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THE SUFFOLK 

INSTITUTE OF ARCHEOLOGY 



AND 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY 
PAWSEY AND HAYES, THE ANCIENT HOUSE, IPSWICH. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



jluftoltt § institute at ^wtoUgg 

and §tatal pjstflmj, 

ESTABLISHED MAR-Oia:, 1848, 
FOR THE 

COLLECTION & PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION 



ON THE 



ANCIENT ARTS AND MONUMENTS 



OF THE 



COUNTY OF SUFFOLK. 




VOLUME VI. 



1888. 



THE GETTY CE! 



CONTENTS. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Officers, ii ; Rules, iv ; Members, v ; Report, viii ; Balance 
Sheet, x, xi ; Societies in Union, xii ; General Meetings, 
1885, at Great Yarmouth, Gorleston, Burgh, Bradwell, 
Belton, Fritton, xiii ; 1886, Sudbury, Chilton, Acton, xxi ; 
1887, Denston, Wickhambrook, Bansfield Hall, Denham, 
Little Saxham, xli ; S. Gregory's, Sudbury, xlviii - 

The Stoneing Cross of Dowsing's Journal 

By the Rev. C. H Evelyn White, Hon. Sec. - - 1 

Roman British Remains, found at Hawkedon 

By Edward M. Dewing, Hon. Sec. - - - 9 

Remarks upon an Amphora and Two Figures, found at 

Hawkedon. By Augustus W. Franks, f.r.s., f.s.a. - 10 

The De Greys of Little Cornard. By the Rev. George Crabbe 1 3 

On a Roman British Cemetery at Ingham, near Bury 

By Henry Prigg - - - - - .41 

On Some Supposed Crucifixion Nails. By Henry Prigg - 55 

The Anglo-Saxon Graves, Warren Hill, Mildenhall 

By Henry Prigg - - - - - 57 

Clare Priory. By the Rev. H. Jarvis - - - 73 

Armorial Insignia of the Borough of Eye 

By the late G. A. Carthew, Esq., f.s.a. 85 

Supplementary Paper on the Ancient Crosses of Ipswich 

By the Rev. C. H Evelyn White, f.r.hist.s., Hon. Sec. - 88 

Suffolk Wills from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury 

By J. J. Muskett ------ 94 

Notes on Lavenham Church and Parish 

By E. M. Dewing, Hon. Sec. - - - - 105 

Ancient Steelyard Weight 

By the Rev. C. H Evelyn White, Hon. Sec. - . 131 

The Old Inns and Taverns of Ipswich 

By the Rev. C. H Evelyn White, Hon. Sec. • - 136 



VI CONTENTS. 

On a Recent Discovery of a Bronze Sword, at Chippenham 

By Henry Prigg - - - - - -184 

Ipswich Domesday Books, with Taxes paid to the King by 
every town in Suffolk 
By the Rev. C. II. Evelyn White, Hon. Sec. - - 195 

On a Set of Roundels, or Old English Fruit Trenchers, 

xvi. Cent. By Ernest H. Willett, f.s.a. - - - 220 

Further Notes upon Lavenham Church 

By E. M. Betving, Hon. Sec. - - - - 225 

Journal of William Dowsing, Parliamentary Visitor 

appointed to demolish church ornaments, &c, 
in Suffolk, 1643 — 1644 
By the Rev. C. II. Evelyn White, Hon. Sec. - - 236 

Foundation Deed of S. Saviour's Hospital, Bury S. Edmund's 

By Bedford Be van - - - - 296 

On a Reliquary or Shrine, in the possession of Mr. 
Buchanan Scott, Ipswich 
By the Rev. C. H. Evelyn White - - - - 302 

Accounts of Meetings : — 

Lakenheath, 1875 - - - - 312 

Lavenham and Cockfield, 1877 „ 

Clare, 1878 ...... 315 

Aspall, Kenton, Debenham, 1879 „ 

Wattisfield, Rickinghall, Redgrave, 1880 „ 

Hitcham, Bildeston, Chelsworth, 1882 - - - 316 

Shelley, Polstead, Boxford, Kersey, Hadleigh, 1883 - 321 

Chippenham, Land wade, Snailwell, 1884 - - - 325 

Ipswich, 1884 - - - - - - 331 

Garianonum, and the Count of the Saxon Shore 

By the Rev. John James Raven, d.d. - - - 345 

Condition of the Archdeaconries of Suffolk and Sudbury 
in the year 1603 
By the Rev. Br. Jessopj) ; with Introductory Notes by the 
Rev. C. H. E. White, f.s.a., and the Rev. Francis 
Hasleivood, Hon. Sec, f.s.a. - - - 361 

Collegiate Church of Denston 

By the Rev. Francis Hasleivood, f.s.a., Hon. Sec. - - 401 

Monumental Inscriptions at Denston 

By the Rev. Francis Hasleivood, f.s.a., Hon. Sec. 

In the Church ..... 407 

In the Churchyard - - - 415 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Parish Records of Denston 

By the Rev. Francis Haslewood, f.s.a., Hon. Sec. - - 425 

Church Briefs - - - - - ,, 

Redemption of Captives ... - 429 

Chimney Tax - - - - 430 

For the Re-building of S. Paul's Cathedral — London. 431 

Denbton Hall ..._-- 434 

Davy's Suffolk Collections - - - - 437 

Lords of the Manor of Denston Hall - - 444 

,, ,, Beaumonds - 445 

,, ,, Stonehall and Shepcote - 446 

Denston Church Notes .... 446 

Monuments, Arms, &c. .... 448 

Ministers of Denston - - - - 451 

Parish Registers - - - - - 453 

Armorial Insignia of the Borough of Ipswich 

By B. P. Grimsey, Deputy Mayor, 1886-7 - - 456 

General Index. By E. M. D. - - - - 457 



ILLUSTRATIONS. IX 



ILLUSTRATIONS, 



PAGE 
fMONUMBNTAL BRASS TO SlR R. De BURES, A.D., 1302, 

Acton Church ----- to face xl 

Amphora found at Hawkedon, Suffolk, January 1880 ,, 8 

Terra Cotta Figures found in an Earthen Vessel 

at Hawkedon -----„ 9 

Sheet Pedigree of the Frowyks - - - ,, 34 

Sketch Pedigree of De Grey - - - „ 39 

Sheet Pedigree of Bacon of Hessett - „ 85 

„ Whetcroft - - ,, *104 

Ancient Steelyard Weight, xiii cent. - - „ 131 

The Neptune Inn, Ipswich. By John S. Corder - „ 174 

Leaf-shaped Swords found at Chippenham and Barrow „ 184 

A Roundel or Fruit Trencher, xvi cent. - - ,, 220 

Pedigree of John De Vere - - - - „ 224 

„ Dowsing of Laxfield - - - „ *292-5 

Burgh Castle. Ground Plan by H. Watling ; 

Litho., by J. S. Corder - - - ,, 345 

Vessel found at Burgh Castle. By H. Watling - „ 359 

Burgh Castle. By H. Watling- - - - „ *360 

Monumental Brasses to Henry and Margaret 

Everard, A.D. 1524 - - - „ *413 

And Felice Drury, a.d. 1480, in Denston Church - „ 414 
From rubbings by Rev. C. G. R. Birch, ll.m. 

Denston Hall, a.d, 1676 - - - - „ *433 

Denston Hall, Church, and College. Ground Plan, 

a.d., 1676 - - - „ *436 

Armorial Insignia of the Borough of Ipswich 

By B. P. Grimsey, Deputy Mayor, 1886-7 - - „ 456 



* * 
* 



The illustrations marked thus * are in the letter-press. 



t Kindly lent by Dr. Fairbank, of Doncaster. See " Yorkshire Architectural 
Society," Vol. xviii., p. 185. 



XI 



ADDENDA TO THE LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Field, Arthur, Bramford Road, Ipswich. 

Fish, Frederick J., Spursholt, Park Road, Ipswich. 

Hodson, W. W., Station Villa, Sudbury. 

Hooke, Rev. Samuel, a.k.c, Clopton Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Miller, Robert M., Highwood, Constitution Hill, Ipswich. 

Robinson, U. W., Dullingham House, Newmarket. 



ERRATA. 
Page 435, line 5, for 3 Ed. in., read 3 Ed. VI. 



IPSWICH : PAWSKT AND HAYES, THE ANCIENT HOUSE. 



THE "STONEING CROSS" OF DOWSING'S 

JOURNAL, 

AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING AND APPLICATION OF THE 
TERM, WITH SOME REMARKS ON THE ANCIENT STONE 
CROSSES OF IPSWICH, 

COMMUNICATED BY 

THE REVD. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, 

Curate of St. Margaret's, Ipswich. 



It is not a little surprising that no real attempt has 
been made, as far as I am aware, to investigate the 
term " Stoneing Cross," which has come down to us 
in the well known " Journal ' of William Dowsing, 
the Parliamentary Visitor, who, acting under a warrant 
from the Earl of Manchester, did so much damage 
to our Suffolk Churches (1643-44). Probably those 
who have been struck with the expression, have con- 
tented themselves with the bare conjecture that a cross of 
stone only is meant, and that it is immaterial of what 
character ; while it may be that the very term as it occurs 
again and again, surrounded by circumstances of un- 
certainty, only favours this surmise. It is quite time that 
we should, if possible, arrive at some satisfactory conclu- 
sion with regard to its meaning and application, and this 
perhaps can be best determined by reference to the 
established usuage of the time, and in no place so suit- 
ably as that of our own county of Suffolk. 

The first impression I had on becoming acquainted with 
the term, was that a particular kind of cross was referred 



to, but as a mere conjecture it was valueless alone. It 
remains with me still, but has been considerably 
strengthened by the discovery in old records of the very 
term, applied in the exact way in which my predilections 
had inclined me, and this, I think, goes far towards clear- 
ing up the difficulty. On the contrary, any other allusion 
to a Cross of a recognised different character, I have 
chanced to meet with, is quite as precise in its designation 
of another kind, making it apparent, I think, what the 
acknowledged custom was in the matter. The term 
" Stoneing Cross," I am inclined to imagine, is synony- 
mous with a wayside, churchyard, or similar erect Cross 
of Stone, set up for the main purpose of inspiring devo- 
tion, and perhaps to answer some useful end beside. 
Altogether I trust that in working out the subject on 
unexplored ground, which, I must confess, is of a somewhat 
frail nature, I may not be accused of drawing inferences of 
a too general character from insufficient premises, it is far 
from my desire to do so. 

There is no need to dwell upon the deep-rooted objec- 
tions that every Puritan had to any representation of 
the emblem of our faith, whether "in glass" or "of 
iron," " of wood," or " of stone." That it was an 
object of special aversion is too well known, and accord- 
ingly the Cross was demolished wherever practicable 
sans ceremonie. This was done to a large extent at a time 
following immediately on the Keformation, but as a rule, 
one form of Cross in particular, that generally known 
as the wayside or chuchyard Cross escaped destruction, 
only, however, to fall a prey later on to the indiscreet zeal 
of the Puritan faction. It seems probable that much of 
the mischief in this respect was wrought ere Dowsing 
entered upon his special work, and this would account 
for the want of exact reference in his Journal to this phase 
of spoliation. Indeed so thoroughly was the design 
carried out, that there is scarcely an instance in the whole 
of Suffolk of even the remains of such a Cross existing, 
though many beautiful and interesting examples are to be 
met with elsewhere. Suffolk at one time must have 



3 

abounded with them, and there is every reason to think 
that the old Crosses of East Anglia were inferior to none 
for elegance and beauty. However this may be, they 
have long since disappeared, and, speaking generally, 
even where they have been known to exist, we are left in 
ignorance as to the date of erection and the general 
character of the structures. 

The term is used by Dowsing six times, orders being 
given by him to take down a "Stoneing Cross ' : at 
Washbrook, Needham Market, Haverhill, Copdock, 
Capell, and Bedingfield. The " Stoneing Crosses" 
destroyed at these places are said respectively to have 
been "on the top of the church," "on the chancel," 
" on the outside of the church," and " on porch, 
church, and chancel." Although I am not prepared 
in any one case to say that the expression " Stoneing 
Cross " can be applied to such a cross with strict 
propriety (for clearly reference is made to gable or 
pinnacle crosses), I am nevertheless inclined, in the face 
of this to assert, that I believe the term was more specially 
applied to a standing Cross of the kind we usually denomi- 
nate Wayside or Churchyard Crosses, and being so often 
used in connection with these larger erections, came to be 
used by Dowsing to denominate that, which although of a 
totally different character, so far bore resemblance to the 
other, in being of the same material, and therefore in the 
truest sense, a " Stoneing Cross." That in each of the 
cases mentioned the Cross was " of stone," and is there- 
fore termed a "Stoneing" or " Stonen Cross," no one 
needs to have any doubt. 

The Reformation encouraged and developed the Saxon 
element of our tongue, and the affix en became far more 
general than it is now or likely again to become. In- 
stances of adjectives in en formed in substantives will 
readily occur to the mind. ' Stoiwii ' among other similar 
adjectives has now fallen into disuse, it has an ugly sound 
to a cultivated ear, but formerly it was without doubt 
frequently used. It is now quite natural for us to say 
" a Stone Cross." Not so, however, '" a Wood Oo.s.s ." "A 



Stonen Cross ' and " a Wood Cross " would not now be 
used by us in describing a cross formed of either material. 
The careless way in which our forefathers spelt their 
words a century or two ago, quite regardless of pre- 
cedent, will help us to understand that the path which 
lay between a " Stonen Cross " and a " Stoneing Cross " 
was one of the easiest that could possibly be taken. 

Again, I think it extremely improbable that the term 
" Stoneing Cross " would be used in the ordinary way in 
such an indescriminate manner as some might be led to 
suppose, to designate any kind of cross, without the 
slightest distinction, and moreover, for my own part, I 
can readily understand that the term as applied in 
Dowsing' s ' Journal ' arose in great part from ignorance of 
an expression, the precise meaning of which was by no 
means clear even to those who made use of it. In the 
only other instances in which I have met with the term, 
it has been applied according to what I believe was its 
received acceptation, viz., to these large erect stone 
crosses, and not otherwise. For instance, in the earliest 
Register Book belonging to St. Matthew's Parish, Ipswich 
— an extremely interesting volume by the way — I find 
the following among the burial entries : — 

I. " 1564. Md that a murthered ma unkiiowue whoe laye 

wounded at the Stonng Crosse and there deptd and was 
buried 2 Maye." 

II. " 1589. A pore wench from Ward's at the Stonnge Crosse 

ye xxv of Januarie." 

In the old Churchwardens' book of the same parish, 
the same " Stonnge Crosse ' is probably referred to in 
" a Cattalogue of all the wrighting that belong to St. 
Mathew's parwich in Ipswith " {sic) as appears from 
these entries : — 

III. " A Deede of Sale of a House nere Ston = Crosse made from 

Joseph Poole, senr. and junr. sould for £11 to Susan 
Scott, of Ipswich, in 1659." 

IV. "An Indenture from Susan Green, of Arlington, for the 

Sale of the House near Ston = Cross, being 33 foott in length 
and 12 foott in breadth, sould to Robert Bell, a Tanner, in 
Ipswich, in 1668.'* 



;•) 



Nothing is now known of these deeds or the houses 
alluded to, beyond this bare mention of them. 

The following from the Court Books of Ipswich (14th 
July, 1603 — 1st James I.) probably contains an allusion 
to the same " Stoning Cross." The entry was occasioned 
by the ravages made by the much dreaded plague which 
visited the town in 1604, and with a view of taking extra 
precautions against the dire sickness making further 
inroads among the people : — 

V. " * * it is agreed that there shall be warding ev'rie daie 
in the weeke at the places hereafter named, att Stoke 
Bridge, att Handford Bridges, att Mr. Durrell's House, and 
att Stoning Crosse, by two sufficient householders at ev'rie 
of the said places, who shall examine such men as are 
suspicious or to be suspected for bringinge the sicknesse into 
the Town, &c." 

This last entry favours the supposition that the ' Stoning 
Cross ' stood in some prominent position in the outskirts 
of the town, probably in the neighbourhood of the main 
road from London, known still as the " London Road," in 
the parish of St. Matthew's ; and here travellers would halt 
on their way to and from the metropolis. Evidently the 
Cross was a kind of resting place, and may have served as 
a preaching cross, erected, perhaps, at the expense of one 
of the several well known monastic establishments. 
The murdered man, in 1564, fled, in all probability, 
to the Cross for refuge from the fierce attack of some 
robber. These crosses, we know, were often regarded 
as places of sanctuary, and robbers invariably respected 
them, provided the cross could first be reached. The 
poor fellow probably trusted to the clemency of his 
assailant, but was sadly mistaken ; or he may have 
crawled to the cross from the place of assault, that 
he might die there, as recorded in the register. 
The " pore wench from Wards " (at whose inn she had 
probably for a time sojourned)) dying at the " Stormge 
Crosse " was evidently on her journey, and resting at this 
wayside cross, in the highest sense " finished her course." 



(•» 

We are sufficiently assured of the position, it may be, 
of the chief among these stone memorials, as to speak of 
it with absolute certainty. I refer to the cross erected in 
1510, by the famous Ipswich citizen, Edmund Daundy, 
and which stood in the immediate vicinity of the Town 
Hall. This, although usually termed a " market cross," 
is not identical with the curious old wooden structure with 
cross and dome supported on Doric pillars, and surmounted 
by the figure of Justice ; it is a strange and unaccountable 
mistake, into which most writers and others have fallen, 
in thinking that it is so, and I am glad of this oppor- 
tunity of pointing out the error. Daundy' s Cross was, 
without doubt, a stone cross pure and simple, consisting 
perhaps of a stone shaft only, and little else, except in the 
way of ornamentation. It was most likely demolished 
within a hundred years from the time of its erection, 
when the cross, made familiar to us by the engraver's 
art, was erected mainly at the expense of a townsman, 
Mr. Benjamin Osborne (or Osmund as it is sometimes 
given), who was probably influenced in his genorosity 
by very different feelings to those that moved Edmund 
Daundy to the like act.* 

Daundy's Cross was perhaps built upon a spot which had 
previously been occupied by one of those more ancient 
crosses known to have been erected on various sites in 
the town, with the object of marking out into divisions 
the wards and leets which at an early date were thus 
distinguished, viz : — East Gate, West Gate, South Gate, 
and North Gate, like in this respect to Bury St. Edmund's, 
where the four so-called ' Town Crosses ' are known 
to have stood in similar positions. There were other 
crosses besides these, as is evident from the records 
in the Town Books, specifying the various boundaries, 
where it is stated that " Eastgate extended from 
the Northgate on the east side down Brook-street as 
far as a Stone Cross called Lewy's Cross — probably some 
kind of memorial — and taking a turn to the left reached 
as far as the Common Eosse near the Friar's preachers, 
with Cary-street, Thing-street, and Caldwelle." (or St. 



Helen's-street.) The utility of such crosses as furnishing 
accurate and reliable data in determining boundaries, &c, is 
obvious, they, however served, not merely as landmarks 
and signs, but, in all probability, were mainly intended 
for the purpose of assembling the people together, to hear 
from the lips of the preachers of the various orders the 
doctrines they were so assiduous in promulgating. In 
another entry in the Municipal Records, made in the 
19th Edward IV. (1479) mention is made of the round 
crosse which stood somewhere between the Town Ditch 
and the Black Friars Bridge ; it most likely was one of 
those crosses used to denote the precincts of some religious 
house or other, of which there were several in Ipswich. 
This is all I have been able to discover respecting the 
stone Town Crosses in Ipswich, properly so called. 

As to Churchyard Crosses, the information is of the most 
scanty description. That a cross formerly stood in St. 
Margaret's Churchyard is evident from an expressed desire 
to be buried near it, but doubtless a handsome stone cross 
adorned the entrance to each several church. The following, 
however, furnish sufficient proof that crosses were formerly 
erected in the churchyards belonging to St. Peter's and St. 
Nicholas'. In 1508 (December 7th), William Harecourte 
directed in his will ' ' My body to be buried in the church- 
yard of St. Peter. Also I give to the said Church 
a Crosse, to be made according to the Crosse in St. Nicolas 
Churchyard or better, and that to stand over my buryal 
or grave." In 1522, Jois Steward desired that his body 
might be " buried in the Churchyard of St. Peters on 
the south side of the Crosse." Every other mark of the 
former existance of these ancient Stone Crosses has been, 
either by the ravages of time or the wilfulness of man, 
effectually obliterated. 

The Cross of past days formed a central spot in 
mediaeval life around which successive generations 
gathered, either with superstitious reverence to say an 
Ave or a Pater, to wrangle over some purchase or sale 
in noisy mart, or to mingle in game and dance in true 
English style. Raised by the piety and devotion 



8 

of our forefathers, and sustained by their immediate 
successors, those who came after them rejoiced that they 
were in a position to destroy, as they did in a most 
ruthless fashion, these material adjuncts of a system they 
held in abhorrence. Apart from all this, these ancient 
memorials of a departed period, as they cast their dark 
and long drawn shadows o'er some quiet retired spot, 
must have lent a charm to the scene, and moreover 
served to mark with a forcible solemnity the silent 
onward inarch of time. But, tempora mutantur, et nos 
mutamur in Ulis, the substance and the shadow have 
alike fled, and the once familiar roadside Cross may no 
longer be regarded by us either as a witness or help in 
matters of religion, or as a refuge and guide to the 
wearied and perplexed wayfarer, and all circumstances 
considered, we are content it should be so. Suwn 
cuique. 

I have only to add in conclusion that if this paper 
shall in any way serve to elucidate a matter of some 
interest and as I think of no little importance, the 
purpose with which it is written will be fully answered. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



*This " Market Cross " was built entirely of timber, and at the time of its 
demolition in 1812, was in such an excellent state of preservation that its removal 
was effected with some difficulty. It was octagon in form, measuring some 27 feet 
in diameter, and supported by eight pillars, above each of which certain coats of 
arms were carved, among them the arms of the town, and of the well-known families 
of Daundy, Bloss, Sparrowe, and Longe. Beside these there were two tradesmen's 
marks, with the initials C. A. and B. K. M. On another shield was the following 
inscription :— " Benjamin Osborne Gave 44 poundes To the Building of this Cross." 
The Cross was surmounted by a figure of Justice, presented by Francis Negus, 
Esqre., who represented the town in Parliament in 1717, 1722, and 1727, and from 
whose seat at Dallinghoe the figure was brought. To the top of the figure the 
height of this Cross was about 50 feet. There are several entries in the town books 
with regard to the building of the Cross, &c, from one of which it appears that on 
the occasion of the proclamation of Charles II, the town, to commemorate the 
restoration of the Stuarts, had the Cross richly painted and gilded. 






ROMAN BRITISH REMAINS, FOUND AT 
HAWKEDON, SUFFOLK. 



In January, 1880, an interesting find of an amphora, 
containing portions of two small figures and some score 
or so of iron nails, was made by some men who were 
draining on the Glebe Farm at Hawkedon. My attention 
having been called to the circumstances by Mr. Henry 
Porteus Oakes, I wrote to the Rector, the late Rev. 
Orbell Oakes, who at once obligingly sent all the objects 
to me. I have since had the opportunity of showing 
them to Mr. Augustus Franks, and he has most kindly 
sent me the communication printed herewith. 

The thanks of our Society are especially due to Mr. 
Franks, who has, in the midst of pressing work at the 
British Museum, found time to prepare this notice of 
the objects for our proceedings. 

The two accompanying illustrations, by the respective 
artists, have been given kindly to the Societv, and the 
objects themselves have found a fitting home in the 
Bury St. Edmund's Museum, to which they have been 
courteously presented by Mrs. Orbell Oakes, the widow 
of the late rector of Hawkedon. 

EDW. M. DEWING. 



10 



Remarks upon an Amphora and Two Figures, found 
at Hawkedon, January, 1880. 

BY 

AUGUSTUS W. FRANKS, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Roman amphorae may be divided into two principal 
classes : — 

1. — The well known wine amphora of classical an- 
tiquity, derived from Greek models. It had a slender 
body, pointed base, and two long handles, which were 
sometimes stamped with inscriptions. Such amphorae 
have been frequently found in Italy, but less often in 
England. 

2. — An amphora with a large globular body, rounded 
base with a slight projection in the centre, two shorter 
handles, and a short neck. 

It is to the second variety that the specimen under 
consideration belongs, though the handles and neck have 
been anciently removed. 

Amphorae of this description have been found from time 
to time in England, and often in connection with sepul- 
chral deposits. 

A vessel of this kind was found at Lincoln, the neck 
and handles of which had been removed to allow a sepul- 
chral urn to be introduced. It is engraved in Arehceologia, 
XII., pi. xiv., p. 109. 

Another was found with some remarkable sepulchral 
deposits at Southfleet, in Kent ; the neck was broken off, 
but traces of the two handles remain. It is preserved in 
the British Museum, and is about 21 in. in diameter. It 
is engraved in the Arehceologia, XIV., pi. vi., p. 37. 















-J 












55 



\r 



11 

One found at the Bartlow Hills, Essex, had retained 
its neck and handles, and was found filled with earth, 
ashes, and small fragments of bone ; its height was 22 in. 
Engraved in Archceologia, XXVI., pi. xxxiii.,fig. 7. 

At Deveril-street, Southwark, an urn was discovered, 
enclosed in a huge outer urn, no doubt one of these large 
amphorae. See Archceologia, XXVII., p. 412. 

An amphora, 21 in. in diameter, wanting its neck and 
handles, was found at Old Ford, Stratford-le-Bow, in 
which was enclosed an urn. See Archaeological Journal, 
VI., p. 76. It is now in the British Museum. 

In the same Museum are two specimens from the 
collection of London antiquities formed by Mr. C. Pioach 
Smith (Cat. Nos. 32 and 33). One of them is perfect 
and 21 inches in diameter, and was found in the City, 
near Lothbury. The other, 22 inches in diameter, had 
lost its neck and handles. There is likewise a third 
specimen, perfect, 20 inches in diameter, found in 
Beverley-road, Colchester. 

The Hon. E. C. Neville describes in his Antigua Ex- 
plorata an amphora of this kind, of which the top had 
been removed, and which had been found at Chesterford, 
enclosing the bones of a bird. 

More examples might no doubt be cited, but those 
given above are sufficient to show that these amphoraa 
have been found not unfrequently in England. 

As to the two fragments of pipe clay figures they seem 
both to represent Venus, and are of a kind that has pre- 
viously been found in England, but not very commonly. 

In the British Museum are fragments of 18 fiQTires of 
this kind, mostly found in London. They have been 
noticed by Mr. Koach Smith in his Illustrations of Roman 
London, p. 109, where several are figured. Some of these 



12 

are evidently of the same type as the two from Hawkedon ; 
the right hand is arranging the hair, the left down at the 
side supporting the drapery. In the same work Mr. 
Smith has reproduced a perfect figure of this kind, bor- 
rowed from Tudot, Figurines en Argile Galb-Romaines, Paris, 
1860. The original having been made at Moulins, where 
moulds for such figures have been found. See also an 
an article on " Romano-Gaulish Fictilia," in Collectanea 
Antiqua, IT., p. 48. 

From the frequent occurrence of this figure of Venus 
and the general similarity of the examples, it was probably 
a well-known type of the goddess, derived from some 
celebrated statue. 



f Im &£ tons of little CoraarfJ. 



COMMUNICATED BY 

THE REV. GEORGE CRABBE, 

RECTOR OF MERTON, NORFOLK. 



It has been suggested to me, that some notes which 
I have from time to time made on the connexion of 
the de Greys of Merton with Great and Little Cornard, 
might be worthy of a place in the Journal of the 
Suffolk Archaeological Society. I have therefore made 
an attempt to arrange these notes in order, and if they 
are dry and uninteresting to most readers, I hope they 
will be found useful if ever a complete history of Babergh 
Hundred is undertaken. They are chiefly taken from 
documents in the Muniment Room at Merton Hall, 
Norfolk. 

THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS THE SUBJECTS 
TREATED OF IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES. 



The early de Gre\ s of Cavendish 

and Cornard. 
The family of de Cornerth. 
The Manor of Great Cornard. 
Manor of Grey's Hall in Great 

Cornard. 
Manor of Abbas Hall in Great 

Cornard. 
Manor of Little Cornard. 
Court Rolls of Little Cornard 

Manor. 



Names and Notes from its Records. 
Caxton's Manor, in Little Cornard. 
Notes and Names from the Rental 

ot Richard de Caxton. 
Dates of the Courts of Caxton's. 
Notes from the Court Rolls of 

Caxton's. 
Minor Notes and Names from do. 

1349 to 1414. 
Notes and Names from Rental of 

Caxton's, 1475. 

B 



14 



TABLE OF SUBJECTS (Continued) 



Names from Bental of do. c. 1480. 
Notes from Kental of Caxton's, 

1515. 
Rentals of Caxton's, 1486 to 1694. 
Manors of Catcheleigh, Appylgar, 

Folybrok, and Cane worth. 
Value of the Estate of Caxton's. 
Value of the Manor of Caxton's. 
Peacock's Manor,in Little Cornard 
Lords of the Manor of Peacock's 

Hall, 1333 to 1552. 



Advowson of Little Cornard. 
Pedigree of the Frowyks, lords of 

Peacocks. 
Lords of the Manor of Peacocks 

from 1583. 
Notes and Names from Kental of 

Peacock's Manor, c. 1340. 
Notes as to Grey's Hall. 
Sketch Pedigree of de Grey of 

Merton. 



%\\t (Bavin te (Btttjs of Cafon&islj ano (Eamarb. 

The de Grey family, supposed by some genealogists to 
be descended from Arnulph, lord of Gray, in Normandy, 
who was living circa 970 (see the Norman People, 
London, 1874, p. 270) ; and by others to be descended 
from the Picard family of Croy (see Collins, Banks, Playfair, 
and Burke,) no doubt had an ancestor, Anschetil de Grai, 
who came over with the Conqueror. 

The genealogists mention many distinguished members 
of the English de Grey family, before the Cornard de 
Grey's branched off from it. 

This branch became lords of Grey's Hall, in Cavendish, 
about 1250, (see Page's Suffolk, p. 929), but the first 
documentary evidence we have of its existence is dated 
13 Ed. I. (1285), when William de Grey [of Cavendish] 
had free warren (1) in Cornard Magna and Parva, Cavendish 
and Newton. Brit. Mus. Add. MBS., 19,077, p. 259, 
et. seq. 



(1) License of Free Warren gives a right to taking game on specified lands, and to exclude 
others from taking it The right of Free Warren could only lie conferred by the Crown. It does 
not appear that the Crown could grant it to one person over the lands of another. Nat. Cycl. 



15 

Another document is dated 10 Feb., 30 Ed. I. (1302). 
In this, Thomas de Grey, grandson probably of the 
above William, was granted by the King free warren on 
lands in Bures, Gavendish, Denardeston, ParvaCornerthe, 
and Stanefield, all in Suffolk, and in Heneham-Sibill, in 
Essex. See pedigree of de Grey, page 39 infra. 

This, it is believed, is the Thomas de Grey of Grey's 
Hall, afterwards called Colt's Hall, in Cavendish (1), 
who [before 1306, according to Blomefieldj married Alice, 
daughter and heir of Sir Richard de Cornerth, and thus 
added the manor of Great Cornard, and lands in Little 
Cornard (2) to the de Grey estates. 

This match appears to have been considered an im- 
portant one by the de Greys, as, during the following 
400 years, they bore the arms of Cornerth, viz., Az. a 
fess between two chevrons or., instead of their own. 

The de Greys held land in Cornard before the marriage 
with Alice de Cornerth, as appears by two deeds in the 
Bodleian Library. 

Charter 1454 (c. 1270-80) William de Grey, of Cornerde, remits and 
quit-claims to John Carhonel all his right of communication with a 
meadow of the aforesaid John's, called Chilton medewe, near Suhir. 

Charter 3C4 (c. 1270-80), William de Grey, of Cornerth remits and 
quit-claims to John Carhonel, all right of common in a field called 
Chilton medewe, near Suhyre. 



(1) Page states that the manor of Grev's hall in Cavendish passed from the de Grey family 
soon after 1371. We know that they then possessed it, for Sir Roger de Grey, in his will dated 
the Monday after Dec. 21st, 1371, states that he had granted it to feoffees. On the 15th May, 21 
Ric. II. (1398) there was a writ to inquire of whom the manor of Greys [in Cavendishl was held 
the reversion of which Thomas late Duke of Gloucester acquired in fee simple of Master Thomas 
Grey, clerk, and which reversion— bv reason of the said Duke's forfeiture— pertained to the King. 
In 5 Henry IV (1403-4), " Rex concessit Johanni Pelham Militi in feodo, Manerium de Caundish 
Grey " Brit. Mus. Add. MSS., 19077, under Cavendish. 

(2) Cornard is always now spelt with an (a), but I do not find this spelling earlier than the 
beginning of the 17th Century. The name from the 13th Century to the 16th, inclusive, is alway 
written Cornerth or Cornerd. 



16 



SIj£ JamiHg of bt (teturilj. 

" This family was of great antiquity, but it is uncertain 
when it became extinct. Sir Richard de Cornard was lord 
of Cornard temp. Hen. 3. The Cornards possessed the 
manor of Poslingford, and one knight's fee in Cavendish 
8 Ed. II., and bare Az. a fess between two chevrons or." 
(Sir Richard Gipps. Cole's MSB., vol. 28. Brit. Mus.) 

The following pedigree is from Brit. Mus., Add. MSS. 19,124, page 
396:— 

Serlo de Conierthe, 
of Assington 

Richard de Cornerd 



GeofTry de 
Cornerd, of 
Little Cornerd 

I 
Walter de Cornerd 

I 

Sir Angod de 

Cornerd, Knt., 
33 E. I., 1305 



John de Cornerd, 

High Slier. 8 Jo., 1206, and 

8, E.I. (1197)— 6, 10, 11 Jo. 

I 
Richard de Cornherd, 

of Cavendish 

I 
Richard de Cornerd, 

of Cavendish, 47 H. III., 1263 

Sir Richard dc Cornerd, Knt., 

29 E. I., 1301, and 32 E. I., 1304, and 4 E. II., 1320 



Alice Cornerd, d. and h. 
living 1322, mar d - 
hefore 1306 



Thos. de Grey, Knt. 
of Cavendish, 
d. 1321 



In the Church of Bures is an effigy in wood of a cross-legged knight 
in armour, now supposed to represent some member of the de Cornard 
family, possibly Sir John de Cornard, who is said to have sold the 
farm called Corn Hall for 4d, On the font at Bures is a shield bearing 
a fess between two chevrons [de Cornard or de Grey '?] impaling two 
lions passant gardant. Suffolk Archasol. iv., 357. Richard and A de 
Cornerth, Rental of Caxton's, c. 1300. Thomas de Cornerth, Court, 
Little Cornard Manor, 1348. Dominus Thomas de Cornerth, Court 
3, R. II. 



17 



%\lt jHanor of (teat (ftornarft. 

This manor appears to have been aliened by the de 
Grey family to the Convent of Mailing, but not as Page 
states [History of Suffolk, p. 935] so early as 1317, for 
in a rental of the date 1362 in the muniment room at 
Merton, Norfolk ; Koger de Grey is said to be the owner. 
The heading of this rental is as follows : — 

Cornerd Magna — Comp. Will'i Smethe s' vient' (1) Bog'i de Grey in 
maner' suo ibid' a fest' S'cti Tho' Ap'li anno rr Ed. tertii post conquest' 
xxxv to (2) usque [ad] f'm S'i Mich'is anno p'd'i Eegis Ed. xxxvi. p. xl. 
septi' (for 40 weeks). 

In this accompt Fulco de Grey is mentioned, and the Abbess of 
Mailing. Fulk was probably the younger brother of Koger. 

In the 11th Ed. II. (1317-18) there was an exchange of divers lands 
in Cornerth Magna, &c, between the Abbess of Mailing and Thomas 
de Grey. Brit. Mus., Add. MSS., 19077, p. 259, et seq. 



®Ij£ i&aitor of (togs Hail in (feat (Ikrnarir. 

There is in Great Cornard still existing, a mansion 
called Greys Hall, standing probably on the site of the 
old manor house, so that the memory of the ancient con- 
nexion of the de Grey family with the parish has not been 
entirely lost. The manor belonged to the Cornerd family. 

Dominade Cornard owned it 9 Ed. II. (1316) Brit. Mus. Ad. MSS., 
19077 p 259 et seq. 

In 14 Ed. II, 1321, Thomas de Grey and Alice his wife d. and h. of 
Sir Bichard Cc.rnard, knt., owned it. lb. Li 24 Hen. VII (1508—9) it 
had passed to the West family. Thomas West ten. Maner' de Greys 
. . . . cum p'tin' in Magna Cornerd, Newton, &c, Edm. West est 
films et heres. Esc. 24, H.VII. Brit. M. Add. MSS. 19077 p. 272, 
et seq. 

(1) Serviens of a manor=Serjeant or bailiff. Seebohm's Village Com. p. 56. 

(2) Sir Thomas de Grey, the father of Roger was alive on the Wednesday before the Feast of 
St. Ambrose, in the 39th Ed. III., as appears by a feoffment deed at Merton, so that he must have 
given up his Great Cornard property during his life, as he did his Merton and Caxton's manors. 
(see Court Rolls of those manors, 37th and 38th Ed. III. 



18 



%\\t JJtanor of ^bbas Hall, in (Brrat (tornaro. 

Thomas de Grey was lord before 1316. B.M. Add. MSS. 19077. 
In 1310 the Abbess of Mailing held the Manor by purchase from 
Thos de Grey. lb. 



% \}t Jttanor of little Cornarb. 

The earliest notice of this Manor, that is at Merton, 
is contained in a Caxton's Manor book [ccfa], in 
which certain entries in the Court Rolls from the 20th 
to the 23rd Ed. III. (1346-48) are transcribed, as 
are also those of the Courts of 14 Hen. IV. (1412-13) 
and 1 Hen. V. (1413-14). This may show that at the 
above dates Caxton's and Little Cornard Manors both 
belonged to the same lord, the representative of the 
de Grey family. 

But apparently Little Cornard Manor had not yet come 
to the de Greys in 1322, for in Sir Thomas de Grey's 
Inquisitio P.M., in the part that relates to Little Cornard, 
nothing is said of the Manor. 

" Item dicimt quod idem Thomas de Grey et Alicia uxor ejus con- 
junctim tenuerunt per quendam fin em in Curia Domini Kegis levatum 
unum mesniigium et unam carucatam et GO acras tcrre et imam 
acram prati et 60 solidos redditus cum pertinent' in Parva Cornerde," 
&c. 



The Rev. F. C. Cass, in his admirable history of South 
Minims, states that in 7 Ed. III. (1333), John Somersham 
held the Manor of [Little] Cornard. He also certainly 
then held that of Peacocks in Little Cornard. See infra, 
page 33. 



19 

The Manor of Little Cornard must, however, soon after 
have passed to the de Grey's, for it is stated in Sir Koger 
de Grey's will, dated 22nd Dec, 1371, that he 

" eit enfeoffe Monsieur William Baude [and others] en les Manoies de 
Cavendysshe, peti Cornerthe," &c. 

It returned before 1485 to the descendants of John 
Somersham, the Frowyks of South Minims. In 1426, 
Thomas de Frowyke held Peacocks Manor and the 
Advowson of Little Cornard (see page 33, infra), and he 
probably also held the Manor of Little Cornard. Mr. 
Cass, S. Mimms p. 96, says that in the will of Sir 
Thomas Frowyke, of Gunnersbury, proved 10 Nov., 
1485, the Manor of Little Cornard, in Suffolk, was left to 
his widow for life, with remainder to his son Thomas in 
tail, and an ultimate remainder to his son Henry in tail. 
Mr. Cass says that Sir Thomas probably purchased Little 
Cornerd of his cousin Henry, [who was son of Thomas de 
Frowyke, of South Mimms, and Elizabeth Ashe his wife, 
grand- daughter of John Somersham.] This account 
exactly agrees with the list of the owners of Peacocks 
Manor, so that we may believe that from at least a 
date soon after Sir Koger de Greys will, the Manors 
of Little Cornard and of Peacocks descended together. 

In 21 Hen. VII. (1505-6). The Manor was still in the 
Frowick family, who also still held the Manor of Peacocks 
in Little Cornard. (See infra, page 34.) 

Herkus Frowyk miles ten. man. de Corneard parva de Bege et 
de honore de Clare p serv. igno. Thomas Frowick est filius et heres. 
Esc. 21 H. VII. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 19077, p. 276. 

From Cass, S. Mimms, p. 98, it seems that soon after 
1505, the year of Sir Henry Frowyke's death, the two 
Manors became separated, that of Little Cornard going 
to the descendants of the 1st wife of Sir Henry Frowyke, 
the Spelmans of Narborough ; and that of Peacock's going 
to the descendants of his 2nd wife, the Fishers. (See 
Pedigree infra, under Peacock's Manor). 



20 

I have no further notice of the Manor of Little Cornard 
till the 38th Eliz. 1596, when it had passed from the 
Spelmans and was vested in the White family. For in 
that year, as I am informed hy George Mmnford, Esq., 
of Little Cornard, Peter and John White conveyed it to 
Edward Curtis and John Chayce. Mr. Mumford also 
informs me that in 1637 it was held by Sir Robert Crane, 
of Chilton, and passed in that year to the Newman family. 
Nothing seems now to be known about it. 



COURT ROLLS OF THE MANOR OF LITTLE 

CORNARD. 

Certain extracts from the Kolls of this Manor are included in Book 
[c c f a,] taken from the Courts of the 20th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, 
Ed. III. ; 14th, Hen. IV. ; and 1st, Hen. V. 



SOME NAMES AND NOTES FROM THE COURT 

RECORDS OF LITTLE CORNARD MANOR. 

1346 John de Quedwelle John Hoggassak 

John Pecok Thomas le Prophete 

John Hankyn John attc Stoure 

Christina le Seyher John Gernegan 

Henry le Clerk William de Harewell 



1348 Bichard Cuckow A wood of Thomas de Cornerth, 

Dominns Boger, Vicar de Assington called le Herst 

John le Lytle Sterenysfeld 

William le Lytle Bernewaldysheygh (Bernwoldshill) 

Ada Meryot Bobert Hamond 

Richard Materas Half le Gardener 

Sir Andrew de Bines, Knt. 



1412 Field called Carlysfeld Snakescroft 

William Kyngesbery Wattyscroft 

Tenement called Harwell Schorsteylefeld 

Ladycroft Alfledemedwe 

23rd Ed. III. (1349). The year after the Black Death, 24 deaths 
are recorded, and it is remarkable that in one Court there were three 
people who died without any claimants for their land, showing, I sup- 
pose, that the whole of each family had perished in that terrible plague. 



21 

John le Fuller lately died owning half an acre of free land and no one comes to 

take it up. 

William le Bret held of the lord a messuage and a croft and no one comes to take 
it up. 

Mabel le Lytic, who held of the lord a messuage and eight acres of customary 
land, and no one comes to receive the said land, therefore it is taken into the 
lord's hand. 



Caxton's jHanor in Ifittte Cornaro. 

This Manor belonged to the Caxton (1) family before 
it came to the cle Greys. For some early Rentals, pro- 
bably of the date 1310 — 1350, have these headings : — 

Hec sunt Nomi'a teneut' Eic'i cle Kaxton qui tenent de feod suo in 
vill' de Cornerthe p'va & Buris [Bares] & redd'nt Reddit' ad festa S'ti 
Mich' S'ti Andr' Pascli Rogacionu' & S'ti Joh'nis Baptist' ut pr inferi'. 

Caxston-Bental d'ni Thorn, de Grey milit de ten'tibus suis que q'nd' 
fuer ' Bic'i de Caxston p'tineut' ad man' s'm in Cometh p'ua. 

Rental d'ni Thorn, de Grey milit' de ten't' suis p'tin' ad maner' de 
Caxston. 

And in a Rental of the lands of John Pecok in Cornerth Parva, 
dated 28 Ed. III. (1354), Thomas de Grey miles holds lands lately 
acquired, which were those of Walter Caxton. 

