been tacked on to Stenoporct from time 
to time, will, in all probability, be found wanting in its most 
characteristic features. Typical Stenoporce have been described 
by Lonsdale from the Permian rocks of Eussia,* and from 
Geinitz's description, his S. Macivthif would appear to be 
another, although in his later work on the " Dyas," the species 
is merged in Stenopora columnaris (Schlotheim). 

With regard to the Polyzoa. Although Protoretepora is a 
form which may very well find an analogue in true carboni- 
ferous rocks, it may nevertheless be more strictly likened to 
the Permian genus Phyllopora (King), rather than to the 
Fenestella or Polypora forms met with in the lower horizon. 

So far therefore as the fauna found at two points on Peli- 
can Creek (localities 1 and 4) and on Parrot Creek (locality 
6) are concerned, I do not see how we can come to any other 
conclusion, than tliat very strong evidence exists of the 
marked Permian character of the fossils. 

At the 3d, 5th, and 7th localities, we meet with an assem- 
blage of forms, which, omitting one or two dubious ones, have 
usually been looked upon in New South Wales as of Carboni- 
ferous age, and are there undoubtedly associated with others, 
especially Brachiopoda, of a marked Carboniferous facies. 

Unfortunately I am not in possession of any information 
as to the stratigraphical relation of the beds at the above 
localities, one with the other, except in the broad sense of 

* Murchison's "Geol. Russia," 1845, i,, p, 632, 
t Veostein deut-liecli Steinze, p. 17. 



Mr Etheridgc on Fossils from Boiucn River Coal field. 319 

the two great divisions of Marine and Fresli-Water as stated 
by Mr Jack; but I feel little hesitation in saying that they 
form portions of one continuous series. I am led to this 
opinion by the lithological character of the specimens, and 
the general distribution of the species. 

In conclusion, I may state that the examination of these 
Bowen Eock fossils, so far as it has gone, leads me to regard 
tliem as occupying a high position in the Palasozoic Series, 
and that all purposes would best be served by regarding them 
as of Permo- Carboniferous age. 

The distribution of the Strophalosict Clarkei, a form on 
which I have laid considerable stress, is not confined to 
Queensland, as we have before us the example (fig. 21) ob- 
tained by the Eev. J. E. T. Woods from the Upper PalaBOzoic 
rocks of New South Wales, and forwarded by him to Mr 
Davidson. How far the discovery of such shells in New 
South Wales and Tasmania (figs. 41 and 42) * will have an 
influence in determining the age of the beds in which they 
occur, it is at present idle to speculate. 

There is one point more which appears to me to be worthy 
of consideration in conjunction with these facts, viz., the 
strong resemblance borne by tlie Procluctns or Strophalosict last 
described, and found in New South Wales and Tasmania (figs. 
44 and 45) f with the typical Permian species of the genus 
Procluct'us horridus (figs. 50 and 51). 

5. List of Localities feom which Fossils have been col- 
lected IN THE Bowen Eivek Coalfield by E. L. 
Jack, Esq. 

"The specimens are numbered in red wax — M (Marine 
Series), F (Fresh- Water Series)." 

" M. Nos. 1 and 2. Pelican Creek, head of, near Mount Diolin. 
„ „ 3 to 5 (inch). Pelican Creek, 5 miles north of Sonoma 
Station. 
54 to 57 (inch). Pelican Creek, f mile above Sonoma 
road-crossing. 

* Milligan Collection, Brit. Mus. 

t Strzelecki Collection, Brit. Mus. , Milligan Collection, id. 



)f » 



320 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

" M. Nos. 58 to 61 (incL). Pelican Creek, ^ mile above Sonoma 

road-crossing. 
„ „ 62. Coral Creek, 3 miles above Sonoma Station. 
„ „ 63. Sandstone above Garrick coal seam. 
„ „ 64 to 75 (incL). Pelican Creek, opposite Palmer's 

Old Station. 
„ „ 76 to 132 (incL). Coral Creek below Sonoma road- 
crossing. 
„ „ 133. Bowen Eiver, | mile above Stonelumpy Creek. 
„ „ 134, 135, and 137. Bowen Eiver, between Traverse 

Stations 25 and 26. 
„ „ 136. Bowen Eiver, at mouth of Creek at jSTo. 25 

Traverse Station. 
„ „ 138 to 154 (incL). Parrot Creek, 4^ miles np. 
„ „ 155 to 162 (incL). Parrot Creek, 8 miles up. 
„ „ 163. Twelve Mile Plain, above StonelumxDy Creek. 
„ „ 164, 165. Stonelumpy Creek. 
„ „ 166. Bowen Eiver, at No. 25 Traverse Station. 
F. „ 167 and 168. Macarthur Creek, below Macartliur 

coal seam. 
„ „ 169 to 171 (incL). Jack's Creek (all from one slab). 
„ „ 173. Jack's Creek. 

„ „ 175 to 182 (incL). Cockatoo Creek, 12 miles up. 
„ „ 183. Cockatoo Creek 3-|- miles up. 
„ „ 184 and 185. Cockatoo Creek, 11 miles up. 
„ „ 186. Cockatoo Creek, 3:^ miles up. 
„ „ 187 to 189 (incL). Eosella Creek, 2 miles above 

Havilah Paddock (a marine bed in the 

Fresh- Water Series). 
„ „ 190 to 213 (inch). Havilah-Byerwin Eoad, 1 mile 

south of Eosella Creek crossing (a marine 

bed in the Fresh-Water Series). 
„ „ 214 to 221 (inch). Cockatoo Creek." 

6. List of Papers, Etc., relating to the Palaeontology 
OF Queensland. 

Bennett, Dr G. — Notes on the Chlamydosauriis, or Frilled- 
Lizard of Queensland (C. Kingii, Gray), and the discovery 



Mr Ether id gc on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 321 

of a Fossil Species on the DarKng Downs, Queensland 
{Proc. R Soc. Tecs, for 1875, pp. 56-58). 

Bowerbank, Dr J. S. — A Monograph of the Silico-fibrous 
Sponges (Froc. Zool. Soc., 1869, pp. 323-351 ; Furisiplionia 
Clarkei, Bow.). 

Carruthers, W. — Notes on Fossil Plants from Queensland, 
Australia {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1872, xxviii., pp. 
350-360, PL XXVI. and XXVIL). 

Carter, H. J. — Emendatory Description of Furisiplwnia 
Clarkei (Bk.), a Hexactinellid Fossil Sponge from N. W. 
Australia (Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1878, i., pp. 
376-379). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — On the Genera and Distribution of 
Plants in the Carboniferous System of New South Wales 
{Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 1848, iv., pp. 60-63). 

Clarke, Eev. W. B. — On the Relative Positions of certain 
Plants in the Coal-bearing Beds of Australia {Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc, 1861, xvii., pp. 354-362). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — On the Occurrence of Mesozoic and Per- 
mian Faunae in Eastern Australia {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 
1862, xviii., pp. 244-247). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B.— On the Age of the New South Wales 
Coalfields {Annads and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1862, x., pp. 
81-86). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — On the Carboniferous and other Geolo- 
gical Relations of the Maranoa District in Queensland 
in reference to a discovery of Zoological Fossils at Wol- 
lumbilla Creek and Stony Creek, AVest Maitland {Trans. 
II. Soc Vict, 1865, vi., pp. 32-42). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — On Marine Fossiliferous Secondary For- 
mations in Australia {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1867, xxiii., 
pp. 7-12). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — Dinornis, an Australian Genus {Geol. 
Mag., 1869, vi., pp. 383, 384). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — On the Dinornis and Saurian Remains 
in AustraKa {American Jour. Science, 1870, xHx., p. 273). 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. — Remarks on the Sedimentary Forma- 
tions of New South Wales, 1870. Sydney, 8vo (and 
later editions). 



322 Froceedings of the Eoyal Physical Society. 

Daintree, E. — Age of the New South Wales Coal-Beds 

(Geologist, 1864, vii., pp. 72-79). 
Daintree, K. — Keport on the Cape Eiver Diggings and the 

latest Mineral Discoveries in Northern Queensland, pp. 7, 

fcap. Brisbane, 1868 (Discovery of Belemnites). 
Daintree, E. — Notes on the Geology of the Colony of Queens- 
land {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 1872, xxviii., pp. 271-317). 
Etheridge, E. — Description of the Palseozoic and Mesozoic 

Fossils of Queensland {Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., 1872, 

xxviii., pp. 317-350, PL XIII. and XXV.). 
Etheridge, E., jun. — Notes on some Upper Palaeozoic Polyzoa 

from Queensland {Trcms. B. Soc. Vict., 1876, xii., pp. 

66-68). 
Etheridge, E., jun. — A Catalogue of Australian Fossils, etc., 

1878, Cambridge, 8vo. 
Etheridge, E., jun. — On the History of PalcTozoic Actinology 

in Australia {Trans. E. Soc. Vict., 1878, xiv.,pp. 102-108). 
Leichhardt, L. — Notes on the Geology of Parts of New South 

Wales and Queensland, made in 1842-43 ; translated by 

G. H. F. Ulrich, Esq, F.G.S., and edited by the Eev. 

W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., etc. {Waugh's Almanac. 

Sydney, 1867-68). 
Leichhardt, L. — Journal of an Overland Expedition in Aus- 
tralia, from Moreton Bay to Port Essington, etc., 8vo. 

London, 1847. 
M'Coy, Professor F. — Eemarks on a Series of Fossils collected 

at Wollumbilla, and transmitted* by Eev. W. B. Clarke 

of Sydney {Trans. B. Soc. Vict., 1865, vi., pp. 42-46). 
M'Coy, Professor F. — Note on the Cretaceous Deposits of 

Australia {Annals and Mag. Nctt. Hist., 1865, xvi., pp. 

333, 334). 
M'Coy, Professor F. — On the Discovery of Cretaceous Fossils 

in Australia {Tra7is. B. Soc. Vict., 1866, vii.). 
M'Coy, Professor F. — On the Occurrence of Flesiosaurus and 

Ichthyosaurus in Australia (Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1867, xix., pp. 355, 356). 
M'Coy, Professor F. — On the Discovery of Enaliosauria and 

other Cretaceous Fossils in Australia (Trans. B. Soc. 

Vict., 1868, viii., p. 41). 



Mr Ether idgc on Fossils from Bowen Eiver Coalfield. 323 

M'Goy, Professor F. — On the Teeth and Fossil-eye of Ichthyo- 
saurus Australis ('Trans. E. Soc. Vict., 1869, ix., pt. 2, 
pp. 77, 78). 

Moore, C. — Australian Mesozoic Geology and Palaeontology 
(Quart. Jour. GcoL Soc, 1870, xxvi., pp. 226-261, PL 
XVI.-XVIIL). 

Stutchbury, S. — On the Geology of the Dividing Eange 
between the Gwydir and the Namoi, Liverpool Plains 
District (Pari. Blue Book, Dec. 1854, pp. 14-20). 

Stutchbury, S. — On the Country bordering the Coast between 
the Eivers Brisbane and Boyne (Farl. Blue Book, July 
1866, pp. 6-14). 

Wilkinson, C. S. — Notes on a Collection of Geological Speci- 
mens from the Coasts of New Guinea, Cape York, and 
neighbouring Islands, collected by William Macleay, 
Esq., etc. (Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1876, xviii., p. 
190; Geol. Mag., dec. 2, iii., p. 428; Canadian Nat. and 
Geol, K Ser., viii., pp. 156-160). 

N.B. — I have not included in the above list the titles of 
the numerous papers by Professor Owen, C.B., F.RS., in the 

Philosophical Transactions, on the remains of the extinct Post 
Pliocene Vertehrctcc found in Queensland. 

Desceiption of Plates VII.-XVIL 

Fig, 1. Sjnrifera, sp. (compare Spirifera euryglossus, Sch. ("Palaionto- 
grapliica," iii., t. 36, f. 5a-d}. A ventral valve, natural size, showing the 
umbo channelled by the deep median sinus. Fanning Limestone, 

Fig. 2. Airy2)a reticularis (Linn.). View of the convex dorsal valve, show- 
ing portions of the characteristic reticulo-imbricated surface. Fanning Lime- 
stone. 

Figs. 3 and 4. Atrypa desquamata (J. de C. Sowerby) ? Natural size. 
Fanning Limestone. Fig. 3. Ventral valve, with remains of radiating stride. 
Fig. 4. With remains of spiral appendages. 

Fig. 5. Rhynchonclla, sp. (compare R. priinipilaris (V. Buch) in David- 
son's "Mon, Brit, Sil. Brach.," 1865, t. 14, f. 4-6). Ventral valve. Shale 
above Fanning Limestone. 

Fig. 6. Spirifera convoluta (Phillips). View of valve, natural size ; a, 
bifurcated ribs. 

Figs. 7 and 8. Spirifera Darwinii (Morris) ? An internal cast of a young 
example, natural size ; Coral Creek. Fig. 7. View of the ventral valve, with 
the mesial sinus and part of the beak broken away. Fig. 8. Dorsal valve ; 
a, pinched up mesial fold. 



324 Froceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Fig. 9. Another specimen of the same, showing the mesial sinus and broad 
concentric laminae of growth ; natural size. Parrot Creek. 

Figs, 10 and 11. A typical example of the same species, from the cliffs at 
Wollongong, New South Wales, showing the characteristic concentric laminae 
and three ribs on each side the shell ; natural size. Collector — Professor A. 
Liversidge. 

Figs. 12-15. OrtJwtetes crenistria, var. senilis (Phillips), natural size ; 
Havilah-Byerwin Pvoad, from a Marine Band in the Fresh-Water Series. Fig. 
12. View of the dorsal valve and area of the ventral. Fig. 12a. Portion 
of the surface magnified, showing punctse. Fig. 13. Ventral valve of the 
same specimen, showing the conical form and gnarled appearance. Fig. 14. 
Side view of the same specimen, both valves in apposition. Fig. 15. Side 
view of another specimen. 

Figs. 16-18. Productus hrachythcerus (G. Sowerby), natural size. Fig. 16. 
View of the ventral valve, with channels formed by the decurrent bases of 
the spines. Fig. 18. Side view of the same specimen, showing the geniculated 
form ; both from Stonelumpy Creek. Fig. 17. Dorsal valve, with the short 
median septum a, and short hinge line hh ; Havilah-Byerwin Road, in a 
Marine Band of the Fresh- Water Series, associated with OrtJwtetes crenistria. 

Figs. 18a.-25. Strophalosia Olarkei (Etheridge), natural size; various 
localities. Figs. 18a, 19, and 20. Interiors of the dorsal valve ; Pelican and 
Parrot Creeks. Figs. 21 and 22 the same. (= S. Woodsi. T. Davidson, 
m. s.; Collection— 1l . Davidson, from New South Wales.) Figs. 23, 24, 25 
the same. Pelican Creek. 

N.B. — The following letters refer to the same parts in the figures 18a-25 : 
— CO, space left by the removal of the cardinal boss, septum, etc. ; h, bevelled 
front margin ; c, lump of shelly matter showing thickness of valve ; d, rounded 
alar angles ; c, cardinal boss ; /, sockets for teeth of the ventral valve ; g, elon- 
gated septum ; A, h, oblique alar ridges ; i, i, depressions in which are situ- 
ated the adductor muscles ; k, k, semilunar and narrow reniform impressions, 
additional or front depression ; n, n, transverse septum between these depres- 
sions. 

Figs. 26-32. Strojyhalosia Clarkei (Etheridge). Interior casts of the ventral 
valve, natural size. Parrot Creek : — a, teeth ; b, ridge or se2)tum (groove in 
casts) separating the adductor impressions ; c, ridges in the cast bounding the 
latter ; d, blunt prominence (deep pit in casts) ; e, e, depression for cardinal 
muscles, with grooves and ridges, forming scarp-like prominences in the cast ; 
/, hinge spines; h, open channels left by spine bases; /, blunt umbo. 

Fig. 33. Strophalosia Clarkei (Eth.), with portion of the true shelly matter 
adhering. Ventral valve natural size. Bowen River. 

Figs. 34-38. Strophalosia Gerardi, King? (See Perm. Foss. England, t. 
19, f. 6 and 7). Natural size. Pelican Creek. Figs. 34 and 35, exterior of 
the ventral valve, convex and round. Figs. 36 and 37, concave dorsal valve, 
with the area and umbo of the ventral valve. Fig, 38, portion of surface of 
another individual, showing spines — a, a, hinge line and area; b, concave 
dorsal valve ; c, remains of spines on surface of yentral valve ; d, blunt but 
not incurved umbo of ventral valve. 

Figs. 39-43. Strophalosia Jnkcsli, sp. nov. ? New South Wales and Tas- 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 325 

mania. Coll. Brit. Museum. Natural size. Figs. 39 and 40, ventral and 
dorsal valve of the most complete and concave species we have. Figs. 41 and 
42, interior of the dorsal valve. (Compare the form of the reniform impres- 
sions with those of figs. 21 and 23.) Fig. 43, side view of ventral valve of an- 
other specimen — a, a, hinge and area ; h, spines on ventral valve ; c, close 
concentric laminte of dorsal valve ; d, cardinal boss ; c, septum ; /, exterior 
boundary of reniform impressions ; g^ remains of alar ridge ; h, bevelled front 
edge. 

Figs. 44-49. Productm (?), sp. ind. (Compare P. hrachythcerus (Morris), in 
Strzelecki's " Phys. Descrip. New South Wales," etc., 1845, t. 14, f. 4 « and h. ) 
New South Wales. Strzelecki Collection, British Museum — a, long septum, 
reaching to front margin ; h, reniform impressions ; c, beak of ventral valve ; 
d, dendritic adductor impressions ; c, beak removed, showing cardinal process ; 
/, alar ridges ; g, scarp-like casts of the depression for the cardinal muscles ; 
h, septum dividing the adductors of the ventral valve; i, cardinal process; k, 
channels of spine bases. 

Figs. 50 and 51. Produdus horridus (Sowerby). Permian, Humbleton 
Hill. Coll. British Museum. Natural size. The same lettering applies 
here. 

Fig. 52. Aviculopeden subquinquelineatus (M'Coy). Natural size. Bowen 
River, Marine Series. 

Fig. 53. Pachydomus ? carinatus (Morris). Natural size. Coral Creek, 
Marine Series. 

Fig. 54. SanguinoUtes, sp. ind. (Compare S. clava (M'Coy), Brit. Pal. 
Foss., t. 3F, f. 12.) Natural size. Coral Creek, Marine Series. 

Figs. 55-57. Crioceras Jackii, sp. nov. Natural size. Tate River. Cre- 
taceous. 

Fig. 58. Crioceras Jackii, var. Natural size. Tate River. Cretaceous — 
a, large ribs with tubercles ; h, small plain ribs ; c, tubercles ; £?, continuation 
of body whorl remaining attached to other portions of shell. 



PLANTS. 

Mr Carmthers has very kindly undertaken to afford me a 
few notes on the fossil plants collected by Mr Jack in the 
Bowen Elver coalfield. In connection with this branch of 
the subject the following remarks may not be found out of 
place. As before stated, in the introductory remarks, Mr 
Jack's memoranda accompanying the collection inform us 
that the latter is from two series of beds, a Marine (fossils 
numbered 1 to 166 inclusive) and a Fresh-Water Series (fossils 
numbered 167-221 inclusive). 

From the first, or Marine Series, the remains of plants are 
only met with amongst the fossils collected from the concre- 
tionarv ironstone of Coral Creek, below the Sonoma road- 



326 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

crossing, and were obtained personally by Mr Jack. The 
specimens are four in number, two of them being Glossopteris, 
and the others doubtful. 

From the beds forming the second or Fresh-Water Series 
the remains are almost wholly those of plants, chiefly con- 
sisting of Glossopteris and Phyllotheca, which will be described 
in detail by Mr Carruthers. The point I wish to call atten- 
tion to is the occurrence in this series of a bed at two different 
localities containing not only Marine fossils, but fossils of 
an undoubtedly Upper Palaeozoic facies. 

As before stated, Mr Jack has not supplied me with details 
of the stratigraphical relations of these beds one with the 
other, but with the view of showing that no mistake can 
exist, I quote from his list of localities as follows : 

"Nos. 187 to 189 (inch) Eosella Creek, two miles above 
Havilah Paddock, collected by E. L. J. (a Marine bed in the 
Fresh- Water Series)." 

" Nos. 190 to 213 (inch) Havilah-Byerwin Eoad, one mile 
south of Eosella Creek crossing, collected by E. L. J. (a Marine 
bed in the Fresh- Water Series)." 

