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Full text of "Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales"

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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Royal Zoological 



Society 



OF 

NEW SOUTH WALES ] 

for the years 1965-66 
Price: One Dollar 

{tree to all Members and Associates) 

SYDNEY: 

Published by the Society, c/o The Australian Museum, 

P.O. Box A.285, Sydney South. 

FEBRUARY 24, 1967 



Registered at the G.P.O., Sydney, for transmission by post 
as a periodical. 



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ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

Established 1879 



Registered under the Companies Act, 1899 (1917). 



Patron : 

His Excellency the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Arthur Roden Cutler, 

V.C., K.C.M.G., C.B.E., Kt.St.J. 

Vice-Patron : 
Sir Edward Hallstrom, K.B., F.R.Z.S. 

COUNCIL, 1966-67 

President: 
Basil Joseph Marlow, B.Sc. 

Vice-Presidents'. 

John Cameron Yaldwyn, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Ernest Jeffery Gadsden, F.R.Z.S. 

Henry John de Suffren Disney, M.A. 

Ronald Strahan, M.Sc. 

Hon. Secretary. Mrs. Leone Harford 

Hon. Editor: Gilbert Percy Whitley, F.R.Z.S., R.A.O.U. 

Hon. Treasurer: John Miles Campbell, J.P. 

Members of Council: 

John Miles Campbell Anthony Irwin Ormsby, Ll.B. 

Henry John de Suffren Disney Peter Edward Roberts, B.A. 

Ernest Jeffery Gadsden Courtenay Neville Smithers, M.Sc. 

Maxwell Hall Gregg Ronald Strahan, M.Sc. 

Lawrence Courtney-Haines, A.Mus.A., Frank Hamilton Talbot, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

L.T.C.L. Ellis Le Geyt Troughton, F.R.Z.S., 
John Hallstrom C.M.Z.S. 

Mrs. Leone Harford Gilbert Percy Whitley 

Frank McCamley Mrs. Olive Wills 

Basil Joseph Guy Marlow John Cameron Yaldwyn 

OFFICERS 

Honorary Solicitor: 
Honorary Auditors: Messrs. Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Company 
Honorary Librarian: 

Assistant Honorary Secretary: Mrs. Olive Wills 
Assistant Honorary Treasurer: (Vacant) 
Entomological Section: Junior Group: 

Chairman: Mr. Rex Gilroy Chairman: Mrs. L. Harford 

Hon. Secretary: Mrs. O. Thacker 
Conchological Section: Ornithological Section: 

Chairman: Mr. F. McCamley Chairman: Mr. L. C. Haines 

Hon. Secretary: Mrs. O. Wills Hon. Secretary: Mr. P. E. Roberts 



EIGHTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ROYAL 
ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

The eighty-sixth annual meeting of the Society was held at Taronga 
Zoological Park, Mosman, on 24th September, 1966. The President (Dr. 
J. C. Yaldwyn) occupied the chair and welcomed guests, members and 
visitors. The President read the 86th Annual Report, which was adopted. 

The Treasurer's Report was read by Mr. J. Campbell, and adopted. 

Councillors retiring under the terms of Article 23 of the Society's 
Constitution were all re-elected. 

Mr. G. P. Whitley introduced the guest speaker, Mr. Vincent Serventy, 
who addressed the meeting on "Nature Conservation in Australia — A 
Continent in Danger" (see page 7). A cordial vote of thanks to Mr. 
Serventy was moved by Dr. F. H. Talbot and carried by acclamation. 

The President expressed thanks to the authorities and staff of 
Taronga Zoological Park for their contributions to the success of the 
afternoon's gathering, and to Mr. John Adkins for the use of his 
public address system and tape recorder. 

86th ANNUAL REPORT (1965/66) 

MEMBERSHIP 

As at the 30th June, 1966, the total membership of the Society was 
654 consisting of 1 Endowment Member, 3 Associate Benefactors, 10 
Honorary Members, 59 Life Members, 497 Ordinary Members, 
4 Honorary Associate Members, 18 Life Associate Members, 50 
Associate Members and 12 Junior Members. 

During the year 54 new members were admitted, 47 being Ordinary 
Members. The Society lost 13 members by resignation and 27 names were 
removed from the register under Article 9. A drop in the number of 
Associate Members during the year was made up with an increase in 
the number of Ordinary Members to give a net gain in membership of 
1 over last year's figure. 

DEATHS 

I regret to report that during the year the following 9 members of 
the Society died: — C. Clayton, the Hon. D. Clyne, J. B. Dawspn, 
Claude Hardy, H. R. Hendy of Swaziland, Capt. G. I. D. Hutcheson 
C.B.E., Mrs. E. P. McFarlane, R. Rattray and Mrs. D. L. Trenerry. 

Since the end of the Society's year being reported on, Dr. C. W. 
George of Mosman has died, and his death has deprived the Society 
of another of its well-known senior members. (The death of Miss Joyce 
Allan, F.R.Z.S., in August 1966, was not recorded in this Report. Her 
obituary appears in these Proceedings, see p. 12). 

PATRON 

As indicated in our most recent publication, his Excellency the 
Governor of New South Wales, Sir Arthur Roden Cutler, V.C., K.C.M.G., 
C.B.E., Kt. St. J., has honoured the Royal Zoological Society of N.S.W. 
by becoming its Patron. 

COUNCIL 

Council held 1 1 meetings during the 1965-66 year, with an average 
attendance of 12i councillors per meeting. 

At the end of the financial year, Mr. J. L. Fry resigned from the 
Council. John Fry has been the Society's Honorary Treasurer during the 
last 3 years and we wish to record our sincere thanks for the detailed 
work he has put into our financial matters during this period. The 
balance sheet and revenue account for 1965-66 prepared from Mr. Fry's 
figures, will be presented at this meeting by our present Honorary 
Treasurer, Mr. J. M. Campbell. Mr. Ronald Strahan, a lecturer in 

1 



HismwiON MAY 3- 196? 



Zoology at the University of N.S.W., was elected to Council as a 
replacement under Article 27. 

DELEGATES 

Mr. H. J. de S. Disney was the Society's delegate to the National 
Trust Seminar on Bushfires, held at Leura, New South Wales in April 
and at the moment is still overseas after attending the XIV International 
Ornithological Congress at Oxford in July as a representative of this 
Society. 

Mr. C. N. Smithers is the Society's representative on the Council 
of the recently formed Australian Entomological Society. 

I have great pleasure in informing the Annual General Meeting 
that the Council was able to nominate Councillor R. Strahan to the 
Minister of Lands for a recent vacancy on the Taronga Park Trust. 
Mr. Strahan's appointment to the Trust was gazetted a few weeks ago 
and he now joins a line of Royal Zoological Society members who have 
served on this body since the Society transferred its animals to the Trust 
in 1916. Two Councillors of our Society are now Trustees of Taronga 
Park. 
SECTION MEETINGS 

The Council thanks the Chairmen and Secretaries of the Society's 
three active Sections for the work they have done on the Society's 
behalf during the year. Thirty-six lectures or other programmes were 
given, and the Junior Group, under Mrs. Harford, met 1 1 times. Two 
sections held field trips. Mr. M. Gregg has our special thanks for his 
organisation and production of the 1965-66 Syllabus and for the present 
second-half-of-1966 Syllabus. Members will note that syllabuses will now 
be issued every six months, as this allows the Section officers much 
greater freedom in their choice of subjects and speakers. 

A CCOMMODA TION 

Little progress was made during the year on the general question 
of integrated accommodation for the Society, about which I spoke strongly 
in the Annual Report last year. However, it has been decided that all 
the Society's meetings, starting in January next year, will be held in 
the Hallstrom Theatre at the Australian Museum. This means the Society's 
association with Anzac House, dating back to 1958, will cease after the 
Section meetings this December. 

As a further indication of the "winds of change", I can now inform 
you that Bull's Chambers, 28 Martin Place, will be demolished in 1968 
and the Society has been notified of the termination of the lease on our 
office there at the end of 1967. This means that during the coming year 
the question of Society accommodation, integrated or not, will have to 
be faced by your Council. Our library room and publication store here 
at Taronga Park, now appear to be the only stable section of the Society's 
occupation of space. 
LIBRARY 

The future of the Society's valuable library has been considered in 
detail by a Council Library Committee planned during the year covered 
by this report and set up last month. Its report, which has just been 
accepted by Council, is on page 30 of these Proceedings, but I 
would like to outline to you here the changes agreed upon. Subject to 
a set of conditions which will be laid down in a legal agreement, the 
book and periodical holdings of this Society, euphemistically referred to 
as our "Library", will be placed on indefinite loan in the Biological and 
Medical Library of the University of N.S.W. There members will have 
access to them, as well as to the whole University Biomedical Library, 
from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. on week days, and 9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. 
on Saturdays. Popular magazines and all Australian periodicals received 
by the Society in exchange for our publications from now on will be 
retained for one year in our rooms before being passed to the University 
Library under the same agreement. 



Following this change, the storage and handling of the Society's own 
publications will be completely reorganized in our rooms here at Taronga 
Park, and the back numbers of our numerous Handbooks, Reprints, 
Zoologists and Proceedings will at last be easily available for much wider 
distribution. 

GRANTS 

We wish to acknowledge with pleasure a further grant of $200 
from the N.S.W. Department of Education to be used to help the Society's 
rising publication costs. 

PUBLICATIONS 

One issue of the Australian Zoologist (volume XIII, part 2) and the 
Proceedings for 1964-65 were published during the year under report. 
The Zoologist was covered in the last Annual Report, but the Proceedings, 
issued last December, should be especially mentioned here. This issue 
contains a reissue of our Memorandum of Association, our revised Con- 
stitution and our up-to-date Rules. Once again these are available to the 
membership at large and the Society can efficiently order its affairs by 
them. A special reprint of these three items was run off at the same 
time and will be issued to future new members. 

Another Australian Zoologist, an 82-page, 8 plate issue — volume XIII, 
part 3 — was published on the 6th July last, and our editor informs me 
that two further Zoologists are in press at the moment. It seems that the 
1966-67 year will see 3 Zoologists and a Proceedings join our publication 
list — surely quite an achievement for such a Society as ours, even in its 
86th year. Mr. Gilbert Whitley deserves our very sincere thanks for his 
long continued activity, so freely given on our behalf. 

THANKS 

Once again I would like to thank personally, and on behalf of the 
Council, all the Society office bearers, Section officers and members who 
have contributed to the work of the Society, throughout the year, so 
generously with their time and energy. As the membership must realize, 
if it was not for people like this our Society just would not exist, 
because, although each one of us can play a part, some have to do the 
actual day to day work of keeping the Royal Zoological Society going 
and producing its publications. 

— J. C. YALDWYN, President. 



OFFICE BEARERS FOR 1966-67 

At the 86th Annual General Meeting held on 24th September, 1966, 
the following Office Bearers were elected for 1966-67: — 

President: Mr. B. J. Marlow. 
Vice-Presidents: Dr. J. C. Yaldwyn, Messrs. H. Disney, E. J. Gadsden 

and R. Strahan. 

Hon. Secretary: Mrs. L. Harford. 

Assistant Honorary Secretary: Mrs. O. Wills 

Hon. Treasurer: Mr. J. Campbell, J. P. 

Assistant Honorary Treasurer: (Vacant). 

Hon. Editor: Mr. G. P. Whitley. 

Hon. Solicitor: Dr. Aubrey Halloran. 

Hon. Auditors: Messrs. Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 



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Declaration by the Secretary 

I, Mrs. Leone Harford, being the Secretary of the Royal Zoological Society 
of New South Wales, do solemnly and sincerely declare that to the best of 
my knowledge and belief, the accompanying balance sheet and revenue account 
are correct, and I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the 
same to be true and by virtue of the provisions of the Oaths Act, 1900, as 
amended. 

DECLARED at Sydney this ) 

sixteenth day of September, 1966 ) 

before me: W. H. WISE, ) L. HARFORD. 

Justice of the Peace. 



Statement by Directors 



In the opinion of the Council of the Royal Zoological Society of New 
South Wales, the accompanying balance sheet is drawn up so as to exhibit a 
true and fair view of the state of affairs of the Society as at 30th June, 1966 
and the accompanying revenue account is drawn up so as to give a true and fair 
view of the results of the business of the Society for the year then ended. 

DATED at Sydney, this sixteenth day of September, 1966. 

SIGNED ON BEHALF OF THE COUNCIL. 
J. C. YALDWYN, President. 
F. H. TALBOT, Vice President. 



Auditors' Report to the Members 

The accompanying balance sheet and revenue account of the Royal Zoological 
Society of New South Wales are, in our opinion, properly drawn up in accordance 
with the provisions of the Companies Act, 1961-1966 and so as to give a true and 
fair view of the state of the Society's affairs as at 30th June, 1966 and of its 
results for the year then ended. 

The accounting and other records (including registers) of the company 
examined by us were, in our opinion, properly kept in accordance with the 
provisions of the said 'Act. 

PEAT, MARWICK, MITCHELL & CO., 
82 Pitt Street, Chartered Accountants. 

Sydney. Registered under the Public Accountants 

Registration Act, 1945, as amended. 



NATURE CONSERVATION IN AUSTRALIA 

By Vincent Serventy 

THE NEXT TEN YEARS 

There is a tide in the affairs of nature conservation which taken at 
the flood leads on to success (with apologies to Shakespeare). I feel 
that by 1976 we will have passed the point of no return. By then we 
shall have saved a substantial proportion of Australian animals and plants, 
or many of them will have gone forever. 

To use another famous quotation in a new sense: "No man is 
an island." He is part of a. web of life. If he destroys that web wantonly 
or through greed, he loses part of himself. Admittedly the belief that 
the environment is part of ourselves, requires progressive and sophisticated 
thinking. The peasant's mentality is obsessed with the mere necessity of 
staying alive. He cannot lift his eyes away from the trough in case 
somebody else snatches away his food. However great societies have 
only risen through some men showing more sensitivity to the environment. 
Paradoxically nature rewards these societies by higher and higher standards 
of living, which are the end-product of higher standards of thinking. 

Nature conservation flourishes in such countries with high standards 
of living. It is almost unknown in those with low standards. So our future 
outlook is hopeful. The more leisure we have, the more demand there 
will be for further opportunities to broaden and deepen our personalities. 
It is here that the study of nature comes into its own. In this climate 
of increasing interest what should organised naturalists be doing to 
transform this desire into fruitful work? 

LEGAL FRAMEWORK 
1. Federal 

The Federal Government often passes demands for nature conservation 
back to the States. Yet it is too often forgotten that the Federal Government 
controls vast areas. The Northern Territory and New Guinea are two 
such areas. A National Park Service should be set up to serve tb.ese 
territories, and reserves set aside now. When New Guinea gains independence 
this will mean a framework of trained staff and reserves will be in 
working order. As with Africa, the new Government will realise that 
the national parks offer an assured source of tourist income. Similarly 
in the Northern Territory the Federal Government could before independ- 
ence, excise the national parks and keep them permanently as Federal 
Territory. This could be the nucleus of a national parks system on the 
United States pattern. States could be encouraged to cede scenic areas 
for other Federal parks. Although this may not seem likely to be done, 
I think it is quite practicable. For example Kosciusko State Park under 
Federal control would be developed with Federal money. However, 
most of the financial benefits would go to the State of New South Wales 
with tourist money spent in towns like Cooma and the recreational 
benefits to State residents. The South-west area of Tasmania could become 
equally popular if Federal money was available for its development. 

At first the Federal National Parks Service could call on the 
Wildlife Division of the C.S.I.R.O. for the research needed but gradually 
it would develop its own scientific personnel. 

2. States 

Every State should have its own National Park Service, not as a 
section of any other department but as an entity in its own right directly 
answerable to the Premier. Under the Director would be two Assistant 
Directors with advisory councils for each. Basically the national parks 
with mass usage would be one section. The other would be nature 
reserves with specialised usage. The first advisory council would be 



biassed towards people with skill in public recreation, education and 
tourism. The second advisory council would be biassed towards those 
interested in scientific work and education. 

Appointments would be made only among those skilled in this 
field. Owing to the lack of training in Australia, some overseas peop]e 
would need to be recruited until we can train our own people. Also 
outsiders coming to the area lack local prejudices and can see more 
clearly what is needed. What is true of Australian education is equally 
true in this new field of national parks. How can this be brought about? 
A National Parks blueprint 

The biggest problem facing conservationists is to know what areas 
should be preserved. Should it be area A or area B? Are all the rain 
forest types of habitat preserved? What about areas west of the ranges? 
How long do certain leases have to run, etc? Some years ago the Academy 
of Science set up State Committees to solve this problem. As far as I 
know, only one State has really produced a worthwhile final result, but 
I may be wrong in this. However a report mouldering away in a pigeonhole 
is a practical failure. 

In Western Australia the Royal Society took over the State report 
and with the assistance of various Government Departments, this was 
finally printed as an impressive volume. This printed report is a blueprint 
for conservation. Pressure is being brought on the Government to take 
action with excellent results. In Western Australia, naturalists know what 
needs to be done and Governments also know what needs to be done. 

What should be done in New South Wales? 

Much of the success of the Western Australian effort was due to the 
chairman Dr. D. Ride, Director of the Western Australian Museum. The 
Museum has staff and facilities to organise such surveys. It can call 
on various other experts. I suggest that the New South Wales Conservation 
Council might well approach the Director of the Australian Museum with 
a view to preparing and printing a similar report for this State. The 
Academy of Science report might well provide the backbone and the final 
draft be speedily produced. Money for printing should be sought from 
the Government and from other sources. Speed is the essential factor. 

Smaller Sanctuaries 

The big national parks will keep samples of major habitats intact. 
Smaller parks provide for everyday delight. We need honeyeaters in 
our gardens and around our streets, not only in parks perhaps a hundred 
miles away. Even one tree can make a difference between a pair of 
Frogmouths living in an area or dying out. This is where local societies 
can play a big part and already a great deal is being done. We must 
not forget river foreshores, lakes and marine parks too. That noisy 
monstrosity, the speedboat, must be curbed. Why should the peace and 
quiet of every lake be destroyed to cater for one minority group? Just 
as surfboard riders are being restricted, so should sections of rivers 
and certain lakes be put out of bounds to speedboats. Canberra has 
done this with Lake Burley Griffin, reserving this for rowboats, sailing 
craft, fishermen and naturalists. Wildlife can survive minor intrusions 
but not major ones. 
Societies 

A Conservation Council is an essential feature of any State svstem 
but New South Wales already has this. Perhaps there is need for 
regional councils, such as the Northern Rivers etc. The Adult Education 
Board could organise weekend schools to arouse local opinion and 
offer expert advice. 
Education 

No battle is ever entirely won. No battle is ever entirely lost. 
We must plan for the future. 
A Nature League 

A nature league for children is urgently needed. The framework 
is present in the Gould League of Birdlovers. The Conservation Council 



might approach the Gould League of Birdlovers to see if they would be 
willing to broaden their aims, as has already been done in Western 
Australia and in the United States, with its Audubon League. If tb,ey 
prefer to continue as they are, then consideration should be given to 
setting up a Junor Nature League in the schools, since the study of 
birds is too limiting to provide the nature conservation attitudes we 
need. 

Already the curriculum provides for nature conservation and is 
excellent in this regard. However teachers need help. 

Nature Advisory Service 

The Director General of Education should be approached to see 
if a service similar to that in Western Australia could be set up to help 
teachers with science education. This service also assists the Gould 
League and the Junior Tree Society and works with other naturalist 
organisations. 

Nature Conservation Day 

One day in spring should be set aside for the celebration of a 
Nature Conservation Day as is done with Arbor Day. 

Wildlife Magazines 

Many societies spend a considerable amount of money producing 
their own magazines. A far better effort could be achieved by supplying 
members with issues of Wildlife in Australia. Society printing efforts 
could be devoted to producing scientific papers on work being carried 
out by members. Given support by societies all over Australia, Wildlife 
in Australia could become one of the most powerful organs of conservation 
in the country. 

Television and Radio 

We should all by personal contact and by letter, ask that our radio 
and television stations give us natural history material. The A.B.C. should 
be encouraged to set up a Natural History Unit, as has been done in 
Great Britain. 

Zoos 

The day of the old time zoo with cramped cages is finished. The 
public will increasingly demand that zoos be pleasant places where the 
animals are in comfortable conditions. More and more they will want 
"walk-in" enclosures. For example at Regent's Park one walks into the 
humming bird cage. It is a delight to have these beautiful jewels flitting 
past one's face and landing in a branch a few feet away. There is urgent 
need for scientific direction. Basically a zoo is for public education 
and only secondarily for producing scientific data or for breeding animals. 
Hens lay quite well in battery cages but most of us are sickened by the 
sight of such a battery. A kangaroo may keep healthy on a concrete 
floor but most people dislike seeing them under such conditions. It is 
not only a matter of justice to the animals being done. It must also 
appear to the general public as having been done. 

The Suburbs 

It is surprising how on a quarter acre block, the keeping of most 
of the bushland can mean the keeping of a wide variety of animals and 
plants. Every school should have its own wildlife corner. In older schools 
these can be recreated by suitable planting. They provide natural 
laboratories for the children. 

The Future 

Can one be permitted a quick look at "Australooia": cities not 
allowed to grow to more than 500,000 neoole and linked by green 
belts of farms and national parks; treelined streets and dozens of 
small parks scattered through the suburbs; and, for the adventurous, 
wilderness areas where one can tramp for days out of sight and sound 
of other humans. 



OBITUARY NOTICES 

AUBREY HALLORAN 

(Plate 1) 

One of the oldest members of the Royal Zoological Society of New 
South Wales, and the longest in office in the history of the Society, 
was Dr. Aubrey Halloran, O.B.E., B.A., LL.D., F.R.A.H.S., F.R.Z.S., 
F.T.P.A., who died in his 95th year on 5th October, 1966 at Sydney. 

Born at Hargraves, near Mudgee, New South Wales, on 3rd December 
1871, Aubrey Halloran decided to make Law his profession. He graduated 
from the University of Sydney as B.A. in 1892 and LL.B. in 1894 and was 
admitted as a Solicitor on 1st June 1895, later practising also as a 
Notary Public. In October 1961, Mr. Halloran was awarded an Honorary 
Doctorate of Laws at the University of Sydney, of which he was one of 
the oldest graduates: "There were only about twenty students to a 
class when 1 was at the University", he said. 

He joined the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales on 
10th April 1907, was on the Council on 8th May 1907 and was our 
first Honorary Secretary (1908). By 1914, he was a Life Member and 
was our President in 1926. In 1929, he was elected to Taronga Park 
Trust to fill the vacancy caused by the death of the Hon. Frederick 
Flowers. Congratulations to Mr. Halloran on his election as Grand Master 
of the United Grand Lodge of Freemasons of New South Wales were 
extended to him in the Australian Zoologist, 6, 1930, p. 183. After he 
became an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 
1954, he was guest of honour at a dinner tendered him by the Royal 
Zoological Society and was elected a Vice Patron at about the same 
period. He was Honorary Solicitor to the Society for many years. 

Aubrey Halloran was extremely active in many fields, especially 
in historical, legal, artistic, literary, philanthropic and musical circles. 
He held high office or was prominent in the affairs of the Royal Australian 
Historical Society, the Society of Notaries, International Society of 
Australia, New Settlers' League, the Good Neighbour Council, English 
Speaking Union, the Shakespeare Society, Dickens Fellowship, the Millions 
Club (now the Sydney Club), the Royal Overseas League, Royal Institute 
for Deaf and Blind Children, Town Planning Association, Royal Art 
Society, Rotary International and other organizations. He was a former 
Trustee, not only of Taronga Zoological Park and Ashton Park, but 
of Captain Cook's Landing-place at Kurnell and Sublime Point, Bulli, 
New South Wales. He often spoke on historical occasions and unveiled 
memorials to mark spots of special interest to Australians. 

