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Full text of "Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society"

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PUBLISHED AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS 

HIBKRWlAr OaAMBHRB, LOKDON BaiDOI. B.E. 



PRIO' 




ILLIN08 AND SIXPENCE. 



PRESI0ENT R A"! 

fC. SPERRINO, E. $TEF?. 



AROHEH & CO,, PRINTE 




/ — ^t^ '-y' — .^^O 

THE SOUTH LONDON 

Entomological & Natural History Society 

(Established 1872) 

HiBERNiA Chambers, London Bridge, S.E. 1. 
OFFICERS 8L COUNCIL 

1928-29. 

E. A. COCKAYNE, D.M., A.M., Rlfe-^. 

H. W. ANDKEWS, F.E.S.V .^^^ 

T. H. L. GROSVENOR, F.E.S. ^^-j^. NATIOV;^^'''^''^ 

J. H. ADKIN. C. N. HAWKINS, F.E.S. 

F. B. CARR. W. RAIT-SMITH, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

A. W. DODS. C. SPERRING. 

A. de B. GOODMAN, F.E.S. W. H. T. TAMS, F.E.S. 

O. R. GOODMAN, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

S. R. ASHBY, F.E.S. E. E. SYMS., F.E.S. 

H. J. TURNER, F.E.S., " Latemar," West Drive, Cheam, Surrey. 

^an» ^x^a&\xxzx* 

A. E. TONGB, F.E.S., "Aincioft," Grammar School Hill, Reigate. 

S. EDWARDS, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S., etc. {General Sec), 

15, St. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3, 
S. J. TURNER, F.E.S., " Latemar," West Drive, Cheam, Smrey. 



THE 50UTH LONDON 

ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

HIBERNIA CHAMBERS, LONDON BRIDGE, S.E. 



The Society has for its object the diffusion of Biological Science, by 
means of Papers and Discussions, and the formation of Typical Collec- 
tions. There is a Library for the use of Members. Meetings of the 
Members are held on the 2nd and 4th Thursday evenings m each month, 
from Seven to Ten p.m., at the above address. The Society's Kooms are 
easy of access from all parts of London, and the Council cordially invites 
the co-operation of all Naturalists, especially those who are willing to 
further the objects of the Society by reading Papers and exhibiting 
Specimens. 

SUBSCRIPTION. 

Twelve Shillings and Sixpence per Annum, with an Entrance Fee of 
Two Shillings and Sixpence. 

All Communications to be addressed to the Hon. Gen. Secretary, 
STANLEY EDWARDS, F.L.S., Ac, 

15, St. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. 



PAST PRESIDENTS. 



1872-4. 
1875-6. 

1877 . 

1878 . 

1879 . 

1880 . 

1881 . 

1882 . 

1883 . 

1884 . 
1886 . 
1886-7. 
1888-9, 
1890 

1891 
1892 , 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 , 



J. R. Wellman (dec). 
A. B. Earn, F.E.S. (dec). 
J. P. Barrett, F.E.S. (dec). 
J. T. Williams (dec). 
R. Standen, F.E.S. (dec). 
A. FicKLiN (dec). 
V. R. Perkins, F.E.S. (dec). 
T. R. BiLLUPS, F.E.S. (dec). 
J. R. Wellman (dec). 
W. West, L.D.S. (dec). 
R. South, F.E.S. 
Adkin, F.E.S. 
R. BiLLUPS, F.E.S. (dec). 

T. Carrington, F.L.S. 

(dec.) 
W. H. TuGWELL, Ph.C. (dec.) 
C.G.Barrett, F.E.S. (dec) 
J. Weir, F.L.S. , etc (dec.) 

Step, F.L.S. 

W. Hall, F.E.S. 

South, F.E.S. 



R. 
T. 
J. 



J. 
E. 
T. 
R. 



1897 .. R. Adkin, F.E.S. 

1898 . . J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. (dec). 

1899 . . A. Harrison, F.L.S. (dec). 

1900 . . W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

1901 . . H. S. Fremlin, F.E.S., etc 

1902 . . F. NoAD Clark. 

1903 .. E. Step, F.L.S. 

1904 . . A. SiCH, F.E.S. 

1905 .. H. Main, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
1906-7.. R. Adkin, F.E.S. 
1908-9.. A. SicH, F.E.S. 
1910-11. W. J. Kaye, F.E.S. 
1912-13. A. E. Tonge, F.E.S. 
1914-15. B. H. Smith, B.A., F.E.S. 
1916-17. Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

1918-19. STANLEYEDWARDS,F.L.S.,etC 

1920-21. K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
1922 . . E. J. BuNNETT, M.A., F.E.S. 
1923-4.. N. D. Riley, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
1925-6.. T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S. 
1927 .. E. A. Cockayne, D.M., 

A.M., F.E.S. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Chief subjects of Study : — h, HymenopteraJ; o, Orthoptera ; he, Hemiptera; 
n, Neuroptera ; c, Coleoptera ; d, Diptera ; I, Lepidoptera ; ool, Oology ; orn, 
Ornithology ; r, Reptilia ; ;/t, MoUusca ; cr, Crustacea ; b, Botany ; mi. Microscopy ; 
ec. ent., Economic Entomology; e, signifies Exotic forms; trich, Trichoptera. 

Year of 

Electiok. 

1920 Abbot, S., 110, Inchmery Road, Catford, S.E. 6. I. 

1886 Adkin, B. W., F.E.S., "Trenoweth," Hope Park, Bromley, 

Kent. If orn. 
1922 Adkin, J. H., Hon, Lanternisty Council, " Ravenshoe," Furze 

Hill, Burgh Heath, Surrey. I. 
1882 Adkin, R., f.e.s., " Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne, l. 
1901 Adkin, R. A., " Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne, m. 

1925 Allder, R. C, 158, Broadfield Road, Catford, S.E.6. I. 
1928 Anderson, C. D., 22, Mount Park Road, Ealing, W.5. 

1907 Andrews, H. W., f.e.s., Vice-President, '• Woodside," 

6, Footscray Road, Eltham, S.E. 9. d. 
1901 Armstrong, Capt. R. R., b.a., b.c. (Cantab), f.r.c.s., f.r.c.p., 

3a, Newstead Road, Lee, S.E. 12. e, L 

1895 Ashby, S. R., f.e.s., Hon. Curator, 37, Hide Road, Head- 

stone, Harrow, c, I. 
1924 Atkinson, F., 4, Melrose Road, Wandsworth, S.W. 18- 

1896 Barnett, T. L., "The Lodge," Crohamhurst Place, Upper 

Selsdon Road, S. Croydon. I. 

1887 Barren, H. E., 78, Lyndhurst Road, Peckham, S.E. 15. I. 
1927 Bedwell, E. C, f.e.s., 54, Brighton Rd., Coulsdon, Surrey, c 

1924 Bird, Miss F. E., Willow Dene, Cromwell Avenue, Billericay, 

Essex, oni. 
1911 Blair, K. G., b.sc, f.e.s., " Claremont," 120, Sunningfields 

Road, Hendon, N.W. 4. ?i, c. 
1898 Bliss, Capt., M. F., m.c, m.r.c.s., l.r.o.p., f.e.s., Butlin's 

Hill, Braunton, near Rugby. I. 

1926 Bliss, A., " Musgrove," Brighton Road, Purley. 

1925 Blyth, S. F. p., " Cleveland," Chislehurst, Kent. I. 



IV 

Year of 
Election. 

1923 BoucK, Baron J. A., f.e.s., " Springfield," S. Godstone, 

Surrey. I. 

1909 Bowman, R. T., " Rockbourne," Keswick Road, Orpington, 

Kent. I. 
1919 Box, Lieut., L. A., f.e.s., 35, Gt. James Street, W.C.I, h. 
1909 Bright, P. M., f.e.s., " Colebrook Grange," 58, Christchurch 

Road, Bournemouth. I. 
1925 Brock, R. S., " Highclere," Oakleigh Park, Whetstone, N.20. 

h. 

1927 Brocklesby, S. H., " Long Lodge," Merton Park, S.W.19. I. 

1928 Brooklehurst, W. S., " Grove House," Bedford. I. 

1924 Brooke, Mrs. M. L., 48, Anerley Park, S.E.20. I. 

1909 BuoKSTONE, A. A. W., B07a, Kingston Road, West Wimble- 
don, S.W. 20. I. 

1927 Bull, G. V., b.a., f.e.s., m.b., " White Gables," Sandhurst, 

Kent. Z. 
1916 BuNNETT, E. J., M.A., 72, Colfe Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 23. 
mi. 

1922 BusHBY, L. C, F.E.S., 11, Park Grove, Bromley, Kent. I. 
1922 Candler, H., "Broad Eaves," Ashtead, Surrey. I, orn, b. 
1886 Carpenter, J. H., " Redcot," Belmont Road, Leatherhead, 

Surrey. I. 
1899 Carr, F. B., Council, 46, Handen Road, Lee, S.E. 12. I. 
1899 Carr, Rev. F. M. B., m.a., l.th., The Vicarage, Alvanley, Nr. 

Helsby, Cheshire. I, n. 
1924 Chapman, Miss E. F., '' Betula," Reigate. 
1924 Chapman, Miss L. M., "Betula," Reigate. 
1922 Cheeseman, C. J., 100, Dallinger Road, S.E. 12. I. 
1879 Clode. W. (Life Member.) 
1916 Cockayne, E. A., m.a., m.d., f.r.c.p., f.e.s.. President, 

116, Westbourne Terrace, W. 2. I. 
1899 Colthrup, C. W., 68, Dovercourt Road, E. Dulwich, S.E. 22. 

I, ool, orn. 
1907 CooTE, F. D., F.E.S., 11, Pendle Road, Streatham, S.W. 16. 

I, b. 
1919 CoppEARD, H., 26, King's Avenue, Greenford, Middlesex. I. 

1928 Cork, C. H., 11, Redesdale Street, Chelsea, S.W. 3. I. 

1919 Cornish, G. H., 141, Kirkham Street, Plumstead Common, 
S.E. 18. .l,c. 



V 

Year of 
Election. 
1922 CoucHMAN, L. E., c/o Mrs. A. Couchmai], May Cottage, 

Brooklane, Bromley, Kent. I. 
1909 CouLsoN, F. J., 17, Birdhurst Road, Colliers Wood, Merton, 

S.W. 19. I. 
1918 Court, T. H., f.r.g.s., " Willow Cottage, Market Raaen, 

Lincolnshire. I. 
1925 Cox, R. Douglas, 12, Blakemore Road, Streatham, S.W. 16. 

1911 CoxHEAD, G. W., 45, Leicester Road, Wanstead, E. 11. 

[Life Member.) c. 

1899 Crabtree, B. H., f.e.s., "Holly Bank," Alderley Edge, 

Cheshire. /. 
1918 Craufurd, Clifford, " Dennys," Bishops Stortford. I. 

1920 Crocker, Capt. W., Constitutional Club, E. Bexley Heath. 

/. 
1898 Crow, E. J., 70, Hepworth Road, Streatham High Road, 

S.W. 16. I. 
1927 Danby, G. C, 33, Huron Road, Tooting Common, S.W.17. 
1925 Dannatt, W., F.Z.S., " St. Lawrence," Gaibal Road, Burnt 

Ash, S.E. 12. I. 
1927 Davies, W. T., " Warren House," Bexley Heath, Kent. 

1900 Day, F. H., f.e.s., 26, Currock Road, Carlisle. I, c. 

1889 Dennis, A. W., 56, Romney Buildings, Millbank, S.W.I. 

I, mi, b. 
1918 DixEY, F. A., M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.E.S., Wadham College, 

Oxford. Hon. Member. 

1901 DoDs, A. W., Council, 88, Alkham Road, Stamford Hill, 

N. 16. I. 

1921 DoLTON, H. L., 36, Chester Street, Oxford Road, Reading. I. 

1912 DuNSTER, L. E., Recorder of Attend., 44, St. John's Wood 

Terrace, N.W.3. I. 

1927 Eagles, T. R., f.e.s., 37, Abbey Road, Enfield, Middlesex. I, 
1886 Edwards, S., f.l.s., f.z.s., f.e.s., Hon. Secretary, 15, St. 

Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. I, el. 

1928 Ellis, H. Willoughby, f.e.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., " Speldhurst 

Close," Sevenoaks, Kent, c, orn. 

1926 Ennis, p. F., "Hillside," 22, Conway Road, Wimbledon, 

S.W.20. 
1915 Fagg, T. a., 55, Mt. Pleasant Road, Lewisham, S.E. 13. I. 
1920 Farmer, J. B., 31, Crowhurst Road, Brixton, S.W. 9. l. 



VI 
Year of 
Election. 
1918 Farquhar, L., " Littlecote," Field Heath Avenue, Hillingdon, 

Middlesex. I. 
1924 Fassnidge, Wm., m.a., f.e.s., 47, Tennyson Eoad, Portswood, 

Southampton. I, n, trich, he. 
1928 Fawthrop, R. W., Church Road Pharmacy, Mitcham. I. 

1927 FiDGEON, J. B., 151, Romford Road, E.15. I. 

1928 Fisher, R. C, b.sc, ph.d., Rothamstead, Exp. Stn., Harpenden. 
1887 Fletcher, W. H. B., m.a., f.e.s., Aldwick Manor, Bognor, 

Sussex. {Life Meviber.) I. 

1926 Fletcher, P. Bainbrigge, b.sc, 65, Compton Road, Wimble- 
don, S.W.19. c. 

1889 Ford, A., "South View," 86, Irving Road, West Southbourne, 
Bournemouth, Hants. Z, c. 

1920 Ford, L. T., " St. Michael's," Park Hill, Bexley, Kent. I. 
1916 Foster, T. B., "Lenore," 1, Morland Avenue, Addiscombe, 

Croydon. I. 
1907 Fountaine, Miss M. E., f.e.s., " The Studio," 100a, Fellows 
Road, Hampstead, N.W.8. L 

1921 Frampton, Rev. E. E., m.a., Halstead Rectory, Sevenoaks, 

Kent. I. 
1886 Fremlin, Major H. S., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s.. Government 
Lymph Laboratories, The Hyde, N.W.9. I. 

1919 Frisby, G. E., f.e.s., 29, Darnley Road, Gravesend. hym. 
1912 Frohawk, F. W., M.B.O.U., f.e.s., " Essendene," Cavendish 

Road, Sutton, Surrey. Z, orn. 
1914 Fryer, J. C. F., f.e.s., m.a., " Chadsholme," Milton Road, 

Harpenden, Herts. I, ec. ent. 
1911 Gahan, C. J., D.sc, M.A., f.e.s., 8, Lonsdale Road, Bedford 

Park, W.4. c. 

1920 Gauntlett, H. L., f.e.s., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., " Van Buren,'* 

De Lisle Road, Bournemouth. I. 

1927 GiBBiNs, F. J. F.L.A.A., F.L.A.G., 51, Weldon Crescent, Harrow, 

Middlesex. I. 
1920 Goodman, A. de B., Council, 210, Goswell Road, E.C. 1. I. 
1920 Goodman, 0. R., f.z.s., f.e.s. Council, 210, Goswell Road, 

E.C.I, and " Hatchgate," Massetts Road, Horley, Surrey. 

L 
1926 Gordon, D. J., b.a., f.e.s., Craigellachie House, Strathpeffer, 

N.B. coL, Up. 



Vll 
Year of 
Election. 

1924 Grant, F. T., 37, Old Road West, Gravesend. I. 

1925 Graves, P. P., f.e.s., 5, Hereford Square, S.W.7. I. 

1923 Gray, C. J. V.,BM/BRWX., London, W.C.I. L 

1918 Green, E. E., f.e.s., "Ways End," Camberley, Surrey, hem. 

1924 Greer, T., j.p., Curglasson, Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. I. 

1926 Grey, Olive, Mrs., f.z.s., 90, Charing Cross Road, W.C.2. ent. 
1911 Grosvenor, T. H. L., Vice-President, Springvale, Linkfield 

Lane, Redhill. I. 
1884 Hall, T. W., f.e.s., 61, West Smithfield, E.C. 1. I. 
1926 Halton, H. C. S., Essex Museum, West Ham, E. 
1891 Hamm, a. H., f.e.s., 22, Southfields Road, Oxford. I. 
1903 Hare, E. J., f.e.s., 4, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 2. I. 
1926 Harmsworth, H. A. B., f.e.s., 3, Marlborough Gate, Hyde 

Park, W.2. I. 

1926 Harris, A. G- J., b.a., 13, Philbeach Gardens, S.W.5. 

1924 Harwood, P., f.e.s., Westininster Bank, 92, Wimborne Road, 
Winton, Bournemouth. I. 

1927 Hawgood, D. A., 89, Leigham Vale, Tulse Hill, S.W.2. I. 
1924 Hawkins, C. N., f.e.s., Council, 23, Dalebury Road. Upper 

Tooting, S.W.17. I. 
1927 Hawkins, F., 37, Benhill Road, Camberwell, S.E.5. I. 

1913 Haynes, E. B., 82a, Lexham Gardens, W. 8. I. 

1923 Hayward, Capt. K. J., f.e.s., Villa Ana, F.C.S.F., Argen- 

tine. I. 
1920 Hemming, Capt. A. F., f.z.s., f.e.s., 29, West Cromwell Road, 
S.W.7. I. 

1924 Henderson, J. L., 6, Haydn Avenue, Purley, Surrey, col. 
1927 Hewer, H. R., m.sc, d.i.c, Royal College of Science, S. Ken- 
sington, S.W. 7. 

1927 Hewitt, A. C, 83, Tavistock Avenue, Walthamstow, E.17. 
1920 Hodgson, S. B., Council, 3, Bassett Road, N. Kensington, 

W.IO. 
1927 Howard, J. 0. T., b.a., 78, St. John's Wood Court, N.W.8. 
1927 Hughes, A. W. McKenny, 22, Stanford Road, Kensington, 

W. 8. ec. ent. 

1914 Jackson, W. H., " Pengama," 14, Woodcote Valley Road, 

Purley. L 

1923 Jacobs, S. N. A., Ditchling, Hayes Lane, Bromley. I. 

1924 James, A. R., 7, Broadlands Road, Highgate, N.6. I. 
1924 James, R., f.e.s., 7, Broadlands Road, Highgate, N.6. /. 



viii 
Year of 
Election. 

1927 Janson, 0. J., F.E.S., 13, Fairfax Boad, Hornsey, N. 8. mt. 
1925 Jarvis, C, 12, Claylands Road, Clapham, S.W.H. c. 

1922 JoBLiNG, Boris, " Neva,' Whitechurch Gardens, Edgware, 

Middlesex. )iieil. ent. 

1923 Johnstone, J. F., f.e.s., " Buxley Lodge," Claygate, Surrey. I. 

1918 Johnstone, D. C, f.e.s., " Brooklands," Rayleigh, Essex. I. 
1920 Joicey, J. J., F.L.S., F.E.S. , F.R.G.S., ctc, "The Hill," Witley, 

Surrey. I. 
1898 Kaye, W. J.,f.e.s., "Caracas," Ditton Hill, Surbiton, Surrey. 

I, S. American I. 
1910 KiDNER, A. B., " The Oaks," Station Boad, Sidcup, Kent. I, 
1925 KiMMiNS, D. E., 16, Montrave Road, Penge, S.E. 20. l. 

1925 Labouchere, Lt-CoL, F. A., 15, Draycott Avenue, S.W.3. 

1924 Langham, Sir Chas., Bart., f.e.s., Tempo Manor, Co. Fer- 

managh. I. 
1927 Lawson, H. B., f.e.s., " Brookhill," Horsell, Woking. I. 
1922 Leechman, C. B., ' Caral,' Brighton Road, S. Croydon. I. 
1914 Leeds, H. A., 2, Pendcroft Road, Knebworth, Herts. I. 

1919 Leman, G. C, f.e.s., " Wynyard," 52, West Hill, Putney 

Heath, S.W. 15. c. 

1919 Leman, G. B. C, f.e.s., "Wynyard," 52, West Hill, Putney 

Heath, S.W. 15. c. 
1924 Leonhardt, Hans, 45, Redcliffe Gardens, S.W. 10. I. 
1922 LiLEs, Major C. E., 6, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 1. I. 

1920 LiNDEMAN, F., c/o Rio de Janeiro Tramway Light and Power 

Co., Caixa Postal 571, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I. 
1922 Lock, A. K. (Miss), f.z.s., 77, Grove Hill Road, Denmark 
Park, S.E. 5. l. 

1926 Long, R. M., Witley, 8, Cedars Road, Beddington, Surrey. L 

1924 Lowther, a. W. G., " The Old Quarry," Ashtead, Surrey, ent. 
1896 Lucas, W. J., b.a., f.e.s., 28, Knight's Park, Kingston-on- 
Thames. Brit, 0., odonata, n, m, b. 

1921 Lyle, G. T., f.e.s., " Briarfield," Stump Cross, Shibden, 

Halifax, h. 

1925 MacCallum, C, 1, Aston Road, Ealing, W.5. I. 

1926 Macdonald, F. VV., 82, Trinity Street, Leytonstone, E.ll. I. 
1892 Main, H., b.sc, f.e.s., f.z.s., " Almondale," 55, Buckingham 

Road, S. Woodford, E. 18. I, nat. phot., col. 

1922 Mann, F. G., b.sc, a.i.c, Chemical Laboratories, Pembroke 

Street, Cambridge, l. 



IX 

Year of 
Election. 
1889 Mansbridge, W., f.e.s., " Monreith," Derby Road, Formby, 

Liverpool. /, c, etc. 
1922 Maples, Major S., " Monkswood," Huntingdon. I. 
1922 Massee, a. M., f.e.s., East Mailing Research Station, 

Kent. I. 

1922 Meech, E., 17, Electric House, Bow Road, E. 3. I. 
1885 Mera, a. W., 5, Park Villas, Loughton, Essex. I. 

1881 Miles, W. H., f.e.s., "Grosvenor House," Calcutta. Post Box 

126. mi, b. 
1889 Moore, H., f.e.s., 12, Lower Road, Rotherhithe, S.E.16. 

I, h, d, e If e h, e d, mi. 
1920 Morrison, G. D., f.e.s., Dept. Advisory Entomology, N. of 

Scotland Agricultural College, Marichall, Aberdeen, ec. ent. 

1926 MouNSEY, D., " lurkstone," 5, Harewood Road, S. Croydon. 

Entf Ornith. 

1927 Murray, Capt. K. F. M., 11, Eccleston Place, S.W.I. I. 

1923 Mutch, J. P., '' May field House," Church Road, Bexley 

Heath. I. 

1928 Nash, T. A. M., 16, Queen's Road, Richmond, Surrey. I. 
1923 Nash, W. G., f.r.c.s., " Clavering House," de Pary's Avenue, 

Bedford. I. 
1906 Newman, L. W., f.e.s., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 
1926 Newman, L. H., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. /. 

1918 NiMMY, E. W., F.E.S., 15, George Street, Mansion House, 

E.C.4. I. 

1926 Nixon, G. E., 315b, Norwood Road, Heme Hill, S.E.24. h, I. 

1911 Page, H. E., f.e.s., " Bertrose," 17, Gellatly Road, New 

Cross, S.E. 14. I. 

1927 Palmer, D. S., " Melbourne House," Portsmouth Road, 

Kingston-on-Thames. 
1908 Pennington, F., Oxford Mansions, Oxford Circus, W. 1. I. 
1925 Portsmouth, J., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. /. 
1925 Portsmouth, G. B., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. 

I. 

1912 PouLTON, Prof. E. B., d.sc, m.a., f.r.s., f.l.s., f.g.s., 

F.Z.S., F.E.S., " Wykeham House," Oxford, {tloii. Member.) 
1927 Pratt, W. B., 10, Lion Gate Gardens, Richmond Lane. 
1897 Prest, E. E. B., 1 and 2, Chiswell Street, E.C. 1. I. 

1919 Preston, N. C, Harper Adams Agricultural College, Newport, 

Salop. I, ec, ent. 



X 

Yeak of 
Election. 

1924 Priest, C. G., 30, Princes Place, Netting Hill, W.ll. I. 
1904 Priske, R. a. R., F.E.S., 136, Coldershaw Road W. Ealing, 

W. 5. I, m. 

1919 QuiLTER, H. J., '^ Fir Cottage," Kiln Road, Prestwood, Great 

Missenden. I, c, d, mi. 
1922 Rait-Smith, W., f.z.s., f.e.s., Council, " Hurstleigh," 
Linkfield Lane, Redhill, Surrey. I. 

1925 Ralfs, Miss E. M., f.e.s., " Montford," Kings Langley, Herts. 
1922 Rattray, Col. R. H., 68, Dry Hill Park Road, Tonbridge, 

Kent. I. 

1902 Rayward, A. L., f.e.s., 1, " Meadhurst," Meads Road, East- 
bourne. I. 

1887 Rice, D. J., 8, Grove Mansions, North Side, Clapham 
Common, S.W. 4. oru. 

1927 Richards, Percy R., *' Wynford," Upton Road, Bexley Heath. 

l. 

1920 Richardson, A. W., f.e.s., 28, Avenue Road, Southall, 

Middlesex, l. 
1908 Riley, Capt. N. D., f.e.s., f.z.s., 5, Brook Gardens, Beverley 
Road, Barnes, S.W. 13. I. 

1910 Robertson, G. S., m.d., " Bronllys," 72, Thurlow Park Road, 

Dulwich, S.E.21. l. 
1922 Robertson, W. J., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.z.s., 69, Bedford Road, 
S.W. 4. I. 

1911 Robinson, Lady Maud, f.e.s., "Worksop Manor," Notts. Z, n. 
1920 Rothschild, The Right Hon. Lord, d.sc, f.r.s., f.l.s., f.z.s., 

F.E.S., Tring, Herts. Z, oni. {Life Member.) 
1887 Routledge, G. B., f.e.s., " Tarn Lodge," Heads Nook, Carlisle. 

I, c. 
1890 Rowntree, J. H., " Scalby Nabs," Scarborough, Yorks. I. 
1915 Russell, S. G.C, f.e.s., "Brockenhurst," Reading Road, Fleet, 

Hants. I. 
1908 StAubyn, Capt. J. S., f.e.s., " Sayescourt Hotel," 2, 

Inverness Terrace, Bayswater, W. 2. 
1925 Sancean, E., " The Yew," Firtree Road, Banstead. /;. 
1914 ScHMASSMANN, W., F.E.S., '^Bculah Lodge," London Road 

Enfield, N. I. 
1910 Scorer, A. G., '' Hillcrest," Chilworth, Guildford. I. 
1927 Scott, E., m.b., *' Hayesbank," Ashford, Kent. I. 



XI 

Ybar of 
Election. 

1922 Seabrook, Lieut. J. C, f.e.s., Brightholme, St. Leonard's 

Road, Surbiton. I. 

1923 Sevastopulo, D. G., f.e.s., c/o Ralli Bros., Calcutta. I. 
1910 Sheldon, W. G., f.z.s., f.e.s., *' West Watch," Limpsfield, 

Surrey. I. 
1898 SicH, Alf., f.e.s., '* Grayingham," Farncombe Road, 

Worthing. /. 
1925 Simmons, A., 42, Loughboro Road, W.Bridgford, Nottingham. I. 

1920 SiMMs, H. M., B.sc, F.E.S., " The Farlands," Stourbridge. 
1927 Skelton, Hy. E., 12, Mandrake Road, Upper Tooting, 

S.W. 17. 

1921 Smart, Major, H. D., r.a.m.c, m.d., d.sc, f.e.s., 172, High 

Road, Solway Hill, Woodford Green. I. 

1922 Seth-Smith, D. W., Curator's House, Zoological Gardens, 

Regents Park, N.W.8. L 
1927 Smith, Capt. F. S., f.e.s., " Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 
1890 Smith, William, " Hollybank," 76, Oakshaw Street, Paisley. I. 

1925 SoLiMAN, Hamid Salem, f.e.s., 130, Queen's Gate, S.W.7. ent. 
1882 South, R., f.e.s., 4, Mapesbury Court, Shoot-up-Hill, 

Brondesbury, N.W.2. I, c. 

1926 Sparrow, R. W., " Wildwood," Regents Park Road, Finchley, 

N.3. 
1908 Sperrino, C. W., Council, 8, Eastcombe Avenue, Charlton, 

S.E. 7. I 
1920 Stafford, A. E., 98, Cowley Road, Mortlake, S.W. 14. I. 
1872 Step, E., f.l.s., 158, Dora Road, Wimbledon Park, S.W. 19. 

b, in, C7' ; Insects, all Orders. 
1916 Stewart, H. M., m.a., m.d., 123, Thurloe Pk. Rd., Dulwich, 

S.E. 21. I. 

1922 Stokes, C. H. H., British Museum (Nat. Hist.), S.Kensington, 

S.W.7. ent. hot. 

1923 Stolzle, G. a. W., *' Southcote," South Street, nr. Whit- 

stable, Kent. I. 

1910 Stoneham, Capt. H. F., f.e.s., m.b.o.u., The E. Surrey Estate, 

P.O. Kitali, Trans-Nzora, Kenya Colony I. 

1924 Storey, W. H., 63, Lincolns Inn Fields, W.C.2. ent. 

1911 Stowell, E. a. C.,b.a., Eggars Grammar School, Alton, Hants. 
1916 Syms, E. E., f.e.s., Hon. Librarian, 22, Woodlands Avenue, 

Wanstead,E.ll. I. 



Xll 

Year of 
Election. 

1920 Talbot, G., f.e.s., " The Hill Museum," Witley. I. 

1922 Tams, W. H. T., F.E.S., Council, 19, Sulivan Road, Hur- 

linghara, S.W. 6. I. 
1894 Tarbat, Rev. J. E., m.a., The Vicarage, Fareham, Hants, i, 

ool. 
1913 Tatchell, L., F.E.S., Swanage, Dorset. I. 

1925 Taylor, J. S., Dept. Agriculture, Div. Ent., Pretoria, Union 

of S.A. I. 

1926 ToMLiNsoN, Florence B., " The Anchorage," Lodge Road, 

Croydon. I. 
1902 ToNGE, A. E., F.E.S., Ron. Treasurer ^ "Aincroft," Grammar 
School Hill, Reigate. I. 

1927 Tottenham, Rev. C. E., 60, Mt. Ararat Road, Richmond, c. 
1887 Turner, H. J., f.e.s., Hon. Editor, " Latemar," West Drive, 

Cheam, Surrey. I, c, n, he, b. 

1921 Vernon, J. A., " Lynmouth," Reigate, Surrey. I. 

1923 Vredenberg, G., 38, Ashworth Mansions, Maida Vale, W.9. I. 
1889 Wainwright, C. J., f.e.s., 172, Hamstead Road, Handsworth, 

Birmingham. I, d. 
1927 Wainwright, Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W.18. 
1911 Wakely, L. D., 11, Crescent Road, Wimbledon, S.W. 20. I. 
1880 Walker, Comm. J. J., m.a., f.l.s., f.k.s., '* Aorangi," Lonsdale 

Road, Summertown, Oxford. I, c. 
1927 Walker, W. H., *' Ranworth," Potters Bar. I. 
1925 Ward, J. Davis, f.e.s., " Limehurst," Grange-over-Sands. I. 
1920 Watson, D., " Proctors," Southfleet, Kent. I. 
1911 Wells, H. 0., "Inchiquin," Lynwood Avenue, Epsom. I. 

1911 Wheeler, The Rev. G., m.a., f.z.s., f.e.s., " Ellesmere,' 

Gratwicke Road, Worthing. I. 
1927 White, A. G., " Hilltop," Chaldon, Surrey. 
1927 Whitting, A. N., 6, Woolstone Road, Catford, S.E. 6. 
1920 Wightman, a. J., f.e.s., Broomfield, Pulborough, Sussex. I. 
1914 Williams, B. S., " St. Genny's," 16, Kingcroft Road, Harpen- 

den. I, c, hem. 

1912 Williams, C. B., m.a., f.e.s.. Research Institute, Amani, 

Tanga, and 20, Slatey Road, Birkenhead. I, ec. ent. 
1925. Williams, H. B., ll.d., f.e.s., " Little Dene," Clairmont Lane, 

Esher, Surrey. I. 
1923 Windsor, F. S., " Oatlands Cottage," Horley, Surrey. I. 
1923 Windsor, P. H., "Fern Hill," Horley, Surrey. I. 



Xlll 

Year of 
Election. 
1918 Wood, H., "Albert Villa," Kennington, near Ashford, Kent. I. 

1926 WooTTON, W. J., F.R.H.s., Wannock Gardens, Polegate, Sussex. 

I. 

1927 deWorms, C. G. M., f.e.s., m.b.o.u., Milton Pk., Egham, 

Surrey. I, om. 

1921 WoRSLEY-WooD, H., F.E.S. , CouiicU, 37, De Freville Avenue, 
Cambridge. I. 

1920 Young, G. W., f.r.m.s., 20, Grange Road, Barnes, S.W. 13. 

1925. ZoHEiRY, Mehammed Soliman El., f.e.s.. Entomological Sec- 
tion, Ministry of Agriculture, Cairo, Egypt, ent. 

Members will greatly oblige by informing the Hon. Sec. of any errors in, 
additions to, or alterations required in the above Addresses and descriptions. 



XIV 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 1928. 

THE Council, in presenting the fifty-sixth Annual Report, is 
pleased to state that the Society continues to maintain a 
satisfactory condition. 

There is again an increase in Membership, which now reaches 
260, made up as follows, 235 Ordinary Members, 2 Honorary 
Members, and 5 Life Members. 

The Council regrets to report the death of five members, Messrs. 
Blenkarn, G. C. Champion, D. H. Pearson, G. B. Pearson, and 
G. T. Porritt. 

There have been nine resignations, and seven names have been 
removed from the list for non-payment of subscriptions. 

The average attendance of meetings shows a large increase on 
that of any previous year. 

Owing to fog on several occasions having interfered with the 
Annual Exhibition, your Council changed the night from the 4th 
Thursday in November to the 4th Thursday in October. This 
change was well justified, as in spite of a wet night, 241 members 
and friends were present, the largest number attained in recent 
years ; there were nearly 50 exhibitors. The same plan was 
adopted as last year, of having the exhibits laid on tables, and no 
formal proceedings. Light refreshments were again provided and 
the thanks of the Council are given to Mr. 0. R. Goodman for 
having made all the necessary arrangements, and to those other 
members who assisted, and helped to make the evening a success. 
The Council would like to see the Refreshment-fund much better 
supported by the members generally. 

Mr. J. H. Adkin, has kindly officiated as Hon. Lanternist 
throughout the year. 

Papers have been read before the Society by Messrs. R. Adkin, 
A. de B. Goodman, 0. R. Goodman, Lucas, Main, Capt. K. J. 
Hayward, and Major Hingston. 

The Hon. Curator reports '* Numerous additions to the Collections 
have been made during the year, and Mr. Robert Adkin has been a 
very generous donor of British Lepidoptera. Messrs. A. A. W. 
Buckstone, J. B. Farmer, and L. T. Ford also presented British 
Lepidoptera, and Mr. F. W. MacDonald Exotic Lepidoptera. The 



XV 

late Mr. S. A. Blenkarn, and Messrs. E. G. Bunnett, F. J. Coulson, 
H. L. Dolton, P. B. Fletcher, C. Jarvis and G. E. Nixon gave 
specimens of Coleoptera." 

The Hon. Librarian reports that the card index of bound volumes 
is now complete, and all the " Journals " are now bound up to date. 
The most important gift was from one of our members, the late Mr. 
Enefer, whose daughter presented 43 volumes to the Society. 
There has been a steady increase in the number of books on loan, 
and many works are consulted at our meetings. The List of 
additions to the Library is appended. 

Field Meetings were held at Bookham, Byfleet, Clandon, Black- 
heath near Guildford, White Hill, Mickleham, Princes Risborough 
and Ranmore ; the attendance at these meetings showed an im- 
provement on that of previous years. 

Your Council appointed Mr. R. Adkin to represent the Society 
at the British Association Meeting at Leeds, in August and 
September, and Messrs. Step and Turner as representatives to the 
Congress of the South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies held 
at Hastings in May. Short reports from these gentlemen appear 
on pp. 82 and 97. 

The volume of "Proceedings" for 1926, was published in June 
and consists of XIX. -156 pp., with 11 plates. 

The Council, on behalf of the Society, desires to thank the 
numerous donors and others who rendered assistance in many ways 
during the year. 

Appended is the List of Additions to the Library during the year. 
List of Books Presented by Miss Enefer. 

Balfour, J. H., Manual of Botany, 1875 ; Buckley, A. B., Life and 
her Children, 1884 ; Bastin, H., British Insects ; Cavers, F., Plant 
Biology, 1910, and Life History of Common Plants ; Carpenter, 
W. B., Vegetable Physiology; Coleman, W. S., British Butterflies; 
Duncan, M., Spiders and Scorpions ; Darwin, F., The Elements of 
Botany, 1899 ; Darwin, C, Movement of Plants, Climbing Plants, 
and Origin of Species ; Fabre, J. H., Bramble Bees and Others and 
Insect Adventures ; Finn, F., Birds of the Country Side ; Fish, 
D. T., Bulbs and Bulbculture : Grindon, L. H., Garden Botany ; 
Hutchinson, W., Handbook of Grasses ; Henslow, G., The Uses of 
British Plants, 1905 : Hall, C, Pond Life, and Peeps at Nature ; 
Holmes, E. M., British Fungi, Lichens etc. ; Kirby and Spence, 
Entomology ; Massee, G., Text-book of Plant Diseases, 1911 ; Rye 
and Fowler, British Beetles; South, R., British Butterflies, and 



XVI 



British Moths vols 1 and 2 ; Samuelson, The Earthworm and 
Housefly ; Sedgwick, Beetles and Spiders ; Stavely, E. F., British 
Insects, and British Spiders ; Step, E., Marvels of Insect life ; 
Schroter, Alpine Flowers ; Wood, J. G., Insects at Home, Insects 
Abroad, and Common Objects of the Microscope ; Westwood, 
Entomologist's Test-book ; Wild Flowers and how to name them ; 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries 1-100, 101-200, 201-300; 
Miall, L. G., Injurious and Useful Insects, 1911 ; Lubbock, J., 
Ants Bees and Wasps. 

Presented by Mr. E. Step : — 

Biological Problem of To-day (Hertwig) ; Natural History Studies 
(J. A. Thomson) ; Exploring England (C. S. Bayne) ; Spring 
Flowers of the Wild, Summer Flowers of the Wild, and The Harvest 
of the Woods (E. Step). 

Books. — Marine Algae (Horniman Mus.) ; Life-history of N. 
American Marsh Birds ; Catalogue of American Birds ; Cat. of 
Edgar Ayer Ornithological Library. 

Proceedings, Transactions, Reports of Societies, etc. (by 
Exchange). — Essex Naturalist; Smithsonian Institute; Trans, and 
Proc. Entomological Soc. of London (Dr. Fremlin) ; Proc. Perthshire 
Soc. Natural Science ; Haslemere Museum ; Bournemouth Science 
Society; Croydon N. Hist, and Sci. Society; London Naturalist; 
Leicester Library and Phil. Soc. ; Connecticut Academy of Sci. ; 
S. Eastern Naturalist ; British Association (Mr. R. Adkin) ; 
BoUetino R. Scuol. Agric. Portici. 

Periodicals and Magazines. — Entomologist ; Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine (purchase) ; Entomologist's Record : Vasculum ; 
Bulletin Sooiete en torn, de France ; Philippine Journal of Science ; 
Entomologische Mitteilungen ; Entomological News ; Canadian 
Entomologist ; Entomologiska Tidskrift ; Natural History (Am. 
N.H.Mus.). 

Separates. — From Proc. U.S. National Mus. ; Smithsonian Insti- 
tute; List of Birds around Haslemere ; Upsala University ; Exotic 
Lepidoptera (Strand) ; Field Museum of Chicago ; Zoological 
Bidrag XI. ; Ex. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. ; Address to Ent. Soc. 
Lond., 1928 ; also from W. G. Sheldon, and J. J. Walker. 



XVll 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 1927. 

I am glad to be able to report another year of prosperity for our 
Society, and to record a substantial increase in the balance of assets 
over liabilities as compared with 1926. 

The increased membership is reflected in the amount received from 
subscriptions, £140 5s. Od., which is up by £14, and could be sub- 
stantially increased next year if those members who are in arrears 
with their contributions would make an effort to get them paid up 
to date. 

Our other sources of income remain as before, producing dividends 
annually amounting to round about £29 12s. 6d., while the capital 
value of our investments has appreciated a little. 

Entrance fees have produced 27s. 6d. more than last year and 
reach a total of £3 16s. Od., while the sum received from the Sales 
of our Proceedings has increased by 30s. and reaches the total of 
£4 19s. 4d. 

These items, augmented by a few other small amounts for 
deposit interest, Sales of books, fines, etc., bring up the total cash 
receipts for the year to the very respectable sum of £181 10s. 8d., 
which I think you will agree is a very satisfactory figure. 

On the other side of the ascount our regular expenditure for 
maintenance is just about the same as usual and stands at £62 9s. Od. 

We have also spent £3 Os. 6d. on bookbinding, and 15s. on new 
books for the library. 

£1 5s. 6d. represents subscriptions to the South Eastern Union of 
Scientific Societies, and to the Commons and Footpaths Preservation 
Society. 

Sundry postages, etc., stand at 7s. 8d. 

Printing the Proceedings has been a much heavier item this time, 
and stands at £113 Is. 2d. against £89 10s. 6d. last year. 

Even this does not represent the entire cost, as I have recently 
heard, since I made up the accounts, that one of our contributors, 
with the very laudable desire of making a donation to the Publica- 
tion Fund, paid for the half tone blocks used to illustrate his paper, 
and also for the printing as well, to the value of about £5 ; but as 
he did not send me the receipted bill, this sum does not appear in 
our accounts, both cost of printing and the sum received in donations 
being lower than they really should be in consequence. 

[Contimied on p. xx. 



XVlll 



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XX 

The cost of catering for the Annual Exhibition, and hire of the 
necessary tables and chairs, was £16 16s. Od. exactly. 

These items together make up a total expenditure of £197 14s. 10d» 
which is £16 4s. 2d. more than our receipts. 

This would I fear indicate that our Society was living on ita 
capital, but fortunately we have a number of good friends among 
our membership, who every year come to our aid with donations to 
the Publication and Tea funds. One of these good friends, who 
is always a very generous supporter of the Pablication fund, paid 
for all his halftone blocks and illustrations to the value of £28, 
while smaller contributions to this fund amounted to another 
£3 18s. Od., and donations to the Tea fund realised altogether 
£14 16s. Od., including one of £5 from Mr. 0. R. Goodman. 

This supplementary income of £46 14s. Od., has enabled us not 
only to pay our liabilities for the year without touching our capital^ 
but to increase the balance carried forward by no less than 
£30 9s. lOd. 

The thanks of the Society are especially due to all those members 
who have given donations to the funds mentioned and thus enabled 
me to put a satisfactory balance sheet before you to-night for the 
year just ended. 

I should personally like to thank Messrs F. B. Carr and 0. R. 
Goodman for auditing my figures, and the latter for allowing his 
office to be used for the audit. 

A Statement of Accounts and Balance Sheet are attached. (See- 
pp. xviii.-xix.) 




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The Land of the Sheik. 

By 0. R. Goodman, F.Z.S., F.F^.S.—Read February 10th, 1927. 

I trust the title of this paper will not conjure up visions of the 
romantic beings portrayed by the late Mr. Valentino on the films ; 
the actual is very different from the fictional, as will be seen in 
the course of this narrative. 

The inception of this expedition to Algeria was due to the un- 
qualified success of our previous tours to Corsica and the Cevennes, 
as before the latter was finished I was already asked ** Where are 
we going next year?" This question was carefully considered, 
and Algeria was finally decided upon, as not being too far off for a 
holiday of not less than three weeks or a month. 

We are greatly indebted to Lord Rothschild, for his very kind 
advice, and for the valuable information contained in his Presi- 
dential Address to the Entomological Society of London for 1922 ; 
also to the interesting accounts of previous tours recorded by the 
late Mr. A. E. Gibbs and Miss Fountaine in the "Entomologist" 
for the years 1911 and 1906 respectively. The time of our visit 
required most careful consideration, as the variations in the climate 
are very marked ; May was finally decided upon. 

Before entering upon the details of our wanderings in this 
entrancing country, it will be necessary to give some general des- 
cription of topography and people. Algeria comprises the central 
position of the North coast of Africa, and forms part of the so- 
called Palaearctic Region, whose southern limit is the Great Sahara 
Desert. The insects inhabiting this country are in almost every 
case of Palaearctic origin, showing that the Sahara is as impassable 
a barrier as any sea or ocean ; the few exceptions had in nearly 
every case entered the district from the east, spreading from the 
south, by way of the fertile valley of the Nile, and not along the 
Western African coast. The climate, however, is more similar to 
that of the Ethiopian Region, and consequently is quite unsuitable to 
many genera which exist on the shores of Europe immediately 
opposite. The period of separation from Europe has also been 
sufficiently long to have evolved many species and subspecies, 
although very nearly related to those on the adjacent European 
shores. These remarks apply not only to the msects, but also 
to the mammals, birds, and doubtless also to the flora. The 
climate of Algeria is exceedingly variable, speaking as from year to 



year, and in consequence the chances of the naturalist obtaining 
the indigenous species is much curtailed, as an insect which is 
common one year may be almost absent the next ; further, a 
species which occurs in early April one year may not emerge until 
mid-May in the next. It may, therefore, be a land of great dis- 
appointments. However, our own expedition can be congratulated 
on being one of the lucky ones. 

As Lord Rothschild has so ably described in the interesting 
account above referred to, the country of Algeria must be divided 
into three zones of distinct characteristics : — 

First, the Coast Zone, consisting of a somewhat flat or undulating 
plain from twenty to fifty miles wide, rising to a height of not 
more than a few hundred feet above sea level, except for two or 
three ranges of mountains in the east and centre. This zone, which 
is called the *' Tell," consists almost entirely of arable land, as 
instanced by the plain of the '* Mitidja " to the south of the town 
of Algiers, which consists entirely of vineyards. 

Immediately south of this zone rises the mighty range 
of the North Atlas Mountains, which attain a height of 
as much as 6000 feet or more ; this range runs parallel to 
the coast, and is backed by the second zone called the High 
Plateaux, about seventy to ninety miles wide, and separated 
from the desert by various ranges of mountains, called col- 
lectively the South Atlas. The High Plateaux attain an average 
altitude of 2000 to 3000 feet, lying between the two ranges of the 
Atlas Mountains north and south, averaging an altitude of five or 
six thousand feet each. The Plateaux are broken up by various 
smaller ranges, and the streams from the Atlas descend into the 
cup and form large lakes called " Chotts," which disappear or are 
greatly reduced, in the summer time, by the abnormal evaporation. 

The High Plateaux and the Atlas Mountains, are the regions 
where the indigenous fauna of Algeria is to be sought ; and it is 
here that the larger mammals are to be found, such as the Barbary 
Ape, the Leopard, the Caracal, the striped Hyaena, and formerly 
the black-maned variety of the Lion, which was presumably 
exterminated over thirty years ago ; there are also many smaller 
mammals. 

The third zone of the country consists of the Sahara or desert region, 
which extends from the very foot of the South Atlas ranges and 
stretches in endless undulating sandy wastes with dry rocky outcrops 
here and there, and dotted occasionally with oases where many springs 
well up from the depths. These oases are planted with date palms 
(Phoenix dactylifera) and irrigated by channels from the wells ; 
some are of very great extent and support many thousand inhabit- 
ants ; that of Touggourt containing 170,000 trees, Biskra 150,000, 
and Ghardaia 200,000, the latter having a population of 43,225 
natives. A great part of the desert is below sea level and many 



8 

sohemes to flood it have been broached, but have been abandoned as 
impracticable. 

The History of Mgeria is most interesting, but must only be 
touched on lightly, as it does not fall within the scope of this paper, 
suffice it to say that since primitive times the Berbers, Phoenicians, 
Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Iberians, and Turks, have held sway until 
the final conquest of the Turkish leader Abd-el-Kader, in 1847 by 
the French, under the Due D'Auraale, on which occasion the 
Turkish leader parted with the celebrated blue diamond. Since 
that time the French have consolidated their rule in spite of the 
insurrection of 1870. The present inhabitants of Algeria consist of 
the indigenous Berbers, the Arabs, and the nearly related Kabyle 
race, all Mohammedans, who live the life they always have lived 
since Biblical times. I have, however, spent too much time on 
generalities. So to the details of our enthralling experiences. 

My colleagues in the party were all well-known friends and 
fellow members of our energetic Society, namely : — 

Mr. Hugh Main, who was accompanied by Mrs. Main ; Major C. 
E. Liles, the humourist ; Mr. A. W. Richardson, whom I was able 
to cajole by my honeyed tongue. My son, who regarded his inclu- 
sion in the party as a matter of course, and myself, weighted down 
with the burdens of the administration of the Commune. 

The work of research was divided equally amongst the members : 
Mr. Richardson taking charge of the Hymenoptera, Major Liles 
and myself of the Lepidoptera ; Mr. Main was Nature Photographer 
in chief with my son as pupil, who had the supplemental duty of 
collecting everything he could lay his hands on in all orders. 

We found ourselves very weak in Botany and Ornithology owing 
to the unavoidable absence of our much missed colleague, Mr. 
Candler. 

Leaving London on the appropriate day of May 1st, 1926, we 
arrived at Marseilles on a stormy dawn following a drenching 
night. We embarked on the " Marchal Buguard " in trepidation, 
but in the quietude of the harbour ate heartily of an excellent 
lunch, with copious draughts of wine to restore our flagging spirits. 
However, after about an hour's experience of the open sea, we 
decided, with one or two exceptions, to retire to our bunks, there to 
lie prostrate and miserable for thirty hours. The dinner-bell aroused 
no enthusiasm, except in the Major who most unfeelingly spent all 
the voyage in bibulous libations to Bacchus, being credited with 
drinking six bottles of wine provided for our party at each meal. 
However, every good thing comes to an end. The next evening 
we reluctantly ascended to deck, to be immediately enchanted by the 
magnificent view of the African coast looming dark along the sky- 
line, over which the sun sank with the suddenness it does in these 
southern latitudes, leaving a brilliant red glow along the whole 
of the mountainous coast, on which the twinkling lights of 
Phillipville, our destination, shone bright. 



4 

Darkness had fallen by the time we had finally disembarked and 
trudged up to our Hotel, faint, and hungry. However, we were 
much cheered by the pantomime of the Maltese luggage-portera 
being ejected from the hotel by Mr. Richardson's orders on account 
of their demands for baksheesh, which a kindly gendarme adjuyted 
to our entire satisfaction in return for a small personal gratuity. 
A dreamless night merged into a brilliant dawn, and we hurried to 
inspect our new continent. 

There is little but the nationality of the inhabitants to distin- 
guish Phillipville from the French Rivierian towns. It is pleasantly 
grouped on the low hills surrounding the lovely bay of Stora, in 
which basks the little " Isle du Lion ", which is supposed to resemble 
that animal- A beautiful coast road skirts the shore from the little 
fishing village of Stora ; now high up along the coast on wooded 
heights and dells, and now at the foot of precipitous cliffs. Our 
exploration had to be somewhat hurried, as we were to leave for 
Constantine in a few hours. But our unflagging energy provided 
most interesting results, each devoting himself to his own speciality. 
The lepidopterists were rewarded by typical African butterflies, 
amongst which was the yellow orange-tip African relative of the 
Rivierian "Gloire de Provence," Antltocharis enphenoides, Stgr., 
from which it differs specifically in its paucity of the green mottling 
on the underside hind wings, and is named A. eupheno, L. Its 
relative, Enchloe belemia, flew strongly on the shore road, whilst the 
brilliant Gonepteryx cleopatra occurred occasionally, in company 
with Culias croceus. Examples of Coenomjuipha arcanoides^ the Afri- 
can form of C. arcania, and the indigenous brown skipper, Adopaea 
hamza, were new to us, flying with our old friends A. t^ava [linea), 
Schift", and Thywelicus acteon. A very distinct dark blue form of 
Zygaena trifulii race rusicadica, was common on the shore, but the 
commonest moth was Deiopeia pulchella, settling everywhere 
amongst the grass. It was interesting to note that Pyrameis cardui 
was still abundant though worn, presumably the parents of the 
Vanessid larvae we found in webs on a pink mallow on the shore. 
A Spanish copris beetle {Copris hispaniis) found by Mr. Main was the 
solitarj Coleopteron. 

Birds were fairly numerous amongst the eucalyptus trees and 
date palms ; a flycatcher and a black- headed titmouse with a grey 
body, being numerous, whilst nightingales trilled from the thickets, 
and buzzards and gulls sailed over the cliffs. 

Our evening departure by train for Constantine took us through 
a district much like England in its complete cultivation ; and if it 
had not been for the Kabyle women with their brilliant costumes, 
and the blue yashmaks covering the faces of the married women, 
with their 8" earrings and heavy anklets, one could almost 
imagine oneself in Kent. The men looked very imposing and 
dignified in their white flowing robes and turbans, as they galloped, 



with great cracking of whips, on their fiery little Arab stallions along 
the streets. 

As we mounted slowly to our destination, we noted pastures 
dotted with many small Jersey-like cattle and goats, with encamp- 
ments of nomad gipsy-like tents, here and there on the hills. 

We found our " Hotel Cirta " at Constantine all we could desire ; 
and this large town is full of oriental interest, having been built at 
a height of 2000 feet by the Phoenicians on a rocky plateau, and 
converted into a modern town by the French. 

One of the seven wonders of Algeria is the gorge formed by the 
Rummel cutting its bed through the whole plateau to a depth of 
three hundred feet, the town being grouped upon its very edges, 
and connected by flying bridges. The entrance to the gorge is 
approached through the native portion of the town, where fondooks 
or caravanserai form the primitive inns or sheds visited by the 
nomad Arabs, whose markets are thronged with mules, asses and 
camels, tethered everywhere and anywhere, interspersed with the 
natives cooking, quarrelling, or vending unfamiliar merchandise. 

Many of the flat-topped houses, even those bordering the road, 
are surmounted by the great flat nests of numerous storks, built on 
the chimneys and guarded by one of the birds whilst its mate 
wheels round and round on his striking black and white pinions 
over the dustheaps, from which he retrieves delectable and tasty 
morsels, or battles over some special tit-bit with a very powerful 
and fierce vulture whose plumage much resembles his own, hut 
whose short talons usually prove too grasping for the storks long 
red legs to resist. 

The entrance to the gorge is from the parade ground, and the 
path is cut from the rocky sides and secured by iron railings. The 
width of the chasm cannot be more than forty or fifty feet in some 
places, but the sides are sheer and precipitous, the nesting places of 
hundreds of all sorts of birds, who continually fly in and out the 
crevices to feed their young, whilst vultures sail around high up 
amongst the houses clustering on the summits. Jackdaws chatter 
on the rocks, and brown swifts dart up and down, catching the 
myriads of flies and other insects humming in the hot sunshine ; 
whilst blue rock doves clatter from their holes, or are pursued by a 
swift and brightly coloured kestrel, whose great numbers prove the 
success with which their hunting efforts are attended. All these 
birds can be viewed at very close quarters, and give a unique oppor- 
tunity for their study. The gorge is two miles in extent, of which 
half a mile is subterranean. The two exits were the favoured haunts 
of many butterflies, which included, among others previously 
referred to, examples of the Bath White, Pontia daplidice, and 
Anthocharu cramerl [belia) fluttering amongst the rocky sides of the 
hill, together with a single specimen of Melanargia ines, one of our 
forlorn hopes, besides commoner species. 



No further time being available, we left at mid-day for our long 
journey to Biskra. Leaving the " Tell " behind, we soon mounted 
through the bare mountain ranges and plateaux, to the Auras 
Mountains, a portion of the Southern Atlas. The rail crossed a 
pass at a height of three thousand feet, then over vast plains 
of esparto grass, great bales of which were stacked at the lonely 
stations for transport to Europe for the manufacture of paper. The 
district was dreary in the extreme, with little life, except for great 
quantities of wild fowl on several large lakes or lagoons. We 
arrived at Batna at sunset ; and watched the pious Arabs spread 
their little carpets upon the platform and execute their devotions to 
Allah, prostrating themselves many times to the east. 

After our rapid descent to Biskra in the dark, and in spite of a 
stifling night at our hotel, we arose fresh and eager for a view of the 
Garden of Allah and the Great Sahara Desert. The party separated 
for the morning, my son and I visiting a small outlying oasis called 
Beni Mora, escorted by two small Arab boys. The surface of the 
desert around the oasis had been roughly sown with coarse corn, 
now dried up, amongst which were large patches of a black burying 
beetle, Gynniopleunin, in some cases containing more than two 
hundred. The oasis was of date palms, each planted in a circular 
hole to hold the moisture which is supplied by ditches running 
between the palms. The shrubs were lovely pink and white 
oleanders, and scarlet flowered pomegranates. The commonest 
butterfly (called in Arabic bofatatu) was our old friend the Wall, 
Parar(je wef/era, almost indistinguishable from our insular friend, 
flying with a small form of Lycaena icanis^ and a few lovely little 
blues, Azanvs lysiwon, most difficult to follow in flight. Our after- 
noon excursion, in spite of the sun, and such a sun, beating down 
upon our heads and creating a temperature of 116° Fahr. in the 
shade, was by camel-back to the Desert sand dunes, passing through 
the native village, mostly inhabited by indigenous Berbers, whose 
cleanly habits compared most favourably with the dirt of the Arab 
Kabyle population. The flat-topped houses and walls are all made 
of mud bricks parged over with similar material. The mosques 
have a tower with a serrated castellation ; and as we passed we 
could hear the droning of the prayers, for all the world like the hum 
of a hive of bees. The stately stride of the camels at three miles 
an hour gave ample opportunity to the camel boys to collect 
numerous objects for the members of the party, including white 
scorpions {Bnt/ms occitaniciis), scarabaeus beetles, and numerous 
smooth lizards of the skink tribe [Scincidae], by the simple 
method of pulling down the mud walls in which they hid. After 
leaving the oasis, the resort of a lovely little fawn turtle-dove of a 
distinct species, we emerged upon the desert proper and gazed across 
the endless wastes of sand stretching for miles to the horizon, but 
dotted here and there with small green oases, amongst which small 



spiral columns of sand gave warning of the terrible sand storms that 
sometimes occur when the sirocco blows. The camel boys enlivened 
the progress of the caravan by their native chants, most grotesque 
and weird, all given with great *' Joie de vivre." After an excellent 
tea with luscious oranges, our return by a different route took us by 
the side of the little railway to the oasis of Touggourt, many miles 
away in the Sahara. Our camels were by no means disturbed by 
the approach of the train, but crossed the track quite leisurely, their 
stately gait reminding one of the difference between the modern age 
of hurry as compared with the leisurely ways of the past. On our 
way back my mount proceeded to confute the quotation from the 
Bible, that a camel cannot pass through the eye of a needle, by 
passing through a small archway into a field, and if not prevented 
would have swept me from the saddle. 

A visit to Mchouneche was made by motor car, to the whole 
party's relief, as camel riding has painful after-effects. The shim- 
mering air of the desert played strange tricks with the eyesight ; 
and oasis and palms were seen floating in the mirage on the hori- 
zon, as we passed across the sandy desert hills between the oasis 
of Chetma, and the Aures Mountains. The marvellous weathering 
of these hills, as we wound along the banks of the oued or river 
was beautiful in the extreme ; and the immense beds of white and 
pink oleander bushes on their edges, displayed a wondrous wealth 
of colour. On arrival at our destination, the Oasis of Mchouneche. 
we were received by the whole population under the tribal Sheik. 
He was thin and gaunt, with turban and bernous none too clean ; 
and his satellites were of all a^es and sizes. The small boys seized 
our nets, and collected such Pierids as were flying. An alfresco 
feast was held, with the assistance of the entire male population as 
waiters, in what was described as " une belle jardin," in the most 
welcome shade of the date palms. An excursion was made by the 
concealed mountain gorge into the Aures Mountains. The gorge 
is clean-cut right through the yellow calcareous cliffs, the stream 
twisting and turning amongst the rugged masses, and is the haunt 
of many frogs of a dirty green colour with a white line down the 
back, and others of a brighter green. Nearly every stone concealed 
one or more ocellated toads ; big fellows, fat as butter. High on 
the sides of the gorge, over the steep declivity, that rare butterfly 
Teracolua nouna was lazily flitting in the most inaccessible positions. 
A few were taken, mostly by the agile Arab boys with their fingers. 
The only other butterflies seen, besides Pieris rapae, were that 
beautiful little tailed-blue Tarucus (Azanus) theophrastus, which has 
a delicately brown-pencilled grey underside, and feeds on a prickly 
form of caper tree, pupatmg in ant nests, like our Lycaena avion ; 
one or two specimens of a skipper, quite new to us, turned out to be 
Hesperia standeri. A stroll through the village revealed the only 
visible signs of progress in the number of Singer's Sewing Machines 



8 

in use. Our departure was heralded by an ovation from the whole 
tribe. 

The modern Biskra is laid out in squares, and has well-built 
houses and hotels with all the amenities of life, including electric 
light, main drainage and water supply, a most picturesque Casino 
and Mosque. Entertainment is provided by the '* Oued Nail " or 
dancing girls, and an amazingly arrayed Arab or Berber wbo much 
resembled our old cockney friend, the *' one man band." The native 
market displayed for sale everything from pots and pans of 
Brummagem origin to Barbary Apes and Fennec Foxes, besides 
the most repulsive of sweets and eatables. 

Our next stop was at El Kantara, •* The Gate " to the desert, the 
centre for the hunting of the Barbary Sheep or Mouflon, which is 
confined to the Aures and strictly preserved. The chief industry, 
however, is the exploiting of entomologists ; the train being met by 
a deputation of Arab guides with such words as " Sir, charlonia is 
just out, but pechi is over." A collecting expedition to the favoured 
localities was thus easily arranged. Guides, mules, and donkey- 
boys in ranks watched our al-fresco breakfast. The route was over 
the bare rocky hills covered with alfalfa grass, the haunt of jackals 
and fennec foxes, but the lower ground was roughly cultivated with 
rye, etc. More " skippers " were taken, and the crests of the hills 
■were frequented by that very brilliant form of Hipparchia semele 
called var. algira, in company with numbers of Melanarc/ia inea, 
flying amongst the alfalfa grass. The party also took about a dozen 
Anthoclians charlonia, which little yellow butterfly is of considerable 
rarity and of only local occurrence ; the two Pierids, A. crameri 
(belia) and A. belemia were abundant, whilst the Lycaenids were 
represented by T. theophrastus, Polyommatus icarus, a diminutive form, 
and ScoUtantides baton of the Algerian race abencerrarfiis. It was 
here that the guides found the first chameleons resting on the rocks, 
upon which they seemed perfectly concealed by their sandy colour. 
When handled they opened their mouths and emitted a loud hiss much 
like that of a snake. Some of the geologists of the party found 
masses of fossil oyster-shells with corrugated surface, and the con- 
chologists a truncated bivalve. Our return to the hotel, where two 
species of geckos were taken round the lights the previous night, 
and our departure were accompanied by the guides in chief bartering 
for the export of entomological rarities during the ensuing summer. 

The two days spent at Batna were divided between archeology 
and natural history. A visit to the Roman remains of Lambessa 
and Timgad will be better portrayed by slides than described. These 
two towns are situated on a cultivated plain at three thousand feet 
high, and are in a wonderfully excellent state of preservation, 
especially the latter. Amongst the ruins of the former the haunt 
of the beautiful green-blue spotted lizard (Lacerta ocellata), we dis- 
covered the " skipper " Hesperia onopordi and Melanargia lucasi in 



9 

great numbers, the latter superficially hardly distinguishable from 
our own Marbled White. 

The other excursion was perhaps the most memorable of our 
trip, visiting the massif of Belezma, which approaches six thousand 
feet in height and is crowned by the remnants of a cedar forest. 
The slopes are clothed with undergrowth of genista and other 
bushes, studded with many lovely orchids, squills of four species 
and masses of blue pimpernel, amongst which the brilliant yellow 
orange-tip (Enchlo'e enpheno) flitted in numbers. It was here that 
we obtained our chief entomological prizes. As the lepidoptera of 
these mountains seem distinct from any other, and may perhaps be 
mentioned in detail : — 

Satyr i(s ahdelkader var. lanibessana. We obtained four specimens 
of this rare variety, which forms a May brood of the better known 
type species, from which it differs by having several blue spots in 
the forewing, resembling dryas. 

Everes lorqninii, very similar to Ciipido minimus^ but larger. 

Polyovntiatns hylas, unique form never before recorded from Al- 
geria, and considered by Lord Rothschild as a new race. 

Scolitantides faUna, one of the rarest and most beautiful of all 
the palaearctic blues, until lately considered to be a variety of S. 
bavins, whose nearest habitat is Lebanon in Syria ; it has, however, 
now been separated from that species. 

Issoria lathonia, Pararye nieyera, Colias croceus, and its var. ? 
helice, besides Aporia crataeyi ; one of the two Algerian Melitaea. 
M. aetherie, which only occurs in Europe at Gibraltar, and many 
other species, including a belated Theclid, presumed to be Callo- 
phrys ri(bi, but might possibly be C. avis. 

After this delightful day, we departed by the night train for 
Blida, changing trains in the early morning at Alger. 

Blida is situated in the *' Tell," on the plain of the Mitidja, at 
the immediate foot of the North Atlas Mountains ; and our hotel 
was situated near the summit at an altitude of 4,000 feet, and was 
approached by immense lacets up a projecting spur. The name of 
the hotel was '* La Glaciere," nor did it belie its name, as the 
temperature during our stay was never more than 5° above freezing 
point and much of the time at zero, accompanied by hail and snow. 
This contrast between the burning heat of the desert was trying, 
but failed to depress the spirits of the company, and all sallied 
forth in macs, and overcoats to explore the cedar forests in the 
cloud and mist, and in the few bright intervals we found an en- 
chanted land. The little glades and rippling cascades overhung 
with firs and mountain ash, ferns and moss, might have persuaded 
us that we were wandering in the hills of our own Lake District, 
if it had not been for the unfamiliar banks of Yellow Tulips and 
beds of yellow and purple Violas and Gladioli. 

A visit to the Col de Chrea gave a magnificent view over the 



10 

country of the High Plateaux, consisting of range after range of 
high mountains extending to the remote distance. The Chalet there 
is the head quarters of the Alpine Club who spend the winter in ski- 
ing and sleighing. On the walls is displayed the skin of a panther 
shot in the vicinity. During the bright intervals some nature 
photography was possible, and the nests of the Tarantula spider 
(Lycosa) formed interesting subjects, whilst birds of interest were 
noted, consisting of the Raven, Great Owl, Cuckoo, Partridge, Tits 
and Black and White Buntings. The most interesting butterflies 
taken were a form of Pieris napi, somewhat approaching the alpine 
bnjoniae, and the first $ of Epinephele fortunata, the Algerian 
meadow brown, and in one spot some numbers of Coeyionympha 
arcanoides, and a single Lycaenopsia argiolus caught by Mr. Main. 

Our departure was enlivened by a financial altercation as to cost 
of transport, successfully dealt with by Mr. Richardson in his usual 
effective manner, in spite of threats of gendarmes, etc. 

The Baths of Allah, or Hamman Righa, our next resting spot, 
was a spa situated near Bou Medfa in the " Tell," frequented by 
numbers of both French and Arabs, for whom two large separate 
Hotels are kept. The baths are of much value for neurasthenia and 
similar complaints. The water issues from the ground at a tempera- 
ture of over 67° Cent., and was in medicinal use in Roman times. 
The baths are still to be seen and are in excellent preservation, 
Unexcavated ruins are everywhere. The hotel is one of the most 
pretentious in Algeria and is situated in most lovely gardens of sub- 
tropical vegetation, including date palms, agaves, eucalyptus, pome- 
granate, orange, lemon, and figs, with a central magnificent cedar. 

It was here that photography commenced in earnest ; and the 
party separated daily, each after his own speciality. 

Hamman Righa, although considerably cultivated, is still a 
prolific locality and its lower levels produced a more varied fauna, 
the paths up the forest proving most productive. It was here we 
first discovered the land-crabs, sitting at the mouth of their holes 
in the banks at the edge of the gullies, and we think spending the 
nocturnal hours in the pursuit of vast numbers of snails, which 
form their diet. Reptiles were also numerous, and dark green 
snakes over 5 feet long of the genus Coluber were disturbed on more 
than one occasion, together with several smaller of a more danger- 
ous nppearance. Slow-worms, skinks, and large green and small 
brown lizards were seen ; and we were fortunate to get a beautiful 
little yellow land tortoise about 2" long, and subsequently the 
natives brought the black-shelled water tortoise, or terrapin, literally 
by the bucketful. Coleoptera were in plenty, the most interesting 
noticed being a very large oil-beetle, the ? of which had red spots 
on each segment of its abdomen ; and a species of Copru^ whose 
life-history will be shown by my son at the next meeting by means 
of slides. A new and interesting spider was noted spinning a horn- 



11 

shaped web in the genista, protected by a silken trapdoor behind 
which it sits in wait for such insects as enter the horn. 

The butterflies were numerous and exceptional, ranging in size 
from the uncatchable Charaxes jasins, " the pacha of many tails," 
to the familiar Brown Argus, Aricia medon {aatrarche). One which 
demands particular attention is the Algerian representative of 
Eugonia polycJdoros, which is literally as brilliant in coloration as 
A(jlais iirticae and has been distinguished by the varietal name of 
erythromelas. The magnificent Argynnid, Dryas pandora, was not 
uncommon by an ancient shrine to an Arab Queen, a point; of pil- 
grimage to native devotees. It consisted of four stones laid in the 
shape of a grave and ornamented with handkerchiefs and rugs hung 
around, whilst the interior was adorned with candlesticks and a 
bowl of charcoal. 

On the Aristolochia in the cornfields were some numbers of the 
larvae of Zerynthia (Thais) ruviina, of which one or two belated 
specimens were taken. Pajnlio podalirius, approaching the 
Spanish form fehthameli, was not uncommon ; whilst the 
previously recorded orange-tips and Pierids were very numerous. 
Fine Gonepteryx cleopatra reminded us of the European 
coast, whilst Melitaea aetlierie gave us a grand series. The 
interesting Lycaenids included La»ipides hoeticKs, the long-tailed 
blue, confined to one small spot in the fir woods, and one small 
specimen of Pleheius martini, of which more later. 

Hamman Righa is a noted locality for Zygaenids, and we were 
fortunate in being able to find for our friend Mr. Grosvenor the 
two following species, Zygaena theryi and Zygaena algira. 

A motor excursion to the Gorge du Chifia, in the Atlas, intro- 
duced us to the Barbary Ape, which inhabits the Gorge in tribes 
of thirty or forty and descends to the Hotel, perching on the roofs 
and balconies and importuning the visitors by clinging to their 
clothes whilst being fed. The mother apes bear their offspring on 
the breasts and backs, and thus laden, spring with the utmost 
agility up walls and over roofs. 

On May 27th our party was broken up and we had to take a sad 
farewell of our kind friends, Mr. and Mrs, Main and Mr. Richard- 
son, who returned to England with envy in their hearts. 

Major Liles accompanied us on our expedition off the tourist 
routes into the interior portion of the Atlas, fifty miles south of 
Affreville, a market town in the " Tell." The route to our destina- 
tion, Teniet-el-Haad, lay across a sweltering plain extensively 
cultivated and extending far into the mountains, and then over 
winding passes through the wild hills, in which were situated little 
native villages, where the women either fled at our approach or hid 
their faces from our masculine eyes by the simple device of throw- 
ing their skirts over their heads. Arriving in the little square of 



12 

the town we were much discouraged and depressed by its situation, 
as no signs of woods or forests were visible, but only three or four 
dry, bare and sandy hills, and we retired to our modest hotel con- 
templating an early departure. A welcome rest in the fresh 
mountain air, however, somewhat revived our drooping spirits, 
and we departed on our investigation at an early hour- We emerged 
on the bare hills at the back of the cemetery and were astonished 
to find them swarming with insects, and what is more, of many 
species entirely new to us. Melanarf^ia lucasi was in great numbers 
consorting with the swarms of Melitaea aetherie, of which the 
females resembled in coloration the polymorphic forms of didytna, 
ranging from straw yellow to steel grey in colour. Much time was 
spent in cutting cocoons out of the genista bushes under the mis- 
taken impression that they were Zygaenids, but the emergence of 
small fly-like larvae in immense numbers soon undeceived us ; they 
turned out to be a Psychid. 

Several visits were made to "The Cascade" about two miles 
from the village, which was at this time nearly devoid of water, 
but the vegetation was more prolific along the stream beds, and 
delightful picnics were made and the most interesting nature 
photos taken. It was here that we found the two long-sought Algerian 
Lycaenids, P. niartiiii and P. allardi ; these rarities being in some 
abundance, especially the former. Cupido lorquinii was also in 
some quantities, flying with a belated specimen of Glaucopst/che 
melano})s of special form. We were here fortunate enough to come 
across four specimens of H^s/jgrm ahined, a very large "skipper" 
of the proto group, at present imperfectly described, together with 
the Algerian Hespeiia ali, very near to the Hesperia sertorius (sao) of 
Europe. 

This little valley was also the haunt of land-crabs, skinks, and 
scorpions, which formed ideal subjects for photography. The 
scorpions were a species new to us {Scorpio maurns), which is much 
browner than the desert ones and has a varnished-like surface and 
thicker chelae. There was also an enormous green and pink 
grasshopper, the females of which were 5" to 7" long, whilst the 
males did not exceed 3" to 4". It was identified as Pachytyliis elephas 
at the British Museum. 

It was near this valley that we were treated to a sight rarely 
enjoyed by Europeans, namely, that of an Arab Gymkana or 
" Fantasia " as they call it. The crowd of about two thousand 
Arabs are drawn up on each side of a course on the hillside. Small 
groups of four or five Arab horsemen on their little arab horses, 
all dressed in their white flowing robes and turbans bound round 
with thin rope, formed in ranks and at the word of command 
charged full speed up the opposite slope in close formation, vieing 
with each other's horsemanship and bearing and discharging their 



13 

rifles whilst in full career. We were lucky to get a photo or two 
of this fine sight. 

The chief attraction of Teniet-el-Haad is, however, the Cedar 
forest, the most extensive in Algeria, which clothes the entire 
summits of the mountains above 4,000 feet high. Imagine a chain 
of mountains nine or ten miles long entirely uncultivated and 
covered for its whole length with immense cedars of sage green, 
many rising to a height of 80 feet on the precipitous sides and 
fringed by the most beautiful parklike pasturage at their foot, the 
meadows being full of flowers and lovely grasses. The motor drive 
through this enchanted wood beggars description, but was by no 
means easy, on account of the many obstacles that had to be 
removed out of the way. The flowery glades were the haunt of 
more insects than we had previously met with. Dryas pandora 
dashing up and down, and now and then settling on a large 
Umbellifer. Melitaea in abundance. Pararge aegeria common in 
the shady recesses. Colias croceus very abundant, with a large 
proportion of var. helice. Three belated specimens of Z. (T.) rinnina. 
Pontia daplidice in ones or twos, and Gonepteryx cleopatra even at 
this height. But the catch of the day was the new Hesperia leuzeae ; 
that skipper was in dozens, both $ and $ , and at once struck us 
as exceptional. It is excessively rare in collections, there having 
been only 6 or 7 specimens previously recorded, and it remains at 
present undescribed. The Melanaryia were also most abundant, 
together with many more insects. 

A final visit to the bare hills to the north of the town, a most 
forbidding looking locality, produced the same plethora of riches, 
and in addition, a couple of AntJiocharis charhmia and a 
colony of Cigaritis zohra, which little copper we feared we had 
missed, flitted over the dwarf thyme amongst the alfalfa grass 
which formed the resting place of Ejmiephile paaiphae Y&r. pliilUpina. 
Another prize worth noting was a perfect albino specimen of Aricia 
medon (astrarche). 

A word about our headquarters will not be amiss for future 
visitors to this favoured locality. The Hotel Moderne is managed 
by a most accommodating host and wife; and although humble 
in the extreme the accommodation was good and the fare well- 
cooked and plentiful. The bedrooms opened on a central courtyard, 
the haunt of a tame gazelle, which, when loose, held us to ransom 
in the shape of a packet of cigarettes, which it consumed with great 
gusto, but in the case of a non-smoker, like myself, rewarded my 
stinginess by puncturing my puttees ; and when invading the 
Major's bedroom was received with a flow of language reminiscent 
of his military career. 

It was with the greatest regret that we had to leave this natura- 
lists' paradise on June 3rd, after five weeks of the most enjoyable 
and varied holiday we have ever had the luck to experience. 



14 

There is little more to say, except that two days were passed in 
Algiers itself, a fine town, but having little of natural interest. 

Our voyage home to Marseilles was very different from our pre- 
vious crossing, the water being without a ripple. 

Lists of our captures are in course of preparation for publication, 
in case they may be of use to future travellers. 

Thanks are due to the British Museum authorities for their help 
in naming many captures ; to the lanternist, and to Mr. Dennis for 
the capital slides he has made. 



15 



Protective Devices in Spiders' Snares. 

By Major R. W. G. Hingston, Y.^.S.—Read March 24</t, 1927. 

Tropical spiders have numerous enemies, the chief being parasitic 
hymenoptera and diptera. They are also preyed on by insectivorous 
birds. Many of the species which weave circular snares introduce 
into the network special contrivances in order to protect them when 
seated in the web. The following are the most important of these 
devices. 

1. The String of Pellets. — Manufactured by a Himalayan species 
of Cyclosa. A number of oval pellets are strung along the vertical 
diameter of the snare. They are the same size, shape and colour 
as the spider which sits at the centre of the web and exactly resem- 
bles a pellet. 

2. The Pellet and Hub Device. — Manufactured by Cyclosa centri- 
faciens. Found at Akyab in Burmah. This species in addition to 
oval pellets places around the pellets a tangled thread in order to 
simulate the hub and its snare. The pellet with its artificial hub 
is mistaken for the spider surrounded by a real hub. 

3. 2'he Insect Heaps. — Manufactured by G aster acantha hrevispina. 
Found in the Andaman Islands. It collects the carcasses of its 
insect captures, swathes them in silk, and accumulates them in heaps. 
The heaps are the same size, colour and irregular shape as the 
spider at the centre. They serve as a decoy. 

4. The String of Pellets with encircling ribbons. — A more elaborate 
device than the string of pellets. A series of ribbons arranged in 
concentric ovals are spread around the snare. They are white, 
conspicuous, composed of silk. Their function is to draw the eye 
from the centre, to disperse the vision from the danger point. A 
dispersing device. 

5. The Diametrical Cylinder. — Manufactured by Cyclosa cylindH- 
faciens. A slender cylinder of silk is placed along one radius. The 
spider sits at the centre where it blends with the cylinder and looks 
like one end of it. 

6. The Diametrical Bands. — Manufactured by Jjloborus coeni- 
cnlatus. A flat silk band is placed in the diameter of the snare. 
A gap is left at the centre. The spider fills this gap and by doing 
BO makes itself a part of the band. 



16 

7. The Diametrical Bands with encircling ribbons. — More elaborate 
than the diametrical bands. Ribbons made of white conspicuous 
silk are placed concentrically around the bands. These serve as a 
dispersing device to carry the eye outwards from the centre. 

8. The Diametrical Threads. — Made by Uloborns filifaciens. Found 
in the Andaman Islands. A white conspicuous thread is placed in 
the vertical diameter of the snare. A gap is left at the centre. 
The spider fills the gap and looks like an expanded part of the 
thread. 

9. The Cruciate Threads, — Made by Uloborns filifaciens. The 
threads are arranged in the form of a cross. The spider sits in the 
centre of the cross and looks as if part of the cruciate device. 

10. The Central Shield. — Made by Uloborns scntifaciens. Found in 
Burmah. A mat composed of silk with insects and debris inter- 
woven is placed at the centre of the snare. The spider hides behind 
the mat. 

11. 2'he Central Shield irithdianietrical ribbons. — An elaboration of 
the last example. The shield is prolonged into ribbons which run 
along the upper vertical radius and lower vertical radius of the 
snare. 

12. IVie Central Shield with spiral ribbon. — A conspicuous white 
spiral ribbon is wound around the central shield. Another example 
of the dispersing device. 

13. The Oblique Band. — Made by Uloborns crucifaciens. Found in 
Burmah. A white strap is placed obliquely across the snare. The 
snare is spun against the bark of a tree, and the spider hides 
behind the strap. 

14. llie Cruciate Bands. — Two oblique bands across one another, 
the point of crossing being at the centre of the snare. The spider 
hides behind the centre of the cross. 

15. The Central Cushion with spiral ribbon. — A mat or cushion is 
made at the centre. It is composed of silk and debris. The spider 
sits on and blends with the mat. In addition a spiral ribbon is 
wound around it which acts as a dispersing device. 

16. The Central Zigzags. — The centre of the snare is full of a 
complicated mass of zigzags made of conspicuous white silk. The 
spider is concealed in the centre of the system. 

17. The Diametrical Zigzags. — Made by Argyope clarki. A con- 
spicuous white silvery zigzag is placed in the vertical diameter. 
At the centre is a gap in which the spider sits and looks as if part 
of the zigzag. 

18. The Cruciate Zigzags. — Made by Argyope pulchella. The 
silvery zigzags are arranged like the limbs of a St. Andrew's Cross. 
A space is left at the centre. The spider sits in this space and 



17 

arranges its legs in pairs, each pair being continuous with a limb 
of the cross. 

19. The Triradiate Zigzags. — Made by Argyope catenulata. The 
zigzag ribbons are arranged triradially with a space at the centre. 
The spider fills this space. On its dorsal surface is a triradiate 
system of silvery markings which appear continuous with and blend 
with the silvery zigzags in the snare. 

20. The Stick in Snare. — Made by Tetragnatha baculifaciens. 
Snare is always spread around a piece of straight withered stick. 
The spider, which is elongated and slender, flattens itself against 
and blends with the stick. 

21. The Leaf in Snare. — Made by Tetragnatha foliferens. Found 
in the Nicobar Islands. A leaf is dragged into the snare then folded 
into a tube and lined with silk. The spider lives inside the tube and 
can escape at either end. 



18 



A Short Description of the Argentine Chaco. 

By Kenneth J. Hayward, F.E.S.— Read July 2Sth, 1927. 

The locality, about which I propose to write lies in the North 
Bast corner of the Argentine, and comprises the Northern portion 
of the Province of Santa Fe and the Southern portion of the 
Gabernaci6n del Chaco. Nominally, the whole area is referred to 
as the " Chaco," and to the average Argentine of the South it is 
looked upon as a terrible region, uncivilised, and full of dangers. 
Actually, it is far from being as bad as it is painted, and in spite of 
the small discomforts that go with such outposts of civilisation, its 
comparative loneliness, and the humid heat and mosquitoes of the 
summer months, it might well be worse. 

The Fokest. — To those who imagine a forest of giant trees and 
dense sub-tropical undergrowth, the hardwood forest of the Chaco 
must prove disappointmg. With stumpy trees, comparatively thin 
undergrowth, and flower-strewn edges, resembles it very closely the 
New Forest or any of the great oak woods in England. Within 
and away from the woodcutter's paths and wagon tracks, they are 
covered with low bushes and a tangle of brushwood and rank weeds 
and grass, but are for the most part passable, though usually only 
at the expense of much energy and many scratches, for nearly all 
the undergrowth is thorned. Near water, where the trees exceed 
the general height, and where their blanches mingling overhead 
give a cavernous half-light to the place, the usual undergrowth 
gives way to a few stunted bushes, and the soil is covered with deep 
leaf -mould reminiscent of some favourite beech- wood. The soil of 
the forest is almost entirely heavy clay, and the cart tracks are al- 
ways deeply scored with wheel-ruts and the hoof-marks of bullocks. 
Whilst at all times rough and difficult walking, these tracks are 
knee-deep in mud and water after rains, and as they are the only 
means of access to the deeper portions of the forest, one must then 
make up one's mind to wade or stay outside. Branching off from 
the main tracks are numerous small overgrown but fairly passable 
woodmen's paths that have from time to time been cut to give 
access to the trees to be felled. From the fact that most of the 
undergrowth, like the trees, is of slow growth, combined with the 
scoring up of roots by the dragging over the ground of heavy logs, 
these paths remain open far longer than one would expect. There 



19 

fire patches of sandy soil to be found but with little vegetation other 
than a few ground creepers and low growing plants, but these spots 
are rare. 

Large patches of forest have at times been consumed by fire, and 
where these tragedies have taken place there now remains a ceme- 
tery of jagged, blackened stumps, whilst the ground on which they 
stand, cleared of all undergrowth by fire, now produces a desolate 
expanse of pampas grass, which growing amidst a tangle of fallen 
half-burnt branches is almost impassable. These burnt areas are 
not only desolate to look upon, but are usually found to be quite un- 
productive collecting grounds. Caranchos {Poh/bonis thanis) and 
the Chimango [Milvaffo chimaiKjo) sit owl-like on the blackened 
stumps, and an occasional forest chicken may scuttle hurriedly to 
the deeper shelter of the living forest, but insects and small bird- 
life are almost non-existent. Flowers seem to shun the burnt 
ground and an occasional rattle proclaims the presence of a suitable 
guardian of the desolation around one. In the living forest, where 
one expects a dim light filtering through overhead branches, there 
is actually much simlight, since the trees for the most part do not 
growclose to one another. Overhead, Papillo thoas r. braniliensis may 
be seen floating gracefully down some track far above the reach of 
any net. Danaids and Catopsilias fly hurriedly over the low under- 
growth, and one looks for brilliant Morphos, but in vain, though 
M. catenarius r. an/entuius most certainly ought to occur, and even 
possibly M. achiUes in one of its forms. Dlone vanillae flitting 
along the tracks, settling here and there on some flower head or 
bramble, takes one back to days spent after Dryas f)aphia in more 
pleasant times. Many species of Thecla flutter around the bush- 
tops or settle on the tall flowering weeds that have escaped the 
wagon wheels, and there are places where one may watch the bril- 
liant T. niamyas in dozens, flashing in the sunlight. 

In the deep shadows of the bushes and in the deeper parts of the 
forest, many Euptychias flit in and out of the shadows, with the 
yellow Terias ileva, and more rarely the white albida. Phyciodes 
ianthe is everywhere in all conditions of wear, from freshly emerged 
specimens to rags. Around the damp muddy parts of the roads 
where the sun has not yet succeeded in turning the soft clay into 
cement-like hardness, this insect with the Euptychias and a few 
stray Hesperiids rise in clouds, as do the yellow T. orobia in the 
forest region near the rivers. In many places along the cart tracks, 
where it has been necessary at some past time to raise the level of 
the track, the earth has been taken from alongside leaving an ex- 
cavation, and these and other hollows in the forest, often right in 
amongst the bushes, become in wet weather and for varying periods 
after, small ponds. Around these, amongst the lush weeds, Terias 
and Anartia anialthea (form roeselia) are to be found, and occasionally 
.an Ageronia flits moth-like farther into the shadows. Skippers are 



20 

common everywhere, but for the most part the Hesperiids prefer the 
open land and remain outside the forest. Along the small branch 
paths where often the bushes meet overhead, one walks with a feeling 
of expectancy, but except for the ubiquitous Terias and Euptychias, 
an occasional D. vanillae, and perhaps the here somewhat rare 
Colaenis julia, one seldom brings much to net. In the more open 
glades Papilio hellanichus is common. Most of the local insects 
may from time to time be met with, but apart from those mentioned 
above there seem to be few true forest species. After rain, when 
there is much water lying about, Odonata abound, and at any time 
careful search of flower-heads will produce a goodly bag of small 
beetles and Rhynchota. I have turned many a poor day into quite 
a successful hunt through this means. 

The commonest tree is the Quebracho {Schinopsis lorentzii) but 
around the factories this has been considerably thinned out. 
Some of the most frequently occurring trees apart from Quebracho 
are Urunday [A. astronium), Guayacan {Le(jvniinosae) of two species, 
White Quebracho [Aspidospetma quebracho), Ibirapita {Pelto/ilioiiuni 
vogelianuni), Espina Corona {Gleditschia auiorplwides), and various 
species of Algarobo (Prosopis). The undergrowth is almost entirely 
thorny by nature, and Coronillo {Sciitia biixifulia) predominates, 
whilst in places tbere are thickets of Berberis. Yellow and white 
laurel (L. hediondo and C. preta) and Nangapiri [A. pitanga) are also 
very much in evidence. A few cacti grow amongst the undergrowth, 
often towering to the tops of the neighbouring trees, and at certain 
seasons there is a mass of pink or cream lily-like flowers whose 
pungent scent draws many insects. "Where the soil is drier, two 
species of prickly pear (Opiintia /icvs-indica and 0. vionacantha) 
bear their fruit. 

Wild animals in the immediate neighbourhood of the villages are 
confined to an occasional " guasuncho " (a small species of deer), 
foxes, and a few small forest hares. For larger and more varied 
game one must go further afield or to the river region. Where the 
forests have not yet been exploited quite a number of wild beasts 
may be observed, especially if there is water near at hand. Game 
birds abound everywhere. On the open land and especially that 
near or under cultivation, partridges are very plentiful, with an oc- 
casional martinetta {Bhynchotus riifescens). Near lakes and along 
the forest edges two species of forest-chicken and occasionally a 
wild turkey may be picked up. Duck will be found wherever there 
is water, and there are at times geese along the rivers, and very 
rarely a wild swan may appear. In the marshes there are many 
species of snipe, and four or five species of doves and pigeon often 
help the camper fill his pot. Apart from these better-known birds 
there are a great number of lesser-known edible birds, many of them 
very palatable. 

Along the forest edges are isolated clumps of bushes and small 



21 

trees, mainly mimosa, or Le(jiuninosae, and the small frait-bearing 
" nangapiri " is very plentiful. It is seldom that the pampas grass 
fails to give way to a riot of flowering weeds about fifty yards from 
the edge of the trees, and this strip is the best collecting ground we 
have. Practically every species of butterfly is to be found fairly 
commonly, with perhaps the exception of Pieris monnste and Collar 
lesbia, and some of the water-loving species. It is no unusual thing 
for an hour's stroll along a suitable strip, where there are plenty of 
sun -traps, to produce up to and often over thirty species. When 
the mauve Composite, Vernonia chamaedrys, is in flower, this plant 
which grows sparsely and in clumps, must be visited as often as 
possible, as it has a very great attraction for all species of Grypocera 
except possibly the Hesperiids, but even species of this group are at 
times taken at its flowers. I have stood by a single clump and 
taken nearly a dozen species in probably as many minutes. Many 
species visit this plant in numbers that are never seen during the 
remainder of the year. Where they then go is a mystery. The 
plant flowers for a few days only at the end of January or the 
beginning of February, and one must remember from year to year 
where the clumps are situated, and be ready at the exact moment, 
for the insects visit the flowers only in their first freshness. Moths 
of certain Bombycid genera swarm over it, and the careful working 
of a bush will often produce unexpected rarities amongst the moths. 
There are several flowering bushes that for some reason never 
produce an insect, whilst others with crude and almost colourless 
flowers are always full of insect life. Only experience shows which 
will repay a visit, and at first much time is wasted searching 
unsuitable plants, and missing out the attractive ones which out- 
wardly have nothing to recommend them. 

Beating for larvae has proved most disappointing. One or two 
plants such as Sctttia, Berberis, and some creepers such as Snrilax 
and the Paasifiorae, are always worth searching, as thsy are the 
foodplants of several species ; bat indiscriminate beating, in which 
one must indulge in a land where the foodplant and larvae of most 
species are little known, brings very little grist to the mill. Most 
of the larvae I have had the fortune to find have been obtained 
either accidentally or by close and ccyntinued observation of the 
imagines, which have been watched till chance has revealed a female 
ovipositing. In many cases the finding of stray larvae leads no 
further, as without definite indication of the foodplant there is 
nothing to guide one in making a choice from the vast number 
available. This is especially the case with numerous larvae brought 
me from time to time by friends and natives, the former usually 
being delightfully vague, and the latter quite without ideas, on the 
subject of the foodplant. When the larva is full-fed all goes well, 
but only too often I have had reluctantly to file away a carefully 
typed, but quite useless, description in the somewhat faint hope that 



22 

some day the larva will turn up again under happier circumstances. 

Searching trunks is almost useless. For two years I have spent 
much time in the forests at this occupation, with great expectations, 
but with sad results ; and 1 believe the only moth ever found was a 
specimen of a common Geometer that quite possibly had but just 
settled on the trunk, being a day-flier. 1 put this lack of tree-trunk 
life down to the prevalence of ants, which would assuredly carry off 
any insect foolish enough to attempt to spend its da,y in such a 
position. One occasionally comes across cocoons and pupae on 
certain trees, but they hardly warrant the time one is inclined to 
waste over this method of searching. Nowadays, except as a means 
of resting, I have given it up. 

Pupa-digging is also rather of the nature of a '* lucky dip." I 
have on one or two occasions obtained a few pupae this way, but 
usually from trees on which I have had previous evidence of larvae 
feeding. One can do much more good with one's time searching 
for imagines amongst the flowers and foliage than attempting to add 
to the bag by the more specialised means of obtaining specimens. 
There is plenty of time to resort to these methods when the fauna is 
better known. 

Ants, which I have just mentioned, are one of the plagues of the 
country. They abound everywhere and are most difflcuU to eradicate. 
Agriculture suffers severely from their ravages, but being on a 
large scale survives, whilst the gardener with his small patch of 
flowers and vegetables has to wage incessant war against the hordes 
that nightly strip bed after bed of every vestige of leaf, or burrowing 
destroy the roots. Not only must he destroy with poison and fire 
the nests located in and immediately around the garden, but must 
watch the boundaries of his land for signs of the narrow ant-path 
which indicates the arrival of some foraging party from a distant 
nest. Where they have grown and multiplied undisturbed their 
nests have reached vast proportions. Often the low sandy mounds 
are five or six yards in diameter and one can count upwards of fifty 
or more entrance tunnels, from which radiate to all sides a network 
of ant-paths varying from less than an inch to over two inches in 
width according to their age. These paths are cleared in a day of 
all vestige of vegetation ; obstructions such as small twigs, etc., are all 
removed, and along them proceeds a double line of ants, going out 
unburdened and returning laden with grass or leaves. A procession 
that commences shortly after sunrise to continue till sunset. These 
paths lead often to patches of vegetation four hundred or more yards 
from the nest, and the labourers bring back leaves and grass of 
species that often grow on the nest itself, or which at worst could 
have been obtained a few yards from the ant-heap. It is a problem 
that has given me much thought, this ranging so far afield for nest 
material obtainable so close at hand and at the expense of so much 
less labour. I can only think that it is instinct that warns them to 



23 

avoid exposing the sight of their nest, or interfering with root-borne 
drainage by utilising and eventually killing the vegetation 
immediately on the site of their nest. But even then — why go so far 
afield ? 

The River Region. — ^Lying some 35 miles to the East of Villa 
Ana, and at this point flowing due South, is the great Rio Parana, 
here, and for some hundreds of miles further North a waterway for 
river traffic. More or less parallel to this river to the West, and at 
a distance that varies from ten to twenty miles, runs the Paranamini 
or Little Parana, whilst between these rivers is a network of inter- 
mingling streams and lakes of depth and size that have direct relation 
to the amount of water being carried by the parent stream, the 
Parana. The land here is low-lying, and at times during the later 
summer months the whole area is submerged, and in one of my 
camps in that neighbourhood where the tent was pitched some 18 to 
20 feet above the level of the Rio Pindo, the trees bore traces five 
feet up their trunks of the previous year's " cresciente." This area 
is reached from Villa Ana along the small railway to Puerto Ocampo 
on the Parana. Leaving Villa Ana one passes through a wide belt 
of partially cleared forest devoid of water and in consequence lacking 
the usual birdlife. Coming out on the other side, the railway twists 
and turns its way through some thirty miles of agricultural land — 
full of partridges— with the village of Ocampo in its centre. In 
the spring this land is blue with flowering flax, and here and there 
numerous lapacho trees with their masses of pink flowers brighten 
the landscape. At a point called San Vincente the railway crosses 
the Rio Paranamini on a long wooden trestle-bridge, and the 
agricultural land gives way to low-lying ground covered with pampas 
grass and reeds, and dotted with woodland and large shallow lakes, 
which during the summer are a mass of colour from the yellow, 
white, pink, and blue water flowers that grow so luxuriantly on them. 
It is m the deeper of these lakes that one may occasionally find th6 
great Victoria regia with its tray-like leaves and enormous white 
flowers. Whenever possible, we visit these parts to fish or shoot 
or collect. 

It was here that I spent fifteen days camping during the spring of 
last year. During this time I and a friend lived entirely on our guns 
and rods, having left civilisation behind us with only a few indis- 
pensable dry goods. And we lived well. Leaving the railway at 
Pindo, where it crosses the Rio Pindo over a smaller trestle bridge, 
we loaded our camp kit on a canoe, and sent it North, whilst we 
followed along the banks shooting for the day's pot as we went. 
This walk up to the junction of the Rios Pindo and Paranamini, 
where we had decided to make our first camp, was a revelation to us 
both. Only in Southern Europe have I seen such a medley of 
flowers as met our gaze in some of the small clearings we crossed. 



24 

and it was in one of these clearings that I first made the acquaintance 
of Papilio perrhebus which was afterwards to prove so common. It 
was delightful lying in camp to watch this beautiful Papilio flying 
all around one over some low growing flowers that covered the ground 
around the tent. We camped on the West bank of the Pindo right 
opposite the point at which the Paranamini cuts into it, and remained 
here for six days, afterwards moving back through Pindo to a site 
further South. This proved better hunting-grouud, camping this 
time on the far bank, but at a spot where it was possible to cross the 
river without a canoe, thus having access to both banks. The rivers 
here are sandy and for the most part running in deep troughs, 
though in places the banks are low and bare of vegetation other than 
coarse grass. Where the banks are high they are almost invariably 
covered with a fringe of woodland, varying in depth from a few yards 
to several hundred. Usually on the immediate edge of the bank 
there is a thick cane-brake, mingling with, or replacing, the trees and 
usual undergrowth. This bamboo is the favourite haunt of a 
Lymnas (probably a form of aegates), an insect I took here for the 
first time, and which though common is far from plentiful. 
It has a well marked habit of settling on the underside of leaves 
where it is not easily detected. Amongst these canes there are one 
or two other somewhat uncommon species, but so local that hard 
work will usually yield a good series, once they have been located. 
Very common also amongst this type of forest is Phyciodes orobia, 
which replaces the P. ianthe, that is so common in the drier forest. 
As in the case of P. ianthe, T. orobia loves to sit on damp patches 
of earth, and one day especially many thousands must have been 
settled in a dip where several shallow mud-holes were rapidly drying 
up. Along the edge of these pools sat dozens of Caranchos (Poly- 
bonis thariis) waiting for the luckless fish that were jumping ashore 
in their efforts to find deeper water, whilst several Storks (Ardea 
cocoi) waded solemnly about eating their fill. Backing on this 
woodland border to the rivers is flat land covered with shoulder-high 
pampas grass, progress through which tires one's body and temper. 
This grass produces little of interest except an occasional partridge, 
but quick handling of the gun is dijfficult owing to the tangle, and 
many a shot bird is never picked up. Dotted about amongst this 
wilderness are small clumps of trees and larger patches of forest, 
sure sign of lakes, and at times the pampas grass thins out and one 
finds oneself on slightly higher ground of fine turf, often graced 
with the beautiful yellow iris, Cypella herberti. Walking over 
this country is far from pleasant, since the surface of the ground 
is so rough that I doubt if one in three steps finds the foot bearing 
evenly on the ground. During my stay in this district I averaged 
nine and a half hours walking per day, and for the first few days 
suffered severely from bruised feet. The lakes — or lagunas as they 
are called locally — and water holes with which the whole district 



25 

is dotted receive their water from the periodical floods augmented 
by rain, and perhaps in a few cases by back filtration from the 
rivers. They may be divided into three types. The permanent 
laguna, the semi-permanent, and the simple mud-hole. These latter 
are just depressions in the ground filled by some previous flood, and 
being shallow last but a limited period. They have no trees or 
special vegetation around them, and one usually comes upon them 
unexpectedly amongst the pampas grass. They are invariably well- 
stocked with palometta and small dorado and often with one or two 
small alligators {Caiman sclerops) in attendance, varying in length 
up to about four feet. The semi-permanent lakes are either deeper, 
or so placed that they receive surface-drainage from a large area, 
and so last longer than the mud-holes, which they resemble onlv in 
the fact that their presence is seldom indicated by surrounding trees 
or tall vegetation. As one approaches they sometimes appear like a 
large green lawn, an appearance given by a fine trefoil water-weed, 
with which they are often covered, its surface brightened here and 
there by coloured water flowers, especially the creamy Sagittaria 
moiitevideenfiis and several Fontedeiiaceae,oi which the commonest are 
probably the purple P. cordata and the bluish P. aznrea. On its 
weedy cover stalk the gaily coloured Gallito de Agua — Jacana 
jacana — whose wings bear a terrible pointed spur, and whose plumage 
appears at one moment green, the next red, as they change their 
position in the sun. An occasional ducks wims on the open patches 
of water, snipe of many species rise from the reedy edge, and where 
the bank is clear one often sees the forest chicken [Aratuides ypacaha), 
which being but poorly equipped for flight, is correspondingly keen 
of eye and fleet of foot, betrayed time and again by its innate inquis- 
itiveness. Wading across these shallow lakes, as I have often had 
to do to retrieve birds shot for the pot, is far from pleasant. The 
thick weed growth tangles around one's legs whilst hiding, if only 
in one's thoughts, alligator and anaconda, and the soft mud at the 
bottom continually threatens to suck one down as efiectually as a 
Dartmoor bog. At dusk thousands of dragon-flies take toll of the 
small diptera that such places harbour, but otherwise these pools 
are of small interest to the entomologist. 

The deep permanent lakes take two forms. Those that in times of 
flood link up to form a waterway are usually of little interest, being 
no more than large expanses often many acres in extent, enclosed by 
more or less steep banks six to twelve feet high v/ith a narrow sandy 
strand. Home of many fish that often run up to considerable 
weight, they are the happy fishing ground for a large black cormorant- 
like bird — Phalacrocorax vigiia — and for many species of kingfishers. 
It was alongside one of these lakes that one early morning I stumbled 
on a fairly large alligator back in the pampas grass some twenty 
yards from the beach. Which of us got the worst shock I cannot 
say. Finally there are the tree-girt permanent lagoons, home of 



26 

numerous alligators that in these pools reach a length of nine or 
ten feet, and of the giant water snake, the anaconda. Whether the 
species that makes its home in the Chaco pools is con-specific with 
the Boa anaconda of Brazil I cannot say, but its habits are the same. 
Unfortunately, this snake does not confine itself to the water, but 
loves to come out and sun itself on the bank, or climb into the 
branches of some nearby tree. The only specimen I have personally 
encountered alive was sunning itself in my path several yards from the 
bank, and was probably ten to twelve feet long, not a large specimen 
as they go. In my sudden shock I unfortunately allowed it to escape. 
The trees that surround these lakes are large since they never fail 
for moisture, and the undergrowth is luxuriant. The lakes them- 
selves are usually fringed with reeds and their surface covered with 
leaves of water lilies and other water plants. When in flower these 
lilies with their yellow, blue, and pink flowers make a wonderful 
show. Some of the pools have large clumps of the effective Bjchino- 
dorns (jrandifiorum^ which rises far out of the water with its masses 
of whitish flower-heads. More rarely, the red Victoria cruziana, or 
the white ('. ?e?//m may reward the searcher, but both these plants 
are far from common. The water is deep, dark, and forbidding, and 
few waterfowl venture on its surface, preferring the safer shallow 
and more open lakes where the alligator is less numerous. Should 
a shot bird fall on one of these pools there is a slow swirl, a sudden 
breaking of the surface, a splash, and the water closes silently over 
again, and the incident is forgotten by the wild, though it will linger 
for many a day in the sportman's mind. Around these lakes float 
Danaids resting on the water flowers. Anartia aniaWiea with ita 
brilliant crimson patch flies lazily amongst the tall green weeds, 
forming a brilliant contrast to the bright blue Flower of St. Luciar 
{Connnelina sulcata), whilst yellow Terias amongst the low growing 
vegetation, and Catopsilias flying higher or seeking out the red flowers 
they so love, add yet another colour to the scene.'-' 

The forest m this region differs somewhat from that on the 
higher ground. The undergrowth is more scanty, probably due to 
constant inundations, and is mostly of faster growing vegetation, 
many of the trees being of the softer species of timber, quebracho 
being noticeably absent. For the most part the trees are taller 
than those having to depend solely on rainfall for their moisture, 
and the eftect of the proximity of water is noticeable everywhere. 
Where there is any real tangle of undergrowth it is usually due to 
bamboo, which has sprung up amongst the existing bushes. In 
the open there are patches of scarlet-flowered algarobo (Prosopis 
alba) with its twisted oak-like trunks ; and a little to the West of 
the Paranamini at San Vincente, and running North and South 

* Whether Catopsilias have a preference for red flowers or whether it is 
that the local red flowers contain most honey the fact remains that — locally at 
any rate— they are more often seen at red flowers than at any others. 



27 

for about a hundred miles, there is a narrow, well-defined belt of 
the red-flowered Ceho that is so well marked out, as to be noticed 
immediately one enters it. Within this belt the vegetation changes 
from that one has been passing through, and is constant throughout 
its length. Probably it is due to some fault that has thrown up a 
different soil, but I have never verified this. Parasitical growths 
are common in the river forest. Lianas droop over the rivers, and 
in the spring great masses of purple and pink convolvuli cover in 
places the shorter trees and the bushes. A little later the Biijnonia, 
B. inujuiK-cati, often covers the largest of the forest trees with 
its masses of yellow blossom. Lichens are everywhere, hanging in 
swaying beard-like masses from the trees. In places along the 
rivers Pindo and Paranamini there grows a species of mistletoe, but 
coarser, broader-leaved than that which graces the English apple- 
orchards. This mistletoe is beloved by the small green parrots who 
build their clumps of nests amongst it, screaming hate and defiance 
at anyone who dares approach. To add to the colour of the forest 
in spring, an occasional lapacho tree, still leafless, throws out its 
covering of pink flowers, or the jacaranda {Jacaranda ovalifolia) its 
mantle of deep blue. Shooting in the early hours, whilst the 
ground is still wet with dew, a sweet citrus-like smell often attracts 
one's attention, and will be traced to a small white flowering bush, 
but this sweet scent fades as the sun rises. 

In the forest proper the insect-hunter finds little to interest him. 
An occasional A(jeronia persistently returns to its appointed 
tree, and may at times be found in numbers on the lower 
sides of rotting fallen timber. Everywhere there are numbers of 
the shade-loving Euptychias, and at times Terias. The main 
wealth of insect-life lies on the borders of this woodland and in its 
flower-strewn glades. Here in well-watered suntraps one finds a 
fairyland of scent and colour. Purple and white petunias, red, 
purple, and white verbenas, tall pink delphiniums, red-berried 
solan ums, pavonias of various colours, white and yellow daisies, 
heliotrope, tobacco, vetches, and countless other lesser known 
flowers, a wonderful riot of colour. Under the midday sun the 
scent from this medley of flowers becomes almost unbearable, 
especially that of the petunias which predominate. Nearly every 
species of butterfly will be found in these spots. Many skippers 
and all the species of Kiidamua that occur in this district, four or 
five Papilios with the black and red perrhebyis everywhere. The 
Danaids (jilippus and erippiis, t\ larinia, K. hortensia, and other 
prairie-loving species. An occasional Terias or Colias, Pyrantels 
brasilieiiau and P. carye in numbers, whilst around the edges fly 
Catopsilias. On low bushes and flying around isolated mimosa 
bushes will be four or five species of small blues and Theclas, 
prominent amongst them the beautiful metallic-blue T. viarKyast. 
The commonest of the Theclas, T. aryoua, is best taken at sunset, 



28 

when at times many hundreds may be seen flying around the 
bushes, twisting and turning in their marriage flight. A single 
sweep of the net will entrap quite a respectable series, but mostly 
males. By day this species flies in and out of the thorny branches, 
and its capture is a matter of difficulty, and often damage to the 
net. A. jatropltae flies equally in the river and the drier forests, 
and is never common, unless it be on the purple V. cliatnaedn/s. 
Apart from the species mentioned, there are many that may be 
classed amongst the rarer species, rare in most cases because they 
are either very local, or because they are easily overlooked. I 
believe the latter reason accounts for the very small number of 
Theclas I have taken compared with the large number of species 
the American fauna contains. 

Camping in this region was a delightful change from the routine 
of everyday life. Time had no place in our arrangements, we had 
no watch between us and depended on the sun as a guide to the 
hour. That and our hunger gave quite a good enough indication of 
meal times. Both our camps were pitched on the river's bank at 
the edge of a forest glade, where both wood and water were close at 
hand, and our breakfast could be caught without the bother of 
dressing. 

After a few days we automatically fell into a sort of routine, 
which we followed without break till the end of the trip. Dawn 
saw the writer already on his way to some lake or wood to shoot 
the day's dinner, to return to camp four hours later, sometimes 
earlier if sport had been good and found near at hand, ready to 
make short work of a dish of fried fish that under ordinary cir- 
cumstances would have done a family well. Times were when the 
camp guard had no luck, and but for the aid of the butterfly-net 
worked cunningly under some unsuspecting shoal, we should have 
gone hungry. The mornings were devoted to entomology or shoot- 
ing, and usually we returned to camp at midday for a light meal, 
but on those days when we visited the further portions of the 
forest we contented ourselves with a few scraps carried in the pocket. 
Luckily the water of the Pindo, though slightly brackish, is good 
to drink, so we avoided the trouble of having to boil or chlorinate 
our supply, and were able to get a drink more or less whenever we 
wanted one, as we seldom went far from water. On the days when 
we carried our midday meal, we seldom got back till dusk ; but on 
the other days the afternoon was always treated more or less lightly. 
We never failed to go out fishing, shooting, or collecting, but except 
on a few days when the larder was low, it was more of a pleasure 
than a business trip. At dusk came the great event of the day, the 
cooking and eating of the evening meal. Cooked in the half-light 
of the dusk, or more often by the light of the stars and the camp 
fire, with the tang of the wood smoke in it, and with the hunger 
one can only cultivate in the open, food never tasted better. And 



29 

one rested with the feeling that one had earned it. After dinner we 
would sit on the river's bank and watch the fire-flies, and at times 
the distant lightning, smoking, and discussing the day's adventures 
and making arrangements for the morrow. Then bed, and almost 
before one had properly wriggled into the blankets the greying of 
the canvas of the tent walls showed that another day was dawning 
and it was time to be up and out again. Times were when we 
were soaked by tropical downpours and violent storms, and we had 
to build fires to dry out again ; and daily almost, I was soaked from 
the waist down on my early morning shooting trip by the heavy 
dews, but walking and the sun dried everything before camp was 
reached again. We took a peon with us to look after the camp 
whilst we were away from it, but another time, if possible, we shall 
add a third member instead, and take turn about in camp, and so 
get at least one easy day in three. 

Sugaring was tried at both camps with absolutely no results. 
Not an insect came to the sugar-patches, and the only insects taken 
at night were a few common Noctuids that came to the camp lights. 
Another year it is hoped to try both light and sugar on a bigger 
scale, and probably dusking would yield results, but I must admit 
that last year I felt very little like night-work after the long days 
we bad, which commenced at four and included at times up 
to eleven or twelve hours walking over rough country. Apart 
from the rough surface of the ground which tired one's feet, the 
continual forcing one's way through undergrowth, and long 
treks through the pampas grass were in themselves very tiring. 
One of our very great regrets during the trip was the absence of 
an ornithologist. The bird-life was marvellous, birds of almost 
every size and colour, from humming-birds to toucan, storks, 
and geese. It would be no difficult task a get a hundred 
species in a short trip, but one would need a skinner, at any rate 
till the commoner species had been brought in. My game- book 
shows that I shot for the pot some seventy birds of thirteen species, 
and there were at least another five or six species of edible birds 
fairly common, that for various reasons went free. One of the 
interesting sights of this river region is the work of a black and red 
spider, that builds a giant communal web stretching for many yards 
across some forest ride or clearing. By day these spiders ball up in 
a huge football-like mass that may be mistaken for a wasp's nest. 
About sundown this ball dissolves itself and each pair of spiders 
rushes off to its own particular part of the web. Immediately, there 
is great activity in repairing any damage suffered during the day 
and as the prey commence to arrive they are duly dealt with. 
Towards dawn the spiders return to their sleeping place and once 
more ball up for the day. To see the real beauty of these huge 
webs, it is necessary to find one wet with dew, with the pink rays of 
the rising sun slanting across it. Woe betide anyone who unsus- 



30 

pectingly walks into one of these webs in the dark. He spends 
some considerable time afterwards in removing spiders from every 
part of his anatomy. They are apparently quite harmless, and do 
not attempt to bite, being as eager to get back to their fellows as 
you are to get rid of them. We had one of these webs across one 
side of oar camp, the short cut to the fire, and one or other of us 
found it moat nights 1 It was with great regret and very pleasant 
memories that we returned to our normal mode of living, to look 
forward to the next camping trip in the Chaco forests. 

Open Area>s. — Cultivated land covers but a small portion of the 
total forest area, and yields little to the entomologist that he cannot 
equally well obtain in the woods. Very little alfalfa is grown in 
this district, but wherever it appears Colias lesbia flies in great 
numbers, and one can spend a pleasant hour variety hunting. 
Lesbia varies in much the same manner as the better-known C. 
croceus {ediiso) and all the small variations of the latter, which have 
received— in some cases perhaps unfortunately — varietal names, can 
be also found in lesbia. The white female form heliceoides appears 
more frequently than the yellow form in this district, and all the 
usual intergrades of colour may be found. Round Ocampo and in 
the district between this village and the villages of La Isleta and 
Las Toscas the pretty little Terias elathea flies abundantly. But 
both lesbia and elathea may be taken — if sparsely — away from 
cultivation. I'ieris niojinste favours the neighbourhood of gardens, 
but is never common hereabouts. I don't suppose I see more than 
fifteen or twenty specimens in a year, and these almost invariably 
when I am about on business. 

Where the land is not cultivated, yet cannot be classed as forest 
proper, it consists either of " esterro " or somewhat higher waste- 
land. The latter is usually covered more or less thickly with 
pampas grass with large patches of tall coarse flowering weeds, 
especially the yellow LSolida(/o niicruylossa and another tall Composite 
(probably a Senecio), which two flowers give the whole area a 
brilliant yellow hue ; or a white Compuestas that grows freely in 
certain parts. Amongst the pampas grass, and wherever it can 
obtain a foothold, the pink Composite, Eupatoriuni hecatanthum 
struggles for existence. Scattered about these weedy patches are 
stray mimosas, and several leguminous bushes and small trees, 
chiefly Prosopis^ often covered with some species of passion-flowers, 
with their sweet scent and large orange fruits. Through the tall 
grass cattle turned out to graze have beaten narrow tracks, and it 
pays to follow them instead of struggling through the grass, 
stumbling over roots and ant-hills (which abound), especially as the 
tracks lead to water or to good grazing and incidentally open ground. 
The gras.s is often too high to see over, and contains nothing of 
much interest to the collector, and although many birds nest in the 



clumps, it is usually only by chance flushing of the parent bird that 
the nest is located. Partridges rise at intervals, but usually the 
height of the grass prevents a shot being taken, or if taken the bird 
is many times lost without a good retriever. There is one small 
and rare butterfly, that I have not identified, only to be found 
amongst this grass, but apart from this insect I shall always 
associate the country with the picture of Danais floating lazily 
overhead. 

The esterros are low-lying land that in times of rain becomes 
huge swamps, often being covered with water to a considerable 
depth. They are the home of many wildfowl, both water-fowl and 
land-birds, and where adjacent to forest will usually contain a con- 
siderable number of other species of game. The nature of the 
^sterro, waterlogged and productive of little of value, and usually 
impassable except on horseback, causes man to avoid its neighbour- 
hood as much as possible, and it therefore becomes automatically a 
game sanctuary, where wild life is seldom disturbed. Only in the 
driest periods are these swamps open to investigation by the 
collector, and then apart from Odonata and certain water-loving 
insects they produce little of interest to the entomologist, but to the 
collector of birds they are rich in prizes. One must be prepared to 
be half-eaten alive by mosquitoes whenever one ventures into any 
of these swamps, be they never so dry. The most ardent of dipter- 
ists would after one trip be prepared to seek his mosquitoes, where 
they were less numerous. I have not previously mentioned 
mosquitoes, probably because they do not worry me very much, 
their singing and constant buzzing around annoying me far more 
than their bite, which in my case gives but a few minutes' irrita- 
tion. They are to be expected everywhere and one must go 
prepared. Lying up for game when the use of strongly smelling 
preventatives (such as citronella which is one of the best of these 
preparations) is barred, and movement must be reduced as much as 
possible, one suffers severely. There are times after rain when even 
the most hardened cannot with comfort venture into the forest, 
and there have been one or two occasions on which I have been 
obliged to give the mosquito best and go home. There are many 
species and I regret that up to the present I have not collected them 
seriously, although a few I sent home some time ago gave interest- 
ing results. Apart from the mosquitoes there are few bloodsucking 
flies. One Tabanid is fairly common, but by no means a nuisance, 
though one evening when I was out dusking this insect was swarm- 
ing ever}'where around the forest, and only my thick clothing and 
use of the net saved me from its attentions, and it was such a 
nuisance that I had to give the forest a wide berth for two or three 
days. 

The countryside abounds in frogs. There is the little green tree- 
frog, Hyla raddiana, that one comes across amongst the bushes, the 



82 

edible Leptoilactylns ocellatns, and the beautiful coloured escuerzo 
{Ceratophrys ornata) so dreaded by the natives. They fear it more 
than any snake, as being supplied with teeth and an enormous yellow 
mouth that appears to stretch " from ear to ear " it is able to bite, 
and once it has taken hold nothing will make it let »o again. They 
say it injects a deadly poison, but I myself think that this is more 
superstition than fact, although I have no intention of testing my 
theory. I imagine that the cases one hears of, where limbs are lost 
through its bite, are probably due to septic-poisoning rather than 
venom. It lives in holes in the ground and emits a shrill hissing 
sound when annoyed. There are many other commoner frogs, and 
during the summer months a party always assembles on my 
verandah under the light. They are five to six inches long, and it 
is a somewhat strange sight to see often as many as a dozen sitting 
solemnly in a row facing the wall on which the insects settle 
attracted by the light. They become very tame, and one gets to 
know each individual by some little colour difference. One with a 
crushed leg has been a constant visitor for over two years. A 
solitary specimen of the toad, Bnfo inannnn, accompanies them, and 
although his skin exudes a somewhat poisonous fluid, I have never 
suffered any effects from handling him. There are two frog cries 
that I shall never forget amongst the medley that greets the ear in 
the evenings. One is that of a kitten in distress, long and plaintive, 
and the other one hears all day in the forest and so like to the 
cooing of the doves is it, that many times when shooting I have 
gone out of my way in hopes of getting a shot, only to hear the 
sound again coming vaguely from somewhere near me, but untrace- 
able. Although I have searched long and often, I have not yet 
succeeded in tracing these noises to their makers. 

Snakes are very common, but are mostly found in the open spaces 
away from the forest. Woe betide the snake that shows himself 
by day along the woodland edge, for every dead tree has its carancho 
waiting to pounce down on so easily obtained a meal, and there are 
many other snake-eating birds only too ready to destroy. In the 
cultivated and open land aw^ay from trees the snake has more of a 
chance. The rattle-snake, [Crotalus terrificus), Vibora de la cruz 
{Lochesis alteniatus), two or three species of coral snakes {FJlaps spp.) 
and a species of yarara [J a vara), are the commonest of the poison- 
ous snakes. There are numerous " grass-" snakes including one 
{(Xvijrhopus claelis) that feeds almost exclusively on other snakes, 
including the poisonous species. As already mentioned, the giant 
anaconda frequents certain lagunas. 

Scorpions are rare, but there are many species of poisonous spiders 
of the genera Actinopus and Avicnlaria, often attaining large size, 
and geneally found in conjunction with fallen or rotting timber. 

The jigger, here known as the " pique " (Deruiatopldlus penetrans), 
gives trouble at times, being especially prevalent in dusty places. 



33 

Animals suffer somewhat severely from many blood-sucking and 
parasitical insects, from several of which man himself is not 
immune. 

Locusts are for the most part migratory, though there are seasons 
when they leave their eggs and large areas are eaten up by the 
larval hoppers before they become mature and take to flight. 

Both river and land snails are conspicuous from their large shells, 
empty ones being picked up all over the place. Some of the larger 
shells reach a height of two to three inches. There appear to be 
several species. Mussels up to six or seven inches in length are 
found in certain parts of the rivers, and there are both fresh-water 
and land-crabs, although both are uncommon in this district. One 
of the racoons is known as the crab-eating racoon, and is found 
along the streams where crabs occur. 

Centipedes and millipedes are common and many are very poison- 
ous, but except in certain places one need not worry about them. 



34 



Notes on the British Snakeflies (Raphidia). 

By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.8.— Read November 24:th, 1927. 

In general the more recently evolved insects fall into the Endop- 
terygote division of the Insecta, that is to say, their wings are 
developed within the body during the feeding stage of their life- 
cycle, as is the case with the Lepidoptera. One of the oldest of the 
Endopterygote^ orders is the Neuroptera ; the oldest of all perhaps 
being the Mecoptera (Scorpionflies, etc.), onee included in that 
order. In the Neuroptera there are two rather clearly defined 
groups — the Megaloptera (Alderflies and Snakeflies amongst British 
insects), and what are sometimes called the Planipennia^ (Dusty- 
wings and Lacewings, as far as Britain is concerned). The Megal- 
optera are occasionally given ordinal rank ; but if the Dusty-wings 
(Coniopterygidae), as some think, shew relationship with them, this 
does not seem to be a convenient arrangement. The Megaloptera 
are not numerous in species, and, as far as British insects are 
concerned, contain but two families — the Sialidae or alderflies, of 
which we have two species,^ and the Raphidiidae or snakeflies, of 
which we have four. 



Table I. 



ORDER NEUROPTERA. 



Larva with ^ 

biting mouth 
Pupa not in 



I Megaloptera ■< 



/ Prothorax quadrate 
No exserted ovipositor 
No definite pterostigma 
Larva aquatic 



Sialoidea. 



; 



a cocoon 



Prothorax forming a " neck "' 
An exserted ovipositor 
Pterostigma present 
Larva terrestrial 



- Raphidiodea. 



Larva with 

sucking mouth 
Pupa in a 

cocoon 



Rest of the Neuroptera. 



1 See the Society's " Proceedings,** 1925, pp. 5, 6. 

2 McLachlan used Planipennia for the whole of the Neuroptera, including 
Megaloptera and Mecoptera ('* Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.," 145, 1868). 

' For the distinction between the two alderflies see " Entomologist," 1926, 
pp. 289, 290. 






t 



4- 



K» 



Plate III. 

1. Eggs of R. notata ( X 20). 

2. Larva of Eaphidia (xabt. 2). 

3. Pupa of R. macuUcollis (xabt. 3|^). 

4. Imago of R. notata ( x abt. 2^). 

5. Imago of R. macidicollis (xabt. 3). 



Plate IV. 

1. Wings of Raphidia notata, Fabr. ( x abt. 7*5j. 

2. Tip of forewing of R. macidicollis, Steph. ( x abt. 8). 

3. do. R. xanthosti(jma, Schu. ( x abt. 8). 

4. do. R. coijnata, Ramb. ( x abt. 8). 

5. Head and neck of R. xanthostigma (xabt. 9). 

6. do. R. cognata ( x abt. 9). 

Figures are somewhat generalised as Raphidiae vary a little. 



Proc. S.L.E. 4. N.H.Soc, 1927 




Del: W. J. Lucfu 



85 

So distinct in appearance are the Raplddiidae from other insects 
that we need not perhaps be surprised at j&nding the Spanish ento- 
mologist, L. Navas, wishing to give them ordinal rank as Rhaph- 
idioptera.^ The formation of a new order for them is, however, 
quite unnecessary. As with the rest of the Endopterygota — the 
Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, etc. — there are in the Neurop- 
tera, after emergence from the Qgg, three distinct stages, larva, 
pupa, and imago. Consequently the snakeflies have those three 
stages. The Raphidioidea include the most specialised members of 
the Megaloptera. They seem to be almost confined to the Palae- 
arctic and Nearctic regions. Tillyard tells us that they are not 
present in New Zealand or Australia. 

Two points are particularly noticeable in the imagines of the 
snakeflies — the much elongated prothorax in both sexes, which, 
together with the narrowed base of the head, forms what looks like 
ft " neck " ; and the long and slender ovipositor of the female. Of 
some seventy to eighty species that are known four only, as already 
mentioned, are British, and all are placed in the genus Raphidia, 
Linn., as usually understood. Of the only other genus, Inocellia^ 
Schneider, the members may be known by the absence of a cross- 
nervure from the pterostigma and of the ocelli from the top of the 
head, all three of the ocelli being present in Rapkidia. 