JSTow the importance of these facts must not be overlooked. 
In the case of the Coral Creek deposit we have an assemblage 
of fossils most carefully collected, and all presenting traces of 
one and the same matrix. An undoubted Glossopteris occurs 
here, near G. ampla (Dana)* (No. 115) in company with 
Polyzoa of an Upper Palaeozoic type, such as Fenestella, Pro- 
toretepora, two species of Stenopora, a specimen which is either 
a Productus or a Sfrophalosia (No. 99), probably the latter ; 
bivalves of the genera Pachydomtcs and Ma^onia, another 
which I cannot distinguish from Avicidopecten limceformis 
(Morris), and certainly Pterinea macroptera (Morris).*f An 
assemblage of fossils such as this would have been considered 
by all those who have in previous years written on the sub- 
ject, Professors Morris, M'Coy, Dana, Jukes, Mr Daintree 
and others, as representing the Upper Palaeozoic Series of 
New South Wales, etc. 

* Geol. U.S. Expl. Exped., under Capt. Wilkes, Atlas, t. 13, f. 1. 
f The remains of the Glossopteris actually occur in the same block of 
matrix with certain of these fossils. 



Mr Etheridge on Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield. 327 

In a Presidential address delivered to the Eoyal Society 
of Victoria on the 25th of April 1864,* Professor M'Coy tells 
us that in a discussion which took place at the reading of a 
paper by Mr Daintree, the latter mentioned, '* in the course 
of the discussion a fact of the highest importance, and whicli 
may be found in some measure to reconcile the view of Mr 
Clarke and myself, namely, that Mr Clarke in making his 
original collections for determination had mixed together the 
fossils of the upper and lower beds. Now, as a portion of 
the fossils could be identified with European species, and 
there were among them two species of Trilobites {Phillipsia 
and BracJiymctopus), characteristic of the Mountain Limestone 
as found in Ireland and Eussia, the clearly marked age of 
these would have determined the age of the whole, if, as was 
supposed, they came from the same beds ; and in this indirect 
way the Pacliydomi and other new generic and specific forms, 
which from their novelty could not afford any indication of 
age of themselves, came to be considered as Palseozoic forms 
from their supposed associations with those which certainly 
were of that age. It is obviously, therefore, necessary to 
collect and investigate the evidence afresh from each bed by 
itself with care. . . . etc." These remarks, although 
undoubtedly sound in principle, will not apply in this case, 
for we have here careful collecting, showing that Glossopteris 
does actually exist in a deposit with a Marine fauna, amongst 
which is at least one specimen of Productus or Strophalosia. 

Further, the same species of Polyzoa, which are found in 
abundance in the Coral Creek deposit with the Glossopteris, 
are also met with at Pelican Creek, where the characteristic 
fossil is Strophalosia Clarhei. 

Taking all these facts into careful and unbiassed consi- 
deration, it appears to me impossible, if the Coral Creek 
fauna is admitted to be of Permio-Carboniferous age, or at 
any rate of Upper Palaeozoic age, equally must it be admitted 
that we now have a tangible demonstration of the occurrence 
of Glossopteris in actual company with such a fauna."!* 

* Trans. R. Soc, Victoria, 1865, vi., p. Ixvi. 

i On this head, see Dr 0. Feistmantel, " Palaeontographica, " 1878, suppl. 
iii., Liefemng. iii., Heft. 2, p. 67. 



328 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Next, as to the marine bands in the Plant or Fresh-Water 
Series, I have the following remarks to make. The Marine 
bed at Eosella Creek contains Goniatites micromphalus (Morris) 
and some indeterminable fragments of other MoUusca. The 
similar bed at the Havilah-Byerwin Eoad contains magnifi- 
cent specimens of a particularly characteristic Carboniferous 
Brachiopod, Orthotetes {Streptorhynchus) crenistria, var. senilis 
(Phillips), in company with Prockwtus brachythcerus (G. 
Sowerby), No. 193, and a bivalve, either a Pachijdomus or 
Astartila. 

Striking confirmation is again afforded by yet another 
locality, Cockatoo Creek, where we have Glossojoteris and 
Phyllotheca actually in company with Strophalosia Clarkei 
(No. 176). 

The plants which characterise this Fresh- Water Series I 
must now leave Mr Carruthers to describe. Beyond placing 
these facts on record, I cannot at the present time go further, 
pending the publication of Mr Jack's detailed report on the 
Bowen Eiver coalfield. 

(Unforeseen circumstances have prevented Mr Carruthers 
from carrying out his intention. The following is, however, 
a list of his determinations) : 

1. Macarthur Creek, below Macarthur coal seam — 

Glossopteris Broivniana (Brong.) in great quantity. 

2. Jack's Creek — 

Arcmcaryoxylon iVitco^'i ^(Carruthers, sp. nov). 

3. Cockatoo Creek, 12 miles up — 

Phyllotheca Australis (Brong.). 
Glossopteris Browniana (Brong.). 

4. Cockatoo Creek, 3^ miles up — 

Phyllotheca Australis (Brong.). 
Glossopteris Browniana (Brong.). 

5. Cockatoo Creek, 11 miles up — 

Glossopteris Browniana (Brong.). 

6. Cockatoo Creek (Nos. 214 to 221 incl.)— 

Glossopteris linearis (M'Coy). 
Phyllotheca Australis (Brong.). 
Glossopteris Browniana (Brong.). 



Tlie Old Red Sandstmie of Orkney. 329 



VIII. Tlie Old Red Sandstone of Orhmj. By B. N. Peach, 
Esq., r.G.S., and John Horne, Esq, F.G.S. [PL XVIII.] 

(Read 21st April 1880.) 

While engaged in working out the glacial geology of 
Orkney, during our leave of absence from official work, 
in the autumn of 1879, we had occasion to pay some atten- 
tion to the geological structure of the Old Eed Sandstone, 
which is so largely represented in that group of islands. 
In the course of our traverses we detected certain points 
regarding the physical relations of the strata which have not 
as yet been described; and we likewise noted a new and 
interesting feature in the history of this formation in Orkney, 
viz., the proofs of contemporaneous volcanic action in Lower 
Old Eed Sandstone times. In the paper now laid before the 
Society we purpose to describe briefly the general results of 
these observations. 

The abundance of ichthyolites in the flagstones of Orkney 
was made known through the descriptions of Agassiz, and 
more recently by Hugh Miller in his well-known volume 
" The Footprints of the Creator." In the opening chapters 
of that work he makes the following statement : 

" It is not too much to affirm that in the comparatively 
small portion which this cluster of islands contains of a 
system regarded only a few years ago as the least fossiliferous 
in the geologic scale, there are more fossil fish inclosed than 
in every other geologic system in England, Scotland, and 
Wales, from the coal measures to the chalk inclusive." 

In spite of the inducement herein contained, the ichthyo- 
logy of Orkney has never been so vigorously or exhaustively 
worked out as that of Caithness and the Moray Firth basin. 

The paper published by Sir E. Murchison in the Quart. 
Jour, of the Geol. Soc* contains a brief description of the 
geological character of the deposits, and an attempt to cor- 
relate the strata with the representatives of the same forma- 
tion in Caithness. He refers to the axis of ancient crystal- 
line rocks near Stromness on which the Lower Conglomerate 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, XV., 410. 
VOL. V. Y 



330 Proceedioigs of the Boyal Physical Society. 

rests unconformably, to the large development of the Flagstone 
series, which is analogous to that of Caithness and to the 
great succession of red and yellow sandstones of Hoy, which 
graduate downwards into the flagstones. 

In 1878 appeared the first part of Professor Geikie's 
treatise on the Old Eed Sandstone of Western Europe.* Tliis 
valuable monograph was the first comprehensive attempt to 
sketch the history of the deposits belonging to this formation 
in Shetland, Orkney, Caithness, and the Moray Firth basin, 
and to restore in outline the physical geography of the period. 
In that portion of the memoir which refers to Orkney, he 
pointed out, for the first time, the unconformity between the 
massive yellow sandstones of Hoy and the flagstones. He 
likewise called attention to the contemporaneous lavas and 
tuffs which lie at the base of the Upper Old Eed Sandstone 
of Hoy, and to the existence of volcanic " necks " from which 
these materials had been discharged. He also controverted 
the idea, advocated by Murchison, that the conglomeratic 
strata which rest unconformably on the crystalline rocks at 
Stromness, form the true base of the formation. He regards 
them merely "as a local interruption of the Flagstone series, 
due to the rise of an old ridge of rock from the surface of the 
sheet of water in which these strata were accumulated." 
Moreover, he correlates the Orkney flagstones with the 
higher subdivisions of the Caithness series, which is so far 
confirmed by the fossil evidence hitherto obtained. 

In the Miner alogical Magazine for December 1879, Pro- 
fessor Heddle published a paper on the Orkney Islands, in 
which he describes a well-marked trough which runs througli 
the centre of the group of islands. The strata which occupy 
the centre of the trough he describes as "loose arenaceous 
freestones, with silicious granules sometimes so coarse as 
almost to entitle them to the designation of grits." More- 
over, he notes the important fact that these arenaceous strata 
repose conformably on the ordinary blue flags of the islands. 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., XXVIII., 345. This memoir contains references 
to other papers than those we have quoted on "The Old Red Sandstone of 
Orkney." We have chiefly referred to those publications which treat of the 
geological structure of the islands. 



The Old Bed Sandstone of Orkney. 331 

The results of oiir observations confirm the statements we 
have just quoted from the papers of Professor Geikie and 
Professor Heddle. In the course of our recent traverses we 
examined nearly the whole of the coast line of Westray, 
Sanday, Eday, Stronsay, Shapinshay, South Eonaldshay, and 
the Mainland, a portion of Hoy, and some of the small islands of 
the group. The succession of the strata is more clearly defined 
in the northern islands, and we shall therefore begin by de- 
scribing the relations of the Flagstone series as they are 
exposed on the coast sections of Westray, Eday, and Sanday. 

Along the western shores of Westray there are admirable 
sections of grey and rusty-coloured flags, dipping in a westerly 
direction at a gentle angle. The bluff cliff of the Noup 
Head (about 240 feet) in the north-west corner of the island, 
consists throughout of finely-bedded rusty-coloured flags ; and 
similar strata are met with on the slopes of the Fitty and 
Gallow Hills, to the south-west of Pierowall. The remark- 
able terraced appearance which these hills present when seen 
from Pierowall or Cleat, is characteristic of the flagstones. 
This feature is due to the denudation of softer members of 
the series, which must have been mainly accomplished in 
pregiacial times. This is evident from the occurrence of 
polished surfaces and ice markings in many of the successive 
ledges on the hill slopes. 

At ISTethergarth, in Tuquoy Bay, the flagstones roll over to 
the east, and this easterly dip continues, with some gentle 
undulations, along the south-western shore to the promontory 
of Eapness. And so also along the eastern shore from New- 
ark by Eackwick, Stangar Head to Weatherness, the grey and 
rusty flags are inclined to the east and south of east. The 
same easterly dip is observable on the southern promontories 
of Papa Westray. It follows, therefore, that we have a low 
anticlinal arch with several minor foldings in the island of 
Westray, the axis of which crosses the island from Tuquoy 
Bay northwards in the direction of the western shore of 
Papa Westray. The flagstones exposed in the south-eastern 
part of the island are merely the repetitions of those met 
with in the western portions. 

As we approach Weatherness, which forms the south- 



332 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

eastern promontory of Westray, the flagstones are more highly 
inclmed to the east. On the islands of Fara Holm and Fara, 
the same high angle is observable with a similar easterly dip; 
and there can be little doubt that the grey flags in the latter 
islets are higher in the series than those at Weatherness. 
The flagstones exposed on the western shore of Eday between 
Fara's Ness and Seal Skerry are merely the southern pro- 
longations of the flaggy beds in Fara and Fara Holm. On 
the whole, then, the succession of the strata between Westray 
and Eday is tolerably clear, notwithstanding some short gaps 
in the sections. 

The structure of the island of Eday is comparatively simple. 
The strata form a well-marked syncline, the axis of which 
lies to the west of the Flighty and Fara's Ness Hills, The 
centre of this trough is occupied by a great series of yellow 
and red sandstones, which rest conformably on the flagstones 
already described. The shore sections on the east and west 
sides of the island are so clear and convincing, that no one 
can possibly dispute the conformable passage of the flagstones 
into the overlying arenaceous series. So strongly do the 
sandstones of Eday resemble the Upper Old Eed Sandstones of 
Hoy, that Sir Eoderick Murchison placed them on the same 
horizon. But a minute examination of the coast sections 
proves that they really belong to the Flagstone series, and are 
therefore of much older date. 

A traverse along the shore from Fara's Ness to the sandy 
bay about a mile to the east, shows the gradual alternation of 
sandstones and flags at the base of the arenaceous series. At 
the promontory now referred to, the grey flagstones are seen 
dipping to the east at an angle of 30° ; but not far to the 
east they are interstratified with bands of flaggy sandstone. 
These beds are overlaid by false-bedded yellow sandstones 
which contain numerous brecciated bands made up of angular 
fragments of crystalline rocks. These false-bedded sandstones 
likewise contain two thin zones of grey flagstones, which 
resemble in every respect those at Fara's Ness. It is apparent, 
therefore, that the change of physical conditions indicated by 
the respective groups of strata must have been gradual. 

The same conformable passage between the flagstone and 



The Old Bed Sandstone of Orkney. 333 

the overlying arenaceous series is observable on the east 
coast near the Kirk of Skail, and to the north of Warness, 
which forms the south-western promontory. Owing to the 
synclinal fold in the strata, the flagstones at Fara's Ness are 
brought to the surface again at Warness, and these beds are pro- 
longed in a north-north-easterly direction towards the Kirk of 
Skail. At both of these localities grey and white sandstones 
are interbedded with the flags, and these pass upwards into 
conglomeratic red and yellow false-bedded sandstones. 

The section exposed on the beach at Kirk of Skail and 
on the south side of Lonton Bay, exhibits the following suc- 
cession in descending order : 

Red and yellow sandstones. 

Flagstones, 40 feet. 

Reddish shales, . . . . 15 ,, 

Hard white sandstone, . . . 20 ,, 
Grey calcareous flagstones. 

The sandstones at the top of this section are flaggy at their 
base, but become more massive and conglomeratic upwards. 
The included pebbles consist of fragments of mica schist, 
quartzite, gneiss, granite, and other metamorphic rocks all 
stained of a reddish colour. The occurrence of these pebbles 
tends to confirm Professor Geikie's expressed opinion that 
the Lower Old Eed Sandstone strata of Orkney were laid 
down on a very uneven surface of the older crystalline rocks ; 
for an exposure of these latter must have still existed at no 
gTeat distance, when the highest beds of the Lower Old Eed 
Sandstone series now preserved in Orkney were being 
deposited. 

In the bay to the north-east of Stenniehill a zone of grey 
flagstones with fish remains is interleaved with the sandstones, 
as we found to be the case on the west side of the island in 
the bay of Fara's Ness. This zone can be traced at intervals 
across the island in a south-westerly direction to the coast 
line west of the Wart of Eday. 

About half a mile to the south of the entrance to the CaK 
Sound, the base of the arenaceous series is again exposed on 
the coast line. The gTcy and rusty flags form a low arch on 
which the coarse-gTained sandstones rest conformably. The 



334 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

flags are truncated on tlie north side by a small fault which 
brings down the overlying sandstones. The greater portion 
of Eday and the whole of the Calf of Eday are occupied by 
these sandstones. Perhaps the finest exposure of the series 
is to be seen on the Eed Head of Eda,y (209 feet), which forms 
the northern promontory of the island. These strata form 
prominent hills in the centre of the island, whose features are 
totally different from those characteristic of the Flagstone 
series in Westray. As a rule the beds are extremely coarse- 
grained, and frequently conglomeratic, with much false bed- 
ding ; indeed, as we have already remarked, they have a strik- 
ing lithological resemblance to the Upper Old Eed Sandstones 
of Hoy. 

Southwards from the Kirk of Skail, along the shore, there 
is a steadily descending section of the flagstones for nearly a 
mile and a half. There is no great thickness of strata ex- 
posed however, as the • coast line forms only a very small 
angle with the line of strike for some distance. North of 
Veness the Flagstone series is abruptly terminated by a fault 
which brings down the overlying sandstones to the west. 
This dislocation runs in a north and south direction, and 
passes out to sea to the west of the Veness promontory. 
There is therefore a small detached area of the arenaceous 
series in the south-east corner of the island. 

In the island of Sanday the thick sandstone series of Eday 
and the underlying flagstones are repeated partly by foldings 
and dislocations of the strata. Along the western shore 
between Spurness and Stranquoy, the grey flagstones are ex- 
posed interbedded with red and grey sandstones which are 
conglomeratic in places. These beds are inclined to the west 
and north of west at angles varying from 50° to 70°. The con- 
glomeratic sandstones and red shales interbedded with the 
flags are seen on the western shore, about a mile to the north 
of Spurness. It is highly probable, therefore, that the strip 
of the Flagstone series, extending from Spurness to Stranquoy, 
is on the same horizon with the flags, which immediately 
underlie the Eday sandstones. 

The strip of the Flagstone series now referred to is bounded 
on the east by a dislocation which brings in the Eday sand- 



ilie Old Bed Sandstone of Orkney. 335 

stones. This fault is well seen on the shore, a short distance 
to the north-east of Spurness, where the red and yellow sand- 
stones which dip to the west at an angle of 40° are brought 
into conjunction with the grey flags. The effect of this dis- 
location is also well exposed on the shore in Stranquoy Bay. 
The chocolate-coloured sandstones and shales are seen on the 
east side of the fault dipping in a south-westerly direction ; 
while to the west of the fault the grey flags are bent round in 
the form of an arch. The effect of this dislocation is shown 
on the accompanying sheet of horizontal sections. 

To the east of Stranquoy the arenaceous series, which is 
brought in by the fault just described, is traceable for nearly 
a mile. The red and yellow sandstones are admirably seen 
in Pool Bay and on the shore at Hack Ness, having a per- 
sistent dip to the west at angles varying from 15° to 25°. A 
thin zone of interbedded flagstones is exposed in the bay to 
the west of Hack Ness, which reminds the observer of similar 
zones on the same horizon in Eday. 

The gradual passage of this arenaceous series downwards 
into the flagstones is presented on the shore at Moy Ness, 
where the same alternations of flags and sandstones at the base 
is observable, which obtains in Eday. Northwards along the 
shore towards Bacaskeal Bay there is a steady descending 
series of grey and purple flags. 

In the northern promontories of the island, and specially 
along the shore from Hermaness Bay to the Holms of Eyre, 
the grey and purple flags are repeated by gentle foldings. 
There is, therefore, no great thickness of strata exposed in 
the central portion of Sanday. The time at our disposal did 
not permit us to visit the north-eastern promontories of 
Sanday, nor the island of North Eonaldshay; but from the ob- 
servations of previous observers only the Flagstone series 
seems to be represented at these localities. 

The greater portion of the island of Stronsay is occupied 
by the flagstones, but at one or two localities there are 
small detached areas of the arenaceous series. On the north- 
ern headlands, the gTey flags are exposed dipping in a north- 
westerly direction, and the same inclination is observable in 
Odin Bay and Linga Sound. About a mile to the north of 



336 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Holland, on tlie western shore, the yellow sandstones are 
thrown against the flags by a fault which is admirably seen. 
The sandstones dip to the north of west, and, on following 
the coast line southwards, they graduate downwards into the 
grey flags. 

In the south side of the island, at Housbay, and in the bay 
west of Lamb Head, the flagstones roll over to the south-east, and 
a similar passage upwards into the yellow sandstones may be 
noted. The small area occupied by this series at Lamb Head 
is bounded on the north side by a fault. 

A small patch of yellow sandstone, which is quarried for 
building purposes, occurs between Odin Ness and Burgh 
Head, but as it is bounded by faults, its relation to the flag- 
stones is not apparent. 

The greater portion of the island of Shapinshay is likewise 
occupied by the Flagstone series. The sections exposed on the 
coast line prove, beyond all doubt, that the same beds are 
constantly repeated by gentle undulations. Along the west- 
ern shore, between Stromberry ISTess and the Gait, the general 
dip is to the north-north-west, but as the observer traverses 
the shore of Veantro Bay and the coast line between Balfour 
Castle and How, he cannot fail to note the frequent changes 
of dip which bring the same beds to the surface again and 
again. In the south-eastern corner of the island, however, 
there is a small patch of red and yeUow sandstones inter- 
stratified with grey flags. Though the gradual passage be- 
tween the two groups, which is so clear in the northern islands, 
cannot be made out in Shapinshay, there can be little doubt, 
from the character of the strata, that the patch of sandstones, 
between Haco's Ness and Kirkton, are near the base of the 
arenaceous series. A small fault separates the two groups 
to the south of Kirkton, which obscures the relations 
between them, and it is highly probable that this dislocation 
may be the northern prolongation of the great fault to be 
described presently, on the Mainland. This conjecture is 
^rengthened by the fact that, though the flagstones on Sha- 
pinshay roll about in every direction, yet the preponderance 
of dips is towards the south-east, and this is especially the 
case on the eastern shore of the island. Bearing this in mind 



Tlie Old Red Sandstone of Orkney. 337 

it is easy to account for the Eday sandstones being brought in 
by the aid of a comparatively small fault. It is important to 
note this dislocation, for these beds are continued across the 
channel to Inganess on the Mainland, whence they stretch 
across to Scapa, and are extended on to near Orphir Kirk, 
being cut off from the flagstones along their whole northern 
boundary by a large fault with a downthrow to the south. 