These Rentals seem to show that the Caxton family 
held their own manor, and were copyholders of Peacock's 
Manor, and that previous to 1354 Sir Thomas de Grey 
[the husband of Isabel Baynard] held Caxton's and the 
copyholds of Peacock's Manor that were formerly Walter 
de Caxton's. Whether this Sir Thomas or his father first 
obtained Caxton's is doubtful (2). There is no doubt that 



(1) Char. 54, Hen. III. (1269-70), p. unica m.I. Richard Caketon had free warren in Cornerth 
Parva & Bures, Suff. Brit. Mus. Add MSB. 19077, p. 272, et seq. Inquis. 3, Ed. I., Item, dicunt 
q'd Ricardus de Cakiston appropriat sibi war. in pua Cornerth de novo nesciunt quo waran. Rot 
Hund. Vol. II., pp. 153, 195- 

(2) In the MS quoted in the preceding note, it is said that li the Manor of Cawstons descended 
to the de Gre3 - s from the Cornherds, by the marriage of Sir Thos. de Grey, Knt., son of John de 
Grey, of Cavendish, with Alice, daughter and sole heir of Sir Richard de Cornherd, Knt." No 
authority is given for the statement, but Sir Richard de Cornerd may, perhaps, have owned 
the manor between the Caxtons and de Greys. 



•I'l 

Caxton's Manor has continued in the de Grey family 
ever since, i.e., for about 580 years, and it is now held by 
Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham, of Merton, 
Norfolk, who is the lineal descendant of Sir Thomas de 
Grey, and Alice de Cornard his wife. 

NOTES AND NAMES FEOM THE EENTAL OF 
EICHAED DE CAXTON, (1 > c. 1300. 

Simon de le Cote. Richard le Webister. Harewellestrete. John 
le Sheppeherd. John the son of Stephen. The heirs of Dominus Richard 
de Weylond. Alice and Agnes de le Hyl. John Wodekoc. Land at 
Cuckokeshel. Rohert Ferzing. Juliana and Mabilia del Brock (brook.) 

The Manor is charged with certain payments. 

Paid to the aid of the Sheriff for the land of the lord of Pakenham, 
feast of St. Andrew, 1 f d. 

Paid to Richard de Corenerth for the land le Bailie. 

Paid to Anl ? de Corenerth one lb. of cymmin at feast of St. Michael 
for the lands and pastures called est (east). 

Paid to tho heirs of Sawage at Michaelmas for the free tenement of 
Martin Ilricks, a yearly rent of a halfpenny, or else a pair of gloves 
worth a £d. 



DATES OF THE COUKTS OF CAXTON'S MANOE. 

The Court Rolls of Caxton's Manor begin 1277 and end 1G19. The 
years included are as follows : — . 

5th, 10th, and 13th, Ed. I. 
1st, 12th, 18th, Ed. II. 

38th, 39th, 51st, Ed. III. [4th to 19th, and 23rd to 50th, Ed. III. 

are in book ccfa (2).] 



(1) These notes, as well as those from the Rental of Peacock Manor, and the Rental of 
Caxtons, 1475, were kindly made for me by Walter Rye, Esq. 

(2) Certain entries from very many of the Courts are transcribed into a book (ccfa) probably for 
convenience of reference The book appears to be of a date about 1420, as there are no entries 
bearing a later date than 6, Hen. V. Most of the Court Rolls of Ed. III. reign are lost, and in such 
cases the transcripts are the more valuable. 



23 

2nd to 18th, Rich. II. [1st to 18th arc in hook c c fa.] 

7th, 9th, 13th, Hen. IV. 

2nd, 6th, 7th, Hen. V. [2nd, 3rd, 6th are in hook ccfa.] 

8th to 38th, Hen. VI. Courts in 11 only of these years. 

4th and 12th, Ed. IV. 

2nd and 7th, Hen. VII. 

10th, 19th, 27th, 31st, 35th, Hen. VIII. 

2nd and 3rd, and 3rd and 4th, Phil, and Mary. 

6th, 28th, 40th, Elizaheth. 

3rd to 16th, James. 

Notes of certain Courts, 3rd James to 1720. 



NOTES FROM THE COURT ROLLS OF CAXTON'S 

MANOR. 

[In Add. MSS., Brit. Mil's., 19077, p. 272, et seq., Sir Peter Braunch, 
Knt., avIio married Joan, the inheritrix of this manor, is stated to have 
heen lord of the manor of Caxton's, temp. John."] 

The first court roll that is at Merton, goes hack to a date probably 
about 30 years before Caxton's became the property of the de Greys — 
viz., to 5th Ed. I. (1276-7). 

In the record of the Court, 23rd Ed. II" . (1349) (in book ccfa) called 
Curia d'ni Thome de Grey [who was the husband of Isabel Baynard] 
32 deaths are recorded. [This was the year after the plague known 
as ' the black death,' by which half the population of England was 
destroyed. See also p. 20.] 

Amongst those who died was Sir John Corbet, Knt., who held of the 
lord 10 acres of free land — Robert, his son, was next heir, and of full 
age. 

[The Corbet family was of Assington, and was descended from Sir 
Roger Corbet, Knt., 6 E. II. (1313). Brit. Mus. Add. MSS., 19124, 
p. 356. For a further notice of this family, see page 30 infra.] 

This Sir Thomas de Grey, of 23 Ed. III., having by his marriage 
with Isabel, daughter and co-heir of Fulk Baynard, obtained the manor 
of Merton, left it is beheved, Grey's Hall in Cavendish, and estab- 
lished himself at Merton, where the family has ever since continued. 

The court of the 37th Ed. III. (1363) is called the first of Roger de 
Grey. I suppose he was not yet knighted. He married Margaret de 
Clyftou. He died 13 71. 



■24 

In 46 Ed. Ill (1372) an assignation of dower was made out oi 
Caxton's manor, to Margaret, the widow of Sir Roger. In this docu- 
ment there is a description of that part of the manor house that was 
assigned to her, which shows us the sort of accommodation that a 
lady of the 14th century had to content herself with. 

Caxton, To wit, Assignment of the dower of the wife of Dominus Eoger de Grey, 
Knight, anno. 46 — First, there are delivered to her, within the site of the 
Manor, one grange next the gate ; one chamber next Strauhous ; one cattle 
shed on the north part, with one chamber next the under solar ; Item one other 
chamber in the dairy [" Deieria "] (?) on the north part ; Item one parcel of 
the cart house on the south part, and a dove cote in common. Item there is 
delivered to her that part of the garden which lies on the west part, as it is 
divided by the other boundaries ; excepting the lord shall water his beasts there, 
and shall have, if he wishes it, water for his expense there. Item there is 
delivered to her common rights (" communia ") in the court of the said Manor, 
to administer her goods and chattels there, with free ingress and egress. Sum 
of the value per annum beyond the reprises — nothing. 

Then follows the description and value of the lands assigned as the 
dower. The dower is said to be in the whole xi u ix 5 vi d ^, called also 
t'cia p's man'ii de Caxtones. 

From the above we can picture to ourselves the Manor-house, which 
no doubt was surrounded by yards, gardens, orchards, and farm build- 
ings. A gate [house] with a granary next it leads to the court. [The 
lady has, in common with the lord's family, when they reside at the 
Manor, the use of the hall, the chapel, the kitchens, and offices;] for 
her private use she has a chamber next the lord's parlour or solar (1) ; 
and, for her servants, a chamber next the straw-house, and a chamber 
next the dairy. For the farming of her share of the demesne she has 
a cattle shed, a barn, and part of the cart-house. A specified part 
of the garden is assigned her ; it has a pond or moat where the lord 
may water his cattle. 

The membrane of the 7th Hen. IV (1405-6, contains the notice of 
the first court of Fulk de Grey. He was nephew and heir of his uncles, 
and he married according to the Pedigrees, Eleanor Barnardeston. 

In the 8 Hen. VI. (1429-80) the first court of Sir Eobt. Clyftnn and 
Alice his wife was held. 

Caxtones — Prima cur' Eob'ti Clyftone milit' et Alic' ux' eius ib'm 
tent' die jovis in f'o S'ti Laurenc Anno rr Henr' sext' post conq' viij. 

Blomefield says " there was hi a window in Merton Church, Norfolk, 
the figure of fcir Robert Clifton, Knight, with a coat of arms quartered 



(1) The solar (or lord's chamber situated above the cellar,) of the 12th cent., had become by the 
14th cent, the lord's parlour. Hudson Turner, Hist. Dom. Ar. 



25 

with Caileys." The Clifton arms were there in Queen Elizabeth's time. 
See Harl MS., 901, 48. " Clifton, Or et gonlis cheke a bend ermyn in 
chef an annelete goulis on the bende." 

Blomefield says " there was in the same window an effigies of ade Grey 
kneeling, on his mantle, his coat armour, &c, and this 

Orate pro Animabus Roberti Clifton militis ac . . . de Grey Armigeri, 
et pro bono statu Alicie nuper Uxoris eorundem et pro quorum . . . 

by which it appears that she put it up after the death of both her 
husbands." 

I have not been able to identify this Alice who first married a 
de Grey, and 2ndly Sir Kobt. Clifton. It is probable that Sir Kobt. 
de Clifton and Alice held the Manor in 8 Hen. VI. as Guardians to 
William de Grey of Merton. In 1st Hen. YI. (1st June), a Sir Kobert 
Clyfton was his guardian. [See deed that date at Merton, box C] 

In the 2 Hen. VII. (1486-7) it is ordered that John Tey Armiger be 
distrained on to show by what right he has entered into those lands 
and tenements which were late of Kichard Parker, which the latter 
held of the lord by the service of 14s. 4d. yearly rent. [The Teye 
family was of Layer de la Haye, Essex, and one of the daughters of 
the house married about 1490, William de Grey, of Merton.] 

In the 19th Henry VIII (1527-8) Thomas de Grey, clericus, was 
lord. He continued to hold his courts for his manor of Caxton's up 
to his death, his last court being held 2) Nov , 2nd and 3rd Phil, and 
Mary (1555). He died 1 Sept., 1556. It is recorded on his brass in 
Merton Church that he made himself priest after his wife's death, and 
so continued 41 years. He had given up his manor of Merton before 
1532, to his son and heir, Edmund. 

["37 H, VIII. , 1545, Francis Lovell was lord by grant from the 
Crown, but q_ ?. Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 19077. No authority given.] 

In the 2 Ed. VI. (1548) . . . Grey, gen. [the priest] ten. 
maner. de Caustens in Cornerth, de lion, de Clare p' servic' un feod. 
milit. Brit. Mus. Add MSS. 19077 under Cornard. 

In the 3rd and 4th, Phil and Mary i 1556) William Grey, gen., was 
lord. He was not, I believe, of the Merton House, but was a member 
of a branch of the family that lived at or near Cornard. He succeeded 
to the manoi on the death of Thomas de Grey, of Merton, priest. He 
is, in the 6th Elizabeth, still said to be lord. There was a William 



26 

Graye buried at Little Cornard, 9th February 1572, (14th Elizabeth). 
John Boweling and Margaret Graye were marryed the — day of Nov., 
1565, and Alice Graye was baptised the 2nd Sept., 1580. William's 
son Thomas was alive in 1601, as appears by the will of Eobert 
de Grey, of Merton, who, in that year, leaves his Manors, of which 
Cackstones is one, in trust for his son William. But, " if William 
fortune to dye before he corayth to the age of one and twenty yeares," 
then the said manors are to go to " Thomas de Grey, the sonne of 
Will'iim de Grey, late of Lytle Cornard, and to his heirs male." Thus 
Thomas of Curnerd did not succeed his father, William, in the manor 
of Caxtons. It reverted to the Merton family, to Robert de Grey, then 
owner of the estates. 

In the 28th Elizabeth the heading of the manor court is as follows :— 
" Curia Job' is ffortescewe Armig'i firmavij Rob'ti de Graye Arruig'i." 
Probably John Fortescue got a lease of the Manor in the interest of 
Robert de Grey, and to prevent it falling into the hands of the Govern- 
ment, for Robert de Grey, on account of his recusancy, besides 
enormous fines, forfeited by law all his goods and chattels and two- 
thirds of the profits of his estates. For an account of Robert de 
Grey and his recusancy, see Norf. Archteol., Vol. IX., 282. 

In the 40th Eliz. (1597-8) Robert de Grey had somehow got the 
Manor back into his own hands, for he is caUed lord, and the court 
was held in his name. 

On the 7th Aug. 1601, the Queen " did demyse and graunte unto 
Danyell Curtis, gent., for 21 years, the manor and woods of Caxton's 
in Cornerd, p'cell of the lands and possessions of Rob'te de Grey, of 
Marten, Esquier, Recusant, deceased," for payment and satisfaction of 
the fines due to the Crown for his Recusancy, the manor then being 
in the tenure and occupation of D any el Curtis, gent., and two others. 

However, in 1604 King James I. discharged Sir William de Grey 
from all the fines due by his father, and on 26th May, 3rd James I., 
we find " Sir William de Graye, Knt., son and heir of Robert de 
Graye, Arm.," holding a court for his manor of Caxton's. 

16 May, 1677. First Court of William de Grey, Arm., son and heir 
of James de Grey, Arm., defunct. [He was grandson of Sir William.] 

17 July, 1714, Court of Thomas D'Grey, Arm., son and heir of 
William D'Grey, Arm., defunct. 



27 



MINOR NOTES AND NAMES FROM THE COURT 
ROLLS AND BOOKS OF CAXTON S MANOR. 

23rd Ed, TIL (1369) to 2 Hen. V. (1414) in Booh C.C.F.A. 



Bobert Waryn 

Eobert Byssop de Berghholte 
John Hogsagh 
Eobert atte Kerre [Carr ?] 
Bobert Loveyn comes into court 
and pays a fine to the lord for 
marrying Alicia Osbern, bonds- 
woman in blood, without the 
licence of the lord 
John Haddelegh 
Bobert, son of Gilbert de Bures, 

mag. and Joh'na, his wife 
Boger de Methebourn, Vicar of 

Assyngton 
Jordan Osbern and Cristina his 

wife 
Land lately of Balf Cuckow, in the 

field called Cuckowysffeld 
John le hyrde 
Bichard Sayher 
John Jurdon 
Walter atte Stoure 
Beatrix Goodent 
William Hobelyn 

Clarissa, the wife formerly of Wil- 
liam Aubry 
Wood called Seiernsgrene 
Land aput bouehel 
Land of the fee Lattheleyghe 
John le MyUer de Bures 
Chyrstallonde 
Schicascroft 
Lyckcwethyfeld 
John le Smyth, of Wythemonde- 

ford 
Stonenysfeld 
William Hobelyn 
Alice de Gret 

Bichard Baynard (1354) receives 
from the lord a messuage and 
xij acres of land which were 
Balph Gardeners 
Pasture called Brettescroft 
Pasture in Collysfeld 
Jordan Jamesson 
John atte hagh 



John le ffuller 

John de Kingesbury 

Pasture called Brocholemersg 

Collesfeld 

Mythelesfeld 

Heldesfeld 

Shoristilesfeld 

Gilberd Stylkard 

Wood at Newenhey 

William Spyrlyng 

Bourtonfeld 

Field of Ketyndon 

Beruewoldyshegh 

Alfledemed'we 

John Doget de Bures 

Byedeshull 

Brokholes in ffollybrok (p 44) 

Bolnescroft 

Cartesfeld near Bynescrouch 

Wythyfeld 

Pykerelescroft 

Edmondyshyll 

Bartho le Prophete 

Chyrchefeld 

Wood called Sayhersgrene 

Land at Sprouteshyll 

Land called Eldereydon 

Benehell 

Land of the fee Lachcheley 

Alayneswye 

Godentescroft 

fferthyngescroft 

John Wysebeche 

Stephenysfeld 

Shortystyle 

Curia Bogeri de Grey 

George, parson of the Church o 
Cornerth 

John Coleman de Bures 

Osbernes tenement 

Peter de Burgate 

Chercheakre 

Nateleghefen 

John Prestenhey 

John Lalleford 

Stephen Badyngor 



28 



MINOR NOTES AND NAMES (Continued). 



Burtonefeld 

William Martyn 

John Abel 

Henry Whissh 

Thomas Eeydon 

Beginalcl Baldewyn 

Laurence Porterose 

Land on Bonhell 

Langelond— Longland 

John Presteney 

Land called Mondeshalk 

Pesecroft 

Ada le Ram 

Banecroft Mersh 

Land on holeshel 

Wood called Syttisheg 

Chettesacre 

John de Podewelle 

Walter le Sheppard 

John le Bret 

Roger de le Cheker 

William le lys 

Robert Brandon, chaplain 

Burtonfeld 

Land called Patyfenhell 



Pasture called Brokhole 

John atte hache 

Meadow called Poundehalfakers 

Land in Padefenhelb 

John Smyth, voc. palfreyman 

Carlysfeld 

John Gascoyne 

Land called Kelnecroft 

Land called Eldepyghtell 

Godentyscroft 

Galfridus le hay 

William Lonenhey 

Warmyngfen 

Pesecroft, called Aboldeslegh 

Alicia Bernewelle 

Robert Hoppesmale 

Chyldecroft 

Manleyghwod 

Brendeheg 

Tenement Hygyns 

Perronilla, sister of William Jurdon 

Wyghtonecroft 

Richard Waldegrave, Knt (9 H. IV) 

Eldeheywode 



NOTES AND NAMES FROM THE RENTAL OF 

CANTON'S MANOR, 1475. [Book s.c.j 
Laud between the lane (Venella) called Smallemedewe lane. 

Richard Parker held freely a built messuage with one croft called 
Bakhouse, [the origin of the name Bacchus.] 

Edmund Braye, Miles, followed by Reginald Braye, Miles. [Sir 
Reginald Braye, died 1503. He was at the battle of Bosworth Field, 
and his device was " a crown in a thornbush." He held many high 
offices of State. He is said to have designed Henry VII. Chapel at 
Westminster, and to have completed St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

The Churchwardens (?) (Prepositi) of the Church of Cornerd hold 
two acres of land in the field called Cuckokefield. Thomas Frowyk 
arm. 8 acres formerly of John Pecok. 



•29 



Ffertliyngecroft. Scheters hil. Qwelpemere hil. 



Peter and William H ally well. Thomas Stoe. William Undyrwode. 
Abbess of Mallyng [she held at this time the Manor and 
Advowson of Great Cornard.] This holding of hers in Little 
Cornard was called Lokenheggs, and it formerly belonged to Richard 
de Weyland, and alter him to John Pecok. 



NAMES FROM RENTAL OF CAXTONS, c. 1480. 



[Book caf.] 



Campus called Eldereydon 

Land called Rederode 

Bonehyll 

Sunstallemedwe 

Land called Beycroft 

Hoggescroft 

Venella called Smallemedwelane 

Bradmedwe 

Bancroftnissh 

Dominus John Culpeper milit. 

Land in Haggebussh 

Heyghfeld 

Venella called Soggatyslane 

Pasture called Brettysgardeyn 

Aleynyswode in Bures 

Pasture called heryotstubbyng 

Pylthershey 

Venella called holrnelane 

Hughesfeld 

Wyllysfeld 

Bromecroft 

Sayhambrok 

John de Peyton 

Fee of the Abbess of Mallyng 



Fee Sylvesterys 

John Podeney 

Bridge called Kemburnebrygge 

Simon Lovetopp 

Fee Pecokys 

Fee Cornerthhalle 

Colyerscroft 

Hamondyscroft 

Serlesfeld 

Whelwrightye 

Fee Newtonhalle 

Sharneforde 

Venella called Chapellane 

Fee Corbet 

Wythyfeld 

Qwelpesmere 

Serlesmedwe 

Southfenlane 

Scheppcotesfeld 

Spyttiswelle 

Gossedownne 

Pecokysgrove 

Bermondeshegge 

ffowellyscroft 



NOTES FROM A RENTAL OF CAXTONS. 

7. HEN. VIII. 1515-16 

Among the Tenants, are 

Ed'us Bray, Miles, probably Sir Edmund, who died 1539. See 

supra, Ptental 1475. 
Thomas Spryng. 
Edwardus Walgrave. 
Thomas Ffrowyk, Miles. I cannot identify this Frowyk. See 

Pedigree, page 34. 

C 



30 

D'hp Will'mus Walgrave, probably Sir "William Waldegrave, of 
Smallbridge. He mar. Margary, cl of Sir Henry Wentworth, 
of Wethersfield. He died 1527. Paper on tbe "Waldegrave 
family by E. M. Dewing, E?q. Snff. Archeeol. Vol. IV. 

Piobertns Corbet, Miles (1). Mention made of John Corbet, son 
and heir of Sir John Corbet, Knt., in 37th Ed. III. 



RENTALS OF THE MANOR OF CAXTONS. 

There are at Merton .Rentals of this Manor, beside those above men- 
tioned, for 

2nd Hen. VII. (148f5-7) 

2nd and 3rd Phil, and Mary 

3rd, 13th, 16th James I. 

1626— 29— 33— 77— 78— 81— 87— ( J I. 



SMALL MANORS OF CATCHELEIGH APPULGARYS 
FOLYBROK AND CANEWORTH. 

These appear to have heen subsidiary manors to Cax- 
tons, and to have become merged in it, for I do not find 
their courts held separately after the reign of Richard II. 

In book [C C F A] there are records of the Courts of ffnllybrok, held 
in the 2nd and in tbe 3rd years of Ed. III. 

Of Appylgare, held in 21st and in 23rd Kich. II. 

And of Caneworth held in the 4th and in the 5th Ed. HI. 



(1) Several members of this family were lords successively of the Manor of Series, in Little 
Cornerd. 

Robert Corbet, Esq. 

Robert Corbet, Esq., s. and h. [probably the same as the above named Robertus Corbet 

Miles! 

Sir Richd. Corbet, Knt., died 16 H. VIII. 

Jane, his widow . 

Richard Corbet, Esq., son and heir, died 36 H. \ III. (1544) 

Robert Gurdon, Esq , by purchase, died 21 Eliz 

From 21st Eliz to 1817, the lordship was in the Gurdon family. 

Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 19077 p 276. 



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37 

LORDS OF THE MANOR OF PEACOCKS, 

From 1583. 

I have no record of Peacock Hall from the above date 
(1552), till the 25th Elizabeth (1583). Thomas Felton 
then held the manor. For in a document at Merton 
Hall, written in the early years of James I. reign, it is 
stated that " Mr. ffeltori about the xxvth yere of the late 
Queen [Elizabeth] was desirous, or rather importunate, 
to hyer the manno' of Cawsones in Suff., belonging to 
one Robt. de Gray, a recusant, the same adioyning to a 
manno' of ffelton's, called Peacock Hall, since solde 
awaie by him." George Mumford, Esq., the owner since 
1875, informs me that in a deed in his possession another 
deed dated 20th Nov. 30th Eliz. (1587), is recited, in 
which Thomas Felton, of Little Cornard, gentleman, with 
two others, are engaged to pay £100 a year, presumably 
a charge on Felton 's property in Cornard, to the wife of 
John Fortetine during her life. 



'o 



Thomas Felton, who was, there is little doubt, of the 
ancient family of Felton of Pentlow, seems to have resided 
at Little Cornard, and probably at Peacock's manor. He 
had 7 children baptized at Little Cornard between 1584 
and 1592. For Felton, see Norf. Arch., Vol. IX, 320. 

Felton probably sold Peacocks not long after this date. 
At any rate, as Mr. Mumford informs me, it had passed 
before 1596, with the manor or lordship of Cornerd, also 
of Little Cornard, and the advowson and right of patronage 
of Little Cornard, to the White family, who conveyed it 
in that year to Edward Curtis and John Chayce. The 
same property belonged in the 13th Ch. I. (1637-8) to Sir 
Robert Crane of Chilton, K nt ' who in that year conveyed 
it, for £2320, to Thomas Newman, of Little Cornard, 
and Margaret, his wife. Mr. Mumford tells me that the 
Newmans between 1637 and 1659 had 3 sons and 7 
daughters baptized at Little Cornard; that Margaret, wife 
of Thomas Newman, died May 27, 1664, and that Mr. 
Thomas Newman was buried 16th August, 1680 ; also 



38 

that Robert Sparrow and Ami Newman were married 1st 
August, 1749, and that Newman, son of Robert and Ann 
Sparrow, was baptized 19th February, 1755. This 
Newman Sparrow built the present Peacock Hall in 1798, 
and was living there in 1800. Two generations of 
Sparrows succeeded, and the manor and property passed 
by purchase to Mr. Mumford in 1875. 

NOTES AND NAMES FROM THE RENTAL OF 
PEACOK'S MANOR, c. 1340. 

Thomas tie Grey, miles. Laud called Pickeryshey. John de Peyton, 
Metegoldieslond. Willra. de Chelliseworth. 

The same Thomas (de Grey) holds 8 acres of land in the field called 
Popihoxne, in exchange made in the time of Dominus Willm. de Grey, 
and Doms. Thomas de Weylond. 

Piece called Eolneshook le Cleck. Padifenhul. John atte Stoure le 
Eeede. Field called Wyndemelnehul (Windmill-hill) near Whelpis- 
mersh. 



Jiotes on tlje bt (fog's (Hornaro IDrop^rtg. 

Thomas de Grey sold his Cornard Property to his 
brother William de Grey, Esq., in 1770, for i'5785.— 
Receipt in box (h.) 

In a paper in the handwriting of Thomas, 2nd Lord 
Walsingham, it is stated that his father, the Chief Justice, 
bought, in the year of the general election, Grey's Hall, 
in Suffolk, for .£5700. 

The following is from the Ipswich Journal, August 2, 
1788, i.e., 7 years after the death of the Chief Justice, 
whose estates passed to his only son : "To be sold by 
auction at Garraway's Coffee-house, on the 21st August, 
a valuable freehold estate, situate in the parishes of Little 
Cornerd, Newton, and Assington, comprising the manor 
of Greys." 

From the above notes, it seems as if a manor of Greys 
in Cornard had been in the de Grey family till 1788. 



39 



$avt of tlje §ebiQtte of be (fetr, of Jltnion, 

SHOWING THE CONNEXION OF THOSE MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY 
THAT ARE MENTIONED IN THIS PAPER. 

William cle Grey of Cavendish, 13 Ed. I. 

Sir John de Grey of Cavendish, 



Sir Thomas de Grey =Alice d. & h. 



of Cavendish & Cornard 
d. 1322 



of Sir Richard 
dc Cornerth 



Sir Thomas de Grey of 
Merton, alive in 39 E. Ill (1365) 



= 1 . Isabel d. and coh. of 
Folk Baynard 
2. Alice . . . (see Sir Rogers will) 



Sir Roger=Margaret 



de Grey 
d. 1371 



d. of Sir Grey, 

Roger Clifton clerk 

& brother of dead in 1399 

Sir Adam. 

She died 1399 



Thos. de Fnlk de Grey=Margaiet 



dead iu 
1399 



Vernon 



Thomas de Margaret, Joan— Thos. 



Fnlk de =Eleanor 



Grey died wife of 
a minor, Sir Thos. 

s. p. Shardelowe. 

She d. 1382 



Pynchbek Grey, heir 
to his uncles 
aged 17 in 1 H. IV, 
(1399-1400) 



Barnar- 

distou. 



Rich J. died Will™- de Grey— Christian 



a minor ? 
18 years old hi 
2 H. IV. (1400-1) 



d. 1474 



Manning 



Grace Teye— Willm. de Grey=zMary Bedingfield 
2nd wife. d. 1495 I 



Thomas de : 
Grey made 
himself Priest, 
d. 1550 



:Elizth. Fit/. -Lewes 



Edmund de GrevmElizt'i- Spelman 
d. 1548 



Thomas de Grey=l. Anne Everard 



d. 15G2 



2. Temperance Carewe 



Thomas de Grey 
died a minor, s. p. 
in 1566 



Roberi=:Aun 



de Grey, 

the 

Recusant, 
d. 1601 



Lovell 



Sir Willin. de Grey,=Anne Calthorpe 
d. 1632 



Sir Robt. de Grey=Eliztli. 



d. 1644 



Bridon 



James de Grey=Elizm 



Son d. a 
minor 



d. 1665 



.1 



Stuteville 



Willm- de Grey=Ehztb 

d. 1687 Bedingfield 



31 

In book [C A F,] a Rental (c. 1480) is headed, Caxtones iu Conierth 
pVa cum Catcheleigli appulgarys et ffolybrok. 

In a Rental of 21 Henry VI. (1413), the heading is 

Cateheleigh 
Caxton in \ Appulgares 

Holybrok 



FOLYBROK 

In book [s.c.J a Rental (1475), ffolybrok is said to be situated in 
Bures, though it is part of Caxton's. 

In a Rental of Hen. VIII. it is called ffolybrook. 

Robertus Lay de ffulybrok is mentioned in a Court ol 4 Ed. IV. 

CANEWORTH. 

In Court of Caxtons 31 Ed. 8, a pasture at Kaneworthteye (1) 
is mentioned. 

In Court 4 Rich. 2, land called Caneworth croft. 

In a rental 1475 (book B.C.), field called Caneworth feld. 



APPYLGARE. 

Tn a Rental of (c 1354), Dominus Willielmus Appilgare is mentioned, 
showing that the name of the manor was derived from its owner. 
Perhaps this is the origin of the name Applegate Wood, which I find 
in a deed of 1 626. In the record of Caxton's Manor for 35 Ed. III. 
(1361) I find •' boscum vocat' Applegareswode." 

In the Court 14th Hen. IV. (1412-13) the tenement called Appyl- 
garys is mentioned. 

Court (Caxton's) 28th Ed. III. garden called Apelgares. 

Court (Caxton's) 31 Ed. III., a pasture at Appelgaresgrene. 



(1) In 15th ami 19th H. VI. (1430 and 1440), the courts of Caxtons are held at Canefordetye. 
[Tve— an extensive common pasture, Halliwell.] " Worth " would be I suppose "the land near 
the river." It would seem as if " worth " and " ford " were in this instance interchangeable. Dr. 
Bennet savs that the village of Rushford was alwavs called Rushworth till early in the 17th centur 



32 



THE VALUE OF THE ESTATE OF CAXTONS. 

It was worth in 25th Elizabeth (1582-3) according to a 
document at Merton Hall, £140 a year, but was leased to 
the Crown lessee during the Kecusancy of Rob. de Grey at 
£80 a year & £80 fine. It was worth according to the 
same document in the early years of James I., £140 a 
year. 

In a paper in Sir William de Greys handwriting, it is 
stated that the value of "the ffarms and rentes of the 
manor of Caxtons " was in 1624 £163 7s. 9d. 

In 1769 the annual value of Caxton's, then the property 
of Thomas de Grey, and being in extent 269a., was £115. 



VALUE OF THE MANOR OF CAXTON'S. 

By an Inquisition taken atNorw. 4 Jan., 8 Car., P. M. 
Willi de Gray milit, he was found to die 19 Oct., 8 Car. 
1632, seized of Man. Cackston al's Cawston's, &c, in 
Cornard P'va, &c, val. £3. 6s. 8d. Cole's Esch. vol. 
5, p. 184. 

In 1679 Caxton's belonged to William de Grey, grand- 
son of the above Sir William. The following is a note in 
his handwriting : — 

Quitt Rent Caxton's Manor. 

Md. The settled Rents of my Rentall, which are 
payable every Mich., come to yeerly £3 13s. 2^d. 



83 



f tacatKs Jftattor in little Olornarb. 

This manor was no doubt so called from an owner of 
that name. It is now, as Mr. Mumford, the present owner, 
informs me, nearly extinct. 

There is among the Merton muniments, a rental of 
John Pecok, dated 28th Ed. III. (1354), of his lands in 
Great and Little Cornard. Sir Thomas de Grey, Knt. 
[who married Isabel Baynard] was then a large copy- 
holder of the Manor. 



LORDS OF THE MANOR OF PEACOCK'S HALL, 

FROM 1333 TO 1552. 

From Brit. Mus. Add. M.S.S. 19o77 fo. 276. 

7 Ed. III. (1333) John Somersbam, oi Asham,lord of Cornard, — William 
Ashe, mar. Margaret, d. and coh. of John Somersham. 

42 Ed. III. (136M) John Pecok. He was Patron, and presented to the 
to the living in 1371. 

4 Hen. VI (1426) Thomas Frcwyk. Presented. He married Elizabeth, 
d. and coh. of William Ashe. (01utterbuck-s Herts 1 , 476.) 

27 Hen. VI. (1449) Elizabeth Frowyk, Lady of the Manor. Will 
dated 1455. 

1 Ed. IV. (1461) Henry Frowyk, Esq., son and heir of Thomas and 
Elizabeth. He presented. Died 21, H. VII. 

15 Ed. IV. (1475) Sir Thos. Frowyk, Knt., son and heir. (Cousin, 
not son, see pedigree infra.) He presented. 



84 

H. VII. (1490) Dame Joan Frowyk, wife of Sir Thomas. Presented. 

18 H. VII. (1503) Sir Thos. Frowyk, Knt., Ch. Just. Presented. 

4 H. VIII. (1512) Thos. Frowyk, son and heir of Sir Henry. (Pro- 
bably a priest, see Frowyk, Ped.) Presented (1). 

2 Ed. VI. (1548) Sir Michael Fisher, Knt., married Margaret, d. and 
coh. of Henry Frc wyk. 

[Man. de Peacock Hall, Michael Fisher, Miles, ten. Maner de 
Peacock's Hall, in Cornerth, de hon. de Clare p. servic. un. feod. milit. 
See Rental of honor of Clare in Duchy of Lancaster.] 
Margaret Lady Fisher, widow of Sir Michael. 

G E. VI. (1552) Agnes d. and h. of Sir John Fisher, son of Sir Michael, 
wife of Oliver St. John. 

6 Ed. VI. (1552) Oliverus St. John ar. et Agnes ux. ejus fil. et prox. 
her. d'ne Margaret Fisher nup. defunct, iec. Kelev. p. m'nio 
de Peycock's hall eum p'tin in p'va Cornerth tent, de hon. 
de Clare p un feod. milit. c s - Eental of the honor of Clare 
in Duchy Court of Lane. 



(1) It appears from the above Brit. Mus. MS. that the advowson of Little Cornard always 
appertainecf to the owners of the Man jr of Peacock, and it continued to do so at least till 1792. 



r~ 



ON A ROMAN BRITISH CEMETERY AT INGHAM, 
NEAR BURY ST. EDMUNDS. 

No apology is I think needed in bringing to the notice 
of the Institute the discovery at Ingham of an ancient 
burial place though made so long ago as 1873, during the 
construction of the railway between Bury St. Edmunds 
and Thetford. 

From year to year I had intended throwing the notes I 
had made into a paper for the pages of our Proceedings, 
but an indefinite hope that I might be able to make 
further excavations upon the site, and so add to my 
knowledge of the extent of the cemetery, and the cha- 
racteristics of the people there buried deterred me. As 
the matter stands, had it not been for the kindness of 
Mr. Barham, the gentleman in charge of the railway 
works, who gave me prompt notice of the discovery, and 
kept me well informed of every fresh find, probably little 
would have been heard of it. To him, and the careful 
co-operation of the very intelligent foreman of the navvies 
(Allen) employed upon the spot, I am indebted for nearly 
all the particulars here recorded. 

The site of the cemetery* is to the north of the village 
of Ingham in a field known as the Cow-path Breck, which 
is immediately to the west of the road to Thetford, and 
between it and the farm road to Bodney Barn, which in 
part occupies the line of an old trackway (the Cow-path) 
that once led from Ingham to Elveden and the country 
beyond Here in excavating for the cutting at a point a 
very few feet in advance of the 5th milestone from Bury 
the first interment was met with. This was seen by 

*The position of the Cemetery will be Ordnance Map of the parish, 
found carefully indicated on the new 

D 



42 

Mr. Barham before the grave was completely broken up, 
who favoured me with the details respecting it. 

Interment No. 1 lay 4^ feet below the surface in a 
north and south direction, the head to the latter point. 
Iron nails were found with it, also the fragments of a 
globular urn of dark pottery of about three pints capacity. 
The men could not say how the urn lay in relation to the 
body, but they believed it to have been perfect when first 
exposed. The remains of the skull and long bones were 
reserved for my inspection and were those of a person of 
middle age and slight build, but in a too decayed and 
fragmentary condition to admit of satisfactory deter- 
mination. 

Twenty yards to the northward of this was interment 
No. 2 ; extended in a similar direction at a depth of 
5 feet with the head to the north. No relic accompanied, 
but the skeleton was fairly well preserved and was that of 
a very short person. Iron nails were also found with this 
burial indicating a slight coffin, for the nails were of 
small size. Upon my first visit (Nov. 29th) I removed 
from the grave the leg bones of this skeleton, which, 
with the skull, I brought away for future examination. 

Some yards further in advance, just behind where the 
navvies were engaged, I found in the fallen earth some 
fragments of a large vase of fine red pottery, having a 
peculiar cream-coloured paste upon its surface, and upon 
further search the remaining portion of it in situ at about 
10 inches beneath the ground. The vase had contained 
calcined human bones, of which I took from it a few 
fragments. Some way off I found a vase cover of red 
ware which may have been deposited with the cinerary 
urn, but which was not of the same kind of pottery. 

A little beyond this point a group of rubbish pits were 
met with, containing animal bones in small quantities, 
and the usual fragments of pottery. Some were of a 
coarse dark ware, bearing a stellate pattern in relief, 
which I do not remember having met with before in the 
district, 



43 

At 18 feet north of these upon the western edge of the 
central cutting was interment No. 3 — that of a woman 
who had been buried in a coffin at the same depth as the 
previous ones found, but in a grave directed East and 
West. At her head, which lay towards the west, was a 
nicely preserved " drinking cup " of Durobrivian * pottery, 
6 J inches high, ornamented with bands of markings, 
impressed by some wheel-like tool. Among the bones, 
which were badly preserved, were some dozen or more 
horses teeth. 

No. 4. At 44 feet north of last, near the centre of the 
cutting, was another interment, at about the same depth 
and direction. The bones were much decayed and un- 
accompanied by relic. 

No. 5. At 34 feet beyond No. 4 and upon the western 
edge of the cutting, another west and east interment was 
come upon. Body much decayed. With it was found a 
fragment of coarse red ware resembling Samian, which 
had formed portion of a bowl. Upon it in low relief and 
somewhat rudely executed, were the figures of two dogs 
of the bull, or mastiff type ; probably part of a hunting 
scene in which the wild boar was the quarry. 

No. 6. At 17 feet from last, on the opposite side of the 
central cutting, another interment had been found on the 
morning of my third visit, which I had the pleasure of 
seeing in position. It was that of another very short 
person who had been buried at a depth of some 3J feet, 
in a grave with the head to the north-east, and to all 
appearances in a coffin much longer than was required. 
The skeleton was well preserved and belonged to an 
individual of sixty years or upwards. The skull was 
perfect, and with that of No. 2 supplies the only evidence 
we have of the racial characteristics of the people here 
interred. This, the last interment seen by me, occurred 
at a distance of 178 yards from the southern boundary of 
the field. 

* So called from its place of rnanu- the Durobrivce of the Romans, 
facture, Castor, in Northamptonshire ; 



44 

The year 1874 had now set in, and with it a con- 
tinuance of wet, wintry weather, which prevented me 
from visiting the place so often, and the men from taking 
the care they had previously done of what they found. 
About this time also the ganger was changed, and the 
fresh man, although carefully instructed by his prede- 
cessor and myself, failed to do much more than keep 
count of the number of graves actually noticed, twelve in 
all, before the limits of the cemetery were passed. These 
he informed me lay generally across the line of the 
cutting, which would be in an east and west direction, 
and that the bones were nearly all too much decayed to 
preserve for my inspection. Nails were observed in some 
of the graves, and in one was a vessel of pottery, which 
was broken up before it was noticed. 

Thus, in the progress of the cutting, nineteen inter- 
ments were observed, including the one after cremation, a 
small number considering the amount of ground disturbed. 
That some were overlooked during the rough operation 
of picking down large masses of the surface soil into the 
trucks to be immediately moved away, I have no doubt, 
indeed when we consider the mode in which the cutting 
was excavated, and that the work was commenced before 
it was well light in the morning, such a result can hardly 
be wondered at. To this cause chiefly I must refer the 
non-discovery of any coins or small articles of metal, 
although I cannot learn that any such were ever found 
upon the field during agricultural operations,* a fact 
somewhat remarkable considering the period at which 
the cemetery was in use and the proximity of the Roman 
station at Icklingham, where coins, and especially the 
small brass of the latter emperors, are abundant. 

The enquiry remains as to what period and people this 
cemetery must be assigned. Questions, simple at first view, 
but not altogether unattended with difficulty. That of time 
seems to me to be the easiest of solution. It is to the human 

*A most careful search, more than once shard of pottery — that would indicate 
renewed, made by myself, upon the field, the site of a cemetery or settlement in 
has failed to discover any object— even a the vicinity. 



45 

remains recovered from graves No. 2 and 6 alone that we 
can turn lor evidence tending to solve the second. These 
consist of complete skulls and the leg bones of both 
skeletons, and the humerus of No. 6, representing indi- 
viduals of fair average cranial capacity, but of very short 
stature. Unfortunately no measurements were taken of 
these skeletons before thev were disturbed so that we 
shall have to rely for an approximation of the stature upon 
one of the formulae in use by osteologists for calculating 
the height of the individual from the length of either the 
humerus and femur, or the latter in conjunction with the 
tibia. Adopting the method given by the late Prof. G. 
Eolleston in describing the crania found by our esteemed 
honorary member, the Revd. Wm. Greenwell, F.S.A.,* 
which, however, is not the most liberal, a height of only 
4ft. 7in. can be assigned to the occupant of grave No. 2, 
and 4ft. 8§in. to that of No. 6f. In the latter case the 
estimate is apparently confirmed by the humerus yielding 
corresponding results . 

If these individuals could be taken as fair examples of 
those occupying the rest of the cemetery, the question of 
race would be considerably complicated. The fragmentary 
long bones from other graves seen by me, however, cer- 
tainly belonged to persons of more average stature. It is, 
nevertheless, very remarkable that the only human 
remains preserved to us, and from graves so far apart, 
should present so great a similarity both in stature and 
head form. 

The skulls, notwithstanding certain differences of detail, 
have a great general resemblance to each other, a circum- 
stance usually observable in crania belonging to ancient 
and comparatively little mixed races. Both are slightly 
phamozygous, that is, the zygomatic arches are visible 
when the skulls are viewed in a vertical aspect. As they 
have an average breadth index of '80, they may be classed 

* British Barrows, p. 564 

1 1 am inclined to believe that this with extra long femora so with excep • 
estimate is below the actual stature of tionally short ones, some allowance 
the individuals by neariy one inch. As should be made. 



46 

as brachycephalic, or of the shortened oval form. This 
brachycephalism is due to the full development of the 
parietal tubers, by which the regular contour of the oval 
is interrupted, and a slight appearance of angularity given 
to the posterior region of the skulls. Their vertices also 
viewed from behind are somewhat roof shaped. Iu each 
case, but more especially in that of that from grave No. 
6, the somewhat narrow and recedent forehead is com- 
pensated by the presence of well marked frontal tuberosi- 
ties. In both also the orbits are oblique and almost 
lozenge shaped, whilst the nasal bones are prominent, 
indicating acquilinity, and that the organ they supported 
was no inconspicuous feature upon the faces of these early 
dwellers at Ingham. 

The skull from grave No. 2 is a regularly formed, 
symetrical cranium of a person from 30 to 35 years of 
age, probably of the male sex. It weighs only 25ozs., 
including the lower jaw. From the rough and granulated 
appearance presented by the surface of the skull, and the 
diaphanous texture of its parietes, particularly the temporal 
bones, which are thin and in places porous, it is most 
probable that the owner was the subject of some disease, 
which either caused absorption of the bony matter of the 
skull or greatly retarded its formation. All the sutures, 
including the frontal, are persistent and open so that a 
slight fall would in all probability completely disarticulate 
it. Two Wormian bones present themselves in the course 
of the lambdoidal suture ; one of which, at the junction 
of the latter with the sagittal suture is seven-tenths of an 
inch in width. The square and characteristic lower jaw, 
with that of the upper, were filled with a regular and 
well-formed set of teeth, free from any trace of decay. 
All were in place at the time of exhumation, and, with the 
exception of the wisdom teeth, were much worn, indicative 
of the coarse nature of the food upon which these people 
subsisted. 