Snakeflies should be looked for in wooded districts, where their 
feeble movements on the wing tend lo betray them as they flit about 
the rough herbage. By means of the ovipositor the female places 
her eggs in chinks of the bark of trees, frequently conifers. C. G. 
Nurse once found a small larva of Raphidia in a spruce-fir cone. 
The long banana-shaped Qgg (pi. III., fig. 1), having a small 
appendage (or pedicel) at one extremity, is laid in dead wood, 
especially under the loose bark of conifers, where the larvae and 
ultimately the pupae may be found. The former, using their biting 
mandibles, feed on insects and other small animals that live in 
such situations. The larvae (pi. III., fig. 2) are long and 
slender with moderately long legs, and mouth parts of the same 
type as those of the imago. Their antennae have but three 
segments. The pupa (pi. III., fig. 3), which is of a primitive 
type, bears a close resemblance to the imago ; but the wings are 
enclosed in rather small cases, and the ovipositor is turned back and 
lies close to the dorsal surface of the abdomen. After a time the 
pupa becomes active and leaves the cavity within which that state 
was assumed. Having found a spot to its liking it there remains 
till the imago emerges. This metamorphosis often takes place on 
a tree-trunk, and near the new born imago the ethereal empty skin 
may frequently be found. 

* According to the usual method of transliterating Greek into Latin or 
English, Rhaphidioptera is no doubt the better spelling. 



86 

As with other animals this consummation of its existence is not 
always achieved. On 6 Sept. 1902 one or two larvae (probably of 
B. notata, Fabr.) were found on a tree trunk in the fir woods on 
Esher Common in Surrey with abdomen very much distended, and 
pale in colour where the integument was soft enough to distend. 
One was placed in a glass tube, on the surface of which a number 
of spores were afterwards found, some of them evidently germina- 
ting. These were derived from the fungus, Entpiisa laivpyridaiiim, 
Rol., which had proved fatal to the larva. It is very similar to the 
fungus, EnipKHci niuRcae, Cohn, which so frequently destroys house- 
flies in the autumn. On 23 Sept. 1922 one dead larva at least was 
found on Ockham Common in Surrey, attacked presumably by the 
same species of fungus. On the latter occasion a larva, probably 
of H. viaculicollis, Steph., had been " stung " by a parasite whose 
cocoon was by its side. 

Snakeflies are on the wing in late spring and early summer, 
usually in May and June, but sometimes a little earlier or a little 
later. Their imaginal life is probably not a long one. They rest 
lacewing fashion with the wings folded roof-like over the back, the 
" neck " being arched and the head deflected. This gives the fore 
part of the insect a very snake-like appearance and accounts readily 
for its popular name. It is sometimes found at rest with head 
downwards, and this may be its usual attitude. Examination of 
the imago shews that the antennae are moderately short. The eyes 
and ocelli are conspicuous. The maxillary palpi have five segments, 
the labial palpi three, the tarsi five, and the abdomen ten. There 
are two pairs of thoracic spiracles and eight pairs of abdominal 
ones. 

In the south of England — in Surrey and Hants for instance — 
the species met with at the present day seem almost always to be R^ 
ritacidicoUh and B. notata, the former perhaps the more frequently. 
A few notes on experiences in the "field " in connection with these 
two insects should be of more interest than the preceding general 
remarks, and may give some confirmation of them. 

On 20 May 1903 with the late G. T. Porritt a systematic 
search was made near the Black Pond on Esher Common for 
Haphidia maculicollia. As a result of some two hours' beating 
about 28 were taken, both sexes being represented. Most, if not 
all, were but recently out, as evidenced by the glossy appearance of 
the wings. One that had recently emerged was near its pupa case, 
which was holding on by the legs to the trunk of a tree. The 
empty skin, which was not far above the ground, was extremely 
thin and fragile, and pale yellowish brown in colour. The wings 
of the freshly disclosed imago were yellowish and clouded, like 
those of a dragon-fly which has recently left its naiad skin. The 
joints of the body were pale brown, the rest of the insect being 
dark. One imago, placed in a box with some specimens of Hewer- 



37 

obius ham nil, Linn., judging by the results observed, attacked two 
of the latter and ate part of their body. On 24 May 1908 three 
specimens were found on Esher Common — two that had just 
emerged, with wings clouded and not completely expanded, the 
other, judging by the glossiness of its wings, also recently out. A 
male and a female of the larger species, E. iiotata, both freshly 
disclosed and near the empty pupa skins, were found on tree trunks 
by the Black Pond on 7 June 1903 ; and on 10 June 1906 three 
females were taken from tree trunks near the same pond, when 
again apparently the species had but lately commenced to appear. 
Several empty pupa skins, no doubt of this species, were found on 
the tree trunks. G. T. Lyle bred a female (presumably from a 
New Forest larva) in 1916 at the abnormally early date of 27 April; 
but possibly the conditions under which it was bred may have 
forced it a little. 

On 9 April 1909 the naturalist just mentioned found in the 
New Forest a snakefly pupa alive in a piece of decaying wood about 
8 inches in diameter ; but not in a very advanced state of decay. 
The pupa (figured in pi. IIL, fig. 3) had free limbs and was quite 
active. Nothing could be seen in the nature of a cocoon. It was 
in general pale yellowish in colour; but the abdomen was adorned 
with large brown spots symmetrically arranged. The eyes were 
dark, the jaws brownish. The pupa was about 1 cm. long, and the 
wing cases were about 8 mm.^ Later it became much darker than 
when caught, at any rate dorsally, and in particular anteriorly. It 
rested on its side with its body curved. It was kept amongst 
loose pieces of decaying wood in a small glass-topped box. In the 
evening of 29 April the pupa had crawled up the side of the box, 
and so was using its legs in the normal manner for walking. By 
the next morning the imago — a male of R. maculicollis — had 
appeared and the pupal skin was on the side of the box. Emer- 
gence had probably taken place quite recently, for the imago seemed 
to be rather teneral and its colouring became darker during the 
day. Towards evening it was running about the box in a very 
lively manner. Though apparently somewhat afraid of a gnat 
(perhaps Chironomm dorsalis, Mg.) placed in the box, it at length 
seized and appeared to be eating it. The gnat was, however, soon 
set free and was but partly crippled. 

In the New Forest on 20 April 1913, with G. T. Lyle, a long 
search was made for larvae and pupae of snakeflies in Irons Hill 
Inclosure. At length it was found that a favourite habitation was 
the base of branches left on the trunks of Scotch firs after the 
remainder of the branch had been broken off. Though decayed 
these were more or less dry inside ; so apparently larvae and pupae 
do not need much moisture. Two larvae were under bark of a 

1 Figured in •• Entomologist," June 1909. 



88 

dead, but standing, Scotch fir.^ Judging by size alone the larvae 
and pupae found — a dozen or more — belonged to both R. notata and 
R, maculicollis. Pupae were sometimes noticed to be in a distinct 
chamber ; but whether they were occupying one ready made by a 
beetle, or whether they had made it themselves was not clear. 
Usually the pupae seemed to be nearer the edge of the wood, where 
more sunshine reached them, while those examples still in the larval 
stage were deeper in the shade of the trees. 

With C. B. Williams a special search was made on 15 March 
1914 for larvae and pupae of Raphviia on Esher Common. A good 
number of each were found. For the information of those who 
know the Common a good locality seemed to be at the head of the 
Black Pond. Some of the larvae were quite small. They were 
found chiefly in the layers of bark on the decaying stumps of Scotch 
firs left in the ground when the trees were cut down. Unlike those 
found in Irons Hill, these seemed to be living under quite damp 
conditions. All appeared to be R. macnUcollis. 

On 21 Aug. 1922 a larva of RaphiiUa (species undetermined) was 
found near Lyndhurst in the New Forest. In captivity it was fed 
on freshly killed house-flies, which it seemed to like. Its method 
of procedure was to clean out the contents of the abdomen, leaving 
the dorsal skin intact. On a flat surface the larva " progressed 
backwards " with fair rapidity by a series of "steps" something 
like those made by a looper caterpillar. It was still a lively larva 
on 27 April 1923. On 9 May it looked as if it might be preparing 
to pupate, but unfortunately it met with its death soon after that 
date. 

During an excursion of this Society to Ockham Common on 23 
Sept. 1922 a number of larvae of Rophidia were found under the 
bark of Scotch firs, especially on stumps left in the ground after 
the trees had been cut down. The larvae clearly belonged to both 
of the known Surrey species, R. uiacnlicollis and R. notata, the 
former appearing ready to pupate. The following description was 
made of a larva of R. maculicollis : — Length about 12 mm. Head 
and prothorax rectangular, chestnut coloured above and below : 
antennae pale with three dark rings; mandibles dark chocolate; 
eyes black ; meso- and meta-thorax yellowish blotched with brown ; 
legs pale with slightly darker claws. Abdomen scantily hairy, 
pale yellow above, with dark chocolate blotches arranged so as to 
give the appearance of four dark lines separated by three fine yellow 
ones, all however interrupted, undersurface pale yellow with pale 
brown blotches in most segments arranged four in a segment, edges 
of abdomen also pale brown. The larva of R. notata is larger, but, 



1 At Esher Common on 7 Aug. 1920 a larva (species undetermined) was 
found some five or six feet above the ground, also under the bark of a dead, but 
standing, Scotch fir on which the bark was dry. 



39 

though of the same general colour, is more uniformly tinted, and 
so has a less ornamental appearance than its congener. 

It now remains to distinguish the four British species, and an 
attempt is here made to do so as far as possible by means of points 
easily examined, and without going into details of the genitalia. 
It is assumed that all entomologists worthy of the name have at 
the present day made themselves acquainted with the primitive 
type of wing nervuration,^ and of the particular modifications that 
have occurred in the order of insects they have ma<ie their own. 
As might be expected in a somewhat ancestral group, the nervura- 
tion in the case of the snakeflies has not been greatly modified, 
though the arrangement of cubitus and anals may seem a little 
confusing till the pupal wings have been examined.'* It so happens, 
however, that we are not concerned with the base of the wing. R. 
notata is considerably larger than the rest and has a dark brown 
pterostigma ; but superficially the other three look very much alike. 
The figures of the four species in Plate IV. explain themselves, and 
reveal the points of difference, especially when examined in con- 
nection with Table II. 

British species : — 

1. Raphidia notata, Fabricius (J. C), " Species Insectorum,'* 
I., p. 402, No. 1 (1781). 

This species has a wide range in northern and central Europe. 
In Britain, judging by records that have come to hand casually, it 
is confined to the southern part of England, but these records are 
so few that no reliable conclusion as regards distribution can be 
drawn from them.' E. notata has been taken in or found recorded 
from Surrey (many places), Hants (especially in the New Forest), 
Middlesex, Berks, Oxon, Dorset (Dale), Wilts, and Notts. It has 
been met with on the wing from 16 May till 14 July ; but June 
seems to be the best month for it. Probably it winters as a larva 
(but may-be as a pupa also). 

2. Raphidia maculicollis, Stephens (J.F.), ♦• Illustrations of 
British Entomology, Mandibulata," Vol. VI, p. 131 (1836). 

According to Albarda^ it occurs in the British Isles, Holland, 
Belgium, Spain, and Portugal : to these Switzerland may be added. 
In Britain, if the casual records to hand are any criterion, the dis- 
tribution is a strange one — Surrey (many places). New Forest 
(frequently) and other parts of Hants, Dorset, Devon, Kent, Berks, 
and Oxon, with Braemar and Morayshire in Scotland ! Records 



1 Comstock, " The Wings of Insects," 1918. 

2 Withycombe, "Wing venation of Raphidia maculicollis,*' ("Entomologist," 
1923, p. 33). 

3 No attempt has been made to work out the distribution in this or the other 
species. 

4 "Revision des Raphidides " (" Tijdschrift voor Entomologie ") 1891. 



40 



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41 

of time of flight extend from the second part of April or earlier 
(D. Sharp, New Forest, 1914) till 30 June ; but May seems to be 
the best month for this species. It probably always hibernates as 
a larva. 

3. Raphidia xanthostigma, Schummel (T.E.), " Versuch 
etc.," p. 12, fig. 2 a and 6 (1832). 

This snakefly is well distributed throughout Europe ; but records 
for Britain point to its distribution being chiefly in northern and 
central England, Cumberland, Yorks (frequently), Warwickshire, 
Notts, Cambridge, Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, and Dorset (Dale), 
having furnished examples. It has been taken in May and June. 

4. Raphidia COgnata, Ram bur (J. P.), " Histoire Naturelle 
des Insectes Nevropteres," p. 483, No. 3 (1842). 

Of this species I possess but one specimen, apparently a contin- 
ental one, given me by R. McLachlan. I have not seen a living 
example. Albarda gives as its distribution the British Isles, 
Holland, Belgium, France, Alsace, Nassau, Spain, Corsica, Italy, 
Carinthia, and Dalmatia. F. H. Haines stated (in litt.) that several 
years ago it used to be quite common in a copse near the River Eden 
at Hever, Kent, frequenting brushwood in June. It was so active 
as to be difficult to catch without a net. K. J. Morton refers to it 
in West Suffolk ('' Ent. Mo. Mag.", 1911). McLachlan mentions a 
large female which was taken by H. J. Thouless on 14 June 1886 
in Foxley Wood, Norfolk, and given to J. Edwards. Obviously R. 
cognata is awaiting a rediscoverer and historian. 

It is probably well known that the Neuroptera are of considerable 
economic importance. They all prey on insects and other small 
animals, many, such as the Aphides, being very noxious creatures. 
No doubt occasionally their prey are as useful to us as they them- 
selves are ; but this of course cannot be helped : we can scarcely 
expect them to discriminate in our favour ! 

From these discursive notes it must be obvious that our know- 
ledge of the life story and economy of the snakeflies is indefinite, 
and that these insects have not received the attention they deserve. 
Of their British distribution we are especially ignorant. The 
localities here given are just those I happened to have, and, you will 
admit, are ludicrously inadequate for the purpose of drawing definite 
conclusions. By making inquiries I could no doubt have added to 
them to some extent ; but probably even then the result would not 
have been much more satisfactory. 



42 



Observations on the Life ° history of 5carabeus sacer. 

By A. DE B. Goodman, F.C.S., F.E.S.— Read December 8th, 1927. 

Three years have passed since the following observations were 
made, but to me it seems only yesterday that Mr. Mam introduced 
me to this interesting coleopteron. I date my interest in that vast 
field of study, often casually dismissed as " other orders," from the 
day when he brought to my notice the home of this insect. I take 
this opportunity of thanking him for his kindness in instructing me 
in the use of the camera for field work, and the scientific value of 
recording observations on living examples and their mode of life. 

Our observations in the field lasted for five days, in June, 1924, 
during our stay in the village of Evisa, North Corsica. The breed- 
ing ground of the Scarab-beetles was a plateau of sandy soil, 
situated at the N.E. end of the village. 

The Scarab-beetles are true dung-feeders, and are of especial 
interest since they model their food into the shape of a ball, which 
they bury beneath the ground to protect it from the heat of the sun. 
This process is carried out in order to keep the food moist and 
palatable, for the sun is so strong by mid-day that it evaporates all 
the moisture from the dung patches, leaving them as small heaps of 
crumbling dust, useless to beetles as food. 

Our observations were carried out in the early morning (6 to 8 
o'clock), when the food was in abundance and unacted upon by the 
heat ; by eleven o'clock the plateau was unbearably hot, and most of 
the Scarabs were below in their burrows, enjoying the morning's 
spoil. 

The burrows. 

The burrows were irregular in shape, but always of the same 
general structure, consisting of a sloping passage about nine inches 
long, filled with loose earth and leading to a hollowed chamber 
about three inches high and two inches square, situated at a depth 
of four to six inches below the soil surface. They were easily found 
owing to the small heaps of loose dust, which are necessarily pushed 
out from the mouths of the passages during the formation of the 
chambers. In no case did we find the burrows in close proximity 
to dung patches, which seems to indicate that generally the dung 
balls, whether intended for feasting or for the food of the larvae 
are rolled by the beetle to a convenient spot and buried. 



48 

The dung halls. 

The dung balls were of two kinds :— (1) Those made of mule- 
dung, which were used as food by the imagines. (2) Those made of 
goat-dung, which were used for the preparation of the " egg-pear," 
and destined as food for the young larvae when they hatch out. We 
had the good fortune to observe one specimen preparing a food ball 
from a mule-dung patch ; and as I can find no previous record of 
the procedure, I take this opportunity of giving a detailed account. 

lite formation of a dung hall. 

The individual under observation sat on the top of a portion of 
mule-dung, clinging to it by means of its hind legs, and cut away 
pieces of the dung from the main portion by means of its serrated 
frontlet, at the same time patting down the rough uneven edges by 
means of its broad fore-legs. It frequently shifted its position bv 
sharp jerky movements, and by continuing its labours gradually 
shaped the crude mass into a rough sphere. It ascended from time 
to time to the top of the mass and, turning about surveying its 
workmanship, set about perfecting those parts which did not meet 
with its approval. It next seized the ball in its hind-legs, and with 
a sharp jerk of its fore-legs, pushed the partially formed ball over 
into a new position and recommenced its labours. 

We then had an example of the fact that greed is not entirely 
restricted to the higher orders of the animal kingdom. The insect 
suddenly decided that it had under-estimated its capacity, and set 
the matter right by scraping up on the ball some of the material 
which it had previously discarded. The sphere formed, the beetle 
seized it with its hind-legs and propelled it away by sharp jerks of 
its fore-legs. Its movements were necessarily erratic, owing to the 
unevenness of the ground, but finally it pushed the ball against a 
stone. 

The burial of the dung hall. 

This appeared to be considered a favourable spot, and the beetle 
started the process of the burial. The ball rested firmly against 
the stone, and the beetle scratched away on the left-hand side of the 
ball, loosening the earth until the digger disappeared head-foremost 
below the ball ; it reappeared a few seconds later, head-foremost, 
shovelling out the earth with its serrated frontlet. In executing 
this movement it necessarily turns completely around underground. 
It next dug in exactly the same way on the right-hand side, thus 
hollowing out a cavity below the ball. The beetle then descended 
below the ball which began to rotate, gradually sliding into the 
cavity which had been formed below it. The scratching, shovelling, 
and rotating continued until finally the ball disappeared below the 
mass of loose dust. 



44 

The egg-pear. 

Unfortunately no direct observation was made of the formation 
of a ball intended as material for the egg-pear. Fabre states that, 
in captivity, the beetle when supplied with dung and loose earth, 
makes the burrow first, and then takes down the raw material in 
armfuls, the ball and pear being formed entirely below the surface. 
In certain cases, he states, the beetles make the balls on the soil 
surface, then break them up, finally remaking them and dragging 
them underground. He explains that the reason the ball is 
destroyed is that the parent thus eliminates all small foreign larvae 
present, which may prove injurious to its offspring. 

It seems to me that the above cases are exceptional, and probably 
due to unnatural conditions of captivity. It appears more reason- 
able to assume that under natural conditions the burial of a dung- 
ball intended for the formation of an egg-pear should be the same 
as that of a ball intended for food. 

As regards the elimination of foreign larvae, Fabre himself, later 
in his account, remarks on the numbers of Aphodii and other larvae 
in the egg-pears which do considerable damage ; further, Mr. Main 
on several occasions found dipterous larvae in the egg-pears. 

The ball when buried in a normal manner has a rough crust of 
earth, which is taken up during the rolling, but the balls and egg- 
pears found " in situ" are always immaculate. The food-ball (the 
formation and burial of which has been described), was dug up the 
following day, and all traces of dust and earth had been removed. 

The old view was that the Qgg was laid in the ball which the 
beetle trundles along, but it is now known that the Qgg is contained 
in the apex of a pear-like body which the beetle forms from the ball. 
The Egyptian Horus Apollo wrote in Hieroglyphica : — "the scar- 
abeus deposits this ball in the earth for the space of twenty-eight 
days (for in so many days the moon passes through the twelve 
signs of the Zodiac). By thus remaining under the moon the race 
of scarabaei is endowed with life ; and upon the twenty-ninth day, 
after having opened the ball, it casts it into the water, for it is 
aware that upon that day the conjunction of the moon and the sun 
takes place, as well as the generation of the world. From the ball 
thus opened, the animals, that is the Scarabaei, issue forth." 
According to the ancients the Sacred Beetle had no parents (the 
sexes being indistinguishable), but was born of the ordure which 
formed the ball ; the " birth " being the appearance of the adult 
Scarab. 

Fabre, by means of an ingenious device, was enabled to surprise 
a specimen, from time to time, at work forming an egg-pear. A 
synopsis of his description is as follows : — 

The beetle forms a depression at the top of the ball, and by 
application of pressure the walls of the crater are gradually raised 



45 

making the depression deeper and deeper until finally it resembles 
the neck of a bottle. In this cavity the egg is laid, and the opening 
at the top is carefully closed by means of fibres. 

We found one specimen which had just begun the formation of 
the neck; it had formed the depression at the top just as Fabre 
describes. The formation of the egg-pear from the goat-dung ball 
is carried out by the female in the darkness of her underground 
chamber. Fabre states that the female quits the cavern on the 
completion of the egg-pear ; we, however, found the beetles in com- 
pany with their pears, and in one or two isolated cases two beetles 
were present in one chamber (presumably the two parents). 

The height of the egg-pear from the apex to the base is approx- 
imately 2 inches, the height of the apex being about half an inch ; 
thus, the body of the pear (the larva's food store) consists of a 
sphere 1| inches in diameter. The inside surface of the apex is 
polished, and the mouth plugged with fibres. The yellowish, drawn- 
out egg is situated vertically in the apex, and occupies nearly the 
whole of the space within the apex. The fibre plug enables the free 
access of air to the egg, and protects it from the intrusion of 
strangers. 

Illustrations of the egg-pear always show it lying horizontally. 
The natural position, however, is vertical, since the apex is formed 
at the top of the ball. In the examination of a large number of egg- 
pears we found that, day by day, the proportion of vertical pears 
" in situ " varied between 80 and 50 per cent. ; in every case the 
pear occupied the centre of the underground cavern. We came to 
the conclusion that the horizontal position is purely one of chance, 
or perhaps it may be the parent which dislodges the pear from its 
unstable position. 

The larva. 

The period of incubation of the egg varies from five to twelve 
days, the young larvae hatching out in June and July. Immedi- 
ately on hatching, the small grub eats away at the base of the apex, 
downwards towards the centre of the egg-pear. It deposits its 
droppings behind it so that the apex becomes completely filled up, 
and the upper portion of the egg-pear retains its compactness, while 
the main portion of the egg-pear is gradually absorbed as food. The 
larva attains the full-fed condition in three to four weeks. The fat, 
full-fed larva, curves its body double within the egg-pear, occupying 
nearly the whole of the available space. It is transparent ivory 
white, with dark coloured reflections due to its digestive organs. 

The most striking feature of this larva is the large swollen lump 
formed by the 3rd, 4th, or 5th segment of the abdomen, which is 
said to be due to the presence of a large pocket distended by food. 
The head is small and reddish, and the legs are fairly long and 



strong. The last segment is cut ofif slantwise, carrying on its dorsal 
surface an inclined plane surrounded by a fleshy pad, in the centre 
of which is a slit. This last is used for cementing, the larva excret- 
ing a black fluid from the slit which is used to fill up any holes 
which may appear in the egg-pear. The fleshy pad is used to press 
the cement smooth. 

The pupa. 

The larva before pupation strengthens the now frail walls of the 
egg-pear by applying fluid on the inner surface, and polishing 
the layers by means of the fleshy pad. The larva then sheds its 
skin, and becomes a yellow transparent pupa, in which all the 
characteristic features of the adult are visible. A curious feature 
of this pupa is that the tarsi of the fore-legs, i.e., the five jointed 
appendages at the tips of the legs, are missing. This is also the 
case with the imago. 

The iviayo. 

Unfortunately, we have not seen the early stages of the imago, 
but Fabre states that at first it has a dull red head, legs of the same 
hue, and a white abdomen. It is said to rest within the egg-pear 
for four weeks, during which time it gradually develops the familiar 
horny black armour of the adult. 

The imagines usually emerge from the earth in September, 
during the first autumnal showers. It is stated that, to enable 
them to escape from the egg-pears which have become very hard 
during two months dessication in the underground cavern, moisture 
is needed. This seems extremely likely, as some egg-pears which 
I brought home were not kept moist, and I found the utmost 
difficulty in breaking them open with a pocket knife. Fabre says 
that numbers of Scarabei perish annually through being unable to 
release themslves. The new generation hibernates in the ground 
during winter and emerges in the following May and June for the 
breeding season. 

In conclusion, I think it will not be out of place if I make a few 
remarks upon the misunderstandings of Fabre's original descrip- 
tions. These last few years I have had the opportunity for observing 
several of the life-histories which he has described, and have found 
him to be extremely accurate. However, in his accounts of them he 
uses his vivid Southern imagination for enlarging upon simple facts, 
BO that often the truth is obscured from the casual reader. The 
result being that many English translations fail to do him 
justice. An example of this is found in Fabre's account of the first 
appearance of the Scarab imago, which he describes as having dull 
red head and legs, and a white abdomen. This state he likens to 
the " scarlet of a cardinal's cassock," etc., with the lamentable 
Jesuit that I have seen an English translation describing the above 



47 

as bright scarlet and white. This I imagine is the last thing that 
the author wished to convey 

The people of South France, especially those of the Departments 
adjacent to Provence, have been ably described by Alphonse 
Daudet, who rightly or wrongly, leads one to suppose that they do 
not mean half of what they say. This, in my opinion, is too strong 
a view ; but I am perhaps biased, for to be perfectly candid, one of 
my grandparents hailed from Nimes, a town adjacent to Tarascon. 
You will perceive the gravity of this statement, and 1 trust deduce 
by means of a simple arithmetical calculation that if you discount 
all I have said to-night by 12^ per cent, you will then be in posses- 
sion of the crystal truth. 

We must thank Mr. Main for the excellent slides, which he has 
lent me for the purpose of illustrating this paper. 



48 



Notes on the Genus Hyponomeuta. 

With Special Reference to H. cognatellus, H., 
H. padellus, L., and H. malinellus, F. 

By Robert Ae^cin, F.E.S. — Bead January 12th, 1928. 

In June 1924 I noticed that an apple tree in my garden at East- 
bourne was badly infested by the larvae of a Hyponomeuta, and be- 
lieving them to be those of H. padellns I, without paying any parti- 
cular attention to them, told my gardener to collect the webs and 
destroy them. Fortunately, he did not do his work too well, and in 
1925 a few nests were again noticed on some of the other apple 
trees. These nests on a closer examination did not agree with my 
recollection of those of H. padellus that I had, from time to time, 
found on whitethorn bushes ; they appeared to be smaller and of a 
different shape. I therefore took a couple, and from them reared 
seventeen moths which were certainly much whiter than any H, 
padellus that I had ever reared from larvae found on whitethorn, 
and it occurred to me that they might possibly be H. malinellus, Z. 
However, on consulting some of my friends who had had more 
experience of the genus, I was assured that they were probably 
only a pale form of H. padellus, and that if H. vialinellus did occur 
in this country it was to be found only on old wild crab-apple trees 
as it was not a garden species. 

It was many years since I had reared any Hyponomeuta ; my 
specimens were consequently somewhat aged and my recollection of 
the earlier stages of the species rather rusty. So I determined to 
keep a sharp look out for larvae in the hope of being able to renew 
my acquaintance with at any rate, the commoner species of the 
genus ; and in this I have been fairly successful. 

In 1926, I found larvae on blackthorn at Mersea in Essex and at 
Oxford, and was fortunate in also obtaining a few on crab-apple 
growing in the woods near Eastbourne, as well as a further supply 
on cultivated apple, all of which produced imagines. 

Then in 1927, with the assistance of my friend Mr. A. L. 
Rayward, we obtained larvae on blackthorn from bushes growing 
on the Downs ; on whitethorn and on crab-apple from the woods ; 
on cultivated apple in my garden ; and from spindle {Euonymus 
europaeus) growing in the hedges bordering the country lanes, from 
which we reared the two commoner spindle-feeding species. Mr. 





is 



< 

O 

Z 
o 

Oh 










h^ 



1=^ 



1;^ 



Proc. S.L.E. c$- N.H.SOC., 1927. 



Plate VI. 




Photo: A. W. Dennis. 
Pupal Cocoons of Hyponomeuta 
Top, CoGNATELLUs, h; Loivcr, Padellus, l. 



Proc, S.L.E. 4'- N.H.Soc, 1927 



Plate VII. 




Photo: A. W. Dennis. 
Pupal Cocoons of Hyponomeuta Malinellus 
Top, Crab ; Loicer, Garden Apple 



49 

W. H. Thorpe sent me larvae on whitethorn from Cambridge and 
Mr. T. Greer a nest on bird-cherry {Priim(,!i padus) from Co. Tyrone. 
We thus accumulated a considerable amount of material, which 
gave us the opportunity for observing the various batches of larvae 
as they fed up side by side ; and eventually we reared fairly long 
series of imagines from each of them, which, with material 
previously accumulated, gave us a serviceable stock to work on. 

A brief description of these broods here may not be out of place. 
The H. evonymellna reared from the bird-cherry and the ff. plum- 
belliis from the spindle need no comment, they were both true to 
type ; as were also the H. cognatellns from the same plant, which 
also agreed perfectly with a series reared from FJnnnymns japonicus 
some twenty years ago. The various broods reared from the crab- 
apple and from the cultivated apple, each lot consisting of a hundred 
or more specimens, were just alike and might be described as white, 
although in each series there were a few specimens showing a faint 
greyish suffusion. The whole of the broods from whitethorn, 
whether from Cambridge or from the woods near Eastbourne, were 
distinctly grey (lead colour), not one of them could be called white ; 
and it is perhaps interesting to note that the whitethorn bush from 
which the Eastbourne larvae were obtained was actually growing 
under one of the crab-apple trees from which some of the crab- 
feeding larvae were taken. The blackthorn larvae from the clay 
soils of both Essex and Oxford, like those from the whitethorn, 
produced nothing but grey insects, but the brood from the chalk 
soil of the Downs had a small percentage almost white, otherwise it 
agreed with the other blackthorn and whitethorn series. 

The genus Hj/pononieiita as we know it in Britain includes some 
eight or nine species. They are for the most part grey or white 
insects with small black spots, and some of them are attached to 
special food plants. The majority of them are easily separable by 
their superficial characters : thus, H. stannellus, Thursby, a recent 
addition to the British list, is a grey species and the only one that 
is devoid of spots ; H. vigintipimctatus, Ratz., which is perhaps the 
most like it, has three rows of black spots ; both probably feed on 
Sedidii telephiiitn. H. rorella, Hb., another recent addition, has 
white forewings with a light greyish suffusion towards the costa, 
and four rows of few very small black dots : it is said to feed on 
willow {Salix alha). H. plnmhellus, Schiff., one of the three 
E uoni/nius-f eeders, has a black cloud at the apex of the wing and a 
large black spot near the inner margin which at once distinguishes 
it from all the other members of the genus. H. irrorellus, Hb., and 
H. evonymellns, L., both have a very large number of very small 
black dots ; but the former is a grey insect while the latter is pearly 
white, moreover irrorellus is a Euonymns-ieeder while evonymellus 
appears to be restricted to Prunus padns (bird -cherry). 

The remaining three species (if there be three) are by no means 



50 

so easily separable. My present object is to see whether our apple- 
feeding insect is the same as that described by Zeller under the 
name of H. malinelliis, and if so whether malinellus is specifically 
separable from cognatellus, H., and padelliis, L. The first part of 
the question I have no hesitation in answering in the affirmative: 
the series that we have reared agrees exactly with that in the Zeller 
collection, and the notes that he gives of the earlier stages might 
well have been taken from the larvae that we have reared. I am 
also convinced that the crab-apple and cultivated apple insects are 
alike. The latter part of the question is, however, by no means so 
easily settled. 

But before considering the insects themselves it may be well to 
deal with their synonymy. Linnaeus, '* Syst. Nat." Ed. X. p. 534, 
No. 239, described a species under the name of evojiyiiiella{us) aa 
having white fore-wings with 50 black spots, and as occurring on 
Evonymo, Pado, Sorbo, etc. He gives a number of references to 
both figures and decriptions by earlier authors, most of which are 
too crude to be of any value, and those that are recognisable are 
certainly referrable to more than one species. I have, however, by 
the courtesy of the officials of the Linnean Society, been able to 
examine the specimens in the Linnean collection. The series 
consists of four specimens all exactly alike, one of which bears 
Linnaeus's own label, and they are without doubt the bird-cherry 
species. I fear, therefore, that, however inconvenient it may be, 
we have no alternative but to ase the name evony melius, L., for that 
species and to call the common euonyun,s-ieeding species by the 
name of coynatelliis, Hb. 

Linnaeus, " Syst Nat." Ed. X. p. 535, No. 240, described under 
the nsime ot 2)adeUa{us) a species having lead-coloured fore-winga 
with 20 black spots, and occurring among fruit-trees {in Arboribns 
povionae). Here, again, his references are of little help ; and on 
referring to his series of seven specimens, most of which are unfor- 
tunately in rather poor condition, one finds insects varying from 
white to distinctly grey and evidently including more than one 
species. Apparently he recognised only two species, one with a 
large number of small black spots and one with a lesser number of 
larger black spots, and those specimens that did not conform to the 
former he put into the latter series. 

In the " Ids " for 1844, p. 214,, Zeller proposed the name 
variabilis for admittedly the same species as Linnaeus had named 
padellus, on the ground that " Of all food-plants which have been 
ascribed to the larva of this species, that is the least suitable of 
which Linnaeus has borrowed the name. The name padellus has 
also been erroneously ascribed to other species. It is chiefly on the 
first ground that I have considered myself entitled to dispense with 
this name which is liable to give rise to perpetual confusion, and 



51 

to create a new one." But we cannot overlook the fact that 
Linnaeus described his insect as lead-coloured with black spots, and 
that there are in his series specimens which agree with his descrip- 
tion. We must, therefore, I think, retam the name padellusyh.y for 
the common whitethorn and blackthorn-feeding species. 

Zeller, Isis, 1844 p. 220., described under the name of malinellus 
a species having white forewings, with three rows of black dots ; 
the fringes of the inner angle light grey on the under surface, and 
he tells us that it feeds on apple trees. Referring again to Zeller's 
series now in the British Museum collection, although the description 
*' white " applies very well to the series taken as a whole, some of 
the individual specimens show a very decided tinge of grey shading. 

The synonymy of the species that we have now to consider there- 
fore runs thus : — 

H. cognatellus, Hb. 891-2 (misspelt cagnayella). Evonymi, Zell, 
''Isis,'' 1844 p. 223, = the common i<;//o/i?///iu5-feeding species. 

H. padellus, " L.S.N." ed. X.p. 535. Variabilis, Zell, " ists," 1844 
p. 214.= the still commoner whitethorn, blackthorn, etc., feeder. 

H. inalineUus, Zell, *'/sis," 1844, p. 220,= the apple feeder. 

When Zeller lirst suggested the name of malinellus for the apple- 
feeding species in a " Critical Determination of the Lepidoptera 
appearing in Keaumur's Memoirs" which he pubHshedin the "isis" 
1838, p. 670, he says, after quotations irom Reaumur, •* We have here 
a moth which judging according to Treitschke, IX. 1, p. 221, should 
be held to be cognatellus, but which is certainly different therefrom, 
and which I name malinellus. For, cognatellus has a snow-white 
upper surface of the fore- wings and on both sides of the same, snow- 
white fringes ; ma/mgZ^<s has barely white, and towards the centre 
grey (which however becomes whiter a few months after emergence) 
fore- wings, the fringes of which are distinctly grey on the under- 
side." He then goes on to say " It is much more easy to confuse 
malinellus with padellus, H. {fadella) hg. 393-95. Both have a grey 
shade in the middle of the fore-wings, and on both sides of these 
wings grey fringes. Only with padellus is the shade in almost every 
case very distinct and dark, and this, so far as I am able to say at 
present, is the sole difference between the moths." He also deals 
with differences in the earlier stages of the species. But when, 
some five years later, he came to the formal description of )iialinellus 
("isu." 1844. p. 220), he says, "As a moth it approaches most 
nearly to the following one (cognatellus). I find only the following 
distinctions : H. malinellus is small ; there is usually a row of small 
dots on the inner margin passing on to the margin of the inner 
angle. The fringes on the inner angle are coloured on the under 
side outwards very hght blue and the fringes on the hind wing are 
darker and remain evenly coloured to the wing-tip. (The other 
distinctions which I stated in the Isis were given in error.)" This 



52 

last remark is unfortunate, for he had really given a very good 
description of his new species {malinellns), but one gathers that the 
further he went into the matter the greater he found the difficulty 
of differentiating between the three species by means of their super- 
ficial characters. Indeed, he seems to contradict himself, for a little 
further on he says of malinelhis, *' The fringes are white, on the 
under surface to the inner angle mostly very light and sometimes 
only becoming grey at the tip of the hairs ; more seldom also are 
they grey at the apex of the fore-wing on the root-half of the hair." 
There is no doubt that the three insects are very closely allied to 
one another, but when series are placed side by side there are differ- 
ences which are easily apparent which must be of some significance. 
Thus, cotjiiatelliis is invariably brilliant white ; vjalinellus also is 
white, but the white is of a duller tone, and may occasionally be 
partially replaced by a greyish suffusion ; padelhts is generally 
distinctly leaden grey, occasionally with a lighter tinge, seldom 
whitish. On the underside, the fore-wings of all three are dark 
grey ; those of cognatellua with white fringes ; of vtalinellvs with 
grey, lighter than the wings ; and padellus with the same colour as 
the wings, except in the whitish specimens which have fringes 
slightly paler. 

Venation, a useful generic character is seldom of much use as 
between species, and as Kosminsky tells us that of a large number 
of wah'nellHs that he examined he found anomalies in nearly 50%, 
further examination in that direction seems to be useless. The 
genitalia, however, often furnish a good specific character and we 
have examined a large number of preparations very kindly made by 
Mr. Rayward. There is a strong similarity in those of the Hyjwvo- 
tneuta as a whole, and they are peculiar in having a very great 
prolongation of the saccus, the shape of which appears to vary. In 
cofpiatelliis this is stout and strongly bulbous towards the tip ; in 
molinellvsitis by comparison slender and almost straight throughout, 
and in both species appears to be fairly constant. In padellus 
normally there is a gradual thickening throughout its length, but 
occasionally a specimen is found that is even more bulbous at the 
tiip than \n cognatdhis, or almost as straight as in vialinellvs: in 
poddlvs therefore this character is evidently liable to considerable 
variation. 

Although, as we have already seen, the distinctions between the 
imagines are slight, there are very considerable differences in the 
methods of the larvae. In appearance, like the imagines, they 
have much in common. They all have black heads and rows of 
black spots along their sides, and are all more or less greyish in 
colour, but the larva of coipiatellns is pale yellowish grey, that of 
padellus dark leaden -grey, so dark in its final stage that the black 
markings are not very conspicuous, while that of vwlinellns, almost 



63 

orange-coloured when young, refcains a yellowish tinge in its grey- 
ness throughout its life. Both co(jnatellns and padellns spin large, 
loose webs embracing in them several twigs of the food-plant, and 
on these being consumed, increase the web to take in others. 
Malinelliis, whether feeding on crab in the woods or on cultivated 
apple in our gardens, spins a somewhat compact web, at first draw- 
ing a single leaf towards the twig and devours only the cuticle ; 
when this is consumed, it spins a narrow gallery up the twig to the 
next leaf or pair of leaves which it treats in the same way, and so 
continues until the whole of the leaves on the twig are consumed. 
If the first twig is not sufficient for the needs of the larvae they 
move to another and continue their operations, so that one may 
often find a twig webbed throughout its whole length but not a 
larva on it, these being on another twig, possibly at some little 
distance from the first, in a comparatively inconspicuous new web. 

When full-fed they all spin their pupal cocoons within the web. 
Those of both cognatellus and nialinellns are dense, white, spindle- 
shaped structures placed symmetrically side by side in a compact 
bundle and further, those of malinellus are almost invariably 
attached to a leaf. Padellns spins loose, transparent, grey cocoons, 
placed in no particular order, some often being at right-angles to 
others and not infrequently scattered over a considerable portion of 
the web. Thus it would appear that malinellus differs from cogna- 
tellus in the colour of its larva and method of feeding, and from 
pailellns, not only in its larval habits but algo in the pupal cocoons 
that it constructs and the manner in which it places them. 

it is perhaps not well to rely too much on food-plants, but in my 
experience cognatellus is confined to species of Ruonymus ; malinellus 
to apple ; but that padellus is equally well at home on white-thorn 
and black-thorn, and I have little doubt that it also at times attacks 
apple. I have specimens, given to me some years ago, that were 
reared from larvae found on apple in a London garden, which I 
have no hesitation in referring to that species. 

I understand that Mr. W. H. Thorpe has been carrying on 
investigations, at Cambridge, on somewhat different lines from those 
which we have followed, and we shall await his results when 
complete, with interest. In the meantime, to summarise our own 
observations, we have three insects superficially resembling one 
another in some of their forms very closely, but in which certain 
details, which are fairly constant, appear to be sufficiently definite 
to distinguish one from the others. The genitalia in two of 
them, cognatellus and malinellus, show fairly constant differences ; 
sufficient to separate them, but in the third, padellns, they vary 
considerably in the one differing organ, but it is doubtful whether 
it ever agrees very closely with either of the other two. Their 
habits in the earlier stages, as has already been shown, vary very 



54 

widely from one another. The conclusion that I come to, there- 
fore, is that Zeller was right in giving specific rank to malinelbiSf 
and that as to the occurrence of that species in Britain there is no 
doubt. Further, I think there is no question that it is malinellusy 
that usually attacks our cultivated apple-trees, but there is some 
evidence that padellus may also at times feed on them. 



[Mr. Thorpe's paper on " Biological Races in Hyponouieuta 
padella, L.", was communicated to the Linnean Society on April 
19th, 1928.] 



55 



ANNUAL ADDRESS TO THE MEMBERS 



OF THE 



Soutlj ^ouboii (Entomological anb |Iatuvat PistovD 

SocutD. 

Read January 26th, 1928. 
By E. A. Cockayne, D.M., A.M., F.E.S., F.R.C.P. 

LADIES and GENTLEMEN. Once more the reports of the 
Council and of the Hon. Treasurer show an improvement in 
the affairs of the Society. The average attendance at the 
meetings has increased again, and affords one of the best indications 
of its vitality. Those field meetings with which the unusually wet 
summer did not interfere, were well supported and successful. A 
small innovation was made by printing on the notice of one meet- 
ing the names of a few insects likely to be encountered, and with a 
view to stimulating interest in the field meetings the Council has 
decided to mention in future some of the more local fauna and flora 
of the district to be visited. The decision of the Council to hold 
the Annual Exhibition at an earlier date was amply justified by the 
record number of 241 members and visitors, who came from far 
and near to see the finest exhibition of its kind in the country and 
to renew old friendships and form new ones. 

The balance-sheet shows a balance on the right side, but it must 
be remembered that we are not yet self-supporting. Our Proceed- 
ings, well illustrated and full of valuable papers, are a legitimate 
source of pride ; but were it not for the continued generosity of one 
of our members we could not publish them in their present form. 
We have also undertaken a further financial burden by providing 
refreshments at the Annual Exhibition, and the cost this year was 
not entirely defrayed by voluntary subscriptions. Until these 
expenses can be met out of our ordinary annual income, we cannot 
be wholly satisfied with our financial position. 

To do this we require more than sixty new members. So large 



56 

an increase in our numbers can only be obtained by determined and 
sustained efforts, and I hope every member will make it one of his 
New Year's resolutions to introduce a new member during the cur- 
rent year. 

We have lost by death during the past year five members. 
My brief account of their attainments and of work they have done 
within the Society and outside is, I feel, sadly inadequate to the 
occasion. 

George Charles Champion who died at the age of 76 was the 
last survivor of the founders of our Society, and was made an 
honorary member in 1922, when its fiftieth anniversary was celeb- 
rated. By his contributions to our knowledge of the Coleoptera and 
Rhynchota he made a world-wide reputation ; and that unrivalled 
work, the " Biolo(/ia Centrali-Anien'caiia,'' owing much to his un- 
tiring labours as a collector of material, and as a contributor of his 
own work and a sub-editor of the work of others, will stand as a 
lasting monument of his fame. 

Stanley A. Blenkarn was cut off in the prime of life by a tragic 
accident. He joined the Society in 1911, and soon making his 
presence felt was rewarded by a seat on the Council. A man 
of modest but charming personality, he was a regular attendant at 
our meetings, an exhibitor, and a donor of Coleoptera to our col- 
lection. His untimely death has ended a life full of promise and 
left a gap in our ranks, which will be felt for years to come. 

Douglas H. Pearson of Nottingham became a member less than 
a year ago, but for years he had shown his interest in the Society 
by coming to the Annual Exhibition and showing choice aberrations 
of British and continental Lepidoptera. He made frequent visits 
to the Alps and Pyrenees and was well acquainted with both the 
fauna and flora of these regions. 

G. B. Pearson, who joined the Society in 1915, lived in Florida and 
was known personally to few of us, but he kept in touch with us by 
sending to our Secretary, Mr. H. J. Turner, notes on the local fauna 
and specimens of Lepidoptera which were exhibited from time to 
time. 

George T. Porritt was a member for forty years, and in former 
days attended many of the meetings. He did much to encourage 
the study of the fauna of his native county, Yorkshire, by support- 
ing the local societies and by founding and editing " Th« Naturalist." 
Living in Huddersfield, one of the centres of industrial melanism 
in the Lepidoptera, he became greatly interested in the subject, and 



67 

created interest in others by the facts he published and by his 
explanation of the origin of melanism which was founded upon them* 
He contributed numerous notes and papers to the " Entomologist s 
Monthly Magazine,'' of which he was an editor for many years, and 
published a list of the Lepidoptera of Yorkshire ; but his most 
valuable contribution to science was embodied in the " Larvae of 
the British Batter files and Moths " published by the Ray Society, 
which he edited after the death of William Buckler. 

I have taken as the subject of my address this evening certain 
aspects of Larval Variation, and I have chosen it, because in com- 
parison with variation in the imago it has been much neglected, 
though as a study it is in some respects even more interesting and 
more likely to repay the investigator. 

The most extensive series of experiments on the colour of lepi- 
dopterous larvae are those which were carried out by Professor 
Poulton. He experimented with a large number of Geometrid larvae 
and found that they were very sensitive to their surroundings. 
The most striking results were obtained with Opisthoyraptis Inteolata 
and Atnphidasis hetnlaria. In the case of the former species he 
found that the larvae reared amongst green leaves produced the 
green form with a red hump and red head, whereas those reared 
amongst brown twigs produced brown forms. Mottled forms 
resembling lichen were never bred in these experiments, though — 
as my exhibit to-night demonstrates — there is a wonderful range 
of lichen-like forms in this species. In A. hetnlaria the results 
were similar; and here again no mottled form appeared, though a 
very rare mottled form occurs in nature. In addition to green and 
brown forms an opaque white form, which does not appear to have 
been taken wild, was bred by keeping the larvae in a cage with 
spills of white paper amongst the leaves. Larvae of other species, 
which have a series of brown forms but no green ones, were found 
to be susceptible to their environment in the same way, the depth 
of the ground colour depending on the darkness of the twigs they 
rested on. Of the Geometridae, Crocallis elinguaria, Ennotnosangu- 
laria, Selenia lioiaria, and Melanippe nio)danata, and of the Noctuidae 
various species of Catocala, were found to be sensitive. The experi- 
mental results agree well with observations made in the field. 
Most of us must have noticed the difference in the larvae of the 
same species beaten from trees of different kinds or even from trees 
of the same kind, from young bushes with green stems or from 



58 

old trees with dark branches and few leaves. Betularia is a good 
example of this. Larvae from herbaceous plants, hops, and lime, 
are generally green, those from blackthorn and birch are dark brown, 
those from oak may be either green or brown, and those from sallow 
are pntty- coloured. Strataria on the other hand feeds almost ex- 
clusively on oak and is almost always brown ; but there is a dark 
green larva in my box beaten from a young oak, and Mr. Hawkins 
beat one from the sallow; so that it would most likely prove to be 
sensitive like its ally, though to a lesser degree. 

Later on, Poulton produced lichen-marked larvae by keeping them 
in cages with bits of white paper mixed with their food. He was most 
successful with G. hidentata and Eutrielia quercifolia. Observa- 
tions on larvae in their natural surroundings confirm these experi- 
ments in a most convincing way. In the New Forest I found 
large numbers of beautifully mottled larvae of Miselia o.ryacanthae 
on blackthorn covered with lichens, and the more lichen there was 
the higher the proportion of lichen-marked larvae ; whereas in the 
London area I have never met with this form at all, nor have I 
seen it near Sheffield nor in Lincolnshire, where lichens are absent 
or scarce. Last year, in Scotland, I found the same correspondence 
between the colour of the larvae and the character of the trees from 
which they were beaten. In the low part of the wood at Gight 
nearly all the mountain-ash trees are dying and covered with lichen 
even on the small twigs, and here there was a high proportion of 
green larvae of liiteolata, many mottled ones and very few brown 
ones. In the higher part of the wood where the trees were healthier, 
more leafy and much less lichen-covered, green larvae of luteolata 
were still the preponderant form, but there were very few mottled ones 
and many more brown ones. In the case of huJentata lichen-marked 
larvae were common in the low part of the wood and brown ones rare, 
but higher up all were brown. Unfortunately, betularia was scarce 
and I did not get a lichen-marked one amongst the eight or ten I 
succeeded in beating. In the London area I have never beaten a 
mottled larva of these species. Metrocaynpa maytjaritaria has a 
lichen-marked form, but I have never been fortunate enough to get one. 
Other Geometers have larvae mottled in a less striking manner, and 
to illustrate this I show a larva of B. hirtaria beaten from an ash at 
Horsley, though the light parts are darker than they were when it 
was alive; and two Boarmia consortaria from an oak with mottled 
branches at Limpsfield. 

Two questions at once arise. At what period are these larvae 



59 

sensitive and how is the change in ooloiir brought about? Poulton 
found that the larvae be experimented on were quite insensitive in 
their first instar, and pointed out that at this stage they rest on the 
leaves and that, if they were sensitive at this stage, nearly all would 
produce the green forms. He showed that they became sensitive 
in the second instar, but were most easily influenced by their 
surroundings in the third. After that very little change could be 
induced, though some could he influenced to a small extent even in 
the last instar. The effect was a cumulative one, and there was no 
particularly critical period, during an ecdysis for instance, but the 
longer they were exposed to a special environment the more definite 
was the effect produced by it. 

The difference in colour is produced by the difference in the 
character of the light reflected from their immediate surroundings 
on their skin. Whether it is a direct effect on the skin itself or 
whether the action is an indirect one through the nervous system is, I 
believe, unsettled. I think it is true that in all the larvae Poulton 
used in this series of experiments the blood and fat in both the green 
and brown forms are an equally deep green, the green colour being 
due to a chlorophyll-derivative, and the only difference is in the 
degree of pigmentation of the epidermis or in its distribution. The 
distribution of the pigment is interesting, because in the mottled 
forms of all these larvae the same areas tend to be either light or 
dark. The mottling is by no means haphazard, though all parts of 
the skin must be subjected equally, at one time to light reflected 
from lichens and at another to light from tw'gs. Some parts of the 
epidermis are more sensitive than others, and even in the wholly 
brown forms there is a deeper pigmentation in them, though it is not 
as conspicuous as one would expect. 

A number of other Geometers have larvae, brown and green, 
differing only in the pigmentation, and these would probably prove 
to be sensitive in the same way. Cobeia }>usaria and C. exanthetvaria, 
Hybernia ri(/)icaiirana, Tephroaia extersaria, and Macario alterriata, 
for example, have green blood in all their forms. J^nftaria is par- 
ticularly interesting because, in addition to green and brown forms, 
it has a white form on aspen, like that produced artificially in 
betularia. 

Dimorphic forms of larvae, green and brown, are even commoner 
Amongst the Noctuidae ; often, as in Hadeua pisi, both forms are 
equally numerous, but in some cases, as in F.iiplexia lucipara and 
Calocawpa vetusta, the brown form is scarce, and in others, for 



60 

instance in Stilbia anouiala, Triphaena proniiba, and Kpiinda lichenea, 
the green is the scarce one. In the majority of cases the blood and 
fat in both forms are green and the difference is merely pigmentary. 
Fid is a good example of this. The experiments on the sensitive- 
ness of these Noctuid larvae were iew and inconclusive : neither 
Miss Gould nor Professor Poulton found any indication that they 
were influenced by their surroundings. Observations in the field 
support this. Most of the larvae of this group hide in the day- 
time as far from the light as possible. Both the need and the 
opportunity for acquiring colours like those of their environment are 
much less than is the case in Geometers. Pid, however, rests 
fully exposed on its food-plant during the day ; and at Achnasheen 
I noticed that there were rather more brown than green ones on 
the bracken, though the plant is much more green than brown. 

The effect of feeding larvae in closed tins is interesting, as any 
of the influence exerted by the environment is avoided. In a large 
brood of strataria, bred from eggs, all the larvae were brown, but 
in a large brood of consurtaria both forms were numerous. The 
explanation seems to be that in the former species all had strong 
bias towards a pigmented state, and in the latter some had a bias 
in one direction and some in the other. Poulton found that some 
of his larvae were much more easily influenced than others and 
some were quite refractory. Here is a question that requires 
further investigation. I suspect that even in Geometers there is a 
hereditary difference, though it can to a large extent be over- 
come by environment. In the case of Noctuids, a large brood of 
vetiista kept in the dark gave all green larvae, but Anchocelis litiira 
gave both forms, green being in the majority. Unfortunately, no 
exact count was made, but I think it was about two green to one 
brown. In Noctuid larvae the difference is, perhaps, due solely to 
heredity, but nothing short of careful experiment will show the 
truth or falsity of this hypothesis. 

The larvae mentioned so far have green blood and green fat, and 
in many the skin too is green, but this is by no means the case in 
ail larvae. Some have no green substance either in the blood or fat : 
for example, Perizoina affinitata, most species of Dianthoecia, and of 
Ta})inostola, and Nonaijria typhae and A', iieurica. Nonagria cannae, on 
the other hand, has deep emerald green blood, but there is no green 
substance either in the the fat or skin. The yellow pigments of the 
blood are derived from carotinoids and the green substance is derived 
from chlorophyll, but there must be several different compounds formed 



61 

from the latter. 1 have noticed that in some cases, as in the genns 
Thera, very slight warmth turns it yellow, whereas in others, as in 
Colzas ediisa, it remains green at a much higher temperature. Only 
a difference in chemical constitution would account for this. The 
identification of this group of chlorophyll-derivatives and the deter- 
mination of their relationship to one another awaits a chemist skilled 
in microspectroscopy. 

A very interesting proof of the existence of more than one green 
compound in a single larva is afforded by the blue-green mutant of 
Colias philodice bred by Gerould. He showed that in ordinary 
larvae two substances, which he calls chlorophyll and xanthophyll, 
with different spectra, were present, but in the blue-green recessives 
only the former was found. 

This long discussion is in part preparatory to the consideration of 
green and brown dimorphic larvae different from those already 
mentioned. In the genus Cnaytnbia [Epliyra) the green form of 
larva with a green skin always changes into a green pupa, but the 
brown form gives rise to a brown pupa and there is no green sub- 
stance in the blood of either. Thus there is a metabolic differ- 
ence as well as a difference in epidermal pigmentation. Both green 
and brown forms are quite common in pendularia and linearia. In 
annulata the brown form is very rare, though a figure of a 
pupa in the Trans. Knt. Soc. for 1884, proves that it exists ; in 
orbicularia the green form is the rare one. In porata a,nd pioictaria 
the green seems to be less common than the brown form. Poulton 
experimented with annulata and failed to obtain a brown larva, 
however brown the surroundings ; and pendularia also showed no 
response to environment. In a case of this kind, where there is a 
profound metabolic difference, the dimorphism is most likely here- 
ditary. A simple breeding experiment with larvae kept in the dark 
would settle the question, and for this pendularia would be the 
most suitable species. 

Other species show a metabolic dimorphism of the same kind. It is 
met with in some of the Eupithecia species. E. expallidata for instance, 
has a form with a white ground colour and colourless blood and fat 
and a less common form with green ground and green blood and 
fat. Here, too, I expect the difference is hereditary, and the forms 
are probably simple dominant and recessive. 

I will now" turn to another form of variation. Almost all 
Geometrid larvae with protuberances of the epidermis show con- 
siderable variation in this character. I have noticed this in species 



62 

in which the larva is invariably brown, such as Aspitates strigillaria, 
Numeria pulveraria, and Ennomos erosaria, but it is most interesting 
in those which have both brown and green larvae. In A. betularia 
the warts on the fifth abdominal somite are smaller in the green 
than in the browner larvae, and in the green larvae of Boarmia 
consul tar ia there is only one pair of dorsal humps, that on the 
second abdominal somite, whereas in the brown larvae large lateral 
humps are present on the third, and smaller ones on the fourth and 
fifth abdominal somites m addition to the dorsal ones. Tephrosia 
extersaria hais a green form of larva with two tiny raised dots on 
the eighth abdommai somite, and commoner green and brown or 
brown forms with pairs of raised knobs on the fourth and eighth, 
and in some cases an additional pair on the ninth. 

Ennomos anyidaria has a unicolorous yellowish green form of larva 
without humps or projections, and various brown forms with pairs 
of dorsal knobs on the second, third, and fifth abdominal somites, 
pointed projections on the eighth, and lateral prominences on the 
second and third. In Ennomus fuscantaria there is a green form of 
larva either perfectly smooth or with a pair of pointed projections on 
the eighth abdominal somite ; and a grey form with a row of red 
warts on the dorsum of the second thoracic somite, and on the abdom- 
inal somites pairs of large red humps on the dorsum of the second and 
fifth, and small ones on the fourth, pointed projections on the 
eighth, lateral red prominences on the first, second, and third, and 
a ventral one on the third, intermediate forms occur and they are 
usually intermediate both in colour and in the degree of development 
of prominences. Are these differences hereditary or are they the 
result of environment? There are several points in favour of the 
latter hypothesis. There is no clean-cut division into two forms in 
these larvae, but various intermediates are found. The observation 
that the greener the larva the fewer and smaller the humps, if it is 
borne out by more ample material than I have at my disposal, is a 
still stronger argument. We know that the green colour is retained 
by larvae that rest on leaves, which are smooth, and that the brown 
colour is acquired by those that rest on twigs, which have excres- 
cences. It is difficult to resist the conclusion that the smoothness of 
the green larvae and the excrescences on the brown ones are as much 
a response to surroundings as the colour; but, if this be so, it seems 
to me far more wonderful that a structural change can be called forth 
in this way than a pigmentary one. It would be most interesting 
to have the matter solved by experiment, for, until suitable experi- 



68 

merits have been carried out;, no certain answer can be given to my 
question. 

Though the following facts give no real help, they are perhaps 
worth mentioning. Amongst larvae of the hybrid Philosamia ricini, 
male, and P. cynthia^ female, some had no tubercles and some had 
the tubercles reduced in size. The latter proved to be recessive to 
the normal. In Bouihijx j/fo/Harvae with knobs, raised evaginations 
of skin, in the subdorsal line, appeared as a mutation, and were 
found by Tanaka to obey the Mendelian Law. These cases show 
that structural variations may be hereditary, but throw no light on 
the variations of this kind that are found wild and are, in conse- 
quence, so much more interesting. 

In other families dimorphism as conspicuous as any in Geome- 
trids or Noctuids occurs, but little is known about it. The larva of 
Satiirnia pavonia has tubercles either pink or orange. Poulton 
found three with pmk tubercles amongst eighty larvae bred from 
one batch of eggs, a ratio not at all like a simple Mendelian one. 
Moths bred from two of these gave a ratio of about three larvae 
with pink to one with orange tubercles, which would be expected, 
if the parents were heterozygous for pink and orange and pink were a 
dominant. Neither the colour of the tubercles, nor the ground 
colour, nor the extent of the black markmgs in the larva of this 
species were affected by the food-plant or surroundings. Polymor- 
phism in pavonia seems to be governed entirely by hereditary fac- 
tors, but further experiments are needed to confirm it. 

In the Notodonts, Dicranura vinula has as a rule a larva with a 
green saddle on aspen and with a red saddle on other trees, a differ- 
ence attributable to environment. Fhaeosia tremulae has both green 
and brown larvae, but its close relative dictaeoides has only a brown 
form. Notodoiita dromedarina has both green and brown larvae, 
but ziczac, though closely allied, has no green form, but possesses 
in addition to the brown form of larva, a purplish one almost con- 
fined to aspen and a white one to sallow. Lophoptenjx cawelina 
has an uncommon pink variety of larva, which I found on both 
beech and birch, as well as the common green one. Amongst 
the Liparidae^ Dasychira pudibunda has yellow, pink, and blackish 
larvae, and Oryyia yonostiynia has in both sexes one form of larvae 
with white hair and another with yellow hair. Amongst the Lasio- 
canipidae, Trichiura cvataegi is polymorphic, having more than live 
very different forms, but the account given by Tutt of Briggs' ex 
periments with three of them is too brief to be of value. One may 



64 

venture to guess that in the Notodonts the variation is environ- 
mental and in the others hereditary, but evidence derived from ex- 
periments and not guesses are required. 

Reverting to the Noctuae, Acronicta leporina has a white form of 
larva and a yellow one with a dark head and other dark markings, 
supposed to feed on alder and birch respectively, but Chapman has 
shown that the food is not the cause of the difference and believes 
them to be inherited characters. Demas coryli has white, chestnut, 
and black larvae which are probably due to hereditary factors, 
though evidence on the point is lacking. 

Some work has been done on the Sphingidae. The difference in 
ground colour in larvae of Aworpha popiili and Smei'inthns ocellatns 
is due to environment. Both develop a pale grey or bluish green 
on aspen, and a deeper brighter green on other species of Fopidus 
and on Salix. Exceptions occur under natural conditions, though 
in captivity the relation between ground colour and food-plant was 
very definite. In Smerinthus the green pigment, unlike that of 
most geometers, is confined to the skin, the blood being colourless 
and the fat white. Much less, however, is known about the lines 
of red spots that may be present in either species. Red-spotted 
forms of ocellatns have been bred from moths derived from 
red-spotted larvae ; but this is inconclusive, whereas the observation 
of Mr. Newman that red-spotted larvae of populi are obtained 
commonly by breeding from the egg on aspen and rarely on other 
trees suggests that they are an effect of environment. 

Reference to Piepers' paper on polymorphic Sphingid larvae shows 
that Sesia utellatarHm has a green and a blackish form, and that Heme 
coficolrtili, Chaerocampa elpenor and (\ porcellus all have a common 
brown form and a rare green form of larva. Elpenor has been 
carefully studied by Federley, who found that all the larvae were 
green at first, but that in one brood 103 suddenly became dark brown 
at the third ecdysis and 37 at the fourth, and in another 9 became 
brown at the third ecdysis and 64 at the fourth. Had he been dealing 
with a larger number no doubt a few would have become brown even 
as early as the second ecdysis, though at this change of skin the great 
majority remain green. In this respect the larva oielpenor is like those 
of many Noctuae, in which the change from green to brown is equally 
sudden and complete, and equally variable in the period at which it 
occurs. Argument by analogy is notoriously dangerous, but the 
similarity suggests that a similar cause is at work. Federley start- 
ing with a brood in which there were 42 brown larvae and 10 green 



65 

ones believed that green would prove to be recessive to brown, but 
he obtained the following results in the next generation : green x 
green gave 73 brown larvae, green male x brown female gave 14Q 
brown larvae, brown male x green female gave 18 brown larvae, and 
brown x brown gave 56 brown larvae. Not a single green larva 
was bred. He concludes that the brown and green larvae of elpenor 
are genetically identical ; and one must assume that the difference 
is due to environment. The result is most unexpected, because the 
larger larvae hide by day like noctuid larvae and are not exposed 
like geometrid larvae to their surroundings. There must be a simple 
explanation. Perhaps there is a comparatively short period during 
which these larvae, and possibly those of some of the Noctiddae too^ 
are sensitive to reflected light instead of the long sensitive period 
found in Geometridae. If so, it may occur when they are beginning 
to form the habit of leaving the food-plant to conceal themselves in 
the day-time on or near the ground, and those that acquire the new 
habit unusually late are the ones that retain the green coloration, 
or there may be a critical period during or just after an ecdysis. 

Mr. L. W. Newman has supplied me with some interesting facts 
about elpenor. He tells me that of larvae collected wild in their last 
instar, 30 to 40 per cent are green; but that when he breeds them 
from the egg, as he does almost every year, in large open-air cages 
with an ample supply of growing food-plant, a green larva is a great 
rarity. Last year he had one amongst about three thousand brown 
ones, and the usual proportion is approximately one green to ten 
thousand brown. This is very puzzling, because the conditions in 
his cages are so similar to those of the natural habitat, but by 
means of a carefully planned experiment it should be possible to 
discover the reason for the apparent anomaly. These facts indicate 
too, that, if the dimorphic noctuid larvae really do respond to their 
surroundings, any experiment with them to show the effect of envir- 
onment would have to be carefully designed and carried out, and to 
be conclusive would have to be checked by a breeding experiment 
like that of Federley with elpenor. 

Thus, there is overwhelming proof that some larvae are influenced 
by their surroundings, though the difference in susceptibility of 
members of the same brood suggests that even in these species there 
are inherited differences. In other larvae it is probable that heredity 
is the sole factor accounting for the various forms. The black larvae 
of Abraxas (^rossnlariata, for instance, may be a mutation; and there 
is little doubt that this is so in the case of the velvety black larva of 



66 

Miselia oxyacanthae. In the domesticated silkworm many forms 
are known that stand in Mendelian relationship with one another ; 
but in the case of our native larvae, though we may surmise that 
such relationships are common, actual proof is almost completely 
lacking. lean think of only two cases, in which it is forthcoming. 
Professor Poulton has discovered that in grossulariata the form of 
larva with a black head and no other black markings, that appeared 
in his and in Raynor's cultures, is a recessive ; and the rare recessive 
aberration of Lasiocampa giiercus Sih. olivaceofasciata, CklL, has a larva 
with very dark fur and hair, which is distinguishable at a glance from 
the ordinary form. The latter is especially interesting because it is 
an example of a mutant larva giving rise to a mutant imago, though 
as a rule mutations in the one stage are quite independent of those 
in the other. At least one similar case is known. Gerould has shown 
that the olive-green larva of Colias philodice is recessive to the normal 
grass-green larva and gives rise to a butterfly with olive-green eyes 
and a peculiar pigmentation on the underside, orange in the yellow 
form and buff in the white female. Standfuss states that an 
albinistic larva of Arctia caia and another of Dendroliuius pini 
produced albino imagines, and these, also, may have been comparable 
mutations. 

I know of no seasonal variation in British species, but the larvae 
of the North American Colias eiirythenie shows in certain strains 
bred in the autumn and winter two dorso-lateral rows of black 
spots near the posterior margin of each somite, which are never 
present in the summer generation. Nothing is known about the 
inheritance of this winter pattern. 

Geographical variation occurs in the larva as in the imago. L, 
quercus has two races in France, meridionalis with white fur and 
white hair, and vihurni with chestnut fur and white hair, both diff- 
erent from our native race with both fur and hair brown ; and 
auricoma race alpina, Frr., has bluish white warts on the fifth to 
the tenth somites instead of the rusty red ones of other races. These 
examples will suffice. I mention geographical variation, because, 
if dimorphism in the larva of a species is due to heredity, one would 
expect the proportions of the different forms to vary in different 
localities even on the same food-plants. This is certainly true of 
oxyacanthae, grossulariata and queicns, in which the melanic forms are 
confined to definite areas, and Chapman hints that the yellow larvae 
of leporina predominate in some districts in the North, the white 
in others and in the South. Acherontia atropos has a green form 



I 



67 

of larva and a black one differing in markings as well as in colour; 
the black one is very rare in Northern and Central Europe, but in 
Spain is as common as the green one, and in North Africa is actual- 
ly the commoner. The usual food-plant, however, is not the same 
throughout this wide area, and Federley's experiments with elpenor 
make one doubt whether it is a true example of geographical var- 
iation. Records indicate that the distribution and percentage of 
the various forms of T. crataegi differ according to locality, but 
they are too imperfect to be of real value. Data of this kind con- 
cerning the forms of cratae(ji and the species of Cosymbia might 
give interesting results. It is, however, in the cases in which the 
cause of the difference in colour is most uncertain, as in the brown 
and green forms of the noctuid larvae, that imformation is most 
needed and most difficult to obtain. 

I will end my review by thanking you for the patience with which 
you have listened. I am only too well aware of its deficiencies, 
and realise that I have raised many questions only to leave them 
unanswered ; but, if some of you by observations in the field or by 
experiment will supply the answers later, this part of my address 
will not have proved altogether valueless. 

Bibliography. 
Chapman, T. A. " The genus Acronicta and its Allies, London." 

1893, p. 115. 
Federley, H. *' Ofversigt af Finska Vetenkaps-Societatens 

Forhandingar." 1916, 58, 1-13. 
Gerould, J. H. " Journ. Exper. Zool." 1921, 34, 385-412. 

Ibid 1926, 43, 413-425. 

Gould, L. J, " Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond." 1892, p. 215. 

Hawkes. "Journ. Genetics." 1918, 7, 135-154. 

Piepers, M. C. " Tijdschrift v. Ent." 1897, 40, 27-105. 
Poulton, E. B. ** Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond." 1884, p. 51, PI. L, 

fig. 10. 
Ibid 1892, p. 293. 

'* Proc. Roy. Soc." 1885, no. 257, pp. 269, 306. 
Ibid 1886, no. 243, p. 135. 



68 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 



FEBRUARY 10th, 1927. 
Dr. E. A. Cockayne, A.M., D.M., F.E.S., F.R.C.P., in the Chair. 

The decease of a member, Mr. J. J. Lister, F.R.S., F.E.S., wag 
reported. 

Mr. J. B. Fidgen of Romford Rd., E., was elected a member. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a flower-head of the sweet coltsfoot 
{Tiissilaijo fragtana), which he said, although not a native of this 
country, had established itself on some of the rougher parts of the 
banks along the Parades at Eastbourne, where it had spread out 
into great patches many yards square, whose fragrant blossoms 
were to be found from Christmas time until the end of February. 

The President remarked that it was very abundant in the east of 
Scotland, and was also found at West Marina, St. Leonards. Mr. 
Step said that it was common on the London Rd. near Mickleham ; 
he had seen half an acre of it along a roadside in South Cornwall. 
It was often called the " Winter Heliotrope." Mr. Gosvernor re- 
ported it from near the Suspension Bridge, Reigate Hill ; and Mr. 
Sperring, near Lee Station, S.E. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited Erannis defoliaria from Epping Forest, 
including some very fine melanic forms and one example with the 
bands of the fore-wing united behind the discoidal spot ; also an 
aberration of E. maryinaria with much displaced and distorted 
median lines, from Wimbledon. 

On behalf of Mr. Pierce of Oundle, he exhibited an earthworm 
with the posterior end duplicated, a by no means common occur- 
rence. 

Mr. 0. R. Goodman read a paper illustrated with many lantern 
slides, " The Land of the Sheik," (see p. 1) giving an account of 
the holiday of several members of the Society in Algeria. 



I 



69 

FEBRUARY 24th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. A. C. Hewitt, 83, Tavistock Avenue, Walthamstow, E. 17, 
was elected a member. 

Mr. Blenkarn exhibited two cabinet drawers of British Chnjso- 
melidae and Carabidae ; and pointed out a nice series of the very 
local Chnjaomela cerealis, from Snowdon. 

Mr. E. Step exhibited a living patch of the Hepatic, Madotheca 
plati/phi/lla, Duiuort., from Headley Lane, Micklehara, where it is 
abundant on banks and tree-stumps, in large colonies. It is one 
of the more substantial members of the group ; and the stems lie 
over one another in a pleasing manner. The deep green opaque 
leaves are arranged in two rows on the stems and alternating 
branches, which are hidden by the close overlapping of the leaves. 
There were no fruits on the specimen, as these do not appear until 
a month or so later in the year. 

Mr. A. A. W. Buckstone exhibited an aberration of Psetidopan- 
iliera [Venilia) macnlaria in which the black markings were all 
much enlarged and some fused together ; an example of Zijgaena 
filipendidae in which the hind wings only were salmon-coloured, 
another in which the salmon-colour was on the forewings as well ; 
and a Z. trifolii, also of salmon-colour on all the wings. 

Captain Crocker exhibited a Melitaea athalia showing l(0)iweods ; 
the left fore-wing having connected streaks and spots of a lighter 
colour, similar to that of the undersurface. 

A large number of lantern slides were exhibited by Mr. A. de B. 
Goodman illustrating the natural history of the visit to Algeria 
described by Mr. 0. R. Goodman, at the previous meeting. 

Mr. A. E. Tonge exhibited a series of slides of eggs of Lepidop- 
tera, mostly of species whose ova are somewhat rarely met with. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a series of slides on the life-history of 
the stag-beetle Lucanns cervna, showing how well adapted for the 
study of the subterranean activities of the larvae of Coleoptera, 
were his special forms of terrarium, which he also exhibited. He 
read a short paper on his exhibit. 

Mr. Robert Adkin showed slides illustrating the life-history of 
Aleitrodes vaporariorum, commonly known as the " White fly," 
*' Snowy fly," or " Mealy wings," which he said had been only too 
common in his conservatory at Eastbourne during the previous 
autumn. The eggs, larvae, pupae and imagines were shown in situ 



70 

on the leaves of a Primula ; also a larva of the Coccus, Psendococcns 
comstocki, to which the Aleurodidae were not very distantly related ; 
and of a white moth resting on a leaf. The superficial resemblance 
between the Aleurodes and the moth was such as to make it no 
great wonder that some of the older naturalists regarded the former 
as a Lepidopteron. 



MARCH 10th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

The decease of a member, Mr. G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., of Hudders- 
field, was announced. 

Mr. D. A. Hawgood, 89, Leigham Vale, S.W.2., was elected a 
member. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited larvae of the Jilig ram maria form of Opor' 
inia autiimnata from Achnaskeen, Ross-shire, which were fed on 
Glastonbury thorn. The dark green colour, which matches the 
natural food-plant (heather), had not been affected by the pale green 
substitute. He pointed out that the larvae of this form were more 
striped than those of the typical form of antiiumata, and he had 
never seen such well-marked stripes and so dark a ground colour in 
the latter, of which he had 150 one year all faintly marked. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a series of Theria {Hybeniia) rupicaprariaj 
bred between the 2nd and 22nd of February last, the progeny of a 
female taken at Eastbourne in February of the previous year. No 
males emerged after February 12th, on which date the females 
began to appear. He bad often found the species wild before the 
middle of January. 

It was generally considered that this species was to be taken 
during the first mild weather after the middle of January, and was 
soon over. Stainton once recorded the species for January 1st. 

Mr. E. 8tep, on behalf of Mrs. Grey, exhibited a portion of 
sycamore branch showing fasciation by a combination of three stems. 
A section of the stem at the point where fasciation began revealed 
no abnormality which would account for the aberration. 

Mr. Bliss exhibited a bred example of Sphinx limistri, from 
Cornwall, in which the pink flush was replaced by bulT. 

Mr. Harris exhibited a bred example of Satnrnia pavonia^ from 
Hampshire, with a small inverted wing on the upper side of the 



71 

hindwing. The pupa case showed an extra wing fold. The 
probable cause was thought to be a larval injury. 

Mr. A. A. W. Buckstone exhibited a series of Pieria nnpi\ bred 
from ova laid by one ? obtained in Surrey, including the following 
aberrational forms. 

1. Forewings angular. 2. Forewings rounded. 3. Forewings 
very narrow. 4. Males with extra spot on the fore-wing. 5. 
Females with upper discal spot very much reduced in size. 
6. Females with upper discal spot absent. 7. Females with mark- 
ings of a grey colour and very faint. 8. Females with the 
ground colour greenish. 9. Male underside with spots united by 
black scales. All these were of the spring emergence. 

Of the summer emergence he exhibited the following aberrational 
forms. 1. Both sexes very heavily marked, large specimens of both 
sexes. 2. Females with yellow ground colour. 3. Females with 
spots on fore-wings united by black scales. 4. Females with the 
upper discal spot so reduced that it was scarcely visible. 

Two pupae went over two winters and produced imagines which 
were of the spring form. During the heat-wave in July, 1926, he 
had two l\ napi pair in the cage, which was in a room from which 
the sun was excluded. 

He also showed aberrations of Fseudoterpna jiruinata. 1 . Blackish- 
banded form. 2. A male with reddish bands. Both were from 
Wimbledon larvae. 

Mr. Hugh Main made some remarks on the Shore Earwig, Labi- 
dura rifiaria. He had noticed that the eggs were carried about by 
the female, who also carried the young in her mouth, and in his 
observation-cages would hurriedly place them under a sheet of glass at 
the approach of danger. He had recently found three nests of the 
common earwig in Epping Forest. The first had eg^s with the 
mother : the other two had eggs only : the mothers probably had 
been killed. He took all three nests and placed them in a cage, 
when the remaining mother- earwig collected the other two layings 
and placed them with her own. 

Mr. Sperring sent for exhibition, a further series of Polyomnmtus 
icarna from Ireland, and subsequently communicated the following 
notes : — 

In connection with the exhibit of Irish PolymmatuH icarus on 
my behalf by Mr. Turner on March 10th, a point was raised as to 
whether this insect is double- or treble-brooded. From further 
enquiries made among Irish collectors, it appears that, so far as 



72 

the West Coast of Ireland is concerned, this insect is only single- 
brooded as far as Co. Clare, and on the eastern side, as far south as 
Dublin. 

The various specimens from Sligo, Galway and Clare were taken 
in June and July of 1926 ; but it is very interesting to point out 
that the icanis taken in Co. Down, also in July, 1926, although 
single-brooded are — with three exceptions amongst the insects ex- 
hibited — all of the smaller double- brooded form, and the females 
could readily be confused with the ordinary type of double-brooded 
female taken in the South of England. 

At what point on the West of Ireland the single-brooded form 
ceases, and is replaced by the double-brood race, cannot at the 
moment be definitely ascertained. It is quite evident that the 
point is either in Co. Kerry or the North of Co. Cork, Kerry forming 
a barrier between Sligo and Cork. On the East-coast, the single- 
brooded form commences in Co. Dublin. It is quite possible that 
during 1927 further information will be available as to whether 
icarns is single- or double-brooded in Kerry. In connection with 
this question, the following extracts from answers to my enquiries 
will probably be of interest : 

Co. Down. — " In regard to your queries about icaruH, I think 
there is but one brood here. It is fairly common all round thig 
district, and I do not think it appears until July : in the months of 
July and August it is in full flight. I cannot remember having seen 
it earlier." 

Dublin. — " I have collected chiefly in the South of Ireland, and 
mostly to the South and West of Cork City. I have not been there 
all the season, but have been there in most months, from time to 
time. I have found icarns in early June, and have not noticed it 
in July. Last year I was in Cork from July 15th to August 15. 
During July I saw no icarns, but in August it came out plentifully to- 
wards the middle of the month. Round Dublin I have taken it 
in early June and again in August. I should say it is double- 
brooded round Cork and Dublin. The species is of the typical kind, 
i.e., small and of the usual colour. Cork and Dublin females are 
nearly always of the blue form with large orange spots, the brown 
form hardly ever occurring — at least, that is my experience." 

Tyrone. — "With regard to icarns race clara, as a whole, is single- 
brooded appearing from about the middle of June (in early seasons) 
to the middle of August. A very partial second-brood may occur in 
a very favourable year." 



73 

" I met with icarus in the first week of June in Co. Wicklow, 10- 
12 miles south of Dublin, and from the very small size and early 
appearance, these were probably the spring brood. I have no ex- 
perience, on the species of the West Coast between Clare and Cork." 



MARCH 24th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. E. J. Bunnetfc exhibited a form of Acronicta leporina, bred 
from a Chiselhurst larva, in which much of the usually white 
ground was slightly flushed with grey scaling, as if the black of the 
lines and spots had run off on their outer sides ; an aberration of 
Hipocrita jacohaeae, in which the two main features of the fore- 
wings were united, from Micklehara, April 4th, 1926 ; a specimen 
of the rare Aventia fjexnla, from Mickleham ; and a form of Euclidia 
mi, from Box Hill, in which the ground-colour was pure white in 
place of the usual fawn-colour. 

Mr. H. J. Turner exhibited an extremely large example of the 
fungus PolypovHS betnliuKfi from Chiselhurst, measuring 14 inches 
by 9 inches in area, and of a flat growth instead of the hoof-shaped 
bracket which this species usually assumes. Mr. Step said that these 
large, flat specimens from beech, oak or ash, were regarded as 
another species, Ganodenna applanation, distinguished by its 
coloured flesh, tubes and spores ; this, however, from its white in- 
terior appeared to be P. betulinua. 

Major Kingston, a member of the recent Mt. Everest Expedition, 
gave an account of " Curious Protective Devices in Spider Snares," 
illustrated by a number of diagrammatic lantern-slides of the 
various snares and their devices, as observed by him in the Hima- 
layas and in Burma. (See page 15). 

Dr. Cockayne expressed his pleasure with the address, and said 
the Society considered it a privilege to hear the fascinating ac- 
count of these small creatures just given by Major Hingston. He 
did not agree that the account strengthened the view that these 
devices were protective, and wished for further observation on the 
results accruing from them. He noted that most of these spiders 
were rare as well as small, which was contrary to expectation if the 
protection was in any degree effective. The expenditure of so 
much energy in the production of silk was a great drain on the 
system, and the rebuilding of an elaborate device would be well 



74 

«nigh impossible. The ordinary snare of a spider is practically in- 
visible and one would think much more effective than one with 
such conspicuous devices, which would be readily seen by ap- 
proaching prey. 

Mr. Main remarked that the British spiders lacked the powers 
of invention and of artistry, which were so much in evidence in 
these tropical spiders. He instanced the famous " signature " 
• spider of Fabre, of which numerous specimens have been kept in the 
Zoological Society's Gardens, but very few of them had made 
any attempt to ornament their webs with the device. He wished 
to know if Major Hingston had met with cells of hymenoptera 
stored with large spiders ; and had he made observations of the 
attacks on spiders ? He was anxious to get records of attacks on big 
spiders. His view of the use of these bands of conspicuous silvery- 
white was that they could be easily seen at night. He had much 
pleasure in proposing a vote of thanks to Major Hingston for his 
most interesting account of these neglected creatures. 

Mr. Bristowe said that the spiders of Britain did not make 
"devices" in the way that some tropical species did. Some, how- 
ever, made a platform, which whs probably the beginning of a 
•' device." He noted that there were members of various groups included 
in Major Hingston's exhibit, not all of which were orb-web spinners, 
naturally ; and called attention to the remarkable convergence of 
evolution of the devices and orb-making. Some wasps only put a 
single spider in each cell, whereas the Pompilids often had 20 to 80 
Epeirids in each of their cells. The hard outer skin of the body, 
which some spiders had, did not prevent their being victims of 
their hymenopterous foes. He had observed that various Brazilian 
wasps placed foreign matter in their webs, and in one special case 
he met with a species which used crumpled leaves. It was re- 
markable that many Epeirids devoured the whole of their webs 
every evening ; and he asked if any of the species referred to did 
this, consuming their bands as well ? He had much pleasure in 
seconding the vote of thanks. 

In reply Major Hingston called attention to the usually accepted 
opinion that the sight of insects is very limited, and that they do 
not see the snares but tumble into them. However, this does not 
apply to hymenoptera, which must have very efficient sight, for 
their hunting is done by sight ; and in his opinion these devices 
were particularly protective as delusions turning off the attacks of 
hymenoptera. He had not met with large spiders in a hymenop- 



75 

teron's cell, but always small spiders. Many observations had been' 
made of Diptera picking spiders from their webs. The protective 
shape, colour, devices, and markings would not be seen at night, 
but in moonlight would be equally as effective as in the daylight. 
He saw no reason why these spiders should not eat their snares 
and devices, which were formed of silk and insect remains, although 
he had not observed such a habit. 



APRIL 14th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor exhibited three short series of Zyijaena 
/ilipe)idiilae: — 

(1) Specimens from Chattenden, taken by the late J. W. Tutt, 
and forming part of the series which he called hippocrepiJis. These 
were taken in May and June. He considered them an offshoot of 
Z. trifoiii. 

(2) Normal Z. tilipenilnlae taken at Felbridge, Surrey, in May 
and June, 1921-22 & 24. 

(3) Small race of Z. filipendidae, which corresponds very closely 
with series No. 1, taken at Felbridge, Surrey, in 1923. These 
small specimens are the direct descendants and parents of series 2. 
In all of these years the species was very abundant in this marsh, 
but it was only in 1928 that these small specimens occurred : in 
that year every example taken was much below normal. It may 
be mentioned that these were in no way selected, as the small size 
was not noted until the insects were taken oif the boards and put 
alongside specimens taken in previous years. The small form did 
not occur in 1924, as a special search was made for it without 
success. In 1925-6 the species was rare in this locality, so that no 
adequate comparison could be made, but the few seen were of 
normal expanse. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited examples of the galls made by the 
clear wing- moth, Synanthedon forniicaeforniu, in the shoots of sallow, 
Salix capraea, from S. Hampshire ; and called attention to the 
remains of the burrow made by the young larva encircling the 
shoot. He said that, later on, a fracture often occurred from the 
decay of the upper portion. He referred also to the ravages by 
birds, most of the shoots above the ground growth of sedge and rush 
being torn open as a rule. 



76 

• Mr. Edwards exhibited a slab of coal showing fossil impressions 
of Siffillaria and Pheimpteris. 



APRIL 28th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Dr. G. V. Bull exhibited a halved gynandromorph of Tricldnra 
crataetfl, bred in 1920 from an Essex larva. The left side was ^ 
and the right side $ . Small and deficiently scaled examples of 
Saturnia pavonia, bred from Yorkshire larvae in 1923 ; a perfectly 
white empty cocoon of the same species, the pupa belonging to it 
being found outside ; and a cocoon of the same species with round- 
ed, instead of pointed, exit end — which appeared to be due to the 
smallness of the space chosen for pupation. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne exhibited — (1) A melanic Selenia bilimariaf 
bred from Witherslack larva by Mr. Wni. Mansbridge. The ground 
colour is very dark, and all the normal markings are visible. A 
melanic S. hilnnaria ; melanism in the ancestor was produced by 
manganese ; bred by J. W. H. Harrison. Except for two thin 
pale transverse lines across the forewings, it is entirely dark brown 
but of quite a different tone of colour to that of the former. 
(Shown on behalf of Mr. Wm. Mansbridge.) 

(2) Two melanic S. hilnnaria treated similarly to Harrison's, 
bred from Yorkshire, 1915, by A. S. Tetley, of Scarborough, with 
a pale specimen for comparison. 

(3) Larva of Senta uiaritima, and frass, etc., to show that the 
food in spring is the lining of dead reeds. 

(4) Larvae of Amathes litura and of Cleora lichenaria, from 
Surrey. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited examples of Anticlea badiata, 
showing considerable difference from each other in depth and shade 
of markings, as well as divergence in position and direction of the 
transverse lines. In one specimen the paired transverse lines near 
the base of the forewings make an acute angle near the costa, 
instead of an obtuse one, thus causing the short upper portion 
to meet the costa at an acute angle instead of a right angle as 
normally. The lower portions of these transverse lines also show 
a slightly altered slope. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited larvae of Acidalia immorata. He 
said that from moths taken at the end of May last year he obtained 



77 

a large number of eggs. In due course these hatched, and the 
young larvae appeared to thrive on knotgrass, dandelion and so 
forth ; but it was doubtful whether they ate the heather with 
which they were kept supplied also. The larvae were kept out of 
doors in a well-ventilated cage ; and with the approach of autumn 
the mortality became very great, some 75% dying ; they were 
therefore brought into a cool vine-house, and very soon settled 
down for hibernation. As soon as the warm, sunny days of spring 
came round, they began to stir and to feed, eating partially with- 
ered dandelion and CrepiH, and possibly Potent ilia. As soon as 
fresh young heather was obtainable, they ate this also, and were at 
the present time practically full fed. Mortality during the winter 
was small, and this he attributed to the larvae having been protected 
from the cold weather. He thought that the behaviour of these 
larvae threw some light on the reason for the species being so ex- 
tremely local in this country, in that it suggested that it was only 
in very specially situated, well sheltered spots, that it could with- 
stand the climate of our winters. 

Mr. Cox, a visitor, read notes received from a relation in Rhodesia 
on the death of a chamaeleon. He said that a female chamaeleon 
that had been captured, laid about two dozen eggs after it had 
been placed on a piece of chintz ; then shortly rolled over and died. 
No native will touch one of these reptiles ; and when his friend did 
so they screamed. The local legend was that the chamaeleon was 
sent from heaven to overtake death, but was too slow and death got 
to earth first. As a punishment the chamaeleon was allowed to lay 
twenty or so eggs, and then to die. 

Mr. Step remarked that the legend here was, that if placed on a 
Scotch plaid the chamaeleon burst open and died, feeling the im- 
possibility of changing colour to match the hues of the tartan ! 



MAY 12th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Farmer exhibited living larvae of Miselia oxyacanthae and 
Crocallis eUmjuaria. 

The President exhibited a short series of Cosymbia (Zonosovia) 
pendularia, including two ab. decoraria, Newm. (subroseata) bred in 
April from Worth Forest larvae. 



78 

. Mr. Dennis exhibited a flower-spike of the early spider orchis, 
Ophrys apkeijodes (a rani f era), from the neighbourhood of Maidstone. 
Mr. Step said that Mr. Rayward had kindly sent him specimens 
from near Eastbourne, bat that the spikes were smaller than that 
exhibited, bearing only three flowers. He pointed out that 0. 
sphegodea was quite clearly distinct from the commoner bee orchis, 
O. apifera, in the markings and colour of its petals. Mr. R. Adkin 
had met with it at Eastbourne, and Mr. Grosvenor at Wye. 

Mr. 0. R. Goodman exhibited long series of Satyrus ahdelkadeVj 
Teracaltis voiina and TanicHu theophrastns, received from Algeria ; 
also a specimen of the ab. tanifi of Hesperia maLvae. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited preserved larvae of lYofocfonta stV^ac, 
L., and called attention to the eversible glands beneath the head 
in front of the first pair of thoracic legs ; also of Xanthorhoe mon- 
tanata, Hj/drioniena furcata (elutata), Pseudoterpna pndnata, Ourap- 
teryx ftambncaria, Xylophasia ritrea, Triphaena fimbria^ FjUplexia 
lucipara and Phalera biwepJiala. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited a number of colour aberrations of 
Colias Ifsbia, sent to him by our fellow-member Captain Kenneth 
Hay ward, from the Argentine. There was included a very curious 
gynandromorph in which the ^ and ? colours and markings 
were extremely mixed. (See Rnt, Record, xxxix. 97.) 



MAY 14th, 1927. 
Field Meeting — Bookham. 
Conductorn — E. A. Cockayne, A.M., D.M., F.E.S., and 

H. WORSLEY-WOOD, F.E.S. 

The weather was quite favourable for a nature ramble and a 
good number turned up making the gathering one of the most success- 
ful of the year. Most of those present obtained something of 
interest although only the lepidopterists sent in reports of their 
doings. The imagines reported were Gonepteryx rhamni, Pieru 
napiy Euchlo'e cardamines, Vanessa io, Aylais urticae, Rumicia phlaeas, 
Coeno7iy}npha painpldlus, Euclidia yni, Lithinn chlorosata {petraria)^ 
Bapta teinerata, Xanthorhoe ferruyata, Ectropis pimctulata, and 
Epirrhoe alternata {sociata). Ova of Dicranura viniila. Larvae of 
Liynsnitis sibilla, Ruralis quercus^ Porthesia slndlis, Nola cucullatella, 
Hylophila qaercana, Cleoceris vhnhialis, Aniathes lota, Miselia 



79 

oxyacanthae, Taeniocanipa miiwia, T. cruda, T. ininiom, Cali/uiiua 
trapezina, Dysehorista fixsipuncta, Amphipyra pyramidea^ Agriopls 
aprilina, Diloba caendeocephala, Polyploca flavicornis, Krannia 
defoliaria, K.aurantiaria, E. marginaria, E. leucopheana, Operophtera 
fayata (horeata), 0. brumata, Opon'nia dilntata, Colotoia pennariaj 
PhigaUa pedaria, Cidaria fulvata, EnropJdla badiata, Acidalia 
virgularia {strigaria), Tlieria riipicaprarla, Onrapteryx sambucaria, 
Apocheinia hispidaria, Paendoterpna prninata, Comibaenn pustttlatay 
and Hydriomena furcata (dntata). Also Coleophora genutae on 
Genista anglica. 

Mr. Step reported that a Myriapod, the Bristly Millipede, Polyxenus 
lagurns, was turned out of decayed wood in a dead tree-stump, and 
thought on a casual inspection to be a species of Woodlouse. It re- 
sembles greatly one of the Isopod Crustaceans, the eleven body-seg- 
ments being broad and furnished at their sides with tufts of scale-like 
hairs. Each segment is also fringed across the back with similar 
but shorter hairs. A longer tuft spreads on each side, flanking 
the two shining plates that constitute the tail ; and above and be- 
tween these plates is a spreading plume of long hairs. The animal 
has thirteen pairs of legs, but is not very active. It is yellowish- 
grey in colour, spotted with brown. 

[See "Proc. S. Lond. Ent. S., etc.," 1902, 1904, 1910.] 



MAY 26th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. T. H. Brocklesby, Long Lodge, Merton Park, S.W.19, was 
elected a member. 

Mr. Blair exhibited larvae of Pachygastria trifolii, from the 
Scilly Islands, where a more or less isolated colony exists on the 
extreme western boundary of the distribution of the species. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited the living larvae of Grannnesia trigraui- 
mica {trilinea), Nudaria senex and Odezia atrata ; with that of a 
sawfly, Brachiiea rufescens. 

Mr. Farmer exhibited the larvae of Boarmia rhotnboidaria [gem- 
maria)y Theria rupicapraria^ and Acidalia virgularia {strigaria), 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited an example of the New Zealand geometer, 
Declana atronivea from Wellington : a beautiful, stoutly built, black 
and white species, whose larva feeds on Panax arboreum, its only 
foodplant, and known as Five-fingers. 



80 

MAY 28th, 1927. 

Field Meeting. — Byflket. 

Co«(///rfor— Stanley Edwards, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

This was another successful meeting, not only was there a large 
number of species of Lepidoptera reported, but a number of records 
were sent in of other orders. In the lepidoptera the imagines taken 
were Pieris hrassicae, P. rapae, Gonepteryx rhamni, Polyowmatus 
icarus, Dipterygia scahrinscnla, Hadena genistae, Phytometra viridaria, 
Acronicta nieyacep/iala, Boarmia panctinalis {consortarid) a melanic 
form, Ectropis pnnctulatay Lithina chloroaata [petrariajf Ochyria desig- 
nata, EpirrJioe alteniata (sociata), Xanthorhoe viontmiata, Cabera exan- 
themata, C. piisaria, Ematarya atomaria, Pseudoterpna macnlariaj 
Perizonia albidata, Euchoeca nebidata [obliterata) and Cosynibia porata. 
Ova of Gonepteryx rhavini, Ei(chloe cardamines, Thyatira batis and 
Pterostoma palpina were found. 

Larvae of the following were reported, Cosmotriche potatoriay 
Malacosotna iienstria, Porthesia shniliSj Dyschoriata fissipiincta, 
AmatJies lota, Taeniocampa munda, T. popideti, Cleoceris viimnalis, 
Hylopliora quercana, Gonoptera libatrix, Oporinia dihitata, Crocallis 
elinguaria, Colotois petuiaria, Erannis anrantiaria, E. defoliaria and 
P hi g alia pedaria. 

In Coleoptera, Donacia versicolorea, D. simplex^ Zeugophora sub- 
spinosa (on aspen). 

In Hymenoptera, Crabro cephalutea (cocoons in rotten willow), 
Poecilosouia Inteolum, BUnnocantpa tenidcornis, Monophadnus genicu- 
latiis and Pachyneumtus apicalis. 

In Diptera, Pacyrrhina crocata, Beris chalybeata, Dioctria atrica- 
pilla, Scatophaga maculipes and numerous others. 

In Trichoptera, Molamia angustata, JMystacides nigra^ Leptocerns 
aterrimus and GlypJiotaelius pellucidns. 

In Neuroptera, Chrysopa perla, C. vittata and Henierobius lutescens. 

In Odonata, Brachytrun pratense, Calopteryx splendens, Ischnura 
elegans and i\ nife^cens and Platycnemis pemiipes (a new locality). 

[See"Proc. S.L.E. & N.H.S.," 1901, 1902, 1904, 1907, 1908, 
1912, 1914, 1920, 1925.] 

JUlSlE 9th, 1927. 
Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited stereoscopic slides of the wild-laid ova of 
Dasycliira pudibtiuda, Pygaera curtula and Selenia bilunaria. 



81 

On behalf of Mrs. Brooks, Mr. Dennis exhibited a very large 
fasciated plant of the Meadow Buttercup, Ranunculus acris ; the 
compound stems were over an inch in breadth, and the fruit 
heads were also fasciated. 

Mr. F. B. Carr exhibited the ova of Stauropus fagi, and remarked 
on the comparatively large size of the ovum in this species. 

Mr. A. de B. Goodman exhibited series of Triphaena pronuha^ 
T. orbona, Huf. {subsequa^ Hb.) and T. interjecta, showing similar 
lines of variation from light forms to dark ; also light and dark 
forms of T. litnbria and dark forms of T. jantldna, one specimen of 
the last being of reddish coloration. 

He also showed MeUtaea aurinia, from various localities on the 
continent to show the geographical variation, including the numer- 
ous forms of the small alpine races of merope^ the proviiicialis form 
from S. France, race iberica from Spain and the aniasina race from 
Amasia. 

Mr. Mera exhibited his series of British M. aurinia and of 2\ 
pronuba, selected from the results of many years breeding and 
collecting. 

Mr. Goodman reported that he had seen Pyrameis atalanta, AyiQg 
in bis garden at Horley, on June 9th. It was apparently a very 
fresh example. He also reported that in his aviary he had obtained 
a hybrid between the sparrows Passer mnntanus ^ and Passer 
douiesticus $ 

Mrs. Olive Grey exhibited a number of Australian Cicads, and 
contributed the following notes : — 

The native name for the Cicadas in Australia is "Loki," and 
locally the various species receive a characteristic name. 

The " Greengrocer " varies from pea-green, emerald, and darker 
greens to yellow and buff shades and light brown ; these last are 
also called " Yellow Monday." The " Whiskey Drinker," so called 
from his red nose, varies in size and colour from jet black to a small 
grey fellow. Their song is deeper than that of the " Greengrocer." 
The " Union Jack " is a double-drummer, but, owing to the fact 
that he prefers the trunks of very lofty trees like the " Black-Butt," 
he is very difficult to get, and is also more active than the others. 
He is the largest of the Cicadas, and his wings are set more like 
those of a fly. 

The Cicadas start their song on an instant and stop just as 
abruptly as if on a given signal. There are dozens of other colours 
and sizes from the " Union Jack " down to one the size of a 



82 

"March Fly," but they all belong to one or other of these 
varieties. 

Mr. Step exhibited the tubular web of the so-called British Trap- 
door Spider (Atypus affi,nis), from Guestling Wood, Sussex, where 
he had found it present in numbers. It was a medium-sized ex- 
ample, six and a half inches in length, of which the lower two- 
thirds had been buried in the sandy bank. This portion has a 
diameter of half an inch ; the exposed upper part being a third less 
in width. It was untenanted. 

He also exhibited the longicorn beetle, Macrotoma crenata, from 
Calcutta. 

A long discussion took place on the partial disappearance of 
various species of Lepidoptera in Britain within recent years. Natural 
causes, vicissitudes of climate, abundance of bird-life, prevalence of 
parasites, unusually mild and damp winters, and the encroachments 
of intensive cultivation with the spread of population, were put for- 
ward as causes. It was recognised that it was only with the 
utmost difficulty that a species could be planted in a new area, or 
even restablished in an old one ; and some considered that all efforts 
at " protection " would be more or less futile. 
Mr. E. Step then read the following Report. 

South-Eastern Union of Scientific Societies. — Congress at 

Hastings. 

As your junior delegate, it is my duty to give you a brief account 
of the proceedings at the Congress, which was held in the ancient 
town of Hastings and its western extension, St. Leonards, from May 
25th to May 28th. 

The early arrivals on the first day (Wednesday) made a tour of the 
Old Town and its venerable churches ; but I was content to join them 
later in the ruins of the castle, where tea was served, and the Rev. 
C. C. Dobson gave a summary of the Castle's varied history. At the 
same time, Mr. Lewis Abbott, in his shop at St. Leonards, was giving 
an account of recent geological research and discoveries in the district, 
in which for many years he has played an important part. In the 
evening, we were welcomed to the town by the Mayor (Councillor T. 
S. Dymond, an old Essex Field Club member) and representatives 
of the Hastings Natural History Society. Dr. A. B. Rendle was 
inducted as President, and delivered an address on " The Flora of 
Sussex, Past and Present." 



83 

. At 9 on Thursday morning the delegates met for business, which 
included the consideration and acceptance of an invitation from 
Rochester to hold the Congress there in 1928. Sir Martin Conway 
was chosen as the President-elect. Later, the Botanical Section 
transacted its business, and then listened to addresses by Dr. E. J. 
Salisbury on " The Waning Flora of England," and by Councillor 
Dymond on *' The weeds of a St. Leonards Garden " — his own. 

After lunch, there was an excursion of archaeological and geological 
interest to Winchelsea and Rye, and another for botanical purposes to 
Pevensey Marshes. In the evening, the Mayor and Mayoress held a 
reception in the fine, new White Rock Pavilion, which was a very 
enjoyable function, as it enabled representatives to renew ancient 
acquaintances. 

On Friday morning, both Zoological and Geological Sections had 
their innings ; but, as it was difficult to be in two places simulta- 
neously, I naturally selected the zoological, of which Mr. Turner is 
Secretary. Here we listened to a succession of three admirable 
addresses : by Prof. MacBride on " The Nature and Origin of 
Mutations ; " by Mr. W. H. Thorpe on " The Fauna of Brackish 
Pools on the Sussex Coast," and by Prof. Lloyd Morgan on " Territory 
in Bird-life," founded on the theory of Mr. Elliot Howard, with 
extensions and interpretations of his own. 

The geologists, at the same time, were listening to addresses on 
the Submarine Geology of the English Channel by Mr. H. B. Milner, 
and on '' Fossil Vertebrates from the Weald " by Dr. W. F. 
Whittard. 

There were three excursions in the afternoon, but the day was our 
only wet one ; and having got pretty damp in the morning I thought 
it inadvisable to occupy the seat I booked for Cliff End and Fairlight. 
Mr. and Mrs. Turner, being more resolute, went and were rewarded 
by a much finer afternoon than the portents indicated. In the 
evening, the Union Secretary, Mr. E. A. Martin, gave a lantern lecture 
on " The Amenities of the South Downs." 

On Saturday morning, we had a clear-up business-meeting, and 
expressed our thanks to all concerned for a most enjoyable and 
successful Congress ; and later, the Regional Survey Section listened 
to addresses by Prof. Patrick Geddes on " The Movement towards 
Synthetic Studies," and by Councillor Morgan on " The Town-plan- 
ning of Hastings m the Future." I attended a cinematograph lecture 
to children, by Dr- Clarence Tierney on *' Some Secrets of Nature." 



84 

In the afternoon, Mr. E. J. Bedford gave a lecture to the youngsters 
on " Wild-flowers." 

There was a final charabanc excursion over a considerable slice of 
Sussex, including the Rother Valley ; but I had a greater desire to 
use my feet, and in company with Mr. Stanley Austin, the President 
of the London Natural History Society, I walked over the Fire-hills to 
Pett and Guestling, where we paid a respectful visit to the tomb of 
our old friend, the Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, the former rector. 

JUNE 11th, 1927, 

Field Meeting — Whitb Hill, Miokleham. 

Conductor — E. Step, F.L.S. 

This was another very fine day and a number of members were 
present, but owing to the extent of the areas visited the party was 
never collected together and even tea, usually a reunion, was not so 
on this occasion. 

The following records were sent in — 

In Lepidoptera, Laverna (Mowpha) raschkiella (mines in the 
leaves of Epilohium anguttifolia), a local species. 

In Coleoptera, Thsctura cuspidata, Phloeocharis suhtilitsima^ Stenus 
solutus, Pria dulcamarae^ Clems forwicarius, Lema cyanella, Psylliodes 
dulcamarae, P. affinis, Epiihrix atropae, Longitarsxis exoUtut, Mor- 
dellistena ne\iwaldeggiana {hrunnea) and Xyloterus {Trypodsndron) 
domesticus. 

In Hymenoptera, Cephus pygmaeiis, a corn sawfly, beside the R. 
Mole and an Ichneumon, Collyria calcitrator, parasitic upon it ; a 
Braconid, Colastes braconius, reared from blotches of Laverna 
raschkiella. 

In Trichoptera, Hydropsyche angi(stipenni$. Near the R. Mole. 

In Neuroptera, Sisy7'a fuscata. Near the R. Mole. 

In Ephemera, H abrophlebia fusca, Ephemerella ignita and Baetix 
rhodani. All near the R. Mole. 

[See " Proc. S. Lond. Ent. and N.H,S." 1901.] 

JUNE 23rd, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited numerous items obtained on his 
holiday in Spain near Barcelona, including the nymph of the 



85 

m.&ntid, Empusapauperata] antlions; the Scorpion, Buthusoccitanus ; 
Clotho durandi and other spiders ; the larva of a large glowworm ; 
several other species of Coleoptera, including Scarites gigci» 
(buparius), Scarabaeus laticollis, S. semipunctatus, and species of 
Blaps. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited a series of Acidalia immorata, reared 
from the larvae of which he exhibited examples on April 26th, 
together with some of the cocoons from which they had emerged. 
He said that of twenty-four larvae that reached maturity three 
only spun their cocoons among heather ; one in a withered dande- 
lion leaf on the surface of the moss with which the bottom of the 
cage was lined, and the remaining twenty just beneath the surface 
of the moss and usually against the side of the cage. This, he 
thought, suggested that under natural conditions the species 
probably pupated among the rubbish, moss, etc., collected around 
the roots of the heather. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited a series of bred Spilosoma urticae from 
Pevensey, of the same "one-spotted" form as those bred by Mr. 
Adkin and Mr. Rayward from the same locality. 

On behalf of Mr. Sharp of Eastbourne he exhibited pupae of Leu- 
cania straminea, in a very useful device used by him for the pupa- 
tion of this species : a piece of corrugated wrapping paper, the folds 
of which the larvae readily occupied when about to change. No 
superposition of individuals was possible. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner on behalf of Capt. K. J. Hayward exhibited 
the nesfc of a Weaver-bird (species not definitely indentified), from 
the Argentine Chaco forests, in the neighbourhood of the rivers 
Pindo and Paranamini. This bird uses only horsehair for its 
building, and every hair is black. The natives call the bird the 
" Boyero " or " oxherd " ; but this name is also applied to other 
species, the local bird and insect names being very loosely used. 
Taken in the spring (October) of 1926. 

Dr. Bull exhibited the larvae of Tkera obeliscata. Some of the 
specimens were so parasitised as to be only skins full of the grubs, or 
of the pupae, of the parasite. He also showed a suffused Brenthh 
euphrosyne, Alncita galactodaciyla, and examples of an early form of 
Zyyaena filipendulae to which the name of hippocrepidis had been 
attached by many writers. 

Mr. A. W. Dennis exhibited photographs of the adder's-tongue 
fern [Ophioglossuni vulyatutn) with the fructification in two spikes, 
which were coiled spirally ; from Loughton, Epping Forest. Mr. 



86 

Step remarked on the exhibit, and said that such forked and twisted 
specimens were rarely met with ; though Sowerby says the barren 
frond is often forked at its extremity, and that the fertile spike may 
be duplicated or even triplicated. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins reported that he had been in Devon during 
early June, and had noted Z. filipendulae as being quite common 
in certain dry fields. In the discussion that followed Mr. Adkin 
stated that the species occurred at Eynsford in June in quite a dry 
locality. 



JUNE 26th, 1927. 

Field Meeting — Princes Risborough. 

Conductor — Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

This was a very wet and unfavourable day. A few lepidoptera 
were noted with larvae of Gonepteryx rhanmi, Aglais urticae, and 
imagines of Polyommatus icai'us, Epinephele jurtina, Coenonyntpha 
pamphihis and Plebevis medon (agestis). A large number of cocoons 
of a Zygaena were collected and several members subsequently 
bred a series of a local form of Z. lonicerae much resembling Z» 
trifolii in size and facies. 
[See "Proc, etc." 1923.] 



JULY 14th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

It was announced that the daughter of the late Mr. Enefer, a 
member, had presented to the Library of the Society a large number 
of books on Natural History subjects. A special vote of thanks 
was passed. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited the nest of a small spider from East- 
bourne, spun on a current year's leaf of dewberry, together with 
the wingless hymenopterous parasites which had been bred from it. 
It was stated that probably the parasite was a species of 
Pezomachus. 

Mr. Step said that a species of Pezomachus^ very similar to that 
exhibited, had been bred from the egg-capsules of a spider (Zelotes) 
attached to the undersides of blocks of chalk. (See Proc. S.L.E. S 
N.H.S. 1926-7, p. 113.) 



87 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited a small sprig of honeysuckle, which 
had an empty pupa-skin and living pupa of Limeniiu sihilla attached 
to it. These were found by Mr. Rayward on the previous afternoon 
in Abbot's Wood, where the species had become increasingly 
common during the past few years. In was, he said, very unusual 
for two larvae to pupate so close together. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited: — 

]. Three distinct forms of Ematnrga atomaria, from Surrey and 
Essex ; 2. An asymmetrically marked <? of Aspitates ochrearia 
from the Isle of Wight ; 3. Angerona prunaria : $ parent from 
Chattenden Woods and 2 ^ ^ ab. corylaria, bred in June and 
July, 1927, from eggs laid ; 4. A pale teratological specimen of 
H ipocrita jacobaeae, of which the forewings and body were pale 
grey, and the anal angle of the left hindwing was excised. From Box 
Hill. 5. A teratological example of Acronicta aceiis, bred in June 
last from an Isle of Wight larva, with a transparent patch in the 
central area of the left forewing below the stigmata. No scales 
were developed. 6. Living larvae of Palimpsestis ocularis [octoge- 
sivia) and of Hamearis lucina. 

Mr. Main exhibited a device he was using to induce the South of 
France spider, Clotho durandi, to spin its web. In the wild, the 
spider spins under overhanging stones ; and he had made a card- 
board "cornice," in an angle of which the spider had made its 
cocoon. 

Mr. Worsley-Wood exhibited a very long series of Perizoma 
taeniata showing the two main forms : the banded ab. latefasciata, 
and the mottled ab. angHstifasciata, with one example in which most 
of the markings were largely suppressed. 

Dr. Fremlin exhibited a number of extreme aberrations of Aglais 
urticae, bred by him some years ago and previously exhibited by him. 
He wished to express the opinion that these forms were possibly 
due to premature development and consequent emergence resulting 
in poorly developed wings ; suffused dull, unicolorous brown, instead 
of bright yellow, warm red and blue ; absence of down on thorax 
and inner wing-margins ; early death, which occurred within a 
day or two of emergence. 

He wished to know if insect colours were developed from dull 
and unicolorous tints to bright and varied ones ? 

Mr. Sims exhibited a Hymenopteron embedded in a piece of 
Kauri gum from New Zealand. The insect was beautifully pre- 
served. 



88 

Mr. Carr exhibited the pupa of Gonepteryx rhanmi from a larva 
taken during the field meeting at Mickleham. He stated that the 
^ larva was green and the 2 larva white. 



JULY 24th, 1927. 

Field Meeting — Blackheath, nr. Guildford. 

Conductor— 0. R. Goodman, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

In spite of dull and showery weather ten members attended 
this whole day meeting, the party separated at the Heath and 
followed their respective pursuits. 

The coleopterists found much to interest them amongst the 
rotting silver birch trees which are abundant over the Heath. The 
following species were reported : Amara spreta, Nitidula 4-pitstulataf 
N. ru/ipea on an old bone, Necrophonis ruspator, Hister snccicola^ 
Cercyon lateralis and Meyarthrns depresses in a rotten Polyporns, 
Elater halteatus and Orc/tesia undidata in birch stumps larvae and 
imago, Aiioinala aenea the green form, CUonns nehidosns and 
Criocephaliis ferns. 

In Hymenoptera Aculeata, Myrniosa melanocephala , Psaunnochares 
pln))ibei(s and Crabro iresniaeli. 

In Hymenoptera Phytophaga, Phyllototna nemorata. 

In Diptera, Sicus ferrnyineus. 

In Neuroptera, Raphidia notata (/) larva. 

In Orthoptera, Go\nphocerus macidatns. 

In Psocoptera, Amphiyerontia bifasciata and Mesopsocus luiipunc^ 
tatiis. 

Several nightjars (Caprimnlytis europaens), were distributed 
amongst the heather, and an example of the common lizard {Lacerta 
vivipara) was procured. 

During the bright intervals butterflies were in evidence on the 
outskirts of the wood on the south side of the Heath. 

One Liwenitis sibilla, the worse for wear, was seen, and two 
specimens of Aphantopus Jiyperantus var. arete taken. 

Tea was served at the " Volunteer Arms " in the middle of the 
Heath and was certainly appreciated ; and in spite of the generally 
inclement weather the meeting was much enjoyed. 



89 

JULY 28th, 1927. 

The President in the Chair. 

The President exhibited a species of PezomacIiKs (Hymenoptera) 
taken on a wall at Erith, but not the same species as that exhibited 
at the last meeting. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited ova of Apamea ophiogrannna and a photo- 
graph of the parent at rest, pointing out the curious facial resem- 
blance of the pattern on the wings in that position ; Dipterygia 
scab rinse tf la {pinastri) at rest and explained why the insect is called 
the "bird's wing" from the pattern of the marking ; and a living 
Pyropteron chrysidiforniis, bred from a larva taken in Folkestone 
Warren. 

Mr. Farmer, on behalf of a lady visitor, exhibited a large number 
of insects of all orders collected in East Africa, including Papilio 
nireus form lyyaeiis, Hypolunnas misippiiSj 2 species of Teracolus, 8 
species of Pieris, Eronia cleodora, Catopsilia fiorella, etc., in the 
Lepidoptera. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited theHymenopteron, Amuiophila sabidosa, 
in order to illustrate the folding of the long abdomen in the cocoon ; 
also the egg of the same species attached to the larva of Lithuia 
chlorosata [Panagra petratia). The Aminophila was observed digging 
its burrow on July 13th, 1927, and on the evening of the 26th of 
the same month, the larva resulting from its Qgg had finished 
feeding and was spinning its cocoon. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited the dolichopid dipteron, Camp- 
dcnemus viagiiis, Lw., a (^ , with extraordinarily formed front feet. 
It was taken near Abbey Wood on July 19th, 1927. 

The President exhibited the larvae of Kupit/tecia plnmbeolataj 
feeding on cow- wheat {Melampynim). 

Mr. Kobert Adkin exhibited pupae of Callophrys rnbi in situ. He 
said that from eggs found by Mr. A. L. Ray ward, on Genista tinctoria^ 
he had reared four larvae to maturity on that plant. When appar- 
ently full-fed they were supplied with moss, just under the surface 
of which they pupated. Although, in the case of two of them, he 
had been able to remove the overlying portion of the moss without 
disturbing the pupae, he had failed to find any semblance of cocoons, 
or indeed any trace of silken threads. This did not, however, pre- 
clude the possibility that the larva may draw the moss together by 
a few strands of silk and that these may have been destroyed in 
parting the moss. 



90 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited a short series of an early- appearing 
form of a sixspotted burnet from Sidmouth, taken in the third 
week in June. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a specimen of the burying beetle, Necro- 
phorus huniatoiy bred from ova deposited in May last, with very 
small larvae of the same species from North Spain. 

Mr. Step exhibited living examples of early stages in the develop- 
ment of the Bracken [Pteru aquilina). He said that early in the 
present year he had the curiosity to examine a small flower-pot that had 
passed the winter out of doors, and whose soil appeared to be coated 
with a dense growth of one of the smaller Liverworts. A closer 
inspection revealed that these were really a congested company of the 
prothalli of some fern. From the proximity of the pot to a very fine 
Male-fern, it was at first assumed that the prothalli were of that 
species. Later development showed that they were those of Ptern 
aquilina, with the exception of one in the centre, which proved to be 
Pterin serriilata, a greenhouse fern. There were no mature plants of 
Bracken in the garden or the immediate vicinity ; it is probable that 
a small cloud of spores blown down from Wimbledon Common, only 
a mile away, left a number sufficient to coat the soil of this small 
pot. Here they germinated and gave rise to the very crowded 
growth of prothalli that attracted attention. 

It was soon evident that, on the under-surface, the sexual organs — 
the antheridia and archegonia — had been produced, and that in many 
cases fertilisation had been successful : for the clubbed heads of the 
unexpanded first fronds began to push up between the overlapping 
prothalli. A striking fact is shown by the exhibit : that there is 
considerable variation in the rate of development of the young plants, 
for this small community, agreeing in age, represents several stages 
of growth. Here you may see the first minute leaf unrolling to an 
oval shape that tapers downwards to the leaf-stalk ; the second leaf 
shows a tendency to lobing, and later, larger leaves are progressively 
more distinctly lobed and then broken into trefoils. One vigorous 
plant has so far out-distanced the others that, whilst some of these 
are only now putting up their first leaves, it has already so far 
developed several that they show the characters of the mature plant. 

There are several points here that are worthy of notice : the very 
young plant begins to produce its leaves in a circular tuft like most 
of our Ferns ; and each leaf at first has its lobes or leaflets rolled 
into a ball. If you will look into the circlet of leaves in this more 
precocious example, you will see that already the rootstock of the plant 



91 

is elongating, and that it has two growing points, advancing in contrary 
directions. Before late autumn these will have turned downwards, 
so that further growth may proceed underground, where we always 
find the rootstock of the adult Bracken. Next year, the new leaves 
will have to push up though the soil, and to meet this opposition 
the divided leaflets will not be rolled into a ball, but will be folded 
into a more slender hook-shape that can pierce the earth more easily. 
It will no longer arrange its leaves in a tuft, but in a line with 
considerable intervals between them. Its underground habit is 
necessitated by its tenderness. Bracken, which the layman regards 
as the hardiest and coarsest of our Ferns, is more liable than any 
other native species to have its vegetation destroyed by late spring 
frosts. 

Later, the two branches of the rootstock become long and stout, 
and fork repeatedly. Prof. F. 0. Bower, one of our great authorities 
on the Ferns, is of opinion that the special efficiency of the Bracken 
in covering great tracts of land is due largely to its underground 
habit, and that it relies more upon this vegetative method of increase 
than upon reproduction by spores and sexuality. In his absorbing 
little book, Plant Life on Land, he states that many an observant 
botanist has never seen what I am showing you this evening : and 
continues *' we can only conclude that in Nature the completion of 
the life-story by sexuality is a comparatively rare event." 

That has always struck me as rather an extraordinary statement ; 
for during at least fifty years I have always had good reason for 
regarding spore-produced plants as sufficiently plentiful to attract 
attention, even in situations where there could be no possibility of 
their becomming adult — such as about damp walls and the brick- 
work of railway stations where I have had occasion to wait for trains. 
On the sides of hollows on our heaths and commons and the trenches 
cut for surface drainage, I have been able, usually, to find it when I 
wanted specimens. 

[It was discovered, later, that one of the same batch of spores had 
settled and developed in the jointing of the bath-room outflow 
pipe !] 

Mr. Goodman exhibited the black-bellied tarantula spider from 
St. Baume, S. France, which his son obtained by introducing long 
straws into the deep burrows. He also showed the balls of ova 
made by the spider. 

A paper communicated by Captain K. J. Hayward, entitled " A 



92 

short Account of the Argentine Chaco," was read by the Secretary. 
(See p. 18.) 

In the discussion which ensued it was noted that sugaring at low 
elevations in the tropics was practically impossible on account of 
the ants. 



AUGUST 11th, 1927. 
Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The death of Mr. G. C. Champion, A.L.S., F.E.S., one of the 
orginal members of the Society, and for many years Hon. Librarian 
of the Entomological Society of London, was reported. 

Mr. A. de B. Goodman exhibited a series of drawings showing the 
life-history of the S. of France spider, Lycosa iiarboneiisis. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited a small collection of butterflies made at 
Rueglio in N. Italy, including an unusually large and finely marked 
Lycaena avion, the form cleodoxa of Argynnis adippe, an ab. fracta 
of Fyrameis atalanta, summer forms of Pieris napi, etc. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited and explained some further new adjust- 
ments and adaptions in his subterraria for observing the transform- 
ation of those insect?, whose life is spent largely below the surface 
of the earth. 

Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor exhibited larvae of a Zygaenid from 
Blanco, near Barcelona. These hatched on June 27th, from ova 
laid by a female sent to him by Mr. Hugh Main. There were 78 
larvae, and of these 58 have rapidly fed up, while the remainder 
have started for hibernation in the normal fashion. 

He also showed the larva of Amata [Syntomis) phegea, and called 
attention to the Arctiid characters exhibited. 

Mr. Carr exhibited larvae of Xanthorho'e montanata feeding on 
willow-herb. 

Mr. J. H. Adkin exhibited sprays of sweet peas, one consisting of 
eight flowers. The stem was fasciated. In the short discussion 
that took place, Mr. Step suggested an attempt to grow the aber- 
ration from seed. Mr. Grosvenor said that in his experience 
blooms so produced fell off without setting seed ; but that the 
blooms below the fasciation produced pods and ripened seeds. 



93 

AUGUST 25th, 1927. 
Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Sperring exhibited two very fine aberrations of Polyommatns 
icarus from Londonderry : one an obsoleta form, and the other a 
beautiful striata. 

Mr. H. J. Turner exhibited a long series of a Zygaenid,.bred from 
pupae taken at Prince's Risborough during the Field Meeting in 
June. They were said to be Z. lonicerae, of a race peculiar to the 
Chiltern Hills, but in size and facies more resembled Z. trifolii. 
The Chairman said that he had attempted to induce pairing between 
this race and both lonicerae and trifolii. This took place freely 
with the former, but not at all with the latter. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited a parasitic larva found in an entirely 
cleaned out pupa of Catncala mipta at Upper Tooting. 

Mr. H. Moore reported that a visit to Royston on August 14th, 
produced but very few Polyo)iniiati(s coridon. Polyommatns icarus 
also was extremely rare ; a collector on the ground was reported 
to have obtained a form striated on all four wings. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited developing catkins on a apray of sallow. 
Mr. Step thought this was probably due to the influence of the 
wet season. 

Mr. H. Main exhibited Scarites cfigas (buparius), a large Carabid 
beetle, from Barcelona ; and remarked on its apparent timidity. When 
picked up and placed on its back, it would often remain a long time in 
that position without moving even in the close proximity of food. He 
read a long extract from Fabre on this shamming of death. 

Mr. Step exhibited the Orchid, Spiranthes spiralis, from the North 
Downs where he had found it in some numbers, though incon- 
spicuous among low vegetation. The new growth, a rosette, of 
leaves took place a little later. There were frequently three tubers 
to a plant, last year's old one, the present year's and next year's. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited the gall of Cystiphora [Cecidomyia) sonchi : 
said to be somewhat rare, and confined to the S. of England. The 
plant (Sow-thistle) was found with several others similarly affected 
in a bean-field at Colne, in Essex. 

Mr. Ashby exhibited the curious dipteron from the New Forest, 
which from its remarkable resemblance to a plant-bug, was named 
Alophora hemiptera. 



94 

SEPTEMBER 3rd, 1927. 
Field Meeting — Ranmore Common. 
Conductor — C. N. Hawkins, F.E.S. 

This was a whole-day meeting, members leaving Waterloo for Box 
Hill station by the 10-25 a.m., train, intended mainly for larva-beat- 
ing. Besides myself, the following 15 members of the Society attended: 
— Messrs. Ashby, Brocklesby, Candler, Carr, Cheeseman, Edwards, 
Jarvis, Macdonald, Moore, Murray, Nixon, Step, Vredenberg and 
Worsley-Wood : also one visitor Mr. J. J. F. X. King of Glasgow. 
Of Lepidoptera larvae proved to be fairly plentiful and amongst 
others the following were taken or noted : — Stauropus fagi^ Lophop- 
teryx camelina, Demas coryli, Craniophora [Acronicta) ligiistri, lodis 
lactearittj Cosytnbia linearia, Kuphyia corylata^ Eupithecia centatireata 
[oblongata), El. tripunctaria {albipnnctata)^ E. absinthiata, E. 
trisiynaria, Anayoga pulveraria, Gonodontis bident.ata^ Plagodis 
dolabt aria and Sarrothripiis revayana. 