An interesting feature connected with the patch of sand- 
stones and the associated flags at Haco's Ness, is the occur- 
rence of interbedded volcanic rocks, clearly proving the 
existence of volcanic action in Lower Old Eed Sandstone 
times in Orkney. The lithological character of these rocks, 
as well as their appearance under the microscope, will be 
described under a separate heading. 

On the Mainland, the arenaceous series just described as 
occurring in Shapinshay, and which is likewise represented 
in Stronsay, Sanday, and Eday, is well developed. But 
before describing the relations of the two groups as repre- 
sented on the Mainland, we shall refer briefly to the develop- 
ment of the Flagstone series in the western part of the island. 
The unconformity between the flagstones and the axis of 
crystalline rocks at Stromness has been frequently described. 
Our observations tend to confirm the conclusions already 
arrived at by Professor Geikie, that the conglomeratic strata 
which repose on the gneissic rocks merely indicate a local 
base. It is quite true that the brecciated flagstones are 
mainly derived from the underlying crystalline rocks, but the 
conglomeratic character disappears within a short distance of 
the gneiss. Professor Geikie has alluded to the fact that the 
general dip of the flagstones in Hoy is to the north and north- 
west, and consequently the flaggy strata, which rest uncon- 
formably on the gneissic ridge, are probably higher in the 
series than those in Hoy. This evidently points to a gradual 
subsidence of the area during the deposition of the Flagstone 
series. 

The strata represented in the north-western portion of the 
Mainland are evidently the southern prolongations of the 
flaggy series which we have already described as occurring in 
Westray. They are admirably exposed on the shore between 



338 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Burness and the Brougli of Birsay, and along the western 
coast line. They are likewise well developed in the island 
of Eowsay, where they form the characteristic terrace-shaped 
hills. The lithological characters of the flaggy series in 
Westray, Eowsay, and the north-west of Pomona, are pre- 
cisely similar. 

On the coast line also, between Irland Bay and Houton 
Head, similar strata are met with, rolling about in gentle folds. 

Again the flaggy series of Shapinshay reappears on the 
headlands of Carness and Work Head, north-east of Kirk- 
wall, where the general inclination is to the north-west. 

From Inganess Head south-westwards to Scapa Bay, and 
along the shore to Smoogra Bay, and thence to Orphir Kirk, 
a strip of red and yellow sandstones with red marls is trace- 
able. These red and yellow sandstones are the southern 
prolongations of the Eday sandstones. They are bounded on 
both sides by faults which bring them against the underlying 
flagstones. The dislocation which forms the northern boun- 
dary line has been traced by us for a distance of nearly ten 
miles from Orphir Kirk north-eastwards by Scapa Bay to the 
bay east of Inganess Head. The fault is admirably seen at 
various localities, but perhaps one of the most interesting of 
these is on the west coast of Scapa Bay, where the main fault 
as well as a minor dislocation are seen. 

On the high cliff which bounds the west side of Inganess 
Bay, friable red clays are associated with the red sandstones. 
They decompose readily, and break up into small cubical 
fragments. 

Along the shore from Scapa southwards to Howquoy 
Head, the same red and yellow sandstones are brought into 
conjunction with the flags by a fault which runs almost 
parallel with the coast. At Scapa the rocks consist of red 
mottled sandstones, underlaid by coarse honey-combed 
yellow and white sandstones, which alternate with cal- 
careous flags and dark bituminous schists. Owing to numer- 
ous foldings these beds are often repeated. 

To the east of this arenaceous series, tlie flagstones re- 
appear in Inganess Bay. They are well developed on the 
shore near Tankerness, and along the coast line between 



The Old Bed Sandstone of Orkriey. 339 

Mull Head and Air Point, Flagstones only, are exposed on 
the shore to the east of St Mary's, and also along the road 
from Grsemeshall to Kirkwall, save where the narrow patch 
of red sandstones already mentioned crosses from Inganess to 
Scapa, 

In Sonth Ronaldshay the lowest beds exposed are to be 
met with at its southern extremity, where they form the 
Old Head overlooking the Pentland Firth. Here the rocks 
consist of grey calcareous flags, charged with abundant 
remains of Coccosteus and other ordinary Caithness fishes, 
which are well preserved as in Caithness, and are not 
represented by a black lead-like smudge characteristic of 
those from Skail. Following the eastern coast line, these 
beds continue for a consideral)le distance Avith a northerly 
dip. There are several faults, some of which are occupied 
by veins of barytes and iron pyrites, but they seem not 
to be of any great magnitude. A little to the north of 
Halcro Head, the flags pass under a series of yellow and 
red sandstones and red shales, which at Windwick are 
suddenly truncated by a large east and west fault, the 
effect of which is to bring up the underlying flagstones. 
Near the fault flagstones are inclined towards it, but they 
soon recover their northerly dip, and at Stow Head once more 
dip below the sandstones. Owing to the sandstones being 
arranged in a small trough, the flags soon reappear, and after 
rolling about for some miles along the coast line, they 
finally plunge under the sandstones near the mouth of 
Watersound, never to reappear on South Eonaldshay; for the 
red sandstones, with occasional thin intercalations of red flags 
and massive bands of red marly clay, extend to Crow Point 
in the extreme north-west. These beds are continued alono- 
their strike into Burra, where the passage from the flags 
into the red sandstones is well shown at the eastern entrance 
to Watersound. The islands of Flota, Fara, and Cava, 
show the same alternation of flagstones with red and yellow 
sandstones and red marls. In Flota the dip is almost north 
at Pan Hope, where the passage from the flagstones to the 
sandstones is well seen ; while in Fara and Cava, the inclina- 
tion is more to the north-east. 



340 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

In the district of South Walls and the promontory of 
Brim's Ness, in Hoy, the rocky cliffs exhibit the ordinary 
grey flagstones. On the shore of the Longhope, between 
Melsetter and the Inn, they pass under the red and yellow 
sandstones ; and the same relation is observable on the coast 
facing the Atlantic, a little to the south of Melsetter. On 
a former visit of one of the authors with Professor Geikie 
considerable difficult}^ was experienced in tracing the fault 
which divides the Upper Old Eed Sandstones from the 
arenaceous series associated with the flagstones, till the inter- 
calation of the sandstones with the Lower series was realised. 

From what has been said it will be seen that Scapa Flow 
occupies the site of a geological basin, towards which the rocks 
dip on every side, and along the shores of which the highest 
beds of the Lower Old Eed Sandstone exposed in Orkney are 
to be met with as well as in Eday and Sanday. 

The beds in South Eonaldshay are exceedingly like those 
exposed along the shores of Gills Bay on the opposite Caithness 
Coast and in the intermediate island of Stroma, and are, in 
all probability, their prolongations to the north-east, which is 
the direction of their strike. We have thus a definite 
horizon to start from, for the highest beds in Orkney are also 
the highest in the Caithness series. 

It is worthy of note that the sandstones become coarser as 
they are traced northwards. In South Eonaldshay there 
are great masses of friable marly clays, intercalated with 
the sandstones. In Eday and Sanday there are only about 
ten feet of such strata, while the sandstones are very coarse 
and even conglomeratic, and approach much more to the type 
of the Lower Old Eed strata of Shetland. 

Igneous Rocks in the Lower Old Red Sandstone. — The only 
contemporaneous rocks of this nature occur at the south- 
east corner of Shapinshay, between Haco's ISTess and Foot, 
where they form the coast line for about half a mile. They 
are perfectly conformable with the flagstones. The upper 
surface of the diabase is highly vesicular and amygdaloidal, 
and exhibits all the characters of a regular lava flow. The 
flagstones overlying it are not altered in the slightest along 
the line of contact. The base of the volcanic series is not 



The Old Red Sandstone of Orkney. 341 

seen, though the sea has cut trenches in the rock at least 
thirty feet in depth. Where the dip is visible, it is seawards. 
In the cliff they are covered by the flags, but they crop out 
inland not far from the coast line. These rocks are dark green 
in colour, weathering olive green. They may be considered 
as varieties of diabase, which have undergone considerable 
alteration. Some of the specimens contain much calcite, 
which fills drawn-out vesicles, indicating the flow of the 
molten lava. We have had some of these rocks sliced, and 
examined under the microscope, which confirms the opinion 
regarding the extreme alteration which they have under- 
gone. 

One of the sections is found to be largely constituted of 
a plagioclase felspar, with a small amount of intervening 
chlorite, but with much altered olivine. The felspar is much 
decomposed, and forms the bulk of the rock. The olivine, 
which is now changed into a pale greenish yellow serpentine, 
is distributed in large crystalline grains, and is abundant. 
In places the chlorite is represented by masses of radial and 
vermicular groups of crystals which appear to have under- 
gone a change to the same serpentinous mineral as that 
which replaces the olivine. IMagnetite is irregularly distri- 
buted as grains, and also frequently, either wholly or partly, 
envelopes the crystals of olivine. 

Another section shows that the rock consists of closely 
crystallised plagioclase and much interstitial augite, with a 
considerable amount of olivine. The augite and the olivine 
have been converted into serpentine, although a few crystals, 
as well as portions of crystals, still remain unaltered. The 
felspar in many places is permeated with the same mineral. 
Much magnetite is present, together with quartz, some calcite, 
and serpentinised chlorite.* 

Intrusive Igneous Rocks. — Among the few examples of this 
class met with are the two necks filled with volcanic as- 
glomerate already described by Professor Geikie as occurring 
on Hoy, and which he has shown, in all likelihood, helped to 
supply the volcanic platform which underlies the main mass 

* In the examination of the microscopic sections we have been kindly aided 
by Mr T. Davies. 



342 Proceedings of the Boyal Physical Society, 

of the Upper Old Eed Sandstone of that island, and are 
therefore to be considered of that age. 

Several dykes of basalt were observed among the islands. 
They are most numerous and conspicuous on the west coast 
of the Mainland from Brackness to Skail, but as they have 
been so often described, it is unnecessary to refer to them in 
detail. They have the same lithological characters, and behave 
exactly in the same manner as the dykes in other parts of 
Scotland, which have been regarded as the product of volcanic 
energy in Miocene times. A noticeable feature about the 
Orcadian representatives is, that they are usually divided up 
the centre of the dyke by a line of vesicles. This is not an 
uncommon feature elsewhere. 

Summary. — The descriptions we have given of the Lower 
Old Eed Sandstone strata as represented in the Orkney 
Islands, tend to confirm the conclusion previously arrived at 
by Professor Geikie, that these flagstones, with the associated 
arenaceous series, must be correlated with the higher sub- 
divisions of the Caithness series. It is highly probable, there- 
fore, when the ichthyology of Orkney is worked out in detail, 
that the fossils will be identical with those derived from 
the higher portions of the Caithness series. The great 
development of the sandstone series in the northern isles is 
of special interest, as it shows that the strata gradually 
assume the arenaceous character which is so prevalent in 
Shetland. 

Moreover, it is of importance to note that the coarse 
silicious sandstones and marls, which are the highest repre- 
sentatives of the Lower Old Eed Sandstone in Orkney, must 
not be confounded with the massive red sandstones which 
form the noble cliffs on the west side of Hoy. The latter rest 
unconformably on the flagstones. It is evident, therefore, 
that after the deposition of the Flagstone series, with its 
associated sandstones and marls, the bed of this inland sea 
was elevated so as to form a land surface. These strata 
were subjected to a considerable amount of denudation ere 
they were again carried below the water in Upper Old Eed 
Sandstone times. 



Mr Harme-Brown on the Squirrel in Great Britain. 343 



IX. Early Chapters in the History of the Squirrel in Ch^eat 
Britain. By J. A. Harvie-Brown, Esq., F.Z.S., Mem- 
ber of the British Ornithologists' Union. 

(Read 21st April 1S80.) 

Geological Evidence. 

We have no evidence of the occurrence of the squirrel in 
post-tertiary deposits. It is not, I believe, made mention of 
by Dr James Geikie as being found in post-tertiary deposits 
in Scotland in his " Great Ice Age." Mr A. Murray, in " The 
Geographical Distribution of Mammals," tells us : " The only 
fossil remains of squirrels are of recent date. 
Eemains of the living species of squirrels have been found in 
bone caves, but nothing indicating its presence in Europe or 
indeed anywhere else at a more ancient date." Nor does it 
appear to be of common occurrence even in more recent 
remains. The only evidence of squirrels in the Pleistocene 
Shale of Britain is that afforded by gnawed fir-cones in the 
pre-glacial forest bed of Norfolk, which were recognised by 
Professor Heer and the late Eev. S. W. King, as I am in- 
formed by Professor Boyd Dawkins, who adds further, that 
he " does not know of any bones of squirrels in any prehis- 
toric deposit, and I do not think that the nuts (found in 
marl, etc.) are proved to have been gnawed by them and not 
by Arvicola am^phihia!' I may add here that I have since 
collected gnawed nuts from various localities and compared 
them with recent ones, and it seems to me quite impossible 
to separate them by any evidence afforded by the tooth- 
marks. Those gnawed by smaller rodents (such as species, 
probably, of field-mice), are more easily distinguishable. 

This apparent absence from recent deposits in Great Britain 
may, in some measure, perhaps be accounted for by its ar- 
boreal habits. If traces of it however are found in the pre- 
glacial beds of Norfolk, is its absence in other localities 
further north not without significance as regards its distribu- 
tion in time ? 



344 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Names of the Species and Topogkaphy. 

In endeavouring to trace the early dispersal and distribu- 
tion of the squirrel, we may find it useful to call to our aid a 
study of the various names of the animal — ancient and modern 
— and of the areas in which these names occur. 

A very large number of provincial names of the species in 
use in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, and in our own country, 
are directly traceable to their common origin in the name 
first used by Aristotle, viz., a-Kcovpos {sKia=: shade, and ovpo^—^ 
tail) through the Latin diminutive sciuriolus.^ 

Our name sqiiirrel occurs at a very early date, being used 
by St Hugh, dating A.D. 70-1200. Thereafter it occurs con- 
stantly in later works, through the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, numerously in the seventeenth century, and con- 
tinuing to the present time, with certain local variations and 
spellings. Thus we find it mentioned in the first English- 
Latin Dictionary in the East-Anglian dialect as '' scorel or 
squerel,"f and we find it again evinced in the local names shi/j/ 
and skuggie used in Hampshire at the present day, and re- 
appearing as a Scotch word for shade or shelter in " skug= 
umbra, shade, sJcug=Si shelter: to skug, io hide; to skoog a 
shower;" J while on the English border occurs scuggery— 
secresy, along with other evidence. 

Thus the name squirrel has come to us along with the 
animal itself northwards, and its use is distributed over many 
continental countries. 

The distribution of the use of the name con for a squirrel 
appears to have been in North Lancashire, in the southern 
portions of Cumberland, and in Westmoreland on the English 
side of the border, and through the south of Scotland, but 
is unknown in the northern parts of Cumberland. If it was 
ever used in the Carlisle district, the use of it must have 
become extinct with the possible early extinction of the 

* Eugene Eolland : "Faune Populaire de la France, Les Mammiferes sauv- 
age," pp. 64, 65, 1878. 

t " Promptorium parvulorum sive clericorum, Dictionarius Anglo-Latinus 
Princeps," auctore Frator Galfrido, etc. Circa, a.d. MCCCCXL. 

X Jamieson's "Dictionary of the Scottish Language." 



Mr Harvie-Broivn on the Sguirrel in Gh^eat Britain. 345 

species itself in that district. At present the use of the 
name con is quite extinct in the south of Scotland, but was 
known in 1771 to the Gaelic bard Alastair M'Donald, as he 
includes it in his Gaelic Vocabulary thus: " Feoirag=Q. 
squirrel or conn!' 

Gaelic scholars are of the opinion that con or conn is a 
shortening of the Gaelic word coinein, a rabbit. Early Scot- 
tish writers however distinguished between rabbit and squirrel 

thus: 

I saw the Hurcheon and the Hare, 
The Con, the Cicning, and the Cat. 

— Cherrie and Sloe, 3. 

and again — 

There was the pikit porcoi^ie, 

The Cunincj, and tlie Con, all thrie. 

— Watscrii's Collection, ii. 20. 

And Ferguson in his " Dialect of Cumberland," gives " con, 
a squirrel's nest ; in Lonsdale, the squirrel," and refers it to 
the Welsh word cont, a tail. 

The absence of the name altogether from a tract of country 
intervening between those localities where it is used in Eng- 
land, and those where it was used in Scotland, viz., around 
the neighbourhood of Carlisle and the northern portions of 
Cumberland, is curiously suggestive, and, when taken in con- 
junction with the facts of the probable disappearance of the 
species from these tracts at an early date as compared with 
other localities further south and further north, as I propose 
to show further on, may not prove altogether useless in 
assisting us to arrive at conclusions regarding the dispersal, 
ancient distribution, and subsequent disappearance of the 
species. 

But it is well known to Erse and Gaelic scholars that often 
extraordinary confusion exists amongst the names of animals 
in these languages. Thus coinin, the Irish for a rabbit, is a 
diminutive of cu, a dog, and means literally ct little dog. The 
use of the Gaelic coinein is almost if not quite extinct even 
in districts of Scotland where the Gaelic has been preserved 
longest in its purity, and the rabbit is only known as the 
rahhaicl, which distinguishes it as an alien, in such localities 
where the latter word is used. Under these circumstances 
VOL. V. z 



346 Proceedings of the Royal Fhysical Society. 

the difficulties which surround the question of the identity of 
numerous Gaelic names, or by what process they came to be 
used and applied, seem almost impossible to unravel. In my 
original manuscript, of which this is an abstract, I go more 
fully into the subject, quoting and referring to all my authori- 
ties, having taken the various opinions of able Gaelic scholars; 
but, while the isolation of the use of the word con in England 
remains a fact, we are as yet unable to account for it, though 
we might easily advance theories founded upon our present 
information. 

Of the presently used Gaelic woTd,fcorag, it is probably of 
considerable antiquity, and the most probable interpretation 
seems to be "the little questioner," from Gael, feoirich, to 
question ; and ccg, the endearing diminutive termination ; but, 
as has been pointed out to me by Mr James Macpherson — to 
whom I have been greatly indebted for assistance in these 
and similar researches — the name may have arisen from a 
much earlier root, viz., " a root- word, feo,* now lost sight of 
and not given in the dictionaries, meaning . strictly, or in a 
general sense, bearded — feo, beard ; earr, a tail ; and ag, the 
diminutive termination of feminine nouns. Earrag is one of 
its actual Gaelic names." 

Thus also in the Erse occurs iora, but this is not found in 
the earliest dictionaries — as O'Brien's, but only in the later 
ones of O'Eeilly and M^Curtius, and in the works of authors 
which are of comparatively recent date. 

In old Irish occurs the word iaronns,f which, as far as I 
know, have not yet been satisfactorily identified. Other old 
Irish names, as sesquirolos and crichardn, occurring in the 
above-quoted poem, cannot be considered of value in this 
connection, but it would occupy too much space here to 
enter into a fuller attempt at the explanation of these. But 
upon the correct rendering of some of these old Irish names 

* Eecurring in feosag, a beard ; feocliadan, a corn-thistle ; feocullan, a 
polecat ; and feorag, the word under discussion ; and so perhaps feoir =. grass 
(from feo, beard, and ar or ire, soil), gives heard of the soil. 

t "Two iaronns from the wood of Luadraidh," vide Wilde : "On Unmanu- 
factured Animal Remains," etc., Proc. Royal Irish Academy, Vol. VII., part 
ix., p. 188. 



Mr Hame-BrouM on the Squirrel in G'reat Britain. 347 

probably rests the fixing of interesting facts connected with 
the early dispersal of several of our British mammals. 

It appears possible that the Irish words iora and iaronn 
may have intimate relation with the Gaelic feorag or fiod- 
harag, of which latter I speak immediately. 

In Ai'gyleshire, alone of all the Scottish counties — except 
in Braemar in Aberdeenshire — so far as I have been able to 
learn, does any trace of the squirrel appear in topogTaphy, 
but in Argyleshire, curiously enough, it occurs no less than 
five times, viz., in Innis-na-Fheorag in Ardnamurchan ; Glac 
Fheorag in Appin; Ault Fheorag, Tom-nam-Fheorag, and 
Easan-Fheorag. Whether these names be correctly derived 
from the Gaelic name of the squirrel or not is a point about 
which there is a large amount of discussion and difference of 
opinion amongst our best Gaelic scholars. For the same 
reasons already given, viz., the great difi&culties surrounding 
the identity of numerous Gaelic names, it does not seem 
desirable in this place to attempt to explain or unravel them, 
but it may be mentioned that whilst one side upholds the dii-ect 
derivation from fheorag, a squirrel, another rather inclines to 
the belief that the name is derived from local features of the 
localities, such as is undoubtedly the commonest practice in 
Gaelic topography — thus ; Ault Fiarag (pronounced slightly 
different from Feorag — genitive Fhedrag) would be the crooked 
hurnie. But if such came to be applied in one Gaelic-speaking 
district, why should it be so completely absent from others 
where many crooked burnies exist, and have not, like the 
squirrel, become nearly extinct ? 