This skull exhibits a peculiar depression which extends 
across the head for a distance of some six inches, mime- 



47 

diately in rear of the coronal suture. It is about an inch 
in width and resembles a deformation which characterises 
certain ancient dolichocephalic crania that have been 
found in the chambered barrows of Gloucestershire, North 
Wilts, and elsewhere, which is thought by some to have 
been caused by the continued use of a constricting band- 
age passed round the head in a vertical direction. In 
this case it may have been so produced in an attempt to 
remedy the unstable condition of the bones referred to 
above rather than the result of any tribal custom. The 
leg bones of this skeleton measures, Femur 13ins., 
Tibia 12 ins. The skull from grave 6 does not call for 
any lengthened remarks. Its weight is 21b. loz., and from 
its size and the marked character of its muscular attach- 
ments is no doubt that of a man. All the sutures are 
closed and in part effaced, whilst the state of the teeth 
confirm these indications of age. In the upper jaw there 
remain only the incisors, canines, a bicuspid, and a 3rd 
molar. The alveoli of the other teeth are absorbed and 
obliterated. In the lower jaw all except the first bicuspid 
and the 3rd molar of the dexter side remain. All are 
well worn and much encrusted with tartar. Viewed in 
profile it will be seen that the jaws of this skull are some- 
what prognathic and that the supra orbital prominences, 
and the frontal tubers are markedly developed. The most 
remarkable features on this cranium are, however, its 
hardness and fresh appearance, and the small size of its 
foramen magnum, which is lozenge-shaped, and only 
1*3 in. in length by 1 inch in greatest breadth. The 
length of the long bones of this skeleton were, Femur 
15J, Tibia 12^, Humerus 11 inches. 

Appended are the measurements of the two skulls, 
expressed in inches and tenths, after the method adopted 
by the late Dr. J. Barnard Davis, F.R.S., tabulated with 
other well authenticated examples of Celtic crania. 



48 



to 

O) 

o 

a 
t— i 


'00-I=W Su " 9 7 : W 8 ! 9 H 


us 


•77 




•72 


CO 


to 


c- 


•xapnj oip?qda[) 


o 


o 


Ol 


00 


o 


o 


>o • 
o 




•OO-T^iT^uarj :ippBaig 


f 


op 


00 


t- 


op 


co 


op 




•0i1i3rao8Xz.i8inj 


0-1 


Ol 








CO 


-V 


Face. 


'qipuaig 


o 


US 


US 


•O 


o- 


us 


>o 


•qiSuaq 








OS 




to 


-fl 






cc 


~H 


(M 


,eo 


<M 


-* 


lO 




•;il§i8jj 


>o> 


10> 


us 


us 


IQ 


us 


us 




•qrpimg 


CO 


t~ 


r~ 


t~ 


c~ 


CO 






•reiuo.i^ utnraix'Bi\[ 


■>* 


~v 


"* 


-* 


-*l 


■* 














us 












to 


to 


t~ 


c~ 


t~ 


t- 


CO 




•qipBajg 


US 


us 


lO 


kffl 


US 


us 


us 




■i^auitfig x^int-o^aq'Btf) 






us 

OS 


cc 


l-H 








•q^Saaq; 


c^ 


c~ 


SO 


t~ 


e~ 


t~ 


t~ 






r~ 




Ol 


.„ 










•qo.re pio^s'Gni.ia^iii 


-* 




■*fl 


■* 


-* 


1 


1 






I— 1 




1— 1 


iH 


-1 


















>o 








•8DU8.T8JlUnOJT3 


o 


CO 

o 


OS 

o 


i^H 


to 
6 


C5 

6 


C5 

6 






CI 


(N 


CI 


<M 


(N 


IM 


CI 
















<4-t rw • 


















° s 


0> -J-5 










• 


■ 


■ 


" 


to s . 

3 o 


3 A 








3 


• 


<M 

d 


6 


• 


to a 


«2 to 








ai 
o! 


a 
o 

u 


> 
c3 


!> 

c3 


0) 
bo 
cj 

03 


o » - 


cS ?3 
>• 

0> rn 








a 


(V 




*h 


f> 


m B « 


o3 - " 








a> 


to 
0) 


o 


G 


<! 


-t-3 SH 










3 

d 

o 

-4-3 

• 1— I 

m 


l-H 

o 

s 


>> 

!h 

0) 
~^> 

<v 

a 

O 

a 

03 


o 

s 




age measureme 
e brachycephal 
rrows in Yorks 


> of 70 skulls, 
m round barro 
Encland+ . 


) 






5 




■a 

c 

l-H 






°&M 


43 C*w 






■3 








< 


fi 



* British Barrows, p. 571—599. 
+ Memoirs of the AuthrnpoloRical Society of London, Vol. III., Table II., p. 48. 



49 

With regard to the question of race. Taking into con- 
sideration all the facts presented and the close agreement 
of the Ingham skulls both in general character and 
measurement with those of the well identified ancient 
Britons cited, I think it may be concluded that the 
individuals to whom they belonged formed part of a com- 
munity of that people, who to some extent had adopted 
the Roman customs, including that of disposing of their 
dead, but who had intermixed but little with the foreign 
elements introduced into the country during the Roman 
occupation. The skull from grave No. 2 it will be seen 
resembles very closely indeed both in its form and 
measurement that of the Briton from the Green Gate 
Hill barrow, near Pickering, in the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, figured in plates 3 and 4 of the Crania 
Britannica, and to that from the barrow at Heslerton 
Wold, in the East Riding, opened by the Rev. William 
Greenwell.* Both the latter are regarded by their 
describers as typical British skulls of the Bronze period 
of this country. 

The other skull from Ingham with a breadth index of 
•78 accords well in this and other respects with the sub- 
brachycephalic skull of the Briton from a barrow in the 
vicinity of Stonehenge, opened by Dr. Thurnam. 

The average measurements that follow in the table 
embracing so large a number of examples of round barrow 
skulls, which individually, as might be expected, differ in 
their proportions, confirm remarkably the opinion offered 
above. They show, however, that the Ingham skulls are 
somewhat deficient in relative heights, and in breadth of 
face. According to the observations of Drs. Thurnam 
and Rolleston the average height of the male British 
brachycephali was about 5 feet 8 inchest, but then it 
must be remembered that the individuals from whose 
remains this deduction is made had been accorded burial 
in the barrows, and were not the rank and file of the 

*British Barrows, p. 579. 
•(-Memoirs of the Anthropological Soe. of London. Vol. III., p. 73. 

E 



50 

tribes, but most probably chieftains,* who, doubtless, 
as among barbarous people of the present time were 
chosen principally on account of their superior stature 
and prowess. The low stature of the two Eoman Britons 
from the Ingham graves, as before stated, I regard as 
exceptional, although I think it might be shown, from 
even the scanty data at command, that the native popula- 
tion of the district at the time of the Roman invasion 
were a short people rather than otherwise.! It is probable 
too that as tribesmen of the fierce and warlike Boadicea, 
they would, after their revolt, be subjected to much harsh 
and harassing treatment at the hands of their conquerors, 
and their conditions of life altered. This, with the sense, 
of semi- servility and degradation, from which as a once free, 
but now conquered people, they would for a time suffer, 
would not fail to exercise a deteriorating effect upon the 
stature and physique of the race. 

As to the period from which the cemetery at Ingham 
was in use, I am inclined to place it at the middle of the 
fourth century of our era. Cremation, there is reason to 
believe, was "then, at any rate for a time, fast falling into 
disuse in Eastern Britain, especially among the poorer 
portion of the people. The old rites of Celtic heathenism, 
particularly those relating to the final disposal of the 
dead, were giving way under an indirect influence of 
Christianity, although it is well known that the old 
notions and superstitions long afterwards retained a hold 
upon the minds of the less civilised portion of the in- 
habitants. 

The transition from cremation to inhumation was a 
gradual one ; hence it is no uncommon thing to find, in 
Eoman British cemeteries, urns containing burnt bones, 
mingled with apparently Christian graves, and occa- 
sionally interments which had, to all appearances, been 

*British Barrows, p. 112. 

fOf the two instances of skeletons un- the other, a girl of 18, only 4ft. 3in. 

covered by myself in barrow exploration, The finding of skeletons in the Suffolk 

one a man (a contracted secondary barrows is rare, most of the interments 

interment) measured but 5ft. lin , and being made after cremation. 



51 

subjected to the double rite of Christian Initial and 
heathen burning, so far as the latter could be accom- 
plished within the narrow limits of a grave, by kindling a 
fire upon the coffin.* 

The oldest portion of the Ingham cemetery appears to 
have been first intersected by the railway cutting — that 
which occupied the southern edge of the plateau overlook- 
ing the shallow valley in which the " water pit" is situ- 
ated, and from whence, or the springs that gave rise to it, 
it is probable that the ancient folk derived their supply of 
the essential element. The graves at this point lie north 
and south, and it was here that the instance of cremation 
occurred. Further in the field the graves were oriented, 
which would be regarded by some persons as sufficient 
evidence that these people, if they had not actually 
embraced Christianity, were at least yielding an outward 
conformity to its teachings. The presence of the horse 
teeth in grave No. 3, however, savours suspiciously of 
paganism, unless indeed we are prepared to believe that 
they formed no portion of the interment, but found their 
way into the grave by accident. The finding of an urn 
either at the head or foot of the body has now ceased to 
be regarded as actual evidence of heathenism, as it is 
known that in later times,! when Christianity is believed 
to have been firmly established, similar vessels, filled with 
"holy water," were so placed in the grave, under the 
belief that the corpse was liable to be tampered with by 
evil spirits, and that the "holy water" would frighten 
them away. 

In what direction, or how far the cemetery extended, it 
is, of course, impossible to say ; but it is probable that, 
were further explorations made upon the site, it would be 
found that the graves were disposed in groups about the 
field, and that the dwelling-places of those who used the 
cemetery were not far away; probably traces of them 

* An undoubted instance of this came cemetery of Mitchell's Hill, Icklingham. 
under the writer's notice in the ancient 

f Gentlemen's Magazine, 18(54. Vol. I., p. 608. 



m 



would be found ranged along the old trackway, or ad- 
jacent to it. 

Shortly after the announcement of the find at Ingham, 
I turned, naturally, to the indices of the volumes of our 
Proceedings, to see if any antiquities had previously 
been discovered there, when I found that, so early as 
1848,* the late Sir H. E. Bunbury, Bart., had exhibited 
and presented to our Museum a patera of Saurian ware 
and a Roman urn, and that, in 1850, f Mr. John S. Nunn, 
who then occupied the Hall Farm, gave us a quern of 
Herefordshire conglomerate ; the two last are still in the 
museum. The urn is a good example of the ordinary 
form of vessel used for the reception of the bones after the 
passage of the body through the " all holy" lire. It is of 
coarse, ash-coloured pottery, about 9£in. high, and is 
labelled, "Found two feet below the surface, in 1825." 
The quern, a fine specimen of an upper stone, is 18in. in 
diameter, and remarkable for exhibiting traces of the iron 
rim and pin with which it was once mounted. 

From enquiries made at Ingham respecting these 
antiquities, I was led to the conclusion that a second 
cemetery of the Roman age had existed there, and that it 
was from thence, in all probability, that the fictilia came. 
I was so fortunate after this as to meet with an old gentle- 
man (now the Parish Clerk at Ingham), who in his youth 
had worked upon the Hall Farm, and remembered the 
discovery of the urns, and who went with me and pointed 
out the site of this second cemetery. It is situated at the 
southern extremity of the parish, close upon the Culford 
boundary, on land formerly heath, which rises to the 
north from the marshy meadows bordering the stream 
that flows from Livermere through Culford to the Lark. 
In the south-western corner of this field is a shallow 
depression, lying north and south, with a slight ditch in 
its lowest part. The eastern rise of this is the actual site 
of the cemetery. 

Banham informed me that ' l it was known that things 

* Vol. I., p. 2i. f Vol. I., p. 230. 



53 

were to be found there, and that about fifty years ago, one 
harvest time, during Mr. Worlledge's occupation, after a 
wet night, when they could not cart, the whole of the 
harvest men were set to dig over the ground, and they 
dug from after breakfast to the end of the day, and turned 
over some four rods of surface. They found about a 
dozen earthen pots and some earthen bottles and things. 
Most of the pots had bones in them, and those that were 
got out whole Mr. Worlledge had." 

Banham remembers " no metal being found, only 
pottery, bits of bones, and patches of dark soil. The men 
dug to the depth of five feet in some places, in the hope 
of finding something more." 

It is evident that here we have a cemetery antecedent in 
date to that of the Cow -path breck, in which the dead 
were interred apparently only after cremation, and that 
the "patches of dark soil" were either rubbish pits or 
the sites of funeral fires. 

Banham 's narrative tallies so well as to date with that 
affixed to the urn in the Museum that I have no doubt it 
was one of those found upon the occasion related, and was 
probably presented with the dish of Samian ware by Mr. 
Worlledge to Sir Henry Bunbury. I have since also 
ascertained that the quern stone was ploughed out in near 
proximity to this old burial place. 

I have been informed that vestiges of another ancient 
burial place were discovered, many years ago, in the near 
neighbourhood, namely, in the parish of Fornham St. 
Genovieve, in one of the fields bordering the cross road 
which leads from the Culford and Bury road to Hengrave 
water-mill. This was during the occupation of Fornham 
Hall by the Duke of Norfolk, who, according to my 
informant, inspected the discovery, and took possession 
of the antiquities found. The site of this cemetery 
could not be far removed from the "Kingsbury Hill" 
referred to* by the late Mr. Gage as "the burial place, 
according to popular tradition, of three British kings." 

* History of Hengrave, p. 10. 



54 

I do not apprehend that any of the cemeteries here 
mentioned, or the settlements to which they belonged, 
were very extensive ; nevertheless, they give colour to the 
opinion that the Eoman road to which the late Mr. Warren 
called attention f passed across the country somewhere in 
this direction. 

Whilst the railway was in progress through the village 
of Ingham I looked with considerable interest to the 
cutting through of the hill upon which the church stands, 
in the hope that the via might there be intersected, and 
some other remains found ; but in this I was disappointed. 
To the present all my endeavours to trace the old road 
beyond the copse near the little farmstead at Puttock's 
Hill have proved fruitless. I am disposed, however, to 
believe it continued westward to Icklingham. 

On the borders of Ampton Park is an old rampart and 
ditch, extending from the low meadows in a northerly 
direction nearly as far as the Hall. This may possibly 
have had some relation to the ancient way. If so, we 
might look for its passage somewhere just above the low 
grounds* at the termination of the bank, and in a line 
with a trackway that passed along the meadows immedi- 
ately to the south of the second Ingham cemetery, and so 
onwards through Culford Park to join the line of road 
across West Stow heath. Further research, and probably 
excavation, would be necessary to determine these points, 
which are of some importance in connection with the 
topography of the district during the Roman occupation. 

HENRY PRIGG. 

t Proceedings Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. Vol. I., p. 74. Vol. II., p. 221. 

* It may be interesting to note here 2 inches in width of blade, a perfect 

that a few years ago a nice little bronze specimen of the same type as that 

spear-head was found by a man ditching found during the excavations made by 

in the moor near Timworth Church, and the Rev. Harry Jones in Barton Mere, 

therefore not far removed from the posi- and described by him in the " Journal of 

tion indicated. It is 7J inches long by the Suffolk Institute," Part II., p. 33. 



55 



ON SOME SUPPOSED CRUCIFIXION NAILS. 

At a Meeting of the British Archaeological Association, 
held in May, 1878,* I had the honour of exhibiting two 
of four large iron nails or spikes, which had been entrusted 
to me for the purpose by the courtesy of Mr. W. N. Last, 
of Bury St. Edmund's, who had obtained them some 
years previously from a man employed in the gravel pits 
at Horningsheath. 

As the discovery to which they refer has through the 
enquiries of the officers employed in the new Ordnance 
Survey created some interest in the locality, it is thought 
that a reproduction in these pages of the short paper that 
accompanied the exhibition would be desirable. 

The nails or spikes were 13 inches long, and weighed 
nearly a pound each. They were oblong square in section 
and were furnished with laterally flat fungiform heads a 
little over an inch in width. The spot where they were 
found is some hundred yards west by south-west of the 
" Red House Inn." 

"As they are believed to be crucifixion nails by the owner and others, 
and to have been buried with the person crucified, I thought it desir- 
able they should be submitted to the Association, together with such 
details of their discovery as could be procured. With this view I 
recently visited the Horningsheath gravel pit, and was fortunate in 
meeting with the labourer who, over ten years ago, found the nails in 
question. He told me that in opening fresh ground on the eastern side 
of their pit they came upon about twenty-five human skeletons, which 
lay extended with their feet directed north-east, at from 4 to 5ft. deep, 
or just upon the surface of the gravel bed. With one of these were the 
four iron spikes, two of which were found at the head of the skeleton 
and two at the feet, about a foot apart. They were upright; that is, 
each spike had its head uppermost and point downwards, and were 
clear of the bones. Boreham, who well remembered the circumstances, 
is certain upou the position of the nails, and also that, with the excep- 
tion of this and another interment, that of a man near 7 ft. in height, 
who had buried with him some small animal having sharp teeth (possi- 
bly a cat), nothing of any description was found with the bodies, nor 
* Journal of the British Archaeological Association. Vol. 84, p. 24.0. 



56 

any trace of coffins. The bones generally were sound and well pre- 
served, but otherwise no cine was afforded as to the age of the burials, 
which apparently extend further into the field, for Boreham informed 
me that not long since he observed bones protruding from the face of 
the old working. In view of the facts thus elicited, I cannot see that 
we have any evidence in support of the theory of crucifixion, or that 
the nails had been used in any way in connection with the death of 
the deceased ; indeed it would appear far more probable that they 
once held together the top and bottom boards of a rude form of coffin, 
all other trace of which had disappeared. The kind of protection to 
the body I would suggest as probable would be that it was laid between 
two boards of corresponding dimensions but a few inches longer than 
the deceased, which were supported by either ends or sides, and that 
the whole were held together by the long nails being passed through 
holes made in the top plank and driven outside the side or end boards 
into the bottom one. Instances of the finding of large iron nails with 
human remains of the Roman period in England are not rare, but have 
not failed to excite considerable curiosity and conjecture. The disco- 
very of interments believed to be of this age, each accompanied by fovr 
large iron nails, at Bourne Park, near Canterbury,* and the discussion 
that followed it, in which the hypothesis of crucifixion was set up, is 
no doubt well remembered. In the chamber of the larger Roman 
tumulus of East Lowe Hill, near Bury St. Edmund's, iron nails 12 in. 
in length were found, which were believed by the late Professor H ens- 
low, + who explored it, to have held together the wooden frame over 
which the arch of tiles was turned, but which I think with greater 
probability were used to fasten together the planks, between which the 
heavy leaden coffin there found was once enclosed. I have found 
similar nails, although not so large, around a lead coffin in a Roman 
burial place at Icklingham, partially explored by me in 1871 ; and also 
with a late Roman interment at Mitchell's Hill, in the same parish. 
These nails, however, had all of them round flat heads, not like those 
from the interment at Horningsheath, which are decidedly mediaaval 
in character, and resemble closely the nails depicted in some of the 
more noted representations of the Crucifixion." 

HENRY PRIGG. 



•Proceedings, Soc. Antiquaries, vol. ii, pp. 79, 94. 
t Proceedings, Suff. Inst, of Archseology, vol. iv, p. 279. 



THE ANGLO-SAXON GRAVES, WARREN HILL, 

MILDENHALL. 

At the meeting of the Institute, held at Mildenhall, 
June, 1870, 1 had the honour of reading a paper upon the 
interesting tumuli formerly existing upon Warren Hill,* 
the extreme western end ol Mildenhall parish, and the 
British and Saxon remains that were found in them. 

I have now much gratification in resuming the theme, 
by describing the results of some diggings upon the site 
of a small Saxon cemetery, distant but -a few score yards 
along the top of the ridge from where the tumuli formerly 
stood. 

The existence of this burial-place had, it appears, been 
known to a few individuals for some time, but its dis- 
covery was made afresh in May, 1881, in the extension of 
the cart-road from the highway to a new stone pit on the 
eastern slope of the hill. In making the necessary exca- 
vations for this, the remaining portion of a slight ridge of 
sand wasfcut through, and two graves intersected. 

Through the courtesy of the agent of Sir Charles 
Bunbury, Bart., timely information of the discovery was 
given nie, and I very shortly afterwards had the pleasure 
of commencing excavations upon the spot. I found the 
ground in the vicinity of the roadway much broken up, 
and only a narrow strip remaining undisturbed to the 
west of the cutting. On the right, or eastern side, a 
larger portion of surface remained, and as it was in this 
that the sections of the two graves were exposed, it first 
claimed my attention. 

The grave at the southern end, No. 1, which I have 
made my measuring point, was about three and a-half feet 
deep, and contained the remains of a man in an advanced 
state of decay, the bones of the lower limbs being alone 
discernible. * He had been laid extended with his feet to 
the E. by S E. On his breast were the iron remains of 

* Proceedings Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Vol. iv., 287. 

G 



58 

his shield, an umbo, or boss, with its handle, studs, and 
rivet plates. By his left hip a turned wooden drinking 
cup had been deposited, of which nothing remained 
except the small portions of wood enclosed within the 
folds of the little plates or fillets of bronze with which the 
cup had been strengthened or repaired. There is no 
doubt but an iron spear-head accompanied this interment, 
and that it was overlooked by the workmen when they 
dug away the head of the grave. 

No. 2, at 12 feet north-east of No. 1, and similarly 
directed, was another shallow grave, containing an iron 
spear-head 11 inches in length, of the form usually found 
in the district. 

Upon my second visit I turned my attention to the 
western ground, and effected its examination by digging a 
trench through it parallel to the road cutting, and about 
four feet from it. Here two disturbed places were met 
with ; that to the north-east was a conical excavation, 
of about 5 feet in diameter and 3 deep, containing dark 
soil and fragments of charred wood, but no interment. 

The other, which was removed 21 feet S.W. by W. of 
No. 1, proved to be a grave (No. 3), containing a most 
interesting interment. It was that of a woman who had 
deceased in the earlier portion of the middle period of life, 
but of whose frame few traces remained. She had been 
interred oriented in a grave about 4 feet deep, at the head 
end of which a large flint stone had been placed. The 
examination was commenced from the foot. At her 
middle, on left side, was an iron knife of small size, and a 
double hook of the same metal, somewhat resembling an 
anchor. It had a flat stem 8^ inches long, turned over at 
the end to form a loop by which it was suspended to a 
small ring, through which doubtless once passed the 
girdle of the deceased. Slightly higher up was a bronze 
clasp of good design and workmanship, with portions of 
cloth adhering. On her breast was a second clasp like 
the first, with more cloth and much remains of wood. 
At her neck to the left was a tine bronze gilt cruciform 



59 

fibula, bit inches long, with much cloth of two differing 
degrees of coarseness adhering to it, and close by to the 
left and right, a penannular fibula ; and between them 
and under the large fibula the remains of a necklace of 
beads of amber, paste, and rock crystal. I succeeded in 
uncovering a portion of this without disturbing it, and 
found the arrangement to be three small beads, a large one, 
then three other small ones, &c. Almost intermingled 
with the beads, but retaining the positions they occupied 
in life, were the enamel cases of the teeth. They 
appeared to have been a good and regular set, with their 
crowns only slightly flattened from wear. The outline of 
the skull and lower jaw were just perceptible in the sand 
and decay surrounding them, showing that the face lay 
turned to the north. Of the other parts of the skeleton, 
the left ulna, was the only bone in at all an entire con- 
dition, and that through being permeated with the aerugo 
of the large fibula, with which it lay in contact. It was 
evident from the remains of wood found in the upper part 
of the grave that the body had been protected from the 
earth so far as the lower part of the chest, by roughly- 
hewn boards, and from the fragments of coarse wheat 
straw, which I afterwards detached from the face of the 
bronze clasp found at the waist, that it had been covered 
in the grave with that substance, probably in the form of 
a matting. 

In examining the large fibula from this grave I found 
that the wing ornaments of the cross had been broken off 
before the interment took place, and that they were sewed 
to the garment with double thread of about the same size 
as that in common use at the present day. The per- 
forations at the chin of the lateral masks, had been utilised 
for the purpose, whilst a thread was passed half-a-dozen 
times round the neck of each limb. Within the cloth at 
the back of this fibula were two beads of paste and a solid 
ring of bronze, six-tenths of an inch in diameter, about 
the size of and greatly resembling a wedding ring, giving 
the idea that the outer cloth was the remains of a gar- 



60 

ment in which the corpse had been wrapped, with cer- 
tainly the left arm flexed, and the hand between the 
breasts, and that the large fibula had been sewn upon this 
outer garment, or winding sheet. No remains of the iron 
acus or pin adhered to this object, which shows it to have 
been imperfect before interment. 

Curiously enough, in removing the filling-in of this 
grave, I found at about nine inches above the head of the 
buried person, a nicely- worked ovate flint implement. 
As the relics of the First Stone Period abound in the 
gravel of Warren Hill, one, perhaps, should not be sur- 
prised at the occurrence of an example under the circum- 
stances, seeing that the grave had been partly dug in 
the gravel bed. Nevertheless, the thought arises — In 
what light did these old Teutons, who lived nearer the 
Age of Stone by over a thousand years than we, regard 
this shapely flint ? Did they pass it by as a thing of 
naught ; or, recognising it as the work of men of bye- 
gone days, or as a missile from the Thunder god, with 
superstitious awe, replace it in its tomb ? 

Our diggings on this side of the roadway yielding no 
further results, an adjournment to the eastern ground 
was decided upon. Here, at 12 feet E. by S.E. of No. 
1 grave, and at 2 feet bplow the surface, we came upon 
a small inverted urn of black hand-made pottery. It was 
perfect when first uncovered, and was 3J inches high, by 
the same in diameter. Close by it, was found one half of 
a gilt clasp, of smaller size than those usually found ; 
some half a dozen small rounded beads of amber, and 
three brass ferules, two of which appear to have been 
strung upon a rolled-up strip of cloth. Some carbonised 
matter occurred in the neighbourhood of the little urn ; 
but otherwise there was no trace of an interment. 

At 7 feet S.E. by S. of No. 1, another urn of the same 
character as the last, but a little larger, was found. It 
lay upon its side, at about 18 inches below the surface ; 
and close by it was the enamel shell of a well-developed 
second molar tooth of a very young person, but no other 



61 

remains of the body. The urn in this and the other 
instance contained nothing but sand. There is no doubt, 
I think, that they marked the graves of children of tender 
years, whose frames had long since returned to earth. 
That one tooth only should have been preserved is, 
however, not a little remarkable. The soil around the 
urn was removed in the most careful manner, and the 
presence of even fragmentary teeth would without fail 
have been detected. 

After a further two days patient investigation of the 
eastern ground without result, the conclusion was reluct- 
antly arrived at that nothing more was to be found in that 
direction. Our trenches revealed also the fact that the 
old surface fell away to the east, and that the gravel 
raisers had levelled up the slope with their sittings, which 
rendered the proper examination of what remained of 
undisturbed ground both laborious and uncertain. The 
work was therefore abandoned. 

Thus far my own experience. Mr. Simeon Fenton, of 
Mildenhall, however, was one of those persons referred 
to as having previous knowledge of this old burial place, 
and he has very kindly placed at my disposal the notes he 
had made from time to time respecting it. These I have 
printed verbatim, reserving any comments I may have 
to make upon them to the end of the paper. In passing, 
however, I may remark that I consider Mr. Fenton 
is deserving of all credit for the care he evidently took in 
following up and recording the discoveries made by the 
gravel-raisers, and in the preservation of the objects 
found — by which our knowledge of the interesting charac- 
ter of the cemetery is enlarged to an extent that would 
certainlv otherwise have been unattainable. 



ME. FENTON S NOTES. 

For many years past, antiquities have been brought to 
me at intervals, by the labourers working in the stone- 
pits of Warren Hill ; but it was not until 1875 that the 



62 

immediate site of the Saxon Cemetery came under mv 
personal observation . 

On November 24th of that year, the men sent for me, 
saying that they had found something. I went up and 
saw that they had come upon a grave, and had removed 
the earth from it to a depth of about 3 feet from the 
surface. Further examination resulted in the finding of 
about a pint of charred, or decomposed matter, in which 
was a pair of bronze tweezers, some fragments of cloth, 
part of a bronze ring of twisted wire, a small triangular 
bronze plate, with rivets, and some remains of wood. 
The men had previously found in an adjacent grave the 
boss of a shield and a spear-head, both of iron. 

On the next day I went again to the spot, and following 
up certain indications, I found the remains of a skull 
about 4^ feet from the surface ; the grave in sand, filled 
up with rubble. The body was much decayed, no arm 
bones or vertebrae remaining. By the side of the face 
was a bronze cruciform fibula, 54- inches long by "2\ wide, 
the verdigris from which had stained the teeth quite 
green. Bound the fibula were the remains of cloth, and 
near by two circular fibula?, about 1J inches in diameter. 
The leg bones of the body remained, but were very 
tender. 

Nothing further of any consequence was found on this 
occasion. 

In the following month I resumed my diggings, re- 
moving the earth to a depth of from 2 to 8 feet from the 
surface — came upon several cone-shaped holes, containing 
burnt matter. They were generally about a foot deep, 
and from 8 to 10 inches in diameter at top. I found also 
two small-sized plain urns, of black ware, one having a 
flat cover of the same material. These I consider to be 
British. I emptied the larger-sized urn of the two, and 
found it to contain sand only. 

In the following year (1876), the men had come across 
another grave, and sent for me. Upon my arrival I 
found the interment had been broken up, but that it had 



63 

contained a fine bronze cruciform fibula, 6 inches by '2\, 
part of a circular fibula, and some remains of cloth, in 
which the large fibula had apparently been wrapped. 
From the soil removed from this grave I succeeded in 
finding nearly one hundred rudely-shaped beads of amber, 
and one paste bead, which the men had overlooked, 
together with four very thin discs of silver, four whole 
rings, about half an inch in diameter, neatly formed of 
silver wire, and portions of others. Of the silver discs, 
two were l£ inches in diameter, and the other pair 1^. 
They are ornamented with a central fine-rayed star, 
enclosing a slight boss, and around the outer edge a 
circle of dots, formed by punching from the back of the 
plate. 

On April 3, 1877, another burial was found, and 
examined by me ; only portions of the skull remained. 
Accompanying it were three small-sized cruciform fibulas, 
respectively '2f , 3 J, and 3f inches in length, of differing 
designs. On each side of the body, where the arms had 
lain, was a bronze clasp, of thin plate, with hook and eye 
fastening, and ornamented with small punched indenta- 
tions. To the clasps, cloth was attached ; and I am led 
to think that they formed the fastenings either of the 
wristbands of the dress of the deceased, or of cloth bands, 
serving as bracelets. The left arm of this body had 
apparently been bent round the fragments of an urn, and 
near it was an iron knife, 5 inches long. 

Not far from the last interment, another and a some- 
what remarkable grave was met with. It was that of a 
lady, probably of rank. By her left side were a pair of 
silver bracelets, and within them were two finger rings, 
also of silver. The bracelets are bands of thin "latten" 
plate, ornamented with a central and marginal lines of 
small punched circlets, and their ends so overlap that 
they admit the passage of the hand, and spring to form 
when upon the arm or wrist. If flattened out, they would 
measure about 11 inches in length. The rings are similar 
to the bracelets in design, very neatly made, and they are 



64 

ornamented with a central raised band, and both their 
ends taper to a point, forming as it were a double ring. 
No other relic accompanied this interment, 

Within a few yards of the graves just described, to the 
northward, was found the entire skeleton of a horse, 
which had apparently been placed in a hole upon its 
haunches, and then covered over. With it was a small 
iron buckle. It was just beside the horse, to the west, 
that the grave mentioned in the early part of these notes 
as containing the boss and spearhead occurred. All these 
burials were found to the left, or on the the western side, 
of where is now the road cutting. 

Simeon Fenton. 



Mr. Fenton has favoured me with a view of the objects 
recovered from the graves above described, and they form, 
in conjunction with those found by myself, an interesting 
and somewhat unusual series of Anglo-Saxon antiquities. 
The articles of silver, from their rarity,* first claim 
attention, and of these again, the bracelets. So far as I 
can learn, such objects have been found in very few of the 
regularly explored Anglo-Saxon cemeteries, viz. — at 

* As silver, at least in the form of coins, liam and Linton Heath, the former out 
must have been in some abundance in this of the large number of 188, returns only 
country toward the close of the Roman one grave ; and the latter out of 104, 
occupation, it is difficult to understand three graves in which small objects of 
why so few objects in that metal are silver, chiefly finger rings, were found, 
found in the Saxon graves. That they At Barrington, in the same county, of 
are rare can be amply demonstrated by the 26 graves, the contents of which are 
a reference to the published reports of described by J. Wilkinson, Esq , in the 
the results of the examination of a few Proceedings of the London and Middle- 
of the more extensive and better explored sex Archaeological Society (Vol. i., p. 50), 
cemeteries. Thus at Harnham Hill, near but one gave silver — the armlet men- 
Salisbury, where sixty-four graves were tioned above, The Kentish cemeteries 
opened, only three yielded silver orna- are apparently slightly more productive 
ments. The same number are recorded of the metal, and it occurs in a greater 
out of the 127 graves of the cemetery variety of forms. Thus at Sarr, where 
of Long Wittenham, Berkshire. At 272 graves were explored, six yielded 
Brighthampton, in Oxfordshire, there relies in silver. The 25 graves at Stowt- 
were two out of 54 graves. At Barrow ing, a single one ; and the rich cemetery 
Furlong, Northamptonshire, there was a at Bifrons, eight out of 81. Thus of the 
solitary instance among 37 interments. total of 988 graves, there were but twenty- 
Coming nearer home, of the two come- nine instances in which silver in any 
teries explored by the Hon. P. C Neville, form occurred, or under 3 per cent, of the 
in Cambridgeshire, viz., Little Wilbra- entire number. 



Q>5 

Harnham Hill, near Salisbury;* Long Wittenham,f in 
Berkshire, and at Barrington, in the neighbouring county 
of Cambridgeshire. At the two last-named places, they 
appear to have been merely plain bands of silver, whilst 
that from Long Wittenham was a spiral band of the same 
general character as those from Warren Hill ; but much 
broader and of superior design of ornamentation. In each 
case they were found in position upon the left arm or 
wrist of the female occupant of the tomb. The Warren 
Hill examples, according to Mr. Fenton's testimony, lay 
together at the left side of the body, with the finger rings 
in their midst, as if they had been deposited in a small 
box or coffer. There is, however, no difficulty in the 
supposition that they occupied their places upon the wrist 
and hand of the deceased at the time of burial, and had 
fallen together upon the decay of the bones, and the 
pressure of the surrounding earth. 

The Saxon lady had evidently been laid in her tomb in 
all the dignity of her ornaments — 

" earm-reade twa, liroegl and hringas." 

The absence of the fibulas, &c, the almost invariable 
accompaniment of the best interments, can, I think, only 
be accounted for by the supposition that the head of the 
grave, at some previous time, had been dug away by the 
workmen and these objects overlooked. 

The spiral rings J that accompanied this burial are 
seven-tenths of an inch in diameter, and of better make 
than those usually found in Saxon graves. A compara- 
tively few instances, however, are on record of their 
discovery. When they occur they accompany the remains 
of females, and are often found in pairs, and mostly upon 
the left hand, and where the bones are sufficiently well 
preserved and due attention has been given by the 

* " Archfeologia," xxxv., 475. f Ibid, xxxviii., 338. 

J The spiral was apparently the form the majority of the finger rings found in 

most in favour among the Tuetonic and the Saxon cemeteries of this country are 

cognate races at this period. Whether in this form. For Scandinavia, see 

any belief was symbolised by it, or any Engelhardt ; " Denmark in the Early 

talismanic virtue attributed to it, I will Iron Age,"' pp. 11-15; Worsaae's Primi- 

not venture to say, but it is certain that val Antiquities of Denmark," p. 59. 

H 



66 

explorer, generally on the third finger, which would 
appear to have been the ring finger then, as now. That 
these rings, whether of brass or of the precious metals, 
were the bethrothal rings of the deceased, is, I think,* 
very probable, for it is almost certain that such were in 
use in Western Europe, both in heathen and early 
Christian times, t 

" A shield for the soldier, 
A shaft for the robber, 
A Ring for the bride." J 

The small rings of silver wire mentioned by Mr. 
Fenton as occurring with the beads in the fourth grave 
examined by him, are too small for finger rings, and 
unless they were ear-rings, of which I have examples of 
the same form in bronze wire, I can only suppose them 
to have formed part of the necklace, Similar rings were 
found in a like position in one of the women's graves at 
Linton Heath, || and also at Sarr, in Kent. 

Of the silver discs found with the above, we have an 
exactly similar example in our Museum from the 
cemetery at West Stow. The mode in which they were 
used as ornaments to the female dress is, however, very 
problematical, and it is much to be regretted that Mr. 
Fenton had not the opportunity of seeing the position 
they occupied upon the body. As they present no 
perforations by which they could be sewn to the garment, 
it is possible they were set ill frames of some perishable 
material and were worn strung about the neck in the 
same way as the golden bracteates, that are occasionally 
found in the Jutish and other Saxon cemeteries of this 
country. 

The Fibulae from Warren Hill present no new types. 

* In one of the two graves at Harn- gold exactly resembling a modern wed- 
ham Hill yielding silver finger rings, ding ring. — " Arehfr-ologia," vol. 35, p, 
were a silver spiral, and a plain ring of 265. 

f "With us* *. In the espousals upon her finger." Nicholas I., Pope, 

the man first presents the woman whom A.D., 860.. Eesponsa ad Consulta 

he bethroths with the arrhae, or espousal Bulgarorum. (Labbe, vol. viii., p. 517.) 
gifts, and among these he puts a ring 

\ Codex Exoniensis, Gnomic Verses, p. 341. 

| ".Archaeological Journal," vol. xi., p. 07. 



67 

That from grave No. 3 is the finest of the series and 
closely resembles one in our Museum from West Stow 
Heath,* and also another in my own collection from the 
ancient cemetery of Mitchell's Hill, Icklingham. Its 
form is that of a Latin cross, with the limbs terminating 
in grotesque horned masks, surmounting four oblong 
tablets, which originally were covered with thin laminaB 
of silver. Upon its stem below the bow, which is so 
characteristic of Anglian fibulae of the long form, are wing 
ornaments somewhat resembling the sacred eye of the 
Egyptians. The Warren Hill fibula, though so much 
like the others mentioned, did not come from the same 
mould, being lighter in make. It is evident, too, upon 
examination that unlike them, the lateral masks were not 
cast in a piece with the stem, but are furnished on the 
back with eyelets, like the shanks of buttons, through 
which, and a perforated plate upon the back of the centre 
of the fibula, an iron pin passed, which held all together, 
and to which the acus was attached. The contrivance 
was a somewhat frail one, and it is not surprising that in 
wear its parts came asunder. 

The large fibulae found by Mr. Fenton are " moth 
shaped," and like many found in this district of East 
Angiia, terminate in a rude and grotesque representation 
of a horses head. The smaller fibula resemble those 
from West Stow, shown in figures 2, 4, and 5 of plate 8, 
and 1 and 4, plate 4, of the first volume of our Proceed- 



ings. 



Clasps of thin bronze plate, such as those found by Mr. 
Fenton near the wrists of the occupant of his 5th grave, 
are not unfrequently found in Anglian cemeteries, but 
those of moulded bronze, especially the more ornamental 
ones, are somewhat rare. The examples from grave No. 
3 are of a pattern not previously known to me. They are 
2£ inches in length, and resemble small fibulae, and it is 
not improbable that like the large fibula they accom- 
panied, they were originally gilded. From the position 

* See Plate xlia, vol. 2, of the " Col- Suffolk Institute," Plate G. 
leetauea Antigua," and vol. 1. " Proe 



68 

tliey occupied upon the body, and the fact that in the 
hollow back of the largest half of each clasp were the 
remains of a strip of wood, it is concluded that they 
formed the ornamental fastenings of a boddice, which 
was strengthened in front by a sort of busk. 

Portions of the cloth of which this garment was com- 
posed still remain attached to the Clasps, by the thread, 
with which they were originally sewn to it. The fabric 
is of wool and of the substance of a medium flannel, whilst 
that of the outer garment, to which the large fibula was 
sewn, is a twill of open texture. Both stuffs are now a 
rich brown in colour, and what remain, without doubt, 
owe their preservation to some property evolved from the 
oxidation of the metal with which they were in contact. 
This fact will explain Mr. Fenton's supposition that the 
larger fibulae found by him were deposited wrapped up in 
cloth. 

Of the iron relics from Warren Hill, the shield fittings 
from Grave No. 1, from their completeness, are worthy 
of some notice. The boss, which is of the form most 
usually found, viz., basin shaped, terminating in a pro- 
jecting button,* is 6in. in diameter, inclusive of the rim. 
It was secured to the shield by five circular studs, three 
quarters of an inch in width. Beneath the boss was the 
strip of iron that formed the handle by which the shield 
was held, the hand being at the same time protected by 
the boss. In the oxidation of the lower side of the rim 
of this are preserved traces of the woodwork of the shield, 
which was apparently constructed of seven or more 
narrow boards, the joints of which were strengthened by 
a dozen slight iron cramps of l£ in. in length. Six of 
these I found in position in the soil of the grave where 
the lower half of the shield had rested, f Besides these 
were a small half round buckle of iron that had probably 
belonged to the guige, or strap by which the shield was 
slung over the shoulder of its bearer when not in use, 
and two larger studs, l^in. in diameter, the exact applica. 

* See Fig. 6, Plate 19, vol. 1, Hewitt's " Ancient Armour, Ac." 
+ It is generally believed that the leather, but there are no traces of such 
Anglo Saxon shield was covered with on the iron work in this case. 



69 

tion of which is now difficult to determine, but as the 
rivets of these have wood attached to them, and were 
found near the boss, it is possible they were used on the 
inside of the shield for the better securing of its handle. 
This view is rendered probable by other indications, 
which it is not necessary here to detail. From careful 
measurements made of the various attachments of the 
iron work to the wood work of this shield, I have ascer- 
tained that the thickness of the boards composing it did 
not certainly exceed four-tenths of an inch. This con- 
clusion is established by my own observation in another 
instance, and by a reference to the shield boards that 
formed part of the hoards of arms, &c, found in the 
mosses of Thorsbjerg and Nydam, in South Jutland, 
described by Conrad Engelhardt.* The heaviest board 
there found was only about three-and-a-half tenths of an 
inch mi thickness, which proves, I think, that these arms 
of defence could be of little avail when opposed to heavy 
cutting weapons,! but were useful only in the hands of a 
dexterous warrior for warding off the darts thrown by his 
adversary, or turning the home thrust of his spear. 
Under these circumstances one is not surprised to read 
that the " war-board ' was frequently shattered in the 
conflict, and that the warriors matched in single combat 
had three shields at their disposal, which were borne by 
attendants and handed to them, so soon as the ones in 
use became no longer servicable. 

* " Denmark in the Early Iron Age," to light, but such a cover appears 

p. 19. In the description of the Gothic insufficient to hold the boards in their 

shields referred to, M. Englehardt says places even if we presume that the 

that " they were circular and flat, their shields were usually strengthened in 

diameter ranging from 22J inches to 11 this manner. In one instance only, 

inches. In the centre was the opening among the many hundred boards which 

for the hand, across which was inserted were found, small square pieces of wood 

the wooden handle. In front of the (or dowels) projected from the edges so 

opening was the boss of metal, concave as to fit into notches made in the next 

on the inside. * * * How the eight board. On one board traces of an iron 

or ten boards of which the shield was mounting was found, but its form could 

composed were kept together, we cannot not ba recognised, the iron being much 

tell. One fragment with a covering of corroded." 
thin leather, and only one, was brought 

f One of the bosses of shields fouud in from a taper axe. (Cambridge Antiq. . 
the Saxon cemetery at Barrington had Society's Reports, vol. ii., 9.) 
been cut nearly into two parts by a blow 



70 

The two little vases found by Mr. Fenton are counter- 
parts of those which accompanied Interments Nos. 4 and 5, 
examined by myself, and I have no doubt were deposited 
under like conditions, namely, at the heads of the graves 
of children. I have similar vessels which were found under 
just the same circumstances at Mitchell's Hill, Ickling- 
ham, and there are one or two others of the same 
character in the Museum from the cemetery of West 
Stow. It is evident that they were not designed for 
sepulchral purposes, but are culinary vessels, the proto- 
types in fact of the pipkin. The urns that are found in 
Saxon graves accompanying the unburnt body, and which 
Mr. Kemble believed to have held either " holy water," 
or (in the case of pagans) the broth of boiled horseflesh,* 
are in the majority of cases of another form, and more or 
less ornamented, Unless indeed they cover some occult 
piece of heathenism yet to be discovered, I regard the 
little vessels as those in which the food of the infant was 
prepared, and from which they ate it. Thus, as the full 
grown man was buried with his shield and weapons, and 
the housewife with her ornaments, and insignia of office, 
so, in some cases, there was placed in the grave with the 
child, the little porringer (possibly filled with food) he 
was accustomed to use. Regarding this hypothesis as 
well founded, the custom would appear to be confined, so 
far as I have been able to ascertain at present, to the western 
district of East Anglia. The occurrence of these vessels 
in childrens graves is confirmed by the researches of the 
Hon. Pi. C. Neville, in the cemetery at Little Wilbraham, 
who remarks f that " amongst the numerous urns found 
(over 100) not more than a dozen can be attributed to 
culinary or domestic purposes, and three or four of these 
were with infant skeletons." 