In his younger days, his recreations were yachting and motoring. 
He was one of the earliest motorists in Australia and he was a Life 
Member of the Royal Motor Yacht Club. During the second World 
War, he lectured to servicemen on the maintenance of motor engines 
and motor boats. He had a fund of good humour and liked to laugh 
and dance and even play the piano at parties. Although he was a forceful 
and stimulating speaker, Aubrey Halloran rarely wrote for the printer, 
so only his Presidential Address for 1925-26 appears in the Australian 
Zoologist (4, 1926, pp. 283-286), but he took great interest in our Society's 
publications, regarding them as a lasting record of work well done. 
Aubrey Halloran had earlier delivered his Presidential Address to the 
Royal Australian Historical Society, to whose Journal he also contributed 
some papers on some early legal celebrites 1 . 

1 President's Address: R.A.H.S.J., 10, 1924, pp. 57-63. Some early legal celebrities: 
R.A.H.S.J., 10, 1924, pp. 169-198 & 301-347; ibid., 12, 1926-27, pp. 41-72 & 317-352. 
He also wrote about explorers such as Hume and Hovell and the history of 
country towns in other publications. 

10 



Portraits* of Aubrey Halloran have been published in the Cyclopedia 
of New South Wales, 1907, p. 334, the Sydney Morning Herald, August 1, 
1925, and in the United Grand Lodge of N.S.W. — N.S.W. Masonic 
Hospital, 1931, p. 2. The Royal Australian Historical Society has an oil 
painting of him in his University of Sydney robes, besides photographs. 
For the illustration reproduced here, I am grateful to Mr. Gordon 
Halloran. 

Dr. Halloran is survived by a son (Mr. Gordon F. Halloran), three 
married daughters, grandchildren and great-grandchildren. A brother of 
his, Dr. Garnet Halloran, who predeceased Aubrey, was also very 
prominent in the affairs of the Royal Zoological Society of New South 
Wales. 

— G. P. WHITLEY 



I am grateful to the Mitchell Library, Sydney, for access to the books cited. 

11 



JOYCE ALLAN 

(Plates II & III) 

The death of Miss Joyce K. Allan, after a long illness, on August 
31st, 1966, removed from our Society our first lady Fellow and a con- 
chologist and artist of distinction. In private life she was Mrs. H. W. 
Kirkpatrick (nee Catherine Mabel Joyce Allan) but she signed her 
scientific articles and drawings Joyce K. Allan. She was the daughter of 
the late J. Stuart Allan of Wellington, New Zealand, a well known artist 
who illustrated horses and sporting subjects for some of the authoritative 
Lonsdale Library series, Town & Country Journal, and other publications. 
This love of drawing was inherent in Miss Allan, who was born in 
Sydney and educated at Fort Street Girls' High School. At that time, 
leading Australian artists and writers had established weekend camps 
in the "bush" then existing near Balmoral, Sydney, so perhaps it was 
thereabouts that the Australian Museum's conchologist, Charles Hedley, 
may have met her father; in any case, it was arranged that Miss Allan 
would assist Hedley as a cadet in the Museum, to sort the James C. 
Cox and other collections and to draw shells to illustrate Hedley's papers. 
She was thus the first woman member of the scientific staff, being a 
"temporary assistant" in 1917 and placed on the permanent staff in 
November 1920. Seated before a slate with a Union Jack-like design on 
it, she would put a spoonful of shell-sand on the centre and, using a camel 
hair brush, would flick in radial directions the various orders and 
families of mollusca. Rubbish would be discarded and the residue again 
sorted into genera and species, labelled, boxed and placed in cabinets. 
This long and laborious arrangement gave Joyce Allan an extensive 
knowledge of Australasian and Pacific shells. She illustrated some of the 
Victorian species of Bullinus for Hedley's paper on them in the Records 
of the Australian Museum, 1917, and in 1919, some of her drawings 
illustrated Hedley's Wild Animals of the World, a popular guide to the 
then infant Taronga -Zoological Park. In subsequent years she was to 
draw Drobably more than 9,000 illustrations of mollusca for conchologists 
like Hedlev, Gabriel, Hull and Iredale, to say nothing of her own 
writings. She not only figured many rare and minute shells for th<* 
first time but showed interesting phenomena such as fragmentation of 
limbs and girdles, eegs and other features of molluscan life. Miss Allan 
was equally facile in oils, water colour, or black and white drawing 
(either in line or wash, using lampblack). In addition to shells she 
illustrated mammals, fossils, spiders, insects, Crustacea, sharks, elasmobranch 
esgs and fishes for her colleagues. Her drawings apeared in both editions 
of the Australian Encvclonaedia (1925-26 and 1958), the Australian 
Junior Encyclonaedia. the British Museum's Report on the 1928 Great 
Barrier Reef Expedition, the Australian Museum Magazine, Australian 
Zoologist and our Proceedings, Victorian Naturalist, Journal of the Mala- 
cological Society, her own books and elsewhere. 

When Hedley left the Australian Museum in 1924. Miss Allan was 
in charge of the department of molluscs until Mr. Tom Iredale was 
appointed concholoeist. Miss Allan was elected to membership of the 
Linnean Society of New South Wales in July 1929 and joined the 
Royal Zoological Societv of New South Wales in 1931. She was the first 
woman to be elected a Fellow thereof and was made an Honorarv Member 
of this Society in 1944. In April 1933, Miss Allan took exhibits to Melbourne 
for the Fisheries and Fauna Exhibition in aid of hospitals there. She 
also lectured, collected and studied specimens in and around Melbourne. 
Later in the same year she was organizing secretary of the first combined 
scientific societies' exhibition in Svdney. Tn June 1941, she visited the 
Clarence River, northern New South Wales, to collect and observe 
nudibranchs, in which she specialised. 

12 



During World War II, Miss Allan was seconded to the Department 
of National Emergency Services (1942-44) as assistant to the Superin- 
tendent of Air Raids Precautions. Her lecturing and organizing talents were 
put to use in A.R.P. training (largely by her screening of 16mm. films) 
and in services at Air Force House, Sydney. 

Returning to the Australian Museum, Miss Allan rose to the position 
of Assistant Conchologist and was appointed Conchologist (a title later 
changed to Curator of Molluscs) when Mr. Tom Iredale retired in 1944. 
Her assistant from 1948 was Donald McMichael. It was then not 
obligatory for curators to have a university degree. Miss Allan, ha/ving 
matriculated, had intended to study medicine, but had given up that idea 
for her museum career. She thus did not embark on a university course, 
though she attended a special class in biology under Professor W. J. 
Dakin at the University of Sydney. 

Miss Allan collected specimens in New South Wales, Victoria, 
Queensland, Lord Howe Island and New Zealand. 

She rearranged the shell displays in the public gallery of the 
Australian Museum, wrote newspaper articles and delivered radio broad- 
casts and popular lectures, thereby laying the foundation for some of 
the popularity which shell-collecting enjoys nowadays. She was the fkst 
Patroness of the Malacological Club of Victoria (now the Malacological 
Society of Australia) and was an Honorary Zoologist (later Honorary 
Associate) of the Australian Museum. In 1949, she married Mr. H. W. 
Kirkpatrick. She attended A.N.Z.A.A.S. congresses in Australia and 
New Zealand. In 1953 she travelled to the International Congress of 
Zoologists in Copenhagen and was the only Australian on the International 
Colloquium on Zoological Nomenclature there, and she studied shells 
in the British Museum (Natural History) and continental museums. 

Miss Allan was a keen golfer in the Manly Golf Club and belonged 
as well to the (now Royal) Overseas League, Women Writers' and the 
Royal Art Society of New South Wales. She sometimes exhibited 
paintings at the latter Society's showings. 

Miss Allan retired from the Australian Museum in 1956 on medical 
advice but continued working on shells until prevented by ill health. 

She is commemorated in the names of several shells (AUanassa, 
Coralastele allanae, Rissoina allanae), a fish (Microcanthus joyceae) 
and a hemipterous insect (Scotinophara allanae). 



13 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

I understand that the Malacological Society of Australia proposes 
to publish a bibliography of Miss Allan's writings, with an index to 
her new generic and specific names, so here it may suffice to record 
briefly the publications to which she contributed, either by herself or 
in joint authorships, over thirty years or so. Unless otherwise indicated, 
these were printed in Sydney, and the years are dates of publication. 

BOOKS: 

Australian Shells, Melbourne, 1950; ed. 2, 1959; reprinted 1962. 
Cowry Shells of World Seas, Melbourne, 1956. 

The Sea-horse and its Relatives (By G. P. Whitley and J. K. Allan), 
Melbourne, 1958. 

PAPERS AND ARTICLES IN: 

Art Galleries and Museums Assoc. Bull., 1947. 

Australian Encyclopaedia, 1958. 

Australian Fisheries, 1950. 

Australian Junior Encyclopaedia, Melbourne, 1951; Sydney ed., 1956. 

Australian Museum Annual Reports, various years. 

Australian Museum Leaflets, 1940, 1957, 1960. 

Australian Museum Magazine, 1927, 1930-42, 1944-52 and 1954-56. 

Australian Naturalist, 1947. 

Austr. N.Zeal. Assoc. Adv. Science Repts. (published in Australian 

and New Zealand cities), 1935, 1937, 1939 and 1947. 
Australian Zoologist, 1932-33, 1937, 1940. 
Fisheries Newsletter, 1947, 1948. 
Journ. Malac. Soc. Austr., Melbourne, 1957-58. 
Malacological Club Newsletter, 1956. 
Medical Journal of Australia, 1935. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, 1937. 

Proc. Roy. ZoqL Soc. N.S.Wales, 1951, 1954, 1956, 1958. 
Rec. Austr. Museum, 1932, 1933, 1936, 1940, 1945, 1947. 
Red Tape, 1940. 

Sydney Harbour Trust Officers Journal, 1933. 
Times, London, 1953. 
Victorian Naturalist, Melbourne, 1932-34, 1941 and 1946. 



— G. P. Whitley. 



14 



MELBOURNE WARD 

(Plates III-V) 

Charles Melbourne Ward, F.Z.S., F.R.Z.S., was known to his great 
number of friends simply as "Mel" and all were very shocked by the 
news of his sudden death on his 63rd birthday, October 6th, 1966, at 
Medlow Bath, in the Blackheath region of the Blue Mountains of New 
South Wales. Some touching tributes to him appeared in Blue Mountains 
publications. His passing was almost unnoticed by the Sydney newspapers 
but a Blackheath schoolboy wrote to the editor of the Sun newspaper 1 this 
letter on a page torn from a school exercise book: — 

Last Thursday, a great man died. 

His name was Melbourne Ward, of Medlow Bath. 

For many years, Mr. Ward ran a gallery at Medlow Bath and a 
museum at Katoomba. 

He also found time for charity work, giving lectures and exhibitions. 

For many years he devoted his life to the study of nature. 

Throughout the war years he taught the troops in New Guinea (this 
should have been New South Wales — G.P.W.) to live off the land. 

He was very well known for his study of crabs. 

He also devoted much of his time to the Aborigines of Australia 
and the tribes of New Guinea. 

He owned one of the best collections of relics of early Australia and 
a very large collection of native weapons and implements from every 
part of the world. 

He will always be remembered by the pupils of Blackheath Public 
School for his generosity by visiting the school about every two months, 
giving talks on natives, birds, reptiles, showing films. 

Every Christmas time the school holds a concert and the senior 
classes perform an operetta. 

Mr. Ward was always there, giving lu's time all night, putting on 
make-up and lending stage props. 

Would you please print something about Mr. Ward, who we believe 
was one of Australia's greatest men, and always will be. 

Thank you very much. 

This anonymous schoolboy's letter is as appropriate an epitaph as 
any. The Sun immediately complied with his request and, under the 
fitting title, "Saluting a natural gentleman", printed an account of Mel 
Ward, with a photograph, largely based on a fuller biography from 
People magazine of January 1951. From the zoologist's standpoint, a 
rather more detailed treatment is required, for probably in a century's 
time, people will still want to know something about Mel Ward. However, 
one is only too conscious of the imperfection of this notice, for it seems 
as if Mel had crowded half a dozen lives into his unique career and 
the task of covering all the facets of his varied nature (though attempted 
with the best of will and indeed affection) is difficult to the verge of 
impossibility. 

Early years: 

The younger son of Hugh J. Ward, the famous theatrical entrepreneur, 
and Grace Ward, an accomplished singer, Melbourne Ward was named 
after the capital city of Victoria where he was born on October 6th, 1903. 
He travelled extensively with his parents and one of the earliest photo- 
graphs of Mel shows him as a little boy on Brighton beach, England — 

1 I am grateful to the Editor, Mr. B. J. Tier, for permission to reproduce 
this letter from the Sun (Sydney) of Wednesday, October 19th, 1966. 

15 



holding a crab. He went to school in Australia (particularly the Marist 
Brothers' College at Darlinghurst, Sydney) and in the United States 
(including a private school in New York). In 1917 he was fascinated 
by the displays in the American Museum of Natural History in New 
York — many years later he was himself to contribute specimens towards 
an exhibit therein. As a youth, Mel studied crabs by the seashore near 
his parents' homes in Sydney and Melbourne, watching their behaviour 
for hours and collecting specimens. He tried to puzzle out what they were 
from Professor W. A. Haswell's Catalogue of the Australian stalk — and 
sessile-eyed Crustacea, published in 1882. Although many of the technical 
expressions in this dry monograph were explained in Haswell's Introduction, 
their meanings could not have been absorbed by an unassisted novice. 
So young Mel had to consult dictionaries and encyclopaedias for even 
such "easy" technical terms as dorsal, ventral, retractile, etc. All Haswell's 
Catalogue was morphologically descriptive: there was nothing in it to 
indicate that Macrophthalmus burrowed into mud, Ocypoda scuttled along 
beaches, Ligia ran over rocks, Idotea swam in rock-pools, or that 
Ourozeuktes burrowed into living fishes. Those were the sort of natural 
history aspects in which Mel was interested. As he expressed it, "I 
don't tell the crabs what they are; I let them tell me." 

When in his teens, Mel visited the Gladstone area in Queensland 
and met a local "character", a man known simply as "Warrigal", who 
took him out fishing and from whom he learnt a good deal of natural 
history and angling lore. He corresponded with the Smithsonian Institution 
in Washington and sent crabs to Miss Mary Rathbun, his revered friend 
and colleague there. As one result, an Australian crab was found to be 
new to science and was named Cleistostoma wardi Rathbun in his honour. 

Mel had left school at 16 to go on the stage for eight years. He 
made his debut as a dancer with the popular comedian Gus Bluett in 
The Bing Boys on Broadway in 1919. Mel is still remembered by old 
theatre-goers for his acrobatic and eccentric dancing, in which he was a 
master, although he would have preferred to be a classical ballet dancer; 
he also shone in pantomime roles. As early as the 1920's he retired 
from active stage work and devoted his energies to his hobby, marine 
zoology, though he frequently appeared as an entertainer. Mel played 
many musical instruments, particularly saxophone and clarinet, but was 
also skilful with outlandish native drums and wind instruments. He 
loved not only the classical masters but modern dance and jazz music 
and was specially fond of singing American negro sprituals and folk- 
songs, often being accompanied by his wife, Halley, on the guitar. In 
cabaret or on the dance floor Mel was as much at home as at a private 
recital or rehearsal. 

His travels and scientific activities: 

Melbourne Ward's zeal as a marine collector meant that he was a 
regular and welcome visitor to the scientists at the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, and the Museum's Magazine in 1927 reported that he had just 
returned from several Pacific Islands, California, Mexico, Panama and 
Cuba, bringing with him an interesting collection of lizards, frogs and 
marine invertebrates. In January 1926, Mel had collected in Port Phillip, 
Victoria, and in September of the same year visited Heron Island, 
Queensland. In November 1927, he collected amongst the islets of the 
Bunker Group, Queensland; Hoskyn, Lady Musgrave and Fairfax Islands 
being visited. It may be useful to place on record here other dates and 
localities of Mel Ward's collections, though the list is probably not 
complete. 

Mel had in his early years made large collections in Samoa, Fiji, 
Hawaii, California and Atlantic United States of America. In September 
1928 he visited the Albany Passage, Queensland, including Thursday and 
Murray Islands in Torres Strait. There he joined the natives in their 

16 



songs and dances, learning their music and steps, and even being filmed 
taking part in their celebrations. He loved the aborigines and in later 
years had some staying at his home as guests. In 1928 too he collected 
at Hayman Island and dredged in the Whitsunday Passage, Queensland. 

Mel joined the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales in 
1926, was made a Fellow a decade later and became a Life Member 
in 1947. He joined the Linnean Society of New South Wales in 1930 
and was a member of the Anthropological Society of Australia, the 
Art Galleries and Museums Association, and other societies and organi- 
zations. He was also Honorary Collector for the Queensland Museum, 
Brisbane, and became a Life Member of the Royal Australian Historical 
Society. In July 1929 he was apointed an Honorary Zoologist of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. He was away in the field at the time — 
characteristically, for he was an open air naturalist, and his university 
training consisted merely of a short, special course of biology under 
Professor W. J. Dakin. In 1929, Mel went to the Port Curtis district, 
Queensland, with William Boardman. In his adolescent days, this had 
been his haunt with "Warrigal" but now, a sophisticated scientist, Mel 
was familiar with Grant & McCulloch's work (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales, 
31, 1906, pp. 2-52) concerning the shore crabs of the Gladstone district 
and he contrasted, as they had been the first to do, the mud fauna of 
the mangroved coastline with the coral inhabitants of the Capricorn 
Group offshore. North-West Islet was then his headquarters, a spot he 
was to revisit with Hayter and Embury's parties in December 1929, in 
1930 and 1931, in which year Tom Iredale and I accompanied him 
there as fellow lecturers and naturalists. In February 1930 Mel joined a 
collecting party (including J. Slevin from California and J. R. Kinghorn, 
Sydney) to go to the Jenolan Caves district in New South Wales. 

In 1931 he travelled overseas. In Washington he worked with Dr. 
Mary Rathbun at the Smithsonian Institution and he was received by 
the President of the United States. In January he crossed to London to 
study the type-specimens of early collectors in Australia at the British 
Museum (Natural History) and he became a Fellow of the Zoological 
Society. He was received by His Holiness the Pope in Rome and studied 
in the great museums of Paris, Berlin and elsewhere, including the 
Musee Oceanographique at Monaco and the Naples Aquarium. He also 
visited Egypt. Though not unusual nowadays for subsidised graduates 
travelling by air, such a Grand Tour in the 1930's, by ships and rail, 
was beyond the dreams of most zoologists, if only for financial reasons, 
but Mel made the best uses of his independent means and his time was 
his own, for he had no office or employer. In this memorable year of 
1931, Mel married the young lady who was to be his ideal companion 
thereafter. 

Two Americans, James Shackleford and George Dromgold, came 
to Australia and New Guinea to make movies about 1932 and 1933. 
They needed a naturalist so Mel joined them; he sometimes found 
himself acting as technician as well as naturalist. He became interested 
in the people of New Guinea, where the Papuan children named him 
Ouibada, meaning "long hair." Mel's habit of wearing his hair long 
began in the tropics to protect the back of his neck. He never wore a 
hat if he could avoid doing so and was not fond of sunbaking. While 
with the movie-makers, of course, Mel collected native relics and 
marine specimens. 

In 1933, Mel was responsible for obtaining from Victoria specimens 
for the Australian Museum of the large spider crab, Leptomithrax 
spinulosis (now L. gaimardii) which was at that time in plague numbers. 

Melbourne and Halley Ward in December 1933 established the 
museum and laboratory on Lindeman Island, Queensland, where they 
were to live in idyllic circumstances until September 1935. They combed 

17 



the reefs for specimens at every low tide, even if this involved getting up 
in the middle of the night and wading forth with hurricane lamps. In 
this way, Mel achieved a unique position as an ecologist, the papers and 
notes he wrote then being far in advance of their time. In those days, 
snorkels and flippers and face-masks (to say nothing of aqualungs) 
were still in the future. Mel wore a small pair of pearl-diver's goggles 
and held his breath under water while he levered coral or large rocks 
with a small crowbar or with his hands. Starfishes and corals were dried 
and tinted to their original life-colours by Halley, while Mel (in those 
days before colour-photography with electronic flash) painted a series 
of water-colours of living animals of cowry shells, many of which 
were reproduced in colour in the ninth volume of the Australian Zoologist. 
He and I dredged offshore, hand-hauling the catch, by day and night, 
and he arranged for me to secure a devil ray off Lindeman Island for 
dissection and description. 

Mr. M. W. F. Tweedie of Singapore sent Mel a collection of 
crabs from Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean for study, his results 
being published by the Raffles Museum in 1934. From 1936 onwards, 
Mel received collections from the Mauritius Institute, the basis of the 
reports which were published at Port Louis in 1942. 

Every now and then Mel would visit Sydney for the cooler climate 
and in 1936 he broadcast radio talks and came to live at Double Bay, 
a suburb of Sydney. His brother, Hugh Ward Junior 2 was master of 
a small trawler which yielded many fresh specimens for Mel's cabinets. 
Mel collected other material on car trips along the New South Wales 
coastline to southern Queensland and also purchased specimens from 
correspondents in all parts of Australia. 

In 1938, Mel embarked upon H.M.A.S. "Moresby" as Naturalist, 
sailing from Sydney in May, and he landed at Bathurst Head, Queensland, 
and at Bremer Island and Boucaut Bay in the Northern Territory. Until 
July 1938 he collected at Darwin and its environs, including Melville 
Island. On this expedition he obtained unusual animals by dredging, 
also by trailing rope-tangles along the bottom, in this way securing a 
rare fish which was named after him, Prionobutis (Themistocles) wardi. 

On April 17, 1939, a party of Americans came to Sydney to gather 
material for groups for the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York: Michael Lerner was their leader, W. K. Gregory, H. Raven 
and Miles Conrad were the zoologists. Mel accompanied them to the 
Great Barrier Reef. It gave him great pleasure to contribute towards 
a group-exhibit for the great American Museum of Natural History 
he had haunted when a boy. 

Mel Ward's display of corals and other creatures from the Great 
Barrier Reef, from his private collection, was the central feature of the 
Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales's Australian Marine Life 
Exhibition which was visited by 7,000 persons at the Manly Art Gallery 
in 1939. By that year, he had completed his researches on the Brachyura 
of the second Templeton Crocker-American Museum Expedition to the 
Pacific Ocean for the American Museum Novitates and followed this with 
a report on Philippine Island crabs in 1941. 

A biographical account of Mel Ward was given in Miss Jean 
Devanney's book, Bird of Paradise (1945), in which she mentioned that 
in the Cocos Islands in the South Seas Mel learned that the tropical 
land crab, though generally timid, will attack disabled man. I do not 
know if Mel was actually at the Cocos Islands. He is also said to have 
collected in South America, New Britain and India, but I am not sure 
if this was so; it is difficult to trace now the dates of his various travels. 