The weather was dull and cloudy with very rare gleams of sun- 
shine, but in spite of this, Polyotnmatus thetis (bellargus), on its 
special ground, was reported by those who looked for it, as being 
fairly plentiful, and in addition, the following imagines were seen or 
taken : — Colias crocexs (one only), Pieris napi, Hipparchia semele, 
Pararge uiegera, Coenonympha pamphilits^ Rnmicia [Chrysophanus) 
phlaeas, Plebeius (Aricia) )nedon, P. (Agriades) coridon^ P. icarus 
and, amongst a few other Heterocera, Sarrothripus revayana [c.f. 
list of larvae). 

Mr. Jarvis reported the following Coleoptera : — Aphodtus subter- 
raneus, A. finietarius, A. foetens, A. contaminatus, Onthophagus 
ovatuSy Dromius 4-maculatus and Calathus cisteloides. 

Mr. Nixon reported the Hymenoptera, Mellijim arvensis and 
Bontbiis helferanus and the Dipteron Asilus crabroniformis. 

Messrs. Step and Edwards gave the annexed list of Fungi dis- 
covered during the day : — Amanita rubescens^ A. pantherina^ Lepiota 
cristata, Arm.illaria muciday Tricholoma terreum, T. sordidum, Clito- 
cybe phyllu})hila, Collybia radicata, 0. maculata, Hygrop)horus cossus, 
H. piiniceiis, Lactarius qtdetus, Russula emetica, B. fellea, R. hetero- 
phylla, Cantharellns cibarins, Panus stypticns, Psalliota campestris, 
Polystictns versicolor, Clavaria crispida, C. formosa, C. pistillaris, 
Scleroderma vidgare, Coprinns micacens, Boletus scaber. 

The meeting closed with a very well set out and much appreciated 



95 

tea at the Railway Arms, near Boxhill Station, at which 13 mem- 
bers of the party were present, the other 3 having returned home 
earlier. It was decided to catch the 7.19 train to London, and on 
the way to the station considerable interest was aroused by enor- 
mous numbers of starlings congregated in the trees near by. Many 
of these subsequently passed over the station in great flocks, pre- 
sumably on their way to the fields for their evening meal. 

[See "Proc. S.L.E. and N.H.S." 1902, 1906, 1914, 1922, 1923, 
1926.] 



SEPTEMBER 8th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. D. S. Palmer, of Kingston-on-Thames, was elected a member. 

The President exhibited Malacosotna castrensis bred from Sussex 
larvae. Most of the larvae he had failed to pupate. Those bred 
belonged to a dark, well-marked form. He showed also a very 
variegated, purplish form of Hadena jmi, and in contrast a female 
of very uniform brown coloration ; very pale and very dark examples 
of Acronicta psi, including one with very decided dark striation of the 
hindwings ; and the larvae of Ptychopoda inornata, from Limpsfield, 
and of Maniestra nana [dentina). 

Mr. 0. R, Goodman exhibited ab. arete of ApJiantopus hyperantus, 
taken during the Field Meeting, at Blackheath, near Guildford. 

Mr. Ashby exhibited a male of the remarkable Chilian lamellicorn 
beetle, Chiasofpiathus granti, from Valdivia. The mandibles are 
developed to a length equal to, or exceeding, that of the entire body. 
These organs, which are of unequal length, have the tips curved, so 
that they cross when closed ; and the inner margins are armed with 
numerous small, sharp spines. The head, coming between these 
" horns " and the broad, triangular thorax, appears to be much 
smaller than it is. The legs are long and slender, the first pair 
longer and stouter than the others and armed with spines. Another 
noticeable feature is the spreading tuft of fine hairs that terminates 
the basal joint of the antenna. As in the case of our Lucanus cerviis, 
the female is without the exaggerated development of the mandibles 
— hers are short and stout — and the antennae lack the hair-tufts ; 
the legs, also, are shorter. 

Mr. Hawkins exhibited numerous larvae, both living and pre- 
served, including those of Orgyia gonostigma, Eupithecia trisignata 



96 

and Cosymbia orhicularia among the latter, and CochlUHon avellana 
[limacodes) and Ectropis extersaria {luridata) among living forms. 
He showed, also, " double " flowers of the sweet-pea. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited the larva of a dipteron, Vermilio sp., 
which makes pits in the sand to capture ants and wandering insects ; 
also a Lampromyia sp. (Diptera) bred from a larva, which made 
pit-traps similar to those of Vermilio. 



SEPTEMBER 22nd, 1927. 
The President in the Chair 

Mr. Barnett exhibited a long series of varied captured examples 
of Spilusoma metithaatri, from Crohamhurst. 

Dr. G. V. Bull exhibited three specimens of Brenthis euphrofiyne^ 
taken in August, presumably 2nd brood ; pink and green coloured 
larvae of Cidaria (Euphyia) corylata, larvae of Acronicta rtonicis, a 
green larva of Biston betnlaria, etc. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne exhibited the following Lepidoptera from 
the Moray coast. Agrotis tritici, a series with ground colour varying 
from dark red- brown to black ; Agrotis cursoria, a variable series 
including ab. caendea and ab. hrunnea ; Agrotis nigricans^ a black 
form; Agrotis vestigialis, A. praecox, and A. lucernea \ Noctua 
depuncta, X. xa)ithographa (melanic), and xY. umbrosa; Leiicania 
pallevs ab. riifa, and L. conigera ; Triphaena suhsequa {orbona), T. 
pronnba, buff, light and darker red, greyish, dark brown and 
mottled forms ; Miatia literosa ; Apaniea secalis ab. secalina, with 
straw coloured, light brown, and light and dark red-brown ground, 
ab. ocidea with straw coloured and red-brown ground, ab. nigra, 
also an aberration with white reniform and a white splash running 
from the reniform to the second line ; Xanthia fulvago ab. flaves- 
cens ; Enargia (Cosmia) paleacea. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited specimens of Carpocapsa pomoneUa, 
bred in July last, from larvae taken in his garden at Eastbourne in 
the previous autumn : and read the following note : — 

If we take up a book on economic entomology, we are likely to 
find statements with regard to this species similar to the following : 
*' The method of infestation is for the moths to come out about 
the time of the opening of the apple-blossoms, and when the petals 
have fallen and the embryo fruit is beginning to form, the females 
lay their eggs," etc. ; or " The moths emerge from the caterpillar 



97 

cocoons at the fall of the blossom, and fly from fruit to fruit, laying 
one egg on each." These quotations, taken from what are generally 
regarded as Standard British works on the subject, seem to imply 
that the fall of the apple blossom and the emergence of the moth 
take place at the same time. This, in my experience is very far 
from the fact. The apple blossoms somewhere about the end of 
April to the middle of May. I have reared C. pomonella many 
times, and the dates of eiuergence have invariably been between 
the 10th and 24th of July ; that is, from six to eight weeks after 
the apple blossom has fallen, and at a time when the apples are 
not only fully formed but have attained considerable growth. 
Again, we are told that the egg is laid in the eye of the apple ; also 
that the larvae feed only on the seeds. Both these statements seem to 
be open to doubt, for there appears to be good reason for believing 
that the moth will lay either on the fruit or elsewhere, even on the 
branches ; and as to feeding only on the seeds, numbers of infested 
apples that I have opened suggest that seeds and flesh are eaten 
indiscriminately. The fact is, our knowledge of the details of the 
life-history of even so common a pest as the codlin moth is very 
incomplete, and tends to confirm what Dr. Morris told us at the 
recent meeting of the British Association, viz., that the great need 
of economic entomology is an accurate knowledge of the life- 
histories of the pests that are to be dealt with. 

Mr. Colthrup exhibited long and varied series of Bryophila petia 
and of B. mnraliH {(jlandifera) with some examples of the Cambridge 
race, ini/iar. Among the B. innralis were two very white specimens 
^ and 2 , for which he proposed the varietal name of (dhida. 
The series was a selection from 20 years' collecting. 

Mr. Step exhibited a young plant of Alder {Ahms i/lntiuosa) with 
the roots freed from soil and in water, to show their investment by 
Mycorr/iiza and the presence of nodules inhabited by nitrifying 
bacteria {Bacillus radicicola). He explained that though most of our 
forest trees are known to have mycorrhiza on their roots, the only 
other of our non-leguminous woody plants to possess bacteria-nodules 
is the Sweet Gale or Bog-myrtle {Myrica gale). In both cases the 
nodules are modified lateral roots. 

Mr. Coulson exhibited a specimen of Philonthus fiuietariiis that 
had an additional tarsus on the left fore-leg. 

Mr. Ad kin read the following report. 



98 

British Association. — Report of the Society's Delegate to the 
Conference of Corresponding Societies. 

The 1927 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science was held in Leeds, from August 31st to September 7th; 
the Conference of Corresponding Societies being fixed for the 
afternoons of September 1st and 6th. I attended the Conference as 
delegate on both occasions and beg to report as follows: — 

At the opening session the President of the Conference, Sir Francis 
Ogilvie, gave an address dealing largely with Regional Surveys, but 
approached his subject from a somewhat different angle from that 
of his predecessors in the chair, who it will be remembered, dealt 
largely with the agricultural side ; while on the present occasion 
wild-life held the chief place. The Local Society he urged should 
undertake such work ; they should deal with some well defined area, 
not necessarily a large one; a river basin ; sometimes, even a single 
field if thoroughly worked might be a useful one. Plotting on a 
large-scale map was a good method of keeping the records, and he 
instanced a case where a well arranged map, hung in an elementary 
school, had been of considerable assistance in getting the attention of 
the scholars, first to local matters with which they were more or 
less familiar, thus rendering them more susceptible to their general 
studies. Often such records are the work of one man who, having 
read or shown them to his society, retains them in his own possession : 
he dies and they are lost : or it may be that he hands them to the 
Secretary, who possibly having no proper means for their preserva- 
tion, they meet with a similar fate. 

He appreciated the difficulty of keeping permanent records, whether 
in the form of reports or of maps, as Local Societies seldom had the 
funds necessary to cope with the present high cost of printing ; the 
manuscripts, however, might be deposited in some local institution, 
or some other adequate means taken for their preservation. 

It was reported : — 

[a) That the Circular sent some five years ago to the whole 

of the Corresponding Societies, some hundred and odd 
in number, calling their attention to the necessity for 
sending delegates to the Conference, had been acted upon 
by only some thirty or forty of such Societies, and that 
the others would therefore automatically cease to be 
regarded as Corresponding Societies of the Association. 

[b] That the Association's application to have cinematograph- 



99 

films of scientific value imported free of duty met with 

no favourable response. 

(c) That the present position of the question of the remission 

of Income Tax on societies' invested funds was that the 

two test cases had been before the Commissioners, whose 

decision was adverse to the societies and that they were 

now being taken to the High Court. 

It was suggested that the agenda of the Conference might be 

circulated to delegates in advance, so that they might have an 

opportunity of consulting their respective societies, and receiving 

their instructions on the various points raised, before attending the 

meetings. It was pointed out that there were several difficulties 

in the way of such an arrangement ; the matter would, however, 

receive the careful attention of the authorities, and, if possible the 

suggestion would be complied with. 

Sir George Fordham in a long and eloquent address, founded 
largely on a series of suggestions made at a meeting of the 
Berkhamstead Citizen Association in connection with the Herts 
Natural History Society, at a Conference held in July 5th, 1927, 
introduced the question of the protection of wild-flowers ; and after 
considerable discussion he proposed resolutions to the following 
effect : 

(a) That the Home Office be approached with a view to ascer- 
taining what bye-laws referring to the protection of 
wild-flowers were at present in existence, and what, if 
any, prosecutions had taken place under them. This 
was carried and will therefore go to the Committee of 
Recommendations for their approval or otherwise. 
(6) That a list of wild-flowers needing protection, with descrip- 
tions that would render them easily recognisable, be 
prepared and circulated to Local Societies, Schools, etc. 
This was hotly debated, and on being put to the vote 
was lost by an overwhelming majority. 
A further resolution : — That it is desirable that education and 
other authorities be approached with a view to calling their attention 
to the damage that is continually, though often thoughtlessly, being 
done to wild-flowers in general, — was carried. 

The second session was occupied chiefly by two papers on Nature 
Reserves. The first by Mr. T. Sheppard, of Hull, dealt with those 
of Yorkshire, which included Spurn Point, Hornsea Mere and 
Flamborough Head ; while Professor Oliver, a member of the 



100 

Committee of the National Trust, referred to those of Norfolk, viz., 
Scolt Head, Blakeney Point and Cley Marshes. Both authors referred 
to the success which had attended these reserves, many species of 
birds which had forsaken them, or had become very scarce before 
they were taken over, had, since they had been properly looked after, 
returned to or improved their status in them ; they also referred to 
the assistance rendered by liberal-minded land-owners in many parts 
of both counties in assisting in the preservation of the local faunas 
and floras. 

Professor Oliver said with regard to Cley Marshes, there were 
certain matters in connection with their acquisition that made it 
difficult for the National Trust to take them over; a Norfolk Trust 
was therefore constituted to acquire and manage them, and he 
thought the time was not far distant when it might be desirable 
that properly constituted County Trusts might be set up to assist 
the National Trust in the management of such Nature Reserves, in 
which the Local Societies might take part. Such Reserves could 
not, however, be left to themselves — they needed careful attention 
and reliable watchers if they were to be of any real value, and their 
proper management must necessarily entail a certain amount of 
expenditure. 

As to the general proceedings of the Association, little need be 
said here. The more important papers read have been so widely 
reported in the Press that most of you will already be familar with 
their contents. The *' Advancement of Science," that I have the 
pleasure to present to you with this report, will enable you to peruse 
the whole of the Presidents' Addresses in detail ; and I hope later on 
to be able to supply you with the " Report," where, no doubt, abstracts 
of the papers read before the various sections will be found. But 
there is just one paper that was read before Section D., the only one 
bearing directly upon entomology, to which I wish to call your 
attention now. I refer to the paper by Dr. J. W. Munro on *' The 
Needs of Economic Entomology." Unfortunately, it was the last 
paper to be read to the Section, and the time-table had so far been 
exceeded that he had barely a quarter of his alloted time in which to 
deliver it. However, this did not prevent him stressing one point, 
namely, to use his own words, " In the solving of many insect 
problems progress depends on a fuller knowledge of insect morphology 
and physiology." It is a lamentable fact that there are points in the 
life-histories of many of our worst insect pests of which we are 
profoundly ignorant, and it is possible that, if such matters were 



101 

fully understood, much simpler and less costly means than those 
now in vogue might be found for combating some of our insect 
enemies. The unravelling of the obscure habits of some of these 
creatures is a most fascinating subject ; it is one in wbich we all can 
help in one way or another ; and I trust that it is not too much 
to hope that some of our younger members, who have their lives 
before them, may be willing to lend a hand. If in doubt as to where 
to make a beginning, I have not the slightest doubt that any of our 
economic entomologists will be only too glad to set them on the 
road. 

It is proposed to hold next year's Meeting of the Association in 
Glasgow under the presidency of Sir William Bragg. — R. Adkin. 



OCTOBER 13th, 1927. 
The Pjresidknt in the Chair. 

Mr. Grosvenor exhibited a series of a Zytjaena, bred from two 
2 s sent to him from near Barcelona by Mr. Main, as a second 
brood. Out of some 70 larvae obtained, 41 emerged as a 2nd brood, 
18 were hibernating normally, 4 were killed and preserved, and 4 
died in the pupal stage. This was most unusual, as normally not 
more than about 1°/q of the larvae can be induced to feed up for 
a second brood. The larvae were very close to those of Z. trifolii 
in habits and in their appearance, but the imagines were a mixture 
of trifolii, stuechadis and lonicerae. Those which were hibernating 
now fed only for about a month. One changed its skin, and after 
feeding for 2 weeks changed its skin again, and then went into 
hibernation. Of this second brood he obtained three pairings, of 
which some commenced to hibernate, while others are continuing to 
feed, preparing for a third brood. 

Mr. Newman exhibited a drawer of Colias croceus [edusa) typifying 
a very large number bred from a spring-caught f. helice, m June 
last. Dr. Cockayne pointed out that the proportion of typical 
individuals to those showing variation was Mendelian ; and that 
f. helice was the Mendelian Dominant. 

Mr. Henderson exhibited an example of the coleopteron, Silpha 
subrotioidata, Steph., from the Isle of Man, in which the antennae 
were shortened, the normally three-jointed club becoming a small 
conical joint. The maxillary palpi were also shortened. 

Mr. Cheeseman exhibited his captures at the Ranmore Common 



102 

Field Meeting on Sept. 8rd, including: Polyowmatus {Agriades) thetiSy 
which was common in its usual haunts. 

Mr. Bunnett exhibited a bred example of Cucxdlia ffnaphalii, and 
the curious cocoons and pupae of Sarrothripus revayana and of 
Hylophila hicolorana. 

Mr. Stanley Blenkarn exhibited a lar^^e example of the common 
snake {Tropidonotna imtrix) from the Isle of Wight. 

Mr. Tonga exhibited a short series of y-ygmia phacorrhoea, from 
Eastbourne, of an unusual form with black spots. 

Mr. E. J. Bedford gave a lecture on " Nature Photography," 
exhibiting a large number of lantern slides, coloured from nature 
by himself. 



OCTOBER 27th, 1927. 
The Annual Exhibition. 

There was no formal business, and as last year the exhibits 
were placed on tables. Although the evening was exceptionally 
wet and stormy, the attendance was a record, nearly 250 mem- 
bers and friends being present, of whom, some 50 brought exhibits. 
Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited representative series of a number of 
mongrel broods, obtained by crossing Diacrisia viendica with its race 
rustica, namely : — 

1. Ri(stica ^ (King's Co.) xniendica $ (Suffolk), emerged 1926. 
The males were in colour more or less intermediate between the two 
races ; their chief feature being a broad, pale streak along the costa 
and a pale line from the base to the middle of the wing. 

2. A second generation of the above, emerged 1927. The males 
showed a strong tendency to segregate out into light and dark forms, 
about one-third being as light as the King's County male, one-third 
as dark as the males of the Suffolk mendica, and the remaining 
third about intermediate between the two. The proportion of sexes 
was almost exactly one male to two females. 

3. A re-cross between a mongrel <? (King's Co. ^ x Suffolk 2 ) 
Xrustica $ (King's Co. J x Cork ?), emerged 1927. The males 
showed practically equal proportions of as light as rustica and 
intermediate, none being so dark as typical mendica. The females 
showed a tendency towards black fringes in several of the specimens, 
probably derived from the original Suffolk stock. 

4. A re-cross between rustica J (Cork) x mongrel $ (Cork ^ , 



103 

Suffolk ? ), emerged 1927. Of the males, about one-third were 
quite as light as the parent rnstica, and two-thirds intermediate ; 
the latter were again divisable into light and dark intermediates in 
equal proportions. The females were chiefly of the lightly-spotted 
Cork form. 

5. A re-cross between rustica J (King's Co. ^ x Cork $ ) X 
mongrel $ (Cork <^ x Suffolk ? ), emerged 1927. The males 
were about half of them as light as rustica, the other half rather 
light-intermediate. The females call for no remark. 

None of the broods were complete, disease having caused 
numerous deaths among the larvae, but in no case did less than 
one hundred imagines emerge. 

Mr. Adkin also exhibited specimens of Aijriades tlietis {hdlarijus)^ 
viz., typical male; "grey" male; "black" male; and typical 
female, together with enlarged photographs of the wing scales. 
The brilliant colour of the male bellaryus wing is probably derived 
from the refraction of light by numerous minute striae on the scale 
surface, not from blue pigment. The photograph showed that in 
the " grey " form the edges of the scales are curled up, thus inter- 
fering with the refraction of the light and giving the wing its grey 
appearance. In the " black " form, the photograph showed the 
scales to be in shape as in the normal male wing, its dark colour 
presumably being due to melanic pigment ; the female scales were 
shown to be of quite a different shape from those of any of the 
males. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited a collection of Diptera he had 
taken in the North Kent District. 

Mr. B. W. Adkin exhibited long varied series of Callimorplia 
quadripinictaria {herd) and of C. dominula^ most of them bred. 

Mr. T. L. Barnett exhibited 75 Kctropis {'rephroaia) crepiiscularia, 
ta,ken in South Croydon in May-June, 1927. One example was 
almost white with light grey markings, and another very dark grey, 
similar to ab. delamerensia. 

Mr. Percy M. Bright exhibited two long series: 1, of Brenthis 
eiiphrosijne showing many extreme aberrations ; 2, of Melanargia 
galathea, including a wholly black aberration and a wholly white 
one. 

]\Ir. A. A. W. Buckstone exhibited two cases, containing a 
number of teratological examples of various species of Lepidoptera. 

Mrs. and Miss Brooke exhibited Swiss wild-flowers of various 
species from the Upper Rhme Valley and its neighbouring moun- 



104 

tains. These were dried in sand in 1908 and 1909, and kept their 
forms and colours until accidentally exposed to damp conditions, 
when the colours of many disappeared and the firmness of their 
shapes subsided. 

Dr. G. V. Bull exhibited several aberrations of Abraxaa grosstt' 
lasiata, bred from wild larvae taken in East Herts and Regent's 
Park. 

Mr. Stanley Blenkarn exhibited three drawers of his collection of 
Coleoptera. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne exhibited two cases containing preserved 
larvae, showing variable forms of each species. 

Mr. H. L. Dolton exhibited 12 specimens of the rare and local 
Coleopteron Phywatndes {CaUidinni) lividus including 3 specimens 
which the late W. E. Butler, F.E.S., exhibited at the Society's 
Rooms on March 10th, 1906. These were afterwards presented to 
the Society's collection. 

Mr. H. M. Edelsten exhibited : — ^ 

1. Various rush and reed stems and photographs to show the 
early stages of some of the British Fen moths. 

2. DiantJioecia luteago and subsp. barrettii arranged to show the 
difference between the two. 

8. Series of the British species of Chilidae, Chilo phragmitellns, 
Srh()e}wbu(s forficellns, S. Dnicronellua, S. (jigantellus, the recent 
addition to the British list, S. dodatellns, and the Crambid Calavio- 
troplia palndella. 

Mr. L. C. Bushby exhibited living specimens of the Giant 
Sc&vites [Searites bi(parit(K = gigas), trom Algeria; Spotted Ground 
Beetle {Authia sexmaciilata), Algeria; Giant Millipedes [Scidopendra 
sp.), Portuguese East Africa; Praying Mantis [M. religiosa), Portu- 
guese East Africa, and from Algeria; Crested Mantis [bUnpnaa 
eqina)y South France; Fat-tailed Scorpion {Andyoctonuns^.), Algeria; 
Locusts {AnacriditiiH aegyptinm)^ South France ; and a Bird-eating 
<5pider {Mijgale), probably West Indian. 

Mr. L. E. Dunster exhibited aberrations, of Kpiuephele jnrtina^ 
upper and underside ; of Plebeius aegon, from Eynsford, varying in 
ground colour of underside and in spotting ; of Rumicia pidaeasy 
with L. forewing approaching ab. schniidtii, Chipstead ; of Plebeius 
medon [astrarche), with cream underside, and hind wings nearly 
obsolete in spotting, Chipstead ; 4 ? Aphantopiifi hgperantus ab. 
arete ; 4 $ yellow forms of Pieris rapae, 1 of spring brood, 3 of 
summer brood. 



105 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner, on behalf of Mr. William Fassnidge, exhibited a 
twig of a willow containing the living larva of Synanthedon iiavivejitris, 
Stdgr., found near Southampton ; and communicated the following 
note from him. " When I found it, the dead portion containing 
the larva was hanging, but still attached. It broke off in my 
pocket. Another exactly similar mine on the same bush broke as 
I tried to cut below it. Note the green leaves on tbe living wood 
and the withered or dead leaves on the dead portion. The height 
of the mine from the ground was about five feet, but this is very 
little to go by, for the height is very variable." He adds : " So 
far, 1 have turned up quite a dozen larvae of fiaviventris, and only 
one larva of the longicorn, Saperda ]>opulnea. I have found a mine 
already pecked out by a bird." 

Miss M. E. Fountaine and Signor C. Neimy exhibited series of 
eight species of the genus Hi/iwlimnas, from Africa, the Philippines 
and the Fiji islands : including H. anomala, H. alimena (from N. 
Queensland), H. viisippus, H. anthedon, H. dinarcha, H. wahlberai, 
H. bolina (from India and Burma, as well as from N. Queensland 
and the before mentioned Islands), H. salmacis. 

Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenorexhibited short series of various species of the 
genus Zyt^nena, arranged to show how the typical forms, and also 
in some cases aberrational forms, tend to form groups with very 
little visible difference between the various species. Also series of 
the same species showing the wide range of variation, both aberra- 
tional and racial, which renders these forms very distinct from the 
typical. It appears that we have here a very plain case of evolution. 
There is a tendency in this group to form these races, which by 
isolation will doubtless, in course of time, become distinct species. 

I'urpmalis Group. — In this group, the variation, both racial and 
aberrational, is limited, the confluent character of the species 
giving little assistance in this direction. Colour varieties occur, 
such as black or yellow forms, but cannot be shown owing to lack 
of material. 

Trifolil Group. — In this group, the variation, both aberrational 
and racial, is excessive, the spotted character of the typical forms 
allowing reduction and enhancement of the spots, in addition to 
the variation in colour. Black and yellow forms recorded. 

Aclulleae Group. — This group, which is a connecting link between 
the 5- and 6-spotted forms, shows a considerable racial and aberra- 
tional variation in the confluence and reduction of spots, also in 
colour. Black and yellow forms have been recorded. 



106 

Carniolica Group. — In this group, variation is more excessive 
than in the foregoing. The crescent spot, outlining of spots with 
white, and presence or absence of red belt, add three more factors 
for the possibility of variation. Colour variation as before, but 
with the addition that nearly white forms occur. Adequate material 
to show this excessive variation is difficult to obtain, as the majority 
of the species and races live in countries, such as Asia Minor and 
Russian Turkestan, difficult of access to entomologists from Western 
Europe. 

Mr. Grosvenor also exhibited a series of Zi/i/aena lonicerae (?), of the 
2nd brood, bred August-September, 1927, «6 otv>, from females taken 
at Blances, nr. Barcelona, by Mr. Hugh Main, F.E.S., in June, 1927. 

The following are the figures for this most abnormal race : — 
Larvae living (72), ex two females ; the large majority died en 
route. 
Imagines bred : — Males 19, Females 22 Total 41 

Larvae hibernating normally ... ... ... 18 

Larvae killed and preserved (2 full-fed, 2 hibernating) 4 
2 imagines (males, emerged deformed) ... ... 2 

4 died as pupae ... ... ... ... ... 4 

8 died as larvae ... ... ... ... ... 3 

72 
Percentac^e of Second Brood 68*3%. 

Mr. F. T. Grant and Mr. Douglas Watson exhibited short series 
of Noingria dhsoluta and var. arundineta, and of Senta maritima 
and var. icismariejuiis, from North Kent Marshes. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited a series of varieties of Avwrpha 
populi from Upper Tooting ; with a number of preserved larvae of 
lepidoptera. 

Capt. K. F. M. Murray exhibited a gynandromorph of each of the 
two species, Kctropis [Tephrosia) piinctulata and Hi/drilla paliistris ^ . 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited several species of polj^morphic butterflies, 
and some large and conspicuous Orthoptera. 

Mr. J. Forsyth Johnstone exhibited Melitaea athalia var. niijra- 
thalia ; Pohjonunatus thetis {bellanius), ^, all four wings striated, 
one ^ and two 2 ab. obsoleta, J with a black spot in centre of 
each forewing (upperside), $ with red patch on left forewing; 
Euchlo'e cardanriiies, orange replaced by red ; Coenonymplia pamphiliiSf 
black spot in centre of right hindwing ; two ab. obsoleta of P. 
coridon: Kpinephele tithonns, specimens with extra spots below the 



107 

apical and one with four spots on hindwings ; Agrotis exclamationis, 
with the spots united. 

Mr. D. E. Kimrains exhibited photographs of insects. 

Mr. R. M. Long exhibited the following aberrations of Lepidop- 
tevsL-. — rapilio machaou, var., with black markings suffused; 
bred from Wicken larvae, found in 1922. Pieris napi, S , with 
female markings on right side ; Mitcham, May, 1927. Brmthis 
eiiphrusi/ve, heavily marked with black ; Box Hill. May, 1925. 
Fuli/o)innati(s icariis, blue $ and 5 underside vars. 3 Spiloaoina 
menthastri, pale forms. Agmtis corticea, melanic var. ; S. Croydon, 
1924. 7 Erannu (Hybernia) warginaria, dark forms from the 
Croydon district. Hhtoji (Pachys) betidaria, intermediate forms 
from the Croydon district. 4 Zygaena /ilipendiilae, ranging from 
red to yellow. 

Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited coloured drawings of insects and 
plants : — Gryllohlatta campodeifornm, Walk., 9 (Orthoptera) ; hop- 
teryx torrentiion, Pictet (Plecoptera) ; Merostethim grosmis^ Linn., ^ 
and $ (Orthoptera) ; Naiad of Aeachna jiincea, Linn. (Paraneurop- 
tera) ; Naiad of Leucorrhinia duhia, Linn. (Paraneuroptera) ; Naiad 
of Libellida quadrimaculata, Linn. (Paraneuroptera) ; Botrgchiiim 
lunaria, Sw. (Moonwort) ; Spiranthea aestivalis, Rich. (Summer 
Lady's Tresses). 

Mr. H. A. Leeds exhibited series of British butterflies showing the 
range of variation, all captured in 1927, including : — Kucldo'e car da- 
mines, $ upperside, extraordinary large discoidals. Pieris rapae^ 
? upperside, creamy yellow. P. napi, ^ upperside, blackish, well 
defined neuration. Aphantopus hyperantus, 2 caeca, and a pale $ 
underside. Epinephele jiirtina, a series showing whitish patches and 
streaks; whitish, straw and bright tawny grounds, and several with 
extra spotting. Epinephele tithmus^ dark (^ s ; $ upperside with 
two very large additional ocellated spots on forewings, and a $ 
underside with extremely large apical spots and extra spots beneath 
1 on left forewing and 2 on right forewings. Polyouimatus thetis, ^ 
undersides, paler ground, and ab. atrescens ; ? upperside, nigrescens- 
aiitico-senriceronus. Coejiojiyinpha paniphilus, a remarkable right fore- 
wing, showing partial duplication of the brown costal marking, the 
ordinary darker costa well above this. Riunicia phlaeas, ignita- 
subradiata, juncta approaching nigro-apicata, intermedia. Plebeius 
medon, g underside with chalky- white ground, discoidals present, 
and 2 spots on left hindwing, otherwise basal submedian and border 
black spots absent. A number of named aberrations of Plebeius 
argils, Polyonnnatus icariis and P. coridon. 



108 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited living insects, scorpions and spiders^ 
mainly from the S. of France. 

Mr. C. H. Williams exhibited long series of Ahtaxaa ffrossulariata 
and of Poli/oniniatus coridon. 

Mr. C. G. M. de Worms exhibited both sexes of the impar form of 
Metachrostis [Bryophila] \n nr alls (glandif era ) ; and a cream-coloured 
aberration of Cosmotriche potatoria, lent by H. F. Gammon, Esq. 

Mr. S. R. Ashby exhibited his collection of British Hemiptera. 

Mr. H. Worsley-Wood exhibited (1) a selection of larvae of 
British Lepidoptera ; (2) a collection of the same preserved and 
mounted on food-plants and hand-coloured, from the collection of 
A. E. Hodge ; (3) Larvae of British Sawflies ; (4) Ortholitha 
chenopmiiata [llniitata) with white marginal border. 

Mr. Leonard T. Ford exhibited a series of Peronea literana, from 
the Isle of Wight. 

Mr. 0. R. Goodman and Mr. A de B. Goodman exhibited a large 
collection of the butterflies collected by them at St. Martin Vesubie, 
Digne and St. Baume, in S. France, during June and July, 1927. 

Mr. C. G. Priest exhibited his captures of Lepidoptera d'lring the 
year, including a very pink tinted form of Amorpha popidi. 

Mr. Percy Richards exhibited a large number of aberrations of 
Acjlaia urticae and of Epinephele jnrtina [janira). 

Dr. E. Scott exhibited a drawer containing various species of the 
genus Erehia, which he had obtamed at Gavarnie, Pyrenees, in July, 
1927. 

Mr. G. Talbot, on behalf of J. J. Joicey, Esq., examples of the 
species of butterflies collected in the Great Atlas Mountains of 
Morocco, and of the species obtained in a trip to the Republic of 
Andorra, in the Eastern Pyrenees. 

The Rev. J. E. Tarbat exhibited three examples of the July form 
of l^ultjifonia c-albiiiii, form hutchinsoni ; and three including a 
banded one, of the September (second brood) form. 

Dr. H. B. Williams exhibited a series of Lobophora halterata, 
from Oxshott district, 1927, sbowing considerable variation, par- 
ticularl}^ in the females ; short series of iKotodonta ziczac, N. 
dromeddrins, and of Taeniocainpa gotldca from the Aberdeen district, 
with southern forms for comparison. 

Mr. F. W. McDonald exhibited a number of butterflies from 
Milne Bay, the extreme S.E. corner of New Guinea ; a case of 
insects of different orders from South America, and a large number 
of Fossils. 




05" 



o 



109 

Mr. L. VV. Newman exhibited : — 1. Series of Colim crocens, bred 
from the form helicf, captured in June, 1927. The $ laid about 
280 ova. The following specimens were bred : ^ s 112, ? s 49, 
helice 47 ; total 208 specimens. 49 died in larval state, 18 died in 
pupa, leaving about 5 which were lost. 

2. Long series of Abraxas f/rossidariata, including abs. varleyattty 
exquisita, lacticolor, iochalcea, crocea, nigrocretacea, pidchra, etc. 

3. Long series of Cosmotriche potatoria, very varied, from Sussex 
with 2 2 of <y (^ colour. 

4. Long series of CalUmorpha (loniimda of considerable variation, 
including specimens with all usual white spots very deep orange. 

5. Long series of Polygonia c-albuut, var. hidch'uuoni^ etc. 

6. Long and very varied series of Polyommatna thetis with abs. 
obsoleta, striata, etc. 

7. Series of Aphantopns hyperantus with abs. caeca. 

8. And of Melitaea athalia with melanic and extreme pale forms. 

9. A pair of fine melanic BrentJds enphrosyne ; and other species. 
Mr. S. G. Castle-Russell exhibited Lepidoptera captured or bred 

during the season by himself, including: — Papdio fnachaon, a black 
male with the usual markings absent, except faint blue spots on 
hind wings ; bred from a wild larva found by the exhibitor, July 
25th, 1926, Norfolk, emerged May 8th, 1927- Pieris napi, a short 
series of unusually heavily marked females, including a gynandro- 
morphic specimen : left wangs male, right wings partly female ; all 
bred from Co. Fermanagh parents. Aglau urticae, a series of 
aberrational forms from Basingstoke larvae, including one with 
completely black hind wings except for faint blue streaks. Pararge 
vieyera, a male aberration, Basingstoke. Hipparchia seinele, excep- 
tionally dark male upperside, and a light- bordered female. Polyom- 
matus (Agriades) coridon, females with yellow spots, one with left 
wings typical and right wings sevii-syngrapha. Plebeiiis aegon {argtis), 
gynandromorphic specimen, predominantly female in colour, but 
with male blue colouring on both upper and undersides. 

Mr. A. de B. Goodman a living specimen of Lycoaa narbonemisy 
the S. France hunting-spider, with drawings illustrating its life- 
history (pit. VIIL), and communicated the following notes. 

The Black-bellied Tarantula Spider (Lycosa narbonensis.) 
The rough sketches were made during the oviposition by a female 
taken at La Sainte Baume, S. France, and are intended to shew 
the various positions assumed during the process. Whether the 



no 

oviposition takes place naturally within the spidei-'s pit, or not, was 
not ascertained. The specimen under observation was confined in 
a circular jar partly filled with earth, and no pit was made. 

Figs. 1 and la. — Dorsal (1) : lateral (la), views of process when 
first observed. A circular silken pad, 1" to 1^" in diameter, was 
attached by silken threads from its perimeter to surrounding small 
objects, e.g., pieces of earth, etc. There was a large concavity in 
the centre of the pad, which the spider was making by laying on 
silk at the outer edge, by means of a three pronged protuberance at 
the tip of the abdomen. The silk was applied by a tapping move- 
ment of the abdomen, and the spider moved one way around and 
then the other with its legs on the extreme outer edge of the pad, 
thus completely covering the concavity with its body. 

Fig. 2. — Lateral view shewing mass of eggs tilling the cavity. 
These were discharged en viasse in a bright yellow yolk, in which 
they were just discernible as whitish specks. The egg-mass seemed 
to come from below the black portion of the abdomen beneath and 
a certain amount of yolk adhered to it. The body of the female 
shrunk to half its size after oviposition. 

Fig. 3. — Lateral view shewing the covering in of the egg- mass 
by further additions of silk. The spider drew the silken walls of 
the cavity towards the centre, smoothing it and adding more silk 
by the gentle tapping movement of the abdomen as before. The 
silken pad thus finally had a convex upper surface covering the 
egg-mass lying in the centre of the pad. 

Fig. 4. — Lateral view shewing detachment of the pad from its 
various anchorages. The spider seized the edges of the pad in its 
jaws and tore away the silken anchorage threads from their attach- 
ments. 

Fig. 5. — Lateral view of egg-mass detached and gathered up 
beneath the spider. Note that the abdomen is not attached to the 
egg- mass. 

Fig. 6. — Lateral view of spider attaching its abdomen to the 
egg-mass. 

Fig. 7. — Spider with egg-mass free and attached only to the 
abdomen by silken threads. Note that the egg-mass is not com- 
pletely spherical but flattened at opposite poles. 

It might be stated that Fabre describes his observation of the 
silken pad, but makes no mention of how the egg mass is formed. 

Several authorities have expressed doubt as regards Fabre's 
description that the mother-spider holds the egg-sac to the sun 



Ill 

rays ; this however in the main is true, for on Aug. 13th, 1927, and 
on subsequent occasions, female spiders have been observed re.^ting 
head downwards at the mouth of the pits with the egg-masses 
exposed to the sunshine on the edge of the pit, between the two 
hindmost legs. It should be noted however that the egg balls were 
certainly not /teld to the sun by the hindmost legs. The photograph 
given by Fabre is undoubtedly incorrect and was probably obtained 
by the use of a dead specimen. 

On Sept. 27th, 1927, an egg-mass was opened. The eggs were 
yellow, soft and separate ; all trace of the yellow yolk previously 
observed had disappeared ; 811 eggs were counted and 11 young 
spiders emerged. The eggs are approximately "07" in diameter. 

The egg-shell is sloughed oflf towards the abdomen. 

The young spiders have a globular yellow abdomen with faint 
segmental lines, and the head and legs are ivory white. The jaws are 
completely developed. Later, the young spiders became yellow in 
colour with darker markings corresponding to those of the adult. 



NOVEMBER 10th, 1927. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. T. R. Eagles, F.E.S., of Enfield; Capt. F. S. Smith, of 
Middlebourne, Farnham ; Mr. W. T. Davies, of Bexley Heath ; 
Mr. W. H. Walker of Potter's Bar ; and Mr. A. N. Witting, of 
Catford, were elected members. 

The President exhibited a long series of Celaena hawort/iii, males 
and females, from E. Aberdeenshire, taken this season on heather, 
and not on scabious as usually recorded. He showed also living 
larvae of Ftychopoda riisticata, F. biselata (bisetata), and Tiiphaena 
subssqiia [orbona), all reared from ova. 

Mr. Turner, on behalf of Mr. Wm. Fassnidge, exhil)ited a specimen 
of Myelois cirriyerella, a Phycid first taken in this country by Mr. 
Edward Meyrick at Marlborough in 1874, and never since recorded. 
The present exhibit was taken at Winchester, and was in excellent 
condition. The species is distributed over Central Europe, but only 
occurs in any locality quite sporadically. Nothing is known of its 
life-history. 

Capt. Crocker spoke of the habit of Synanthedon and lenaeforuiu 
to hop from one spot to another, a habit begun soon after emergence 
from the pupa, but he had never observed it at flowers. It "was 



112 

remarked how few species of " Clearwing " were ever observed at 
rest. 

Mr. A. de B. Goodnaan exhibited a fine example of the ab. Jionoratii 
of Zenintliia [Thais) riiniina, a form with considerable extension of 
the beautiful, rich rose-coloured patches, which occurs but rarely 
among the race medesicaste of the South of France. 

He showed also four species of the neuropterous genus Ascalaphus 
and read the following notes : — 

A. hynijicornis, L., an orange and bronze insect, which is fairly 
well distributed throughout the S. of France : I have met with it 
at St. Martin Vesubie, La Sainte Baume and in the Cevennes, in 
June and July. 

A. ictericiis, Cph., a very rare, bronze-tinted species, native of 
Algeria. It was found singly, in May and June, at Hamman Righa 
and Teniet-el-Had. 

A. llbeUidoiiles, a yellow and black species, common locally 
throughout South France in June and July. I have met with it at 
St. Martin Vesubie, Digne, and Mont Aigoual, Cevennes. 

A. ottnniaiius. In July, 1921, 1 sent several examples of Ascalaphua 
from St. Martin Vesubie, to the late Dr. C. L. Withycombe. 
These he identified as A. ottoniajtiis, and expressed surprise at their 
occurrence in S. France, as their previously known range was from 
Dalinatia to the Black Sea. A few years later St. Martin was 
visited in July by Mr. H. Main, who told me he had seen Ascalaphus 
in great numbers. These, I have no doubt, were the same species, 
for this year, in late June, I found A. ottoman us very abun* int in 
the valley of the Madone des Tenetres, St. Martin Vesubie. while 
only one or two specimens of A. longiannis and of A. WieVuhndes 
were seen. I have compared these St. Martin Vesubie sp( imens 
with A. ottoiiianits from Asia Minor in the B.M. Collections, and 
undoubtedly these specimens are correctly identified. 



NOVEMBER 24th, 1927. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., Vice-President in the Cht*ir. 

Messrs. J. 0. T. Howard, B.A., of St. John's Wood ; Rev E. E. 
Tottenham, of Richmond ; H. R. Hewer, of S. Kensington; H. E. 
Skelton, of Upper Tooting ; and A. W. McKenny-Hughes, of the 
Innes Horticultural Institution, Merton, were elected members. 

Mr. Lucas, in illustration of his paper, exhibited specimens of 



113 

the four British species of snake-flies {Rhaphidia), with a series of 
drawings of their structural details. 

On behalf of Mr. Hammond, Mr. Lucas exhibited an example of 
the rare dragonfly, Souiatochlnra inetallica, taken along the Byfleet 
Canal ; hitherto believed to be almost confined to the north of 
Scotland. 

Mr. B. W. Adkin exhibited two specimens of Cowiotriche Rotatoria ^ 
which emerged in October, 1927. They were part of a large brood, 
of which four fed up and pupated ; the remainder hibernating as 
larvae in the usual manner. The brood was obtained from a female 
bred in July from a wild larva, and they had been reared entirely 
out of doors. He remarked that this was his first experience of a 
second emergence of this species; and he would be interested to learn 
of any similar instances. 

Mr. W. J. Lucas, B.A., read a paper, "Notes on the British 
Snake-flies (RhapJiidia).'" (See page 34.) 



DECEMBER Sth, 1927. 
The Prksident in the Chair. 

Mr. Barnett exhibited a long series of Phirjalia pedaria, males, 
taken on street lamps near Crohamhurst, showing considerable 
variation. 

Mr. Turner exhibited two specimens of the very large Lamel- 
licorn jeetle, Goliathns giganttuSy from the Cameroons. 



JA'NUAUY 12th, 1928. 
The Presidknt in the Chair. 

Mr. 0. E. Janson, 13, Fairfax Road, Hornsey, was elected a 
member. 

Mr. Sperring exhibited a specimen of Brenthis eiiphrosyne, taken 
in Gaiway ; the second record of the occurrence of the species in 
Irelan^i. The previous record was made by Mr. Sabine, from Co. 
Clare. 

Dr. H. B. Williams exhibited a number of abnormal cocoons of 
Saturnia pavonia, made in captivity by larvae bred from the egg. 
Such abnormality is exhibited when parasitation has taken place ; 
but in this instance no such reason was possible. The cocoons 



114 

were respectively, without the usual exit ; two exits, one at each 
end, and one pupa ; one cocoon with double exit and two pupae ; 
two pupae in one cocoon with no exit, each larva apparently 
closed the exit made by the other : cocoons of unusual colouring ; 
etc. 

Mr. Thos. Greer exhibited the following Lepidoptera from Co. 
Tyrone and N. Ireland: — Pieris jiapi, a series of J s, showing 
gradual increase of discal markings on forewings ; (^ with dot in 
posterior wings. Pieris rapae, $ s yellowish, banded, and ab. 
nigropuiicta. Euchlo'e cardatHines, g s with marginal dots strongly 
emphasised, especially on posterior wings; $ with dark costa. 
Epinephele jurtina, a series (July, 1927) showing extended fulvous 
colour on forewings of (^ s : ? s with fulvous bands on hindwings ; 
and a series of form addenda J and J . Poli/ounnatns icarus, series 
of undersides, illustrating variation in spotting and range of colour ; 
2 s with two shades of blue on base of posterior wings underside. 
Lycaenopsis {Celaatriiia) aryioLus, $ , an almost spotless example. A 
number of teratological specimens including E. carda)irines, M. 
aurinia, C. paniphiliis^ P. icarus, N. baja, H. crinanensis and Z. 
lonicerae. Also Lepidoptera from Lough Neagb district. Cosmo- 
triche potatoria and examples from Eastbourne, Sussex, for com- 
parison. Acronicta iiienyanthidia, a large pale form; and A. rionicis, 
a dark form. Helotropha lencosti(/nia and var. fibrosa, reddish form. 
Arpotis agathina, varying from light to dark. Celaena liaworthii, a 
lowland marsh form, and a moorland one for comparison. Dian- 
thoecia conspersa, Co. Tyrone ; and D. caesia from West Donegal. 
Zygaena lonicerae, Z. iMipendnlae, and an intermediate form, six- 
spotted with broad margins to hindwings. 

Mr. Robert Adkin read a paper entitled " Notes on the Genus 
Hyponomeuta with special reference to H. cognatellus, Hb., H. 
padellns, L., and H.malinellus, Zell." (page 48). In illustration he 
exhibited long series of imagines, together with examples of their 
pupal cocoons. 



JANUARY 26th, 1928. 

Annual Meeting. 

The President in the Chair. 

The Reports of the Council and Treasurer with the Balance Sheet 
were read and adopted (see pages xiv xx) ; and the President, Dr. 



115 

E. A. Cockayne, read the Annual Address (see page 55). Votes of 
Thanks were passed to the Officers, congratulating the Society on 
the year's work. The following is a list of those declared elected as 
Officers and Council for the ensuing twelve months : — 

President, E. A. Cockayne, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.E.S. Vice- 
Prendents, H. W. Andrews, F.E.S. , T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S. 
Treasurer, A. E. Tonge, F.E.S. Librarian, E. E. Syms, F.E.S. 
Curator^ S. R. Ashby, F.E.S. Hon. Editor of Proceedings, H. J. 
Turner, F.E.S. Hon. Secretaries, Stanley Edwards, F.L.S., etc. 
(Corresponding), H. J. Turner, F.E.S. Hon. Lanternist, J. H. 
Adkin. Council, J. H. Adkin, F. B. Carr, A. W. Dods, A. de B. 
Goodman, F.E.S., 0. R. Goodman, F.E.S., F.Z.S., C. N. Hawkins, 
F.E.S., W. Rait-Smith, F.E.S., F.Z.S., C. Sperring, and W. H. T. 
Tams, F.E.S. 

Ordinary Meeting. 

The President, Dr. E. A. Cockayne, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.E.S., 

in the Chair. 

Mr. Jarvis exhibited an example of the phytophagous coleopteron, 
Tiviarcha violaceo-niger, with a bifid tarsus. The beetle was taken 
May 22nd, 1915, at Royston, by the late Mr. E. A. Butler, and 
differs from normal type, in that the second joint on the left medial 
leg IS dilated at its base, to about 3 times its normal width. The 
base is curved upwards towards the centre and to its angles are 
appended 2 complete 4-jointed tarsi (with claws) ; the first tarsus 
being nearly normal and the second developed to about half normal 
size. In all other respects the beetle appears to tally with type, in 
fact, the dilated joint is of normal length, and the two tarsi are 
pubescent on the underside (as usual). 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a very varied bred series of Peronea hastianay 
bred from larvae obtained at Deal. 

Mr. White exhibited an apple, on the rind of which was a batch 
of ova, supposed from their shape and closely ranged position, to be 
those of Himera (Colotois) pennaria. 



116 

Correction. — [The following paragraph arrived too late for sub- 
stitution for that printed on page 74.] 

Mr. Bristowe said that British spiders did not make " devices" 
in the ordinary way, but Epeira adianta makes a white platform in 
the centre of its web and Cyclosa coniea does occasionally construct 
a small *' stabilimentum." He called attention to the remarkable 
convergence of evolution in the families JJloboridae and E})eiridae ; 
both make orb-webs and "devices" are found in some species of 
each. He stated that Pompilid wasps usually capture one large 
spider, whilst Sphegids often have 20 or 30 small ones. The thorny 
bodies of some spiders found abroad do not prevent their being 
victims of wasps. He had observed a Brazilian Theridiid, which 
put a crumpled leaf in its web and in which it lived. He asked 
whether those spiders which construct " stabilimenta " eat their 
webs, according to the usual practice of Epeirids every night. He 
had much pleasure in seconding the vote of thanks. 



117 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Aberrations, Notable, of — E. mar- 
giiiaria, 68; P. macularia, 69 ; 
Z. tilipendulae, 69; Z. trifolii, 
69 ; S. ligustri, 70 ; P. pruinata, 
71 ; A. leporina, 73 ; H. jaco- 
baeae, 73 ; E. mi, 73 ; A. badi- 
aia, 76 ; (J. lesbia, 78 ; H. pisi, 
95 ; A. psi, 95; A. tritici, 96 
T. subsequa, 96 ; A. secalis, 96 
M. muralis, 97 ; E. crepuscu 
laria, 103 ; M. galathea, 103 
P. medon, 104, 107 ; E. carda 
mines, 106, 107, 114; C. pam 
philus, 106, 107 ; P. machaon 
107, 109; P. napi, 107, 109 
114; E. jurtina, 107 ; C. pota 
toria, 109 ; C. dominula, 109 
A. urtiuae, i09 ; P. coridon 
109 ; P. argas (aegon;, 109 
P. rapae, 114 ; Irish lepidop 
tera . . . , . . . . 114 

Abnormal, spike of adders-tongue 
fern, 85 ; catlsins of sallow, 93 
cocoons of S. pavonia . . . . 113 

Additions to the Library. . . . 86 

Affairs of the Society . , . . 55 

Alder, Development of young . . 97 
Annual, Address, Dr. E. A 
Cockayne, 55 ; Exhibition, 102 
Meeting, 114 ; Keport . . . . xiv 

Apple Hyponomeuta, The . . 49 

Argentine Chaco, A short descrip- 
tion of the, Gapt. K. J. Hay ward 18 
Ascalaphus species, Distribution 

of 112 

Balance sheet . . . . xviii.-xix 

Bibliograpby of larval variation. . 67 
Bracken, Development in the early 
stages of the, E. Step . . . . 90 

Brenthis euphrosyne in Ireland . . 113 
Bristly Millepede, The . . . . 79 

British Hyponomeuta, The . . 49 
Broods of, P. napi, 71 ; A. im- 
morata, 77, 85 ; Zygaena, 101 ; 
Mendelian C. croceus, 101 ; 
Mongrel, D. mendica, 103 ; 
Z. lonicerae . . . . . . 106 

Camping and Collecting in the 



PAGE 

Argentine .. ., ..28 

Chameleon, Colour change in the, 77 
Cicads, Australian . . . . 81 

Colour change. Period of, in 
larvae . . . . . . . . 59 

Device to induce a spider to spin 87 
Dimorphic colour forms of larvae, 

in Geometers, 57 ; in Noctuidae 59 
Disappearance of species. . .. 82 

Discussion on Spiders' Devices 

73, 115 
Distribution, increase of, S. sibilla 87 
Donations . . . . . . . . 104 

Doublebrooded P. icarus in Ire- 
land . . . . . . . . 72 

Drawings of insects . . . . 107 

Duplication of wing of S. pavonia 70 
Earthworm, Abnormal develop- 
ment of an . . . . . . 68 

Early emergence of, T. rupica- 

praria, 70 ; Z. filipendulae . . 86 
Earwigs' nests ,. .. ..71 

Evolution in Zygaena, T. H. L. 
Grosvenor . . . . . . 105 

Fasciation of, stems of sycamore, 
70 ; R. acris, 81 ; sprays of 
sweet pea . . . . . . 92 

Feet, Extraordinary, of a Dolich- 
opid fly C. magius . . . . 89 

Fen moths, Early stages of some 

British 104 

Field Meetings, Bookham, 78 ; 
Byfleet, 80 ; Mickleham, 84 ; 
Princes Risborough, 86 ; Black- 
heath, (Guildford), 88; Ran- 
more . , . . . . . . 94 

Food of S. maritima . . . . 76 

Forest region of the Argentine, 

The 18 

Galls of, S. formicaeformis in 
sallow, 75 ; C. sonchi, 93 ; S. 
flaviventris . . . . . . 105 

Geographical variation in, larvae, 
66; M. aurinia.. .. ..81 

Glands of larva of N. ziczac .. 78 
Green pigment of larvae.. .. 60 

Gynandromorph of, T. crataegi, 
76 ; C. lesbia, 78 ; E. punctu- 



118 



PAGE 

lata, 106 ; H. palustris, 106 ; 

P. napi 107 

Habits of a Carabid, S. gigas, 93 ; 
S. andrenaeformis .. .. Ill 

History of Algiers. . .. .. 3 

Homoeosis, in M, athalia . . 69 

Hybrid sparrow P. montanus x 
P. domesticus . . . . . . 81 

Immigrant, P. atalanta . . . . 81 

Influence of surroundings on 
larval forms . . . . . . 65 

Land of the Sheik, The, 0. R. 
Goodman . . . . 1 

Lantern slides shown . . 69, 102 
Larval Variation, Dr. E. A. 
Cockayne . . . . . . 57 

Lichen-marked larvae . . . . 58 

Life-history, of Scarabaeus sacer. 
Observations on the, A. de B. 
Goodman, 42 ; of Aleurodes, 69 ; 
Ammophila, 89 ; C. pomonella, 
96 ; L. narbonensis . . . . 109 

Localities, Algeria, 2 ; Argentine, 
18 ; Atlas Mts., 2, 11 ; Aures 
Mts., 9 ; Barcelona, 84 ; Batna, 
8 ; Biskra, 6 ; Blackheath, 88 ; 
Blida, 9 ; Bookham, 78 ; Bur- 
mah, 15 ; Byfleet, 80 ; Chaco 
Forest, 18 ; Constantine, 5 ; 
Corsica, 42 ; East Africa, 89 ; 
El Kantara, 8 ; Hamman Righa, 
10 ; Himalaya Mts., 15 ; Ire- 
land, 72 ; Mchoun^che Oasis, 
7 ; Mickleham, 84 ; Phillipville, 
4 ; Princes Risborough, 86 ; 
Ranmore, 94 ; Kueglio, 92 ; 
Sahara, 2, 6 ; Teniet el Haad, 

11 ; Tyrone 114 

Mediterranean Region, The South 1 
Melanic, E. defoliaria, 68; S. 
bilunaria, 76 ; N. xantho- 
grapha, 96 ; M. galathea . . 103 
Members, List of . . . . . . iii 

Membership . . . . xiv, 55 

Naturalisation of Tussilago frag- 
rans . . . . , . . . 68 

Notes on the genus Hyponomeuta, 

R. Adkin . . . , . . 48 

Obituary. — G. C. Champion, 56; 
S. A. Blenkarn, 56; D. H. 
Pearson, 56 ; G. B. Pearson, 
56 ; G. T. Porritt . . . . 56 

Objects of the Society . . . . ii 

Officers and Council, List of i, 115 
Open areas of the Argentine, The 30 

Ova, of S. fagi 81 

Oviposition of L. narbonensis . . 109 
Parasites, on spider . . . . 86 



PAGE 

Pattern on wing of, A. ophio- 

gramma, 89 ; D. scabriuscula 89 
Pear balls of Scarabaeus.. .. 44 

Polymorphic Sphingid larvae . . 64 
Protective Devices in Spiders' 

Snares, Major Kingston . . 15 

Protuberances on larvae, Con- 
sideration of the . . . . 61 
Pupation of, L. straminea, §5 ; 

C. rubi 89 

Race, A small, of Z. filipendulae, 

75 ; Z. lonicerae .. 86, 93 

Rare or local Species, Occurrence 
of, Z. trifolii r. rusicadica, 4; 
H. stauderi, 7; T. nouna, 7; 
S. abdelkader r. lambessana, 9 ; 
S. fatma, 9 ; M. aetherie, 11 ; 
Z. theryi, 11 ; P. martini, 12 ; 
P. allardi, 12 ; H. ahmed, 12 ; 
H. leuzeae, 13 ; H. ali, 12 ; C. 
zohra, 13; C. cerealis (Col.), 
69 ; A. flexula, 73 ; A. immor- 
ata, 76 ; 0. sphegodes (arani- 
fera), 78; A. affinis, 82; S. 
urticae, 85 ; P. chrysidiformis, 
89 ; S. spiralis (orchid), 93 ; P. 
lividus, 104 ; S. dodatellus, 
104 ; S. flaviventris, 105 ; M. 
cirrigerella. 111 ; S. metallica 113 
Remarkable beetle from Chili . . 95 
Report of, S.E.U.S.S. Congress 
at Hastings, E. Step, 82 ; Con- 
ference of Corresponding Socie- 
ties to British Association, R. 
Adkin, 98 ; Treasurer, xvii ; 
Council . . . . , , . . xiv 

Raphidia in Surrey and the New 

Forest 37 

Relationship of the Raphidia . . 34 
Results of premature development 
in breeding . . . . . . 87 

River region of the Argentine, 

The 23 

Scales of P. thetis aberrations . . 103 
Second brood of C. potatoria . . 113 
Single- brooded P. icarus in Ireland 72 
Snake-flies (Raphidia), Notes on 

the British, W. J. Lucas . . 34 
Tarantula Spider, The black- 
bellied (L. narbonensis), ii. de B. 
Goodman . . . , . . 109 

Teratological, H. jacobaeae, 87 ; 
A. aceris, 87 ; P. fimetarius, 
97 ; S. pavonia, 70 ; S. subro- 
tundata, 101 ; T. violaceo-niger 115 
Trap-door spider. The . . . . 82 

Variation in, colour of larvae, of 
Notodonts, 63 ; Sphingids, 64 ; 



119 



PAGE 



larvae of 0. tiligrammaria, 70 ; 
Irish P. icarus, 71 ; Triphaena 
sps. . . . . . . . . 81 

Weaver-bird, Nest of . . . . 85 

Zonal regions of N. Africa . . 2 



Arachnida. 




Actinopus . . 


.. 32 


affinis, Atypus 


.. 82 


Avicularia 


. . 32 


baculifaciens, Tetragnath 


a ..17 


brevispina, Gasteracanth 


a ..15 


catenulatus, Argyope 


.. 17 


centrifaciens, Cyclosa 


.. 15 


clarki, ArgyOpe 


.. 16 


coeniculatus, Uloborus 


.. 15 


crucifaciens, Uloborus 


.. 16 


Cyclosa 


.. 15 


cylindrifaclens, Cyclosa 


.. 15 


duraudi, Clotho . . 


85, 87 


filifaciens, Uloborus 


.. 16 


folifeieiis, Tetragnatba 


.. 17 


Lycosa 


. . 10 


Mygale 


..104 


narbonensis, Lycosa 


92, 109 


pulchella, Argyope 


..16 


scutifaciens, Uloborus 


.. 16 


Zelotes 


. . 86 


AVES. 




chimango, Milvago 


. . 19 


cocoi, Ardea 


. . 24 


domesticus, Passer 


.. 81 


rufescens, Rhynchotus 


. . 20 


europaeus, Capriraulgo 


..88 


jacana, Jacana 


. . 25 


montanus, Passer. . 


.. 81 


tharus, Polyborus. . 


19, 24 


vigua, Phalacrocorax 


. . 25 


ypacaha, Aramides 


. . 25 


Batrachians and R 


EPTILES, 


alternatus, Lachesis 


. . 32 


anaconda, Boa 


. . 26 


claelis, Oxyrhopus 


.. 32 


Coluber 


.. 10 


Elaps 


.. 32 


Jarara 


.. 32 


marinus, Bufo 


.. 32 


natrix, Tropidonotus 


.. 102 


ocellata, Lacerta . . 


.. 8 


ocellatas, Leptodactylus . 


.. 32 


ornata, Ceratophrys 


.. 32 


raddiana, Hyla 


.. 31 


Scincidae . . 


.. 6 


sclerops. Caiman . . 


. . 25 


terrificus, Crotalus 


.. 32 


vivipara, Lacerta 


.. 88 



PAGE 



COLEOPTERA 



C. at Blackbeath . . 


.. 88 


C. at Byfleet 


.. 80 


C. at Mickleham .. 


.. 84 


C. at Ranraore 


.. 94 


Aphodius . . 


.. 44 


buparius (gigas), Scarites 85 


, 93, 104 


Blaps 


.. 85 


Carabidae . . 


.. 69 


cervus, Lucanus . . 


69, 95 


Chrysomelidae 


.. 69 


Copris 


.. 10 


cerealis, Chrysomela 


.. 69 


crenata, Macrotouia 


.. 82 


fimetarius, Philonthus . . 


.. 97 


giganteus, Goliathus 


.. 113 


gigas =^ buparius 




granti, Chiasognathus 


.. 95 


Gymnopleurus 


.. 6 


hispanus, Copris . . 


4 


humator, Brachmia 


.. 79 


laticollis, Scarabaeus 


.. 85 


lividus, Phymatodes 


.. 104 


populuea, Saperda 


.. 105 


sacer, Scarabaeus.. 


.. 42 


Scarabaeus 


.. 42 


seiiiipuiictatus 


.. 85 


sexniaculata, Anthia 


.. 104 


subrotundata, Silpha 


.. 101 


violaceo-niger, Timarcha 


.. 115 


DiPTERA. 




D. at Bytleet 


.. 80 


crabroniformis, Asilus 


.. 94 


dorsalis, Chironomus 


.. 37 


ferrugineus, Sicus 


.. 88 


Lainpromyia 


.. 96 


magius, Cauipaicueinus . . 


.. 89 


sonchi, Cystiphora (gall) 


.. 93 


Vermilio 


.. 96 


Fungi. 




F. at Raiimore 


.. 94 


applanatum, Ganoderma 


.. 73 


betulinus, Polyporus 


.. 73 


lampyridarum, Empusa . . 


.. 36 


muscae, Empusa . . 


.. 36 


Hymenoptera. 




H. at Blackbeath (Chilwortb 


) .. 88 


H. at Byfleet 


.. 80 


H. at Mickleham . . 


.. 84 


H. at Ranmore 


.. 94 


Ammophila 


.. 89 


Pezomachus 


86, 89 


sabulosa, Ammophila 


.. 89 



120 



PAGE 

Lepidoptera. 

abdelkader, Satyrus . . 9, 78 

abencerragus (baton r.), Scolitan- 
tides . . . . . . . . 8 

aceris, Acronicta . . . . . . 87 

achilleae, Zygaena . . . . 105 

achilles, Morpho . . . . . . 19 

Acronicta . . . . . . . . 67 

acteon, Thymelicus .. .. 4 

addenda (jurtina«6.), Epinephele 114 

adippe = cydippe 

aegates, Lymnas . . . . . . 24 

aegeria, Pararge . . . . . . 13 

aegon = argus 

aetherie, Melitaea .. 9, 11, 12 

affinitata, Perizoma . . . . 60 

agatbina, Agrotis . - . . . . 114 

Ageronia 19, 27 

ahmed, Hesperia . . . . . . 12 

albula, Terias . . . . . 19 

aigira, Zygaena . . . . . . 11 

algira (error) =algirica (semeler.), 
Hipparchia . . . . . . 8 

ali, Hesperia . . . . . . 12 

alimena, Hypolimnas . . . . 105 

allardi, Plebeius . . . . . . 12 

alpina (auricoma r.), Acronicta.. 06 
alternaria (ata), Semiothisa .. 59 
amalthea, Anartia . . . . 19 

amasina (aurinia r.), Melitaea .. 81 
andrenaeformis, Synanthedon .. Ill 
angularia, Ennomos . . 57, 62 
angustifasciata (taeniata ab.), 
Perizoma . . . . . . 87 

annulata, Cosymbia . . . . 61 

anomala, Hypolimnas . . . . 105 

anomala, Stilbia . . . . . . 60 

anthedon, Hypolimnas . . . . 105 

arcania, Coenonympha . . : 4 

arcanioides, Coenonympha 4, 10 
arete (hyperantus ab.), Aphanto- 

pus 88, 95, 104 

argentinus (catenarius r.), Morpho 19 
argiolus, Lycaenopsis . . 10, 114 
argona, Thecla . . . . . . 27 

argus (aegon), Plebeius 104, 107, 109 
arion, Lycaena . . . . 7, 92 

arundineta (dissoluta /".), Non- 
agria . . . . . . . . 106 

astrarche = medon 

atalanta, Pyrameis .. 81, 92 

athalia, Melitaea . . 69, 106, 109 

atomaria, Ematurga . . . . 87 

atrata, Odezia . . . . . . 79 

atrescens (thetis ab.), Polyom- 
matus . . . . . . . . 107 

atropos, Acherontia . . . . 66 

auricoma, Acronicta . . . . 66 



PAGE 

81, 114 

. . 70 

. . 96 

.. 9 

. . 76 
..114 

Dianthoecia 104 



aurinia, Melitaea . . 

autumnata, Oporinia 

avellana, Cochlidion 

avis, Callophrys . . 

badiata, Earophila 

baja, Noctua 

barrettii (luteago r.), 

baton, Scolitantides . . . . 8 

bavius, Scolitantides . . . . 9 

belemia, Anthocharis . . 4,8 

belia = crameri 

bellargus = thetis .. .. 103, 106 

betularia, Biston, Amphidasis 57, 

58, 62, 96, 107 
bicolorana (quercana), Hylophila 102 



Aphan- 
. 107, 



108, 



106, 107, 



bidentata, Gonodonta 

bilunaria, Selenia.. .. 76, 

biselata (bisetata), Ptychopoda . . 

boetieus, Lampides 

bolina, Hypolimnas 

braziliensis (huntera subsp.), 

Pyrameis 
brasiliensis (thoas r.), Papilio .. 
brunnea (cursoria, /".), Agrotis .. 
bryoniae (napi r.), Pieris. . 
bucephala, Phalera 
caeca (hyperantus ab. 

topus 
caesia, Dianthoecia 
caia, Arctia 
c-album, Polygonia 
camelina, Lophopteryx 
cannae, Nonagria. . 
cardamines, Euchloe 

cardui, Pyrameis . . 

carniolica, Zygaena 

carye, Pyrameis . . 

castrensis, Malacosoma . . 

Catocala 

catenarius, Morpho 

charlonia, Anthocharis . . 8, 

chenopodiata, Ortholitha 

Chilidae 

chlorosata (petraria), Lithina 

chrysidiformis, Pyroptera 

cirrigerella, Myelois 

clara (icarus ?•.), Polyommatus . . 

cleodora, Eronia . . 

cleodoxa (cydippe /.), Argynnis. . 

cleopatra, Gonepteryx . . 4, 11, 

coerulea (cursoria ab.), Agrotis .. 

cognatellus, Hyponomeuta 49, 50, 
51, 52, 53, 

Colias 

conigera, Leucania 

consortaria, Boarmia ..58, 60, 

conspersa, Dianthoecia 

convolvuli, Herse.. 



58 

80 
111 

11 
105 

27 
19 
96 
10 

78 

109 

114 
66 

109 
63 
60 

114 
4 

106 
27 
95 
57 
19 
13 

108 

104 
89 
89 

111 
72 
89 
92 
13 
96 

114 
27 
96 
62 

114 
64 



121 



PAGE 

coridon, Polyommatus 93, 106, 

107, 108, 109 
corticea, Agrotis . . . . . . 107 

corylata, Euphyia. . .. ..96 

corylaria (prunaria ab.), Anger- 

ona 87 

coryli, Demas .. .. ..64 

Cosymbia(Epbyra) .. 61, 07 

crataegi, Aporia .. .. .. 9 

crataegi, Trichiura ..63,67, 76 

erameri (belia), Anthocharis 5, 8 
crepuscularia, Ectropis . . . . 103 

crinanensis, Hydroecia .. .. 114 

croceus (edusa), Colias 4, 9, 13, 

30, 61, 101, 109 
curtula, Pygaera . . . . . . 80 

cursoria, Agrotis . . . . . . 96 

cydippe (adippej, Argynnis .. 92 
cynthia, Philosamia . . . . 63 

Danais . . . . . . . . 31 

daplidice, Pontia . . . . 5,13 

decoraria = subroseata (pendularia 

a&.), Cosymbia . . .. ..77 

defoliai ia, Erannis . . . . 68 

delamerensis (crepuscularia /.), 

Ectropis 103 

depuncta, Noctua.. .. .. 96 

deva, Terias . . . . . . 19 

Dianthoecia .. .. ..60 

dictaeoides, Phaeosia . . . . 63 

didyma, Melitaea . . . . . . 12 

dinarcba, Hypolimnas . . . . 105 

dissoluta, Nonagria . . . . 106 

dodatellus, Schoenobius . . . . 104 

dorainula, Callimorpha . . 103, 109 
dromedarius, Notodonta.. 63, 108 
dryas, Satyrus . . . . . . 9 

edusa = croceus 

elatbea, Terias . . . . . . 30 

elinguaria, Crocallis . . 57, 77 
elpenor, Eumorpba ..G4, 65, 67 

eiLitata = furcatji 
Epbyra = Cosymbia 

Erebia 108 

erippus, Danais .. .. ..27 

erosaria, Ennomos .. .. t)2 

erytbromelas, Eugonia .. .. 11 

Eudamus 27 

eupheno, Anthocharis . . 4, 9 

euphenoides, Anthocharis . . 4 

euphrosyne, Brenthis 85, 96, 103, 

107, 109, 113 



Eupithecia.. 
eurytbeme, Colias 
evonymellus, Hyponomeuta 
exanthemaria, Cabera 
exclamationis, Agrotis . . 
expallidata, Eupithecia . . 



49, 



61 
66 
50 
59 
107 
61 



PAGE 

extersaria, Ectropis (Tephrosia) 

59, 62, 96 
fagi, Stauropus .. .. ..81 

fatma, Scolitantides .. .. 9 

feisthameli (podalirius r.), Papilio 11 
fibrosa (leucostigma /.), Helotro- 

pha 114 

filigrammaria (autuinnata race), 

Oporinia .. .. ..70 

filipendulae, Zygaena 69, 75, 85, 

86, 107, 114 
fimbria, Triphaena . . 78, 81 

flava (linea), Adopaea .. .. 4 

flavescens (fulvago ab.), Xanthia 96 
flaviventris, Synanthedon . . 105 

flexula, Aventia . . . . . . 73 

florella, Catopsilia . . . . 89 

forficellus, Schoenobius . . . . 104 

formicaeformis, Synanthedon . . 75 
fortunata (jurtina r.), Epinepbele 10 
fracta (atalanta ah.), Pyrameis .. 92 
fulvago, Xanthia . . . . . . 96 

furcata (elutata), Hydriomena .. 78 
fuscantaria, Ennomos . . . . 62 

galactodactylus, Alucita . . . . 85 

galathea, Melanargia . . . . 103 

Geometridae . . . . . . 65 

gigantellus, Schoenobius.. .. 104 

gilippus, Danais .. .. ..27 

glandif era = mural is 

gnaphalii, CucuUia .. .. 102 

gonostigma, Orgyia . . 63, 95 

gothica, Taeniocampa . . . . 108 

grossulariata. Abraxas 65, 66, 104, 

108, 109 
halterata, Lobophora . . . . 108 

hamza, Adopaea . . . . . . 4 

hastiana, Peronea .. .. 115 

haworthii, Celaena .. Ill, 114 

belice (croceus /.), Colias 9, 13, 

101, 109 
heliceoides (lesbia /'.), Colias .. 30 
hellanichus, Papilio . . . . 20 

hera = quadripunctiiria 
hippocrepidis, Zygaena . . 75, 85 
hirtaria (Lycia), Biston .. ..58 

honoratii (rumina ab.), Zeryn- 

thia 112 

hortensia, Euptoieta . . . . 27 

huntera = braziliensis 
hutchinsonii (c-album ab.), Poly- 

gonia 108, 109 

hylas, Polyommatus . . . . 9 

hyperantus, Aphantopus 88, 95, 

104, 107, 109 
Hypolimnas . . . . . . 105 

Hyponomeuta .. ..48,49, 52 

iberica (aurinia r.), Melitaea . . 81 



122 



73, 
19, 



PAGE 

icarus, Polyommatus 6, 8, 71, 93, 

114, 107 
ignita (phlaeas ab.), Rumieia . . 107 
immorata, Acidalia . . 76, 85 

impar (mnralis v.), Metachrostis 

97, 108 
ines, Melanargia . . 
inornata, Ptychopoda 
interjecta, Triphaena 
irrorellus, Hyponomeuta 
jacobaeae, Hipocrita 
janthe, Phyciodes.. 
janthina. Triphaena 
janira = jurtina 
jasius, Charaxes . . 
jatropbae, Anartia 
Julia, Colaenis 
jurtina (janira), Epinepbele 104, 

107, 108, 114 
lambessana (abdelkader ah.), Sa 

tyrus 
Lasiocampidae 
latefasciata (taeniata ah 

zoma 
latbonia, Issoria . . 
lavinia, Precis 
leporina, Acronicta 
lesbia, Colias 
leucostigma, Helotropba 
leuzeae, Hesperia. . 
licbenaria, Cleora. . 
licbenea, Epunda. . 
ligu&tri, Spbinx . . 
Iinea = flava 

linearia (trilinearia), Cosymbia .. 
Liparidae . . 
literana, Peronea . . 
literosa, Miana 
litura, Amatbes (Anchocelis) 60, 



Peri- 



64, 66, 
21, 30, 



5, 8 
95 

81 
49 
87 
24 
81 



11 

28 
20 



9 
63 

87 
9 
27 
73 
78 
114 
13 
76 
60 
70 



61 
63 
108 
96 
76 



lonicerae, Zygaena 93, 101, 106, 114 

lorquinii, Cupido . . 

lucasi, Melanargia 

lucernea, Agrotis . . 

lucina, Hamearis . . 

lucipara, Euplexia 

lunaria, Selenia . . 

luteago, Dinntboecia 

luteolata, Opistbograpta 

lygaeus (nireus r.), Papilio 

lysimon, Azanus, Zizeeria 

L. at Bookbam (im., ova, lar 

L. at Byfleet (im., lar.) . . 

L. at Micklebam . . 

L. at Princes Eisborougb 

L. at Eanmore 

macbaon, Papilio.. 

macularia, Pseudopanthera 



9, 

8, 



59, 



57, 



12 
12 

96 
87 
78 
57 
104 
58 
89 
4 
78 
80 
.. 84 
.. 86 
.. 94 
107, 109 
.. 69 



; ;; 


1 1-' 
58 


'. 68, 


107 


76, 


106 


19, 


27 


11, 


12 



112 



PAGE 

malinellus, Hyponomeuta 48. 50, 

51, 52, 53, 114 
malvae, Hesperia . . . . . . 78 

margaritata, Campaea 
marginaria, Erannis 
maritima, Senta . . 
marsyap, Thecla . . 
martini, Plebeius . . 
medesicaste (rumina suhsp.), Zer- 

ynthia . . 
medon (astrarche), Plebeius 11, 

13, 104, 107 
megera, Pararge . . . . 6, 9, 109 

Melanargia . . . . . . 13 

melanops, Glaucopsyche. . .. 12 

Melitaea . . . . . . 9, 13 

mendica, Diacrisia .. 102, 103 

menthastri, Spilosoma 96, 107, 114 
menyantbidis, Acronicta. . .. 114 

meridionalis (quercus r.), Lasio- 

campa 
merope (aurinia suhsp.), Melitaea 
mi, Euclidia 
minimus, Cupido . . 
misippus, Hypolimnas .. 89, 105 
montanata, Xanthorhoe, Melan- 

ippe 57, 78, 

monuste, Pieris .. .. 21, 

mori, Bombyx 
mucronellus, Scboenobius 
muralis (glandifera), Metacbrostis 

97, 108 
nana (dentina), Mamestra .. 95 

napi, Pieris 10, 71, 92, 107, 109, 114 
neurica, Nonagria. . .. .. 60 

nigra (secalis ah.), Apamea .. 96 
nigratbalia (atbalia a/>.), Melitaea 106 
nigricans, Agrotis. . .. ..96 

nigropuncta (rapae ah.), Pieris .. 114 
nireus, Papilio . . . . . . 89 



66 

81 

73 

9 



92 

30 

63 

104 



Noctuidae .. .. ..51,59, 65 

nouna, Teracolus.. .. 7, 78 

nupta, Catocala . . . . . . 93 

obeliscata. Tbera . . .. ..85 

obsoleta (coridon ah.), Polyom- 
matus . . . . . . . . 106 

obsoleta (icarusab.), Polyommatus 93 
obsoleta (tbetis «6.), Polyommatus 106 
ocellatus, Smerinthus . . . . 64 

ocbrearia, Aspitates .. .. 87 

ocularis (octogesima ao.), Palimp- 
sestis . . . . . . . . 87 

oculea = secalis 

ophiogramma, Apamea . . . . 89 

olivaceofasciata (quercus ah.), 
Lasiocampa . . . . . . 66 

onopordi, Hesperia . . . . 8 

orbieularia, Cosymbia .. 61, 96 



123 



PAGE 

orbona (subsequa), Triphaena 81, 

96, 111 

orobia, Phyciodes. . .. 19, 24 

oxyacanthae, Miselia ..58,66, 77 
padellus, Hyponomeuta 48, 50, 

51, 52, 53, 54, 114 



paleacea, Enargia (Cusmiii) 
palleiis, Leucania. . 
paludella, Calaiuatropha. . 
palustris, Hydiilla 
paniphilus, Coenonympha 



.. 96 
.. 96 
.. 104 
.. 106 

106, 

107, 114 
11, 



113 

77 

115 

97 

27 

102 
92 



pandora, Dryas .. .. 11, 13 

paphia, Dryas . . . . . . 19 

Papilio . . . . . . . . 24 

pasiphae, Epinephele . . . . 13 

pavonia, Saturnia. . 63,70,76, 113 
pechi, Anthocharis .. .. 8 

pedaria, Phigalia . . 
pendularia, Cosymbia . . 61, 
pennaria, Colotois (Himera) 
perla, Metachrostis 
perrhebus, Papilio . . 24, 
petraria = chlorosata 
phaeorrhoea, Nygmia 
phegea, Amata 
philiipina (pasiphae r.), Epine- 
phele 13 

philodice, Colias .. .. 61, 66 

phlaeas, Kumicia.. .. 104, 107 

phragmitellus, Chile . . . . 104 

Pieris 89 

pinastri = scabriuscula 
pini, Dendrolimus 
pisi, Hadena 

plumbellus, Hyponomeuta 
plumbeolata, Eupithecia. . 
podalirius, Papilio 
polychloros, Eugenia 
pomonella, Cydia (Carpocapsa)96, 



59, 60, 



populi, Amorpha 
porata, Cosymbia.. 
porcellus, Theretra 
potatoria, Cosmoiriche 



66 

95 

49 

89 

11 

11 

97 

64, 106, 108 

..61 

..64 

108, 109, 

113, 114 
praecox, Agrotis . . . . . . 96 

pronuba, Triphaena ..60,81, 96 
proto, Hesperia . . . . . . 12 

provincialis (aurinia r.), Melitaea 81 
pruinata, Pseudopterpna. . 71, 78 
prunaria, Angerona . . . . 87 

psi, Acronicta .. .. ..95 

pudibunda, Dasychira . . 63, 80 
pulcbella, Deiopeia . . . . 4 

pulveraria, Anagoga, Numeria .. 62 
punctaria, Cosymbia . . . . 61 

punctulata, Ectropis . . . . 106 

purpuralis, Zygaena . . . . 105 



PAOE 

pusaria, Cabera . . . . . . 59 

quadripunctaria (hera), Callim- 
orpha . . . . . . . ]03 

quercus, Lasiocampa . . . . 66 

quercifolia, Eutricha . . . . 58 

rapae, Pieris .. 7, 104, 107, 114 

revayana, Sarrotliripus . . . . 102 

rhamni, Gonepteryx .. .. 88 

rhoniboidaria, Boarmia . . . . 79 

ricini, Philosamia .. .. 63 

roeselia (amaltheasuftsp.), Anartia 19 
rorella, Hyponomeuta . . . . 49 

rubi, Callophrys .. .. 9, 89 

rufa (pallens ab.), Leucania .. 96 
rumicis, Acronicta . . 96, 114 

rumina, Zerynthia ..11, 13, 112 

rupicapraria, Thevia, Hybernia 

59, 70, 79 
rurea, Xylophasia. . .. ..78 

rusicadica (trifolii race), Zygaena 4 
rustica (mendica stihsp.), Diacrisia 

102, 103 
rusticata, Plychopoda . . . . HI 

salmacis, Hypolininas .. .. 105 

sambucaria, Ourapteryx . . . . 78 

sao = sertorius 

scabriuscula (pinastri), Dipterygia 89 



schmidtii (phlaeas ah.), Rumicia 104 
secalina (secalis ab.), Apamea . . 
secalis (oculea), Apamea.. 
semele, Hipparchia . . 8, 

semi-syngrapha (coridon ab.), 

Polyommatus . . 
senex, Comacla (Nudaria) 
sertorius (sao), Hesperia.. 
sibilla, Limenitis . . .. 87, 

Smerinthus 
Sphingidae 

stannellus, Hyponomeuta 
stauderi, Hesperia 
stellatarum, Sesia (Macroglossum) 
stoechadis, Zygaena 
straminea, Leucania 
strataria, Biston (Ampbidasis) 58, 
striata (iearus ah.), Polyommatus 
strigillaria, Aspitates 
subsequa (orbona), Triphaena 81, 

96, 
taeniata, Perizoma 
Tapinostola 

taras (malvae ab.), Hesperia 
Teracolus . . 
Terias . . . . 19, 20, 26, 

Thecla 

theophrastus, Tarucus, Azanus 7, 



Thera 

theryi, Zygaena 



96 

96 

109 

109 
79 
12 
88 
64 
64 
49 
7 
64 

101 
85 
60 
93 
62 

111 
87 
60 
78 
89 
27 
19 

78 
61 
11 



124 



PAGE 



thetis (bellargus), Polyommatus 

102, 103, 106, 107, 109 



thoas, Papilio 
titbonus, Epinephele 
tremulae, Phaeosia 
trifolii, Pachygastria 
trifolii, Zygaena 4, 



. . 19 

.. 106, 107 

. . 63 

. . 79 

69, 75, 93, 

101, 105 
Gram- 

.. 79 



.. 96 

.. 95 

.. 60 

. . 96 

11, 87, 108, 109 

. . 85 

19, 20 

. . 50 



trigrarrtmica (trilinea), 

mesia 
trili nea = trigrammica 
tritici, Agrotis 
trisignaria, Eupithecia 
typbae, Nonagria.. 
umbrosa, Noctua . . 
urticae, Aglais 
urticae, Spilosoma 
vanillae, Dione 
variabilis = pade]lus 
varleyata (grossulaiiata ab.), Ab- 
raxas . . . . . . . . 109 

vestigialis, Agrotis . . . . 96 

vetusta, Calocampa . . 59, 60 

viburni (quercus race), Lasio- 

campa . . . , , . . . 66 

vigintipunctatus, Hyponomeuta 49 
vinula, Dicranura. . .. ..63 

virgularia, Ptycbopoda . . . . 79 

wahlbergi, Hypolininas . . . . 105 

wismariensis (maritima /'.j.Senta 106 
xantbograpba, Noctua .. ..96 

ziczac, Notodonta.. ..63,78, 108 

zohra, Cigaritis . . . . . . 13 

Zygaena 101, 105 



Neuroptera. 
Ascalaphus 
cognata, Kaphidia 
Coniopterygidae . . 
fuscata, Sisyra 
bumuli, Hemerobius 
ictericus, Ascalapbus 
Inocellia . . 

libelluloides, Ascalapbus.. 
longicornis, Ascalaphus . . 
lutescens, Hemerobius 
maculicollis, Kaphidia 36, 37, 

notata, Kaphidia 36, 37, 39, 

ottomanus, Ascalapbus . . 

perla, Chrysopa . . 

Planipennia 

Kaphidia (idae) . . 34, 35, 

Sialidae 

vittata, Chrysopa.. 

xanthostigma, Kaphidia.. 





112 


40, 


41 




34 




84 




37 




112 




35 




112 




112 




80 


38, 




39, 


40 


40, 


88 


. . 


112 


, . 


80 


. . 


34 


38, 


113 


, , 


34 


, , 


80 


40, 


41 







PAGE 


Orthoptera. 


aegyptium, Anacridium . . . . 104 


campodiiformis, Grylloblatta 


.. 107 


egina, Empusa 


. 104 


elephas, Pacbytbelia 


.. 12 


grossus, Mecostethus 


.. 107 


maculatus, Gompbocerus 


. 88 


pauperata, Empusa 


. 85 


religiosa, Mantis . . 


. 104 


riparia, Labidura.. 


. 71 


Paraneuroptera. 


P. at Byfleet 80 


dubia, Leucorrhinia 


. 107 


juncea, Aeschna . . 


. 107 


metallica, Somatochlora. . 


. 113 


quadrimaculata, Libellula 


. 107 


Phanerogams. 


acris, Kanunculus . . . . 81 


aestivalis, Spiranthes . . . . 107 


alba, Prosopis . . . . . . 26 


alba, Salix. . . . . . . . 49 


amorphoides, Gleditschia . . 20 


anglica, Genista . . . . . . 79 


apifera, Ophrys . . . . . . 78 


aranifera = sphegodes 


arboreum, Panax . . . . . . 79 


astronium, Aspidospermum . . 20 


azurea, Pontederia . . . . 25 


Berberis 20, 21 


Bignonia . , . . . . . . 27 


buxifolia, Sculia . . . . . . 20 


capraea, Salix . . . . . . 75 


Cebo 27 


chamaedrys, Vernonia . . 21, 28 


cordata, Pontederia . . . . 25 


Crepis 77 


cruziana, Victoria. . .. ..26 


dectylit'era, Phoenix . . . . 2 


Euonymus . . .. ..49,50, 53 


europaeus, Euonymus .. ..48 


ficus indica, Opuntia .. ..20 


fragrans, Tussilago . . . . 68 


gale, Myrica . . . . . . 97 


glutinosa, Alnus . . . . . . 97 


grandiflorum, Echinodorus .. 26 


hecatanthum, Eupatoriuni . . 30 


hediondo, Laurus.. 


.. 20 


herberti, Cypella . . 


.. 24 


japonicus, Euonymus 


.. 49 


Leguminosae 


20, 21 


lorentzii, Schinopsis 


.. 20 


Melampyrum 


.. 89 


microglossa, Solidago 


.. 30 


monacantha, Opuntia 


.. 20 


ovalifolia, Jacaranda 


.. 27 


padus, Prunus 


• 


. 49 



I 



125 



PAGS 



Passiflorae . . 


. 21 


pitanza, A. 


. 20 


Populus 


. 64 


Potentilla 


. 77 


Primula 


. 70 


preta, Laurus 


. 20 


quebracho, Aspidospermum 


. 20 


regia, Victoria . . . . 2 


3, 26 


montevideensis, Sagittaria 


. 25 


Salix 


. 64 


Senecio 


. 30 


Sentias 


. 21 


Smilax 


. 21 


sphegodes (aranifera), Ophrys 


. 78 


spiralis, Spiranthes 


. 93 


sulcata, Commelina 


. 26 


telephium, Sedum 


. 49 


tinctoria, Genista.. 


.. 89 


unguiscati, Bignonia 


.. 27 


vogelianum, Peltophorum 


.. 20 


Rhynchota. 




Aleurodes (idae) . . 


.. 70 


comstocki, Pseudococcus. . 


.. 70 


idae, Aleurodes . . 


.. 70 


vaporariorum, Aleurodes. . 


.. 69 



SCORPIONES. 

Androctonus 
maurus, Scorpio . . 
occitanus, Buthus 



PAGE 
.. 104 

.. 12 

6, 85 



Not Classified. 
aquilina, Pteris (Fern) .. 
bifasciata, Ampbigerontia (Pso 

coptera) . . 
Ephemera at Box Hill 
lagurus, Polyxena (Myriapod) 
lunaria, Botrychium (Fern) 
penetrans, Dermatophilus ("jig 

ger") 

Phenopteris (Fossil) 
platyphylla, Madotheca (Hepatic) 
radicicola. Bacillus (Mycorrhiza) 
Scolopendra (Milleped) . . 
serratula, Pteris (Fern) . . 
Sigillaria (Fossil) . . 
torrentium, Isopteryx (Plecop- 

tera) 
Trichoptera at Byfleet 
Tiichoptera at Box Hill . . 
unipunctatus, Mesopsocus (Pso- 

coptera) . . 
vulgatum, Ophioglossum (Fern) . . 



90 



84 

79 

107 

32 
76 
69 
97 
104 
90 
76 

107 
80 

84 

88 

85 



Are still in ]3riut, and 



■jPBOGEEDINOS 




IftVol.), 




^■VolJMK__ 


1906, 


199||^^^^H 


1914, 


1915,^^^^H 


1922, 


1923, l^^^H 


1926. 


^m ^^ 


d ou dl 


^^^^^^Bie Librarian. 



^191^'^ke 4 -; IdlS, pri<j| 
il8, price 5/-. ; 1916, price 
)rice 4/»; 1919, price 
J22, price 1( 
price 



ii^r^?. 




CONTENTS. ^ ^ 

. -^ i". ,- ■ 'A 

Offiotri &nd Gouneil .* .. .. .^ .* .i 

Bii^^^^K* Council 

ni .. - 

^Sbeik. By O. R. Goodman, F.l 

PrSM^^^^Hfes in Spidtr^' Snares. By Maji 

A Shorl'Det^f^tioa of th« Argentine Chaco. By Ca] 
F.E.S. 

Notes on (be British Snakefliet (Bapbidia). By W. J. Lucatr 

Observations on the Life-bi|ijl|iMi|lE Soarabaeus sacer. By'' 

Goodman, F.E.S. a^^^^^^L* •• 

Notes en the Genus Hjd|^^^^^HkDbert Adkin, F.E.S. 

Annual Addre&s. — LarvSPHHPHHHPfe!. A. Cockayne, D.M., F.E.2 
F.R.C.P. .. .. ^7~»«^ _ _ ._ 

Abetraot of Proceedings . . .. 

Irish P.i^am^. By C. W. Sperring 

Beporl^^Hngicss S.E.U.S.S. at Hastings. By E. Step, F.L.S. . , 
EujiH^^^^^Bjll^evelopment of Pteris aquilina. By E. Step, F.L.S. 
BiH^^^^^^^^K]^^ of Corresponding Societies of the Brit. Assn. B^^ 

The BlIH^^^^^Kila Spider. By A. de. B. Goodman. F.E.S 

Annual Exj^^^^^^H. 

Index .^^^^^^K. . . 



i,'>' 



MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

HiBERNIA CHAMBERS, LONDON BRIDGE, 

i92a-ie2Q. 

1928:— July 26th,; August 9th, 28rd ; Septembt 
October 11 tb, 25th ; November 8th, 22nd ; December ISfcKT 

«— January 10th, 24th ; February 14th, 28th ; March Uj 
il 11th, 25th : May 9th, 28rd ; June 18th, 27th. 
(Y OPEN AT 6.30 p.m., CHAIR TAKEN AT 7 p.m? 


MEM jaaafc. <s&h ibiting specimens at the Meetings 
are i'e<lu|^^^Bbe good enough to hand to the Sc 
Meeti^H^^^^^Hwiting of the generic and spec 
s^gft^^^^^BmBft together with the names of 
^^^^^HPspeoimens were obtained, and 
'mSHMR exhibitors have to make. In the a) 
ifl wr iting the Secretary cannot be responsible 

Ition with his report of such exhibits, or for 
ft^^Hto^nce thereto in the Proceedings. 







yx\C '^ ' ^'l' 



^y^ •■' 




dinas 



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tlenien (includmM»JJk» Beport CoirmdiUe) 



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STANLEY bI^^^. O. R. G _ 
W. G. SHELDON, ALFRED SIC 
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ARCHER A CO., PRINl^ERS, 36, AVONDALE SQUARE, a.E. 



THE SOUTH LONDON 

Entomological & Natural History Society 

(Established 1872) 

HiBERNiA Chambers, London Bridge, S.E. 1. 

—^ — • < ■ 

OFFICERS & COUNCIL 

1929-30. 

H. W. ANDREWS, F.E.S. 

F. B. CARR. 
E. A. COCKAYNE, D.M., A.M., F.R.C.P., F.E.S. 

J. H. ADKIN. C. N. HAWKINS, F.E.S. 

L. C. BUSHBY, F.E.S. Col. F. LABOUCHERE, F.E.S. 

A. W. DODS. W. RAIT-SMITH, F.Z.S., F.E.S, 

A. de B. GOODMAN, F.E.S. A. E. STAFFORD. 

T. H. L. GROSVENOR, F.E.S. 

S. R. ASHBY, F.E.S. E. E. SYMS, F.E.S. 

H. J. TURNER, F.E.S., "Lateraar," West Drive, Cheam, Surrey. 
A. E. TONGE, F.E.S., "Aincioft," Grammar School Hill, Reigate, 

^0n* ^9cvHavxe»* 

S. EDWARDS, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S., etc. {General Sec), 

15, St. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 8. 
H. J. TURNER, F.E.S., " Latemar," West Drive, Cheam, Surrey, 



THE 50UTH LONDON 

ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

HIBERNIA CHAMBERS, LONDON BRIDGE, S.E. 



The Society hag for its object the diffusion of Biological Science, by 
means of Papers and Discussions, and the formation of Typical Collec- 
tions. There is a Library for the use of Members. Meetings of the 
Members are held on the 2nd and 4th Thursday evenings in each month, 
from Seven to Ten p.m., at the above address. The Society's Kooms are 
easy of access from all parts of London, and the Council cordially invites 
the co-operation of all Naturalists, especially those who are willing to 
further the objects of the Society by reading Papers and exhibiting 
Specimens. 

SUBSCRIPTION. 

Twelve ShiUinys and Sixpence per Annum, with an Entrance Fee of 
Two Shillings and Sixpence, 

All Communications to be addressed to the Hon. Gen. Secretary, 
STANLEY EDWAKDS, F.L.S., &c., 

15, St. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. 



PAST PRESIDENTS 



1872-4. . J. K. Wellman (dec). 
1875-6.. A. B. Farn, F.E.S. (dec). 

1877 . . J. P. Barrett, F.E.S. (dec). 

1878 . . J. T. Williams (dec). 

1879 . . R. Standen, F.E.S. (dec). 

1880 . . A. FiCKLiN (dec). 

1881 .. V. R. Perkins, F.E.S. (dec). 

1882 .. T. R. BiLLUPS, F.E.S. (dec). 
1888 . . J. R. Wellman (dec). 

1884 .. W. West, L.D.S. (dec). 

1885 .. R. South, F.E.S. 
1886-7.. R. Adkin, F.E.S. 
1888-9.. T. R. BiLLUPS, F.E.S. (dec). 

1890 ..J. T. Carrington, F.L.S. 

(dec.) 

1891 .. W.H.TuGWELL,PH.C.(dec.) 

1892 .. C.G.Barrett, F.E.S. (dec) 
1898 .. J. J. Weir, F.L.S. , etc. (dec.) 

1894 .. E. Step, F.L.S. 

1895 . . T. W. Hall, F.E.S. 

1896 .. R. South, F.E.S. 



1897 .. R. Adkin, F.E.S. 

1898 . . J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. (dec). 

1899 .. A. Harrison, F.L.S. (dec). 

1900 . . W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

1901 . . H. S. Fremlin, F.E.S., etc. 

1902 . . F. NoAD Clark. 

1903 .. E. Step, F.L.S. 

1904 . . A. Sigh, F.E.S. 

1905 . . H. Main, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
1906-7. . R. Adkin, F.E.S. 
1908-9.. A. SicH, F.E.S. 
1910-11. W. J. Kate, F.E.S. 
1912 13. A. E. ToNGE, F.E.S. 
1914-15. B. H. Smith, B.A., F.E.S. 
1916-17. Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 
1918-19. Stanley Edwards, F.L.S. etc. 
1920-21. K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
1922 . . E. J. Bunnett, M.A., F.E.S. 
1923-4.. N. D. Riley, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
1925-6.. T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S. 
1927-8.. E. A. Cockayne, D.M., 

A.M., F.R.C.P., F.E.S. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Chief subjects of Study : — //, Hymenoptera ; o, Orthoptera ; he, Hemiptera; 
n, Neuroptera ; c, Coleoptera ; d, Diptera ; I, Lepidoptera ; ool, Oology; orn, 
Ornithology ; r, Reptilia ; vi, Mollusca ; cr, Crustacea ; h, Botany ; vii. Microscopy ; 
ec. ent.. Economic Entomology; e, signifies Exotic forms; trich, Trichoptera. 

Year of 
Election. 

1886 Adkin, B. W., F.E.S., "Trenoweth," Hope Park, Bromley, 

Kent. I, orn. 
1922 Adkin, J. H., lion. Lanternist, Council^ " Ravenshoe," Furze 

Hill, Burgh Heath, Surrey. I. 
1882 Adkin, R., f.e.s., " Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne. I, ec. ent. 
1901 Adkin, R. A., "Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne, m. 

1925 Allder, R. C, 158, Broadfield Road, Catford, S.E.6. I. 

1928 Anderson, C. D., 22, Mount Park Road, Ealing, W.5. 

1907 Andrews, H. W., f.e.s.. President, " Woodside," 6, Footscray 

Road, Eltham, S.E. 9. d. 
1901 Armstrong, Capt. R. R., b.a., e.g. (Cantab), f.r.c.s., f.r.c.p., 
3a, Newstead Road, Lee, S.E. 12. e, I. 

1895 AsHBY, S. R., F.E.S., Hon. Curator, 37, Hide Road, Head- 

stone, Harrow, c, I, 

1896 Barnett, T. L., " The Lodge," Crohamhurst Place, Upper 

Selsdon Road, S. Croydon. I. 

1887 Barren, H. E., 78, Lyndhurst Road, Peckham, S.E. 15. I. 
1927 Bedwel,l, E. C, f.e.s., 54, Brighton Rd., Coulsdon, Surrey, c. 

1929 Bell, J. K., Marden Lodge, Caterham Valley, Surrey. 

1924 Bird, Miss F. E., " Red Cottage," Cromwell Avenue, Billericay, 

Essex, orn. 
1911 Blair, K. G., b.sc, f.e.s., '* Claremont," 120, Sunningfields 

Road, Hendon, N.W. 4. v, c. 
1898 Bliss, Capt., M. F., m.c, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s., Butlin's 

Hill, Braunton, near Rugby. I. 

1926 Bliss, A., " Musgrove," Brighton Road, Parley. 

1925 Blyth, S. F. p., " Cleveland," Chislehurst, Kent. I. 



£P 2 7 1938 



IV 
Year of 

Elkction. 

1923 BoucK, Baron J. A., f.e.s., *' Springfield," S. Godstone, 

Surrey. I. 
1909 Bowman, R. T., " Rockbourne," Keswick Road, Orpington, 

Kent. l. 
1909 Bright, P. M., f.e.s., "Nether Court," 60, Christchurch 

Road, Bournemouth. I. 
1925 Brock, R. S., " Highclere," Oakleigh Park, Whetstone, N.20. 

b. 
1927 Brocklesby, S. H., " Long Lodge," Merton Park, S.W.19. I. 

1923 Brocklehurst, W. S., " Grove House," Bedford. I. 

1924 Brooke, Mrs. M. L., 48, Anerley Park, S.E.20. I. 

1909 BuoKsTONE, A. A. W., 807a, Kingston Road, West Wimble- 
don, S.W. 20. I. 

1927 Bull, G. V., b.a., f.e.s., m.b., *' White Gables," Sandhurst, 

Kent. l. 

1915 Bunnett, E. J., M.A., 72, Colfe Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 23. 

)ni. 
1922 BusHBY, L. C, F.E.S., Council, 11, Park Grove, Bromley, Kent. 

l. 
1922 Candler, H., "Broad Eaves," Ashtead, Surrey. I, orn, b. 
1886 Carpenter, J. H., " Redcot," Belmont Road, Leatherhead, 

Surrey. I. 
1899 Carr, F. B., Vice-President, 46, Handen Road, Lee, S.E.12. I. 
1899 Carr, Rev. F. M. B., m.a., l.th.. The Vicarage, Alvanley, Nr. 

Helsby, Cheshire. I, n. 
1924 Chapman, Miss L. M., "Betula," Reigate. 

1922 Cheeseman, C. J., 100, Dallinger Road, S.E. 12. I. 

1929 Clegg, D. L., "Vermala," 9, Westleigh Avenue, Putney, 

S.W. 15. I. 
1879 Clode, W. {Life Member.) 

1916 Cockayne, E. A., m.a., m.d., f.r.c.p., f.e.s., Vice-President, 

116, Westbourne Terrace, W. 2. I. 
1899 CoLTHRUp, C. W., 68, Dovercourt Road, E. Dulwich, S.E. 22. 
Z, ool, orn. 

1928 Common, A. F., " Tessa," St. James Avenue, Thorpe Bay. 
1907 CooTE, F. D., F.E.8., 32, Wickham Avenue, Cheam, Surrey. 

l,b. 
1919 CoppEARD, H., 26, King's Avenue, Greenford, Middlesex. I. 

1923 Cork, C. H., 11, Redesdale Street, Chelsea, S.W. 3. I. 

1919 Cornish, G. H., 141, Kirkham Street, Plumstead Common, 
S.E. 18. I, c. 



V 

Year or 

Election. 

1922 CouoHMAN, L. E., c/o Mrs. A. Couchman, May Cottage, 

Brooklane, Bromley, Kent. /. 
1909 CouLsoN, F. J., 17, Birdhurst Road, Colliers Wood, Merton, 

S.W. 19. I 
1918 Court, T. H., f.r.g.s., "Oak Leigh," Market Rasen, 

Lincolnshire. I. 
1925 Cox, R. Douglas, 12, Blakemore Road, Streatham, S.W. 16. 

1911 CoxHEAD, G. W., 45, Leicester Road, Wanstead, E. 11, 

{Life Member.) c. 

1899 Crabtree, B. H., f.e.s., "Holly Bank," Alderley Edge, 

Cheshire. I. 
1918 Craufurd, Clifford, " Dennys," Bishops Storfcford. I. 

1920 Crocker, Capt. W., Constitutional Club, E. Bexley Heath. 

L 
1898 Crow, E. J., 70, Hepworth Road, Streatham High Road, 

S.W. 16. I. 
1928 Curwen, Capt. B. S., 9, Lebanon Pk., Twickenham. I. 
1927 Danby, G. C, 33, Huron Road, Tooting Common, S.W.17. 

1925 Dannatt, W., F.Z.S., " St. Lawrence," Gaibal Road, Burnt 

Ash, S.E. 12. l. 

1900 Day, F. H., f.e.s. , 26, Currock Road, Carlisle. Z, c. 

1889 Dennis, A. W., 56, Romney Buildings, Millbank, S.W.I. 

I, mi, h. 
1918 DixEY, F. A., M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.E.3., Wadhaui College, 

Oxford. Hon. Member. 

1901 DoDs, A. W., Council, 88, Alkham Road, Stamford Hill, 

N. 16. I. 

1921 DoLTON, H. L., 36, Chester Street, Oxford Road, Reading. I, 

1912 DuNSTER, L. E., 44, St. John's Wood Terrace, N.W.3. 

I. 

1927 Eagles, T. R., f.e.s., 37, Abbey Road, Enfield, Middlesex. L 

1928 Earle, Edw., 16, Addison Gardens, W.l-t. 

1886 Edwards, S., f.l.s., f.z.s., f.e.s., Hon. Secretari/, 15, St. 
Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. I, eL 

1923 Ellis, H. Willoughby, f.e.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., " Speldhurst 

Close," Sevenoaks, Kent, c, am. 

1926 Ennis, p. F., " Hillside," 22, Conway Road, Wimbledon, 

S.W.20. 
1920 Farmer, J. B., 31, Crowhurst Road, Brixton, S.W. 9. I. 



vi 

Year of 
Election. 

1918 Farquhar, L., " Littlecote," Field Heath Avenue, Hillingdon, 

Middlesex. I. 
1924 Fassnidge, Wm., m.a., f.e.s., 47, Tennyson Road, Portswood, 

Southampton. I, 7i, trick, he. 
1887 Fletcher, W. H. B., m.a., f.e.s., Aldwick Manor, Bognor, 

Sussex. {Life Member.) I. 

1926 Fletcher, P. Bainbrigge, b.sc, 65, Compton Road, Wimble- 

don, S.W.19. c. 
1889 Ford, A., " South View," 42, Irving Road, West Southbourne, 
Bournemouth, Hants. I, c. 

1920 Ford, L. T., " St. Michael's," Park Hill, Bexley, Kent, I. 
1915 Foster, T. B., "Lenore," 1, Morland Avenue, Addiscombe, 

Croydon. I. 
1907 FouNTAiNE, Miss M. E., f.e.s., " The Studio," 100a, Fellowa 
Road, Hampstead, N.W.8. I. 

1921 Frampton, Rev. E. E., m.a., Halstead Rectory, Sevenoaks, 

Kent. I. 
1886 Fremlin, Major H. S., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s., Government 
Lymph Laboratories, The Hyde, N.W.9. I. 

1919 Frisby, G. E., F.E.S., 29, Darnley Road, Gravesend. hyni. 
1912 Frohawk, F. W., M.B.O.U., f.e.s., " Essendene," Cavendish 

Road, Sutton, Surrey. I, orn. 
1914 Fryer, J. C. F., f.e.s., m.a., *' Chadsholme," Milton Road, 

Harpenden, Herts. I, ec. ent. 
1911 Gahan, C. J., D.sc, M.A., F.E.S., " The Mount," Aylsham, 

Norfolk, c. 

1920 Gauntlett, H. L., f.e.s., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 37, Howard Lane, 

Putney, S.W.15. I. 

1927 GiBBiNs, F. J. F.I.A.A., F.I.A.S., 51, Weldon Crescent, Harrow, 

Middlesex. I. 

1928 GiLLEs, W. S., F.E.S., F.I.C., " The Cottage," Booking, Braintree, 

Essex. I. 
1920 Goodman, A. de B., f.e.s., Council, " Normanby," Darkes 

Lane, Potters' Bar, Middlesex. I. 
1926 Gordon, D. J., b.a., f.e.s., Craigellachie House, Strathpeffer, 

N.B. col., lep. 

1924 Grant, F. T., 37, Old Road West, Gravesend. I. 

1925 Graves, P. P., f.e.s., 5, Hereford Square, S.W.7. I. 
1923 Gray, C. J. V.,BM/BRWX., London, W.C.I. I. 



vii 
Year of 
Election. 
1918 Green, E. E., f.e.s., "Ways End," Camberley, Surrey, heyn. 

1924 Greer, T., j.p., Curglasson, Stewartstown, Co. Tyrone. I. 
1926 Grey, Olive, Mrs., f.z.s., 90, Charing Cross Road, W.C. 2. eiit. 
1911 Grosvenor, T. H. L., Council, Springvale, Linkfield Lane, 

Redhill. l. 
1884 Hall, T. W., f.e.s., 61, West Smithfield, E.C. 1. I. 
1926 Halton, H. C. S., Essex Museum, West Ham, E. 
1891 Hamm, a. H., f.e.s., 22, Southfields Road, Oxford. I. 
1903 Hare, E. J., f.e.s., 4, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 2. I. 
1926 Harmsworth, H. A. B., f.e.s., 3, Marlborough Gate, Hyde 

Park, W.2. l. 

1926 Harris, A. G. J., b.a., 21, Nevern Place, S.W.5. 

1924 Harwood, p., f.e.s., Westminster Bank, 92, Wimborne Road, 
Winton, Bournemouth. I. 

1927 Hawgood, D. A., 89, Leigham Vale, Tulse Hill, S.W.2. I. 
1924 Hawkins, C. N., f.e.s.. Council, 23, Dalebury Road. Upper 

Tooting, S.W.17. I. 
1929 Hawley, Lt.-Col. W. G. B., 13, Colville Road, W.ll. 

1913 Haynes, E. B., 82a, Lexham Gardens, W. 8. I. 

1923 Hayward, Capt. K. J., f.e.s., Villa Ana, F.C.S.F., Argen- 

tine, l. 
1920 Hemming, Capt. A. F., f.z.s., f.e.s., 29, West Cromwell Road, 
S.W.7. I. 

1924 Henderson, J. L., 6, Haydn Avenue, Purley, Surrey, col. 
1927 Hewer, H. R., m.sc, d.i.c. Royal College of Science, S. Ken- 
sington, S.W. 7. 

1927 Hewitt, A. C, 83, Tavistock Avenue, Walihamstow, E.17. 
1920 Hodgson, S. B., 3, Bassett Road, N. Kensington, W.IO. 
1927 Howard, J. 0. T., b.a., 78, St. John's Wood Court, N.W.8. 

1927 Hughes, A. W. McKenny, 22, Stanford Road, Kensington, 

W. 8. ec. ent. 
1929 Hughes, A. W., 14, Cliff Road, Wallasey, Cheshire. 
1929 Hughes, Miss W. P. K., m.sc, " Australia House," Strand, 

W.C.2. 

1928 Jackson, F. W. J., " The Pines," Ashtead, Surrey. 

1914 Jackson, W. H., " Pengama," 14, Woodcote Valley Road, 

Purley. I. 
1923 Jacobs, S. N. A., Ditchling, Hayes Lane, Bromley. /. 



viii 
Year or 
Election. 
1924 James, A. R., 14, Golden Lane, E.C.I. I. 

1924 James, R., f.e.s., 14, Golden Lane, E.C.I. 

1927 Janson, 0. J., F.E.S. , Recorder, 18, Fairfax Road, Hornsey, N.8. 
e7it. 

1925 Jarvis, C, 12, Claylands Road, Clapham, S.W.8. c. 

1922 JoBLiNG, Boris, " Neva,' Whitechurch Gardens, Edgware, 

Middlesex. i7ied. ent. 

1923 Johnstone, J. F., f.e.s., " Ruxley Lodge," Claygate, Surrey. I. 

1918 Johnstone, D. C, f.e.s., 26, Granville Park, Lewishan, S.E 

I. 
1920 JoicEY, J. J., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.R.G.S., etc, "The Hill," Witley, 

Surrey. I. 
1898 Kaye, W. J., F.E.S., "Caracas," Ditton Hill, Surbiton, Surrey. 

I, S. American I. 
1910 KiDNER, A. R., " The Oaks," Station Road, Sidcup, Kent. I. 
1925 KiMMiNs, D. E., 16, Montrave Road, Penge, S.E. 20. I. 

1925 Labouchere, Lt-Col., F. A., Council, 15, Draycott Avenue, 

S.W.3. 

1924 Langham, Sir Chas., Bart., f.e.s.. Tempo Manor, Co. Fer- 

managh. I. 
1927 Lawson, H. B., f.e.s., •' Brookhill," Horsell, Woking. I. 
1922 Leechman, C. B., ' Caral,' Brighton Road, S. Croydon. I. 
1914 Leeds, H. A., 2, Pendcroft Road, Knebworth, Herts. I. 

1919 Leman, G. C, f.e.s., "Wynyard," 52, West Hill, Putney 

Heath, S.W. 15. c. 
1922 LiLEs, Major C. E., 6, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 1. I. 

1920 LiNDBMAN, F., c/o Rio de Janeiro Tramway Light and Power 

Co., Caixa Postal 571, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I. 

1926 Long, R. M., Witley, 3, Cedars Road, Beddington, Surrey. I, 

1924 Lowther, a. W. G., *' The Old Quarry," Ashtead, Surrey. enU 
1896 Lucas, W. J., b.a., f.e.s., 28, Knight's Park, Kingston-on- 
Thames. Brit. 0., odonata, n, m, h. 

1929 Lyall, Miss Edith May, 57, Mortlake Road, Kew Gardens, 
Surrey. 

1921 Lyle, G. T., f.e.s., " Briarfield," Stump Cross, Shibden, 

Halifax, h. 

1925 MacCallum, C, 1, Aston Road, Ealing, W.5. I. 

1926 Macdonald, F. W., 82, Trinity Street, Leytonstone, E.ll. I. 
1892 Main, H., b.sc, f.e.s., f.z.s., " Almondale," 55, Buckingham 

Road, S. Woodford, E. 18. I, nat. phot., col. 



IX 

Year of 
Election. 

1889 Mansbridge, W., f.e.s., " Monreith," Derby Road, Formby, 
Liverpool. I, c, etc. 

1922 Massee, a. M., f.e.s. , East Mailing Research Station, 

Kent. I. 
1885 Mera, a. W., 5, Park Villas, Loughton, Essex. L 
1881 Miles, W. H., f.e.s., "Grosvenor House," Calcutta. Post Box 

126. mi,b. 
1889 Moore, H., f.e.s., 12, Lower Road, Rotherhithe, S.E.16. 

Z, h, d, p. I, e h, e d, mi. 
1928 de Morney. C. a. G., 21, Nevern Place, S.W.5. 
1920 Morrison, G. D., f.e.s., Depfc. Advisory Entomology, N. of 

Scotland Agricultural College, Marichall, Aberdeen, ec. ent. 

1925 Mounsey, D., " Kirkstone," 5, Harewood Road, S. Croydon. 

Ent J Ornith. 
1927 Murray, Capt. K. F. M., 62, Park Street, Grosvener Square, 
W.l. I. 

1923 Mutch, J. P., '♦ Mayfield House," Church Road, Bexley 

Heath, I. 
1923 Nash, T. A. M., 16, Queen's Road Richmond, Surrey. I. 

1923 Nash, W. G., f.r.c.s., " Clavering House," de Pary's Avenue, 

Bedford. I. 
1906 Newman, L. W., f.e.s., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 

1926 Newman, L. H., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 

1926 Nixon, G. E., 315b, Norwood Road, Heme Hill, S.E.24. /t, I. 

1911 Page, H. E., f.e.s., " Bertrose," 17, Gellatly Road, New 

Cross, S.E. 14. I. 

1927 Palmer, D. S., " North Lodge," Esher. 

1908 Pennington, F., Oxford Mansions, Oxford Circus, W. 1. I. 

1928 Perkins, J. F., 19, Courtfield Gardens, W.C.5. h. 

1925 Portsmouth, J., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. I. 
1925 Portsmouth, G. B., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. 
I. 

1912 Poulton, Prof. E. B., d.sc, m.a., f.r.s., f.l.s., f.g.s., 

F.Z.S., f.e.s., *' Wykeham House," Oxford. {Hon. Member.) 
1927 Pratt, W. B., 10, Lion Gate Gardens, Richmond Lane. 
1897 Brest, E. E. B., 8 and 9, Chiswell Street, E.C. 1. I. 

1924 Priest, C. G., 30, Princes Place, Notting Hill, W.ll. L 



X 

Year of 
Election. 

1904 Priske, R. a. R., F.E.S., 136, Coldershavv Road W. Ealing, 
W. 5. I, m. 

1919 QuiLTER, H. J., " Fir Cottage," Kiln Road, Ptestwood, Great 

Missenden. Z, c, d, mi. 
1922 Rait-Smith, W., f.z.s., f.e.s., Council, '* Hurstleigh," 

Linkfield Lane, Redhill, Surrey. L 
]925 Ralfs, Miss E. M., f.e.s., " Montford," Kings Langley, Herts. 
1922 Rattray, Col. R. H., 68, Dry Hill Park Road, Tonbridge, 

Kent. I. 
1902 Rayward, a. L., f.e.s., 15, Vicarage Drive, Eastbourne. I. ~ 

1887 Rice, D. J., 8, Grove Mansions, North Side, Clapham 

Comiuon, S.W. 4. oni. 
1927 Richards, Percy R., " Wynford," Upton Road, Bexley Heath. 

/. 

1920 Richardson, A. W., f.e.s., 28, Avenue Road, Southall, 

Middlesex. I. 
1908 Riley, Capt. N. D., f.e.s., f.z.s., 6, Brook Gardens, Beverley 
Road, Barnes, S.W.13. L 

1910 Robertson, G. S., m.d., " Bronllys," 72, Thurlow Park Road, 

Dulwich, S.E.21. /. 

1922 Robertson, W. J., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.z.s., 69, Bedford Road^ 

S.W. 4. I. 

1911 Robinson, Lady Maud, f.e.s., "Worksop Manor," Notts. l,n. 
1920 Rothschild, The Right Hon. Lord, d.sc, f.r.s., f.l.s., f.z.s.^ 

F.E.S., Tring, Herts. I, orn. {Life Member.) 
1887 Routledge, G. B., f.e.s., "Tarn Lodge," Heads Nook, Carlisle. 

Ij c. 
1890 Rowntree, J. H., " Scalby Nabs," Scarborough, Yorks. I. 
1915 Russell, S. G.C, f.e.s., "Brockenhurst," Reading Road, Fleet, 

Hants. I. 
1908 StAubyn, Capt. J. S., f.e.s., " Sayescourt Hotel," 2, 

Inverness Terrace, Bayswater, W. 2. 
1925 Sancean, E., " The Yew," Firtree Road, Banstead. h. 
1914 Schmassmann, W., f.e.s., "Beulah Lodge," London Road, 

Enfield, N. I. 
1910 Scorer, A. G., " Hillcrest," Chilworth, Guildford. I. 
1927 Scott, E., m.b., " Hayesbank," Ashford, Kent. I. 

1923 Sevastopulo, D. G., f.e.s., c/o Ralli Bros., Calcutta. /. 



XI 

Ybar or 
Election. 

1910 Sheldon, W. G., f.z.s., f.e.s., *' West Watch," Limpsfield, 

Surrey. I. 
1898 SicH, Alf., f.e.s. , " Grayingham," Farncombe Road, 
Worthing, l. 

1925 Simmons, A., 42, Loughboro Road, W.Bridgford, Nottingham. I. 

1920 SiMMs, H. M., B.sc, f.e.s., " The Farlands," Stourbridge. 
1927 Skelton, Hy. E., 12, Mandrake Road, Upper Tooting, 

S.W. 17. 

1921 Smart, Major, H. D., r.a.m.c, m.d., d.sc, f.e.s., 172, High 

Road, Solway Hill, Woodford Green. I. 
' 1922 Seth- Smith, D. W., Curator's House, Zoological Gardens, 
Regents Park, N.W.8. Z. 

1927 Smith, Capt. F. S., f.e.s., " Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 

1928 Smith, Mrs. Maud Stanley, " Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 
1882 South, R., f.e.s., 4, Mapesbury Court, Shoot-up-Hill, 
Brondesbury, N.W.2. I, c. 

1926 Sparrow, R. W., '♦ Wildwood," Regents Park Road, Finchley, 

N.3. 
1908 Sperring, C. W., 8, Eastcombe Avenue, Charlton, S.E. 7. I. 
1920 Stafford, A. E., Council, 98, Cowley Road, Mortlake, S.W. 14. 

I. 
1872 Step, E., f.l.s., 158, Dora Road, Wimbledon Park, S.W. 19. 

b, w, cr ; Insects, all Orders. 

1928 Stocken, H. E. W., Orchard Cottage, W. Byfleet, Surrey. 

1923 Stolzle, G. a. W., '' Southcote," South Street, nr. Whit- 

stable, Kent. I. 

1924 Storey, W. H., 63, Lincolns Inn Fields, W.C.2. eut. 

1911 Stowell, E. a. C.,b.a., Eggars Grammar School, Alton, Hants. 

1929 Stubbs, G. C, 41, St. Mary's Street, Ely, Cambs. 

1916 Syms, E. E., f.e.s., Hon. Librarian, 22, Woodlands Avenue, 

Wanstead, E.ll. I. 
1920 Talbot, G., f.e.s., " The Hill Museum," Witley. l. 

1922 Tams, W. H. T., f.e.s., 5, Dairy Lane, Hurlingham, 

S.W. 6. L 
1894 Tarbat, Rev. J. E., m.a., Colbourne Rectory, I. of Wight, i, 
ool. 



Xll 

Year or 
Election. 

1913 Tatchell, L., F.K.S., Swanage, Dorset. I. 

1926 Taylor, J. S., Dept. Agriculture, Div. Ent., Pretoria, Union 

of S.A. I. 
1929 Tetley, J., " White Cottage," Silverlea Gardens, Horley. 

1926 ToMLiNsoN, Florence B., " The Anchorage," Lodge Boad, 

Croydon. I. 
1902 ToNGE, A. E., F.E.S., Hon. Treasurer^ "Aincroft," Grammar 
School Hill, Reigate. I. 

1927 Tottenham, Rev. C. E., "Keswick," Tyrone Road, Thorpe 

Bay, Essex, c. 
1887 Turner, H. J., f.e.s., f.r.h.s., Hofi. Editor, " Latemar," West 

Drive, Cheam, Surrey. Z, c, n, he, b. 
1921 Vernon, J. A., " Lynmouth," Reigate, Surrey, l. 
1923 Vredenberg, G., 38, Ashworth Mansions, Maida Vale, W.9. I. 
1889 Wainwright, C. J., f.e.s., 172, Hamstead Road, Handsworth, 

Birmingham. I, d. 
1927 Wainwright, Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W.18. 
1929 Wainwright, J. Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W. 
1929 Wainwright, John, 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W. 
1911 Wakely, L. D., 11, Crescent Road, Wimbledon, S.W.20. I. 
1880 Walker, Comm. J. J., m.a., f.l.s., f.e.s., ** Aorangi," Lonsdale 

Road, Summertown, Oxford. I, c. 

1927 Walker, W. H., " Ranworth," Potters Bar. I. 

1925 Ward, J. Davis, f.e.s., " Limehurst," Grange-over-Sands. L 
1920 Watson, D., " Proctors," Southfleet, Kent. I. 

1928 Watts, W. J., 3, Rayward Road, Elmer's End, Beckenham. l. 
1928 Wells, Clifford, " Dial House," Crowthorne, Berks. I. 
1911 Wells, H. 0., "Inchiquin," Lynwood Avenue, Epsom. I. 

1911 Wheeler, The Rev. G., m.a., f.z.s., f.b.s., *' Ellesmere," 

Gratwicke Road, Worthing. I. 
1927 White, A. G., "Hilltop," Chaldon, Surrey. 
1927 Whitting, A. N., 6, Woolstone Road, Catford, S.E. 6. 
1920 Wightman, a. J., f.e.s., Broomfield, Pulborough, Sussex, l. 

1914 Williams, B. S., " St. Genny's," 16, Kingcroft Road, Harpen- 

den. I, c, hem. 

1912 Williams, C. B., m.a., f.e.s.. Research Institute, Amani, 

Tanga, and 20, Slatey Road, Birkenhead. I, ec. ent. 
1925. Williams, H. B., ll.d., f.e.s., "Little dene," Claremont Lane, 
Esher, Surrey. L 



XUl 

Year of 
Election. 
1918 Wood, H., "Albert Villa," Kenningfcon, near Ashford, Kent. I. 

1926 WooTTON, W. J., F.R.H.S., Wannock Gardens, Polegate, Sussex. 

I. 

1927 deWorms, C. G. M., f.e.s., m.b.o.u., Milton Pk., Egham, 

Surrey. I, orn. 

1921 WoRSLEY-WooD, H., F.E.S. , 37, De Freville Avenue, Cam- 
bridge, l. 

1920 Young, G. W., f.r.m.s., 20, Grange Road, Barnes, S.W. 13. 

Members will greatly oblige by informing the Hon. Sec. of any errors in, 
additions to, or alterations required in the above Addresses and descriptions. 



XIV 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, Jan., 1929. 

THE Council, in presenting the fifty-seventh Annual Report, 
is gratified to be able to record steady progress in the 
condition of the Society and a satisfactory year's work. 

The Membership continues steadily to increase and has now 
reached the record number 265, the new admissions having more than 
made up the losses. There are at the moment, ordinary members 
259, honorary members 2, and life members 4. There have been 2 
deaths, Mr. W. G. Dawson at the ripe age of 91, and Miss E. 
Chapman aged 83. 

4 members have resigned and 6 have been taken off for non- 
payment of their subscription. 