The finding of the skeleton of the horse at Warren 
Hill is very interesting, and suggestive of the slaying of 
the animal at the funeral of its master. The number of 
cases of horse burial that have come to light in the Saxon 

* Hoia) Feiales, p. 222, 
f Saxon Obsequies, p. 9. 



71 

cemeteries of this country are very few, and the greater 
part of them, if not the whole, appertain to the districts 
settled by the Angles, and especially to East Anglia, 
which can now claim three out of the four cases of which I 
have been able to find any record. An instance of horse 
burial came under my own observation in the Saxon 
portion of the old cemetery at Mitchell's Hill, Ickling- 
ham, more than once referred to in this paper. A 
second is recorded by Sir Hy. Dryden as occuring in the 
Saxon burial place at Barrow Furlong,* explored by 
himself. In these two instances the grave of the horse 
does not appear to refer immediately to any other, but 
to have been a little apart from them, occupying a place 
upon the northern verge of the cemetery, which was, in 
fact, the position in which the horse-grave at Warren 
Hill was found. This is suggestive rather of a possible 
consecration of the ground for burial purposes, by the 
slaying of the animal as a sacrifice to the gods, and after 
its flesh had been partaken of by the assembled worship- 
pers, the burial of its remains as a first offering to Loki's 
dreaded daughter Hel, the goddess of death. 

At Little Wilbrahamf the evidence of the horse having 
been slaughtered over the grave of its rider, and after- 
wards interred by his side, is more complete, and may 
rank with those instances elsewhere, as in Denmark, 
where the practice of horse burial more constantly pre- 
vailed.! " In Teuton, belief, savs Mr. Wvlie,§ the warrior 
rode his stead to Valhalla, " but as no one went thither 
but those slain in battle, it may with probability be 
inferred that the individuals with whom the horse is 
found buried, so met their end, and also that they were 
somewhat above the rank of ordinary persons, certainly 
freemen and the heads of families, |j or as in the case at 

* Archaeologia, vol. 33, p. 334. 
t (Grave No. 44) Saxon Obsequies, p. 9. 
JThe greater part of the few barrows only the remains of the warrior but also 
of the iron period which have hitherto those of his horse. Worsaae. Trans by 
been examined in Denmark, contain not Thorns, p. 100. 

§ Archceologia Vol. 36, p. 14G. 
|| Saxo Grammaticus says that Frotho family who fell in battle should be 
prescribed to certain tribes which he buried with his Jtorse and arms, 
had conquered that every head of a 



72 

• 

Wilbrahani, when the warrior was interred with his shield, 
spear, and sword, of the rank of thane.* 

A few words, by way of conclusion, as to the probable 
condition and surroundings of the little community of 
half Christian, half Pagan Saxons, whose graves are the 
subject of this paper. In all likelihood they were the 
family and dependants of some well to do petty chieftan 
to whom this outlying portion of the mark had been 
allotted for his alod, and whose dwelling places were on 
the hill side, not far removed from the little run of water 
at its foot. 

The aspect of the country immediately around could 
not have differed materially then, from what it did two 
centuries ago, when we know it to have been given up as a 
habitation to the bittern, lapwing, and rabbit, and nothing 
met the eye but a weird waste of feu, moor, and heath, 
unbroken by anything save, here and there, a self-sown 
thorn or elder tree. 

In this apparently uninviting spot the lot of these early 
settlers was cast, and here doubtless they passed their 
not altogether uneventful lives, subsisting by the pastur- 
ing of their cattle, sheep, and swine upon the heath and 
moorland, and the tillage of such portions of the same 
as were suited for cultivation. From thence, also, to the 
little cemetery on the top of the overlooking tumuli 
crowned hill, the site of which is marked by an aged 
elder tree, they bore the several members of the commune 
for burial when life's short dream was over ; a bleak spot 
at the best of times, across which the varying winds 
eddy, and one to which, in the days of old, the bardic 
songf would have been very applicable. " A tree stands 
alone on the hill, its leaves whirl around with the wind 
and strew the graves of the dead. At times are seen here 
the ghosts of the departed, when the musing hunter alone 
stalks slowly o'er the heath." 

Henry Prigg. 

* Horoe Ferales, p. 207 
f Ossian. — Carric-Thma. 



CLARE PRIORY. 

A PAPER READ BV5FOBE THE BURT AND WEST SUFFOLK, AND ESSEX ARCH.EOLOGICAL 

INSTITUTE, 

By Eev. H JAR VIS, 

Vicar of Poslingford, August 8th, 1878. 

PRESIDENT : 

LORD JOHN HEEVEY. 

The Earls of Clare, the possessors of the ancient Castle, 
now in ruins, were the founders of Clare Priory. 

The first of this family that settled in England was 
Richard, son of Gislebert, surnamed Crispin, Earl of Eu 
and Brionne, in Normandy. This Richard Fitz-Gilbert — 
for so he was called — was at the battle of Hastings, and 
received lands and honours for his services. One of his 
titles was Richard de Tonbruge, from the town and 
castle of Tonbridge, in Kent, one of the ninety-four 
manors said to have been granted to him by the Con- 
queror. And he was also called Richard de Clare, from 
his manor in Suffolk, which became the chief seat of 
his family, and in virtue of which his heirs bore the title 
of "DeClare." 

This Richard de Clare had four sons,* Gislebert, Roger, 
Walter, and Robert, of whom Robert was the ancestor of 
Robert Fitz -Walter, the leader of the Barons in their 
conflict with King John. But from his eldest son, 
Gilbert, surnamed the Red Gilbert, the third in descent 
was Richard Earl of Clare, who married Amicia, daughter 
and eventually sole heiress of William Earl of Gloucester, 
who died in the twentieth year of the reign of Henry 
the Second, a.d. 1173. 

The grandson, then, of this Richard Earl of Clare, who 
was Richard Earl of Hertford — Earl of Clare — and Earl 
of Gloucester, in right of his descent from the aforesaid 
Amicia, was the founder of Clare Priory. 

He is quaintly described by Matthew Paris as " a very 
fine gentleman." But, notwithstanding his devotion in 

* Camden's Britannia. 

I 



74 

founding the Priory, his life was not a prosperous one. 
He married Margaret, the daughter of Hubert de Burgh, 
which so highly displeased the King, Henry the Third, 
that he compelled him to procure a divorce.* 

In the forty-second year of the reign of Henry the 
Third, "Walter de Scoteney, his seneschall and chief coun- 
cillor, administered poison to him and his brother William. 
Of this William died ; but the Earl with difficulty re- 
covered. However, he also eventually was thought to 
have died of poison, given to him at the table of Peter de 
Savoye, the Queen's uncle, in the forty-sixth year of the 
reign of Henry the Third. 

The Monastery, which he founded, was a Friary, of 
Friars Eremites, of the order of St. Augustine. This 
order Richard de Clare is supposed to have brought into 
England. Tanner, in his Notitia Monastica, says, " The 
Friars Eremites were seated at Clare in a.d. 1248, pro- 
bably by Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, Lord of 
the Honour of Clare, who brought this kind of mendi- 
cants into England." The next date we meet with for 
the founding of a house of this order is at Wood- 
house, f in 1250; after which follows Oxford, in 1252 ; 
and it is probable that their first residence in England 
was at Clare. Their habit was a broad- sleeved white 
tunic and scapulary, when they were in the house. But 
in the choir and when they went abroad, they had over 
the former a cowl and hood, both black, which were girt 
around with a black leathern thong. 

Within the first forty years after the founding of the 
Priory (1286), considerable grants and gifts of lands were 
made to the Prior and Brothers of the order. The record 
of these is found in certain manuscripts in the Harleian 
collection of the British Museum, bearing the title of " A 

* The matter is obscure. Margaret . uncertain, though Henry made it a 
died 1237. Kichard married Maud de grievance against De^Burgh that he had 
Lacy 1238, when about 1G years old. married his daughterto the King's ward, 
The question of a previous marriage is De Burgh denied this. (Arch. 7, xxxvi.. 

126.) 

t Mackenzie Walcot's English Minsters, Vol. ii , p. 250. 



75 

Registry of the Deeds of the Monastery of Clare," and 
the heading of the first of these is, " Carta mortificationis." 
It is an alienation of certain lands by the King, and con- 
sists of twelve acres of land and meadows, situated in 
Clare, Ashen, and Belchamp St. Paul, for the benefit of 
the Prior and Brothers Eremites of the Order of St. 
Augustine, at Clare, and for the enlargement of the Prior's 
manse, to be held in mortmain, and is attested by the 
King at Dover, a.d. 1364. Other deeds are records of 
grants of lands, made by Matilda, Countess of Gloucester 
and Hertford, for the repose of the soul of Richard Earl 
of Clare, her husband. And similar ones are made by 
other persons, who were inhabitants of Clare. The 
attestations to these deeds furnish us with an indication 
of the proportions to which the influence of the monastery 
at this time extended. According to the custom of the 
times, some affix to the name is commonly found, descrip- 
tive of the calling of the persons attesting ; such as 
Walter le Palmer (pilgrim), Galfrid the Cellarer, Richard 
Pierres the Chapellar, Richard le Hert, (hermit), &c. 
Then there was a falconer, a huntsman, a carpenter, a 
wheelwright, a miller, a keeper of the graneries, &c, 
showing that at this early time in the history of the 
Priory, the monks were possessed of a numerous retinue 
of officers, necessary for the management of a consider- 
able establishment. 

But, to return : To this Matilda, before alluded to, it is 
that the ancient roll refers, when it says : 
Q. " But leterally, who was telle me, 

This Kichardis wiff whom thou praisest so '? " 
A. " The Countess of Hertford and Mauld hight she, 
Whiche whan deth the knotte had undoo 
Of temporal spousailes, hetwixt hem twoo, 
With divers parcels encresid our foundatioun, 
Liche as our monumentys make declaratioun." 

These " whimsical lines," copied by Weever from a roll 
in the possession of his friend Augustus Vincent, Windsor 
Herald, are in dialogue, and the pictures of a secular 
Priest and Friar, are curiously worked on the roll of 



76 

parchment. " The rubric, or the title in red letters," 
says Weever of this roll, "is as followeth : — 'The 
dialoge betwix a Secular askyng, and a Frere answering, 
at the grave of Dame Jolian of Acres, sheweth the lineall 
descent of the lordis of the honoure of Clare, fro the tyme 
of the fundation of the Freeris in the same honoure, the 
yere of our Lord aM. ccxlviii., unto the first of May, the 
yere a M. cccclx.' "* 

Joan of Acres was the second daughter of King Edward 
the first and Queen Eleanor. She was born in the Holy 
Land, in the first year of her father's reign, at a city 
named Ptolemais, commonly called Acres, where her 
mother remained during the wars her father had with the 
Saracens. She was married at the age of eighteen, A.D. 
1290, to Gilbert, Earl of Clare and Earl of Gloucester, 
the grandson of Richard de Clare, who founded the Priory. 
She built the convent Chapel and dedicated it to St. 
Vincent, as we learn from the aforesaid roll. 

" Wherefore in honoure, Vincent of the, 
To whom she had singuler affectioun, 
This Chapel she made in pure devotioun." 

Outliving her husband, she made choice for the second 
time of one Ealph de Monte Hermer, or Mortimer, some 
time her late husband's servant. She left by her first 
marriage one daughter, named Elizabeth, who built the 
Chapter House, the "Dortour' or Dormitory, and the 
" Fraitour," or Refectory. This daughter Elizabeth 
married Sir John de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. And it is 
from her that we may date the founding of Clare College 
in Cambridge. Or, to speak more correctly, " she rebuilt 
and endowed University Hall, in Cambridge, after its 
total destruction by fire, and it has since been called 
Clare Hall." On her death she left an only daughter 
named Elizabeth, who was married to Lionel, son of 
King Edward the third, who, with his lady, was buried 
in the Priory Church. 

We may, therefore, conclude that the convent Chapel 

*Wecver's Ancient Funeral Monuments, Clare, p. 731 



77 



or Church (Ecclesia is the word used in the MS. deeds) 
was built about the year 1296. And the other build- 
ings from the years 1310 to 1314, a little before the 
death of Elizabeth, wife of Sir John de Burgh, whose 
arms, with hers, were to be seen in the windows of the 
three houses which she built. 

" As shewith our wyndowes* in housis thre, 

Dortour, chapiter lious, and fraitour, which she 
Made oute the ground, hoth plauncher and wal, 
Q. And who the rofe ? A. 8he alone did al." 

At the time of which we are speaking — the 14th cen- 
tury — the town of Clare was a place of considerable 
importance. It was a fortified town, the favoured abode 
of royalty, with its Castle and two Priories ; its upper 
gate and nether gate, its great bridge and little bridge, 
and its municipal authorities, one of whom was dignified 
with the title of seneschal f of the town. But besides these 
institutions, it had also three churches, and it is impor- 
tant to observe the distinctness witli which thev are men- 
tioned. There is one which is spoken of under the title of 
St. John the Baptist, which was the church belonging to 
the alien Priory of the Benedictine Monks of Bee, within 
the castle enclosure. This was founded in the beginning 
of the 11th century, with seven prebends, and removed 
afterwards to the College of Stoke-by-Clare. The 



* A description of these windows, 
taken from the Lansdown MSS., in the 
Harleian collection of the Brit. Mus., 
No. 639, art. 20, fo. 104, is as follows : 

In Clare Priory, in the Convocation 
House : 
On the south side, in a window, 

Two escutcheons of Bucher, and un- 
derwritten, Johannes Bucher, Archidia- 
conus, Essex. 
In the next, 

Two escutcheons ermine, charged with 
three lions rampant, or, underwritten, 
Dona de Cotterill. 
In the next, 

Two pendants of shields, a bend of 
silver, between two cotices, or, dancctte, 



under an old fashioned helmet, covered 
with a chappe, parted per pales, or, and 
sable-lined gules (red), twixt two wings, 
the one painted or and argent, the other 
sable and argent downwards, under- 
written, William Cloptou. 
Another, 

Argent a chief G. (dexter base), and 
two crescents, or. 
And at the end of this house, 

One glazed, with England and France 
in borders. 

Another, with Clare and Ulster. 
Another, with Clare, Ulster, and Bar- 
dulph. 

And St. George there pictured. 



t MS. deeds, fol. 19b. 



78 

Monks of Cliipley Abbey, in the parish of Posling- 
ford, Clare ; a small Priory of Austin Canons, " dedi- 
cated to the blessed Virgin,"* were also assigned to 
the same College in 1468. In the neighbourhood of 
this alien Priory, in December, 1866, a gold pectoral Cross 
was found at a spot known as the Lady's Walk. It has 
been suggested that this precious relic formed part of the 
jewels of Edward III., and had probably been given to 
his grand- daughter Philippa, only child of Lionel, Duke 
of Clarence, who married Edmund Mortimer, Earl of 
March, 1368. The Duke of Clarence, who died in the 
same year, was buried in the Priory Church, and his 
daughter, heiress of the De Clares through her mother, 
Elizabeth de Burgh, resided for some time after her 
marriage at the Castle. 

The Cross is appended to a gold chain 2ft. long, and 
itself measures 1| inches in length. It is delicately 
worked on both sides, and where the links of the cross 
are conjoined a fine oriental pearl is affixed. On one 
side is a representation of the Saviour, over the head is a 
scroll inscribed I. N.R.I. Beneath the plate which bears 
the crucifix is a small cavity containing a fragment of 
wood and stone. It has been conjectured that these 
relics represent portions, the one of the True Cross, the 
other of the rock of Calvary. The Cross is now the pro- 
perty of the Queen, and is preserved among her Majesty's 
jewels and relics of ancient art at Windsor. The 25th 
volume of the Journal of the Royal Archosobgical Institute 
contains a paper from the pen of the late Mr. Albert Way, 
F.S.A., fully describing and illustrating the Cross. 

This Church of St. John the Baptist, as I have 
said, was in the Inner Bailey. Another is evidently 
referred to as the church of the place, and answers 
to the present parish church, though not, perhaps, in 
its present form, which is in a later style of archi- 
tecture. Possibly the Crypt, or Mortuary Chapel, still 
existing, may represent the only remains of the ancient 

* Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 



79 

Clmrcli. But the third, which was founded by Dame 
Joan at the Priory, is always spoken of as the " Church 
of the Brothers," or the " Convent Church." " Ecclesiam 
dictorum fratrum," or, "in ecclesia conventuali." It is 
with this latter that we are now chiefly concerned. The 
nearest approach to certainty in regard to its site is con- 
tained in Taylor's Index Monasticus, in which he says 
" the Conventual Church in which so many persons of 
distinction are interred, is situated at the north east side 
of the Priory ; ' and by the furniture and vestments which 
are enumerated in a deed, assigning them to the care of 
one John Bachelor, the sacristan, to be preserved for the 
use of the " altar of the blessed Virgin," we obtain an 
idea of its distinction. These were all laid up in " one 
great chest" and "one little chest," and after affixing 
with due solemity the Convent seal, the deed concludes 
with the words, "given at our Chapter House on the 
third day of the month of August, 1361. 

In this church Joan of Acres was entombed. She died 
in her Manor of Clare, the tenth day of May, 1305, 
"when Edward the Second and most of the nobility of 
England were present at her funeral."* And in deeds 
bearing date 1307 and 1308, mention is made of suffrages 
" for the soul of Dame Joan, once Countess of Gloucester, 
daughter of our most serene Prince Edward, the illustri- 
ous King of England, whose body rests buried in the 
Church of the Brothers, of the Order of St. Augustine, at 
Clare." " In the Church," says Kennet, " is still seen 
the carved railing that surrounded her burial place," and 
some have supposed that this railing is the beautiful 
screen, adorned with monograms, which now encloses 
a pew on the south side of the Parish Church. 

Here also, says Weever, in the Austin Friars by his 
mother, was interred the body of Edward Monte Hermer, 
eldest son of Joan of Acres, and her second husband. 

Next we learn that Lionel, Duke of Clarence and Earl 
of Ulster, in Ireland, was buried in the chancel of this 

* Grose's Antiquities. 



80 

Priory Church, together with his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
and heiress of Sir Wm. de Burgh. She " departed 
this world, in the year 1363, and he about five years after- 
wards."* 

Lionel, Duke of Clarence, died at Alba Pompeia, in the 
Marquisate of Montferrat in Piedmont, on the vigil of St. 
Luke the Evangelist, A.D. 1368, in the forty-second year 
of his father's reign. f First he was buried in the city of 
Pavia, hard by Augustine the Doctor ; and afterwards 
interred at Clare, in the Convent Church of the Austin 
Friars, in England. Lionel bequeathed, by his will, his 
body to be buried in England, in the aforesaid Church, 
before the high altar ; and gave thereto a black suit, with 
all belonging thereto, as also his black cloth, embroidered. 
Accordingly, in one of the Harleian MS. deeds, bearing- 
date 1377, mention is made of the expenses of his funeral 
obsequies, and]; " ten marks were appointed to be paid in 
complete discharge of all the expenses incurred for the 
aforesaid funeral." The deed concludes with the words, 
" In the year of our Lord 1377, on the 12th day of the 
month of September, in the chapter-house of the aforesaid 
Convent." 

The following extracts from a volume of Eobert Aske's 
collections, written in the reign of Henry VIII. furnish 
us with the names of the distinguished persons whose 
remains rested in this Church. 

"In Sir Thos. Phillips's Library (Fol. 94b). The 
names of the nobles buried in the Freie Augustyn's, of 
Clare. Sir Richarde Erie of Clare, Lionel! Duke of 
Clarence, Dame Joane of Acres, Sir Edmond Monthermer, 
son ol the said Joane ; John Weyburgh, Dame Alice 
Spencer, Willm. Goldryche, Sir John Beauchamp, 
Knight ; John Newbury, Esq. ; Willm. Capel, and Elianor 
his wyfe ; Kempe, Esquire ; Eobert Butter wyke, Esquier ; 

*Stow. 

t Camden's Annals of Ireland. 

I MS. deeds, fol. 42b. 



81 

The Lady Margarete Scrope, daughter of Westmereland ; 
Joan Candyssle, daughter of Clopton ; Dame Alianor 
Wynkeperry, Sir Edmund last of the Mortimers, Erie of 
Marche, Sir Thomas Oily, and his furste Wyfe ; Lucy, 
Wife of Water Clopton; Sir Thomas Clopton, and Ada 
his Wyfe." 

Whether, at the dissolution of the Monastery and 
destruction of the Church, these remains of the illustrious 
dead were exhumed and removed, and, if so, in what spot 
they now rest, I have been unable to determine. During 
the late restoration however a handsome monumental 
slab recording the death of one of the Priors has been 
brought to light. 

Upon what may be called the domestic history of the 
Priory, little is recorded. The Prior evidently occupied 
a position of dignity and influence, whilst there are 
instances of individual monks who rose to considerable 
eminence. 

Henry Bederic, a native of Bury St. Edmund's, who 
was a monk of Clare Priory, it is said, shewed so ready a 
capacity and zeal after learning, that his superiors seut 
him to the English, and afterwards to foreign universities, 
where he acquired such distinction that he became a 
Doctor of the Sorbonne at Paris. After his return to 
England he became greatly renowned for the eloquence 
of his preaching. His great reputation raised him eventu- 
ally to be Provincial of his Order throughout England. 
He was also author of several works on Theology, and 
nourished in the reign of Richard the second. John of 
Bury, also a Monk of Clare, is mentioned in Kennett's 
history among the men of learning in the reign of Henry 
the seventh. 

Thus far of the pre-Reformation history of Clare Priory. 
It has been brought down to the year 1389. 

The present remains of this once noble foundation now 
claim a brief notice in conclusion. 

Part of the buildings is said to have been burnt down 
and rebuilt in the reign of Henry the seventh, and the 



82 

present front is supposed to be of that date ; but the hall 
door and the little court at the south eastern end of the 
present building, with its handsome groined roof and 
window, in which, not long since, in ancient stained glass, 
was a representation of a head of our Saviour, now 
destroyed, and the stone staircase ascending from 
it, are without doubt a part of the original building. 
So are the windows of the Chapter House, lately 
opened out on the Eastern side of the Cloisters. Of the 
Cloisters themselves, now in ruins, certain arches are still 
remaining on the South side, and the record remains, that 
they, with the Chapter House, were dedicated by William 
Bishop of London on the 19th February, 1380. Leading 
from the Cloister Court are three doors. One of these 
opening to the North, led into the Church. On the eastern 
side of it still remains the stoup for holy water for the use 
of those entering from the Cloisters. The Church itself 
extended nearly east and west, along the northern side of 
the Monastery, and, judging from the only existing remains, 
must have been oi fine proportions. All visible trace of 
it has now been lost, with one exception. An exception, 
however, sufficient to indicate with certainty its locality, 
and affording a significant representation of its character. 
On removing a coating of old plaster on what was the 
south wall of the church, some very interesting and 
beautiful stonework was exposed to view, which proved to 
be the sedilia of the church, with pointed arches and 
capitals in the early English style of architecture, the 
seats still remaining in solid oak. At the time it was 
discovered, these retained their ancient position, but being 
hopelessly decayed, as soon as they were exposed to the 
outer air, the whole of the woodwork crumbled into dust. 
The stonework, however, still remains, and has been ren- 
dered as secure as possible, by the present proprietor. 

The door adjoining, and opening from the cloisters to 
the east, probably led to the Chapter House and dormitory 
spoken of in the "roll," and in all likelihood situated 
contiguously to the church, as was usual for the con- 



83 

venience of the monks, at the midnight services. 
At the south eastern corner of the Cloister-garth, or 
court, is a third door of similar character and dimensions, 
This is supposed to have led to the Refectory, which almost 
invariably skirted the southernside of the Cloisters, as 
the Chapter House and Dormitory did the eastern, and 
the Church the Northern.* There are still ruined walls 
and buttresses in this locality, which are the remains of 
these buildings, but the fabrics themselves have long- 
since disappeared. 

The infirmary, however, remains still further to the 
south-east in the fine building which has recently been 
restored. Here, then, we must rest, until further light 
can be thrown upon the subject. In the reign of Henry 
the Seventh, the 20th day of January, 1493, Roger Druiy, 
Esq., of Hawstead, in Suffolk, left, by his will, to the 
Friars of Clare, thirteen shillings and fourpence, sho wing- 
that the Monastery continued to be occupied by the Friars 
in this reign, and there is no reason to doubt that it con- 
tinued to be a Friary till the dissolution of the Monasteries, 
when it was granted by King Henry the Eighth to Richard 
Friend. At his death it passed, through his sister, 
Thomasine, wife of Thomas Barker, into the family of 
that name. In the year 1604 we find the Priory the 
property of Thomas Barnardiston, Esq., who wainscotted 
the large room at the south end of the gallery. And 
amongst the carvings over the fireplace in that room we 
find his initials and the date of the year, as above stated. 
In 1655 it was the property of Sir Thomas Barnardiston, 
Knight, who was created a baronet in the fifteenth year 
of the reign of Charles the Second, in 1663. 

It continued in this family for many years, until, in the 
year 1745 we find it again in the possession of a member 
of the Barker family, viz., Joseph Barker, of Clare. He, 
at'] his death, left it to his sisters, Martha and Lydia, 
jointly. The former married William Shrive, Esq. ; the 

* Mackenzie Waleot's English Minsters, vol i, p. 551. 



84 



latter, Mr. Sayer, afterwards Serjeant-at-Law. After the 
death of Mr. and Mrs. Shrive, their moiety descended to 
their only son, William Shrive, as heir-at-law, who, in 
the year 1778, purchased Serjeant Sayers' moiety, and 
became the sole proprietor ; bequeathing it, at his death, 
to John Barker, Esq., in 1803, in whose family it has 
continued down to the present time. 



ARMORIAL INSIGNIA OF THE BOROUGH 
OF EYE, SUFFOLK, 



COMMUNICATED BY THE LATE 

G. A. CARTHEW, Esq., f.s.a. 



In Sir Bernard Burke's "General Armoury" it is 
stated that "the Town of Eye has no armorial ensign, 
the seal (he says) has the word ' Eye ' under an antique 
ducal coronet." Now, I have before me an abstract 
from a grant of arms made to this Borough, and signed 
by William Dethick, Garter, in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, shortly after its incorporation ; but where I 
took it from I find no note of — probably in the Cor- 
poration Records. And although in these reforming 
days it is not unlikely that the Borough itself, as such, 
will ere long cease to exist; and it will be too late for it 
to use a new Seal, yet as an archaeological fact it is 
worthy of preservation, and I send you a copy of my 
imperfect note in the hope it may lead to the discovery 
and care of the original Document. 

This was in Latin, engrossed on Vellum and begins 
"Omnibus &c. Inspeximus "■ — a charter of Queen Elizabeth 
incorporating the Borough of Eye, in which was recited 
one of Edward son of Ethelred of divers franchises to 
his men of Eye, and that Eye passed out of the possession 
of the Lord Malet formerly Lord of Hey a seu Eye into 
the hands of William the Conqueror and Kings William II, 
Henry, Stephen, and John, and that King Henry III 
granted divers liberties &c. to Richard his brother, Earl 
of Cornwall, and Lord of the Honor of Eye, and the 
said Lordship came to King Edward, son of King 
Edward ; but in the Reign of Edward III, Robert Ufford 

E 



86 

Earl of Suffolk was Lord of the Honor of Eye and 
temp. Edward IV., William de la Poole Duke of Suffolk, 
on whose fall Kings Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI 
and Queen Mary, successively held it. Queen Elizabeth 
by letters patent 14 Novr. a.d 1574 reg. 17, made it a 
corporation as the " Bailiffs Burgesses and Commonalty 
of the Town and Borough de Heya vel Eya " and they 
should enjoy certain rights and privileges and have 
powers to make laws ac etiam habeant communem aidam 
vocalam ex antiquo syppeway et quod non alicubi placitamtem 
insi sibi solebant scilicet apucl sypeweyam and have a common 
seal. Whereupon Garter, at the request of the Bailiffs 
&c. granted them a shield of the ancient ensigns and the 
arms of S* Edward King of England viz. — Incampo 
coeruleo crucem floridum aureum quatuor mcrulatis avibus 
interpositam unacum insuperiori aquilam album alts distensam 
rosarim ramicualis cum rosis simillariis sufultam Sfc. Et 
ulterioris supra cassidem pro crista vel Trophceo E corona solis 
imperiali auro gemmis infante stellam Innocentice Jovis occulo 
pervigeli munitam clamy deque seu palludiment, cour layniis 
abutraque ventillantibus et hoc symbolo supra Scripto " occulus 
in coelum " with the arms blazoned in the margin Dated 
or Given in the College of Arms 23 April a 34 Elizth. 
a.d. 1592, the official seal of Garter is appended and his 
autograph signature. The initial letter is in gold and 
within it is suspended a shield bearing argant a fess vaire 
gules & or between 3 Water bouqets sable which is the 
coat of Dethick and over that are the Royal Arms with 
white and red roses. 

On either side under the Arms of the Borough are 
rows in a double column of Shields with the names of 
their owners, containing 

On the left those of On the right those of 

Sir George Eeve Knt & Bart Thomas Cornwallis, Miles 

Thomas Dey EsQ re Nicholatjs Bacon, Miles 

Thomas Langley Eso re viz. Wiseman 

(argent a cockatrice sable, crested 
beaked and membered gules) 



87 

Miles Edgar, gent ( Grimstone (arg. on a fess sable 3 

< mullets pierced or and in dexter 
( chief, an ermine spot 
Francis Bland gent Hemminge Quarterly vert and 

(argent on a bend sable three gules, over all a lion rampant 

pheons of the field) sable. 

Cutler. Quarterly, 1 and 4 on a fess cotised or between three dragons 
heads erased of the second a Cock and two doves volant gules. 2 and 
3 wanting. 

There is one other coat the bearings of which were almost obliterated 
but seem to have been Quarterly 1 and 4 per pale . .? and gules on 
the dexter side a lion rampant of the second, 2 and 3 gules five 
barulets and a canton. 

These ten or eleven shields were doubtless the arms of 
the then Bailiffs and chief inhabitants of the Town. 

GEOEGE A. CAETHEW, f.s.a. 



[Sometime previous to his lamented death in 1882, the late Mr. Carthew placed 
this paper at the disposal of the Suffolk Institute, with a view to its publication in the 
printed proceedings. An opportunity of inserting it has only just been found : it is 
therefore printed without undergoing revision of any kind, which a painstaking 
antiquary, like Mr. Carthew, would in all probability have desired. 

In an old MS from among the Town Records of the Borough of Ipswich (temp. 
Eliz : ) I find the following : 

Arms of Eye 
Az. a cross flory between 4 martlets, arg., in chief a bird between 2 branches 
arg. crowned 

Crest 
On a Crown Or a Sun in its glory of the 1st in the centre an eye. 

Seal. 
The Word ' Eye ' under an antique ducal coronet. 

The Grant of Arms to which reference is made, does not appear to exist among 
the Borough Records of Eye. 

0. H. E. W.] 



SUPPLEMENTARY PAPER 

ON 

THE ANCIENT CROSSES OF IPSWICH. 



COMMUNICATED BY THE 

REV. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, Hon. Sec. 



Since writing my paper on " The Stoneing Cross," and 
similar ancient monuments formerly existing within the 
Borough of Ipswich, I have observed in Ogilby's well- 
known Map of the Town [date 1674), a reference to 
" Stoneing Cross Street," an ancient way which of course 
derived its name from the " Stoneing-Cross " to which I 
have already drawn attention. The conjecture (for it was 
little more which I then hazarded, as to the Cross standing 
in the neighbourhood of the London Road, may be said from 
this to receive positive confirmation. The " Stoneing 
Cross Street " is placed on Ogilby's Map, a little to the 
left of the Handford Bridgeway ; which, says the 
reference, " 300 feet further divides itself North West 
to Claydon 2 J miles and forward to Bury St. Edmund's 
20 miles, and West to Bramford." The question as to 
the position of the Ipswich "Stoneing-Cross" is thus 
settled beyond doubt, and the points raised in my 
previous paper are in consequence invested with greater 
interest. 

From the counterpart of a grant in perpetual fee-farm 
of four-pence, by the " Bailiffs, burgesses and commonalty 
of Gippeswic " of a piece of common soil in St. Margaret's 
parish to Robert Hall, Clothier (12 Eliz :), and deposited 
among the Archives of the Borough, we are made 
acquainted with, probably, a Way-side cross ; the 
existence of which previously escaped my notice. The 



89 

"piece of common soil" is therein described as opposite 
to a certain place in which there was formerly a certain 
cross, " in quo qucedam Crux quondam scituta fuitP 

In the ancient perambulation of the francshise and 
liberties of Ipswich (1352-3, 26 Edw. III.) as given in 
the fifth Book of Richard Percyvale's Great Doomsday 
Book, mention is made of several Crosses (all probably 
of Stone) standing within the town boundaries, but in 
positions which cannot be readily identified. It is clear 
that the Stoneing Cross is one of the number, being here 
alluded to as standing in the highway, "as the wayis 
partyri that gou to hadlegh & Stoke naylond." The 
other Crosses may be severally described as (l)"the 
Crosse that stante be Robt Andrewes" (Qy. Gusford 
Hall) in the vicinty of Stoke hill wood, (in Bacon's 
Annals of Ipstvich, but not elewhere, this Cross is said to 
belong to the prior of S l Peter's Ipswich) (2) "the 
Crosse that stant in Whytton Streete," (3) " the Crosse 
that stant be mangeardys ook by the high way that 
goeth from Ipswfl? unto Tuddenham" (4) "a Crosse that 
stant in the way from Russhme halle onto humbyrdowney 
lane." (5) "a Crosse that stant in the highway between 
Yippiswich and Russhme." 

There is a very general impression that the workman- 
ship of ancient Stone Crosses was chiefly of foreign 
origin, and judging from some of the best remaining 
examples to be found in England, this undoubtedly was 
the case. The belief receives additional confirmation 
from words in the Ipswich Little Domesday Book, where 
it is expressly stated (Customs of the Key) that " off 
every pece of ston entayle or marble (wrought of marble) as 
of thurwys (coffins) cover clys (coffin-lids) crossys, stony s or 
funtys (fonts) and other such maner of Stonys that comyn 
with ynne the fraunchise of the town for to sellyn " one half- 
penny should be charged. The probability is that the 
demand for such wrought stone work in mediaeval days 
was largely, if not almost entirely, drawn from con- 
tinental sources. 



90 

I alluded in a foot note appended to my former paper, 
to the somewhat lavish adornment of the Old Market 
Cross (incorrectly called " Daundy's Cross") standing 
near the Mote Hall on the Corn Hill, upon the occasion 
of the proclamation of King Charles II. ; and the 
entries made at the time in the town books. I have 
since had an opportunity of inspecting these accounts, 
together with four receipts for payment made, duplicate 
copies of which, and the original receipts, were exhibited 
at the recent Ipswich meeting, with other documents of 
a similar character. Some of these are of quite sufficient 
interest to merit a place in our printed proceedings, that 
I need offer no apology for their insertion. 

a.d. 1662. Adornment of Ipswich Town Cross. Dissbursments 
one ye 29 th may 1662 for the Towne of Ipsw ch p. Edw Gaell and Bob' 
Alldous. 

To James Blith for the use of Clothes to adorne the ) no 1 7 nfi 

Cross and Gallery one y e hill . . . . j 

To 3 of James Blyths men for carringe the Clothes — i on 03 flfi 

naylinge them up & takeing down . . \ 

To two Porters for watching & drawinge y e bears . . 00 04 06 

To tho : Haggis for settinge up y e flaggs & takinge them ) AA AO nn 

downe & his atendance y e day . . . . ) 

To Tho : Warden for his helpe y e day . . . . 00 01 06 

To the Gunners y e day before to drinke by M r - Clark's ) on m no 

order . . . . . . . . } 

To Cudbart Carr his men for fetchinge flaggs from ) AA ft2 nfi 

Harw ch . . . . . . . . | 

To a porter for fetchinge poles match & other thinges . . 00 00 08 

To severall disbursments if dig in y e field amongst y e ) nn fH 06 

Porters & other helps . . . . . . J 

ffor y e use of 2 Eaw Clothes for y e b'oaths . . .. 00 05 00 

p d for heddinge up y e powder on a Cask w ch was left ) rn nn Ofi 

and sett up in y e magazine . . . . ) 

p d for porters helpe to set up y e carriages againe . . 00 01 00 

p d to my ptner Allduss w ch he layd out for drink for y e ) nn no nn 

helpe y : day ) 

p d to Edw : Pattiston as by his bill Appears . . . . 01 14 08 

To Abraham Chinnery as by his bill apears . . 01 05 04 

To Jno Blomfield Wheale wright as by his bill .. 01 05 00 

To Edw Hulinge for adorninge y e Cross . . 00 06 06 

To Hen : Skinner for 200 peny Howies 16s. 8d. & y e use ) ni A . ft 

of the field 5s. is 21s. 8d. as by his Receipt appears ) 

To Phillip Dod for 150 Peny Rowles . . .. 00 12 06 

To Mr Baylife Jowers for 2 hogsede of Beare. . .. 02 00 00 



91 

To Hen : Pattiston & Jno Beardwell for theare care 

about y e Great Gunns by order 
To Henry Younge for Carriage of y e Great Gunns 
To M r Miles "Wallace for Nayles used about adorninge 

y e hill 

To Joseph Palmer for 33 b new sheat lead for Aprons) 

for Great Gunns at 2£ p. lb . . . . j 

To M r Baylife Burroughs as by bill for powder & other ) 

things . . . . . . . . j 

To M r Hen : Cussons for powder . . . . .. 04 1 1 04 

To Tho Warner Senio r for him selfe & men to drink . . 00 06 08 



01 


00 


00 


00 


15 


00 


00 


02 


00 



00 06 10 
05 05 03 



22 19 09 



Receipts for payments are preserved as follows : — 

Eecevd may ye 31 st 1662 of Ed: Gaell for clothes A 
used to adorne y e Crose and gallery for y e towne y e / s. d. 
29<j may last past Seventeene Shillinge Sixpence, t 17 6 
I say ) 

James Blyth. 



July 18 th 1663. 

Pec: of Henry Gosnold now and before five pounds ) n 

for cu tinge of Justice y* stand upon the Crose. ' 
I say rec d 

Thomas Millman. 



5 



Augst 15 th 1663. 

Pec. of Henry Gosnold Eight shillings for 24 b of 
oyron worke, stays staples & speeckins used aboute 
Justice upon the Crose. ) V11 J 

his 
Tho : T. A. Amner 
marhe. 



1663 



M> Henery Gosnold his bill as followeth : £ s. d 

It: for painting and Gilding the uper part of the) 

Crose j 

More for Pepaireing the Severall Beasts at the Towne ) 

howse for M r Borrows in the Longe Gallery j 

by me 

John Brame. 



8 
2 



Many interesting pieces of the quaint and curious 
carved work that embellished the old Cross consisting of 



92 

human faces, &c. of a rather grotesque character, are in the 
Ipswich Museum, other fragments, (among which may 
be mentioned an artistic carved spandril illustrative of 
the once popular bull-baiting) have passed into private 
possession. The "beasts" in the long gallery at the 
11 towne howse," mentioned in the last of the above 
receipts, were it may be supposed of a like nature. 

It would appear that the figure of Justice, for the 
carving of which, as we have seen, a payment of £5 
was made in 1663, was the original image; that which 
succeeded it, being the figure brought from Dallinghoe 
and presented by Mr. Francis Negus, M.P., for Ipswich, 
some fifty or sixty years later. 

In the Suffolk Collection in the British Museum, 

known as " Reyces," is the following account of the 

Daundy arms, which I mentioned in the previous paper 

as appearing with other armorial bearings upon the 

Cross of more recent date : — 

"The coate of Dandy standeth upon Ipswich Cross in lead in two 
severall places, viz. : quarterly, a mullet in the first quarter, on one 
of the places under the escochion is written in old l'res 6. Hiwfrg and 
for profe of the cullers, it is affirmed that it is wrought in old hangings 
in the cullers as is above sett downe, impalled with the severall 
matches of this familie, and is affirmed for truth by Charles Humfrie, 
this 23rd of May 1625." 

The prominence given to these arms, served to connect 
Daundy with the later Cross, which perchance had some 
of the ornamentation of the former j^laced upon it, and 
which may have led to its being so generally denominated 
" Daundy 's Cross." Bearing in mind that Osborue's 
Market Cross was erected about the same time that this 
" affirmation" was made, it is not easy to see at what 
precise period the older Cross gave place to the more 
recent one. It is difficult to say which Cross (if indeed 
either) was standing between the time of Osborne's 
bequest in 1610 of £50 towards the erection of the 
Cross, and the time when his executors paid over the 
sum of money (or, as it happened, only a portion of it) 
eighteen years afterwards. 



93 

I should have mentioned that there is in St. Mary 
Stoke parish a house occupied by Captain Lacon, known 
as the " Gold Rood," upon the site of which, or in close 
proximity, formerly stood a famous miraculous Cross or 
Rood, which in all probability, owing to its decorated 
character, received the designation, which previous to 
the erection of the house (which is modern) was retained 
in the " Golden Rood Lane" and still clings to the locality. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



SUFFOLK WILLS FROM THE 

PREROGATIVE COURT OF CANTERBURY. 

WHETCROFT OF SUFFOLK. 



COMMUNICATED 

By J. J. MUSKETT, Esq. 



Even a desultory examination will show that the 
Suffolk wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canter- 
bury are, as a rule, of a higher class than those to be 
met with in the Registries at Norwich, Ipswich, and 
Bury St. Edmund's ; of more importance as regards the 
wealth and social status of the testators ; and decidedly 
more interesting as witnessing to ancient usages and to 
subtle traits of personal character. The admirable 
volume of " Bury Wills " edited by the late Mr. Tymms, 
F.S.A., might easily be supplemented by a selection 
from the archives of the Court of Probate, Somerset 
House ; auto-biographical, sentimental or piquant accord- 
ing to the bias of the long forgotten writers. The will 
of Henry Whetcroft, a Master in Chancery in the reign 
of James the First, is scarcely a fair example, as coming 
from the hands of a lawyer and pervaded with the 
verbosity and long-windedness of his profession. But 
amid the profusion of its words the reader lights upon 
such curious details as the family history of the Whet- 
crofts and their connection with the Willoughbys ; the 
precise arrangements for the felling and lopping of timber, 
an important matter when firewood was not yet sup- 
planted by coal ; the affectionate memory of his wife, 
and the careful preservation of the trees she had been 
wont to walk under and to call the Pillars of Hercules ; 
the matter of the new buildings at Doctors Commons ; 



95 

the careful provision for the future studies of his young 
children, or their binding out to merchandise and 
trades — an universal custom with the gentry of the time ; 
and the final commendation of himself, his "pore estate 
thus sett at a staye " to the merce of his " good Saviour." 
There are, as is just said, too many words with it all. 
There was a question of giving extracts only with 
suitable comment. But it seemed a pity to mutilate so 
well written and characteristic a document : the more so 
that the number of ancient wills which have found their 
way into print is relatively very small. 

No pedigree of the Whetcrofts of Suffolk is to be 
found amongst the Harleian MSS, nor, it is believed, in 
the records of the College of Arms. Davy makes but 
scant mention of them in his Suffolk Collections. The 
parish registers of Wherstead, of Eye and of Witnesham, 
as copied by Jermyn, have singularly few Whetcroft 
entries. Indeed the brief genealogy which accompanies 
this paper and which has been compiled by its writer is, 
not improbably, the only connected record of the family, 
which mated, it may be remembered, with the Shermans, 
the Colts, the Appletons, the Cloptons and the Glemhams, 
and was clearly of good standing. The claim to a 
Lincolnshire ancestry has some support in the wills of 
Richard Whetecroft [Cur. Proerog. Cant. 29. Bodfelde] 
and of Robert Whitecroft [lb. 19 Porch] his brother, 
both of Conyngesby in that county, both merchants of 
the Staple at Calais, and both desiring to be buried in 
the parish church of their native place. 

There were Whetcrofts, Aldermen and gentlemen 
of Eye, for one or two generations later than the time 
of our testator; but with this exception they seem to 
have soon disappeared from Suffolk. It would be satis- 
factory to know if any descendants, even on the female 
side, are still to be found in the county. 

J. J. MUSKETT. 



96 

WILL OF HENRY WHETCROFT. Cur. Prcerog. Cant. 76 Cope. 