2 An account of the career of Hugh. Mel's brother, was published in Fisheries 
Newsletter, 14 (4), April 1955, p. 21. 

18 



Certainly he had been in many strange out-of-the-way places and must 
have had a number of adventures. One kind of crab that Mel collected in 
Cuba lived in quicksand and the only way he could secure it was to 
lie flat on the sand and grab for the little creature. He had to be very 
fast, but through his training for athletic dancing was doubtless able 
to make his body respond easily after he had worked out the movement 
he would take. It was a method perilous for him, but he was determined 
to have that specimen. In Panama Mel had studied crabs, termites, 
scorpions, frogs and other creatures and one night in a Central American 
jungle saw eerie long-haired corpses of men killed in a revolution being 
carried away. Although Mel and his brother had learnt and practised 
jiu-jitsu and Mel had been trained in sword and rapier fencing, he told 
me that he had felt very frightened on that occasion. Mel then collected 
on the coast of Central America and U.S.A. from Panama to San 
Francisco. 

Wartime service : 

When World War II broke out, Mel tried to enlist but was rejected 
on physical grounds, but he offered his services to the Australian Army 
Education Department as honorary entertainer and instructor to the 
camps. From his collection of lantern-slides, Mel selected those relevant 
to jungle survival, native foods and similar topics and he demonstrated 
his specimens of edible animals and plants to the troops at Lowanna 
training camp, in the Dorrigo rain-forest, New South Wales. He taught 
the men tropical hygiene, how to find food in the bush as the aborigines 
did, how to catch small game, to cook snakes, and what to avoid as 
poisonous or harmful. He collected and carefully labelled snakes, fishes 
and other animals for scientific purposes. This pioneering work of 
training soldiers to live off the land is described in Jean Devanney's 
book, Bird of Paradise, already mentioned, and was also referred to in 
the Sydney Morning Herald, November 16th, 1942. 

The collections in the Blue Mountains: 

His father had bequeathed to Mel a magnificent collection of old 
Japanese armour, weapons, and valuable relics from many foreign 
lands as well as souvenirs of stage productions which he had gathered 
during his travels as a theatrical producer, so Mel used these and his 
natural history collections as the nucleus for his Gallery of Natural 
History and Native Art, housed at the Hydro Majestic Hotel at Medlow 
Bath, in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales. During World War 
II Mel's ethnological collection was augmented by his acquiring the St. 
Joseph's College, the Sir James Burns and the Josephi collections. He 
spent a great deal of time reading, studying and arranging his collections 
in the Blue Mountains, seeming for a while to have become less interested 
in the taxonomy of crabs and marine life (not for him the quibbles of 
the systematists!) and more in the history and science of mankind, 
delving deeply into medieval and ancient history, witchcraft, religions, 
mythology and superstitions and their meanings. He stressed the positive 
side of man's achievements and deplored the destructive forces of some 
communities. Aboriginal habits and legends continued to enthral him: 
he had earlier contributed a brilliant series of articles on these to the 
monthly magazine, Outdoors and Fishing. He was also interested in the 
history of the Blue Mountains and was compiling some theatrical 
reminiscences. 

Mel also accumulated a fine collection of Australiana: relics of 
convict days, books, historical documents pictures, models. His superb 
collection of anthropological material from Australia and the Pacific has 
already been mentioned, but this was linked to modern times by series 
of musical instruments and other objects illustrating the development 
and evolution of human ideas in various fields (particularly in music, 
painting, weapons and other artistic and technical achievements). These 
he demonstrated almost daily to the visiting public and overseas tourists. 

19 



His library is immense: Mel had every book he could obtain 
bearing upon the manifold subjects which engrossed him, ranging from 
old books of travel (now collectors' desiderata) to the most modern 
anthologies. Amongst his rare books are John White's own copy of 
his Voyage to new South Wales (first edition, 1790), Angas's New 
Zealanders, and many others. 

He welcomed enquiries and loved to look out a pile of books on 
any question for any genuinely interested visitor. His enthusiasm and 
encouragement helped a number of young naturalists to make good use of 
their time. His books, photographs, drawings and specimens were 
meticulously listed, labelled or catalogued by him so that his whole 
collection at Medlow Bath and at its branch, the Pyala Museum at Echo 
Point, Katoomba, is unique and priceless. A coloured illustration of 
Mel Ward in his Medlow Bath Gallery appeared on the cover of the 
Sydney edition of the Reader's Digest for June, 1957. 

Lectures : 

Mel frequently addressed the Rotary Club in the Blue Mountains 
and regularly visited Blackheath Public School, lecturing, displaying 
exhibits and helping to produce its plays, as the schoolboy's letter so 
eloquently testified. He frequently lectured at the Australian Museum. 
His annual talk to the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 
was simply entitled "Something of interest" and we would not know 
the topic until he started speaking: it might be an account of the journey 
he and his wife took across America with a lively account of the Hopi 
Indians, or he would call to mind his field days on Long Reef, near 
Sydney, or in Queensland, or show series of his beloved crabs and 
shells. Whatever the topic, "Something of interest" was always something 
to remember. One always learnt something not known before. 

Mel's series of radio talks of thirty years ago were revealing, but 
he was quick to seize upon the new medium of television for more 
talks and demonstrations. Notwithstanding his professional experience on 
the stage, he was amenable to advice on technique from much younger 
producers. His programmes were a delight: not only would costumes 
or specimens be brought forth to illustrate each feature but Mel might 
break into a song or dance or play an astonishing variety of exotic 
musical instruments. Or he might introduce some friend to share the 
limelight: there would be no stiff handshakes or formality, but the two 
would address one another by their nicknames and ad lib with an ease 
and humour still too rare on television. In the Blue Mountains particularly 
Mel was revered as an educator and one who did much to nourish 
culture in the region. 

His early training as an eccentric dancer had given Mel a muscular, 
stocky frame; this was toped by a mass of curly dark hair which he later 
wore to shoulder length. With age, the snowy whiteness of his hair was 
matched by his beard. When we walked the streets of Sydney we would 
be amused to hear children whisper to their mothers, "there goes Father 
Christmas." And at the festive season, suitably attired, what a marvellous 
Santa Claus he was, with his great actor's voice muted for the occasion, 
and his blue eyes twinkling as he handed out presents to children, the 
picture of benevolence. 

It may well be left to others to write about other aspects of this 
great but unassuming human being. He was the last to look for honours, 
decorations, awards (much as he deserved them) but several colleagues 
paid him the zoologist's compliment of naming newly discovered animals 
after him. I may mention the following, but there will doubtless be an 
increasing number of others: first the crab, Cleistostoma wardi Rathbun, 
1926; then a suite of Iredale's mollusca, Nivigena melwardi (the beautiful 
white variety of a cowry), Sepiella melwardi, Pharella wardi, Quaesithyria 
wardi, and the name wardiana bestowed upon five species or subspecies of 

20 



other mollusca. Joyce Allan named a nudibranch Asteronotus wardianus, 
Professor T. T. Flynn a pycnogonid Ascorhynchus melwardi, and Livingstone 
a starfish Pseudogoniodiscaster wardi. My tribute has been proffered in 
several names of fishes: Parasyngnathus wardi, a pipefish, Austrolethops 
wardi, a blind goby, and small reef fishes in the genera Pomacentrus and 
Themistocles. A genus of snakes was named Melwardia by Eric Worrell 
in 1960. 



Acknowledgments: 

For help in the preparation of this memorial notice, I have to thank 
Mrs. Halley Ward, Dr. J. C. Yaldwyn (Australian Museum), Dr. C. 
Michel (Acting Director of the Mauritius Institute) and Mr. B. J. Tier 
(Editor of the Sun, Sydney). Grateful acknowledgments are also made 
to the library staffs of the Australian Museum and the Mitchell Library, 
Sydney, for their resources and assistance. 



The photograph of Mel on plate V is by Mr. E. Baker; on plate IV 
by the late Professor W. J. Dakin, and a snapshot of mine is on plate III. 



21 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MELBOURNE WARD 

Publications are listed in chronological sequence. Unless otherwise 
stated, all were printed in Sydney. Joint authors are mentioned after 
titles of papers. 

1. The habits of our common shore crabs. 

Austr. Mus. Mag., 3 (7), July-Sept. 1928, pp. 242-247, 5 figs. 

2. The Crustacea of the Capricorn and Bunker Groups, Queensland. 

Austr. Zoo}., 5 (3), Aug. 17, 1928, pp. 241-246, pis. 27-29 & text- 
fig. 1. 

3. Common shore crabs of Port Phillip. 

Vict. Nat., (Melbourne) 46 (4), August 1929, pp. 75-83, figs. 1-6. 

4. Carcinological notes. No. I. (By F. A. McNeill & M. Ward). 

Rec. Austr. Mus., 17 (9), June 27, 1930, pp. 357-383, pis. 59-61 

6 text-fig. 1. 

5. The true crabs of the Capricorn Group, Queensland. (Class Crustacea, 

Order Decapoda Brachyura). Part I. Xanthidae. 
Austr. ZooL, 7 (3), Sept. 15, 1932, pp. 237-255. 

6. New genera and species of marine Decapoda Brachyura. From 

the coasts of New South Wales and Queensland. 

Austr. ZooL, 7 (5), Aug. 22, 1933, pp. 377-394, pis. 21-23. 

7. Notes on a collection of crabs from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. 

Bull. Raffles Mus., Singapore, 9, Dec. 1934, pp. 1-28, pis. 1-3. 

8. Crustacea Brachyura from the coasts of Queensland. 

Mem. Qld. Mus., (Brisbane), 11 (1), April 17, 1936, pp. 1-13, 
pis. 1-3. 

9. The crab in medicine, magic and myth. 

Austr. Mus. Mag., 6 (6), April-June 1937, pp. 211-216, 7 figs. 

10. Notes on a collecting trip in northern New South Wales. 

Proc. Roy. ZooL Soc. N.S.Wales, 1936-37 (August 1937), pp. 32-39; 
reprints paged 3-10 (Includes Southport, Queensland). 

11. Notes on the terrestrial fauna of Lindeman Island, Whitsunday Passage. 

N. Qld. Nat. (Cairns), 7 (57), March 1, 1939, pp. 3-4 et ibid., 

7 (58), June 1, 1939, p. 1. 

12. The Brachyura of the second Templeton Crocker-American Museum 

expedition to the Pacific Ocean. 

Amer. Mus. Novit. (New York), 1049, Nov. 22, 1939, pp. 1-15, 
figs. 1-18. 

13. General Zoology Section. Annual Report, 1939-40 (By M. Ward 

& I. M. Thomas). 

Proc. Roy. ZooL Soc. N.S.Wales, 1939-40 (August 19, 1940), 
pp. 26-27. 

14. New Brachyura from the Gulf of Davao, Mindanao, Philippine 

Islands. 

Amer. Mus. Novit. (New York), 1104, May 12, 1941, pp. 1-15, 
figs. 1-30. 

15. Marine Zoological Section. Annual Report. (By Harry B. Lee & 

M. Ward). 

Proc. Roy. ZooL Soc. N.S.Wales, 1940-41 (August 11, 1941), 
pp. 16-17. 

16. A new genus and eight new species of Brachyura from Mauritius and 

the Chagos Archipelago. 

Mauritius Inst. Bull. (Port Louis), 2 (2), August 15, 1942, 
pp. 39-48, pis. 2-4. 

17. Notes on the Crustacea of the Desjardins Museum, Mauritius Institute 

with descriptions of new genera and species. 

Mauritius Inst. Bull. (Port Louis), 2 (2), August 15, 1942, pp. 
49-113, pis. 5-6. 

22 



18. Primitive man and his larder. 

Austr. Mus. Mag., 8 (2), Nov. 20, 1942, pp. 52-56, 5 figs. 

19. (Book review) : "Mostly Australian", by Charles Fenner. 

Austr. Mus. Mag., 8 (8), June- Aug. 1944, p. 266. 

20. A new crustacean. 

Mem. Qld. Mus. (Brisbane), 12 (3), Aug. 6, 1945, pp. 134-135, 
pi. 13. (Ctenocheles collini, sp. nov.) 

21. Primitive fishing. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 1 (1), March 1948, pp. 36-37 & 59, 3 figs. 

22. Tree water. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 1 (2), April 1948, p. 125, fig. 

23. Star gazing. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 1 (3), May 1948, pp. 218-219, fig. 

24. Moon magic. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 1 (5), July 1948, pp. 364-365, fig. 

25. Fabulous monsters of the bush. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 2 (1), Sept. 1948, pp. 30-31, 4 figs. 

26. Legends of the Mountains. 

(A booklet of aboriginal legends published in the Blue Mountains 
between 1948 and 1955 and sold mostly at the Gallery at 
Medlow Bath). 

27. Waratah legends. 

(A booklet published in the Blue Mountains between 1948 and 
1955 and sold mostly at the Gallery at Medlow Bath). 
I have not been able to find copies of nos. 26 & 27 which were 
"pocket-sized" booklets, not illustrated, printed by J. Bennett & Sons, 
Katoomba. 

28. Trees have many souls. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 2 (3), Nov. 1948, pp. 177-178, fig. 

29. Myth creations of the Australian aboriginals. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 2 (5), Jan. 1949, pp. 311-312, fig. 

30. Turtles in fact and fiction. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 3 (2), April 1949, pp. 102-103, 6 figs. 

31. Dugong, the hardy mariners of yore. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 3 (4), June 1949, pp. 250-251, 2 figs. 

32. Legends of the mountains. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 4 (2), Oct. 1949, pp. 114-115 & 123, 5 figs. 

33. Boolmotha — legends of death. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 5 (2), April 1950, pp. 105-106, 2 figs. 

34. The spirits of flame. 

Outdoors & Fishing, 6 (6), April 1951, pp. 470-471, 2 figs. 
(Aboriginal fire legends). 

35. Folklore of the coconut. 

Austr. Mus. Mag., 10 (10), June 1952, pp. 319-321. 

36. Cats. 

Festschrift 75. Geburtstage Tom Iredale (Sydney: roneo'd for 
private publication), 1955, pp. 1-6. 

37. Legends of the sun. 

Australian Outdoors (formerly Outdoors &. Fishing), 13 (9), July 
1955, pp. 34-35, 69 & 81, fig. 

38. Notes on marine ecology of Lindeman Island, Queensland, with 

special reference to the Brachyuran crabs. 

Austr. Zool., 13 (2), August 10, 1965, pp. 127-134. 

39. Life on a sand flat. 

Proc. Roy. Zool. Soc. N.S.Wales, 1965-66 (1967), pp. 59-65. 



23 



NAMES PROPOSED BY MELBOURNE WARD FOR NEW GENERA, 
SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CRUSTACEA 

The first number after each name refers to a paper in the above 
bibliography; the second number (after the colon) to the page on 
which the new name first appeared. 

A eneacancer 6: 381 

albanyensis, Prismatopus 6: 391 

albus, Etisodes 7: 5 & 16 

alplwnsei, Thalamitoides 12: 3 

antelmei, Actumnus 16: 43 

antelmei, Geograpsus 17: 55 & 105 

armatus, Etisodes 17: 54 & 90 

australiensis, Lyreidus 6: 377 

australiensis, Neoxanthias 17: 91 

australiensis, Prolybia 6: 386 

australis, Banareiopsis 8: 7 

australis, Etisodes 8: 5 

australis, Leptodius 8: 6 

Banareiopsis 8 : 7 

brandonensis, Chlorodopsis areolatus 17: 53 & 97 

brevifrons, Huenia 14: 1 & 3 

brevimana, Manella 6: 387 

Calvactaea 6: 384 

capricornensis, Actaea 6: 384 

collini, Ctenocheles 20: 134 

crockeri, Atergatopsis 12: 5 

Cryptolutea 8: 1 

Cycloachelous 17: 50, 53 & 79 

cyrenae, Cymopolia 16: 46 

cyrenae, Myra 17: 53 & 67 

cyrenae, Quadrella 16: 45 

danae, Lydia >. 12: 7 

danae, Trapezia 12: 13 

davaoensis, Actumnus 14:1 & 13 



davaoensis, Chlorodiella 14: 1 & 10 

davaoensis, Leptodius 14: J & 10 

davaoensis, Trapezia 14: 1 & 14 

demani, Percnon 7: 5 & 24 

dentata, Ilyoplax 6: 391 

folia tus, Sargassocarcinus 8: 8 

garciaensis, Eriphia scrabicula 17: 54 & 99 

garciaensis, Ozius guttatus 17: 54 & 94 

garciaensis, Pisisoma 17: 54 & 64 

globulus, Paraetisus 6: 383 

graciHiman'is, Rhinolambrus 1 16: 40 

granulimanus, Heteropilumnus 6: 385 

haematostictus, Paraxanthias 7: 5 & 20 

haswelli, Lissomorpha 6: 378 

hawaiiensis, Eriphia sebana 12: 11 

juxtaoratoria, Squilla 17: 53 & 55 

Juxtaxanthias .... 17:54 & 91 ("Juxta" as well as Juxtaxanthias in Neave, 
1950, Nomencl. Anim., p. 128). 

leuteanus, Jonas 6: 379 

lindemanensis, Cryptolutea 8: 1 

Lissomorpha 6 : 378 

Macromedaeus 17: 54 & 92 

macrospinosus, Hyastenus 7: 5 & 6 

mauriciensis, Lupocyclus 16: 41 

mauritianus, Portunus 17: 53 & 79 

24 



mauritiensis, Ozius rugulosus 17: 53 & 94 

mcneilli, Cleistostoma 6: 390 

miersi, Chlorodopsis 8: 4 

miersi, Trapezia 14: 1 & 15 

minimus, Rhinolambrus 17: 53 & 76 

molleri, Aeneacancer 6: 381 

morini, ParapJatypodia 16: 42 

natalensis, Chlorodopsis 7: 5 & 21 

natalensis, Pachygrapsus 7: 5 & 25 

natalensis, Pseudoliomera 7: 5 & 11 

Neoxanthias 5 : 249 

noelensis, Medaeus 7: 5 & 17 

noelensis, Tweedieia 7: 5 & 22 

oeschi, Heteronucia 14: 1 & 3 

oeschi, Sphaerozius 14: 1 & 11 

padadina, Chary bdis 14: 1 & 5 

Paraetisus 6: 383 

Paraplaty podia 16: 42 

Parapyxidognathus 14: 1 & 15 

paraspeciosa, Actaea 14: 1 & 9 

parvispinosus, Paramithrax 6: 392 

parvus, Pseudocryptocoeloma 8: 3 

Philippine nsis, Charybdis 14: 1 & 5 

philippinensis, Chlorodopis 14: 1 & 11 

philippinensis, Actaea rufopunctata 14: 9 

pJiilippinensis, Actaea subpunctata 14: 1 

philippinensis, Leptodius sanguineus 14: 1 & 10 

philippinensis, Ruppeiioides 14: 1 & 12 

pilumnoides, Eriphia 14: 1 & 13 

plana, Harrovia 8: 10 

plana, Trapezia 14: 1 & 14 

planus, Cryptocnemus 6: 377 

planus, Leptodius 7: 5 & 14 

Prismatopus 6: 391 

Proechinoecus 7: 5 & 7 

Prolybia 6: 386 

Pronotonyx 8 : 2 

proporcellana, Kraussia 7: 5 & ]0 

Pseudocryptocoeloma 8 : 3 

Pseudolitochira 17: 52, 55 & 100 

punctatus, Macromedaeus 17: 54 & 92 

Rathbunaria 6: 386 

rathbuni, Lophozozymus 17: 85 

robusta, Cymopolia 16: 46 

salomonensis, Pilumnopeus 17: 54 & 96 

samoensis, Monomia 12: 4 

samoensis, Xanthias punctatus 12:6 

Sargassocarcinus 8 : 8 

savaiiensis, Cymo melanodactylus 12: 11 

scuhtimana, Axiopsis 17: 54 & 62 

sculptissima, Rathbunaria 6: 387 

sculp tus, Proechinoecus 7: 5 & 7 

subpunctata philivpinensis, Actaea 14: 1 

terrae-reginae, Calappa 8: 11 

tumida, Calvactaea 6: 384 

tweediei, Atergatis 7: 5 & 13 

Tweedieia 7: 5 & 22 

typica, Viaderiana 17: 53 & 102 

ursus, Platylambrus 12: 2 

vannamei. Charybdis 14: 1 & 4 

viaderi, Ebaliopsis 17: 53 & 68 

25 



viaderi, Geograpsus 17: 55 & 106 

viaderi, Notosceles 16: 47 

Viaderiana 17: 53 & 101 

whiteleggei, Gonioneptunus 6: 380 

118 new names in all. 

G. P. WHITLEY. 



26 



REPORTS OF SECTIONS AND COMMITTEES 

Ornithological Section Annual Report, 1965-66 

Monthly meetings were maintained in conjunction with the N.S.W. 
Branch of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union. The average 
monthly attendance was 60. At the respective monthly meetings, members 
were entertained as follows: 

July, 1965 — Birds of Narran Lake — an outline of a trip to the area by 

Mr. H. Battam. 
August, 1965 — Man's Place in Wildlife Conservation — a paper presented 

by Mr. Allan Fox, Education Officer, Fauna Protection Panel. 
September, 1965 — Films from N.S.W. Film Council Bird Sanctuary 

and Penguins of Macquarie Island. 
October, 1965 — New Zealand Birds — Dr. J. C. Yaldwyn, Australian 

Museum. 
November, 1965 — Members' Night. 
December, 1965 — Members' Night. 

January, 1966 — Birds in Colour — Colour Slides — Mr. Ellis McNamara. 
February, 1966 — Films from N.S.W. Film Council — Bird Migration, The 

Living Bird, The Vanishing Prairie. 
March, 1966 — Film of Trip to United States and U.S. Birds— Mr. N. 

Chaffer. 
April, 1966 — Members' Night. 
May, 1966 — Effect of Seven Inches of Rain on Tanami Desert — Mr. 

H. J. de S. Disney. 
June, 1966— Birds of Wolli Creek— -Mr. L. C. Haines. 

The following Field Outings were held: 
A Visit to the Upper Hawkesbury Lagoons — A Lotus bird and 2 little 

Bitterns were observed at Long Neck, and 5 Glossy Ibis at Pitt 

Town. 
A Visit to Long Reef and Dee Why area — Sooty Oyster catchers and 

Tawny Grassbirds were observed. 
Field Outing to Homebush Bay — Observations included Wood Sandpiper, 

Marsh Sandpiper, Chestnut Teal, Musk Duck, Pink-eared Duck, 

Maned Goose and Nankeen Night Heron. 
Observations made by members during the past 12 months included 
the following: 

Three Gull-billed Terns at Wilberforce in October, 1965; Ground 

Parrot, Glossy Black Cockatoo, Blue Winged Shoveller at Nadgee 

Faunal Reserve in September, 1965; Several Fairy Terns at Boat 

Harbour on 8/8/65; Terek Sandpiper, 5 Avocets, 4 Red Kneed 

Dotterels on Ash Island, near Newcastle in July, 1965; 6 Red 

Kneed Dotterels and 4 Pink-eared Ducks at Bushell's Lagoon 

in July, 1965; Several Regent Honeyeaters at St. Ives from April 

to June, 1966. 

— H. BATTAM, Hon. Secretary. 



Ornithological Section Field Days 

By L. Courtney-Haines 

(Plate VI) 

At the 1965 September meeting of the Ornithological Section, I put 
forward the suggestion that bird-watching field-days to places of ornitho- 
logical interest be held. The suggestion was received with wild enthusiasm, 
and four field-days were immediately planned. 

27 



The first was held on October 10th, 1965, and the areas visited were 
the Richmond and Windsor lagoons. Twenty-six members attended and 
a total of 79 species of birds were recorded. 