To show the confusion existing amongst Gaelic names of 
animals, I wiU just make one quotation from the correspon- 
dence of Mr James Macpherson. 

As already shown, Fheorag is supposed to derived from 
feoirich, to question, and ag, the diminutive ; or it may be 
from fee, an obsolete root-word, earr, a tail, and ag. But now 
to this, Gaelic scholars add a third, viz., " possibly a corrup- 
tion or softened pronunciation of Fiodharag, which would 
mean ' the wood or tree-animal.' " If this is so, the name 
may have been applied by the early inhabitants not to the 
squirrel at all but to the marten, whilst a later dispersal of 



348 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

the squirrel may have obtained for that species, in early times, 
an erroneous name. And this appears none the less probable 
when we are aware of the fact that any amount of confusion, 
as I can easily show, exists even at the present day in the 
minds and conversation of country people in many parts of 
Scotland as to what a squirrel really is. Even in Argyle- 
shire itself I have myself heard a ferret called feorag, and in 
Aberdeenshire squirrels are constantly brought to Mr George 
Sim, the naturalist of that town, by uneducated country 
people as " foumarts," " futterets," or " ferrets." 

It may well be asked, then, when did this awful confusion 
begin, and to what animal was the name originally applied ? 
Mr Macpherson assures me that the two derivations oi feorag 
given above are the most likely, meaning " the little ques- 
tioner," and " the wood or tree animal." 

In Scotland the marten is known by a distinctive Gaelic 
name, but in Ireland, though the marten is widely recog- 
nised, there are no names and no traditions now existing 
regarding the indigenous squirrel amongst the peasantry or 
older people of the country. As we will show further on 
in our essay, an introduction of the squirrel certainly took 
place in Ireland during the present century. 

All these materials are intended to bear upon the question, 
— Did the squirrel extend its distribution into Ireland before 
the separation of Ireland from the south-west of Scotland ? 
or, in other words, Was the squirrel indigenous to Ireland, and 
did it become extinct at an early period ? But the result is 
still obscure. In a separate section of this essay I shall 
speak of the " Squirrel in Ireland." 

{To he coiitmued) 

X. On an undescribed variety of Amethyst. By Professor 
Duns, D.D., President. [Plate XIX.] 

(Read 21st April 1880.) 

The place of the amethyst in systematic mineralogy, its 
chemical constituents, crystallographic form, the characters 
of the species of which it is a variety, its colour, geognostic 
situations, and geographic distribution are so well known, as 



Professor Duns on an ^tndescrihed variety of Amethyst. 349 

scarcely to call for remark. There is still some difference of 
opinion as to its constituents, traceable no doubt to the fact, 
that these are not constant, but vary in different specimens. 
Rose's analysis, which is that most generally received, is as 
follows : silica 97*50, alumina 0-75, iron oxide and traces 
of manganese 0*75. In a BraziKan specimen, Heintz (quoted 
by Dana) found traces of magnesia and soda, whose presence 
he thinks accounts for the characteristic colour of this 
mineral. Others hold this to be due to a small percentage of 
oxide of manganese. Amethyst occurs in veins, or lining the 
oft-described agate balls. "Crystals within the geodes or 
hollow agate balls are very often of an amethyst colour, 
and some are very fine" (Cronstedt's "Mineralogy," vol. i., p. 
151, 1788). I am able to show to the Society, a very beautiful 
group of pure amethyst crystals in an agate ball from 
Saxony. The gem known as oriental amethyst is spinel or 
dodecctJieclral corundum, a widely different mineral with an 
amethystine hue. The constituents of spinel are alumina 
74*50, silica 15-56, magnesia 8*25, oxide of iron 1*56, lime 
0-75. 

The variety of amethyst which forms the subject of this 
notice was presented to me, without any reference whatever 
to its scientific interest, but simply as an ornamental stone, 
by the Rev. Dr Paterson, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, who had 
obtained it at Prince Arthur's Landing, on the north shore of 
Lake Superior, in August 1878. Looking at it with a good 
lens I remarked to Dr Paterson, the specimen is altogether 
unlike any I have seen. The dark red crystalline substance 
on the faces of the hexagonal pyramids is not deposited in a 
homogeneous layer, but seems to consist of innumerable 
spots, I should say of iron oxide. As the donor thought it 
must have been described, I consulted most of the leading 
authorities, without, however, finding any reference to this 
variety. In a note dated August 2, 1879, Dr Paterson says, 
"I find that the amethyst from Lake Superior has been 
analysed by Sterry Hunt of the Canadian Geological Survey, 
who discovered the colouring matter to be oxide of iron 
before you'' On being asked for a reference, he informed me 
in a subsequent note, that having failed to find it, he had 



350 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

written to Principal Dawson, Montreal, for information. 
Principal Dawson, writing in the absence of Dr Hunt from 
town, on E'ovember 5, 1879, says — " I write now merely to 
state what I know as to the matter referred to. The 
ferruginous coating which you mention is very common on 
crystals of amethyst from Thunder Bay, and seems to have 
been simply the latest coat of quartz deposited on the 
crystals, and containing peroxide of iron in little rounded 
hollow concretions with radiating spicules. This mode of 
arrangement of oxide of iron is not unusual in reddish agates 
from Nova Scotia and elsewhere, though with various 
modifications in detail. I am not aware that it has been par- 
ticularly described, nor that any special cause of it is known 
further than the general one of molecular and crystalline 
aggregation, which has to do duty in the explanation of an 
infinity of curious forms in agates and other forms of quartz. 
I cannot find that Dr Hunt has published any particular 
account of the peculiar appearance in the Thunder Bay 
amethysts." A thin slice prepared for the microscope, and 
magnified ninety diameters, presented an appearance well 
shown in the somewhat coarse, but highly characteristic 
plate which accompanies this notice (see Plate XIX.). At 
my request Professor Crum Brown kindly took charge of a 
fragment which he entrusted to Dr Gibson for analysis, who 
reported on the specimen as follows : 

" University of Edinburgh, March 21th, 1879. 
" Report upon Crystal of Amethyst Quartz. 
"A qualitative examination was made with a view to 
determine the nature of the red colouring matter deposited 
underneath the surface of the crystal. The result of this 
examination showed the presence of iron, and the absence of 
copper and other heavy metals. Ferric oxide being of very 
common occurrence in quartz, there is no reason to doubt that 
it is the red colouring matter in the crystal examined. 

"J. Gibson, Ph.D." 

My first impressions as to the colouring matter of the six- 
sided crystals of this specimen were thus verified. It might, 



Professor Duns on an undescribed variety of Amethyst. 351 

however, be well to carry the analysis farther by testing for 
soda, magnesia, or manganese, having previously marked the 
degree of intensity of the violet blue colour of the specimen. 
But, apart from this, it will be seen from the pieces in the 
lump and in section now exhibited, that they are made up as 
follows : The base on which the crystals rest is a thin layer 
of fine vesicular trap. Above this is a mass of highly 
crystalline semi-transparent quartz, about an inch in thickness, 
thickly packed but yet showing the planes of the crystals 
less or more well marked, and, on the top of this a thin layer, 
of granular-like amorphous quartz, out of which the definitely 
crystallised amethyst proper seems to rise. This may or may 
not be generally the order of the layers, but in the specimens 
now before us it is well marked. The dirty red colouring 
matter is confined to the faces of the hexagonal pyramids — the 
characteristic crystalline forms of quartz — and is, for the most 
part, deposited in pretty separate annuli, ring within ring. 
In the specimens now under notice I have not seen any traces 
of the " radiating spicules," referred to by Dr Dawson. Nor 
are the rings on the same plane. When examined through a 
good binocular they are seen to lie at different levels, a fact 
which seems to w^arrant the inference that the highly 
crystalline glaze, so to speak, in which they lie, consists of 
different layers. The spots are not in all cases perfectly 
circular, as may be seen by referring to the accompanying 
plate. It would not be profitable to speculate on the 
probable explanation of those molecular aggregations. I may, 
however, ask the Society to look at the so-called morijholites 
or clay concretions, and the dolomites from Cumberland, now 
on the table, as illustrating, on a large scale indeed, in a 
somewhat striking way, the close resemblance between them 
in point of form and the spots figured on the plate. This 
resemblance suggests a topic of great interest and of which 
little has yet been made. I refer to the analogies between 
the power of concretion and that of crystallisation. But I do 
not wish to make more of this resemblance than to indicate 
the fact. The crystalline matrix in which the spots occur 
has, for want of a better term, been called a glaze. Is the 
presence of this necessary in order to the iron oxide arranging 



352 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

itself in such spots ? In the New College Museum is a large 
lump of rock crystal, on which the faces of the six-sided 
pyramid are covered with a layer of iron oxide, lying wholly 
on the surface, in the form of rough amorphous particles, and 
destitute of this glaze. 

As I have been unable to find any published description 
of this variety of amethyst, and as it presents some features 
of considerable interest, I have thought it not unworthy the 
attention of the Society. The plate is an attempt to re- 
produce, in a rough way, the colours and the forms of some 
of the spots shown in the section, exhibited to the Society 
under the microscope. 



XI. On the Habits of the Water Vole (Arvicola amphibia). 
By Professor Duns, D.D., President. 

(Read 21st April 1880.) 

The water vole is weU known under the name of the 
water rat in most parts of Scotland. Yet, up to a com- 
paratively recent date, much uncertainty prevailed both as 
to its true zoological place and its habits. Its structural 
relations may now be held fixed, but something still remains 
to be put on record as to its habits. Bell (" British Quadru- 
peds," p. 322) has shown good reasons for placing the water 
vole nearer the beavers {Castoridce) than the mice (Muridce)^ 
but it is doubtful if he has made out a case for the rejection 
of the family designation Arvicolidm. The erroneous notion 
that it feeds on small fishes, and even on the young of water 
birds is still popular. This no doubt arises from its being 
mistaken for the brown or Norway rat (Mus decumanus), 
which takes readily to the water, and is destructive to duck- 
lings. The water vole is a vegetable feeder, its food being 
commonly the succulent stems and roots of aquatic plants. 
It is thus to be regretted that Owen ("British Fossil Mam- 
mals and Birds," p. 204) should seem to countenance the 
notion that it feeds on animal substances. Eeferring to 
traces of its presence in some of the British bone caves, he 
says, '• remains of the Arvicola amphibia (lower jaws) were 



Professor Duns on the Habits of the Water Vole. 353 

found in the ossiferous cavern at Berry Head, Devon. Some 
of the bones from the cavernous fissures at Oreston show 
marks of nibbling, which may be referred more probably to 
the incisors of a small rodent than to the canines of a weasel." 

Two specimens of the water vole have come into my 
hands recently, in circumstances suggestive of peculiarities 
of habit not hitherto noted. One of these is from Elie, 
Fife ; the other from the garden of 14 Hope Terrace, White- 
house, Edinburgh. The former was taken in a mole trap in 
the grass plot of a garden not far from the sea ; the latter 
was trapped in a run in all respects similar to that of the 
mole, even to the throwing up of " hillocks " at short dis- 
tances in the run. As the Elie specimen had nothing under 
ground on which to feed, except the rootlets of the grass, 
it must have been in the habit of leaving its run for the 
purpose of feeding. Macgillivray says he had seen the black 
variety feeding on grass {Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. 
vi., p. 428). The part of the garden frequented by the Hope 
Terrace specimen was planted with beet {Beta vulgaris). 
For some time before its capture, the gardener had noticed 
that many of the roots of the beet were being destroyed by 
some underground animal — the roots being gnawed or scooped 
out in most cases about an inch below the surface of the soil. 
The specimen was taken about the middle of October 1879. 
That it had been feeding on the beetroot was abundantly 
plain. An examination of the animal showed that the 
digestive and other organs, and even the body wall touched 
by them, were stained the bright red colour of beet juice. 
This still continues quite apparent, after the lapse of more 
than six months. 

It is worthy of notice, that the water nearest the garden is 
the burn on the north side of Blackford Hill, Jordan Burn, 
about a quarter of a mile distant. Between it and the 
garden lie Blackford Road and Whitehouse Terrace, with 
their own wall-fenced gardens, and, farther to the south, other 
villas also bounded by high walls, especially on the north. 

The object I have chiefly in view in this notice, is to call 
attention to the variety of the kinds of food taken readily by 
this form, t-a its habit of burrowing in runs like the mole, and 



354 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

its wandering far from the banks of streams, where alone it 
has hitherto been held to live. 

Some years ago my attention was called to two young 
apple trees, in the Newington district of Edinburgh, which had 
begun to wither after showing full healthy blossom buds. 
Close by the surface of the soil the bark had the appearance 
of a ring of rottenness, and the only explanation thought of 
was the unsatisfactory one of the presence of some element 
on the surface of the ground injurious to the bark, or the ravage 
of some vegetable feeding grub. Since that time I have had 
clear proof that the field vole (Arvicola agrestis) attacks sap- 
lings, and gnaws the bark in a ring so regular, that one 
would be inclined to believe a saw had been passed round 
the stem by a skilful workman. May not the larger form 
attack trees in the same way ? This question seems to me to 
be answered in the Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club, Vol. viii., p. 189, 1877. Mr Hardy reports instances, 
on the authority of Eev. J. F. Bigge, Stamfordham, and Mr 
Hughes of Middleton Hall, of damage done to young trees by 
the water vole. In both cases, however, the damage was 
done to plants in close proximity to what has ever been held 
the usual and natural habitats of the animal. " Last year," 
says Mr Bigge, "I planted some sycamore trees, about one 
inch in diameter, up a bank side here ; and late in the autumn 
in taking hold of them to see that they were firm in the 
ground they came up. . . . About a month ago, I saw a 
willow tree, about eight feet high, lying on the ground by the 
side of the same bank ; I pulled it across, and, to my sur- 
prise, I found that the roots had been gnawed in two ; the 
roots were three inches in diameter. This, no doubt, was the 
work of the water rat. I then went to the sycamore trees, 
and found they had been cut by the same agents." At 
Middleton Hall they had cut through several young 
ornamental oaks planted near a pond much frequented by 
them. In this case, it is to be regretted, we are not informed 
whether it was the root or the stem which had been cut. 
These instances, however, again show that this form is not 
dependent for food on succulent water plants alone. 

I have referred to the field vole. It has been long known 



On the Night Heron and the American Night Heron. 355 

that this comparatively small vole is very destructive to 
young trees, indeed periodically threatening the very exist- 
ence of all young trees in whole forests. Bell quotes Jessie's 
" GleaninQ;s " to illustrate this in connection with the havoc 
at one time made on the new plantations in the Forest of Dean. 
The vast numbers of these animals which swarmed over that 
district can be imagined, w^hen it is remembered, that not 
fewer than 200,000 were known to have been killed in one 
season. The plants were eaten through just below the surface 
of the ground, in some instances ; in others they were barked 
just above the surface. These facts indicate that gardens in 
the suburbs of cities are open to attack from both species of 
vole. 

I do not know of any instance of the black variety {Arvicola 
ater, Macgillivray) ever having been met with at any consider- 
able distance from the w^ater. It is more rare than that now 
under notice, though it is described as abundant at Aberdeen 
{Wernerian Memoirs, loc. cit.), and Mr Gray, our Secretary, 
informs me it was very plentiful near Dunbar some years ago. 
I have seen it only twice ; in both cases in localities, widely 
separated, in the neighbourhood of Oban. It may be stated 
in closing, that not long ago two related forms were captured 
on the same night in one trap in the vinery of the garden 
in which the water vole was taken. These were the long- 
tailed field mouse {Mus sylvaticus) and the common mouse 
{M. musculus). 



XII. On the Occurrence of the Night Heron (Nycticorax griseus) 
in Clackmannanshire, and the American Night Heron 
(Nycticorax gardeni) in Ayrshire. By Egbert Geay, 
Esq., F.E.S.E. (Specimens exhibited.) 

(Read 18th February 1880.) 

The European night heron {Nycticorax griseus) is so rarely 
met with in the British Islands that ornithologists have 
given but a very few records of its occurrence in Scotland. I 
have therefore thought its appearance last year in Clack- 



356 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

mannansliire of sufficient interest to entitle it to a short 
notice in our Proceedings. 

This species is not confined to Europe, but has a somewhat 
extensive geographical range, being found in Africa, India, 
China, and, according to some authors, Japan. Captain 
Shelley, in his " Birds of Egypt," says, it is abundant through- 
out Egypt, usually in flocks, frequenting palm trees ; and the 
Eev. A. C. Smith, in his work on the " Attractions of the Mle 
and its Banks," speaks of flocks of night herons passing the 
day on the tops of the palms, whence they would take flight 
on being disturbed, and rise in the air to a great height, 
sailing round in circles, and returning again to the trees after 
the disturbance had subsided. 

Mr J. H. Gurney, jun., in his " Eambles of a Naturalist in 
Egypt," published two years ago, but without a date, mentions 
having met single birds frequently, and having also seen it in 
flocks of about thirty upon the tops of the trees. Hasselquist, 
a pupil of the great Linnaeus, states, in his " Travels in the 
Levant," that in Lower Egypt it builds its nest in the date 
trees and sycamores about Cairo, and that it feeds on the 
frogs, insects, and little fish, which it gets in the overflown 
fields. Hasselquist calls the bird the Egyptian kingfisher 
{Alcedo jEgyptia), and adds, " its voice resembles that of the 
raven." 

A most interesting account of the breeding habits of this bird 
is given in the Ihis for 1861, by Mr Swinhoe, in a paper 
entitled, " Notes on the Ornithology of Hong-kong, Macao, and 
Canton." At page 53 of this Journal he says, with reference 
to Nycticorax griseus — the Cantonese name being " moon-shoo - 
haw " — " This is the sacred bird of the great Nonam Temple, 
Canton. The courtyard in front of this temple contains some 
venerable banyans, as well as a few towering cotton trees 
(Bomhax malabaricurn,). On the higher branches of the former 
the small flat wicker nests of the night heron may be seen in 
all directions, some only a foot or so from others ; and the 
croaking and flapping and fighting that goes on overhead bears 
some distant resemblance to the crowded deck of an emigrant 
steamer on first encountering a turbid sea. The granite slabs 
that form the pavement beneath these trees are so bedaubed 



On the Night Heron and the American Night Heron. 357 

with the droppings of old and young that permission to scrape 
them clean daily might prove a fine speculation for the guano 
collector. The birds, from the protection afforded them, were 
remarkably tame, and we could stand beneath the trees and 
watch them without their evincing the slightest fear. This was 
in April. Some might be seen sitting on their nests with 
their long legs bent under them, the weight of their bodies 
resting for the most part on the tarsal joint ; others standing 
on single leg close by with shortened neck, the beak and head 
occasionally moving partially round as on a pivot; others 
flapped to and fro ruffling up their head-gear and occasionally 
sparring together. In their various movements the dark 
green black of the head and back, with the thin snow-white 
occipital streamers flowing and quivering over the latter, gave 
a quaint though not ungainly look to the birds. From some 
of the nests we heard a subdued chattering, like the cry of 
young, and it was to feed these hungry mouths that the 
parents were constantly leaving the trees to seek for food at 
all times of the day, while others were returning with supplies. 
As the sun set, however, they became more active. While I 
sat watching them from a neighbouring roof-top in the 
evening, numbers of them emerged from the leafy darkness, 
and one by one settled on the stark bare outstanding arms of 
the cotton tree. After resting for a little time like gaunt 
spectres on the tree-top, off they went, one after the other, with 
a ' Kvja' seldom more than two in the same direction. As 
darkness set in, many returned, and the noise and hubbub 
from the trees rose to a fearful pitch. Until night hid them 
from my view, I could see the old birds going and coming, 
and hear the clamour of the young. What kind of nocturnal 
slumbers the priests enjoyed in the temple below I never 
took the trouble to inquire, though I have little doubt that 
from constant use the noise of these Croakers has become 
quite essential to their good night's rest." 

In the same paper Mr Swinhoe mentions that he found in 
this colony a bird in the second year's plumage, sitting upon 
a nest containing eggs narrower and of a darker blue than 
those of the mature bird, and that a bird in immature 
plumage was brought to him with the testes so developed as 



358 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

to afford actual proof that young birds were capable of breed- 
ing. 

The crest feathers of this species vary in number from two 
to six, the usual number, however, being three. Mr E. Hearle 
Eodd, of Penzance, in a communication to the Zoologist (p. 
4913), records the occurrence of a specimen in Cornwall with 
ten occipital plumes. 

I am indebted to the Earl of Mar for an opportunity of 
submitting to the fellows of the Society for inspection the 
beautiful specimen now on the table. His Lordship could give 
no particulars as to the sex, contents of stomach, or even the 
precise date of the bird's occurrence. I, however, had previously 
recorded in one of my note-books that the bird was shot on 
the 23d May 1879, while perched on a tree on the banks of 
the Black Devon, adjoining Alloa Park policies, by one of his 
Lordship's gamekeepers. 