In the name of God Amen. I Henry Whetcroft of Whersted in 
the county of Suff, Doctor of lawe and one of the Maisters of the 
Chauncery (haile of body and of pfect memory, thanked be God therfore) 
onely haueing in mynd the frailtie of all fleshe and an honest care (as 
God hath made me able) to ^provide for all those our children which 
he hath pleased to send me [and] my late loveinge wife Elizabeth 
Glemham (sole sister of S r Henry Glemham of litle Glemham in the 
county aforesaid her sole brother, Knight) that is to say our six children 
now liveinge, Philip, Henry, Robert, Anthony, Glemham and Barbara ; 
for though my wife wer left a younge widowe of Mr. Jennings, she left 
no issue behinde her but of me, neither haue I or hope to haue any but 
of her, and as before w eh for the true love I bare her and in due regard 
of our posteritie I will, godwillinge, provide for as herein followeth. 
ffirst I bequeath my soule to Allmightie God, my maker, Redeemer, 
and onely Saviour. And my body to be buried by my late good wyfe 
in the chancell of the parish church of Whersted aforesaid, or else, 
where it shall please God I appoynt hereafter next, this thirteenth of 
July One Thousand six hundred and fourteene, I doe frustrate, dissanull 
and for ever make voyde all former will or willes and every pcell of 
them w ch I haue any wayes made before the said Thirteene of July, and 
will and ordayne that this only of the Thirteenth of July shall be 
accounted and taken for my last will and Testament, wherein I bequeath 
unto my daughter Barbara, my youngest childe and onely daughter, five 
hundred poundes of good and lawful money of England when she shall 
accomplish the age of one & twentie yeares, or at her day of marriage 
w th the liking and consent under the hand writeing of her honorable 
Alyes S r Henry Glemham Knight, S r Calthrop Parker Knight and their 
now ladies, the worthy ladye Barring, my wor : and beloved nephew 
M r Thomas Glemham, my deare freind and Kynseman M r Edmond 
Jenney, my loveing brother M r George Whetcrofte and of her brothers 
Philip and Henrye or the more pte of them that shalbe livinge at her 
betrothing in mariage beforesaid. And I further will in the behalf of 
my daughter that the said five hundred poundes with the assistance of 
my sonne Henry and other freindes be leuyed by [my] Executor or his 
Executor or the Assigne or Assignes of Either of them or by any their 
Servants or deputies w th all meete and necessary provision in that behalfe 
(if in my life tyme I shall not otherwise take order for it or haue it by 
me or due to me) by the felling and sale of all the wood called Topp- 
wood that is twenty one years growth or above, or groweinge and being 
in the severall places of my ground as hereafter followeth. That is 
aboue fyve and twenty score trees viz 1 of all such trees as haue bin 
formerly topped groweing and being on a peece of coppye ground called 
ffresson heath, and of one pece more north to the same adjoyning some 
tyme Bonds and of one pcell of ground lyeing yet more north haueing 
the said Bonds peice and Holbrooke pke of the south, w ch is the very pece 



97 

(of pte whereof Stoyles valye tenement in Whersted standeth) and of 
the toppes of a Groue betwixt Stoyles pytells and of the toppes of all 
the oakes and Ashes that haue bin formerly topped from the South east 
corner of Hethcrofte to London rode at the South west corner of 
Heathcrofte aforesaid, and of all from the said West corner that haue 
bin formerly topped groweing alongst London rode aforesaid untill the 
grownd or whynnery pytell in the occupation of Steven Legy, and of all 
the toppes of my Grove upon Panington heath and besides of the bodies 
& toppes of the greatest trees standing upon the pcell of ground before 
mentioned, that Stoyles valey tenement standeth on, neare unto Legy 
his grove and Stoyles tenement aforesaid, and of the bodies and toppes 
of all the oakes (except som smale ones here and there for staks and 
such like in and about the said Stoyles pytells (excepting allwayes 
all the bodyes of all the younger and smaler oakes in the Grove betwixt 
Stoyles Pytells or about the said Groves and every of them that be 
tydye and good to beare toppes for fyeringe, and also of all the boddies 
and toppes of all the oakes of greatenes and age about Heathcrofte 
aforesaid to the number of twelve score and tenn on the East side of 
London rode, and besids of the seventeen score and tenn of the greatest 
trees for age or growth in and about all my groundes on the westside 
of London rode aforesaid, exceptinge those about my yarde and gardens, 
and exceptinge two my long new entrye groweinge in or about the midst 
thereof ; w ch my said good wyfe was wont to walke to, and shee called 
them Hercules' pillers : of all these trees aforesaid to be stubbed and 
taken downe and sould, besids all the xxv score to be topped or stowed 
as before, the number will be after five score to the hundred six 
hundreth w ch stubbed trees besids the toppes of them and of others 
appoynted to be lopped at v s the loade, all charges borne, will amoimt 
to fower hundred poundes : and the toppes aforesaid for cubit and such 
like after the rate of vi s viij d the loade, all charges borne will amount 
to one hundred pounds. And if the money of all these trees and toppes 
before willed to be stowed and lopped and taken downe will not rase 
and be sufficient both to make my said daughters portion, and make up 
(where they shall be broken by felling, stubbing or sloweing any the 
aforesaid trees) all the needfull fences so broken, and for the well 
layeinge them with good quicksett of all sorts and hanging them 
conveniently for preservation. Then I will that the bodies of all the 
trees in Panington grove, though somewhat young, and more of the 
owldest trees where they may best be spared in my grounds of the East 
and Weast side of London roade in the places aforesaid be taken downe 
indifferently to supply what wanteth in that behalfe. Provided allwayes 
that in all the west side the roade last remembred there be not taken 
downe more than twentie score besids those in Paninghton grove ledst 
they that have my houses hereafter on that side Wherstead bescanted 
of fyeringe for the same. Item I will and bequeath to my sonne 
Phillipp Whetcroft a Capitall Messuage or howse wherein I dwell in 
Wherstead aforesaid called or knowne by the name of Rayners or 



98 

Rayners & Swannes w ,h seven croftes inclosed lyeing by antient dooles 
round about the said messuage and two acres or more wthout the said 
inclosure on Panington heathe w th the broadway leadeing from the said 
inclosure to the said two acre pece or more togither w th all other my 
lands, tenements, feedings, inclosed or not, and hereditaments that I 
haue or haue right unto in any other mans use or possession, lyeing on 
the westside of London rode, in which side my foresaid messuage is 
scituate in Whersted, for and during his naturall life w'thout 
impeachment of waste. And after my sonne Phillips decease I will 
my said messuage or howse, lands, tenements and hereditaments w th 
all other the appurtenances to my said sonne Philip, his heire male and 
his the said heires heires for ever. Provided nevertheles if my sonne 
Phillip shall thinke good to marrie it shall be lawfull for him to make 
A joynter of all the said messuage, lands, tenements & hereditaments 
to him bequeathed, or any pcell thereof to his wife or wives. And my 
will is his said wife or wiues shall inioye her or their ioynter soe made 
for her or their naturall life, any thinge in this my will to the contrarye 
not w th standinge. Except allwayes and reserved out of this grant or 
gifte to my sonne Philip all my goods whatsoever not herein devysed 
to him by speciall wordes either w tb in dores or w tb out, and all the brome 
now groweing upon the premises to be taken of in convenient tyme and 
the alotement of trees and woods before specified for my daughters 
portion to be taken downe and for the makeing good the fences thereby 
hurte w th all, my will and mynde is, shall be to the use of my will, any 
thinge, heretofore to the contrary not with standinge. Item I allso will 
and bequeath to my said sonne Philip and his heirs for ever my messuage 
or tenement called the Bull scituate in the parish of St Mary at the Key 
in Ipswich w th all the easments both of water, yardes, gardins, buildings 
and all other the appurtenances therevnto belonging or with the same 
occupied, and all my household stuffe and implements whatsoever there 
nowe is in the occupacon of one William Male, for the yearly payment 
for rent and otherwise of Twenty poundes ; viz'- five poundes quarterly, 
who for better securitie of the said payment hath desired and vsed to pay 
every quarter five poundes beforehand. Item I will to my sonne Henry 
and to his heires for ever my messuage or tenement called Stoyles 
scituate on Stoyles Valye togither w th my Tenement wherein the widowe 
Tyler dwelleth in Whersted aforesaid w tb all other my lands, pastures, 
feedings, woodes, wayes, hereditaments, lyeinge and beinge on the east- 
side of London rode in Whersted, ffresson and other townes thereto 
adioyning, both free and bonde, and one pece of ground lately pcelled 
out by one Steuen Payne or his assignes from the residue thereof lyeing 
home to my gate ; my ground called Swannes toward the west w th all 
and all other I inioy or haue right vnto on the east side of London rode 
aforesaid ; except and allwayes reserued out of this graunt the alotement 
of trees and wood to be taken downe of any of the premisses for my 
daughter's portion as hath bin before declared. Item I will the dyehowse 
and other my tenements w th their appurtenances vtensells and easments 



99 

whatsoever now buy It where rny late orchard was in the rapish 
of St Mary Key in Ipswich, if it please God I live not till the lease 
come into my handes, and buyld it otherwise my selfe, shall be 
sould to the best benefit of my will, though by reason they buylt the 
howses there be but xl s reserved yearly to me and my heires in the grand 
lease for some few yeares yet to come, it is worth Twentie poundes yerely 
to be lett. And if it may not be sonld for three hundred poundes at 
least before my sonne Eobert hath served all his prentishood, Then I 
will it to him and his heires if he thinke good to take it for and in lew 
of his portion herein bequeathed. Yf he desires his portion rather, Then 
I will my Executor or Executors or his or their Assigne or Assignes shall 
sell it to the best benefit and pay his said legacie accordinge to my will 
and mynd herein declared ; and if any overplus be, that it be to the use 
of this will and Testament. Item I will my Jewells, my plate, the 
vtensells that were my wives of good worth for her lyeing in and other 
vses, together w th my Bookes at my howse, my howsehold stuffe and 
implements whatsoever both lynnen, woollen, Bedding, Bedstead, tables, 
hangings, brasse, pewter and all other my vtensells and goodes within 
dores and without either for myne ownself or howse or otherwise. 
Except my goldringe with my seale of Armes, my wives marrying ringe, 
my wives virginalles w ch allso were her mother's and my great Iron 
Chest w ch was my fathers and Ancesters honestly prysed by the assistance 
of my sonne Henry, and Inventorye shall be sould to the use of my will. 
I will allso that all my geldins, mares, coltes, mylch Kyne and fatte 
Kyne, young Bullockes, weanells, swyne and such l} r ke be sowld for the 
best benefit of my will. I will also my Tymber in my yard and abowt 
my grownd ready felled in Whersted, if I shall not live to buyld it owt 
either at Whersted or at my messuages or tenements in Ipswich, shall 
be allso sould to the vise aforesaid, except that which is cleft for postes 
rayles and pales and all that have been framed, w ch I will shall be 
and remayne to the use of my sonnes Philip and Henry. Item whereas 
I have for many yeares yet to com from Trinity hall in Cambridge one 
lease for a buyldinge to be don at their howse called the Doctors Comons 
in London, w ch I was hindered to pforme by the evill will of some that 
are nowe dead, vnder the Coinon Seale of the said Colledge ; I will the 
said lease shall forthwith be sowld to my wor : and especiall good friend 
Doctor Jeames iudge [ = Judge] of the Audience, or to some other he 
shall thinke good of, or in his great kyndnes to me ever shewed wishe to 
it. And bicause the buyldinge I had provided for that place cost me 
a great deale of money, and it would ever haue bin behouefull for the 
company there, I hope by his good meanes the rest of my wor : freinds 
of the Comons will be pleased my Executors should make some good 
valew of it towards my younger Childrens portions. Item of the money 
that shall growe and arise of all these sales and prisements aforesaid 
and of the rents herein reserved to the vse of my will and of the money 
I shall haue by me at my death or due unto me, exceptinge for my 
daughters portion before devysed, I will shall be raysed my three younger 



100 

sonnes portions, viz 1 fower hundred markes of good and lawful money of 
England w ch I bequeath to my Sonne Robert w th in three monethes after 
his prentishood ended if it please God he serve out his prentishood, and 
not before, if not (then he refuseing the dye howse and Tenements to 
him bequeathed when he have accomplished the age of ffoure and 
Twentie yeares, then my will is that his portion shall be paid him by my 
executores and the dye house and tenements aforesaid to be sold towards 
the payment thereof to the best Comoditie. Item for my youngest 
sonnes Anthony and Glemham, if I in my life time or my executor's or his 
execut or assigne after my death buye not for either of them dureing 
their severall lives vpon good assurance of lands quarterly to be paid 
either of them sufficient Rent chargs of Twentie poundes a yeare so 
that eache and either of them may receive quarterly five pounds for 
their mayntenance at studd}^ or elswhere it shall please God dureing 
life. Then I will to my said twoe sonnes Anthony & Glemham three 
hundred markes a peece when they shall accomplish the full age of xxi 
yeres successively. Item I give to Bridget my Kynsewoman Tenn 
pounds wherof she and her husband ought me xx s in full satisfaction of 
all demands. Item I give to my Brother Cowlte my furred night 
gowne of clothe. Item I give to my mayd Anne Ward x s . I also give 
to my servant Henry Mawling about five poundes that he oweth me of 
good debt. Item I will to my Sonne Philip my gold ringe w th my seale 
of Armes as my fathers was left me, whereof I wishe he should take 
good heede bicause my ffathers was stolne from me, and if my said 
sonne or any other of my bloud desire to know of their gentry and the 
Antiquitie thereof, they must inquire in Lincolnshire (from whence my 
Grandfather cam into Suff w th his especiall and honorable freinds the 
Lord and lady Willowghbye*) for the heires of one M r Hall (that was 
in great favour for Auditeing, survaying and such like with them and 
the Dutches of Suff: their daughter) who bought of my father then 
newly come of age, and haveing never seene Lincolnsheire, two severall 
purchases of Whetcroft lands there for good prices, and vsed in that 
behalf the helpe of the then lady Willowghbye, who had formerly 
mayntayned my father at Cambridge & Oxeford w th her grandchildren 
the two Dukes of Suff and alowed him there, then but a child or young 
boy fowerscore poundes in one yeare for expences, as my self haue 
heard him report, which said M r Hall upon the said purchases brought 
him certaine knowledge of the amies of his Ancestors w ch we ever and 
now beare ; viz' Sables, two Garbes wheat proper w 01 a bend betwixt 
Argent the crest a Garbe wheat proper) wer standing to be seene in 
Cuninsbye Church in the Countye of Lincolne where our Ancestors lye 

* "The Lord and lady Willowghbye and the Dutches of Suffj^their 

daughter":— Davy, Add. MS. 19.155. fo. 324 1 ; quoting Collins' Peerage, says, 
William Willoughby, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, eldest son of Sr Christopher 
Willoughby, died 17. H. 8. and was buried at Mettingham. By Lady Mary 
Salines his wife, a Spaniard, he had issue Catharine sole daughter and heiress 
who married 1»' Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk and 2 d 'y Richard Bertie, Esq re 
from whom descend the Barons Willoughby d'Eresby." 



101 

buried : and further that there was a Religious house of the name of 
Whetcrofts founded by some of them, as he then also understood. Item 
I will & bequeath to my second sonne Henry nry great Iron chest which 
was his grandfathers, whereof I hope he will haue a care because he 
can not get one so faire for a great deale of money, and also my sattyne 
sute and my veluet coate hopeing he will folio we his studd3 r e and be 
so wise that he may use them. Item I will to m} T daughter Barbara 
one fayre silver and guilt spoone w ch shee nowe hath to use, her mothers 
maryeing ringe to me, and her mothers and grandmothers virginalls, 
beinge well mended and trymmed by my executor for her. Item I 
further will that every of my sonnes and my daughter haue, as they 
shall growe of age, one prety goldringe in honorable remembrance of 
their worthy mother, worth at least Tenn shillings. Item I will a like 
gold ringe to my nephew M 1 ' John Sherma and to each of my nephewes 
and neice, my Brother M r George Whetcroft his children and to my 
nephew John Wenlock a ringe of x s and I will my nephew Henry and 
neeces, my sister Edwards children xiij s iiij d a peece if their father 
shalbe content (according to right) that my executor or his executor or his 
Assignes or the Assigne of either of them shall take and fell downe, 
cutt owt and cary away one greate oake growing by his yarde neare the 
saweing pett there at their or either their pleasure as I should haue don 
upon hist and due considerac5n pformed. Item I will my sister 
Sherman, my sister Colte, my sister Spleton, my sisier George, my 
sister Edwards, my sister Wood &, to every of them a Ringe of Tenn 
Shillings price. Item I will that all my fower younger children be 
maynteyned vntil they shall attayne their severall ages, wherein their 
severall portions shall successively grow dew (if other order be not taken 
in that behalf either by payinge of marriage money, b3Uiding prentice 
or purchaseiug of Annuyties as hath byn declared or otherwise 
mayntajminge them to their likeinge, and that my daughter haue for 
mayntenance is her oste and ostis and I am agreed, or further as cause 
require ; and if by any meanes she happen to be removed from whence 
shee is, or shall grow bigg in stature, Then I will for her maintenance 
sufficient alowance accordingly. Item to my sonne Robert vntill he be 
bound prentice yearlie mayntenance, and to Anthony and Glemham 
vntill their severall Rent chargs be purchased or their portions paid I 
will the like yearely mayntenance. And I hartely desire and will 
that my sonne Robert ma} T w th convenient speed be bound to a merchant 
in London, if it please God to rayse him vp soe good friendes as will 
place him w th some honest M> there or els to some othe good trade as it 
shall please God. And I will that the mone}^ that must be disburssed 
for bindeing him prentice, or any other my younger sonnes, if any shall 
not prove fitt for learninge shall be allowed out of the profitts aforesaid, 
as well of my daughters portion as otherwise yet as thriftely as may be, 
haaeinge most care of his or their well placeinge wheresoever. Item I 
ordaine and make my sonne Philip my sole executor, if he shall enter 
bonde in one thowsand poundes to S r Henry Glemham Knight and 

M 



102 

S r Calthrop Parker his neare Alyes w th convenient speed within one 
moneth (being of age) after my decease both to prove my will and doe 
accordinge to honesty and good conscience and the trust I repose in 
him, else he to be no executor. And then I make my sonne Henry my 
execiitor being lawfully bonnd as his brother should haue bin : whom 
I will to haue a diligent care that in all these great disbursements he 
deale w th the advyce of his unckle S 1 ' Henry Glemham Knight and of 
S r Calthorp Parker his neere Al}-es and worthy freindes whom I ordayne 
and make my supravisors of this my testament, to whom I give for A 
Remembrance of good will fortie shillings a peece, desireing them of 
their counsel! and countenance to my executor and the rest of my 
children. Item I give also to my honorable ladies desireing them to 
haue care of my daughters bestowinge in marriage (to whose loue and 
care I comitt her) the wydowes myte, xx s a peece. Item I will if any 
of my children d} r e before their portion or portions shall grow due to 
them or airy of them, if such childe or children leaue issue behind 
them lawfully begotten, he, shee or they to haue the portion of their 
Auncestor or Auncestors when either of them shall accomplish xxi 
yeares of age or otherwise. I will such portion or portions (my legacies 
being made up) to the full to them that be vnpayed, to remayne equally 
to be devided amongst my children as they successsively come of age, 
for avoydinge of question wherein I have thought good to expresse 
their severall ages. Inprimis Philip was borne the eleventh of June 
being Wedensday in Whittson weeke Anno 1595 ; Henry was borne the 
second day of March beinge the Thursday after Shroue Sunday anno 
1597 ; Robert was borne the sixteenth day of July on Monday the day 
after St Sweetings day Anno 1599 : Anthony was borne the Twentith 
of ffebruary in the morning being Shroue Munday Anno 1603 : 
Glemham was borne the Two and Twentith of November, fryeday senate 
before Andrew 1605. Barbara was borne the ninth of March in the 
mornjnge, beinge Thursday Anno 1608. Item I will that all my 
children haue a reuerend regard (yet but with a discrete remembrance 
of their parents and of Sr Henry Glemham, both bicause he is their 
unkle and by their good cariage towardes him, some thinge may be 
brought to his mynde that he knoweth hath bin and is amisse both for 
their good and his owne if it so please God. Then if I dye before I 
surrender to the vse of my will my coppyhold land, viz t about fower 
acres called ffreston heath and about sixteene acres called Whersted 
heathe, as by the old coppies appeare (though the latter be most false 
abutted) then I will my child upon whom the law cast it shall doe all actes 
to assure it to such pson as I haue appointed it in my will at such said psons 
charge before he haue his legacie if he be of age, and if he haue received pte 
thereof yet the residue to surcease while he haue don as before is appointed. 
Item whereas my father hath granted ont of my said houses and landes 
one rent charge of iij u x s yearly to be due and payable to the Bayliffes, 
Burgesses and Comons at Hallowmas to the releefe of certayne poore in 
Ipsw ch entering longe since of a peece of the obliged premises for the 



103 

said Rent charge, being nest the late Comon privye, and employeinge 
the same to their owne vse, the charge whereof hath bin proved and 
alowed in their Towne comon accountes followeinge ; and the same peece 
still they hold to their vse as their owne w ch my father vsed for a carte 
gate way to his orcheyard, nowe buylt w th tenements and A d}*e house, 
or if not extinct by entrye and useinge as their owne one other pcell of 
ground, parte allso of the obliged premises lying west of the said 
Orcheyard and nowe by the towne granted to Austen Parker and by him 
inclosed, my will is that Whersted howses and landes given to my sonnes 
Philip and Henry shall pave either of them xxiip iiij d a peece towardes 
the dischargcing of the same ; The Bull or the owners thereof xxiij s iiijd; 
my orcheyarde now built with houses xx s till amongst the owners of 
them all some order be taken for the freeing of their severall estates of 
the said payments. And if iu the meane tyme any of the owners of 
any of the pcells be driven to paye the hole in Rente charge or any other 
charge thereby groweing by negligence or default of any of the other 
pties as before is declared, Then I will that it shalbe lawful for 
him or them that soe make payment of the whole some forthwith at 
their pleasure to distreyne him or them or any occupier of his or their 
parte that made defaulte, and the distreesse or distresses so taken to cary 
away and keepe till the said ptie' or pttes' and all cost charges, damages, 
be to the full allowed, contented and paid, notwithstanding any thinge 
in this my will to the contrary. Item I will my sonne Henry my best 
gowne Item I will to my sonne Philip my grograyne gowne and best 
cloake, best veluet Jacket and two of the best sutes of apparell to 
dispose of at his pleasure. Item bicause I am not lyke to leave behinde 
me any guide but young men and children, I will for bringing my body 
honestly to the ground that whersoever it please God to call me, it be 
don in some morning eerly, w-hout any great solemnitye, yet afterward 
my executor to give as cause require. I will for the more full pformance 
of this my will that the rents of the Bull especially that is now (saueing 
honest deductions) be used and taken for and dureinge the space of Tenn 
yeares next after my decease to the vse and pformance of this my last 
will and Testam,, if there shall not otherwise fall out to be sufficient for 
all poynts, and not otherwise. Lastly I hartely desire my supravisors of 
their loveinge help countenance and furtherance to my Executor, my 
sonne Philip and the rest of my children from tyme to tyme especially 
dureing their nonage. And I humbly beseech God (my pore estate thus 
sett at a staye) to blesse my indevours as he hath graciously done and to 
grant me peace and patience and therewith perfect Charitie and ti*ue 
faith in Jesus Christ, and so my good Saviour I yeeld my soule to thy 
mercye at thy good pleasure. In Wittnes that this is my last will and 
Testament and determinate dysyre I haue subscribed my hand to every 
sheete there of : 

Probat : apud London Curia prerog Cant 

primo die mensis July A. D. 1616. Juramento Philippi Whetcrofte filij 
et exor. 



104 



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NOTES ON LAVENHAM CHURCH AND PARISH. 



COMMCNICATED 

Bt E. M. DEWING, Esq. 



The Lordship of Lavenham has been held from the 
time of Henry II by the family of the De Veres, Earls of 
Oxford, Hereditary High Chamberlains, founders of the 
Priory of Earls Colne, and of Hedingham Castle in Essex 
which they made their chief residence. In Lavenham, 
they possessed as a residence the manor house, the founda- 
tions of which may yet be seen in the grounds of 
Lavenham Hall. From time to time the Earls occupied 
this house, and doubtless much of the prosperity which 
Lavenham anciently enjoyed was owing to the patronage 
and protection of this powerful family. Their care for 
its higher interests are shewn by the grandeur and mag- 
nificence of the parish church. 

The De Veres continued owners of Lavenham until 
the reign of Elizabeth, when Edward De Vere, 17th Earl 
of Oxford, sold Lavenham to Paul d'Ewes, the father of 
the Antiquary Sir Simon d'Ewes. Stow relates that this 
reckless Earl rode into London to his house by London 
Stone with eighty gentlemen in a livery of Reading 
tawny, and chains of gold about their necks, before him ; 
and one hundred tall yeomen in the like livery, to follow 
him, without chains, but all having his cognizance of 
the blue boar embroidered on their left shoulder. He is 
said to have been the first who brought perfumed gloves 
and such fineries out of Italy into this kingdom. 

But the chief interest for our present purpose lies in 
the history of the 12th, 13th, lith, and 15th Earls, all of 
whom were named John. 



106 

John, 12th Earl, a stout Lancastrian and friend of 
Henry VI, married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir 
John Howard ; but neglecting to obtain the license of 
the crown for the marriage, he was fined £2000. This 
marriage brought the Barony of Plaitz to the De Veres. 
This Earl, with Aubrey his eldest son, was beheaded by 
Edward IV in 1461. 

John, 13th Earl, second son of the preceding Earl, mar- 
ried for his first wife Margaret Neville, daughter of Richard 
Neville, Earl of Salisbury, and sister of Richard Neville, 
the "stout" Earl of Warwick who fell at Barnet Field. 
Margaret was the Grandaughter of Thomas de Montacute, 
Earl of Salisbury, whose only daughter, Alice, married 
Richard Neville, son of Ralph, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, 
by his second wife Joane de Beaufort, daughter of John 
of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford, bringing into that 
family the Baronies of Montacute and Monthermer. On 
the death of Thomas, the father of Alice, the earldom of 
Salisbury became extinct, but it was revived in favour of 
her husband, who thus became Earl of Salisbury. 

John De Vere married secondly Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Richard Scroop. The earl after the battle of 
Barnet, where he was associated with his brother-in-law 
the Earl of Warwick, fled the country and was until 
the death of Richard III in banishment in Picardy. At 
this time his countess is said by Speed to have been in 
such poverty, " that she had to live upon charity and the 
work that she made with her needle." When Henry of 
Richmond decided upon the invasion of England, the 
Earl, who had escaped from his prison at Hammes, was 
one of the first to join the Prince. At the Battle of 
Bosworth Field he commanded the vanguard and mainly 
contributed to the victory. 

As soon as Henry was seated on the throne the Earl 
was restored to the honours and possessions of which he 
had been deprived, and to which were added numerous 
other manors forfeited by the adherents of Richard the 
3rd. He was also made Constable of the Tower and 



107 

Lord High Admiral, and on the accession of Henry VIII 
he was restored to his hereditary office of Lord Chamber- 
lain. It is told of the Earl that when Henry VII visited 
him at Hedingham he entertained the king so sump- 
tuously and made such a display of his retainers, that 
the king in some alarm said " By my faith, my lord, I 
thank you for my good cheer, but my attorney must 
speak with you." And the result was that his lordship 
had to pay 15,000 marks for his display. 

The Earl was a knight of the Garter, and died 1513, 
having been fifty years Earl of Oxford. 

He was succeeded by his nephew John, 14th Earl, 
a man of diminutive stature and nicknamed Little John 
of Campes, Castle Campes in Cambridgeshire, being his 
usual place of residence. He married Anne, daughter of 
Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, but dying without issue in 
1526 the Baronies of Badlesmere and Plaitz fell into 
abeyance. 

This Earl was succeeded by his cousin John, 15th 
Earl, one of the nobles who addressed the pope in favour 
of the king's divorce from Queen Katherine. The second 
son of this Earl, Aubrey De Vere, married Margaret, 
daughter of John Spring, of Lavenham, and upon the 
extinction of the descendants of John, the 16th Earl, 
Aubrey's elder brother, the descendants of this marriage 
succeeded to the Earldom. But this noble family which 
had played a leading part in the history of England from 
the time of the conquest was destined to live but com- 
paratively a few years more. In 1702 the title became 
extinct on the death of the 20th Earl without male issue. 

The first recorded notice of the family of Spring in 
connection with the parish of Lavenham occurs in the 
year 1459. But looking to the position these eminent 
wool merchants held at this period, it is probable that 
the family had been established here earlier. Thomas 
Spring, the first of the name, died in 1 440, leaving by 
Agnes his wife a son, Thomas the second, whose monu- 
mental brass is preserved in the vestry. He died 1486, 



108 

leaving by his wife Margaret two sons, Thomas third of 
that name, and James. Also a daughter Cecilia. The 
effigies on the brass represent four sons and six daughters, 
but the above-mentioned sons and daughters are the 
only children named in his will. 

By his will, which is in Latin, he gives his soul to 
the Omnipotent God and his body to be buried in Vesti- 
bule* eccVie BeaH Petri ApHi De LauenlUm. He gives to 
the Rector p'och mece xv.s ut p'e oret p'arfa mea .. To his 
spinners, fullers and tenters, filatrib\ fullonibus et tentoribus 
meis, 100 marks to be distributed at the discretion of his 
executors. For the building of the Tower, ad edifica- 
tionem campanil in stepyll ecclice p'och de Lauen/i'm, he gives 
300 marks. He also gives 200 marks towards the repair 
of the roads around Lavenham. After gifts, fratribus 
ordinis minor rf de Bab well, de Sudbury and ordinis Augustin- 
iensis de Clare he declares his wife Margaret and his 
son Thomas his residuary legatees and his executors. 
Margaret the wife appears to have died before her 
husband according t3 the date of her death recorded 
upon the brass. His will was proved Sept. 12, 1486. 

Thomas Spring, the third of the name, surnamed 
the rich clothier, made his will 1523, and it was proved 
in July, 1524. In it he styles himself Clothmaker and 
" verely knowing that there is no thing more sure or more 
certeyn to any creature in this Wretched World than 

deth And nothing more vnsuer and vncerteyn than the 

dreadful houre therof, Item, 1 bequeth my soule to 

almighty god to his blessed moder mary and to all the 
holy company of hevyn. And my body to be buried in the 
Church of Lauenh'm before the awter of Saint Kater) 7 n 
where I will be made a Tombe with a parclose there- 
about at the discre'on of myn executors. Item, I will 
that Immediately after my decesse in as hasty tyme as it 
may be conueniently doon there shalbe a, thousand 
masses songen for the welth of my soule." Then after 
bequests to the ffreres in Thetford and the nonnes of 
Thetford, and the towns and parishes in which he has 






109 

landes and ten'ts to haue a masse w* Dirige in euery 
church, he " geve and bequeth to the fynysshing 
of the Stepul of Lauenh'm two hundred pounds." He 
then makes various bequests dividing- the bulk of his 
property between his wife Alice and his eldest son. But 
a special bequest is made towards the marriage of his 
daughter Bridget then a young girl and perhaps a 
favourite child. Bridget, afterwards became the wife of 
Aubrey de Vere and Grandmother of the 19th Earl of 
Oxford. 

Alice, the widow of Thomas the rich clothier, 
was his second wife and daughter of Thomas Appleton, 
by Margery, daughter and heir of Robert Crane of 
Stonham. She survived her husband about fourteen 
years, her will being proved in 1538. It is a somewhat 
lengthy document containing many references to Laven- 
ham. She directs that her body may be buried by " my 
late husbande Thomas Sprynge Esquier afore the aulter 
of St Kateryn w l in the parishe churche of Lavenham." 
There are various bequests for masses for "to be songe 

Daily w l in the parish Church of Lavenham at 

which masses I will other my Doughter margaret Rysby, 
orells my son William Rysby to be present and to offer 
at euery of the said masses a penny, also I will that 
there be ordained xm poure folk to be present at the 

said Diriges and Masses there to praye for my 

husbonde Thomas Spryng, and all christen, of which 
nombre I will six to be those poure men which be my 
late husbond's bedmen and myn and the other vii to be 
poure women and widowes every one to have every day 
a penny." To the alter of St Kateryn she gives a 
vestment and a messe book, and directs masses to be said 
for her own, her husband's, her father's and her mothers 
souls, at the said aulter. To the churchwardens of the 
said church of Lavenh'm for the tyme being and for the 
Reparacions of the same church vi.li xiirs iiii.d She 
directs an obite or anniuersary to be kepte w'in the parish 
church of Lavenh'm by the terme of twenty years, the 



110 

charges thereof she relynquyshes unto the discretion of 
her sonne in lawe William Iiysby and Margaret his wife. 
She further gives to the poure folke euery yere for the 
space of fyve yeres viii Loods of woode to be delivered 
in and at the feast of Cristmas. She also gives ffourty 
pounds to th' amending of the high wayes betwene 
Lavenh'm and Groton. 

Alice appears to have possessed more, than one 
house in Lavenham. One of these houses, Branches with 
its farm, she gives to her daughter Bridget, and she 
further doubles the bequest of her late husband to this 
daughter " so beyt she bestowe herself in mariage to such 
a husbonde other by hir frends councell or hir own, as 
will assure her of a hundreth m'rks in good Lande by 
the name of Joynto r afore the Day of hir mariage or for 
terme of hir lyfe, with assurance made unto hir for 
Joyntour, Doon and p'fourmed." Bridget doubtless 
carried out the wishes of her parents when she married 
Aubrey De Yere. 

The extent of the possessions of the Spring family 
appears from the numerous manors of which Sir John 
Spring died possessed in 1549. The schedule comprised 
the manors of Brentillighe, Eldnewton, Mylding, What- 
field, Netherhall, Brettenham otherwise Willeshams, 
Cockfleld, Hepworth, Pepers, Bowers, Barrards in What- 
field, Woodhall, Lenhall, and divers hereditaments in 
Suffolk, with the manors of Bukenham and Thompson 
in Norfolk. (History of Hengrave.) 

The parish of Lavenham was divided into three 
Manors ; viz*, Lavenham Overhall, Lavenham Nether 
Hall, and Lannams. These three manors have been 
from time immemorial held by the same Lords, and have 
been so long united that it is not certain that they could 
now be distinguished. On the execution of the 12th 
Earl by Edward iv, when the vast possessions of the 
Earls of Oxford were all forfeited, these manors were 
granted to the Duke of Gloucester, afterward Richard iii. 
On the accession of Henry viii the Lordship was restored 



Ill 

and remained in the Earls of Oxford until 4 Eliz. 1562, 
when Edward de Vere, 17 Earl, sold it to Sir Thomas 
Skinner, Alderman of London, who in the 43 Eliz. 1601 
alienated it to Isaac Woden. In the 9 Jac 1. 1611, Paul 
D'Ewes became Lord by purchase, and he was succeeded 
6. Charles I. 1630, by his son Sir Symonds D'Ewes. 

The rectory was appurtenant to the manor and 
valued in the King's Book at £20 2s. lid. The Earls 
of Oxford presented until near the end of the 1 6 century, 
later presentations being by the D'Ewes until 1713, when 
the rectory was purchased by the master and fellows of 
Gonville and Caius College Cambridge, for the sum of 
£710 15s. Od. 

The following list of rectors is taken from the 
Davy MSS. 

1302 Nic. de Wytcherch. Aliciam Vere Com. Oxon. 

1312 Rob. de Elmham. Rob, de Vere coin. Oxon. 

1334 Ric. de Stoke. Joes de Vere 

1354 William de Lavenham. Same 

1361 Joes de Pelham. Under will of Matilda de Vere Comitessa 

1386 Joes Poland. Same 

1400 Joes Pygot Jun r . Same 

1416 Joes Saddle. Ric de Vere 

1444 Will. Fallam. Alicioe com. Oxon. dnoo de Lavenham 

1453 Will. Morton. Joes com. Oxon. 

1459 Geo. Vere. ad Coll. dm. Epi. p laps 

1462 Joes Walter, ad prces. Dm Rg 

1475 Hen. Boost. 

1477 Thom Ashby. 

1486 Joes Giggles from St. Mich. Crooked Lane, London. John Vere 

com. Oxon. 

1497 Thou. Appleton. Same 

1508 Thom. Stackhouse. Com. Oxon. 

1529 Will. Basse. Robt. Drury Mil. pat. per Inquis. 

1558 Chtof. Chapman ad pre. altij John Vere com. Oxon. 

1559 Will Day S.T.P. Prcepos. Eton ad proes. Dmoe Rnoe min. setate 

Ed ds com. Oxon. 

1571 Will Rainolds AM Ed. com. Oxon. 

1578 Hen Coppinger S.T.P. ad proes. Will. Greenhall pro. hac vice 

1662 Gul. Gurnall ad prees Thoe Bowes de Bromley 

1679 Rog Young ad proes. Willonghbei D'Ewes Bart. 

1688 Car. Turner. Simond D'Ewes Bart. 

1710 Will. Kinnerley. Same 



112 

1729 Thomas Wright AM Thorn. Gooch STP Ma r et Soc. Coll. Gonv. 

et Caui, Cantab. 

1730 John Squire AM Cantab. 
1763 John Davy Do. 
1792 James Buck Do. 
1825 Richard Johnson Do. 
1855 J. M. Croker Do. 

John Giglis or de Liliis a Luccese was collector of 
the Apostolic chamber in England and Canon of Wells. 
He was appointed Bishop of Worcester by a bull of 
Pope Innocent viii in 1497, when he resigned the living 
of Lavenham. 

In 1578, William Rainolds, the then rector, having 
joined the Church of Rome, the living was presented to 
D 1 Coppinger whose monument is now on the north wall 
of the chancel. D r Coppinger held the living for 45 years, 
but not without great trouble and cost. The patrons, the 
Earls of Oxford, claimed exemption from the payment 
of tithes for their park. This D l Coppinger successfully 
resisted, though at a cost of £1600, no mean sum in 
those days. He was the fourth son of Henry Coppinger, 
of Buxhall, a family now represented by the Rev. 
Henry Hill, of that place; he was elected a fellow 
of St. John's College, Cambridge, and a Prebendary of 
York. He was also Master of Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, but resigned the latter preferment when pre- 
sented to the living of Lavenham, 1578. 

On the death of Henry Coppinger in 1623, the 
living was presented to his second son, Ambrose, who 
died 1644 and was buried at Buxhall. This rector's 
name is omitted from the above list. About the year 
1639 he had for his curate William Gurnall, who had 
just taken his degree at Cambridge, and who afterwards 
became a fellow of his college, Emanuel. On the death 
of Ambrose Coppinger, in 1664, Gurnall was at the 
request of the parishioners presented to the living by Sir 
Symonds D'Ewes, and the appointment was confirmed 
by an order of the House of Commons. In the above 
list the presentation purports to have been made by 



113 

Thoe Bowes. Sir Thomas Bowes married a sister of Sir 
Symonds D'Ewes, and was probably a trustee. Gurnall 
continued to minister as a Presbyterian for eighteen 
years, until the year 1662 when the Act of Uniformity 
"was passed. In August of that year he took the oath, 
by which he declared his previous ordination invalid, and 
gave his assent and consent to the Book of Common 
Prayer. On the 22nd of the same month he was 
canonically ordained, and confirmed as incumbent of 
Lavenham. He was the author of " The Christian in 
Complete Armour " a popular theological work published 
at intervals during the Commonwealth. His conformity 
naturally excited doubts of his sincerity and he seems 
to have accepted his new position with some mental 
reservation, for among other matters he could not bring 
himself to wear the surplice and kept a curate to perform 
those duties which necessitated the use of this vestment. 
The length of his sermons no doubt made amends for his 
irregularities and it is to be hoped that the curate was 
not mulcted of the surplice fees. He died 12 Oct., 1679, 
and was buried at Lavenham. 

Such a rich and prosperous town, an important centre 
of the wool trade, as Lavenham was in the 15th and 16th 
centuries, could not be without it Guilds, of which there 
were three, viz. : The Guild of St. Peter granted by 
John, 15 Earl of Oxford in 1547, having its hall in 
High Street; the Guild of the Holy Trinity granted 
by John the 16th Earl, with its hall in Prentice Street, 
and the Guild of Corpus Christi granted by John the 15 
Earl 1529, with its hall injlie Market place. 

This hall of the Corpus Christi Guild is a fine 
specimen of the timbered house of the time of Henry vii 
or early Henry viii, for there seems to be a doubt 
whether it was built expressly for the Guild. Part of 
the building is still inhabited, and what was probably 
the hall and offices of the guild is still used as a granary 
or wool store. It has served successively as the Town 
Hall, the Bridewell, and the Workhouse. Beneath are 



114 

cellars, in one of which tradition says, that the aged 
martyr Rowland Taylor, rector of Hadleigh, was con- 
fined for a night when on his way to the place of his 
martyrdom, Aldham common. 

The parish church of Lavenham, dedicated to St. 
Peter and St. Paul, consists of a chancel with a vestry at 
the east end, a nave with aisles extended eastward, a 
south porch, and a magnificent tower at the west end. 
The length of the church is stated to be 156 feet, the 
width 68 feet, the Tower being 141 feet high and its 
width 42 feet. There is, however, some difference of 
opinion respecting the exact height of the tower, Mr. 
Biddell of Lavenham Hall stating the height to be 137 
feet. 

With the exception of some decorated work in the 
chancel, the church was built near the close of the 
perpendicular period, somewhat later than the two fine 
churches at Bury St. Edmund's, but contemporary with 
its rival at Melford and the glorious chapel at Cambridge, 
which was not completed before 1534. 

Commencing with the chancel we have an excellent 
east window, with fine flowing tracery of the decorated 
period, and on the south one window of three lights of 
the same period. On the north side traces of a similar 
window, now blocked by the Coppinger monument, may 
be observed. 

It is stated by Ryece, a Lavenham man, born 1628, 
that the east window had four escotcheons, two whereof 
are with Springe clothing mark, and two are with this 
coat. ji 

Argent on a chevron bettueen 3 mascles gules, 3 cinquefoyles or* 

At the nether end of the window was this written : — 
Orate pro animabus Thomas Spring et Alicioe uxoris ejus 
qui istas fenestras vitreas fieri fecerunt Anno Dm 1527. 
When Sir John Cullum made his church notes, circa 1770 
the east window had the following escutcheons, Copinger, 

* These arms were granted to Thomas Spring de Laynam in com. Suffolk, temp. 
Henry viii. 



115 

D'Ewes impaling Clopton, D'Ewes, D'Ewes impaling 
Symonds.* 

The east end within the altar rails is the oldest part 
of the building and almost the only remaining part of 
the earlier church. The fine chancel arch and piers, are 
also a part of the earlier church. On the south side the 
junction of the new and old work is very evident; near 
the piers is the moulding of an earlier window, at the 
back of which the stair leading to the rood loft has been 
built ; one of the shafts of the pier has been cut away to 
admit the door opening on to the rood loft. A second 
door on the south led to the rood loft gallery which 
crossed the south aisle. The piers themselves have been 
almost encased in the new work ; this is very obvious in 
the base mouldings. In connection with this I may add 
that when the late restoration was in progress the 
workmen came upon what may have been the founda- 
tions of this earlier church, about one foot within the 
lines of the present building. 

In the chancel are some fine old stalls with misereres, 
the subjects representing, a woman milking herself, two 
cranes picking at a human head, a pelican feeding her 
young, a man holding a pair of bellows as a fiddle and 
using his crutches as a fiddlestick, a man playing a 
stringed instrument, a man with a hood on his head 
sitting. On the floor is the brass of a child swathed in 
its chrysom or the white cloth with which infants were 
invested immediately after their baptism, bearing the 
following inscription : — Immatura morte, nisi quod a Deo 
Opt. Max. ita decretum, ex misera hac vita ereptus die 
ix Julii, diebus a nativitate decern, a baptism o quotuor, 
Clopton D'Ewes armiger, films et hceres apparens Simond's 
D'Ewes equitis aurati, et domince Annoe conjugis suce 
filice unicoe et hceredis Guliemi Clopton militis ; beatam 
cujus animam fide mecliis sibi optime cognitis imbutam 
ceternus (ut confiditur) miserecordiarum pater inter 
beatum sanctorum chorum in ccelis elocavit. 

* By favour of G. Milner Gibson Cullum, Esq. 