Again there has been an increase in the Attendance at the 
meetings, the average for the 23 meetings being 42. 

It was pointed out to the Council that the Bye-Laws were some- 
what out of date, and as a new issue was necessary, your Council 
considered the present a good opportunity to thoroughly revise 
them and to incorporate the various alterations and additions, 
which had been made since the last edition, 1891. A small 
committee was appointed consisting of Messrs. 0. R. Goodman, 
C. N. Hawkins and C. Sperring, who were empowered to draw up a 
series of revised Bye-Laws and to submit them to the Council. 
This was done, and early in the new year it is hoped that they will 
be ready for submission to a special meeting for confirmation and 
subsequent issue. Your Council regret that Mr. Sperring has found 
that his business engagements do not permit of his remaining on 
the Council for his final years of office, and thank him for his 
services. 

The Annual Exhibition was held on October 25th, and was 
a great success. The arrangements for tables, chairs and refresh- 
ment were again very kindly undertaken by Mr. 0. R. Goodman, 
who unfortunately was taken ill and had to hand over matters to 
his son Mr. A. de B. Goodman, who saw that everything was 
carried through successfully. The thanks of the Society are due to 
these two gentlemen for their efforts. 

Your Council regrets that the response to the appeal for support 
to the Refreshment Fund is in no way adequate for the expenses 
entailed in this necessary adjunct to the success of the evening, and 
points out that the funds of the Society are insufficient to bear this 
increasing item of expenditure. 

SEP 2? 1938 



XV 



Papers have been read before the Society by Messrs. R. Adkin (2), 
W. S. Bristowe, 0. R. Goodman, T. H. L. Grosvenor, H. Main (2), 
T. A. M. Nash (submitted by the President), W. H. T. Tarns and 
Dr. Dixey. 

Owing to the difficulty of gettinfy promises for Papers so long 
before they could be read, your Council early in the year decided to 
issue two programmes of fixtures, one covering the summer period 
and the other the winter session. This has been carried out. 

Field Meetings were arranged at Ranmore, Chilworth, Tring, 
Westerham, Netley Heath, Peaslake, Lea-on-Sea (abandoned) and 
Bookham. It was found impossible to arrange a Fungus Foray 
with any promise of success owing to the dry spell of weather in the 
autumn. All these meetings were successful and the attendance at 
most of them good. 

The lantern was in use on seven occasions under the kind super- 
vision of Mr. J. H. Adkin as Honorary Lanternist. 

Mr. R. Adkin was asked to represent the Society from June 6th, 
to 9th, at the Annual Congress of the South Eastern Union of 
Scientific Societies to which the the Society is affiliated, and also at 
the meeting of representatives of affiiliated societies to the British 
Association at Glasgow, September 5th to 12th. 

The volume of " Proceedings " for the year 1927 was published 
Bomewhat later in the year than usual. It consists of xx4-125 
pages with 8 plates. 

The Hon. Curator reports as follows. — 

" Through the kindness of Colonel F. A. Labouchere the Society 
has been presented with the handsome mahogany Cabinets and 
Collections of Palaearctic and British Lepidoptera formed by the 
late Mr. J. J. Lister, F.R.S., in two 40 drawer and three 20 drawer 
Cabinets. 

" Lord Rothschild has very kindly offered to take charge until 
arrangements can be made to bring them to the Society's Meeting 
rooms. They are at present in his private museum at Tring. We 
are very greatly indebted to these two gentlemen for the trouble 
they have taken to secure this collection for the Society, and our 
best thanks are due to them. 

" It is hoped that the collection will soon be available for 
reference." 

"Mr. R. Adkin has presented various species of British Lepidop- 
tera to the Society's collections, Mr. C. Jarvis four species of British 
Coleoptera, and the Rev. C. E. Tottenham forty-nine species of 
Goleoptera which were desiderata." 



XVI 



The Hon. Librarian reports as follows : — 

•' That the books have been well used both at our meetings for 
reference and for home study. 

" The usual entomological journals have been bound, and a start 
made with the binding of the long series of the ' Trans. Ent. Socy.' 
presented by Dr. Fremlin. 

*' The most important additions are Stainton's ' Natural History of 
the Tineina,' 18 vols., presented by Dr. G. S. Robertson, and the 
whole of the parts published on Diptera of the ' Faune de France,' 
purchased." 

Your Council on behalf of the Society desires to thank the 
numerous donors and others who have rendered assistance in 
many ways during the year. 

The following is a List of the Additions to the Library. 

Books. — Spiders of Connecticut : Stainton's Nat. Hist, of the 
Tineina 18 vols. (Dr. G. S. Hobertson) : Bibliotica Andina : The 
Mutiliid Wasps of America : The Fish of the Phillipines : Diptera 
of the Fauna of France (purchased) : Asteroidea of the N. Pacific. 

Proceedings, Transactions, Reports of Societies, etc. — Bolletino 
R. Scuola d'Agricoltura, Portici, Italy, 195i7 ; Report of the U.S. 
National Museum ; Proceedings of the American Entomological 
Society : The London Naturalist ; Proc. Perthshire Soc. for Nat. 
Science ; Bull. Societe ent. de France ; Trans. Entomological 
Society of London (Dr. Fremlin) ; Annales Societe ent. de France ; 
Revista Ent. Soc. Argentina 1926-7 ; Trans. Wisconsin Academy 
of Science ; Trans. Leicester Literary and Philosophical Soc. ; Proc. 
Isle of Wight Soc. ; Proc. Bournemouth Nat. Science Society ; 
Annual Rep. Smithsonian Institute. 

Periodicals and Magazines. — Entomologist's Record : Entomo- 
logische Mitteilungen : Entomologist : Entomological News : 
Natural History (America) : Phillipine Jr. of Science : Canadian 
Entomologist ; Essex Naturalist : The Vasculum : Revu Russe : 
Entomologiska Tidskrift : Entomologists' Monthly Magazine 
(purchased). 

Separates. — Address to the Entomological Society of London 
1927(8} : 86 items from the United States National Museum : 
Aryyrest/Ua conjuyella : 8 items from Upsala University, Sweden : 
Evolution of Animals (Horniman's Museum): British Coccidae (E. 
E. Green) : 12 items from the Field Museum of N. H. Chicago : 
1 item from M. Janet : Report and Journal of the Footpaths 
Preservation Soc. : 9 items from Prof. Strand of Latvia. 



XVI 1 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 1928. 

I have to record another satisfactory year showing an increase in 
the assets over liabilities amounting to £12 16s. 5d. as compared 
with 1927. 

I cannot however point to as large an increase in our membership 
as we had then, for the total subscription income £129 2s. 6d. is 
down by £11 2s. 6d. and the arrears shown on the last balance 
sheet which I estimated should produce £10 fell short of that sum 
by 22/6d. 

Dividends on our investments produced £29 12s. 6d. as before 
and we drew £2 Os. 4d. in interest on our deposit account at the 
bank. 

Entrance fees are £2 2s. 6d. less than in 1927 and brought in 
the meagre total of £1 12s. 6d. only, but the amount received from 
the sales of our Proceedings is I am glad to say well up, standing 
at £6 18s. 6d. as compared with £4 19s. 4d. in 1927 and since I 
closed my accounts I hear that a further sum of £3 6s. Od. is still 
to come in, which is very satisfactory. 

These items with 13/lOd. for books sold make up a total income 
of £170 Os. 2d. against £181 10s. 8d. for 1927. 

To turn to the expenses side of the accounts, our regular standing 
charges are a little less than last year £57 15s. 6d. compared with 
£62 9s. Od. while binding and purchase of books is a trifle higher 
at £4 12s. Od. Siabscriptions to Societies is the same at £1 16s. 6d., 
and sundries, postages, etc., £3 9s. Od. 

Printing the Proceedings cost £97 14s. 9d. which is substantially 
less than in 1927 but on the other hand catering and hire of chairs 
and tables for the Annual Exhibition cost £23 3d. 9d. against 
£16 16s. Od. 

These items make up a total expenditure of £188 Os. 5d. or 
£18 Os. 3d. more than our standing income. 

Once again our very good friends have come to the rescue and 

with donations to the Publication Fund, including half tone blocks, 

amounting to £19 12s. 2d. and to the Tea fund £13 4s. 6d., have 

turned this debit balance into one on the credit side as already 

stated. 

[Contmued on p. xx. 



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XX 

I think that the thanks of the Society are due to all the 
members who have contributed to the funds mentioned, and I 
should like to express my personal thanks to Mr. T. W. Hall, and 
Mr. F. B. Carr for auditmg my figures and vouching for their 
correctness. 

A Statement of Accounts and the Balance Sheet for 1928, duly 
signed and approved by these gentlemen, is attached. 



fr 



South ° East France. 

By 0. R. Goodman, F.Z.S., F.E.S.—Read March Sth, 1928. 

There is in the life of every English collector a time when the 
paucity of the native fauna and the lugubriousness of the climate 
almost forces him to seek more prolific and happy hunting grounds, 
and his thoughts naturally turn to warmer and more salubrious 
climes not too far afield. His first thoughts are usually of 
Switzerland which has decided advantages, but even in that 
favoured spot the sun does not always shine, and this may cause 
him many disappointments climatically, and therefore, if I may 
advise, let him turn his thoughts to the shores of the Mediterranean 
Riviera and the Alpes Maritimes, where he is practically certain to 
get weeks on end of sunshine and warmth, and a most prolific fauna 
of all orders in the most delightful of surroundings. Each village 
and town from Marseilles to the Italian frontier is the centre of 
alluring localities, from early Spring to late Autumn, and all this 
within about twenty-four hours of London. 

It was the memory of delightful hours spent during previous 
years in these districts that induced Major Liles and myself to leave 
London on June 4th last year (1927). We had the pleasure of the 
company of Mr. Hugh Dixon, F.L.S., a noted botanist, who 
supplied a much needed want. 

Our first objective was a locality in the " Mountains of the 
Moors " called the Val d'Argens, which can be approached from the 
main line at the villages of Le Muy and Les Arcs, at which latter 
place we stopped. 

The " Mountains of the Moors " skirt the sea from Hyeres to St. 
Raphael, but at no part rise more than two thousand feet above sea 
level. The views disclosed from their heights, both of the coast 
and the islands, are beyond compare, and the old villages, some- 
times with a ruined castle overhanging them, present the most 
charming pictures. The River Argens flows down the valley on the 
north of the mountains into the Gulf of Frejus, but in doing so it, 
apparently, for no obvious reason, cuts through a portion of the 
mountains, forming a gorge about five miles long with precipitous 
sides leaving just room enough for a narrow path on the north bank ; 
this path is little frequented and has only been known as a collecting 
locality for a few years. Nearly all the spring Rivieran butterflies 
occur in the gorge where the flora is very diverse. In April both 



species of Zeripithia {Thais), Z. rumina subsp. medesicaate and Z. 
hypernmestra (poh/xena) are abundant, as not only does Aristolochia 
rotunda, one of the foodplants of medesicaste occur there, but also 
that much finer species A. cletnatitis is most abundant amongst the 
undergrowth and attains the height sometimes of over two feet. 
The larvae of polyxena, however, require a careful search. The 
most attractive plant to the insects is the Berberis, whose yellow 
flowers cover the branches and are frequented by at least three 
Theclids, Strymon spini, 8. ilicia and S. w-alhian. The last, a rare 
species on the Continent, simply swarms in the early summer. Woe 
betide the rash collector who tries to take them settled, as the con- 
cealed thorns, over half-inch long, will play havoc with his net. 
Let him instead shake the bush and net some of the crowd that are 
disturbed. Another very thorny plant that comes as a climber is 
the Smilax, whose thorns, though fewer, are much more formidable. 

This valley is one of the localities of the rare Laeosopis roboris, 
and the grassy patches are studded with Potentilla, whose orange 
flowers attract that very local skipper Hespt^ria sidae, which flits 
over the flowers in its tantalising manner. These gra,ssy glades are 
also the home of Scolitantides avion, which, in South France, is of 
the beautiful ornata variety and occurs in May. 

The path wanders closely following the winding bank of the river 
through rough farms and meadows with row after row of mulberry 
trees, of which more anon. We were reclining under an enormous 
cherry tree and quenching our thirst with the luscious fruit, when 
an example of that magnificent butterfly Charaxes jasius flitted by, 
but our scramble for nets disturbed him and away he soared over the 
trees. We had the pleasure of getting a long view of that rare bird, 
the Bee-eater, whose brilliant blue and green plumage is most 
striking in a bird as big as a thrush. 

The south slopes of the '* Mountains of the Moors " skirt the sea 
and are clothed with areas of aromatic plants, such as rosemary, 
thyme, etc., and in the pine woods one frequently comes across 
lovely mimosa trees, whose delicate foliage and sulphur-coloured 
flowers scent the air for yards around. 

The village of Grimaud is one of the charming hamlets and is 
shaded by a number of nettle trees, which in the Spring are 
frequented by many ragged specimens of the hibernated Libythea 
celtia butterflies busily laying eggs on the bare branches amongst 
the buds. A visit to this village in May introduced us to the very 
interesting industry of silkworm breeding, and a few words thereon 
will not perhaps be out of place. 

In the South of France the outskirts of most villages are planted 
with mulberry trees, skirting each road for about a mile in every 
direction, mostly with the two species Morns alba and Morns multi- 
caidis the more favoured foodplants. As one approaches in Spring 
one finds that the trees furthest from the village are denuded of 



a 

leaves and convey the idea that they are dead ; this is occasioned by 
the peasants commencing phicking the leaves at a distance from 
their homes and gradually coming nearer as the demand increases. 
At this time of year the whole population is engaged in this industry, 
all the available rooms, bedrooms, sitting rooms, and lofts, are 
cleared of furniture and a staging erected in the centre running 
from floor to ceiling, with cross slats at intervals. To each row of 
slats is hooked a linen tray upon which the larvae are reared during 
all their instars. The species cultivated here is Bomhijx mori, and 
consists of three varieties, 1st, of a plain putty colour, 2nd, 
striped with brown on each segment, and 3rd, having false ocellated 
spots on the second segment as in Emnnrpha elpenor ; all forms 
have a horn. The " worms," as they are called, are shaded from the 
light and are kept in sizes and moved to various trays as they grow. 
They are fed four times a day with fresh leaves, and cease feeding 
at the change of skin between each instar. The eggs hatch in May 
and the larvae pupate in thirty-eight days. When the larvae are 
full fed they become restless and are then taken to another house 
where similar stages are erected, but the slats are covered with small 
frames containing carefully prepared heather sprays cut about 9" 
iong. The peasants sprinkle Mugwort (Artewisia vidgarh) amongst 
this, as it is said to be very attractive to the full fed larvae when 
pupating. 

The cocoons are sold to merchants who come and buy them for 
transport to Lyons, the great silk manufacturing city, where they are 
killed by being put into a heated oven. The rough silk outer cover- 
ing is removed and the silk wound from the cocoons, which are 
floated in water. Each cocoon winds off between five hundred to 
one thousand yards of raw product. Silk is sold by weight, but the 
finished article is very heavily weighted by being charged with a 
compound of lead in the finishing process. 

After a very hot day (June 7th) at the old Roman seaport of 
Frejus, where we visited the ancient amphitheatre, which is in very 
good preservation, and made a round of the ramparts, harbour (now 
inland) and the aqueduct, we took the train to the little seaport of 
Agay, on the east of St. Raphael, situated at the foot of the 
Mountains of the Esterel. These mountains, although about the 
same altitude as those of the Moors, are in great contrast. The rocks 
are of a brilliant red coloration and of volcanic origin, whereas the 
Mts. of the Moors are of a greyer tint. The brilliant red in contrast 
with the deep cobalt blue of the Mediterranean and the sky-blue 
above makes this portion of the coast one of the most beautiful 
spots on the Riviera. 

Agay is a small village in a little bay at the mouth of one of the 
few streams draining these dry mountains, and is a charming 
centre for exploring this picturesque district. There are several fine 
hotels, and we selected one on the edge of the cliff with walks down 



to the beach (Reserve d'Agay Hotel), and found it most comfortable. 
We had fixed on this spot as a likely locality for the '* Pasha of many 
tails" as he is called, Charaxes jasim, and on the morrow set out 
for its haunts, walking inland by the sides of the stream which is 
nicely clothed with thickets. Butterflies swarmed in the glades, 
especially numbers of the great brown and white Satyrus circe, 
settling on the trunks of the fir trees on which it is very incon- 
spicuous. Brenthis dap/me sat in such numbers on the brambles 
that twenty or thirty were visible at a time, and in the shade 
Lycaenopsis argiolus was common, and the Theclidae abundant. 
Lbiienitis rivtilaris {camilla) occasionally glided past just as L. aihilla 
does at home. The very dark form of Melananjia cfolatliea var. 
prociiia was just emerging, and two specimens of Hesperia sidaevfere 
taken, but worn at this late date. The continental form of the 
Lulworth skipper {Thymelicus acteon) had just emerged. After 
crossing some vineyards we came upon a knoll with rough ground 
covered with bushes of strawberry tree, Avhutns \niedo ; the food- 
plant of Cliaraxes. There were several specimens of C.jasins sailing 
from plant to plant, but in spite of its size, 5" across the wings, we 
were entirely unsuccessful in taking it, to our bitter disappointment. 
We lunched at the foresters hut called " La Gratadis " and returned' 
m the cool of the evening. 

The Esterel seems a particularly fine locality for the cicadas : one 
species occurs in such numbers and the males create such a din, 
that when walking through the pine copses it is impossible to bear 
oneself speak. In these copses some numbers of Palpares libelliiloides 
were flapping about like disabled dragonflies, but the larvae and 
pupae were absent, or at least, invisible. The allied species from 
other parts of the world appear to rest on the tree trunks and are 
wonderfully protected by their coloration. 

And now for the Alps .... After passing a night in that 
delightful city Nice, with its white villas situated in lovely gardens 
amidst rose covered pergolas, balustraded terraces covered with 
climbing exotic plants of all the colours of the rainbow, we took the 
very overcrowded motor and journeyed up the Valley of the Var, 
half dry at this period, as far as Vesubie, and thence we entered the 
narrow branch Valley of Lantosque. The gorges through which 
we passed compared favourably with the most noted valleys of 
Switzerland or the Pyrenees ; the mountains, and cliffs, and 
precipices, are as sheer as those of the Devil's Gorge at Andermatt, 
or that of St. George at Quillan. 

The road has to be tunnelled and blasted out of the rocky sides 
and it is so narrow that the valley is entirely closed by iron 
gates and rails with batteries set in the rocks, as this is one of the 
valleys leading over the Italian Frontier. 

All the old villages are built perched high on rocks above the 
road, for protection in the olden times against the raids of the 
Saracens. 



There is a tramway running the whole distance to the Alpine village 
of St. Martin Vesubie, but the awful landslip of the previous 
year had rendered this track unusable. The slip was caused by a 
portion of the mountain side of a loose gravel conglomerate becoming 
water logged and sliding down into the valley, overwhelming half 
the village of Roquebilliere together with the road and tramway. 
Many people lost their lives, and the houses were smashed and 
swept away. 

A few miles beyond Roquebilliere the Alpine village of St. Martin 
Vesubie is reached. This village formerly called St. Martin Lantosque, 
which was the previous name of the valley, appears in the early 
entomological books as the locality for nearly every mountain and 
Mediterranean species, the lists of Milliere being quite voluminous. 
The more modern work of Bromilow, " Butterflies of the Riviera," 
is more accurate and fuller of information. 

The village is situated at an altitude of 3333 feet above sea level 
directly North of Nice at a distance of thirty six miles. Its position 
is at the confluence of two valleys, Val de Boreon and Val de 
Fenestre, which form the top ends of the main valley of the Vesubie, 
the water of which furnishes the water supply of the towns from Nice 
to Menton. There are in the vicinity thermal springs of sodium, 
sulphur, and magnesium natures, efficacious in the treatment of 
bronchitis, rheumatism, and eczema, the best known being situated 
at Berthemont-les-Bains. 

The village of St. Martin is entirely shut in by the mountains of 
the Alpes Maritimes, which form the natural frontier between 
France and Italy, although the actual line is considerably on the 
French side of the watershed. The situation is entirely Alpine, 
the higher mountains being snow-covered during the whole year. 
Whilst traversing the valley from the sea it is very striking to pass 
from semi-tropical surroundings to the high Alps with the consequent 
change of vegetation, from the palm and olive groves of the coast 
upwards through the chestnut and pine zones to the bare Alps, and 
renders the scenery very varied and of divergent character. 

The centre of the village contains a large square shadily planted 
with plane and lime trees, near the terminus of the tramway. 
Grouped around the square are the larger hotels, whilst the narrow 
streets wind up the steep gradients of the hill through the typical 
old buildings which almost meet over-head. It is a paradise for the 
artist and the photographer. The Church is finished by a golden 
cupola of Saracenic design, showing the influence of that race in the 
history of this, and in fact, all the Rivieran littoral. 

The most pretty view of the town is from the bridge over the 
river on the Nice road. 

The Hotel Victoria, at which we stayed, was situated on the out- 
skirts of the town and opened out on to a terrace, upon which we 
had allour meals, and on to a rose-garden from which delightful views 



6 

were obtained of the whole of the Boreon valley, and over the 
flowery uncut fields to the village some half-mile away. The pillars 
of the terrace were covered with honeysuckle and climbing roses, 
which at night were frequenfed by Sphinx cunvolvnli, several specimens 
of which were taken after dinner; and the garden was frequented 
by many fireflies which flashed intermittently through the trees. 

Our first excursion was up the Boreon Valley, along which runs a 
carriage road, first through fields bordering the side of the rushing 
stream, and afterwards over rocky ground into the larch and pine- 
covered slopes of the upper valley, which, as we proceeded, became 
narrower and narrower. One proceeds about two and a half miles 
upwards before the frontier is crossed into Italy by a rough bridge to 
the left bank of the stream. Examples of the mountain ash or rowan 
are studded on the banks, and the berries at this time w^ere assuming 
their red colour. Shortly after crossing the frontier we mounted a 
hill covered with meadows, ablaze with alpine flowers, such as the 
globe flower {Trollius), aconite, columbine, buttercups, spearwort, 
Dianthus, Umbelliferae, and many others, and emerged upon a knoll 
where a view of the Boreon Cascade can be obtained. There is a 
good stream of water which descends 115 feet, practically sheer. 
The road here passes the Boreon Hotel, which cannot be used at 
present as it is occupied by the Italian Gendarmeri, who are now 
making themselves as unpleasant as possible to the French near the 
frontier. Italy evidently desires to recover the province as far as 
the Yar River, which was the frontier until ceded to the French in 
1860. The path proceeded to the village of Cerise, or in Italian, 
Cirregia, with its many cherry trees, and thence by various passes 
to Italy. Amongst the insects seen a,nd taken were some numbers 
of a large form of Pamossius apollo with Erebia ceto and E. stijijne 
{pirene). 

To the west of St. Martin rises a perpendicular crag, one thousand 
feet above the town, but on the bank of the river. It is surmounted 
by a little village perched most picturesquely on the summit. This 
is a nice afternoon's walk. The main road crossed the river by the 
upper bridge near the wood mill and wound high above the river 
through fields and rocky slopes by great lacets up the slope of the 
crag. The prettier way, however, is from the lower village by a 
narrow mule bridge and thence by a zig-zag path through pretty 
villas and overhanging banks in which numbers of Myrv}elion-^\\>s 
were dotted about. The larvae, as is well known, use these pits to 
trap their victims, seizing them in their strong nipper-like jaws 
and sucking out the life juices. They were found in all stages of 
development. The full fed larva spins a silken cocoon in the dust, 
and thus coated with dust it resembles a small ball of earth. After 
a period of pupation the familiar delicate-winged imago emerges. 
We found the ant-lion pits commonly in the dust under a sloping 
rock at St. Martin Vesubie. 



The path opens on the previously mentioned road at the foot of the 
lacets where the slopes are studded here and there with that exquisite 
scarlet Liliiun potuponiiun, which is one of the peculiar plants of 
Vesubie. These cliffs and slopes are the most prolific locality for 
that beautiful Pofiilio alexanor, but its flight renders its capture 
very difficult unless visiting its food-plant, Sesilemontana, or sucking 
the flowers of a purple species of thistle. 

The village of Venancon is interesting for the tiny chapel built 
on a block of limestone rock and containing 15th century frescos; 
it is also more mteresting as containing the only cafe in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

During the first week of our stay the weather was broken by 
several storms of short duration, but it improved as time went on. 
One perfect morning we decided to try a little mountaineering, so 
starting early with guide and steeds we commenced the ascent of 
Le J3alme de la Frema, a mountain of about 8000 feet altitude to 
the north. Even at that early hour the sun was very hot in the 
valley but was mitigated by the mountain breeze as we proceeded. 
The early part of the climb is up a very rocky fissure, the path 
eventually emerging on the Col de St. Martin, leading over to St. 
Sauveur in the valley of the Tinee. From the rocks rising about 
the path hung feather pendants of sprays of the exquisite flowers of 
iSaxifrayn laiituHcmia, one of the most delicate of the genus. The 
summit of the pass is wide and open with mossy turf, where a rest 
was welcomed, after which the path skirted along the mountain at 
a considerable altitude, through fir woods for a mile or so, and 
thence, branching upwards, we emerged upon the rolling Alps, the 
slopes of which are covered, in the month of July, with the star 
like flowers of the edelweiss in quantity, and the Alpine anemone, 
the vivid blue of Gentiana acaidis and other smaller species. The 
paths over these Alps are deep cut into the soil by the streams 
from the melted snow. The rocky summit was reached about 
two o'clock and the view from thence compensated for the very 
considerable fatigue of the ascent. After lunch collecting was 
commenced and the objects of the excursion were found in 
abundance and perfect condition. The first was that striking 
mountain fritillary, Melitaea cynthia, the males of which are black 
with white markings, the females somewhat resembling aurinia. 
They were taken flitting about in the grass guUey running up 
between the two mountain tops, and settling on the leaves of 
Gentiana liitea. The other object was that high mountain 
butterfly Oenis aello, which frequented the stony summit of the 
Balme de la Frema, and were flying very commonly and in lovely 
condition. The insect is much like Satyrus semele, " the Grayling," 
both in habits and coloration. The genus, which is chiefly arctic, 
is considered one of the earliest existants of archaic form. The 
other species was Euchlo'e belia, very typical, but flying very fast 



8 

like Synchlo'e calUdice. The view from this summit is one of extreme 
beauty, with the range of snow clad peaks of the Alpes Maritimes 
stretching along the entire horizon in a setting of the exquisite 
blue of a perfect southern sky studded with feathery clouds, and 
the green of the Alps and the valleys below clothed in the dark green 
of the pine forest?. The descent was far more tiring than the 
ascent, and we arrived at our Hotel thoroughly fatigued. 

The last excursion to be made was to the Pilgrim Chapel of 
Madone de Fenestre at the head of the valley to the N.E. and 
situated 6200 feet above the sea, which necessitated a continual 
climb for three miles, at times very rough. How an old peasant 
pilgrim woman we met could walk bare-foot for this distance over 
the steep and stony path is incomprehensible. 

The valley branches from the Vesubie Valley in a N.E. direction 
and one mounts along an open pasturage for about one 
and a half miles to a place where a landslide has blocked the valley, 
thus forming a small lake which is surrounded by broken trees and 
other debris. 

The pastures are alive with insect life and it is most interesting 
to watch the Ascalaphids of several species hawking with outspread 
wings over the grass and swooping on some less speedy insect and 
seizing it to bear away to a twig to consume at leisure. 

Ascalaphns. — The genus AscalapJms was well represented at St. 
Martin Vesubie. By far the commonest species was A. ottomanas 
which flew in hundreds in the Valley of the Madone de Fenestre. 
This species it will be remembered, was reported by us from this 
locality in 1921 ; its previous known range then being Dalmatia to 
the Black Sea. The late Dr. C. L. Withycombe exhibited some 
of our 1921 specimens at this Society, but unfortunately, owing to 
some misunderstanding, these were described in the 1921 
"Proceedings " as coming from Digne. 

The other species noted were A. libellulouhs (coccajus), which is 
apparently nearly related to A. ottomanns, and A. loiif/icornis. 

Ascalaphns ottoniantis. — Theforewingsare slaty blue with brownish 
dusky markings. Hindwings pale slaty blue with brownish dusky 
markings towards the tips and the'^Zac^ basal area is rounded. The 
antennae straight and knobbed. 

Ascalaphns libelluloides (coccajns). — The forewings brownish with 
yellow, or more rarely, white basal areas. Hindwings yellow, or 
more rarely, white with brownish markings towards the tips. The 
black basal area pointed, being roughly triangular. The antennae 
straight and knobbed. 

Ascalaphns longicornls, — Smaller than the preceding species. The 
forewings rich golden with black dusting basally. Hindwings golden 
with the black basal area rounded, and with black crescent-shaped 
markings at the tips. This feature has been noted by us on several 
occasions, and we should be glad to know if this is a constant 



9 

character of the species. All specimens, as far as we can recollect, 
have had this character. 

Of the life-history of this ofenus little apparently is known. Mr. 
Main once induced a female to lay epfgs on a blade of grass, but 
the younw larvae on hatching refused to feed. Professor Poulton 
exhibited the living larvae of some African species at the Entomo- 
logical Society ; they are carnivorous, flat, bug-like creatures with 
strong nippers, thus resembling the larvae of Myrnideon fnymicarifta. 
They are said to live on tree trunks exhibiting marked protective 
resemblance. The larvae exhibited by Professor Poulton resembled 
lichen patches. These specimens, we believe, are now in Mr. Main's 
charge, so perhaps we may hope to hear further details from him at 
a later date. 

As we left the outskirts of the village we saw several specimens of 
Poh/f/onia eqea closely allied to our P. c-albiiw butterfly. Mr. 
Simmonds, of Nottingham, whom we met at St. Martin has since 
bred through a series from eggs obtained here, and has found that 
the result produced specimens of both the typical egea and a lighter 
form analogous to the var. hntchinanni in Polygonia c. album. 

The upper end of the valley is a jumble of rocks amongst the fir 
woods with Alpine knolls ablaze with flowers of all colours, the 
yellow Train Ks or globe flower being very conspicuous, and the woods 
clotted with bunches of the large orange tiger-lily. 

At the frontier a large and very fierce green lizard was secured 
under a rock and was duly dubbed " Mussolini." 

The upper gradients are severe and the Chapel is placed amongst 
wild and bare mountains covered with snow. This is the spot 
from which hunters start after chamois, which can sometimes be 
observed from the Hotel. The name Fenestre is due to a hole 
through one of the mountains, visible from the path, which is the 
window referred to in the name. 

After our visit to Vesubie was finished we travelled by the Sud 
Railway for the whole day at a snail's pace up the valley of the 
Var, past Touet de Beuil, above the road, and Entrevaux with a 
17th century Castle with ramparts and drawbridge complete, 
arriving at Digne at last. Digne is too well known as the Ento- 
mologists' Paradise to require description. The following are a few 
notes on specimens obtained there. 

The larvae of Mditaea (lidyma feeds on white dead-nettle, and, 
they are very like those of M. athalia. The pupa of M. didyma was 
suspended on a lavender twig. It is white with yellow and black 
markings, and hangs head downwards. 

A large yellow and black dragonfly, species (?j, was taken in the 
Valley of the Eaux Chaudes, Digne, flying over a layer of mud at 
the side of the stream ; from time to time it would fly up and down 
vertically, plunging its abdomen into the mud, the body 
during these vertical movements upwards being curved towards 



10 

the thorax. These evolutions enabled its capture, and the 
specimen is now in the possession of Major C. E. Liles. It ia 
thought that perhaps the specimen was ovipositing, but a careful 
search in the mud revealed no eggs. 

A specimen of a large Cicada, Cicadetta atra^ with body shiny 
reddish brown was found frequenting oaks in the Dourbs Valley, 
Digne. These insects usually lie flat along horizontal twigs. 

A small black scorpion, Scorpio enropaeiis^ was found not 
uncommonly under stones round about Digne. 

A lar^e species of spurge grew commonly in the valleys at Digne 
and numbers of Deilephila eiip/iorbiae larvae were found feeding 
upon it ; sometimes as many as 7 or 8 larvae on one plant. 

After a pleasant week there we motored through that very interest- 
ing portion of Provence given over to the cultivation of almonds, 
peaches, etc., which are grown on a high plateaux of yellow sand. 
We arrived about mid-day, after a steep ascent, at the Hotellerie 
de la Sainte liaume, situated about twenty miles due west from 
Marseilles. 

The chain of Ste. Baume attains a height of 2800 feet, or a little 
more, and the formation is somewhat curious. The southern 
flank is practically precipitous so that the Hotelliere can only be 
approached from the west or north. It is situated upon a ledge or 
terrace extending the whole length of the mountain at a height of 
about two thousand feet, which is called the Plan d'Aups. The 
slope between this plain and the mountain is entirely covered with 
a very line and extensive forest pierced with drives in many parts. 
The foliage is very thick, and in these glades and on the edges of the 
wood great numbers of butterflies abound. Dryas pa/ihia, Argynnis 
cydi/>pe, and Satyriia circe, being the most common, whilst on the 
edges quantities of t^olyomniatns dolus J and $ with its var. 
vittota flitted over the lavender, and in the rougher ground Polyom- 
viatus coridoii var. constanti was not uncommon. 

There were great fields of lavender bushes planted on the plain, 
delighting the eye and scenting the air, amongst which Goiepteryx 
cleopatra swarmed. 

The northern edge of the plain consisted of a curious flat rocky 
formation which was fissured in every direction and could only be 
crossed safely by one of two paths. All this part of the plateaux 
was clothed in shrubs and undergrowth, and was the haunt of 
nany of the rarer species. Aryyunu hecate was going over, but solitary 
specimens of Lueosopis roboris, iStryunm qiierciis and Satyrus briseis 
were taken. This edge was bounded by a sheer precipice of about 
two hundred or three hundred feet, giving a wonderful view to the 
north of the Valley of Ste. Zacharie and the ruined castle of old 
Nans. 

The Hotellerie, apparently an old Monastery, is towards the eastern 
end of the plain with a steep path through the wood to the sacred 



11 

grotto in the precipice above. The Grotto is a few hundred feet 
above the Hotel and two hundred feet under the summit. The 
front is built up to form a natural rock chapel in which the Pilgrims' 
services are held. Upon the summit of the mountain exactly over 
the Chapel is another, from which point the whole of the country 
as far as Marseilles with the blue Mediterranean in the back ground 
can be seen. It may be of interest to recount the Legend attached 
to this point 

Mary Magdalen after the Crucifixion, together with her sister 
Martha, and Lazarus, and other Christians, were so persecuted by 
the Jews that they were forced to flee the Holy Land and were 
compelled to launch in a crazy little angovern able craft. However, 
through God's goodness they were guided through endless trials 
and perils until they were driven on the Rivieran shore near 
Marseilles, from whence they were transported by angels to the 
mountain of Ste. Baume, where Mar}^ took up her residence in the 
Grotto, and lived in penitence and privation, during which time she 
was transported by angels seven times a day to the height above 
where the upper Chapel of St. Pillon is erected. Her death took 
place at Ste. Zacharie, thirty-three years after her landing. 

As an Hotel, the Hotellerie has little to recommend it. Ever}'- 
thing was slipshod, and the meals the worst we have ever had in 
France. This we bore for a week, but fish on Friday, and little 
enough of that, broke the camel's back, and we retreated with all 
the haste we could on Saturday for Marseilles. 

However, as a collecting ground, and beauty spot, it has few 
equals, and the many opportunities of entrancing studies of life- 
histories compensated for the other drawbacks. 

At Ste. Baume another species of Cicada was met with, Tibicina 
haeniatoiles, frequenting the pine forests. It is much smaller than 
the preceding species. Lycosa narhouensis, the black bellied Tarantula, 
was common on the Ste. Baume plateau. Our observations on the 
ovi-position have been reported at this Society at a previous meeting. 
On one occasion we found a small dead lizard in a burrow, but 
whether this was actually killed by the tarantula which occupied 
this particular pit, we are unable to say. 



12 



Facts and Fallacies about Spiders. 

By W. S. Bristowe, B.A., F.Z.S.—Read March 22nd, 1928. 

I am used to being looked upon as an oddity by my friends for 
collecting spiders, though why an interest in spiders should be 
regarded as something rather degrading when no similar stigma 
attaches to Lepidopterists I cannot see. The green butterfly-net 
has perhaps accustomed people to Lepidopterists, whilst I, except 
when armed with a sweeping net or beating tray, look a fairly normal 
being, I believe, acting in a strange way — clawing up grass with 
my nails, peering for hidden treasure under bushes or wrestling 
with stones on hillsides. Last summer ] was endeavouring to 
trace the range of a spider, Plwlcus phalauijioides, which is found in 
houses along the south coast only. To do this I sought excuses to 
enter garages, hotels or other buildings and then walked from room 
to room staring at the ceiling. Perhaps there is some excuse for 
people who look at me doubtfully and discuss me in whispers after 
all. In the Louvre in Paris I once nearly got into serious trouble. 
When I was standing admiring a picture I suddenly became aware 
of a small spider hanging by a thread from my hat. I whipped 
out a tube of spirit and almost instantaneously was beset by two 
gesticulating custodians, who apparently thought I was going to 
throw vitriol over one of the art treasures. 

" Some books are lies frae end to end," says Burns. 

I won't go so far as to say that this statement could be applied 
to books on spiders, but many of the observations of early writers 
are tempered with considerable imagination, and it is an undoubted 
fact that many common beliefs about spiders are quite untrue. 

Fallacies about spiders are very frequent both in books and in 
people's minds. These fallacies may be classified as follows : 

Those due to (1) ignorance, (2) imagination, (3) generalisations. 

I propose to give you a few examples of each kind. 

1. Ignorance. 

In the introduction to his valuable book entitled " The Spiders 
of Dorset," the late Rev. 0. P. Cambridge, says that a friend told 
him he knew of four kinds only — the Red Spider ; the Harvest 
Spider ; the Garden Spider ; and the House Spider. This answer 
shows a very common misconception, not only as to the number of 
species, but also as to what is really a spider. There are more 



13 

than 550 kinds in this country alone, whilst the Red Spider and 
the Harvest Spider are not spiders at all, the former being a Mite, 
the latter a Phalangid. 

A very common misconception is that a spider is an insect, but 
as you all know, the spider belongs to the class Arachnida and can 
be distinguished from insects by a number of characters. The 
spider for instance, has 8 legs, two parts to its body, no antennae, 
simple eyes and undergoes no metamorphosis. 

That spiders have jaws and poison sacs is certainly a fact, but 
that they will deliberately bite man is a common fallacy. All 
spiders will open their jaws if there is no means of escape, but 
even then very few British species could pierce the human skin. 
It is still doubtful to what extent the bites of tropical spiders are 
poisonous to man, but that the effects in many cases have been 
exaggerated, and that the bites of scorpions or other creatures have 
often been attributed to the spider, is certain. 

From time to time friends who have lived in Eastern countries 
give me exciting accounts of battles staged between spiders and 
scorpions. It appears that in most cases, however, the spiders 
referred to are not true spiders at all, but belong to the order 
Solifugae. These Arachnids are very spider-like but may be 
distinguished by their segmented abdomens and chelate jaws. 

2. Imagination. 

We all know the kind of stories told by fishermen, and the fallacies 
coming under this heading might be called, " Fishermen's Tales." 
They are, alas, only too numerous in spider literature. 

Legends from tropical countries of *' man-eating " spiders must 
be referred to various forms of land crabs and, as a rule, to the 
giant Hermit Crab, Birgus latro, which lives in coconut trees. 
The capture of birds by some tropical spiders must be looked upon 
as a rare occurrence, but a whole sub-family are popularly known 
as " Bird-Eating Spiders." These spiders are mainly nocturnal in 
habits and their snares seldom consist of more than irregular 
strands of silk at the entrance to the burrows in which they live, 
so their opportunities for capturing birds must be rare — perhaps 
their nocturnal wanderings sometimes bring them in contact with 
sleeping birds. 

An English spider, Dolomedes fitnbriatiis, is known as the Raft 
Spider because it is said, it fastens leaves together to form a raft 
on which to float down streams. This spider is certainly always 
found near water ; it is quite at home on the surface and can dive 
beneath the surface, but from my experience of it I can state that 
it does not build rafts. There are records of this spider and also its 
foreign relations diving beneath the surface to capture prey, and in 
some cases fish. Whether this is another " Fisherman's tale " I 
am unable to say. 



14 

Many writers on insects, and spiders also, have credited them 
with a high proportion of intelligence, but critical examination 
always shows, unfortunately, that their actions are governed 
mainly by instinct. What marvellous instinct different spiders 
inherit to enable them to build their various types of snare, their 
trap-doors on hinges and their parachutes ! 

At one time it was believed that spiders could effect marvellous 
cures as medicine, and one prescription at the beginning of the 
19th century was, " swallowing a spider gently bruised and wrapped 
up in a raisin, or spread upon bread and butter." I hardly like to 
assert that the belief in this prescription was unfounded, as I feel 
sure a dose of this sort three times a day would effect rapid cures 
with some people even to-day ! 

3. Generalisations. 

Literature on spiders contains a great amount of misleading 
information regarding the habits of spiders, observations on one 
species or perhaps one family being applied to spiders as a whole. 
My observations on the courting habits of spiders have shown me 
me that every species has its own little peculiarities. Some males 
court by means of dances, or a better description would be displays ; 
some by telegraphic signs along the threads of the web; others by 
what is sometimes known as " cave-man " methods in spite of their 
inferior size. Some males will only approach if the female is already 
eating an insect, for instance Meta seipnentata, whilst Pimura 
mirahilis presents the female with a fly as a wedding offering. That 
females always eat the males is a very common fallacy, based 
perhaps partly on the behaviour of the common Garden Spider, 
Epeira diadewata, where the courtship would appear to be fraught 
with considerable danger. The fact is that once the female spider 
has recognized the male he is comparatively safe, but it is up to 
him to arouse her sexual instincts to a pitch at which they dominate 
her preying instinct. After copulation has taken place her preying 
instinct is of course once more dominant, so wise is the male who 
beats a hasty retreat. Similarly towards the end of the mating 
season his danger increases. The supposition that the male is 
always killed is based largely on the sudden disappearance of the 
males. In actual fact, though many may perish at the hands of 
the female, many others die a natural death as once they reach 
maturity the lives of the males are in most families relatively 
short. 

Certain instances are sometimes cited of species in which the 
sexes live together in apparent harmony for considerable periods. 
One of these is Meta sefpnentata. In September, 1926 I kept, a 
number of these pairs under observation. I marked 10 males and 
found that after 4 days only one was in the same web. Thus even 
in this apparently monogamous community the males are unfaithful 



15 

to their wives ! After copulation has taken place the male leaves 
the female's web and goes in search of another. If another male is 
in possession a fierce battle ensues which results in one or other of 
them being driven away. 

Very few investigations have been carried out on the spider's 
prey and sense of taste, and as this is an example of a generalisation 
and fallacious assumption that spiders will eat anything small 
enough for them to overpower, I propose to deal with this at some 
length. 

Spiders eat flies, they devour one another and sometimes in the 
tropics capture birds — such are the facts of which most people are 
aware, but even the knowledge of experts does not extend very far 
beyond this. From books one usually gets the impression that 
spiders will eat any living creature which they can overpower, and 
that apart from this little or no discrimination is used. 

Spider collectors in an endeavour to find some useful purpose 
fulfilled by spiders, have sometimes asserted that they destroy 
enormous quantities of harmful insects, but their assertions have 
never been backed by statistics to show that useful forms do not 
meet a similar fate. From time to time spiders have been included 
by zealous entomologists in lists of the enemies of some particular 
insect pest, but there is no published information to support this 
contention that any spider shows specialization as regards its prey. 

The habits of different kinds of spiders will affect the nature of 
their prey considerably. First of all, dividing spiders roughly into 
two groups, web-builders and hunting spiders, it is clear that if we 
show spiders to have powers of discrimination, the hunting forms 
will have more opportunity of exercising their taste of preference 
than web-builders, which can only select from amongst those 
insects which become entangled in their snares. Secondly the 
habitat will play a large part in deciding what selection of insects 
each species of spider is likely to have. Thus the web of an Epeirid 
spider built amongst flowers will entangle flying insects whilst a 
spider which lives in banks or under stones, such as Dysdera, 
Segestria and Drassodes, will be in contact mainly with crawling insects 
such as beetles, earwigs and woodlice. 

I propose first dealing with the size and then the nature of the 
prey of spiders. 

Size of Prey. 

I have already referred to Bird- and Fish-catching spiders. There 
are records of spiders found devouring snakes, but it is probable 
that they were not responsible for their deaths. On lizards I have 
myself fed some of the large South American Mygales. 

The size of prey taken by an individual spider varies at different 
ages and with different degrees of hunger. It may also be laid down 
as a general rule that web-builders will attack relatively larger 



16 

creatures than hunting spiders, which have no silken threads to 
assist them in entanghng their prey. This general rule has many 
exceptions as some of the web- builders are arrant cowards and 
some of the hunters will attack msects considerably larger than 
themselves. The size of an insect is gauged by means of sight in 
the family Attidae, Lycosidae and I'isauridae, and by touch and 
sight in other hunting spiders ; web- builders judge both the size 
and also to some extent the nature of an entangled insect by their 
sense of touch. 

Attention, so far as I know, has never been called to the fact 
that the webs of Epeirid spiders are within broad limits designed 
to catch insects up to a particular size only. The Garden Spider, 
Epeira diadeviata, builds a strong symmetrical sticky web. It is 
capable of retaining large insects for a long enough period to allow 
the owner to reach them and swathe them in sheets of silk to 
prevent iheir breaking free. 1 have seen adult individuals catch 
wasps, honey-bees, and even bumble-bees. The Lesser Garden 
bpiuer, ^Jeta seymentata, does not build either such a strong or 
such a sticky web relatively and the relative size of prey is not so 
great, insects are sometimes refused on account of their size by 
adult'' individuals. The spiders belonging to the genus Tetragnatha 
are long-legged and thin- bodied spiders which live for the most 
part near water where a somewhat Himsy snare is constructed. 
Here flies, especially Mematocera, are abundant and these form the 
staple diet of the genus. 1 have seen both TetroynatJia and Meta 
drop an inch or so from their webs to catch a passing insect, and 
the Kev. 0. P. Cambridge recorded a similar observation in " The 
bpiders of Dorset." Epeira lunbratica is a large spider which 
makes a large orb web composed of threads, which are probably 
stronger and stickier than those of any other liritish Epeirid. 
The value of this is found when we come to study the habits of the 
spider ; it is a nocturnal species and the threads are capable of retaining, 
in spite of their struggles, a good proportion of the insects which 
once come in contact with it. The insects which are caught will 
vary according to the situation of the web and also the time of 
year. One evening in March, 1921, 1 counted 187 nematocerous 
flies (mainly Chironomids) in a single web situated in a garden at 
(Jobham. Mr. 0. W. Richards has very kindly shown me quite a 
number of prey records he has made for this species, and these bear 
out my view that the food of this species consists mainly of small 
insects. His list includes a number of beetles, a few bugs and a 
few hymenopterous insects, but with the exception of aphids which 
were abundant on certain occasions, the majority of these records 
include such entries as : 

* I should like to stress the word " adult " as immature spiders may not 
capture such big insects relatively as the adult forms. 



17 

" Prey mostly gnats 9/5/24, 29/4/24, 8/5/23. 
Mostly gnats and aphids 22/6/23. 
Bibio marci very abundant 16/5/24. 

abundant 9/5/24, 21/5/23, 18/4/26. 

fair 13/5/24. 

Chironomids and Sciarae 18/4/26. 
Mainly Chironomids 15/10/25. 

The nature of the prey will naturally vary with the locality and 
the season. 

An interesting point is that the young of Kpeira unibratica are 
sun-lovers and on sunny days they bask in the sun and run with 
rapidity after any insect which touches the web. 

The House Spiders (family Agelenidae, genus Tegenaria) do not 
appear to be frightened on the score of size. Their sheet webs are 
not sticky but entangle the feet and impede the escape of insects 
which have fallen on to it, whilst the fleet-footed owner is carrying 
on a running battle and inflicting rapid bites at its adversary. I 
have seen a Teycnaria parietina overcome a sleepy Queen Wasp, and 
recently, whilst looking through the diary of the late F. M. Campbell, 
I noticed an entry to the effect that he had seen T. derhamii kill 
and eat a cockroach. 

The genera Atnaurobius and Dictyna both belong to the family 
Dictynidae. The former are fairly large spiders and the latter small ; 
both build irregular sticky webs and will attack insects larger than 
themselves. The normal diet of Anmuroblus, judging by the 
remains, appears to consist largely of beetles and woodlice, but 
Amaurobiua siniilis killed a bumble-bee and also the formidable 
larva of Ocypua olens which I threw into its web. The webs of 
Amaurobius are in walls, banks and tree trunks. Dictyna webs are 
to be found in rush, gorse, heather and other flower heads and here 
a wider range of insects are captured. Taking the size of these 
spiders into account relatively large insects are captured such as 
Bluebottles [Calliphora) and Syrphids [Volncella, etc.). 

In contrast to Dictyna, spiders of the family Linyphiidae capture 
for the most part only small insects. This family contains the 
minute shiny black- bodied spiders and also the somewhat larger 
forms belonging to the genus Linyphia and allied genera. They 
build sheet webs on the underside of which they run about, and 
they bite insects, which fall on to it through the web. In spite of 
there being a web between them and any intruders, they will 
commonly allow those which approach themselves in size to escape. 
Small flies appear to be the main diet of Linyphia and the allied 
genera, whilst I have often found CoUembola being eaten by the 
small black forms which live mainly at the roots of herbage. 

Of all the web-builders those which belong to the genus Tlieridion 
fill me with the greatest admiration. They are round- bodied forms 
with thin legs and diminutive jaws which spin snares of irregular 



18 

threads crossing one another at all angles. They will attack and 
overpower intruders, often many times their own size and weight, 
in spite of their delicate appearance. Theridion tepidariorum is a 
common species in greenhouses. No insect is too large for it to 
tackle, and I once watched a long battle between one of them and a 
relatively enormous adult Tegenaria atrica, which I had placed in 
its web. The mode of procedure is always the same — viscous threads 
are thrown with the hind legs over the legs of the prospective prey 
and then each leg in turn is rendered powerless by a bite before the 
Theridion approaches to finish it off. T.pictmn, which is a small species 
commonly to be found on Holly, Gorse and other shrubs, is no less 
intrepid and I have found them in the act of devouring such rela- 
tively formidable insects as Soldier Beetles {Telephorus), Bluebottles 
{Calliphora), Syrphids, May-flies and Queen Ants. The webs of 
different individuals of this species are commonly connected, and the 
struggles of a large insect will often attract the attention of several 
neighbours. Sometimes two individuals will throw viscous strands 
over the same insect at the same time and then struggle in apparently 
bloodless battles* for possession. On one occasion a third individual 
decamped with the booty whilst the contestants were occupied in 
sparring with one another. 

A third common representative of the genus T/ieridioii is T. 
lineatum. This species does not build so large a web as those of 
the preceding ones, yet I have often found it m possession of such 
relatively large insects as Bluebottles. I have also found it devouring 
a Carabid beetle {Harpalns), a Syrphid fly [Eristalis) and a large 
Anthounjiid fly. The webs are often built amongst grass, brambles 
and low herbage. Sometimes they are built just beneath flower 
heads such as that of Ragwort and various Umbelliferous plants. 
The spider's attention is immediately drawn to any insect which 
touches a thread and viscous threads with very little delay are 
thrown over its legs or wings. I have watched several lengthy 
battles with Bluebottles [Calliphora) all of which resulted in victory, 
in some cases after nearly an hour's hard work. 

Now let us come to the spiders which do not catch their prey by 
means of snares. These have to meet their prey on level terms, so that 
the capture of bulky or formidable insects is a more precarious 
affair, and taken as a whole the size of their prey is relatively 
smaller than that of the web-building types. Though there must 
be exceptions it may be stated that the main diet of the Attidae 
and Lycosidae consists of relatively small insects. I have seen a 
SalticHs scenicus stalk and catch a house-fly and Marpessa nniscosa 
devouring a bluebottle (Calliphora), but these instances do not 
affect the general rule. The most enterprising hunters are certain 
members of the Crab Spider families, which in most cases lie in 
wait for unsuspecting insects, and when an opportunity occurs 

* Probably because they are of the same size and very evenly matched. 



19 

bury their fangs in some vital spot such as the back of the insect's 
neck. Common examples in this country are Xysticits cristatits and 
Misinneiia vatia. I have found the former devouring ants, and seen 
one almost carried away on the back of a relatively enormous blue- 
bottle, whilst it is a not uncommon occurrence to find the latter 
sitting in a flower sucking the juices of a luckless honey-bee. 
Tlwmism emistus is another British Thomisid which will capture 
bees when an opportunity occurs ; in Spain I once stalked a butter- 
fly (Colias croceus) sitting on some heather only to find that a pink 
variety of this species had forestalled me. Heteropoda venatoria, a large 
crab-spider of the family Heteropodidae, which is frequently 
imported into this country with bananas from warmer climates, is 
said to devour cockroaches, and an interesting case of its audacity 
has recently been brought to my attention by Dr. B. S. Taylor, 
whose notes on an observation he has made on this species in 
British Somaliland have kindly been handed to me by Dr. Hugh 
Scott of Cambridge. Dr. Taylor found an immature male Heterojioda 
in possession (if we may describe it thus) of a large grasshopper. 
The body of the spider was 30mm., while that of the grasshopper, 
which has been indentified by Dr. Uvarov as Thisoecetrus littoraliSf 
Rambur, $ , was 84mm. from front of head to end of abdomen, or 
41mm. from front of head to end of tegmina and wings. 

Dr. Taylor writes as follows : •* When I first saw this pair they 
were on the floor of my office with the grasshopper apparently in a 
normal resting position and close to its side the spider with all its 
legs thrown back. At first I thought the grasshopper happened to 
be resting close to a dead spider, but as I approached to look more 
closely the hopper sprang a distance of about ten inches carrying 
the spider with it, and then sprang twice more about the same 
distance each time. The spider now altered his tactics and ran 
about six inches up the wall, but while a glass cover was being 
fetched dropped to the floor and again threw his legs back. 

" I am wondering if the spider was afraid of having some of its 
legs kicked off and apparently preferred the risk of having its jaws 
torn out." 

The strength of the grasshopper and the obstinacy of the spider 
which refused to be shaken off even by three jumps in quick 
succession of close on ten inches, are of considerable interest. The 
attitude of the spider with its legs thrown back is a common one 
amongst crab-spiders after the capture of an insect. They rely 
very largely on their legs to capture prey and, once captured, 
this wise instinct to throw back their legs out of danger from 
bites and stings of their adversaries has been evolved. 

Mr. G. L. K. Hancock has recently sent me a fine crab-spider 
from Uganda. The body of the spider measures -75 inchs., and he 
tells me that he found it devouring a large Praying Mantis which 
measured quite 3 ins. in length. This is remarkably interesting, 



20 

as not only is the Mantis a very formidable opponent, but also the 
mode of capturing its prey is very similar in this group of insects 
to that of the crab-spiders themselves. Both lie in wait with 
powerful arms outstretched ready to seize in fatal embrace any 
unwary insect which approaches. The spider is Platythowisns 
insignis, Poc, and the Mantis has kindly been identified by Dr. 
Uvarov as Pohjspilota aeruginosa, Goeze. 

Drassodes lapidosus is one of our commonest spiders under stones 
and yet very little is known about its habits. It is one of the 
fiercest of spiders, and will attack other spiders as big as or bigger than 
itself. The manner in which it attacks its prey is, I believe, 
unrecorded. Small insects it simply seizes in its jaws, but larger 
insects are treated in a different way. The Drassodes inflicts a 
rapid bite and then curling its body round and keeping it as far as 
possible away, either runs rapidly around its adversary trailing a 
thick band of silk, or in some cases over and under it, thereby 
entangling the insect securely. The Drassodes then stands aside 
and waits for the poison of its bite to take effect. Presently it taps 
the insect and if it is still vigorous another rapid bite is inflicted 
followed by a further pause ; when it is judged to be no longer 
dangerous it plunges its jaws into it and commences its meal. 
I have seen Drassodes overpower such formidable spiders, of the 
same size as itself, as Tarantula harhipes, Coelotes terrestris and 
Aynaurohius similis. 

Nature of Prey. 

When we come to consider the nature of the prey of different 
spiders we immediately come up against serious difficulties. How 
can we decide whether a particular insect is rejected as being 
unsuitable by the spider's sense of sight, touch, smell or taste? In 
all families except the Attidae and Lycosidae, sight is used only to a 
very small extent. With web-building forms the sense of touch is 
of great importance, and some creatures which become entangled 
in the web are rejected without the owner of the web ever having 
left its retreat. By touching an insect a spider can gain a very 
good idea of its nature, but by rejecting it at this stage it will leave 
us uncertain as to whether it was distasteful to the tactile or 
olfactory senses. The Epeirids and Theridiids usually wrap web 
around their prey before biting it, so that here is something on 
which we may base conclusions as to the sense involved in the 
event of rejection. 

Spiders are confirmed cannibals, as is well known, and stories are 
told of mature individuals being reared on no other food than their 
brothers and sisters. I have, I believe, found two British spiders 
which refuse to catsh even small spiders, namely Thomisus onustus 
and Misximena vatia. Both these spiders live in flowers and are 
therefore accustomed to flying insects. Drassodes lapidosus is a 



21 

fierce spider which lives under stones and feeds on creeping insects. 
This spider does not like flapping insects like moths and butterflies. 
It would appear as though these spiders have become accustomed 
within fairly wide limits to a particular kind of prey. Spiders of 
the family Mimetidae are pirates which are said to feed exclusively 
on other spiders, and a N. American species Mimetns interfector is 
said to enter the webs of Theridion tepidariorum to destroy the owner. 
In this country the family is represented by three unobtrusive small 
spiders. Last autumn at Cobham I was lucky enough to find the 
rarest of the three, Ero tnbercalata, sitting in the web of a Theridion 
pictKin and devouring the owner ! Gerhardt records that he has 
found spiders of the genus Ero devouring other spiders in Germany 
also, so it appears to be a characteristic of the family, though to 
what extent they restrict their attention to spiders is not definitely 
known. Gravely (Rec. hid. Mas. Vol. XXII. Pt. IV. p. 419) records 
his observations on an Attid spider, Zinus sp., which enters the 
webs and destroys Pholcids of the genus Smeringopiis. He tells me 
he has found an allied species devouring the web-building Pisaurid, 
Euprost/ienops ellioti. 

Generally speaking, spiders are thirsty creatures and in captivity 
deaths from lack of moisture must be far more frequent than from 
hunger. The requirements of different species varies enormously 
and some such as Steatoda bipnnctata and Ter/cmaria will live for 
many months in sealed tubes, whilst others such as Argyronetaj 
Micromatta and certain species of Lycosid will die if kept under 
similar circumstances within a relatively few hoars' confinement. 

From the few experiments I have carried out on the sense of 
taste in relation to vegetable diet, it appears that though spiders will 
sometimes suck fruit, juices, etc., for short periods for the .^ake of 
the moisture contained therein, they will not on the whole tolerate 
such a diet. The intensity of their dislike varies considerably in 
different species, and in fact throughout all experiments on taste 
generalisations are dangerous. 

A blackberry pip flipped in to the web of an Epeira diademata 
resulted in one case in rejection and in another to its being sucked 
lor several minutes. Theridion pictum refused a fleshy piece of 
raspberry while Linyphia triangidaris sucked it for a time. Plum 
was refused by Epeira diademata. Tiny pellets of cotton wool 
soaked in beer and other forms of alcoholic drink were refused by 
Meta Hegnieutata, Zilla X-nutata, Theridion pictum and Linyphia 
triangularis, and it is probable that all spiders are teetotallers. 
Pellets of quinine, tea, milk and sugar solution offered to the same 
species in similar fashion were rejected, while white coffee though 
rejected by Theridion lineatum and Amaiirobiiis similis was sucked, 
for a considerable time (half an hour or more) by Zilla X-notata on 
three occasions. Epeira diademata and Meta segmentata both 
sucked pellets soaked in camphor solution for short periods and then 
showed discomfiture. 



22 

It was stated by Simon that Atypus feeds mainly on Earthworms, 
but recently this has been denied by Berland who says that they 
rely entirely on insects which traverse the aerial portions of the 
tube. That they will eat earthworms 1 have proved by experiment, 
and have found that Epeira diademata will do so also. No doubt 
the staple food of Atypus does consist of insects and their remains 
testify to this.'' Enock found the remains of various bees, Andrena 
and Nomada^ the Tiger Beetle, CiGindela, and various Muscid flies. 
Later in the year he found the remains of Earwigs and Woodlice. 
He does not infer that the spider showed any preference or that the 
Woodlice and Earwigs were rejected in times of plenty, but, from 
my observations on other spiders it seems quite likely that such 
does take place, Woodlice are not very popular and it would 
appear as though spiders neither like their smell nor their taste. 
When woodlice are present under bark or stones spiders are usually 
absent. Their remains are to be found in the nests of Uysdera^ 
Seijestria and Amaurohius. On one occasion I placed a woodlouse 
in the web of an Amaurobius shnilis, but after touching it the spider 
retreated, so it appears likely that they are only taken by Amaurohius 
in times of scarcity. Linypliia triangularis, TJieridion sisypJiium 
and T. pictum refused woodlice. The usual procedure in the case 
of the Theridion is to touch the woodlouse, bind it up if it struggles, 
bite and then retire. Renewed struggles result in the spider 
repeating these actions, but it cannot be persuaded to eat it. In 
some cases the woodlouse was cut out of the web by the Theridion. 
Epeiro cucurbit ina will eat woodlice without hesitation. 

Many spiders will refuse to attack Hymenopterous insects, 
including ants and forms without stings such as Ichneumons, 
Braconids and Chalcids. The case of ants is difficult and somewhat 
conflicting, so perhaps the reception given to different kinds varies. 
The two families which appear to eat them most readily are the 
Theridiids and Thomisids. I have seen the webs of a Brazilian 
spider, Latrodectus yeometricus, filled with the empty corpses of the 
Saiiva ant. I also saw a Thomisid and a Theridiid {Lithyphantes) 
eating ants in Brazil. In England I have seen Xysticus cristatus^ 
Theridion sisyphiuvi and T. pictum eating ants. The last named 
species will sometimes only make half-hearted attempts to capture 
the ants which are placed in its web. Various Linyphiids {Linyphia 
trianyularis^ L. pusilla) and Epeirids {Epeira diademata, 'Meta 
seymentata) refused ants after running out to investigate them. 
Epeira cucurbitina bit a Lasius niyer and then ran about frantically 
wiping its chelicerae on the edge of leaves. A similar incident was 
observed by Mrs. Collings of Sark many years ago, but in her case 
the spider was Teyenaria atrica. Presumably formic acid from the 
ant is responsible for this. 

* "Trans. Ent. Soc." 1885. 



28 

Ladybirds fall victims to some spiders, whilst others will refuse 
to attack them. A Scotophoeus blaekwallii, which I had had in 
captivity for several days, refused a ladybird but accepted a small 
moth immediately. Ladybirds give out an odour which is in all 
probability repellent to some spiders and not to others. I have 
found Epeira diademata and Theridion pictum eating ladybirds. 
Opilionids (harvest spiders) also give out a secretion when attacked, 
the smell of which in some species is clearly discernible. Some 
spiders will eat them whilst others will not. In Brazil I found that 
a Gonijlepten, which emitted a strong smell, was refused by a 
Diplurid and a Lycosid spider. In this country I have often seen 
Opilionids refused both by web-building and by hunting spiders. 
I have found XyHticus ctistatus eating a young harvest spider and 
Epeira cnciirbitina accepted rather unwillingly two species, one a 
very young Linobioutm, the other an immature Oligolp/ins. An 
Amaurohiiis similis was amongst the spiders which sampled and 
refused an Opilionid. 

Greenfly are not popular insects so far as spiders are concerned. 
Theridion pictinn for instance, will leave them alone after half com- 
pleting the "wrapping" process, but so long as it continues to 
struggle the spider will respond to its instinct and return again and 
again until eventually in some cases it ends in devouring it. On 
some occasions I have seen this spider eat a greenfly without any 
delay, and this presumably occurs when the spider is hungry. Miss 
A. B. Sargent tells us"'' that she fed her captive Af/elena naevia on 
Aphids : " At first these spiders were all fed on aphides which they 
relished, but as they grew larger and were offered other things 
aphides were refused. Flies were eagerly caught, but ants were 
never touched. This would indicate that they have some kind of 
discrimination." 

I am collecting data bearing on this subject of the prey and the 
sense of taste in spiders. From what I have said you will see that 
the subject is not quite as straightforward as might at first appear 
to be the case. The sense of taste is bound up with the sense of 
smell, and in fact their sense of smell is very akin to taste, as I 
have shown elsewhere. f From the information at present at my 
disposal I believe that spiders do possess a sense of taste whereby 
they can discriminate to a certain extent and even show preference 
for particular prey. Too marked likes and dislikes would be fatal 
and in fact might be a factor in natural selection. Major Hingston 
collected spiders of the genus Sitticus at 22,000 ft. on Mt. Everest, 
and apparently these have to subsist on whatever insects are blown 
up the mountain side by the upward air currents which prevail 
there. It is obvious that they could not pick and choose, but must 
take whatever is brought to them. 

* Nat. Sci. Phil. 1900, p. 395. 

t Proc. Zoo. Soc. Pt. 2, 1926, p. 332. 



24 



Notes on the Life= History of Cydia (Carpocapsa) 
pomonella, L. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S. — Bead November 8th, 1928. 

Although Cydia pomonella has been known as a destroyer of 
apples for at least a couple of centuries, and during that time has 
received the attention of fruit-growers and entomologists alike, it is 
very doubtful whether, even now, we know all the details of its life- 
history. Quite a considerable amount of literature has been devoted 
to it ; some of it sound enough, but a good deal of it more in the 
nature of fairy-tales, woven around one of the most beautiful but 
baffling of little moths. 

In 1747 Benjamin Wilkes commenced the publication of his 
work " The English Moths and Butterflies" and on plate 9 he 
depicts the larva, pupa and imago, also an apple showing the mine 
made by the larva. The artists of that period often paid more 
attention to pictorial effect than to the exact details of the insects 
they desired to depict, and in this instance the plate is embellished 
with a large spray of apple blossom and a very fine, ripe, rosy apple, 
the insects themselves taking a subsidiary position. But for all 
that the maggoty apple is a fair representation of an average 
jwinouella-miested fruit ; it shows the mine as one usually finds 
it, and gives the idea that the artist had really copied it from one 
that he had before him. His letterpress describing the larval 
habits is very brief, and as he says, not founded on his own 
observations. 

The first volume of the " Entomological Magazine " was published 
in 1833 and in it are several articles by "Rusticus of Godalming" on 
'* Blight." In one of these (page 144) he purports to give a complete 
life-history of pomonella. He asserts that the moth lays its eggs in 
the eyes of the fruit "one only in each, by introducing its long 
ovipositor between the leaves of the calyx, which form a tent above 
it that effectually shields it from the inclemency of the weather, or 
any other casualty." He then goes on to describe how the little larva 
eats its way into the apple, avoiding the core, and then when half 
way through the fruit, makes another tunnel through which it 
passes the frass and obtains a supply of air. When full-fed, he 
says, the apple falls and the larva comes out of it and crawls to the 
trunk of the tree. He then continues, " In this situation he remains 



Proc. S.L.E. c$' N.H. Soc, 1028. 



Plate I. 






Photo: A. W. Dennia. 



1. Cydia (Carpocapsa) pononella X 2. 

2. Apples shoicing " Cap." 

8, Apples shoicing mines made hi/ larva'. 



25 

without stirring for a day or two, as if to rest himself after the 
uncommon fatigue of a two yards march ; he then gnaws away the 
bark a little in order to get further in out of the way of observ- 
ation ; and having made a smooth chamber big enough for his 
wants, he spins a beautiful little milk-white silken case, in which, 
after a few weeks, he becomes a chrysalis, and in this state remains 
throughout the winter." 

This, like all the articles by *'Rusticus," is charmingly written, 
yet when closely investigated it is only too apparent that a good 
deal of it is pure imagination. For all that it seems to have formed 
the foundation for much that was subsequently written, and even 
so serious a writer as S. J. Wilkinson refers to it as " the interesting 
account of its habits to be found in the Letters of Rusticus." 
Unfortunately, many of our economic writers also, seem to have 
founded the life-histories with which they favour us, largely on such 
writings, or on life-histories worked out in countries where the 
species occurs in conditions very different from those pertaining in 
Britain. Thus we read, " The method of infestation is for the 
moth to come out about the time of the opening of the apple- 
blossoms, and when the petals have fallen and the embryo fruit is 
beginning to form, the females lay their eggs," ^ and so forth. 
Also, " the moths appear about the end of May, and the eggs are 
deposited singly upon apples just after the petals of the blossoms 
have fallen. — After creeping over the young apple for some little 
time, the larva, it will be noticed, in most cases enters the apple 
at the blossom end or calyx cavity, and commences to tunnel its 
way to the core. — In about seven days it reaches the core, and there 
commences to feed upon the pips or seeds and upon the surrounding 
pulp. — The pips and pulp around the core having already been eaten, 
it commences to tunnel its way, usually towards the opposite or 
stalk end, to the surface."^ Or again, "The moths emerge from 
the caterpillar cocoons at the fall of the blossoms and fly from fruit 
to fruit, laying one egg on each. The minute grub crawls over the 
apple till it arrives at the ' eye ' when it feeds a little time here and 
then enters the fruit, reaching the core and ejecting its excrement 
(frass) through the opening, the appearance of which shows the 
attack. Later on the grub burrows to the side of the fruit, forms 
another opening at which more frass appears." " Barrett says 
nothing about the egg-laying, but he tells us that the larva eats " a 
hole right through the fruit in order to feed on the pips ; if the seeds 
of one apple are insufficient attacking another." ^ 

1 Ormerod. " Handbook of Insects injurious to Orchard and Bush Fruits." 
1898. 

2 Collinge. " A Manual of Injurious Insects." 1912. 

3 P. J. Fryer. "Insect Pests and Fungus Diseases of Fruit and Hops." 
1920. 

* Barrett. " The Lepidoptera of the British Islands." Vol. XI. p. 155. 
1907. 



26 

Although these accounts vary somewhat in wording, their general 
purport seems to be that the blossoming of the apple and the egg- 
laying of the moth synchronise fairly closely ; that the egg is 
laid either in the eye of the fruitlet, or that the larva on hatching 
seeks the eye, and entering by it, burrows to the pips and feeds on 
them. Now, whatever may be the case in countries where three or 
even four generations are produced in the course of a year, I am 
convinced that the life-history of the species, in Britain, is very 
different from the foregoing. 

For several years past I have been keeping an eye on this species in 
the hope of obtaining a more or less complete account of its life- 
history, and although I am not at all certain that I have been 
successful, certain points have come to my notice, so much at variance 
with those that I have quoted, that I think it well to put them on 
record. 

From the view point of one who endeavours to grow a limited 
quantity of good class fruit, it is perhaps fortunate that the species 
has never been very abundant in my garden, where my observations 
have chiefly been made ; but not a year has passed without some 
wormy apples being found, while in some years, as in the present, 
they have been only too common. One advantage that I have had 
is that the trees are all of comparatively small size, pyramids, 
espaliers, or cordons, thus admitting of the fruit being kept under 
closer observation while on the tree, than if it were growing on 
large orchard standards. 

I have already shown that it is impossible that the moth can lay 
its eggs in the blossom.^ In this connection Prof. Theobald, who 
by reason of his position has unique opportunities of studying this 
species in nature, informs me that the female usually lays her eggs 
on the fruits when they are about the size of a walnut, occasionally 
on the strigs (fruit-stalks), very seldom on the leaves. He further 
says, " there is no doubt, however, that the larvae enter via the eye 
and one can see them feeding just inside the cup." 

My own observations have been chiefly upon the ripening fruits 
and the full-fed larvae. About the middle of August the infected 
apples begin to fall. If one collects, possibly, a dozen fruits that 
have fallen during the night and splits them open, it will, in 
all probability, be found that there is a remarkable likeness in the 
position and general appearance of larval burrows, but they have 
no tenants. The fruits usually fall during the night and it would 
appear that the larvae at once leave them and seek shelter in the 
bark of the tree or other secluded spot. I have, from time to time, 
opened some hundreds of the fallen fruits but in only one or two 
cases have I found them to contain larvae. But if at this period, i.e.f 
the middle of August, one searches the fruits that are still on the 
tree, it is probable that some will be found that show a mark on 

5 '« Proc." 1927, p. 96. 



27 

the skin, in appearance not unlike the " cap " made by some of the 
clear-wings in the bark of the trees in which they feed, but larger 
in size and somewhat irregular in outline. It is generally placed 
on the side of the fruit at about one-third of the distance from the 
stalk towards the eye. If such fruits are put away in a suitable 
receptacle*^ one is pretty sure to rear pomonella from them, for they 
almost invariably each contain a larva, and of course, when the 
larva leaves the fruit it bursts a hole through this *'cap"; the 
" cap " being really a dried portion of the skin of the fruit. 

A careful examination of a large number of these infested apples 
leads me to the conclusion that it is at the spot where this " cap " 
shows that the larva has entered. Just beneath the *' cap " is a 
chamber that strongly suggests that the young larva on entering the 
fruit, feeds immediately under the skin thus hollowing out a shallow 
space, wider than the main gallery that leads from it towards the 
<3entre of the fruit. This main gallery leads to and generally 
partially or completely surrounds the core and the seeds are some- 
times entirely, but more often partially, eaten, but I have found no 
evidence to support Barrett's assertion that the larva feeds only on 
the seeds. 

But to this general rule there are exceptions. In apples growing 
upwards from the branch, that is with the eye uppermost, both 
entrance and exit appear to have been through the eye, and even in 
cases where the entrance appears to have been made in the usual 
way, at the side of the fruit, I have found traces that suggest that 
the young larva may have fed for a short time in the eye before 
entering at the side of the fruit, but in such cases I have been quite 
unable to find any trace of a gallery leading from the eye to the 
main burrow in the fruit, thus suggesting that the young larva, 
after feeding for a time in the eye, has crawled over the fruit until 
it has found a suitable spot to penetrate it at the side. Further, on 
one occasion I had a crop of rather tough-skinned pears that was 
badly infected and in every case that I examined both entrance and 
exit was through the eye. 

The conclusion that I come to is, that in normal circumstances 
the young larva enters the fruit at the side, but that it is able to 
adapt itself to the position in which the fruit is placed or to the 
quality of its rind, and further, that it feeds upon both the flesh and 
the seeds of the fruit indiscriminately. 

The larva, when full-fed, leaves the fruit and crawls to some spot, 
usually the stem of the tree, if it affords the necessary accommoda- 
tion, and in chinks of the bark or under moss, it spins a tough 
cocoon, in which, as is now well known, it passes the winter and 
does not turn to a pupa until the following spring. 

Considerable doubt has been expressed as to whether pomonella is 

*5 1 have found a large size glass-topped cardboard box filled with pieces of 
bark and moss to answer the purpose well, but it must be kept out of doors. 



28 

ever double-brooded in Britain ; indeed, many of our leading lepi- 
dopterists appear to regard it as an essentially single-brooded species 
in this country. There is, however, abundant evidence that in 
favourable seasons a very considerable second brood may be 
produced ; the following is a case in point. 

For some years past the Apple Sawfly {Hoplocanipa testiuUnea) had 
been only too plentiful in my garden, and on July 16th of the present 
year I made a search of some of the apple trees in order to remove 
any infested fruit. I found no workings of sawfly larvae,' but I 
collected five apples, the appearance of which suggested that they 
contained mature larvae, possibly of the Tortrix, although the time 
was too early for these to be full-fed in the ordinary course of things. 
However, between the 19th and 24th of August four }iomonella were 
reared from them, and it was evident that I had not found all the 
infected fruit, for later on in the season, i.e., the end of September, 
I found more fruit that contained pomonella larvae. 

Theobald tells us that he has twice noted undoubted second 
broods.^ 

The perfect insect is not very often met with in the open, but 
occasionally it is to be seen on the walls and windows of fruit stores. 
In such cases the individuals seen must surely be the result of a 
second brood. In the ordinary course of things, store apples are 
not gathered until quite the middle of September or later, whereas 
the first brood larvae have all left the fruit from the middle 
to the end of August, but those of the second brood are not mature 
until at least the middle of September and may sometimes be found 
in the fruit even as late as the beginning of October ; there is there- 
fore abundant evidence that a second brood is not of very rare 
occurrence ; indeed it is to be expected whenever there is a really 
warm summer. 

The production of a second brood of moths must necessitate 
considerable modifications in the larval habits ; the larval life within 
the fruit must be shortened by some three to four weeks, and on 
the larva leaving the fruit, instead of lying for some five or six 
months before changing to a pupa, must assume the pupal stage 
almost immediately. 

The entry of the second brood larva into the fruit appears to be, 
as I take it to be in the case of the normal brood larva, at the side, 
and usually in a similar position, i.e., at about one third of the 
distance from the stalk to the eye, but the mark that it leaves on 
the skin is somewhat di£ferent. In the case of the first brood the 
" cap " is usually of a greyish colour, but in that of the second 

' Larvae of the Gooseberry Sawfly {Nematus ribesii) and the Slug-worm of 
the pear {Eriocampa limacina), which also had been prevalent, have this year 
disappeared. 

^ S. E. Agricultural College. " Report on Economic Zoology," 1911, pp< 
14-16. 



29 

brood it is more of a rusty hue and is generally surrounded by a 
discoloured ring. This difference in colour, I conclude, is to be 
accounted for by the more advanced state of the fruit. These 
second brood larvae as already mentioned, are not full-fed until the 
latter half of September. They then leave the fruit and having 
spun their cocoons remain in them until the spring before changing 
to pupae, the imagines from the two broods of larvae appearing 
together in the following June or July. 



30 



Scent=glands of the Pierinae. 
(Summary of the Lecture.) 

By Dr. F. A. Dixey, M.A., F.R.S., etc., Hon. MemheY.—Eead 
November 22nil, 1928. 

It is well known that the male of Pieris napl has a strong scent of 
lemon verbena. This scent is confined to the upper surface of the 
wings, where alone the specialised " plume-scales " are found. 
There is therefore a strong presumption that these scales are con- 
cerned in the distribution of the scent, though probably not in its 
production. They occur in very many members of the Pierine sub- 
family, and also in certain Batyrines and Nymphalines. The 
normal plume-scale consists of a flattened lamina, connected 
proximally by means of a slender footstalk with a disc which 
articulates with a socket in the wing-membrane. Distally the 
lamina is furnished with a fringe of delicate processes known 
collectively as the fimbriae. Lantern slides were shown of the 
plume-scales of several Pierine forms, in all of which the abova 
features were visible, with modifications according to the species. 

The character of the scent varies both in quality and intensity. 
In very few instances is it as strong as in P. napi. Individual 
variations occur, as in P. rapae ; where some individuals are almost 
scentless, while others emit a distinct odour of sweetbriar. In P. 
brassicae the plume-scales are numerous and large, but the scent, 
which resembles that of orris-root, is uniformly faint. But however 
variable in intensity, the quality is always the same for the same 
species. From the fact that these specialised scales occur only in 
the males, it seems natural to infer that the scent they convey acts 
as a sexual attraction. In this connection it is interesting to remark 
that their scent is m most cases, perhaps in every case, agreeable to 
the human perception. 

In our Common Whites, and many other Pierines, scent-scales 
of this kind are scattered generally over the surface of the wing, 
mixed up with the ordinary scales. By means of preparations 
thrown on the screen, it was shown that they are developed in the 
furrows between the ridges of the folded wing as seen in the 
pupa before exclusion. In the adult wing, when denuded of scales, 
the sockets of the two kinds of scales are seen in alternate rows. 



31 

Some Pierine groups, for example the mimetic neotropical genus 
Dismorphia, possess patches of scent-scales of a sort differing from the 
" plumules " already noticed. These have a short footstalk but no disc 
or fimbriae ; and are closely pa.cked together instead of being generally 
distributed among scales of the ordinary character. The patches 
thus formed are arranged in pairs, one on the lower surface of the 
forewing and the other on the upper surface of the hindwing, in 
such a manner that in the usual position of rest the two exactly 
cover each other ; this no doubt having the effect of economising 
the odour. Examples of these scent-areas in Diwiorphia, and of their 
constituent scales, were shown in actual specimens and in drawings 
thrown on the screen. 

Scent-patches of a somewhat different character occur in other 
Pierine genera, such as Terias and Catopsilia. In these the patches 
are furnished with numerous fine tracheae, the function of which 
may be to supply air to the specialised cells from which the scent- 
scales are developed. But the absence of tracheae from the 
patches in Dismorphia is not easy to explain. 

Many Papilios are provided with specialised scales which are no 
doubt concerned in the production of scent ; and also with bunches 
of hair which presumably serve as scent distributors ; drawings of 
some of these were shown. 

Finally, illustrations were given of the fact that the scent-scales 
are developed from underlying cells in which probably the scents 
are elaborated. In the case of the adult plume scales, an aperture 
can often be seen in the disc, marking the way by which the 
protoplasm of the cell was originally in continuity with the interior 
of the scale. This continuity gradually ceases in the course of 
growth ; and by the time that the adult condition of the scale is 
reached, the formative cell has almost or entirely disappeared. 



82 



On the White = Spotted forms of Dryas Paphia and some 

other Species. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S. — Read December ISth, 1928. 

During the years of the late seventies and the early eighties of the 
last century white-spotted forms of Dryas paphia were met with in 
sufficiently large numbers to attract attention. 

In 1882 Jenner Weir figured a specimen in the " Entomologist " ; 
said he had taken four of them in the New Forest and added, 
"I feel quite unable to suggest any explanation of this singular 
aberration." ^ 

In 1886 Weir exhibited seven specimens of D. paphia and one of 
Brenthis euphrasy ne at a meeting of this Society and drew attention 
to the white spots on the wings, and suggested that, " Possibly the 
pupa had something on it which prevented the rays of light from 
colouring the insect ; in nearly all cases the spots are symmetrical." ^ 

In the discussion, which followed, South said that in 1881 and 
1882 he took some specimens of this insect (D. paphia) with the 
white spots, and it occurred to him at the time that the spots were 
probably caused by the sun's rays passing through a globule of 
water and falling on the pupa;" but Carrington pointed out that 
this would leave a line instead of a distinct spot. At a subsequent 
meeting South said that, after making some experiment, he did not 
think the sun's rays passing through a drop of water could have 
anything to do with the white spotted varieties adverted to.* 

In 1893 Frohawk figured a specimen of D. paphia having two 
white patches on each of the fore-wings and an indication of one on 
each of the hindwings, and suggested the possibility of the white 
spots being a reversion to some transitional stage in the development 
of the species from an ancestral form.^ 

At a meeting of this Society held on February 13th, 1896, 
South read a paper entitled " Some Remarks on the Genus Argynnis 
with particular reference to a certain phase of aberration observed 
in some species of the genus." ^ 

1 " Entom." 1882, pi. 1, fig. 3, p. 50. 
2"Proc." 1886, p. 55. 

3 " Proc." 1886, p. 55, 1927, p. 78. 

4 "Entom." 1893, p. 97. 

5 "Proc." 1896, p. 76. 









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33 

Having given a general review of the group and after pointing 
out that in a species not far removed from paphia the female 
normally has white-spotted wings, he proceeded to elaborate 
Frohawk's reversion theory, and concluded with the following 
sentence, *' Although I do not insist on the pale patches being 
ancestral characters, I am inclined to consider that such a conclusion 
is not altogether unsupported by the facts to which I have briefly 
adverted." 

From the report of the discussion which followed,*^ it is to be 
gathered that Frohawk said that he had examined these white 
patches microscopically and found that the scales were present but 
that they were without pigment. Tutt then said that " this 
statement practically gave away the whole theory propounded by 
South." Then, having reviewed the whole situation, he concluded, 
" Taking into account the known factors of the histolysis of the pupal 
tissues, he considered that anything that would cause a local 
weakening of the tissue would produce a result similar to that 
exhibited. This actual weakness of tissue might occur in the larval 
period, when it would naturally be carried through the pupal stage, 
or it might originate in the pupal stage, whilst the possible factors 
that might cause local weakness in the larva or pupa are manifold. 
He further pointed out that a well-known lepidopterist had observed 
that when dust particles or other foreign matter interfered with the 
pupa when it was in a very soft stage, /.<?., during the first hour or 
two following the change from the larval to the pupal condition, the 
result always ended in crippling the imago, or in the failure of the 
complete scale development in the neighbourhood of the injury or 
irritation." 

So the matter rested until Cockayne's Classic paper of 1921 on 
*' Structural Abnormalities in Lepidoptera " ^ — where under the 
sub-heading " Local Scale Defects " (p. 51) we read " I have 
examined a very large number of specimens showing patches of 
white or pale colour, often described as bleached specimens, and 
almost without exception have found the scales on these patches 
thin, transparent or nearly transparent, and curled at the edges or 
rolled up completely. The condition very often affects corres- 
ponding areas on both wings of the same side, or on all four 
wings. As in the case of malformations, which appear alike in 
both wings of one side, or in all the wings, this affords strong 
evidence that local injury may be the cause." And further (p. 53) 
*' In Dry as paphia it is not very unusual to find a white spot on all 
four wings, or on both the wings of one side, in which the scales 
of the ground colour are always defective, and sometimes those of 
the black spots also. The positions are nearly always the same, in 
the forewing between nervures 5 and 6, near the apex, and in the 

'^"Proc." 1896, p. 31. 

7 " The London Naturalist." 1921, pp. 10-68. 



34 

hindwing between nervures 4 and 5. These positions would 
coincide in the pupal condition. Local pressure is the probable 
cause, but it is hard to understand what the pressure can be which 
acts so uniformly on such a definite area." 

I have given these events in chronological order because T think 
it best shows the way in which the train of thought has developed. 
The first suggestions appear to have been little more than random 
guesses with practically no evidence to support them, but as the 
question came to be more closely examined definite facts have 
emerged which, as Tutt shrewdly observed, appear to have resolved 
the question into a " purely physiological one." 

Recent discoveries may perhaps take us a step further. Last 
year, Prof. Dr. Richard Goldschmidt published a book on Physio- 
logical Genetics.^ It is printed in German and therefore perhaps 
not so easily available to some of us as it otherwise might be, but 
fortunately in a review of it by J. S- Huxley ,° lengthy extracts are 
given in English of which the following is one : — 

" Goldschmidt and his pupils have been able to show that the 
wing-pigmentation of Lepidoptera is brought about by a curious 
interrelation of developmental processes. The scale rudiments 
develop at difl'erent rates, so that before any pigment exists in the 
wing, the future pigmentation can be read off as a structural 
shadow-pattern. The various pigments appear to be produced in 
the body at different times, and to be shot out into the wings when 
ready. In the wings they can only be deposited in the scales which 
are at a certain stage of their development : they pass over the rest. 
Thus the relative rates of scale differentiation and of pigment 
production both contribute to the actual pattern." 

The simple meaning of this appears to me to be that so long as 
the scale development and the pigment flow synchronise the normal 
wing pattern will be produced ; but that if at the critical time some 
untoward circumstance should occur to throw the scale development 
and the pigment flow out of time with each other, or that has 
interfered with the normal scale development in such a way that it 
is not ready at the right moment, the scales affected by that occur- 
rence will be left without pigment. Cockayne has already shown 
that the scales of the pale patches are thin, more or less transparent 
and curled at the edges or rolled up completely, showing that they 
are scales that have not received their supply of pigment. I have 
examined a number of the pale patches and find that this invariably 
is so. 

To return to the various suggestions that have been made. Jenner 
Weir's prevention of the rays of light ; South's sun's rays passing 
through a drop of water ; and Frohawk's reversion theory have 
already been refuted, or may be dismissed as having no evidence to 

^ " Physiologische Theorie der Vererbung." 
9" Nature," Vol. CXX, p. 109. 



85 

support them. Tutt's suggestion of dust particles, etc., falling on 
the freshly formed pupa does not appear to rae to be a likely cause, 
for I think it probable that the injury would be to the wing 
membrane rather than to the scales, for although the formation of 
the latter commences early in the pupal period it is doubtful whether 
it would have commenced at the time mentioned. There is, however, 
the possibility that the "dust particles or other foreign matter" 
might become embedded in the pupal skin and thus exert a 
continuous pressure on some defined area and possibly thus close 
the scales on that particular area against the pigment flow when it 
takes place. But even so it would hardly be likely to always, or even 
frequently, affect the particular part of the wing where the white 
patches most frequently occur. 

There remains to be considered Cockayne's suggestion that " local 
pressure is the probable cause." This suggestion was not made 
without direct evidence to support it, for he quotes, among others, 
a case where Chapman produced a " bleached patch " on the red 
band of the wing of a Pyrameis atalanta by accidentally pressing the 
pupa between the cover and the lip of a jar.^° Chapman does not 
say at what period in the pupal stage this accident happened, but as 
he says that the indentation made by the pressure remained after 
the pressure was removed, its effect was no doubt felt on the tissues 
of the insect until emergence. I think we may therefore accept as a 
fact that when local pressure is exerted on the pupa at the time 
when the pigment is being shot into the scales, or when its effect 
continues until that time, it will produce a white (or pale) patch on 
the wing of the imago. 

To assign a cause for these white patches usually falling on 
approximately the same position on the wing, is perhaps not such 
an easy matter, but I think a reference to the life-history of the 
species may possibly offer a suggestion. When the larva of paphia 
has completed its feeding on the violets, it wanders in search of some 
position where it may secure itself for pupation. Such information 
as I have of the sort of position that it would seek in nature is 
limited ; but I have a record of a pupa being found attached to the 
stem of an oak tree, and of a number of larvae hung up, waiting 
the change to pupae, high up in a blackthorn bush.^^ In confinement 
the gauze covering of the cage seems to offer an attraction, but even 
with that present, I have known a larva attach itself to a leaf, not of 
the food-plant but to a more substantial leaf that had been introduced. 
The shape of the pupa, in common with that of most of the 
Argynnids, is peculiar, in that the wing cases are a prominent 
feature ; the pupa is suspended by the cremastral hooks and hangs 
free from any further support. Now suppose that a violent wind 
stirs the branches of a bush on which the pupa is suspended, what is 

iO"Entom." 1894, p. 23. 

11 Observations made by Mr. A. L. Kayward. 



36 

more likely than that the pupa mi gh t be clashed against a neighbouring 
branch, or possibly crushed between two branches, and that the 
wing cases, being the most prominent part, might receive the full 
force of the blow. In the first case one wing or the pair of wings 
on the one side would be affected, according to whether the force 
was sufficient to penetrate to the inner wing as it lay beneath the 
upper wing in the pupa ; in the latter case both forewings or both 
pairs of wings would be similarly affected. I do not think this is a 
very wild hypothesis, at any rate it may be one worthy of experi- 
mental examination. 

The Argynnids are not the only group in which these white 
patches are found ; many of the Satyrids are equally liable to them. 
But in their case the areas are generally larger and often more 
irregular in shape, and one, two, three or all the wings may be 
affected. This difference in the patches of the two groups may 
probably be accounted for in the difference of their pupal habits. 
Epinephelejiiithia {janira) is a species that is often affected. Its larva 
is a grass-feeder and attaches itself to a stem or blade of its foodplant 
for pupation. In such a position falling debris or other circumstance 
may easily cause the pupa to receive pressure and a larger wing 
area would be affected than in the case of a pupa suspended in a 
bush, and thus cause the relative difference in the area affected. 
Indeed, when the diverse shapes of the pupae of the two species 
and the difference of their pupal habitats are considered, we should 
expect to frequently find a larger and less well defined whitened 
area in jurtina than in paphia. 



37 



ANNUAL ADDRESS TO THE MEMBERS 



OP THE 



5>0ut^ ^aiiDcrii ^iitoiuoiogical anb |tatwral Pistorg 

Soxiet]). 

Read January 24f/^, 1929. 
By E. A. Cockayne, D.M., F.E.S., F.R.C.P. 

LADIES and GENTLEMEN. The reports of the Council and 
Hon. Treasurer show that the Society is increasing steadily 
in prosperity. There has been an addition to our membership, 
though not so great an addition as I hoped for when I made my 
appeal last year ; the ordinary members now numbering 260, and a 
good average attendance at the meetings has been maintained. The 
Annual Exhibition was a great success, though the attendance fell 
just short of the record reached last year. The high standard of 
exhibits was fully maintained, but the Council has noted with regret 
a decrease in the number of small exhibits and would remind 
members that to be interesting an exhibit need not necessarily be 
large. Light refreshments, which add so much to the comfort of 
members and their guests, were provided once more, but the voluntary 
contributions towards their cost fell far short of the total required. 
This has entailed a heavy drain on income badly needed for other 
purposes, such as the upkeep and extension of the library, and it 
may become necessary to give up the provision of refreshments 
altogether, unless the fund receives a greater measure of support next 
year. 

The acquisition of the Lister Collection, which we owe to the 
generosity of Colonel Labouchere, is the out-standing event of the 
year. The rearrangement of the whole of the Society's collections 
of Lepidoptera, which it necessitates, will throw a heavy burden on 
the Hon. Curator and it will be some time before it is available for 
reference. 

The redrafting and amendment of the Rules, a work which was 



38 

long overdue, has made considerable demands on the time of the 
special sub-committee and of the Council as a whole. The revised 
Bules are to be submitted to you shortly and, if agreed to, will, I 
hope, appear in the next volume of the Proceedings. 

Three members have died during the yenr. 

Emily Chapman, who died in December last at the age of 83, was 
the elder of the two sisters of the late Dr. T. A. Chapman, F.R.S. 
She used to accompany him on most of his continental journeys 
and, while he studied entomology, she interested herself in the 
flora of the various countries. She took great pleasure in bringing 
home seeds and roots to plant in the garden and with the skill of 
the born naturalist often brought delicate wild plants to maturity 
where others failed. Long ago she used to attend our field meetings 
on the Surrey hills, and in her later years of retirement always 
retained her interest in the welfare of the Society. 

W. G. Dawson, who joined the Society as a life member in 1888, 
died last year at the age of 91. He was formerly a regular attendant 
at our meetings and a contributor to our Proceedings. His interest 
was centred in the Indo-Malayan Rhopalocera, and his collection 
from this region, to which he added specimens captured by himself 
in Burma in his eighty-first year, has been presented to the 
Plumstead Museum. 

Oliver Richardson Goodman was a Vice-President Elect and 
would in the normal course of events have occupied the Chair. He 
was a regular attendant at the meetings and keenly interested in 
the prosperity of the Society. Much of the success of the Annual 
Exhibitions of recent years is due to his sagacity in seeing where 
improvements could be effected and to his energy in carrying them 
out. His chief interest was in the Palaearctic Rhopalocera, and he 
visited localities far from the beaten track to find many new or 
little known species and local races. It was his custom to give us 
an account each year of his journey illustrated by lantern slides of 
the districts visited and by rare and local species obtained there. 
Those evenings will not readily be forgotten by the members fortunate 
enough to have enjoyed them. We had looked forward to a con- 
tinuance of his manifold activities for many years to come and deeply 
deplore his death at the early age of fifty-one. 

Variation and Nomenclature. 
I am devoting the remainder of my address to some observations 
on variation and nomenclature. I have noticed with concern a 



39 

greater and greater separation between entomologists who are 
systematists and those who are interested primarily in genetics, and 
yet in reality each class is complementary to the other and their 
interests are identical. One of the reasons for this breach is that 
most of the papers on the genetics of insects are published in the 
journals dealing with heredity, which are inaccessible to some 
systematists and seldom read by others. I feel convinced however 
that as time passes there will be a closer co-operation between them, 
and that systematists will lay before the experimentalists puzzling 
problems for them to solve, and will find that by their solution 
nomenclature will be brought more into line with scientific truth. 
Every year more skilled biologists are taking up posts in the tropics, 
and it is in the tropics that the scope for work of this kind is greatest. 
For example, were experimental breeding possible in the case of some 
of the South American butterflies such as those of the genus Helico- 
nins and Af/rias, some, now regarded as groups of allied species, would 
in all probability prove to be forms of one species, differing in a 
number of well-defined genes, like those shown by Fryer to exist in 
Acalla comariana, Zell. Until these butterflies have been bred 
extensively the worker in a museum at home can merely name the 
various forms without understanding their nature. 

However divergent our views on variation and nomenclature 
may be, we all admit that many, perhaps the majority, of named 
varieties or aberrations, as it is the custom to call themnow-a-days, 
are mutations, some conspicuous others inconspicuous, but all alike 
in that they are hereditary. As to the nature of the very rare 
aberrations opinion is more divided. It is probable that some are 
rare recessives and that others are due to a chance combination of 
two independent genes. As an example of the former I will cite 
Calliniorpha dominula, ab. biuiacnla, which, though it has been 
bred in some numbers, has so far as I am aware only been captured 
once in a wild state, and as an example of the latter hyloicua piuastriy 
ab. albicolor, a double recessive combining in one insect ab. albicans, 
and ab. unicolor, which has only been taken once in the British 
Isles. Abraxas grossulariata has two recessive aberrations, lacticolor 
and varleyata, and when the same insect is homozygous for both 
genes ab. exquisita results, a moth unlike either in its appearance. 
Exquisita has, I believe, never been captured, though there is no 
reason why it should not be taken in a wild state ; but if a single 
specimen had been caught and no-one had crossed lacticolor and 
varleyata it would have been looked upon as a remarkable sport and 



40 

its hereditary nature might never have been suspected. Most likely 
many of our unique or very rare aberrations are in their origin 
comparable with albicolor and exqiiisita, and, if a figure is given, I 
thmk that naming them is not merely unobjectionable but 
advantageous. Further examples of the same kind will then be 
recorded under a definite name in the indexes of our periodicals, 
and not appear as unidentifiable aberrations. 

Other aberrations are due to multiple genes all producing similar 
effects so that the greater the number of genes present in one insect 
the greater the intensification of the pattern. The intenneiHa, 
radiata, zatima, deschangei group of aberrations of Spilosoma luhrici- 
peda is of this kind. The well-known race rustica of S. mendica is 
very similar, there being a dominant gene for white modified by 
others, so that a complete range of intermediates between the 
dominant white and recessive brown male exists. Most systematists 
call rustica a race, because where it occurs the typical brown form 
is almost unknown, as in Ireland for example, and elsewhere the 
whiter forms are absent. They look with different eyes on the 
the radiated forms of Inbricipeda, because, though it is common in 
Heligoland, the type is found with it and it also occurs in varying 
proportions along the East coast of England. The distinction is 
really quite artificial, and these instances show that in the absence 
of breeding experiments there is no safe criterion by which to 
distinguish a group of aberrations from a race. Paranje ae(/eria 
and egerides probably differ in two genes for orange and perhaps a 
third for pattern, and yet Verity would like to exalt aecjeriay 
the group of fulvous forms, to the rank of a sub-species. Thus we 
have the same phenomenon given a series of aberrational names in 
one case, a racial name in another, and, if not actually given a sub- 
specific name in a third, at least looked upon as worthy of one. 

This is not my conception of the constitution of a race or sub- 
species, but before stating my views I must make some preliminary 
observations on heredity. Many inheritable variations arise as a 
result of external conditions, as I shall show in a later part of 
my address, but for the most part they do not seem to be of such a 
kind as to make the insect more capable of living under the conditions 
that brought them about. There is no convincing proof that changes 
in their surroundings can bring about in living organisms adaptations 
that enable them to survive the changes and that can be handed on 
to their descendants, as the Neo-Lamarckians contend, and even if 
such adaptations do occur their mode of inheritance is unknown. 



41 

Meantime geneticists are accumulating more and more proof that 
all the characters they investigate, whether great or small, are 
inherited according to the Mendelian Law and finding that the 
apparent exceptions are more or less complicated examples of its 
operation. Until definite evidence to the contrary is adduced 
I shall continue to believe that all transmissible variations are 
inherited in this way, and on this belief, base my views of the 
constitution of races and sub-species. 

Though one member of a species is chosen as the type, a typical 
form cannot really exist, for no two individuals are exactly alike in 
appearance and still less so genetically. Nevertheless, large numbers 
of a species in a given place may be sufficiently alike to be regarded 
as typical. But in the locality from which the type originally came 
there will be in most cases a number of aberrational forms each 
differing from it in possessing or lacking some gene, the 
presence or absence of which makes a more or less distinct difference 
in its appearance. The fact that one of these aberrational forms is 
absent from one locality and very abundant or even universal in 
another is insufficient ground on which to separate the latter as a 
race still less as a sub-species. Ampliidaais betidaria may be all 
typical in Scotland, all ab. carbonaria in Yorkshire, and a mixture 
of these two forms with ab. insularia on the North Downs, but I 
should not look upon those from Yorkshire and Surrey as local 
races. 

I regard a true race as one possessing a number of genes, each 
modifying its appearance to a greater or lesser extent, not present in 
the typical form, and lacking other genes, which are present in 
the typical form. The fewer in number these genes are, the more 
frequently will specimens inseparable in appearance from the type 
occur, and the less justification will there be for the giving of a 
racial name. The adoption of such a conception will always 
make it impossible to draw up a hard and fast definition of a race. 
Even with a complete knowledge of genetical constitution, which 
will probably never be attained and may be impossible of 
attainment, definition would still be a matter of the greatest 
difficulty. 

Thedifference between a race and a sub-species is also merely one of 
degree. In a sub-species there are still more genes present that are 
lacking in the type and still more lacking that aie present in the 
type, until their number may be so great that it becomes almost or 
quite impossible to find an individual of the sub-species with afacies 
resembling that of the type. And just as the line between a race 



42 

and a sub-species is indefinable, so higher in the scale it is equally 
impossible to draw a sharp distinction between a sub-species and a 
species. 

There is however another factor that adds greatly to the complexity 
of a problem already difficult enough. li has long been recognised 
that plants of the same species may differ very greatly in their 
manner of growth when growing in different soils or under different 
climatic conditions. Variation of this kind is so great in some of 
the New Zealand plants such as the whip-cord Veronicas, that few 
would have suspected the form of a species like V. cupressoides 
growing in a dry environment to be the same as the form in a damp 
one, had it not been proved experimentally. The same kmd of 
mistake arose in connection with the wei; and dry season phases of 
some tropical butterflies. In Precis for example the colour and 
pattern may be altered in a most remarkable manner by climatic 
influences, but we need not go so far afield as Africa to observe the 
effects of temperature and moisture, for Weismann has shown how 
susceptible are Heodes phlaeas and Araschnia levana to external 
influences. Nor is climate the only factor. The prevailing hue of 
their surroundings has a marked efiect on the colour scheme of some 
insects, particularly on those with incomplete metamorphosis. In 
the Lepidoptera I know of no experimental proof of a direct 
response of this kind, but the close correspondence of colour in some 
species with that of the various soils on which they are found 
suggests that it may occur in them too. 

Arrow has shown that size in the males of certain beetles such as 
Helicopris hohiifer and Enema pan is correlated with wonderful 
variation in the size and structure of the horns. Further evidence 
is needed, but if, as seems likely, abundance and good quality of 
food causes increased size it must also cause the structural phases 
that accompany it. 

The remarkable observations on locusts by Uvarov seem to show 
the action of another environmental factor. He believes that pairs 
of what have up to now been regarded as distinct species are really 
the swarming and solitary phases of single species, and gives as 
instances of such pairs, l.ocusta viit/ratoria and danica, L. pardalina 
and soiitaria, Schistocerca f/reifaria and fiaviventris, Melanoplus spretua 
and mexicainis atlaiith, and Dociostaiirus maroccanus and deijeneratKS. 
Here the swarming phase is produced by an increase in the 
density of the locust population in a given area regardless of the 
climatic or other causes giving rise to it. 



43 

No student of the Lepidoptera can plead that he is ignorant of 
these facts, and yet racial and sub-specific names are given freely to 
forms differing far less than the wet and dry season phases of many 
butterflies. However unlike their environment may be in tempera- 
ture, humidity, or elevation, from that in the locality inhabited by 
the typical form, no attempt is made in the great majority of cases 
to test by experiment whether a so-called race or sub-species is 
stable when removed to other surroundings. In many cases I 
suspect they would prove to be mere phases differing little or not at 
all in their hereditary qualities, and m support of it I will quote an 
experiment carried out b} Harrison. Pieris na}d vidf/an's, when bred 
out of doors in England from Italian eggs, retained only one of the 
characters that distinguish Italian from British specimens. All 
the others were climatic in origin. 

Admittadly there are hereditary characters that only appear under 
some external stimulus such as heat, cold, or moisture and in the 
absence of this special stimulus remain latent, so that one can 
conceive of a local race reverting to the type, when bred where the 
type occurs, though the typical form could not assume the facies of 
the local race, when bred where the local race is met with. But 
even if all variation due to external causes were the result of 
biphasic genes and not to a general response of the somatic tissues, 
actual cases like the hypothetical one just mentione,d would probably 
be too rare to be of practical importance, and so forms that show 
instability under changed conditions must for the most part be 
regarded as phases and not races. 

Verity has defined a race as * a group of individuals having 
developed in the same surroundings and exhibiting certain local 
features simply due to their influence,' and elsewhere he has indicated 
that he does not believe these features to be hereditary. Few will 
agree with him, but if he were right in this assumption I should 
say that not one of his named races is a true race, but that all are 
phases. They may be worthy of names, but it should be clearly 
indicated that their distinguishing features are due to climate or 
some other external cause. Races and sub-species that have not 
undergone the test of breeding true in an altered environment have 
small claim to scientific recognition as such. I am not speaking 
now of sub-species of so high a grade that some might prefer to call 
them species, but of the numberless local forms, particularly of those 
of the European Rhopalocera, upon which names are being bestowed 
so liberally. 



44 

There is a wide field open to entomologists who are anxious to 
elucidate the nature of local forms and not merely to collect and 
name them. Harrison has shown us one way of doing so. So-called 
races and sub-species should be bred out of doors in the habitat of 
the type, or if this is impossible under conditions differing widely 
from those of their native place. If they prove stable, either they 
differ from the typical form in a multiplicity of transmissible 
characters and their right to the title is established, or they are 
simple mutants and fall under the heading of aberrations. 

Pictet has used another method in his study of the geographical 
races m the National Park of Switzerland. He has uoted the exact 
range of certain forms and observed for several years the state of 
affairs in the zone where they overlap. Dealing with the following 
pairs — Krehia 7ieri)ie, Esp., and ab. reichlhii, H.S., Coetioni/nipha 
satyrion, Esp. and ab. danciniana, Stdgr., Brenthis amathnsia, Esp., 
and ab. niyrofasciata, Fav. and Erehia (jorgcj Esp., and ab. triopesy 
Spuler. — he finds that in the case of each pair both members are 
found alone in certain areas and where they overlap they occur 
together without any intermediate forms, the proportion being 
seven to one in the case of the first three pairs and one to seven in 
the case of the fourth. His conclusions are that the first member 
of each pair is dominant to the second in the case of the first three 
pairs and recessive in the case of the fourth, and that where both 
occur interbreeding accounts for a proportion of three to one and 
fresh immigration raises it to seven to one. I doubt the validity of 
his explanation of the proportions, but the evidence certainly points 
to a Mendelian relationship between the members of each pair, and, 
if so, the cases are comparable with that of Amphidasis bettdaria 
and ab. carbonaria in the United Kingdom, and the second member 
of each pair is not a race or sub-species but an aberration. Seitz 
regards reichlini as a sub-species, but agrees with Pictet in looking 
on the others as aberrations. Verity adopts a most elaborate sub- 
division of arcania into two exerges, arcania and (jardetta, each 
comprising a number of races, and places satyrion (philea, Hb.) and 
darwiniana into exerge yardetta. From this 1 gather that he 
considers this pair to be phases, a conclusion diametrically opposed 
to that of Pictet. I do not know what view he takes of the other 
forms. Doubtless, reference to other authors would lead to the 
discovery of further divergences of opinion, but this will suffice to 
show the need for more experimental work. 

Hemming is attacking the problem from another stand-point. 



45 

He is examining the genitalia of races and sub-species of European 
butterflies and finding that in some cases these are so different as 
to indicate specific rank. Once separable by means of the genitalia 
other differences, small but constant, become manifest. Unfor- 
tunately the genitalia are indistinguishable in the different species 
of some genera, so that their similarity in doubtful cases cannot be 
regarded as a proof of specific identity. Here a study of the early 
stages may provide convincing evidence that they form a group of 
species rather than races of a single species. There are other 
obscure groups of forms on which more light may be thrown by a 
knowledge of the whole life-history than in any other way. 

It is only by a combination of one or more of these methods with 
carefully devised breeding experiments that a real knowledge of the 
status of many geographical forms can be attained. 

Verity in one of his papers claims that he has analysed thoroughly 
the races of most of the European butterflies. What he has done 
is to draw up a valuable list of forms that still await analysis, and 
had he omitted some and given a fuller description to others his 
list would have been of much greater use. In giving names to many of 
these forms to prevent them from being forgotten or overlooked, he 
is not altogether wrong ; it is the system of nomenclature that is at 
fault. We require some non-committal term to use as I have used 
' form ' in this address, and a name for what I have called phases 
or a recognition of the term phase in a technical sense. The recent 
wide use of sub-species is degrading it unduly, and to avoid this 
geographical forms should be roughly divided into two categories 
and the term sub-species should be restricted to the well differentiated 
forms, and either the term race or some Latin equivalent should be 
adopted for the less clearly defined forms or the place of origin 
coupled with the scientific name should be regarded as an adequate 
means of referring to them. As our knowledge grows it should be 
made possible to discard the non-committal term altogether or to 
replace it by aberration, race, sub-species, or phase, and so indicate 
its real nature. Both the original naming of a form and the later 
defining of its status would need notification. The present rigid 
system presupposes a knowledge we do not yet possess. 

Intensive study leading to a vast number of new names will 
inevitably extend from the European to the tropical Lepidoptera 
and from the Lepidoptera to other Orders. It is of vital importance 
that before this takes place the nomenclature of all forms below the 
higher grades of sub-species shall be placed on a sounder basis. 



46 

Let me return to the consideration of aberrations. Many workers 
are interested solely in races and sub-species and do not deign to 
notice even the major aberrations. They appear to be unaware that 
the main differences between racial or sub-specific and typical forms 
are due to genes producing small effects in comparison with the 
effect produced by a single gene responsible for a major aberration. 
This attitude leads them to attach as much importance to phases, 
perhaps due to variability within the gene, as to the gene itself. 

The systematist should feel dissatisfied until he has before him 
an analysis of the races and sub-species he is dealing with and learnt 
wherein their real differences lie, which of them are attributable to 
the immediate effects of their surroundings, phases, and which are 
due to the presence or absence of particular genes or to differences 
in the proportions of those genes. Such knowledge can only be 
acquired gradually by the combmed efforts of the field naturalist, the 
geneticist, and the museum worker, but it ought to be the ideal 
ever present in the mind of the systematist. 

The fascinating subject of parallel variation has a bearing on this 
matter. It must be due to the presence of similar or identical genes 
in the species with parallel forms, and such genes must be older 
than the species themselves, if identical, or, if similar, due to the 
physiological relationship antedating the origin of the species. 
Parallel variation has been studied with greater care in Dtosophila 
than in any other genus and a marvellous parallelism in the genes 
has been found in the different species. According to Spencer, for 
example, there are at least four sex-linked mutants and three 
linked autosomal mutants in D. lujdei similar to the sex-linked and 
autosomal mutants in melanogaater ; and Lancefield and Metz have 
discovered a similar parallelism between some of the mutants in D. 
ivillistoni and melanog aster. If we are to believe the work on the 
location of the genes, these parallel mutants are due to genes 
carried by corresponding chromosomes and moreover situated in the 
same parts of the corresponding chromosomes. This is not an 
isolated case ; the same conclusion has been reached in the case of 
other genera of plants and animals. Who can doubt that it is 
equally true of the Lepidoptera ? The recessive black forms and 
yellow forms, known to occur in most of the Zygaenids, and probably 
common to all, afford a good example of the kind. The white female 
forms of the genus Colias, behaving as sex-limited dominants afford 
another. Mutants due to such a gene may appear even in members 
of different genera, and I will take as a probable example the one 



47 

that causes melanism in Selenia bilnnaria and *S'. tetralnnariay 
Ennouios angnlaria and E. aKtiunnaria, Gonoptera bidentatn, Pseiido- 
panthera (Venilia) viacularia, and Kpione advenaria, a gene that is 
recessive in those species in which its behaviour has been investi- 
gated. Even in widely separated genera astonishing similarities of 
colour and pattern may be seen not as aberrations but in the typical 
form, and these too may be due to the possession of identical genes 
inherited from a remote common ancestor, genes that have been lost 
or hidden by more recently acquired dominant ones in the inter- 
vening genera or species. Biological facts of such significance must 
be discussed and referred to by scientists of different nations and the 
only easy way in which this can be done is by the use of names. 

In the report of the British National Committee on Entomological 
Nomenclature it is proposed to give official recognition to sub-species, 
and, since races are now ranked with sub-species, to races also, but 
no reference is made to aberrations, and presumably those are to 
have no official status. Surely those aberrations, which are mutations,, 
should receive equal recognition and be protected in the same way 
by the Laws of Nomenclature. I have little doubt that the good 
sense of the majority of Entomologists will ensure them the same 
protection as heretofore, and the law of priority will be followed, 
but it is a retrograde step that our arbiters of nomenclature propose 
to take unless they intend to undertake the gigantic task of giving 
the same name to all parallel variations. This would be the ideal 
method of dealing with the problem. All the black mutations in 
Zy<jaena would then have the same name, and all the white forms 
of female in Colias and so on. This, however, does not appear to be 
their intention. On the contrary they propose to render invalid a 
name given to one member of a genus, if it has been used already 
for another member of the same genus. They may thus prevent the 
use of one name for forms owing their appearance to identical or 
corresponding genes, or groups of genes or for forms owing their 
similar appearance to similarity in their environment. 

It is to be hoped that these suggestions will not be ratified and 
that those aberrations, which are mutations, will receive due recog- 
nition. Their importance has been impressed upon us still more 
strongly by some recent additions to our knowledge of the manner 
in which they may be brought about. As this knowledge appears to 
throw some light on the origin of races and sub-species it seems to 
be a fitting moment to call your attention to it. 

You are all familiar with the work of Harrison on industrial 



48 

melanism. Chemical substances such as lead and manganese in his 
hands have effected changes in the germ-plasm like those occurring 
uncontrolled near the big cities of this country, the continent of 
Europe, and America. These melanic mutants have proved stable 
and their peculiarities are inherited under any environmental 
conditions. Harrison's work has not yet been repeated with success 
by others, but has been subjected to a good deal of criticism, though 
I see no reason to doubt either the soundness of his methods or the 
results achieved by them. 

Nevertheless the production of mutations in Drosophila by radium 
and X-rays is far more impressive. Objections like those raised 
against the work of Harrison cannot be raised in their case and 
already the experiments have been repeated independently by others. 
The mutations obtained by Muller were not produced occasionally 
after years of patient labour like Harrison's melanic moths, but were 
obtained with bewildering rapidity. Muller says that almost every 
other sperm cell capable of taking part in the production of a fertile 
fly contained an ' individually detectable ' mutation in some chromo- 
some or other. In other words almost half the progeny of an 
irradiated parent showed an easily recognisable mutation, no attempt 
being made to count the minor ones, and the rate of mutation 
among the offspring of irradiated parents was 15000 per cent, 
greater than among the controls. The mutations that appeared 
after X-ray treatment were like those that occur from time to time 
in the course of ordinary breeding experiments, recessive for the 
most part and often sex-linked. Most of the known mutations 
reappeared and only a few were previously unknown. 

Both X-rays and radium in large doses cause sterility and the 
highest rate of mutation was found to occur with a dosage just short 
of a sterilising one. The results obtained in the first instance by 
Muller have been confirmed by the experiments of others, and 
Hanson and Heys have got similar results by using radium or the 
gamma rays of radium alone. 

Muller has also shown that an increase in the temperature at 
which cultures of D)oso})hila are kept increases the rate of mutation, 
though to a much less extent than X-rays or radium. 

Mutations can thus be produced by either chemical or physical 
agencies, and the more powerful they are the greater the rate of 
mutation. There appears to be nothing specific in the agencies 
employed and their action is merely that of giving to the cells a 
shock just short of fatal. 



49 

Mavor says that " the inti-od action of a violent agent lil^e X-rays 
into the delicate mechanism of hereditary material is not to be com- 
pared with any natural process and can hardly be expected to have 
a greater influence on the hereditary tendencies than the work of a 
train wrecker would have on the destination of a train." His 
comment is unfair. Though physical violence comparable with 
that exerted by a strong dose of X-rays can seldom if ever occur 
under natural conditions, nor can as heavy doses of poisonous 
metallic salts as Harrison used be encountered often in the vicinity 
of industrial centres, less violent chemical and physical agents must 
often be at work and lead to the appearance of an occasional 
mutation. In this connection the temperature experiment of Miiller 
is most important for it shows that climatic conditions may be a 
direct cause of the appearance of new inheritable characters. The 
facts of geographical variation have long pointed to this conclusion, 
but the experimental proof is most welcome. Previous temperature 
experiments have merely produced remarkable variations such as 
those so well known in the Vanessids and Argynnids. These were 
not inherited, though the germ cells were to some extent affected as 
the experiments of Standfuss with V. urticae and of Fischer with 
Arctia caia showed. These effects were only produced by a severe 
shock, just short of fatal; heat, cold and centrifugalisation gave 
identical results. In this they resemble the recent experiments on 
the production of mutations, but differ from them in that mutations 
are produced by much less drastic means, the more violent agents 
simply increasing the rate of production. They differ also in that 
they are not fully transmissible like true mutations. They seem 
more akin to the temperature phases, the wet and dry season forms, 
of tropical butterflies, but we might learn more about their nature 
if more than one generation of their offspring could be bred under 
normal conditions. 

Recent research has let in a ray of light to illumine the darkness, 
which has hitherto enveloped the process of evolution, and has 
shown that this is not wholly caused by changes taking place within 
the organism and independent of its environment, but is at any 
rate in part due to the conditions in which the organism is living. 
I use the expression ray of light advisedly, because none of the 
mutations seem to be specially adapted to the conditions that bring 
them forth and many are such as to make the organism less able to 
survive under any conditions. It may be that they play only a subsidiary 
part in normal evolution, or it may be that experiments on other 



50 

species will give rise to a much larger proportion of mutations that 
may by selection prove useful and to fewer harmful ones : I fear the 
former surmise is the true one, but if the latter proves to be correct 
the discovery is indeed epoch making. Given isolation by sea, 
mountain, or desert we should have a clue at last to the way in 
which a species, so separated, forms first two races, then two sub- 
species, and finally two species by the action of differences in the 
chemical and physical agents, food, soil, temperature, humidity, and 
sunlight, met with in the two areas. 

Even if this discovery has not revealed the secret of the origin 
of those variations that in the past have supplied the material for 
natural selection to work upon, may they not provide us in the 
future with the material for artificial selection offering us a wide 
choice of mutations to preserve or reject as we will ? This may 
sound visionary, but if in a brief space of time we have produced 
almost all the known mutations of Drosophila, why should we not 
equally well produce almost all the known mutations of Abraxas 
fp-ossiilai-iata or Arctia caia or many hitherto unknown mutations 
of animals and plants, the possibilities of which have been less 
thoroughly explored, but which may prove of the greatest service to 
mankind ? 

Arrow, G. J. " Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond." 1928, 73-77. 

Fryer, J. C. F. *' Journ. Genetics." 1928, XX., 157-178. 

Hanson, F. B. " Science." 1928, LXVIL, 562. 

Hanson, F. B. and Heys, F. M. '' Science." 1928, LXVIII., 115-6. 

Harrison, J. W. H. quoted by Verity. " Ent. Record." 1916, 

XXVIII., 79. 
Lancefield, R. C. and Metz, C. W. " Amer. Naturalist." 1922, 

LVL, 211-241. 
MiiUer, H. J. " Science." 1927, LXVL, 84-87. 

" Genetics." 1928, XIII., 280-356. 
Patterson, J. T. *' Science." 1928, LXVIII., 41-43. 
Pictet, A. " Rev. Suisse. Zool," 1926, XXXIIL, 899-406. 

1927, XLV., 193-206. 
Spencer, W. P. " Genetics." 1928, XIII., 44-49. 
Weinstein, A. " Science." 1928, LXVIL, 376. 
Uvarov, B. P. " Locusts and Grasshoppers." Chap. VII., Imperial 

Bureau of Entomology, 1928. 

On the termination of my second year as your President I wish 
to thank you for the honour you have done me and for the kindness 



51 ^ 

and courtesy you have always shown to me. I also take this 
opportunity of acknowledging the debt of gratitude I owe to the 
Officers and Council. No one who has not held my position can 
realise to the full to what extent the President is dependent on 
their loyal co-operation and how much this costs them in time and 
trouble. 

In choosing as my successor Mr. Andrews, a dipterist, you have 
accorded recognition to a representative of an Order comparatively 
neglected, but of great importance to mankind, and in so doing I 
feel sure you are furthering the best interests of the Society. I am 
confident that under his able guidance The South London Entomo- 
logical and Natural History Society will advance from strength to 
strength and I join with you in welcoming him and wishing him a 
happy and prosperous tenure of the Office. 



52 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS, 



FEBRUARY 9th, 1928. 

The President, Dr. E. A. Cockayne, A.M., F.E.S., F.R.C.P., in 

the Chair. 

Mr. C. D. Anderson, of Ealing, was elected a member. 

Mr. Hugh Main gave a demonstration of the apparatus and methods 
used by him in Nature Photography ; and subsequently exhibited a 
series of slides to illustrate his " Nature Notes with a Camera." 



FEBRUARY 23rd, 1928. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The evening was devoted to the exhibition of lantern slides by 
Messrs. R. Adkin, T. J. Coulson, A. W. Dennis, G. E. Frisby, A. 
de B. Goodman, H. Main, C. W. Sperring, and A. E. Tonge. 

Mr. Tonge showed a series of slides of ova of Lepidoptera in 
profile. 

Mr. Dennis, studies of wild and uncommon plants. 

Mr. Main, portions of the life-histories of Coleoptera and spiders. 

Mr. Frisby, the nests of local British birds, including Terns, 
Gulls, Warblers, Oyster-catcher, Dunlin, Sandpiper, Redshank, etc. 

Mr. Robert Adkin's contribution included : — 

1. The cremasters of Aglais urticae and Vanessa io, mounted to 
show the hooks by which the pupae attach themselves to the silken 
pads prepared by the larvae. The preparations from which these 
slides, and the five following were taken, were very skilfully made 
by Mr. A. L. Rayward. 

2. A foreleg of Pieris brassicae with its pair of claws, a pad and 
two brushes, as representing the Papilionids ; of Pyrameis atalanta, 
brush-like and useless for alighting or walking, as representing the 



53 

Nymphalids ; and of Polyommatus coridon with its single claw, as 
representing the Lycaenids. 

3. The anal comb of Aufiiades sylvaniis. The larvae of many 
Hesperiids construct tubes of their food-plants in which they live, 
and the comb is used as a means of keeping the tube clear of 
excrement. On a pellet being passed it is held by the anus until 
the comb comes into action, when it is ejected clear of the tube. 

4. A larva of Bistnn betularia which, he said, the following 
narrative would show to be a very remarkable case of ** protective 
resemblance." A friend and his wife, with another young couple, 
were spending a brief caravan holiday in the New Forest. One 
evening, with a view to a little mild sport among the small birds on 
the following day, this young friend cut what he believed to be a 
very symmetrically forked twig of hawthorn, in order to make a small 
catapult, and placed the twig in the dickey of the motor car used 
for towing the caravan. On taking up the twig on the following 
morning, it was found that one of the limbs of the fork had 
disappeared, or perhaps it would be more correct to say had shifted 
its position and was pointing downwards instead of upwards. It 
was then found, on closer inspection, that what had appeared to be 
one limb of the fork was in reality a caterpillar. 



MARCH 8th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

The death was announced of one of the oldest members of the 
Society, Mr. W. G. Dawson (1888) at the age of 91. 

Mr. Grosvenor exhibited larvae of a Zygaenid, probably a race 
of Z. lonicerae, reared from ova deposited by females obtained by 
Mr, Hugh Main at Blanes, near Barcelona, Spain, in June, 1927. 
Many of the ova hatched in transit, but the remainder produced a 
remarkable brood, in that about 75% of them produced imagines in 
the autumn. The exhibit included : — 

Larvae from the wild-taken imagines, the remainder having 
emerged as a second brood. These larvae behaved in a normal 
fashion, feeding for a few weeks, before going into hibernation. 

An abnormal larva, one of the foregoing batch, went into hiber- 
nation in a normal fashion on or about July 31st, 1927. After 
being in hibernation for a few weeks, it suddenly changed its skin ; 



54 

and on September 17th, started feeding and continued to do so 
until October 3rd, when it again changed its skin and went into 
hibernation. He called attention to the large size of the larva. 