Eegarding the occurrence of the European night heron in 
other parts of Scotland, I may be allowed to refer to a volume 
on the "Birds of the West of Scotland," published in 1871. 
This may be regarded as the fifth recorded example during a 
period of about sixty years. 

About two months ago I received a letter from Mr Oliver 
Eaton, Kilmarnock, in which he informed me that three years 
ago a young night heron was shot near that town by a young 
gunner, who had been in the habit of supplying him with 
specimens, but that having lost my address he had been pre- 
vented acquainting me sooner of the circumstance. I at 
once wrote to him, and begged him to forward the bird, which 
he has since done ; and as it appears to me to possess the 
distinctive characters, so far as I can ascertain from the 
mutilated state of the specimen, of the American night 
heron {Nyeticorax gardeni), I exhibit it as such to you this 
evening, reserving to myself, however, the alternative of 
pronouncing this form to be a mere variety of the Nyeticorax 
griseus. I may here remark that it is now ascertained that 
the original description of the night heron (Ardea gardeni) 
was given by Gmelin from a young example of the American 
bird, and not its European representative, the Nyeticorax 



0)1 the Night Heron and the American Night Heron. 359 

griseus of Linntuus ; and that Dr Elliot Coues, one of the 
most recent, and perhaps the most scientific, writers on 
American ornithology, considers it a variety, the bird appear- 
ing in his " Key to North American Birds " as Nyctiardea 
grisea, var. 7icevia. Spencer Baird says, the American night 
heron is larger than the European, although it is right to 
mention that Audubon states it is subject to considerable 
variation in size at all seasons of the year. Prince Bona- 
parte holds the two to be distinct, and Wilson, in contrasting 
them, does not conceal the fact of the European bird being 
the smallest. Another difference, however, is referred to by 
Bonaparte and Baird — namely, that the quill feathers of the 
American bird are tipped with white, which feature is not 
observed in the European. Wilson distinctly refers to the 
white spots on the tips of the quills, but from the scarcity of 
British killed specimens in immature plumage few have been 
described, and in these few descriptions no mention is made 
of the apical spots, except in the case of one killed in Aber- 
deenshire in January 1866, and referred to in the "Birds of 
the West of Scotland " (p. 282) as probably new to Britain. 

The habits of the American night heron are very graphic- 
ally pictured by Wilson and Audubon, but as the works of 
both authors are readily accessible, I need not take up the 
time of the meeting in referring to these. Wilson states that 
the bird is a night feeder, and that its food consists of fish, 
the stomachs of many birds which he opened being full of 
such prey, though he does not say what species of fish they 
prefer. 

With regard to the probabilities of the American night heron 
being driven to the shores of Britain occasionally, I think the 
annual migrations of the species are quite sufficient to 
account for its erratic appearances. We know that young 
birds of the year assemble in large flocks at the close of the 
breeding season and proceed southwards to a great distance. 
We also know that in Bermuda, which lies about six hundred 
miles almost due east of the Southern States of America, flocks 
of these birds arrive in September and disappear in March, 
thus effecting a journey of twelve hundred miles across what 
must be to them a waste of turbulent waters, and during 



360 Proceedings of the Boycd Physical Society. 

which they must occasionally be exposed to gales of wind of 
such force as to drive the birds far out of their reckoning. 
In such circumstances it is not difficult to imagine how these 
herons at times find their way to our shores. 

Audubon mentions that his friend John Bachman in- 
formed him of having repeatedly seen great numbers of 
young night herons congregated near Charleston during 
winter, as if they had been arrested in the course of their 
migratory flight southwards ; and Major Wedderburn, in his 
'•' Naturalist in Bermuda," alludes to the fact of all the night 
herons found in that island being birds of the first year. The 
route taken by the birds is from Cape Hatteras to the Ber- 
mudas, a distance, as I have already said, of six hundred miles. 

The specimen now on the table, which I am sorry to say is 
of somewhat disreputable appearance, having been much 
injured by mice while in Mr Eaton's possession, was shot in 
February 1877, in a wood on Kameshill farm on the banks 
of Irvine Water. The lad who shot it states that he had 
seen it for some time previously haunting a mill lade at 
night near the same place. 

This is the second night heron Mr Eaton has had through 
his hands, but I had not an opportunity of examining the 
first one : it is referred to in the " Birds of the West of Scot- 
land," and was shot on the banks of Kilmarnock Water, 
about two hundred yards from the old Dean Castle. 

If the apical spots on the quill feathers niay be relied 
upon as a specific distinction, this bird clearly belongs to the 
American form, and must therefore be regarded as the second 
instance of the occurrence of the species in Britain, if not in 
Europe. 



XIII. Note on the Occnrrence of the Pintcdl Buck (Dafila acuta) 
in the Outer Hebrides. By Egbert Gray, Esq., F.RS.E. 

(Read 21st April 1880.) 

Some years ago, while engaged in preparing a few notes 
on the pintail duck as a British bird, I had considerable 
difficulty in determining, from the various sources of informa- 



Mr Gray on the Pintail Buck in the Outer Hebrides. 361 

tion at my command, its exact range throughout Scotland, 
many of the records of its occurrence in the Northern Counties 
especially being referable to the longtailed duck {Harelda 
glacialis), which bird had evidently been mistaken for the 
species in question. I came to the conclusion, however, that 
the pintail duck was a very much commoner bird in ISTortli 
Britain than previous records would have led us to believe, 
as I had reliable evidence to show that it had occurred in 
almost every county north of the Tweed. But in the Outer 
Hebrides I could only trace one instance of the species 
having been obtained, namely a specimen that was shot in 
the island of South Uist in the winter of 1869-70.* It is 
therefore with some satisfaction that I now exhibit a male 
bird which was obtained in January last from the island of 
North Uist. It was shot by Mr John Macdonald, factor for 
Sir John Orde of Kilmory, out of a flock of fourteen which 
rose from a marsh in the vicinity of his residence. I have no 
doubt that on closer attention being given to the ducks that 
fall to the gun of the sportsman in the Outer Hebrides, this 
bird will be found to be a somewhat regular winter visitant. 
Much depends, of course, upon the season, the direction of the 
wind, and other elements which are known to regulate the 
movements of migratory water-fowl ; but, seeing that the 
species is very abundant over the whole of North America, 
and that it makes Iceland and the Faroe Islands a resting place 
for a short time in its flight southwards from Greenland, it 
does not seem inconsistent with what we know of its regular 
migrations to suppose that occasional flocks may be driven 
out of their direct line of flight, and forced to seek shelter on 
the north-western shores of Britain, or those of its outlying 
islands. 

The pintail duck is a bird of very wide distribution. Its 
geographical range indeed is greater than that of any other 
duck that occurs in tliis country. It is abundant, as has been 
said, in North America, from west to east, and also in Canada 
and Newfoundland. It is likewise common in Central 
America. In Greenland it is weU known, and in Iceland and 
the Faroes it is seen yearly during its migrations. It is 

* Birds of the West of Scotland, p. 368. 
VOL. V. 2 A 



362 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

distributed over the whole of Europe and a great part of Asia, 
being common in India, China, and Japan, besides various 
groups of islands, whose avi-fauna has only of late years 
been investigated. In Egypt, as mentioned by Captain 
Shelley and Mr J. H. Gurney, jun., it occurs in considerable 
flocks, and is regarded there as a bird of some worth in the 
market. In France and Holland great numbers are taken 
in decoys and sent to this country as table luxuries. Sir 
William Jardine states, that in the winter of 1842-43, 
quantities from these countries were sent to the markets of 
Edinburgh.* 

Major W. Eoss King appears to be the only writer who 
has thrown out a hint that the American pintail and the 
European are distinct ; indeed, it would seem, from his state- 
ment in his " Sportsman in Canada," that the flesh of the one 
is superior to that of the other.-f- If there should be a 
difference in the plumage or other specific characters, it would 
be well to scrutinise carefully all the specimens that are pro- 
cured from the Outer Hebrides, as these would be the most 
likely birds to show such differences, assuming, as we may 
fairly do, that they have come across the Atlantic from the 
New World. 



XIV. Notes on Epomophorus comptus {Allen.), one of the 
Large Fruit-Eating Bats; from Old Calahar, West 
Africa. By John Alexander Smith, Esq., M.D. 

(Specimens of males, female, and young exhibited ; also 
specimens of Nycteris hispida and Nycteris grandis, 
Insectivorous Bats from Old Calabar.) 

The Eev. Alexander Eobb, D.D., formerly missionary of 
the United Presbyterian Church, Old Calabar, and now their 
Theological Professor at Kingston, Jamaica ; to whom I have 
been indebted for various interesting specimens of African 
natural history ; sent me specimens of this bat some consider- 
able time ago, and I have since been indebted for additional 

* British Birds, part iv., p. 121. 

+ Sportsman and Naturalist in Canada, p. 207. 



Bt Smith on a Fruit-Eating Bat of Old Calabar. 363 

specimens to the late Dr W. C. Thomson, who was surgeon 
to the mission at Old Calabar, and latterly practised at 
Partick, near Glasgow. A stuffed specimen of a male of the 
same bat was also presented to the Museum of Science and 
Art here, a good many years ago, by Dr Archibald Hewan, 
a former mission surgeon at Old Calabar, now settled in 
London. 

The specimens in my possession have been for a consider- 




EpomopJwrus comptus^ Male (a.) (natural size). 

able time preserved in spirits, and are now unfortunately, I 
regret to say, some of them in rather a bad state of preserva- 
tion. They consist of an adult male («), another adult male {h) 
slightly smaller in size ; a female, and a young male which 
she was nursing when captured. 

Comparing these specimens with the detailed account of 
the bat given in the recently published important " Catalogue 



3G4 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

of the Chiroptera in the Collection of the British Museum, 
1878," by a E. Dobson, M.A, M.B, A.M.D., I find Mr 
Dobson had been able to get a female only of this bat for 
examination, apparently the single specimen at that date 
in the collection of the British Museum. He was accord- 
ingly in some little doubt as to the presence of some of the 
specialities of the male. As these specimens of mine give an 
additional locality to this species along the extensive African 
coasts (the genus Epomophorus, indeed, being entirely con- 
fined to the great continent of Africa), I exhibit them to the 
Society, and shall also attempt to supplement, so far, Mr 
Dobson's excellent description, with some details of these 
different specimens, and a table of their various relative 
measurements. 

The Head of these bats is large and full, especially in the 
temporal region; the muzzle rather broad; nostrils lateral, 
about four-tenths of an inch apart, deep groove vertically 
between them with distinct mesial line. {See the annexed 
careful drawings of head of bat and palate, by Mr John Adam.) 

Ear, oval in outline, slightly concave at outer surface 
below tip, measures about '6 of an inch in male (a), in 
greatest breadth below this, and '9 of an inch in length from 
base of outer margin. Small tuft of lighter coloured hair at 
base of inner margin. 

Lips, smooth, large, and full. A warty projection from the 
inside of upper lip on each side fits in behind the first pro- 
jecting ridge of palate, when the mouth is shut. 

Palate. — The variety in the ridges of the palate in this 
genus, is a valuable, distinctive, and specific character, first 
pointed out, I believe, by Mr Dobson in his British Museum 
Catalogue of Chiroptera. They are very distinct and similar 
in all these specimens, and a carefully drawn figure of the 
palate of the male (a) is here given, the size of nature. This 
character, of course, can only be distinctly seen in a recent 
specimen or one preserved in spirits. The arrangement of 
ridges and lobes on the palate is like, in a general way, to 
that figured by Mr Dobson in his " Catalogue," the difference 
being probably due to his specimen being apparently a skin, 
afterwards preserved in spirits (?). 



Dr Smith on a Fruit-Ecding Bat of Old Calabar. 365 

There is in front of palate a rounded portion, with central 
depression, immediately behind the incisor teeth. Behind 
this there are three distinct undivided ridges crossing the 
palate ; the first ridge crosses the palate between the canine 
teeth ; the second between the first premolars ; the third and 
last crosses the palate between the next priemolars. There 
is next a somewhat oval lobe, which projects partially across 
the palate from the inside of the next or molar teeth on each 
side; then there are other four similar, but rather smaller, 
distinct lobes, sKghtly toothed or fringed in front, which 
project from each side of the palate, and behind these one or 
two fringed lines ; gradually diminishing in size towards the 
back part of the bony palate. 




Palate of Male (a), E]_ioinoi)horiis comptus (natural size). 

Tongue large ; has an oval patch of large papillce, with 
divided extremities, projecting backwards, down its centre, 
towards the front, bordered with smaller papillce all round, 
on the margins and point of the tongue. 

The Body. — Chest large, broad, and full above; abdomen 
small, and tapering below. 

The Shoulder Glandular Pouches are large and distinct in 
the male at lower and lateral parts of neck on each side ; in 
male (a), measuring '5 of an inch across, and there springs from 
them an abundance of lighter coloured hairs, forming a dis- 
tinct epaulette, as it has been called {see figure). 

The Wings are full and large ; above, they spring from sides 
of body below shoulder {see figure) ; below, they rise in a 
straight line from distal extremity of first phalanx of second 
toe. 



366 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

The Interfemoral membrane is small, and springs from base 
of tarsus, with a distinct projection or free margin, in breadth 
about '3 of an inch ; it widens upwards opposite the knee to 
•65 of an inch, and is about '5 of an inch in breadth, where it 
unites in the mesial line with that of the other side. It is 
covered with hair, longest above and below in mesial line. 

Penis prominent. 

Tail rudimentary. — A small papilla or point, about a tenth 
of an inch and a half in length, indicates the existence of a 
tail, below and free of the interfemoral membrane, in the 
male. 

The Fur or Hair over body generally thick and short in 
character ; of a yellowish brown on the shoulders and back, 
rather lighter on top of head and towards muzzle; sides 
of head and neck darker brown, as well as chest and flanks ; 
wings brown, rather darker in front and on interfemoral 
membranes. As my specimens have all been kept in spirits, 
I take these details from the stuffed specimen already referred 
to in the IMuseum of Science and Art ; but I cannot detect 
the peculiar parti-coloured hair on the " back of the neck 
and shoulders" which Mr T. Allen seems to consider a specific 
character in his description of this species of bat {Proc. 
Acad. Nat, Scien., Philadelphia, 1861). In this bat there seems 
no such peculiarity. The specimen has been for some time 
exposed in the case, and has probably suffered from the 
bleaching infixience of the light; the front of the specimen 
is, however, next the light. There is also a large oval patch 
of light greyish or dirty-white colour over the front of the 
abdomen, the flanks being reddish brown. A small lighter 
coloured tuft of hair at anterior base of margin of ear, and 
irom the shoulder glands a very conspicuous tuft of light or 
fawn-coloured hairs ; the lighter colour also passes down the 
base of neck a little below the glandular opening. 

Female Bat.— The female is smaller in size than the male. 
When killed, this specimen was nursing an immature bat, to 
be next referred to. The female has no glandular pouches on 
the sides of the neck as in the male, but simply rather deep 
depressions, without the light-coloured hair. 

Palatal ridges as in the male. 



Br Smith on a Fruit- Eating Bat of Old Calabar. 367 

The ears are relatively larger than in the male, being -8 of 
an inch long and '6 of an inch in greatest breadth. 

The mammce are situated on the lateral aspect of the 
thorax. The nipples, below and a little in front of the 
anterior line of the axilla, are large in this female, measuring 
•35 of an inch in length by '3 of an inch in breadth. 

Young or Immature Male. — Palatal ridges similar to 
adult, but lobes less distinct behind. No distinct glandular 
pouches or depressions at sides of base of neck. 

Tail. — A small point projecting about a tenth of an inch 
and a half-tenth at the junction of the thighs below the 
interfemoral membrane, shows the indication of a tail ; this 
is more distinct in this female and young, as the hair has 
come off at that part. 

Bentition of Male (cc). — Incisors^ ^. Two central incisors 
of upper jaw only remain; in lower jaw all are wanting. 
Canines, pj ; (^Molars, '^) ; or Prceniolars, H ; and Molars, W. 

In upper jaw, first praemolar on each side large and pro- 
jecting; next, less so, but longer, and grooved on surface; 
and behind this, one rather smaller grooved molar. In lower 
jaw, first prsemolar is very small; the second is large and 
projecting; the next, less so, but longer, and grooved on 
surface ; and behind these are two molars, grooved and 
flattened, on right side of jaw ; the last being less than half 
the size of the one before it. On the left side of jaw there 
is only one molar behind the three prtemolars. 

Bentition of Male {b). — Incisors, ^. In upper jaw central 
incisors the largest, more apart than the lateral ones. Two 
on right side of mesial line ; only central incisor present on 
left ; they are unicuspidate. The lower incisors are two on 
each side, aU well worn, and are at more equal distances 
from each otlier. 

Canines, W ; (^Molars, ||) ; or Prcemolars, || ; Molars, W. 

In upper jaw the first prsemolar is large, projecting, and 
pointed, as in male (a) ; the second is flatter, and grooved ; 
and the third, or first true molar, is also flattened and grooved, 
or, like the former, well worn. In lower jaw the first is a 
small pointed unicuspidate tooth ; the second, large, pointed, 
and unicuspidate; the third is longer, and flattened and 



368 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

grooved ; and so is the last, or true molar, which is iudeed 
more worn or flattened. 

Dentition of Female. — Incisors, W. In upper jaw, central 
incisors a little apart, one lateral on right side nearer, unicus- 
pidate ; central largest. In under jaw central incisors closer 
together, rounded above, unicuspidate ; one lateral present to 
left side, bicuspidate, smaller cusp to outside. 

Canines, \{ ; {Molars, ||) ; or Pra^molars, ^ ; Molars, 21 • 
The first prsemolar in upper jaw is conical and projecting, 
bicuspidate, small internal ; second, shorter, also bicuspidate, 
with smaller internal cusp; the molar more flattened and 
grooved longitudinally along its surface. In lower jaw the 
first prsemolar is very small and slightly bicuspidate, with 
small inner cusp ; the second is large and pointed, with small 
inner cusp; the third is flattened or grooved, with small 
inner cusp ; the first molar is grooved and flattened ; and the 
last molar is smaller in size, flattened, and also grooved along 
centre. Last, absent on left side. 

Dentition of Immature Male. — Incisors, ^. In upper jaw, 
two on each side unicuspidate, lateral largest. In lower 
jaw only one on each side present, bicuspidate, smaller cusp 
external. Canines, ^J ; {Molars, f|) ; Premolars, ^^\ Molars, ^^^ 
On right side of upper jaw a small pointed deciduous conical 
or milk tooth, behind canine ; on left side this tooth also 
present, and another still smaller pointed milk tooth between 
first and second praemolar. In lower jaw there is also a small 
pointed deciduous milk tooth behind canine, and behind this 
the regular small first prsemolar ; behind it the two pointed 
prsemolars ; a third tooth or molar is seen behind, just coming 
above the gum. There is an additional small pointed conical 
deciduous or milk tooth also present between the second and 
third preemolars. 

The perfect dentition of this species of bat may therefore 
be stated as follows : Incisors, 2^ ; Canines, ^r^ ; {Molars, -^ ; 
or ProemoZars, II ; Molars, |^; — J|=28. Apparently in old 
individuals the two upper central incisors only remain, the 
others dropping out. 



Dr Smith on a Fruit-Eatinfj Bat of Old Calabar. 369 



TABLE OF MEASUREMEXTS. 



Upomophorus comptus. 


Adult Male 
(a). 


Adult Male 
(b). 


Female. 


Immature 
Male. I 

1 






Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Length- 


-Head and body, . 


6-5 


6-5 


5-5 


4-8 


t) 


Head, 


2-25 


2-2 


1-8 


1-4 




Eye from tip of nostril, 


1-0 


1-0 


0-8 


0-6 


>> 


Front of eye to front \ 


1-0 


1-0 


0-8 


0-6 1 




of ear, . . . j 










,, 


Ear, .... 


0-9 


0-9 


0-8 


0-8 


^^ 


Forearm, . 


37 


3-7 


3-3 


2-5 


>> 


Thumb, metacarpal bone, 


0-65 


0-65 


0-5 


0-45 




1st phalanx. 


0-85 


0-85 


07 


0-6 




2d, ph., claw. 


0-3 


0-3 


0-3 


0-25 


,, 


Second finger, metacarpal 


2-1 


2-05 


1-8 


1-2 




1st phalanx, 


0-4 


0-35 


0-4 


0-25 




2d ph., . . 


0-3 


0-3 


0-2 


0-2 




3d ph., claw. 


0-2 


0-2 


0-15 


0-15 


■ 


Third Hnger, metacarpal. 


2-8 


2-85 


2-4 


1-5 




1st phalanx, 


1-7 


1-65 


1-55 


0-8 




2d ph.. 