Those regarded as the best for the day, were — Snake-necked Darter; 
Marsh Tern; Lotus Bird; Sharp-tailed Sandpiper; White-headed Stilt, nest 
containing 4 fresh eggs; Glossy Ibis; Plumed Egret; Little Bittern; 
Swamp Harrier; Little Falcon; Red-backed Parrot; White-browed Wood- 
Swallow and Dusky Wood-Swallow. 

Our second field-day to Dee Why Lagoon and Long Reef was on 
November 7th, 1965. There were 32 observers present, including Mr. and 
Mrs. H. B. Menzer of Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.A. The morning was 
spent at the lagoon where a nest of the Golden-headed Fantail Warbler 
containing a clutch of 4 fresh eggs was examined and photographed. 

Because of a brisk breeze blowing in from the sea, birds kept well 
under cover, nevertheless we were able to show our American friends 
a number of interesting species. These included White-browed Scrub-Wren; 
Little Grassbird; Blue Wren; Grey-backed Silver-eye and White-cheeked 
Honeyeater. There was however, no sign of the Tawny Grassbird, a 
very rare species for Sydney, which had been reported to have been 
observed in the Dee Why Lagoon area. (The following weekend 13th 
November, I again visited the lagoon in the hope of putting up a Tawny 
Grassbird, but instead recorded for the first time for Dee Why Lagoon, a 
family troup of Variegated Wrens). 

After lunch the party of observers moved north to Long Reef, where 
excellent views were obtained of White-fronted Tern; Crested Tern; 
Sooty Oystercatcher; Golden Plover; Turnstone; Grey-tailed Tattler and 
the curious Reef Heron. 

The next field-day was to Homebush Bay on March 12th, 1966. 
Again there was an enthusiastic gathering of bird-watchers and a really 
first-class day was enjoyed by all. A total of 46 species was recorded, 
the best of these being Double-banded Dotterel; Wood Sandpiper; Marsh 
Sandpiper; Japanese , Snipe; White-headed Stilt; Wood Duck; Chestnut 
Teal; Pink-eared Duck; Musk Duck; White-fronted Chat; Little Thornbill; 
Little Grassbird; Golden-headed Fantail Warbler; Mistletoe bird; Eastern 
Spinebill; Pipit, and Chestnut-breasted Finch. 

The fourth and final field-day for the Society's year, was held on 
March 26th, 1966, and the locality chosen, the mud-flats of the old 
estuary of Cook's River, Botany Bay. Gale force winds and driving rain 
somewhat hampered the activities of the 30 or so bird-watchers who 
made an appearance, and only 16 species of birds were logged. These 
included Golden Plover; Double-banded Dotterel; Red-capped Dotterel; 
Black-tailed Godwit; Bar-tailed Godwit; Knot; Curlew Sandpiper and 
Red-necked Stint. 

The above brief report shows that field-days are very popular with 
bird-section members and there is little doubt that they will once again 
become a regular part of the Ornithological Section's programme. 

I should like to thank all those who assisted or participated in any 
way. 

Conchological Section Annual Report, 1965-66 

Another successful year has ended for the Conchology Section. We 
have lost some of our older members, but have gained a number of new 
members, who are very interested and anxious to build up their collections 
of shells. 

To start the year, Mel Ward gave one of his interesting talks. He 
told of collecting at Long Reef during the years from 1925 to 1937, 

28 



Dr. F. H. Talbot's talk "Noises of the Deep" was most unusual. 
He had sound recordings taken of deep sea fishes off the East Coast of 
Africa. 

The Kodachromes and talk by Dr. D. McMichael made us all 
envious. We all would have liked to have been with him on that expedition 
to the Barrier Reef. 

We have all learnt a lot from the talk by Mr. Gommersall on 
"Classification of Shells." 

Dr. J. C. Yaldwyn gave a "Talk on Corals." He also had Kodachromes 
of live corals. It was most educational and interesting, especially to those 
of us who have seen live corals. 

Our Display Night was much appreciated. There were many beautiful 
shells displayed by the members. Mr. Moore displayed a number of 
rare Volutes. It is nice to see these rare shells even if we cannot own 
them. 

As usual our Christmas Party was a great success. It was nice to 
see old members, juniors and members of Council attending. Kodachromes 
were shown after supper and everyone had an enjoyable evening. Many 
thanks to the ladies responsible for the nice supper. 

The Study Nights were taken up with Mitras from Fiji by Mr. 
Laseron, and Australian cones by Miss Thornley. Many Kodachromes of 
shells and collecting spots have been shown by members. 

Four members spent two days at Taronga Park Aquarium cleaning 
and rearranging the shells that are on display there. We are pleased "to 
say that the Section's shells and cabinets are now out of storage. They 
are in the office at Bull's Chambers, where we hope to work on them 
in the near future. 

Field Days were well attended. Not much was collected by old 
members as they already have most of the local specimens. However 
the new members benefited. Places visited were Shellharbour, Gibbon, 
Sandown Point, Shark Island, Long Reef and Reef Beach. The Annual 
Field Day to Shark Island was held in February this year. A most 
enjoyable day was had by all. 

The attendance at the meetings has been good. There has been an 
average of 27 persons at each meeting. We hope this number will 
increase in the coming year. 

Many thanks go to the ladies who prepare the suppers. That "cuppa" 
is very welcome after the meeting. 

In conclusion I would like to thank the chairman and all members 
for their patience and co-operation during the past year. They have 
all helped to make my duties as Secretary a pleasant one. May the 
Section have every success in the coming years. 

(Mrs.) O. WILLS, Hon. Secretary. 

Entomological Section Annual Report, 1965-66 

An encouraging year on the whole, with keen interest shown and 
an average monthly attendance of twenty (20) members and visitors. 

Our lecturers have been most informative and interesting, senior 
members too, gave us th^ benefit of their knowledge. Mr. E. O. Edwards 
spoke on the "Methods of Eating of Various Larvae", Mr. L. C. Haines 
on "Entomology Past and Present" and "Entomology of Wolli Creek". 
Mr. R. Gilroy talked about "The Painted Lady" (Vanessa cardui) butterflies 
having white spots. We also had two interesting and popular lectures on 
"Spiders". One by Mr. G. Holloway and the other by Mrs. V. Gregg, who 

29 



also showed us slides of the Funnel Web Spiders. A "Kodachrome Night" 
was thoroughly enjoyed, also Mr. R. Broughtwood's lecture on "Ento- 
mology & Photography." To all who helped make the meetings a success, 
we offer our sincere thanks and appreciation. 

One "Field Day" was held, poorly attended, but greatly enjoyed, 
and rewarded by a good variety of captures. More such excursions will 
be arranged for 1967. 

Officers elected for 1966-1967 were — Chairman, Mr. R. Gilroy; Vice 
Chairman, Mr. C. Goodrick, who has since resigned and Miss M. Lang 
elected; Secretary, Mrs. O. Thacker; Assistant Secretary, Mr. E. O. Edwards; 
Curator of Insect Collection, Mr. R. Gilroy; Greeter, Mr. S. Kerr. 

— (Mrs.) O. THACKER, Hon. Secretary. 



Junior Group Annual Report, 1965-66 

A new Section, known as the Junior Group was started in July 
1965. At the Inaugural Meeting, 14 juniors and beginners attended. Since 
that date 8 meetings have been held with an average attendance of 12. 

Some of the subjects were "Bird Identification" — P. E. Roberts; 
"Marine Collecting"— Dr. J. C. Yaldwyn; "Beetles"— B. W. Salkilld; 
"National Parks and Conservation" — L. Willan; "Funnel-web and Other 
Spiders" — Mrs. V. Gregg. Would the lecturers and helpers please accept 
our thanks. 

Although most of the meetings were quite well attended, I feel that 
night meetings do not fully cover all the needs of a group of this nature. 
Too many members live long distances from the city, making an added 
worry for parents when combined with the uncertainty of public transport 
timetables and unsavoury travelling conditions. 

It will be for the Group itself to decide the time and format most 
convenient for them in the future. 

We hope that in 1967, more suitable arrangements can be made so 
that meetings do not interfere too much with other studies. 

The Conchological Section kindly extended an invitation for the 
Group to attend their social evening in December. 

— L. HARFORD, Chairman. 



First Report of Library Committee 

(Received by Council and recommendations accepted, 13th September, 1966) 

1. Establishment and Terms of Reference 

The Council of the Society at its meeting of 9th August, 1966 

resolved as follows: — 

"That a Library Committee shall be set up to examine the present 
state of the Society's library and to recommend to the Council 
what the future of the library should be. The Committee shall 
concern itself with all aspects of the library that it thinks fit, 
including whether or not the Society should continue to maintain 
a library. The Committee shall have power to co-opt additional 
members." 

Members elected to the Committee were Mrs. B. Purse, Mrs. O. 
Wills, Mrs. L. Harford (convenor), Mr. C. Smithers, Mr. R. Strahan. 

30 



The Committee met at the Australian Museum at 5.30 p.m. on 24th 
August, 1966, members present being Mrs. Harford, Mrs. Purse, Mr. 
Smithers, and Mr. Strahan. An apology for inability to attend was 
received from Mrs. Wills. Mr. Strahan was elected chairman of the 
Committee. 

The substance of the Committee's finding and its unanimous recom- 
mendations are set out below. 

2. Brief History of the Library 

In the absence of a catalogue or other readily available records, 
it is difficult to give a definitive history but it appears that at its inception 
the Society took over the nucleus of a library from the N.S.W. 
Acclimatisation Society. This appears to have grown by purchases and 
donations and, from 1916 to 1942, the Society's library was housed in a 
pleasant room in the entrance building of Taronga Park. In 1942 the 
library was transferred to the Society's premises in Martin Place but 
when this accommodation became reduced in 1958 the books and 
journals were moved back to Taronga Park where they are now housed 
partly in a "library" room in the administrative block and partly in a 
storeroom in the entrance block. 

3. Present State of the Library 

Books are housed in three glass-fronted cases in the "library" room. 
A cursory examination gives the impression that, apart from some works 
on birds, notably 13 volumes of Mathews' "Birds of Australia", most of 
the books are too old to serve as reliable references but not yet old 
enough to be of antiquarian value. 

It is difficult to estimate the extent of the periodicals collection. 
A few runs of journals are arranged in sequence in cases in the "library" 
room but most are stacked in bundles on the floor, each bundle consisting 
of periodicals received in the same year. Periodicals in the storeroom 
are in a disordered pile of bundles and cartons, mixed with bundles of 
the Society's publications. 

The Society has no list of publications regularly received in exchange 
for the approximately 180 copies of its publications distributed to 
Australian and overseas societies and institutions. Exchange presumably 
began in 1914 and was interrupted during the First World War for 
there appear to be no runs extending earlier than 1919. It may, be 
assumed that the accessions for 1965 (which have not yet been deposited 
at Taronga Park) will provide a guide to past accessions and the 
Committee has requested the Secretary to compile a list of these. [It was 
later confirmed by the Secretary that 158 different titles were received 
during 1965]. 

However, it cannot be assumed that all journals received in 1965 will 
be represented by runs extending back to 1919 for it is with deep 
regret, even shame, that the Committee draws the attention of the Council 
to the destruction of many runs of "foreign language" journals, donated 
to the nation for pulping in a fantastically misguided gesture of 
patriotism during the Second World War. The extent of the losses occasioned 
by this irresponsible act will not be known until our present holdings 
are catalogued. 

The present chaotic state of the periodicals (referred to by one 
senior member of the Taronga Park staff as "a pile of old magazines") 
leads to the fear that some may well have been destroyed from time 
to time in sheer ignorance of their value. Certainly some back issues 
of the Society's publications (stored together with the periodicals) are 
known to have been used for kindling a furnace at Taronga Park. 

31 



Finally it must be mentioned that there exists no safeguard beyond 
personal trust to restrain members having access to the collections from 
removing books or journals from the "library" room. Sad experience of 
librarians and curators in musems and other learned institutions demon- 
strates that such trust is often misplaced. 

4. Use of the Library 

Periodicals received by the Society are held for a year in the 
Society's room in Manin Place before being bundled and deposited at 
Taronga Park. During this period they are available for members to read 
or to borrow for periods of up to three months. 

Members may obtain access to books by prior arrangement with 
the Secretary of the Society who notifies the Secretary of Taronga Park, 
who then opens the "library" room to the reader on the nominated occasion. 

Access to back numbers of periodicals, except for some bound 
volumes of "Emu" and the few runs of other journals that are in 
sequence on shelves, is clearly impracticable. 

Apart from one popular magazine and several semi-popular Australian 
journals, little interest has been shown in current periodicals and only 
a few members have sought access to the books. The "library" room is 
opened on only a few occasions each year. 

In the view of the Committee, the very small use of our holdings is 
partly due to their inconvenient location but perhaps more to the fact 
that there is little of interest to the non-professional zoologists who 
comprise the great majority of the Society's membership. 

5. Considerations and Recommendations 

The Committee regards the following propositions as generally 
accepted: ' 

(a) That although little use may be made of the Society's books and 
periodicals at present, the Society has a responsibility to maintain 
its holdings in the best possible condition, looking towards a future 
when these can be properly housed -and curated and more extensively 
consulted. 

(b) That although the library exists primarily for the benefit of members 
of the Society, it should be accessible to all bona-fide investigators 
(as is the case with libraries of other learned societies and 
scientific institutions in Australia). 

(c) That, under existing circumstances, the Society is unable satisfactorily 
to house, administer, or use its library. 

Accepting these propositions, the Committee is of the opinion 
that, until circumstances improve markedly, the bulk of our books and 
periodicals should be put in the care of an established library of a broad 
zoological nature. 

Discussions between the chairman of the Committee and the Librarian 
of the Biological and Medical Library of the University of New South 
Wales, Kensington, have led to an informal understanding that the 
University would accept our holdings on indefinite loan upon the 
following conditions: 

(i) The Society's books would be marked as the Society's property 

and shelved together with the University's holdings, according to 

subject. 

(ii) The Society's periodicals would be bound and marked as the 

Society's property and shelved with the University's holding, according 

to subject. 

(iii) Books and periodicals, as accessed, would be catalogued under 

title and subject in the University's card catalogue and a duplicate 

32 



catalogue of the Society's possessions would be prepared for the 

Society. 

(iv) Members of the Society would have access to the library during 

its normal hours of operation — 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. on weekdays; 

9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Saturdays. 

(v) Members would be able to borrow books from the Society's 

holdings and, if engaged in study or research, from the University's 

holdings. 

(vi) Books of considerable value (e.g. Mathews' "Birds") would be 

shelved separately with the University's rare books and put under 

such restrictions as required by the Society. 

(vii) Periodicals would be available for use in the library but would 

not be lent. However, photocopies of journal material could be 

obtained through the library's copying service. 

The Committee believes that such an arrangement would be advantage- 
ous to the Society and to the University. The Society would benefit by 
having its collections safely and properly housed, catalogued, and admhr- 
stered by trained librarians at no cost. Members would have ready access 
to the library, day and evening, week and weekend, and would be able 
to take advantage of an up-to-date collection of zoological books and 
periodicals many hundreds of times greater than the Society's present 
holdings. 

The University would benefit by obtaining access to a number of 
older books and periodicals which are at present absent from its 
collections. 

Notwithstanding these advantages, the Committee believes that 
current popular and semi-popular periodicals (particularly of Australian 
origin) should be kept close to the meeting room. 

The Committee therefore recommends to Council: 

1. THAT, subject to agreement on the conditions broadly outlined in 
this Report, the book and periodical holdings of the Society be offered 
on indefinite loan to the Biological and Medical Library of the University 
of New South Wales. 

2. THAT popular magazines and all Australian periodicals be retained 
for one year after receipt in the Society's rooms before being passed to the 
University library. 

On behalf of the Library Committee, 
Ronald Strahan, Chairman. 
25th August, 1966. 



33 



REPORT ON NATIONAL TRUST BUSH FIRE SEMINAR AT 
LEURA, NEW SOUTH WALES 

April 16-17th, 1966 

This was a very valuable and interesting and well organised seminar. 
I feel we should all be grateful to the National Trust for holding it 
and in such pleasant surroundings. 

SATURDAY 

Morning — The Minister of Lands spoke of how the loss to the bush 
in Australia was far greater than similar areas in America. 

Fire fighting had greatly improved in N.S.W. and fires were now 
contained by men and one did not have to rely on them finishing in 
the sea. 

The National State Parks Act will have fire fighting programmes. 
Guiding Principles being formed, such as Equipment, Access Roads, 
Water. 

Afternoon: Field trip to see difficulties and effect of fire in 
Grose Valley. 

Evening: Mr. Luke, Deputy Chief, Division of Forest Management, 
Forestry Commission, spoke on responsibility and that it must be a 
co-operative effort. There is also the moral obligation to prevent fires 
as well as the legal. The Authorities could not carry out their work 
effectively without access roads, also the importance of controlled burning 
to keep down the fuel build-up was stressed. 

Brigadier Eason, Chairman, County Fire Authority, Victoria, led 
the discussion and told how they did it in Victoria. How they could 
call on the Army in real emergencies, and detachments of units would 
come from all over the State to help in an emergency, like the Gippsland 
fires. Thus still leaving some equipment available at each unit. The 
scheme was backed by the Premier, and Police, and P.M.G. were lined 
up to give immediate help by providing direct telephone links, controlling 
onlookers, etc. 

SUNDAY 

Morning: Mr. Strom gave a very stimulating paper on Environmental 
Conservation and Bush Fires, and while not denying there might be a 
need in management for controlled fires, pointed out our complete lack 
of knowledge on the effect of the environment and animals as a whole. 

Dr. F. H. Talbot led the discussion and felt that the scientists were 
somewhat at fault in not having done something to produce this information 
and perhaps if funds could be raised this should be done. 

Mr. A. C. McArthur, Officer-in-Charge, Protection Research, Fore?* 
Research Institute, Canberra, spoke on "Prescribed burning and Resources 
Management are compatible." The very fine research of Mr. McArthur 
and his staff have produced a table now acknowledged and used by every- 
body for working out conditions suitable for a prescribed burning.* If 
only 2-5 tons fuel per acre you can get a cool burn, which will 
not damage trees, but 10-15 or more will give you a fierce hot fire 
killing the tops of many trees. He considered yearly cool burns did not 

* Details can be found in Mc ARTHUR, A. G., 1962. Control Burning in Eucalypt 
Forests. Commonwealth of Australia Forst. Timber Bureau Leaflet 80, 31 pp., 
11 figs, and 1965. The Place of Prescribed Burning in Australian Fire Control. 
4th Conference Inst. Foresters Aust.. Hobart, 1965, 11 pp. 

34 



harm the environment (but in slides he showed tall rank grasses etcetera 
were replaced by bracken). 

He believed that burning once every 5 years as happened before 
white man came was not harmful to the environment or the humus. 

Dr. Joyce Vickery, National Herbarium of New South Wales, led the 
discussion and could not accept that annual controlled burning did not 
affect the all important humus and that what the forester called fuel 
was the plants they wanted to save. 

Mr. Bruckhauser said no mention had been made of education 
and he felt this should be done from bottom up, i.e. teach all children 
the importance of fire danger. (I sugggest, "Have you Broken your Match", 
"Forest Fires finish Fishing", "Blazing Bushes Banish Birds"). 

Afternoon: Mr. G. P. Gabel, Parks Service Bureau, Department 
of Lands gave us the principles they intended to apply on fire control 
in National Parks and need for controlled burning. 

If a large untouched wilderness area is wanted one must accept 
that about every 15-20 years it will be completely burnt out by wild 
fires and if it is necessary to put out these fires one must accept the 
responsibility of perhaps causing death to the men who go in to put 
them out, under the very dangerous conditions then prevailing. 

Other methods of controlling fire or to reduce fuel were mowing, 
grazing, etc. 

Dr. Webb, Ecology Section, Division Plant Industry, C.S.I.R.O., 

Brisbane, summed up the papers. 



SUMMARY OF SEMINAR 

Efficiency of controlled burning and fire trails were proved methods 
in controlling fires, but there was complete lack of information of 
effect of wild fires or controlled fires on fauna and only limited informa- 
tion on vegetation and soil structure. Thus research is urgently needed 
on these problems to show what conditions are needed to retain fauna 
and flora in particular areas. Fire may be necessary periodically for 
the survival of some species. 

May 17th, 1966 H. J. de S. Disney. 



35 



ASHTON PARK DEVELOPMENT 

(Figure 1). 

The following letter was sent by the President of the Royal Zoological 
Society of New South Wales to the Hon., the Minister of Lands, Sydney: 

The Minister of Lands, 

Sydney, 

N.S.W. 23rd September, 1966 

Dear Sir, 

Ash ton Park Master Plan 

The Council of the Royal Zoological Society of N.S.W. wish to 
take this opportunity to make a series of comments on the master plan 
lor the development of Ashton Park, Mosman, made available by 
your Department in July, 1966. Several aspects of the master plan 
have our full commendation, but other aspects are, we feel, unsuitable 
in this rather specialized natural bushland park. We wish to thank the 
officers of the Lands Department, through you, for allowing us to examine 
in detail the actual diagram and associated text which together make up 
this master plan. Representatives of the Council have made a careful 
examination of this important harbour-side Park in the light of your 
Department's plan and have attempted to evaluate it from the biological 
as well as conservational point of view. 

The following ten comments are presented for your information: 
1. Proposed New Parking Area alongside Bradley's Head Road at 

the top of Ashton Park opposite Taronga Zoological Park's own parking 

area. 

This large proposed parking area appears completely unnecessary for 
users of Ashton Park itself, though it may well be intended for overflow 
on busy days from the extensive Taronga Park parking area. Ashton 
Park's own parking area just inside the Park gates on both sides of 
the ridge road out to Bradley's Head appears quite adequate (with a 
little development as indicated on the plan) for the normal needs of 
this Park, though 2 or 3 days each year it is admitted that it might 
not be able to handle the extensive crowds which apparently gather to 
watch yacht races from the end of the point itself. If it is intended for 
extra parking for Taronga Park it appears to us that the present Taronga 
parking area could well be more extensively developed as an alternative. 

This proposed new parking area is at present partly an open, grassed, 
slightly marshy area, bounded on its downhill, eastern side by a low 
sandstone ledge. This extensive triangular area is a vital part of the 
catchment for the small creeks that flow down the steep, bushed gully 
at the head of Taylor's Bay. A small patch of near rain-forest, unique 
within Ashton Park, has developed in this gully and it is the Council's 
belief that the development of the parking area above (especially if it 
was paved) would behead the creeks and so alter the continuous seepage 
down this moss-lined and fern-draped gully. Any alteration of this steady 
seepage could, we hold, greatly alter, if not permanently destroy, this 
"rain-forest" patch. The eastern contour track of Ashton Park (see 
comment 6 below) passes through this gully and "rain-forest" patch 
on its way around the head of Taylor's Bay to the Burrawong Avenue 
entrance to the Park. The track in no way disturbs the seepage (it has 
been channelled under the track in several places) and the contrast of 
the dripping banks and "rain-forest" to the dry sandstone forest of the 
remainder of Bradley's Head is a delight to the walker and user of this 
facility of Ashton Park. 

36 



The proposed new "parking area" could instead be extensively planted 
with native trees and shrubs (as proposed in the master plan for other 
areas along the eastern and western contour tracks) by, or under the 
supervision of, the N.S.W. Forestry Commission or some other body 
such as the Society for Growing Australian Plants. This could be done 
in such a way as to improve greatly the appearance of the open top 
end of Ashton Park along the Bradley's Head Road frontage. 