Larvae obtained from a pairing of the autumn brood. They fed 
for a short period, and then went into hibernation. 

Larvae belonging to the autumn brood which, instead of hiber- 
nating normally, went on feeding with every indication of producing 
a 3rd brood. In November they ceased feeding and went into 
hibernation. These were larger in size than the last. 

An abnormal larva belonging to the same brood, which ceased 
feeding in November, but did not change into hibernating skin. 
It remained bright green and continued to wander around the cage, 
but refused to feed. Gradually it became very thin and unhealthy, 
with every appearance of dying ; but in the middle of February it 
commenced to feed without cliangiiKj skiiiy and slowly gained stamina, 
until to-day (March 8th, 1928) it is a healthy larva nearly half 
grown. It had not changed its skin since last November, but now 
appeared to be about to do so. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited nine species of Hawk-moths 
(Sphingidae) sent to him by our fellow member Mr. Sneyd Taylor, 
from Barberton, S. Africa. They were taken at flowers and at 
light. There were Herse convolvuli^ Hippotion celeHo, Basiothia 
schenki, B. media, Odontodda magni/ica, Cephonodes hylas, Nephele 
aceentiferaj Macroyloaswu trocJiiloides, and I.eiicostrophus Idrundo. 

Pier is rapae was reported as having been seen during the first 
week in March. 

Mr. 0. R. Goodman read a paper entitled, " South-east France," 
and illustrated it with lantern slides of the scenery. (See page 1). 



MARCH 22nd, 1928. 
The Pkesidknt in the Chair. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited living larvae of Ftyckopoda dunidiata, 
from ova laid in July last and hatched in August. They had fed 
slowly practically the whole winter, except during very severe 
weather, and were now nearly full fed. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited stereoscopic slides of the filmy ferns 
Hyinejiophyllinn tunhridgense and H. iniilaterale, pointing out that 
the two species are readily identified in fruit, the former having the 



65 \ 

two valves of the involucre nearly circular in outline and strongly 
toothed at the marp[in, those of the latter being ovate and without 
teeth. The divisions of the fronds in tunhridrjense lie flat, nnilaterale, 
having them strongly decurved. 

Mr. W. S. Bristowe, B.A., F.Z.S., read a paper, " Facts and 
Fallacies about Spiders." (See page 12). 



APRIL 12th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

The President exhibited bred series of Nonagria cannae and A' . 
typhae, including examples of the dark ab. fratenia form. He also 
shewed larvae of Oporinia autiiinnata and of Oniphaloscelis lioiosa. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited a short series of Acid alia (Pttjchopoda) 
riisticata^ bred from eggs laid by a $ taken in July, 1927, in North 
Kent ; and of Taeniocavtpa popnleti, bred from larvae taken at our 
last Field Meeting at Byfleet. One J of A. rusticata has the ante- 
marginal cloud absent from all wings. Also larvae of Mornto 
[j\Jania) uianra and of Naenia typica from Wandsworth. It was pointed 
out that the larva of i)/. uiaura might be distinguished by the red 
spots above the spiracles. The P. rusticata larvae, which the 
President had from the same source, fed all the winter, except in 
the severest weather, but had not yet pupated. A discussion took 
place as to the food-plant of this species in nature. 

Mr. Bliss exhibited an aberration of Limenitis sihilla, with only a 
few very small remnants of the wide white band usually crossing 
all four wings ; it was taken in the New Forest in 1918. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a wild-laid egg of Polyploca flavicoynisy 
sil.uated in the angle between two small twigs of birch. 

Mrs. Olive Grey exhibited the larva of a Carabid beetle from 
Morocco, and two cast skins. It was taken in February. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited ^ and $ specimens of the S. 
African Saturn iid, Bolocera [Ludia) siinlax. A female had been 
bred from a larva, and the males were attracted to her in some 
numbers. 

The President referred to Oporinia antiuiniata as having pale green 
larvae, which feed later than those of 0. filiyranwiaria which 
are dark brown. The latter feed on heather, the former on birch 
and alder. 0. atitumnata is wide-spread in both north and south, 
whilst 0. filigrauniiaria occurs only in the north. 



56 

APIilL 26th, 102S. 

The Presidknt in the Chair. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited the larva of Leucaiu'a turca ; and it was 
remarked how much it resembled an Agrotid larva. 

Mr. Turner exhibited a small box showing the imagines, larval 
cases, mines of the larvae, and hibernating cases of the larvae of 
Coleophnra Jieinenibiella, the food-plant of which was hawthorn 
leaves. 

Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor exhibited larvae of the following 
Zygaenids : — 

5 spotted forms : — of Z. lonicerae (England), Z. traimalpina (St. 
Martin Vesubie) and Z. atoechadia ; and of ? species (Digne ; St. 
Martin Vesubie and Blanes). 

6 spotted forms : — of Z. stoechadis, ? species (Digne), Z. ftUpendnlae 
(England) and Z. scabiosae (Digne). Also parents of most of the 
foregoing. 

Oberthur named a race apparently of stoechadis from the South of 
France (Ste. Baume, Hyeres, etc.,) which he called ancepa, stating that 
this regularly has 5 and 6 spotted forms ; but breeding from what 
was apparently this race has produced very distinct larvae, so that 
it would seem that there are two species here. Trovsalpina, which 
flies with them, is easily distinguished, especially in the larval state, 
in which note the black dorsal line, a characteristic of this species. 
The 5 spot of St. Martin Vesubie are almost black with a very bright 
sub-dorsal line. Those from Digne are pale green with small black 
spots, and with dorsal and sub-dorsal lines ; these very much 
resemble the 6-spotted larvae from Ste. Baume, but the latter have 
larger black spots. 

The larvae of Z. scabiosae are worthy of note on account of their 
small size, they hibernate when about 2 mm., whereas most of the 
others that I have bred are about 4 mm. when hibernating. 

Mr. Newman exhibited a living specimen of Callop/tri/s riibi, just 
taken ; and gave notes on this year's experience so far. He had 
found larvae of Lasiocawpa qiiercih commoner than usual, of Eutricha 
guercifolia widely spread, of Cosmotric/ie yotatinia commonly ; but 
Arctia villica had been very rare for years. Of the species of which 
he had been endeavouring to hibernate the larvae, Geometra 
papiliunaria had wholly succumbed, of Melitaea athalia but very 
few remained, Breiithix enphrosyne was an utter failure, of B. selene 
a very fair number had gone through, but Arfft/iinis aglaia was 



57 ' 

another iitfcer failure. Out of a very large number of A. ci/dippe, 
there was no trace of a larva. Onrapteri/x sanibnnaria, Amjerona 
prnnaria and Phalaena syringaria had all done fairly well. Lycaenopsis 
aryiolns, Puris rapae, P. napi, and Gonepteryx rhannii. imagines were 
flying, but the last was not so common as usual ; and Aglais nrticae 
was much less in number. He had seen two Polyyonia c-alhitm near 
Oxford. As to his Zygaenids, the larvae had all succumbed. 

Mr. Grosvenor remarked that it had been one of the best years 
for hibernating Zygaenids in his experience. Quite 90% of his 
larvae had come through, and in one case 196 were feeding out of 
198 pre-winter larvae. 

Dr. Bull exhibited a wild laid ovum of Polyploca tiavicorais, on a 
birch twig at the base of a bud ; and reported seeing Pyrameis 
cardni in Sussex that day. 

A discussion took place as to the feeding of butterflies after 
hibernation. Vanessa io and Polygonia c-albiim, thrived on sallow 
catkins, Gonepteryx rhamni sucked bluebells and primroses, Aglais 
nrticae dandelions. If fed on sugar in captivity all these invariably 
died prematurely, but never when fed on their natural food. 

The President remarked that individuals of G. rhamni had their 
own individual taste ; one would seek primroses, another the bugle, 
and so on. Mr. Step had noticed another to visit only the flowers 
of bilberry. 

Mr. Main said that P. napi would exist for weeks on sugar ; it 
was however not a species which hibernated as an imago. 



MAY 5th, 1928. 

Field Mketing — Ranmore. 

Conductor — Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

This meeting, the first of the season, was a very successful one as 
regards numbers ; nearly thirty members and friends were present. 

The Lepidoptera and Coleoptera of this neighbourhood are 
pretty well known and were not reported. Mr. G. Nixon reported 
the following bees : — Halictns snhfasciatus, '^yl. =freygessneri, Alfk., 
"not a very common species" ; Andrena nigroaenea, Kirb. ; Noniada 
goodiana, Kirby ; X. alternata, Kirby {marshauiella, Kirby) ; A'. 
ruficornis, L. {fiava, Kirb.) ; Psit/rynis vestalis^ Fourc, and Bombits 
hortonini, L., var. niderattis, Fb. Mr. D. E. Kimmins reported the 



58 



following insects : — Neuroptera : Heuierohiun stijpna, Steph., H. 
nitiduhis, Fb., and H. micans, Oliv. Diptera : Bibio veiwsus, Mg., 
B,nd Bowbj/liiiH major, Li. Orthoptera : Tetrix Huhnlatam^Jj. It was 
observed generally everything was backward for the date. 



MAY 20th, 1928. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., Vice-President in the Chair. 

Several members made remarks on the season. 

Mr. Tonge had found the larvae of Hi/i/>arrhi(s {Geometra) 
papilionaria more common than ever before. 

Mr. Adkin had seen a Pi/rameis cardui on May 8th at Eastbourne, 
whereas it was rarely seen before the end of the month. 

Mr. Grosvenor said it was already too late for larvae of Zijuaena 
trifolii. On May 5th, at Ranmore, he had found 7 pupae, 4 of 
which had been attacked by enemies. The pupae were very rare 
this year. He stated that the early broods of this species pupated 
on blades of grass which subsequently drop to the ground, where 
the pupa lies flat, while the later brood pupates on stones or other 
objects. 



MAY 19th, 192S. 

Field Mketing — St. Martha's, Chilworth. 

Conthictor — Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

This was a locality new to the Society necessitating a somewhat 
longer journey. A few members and friends were pressnt. The 
morning was dull and little but larvae beating could be carried on. 
Soon after midday a thunderstorm began and a deluge of rain put 
an end to all activity. All those present, however, were impressed 
with the possibilities of the district for future investigation. 



MAY 24th J92S. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., Vice-President in the Chair. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited living larvae of Strynion ivalbnni, 
Amathes circellaris and Chesias xfiartiata, W:>st. = lerfatello, Schiff., 



69 

taken on the occasion of the Field Meeting at Chilworth, May 
19th. 

Mr. Eagles exhibited living larvae of Hoannia ahietaria, Schiff. = 
riheata, Clerck, beaten from yew at Ranmore during the Field 
Meeting, May 5th ; also larvae of Ihuophila {^letachroiitii<) perla. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited a short series of the Nymphalid Dione 
vanillae sub-sp. insularis, Maynard, and contributed the following 
note : — "In the " Entomologist " for September, 1926, there was a 
very useful paper by Captain N. D. Riley on the species of Colaenh 
and Dione. Familiar as we may be with Dione vanillae., Linn., in 
some form or another, it is only when such revisional work is published 
that we are able to sort out our specimens and understand the 
obvious differences in appearance ; and I may add, find out what we 
have not got. In my case, while I have handled a fair number of 
N. American specimens (which henceforth are known as sub-species 
incarnata) the other races have not come my way in any abundance ; 
and the only example of the race insular is, as we know it, was a 
solitary specimen from Jamaica, However, of late, a friend has 
been asking his missionary friends to send him home butterflies 
from their respective stations, and from Cleuthera Island (one of 
the Bahamas) he received a box in which amongst others, were 
200-250 specimens of D. vanillae sub-sp. insularis. But they had 
been captured by the juvenile members of his coloured flock, and 
were in much the same condition as those taken some time ago by 
ourselves, before we were old enough to own a net. These I exhibit 
are some of the best." 

A Potential Orchard Pest. — Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited speci- 
mens of the Tineid moth, An/yresthia conjwjella. He said that the 
natural food of its larva was the Mountain Ash [Pyms aiicuparia) 
in the fruits of which it burrowed. In some parts of the world, 
however, it had, during the past thirty years, become rather a 
serious orchard pest. Reports had been received from places so far 
apart as Sweden, Japan and the United States of America, that the 
apple crop had from time to time been badly damaged by the larvae 
boring into the fruit; and isolated cases had recently been reported 
from several other countries, including Britain. From careful 
observation it appeared that so long as an adequate supply of 
Mountain Ash fruits were available the larvae were content to feed 
in them, but when the moth became very abundant and the supply 
of its natural food ran short, it laid eggs on the apples. It was to 
be feared that, having acquired the habit of feeding in apples, it 



60 

would probably continue to do so, and so became a pest in this 
country, as it already had in some others, notably Sweden, where 
in some years the apple crop had been completely ruined by it. 

Mr, Grosvenor exhibited series of Zyi/aena caniiolica, from many 
localities, and pointed out the various subspecies or closely allied 
species. The larvae were said to be very like those of Z. trifoUL 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited, on behalf of Mrs. 0. Grey, a specimen 
of Cryptamorpha (lesjardinsi, Guer., found alive among Bananas in 
London. Described originally from Mauritius, it is widely distributed 
among the islands of the w^armer parts of the world, being represented 
in the Brit. Mus. collection by specimens from the Sandwich Is., 
New Caledonia, Fiji, New Zealand, Mauritius, the Seychelles, St, 
Helena, Madeira and the West Indies. It has been recorded as an 
introduction in southern Europe, and has been many times 
described, e.g., Telepliariiis fasciatns, Redt. (Fiji), Dendrophagns 
suturalis, White (N.Z.), CryptamorpJta mnsae, W^oU. (Madeira). 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited six out of the seven British species 
of the genus Xijlota (Sijrplddae), Diptera, of which five occur in 
his neighbourhood of West Kent. The larvae are found in rotten 
wood. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited the curious larvae of Xylophasia 
monoglypha which he had found feeding at the roots of dock and 
dandelion, in his new garden at Cheam. 

Dr. G. V. Bull exhibited Pieris napi with deficient scaling, May^ 
1928 ; Dasyrhira piidibnnda, a very small example, bred April ; an 
asymmetrically marked Fliisia gannua bred September, 1926 ; an 
unusually black larva of Abraxas gwssulariata, and a larva of Ji/sg/ /a 
oxyacantliae. He pointed out how great was the resemblance of the 
latter to the lichen on the bark of a tree. He also reported having 
seen lUiviicia pJdaeas and Brentliis euphrosyne flying on May 6th, 
and Haniearis liicina on May 19th. 

Mr. S. R. Ashby exhibited a series of Xestohiam rKfo-villosuw, 
DeG., from Rye, Sussex, May, 1928 ; also Polydrnsus niicans, F.r 
and SapriiiHs viresce)is, Pk., taken at Ranmore on May 5th, 1928. 

JUNE 2nd, 192S. 

Field Meeking — Thing. 

Conductor— 0. R. Goodman, F.Z.S., F.E.S. i 

Only about half-a-dozen members attended and no report wa& \ 
sent in. 



61 

JUtJE 14th, 192S. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited seven examples of Pyr/aera (Clostera) 
curtida, L., all bred from a batch of eggs found on aspen at Byfleet, 
on May 28th, 1927. Three J ^ , of the summer form, emerged 
on July 23rd, 24th and 26th, 1927 ; the remainder, 2 S" S" , and 2 
? $ , passed the autumn and winter as pupae and emerged on 
March 5th (two) and 29th, and April 9th, 1928 ; these four are of 
the spring form. All were treated alike in breeding, so far as the 
varying lengths of the pupal periods permitted. There were shewn 
also, two forms of the ^ pupa, one of which was much paler and 
apparently of thinner texture than the other. This did not depend 
on the time of emergence of the imago. All the other pupae were 
of the dark form. 

Dr. Fremlin exhibited an unusual form of Dysstroma triincata 
{ri(fisata), bred from a larva taken at Berkhamstead. It was 
considerably blacker than usual, with a well marked red band. A 
second exhibit was an example of Epirrho'e alternata (soclata), from 
Ryarsh in Kent, in which the central white band was much 
contracted and narrow, the outer area was wider and dark, while 
the inner basal band was deep black and broken. 

Mr. Jarvis exhibited examples of several species of British Longi- 
corn beetles and a number of species of the same section from 
Brazil for comparison. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited the following species of Lepidoptera 
taken by Mr. J. Sneyd-Taylor, B.Sc, in the Transvaal, S. Africa. 

Ludia (Bolocera) smilax. — A Saturnian of which the female was 
bred from a larva found on the " pepper tree " (Schinus molle), and 
the males assembled. {Knt. Record, XL. 77). 

Patida (Crishna) vmcrops, subsp. walkeri. — A large Noctuid with 
a distribution over most of Africa and the Indo-Malay region, and 
often taken far out at sea. The males possess an enormous tuft of 
yellow hairs on the tibiae of the front legs. 

Hippotion eson. — A common S. African Sphingid. 

Sphinyonwrpha c/dorea, subsp. monteironis. — A noctuid which as 
an imago does much damage to the tree-fruit of S. Africa. 

Tascia finalu. — A Syntomid-like Zygaenine. 

Thyretes caffra. — A very common Amatid (Syntomid) found 
throughout Cape Colony. 

Amphicallia tigris, — A brilliant yellow and black Arctiid, belonging 



62 

to the Callimorphinae section. The genus has representatives all 
along the East African area. 

Various members reported Pyraweis cardni from Tring, Essex, 
Eastbourne, S. Devon, Brighton, etc. ; and Colias croceiis at Box Hill 
on the occasion of the Field meeting in May. 

The President reported that, in spite of the inclement weather 
in Perthshire, he had found Annrta melanopa and A. cordigera 
exactly at their usual time of appearance, the latter being the 
scarcer. A. melanopa, as a rule, is found quite 2000 ft. above the 
locale of A. cordigera, but both occurred together on the lower ground ; 
only once had he found the latter species at the higher level. On 
one occasion he found the three Anarta species on the same ground. 
He asked what was the food-plant " in nature " of ^. melanopa. It 
was stated to be crowberry, but this had never been verified. A. 
cordhjera is the more active in the sunshine, and will not oviposit 
unless in brilliant sunlight, whilst A. melanopa is more or less active 
at all times. He stated that the occurrence of A. cordiiiera in any 
number was influenced by the custom of firing the heather, which 
was done annually in strips. Bearberry recovers slowly. 



JUl^E 23rd, 1928. 

Field Meeting — Westerham. 

Conductor — F. B. Carr. 

This locality has been frequently visited by the Society before, 
and no report was forthcoming. 

JUNE 2Sth 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Buckstone exhibited larvae and pupae of Buralis betidae from 
Witley ; and said that he had found the larvae to be cannibals. 
It was remarked that if occasionally sprayed they would not attack 
each other. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a specimen of the timber saw-fly, Sirex gigas, 
from Reigate, and stated that it appeared to have become more 
common in recent years. 

Mr. Blair remarked that he had seen the ? oviposit, and 
subsequently contributed the following note : — 



63 

OviPosiTioN OF SiREX GiGAs, L. — On JuHG 9th, when with Mr. E. 
E. Green in his garden at Camberley, we came upon a 9 Sirex gigas 
with her ovipositor deeply embedded in a larch log. We stopped to 
watch operations and soon the ovipositor was withdrawn. The 
insect then wandered off, walking rather jerkily over the log, the 
ovipositor held in its sheath beneath the body, its tip dragging along 
the bark behind her. As she went her antennae were in constant 
action tapping the bark in front of her. About six inches from the 
spot where we first found her, having apparently discovered another 
position to her liking, the body was raised as high as possible on 
her legs, the ovipositor slipped from its sheath and the point inserted 
in the bark beneath the middle of her body, i.e., some distance, about 
an inch, away from the spot last explored by her antennae. The ovi- 
positor was then perpendicular to the bark and to the general axis of 
her body, though this was now somewhat arched, while its sheath 
remained in its original position. Gradually the ovipositor was 
driven farther into the log, a slight side-to-side motion of the body 
being perceptible, until finally it was buried almost to its full length. 
Though we watched carefully we saw no sign of the passage of any 
egg down the ovipositor, but after a few seconds it was seen to be 
being slowly withdrawn, the withdrawal being considerably more 
rapid than the entry. From first point of insertion to complete 
withdrawal occupied 10 minutes. The insect then moved off again, 
but once more the ovipositor was slipped from its sheath and driven 
for its full length into the wood, in this case the operation taking 
a little longer, 12 minutes until complete withdrawal. Again no 
egg was observed to pass, but S. gigas is well known to make 
several such borings without ovipositing. Again the insect moved 
off, the ovipositor dragging along behind her. The terminal spike of 
the body is not brought into play at all, either when walking over 
the surface or during the thrusting in of the ovipositor ; neither 
does the ovipositor sheath appear to afford any support during this 
operation. This time she wandered further without finding a 
suitable spot, then suddenly flew away. 

Dr. G. V. Bull exhibited Vanessa to, ab. cganosticta, with blue 
spots on the hindwings ; Ri(niicia })]daeas, with the greater part of 
the R. forewing only of almost white coloration ; and Vsendopantliera 
macula tin, in which the marking was very abnormal. He also 
showed living larvae of Polyploca ridensj Ectropis consojiaria, and 
Boaniiia r/to)iiboidaria [geniniaria). 



64 

It was remarked that R. phlaeas was notably scarce this year, so 
far. 

Mr, Palmer exhibited a specimen of Melanarqia galathea, with 
yellowish ground colour, from Swanage ; an intermediate to ab. 
ftava. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited an example of Plntella criiciferarum with 
its cocoon. In comment, Dr. Cockayne remarked that he had found 
the species on a desert island in Russian Lapland on the Murman 
coast, where probably the larva had fed on a species of Draba or 
Cress. • 

Remarks were made as to the occurrence this year of several 
migratory species of lepidoptera in number. It was suggested that 
the prevalence of the North wind" may have been an aid to such 
migration, as it is well known that insects fly against the wind. 



JULY 7th, 1928. 

Field Mketing — Horsley. 

Co7iductor—K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 

The route taken was by the footpath along the railway to West 
Horsley place, across the Guildford-Leatherhead Road by the 
Church, up the Sheepleas to Netley Heath, and back by Chalky 
Lane to the " Duke of Wellington," where an excellent tea was 
served at 6 o'clock. Thirteen members took part. 

Among the Lepidoptera noted were Eplnephele tlthonus, Bepialus 
hectua, Toxocauipa 'pastimnii , Plagodis dolabraria, Boarnda repandata, 
Comibaena piistidato , Aatheua testaceata {sylrata), Btc.,with\Qjrv&e of the 
following \ — Gonepteryx rhatinii, Drepana lacerthiaria, D. falcataria, 
D. binaria, Notodonta ziczac, N. chaonia, Sanothripiig rerai/ana, 
Pygaera ciutiila, P. pigra, Polyploca fiavicornis^ P. rid ens, Demas 
coryli, Gonodonta libatrix, Biston strataria and B. betularia, 
Ennomos erosaria, and Acasis viretata. The Lepidopterists, however, 
did not have it all their own way ; among Coleoptera worth noting 
were the following : — Lucamis cerviis, Cryptocepludus labiatns, Stran- 
galia armata, Leptura nielaniira, Ciatela Jiipenis^ and Bytiscus jjopuli, 
while some burnt pines produced Salpuigns reyi [ater) in numbers, 
Catops fiiiiiatKs and Corticaria elougata and C. fenestralis. Of 

* According to my notes the wind (Eastbourne) during later part of May 
and until June 8th was as much east as north. — E.A. 



Orthoptera Ectobius lappoiiica, Leptophyes punctatusinia, Oniocestus 
viridulus and Tetrix bipunctatum put in an appearance. A small 
ichneumon, Lissonota errabnnda was noticed flying in numbers up 
and down certain oak-trunlis, apparently males awaiting the emer- 
gence of the females. Morley does not mention any host for this 
species. At a previous meeting of the Society mention was made 
of some of the old pine trunks on Netley Heath being riddled with 
Sirex burrows. Search was made for these trunks, but though 
certain trunks were found riddled with burrows of which the makers 
could not be ascertained, they certainly were not Sirex. 



JULY 12th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mrs. Maud Stanley- Smith was elected a member. 

The President exhibited a hymenopterous parasite bred from a 
larva of Synanthedon scoliaeformis. He also showed the three 
species of Anarta taken at Rannoch in May, 1928, on the same 
ground: A. cordiyera, A. melanopa and A. myrtilli (see p. 62). 

Mr. Dennis exhibited photographs of the pupae of Euchloe 
cardamines, and stated that, in his experience, the larva did not, as 
a rule, pupate, as so repeatedly stated, on a stem of the foodplant, 
but upon surrounding objects. The general experience was the 
same. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited the Lycaenid, Zizina labradns (phoebe), 
one of the commonest wayside butterflies of New Zealand. 

Mr. Farmer exhibited a living specimen of Synanthedon myopa«- 
formis, a species which was emerging from a hawthorn bush in his 
garden in some numbers. The imagines came out on the side upon 
which the sun shone and dried their wings very quickly. 

Mr. Anderson exhibited an example of Daphnis iierii, taken in 
the Isle of Wight at light, after midnight, on September 7th, 1926; 
and an aberration of Aylais nrticae taken at Sutton Courtney, in 
which the band of the hindwing above was represented by six very 
dull and obsolescent orange spots, and on the underside there was 
a uniform dark ground without any indication of a band. 

Mr. Eagles exhibited living larvae of Ennomos quercinaria 
{angular id) and E. erosaria from Horsley, and of Eumorpha elpenor, 
from Waltham. 



66 



Mr. Andrews reported that he had been some weeks on the coast 
of Cornwall, where he found Colias croceus and Pyrauieis cardui very 
common. The weather was generally very dull, and the wind 
strong. His captures of Diptera were disappointing. 



JULY 21st. 1928. 

Field Meeting — Peaslake. 

Conductors — Dr. G. S. Robertson and F. B. Carr. 

An excursion was made to the Hurtwood, Peaslake. 'Bus was 
taken from Dorking North Station to " The Rookery," beyond 
Westcott, where the party got out, the route being through Friday 
Street, where the lake was nearly empty owing to re-stocking with 
trout and getting rid of the " coarser " fish. A fine patch of 
Mimulus liiteus was in flower at the upper end. Shortly before 
reaching Friday Street three Cidaria picata, a couple of Asthena 
sylvata, and a very dark form of Boarniia repandata were taken, also 
several larvae of Eupithecia pidchellata in the fiowers of the fox- 
gloves. On leaving Friday Street we took a westerly course through 
the woods to Abinger and Holmbury St. Mary, thence on to the 
Hurtwood near Peaslake, where Limenitis sibilla were seen in fair 
numbers but were rather badly worn. No Eupithecia pusillata 
larvae were beaten from the spruce needles, although they were 
common on the same date last year, full-fed. The aspens produced 
Cerura bifida, Psilura palpina, and Pheosia treunda (dictaea) larvae.. 
Seven members and friends remained for tea at the Hurtwood Inn 
in Peaslake Village. 



JULY 26th 1928. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Anderson exhibited four aberrations of Zygaena filipendulae^ 
bred from Caterham pupae : — 

1. L. forewing, all the spots run together, leaving only a small 
streak of the ground colour near the base. The R. side normal. 

2. L. hindwing with a slight salmon suffusion. 
8. The sixth spots very small and ill-developed. 
4. All the wings salmon colour. 



^37 

Mr. Grosvenor discussed the Zygaenids he had bred from ova 
laid by females taken at Ste. Baume. He was greatly puzzled as to 
the species. The examples bred varied by many gradations from 
specimens absolutely 5-spotted to others equally 6-spotted. He 
suggested that it might be a race of Z, JiUpendnlae which produced 
6-spotted forms. 

The Chairman remarked on the advantages of breeding on a 
large scale and from many localities. Incidentally, he mentioned 
that he had seen Z. filinendulae in his garden at Eltham. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited a specimen of the Dipteron, Bomhylins 
vtiuor, from Shanklin, I. of Wight, bred from the cells of a bee 
Colletes (laviesana, upon which it was a parasite. 

Reports were made as to the occurrence, even commonly, of 
Litnenitis sihilla in several localities in Surrey, as well as generally 
in parts of Sussex. Asthena blomeri had been in profusion in its 
well-known locality near Chalfont Road. 



AUGUST 9th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr, Barnett exhibited a long series of Boarmia consortaria = 
■pnnctinalis taken on trunks of trees near S. Croydon. These included 
several of the well-characterised melanic form. Other members 
reported the melanic form from near Wellington College, Tilgate, 
Byfleet, Maidstone and Oxshott. The form at the last mentioned 
locality was noted as getting gradually darker of late years. The 
President remarked that it was a Mendelian dominant. 

Mr. Step exhibited an example of Manduca {Acherontia) styx, 
brought to him from Calcutta where it had come in to light. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited, on behalf of Mrs. Brooks, the eggs of 
the lace-wing fly, remarkable as being placed on long thread-like 
stalks, which waved in the ait. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited larvae of Chloridea (Heliothis) peltigera, 
taken by Mr. A. L. Rayward on the Crumbles at Eastbourne, within 
the last few days. He said that this larva had occurred in consider- 
able abundance all along the coast from Dungeness to Eastbourne, 
in suitable places wherever the Stinking Groundsel (Senecio viscosus) 
grew, but had not there been found on any other plant. Along 
the banks of the Cuckmere River, however, where this Groundsel 
did not grow, it had been taken on Rest-harrow {Ononis arvensis). 



68 

Several members had met with the larvae of C. {H.) peltifieray 
and it was remarked the colour of the larva was very variable. 
Some were quite pale green compared with the dark green larvae 
exhibited. It was also noted that they could not be induced to feed 
on any substitute plant other than that they were taken from. Mr. 
Step recorded having found a larva feeding on a banana. The 
President said that at Deal he found the larvae on Convolvulus 
soldanella, and these were of a beautiful delicate pink. If kept in 
close confinement they were inclined to be cannibals. 

Mr. Adkin also communicated the following note : — 

Moth in Human Ear. — Mr. Robert Adkin said that the following 
incident seemed to be so remarkable that he thought it worth 
putting on record. An invalid who was sleeping was awakened at 
about 2 a.m. by a loud buzzing sound, which became so intolerable 
that a nurse who was in attendance was summoned and told by the 
patient that a fly had entered her ear while she slept. The nurse, 
although somewhat sceptical, poured a quantity of oil into the ear, 
and the buzzing gradually died down and ultimately ceased. The 
doctor on calling on the following morning made a critical exam- 
ination, and said that he could see what appeared to be the leg of 
some insect, and some dark object which he thought might be wax. 
On syringing the ear with hot water and antiseptic, three attempts 
removed nothing, but at the fourth a dark object was driven out 
which proved to be, not wax, but a moth. The moth was naturally 
in a very stained and battered condition, but a careful examination 
left little doubt that it was a specimen of Nomop/iila twctnella, a 
species which has been exceedingly abundant on the South Coast 
recently and which has come into houses to light in considerable 
numbers. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited photographs of the specialised hairs of 
the newly hatched larvae of Euchlo'e cardamines. These hairs are 
tubular, and exude at the tip a globule of moisture, which is very 
resistant to evaporation. Similar hairs occur in all stages of the 
larva. No suggestion has apparently been made as to their use or 
purpose. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited the larvae of Sesia (Macroglossiwi) 
stellatariun, found at Wimbledon, feeding on the yellow bedstraw, 
Galiiuii verum. 

It was reported that Metachrostis [BryopJnla) perla was much 
more common than usual this year at Blackheath. Ruuiicia pJdaeas 
was said to be very scarce this season ; those seen being very dark. 



I 



69 

AUGUST 23rd, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited both sexes of the remarkable American 
ArgyimiK diana, a classical example of the most highly developed 
Sexual Dimorphism. The males have the upper surface of both 
wings deep black-brown, with a broad marginal border of fulvous, 
interrupted on the forewings by rays of the dark colour along the 
nervures, separating dark spots. The females are of a rich bluish- 
black, with three rows of almost parallel large bluish spots, the 
outer ones being almost white. The species is confined to the 
Appalachian Region of N. America ; and is the largest and most 
magnificent of the American Argynnids. 

The President exhibited Cleora {Boarmia) repandata bred from 
Rannoch larvae, the small, local, Scotch race ; and larvae of Ayrotis 
rijme from the sand dunes near Deal, feeding on Convolvulus 
soldanella. 

Mr. Eagles exhibited living larvae, of Stauropus fagi, beaten 
from hornbeam at Epping, and now feeding on beech ; young larvae 
of Euphyia [Cidaria) silaceata, feeding on Enchanter's Nightshade, 
of Cilix glaucata on hawthorn ; and ova of Ennomos erosaria. 

Mr. 0. R, Goodman stated that the helice form of Colian croceus 
was very abundant in Algeria in the early summer of 1927. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited the three recognised species of 
Ma7idnca = Acherontia, M. lachesis, M. atropos and A/, styx ; and 
pointed out that M. lachpsis was the large robust species with very 
darkly marked hindwings, while the other two were alike in having 
hindwings without any dark marking on the basal half. The first 
two species might be readily separated by the undersides of the 
abdomen, which in M. styx was almost or quite devoid of mesial 
spots, while in M. atropoa these were always well developed into 
stripes. The distribution of M. lachesis was, " China, N. and S. 
India and Ceylon, eastwards to the Southern Moluccas (Ceram, 
Amboina) " ; that of M. styx was " Indo-Malay sub-region as far 
north as Japan, eastward to Ceram," and that of M. atropos, " the 
whole of the Aethiopian Region, the Palaearctic Region as far north 
as the Shetland and Lofoden Islands ; eastward to Transcaucasia 
and North Persia, westwards to the Azores." There seems to be 
little aberrational or racial variation in the species. In M. styx the 
specimens from the Malay Peninsula, the Archipelago, China and 



70 

Japan have the russet colouring of the forewings absent or obsolescent, 
and have been named sub.-sp. crathis by Rothschild. 

He also exhibited specimens of the Micro-lepidopteron Gelechia 
7nalvellay together with the larvae feeding on the seeds of the 
Hollyhock, Althaea rosea, a plant belonging to the order Malvaceae. 
For many years he had expected to find the larvae, but not until 
the present season was he successful and that in his own garden. 
In his recent new edition, Meyrick had erected a new genus, 
Platyedra, for half a dozen species, the larvae of which all feed on 
seeds of Malvaceae. We have one other species of this small genus 
in this country, viz., P. vilella, the larvae of which feed on the 
common mallow, Malva sylvestris. Two examples of P. vilella were 
exhibited. The most conspicuous member of this restricted genua 
is the well known pest of the cotton plant, P. gossypiella. It may 
be remembered that the cotton plant is one of the Malvacea* 
(Mallows). There is a good distinguishing character between these 
two obscurely marked species in that P. vilella has a black dot 
towards the base of the inner margin of the forewing. Meyrick 
says that the half a dozen species of the genus all occur around the 
Mediterranean region ; he also says both the British species are 
local. There is a very beautiful figure of the larva of /'. malvella in 
the famous work of Fischer von Roslerstamm, 1838 ?. 

In Mr. Turner's box was an example of the Tortrix, Laspeyresia 
(Stiymonota) pallifroiitaiia, a rare and very local species attached to 
the wild Astray alas glycyphyllos (the milk vetch), on the seed-podg 
of which the larvae fed. He had never met with the species wild 
and would be pleased of any information as to the locality of the 
food-plant. He knew of one where the larva had been met with 
near Guildford, and another where the insect was not to be found. 
The species was not included in the Entomoloyist List ; it is a more 
or less recent addition to the British fauna. C. G. Barrett says, 
Lep. Brit. Is., XL, " It was discovered as an inhabitant of this 
country in the year 1887 by Mr. Wm. Warren, among specimens 
captured by Mr. Wm. Thompson, of Stony Stratford, Bucks. Since 
then it has been found in Sussex by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher; in Surrey 
by Mr. H. J. Turner ; in Herefordshire by Mr. Hutchinson ; and in 
Cambs. by Mr. Warren." 



71 

SEPTEMBER 13th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Mera exhibited a cabinet drawer with species of Dianthoeeia 
(British), and pointed out the North Cornwall form of D. nana 
(conspersa) with orange spots, some of the dark forms quite compar- 
able with the Shetland form known as ochraea ; a banded specimen 
of D. carpophaga, generally considered verj'' rare ; a series of the 
white forms from Sussex, known as imllida^ ochraea-palliiia and 
fusca •pallida. 

Mr. Witting exhibited an example of Polyomniatiin coridon with 
a very dark underside, which was of the form send-obsoleta^ from 
the Isle of Wight. 

Dr. Bull exhibited bred melanic examples of Boannia roboraria 
from East Sussex, which were quite comparable with the Essex 
form ; and an example of homoeosis in Semiothisa notata, in which 
a portion of the forewing pattern was reproduced on the L. hind- 
wing, which was small. 

The President remarked tbat the former had been reported from 
both Herts and Surrey, and that some species were more prone to 
homoeosis than others. It had been more frequently observed in 
Arctic caja^ Coenonyiuplia pampJiiliifi and Semiothisa notata. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited series of D. carpophaga from various 
British localities, and said that the prior name of this species was 
Uplda of Esper, that of the genus was now said to be Harmodia. 

Mr. B. D. Molesworth, a visitor, exhibited a specimen of Catocala 
electa taken at Hoddesdon, settled on a window in early morning, 
September 15th, 1927. The species has only twice before been taken 
in England, and this was by Vine, at sugar in the neighbourhood of 
Brighton, September 24th, 1875 (" Ent." VIII. 282), and by 
Bankes at Corfe Castle on September 22th, 1892 (" Ent." XXVI. 
86). 

Mr. MacKenny-Hughes reported that he had been experimenting 
with the larvae of Selenia hilnnaria under an excess of the ultra- 
violet rays, and had found the rays utterly fatal to development 
and life. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited a short series of Slmaethis pariana. 
He said that in 1926 he received the specimens exhibited from his 
friend Mr. Huggins, who had obtained them near Faversham. He 
had regarded it as a rather good species, for although the larva was 



72 

known to feed on both apple and hawthorn, it was not often that 
one met with it. He had, however, just heard from Prof. Theobald 
that in certain districts in Kent it had been causing very consider- 
able damage in the apple orchards, over a hundred acres of trees 
being " browned " by hordes of the larvae. The damage was 
caused, not so much to the present crop of fruit, but by the larvae 
webbing over and devouring the leaves, thus impoverishing the tree, 
and so reducing its fruiting capabilities for the following year. 

Mr. Adkin also exhibited "Cherry Galls" on oak leaves, with 
which he said a small oak bush growing in one of the woods near 
Eastbourne was practically covered. He referred to the very inter- 
esting account of the maker of this gall, Dryophanta scutellaris, and 
its connection with that of the " Purple Velvet-Bud Gall," 
Spathegaster taschenhenjiy given in Alder and Straton's " Alternating 
Generations," pp. 60-64, and in Connold's " British Oak Galls." 

Mr. A. Bliss exhibited the living larvae of Pheosia trenuda 
(dictaea) ; Pygaera ciirtula, light brown in colour ; Gonodontis 
bideiitata, the very dark and light forms ; and Calocalpe (Encosmia) 
undidata. 

Mr. Palmer reported Colias croceus as very common around 
Shoreham, Sussex, where the helice form was also observed. Reports 
were made of its occurrence in many parts of the S. of England, 
but it appeared to be particularly common along the eastern 
portion of the south coast. 

The President exhibited a bred series of Nonagria geminipuncta 
from E. Sussex, including five specimens of the black form ab. fuscai 
Tutt. Eighty in all were bred. 

These black forms, it was pointed out, represent about 6% of the 
population of the locality. 



SEPTEMBER 27th, 1928. 
The Pkesident in the Chair. 

Mr. E. Step exhibited two examples of the Indian water-bug 
(Belostoma iudica), received from his son in Calcutta, where they 
had been attracted indoors by light. He called attention to the faot 
that one specimen had the left elytron crossed over the right, 
reversing the normal folding of these organs. On behalf of Mr. 
Turner, Mr. Step exhibited the young stage of the tinder bracket 
fungus, Fomes fnnientariiis, found at Effingham on a dead blackthorn 
stem. 



78 

Mr. Farmer recorded the fact that Polyo)in)iati(s icanis at Seaford 
and Banstead, and Colias crocens (e'htsa) at Seaford, were exceed- 
ingly abundant on the third day after the very severe gale of August 
14th, whereas he had seen neither species before. Both var. heliee 
and Colias hyale were seen. He also showed larvae, of Hadena 
oleracea on Chenopodium, Bistoii [AiiijiliidaKh) betidaria on michael- 
mas daisy, and a very red-chocolate coloured larva of F.uplexia 
Incipara. 

Mr. Grosvenor exhibited Zyyaenidae in illustration of his paper. 

Dr. Bull exhibited living larvae of Calliuiorplia do)iunida, from a 
damp locality near Winchester, feeding on the water avens [Genm 
rlvale). It was remarked that for the wintering period they should 
be kept in a roomy cage with plenty of dead sycamore leaves. 

Mr. A. Bliss exhibited a scorpion found among grape-fruit from 
New York ; also larvae of Plagodu dolabraria and Acronicta leporina, 
the yellow form. 

Mr. Barnett exhibited an extreme example of fasciation of the 
flower stem in the ragwort {Senecio jacohaea) ; two forms of Kmatnrya 
atoiiiaria, the heather and the grass form, including an aberration 
in which one of the transverse lines was not present ; and a series 
of Ptychopoda rnsticata. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited ab. conjuncta of Zyyaena fHipendulae^ 
also a preserved larva ; a Z. tvifoUi with confluent markings, and a 
Z. ineliloti, with a preserved larva. 

Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor read a short paper " The five and six- 
spotted Zygaenas : A Comparison." (See subsequent report of Ann. 
Exhibition, p. 82). 

A short discussion took place. 



OCTOBER 11th, 1928. 
The Prksident in the Chair. 

Mr. B. D. H. Kettlewell and Mr. J. A. Thompson, of Caius College, 
Cambridge, and Mr. Cliftbrd Wells, of Crowthorne, were elected 
members. 

The President exhibited a living larva of Heliothis Hcntosa from 
Austria: its food in nature was a species of Artemisia, on the 
flowers and seeds of which it fed. In the absence of this it had 
fiaten some Chenopodium. slightly. 

Mr. B. W. Adkin exhibited specimens of Kpinepliele tithonns, from 



74 

the Lizard, Cornwall, 1928, with others from Dartmoor and S.E. 
England for comparison. The specimens from the Lizard were 
dull, with the black spot on forewings small and the white dots 
therein inclined to become obsolete. There was one pale variety. 
The Dartmoor specimens were bright coloured with the black spot 
large and the white dots therein pronounced ; extra black spots, 
some with a white dot, showing on both fore and hindwings. 
Those from S.E. England were the typical form. He also exhibited 
an almost black variety of Aiujynnia cydippe {adippe), captured by 
himself in Windsor Forest on June 14th, 195i8, with a mass of 
beautiful green silvering beneath. 

Mr. Buckstone exhibited a large cocoon found on a hawthorn 
bush. It was considered to be that of Dicranura vinnla. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited a living Cassidid beetle, Metriona 
bicolor, F., found in a box of apples from Virginia. This beetle 
exhibits a striking change of colour when living. At times it wnll 
be of a uniform strongly metallic golden colour (in America a 
popular name for it is the 'gold bug '), at others the thorax will 
appear greenish-golden, the elytra purplish red, with a bluish or 
purple opalescence. In both cases the explanate margins of both 
thorax and elytra remain almost colourless and transparent. The 
latter colour appears to be assumed when the beetle is active, walking 
about or attempting to fly, and the golden colour when at rest or 
sluggish. The change takes place within a few minutes, the dorsal 
area first assuming the golden hue, which then spreads to the lateral 
areas, leaving for a while the basal half of the 7th interval red, 
finally this too becomes golden uniformly with the rest. 

This change of colour has long been known, being referred to by 
T. W. Harris, *' Insects of Massachusetts," 1841. This author states 
that it lives u["on the leaves of " morning glory ; sweet potato and 
bittersweet." 

After death, the brilliancy usually disappears completely, the 
whole insect becoming a dirty yellow colour. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited imagines of the 2nd brood of Cidaria 
(Orthonavia) liynata {vittata). The larvae came from Wicken Fen 
and fed on the yellow bedstraw, Galium veriuii. The imagines were 
very small. It was remarked that the second brood in Scotland 
also were very small. 

Mr. Step exhibited the humble-bee {Bojubiis teirestris), with ita 
attendant mites. When observing the insect visitors to the flower- 
heads of Devil's-bit, on Wimbledon Common, the rusty appearance 



75 

of the bee had attracted attention, and a closer inspection showed 
that it was due to the sides and lower parts being crowded with the 
mites. On putting the bee into the cyanide bottle, the mites dropped 
off at once, and about a hundred of them were shaken out on a 
gummed card, as exhibited. They are a species of Gamasiis, closely 
allied to, if not the same as, that found on the beetles, Geotrtipes 
stercorarins, Aphodiiis and some of the Necrophori. 

The idea long prevalent was that the mites were parasites upon 
the insects ; and so recently as 1876, Van Beneden, in his Animal 
Farasites, says of those found upon Bees : *' Bees .... have 
a mortal enemy, an acarus, which attaches itself to them, not in 
order to gain some advantage from them, but to cause their death. 
It is not so much a parasite as an assassin, and we may be excused 
from describing it." 

The truth is that the mites are messmates, in the case of the 
beetles acting as scavengers, and on the bees probably subsisting 
upon the abundant pollen which clings to the ventral hairs. 

The President exhibited preserved larvae of Cabera piimria and C. 
exantkemata, and read the following note : — 

" My exhibit consists of a series of eleven preserved larvae of 
Cabera pnaaria and the same number of C. ed-ant/ieniata, to illustrate 
my notes on the chief differences between the larvae of these two 
species. The only unusual larva is the exanthemata with a very 
thick lateral stripe on the thoracic somites on the right side and a 
thin one on the left side. 

*' I. Larvae with green ground colour; distribution of red on 
dorsum. 

(1) In pusaria there is a strong tendency for the red markings on 
the dorsum to form a continuous line on the thoracic somites even 
in the larvae with little red on them. 

"In exanthemata this area is unmarked with red in lightly marked 
specimens. 

'* In heavily marked pusaria there is a broad deep red thoracic 
blotch, whereas in exanthemata this area tends to remain light 
coloured, and in the darkest examples is only sufi'iised or speckled 
with pink or red. 

*' (2) In the most lightly marked exanthemata the only red mark- 
ings are on the middle somites ; in pusaria on the anterior or on 
the anterior and posterior somites. 
" II. Distribution of lateral red markings. 

(3) In all except the most lightly marked larvae of exanthemata 



76 

the spiracular line is formed of pink, purplish, or red blotches on all 
the somites, and there may be a suffusion of a lighter shade of one 
of these colours between the blotches and upwards towards the sub- 
dorsal line. 

** In pusaria there is no dark spiracular line in the majority, and 
even in those most heavily marked it is only indicated faintly on the 
thoracic and last three abdominal somites. 
"III. Shape of the red dorsal markings on the abdominal somites. 

(4) I'lisaria. At the anterior end of each somite there is a small 
red central dot, or a larger one with a small one on each side of it. 
At the posterior end of each somite there is a red central dot which 
has a tendency to spread laterally and forwards, but with little 
tendency to form a continuous subdorsal line. The red mark in 
such insects is a rectangle with its short axis in the long axis of the 
larva or it is roughly triangular. There may be another dot on 
each side of this red mark, which is never fused with it. 

" Exanthemata. At the anterior end of the somite there is a red 
dot in the centre with a smaller dot on each side. These three dots 
are never united, and even in the pinkest larvae the space between 
them remains a lighter colour than the rest of the ground colour. 
In some of the brown larvae the space between shows up as two 
white specks. On the posterior end of the somite the red or purple 
marks are usually two subdorsal cones with the apices pointing 
forwards. There may be a very thin central line, and continuous 
subdorsal lines may run from the apices of the series of cones. 
" IV. Larvae with brown ground colour. 

(5) In pusaria the ground colour may be red -brown, grey- brown 
or chocolate, but the colour is uniform all over. There are two 
conspicuous white dots on the anterior end and two on the posterior 
end of all or nearly all the somites. These sometimes occur also 
on the most heavily marked larvae with a green ground colour, and 
in these it can be seen that the dots lie just outside the lateral 
dorsal dots and not as in exantheniata between the central and 
lateral dots. 

" In exanthemata the spiracular line and dorsal markings are 
darker than the rest, so that there are lighter brown areas on the 
dorsum shaped rather like a tulip with a short stalk directed 
towards the posterior end of the larva. 

" There is a central row of white dots on the ventral surface of 
pusaria, and none in exanthemata ; but I am not sure how constant 
this is. 






00 






O 




a* 

36 

H 
>* 

a 

o 

< 

OS 

c 
z 

D 

H 



■77 

li' . , 
" V. Ground colour. i 

(6) In exanthemata there is 8u*form with a white ground colour, 
which does not, so far as I know, occur in jnisaria. 

'* VI. Food-plant. 

(7) I believe that all larvae on birch are pnsaria and all on sallow 
are exanthemata. (On alder and aspen both species are found.) 
No doubt there are occasional exceptions to this general statement." 

The President then read a short paper from our fellow member 
Mr. T. A. M. Nash, who is now in Tanganyika Territory. 

Notes on the Habits of Brachytrypex membranaceus. Kikorie, 
KoNDOA Iraugi District, Tanganyika Territory. — On March 28th, 
1928, when walking along a native path early in the morning, my 
attention was attracted by a very penetrating stridulation that 
sounded in the distance like bagpipes. Investigation showed the 
cause of the noise to be Brachytrypex membranaceus, a cricket of very 
large size, which was sitting outside a small tunnel which opened on 
one face of a small heap of earth ; the insect was stridulating 
violently, the tegmina being raised above the abdomen at an angle 
of about 30" ; the left tegmen is kept under the right during the 
process of stridulation. A tremendous volume of sound is produced 
by the file of one tegmen vibrating against the scraper of the other; 
each tegmen bears one file and one scraper, as is typical of the 
Gryllidae. It was observed that while stridulating, the labium 
moves backwards and forwards, as if keeping time to the rising and 
falling of the notes, and ceasing to move on the cessation of the 
noise. 

Often, previously, piles of earth had been noticed near the path, 
but they had been dismissed as the work of a small species of mole, 
from their unusually large size. Examination of the tunnels, from 
the earth heaps outside, proved very difficult, owing to the crumbling 
nature of the soil. Only one home was successfully investigated, so 
that the following observations are based upon one excavation 
only ; however, in all other cases where investigation was attempted, 
there was no indication that the habits differed from those described. 

Each cricket constructs two tunnels which open on the surface, 
each is under the lee of one of the two earth heaps thrown up ; 
these mounds are relatively huge, when the small size of the worker 
is taken into consideration. The mouth of the tunnel, near which 
the cricket stridulates, can only be described as the front door; 
from this a passage leads down to a neatly hoUowed-out cavity 
which acts as a living room. From this one passage runs up 



78 

obliquely to a point nearly a yard away from the *' front door,'* 
opening to the surface, at the foot of the second mound of earth, 
but on the side of it remote from the " front door." This would 
appear to serve as an emergency exit, for while digging near the 
entrance hole, the cricket was observed, only just in time, to be 
escaping by this hole. The position of the back door on the far 
side of a relatively huge heap of earth, would render the occupant's 
escape almost certain to meet with success, as the small rodent, or 
whatever preys upon this insect, besides being probably engrossed 
in its excavations, could not see over the top of the far mound. 

From the living room another passage branches off, but this time 
in an ahnost vertical direction downwards. This also opens into a 
small chamber,, which was filled with mouldy excreta, and seemed 
to serve the purpose of a lavatory. From this room a horizontal 
tunnel ran off for a couple of feet, and opened into the last chamber, 
which contained a few blades of grass chopped into small lengths. 
Without knowing more about the feeding habits of this insect, it 
would be unsafe to state what this last chamber is used for ; possibly 
it serves the purpose of a dining room. Should grass form a major 
part of this insect's food, then it is possible to conceive that it takes 
a small supply down to this chamber, and eats it during the day 
time. 

The insect is nocturnal in its habits, and is usually only seen 
early in the morning, after rain, when it appears to be fond of 
stridulating. Often, however, the dead bodies of Rrachytrypex 
meiiibra)iaceiis^ are found in the path, having apparently met with 
some disaster during the night, when they left their homes in search 
of food. 

A curious point was, that in no case were both male and female 
found in the same home. They appear to copulate outside their 
burrows, during the night, and afterwards, each to return to his or 
her own home. Sometimes a male would be excavated from its 
home, and sometimes a female, but never male and female from the 
same burrow. The living room was about 1^ ft. down, and the lowest 
room about 3^ feet. 

In conclusion, it would be advisable to say, that not nearly enough 
burrows were excavated, to enable one to say that what has just 
been described, is always the case ; however, it certainly was the 
case in one perfect excavation, and appeared to be the case in several 
others. It is an extremely difficult matter investigating the burrows 
of insects that go .so deep in a loose, sandy soil. There is also much 



79 

trouble in finding two isolated earth-heaps, so as to ensure that one 
is working in the same house all the time, as often one will see 
seven or eight mounds, all close together. 

I am indebted to the British Museum for the identification of this 
insect. (Plate III.) 



OCTOBER, 25th 1928. 
Annual Exhibition. 

As usual now, there was no formal business, and exhibits were 
placed on tables. A large number of members and their friends 
were present, and another very successful annual feature of the 
Society was recorded. 

Mr. B. W. Adkin exhibited a large number of series of Co-s/z/otncA* 
(Odoneatis) potatoria, from various localities in Britain. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited the following British Lepidoptera : — 
Acidalia (Sterrha) laevigata, the new British Geometer (See 
"Entom." 1927, p. 222), bred September, 1928, by Prof. J. W. 
Heslop Harrison ; Heliothu peltigera, bred September, 1928, from 
wild-taken Eastbourne larvae. 

And on behalf of Mr. R. Armstrong Adkin, a rare and local form 
of British Land Mollusc, Helix aspersa var. exalbida, taken near 
Eastbourne in 1928. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited the British species of Bouibyliidae 
(Diptera). 

Mr. S. R. Ashby exhibited his collection of British Teleplioridae 
and Longicornia (Coleoptera). 

Mr. E. J. Bedford exhibited a specimen of Colias palaeno, L., 
captured by Master H. S. Fuller in a valley of the Downs near 
Lewes, in July, 1923, during his first season's collecting. It was 
caught on Sunday by means of a straw hat. 

Mr. K. G. Blair, on behalf of Mr. F. Laing exhibited a Gall on 
Heath {Erica tetralix) produced by an Eriophyid mite ; a newly 
described white fly (Aleyrodes) on Rhododendron, and Dimorphs of 
a Japanese Aphid on Maple. 

Mr. Bowman exhibited a specimen of a large Saturniid moth 
picked up alive in Blackwall Lane, London, E. 

Miss Winifred M. A. Brooke exhibited drawings of the eggs of 
various insects, and of their progressive stages in hatching. 



80 

Mr. A. W. Buckstone exhibited the following hybrids of British 
Lepidoptera : — (1) Pygaera curtula g x P. lyigra J . (2) Nysaia 
zonaria J X Apocheima hispidaria ? . (3) Nyssia zonaria g x Lycia 
hirtaiia $ . (4) Lycia hirtaria g X Nyssia zonaria $ , and (5) 
Ennomns autiuiinaria $^ x K. quercinaria ? . 

Dr. G. V. Bull exhibited two xanthic aberrations of Brenthis 
euphrosyue, and two others heavily marked, all from E. Sussex in 
1928 ; with a short series of Ort/iolitha mucronata [palumharia) 
from Rannoch, 1927-8. 

Mr. Bushby exhibited the following living specimens : — the West 
African land-crab [Cardisotna annatnm), which frequents the shores 
of streams and burrows in the sand. The bright colouring of the 
young forms does not survive in the adults, which are of a uniform 
yellowish-grey. They are omnivorous. 

The fat-tailed Scorpion [Androctoniis sp.) ; a native of the Algerian 
and Tunisian regions of Africa. 

The green-mottled mantis (Blepharis mendica) ; found on scrubby 
growths in desert regions of Algeria. It is said to feed on a small 
cricket. An immature form. 

The bird-eating spider {Grannnostola longimanus). This species is 
a native of Brazil. It is able to inject poison through its fangs 
into its victims. The body-hairs are finely barbed and can penetrate 
deeply into the flesh of one's fingers, causing swelling and stiffness 
which lasts for several weeks. The supposition that active adult 
birds are caught remains to be proved. It is possible that nestling 
birds are sought out and eaten. 

Larvae of Antherea eucalypti {SatHrniidae)^ of New South Wales; 
a relation of the Tussore Silk Moth (Antlierea viylitta)^ of India. 
The hard egg-shaped cocoon, also, was exhibited. 

The black-bellied Tarantula {Lycosa narhonnensis). This, and 
some allied species, occur in stony regions in South France, Spain, 
Algeria, etc. They live in self-dug burrows. The eggs are contained 
in a silken sac carried by the female who, during September, brings 
it to the mouth of the burrow and holds it up to the warmth of the 
sun to aid the hatching. On emerging the large family of youngsters 
climb to the mother's back and remain there for several months, as 
seen in this specimen. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne exhibited preserved larvae of Heliothis 
pelt iy era. 

Mr. B. H. Crabtree exhibited remarkable aberrations of Arctia 
caja^ chiefly from Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cheshire. 



81 

Mr. H. L. Dolton exhibited a series of Chrysoclista linneella, 
taken at Reading, where it has been very plentiful this year ; and 
an aberration of Rmnicia phlaeaa in which the right forewing is 
mostly white. 

Mr. F. W. McDonald exhibited a large number of Molluscs and a 
case of corals. 

Mr. H. M. Edelsten exhibited series of Chrysophanus dhpar subsp. 
rutihis ; also subsp. hatavus. The former were from Capt. Purefoy's 
Irish Colony and the latter from the colony in Wood Walton Fen. 
The exhibit was on behalf of the Committee for the Protection of 
British Lepidoptera. 

Mr. Stanley Edwards exhibited a large number of Exotic 
Coleoptera. 

Mr. Fidgeon exhibited the heads of two Wild Boars. 

Mr. L. T. Ford exhibited two species of Tortrix showing similar 
range of variation : Peronea contaminana and P. caudana. 

Mr. Thomas Greer exhibited the following Lepidoptera from 
Northern Ireland, counties Tyrone, Derry, etc. 

Pieris naf>i. — A series of the spring brood with undersides ; 
summer brood, three specimens with diaphanous hindwings. 

Eucliloe cardannnes. — A series of named aberrations, ab. dispila, 
ab. radiata, ab. ivilliamsi, and ab. ochraea. 

yielitaea aurinia. — A bred series; Co. Tyrone, 1928. 

Kpinephele jiirtina. — A series of upper and undersides and ab. 
addenda : Co. Tyrone. 

Coenonympha tiphon. — From Lough Neagh district, June, 1928. 
In this locality the species is being rapidly exterminated through 
the drainage of its haunts on the bogs. 

Coenonympha patuphilna. — Series of undersides showing the range 
of variation. Co. Tyrone. ^ 

Aylau urticae. — A specimen with inner margins suffused with 
black scales: Co. Derry, August, 1928. 

P(dy(»iniiatii}( icarus. — A series from a restricted locality among 
the hills of Co. Tyrone at 700 feet, including a ^ with red spots 
on margins of hindwings above ; 2 s with red marginal lunules 
band-like ; $ s with red lunules almost absent ; $ s all blue ; under- 
.si(/^s a number of ab. irarinus; postico-obsoleta, one near obsoleta ; 
heavily spotted forms, one ab. excessa ; a streaked form, etc., Co. 
Tyrone, July, 1928. A short series from the coast of Co. Derry, 
July, 1928, for comparison. 

Aporophyla nigra. — Coast of Co. Derry, September, 1928. 



82 

Plusia pulchrina and Plnsia interro(jationis. — A short series of 
each from Co. Tyrone. 

EnUpkria fJavicinctata. — Co. Antrim, where the imago is very 
conspicuous when resting on a red Triassic sandstone ; August, 
1928. 

Perizoma hlandiata. — Coast of Co. Antrim, June, 1928. 

Mrs. Olive Grey exhibited two Trapdoor Spider nests from 
Jamaica, and the " Blue Ant " (Diamma bicolor), from Australia. 

Mr. Grosvenor exhibited long series of 5- and 6-spotted Burnets 
[Zygaena) in three sets. 

1. A race of Z. fHipendulae (stoechadu) from the South of France, 
producing regularly 5- and 6-spotted forms. 

2. Local races of filipendulae {stoechadis) , lonicerae, angelicaey 
carniolica and trayisalpina, showing a greater divergence of form 
among aberrations of a given species, than between species and 
species. 

3. A race of the genus, species unknown, bred from imagines 
taken by Mr. Hugh Main at Blanes near Barcelona, Spain. 

This exhibit was accompanied by very full notes of the details 
concerning each race or colony. 

Mr, C. N. Hawkins exhibited a case of preserved larvae of British 
Lepidoptera. 

Dr. Lionel Higgins exhibited a number of butterflies collected by 
himself in Styria ; several species being from the original localities 
where the species were first discovered. 

Mr. F. W. J. Jackson exhibited Colias croceus, taken in 1928, with 
three of the form helice, and a gynandromorph, R. fore- wing ? , 
L. forewing and R. hindwing ^ , L. hindwing mixed in marking. 

Mr. Chas. Jarvis exhibited European and Exotic Coleoptera. 
Prionidae, Ceraxihycidae and Lamiidae). 

Mr. B. D. H. Kettlewell exhibited the following migratory species 
from South Devon. Leucania vitellina, (2) 1926-1928. Leucania 
unipimcta, (2) 1926-1928. Heliothu avmigera, (4) 1926, (3) 1928, 
(1). La'phygma exigua, a long series, 1926. C. croceus var. helicej 
series, 1928. Heliothis peltigera, 1926, and a series of Bryophila 
muralis var impar from Cambridge. 

A bred series of Dianthoecia luteago subsp. barrettii from four 
different places on the Devon and Cornish coasts showing local 
variations. 

A brood of Coscinia cribriim showing how 3 imagines emerged in 
April, 1928, while larvae of the same brood remain as if in aestivation 



^ 83 

throughout the summer and were exhibited as larvae (half grown) 
along with the imagines already bred. 

Mr. Kimmins exhibited series of British " snake-flies," Wiaphidicu 

Col. F. A. Labouchere exhibited examples of Chnjsophanus dispar 
and the subsp. rntilns and subsp. batavus. 

Mr. H. A. Leeds exhibited a large number of British Lepidoptera 
all captured wild in 1928. The specimens included Colias crocens, 
examples showing gradation in the number of spots ; Aphantopus 
hyperantus ab. arete^ one with a pale patch crossed by a black streak ; 
Adopaea fiava ab. obscura ; Plebeins argus (aegon), variously bordered, 
pale areas on wings, absence of blue, smoky underside, and specimens 
of multiple aberration ; ( Joenonympka p<i)iiphilas, veined and streaked ; 
P. medon ab. obsoleta ; Folyotnmatus icariis, many multiple aberrations 
including one with border lunules of f.w. extensive, pale golden ; 
P. coridon, also many multiple aberrations. 

Mr. R. M. Long exhibited aberrations of Smerinthns ocellatay 
Mimas tiliae, Cosniotriche potatoria, Abraxas grossulariata from wild 
larvae, Earnicia phlaeas, Aglais urticae, Dryas paphia and Eranni& 
[Hybernia) marginaria. 

Mr. W. J. Lucas exhibited drawings of the following naiads o£ 
eight British Paraneuroptera (Dragonflies), with details : — Gomphua 
vulgatissimns, Linn., Cordulegaster annulatas, Latr., Brachytron 
pratense, Miill., Anax imperator. Leach, Aeschna grandis, Linn., 
Calopieryx splendens, Harris, Lestes sponsa, Hans., Erythromma 
naias, Hans. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited several nests of exotic bees and wasps. 

Mr. F. H. Murphy exhibited the nest of a Reed Warbler. 

Mr. R. M. Prideaux exhibited a few recent captures of Colia» 
croceus, including var. helice, from West Kent. 

Mr. C. G. Priest exhibited a varied bred series of Mimas tiliae, a 
series of varied Coenonympha painphiius, and a specimen of C. croceus^ 
taken September 17th at Dorking. 

Mr. Percy Richards exhibited a large number of aberrations of 
British Rhopalocera including — Aphantopus hyperantus ; ab. caeca, 
Blean Wd., 1928, and 1 ab. lanceolata ; Aglais urticae ab. polaris ; 
Argynnis aglaia, Dryas paphia ab. valezina, the spots emphasised 
and forming a band on the hindwing, and the silver streak 
uninterrupted ; Pyranieis cardui, bred in 1928 ; Melitaea athalia, 
Colias croceus, an unusually large <^ , 2 lemon coloured ^ s and 1 
$ , 2 ab. pallida ; Epinephele jurtina, E. tithonus, Polyommatus- 
icarus, dwarf J s, a blue suffused ? , and varied underside <^ s ; 



84 

Plebeiiis ar<jHs {ae(jon), Lycaenopsis arginlus, Hamcaris lucma, Adopaea 
fiava {linea), A. lineola, with nearly black hind-wings ; and 
Polyommatus thetis. 

He also showed a case containing about 180 preserved larvae, 
painted in many instances, the colours being matched with living 
specimens. 

A case containing 65 specimens of Rumicia phlaeasy from Bexley 
Heath, 1928, including many aberrations, several with pear-shaped 
spots ; and forms approaching eleus ; and an asymmetrical specimen 
possibly a gynandromorph. 

A case containing 38 specimens of Coenonympha pamphilus from 
Bexley Heath and Eynsford comprising very dark bordered forms ; 
others chocolate, very light, and one with 1 pure white forewing ; 
and other interesting forms. 

Mr. J. E. H. Roberts exhibited 12 species of living naiads of 
British dragonflies, and a series of the same preserved. 

Lord Rothschild exhibited 3 drawers containing an almost 
complete collection of Australian Cos.s/^iae including many preserved 
larvae. 

Mr. and Mrs. Castle-Russell exhibited some remarkable aberrations 
of the following species taken or bred by the exhibitors during 
the season 1928 : — Rumicia (Heodes) phlaeas, Polyommatus [AgriaJes) 
coridon, P. thetis {hellargim) ^ Polyommatus icarus^ Pieris napt, 
Brenthis euphrosyne, B. selene^ Melitaea cinxia, M. athalia, Pararge 
niegera, Epinephele jiirtiva, E. tithoiius, Aphantopns hyperant^iSy 
Coenonympha painphilus ; a.nd a cabinet drawer containing aberrations 
of Aphautopus hyperantiis from the exhibitors' collection. 

Miss F. Tomlinson exhibited needlework representations of 
Lepidoptera and other insects. 

Mr. A. E. Tonge exhibited obsolete forms of Polyommatus coridon 
^ from East Kent, and Laphygma exigua and Heliothis peltigera 
from Reigate. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited 2 cases containing life-histories of 
some twenty species of British Coleophora (Micro-lep.). 

Mr. Clifford Wells exhibited gynandrous Pleheius argus (aegofi), 
and aberrations of (^olias croceus and Brenthis selene. 

Mr. A Granville White exhibited a large number of Colias croceus^ 
with form helice ; and living larvae from ova laid by the helice. He 
also shewed four volumes of hand-coloured plates by Rosel von 
Rosenhof, 1746-1760. 



85 

Mr. C. H. Williams exliibited a collection of aberrations of 
Folyommatns coridon and Abraxas (jroasnlariata. 

Dr. H. B. Williams, exhibited four Heliuthis peltitjera, bred from 
Eastbourne, September, 1928, and a preserved larva; $ ? of the 
Sussex race of Cosniotriche {Odonestis) potatoria, with an Esher 2 
for comparison ; a melanic race of Boarmia roboraria, from N.E. 
Surrey, with New Forest $ for comparison ; Dianthoecia caesia, 
from the Isle of Man, 1928, and a form of Gnophos obscurata, also 
from the Isle of Man, 1928, of similar coloration, with examples 
from Oxshott, Folkestone, and Lewes for comparison ; Coenonympha 
pauiphilus, ab., from Eastbourne, August, 1928, and a $ of Pararge 
yneyera, with central area suffused, from the same place ; a series of 
Xantlda fulvago, bred from Glasgow District, 1928, showing con- 
siderable variation and including two ab. flavescens. 

Mr. H. Worsley-Wood exhibited a series of Bryophila muralisy 
race impai\ Warren, taken at Cambridge, 1928 ; Ceppliu (Epione) 
advenaria with dark median band, referable to ab. fasciata. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a large number of living insects, 
scorpions, etc. 



NOVEMBER 8th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a modified form of his sub-terrarium 
to accommodate small underground larvae. It consisted of a 
straight-sided tumbler with two sheets of glass cut to fit inside, 
kept apart by a small piece of wood at the base, with the space 
between them filled with earth, or sawdust. The two outer spaces 
could contain a small amount of earth to allow of moisture being 
applied when necessary. 

Mr. Turner exhibited two extremely small examples of butterflies : 
one, Folyonniiatnti icarua from icariniis, measuring only 20mm., 
(normal 29-38mm.) ; the other a female Flebeius aeyon {argits) 
measuring 18|mm. (normal 27-33mm.). They were both captured 
in Macedonia, near Salonika. 

Dr. Bull exhibited second-brood examples of the following species : 
Brenthis selene, August 8th, 1928, S.E. Kent ; Folyommatns icaruSj 
October 1st, 1928, S. E, Kent ; Calothysanis amata{ria), August 
23rd, 1928, Sandhurst ; Leucania comma, October 24th, 1928, 



86 

Sandhurst ; Agrotis exclaniationis^ October 16th, 1928, Sandhurst, 
and A. segetum, October 24th, 1928, Sandhurst. Perhaps some were 
late examples of extended emergences. 

The rest of the evening was devoted to the exhibition of lantern- 
slides. 

Mr. Hugh Main showed a series of slides dealing with the parasitic 
hymenopteron, Methoca ichneiimono'ides, which infested the larva 
of the tiger-beetle, Cicindela ; and details of another case of 
parasitism, that of the AntJiophora and Andrena bees upon the 
larva of the oil-beetle. 

Mr. E. Step exhibited slides of Mycetozoa, Reptiliaand Batrachia : 
the last class including a portrait of a toad {Bitfo vulgaris) that had 
been attacked by dipterous larvae — probably those of Lucilia 
bufonivora — which had eaten away the skin closing the nasal 
openings, so that immersion in water would probably cause the 
death of the toad. 

Mr. Robert Adkin showed slides of the eggs of Brenthis enphrosyiie 
and Pyrameis cardui, wild laid, in situ ; also of Cydia (Carpocapsa) 
poynonella and of apples which had been mined by that species, in 
illustration of a paper entitled " Notes on the Life-History of Cydia 
(Carpocapsa) ponwnella, L.," which he communicated. (See page 
24.) 



NOVEMBER 22nd, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. T. F. Perkins, 19, Courtfield Gardens, W. ; Mr. H. W. 
Stocken, of Orchard Cottage, W. Byfleet ; Mr. F. W. J. Jackson, of 
the Pines, Ashtead, and Mrs. S. G. Castle-Russell, of •* Brockenhurst," 
Reading Rd., Fleet, were elected members. 

The President exhibited the living larva of Noctua Jiammatra from 
ova obtained from Italy. It was said the colour of the larva was 
green, but these while young were black and white with a thin dorsal 
line, becoming brown when full grown. 

Mr. Newman exhibited ova of Laphygma exigna, from a female 
taken in S. Devon. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited examples of the wet and dry season forms 
of the S. African Precis octacia, taken within 3 days of one another. 
It was reported that both forms occurred in Kenya Colony indis- 



87 

criminately. The suggestion was made that certain areas remained 
under more or less wet conditions throughout the year, while 
adjacent areas might be quite dry in the dry season. 

Mr. Percy Kichards exhibited a Pyrauieis atalanta taken at rest, 
possibly hibernating, in his sitting-room at Bexley. 

Dr. F. A. Dixey, M.A. F.R.S., gave an interesting lecture on 
" Scent-glands in the Pierinae,'' and showed many lantern-slides 
in illustration. (Summary p. 30.) 

In the discussion which ensued, the President remarked on the 
beauty of the special structures under the microscope ; and said 
that, although both sexes have scents in some cases, it was mostly 
confined to the females. Dr. Dixey said that in some species there 
were two scents, one agreeable and the other disagreeable. They 
might be either sexual or protective. Attraction was a necessity. 
It was noted that brushes, hairs and special filaments were often 
present and applied to the scent glands for the purpose of dissem- 
inating the scent. Mr. Newman said that the ova of Eiichloris 
vernaria were scented. 



-DECEMBER 13th, 1928. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. W. F. Gilles, F.E.S., F.I.C., of Braintree, was elected a 
member. 

Mr. H. Worsley-Wood exhibited two aberrations of Pieris napi, 
with primrose yellow wings due to deficiency or weak pigment in 
the upper layer of scales in all four wings. The upper scales were 
much twisted, some even hair-like. They were caught in Dumbarton- 
shire. Also, an example of ab. pallida of Colias croceus, bred from 
an Eastbourne larva, with brownish grey hindwings and no black 
border. The black pigment is here altered to brown, and the scales 
in both layers are slightly turned upward. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a large number of bred Pieris napi, 
part of the proceeds of various crossings with the alpine form 
hryoniae, effected by the late Mr. Harrison and himself some twenty 
years ago ; and including a number of very interesting forms. 

Mr. Newman exhibited bred series of P. napi, from Ireland. 
There were twenty seven of his pupae which were bright yellow in 
colour. 



88 

Mr. B. W. Adkin exhibited a P. mi/n with white underside of the 
hindwing, and another with the upper spot on the forewing much 
reduced in size ; also some yellowish Scotch forms, some rich 
yellow Irish ones, and some very dark Irish forms. 

Dr. Bull exhibited a ^ Pieris hrassicac, unusually small, from 
Herts ; another from Rannoch, unusually large ; $ P. rafiae with 
the two spots on the forewing almost joined by black scales, and 
another 2 with very small spots ; S^ P. napi with transparent 
forewiugs and the underside pattern of hindwings on the upperside, 
and a $ very heavily marked. 

Mr. Buckstone exhibited $ P. napi, yellow forms, banded forms 
and one with ground colour greenish, a ^ with two discal spots on 
the forewing, and several of both sexes with much emphasised 
markings. All were bred from Surrey ova. P. brassirae, 2 with 
the spots on the underside of the forewings united, and a S" with 
a small spot on the disc of the forewings. P. rafiae $ , with a 
black spot on the disc of each hindwing. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited examples of exotic Pieridae, including 
the curious Pseudopontia paradoxa which had not always been 
considered a Pierid by systematists. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited a large number of species of Indo- 
Malayan Pieridae. 

Mr. Jacobs exhibited a beating tray formed by adapting an 
umbrella, with an adjustment of the handle to facilitate the holding. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited a large number of lantern slides to 
illustrate his paper " On the White-spotted Forms of Dryas vaphia 
and some other species." (See page 32). 



JANUARY 10th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

The decease of Mr. 0. R. Goodman, a Vice-President elect, was 
announced. 

Miss W. P. Hughes, of Australia House, W.C. ; Miss E. M. 
Lyall, of Mortlake Road, Kew ; Mr. J. D. Harman, of Hither Green 
Lane, Lewisham ; Mr. A. F. Common, of St. James Avenue, 
Thorp Bay ; and Mr. A. W. Hughes, of Cliff Road, Wallasey, were 
elected members. 

Mr. W. H. T. Tams exhibited a number of Lepidoptera taken 
by him during his visit to the United States last summer. 



89 

Mr. Tarns then read an account of his experiences while 
attending the meeting of the International Entomological Congress 
at Ithaca, U.S.A., in August last. 



JANUARY 24th, 1929. 

Annual Meeting. 

Dr. E. A. CooKAYNE, A.M., F.E.S., F.R.C.P., President, in the Chair. 

The Meeting was devoted to the business of receiving and adopting 
the Reports of the Council, Treasurer and Librarian for the past 
year, the announcement of the results of the election of the Officers 
and Council for the ensuing year, and the reading of the Annual 
Address by the retiring President (page 37). 

The following is a list of the members elected to serve as Officers 
and Council for the Session 1929-30: — President: H. W. Andrews, 
F.E.S. Vice-president, E. A. Cockayne, D.M., A.M., F.R.C.P., 
F.E.S. Treasurer, A. E. Tonge, F.E.S. Librarian, E. E. Syms, 
F.E.S. Curator, S. R. Ashby, F.E.S. Hon. Editor of Proceedings, 
Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. Hon. Secretaries, Stanley Edwards, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., F.E.S., and Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. Hon. Lanternist, J. H. 
Adkin. Council, J. H. Adkin, L. C. Bushby, F.E.S., F. B. Carr, 
A. W. Dods, A. de B. Goodman, F.E.S., T. H. L. Grosvenor, 
F.E.S., C. N. Hawkins, F.E.S., Col. F. Labouchere, F.E.S., and 
W. Rait-Smith, F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

Votes of thanks were accorded to the President, Treasurer, 
Secretaries, and other officers. 



Ordinary Mketing. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited: — 1. Colias hyale, (^ , Bembridge, 
I.W., September I8th, 1928. An unusual form with the black on 
the outer marginal area of the forewings extended and completely 
divided into an outer and an inner portion by a band of the ground 
colour. 

2. Colias croceus $ var. helice, Sandown, I.W., September 28rd, 
1928. With discoidal spots on hindwings lemon white instead of 
orange. 



90 

3. Acidalia (Ftychopoda) aversata, $ , Upper Tooting, July 30th, 
1922. Asymmetrical. 

4. Abraxas grossulariata, ^ , Upper Tooting. Bred July 12th, 
1928, from a small black larva found on Plum. It had a plentiful 
supply of food, but fed very slowly and pupated when less than 
half the normal size. The specimen is in perfect condition and 
the scales are well formed, but there seems to be an absence of 
pigment. 1^ inch in expanse. 

5. Polyonnnatus icariis $ , Sandown, I.W., September 22nd, 1928. 
Very small. ^ inch in expanse. 

6. MesoLenca {Melaiit/iia) bicolorata, ^ . Upper Tooting, July 
12th, 1928. Very small, f inch in expanse. 

7. taenia typica, $ $. Freshwater, I.W. Discoidal and 
reniform spots on forewings joined. 

Mr. R. Adkin, the Society's delegate to the Conference of Corres- 
ponding Societies of the British Association reported that illness had 
prevented him reaching Glasgow, and that he had therefore been 
unable to attend the Meetings of the Conference. He had, however, 
made arrangements that would enable him to present to the Society 
the full " Report " of the Association as soon as published, and 
this, he had no doubt would be found to contain an account of the 
more important business Transacted by the Conference. 

Corrections: — p. 64, line 17 trom bottom for "place" read 

'' Place." 
line 7 from bottom delete B. hetidaria. 
line 3 from bottom for hiperus read 
liiperns. 
for Bytiscus read Byctiscus. 
In ''Proceedings " 1927-8, p. 76, line 21 should read "S. k7/maWa 
similar to Harrison's." 



91 



INDEX. 



PAOB 

Aberrations, Notable, of — A. rusti 
cata, 55 ; L. sibilla, 55 ; D 
truncata (russata), 61 ; E. alter 
nata (sociata), 61 ; R. phlaeas 
63,81,84; M. galathea, 64 ; A 
urticae, 65, 81 ; Z. filipendulae, 
66 ; D. nana, 71 ; D. carpo 
phaga, 71; N. geminipuncta, 72 
E. atomaria, 73 ; B. euphro 
syne, 80; P. napi, 81, 87, 88 
P. icarus, 81, 83 ; B. muralis, r 
irapar, 82 ; A. hyperantus, 83 
P. argus (aegon), 83 ; C. pam 
philus, 83, 84 ; D. paphia, 83 
C. croceus, 83, 87, 89 ; A 
lineola, 84 ; P. megera, 85 ; C 
advenaria, 85 ; P. brassicae, 88 
P. rapae, 88; C. hyale, 89 
A. aversata, 90 ; A. grossu 
larlata, 90 ; N. typica.. .. 90 

Aberrations, Nature of . . . . 39 

Abnormal folding of elytra in B 
indica . - . . . . . . 72 

Abundance of L., of C. peltigera 67 

Additions to. Collections, 37 

Library, xvi ; Aestivation of L 

of C. cribrum . . . . . . 82 

Affairs of the Society . . . . 37 

Annual, Address, Dr. E. A 
Cockayne. 37 ; Exhibition, 37, 

79; Meeting 89 

Anal comb of larvae . . . . 53 

Asymmetrical, P, gamma, 60 
A. aversata . . . . .90 

Attraction by ? of B. smilax . . 55 
Balance Sheet . . . . . . xviii 

Bibliography (to the Address) . . 50 
Broods of, Zvgaenid from Barce- 
lona, 53, 56, 67, 82 ; P. curtula 61 
Bye-Laws, Revision of the . .Sup. 

Cannibal R. betulae . . . . 62 

Causes, of " white-spotted," lepi 
doptera. Suggested, 33 
Suggested, of migration . . 64 

Chambers in burrows of B. 

membranaceus. Curious . . 77 

Climatic influence on colour and 
marking . . . . . . . . 42 



PAGE 

. Colections, The Society's . . 37 

Coleoptera at Horsley . . . . 64 

Colour changes in a Cassid beetle, 

K. G. Blair 74 

Cotton pest, Species allied to the 70 
Descriptions of European Ascala- 
phus sps. . . . . . . 8 

Differentiation of, filmy ferns, 54 ; 
L. of Oporinia sps. 55 ; L. of 
C. pusaria and C. exanthemaria. 
Dr. E. A. Cockayne . . . . 75 

Dimorphism, Sexual, in A. diana 69 
Discussion on Pierine scent glands 87 
Distribution of genus Manduca, 

H. J. Turner 69 

Drawings 79, 83 

Dwarf, D. pudibunda, 60, 83 ; P. 
iarus, 85, 90 ; P. aegon (argus), 
85 ; P. brassicae, 88 ; M. bicol- 
orata . . . . . . . . 90 

Early, History, of C. pomonella, 
24 ; " white-spotted " lepi- 
doptera . . . . . . . . 32 

Errors regarding C. pomonella,. . 26 
Fasciation, in S. jacobaea .. 73 

Field Meetings at, Ranmore, 57 ; 
Chilworth, 58 ; Tring, 60 ; 
Westerham, 62 ; Horsley, 64 ; 
Peaslake.. .. .. .,66 

Flowers, Alpine . . . . . . 6 

Food of, butterflies after hiber- 
nation, 57 ; C. peltigera 67, 68 
Galls of, oak leaves ("cherry"), 
72 ; Erica tetralix . . . . 79 

Geographical Distribution of 
Manduca (Acherontia). . .. 69 

GeneraliBations . . . . . . 14 

Gyiiandromorph of, C. croceus, 
82 ; R. phlaeas, 84 ; P. argus 
(aegon) . . . . . . . . 84 

Habits of, " Anarta sps." Dr. 
Cockayne, 62 ; S. myopaeformis 
65; " B. membranaceus, Tan- 
ganyika Territory," T. A. M. 
Nash, 77; Bird-eating spider, 
80 ; L. narbonensis . . . . 80 

Hibernation, Partial, of P, curtula, 
61 ; P. atalanta . . . . 87 



92 



PAGE 

flomoeosis in, S. notata . . .. 71 

Hybrids P. curtulaxP. pigra, 
80; N. zonariaxA. hispidaria, 
80; N. zonariaxL. hirtaria, 
80 ; E. autumnata x E. quercin- 
aria . . . . . . . . 80 

H>menopteia of Ranniore . . 57 

Ignorance . . . . , . . . 12 

Imagination . . . . . . 13 

Immigrant, C. desjardinsi, 60 ; 
P. cardui, 62 ; C. croceus, 62, 
82; scorpion, 78; C. palaeno, 
79 ; L. vitellina, 82 ; L. 
unipuncta, 82 ; L. exigua, 82 ; 
H. peltigera, 67, 79, 82, 85 ; H. 
armigera . . . . . . 82 

Infestation of apples by C. 
pomonella . , . . . . 27 

Influence of climate, 42 ; environ- 
ment, 42 ; food, 42 ; x-rays 49, 71 
Irish forms of Lep. exhibited, 

1\ Greer 81 

Lantern slides exhibited 52, 54, 

55, 86 

Larvae shown 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 

60, 65, 65, 68, 69, 72, 73, 84, 

86 : taken at Horsley , . . . 64 

Larval hairs of C. cardamines . . 68 

Lepidoptera at Horsley .. .. 64 

" Life-history of C. pomonella, 

Notes on the," R, Adkin . . 24 
List of Officers and Council for 

1929-30, 89 ; Members . . iii 

Localities— Digne, 9 ; Esterel, 4 ; 
France, S.E., 1 ; Horsley, 66 ; 
Mts. of the Moors, 1 ; Peaslake, 
66 ; Kanmore, 57 ; St. Martin 
Vesubie, 5; !Ste. Baume, 10; 
St. Martha's, Chilworth, 58; 
Tring, 60 ; Transvaal, 61 ; 
Tyrone, 81 ; Westerham . . 62 
Melanic, B. roboraria . . 71, 85 
Melanism, Spread of , . . . 67 

Members, List of . . . . . . iii 

Mites on B. terrestris, etc. . , 75 

Mutation, Origin of . . . . 48 

Mulberry trees . . . . . . 2 

Naming of forms, Consideration 

of the 45 

Nomenclature, 38, etc. ; National 
Committee on, .. .. ..47 

Obituary. — Miss E. Chapman, 

W. G. Dawson, O. R. Goodman 38 
Objects of the Society , . , . ii 
Officers and Council, List of, i, 89 
Ova of P. flavicornis . . 55, 57 
•' Oviposition, of Sirex gigas," 
K. G. Blair 62 



PAGE 

Parallel Variation. . .. .. 46 

Parasites, on oak trunk, 65 ; on 
S. scoliaeformis, 65; on C. 
daviesana, 67 ; on Cicindela 
(M. ichneumonoides) 86 ; on a 
toad . . . . . . . . 86 

Past-presidents . . . . . . ii 

" Pest, A potential orchard," R. 
Adkin, 59; of hollyhock, 70; 
of apple, S. pariana . . . . 71 

Phases in Lepidoptera . . . . 43 

Prey of Spiders .. .. 15, 20 

Protective resemblance in L. of 
B. betularia . . . . . . 53 

Pupae of, E. cardamines, 65 ; P. 

napi of bright yellow colour . . 87 
Bare or local species, Occurrence 
of — L. celtis, 2 ; C. jasius, 4 ; 
P. alexanor, 7 ; M. cynthia, 7 ; 
Ascalaphus sps., 8 ; L. roboris, 
10 ; A. hecate, 10 ; D. nerii, 
65 ; L. sibilla, 66, 67 ; A. 
blomeri, 67 ; H. peltigera, 67, 
79 ; L. pallifrontana, 70 ; C. 
electa, 71 ; A. laevigata, 79 ; 
H. aspersa V. exalbida, 79; L. 
vitellina, 82 ; L. unipuncta, 
82; H. armigera, 82 ; L. exigua 82 
Race, Nature of a . . . . . . 41 

Recent notices of " white- 
spotted " lepidoptera .. .. 33 

Report of Council, xiv ; Treasurer xvii 

SawHy, the Apple 28 

"Scent-glands of the Pierinae," 

Dr. F. A . Dixey 30 

Second broods of, C. pomonella, 
28; C. lignata, 74; B. selene, 
85 ; P. icarus, 85 ; C. amata, 
85 ; L. comma, 85; A. exclam- 
ationis, 85 : A. segetum . . 85 

Seasonal Notes 56, 58, 60, 62, 

64, 66, 68, 72, 73 
Sexual Dimorphism, Extreme, in 
A. diana. . . . . . . . 69 

Silkworm industry . . . . 3 

"South-East France," 0. R. 
Goodvum . , . . . . 1 

" Spiders, Facts and Fallacies 

about," jr. S. Bristowe ,. 12 

Sphingidae at flower and light, S. 
Africa . . . . . . . . 54 

Structures of Butterflies . . . . 52 

Subspecies, Nature of a, 41 ; of C. 
dispar . . . . . . 81, 83 

Terrarium, A, H. Main . . . . 85 

Typical forms . . . . . . 41 

"Variation and Nomenclature," 
Dr. E. A. Cockayne .. .. 38 



93 



PAGE 



Vaiiation in, E. atomaria, 73; 

E. tithonus, 73 ; P. brassicae, 

88; P. napi, 88; Dianthoecia 
Variation, Parallel, 45; "Racial, 

in D. vanillae," H. Moore 
Wet and dry season forms of P. 

octavia occurring together 
"White-spotted forms of D. 

paphia and some other species. 

On the," E. Adkin 

Arachnida. 
Agelenidae.. 
Amaurobius .. .. 17, 

Argyroneta 

atrica, Tegenaria . , . . 18, 

Attidae .. .. ..16, 18, 

Atypus 

carbipes, Tarantula 

bipunetata, Steatoda 

blackwallia, Scatophoeus 

cristatus, Xysticus ..19,22, 

cucuibitina, Epeira .. 22, 

derhami, Tegenaria 

Dictyna (idae) 

diademata, Epeira 14, 16, 21, 22, 

Drassodes . . . . . . 15, 

Djsdera . . . . . . 15, 

ellioti, Euprosthenops 

Ero.. 

fimbriatus, Dolomedes . . 
geometricus, Latrodectus 
Heteropoda (idae) . . 
insignis, Platythomicus . . 
interfector, Mimetus 
lepidosus, Drassodes 
longimanus, Grammostola 
lineatum, Theridion 
Linyphia (iidae) . . 
Lithypantes 
Lycosidae .. .. ..16, 

Meta 

Micromatta 

Mimetidae. . . . . . 

mirabilis, Saura .. 
muscosa, Marpessa 
naevia Agelena 
narbonensis, Lycosa 
onustus, Thomisus 
parietina, Tegenaria 
phalangioides, Pholcus . . 
picum, Theridion. . 18,21, 
Pisauridae . . 
pusilla, Linyphia 
scenicus, Salticus. . 
Segestria . . 
segmentata, Meta. 



20, 

18, 



11, 
19, 



22, 



14, 16, 
similis, Amaurobius 17, 20, 



15, 

21, 
21, 



71 



59 



86 



32 



17 

22 

21 

22 

20 

22 

20 

21 

23 

23 

23 

17 

17 

23 

20 

22 

21 

21 

13 

22 

19 

20 

21 

20 

80 

21 

17 

22 

20 

16 

21 

21 

14 

18 

23 

80 

20 

17 

12 

23 

16 

22 

18 

22 

22 





PAGE 




22, 


23 


sisyphium, Theridion 


. . 


22 


Smeringopus 




21 


Tegenaria . . 


17, 


21 


tepidariorum, Theridion.. 


18, 


21 


terrestris, Coelotes 




20 


Tetragnathus 


, , 


16 


Theridion . . . . . . 17 


, 18, 


22 


triangularis, Linyphia . . 


21, 


22 


tuberculata, Ero . , 




21 


umbratica, Epeira 


16, 


17 


vatia, Misumena .. 


19, 


20 


venatoria, Heteropoda . . 


, . 


19 


x-notata, Zilla 


, , 


21 


Zinus 




21 


Crustacea. 






armatum, Cardiosoma .. 




80 


Gonyleptes.. 


, , 


23 


latro, Birgus 




13 


Tiinobunum 


, , 


23 


Oligolphus . . 


•• 


23 


COLEOPTERA. 






Aphodius . . 


, . 


75 


armata, Strangalia 




64 


bicolor, Metriona . . 


, , 


74 


Cerambycidae 




82 


cervus, Lucanus . . 


, , 


64 


Cicindela . . 


22, 


86 


desjardinsi, Cryptamorpha 




60 


elongata, Corticaria 


, , 


64 


fenestratus, Corticaria . . 


, , 


64 


fumatus, Catops . . 


. , 


64 


hamifer, Helicopris 




42 


Harpalus . . 


. . 


18 


labiatus, Cryptocephalus. . 


. . 


64 


Lamiidae .. 


. . 


82 


Longicornia 




79 


luperus, Cistela . . 


. . 


64 


micans, Polydrusus 




60 


olens, Ocypus 




17 


pan, Enema 




42 


populi, Byctiscus . . 




64 


Prion idae . . 




82 


reyi, Salpingus 




64 


rufo-villosus, Xestobium.. 


, . 


60 


stercorarius, Geotrupes . . 




75 


Telephorus(idae) . . 


18 


79 


virescens, Saprinus 


•• 


60 


DiPTERA. 






Bombyliidae 


. , 


79 


bufonivora, Lucilia 


, , 


86 


Calliphora . . 


17 


, 18 


Drosophila.. .. 9, 46, 48 


, 50 


Eristalis 


, 


18 


hydei, Drosophila. . 


. 


. 46 



94 



PAGE 

major, Bombylius. . .. ..58 

melanogaster, Drosophila . . 46 

minor, Bombylius . . . . 67 

Syrphidae . . . . . . . . 60 

venosus, Bibio . . . . . . 58 

Volucella 17 

willistoni, Drosophila . . . . 46 

Xylota 60 

Hymenoptera. 

alternata, Nomada . . . . 57 

Andrena 22, 86 

Anthophora . . . . . . 86 

bicolor, Diamma . . . . . . 82 

daviesana, Colletes . . . . 67 

flava = ruficornis, Nomada .. 57 

freygessneri = subfasciatus .. 57 

gigas, Sirex . . . . 62, 63 

goodiana, Nomada . . . , 57 

hortorum, Bombus . . . . 57 

ichneumonoides, Methoca . . 86 

limacina, Eriocampa . . . . 28 

marshamella = alternata .. 57 

niger, Lasius . . . . , , 22 

nigroaenea, Andrena . . . . 57 

Nomada . . . . . . . . 22 

ribesii, Nematus .. .. ..28 

ruderatus (hortorum var ), Bom- 
bus . . . . . . . . 57 

ruficornis, Nomada . . . . 57 

scutellaris, Dryophanta . . . . 72 

Sirex 65 

subfasciatus, Halictus . . . . 57 

taschenbergi, Spathogaster . . 72 

terrestris, Bombus . . . . 74 

testudinea, Hoplocampa.. .. 28 

vestalis, Psithyrus . . . . 57 

Lepidoptera. 

abietaria = ribeata, Boarmia .. 69 

Acherontia = Manduca .. .. 69 

acteon, Thymelicus .. .. 4 

addenda (jurtina a6.), Epinephele 81 
adipp8 = cydippe .. .. ..74 

advenaria, Cepphis, Epione 47, 85 

aegeria, Pararge . . . . . . 40 

aegon = argus .. ..83,84, 85 

aello, Oeneis . . . . . . 7 

aglaia, Argynnis . . . . 56, 83 

Agrias . . . . -. . . . 39 

albicans (pinastri ah.), Hyloicus 39 
albidior (pinastri ah.), Hyloicus 

39, 40 

alexanor, Papilio . . . . . . 7 

alternata (socia), Epirrhoe .. 61 

amata (ria), Calothysanis .. 85 

amathusia, Brenthis . . . . 44 

Anarta . . . . . . . ► 65 



9 



Aphan- 

.' 4, 57, 
.83, 84, 

.35, 52, 
56, 82, 



7, 
.47, 55, 



PAQB 

anceps (stoechadis/), Zygaena .. 56 

angelicae, Zygaena 

angularia — quercinaria,EnnomoB 

apollo, Parnassius 

arcania, Coenonympha 

arete (hyperantus ab.), 

topus 
argiolus, Lycaenopsis 
argus (aegon), Plebeius 
armigera, Heliothis 
atalanta, Pyrameis 
athalia, Melitaea . . 
atomaria, Ematurga 
atropos, Manduca.. 
aurinia, Melitaea . . 
autumnata, Ennomos 
aversata, Ptychopoda, Acidalia . . 
barrettii (luteago), Dianthoecia . . 
batavus (dispar siibsp.), Chryso- 

phanus .. .. .. 81, 

belia, Anthocaris .. 
bellargus = theti8 .. 
betulae, Kuralis . . 
betularia,Biston, Amphidasis 41, 

53, 
bicolorata, Mesoleuca 
bidentata, Gonodontis 
bifida, Cerura 
bilunaria, Selenia.. 
bimacula (dominula ah 

morpba . . 
blandiata, Perizoma 
blomeri, Asthena . . 
brassicae, Pieris . . 
briseis, Satyrus 
bryoniae (napi suhs}} 
caesia, Dianthoecia 
caffra, Thyretes 
caia, Arctia 



47, 

47, 
Calli- 



..30, 52, 
Pieris 87, 



..49, 71, 
c-album, Polygonia . . 9, 

callidice, Pontia . 
Callimorphinae 
Camilla = rivularis 
cannae, Nonagria. 
carbonaria (betularia ab.), Biston, 
Amphidasis .. .. 41, 

cardamines, Euchloe ..65,68, 
cardui, Pyrameis 57, 58, 62, 66, 

83, 
carniolica, Zygaena . . 60, 

carpophaga = lepida, Dianthoecia 
Catopsilia . . 
caudana, Peronea 
celtis, Libythea 
ceto, Erebia 
Charaxes . . 
chlorea, Sphingomorpha 
cinxia, Melitaea . . 



82 

47 

& 

44 

83 

84 
85 
82 
87 
84 
73 
69 
81 
80 
99 
82 

83 

7 
84 
62 

73 

90 
72 
66 
71 



39 

82 
67 
88 
10 
88 
85 
61 
80 
57 

8 
62 

4 
55 

44 

81 

86 

82 

71 

31 

81 

2 

6 

4 

61 
84 



95 





PAGE 


circe, Satyrus 
circellaris, Amathes 


4, 10 

.. 58 


Cleopatra, Gonepteryx 
Colaenis 


.. 10 
.. 59 


Coleophora 
Colias 


.. 84 
46, 47 


comariana, Acalla 


.. 39 


comma, Urbicola . . 


.. 85 



conjugella, Argyresthia . . . . 59 

conjuneta (tilipendulae ah.), 

Zygaena . . . . . . . . 73 

consonaria, Ectropis . . . . 63 

consortaria = punctinalis.Boarmia 67 

conspersa = nana, Dianthoecia .. 71 
constanti (coridon race), Polyom- 

matus . . . . . . . . 10 

contaminana, Peronea . . . . 81 

convolvuli, Agrius . . . . 6 

cordigera, Anarta.. .. 62, 65 

coridon, Polyommatus 10, 53, 71, 

83, 84, 85 

Cossidae . . . . . . . . 84 

crathis (styx su^sp.), Manduca .. 70 
cribrum, Coscinia. . .. ..82 

croceus, Colias 19, 62, 66, 69, 72, 

73, 82, 83, 84, 87, 89 

cruciferarum, Plutella ... .. 64 

curtula, Pygaera .. ..61,72, 80 

cyanostieta (io ab.), Vanessa .. 63 

cydippe (adippe), Argynnis 10, 57, 74 

cynthia, Melitaea . . . . . . 7 

daphne, Brentbis . . .. .. 4 

darwiniana (satyrion race) , Coeno- 

nympha . . . . . . , . 44 

deschangei (lubricipeda ab.), Spil- 

osoma . . . . . . . . 40 

diana, Argynnis . . , . . . 69 

Dianthoecia . . . . . . 71 

dictaea = tremula . . .. .. 66 

didyma, Melitaea . . . . . . 9 

dimidiata, Ptychopoda .. ..54 

Dione . . . . . . . . 59 

Disraorphia .. .. .. 31 

dispar, Chrysophanus . . 81, 83 

dispila (cardamines ab.), Euchloe 81 

dolabraria, Plagopes . . . . 73 

dolus, Polyommatus . . . . 10 

dominula, Callimorpha . . . . 73 

egea, Polygonia . . . . . . 9 

egerides (aegeria subsp.), Pararge 40 

electa, Catocala . . . . . . 71 

eleus (phlaeas /.), Rumicia . . 84 

elpenor, Eumorpha . . 3, 65 

erosaria, Ennomos . . 65, 69 
eson, Hippotion .. .. ..61 

eucalypti, Antherea . . . . 80 

euphorbiae, Deilephila . . . . 10 

euphrosyne, Brenthis 32, 56, 60, 



exj*nthemata, Cabera 
excessa (icarus ab.), 

matus 
exclamationis, Agrotis 
exigua, Laphygma 



PAGE 

80, 84, 86 
..75, 76, 
Polyom- 



77 



.82, 84, 



(grossulariata 



39, 



ab. 



4, 



exquisita 
Abraxas . . 

fagi, Stauropus 

fasciata (advenaria ab.), Cepphis 

filipendulae, Zygaena 56, 66, 67, 

73, 

finalis, Tascia 

flaramatra, Noctua 

flava (linea), Adopaea .. 83, 

flava (galathea ab.), Melanargia 

flavescens (fulvago ab.), Xanthia 

flavicinctata, Entephria . . 

fiavicornis, Polyploca .. 55, 

fraterna (typhae ab.), Nonagria. . 

fulvago, Xanthia . . 

fusca (geminipuncta ab.), Non- 
agria 

fusca-pallida (carpophaga 
Dianthoecia 

galathea, Melanargia 

gamma, Plusia 

gardetta, Coenonympha . . 

geminipuncta, Nonagria.. 

gemmaria = rhomboidaria 

glaucata, Cilix 

gorge, Erebia 

gossypiella, Platyedra 

grossulariata. Abraxas 39, 50, 60, 

83, 85, 
Harmocha (Dianthoecia) 
hecate, Brenthis . . 
Heliconius 

helice (croceus ah.), Colias 69, 
72, 73, 82, 83, 84, 
hemerobiella, Coleophora 
hispidaria, Apocheima . . 
hutchinsoni (c-album /".), Poly- 
gonia 
hyale, Colias . . . . 73, 

hyperantus, Aphantopus. . 83, 
hypermnestra (polyxena), Zeryn- 

thia 
icarinus (icarus ab.), Polyom- 
matus .. .. .. 81, 

icarus, Polyommatus 73, 81, 83, 

84, 85, 
ilicis, Strymoii 

impar (muralis subsp.), Meta- 

chrostis . . 
incarnata (vanillae subsp.), Dione 
insularis (betularia ah.), Amphi- 

dasis 



81 
86 
86 

40 
69 

85 

82 
61 
86 
84 
64 
85 
82 
57 
55 
85 

72 

71 
64 
60 
44 
72 
63 
69 
44 
70 

90 
71 
10 
39 



56 

80 

9 

89 
84 



85 

90 
82 

85 
59 

40 



96 



insularis (vanillae suhsp.), Dione 
intermedia (lubricipeda ab.), Spi- 

losoma . • 
interrogationis, Plusia 
io, Vanessa .. ..52,57 

jasius, Charaxes . . . . 2 

jurtiria (janira), Epinephele 36 

81, 83 
labrodus, Zizina . . 
lachesis, Melanargia 
lacticolor (grossulariata /".), Ab 

raxas 
laevigata, Acidalia, Sterrha 
lanceolata (hyperantus ab 

Aphantopus 
iegatella (spartiata), Chesias 
leporina, Acronicta 
levana, Araschnia 
lignata (vittata), Cidaria 
lirjea = flava 
lineola, Adopaea . . 
iinneella, Chrysoclista 
Jonicerae, Zygtiena ..53, 56 

lubricipeda, Spilosoma 
lucina, Hamearis .. 
lucipara, Euplexia 
lunosa, Omphaloscelis 
luteago, Dianthoeeia 
macrops, Patula . . 
macularia, Pseudopanthera 47 
malvella, Gelechia (Platyedra 
Manduca . . 
marginaria, Erannis 
maura, Mormo 
medesicaste (rumina subsp. 

Zeryntbia, Tbaie 
medon, Plebeius . . 
niegera, Pararge . . . . 84 

melanopa, Anarta . . 62 

meliloti, Zygaena.. 
mendica, Spilosoma 
mori, Bombyx 
monteironis (chlorea subsp. 

Sphingomorpba 
mucronata (palumbaria), Ortho 

litha 

rauralis, Metachrostis . . 82 
mylitta, Antberea 
myopaeforrais, Synanthedon 
myrtilli, Anarta . . 
napi, Pieris 30, 43, 57, 60, 81, 84 
nana (conspersa), Dianthoeeia . 
nerii, Daphnis 
nerine, Erebia 
nigra, Aporopbyla 
nigrofasciata (amathuaia ab. 

Brenthis.. 
noctuella, Nomophila 



PAGE 

59 



40 

82 

63 

4 

84 
65 
69 

39 
79 

83 
58 
73 
42 
74 
84 
84 
81 
82 
40 
84 
73 
55 
82 
61 
63 
70 
69 
83 
55 

2 

83 
85 
65 
73 
40 
3 

61 

80 
85 
80 
65 
65 
87 
71 
65 
44 
81 

44 
68 



PAGE 

notata, Semiothisa . . . . 71 

obscura (flava ab.), Adopaea . . 83 

obscurata, Gnopbos . . . . 85 

obsoleta (icarus ah.), Polyommatus 81 

obsoleta (medon a6.), Plebius .. 83 

ocellata, Smerinthus '.. .. 83 

ochraea (nana «/>.), Dianthoeeia. . 71 
ochraea-pallida (earpophaga ab.), 

Dianthoeeia . . . . . . 71 

ochrea (eardamines ab.), Euehloe 81 

octavia, Preeis . . . . . . 86 

oleracea, Hadena . . . . . . 73 

orion, Seolitantides . . . . 2 

ornata (orion ab.), Seolitantides. . 2 

oxyaeanthae, Miselia . . . . 60 

palaeno, Colias . . . . . . 79 

pallida (earpophaga ab.), Dian- 
thoeeia . . . . . . . . 71 

pallida (eroceus ab.), Colias 83, 87 

pallifrontana, Laspeyresia . . 70 
palpina Psilura .. .. ..66 

pamphilus, Coenonympha 71, 81, 

83, 84, 85 
paphia, Dryas 10, 32, 33, 35, 36, 

83, 88 
papilionaria, Geometra, Hippar- 

chus . . . . . . 56, 58 

paradoxa, Pseudopontia . . . . 88 

pariana, Siraaethis . . . . 71 

peltigera, Chloridea 67, 68, 79, 

80, 82, 84, 85 

perla, Metaehrostis . . 59, 68 
philea = satyrion .. .. ..44 

phlaeas, Rumieia 42, 60, 63, 64, 

68, 81, 83, 84 

phoebe = labradus. . .. .. 65 

picata, Cidaria . . . . . . 66 

Pierinae (idae) .. ..40,87, 88 

pigra, Pygaera . . . . . . 80 

pinastri, Hyloicus .. .. 39 

pirene (stygne), Erebia .. .. 6 

Platyedra 70 

polaris (urticae race), Aglais .. 83 

polyxena = hypermnestra .. 2 
pomonella, Cydia, Carpoeapsa 24 

27, 28, 86 

populeti, Taenioeampa . . . . 55 

postico-obsoleta (iearus ab.), Poly- 
ommatus . . . . . . 81 

potatoria, Cosmotriche 56, 79, 83, 85 

Precis . . . . . . . . 42 

proeida (galathea i^ace), Melan- 
argia . . . . . . . . 4 

prunaria, Angerona .. ..57 

pudibunda, Dasychira . . . . 60 

pulchellata, Eupithecia .. .. 66 

pulehrina, Plusia . . . . . . 82 

punetinalis = consortaria. Boar- 



97 



PAGE 

mia 67 

pusaria, Cabera .. ..75,76, 77 

pusillata, Eupithecia . . . . 61 

quercifolia, Eutricha . . . . 56 

quercinaria (angulaha), Ennomos 

65, 80 

queroiis, Lasiocampa . . . . 56 

querciis, Ruralis, Zephyrus . . 10 

radiata (cardamines ab.), Euchloe 81 
radiata (lubricipeda ab.), Spilo- 

soraa . . . . . . . . 40 

rapae, Pieris . . 30, 54, 57, 88 

reichlini (nerine race), Erebia . . 44 

repandata, Cleora, Boarmia 66, 69 
rhamni, Gonepteryx .. ..57 

rhomboidaria (gemmaria), Boar- 
mia, Cleora . . . . . . 63 

ribeata (abietaria), Boarmia . . 59 

ridens, Polyploca . . . . . . 63 

ripae, Agrotis . . . . . . 69 

rivularis (Camilla), Limenitis .. 4 

roboraria, Boarmia .. 71, 85 

roboris, Laeosopis . . 2, 10 

rubi, Callophrys . . . . . . 56 

russula = truncata, Dysstroma .. 61 

rustica (mendica race), Spilosoma 40 

rusticata, Ptychopoda . . 55, 73 
rutilus (dispar subsp.), Chryso- 

phanus . . . . . . 81, 83 

sambucaria, Ourapteryx . . . . 57 

Saturniidae . . . . . . 80 

Batyrion = philea, Coenonympha 44 

Bcabiosae, Zygaena . . . . 56 

Bcoliaeformis, Synanthedon . . 65 

scutosa, Heliothis . . . . 73 

segetum, Agrotis . . . . . . 86 

seiene, Brenthis .. ..56,84, 85 

semele, Hipparchia . . . . 7 

semi-obsoleta (coridon ab.), Poly- 

ommatus . . . . . . 71 

Bibilla, Limenitis . . 4, 55, 66, 67 

sidae, Hesperia . . . . 2, 4 

silaceata, Euphyia . . . . 69 

smilax, Bolocera, Ludia . . 55, 61 
sociata = alternata .. ..61 

spartiata = legatella, Chesias .. 58 

Sphingidae . . . . . . 54 

stellatarum, Sesia, Macroglossum 68 

stoechadis, Zygaena . . 56, 82 

8tygne = pirene, Erebia .. .. 6 

Styx, Manduca . . . . 67, 69 

syringaria, Phalaena . . . . 57 

sylvanus, Augiades . . . . 53 

sylvata, Asthena . . . . . . 66 

Terias 31 

tetralunaria, Selenia . . . . 47 

Thais = Zerynthia .. .. 2 

Theciidae 4 



PAQK 

thetis, Polyommatus . . . . 84 

tigris, Amphicallia . . . . 61 

tiliae, Mimas .. .. ..83 

tiphon, Coenonympha . . 55, 81 

tithonus 73,83, 84 

transaipina, Zygaena .. 56, 82 

tremula (dictaea), Pheosia 66, 72 

trifolii, Zygaena .. ..58,60, 73- 

triopes (gorge ab.), Erebia . • 44 

truncata (russata), Dysstroma . . 61 

turca, Leucania . . • . . . 56 

typica, Naenia . . . . 55, 90^ 

undulata, Calocalpe (Euco.smia) . . 72 

unicolor (pinastri ab.), Hyloicus. . 39 

unipuncta, Leucania . . . . 82 

urticae, Aglais 49, 52, 57, 65, 81, 83 

valezina (paphia ab.), Argynnis. . 83^ 

vanillae, Dione . . . . . . 59 

varleyata (grossulariata ab.), 

Abraxas . . . . . . . . 39 

vilella, Platyedra . . . . . . 70 

viliica, Arctia . . . . . . 5& 

vinula, Cerura . . . . . . 74 

vitellina, Leucania . . . . 82 

vittata = lignata .. .. ..74 

vittata (dolus ab.) Polyommatus 10' 
vulgaris (napi race), Pieris . . 44 
w-album, Strymon .. 2, 5& 
walkeri (macrops subsp.), Patula . . 61 
williamsi (cardamines ab.), Eu- 
chloe . . . . . • . . 81 

zatima(lubricipeda a6.), Spilosoma 40- 

Zerynthia, (Thais) . . . • 2 

zonaria, Nyssia . . . . . . 80 

Zygaena (idae) .. ..47,73, 82 

Neukoptera. 

Ascalaphus . . . . • • ^ 

coccajus = libelluloides .. .. 8 

formicarius, Myrmeleon . . . . 9 

libelluloides (coccajus), Ascala- 
phus . . . . . . • • ^ 

libelluloides, Palpares . . • . 4 

longicornis, Ascalaphus . . . . ft 

micans, Hemerobius . . . . 58' 

Myrmeleon . . . . • • 6 

nitidulus, Hemerobius . . . . 58 

ottomanus, Ascalaphus . . . . 8 

Rhaphidia . . . . . • . . 83 

stigma, Hemerobius . . . . 58 

Orthoptera. 

aeruginosa, Polyspilota . . 
bipunctatum, Tetrix 
danica, Locusta . . 
degeneratus, Dociostaurus 
errabunda, Lissonota 
flaviventris, Sohistocerca 



20 
65 
42 
42 
6& 
42 



98 



gregaria, Schistocerca 
Gryllidae . . 
lapponica, Ectobia 
littoral is, Thisoeoetrus . . 
maroccanus, Dociostaurus 
membranaceus, Brachytrypex 
mendica, Blepharis 
mexicanus, Melanoplus 
migratoria, Locusta 
pardalina, Locusta 
punctatissima, Leptophyes 
solitaria, Locusta.. 
spretus, Melanoplus 
subulatum, Tetrix 
viridulus, Omocestus 



Paranbuboptera 
annulatus, Cordulegaster 
grandis, Aeschna .. 
imperator, Anax . . 
naias, Erythromma 
pratense, Brachytron 
splendens, Calopteryx 
sponsa, Lestes 
vulgatissima, Gompbus 

Phanerogams. 
acaulis, Gentiana 
alba, Morus 
Artemisia . . 
arvensis, Ononis 
aucuparia, Pyrus 
Berberis 
Chenopodium 
clematitis, Aristolocbia 
cupressoides, Veronica 
Dianthus . . 
Draba 

glycyphyllos, Astragalus 
jacobaea, Senecio.. 



PAGE 

. 42 

. 77 

. 65 

. 19 

. 42 

. 77 

, 80 

. 42 

. 42 

, 42 

65 

42 

42 

58 

65 



83 
83 
83 
83 
83 
83 
83 
83 



7 

2 
73 
67 
59 

2 
73 

2 
42 

6 
64 
70 
73 



PAOE 



lantosoana, Baxifraga 
lutea, Gentiana 
luteus, Mimulus 
Malvaceae . . 
molle, Scbinus 
montana, Sesili 
multieaulis, Moms 
pomponium, Lilium 
Potentilla . . 
rivale, Geum 
rosea, Altbaea 
rotunda, Aristolocbia 
Smilax 

soldanella. Convolvulus 
tetralix. Erica 
TroUius . . 
Umbelliferae 
unedo. Arbutus . . 
verum, Galium 
viscosus, Senecio . . 
vulgaris, Artemisia 

Ehynchota. 

Aleyrodes . . 
atra, Cicadetta 
hoematodes, Tibicina 
indica, Belostoma. . 



Not Classified. 

Androctonus (Scorpion) . . 

aspera. Helix (Mollusca).. 

europaeus, Scorpio 

exalbida (aspera ab.), Helix (Mol- 
lusca) 

fonientarius, Fomes (Fungus) . . 

Gamasus (Mite) . . 

tunbridgense, Hymenophyllum 
(Fern) 64, 

unilaterale, Hymenopbyllum 

(Fern) .. .. .. 64, 

vulgaris, Bufo (Batrachian) 



• • 


Y 

7 


, 


66 


, 


70 


, , 


61 


• 


7 


, . 


2 


. 


7 


, , 


2 


, 


73 


. 


70 


. 


2 


, , 


2 


68 


, 69 


, 


79 


, 


69 


, 


6 


, , 


4 


, 


74 


, , 


67 


, , 


3 



79 
10 
11 

72 



80 
79 
10 

79 
72 
75 

55 

55 

86 



BYE-LA V/S 



OF THK 



§0utlj iroiiti0ii; ^ntomobgkal i" |lat«ral 

{As amended at a Special Meeting held on May 23rd, 1929.) 



1. Name. 

The Society shall be called The South London Entomological 
AND Natural History Society. 

2. Object. 

The Society shall have for its object the advancement and 
diffusion of Biological Science by means of meetings at the Society's 
Rooms and in the Field, discussions, papers, exhibitions, the 
publication of Proceedings, and the formation of typical collec- 
tions and of a library for the use of the Members. 

8. Constitution. 

The Society shall consist of Honorary, Life, Country and 
Ordinary Members. 

4. Mana(jement. 

[a) The property of the Society shall be vested in two Trustees 
who shall be elected or removed from time to time by the 
Society as a majority of the Members present at a Special 
Meeting shall think fit. 

(6) The affairs of the Society shall be conducted by a Council 
consisting of the Officers of the Society (see Bye-law 5) 
and ten Ordinary Members of Council. Seven of the 
Council shall form a quorum. 

(c) All members of the Council shall be elected annually at 
the Annual Meeting and shall be eligible for re-election 
except that no member shall hold the Office of President 
or of Vice-President for two years consecutively ; and the 
five senior Ordinary Members of Council shall not for 
twelve months be eligible for re-election as Ordinary 
Members of Council. 



2 

(d) Seniority is to be reckoned by length of continuous service 
as Ordinary Member of Council ; among those equal in such 
seniority, those havingmade the least number of attendances 
shall resign ; and among those with an equal number of 
attendances seniority in age shall finally decide. 

{e) The Council at its first meeting after election shall appoint 
Library and Publication Committees and shall have power 
to make and from time to time alter such regulations as 
they shall find necessary for the management of the 
Library and for the guidance of the Publication Committee. 

(/) All notices of motions and questions by Members of the 
Society relating to the management of the Society shall, 
except at the Annual Meeting, be in writing and signed 
by the Member or Members concerned and shall be posted 
up in the Meeting Room where every Member can see 
them during the Meeting previous to the one at which 
they are to be discussed or asked. A signed copj' of any 
such notice shall be furnished Lo the Council before the 
same is posted up in the Meeting Room. 

6. Officers. 

The Officers of the Society shall consist of a President,* two 
Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, two Secretaries, an Editor of 
Proceedings, a Curator and a Librarian. 

6. Removal or Resignation of Officers or Ordinary Members 

of Council. 

(a) For any cause which shall appear sufficient to a two-thirds 
majority thereof the Council shall have power to suspend 
any Officer of the Society or Ordinary Member of Council 
from the exercise of his office or duties or to remove him 
and declare his office or seat on the Council vacant. 

(6) The Council shall from time to time fill up any vacancy 
amongst the Officers of the Society or Ordinary Members 
of Council that may arise during their year of office or 
that may have been occasioned by insufficient, ineffectual 
or invalid nominations at the Annual Meeting. For the 
purpose of Bye-law 4 (c) the service of a Member of the 
Council while filling any such vacancy shall be counted 
as service in the office or position as Ordinary Member 
of Council to which he was last elected at an Annual 
Meeting and the service of a Member not already on the 
Council, while filling any such vacancy, shall not be 
be counted. 

*For definition of Chairman see Bye-Law 13 (6). 



7. Assistant, 

The Council shall have power to appoint from time to time at 
their discretion one or more of the Members of the Society (whether 
Members of the Council or not and whether holding any other office 
or not) to act as assistant or assistants to the Treasurer, Librarian, 
Editor of Proceedings, Curator, or either or both of the Secretaries. 
Any assistant so appointed shall, unless he resign such appointment, 
hold office during the pleasure of the Council and in the event of 
the absence, suspension or removal of his Principal may be directed 
by the Council to act in the latter's place, but no assistant as such 
shall be entitled to act or vote in the Council. 

8. Honorary Members. 

The Council shall have power from time to time to nominate 
leading naturalists or persons who have rendered special services 
to the Society to be Honorary Members of the Society, but the 
number of such Honorary Members shall not exceed ten at any one 
time. Such Honorary Members shall be entitled to exercise all the 
rights and privileges of, and shall be subject to the same Bye- laws 
and Regulations as, Ordinary Members except that they shall be 
exempt from the payment of fees and subscriptions. 

9. Life, Country and Ordinary Members. 

(a) Every candidate for admission to the Society shall be 
proposed in writing by one Member (to whom he shall be 
known personally) and seconded by at least one other 
Member, and the nomination form with the name and 
address of the Candidate, together with the names of his 
Proposer and Seconder or Seconders, and a statement as 
to the class of membersbip desired, shall be submitted to 
the Council for consideration. If in order, the nomination 
shall be read out by the Secretary at the first Ordinary 
Meeting of the Society after it has been considered by the 
Council and shall again be read out at the following 
Ordinary Meeting, when, unless a ballot shall be demanded 
by any Member, such candidate shall be declared duly 
elected. If a ballot is demanded it shall be taken forthwith, 
when, if four-fifths of the Members present vote for the 
election of the Candidate, he shall be declared duly elected. 

(b) Candidates residing outside a radius of thirty miles from 
the Society's Rooms may be elected as Country Members 
and any Ordinary Member of the Society going to reside 
beyond such radius, may, if he so desires, and subject to 
the consent of the Council, become a Country Member, 
but any Country Member coming to reside within such 
radius shall become an Ordinary Member automatically. 

(c) Any Country or Ordinary Member, having duly complied 
with the Bye-Laws of the Society, may at any time with 



the consent of the Council and upon payment of the 
Composition for Life Membei'ship, become a Life Member 
without re-election. 

10. Entrance Fees, Subscriptions and Donations. 

(a) The Entrance Fee of an Ordinary Member shall be 2s. 6d. 
and the Annual Subscription 12s. 6d. The Entrance Fee 
of a Country Member shall be 2s. 6d. and the Annual 
Subscription 7s. 6d. The Composition for Life Member- 
ship in lieu of the Entrance Fee and future Annual 
Subscriptions shall be Eight Guineas. Every Life, 
Country and Ordinary Member shall, before he is entitled 
to exercise any of the rights or privileges of Membership 
(1) pay to the Treasurer the Composition for Life Member- 
ship or the Entrance Fee and one year's subscription 
(whichever is applicable), and, in default of such payment 
within six months his election shall be void, (2) sign the 
Obligation Book and be presented to the President or 
Chairman, 

(6) Any Country or Ordinary Member elected after September 
29th. in any year shall, on payment of his Entrance Fee 
and one year's subscription, be deemed to have paid up to 
the end of -the year next following. 

(c) All subscriptions shall be payable yearly and shall become 
due at the first Meeting in each calendar year and any 
Country or Ordinary Member not having intimated his 
resignation to the Corresponding Secretary or to the 
Treasurer on or before the date of that Meeting shall be 
liable for the subscription appropriate to his Membership. 

(d) The Council may remit wholly or in part a subscription 
due from any Member, should some special circumstances 
appear to them to warrant such action. 

(e) Entrance Fees and compositions for Life Membership shall 
not be treated as part of the ordinary income of the Society 
but shall be applied to the Library Fund or to the 
purchase of cabinets and the improvement of the collections, 
or for other objects for the permanent benefit of the Society, 
as the Council shall from time to time think fit. Until 
so applied such Entrance Fees and compositions for Life 
Membership shall either be temporarily carried to a 
suspense account or be invested in the names of the 
Trustees ; but in the latter case the income shall be 
available for the general purposes of the Society. 

(/) Donations or bequests of money, stocks, shares, or securities 
for money shall, subject to any directions given by the 
donor or testator in each case, be dealt with in the manner 



provided in the last preceding paragraph as to Entrance 
Fees and compositions for Life Membership. 

11. Rvjhts of Member s» 

Subject to the provisions contained in Bye-laws 10 (a), 12 (6), 
12 (c), and 12 (d), Members shall : 

{a) Have a right to be present, to join in the discussions, and 
to vote at all Meetings of the Society ; to propose candi- 
dates for election ; and at any Ordinary Meeting, Conver- 
sazione, Annual Exhibition, or Field Meeting to introduce 
visitors whose names shall before the close of the Meeting 
be entered by the introducing Member in a book kept for 
that purpose, or, in the case of Field Meetings, be given 
to the Leader before the end of the Meeting. 

[h) Be entitled to have access to the Collections, and to the 
use of the Library (subject to the Regulations thereof), 
and those who have paid or compounded for the Annual 
subscription for any year and all Honorary Members shall 
be entitled to receive gratis one copy of the Proceedings 
published for that year, provided such copy is claimed 
within two years of the date of publication thereof or the 
consent of the Council is obtained. 

(c) Be eligible to hold any office in the Society, or to serve as 
Ordinary Members of Council. 

12. Besifinatio7i, Removal or Suspension of Members. 

(a) Any Member, having paid all sums due to the Society, 
shall be at liberty to withdraw therefrom by giving notice 
in writing to either the Corresponding Secretary or the 
Treasurer. 

{b) No member shall enjoy any of the rights or privileges of 
membership if his subscription be twelve months in 
arrear ; and should the subscription of any member be 
two years in arrear, the council shall, unless they see good 
reason to the contrary, and after one months written 
warning sent by Registered Post to him at his last known 
place of abode erase his name from the list of Members, 
and thereupon such Member shall cease to be a Member 
of the Society, but the Council may, nevertheless, at any 
time reinstate such a Member upon such terms (if any) as 
they phall think fit. Any name so erased or reinstated 
shall be posted on the notice board, as having been so 
dealt with, at the next Ordinary Meeting of the Society. 

{(•) The Society shall have power to expel any Member by 
carrying — as hereinafter mentioned — a motion to that 



6 

effect at a Special Meeting called for that purpose in 
accordance with By-law 23. At such meeting voting 
shall be by ballot and the motion for expulsion shall be 
deemed " carried " if not less than two thirds of the total 
number of Members present and entitled to vote, vote in 
favour thereof ; otherwise the motion shall be deemed 
" not carried." 