2-4 


2-5 


2-1 


1-4 


i >« 


Fourth finger, metacarpal 


2-6 


2-65 


2-3 


1-55 




1st phalanx. 


1-3 


1-3 


1-2 


0-8 




2d ph., 


1-45 


1-45 


1-3 


0-9 


,, 


Fifth finger, metacarpal, 


2-7 


2-8 


2-3 


1-6 




1st phalanx. 


13 


1-3 


1-2 


075 




2d ph., 


1-35 


1-35 


M5 


0-8 


' " 


Tibia, 


1-6 


1-6 


1-35 


1-0 




Foot 


0-10 


0-10 


0-8 


0-8 


Expanse of wing membranes ) 
from extremities of 3d fingers, ) 


24-0 


24-5 


23-0 


16-25 



III the allied genus Pteropus we have one very large species, 
found in the Indo-Malayan subregion designated P. edidis, I 
suppose, because used for food. These fruit-eating bats now 
described, are regularly sold for food in the markets of 
Old Calabar. The fingers and wing membranes being cut 
off, they are disembowelled, and trussed, two or three being 
placed together on wooden skewers, like larks, and they are 
then ready for sale and for being cooked. As long ago as 
1869 three of these bats, trimmed and trussed together in 
this way, were given by Dr W. C. Thomson to the late Andrew 
Murray, Esq., and were presented by him to " The Food Col- 
lection " in the Bethnal Green Museum, London, where they 
may still be seen with the following title attached : — 

" Frugivorous or Fruit-Eating Bats {Sp. of Pteropus). 

"As brought into the market, ready trussed for cooking. 
From Old Calabar, West Africa. Presented in 1869 by 
Andrew Murray, Eoq." 



370 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

The late Andrew Murray, F.L.S., a well-known naturalist, 
was some years ago among the most zealous members of the 
Eoyal Physical Society here, and was formerly one of our 
presidents. He afterwards removed to London, where, I 
regret to say, he died not long ago, after doing much excel- 
lent work as a naturalist, preparing, among other works, 
one of the South Kensington Science Handbooks — that on 
" Economic Entomology," "Aptera," the iirst of an intended 
series of most valuable handbooks. Many years ago Mr 
Murray exhibited to this Society, also from Old Calabar, 
another fruit-eating bat, the singular Hypsignathus monstrosus 
of Allen, described in {Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil.) 1861 ; which 
he at that time was inclined to consider as an undescribed 
genus, and named it accordingly Spyrocephalus labrosus. Mr 
Dobson, however, includes the subgenus Hypsignafhus, H. 
monstrosus, in his "Catalogue," but classes it simply as a 
very distinct species of Ei^omophoriis, the E. monstrosus. 

I also exhibit two other smaller but insectivorous bats 
from Old Calabar, the Nycteris hispidus and Nycteris grandis. 
These bats are found in other parts of West Africa, and I 
now include them among those found in Old Calabar. 

It is interesting to notice the special adaptation of these 
different bats to their peculiar necessities. 

The large fruit- eating bats, with little or no tail, and 
very small interfemoral membranes; nothing more being 
required than the simple powers of a straightforward flight 
to enable them to reach their food, growing on the various 
fruit-bearing trees, and, at the same time, the greatest pos- 
sible freedom of motion of their unincumbered lower ex- 
tremities, to enable them to clutch with facility the branches 
over the fruit. The dependant bat then seizing it between 
the thumb and forefinger of each wing, both being specially 
provided with claws, and so, with roughened tongue and 
sharp teeth, breaking up, sucking, and eating the fruit at its 
pleasure. 

The other and smaller bats exhibited {Nycteris), being 
insect-feedincr bats, have long tails and widely-expanded 



Dr Smith on a Fruit-Eating Bat of Old Calabar. 371 

interfemoral and caudal membranes ; enabling them thus to 
change and vary at will their most rapid flight in pursuit of 
their varied and active insect prey. It is stated, as Mr 
Dobson also tells us, that they can at pleasure curl upwards 
and inwards the long tail and its inclosing membranes, and 
thus add to their facilities in capturing, as in a trap, and 
seizing for food, the larger and more active insects. 

It gives me much pleasure to send this series of Old Cala- 
bar bats to my friend Dr A. Gliuther, to be added to the 
valuable collections of the British Museum. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 



SESSION CVIII. 

Wednesday, 20ih November 1878.— J. Falconer Kino, Esq., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected as Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
Edward Sang; James F. Mackay, W.S. ; R. Vary Campbell, Advocate; 
Alexander Matheson. 

An Opening Address was delivered by Mr King, the retiring President, on 
♦•The Early History of Chemistry." 

Dr J. A. Smith exhibited several British Birds (see Proceedings, p. 33), 
also a large Skull oi Halichosrus gryphus on which he made some remarks. 



Wednesday, ISth December 1878.— Professor J. Duns, D.D., President, 

in the Chair. 
The following Office- Bearers were elected : 

Presidents— Uausay H. Traquair, M.D. ; Professor J. Duns, D.D. ; 
Robert Etheridge, Jun. 
Secretary— Robert Gray. Assistant Secretary — John Gibson. 

Treasurer — E. W. Dai-las. Librarian — Rev. J. Kennedy, M.A. 

Councillors — David Grieve ; John Hunter ; T. W. Drinkwater ; J. F. King ; 
Professor Archibald Geikie ; Charles Prentice ; Thomas White, S. S. C. ; 
James Anderson ; John Murray ; William Ferguson ; Andrew Taylor ; 
Principal Williams. 
The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
J. Hamilton Buchanan ; Robert Kidston ; and A. Macconochie. 
The following communications were read : 

1. " Notes on the Natural History of Islay." By R. Scot-Skirvixg. 

2. "On Fossil Fishes from the Oil Shales of Edinburghshire and Linlithgow- 

shire." By Dr R. H. Traquair. 



Wednesday, IZth January 1879.— Mr D. Grieve, President, in the Cliair. 
The following gentleman was elected an Ordinary Fellow of the Society : 
John Sutherland Mackay, M.A., M.B., CM. 
The following communications were read : 

1. "Note on the Migration of the Pied Wagtail (Motadlla Yarrellii).'" By 

A. B. Herbert. 

2. "Notes on some examples of Torrent Action near Blairgowrie and Edin- 

burgh." By Andrew Taylor. 

3. "Note on an Electrical Phenomenon exhibited by Geissler's Tubes." By 

W. C. Crawford, M.A. 
Mr Crawford drew the attention of the Society to a phenomenon of 



374 Proceedings of the Royal Physwcd Society. 

Geissler Tubes, which does not seem to have been noticed previously, andwhich 
may help to explain the nature of the discharge within exhausted tubes. 
If a wire from one pole of an induction coil be wound round a Geissler Tube — 
a narrow part of the tube is to be preferred — on setting the coil in operation 
the tube appears luminous. The wire is in connection with one pole only ; 
if the circuit is completed by attaching it to the other pole the luminosity 
will not make its appearance. The tube may be placed at a considerable 
distance from the coil, to avoid any effect arising from induction of the coil 
itself. The explanation of the phenomenon seems to be that the wire becomes 
statically charged, and the luminosity arises from induction caused thereby, 
there being no current through the tube. 

4. "Exhibition of a Maigre {Scicena aquila) caught in the Firth of Forth, 
July 1878, and measuring three feet two inches in length ; and of a 
Garfish {Beloue vulgaris) also caught in the Firth of Forth, and measur- 
ing 32^ inches in length." By John Gibson. 



Wednesday, 19th February 1879.— Professor Duns, President, in the Chair. 
The following gentleman was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the Society : 
Charles Lapworth, F.G.S., St Andrews. 
The following communications were read : 

1. "On Splenic Fever, with a Short History of the Bacillas anthracis/' By 

Principal W. Williams. 

2. "On the Old Red Sandstone of Shetland." By B. N. Peach, F.G.S., and 

John Horne, F.G.S., H.M. Geological Survey. 

3. " On Spawning Season of Eyas araneus." By Robert Kidston. 

4. " On Ramose Form of Plantago maritima.^' By Robert Kidston, 

5. Professor Duns exhibited, with remarks (1.) A specimen of Vesicularia 

spinosa, showing abnormal branching, and adventitious membranes at 
the forks of the branches ; (2.) Specimens of Fucus Mackii from Orkney 
— a new locality for this seaweed. 



Wednesday, 19th March 1879. — Dr R. H. Traquair, President, in the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society: 
Johnson Symington, M.B., CM., F.R.C.S.E. ; Henry Aubrey Husband, 
M.B., CM., F.R.C.S.E. ; Alfred Daniell, M.A., B.Sc. 

The following communications were read : 

1. "On the Influence of the Recent Storm on Bird Life." By Professor J. 

Duns, D.D. 

2. "Notes on a Visit to the Baths of Mont Dore. " By W. T. Black. 

3. "Notes on the Occurrence of the Stockdove {Columba cenas) in Berwick- 

shire. " By Robert Gray. 

4. " List of the Birds which have been observed in the Parish of Callander." 

By J. Hamilton Buchanan. 

5. "Note on the Occurrence of the Starry Ray {Eaia radiata) in the Firth of 

Forth." (Specimens exhibited.) By C W. Peach. 

6. " Notes on the White-winged Crossbill {Loxia Uucoptera) and Grasshopper 

Warbler {Calamodyta locustella)." By William Evans. (Communi- 
cated by the Secretary.) 



Journal. 375 

7. Dr Traquaie exhibited, with remarks, the following birds : 

(1.) Great Crested Grebe {Podiccps cristahis) from Orkney. 

(2.) Egyptian Goose {Anser jEgyx)tiacus), shot on the Forth, 7tli March. 

(3.) Gadwall {Aims strcpcra), shot near Kincardine-ou-Forth, 12th March. 

8. Dr J. A. Smith exhibited two specimens of the Great Crested Grebe {Pocli- 

ceps cristatus) from North Berwick and Portobello, killed in the last week 
of January ; also a Sclavonian Grebe {Podiccps cornutus) from Dirleton. 

9. The Secretaiy exhibited two specimens of the Shoveller {Anas clypcata\ 

male and female ; one shot on 6th May 1878, and the other five days later, 
at Scrimerston, near Jedburgh, by j\Ir Elliot. The ovary of the female 
had contained an egg almost ready for extrusion. 

Wednesday, 16th Ajjril 1879. — Professor Duns, President, in the Chair. 
The following gentleman was elected an Ordinary Fellow of the Society : 
George Leslie. 
The following communications were read : 

1. "On Fossil Fishes from the Lower Coal Measures of Derbyshire. " By Dr 

R. H. Traquair. 

2. "Note on the Specimen oi Actinia mescmhryanthemiuni which belonged to 

the late Dr M'Bain." By John Sadler. 

3. " On an Abnormal Form of Eupilectclla asjJcrgiUuin." By George Leslie. 

4. "Note on the Harvest Mouse {3lus messorius)." (Living specimens ex- 

hibited. ) By A. B. Herbert. 

5. " Note on the Nesting of the Woodcock {Scolopax rusticola) near Penicuik, 

Midlothian." By William Evans. (Communicated by the Secretary.) 

6. The Secretary exhibited, with remarks, a specimen of the Hoopoe {Upupa 

epops), shot near Elie, Fifeshire, on 8th April ; also a specimen of the 
Eed-throated Diver {Colymhus sejjtenti'ionalis), killed near Queensferry, 
31st March, the bird being in full summer plumage. 



Wednesday, 29th May 1879.— Dr Pt. H. Traquair, President, in the Chair. 
The following gentleman was elected an Ordinary Fellow of the Society : 

AVilliam Melven. 
The following communications were read : 

1. "On the 'Tabulate Corals' of the Paleeozoic Period." By Professor H. A. 

Nicholson, F.G.S,, etc. 

2. "Note on the recent Destruction of Fish in Linlithgow Loch." By E. 

Scot-Skirving. 

3. ' ' Evidence of the Predatory Habits of the Larger Pakeoniscidce. " By Dr 

R. H. Traquair. 

4. "On the Genus Nemagraptus {Nematolitcs) of Emmons. By Charles 

Lapworth, F.G.S. 

5. "On the Nesting of the Common Pochard {Fidigula ferina) in Perthshire. " 

(Eggs exhibited.) By J. Hamilton Buchanan. 

6. Exhibition of the following birds by the Secretary : 

(1.) Black-throated Diver {Colymhus arcticus), taken in a pike net in Loch 
Ard on 14th May, the bird — a male — being in full summer plumage. 

(2.) Icelsmd G\ill{Larus Island icus), shot at Port Seaton, Haddington- 
shire, 8th May. 



376 Proceedings of the Royal Fhysical Society. 



SESSION CIX. 

JVednesday, IWi November 1879. — Dr R. H. Traquair, President, 
in the Chair. 
The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
D'Arcy W. Thompson ; W. Abbott Herdman ; and D. Noel Paton. 

An Opening Address was delivered by Dr Traquair, the retiring President, 
on "The History of Scottish Fossil Ichthyology." 



Wednesday, 17th December 1879. — Professor Duns, President, in the Chair. 
The following Office-Bearers were elected : 

Presidents— Trohssov J. Duns, D.D. ; Robert Etheridge, jun., F.G.S. ; 
Professor Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. 
Secretary — PtOBERT Gray. Assistant Secretary — John Gibson. 

Treasurer — Charles Prentice, C.A. 
Librarian — Rev. J. Kennedy, M.A., B.D. 
Councillors — Thomas Whyte, S.S.C. ; James Anderson; John Murray; 
William Ferguson ; Andrew Taylor ; Principal Williams ; J. F. King ; 
Alexander Galletly ; George Leslie ; A. B. Herbert ; R. H. Traquair. 
The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
D. J. Balfour Kirke ; Rufus D. Pullar ; Henry Coates ; Earnest Ady. 
The following communications were read : 

1. "On the Occurrence of the Poraarine Skua {Lestris pomarinus) in the East 

of Scotland in the Autumn of the present Year." (Specimens were 
exhibited. ) By Dr R. H. Traquair. 

2. "On the Occurrence of the Greater Shearwater {Pujffinus major) at North 

Berwick." (Specimen exhibited.) By Dr R. H. Traquair. 

3. "On the Algse of the Firth of Forth." By G. W. M. Traill. Com- 

municated by Professor Duns. (Specimens new to the locality were 
exhibited. ) 

4. "On the Distribution of the Goosander {Mergus merganser) in Scotland 

during the Breeding Season. " By J. H. Buchanan. 

5. " Obituary Notice of the late Dr M 'Bain. " By David Grieve. 



Wednesday, 'list January 1880. — Dr Traquair in the Chair. 
The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
Thomas Bond Sprague, M.A. ; William Drummond, S.S.C. ; James Druni- 
mond, C.A. 

The following communications were read : 
1. Mr Edward Sang demonstrated experimentally the contraction of water 
from the freezing point to its maximum density, and the expansion 
thereafter. 
This experiment was exhibited not as containing anything novel, but only 
as showing in a very striking way the peculiar law according to which the 
density of water changes with variations in temperature. 

A number of variously coloured closed glass balls, adjusted to different 



Journal. 377 

specific gravities had been placed in a tall bottle ; this had then been 
completely filled with hot distilled water, and the carefully ground stopper 
luted down with paraffin. The vessel was thus entirely free of air. 

Having been exposed to the cold of the evening until the water had just 
" begun to freeze, the bottle was placed on the table. A considerable number of 
tlie balls were at the bottom, the greater number at the top. As the water was 
slowly warmed by the air of the room, it contracted while the glass of the 
balls expanded, as was shown by the ascent, one after another, of the heavy 
balls, until the last of them — which was barely lighter than water at its 
greatest density — had gone up. 

On being still further warmed, the expansion of the water in excess of that 
of glass was shown by the subsequent descent of the balls in inverse order. 

It was mentioned that, if in repose, the water may be cooled considerably 
below the usual freezing point, several of the lighter balls then descending. 
AVhen the freezing begins, the spikes of ice shoot through the fluid, entangling 
these balls, which as the ice thaws ascend rapidly. It is thus shown, that 
water continues to expand on being cooled below the zero of the thermometer. 

2. "On the Marine Invertebrate Fauna of Lamlash Bay." By William 

Abbott Hekdman, B.Sc. 

3. "Note on the Flight of Wild Geese, etc., seen near Edinburgh, and on 

the migratory flights of birds as observed in the Dardanelles." By 
D. Christison, M.D. (Communicated by Dr J. A. Smith.) 

Dr Christison writes as follows: "About the 18th of December, when 
driving in an open carriage, and nearly opposite the fourth milestone on the 
Queensferry Road, about four o'clock in the afternoon, my brother drew my 
attention to a flight of birds overhead, numbering about forty, in a perfectly 
regular wedge formation ; one side of the wedge, however, being much longer 
than the other and giving off" a branch, which again gave off" a subsidiary 
branch. 

"They were flying in the direction of Loch Leven, and I thought at the 
time that they were migrating northwards, as the weather then was much 
milder in Scotland than in England or the Continent, as indeed it continued 
to be almost to the present time. 

"But on Christmas Day at the same spot and hour, and flying in the same 
direction, we saw a very much larger flight which must have numbered several 
hundreds if not a thousand birds. We first noticed a body very much the 
same in numbers and formation as that of the previous occasion ; then after 
some interval two or three groups numbering from two to half-a-dozen ; then 
another wedge-shaped body of about thirty ; and lastly a very long string of 
them, which my brother and I estimated to be about a quarter of a mile long : 
certainly not less. Unfortunately, not anticipating this large flight at the end, 
we had driven on so far that we could not make out the precise formation. 
Seeing it so much from the side, it resembled a long and somewhat irregular line. 

" The occurrence of this second flight, at precisely the same spot and time in 
the evening as in the instances a week previously, inclined me to the view 
that these were not instances of migration, but that the birds were merely 
flying home in the evening to Loch Leven from feeding excursions in the 
wild country about the Pentlands. I am not aware, however, whether it is 
the habit of geese to fly such long distances for feeding purposes. It is so 
VOL. V. 2 B 



378 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

far in favour of this view, tliat my brother saw at Loch Leven. on the 2d May 
last year, two flocks of wild geese numbering about a thousand, which, he 
was informed by the boatman, had been there all winter. Such at least is 
his recollection. 

" These flights brought to my recollection the great annual migrations of 
birds which I witnessed in 1855-56, when stationed at Eenkioi Hospital, on 
the Dardanelles. The hospital was situated on a flat triangle of low ground 
projecting into the Dardanelles from the mountainous southern shore, and it 
so happened that the course taken by the birds was right over this pro- 
montory. The southward flight took place in October and lasted almost the 
whole month ; nearly every day immense numbers passed, generally at a 
great height, and always in the wedge formation, but often in such multitudes 
as to resemble a vast network covering the sky for miles. There was a great 
difl'erence of opinion at the hospital as to what these birds were. By aid of a 
telescope I concluded that some of the armies were composed of storks, some 
of geese. The latter when they came overhead sometimes broke up their 
array and flew round and round in great confusion, cackling or rather 
trumjieting loudly all the time, and then gradually got into order and passed 
on. Possibly they had been accustomed to halt at this spot of land, and 
were amazed to find it occupied by man. Previous to our arrival there was 
not a house on the place. Some of us thought that they mistook the shining 
tin roofs of our hospital huts for water. Some of the armies kept up this 
peculiar trumpeting without breaking up or halting in their march. The 
storks of course would be silent, as they have no voice. The only sound I 
ever heard them make is when nestling in the Turkish villages. They then 
are in the habit of bending the neck over the back till the beak nearly lies 
along the back, and in that strange position open and shut the beak rapidly 
several times in succession, producing a merely mechanical noise, from which 
the Turks very appropriately call them 'klek klek.' 

"It is worthy of remark that we had fine warm weather for a month after 
the last of those mighty armies passed. 

' ' The return northward migration took place towards the end of March and 
in April. 

"Although the general formation was kept up, it was easy to see that the 
individuals were continually changing their relative position ; the leader, in 
fact, seemed to be changed every few seconds. These mighty migrations, con- 
tinuing for a month together with little interruption, were certainly among the 
most wonderful sights of animated nature conceivable, and I shall be glad if 
this account of them has interested you as a student of birds." 

On 11th January, Dr Christison again writes: "With regard to my 
observations on the flocks of geese, I must make one correction on my letter. 
On passing the spot again to-day and consulting the map, my brother and I 
concur in thinking that the direction of their flight would take the geese 
considerably to the east of Loch Leven. This is a pitj'^, for it is somewhat 
tempting to find that a line drawn from Loch Leven over the fourth milestone 
hits directly on St Mary's Loch ! It would be so convenient to conclude that 
the birds were flying from one loch to the other, but facts are unfcivourable. 

* ' Probably it is only because we have not eyes in the top of our heads that 
we do not more often see flights of birds at a considerable height, j)articularly 



Journal 379 

towards evening when wending their way homeward to roost. As I drive a 
good deal into the country in an oj)en carriage, this defect is partially supplied 
by the half raised position of the head and the eyes being freed from the care 
of looking after the legs, as in walking they are constantly obliged to do. 