2. Picnic and "Passive Recreation" Area on tlie Athol Bay or western 
side of Ashton Park gates. 

This Council approves of, and commends your Department on, the 
proposed development of this area (work has indeed started on this 
aspect of the master plan). Such facilities, if provided as indicated in the 




SKETCH MHP OF 
RSHTON PRRK 
fMOSMRN) 



BRRDLEY'S HERD 
POT NT 



Figure 1. — Ashton Park, Mosman, Sydney. 



37 



plan, will go a long way to relieve the remainder of the natural area of 
the Park from public disturbance as distinct from intelligent public use 
(i.e. walking on tracks, admiring the views, trees, flowering plants, animals, 
etc.). 

3. Proposed Parking Bays alongside the ridge road within Ashton 
Park and the proposed link road across the eastern bushland slope of 
the Park to the Bradley's Head turn-around area. 

The master plan appears to indicate that a series of parking bays 
(termed "wayside rests" on the plan) are to be developed along both 
sides of the ridge road of Ashton Park. This appears undesirable to 
us as several unsealed roadside areas are at present available there for 
extra parking and any further opening up of the natural vegetation along the 
ridge will lead to deterioration of the bushland on both sides of the 
ridge. Sealing of such extra parking bays (if intended) would increase 
the run off of water from the ridge after rain and would bring about 
additional erosion on both eastern and western slopes. 

The plan shows a proposed link road across the eastern bushland 
slope from the ridge road to the turn-around area at Bradley's Point. 
It is understood that the construction of such a road is no longer part 
of the master plan. This Council is very pleased to hear of this change 
as a road as originally indicated would have cut right through the 
natural vegetation of this slope and would have greatly disturbed the 
ecology and balance of the whole area of bushland involved. 

It might well be pointed out here that the rather unsightly cottage on 
the eastern side of the ridge road at approximately the position of the 
start of the proposed link road on the plan could well be completely 
removed from the Park or at the very least screened from view. Its 
position isolated in the middle of relatively undisturbed bush appears 
unnecessary and incongruous. Could not buildings of any sort be kept 
to a minimum within Ashton Park and those necessary concentrated in 
the two areas already developed, i.e. just inside the Park gates on the 
western side, and near the end of the point in the vicinity of the gun 
emplacements and superintendent's cottage? 

4. Development and Terracing of the Bradley's Head Point area. 
The complete headland area at the southern tip of the point is lost 

to the natural ecology of the Park and should be developed as indicated 
in the master plan. The concept of terraces and open seating appears ideal 
to us and could do nothing but improve this section of the Park. This 
is where the main public pressure is brought to bear on the Park and 
where the crowds mainly gather for the few yacht race days and other 
days during the year when unusual activities can be viewed on the 
harbour. The provision of full picnic and "passive recreation" (descriptive 
term used on plan) facilities in this area appears to be fully justified. 
Development of this public recreational and historical area should include 
improved access to the beach in several places and the clearing of 
lantana and other exotics from the low foreshore cliffs. The large 
public toilets in the area need certain repairs to the fabric of the building 
but are otherwise in good condition. The gun emplacements and 
associated military works are in very good condition and obviously 
of great interest to visitors. As the Park staff clearly appreciate, the 
view of the harbour from the level of the guns must be kept unobstructed 
ly man-made objects. We especially commend the specially designed, 
vandal-proof wooden rubbish bins which are a feature of the Park. 

5. Development and Terracing of the Southern, or Park, Headland 
of Taylor's Bay (the wedge-shaped area on the plan to the east of the 
Park gates extending from the road to the foreshore) 

It appears from the plan that it is intended to clear this area of 
natural bush and provide terraces and open seating for public recreation, 

38 



then presumably to plant two areas of "native flowering shrubs, plants 
and trees" among the natural sandstone platforms thus exposed. This 
Council agrees that this is an attractive area with its natural stone 
and fairly open bushland containing many tall trees, and considers that 
the views of bush and harbour from the several wooden benches 
tastefully provided is delightful. However, we do not understand 
why this area should be cleared and terraced for increased public 
recreation when the developed picnic area to the western side of the 
Park gates is so near and extends right to the Athol Bay foreshore. The 
view from this Headland is mainly across Taylor's Bay to the Chowder 
Head reserve and down the harbour towards South Head so it would not 
serve well for yacht race viewing in addition to the developed area on 
the southern point of the Park. The eastern contour track goes right 
through the area to meet the short track down from the road inside 
the Park gates and there is plenty of space already for scattered and 
secluded picnicking. Better access to the beach could well be provided 
in the area by several short tracks down the low cliffs, but this Council 
recommends that no additional major clearing be carried out on this 
bushland slope and headland. Certain extra picnic facilities and seating 
could be added to the area without disturbing its natural appearance. It 
should be pointed out that if this area was cleared and terraced as 
planned this would completely cut the bushland of the Park into two 
separate areas from the biological point of view and thus disturb the 
ecology and free movement of many of the native animals living in 
the Park. Each separate area of bushland would then be increasingly 
subjected to human pressures on such things as plant growth and 
regeneration. 

6. Eastern Contour Track from the southern tip of Bradley's Head 
to Taylor's Bay. 

This is a fine and well-formed walking track obviously kept in very 
good condition by the Park staff. It is probably the most attractive item 
of the Park to bush walkers and biologists, amateur and professional alike. 
It does not obviously disturb the natural bushland through which it passes 
as it makes its way from the open area of Bradley's Head right along the 
eastern slope of the Park, around the southern headland of Taylor's 
Bay (discussed in comment 5 above), through Taylor's Bay itself and 
the "rain-forest" patch (discussed in comment 1 above) to reach the 
Burrawong Avenue entrance to the Park. This Council commends the 
appearance and form of the track, notes especially the neat, unobstrusive, 
white wooden safety fence where needed (the construction is simple, 
very strong and not too high), and hopes that the indication on the 
plan of "mass native flowering shrubs" etc. along both sides does not 
imply deliberate planting of large numbers of possibly unsuitable species. 
Some scattered planting of species natural to the Park here and there 
along the track might be justified, but a deliberate massing of flowering 
natives all along the track would give an effect more like an artificial 
garden than a bushland reserve. The addition of several short access tracks 
directly down to the beach from this contour track would be quite 
justified and would provide the public with extra open picnic areas and 
thus relieve the bushland from some human disturbance in busy periods. 

7. Western Contour Track from the southern tip of Bradley's Head to 
the Athol Bay picnic and recreation area. 

This is an interesting and well-used track along a much steeper slope 
than that traversed by the eastern contour track. As implied by the 
special comments on the plan it is intended that the stonework of this 
track is to be repaired, a safety fence is to be provided where necessary 
and the track drainage is to be restored. Basically this track is well- 
formed and its stonework will last for a very long time, but repairs are 
necessary (though the same stonework should be reused), some safety 
fencing is necessary (the same low, simple, wooden fencing as described 

39 



in comment 6 above would be ideal) and track drainage should be unob- 
trusively restored (stone guttering for example rather than half concealed 
piping). Attention should be given to the problem of possible erosion on 
the steep slope below the track as and when drainage is restored. The 
plan indicates that massed native flowering shrubs should be planted along 
both sides of the track, but as explained in comment 6 above this could well 
be unsuitable if done in an extensive and obvious manner. Certainly 
the heavy growth of badly scale-attacked, native Pittosporum along this 
track could be greatly reduced and other shrubs natural to the Park replanted 
in their place. (Note: this coastal Pittosporum is quite natural in Ashton 
Park, but tends to grow unnnaturally dense and straggly when this type 
of bushland is partly opened up and the undergrowth is exposed to more 
light than usual, as for example along this western contour track). 

8. Proposed Restaurant and Information Office etc. on high point of 
ridge above Bradley's Head gun emplacements. 

The Council of this Society advise very strongly against this 
proposed development. As it is, a road runs along the ridge of Ashton 
Park and the whole southern end of Bradley's Head is taken up with 
recreational and historical facilities. To take another big area from the 
remaining natural bushland of the Park, and the highest point of the 
ridge spur out into the harbour at that (that part of Ashton Park proposed 
for parking, see comment 1, is higher above sea level, but is not 
on the harbour spur), appears to us to be extremely unwise from the 
point of view of the whole general ecology and well-being of the Park's 
vegetation. Apart from further fragmenting the bushland area, such 
development would open up the whole of the higher ridge slopes of 
the southern portion of the Park to wind damage and soil erosion. Once 
the canopy of the bush is as extensively opened as would be necessary 
for this development, the whole of the southern portion of the Park 
would cease to be a functional flora and fauna reserve, leaving only the 
eastern slope of the Park north from the main gates to the head of 
Taylor's Bay undisturbed. 

This Council, while fully understanding the general desire for a 
Park Information Office ("natural and historical", as described on the 
plan), wonder if there is enough public demand to justify a restaurant 
on the site under discussion. Certainly on a few soecial days during 
the year such a demand would exist, but would this demand be b ,- g 
enough to allow the proposed restaurant to be self-supporting? Most 
visitors on normal weekdays and holidays (as distinct from yacht race 
days etc.) would bring the maior part of their own food, and the Taron^a 
Park refreshment rooms are only a few hundred yards up the hill. Meals at 
nieht are presumably not intended. Possibly a small refreshment counter 
might be justified, but could not such a counter, and the proposed Informa- 
tion Office, be sited either at the main sates to the Park or on the 
already cleared and nartly developed southern end of Bradley's Head? 
Porsibly the existing Taronpa Park refreshment rooms could be e^oanded 
to include a restaurant which could be entered by the public directly from 
outside without necessarily having to pay at the Taronga Zoo gate. 

9. Vegetation of Ashton Park 

As a Zoological Society we do not intend to comment in detail on 
the vegetation of Ashton Park, but this Council would like to point 
out that this is the only sizable area of relatively undisturbed natural 
bushland along the shores of the southern portion of Sydney Harbour 
(i.e. Port Jackson proper, excluding North and Middle Harbours). This 
Park, as well as being dedicated for public recreation, is a de facto 
native flora and fauna reserve, and as such is of great interest to our 
Society as a conservation area for the mammals, birds, reptiles, insects 
and other animals typical of the different types of vegetation represented 
within its boundaries. 

40 



As well as containing an extensive area of the dry sclerophyll forest 
characteristic of the Sydney coastal sandstone areas, the Park has an 
interesting patch of near rain-forest (as discussed in comment 1) and 
it is this combination of types, and in this situation, which gives the 
Park such a distinct biological and ecological importance. Although there 
is some lantana and other exotics along the beach-front cliffs and across 
the head of Taylor's Bay gully below the suggested parking area, on 
the whole the park is relatively free of extensive areas of introduced 
plants. The living bush in general, appears to be in good condition, 
though in early August many dead trees and dead branches on live 
trees could be seen. Probably this is mainly due to the very dry conditions 
during the last year or so. There was, however, no obvious evidence of a 
general dying back of either of the forest types. 

10. Animals of Ash ton Park 

There is no doubt that the Park is acting as a valuable refuge for 
many native animals right in the heart of the Sydney area. While there 
are no special animals that we are aware of, which are restricted, or 
almost restricted, to Ashton Park, several native animals are common in 
the Park but not at all common elsewhere in the City of Sydney and its 
suburbs. All the native bushland animals would be affected and their 
numbers reduced by further clearing and opening up of the Park and the 
one introduced mammal, which is quite common in the open areas of 
the Park, the rabbit, would increase in numbers and distribution. At the 
moment it is restricted mainly to the grassed areas and does not penetrate 
to any extent into the native bushland. 

As far as native mammals in the Park are concerned the Ring-tailed 
Possum and the Brush-tailed Possum are common, the Long-nosed Bandi- 
coot occurs (though its numbers have decreased during the last two 
years or so, presumably due to the unusual dry conditions) and the 
Marsupial Mouse is known to be present. The Ring-tailed Possum popula- 
tion of the Park has in fact been under detailed study by a Sydney 
University zoologist for a number of years and a picture of the fluctuation 
of their numbers and their movements within the area is beginning to be 
established. 

At least 60 soecies of native birds have been recorded from the 
Park, and 5 introduced species are known there. Though many of the 
native species are only occasional visitors the Park acts as a bush refuge 
for birds within the City area and the breeding status of the birds listed 
in our records is under continual investigation by several of our members. 

Among the reptiles, the Golden-crowned Snake (venomous, but 
small and not dangerous to man) occurs within the Park, and this is the 
only area, in this part of its range within Australia, where this interesting 
native snake can be seen reasonably easily by zoologists. 

The insects and other animal groups found within the Park have not 
yet been studied in any detail, but the Park will contain the great majority 
of the native forms that might be expected from bushland of this type 
in the central N.S.W. coastal area. Because of its situation within the 
City this Park is especially suitable for their study and investigation. 

We hope, Sir. that the above comments may be of use to you and your 
Departmental staff when you come to consider the final form of the 
proposed master plan for Ashton Park. If at any time this Society can 
provide further helo with plans for the future of this vital reserve our 
facilities and specialized knowledge are at your disposal. 

Yours faithfully, 

J. C. YALDWYN, 

President, Royal Zoological Society of N.S.W. 

41 



WILLIAM SHERIDAN WALL AND THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM 

By G. P. Whitley 
(Plate VII) 

An early curator of the Australian Museum, Sydney, well over a 
century ago, was William Sheridan Wall, a descendant of Dr. John Wall of 
Worcester porcelain fame. He was born on 22nd October, 1815, at Dublin, 
Ireland, where he became a bird-preserver and he studied anatomy at 
Trinity College under Professor Robert Harrison. He arrived in Sydney 
in 1840 under Government engagement as a naturalist, being appointed to 
the Australian Museum as "Collector and Preserver of Specimens" on 
1st August 1840, succeeding John Roach at a salary of £100 per annum. 1 
His brother, Thomas Wall, arrived with him but was to perish eight 
years later on the ill-fated Kennedy expedition to Cape York. 

In 1842, W. S. Wall supervised the removal of the Australian Museum's 
collections to the New Court House, Darlinghurst, Sydney, and in 1845 
or earlier was styled "Curator." The late W.A. Rainbow, in his manuscript 
notes towards a History of the Australian Museum (of which he had 
been Librarian), wrote: 

"Just when Wall actually became Curator I have, as yet, been 
unable to ascertain. Etheridge in the Records of the Australian Museum, 
vol. xi, 1916, p. 78, wrote, 'It seems probable that the Curatorships of 
(Rev. W. B.) Clarke and Wall overlapped one another, for on 18th Nov., 
1845, the attention of the Meeting was called to the circumstance of a 
balance amounting to the sum of £32/3/4 still remaining due to the 
Curator in Liquidation of the full amount of his salary for the year 
1842'. 

"In the Sydney Morning Herald 29th December 1843, it is recorded 
that the Legislative Council had decided to abolish the office of Secretary 
and Curator, the position occupied by the Rev. W. B. Clarke. This 
step was taken owing to the financial depression then facing the colony, 
but it was taken without reference to the institution or Clarke. A 
petition of protest, drawn up by Clarke, was presented to the Council 
by Dr. Chas. Nicholson, a member of the Museum Commitee, but without 
avail. 

"From 1st November 1843, there are virtually no minutes of the 
Museum Committee till 12th September 1845, when regular meetings were 
resumed. In the minutes of this meeting we read 'The Curator laid 
before the meeting a large collection of prepared specimens recently 
made by his brother, Mr. T. Wall, in the interior of the Colony'. 

"In the minutes of 8th June 1842 appears the record 'Mr. Wall 
the Preserver.' 

"I hope to pick up the date of Wall's appointment as Curator later, 
so far however it seems elusive." 2 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Malcolm J. Billings, a descendant 
of W. S. Wall, I have been privileged to read a diary of Wall's for 
the years 1845, 1846 and 1847 which is the possession of the Billings 
family in Melbourne. In this old exercise book is a copy of a letter 
from Wall, dated 5th September 1846, evidently to his employers, the 
Committeemen who then administered the Australian Museum. It reads 
as follows: 

1 Colonial Secretary's Return of the Colony of New South Wales (State Archives 
MS. 4/272 in the Mitchell Library, Sydney), 1840, pp. 118 & 188; 1841, p. 180. 

2 References bearing on Wall's career are: George Bennett, Austr. Mus. Letter- 
book (MS., vol. i, Aug. 31, 1840, p. 31); Austr. Mus. document A.10.59G.; 
Brabazon's N.S.Wales Directory, 1843; the N.S.Wales Magazine, May 1843, p. 237; 
Low's Sydney Directory for 1844 and 1847; and W. A. Colman's N.S.Wales 
Almanac and Remembrancer for 1848. Wall's 29th birthday is noted in his 
1844 Journal.— G. P. W. 

42 



Australian Museum,, 
5th Septr. 1846. 
Gentlemen 

I very humbly beg your obliging consideration to my 
situation as Curator to the Museum. Sinse my appointment in 
1840 I have been in the receipt of a Salary of £100 per Anum, 
which without perquissites of any kind has been all my 
income; and which I have found, with all the economy I 
could exercise, very inadequate to the respectable maintainance 
of my family. I have hitherto refrained from making any 
application for an increase of salary; but in the hope that you 
are satisfied with my attention to the interests of the Institution 
and of my capabilities for filling the office, I would now very 
humbly request you would interest yourselves so far in my 
behalf as to obtain for me a remuneration more adequate to the 
wants of my family and the respectability of my situation. 

In preferring this request I would only further trespass on 
your time to observe that under the present prospects of the 
Institution . . . (paper torn here) . . . responsibilities of my 
situation must (be) greatly increased then I beg assure you 
shall ever be met by me — by a faithful and zealous discharge 
of duty, and with a grateful recollection of any addition to 
my comforts your recommendation may procure me. 
I have the honour to remain, 
Gentlemen your very obediant servant. 
(Signed) Wm. Sheridan Wall. 

W. S. Wall's diary also contains miscellaneous notes on insects, 
birds' nests, an incomplete classification of mammals and birds, accounts 
and expenses incurred for the Australian Museum, and jottings of prjces 
of groceries and clothing. The important part and the bulk of it however 
is devoted to Wall's "Notes of a Journey from Sydney to the . Murrimbigi 
River in pursuite of Specimens of Natural History." A trip to the 
Murrumbidgee River was not to be undertaken lightly in the 1840's 
and this journey seems to have been overlooked by historians, though 
it deserves to be recognised. 

Wall left Sydney 12th September 1844 by coach, then joined bullock 
teamsters and was subject to frustrating delays and loss of bullocks, but 
later made better progress on horseback or even by walking great 
distances in almost worn out boots. His hardships included acute shortage 
of money so that he was reduced to begging at times and he had nothing 
to give when he was bailed up by a bushranger. He often complained 
that he was getting few or no specimens, whilst the weather was 
abominable, yet at the end of his trip he listed 16 "Animals" (i.e. mammals), 
4 Reptiles, 4 or more Fishes, 138 Birds, 28 specimens of Minerals, 
and 1 Jar of Insects as having been collected. His route lay from Sydney to 
Camden, Goulburn and Yass down to the Murrumbidgee in the vicinity 
of Gundagai and afterwards back by much the same route. It is very 
doubtful if any of his specimens are still extant. According to this 
Journal, written in 1844, W. S. Wall collected a bird he listed as 
"No. 30 Bugernigang Parrot" (the writing is not clear; it could be 
Bugerrigang). This entry is of interest as it is the first known use in 
any English writings of the name of the bird now universally known 
as the Budgerigar, and is three years earlier than Leichhardt's 1847 usage, 
the oldest hitherto known. 3 

After his brother's death, W. S. Wall was to have been sent to 
Cape York, possibly to seek his remains, but he was excused for 
health reasons from this agonizing assignment. 

3 Iredale & Whitley, Austr. Nat. Hist., 14, 1962, p. 102. 

43 



One would give much for a photograph of a group of scientists 
patiently reconstructing, from some newly discovered bones, the probable 
appearance of a giant extinct animal, Diprotodon, in 1847. There, in the 
Australian Museum (then probably in the Darlinghurst gaol's) grounds, 
were W. S. Wall, Ludwig Leichhardt the famous explorer, and the eminent 
surgeon and zoologist, George Bennett, truly a worthy and dedicated 
triumvirate. 

In September 1848, Wall was authorised to purchase a "dredging 
machine" for the use of the museum, the expense not to exceed £2. 

At the end of 1849 a large whale was obtained and Wall wrote 
a very thorough account of it in the first Memoir of the Australian 
Museum, printed in 1851, by which time the present building at the 
corner of College and William Streets, Sydney, was in occupation, 
largely due to the efforts of Wall, whose whale skeleton, 33i feet 
long, was then displayed in the grounds outside. In the 1850's W. S. 
Wall wrote a number of natural history articles for the Illustrated Sydney 
News, sometimes illustrated with excellent wood-cuts. Wall is probably 
shown, though not identified, in the engravings in the Illustrated Sydney 
News of November and December, 1854, showing the opening of the 
exhibition at the Australian Museum of objects to be sent to the Paris 
Exposition, when the Governor, escorted by troops, is depicted as being 
welcomed by the dignitaries of the time. 

By 1858 Wall and George French Angas, the Museum's Secretary, 
were not on good terms and in January 1859 Wall retired on a pension. 
For a year or so he collected insects at Rockhampton, Queensland, for 
Sir William Macleay and for the Australian Museum, and he then 
settled down in the Randwick-Coogee area near Sydney where his family 
became prominent in Randwick affairs. 4 

William Sheridan Wall died in Sydney on 5th October, 1876. 
His influence on the Australian Museum was to be felt Ions afterwards. 
Two sons, George (later a mayor of Randwick) and William, had 
lived on the Museum premises and helred him with collecting, preserving 
and cataloguing specimens, and, much later, a grandson, Dr. F. E. Wall, 
M.L.C., was a trustee of the Australian Museum from 1926 until his 
death in 1941. To this day some of William Sheridan Wall's descendants 
visit the institution for which their forbear laboured so conscientiouslv. 

My thanks are gratefully tendered to Mr. E. J. Billings of Tdorak, 
Victoria, for the loan of Wall's diary, and to Mr. Edgar Beale of 
Wolloneong, N.S.W. for information on Thomas Wall's activities with 
E. B. Kennedv's expeditions of 1847 and 1848 and the memorials erected 
to him in Oueensland. Thankful acknowledgements are also made to 
the Mitchell Library, Sydney, for access to State Archives, old newspapers 
and books and to the Australian Museum for similar facilities. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII 

Figure 1. — William Sheridan Wall from an old photograph in the 
Australian Museum. 

Figure 2. — Memorial to Thomas Wall, brother of W. S. Wall, who 
perished on Kennedy's expedition to Cape York in 1848 
when collecting for the Australian Museum. The tombstone 
commemorates T. Wall and a companion, Niblett, and was 
erected by Captain Owen Stanley on Albany Island, Cape 
York, but was replaced by others over the years. 
This wood-cut is from the Illustrated Sydney News, 
24 June 1854, p. 124, from the original in the Public 
Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

4 Lynch & Larcombe, 1959, Randwick 1859-1959, pp. 75, 106 & 108. 

44 



CHAETODON APHRODITE, THE JUVENILE OF CHAETODON 
FLAVIROSTRIS (TELEOSTEI, CHAETODONTIDAE) 

By Barry Goldman 

(Australian Museum, Sydney). 