{ti) The Society shall also have power at any Meeting by a 
similar vote to suspend any Member who shall refuse to 
obey the ruling of the President or Chairman or shall 
otherwise render himself obnoxious to the Meeting. A 
Member so suspended shall not exercise nor be entitled to 
enjoy any of the rights and privileges of Membership during 
the continuance of the Meeting at which he is suspended. 

13. President and Vice-Presidents. 

(a) The duty of the President shall be to preside at the 
Meetings of the Society and of the Council, to regulate all 
the discussions and proceedings thereat, to deliver an 
address at the Annual Meeting, and to execute or see to 
the execution of the Bye-laws and Regulations of the 
Society, and at every Meeting the President or, in his 
absence, anyone for the time being occupying his place 
shall have a casting vote independently of his personal 
vote as a Member. 

(b) In the absence of the President one of the Vice-Presidents 
or, if neither of them be present, such Member of the 
Council as the majority of the Council present shall appoint, 
or if no Member of the Council be present such Member of 
the Society as the majority of the Members present shall 
appoint, shall preside and shall for the time being have 
the title of Chairman and the authority and privileges of 
the President. 

14. Treasurer. 
The Treasurer shall : — 

(a) Demand and receive all monies owing to the Society, 
disburse all monies due from the Society, and receive 
donations and bequests made to the Society. 

(b) Give proper signed receipts for all monies received by him 
on behalf of the Society or the Society's Trustees, and keep 
properly completed counterfoils of all such receipts. 

(c) If the subscription of any Member be six months in arrear 
notify such Member thereof and draw his attention to 
Bye-law 12(6). 



{(l) Report to the Council from time to time the name of any 
Member who is 12 months or two years (as the case may 
be) in arrear with his subscription. 

[e) Keep the Society's cash and all proper books of accounts 
together with the relative vouchers. These accounts duly 
vouched shall be audited annually by two Auditors, one 
to be elected by and from the Council at its last Meeting 
before Christmas and one by and from the general body 
of Members at the last Ordinary Meeting before Christmas. 
The Auditors shall present their reports at the Annual 
Meeting and the Treasurer's audited accounts shall be 
printed with the Annual Report. Should the Treasurer 
at any time resign his office, or be suspended or removed 
therefrom, or should he die, the accounts shall thereupon 
be audited by Auditors to be appointed by the Council. 

(/) Generally act under the direction of the Council in all 
matters connected with the finances of the Society. 

15. Secretaries, 

The Secretaries shall : — 

(rt) Conduct and produce to the Council all correspondence in 
any way connected with the Society at the next Council 
Meeting after the correspondence shall have been received 
or have taken place. 

[b) Prepare agenda including any motions to be submitted for 
the consideration of the Council or of the Society. 

[c) Take minutes of the Proceedings at all Meetings of the 
Council in books kept for that purpose. 

((/) Keep a register, which they shall from time to time correct 
as occasion arises, of the names and addresses of all 
Members of the Society. 

[e) Within one week after the election of any new Member 
give him notice of his election together with a copy of the 
Bye-laws of the Society, and call his attention to Bye-law 
10(a), and shall see that he signs the Obligation Book. 

(/) Keep a record of the attendances of Members at all Meetings 
of the Council. 

(r/) Send by post to all Members of the Council notice of 
Council Meetings not less than four days before such 
meetings are due to be held. 

(h) Send by post to every Member entitled for the time being 
to receive them — to his last known address — a copy of the 
Proceedings of the Society as soon as published in any 



8 

year, and in addition, to every such Member recorded in 
the Society's register as residing in the British Isles, a copy 
of each of the lists referred to in Bye-laws 22 {d) and 22 (/), 
a copy of any announcement of the Society's Meetings and 
notice of their Annual Exhibition, Annual and Special 
Meetings, etc., as laid down in these Bye-laws or any 
future modification thereof. 

[i) Generally act under the direction of the Council in all 
matters connected with the Society. 

16. Editor of Proceedings. 
The Editor of Proceedings shall : — 

(a) Take minutes of the Proceedings at all Meetings of the 
Society m books kept for that purpose. 

{b) Announce and record all additions to the Library. 

(c) Take charge of all Reports of Field Meetings. 

(d) Take charge of all papers read or announced before the 
Society and accepted for publication in the Society's Pro- 
ceedings until they shall have been published. 

(e) Edit the Proceedings and Abstracts of Proceedings. 

(/) Generally act under the direction of the Publication Com- 
mittee, subject to the authority of the Council. 

17. Librarian. 

The Librarian shall take charge of the books and manuscripts 
of the Society, keep a catalogue of the same with the names of the 
donors, and see that the regulations of the Council respecting the 
circulation of the books are strictly carried out (See Appendix). 

All books belonging to the Society shall circulate among the 
Members, subject to such regulations as the Council may from time 
to time deem necessary, a copy of which regulations shall be affixed 
by the Librarian to each book before it is circulated. 

18. Curator. 

The Curator shall have charge of the various collections of the 
Society and shall be responsible for the proper keeping thereof and 
shall make and keep a list of the contents, such list to be corrected 
from time to time as occasion arises. 

19. Attendance Recorder. 

The Council shall appoint an Attendance Recorder whose duties 
shall be to take charge of the Attendance Book during Meetings at 
the Society's Rooms, and to see that each Member present signs his 



name therein and records that of any Visitor introduced by bim. 
The Attendance Recorder as such shall not be a Member of the 
Council and shall return the books in his charge to the Librarian 
after each Meeting. 

20. Meetings. 

Meetings of the Council shall be held at the discretion of the 
Council but not less often than four times in every year. The order 
of business at such meetings shall be at the discretion of the 
Council. 

Meetings of the Society shall be Ordinary, Annual, or Special 
Meetings, and such Field Meetings, Conversaziones and Annual 
Exhibitions as the Council may from time to time arrange. 

21. Ordinary Meetings, 

(a) Ordinary Meetings shall be held on the evenings of the 
second and fourth Thursdays in each month (except the 
fourth Thursday in December and any evening on which 
a Conversazione or Annual Exhibition is held), or on such 
other day as the Council may from time to time direct. 
The Chair shall be taken at 7.0 p.m. or at such other time 
as the Council may direct. The order of business shall 
be as follows : — 

(1) The Minutes of the last previous Meeting shall be read 
and, when confii-med, signed by the President or 
Chairman. 

(2) Announcements. 

(3) Candidates for admission to the Society proposed or 
elected and new Members come up for presentation to 
the President or Chairman, signing of the Obligation 
Book and admission. 

(4) Exhibitions, communications, and discussions relating 
thereto. 

(6) Papers read or announced, and discussed. 

(6) General business transacted. 

{h) All papers read or announced at any Meeting and accepted 
for publication in the Society's Proceedings shall become 
the property of the Society, unless otherwise stipulated 
before the reading or announcement thereof. 

22. The Annual Meeting and Election of Conjicil. 

(a) The Annual Meeting shall be held on the fourth Thursday 
in January at 7.0 p.m. 



10 

(6) At this Meeting Members may, without the notice required 
by Bye-law 4 (e), bring forward any motion or ask any 
questions relating to the management of the Society. 

(c) At this Meeting the order of business shall be as 
follows : — 

(1) The Minutes of the previous Annual Meeting shall be 
read and, when confirmed, signed by the President or 
Chairman. 

(2) The Treasurer's report and the audited accounts and 
balance sheet shall be read. 

(3) The Report of the Council shall be read. 

(4) The Annual Elections shall be held. 

(5) Other business. 

(6) President's address. 

(7) Retirement of President and Introduction of new 
President. 

(d) The Council for the time being shall annually prepare a 
list containing the names of such Members as they shall 
recommend to fill the offices of President, Vice-Presidents, 
Treasurer, Secretaries, Editor of Proceedings, Curator, 
and Librarian ; and of such other Members as they shall 
recommend to be Ordinary Members of Council for the 
year ensuing. The list to be submitted to the next 
Annual Meeting, subject to revision by the Council, if 
necessary, shall be read out at the last Ordinary Meeting 
held in November and shall then be posted up in the 
Meeting Room and posted up again at every Meeting of 
the Society until the election is held. A copy of the 
approved list, together with notice of the next Annual 
Meeting and a copy of paragraphs (/) and (//) of this Bye- 
law shall be transmitted before December 6th by the 
Secretaries to every Member recorded in the Society's 
register as resident in the British Isles, at his last known 
place of abode. 

(e) If, in any year, owing to the death, incapacity, refusal to 
act, resignation, or removal under the provisions of Bye- 
law 12, of any Member occurring or being for the first 
time notified to the Council after the date of the sending 
out of the notices of the Annual Meeting, there shall be 
an insufficiency of effectual recommendations in the list 
prepared by the Council of Members to fill the said Offices 
or to serve as Ordinary Members of Council for the 
ensuing year, the Council may, at the Annual Meeting, 
recommend some other Member or Members (whether 



11 

already included in the Council's list or not) to fill any 
vacancy or vacancies so caused. If any such recommenda- 
tion be made the business of such Annual Meeting shall 
proceed as though such recommendation had been included 
in the Council's list as sent to Members instead of that 
actually contained therein. 

(/J If any six or more Members shall desire to propose any 
other eligible candidate or candidates for election to any 
of the said Offices or as one or more of the Ordinary 
Members of Council, such six or more Members shall, 
before December 20th, give notice thereof in writing 
(signed by such Members and stating the name of every 
such candidate and the Office or position as Ordinary 
Member of Council for which he is nominated) to one of 
the Secretaries, who shall, two clear days at least before 
the first meeting in January send a list of the name or 
names so proposed and of the Office or Offices or Position 
concerned to every member, recorded in the Society's 
Register as resident in the British Isles, at his last known 
place of abode. 

{(jf) When in any year no such notice has been so given to 
either of the Secretaries with regard to any particular 
Office or concerning the Ordinary Members of Council, 
the President or Chairman shall at the Annual Meeting 
declare the Council's nominee or nominees to that Office 
or as Ordinary Members of Council, as the case may be, 
appointed for the ensuing year. 

(A) If any such notice be so given the election shall take 
place at the Annual Meeting and the voting shall be by 
ballot. Two scrutineers shall be appointed, one by and 
from the Council, and the other by and from the general 
body of Members present, to superintend the ballot and to 
report the results to the Meeting ; the Secretaries, assisted 
by the Treasurer, shall have previously prepared a list of 
those Members entitled to vote, and each Member before 
voting in the ballot shall give his name to the scrutineers 
to be marked off on the said list. 

(/) Any balloting paper containing votes for a greater 
number of names proposed for any Office or seats 
on the Council than the number to be elected shall be 
wholly void and be rejected by the scrutineers. 

(j,) If at an Annual Meeting any election which ought then 
to take place be not held or completed such election shall 
be adjourned and, if necessary, re-adjourned from time to 
time to the next convenient day or days. Notice of every 



12 

such adjourned or re-adjourned election shall be sent to 
Members to whom notice of the Annual Meeting was sent, 
in like manner as is provided for notices of Special 
Meetings. 

23. Special Meetings. 

(a) Special Meetings ma}^ be called by the Council at any 
time they may deem necessary by sending at least seven 
clear days' notice in writing to every Member recorded in 
the Society's register as resident in the British Isles at his 
last known place of abode. The Council shall also call 
in the same way a Special Meeting upon four weeks notice 
in writing being given to them signed by not less than six 
Members desiring such Meeting accompanied by a state- 
ment of its object [see also Bye-law 4 (e)] . 

{b) The object of a Special Meeting shall be stated specifically 
in the notice and no other business shall be taken at such 
Meeting. 

(c) No vote shall be taken at a Special Meeting unless twenty 
or more Members entitled to vote are present. 

{d) Bye-law 22 (/i) with the exception of the first seventeen 
words shall apply to Special Meetings, provided that 
for the purposes of such Meetings [other than Special 
Meetings under Bye-law 12 («)] voting may be by show 
of hands. 

24. Proceedings, 

(a) The Proceedings shall consist of such papers communicated 
to the Meetings of the Society as the Council shall direct 
to be published therein. 

(b) The Abstracts of Proceedings shall consist of notices of the 
Papers read or announced and of the Exhibitions made at 
the Meetings of the Society, reports of Field Meetings, and 
other matters of interest. 

(c) The Proceedings and the Abstracts of Proceedings shall be 
bound up together and published yearly (subject however 
to the discretion of the Council) at such prices per volume 
as the Council shall from time to time direct, but nothing 
herein contained shall be deemed to prevent the Council 
from authorising from time to time at their discretion the 
exchange of the Society's publications or any one or more 
of them, for any publication or publications of any other 
Society, Institution or Body whatsoever having the same 
or similar objects, without having regard to the price or 
prices at which such latter publication or publications has, 
or have been, or shall be, issued or sold. 



13 

25. 

The 

Members. 



The Society shall not and may not make any dividend, gift, 
division, or bonus, in money into or between any of its 

T\yfom hora 



26. Interpretation. 

(a) In the interpretation of these Bye-laws any reference to a 
Member or Members shall be deemed to apply to both 
sexes, and these Bye-laws and any addition or amendment 
thereto shall throughout be construed accordingly. 

(b) If any question or dispute arise as to the correct inter- 
pretation of these Bye laws or of any part or parts thereof 
or of any addition or amendment thereto, the Council may 
from time to time give a ruling or rulings thereon which 
shall be deemed for all purposes to state the true inter- 
pretation and meaning thereof. 

27. Alteration of Bye-laws. 

No alteration or addition shall be made in or to these Bye-laws 
except at a Special Meeting called for the purpose, at which Meeting 
the Council shall have the power, subject to Bye-law 23, to give 
such directions as they think necessary for regulating the discussion 
and the manner of procedure thereat. In the event of any alteration 
or addition being made, a copy of the altered, amplified, or additional 
bye-law or bye-laws shall be issued with the next published volume 
of Proceedings. 



APPENDIX. 
EXISTING LIBRARY REGULATIONS. 

1. — Books may be borrowed at all Meetings of the Society. 

2. — No Member shall be allowed to borrow more than three 
volumes at a time, or to keep them longer than one month. 

3. — Any Member retaining a volume or volumes beyond the 
specified time shall pay a fine of Twopence per fortnight for each 
volume so detained. 

4. — Members damaging, losing, or destroying any book be- 
longing to the Society shall either provide a new copy, or pay such 
sum as the Council shall think fit. 



$^ 



THE ABSTRACT 




CBEDINGS 

Vol.), 
Vol.), 

99, 1900, 1901, 

1907, 1908, 1909, 

1915, 1916, 1917, 

1923, 1924, 1925, 



Are still in print, and may be had on application to the Librarian. 

1886, price 1/6 ; 1887, price 2/6 ; 1888-9 and 
■*-» 8/6 each; 1892-3, price 3/-; 
Ud, price 2/-; 1896, price 2/6; 
^^ 1, price 2/-; ^^^H[ pi^iod 2/-; 

i'898, Part 1, price tj-M 
1899, price 2/6; 1900, price ,^^^^^ 
1902, price 2/6; 1908, price 2/-; 1904, 
1906, price 2 6; 1906yprice 2/6; 1907, 
1908, price 2/6 '.^^Kjcio^^ ; 191(1 
1911, price 4 67llHH|^K 1913, prj 

«*ice 4/- ; l^ld^^i^^B 1^16, prioi _^^ 
rice 8/6; 1918, pi^^^K 1919, price 6/-; 
pioe 5/- ; 1921, price 5/- ; 1922, price 10/6 ; 
oe 10/6 ; 1924, price 12/6 ; 1928, price 1"^ 
1926, price 16/- ; and 1927, prioe 12/6. 





N.B.— MEMfiERB are allowed a dliQOunt of one third off the above 
prioes, and Mme ytara at half prioe. 



contents: M" '^ 

)unfiil ♦. .. .. ., .. .,'-.• 

tn , . . . . 

loil . . . . . . » . . 



Ovipo«ition o| 

Moth in a HamAl 
Differentiation of. 
D. E. A. 0( 



• . • • • • .■ 

of C. P^^^^^^^^ft exanthemaria. Bj 
I, a oridl^^^^Bka. By T, ▲. U. 

• • • • 
lied Bye-Lawi. Maj l$8f ?, ^ ; 



HIBERNIA CHi 



td; Jun»' 
OHAIB TJ 

'ftt thi 






rii^ bii 



tbt 
ftained, 
Take* 
stary oanoot 



HE SOUTH 



NA' 



ISTORY 



soci£:ty 




WITH TWO PLATES 








i^^^Or^AL Msj^^y-^:,- 



lT the SOCIETY'S ROOMS 

[BERS, LONDON BRIDGE, S.E. 



SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 



ypubluhsd hy the Society, with' 
ifollotoing OttitUmen {including thi Report 



tie) 



^RESIDENT, Messrs. R. ADKIN, H. W. ANDREWS. K. G. BLAIR, 
STANLEY EDWARDS, E. STEP, A. E. TONGE. 
wid H. J. TURNER, Hon. Editor 



AKOHSR d: CO. PRINTBRS, 36, AYOMDALS BQUABF., S.E. 



THE SOUTH LONDON 

Entomological & Natural History Society 

(Established 1872) 

HiBERNiA Chambers, London Bridge, S.E. 1. 

— J — ■ < » 

OFFICERS & COUNCIL 

1930-31. 

C. N. HAWKINS, F.E.S. 

^«« - ^ve&x'i>sni»* 

H. W. ANDKEWS, F.E.S. 
Lt.-Col. F. A. LABOUCHERE, F.E.S. 

^oxxncil* 

J. H. ADKIN. T. H. L. GROSVENOR, F.E.S. 

K. G. BLAIR, B.Sc, F.E.S. S. N. A. JACOBS. 

L. C. BUSHBY, F.E.S. C. JARVIS. 

E. A. COCKAYNE, D.M., A.M., A. E. STAFFORD. 

F.R.C.P., F.E.S. E. STEP, F.L.S. 
Capt. B. S. CURWEN. 

S. R. ASHBY, F.E.S. E. E. SYMS, F.E.S. 

H. J.TURNER, F.E.S., F.R.H.S., '« Latemar," West Drive, Cheam, Surrey. 

^on* ^V9a»xxvev* 

A. E. TONGE, F.E.S., "Aincroft," Grammar School Hill, Reigate. 

^0n* ^9cv9tavU&* 

S. EDWARDS,- F.L.S. , F.Z.S., F.E.S., etc. {General Sec), 

15, St. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. 
H. J. TURNER, F.E.S., F.R.H.S., " Latemar," W^est Drive, Cheam, Surrey. 



THE 50UTH LONDON 

ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

HIBERNIA CHAMBERS, LONDON BRIDGE, S.E. 



The Society has for its object the diffusion of Biological Science, by 
means of Papers and Discussions, and the formation of Typical Collec- 
tions. There is a Library for the use of Members. Meetings of the 
Members are held on the 2nd and 4th Thursday evenings in each month, 
from Seven to Ten p.m., at the above address. The Society's Rooms are 
easy of access from all parts of London, and the Council cordially invites 
the co-operation of all Naturalists, especially those who are willing to 
further the objects of the Society by reading Papers and exhibiting 
Specimens. 

SUBSCRIPTION. 

Twelve Shillim/s and Sixpence fier Anuiini, with an Entrance Fee of 

Two Shillings and Sixpence. 

All Communications to be addressed to the Hon. Gen. Secretary, 

STANLEY EDWARDS, F.L.S., &c., 

15, St. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. 



PAST PRESIDENTS 



1872-4. 


J. R. Wellman (dec). 


1899 . 


1875-6. 


A. B. Farn, F.E.S. (dec). 


1900 . 


1877 . 


J. P. Barrett, F.E.S. (dec). 


1901 . 


1878 . 


. J. T. Williams (dec). 


1902 . 


1879 . 


. R. Standex, F.E.S. (dec). 


1903 . 


1880 . 


. A. FiCKLiN (dec). 


1904 . 


1881 . 


. V. R. Perkins, F.E.S. (dec). 


1905 . 


1882 . 


. T. R. BiLLUPS, F.E.S. (dec). 


1906-7. 


1888 . 


. J. R. Wellman (dec). 


1908-9. 


1884 . 


. W. West, L.D.S. (dec). 


1910-11 


1885 . 


. R. South, F.E.S. 


1912 13 


1886-7. 


. R. Adkin, F.E.S. 


1914-15 


1888-9. 


. T. R. BiLLUPs, F.E.S. (dec). 


1916-17 


1890 . 


. J. T. Carrington, F.L.S. 


1918-19 




(dec.) 


1920-21 


1891 . 


. W. H. TuGWELL, Ph.C. (dec) 


1922 . 


1892 . 


. C.G.Barrett, F.E.S. (dec) 


1923-4. 


1898 . 


. J. J. WEiR,F.L.S.,etc.(dec) 


1925-6. 


1894 . 


. E. Step, F.L.S. 


1927-8. 


1895 . 


. T. W. Hall, F.E.S. 




1896 . 


R. South, F.E.S. 


1929 . . 


1897 . 


R. Adkin, F.E.S. 


1930 . . 


T898 . 


J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. (dec). 





A. Harrison, F.L.S. (dec). 

W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

H. S. Fremlin, F.E.S., etc. 

F. NoAD Clark. 

E. Step, F.L.S. 

A. Sigh, F.E.S. 

H. Main, B.Sc, F.E.S. 

R. Adkin, F.E.S. 

A. Sigh, F.E.S. 

W. J. Kaye, F.E.S. 

A. E. ToNGE, F.E.S. 

B. H. Smith, B.A., F.E.S. 
Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 
Stanley Edwards, F.L.S. etc. 
K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
E. J. Bunnett,M.A.,F.E.S. 
N. D. Riley, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S. 

E. A. Cockayne, D.M., 
A.M., F.R.C.P., F.E.S. 

H. W. Andrews, F.E.S. 

F. B. Carr, (dec). 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Chief subjects of Study : — h, Hymenoptera ; o, Oithoptera ; he, Hemiptera; 
n, Neuroptera ; c, Coleoptera ; d, Diptera ; I, Lepidoptera ; ool, Oology ; orn, 
Ornithology ; r, Reptilia ; ni, Molluaca ; cr, Crustacea ; b, Botany ; wt. Microscopy ; 
ec. ent., Economic Entomology; e, signifies Exotic forms; trich, Trichoptera. 



Year of 
Electiok. 

1886 Adkin, B. W., F.E.S., ''Trenoweth," Hope Park, Bromley, 

Kent. I, orn. 
1922 Adkin, J. H., Hon. Lanternist, Council^ Lamorran, Oak 

Lane, Sevenoaks. I. 
1882 Adkin, R., f.e.s., " Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne. I, ec. ent. 
1901 Adkin, R. A., "Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne, m. 

1928 Anderson, C. D., 22, Mount Park Road, Ealing, W.5. 

1907 Andrews, H. W., f.e.s., Vice-President, " Woodside," 6, 

Footscray Road, Eltham, S.E. 9. d. 
1901 Armstrong, Capt. R. R., b.a., e.g. (Cantab), f.r.c.s., f.r.c.p., 

3rt, Newstead Road, Lee, S.E. 12. e, I. 

1895 AsHBY, S. R., F.E.S., Hon. Curator, 37, Hide Road, Head- 

stone, Harrow, c, I. 

1896 Barnett, T. L., " The Lodge," Crohamhurst Place, Upper 

Selsdon Road, S. Croydon. I. 

1887 Barren, H. E., 78, Lyndhurst Road, Peckham, S.E. 15. L 
1930 Baxter, G. L., 50, Wroughton Road, Clapham Common, 

S.W. 11. 
1927 Bedwkll, E. C, f.e.s., 54, Brighton Rd., Coulsdon, Surrey, c. 

1929 Bell, J. K., Marden Lodge, Caterham Valley, Surrey. 

1924 Bird, Miss F. E., " Red Cottage," Cromwell Avenue, Billericay, 

Essex, orn. 
1911 Blair, K. G., b.sc, f.e.s., (Council, " Claremont," 120, 

SunningfieldsRoad, Hendon, N.W. 4. n, c. 
1898 Bliss, Capt., M. F., m.c, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s., Butlin's 

Hill, Braunton, near Rugby. I. 
1926 Bliss, A., " Musgrove," Brighton Road, Purley. 

1925 Blyth, S. F. p., " Cleveland," Chislehurst, Kent. I. 



IV 

Year of 
Election. 
1923 BoucK, Baron J. A., f.e.s., " Springfield," S. Godstone, 

Surrey. I. 
1909 Bowman, R. T., " Rockbourne," Keswick Road, Orpington, 

Kent. I. 
1909 Bright, P. M., f.e.s., ♦' Nether Court," 60, Christchurch 

Road, Bournemouth. I. 
1927 Brocklesby, S. H., " Long Lodge," Merton Park, S.W.19. l. 

1923 Brocklehurst, W. S., " Grove House," Bedford. I. 

1924 Brooke, Mrs. M. L., 48, Anerley Park, S.E.20. I. 

1909 BucKSTONE, A. A. W., 5, Haynt Walk, Merton Park, 
S.W. 20. I. 

1927 Bull, G. V., b.a., m.b., f.e.s., " White Gables," Sandhurst, 

Kent. I. 
1915 BuNNETT, E. J., M.A., 72, Colfe Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 23. 

ml. 
1922 BusHBY, L. C, F.E.S., Council^ 11, Park Grove, Bromley, Kent. 

I. 
1922 Candler, H., "Broad Eaves," Ashtead, Surrey. Z, orn, b. 
1886 Carpenter, J. H., " Redcot," Belmont Road, Leatherhead, 

Surrey. I. 
1899 Carr, Rev. F. M. B., m.a., l.th.. The Vicarage, Alvanley, Nr. 

Helsby, Cheshire. I, n. 
1924 Chapman, Miss L. M., •• Arolla," Waterlow Road, Reigate. 

1922 Cheeseman, C. J., 100, Dallinger Road, S.E. 12. I. 
1879 Clode, W. {Life Member.) 

1915 Cockayne, E. A., m.a., m.d., f.r.c.p., f.e.s.. Council, 116, 

Westbourne Terrace, W. 2. I. 
19B0 Colby, F. E. A., f.r.c.s., Hook Farm, Billingshurst, Sussex. 
1899 Colthrup, C. W., 68, Dovercourt Road, E. Dulwich, S.E. 22. 

Z, ool, orn. 

1928 Common, A. F., " Tessa," St. James Avenue, Thorpe Bay. 
1907 Coote, F. D., f.e.s., 82, Wickham Avenue, Cheam, Surrey. 

I, b. 
1919 CoppEARD, H., 26, King's Avenue, Greenford, Middlesex, l. 

1923 Cork, C. H., 11, Redesdale Street, Chelsea, S.W. 8. I. 

1919 Cornish, G. H., 141, Kirkham Street, Plumstead Common, 

S.E. 18. Z, c. 
1922 Couchman, L. E., c/o Mrs. A. Couchman, May Cottage, 

Brooklane, Bromley, Kent. L 
1909 CouLsoN, F. J., 17, Birdhurst Road, Colliers Wood, Merton, 

S.W. 19. I 



V 

Year of 
Election. 
1918 Court, T. H., f.r.g.s., "Oak Leigh," Market Rasen, 

Lincolnshire. I. 
1925 Cox, R. Douglas, 12, Blakemore Road, Streatham, S.W. 16. 

1911 CoxHEAD, G. W., 45, Leicester Road, Wanstead, E. 11. 

[Life Member.) c. 

1899 Crabtree, B. H., f.e.s., "Holly Bank," Alderley Edge, 

Cheshire, l. 
1918 Craufurd, Clifford, " Dennys," Bishops Storfcford. I. 

1920 Crocker, Capt. W., Constitutional Club, E. Bexley Heath. 

l. 
1898 Crow, E. J., 70, Hepworth Road, Streatham High Road, 

S.W. 16. I. 
1928 CuRWEN, Capt. B. S., Council, 9, Lebanon Pk,, Twickenham. 

I. 
1927 Danby, G. C, 33, Huron Road, Tooting Common, S.W.17. 

1925 Dannatt, W., " St. Lawrence," Gaibal Road, Burnt Ash, 

S.E. 12. I. 

1900 Day, F. H., f.e.s., 26, Currock Road, Carlisle. I, c. 

1889 Denxnis, a. W., 56, Romney Buildings, Millbank, S.W.I. 

I, vii, h. 
1918 Dixey, F. a., M.A., M.D., F.R.S., F.E.S., W^adham College, 

Oxford. Hon. Member. 

1901 DoDs, A. W., 88, Alkham Road, Stamford Hill, N. 16. I. 

1921 DoLTON, H. L., 36, Chester Street, Oxford Road, Reading. I. 
1930 DuDBRiDGE, B. J., 13, Church Lane, Merton Park, S.W. 19. 

1912 DuNSTER, L. E., 44, St. John's Wood Terrace, N.W.3. 

I. 

1927 Eagles, T. R., f.e.s., 32, Abbey Road, Enfield, Middlesex. Z. 

1928 Earle, Edw., 16, Addison Gardens, W.14. 

1886 Edwards, S., f.l.s., f.z.s., f.e.s., Hon. Secretari/, 15, St. 

Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3. I, el. 
1923 Ellis, H. Willoughby, f.e.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., " Speldhursfc 

Close," Sevenoaks, Kent, c, am. 

1926 Ennis, P. F., "Hillside," 22, Conway Road, Wimbledon, 

S.W.20. 

1920 Farmer, J. B., 31, Crowhurst Road, Brixton, S.W. 9. I. 
1918 Farquhar, L., " Littlecote," Pield Heath Avenue, Hillingdon, 
Middlesex. I. 



VI 

Year of 
Election. 
1924 Fassnidge, Wm., m.a., f.e.s., 47, Tennyson Road, Portswood, 

Southampton. I, n, trick, he. 

1887 Fletcher, W. H. B., m.a., f.e.s., Aldwick Manor, Bognor, 

Sussex. {Life Mejnber.) I. 

1926 Fletcher, P. Bainbrigge, b.sc, 65, Compton Road, Wimble- 

don, S.W.19. c. 
1889 Ford, A., ''South View," 42, Irving Road, West Southbourne, 
Bournemouth, Hants. Z, c. 

1920 Ford, L. T., " St. Michael's," Park Hill, Bexley, Kent. l. 
1915 Foster, T. B., "Lenore," 1, Morland Avenue, Addiscombe, 

Croydon. I. 
1907 FouNTAiNE, Miss M. E., f.e.s., " The Studio," 100a, Fellowa 
Koad, Hampstead, N.W.3. I. 

1921 Frampton, Rev. E. E., m.a., Halstead Rectory, Sevenoaks, 

Kent. I. 
1886 Fremlin, Major H. S., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s.. Government 
Lymph Laboratories, The Hyde, N.W.9. I. 

1919 Frisby, G. E., f.e.s., 29, Darnley Road, Gravesend. hi/tu. 
1912 Frohawk, F. W., M.B.O.U., f.e.s., " Essendene," Cavendish 

Road, Sutton, Surrey. I, orn. 
1914 Fryer, J. C. F., f.e.s., m.a., " Chadsholme," Milton Road, 

Harpenden, Herts. Z, ec. ent. 
1911 Gahan, C. J., D.sc, M.A., f.e.s., " The Mount," Aylsham, 

Norfolk, c. 

1920 Gauntlett, H. L., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s., 37, Howard Lane, 

Putney, S.W.15. /. 

1927 GiBBiNs, F. J. F.I.A.A., F.I.A.S., 51, Weldon Crescent, Harrow, 

Middlesex. I. 

1928 Gilles, W. S., f.e.s., f.i.c, " The Cottage," Rocking, Braintree, 

Essex. I. 

1929 Glegg, D. L., '' Vermala," 9, Westleigh Avenue, Putney, 

S.W.15. I. 
1920 Goodman, A. de B., f.e.s., "Normanby," Darkes Lane, 

Potters' Bar, Middlesex. I. 
1926 Gordon, D. J., b.a., f.e.s., Craigellachie House, Strathpeffer, 

N.B. col., lep. 

1924 Grant, F. T., 37, Old Road West, Gravesend. I. 

1925 Graves, P. P., f.e.s., 5, Hereford Square, S.W.7. l. 
1928 Gray, C. J. V., BM/BRWX., London, W.C.I. I. 

1918 Green, E. E., f.e.s., f.z.s., " Ways End," Camberley, Surrey. 
he)n. 



Vll 

Year of 
Election. 

1924 Greer, T., j.p., " Milton," Sandholes, Dungannon, Co. 

Tyrone. I. 
1926 Grey, Olive, Mrs., f.z.s., 90, Charino^ Cross Road, V/.C.2. ent. 
1911 Grosvenor, T. H. L., Council, Springvale, Linkfield Lane, 

Redhill. I. 
1884 Hall, T. W., f.e.s., 61, West Smithfield, E.C. 1. I. 
1926 Halton, H. C. S., Essex Museum, West Ham, E. 
1891 Hamm, a. H., A.L.S., f.e.s. , 22, Southfields Road, Oxford. I. 
1903 Hare, E. J., f.e.s., 4, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 2. l. 
1926 Harmsworth, H. A. B., f.e.s., 3, Marlborough Gate, Hyde 

Park, W.2. Z. 

1926 Harris, A. G. J., b.a., 21, Nevern Place, S.W.5. 

1924 Harwood, p., f.e.s., Westminster Bank, 92, Wimborne Road, 
Winton, Bournemouth. I. 

1927 Hawgood, D. A., 89, Leigham Vale, Tulse Hill, S.W.2. I. 
.1924 Hawkins, C. N., f.e.s., President, 23, Dalebury Road, Upper 

Tooting, S.W.17. L 
1929 Hawley, Lt.-Col. W. G. B., 13, Colville Road, W.ll. 

1913 Haynes, E. B., 82a, Lexham Gardens, W. 8. I. 

1923 Hayward, Capt. K. J., f.e.s., f.r.g.s., Estancia Santa Rosa, 

Patquia, Prov., La Rioja, F.C.C.N.A., Argentine. I. orn, 
1920 Hemming, Capt. A. F., f.z.s., f.e.s., 29, West Cromwell Road, 
S.W.7. l. 

1924 Henderson, J. L., 6, Haydn Avenue, Purley, Surrey, col. 
1927 Hewer, H. R., m.sc, d.i.c. Royal College of Science, S. Ken- 
sington, S.W. 7. 

1927 Hewitt, A. C, 83, Tavistock Avenue, Walthamstow, E.17. 
1920 Hodgson, S. B., 21, Boxwell Road, Berkhamsted, Herts. 
1927 Howard, J. 0. T., b.a., 78, St. John's Wood Court, N.W.8. 

1927 Hughes, A. W. McKenny, 22, Stanford Road, Kensington, 

W. 8. ec. ent. 
1929 Hughes, A. W., 14, Cliff Road, Wallasey, Cheshire. 

1928 Jackson, F. W. J., " The Pines," Ashtead, Surrey. 

1914 Jackson, W. H., " Pengama," 14, Woodcote Valley Road, 

Purley. I. 

1923 Jacobs, S. N. A., Council, Ditchling, Hayes Lane, Bromley. L 

1924 James, A. R., 14, Golden Lane, E.C.I, l. 
1924 James, R., f.e.s., 14, Golden Lane, E.C.I. 



Vlll 
Year of 
Election. 

1927 Janson, 0. J., F.E.S., Recorder, 13, Fairfax Boad, Hornsey, N.8. 

ejit. 
1925 Jarvis, C, Council, 12, Claylands Eoad, Clapham, S.W.8. c. 

1923 Johnstone, J. F., f.e.s., " Kuxley Lodge," Claygate, Surrey. I. 

1918 Johnstone, D. C, f.e.s., 26, Granville Park, Lewisham, S.E 

I. 

1920 Joicey, J. J., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.R.G.S., ctc, " The Hill," Witley, 

Surrey, l. 
1898 Kaye, W. J., F.E.S., ''Caracas," Ditton Hill, Surbiton, Surrey. 

I, S. American I. 
1910 KiDNER, A. R., " The Oaks," Station Road, Sidcup, Kent. I. 
1925 Kimmins, D. E., 16, Montrave Road, Penge, S.E. 20. I. 

1925 Labouchere, Lt-Col., F. A., Vice-President^ 15, Draycott 

Avenue, S.W.3. 

1924 Langham, Sir Chas., Bart., f.e.s., Tempo Manor, Co. Fer- 

managh. I. 
1927 Lawson, H. B., f.e.s., *' Brookhill/' Horsell, Woking. I. 
1922 Leechman, C. B., ' Caral,' Brighton Road, S. Croydon. I. 
1914 Leeds, H. A., 2, Pendcroft Road, Knebworth, Herts. I. 

1919 Leman, G. C, f.e.s., " Wynyard," 52, West Hill, Putney 

Heath, S.W. 15. c. 
1922 LiLEs, Major C. E., 6, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 1. I. 

1926 Long, R. M., Witley, 8, Cedars Road, Beddington, Surrey. I. 

1924 Lowther, a. W. G., " The Old Quarry," Ashtead, Surrey. enU 
1896 Lucas, W. J., b.a., f.e.s., 28, Knight's Park, Kingston-on- 
Thames. Brit. 0., odonata, n, m, b. 

1929 Lyall, Miss Edith May, 57, Mortlake Road, Kew Gardens, 
Surrey. 

1921 Lyle, G. T., f.e.s., *' Briarfield," Stump Cross, Shibden, 

Halifax. Ii. 

1925 MacCallum, C, 1, Aston Road, Ealing, W.5. I. 

1926 Macdonald, F. W., 82, Trinity Street, Leytonstone, E.ll. I. 
1892 Main, H., b.sc, f.e.s., f.z.s., " Almondale," 55, Buckingham 

Road, S. Woodford, E. 18. I, nat. phot., col. 
1889 Mansbridge, W., f.e.s., ** Monreith," Derby Road, Formby, 
Liverpool. I, c, etc. 

1922 Massee, a. M., f.e.s.. East Mailing Research Station, 

Kent. I. 



iz 

Year of 
Election. 

1885 Mera, a. W., 5, Park Villas, Loughton, Essex. I. 

1881 Miles, W. H., f.e.s., "Grosvenor House," Calcutta. Post Box 

126. mi\b. 
1889 Moore, H., f.e.s., 12, Lower Road, Rotherhithe, S.E.16. 

I, h, d, e I, e li, e d, mi. 

1928 DE Morney, C. a. G., Flat 5, 60, Hogarth Road, Earls Court, 

S.W.5. 
1920 Morison, G. D., f.e.s., Dept. Advisory Entomology, N. of 
Scotland Agricultural College, Marichall, Aberdeen, ec. ent, 

1925 Mounsey, D., " Kirkstone," 5, Harewood Road, S. Croydon. 

Ent, Oniith. 
1927 Murray, Capt. K. F. M., 62, Park Street, Grosvener Square, 
W.l. L 

1929 xNash, J. A., 93, Blackheath Hill, Greenwich, S.E. 10. 
1923 Nash, T. A. M., 16, Queen's Road, Richmond, Surrey. I. 

1923 Nash, W. G., f.r.c.s., " Claverins: House," de Pary's Avenue, 

Bedford. I. 
1906 Newman, L. W., f.e.s., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 

1926 Newman, L. H., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 

1926 Nixon, G. E., 315b, Norwood Road, Heme Hill, S.E.24. h, L 

1911 Page, H. E., f.e.s., " Bertrose," 17, Gellatly Road, New 

Cross, S.E. 14. l. 

1927 Palmer, D. S., " North Lodge," Esher. 

1929 Parkes, W. R., St. Thomas's House, Lambeth Palace Road, 

S.E.I. 
1908 Pennington, F., Oxford Mansions, Oxford Circus, W. 1. I. 

1928 Perkins, J. F., 19, Courtfield Gardens, S.W.5. h. 

1925 Portsmouth, J., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. L 
1925 Portsmouth, G. B., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. 
I. 

1912 PouLTON, Prof. E. B., d.sc, m.a., f.r.s., f.l.s., f.g.s., 

F.Z.S., F.E.S., " Wykeham House," Oxford. {Floii. Member.) 
1927 Pratt, W. B., 10, Lion Gate Gardens, Richmond Lane. 
1897 Prest, E. E. B., 8 and 9, Chiswell Street, E.C. 1. I. 

1924 Priest, C. G., 30, Princes Place, Notting Hill, W.ll. I. 
1904 Priske, R. a. R., f.e.s., 136, Coldershaw Road, W. Ealing, 

W. 5. I, m. 



X 

Ybar of 
Election, 

1919 QuiLTER, H. J., " Fir Cottage," Kiln Road, Ptestwood, Great 

Missenden. I, c, d, mi. 
1922 Rait-Smith, W., f.z.s., f.e.s., f.r.h.s., " Hurstleigh," 

Linkfield Lane, Redhill, Surrey. I. 
3 925 Ralfs, Miss E. M., f.e.s., " Montpelier House," 60, Clarendon 

Road, Holland Park, W.ll. 
1922 Rattray, Col. R. H., 68, Dry Hill Park Road, Tonbridge, 

Kent. I. 
1902 Rayward, a. L., f.e.s., 15, Vicarage Drive, Eastbourne. I. 

1887 Rice, D. J., 8, Grove Mansions, North Side, Clapham 
Common, S.W. 4. orn. 

1927 Richards, Percy R., '' Wynford," Upton Road, Bexley Heath. 
l. 

1920 Richardson, A. W., f.e.s., 28, Avenue Road, Southall, 

Middlesex. I. 
1908 Riley, Capt. N. D., f.e.s., f.z.s., 5, Brook Gardens, Beverley 
Road, Barnes, S.W.13. I. 

1910 Robertson, G. S., m.d., " Struan," Storrington, near Pul- 

borough, Sussex. I. 

1922 Robertson, W. J., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.z.s., 69, Bedford Road, 

S.W. 4. I. 

1911 Robinson, Lady Maud, F.E.S., " Worksop Manor," Notts. l,n. 
1920 Rothschild, The Right Hon. Lord, d.sc, f.r.s., f.l.s., f.z.s., 

F.E.S., Tring, Herts. I, oni. {Life Member.) 
1887 Routledge, G. B., f.e.s., " Tarn Lodge," Heads Nook, Carlisle. 

I, c. 
1890 RowNTREE, J. H., '' Scalby Nabs," Scarborough, Yorks. I. 
1916 Russell, S. G.C, f.e.s., **Brockenhurst," Reading Road, Fleet, 

Hants. I. 
1908 St. Aubyn, Capt. J. A., f.e.s., 14, Purley Knoll, Parley. 
1925 Sancean, E., " The Yew," Firtree Road, Banstead. h. 
1914 Schmassmann, W., f.e.s., "Beulah Lodge," London Road, 

Enfield, N. l. 
1910 Scorer, A. G., " Hillcrest," Chilworth, Guildford. I. 
1927 vScoTT, E., M.B., " Hayesbank," Ashford, Kent. /. 

1923 Sevastopulo, D. G., f.e.s., c/o Ralli Bros., Calcutta. I. 
1910 Sheldon, W. G., f.z.s., f.e.s., "West Watch," Oxted, 

Surrey. I. 



XI 

Year of 
Election. 

1898 SicH, Alf., F.E.S., " Grayingham," Farncombe Road, 

Worthing. I. 
1925 Simmons, A., 42, Loughboro Road, W.Bridgford, Nottingham. I. 
1927 Skelton, Hy. E., 12, Mandrake Road, Upper Tooting, 

S.W. 17. 

1921 Smart, Major, H. D., r.a.m.c, m.d., d.sc, f.e.s., 172, High 

Road, Solway Hill, Woodford Green. I. 

1927 Smith, Capt. F. S., f.e.s., '* Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 

1928 Smith, Mrs. Maud Stanley, " Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 
1882 South, R., f.e.s., 4, Mapesbury Court, Shoot-up-Hill, 

Brondesbury, N.W.2. I, c. 
1908 Sperring, C. W., 8, Eastcombe Avenue, Charlton, S.E. 7. I. 
1920 Stafford, A. E., Council, 98, Cowley Road, Mortlake, S.W. 14. 

I. 
1872 Step, E., f.l.s.. Council, 158, Dora Road, Wimbledon Park, 

S.W. 19. b, m, cr ; Insects, all Orders. 

1928 Stocken, H. E. W., Orchard Cottage, W. Byfleet, Surrey. 
192B Stolzle, G. A. W., " Southcote," South Street, nr. Whit- 
stable, Kent. I. 

1924 Storey, W. H., 63, Lincolns Inn Fields, W.C.2. ent. 

1929 Stubbs, G. C, 41, St. Mary's Street, Ely, Cambs. 

1916 Syms, E. E., f.e.s., Hon. Librarian, 22, Woodlands Avenue, 

Wanstead, E.ll. l. 
1920 Talbot, G., f.e.s., " The Hill Museum," Witley. I. 

1922 Tams, W. H. T., f.e.s., 5, Dairy Lane, Hurlingham, 

S.W. 6. I. 
1894 Tarbat, Rev. J. E., m.a., Colbourne Rectory, I. of Wight. /, 

ool. 
1913 Tatchell, L., F.K.S., Swanage, Dorset. I. 

1925 Taylor, J. S., Dept. Agriculture, Div. Ent., Pretoria, Union 

of S.A. I. 
1929 Tetley, J., " White Cottage," Silverlea Gardens, Horley. 

1926 Tomlinson, Florence B., " The Anchorage," Lodge Road, 

Croydon. I. 



Xll 

Year of 

Election. 

1902 ToNGE, A. E., F.E.S., Hon. Treasurer, "Aincroft," Grammar 

School Hill, Reigate. I. 
1927 Tottenham, Rev. C. E., " Keswick," 18, Tyrone Road, Thorpe 

Bay, Essex, c. 
1887 Turner, H. J., f.e.s., f.r.h.s., Hon. Editor, " Latemar," West 

Drive, Cheam, Surrey. I, c, n, he, h. 
1921 Vernon, J. A., *' Firlands," Ascot, Berks. I. 
1923 Vredenberg, G., 38, Ashworth Mansions, Maida Vale, W.9. L 
1889 Wainwright, C. J., f.e.s., 172, Hamstead Road, Handsworth, 

Birmingham. I, d. 
1927 Wainwright, Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W.18. 
1929 Wainwright, J. Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W. 

1929 Wainwright, John, 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W. 
1911 Wakely, L. D., 11, Crescent Road, Wimbledon, S.W.20. I. 
1980 Wakeley, S., 8, Woodland Hill, Upper Norwood, S.E.19. 
1880 Walker, Comm. J. J., m.a., f.l.s., f.e.s., " Aorangi," Lonsdale 

Road, Summertown, Oxford. I, c. 

1927 Walker, ,W. H., *' Ranworth," Potters Bar. I. 

1925 Ward, J. Davis, f.e.s., " Limehurst," Grange-over-Sands. I. 

1920 Watson, D., " Proctors," Southfleet, Kent. I. 

1928 Watts, W. J., 3, Rayward Road, Elmer's End, Beckenham. I. 
1928 Wells, Clifford, " Dial House," Crowthorne, Berks. I. 
1911 Wells, H. 0., "Inchiquin," Lynwood Avenue, Epsom. I. 

1911 Wheeler, The Rev. G., m.a., f.z.s., f.e.s., " Ellesmere,' 

Gratwicke Road, Worthing. I. 
1927 White, A. G., '' Hilltop," Chaldon, Surrey. 
1920 W^iGHTMAN, A. J., F.E.S., Broomfield, Pulborough, Sussex. I. 

1930 WiLKiNs, C, John Innes Horticultural Institution, Mostyn 

Road, Merton Park, S.W.19. 
1914 Williams, B. S., "St. Genny's," 15, Kingcroft Road, Harpen- 
den. Z, c, liem. 

1912 Williams, C. B., m.a., f.e.s., 29, Queen's Crescent, 

Edinburgh. l,ec.ent. 
1925. Williams, H. B.,ll.d., f.e.s., "Little dene," Claremont Lane, 

Esher, Surrey. I. 
1927 Witting, A. N., 6, Woolstone Road, Catford, S.E. 6. 
1918 Wood, H., "Albert Villa," Kennington, near Ashford, Kent. I. 



XIU 
Year of 
Election. 

1926 WooTTON, W. J., F.R.H.S., Waniiock Gardens, Polegate, Sussex. 

I. 

1927 deWorms, C. G. M., f.e.s., m.b.o.u., Milton Pk., Egham, 

Surrey. I, orn. 

1930 WoRSFOLD, L. B., 12, Robin Hood Road, Brentwood, Essex. 

1921 WoRSLEY-WooD, H., F.E.S. , 37, De Freville Avenue, Cam- 
bridge. I. 

Members will greatly oblige by informing the Hon. Sec. of any errors in, 
additions to, or alterations required in the above Addresses and descriptions. 



XIV 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, Jan., 1930. 

The Council in presenting the fifty-eighth Annual Report is 
pleased to be able to state that the condition of the Society remains 
satisfactory. 

The Membership is 245 made up as follows, Full Members 208, 
Country 31, Life 4, Hon. 2. The number is somewhat smaller 
than in the two previous years ; this is partly accounted for by the 
Council removing from the list, in accordance with the revised Bye- 
Laws, a number of names of those who had allowed their subscrip- 
tions to fall in arrear. 

There have been 8 resignations, which is above the average. 

There has been only one death, Mr. G. W. Young, F.G.S. He 
had been a Member since 1920, and some years ago gave a lecture 
before the Society, " On the Geological Antiquity of Insects." 

The revised Bye-Laws which had occupied the Council for many 
sittings were completed in May, and at a Special General Meeting, 
held on May 25th last were considered and passed ; a copy of them 
was issued with the Annual volume of the Proceedings for the year 
1928-29. The Society's thanks are due to the Bye-Laws Committee, 
and particularly to Mr. C. N. Hawkins, for the trouble he has taken 
in the revision. 

The Annual Exhibition was held on October 24th, and in spite of 
inclement weather was a success, 211 Members and friends being 
present. Mr. A. de B. Goodman and the other members of the 
special Committee kindly made the necessary arrangements, and 
there was a better response to the Refreshment Fund than was the 
case in the previous year. 

Papers have been read before the Society by Messrs. R. Adkin 
(2), F. W. MacDonald, E. Step and H. J. Turner. 

Field Meetings were arranged at Brentwood, Byfleet, Eynesford, 
St. Martha's, Chilworth, Princes Risboro, and Wisley, but were not 
largely attended. The Fungus-Foray was held conjointly with the 
Essex Field Club in Epping Forest in October. 



XV 

The lantern was in use on four occasions under the kind 
supervision of Mr. J. H. Adkin. 

Mr. R. Adkin and Mr. H. J. Turner were the Society's Delegates 
at the Annual Congress of the S.E.U.S.S. (to which the Society is 
affiliated), held at Brighton from June 5th to the 8th. 

The volume of Proceedings for the year 1928 consists of xx + 98 
pages with 3 plates. In order that a copy of the revised Bye-Laws 
might be bound up, and issued with the Proceedings, the latter 
were considerably later in appearance than usual. 

The Hon. Curator reports — 

"During the past year donations to the Society's Collections have 
been received from the following gentlemen, Mr. R. Adkin, 
Mr. H. L. Dolton, British Lepidoptera, Mr. E. J. Bunnett, British 
Coleoptera. It is hoped that the Lister Collection of British and 
Palaearctic Butterflies will soon be available for reference. In 
order to make room for its reception our 60 drawer cabinet is for 
disposal. Meanwhile the Society's Collection of the British Lepi- 
doptera have been stored." 

The special thanks of the Society are due to the Curator for the 
care and the skill with which he has carried out his arduous task. 

The Hon. Librarian reports as follows — 
" The Library during the year has maintained its usefulness ; many 
members have borrowed volumes for home reading or for reference 
at our meetings." 

The following is a List of the Additions to the Library. 

Books. — Insects of Bermuda : Spiders of Porto Rico : Diptera of 
Fiji (B.M.) : Euipidae of N. Zealand : Fishes of Panama : British 
Insect Life (Mr. E. Step) : Fishes of the Philippines : N. American 
Shore Birds : M.S. Notes on Lepidoptera by the late J. J. Lister 
(Miss Lister) : Wayside and Woodland Blossoms, Series III. 
(Mr. E. Step) : Bryophilidae of the Philippine Is. : Wainwright's 
British Tachinidae (Mr. H. W. Andrews). 

Proceedings, Transactions, Reports of Societies, etc. — S.E. 
Naturalist and Antiquary : Bull. Societe Entomologique de France: 
Ann. Report of the Smithsonian Institute : Ann. Report of the 
Conference of Delegates to the British Association (Mr. Adkin) : 
Transactions of the Ent. Society of London (Dr. Fremlin) : 
Bolletino R. Scuola d'Agricoltura, Portici, 1928: Proceed, of the 
American Ent. Soc. : Trans. Perthshire Nat. Science Soc. : Report 



XVI 

of the United States National Museum : Transactions of the Carlisle 
N.H.S., IV. (Mr. Routledge) : Annales of the Soc. ent. France : 
Repertorium : Report Commons and Footpaths Preservation Soc. 

Periodicals and Magazines. — Entomologist : Entomologist's 
Record : Entomologist's Monthly Magazine (purchased) : Entomo- 
logical News : Natural History (American Museum) : Philippine 
Journal of Science : Canadian Entomologist : Essex Naturalist : 
The Vasculum : Revu Russe d'Entomologie : Entomologisk 
Tidskrift; Naturalist: Proc. I. of Wight N. H. Socy. : London 
Naturalise. 

Separates. — Ann. Address to the Ent. Soc. London : Lloyd 
Mycological Notes : Camb. Fauna List of Spiders : ditto Orthoptera : 
American Smithsonian Ins. 57 : Sweden 3 : Chicago Field Museum 
14 : Argentine 10 : Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell 4 : New Zealand 1 : 
Prof. Strand VA : Portici, Italy 9. 

The thanks of the Society are hereby given to the donors of the 
foregoing. 



XVll 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 1V29. 

I have nothing sensational to report this year unless it is that in 
future we shall have to assist the Government by paying income 
tax on our investments on which this has not been deducted at the 
source, and that this decision is retrospective, so that we may be 
called upon for a substantial sum to bring us up to date. However, 
this point is not yet decided, and " while there is life there is 
hope." 

On the whole I think I may say we have again had a good year, 
as our assets show a further increase over liabilities amounting to 
£36. A more intensive campaign than usual for the collection of 
subscriptions in arrear had the effect of sending up our subscription 
total to quite an encouraging extent, and brought in something like 
£30 against the figure of £8, which they were estimated to produce 
in the accounts for 1928. Even this leaves room for further 
improvement if the co-operation of all our members can be secured. 

During the year we have converted the 5% War Bonds A. Register 
which we held into 4|% Treasury Bonds 1932-34 and in doing so 
the face value of our investments has been increased by £6 7s. 8d. 
which represents the difference between the cost of the War Bonds, 
£131 14s. lOd., and the nominal value of the 4^% Treasury Bonds 
1932-34 allotted in exchange £138 2s. 6d. Our income from 
investment remains as it was round about £30 a year. 

Deposit interest has gone up a little to jnst under £4. Entrance 
fees are up 10/-, and a sum of lis. lOd. was allowed for the 
surrender of our two insurance policies, as Mr. T. H. L. Grosvenor 
very kindly arranged for us a new and much more comprehensive 
policy to cover the collections, library, and other property of the 
Society at a lower rate of premium. 

The Tea Fund I am glad to say has been particularly well 
supported this year, and as the catering contract was slightly 
reduced, very nearly sufficed to meet this liability, the actual 
balance to be met out of the Society's funds being 44/- only. Sales 
of Proceedings were about a guinea less than in 1928. 

Donations to the Publication Fund in the shape of half-tone 
blocks as well as cash amount to £14 6s. making our total income 

[continued on p. xx. 



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XX 

for 1928, £224 16s. lOd. On the other side of the account we find 
little alteration. Rent £50 and attendance 50/- are as before, but 
Secretarial expenses appear to be heavier as an item of £7 is 
included in this account which should have been in the accounts for 
1928 had ic been received in time. 

Cost of Catering is down £2 8s. 9d. Printing Proceedings and 
cost of half-tone blocks is £14 6s. 8d. below the total for 1929, 
while the cost of books and bookbinding is 34/- less, making a 

total expenditure of £187 Is. lid. for 1929. 

I am therefore very glad to be able to say that we have this year 

succeeded in meeting our regular expenses out of our regular 

income, a state of affairs which it has long been my aim to attain ; 

and having now attained it I hope you will all help me to keep there 

in future. 

Our thanks are due to all those members who have contributed 

to the Publication Fund and the Tea Fund, and also to the Hon. 

Auditors, Messrs. T. W. Hall and F. B. Carr, and to Mr. H. W. 

Andrews, who completed the audit owing to Mr. Carr's illness, for 

checking my figures. The Statement of Accounts and Balance 

Sheet for 1929 as vouched for by these gentlemen is attached. 



Memories of some Old London Entomologists. 

By F. W. McDonald.— i?^arf March 25fch, 1929. 

About the end of 1874, while attending the Sunday morning 
classes for reading and writing held at the Quakers' meeting-house, 
Spitalfields, I made the acquaintance of a Mr. Lindsay, who had 
been a collector in the early forties. He was by trade a lapidary, 
and gem-polisher, and our friendship lasted till his death in 1880, 
at the age of seventy-seven. At about the same time the windows 
and side-cases of a naturalist's shop then situated in Bishop&gate 
Street, were a great attraction to me, a boy of thirteen, and I longed 
for a glimpse of the treasures within. One Saturday evening, the 
owner, a Mr. Ashmead, came to the shop door, and asked me if I 
had taken root. That was the beginning of a new friendship, which 
lasted about ten years. I was asked inside and after a very pleasant 
hour was told I might pay him a visit once a week, and he was 
never tired of showing me the wonderful things he had for sale. 

The outcome of these two friendships was a resolve to' collect 
natural history specimens. So one Saturday evening in August 
1875, I broke the news to Mr. Ashmead. He at once claimed me 
as a brother collector, gave me an old net and lots of advice ; of the 
two, the net was the more useful. With his dear old face all smiles, 
he would tell me to start across the Forest from the Green Man to 
Woodford, then down the Epping New Road towards High Beach, 
saying, " you will not go far before you will catch a couple of 
Camberwell Beauties, a few Large Blues, a number of Large Coppers, 
and a lot of other fine things." 

On the following Saturday, a fine day in mid-August, 1875, I 
left home about six-thirty a.m., and boarded a tram for Stratford, 
fare twopence before seven-thirty (the trams had been running 
about three years)- I reached Stratford about seven-thirty, and 
from there walked to the Forest, through which I rambled to 
Woodford Green, then on to the Epping New Road. I must have 
chosen the wrong day for I saw none of those rare insects which 
Mr. Ashmead assured me would be waiting for me to pick up. Tired 
and dejected I was passing the Warren Wood Tavern, when a young 
man, about ten yeats older than myself, caught up to me. After 
a little conversation, he asked me what I expected to catch with 
that " spoon," and asked to see what I had caught. I proudly produced 



my captures, and they made a ^reat impression on him ; I could 
tell that by the fervent manner in which he asked the Almig^hty to 
to spare his days. Turning to me, he said, "Put those things away 
you won't catch much to-day, and walk with me to Epping, and 
I will tell you a little about Butterflies and Moths, as we go along, 
and perhaps the old gentleman I am going to see will show you 
some." 

Arrived at Epping Town, we went to a house on the left hand 
past the Church, entering which, he told an old gentleman that 
I was interested in insects, and that he had picked me up coming 
along. The only answer he got was, " Have you brought those 
things ? " My new friend produced three large pocket boxes from 
his bag. They were carefully examined, then a sum of money 
changed hands, and he was dismissed. Turning to me, with a "See 
you later " he left me behind. 

The old gentleman then asked me a number of questions, and 
took me into a room, where there were four large cabinets, and 
showed me a number of drawers of Butterflies and Moths; then he 
took my name and address, and saying he would send me word 
when to come again, had a cup of tea and some cake brought in and 
then dismissed me. That was the only time I saw Mr. Henry 
Doubleday, he died in 1877. 

I then made my way to ray companion who had made friends 
with a carman, who was going to Aldgate, so we both had a ride to 
Mile End Gate, reaching there about seven p.m. We then parted, 
and I promised to meet him at midnight, to be introduced to the 
" boys." Not such a bad day after all. 

As arranged, at midnight the same Saturday, I made my way to 
the " Salmon and Ball," at the corner of Bethnal Green Road, 
where I was to meet the " boys." Arriving there, all I could see 
was a number of middle aged men, but no " boys," so I asked them 
if they were waiting for Mr. Lamb. One of them turned to me and 
introduced himself as Da,ve. He then turned to the others, and said, 
'* Boys, here's that nipper Harry was telling us about." They all 
said they were very pleased to see me. 

At one a.m. Dave gave the order to start, and away we went, 
fourteen in all, across Lea Bridge, over the marshes to Hale End, 
to the Warren Wood, reaching there about three-thirty a.m. There 
was a little cottage on the right just past the tavern, and as we drew 
near, I saw an old lady about seventy standing at the door waving 
her hand to us. In the garden there were a number of rough tables 
and seats of which we took possession, and we were soon supplied 
with pint basins of hot tea, twopence a basin, new laid eggs, one 
penny each, bread and butter, two slices a penny. During the 
breakfast, I was introduced to the *' boys," whose ages ranged from 
forty to seventy-three. 

About four- thirty a.m. we made our way to the Forest. Dave, who 



had taken charge of me, explaining that the caterpillars of the 
British Moths were nearly all of them night-feeders, and that we 
had better chances of taking them in the early hoars, when they 
would be making their way back to their hiding places. I stayed 
with hira till mid-day, when I said good-bye, and returned home by 
train from Chingford, 

On the following Tuesday evening, T was made a member of the 
East Lonrlon Entomological Society, whose meetings were held 
once a week at the "Bell and Mackerel," Mile End Road, entrance 
fee, one shilling, subscription twopence weekly. 

On the following Saturday evening I made one of the party for 
our midnight walk and Sunday early morning breakfast. Dave, or 
as I now knew his name, Mr. David Pratt, taking charge as usual. 
On our arrival at the Forest, before we separated he said, " We shall 
all try to meet for dinner at one-thirty." This was the regular 
routine of the society throughout the season, the midnight walk, 
early breakfast, and the dinner. 

Now just a few words about this dinner, which was always spoken 
of as the Entomological dinner. We used to meet at the " Hawkwood 
Tavern," on the way to Sewardstone, on Sundays at one-thirty, 
where a large room was set aside for collectors. A dinner was 
supplied for one shilling; a cut from the joint, two vegetables, 
Yorkshire pudding and a portion of pie, and those who sat down to 
it made themselves at home. The room was open to collectors, 
whether they had dinner or not, and there was one feature about 
this dinner I would like to mention. Boxes would be shown, and 
set and bred specimens of butterflies and moths would appear in 
numbers, and I had a strong suspicion, that they were brought on 
by another person who handed them over to their owners. Another 
great feature was that we had visitors. Among our visitors, there 
seemed many buyers, and money used to change hands freely, 
many of the '* boys " returning home with fuller pockets than when 
they started. 

On four occasions I saw Lord Walsingham here, twice a Mr. De 
Grey came with him, and once we had a Colonel Bruce, and many 
others whose names I have forgotten. It was at these dinners I 
first met the brothers Meek of Brompton Road, Mr. Cooke of 
Museum Street, Bloomsbury, Mr. Janson, Senior, also of Bloomsbury, 
Mr. Spalding of Notting Hill Gate, and Mr. Gardner of Oxford 
Street. Mr. W. Harwood of Colchester, came on two occasions, and 
my old friend Mr. Ashmead. These dinners continued till about 
1880, when the license was withdrawn, and they ceased. About 
the same time our old lady died at the age of seventy-four, and 
many of the " boys " had passed away, so our Sunday morning 
early rambles came to a close. Still while they lasted they were 
a great source of pleasure and instruction to me. The society was 
also going down, so that at the end of 1881, it had ceased to 
exist. 



Before taking leave of the East London Society, just a word or 
two about the " boys." There was Harry Lamb, a good fellow but 
a great sufferer, he died in 1881, at the age of 31. Among others 
were Walter Este, Joseph Ward, George Graham, W. Head, S. 
Goodacre, G. Pratt, Mr. Bowers, all middle-aged men and good 
collectors, William Craft, whose son is now a collector and lives at 
Bourne End, W. Thorn and Thomas Edle, better known as 
*' Tommy," who was with Lord Walsingham collecting in East Africa, 
and used to tell me he was away from England nine years. A 
large number of the caterpillars in the Walsingham collection now 
at the Natural History Museum, were mounted by him. 

In 1877 I went with these two last named collectors to Tilgate 
Forest. They had with them four bred females of the " Kentish Glory," 
for assembling purposes, and they took that day one hundred and 
seventy-four males. I asked them if I should be allright for a couple, 
the answer I got was, " No, my Boy, they will fetch us eight-pence 
each." Then there was W. Tufnell, the only member about my 
own age. 

On Hackney Marshes there were two taverns, surrounded with 
gardens laid out with seats and tables. One was the '* White Hart," 
the other was the " Ferry Boat," and it did not matter how crowded 
these gardens were with people, they were noted for the song-birds 
that could be heard in them. The cuckoo always paid these gardens 
a visit before going anywhere else, followed by the blackbird, and 
the thrush in turn, and in due season, without fail, the nightingale. 
I have seen crowds sit in awed silence waiting for the birds to sing. 
This is where W. Tufnel comes in ; he was one of the best imitators 
of birds' notes I have known, and later went on the Music Hall 
Stage, The bird's fee was two shillings to three shillings and 
sixpence according to the amount of trade done, and refreshments 
nightly. This is not Entomology, but it is the truth. With the 
withdrawal of the licences, strange to say, these birds disappeared 
from Hackney marshes. 

Then Mr. Trotman. I did not know much of him ; he was one 
of the oldest members of the Society and was eighty-two when I 
was first introduced to him in 1877. He must have been a very 
keen collector in his time for I was told he had supplied nearly all 
the dealers in London. He told me himself that he had sold 
"Large Coppers," bred, sixpence and eightpence each, in quantities 
of not less than two hundred, and he told me whom he had supplied, 
I have asked the son of one of these, and he told me that there were 
entries in one of his father's old day books of the purchase of 
" Large Coppers," two hundred at a tim e at eightpence each. 

On the last occasion that I saw him, in 1879, he wanted to sell 
the last of his insects as he was about to go into the workhouse. He 
had a large sized store box, containing among other things fifty-two 
"Large Coppers," two " Camber well Beauties," and about two 



hundred very fine bred insects, for all of which he wanted a 
sovereign. I expect Mr. Ashmead bought them at the finish at his 
own price. 

Last but not least, Mr. David Pratt or Dave, our Secretary. I 
thought him the best fellow breathing, and I wish I conld remember 
all that he told me. 

The election ceremony of a new member was as follows : — The 
new member would stand in front of the table facing Dave, who 
after reading the few rules, would grasp the member's right hand 
with great heartiness, and with his left he would hand the new 
member a foaming quart nmg of bitter ale with a, " Drink brother. 
Drini{ hearty." One member took him at his word and returned 
the mug nearly empty. Dave looked sadly at the mug and said, 
" Man, you have had half your entrsmce fee back already." 

He often used to talk to me about a club to which he had been a 
few times, and of which he always spoke as that " Club over the 
water." He told me that it was held at Dunn's Institute Newington 
Causeway. He said they were allright, but one member in particular 
was a smart chap, a long-headed cove, but Dave never met him again. 
It is now fifty-three years ago, since that conversation and that long- 
headed cove, is still going strong. Shall I name him ? — Mr. E. 
Step. 

Then on two occasions in 1879 we had a visit from Mr. Adkin. 
When asked by a Mr, Albury, a member of the South London 
Society, what he thought of the Society, he replied that " They 
seemed a decent lot of chaps, if only they wo>ild talk Entomology." 

Talking of Mr. Albury ; he uiade things very unpleasiuit for 
me at home by informing my father that I had joined my finishing 
ofi" school. In the same year I joined the Haggerston Entomo- 
loi>ical Society, whose meetings were held at the "Brownlow Arms," 
Queen's Road, Dalston. This society was composed of a different 
class of collector, better educated, a bit higher in the social scale, 
and better off; among the members were Dr. Crouch, Mr. J. A. 
Clark, Mr. Gurney the cabinet-maker, Mr. Russell, Mr. Priest, Senr., 
Mr. Huckett, the brothers W. and T. Harper, and many more whose 
names I h;i,ve forgotten. All these have passed away. The 
Haggerston Society will always be remembered by the four large 
cases given to the Bethnal Green Museum, containing the Butterflies 
and Moths, a male and female of each, to be caught at that time 
within ten miles of the Museum in any direction. 

Every few months the society would hold a social evening, or, as 
some called it, a sing-song, and our time was extended till eleven 
o'clock. One of these social events was in full swing one Wednesday 
evening, when the waiter entered the room with a tray of orders, 
followed by my father, who promptly seized me by the collar of my 
coat and flung me out of the room. He then turned and told the 
assembled company what he thought of them ; and they thought it 



6 

was a httJe entertainment got up for their amusement. But I never 
had the courage to go to another of their meetings ; I faded away. 

Looking back over the fifty odd years that have slipped so quickly 
by, I have had many very pleasant and instructive times that never 
come again, but my old friends of the East London Society will 
always dwell in my memory. They were nicknamed the " Amiables." 
One tale to prove their right to the title and I will close. 

We used to go every August to the New Forest. The August 
bank holiday of 1878 was very wet, so three of them made their way 
to the *' Lyndhurst Arms," Lyndhurst, and made themselves very 
much at home ; so much so that the landlord got very worried. 
Getting into conversation with them, he suggested that it was nearly 
tea time, and said that being holiday time, and as he always had a few 
regular customers who would be sure to come in, and if our party 
kept on in that style there would be no beer left for these. He was 
met with the answer, " That's all right, draw us another couple of 
pots, and we will make that last till they come in, and then we will 
help them clear the cellar." The Keepers were never tired of 
telling this tale. Well ! I have been an " Amiable," but after all 
these years, I have found a home among those chaps ' over the 
water,' the South London Entomological Society. 



On the Occasional Extension of Territory by the Brown - 

tail Moth, Nygmia phaeorrhoea, and its 

Ultimate Collapse. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S.— Bead September 12th, 1929. 

So long as we have history of the Brown-tail Moth, there are 
records of its occasional abnormal spread over territory not previously 
occupied by it, usually accompanied by a vast increase in numbers, 
possibly for a year or two, followed by a period of great scarcity, if 
not actual disappearance. These cases of abundance do not appear 
to extend over large tracts of country, but rather to affect restricted 
areas. Thus, in the notorious outbreak of 1782, Donovan (1813) 
quoting Curtis, is at pains to show that although the country to the 
south-west of London was devastated as far as Putney Common, 
not a web was to be seen at Coombe Wood and Richmond Park. 
So in the 1877 outbreak at Deal — although the hedges and bushes, 
including the sea-buckthorns, were completely denuded of their 
leaves from Upper Deal to the sand-hills, a distance of some two or 
three miles — there were few, if any, larvae to be found outside that 
radius ; and I understand a similar state of affairs existed at Sheppey 
at, or about, the same period. 

Normally the species lives in colonies occupying very restricted 
areas ; chiefly on the coasts of Kent and Sussex, but it is not 
confined to those districts. These colonies often persist for a con- 
siderable number of years on the same spot, without showing any 
inclination to spread to any great extent ; then, quite suddenly, 
" nests " appear over a much larger area, with the probability that 
they start fresh colonies, and should favourable conditions prevail, 
a considerable area becomes involved in one of the ** plagues" that 
have from time to time occurred, but which have been invariably of 
short duration. 

In the neighbourhood of Eastbourne there is a colony on some 
patches of blackthorn bushes that grow on the edge of the low cliff 
in a hollow of the Downs ; it is bounded on the west by Beachy 
Head, on the north by the high ground leading up to it, and on the 
east by a spur of the Downs that runs out to the coast, so that it is 
thus completely shut off from the surrounding country. I have had 
this colony under fairly close observation for some thirty years, and 
during that time it has fluctuated very considerably in point of 



8 

numbers of larvae. Thus, in 1907 ifc.was in great force; so 
numerous were the larvae that long before they were full-fed they 
had completely stripped the blackthorns of their leaves, and were to 
be seen wandering over the grass and taking possession of any 
brambles or other bushes on which they might maintain themselves ; 
yet, neither the larvae nor the moths that resulted from them were 
observed to stray beyond the confines of the hollow ; and in the 
following year it was much less common. Small colonies that had 
established themselves in other parts of its terrain soon died out, 
and even on the original blackthorns it had become comparatively 
scarce. Then the colony began to recover its strength, and year by 
year " nests " became more and more numerous, until within the 
last few years the colony appeared to be thoroughly re-established, 
yet showed no signs of extending its range beyond its normal 
confines until last year (1928) when, while the moths were on the 
wing, there appears to have been a very considerable movement. 

My attention was first called to it by my finding a female moth 
at rest on a pear tree in my garden, and beside her a batch of eggs 
that she had just deposited. The Brown-tail is not a desirable 
garden insect. The eggs, therefore, were removed and destroj^ed, 
Later on, when the leaves had fallen, a "nest" was found on an 
apple tree. This "nest" was very different in appearance from 
those usually found on the blackthorns, in that it had large apple- 
leaves tightly woven on its outside : indeed, I was at first doubtful 
whether it had been made by this species, but in the spring the 
larvae came out and sunned themselves on it, so all doubt was set 
at rest. It was then removed to a wild apple bush growing on the 
Parade where the larvae soon spun fresh web around it and began to 
feed, but were eventually overtaken by the same fate as others yet 
to be mentioned. 

The finding of these eggs and larvae in my garden suggested to 
me that there might be others scattered along the coast, which just 
here is occupied by the Parades, and by a hollow that is sheltered 
on its south-west, but at some little distance, by the spur of the 
Downs that forms the eastern boundary of the area in which the 
original colony exists. Both the banks along the Parades and this 
hollow are in a semi-cultivated condition. In the latter, trees of 
various species have been planted but a certain amount of the 
original bramble and other bush remains, while along the Parade 
banks, among the planted shrubs, a number of scattered wild apple 
and plum bushes grow, probably resulting from seeds that have been 
thrown down in past years. 

A search of this district during winter, when the trees were bare 
of leaves, showed that, "nests" were numerous. In the hollow, 
two were found on a young white-beam tree and one on another ; 
these "nests" were like the one on garden apple, having the dead 
leaves webbed on to them. On a small standard hawthorn were three 



*' nests," one on another, and on a bramble bush two were visible, 
while on the Parade banks hardly an apple or plum bush was to be 
found without one or more nests upon it ; the furthest being at a 
distance of a mile or a little more from the original colony on the 
blackthorns. 

As spring began to advance a frequent watch was kept upon the 
" nests." At first the larvae came out, and sat upon the " nests," 
sunning themselves in the usual manner. Then, as the leaves began 
to develop the larvae began to feed upon them and for a time all 
appeared to be going well. But after a while, when the larvae were 
about half-grown, it was noticed that the branches of the bushes 
were not being stripped of their leaves as they should have been, 
and on a close search beino- made it was found that the larvae were 
not feeding in companies, as is usual at this period of their growth, 
but were scattered all over the bushes, and their numbers appeared 
to be much smaller than was expected. From this time they 
rapidly disappeared and, so far as could be observed, not one of them 
reached maturity. 

With regard to the original colony on the blackthorns. Wishing 
to obtain a typical hibernaculum for figuring, I went over to the 
bushes in early spring and found that nests were quite numerous. 
It was a dull afternoon and no larvae were sunning themselves, but 
most of the " nests " had a certain amount of new web, and two 
that I selected as being least altered from their winter appearance in 
this respect, were ultimately found to contain their full complement 
of larvae, so it was very evident that at that time they were all live 
" nests." I was unable to visit the bushes again until quite the end 
of June, when a careful search revealed only two small lots of pupae, 
containing probably only some dozen or so pupae in all. It was 
therefore very evident that in this case also the loss of larval life 
must have been very great. 

The questions that these happenings appear to suggest are, what 
should induce the colony that had, for so many years, kept to its 
own terrain, to suddenly break bounds, and then, having done so, 
why should the effort be so suddenly overtaken by disaster? I 
confess that I am not aware of any very direct evidence bearing upon 
the subject, but there is a certain amount of circumstantial evidence 
and there are several possibilities that we may consider. 

Of these, the action of wind as an agent of dispersal is one, and 
as a matter of fact there were several days of continuous strong 
south westerly winds at the time last year, namely, early in August, 
when the female moths would be egg-laying, and its direction would 
be such as to drive them to the places where the winter nests were 
subsequently found. But it is no uncommon thing to have similar 
breezes at that time of year, yet we do not find that they usually 
affect the insect. At best, then, wind cannot be regarded as anything 
more than a possible secondary agent in the distribution. 



10 

As to the collapse, cuckoos have been seen to feed upon the larvae, 
but cuckoos were not unusually common in the neighbourhood and 
birds generally are not fond of hairy larvae. The larvae are prone 
to the attacks of both hymenopterous and dipterous parasites, but 
they do not kill the larvae until they are full-fed or after they have 
pupated. Neither of these agencies, therefore, can be regarded as of 
primary importance in the present case. It is well known that 
many species of larvae are subject to diseases that kill them off in 
large numbers, and at various stages of their existence, and further 
that some of these diseases are transmissible through the egg, 
therefore the imagines must also be afi'ected. Further, that some of 
these diseases at first affect a brood only slightly, bat become more 
deadly in succeeding generations. 

Larvae that are suffering from disease become restless and 
inclined to wander, and it is quite conceivable that the ima.gines of 
a brood in the early stages of disease may be similarly affected. 

That this species is naturally a sedentary one is shown by the 
fact that a colony will inhabit an exceedingly small area for many 
years without overstepping its boundaries. It must therefore need 
some untoward circumstance to cause it to break bounds. And, as 
we have already seen, any great spread of the species, which in 
many cases may lead to an unusual abundance, is practically always 
followed by a collapse. 

Having considered all these possibilities in conjunction with the 
normal habits of the species, it appears to me that the most 
likely explanation of the sudden spread of the species, its possible 
great increase in numbers and equally sudden decline, is the presence 
in the colony of some disease such as is known to affect such species 
as Arctia villica and A. caia, Diacrisia mendica, Oryyia antiqiia and 
so forth. The disease in its early stages would probably affect the 
imagines only slightly, doing no more than to cause them to become 
restless ; the action of the wind would then no doubt assist in their 
movement. In the two cases of which I have details this may well 
have been so ; at Deal the movement was towards the sand-bills ; 
at Eastbourne towards the Parades ; thus being from south-west 
to north-east, therefore in the direction of the prevailing winds. 
The eggs laid by these females would be infected. If the disease 
had not progressed very far the majority of the broods would 
survive for at least another generation and cause a great abundance, 
as in the Deal case ; if it was more advanced the larvae would be 
killed oft' before the abundance had time to develop, as in the case 
at Eastbourne. I think, therefore, that we may conclude that it is 
the presence of a disease in the colony that initiates the wanderings 
of its inhabitants and then causes its collapse. 

I ought perhaps to say that I do not regard these exceptional 
cases that we have been considering, as coming under the same 
category as the frequent rise and fall in the strength of a colony 



11 

that is continually going on. Here I think we need look no further 
than for what we are pleased to call natural causes, namely, the weather 
at critical times in the insect's life ; predacious enemies of one sort 
or another ; and parasites. That these latter play an important 
part has been amply proved. On one occasion when our Eastbourne 
colony was going very strong, I collected at random a number of 
larvae when they were rather more than half -grown, and sent them 
to a friend who was interested in parasites in their earlier stages. 
He found, by dissection, that they were very heavily parasitised, 
my recollection being that something over 60% of those I sent him 
were affected. On another occasion two " nests" were transported 
to a London surburban garden and there placed on a growing 
hawthorn bush and left unprotected. The larvae were attacked by 
a dipterous parasite that did its work so thoroughly that not half 
a dozen moths were reared. Such agencies do not, however, as I 
have already said, appear to meet the cases of occasional spread and 
ultimate collapse that we have been considering. 



12 



Thorns and Prickles. 

By Edward Step, F.h.S.—Read October 10th, 1929. 

In many herbs the stems, leaves or flower-parts are coated, 
sparingly or profusely, with hairs which serve diverse purposes 
according to the habit or habitat of the plant so clothed. They 
may serve to protect from cold or from heat, prevent the stomata 
from being clogged by too abundant moisture, or may act as a check 
to excessive transpiration. In various situations on the plant they 
may serve to discourage the visits of unwanted insects, or by 
conversion into delicate tubes, as in the Nettles, may become stings 
that inject an irritant fluid into the skin of meddlesome mammals. 
In the Sundews they are developed into fleshj^ tentacles with 
glandular tips, by whose aid the leaf catches insects for the plant's 
support. When very short and dense, they furnish the velvety 
colour spots on the petals of flowers, as in some of our Orchids ; 
when very long and equally crowded they constitute the flannel- 
like coating of some leaves, such as those of Mullein. They may 
be adapted to assist climbing or scrambling herbs like Hop and 
Goosegrass, by becoming coarser and less crowded. 

An advance from the hair is seen in the sharp prickle, such as 
we find terminating the leaf-lobes and stem wing-lobes of the 
Thistles, and along the midribs and stem of the Teasel ; harder 
and sharper in the soft-wooded Roses and Brambles. This harder 
kind may be straight or curved, the former acting as defences and 
the latter serving as climbing hooks. These hooks, despite their 
formidable appearance, are hollow superficial growths, easily 
detached by lateral pressure. That they have been developed to 
assist in climbing is evident if we compare the equipment of Dog- 
rose and the bush Brambles with the Burnet- rose and the Dewberry : 
the two latter are spiny, but they have no climbing-hooks. 

Thorns and spines such as we know so well on the branches of 
Blackthorn, Hawthorn, Wild Pear and Buckthorn, are woody and 
solid like the small trees that bear them ; they have a different 
origin, being the hardened tips of aborted shoots. 

Respecting all these awkward outgrowths, there have long been 
two opposing theories : one school adopting the teleological view 
that these plants came into existence fully armed against animal 
foes — the browsing mammals ; others telling us authoritatively that 
though some thorns may serve as a protection, they all owe their 
origin to the fact that when the thorns first appeared the plants 



13 

that bore them were growing under desert conditions, more or less 
starved, which caused them to stop growth and harden their shoots, 
instead of keeping the points soft and still developing. The strength 
of the latter view is derived from the fact that in desert places most 
of the plants exhibit this thorny character ; but its weakness is 
shown by many prickly plants that inhabit damp ground with a 
moist atmosphere about them — the opposite of desert conditions. 
Besides, it is quite certain that the plants of deserts could never 
have originated there, but must have arisen elsewhere under more 
congenial conditions and only became adapted to poverty. 

If, instead of adopting either of these theories off-hand, we consider 
some of our native prickly plants separately, we may come to the 
conclusion that, though the plauts of the desert are mainly of this 
character, the explanation is too sweeping and scarcely to be justified 
by all the evidence. Our British thorny plants are certainly not 
the descendants of desert species, if the facts of distribution have 
any value. 

The first armed plant on the British list is a shrub, the Barberry 
(Berber is nihiaris), whose armature is peculiar. It produces long, 
slender shoots, on which all the leaves have been converted into 
sharp needle-like spines, and these are in groups of from three to 
seven. This, clearly, is no result of poverty, for the spines appear 
on the new shoots in advance of short twigs that bear clusters df 
normal leaves whose margins have prickle-teeth. The position and 
direction of these spines are such that the upward lick of a cow's 
tongue in securing a length of the tender shoot would result in 
severe punishment ; and there can be little doubt that it is against 
such attacks that this protection is retained, however it may have 
originated. The Barberry does not grow under desert conditions, 
but is a shrub of the copse and hedgerow. 

Our two species of Buckthorn may give some support to the 
desert theory ; for one is armed and the other is unprotected. The 
Purging Buckthorn [Rhauniufi cathaiticiis) grows mainly in dry 
soils, such as the chalk hills ; and the ends of its twigs harden into 
long spines. The Alder-leaved Buckthorn {Rluumius franynla) is 
found chiefly in damp hedgerows and copses, and has a fondness 
for the neighbourhood of streams, but its twigs give it no title to be 
included among the thorns, in spite of the last syllable of its name. 

On the other hand is the Furze {Ule.v enropaemi) ; it has trans- 
formed all its twigs and leaves into spines which are crowded on 
the green stems, but the shrub is by no means restricted to dry habitats. 
It avoids chalk, but though found on dry hill-sides and equally dry 
heaths, it is quite as plentiful in soils that are boggy with a distinctly 
moist atmosphere above. This, we are told, may be equal to a depriv- 
ation of moisture, for peat soil is acid and its water may not be taken 
freely by all plants. Needle-whin [Genista aniilica), a low shrub with 
curved, slender branches, has small leaves, but is made conspicuous 



u 

more by its exceedingly sharp, long needles. It climbs to the top 
of high mountains and grows on low heaths ; bat those upon which 
it is most abundant, in my experience, are by no means dry either 
for soil or atmosphere. Blackthorn {Pniiius spinosa), too, though 
it is found under varied conditions, has a distinct liking for wet 
places, including the margins of bogs and streams. Butcher's 
Broom {RiiscKs (inileatiis), though it occurs sometimes on chalk, is 
much more frequent about mixed woods and oakwoods, where both 
soil and air are moister. Like Furze, it has given up the production 
of efficient leaves as a hopeless business, and the woody, flat twigs 
that serve the office of leaves are each tipped with a pungent point, 
and they are quite inedible except when the new, soft, white stems 
are sent up rapidly under the protection of the older ones. 

Holly {Ilex aqi(ifoliinn) has prickly leaves only low down, where 
the atmospheric conditions are moister ; the upper branches 
exposed to drying winds, have flatter, unarmed leaves. Much the 
same may be said of the Wild Pear (P//r//.s coiiniiiinis), whose lower 
branches are spiny, but the upper ones are not. In both these 
cases the new twigs on the upper branches of the tree are produced 
under much drier conditions and should be, therefore, the more 
spiny according to the desert theory. Thistles {Caydnns), bristling 
with prickles on stem and leaf, are not restricted to dry places ; 
neither is the Teasel (Dipsani.^ si/lvestris). 

It appears to me to be more reasonable to suppose that spines 
and thorns originated as mutations and have been perpetuated by 
natural selection where they were found to give protection to species 
whose foliage was desirable as food for mammals; the protected 
individuals being more likely to survive and transmit the thorny 
tendency to their offspring. Thorns, being aborted shoots, 
originated probably under adverse conditions which prevented the 
healthy continuation of the shoot's growth and caused it to shrivel 
into a sharp point ; and the smaller spines represent leaf-stalks or 
stipules that have become hardened in similar circumstances. 
Where by some such process the plant has become leafless — as in 
Furze and Butcher's Broom — the functions of the leaf have to be 
performed by other parts of the plant ; and in the two examples 
mentioned this is effected by keeping the stems and twigs green. 

To some people, this loss of leaves appears to be a reversal of the 
proper course of evolution, and not a " survival of the fittest." 
But '* fittest " in the Darwinian sense does not imply necessarily 
perfection according to human or any other standard, but the most 
fit among its fellows for the work it is compelled by environment 
to perform — the one of a batch most likely to carry its mission to 
a successful finish. The survival of this fittest line is brought 
about by the gradual elimination of the less fit. Natural selection 
does not produce progressive and beneficial variations ; but it adopts 
and stabilises them when they have arisen. 



15 



The Season of 1929 at Eastbourne. 
A Comparison and Some Additions to the Local Fauna. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S.— Read December 12th, 1929. 

It is many years since we enjoyed so fine a summer as that of 
1929, yet, from the lepidopterist's point of view, it is doubtful 
whether the ' Season ' will be considered as good as that of 1928. 
At any rate, several species that were excessively abundant in the 
former year were almost, if not completely, absent in the later one. 

Pyrameis cardiii that was so abundant in 1928 has, so far as I 
am aware, not been seen in the neighbourhood of Eastbourne during 
the present year. Plm^ia (jamma, always a fairly common species, 
has been a comparative rarity, and Xomophila nnctuella that in 1928 
occurred in such countless thousands as to be a positive plague, has 
hardly been noticed in 1929. A feature of the former year was 
the abundance of the larvae of Heliothis peltii/era, all along our 
coast-line, wherever any suitable food-plant was to be found. The 
imagines also were well in evidence. In 1929, although careful 
search has been made for the larva, not a trace of it has been found, 
nor has the imago been met with. I am not so bold as to say that 
the species has been entirely absent, but if it has occurred at 
all it has been in such small numbers that it has escaped detection. 

But for all that, 1929 has not been without some matters of 
interest. It will perhaps be convenient to take the species seriatim. 
Our two common Pierids, P. hrasdcae and P. rapae. are always 
liable to considerable fluctuations in point of numbers. The 
spring emergences were about normal, but the later broods of both 
species were considerably in excess. It did not appear that there 
was any sudden increase in numbers, as is the case when immigration 
takes place, the abundance apparently being due to favourable 
conditions for their development. Coliaa croceim was seen on May 
30th and from August 5th to September 19th, specimens were 
occasionally met with, but a,t no time was it at all common. A 
Leucopliada m'uapis was captured in the woods on August 12th and 
two or three others a few days later, while in the latter part of 
June some dozen specimens of Melitaea athalia were taken. It is 
interesting to know that these two species still occur in our 
neighbourhood, but it is to be regretted that their continued 
existence should be jeopardised by the few individuals seen being 
captured. Liinenitis sihilla continues to occur fairly commonly, 
and Melanaryia galathea is distinctly on the increase. Among the 
Vanessids AnlaU urticae was by far the most common. It was first 
seen on February 2nd, when a specimen was noticed fluttering on 
a window in the house, and from the middle of March until the 



16 

middle of May it was frequently met with, and during August and 
September it was quite common. I'l/rameh atalanta was noted on 
May 26th and 30th, and from August 9th to October 81st, it was 
continually seen, but never more than three or four specimens at a 
time. The only note I have of Vanei^m in is two full-fed larvae 
seen on July 28th ; and of Poli/i/oiiia c-alhioii two specimens have 
been noted — one at East Dean on August 8th and the other in my 
garden on September 22nd. Chri/sofi/ianua {Riiuticia) phlaeas was 
fairly abundant in certain places in September, and one individual 
was seen as late as October 23rd. Polyoiimiatus thetis (bellarr/ns) 
has been more common than for many years past, and although 
Lycaenopsis argiohts appeared to be on the wing in much the usual 
numbers in both the spring and summer broods, the larvae on the 
ivy-flower buds were decidedly scarce in the autumn, Macroylossum 
stellataridii although so common in 1928 has been quite scarce. One 
was seen as early as March 30th and then between September 22nd 
and October 27th an individual was occasionally met with — perhaps 
some half dozen or so in all. The larvae of Phalera hucepliala were 
very common on the elms growing along the roads in the tDwn in 
autumn, and when full-fed might be seen running about on the 
brick pathways, seeking some soft bit of ground in which they 
might burrow. The place of No)nopIiila noctuella was taken largely 
by CrauibiiH tn'stclliis, which swarmed over the Downs for many 
weeks. 

Not the least interesting feature of the season was the re- 
establishment of one species in our local list and the addition of 
some five others. Our late member, Mr. George P. Shearwood, 
told me that in 1886 he took Loxosteye [Spilodes) palealis on the 
rough ground that then existed between the old lime kilns at 
Holywell and the Convalescent Home, and Mr. Alfred Sich had 
met with it near the same spot some ten years earlier. So far as I 
know these are the only records for the species in the Eastbourne 
district. It was therefore with considerable interest that I was shown, 
on July 24th, by our fellow member, Mr. A. L. Hay ward, a live 
specimen that he had just captured on the ground occupied by the 
Summerdown Camp during the war, which has since run to waste 
and is now being built over. We subsequently found that the species 
was not uncommon there, and in September succeeded in taking the 
larva in the green seed-heads of the wild carrot. A specimen was 
also taken on the banks of the Cuckmere estuary, some seven miles 
away. On the Summerdown ground Mr. Rayward also took two 
specimens of Alyelols cribrella, while a third was taken on the 
Crumbles, where he also captured a specimen of Salebria semirubella 
(carnella). On swampy ground near Hampden Park j\Ir. E. P. 
Sharp took, and very kindly handed over to me, a couple of Chilo 
p/uagiHitelltis ; and in the same place Mr. Rayward turned up KucoHma 
{Paediscu) semifnscana and Ortliotaelia sparyanella. 



17 



ANNUAL ADDRESS TO THE MEMBERS 



OF THE 



Sofutlj |Joub0u ^ntoiuological mxh Natural Pistory 

Read January 23rd, 1930. 
By H. W. Andrews, F.E.S. 

LADIES and GENTLEMEN. You have just heard the Report 
of the Council and the Treasurer's Report, and I do not 
think they call for any special remarks on my part, except 
congratulations to our Treasurer on the result of his labours last 
year. I think on looking back that Dr. Cockayne's remarks from 
this chair, at our last Annual Meeting, on the desirability of more 
exhibits has borne fruit, but too often these exhibits are made by the 
" veterans " of the Society, and I feel a good deal more ought to be 
done in the way of exhibits by our younger members. I am sorry 
that the Council's suggestion as to putting out suitable exhibits on 
the side desks before the General Meeting has not met with much 
support. I still think that it would add to the interest of the 
General Meeting if members knew something beforehand of forth- 
coming exhibits and did not have to wait until they reached them 
in the meeting itself. With this small grumble I pass on to my 
address proper. 

THE EARLIER STAGES OF DIPTERA. 
Introduction. 

A good many years ago I had the privilege of reading a paper 
on Diptera before this Society, dealing mainly with the adult 
stages. And in casting around to find a subject for that ordeal, 
the Presidential Address, which custom dictates shall be delivered 
annually, whether the deliverer is competent or not, I thought I 
could do no better than make some remarks on the earlier stages 
of this Order. There is an extensive literature on this subject but 



18 

until recent years it was very unevenly distributed over the different 
divisions of the Order. The life-history of some aquatic species has 
been known since the time of Reaumur (1734), that of many others 
known more or less, but it was not until the latter part of the nine- 
teenth and the early years of the present century, that the growing 
knowledge of the economic importance of Diptera gave special 
impetus to the study of their life-histories. Since the discovery 
(circ. 1897) of the connection between Malaria and Mosquitoes, the 
life-history of the latter all over the world has been attacked from 
every possible angle and point of view. The pathology of Yellow 
Fever and Sleeping Sickness has led to intensive study of their 
dipterous agents, and agricultural economists have closely investi- 
gated the dipterous pests of domestic animals and crops. Especially 
in recent years has attention been paid to the numerous cases of 
parasitism occurring throughout the Order. All this knowledge is 
scattered in various reports and proceedings in entomological, 
medical and agricultural literature ; and as it is usually rather 
briefly referred to in systematic works, I thought it might be of 
interest to try and give a resume of certain interesting facts 
gathered from some of these publications. 

The Egg Stage. 

The eggs of Diptera do not, as a rule, show that difference in 
form and structure that is characteristic of orders such as the 
Lepidoptera. They are generally white in colour, oblong or spindle 
shaped, mainly smooth and unsculptured, sometimes with a finely 
shagreened surface (Stratiomyi/ioe) or with keels or flanges lying 
along their longitudinal axis {Mnscidae) — Exceptionally the eggs of 
Microdon — a Syrphid which passes its earlier stages as a commensal 
in the nests of certain species of ants — are oval and distinctly 
sculptured, and those of Co7iopidae, parasitic on Hymenoptera, have 
groups of hooks or filaments at their micropylar end. The eggs are 
deposited in varying ways, and those species whose early stages are 
aquatic show curious and interesting adaptations for purposes of 
development and protection. The egg-rafts of Culicids so formed 
that their upper portions are kept aerated even during temporary 
submersion, and the egg-ropes of Chironomids, so formed that air 
and sun can get to them, while at the same time a degree of 
protection is afforded from enemies, have been fully described by 
Miall in his " Natural History of Aquatic Insects." Perhaps the 
most curious method of oviposition in an aquatic species is that of 



19 

Atherix ibis, a Leptid fly rare in Britain, the females of which lay 
their eggs in common on the branches or twigs of some shrub over- 
hanging a stream, and dying as they do so, add their bodies to this 
viscid mass which may often consist of thousands of individuals. 
From this bunch of eggs and dead flies the newly hatched larvae 
drop into the water underneath. In this connection it may be 
mentioned that an American species of Atherix {A. varieffata) was 
formerly used as an article of diet by the Indians of Oregon, who 
collected them from the riverbanks and after baking them, made 
them into a kind of paste. From the accounts given by Aldrich, 
who records this interesting fact, it appears that it was the egg- 
masses that were collected. 

The female of the common St. Mark's fly [Bibio marci) burrows 
bodily into tbe earth and lays a mass of eggs in a small subterranean 
cell. The Daddy-long-legs [Tipula oUracea) thrusts the end of 
the abdomen into the ground and then oviposits. The cluster fly 
(Polle}iia rudis) scatters its eggs loosely on the ground, leaving the 
young larvae to find their own way to the earthworms on which 
they prey ; and in like manner species of Boinbyliulae lay their 
eggs in the open, the young larvae having the formidable task of 
penetrating the cemented cells of the mason-bees or perishing. 
Hover-flies {Si/r/i/iidae) as a rule oviposit amongst the Aphids on 
which their larvae prey. Conopidae are said to oviposit during 
flight on the bodies of bees and wasps. The Bot-flies {Oeatridae) 
glue their eggs on the hairs of the skin of their equine or bovine 
hosts. Pipunculids oviposit on or in frog-hoppers and other 
Homoptera, and the Cyrtidae lay their quantities of black eggs in 
the neighbourhood of spider-webs, for these curious globular flies 
reverse the usual role and (in their larval stage) are parasitic on 
spiders. Further instances could be adduced but enough has been 
said to show that there is no lack of variety in this stage of the 
life-history of Dipfcera. 

It often happens that species of the same family oviposit in quite 
different ways. For example, some Asilids (Robber-flies) drop their 
eggs loosely ; others lay in cracks in stumps of trees or near burrows 
of beetles tnerein ; others glue their ova to sticks or moss ; others 
bury them in soil, and yet others lay in the ears of flowering grasses, 
in the stems of grasses, or in buds of twigs and branches ; the 
ovipositors of the females being modified according to the 
manner of oviposition. In the Tacliinidae again some lay very 
minute eggs on the foodplants favoured by the hosts, the eggs being 



20 

eaten with the food ; others deposit directly on the skin of their 
host larvae, others in the bodies of larvae, piercing the skin with 
their ovipositors ; and the species of Carcelia lay stalked eggs on 
the hairs of the larvae of Chelonia. 

The Diptera are not all oviparous : the eggs of many parasitic 
Tachinids hatch out directly they are deposited (ovo-viviparity), 
they are usually laid in large numbers and very small in size. In 
Sarcophagids, whose larvae are scavengers (saprophagous), the eggs 
are of considerable size and fewer in number and are deposited as 
larvae (larviparity) ; while in certain Muscids, the eggs are still 
larger in proportion, and single larvae are laid which moult directly 
on deposition, passing their first stage while in the egg state in the 
body of the female. 

In the above mentioned cases there is no anatomical modifica- 
tion of the eggs and they never appear to obtain nourishment 
directly from the parent, but when we come to the Tsetse flies 
(Glossinids), and the Forest-, sheep- and bird-flies (Hippoboscids, 
Melophagids and Ornithomyiids, forming the sub-division Pupipara) 
the egg IS anatomically modified, and is nourished by the parent for 
the full duration of the larval stage, oviposition consisting of the 
deposition of single full fed larvae which immediately pupate. 

I conclude this section by mentioning that the phenomenon of 
paedogenesis in the larval state has been observed in a species of 
Cecidomyid fly and also in species of Cldrononiidae : in the latter 
case fully developed pupae produced ova whence normal larvae 
hatched. Parthenogenesis, resulting in females only, also occurs in 
some other Chironomids. 

The number of eggs laid varies immensely ; little is known with 
certainty about most species, but there is a fair amount of data with 
respect to species of economic importance, whose life-histories have 
been closely studied. The Anopheles mosquito {niacniiijennis) lays 
from 50-100 eggs : Culex pipiens 400 : the Daddy-long-legs (Tipnla 
oleracea) 400-500 : Blow-flies (Calliphoridae) 400-600 : the house 
fly [Miisca domestica) 120-140 ; its biting relation the stable-fly 
(Stoinoxys calcitrans) 50-70, and another closely related species, the 
raven fly [Miisca corvina) only about 25. In laboratory experiments 
a Tsetse fly {Glossina /lalpalh) deposited single fully grown larvae at 
intervals of nine to ten days, eight larvae being deposited in 
thirteen weeks. The greatest number of eggs deposited by any 
dipteron of which I have found records occurs in an American 
species of Cyrtidae [Pterodontia liavipes) where the following series 



21 

of egg-counts was made from three captured females : — number 
one, 987 ; number two, 3344 ; number three, 3997. Most of these 
eggs were deposited during the morning of the first day and in no 
case did the captives live more than two days. 

In considering the number of eggs laid, it must be remembered 
that it is not known with any certainty whether oviposition occurs 
more than once during the life-time of any individual ; the house- 
fly for instance, having been recorded as laying three or four 
batches of eggs during its lifetime. 

From the above remarks it will be realised that there is no lack 
of variety in this stage of the life-history, and I will pass on to the 
next. 

The Larval Stage. 

It may well be claimed of Dipterous larvae that they surpass 
those of all other Orders in variety of their life-history, and to deal 
adequately and fully with this stage would take far more space and 
time than is possible in an address such as this. They may occur 
almost anywhere, and their pabulum may consist of almost any 
animal or vegetable matter, living or in decay, while they attack as 
parasites the whole animal kingdom (excluding fishes) from man to 
earthworms. They have been aptly summed-up as " omnipresent 
and omnivorous " ; yet, as the majority 'are either aquatic or live in 
concealment, they are but little noticed and make no such appeal to 
the average entomologist as do, for example, the handsome open- 
feeding caterpillars of Lepidoptera. 

The main characteristic of a dipterous larva is the absence of true 
legs. No dipterous larva has true legs; their place in locomotion 
is taken by pseudopods, rows of stiff bristles, or roughened ridges 
on the segments. Cases of legless larvae occur in some families of 
other orders, but in none is this universally the case as in Diptera. 
Another special characteristic is the frequent diminution of the size 
of the head, which in many cases can be so drawn back within the 
following segments, that the larva appears to be headless. This 
state is well exemplified in the maggots of the house-fly. At the 
other extreme are mosquito larvae which have a large exserted head, 
and between these two forms are many intermediate stages. 

The number of segments is usually twelve, excluding the head, 
but this is not constant, families occurring with both greater and 
lesser numbers of l)ody segments. The shape of the larval body 
varies greatly ; besides the common caterpillar-like forms others 



22 

occur that have numerous spiny or flattened excrescences arranged 
along the sides of the body. Some larvae are pear-shaped {Cono- 
pidae) ; others oval [Platypezidae) ; and the larvae of Microdon 
referred to above are so slug-like that they have been described at 
least twice, and named, as new species of Molluscs. The shape of 
a larva may change entirely in its different stages, especially in 
certain parasitic forms {e.g., Bomhyliidae) where the newly-hatched 
larvae are extremely elongate and hairlike (triungulin), but in their 
subsequent stages, in the cells of the bee larvae that they parasitize, 
are short, plump and maggot- shaped. The antennae are very 
minute and inconspicuous, and there is no trace of ocelli in the 
majority of families (though they are present in certain Chirono- 
mids). There is great variation in the size of the mandibles and 
these are frequently used for classificator}' purposes. It suffices to 
say here that they may be placed horizontally or vertically, and in 
one large division (Cyclorrhapha), are reduced to hook-like shapes 
somewhat like the tusks of a walrus. 

With regard to the breathing apparatus, the normal insect arrange- 
ment of a number of spiracles ranged along the sides of the body 
(peripneustic) is rare, and confined to the more primitive forms. 
As a rule there are either two pairs, one at either end of the body 
(amphipneustic), or one pair only, at the posterior end (meta- 
pneustic). In the parasitic forms it frequently happens that the 
newly-hatched larvae have only the one posterior pair, and in 
subsequent moults develop an anterior pair as well. Varying 
contrivances for obtaining air occur amongst aquatic forms. The 
larva of Stratiowys pierces the surface-film of the water with its tail, 
which then expands the bunch of 30 or so filaments at its extremity, 
like the petals of a flower, and the larva hangs head downwards 
suspended from the surface by this tail coronet. Mosquito larvae 
in like manner pierce the surface-film with the " respiratory syphon " 
springing from their eighth abdominal segment, and the five flaps 
at the extremity open out in the same way as the coronet filaments 
of Stratiomys. The larva of the Bee-fly — commonly known as the 
*' rat-tailed maggot " — which lives in semi-liquid mud or filth, has 
no such apparatus, but the end segments are capable of telescopic 
extension to five or six times the normal length of the body, thus 
enabling the posterior spiracles to reach the surface from varying 
depths. A Tipulid fly [Ptychoptera) has a very similar arrangement 
to that of the Bee-fly, though systematically the Tipulids are placed 
far away from the Eristalids. 



23 

The duration of the larval stage varies in relation to the biology 
of the larva, and is also influenced by temperature and abundance 
of food supply. A mosquito larva in favourable conditions may 
become full grown in a week, and a house-fly in like conditions 
takes about the same time, but in unfavourable conditions it may 
take six or eight weeks to attain its full growth. Bot-fly larvae on 
the other hand spend from six to eight months in the bodies of 
their hosts. There are as a rule three larval stages, separated by 
two moults, or three if the change to pupa is included ; but exact 
knowledge on this point is lacking in some families. 

Dipterous larvae may occur almost anywhere, and I cannot 
attempt to give more than an outline of their various habitats. A 
vast number of species, especially in the Nematocera, are aquatic in 
this stage and are to be found in every kind of water ; rapid rivers, 
still pools, in hot springs at a temperature of 109° F., in casual 
water in hollows of trees (sap exudations from wounds in trees are 
often found to contain Dipterous larvae), and in the cups of pitcher 
plants, in gutters, old tins, puddles formed by animals' hoofs, etc. 
Nor is it necessary that the water be pure or fresh. Cesspools, 
sewage filter beds, alkaline waters and springs Salter than sea water, 
saltmarshes and marine estuaries, all have their complement of 
Dipterous larvae. Even the sea itself — the only large expanse of 
the surface of the globe free from the presence of insect life —has 
been invaded by Diptera. The larvae of certain gnats (Chironomids) 
live in sea-water and have been dredged from a depth of 30 fathoms, 
and several species of these gnats have been found breeding in sea- 
water off our British shores. The most extraordinary case of all is 
that of a Samoan species of the same family, found by Dr. Buxton 
in 1926. This species [Fontomyia natans^ Edwards) spends not 
only its earlier stages, but also its adult life under the surface, being 
the only case known of a submarine msect. Another unique case 
is that of a species of Ephydriid [Fsilopa petrolei) which cannot be 
justly termed either aquatic or terrestrial, inasmuch as its larvae 
occur in the pools of crude petroleum found in the oilfields of 
Southern California. This is the only insect known to breed in 
such a medium. As is the case with the aquatic species, terrestrial 
larvae may be found in all kinds of habitats according to their 
manner of living, as will be seen in the following paragraphs. In 
their feeding habits both aquatic and terrestrial forms may be 
classed as : — 



24 

(1) Phytophagous (or herbivorous), feeding on living vegetable 

matter. 

(2) Sarcophagous (or predaceous), feeding on living animal 

organisms. 

(3) Saprophagous (or scavengers), feeding on dead and decaying 

matter, vegetable or animal. 

(4) Parasitic, wholly or partially. 

Aquatic forms favour the first three of these divisions with a 
preponderance of the second, and are very seldom parasitic, but 
there is a record of a gnat-larva (Chironomid) that was found in 
watersnails (in the Trafalgar Square fountain pools !). Terrestrial 
forms favour all four divisions with perhaps a preponderance of the 
third and fourth. Herbivorous larvae attack vegetation in various 
ways, as leaf or stem miners ; gall makers on leaves, stems and 
roots; and feeders on flower-heads, seed capsules and fruits. 
Several are of considerable economic importance as pests ; 
e.g., the Hessian fly {Mayetiola destructor) on corn crops, the 
Mediterranean fruit fly {Ceritatla capitata) and our common daddy- 
long-legs whose larvae — popularly known as " leather-jackets " — 
feeding on the roots of grasses are well-known as depredators of 
pastures and golf-greens. Of predaceous species the best known 
example is furnished by the Syrphids whose larvae are well known 
to gardeners as voracious enemies of Aphids. A less known case 
is that of a European genus of Leptids {Vennileo) whose larvae 
make sand-pits for ants as do the larvae of the Ant Lions 
(Neuroptera). The larvae of certain Anthomyiids were long considered 
to be scavengers (saprophagous) until closer observation shovred that 
they really preyed on other scavenging larvae amongst which they 
occurred, and a large number of species living in rotten wood, 
under bark, etc., are predaceous on other inhabitants of such 
situations. The scavenging larvae include very numerous examples 
in nearly all the families, and also some interesting cases of 
commensals, e.g., larvae of Volncdla in the nests of bees and wasps, 
and those of Microdon (a Syrphid), and Phorids in ants' nests. 
Other Phorids are especially associated with dead snails, and Mr. 
Hamm has bred 31 species belonging to 23 genera and 17 families 
from old birds' nests collected in the neighbourhood of Oxford. 
Fungi and decayed vegetation both harbour a large dipterous 
fauna. Finally a majority of that great division of the Order 
known as " Cyclorrhapha " are true parasites spending their larval 
existence inside the bodies of living hosts. Very full descriptions 



25 

both of the morphology and biology of these parasitic larvae may be 
found in numerous papers by D. Keilin, who has made a special 
study of this subject, and to whose writings I am much indebted. 
Many are of beneficial economic value, especially amongst the 
Tachiiddae (well known to breeders of Lepidoptera who perhaps do 
not see eye to eye with economic entomologists on this point) and 
in recent years experiments have been made in using certain species 
to control other harmful insects {e.;/., earwigs in New Zealand and 
certain pests of sugar plants in Hawaii). 

Two final points of miscellaneous interest in dipterous larvae 
are the occurrence of certain luminous larvae of fungus-gnats 
(Mycetophilids) in New Zealand, known locally as glow-worms; 
and the migratory habits of another fungus-gnat larva which 
occasionally assembles in vast numbers forming a snake-like mass 
composed of living larvae, 12-to 15 feet long, about 3 inches wide and 
perhaps ^ inch or 6 or 7 larvae deep, all more or less stuck together, 
and " flowing " at the rate of about an inch a minute. This 
migratory habit has been noticed both in Europe and America, 
but the precise reasons for it do not appear to be known. 

The Pupal Stage. 

We now pass to the last of the earlier stages, the pupa ; here it is 
noteworthy that the two primary divisions of Diptera, the Orthor- 
rhapha and the Cyclorrhapha are based not on imaginal but on pupal 
characters. In the former the pupa resembles that of a Lepidop- 
teron with the appendages of the future imago obvious on the outer 
surface, and the fly emerges by a T-shaped slit on the dorsum. In 
the latter the pupa is barrel-shaped and without any sign of 
imaginal appendages, being formed by the hardening of the larval 
skin into a chitinised case known as the puparium within which the 
true pupa or nymph develops. Emergence takes place by forcing 
off the top of the puparium (along a line of weakness in the chitin) 
by means of the ptilinum, an air-filled bladder which is used for 
this purpose only, and after emergence is withdrawn into the 
framework of the head. Very rarely a cocoon is formed within the 
puparium. 

In those species that have a number of spiracles in the larval 
stage {e.g., Bihio) the pupal spiracles are similarly arranged, but where 
the larva has only two pairs of spiracles (amphipneustic), pupal res- 
piration is carried on by the prothoracic spiracles alone, the anal pair, 
though often obvious at the end of the puparium in Cyclorraphous 



26 

species, are remnants of the larval state and not connected with the 
true pupa. In Orthorrhaphous species the prothoracic spiracles are 
often very obvious {e.r/.. respiratory trumpets of Calex), but in the 
Cyclorrhapba they appear as two minute excrescences protruding 
through specially weakened areas in the chitin of the puparium, and 
often are not visible externally at all. 

The pupae of aquatic species either float to the surface of the 
water for emergence, or the larvae leave the water and pupate in 
the earth. The Simuliids, whose pupae are anchored to waterweeds 
or stones in rapid streams, rise to the surface in an air bubble 
released by the splitting of the back of the pupa and run along the 
surface film to the nearest solid support. Orthorrhaphous pupae 
are mobile and in certain species of Leptids, Bombyliids, and 
Asilids, are strongly armed with rings of backward-pointed spines 
on the abdomen, and a series of strong thorns on the thorax. The 
former serve to brace the pupa against the soil or burrow in which 
it may lie, while the latter are used to break through to the surface. 
In the case of those species of Anthra.v that parasitize the larvae of 
the mason-bee, the dipterous pupa has thus to quarry its way 
through the cemented covering of the cell, which in the ordinary 
way would be gnawed through by the strong mandibles of the 
freshly emerged bee, but would prove an impassable barrier to the 
purely sucking mouth of the adult dipteron. Parasitic larvae either 
leave the bodies of their hosts when full fed and pupate in the 
earth, or else pupate in the bodies of their hosts, and the full fed 
larvae of the Pupipara pupate in the earth immediately on leaving 
the body of their parent. 

Conclusion. 

I have now to the best of my ability run through some of the 
facts and characteristics of the three early stages of Diptera, and 
have only to make a few concluding remarks. The keynote of my 
former paper on the adult forms was the very great degree of 
variability that obtained within the Order, and I think you will 
agree that the same keynote applies in the same, if not in a still 
greater degree, when the earlier stages are considered. 

Two striking facts to my mind are : firstly, the way in which the 
life-history of so many species runs right athwart the systematic 
arrangement of the adults. Species of the same family or genus 
show extraordinary dillterences in mode of life and habitats in their 
earlier stages. I have already mentioned the various methods of 



27 

oviposifcion in Asilids. In the larvae of Syrphids {seiisu Into) we find 
both aquatic and terrestrial forms, and the latter include phyto- 
phagous, predaceous, and scavenging forms, these last including 
feeders on decaying vegetable matter, and commensals in the nests 
of other insects. In one group of Anthomyiids (Hylemyia- 
Cliortipliila) some species are herbivorous, others parasitic, and 
others again predaceous, or carnivorous. Many similar cases could 
be quoted if space and time permitted. On the other hand the 
converse of the above remarks is shown in what has been termed 
" convergence " of habits in the earlier stages of species of widely 
separated systematic position. Referring again to the preceding 
pages we notice the similar method of respiration adopted by Culicid 
and Stratiomyid larvae ; or by Eristalid and Tipulid ; both pairs 
belonging to absolutely unrelated families, and another instance is 
found in the great similarity of larval habits in the parasitic 
Cyclorrhapha, a division of the order containing many different 
systematic groups. 

There is still a very wide field open for investigation and experi- 
ment in the study of the earlier stages of Diptera, and if this paper 
should turn the thoughts of any young entomologist away from the 
well-trodden paths of the better known Orders and towards this all 
too little studied subject, I feel sure that he will not regret it. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I am obliged to you for listening patiently 
to a rather lengthy address on an Order not in favour with Members 
of this Society. To all of you, and more especially to the Officers 
and Council, 1 tender my thanks for help and consideration during 
my year of office as your President, and I feel sure you will support 
me in my last Presidential act, namely, in extending a sincere 
welcome to my successor, Mr. Carr, well known to us as one of the 
senior members of the Society, who I am sure will, on his recovery 
from the illness that most unfortunately has prevented him from 
being present with us to-night, take the Chair with the hearty good 
wishes of all. 

APPENDIX I. 

Key to Sub-Orders. 
(Copied from Malloch : Preliminary Classification of Diptera : Bulletin of 

Illinois State Laboratory, March, 1917). 
Larvae. 

1. Head complete, or the posterior portion with deep longi- 
tudinal incisions : mandibles moving horizontally. 

Orthorrhapha-Nematocera. 



28 

— Head incomplete, without a strongly daveloped arcuate 

plate, mandibles moving vertically 2 

2. Maxillae well developed, their palpi distinct, mandibles 
normally sickle-shaped, not protruded much beyond 
the apices of the maxillae, often extending less than 
halfway to their apices : antennae well developed, 
situated upon the upper surface of a slightly arcuate 
chitinized dorsal plate . Orthorrhapha-Brachycera. 

— Maxillae poorly developed, the palpi visible only in a few 

groups, mandibles short and hook-like, usually capable 
of protrusion much beyond apices of maxillae if these 
are present ; antennae poorly developed or absent, when 
present situated on a membranous surface. 

Cyclorrhapha. 
Pupae. 

1. Pupa not enclosed within the indurated last larval skin 
or if so the head is distinct as in the larva, or the 
puparium is slightly flattened dorsoventrally, its texture 
leathery, not chitinous, and the anterior respiratory 
organs not distinguishable, imago (or pupa) emerges 
through a rectangular split on dorsum of larval skin. 

Orthorrhapha. 

— Pupa enclosed within the indurated last larval skin, head 

always retracted, the chitinous portion occupying a 
position on the inner side of the ventral surface of the 
puparium : anterior respiratory organs distinct, either 
protruding from the antero-lateral angles of the cephalic 
extremity or from dorsum of base of abdomen : imago 
usually emerges by forcing off the rounded anterior 
extremity of the puparium in cap-like form or the 
dorsal half of the thoracic portion — the lines of cleavage 
being along the lateral margins to a point at base of 
abdomen : rarely emergence is through rectangular 
splitting of the dorsum of the puparium. 

Cyclorrhapha. 
D. Keilin (" Bull. Scientiiique de la France et Belgique " Tome 

LXIX. 191 5:- 16) divides the larvae of Cylorrhapha biologically as 

follows. 

1. All larvae parasitic on animals, carnivorous, predacious, 
those that pass their life in the uterus of their mother 
(Pupipara) and nearly all phytophagous larvae (gall 



29 

makers oi" miners) may be united in one ethologic 
group of : — 

Biontophagons larvae, nourishing themselves on living 
matter and (morphologically) deprived of ridges on the 
basal portion of the pharynx. 

as opposed to 
All larvae that nourish themselves on animal or vegetable 
matter in decomposition, which form the ethologic group 
of Saprophagoiis larvae, with (morphologically) well 
developed ridges on the basal portion of the pharynx. 



APPENDIX II. 

Families, Genera and Species from old birds' nests from Oxford, 
bred by A. H. Hamm. 



Cecidomyiidae, 1 gen. 1 species. 
Mycetophilidae, 2 gen. 3 sp. 
Chironomidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Bihionidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Tipulidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Pipuncididae, 1 gen. 3 sp. 
Phoridae, 1 gen. 2 sp. 
Tachinidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 



Helomyzidae, 1 gen. 2 sp. 
Dryormjzidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Sapromyzidae, 1 gen. 3 sp. 
Sepsidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Piophilidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Geoniyzidae, 2 gen. 2 sp. 
Miltchidae, 1 gen. 1 sp. 
Hippoboscidae, 2 gen. 2 sp. 



Anthotmjiidae, 4 gen. 5 sp. 

Total — 17 Families ; 23 Genera ; 31 species. 



80 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

FEBRUARY 14th, 1929. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. G. Sfcubbs, of Cambridge, and Mr. J. K. Bell, of Caterham 
Valley, were elected members. 

The exhibits of the evening were mainly examples of Melanism 
in the Lepidoptera and a few in Coleoptera and Diptera. 

Mr. L. W. Newman exhibited a large number of melanic speci- 
mens of various families of the Macro-Lepidoptera including 
particularly Polyomwatns thetis $ , and E)>iatnr(/a atomaria. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited the following melanic forms among the 
Geometers : — Sdenia bilunaria, 1st and 2nd brood, Harrison's 
manganese experiments ; Crucallis elinguaria ab. unicolor, Prout, 
and ab. fnsca, Reutti ; Odontopera hidentata ab. nitpa, Prout ; 
Ennomos autumnana ab. schitltzi, Siebt ; Ennomos quercinaria 
[angularia) ab. perfiiscata, Prout ; Cepphis [Epione) advenaria ab. 
fulva, Gillmer ; Phigalia pedariasbh. iiwnacharia ; Lycia hirtaria ab. 
black ; Tephrosia histortata ab. defessaria, Frr. ; Tephrosia crepuscu- 
laria ab. delameretisis, B.-W. ; Biston [Aniphidasis) hetulavia ab. 
carbonaria, Jordan, and ab. insularia, Th. Meig. ; Henierophila 
abruptarla ab. fiiscata, Prout ; Boarmia piinctinalis (consortaria) ab. 
consobrinaria ; Boaniiia roboraria ab. infnscata, Stgr. ; Boarmia 
repandata ab. iwjricata^ Fuchs ; Boarmia ribeata {abietaria) ab. 
black ; Boamria rliomboidaria (genniiaria) ab. rebeli, Aigner ; Ectropis 
(Tephrosia) consonaria ab. nigra, Bankes ; Oporinia autumnata ab. 
melanic ; La)itpropteryx suf\imata ab. piceata. 

Capt. B. S. Car wen exhibited the following melanic forms of 
Geometers (in most cases typical and transitional forms included) 
: — Cidaria bicolorata race pliuiibata and ab. fiunosa ; 0. obeliscata ab. 
obliterata ; C. i'urcata ab. cinereata ; C. coendata [impluviata) ab. 
obsoletaria ; C, albulata form subfasciaria and ab. thules ; C. obstipata 
(flnviata) bred dark 2 2 ', C. sujfumata ab. piceata ; Ennomos 
quercinaria ab. angularia and ab. perfuscata ; Selenia lunaria ab. 



31 

siiblunaria ; Gonodontis bidentata ab. nifjra ; Cidaria hastata race 
suhhastata ; Oporinia dilntata ab. ohscurata and ab. melana, etc. ; 
Erannis leucophaearia ab. nifp'icaria and ab. viendaria ; f7. defoliaria 
a,h. hohnr/reni ; E. vmrriinar i a melsimc 2 '■> Apochehna hupidaria a}), 
obscura ; Boarmia rlioiuboidaria ab. rebeh ; B. repandata ab. 
conversaria and ab. nujricata ; /?. crepnacularia ab. delamerensis ; 5. 
histortata race laricaria and ab. defessaria ; Biston betttlaria ab. 
ochrearia and ab. carbonaria ; Eniatmya atoinaria ab. ustaria ; 
Hemernphila abniptaria ab. fnscata ; and Calocalpe cervinalis ab. 

Mr. A. A. W. Buckstone exhibited melanic forms of most of the 
species already noticed and in addition those of Semiothisa liturata, 
Jbraxoa f/rosiiidariata, A. Sijlvata, Hydrioniena fnrcata (diitata), and 
Cidaria bicolorata {i-ubujinata). 

Dr. Harold B. Williams exhibited the following melanic forms : 
Boarinia punctinalis [consortaria) and ab. hunrperti, N. Kent, and a 
melanic form from Oxshott ; 5. roboraria, dark forms, N. Kent and 
Ascot, and ab. infiiacata, Prout, N.E. Surrey ; /^. rliomboidaria 
[gewmaria) ab. perfinnaria, N. Kent, dark forms, Lanes, Surrey and 
Glasgow, ab. rebeli, N. Kent ; /^. repandata ab. nigricata, Fuchs, 
Yorks ; Ectropis {Teplirosia) crepusciilaria ab. delamerensis, E. 
bistortata and dark form, Oxshott ; E. consonaria and ab. nigra, 
Kent ; E. pimctidata, and dark form, Oxshott ; and Boarinia 
ribearia [abietaria) ab. sericearia^ Surrey, and a black form. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited the remarkable melanic form of 
Paniassius inneinosyne, ab. iiiiibratilis from the Tyrol. 

Capt. Bliss exhibited an aberration of Liinenitis sibilla a near 
approach to ab. nigrina, a BrentJiia euphrosyne with much increased 
area of black marking forming a prettily banded insect, and an 
unusually dark Abraxas grossulariata ; all were captured. 

Capt. Murray exhibited an example of Ectropis [Teplirosia) 
punctnlata of which the R. side wings were normal and the L. side 
wings melanic, a very dark ? Argynnis aglaia and a very pale 
yellow Colias croceus $ . 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited the black form harrissellns of the 
" humble-bee," Bouibns ruderatns. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited melanic forms of several species of 
Diptera. 

Mr. J. F. Perkins exhibited a case of British bees and sawflies. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited the melanic forms robsoni and 
thompsoni of Aplecta nebidosa and summarised the work which was 
done with the breeding of this species some quarter of a century ago. 



32 

Mr. de Worms exhibited the melanic forms of five British species 
of Boarniia and four species of Ectropis [rephrosia) especially calling 
attention to rhonibuldarla {(jeinmaria)^ to roboraria from Surrey where 
its melanic forms were scarce, and to punctulata which was year by 
year getting darker in the Oxshott district. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited (1) two melanic specimens of the 
Coleopteron, l^/iyllubins py»i, L. taken with other similar specimens 
from various plants growing on the sea-shore at Reculver, Kent, in 
1924. Also a normal specimen for comparison. 