'* Thus I became aware the other day of an immense flight of plovers which 
would certainly have escaped the vision of a walker. They were at a great 
height, about five miles out the Glasgow Euad, and were flying westward in 
what in military language might be called a line of ten or twelve battalions, 
quite separate from each other, forming irregular masses, some of which some- 
times circled round for a little and then resumed their westward course. 
They must have numbered many thousand birds in all. It is difficult to see 
any reason for such enormous gatherings. They were so high that I could 
only guess them to be plovers from the faintly seen motion of the wings. 

"The great plain there seems favourable to monstrous public meetings of 
Birds. Early in the winter I saw five of the very large fields in that quarter 
covered with rooks and gulls, particularly the latter. My brother, our coach- 
man, and myself agreed that we had never seen such a multitude." 

4. "On the Occurrence of a Small Naticiform Gasteropod, showing Colour 
Bands, in the Cement Stone Group of Fifeshire." By K. Ethekidge, 
jun. 



Wednesday, \Uh February \d>%0.—VvoL Arch. Geikie, F.R.S., President, 

in the Chair. 
The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
L. L. Rowland, M.A., M.D. ; William Laughton; John Alex. Robertson, 
C.A. ; A. N. Denton, M.D. 

The following communications were read : 

1. "The ' Pitchstone ' of Eskdale — a Geological Retrospect and Comparison 

of Geological Methods." By Professor A. Geikie, F.R.S. 

2. "On the Occurrence of the Night Heron [Nycticorax griscus) in Clack- 

mannanshire, and the American Night Heron {Nycticorax Gardeni) in 
Ayrshire." By Robert Gray. (Specimens exhibited.) 

3. " Report on a Collection of Fossils from the Bowen River Coalfield and the 

Limestone of the Fanning River, North Queensland." By Robert 
Etheridge, jun. 



Wednesday, 17th March 1880. — Professor J. Duns, President, in the Chair. 
The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
James Hunter, F.R.C.S.E. ; James T. Carter; George Muirhead; William 
Allan Carter, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. ; Henry Leek; George H. Johnston; Duncan 
Shaw ; Arthur Cowell Stark ; Hunter Jackson Barron. 
The following communications were read ; 

1. "On some of Plateau's Experiments on Surface Tension. " By Alfred 

Daniell, M.A., B.Sc. 

2. "Notes on the Winter Birds of Islay." By Robert Scot-Skirving. 

3. The Secretary exhibited, with remarks, a hybrid Pheasant, between Phasi- 

OMus j)i^tiis and Phasianius amherstia, which had been reared near 
Linlith;:jow. 



380 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Wednesday, 21st Aioril 1880.— Prof. Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., President, 

ill the Chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected Ordinary Fellows of the Society : 
William Evans, Actuary ; W. H. Caldwell; William Gibson Bloxsom, Actuary ; 
Walter Campbell, L.D.S.Eng. ; John A, Johnston. 

The following communications were read : 

1. "On an Undescribed Variety of Amethyst." By Prof. J. Duns, D.D. 

2. "On the Habits of the Water Vole {Arvicola amj^hibia).'" By Professor 

J. DuKs, D.D. 

3. "The Old Red Sandstone of Orkney." By B. N. Peach, F.G.S., and 

John Horne, F.G.S. 

4. " Note on the Occurrence of the Pintail Duck [Dafila acuta) in the Outer 

Hebrides." (Specimen exhibited. ) By the Secretary. 

5. "Notes on Epomophorus com2)tits (Allen.), one of the Large Fruit-Eating 

Bats; from Ohl Calabar, West Africa." By John Alex. Smith, M.D. 
Dr Smith exhibited specimens of males, female, and young; also 
specimens of Nyderis hispida and Nyderis grandis from Old Calabar. 

6. " Early Chapters in the History of the Sij[uirrel in Great Britain." By J. 

A. Harvie-Brown, F.Z.S. 

7. The Secretary exhibited, with remarks, a male specimen of the Marten Cat 

{Martcs foina), killed at Balquhidder on April 2. 



DOXATIONS AND ADDITIOXS 

TO 

LIBEARY OF THE ROYAL PHYSICAL SOCIETY 

DURING SESSIONS 1878-80. 



^ 



{a.) U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories, Vol. 7; Tertiary Flora, by 
Lesqnereux ; (6.) Illustrations of Cretaceous and Tertiary Plants of the 
Western Territories of the United States; (c.) Bulletin, Vol. 4, No, 2. 
From the U.S. Department of the Interior, per F. V. Hayden. 

(a.) Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, VoL 10, Parts 6-12; 
ih.) Proceedings for 1878, Parts 1-4; and for 1879, Parts 2, 3. 
From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Koyal Society [of London], Vols. 27-29; Vol. 30, Nos. #1 
200, 201. From the Socictij. 

Journal of the Linnean Society— (a.) Zoology, Vol. 14, Nos. 74-80; Vol. 15, ^yjf^ 

No. 81; (b.) Botany, Vol. 17, Nos. 96-103. From the Society . 
Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for 1877, 

Parts 1-3; 1878, Parts 1-3. From the Academy. 
Vansactions of the Manchester Geological Society, Vol. 14, Parts 18-22; ^y* 

Vol. 15, Parts 1-11. From the Society. 
BoUettino della Societa Adriatica di Scienze Natural! in Trieste, Vol. 3, No. 3 ; 

Vol. 4, Nos. 1, 2; VoL 5, No. 1. From the Society. 
Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, Vol. 8, Nos. 2, 3. From 

the Club. 

Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinrj-er, 
1876, No. 3; 1877, No. 3; 1878, No.s. 1, 2; 1879, Nos. 1, 2. From 
the Society. 

{a.) Bulletin of the U.S. Geological and Geograiihieal Survey of the Terri- 
tories, VoL 4, Nos. 1-4; Vol. 5, Nos. 1-3; {b.) Jackson's Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Photographs of the North American Indians (being 
No. 9 of the Miscellaneous publications). From the U.S. Department 
of the Interior, Washington. 

Proceedings of the Geologists' Association [of London], Vol. 5, Nos. 5-8- 
Vol. 6, Nos. 1-4. From the Association. 



•^C 






382 Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society. 

Transactions of the Watford Natural History Society and Hertfordshire Field 
Club, Vol. 1, Parts 4-9. From the Societij. 

Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Vol. 1, Part 1. From 
the Society. 

Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 19, Parts 1, 2. 
From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, Vol. 11, Nos. 1, 2. 
From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Californian Society of Sciences, Vol. 6 (for 1875) and Vol. 
7, Part 1 (1876). Froin the Society. 

Canadian Journal of Science, Literature, etc., Vol. 15 (1878); New Series, 
Vol. 1, Part 1. From the Canadian Institute. 

Brady's Monograph of the Free and Semi- Parasitic Copepoda of the British 
Islands, Vol. 1 (Ray Society). Subscription Copy. 

Verhandlungen der Kais. Koniglichen Zool.-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 
Band 27. From the Society. 

Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indie : uitgogeven door de 
Koninglijke Natuurkundige Vereeniging, Deelen 35-38. F7'om the 
Society. 

(a.) Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Vols. 
11, 12; {b.) Railways of New South Wales— Report on their Construc- 
tion and Working during 1876; (c.) Annual Report of the Department 
of Mines of New South Wales for 1877. From the Royal Society of 
New South Wales^ Sydney. 

(a.) Map of the Upper Geyser Basin on the Upper Madison River; {h.) Map 
of the Lower Geyser on the Upper Madison River; (c. ) Map of the 
Sources of the Snake River. From the U. S. De'partm,ent of the Interior. 

(a.) Boletin del Ministerio de Fomento de la Republica Mexicana, Tomo 3, 
Num. 41-83; Tomo 4, Num. 1-150; (&.) Determinacion de la longitud 
del Pendulo de Segundos y de la gravedad en Mexico, 1878-79. From 
the Ministry of the Interior, Mexico. 

Reports of the Medical and Surgical Registrars of the Middlesex Hospital for 
1876-77. From the Directors. 

(a.) Bulletins de I'Academie royale des sciences de Belgique, Deuxieme Serie, 
Tomes 41-45; {b.) Annuaire de 1877-78. From the Academy. 

Jahresbericht XVL (1878-79) des Vereins fiir Erdkunde zu Dresden ; {a.) 
Wissenschaftlicher Theil; (6.) Geschaftlicher Theil. From the Society. 

Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, Session 
67th (1877-78). From the Society. 

{a. ) Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society [of Edinburgh], 
Vol. 13, Parts 2, 3; (&.) Report concerning the Royal Botanic Garden 
of Edinburgh, by the Regius Keeper. From the Society. 

(a.) Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. 28, Parts 2, 3; 
Vol. 29, Part 1; and Proceedings for 1877-79, From the Society. 



^ 



^^ 



Do7iations and Additions to Libo^ary. 383 

Acta Horti Petropolitani, Tomus 5, Fasc. 2; Tomus 6, Fasc. 1. From the 

Imjjcrial Botanic Garden, St Petersburg. 
Buckton's British Aphides, Vol. 2. Ray Society publication for 1877. 
Memoires de la Soci^te Rationale des Science Naturelles de Cherbourg, Tome y^^ 

21 (1878). From iJic Society. 
Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science, 

Vol. 5, Part 1 (1878-79). From the Institute. 
Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society for 1879. Fruon the Society, i^,/"^ 
Medical and Surgical Reports of the Loudon Hospital for 1877. From the 

Registrar. 
University of Durham School of Medicine; Prospectus for 1879-80. From 

the Secretary of the University. 
Warme und Elastizitat. Von Dr Hermann Scheffler. From the Author. 
Estudio del Terremoto de 17 de Mayo de 1879. Por Mariano Barcena. From 

the Author. 
Annales de I'Observatoire de Moscou, Vol. 6, Livraison 1, 2. From the 

University of Moscow. 
Videuskabelige Meddelser fra Naturhistorisk Forening i Kjobenhavn for 

Aaret 1877-78-79, No. 1. From the Society. 
Medical Inquirer — new series, Vol. 4, Nos. 5-7. From the Editor. 
Transactions of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, Vol. 9, Part 5, and Vol. 

10, Parts 1, 2. Frorn the Society. 
Report on Temperatures during the Winter of 1878-79 at the Royal Botanic 

Garden, Edinburgh, by John Sadler, Esq. From the Author. 
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1877. Frorti the Institution, 
{a.) U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories: Coues on the Birds of the 

Colorado Valley, Part 1 (Miscellaneous publications, Vol. 11); {b.) 

Tenth Annual Report of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey, 

]878, by F. V. Hayden. From the Department of the Interior, 

Washington, U. S. 
{a.) The Capercailzie in Scotland; (&.) The Shiant Islands and their Bird 

Life. By J. A. Harvie-Brown, Esq. From the Author. 
Fleming's Lithology of Edinburgh : with Memoir by Professor Duns, D. D. 

From Professor Duns. 
On the Structure and Affinities of the "Tabulate Corals" of the Palseozoic 

period. By H. Alleyne Nichol.son, M.D. Fro^m the Author. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 



Date of ORDINARY. 

Election. 

1879. Ady, Ernest, Mason College, Birmingham. 

1856. Anderson, John, M.D., F.'^R.S., Director of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

1872. Anderson, James, U Lonsdale Terrace. 

1856. Baillie, Rev. Zerub. 

1846. Balfour, Professor J. H. , Inverleith House. 

1849. Barbour, G. F., Esq. of Bonskeid, 11 George Square. 

1880. Barron, H. J., Tavistock Square, London. 

1877. Barrv, J. W., M.D., B.Sc, 23 Duke Street. 

1878. Beattie, William Hamilton, 68 George Street. 

1875. Bennie, James, Geological Survey Office, India Buildings. 
1880. Bird. Georse, 12 Warrender Park Terrace. 

1873. Black, W. T. , 2 George Square. 

1880. Bloxsom. William Gibson, 10 Napier Road. 

1863. Brett, Alfred, Veterinary College, Clyde Street, 
1878. Brown, A. B., 1 Roseberry Crescent. 

1860. Brown, Robert, M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., 26 Guildford Road, Albert Sq., 
London, S.W. 

1852. Brown. William, F.R.C.S.E., 25 Dublin Street. 

1876. Bruce, W. P., 18 Athole Crescent. 

1878. Buchanan, John Hamilton, 32 Stafford Street. 

1880. Caldwell, W. H., Caius College, Cambridge, 

1878. Cameron, John, S.S.C, 63 George Street, 

1878. Campbell, R. Varv, 37 Morav Place. 

1880. Campbell, Walter, 27 South Tay Street, Dundee. 

1876. Carmichael, T. D. Gibson, Castlecraig, Dolphinton. 

1877. Carmichael, Sir W. H. Gibson, Bart., Castlecraig, Dolphinton. 
1858. Carruthers, William, F.R.S., British Museum, Loudon. 
1880. Carter, James T., Duddingston. 

1880. Carter, W. A., C.E., 5 St Andrew Square. 

1873. Clark, G. B., 5 Blackwood Crescent. 

1878. Clark, Robert, F.R.S.E., 7 Learmonth Terrace. 

1857. Cleland, Professor J., M.D., University of Glasgow. 

1879. Coates, Henry, Bridgend, Perth. 

1853. Cobbold, Spencer, M.D., F.R.S., London. 

1878. Cornillou, Hvpolite W., S.S.C, 67 George Street. 

1874. Crawford, W. C. , 1 North Kelvinside Terrace, Glasgow. 

1850. Crole, David, 3 Ramsay Gardens. 
1877. Dalgleish, John J., 8 Athole Crescent. 

1879. Daniell, Alfred, M.A., Gillespie Crescent. 
1869. Davidson, David C, Kingskuowes, Slateford. 
1869. Davidson, James A., Kingsknowes, Slateford. 

1880. Denton, A., M.D., San Marcus, Hays Co., Texas, U.S. 

1876. Drink water, T. W., F.R. C.P.Ed., Laboratory, Marshall Street. 
1880. Drummond, James, C.A., 27 Ann Street. 

1880. Drmnmond, William, S.S.C, 4 Learmonth Terrace. 

1864. Duns, Rev. Professor, D.D., F.R.S.K, 14 Greenhill Place. 
1869, Durham, William, F.R.S.K, Portobello. 

1863. Edmonston, Alex., 5 Rosendale Villas, Norwood Road, Heme Hill, London. 

1880. Erskine, William, Oaklands, Trinity Road. 

1877. Etheridge, Robert, jun., F.G.S., British Museum, London, President. 
1880. Evans, William, Actuary, 2 Mercbiston Bank Terrace. 

1874. Ferguson, William, Esq. of Kinmundy, F.R.S.E., 21 Manor Place. 

Galbraith, E. L., Pitlochrie. 

Gall, Rev. J., 47 Forrest Road. 

1867. Gallie, J. B., 24 Mayfield Terrace. 

1877. Galletly, Alexander, Museum of Science and Art, 

1858. Geddes, John, 9 Melville Crescent. 

1878, Geikie, Professor Archibald, F.R.S., Edinburgh University, President. 
1877. Gibb, Philip B., M.A., 14 Picardy Place. 

1869. Gibson, John, Museum of Science and Art, Assistant Secretary. 



386 List of Fellows. 

Date of 
Election. 

1875. Goldie, John, Register House. 
1878. Grav, Archibald, 13 Inverleith Row. 

1878. Gray, Joseph T., M.A., 14 Findhorn Place. 

1874. Gray, Robert, F.R.S.E., 13 Inverleith Row, Secretary. 

1828. Grieve, David, F.R.S.E., Hobart House, Dalkeith. 

1877. Grieve, Somerville, Salisbury View, Dalkeith Road. 
1871. Herbert, A. B., 19 Strathearn Road. 

1879. Herdman, W, A., D.Sc, St Bernard's, Bruntsfield Crescent. 

1858. Home, D. Milne, Esq. of Milne Graden, LL.D., F.R.S.E., York Place. 

1878. Home, John, P.G.S., Geological Survey Office, Edinburgh. 
1863. Hossack, B. H., Kingscroft, Stanley Road, Edinburgh. 

1880. Hunter, James, F.R.S.E., Minto House, Chambers Street. 
1874; Hunter, John, Minto House Medical School, Chambers Street. 
1878. Hunter, J. R. S., LL.D., Daleville, Braidwood, Lanarkshire. 
1850. Jenner, Charles, 47 Princes Street. 

1877. Joass, C. Edward, 1 Rankeillor Street. 
1880. Johnston, J. A;, 4 Hamburgh Place, Leith. 
1880. Johnston, J. H;, 9 Clareraont Crescent. 
1858. Keir, Patrick Small, Esq;, Kindrogan. 

1869. Kennedy, Rev. J., M.A., B.D., 17 Melville Terrace. 

1878. Kidston, Robert, Victoria Place, Stirling. 
Kilpatrick, H. Grainger, 104 South Bridge; 

1869. King, J. Falconer, F.C.S., Minto House Medical School, Chambers Street. 

1879. Kirkej D. J. B;, Greenmount, Burntisland. 
1858. Laidley, J. W., Esq. of Seacliff, 2 Moray Place. 

1880. Laughton, William, Kinleith Paper Works, Currie. 
1868. Lawson, Robert. 

1880. Leek, Henry, Hollybush, Ayr. 

1858. Lees, George, LL;D. 

1879. Leslie, George, 3 William Street. 

1861. Logan, Alexander, Register House. 
1850, Logan, R, F., Spylaw House, Colinton. 
1871. Lorrain, J. G., 34 St Andrew Square. 

1849. Lowe, Wm. Henry, M.D.j Wimbledon, London. 

1870. Lyon, F. W., M.D., Albany Street, Leith. 
1855. Macadam, Stevenson, Ph.D., Surgeons' Hall. 

1878. Macconochie, A. H. M., Geological Survey Office, Eiliuburgh. 

1878. Maclauchlan, John, Albert Institute, Dundee. 

1878. Mackay, James F., W.S., 81 Princes Street. 

1879. Mackay, J. S., 8 Clarence Street. 

1878. M'Laren, W. A., W.S., 8 Blackford Road. 

1878. Matheson, Alexander, M.A., 19 Northumberland Street. 

1879. Melven, William, 2 Marchmont Crescent. 

1873. Miller, R. K., 4 Bonnington Terrace. 

1862. Mitnish, H. W., M.R.C.S.L. 

1876. Molfat, Andrew, 8 Kirk Street, Leith. 

1876. • Moinet, Francis, M.D., 13 Alva Street. 

1880. Muirhead, George, Paxton, Bervvick-on-Tweed. 

1874. Murray, D. R., M.B., CM., 37 Albanv Street, Leith. 

1877. Murray, John, F.R.S.E., " Challenger " Office, 32 Queen Street. 

1880. Nicholson, Prof. AUeyne, M.D., F.L.S., University ot St Andrews, President 

{corresp. 1873). 

1858. Paterson, Robert, M.D., 32 Charlotte Street, Leith. 

1879. Paton, D. Noel, 33 George Square. 

1858. Paul, Henry, Melbourne, Australia. 

1870. Peach, B. N., 8 Annandale Street. * 

1867. Peach, C. W., A.L.S. {non-res. 1850), 30 Haddington Place. 
1877. Philip, James, 5 Argyle Place. 

1879. Pullar, Rufus D., St Leonard's Bank, Perth. 
1877. Prentice, Charles, C.A., 40 Castle Street. 
1855. Redpath, Hugh, Grangebank, Morningside. 

1868. Reid, Rev. J, Brown, Airdrie. 

1858. Rigg, Dr C. M., The Vines, Rochester. 

1867. Ritchie, Walter, New Register House. 

1870. Robertson, Alexander, 29 Dick Place. 

1880. Robertson, J. A., C.A., North St David Street. 
1861. Robertson, Thomas, 57 Frederick Street. 
1880. Rowland, L. L., M.D., Salem, Oregon, U.S. 

1863. Sadler, John, Royal Botanic Garden. 



List of Fellows. 387 

Date of 
Election. 
1878. Sang, Edward, F.R.S.E., 2 George Street. , 

1875. Saundby, Robert, M.D., Saughton Hall. 
1869. Scot-Skirving, R., 29 Druinmond Place. 
1880. Shaw, Duncan, 9 Heriot Row. 

1878. Sievewright, Peter, 12 Danube Street. 

1878. Smith, James D., 30 Buckingham Terrace. 

1850. Smith, John Ale.x., M.D., 10 Palmerston Place. 
1880. Sprague, T. B., Actuary, 29 Buckingham Terrace. 
1880. Stark, A. C, 4 North Charlotte Street. 

1878. Stewart, Rev. James, Wilton, Roxburghshire. 

1861. Struthers, James, M.D., 22 Charlotte Street, Leith. 

1878. Surenne, David J., 6 Warriston Crescent. 

1879. Symington, Jolinson, F.R.C.S.E., Minto House, Chambers Street. 

1851. Taylor, Andrew, 6 South Clerk Street. 
1878. Thomson, Alexander, Newbank, Trinity. 

1876. Thomson, Andrew, 13 Inverleith Place. 

1848. Thomson, Sir Charles Wyville, LL.D., F.R.S., Edinburgh University. 

1876. Thomson, John, 26 Queen Street. 

1878. Thomson, Mitchell, 7 Carlton Terrace. 

1874. Thomson, Robert, LL.B., Rutland Square. 

1861, Thomson, W. Burns, St John Street. 