(Plates VIII-IX) 

There is a marked difference in the colour patterns of Chaetodon 
aphrodite Ogilby and Chaetodon flavirostris Giinther as can be seen 
by a comparison of the original descriptions. Yet two points suggested 
to me that these were colour phases of the same species. Firstly, I 
have recently observed apparently intermediate forms both on the Great 
Barrier Reef and in private aquaria in Sydney. Secondly, Chaetodon 
flavirostris is not known smaller than 50 mm. in length while there 
are no specimens of Chaetodon aphrodite larger than this. 

Subsequent study of material in the Australian Museum has shown a 
complete gradation in body form and colour pattern between Chaetodon 
aphrodite and Chaetodon flavirostris. As GiAnther's name has priority, 
Chaetodon aphrodite becomes a synonym. 

Chaetodon flavirostris Giinther 1874. 
(Plates VIII-IX) 

Chaetodon flavirostris Giinther 1874:41, pi. 32, fig. a (Vavau, Tonga). 

Chaetodon aphrodite Ogilby 1889: 55, pi. 3, fig. 2 (Lord Howe Island, 
Tasman Sea). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Seale 1906: 64 (Fate, New Hebrides). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Jordan & Seale 1906: 341 (Vavau; Fate). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Cockerell 1915: 44 (scales). 

Chaetodon flavirostris McCulloch 1923: 2 (Australia; Lord Howe Island). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Ahl 1923: 86 (Vavau). 

Chaetodon aphrodite Ahl 1923: 181. 

Chaetodon flavirostris McCulloch 1927: 64 (New South Wales). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Whitley 1927: 8 (Lord Howe Island). 

Chaetodon aphrodite Fowler & Bean 1929: 54 (Philippine Islands). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Fowler and Bean 1929: 83 (Philippine Islands). 

Chaetodon flavirostris McCulloch 1929: 246 (New South Wales; Queens- 
land; Western Pacific). 

Chaetodon flavirostris Haysom 1957: 2 (Heron Id., Queensland). 

Chaetodon flavirostis Woodland & Slack-Smith 1963: 39 (Heron Island, 
Great Barrier Reef). 

Chaetodon aphrodite Whitley 1962: 2. 

Chaetodon flavirostris Whitley 1964a: 152 (Frederick Reef, Coral Sea). 

Chaetodon aphrodite Whitley 1964b: 47. 

Chaetodon flavirostris Whitley 1964: 47. 

Chaetodon flavirostris Marshall 1964: 257 (Queensland; North Coast of 
New South Wales). 

MATERIAL EXAMINED 

Twenty specimens from the Australian Museum collection were 
examined. These are listed in table 1 with their standard length, registration 
number and locality of capture. Due to the limited number of specimens, 
no attempt was made to examine internal organs. 

45 



Standard Length 


Australian Museum 




mm. 


Registration No. 


Locality 


26.2 


IB 5697 


Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea. 


26.8 


IB 6464 


Manly, New South Wales. 


27.3 


IB 5519 


Lord Howe Island. 


27.5 


IB 7575 


Port Hacking, New South Wales. 


29.5 


IB 7574 


Port Hacking, New South Wales. 


33.0 


IB 5717 


Manly, New South Wales. 


33.4 


IB 5718 


Manly, New South Wales. 


39.5 


IB 5720 


Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea. 


40.1 


IB 5738 


Manly, New South Wales. 


49.6 


IB 5831 


Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea. 


66.0 


IB 2370 


New Caledonia. 


72.5 


IB 6435 


Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea. 


112.4 


17056 


Lord Howe Island, Tasman Sea, 


121.4 


IB 7573 


Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Qld. 


124.8 


IA399 


Clarence River, New South Wales. 


125.0 


IA 5244 


Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 


138.8 


IB 7572 


Coral Sea. 


139.3 


IB 4808 


Coral Sea. 


140.5 


IB 6405 


Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea. 


150.0 


IB 4816 


Coral Sea. 



Table 1. 



DIAGNOSIS 

Dorsal fin XII, 25-27; anal fin III, 19-21; pectoral fin I, i, 15. 
Oval, vertically compressed fish covered with small to moderate, round, 
ciliated scales in 31-34 rows from the upper edge of the operculum to 
the base of the caudal fin. Snout short and blunt, subequal to eye. Gape 
horizontal, jaws with brush-like bands of setiform teeth. Lateral line 
arched, terminating before soft dorsal and with 34-36 pored scales. 

Ground colour in alcohol blackish brown. Ocular band in the adults 
restricted to the subocular region and to the osseous protuberance which 
develops on the frontal region. (This osseous protuberance is atypical of 
Chaetodon, but resembles that of Heniochus varius Cuvier.) The snout and 
frontal regions are yellowish-brown, as is the broad band along the bases 
of the dorsal, caudal and anal fins. Both the dorsal and anal fins have 
a marginal black band while on the caudal fin this black band is 
separated from the fin margin by a clear area of approximately the 
same width. Anterior to the caudal peduncle there is a verticle, crescent- 
shaped, blackish-brown band that is segregated from the trunk proper by 
a thin golden band which becomes constricted ventrally and merges 
dorsally into the darker body colour of the trunk. 



46 



COUNTS AND BODY PROPORTIONS 



Qc£ Qc* <p< £(* V& 



BO 

U 

•si 


CO i 

D 1— 4 

O 03 


13 


o.S 


^fe 


as 


,D 




T3 a3 


o cd 


C/3 f3 


C/303 


CO i-l 


COhJ 



N 20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


18 


19 


19 


19 


Mean 12 


26.05 


20.20 


16.90 


17 


32.11 


34.94 


9.05 


19.53 


Standard 
Error 


0.088 


0.143 


0.068 





0.227 


0.179 


0.093 


0.193 



Table 2. Fin and scale counts in Chaetodon flavirostris. 

Spinous Dorsal Fin: All specimens examined had twelve dorsal 
spines. These increase rapidly in length from the first to the fourth, which 
is the longest, being about twice the length of the first; they then decrease 
gradually to the last which is about one and a half times the length 
of the first spine. The first dorsal spine only was measured as the fin 
is covered basally by a scaly sheath which severely limited accuracy 
in measuring the other spines without damaging the specimens. Together 
with some of the other body characters, the dorsal spines have a negative 
allometric growth pattern, ranging in proportion of the standard length 
from 15% in the smallest individuals to 9% in the largest. 

Soft Dorsal Fin: The number of dorsal rays centred about 26 (17 
specimens), with two specimens having 27 rays and one having 25. 
Anal Fin: All individuals had three anal spines and nineteen (1)*, twenty 
(14) or twenty-one (5) rays. Both the soft dorsal and anal fins, as can 
be seen from the plates, are rounded in the young and become rather 
pointed with age. 

Caudal Fin: This is quite rounded in the young stages becoming almost 
lunate in the adult. It always consists of seventeen primary rays — a single 
ray on the upper and lower leading edges; and fifteen branched rays, 
eight above and seven below. 

Pectoral Fin: Normally the pectoral fin consists of seventeen rays, 
the first two upper ones being simple, the other fifteen branched. There 
was one specimen with only fourteen branched rays on the right 
side (Aust. Mus. Reg'd. No. IB. 5717) and another (IB.6464) which 
had only sixteen primary rays in each pectoral fin — two single and 
fourteen branched rays on the right side, three single and thirteen 
branched rays on the left. 

Scale Counts: Scales in the body series were taken as the number of 
scale rows between the upper edge of the operculum and the base of 
the caudal fin. The counts were thirty (1), thirty-one (3), thirty-two 
(8), thirty-three (5) and thirty-four (1). Two specimens, IA. 5244 
and IB. 5738 were too damaged to show body scale counts. 

There were thirty-four (6), thirty-five (8) and thirty-six (5) pored 
scales in the lateral line. These were counted from the upper edge of 
the operculum to the termination of the lateral line in front of the 
twenty-third or twenty-fourth dorsal ray. No counts were made of 
the pored scales on the temporal region. 

Horizontal scale rows were taken from the first dorsal spine, down 
posteriorly to the lateral line and up anteriorly to the lateral line from the 

* The number in parentheses indicates the number of individuals sharing that 
particular character. 

47 



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tpjiusa T trim^fnffl6Nfn6«'HO\ooo()HdhMa\ c 
U U P^^ ®^® 1 ^^^^. o ■* q h o\ vo ^o ^r-^o u 



9SBg 



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^vo\omNqqHtovov)wcjo\^;<nhO\vOM 



3Ag jox^TfinNqviooNHrf^^q^voqojmq 
j9i9ui^irT * ^ "o ^ ^ 't m m f! fi ri h d n o\ ^ h o\ o\ d 



en 
ONVot^TtONf^ONcsifN«noot^osicotM'-<oor-r- £> 

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J91UT TtTl " Tj ' r ^ <Nfrir4 ^ Hfsl0<N0000 ^ HT ~' 00 ^ H 'S 



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IPliqjO Nm^(SO\vOHooM\00\^xO'- ivorn^OOO 

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pjppupjs 

48 



..q^ioH\qqv)TfTtMqxwinq 
m§U3i \ovo^t^o\mmaIdavdriri'H^ : «iodo\dd 



first anal spine. The counts range from eight (1), nine (16) and ten 
(2) above the lateral line and eighteen (1), nineteen (10), twenty (5) 
and twenty-one (3) below. 

Body Proportions: The head and body characters, measured as percentages 
of the standard length are listed in Table 3. The following measurements 
were used : 

Postorbital — the distance between the hind border of the orbit and the 
most distal projection of the operculum; Suborbital — the vertical distance 
between the lower border of the orbit and the lower margin of the 
preoperculum; Interorbital — the width of the frontal bones at the most 
superior edge of the orbits; Eye — the horizontal diameter of the orbits; 
Premaxilla — the length of the toothed ramus of the premaxilla; Snout — 
the distance between the symphysis of ihe premaxillae and the 
anterior edge of the orbit; Head Length — the distance between the 
symphysis of the premaxillae and the hind border of the operculum; 
Depth — the vertical distance between the base of the ventral fins and the 
base of the dorsal fin; Body Length — the length of the trunk between 
the upper edge of the pectoral fin base and the base of the caudal fin; 
Dorsal and Anal Fin Bases — the shortest distance between the front of 
the first spine when held erect and the back of the last ray; Pectoral 
Fin — the length of the longest branched ray (usually the second) from 
its base at the pterygials. For the ventral, dorsal and anal spines, the 
total length of the spine was measured. 

A Home trie Growth: As can be seen from table 3, there is a distinct 
change in the body shape with growth. The hind border of the head 
(i.e. the posterior margin of the operculum) has a net anterior displace- 
ment due to the progressive elongation of the trunk as measured by the 
body length. The depth of the body also increases with growth but 
not as rapidly, with the result that the adult has a relatively smaller 
head and is more ovoid than the juvenile. 

All the fin spines measured, as well as the caudal peduncle, postorbital, 
interorbital and eye diameter have negative allometric growth curves. 

COLOUR PATTERN 

Ocular band: In the young stages to about 35 mm. standard length 
(Plate VIII, fig. 1), the ocular band is distinct, grey-black and reaches 
to below the suboperculum. It does not join across the isthmus. At about 
40 mm. standard length (Plate VIII, fig. 2), it is becoming restricted to 
the osseous protuberance, which is beginning to form on the nape, the 
remainder of the band getting much lighter in colour. From 
about 70 mm. on (Plate VIII, figs. 4 and 5; Plate IX), the black mark 
on the osseous protuberance becomes segregated from the rest of the 
ocular band which remains as a dark area on the frontal and subocular 
regions. 

Dorsal ocellus: In the juvenile (Plate VIII, figs. 1 and 2), situated normally 
between the seventh and sixteenth dorsal rays, is a distinct, black, dorsal 
ocellus. As the fish grows, this ocellus gradually becomes absorbed until 
at about 70 mm. standard length (Plate VIII, fig. 4), it is virtually 
continuous with the dark, vertical, pre-caudal band which passes from 
the beginning of the soft dorsal to the anal spines, where it becomes 
more diffuse. This disappearance of the juvenile dorsal ocellus is not 
uncommon among the Chaetodontinae. Chaetodon setifer Bloch, Chaetodon 
lunula Lacepede (Gunther 1873: pi. 33) and Chaetodon vagabundus 
Linnaeus (McCulloch 1923: 3, pi. 1, figs. 1 and 2) also follow this 
pattern of development. 

According to Eibl-Eibesfeld (1964: 74) there are certain small 
sabre-toothed blennies that attack the eyes of other fish; and he proposes 
that in conjunction with the ocular band (which tends to conceal the 
eye), the "eye-spot" serves the purpose of deflecting these attacks to a 

49 



harmless region on the back. The larger chaetodonts may be able to 
avoid these attacks, making the "eye-spot" unnecessary in the adults. 
Marginal black band: The soft dorsal and anal fins have a golden 
border in the young stages. Beneath this is a submarginal black band 
which is continuous with a similar band across the caudal peduncle. 
With growth, the submarginal black band moves to the edge of the fins 
(Plate VIII, fig. 3), excluding the golden border and finally becomes 
marginal, but discontinuous; the section on the caudal peduncle having 
moved relatively further out on the caudal fin. 

There is also, in the juveniles, a golden band which passes through 
the dorsal spines beneath the submarginal black band, through the anal 
spines, ventral fins and onto the throat region. 

By about 50 mm. standard length, the submarginal black band 
has become marginal, it then spreads anteriorly to encompass the outer 
edge of the dorsal spines (Plate VIII, fig. 3), the anal spines and the 
ventral fins; the golden band being restricted to the lower portion of the 
dorsal spines and disappearing from the ventral fins and anal spines, 
which darken with age, being almost black at maturity. In specimens 
of 100 mm. or more, this golden band is restricted to the bases of the 
soft dorsal and anal fins, and the caudal peduncle, becoming much paler 
along the base of the spinous dorsal; it is then bisected by a red band 
which passes through it in an analogous position to the submarginal 
black band of the juvenile. 

There is also in the juvenile a golden band which passes vertically 
from the middle of the base of the anal fin to the dorsal ocellus. As 
the fish matures, this gets restricted ventrally and spreads dorsally 
becoming diffuse, gradually merging with the blackish-brown of the body. 
Snout and Interorbital Region: These remain yellow throughout life. 

It is interesting to note here that Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus 
has a juvenile stage with a strikingly different colour pattern which was 
named Chaetodon bricei by Smith (Bull. U.S. Fish. Comm. 17, 1897: 102). 

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT DATA 

Except perhaps for the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef, 
the species is apparently nowhere abundant. It is mainly restricted to 
the South Pacific region — New South Wales, Queensland, Norfolk Island, 
Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Tonga, Cook Islands 
and Samoa. The literature has only one reference to its occurrence in 
the Philippine region (Fowler and Bean, 1929: 83). Herre makes no 
mention of it in his check-list of Philippine fishes and it is also not yet 
recorded from Darwin (Taylor, 1964) or New Guinea (Munro, 1958). It 
is evidently uncommon in the Indo-Malayan Archipelago and to the north 
of Australia. 

Chaetodon flavirostris is primarily a reef fish, being found both 
on the reef crest and in the deeper water at the edge of the reef (to 
about 10 fathoms); however the young have been recorded along the 
New South Wales coast as far south as Wollongong (latitude 34° 25' S.), 
where they are found in moderately shallow water (to about 7 fathoms) 
in protected bays and inlets. It seems probable that the young arrive in 
the spring, survive through the warm summer months, then die off 
when the water temperature drops at the onset of winter, but until 
further data are available, no definite conclusions can be expressed. No 
adults have yet been recorded from southern New South Wales. 

This pattern of seasonal appearance has also been observed, but 
not well documented, in such related forms as Chaetodon setifer Bloch, 
Chaetodon vagabwidus Linnaeus, Chaetodon guntheri Ahl, Pomacanthops 
semicirculatus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) and also Zand us cane see ns 
Linnaeus and Forcipiger lol (Montrouzier). 

50 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : 

Thanks are due to the trustees of the Australian Museum for making 
available working facilities and material for the above study; and to 
Dr. F. H. Talbot, Dr. J. C. Yaldwyn, Dr. D. J. Griffin and Mr. G. P. 
Whitley for helpful discussions and criticism of the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

Ahl, E., 1923. — Zur Kenntnis der Knochenfischfamilie Chaetodontidae. 

Arch. Naturgesch., Abt. A, Heft 5: 1-205 
Cockerell, T. D., 1915. — The scales of some Australian fishes. Mem. Qld. 

Mus. 3: 35-46. 
Eibl-Eibesfeld, I., 1964. — Land of a thousand atolls. MacGibbon & Kee, 

London: 1-195. 
Fowler, H. W., and Bean, B. A., 1929. The fishes of the series Capriformes, 

Ephippiformes, and Squammipennes, collected by the United 

States Bureau of Fisheries steamer "Albatross", chiefly in Philip- 
pine Seas and adjacent waters. Bull. U.S. nat. Mus., 100, Vol. 8: 

iii-xi, 1-352. 
Gunther, A., 1874.— Fische der Sudsee, part 2, J. Mus. Godeffroy, 2 (5): 

i-iv, 1-128, pi. 1-83. 
Haysom, N. M., 1957. — Ichthyological notes. Qld. Fisher. Info. Bull. 

2: 2. 
Herre, A. W., 1953.— Check list of Philippine fishes, U.S. Fish Wildlife 

Serv, Res. Rep. 20: 1-977. 
Jordan, D. S. and Seale, A., 1906. — The fishes of Samoa. Government 

Printing Office, Washington.: 175-455, pi. 33-53, i-xxx. 
Marshall, T. C, 1964. — Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and coastal 

waters of Queensland. Angus and Robertson, Sydney: 1-J66, 

illustr. 
McCulloch, A. R., 1923. — Notes on fishes from Australia and Lord Howe 

Island. Rec. Aust. Mus. 14, (1): 1-17, pi. 1-3. 
McCulloch, A. R., 1927. — Check-list of the fish and fish-like animals of 

New South Wales. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 

Sydney: 2nd ed., i-xxvi, 1-104, pi. 1-43. 
McCulloch, A. R., 1929. — A check-list of the fishes recorded from 

Australia: Aust. Mus. Mem. 5 (2): i-x, 1-543. 
Munro, I. S. R., 1958. — The fishes of the New Guinea region. Territory 

Papua N. Guinea Fish. Bull. 1: 97-369. 
Ogilby, J. D., 1889. — The reptiles and fishes of Lord Howe Island. Mem. 

Aust. Mus. 2 (3): 49-74, pi. 2, 3. 
Seale, A., 1906. — Fishes of the South Pacific. Occ. Pap. Bishop Mus. 

4 (1): 3-89. 
Taylor, W. R., 1964. — Fishes of Arnhem Land. Rec. Amer. Aust. Sci. 

Exped. Arnhem Land, 4 (3): 45-307. 
Whitley, G. P., 1927. — A check-list of fishes recorded from Fijian waters. 

J. Pan-Pacif. Res. Inst. 2 (1): 3-8. 
Whitley, G. P., 1962. — Exhibition of Chaetodon aphrodite. Abstr. Proc. 

Linn. Soc. N.S.Wales 710, June 1962, second page; Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S.Wales 87(3), 1963: 412. 
Whitley, G. P., 1964a. — Fishes from the Coral Sea and the Swain Reefs. 

Rec. Aust. Mus. 26 (5): 145-195, pi. 8-10. 
Whitley, G. P., 1964b. — Presidential Address. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 

89: 11-127, appendix B. 
Woodland, D. J. & Slack-Smith, R. J., 1963. — Fishes of Heron Island, 

Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef. Univ. Qd. Pap., Dep. Zool. 

2 (2): 15-69. 

51 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF OKENIA 

(Nudibranchia, Dcridacea) FROM SOUTH-EASTERN 

AUSTRALIA 

By Robert Burn 

(Honorary Associate in Conchology, National Museum of Victoria, 

Melbourne). 

(Plates X-XI, text-figs. 1-5). 

SUMMARY 

The phanerobranch doridacean genus Okenia is recorded for the 
first time from Australia. Two new species are described, O. pellucida from 
Sydney Harbour, New South Wales and O. mija from central Victoria. 

INTRODUCTION 

For the past few years, the presence of the genus Okenia among 
the Australian Opisthobranchia has been known to the writer from 
specimens collected at two localities on the central Victorian coastline. 
These were recognized as a new species and set aside for description. 
More recently, specimens of a second species from Sydney Harbour 
were received for identification from Miss Isobel Bennett. Though common 
on its polyzoan habitat, this second species proved to be a new species 
also. 

Okenia Menke 1 (1830) is a well known genus with about 20 
species distributed throughout the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. 
The diagnostic characteristics uniting the species are (a) the presence 
of papillae along the notal or pallial brim and (b) two teeth on each 
side of the bare rhachis of the radula. Two subgenera are recognized: 
Okenia s.s. with papillae or appendages in the middle of the back and 
Idaliella Bergh (1881) with a bare middle back. As both species described 
here have papillae in the middle of the back, they belong to Okenia s.s. 

The writer is deeply indebted to Miss Isobel Bennett for the specimens 
of O. pellucida, as well as notes on its habitat, colour transparencies of 
the living slugs, and the black and white photographs reproduced below. 
This paper is part of a wider study of the Opistobranchia of Australia. 
The research for this paper was completed while the writer was in 
receipt of a grant from the Science and Industry Endowment Fund, 
C.S.I.R.O. 

DESCRIPTIONS 

Order NUDIBRANCHIA 

Suborder DORIDACEA 

Section EUDORIDACEA 

Tribe PHANEROBRANCHIA 

Superfamily SUCTORIA 
Family GONIODORIDIDAE 
Hitherto this family was represented in Australian seas by Goniodoris 
meracuia Burn (J 958: 27) and Eucrairia mapae (Burn, 1961: 102), both 
from Torquay, Victoria. 

Okenia pellucida sp. nov. 
(Pis. X-XI; text-figs. 1-3). 
Material: NEW SOUTH WALES. Neutral Bay, Sydney Harbour, 
20 April 1966, 3 specimens, Miss Isobel Bennett, Australian Museum 
reg. nos. C.63092 (Holotype) and C.63093 (Paratypes). 

1 Menke, 1830, Synops. method, mollusc, ed. 2, p. 10. Type-species, Idalia 
elegans Leuckart, 1828. 

52 



Habitat: In numbers on long clumps of the Polyzoan, Zoobotryon 
pelhicidus, which grows on wharf piles, floating pontoons, under small 
boats, etc. 

Description: The live slugs are about 10 mm. in length; the three 
preserved slugs examined are 7, 7, 6 mm. long. Live coloration (pi. X) 
is translucent yellowish, the viscera darker; everywhere except upon 
the sole with an anastomosing pattern of dark brown lines, even between 
the branchiae and on the inner and outer sides of the branchial stems. 
In one specimen, these lines are thicker and more numerous, and con- 
sequently the animal appears to be darker. The rhinophores have a 
chocolate-brown band at the third quarter and white tips. The branchiae 
are wholly transparent. Preserved animals retain the brown patterning 
of lines. 

The body (PL X) is slender throughout and higher than 
wide at the pericardial eminence anterior to the branchiae. The notum 
is set off from the sides and the long tail by a notal brim bearing seven 
to ten simple conical papillae along each side. The two papillae in front 
of the rhinophores are somewhat longer than the others. The middle 
line of the notum bears three papillae between the rhinophores and 
branchiae and often a smaller papilla behind the branchiae. On each 
side of the middle line anterior of the branchiae stands another series 
of one to three papillae. The oral tentacles are distinct and ear-shaped 
as in O. distincta Baba (1940: 195, fig. 3). The rhinophores are long 
and tapering, with seven to twelve cup-like lamellae projecting from the 
rear edge of the upper half. Branchiae six, simply pinnate and standing 
in a small circle on the notum. 



suctorial 

diverticulum 

mouth 




radular 
sac 




marginal 



Okenia pellucida Burn. 