(2) Melanic pupa cases of the followiiuj LepUoptera: —Two of 
Macroglossiim stellatarinn, L., bred in 1928 from nearly full-grown 
larvae taken on Wimbledon Common. Of 14 larvae taken at the time, 
2 were preserved, 1 died and the remainder produced more or less 
melanic pupae. The imagines were normal. One of Cosymbia 
[Zonosonia) {Epliijra) orbicularia, Hb., bred in 1927 from New Forest 
stock. All other pupae were normal. In each case a normal pupa 
was shown for comparison. The pupa of M. stellatarnm normally 
turns dark a day or two before the emergence of the imago, but 
this is due to the dark colour of the moth showing through the 
pupal shell and after the imago has emerged the pupa regains its 
pale brown colour. In the case of the pupae shown, however, the 
pupal skin itself appears to contain a definite black pigment. As 
this species usually pupates in a cocoon on, or just under the 
surface of the ground (all these larvae did so) and the pupa is 
consequently concealed, the dark colour of the pupa can be of no 
value for protective purposes, and indicates that melanism in its 
origin is a phenomenon quite independent of protective resemblance. 

Mr. Hawkins also showed separately a living larva of Zeuzera 
pyrina, L., (aesculi), from Heme Bay. 

In the discussion which ensued Mr. Grosvenor stated that the 
black Zyyaena forms, which he had obtained, were always near a 
particularly smoky spot bordering a railway line. Mr. Hewer said 
that a cutting such as Mr. Grosvenor referred to would tend to 
retain much of the smoke with a resultant chemical deposit upon 
the foliage around. Mr. Grosvenor said that the melanism was 
inherited, as larvae from a melanic origin produced melanic 
imagines. Dr. Williams referred to the enormous increase in 
melanic forms in Surrey in recent years. It was now nearly 
impossible to obtain the typical form of Boarnda ribeata [abietaria) ; 
all were jet black. The perfiiwaria form of B. rhoinboidaria 
were much darker now than years ago. Mr. Buckstone said that 



33 

2'hera oheliHcata were much darker now than they were thirty years 
ago. 

Mr. Main and several others particularly urged members not 
merely to obtain melanic forms but to experiment more and more 
to discover the causes of melanism. 

It was notable that melanic forms of Nnctuiiiae were conspicuous 
by their absence among the various exhibits. 

Mr. C. G. M. de Worms exhibited a series of diminutive forms of 
British and Foreign Lepidoptera, together with normal-size 
specimens of the respective sex and species for comparison. 

Rhopalocera. — Papilio machaon, male bred, emerged May, 1926, 
from larva taken in Wicken Fen in August, 1925. Expanse 55mm. 
(Normal male = 64mm.) 

Pieris iiafd, male and female, taken in Surrey. Date uncertain. 
Expanse, male = 81mm.; female = 36mm. (Normal male = 41mm. ; 
Female == 4l-3mm.) 

Enchloe cardaniines, male (kindly lent by Mr. Palmer), taken near 
Ascot, May, 1928. Expanse = 83mm, normal 89mm. Female 
taken at Wicken Fen, May, 1926. Expanse = 83mm., normal = 
41mm. 

Goiifpteri/.v rliaiiini, male bred, emerged July, 1927, from larva 
found in Wicken Fen in preceding May. Expanse = 89mm. 
(Normal male = 51 mm.) 

Colias croceus [eili(sa) var. pallida, female, taken in France near 
Tours, September, 1928. Expanse = 39mm. (Normal female = 
48mm.) 

Mditaea cinxia, male, taken in France near Tours, August, 1923. 
Expanse = 30mm., normal = 36mm. 

Aphantopns hyperantus, male (kindly lent by Mr. D. Palmer), 
taken near Ascot, August, 1927. Expanse = 30mm., normal = 
41mra. 

Stryinon {Thecla) qiiercns, male, taken in Blean Woods (kindly 
lent by Mr. Palmer), July, 1928. Expanse = 24mm., normal = 
32mm. 

Plebeiiis ae/foyi, female taken near Ohobham, Surrey, July, 1913. 
Expanse == 19mm, normal = 28mm. 

P. iiiedon (astrarche), ? male, without red spots on border, taken 
near Tours, France, July, 1928. Expanse == 20mm. Normal male, 
expanse = 24mm. 

Hetekocera. — Hepialus Inpitlina^ male taken near Cambridge. 
May, 1927. Expanse = 21mm. Normal male 29mm. 



34 

Hepialus hiimuli, female taken in Surrey, June, 1926. Expanse 
= 45mm. Normal female = 60mm. 

Leucoma (Porthesia) similii^, male taken near Tonbridge, Kent, on 
August 26th, 1925. Expanse = 23mm. Normal male = 31mm. 

Cosmotriclie Rotatoria, male taken at Wicken Fen, August, 1926. 
Expanse == 89mm. Normal male = 49mm. 

Selenia bilnnaria, male taken at Wicken Fen in July, 1926. 
Expanse = 31mm. Normal male = 38mm. 

Eratnii.H (Hybernia) defoliaria, male (kindly lent by Capt. K. F. M. 
Murray), taken at light near Lyndhurst, Hants, on the night of 
November 17th, 1928. Expanse = 30mm. Normal = 40mm. 



FEBRUARY 2Sth, 1929. 
The Presidhjnt in the Chair. 

Mr. Rait-Siuith exhibited a store-box containing a long series of 
the various broods of Lymantria moiiacha reared by Mr. Pickett 
in his experiments from 1894 to 1902 to induce forms showing 
strong melanism. 

Mr. Whitting exhibited a long bred series of CoZ/«.s crocens [ednm), 
and communicated the following data : — Bred from 2 typical $ ? 
captured at Brading, Isle of Wight, August 1928, on the Downs. 
130 eggs were laid from August 24th-25th. 100 hatched September 
3rd-5th. Egg state, 9 days. First larva full grown, October 1st. 
Larval state about 1 month. Pupated 6th. First imago emerged 
November 5th. No. of males bred = 39. No. of females = 26. 
Total = 65. Deformed, S^ S 5, $1. 26 larvae and 9 pupae died. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited a small series of the Dipteron Xylota 
seynis, L. including typical forms ; some melanic ? 9 : and two 
very pale and dwarfed 2 $ . 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited two series of the small Satyrid 
Coenovympha arcania from Spain. The one was of the typical 
form from Santa Fa, in Catalonia, and the other which had been 
named race dorinda, Sag., was from Cuenca in New Castile. The 
latter was a form apparently not found elsewhere and was character- 
ised by a more or less definite amount of the yellowish brown 
clouding on the disc of the hindwing and the anal angle. He had 
series of the species from Moncayo, La Granja and Casayo in 
Spain, from Digne, St. Martin Vesubie and Hyeres in the South 
of France, from Florae in the Central Tarn district of France, from 



35 

Fontainebleu, from Gavarnie in the Pyrenees, from Gresy-sur-Aix 
in the French Alps, from Biedenkoff in Rhineland, from Vienna 
and from Macugnaga in the Italian Alps but not one example from 
any of these localities had this form of variation. The race was 
also slightly smaller than most of those from other localities. Dr. 
Zerny (" Eos," III. 350) reports it as the prevailing form in the 
Albarracin (Arragon) area, the adjoining province to that of Cuenca 
(New Castile). 

Mr. de Worms exhibited series of Apaniea dinnerilii, examples of 
both ^ and 2 Hipparchia seniele without the usual eyespots on the 
hindwings above, and of Epinephele jurtina with partially bleached 
wings, from central France. 

Mr. Glegg exhibited a number of species of Ornithoptera and a 
discussion took place on their habits. Dr. Cockayne stated that 
he had seen five different species alive but not one specimen had 
he ever seen come down to water. Mr. Grosvenor said that 
Ornithoptera and most species of Fapilio he had met with in India 
would come down to flowers especially to a green daisy in the late 
afternoon, Mr. Glegg said that some species did come to moisture. 



MABCE 14th, 1929. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. James Wainwright and Mr. J. Chas. Wainwright, of 8, 
Kingsdown Avenue, Ealing, W., were elected members. 

Mr. Buckstone exhibited a Geometer taken at Horsley in June 
some years ago, which he had been unable to identify. It was 
subsequently ascertained to be a form of luipitkecia satyrata. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a living example of Blaps mucronata, 
of which he had been studying the life-history, and also examples of 
his new form of sub-terrarium containing the earlier stages of the 
beetles Cicindela canqyestrm and Lucanns cervits. 

The remainder of the evening was devoted to the exhibition of 
Lantern-slides. 

Mr. E. J. Bunnett exhibited leafy flowers of Dutch clover, flowers 
of tulips with petals down the stem ; primrose flowers with large 
leaf-like sepals, broomrape parasitic on hop, etc. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited various species of the rose family, agrimony, 
lady's tresses, various thorn bushes, the white beam, wild pear, wild 
service, ash, etc. 



36 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a series of pupae of the Pierids, etc. 

Mr. Main exhibited stages in the life-histories of the cuckoo-spit 
insect, stag-beetle, Blaps, Clotho durandi (a spider from S. France), 
etc. 

Mr. Dodds exhibited some denizens of the Zoological Gardens. 

Mr. J. H. Adkin exhibited a series of studies of the trees from his 
neighbourhood. 



MARCH 2St}i, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Barnett showed bred examples of Pi/rameis cardui, one of 
which had all the black and darkest markings increased in area 
and in depth of shade. 

Capt. B. S. Carwen exhibited a series of Apatura iris and of A. 
ilia with forms of the latter species, viz., iliades, chjtie, metis and 
eos, all taken when collecting in the Samoussy woods near Laon in 
N. France, with Dr. Rosa of Edinburgh, during the last two days 
of June, 1914. A few weeks after, these woods were completely 
devastated in the German advance. The chief attraction seemed 
to be bullock droppings in the roads, but numerous iliades were 
attracted by the bread and cheese which the entomologists had 
with them. 

Mr. F. W. McDonald read a paper, '* Memories of some of the 
Old Entomologists." (See page 1). 



APRIL 11th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Lt.-Col. W. G. B. Hawley, 13, Colville Rd., W. 11, was elected a 
member. 

Captain Curwen exhibited series of Melitaea didyma from various 
localities and referred to the great range of variation shown, especially 
in the females. 

Mr. Turner referred to the interesting article appearing in 
the Entomologists' Record from Dr. Verity, in which he was 
endeavouring to work out the origin of the extreme variability in 
this species as due to the line of migration arising in the far East, 
taking three directions, one north of the Black Sea, another through 



37 

Asia Minor and the third along the North African route, all three 
meeting again and coalescing in Central and Western Europe. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited Dipterous larvae and pupae dug up in 
his garden, and enquired as to the species. 

Mr, Jacobs exhibited a coloured print of I'l/rameis cardul dated 
1800, by ¥. P. Nodder, showing white dead-nettle as foodplant of the 
larva. The larva is said to be more or less polyphagous. 

Notes on tbe effect of the past cold winter on hibernating larvae 
were given by — 

Mr. Grosvenor who said that during the late severe winter all his 
British and Irish hibernating Zygaenid larvae succumbed, while 
large numbers of his Z. stoechadis from Italy survived, in fact 
practically all his continental larvae came through. Of Z. achilleae 
only one died although, others were delayed in coming from 
hibernation. His I. of Wight Z. trifolii had not yet woken up, 
and were a month late at least. 

Mr. A. Bliss lost the whole of his C. potatoria larvae, which were 
on grass outdoors in the sun. Of Laaiocampa nibi 8 had lived. A. 
vilUca kept indoors were nearly all full-fed. 

Mr. Newman gave an account of his experiences this season. 
First he spoke of wild hibernating larvae. It was his custom to 
turn out thousands of larvae each autumn in certain lanes, and 
search for the species again in the spring. This year in 4 hours he 
got 1 Arctia caja and 3 Lasiocampa qnercns. Cusuwtriche jJotatoria 
and Arctia vlllica were absent, and only about a dozen and a half of 
Gastropaclui quercifolia survived. In one sleeve, out of 300 hibernating 
larvae only 2 remained, in another only 3. In the Isle of Wight 
and at Eastbourne A. villica was practically extinct. Of the 
fritillaried, Brenthis euphrosi/ne some 800 larvae came through the 
winter, B. selene were all lost, Melitaea athalia did fairly well with 
60% through, while in the I. of Wight M. cinxia had been absolutely 
abundant in some spots but scarce in others. Dryas j^apJiia larvae 
had been kept on a cold stone floor until March, when they were 
transferred to a greenhouse ; very few were lost. He had found 
that if the heat was started in the spring the larvae went through 
well in spite of after changes, which did not seem to affect them. 
Argynnis aylaia, which hibernated just out of the egg, exposed out 
of doors had nibbled the seedling violets and probably a good many 
had survived. A. cydippe (adippe) hatched in March. They were 
outdoors and probably all right, as a good many were to be seen. 
Tree-feeding larvae, like y4?/^^^/o;/rt prnuaria and Jjrapteryx sambucaria, 



38 

had done well. Brephos partheniaii had been common this year, as 
had Polyploca fiavicornis. Pehjijonia c-albinn. were put in a cage in 
the warm sun in March and all succumbed. This species was 
gradually spreading over the British Isles, but none could be found 
at Simon's Yat on a four days visit. He had found larvae of 
Ruuiicia pidaeas abnormally abundant on a railway bank and had 
taken about 80 full fed in an hour and a half. At the same place 
quantities of larvae of Camptoyramma hilineata were on the sorrel. 
Bnniicia phlaeas was very early ; it hibernated at different stages. 
This bank faces due south. An interesting point is that the grass 
had all been burnt and many of the sorrel plants were badly singed 
but these grass fires had done no damage to larvae on this ground. 
Dr. Cockayne said that he had fed larvae of Celaena hatvorthii 
from egg to full-growth entirely on cotton-grass. When young 
they eat the centre of the stem just above tbe root-stock; when 
older they eat part of the root-stock also. This year he had a few 
ova of Helotropha leiicostiyma. A piece of dandelion stem was put 
in to keep the eggs slightly moist. He could see no sign of larvae 
though the eggs were hatched. They had bored the dandelion stem 
and eaten it. Not realising this he killed most of them, but two 
were now eating iris stems. They are exactly like the larvae of C. 
haworthii of the same age ; and, as Mr. Tams can find no great 
differences in the genitalia, it appears to be misleading to place the 
two in separate genera. They are congeners, but whether Celaena 
or Helotropha should be the generic name he did not know. 

Revision of the Byk-Laws. 

Shortly before the date of this meeting the following notice was 
posted to every member of the Society. 

Notice. — Owing to the 1891 (present) edition of the Society's 
Bye-Laws being exhausted, a further printing has become urgently 
necessary. Your Council, as mentioned in their Annual Report, 
has taken the opportunity of revising the Bye-Laws and bringing 
them up to date. 

The following resolution was passed unanimously at their 
Meeting held on the 28th March, 1929. 

" That a copy of the proposed Bye-Laws be deposited in the 

Library at once, and remain there till April 25th next. 
•' That any member wishing to propose any amendment shall 
give notice in writing to the Secretary, Stanley Edwards, 



39 

Esq., F.L.S., 15, Sfc. Germans Place, Blackheath, S.E. 3, 
before May 2nd. Such notice to embody the terms of 
the proposed amendment, and to be signed by at least two 
members. 
" That a Special Meeting be called for May 23rd next for the 
purpose of moving the proposed Bye-Laws. No amend- 
ments other than those of which notice has been given in 
accordance with the above shall be moved. An announce- 
ment shall be made from the Chair to-night, and a 
circular sent to each member embodying the foregoing, 
and giving notice of the Special Meeting, 
Mr. Step moved and Mr. VVorsley-Wood seconded 
" That the Notice of Meeting to consider the Bye-Laws be with- 
drawn until every member has a copy of them." 
After considerable discussion this was carried. 



APRIL 25th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. J. Tetley, of " White Cottage," Silverlea Gardens, Horley, 
was elected a member. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited the Coleopteron Timarcha laevigata, ? 
from S. Devon from which had emerged about 100 larvae of a 
Braconid [PeriUtns falciijer, Ruthe.). 

Mr. Grosvenor stated that last July he had Zygaenid ova sent to 
him from the Scotch locality of Zygaena achilleae, which were not 
olive-green like the ova from continental females of that species, 
but were of the pale apple-green characteristic of the ova of Z. 
filipemhdae. The resultant larvae were very active, which was a 
characteristic of Z. achilleae. Mr. Adkin remarked that Z. 
filipendulae occurred on the same ground as Z. achilleae in one of the 
Scotch localities. 

Dr. Bull exhibited ova of Pachnohia rnbricosa and larvae of 
Boariiiia (Tephrosia) crepuscnlaria from East Sussex. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne exhibited examples of preserved larvae of the 
following species of British Grypocera (Skippers) : Nisoiiiades 
{Thanaos) tages, Adopaea fiava {liiiea), Adopaea lineola, Augiades 
sglvaims, and Urbicola comma ; and referred to the remarkable 
ejectory comb, at the exit of the alimentary canal of the larva of 



40 

some species, for the purpose of propelling the pellicles of frass to a 
distance. 

Mr. B. Adkin exhibited British species of "skippers" including 
the following aberrations : — 

Ab. taras and extreme grey and black forms of Hesperia malvae. 

Pale forms and one unusually dark form of Xisoniades tages. 

Various shades of ground colour in Ado]>aea jiava, A. liufiola and 
Thynielicus acteon. 

Extreme forms and the very dark brown ioYva oiA iKiiadeii sylvanus 
taken at Eltham, Kent, and figured by Frohawk. 

Some unusual dark forms of TJrbicola connua and of Ci/clopides 
-palaemon. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exibited series of Hesperia malrae from the 
New Forest and Sussex and pointed out the strong tendency of the 
latter towards the var. taias ; this, he said, was noticeable not only 
in the specimens that occurred on the chalk Downs, but also in 
those from the clay soils of such places as Arlington and Abbot's 
Wood. 

Mr. Mera's exhibit of the same group included numerous very 
well-marked ab. taras of Hesperia )iialvae and a very dark aberration 
of Adopaea fiava. 

Mr. Buckstone exhibited short series of the same group and 
pointed out pale specimens of Urbicola comma, which had occurred 
in a damp season ; he also had an example of a second brood. 

Mr. Tonge, in referring to the ova of the Grypocera, pointed out 
that in A. sylvaims and U. comma they were like an inverted pudding 
basin in shape and smooth of surface, in H. malrae and iV. tages 
they were the same shape with ribbed surface, while in A. jiava, A. 
lineola and Thymeliciis palaeHion they were oval in shape. 

Mr. Turner exhibited a large number of Grypocera mainly from 
S. America and from the Ethiopian Begion, and read the following 
Notes on the Sub- order. 

The Grypocera. 

In these days of rapid advance, it is difficult to keep pace with 
the progress of our science, particularly if one does not peruse the 
current periodical literature, and relies on text-books ; these latter 
may be extremely useful for the identification of our captures, but 
are necessarily stagnant as to later knowledge. 

Students of our native butterflies have been accustomed to look 
upon the " skippers " as quite distinct from the rest, and it has 



41 

even been averred that they were more nearly related to the moths 
than to the butterflies. 

At first it seemed sufficient to refer to them en masse as 
Hesperiides, a name derived from that of one of the most familiar 
of the genera, Hesperia. 

In 1891 Haase, " Syst. Tagfalter," proposed that the skippers be 
constituted as a suborder under the term Netkocera : netros = a 
spindle and cera = a horn. 

In the following year, 1892, Karsch, " Ins. v. Baliberg," pointed 
out that the name Netrocera was preoccupied as a genus name by 
Felder and hence nob valid. He proposed to substitute the 
subordinal name Grypocera : grypos = a hook-tip or nose, and cera= 
a horn, a much more suitable name as expressing an almost 
universal character in the species comprised. 

In 1905, Tutt, " Brit. Lep.," VIII., apparently in ignorance of 
the action of both Haase and Karsch (he does not refer to either), 
and not appreciating the great differentiation of the group, proposed 
to substitute the superfamily name Urbicolides for that of 
Hesperiides. 

Since the publication of Seitz' " Macrolep." Vol. I., in 1911, and 
its distribution throughout the great libraries of the world, the 
skippers have been considered generally as a group of subordinal 
value and the term Grypocera has met with due acceptance. 

In 1928, in his recently published work on " Brit. Lepid.," 
Meyrick, comparing the skippers and the rest of the butterflies, says, 
" differences profound," although as usual, he gives no details but 
adds another name to the suborder, Hespkriina. 

In the address recently read before us. Dr. Cockayne, notes " with 
concern," the " greater and greater separation between entomologists 
who are systematists and those who are interested primarily in 
genetics ; " I would go further and say that two other factors come 
into the question, insular habit, if not prejudice, and language. 
In fact it almost amounts to each worker " ploughing his lonely 
furrow." Still another factor in this want of knowledge among 
our workers must be emphasised, and that is, the enormous mass 
of literature, which is annually produced. Although my connection 
with the " Entomologists Record" has compelled me to endeavour 
to keep in touch with what is going on in the entomological world, 
I feel that from sheer " force of circumstances " I have failed to do 
very much to decrease this want of knowledge. 

There is one habit that should be cultivated and that is, work at 



42 

the literature; look up every reference in whatever subject, and 
whatever you do substantiate your work with these references. The 
spread of knowledge is slow, appallingly slow, rendering advance 
still slower. 

Let us now take our insects more in detail. Looking at them in 
the face we shall note that the eyes are comparatively widely 
separate and large and that the antennae are widely separate at 
their base, the head being as wide as the thorax. We have already 
referred to the hook-tipped antennae. Renter has told us, " Palpi 
den Rhop.," that the uniformity in the structure of the palpi in the 
skippers is so great that he can find no generic distinctions such as 
exist in the various groups and genera of the Rhopalocera. The 
tongue is a very efficient organ and in some species extremely long; 
at least twice as long as the body in Calpodes ethlius. The eyes are 
usually prominent and comparatively large. The thorax is robust 
and well developed, as necessitated by the rapid movements of the 
flight-habit. The abdomen, comparatively short and pointed, is 
not unusually heavy ; even the females exhibit but slightly increased 
size, suggesting that the output of ova must be restricted. Speaking 
generally, the build is compact, never big, in fact for butterflies 
their size is on the small side. 

The wings are of medium size to small ; in venation they are 
very uniform. Many species have hyaline spots, which occur in 
similar areas in different species throughout the world. In 
numerous species there are costal pockets of specialised scales. A 
few species have long tails, but this is only in the S. American 
fauna. The colours are non-obtrusive, as a rule black, brown, dull 
yellow, only in very few species do we get white, blue, red or 
iridescent colour. In fact the type of marking, shape of wing and 
coloration are quite distinctive of the group. 

Mimicry within the group has been suggested with doubt, but 
there appear to be several quite good examples. On the other hand 
protective resemblance must be very strong, the absence of bright 
colours and general dullness would suggest it as probable. 

Dimorphism is only slight. I know of only a few strongly 
sexually dimorphic species ; in many it is difficult to separate the 
sexes at a mere glance. Second generations are, so far as I know, 
rarely recorded and thus seasonal dimorphism is not possible. 

They are a sun-loving group, with a sharp, skipping, zigzag, 
jerky flight most difficult to follow with the eye, and which 
consequently precludes the successful attacks of birds. Their 



43 

resting habit is varied, in some with wings adpressed, erect, in 
others depressed folded around a stem, in others with fore and 
hindwings at different angles. In fact everything points to the 
correctness of the grouping as at present accepted, viz. that they are 
a group equal in status to the Rhopalocera on the one hand and 
to the Heterocera on the other. 

In distribution they occur over the whole world except in New 
Zealand, but are particularly abundant in species in the warmer 
regions ; the American fauna, especially the southern portion, has 
at least 1000 species listed, and the Indo-Malay region above 800. 
They are certainly a strong, dominant group. 



MAY 9th, 1929. 
The Pkesident in the Chair. 

Mr. J. A. Nash, of Blackheath Hill, was elected a member. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited a nest of the larvae of the Brown-tail Moth, 
Nytpnia phaeorrhoea {cJinjsorrhoea), sent to him by Mr. R. Adkin from 
Eastbourne, where the species has remained for many years along 
the chalk cliffs. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited fine examples of the very striking and 
beautiful Morpho Jtecuba from Brazil, which was a few years ago 
considered one of the rare butterflies of the world, until its habit of 
flight was discovered. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited the cocoon of the large sawfly of the hawthorn, 
Tricliiosonm lucoruni. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited the living larvae of Taeniorhynchna 
richiardil, which obtains its necessary supply of air by tapping the air 
cells of the roots and stems of water plants, unlike the larvae of the 
common gnat which must come to the surface of the water for its 
supply of air. He also showed the larva of a species of Douacia, 
likewise an inhabitant of the water. He reported that the pupae 
exhibited at the last meeting, found in earth, had produced a black 
dipteron, Bibio marci, as had been suggested. 

Mr. Blair exhibited the death-watch beetle, Xestobinni riifovillosinn, 
which had been sent to him. It was the same species as had caused 
so much destruction in Westminster Hall. The tappmg noise was 
made with its head. 

Mr. D. L. Glegg exhibited several South African Pajrilio mimics 
and their models. Papilla dardanus f. cenea and its model Aiiiauris 



44 

albiinaculata, P. dardanus f. trophonius and its model Limnaa 
chrysippns, P. dardanus f. liippocoon and its model A. niavius, 
P. leonidas and its model Tirumala petiverana, and P. r idley ami s andi 
its model Acraea e(jina. 

Dr. Bull exhibited an almost unicolorous form of AniuiphapopiiU 
from Kent and reported Brentlm euphrosyjie, Nisoniades tayes and 
Hesperia nialvae as flying on May 8th. 

Mr. Newman reported that he had seen N. tayes, H. vialvae and 
Callophrys rnbi while his B. euphrosyne larvae were not yet in pupa 
under glass shelter. 

Mr. Stanley Smith exhibited a bred series of Phrayinatobia 
fuliginosa and communicated the following note on the brood. 

" First is shown what is possibly a typical Wicken male. The 
female which follows was taken in Wicken Fen in June, 1926. As 
she showed very little smoke colour on the hindwings and the 
band was broken up, my wife bred from it, getting over 100 eggs. 
The larvae were fed mostly on lettuce, dandelion being used only 
when things were getting too wet. The majority pupated in July 
and moths of both sexes emerged in August and September. 
Specimens of these are in the next group of 8 ; considerably larger 
than the parent, and in some the black band of the hindwings is 
well broken up. Whether these approach anywhere near the South 
European form v. fervida mentioned in South would be interesting 
to know. The remainder of the larvae hibernated, and the moths 
which emerged from them in the following May and June run 
slightly smaller, and still tend to our southern form, as shown in 
the next group of 3 moths. The thirteen we had were all males. 
Larvae from a Beccles female in August, 1926, also hibernated, 
and these produced small but typical specimens of both sexes as 
shown in the third group." 



MAY 23rd, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Dr. Harold B. Williams exhibited : — 1. Series of Triphaenajonthina, 
bred February, 1929, from Glasgow ova, showing some variation, 
more particularly in the development of the white markings of the 
stigmata. 

2. Series of Hibernia iiiaryinaria bred from dark Glasgow $ $ . 
All the forms bred show considerable darkening, but the J J are 



45 

quite distinct from ab. fuscata^ which is reported to occur in this 
area. 

Mr. D. G. Sevastopulo exhibited Colias croceus subsp. fieldii : — 
Female with the cell spot of the right forewing enlarged and also 
a slight bulge in the termen. There is no extra vein. Taken at 
Manibanjam in the Darjiling Hills. 

Epinephile jurtina (janira): — Female with all the usual fulvous 
markings a pale cream. Taken at Beaconsfield. 

Hj/poli)inias holina : — Male with pale brown patches, due to 
partial failure of the pigment in the scales. Taken at Amritsar. 

Stibochiona nicea : — Male showing same form of variation as H. 
holina above. Taken at Pamionchi in Sikkim. 

Arfiyunis lathoiiia subsp. issoea : — Male with a branch to vein 5 in 
both hindwings. Taken at Murree. 

Zizera li/sinwji : — Female with left forewing deformed probably 
as the result of an injury to the pupa. Taken at Cawnpore. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited larvae of Leucania ronif/era, L. intpnra, 
L. inipudens (pudoruia) and Tripliaena janthina, and pointed out 
their leading characteristics. 

Mr. Barnett exhibited series of Erannis [Hihernia) defoliaria from 
the South Croydon area, showing much variation in colour and 
marking. 

The meeting was then declared special for Consideration of the 
Bye-Laws revised by the Council and of which a copy had been 
posted to each member in accord with the resolution passed at the 
meeting held on April 11th. 

After considerable discussion, the various suggested alterations 
having been considered and still further revised, the following 
Resolution was carried : — 

Resolved 

That the proposed new Bye-Laws, contained in the annexed 
print*, as amended at the special meeting and initialled and 
copied by the President be and are hereby approved and 
adopted as the Bye-Laws of the S.L.E. and N.H. Soc. in 
lieu of those now in force. 

President — H. W. Andrews. 

* See end of present volume. 



46 

MAY 25th, 1929. 

Field Meeting — St. Martha's Chilworth. 

Leader — Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

The weather was completely fine and pleasant the whole day in 
contrast to that of last year's visit. The usual spring larvae were 
common, even plentiful in some cases, on trees and bushes, including 
representatives of Strymon w-albiun and Zephyriisqiietciis. Imagines 
were scarce ; but Pararge megera, Rumicia phlaean and Callophrys^ mhl 
were seen. Tree trunks produced a number of Ectropis [I'ephrosia), 
E. punctidata being common. A few stray Geometers were noted, 
among which Lithina [Panagra) chlorosata (petraria) was abundant. 
Only eight members were able to be present two of whom did not 
reach the meeting until later in the day. The locality is one that 
is as yet unspoiled by the advent of modern " tripping." 

I am indebted to Mr. E. Step for the following note on the 
locality. 

" Although the soft Thanet Sands of which St. Martha's is built 
are not famed for many of the less-common species of plants, they 
bear a very varied flora, which includes many of the familiar spring 
favourites. Naturally, the woods appear to be of the Oak-Birch 
type, but the northern slopes have been planted with conifers — 
Scots' Pine, Spruce, Larch and many magnificent examples of the 
Lawson Cypress. In the more natural woods of the eastern slopes, 
where we spent the greater part of the afternoon, there was more 
variety, with a sprinkling of Whitebeam, Wych Elm, Spindle and 
Alder. 

" Of the ground vegetation, the most conspicuous item was the 
continuous sheets of brilliant blue contributed by the Bluebells, but 
at closer range this was seen to be varied by abundant Yellow 
Archangel and Red Campion, Scorpion -grass and Wild Strawberry ; 
another wild fruit not yet at eating stage was the Bed Currant, 
with strings of green berries. In the marshy ground between the 
Tillingbourne and the ponds at Chilworth was a golden blaze from 
the crowded Marsh Marigolds. 

" There is a good deal of Heather, a little Broom, and a few ferns 
other than the plentiful Bracken : those noticed being Male-fern 
and the Broad-buckler." 



47 

JUNE 8th, 1929. 

Field Meeting — Brentwood. 

Leaders— Mr. F. B. Carr and Mr. E. E. Syms, F.E.S. 

The day arranged for the field meeting at Brentwood was most 
unfortunate, for it rained the whole time, making beating almost 
hopeless. Six members, however, braved the weather and were 
rewarded by finding both Orf/yia r/onostu/ma and Erastria vennstiila^ 
the two species the finding of which was the object of the meeting. 
Tea was taken at the " Horse and Groom," after which it was 
decided to return home as the weather did not improve. 



JUNE 13th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. D. G. Sevastopulo exhibited a box containing specimens of 
Papilionidae and Pieridae common to England and India, showing 
some of the subspecies found in each place. They were Papilio 
machaon and ssp. asiatica ; Pier is napi and ssp. ajaka ; Gonepteryx^ 
rhanini and ssp. nepalensis ; Colias hyale and ssp. t/licia and ssp. 
nilgiriensis ; C. croceus and ssp. ednsina. The specimens of P. 
machaon were taken in France. 

Mr. C. G. M. de Worms exhibited specimens of the larvae and 
pupae of some of the scarcer and more local species of British 
Lepidoptera taken April to June, 1929. 

A. Rhopalocera. 

(1) Larva and several ova of Papilio ^machaon, taken in Wicken 
Fen on June 9th, 1929. 

(2j Larvae of Pmralis {ZepJn/rns) betiilae, taken in Monkswood on 
May 31st. 

(3) Larvae and pupae of Zephyrns (juercns, taken in various 
districts May, 1929. It was plentiful this year in the Midlands. 

(4) Pupae of Therla iv-albnni, from larvae taken near Guildford, 
on May 26th, 1929. It has been plentiful near Guildford. 

(5) Pupa of Stryinoii iwnni, from larva taken in Warboys Wood, 
June 1st. They were far scarcer than formerly. 

(6) Larvae of Polyowmatus coridon, taken in Fleam Dyke, near 
Newmarket, June 8th. 



48 

B. Heter(5cera. 

(7) Larvas of Gasteropacha querci folia, taken in Wicken Fen, June 
9th, They fed on apple. 

(8) Pupating larva of Catncala sponsa, taken near Oxford, May 
26th, 1929. 

(9) Larvae of Sipianthedon (Sesia) tnyopaeformia, taken under apple 
bark at Wicken, June 10th, 1929. 

He also showed a male specimen of Hi/drilla ftalustris, taken at 
light on the sheet at 1 a.m. in Wicken Pen on June 11th, 1929. 
Only a few specimens wore taken and all at about that time. 

Mr. Glegg exhibited a box arranged with direct and transmitted 
light to exhibit microscopic slides. It was also fitted to pass round. 
The exhibitor was presenting it to the Society, for use at the 
meetings. 

JUNE 30th, 1929. 

FiiiLD Meeting — Princes Risborough. 

J.eader—li. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 

Although it had commenced to rain when the party left Marylebone 
and heavy rain fell most of the way down, on arrival at the station 
we found that there had not been a drop, so hoped for the best. 
Such hopes however were short-lived ; as soon as we reached a 
collecting ground the rain commenced, and fell steadily until after 
tea. The bag consequently was a light one. A few HydreUa [Athena) 
ftamnieolaria [luteata) were beaten from maple, and larvae of 
Triphosa dnbitata were not uncommon on Rliamnus catharticns', 
Cosymbia {Zo)iosoma) linearia was plentiful on the beech trunks. 
On arrival at " The Plough " the only available rooms were already 
fully occupied, but the party, at considerable inconvenience to our 
hosts, were very hospitably accommodated in the kitchen rather 
than in an open shed in the garden. While waiting for tea, some 
Zygaena cocoons were collected both from alongside the road past 
the inn and from along the road at the top of the hill. From both 
series of cocoons Z. lonicerae emerged in a few days, though the 
great majority of the cocoons from both colonies produced Z. 
filipendnlae about a week later. 

On the walk back to the station after tea one example of Lehia 
chlorocephala and a number of Staphylinidae were collected under 
heaps of cut grass. There were present : 6 members and 1 visitor. 



49 

JULY 11th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Farmer exhibited bred specimens of Biston {AnifiJiidntiin) 
betularia the larvae of which came from ova laid on an unidentified 
herbaceous plant. All the imagines bred were small. The typical 
form, the ab. carbonaria and intermediate forms were represented. 
Dr. Cockayne remarked that it was unusual to get the three forms 
in one brood and said that the larvae were known to feed in nature 
on various herbaceous plants. 

Dr. Fremlin exhibited examples of fasciation of the thistle, 
Cardans lajiceolatiis ; a gall on the " crack" willow, Salix fragilis ; 
a young larva of Bi(iiticia pldaean ; an asymmetrically marked 
Spilofioiiia )iienthastn\ a portion of the R. forewing being without trace 
of black marking ; and a 'Iriphaena finihria, with curious, pale scales 
scattered over the forewing breaking up the usual pattern 
irregularly. 

The gall was subsequently found to be the work of the mite 
Eriopluiea triradiatun. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a bred Vuneaaa in from Reigate, July, 1918, 
with the " eyes " on the hind-wings very incomplete. 

Dr, Cockayne referred to the pale colour occurring in an example 
of Pspi(flnter/)iia priiinata bred in Wiltshire and said that the pale 
coloration was a defect in the pigment. He showed the living 
larvae of Enpln/ia Inctuata [Ingiibrafa) from Saxony, of which species 
the occurrence had been reported in this country. They fed on the 
willow-herb, Epilobhon. There were two forms of the larva, a 
brown and a less common, gieen form ; in the former the blood 
and fat were brown and in the latter they were both green. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited the " baker's brat," Thermobia furnorinn, 
a Lepismid, allied to the well-known " silver fish," Lephma 
saccharina. He also called attention to the fact that now was the 
time to observe the curious habits of the larva of the sycamore 
sawfly, Fln/llntoma aceris. 

Mr. J. J. F. X. King exhibited the curious Oeuestia quadra with 5 
wings which he obtained in the New Forest many years ago. 

Mr. Witting exhibited the living larvae of Rnmicia phlaeas from 
Kent. 

Mr. de Worms exhibited Acronicta psi of the very dark London 
form from the Brompton Road and also a larva of Zeuzera pijriiia 
(aesculi). Mr. R. Adkin noted the rare occurrence of the latter 



50 

species in Eastboiu-ne; he said that forty ou fifty years ago it was 
very abundant in Lewisham and in fact all around London, quite 
an urban species and the larvae were then very destructive to trees 
and shrubs in London public gardens. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited the very local Therevid dipteron, 
Dialiinira aiiilifi, L., found in Britain only on the Welsh coast 
sandhills ; the allied species D. aiiunlata was common on most 
sandhills. 

Capt. Curwen exhibited series of Ematurnd atonian'a to show the 
differences between the heath form from Wisley and Lyndhurst and 
the marsh form from Oxford. 



JULY 25th, 1929. 

The Prksidknt in the Chair.* 

Mr. Priest exhibited some well-spotted Spilosouia menthastrihred; 
a very dark Acronicta aceris in which the Hindwings were strongly 
streaked, and a very yellow form of SiJilosoma Intea (liibricipeda). 

Mr, E. Step exhibited a living larvae of Saturnia pavonia, from 
Lynton. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited the apterous female of the parasitic 
hymenopteron Methnca ichnei(uionoides, the host of which was the 
larva of the tiger-beetle Cicindela, which it stings and paralyses, 
laying its egg upon it. The original female was captured at Oxshott 
and 9 ova were laid upon 9 larvae in his subterraria ; the resultant 
imagines bred so far were 4 J s and 2 $ s, the metamorphosis 
taking about a year. The exhibitor explained his method of keeping 
the soil in a subterrarium moist and at the same time free from 
mould. 

Mr. Sevastopulo exhibited a very instructive series of Lijcaenidae, 
each species shown having with it a microphotograph of its 
androconia. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited the scarlet and black seeds of Ahrns 
precatoriiis, L., from E. Africa, infested by a Bruchid beetle, 
Carijopemon cnici(jer, Steph. ; and a ? Tachinid fly, Metopia 
leicocephala, Rossi, interested in the burrowing operations of a 
bunting wasp, A>umophila sabnloaa. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited examples of the British species of 
the Beriuae, a subfamily of the Strationnjidae (Diptera). 



51 

Mr. Anderson exhibited an example of the dari^ Aberdeen race of 
Abraxas (/rossiilan'ctta somewhat asymmetrical in markings. The 
usual dark scaling was increased irregularly about the disc, the 
yellow marking being partially removed and more or less massed 
toward the inner miirgin. 

Mr. de Worms exhibited the following aberrations : — Argynnis 
cyiiippe [adippe) in which the spots on the L. side were more 
emphasised, while those on the R. side were smaller and the 
submargmal series were moved nearer to the margin ; a somewhat 
melanic form of Melitaea anrinia ; and an Adopaea liueola of which 
the L. hindwing was smaller than the K. 

Dr. Robertson exhibited the trifolU-Yike form of Zygaena hmicerae, 
which he had bred from cocoons collected during the field meeting 
near Princes Risborough on June BOfch. 

Mr, Jacobs exhibited a short series of the Tortrix i^lnannonia 
corticana from Henley-on-Thames showing the normal form the 
more plentiful, and the very light form with white dorsal blotch 
less so. (1922). 

Also a series of 29 specimens taken at Bromley, 1929, showing 
preponderance of the darker forms and absence of the lightest 
forms. This series was unselected both in taking and in setting. 

Remarks were made on the present season. Mr. Andrews had 
met with an extremely black form of Biston hetnlaria at Eltham, ab. 
carbonaria [doubledayaria) . Mr. A. Bliss reported Leptosia suiapis 
as being quite common this year. It was also reported from West 
Sussex. Mr. Main said that the larvae of Fltisia iiumeta had been 
met with in dozens around Woodford. It was noted that the young 
larvae of this species hibernated in the dead stems of the monkshood. 
Attention was called to the cocoon which was white in colour at 
first but subsequently became yellow when subjected to moisture, 
heavy dew or rain. 

Mr. Grosvenor called attention to the large number of Zyyaena 
specimens which were of small size this season, and suggested that 
the dwarfing was probably caused by the exceptionally long spells 
of dry atmosphere during the present year. Other members had 
noted an unusual number of small-sized specimens in various species 
this year. 



52 

JULY 2Sth, 1929. 

Field Mketing — Byfleet. 

Leader— K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 

The route taken was along the canal bank towards Woking. In 
the canal itself the Frogbit, Hj/drochan's morsKs-ranae, was plentiful, 
several plants being noted in bloom ; the Flowering Rush, Butomus 
uvibellatus, was also observed but scarce. The daj'^ being dull, with 
occasional threats of rain the Odonata were little in evidence, though 
Lschuura elegans and EnalUuiina ci/athir/ernm. were fairly plentiful. 
On the heath bordering the canal Liuienitis sihilla was observed, 
while Satyrus fieniele, Epinephele tithonus and Flebeius aegon were 
not uncommon. Hupenodes co^taentngalia was taken together with 
a few Phytometra viridaria. Larvae were scarce, but a few young 
Smerinthtis orellatiis^ Pygaera pigra and Calocalpe (Kncosonta) 
undidata were found on the sallows. The long-horned grasshopper, 
Metrioptera brachyptera, was in some numbers among the heather, 
and a colony of the bee, Saropnda bimaculata, was discovered ; the 
rapid motions of this bee and its peculiar high-pitched note excited 
comment. The Psocid, Beiiterella helviniaculata {Caecilia <orticis) 
was in numbers on the bark of one oak tree, the winged males and 
apterous females lurking in crevices of the bark protected by a sheet 
of web covering the crevice. Of the Heath plants Drosera rotundifuUa 
and yarthechun ossifragum were abundant in places, and Linaria 
minor (?) was found in some of the ditches. 

Commander J. J. Walker had kindly promised to meet the party 
at 4 p.m. and conduct them to the famous sand-pit on Horsell 
Common, but by this time the rain was falling steadily, so that an 
immediate retreat was made to Woking for tea. Nine members and 
eight visitors attended. 



AUGUST ISth, 1929. 

The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Robert Ad kin exhibited some leaves of a lilac bush showing 
the manner in which they were distorted by the larvae of Gracillaria 
syringella having fed in them. Also an apple leaf, and called 
attention to the very symmetrical manner in which the edge had 
been turned down by the larva of Oniix guttea. He said that this 



63 

species had recently been very common both in his garden on 
cultivated apple trees, and on some wild apple bushes growing on 
the banks along the Parades at Eastbourne. Both species leave the 
leaves for pupation. 

He also showed pieces of reed stem containing the pupa of Xonariria 
geniinipiDicta and called attention to the small round hole at the 
lower part of the stem where the larva enters, and to the oval 
*' window," some distance above it, which is caused by the larva 
eating away the substance of the stem before assuming the pupal 
stage, leaving only the very thin outer skin of the reed, through 
which the moth pushes its way on emergence. The pupa is usually 
to be found in the stem between these two points. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited a series of the British may-fly known 
as Kcdyonuriis venosia, F., showing its composite nature involving 
four distinct forms (? species). One of these had been identified as 
E. fluniinnm, Pictet, and the other two he suspected were new 
species. 

Mr. D. G. Sevastopulo exhibited a very common form of coloration 
in Indian butterflies, and communicated the following note : — 

My exhibit consists of 3 Satyrids, 1 Nymphalid, 1 Erycinid and 
1 Hesperiid, all of which show a very similar form of marking, 
consisting of a dark brown ground with an oblique light band on 
the forewing. This type of coloration is found very commonly in 
India in the Satijridae, FJrycuiidae and Hesperiidae, more rarely in 
the Amatltusiidae and Nijiiiphaiidae and not at all in the Papilionidae, 
Pieridae, Danaidae and Lycaenidae. Possibly some one can throw 
some light on the popularity of this pattern. 

The species shown were, Lethe rohria [confnsa), L. verma, and 
Pararye inasuni, Satyridae : EutJialia pheiiiiKS ( 2 )> Nyniphalidae : 
Abisara fylla, Erycinidae : Celaenorrhinus leucocera, Hesperiidae, 

Mr. Witting exhibited an asymmetrically marked Colias croceas, 
bred in 1928, and a variety of Eiiclidia mi with much irregular 
suffusion of black scaling especially on the basal half of the hind- 
wings and the costal half of the discal area of the forewings. 
From W. Wickham, 1929. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited living larvae of : — 

(1) Hecatera serena, F., green and brown forms from Bucks, 
feeding on a species of Crepis. 

(2) Cncidlia lychnitis, Ramb., from Bucks, feeding on fig wort 
[Scrophularia nodosa). 



54 

(3) Cosyinbia (Zonosonia) aiuiidata, Schulze {ninicronaria, Hb.) 
from Bucks. ; the ^reen form. 

(4) Euphyia {Cidaria) picata, Hb. {hiantiulata, Haw.), bred ab. ovo 
from a Surrey ? . 

(5) Preserved larvae of Ciu-idlia li/rJuiitis, Ramb. and of C. 
verbasci, L. to show the differences in the markings. 

Mr. A. E. Tonge exhibited wild laid ova of Pheosia {Xotodoiita) 
dictaeoides on birch. 

Mr. Hawkins called attention to the abundance of Centra viinda 
larvae. An " invasion " of Scotland by an unusual number of the 
Crossbill was also reported. 



AUGUST 22nd, 1929. 
Mr. F. B. Carr, Yich^-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Jacobs exhibited a fine melanic female of Ptyclmpoda aversata, 
Bromley, July 30th, 1929 ; a dwarf ^ of (^acoecia crataegana and 
one of C. rosaiia both from Bromley in July ; and a dark ferruginous 
aberration of F.Hxantlnis zoenaua taken at light on August 1st, at 
Bromley. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited two insects, a " skipper " and an ant, 
which had been killed by a fungoid growth. Branched processes 
protruded from the bodies. 

Captain Murray exhibited a Fararge iiiei/era in which the R. 
hindwing was dwarfed. It was taken in Dorset on August 17th. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited a short series of H]ipono)iieuta 
staiiiiella. He said that in May last Mr. H. W. Daltry very kindly 
sent him some larvae of this species, together with a supply of its 
foodplant, Sedinfi. tele/ihiiuii from Dovedale. The larvae were feeding 
in a slight web on the plant, and almost directly after their arrival 
spun their characteristically Hi/ponomeuta cocoons on the receptacle 
in which they were placed, suggesting that it may be a habit of 
the larva to forsake the food-plant and seek some more substantial 
position for pupation. The moths emerged between the 21st and 
26th of June. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited part of the life-history of the house- 
cricket, Acheta doiiiestica. The eggs were laid J to ^ in. below the 
surface of the ground, and ovipoistion took place some 2 days after 
mating, which was effected in a similar way to that described by 
Fabre for the field-cricket. He also exhibited pupae of Acronicta 



56 

menyantlddia from ova laid l)y a $ taken at Witherslack. The 
larvae fed up well and pupation took place in short tubes which 
were plugged after the larvae had been induced to take possession. 



SEPTEMBER 12th, 1929. 
The Presidknt in the Chair. 

Mr. X. E. Tonge exhibited a living male example of the large 
ichneumon Rhi/s^^a persiiasoria taken at Chiddingfold, Surrey. 

Mrs. Brookes exhibited the minute parasitichymenopteron, hliiarsia 
foniiosa, which is being distributed by the Cheshunt Research 
Station to tomato growers to check the ravages of the glasshouse 
white-fl}" ; the living larva of KmiiorpJia elpenor, and a minute 
dipterous parasite on the mite which is attached to the apple. 

Mr. Jacobs exhibited a species of I'lpJiestia taken in cop. on the 
wall of Hibernia Chambers on August 22nd. Ova were laid on the 
24th. They were at first creamy white in colour, but on August 
31st they began to turn to orange. The hatching commenced on 
this morning (Sept. 12th). 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited living larvae of Hadena adnata feeding on 
heath, of Venusia cainbn'ca and EnpitJieria exi(juata feeding on 
mountain ash, all from E. Aberdeen, and of /'>'. canchiata [penwtata) 
from Bohemia feeding on Solidai/o. He stated that the weather in 
Aberdeenshire had been cool, cloudy and showery, and the nights 
were cold. Insects were not common at heather flowers. He had 
met with Xdctna (/lareosa abundant, Tyijihaena comes very scarce, 
X. castauea v. ne(jlecta not common, Calocampa solidaiihiis fairly 
common, T. jaiit/iina Yevy ahnndunt, T. proniiba scarce, A\ xantho- 
(papha very scarce, Cliaraeas (jraminh very abundant, Anarta >nijttilli 
very common, Xoctiia sobrina fairly common, Calosti(jia olivata not 
common, Li/cfris popnlata [dotata) common, L. pyraliata [populata) 
scarcer than of late, Thera linnata common, Di/sstruma citrata 
[iinnianata) the commonest Geometer, Miana literosa was absent. 
Larvae were by no means common, V. caiiihrica very few, E. 
exiijnata very few, Odontopera bidentata very scarce, IjOphopteryx 
camelina common, OpistJiotjraptis luteolata very scarce, Celaena 
haivorthii common, Lijtjris pninata (ribesiaria) in the garden where he 
was staying. 

Mr. R. Adkin read a short paper entitled, " On the Occasional 
Extension of Territory by the Browntail Moth, Xippnia phaeorrlioea^ 
and the Ultimate Collapse of the Effort." (See page 7). 



56 

In the discussion which ensued Mr. Buckstone said that there 
had been a very abundant colony near the beach Heme Bay 
but restricted to about three quarters of a mile inland and about a 
mile wide. It had since become very small. Mr. Turner said that 
a very abundant colony existed in the Wakering Marshes some 
twenty years ago. Mr; Jacobs recorded a similarly restricted colony 
on the coast of France. Dr. Cockayne doubted the fact of immi- 
gration. Colonies had existed all along the coast as far as Yorkshire 
and all of them had their ups and downs. He suggested climatic 
rather than other causes such as disease ; widely separated colonies 
had their ups and downs but not at the same times. Mr. Tonge 
was inclined to suggest parasites ; at Deal all that he turned out in 
the garden succumbed while most of those kept indoors were bred. 
Mr. Andrews reported a colony at Higham near Chattenden about 
twenty years ago and Mr. Adkin had observed this colony in the 
'80s. 

Various members spoke on the increase in the area of distribution 
in recent years of the butterfly Pobjijonia c-albnnt in this country. 
For many years it had been looked upon as almost exclusively a 
Herefordshire insect, where it was carefully watched over by the 
late Mrs. Hutchinson, although it had occurred in Yorkshire, In 
1919 it was reported from Bucks, in 1921 from Wilts, in 1923 in 
Hertford, in Dorset and Oxford it was now even common, it was 
reported in places in Sussex ; perhaps Basingstoke was the nearest 
approach to London from whence it had been reported. 



SEPTEMBER 14th, 1029. 

Field Meeting — Ockham Common and Wisley. 

Leader — Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 

About a dozen members and friends were present at this meeting 
which was arranged particularly for a larva-beating expedition. A 
different route of approach to the ponds was taken, diverging by the 
second turning on the right from Eiifingham Station and then by 
devious footpaths and lanes to a very beautiful corner of the forest 
lands. Thence various tracks lead down to Boldermere around 
which the morning party worked meeting the afternoon party en 
route. Nothing of particular note was reported but a considerable 
bag of useful material was made. 



57 

The Society has visited this locality on various previous occasions 
and detailed accounts may be found in the " Proceedings " for the 
years 1894, 1910, 1916, 1919 and 1922. 



SEPTEMBER 26th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. Bliss exhibited the beautiful green lichen-like form of the 
larva of Gonodontis bide)itata, the peculiar larva of one of the 
*' footman " moths, and the nest of a species of Hymenoptera with 
the maker, found among bananas. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited some leaves of nut which had been mined, 
presumably by a species of Hymenoptera, and also apple leaves 
similarly blotched, the former from Abbot's Wood and the latter 
from his garden at Eastbourne. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner exhibited a varied series of pupae of the 
Geometrid genus Ki)hyra= Cosy mbia ipvesumMy late broods of C. 
pendularia on birch and C. Unearia on beech. 

Mr. C. B. Williams gave a short account of the green-house 
" white-fly," {Aleurodes vajwrarioriini), a pest particularly attached to 
the tomato, of which he stated there were two distinct races, one 
composed almost entirely of females and the other of both males 
and females in about equal numbers. The former race was at one 
time very common but now it was scarcely ever seen, and he wished 
to know if any member could obtain the race for him. Mr. 
Grosvenor said that this pest had been particularly scarce in his 
experience this year at Redhill. Mr. Bliss noted that it had been 
particularly abundant at Purley on his tomatoes during the season. 

Mr. Williams subsequently said that the " white-fly " on cabbage 
[Aleurodes brassicoe) and the " white-fly " on the greater celandine 
could not be separated structurally, but that the species on celanduie 
[A. proletella) would not live on cabbage and vice-versa. 

Mr. Bliss reported the occurrence of I'ohjyonia c-albinn in the 
Isle of Wight and also on sugared trees in the New Forest, LeHco)na 
salicis was also noted as having occurred this year on aspen along 
the coast of Suffolk. 

Mr. Grosvenor reported that out of some 200 ova of Zijyaena 
triftdii he had about 180 larvae. Of these 2 had fed up and pupated 
this year. This was the first time in his experience that this 
species had produced imagines in Autumn. He also had a 



58 

considerable brood of birvae of the South of Frtince Zy(jaena, form 
(iiiceps, which on previous experience had only given him about 1% 
of a second brood, but this year had yielded about 50%. The 
imagines included both 5- and B-spotted fornjs. 

]\Ir. Robert Adkin showed a series of six slides illustrating- the 
life-history of one of the British species of SiundUdae (Diptera) and 
gave notes on their habits. Also some slides of Lepidopterous 
studies. 

Mr. W. H. T. Tams exhibited a short series of slides of the 
genitalia of the Phycid group of which Dio) t/ctria ahietella is a 
member. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited slides. 



OCTOBER 19th, 1929. 
The Pkesident in the Chair. 

Mr. Jacobs exhibited a specimen of the Hornet taken at Ealing 
on September 27th. 

Dr. Bull exhibited undersized Pieria iiapi, captured, of both 
spring and summer broods and measuring 3-5-4cm. ; also a small 
('alias croceiis, 3"5cm., bred in 1928; a small living larva of 
Amorplia populi probably representing a second brood ; larvae of 
Boariiiia roboraria taken in August ; and reported the capture in 
N.E. Sussex of an example of Herse convolvidi. Mr. Newman said 
that he always obtained a second brood of A. populi. He had 70 or 
80 larvae this year which were at the present time pupating. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a melanic specimen of Xanthorho'e [Melan- 
ippe) fliirtiiata which flew in to light at Reigate in August last. • 

Mr. Blair called attention to the finely illustrated articles appear- 
ing occasionally in the " National Geographical Magazine " (Amer.) 
dealing with Insects and their Life-history. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited a leaf of a birch tree showing the 
mine and fold made by the larva of Ornix betnlae, Stt. He said 
that on September 25th he collected in a wood near Eastbourne a 
few leaves containing larvae of this species. As is well known, 
the moth lays its egi^ on a birch leaf, and the larva on hatching 
burrows into the leaf where it feeds for a time, thus forming a 
blotch. The larva in the leaf exhibited was still in the blotch 
when taken. A few days later he had the good fortune to see the 
larva leave the blotch, and to follow the greater portion of its pre- 



I 



69 

paration of the fold in which to complete its feeding. Having left 
the blotch the larva wandered about the underside of the leaf for 
some minutes apparently seeking a suitable position for the fold 
and eventually selected a lobe of the leaf near the stalk. It com- 
menced operations by spinning strands of fine silk across this 
portion of the leaf, throwing its head and anterior part of its body 
violently from side to side in doing so ; this operation occupied 
about half an hour. The larva then rested, stretched out quite 
straight for a considerable time ; he had it under observation for 
an hour and a half during which time it was quiescent, he then 
was called away. On his return after some three quarters of an 
hour, the fold was jnst turned over and the larva was busily 
engaged in sealing down its edge. He wns therefore unable to say 
whether the edge of the leaf is drawn over by the tightening of the 
strands of silk as they dry, or whether the larva employs any 
further means of attaining that object, but having regard to the 
small size of the larva, he thought the former proposition the most 
probable. 

He also exhibited a seed-head of the common rush [J uncus 
comuiunis) on which were a number of cases and living larvae of 
Coleafihora raeftjiititiclla, Zell., a species that had been very abundant 
in the neighbourhood of Eastbourne this autumn, the seed-heads in 
many places being literally smothered with them. 

Mr. Step exhibited, on behalf of Mrs. Step, living first year 
plants of the Furze [Ulex europaeus), showing clearly the transition 
from trifoliate leaves, through unifoliate leaves to spines on the 
upper parts of the plants. They had developed from self-sown 
seeds which had germinated in the peat-soil in which an Azalea 
was potted. Mr. Step described it as an object-lesson in evolution. 

Mr. C. J. M. de Worms exhibited lepidoptera taken near Tours 
(Indre-et-Loire) during September, 1929, including — (1) two 
specimens of Colias hyale, both males, one being of an unusually 
deep yellow colour and the other of the normal cream tint but 
having a greatly extended border on the hindwings. (2) A series 
of 4 males and 1 female specimens of Lauipides boeticus (the " long- 
tailed blue," taken September llth-15th on lucerne flowers. It was 
the first time he had met with the species, which he understood 
was extremely infrequent in that part of France and only seen at 
very long intervals. 



60 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited a female " bhick-bellied tarantula" 
(LAjcosa) with its family posed on its back. It came from Agay, 
South of France. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited : — 

(1) Leucania inipnra, Hb. Bred this year from Bookham larvae. 
A short series showing a fair amount of variation in the tint of the 
hindwings and in the development of the black streaks on the 
forewings. One specimen had the short black dashes at the anal 
angles of the forewings unusually well marked. 

(2) KupUhecia absinthiata, Clerck. A short series bred last year 
from Oxshott larvae, showing variation in tint and development of 
markings. In two specimens some of the costal spots have joined 
and formed large black blotches. 

Also living larvae of Apamea i(iia)iiiiiis, Eupithecia exvjuata, 
Horifiitie [Phibalaptenjx) vitalbata, MelantJiia proceUata, and Liydia 
adustata. 

Dr. Bull reported the occurrence of a second brood of Vajieasa io 
some six weeks previously. Mr. Newman had never met with a 
second brood, but Mr. Frohawk had recorded it once. The species 
was generally found to be very scarce this season. 

Mr. E. Step read a short paper '• Thorns and Prickles." (See 
page 12). 



OCTOBER 24th, 1929. 
Annual Exhibition. 

Mr. C. D. Anderson exhibited five Melitaea cinxia, bred, Isle of 
Wight, 1928 ; 1 and 2, minor aberrations ; 3 and 4, under-side 
aberrations with a paucity of black markings ; 5, a typical specimen. 
Four FolyommatHn thetis (bellaryus) taken at Folkestone, September, 
1928 ; 1 and 2, slate grey males ; 3 and 4, minor under-side 
aberrations. Three Arctia caja, 1, absence of brown and blue 
markings on all four wings ; 2, L. side normal, R. side forewing 
lacking full brown markings, taken in the Isle of Wight, 1929 ; 3, 
yellow hindwings, taken at Bexley, 1929. Aberrations of Abraxas 
grossnlariata, and other species. 

Mr. S. R. Ashby exhibited his collection of the genera Necrophorus 



61 

and Silpha and the families Tenehrionidae and Melandn/idae in 
British Coleoptera. 

And on behalf of the Society he exhibited the collections of 
British Paraneuroptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Hemiptera. 

Mr. H. W. Andrews exhibited series of species of British Trypetidae 
(Diptera). 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited series of British Pyrales including the 
rarer species Mecyna polygojialis, Pi/raiista repandalU, P. niibilalisj 
etc. 

Lieut. E. B. Ashby exhibited Poiitia dapUdice and its spring 
brood hellidice including an aberrant female, and also the Guethery 
form of Epinephele titlionioi with broadened and darkened markings 
and typical examples for comparison. 

Mr. L. C. Bushby exhibited the following living species : — 

Arachnida : — Variegated Scorpion [OpiMhophthalmns capensls)^ 
South Africa. Long-<-ailed Scorpion {IschnnrKu trir/n'iirus), South 
Africa. Fat-clawed Scorpion {Scorpio niaurns), Algeria. 

Crustacea : — Land Hermit Crab {Coenohita rugoaa), Sumatra. 

Coleoptera : — Antlda venator [Carabidae), Algeria. 

Orthoptera : — Green-mottled Mantis {Blapharis mendica), Algeria. 

Hymenoptera : — Nests of a Mud Wasp, Texas. 

Neuroptera: — Ant-lions {Aconthaclisis sp.), South France. 

Orthoptera: — Cockroach (Blabera sp.), Trinidad. 

Dr. Bull exhibited the following aberrations of Brenthis ei(p/irosi/ue, 

(1) with hindwings suffused and forewings with obsolete markings ; 

(2) with all four wings suffused and with a *' hook-tip " deformity 
on the left side which is smaller than the right ; (3) a partial 
second brood which appeared in August, 1927 ; etc. 

Mr. A. A. W. Buckstone exhibited comparative series of Melitaea 
aurinia from various localities in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Mr. T. L. Barnett exhibited — (1) long comparative series of 
Plebeius aegon from Surrey, Kent and S. Devon including aberra- 
tions, a ^ with dark brown spots on the outer margin of the hind- 
wings, a $ with the right hind wing upperside of purple coloration, 
Kent, and a ? from S. Devon with the underside spots elongated ; 
(2) a long series of Plebeius [Aricia) medon of the spring and 
summer broods with ^ and $ ab. obsoleta, a rT dark brownish 
grey underside, a striated 2 Surrey, 1919, race salmacis from 
Durham and race artaxerxes from Aberdeenshire. 



62 

Miss Winifred W. M. A, Brooke exhibited (1) Specimens and 
drawings of Arthroaiodax wusiikdu, Kietfer, a gall midge (Diptera), 
named by IMr. Barnes as being the above species " ahiiost without a 
doubt," and probably the first specimen found in Great Britain. 
(2) Specimens and drawings of Encarsiafonnosa^ a minute Hymen- 
opteron parasitic on " snowy-fly." 

Mr. H. M. Edelsten exhibited a long and variable bred series of 
the two Noctuids Xylina mcia and X. aemihrunnea from mid Sussex 
in 1929. 

Mr. L. T. Ford exhibited (1) a brood of Lef)to(jramina [Peronen) 
literaiia, all the 42 specimens being alike but unlike the $ parent ; 
(2) a brood of Peronea cn'stana, all dissimilar from the $ parent and 
including 3 ab. striana and 7 ab. profanana, the $ parent being ab. 
crutalana. He also showed Coleophora paripeiuidla. 

The Rev. E. E. Frampton, a long series of Bom-niia repandata 
including local forms and aberrations from W. Kent, Wales, N. 
Cornwall and S. Derbyshire. 

Mr. B. S. Harwood exhibited : — 

Orthoptera.-- (1) Metn'optera roeselii, a macropterous $ with 
typical brachypterous pair. (2) Xiphidiurn dorsale, a macropterous 
^ with typical brachypterous pair. 

AcuLEATA. — (1) Bombiis liipidariiis, right side ^ left side ^ . 
(2) Cerceris rybi/en.sis, a white banded var. with white marked legs, 
and a typical specimen. 

Diptera. -^Scarce British Diptera including Didea alneti, Callicera 
ae)iea, Mallota cinibiciforniis^ Laphria fiava, Pamponerua (jernianiciifi, 
GastrophiluH pecnrum and 6r. eqin, Cepheuomyia rnfibarbis and 
Tabanidae. 

Lepidopteka. — Papilio luacliaon bred without tails and 2 others ; 
Abraxas (jrosmdariata vars. ; C. pa m.philns ya,vs. ', P. coriduii vsbYfi.; 
Melliiiia gilvaffo, light and dark forms, and M. ocellaris, W. Suffolk, 
September, 1929 (one very dark form). 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited a series of aberrations of British 
Lepidoptera together with many preserved larvae showing variation 
in each species. 

Mr. S. N. A. Jacobs exhibited a most interesting local collection, 
representative of some 70 species of Tortrices taken in a small area 
(demonstrated in a map) at Bromley, Kent, during the years 1928 
and 1929 alone. These included : — 



•IJJJJJJJJJJJWJJM. 







63 

Bactra Kpiblema Cacoccia 

la)tceol(t)ia. bihtnana, costana, 

Eucosina solandriana ?, iinifasriana. 

varieijand, acopoliaiia, Painieinia 

pniniaiia, cana. ribeaiia^ 

obloiKjaud ^ Heiiiiiiiene ciniiamomeana, 

nrtiraihi, politamt, /h'/noaiin . 

IdCiDKina , petiveicllu^ I'ortri.i; 

striana. tauaceti. foiskalfoiia, 

Enar}ii())u'n L\nniin'ite beniutanniaua, 

corticana, orliHetiheiiiicriaita roinvaijaiKt, 

U'<)eb(n-iana. r/iediella, locfiiiKjiana, 

J'metoceiit splewiidana, viriilaiia, 

oceUditn, artjyrana, paieatta, 

Aticf/lis regiana. siiiiiaiia, 

Imiilaua. Ciirporapaa viniaiii iiDia, 

Gj/psoiioiiia jiilidiKi, iiirei tana, 

dealba)ia, sph'iKUoia. pasciuvia. 

aceriana. Acalla Isotrias 

Cydia sj)()H!ia)ia, hybridatia. 

ti iniaciiUnia, varieyaiia, Lozopera 

raiiudla, retindana, fraiici'Uana, 

acJiatana, ferniyana, notiilana, 

nitjfouiacidaiia. holmiana. iiiamiiana, 

Notoceiia Epaynge iiupUcitaiia, 

iiddniainiiana, grotiana. siiwatliuiainiiaiia. 

ti'iinacidana. Capua KuxantJda 

Epiblenia anguatioraua. zoegana, 

i)nmit)idaiia, Cacoecia haiiiana. 
teti (KjKi'trana, poilaiia, 
pfiiigiana, xglosteana, 
trigeiiiina)ia, rosea it a, 

The above were collected in the area shaded in the accom- 
panying map. 

Most of the collecting was done in fields A and B, and the shaw 
to the south of them ; A being a dry field sloping steeply down 
towards B which is also grass but of a boggy nature. 

Several species that came to light were taken at his house. 

Isotrias hgbridana was taken from the elms bordering the road to 

the south, and several species from garden fences in the road to the 
north. 



64 

Mr. H. A, Leeds exhibited a series of aberrations of British 
butterflies, all wild, captured during 1929. 

Ejnnephele jiirtina, 2 J uppersides with large whitish areas. ? 
uppersides symmetrically marked with brown base and streaks, the 
latter crossing to the outer border over a wide and almost white 
ground ; another with black spot and pale surrounding on hindwings. 
5 underside, homoeotic-fulvous streaks on the upper portion of the 
left hindwing. 

Mdauart/ia (jalatliea, ^ upperside, cream ground and reduced 
black markings. 

Afflaifi urticae, ^ uppersides, abs. ichnusa and polaris. 

P. coridon, $ upperside, wood-pigeon colour ; $^ undersides with 
the black spots of the outer border absent from forewings, also abs. 
ohsoleta and posticocaeca. 2 undersides, abs. dejctroconflnena, 
^avesce)iSj and posticocaeca. 

P. aegon, ^ uppersides with outer area very broadly white on 
forewings, lilaciua-niinntifisiinna, 20mm. Several $ uppersides, 
ivpqiialis-homoeotic, the 3rd submedian spot with pale area of the 
left forewing being reproduced on upperside. Also a dark 
unicolorous specimen without markings, and 2 with wainscot 
streaks. A ? underside with 6th submedian spot forming a very 
long streak on hindwings ; and abs. fiavescens and inofpiipioicta. 

P. medon, ^ upperside with golden lunules. And ^ undersides 
abs. dhcreta and auticocaeca-posticoohsoleta. 

C. paiiiphiliis, ^ upperside with large white patches near centre 
of each wing, 

P. icanis, a S' underside with a broad black band from centre of 
thorax to twin spot chevrons near inner border of hindwings. Two 
well streaked female inegnalis, the left forewing of one on a brown 
ground and the other on a blue ground. A very black ? specimen 
with blue apex and base, but entirely devoid of the orange lunules. 
$ undersides, like coridon, ab. confineiin, and an exceptionally well 
marked radiata. 

Rinnicia phlaeas, a $ upperside with a small basal spot below the 
normal one on each forewing. 

Papilio iiiacJiaon, a J underside with hindwings buff tinted instead 
of pale yellow. 

Mr. R. M. Long exhibited Epinephele jnrtina (janira) $ , with 
apical spots missing, Cheltenham, 1929; Polyonnnatus icariis J^ , 
upperside of right forewing streaked with dark brown, Reigate, 
1929 ; and P. thetis [ad<mis) J , underside hindwings partially 
striated. Worthing, 1929. 



65 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited specimens of the large and beautiful 
Morp/u) Iifcitha and M. eucienia from S. America. 

Mr. L. W. Newman exhibited a long series of aberrations of 
British Lepidoptera taken in 1929, including Breuthis eK/throsyne, 
Runiicia phlaeaa, Polyonnnatns thetis, IHebeiits aeffoji, Papilio vtachaon, 
Aglais urticae, etc. 

And on behalf of Mr. A. N. C. Treadgold a collection of Lepidop- 
tera captured in June, 1928, at Klondyke, and called attention to a 
number of the species almost exactly agreeing with British forms of 
the same species. 

Mr. L. Hugh Newman exhibited a series of numerous garden 
pests with preserved larvae and pupae of the same. 

Mr. S. R. Ashby, on behalf of Mr. Jacobs, exhibited a North 
American Longhorn Beetle, Monochaums titillator, Fb., taken in 
Cannon Street, City, September 11th, 1929, and exhibited alive. 

Mr. C. G. Priest exhibited varied local series of Hipjxirc/na semele, 
Polyoimnatus thetis {adonis), and P. coridon of both sexes. 

Mr. Percy Richards exhibited a number of life-histories of British 
Lepidoptera. 

Dr. E. Scott exhibited a collection of Rhopalocera he had made 
in the Belgian Ardennes Mts. 

The Rev. C. E. Tottenham exhibited the following Coleoptera : — 

(a) Series of Osphya bipmictata, J ^ and ? ? with g" coloured 
as 5 and vice versa. 

(6) Series of Saprosites mendax, a South Australian beetle, occurring 
in Sussex together with its larva. 

(c) Long series of Donacia sericea, showing great colour variation. 

((/) Series of Melanotus castanipes, from Savernake Forest (with 
M. rufyyes for comparison). 

He also showed (1) Depressaria nervosa (Lep.) and larva, together 
with a parasitised specimen of the larva ; (2) Earwigs, set to 
show the method of folding the wings. 

Dr. Harold B. Williams exhibited 1. Series of Cosnwtriche potatoria 
$ $ from (a) Eastbourne, [b) N.E. Surrey, bred 1929, including 
pale, brown, and well-marked forms in each series. 

2. Xylopliasia vionoylypha, dark form, Esher, 1929, with the 
ordinary form from the district for comparison. 

3. Series of Sarrothripa revayana bred recently from the Oxshott 
district, nearly all of a melanic form ; and selected Calytnnia pyralina 
bred and captured in recent years in Surrey, including examples of 



66 

the plain brown " type " form, which appears to be rare in 
England. 

Mr. C. H. Williams exhibited long series of aberrations of Abraxas 
(jroxsulariata, Polyonunatns coridon, and Lycia {Biston) hirtaria. 

Mr. C. G. M. de Worms exhibited (1) a S specimen of Hydrilla 
palustris taken in Wicken Fen eJune 11th, 1929 ; (2) Melanic 
specimens of MeUtaea aurinia J , Dorset, May, ld2d, Agrotis seyetiwt 
2 , Wicken, June, 1929, A. corticea J , Surrey, June, 1929, and 
Xylophasia vionoylypha $ , Scotland, August, 1928 ; (8) a short 
series of xantbic examples of Kpinephele Jnrtina [janira) of both 
sexes ; and specimens taken in France of the rare Apatiiea dumerilii. 

Mr. H. Worsley-Wood exhibited an example of Colias croceus ab. 
pallida, with hindwings brownish grey and no black margin ; a 
Metachrostis [Bryophila) ninraltH var. impar from Cambs. with 
preserved larva and pupa and a photograph of the ova (x 10) by A. 
W. Dennis. 

Mr. C. C. Stubbs exhibited several ^ E m at urga atotn aria vfith the 
transverse lines on a creamy-white ground and all other usual 
markings absent. 

Mr. S. G. Castle-Russell exhibited Colias croceus, Bognor, bred 
1928, including a male assimilating colour of ab. helice, and a series 
showing colour variation. 

Brenthis euphrosyne, N. Hants, 1929, including three upper and 
one underside aberrations. 

B. selene, N. Hants, 1929, an upperside aberration. 

Polyommatiis coridon, AVilts, a gynandromorph : one hindwing 
being principally female : remaining wings male ; two dark forms 
of var. synfjmpha. 

Aylais iirticae, Godalming, a cream-white specimen. 

Coenonywpha paurphilus, N. Forest, a dark suffused form, var. 
lyllus, 

Nisoniades tages, N. Hants, a partially bleached form. 

Ha)iiearis liicina, N. Hants, a specimen with upper wings partially 
cream. 

He also exhibited four volumes of original paintings made by 
William Buckler and used for the plates in the volumes on the 
Larvae of British Lepidoptera issued by the Ray Society. 



Ah 



o 
CO 

o 




67 

NOVEMBER 14th, 1929. 

The President in the Chair. 

Mr. H. Moore exhibited Lycorea atevf/atis from Costa Rica with 
the anal tuft displayed, and a number of Hymenoptera about which 
he asked for information. 

The Rev. E. E. Frampton exhibited a long varied series of Boarmia 
repandata from Cornwall. There were none of the form conversaria 
so well known on the N. Devon coast. 

Dr. Bull exhibited Nanessa io showing colour variation and 
asymmetry, also 2nd brood larvae in their 3rd instar from the end of 
August imagines. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited photo-micrographs of the ova of the Diptera 
Musca doniestica, Fannia canicularis, and Calliphora erythrocephala ; 
all X 30 diameters. 

Mr. W. Randall Parkes exhibited a specimen of Gonepteryx 
rhaiitni, and communicated the following note. — 

" I should like to report the capture of a particularly interesting 
gynandrous specimen of this common butterfly, which I was 
fortunate enough to take while collecting on Honiton Common, S. 
Devon on August 25th, 1929. The insect had apparently recently 
emerged and was in perfect condition. 

*' It shows a predominance of the pale greenish yellow colour of 
the female sex on the left wings, whereas on the right side the dark 
yellow of the male predominates. 

'* On the left side the dark yellow occupies an area of about one 
eighth of the total and is distributed in a bold streak across the 
middle portion of each wing, extending from their bases to within 
a short distance of their outer margins. On the forewing there is 
also another small patch extending along the costal margin for 
about its medial third. 

" On the right side the dark yellow colour occupies the anterior 
third of the forewing, extending in a broad band from the base to 
the outer margin. There is also a small patch at the inner angle. 
On the hindwing the dark yellow occupies the posterior two thirds. 
The remaining portions of these two wings display the pale greenish 
yellow colour of the female, but in a very slightly darker shade than 
on the left side. 

" The orange spots on the wings are equal in size and colour on 
both the right and left sides. On the underside the distribution of 



68 

the dark yellow colour is approximately the same as on the 
upperside. 

" Another interesting feature is that there is a marked increase in 
the amount of the downy hair on the medial portion of the left 
hindwing as compared with the opposite side. In other respects 
the right and left sides of the specimen are alike." 

Mr. Buckstone exhibited a very dark male specimen of Polyoiinnatns 
icarna from Folkestone, and noted that on August 15th males were 
far more plentiful than females, and a week later females were worn 
but males still fresh and plentiful. 

Mr. Bunnett exhibited 6 J s and 2 2s of a Dipteron Conops 
cerUfonnh, taken in Petts Wood, N.W. Kent ; a specimen oi Sphinx 
Gonvolvnli taken by a school-boy on Folkestone pier. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited living larvae of Caradrina taraxaci from 
Kent. 

Capt. Curwen exhibited a large number of Lepidoptera taken by 
him in the woods and hills between Bad Kreuznach and Bad 
Miinster and on the ' Seven Mountains,' Konigswinter, in the 
German Rhineland. He said that most of the early summer species 
were worn out and the mid-summer species were just commencing 
to emerge. Although species were few, their numbers were very 
great and almost every tree in the wood had one or more moths on 
its trunk. In some cases there were about a dozen moths on 
one oak trunk. Out of 22 species of butterflies 6 were non-British, 
and out of 27 species of moths only 1 was non-British. 



NOVEMBER 2Sth, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited an album containing long series of leaves 
and plants showing the mines of Nepticulae and some other species. 
The mines made by the larvae of these small moths are very 
distinctive and often form a more easy method of distinguishing 
the species than the moths themselves. The album was loaned by 
Prof. Waters who had made a close study of this branch of the 
Lepidoptera, 

He also exhibited a number of Tortrices and Tineina reared 
during the past summer from larvae found on fruit trees in his 
garden at Eastbourne and read notes on them. 



69 

DECEMBER 12th, 1929. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. B. W. Adkin exhibited — 

1. An Arctia caja with red scaling on the fore wing. 

2. A possibly gynandroas specimen of Cosniutriche potatoria, 
which, when bred, had an abdomen of female size, now shrivelled, 
but otherwise resembled a male. One hindwing was white in 
colour. 

3. [Jnienitis sibilla ; a specimen with unequal wings possibly 
gynandromorphous. 

4. Vanesfia io ; a similar specimen with unequal wings and 
unequal markings. 

5. Three specimens of a very dark race of Euphyia (Cufaria) 
silaceata from S. Devon and three specimens from Kent for 
comparison. Also 

6. Chiasmia [Strenia) clathrata ; six unusual varieties including 
unicolorous white, unicolorous yellow, almost white and almost 
black forms. 

Mr. Hy. J. Turner, on behalf of Mr. A. J. Wightman and himself, 
exhibited a long series of bred specimens of Nonagria sparganii, 
including the following forms — obsoleta, with all the markings 
obsolescent ; hipunctata with a short black lineola on the median 
nervure and above it a trace of the orbicular mark and the 
characteristic black lunular mark ; rufescens, suffused reddish 
ochreous, a form with a blackish shaded central nervure, another 
with dots on the central nervure joined by two fine lines, another 
with a pinkish suffusion spreading inwards from the outer margin 
with pink cilia, and another of a bright coppery red. In addition 
Mr. Wightman had sent six very extreme aberrational forms which 
were quite new and distinct. 

Capt. Curwen exhibited a curious teratological example of 
Riiniicia pldaeas with a very decided hooked apex on the left 
forewing. It was taken at Hengistbury Head. It was noted that 
Coenonympha panrphilits had a tendency to the same malformation 
in two specimens that were shown. He also showed aberrations of 
Polgoiiniiatus icanis, a bleached example, several strongly blue- 
marked females, a dwarf of 17mm., a striated underside and one 
with an arcuate confluence of inner margin spots. Dr. Bull 
fitated that he had seen Brenthis euphros}/)ie with a hooked forewing. 



70 

Mr. W. R. PcU-kes exhibited Ntjg)iiia [h^iiproctis) phaeorrlioea 
(chryfiorrhoea), the *' Brown-tail Moth," and communicated the 
following note : — I have been fortunate enough to obtain a series 
of this species, which I reared from larvae obtained on the Undercliff 
near Ventnor, Isle of Wight, in June, 1929. The larvae were found 
feeding on low-growing sloe bushes near the sea shore, the bushes 
for the most part being about 2-3 ft. in height. 

One of the specimens, a male, is particularly interesting owing to 
its having four conspicuous black dots on its forewings and one on 
each of its hindwings. In other respects it agrees with the normal 
specimens shown. The tail was also of a lighter brown. 

Mr. Tonge remarked that he had obtained a few examples of a 
similar form from Eastbourne. 

Mr. E. J. Bunnett exhibited a large Ahjt/ale sp. alive which had 
been found in a bunch of bananas from the West Indies. 

Mr. S. N. A. Jacobs exhibited several specimens of the Hemipteron, 
Ploiariola culiciforntis. remarkable for its extremely long and fragile 
structure. They were found in a comatose condition on rafters in 
the roof of a house at Lewisham. After remaining comatose in 
a box for about a week they became active in the warmth of hia 
pocket. 

Mr. Tonge exhibited a stereoscopic photograph of the hammock- 
like cocoon of the micro moth Lyonetia clerkella. 

Dr. Bull exhibited various teratological specimens of Lepidoptera : 
Aphantopns hyperantiis with a white patch on the L. forewing, a 
striking failure of scaling ; Aylais iirticae with dwarfed L. hindwing ; 
Nisoniades tages with dwarfed R. hindwing ; and Xylophasia 
vionotflyp/ia which had been attacked on the sugar patch by the 
beetle Carahus violaceiis. 

Mr. Andrews exhibited types of all the British species of the 
family Conopidae (Diptera) from his own collection and species kindly 
lent by Mr. Collin. This family of which 6 genera and 15 species 
are known in Britain, is a distinct group more brightly coloured 
than usual among diptera, and having in several cases a strong 
superficial resemblance to Hymenoptera {e.y., Conops to the smaller 
Fossores and FJiysocephala to AiiimopJiila). 

All the species are parasitic on Hymenoptera, and in some cases 
are stated to oviposit on their hosts during flight. The ova have 
a bunch of filaments or hooks at the Tuicropylar area. The pear- 
shaped larvae feed internally on their hosts and eventually pupate 
within their bodies. Notwithstanding the fact that some species 



71 

are quite common there are very few records of their having been 
bred in this country, and most of our knowledge of their life-histories 
is taken from Continental workers from whose writings the following 
list of genera and their hymenopterous hosts is also taken. 

Conops (Dip.) on Bombus, Osmia and Vespa (Hym.). 

P/il/soccp/iala (Dip.) on Apis, Bunihiis, Colletes, Eiicera and Vespa, 
(Hym.). 

Zndion (Dip.) on Halictiis (Hym.). 

Oncoinyia (Dip.) on ? HalictKs (Hym.). 

Siciis (Dip.) on Bnmhiis (Hym.). 

Myopa (Dip.) on Andrena, Botuhiis, Mefjachile, Ualictun, and 
Xylocopa (Hym.). 

7 of the 15 British species have been taken by Mr. Andrews in 
the N. Kent district. 

Mr. R. Adkin then read a short paper, *' The Season of 1929 at 
Eastbourne." (See page 15). 

This led to a considerable number of remarks from members 
on the Season. 

Mr. Newman had had about 50 pupae of Heliothis peltiijera. They 
were kept in the ordinary way and about 16 emerged in the winter, 
the remainder from the end of May to mid- July. Lycaenopsis aryiolns 
was not as common as usual at Folkestone, but it was distinctly 
scarce at Bexley and in some places was not observed at all. A 
Spilodes paleolis was taken in mid September. Colias hyale was 
very common on the Essex coast and at Heme Bay. Mr. Adkin 
suggested that L. aryiolKs at Eastbourne may have been driven 
inland by the long continued strong wind. Capt. Carwen said that 
L. aryiolns was unusually common at Twickenham. Dr. Cockayne 
said that he forced most of his H. peltiyera. Those which emerged 
soon after pupation in July were very pale while tho^e which 
emerged last in October were the darkest. He found it fatal to 
leave the pupae alone ; he was most successful with those dug up 
and placed in a dry tin. Mr. B. W. Adkin reported FJiichloe 
cardainines very scarce. In Cornwall he saw only one specimen. 
Mr. Newman had seen only one. Mr. Hawkins saw no Colias 
croceus nor C. hyale at Sandown, I. of Wight during the early part 
of September, but took two and saw a third C. croceus near 
Banmore Common on September 28th; Euiaturya atomaria was 
very scarce. Dr. Cockayne said that both imagines and larva of 
the last named species were common in Aberdeenshire. Mr. 
Bunnett had seen only four C. croceus at Lewes. Dr. Bull had 
seen no tJ. cardainines in E. Kent. 



72 

JANUARY 9th, 1930. 

The President in the Cbair. 

Ml*. Sjras exhibited a specimen of the uncommon snake-fly, 
Rapliidia cofjnata taken on Jane 15th, 1929, by beating oak in 
Huntingdonshire. 

Ml'. C. N. Hawkins, on behalf of Dr. E. A. Cockayne, exhibited 
galls made by larvae of Sciapteion tabanifonnia^ Rott., {vespiformis, 
Westwood, non L. ; axilifoiinU, Steph.) in small branches of Poplar; 
and communicated the following note. — 

*' The specimens are of German origin, from the neighbourhood of 

Berlin, and three of them contain living larvae. These galls are 

slender swellings on the twigs and one in particular is not very 

conspicuous. One gall has been partially opened and the larva 

may be seen in its chamber within. This gall is, however, 

presumably abnormal, as when opened from the other (lower) end 

it was found that the central and thickest part of the gall was 

occupied by another chamber having an external opening through 

the side of the gall and containing five small red and black ants 

(very kindly identified by Mr. H. Donisthorpe as Leptothorax 

acervornm, F., and also exhibited). The ant chamber has been 

carefully smoothed inside and would, Mr. Donisthorpe informs me, 

probably serve as the foundation of a larger nest in due course. 

The larva has withdrawn into the narrow, upper, part of the gall and 

has completely closed its burrow above the ants with a thick plug 

of bitten wood, and so seems safe from attack. A fourth gall, from 

which the larva has been removed, has been opened completely, to 

shoAV the form of burrow and the plugs made by the larva across 

the burrow above and beneath, to form a pupation chamber. Some 

of the gall-bearing branches sent to Dr. Cockayne, had, he told me, 

little rootlets attached and others obviously came from higher up 

the trees, whilst some larvae had bored in hard, woody pieces of 

root, so that the species must vary considerably in its larval habits. 

This is confirmed by the accounts given by different authors as the 

few following notes will show." 

South, " Moths of the British Isles, series ii.," states that the 
larva " lives under the bark of poplar trunks." 

Scorer, " Entomologists Log Book," says " Feeds under the bark 
of Poplars." 

BoisDuvAL, " Spec. Gen. Lep. Het. vol. i., 1874," says the larva 
lives at the base of young Poplars (P. fostu/iala (sic) and /'. nigra) 
at about 6 to 7 inches above the root. 



73 

Staudinger, " De Sesiis Agri Berolinensii^, 1854," records branches, 
trunks and roots of Popidiis nigra and more rarely in P. trenuda 
(or also in Betida alba ?). 

Bartel-Seitz, " Macro-Lepidoptera of the World, vol. IL," says 
** Lives in swellings of small stems and branches of Poplar, 
especially of P. tdgra and P. tremida ; also in the stronger roots of 
young trees, in stumps of branches and at the base of the trunk, 
but has also been bred from bushes of crippled Salix.'' He adds, 
" The statement that the larva of rhingiaeformis " (a form of 
tab ani for mis), '' has been found in Ebidion linmile, has not been 
corroborated." 

Newman, " Ent. Mag. I., p. 88, Sept. 1832 " gives it as living 
under the bark of Birch and Populns dilatata. 

Barrktt, " Lep. Brit, Is., ii., p. 78, 1893 " quoting Hoffmann 
says '' Lives in trunks of Poplars {P. nigra and tremida) making a 
gallery under the bark." 

The Rev. F. 0. Morris, " Natural History of British Moths, vol. 
i., pp. 25, 26, 1872" says " It feeds in the stems and branches of 
the Poplar, the Aspen and, it is said, the Beech." 

Wilson, " Larvae of Brit. Lep." " Foodplants, Ash, Aspen, Poplar, 
stem and roots." 

Edward Newman, " The Illustrated Nat. Hist. Brit. Butterflies 
and Moths," '* the caterpillar feeds on the roots of Ash and Aspen 
trees." 

KiRBY, " Allen's Naturalists' Library " " The larva lives in Sallow, 
Ash and Aspen." 

While Meyrick, " Handbook of Brit. Lep. Rev. Ed. 1928," merely 
says " In stems and roots of Poplars." 

•' With regard to three of the foodplants mentioned above, Mr. 
Step (to whom my best thanks are due) informs me that Ebulus 
hiwrilis (or Ebidum, humile as Seitz has it) is a very old name used 
by Gerard (1597) for the Dwarf Elder or Banewort {Sambuciis 
ebulus, Lin.) while Pupidus dilatata and P. fastigiala have both been 
used as synonyms for the Lombardy Poplar, now regarded as a 
hybrid, P. nigra X deltuidea. 

" There are many other references, particularly in the works of 
Continental authors, but enough have been given to show how 
varied the records are. 

" Probably some of the foodplants have been allotted to this species 
owing to a confusion of names or a mistaken identification of larvae, 
bui it seems clear the species is not confined to Poplar. 



74 

" The species, apparently, has always been very rare in this 
country, and so far as I can find the only records are from Essex, 
Middlesex, Kent, Surrey and Hants. It will be noted that four of 
these counties are grouped around the Port of London, while the 
other has Southampton. 

" Possibly the examples shown and the information given above 
may enable some of us to recognise the galls and turn the species up 
in unsuspected localities." 

The remainder of the evening was devoted to an exhibition of 
lantern slides. 

Mr. R. Adkin exhibited coloured slides of a number of the larger 
and more conspicuous lepidoptera and some details of their life 
histories. 

Mr. Bunnett exhibited coloured slides of common wild flowers, 
galls and wild life with a few slides of lepidoptera. 

Mr. Dennis exhibited slides of British wild flowers and fruits, of 
a termite's nest from S. Africa, etc. 

Mr. Hugh Main exhibited slides showing the habitations of the 
trapdoor spider from both Epping Forest and Hyeres. 

Mr. Dannatt exhibited slides of a number of African and 
Madagascan Papilios, the Moths of the Limberlost and collecting 
localities such as Pett's Wood, Kent, Holland's Wood, New Forest, 
Pont du Gard, the Cevennes and Nimes. 



JANUARY 23rd, 1930. 

Annual Mketing. 

The President in the Chair. 

The Reports of the Treasurer and Council and the Balance Sheet 
for the past year were read and adopted. 

The following is a List of Officers and Council elected for the 
year 1980 :— 

fremient. — F. B. Carr. 

Vice-Presidents. — H. W. Andrews, F.E.S., and C. N. Hawkins, 
F.E.S. 

Treasurer.— k. E. Tonge, F.E.S. 

Librarian. — E. E. Syms, F.E.S. 

Curator.— S. R. Ashby, F.E.S. 

Hon. Editor of Proceedings.— Uy. J. Turner, F.E.S., F.R.H.S. 



75 

Hon. Secretaries.— Stanley Edwards, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S., etc., 
and Hy. J. Turnei-. 

H(ni. LantenrUt. — J. H. Ad kin. 

Conncil.—^. H. Adkin, K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S., L. C. Bushby, 
F.E.S., Dr. E. A. Cockayne, A.M., F.E.S., F.R.C.P., Capt. B. S. 
Curwen, T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S., S. N. A. Jacobs, Col. F. A. 
Laboucbere, F.E.S., A. E. Stafford, E. Step, F.L.S. 

The President, H. W. Andrews, F.E.S.. read the Annual Address. 

In the unavoidable absence of the new President Mr. F. B. Carr, 
Mr. Andrews continued in the chair. 

The usual Votes of Thanks were passed including a special vote 
of thanks to the Hon. Curator for the arduous work he had had in 
the transfer of the collections and to the Librarian for his 
assistance. 



Ordinary Meeting. 

Mr. H. W. Andkkws, F.E.S., Vice-President in the Chair. 

Mr, K. G. Blair exhibited a living specimen of a tortoise-beetle, 
Coptocycla atroannidus, Champ., found on bananas from Central 
America, and also the pupal sheaths of the Sphingids Sphinx ligustri 
and S. jrinaatri for comparison. The larva of the latter was from 
Dunwich, Suffolk, in September, 195^8. The imago emerged in 
June, 1929. 



76 



INDEX. 

♦ 



PAGE 

Aberrations, Notable, of — H. sem- 
ele, 35 ; P. cardui, 36 ; H. 
malvae, 40 ; U. comma, 40 ; 
C. palaemon, 40; A. populi, 44; 
T. janthina, 44 ; H. marginaria, 
45; C. croceus, 45, 66; E. 
jurtina, 45, 64, 66 ; H. bolina, 
45; A.lathonia, 45; Z.lysimon, 
45 ; S. nienthastri, 49 ; T. 
fimbria, 49; V. io, 49; P. 
pruinata, 49 ; A. psi, 49 ; A. 
aceris, 50 ; A. grossulariata, 
51 ; A. cydippe, 51 ; E. mi, 
53; H. Serena larvae, 53; E. 
zoegana, 54 ; C. hyale, 59 ; L. 
impura, 60 ; E. absinthiata, 60 ; 
A. caia, 60, 69 ; E. tithonus, 
61 ; B. euphrosyne, 61 ; P. 
aegon, 61, 64; P. medon, 61; 
M. roeselii, 62 ; H. dorsale, 
61; C. rybyensis, 62; P. 
machaon, 62, 64 ; M. ocellaris, 
62; M.galathea, 64; P.coridon, 
64; C.pamphilus,64; P. icarus, 
64, 68, 69 ; E. phlaeas, 64 ; O. 
bipunctata, 65 : S. revayana, 
65 ; H. palustris, 66 ; E. atom- 
aria, 66 ; A. urticae, 66 ; H. 
lucina, 66 ; E. silaceata, 69 ; 
C clathrata, 69 ; N. phaeor- 
rhoea . . . . . . . . 70 

^ Abundance of, N. phaeorrhoea, 7 ; 
common species in 1929, 15. 16 ; 
C. vinula larvae, 54; Lepidop- 
tera on the Rhine . . . . 68 

Additions to the Collections, xv. ; 
Library . . . . . . . . xv 

Anal tuft in L. atergatis. . . , 17 

Annual Address, 17 ; Meeting, 74 ; 

Exhibition 60 

Asymmetrical markings in C. 
croceus . . . . . . . . 53 

Attendance at Meetings . . . . xiv 

Bibliography of galls on Poplars 72 
"Boys," The .. .. 2, 3 

Breeding, the parasites on Cicin- 
dela, 50 : A. psi . . . . 54 



PAaB 



Breathing arrangements in Dip- 
terous larvae . . . , . . 22 
Brood of C. croceus. Data of a, 
34 ; P. fuliginosa, 44 ; L. liter- 
ana . . . . . . . . 62 

Bye-Laws, Revision of the 38, 45 
Case-bearer, A, on rush, C. caes- 
pititiella .. .. ..59 

Characteristics of, Dipterous 

larvae, 21 ; the Grypocera . . 42 
Classification of. Dipterous larvae, 
24; Dipterous pupae, 25 ; Dip- 

tera. Key to 27 

Coppers, Large . . . . . . 4 

Colonies of N. phaeorrhoea . . 7 
Colour of Dipterous ova . . . . 18 

Commensalism in Dipterous larvae 24 
Convergence of pattern in some 
Indian Lepidoptera . . . . 53 

Curious habit of L. of T. richiardii 43 
Decline of N. phaeorrhoea . . 10 

Dinner, Entomological .. .. 3 

Dipterous larva living, in sea- 
water, 23 ; in crude petroleum, 
23 ; in cesspits . . . . . . 23 

Dispersal of N. phaeorrhoea . . 9 
Diptera found in old Birds' nests 29 
Distribution of the Grypocera . . 43 
Discussion on the habits and dis- 
tribution of N. phaeorrhoea . . 56 
Drinking habits in Ornithoptera 35 
Duration of larval stage in Diptera 23 
Dwarf, examples of British Lepi- 
doptera in recent years, 33, 34 ; 
Zygaena in 1929, 51 ; C. cra- 
taegana, 54; C. rosana, 54; P. 
napi, 58 ; C. croceus . . . . 66 

"Earlier Stages of Diptera, The," 
Ann. Address, H. W. Andreios, 

F.E.S 17 

Early appearances . . . . 44 

Economic importance of Diptera 18 
Egg-stage in Diptera . . . . 18 

Exhibition, Special, of melanic 

specimens, 30 ; Grypocera . . 39 
Fasciation of thistle . . . . 49 



77 



PAGE 

Field Meetings, Chilworth, 46 ; 

Brentwood, 47 ; Princes' Ris- 

borough, 48 ; By fleet, 52 ; Ock- 

ham and Wisley, 56 ; List of. . xiv 

Flora of St. Martha's, E. Step, 

F.L.S 46 

Foodplants of B. betularia . . 49 

Gall, midge, A, new to Britain, 

62 ; of tabaniformis . . . . 72 

"Grypocera, The," Hy. J. 

Turner, F.E.S 40 

Gynandromorph, B. lapidarius, 
62 ; P. coridon, 66 ; G. rhamni, 
67 ; C. potatoria, 69 ; L. sibilla 
(?), 69 ; V. io (?) . . . . 69 

Habitats, Varied, of Dipterous 
larvae . . . . . . . . 23 

Habits of the ant L. acervorum. . 72 

Hairs, Plant 12 

Hibernation of, H. phaeorrhoea, 
9 ; larvae in winter of 1929, 37 ; 
P. fuliginosa, 44 ; P. moneta, 
51 ; P. culiciformis (Hemip.) . . 70 
Homoeosis in P. aegon . . . . 64 

Immigrants in 1929 . . . . 16 

Increase in area of distibution of, 
L. sinapis, 15, 51 ; L. sibilla, 15 ; 
P. calbum . . . . . . 56 

Increase in melanism, of, E, 

punctulata, 32 ; in Surrey . . 32 
Inquiline, Ants, in galls of poplar, 

C N. Hawkins 72 

Key to Classification of Diptera. . 27 
Lantern-slides shown . 35, 58, 74 
Larvae, of Scotch Zjgaena, 39 ; 
taken at the Chilworth F.M., 46 ; 
exhibited 37, 39, 43, 47, 48, 49, 
50, 58, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 68 
Larval stage in Diptera . . . . 21 

Leaf transition in seedling furze 59 
Leaves distorted by G. syringella, 
52 ; folded by O. guttea, 52 ; 
of nut mined by a hymenopteron 57 
Life- history of, N. phaeorrhoea, 
8 ; Diptera, Aberrance of, 26 ; 
H. stannella, 54 ; A. domestica, 

54 ; 0. betulae 58 

List of Officers and Council i, 74, 75 
Living exhibits, L. C. Busliby . . 61 
Lycaenidae exhibited with their 
androconia . . . . . . 50 

Localities — Aberdeen, 55 ; Brent- 
wood, 47; Bromley, 62; By- 
fleet, 52 ; Chilworth (St. Mar- 
tha's), 46 ; Eastbourne, 7 ; 
Epping Forest, 1 ; Hackney 
Marshes, 4; India, 45 ; Konigs- 



PAGE 

winter, 68 ; Ockham and Wisley, 

56 ; Princes' Risborough . . 48 

Melanic, insects, Exhibition of, 
30 ; List of, Lepidoptera, 30 ; 
pupae, 32 ; Zygaena, 32 ; series 
of L. monacha, 34 ; Lepidoptera, 
34 ; P. aversata, 54 ; X. fluctu- 
ata 

" Memories of some Old London 
Entomologists," F. W. Mc- 
Donald 

Migration, Lines of, of M. didyma 

Mines of, 0. betulae, 58 ; Nepti- 
culae 

Minute parasitic hymenopteron 
on " white-fly ". . 

Mimics, Papilio, exhibited 

New race (Spanish) of C. arcania 

Obituary 

Objects of the Society 

" Occasional Extension of Territ- 
ory by the Brown-tail Moth, N. 
phaeorrhoea," i2. AdJcin, F.E.S. 

Officers and Council, List of 

Old Entomologists, The . . 

Origin of Thorns and Prickles . . 

Ova of, British Grypocera, 40; 
Ephestia.. 

Oviposition of Diptera 

Papers read, List of 

Parasitical Diptera 

Parasites of T. laevigata. . 

Parasitic, The, species of Cono- 
pidae (Dip.) 

Parthenogenesis in Diptera 

Pest, The white-fly 

Preserved larvae. Exhibition of. . 

Pupae, varied, of Cosymbia species 

Pupal stage in Diptera . . 

Pupation of L. of N. geminipuncta 

Bare or local species, Occurrence 
of — H. peltigera, 15, 71 ; L 
sinapis, 15 ; L. sibilla, 15 ; N 
phaeorrhoea, 15, 43 ; 0. gono 
stigma, 47; E, venustula, 47 
S. pruni, 47; H, palustris, 48 
D, anilis, 50 ; E. venosus, 53 
H. stannella, 54 ; R. persuas- 
oria, 55 ; L. salicis, 57 ; H. 
convolvuli, 58, 68; L. boeticus, 
59 ; M. titillator (casual), 65 ; 
S. mendax (casual), 65 ; S. 
palealis, 71 ; C. atroannulus 
(casual), 75 ; S. pinastri .. 75 

Racial (Indian) forms of, British 
Rhopalocera, 47 ; Z. lonicerae 51 

Rearing L. of, C. haworthii, 38 ; 
H. peltigera . . . . . . 71 



58 



1 

36 

68 

55 
43 
34 

xiv 
ii 



7 

i. 

1 

12 

55 

19 

xiv 

24 

39 

70 
20 
57 
39 
57 
25 
53 



78 



Scai'ce Brit. Diptera exhibited . . 
Scarcity of common species in 

1929 

" Season, of 1929 at Eastbourne," 

R. Adkin, F.E.S., 15 ; in 

Aberdeen, 55; of 1929.. 
Second brood, of U, comma, 40; 

Z. trifolii, 57 ; Z. anceps 

(partial), 58; A. populi, 58; 

V. io 60, 

Similar form of marking in various 

Indian Lepidoptera 
Small size of various lepidoptera 

in 1929 33, 34, 

Societies: East London Entomo- 
logical, 8 ; Haj/gerston Ent. S. 
Status of the Grypocera as a 

group 

Sugar, P. c-album at 

Survival of the fittest in plant 

structure 
Teratological 0. quadra, 49 ; R. 

phlaeas, 69 ; A. hyperantus, 

70 ; A. urticae, 70 ; N. tages. . 
"Thorns and Prickles," E. Step, 

F.L.S 

Tortrices, Local, near Bromley, 

Kent, S. N. A. Jacobs.. 
Variation in, A. ilia, 86; A. iris. 

86 ; L. impura, 60 ; N. sparganii 

COLEOPTERA. 

atroannulus, Coptocycla.. 

bipunctata, Osphya 

campestris, Cicindela 

Carabidae . . 

castanipes, Melanotus 

cervus, Lucanus . . 

chlorocephala, Lebia 

Cicindela . . 

cruciger, Caryopemon 

Donacia 

laevigata. Timarcha 

Melandryidae 

mendax, Saprosites 

Neerophorus 

pyri, Phyllobius . . 

rufipes, Melanotus 

rufovillosum, Xestobium . . 

sericea, Donacia . . 

Silpha 

Staphylinidae 

Tenebrionidae 

titillator, Monochamus, Mono- 

hammus 
venator, Antbia , . 
violaceus, Carabus 



PAGE 

62 



15 



71 



66 



53 



51 



41 
57 

14 



70 



12 



67 



69 



75 

65 
35 
61 
65 
35 
48 
50 
50 
48 
39 
61 
65 
60 
32 
65 
48 
65 
61 
48 
61 

65 
61 
70 



19 



19, 22 



19 



20 



Diptera. 
alneti, Didea 
anilis, Dialineura . . 
annulata, Dialineura 
Atherix 
Berinae 
Bibio 

Bombyliidae 
calcitrans, Stomoxys 
Calliphoridae 
canicularis, Fannia 
capitata, Ceratitis 
Carcelia 

ceriiformis, Conops 
Chelonia 
Chironomidae 
Chortiphila 

Conopidae, Conops 18 
corvina, Musca 
Culex 
Cyrtidae 

destructor, Mayetiola 
domestica, Musca.. 
erythiocephala, Calliph 
flavipes, Pterodontia 
Hylemyia . . 
ibis, Atherix 
leucocephala, Metopa 
maculipennis. Anopheles 
marci, Bibio 
Microdon . . 
Muscidae . . 
natans, Pontomyia 
Oestridae . . 
oleracea, Tipula . . 
palpalis, Glossina.. 
pipiens, Culex 
petrolei, Psilopa . . 
Platypezidae 
Ptychoptera 

richiardii, Taeniorhynchus 
rudis, Pollenia 
segnis, Xylota 
Simuliidae.. 
Stratiomyiidae, Stratiomys 18, 22, 
Syrphidae . . 
Tachinidae . . . . 19, 

Trypetidae 
variegata, Atherix 
Vermileo . . 
Volucella . . 
wissmani, Arthrocnodax 

Hymenopter 
aceris, Phyllotoma 
acervorum, Leptothorax 
Ammophila 
bimaculata, Saropoda 



18, 



page 

62 
50 
50 
19 
50 
25 
22 
20 
20 
67 
24 
20 
68 
20 
20 
27 
70 
20 
26 
20 
24 
67 
67 
20 
27 
19 
50 
20 
19, 43 
22, 24 
18 



19, 



49 

72 
70 
52 



79 



PAGE 

falciger, Perilitns . . . . . . 39 

formosa, Enarsia . . .. 55, 62 

harrisellus ab. ruderatus, Bombus 31 

lapidarius, Bombus . . . . 62 

lucorum, Trichiosoma . . . . 43 

pei'suasoria, Rbyssa . . . . 55 

Phytocephala . . . . . . 70 

ruderatus, Bombus . . , . 31 

rybyensis, Cerceris . . . . 62 

sabulosa, Ammophila . . . . 50 

ichneumonoides, Methoca . . 50 



Lepidoptera. 






abietaria = ribeata 




32 


abietella, Dioryctria 




58 


absintbiata, Eupitbecia . . 




60 


aceris, Acronicta . . 


. . 


50 


acbilleae, Zygaena 


37, 


39 


acteon, Thymelicus 




40 


adippe = cydippe .. 


37' 


51 


adonis = tbetis 


. . 


64 


adustata, Ligdia . . 




60 



aegon, Plebeius 33, 52, 61, 64, 65 

aesculi = pyrina .. .. 32, 49 

aglaia, Argynnis . . , . . . 37 

ajaka (napi race), Pieris . . . . 47 

albimacula, Amauris . . . . 44 

Amatbusiidae . . . . . . 53 

anceps, Zygaena . . . . . . 58 

annulata (omicronaria), Cosymbia 54 

anticocaeca (medon ah.), Plebeius 64 

antiqua, Orgyia . . . . . . 10 

arcania, Coenonympha . . . . 34 

argiolus, Lycaenopsis . . 16, 71 
artaxerxes (medon suhsp.), Ple- 
beius . . . . . . . . 61 

asiatica (macbaon sufesj?.), Papilio 47 
astrarcbe = medon .. ..33 

atalanta, Pyrameis . . . . 16 

atergatis, Lyeorea . . . . 67 

athalia, Melitaea . . . . 15, 37 

atomaria, Ematurga ..50,66, 71 

aurinia, Melitaea .. ..51, 61, 66 

aversata, Ptycbopoda . . . . 54 

bellargus = tbetis .. .. ..60 

betulae, Ornix . . . . . . 58 

betulae, Ruralis . . . . . , 47 

betularia, Biston . . . . 49, 51 

biangulata = picata .. ..54 

bidentata, Gooodontis . . . . 57 

bilineata, Euphyia (Campto- 

gramnia) . . . . . . 38 

bilunaria, Selenia . . . . 34 

bipunctata (sparganii ah.), Non- 

agria . . . . . . . . 69 

boetieus, Lampides . . . . 59 

bolina, Hypolimnas . . . . 45 

brassicae, Pieris .. .. .. 15 



PAGE 

bucephala, Phalera . . . . 16 

caespititiella, Coleopbora . . 59 
caia, Arctia . . 10, 37, 60, 69 
c-album, Polygonia 16, 38, 56, 57 
carlionaria (doubledayaria) (betu- 
laria, flZ>.), Biston .. 49, 51 
cardamines, Eucbloe ..33, 71, 72 
cardui, Pyrameis .. ..15.36, 37 

carnella = semirubella .. .. 16 

caucbiata (pernotata), Eupitbecia 55 

cenea (dardanus /), Papilio .. 43 

cblorosata (petraria), Lithina .. 46 
ehrysorrhoea = pbaeorrboea 7, 43, 

55, 70 

chrysippus, Hypolimnas . . .. 44 

cinxia, Melitaea .. ..33,37, 60 

clatbrata, Cbiasmia (Strenia) . . 159 

clerkella, Lyonetia . . . . 70 

clorinda (arcania suhsp.), Coeno- 
nympha . . . . . . . . 34 

clytie (ilia /"), Apatura . . . . 36 

comma, Urbicola . . . . . . 39 

conigera, Leucania . . . . 45 

conversaria (repandata ah.), 

Boarmia. . . . . . . . 67 

convolvuli, Herse (Sphinx) 58, 68 
coridon, Polyommatus 47, 62, 6i, 

65, 66 

corticana, Enarmonia . . . . 51 

corticea, Agrotis . . . . . . 66 

costaestrigalis, Hypenodes . . 52 

Cosymbia (Ephyra) . . . . 57 

crataegana, Cacoecia . . . . 54 

crepuscularia, Boarmia (Teph- 

rosia) . . . . . . . . 39 

cribrella, Myelois . . . . . . 16 

cristalina (cristana ah.), Peronea 62 
croceus (edusa), Colias 15, 33, 34, 

45, 47, 53, 58, 66, 71 

cydippe (adippe), Argynnis 37, 51 

Danaidae . . . . . . . . 53 

dardanus, Papilio. . .. 43, 44 

daplidice, Pontia . . . . . . 61 

defoliaria, Hybernia . . 34, 45 
dextroconHuejis (coridon ah.), 

Polyommatus . . . . . . 64 

didyma, Polyommatus . . . . 36 

dictaeoides, Pheosia (Notodonta) 54 

discreta (medon ah.), Plebeius .. 64 

doubledayaria = carbonaria .. 51 

dubitata, Tripbosa . . . . 48 

dumerilii, Apamea .. 35, 66 

Ectropis (Tepbrosia) . . . . 46 

edusa = croceus .. .. 33, 34 

edusina (croceus race), Colias .. 47 

egina, Acraea . . . . . . 44 

elpenor, Eumorpha . . . . 55 



80 



eos (ilia ah.), Apatura 
Ephestia 

Epbyra = Cosymbia 
Erycinidae 
ethlius, Culpodes . . 
eugenia, Morpho . . 
euphrosyne, Brenthis 37, 44, 61, 

65, 66, 
exiguata, Eupithecia 
fervida (fuliginosa ah.), Phrag- 

niatobia . . 
fieldii (croceus race), Colias 
filipendulae, Zygaena . , 39, 
fimbria, Triphaena 
flammeolaria (luteata), Hydrelia 
flava (linea), Adopaea .. 39, 
flavescens (aegon ah.), Plebeius.. 
flavescens (coridon ah.), Poly- 

ommatus 
flavicornis, Polyploca 
fluctuata, Xantborhoe 
fuliginosa, Pbragmatobia 
fuscata (marginariaaft.), Hibernia 
fylla, Abisara 

galatbea, Melanargia . . 15, 
gamma, Plusia 
geminipuncta, Nonagria.. 
gilvago, Mellinia . . 
glicia (byale .mhsp.), Colias 
gonostigma, Orgyia 
grossulariata, Abraxas 51, 60, 62, 
Grypoeera . . 
guttea, Ornix 
bawortbii, Celaena 
hecuba, Morpbo . . 
Helotropha 

helice (croceus ;".), Colias 
Hesperia (iidae) . . 
Hesperiides = Grypoeera . 
hippocoon (dardanus /.), 
hirtaria, Lycia 
humuli, Hepialus.. 
hyale, Colias 
hybridana, Isotria 
byperaiitus, Apbantopus. 
Hyponomeuta 
icarus, Polyommatus 



43, 



41, 



Papilio 



.47, 59, 
33, 



.64, 68, 



icbnusa (urticae siihsp.), Aglais. . 
ilia, Apatura 

iliades (ilia ah.), Apatura. . 
impar (niuralis race), Metacbrostis 
impudens (pudorina), Leueania. . 
impura, Leucania. . .. 45, 

inequalis (aegon ah.), Plebeius .. 
inequalis (coridon ab.), Polyom- 
matus 
io, Vanessa 16, 49, 60, 67, 

iris, Apatura 



PAGE 

. 36 
. 55 
. 57 
. 53 
. 42 
. 65 

69 
60 

44 
45 

48 
49 
48 
40 
64 

64 
38 
58 
44 
44 
53 
64 
15 
53 
62 
47 
47 
66 
41 
52 
38 
65 
38 
66 
53 
41 
44 
65 
34 
71 
62 
70 
54 
69 
64 
36 
36 
66 
45 
60 
64 

64 
69 
36 



PAGE 

issoea (latbonia race), Issoria . . 45 
janira = jurtina .. .. ..64 

jantbina, Triphaena . . 44, 45 
jurtina (janira), Epinepbele 35, 

45, 64, 66 

lathonia, Issoria . . • - . . 45 

leonidas, Papilio . . . . . . 44 

leucocera, Celaenorrhinus . . 53 

leucostigma, Heliotropha . . 38 

ligustri, Spbinx . . . . . . 75 

lilacina (aegon ah.), Plebeius .. 64 
linea = flava .. .. ..39 

linearia, Cosymbia . . 48, 57 

lineola, Adopaea .. ..39,40, 51 

literana, Leptogramma . . . . 62 

lonicerae, Zygaena .. 48, 51 

lubricipeda^lutea .. .. 50 

lucina, Hamearis . . . . . . 66 

luctuata (lugubrata), Euphyia .. 49 
lugubrata = luctuata .. ..49 

lupulinus, Hepialus . . . . 33 

lutea (lubricipeda), Spilosoma .. 50 

Lycaena, idae .. .. 50, 53 

lycbnitis, Cucullia . . . . 53 

lysimon, Zizera . . . . . . 45 

machaon, Papilio 33, 47, 62, 64, 65 

magnipuneta (aegon a6.), Plebeius 64 

malvae, Hesperia . . . . 40, 44 

marginaria, Hibernia . . . . 44 

masoni, Pararge . . . . . . 53 

medon (astrarche), Plebeius 33, 61, 64 

megera, Pararge . . . . 46, 54 

mendica, Diacrisia . . . . 10 

menthastri, Spilosoma .. 49, 50 

menyantbidis, Acronicta. . .. 55 

metis (ilia ah.), Apatura . . . . 36 

mi, Euelidia . . . . . . 53 

minutissima (aegon ah.), Plebeius 64 

monacha, Lymantria (Psilura) 34 

moneta, Plusia . . . . 51 

monoglypha, Xylopbasia 65, 66, 70 

muralis, Metacbrostis . . . . 66 

myopaeformis, Synanthedon . . 48 

napi, Pieris .. ..33,47, 58 

nepalensis (rhamni race), Gonep- 

teryx . . . . . . . . 47 

Nepticula . . . . . . . . 68 

nervosa, Depressaria . . . . 65 

Netrocera = Grypoeera .. .. 41 

niavius, Amauris , . . . . . 44 

nicea, Stibochiana . . . . 45 

nilgiriensis (byale race), Colias . . 47 

noctuella, Nomophila . . 15, 16 

Noetuidae . . . , . . . . 33 

nubilalis, Pyrausta . . . . 61 

Nymphalidae . . . . . . 53 

obeliscata, Thera . . . . . . 33 



81 



PAGE 

obsoleta (coridpn ah.), Polyom- 

matus . . . . . . . . 64 

obsoleta (medon ah.), Plebeius . . 61 

obsoleta (sparganii ah.), Nonagria 69 
ocellaris, Mellinia. . .. ..62 

ocellatus, Smerinthus . . . . 52 

omicronaria = annulata .. ..54 

orbieularia, Cosymbia . . . . 32 

Ornithoptera . . . . . . 35 

palaemon, Cyclopides.Thymelicus 40 

palealis, Lithostege . . 16, 71 

pallida (croceus ah,), Colias 33, 66 

palustris, Hydrilla . . 48, 66 
pampbilus, Coenonympha 62, 64, 

66, 69 

papbia, Dryas . . . . . . 37 

Papilionidae .. ..35,43, 47 

paripennella, Coleophora . . 62 

parthenias, Brepbos . . . . 38 

pavonia, Saturnia. . .. ..50 

peltigera, Heliotbis .. 15, 71 

pendularia, Cosymbia . . . . 57 

perfumaria (rhomboidaria a&.), 

Boarmia . . . . . . 32 

pernotata = cauchiata .. ..55 

petiverana, Tirumala . . . . 44 

petraria^chlorosata .. .. 46 

pbaeorrboea (cbrysorrboea), Nyg- 

mia .. .. 7, 43, 55, 70 

pbemeus, Eutbalia . . . . 53 

pblaeas, Kuraicia 16, 38, 46, 49, 

64, 65 

pbragmitellus, Cbilo . . . . 16 

picata, Eupbyia, Cidaria. . . . 54 

Pieridae . . . . . . 47, 53 

pigra, Pygaera . . . . . . 52 

pinastri, Spbinx . . . . . . 75 

polaris (urticae siihsp.), Aglais 64 

polygonalis, Mecyna . . . . 61 

populi, Amorpha . . . . 44, 58 

posticocaeca (coridon ab.), Poly- 

omtnatus . . . . . . 64 

postico-obsoleta (medon ab.), 

Plebeius . . . . . . . . 64 

potatoria, Cosmotricbe34, 37, 65, 69 

procellata, Melantbia . . . . 60 

profanana (cristana ab.), Peronea 62 

pruinata, Pseudoterpna . . . . 49 

pruni, Stvytnon .. .. ..47 

prunaria, Angerona . . . . 37 

psi, Acronicta . . . . . . 49 

pudorina = impudens .. ..45 

pyralina, Calymnia . . . . 65 

pyrina (aesculi), Zeuzera. . 32, 49 

quadra, Oeonestis . . . . 49 

quercifolia, Gastropacba. . 37, 48 

quercus, Lasiocampa . . . . 37 



PAGE 

quercus Strymon .. ..33, 46, 47 

radiata (Icarus a6.), Polyommatus 64 

rapae, Pieris . . . . . . 15 

revayana, Sarrothripus . . . . 66 

repandalis, Pyrausta . . . . 61 

repandata, Boarmia . . 62, 67 

rbamni, Gonepteryx ..33,47, 67 
rhingiaeformis (tabaniformis ah.), 

Sciapteron . . . . . . 73 

rbomboidaria, Boarmia . . . . 32 

ribeata (abietaria), Boarmia .. 32 

ridleyanus, Papilio . . 44 

roboraria, Boarmia . . . . 58 

robria (confusa), Lethe . . . . 53 

rosana, Cacoecia . . . . . . 54 

rubi, Callopbrys . . . . . . 44 

rubi, Lasiocampa.. .. .. 37 

rubricosa, Pacbnobia . . . . 39 

rufescens (sparganii ah.), Non- 
agria . . . . . . . . 69 

salicis, Leucoma . . . . . . 57 

salmacis (medon subsp.), Plebeius 61 

sambucaria, Urapteryx . . . . 37 

satyrata, Eupithecia . . . . 35 

Satyridae . . . . . • . . 53 

segetum, Agrotis . . . . . . 66 

selene, Brentbis . . . . 37, 66 

semele, Hipparchia ..35,52, 65 

semibrunnea, Xylina . . . . 62 

semifuscana, Eucosmia . . . . 16 

semirubella (carnella), Salebria.. 16 

serena, Hecatera . . . . . . 53 

sibilla, Limenitis . . ..15,52, 69 

silaceata, Eupbyia . . . . 69 

similis, Leucoma . . . . 34 

sinapis, Leptosia .. .. 15, 51 

socia, Xylina . . . . . . 62 

sparganella, Orthotaelia . . .. 16 

sparganii, Nonagria . . . . 69 

sponsa, Catocala . . . . . . 48 

stannella, Hyponomeuta. . .. 54 

stellatarum, Macroglossum 16, 32 

stoechadis, Zygaena . . . . 37 

striana (cristana ah.), Peronea . . 62 

sylvanus, Augiades .. 39, 40 
syngrapba (coridon ah.), Polyom- 

matus . . . . . • . . 66 

syringella, Gracillaria . . . . 52 

tabaniformis (vespiformis), 

Sciapteron . . . . . . 72 

tages, Nisoniades 39, 40, 44, 66, 70 

taras (malvae a6.), Hesperia .. 40 
taraxaci, Caradrina .. ..68 

Tepbrosia = Ectropis .. ..46 

thetis (adonis) (bellargus), Poly- 

ommatiis .. 16,60,64, 65 

titbonus, Epinepbele . . 52, 61 

trifolii, Zygaena .. ..37,51, 57 



82 



63 



PAGE 

tristellus, Crambus . . . . 16 

trophonius (dardanus /.), Papilio 44 

unanimip, Apamea . . . . 60 

undulata, Calocalpe . . . . 52 

Urbicolides = Grypocera . . .. 41 

urticae, Aglais 15, 64, 65, 66, 70 

venustula, Erastria . . . . 47 

verbasci, Cucullia. , .. ,.54 

verma, Lethe . . . . . . 53 

villica, Arctia . . . . 10, 37 

vinula, Cerura .. .. ..54 

viridaria, Phytometra . . . . 52 

vitalbata, Horisme . . . . 60 

w-album, Strymon .. 46, 47 
zoegana, Euxanthus .. .54 

Zygaena .. 32,39,48,51, 58 

List of melanie Lepidoptera 30, 31 
List of imagines and larvae taken 

in E, Aberdeen . . . . . . 55 

List of Tortrices taken near 

Bromley, Kent . . 

Plants. 
aculeatns, Kuseus, 
alba, Betula 
anglica, Genista 
aquifolium, Ilex 
Carduus 

catharticus, Ehamnus .. 13, 
communis, Juncus 
communis, Pyrus . 
Crepis 

deltoides, Populus 
dilatata, Populus . 
ebulus, Sambucus 
Epilobium . . 

europaeus, Ulex .. ,. 13, 

fastigiala, Populus 
fragilis, Salix 
frangula, Ehamnus 
humilis — ebulus 
lanceolatus, Carduus 
minor, Linaria 
morsus-ranae, Hydrocharis 



14 
73 
13 
14 
14 
48 
59 
14 
53 
73 
72 
73 
49 
59 
73 
49 
13 
73 
49 
52 
52 



PAGE 

nigra, Populus . . . . . . 73 

nodosa, Scrophularia . . . . 53 

ossifragum, Narthecium . . . . 52 

precatorius, Abrus .. ..50 

rotundifolia, Drosera . . . . 52 

Salix 73 

Solidago . . . . . . . . 55 

spinosa, Prunus .. .. ..14 

sylvestris, Dipsacus . . . . 14 

telephium, Sedum . . . . 54 

tremula, Populus . . . . . . 73 

umbellatus, Butomus . . . , 52 

vulgaris, Berberis . . . . 13 



Not Classified. 

Acanthaclisis (ant lion) . . . . 61 

Aleurodes . . . . . . . . 57 

Blabera (Dermaptera) . . . . 61 

brachyptera, Metrioptera(Orthop.) 52 

brassicae, Aleurodes (white fly) .. 57 
capensis, Opisthophthalmus 

(Scorp.) 61 

cognata, Raphidia (snake-fly) . . 72 

corticis, Caecilia (Psocid) . . 32 

culiciformis, Pioiariola (Hemip.) 70 

cyathigeruni, Enallagma (Para.) 52 

domestica, Acheta (Orthop.) .. 54 

durandi, Clotho (Arach.) .. 36 

elegans, Ischnura (Para.) . . 52 

fluminum, Eedyonurus (Ephem.) 53 

furnorum, Thermobia (Lepis.) .. 49 

helvimacula, Reuterella (Psocid.) 52 
Lycosa (Arach.) .. .. ..60 

mauris, Scorpio . . . . . . 61 

mendica, Blapharis (Orthop.) . . 61 

proletella, Aleurodes . . . . 57 

rugosa, Coenobita (Crab.) . . 61 

saccharina, Lepisma . . . . 49 

trichiurus, Lochnurus (Scorp.) .. 61 

triradiatus, Eriophyes (Mite) .. 49 

vaporariorum, Aleurodes. . .. 57 

venosus, Eedyonurus (Ephem.). . 53 



'THE ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDiN< 




For 1886, 188777888-9 (1 Vol.j, 

1890-91 (1 Vol.), 1892-3 (1 Vol.j, 

Itfl, 1 895,, 1 896, 1897, 18U8, 1899, 1900, 1901, 

1902, :MHi904, 19U5, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 

1910, 1^^1912, 19ia, 1914, 1915, 1910, 1917, 

1918, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 

1926, 1927 and 1928. 