1867. Thorburn, Archibald, General Register Office. 

1859. Traquair, Ramsay H., M.D., F.R.S.E., Museum of Science and Art, Hon. 

Librarian. 
1858. Turner, Professor W., F.R.S., Edinburgh University. 

1862. Waddel, Peter, Claremont Park, Leith. 

1874. Walcot, John, 50 Northumberland Street. 

1872. Walley, T., Principal, Veterinary College, Clyde Street. 

1855. Wardrop, James, 16 Carlton Street. 
1878. Watson, G. W., 4 Stafford Street. 

1878. White, Thomas, S.S.C, 114 George Street. 

1872. Williams, Principal, F.R.S.E., New Veterinary College. 

1856. Wilson, Andrew, 21 Youns: Street. 

1875. Wilson, Andrew, Ph.D., 118 Gilmore Place. 

1861. Wilson, John, Janefield House, Duddingston. 

NON-RESIDENT. 

1864. Belairs, George, Caroline Lodge, Duddingston. 
Bentham, George, F.R.S. 

1862. Bethune, Norman, M.D., Toronto, Canada. 

1872. Brown, D. J., Glasgow. 

1862. Brown, J. Crichton, M.D., London. 

1867. Brown, Geo. H. Wilson, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

1862. Cffisar, Rev. W., D.D., Tranent. 

1861. Cameron, A. G. H., Laketield, Inverness. 

Carpenter, W. B., M.D., C.B., 56 Regent Park Road, London, N.W. 
Cleghorn, Hugh, M.D., Stravithie, Fife. 
Cormack, Sir John Rose, M.D., Paris. 

1873. Dally, Frederick, M.D., Wolverhampton. 
1864. Davidson, Andrew, M.D., Madagascar. 

1868. Da vies, A. E., Ph.D., F.C.S., Lowes Moor, Worcester. 
1870. Dick, Thomas, Kirknewton. 

1858. Drummond, Captain H., India. 

1863. Fair, George, M.D., Buenos Ayres. 

1863. GalVjraith, George L., Loch Tunimel Lodge, Pitlochrie. 
18.59. Grierson, T. B., L.R.C.S.E., Thornhill. 

Handyside, P., M.D., Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh. 

1876. Harvie-Brown, J. A., Dunipace House, Larbert. 
1855. Hector, James, M.D., C.M.G., F.R.S., New Zealand. 
1851. Heddle, Professor M. Forster, University of St Anilrews. 

1849. Hepburn, Archibald, Barwood House, Ramsbottom. 

1874. Hitchman, Wm., M.D., 29 Erskine Street, Liverpool. 
1S62. Hargitt, Edward, London. 

1872. Hoggan, George, M.D., London. 

1861. Home, Lieutenant-Colonel George Logan, Edrom, Dunse. 

1860. Hunter, Rev. Robert, Library of the Roval Historical Society, Loudon. 

1868. Kennedy, John, M.D., Elie. 

1850. Lawson, George, Professo^, LL.D. , Windsor, Nova Scotia. 



388 List of Fellows. 

Date of 
Election. 

1861. Logan, Robert, Carluke. 

1862. Macnab, Professor W., M.D., F.L.S., Royal College of Science, Dublin. 
1858. M 'Vicar, Rev. J., D.D., Mottat. 

1862. Manson, George W., Bengal Staff Corps. 

1849, Melville, Professor A. G., Queen's College, Galway. 

1870. Middleton, James, M.D., Strathpeffer. 

1871. Paterson, J., M.D., Brazil. 

1878. Prentice, Norman, Otago, New Zealand. 
1862. Roome, Major Frederick, Bombay. 

1856. Sanderson, "R. Burdon, M.D., F.R.S., London. 

1857. Shields, Robert, Kentish Town, London. 
1861. Stevenson, William, Dunse. 

1861. Struthers, Rev. John, Prestonpans. 

Swift, Herbert M., Whitehall, London. 

1861. Thomas, F. W. L., Captain, R.N., Trinity. 

1861. Thomson, Murray, M.D., Professor, Calcutta. 

1860. Valentine, Colin S., LL.D., Jeypore. 

1861. Wanklyn, Professor J. A., London. 
1870. Wilson, Robert, Standard, London. 

1874, Young, David. 

CORRESPONDIN^G. 

Andrew, Rev. J., D.D., Newbury, Fifeshire. 

1875. Cough trey, MUlen, M.D., Dunediu, New Zealand. 

1858. Duncan, Rev. J., Denholm. 
1877. Edward, Thomas, A.L.S., Banff. 

1870. Fraser, Rev. Samuel, Melbourne. 
1861. Gordon, Rev. G., LL.D., Birnie, Elgin. 

1871. Grieve, A. F., Brisbane, Queensland. 
1852. Howden, J. C, M.D., Montrose. 
1874. Joass, Rev. J. M., Golspie. 

1874. Jolly, William, Inspector of Schools. 

1879. Lap worth, Charles, F.G.S., Madras College, St Andrews. 
1871. Macdonald, John, S.S.C. 

Mushet, David, Gloucester. 

1867. Robb, Rev. Alexander, Old Calabar. 

1874. Stewart, Rev. Alexander, Ballachulish. 

HONORARY. 

1857. Boheman, Professor C. H., Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden. 

1857. Chevrolat, Auguste, Paris. 

1857. Dohrn, C. A., Stettin. 

1857. Fairmaire, Leon, Paris, 

1865. Frauenfeld, George Ritter von, Zoological and Botanical Society, Vienna. 

1857. Gerstaecker, A., Berlin. 

1857, Guenee, Achilla, Chateau-dun. 

1857. Javet, Charles, Paris. 

1857. Kraatz, G., Berlin. 

1865. Kotscky, Dr Theodor, Zoological and Botanical Society, Vienna. 

1869. Llitken, Dr Chr., University Museum, Copenhagen. 

1857. Lacordaire, Professor Theodore, Liege. 

1857. Lenectere, Marquis de Laferte, Tours. 

1857. Marseul, L'Abbe de, Paris. 

1857. Meneville, Guerin, Paris. 

1865. Mannsfeldt, Prince, Colloredo, Vienna. 

1858. Motschoulsky, Count Victor, St Petersburg. 
1857. Milne-Edwards, A., Paris. 

1857. Macquerys, Emile, Rouen. 

1857. Obert, M., St Petersburg. 

1857. Reiche, M., Paris. 

1858. Schlossberger, Dr, Tubingen. 
1857. Zeller, P. C, Silesia. 

1857. Zetterstedt, J. W., University of Lund, Sweden. 



Fellows are requested to intimate change of address to the Assistant Secretary. 



INDEX. 



Acanthodes sp., 115, 

Alca alle, 34. 

Alca tarda, 38. 

Ali^'fe uf the Firth of Forth, 171. 

Amethyst, on an mulescrihed variety 

of, 848. 
Anas boschas, 33. 

,, chjpeata, 375. 

,, strepera, 375. 
An&er uHgijptiucus, 375. 

,, hrevta, 41. 

,, albifrnvs, 41. 
Atrijpa reticularis, 270. 

,, dtsquamata, 270. 
Auk, little, 34. 

Aviculopecten siibquinqudinealus, 297. 
,, sp., 298. 

Bacillas anthracis, 374. 

Baths of Mont Dore, notes on a visit 

to, 374. 
Belone vulgaris, 374. 
Bird life, influence of recent storm on, 

62. 
Black, W. T., 374. 

Bowen River Coalfield, on a collection 
of fossils from, 263. 
,, fossil plants of, 325. 

Buchanan, J. Hamilton, 52, 105. 

189. 
Bustard, great, 33. 

Calamodyta lucustella, 136. 
Callander, list of birds in parish of, 

52. 
Capercailzie, 59. 
Christison, Dr D., 377. 
Cvlymbus arcticus, 375. 

,, septentrional is, 375. 
Corals, Tabulate, on the classification 

and affinities of, 88. 
Crawford, \V. C., 373. 
Crioceras Jackii, 305. 
Crossbill, white-winged, 136. 

Daiila acuta, 360. 



Dalla.s, E. W., obituary notice of, 138. 

Daniell, Alfred, M.A., B.Sc, 379. 

Diver, bhxck-throated, 375. 

Diver, red-throated, 375. 

Duck, pintail, on the occurrence of, in 

Outer Hebrides, 860. 
Duns, Prof. J., 62, 848, 352. 

Electrical phenomenon exhibited by 
Geissler's tubes, note on, 373. 

Elonichthys tenuiserratus, 119. 
,, pcctinatvs, 121. 

,, Dunsii, 126. 

Epnmophorus comptua, description of 
362. 

Eskdale, "pitchstone" of, 219. 

Etheridge, R., Jun., 161, 263. 

Euplectella asperyillum, abnornial spe- 
cimen of, 74. 

Eurynotus sp., 125. 

Evans, W., 136. 

Fauna, invertebrate, of Lamlash Bay, 

193. 
Fenestella sp., 279. 
Fish, destruction of, in Linlithgow 

Loch, 104. 
Fishes, fossil, from oil shales of Edin- 
burghshire and Linlithgowshire, 
113. 
j Fucas Machii, specimens of, from 
j Orkney, 374. 
I Fuligula ferina, 105. 

Gadwall, 375. 

Garfish, exhibition of, 374. 

Gasteropod, fossil naticiforni, showing 
colour-bands, 161. 

Geikie, Prof. Archibald, 219. 

Gibson, J., 374. 

Goniatites sp., 305. 

Goosander, on distribution of, in Scot- 
land during bleeding season, 189. 

Goose, Egyjttian, 375. 

Gray, Robert, 131, 355, 360, 375, 380. 

Grebe, great crested, 375, 



390 



Index. 



Grebe, Sclavonian, 375. 
Grieve, David, 255. 
Gull, Iceland, 375. 
Gyracanthus tuberculatus, 125. 

Halichcerus gryphus, 35. 

Harvie- Brown, J. A., 343. 

Herbert, A. B., 72, 133. 

Herdman, W. A., 193. 

Heron, night, on the occurrence of, in 
Clackmannanshire, 355. 
, , American night, on the occur- 
rence of, in Ayrshire, 355. 

Hoopoe, 375. 

Home, John, 80, 329. 

Hi/as araneus, on spawning season of, 
*^135. 

I slay, natural history of, 35. 

Kidston, Robert, 135. 
King, John Falconer, 1. . 
Kingtisher, 70. 

Lamlash Bay, invertebrate fauna of, 

193. 
I^apworth, Charles, 106. 
Larus Islandicas, 375. 
Leslie, George, 74. 
Lestris pomarinns, 376. 

,, HichcCrdsonii, 40. 
Linlithgow Loch, destruction of fish 

in, 104. 
Loxia leucoptera, 136. 

M'Bain, Dr James, obituary notice of, 

255. 
Maigre, exhibition of, 374. 
Marten cat, 380. 
Martes foina, 380. 
Mergus merganser, 189. 
Mouse, harvest, 133. 
Mus messorius, 133. 

Naticopsis sp., 169. 
Nemagraptus, on the genus, 106. 
Nematolites Grayl, 112. 

,, Nicholsoni, 112. 

Bicksi, 113. 
Nematoptychias Grcenochii, 118. 
Nicholson, Dr H. A., 88. 
Notes, miscellaneous, 135. 
Nycteris grandis, 370. 
,, hispid us, 370. 
Nycticorax griseus, 355. 

,, gardeni, 355. 

Obituary notices, 138, 139, 255. 
Old Red Sandstone of Orkney, 329, 
of Shetland, 80. 
Orkney, old red sandstone of, 329. 



Orthotetes crenistria, var. senilis, 282. 
Otis tarda, 33. 

Pachydomus ? carinatus, 300. 
Page, David, obituary notice of, 139, 
Patmoniscidm, predaceous habits of, 128 
Peach, B. N,, 80, 329. 

,, C. W., 132, 
Pheasant, hybrid, 379. 
Phasianus amherstia, 379. 

,, pictus, 379. 

" Pitchstone " of Eskdale, 219,. 
Plantago 7naritima, on ramose form 

of, 135. 
Plateau's experiments on surface ten- 
sion, 379. 
Platyostomella Scotoburdigalensis, 164. 
Pochard, 105. 
Podiceps cornutus, 375. 

,, crista tus, 375. 
Presidential addresses, 1, 137. 
Productus brachythcerus, 284. 
Productus? sp., 310. 
Protoretepora Koninckii, 217. 

sp., 278. 
Ptarmigan, 60. 
Pujjinus cinereus, 34. 

,, anglorinn, 34. 

,, major, 376. 

Queensland, North, on a collection of 
fossils from, 263. 
,, papeis relating to Palae- 

ontology of, 320. 

Raia radiata, 132. 

Ray, starry, occurrence of, in Firth of 

Forth, 132. 
Ehyrichonella sTp., 271. 

Sandpiper, wood, 33, 

Sanguinolites sp,, 302. 

Scicena aquila, 374. 

Scolopax rusticola, 136. 

Scot-Skirving, R,, 35, 104, 379. 

Shearwater, greater, 34, 376. 
,, Manx, 34. 

Shetland, old red sandstone of, 80. 

Shoveller, 375. 

Skua, pomarine, 376. 

Smith, Dr J. A., 33, 35, 362, 375, 377. 

Spirifera convoluta, 280. 
,, Darwinii, 281. 
sp., 269. 

Splenic fever, on, 374. 

Squirrel, chapters on early history of, 
in Britain, 343. 

Sterna hirundo, 37. 
,, minuta, 37. 

Stockdove, occurrence of, in Berwick- 
shire, 131. 



Index. 



391 



Strophaloaia Clarkd, 289. 
,, Gerardi, 294. 

,, Jukcsii, 307. 

Taylor, Andrew, 43. 
Tetrao lar/opus, 60. 

,, medius, 33. 

,, urogallus, 59. 
Torrent action, examples of, 43. 
Totavus (jlareola, 33. 
Traill, George W., 171. 
Traquair, Dr K. H., 113, 128, 137, 375, 

376. 



Upvpa cpops, 375. 
Uria yryllc, 40. 

Vesicularia spinosa, abnormal foini 

of, 374. 
Vole, water, on the habits of, 352. 

Wagtail, pied, migration of, 72. 

Warbler, Grasshopper, occurrence of, 
in Midlothian, 136. 

Williams, Principal Wm., 374. 

AVoodcock, on the nesting of, in Mid- 
lothian, 136. 



M'Farlancd: Erskine, Printers, Edinburgh. 



Ihl V 



Plate II. 

Royal Phijsvcal Soci&itf Eduihurffk 




IVfrFarla-ne ic Ers"Vme Lifii''' Edixi' 



Nematolite 



va. V. 



Plate III. 

JioyaZ J^AysicaZ /Society ^oUroiwrffJv. 




J^f^Fa-rlane k, ixskiTie, iiitV-^ Edna- 



PLATYOSTOMELLA 



VilV 



Plate IV 

rioyctl PnysK:,cvL Oootety £iciirwur(jk 



Clacmand Point. 

y 12 \ 




King's Cross Point 



j^cals One Inctto the Mile 



F. Fann-House on Holy Isle. 

W. White Point, Holy Isle. 

B. Buoy at South Entrance to Bay. 

X. The Point House, King's Cross. 

H. Old Wreck, near Lamlash. 

Q. The Old Quay, Lamlash. 

P. The Pier, Lamlash. 

E. Hamilton Rock. 

^Jos.ltolS indicate t"he Dredging Statio-ns. 



J*?rarlan« ». Erikme. Ltth''? Edii 



P^. V. 



Plate VII. 



# 



'^^^<if 







1^ 



r-s^JW: 



'^ 






"g 



Ij^ ^-l 






;R ,<Vr-"'^^ 





E E.E^en, iel. 



]4:':ra,rlane Jo ETsTime. Litlx" EdinT 



?^. V. 



Plate IX. 

Royal Pkystca,l /Societt/ BdvnZwrff/v . 




17 




'^^■\'^ 



18 



~"7- . 







19 






'^ 




20 




P E.Ewen. ael. 



|i":r3,Tla,ne &, ETskine, Litk":* Edin^ 



^.a. V. 




Plate X. 



1 i^ ^ 




A \ J 




.^ 




26 



,^^ 



> 




27 



p. E.E^ven. lel 



r 






Vv\ 




i 



?" TTL 1^ "'^ 



23 




24 



a: « 




28 



jfTa-rlane ic Ersinne, LitV* Eaaa^ 



va. V. 



Plate XI . 

lioycuL Jrnysiccoi /jocieiy BouiyTiowrffrv . 
I 

c 




c c 





p. E. Ewen, iel 



T^'yarlans io ETskme, LitH* Edin? 



^. V. 



Plate XII. 

Royal PAysiccvl /Socieiy BJ/irvowrffrv . 





34 




-^■ 



,/ 



h 




33 




/ 



/ 




P E.Ewen. ael 



37 



J^'Tarlane 2o ETskme. Lith.":^ Edi 



T^.V. 



Plate XIII. 



,,-<'^^!^b.9 



'^^^ 



\ 







X^^ 



38 



39 




J- 




-J 



/- 





42 



43 



E.Eweii,ae 



H'TTarla-ne iu ETskine Litk'* Eiiii~ 



?^ V. 



Plate JCIV. 

rioyaZ rAysi^ci.1 Ajocze^y ncuvrwwry/i . 





4D 




46 



47 




y 



48 



/ 




*^ 




49 



p. E. E wren, 3.< 



>f'l"»rla.ne So Z,Tskme, Litlx^* Edm^ 



^. V. 



Plate XV. 

Jioyai I^/iystcctC juociety na/vnowryrv . 








50 




p. E. E-wen, ie 



J^Tirlane «o ETsTtme. Litt^^ Eam^ 



Plate XVI. 

HoyaZ I^kysicaZ fSoeiety BcUrwwrgfn/ . 




53 




54 



E E. E-wen, ieX 



7^'Fa.Tla,Tie »o ETsTime. Litt" Edin'' 



I^'.V. 



Plate AIX. 

HoyaZ Phi/sicoLl Societi/ Mvnhwr^Ji. 






SPOTS OF IRON OXIDE ON AMETHYST. 









X 90 



^f'Fs.rla.Tio it- Erslimo, LitTi" Edi 



7-7^. 



'/^H 



I 



PROCEEDINGS 



EOYAL PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 



SESSION 1878-79. 



EDINBURGH: M'FAELANE & ERSKINE. 
1879. 






PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL PHYSICAL SOCIETY. 



SESSION 1879-80. 



EDINBURGH: M'FARLANE & ERSKINE. 

1880. 



CONTENTS. 



SESSION CIX. 



Opening Address, by R. H. Tp.aquaiii, Esq., M.D., . 

Natioiform Gasteropod, showing Colour Bands, by R. Etheridge 

jun., Esq., 
The Algpe of the Firth of Forth, by G. W. Traill, Esq., 
Distribution of the Goosander in Scotland, by J. H. Buchanan, Esq. 
Invertebrate Fauna of Lanilash Bay, by W. A. Herdman, Esq., 
The "Pitchstone" of Eskdale, by Prof. A. Geikie, LL.D., . 
Obituary Notice of Dr J. M'Bain, by D. Grieve, Esq., 
Fossils from Bowen River Coalfield, by R. Etheridge, jun., Estj., 
Old Red Sandstone of Orkney, by Messrs Peach and Horne, 
History of the Squirrel in Great Britain, by J. A. Harvie-Brown, Esq. 
Undescribed Variety of Amethyst, by Prof. Duns, D.D., 
Habits of the Water Vole, by Prof. Duns, D.D., 
The European and American Night Herons, by R. Gray, Esq. , 
Pintail Duck in the Outer Hebrides, by R. Gray, Esq., 
On a Fruit-Eating Bat from Old Calabar, by J. A. Smith, Esq., M.D. 
Journal of Proceedings, ..... 

Donations and Additions to Library, .... 
List of Fellows, . . 

Index, ........ 



137 



161 
171 
189 
193 
219 



329 
344 
348 
352 
355 
360 
362 
373 
381 
38f. 
389 



ItJ^. 



p^,_-^' 



-T. 



(•^ 



I . 



•>*•- 




yf- 






/ . 






y . 



i"» -' r 



.^, 



^•mm^ 



:i£iJH.-i«''*rfti3»i<?^- 







^SV^^^^MKWMKW^ 




AAV* 



h'/^l 



■r\'r\ 



^■^S5Whhh) 



r\m 



rr^n 







^n 






hnr 



^aiaao?^it^^ 



' -^ "N 







r^r\r\ 



\f^^r\f^l^l^'/\fyf^ 



m^n 



^1 



K/-^ 



^n/^ 



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