Figure 1. — Pharynx from right side 
Figure 2. — Half row of radula 



53 



The small pharynx (text fig. 1) is oval in shape with the radular 
sac projecting beyond the posterior ventral wall. The suctorial diverticulum 
is nearly equal in size to the pharynx, its neck is narrower. The salivary 
glands are flat and broadly oval. The whole of the anterior pharynx 
and the lumen of the diverticulum is lined by a strong hyaline cuticle. 
A pair of small thickened pads stand at the mouth, their surface is 
smooth. The radular formula is 28 x 1.1.0.1.1; lateral tooth (text fig. 2) 
hook-shaped, the tip appearing bifid at certain angles, with a smooth 
cutting edge along one side of the cusp. Marginal tooth smaller, w[der 
than high and with two blunt cusps on the outer side. 

The genital organs (text fig. 3) have a large lunate ampulla 
branching to male, female and gland mass ducts. The vas deferens is 
extremely slender, very long and much coiled. At its inner third there 
occurs a small short prostatic dilation. The penis is short but capable 
of extension, conical, smooth and wholly unarmed. The vagina has 
strong muscular walls at its wider section near the atrium and is narrower 
at the inner section. The ovoid spermatheca is filled with dark brown 
matter in the three examined specimens and is visible without dissection. 
The inner vagina is narrower again, very long and much coiled; at its 
end lies the pyriform spermatocyst. The uterine duct is very slender and 
short. 



ampulla 




spermatheca 



Okenia pellucida Burn. 
Figure 3. — Genital organs. 



54 



The egg strings (PI. XI, fig. 2) are laid haphazardly among the 
branches of the Polyzoan Zoobotryon pellucidus (PI. XI, fig. 1). The 
diameter of the strings is about 1 mm. The eggs are extremely small. 

Discussion: O. pellucida is a very distinctive species in a number 
of ways: (a) translucent yellowish body with the patterning of brown 
lines all over, (b) the absence of jaw plates or elements, (c) the smooth 
cutting edge on the lateral tooth, (d) the small prostrate gland, very 
long vas deferens and unarmed penis, and (e) the very long and coiled 
vagina. 

Marcus (1957: 436, 438) lists 17 species and two subspecies of 
Okenia. To these have been added O. opunta and O. plana Baba (1960: 80) 
and O. babai Hamatani (1961: 117) from Japan, and O. angelensis Lance 
(1966: 76) from the Calif ornian coasts of Mexico and the United States 
of America. O. pellucida has been compared with all these species from 
which it is especially distinguished by coloration, both living and 
preserved. 

At Bermuda in the north-west Atlantic, a closely allied species, 
Bermudella zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910: 143) lives on the same 
polyzoan species as O. pellucida. The genus Bermudella differs from 
Okenia only in the absence of the marginal radular tooth. The only 
species, zoobotryon, has similar body shape and papillation to O. pellucida 
but is separated by light brown irregular patches marked by darker 
brown streaks on a whitish body. 

Okenia mija sp. nov. 
(Text figs. 4-5). 

Material: VICTORIA. Point Danger, Torquay, 21 November 1960, 
1 specimen, R. Burn, National Museum of Victoria reg. no. F26138 
(Holotype). Reef platform west of lighthouse, Point Lonsdale, 22 
September 1963, 1 specimen, R. Burn, National Museum of Victoria 
reg. no. F26139 (Paratype). 

Habitat: Holotype crawling on Enteromorpha-\ike alga at low tide 
level, Paratype crawling on brown kelp in large pool. 

Description: The live slugs were 4.5 and 3 mm. in length. Coloration 
alive was pale brown body, everywhere with ochraceous yellow spots the 
centre of which was a black speck. Notal brim, foot edges and papillae 
bases speckled with white. Rhinophores with white base and brown 
band at second quarter. Branchiae brown and fawn with black specks. 
Sole of foot cream. Preserved animals fawn with some orange-brown 
patches. 

Animal (text figs. 4-5) elongate-oval, wider than high. The notum 
is set off from the sides and slender tail by a notal brim bearing five 
to seven round-ended cylindrical papillae along each side and one in 
the rear middle line. The larger specimen (Holotype) had a further 
three papillae in a middle line series between rhinophores and branchiae 
and another three smaller papillae each side of the middle line series. 
The smaller specimen had only two papillae in the middle line series 
and one small papilla each side of this. The oral tentacles are digitiform 
and the head is wide. The rhinophores are tapering, with 4-5 bilobed lamellae 
on the rear of the upper half. The branchiae are three in number and 
bipinnate. 

The jaws, radula and genital organs have not been examined. 

Discussion: O. mija is easily separated from the New South Wales 
O. pellucida by its more oval shape, fewer notal brim papillae and the 
black speckled yellow and brown coloration. It is less easily separated 
from similarly shaped species such as O. echinata and O. japonica Baba 
(1949: 45-46, 138), O. plebeia (Bergh, 1902: 186) and O. evelinae Marcus 
(1957: 438), but in each case the coloration is different. 

The specific name is formed from an Australian aboriginal word 
"mije", signifying little. 

55 




Okenia mija Burn. 

Figure 4. — Dorsal 

view of living 

Holotype. 



Okenia mija Burn. 

Figure 5. — Right 
dorso-lateral view of 
preserved Paratype. 




REFERENCES 

Alder, J. and Hancock, A., 1845-1855. — A Monograph of the British 
Nudibranchiate Mollusca, Pts. 1-7, 438 pp., 84 pis. London 
(Ray Society). 

Baba, K., 1940. — Some additions to the Nudibranch fauna of the northern 
part of Japan. Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan, 10(6): 103-111. 

, 1949. — Opisthobranchia of Sagami Bay etc. 194 + 7 pp., 50 pis. 

Tokyo (Iwanami Shoten). 

, 1960. — The genera Okenia, Goniodoridiella and Goniodoris 

from Japan. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 8(1): 79-83, pi. 7-8. 

Bergh, R., 1902. — Dan. Exp. Siam. I. Gasteropoda opisthobranchiata. 
Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skr., nat. (6), 12(2): 159-218, pi. 1-3. 

Burn, R., 1958. — Further Victorian Opisthobranchia. /. Malac. Soc. 
Aust., 2: 20-36, pi. 6-7. 

— , 1961a. — Drepaniella mapae gen. et spec, nov., a new Gonidoridid 

Nudibranch from south-eastern Australia. Veliger, 3(4): 102-104. 

, 1961b. — Eucrairia nom. nov. for Drepaniella Burn. Veliger, 

4(1): 51. 

Eliot, C, 1910. — A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca, 
8 (Suppl.). 198 pp., 8 pis. London (Ray Society). 

Hamatani, I., 1961. — Preliminary account of a new species of Okenia 
from Osaka Bay, Japan. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab., 9(2): 363-365. 

Lance, J., 1966. — New distributional records of some North-eastern Pacific 
Opisthobranchiata with descriptions of two new species. Veliger, 
9(1): 69-81. 

Macnae, W., 1958. — The families Polyceridae and Goniodorididae in 
southern Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr., 35(4): 341-372, pi. 
17-18. 

Marcus, E., 1957. — On Opisthobranchia from Brazil (2). /. Linn. Soc. 
London, Zool., 43: 390-486. 

Marcus, E. and E., 1960. — Opisthobranchs from American Atlantic 
warm waters. Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Caribb., 10(2): 129-203. 

Pruvot-Fol, A., 1954. — Faune de France, 58: Mollusques Opisthobranches, 
460 pp., pi. 1. Paris (Paul Lechevalier). 

Smallwood, W., 1910. — Notes on the hydroids and nudibranchs of 
Bermuda. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1910: 137-145. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES X-XI 

Plate X. Okenia pellucida sp. nov., dorsal view of the fully expanded 
crawling animal (fifteen times natural size). 

Plate XI, fig. 1. Part of a colony of the Polyzoan, Zoobotryon pellucidus, 
on which up to 12 slugs w.ere feeding (one-quarter natural size). 

Plate XI, fig. 2. Egg strings of Okenia pellucida laid on Zoobotryon (three 
times natural size). 

Photographs: Isobel Bennett and F. G. Myers. 



57 



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58 



LIFE ON A SAND BEACH 

From the Diary of Melbourne Ward 

On the northern side of Lindeman Island in Queensland, the 
jungle-covered hills slope precipitously to the sea extending out as 
promontories between which are curving bays each with sand beaches. 
The fringing coral reefs form a platform extending seaward and joining 
up each headland so that at low water the bays dry out leaving flat 
sand and silt beaches over which one may wander and pry into the 
lives of myriads of strange denizens of the sea. 

Let us imagine ourselves on one of the beaches. The dark green 
jungle is at our backs. High above our heads the fleecy clouds sail 
majestically across a sky as blue as our ocean. Each cloud seems to 
detach itself from the high hills as though belched forth by a volcano. 
We feel no breeze, only the soothing warmth of the sun. Before us are 
the steeply sloping beach and gently lapping waves. The tide is on the fall 
but has not yet left the steep beach which has been built up by 
successive storms. Far out over the rippling waters the sphinx-like form of 
Lion Island raises its lofty head, an age old sentinel of the islands. 
Far back in the jungle a white cockatoo sets up its discordant squall lasting 
for a few moments and then all the world seems to be plunged again 
into a reverie of sunshine and gently lapping waves. 

Foraging silver gulls wheel to and fro across the narrow bay, their 
sharp eyes searching the sunny water for unwary fish or the bodies of 
sea creatures which have succumbed to the unrelenting rigour of their 
environment. Beneath the surface of the sparkling wavelets, voracious 
shovel-nosed rays patrol the sand, feeding upon the luckless dwellers who 
have prematurely risen to the surface. Life in this tranquil bay seethes 
and struggles, each form of animal preying upon the other in a 
vicious circle. 

The first sign of life which we come upon as we stroll along the 
high tide line is a round hole with a mass of excavated sand lying in 
front of it. Let us sit down beside the burrow and keep perfectly still. 
In a few minutes the long white and brown legs of a Ghost Crab appear 
suddenly and an eye of extraordinary length is raised, the crab remains 
thus poised for some seconds and then rushes a short distance into the 
open, its thick body raised high above the sand; it flings a pellet of 
sand which it has been carrying pressed between its big nipper and 
the front of its body, and then, as though terrified at its own audacity, 
flashes back and down the burrow. While it is down below digging more 
sand from its burrow, let me gossip a little about its habits. 

Those long cylindrical eyes with their permanently surprised expres- 
sion are made up of thousands of tiny facets which look like the panes 
in a leadlight window. Each is connected to a central ganglion by a 
thin nerve and it is said that each little facet picks up a portion of 
the surroundings, and that a mosaic picture is projected in the central 
nerve. Each eye sees the whole landscape and yet the crab does not 
differentiate between a flying gull and a piece of wind blown paper or 
leaves. While it is down the burrow I place my foot gently, right beside 
the burrow mouth and as the crab comes out with more sand it examines 
my foot with evident curiousity, touching it with its nipper and walking 
over it. If I blink my eyes the crab darts down its burrow again. It 
would seem then that the danger signal is movement, rocks and trees 
and all stationary objects are not to be feared. The walls of the burrow 
are kept from falling in by the crab pressing its rounded back against 
the walls and we can see it straining against one wall by pushing against 
the opposite side with its nippers. 

59 



Ghost Crabs play an important part in the economy of the beach; 
they are active and tireless scavengers. They also obtain a large amount 
of food by scraping the surface sand below high water mark, passing 
the sand through the mouth parts and at the same time extracting the 
microscopic wayfarers which have been left by the receding tide. 

During the day Ghost Crabs usually remain close to their burrows 
and any excursions from their havens of refuge are made with lightning 
speed. They rely upon their protective coloration, for when surprised at a 
distance from the burrow the crab will press itself close to the sand and 
remain perfectly motionless until such time as the way to the burrow 
is clear. If the crab has gone too far from its burrow it will dash into 
the water and bury itself in the wash of the waves. At night they leave 
their burrows and make for the sea, one can see them with the aid of 
a torch as they enter the water to moisten their gills. Some say that 
these crabs are phosphorescent but I have not observed the phenomenon 
personally; their coloration at night is different from that of the daytime. 

The species we have been observing on the Lindeman beach, 
Ocypoda ceratophthalma, has a sound-producing organ with which it emits 
a noise rather like a cricket's. There is a long line of granules on the 
inner surface of the larger hand which plays across a single ridge at 
the base of the nipper, thus producing a grating sound. This form of 
sound organ occurs not uncommonly amongst the crabs and their allies 
as we will see when we eventually get onto the sand flats away from 
the shore. 

While I have been gossiping beside this crab burrow the tide has 
been rapidly falling and we may now set out for the next sand dwellers. 
At the foot of the steep beach we come upon very small vertical burrows; 
the surrounding surface is covered with pellets which are in rows, 
radiating in all directions from the burrow mouth. This is the work 
of a small crab called the Sand Bubbler, Scopimera inflata. It has extra- 
ordinarily enlarged mouth-parts into which it shoves the sand with its 
nippers, using a surprisingly rapid alternate movement, tossing the sand 
away over its back in the form of a pellet or bubble. It moves sideways 
away from the burrow as it feeds and, like its relative the Ghost Crab, 
will dart away to safety when disturbed. It soon rises to the surface 
again and starts to feed once more, but in a different direction, thus 
forming the often radiating lines of pellets. 

The Sand Bubbler, in common with the Ghost Crab and other 
related forms living an amphibious existence, has a secondary method of 
obtaining water for respiration. As well as the usual method of drawing 
water in at the base of the nippers, circulating it through the gill chambers 
and out at the mouth, the secondary method is to draw the water from 
wet sand through special apertures placed between the walking legs, a 
single aperture on each side of the body. The crab presses itself against the 
sand and absorbs the moisture, all sand grains being sieved out by 
bunches of stiff hairs placed around the apertures. 

Close by the Sand Bubbler we see small narrow, deep trenches with 
no evidence of life. By digging at the ends of the trench we will find a 
small white bivalve mollusc rather like a pipi. It digs its way through the 
sand with its tongue-shaped foot and forms a basic food of the carnivorous 
denizens. 

We leave the coarse sand of the steep beach and enter upon the 
exposed wave-ribbed area. Through the surface silt dozens of small, 
fast-moving Nassa snails travel with their questing siphons held erect before 
them. Several have found a small stranded jelly fish and are hard at 
work feeding upon it, each has thrust its proboscis or feeding tube into 
the victim and we can see the round aperture enlarging and reducing 
like an iris diaphragm as the jelly is sucked in. The feeding proboscis of 

60 



these small molluscs is much larger than the siphon which is only used 
in respiration and as the ghoulish feast is indulged in it is directed away 
from the victim. 

Another of the snails, Natica, extrudes an enormous foot covering 
a much larger area than the shell and the whole animal ploughs its way 
just below the level of the surface silt and we see them first as a 
moving mound of silt. These snails lay their eggs in a curious collar shaped 
mass known as a nidus which is made up not only of eggs but sand 
grains as well. 

As we walk we will notice broad shallow depressions in the smooth 
surface of the silt, so formed that one can realise that whatever is 
responsible for them is moving, though very slowly. Upon digging, we 
find the curious flat biscuit urchin whose spines are as fine hairs. On 
the upper surface we can trace the outline of a star. The colony of biscuit 
urchins is quite close to the steep beach and many are to be seen, or 
their presence detected, by the shallow pits mentioned. Their progress 
through the sand is accomplished with the aid of the coat of fine spines. 

Everywhere over the sand and especially in the shallow pools left 
by the tide, are dozens of small hermit crabs, Diogenes sp., scuttling 
along and joining in feasts upon dead animals side by side with the 
rapacious Nassa. The love affairs of these small hermits are tempestuous, 
one will frequently see the impetuous male dragging the female along by 
the nipper. They often bury themselves in the sand along with their 
mollusc shell home. Several larger hermit crabs occur and have their 
legs striped with green and yellow, these are Clibanarius taeniatus M. Edw. 

As we progress across the flat we come upon patches of short, fine 
Eel Grass, Zostera, and if we pause and look ahead of us we can see 
dozens of pairs of small stalk eyes thrust up and the moving forms of 
small crabs, Macrophthalmus sp. These dig sloping burrows in shallow 
depressions where small pools are left. Their bodies are very wide 
and adapted to a burrowing existence. They feed upon the microscopic 
life deposited near the burrow. 

The faint sounds of tiny lives rise to our ears from the sands; 
mysterious clickings and tiny subterranean gurglings here and there 
are from low volcano-like mounds from the craters of which black sand 
and water gush periodically like minute eruptions, though merely caused 
by a large worm. 

Where sheets of very shallow water are retained we will notice 
three small circular apertures placed close together and surrounded by 
a little mound of silt; as our tread shakes the sand these apertures suddenly 
close and leave no trace in the surface. There is quite a large colony 
of these strange disappearing holes and if we examine them we will 
find the Tongue Shell, Lingula, which in the true sense of the term is 
not a shell. Zoologists seem to be divided in their opinion as to the 
relationship of these retiring creatures; some place them near a worm 
called Sipunculus. They belong to a very ancient order of animals 
which were far more numerous in the primordial seas than they appear 
to be today. Lingula is unique in its tribe in that it inhabits sand flats 
instead of being attached to solid objects. Now let us dig one out. The 
set of three holes disappears from the surface and we find upon digging 
that there is a perpendicular burrow formed to accommodate the 
narrow, flat, elongate shell. The broad burrow extends downward four or 
five inches and we find the shell at the bottom whence it has been 
drawn by the muscular stalk upon which it is attached. Below it, the 
burrow can only accommodate the stalk and the walls of this lower 
burrow have been somewhat hardened to give a grip to the stalk, 
while the walls of the upper broad burrow are held in place by a 
mucous secretion. 

61 



Lingula spends its adult life within the burrow, rising to the surface, 
protruding the bristle-protected tips of its shell above the level of 
the sand and drawing the water down the outside holes, exhaling through 
the central one. One species has been found to be bisexual or having 
each individual of one sex only. In that species the sperm and ova 
are formed in a simple fashion and extruded into the water for fertilization, 
an apparently haphazard method at first sight, but when it is realized 
that Lingula is a gregarious animal one will understand that the chances 
for the future welfare of the species are really much better than the 
method might at first suggest. 

Examine one of the shells we have dug out. We find it a long, 
flat bivalve shell, about as large as my thumb though not as thick. 
The valves are flattened and close neatly, the sides are parallel and 
taper abruptly to meet the worm-like stalk. The actual composition of 
the shell is different from molluscan shells in that it is formed for the 
most part of chitin, a substance used to build up the bodies of insects 
and crustaceans, whereas molluscan shells are of lime. 

Some authorities say that Lingula and its allies have existed for 
countless ages largely on account of their being useless as food, though 
it is recorded that almost one hundred years ago they were used by 
the natives at Manila as food. They appear to have been very numerous 
there at that time, for one man records collecting 20 bushels of them on a 
beach after a storm. 

By this time we have reached the edge of the water and although 
the sand is crawling with small shells and hermit crabs our attention 
is drawn by a curious tree-like creature, brown in colour, standing 
almost a foot above the sand. It is situated in the centre of a shallow 
crater. Its lowest branches are widest and the remainder taper away 
toward the top, the whole creature is reminiscent of a densely foliaged 
pine tree. Actually it is an animal, the Stinging Anemone, and on being 
disturbed it retracts itself into the sand with surprising speed. The sting 
cells with which it is armed are extremely powerful, having a painful 
effect upon a human being. Another anemone lives on the sand and 
appears flat upon the surface, spreading the top of its body into a 
disc; its tentacles are very minute. 

A large shell inhabits this area and spends its life partially buried 
in the sand. It is known as the Pinna or razor clam, and is a bivalve. 
It is narrowly triangular in outline and is held in place by a bunch 
of fibrous threads attached to a stone or piece of coral. These threads 
occur in other genera and were used by the ancient Greeks and Romans 
to make fishing lines. 

Upon opening the Pinna we find a pair of commensal crabs, 
Pinnotheres, living within the body cavity. The crabs are pale yellowish- 
white in colour and their exoskeleton is very thin and fragile. The female 
is larger than the male and has the abdomen enormously enlarged to 
receive the extruded eggs. The eyes are rudimentary and the whole adult 
life of the crab is spent within the body of a host. 

The curious coral, Pennatulid or sea pen occurs hereabouts; at a 
distance it looks like a twig stuck in the sand and its removal proves 
quite a difficult problem. The lower part of the colony can be inflated to 
form a secure anchor and one must pull hard in order to extricate it. The 
fronds of the colony are small and only one form has been observed so 
far at Lindeman Island. I remember collecting several distinct species 
at Cape York and upon one of these I found the commensal Porcellanella 
triloba, a small elongate porcelain crab, occurring in pairs, the females 
larger than the males. The host had broad, flat fronds which partially 
hid the crabs. 

The agile crabs found in a few inches of water on the Lindeman flats 
are of considerable interest, all are carnivorous and fierce and as we 

62 



walk through the water we continually disturb them. The most common 
are the young of the common edible crab, Portunus pelagicus, these wander 
over the sand occasionally excavating burrows under dead coral blocks. 
Usually they have their lairs amongst the rocky shores bordering the 
beaches to which they retreat upon being disturbed. The most beautiful 
of the sand crabs, however, is Matuta. They appear to be gliding over the 
sand with a half swimming half walking movement, stopping ever and 
anon to investigate some small object. The body of Matuta is circular in 
outline, somewhat flattened with a sharp spine on each side. All the 
walking legs are flattened to expedite its digging into the sand. This 
crab buries itself under the sand with extraordinary speed, one moment 
it is walking quietly along, the next it gives a Spasmodic jerk 
of all the walking legs and disappears. While buried, Matuta obtains 
water for the gills by drawing it down a small aperture in the floor 
of the eye-socket, then over a surface of the body against which the 
nippers are closely applied and the sand grains are strained out by the 
stiff hairs on the surface of the body and nippers. They have sound- 
producing organs on the nippers and under surface of the body resembling 
those described for the Ghost Crab, but the ridges are smaller and placed 
on both nippers instead of on one. We find in our rambling over the 
sand flats that Matuta are more apparent, moving about in search of 
food as the tide nears the full extent of its ebb, and do not appear on 
a rising tide, probably because of the voracious shovel-nosed rays which 
glide shorewards with the rapidly inflowing water. 

Another of the beautiful denizens of the sand flat is a tube building 
worm. Some of these build a chimney-like case, an inch or more in 
diameter, rising several inches above the sand and formed of a silky 
material, black in colour and having the outside covered with silt. Into 
the water the worm protrudes a mass of tapering tentacles resembling 
a chrysanthemum bloom. Each tentacle is cylindrical and smooth and 
the whole mass is retracted into the tube when the worm is disturbed. 

One of the most retiring and rare denizens of the flat is a giant 
mantis shrimp, Squilla sp., whose burrows extend vertically into the sand. 
The mouth of the burrow is smaller than the burrow itself and the 
margin is formed of a thin layer of sand held in place by mucous 
secretion. The burrow is wide enough to allow one's forearm to be 
trust down without disturbing the walls. The Mantis Shrimp stations 
itself at the top of the burrow, thrusting its eyes and antennae above the 
surface. From this vantage point it will pounce upon a passing fish, 
seize it with its powerful forelimbs and retreat into its refuge again, 
drawing the captured fish in after it. I have seen garfish over one foot 
long partially drawn down the burrow. 