Aid still in pnnt, and may be had on application to the Librarian. 

1886, price 1/6; 1887, price 2/6; 1888-9 and 

1890-91, price 3 6 each; 1892-8, price 3 -: 

1894, price 2/6; 1895, price 2/-; 1896, price 2 ii; 

1897, Part 1, price 2/- ; Part 2, price 2/- ; 

1898, Part 1, price 1/- ; Part 2, price 2 - ; 
1899, price 2/6; 1900, price 2/6; 1901, price 2/-; 
1902, price 2/6 ; 1903, price 2/- ; 1904, price 2/- ; 
1905, price 2/6; 1906, price 2/6; 1907, price 2/6; 
1908, prioa 2/6; 1909, price 5/-; 1910, price 4/6; 

1911, price 4/6; 1912, price 4/-; 1913, price 4/-; 

1914, price 4/- ; 1916, price 6/-. ; 1916, price 3/6; 

1917, price 3/6; 1918, price 4/-; 1919, price 5/-; 

1920, price 6/- ; 1921, price 5/- ; 1922, price 10/6 ; 

1923, price 10/6 ; 1924, price 12/6 ; 1925, price 12/6 ; 

1926, price 15- ; 1927, price 12/6 ; and 1928, price 10/6. 



N.B.— MIMBBRB art allowed a ditoouut of one third off Ihe abovd 
pricei, and lomt yeart at half priot. 



Officfcis 
List of \ 
Report of the Coj 
Treasuier'K 
" Memories 
" Tlie Occaai 
pbaeoi i hbeft 
i'iiorQit iind I'l 
Uou oi 
Idress.— ^ 
Proceedings . 
of Melunic for 
rpooera." 
St. Martha's, Chihvo 
Piiijces' Bisborougb. Fi 
Byfleet. Field Meeting . 
Annual Ezbibitiou 
Local Collection of Tortiice 
Index 




CONTENTS. 



Sheet XVI 

Entomologists." Bj F. W. McDonald 
the Brovrn-tail Moth, Nygmia 
ByB. Adkin, F.E.S. 



Andrews, 




MEETINGS OF 
HIBERNIA CHAMBERS, 

1 030-1 BB*^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

1980:— -I uly 10th, 24th; August l^^^RH^i^MSth, 
'^Sih ; Octobei 9th, 28rd ; November 13th, 27tb ; December 11. 

1981 :~Jaiiuary 8ih, 22th ; l''obiuai;y lillh, 26th; Mai'ch 12th, 
26th ; April 9th, 28rcl ; May 14th, 28th ; June 1 1th, 26tb ; July 9th,_ 

28rd. 



LIBRARY OPEN AT 6.30 p.m. 




7 p.m. 



Members exhibitiug speciinons at the M^^^^of the Society 
;ue reqiiesttd to be g(;od euough to baud to the Secretaryj at the 
Mt't-iiug, a pote in writing of the generic 
specimens exhibited, together with the nanfl 
which such speciiiiens were obtainec 
which the exhibitors have to make, 
in writing the Secretary cannot 
oonneotion with his report of such ex] 

reference thereto in the Proceedings? 




^v.;i- 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^^<^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l 

'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 




^Boceedings ^^^H 




THE SO^^^^BMDON ^^ 




■■■BURAL 


^ 


^^H^^^HnrY 



iQ3i^3 




HihUahed ty'Vie Booiety^ with t?it 
following Gentlemen {includvng 

rThe PRESIDENT, Messrs. R. ADKIN, H. W. ANDRF 

STANLEY EDWARDS. E. STEP, W. G. SHEl 
A. E. TONCE. and H. J. TURNER, Hon. Editor, 



AROHEB ft CO. PRINTERS. 95, AVONDALE SQUARE, S.E. 



Proc. S.L.E. 4' N.II. Soc, 1930. 



Plate I. 




Photo: W. J. Liicns. 



Francis Bennoch Carr. 



THE SOUTH LONDON 

Entomological & Natural History Society 

(Established 1872) 

HiBERNiA Chambers, London Bridge, S.E. 1. 
OFFICERS 81 COUNCIL 

1931-32. 

K. G. BLAIR, B.Sc, F.E.S. 

Col. F. LABOUCHERE. F.E.S, 
E. STEP, F.L.S. 

H. W. ANDREWS, F.E.S. C. N. HAWKINS, F.E.S. 

E. A. COCKAYNE, D.M., A.M., S. N. A. JACOBS. 
F.R.C.P., F.E.S. 0. J. JANSON, F.E.S. 

F. J. COULSON. C. JARVIS. 

T. R. EAGLES, F.E.S. A. E. STAFFORD. 

A. de B. GOODMAN, F.E.S. 

^on» (ftnvaiov. ^an» gibvavian. 

S. R. ASHBY, F.E.S. E. E. SYMS, F.E.S. 

H. J.TURNER, F.E.S., F.R.H.S., '« Latemar," West Drive, Cheam, Surrey. 
A. E. TONGE, F.E.S., "Aincroft," Grammar School Hill, Reigate. 

S. EDWARDS, F.L.S. , F.Z.S., F.E.S., etc. (General Sec), 

"Avenue House," The Avenue, Blackheath, S.E. 3. 
H. J. TURNER, F.E.S., F.R.H.S., " Latemar," West Drive, Cheam, Surrey. 



THE 50UTH LONDON J 

ENTOMOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

HIBERNU CHAMBERS, LONDON BRIDGE, S.E. 



The Society has for its object the advancement and the diffusion of 
Biological Science, by means of Papers and Discussions, and the formation 
of Typical Collections. There is a Library for the use of Members. Meetings 
of the Members are held on the 2nd and 4th Thursday evenings in each 
month, from Seven to Ten p.m., at the above address. The Society's Rooms 
are easy of access from all parts of London, and the Council cordially invites 
the co-operation of all Naturalists, especially those who are willing to 
further the objects of the Society by reading Papers and exhibiting 
Specimens. 

SUBSCRIPTION. 

Twelve Shilliiu^s and Sixpence per Annum, with an Entrance Fee of 

Two Shillinys a)id Sixpence. 

All Communications to be addressed to the Hon. Gen. Secretary, 

STANLEY EDWARDS, F.L.S., &c., 

" Avenue House," The Avenue, Blackheath, S.E. 3. 



PAST PRESIDENTS 



1872-4. . J. R. Wellman (dec). 
1875-6. . A. B. Farn, F.E.S. (dec). 

1877 .. J. P. Barrett, F.E.S. (dec) 

1878 .. J. T. Williams (dec). 

1879 .. R. Standen, F.E.S. (dec). 

1880 .. A. FicKLiN (dec). 

1881 . . V. R. Perkins, F.E.S. (dec.) 

1882 .. T. R. BiLLUPs, F.E.S. (dec) 

1883 .. J. R. Wellmax Mec). 

1884 .. W. West, L.D.S. (dec). 

1885 .. R. South, F.E.S. 
1886-7.. R. Adkin, F.E.S. 
1888-9.. T. R. BiLLUPS, F.E.S. (dec] 

1890 ..J. T. Carrington, F.L.S. 

(dec.) 

1891 .. W.H.TuGWELL,PH.C.(dec) 

1892 .. C.G. Barrett, F.E.S. (dec) 

1893 .. J. J. WEiR.F.L.S.,etc.(dec. 

1894 .. E. Step, F.L.S. 

1895 .. T. W. Hall, F.E.S. 

1896 . . R. South, F.E.S. 

1897 .. R. Adkin, F.E.S. ' 

1898 .. J. W. TuTT, F.E.S. (dec). 



1899 .. A. Harrison, F.L.S. (dec). 

1900 . . W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 

1901 . . H. S. Fremlin, F.E.S., etc. 

1902 .. F. NoAD Clark. 

1903 .. E. Step, F.L.S. 

1904 .. A. SicH, F.E.S. 

1905 .. H. Main, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
1906-7.. R. Adkin. F.E.S. 
1908-9.. A. Sigh, F.E.S. 
1910-11. W. J. Kaye, F.E.S. 
1912-13. A. E. ToNGE, F.E.S. 
1914-15. B. H. Smith, B.A., F.E.S. 
1916-17. Hy. J. Turner, F.E.S. 
1918-19. Stanley Edwards, F.L.S. etc. 
1920-21. K. G. Blair, B.Sc, F.E.S. 
1922 .. E. J. Bunnett,M.A.,F.E.S. 
1923-4.. N. D. Riley, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 
1925-6.. T. H. L. Grosvenor, F.E.S. 
1927-8.. E. A. Cockayne, D.M., 

A.M.,F.R.C.P., F.E.S. 

1929 .. H. W. Andrews, F.E.S. 

1930 .. F. B. Carr, (dec). 
1930 .. C. N. Hawkins, F.E.S. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Cbief subjects of Study : — h, Hymenoptera ; o, Oithoptera ; he, Hemiptera; 
n, Neuroptera ; p, Paraneuroptera ; c, Coleoptera ; d, Diptera ; I, Lepidoptora ; 
ool, Oology; orn, Ornithology ; /•, Reptilia ; ?/t, Mollusca; cr, Crustacea ; b, 
Botany; vii, Microscopy; ec. ent.. Economic Entomology; e, signifies Exotic 
forms; tricJi, Trichoptera. 



Year of 
Election. 

1886 Adkin, B. W., F.E.S., " Highfield," Pembary, Tunbridge 

Wells. I, oni. 
1922 Adkin, J. H., lion. LanteDiist, Council^ Lamorran, Oak 

Lane, Sevenoaks. I. 
1882 Adkin, R., f.e.s., " Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne. I, ec. ent. 
1901 Adkin, R. A., "Hodeslea," Meads, Eastbourne, vi. 
1930 Alexander, 0. A., 28, New Cavendish Street, W.l. I. 

1928 Anderson, C. D., 22, Mount Park Road, Ealing, W.5. 

1907 Andrews, H. W., f.e.s., Council, " Woodside," 6, Footscray 

Road, Eltham, S.E. y. d. 
1901 Armstrong, Capt. R. R., b.a., b.c. (Cantab), f.r.c.s., f.r.c.p., 

F.E.S., 3a, Newstead Road, Lee, S.E. 12. e, I. 

1895 AsHBY, S. R., F.E.S., Hon. Curator, 37, Hide Road, Head- 

stone, Harrow, c, I. 
1930 AuBEKTiN, ]\Iiss Daphne, f.e.s., British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 
Cromwell Road, S. Kensington, W.7. 

1896 Barnett, T. L., *' The Lodge," Crohamhurst Place, Upper 

Selsdon Road, S. Croydon. I. 

1887 Barren, H. E., 78, Lyndhurst Road, Peckham, S.E. 15. I. 
1930 Barter, G. L., 50, Wroughton Road, Ciapham Common, 

S.W. 11. 
1927 Bedwell, E. C, f.e.s., 54, Brighton Rd., Coulsdon, Surrey, c. 

1929 Bell, J. K., f.e.s., Marden Lodge, Caterham Valley, Surrey. 
1924 Bird, Miss F. E., "Red Cottage," Cromwell Avenue, Billericay, 

Essex, oni. 
1911 Blair, K. G., b.sc, f.e.s., Presid>^nt, " Claremont," 120, 
Sunningfields Road, Hendon, N.W. 4. ;/, c. 



IV 
Year of 
Election. 

1898 Bliss, Capt., M. F., m.c, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s., Butlin's 

Hill, Braunton, near Rugby. L 

1926 Bliss, A., " Musgrove," Brighton Road, Purley. 
1925 Blyth, S. F. p., " Cleveland," Chislehurst, Kent. l. 
1923 BoucK, Baron J. A., f.e.s., " Springfield," S. Godstone, 

Surrey, l. 
1909 Bowman, R. T., " Rockbourne," Keswick Road, Orpington, 

Kent. I. 
1909 Bright, P. M., f.e.s., "Nether Court," 60, Christchurch 

Road, Bournemouth. I. 

1927 Brocklesby, S. H., " Long Lodge," Merton Park, S.W.19. I. 

1923 Brocklehurst, W. S., " Grove House," Bedford. L 

1924 Brooke, Mrs. M. L., cf. Dr. C. 0. S. Brooke, " Danesmere," 

Rosetta Avenue, Belfast. I. 
1930 Brooke, Miss W. M. A., cf. Dr. C. 0. S. Brooke, " Danesmere," 

Rosetta Avenue, Belfast, er, ent, b, 
1909 BucKSTONE, A. A. W., 5, Haynt Walk, Merton Park, 

S.W. 20. I. 

1927 Bull, G. V., b.a., m.b., f.e.s., " White Gables," Sandhurst, 

Kent. I. 
191C BuNNETT, E. J., M.A., 72, Colfe Road, Forest Hill, S.E. 23' 

nil. 
1922 BusHBY, L. C, F.E.S., 11, Park Grove, Bromley, Kent. I. 
1922 Candler, H., "Broad Eaves," Ashtead, Surrey. I, orn, b. 

1899 Carr, Rev. F. M. B., m.a., l.th., Ditton Vicarage, Widnes, 

Lanes. I, n. 
1924 Chapman, Miss L. M., " Arolla," Waterlow Road, Reigate, 

1922 Cheeseman, C. J., 100, Dallinger Road, S.E. 12. l. 
1879 Clode, W. (Life Member.) 
1915 Cockayne, E. A., m.a., m.d., f.r.c.p., f.e.s.. Council, 116, 

Westbourne Terrace, W. 2. I. 
19B0 Colby, F. E. A., f.r.c.s., " Meadow^ Cottage," White Rose 

Lane, Woking. 
1899 CoLTHRUP, C. W., 68, Dovercourt Road, E. Dulwich, S.E. 22. 

I, ool, orn. 

1928 Common, A. F., " Tessa," St. James Avenue, Thorpe Bay. 
1907 CooTE, F. D., F.E.S., 32, Wickham Avenue, Cheam, Surrey. 

I, h. 
1919 CoppEARD, H.,26, King's Avenue, Greenford, Middlesex, l. 

1923 Cork, C. H., 11, Redesdale Street, Chelsea, S.W. 3. I. 



V 

Yeak of 
Election. 

1919 Cornish, G. H., 141, Kirkham Street, Plumstead Common, 

S.E. 18. Z, c. 
1922 CoucHMAN, L. E., c/o Mrs. A. Couchman, May Cottage, 

Brooklane, Bromley, Kent. I. 
1909 CouLsoN, F. J., Council, 17, Birdhurst Road, Colliers Wood, 

Merton, S.W. 19. I 
1918 Court, T. H., f.r.g.s., " Oak Leigb," Market Rasen, 

Lincolnshire. I. 
1925 Cox, R. Douglas, 12, Blakemore Road, Stre^tham, S.W. 16. 

1911 CoxHEAD, G. W., 45, Leicester Road, Wanstead, E. 11. 

{Life Member.) c. 

1899 Crabtree, B. H., f.e.s., "Holly Bank," Alderley Edge, 

Cheshire. I. 
1918 Craufurd, CHfford, " Dennys," Bishops Stortford. I. 

1920 Crocker, Capt. W., Constitutional Club, E. Bexley Heath. 

I. 
1898 Crow, E. J., 70, Hepworth Road, Streatham High Road, 

S.W. 16. I. 
1928 CuRWEN, Capt. B. S., 9, Lebanon Pk., Twickenham. I. 
1927 Danby, G. C, 33, Huron Road, Tooting Common, S.W.17. 
1925 Dannatt, W., *' St. Lawrence," Gaibal Road, Burnt Ash, 

S.E. 12. l. 

1900 Day, F. H., f.e.s., 26, Currock Road, Carlisle. Z, c. 

1889 Dennis, A. W., 56, Romney Buildings, Millbank, S.W.I. 

Z, ?;?/, h. 
1930 Denvil, H. G., 22, Red Down Road, Coulsdon, Surrey. I, 
1918 DixEY, F. A., M.A., M.D., F.R.s,, F.E.S., Wadhaiii College, 

Oxford. Hon. Member. 

1901 DoDs, A. W., 88, Alkham Road, Stamford Hill, N. 16. 1/ 

1921 DoLTON, H. L., 36, Chester Street, Oxford Road, Reading. I. 
1930 DowNKs, J. A., 5, Trinity Road, Wimbledon, S.W.19. l. 
1930 Dudbkidge, B. J., 13, Church Lane, Merton Park, S.W. 19. 

1912 DuNSTER, L. E., 44, St. John's Wood Terrace, N.W.3. 

I. 

1927 Eagles, T. R., Council, 32, Abbey Road, Enfield, Middlesex. 

Z. 

1928 Earle, Edw., f.e.s., 16, Addison Gardens, W.14. 

1886 Edwards, S., f.l.s., f.z.s., f.e.s., Hon. Secretary, Avenue 
House, The Avenue, Blackheath, S.E. 3. I, el. 



VI 

Year of 
Election. 

1923 Ellis, H. Willonghby, f.e.s., f.z.s., m.b.o.u., " Speldhursfc 

Close," Sevenoaks, Kent, r, oni. 
1926 Ennis, p. F., 
1920 Farmer, J. B., 31, Crowhurst Road, Brixton, S.W. 9. I. 

1918 Farquhar, L., " Littlecote," Field Heath Avenue, Hillingdon, 

Middlesex. I. 

1924 Fassnidge, Wm., m.a., f.e.s., 47, Tennyson Road, Portswood, 

Southampton. /, 7i, tricJi, he. 
1930 Ferrikr, W. J., 22, Dagnall Park, S. Norwood, S.E.25. I. 
1887 Fletcher, W. H. B., m.a., f.e.s., Aldwick Manor, Bognor, 

Sussex. {Life Member.) L 

1926 Fletcher, P. Bainbrigge, b.&c, 65, Compton Road, Wimble- 

don, S.W.19. G. 
1889 Ford, A., "South View," 42, Irving Road, West Southbourne, 
Bournemouth, Hants. Z, c. 

1920 Ford, L. T., " St. Michael's," Park Hill, Bexley, Kent. I. 
1916 Foster, T. B., "Lenore," 1, Morland Avenue, Addiscombe, 

Croydon. I. 
1907 FouNTAiNE, Miss M. E., f.e.s., " The Studio," 100a, Fellows 
Road, Hampstead, N.W.3. I. 

1921 Frampton, Rev. E. E., m.a., Halstead Rectory, Sevenoaks, 

Kent. Z. 
1886 Fremlin, Major H. S., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s.. Government 
Lymph Laboratories, The Hyde, N.W.9. I. 

1919 Frisby, G. E., f.e.s., 29, Darnley Road, Gravesend. Inpn. 
1912 Frohawk, F. W., m.b.o.u., f.e.s., *' Essendene," Cavendish 

Road, Sutton, Surrey. I, oni. 
1914 Fryer, J. C. F., f.e.s., m.a., *' Chadsholme," Milton Road, 

Harpenden, Herts. I, ec. ent. 
1911 Gahan, C. J., D.sc, m.a., f.e.s., " The Mount," Aylsham, 

Norfolk, c. 

1920 Gauntlett, H. L., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.e.s., 37, Howard Lane, 

Putney, S.W.15. l. 

1927 GiBBiNs, F. J. F.I. A. a., F.I.A.S., 51, WeldoH Crescent, Harrow, 

Middlesex. I. 

1928 GiLLEs, W. S., F.E.S., F.I. c, "The Cottage," Booking, Braintree, 

Essex. I. 
1930 Gilliatt, F. T., f.e.s., 25, Manor Road, Folkestone, Kent. I. 

1929 Glegg, D. L., F.E.S., " Vermala," 9, Westleigh Avenue, Putney, 

S.W.15. I. 



vii 

Year of 
Election. 
1920 Goodman, A. de B., f.e.s., Council, " Normanby," Darkes Lane, 

Potters' Bar, Middlesex. I. 
1926 Gordon, D. J., b.a., f.e.s., Craigellachie House, Sfcrathpeffer, 

N.B. col., Up. 

1924 Grant, F. T., 37, Old Road West, Gravesend. I. 

1925 Graves, P. P., f.e.s., 5, Hereford Square, S.W.7. L 
1928 Gray, C. J. V., BM/BRWX., London, W.C.I. I. 

1918 Green, E. E., f.e.s., f.z.s., "Ways End," Camberley, Surrey. 

Iient. 
1924 Greer, T., j.p., " Milton," Sandholes, Dungannon, Co. 

Tyrone. I. 

1926 Grey, Olive, Mrs., f.z.s., 90, Charing Cross Road, W.C.2. ent. 
1911 Grosvenor, T. H. L., f.k.s., Springvale, Linkfield Lane, 

Redhill. I. 
1884 Hall, T. W., f.e.s., 61, West Smitbfield, E.C. 1. I. 
1926 Halton, H. C. S., Essex Museum, West Ham, E. 
1891 Hamm, a. H., A.L.S., F.E.S., 22, Soutbtields Road, Oxford. I. 
1903 Hare, E. J., f.e.s., 4, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 2. I. 
1926 Harmsworth, Sir H. A. B., f.e.s., 

1926 Harris, A. G. J., b.a., 21, Nevern Place, S.W.5. 

1924 Harwood, p., f.e.s., Westminster Bank, 92, Wimborne Road, 
Winton, Bournemouth. I. 

1927 Hawgood, D. A., 89, Leigham Vale, Tulse Hill, S.W.2. I. 
1924 Hawkins, C. N., f.k.s., Conncil, 23, Dalebury Road, Upper 

Tooting, S.W.17. I. 
1929 Hawley, Lt.-Col. W. G. B., 13, Colville Road, W.ll. 
1913 Haynes, E. B., 82a, Lexham Gardens, W. 8. /. 

1923 Hayward, Capt. K. J., f.e.s., f.k.g.s., Estancia Santa Rosa, 

Patquia, Prov., La Rioja, F.C.C.N.A., Argentine. I. orn. 
1920 Hemming, Capt. A. F., f.z.s., f.e.s., 29, West Cromwell Road, 
S.W.7. l. 

1924 Henderson, J. L., 6, Haydn Avenue, Purley, Surrey, col. 
1931 Herrmann, E. R., 38, Lebanon Park, Twickenham. I. 

1927 Hewer, H. R., m.sc, d.i.c, Royal College of Science, S. Ken- 
sington, S.W. 7. 

1927 Hewitt, A. C, 83, 

1920 Hodgson, S. B., *' St. Philips," Charles Street, Berkhamsted, 
Herts. 



Vlll 

Year of 
Election. 

1927 Howard, J. 0. T., b.a., 78, St. John's Wood Court, N.W.8. 
1931 HowARTH, T. G., 77, Woodland Rise, Muswell Hill, N.IO. L 

1927 Hughes, A. W. McKenny, 22, Stanford Road, Kensington, 

W. 8. ec. ent. 

1929 Hughes, A. W., " Delamere," Buckingham Way, Wallington. 

1928 Jackson, F. W. J., " The Pines," Ashtead, Surrey. 

1914 Jackson, W. H., " Pengama," 14, Woodcote Valley Road, 
Purley. I. 

1923 Jacobs, S. N. A., Council, Ditchling, Hayes Lane, Bromley. I. 

1924 James, A. R., 14, Golden Lane, E.C.I. I. 

1924 James, R., f.e.s., 14, Golden Lane, E.C.I. 

1927 Janson, 0. J., F.E.S. , Council, Recorder, 13, Fairfax Road, 

Hornsey, N.8. ent. 

1925 Jarvis, C, Council, 12, Claylands Road, Clapham, S.W.H. c. 

1930 Johnson, E. E., Pilgrim Way, Drive Spur, Kingswood, 

Surrey. I. 

1923 Johnstone, J. F., f.e.s., " Ruxley Lodge," Claygate, Surrey. I. 

1918 Johnstone, D. C, f.e.s., 26, Granville Park, Lewisham, S.E 

I. 
1920 JoicEY, J. J., F.L.s., F.E.S. , F.R.G.s., etc, ''The Hill," Witley, 

Surrey. I. 
1898 Kaye, W. J., F.E.S. , "Caracas," Ditton Hill, Surbiton, Surrey. 

I, 8. American I. 

1928 Kettlewell, H. B. D., "■ Hovedene," 15, St. Augustine's Road, 

Edgbaston, Birmingham. I. 
1910 KiDNER, A. R., " The Oaks," Station Road, Sidcup, Kent. I. 
1925 KiMMiNs, D. E., 16, Montrave Road, Penge, S.E. 20. I. 

1925 Labouchere, Lt-Col., F. A., Vice- Prenid ent, 15, Draycotfc 

Avenue, S.W.3. 

1924 Langham, Sir Chas., Bart., f.e.s.. Tempo Manor, Co. Fer- 

managh. L 
1927 Lawson, H. B., f.e.s., " Brookhill," Horsell, Woking. I. 
1922 Leechman, C. B., " Pansala," Roundabouts, Storrington, 

Sussex. L 
1914 Leeds, H. A., 2, Pendcroft Road, Knebworth, Herts. I. 

1919 Leman, G. C, f.e.s., '' Wynyard," 52, West Hill, Putney 

Heath, S.W. 15. c 

1926 Long, R. M., Witley, 3, Cedars Road, Beddington, Surrey. I. 
1896 Lucas, W. J., b.a., f.e.s., 28, Knight's Park, Kingston-on- 
Thames. Brit, p, 0, n. 



ix 

Year of 
Election. 

1925 MacCallum, C, 1, Aston Koad, Ealing, W.5. l. 

1926 Macdonald, F. W., 82, Trinity Street, Leytonstone, E.ll. I. 
1892 Main, H., b.sc, f.e.s., f.z.s., " Almondale," 55, Buckingham 

Road, S. Woodford, E. 18. I, nat. phot., col. 
1889 Mansbridge, W., f.e.s., "Monreith," Derby Road, Formby, 

Liverpool. Z, c, etc. 
1930 Marsh, D. J., " Delville," Oxenden Square, Heme Bay. I. 
1922 Massee, a. M., f.e.s. , East Mailing Research Station, 

Kent. /. 
1930 Merchant, A. J., " Clairville," Champion Road, Upmiuster, 

Essex. I. 
1889 Moore, H., f.e.s., 12, Lower Road, Rotherhithe, S.E.16. 

I, h, (}, f. I, e Ii, e (I, mi. 
1930 MoRLEY, A. McD., 9, Radnor Park West, Folkestone. 

1928 DE ]\IoRNEY, C. A. G., Flat 5, 60, Hogarth Road, Earls Court, 

S.W.5. 
1920 MoRisoN, G. D., f.e.s., Dept. Advisory Entomology, N. of 
Scotland Agricultural College, Marichall, Aberdeen, ec. ent. 

1927 Murray, Capt. K. F. M., 

1929 Nash, J. A., 

1928 Nash, T. A. M., f.e.s., 16, Queen's Road. Richmond, Surrey. 

I. 

1928 Nash, W. G., f.r.c.s., " Clavering House," de Pary's Avenue, 

Bedford. I. 
1906 Newman, L. W., f.e.s., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 
1926 Newman, L. H., Salisbury Road, Bexley, Kent. I. 
1980 Niblett, M., 10, Greenway, Wallington, Surrey. I. 

1926 Nixon, G. E., 815b, Norwood Road, Heme Hill, S.E.24. h, I. 
1911 Page, H. E., f.e.s., " Bertrose," 17, Gellatly Road, New 

Cross, S.E. 14. I. 

1927 Palmer, D. S., " North Lodge," Esher. 

1929 Parkes, W. R., B.A., M.R.C.S., L.K.c.p., F.E.S., St. Thomas's 

House, Lambeth Palace Road, S.E.I. 

1930 Pearman, Capt. A., Elm Cottage, Purley, Surrey. I. 
1908 Pennington, F., Oxford Mansions, Oxford Circus, W. 1. I. 

1928 Perkins, J. F., f.e.s., 19, Courtfield Gardens, S.W.5. h. 
1925 Portsmouth, J., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. I. 
1925 Portsmouth, G. B., 15, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.I. 

I. 



X 

Year of 
Eleci'ion. 
1912 PouLTON, Prof. E. B., d.sc, m.a., f.r.s., f.l.s., f.g.s., 

F.Z.S., F.E.S., " Wykeham House," Oxford. {Hon. Member.) 
1927 PuATT, W. B., 10, Lion Gate Gardens, Richmond Lane. 
1897 Pkest, E. E. B., 8 and 9, Chiswell Street, E.G. 1. I. 
1924 PiuKST, C. G., 30, Princes Place, Notting Hill, W.ll. I. 
1904 Priske, R. a. R., F.E.S., 136, Coldershaw Road, W. Ealing, 

W. 5. I, ni. 

1919 QuiLTER, H. J., " Fir Cottage," Kiln Road, ptestwood, Great 

Missenden. Z, c, il, vii, 
1922 Rait-Smith, W., F.Z.S., f.e.s., f.r.h.s., " Hurstleigh," 

Linkfield Lane, Redhill, Surrey. I. 
3925 Ralfs, Miss E. M., f.e.s., '* Montpelier House," 60, Clarendon 

Road, Holland Park, W.ll. 
1922 Rattray, Col. R. H., Halliford House, Newton Abbot, Devon. 

I. 
1887 Rice, D. J., 8, Grove Mansions, North Side, Clapham 

Common, S.W. 4. oni. 
1927 Richards, Percy R., *' Wynford," 69, Upton Road, Bexley 

Heath. I. 

1920 Richardson, A. W., f.e.s., 28, Avenue Road, Southall, 

Middlesex. I. 
1908 Riley, Capt. N. D., f.e.s., f.z.s., 5, Brook Gardens, Beverley 
Road, Barnes, S.W.13. I. 

1910 Robertson', G. S., m.d., " Struan," Storrington, near Pul- 

borough, Sussex. /. 
1922 Robertson, W. J., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., f.z.s., 69, Bedford Road, 
S.W. 4. I. 

1911 Robinson, Lady Maud, f.e.s., Kirklington Hall, Newark. 

I, n. 
1920 Rothschild, The Right Hon. Lord, d.sc, f.r.s., f.l.s., f.z.s., 

f.e.s., Tring, Herts. I, oni. {Life Member.) 
1887 Routledge, G. B., f.e.s., "Tarn Lodge," Heads Nook, Carlisle. 

/, c. 
1890 Rowntrek, J. H., " Scalby Nabs," Scarborough, Yorks. I. 
1915 Russell, S. G.C, f.e.s., "Brockenhurst," Reading Road, Fleet, 

Hants. I. 
1908 St. Aubyn, Capt. J. A., f.e.s., 14, Purley Knoll, Purley. 
1914 ScHMASsaiANN, W., F.E.S., '* Beulah Lodge," London Road, 

Enfield, N. l. 
1910 Scorer, A. G., " Hillcrest," Chilworth, Guildford. I. 



XI 

Year of 
Election. 
1927 Scott, E., m.b., " Hayesbank," Ashford, Kent. I. 

1923 Sevastopulo, D. G., f.e.s., c/o Ralli Bros., Calcutta. I. 
1910 Sheldon, W. G., f.z.s., f.e.s., " West Watch," Oxted, 

Surre}'. I. 
1898 SicH, Alf., f.e.s., " Grayingham," Farncombe Road, 

Worthing. L 
1925 Simmons, A., 42, Loughboi'o Road, W. Bridgford, Nottingham. I. 
1927 Skelton, Hy. E., 12, Mandrake Road, Upper Tooting, 

S.W. 17. 

1921 Smakt, Major, H. D., r.a.m.c, m.d., d.sc, f.e.s., 172, High 

Road, Solway Hill, Woodford Green. I. 

1927 Smith, Capt. F. S., f.e.s., " Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 

1928 Smith, Mrs. Maud Stanley, " Sunnyside," Middlebourne, 

Farnham. I. 
1882 South, R., f.e.s., 4, Mapesbury Court, Shoot-up-Hill, 

Brondesbury, N.W.2. I, c. 
1908 Sperring, C. W., 8, Eastcombe Avenue, Charlton, S.E. 7. L 
1920 Stafford, A. E., Council, 98, Cowley Road, Mortlake, S.W. 14, 

l. 
1872 Step, E., f.l.s., Vice-President, 158, Dora Road, Wimbledon 

Park, S.W. 19. b, ni, cr ; Insects, all Orders. 

1928 Stocken, H. E. W., Orchard Cottage, W. Byfleet, Surrey. 

1924 Storey, W^ H., 63, Lincolns Inn Fields, W.C.2. mt. 

1929 Stubbs, G. C, 41, St. Mary's Street, Ely, Cambs. 

1916 Syms, E. E., f.e.s., Hon. Librarian, 22, Woodlands Avenue, 

Wanstead, E.ll. Z. 
1920 Talbot, G., f.e.s., " The Hill Museum," Witley. /. 

1922 Tams, W. H. T., f.e.s., 5, Dairy Lane, Hurlingham, 

S.W'. 6. I. 
1891 Tarbat, Rev. J. E., m.a., Colbourne Rectory, I. of Wight. I, 

vol. 
1913 Tatchell, L., f.e.s., Swanage, Dorset. I. 

1925 Taylor, J. S., f.e.s., Dept. Agriculture, Div. Ent., Pretoria, 

Union of S.A, I. 
1929 Tetley, J., " White Cottage," Silverlea Gardens, Horley. 
1931 Thompson, J. A., Tan-y-Bryn School, St. Margarets Drive, 

Llandudno, N. Waley. I. 



Xll 

Year or 
Election. 

1926 ToMLiNsoN, Florence B., " The Anchorage," Lodge Road, 

Croydon. I. 
1902 ToNGK, A. E., F.E.S., Flon. Treasurer, "Aincroft," Grammar 
School Hill, Reigate. I. 

1927 Tottenham, Rev. C. E., f.e.s., ** Keswick," 18, Tyrone Road, 

Thorpe Bay, Essex, c. 
1887 Turner, H. J., f.e.s., f.r.h.s., Bon. Editor, " Latemar," West 

Drive, Cheani, Surrey. I, c, n, he, b. 
1921 Vernon, J. A., " Firlands," Ascot, Berks. I. 
1923 Vredenberg, G., 38, Ashworth Mansions, Maida Yale, W.9. I. 
1889 Wainwright, C. J., f.e.s., 172, Hamstead Road, Handsworth, 

Birmingham. I, d. 
1927 Wainwright, Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W.18. 
1929 Wainwright, J. Chas., 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W. 

1929 Wainwright, John, 8, Kingsdown Avenue, W. Ealing, W\ 
1911 Wakely, L. D., 11, Crescent Road, W^imbledon, S.W.20. I. 

1930 Wakkley, S., 8, Woodland Hill, Upper Norwood, S.E.19. 
1880 Walker, Comm. J. J., m.a., f.l.s., f.e.s., " Aorangi," Lonsdale 

Road, Summertown, Oxford. I, c. 

1927 Walker, W. H., " Ranworth," Potters Bar. I. 

1925 Ward, J. Davis, f.e.s., " Limehurst," Grange-over-vSands. I. 

1920 Watson, D., '* Proctors," Southfleet, Kent. I. 

1928 Watts, W. J., 42, Brainerton Road, Beckenham. I. 
1928 Wells, Clifford, " Dial House," Crowthorne, Berks. L 
1911 Wells, H. 0., "Inchiquin," Lynwood Avenue, Epsom. I. 

1911 Wheeler, The Rev. G., m.a., f.z.s., f.e.s., " EUesmere," 

Gratwicke Road, Worthing. I. 
1927 White, A. G., ''Hilltop," Chaldon, Surrey. 
1920 Wightman, a. J., f.e.s., Broomfield, Pulborough, Sussex. I. 
1930 Welkins, C, John Innes Horticultural Institution, Mostyn 

Road, Merton Park, S.W.19. 
1914 Williams, B. S., '' St. Genny's," 15, Kingcroft Road, Harpen- 

den. Z, c, hem. 

1912 Williams, C. B., m.a., f.e.s., 29, Queen's Crescent, 

Edinburgh. I, ec. ent. 
1925. Williams, H. B.,ll.d., f.e.s., "Little dene," Claremont Lane, 
Esher, Surrey. I. 



XIU 
Year of 
Election. 

1927 Witting, A. N., 6, Woolstone Road, Catfoid, S.E. G. 
1918 Wood, H., " Albert Villa," Kennington, near Asbford, Kent. I. 

1926 WooTTON, W. J., F.R.H.S., Wannock Gardens, Polegate, Sussex. 

I. 

1927 deWohms, C. G. M., f.e.s., m.b.o.u., Milton Pk., Egbam, 

Surrey. I, orn. 

1930 WORSFOLD, L. B., 

1921 WoRSLEY-WooD, H., F.E.S. , 37, De Freville Avenue, Cam- 
bridse. I. 



Members will greatly oblige by informing the Hon. Sec. of any errors in,, 
additions to, or alterations required in the above Addresses and descriptions. 



XIV 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, JAN., 1931. 

The Council in presenting the fifty-ninth Annual Report is pleased 
to be able to state that the condition of the Society is still satis- 
factory. 

The Council much regrets that at the commencement of the year 
the President elect, Mr. F. B. Carr, passed away without formally 
accepting Office and taking the Chair at the Annual Meeting. 

Your Council, in accord with Bye-Law VI Section (B), appointed 
Mr. C. N. Hawkins, one of the Vice-Presidents, to fill the vacancy, 
and subsequently Col. F. A. Labouchere was chosen from the 
Council to be the second Vice-President. The vacancy thus caused 
on the Council was filled by the appointment of Mr. C. Jarvis. 

The membership is 247, made up as follows : Full Members 204, 
Country 37, Honorary 2, Life 4. 

There have been 8 Resignations, Messrs Lowther, Lyall and 
Ray ward. 

There have been 7 deaths, which is far above the average, Messrs. 
Carpenter, F. B. Carr, G. T. Lyle, A. W. Mera, W. H. Miles, 
D. Mounsey, E. Sancean. 

The Annual Exhibition was held on October 23rd, and was a 
great success, 240 members and friends being present, Messrs A. de 
B. Goodman and T. H. L. Grosvenor made the necessary arrange- 
ments and the thanks of the Society are due to them for their help. 
The Council view with pleasure the increased number of Exhibits. 

Papers have been read before the Society by Messrs E. C. Stuart- 
Baker, F.Z.S., etc., Major Hingston, F.L.S., etc., H. M. Edelsten, 
F.E.S., Dr. H. Scott, M.A., Sc.D., F.L.S., etc., E. Step, F.L.S., 
and A. E. Tonga, F.E.S. 

Field Meetings weie arranged for Bookham, Ranmore and Picketts 
Hole, Brentwood, Westerham, Chalfont Road, Byfleet, Horsley, and 
St. Martha. The thanks of the Society are due to the Conductors, 
who made the necessary arrangements. 

The lantern was in use on seven occasions under the kind super- 
vision of Mr. J. H. Adkin. 

Messrs R. Adkin and W. Fassnidge, were asked to be the Society's 



XV 

Delegates at the Annual Congress of the S.E.U.S.S., (to which the 
Society is affiliated) held at Portsmouth in May 28th to 31st. 

The Volume of Proceedings for the year 1929, consisted of xx.+ 
82 pages with two plates. 
The Hon. Curator reports — 

" During the past year our 60-drawer cabinet has been disposed 
of, and has been replaced by the 5 cabinets containing the late Mr. 
J. J. Lister's, F.R.S., Collection of British and PalaearcticLepidop- 
tera of over 8000 specimens. Pending the making of the nesessary 
arrangements for accommodating these cabinets here, they were 
moved to Tring j\Iuseuin, by the kind permission of Lord Rothschild, 
to whom the best thanks of the Society have been rendered. The 
specimens of our old collection are being incorporated with the 
Lister Collection. Donations have been received from the following 
members : — 

Mr. E. J. Bunnett, 18 species of British Coleoptera and Diptera ; 
Mr. J. L. Henderson, a pair of the rare Procaa armillatns, F., from 
Brighton ; Lt. Col. F. A. Labouchere, a series of Ch7i/soj)IianiiH i iitiliis 
from Ireland; Mr. H. Main, British Tipiila : Dr. W. J. Robertson, 
86 species of New Zealand Lepidoptera, including several species of 
Hepiahis.'^ 

The Librarian reports that three vols, of Seitz, making complete 
*' Seitz Rhopalocera of the World," have been purchased, also 
Verrall's " Diptera," Vol. V., under the Ashdown Bequest. There 
has been an increase of books borrowed for home reading during 
1930. 

The average attendance at the meetings (28) has been 40, which 
shows an improvement on previous years. 

The following is a List of the Additions to the Library. 
Books. — Verrall's British Diptera, vol. V. ; Seitz Rhopalocera of 
the world, vol V. American ; vol. IX. Indo-Malay ; vol. XIII. African ; 
Spiders of Porto Rico ; Manual of Abyssinian Birds : Moths of 
Eastbourne I. (R. Adkin) : Dr. Eltringham, Microscopical Methods 
for Entomologists (H. W. Andrews and Hy. J. Turner) : American 
Crabs : Birds of Kenya : Reptiles of Arabia : U.S. Liparidae (Fishes) : 
Sketches of Country Life (E. Step). 

Proceedings, Transactions, Reports of Societies, etc. — S.E. 
Naturalist and Antiquary : Bull, and Ann. Societe ent. de France : 
Ann. Rep. of the Smithsonian Institute : Ann. Rep. of the Conference 
of Delegates to the British Association (Mr. Adkin) : Trans. Ent. 
Soc. of London, (Dr. Fremlin) : Boll. R. Scuola d'Agricoltura Portici : 

SEP 8 - 1931 



XVI 

Proceedings of the American Ent. Soc. : Trans. Perthshire Nat. Sci. 
Soc. : Rep. of the U.S. National Museum : Rep. Commons and 
Footpaths Preservation Soc. : Rep. Bournemouth Nat. Sci. Soc. : 
Rep. of the Imperial Entomologist at Pusa, India : Trans. Wisconsin 
Acad, of Sci.: Proc. Croydon Nat. Hist. Soc: Trans. Leicester Lit. 
and Sci. Soc. : London Naturalist : Rep. of the Hampshire Ent. 
Soc. : Proc. I. of Wight N. H. Soc. 

Separates. — American Smithsonian Institute: Chicago Field 
Museum : Colorado College : Lloyd Library : Folia Zool. : Diptera 
of Chili and Patagonia 2 (B.]\l.) : List of authors on British Diptera 
(H. W. Andrews) : Lectures on Ent. : Cambridge Faunal Lists : 
and from Capt. K. J. Hayward (11), J. Sneyd Taylor (1), Prof. 
Strand (6). 

Periodicals and Magazines. — Entomologist : Entomologist's 
Record: Entomologists Monthly Magazine (by purchase): Canadian 
Entomologist : Phillipine Jr. of Science : Entomological News : 
Repertorium : Natural History : Vasculum : Revu Russe d'Ent. : 
Zoologiska Bidraga : Essex Naturalist: Revista Ent. Soc. 
Argentina. 

The thanks of the Society are hereby given to the donors of the 
foregoing. 



XVI 1 



TREASURERS REPORT, 1930. 

I am glad to be able to report that our financial position remains 
as sound as ever, but I cannot say that we have had a good year, 
as our regular income has shrunk by about £60 as compared with 
1929. 

This is almost entirely due to two causes. 

The absence of the Publication Fund, by which we raised £14 
last year, against donations amounting to 28/6d. only this time, and 
the very large number of members who have not yet sent me their 
Subscriptions. 

During 1929 I tried the experiment of sending out 3 reminders 
instead of two, and this brought in subscriptions amounting to 
£149 10s. This year, hoping to save the extra cost, I only sent 
out two, and the response was most disappointing, £119 5s., which 
clearly shows that the cost of the extra reminder was fully justified. 

It would be a very great help if more members would avail them- 
selves of the facilities offered by their bankers for the payment of 
subscriptions, annually direct to the Society's bank. At present only 
17 members have arranged to do this, but I need hardly say I shall 
be pleased to supply the necessary form to any other member who 
desires it. 

Regular expenses are fortunately less than in 1929, the 
difference being approximately £24. This as accounted for by 
the smaller and less expensive volume of Proceedings, which cost 
£21 12s 4d. less ; but we had exceptionally heavy outgoings of a 
non-recurrent nature. 

As foreshadowed in last years report we were obliged to give in to 
the claims of the Commissioners of Income Tax, and had to pay no 
less than £23 3s. by way of arrears since 1922. 

There is also an item of £7 7s. for the cost of conveying the 
Lister collection from Tring Museum to the Society's rooms at 
London Bridge. 

In addition to these items your Council decided to avail them- 
selves of an opportunity which offered of adding to the Library 3 
vols, of Seitz Lepidoptera, and 1 volume of Verrall's Diptera, at a 
total cost of £28 lis., which they purchased out of the money the 

[continued on p. xx. 



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XX 



Society obtained some years back from the Asbdown Bequest, and 
which it was contended would be better employed in improving the 
Society's library than in purchasing investments. 

These transactions have resulted in a Balance Sheet showing our 
Surplus of Assets as £88 14s. 7d. less than in 1929, but I am glad to 
say that our invested capital, which stands in the accounts at cost, 
is still worth more than the figure stated, at current market 
prices. 

During the year the £138 of 4|% Treasury Bonds we held were 
converted into 4% Consols of an equivalent amount, and now 
stand in the figures as of the face value of £154 14s. Od. 

We also disposed of the old 60 drawer Cabinet in which the 
Society's collection of Lepidoptera was kept, as we had no further 
use for it when we obtained the three handsome cabinets which 
housed the Lister Collection, and to which our specimens are being 
transferred. This was purchased by Mr. E. J. Bunnett for £16. 

The Accounts and Balance Sheet attached hereto have been duly 
audited and certified correct by your auditors, Messrs. T. W. Hall 
and H. W. Andrews, to whom our best thanks are due for the time 
and attention they have devoted to so doing, as also to all those 
members who have contributed to the Refreshment and Publication 
Funds. — A. E. Tonge. H(m. Treasurer. 



The British Species of Nonagria. 

By H. M. Edelsten, F.E.S.— i?^a^/ Ortober 9th, 1930. 

The genus Nonanria contains about twenty five species of which 
we have only six in Britain, cannae, spartjanii, arnndi)iis, (jemini- 
pinicta, ne\uica and (Hsaolnta. 

They are all marsh-frequenting, the larvae feed within the stems 
of marsh plants and the pupae are to be found within the stems. 
I doubt if there is any other group of Noctuids which are so 
divergent from each other in their early stages, and that is why they 
are so interesting. Plant associations have an important bearing 
on their existence and some have a coastal association. 

Cannae is confined to the Norfolk Broads though it was supposed 
to occur in Mid Sussex, but I have never found it there. It is very 
local and is largely dependant on plant conditions. It must have 
Scirpns and Lis to feed in when yoang and Ti/pha and preferably 
scattered Ti/pha latifolia in which to finish feeding and to pupate. 
I have sometimes found pupae in large Scirpns stems and once or 
twice in the hollow stems of Cicnta virosa and in the flower stem of 
Iris pseudacorus. 

The ideal spot for cannae is not the thick beds of TupJia anijnstifolia 
but in the more open places where there is a mixed growth. I 
remember a famous place for it in Norfolk many years ago was 
along the sides of a dyke, where it opened out into a series of little 
ponds fringed with Scirpus, Iris and scattered Typ/ia latif<dia growing 
among Cicnta virosa and backed by beds of Typha anyustifolia and 
Phratpiiites. Everyone of these T. latifolia stems held a pupa and 
sometimes two or three. 

Conditions change in these places from year to year, T. latifolia 
dies out or gets swamped by other plants and cannae shifts further 
on. Sometimes the marshmen come along and mow the whole lot 
down at the end of July and the colony is more or less wiped out. 
The larvae of cannae do not feed so low down in the Typha ^ stems 
as those of amndinis and when searching for pupae you will after a 
time, be able to spot the stems which hold cannae from those which 
hold amndinis. The withered middle leaf of the stem containing 
cannae is generally yellow-green whereas that which contains 
arundinis is very withered and brown. Cannae pupates head upwards 



and aruniUnis head downwards, though occasionally I have found 
them reversed but these pupae have always been parasitised. It is 
extraordinary how birds and water rats destroy these pupae. They 
find the emergence hole and tear the stem downwards. They 
generally get canuae as the pupa is below the emergence hole but 
arundinis escapes as it is above. Sometimes 90% are pecked out. 
I often wonder whether they have learnt to spot an occupied stem 
by the withered central leaf and then search for the bruise, or 
whether they hear the pupa moving within the stem and are thus 
attracted to it. The perfect insect varies from ochreous, through 
red-brown to black. 

Spajganii seems to have a coastal association. Its principal 
stations are in Kent and Sussex and a few other localities on the 
South West Coast and also in Ireland. It does not seem to spread 
inland though there are many places where it would do well. Its 
habits are very like those of cannae and it requires a similar plant 
association but with Iris replacing the Scirpiis. The pupae are also 
much destroyed by birds and rats. This insect is also subject to 
considerable variation. 

Arundinis is generally distributed throughout the country and 
does not seem to require a special plant association. Though 
commoner in marshy districts you sometimes find little colonies in 
isolated ponds and pit holes miles from any marshes and one wonders 
how they got there. Arundinis pupates head downwards. The 
structure of the head of the pupa is different from that of cannae 
and spanjanii. It is broader and blunter and does not have such a 
distinct " beak " as have these two species. This insect varies 
also. The red-brown and black forms are local and do not occur 
everywhere. The black form with white markings is a beautiful 
insect when fresh but unfortunately it soon fades, the glistening 
black turning into a dull brown. 

Geminipuncta though generally distributed is perhaps commoner 
in the reeds growing in brackish dykes near the coast than inland. 
If the reed has been left uncut for a number of years they occur in 
vast numbers. In one or two localities I have seen almost the 
whole reed bed brown and withered towards the end of July. 
J. C. F. Fryer drew my attention last year to a very curious habit 
of the larvae in a locality in Sufiblk. Instead of dispersing to 
separate stems when they hatched, he found some of the reed stems 
contained a dozen or more small larvae all feeding together. No 
doubt they would ultimately have separated but it is rather curious 
that they should behave in this way in this one locality. It has 
always been a mystery to me how these larvae distribute themselves 
one to a stem. The eggs are laid in masses in one stem, but it is 
the greatest exception to find more than one larva in each stem 
.even when small. Do these young larvae drift about on a silken 



thread ? Even then one would think two or three would land on the 
same stem. They are not so particular when pupating. I have 
found as many as eight pupae in the lower part of one large reed 
and some of these would have stopped each other from emerging. 
The pupae are always head upwards. They will pupate in the 
lower portions of the stem they fed in if it is a big one, but they 
prefer to go into an old stem if there is one near by. This insect 
also is subject to considerable variation. 

Neurica is at present confined to Sussex and Suffolk but it is quite 
possible that it occurs in other suitable spots around the South and 
East Coasts. Possibly it was spread over a larger area but the 
cleaning out of the dykes gives it very little chance to increase. In 
Sussex neurica occurs with getninipuncta and phrafpnitidis which 
makes hunting for the larvae rather difficult until you know how 
to distinguish the different methods of feeding. The larva enters 
the reed stem about half way up and feeds on the inner lining of 
the stem but does not pass up through several nodes as 
geminipuncta does. It is full fed when geminipmicta is quite small 
and this is a help in distinguishing them. When about to pupate it 
leaves the stem in which it has fed and enters a previous year's stem 
low down and pupates head downwards. This insect varies, there 
being both red and black forms in addition to the typical form. 

Dissoluta and its variety amndineta, occur in many places both 
coastal and inland. It is curious that in some localities you get 
both the type and the var. arundineta and in others the var. 
arundineta only. It prefers the larger old reed beds rather than the 
open fen. My first introduction to this species was in Norfolk. 
We were searching for pupae of Leucania obsoleta in a large reed 
bed that had not been cut for many years, when we noticed that 
many reed stems were bent over about half way up the stem. There 
had been a strong wind the day before, but as it was rather unusual 
for growing reeds to be broken by the wind in June, we investigated 
some of them and found they had broken where a larva had entered 
and weakened the stem by feeding on the inner lining. We visited 
this spot again towards the end of July hoping that we might find 
the pupae in the lower part of the stem in which the larva had fed, 
but were disappointed. The chance finding of pupa in an old 
stem broken off by my foot gave me a clue as to where they 
pupated. This species pupates head downwards. The perfect insect 
varies both in size and colour. 

The breeding of these Nonagrias from the egg is difficult unless 
one has the food plants growing close by. I was especially fortunate 
as on my father's property was a large lake around the edges of 
which all the necessary plants were growing, goninipuncta and 
arnndinis were already there. The insects are not hard to breed if 
the larvae are taken full fed or the pupae are collected. The reed 



feeders are best managed by standing the stems containing the 
larvae in tubs of damp sand with an equal number of old reed stems 
for the larvae to pupate in. The whole should be covered with 
muslin. The withered stems can be thrown away after the larvae 
have left them. The Typha feeders should be collected as pupae 
and the sections of stem stood up in flowerpots of damp sand. It 
is a good plan to open the emergence holes and to sprinkle the 
stems with water every evening as this prevents them shrivelling 
and pinching the pupae. Should the stems shrivel too much the 
pupae can be taken out and dropped into sections of reed or bamboo 
canes. 

The reed Nonagrias have two kinds of flight. At dusk the males 
flutter up and down the reed stems seaching for the females, about 
11 p.m. when pairing is over the males fly some distance from the 
reeds and come to light. The Typha species also come to light. 

The egg laying of these Nonagrias is particularly interesting. 
The females of the three Typha species are each furnished with 
different processes and each lay their eggs in a different way. 
Cannae is furnished with a wedge-shaped process on the last 
segment and two hook-like processes on the last but one. 
A female that I watched took up a position across a Typha leaf and 
having secured a fulcrum with the two hook-like instruments drove 
the wedge-shaped process under the cuticle of the leaf and towards 
the anchor hooks, the ovipositor was then thrust into the slit and 
an Q^g placed within. The processes were then withdrawn and the 
cuticle closed down on the egg. This was repeated about a sixteenth 
of an inch lower down. Three eggs were laid while the female 
was under observation. It is probable that the eggs are also laid 
in Scirpus stems in a state of nature. 

Sparyanii is furnished on the anal segment with a pair of 
circular-jawed pincers, the upper jaw rather longer and more curved 
than the lower. The eggs are placed in a line down the edge of a 
Typha or Iris leaf but not quite at the extreme edge. The pincers 
then come into action and roll the edge of the leaf over the eggs. It 
is then glued into position. 

Arnndinis has a pair of sharp spines curved slightly downwards. 
When laying the female thrusts these through the cuticle of a Typha 
stem and makes a slight slit. The ovipositor is then pushed in 
between the spines and the eggs are placed in the cells of the stem. 
Three to four eggs in each cell. The spines are then withdrawn 
and the slit closes. 

The reed-feeding Nonagrias, gendnipuncta, neurica and dhsolnta 
are all furnished with a wedge-shaped process, which is used to 
prize open the sheathing leaf of a reed stem. The ovipositor is then 
thrust in and the eggs are laid in large masses. The process is then 
withdrawn and the sheathing leaf closes on the eggs. They are all 



flat, coin-shaped eggs, and are covered with a kind of varnish, which 
protects them from floods in winter. None of the eggs of the 
Nonagrias hatch until the new stems appear in the spring. 

I would liiie to call attention to a Continental species N. nexa 
which we have not as yet found in Britain. The larva feeds on 
Carex and I am exhibiting some Carex stems showing where the 
larvae have been feeding and its puparium in the stems. Perhaps 
we shall one day find it in Britain. I am also exhibiting long bred 
series of all the Nonagrias from many British localities, also 
sections of the Ty/>ha and Phrafpiiites stems, with photographs and 
illustrations to show the methods of pupation and egg-laying. 



The Ova of British Lepidoptera. 

By A. E. ToNGE, F.E.S.—Uead March 27th, 1930. 

I have now been photographing eggs of British Macro-Lepidoptera 
for over 20 years and thanks to the kind assistance, which I have 
received from many of my fellow entomologists I have been able 
so far to secure photographs of about 600 species. The remainder 
will, I am sure, be rather difficult to get as everybody naturally thinks 
I have done all the common ones and are so pleased to find eggs of 
something really rare, that they forget to send them on. Actually I 
still want the eggs of many of our common species, but they are 
probably insects which do not lay freely in captivity, and the trouble 
is to find out what treatment will induce them to do their duty. 

With such a large amount of material to deal with I was a little 
undecided for a time how to start work, when asked to give a paper 
on my hobby, but after considering the matter from all angles, I 
decided to take some well known book on Lepidoptera and present 
to you tables of the special forms of ova laid by the various groups 
mentioned in the book, which I hope may enable those who so 
desire to identify some of the ova they may come across in the wild. 
The book I have taken as my guide in nomenclature and arrange- 
ment is the " Moths of the British Isles " by Richard South, a 
publication which I believe is to be found in every entomologist's 
library, and to-night I propose to deal with the first 12 groups 
Sphini/iiiae, Notodontidae, Thyatiridae, Ly)iiantriidae, Lasiocampidaej 
Kndroinididae, Saturididae, Drepanidae, Xolidae, CJddepJtoridaef 
Arctiidae and Lithosiinoe. 

All lepidopterous ova are either upright or flat {i.e., horizontal) 
according to the position of the micropyle in relation to the plane 
of the surface on which they are laid, and within very wide limits 
certain shapes may be allocated to each of the larger groups of 
species. 

I do not propose to deal with the noctuid or geometrid types in this 
paper but to leave them for some other occasion. They are both 
very well defined. The former upright, bun-shaped, with ribs from 
micropyle to base and colourless shell, while the latter is flat ovoid, 
less depressed at micropylar end, colourless, shell sculptured with 
hexagonal pattern all over. 



It is quite unusual to find eggs which have a colour pattern in 
the shell. There are some of course but comparatively few and 
these are nearly all in the Lasiocampid group. The vast majority 
of species have transparent shells, which allow free play for the 
larva inside to show through as it matures. They may be yellow 
or green when laid, and turn orange or red, then gray to black before 
hatching out, but when the larva is out the eggshells remaining are 
transparent and colourless. 

The first group described by South is the 

Sphingidae. 

10 resident and 7 alien species. 

Large oval green eggs with smooth shell. All are, so far as I can 
make out, of the " flat " type, but the micropyle is hard to find. 
The shell is thin with no appreciable sculpturing and no pigment, 
all colour being due to the contents showing through. They are 
usually laid singly on the underside of the leaf of the food-plant, to 
which they are firmly attached. None of our species pass through 
the winter in the egg stage. 

Dilina tiliae, length 'Zmm., shape elongated ovoid, matte surface, 
colour dull green. 

S))ie)-i.nthi(s popnli, 2-2mm., ovoid, matte surface, green. 

iS. ocellatus, 2-lmm., ovoid, matte surface, bright green. 

Aclierontia atropos, 2'lmm., short ovoid, finely pitted, surface dull, 
pale greenish yellow. 

Sphbix convolvuli, I'lmm., ovoid, shell rough but shiny, emerald 
green. 

S. ligustri, 2mm., ovoid, dull, emerald green. 

Hyloicns pinantri, I'Somm., ovoid, dull, pale yellow. 

Deilephila enphorbiae, l-6mm., short ovoid, dull, bright green. 

D. gain, l-16mm., short ovoid, shortened, dull, bright green. 

Phryxu.s livoniica, no example. 

Hippotion celerio, no example. 

Daphnis nerii, no example. 

Theretra {Metopsyllus) porcdliis, r2mm., shortened ovoid, dull, 
bright emerald green. 

Chaerocampa elpenor, l-7mm., ovoid, dull, bright green. 

Macroglossuin stellatanun, -Omm., nearly globular, smooth, green. 

Hemaris fi(ciformis, 2-4mm., nearly globular, smooth, green. 

H. titijus, 2-4mm., nearly globular, smooth, green. 

The eggs of all the species in this group are very similar except 
in size, those of S. convolvuli st^nd M. stellatarnm being notably small, 
while those of Heniaris are notably large. H. pinastri is notable 
for its colour which is yellow instead of the prevailing green. 



8 



NoTODONTiDAE. 25 Species. 

Upright, bun-shaped, usually pale blue-green, shell opaque with 
little or no sculpture but roughened surface. Pigmentation is 
present m several species {Cernra, Dicranura, Phalcra, Pytjaera). 
Usually laid singly, occasionally 2 or 3 near together, on the upper 
or under side of the leaf of the foodplant. None of the species pass 
the winter in this stage. 

Cerura bicuspis, 1-lnim., rough shell, purple black. 

C. bifida, I'Bmm., rough shell, brownish black. 

C. furcula, 1-lmm., rough shell, black. 

Vinanura vinvla, I'Tmiu., rough shell, red brown, paler below, 
upperside of leaf. 

Staiiropiis fayi, I'Tmm., dull surface, stone white, semi-transparent. 

Gluphida crenata, no example. 

Vripnonia triinacnla, -SSmm., dull surface, green, larva visible. 

D. chaonia, 1mm., dull surface, bluish white shade over green. 
Pheosia trevmla, I'lmm., dull surface, white tinged green. 

P. liictaeoides, l-2mm., roughened, shells pale blue green. 

]Sotod())ita ziczac, 1mm., matte, pale greenish blue, under sallow 
leaf. 

A', drouiedarins, 1mm., roughened, pale blue-green. 

N. phoebe={tritophus), no example. 

N. trito})Jiiis={torra), l-2mm., matte, palest blue. 

i\\ trepida, l-25mm., matte, white tinged green. 

Leucodonta bicohnia, "Omm., matte, pale green. 

LophoptenjA- cuciillo, •95mm., almost smooth, pale green. 

L. ca)neli)ia, 1mm., almost smooth, micropylar darker, pale blue 
green, under birch leaf. 

Odontosia coniielita, 1-lmm., matte, pale eggshell green. 

Ptilophora plnmiyera, •85mm., matte, olive brown with pale under- 
side ring and micropylar area. 

Pterosto)na palpiiut, I'lmm., matte, pale gieenish white, under 
lime leaf. 

PJialera bncepliala, 1mm., matte, bluish white above and bluish 
black below. 

Pyyaera curtula, •95mm., reticulated, seagreen, on upperside of 
aspen leaf. 

P. aiiachoreta, no example. 

P. pigro, 'Smm., fine reticulations, purplish red. 

The three species of Cerura are notable on account of the colour 
of the eggs being black and this is in the shell as they undergo 
no change on hatching. S. fayi ova are abnormal in shape being 
more like a much flattened globe. l\ pluvrit/era is different in 
colour and more resembles Pyyaera than the true Notodonts. P. 
bucep/iala is unmistakeable as the lower half of the egg is blue 
black. 



9 



Thyatiridae. 9 Species. 

Very specialised form, flat ovoid, with bold sculpture and bright 
colour showing through shell. 

Habrosyne derasa, 'Tmm., rather square elongated ovoid, boldly 
ribbed, white to red. 

TJujat'ua batis, 'Brnm., elongated ovoid, ribbed, white to red. 

Palinipsfstis octogesiiua, l-2mm., elongated ovoid, recticulated, 
honey yellow. 

I*, or, no example. 

/'. diiplaris, -Tmm., boldly ribbed, white. 

P. finctiioaa, no example. 

Asphalia dilnta, I'lmm., elongated ovoid, one end square, matte, 
dirty white. 

Fohj))loca fiavicorniH, -SSmm., ovoid, one end tapered, reticulated, 
rosy red. 

/'. ritle}is, -gmm,, ovoid, one end tapered, reticulated, white. 

An interesting group showing considerable differences. Eggs 
usually laid singly on twigs at a fork or below a bud where in one 
species [A. diluta) the winter months are passed. This latter is the 
only opaque-shelled egg in the group. 7'. batis oviposits on the tips 
of the thorns of bramble. 

Lymantriidae, 10 Species. 

Upright, depressed spheroid, often covered with bair by parent; 
laid in batches ; several with darker markings on shell. 

Onii/ia i/onosti'ipiia, .9mm., rough surface, opaque, 'dull white. 

0. antiqua, •9mm., rough surface, opaque, pale bufi" with brown 
centre and ring. 

Dasijchirci fascelina, l*3mm., rough surface, opaque, white, covered 
with long brown $ hairs. 

D. piidibiDida, l'05mm., rough surface, opaque, stone white. 

Enpioctis cliryaorilioea, "Smui., matte, covered with hairs by $ , 
semi-transparent, honey yellow. 

I'orthesia aiiiiilis, •Bniiu., roughened slightly, hair covering, semi- 
transparent, golden yellow. 

Laelia cacnosa, no example. 

StilpiJotia salicis, •9mm., matte, covered with dried froth, semi- 
transparent, olive green. 

Ijjiiiantria dispar, I'Smm., covered with down, semi-trans- 
parent, pale brown with darker blotches. 

L. nionacha, l^lnim., shell roughened, semi-transparent, golden 
brown with dark and light brown patches. 

The most remarkable feature of this group is the covering of the 
eggs by the $ parent with hairs from her body, such species as 
D.fau'eli)ia, K.chrywrrlioea and /'. .s/////Z/.s having laige and prominent 



10 

abdominal tufts for the purpose. 0. antiqiia lays on the outside 
of her cocoon and the eggs pass the winter in this situation. It 
appears to be the only species in this group with a pigmented egg- 
shell which does not therefore lose its colour when hatched. 



Lasiocampidae. 11 Species. 

Flat ovoid, usually smooth shell, but with pigmented markings 
which remain after hatching. In Malacosoma they are laid in an 
upright position. 

Malocosoma neiaitria, I'lmm., shell rough, pale brown with white 
micropylar area. 

M. castrensis, 1-lmm., rather squared, shell rough, dark brown 
with top part nearly white. 

Tricli'mra crataet/i, l-5mm., smooth, black covered with brown 
hairs. 

Poecilocampa popidi, l-6mm., smooth, light brownish white, 
brown and dark grey markings. 

Erio(jaHter lanestris, I'lOmm., smooth, pale brownish with dark 
central patch, covered with hairs. 

Lasiocampa qiiercus, 2-3mm., smooth, pale brown marked with 
darker brown. 

L. trifolii, I'Tmm., smooth, brownish white marked with pale 
brown and dark spots. 

MacrotJn/lacia riibi, 2'lmm., smooth, brownish white with 
darker ridges and spots. 

Cos)notriche potaturia, 2mm., finely pitted, white with pale sea 
green markings. 

Epicnaptera ilicifulia, l-6mm., finely pitted, white with grey black 
markings. 

Gastropacha ijiiercifolia, I'Smm., finely pitted, white marked with 
greenish black. 

Noticeable chiefly for the pigmentation of the eggshells which 
retain their specific coloration after hatching and are easily 
identified. Usually laid in batches, large in the case of 3i. neustria 
and }J. castreiisis, small in C. potatoria. M. neustria and M. castrensis 
embed the eggs in a hard cement, so that they can sometimes be 
slipped off the twig on which they were laid without destroying their 
arrangement as a ring around it. T. cratae(ji and E. lanestris cowev 
the eggs with parental hairs. A group of very large size eggs in 
relation to the size of the parent, particularly P. popidi and T. 
crataegi. 

Endkomididae. 1 Species. 

Endroniis versicolor, l*8mm., flat, elongated ovoid, transparent, 
smooth and shiny, purplish brown, laid in batches along birch twigs. 



11 



Saturniidae. 1 Species. 

Safiujiia pavonia, l*6mm., fiat, ovoid, opaque, matte, dull whitish 
with brown markings, laid in batches on heather, etc., differ from 
M. ri(bi in size (smaller) and markings, which are much less 
distinct. Said to resemble dead heather flowers. 

DREPANmAK. 6 Species. 

Flat, ovoid, transparent. 

Drepaiia falcataria, "Somm., nearly smooth, palest greenish 
yellow, orange red markings at sides. 

D. harpa(/ula, no example, 

D. binaria, -TSmm., looks nearly smooth, but is finely corrugated, 
pale yellow, blotched rosy red, much covered with scales. 

/). ciiltran'a, -Tmm., ribbed, pale yellow, blotched reddish. 

D. lacertiiiaria, •8mm., one end narrowed, smooth, pale lemon. 

CilLv (flaucata, -Tmm., one end narrowed, smooth, orange red. 

D. cultraria seems to be less flattened but the other 4 species noted 
are very similar in shape, with C. r/lancata rather more flattened at 
one end. 

NoLiDAE. 5 species. 

Upright, flattened spheroid, ribbed, usually transparent. 

Nola cHcullatella, •45mm., pigmented, pale yellowish green, 
markings reddish. 

N. singula, •4mm., pale yellow^ 

N. confnsalis, •45mm., palest green. 

iV. albula, •4mm., greenish white. 

N. centonalu, no example. 

A distinctly specialised group, very much alike, except the first 
species which develops a red spot in the centre covering themicropylar 
area. 

CHLOEPHORmAE. 3 species. 

Upright, usually flat spheroid, transparent. 

Farias chlorana, •75mm., nearly smooth, pale yellow. 

Hylophila prasinana, l^lmm., ribbed, claret and white. 

hi. bicolorana, l*4mm., ribbed, red and white. 

H. prasinana and H. bicolorana are much alike and unmistakeable, 
being extremely flat, and each egg being enclosed in an outer envelope 
of transparent and colourless material. 

Sarrothripinae. 1 species. 

Sarrothripus revai/ana, -SSmm., reticulated, pale yellow w^ith dull 
purple red markings. 



12 



Arctiidae SUBFAMILY Arctiinae. 15 Species. 

Upright, spherical with flat base, colourless, thin shell, nearly 
smooth. 

Spilosoma menthastri, -TSnim., smooth, white. 

5. urticae, "Smm., slightly pitted, white. 

/S'. luhricifteda, 'SSmm., slightly pitted, palest greenish white. 

Diafihora wendica, •9mm., slightly pitted, yellowish white. 

Phraymatohia fuliginosa, 'Tomm., slightly pitted, yellowish white, 
with a pinkish tinge. 

Parasemia plantayinu, 1mm., very finely reticulated, shiny, 
yellowish white. 

Diacrisia sannio, 'TSmm., very finely reticulated, shiny, pearly 
white. 

Arctia caja, 1mm., very fine reticulation, greenish yellow. 

A. rillica, -Gmm., very fine reticulation, waxy white with a 
brownish tinge. 

CaUiuwrpha qnadripunctaria, 'Smm., very fine reticulation, pale 
greenish white. 

C. doniinida, 'Bmm., very fine reticulation, pale greenish white. 

Cuscinia striata, 'Tmm., very fine reticulation, shiny golden with 
dark spot. 

C. cribriim, no example. 

Deiopeia ptdchella, no example. 

Hipocrita jacobaeae, -Tmm., nearly smooth, pale yellow. 

A group of great uniformity and apart from C. striata the species 
are very hard to separate without the parent or at least the food- 
plant to help. Usually laid in large batches on the underside of a 
leaf. 

ARCTimAE SUBFAMILY LiTHOSIINAE. 16 SpecieS. 

Probably upright flattened spheroid ; thin, transparent shell, 
sometimes with reticulated pattern. 

Atolmis rubricollis, no example. 

jSndaria ninndana, 'Tmm., ovoid, finely ribbed, pale green white, 
opalescent. 

Comacla senex, no example. 

Miltochrista miniata,, 'Hmm., elongated ovoid, reticulated, pale 
lemon. 

Endrosa irrorella, -Tmm., elongated ovoid, smooth, purple brown. 

Cybosia vieaomella, -TSmm., flattened spheroid, smooth, pale 
yellowish green. 

Oeonestia quadra, 'Tmm., flattened spheroid, reticulated, palest 
green. 

Litliosia deplana, no example. 

L. ariseola, no example. 

L. lurid eola, no example. 



13 

L. complana, -Tmm., flattened spheroid, very fine reticulations, 
very pale green. 

L. sericea, no example. 

L. lutarella, no example. 

L. caniola, no example. 

L. Hororcula, no example. 

Peloua viuscerda, -Qmrn.., flattened spheroid, reticulated, pale 
yellowish or greenish white. 

This seems to be a very interesting group, but I have as yet 
so little material I can hardly form an opinion of it, having only 
photographed 7 species out of the 16. All those done are upright, 
8 ovoid, 4 spheroid, 4 are sculptured, and 3 smooth or nearly so. 
I should much like further help with them. 



14 



ANNUAL ADDRESS TO THE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

South l^ontiou ®iitomo(ogical anb Natural ^istorg 

Sodetj). 

Bead January 22nd, 1931. 
By C. N. Hawkins, F.E.S. 

LADIES and GENTLEMEN. You have just listened to the 
Reports of your Council and Treasurer dealing with the 
activities and finances of the Society for the past year and I 
do not think I can usefully add much to what they say. The 
Treasurer is again to be congratulated on the results of his efforts, 
particularly in view of the fact that he had to meet an unprecedented 
(so far as this Society is concerned) claim for Income Tax on our 
investment income for several years past. These congratulations 
have now, fortunately for us, become so regular an event that I am 
not sure I ought not rather to congratulate the Society on possessing 
such a Treasurer. 

The interest in our meetings has been well maintained, indeed 
it has increased judgmg from the average attendance, and the 
standard of exhibits has been good. There is however still consider- 
able room for improvement in the number of exhibits made by the 
younger members. 

As Mr. Andrews pointed out last year, it too often happens that 
it is left to the older members to provide the bulk of the exhibits. 
It is difficult to adduce reasons for this, probably there are many, 
but I would like to repeat Dr. Cockayne's words of two years ago 
that " to be interesting an exhibit need not be large." Although 
spoken in reference to the Annual Exhibition this remark applies 
equally well to oar Ordinary Meetings, and for those occasions at 
any rate I would add — nor need it be of some rare or remarkable 
species or form. There are very many quite common species of the 
various Orders with which, in one stage or another, many of us are 
not familiar, at any rate in all their variations, and exhibits of them 



15 

would almost certainly interest some of our members and be highly 
suitable for Ordinary Meetings. 

The Annual Exhibition was again a great success and for once 
was favoured by fine weather. The attendance was only just short 
of the record for recent years but in spite of this there was much 
less congestion owing to an improved arrangement of the tables, 
which also allowed the magnificent series of exhibits to be more 
easily inspected. There is, I think, but one criticism that could 
justly be made, and that is that there were not enough exhibits of 
Orders other than Lepi;ioptera. This is more to be regretted, as it 
is amongst these other Orders that some of the most interesting 
forms of life are found ; forms moreover of prime importance from 
the economic point of view. 

The appeal for contributions to the fund for the provision of light 
refreshments at the Exhibition has, I am sorry to say, not met with 
quite such a good response as last year and the drain on the Society's 
income has been proportionately increased. Matters in this respect 
cannot be considered to be on a satisfactory footing until the 
membership and regular income of the Society has been increased 
to such an extent that all such expenditure can be met out of the 
ordinary revenue. That is the ideal we must keep ever before us. 

One of the great events of the year has been the long expected 
arrival of the Lister Collection and cabinets in our rooms. There 
were certain unavoidable delays due to the redecoration of the 
rooms, etc., but now the Collection is here and we can still more 
appreciate the generosity of the late Mrs. Lister and of Col. 
Labouchere in presenting us with such a magnificent donation. 
When our own collection has been incorporated with it, we shall 
undoubtedly have a splendid reference collection of British and 
Palaearctic Lepidoptera, which should be of the very greatest value 
to members. 

If, after the two collections have been combined, there should 
still be any deficiencies, I feel sure that with the assistance of 
members, the gaps will ere long be tilled. 

As you have already heard death has deprived the Society of seven 
members and Obituary Notices have already appeared in the 
Entomological Journals with regard to some of them. Where this 
has been the case I must acknowledge my indebtedness to them for 
some of the particulars I am about to give. 

First and foremost, of course, on the roll of our losses comes the 
name of our late President, Mr. E. B. Carr. I think I am right in 



16 

saying, that never before has the Society suffered the loss of a 
President, and the event naturally could not fail to cast a shadow 
over our activities during the past year. 

F. B. Carr had been a member of the Society for over 30 years 
and during that time had endeared himself to many owing to his 
unfailing courtesy and good nature and the readiness with which 
he placed his wide knowledge and experience at the service of any 
who asked for them. Although of late years he was not a frequent 
exhibitor, he attended our meetings both here and in the field 
whenever possible and took a keen interest in all the Society's 
doings. He passed away on March 10th last without having ever 
been able to take up the position to which he had been elected and 
which he had so well earned. 

G. Trevor Lyle joined the Society in 1921 and died on August 
14th last at the comparatively early age of 57. Although his 
interest in Natural History was wide, there being few branches 
which had not claimed his attention at one time or another, it was 
to Entomology and ultimately to the parasitic insects that his 
energies were chiefly directed. School and business brought about 
his residence in widely differing parts of the country. Sherborne, 
Devizes, Bath, Lymington, Brockenhurst, Cambridge, Wallington 
and Halifax at different times provided a base for his activities 
and enabled him to obtain at first hand a wide experience and 
knowledge of his subject. The New Forest district, however, was 
perhaps his favourite and of this area he possessed a very thorough 
knowledge. His scientific work was of great importance and he 
wrote many notes and papers particularly on the British Bramnidae 
upon which he was an acknowledged authority. He became a 
a Fellow of the Entomological Society of London in 1912 and was 
also a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 

Arthur William Mera was elected a Member of this Society so 
long ago as 1885 and died on July 21st last year. He had thus 
been a member for some 45 years. Although he was 81 years of 
age at the time of his death, he still retained what had been an 
almost life long interest in Entomology and I am told that even as 
recently as during the winter of 1929-30 he had made some night 
collecting trips in Epping Forest near which he lived. He was an 
extensive breeder of Lepidoptera and was keenly interested in 
Melanism, examples of which (captured or bred by himself), he has 
frequently shown at meetings of this Society. Of late years his 
attendances at our meetings had naturally become fewer but he will 



17 

be greatly missed by all who knew him. In addition to his long 
membership of our own Society he was amongst the oldest members 
of the London Natural History Society and of the Essex Field 
Club. 

William Henry Miles became a member of this Society in 1881 
and was therefore an even older member than the late A. W. Mera 
in spite of the fact that he was considerably younger in years, being 
only 67 at the time of his death, which took place at Calcutta on 
September 2nd. He was a former Hon. Secretary of our Society 
and a son-in-law of our esteemed fellow-member Mr. Edward Step. 
He was interested in Microscopy and Botany, as well as in Entomo- 
logy, but his long absence in India prevented us seeing much of 
him here, although I believe he attended our meetings whenever he 
happened to be inthiscountry. In lateryearshewaschiefly interested 
in Economic Entomology especially in relation to pests of the tea- 
shrub. I am sure you will all join with me in tendering our 
sincere sympathy to Mr. Step and his daughter in their sad loss. 

J. H. Carpenter joined this Society in 1886 and died on June 
80th, 1930. He was a very regular attendant at our Ordinary and 
Field Meetings for many years and concentrated his entomological 
energies on the British Butterflies of which, I am told, he had a 
very fair collection. He was a very genial companian and his 
death, which took place quite suddenly from heart disease, deprives 
our Society of yet another of its older members. He is buried 
in Leatherhead Parish Churchyard. 

E. Sancean joined the Society in 1925 and died in May last. 
He was chiefly interested in Botany and was a frequent borrower 
of books on that subject from our Library. 

Douglas James Mounsey also joined the Society in 1925. He 
was interested in Entomology and Ornithology but was not, 
unfortunately, often seen at our meetings. He died suddenly from 
heart disease on November 8th last, at Eaglesden Farm, Benenden, 
Kent, to which he had recently removed. 

I will ask you to stand for a few moments in honour of the dead. 

I have divided the remainder of my address into two parts. In 
the first I propose to make a few general remarks with regard to 
one of the principal objects of this Society : and in the second part, 
which in a sense arises out of the first, I propose briefly to call 
attention to certain work which has been done, and observations 
which have been made, in connection with the variation in the 



18 

number of moults undergone by larvae of Lepidoptera, in the hope 
that my doing so may lead to further experiment and research. 

Part I. General Remarks on the Objects of the Society. 

In the old edition of our Bye-Laws it was stated that one of the 
objects of this Society was " the diffusion " of Biological Science. 
In the new edition this has been revised to read " the advancement 
and diffusion " of Biological Science. This may seem a small 
point but the idea which lies behind the change is, I think you 
will all agree, of considerable importance. 

Members of our Society have done in the past, and many are still 
doing, so much to advance the cause of science by observation and 
research that it may seem unnecessary to call special attention to 
this point, but with our greatly increased membership it does seem 
to me, and I believe others think so too, that we should be able to 
publish in our Proceedings more original notes of biological 
importance and interest than we do. Obviously however this is a 
matter which rests in the hands of members ; if notes and obser- 
vations are not made they cannot be published. 

Although this Society is and has always been fortunate enough 
to possess amongst its members a considerable number of experts 
in various branches of scientific pursuit, many of us are not trained 
scientists and it may be contended therefore that we cannot hope 
to emulate the work of which the trained scientist is capable. 
Nevertheless, as the " Entomologist " reminds us every month on 
its cover, it is " By mutual confidence and mutual aid great deeds 
are done and great discoveries made " and even the trained scientist 
has often to rely for his material on the observations and notes of 
others. It is therefore a mistake for anyone to think it is not worth 
while to record observations provided they are carefully made. It 
may well happen that some apparently trivial fact, when correlated 
with other facts by a specialist may give him a clue to an important 
truth or law which may have far-reaching results. Probably 
there is no member, past, present or future, of this Society who has 
not, or will not, at some time or other come across some interesting 
item relating to a life-history, a response to environment, a 
protective device, a form of inheritance, or some other matter which 
if duly recorded, would be of value in helping to elucidate the 
many mysteries which still surround us, even in connection with 
our own British fauna and flora. We should all of us I think, 
endeavour, in however small a degree we may have opportunity to 



19 

do so, to assist in this way at least, the " advancement " of 
Biological Science. 

Briefly the Science of Biology may be said to have for its objects 
the study of living forms in all their varied aspects of inheritance, 
adaptations and reactions to environment (including their inter- 
reactions on each other) the methods and processes of nutrition, 
growth, and reproduction and many other matters, so as on the one 
hand to obtain a fuller knowledge of the great scheme of Nature 
and on the other hand to apply that knowledge for the benefit of 
the Human Race by the control and elimination of diseases, the 
maintenance and improvement of our food supplies, and the 
maintenance, so far as lies within our power, of such a " Balance of 
Nature " as will enable the Human Race to continue to exist upon 
this Planet. 

Naturally, a large part of the work involved in the pursuit of these 
objects must be carried out by specialists in laboratories and 
Research stations, but, equally naturally, it is but a part of the 
necessary work that can be so dealt with. It is, after all, from 
observations made in the field in a species' natural environment that 
much of the most valuable information about that species' habits 
and life history must be obtained and I would urge all, especially 
our younger members, to endeavour to ascertain all they can in that 
way, whenever an opportunity offers, about any species with which 
they come into contact. 

The words of the late Dr. T. A. Chapman in one of his many 
papers nearly 30 years ago " The truth being that we require every 
scrap of knowledge that we can get, about every species," still retain 
their force. 

Realisation of the immensity of the problem involved in that short 
sentence has grown enormously since then, and indeed, increase of 
knowledge has merely served to widen the scope of inquiry. To 
speak of Lepidoptera only, it is now evident that before anything 
approaching an adequate knowledge of a species can be obtained it 
may be necessary to take into consideration such factors as the 
temperature and humidity of the atmosphere and soil during each 
stage of the insect's life over a period of years ; the nature, identity, 
life-histories and prevalence or scarcity (with the causes thereof) 
over that period of years, of the species' enemies (parasitic and 
otherwise) or friends (hosts, etc) ; the variations in numbers of the 
species over the same period of years ; the food ; the character of the 
soil ; the quantity and quality of the light in the species' habitat ; 



20 

the influence of other species ; the nature, identity, causes and 
effects of diseases and the means by which they are communicated 
and the interdependence of all these, and many other factors, one 
upon another. 

Even the particular part of a plant and, indeed, the particular 
part of the leaf or stem of a plant, and the particular time of day 
or night as well as the season of the year upon and at which a 
Lepidopterous larva feeds may be of great importance, since it has 
been shown that the chemical constituents and nutritional value of 
a food plant vary greatly according to the season, time of day, 
position of a leaf on the tree or plant and portion of leaf selected 
for food. Incidentally, the point I have just mentioned may possibly 
provide a clue as to why so many lepidopterous larvae are difficult to 
rear satisfactorily in captivity even under the best conditions of light 
and air. It may be that they feed, in the wild state, on a certain 
part of a tree or plant at a certain time of day and that neglect to 
supply them in captivity Avith food of the correct chemical composition 
injuriously affects them. Trees and plants of the same species grown 
in different soil may also differ chemically or in the proportions of 
their constituent chemicals and this could well be a further cause of 
difficulty. Uvarov's paper on *' Insect Nutrition and Metabolism" 
in the " Transactions of the Entomological Society of London " for 
1928 contains a vast amount of most valuable information on the 
subject of insect foods, but many of the factors mentioned above 
have hardly been worked upon at all and afford a great chance for 
useful observation and research. 

Here I should like to emphasise another point and that is the 
necessity for co-operation. I do not now refer to co-operation 
between workers in the same branch of Science but to co-operation 
between workers in all branches. Modern conditions compel 
specialisation more and more every day, but as specialisation 
increases so must co-operation, if erroneous deductions and distorted 
views are to be avoided. As an example, the Entomologist requires 
the co-operation not only of the Botanist and the Chemist amongst 
others, but also of the Geologist. The necessity for the first has of 
course always been obvious to everyone, especially in connection 
with work in tropical countries : the assistance of the Chemist is 
becoming recognised as of more and more importance in furnishing 
analyses of soils, foods (vegetable or otherwise), atmospheric and 
other media in which insects live, the tissues and fluids of insects' 
bodies, and many other things of importance to insects, but it too 



21 

often happens, I fear, that the work of the Geologist is regarded as 
something of very little practical importance to the Entomologist, 
unless it be in connection with the discovery of the remains of 
ancient forms of insect life. I venture to suggest however that if 
the aid of the Geologist were sought more often than it is, many 
problems of insect distribution would become less baffling, not only 
through a better understanding of the soils of the present day, but 
also because he can tell us much as to the climatic conditions and 
land distribution of past ages. 

Part II. Numerical variation in the ecdyses of 
Lepidopterous Larvae. 

I will now turn to the subject of variation in the number of 
moults in the larvae of Lepidoptera, and in this connection it must 
be understood that when giving the numbers of moults I do not 
include the moult which takes place on pupation. 

It is, of course, common knowledge that the number of moults 
undergone by Lepidopterous larvae varies in different species, but it 
may not be so generally known to what an extent that number may 
vary in a single species, or to what causes that variation may be 
attributable. I must confess that in my early days of collecting I 
assumed that when a larva reached a certain stage of growth and 
development it automatically, as it were, moulted and that it did 
this at definite intervals until it, again automatically, became a pupa. 
As time went on however I realised that this was very far from 
being the truth, and that many factors might operate to upset what 
I may call the normal coarse for a particular species. 

One of the first difficulties one comes up against in dealing with 
this matter, is the apparent absence of reliable published data for 
the majority of species. 

Out of some 830 species of British Macro-Lepidoptera (so called) 
and Grypocera included in Scorer's "Log Book " 1 have been able 
to obtain records of the numbers of the moults in 164 cases only, 
and these have been collected from various publications, from 
information supplied by Dr. Cockayne and others, and in a few 
cases from my own notes. 

Amongst the Micro-Lepidoptera the position is naturally worse 
owing in part, no doubt, to the extreme difficulty of observation in 
many cases. 

As a result of this lack of published information, or of easily 
obtainable information, it is probable that many instances of 



22 

abnormal moulting pass unnoticed or unrecorded, but nevertheless 
there have been a considerable number of reported cases both in 
this country and abroad, and it is to some of these I wish to draw 
your attention. 

Perhaps the best known case of variation of this kind is that of 
Arctia caja, L. The late Dr. T. A. Chapman showed, " Ent. 
Record, " IV., pp. 265 et seq. and V., pp. 33 et seq. that individuals 
of the same brood of this species might have any number of moults 
from 5 to 13 and he came to the conclusion that this was a result 
of mong^relisation of several races and subsidiary varieties, each 
with its own characteristic series of moults, but he apparently 
considered that the hereditary character could be modified by 
temperature and indeed states at one place that " It appears to be 
entirely a matter of temperature." 

For purposes of convenience he divided his larvae, by rates of 
growth, into three sections which he called respectively " Forwards " 
" Normals " and " Laggards." 

The " Forwards " which became adult in the Autumn might 
have had 5 or 6 moults. The " Normals " which hibernate and 
become adult in the following Spring, might have from 6 to 8 
moults, while the " Laggards," which undergo a partial hibernation 
only and continue to feed very slowly throughout the winter, might 
have from 7 to 13 moults. 

In the course of his paper Dr. Chapman states that the average 
number of " Forward " type in the considerable number of broods 
and generations he reared was " generally not far from five per cent " 
but he gives several instances where this did not hold good. 

One of his broods was reared partly by himself at a temperature 
of 60°-65° and the other portion was reared by Mr. Merrifield at a 
temperature of 80°. 

The chances certainly are that the two portions of this brood 
would have been constituted in the same way so far as the proportion 
of " Forwards," " Normals," *' Laggards " and subsidiaries is 
concerned. Yet Dr. Chapman's portion produced 4 " Forwards,'* 
7 "Doubtfuls," and 136 "Normals" while Mr. Merrifield's portion 
produced 150 " Forwards " and 50 " Normals" (the latter possibly 
including some "Laggards"). Another brood reared by Dr. 
Chapman in June which " no doubt had the benefit of a slightly 
higher temperature " produced 76 " Forwards " 85 " Normals " and 
49 " Laggards " while a Mr. Edmonds of Windsor was in the habit 
of getting about 35 per cent of " Forwards " which he (Mr. Edmonds) 



28 

attributed to his method of feeding, but Dr. Chapman thought was 
due to a higher temperature. 

In this connection it might be of interest to record the only 
experience I have had in breeding this species in large numbers. 
In the Autumn of 1913, which 1 see from my notes was an unusually 
warm one, I had some 220 larvae which had hatched on August 
80th and 31st from eggs laid by a captured Norfolk female. They 
were reared in the earlier stages in glass jars covered with gauze 
and were fed as a rule twice daily with an ample supply of Rumex. 
By the beginning of November I had obtained without any deliberate 
forcing 83 pupae and one larva had died after spinning up. So 
that in this case there were 84 " Forwards " i.e., larvae with but 
6 or 6 moults, in a batch of 220 larvae. 

Evidently, whatever may be the decisive factor governing the 
rate of growth in this species (whether heredity, temperature, or 
quantity of food) it is not size or state of internal development 
which dictates when a moult shall take place. 

Interesting examples may also be found amongst the larvae of 
some other species as the following instances show. 

Lasiocainpa qiievcm, L., normally has 5 moults, i.e., 6 larval 
in stars. 

Vars. viburni and meridionalis are stated by Guenee (" Ann. Soc. 
Ent. France," 1868, p. 407) to have 5 moults, but var. viburni is 
said by Bacot (Tutt, " Brit. Lep." III., p. 62) to have had but 4 
moults with him, although he was a little doubtful as to some extra 
large larvae. 

Var. sicula is said to have " about 9 " moults (Tutt, " Brit. Lep." 
III., p. 71). 

Var. callioiae is doubtfully recorded by Bacot (Tutt, "Brit. Lep." 
III. p. 75) as having 5 moults while Shipston (loc. cit. p. 76) gives 
6 or 7. 

Orgj/ia aiitigiia, L. was noted by Chapman (" E.M.M." XXIII., 
p. 224) as having 3, 4 or 5 moults and that the 3 moulter forms 
produced males, the 4 moulter ones both sexes, and the 5 moulters 
females. He considered that the 4 moulter females corresponded to 
the 8 moulter males while the 5 moulter females corresponded to 
the 4 moulter males. In America the same species was recorded 
by Dyar (Tutt, " Brit. Lep." II., p. 12) as having 5 moults in the 
male and 6 in the female. 

Notolophns (Oruyia) (fiilosa, is stated, also by Dyar (loc. cit), to have 
8 or 4 moults in the male, but always 4 in the female. 



24 

Orgyia deiinita^ Pack, has 6 moults in the female but apparently 
5 only in the male, if I read Dyar's note (" Psyche," Y. p. 429 and 
Note 11. on p. 422) correctly. 

Xotolophiis [Or(jyia) leiicostiyina, was recorded by Prof. C. V. Riley 
as having 3 moults in the male and 4 in the female (" E.M.M." 
XXIII. p. 274 and see '* Psyche." V. p. 28) and in connection with 
this he says that " there is a very general tendency in individuals to 
vary from the normal number of moults in the species" and that 
" whenever there is much discrepancy in the sizes of the sexes, the 
smaller (usually the male) undergoes a less number of moults and 
that the variation in the numbers of larval moults (except where, as 
in these cases, it is sexual, and presumably pre-determined in the 
egg) is dependent on food supply rather than hibernation." He 
also adds '* it may be stated as a very general rule that moulting is 
correlated with rate of growth and nutrition, those species which 
have a short larval existence, generously nourished, exuviating least. 
A rule applying to the class is presumably applicable to the 
individuals." 

Although in the case of the last four species the variation is partly 
sexual, there is evidently some other factor at work in antiqna and 
yiilosa. 

Schiznra ipunieae, Doubl., is said by Dyar ("Psyche," V. p. 421) 
to have 4 moults, while Packard records 5 (" Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. 
Hist.," 24, p. 584). 

Kdeun'a albifrons, S. & A., is given by Dyar (" loc. cit."j as having 
5 moults, but Packard records 4 only (*' loc. cit." p. 525). 

Platt/santia (Attacns) cecropia, L., has four moults according to 
Prof. C. V. Riley (" Amer. Entom.," Feb. 1870, 2, p. 100) but 5 
moults according to Wailly (" Bull. Soc. Acclim. France," May, 1882, 
S. 3, Vol. 9, pp. 266-267), and Mrs. A. K. Dimmock suggested 
(" Psyche," V. 29) that this difference was due to climatic influences. 

CoHiinityirhe [Odovestis) potatoria, L., larvae which Bacot had 
under observation appear to have had but 5 moults (Tutt " Brit. 
Lep." III., p. 168, et seq.) while some I reared ab. ovo in 1926-27 
required 7 moults (" Entomologist," LXI., p. 98, et seq.) and others 
I have reared since also had 7 moults. 

In the majority of British Acronictids Chapman found the 
normal number of moults to be 5 but that several (perhaps all) 
species had individual larvae with 4 moults only. He states that 
in runricis this is fairly common " most broods presenting some 
examples of it" and that he had also noted it in menyanthidis, 



25 

anriconia, leporina and areria. He also found " this variation had no 
relation to sex " nor was it an attempt " to reach the imago state 
more rapidly and to become double-brooded." He says " It seems 
to be a spontaneous variation whose meaning and use have yet to 
be discovered " and continues " It is an interesting circumstance to 
note, in connection with this that alni alone has 4 moults as the 
normal number and that in rare instances it moults 5 times like the 
others," The same observer also records that Daseorhaeta [piptJiera) 
orion, Esp., also has extra moiilter larvae, which are all much 
larger than normal, but that there is no tendency to divide into 
two races (''E.M.M.," XXXIL, p. 57). 

Tutt ("Brit. Lep." 2, p. 11) says "Buckler notes that Nola 
cejitonalis, Hb., moults nine times, the other species of the genus but 
six," but Dr. Cockayne informs me that larvae of N. coiifnsatis, Hb., 
ab. coliDiibaria, which he reared ab. ovo in 1907 had 4 moults only. 

Sinerinthus ocellatns, L., has 4 moults according to Bacot and 
Hellins (Tutt " Brit. Lep." III., pp. 484, 435) and also according to 
Lucas (" Book of British Hawk Moths," 1895, p. 125) while 
Clifford and Moncrief give 3 only (Tutt, " Brit. Lep." II., p. 17). 

Antorpha ))opiili, L,, has 4 moults according to Buckler ('' Larvae, 
etc."; and Tutt, "Brit. Lep." III., p. 479), Lucas ("loc. cit." 
p. 129) and Weismann ("Studies in the Theory of Descent," pp. 
236-239), but 3 only according to Clifford and Moncrief (Tutt, 
" Brit. Lep." II., p. 17) and Bacot (Tutt, " Brit. Lep.," III., p. 478). 

In 1923 I had a small batch of 16 larvae of this species 15 of 
which had 3 moults but the remaining one, which had become 
fixed to a honey-dewed leaf in its 1st stadium, moulted 4 times 
("Entomologist," LVIIL, p. 207, et seq.). In this case the extra 
moult appeared to be directly traceable to the accident in the 1st 
stadium. 

Smerinthns hybr. hybridns, Steph. was reared by Bacot who records 
that some larvae had 3 moults, others 4 (Tutt, *" Brit. Lep." III., 
p. 456). 

Many larvae of Butterflies with summer and spring broods 
undergo one more moult in the case of the hibernating larvae than 
they do with the summer larvae, and this was discussed at some 
length in a paper by W. H. Edwards (" Psyche," III., p. 159, et seq.) 
who suggested the difference was due to the hibernators being 
obliged to get rid of the rigid skin in which the larvae passed the 
winter. 

On the other hand there are several of our British Butterflies, ('.7., 



26 

Melanay(jia (jalathea, L., hh-ebia epiphron, Kn. and E. aetliiops^ Esp. 
— the larvae of which hibernate and have a long life but neverthe- 
less undergo 3 moults only, while other species with a short non- 
hibernating larval existence such as Pleris brassicae, L., P. rapae, 
L. and l\ uapi, L. require 4 moults to reach maturity. 

These last few examples are very puzzling and are quite an 
exception from the general rule stated by Prof. Riley, which I quoted 
just now. Why, for instance, should the larvae of M. (/alatliea, 
which has an existence of 8 or 9 months and passes through the 
winter, be able to reach full growth with but 3 moults, while P. 
brassicae with a larval period of a few weeks, requires 4 ? Admittedly 
the two species are a long way apart, but to say that 3 is the 
hereditary number of moults in one case and 4 in the other, while 
being an easy way out of the difficulty, affords no real answer. It 
would appear in fact that the cuticle of M. (/alathea is better suited to 
its environment and in consequence retains its efficiency for a longer 
period, probably owing to chemical differences. 

Variation in the number of moults has been recorded (so far as I 
know) in 8 species of British Butterflies, but the most remarkable 
are the records of An/ynnis paphia, L. For this species Frohawk 
(Natural History of British Butterflies) gives the number of moults 
as 4, while Buckler (" Larva of British Butterflies ") gives 8. Other 
species are. — Coliaa hyale, L., 5 (Frohawk) ; 4 (Morris, "Entomo- 
logist." LXIII. pp. 40, 41). Gonepteri/x rhanini, L. 4 (Frohawk), 3 
(Buckler). Apatiira iris^ L. 4 (Frohawk) ; 5 (Buckler). Plebeinsanjus, 
Hw. {aetjou, Schiff.) 4 (Frohawk) ; 3 (Chapman in Tutt, " Brit. Lep." 
X. 219). Ci/aniris aiyioliis, L. 3 (Frohawk) 4 (Buckler and Edwards 
in Tutt, "Brit. Lep." IX. 409-484). Xowiades semianjus, Rott. 
{acts, Schiff.) 5 (Frohawk) ; 4 (Chapman in Tutt, " Brit. Lep." X. 
293) and Aiu/iades si/lvanus, Esp. 6 (Frohawk) ; 4 (Tutt, " Brit. Lep." 
VIII. 138, 142). 

Some of these variations are almost certainly due to different 
conditions of rearing and go to show that even here there is no real 
fixity of moulting habit. 

There are doubtless a vast number of other similar records scattered 
about in various Entomological and other works but enough have 
been mentioned, I think, to show that this type of variation is fairly 
widespread and frequent. Doubt has often been thrown on records 
because they do not happen to agree with some subsequent worker's 
observations, but it seems very probable that many of them are correct 
and the differences have been due to actual variation. 



27 

There does not seem to have been a great deal (or perhaps I should 
say I have not found many records) of experimental work on this 
subject, and what has been done has usually been directed to some 
other purpose, in the pursuit of which the phenomenon of numerical 
variation of moults has appeared as an incident. 

Mrs. A. K. Dimmock (" Psyche." V., p. 28 et seq.) quotes a paper 
by Alfred Wailly in which he records that a Mr. Weniger reared 
larvae of Antheraea mijlitta and of Ceratocampa iinpcrialis, " in a 
large box, a greenhouse in miniature, heated by a kerosene lamp 
upon which is placed a saucer filled with water. The larvae, kept 
at a uniform temperature of about 25° centigrade " lived " in an 
atmosphere charged with the vapours of water and kerosene and 
instead of dying of disease " developed " with extraordinary rapidity " 
with the result that they had 4 moults whereas under normal 
conditions they have 5. Wailly goes on to say that in Ceylon 
where the climate is also warm and moist, niylitta has but 4 
moults. 

Chapman (" Ent. Mo. Mag." XXXII., 54-80) gives details of two 
expermients he carried out with larvae of Tiiphaena cmnea, Hb., 
{orhona, F.). In the 1st he fed some last stadium larvae on Arbntns 
unedo upon which they nearly starved. After putting them back on 
Rumex, all but two died and the survivors undertook an extra 
moult. One of these died very soon, the other grew to a great size 
and then died for no apparent reason. In the 2nd experiment, the 
larvae were semi-starved in their last stadium so that they were 
kept almost at a standstill for 5 or 6 weeks, and were then given 
a plentiful supply of food. Some pupated, others died, while a few 
moulted or attempted to moult again. Those that moulted, were, 
however, abnormal in several respects, having certain pupal 
characters. Dr. Cockayne suggests (" Trans. Ent. Soc. Lon." 
LXXV. p. 303) that a toxin derived from the food may have been 
at work here. 

Uvarov (" Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond." LXXVI., p. 313) refers to a 
series of experiments made by Cavazza with feeding silkworms on 
mulberry leaves sprayed with various chemicals, and says that it was 
found that Hydrochloric Acid or Cobalt Chloride might result in 
an increase in the number of moults, but only if the concentration 
used was too strong. 

Tutt (" Brit. Lep." II., p. 11) quotes Packard as saying that '• as 
a rule, the greatest number of moults occurs in holometabolic 
insects with the longest lives, and that an excessive number of 



28 

ecdyses may, at times, be due to some physical cause such as lack 
of food combined with a low temperature " and that " in the winged 
insects, especially Lepidoptera, the number of moults is 
dependent on climate ; insects of wide distribution, growing faster 
in warmer climates consequently shedding their skins oftener, e.g.j 
the same species may moult once oftener in the Southern than in 
the Northern (American) States as in the case of Callosamiapromethea, 
Drury, which in West Virginia is double brooded." 

The last quotation would seem to contradict Packard's first 
statement, and the opinion expressed in it would, moreover appear 
to be due to a misapprehension, Dyar (" Psyche," 5, pp. 420 and 
421, Note 1) for New York, and Edwards (" Psyche," 3, pp. 161 
and 171-174) for West Virginia both record 3 moults for this species, 
while Mrs. Dimmock (" Psyche," 5, p. 29) after referring to a 
doubtful record of 4 moults made by a Mr. Lintner, says " As Mr. 
Edward's specimens were reared farther south than were Mr. 
Lintner's it would appear that this instance, if due to climatic 
influence, was as would be expected, /.«., that the larvae reared at 
the North had more moults than those reared at the South " a 
suggestion, however, which Dyar doubts in view of his own 
experience. 

The great amount of variation in the number of larval moults 
that exists as between species and species is too well known to need 
any comment, except this, that there seems to be every possible 
gradation between no moult (which has been recorded in the case of 
some Micro-Lepidopterous species such as certain Xepticnlidae) at the 
one extreme and the frequent moulters such as Arctiids and 
Lithosiids at the other extreme. 

In spite of this inter-specific variation I feel almost disposed to 
suggest that further study would reveal that moulting is only 
indirectly governed by heredity and that it is really dependent on 
the chemical character of the larval cuticular excretions (as influenced 
by food, etc.) plus temperature, plus the atmosphere or other medium 
in which the larva lives; or rather is dependent on the reactions 
between all three factors. 

I am afraid this is a very imperfect and unsatisfactory summary 
but if it serves to draw attention once again to the subject and results 
in further observation, and more published records, it will have 
carried out my intention and I wish to thank all those who have 
furnished me with information or references, for without their help 
this review would have been even less complete than it is. 



29 

With the many interesting facts correlated with variation in 
moulting, such as the changes and development of larval markings 
and plumage I cannot attempt to deal, but they are points well worth 
careful study and observations. 

In conclusion, Ladies and Gentlemen, I wish to thank you for the 
honour you conferred upon me in electing me as a Vice-President 
and for the still greater honour your Council did me in appointing 
me to be your President for the greater part of the past year. At 
the same time no one can regret more than I do the untimely event 
which rendered the latter honour possible. May I also take this 
opportunity of thanking you and the Officers and Council for the 
courtesy and kindness you and they have always shown me. 

My sole remaining duty, and that a very pleasant one, is to join 
with you in welcoming your new President and old friend Mr. K. G. 
Blair, and wishing him a happy and prosperous tenure of Office. 

In him you have obtained a President under whose able and 
experienced guidance the South London Entomological and Natural 
History Society cannot do otherwise than grow, both in numbers 
and prestige. 



30 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

FEBRUARY 13th, 1930. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Stanley Edwards exhibited the Tsetse-fly, Glosaina moraitans^ 
received from the neighbourhood of Lake Nyassa. 

Captain Curwen exhibited a short series of the melanic form of 
Setiiiothifia {Macaria) liturata ab. ni<jro-fnlvata, from the Delamere 
district. 

Mr. Hawkins exhibited a specimen of the foliage with fruits 
attached, which has been sold in the streets for Christmas 
decoration, and asked what was the name of the plant. Mr. Step 
said that the foliar part was butcher's broom, probably a continental 
European species, while the fruits, which were cleverly attached, 
were probably those of the " cape gooseberry." 

Mr. Andrews exhibited the contents (36 S S' and 43 ? ? ) of a 
match-box full of flies, Muwa ai(tnnmalis, De Geer, taken from a 
large swarm found hibernating in the loft of a house in Bromley, 
Kent. This is the second consecutive year that the loft has been 
invaded by this fly, which usually chooses old houses, barns, or 
churches in the country, rather than a comparatively small modern 
house in a suburb. 

Mr. Quilter exhibited a box of Coleoptera collected on the sand- 
hills near Tenby, S. Wales, illustrative of shore and sandhill species, 
some of which are cosmopolitan in their distribution. 

Mr. Jarvis exhibited a number of Coleoptera of some economic 
interest including specimens of Lytta [Cautharis] vesicatoria, L., 
which had been attacked in store by smaller beetles — Anobium 
panicenm, Ptinus tectus, and Niptns hololencns, all well-known ware- 
house pests belonging to the coleopterous group Teredilia, and 
communicated the following note : — 

L. vesicatoria (Heteromera) occurs locally in this country and 
commonly on the continent, where it is known as the Spanish or 
Blister-fly, and is imported for medical uses — i.e., for the extraction 



81 

from the carcases of the beetles, of the irritant drug Cantharidin. It 
is perhaps of interest to reflect that, with the exception of the 
cochineal insect (Hemiptera) it is the only official insect survivor of 
the British Pharmacopoeia of 1687 cr/c, which amongst other things 
ordained that formic acid should be obtained from " digested " 
carcases of the ant Fornn'ca rtifa. 

Among the dried beetles are found larvae of the beetle Tenehroides 
tnaiiritanicKs (Clavicorn) predaceous upon larvae of the smaller pests 
Ptinns and Anobinm. Both the larva and beetle were exhibited. 

Another beetle, Rhizopertha dominica^ Fab. infests the butter-bean 
of commerce and was shown, together with a pupa inside a bean. 
Ehizopertha is also subject to predations of Tenebroidefi. 



FEBRUARY 27th, 1930. 
Mr. H. W. Andrews, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. de Worms exhibited newly emerged examples of Phifialin 
pedaria of which one was a very strongly brown -grey or ochreous- 
grey form ab. ochrea, the others were the usual greenish -grey forms, 
but with the transverse lines of the forewings unusually strongly 
developed. They were taken at road lamps near Egham. He also 
reported a melanic example, the first taken in the district. 

Mr. E. Step delivered a lecture upon the British Decapod 
Crustacea, illustrated by lantern portraits of nearly all the species. 
Commending the study of the group to the notice of entomologists, 
he remarked that the Insecta and the Crustacea being parallel 
divisions of the Arthropoda, there are comparatively close 
resemblances in their anatomy and morphology, as well as in their 
development from ova and through larval stages to the adult forms. 
The families and genera were referred to in turn, and the 
modifications of form, as in the lobsters, the swimming-crabs, the 
hermit-crabs and the spider-crabs, brought about by different modes 
of life, pointed out on the screen. 



MMiCH 13th, 1930. 

The decease of the recently elected President, Mr. F. B. Carr, was 
reported and a vote of condolence with his family was passed. 
It was announced that, in accordance with the Bye-laws, the 



32 

Council had filled the vacancy thus caused, by appointing Mr. C. N. 
Hawkins, F.E.S., Vice-president, to be the President for the year. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins took the chair. 

Capt. Curwen exhibited the Swiss hryoniae form of Pieris napiy 
the sub-sp. polaris of Aglaia nrticae from Bossekop, the S. European 
anargyra form of Dri/as paphia from Corsica, the type form of 
Fararye oer/eria froui Cyprus, the ti(/elit(s form of P. megera from 
Malta, the sub-sp. lucia of Polyoniwatiis icanis from Syria, the eleiis 
form of Riunicia phlaeas from Corsica, the Swiss obscura form of 
Lycaeiia avion, with races of Coenonympha paviphilus, Argynnis 
cydippe, etc. 

Mr. Robert Adkin exhibited a specimen of the Central American 
butterfly Opsiphanea taiiiarindi that was found in January last at 
Eastbourne on a bunch of bananas, attempting to expand its wings. 
He said there appeared to be little doubt that in this case the larva 
had crawled into the bunch of bananas at about the time that it was 
gathered and pupated among the fruit, being thus transported to 
this country before emergence took place, and he commented upon 
the probability ot various tropical insects that are from time to time 
found in this country arriving in a similar manner, bananas 
apparently offering a particularly good opportunity for such trans- 
portation. 

Mr. C. G. M. de Worms exhibited a series of four British and 
four Continental specimens of Papilio machaon for comparison. 
The British were three from Wicken, {two bred), and one from 
Ranworth (Norfolk Broads), taken from 1923 to 1926. The 
Continental specimens were three from near Tours, taken in 1923 
and an exceptionally large female taken near Zurich in 1924. It 
was noticed that the British specimens differed appreciably from 
the Continental, especially from the French examples, by having the 
dark band of the upper wmgs much broader and the tint of the 
wings of a paler yellow. There was also less blue scaling on the 
bands of the lower wings of the British specimens. The darkest 
continental specimens were of the form anrantiaca. 

Mr. S. N. A. Jacobs exhibited a series of D<^/>r^.s.srtna a///)Za?za,Fabr. 
taken in February and March, 1930, thus apparently all being 
hibernated specimens, showing a considerable number of males, 
which must also have hibernated. The proportions do not signify 
much for most probably the females were sitting deeper in the bushes, 
and the series was taken at random. There was one melanic female, 
and the series showed a fair range of variation. 



83 

It is interesting to note that as with the dipterous exhibit of Mr, 
Andrews, some two or three meetings past, showing both male and 
female examples of a fly taken hibernating in the roof of a house, 
so in this case also both sexes had hibernated together. 

Mr. C. N. Hawkins exhibited: — 1. A living larva of Perconia 
(Aspitates) striijillariay Hb., apparently in its last stadium, which 
had been feeding and growing slowly all through the winter on a 
potted plant of heather. According to Scorer these larvae should 
hibernate, when smaller, at the roots, but the batch of which this 
was the last survivor remained restless, fed at intervals in the evenings 
and grew slowly. Unfortunately all but this one seem to have 
wandered off the plant and been lost. This one moulted a few days 
previously, but was not yet much larger than before the moult. 

2. Four living larvae of Amathes (Anchocelis, Orthosia) lychnidisj 
Schiff. {pifitacina, F.). These larvae were bred ab. ovo, the parent 
2 having been taken on Wimbledon Common in October last. The 
ova were laid on October 24th and 25th, and the larvae began to 
hatch indoors on February 1st this year, since when they had been 
kept in a moderately warm room. The exhibitor said : "A number 
of foodplants have been recorded for this species, Scorer giving 
Carex, Grainineae^ Banioicidiis, Hninex, Senecio vulgaris, Taraxacum 
and Salix capraea, but I found that at first they refused dock and 
dandelion, and wandered about restlessly until I supplied them with 
some coarse grass (Triticuvi repens) when they soon began to feed. 
They moulted 5 times in all and after the 3rd moult I tried them 
again with dandelion as a food and found they now took to it readily. 
After this it was their principal food but they still appeared to like 
to have some coarse grasses mixed with the dandelion and appeared 
to keep in better condition when they could mix their diet in this 
way. I did not try the other foodplants mentioned, but think it 
probable they would eat any of them during their later stages. As 
will be seen there are two distinct colour forms, a green and a 
brown. So far as I am aware only the green form (variously 
called " apple-green " or "green inclining to yellowish ") has been 
described, although Buckler figures both forms. Apart from colour 
there appears to be no marked difference between the green and 
the brown forms. In the most definite of the latter the colour 
might be described as a yellowish olive-brown with a very pale 
brown head." 

Mr. Anderson exhibited two large ichneumons, the first bred from 
a larva of Sphinx Ugustri and the second from a larva of Lasiocampa 



84 

querciis form callnnae, and also larvae of Cosmis luiniperda in various 
stages of growth. The latter had been induced to nibble potatoes. 

Mr. Hy. -I. Turner exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Wightman, bred 
series of the two NonatiHa species N. dixsoluta and A^ iieiirica and 
pointed out the clear distinction between them, the latter having a 
well-marked transverse crest, which the former does not possess but 
has a well-defined discoidal lunule on the underside of the hindwing, 
which is completely wanting in N. neurica. The A^ diasolnta consisted 
of typical dark examples, the arnndineta lighter form, which is the 
prevalent one in this country, and the ab. rosea. The A", neurica^ 
consisted of the typical form, the red form rufescens and the dark 
form fusca, all from E. Sussex, which is the only locality known in 
this country, where the species has been obtained in the larval 
stage. 

He also showed the following foreign forms of British species : — 
the white Candida form of Emyiiia cnhrum from Switzerland, a long 
series of various forms of Paraseniia planta/iinu ^ s from the Alps ; 
the forms cleodoxa, cleodippe, chlorodippe, and haiuvarica of Arcfynma 
cydijjpe, all of which are racial on the continent of Europe ; the 
Cyprian testaceolata form of Euphyia hilineata, the very yellow males 
of Ematiirrfa atomaria mostly from the Alps, and an almost uni- 
colorous form of Dasycampa rubiyinea from Vienna. 

Mr. Quilter exhibited a box of Coleoptera from Pernambuco and 
a large ichneumon which attacks the well-known Tarantula spiders 
in Brazil. 

Dr. Bull exhibited an early DasycJdra piidibiinda (January 13th), 
a very small and very pale Pkiyalia pedaria taken the first week in 
March, and bud galls on the birch caused by the gall-mite 
Eriophyes nidi, 

Mr. Tonge reported that he had seen Polyyonia c-alhiun at Reigate 
in the first week in March. 

Mr. R. Adkin said that the day's Thtiea reported a " white " 
butterfly. 

Mr. Hawkms had seen a larva of Pieris rapae in December. 

There were reports of Pyrauieis atalanta being seen this year in 
the New Forest and Mr. Step saw one at the end of November last, 
and on March 8th Mr. Tonge saw a specimen of Vanesna io. 



35 

MAUCH 27th, 1930. 
Mr. C. N. Hawkins, Prksident, in the Chair. 

It was announced that the Council had filled the two vacancies 
in the Officers and Council, by appointing Col. Labouchere as Vice- 
President and Mr. C. Jarvis a member of Council. 

Mr. B, J. Dudbridge of Merton Park, Mr. S. Wakeley of Upper 
Norwood, and Mr. F. E. A. Colby of Billinghurst were elected 
members. 

Dr. Cockayne exhibited living larvae of Orthosia tuacilenta from 
Torquay, which hatched on January 31st, and of Di/sstroma 
concinnata from Arran, which hatched in August, 1929. The 
former fed on sallow ; the latter on strawberry, which they had 
nibbled all the winter without really hibernating. 

Mr. Main exhibited the house-cricket, which was now generally 
reported to be quite scarce, no doubt owing to the almost universal 
use of gas fires. The pair were taken at Woodford and shortly after 
capture the female made a meal of the head of the male, which was 
still alive. 

Mr. de Worms exhibited the ova of Alsophila aeacularia laid on 
March 16th, of Apocheima hispidaria laid on March 19th, and of 
Colotois pemiaria just hatched. 

Mr. Tonge then read a paper on the " Ova of Lepidoptera," 
illustrating his remarks by a series of lantern slides. (Page 6.) 



APRIL 10th, 1930. 
The President in the chair. 

Mr. C. Wilkins, John Innes Horticultural Institute, Merton, was 
elected a member. 

Mr. K. G. Blair exhibited a cockroach, Xyctibma noctivaf/a , Rehn., 
from Costa Rica, found alive among bananas by Mr. Rait-Smith. 
Though now deep brown its colour when alive was stated to have been 
of a bright emerald green. W^ith it Mr. Blair showed one of the 
green cockroaches, Pancldora cnbensis, Sauss., more commonly found 
among bananas, but which retains the green colour, more or less 
faded to yellow, on drying. Though N. noctivaga does not figure 
among the 3 species of the genus noted by Mr. Lucas (" British 
Orthopt.") as occasionally introduced into this country, it is 
suggested by Dr. Uvarov, who kindly named the specimen, that one 
or more of the names cited by Lucas might refer to this species. 



36 

The remainder of the evening was devoted to an exhibition of 
lantern slides. 

Mr. Dodds showed an excellent photograph of the late President, 
Mr. F. B. Carr, resting on the stump of a tree during a collecting 
afternoon in 1929. 

Mr. Robert Adkin showed (Lep.) Lamproniid and Adelid larval 
and pupal cases ; the moth Litliocolletis tenella and its larval 
mine in a hornbeam leaf, and Coleophorid cases in dtii on their 
food -plants. 

Captain Curwen exhibited a number of lantern slides to illustrate 
notes on the Entomostraca, minute aquatic Crustaceans, and 
subsequently a series of drawings of the same. 

Mr. Sims also exhibited slides. 



ATEIL 24th, 1930. 
The President in the Chair. 

Mr. G. L. Baxter, 50, Wroughton Rd., S.W.I 1, was elected a 
member. 

Mr. T. R. Eagles exhibited ova of Rnralis betulae and of Miselia 
oxyacanthae with larvae of Boarnn'a {Cleora) Uckenaria and B. [C.) 
jubata {(jlahraria) from the New Forest. 

There was a special exhibition and discussion on the genus Miana. 

Mr. Tarns, who opened the discussion, confined his remarks to 
substantiating his opinion that in what has hitherto been considered 
M. stritjilis there are two species and illlustrated his remarks by 
sketches of the genitalia. 

Dr. Williams exhibited various species and forms of the genus and 
communicated the following Note : — 

Miana, St. — The insects exhibited, with one exception, have been 
taken in Surrey during the last few years. 

Strii/ilis, Clerk. — Occurs in my garden, usually two or three in an 
evening at sugar. I have once taken a pair in cop. (beaten while 
beating for larvae). 

Latriincula, Haw. — Abounds in my garden. This species again 
I have once taken in cop. in similar circumstances. 

Strigilis, Clerck. — One specimen with dark outer fascia (Esher, 
1929). 

Two specimens, which I do not claim to identify, taken at sugar 
in my garden, June, 1929. They seem to agree fairly well with 



37 

aetata, Esp., but this is doubtful. I cannot place them as either 
strigilis, Cleick., or latruncula ^ Haw. They seem to me smaller 
than strif^ilis and a little larger than latntnciila, and I shall be glad 
to have expert opinion. 

Fasciuncida, Clerck. — Less common than striifilis in my garden 
and difficult to obtain in good condition. 

Literosa, Haw. — Once taken in my garden. 

Bicoloria, Vill. — Not very common in my experience at Esher, 
but my observations do not quite satisfy me on this point. 

Arciiosa, Haw. — Quite common in suitable places wherever I 
have collected in Surrey. The only one which does not occur in 
my garden. 

Dr. E. A. Cockayne exhibited preserved larvae of the genus 
Miana and of several allied species, and communicated the follow- 
ing Notes : — 

" Though I have seen only some larvae of the genera Tapinostola, 
Chortoden, Petilainpa and Miaua, they have so many unusual 
characters in common, that I feel sure they should be placed next 
to one another and not separated by other genera having larvae 
totally unlike them, which is the arrangement found in all our 
books. Apamea secalis also belongs to this group, the imago being 
very like that of strif/ilis and the larva being very like that of 
latnincida (if I am right in my determination). Apamea ophio- 
gravuna, though in some respects dissimilar from the others has 
sufficient resemblance to show that it is a fairly close relative. 
The larva of neither species is, either in habits or structure, like any 
of the others such as (jewina placed in the genus Apamea. 

" The group of which I am speaking are internal feeders on various 
grasses. All have a small pointed head and taper very much 
towards the anal end. The anus is very minute and there is a very 
large hard anal flap, especially large in fah-a and, for these larvae, 
unusually small in bicoloria. The skin is extremely thick and 
leathery. The common pattern is a narrow dorsal stripe of ground 
colour bordered by broad subdorsal stripes of dull red or purplish 
colour. The tubercles are small and black surrounded by a white 
ring. 

" These peculiarities, though well adapted for the life of the larva, 
are probably indications of affinity rather than of convergence. 
The smaller Nonagria and Cvenobia rufa live a very similar life, but 
have a different shape, a head and anal plate of different structure, 
and a very thin skin. 



38 

" The larvae I have actually examined are those of Chortodes bondiif 
Tayinustolo fidva &nd T. elytiii, Miami lat) inicula, M. striniUs, M. 
biculoria, A. secalis, and A. opkio(jramnia. I cannot help feeling that 
if we could get the material for Mr. Tonge to examine the eggs, 
Mr. Hawkins the pupae and myself the larvae, we could by 
collaboration arrive at a much more natural arrangement. 

" I have comparatively little experience of collecting these larvae, 
which are most difficult to obtain, but I will give it for what it is 
worth. P. arcKosa is easy to find, if you know the way. Look for 
a small plant of Aira caesjiitosa with many dead leaves, the more 
the better. Separate the leaves as far down as possible and pull 
out the dead ones. If P. arcuom is there you will soon expose a 
larva. Either go on pulling out the dead leaves or take the whole 
crown of the plant home and either keep it intact or pull it to 
pieces at home. The larvae are often present in large numbers in 
such an infested plant. I found twenty in a small part of one this 
week. Larvae of Chortodes bondii and Miana biaduiia 1 took 
together in Festuca arinidiiiacea by pulling out the dead leaves. 
When a leaf came out easily there was usually a larva of one or 
other species either in the part pulled out or left behind just below 
the break. M. latruncula and A. secalis feed in Vactylis <jl<))iterata 
and Triticuni repens, the former preferring the Dactylis and the 
latter the Triticutn. Look carefully for a yellow centre leaf, which 
can be pulled out easily. Though such a leaf does not indicate 
the presence of a larva in the stem, you will probably find a 
leaf near it, which is still green but slightly withered, and the larva 
will most likely be found just above the root-stock. If there are 
few signs of larvae in a plant it is worth while searching it on the 
spot, but if the signs are many, cut through the roots and take it 
home in a sleeve to examine at leisure. Separate it and hold the 
stems up to the light. Those that have or have had a larva in are 
easily recognised in this way. The larva is generally just above the 
root-stock." 

Mr. Turner said that the genus Miana was erected by Stephens 
in 1829 in his III. Brit. Ent. III. and contained literosa, striyilis, latrun- 
cula, aet/iiops, hu}ueralis = bicoloria, terniiualis, rufuncula, fasciuucula, 
and )ninitna. This genus really covered the same ground as Hiibner 
had in the Verz. in 1822 with his genus Oligia which contained 
strigilis {praeduncula)^ furuncula [bicoloria), latruncula, vinctuucula 
and erratricula. And we find Hampson in 1908 and Warren-Seitz 
in 1911 adopting this latter as the genus. The former dealing 



39 

with the world places 46 species in Oli(jia, the latter dealing with 
the Palaearctic Kegion only includes 1