116 

Several large slabs mark the burial places of mem- 
bers of the Culpeck, Nevill, Buck, Tyrell, Steward, 
Dt, y, and Squire families. 

Attached to the east end of the chancel is a vestry 
built by Thomas Spring the second, in which, as we 
have seen, he directed that he should be buried. His 
brass with his mark in an escotcheon represents 
himself his wife and ten children kneeling and in 
shrouds ; it has the following inscription. Orate p aiab 
Thome Sprynge qui hoc vestibula fieri fecit in vita sua 
Et Margarite uxor' ej' qui quidam Thomas obiit septimo 
die mensis Septembris Anno Domini millmo cccclxxxvi 

et p d'ca Margarita obiit die mes — A° dm millmo 

cccclxxx — quor' aiab ppicet' ds' Amen. 

On either side of the chancel are chapels, extentions 
of the aisles and divided from the chancel by screen 
work. That on the north has some excellent flint panel 
work, though it cannot compare with its sister chapel in 
the beauty of its details. On the exterior is the remains 
of an inscription in fine bold lettering, which shews that 
this chapel was built by Simon Branch and Elizabeth his 

wife Simonis Branchi et Elizab istam Capellam 

is all that now remains. In 1580, according 

to Stow, a John Branch sprung from this Lavenham 
family was Lord Mayor of London. According to 
Reyce's church notes there was in this chapel " upon a 
marble grave stone under a statue of brass this epitaph, 
orate pro anima dementi Heigham qui obiit xxvj die 
Septembris A no Dmn milimo ccccc cujus animoe pro- 
picietur Deus Amen. Above arms of Heigham on a 
single escotcheon." 

The chapel on the south side, which is 35ft. 3in. 
long by 20ft. 5in. wide, was built by Thomas Spring 
the rich clothier, and Alice his wife, as appears from 
an inscription below the battlement which runs thus 

Thome Spring armig. et alicii uxoris [qui istam*] 

capellam fieri fecerunt Anno Dora, milimo ccccc vicessimo 

* Sir John Cullum's MS. 



117 

quinto. The chapel, therefore, was not completed at the 
time of Thomas Spring's death, 1523. In the east 
window there were 4 cscocheons, 2 with the Spr'pg 
clothing mark, and two with the Spring arms, and at 
" the nether end of the window was there written, Orate 
pro animabus Thomoe Spring et Alicioe uxorisejus qui 
istas fenestras vitreas fieri fecerunt Anno dni 1527." 
(Breviary of Suffolk.) The roof this chapel is very fine, 
the cornice composed of foliage and shields bearing the 
arms and initials of Thomas Spring. The principals 
spring from stone shafts, on which are small statues. 
The cornice is carved, having shields bearing the arms of 
Spring, his crest (a stags head holding in the mouth a 
sprig of vine) and the letters C and S. Under the 
window runs a rich string course of leaves and fruit, and 
the door leading into the chapel has the founders arms 
carved in the spandrils. On the parapet are shields also 
bearing the Spring arms. 

The wood work throughout the church is singularly 
fine. Screen work of great beauty separates the Branch 
and Spring chapels from the chancel and aisles ; there 
are also many old seats with fine poppy heads and rich 
panelling. The rood screen is of oak, the earliest wood 
work in the church. In the south aisle is a seat of late 
screen work sometimes associated with the De Veres. In 
the heads of the arches are shields, now for the most part 
blank ; but the centre shield has a crest, a dolphin bowed 
upon a helm. Upon shields on the west side Davy gives 
the arms of Spourne, Sa a chevron or bettv. 2 dolphins embossed 
Sf efronte in chief or a crescent in base az. and of Clare. 
Sir John Cullum gives shields in the south window of 
the church bearing the arms of Spourne, De Vere for the 
13th Earl, and Spring. 

In the north aisle is a chantry chapel, now known 
as the Spring seat, an enclosure of screen work of the 
most exquisite details. It is a rare specimen of the semi 
classic style which came into fashion in the reign of 
Henry viii. An illustration of this chapel appeared in 

o 



118 

the Builder, Feb. 8, 1879, and attention was there drawn 
to the surface ornaments of the mouldings, the hollow 
reticulated carving of the uprights, the panels once 
covered with rich interlacing tendrils and leaves, the 
heads ornamented with figures of hogs and animals and 
shields bearing the arms of Spring. It was suggested that 
this chantry chapel was probably the work of foreign- 
ers, and that the work resembles the canopy work over 
the stalls of Henry vn chapel usually assigned to Flemish 
workmen. The carving of these chapels is not cut out 
of the solid, after the manner of the other wood work at 
Lavenham, but is made up of separate pieces of wood 
either attached to the main structure by wooden pegs or 
fitted into grooves something after the method of modern 
cabinet makers. In some of the hollows traces of 
colouring remains, but the body of the work does not 
appear to have been painted. 

The date of this chauntry chapel can be pretty 
nearly fixed. Thomas Spring, who died 1523, directed 
by his will, proved July 1524, that his body should be 
buried before the altar of St. Katherine, and that his 
tomb be made with a parclose thereabout. In the report 
of the Commissioners on Public Records for 1837, p. 59, 
there is a notice of a licence for Thomas Jermyn, Esquire, 
exor. of Thomas Spring, deceased, to erect a chauntry in 
the church of Lavenham, temp. Henry viii. The chauntry 
was, therefore, not erected until after 1524, and probably 
not until after 1527 when Sir William Waldegrave the 
co-executor of Thomas Jermyn died ; for if Sir William 
Waldegrave had been living his name would have probably 
been upon the license. Again, Alice the widow of Thomas 
Spring, directed her body to be buried by her late 
husband, afore the altar of St. Katherine. Alice died 
1537, and it is a fair assumption that the parclose round the 
tomb was completed before her death. If the work had 
been still unfinished, Alice, who in her long and carefully 
drawn will had so evidently her late husband's wishes 
and desires at heart, would surely have made provision 



119 

for its completion. In the window of this chapel is a 
quarry with the arms of Spring. 

Against the wall of the north aisle is a brass with 
the following inscription. 

Continuall prayse these lynes in brasse 

Of Alleine Dister here 
A Clothier vertuous while he was 
In Lavenham many a yeare 
For as in lyefe he loved best 

The poore to clothe and feede 
So withe the riche and all the rest 

He neighbourlie agreed 
And did appoynt before he died 

A * yearlie rent 

Whiche shoulde be every Whitsontide 
Amonge the poorest spent, 
et obiit Anno dm 1534. 

Dister and his wife are represented kneeling with 
six children behind him. A label from his mouth has, 
In manus tuas Domine commendo spiritum meum. 

The nave measures 91ft. 6in. by 25ft. 9in. and is 
divided into six bays of very beautiful proportions. The 
capitals of the pier shafts are finished with a delicate 
Tudor flower, and the spandrils of the arches are filled 
with good panelling ; above is a rich cornice and a band 
of quatrefoils in lozenges and blank shields alternately. 

The roof of the nave was formerly painted, and 
over the rood loft the intersections of the beams were 
ornamented with the following arms and emblems. 
1. Vere supported by an angel. 2. An eagle with a 
label across it, emblem of St. John. 3. A bull with 
wings couchant with a label, emblem of St. Luke. 4. An 
angel holding a shield 

Quarterly 1 and 4 Quarterly 1 and 4 Montague 

2 and 3 Monthermer 
2 and 3 Neville 

* Spiall. Outturn MS. 



120 

5. The letter ©. 6. An angel holding a label, the emblem 
of St. Matthew. 7. A winged lion couchant with label, 
the emblem of St. Mark. 8. What appears to be 
Spring's mark. (Church notes 1826. J 

The clerestory has large three light windows with 
transoms, giving an extent of fenestration which has 
suggested to some authorities the idea of Flemish in- 
fluence. The higher lights still contain a few pieces of 
stained glass, notably the mullet of the De Veres, sad 
remains of what must have been a fine example of 
heraldic decoration. I gather from Kirby that when he 
visited Lavenham previous to 1748, when his Historical 
account of that church was printed, these windows had 
then been destroyed ; but happily notes of them have 
been preserved in the MS. of Sir John Blois, a copy of 
which is among the Davy MSS. According to the Blois 
notes there were 58 coats of arms illustrating the 
numerous and princely alliances of the De Veres. 

1. Gu. a fesse between 6 martlets 0. 

2. Bohun, E. of Northampt, with the mullets. 

3. A. a cross G. 

4. 0. a cheveron G. empaled by Vere. 

5. Per pale and V. a lion rampant G. 

6. V. a lion rampant A. 

7. G. 7 mascles 0. 3. 3. 1. empaled with Ufford. 

8. Barry undee of 6 B. and A. 

9. Monutacute. 

10. Ufford. 

11. A. a chief indented B. 

12. Per pale G. and B. a lion rampant A. 

13. 0. 3 tortoises, 2 and 1 a label of 3 points B. 

14. Erm. like annulets with one another, Gu. qu. if Lo. Molins 

15. A chief indented Sa. with 3 beasants. 

16. Gu. a bend A. with 3 coquils purpur 

1 7. Vere and Howard, empaled with B, a bend A. quarter A a salt. ing'J G. 

18. Vere emp* with party p. pale 0. and V. a lion rampant G. 

19. Vere & V. a lion rampant A. 

20. Vere, & the 7 mascles. See 7. 

21. Vere, emp*? with Samford. 

22. Vere, emp'i with Mortimer. 

23. Barry of 6, A. and B emp^ with 0. a bend betw 6 martlets G 

24. 0. a mauch G. empaled with, G. a bend A. 



121 

25. Vere ernpaled with that bend. 

26. That bend empaled with A. a fess G. with 3 plates. 

27. Vere quarters 17 Coates. 

28. A. a chevron and a bordure ingragled S. a chief gu. with 3 mullets 

pierced A. 

29. That Coat impaled with A. a chief indented S. 

30. Mortimer. 

31. Barry of 10. A. and G. 

32. 0. a fesse between 2 chevrons G. 

33. Howard. 

34. Scales. 

35. Warren. 

36. Plais. 

37. Arundel. 

38. Lozengy, A. and B. empaled by Scales. . 

39. 0. a lion rampant B. 

40. G. a cinquefoil Erm. 

41. B. 3 5 foyles 0. 

42. Gu. a cross moline A. 

43. Vere quarters Howard, and empaled with Montague quartering 

Monthermer and Nevil. 

44. Vere quarters B, 3 caps like crowns 0. 2 and 1. 

45. Vere, and Barry of 10 A. and G. 

46. Vere and Ufford, with a flower de lis 

47. Plantagnet, and 0. a lion rampant sa. le double queue 

48. Vere and 0. 2 bars G. 

49. Bulbeck, and a Coate Barry 

50. The Coate with mascles, empal. with a 5 foyle erm. 

51. Ufford, emparl with Norwich. 

52. Courtney, with 0. a lion rampant B. 

53. Scales, and B. 3 5 foyles 0. 

54. Also with Courtney and Arundel. 

55. And with 3 bends G. and Ufford. 

56. Vere quarters G. a bend A. with 3 coquils S. the quarters Clare. 

57. And A. a chief indented S. with 3 bezants. 

58. And he quarters Ufford and Arundel and Scales, and Warren and 

Seageaux, and Howard, and Barry of 10 A. and G. 

MS. Church Notes pen. Sir. Blois p. 292. 

I am indebted to the Rev. H. L. Elliot for having 
most kindly prepared the following illustrations of these 
arms. 

1. Beauchamp of Essex and Berkshire. 

2. Bohun of Northampton. 

3. Vere of Addington, Northamptonshire. 



122 

4. Vere impaling Stafford. 

[Sir George Vere, younger brother of the 13^ Earl mar. Margaret 
dau. of W™ Stafford of Frome co. Dorset.] 

5. The Earl Marshal. Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. 

6. Vert a lion rampant arg. [vulned on the shoulder gu.] Bolebec or 

Bulbed: 

7. Ferrers of Groby (as heir of De Quincy) impaling TJfford. 

[The 3 r ? Baron Ferrers of Groby, mar. Margaret dau. and co-h. 
of Robert de Ufford, Earl of Suffolk.] 

8. Probably, Barry wavy of 6 arg. and az., for Samford, or Sandford. 

The coat is quartered by Vere. 

9. Montacute 

10. Ufford 

11. Arg. a chief indented az. ? Glanvill. 

12. per pale gu. audaz. a lion rampant arg. Norwich 

13. or three torteaux, two and one, over all a label of three points az. 

Courtenay 

14. ? erm. three annulets one within the other gu. ? Fytton 

15. [arg] on a chief daucetly sa three bezants ? Bavent ? Walton. 

16. gu on a bend arg three coquils [? coquilles, or scallop shells, az. or] 

purpure. Bifsett. [This coat was quartered by Wentworth. The 
Wentworth motto "En Dieu est tout," is still in one of the 
Clerestory windows.] 

17. Quarterly 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. Howard 
Impaling, 

Quarterly 1 and 4 azure a bend arg. [but or. a crescent for difference. 

Scrope] 2 and 3 arg. a saltire engrailed gu. Tiptoft 

[The second wife of the 13'. h Earl was Elizabeth dau. of Sir 

Richard Scrope, Knt. and widow of W™ Viscount Beaumont. 

I believe that this marriage was celebrated after 1507, but am 

not sure.] 

18. Vere, impaling Bigod. [For the 2 n ? E. of Oxford] 

19. Vere, impaling Bolebec. [For the 3 r ? E. of Oxford] 

20. Vere, impaling Quincy. [For the 4'. h E. of Oxford.] 

21. Vere, impaling Samford. [For the 5^ E. of Oxford 

22. Vere, impaling Mortimer. For the 6 l . h E. of Oxford 

23. Grey [of Codnor. ?] impaling, Furnival 

24. Hastings, impaling, Foliot. [For Sir Hugh Hastings of Gressing 

Hall, Norfolk, who mar. Margery dau. of Sir Jordan de Foliot, 
sis. and co-h. of Sir Richard, and Thomas Foliot. 
Sir Hugh was a son of the second Lord Hastings by his second 
wife. See extinct Peerage under "Hastings E. of Pembroke."] 

25. Vere, impaling Foliot. [Alphonsus de Vere, father of the 7 l . h E. of 

Oxford.] 

26. Foliot, impaling, arg. on a fess gu. three plates. ? Ettum. 

27. Vere, quarterly of 18. 

28. ? 



123 

29. The same, impaling, Harsick. 

30. Mortimer. 

31. [Barry of 10 arg. and gu. was borne by Thomell of Suffolk; but I 

think this may be intended for] Baddlesmere, i.e., arg. a fess 
between two bars gemel gu. 
The 7 l . h Earl of Oxford mar. Maud dau. of Bartholomew, Lord 
Baddlesmere, and sis. and one of the co-hs. of Giles, Lord 
Baddlesmere, Baron of Leeds, Kent. 

32. Fitz Walter 33. Howard. 34. Scales 
35. Warren. 36. Plaiz. 37. Arundel. 

38. Scales, impaling, Lozengy arg. and az. 

39. or a lion rampant az. Probably for Percy. [Sir Hen. Percy, of 

Athol, mar. (as her second husband) the dau. of W m Lord 
Bardolf, and widow of the 5'. h Baron Scales. 

40. Bellomont, Earls of Leicester. 

41. Bardolf 

42. Beke of Eresby, 

43. Qtly. 1 and 4. Vere 2 and 3. Howard 

impaling, Qtly 1 and Jf. Qtly 1 and 4 Montague 2 and 3 Monthermer 
2 and 3 Nevill of Salisbury (i.e. Nevill with a label 
gobony arg and az. 
[For the 13'. h E. of Oxford and his I s . 1 wife. She d. 1482.] 

44. Quarterly 1 and 4 Vere 

2 and 3. az. three crowns or [a bordure arg.] 
The latter is a coat of augmentation, granted by Richard II. to 
Robert de Vere, Marquis of Dublin, and 9'. h Earl of Oxford. 
It is composed of the arms of St. Edmund, with a white 
bordure for distinction. On a shield on the Porch it is borne in 
the I s .' and 4 l . h Quarters. 

45. Vere, impaling, Baddlesmere. (see No. 31.) 

[For the 7'. h Earl.] 

46. Vere, impaling Ufford 

[For the 8< h Earl] 

47. Plantagenet, impaling, Welles. 

[For Sir John Welles, E.G. Viscount Welles, who mar. Lady Cecily 

Plantagenet, dau. of Edward IV. 
The Lady being of Royal Descent, her arms are placed to the 

dexter.] 

48. Vere, impaling, Harecourt 1 1 

49. Bulbeck, impaling, 

50. De Quincy, impaling Bellomont of Leicester. [Sayer de Quincy, 

mar. Margaret, dau. and co-h. of the Earl of Leicester, and was 
shortly after created E. of Winchester.] 

51. Ufford, impaling Norwich 

[For Robert de Ufford 2 n . d Baron de Ufford, who mar. Margaret sis. 
of Sir John Norwich.] 

52. Quarterly 1 and 4. Courtenay 2 and 3 Eidvers 



124 

53. Scales, impaling BardolJ 

[For Robert de Scales 5'. h Baron Scales] 

54. Scales, impaling, Quarterly 1 and 4 Courtenay 2 and 3. Arundel 
[For Robert de Scales, 2 a ? Baron Scales, who mar. Evelina dau. of 

Hugh de Courtenay, and sis. of Hugh E. of Devon.] 

55. Scales, impaling Qtly 1 and 4. Walisborough 2. and 3. Uford 

[For the 7'. 11 Baron Scales, who mar. Emma, dau. of John Walis- 
borough.] 
56.1 

57. V ? 

58. J 

We have just seen that the arms of Neville for the 
first Countess of John 13th Earl, were upon the roof over 
the rood. The same arms are also upon various parts of 
the building. With the exception, therefore, of the 
upper part of the Tower, the Church would appear to 
have been all but completed during the life time of the 
first Countess, and we can well imagine, how, after all 
the trials and troubles of her early life, she would watch 
the progress of the work and anxiously look to the time 
when she should see its completion. The Countess, 
however, died before the Clerestory received its glass, 
for the work must have been done after the Earl married 
his second wife. According to the Blois list, on the 17 th 
shield, De Vere impales Scroop and Tiptoft the arms of 
the second Countess, and as the Earl died in 1513 the 
glazing of the Clerestory and completion of the nave 
must be assigned to the first decade of the 16th century. 

Passing out of the church the south porch arrests 
attention, rich as it is in architectural and heraldic orna- 
mentation. The front and buttresses are panelled, the 
decoration being quatrefoil and trefoil shaped flowers, 
similar to those repeated on the battlements. In the 
centre above the arch is a canopied niche, on either side 
of which are three shields encircled by the garter, and 
bearing the arms and quarterings of four Earls of Oxford. 
In the spandrils of the arch are boars, the cognizance of 
the De Veres, and on the plinth of the buttresses, 
mullets. As years pass away these coats carved in stone 
become more difficult to read. But some years ago 



125 

accurate drawings and notes were made by Miss Johnson, 
the daughter of the late rector. As these drawings and 
notes have been kindly placed at my disposal, I have 
thought it desirable to record them in our proceedings. 
In one or two instances I have supplemented them from 
the Davy MSS. 

Commencing from the west the first shield is that of 
Robert 9th Earl, who was created Duke of Ireland by 
Richard II. He married Philippa daughter and heiress 
of Ingelram de Courci, Earl of Bedford, and grandaughter 
of Edward III. Quarterly 1 & 4 az. 3 golden crowns 
within a bordure, 2 & 3 De Vere impaling De Courci, 
Quarterly 1 & 4 Barry of six vaire and gu. 2 & 3 a 
fesse * 

The second shield is that of Aubrey, 10th Earl, who 
married Alice daughter of Lord Fitzwalter. De Vere 
impaling Fitzwalter, a fesse between two chevrons. 

The third shield is for Richard 11th Earl and Alice 
his wife, daughter and coheiress of Sir Richard Serjeaux. 
De Vere impaling Serjeaux. quartering Warren, 1 & 3 
arg. a saltire sa. between 12 cherries slipped proper. 
2 & 3 Cheeky (?)t Kirby describes this shield as De Vere 
impaling Neville. 

On the fourth shield is that of John the 12th Earl 
De Vere impaling Howard. At the base of this shield 
are 2 boars passant each charged with a mullet. £ 

The fifth shield bears 1 & 4 Quarterly, 1 & 4 De 
Vere, 2 & 3 Howard, 2 & 3 Quarterly, 1 & 4 gu. six 
escallop shells arg 3 2 1 Scales, 2 & 3 Lozengy§ 

This is the shield of John, 13th Earl. The shield 
has for supporters boars, and the Earl quarters Howard in 
right of his mother, sole daugther and heiress of Sir John 
Howard, the elder half brother of Sir Robert Howard 
who married the heiress of Mowbray, and was the 
ancester of the Dukes of Norfolk. In her right the Earl 

* A fesse in chief a file of 11. points. Kirby. + and J Davy MSS. 

§ Kirby describing this shield gives De Vere impaled with the arms of Howard, 
Duke of Norfolk, including the demi lion on an escutcheon granted as an augmentation 
after the battle of Flodden Field. 



126 

quarters also the arms of Lord Scales her grandfather. 

In the 9th volume of the Journal of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute is an illustration of the seal of 
this Earl of Oxford, a beautiful specimen of the seals 
of the time of Henry vii. Vere quarters Howard with 
antelopes for supporters, the crest a boar. The late Mr. 
Gough Nicholls, the writer of this article in the Archaeo- 
logical Journal, adds, that the boar was from the earliest 
period of heraldry one of the cognizances of the family, 
and that it alluded through the Latin Verres to the 
surname of Vere. 

On the sixth shield this Earl impales with the arms 
of De Vere and Howard those of his first wife, Margaret 
Nfwille, daughter of Richard, Earl of Salisbury. 1 & 4 
Quarterly, l & 4 De Vere, 2 & 3 Howard, 2 & 3 Quarterly, 

1 & 4 Scales, 2 & 3 impaling. 1 & 4 Montacute 

quartering Monthermer, 2 & 3 Neville a saltire and in 
chief a label of 3 points. On the dexter side of this 
shield is a boar, on the sinister side a harpy, on its 
breast a mullet. 

Remains of this and other badges of the Earl may 
be recognized in the clerestory windows. Besides the 
mullet there is an example of the Jack, or windlass for 
bending the bow; this device 'is possibly a rebus upon 
the Christian name of the 13th Earl. Other examples 
are those of the Chair of Estate, a badge of the office of 
Lord Chamberlain, and of the fiery cresset, or fire beacon, 
a badge of the Lord High Admiral. Both these offices 
were held by the 13th Earl. In a late number of the 
Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society is a 
paper by the Rev. H. L. Elliot, in which the subject of 
the badges and devices of the De Veres is ably treated 
and illustrated. 

This Earl was a learned and a religious man as 
well as a munificent one. According to Weever he 
contributed largely to the finishing of St. Mary's Church, 
Cambridge. Greatly also he must have contributed 
towards this Church of Lavenham, this beautiful porch 



127 

being in all probability more especially his work. It 
was probably built while his first wife was yet alive, for 
the arms of his second wife are absent, this would appear 
to fix the date somewhat before the close of the reign of 
Henry vii. 

The great feature of Lavenham Church is its 
unrivalled tower. This is best seen from the approach 
by Lavenham Hall, whence its bold simplicity and 
noble height may be best appreciated. Passing into 
the church by the great western door, the interior of the 
tower is seen to be decorated with an arcade beneath 
which runs a stone bench. A newell staircase with a 
good door and an admirable hand rail cut out of the 
solid masonry leads to the belfry, which boasts of a peal 
of eight bells second to none in the county. The great 
tenor bell is one of the finest ever cast in the foundry 
of " Colchester Graye." The following is a record of 
the inscriptions on the bells taken in 1826. 

1. Miles Graye made me 1625 

2. Henry Pleasant made me 1702 

3. Hie mens usus erit populum clamore vocare 1603 

Puckardus Bowler me fecit 

4. Henry Pleasant made me 1703 

5. Jacobus Fuller et Antonius Hormesbye 

Gardiani Eclesie de Lavenham 
Richardus Bowler me fecit 1703 

6. Henry Pleasant made me 1702 

William Dobson Founder 1811 



7. 
8 



:} 



The western door has a segmental pointed arch, 
the soffit of which is richly panelled with quatrefoils. On 
the exterior, the doorway is deeply recessed ; it has an 
ogee dripstone beautifully crocketed, which passing 
through the string course appears again on the upper 
side and was originally terminated by a finial. The 
mouldings are rather poor, the caps are octagonal and 
bell shaped, and the bases are exceedingly stilted, 
pointing to the rapid debasement of the style. 

In the Eastern Counties buttresses built at the close 



128 

of the sixteenth century are frequently ornamented with 
elaborate flint work. The example of St. Mary's, Stratford, 
lately visited by our Society, will be in the recollection of 
many members, where the initials and trade mark of the 
founder are used for ornamentation. At Lavenham the 
buttresses have shields bearing arms. Upon the western 
buttresses are these arms as given in the Davy MS. 
2 sivords in saltire in chief a mullet in base the letter p. 2 
swords in saltire between 2 fleur de lis and in chief the letter p 
and a sun or star in base. 2 swords in saltire, in chief a 
crown, in base a p. 2 Keys in saltire, wards upwards. 

It has been suggested by high authority that the 
2 Keys standing alone may refer to some gild of St. 
Peter. But the gild of St. Peter, at Lavenham was not 
granted until 2 Edw. vi., and the buttresses must have 
been finished before this date. The same authority 
inclines to the opinion that the other arms are but 
examples of what the late Mr. Gough Nicholls called 
" sham Heraldry " and there I must be content to leave 
the question. 

Round the base of the Tower is a rich panelled 
band in compartments, which are ornamented with foil 
work of varied detail : also with shields, some bearing 
the initials or trade mark of the Springs, others the arms 
of De Vere and Howard for the 13th Earl, or of Montague 
and Neville for his first countess. 

The Tower appears to have been left in an uncom- 
pleted state. It now ends in a parapet having panels 
with coarsely executed shields bearing the arms of Spring 
org. a chevron between 3 mascles gu. This coat was not 
granted until after Henry viii had been some years on 
the throne, and it will be remembered that Thomas Spring, 
who died 1523, left by his will £200 to the finishing of 
the steeple. Can it be that the work was hindered by the 
question of the King's divorce, the fall of Wolsey, and 
the looming storm of the reformation ? 

It remains but to call attention to the parapet of 
the nave which is a pierced battlement with openings, 



129 

partly filled up with a large conventional leaf, perhaps a 
Tudor flower, rising upwards ; the intermediate spaces are 
enriched with boldly carved foliage in square panels. The 
coping is continuous, differing from that at St. Mary's 
Stratford, which is only used in its legitimate horizontal 
position. This points to later work. 

In conclusion, mention must be made of a tomb 
in the church yard which bears what Kirby calls an 
" odd jingling epitaph " over one John Wiles, Batchelor, 
who died AD 1694 

Quod fuit esse quod est, quod non fuit esse quod esse. 
Esse quod est non esse, quod est non est erit esse. 

The following translation appeared in the Gentlemen's 
Magazine 1840, p. 321. " That which has been, is the 
same as that which is : that which has not been is the 
same as that which has been. To be is the same as not 
to be ; that which is not, is not, it will be, to be." 

A more amusing interpretation appeared some years 
years ago in Blackwood's Magazine, on the supposition 
that the name of the deceased was Toby Watt. 
That which was Toby Watt, is what Toby Watt was 
not ; To be Toby Watt is not to be what Toby Watt is ; 
Toby is not, he will be. 

According to the reviewer in Blackwood the relatives 
of John Wales (or Wiles) borrowed the inscription, which 
is said to exist elsewhere. 

In Horsham Church, Sussex, is the same distich, 
with these lines after it 

Vita malis plena est pi a mors pretiosa corona est 
Post vitam mors est post mortem vita beata 

Cullum MS. 

I cannot close these few crude notes better than by 
expressing pleasure in the thought, that this noble work 
of the de Veres and the Springs has fallen into the care 
of the ancient house of Gonville and Caius. Under the 
fostering love of that College, and more especially owing 



130 

to the energy of the present rector, a former distinguished 
fellow of the college, very much has been done towards 
restoring the building to its original condition and 
beauty. The de Veres and the Springs have passed 
away, and there can be no renewing of the many heraldic 
emblems and devices which, in the pride of their heart, 
these families scattered broadcast over the building. But 
we may hope that the day is not far distant when the 
work of restoration shall be completed, and when these 
windows shall again be filled with rich stained glass ; 
then, and not till then, will the visitor be able to realize 
all the beautiful combinations of colour and form, of stone 
and glass, which in the 16th century were the glory of 
the parish church of Lavenham. 

Edw. M. Dewing. 

This paper was prepared for the meeting of the Suffolk Archaeological Institute, at 
Lavenham, August 7, 1877. 



ANCIENT STEELYARD WEIGHT. 

(temp : xm Century.) 

COMMUNICATED BY THE 

REV. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, Hon. Sec. 



An interesting, and as far as I am able to ascertain, 
unique specimen of the Weight or Equipoise formerly- 
used at the end of the beam in that mode of weighing, 
called the Auncel Weight, as used in the thirteenth 
Century, was recently found at Claydon, near Ipswich, 
in the grounds of F. Hale, Esq., embedded in the soil 
at a depth of something like twelve feet below the surface. 
From the spot where it was discovered, (by the side of 
the lane, near to, and leading from the high road to the 
church,) I am inclined to think it may have been acci- 
dently dropped by merchants, into a then existing ditch ; 
both the nature of the soil, and the surroundings, favour 
this conjecture. In no other way can I account for the 
Weight being found at such a spot, or at so great a depth, 
it having apparently remained undisturbed from the very 
first, and there being no trace of any ancient occupation 
to connect the relic with former days. 

The Weight has an outer coat of bronze, very thin, 
and is filled with lead. At the base the surface metal is 
completely worn away, and the rough material appears. It 
weighs 2 lbs. and half an ounce, and measures in height 
to the top of the attachment 2| inches. Its circumference 
at the broadest part is 7| inches. There has of course 
been a diminution from the original weight, consequent 
on the wearing away of the lower part, but I am unable 
to express any opinion as to the extent of the loss. 



132 

The Weight is bell-like in shape, and exhibits around 
its body three armorial escutcheons, which may be thus 
described : — 

1. A Lion rampant (Poictou) 

2. The double headed Eagle of the " King of the Romans " 

(Richard n, son of King John). 

3. Three Chevronels and an annulet in base. 

The two former bearings are by no means uncommon, 
but I have been unable positively to identify the latter, 
and no such arms are recorded to any one in the College 
of Arms. The three chevrons appear on the well known 
shield of the Clare family, while the annulet as a mark of 
cadency would denote the fifth son. Some clue may I 
venture to think, be found in the fact that Edmund of 
Almaine, Earl of Cornwall, the son and successor of 
Richard Plantagenet, second son of King John, inter- 
married with Margaret de Clare, daughter of Richard, 
Earl of Gloucester. Margaret de Clare was divorced 
from Edmund in 1294 and Edmund himself died A.D. 
1300. I am, however, quite unable to say why this 
Weight was impressed with this' particular shield. 

In aparliament atWestminsterunderRichardI.(1197) 
it was ordained that the Weights and Measures throughout 
the land should be uniform, and that the custody of the 
Assize or Standard Weights, &c, should be committed to 
certain persons in every City and Borough. The Weights 
consequently may have borne in different districts, the 
peculiar stamp of the chief person having authority in 
such matters, or have carried his arms. 

Through the aperture which stands out from the 
upper part of the Weight, the suspending hook passed, 
which beside serving the purpose of a handle, was 
doubtless found convenient for keeping a number of 
such Weights together. 

As to the particular use to which this Weight was put 
I have but little doubt. During the reign of Edward 
III. the town of Ipswich is known to have advanced 
considerably in wealth and importance, owing in a large 



133 

measure to the countenance given by the King- to the wool 
trade. The King himself had extensive stores of this com- 
modity in the town. Two thousand bags of wool, made up 
of gifts to the King, were by his authority shipped from the 
port of Ipswich, in the charge of Brabant merchants, in 
order to facilitate his designs against the French, the 
wool thus collected being placed under his seal. So 
great was his concern with regard to the wool traffic, that 
he allowed no merchant to export or sell wool without 
his express permission. An order concerning the weigh- 
ing of wool in the Town of Ipswich, (37 Edward in. A.U. 
1363) granted permission on the petition of " Our be- 
loved merchant John de Wesenham," that he and his 
partners having much wool, hides, and sheep skins, in 
the town of Ipswich and its neighbourhood, might be 
allowed to embark them to " ou^ town of Calais." " And 
therefore" the licence proceeds, "we command you, 
that you, with the weights and other instruments 
appointed for the weighing of wool in the said town 
* * go personally to the said port of Ipswich and 
weigh all the wool of the said John and his partners 
which are in the same place and its neighbourhood, 
etc." The King likewise granted to John de Portrare 
184 bags of wool from the port of Ipswich in part pay- 
ment of £2500 promised to be paid him for the redemp- 
tion of the two Crowns of Queen Philippa which were 
held by him in pawn. The collection of such immense 
stores of wool apparently made from the adjacent villages 
and towns, in small quantities, would involve constant 
use of the Steelyard and authorized Weights, which were 
probably called into requisition at some special halting 
place in each locality that furnished its quota. 

In the old Chamberlains' Accounts of the Borough of 
Ipswich, now in private possession (1464, 3 Edw. iv.) 
I find the following entry : — 

Itm payd for mendyiig of y e weytys in y e Wulle hows xxj d 

Later on (A.D. 1474) it is ordered that the wool 

Q 



134 

weights of the Town shall be according to the custom 
of London. The Bailiffs were also especially enjoined 
to try Weights twice or thrice in the year. In the Great 
Doomsday Book (Liber QuintusJ the following regulation 
of an early date is laid down : — 

" ffor them that use to sell by weight or mesure 

" And that all psones usyng to by or sell by weight or by mesure shall 
have ther weights & mesurys ensealed accordyng to the Standard of o r 
soflaigne lord the Kyng upon peyfi of forfaiture of all suche goodes so 
weyed and mesured And Impsonment of the trepasour at the furst tyme 
And at y e secude tyme upon payne of forfaiture of the same goodes And 
the body of the trepassour to stonde upon the pillory And the thirde 
tyme upon payne of forfaiture of the same goodes And the body of the 
trespasour to forswere the Town by the space of a yere and a day." 

Although the Weights used at these several periods 
were altogether of a different character, (seeing the 
Steelyard Weight, owing to great deceit practised in its 
use was prohibited by Statute in the 34 th year of the 
reign of Edward III., and the even balance or scale 
commanded to be used in its stead) yet it is evident from 
the whole of the foregoing that an extensive use was 
made of the Standard Weight in weighing the wool, 
brought largely from the neighbourhood to the common 
depository in Ipswich, the weighing apparatus accompany- 
ing the ' staple ' in the manner indicated. In this way 
I venture to think the Weight in question may have been 
used in the locality where found, and then lost. 

Bronze equipoises of a very similar kind were in use 
among the ancient Komans : one having a remarkably 
fine head of the Emperor Hadrian was exhibited at the 
meeting of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology held at 
Bury Saint Edmund's, January 26, 1859. 

Two Steelyard Weights found near Norwich, four 
sided, and with the handle sloping off to a point forming 
an integral part of the Weight itself, and pierced by a 
hole for attaching to the beam, were exhibited to the 
Society of Antiquaries in 1832* A similar Weight is 
described and engraved in the Archaeological Journal 

* Archseologia, vol. xxv, p. 589. 



135 

(Vol. ii, 203). One found at Lewes, without the upper 
portion, is figured in Appendix E to Lower's Curiosities 
of Heraldry, where there is a lengthy account. Though 
varying in form, and found in different localities, they 
appear in date, workmanship and material, and with 
slight exceptions, heraldic bearings, identical. The Rev. 
C. R. Manning tells me that he possesses a similar 
Weight, with the perforation for attachment at one of the 
angles. Mention is made of such a weight in Price's 
History of Oswestry : a Bronze Steelyard Weight was dug 
up some years ago at Toddington, Beds, (see Gentlemen's 
Magazine, vol. xiv, 3rd series, p. 49, 1863). A leaden 
heater-shaped Weight, impressed with the Royal Arms, 
was found at Croyland near the Monastery, and a bronze 
Weight of like form, which is mentioned with other 
examples in the Archaeological Journal (Vol. xvii, p. 165) 
has a square perforation for the purpose of suspension, in 
one case in the upper part of the shield, and in the other 
at the lower extremity. A Steelyard Weight in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries has around the 
edge the angelic salutation, %ht $$am tiu ; this was found 
with another like Weight at Wharfedale in Yorkshire. 

In conclusion I have to express my obligation to 
Mrs. Cotton, of Silent Street, Ipswich, for having brought 
the Weight to my notice, and for so kindly furnishing me 
with an excellent drawing of the same with the armorial 
bearings, (from which my own is taken) and which 
together were exhibited at the recent Ipswich meeting. 
My thanks are equally due to F. Hale, Esq., of Clay don, 
m whose possession the Weight remains, for allowing me 
to inspect the place where it was discovered, and generally 
for his kind attention. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



THE OLD INNS AND TAVERNS OF IPSWICH 

THEIR MEMORIES AND ASSOCIATIONS. 

COMMUNICATED BY THE 

REV. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, Hon. Sec. 



It is little more than half a century ago since our 
gentle Suffolk Poet, Bernard Barton, told in elegant 
verse of the " ling' ring reliques" of a celebrated Ipswich 
Inn,* that with many a similar hostelry " speak of proud 
and long past hours," — 

"These tell a plain unvarnished tale 
Of wealth's decline and pride's decay." 

The lapse of well nigh eighty years has only intensified 
the thought to which utterance is here given, and is 
continually making itself felt in the mind and experience 
of the Antiquary. And inasmuch, to use the words of 
the same Poet, 

" Truths which no attention wake 

When Poets sing or Parsons teach, 
Perchance may some impression make 

When thus a public house may preach." 

it will not appear strange, quite apart from a purely 
antiquarian stand point, that with little or no interest 
in the ordinary concerns of an Inn or Tavern, I am 
desirous of gathering some few at least of the perishing 
memories of the more interesting of their number, and 
and the varied associations surrounding them. 

If this hastily compiled "holiday" paper shall in 
any degree succeed in recording the fast dying memories 
of a bygone age, and in rescuing from oblivion some of 
those smaller details relating to a somewhat common 

* The Tankard. 



137 

place subject, the pleasure of preparing this paper will 
be considerably enhanced. I have at odd times indulged 
myself in glancing — it has been little else — at the past 
history of the town, and noting whatever appeared to 
be worthy of permanence. The result thus far has been 
a series of "pictures of the past-" of which this attempt 
to pourtray a special phase of mediaeval life, may claim 
to occupy a prominent position. The past of an ancient 
town like Ipswich, seems specially to call for separate 
and distinct treatment of its numerous parts, in order 
that full justice may be done to the several features of 
its social and corporate, as well as its mercantile and 
religious life. Although I have here only sought to 
investigate the special points of the subject with which we 
are more immediately concerned, and do not pretend to 
treat it exhaustively, yet I trust that something may be 
found both interesting and useful, which if not positively 
new to some, may nevertheless prove acceptable. 

I need scarcely dwell upon the important part that 
the ancient hostelries have played in the history of our 
old English towns, and Ipswich, is far from being an 
exception. The influence formerly exercised by these 
houses on the life of the inhabitants, must have been 
very great, while the actual well-being of the place 
may be said to have largely depended upon them. The 
position of Ipswich as an important maritime town, and 
taking a front place in the trade of mediaeval times, as 
well as having a great attraction for travellers, gave to it an 
eminence and distinction, shared by few towns of similar 
size, if indeed by any. The religious houses, with 
their different dependencies, made the town a convenient 
and welcome halting place, if not an habitual resort for a 
large number of the religiously disposed; while as a 
great wool mart, from which extensive exports were 
continually being made, it brought together crowds of 
merchants and others intent on the more secular concerns 
of life. It follows as a matter of course that Inns and 
Taverns abounded at a very early period of the town's 



138 

history. Social life when Ipswich first sprang into being 
in Saxon days, was at a very low ebb, indeed, about as 
unsociable a thing as it is possible to conceive. Added to 
the wretched accommodation of which the poorer classes 
were obliged to avail themselves, it must be confessed that 
the ale-house, with its irresistable attractions, greatly 
increased their sorrows, although apparently ministering 
to their comforts. In these early days, such houses were 
pretty numerous, and became the frequent resort of the 
people, and too often the scenes of such riot and disorder, 
as to lead to regulations being enforced of a somewhat 
stringent character. Of course there is no positive 
evidence as to the number or character of such houses 
which at the time existed in Ipswich, but the foregoing 
facts as to the high position held by the town at a 
subsequent period, sufficiently warrant us in supposing, 
that the number, compared with the population, was 
by no means small, while in point of character, it was, all 
things considered, probably neither better nor worse 
than the ordinary run of such houses in other places. 

It may be as well to observe at the outset, that 
there is a broad distinction between an Inn and a Tavern 
or Ale-house, although they have come to be regarded as 
well nigh synonymous terms. An Inn is a very ancient 
institution, the history of which goes back to a very 
remote period, concerning which it is impossible to 
speak at all positively. It is certain that there was a 
time when the Inn, as we generally regard it, did not 
exist. In the hospitable days of the heroic times, travels 
were never undertaken for commercial or other business 
considerations, and there was consequently no real need 
of the Inn. As its name implies, an Inn is a house set 
apart for the accommodation of strangers, who for the 
time being find therein a home, but the Tavern is really 
a place for the consumption, by the numbers who con- 
gregate there, of the wine and other intoxicating drinks, 
sold by the Taverner who keeps the house. These 
houses which were known to the ancients as ' wine shops,' 



139 

continue to be known as ale-houses. Somehow or other, 
the distinction has almost if not entirely ceased, and 
both are now comprehended under the familiar and 
more generic term of ' Public house.' Certainly houses of 
either class are more or less for the use and accommoda- 
tion of the public, but when it is borne in mind that the 
Public house, as such, has even from the very remote 
Roman period, had a sort of infamy attached to it (even 
to the incurring of certain disabilities) affecting alike the 
person who kept, as well as those frequenting it, the 
larger term in its universal application is to be regretted. 
But as in all else, there have been frequent changes in 
public opinion, and the keepers of Taverns have not 
unfrequently held positions of trust and importance in 
town affairs, and stood high in the estimation of their 
neighbours. Although there are on record instances as 
early as the 13th century, of keepers of Taverns being 
for instance, returned to Parliament, it is more than 
probable, that innkeepers have all along felt that the 
position was one of such peculiar difficulty, as to cause 
them to abstain from seeking to occupy offices of dignity 
and authority. While the Tavern has undergone but 
little change, it is quite otherwise with the Inn. The 
chief Inns of mediaeval Ipswich undoubtedly were the 
monasteries, and it was to one or other of these that 
travellers would resort for rest and refreshment while 
pursuing their journey. At an early period of our 
history no lodgings, in the ordinary sense of the word, 
were to be had. Later on we find two distinct classes 
of Inns, known respectively as hostelries and herbagies. 
In the one, master, servant, and beast, found accommoda- 
tion under one roof, but the herbager only provided for 
the guests proper. Houses were to be met with, both in 
the town and in the suburbs, chiefly intended for the 
reception of the rather numerous class of strolling 
entertainers, consisting of itinerant musicians, theatrical 
performers, jugglers, tumblers, rope dancers, ball players, 
wrestlers, &c, who seem to have paid frequent visits to 



140 

the town. It was a very prevalent custom in the middle 
ages among the upper classes to keep " open house" and 
quite irrespective of condition, all were welcome to the 
bounty provided. Travellers of the better class would 
find no difficulty in securing a comfortable lodging and all 
proper provision, in the houses of certain of the towns- 
folk moving in their own condition of life, and for such 
conveniences, the traveller would on leaving, render to 
his host a suitable recompense. To give an example of 
this latter usuage, an old poem, published by the Early 
English Text Society, (Floijre and BlanchefleurJ after 
recounting the adventures of hero and heroine, who, while 
seeking each for the other 

"To a riche City they bothe ycome 
Whaire they have their inn ynome."* 

proceeds to relate, how at the house of 

" a burgess that was wel kind and curteis " 

first the one, and then the other, unconscious of the foot- 
steps of each, took up their abode. They in turn left, 
the last to quit, first receiving tidings of his beloved, 

" tooke his leave and wende his way 

And for his nights gesting 

He gaf his host an hundred schillinge." 