Associated with the Squilla is a unique bivalve mollusc which does 
not develop protecting shells, but lives a commensal existence on the 
walls of the mantis shrimp's burrow. The Squilla itself is a strange looking 
animal, its body divided into two main portions, the hinder being by 
far the longer of the two; the small anterior portion carries the eyes, 
sensory organs, mouth-parts, and the huge raptorial limbs resembling 
those of the mantis, with which the prey is seized. Unlike the prawns 
and lobsters in which the gills are carried in the anterior portion of 
the body, the Squilla has the gills attached to the leaf-like swimming 
appendages on the under surface of the abdomen. The tail or telson is fan- 
shaped and armed with sharp spines. The water is aerated in the burrow 
by the continual beating of the swimming appendages which create a 
current. 

Since writing these notes upon the burrows built by Squilla I have 
dug out several and find that the burrows are vertical for about 18 inches, 
then take a sharp turn and continue on parallel with the surface. After 
extending for almost six feet the burrow branches into two, and these 
are under submerged masses of corals. During the process of excavation 

63 



the Squilla created a powerful current in order to clear the fine sand which 
was falling into the burrow. On several occasions I tried introducing 
various heavy chemicals into the burrow with an idea of dislodging 
it but failed at each attempt, probably on account of the shape of the 
tube and the strong current of water maintained by the Squilla. 

In certain parts of the sand flat the narrow tubes of the Horseshoe 
Worm, Chaetopterus, are to be seen. The ends stand two or three 
inches above the sand and taper to a very narrow opening at the top. 
We find them standing six or eight inches apart and upon carefully 
digging, discover they belong to one horseshoe-shaped fragile tube. The 
worm is delicately formed and lies in the bottom of the tube. Two crabs, 
Polyonyx transversus, usually found in association dwelling within the 
tube appear to get in when the crab is very small. These crabs are 
capable of folding the nippers and legs so that they can move up and 
down the narrow tube, but cannot pass out of the narrow openings. 
Competing in this association is a small crab, Lambdophallus, modified 
for its peculiar existence being much broader than long and barrel-shaped 
to allow easy movement in the tube. The strangest thing about this 
crab is the fewer pairs of walking legs than usual amongst crabs. The 
group is known, in a broad sense, as Decapoda, or ten-legged, but in 
Lambdophallus and several other allied genera the pairs of walking legs 
are reduced to three pairs instead of four and the last pair are the 
longest. Lambdophallus was first described by Alcock from Indian Seas 
and it is interesting to observe the genus from Australian flats. 

Females of Lambdophallus have stridulating ridges or sound-producing 
organs situated upon each hand; the sound is produced in a manner similar 
to that of Matuta, a quick rubbing movement of the hands against the 
under surface of the body. 

In some parts of the flat we find an extraordinary octopus lying upon 
the surface of the sand in shallow pools, spreading its tentacles over 
the surface, like the spokes of a wheel. Its body is very small, about 
the size of the last joint of one's little finger, but the tentacles are at 
least eight inches long and very slender. When disturbed the octopus 
vanishes quickly down a burrow in the sand. The limbs are extra- 
ordinarily fragile and are easily detached in handling the creature, the 
cast tentacle wriggles about for some time, having the appearance of 
an agitated worm. 

If we are lucky we may find the giant Bailer shell, Melo amphora, 
wandering along the surface or half buried under the sand. It feeds 
upon other molluscs and I have found several in the act of killing 
the Spider Shell, Lambis lambis. The other giant mollusc is known locally 
as the Bugle Shell, Syrinx aruanus, and is found on the sand near the 
inner edge of the fringing reef. Like Melo it feeds upon other mollusca 
and I have also found one which had caught one of the great worms 
and was feeding upon it, the shell was almost entirely buried in the 
sand in its pursuit of the worm. 

As we pass one of the stinging anemones we may notice one of the 
biscuit urchins lying upon its back close to the anemone and if we 
turn it over we find an extraordinary crab underneath. This is called 
the man-faced crab, Dorippe, on account of the perfect replica of a 
Japanese mask upon its back. The crab has the last two pairs of walking 
legs directed over the back so that foreign objects such as shells, sea 
stars or urchins may be held as a covering over the crab. This is made 
possible by the subchelate form of the last two portions of the walking 
legs. 

Where Zostera abounds we may find several interesting spider crabs. 
After the tide has left, the flat small pools occur, filled with Zostera, 
and by combing the weed and surface silt with the hands we find two 
long armed crabs, Rhinolambrus and Aulacolambrus. The first is masked 

64 



with a light coating of silt and the crab moves very slowly so that it is 
perceived with difficulty. Aulacolambrus is flatter and is covered with a 
dense coating of silt and lies buried in the surface silt. It has a highly 
specialised method of respiring on the same principle as the box crab, 
Calappa. Rhinolambrus appears to be the commoner of the two, but 
both are different species from the related Parthenopids found in deep 
water. 

The event which I am now going to describe has something of the 
unbelievable in it, reminiscent of a Walt Disney film. A friend of mine 
living in Cairns had taken up moving picture photography, using a large 
aquarium tank. He would set his camera facing the glass, put some 
strange marine animals in the water and then set his camera going as the 
action developed within his small section of submarine world. 

On one occasion he had obtained two hermit crabs, Dardanus 
megistos. One was larger than the other and by a lucky coincidence 
the larger of the two was carrying a shell slightly small for its size, 
the other smaller crab had a shell too large. When he dropped them 
in the tank both crabs drew back into their shells; he started his camera 
off as they began to emerge. 

There is always something ludicrous in the "pop eyed" expression 
of a hermit crab and these two were laughable. After a few moments 
of looking about, the larger crab caught sight of the smaller one and 
seemed to realize that its shell was too large for it so scuttled over 
to have a closer view. The little hermit shot back out of sight and the 
big one put its eyes into the mouth of the shell as though making sure 
that it had seen alright. Apparently convinced that there was a crab 
inside, the big one stood back and seemed to cogitate, then deciding that 
the shell was more commodious than its own, it began to expel the 
small owner. Grasping the rim of the shell with its great nipper, it 
lifted it off the bottom of the tank and gave it a tentative shake. The 
small occupant stayed well out of sight. The big crab took another 
peep inside, followed by another shake more vigorous than the first. 
Still the owner refused to vacate, so after another pause the larger crab, 
still holding the smaller shell, began shovelling sand into the beleagured 
home much to the discomfort of the owner, who showed its agitation 
by waving the ends of the walking legs. 

The hermit crabs carry long, soft, rather worm-like tails which 
have to be protected, and the coarse coral sand was obviously very 
irritating to the owner of the disputed shell. In fact only a few "handfuls" 
of sand and some vigorous shaking were needed to make it pop suddenly 
out into the open and scuttle off to the shelter of a nearby mass of dead 
coral. 

The victorious crab stood motionless for a few moments and seemed 
to be making sure that the coast was clear. He carefully upended the 
shell to get rid of the sand grains which had proved the undoing of 
the previous owner, then, quick as a flash, he pulled his own tail out 
of his own shell and inserted it into the new, larger shelter and settled 
in. My friend's camera only just caught the entire action, the film 
giving out as the big bully settled in. 

Years later while visiting Heron Island in Queensland, I did a 
considerable amount of night collecting on the reef and the hermit crabs 
moved about in numbers in the dark. At the time of my visit there 
were many specimens of a sea star scattered among the crabs; most of 
these stars were damaged, with new legs growing, but all displayed 
evidence of mutilation and I wondered what the cause might be. On 
my first night on the reef I discovered that the big hermit crabs, Dardanus 
megistos, were commonly seen holding the stars and cutting the arms off 
and eating them. 

65 



SYDNEY CAPTURES OF THE BUFF-BANDED HAWK-MOTH 
HERSE GODARTI, W. S. MACLEAY, 1827. 

By L. Courtney Haines 
(Honorary Associate (Lepidoptera), Australian Museum). 

(Plate XII) 



The Buff-banded Hawk-moth, more generally known to the moth 
collecting fraternity as Godart's Hawk, has always been regarded as a 
northern "thing"; and an examination of the labels attached to specimens 
housed in Australian Museum cabinets certainly seems to suggest that 
this rather fine hawk-moth has indeed a liking for the warmer parts of 
our continent. In Queensland, specimens have been taken at Cunnamulla, 
Carnarvon, Bulimba, Eidsvold, Kensington Downs, and Gordonvale; 
while in New South Wales several captures only have been made: one 
at Buck's Creek near Cangai, upper Clarence River, collectors D. K. 
McAlpine and R. Lossin; and four at Murrurundi, collector Dr. B. L. 
Middleton. 

I now wish to place on record the capture of two specimens of 
Herse godarti in the Pittwater District, 20 miles north of the City of 
Sydney, and the taking of one specimen in Sydney itself. 

On November 20th, 1965, that very keen lepidopterist, Mr. Donald 
Sands of Newport, pill-boxed a female godarti which had been attracted 
to his home mothing-lamp. This specimen, in nearly perfect condition 
was very kindly photographed for me by Mr. C. V. Turner of the 
Australian Museum, and now serves to illustrate this paper. 

A second capture of this species, also a female, but in slightly 
worn condition was made by myself at light on February 1st, 1966, at 
Bayview. 

The third specimen, a male, and reasonably presentable in appearance 
was collected on February 5th, 1966 by a Mr. C. Yeo in Balmain, 
Sydney. Mr. Yeo was interested enough to take his remarkable capture 
along to the Australian Museum for identification. 

There is no doubt that H. godarti could possibly be overlooked by 
collectors; for when viewed in the rays of artificial light such as those 
produced by the Mercury Vapour lamp, one cannot detect the buff 
markings on the abdomen and wings, which instantly distinguish godarti 
from the closely allied pink marked H. convolvuli, the latter being a 
common Sydney species. 

The Newport and Bayview specimens are both in the author's 
private moth-collection. 

The Balmain specimen is in the Australian Museum moth-collection. 

Acknowledgements 

I would like to thank Mr. D. K. McAlpine, M.Sc, Assistant Curator 
of Entomology, Australian Museum, and Mr. C. V. Turner, assistant 
photographer, Australian Museum, for their very kind help. 

References 

Seitz, A., 1933-34. — Macrolepidoptera of the World — Indo-Australian 
Sphinges, 10, pp. 528 (text) and 60 (plate). 

Wagner, H.,' 1913. — Lepidopterarum Catalogus. Sphingidae: Subfamily 
Acherontiinae, p. 5. 

66 



BOOK REVIEW 



Australian Birds in Colour, by Keith Hindwood — Published by A. H. and 
A. W. Reed, Sydney — Wellington— Auckland. Price $3.25. 

This book consists of 52 coloured photos mostly of the smaller 
passerines, some of which will not be readily observed by bird-watchers. 
However when the text is examined besides the information on habits and 
breeding of the species illustrated, much information is given on the 
whole group to which the bird belongs. Their distribution inside and 
outside Australia is also given so that an idea is obtained on how the 
birds fit into the Avifauna of the world. 

Much of the information on habits and plumage is not yet to be 
found in any other book. 

The photos chosen, and taken by eleven different photographers, 
are mostly taken with the aid of flash. The printed reproductions of 
the colours are very good, even the exact colours of the soft parts, 
like the legs and irises can be seen. 

There are also many interesting historical notes and it is felt this 
book should be on the bookshelf of all interested in Australian birds. 



H. J. de S. DISNEY. 



67 



Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 1965-66 

REGISTER OF MEMBERS 

A list of members appeared in the Proceedings for 1964-65. The 
following is a list of new members who have been elected since and 
new addresses of older members. 

New Members 
Abbott, Mr. I. J., 14 Makinson Street, Gladesville. 
Auld, Mr. P. M., 553 Port Hacking Road, Caringbah. 
Baker, Prof. C. B., 5 Cross Street, Mosman. 
Broardsmith, Mrs. G. V., 81 Raglan Street, Mosman. 
Cam, Master G R., 59 Madgala Road, North Ryde. 
Carter, Mr. A. P. B., 5 Ruby Street, Mosman. 
Chapman, Mr. W. S., David Street, Old Bar via Taree, N.S.W. 
D'Apice, Mr. J. W., 5 Telegraph Road, Pymble. 
Gates, Mr. M. A. G., 31 Midlothian Avenue, Beverly Hills. 
Gillham, Mr. T. M., 42 Norma Road, Palm Beach, N.S.W. 
Hrdina, Miss F. C, Flat 6, 47 Bent Street, Paddington. 
Inglis, Mrs. J. R., 404 Princes Highway Blakehurst. 
Jex, Mrs. C. B., 23 Prince Albert Street, Mosman. 
Jobson, Mr. A. E., 9 Bradley's Head Road, Mosman. 
Kuiter, Mr. R. H., 27 Buckingham Street, Sydney. 
Lucey, Master D. J., 14 McKinnon Avenue, Padstow. 
McRae, Mrs. E. L., 1 Bradley's Head Road, Mosman. 
Moore, Mr. R., 17 Bain Place, Dundas. 
Newman, Mr. R. O. M., 41 Redan Street, Mosman. 
Pyke, Mr. G. H., 13 Havilah Street, Chatswood. 
Riddell, Mr. T. L., 19 Rickard Avenue, Mosman. 
Roberts, Miss J. R., 27 Bay Street, Mosman. 
Sandifort, Mr. A. F., 7 Ireton Street, Malabar. 
Trenerry, Mr. W. L., 3/48 Middle Head Road, Mosman. 
van Brink, Mrs. R. C, 19 Kirkoswald Street, Mosman. 
van't Hoff, Mrs. M. R., 13a Whiting Beach Road, Mosman. 
Weakley, Miss C. E., 44 Hopetoun Avenue, Vaucluse. 

Juniors 
Bishop, Master R., 54 Tobruk Avenue, Cremorne. 
D'Apice, Master J., 5 Telegraph Road, Pymble. 
van't HofF, Master N. H., 13a Whiting Beach Road, Mosman. 

Alterations in Addresses (as at the end of 1966) 
Burns, Mr. W. J., 495 Main Road, Trentham, Upper Hutt City, N.Z. 
Cook, Mr. J. E., 20 Achilles Road, Engadine, N.S.W 
Connell, Mrs. E., 65 Mountview Avenue, Beverly Hills. 
Day, Mrs. C. S. D., 47 Gordon Road, Long Jetty. 
Francis, Mr. J. J., P.O. Box 35, Gymea. 
Goodrick, Mr. C. B., 15 Victoria Street, Katoomba. 
Gray, Mrs. S. E., 165 George Street, Rockhampton, Qld. 
Greenup, Mr. L. R., Unit 15, 50 Solander Street, Brighton-le-Sands. 
Griffin, Dr. D. J. G., c/- Australian Museum, P.O. Box A285, Sydney 

South. 
Healy, Mr. A., 42 Bristol Street, Merrylands. 
Hoffmann, Mr. G. F., P.O. Box 14, Cammeray. 
Hunt, Mr. A. C, Murrlumbing Station, Charters Towers, Qld. 
King, Mr. R. C, Public School, Menangle. 
McDonald, Miss P., 33 Holdsworth Street, Neutral Bay. 

68 



McDonald, Mr. R. W., 24/45 Walker Street, Redfern. 

Mackay, Mr. R. D., Papua and New Guinea Museum, c/o Supreme Court, 

Port Moresby, Papua. 
Nardi, Miss L. A., 52 Fitzroy Place, 204 Jersey Road, Woollahra. 
Oldham, Mr. R. V., 20 Woodcliffe Crescent, Woody Point, Qld. 
Paterson, The Hon. J. G., 21 Kardinia Avenue, Mosman. 
Rogers, Miss A. J., 15/216 Blue's Point Road, North Sydney. 
Schluter, Miss Y., 7 Albert Street, Edgecliff. 
Sharland, Mr. S. R., 1 Erina Place, Hobart, Tas. 
Slater, Mr. K. R., c/o Animal Industry Branch, Northern Territory 

Administration, Alice Springs, N.T. 
Webster, Sir Robert, 2 Buena Vista Avenue. Mosman. 
Weingott, Mr. L., 5 Durham Street, Hunters Hill. 
Wilson, Mr. H. H., 3 Warrawidgee Road, Villawood. 
Young, Mr. D., 4 Jason Place, North Rocks. 

Removed from Register 
Allan, Miss Joyce K., 72 Cremorne Road, Cremorne. 
Blackmore, Miss S. M., 26 O'Connell Street, Sydney. 
Brezzo, Mr. V. K., 12 Bueno Vista Avenue, Clifton Gardens. 
Clayton, Mr. N. A., 87 Albert Drive, Killara. 
Dawson, Mr. J. B., 92 Johnson Avenue, Seven Hills. 
Dowling, Mr. W. McK., "Canningalla", Bandon Grove, via Dungog. 
Fletcher, Mr. G. H., Barker College Junior School, Hornsby. 
George, Dr. C. W., 2 Edwards Bay Road, Mosman. 
Halloran, Dr. Aubrey, 38 Brighton Boulevarde, Bondi. 
Hardy, Mr. G. H., 68 Cliff Avenue, Northbridge. 
Jones, Mr. C. N., Unit 2, 64 Thorn Street, Kangaroo Point, Brisbane, 

Qld. 
Keeling, Mr. A. J., 17 Silex Road, Mosman. 
Lewis, Mr. G. O., 273 Dora Street, Hurstville. 
Macdonald, H. A., 2 Milton Avenue, Mosman. 
Morris, Mr. E. G., 762 King Georges Road, Penshurst. 
Morris, Mrs. N. D., 762 King Georges Road, Penshurst. 
Parker, Mr. B. S., P.O. Box 109 City, Canberra, A.C.T. 
Rogers, Miss E., c/- Ludowici & Caldwell, 57 York Street, Sydney. 
Thompson, Mr. J. C, 45 McLachlan Avenue, Rushcutter's Bay. 
Thompson, Mrs. I., 45 McLachlan Avenue, Rushcutter's Bay. 
Vance, L. W., 14 Lennox Street, Mosman. 
Vance, Miss A. L., 14 Lennox Street, Mosman. 
Walsh, Miss J., 20 Fletcher Street, Bondi. 

Ward. Melbourne, Gallery of Natural History & Native Art, Medlow Bath. 
Wheelright, Mr. A. H., "Rosedale", Narrawqua, Private Bas via Crookwell, 

N.S.W. 

Members are requested to inform the Honorary Secretary (Mrs. 
L. Z. Harford — telephone 55-1397), of any change of address. 

Authors alone are responsible for the opinions expressed and for 
the accuracy of the facts in their contributions. 



69 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate I 




Dr. Aubrey Halloran 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate II 




Miss Joyce Allan drawing a shark at the Australian Museum in 193: 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate 111 







Miss Joyce Allan 
Block by courtesy of the Malacological Society of Australia. 




Mr. and Mrs. Melbourne Ward outside their Museum on Lindeman 
Island, Queensland, in 1935. 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967), 



Plate IV 




Interior of Mel Ward's Museum, Lindeman Island. 



In background (left to right):- G. P. Whitley, Mel Ward and 
Professor W. J. Dakin. 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate V 




PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967) 



Plate VI 




pq 



-.^ Z? £ 



§^ 

- - >. cz 

O S . O 

OJ J- ^j 

? o 5-e t: 



Zx 

a 

a & 

o 



X 



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u 



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ill- 

o-s oc £ 
u *»* . x: 

(U -C: <*> "O 

322 . 



c/5 • "O 

.,£ c* 
£ s m ^ 



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>- vi aj 
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S o -S 



OkOS 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate VII 



1. William 
Sheridan Wall. 





2. Thomas Wall's tomb. From the original woodcut of 1854 in the 
Public Library, Sydney (For explanation, see page 44). 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate VIII 







[ 
[ 
[ 

I 



o 



Photo — C. V. Turner, 
Australian Museum. 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967) 



Plate IX 




Photo — C. V. Turner, 
Australian Museum. 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate X 




Okenia pellucida Burn. 
(Magnified fifteen times) 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). 



Plate XI 




Polyzoan, Zoobotrxon pellucidus. 




2. Egg-strings of Okenia pel I it ci da. 
(For explanation, see page 57). 



PROC. ROY. ZOOL. SOC. N.S.WALES, 1965-66 (1967). Plate XII 




o 



Photo — C. V. Turner, Australian Museum. 



ROYAL ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



MEMBERSHIP 

(The Society's year commences on 1st July) 
Fees are as follows: — 
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(Members joining after 1st January in any year pay one-half subscription). 

Life Associate Member $21.00 in one sum 

Life Member $42.00 „ „ „ 

f Elected for services 

<{to Australian Zoology 

[ or to the Society 

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Junior Members (aged 16 or under) 



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PRIVILEGES: 

Members of all classes may attend all meetings of the Society and its 
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and Aquarium, and twelve tickets each year, admitting 12 adults or 24 
children to the Park only. 

APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 

should be addressed to the Honorary Secretary, Royal Zoological Society of 
New South Wales, c/o Australian Museum, P.O. Box A.285, Sydney South, 

New South Wales. 



PUBLICATIONS 

The Australian Zoologist, published at irregular intervals since 1914. Thirteen 

volumes to date. 
Proceedings, published since 1933-34. 



AUSTRALIAN ZOOLOGICAL HANDBOOKS AND 

SPECIAL REPRINTS. 

"Bibliography of Australian Entomology, 1775-1930", by A. Musgrave, 1932. 
"A Check List of the Birds of Paradise and Bower Birds," by T. Iredale, 1948. 
"Revision of the New South Wales Turridae," by C. F. Laseron, 1954. 
"The Published Writings of Tom Iredale, with an Index of his new Scientific 

Names," by D. F. McMichael & G. P.. Whitley, 1956. 
"A Reclassification of the Order Odonata," by F. C. Fraser, 1957. 
"Dragonflies of Australia," by F. C. Fraser, 1960. 

Orders and enquiries should be sent to the Honorary Secretary, Royal 
Zoological Society of New South Wales, c/o Australian Museum, P.O. Box 
A.285, Sydney South, New South Wales. 



CONTENTS 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 

^.i l* -. •liiiiiiiiiiiiii r 

Annual Report 3 9088 01405 8531 ^ 

Office Bearers 3 

Balance Sheet 4 

Accounts 5 

Address : 

Nature Conservation in Australia, by V. Serventy 7 

Obituary Notices: 

Dr. Aubrey Halloran 10 

Miss Joyce Allan 12 

Mr. Melbourne Ward 15 

Reports of Sections, Committees, etc. 

Ornithological Section 27 

Ornithological Section Field Days 27 

Conchological Section 28 

Entomological Section 29 

Junior Section, 30 

First Report of Library Committee 30 

Report on National Trust Bush Fire Seminar 34 

Ashton Park Development 36 

Papers: 

William Sheridan Wall and the Australian Museum, by 

G. P. Whitley 42 

Chaetodon aphrodite the juvenile of Chaetodon flavirostris 

(Teleostei, Chaetodontidae), by B. Goldman 45 

Descriptions of two new species of Okenia (Nudibranchia, 

Doridacea) from south-eastern Australia, by R. Burn ... 52 

Life on a sand beach, by M. Ward 59 

Sydney captures of the buff-banded hawk-moth, Herse godarti, 

W. S. Macleay, 1827, by L. Courtney-Haines 66 

Special Announcements 58 

Book Review 67 

Register of Members 68 

PLATES I-XIL