In mediaeval days, during the reign of superstition, the 
far-famed shrine of " Our Ladye of Ipswich " in particular, 
and other like religious attractions, were the means of 
drawing to thetownan immense concourse of pilgrims from 
all parts of the land. The accommodation afforded by 
the Inn would be largely called into requisition, and of 
course tended greatly to increase the number, and to 
raise the character of these houses. At periodical times 
the number of devotees would be specially large, and 
make the finding of lodgings a matter of difficulty. 
Persons on such errands would usually travel in com- 
panies and frequent the same Inns, continuing throughout 
their sojourn in close intercourse, so that in all probability 

* taken. 



141 

many of the Inns were very capacious. A good insight 
into Inn life upon similar occasions, may be seen in an 
account given by Erasmus in his well-known Colloquy of 
a pilgrimage to the sister shrine in Norfolk, " Our Ladye 
of Walsingham." A fragment of wood said to have 
been cut from a beam upon which the Virgin Mother 
had been seen to rest, was he says obtained from this 
shrine. The possessor of the relic, being questioned as 
to whether he had made trial of the powers of the wood 
(sin) replied " I have : in an Inn before the end of three 
days I found a man afflicted in mind for whom charms 
were then in preparation. This piece of wood was 
placed under his pillow, unknown to himself; he fell 
into a sleep equally deep and prolonged ; in the morning 
he rose of whole mind." 

A well-known Ipswich Inn, called "The Assumption," 
was doubtless a favorite house, especially among strangers 
visiting the town under such circumstances. It may 
have been in some way connected with the Chapel of 
"our Ladye of Grace," and in all probability stood not 
far from the building. All we know for certain is that 
the Inn stood in the town itself, but seeing that it was 
expressly provided by an act of the Great Court, that no 
building should be raised within some distance from the 
Chapel, it may be reasonably supposed that the Inn was 
at least not in close proximity. 

The Ipswich Inns proper, in all probability main- 
tained a high character, certainly about this time, for 
respectability and efficiency. Chaucers " Canterbury 
Pilgrims" not only sojourned at the sign of the 
"Chequers" in that city, but the host of the well- 
known " Tabard" in Southwark, from which house they 
set out, acted as their leader and guide, which says 
much for the reputation then enjoyed by persons whose 
calling was that only of innkeepers. 

It was not until about the 13th or 14th Century, 
that Inns at which "refreshment" beside the ordinary 
board and lodging could be obtained, were introduced 

R 



142 

into England, and it was not for some time after that 
they were to be found at all, except in the most 
important towns, among which Ipswich was of course 
to be numbered. Previous to the introduction of Inns, 
men used hospitality one to another, apparently free 
from anything like a grudging spirit, indeed, if 
desired, the duty of hospitality could be enforced by 
law. But as persons only travelled in those days 
upon most urgent occasions, the difficulty of provid- 
ing for the stranger would be comparatively trifling. Oi 
course the monasteries every where took the lead in 
shewing hospitality, setting apart for the special con- 
venience of the wayfaring man, what might be termed an 
Inn within, known as the Hospitium or Guest-house, which 
was frequently a detached building. Over this part 
of a monastic establishment, a monk known as the 
Hospitaller presided, generally with praiseworthy dili- 
gence. The duty of attending to the due supply of food 
and drink for the inmates of a monastic establishment 
and their dependants, devolved upon the Cellarer. In 
an old Rental of the Priory of the Holy Trinity or Christ 
Church, Ipswich (temp: Henry iii, 1216-1272), (a convent 
which enjoyed pre-eminence among the religious houses 
in the town and neighbourhood of Ipswich,) mention is 
made of one Rog'us Cellarius, paying to the Priory 
for premises " in paroch' S'ce Mar' de Turri" a rent of 
xxi d at Michaelmas and Easter. It is impossible to say 
whether or no Roger was actually at the time Cellarer 
of the Convent, but as it happened that such a secular 
officer was frequently appointed entirely to superintend 
outdoor business, it is by no means improbable that 
he may have served the house in this vocation. Any- 
how the position was one of some influence, both as 
regarded the town and the monastery, and the stranger 
would in all probability resort to him if in any special 
need. It is, however, even more likely that he may 
have sold wine from out the cellar in the ordinary discharge 
of his calling as a Taverner, without being in any special 



143 

way connected with the Priory. If so, it is as far as we 
know, one of the earliest instances on record of the 
exercise of the trade of openly selling- liquors. It 
was not always the case that a Tavern was an ordinary 
house on the street level ; it frequently was only a cellar. 
Some years ago a Tavern of this kind, known as " The 
Fountain " existed in St. Nicholas parish. In the Rental 
to which I have just referred occurs the name of Robert le 
Tatfn 1 de domo Morel in paroch S' ] ci Laurencii, who apparently 
was the keeper of an ordinary Tavern, but the house does 
not appear at this early date to have been distinguished by 
any special sign, with which we soon after become 
familiar. In another Rental of the same priory, pro- 
bably the oldest Ipswich Inn with which we are 
acquainted, is mentioned as standing in Brocstrete 
(Brook Street) in the parish of Saint Margaret, facing 
the east end of what is familiarly known as the Butter 
Market, and which was designated, and continued to be 
so until the present century, by the sign of " The Grey- 
hound." It was always a house of importance, and in 
its earliest clays was of great extent as it included two 
separate holdings, which appear in the Rental as " Will's 
Bullijng * * * pro una parte terre que fait quonda le 
Greyhound" and " Relic ta RobH Fabr' pro secunda parte 
terre d'ci le Greyhund." In an assessment of the Town 
property (1689) it stands at £50, the identical sum at 
which Lord Hereford was assessed for the manor, park, 
gardens, &c, of Christ Church. In the Coroners Rolls 
of the time of Edward III, the name of Nicholas the 
Taverner is mentioned. 

The Tavern or Ale-house of olden time, appears to 
have been a much frequented place of resort, and in those 
days, so often marked by acts of open violence, was the 
scene of the greatest riot and disorder. The ill effects 
wrought by means of some at least of the Ipswich Taverns 
is seen in the accounts of Inquests held about the same 
time over the bodies of deceased persons. One William 
Sorrel, is said to have fallen into the water and was so 



144 

drowned, being- at the time de vino imbutus. Another 
townsman, one Hugh de Coventre, is stated to have been 
feloniously slain while frequenting an Ipswich Tavern. 
In 12 Edward iii, on the night of a certain Lord's Day 
as Geoffrey Costyn and Roger Bande were leaving one of 
the Taverns in the town (both the worse, it may be 
reasonably presumed, for their visit to the Tavern), 
Roger, wishing to lead Geoffrey "to the priory of the 
Church of the Holy Trinity of Ipswich, where the said 
Geoffrey was tarrying " (here we have an instance of the 
hospitality extended by the monastery, apparently to 
even the ill-favoured among the people) u offensive words 
arose between them, which led Roger to draw his knife 
(mensurum) upon his companion, causing his death : a 
verification truly of the words of a 15th Century Ipswich 
Poet 

" Ale mak many a mane to draw hys knyfe ; 
Ale mak man} - a mane to mak gret stryfe." 

The usuages of an Inn or lodging house find a suitable 
illustration in the account given of an inquest held 
respecting the death of one, Robert Bunne, in the 
parish of St. Peter, at the hands of a certain John 
de Dersham (14 Edw: in). They " lying together as 
comrades in the same bed, the one struck the other with a 
hatchet while he slept." The house was evidently a 
common Inn. It will be noticed that in these several 
cases no mention is made of the Tavern or Inn being 
known by any sign, neither is there any reference to the 
person keeping the house. 

A MS. "Song Book of an Ipswich Minstrel" (temp 
xv Cent.), formerly deposited among the Town Records, 
but now in a private collection, is peculiarly rich in what 
are known as u drinking songs," the burden of one of 
these is to be found in the refrain, 

" Bryng ns in good ale, and bryng us in good ale ; 
For our blyssyd lady sak, bryng us in good ale." 

Another has this heading, and continues in the same 



145 

strain throughout, 

" How gossipe myn, gossipe myn, 
When wyll ye go to the Wyn ?" 

From the last mentioned song we gather that the tavern 
of this time was not only a resort for those who desired 
to eat and drink, but with its diversified attractions was 
the home of what might be termed "popular entertain- 
ment." 

" Now be we in tavern sett, 

A drowght off the best let him fett, 

To bring our husbondes out off dett, 

For we will spend tyll God more send." 

are words put into the mouth of a woman, who with 
other companions plainly desired to ' drive dull care 
away,' by the least likely method of accomplishing it. 
Ths rhymster gives us a gloomy picture of those who 
frequented an Ipswich Inn, of whom he says 

" Sume be at the taverne ons in a weeke, 
And so be sume every daie eke." 

It is, however, refreshing to find in a song in praise of 
good women, these lines concerning them, 

"To the taverne tbei will not goo, 
Nor to the ale-howse never the moo, 
Fore, God wott, thei hartes shalbe woo 
To spend ther husbondes money soo. 

The Taverners of Ipswich were subject to very 
express regulations, as far back as the time of the first 
compilation of the town Doomsday Book (cir 1291). 
For instance no Taverner or seller of wine was to keep 
open his Tavern after the Curfew bell had ceased. In 
the 17th year of the reign of Edward iv. (1477), strangers 
(Dutchmen), of which there were large numbers in the 
town, were made to feel the inequality of man (!) in being 
ordered to pay for each Inn or shop any of their number 
might keep 20d, and for any servant receiving wages 6d. 
Such innkeepers or shopkeepers were also obliged to 
answer for their servants yearly, and were denied the 
privilege of entertaining merchants as guests, in default 
to pay a penalty of 6s. 8d., to be levied by distress for 



146 

each offence. The foreign traders who came to Ipswich 
were subject to the most vigorous enactments of a very 
arbitrary character, the result of a short sighted policy 
that must greatly have hindered the growth of early 
commerce, and retarded the prosperity of the kingdom. 
One of these inconveniences, which must have pressed 
hardly upon the strangers, though a slight one compared 
with some other of their grievances, was the withholding 
from them the right of dwelling in their own houses, and 
living- therein after their own manner. To meet the 
difficulty thus occasioned, resort was had to a class of 
men termed Hostmen, with whom the 'strangers' were 
expected to lodge and board. Whether or no they were 
innkeepers in the strictest sense of the term I am unable to 
say. Their occupation was certainly not very dis-similar. 
But in addition they appear to have acted as brokers or 
salesmen to their l guests,' and to have dealt very 
unfairly by them. In the charter of Henry iii, however, 
all such brokerage was forbidden. The conduct of 
these hostmen may be seen in the following passage 
from Nathl. Bacon's account of the charter as given in 
his "Annals of Ipswich:" — 

" Nevertheless, divers ffree Burgesses, minding theire private gaines, 
tooke uppon them as hoasts to marchants, and made private sale of 
theire commodities, and many times w tb out the march.' 8 consent, and 
kepe the fourth part of suche sales to themselves for hoastage, and 
buyers do buye for themselves and theire Burgesses. It is therefore 
ordered that noe hoaste nor broker shall intermedle in such sales nor 
shall any ^ lh p l be allowed or demanded " &c. 

It should be mentioned, however that the early 
Regulations for these Hostmen are thus laid down in the 
little Doomsday Book (Chap, xxxvn) : — 

"And also avise wee all straunge merchaunts coming to the forseid 
toun with her merchaundise that they takyn goode hostes and trewe, for zif 
her hostys ben sellerys of her merchaundise the hosts shal answeren 
to her merchauntes of the fulle ; And zif they ne doon, thanne be the 
same execucioun azenst other wikked payers." 

Further on (Chap, lx) the subject is thus continued : — 

It is ordeyned by comoun counceil of the forseid toun of Yippeswich 



147 

that non of the forseid toun but if he be a burgeys of the same toun, 
with innen pere and commouner *be hostes of straunge merchauntz that 
corayn to the forseid toun be watir with her rnerchaundise there for to 
sellyn and all the hostes be counselyng to her merchauntz whanne and 
to whom they owen to sellyn her rnerchaundise, of which rnerchaundise 
eche host may han his fortie (fourth) part, with outyn more after the 
market that the rnerchaundise is selled, and the tothyr iij partys to 
other goodemen of the toun. And zif the same hostes sellyn be her 
owen hand the good of ther merchauntz, thanne be they holdyn to 
answeryn to the same merchauntz of as much as her merchandize is 
sold for. And although the aforesaid merchauntz sellyn her owne 
goodus privylich with oute counseil of her hostes nevertheless have the 
same hostes have the ferste (fourth) partie of the same rnerchaundise, 
as wel as though the same hostes hadden ben counceloures and sellers. 
But of merchauntz! vynteres that sellyn her vynes o\it of celeres of 
what lond that they ben ne of merchauntz woderes that sellyn her woode 
out of taverne or out of gerner, her hostes moun no thyng takyn 
chalange ne cleymyn in the ferthe part of her rnerchaundise as it is 
afornsaid, by resoun of her host." 

It is not surprising that laws of this character, 
fraught with such manifold harm to the town at large, 
were doomed to short continuance. 

The innkeeper, although, occasionally made to feel 
the isolation of his position, was often times entrusted 
with duties apparently of some importance, as may be 
seen with respect to the exportation of bullion, the laws 
relating to which were very stringent towards the close 
of the 13th Century, for we find him appointed to search 
persons coming to the town for trading purposes, he 
being allowed the fourth part of any seizure, which 
ultimately was increased to one third. But while such 
duties were entrusted to him, he was considered incom- 
petent to hold the meanest of public offices. We have 
an example of this in the Court Books (26 Eliz: 1584) 
when "William Russell, Richard Bemont, Bartholomew 
Fenn, and William Gilbert, were elected to be the four 
Town Serjeants " provided if Richard Bemont doe not 
leave of victualling and selling of wine before Christmas 
next, and use himselfe well in that office in the meane 
time, then shall he be excluded his office by the discretion 

* A burgess residing within the town, paying scot and lot as distinguished from a 
foreign burgess. 



148 

of the Bayliffs, provided allso that no other serjeant shall 
henceforth victuall within the Town uppon the like paine." 
On the occasion of the marsh lands belon^in^ to the 
town being viewed and dooled out (15 Eliz. 1573) " that 
the same might be demised by parcels to such as would 
give the most by the year," victuallers were expressly 
excepted. 

In the reign of Edward VI. an attempt was made to 
restrict the number of Taverns, &c, in the principal 
towns in England, which however proved futile. The 
town appears to have exercised some jurisdiction in this 
direction, certainly as regards Vinteners. In 2 Eliz. 1560 
William Savell and William Cooke had licences granted 
them under the Town Seal to sell wine, as the Statute 
limited, within the Town. The number of Vinteners was 
apparently increased soon afterwards, for in granting a 
wine licence to one Giles Stedman (1568) it was ordered 
that he should be one of the three Vinteners of the town 
according to the Statute. In the 11th year of Elizabeth's 
reign we find three Vinteners, viz., *Tho: Bobet, Wm. 
Savell and Giles Stedman, licensed by the town for that 
year, " provided they behave themselves." In the follow- 
ing year James Bedingfield and Steven Greenleaf were 
chosen in place of the two latter. The number of three 
does not seem to have been increased for some years 
after, as we find it remaining the same in 1603 (1 James). 

The constables were allowed (1 Ed: VI.) to grant 
licences to the victuallers within the town, and all 
offenders without their licence were to forfeit 12 d. for 
every days transgression. For a misdemeanour one 
William Harvy was discharged from the exercise of his 
calling as a Victualler (3 Ed: VI.), but was afterwards 
re-instated on paying a fine of Ten Shillings : such acts 
of the Great Court were probably of frequent occurrence. 
For a time at least the number of Taverns was limited, 
it being ordered (17th Eliz: 1575.), " that the Bayliffs and 
Justices shall licence only twenty Tipplers (Publicans or 
Tavern keepers) yerely for this Towne, and if more shall 



149 

be licensed, the Bayliffs shall forfaite their fee of £5, 
and others offending shall forfaite £5, to be levied by 
distress." In the " Twenty-five regulations for the 
government of the Town," this order is thus laid 
down : — 

" Itm to allowe in any ward but vj typpelers to drawe beer w'hin 
the hous only for fforeyners yfe that ther be mor then 24 allowed in the 
towne they Mr. Baylyffs to lose ther ffees, that is \li the man." 

That the town should not suffer, by the negligence 
in certain matters of the men so allowed, they were 
required to give sufficient security. In the following 
year, a difference between the Master of Requests and the 
Town, concerning the licensing of Tipplers within Stoke 
parish, was referred to the " Councill at London." In 
the same year it appears that the Bayliffs, acting on the 
authority possessed by them to admit any Victualler 
in the Town, over and above the number prescribed, 
admitted one such Victualler, John Bird, and in the 
following year, John Minter was "allowed to tipple or 
draw beere according to the Statute." 

In the 22nd year of Henry VIII. fines were inflicted 
upon several for offences in Inn-keeping, which clearly 
proves that some amount of care was exercised by the 
authorities, even in those remote days, with regard to the 
conduct of the Inns and Taverns of the town. It is 
recorded (30 Hen: VIII.) that the whole fine of Roger 
May for Ganniking was forgiven, saving hli 6s. 8c/., 
provided he offend no further. Later on, (22 Eliz: 
1579) an additional Victualler was allowed a licence, 
" in consideration he shall at the Bayliffs' appointment 
be helpful to cure poore men in reasonable manner ;" 
by which is probably meant, that his house was to be 
regarded very much in the light of a free hospital. 
The town likewise exercised control over the various 
commodities and articles of food, from a very early 
period. Brewers of beer had to be specially licensed, 
and were forbidden either to sell beer at an under price, 
or to brew any beer for sale in other than the ancient 

s 



150 

brewhouses, by continuance of ten years at the least. 
London beer also was forbidden to be introduced into the. 
town, or at least sold by retailers, and the manufacture 
of malt was discountenanced, except in malt houses used 
for the purpose at least Ten years. Bakers only were 
allowed to bake horsbread, the Innkeepers being specially 
prohibited (17 Edw: IV. 1477.) 

The Ipswich Great Domesday Book f Liber Quintus) 
contains the following directions : — 

" ffor Brewers and Gannokers. 

" And that all co-men Brewers And Gannokers shall selle a galon 
of the best ale for ij d And not above And a galon of the Seconde ale for 
j d and not above upon peyh of a grevous amcyment And that all comen 
Brewers and Gannokers shall sell by just and true mesures ensealed 
accordyng to the Kyng's Standard upon like peyn of grevous amercy- 
nients." 

The English people, according to William of Malmes- 
bury, were in the reign of Henry ii (A.D. 1154 — 1189) 
universally addicted to drunkenness. This sad state of 
things was largely due to the very moderate price at 
which drink could be obtained. In the 11th Century 
the best spiced ale could be bought for Eightpence the 
imperial gallon. In 1251 the price was Id. for two 
gallons of Ale in Cities, and three or four gallons 
for the same price in the Country. Ale and such 
like merchandise of liquor, going forth or coming 
into the town, was subject to a duty of 2d for every 
hogshead, pipe, or barrel (Doomsday Book A.D. 
1340.) " The Buttulerage Boke of Ippyswiche " contains 
the names of several Ipswich merchants who were charged 
with the customs of Butlerage and Prisage as importers, 
among other articles, of the wine of Gascony. It is 
obvious that the commodities of wine and beer, were not 
only things of daily consumption, but that a large and 
extensive trade was carried on. In 1550, Holinshed 
calculates the first cost of tenscore gallons of beer at 
20s., or not quite l^d. for a gallon. 

It was not until the 16th Century that hops were 



151 

used in the brewing of beer, when they were first 
introduced from the Netherlands, and strange as we may 
account it, up till this time the business of brewing was 
almost entirely performed by females, called breweresses 
or alewives. 

By an order of 28 Eliz: (158.6) a Brewer was bound 
not to lay in beer to unlicensed houses, or if he refused, 
he was to be discharged from his trade of brewing within 
the town. Neither was any person allowed to set up 
such trade of brewing until he had given security. In 
the year 158 L (23 Eliz:) 0De of the Bailiffs, Mr. Gooding, 
before taking the oath of office, desired, that being a 
Brewer, he might have two Commoners joined with him 
for setting of assize of bread, beer, ale and wine, but it 
was not judged necessary to allow the motion. 

Edward III. in the third year of his reign (1464) 
granted a Charter to the Bailiffs, by which an assize (or 
assessment) of wine and ale and all Victuals, as well as 
of weights and measures within the town and precincts 
of the same was ordered. By such an Assize the prices 
of bread and ale would be determined. In 1465 — 6 
(5 Edw: IV.) it was directed that no burgess of the town 
should be amerced for brewing, (which refers to brewing 
of a private nature,) and that the ' best ale ' should be 
sold at ljd. the quart, and 'the worst' at fd. No. 16 
of the twenty-five regulations before alluded to, is as 
follows : — 

" Itm that the Brewers shall brewe but too kynd of Beares upon 
paine to forfait the same except for p'vat mens howses." 

It was an ordinance of the town "that after Michelmesse 
moneth, whan men may have barlych (malt) of newe 
greyn, that the ballyves of the forseid toun doo cryen 
assize of ale by all the toun, after that the sellyng of 
corn be. And zif ther be founden ony that selle or 
brewe a zeyns the assise and the crye, be he punysshed 
be the forseyd ballyves and by the court for the trespass, 
after the fourme conteyned in the Statute of merchaundise 
(13 Edw: I.) of oure lord the King, and after lawe and 



152 
usage of the same toun." (Little Domesday Book Cap 

LXXX].) 

That very great care was exercised in order to 
insure that the drinks should be pure and unadulterated, 
is evident from the following : (Ips: Litt: Domes: Cap. 
lxxxij.) "Also it is used in the forseyd toun that 
the ballives of the same toun, from zer to zere, in 
the same toun in the Sesoun bytwixen elde wynes and 
newe, shul takyn with hem 01 the best vynteres o 
the toun, and they shal goon and serchyn of all th< 
tavernys and the celerys of the toun, as well of priv^ 
as of straunge, and by oth of good and trewe taverneres 
and of other men, and by avysement of hemself, they shal 
tasten all the olde wynys that they fyndyn in the toun in 
taverne or in celer. And zif they fyndyn ony wyn that 
be corrupt and perlous to drynkyn for mannys body, or 
for to medelyn with newe wyn, a non without havyng 
reward to ony persone, the ballives of the toun shal doo 
shaky n out that wyn in the hie Street, and there in 
comoun sight of men dampnyn (condemn) the tunne or 
the pipe, and the vessell shal duelle to the baillifs for her 

fee." 

In the same way that no Bailiff or portman was 
allowed to be l hoste of strange merchauntes,' so it was 
expressly forbidden (8 Henry VI. 1429) for " any Bayliff 
for the time being Bayleff, to sell Wine or Ale in 
his house or taverne, or too regrate victualls, eyther 
by him selfe or other for him, neither to let out his 
Taverne to any other to sell wine or ale during such 
time. Nor was he to hold a common Tune in his 
house or nor Host'ry, nor sell horsebread, or hay, or 
otes, under perill of forfaiture of 10U to the use of the 
Towne, to be recovered before the next succeeding 
Bayliffs and sixe portmen in full portman mote, in the 
presence of suche offender, being duly summoned there- 
unto. Provided that the new elect Bayliff, having one 
Tunn or two Pipes of wine at the time of his election, 
be at liberty to Sell the same after his Election, or after 



153 

Mic: day." It was some such regulation that led to an 
order being made that all Chamberlins after the death of 
Richard ffelaw might have actions against Wm. Cady for 
using the trade of Common Brewer. At an earlier time, 
this great strictness was apparently relaxed, for among 
the twelve portmen ' honest and sufficient men ' elected 
in the year 1309 "to give just judgement, and to do all 
other things for the profitt of the Towne," we find 
among those chosen for the parishes of St. Mary Quay 
and St. Clements, the name of " Half le Taverner." 

From " an order taken att Yepiswiche the xxviiith 
day of December in the xvth yere of the reyne of Kynge 
Henrie the viiith by the Bailiffs and Couaseill of the 
seid toun for the Reformacion of the mesur and weightes 
of ale potts, bere-pottes, otis and heie, to be had witin 
the seid toun from hensforth and affermyed by a greatt 
Court kept in the seid toun the Thursday next byfore 
the feste of Seynte Valentyn in the said xvten yere of 
the seid Kynge " — it was determined that beer and ale 
should be sold by measure of pots marked and sealed by 
the Corporation.* Penny pots and half-penny pots were 
consequently made, sealed, and delivered, to every Inn 
holder, and every such Inn keeper was also to sell oats after 
one and the same measure, which also was to be sealed. 
No wine, beer, or ale, was to be sold but by such measures, 
marked sealed and delivered, being rated after 6s. the 
Barrel. 

By an order of 29 Eliz: 1587 the Constables were 
directed to search in Ale-houses, Taverns, and Tippling 
houses, for such people as they should find eating and 
drinking at unseasonable times, or continuing in such 
houses longer than to satisfy necessity, and they were to 
bring the offenders before the Bayliffs or Justices, in 

* Mr. J. C. Jeaffreson in his Report on the Ipswich Borough Records {Ninth 
Report, Historical MSS. Commission), has apparently overlooked the fact that such a 
thing as a hotel of heie is not unknown. Every bottel of hay (heie) for sale was to 
weigh six pounds at least, but Mr. Jeaffreson in quoting from the duplicate copy of 
the Little Doomsday Book gives the following : — " Item, it is ordered that euery botel 
of bere (sic) to be solde within every Inne of the seid toun from hensfourth shal be 
of the weighte of Six poundes at the leste !" 



154 

default to forfeit five shillings. At the same time it was 
ordered that no inhabitant of the town should be suffered 
to eat and drink in such houses without reasonable cause. 
A previous order made in 1538 (30 Henry viii) was to 
the effect that every constable should bring to the Court 
all the Retailers and Gannikers of Ale and Beer within 
their several wards, presumably for the purpose of their 
heing licensed, or as the expression goes (15 Henry viii) 
" allowed, and in perticuler named, because none ought 
to be allowed in this Towne but by assent of the greate 
Court." 

The following is an interesting entry from the Court 
Book, and serves to illustrate old time manners and 
customs, and affords information as regards the relation- 
ship of Innkeepers to the town and its inhabitants: — 
3 April, 12 Elizabeth. Order "that if the innkeepers 
of the towne shall contynuallie have in store vi sufficient 
geldings for the service of the prince in postynge, then 
the Baylyffes for the tyme being shall avoyde all ty piers 
from taking in horse and also avoyde Typlers from fre- 
quentinge the houses in diett or lodgyng but only to 
retayle unto the poore inhabitaunts and to avoyde the 
daylye occasions evylly practysed to greet hurte and 
daunger of the inhabitaunts of the towne.'' 

The evils connected with " tippling" were probably 
in these days not so regarded, at least with any very 
great strictness, yet apparently not in any way connived 
at, for a bill was read in the Court (9 Eliz: 1597) " against 
such as have common access to alehouses and loyter 
in tippling houses in the Towne." Ten years after, 
(4 Jas 1607,) a law of a far more stringent character was 
put into force, " for any person found tippling in Inne or 
Ale house by any officer of the Town or Parish, unless 
good cause could be shewn to the contrary, was to forfeit 
12d to the poore. Or if the person was found playing 
at any unlawful games or idly spending his time in such 
an house he was to forfeit 12d for every such time." 

The drinking habits of the people of Ipswich made 



155 

so strong an impression on the mind of the celebrated 
town preacher, Samuel Ward, as to lead him to preach his 
famous " Woe to Drunkards," and the pictures he draws 
therein of men making jests and songs on their ale bench, 
&c. are evidently drawn from his Ipswich experience. 

In the following year Innkeepers and Victuallers of 
the town were ordered not to brew their own beer, nor 
buy any from London, or other place out of the liberties 
of the town, under forfaiture of 6s. a barrel for each barrel 
so received, and to take all their beer from the brewers 
of the town : the object of this regulation requires no 
explanation. In the year 1610 (8 James) it was ordered 
"that no person should use any brewing in any house within 
the town for sale other than in ancient brewhouses by 
continuance ten years at least, unless such as have been 
apprentices there unto for seven years at least under 
forfaiture of £10 each month, to be levied by the 
Chamberlins." 

There are instances on record (11 Eliz: 1569) of 
Beerbrewers being fined by the Headburrowes for dis- 
orders against the order set by former Bayliffs, but 
having submitted themselves to the Court, the matter 
was referred to the Headburrowes to consider thereof. 
The ' disorders ' to which allusion is thus made, evidently 
were such as as affected the assize of ale, for in 23 Eliz: 
1580 we find mention made in the Court Books that 
several Brewers having been fined by the Headburrowes, 
for selling beer for undue prices, had their fines remitted, 
on being bound in obligations not to sell beer by retail, 
nor to sell to any p'son above the rate set by the Bailiffs. 
The town seems to have derived much benefit from the 
maltings, and the exercise of the malster's calling on the 
part of fibreigners, acting as it was thought, prejudicially 
to the interests of the townsmen, it was ordered (23 
Henry vn. 1508) "that noe fforrainer alien shall by him 
selfe or any other, malt any barley, otes or other graine, 
under the penalty of 6s. 8d. for every quarter soe 
malted." 



156 

The special regulations which were put in force by 
the appointment, (directly from the King,) of Commis- 
sioners to take the oversight of Inns, &c, within the 
town, is illustrated by the following from the Assembly 
books : 

87. — 16. James I. Licence by Sir Gyles Mompesson Knt., Gyles 
Brugges and James Thurbane asquires, His Majesty's Commissioners for 
continneinge keepinge or errecting of Innes and Hosteries to Thomas 
Burrage to keep an inn at his dwelling-house in Ipswich under the sign 
of " The Three Coonyes " during the lives in survivorship of his wife 
Elizabeth Burrage, Edmond Greenleafe and John Greenleafe. 

In the time of Charles I. an order was made sup- 
pressing a large number of taverns which were declared 
to be unnecessary, and a source of great evil to the 
country. In the reign of Charles II. the laws were very 
vigorously enforced against ale-house keepers and others 
who offended. To such an extent indeed were the 
penalties carried, that an order was made, " that no 
persons shall be permitted to keep ale-houses, that shall 
not every Sunday repair to their parish Church, and there 
abide orderly and soberly during the whole time of 
divine service, and shall not likewise produce a certificate 
that they have at least twice in the year last past, 
received the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according 
to the usuage of the Church of England." 

About this time there were frequent Royal proclama- 
tions issued and read in parishes Churches with the view 
of diminshing and preventing, among other vices, that 
of excessive drinking. Also against playing at dice, 
cards, or other games, on the Lord's Day, either in public 
or private houses. It was expressly ordered (9 Wm. III. ) 
that every care should be taken to prevent all persons 
keeping taverns, chocolate-houses, coffee-houses, or other 
public-houses, whatsoever, from selling wine, chocolate, 
coffee, ales, beer, or other liquors, or receiving, or per- 
mitting guests to be or remain in such their houses in 
the time of divine service on the Lord's Day. 

It is said that the Cavaliers professed to distinguish 



157 

themselves from the Roundheads, by contrasting their 
own drinking powers with the more abstemious habits 
of their rivals. 

The entrance into the town in olden days of the 
mighty ones of the earth, was usually followed by a gift 
of wine, which the Chamberlains paid for out of the town 
money. Seven marks were thus paid to John Smith, 
Vintener, for one tun of wine given to the Duke of 
Suffolk ; indeed the Chamberlains yearly accounts teem 
with such entries. 

It is worthy of notice that among the list of Ipswich 
traders, who were formed into companies under their 
respective callings, and thus attended the processions of 
the famous Ipswich Guild of Corpus Christi, no place is 
found either for Taverners or Innkeepers. The nearest 
approach to these is the company of Brewers, who walked 
together under one banner with the " merchants and 
maryners.'' Later on, however (17tli Eliz:), when the 
observance was rapidly declining, the ' occupacions ' of 
the town were newly drawn into companies, of which 
there were but four — viz. Mercers, Drapers, Tailors, and 
Shoemakers. Into these the whole of the other trades 
were merged in the oddest possible fashion, the ' Inn- 
holders ' rinding a place in the ' Drapers ' company with 
the 'joyners, taylors, carpenters, ffreemasons, brycklayers, 
tylers, carryers, caskett-makers, surgeons, clothyers, etc. 
It is fair to suppose, that by the earlier omission of the 
1 trade,' the office of an Innkeeper or Taverner was in 
all probability considered ' no trade,' rather than as a 
slight passed upon a body of men whose calling was 
certainly more honourable at this early period than it is 
apt now to be regarded. The office of Guild-holder was 
held by the appointment of the Town authorities, from 
which it appears that Thomas Bobbett was dismissed at 
405. fine, and William Smart elected in his stead. (4 
Eliz: 1562.) As the same Thomas Bobbett sometime 
after was chosen as one of the Town Vinteners, it is 
probable that the Guild-holder's office was somewhat 
allied to the latter calling. t 



158 

Among the officers of the Corporation, there were 
previously to the introduction of the Municipal Eeforni 
Bill, an "Ale Conner" and "Flesh Wardens," who 
exercised their respective functions in examining' and 
testing the viands intended to be consumed by the public. 
The surname of Ale-founder is familiar in Ipswich circles, 
and this wemay suppose is synonymous with ' Ale-taster ' 
or ' Ale Conner.' The office was held by one Robert Hewes 
in the early part of the present Century. In the Ipswich 
Chamberlain's Accounts, (3 Edw. IV. 1463—4) now in 
private possession, there occurs the name of Ahjfawndyr^ 
retained by one whose occupation and name were the 
same : — 

" Itm payd to Alyfawndyr's Wyff for to gulownys wyn." 

Thomas Caldwell, John Myddylton, and — Wursopp, 
are names of other Ipswich Vinteners or Taverners to 
whom payments were made for wine in these accounts. 
In this same year William Worsop was elected Burgess 
for the town at the then ensuing Parliament at a daily 
wage, varying according to the place at which the 
Parliament assembled. In all probability this William 
Worsop was the Taverner just referred to. 

On the occasion of the marriage of the Lady Eliza- 
beth (daughter of Edward I.) in the priory church of 
Saint Peter and St. Paul Ipswich (8th Jan: 1296), to the 
• Count of Holland, the King himself entering the town on 
the previous 23rd December, much feasting and rejoicing 
took place in the "King's Hall."* It is uncertain what 
building is here referred to, but it is not unlikely that 
it may have been the " Sociary," either wholly or in part 
which stood at the back of the Moot Hall or Tolhouse, 
on part of the site occupied by the present Corn Exchange, 
and to which the members of the Guild of Corpus Christi 
retired for refreshment at the conclusion of the religious 
observances. This building or one adjacent, afterwards, 
(we know not at what precise date,) became familiar as 

* Wardrobe Accounts Add. MSS. Br. Mus. 7965. 



159 

" The King's Head," from which sign the street (King 
Street) took its name. One of the last remnants of a 
past importance was a spacious Court yard, from which 
the coach used to start. In the Town Books is to be 
found the following entry: — 

"Agreed that a house shall be built uppon the South of a house of 
plees for a kitchiu, and thereabove a Sociary for the Guild w th a csalar 
under y e house of plees ; and the house above the Cellar, viz., between 
the house of plees and the Tavern shall belong to the Guild for ever." 

It would appear from an old Ipswich Assessment 
made in the year 1689, that in the whole town of Ipswich 
there were only twenty-four Inns or Taverns. The 
largest number were to be found in the very heart of 
the town, in the parish of St. Mary at the Tower ; these 
were known respectively as — 

The GrifFen The Chequers 

The Swan The Kings Head 

The Castle (?) The Three Cooneys 

The Queens Head The Royal Oak 

The White Horse The Black Boy 

The Coffee House. 

In St. Margarets parish were 

The Greyhound The Cock and Pye 

(Both in Brook Street) 

The Two Neck'd Swan 

(in Rotten Row, or St. Margarets Street) 

The Buck 

(now the Running Buck, St. Margaret's Plain) 

The "Woolpack The Saracens Head 

(Bolton Lane) (St. Margarets Green) 

Besides these was " The Cock " in the Hamlet of 
Wykes Bishop, "The Angel" and "The Bull" in St. 
Mary at the Quay, " The Gun" and " The Rose " in St. 
Peter's, " The Seven Stars" and " The White Hart" in 
St. Lawrence, and "The Half Moon " in St. Nicholas 
parish. Comparing the population of the town at the 
time when the assessment was drawn up, with the 



160 

number of present inhabitants, the increase of Inns and 
Taverns seems very large. If the list alluded to is to 
be relied on as mentioning the whole number of such 
houses then existing, there were, two hundred years ago, 
but one Inn or Tavern to every five hundred inhabitants, 
whereas it is now one to every 179 of the population. 
As it is quite possible that the sign by which a house 
was known may have been omitted, and the name only 
of owner and occupier inserted, as is the case with the 
private houses, the number given may perhaps not be 
strictly correct. Notwithstanding the importance of the 
.parishes of Saint Margaret's and St. Mary at the Tower, 
it seems scarcely likely that two-thirds of the whole 
number would be confined to these parishes, and that not 
a single house of this character should be found either in 
St. Matthew's or St. Clement's. That there were Inns in 
St. Matthew's parish nearly a Century earlier, is clear 
from an entry in the Church books concerning " The 
Taxacon of the lands and Tenem ts within the parish 
according to the Statute made 22nd February in xiiij 
Queen Elizabeth (A.D. 1571) "for repairs of Church and 
payment of Ministers Wages :" — ■ 

" Of John Sherman for his messuage or lime called 

the Whit Lion at y e West Ende of the mote halle vjs 

Of Jemes Smythe for the mesuage next the Crowne 
now in W Daltons occupacion - - iijs 

It is very unlikely that in the course of the century 
the number of public houses would decrease, or that the two 
last named should cease to exist. Certainly the Church 
rate book fifty years later, shews the number then to have 
been far from nil. Among those mentioned are "The 
Three Feathers," "The Ship," "The Little White 
Horse," " The Half Moon and Stars," " The Blue Bell," 
" The Three Kings," &c. In one at least of these 
houses (the Half Moon and Stars) beer brewing was 
carried on some years later than this early mention of 
the house ; up to the reign of James I., however, the 



161 

manufacture of malt, &c, was expressly discountenanced. 

The signs of the " Golden Fleece" in St. Matthew's 
parish, the " Woolpaek,'' and at a later period the 
" Shears," both in St. Margaret's, remind us of the 
extensive wool trade formerly carried on in the town. 
The wool mart was from very ancient days held in the 
vicinity of the last named houses, trading operations being 
mainly confined to the Wool-house, which there is every 
reason to believe, occupied the site in Bolton Lane, 
now the stables attached to Christ Church park, from the 
wall of which may still be seen a projecting Ram's head, 
indicative of the ' staple.' 

An Inn of long standing is the " Salutation," in Carr, 
or Cross Keys Street. There can be but little doubt 
that the sign, as generally used, was intended like others 
of a like kind — e.g., the Assumption, before referred to, 
to honour the Virgin Mother of our Lord, but there is no 
evidence, as far as I am aware, that the house dates back 
sufficient length of time to justify any such interpretation. 
The more subsequent representations of this sign shew two 
gentlemen exchanging the ordinary courtesies of every 
day life, and some such idea was probably dominant in 
the mind of the individual who gave the name to the 
existing Inn. 

One of the oddest among Ipswich signs attached to 
an Inn or Tavern, was that of " The Dog's Head in the 
Pot," a house which formerly stood at the corner of 
Upper Brook Street, in the way leading to the Provision 
Market, generally known as Dog's Head Lane. The 
origin of this sign is singular enough to deserve passing 
mention. A dirty slovenly housewife was supposed to 
be characterized by such an epithet. In Holland, when 
one is late for dinner, he is said to " find the dog in the 
pot " viz : the empty pot, which true to Dutch manners, 
would be consigned to the dog after the meal had been 
served. 

A rather singular sign is that of the " Cock and 
Pye," which was formerly an extensive and famous Inn, 



162 

standing partly on the site of the present rather con- 
tracted Tavern in Upper Brook Street, still known by this 
name. In ancient days the " Greyhound," which has 
been already mentioned, was in close proximity, if not in 
part, actually on the spot. The sign was once very 
common, now it is rarely to be met with. The Ipswich 
house formerly had a rude representation placed over the 
chief entrance of a huge Pie upon which a Cock was 
perched. At houses bearing this sign it would almost 
follow as a matter of course, that Cock fighting was one 
of the attractions offered. This vulgar and brutal sport 
was at its height in the 18th century and during this 
time, be it said to the discredit of the town, this shocking 
form of 'amusement' was indulged in to very a large extent, 
not only here but at several other taverns and such like 
places, the houses known as the " King's Head," and 
"The Fighting Cocks," in St. Helens, kept by one 
Joseph Clarke, being conspicuous among the number for 
catering to the depraved taste of a not over sensitive 
public, by affording opportunities of witnessing such 
inhuman spectacles, as those which at all times have, and 
while such practices exist, must continue to disgrace the 
English nation. Advertisements relating to these sad 
exhibitions being held at Ipswich houses, may be found 
in the old files of the " Ipswich Journal" couched in 
words which leave us in but little doubt that feelings of 
horror, such as would be now almost universally felt, 
were then exceedingly rare. 

The sign of the "Bear" and also of the " Bull " witness 
to a like vulgar and inhuman treatment of these animals, 
to which all classes of the people formerly gave their 
countenance and support. In the Chamberlains Accounts 
and elsewhere there are constant references, in one form 
or another, to the practise of bull and bear baiting, and 
even penalties were imposed in the case of unbaited 
bulls, and rewards given to any who might discover such. 

The ' Bull Stake ' was on the Corn Hill and the practise 
of baiting this animal was one of the ' institutions ' of the 



163 

town, and expenses connected therewith were defrayed 
out of the town exchequer. Bull baiting was purely an 
' amusement' (!) mostly carried on at one or other of the 
Inns. As late as the year 1805 this cruel practise was 
in vogue at the " Fleece " in St. Matthew's. 

On St. Margaret's Plain nearly facing the chief 
entrance to Christ Church Park, the ancient house now 
used as a small general shop and dwelling house, and 
still retaining in its exterior carved and pargetted work, 
marks of its former state, was known years ago as the 
" Pack Horse,'' a sign which was frequently selected for a 
posting Inn, and generally found, as in this instance, 
near a large and important mansion. The sign 
takes us back to a time when the itinerant trader, 
carrying his merchandize through the country, strapped 
to either side of a pack saddle was a familiar sight. 
Until the Fair or Wake, and following these, the 
introduction of Shops, the supply of ' luxuries ' depended 
more or less on the mounted merchant with his store 
of good things. At this house the Park servants were 
oftentimes located in olden days. 

Prominent among Ipswich Inns for many years past 
has been the famous " White Horse," sometimes called 
" The Great White Horse," the existence of which can be 
traced back to the early part of the 16th century, when 
it stood in a foremost position among houses of public enter- 
tainment. Not a vestige of its ancient character is now 
remaining ; save only its name, it is thoroughly changed. 
In the exterior it presents an appearance far removed from 
anything resembling the antique, and may be said to be 
remarkable only for a plain solidity of white brick. As late 
as the early part of the present century it preserved some- 
thing of its former state and condition, and then possessed 
its famous court yard, from which in the old coaching 
days the coach set out for the metropolis and other parts 
of the kingdom. The old files of the Ipswich Journal 
abound with advertisements relating to coach travelling 
in the 18th and early part of the 19th centuries, the 



164 

journeys were latterly advertized to be performed "if 
God permit." The " White Horse'' front entrance, 
removed some fifty years ago — extended some way into 
the street, and was an interesting remnant of former days, 
which is still remembered by some of the old inhabitants. 
Several persons of note have made the " White Horse'' 
their rallying point during a sojourn in the town. In 
the year 1736 His Majesty King George II., stayed 
here. Louis XVIII., King of France, passing through 
the town, stayed at the " White Horse" for a short time 
while horses were being changed. The famous Lord 
Mazarene, after an imprisonment of thirty years in the 
Grand Chatelat at Paris, visisted the " Great White Horse," 
in company with the Marquis of Polladore, in 1784. 
Our great Naval Commander, Lord Nelson, who had 
been chosen High Steward of the Borough in succession 
to the Earl of Dysart, deceased, stayed here in 1800, on 
his way to London. But perhaps the ' White Horse ' 
is best known, and will be longest remembered, in con- 
nection with the name of the late eminent novelist, and 
his inimitable character of ' Pickwick.' A white-painted 
11 stone statue," as Dickens called it, " of some ram- 
pacious animal, with flowing mane and tail distinctly 
resembling an insane cart horse," still " elevated above 
the principal door," will serve to remind us that, 
although changed, the house is still the same as that 
which Mr. Pickwick's mistake has made notorious. 

At the West end of the Mote Hall formerly stood 
the White Lion, which is mentioned as one of several 
Inns existing in the 16th century, and kept by one, 
John Sherman, in 1571. Whether or no the said 
"Lion" had as I imagine, a dirty-white appearance, 
which was changed soon after into a coat of ' gold,' I 
must leave ; but I first meet with a reference to the well- 
known " Golden Lion," (which must have stood, as now, 
upon the site apparently occupied by the former " White 
Lion,") eight years after the previous mention of the 
latter Inn, and no further allusion to it. The following 



165 

appears among the town records : — 

"21 Eliz: 1579. 

The signe of the Golden Lion shall now continue 
paying therefore yerely to the Towne Id rent." 

This payment was evidently required for the 
privilege of being allowed to place a sign post upon 
ground belonging to the town, after the manner it may 
be supposed of many country Inns of the present day. 
About this time shopkeepers generally were required to 
hang out signs from their shops, other inhabitants being 
allowed to do the same. The Inns in many cases appear 
to have placed their signboards prominently forward, 
often setting them upon town soil, for which a small 
rent was demanded. Inns claiming this advantage in 
the year 1528 were the " King's Head," " The Turke," 
"The George," "The Angell," " The Tabard," "The 
Dolfin," "The Griffin," "The Whit Hors," and "The 
Assumption ;" the latter three paid the sum of 6d. yearly, 
all the rest Is. 

A noted Inn was " The Griffin," certainly existing 
far back in the 16th century. It stood partly on the 
site of the present "Crown and Anchor" Hotel, and 
Messrs. Footman's drapery establishment, known as the 
' Waterloo.' It was in the Griffin yard, that previous to 
the erection of a Theatre, stage plays were frequently 
performed by the Duke of Grafton's and other companies. 
In the latter part of the last century, the house was kept 
by one, Selby, whose family were legatees under the 
extraordinary Will of the eccentric Lord Ched worth, to 
a total sum of £14,500. His lordship had a special love 
for the drama, and several actors and others benefitted 
under his will. Much of Lord Chedworth's time appears 
to have been spent in this house. 

"The Chequers," to which ancient house reference 
has been already made, stood also on the site of the 
" Crown and Anchor," and afterwards became known as 
the " Rampant Horse." 

u 



166 

In the middle of the last century, a principal Inn 
was that known as the " Bear and Crown," which was 
the leading 'yellow' house, just as the "White Horse" was 
the 'blue' house, and formed a great reDdez-vous for 
political partizans at a time when party feeling ran high. 
This house, which occupied the site where Messrs. Collins' 
upholstery premises now stand, some years ago became 
absorbed in the ' Suffolk Hotel.' The " Bear and Crown " 
and the "Golden Lion" likewise, were noted as great 
coaching houses in the days of slow travelling. 

About the same time the "Three Tuns" was a 
well-known house on the Cornhill, adjoining the old 
Mote Hall on the east. It appears in the engraving by 
Frost, of the Ipswich Market Cross, as a plain building, 
with its painted sign board placed against the front of the 
house, while over the door is a horn lantern : benches 
and posts were afterwards placed in front of the house, 
which will serve to give some idea of its rather rural 
surroundings. 

The corner house on the Cornhill leading into 
Westgate or St. Matthew's Street, now occupied as a 
tailor's place of business, was formerly known as the 
" Bell Inn." This ' Bell corner' was the scene of laying 
the first stone of a new pavement in the year 1793, under 
an act that had been obtained for "paving, lighting, 
cleansing, and otherwise improving the town of Ipswich." 

These six last-named Inns have all passed away, 
giving rise, it is said, to the following lines, which, as 
they appear to be otherwise applied in different places, 
are probably only an adaptation to the particular circum- 
stances of these Ipswich houses ; here they are made to 
assume a prophetical form, the old " Rampant Horse," 
or as it is now known, the " Crown and Anchor," being 
the alone survivor. 

" The f Eampant Horse ' shall kick the Bear, 
And make the Griffin fly, 
Turn the Bell upside down, 
And drink the Three Tuns dry." 



167 

Two or three of these signs still remain attached to 
other houses. One of these, the " Old Bell," is over Stoke 
Bridge at the corner of Bell Lane, in St. Peter's parish, 
and has upon it the marks of being a very ancient house, 
and there is some quaint exterior carving, notably a corner 
post, upon the upper part of which is carved a ' Bell.' 
This identical piece of carving is evidently modern, and 
is, I am informed, the work of a former eminent Ipswich 
wood carver, Mr.- Kingham, who, finding the old part — it 
is said to have had a representation of a Sea-horse — much 
decayed, treated it in the manner described. It is 
asserted that the "Sea-horse" was formerly the sign of this 
Inn, and that the late Mr. Cuthbert had this information 
from old inhabitants who remembered the house being so 
called. This may have been so : but the " Old Bell" is 
evidently no very modern Inn, and if the house at 
present bearing this sign has only assumed the name of 
late years, it is almost certain that a house bearing the 
same sign stood in the immediate vicinity. That the 
" Old Bell " Inn existed in the parish of St. Peter as far 
back as the year 1639 is clear from the town Assembly 
Books, where it is mentioned that " the posts lately erected 
by John Cole, Ship Carpinter, in the Streete before his 
house in Peter's parish, against the Bell shall stand at 
the rent of 6d." It is very probable that the " Old Bell " 
Inn originated in the Bell Foundry, which formerly 
stood here. In the memorandum of the boundaries of 
the four Letes contained in the Ipswich Doomsday Book 
(temp. Ed: II) reference is made to u la venele qe est appele 
Boulfonerelane en le parosse Seynt Pere" an interesting 
fact worthy of special attention from those interested in 
campanological studies. 

The well known sign of the " Chequers," has still a 
representative in a small beerhouse in New Street, St. 
Clement's (which, by the way is one of the oldest 
streets in the town). It is one of several similar 
houses, occupied until recently by private individuals 
of some standing, but the only remaining evidence 



168 

of ancient work is to be seen in the exterior door- 
way, and the carved gables. The origin of this once 
popular sign is worthy of mention. It is sometimes 
said to be a representation of the Coat of Arms of 
the Earls of Warenne and Surrey, who bore Chequer or 
and azure, and in the reign of Edward IV. enjoyed the 
privilege of licensing Ale houses. But it is far more 
likely that an explanation which throws considerable 
light upon the usages of the middle ages, is nearer the 
truth. It was customary for merchants to use a counting 
board marked with squares, upon which counters were 
placed to facilitate arithmetical calculations. Such a 
board was used by money changers to indicate their 
calling, and in process of time, innkeepers in certain 
cases adding this to their ordinary calling, would use the 
sign. The neighbourhood of the market would of course 
be the place where such a sign would most probably be 
found. 

A famous Inn of ancient days was the " Angel," which 
stood on the Quay in St. Mary-at-the-Quay parish. It 
was a fine roomy old building, said once to have been a 
house of Cistertian monks, though I believe this state- 
ment is without any foundation ; it has for very many 
years been used as a Malt house. It was the Inn for 
the neighbourhood, as far back as pre-Reformation days, 
and was frequented by the parishioners of the adjoining 
parish of St. Clement's, especially in their perambulations 
at Rogation-tide ; permission was granted to place the 
" Angel Post " upon town soil, in consideration of a 
yearly payment of Is. 

In St. Lawrence Street, facing the East end of the 
Church, formerly stood an Inn of some renown, known 
as the " White Hart." It was a great posting establish- 
ment, and had quite a picturesque appearance with its 
quaint bow windows, street posts and old gateway, the 
spandrils of which latter were ornamented with the 
wood carving of a dragon. I am a little inclined to 
think that the ancient Inn known as the " George " may 



169 

have stood here formerly, or that at least this entrance, 
decorated with the familiar Dragon, may have formed 
part of that building. The custom of the town in 
imposing a rent for any street projection, or incursion 
upon ' town soil,' is exemplified in the following extract 
from Nath : Bacon's Annals of Ipswich. — 

"(Friday), 9 February. [1638.] Assembly. 

Steven Bloomfields incroachem 1 uppon the Streete leading to 
Marg ts against his house, p't of the White Hart, by erecting 2 bay 
windowes and setting of 2 posts in the Streete, is confirmed at 4 d rent." 

We have still on the South side of the Butter 
Market, adjoining Sparrow's well known 'Ancient House, » 
an Inn which goes by the name of the " Waggon and 
Horses." Upwards of 300 years ago it was called the 
" Waggon." This sign leads me to observe that formerly, 
as I have already intimated, these houses received 
their designation with a more real application to the 
immediate surroundings of the locality, than seems to be 
the case now. The old Butter Market must have been 
the scene of much waggon traffic in the days when 
waggons were the only means of conveying articles of 
produce to a busy centre. 

Coffee-houses were an introduction of the 17th 
century, very soon after the "wakefull and civill drink" 
found its way into this Country. Though highly 
esteemed as inducing sobriety in one form, the consump- 
tion of this and other like beverages in such houses, 
bought about another form of intemperance, which 
was fraught with rather serious consequences to the state, 
if we may judge from the fact that they were closed 
by royal proclamation in 1675, being characterized 
as ' seminaries of sedition ; ' but this order was annulled 
by a subsequent proclamation made a few days after. 
The upper and middle classes seem frequently to have 
resorted to the Coffee-house to learn the news, which 
they there discussed with a freedom, evidently dis- 
tasteful to those in authority, who were however power- 
less in the matter. Several such houses were to be 



170 

found in Ipswich, the best known being ' Gooding's Coffee 
House,' which stood in Tavern Street and Tower Lane, 
on the site now occupied by the Chemists corner Shop. It 
was a curious old building, with much interesting carved 
work of the 1 6th century ; a corner post made familiar to 
us by the drawing of George Frost, the Ipswich Artist, 
being specially worthy of mention. Much of this 
ancient work has been re-instated in the Cliff Cottage 
and the adjoining house, subsequent on the Coffee house 
being dismantled to make way for "modern improve- 
ments "(!) ' Gooding's Coffee House ' excelled as a house 
of entertainment. The military, who were formerly 
stationed here in large numbers, especially frequented it, 
and had sumptuous repasts beneath its roof: it was also 
much used for public and other gatherings. " Scrutton's 
Coffee-house," existing in 1728, was also well known. 
Earliest among ' Hotels, 1 in Ipswich, was the house 
known as 'Bamford's Hotel,' which existed in 1804. 

In Northgate Street, a corner house standing on the 
right hand side of the passage leading to the Church of 
St. Mary at the Tower, was until lately known as the 
" Royal Oak." It is chiefly remarkable for its antiquated 
appearance, and a highly ornamental corner post, which 
represents on one of its faces a smith striking upon an 
anvil, and on the other a well executed carving of a 
man's bust, with elaborate carved work below, makes it 
specially interesting. Not so very long ago the house 
was occupied as a private dwelling, to which primitive 
state it has again returned. A house of far greater 
importance, bearing the same sign, was many years 
ago situate in Tavern Street, where it occupied part of 
the site upon which Mr. Corder's drapery establishment 
now stands. It possessed a spacious court yard. Tavern 
Street, as its name implies, was virtually a street of 
taverns, which fact will serve to afford some idea of the 
state of Ipswich a century or so since. 

Beside the houses already mentioned, one of the 
most important and extensive, was that known as the 



171 

" Mitre," standing at comer of Dial Lane. Its position, 
in what may be termed an c ecclesiastical neighbourhood,' 
sufficiently accounts for its name, which in some cases is 
not so very evident as in this. Special interest is attached 
to the house by reason of its having formed part of an 
ancient ecclesiastical edifice, remains of which were dis- 
covered below the street level in the year 1846, and 
again brought to light during the past year in the course 
of extensive alterations. A drawing of these " remnants 
of antiquity, which had escaped the shipwreck of time," was 
made soon after the former discovery, and is preserved 
among that part of the Fitch Collection, which is to 
be found in the library of our Suffolk Institute of 
Archaeology, at Bury St. Edmund's, and is there called 
the " Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene :" I am unable to 
say what authority there is for this name. The remains 
are best described as two subterranean chambers, one 
of which lay beneath Tavern Street proper, and the 
other in Dial Lane, a third chamber further down the 
lane, communicated with the latter by an early English 
doorway, but this can only be described as an uninterest- 
ing vault. The communication was probably continuous, 
and most likely led to the premises of the Carmelites or 
White Friars, which occupied a portion of the Old 
Butter Market. A second doorway of similar character, 
but of larger dimensions, in all probability communi- 
cated with St. Lawrence Church. The roof of the 
chamber nearest Tavern street was groined, and an 
opening in the wall on the North side, presented the 
appearance of a piscina or water stoup. A greater part 
of this underground structure had apparently been 
utilized by the former occupiers of the Mitre Tavern, 
and a number of broad vaulted arches of massive brick 
work, some feet thick, were evidently put together with 
mortar such as would have been used two centuries or so 
back. 

"The Cross," was a former well known Inn or Tavern 
on the Cornhill, in the parish of St. Mary-at-the- Tower ; it 



172 

probably received its name from the Market Cross : or 
it may be, from the fact that it was one of the most 
noted houses which the parochial perambulation pro- 
cessions used to frequent during the observance of the 
Rogation days, (otherwise called "Cross days,") when 
according to ancient custom the usual " beating of the 
bounds " took place, and a l cross ' mark, graven upon 
pillar and post, indicated the several boundaries. Pro- 
bably the cross being carried in the procession in former 
days, caused the days to be denominated ' Cross-days.' 
The various ceremonies having come to an end, a visit 
was paid to the tavern, where a repast more or less 
bountiful, awaited the company. The old parish books 
have many entries of payments made on account of 
these observances, i.e., in St. Clement's accounts 

1628 For bread and beare at goodie Cowel's uppon 

the perambulation daie for the boys ... ... 090 

In the Churchwardens' accounts of St. Peter's parish 

1702. Spent at y e Man in y e Moon when we went 

about y e parish ... ... ... 018 

But compared with other such entries the amounts 
here charged are extremely modest. All forms of enter- 
tainment for the people were formerly held in one of 
the large rooms of an Inn ; the famous Mr. Pinchbeck, for 
instance, exhibited in 1730 a mechanical piece of work at 
the ' Cross' Tavern, described as "a masterpiece of art and 
ingenuity." The 'Cross Tavern' received th corpse of the 
Right Honourable the Earl of Dysart, High Steward of 
the Borough, where it lay in state on the 25th March, 
1770. It was then the principal Inn of the town and 
of large extent, occupying the house where the late 
Mr. Neale afterwards resided, as well as that adjoining, 
and over the entrance at the opening leading to the 
Tower Ditches and called ' Cross Yard.' 

In the parish of St. Mary-at-the-Quay, at the corner 
of Foundation Street and Lower Brook Street, stands 
the "Half Moon" public-house. It is said formerly to 



173 

have been the residence of the great Henry Tooley, 
" whose deeds bespeak him blest," but there is no 
evidence for such an assertion. The house itself has 
become remarkable, mainly on account of the roughly 
carved corner post with its exceedingly grotesque design, 
which forms the subject of a satire, largely prevalent in 
mediaeval times. It represents a fox in monastic garb, 
discoursing to a number of geese, while a companion is 
seen running off with one of the goose fraternity. The 
old story of " Reynard the Fox" doubtless suggested 
the illustration, which was considered exceedingly apt.* 
Similar representations are to be seen both in wood and 
stone in several of our Cathedrals and parish Churches, and 
seem to have been intended as a reflection on the secular 
clergy or parish priests, who were greatly disliked by 
their more secluded brethren, the monastic or regular 
clergy. It was also a favourite subject for illumination, 
and figures in the border of the Bay eux tapestry. When it 
is remembered that this house stood immediately facing 
the extensive range of building belonging to the Order 
of Black Friars, and in such close proximity to the 
parish Church on the one hand, and the Priory of St. 
Peter and St. Paul on the other, the keenness of the 
invective conveyed by this satire will be understood. 
Both parties seem to have engaged in this sort of thing 
to a large extent, but the carving in question was 
probably wrought at the instance of a well-to-do 
townsman, who had reason to upbraid the rapacious 
conduct of the regulars, and chose to do it in as offensive 
a form as possible. In the same house is an upstair 
room, oak panelled throughout, with a handsome carved 
mantel piece in a good state of preservation. The 
ceiling has oak beams, the whole being plastered over 
and ornamented : no other ancient work remains. The 
house has been used as an Inn for upwards of two 
hundred years. 

* That a wolf is intended, in allusion to the legend of St. Vedast, and not a fox, 
is extremely doubtful. 

W 



174 

The "Neptune" in Fore Street, St. Clement's, was 
once a grand house, and most likely, originally occupied by 
one of the leading merchants, the greater number of whom 
seem to have resided in this district. Its exterior is quaint 
and striking ; its handsome bay windows, filled with 
diamond shaped panes, and carved wood work, upon which 
the date 1639 appears, being singularly interesting. It 
retains much of the beautiful old work, which originally 
adorned its interior, several of the rooms being rich in 
oak carving, wainscoted and ceiled, special care and 
skill, as was so often the case, being lavished on the 
chimney pieces. One of the front rooms of the upper 
part, has the plastered ceiling divided into compart- 
ments, and ornamented with the tudor rose, &c. There 
is some old work at the back of the house, but 
apparently of later date than the other part. The 
accompanying illustration will give some idea of the 
characteristic features of this house. 

The " Malsters' Arms,'' in Quay Street, is approached 
by a long court yard, in which fluted pillars, with 
ornamented caps, quite Corinthian in appearance, stand 
prominently forward : this type of work is elsewhere to be 
found on the premises. There are a series of apartments 
in a most dilapidated state, approached by a rickety 
staircase from the yard. In one of these rooms, in which 
as I writp, mattress makers are employed, the walls are 
lined with the familiar wainscot, but besmeared with 
white wash, and greatly dilapidated. There is also a hand- 
some carved chimney piece, formerly richly gilded and 
coloured, chiefly of deal, but inferior to many which are 
to be found in this neighbourhood. It is in process of 
removal to a more congenial resting place at Felixstowe, 
the residence of Mr. Felix Cobbold. 

One of the most noted of Ipswich Taverns is the 
" Tankard ' in Tacket or Tankard Street, which 
although still standing, is despoiled of its original 
beauty. Here previous to the transformation into a 
Tavern, resided Sir Anthony Wingfield, one of the 




W. H. & L. CoLLINOIUDOE. 



JOHN. S. CORDER, del, 



175 

Executors of Henry VIII. The house must at one time 
have been a magnificent building, and the interior 
decoration simply superb. Formerly the large room, 
(that on the ground floor,) was richly wainscoted in oak, 
and adorned with flower wreaths and other devices ; 
including the Wingfield Arms, (encircled with the motto 
of the Order of the Garter,) male and female heads (some 
of which stand prominently forward,) the monogram 
H2 & Q. (Henry and Annie) &c. &c. On one of the 
panels is a curious representation of our Lord's Tempta- 
tion in the Wilderness, the Tempted and the tempter 
appearing on the summit of a rock. But the chef d? ceuvre 
is the chimney piece, a curious and magnificent work of 
art, which unless seen can scarcely be appreciated and 
understood. The interpretations of the various subjects 
thereon depicted, have been as varied as they are certainly 
strange, probably each and all are wide of the mark. 
The local histories, both by Clarke and Wooderspoon give 
full accounts ; the former has an excellent drawing by H. 
Davy. Some years ago in 1843, the late Mr. J. C. 
Cobbold had the complete work removed to Holy Wells, 
where it may be seen very carefully restored to almost its 
pristine glory, and completely encircling the study. 
Thus the last portion of this ancient historical mansion 
disappeared from its original home : it is, however, 
satisfactory to know that it is likely to be better cared 
for where it now remains, and certainly will be jealously 
preserved. 

The " Coach and Horses '' in Upper Brook Street, 
in the parish of St. Stephen's, is comparatively modern, 
but it is said to stand on the site of an ancient mansion 
in which Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, sometime 
resided ; the assertion however rests upon very uncertain 
testimony. 

The "Galiot Hoy" in Fore Street, St. Clement's 
(now the " Prince of Wales") ceased to be called by the 
former name in 1813. A popular fair was formerly held 
on what was then a wide expanse of ground in front of 



176 

this house, which brought together large numbers of 
people, and was the scene of much busy excitement upon 
the occasions of the fair being held. As might be 
expected from the sign, the house is situate in the vicinity 
of the Quay. An application for a licence for this house 
was once refused on the ground that the then applicant 
had been "convicted and imprisoned as a Cheat!" 

The "Admiral's Head'' in St. Margaret's parish, is 
an old Inn, probably the sign was originally intended to 
mark the gallantry of Admiral Vernon, and unlike many 
other similar signs, has retained its original designation 
throughout, although in a more generalized form. It 
frequently happened that Admiral Vernon was in the 
course of the ever constant ebb and flow of public 
opinion, called upon to do duty for some other public 
character. Lord Macaulay in his biographical essay of 
Frederick the Great speaking of his popularity after the 
battle of Rosbach, says, u the sign painters were 
everywhere employed in touching up Admiral Vernon 
into the King of Prussia." Anyhow the British Navy 
and its gallant commanders, have always had a foremost 
place in popular estimation. 

The beerhouse known as the " Portobello," in Lower 
Orwell Street, is one of the few houses which still 
display a painted signboard, depicting the subject which 
the sign is intended to illustrate. A board over the 
doorway, which although unable to lay claim to high 
artistic merit, graphically represents the memorable 
engagement of Admiral Vernon's ship, which resulted 
in the subsequent capture of Porto Bello in the year 
1739. 

One of the most remarkable of public house signs 
is " The Case is Altered," which sufficiently indicates its 
suitability to changed circumstances, however much public 
opinion may waver. It is consequently to be met with in 
all parts of England, and is made to suit every kind of 
' altered circumstance,' but the sign appears to have 
originated in Ipswich. The house so named is situate 



177 

on the Woodbridge Road, and was it is stated, built in 
1815 to accommodate the troops quartered in the vicinity. 
The original sign, whatever it may have been, was 
removed on the declaration of peace, and the present one 
substituted, inasmuch as the barracks were pulled down, 
the soldiers disbanded, and unfortunately for the keeper 
of the house, the tavern was left forlorn and neglected. 
There are, I believe, variations of this story, but enough 
has been said to illustrate the oddity of the sign. 

The "Crooked Billett" is a curious sign, of which 
no very satisfactory explanation is given. It is mostly 
used in country places, but a house bearing this name 
was as near to the town as Great Whip Street, in 1841. 
Handford Hall, an old farm-house near the ' Seven Arches,' 
was at one time licensed as the " Crooked Billett." There 
is a very general impression that the idea may have 
originated in a ragged or even pastoral staff. A house 
near Bridlington having this sign, has an untrimmed 
stick suspended over the door, with a rhyme which 
begins, 

" When this comical stick grew in the wood, &c." 

A representation of this sign found in the Harleian 
Collection resembles more than anything else, a limp 
leather band, short and broad, with the ends rounded 
off. The ' crooked billett,' is I am told, not an 
unfamiliar term for a short log of oak used in the 
process of fish curing, and it may be that some such 
article gave rise to the name as used for an Inn sign. 
I am a little inclined, at the risk of being thought 
venturesome, to suggest quite a different explanation. 
In Heraldry, &c, the billett is a small oblong figure 
supposed to represent a billet or letter. A crumpled 
letter, and a crooked billet, may without any great 
stretch of the imagination be taken as one and the same 
thing. Soldiers on furlough had generally a document 
in their possession, and impoverished persons ("rogues and 
vagabonds " they were more commonly termed) had also 
a " pass" to enable them to reach their home or " settle- 



178 

ment " ; ere these found their way into the hands of inn- 
keepers and others for whom they were intended, and at 
whose houses such people would be probably billetted, the 
papers they possessed would most certainly present the 
appearance of ' crooked ' billetts. Anyhow a log of wood 
or a crumpled paper document, are strange objects for 
Inn signs, and certainly not the most picturesque or 
interesting object than can engage the palette and brush 
of a sign painter, or the chisel of a wood carver. 

There was formerly a house in the Fore Hamlet, 
St. Clement's, which had the sign of "Wilkes' Head" 
intended to signalize the part played by John Wilkes in 
1 writing down' the Marquis of Bute. Public opinion 
held Wilkes in such very high esteem at the time, that 
his head monopolized many a sign board. But his fame 
was short lived, certainly in this direction, for as early 
as 1784 — a few years after being put up, the sign had 
altogether disappeared. 

The "Elephant and Castle" in the lower part of 
Silent Street, was a fine old Elizabethan Mansion, which 
previous to its conversion into an Inn, was first the 
mansion of c Lord ' Curzon, and generally alluded to as 
" Lord Curzon's house." Previous to its final destruction 
his name was to be seen in the form of a rebus on the wood 
work of a back gate. Afterwards the house came into 
the possession of the Bishop of Norwich, being granted 
for his use in the reign of Edward VI. During the 
Dutch wars in the latter part of the 17th Century, the 
house was used as an hospital for those who suffered in 
the sea engagements or other sicknesses while serving 
the nation ; for sometime afterwards it was used as a 
malt-kiln, and has now become altogether a thing of the 
past. Its best remembered feature was a stately porch 
built chiefly of red brick, which projected some way into 
the street, and beneath which vehicles used to pass. In 
1517, Henry's Queen, Catherine of Arragon, stayed in this 
house, and the King himself slept here when he visited 
Ipswich in 1522. 



179 

The " Ram Inn," standing partly in Quay Street, 
and on the Quay, is an ancient and curious house, con- 
cerning which there is a tradition (for which, however, 
there is no evidence) that the great and benevolent 
Henry Tooley was born there. A previous occupier 
of " The Ram " was one Noah Bloomfield, a Bell- 
founder, who advertized his incoming by stating that 
he had fitted up the house "in a genteel manner but 
intended to carry on the Bell Foundry as usual." A 
hundred years ago witnessed many a feud owing 
to hostilities engendered by the times. A circumstance 
of this character happened 12th December, 1778, which 
resulted in the death of the landlord of the " Ram Inn," 
a Mr. Thomas Nichols, in consequence of a scuffle 
between the press gang and a number of men assembled 
at the adjacent " Green Man" Inn. 

The " Cross Keys," in Carr Street was a well-known 
coaching house, and for some time gave a name to the 
Street, but its present designation is as ancient as any 
locality in Ipswich, and can be easily traced back to Saxon 
times. Upwards of a century ago, two other public houses 
besides those already alluded to, but now swept away, were 
to be found in this same street, viz. " The Prince Eugene" 
and " The Three Crowns." 

The following appeared as an Advertisement in the 
Ipswich Journal of 1736 : — 

" Whereas an Act passed the last Session of Parliament, entituled, 
' an Act for suppressing Spirituous Liquors ' ; there is a clause inserted, 
that any person or persons that Sell Beer, Ale, or any other excisable 
Liquors, without first taking a Licence, shall be sent to the House of 
Correction. And by an Act passed 3rd of Charles II, Chap. 3, that 
any person or persons sell Ale or Beer without a Licence, he, she, or 
they, shall forfeit 20s. to be levied by distress and sale of goods, and 
converted to the use of the poor of the parish, where such offence is 
committed. This is to certify that if any person or persons presume 
for themselves, or any other person or persons whatsoever to sell or 
utter to sell any Ale, Beer, or any other exciseable Liquors, without 
first obtaining such a Licence, shall after this publication be prosecuted 
as the law directs, 

By the Innholders of Ipswich." 



180 

It seems that steps were universally taken to prevent 
an infringement of the act alluded to, which was 
designed to restrain the excessive drinking of spirituous 
Liquors. It certainly ought to have had the happy effect 
proposed, since it confined the retailing of those 'pernicious 
Liquors,' solely to persons keeping Victualling Houses, 
Inns, Coffee Houses, Ale Houses, and Brandy Shops, and 
who exercised no trade whatever. Selling any quantity 
under two gallons was deemed retailing, and a Duty after 
the rate of 20s. per gallons was payable thereon. The 
persons who retailed had to enter themselves in the 
Excise Office and to pay £50 down for a Licence, to 
renew it yearly, and be licensed moreover by two or more 
Justices. The act of selling Liquors on a Bulk in the 
Streets, on a Wheel-barrow, or stand in the Field, and 
in Boats on the water, was entirely prohibited, as like- 
wise was the giving them away to Servants, &c. by 
Chandlers and other Shops, or the paying any part of 
Workmen's Labour in these Liquors. 

Among the Inns and Taverns of the past, not other- 
wise alluded to, may be mentioned : 1756, " The Crown 
and Chequer" (St Margaret's Green), " The Dyer's 
Arms" (Cock's Lane). 1744, "The Sheers" f Bolton 
LaneJ. 1735, "Cherry Tree," 'with 38 cherry trees and 
400 gooseberry and currant bushes,' "Noah's Ark" (St- 
Clements), "The Rummer" (Cornliill). Also "The 
Musical Clock," " The Potter's Arms" {Potter's Field, St 
Helens), "The Insolvent Beer House," "The Jobbers 
Home," &c. &c. The sign of the " Pedestrians Home" 
may now be considered as one of the signs of the 
past, it having been recently changed to that of 
"The Mountain Ash." Strangely enough the house is 
kept by one named Pollard (I) I do not suppose that 
a pun is intended, but, as in days gone by, a certain 
John Drinkwater intimated his name to the public by 
a " Fountain" such a conjecture would not be very far 
fetched. In the engraving of St. Matthew's or West Gate, 
— given in Grose's Antiquities of England and Wales, there 



181 

is on either side the representation of a two storied shop 
or Inn having- a sign board. I have not been able to 
indentify this house : if an Inn, it is probably one of 
those already mentioned. 

The famous Wolsey is remembered (but only 
recently) in " The Cardinal's Hat," and the preaching 
monks in the same way, by " The Friar's Head.'' 

At almost every period of its history, the Inn and 
the Tavern present a lively, but constantly varying scene 
of diversion and employment, with many phases of which 
we are no longer familiar. The hours that would 
otherwise have hung heavily, were enlivened by song and 
story, and the greater the proficiency of a companion in 
either of these respects, the more would he be likely to 
obtain the esteem of his fellows. It was at the Inn that 
the farmer would come in contact with purchasers for the 
corn, &c, which he would sell by sample; it was here 
also that the pedlar disposed of his wares. Even on the 
introduction of the weekly market which was obtainable 
by a royal grant, the practise of dealings of this nature 
continued, indeed may be said, at least in some quarters, 
still to exist, illustrating the well known, and to antiquaries, 
most refreshing proverb, that " old customs die hard." 

The following curious minute which is found in an 
old licensing minute book under date 19th September, 
1839, is worthy of a quainter age that our prosaic 
nineteenth Century : — 

" James Adams, keeper of the Orwell Ale-house, in Lower Orwell 
Street, in the parish of Saint Mary Key, appeared, and having expressed 
his determination to treat the Magistrates with proper respect, both in 
their official capacity, and as gentlemen for the future, a license was 
granted to him to keep the said house for the ensuing year." 

Several Tavern Clubs, both of a social and political 
character, were formed in Ipswich during the 18th 
century, at a time when such societies held a prominent 
place in the affections of certain classes of the people 
throughout the country. Their tendency, if we are to 
judge some of them only by their designations, must 

x 



182 

have been far from elevating-, indeed the ill favoured 
names bestowed upon most of these Clubs seems really 
to have been characteristic of the institution itself. 

It only now remains for me to add in conclusion, 
that the Inns and Taverns of Ipswich, as it needs scarcely 
be said, are now for the most part entirely changed in 
nearly every aspect, and especially as far as the buildings 
are concerned. It is only where the Inn or Tavern 
is still located in some one or other of the former 
residences of opulent inhabitants who lived in a byegone 
age, and in a part of the town now given over for the 
most part to the poorer classes, that the barest evidence 
remains which may serve to give * some idea of their 
antique character and surroundings. The Inn of ancient 
days was not apparently behind other habitations, either 
in point of architectural beauty or building construction. 
The court yard was deemed in most cases a necessary 
adjunct to a fully equipped Inn, with an external staircase 
leading to the principal rooms, such as is still to be met 
with in some of our country towns. Of course the 
arrangements of a house varied greatly, according to the 
locality in which it was situate, and the requirements of 
those frequenting it, but as a general rule the sleeping 
apartments, as also the dining and other rooms, were 
shared very much in common by the visitors. The 
interior of an early Inn, as we find it represented in old 
engravings, shew the beds placed side by side around the 
apartment after the manner of a ship's cabin, offering 
probably less privacy, and not fewer inconveniences. 
The furniture, &c, it is enough to say, was scanty and 
simple, but amply sufficient for the requirements of an 
unrequiring age. The rooms presented an exceedingly 
quaint, and oftentimes picturesque appearance ; this was 
specially the case with the principal apartments, which 
were, as in some of the houses previously mentioned by 
name, heavily timbered and wainscoted throughout, and 
the ceiling often artistically treated, and only the long 
low windows, filled with the curious lozenge panes, 
lighted the rooms, which were rendered unusually dark 



183 

by the internal fittings. In the common room where the 
company gathered, the drinking vessels and ordinary 
ntensils of a Tavern or Inn, — bright metal tankards, horn 
cups, &c, — would be arranged against the dark outline of 
the walls, flanked by the oaken settles, black with age. 
The exterior may be best understood by the few remain- 
ing examples of mediaeval domestic Architecture that are 
still left to us, especially in the neighbourhood of the 
ancient streets and lanes. But while few towns possess 
such interesting specimens of the dwellings of their 
ancestors as the Borough of Ipswich, there are perhaps 
none that can lay claim to such a rich inheritance in old 
institutions, surrounded as they are with memories and 
associations of the past so well worthy of record. A 
conviction that not the least in point of interest are those 
connected with " the old Inns and Taverns," has led to 
the pleasant task of compiling this paper. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



APPENDIX. 



"THE ASSYSE FOR BRUERS.* 



Quando quarterim frumenti vendit z p tribus solidis vel XL. denar9 
et ordefi p xx li denary vel. ijs et anena p xviij(i tuc bene possut 
brasiatores vendere in cinitate duas largenas bone ceruisie p. uno dinare 
et tres largenas p j° dinare in burgo extra debent vend'e quatuor largenas. 
pro uno deft & bn possunt. Nota q, ista assisa currit p. tota anglia ex 
pcepto dni Regis et q^ ista est assissa panis et ceruisie scdm q^ cotinetur 
inscriptis niariscalcie dni regis scdm vendiconem frumenti melioris 
secudi & tcij. et turn Wastellus <^ u ofnes alij panes cuniseuqr gefiis sint 
ponderentur scdm vendicoein medij frumenti. Nee mutatz ista assisa 
sine pondus panis p sex denar? crescent? vel distrestent? in vendico' 
quarterij frumenti et q, brasiator non accrestat q* in largena nisi p 
duodeci denar? crestent vel distrestente in quarteris brasij et qui assisam 
panis vel ceruisie fregerint p'fno vice scdo et tercio. amercientur qiiarto 
vice subeat Judicm scilt pistor collistrigii et brasiator tumbrell. Si quis 
vindiderit farina modo fallaci p'mo modo gravit puniet 2 . Scdo annuat 
tota farina. Terico subeat Judicm collistrigii Quarto abiuret villam 
simili modo de pistatorib3 delinquent^ et carnifices q' vendut carnes 
porcinas sup semlatas vel carnes de morina p'rno graniter amercient^ 
sdo paciant? iudicui collistrigii tcio incarcerentur et redimantur. Quarto 
abiurent villani et hoc fiat tunctis transgredientib5." 

* From Liber Tertius, Ipswich Great Doomsday Book. 



ON THE RECENT DISCOVERY OF A BRONZE 
SWORD, at CHIPPENHAM, CAMBRIDGESHIRE, 

WITH NOTICES OF SIMILAR DISCOVERIES IN THE 
WESTERN DISTRICT OF SUFFOLK. 

The greater part of the district over which the 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, &c, has the nominal 
supervision, has been subjected for such a length of time 
to cultivation, by which its surface has been so thoroughly 
explored, that the discovery of the larger weapons of 
bronze is becoming more and more infrequent. Markedly 
is it so with the more prominent and uncommon member 
of the group, the leaf-shaped sword, and every instance 
of its discovery whether in the past or future should be 
carefully recorded in our Proceedings, and especially 
when it occurs under circumstances which admit of the 
belief that it was placed by design where found. 

The great majority of the Celtic bronze weapons 
preserved in the public and private collections of this 
country were apparently lost by their former owners, 
and have been recovered in modern days from the peat 
of our fens, the bottoms of ancient meres and lakes, or 
dug from the beds of rivers, often at points where there 
were fords and where many a fierce encounter between 
hostile tribes or peoples may have taken place. Instances 
in which these objects in a perfect state have been found 
under other conditions are uncommon, and consequently, 
worthy of the most careful notice, for from such discoveries 
alone can we hope in time to come to solve the question 
of the true age and origin of these classic Aveapons, and 
of the people who first brought thorn to our shores. 



185 

Within my archaeological career two such instances 
of the discovery of leaf-shaped swords have come under 
my observation, the first some years since at Barrow, near 
Bury St. Edmunds ; the second, the immediate cause of 
the production of this paper, at Chippenham, near New- 
market. This place, though not within the confines of 
the county, is included in the ancient bounds of St. 
Edmund and the jurisdiction of the Archdeacon of 
Sudbury,* and is so land locked by Suffolk as to form 
part of a district in which the archaeologists of the two 
counties can well afford to meet and investigate the 
antiquities common to both* 

The site of the discovery at Chippenham was upon 

the open field to the right of the road leading from the 

village street to Badlingham, and at about 85 yards from 

it and the fence separating the field from the strip of 

meadow land which intervenes between it and the brook. 

At this point, which is just below the brow of the rising 

ground, some men digging for gravel, in the middle of 

last December, unearthed the relic at a depth of about 

two and a half feet from the surface. It lay with its 

point directed to the North West and its hilt at a lower 

level, upon, and partly within, a stratum of picked flint 

stones of larger size than the average of those found in 

the surrounding soil, which is of a sandy nature and 

unprofitable for sifting. Around the handle-plate of the 

sword when it was first uncovered, was a blackish fibrous 

decay, which fell off when the weapon was lifted. This, 

there is little doubt, was the remains of the substance 

which formed its handle. Just clear of the bed of stones 

and some two feet further N.W. from the point of the 

sword, the men came upon a deposit of burnt matter, 

occupying a space of about two feet or so in diameter, 

and in quantity between two and three bushels, which 

they described as being "just like soot from a chimney." 

This they took the trouble to sift, but no fragments of 

bone or pottery were found in it, nor were any noticed 

* Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, Vol. I., pp. 233 and 344. 



186 

in the vicinity of the sword. The position and character 
of the deposit I am assured of, for upon my visit to the 
spot shortly after the discovery, the men in pointing out 
the relative position of it and the sword, dug in the 
sittings and turned up some of the blackened soil for my 
inspection. At my suggestion also they continued their 
excavations in the whole ground beyond where the sword 
lay, but found it had not been previously disturbed. A 
few yards eastward of this point there is a slight rise in 
the surface of the ground in which some thought they 
saw the traces of a levelled tumulus, but after a careful 
examination I fear that it is far too low, ridge like, and 
irregular in outline to be such, but is rather the natural 
brow of the hill with a slightly greater increment of silt 
of the old river which formed the gravel bed beneath. 

The Chippenham sword, which is represented in 
fig. 1 of the accompanying plate, is a very fine and 
perfect example of the broad form of the weapon. Its 
length is 2 7 \ inches, by 2 J inches in greatest breadth, 
both of the handle-plate, and blade. The latter, except 
near the point, has no well defined central stem, or mid- 
rib, a slight fulness only traverses the middle of the 
blade and terminates in a point below the lozenge shaped 
portion of the handle piece. It is margined by a 
grooved and narrow feather edge, which is still perfect 
and sharp, except for a few inches at the broadest part of 
the blade where it is turned as from a blow delivered 
when in use upon some unyielding substance. The 
handle-plate is slightly flanged at the sides for the better 
retention of the material of its handle, and is perforated 
with nine holes in three sets for the attachment of the 
same, which was in place when first the sword was seen, 
and of the form of which there are indications in the 
erugo of the hilt. 

The discovery at Barrow was made in the spring of 
1850, or 51, by some labourers engaged in widening a 
ditch by the side of the foot-path leading from the Great 
Green to the Rectory, and not far from the north-east 



187 

corner of the meadow in which is the moated enclosure 
of the old Hall.* Here at a depth of some two or three 
feet below the surface two leaf-shaped swords were found 
lying side by side. As in the Chippenham case they lay 
surrounded by stones and much blackened earth. It was 
currently reported also that they accompanied the bones of 
a large framed man, but this particular is not confirmed 
by the enquiries instituted in the village some time ago 
by myself and more recently resumed, nor by the Rev. 
William Keeling, the rector of Barrow, who in 1871, 
wrote in answer to my enquiry, "I was not present at 
the finding of the two swords, but remember afterwards 
observing a quantity of black soil (the natural soil being 
clay ) at the spot where the labourers found the swords : 
leading me to suppose that an interment had taken place 
there. I do not recollect any other relics being dis- 
covered." These seem to be the facts of the case, and 
as the men who made the discovery are either dead, or 
gone away from the village, and no account of it was 
apparently published at the time, it is unlikely that any 
additional information can now be obtained. 

In the neighbourhood it is generally believed that a 
battle took place not far from the site of the discovery, 
and it is not at all improbable — for Barrow is just outside 
the line of the ancient entrenchment known as the Black 
Ditch, and the ridge upon which the Hall stands is a 
commanding position, and one which would not fail to 
be occupied by the warriors engaged in defending the 
territory defined by the dyke. Odds and ends of arms 
too, are occasionally ploughed up, and it was not 
long since that a fragment of blade of a bronze sword 
was so recovered. Indeed the name of Barrow is so 
suggestive of earthworks, that it is very probable the 
formidable moatf with its rudiments, or remains, of 

* The spot will be found carefully indicated upon the new large scale map of the 
Ordnance Survey. 

_t Not far from this, I have ascertained the existence of two considerable ancient 
burial places of undetermined age. As, however, Roman coins are occasionally 
found upon the surface of one of the sites (the Mill field) and urns with ashes, &c, 
have been met with in draining it, it may probably by referred to the period of the 
occupation of the country by that people. 



188 

ramparts is of much more ancient origin than the Hall 
of the Passelews and De Barewes it once enclosed. 

Upon this point it may be interesting to quote further 
from Mr. Reeling's letter, he adds, "there is little doubt, 
I imagine, that the ground between the spot in question, 
and Barrow Bottom was a battle-field, for I remember 
hearing of bones formerly being found by the side of the 
hollow road which used to run across the open field and 
Barrow heath into the present high road from Bury to 
Newmarket, not far from the site of the large tumulus, 
which once stood on the rise of the hill from Barrow 
bottom."* 

Of the Barrow swords one was presented to the 
Bury Museum f by the Rev. Mr. Reeling, and forms the 
subject of the engraving No. 2 of the plate. It is 
shorter by one inch than the weapon from Chippenham, 
but is the more elegantly formed of the two, characterised 
as it is by its lunetted hilt, bevelled blade, and well 
marked mid-rib, which extends from the sharp point, to 
the margin of the elongated slot which here served the 
purpose of the three rivet-holes in the grip of the handle- 
plate of the other specimen. Its blade is two inches in 
greatest width, and the points of the lunette of the handle 
plate are 2 ^o inches apart. Upon the latter above the six 
rivet-holes can be plainly seen the surface covered by the 
hefting. This weapon is now coated with a dark green 
patina and is perfect with the exception of its feather- 
edge, in which are many small gaps and bruises on both 
sides from hilt to point, showing I think that it had 
taken its part in some close and deadly conflict. 

The second sword was formerly in the possession 
of Groddard Johnson, Esq., of East Dereham, the 
brother of the then occupant of Barrow Hall, and is 
believed to be the one which passed, some time after his 
decease, into the collection of the Rev. Wm. Greenwell, 

* When this tumulus was removed in 1813, among other things found in it were 
some iron cusps of Spears referrible to the " late Celtic " period. Two of these are in 
the Bury Museum. See Vol. II. Suffolk Institute Proceedings, p. 207. 

t Proceedings of the Suflolk Institute of Archseology, Vol. II, p. 277. 



189 

f.r.s. of Durham. It is engraved one fourth size in fig. 
343, page 279, of Dr. Evans' work on British Bronze 
Implements, where it is described " as a remarkably fine 
sword (27| inches long) from Barrow, Suffolk, in which 
the long slot in the hilt plate is combined with ten small 
rivet holes. The central ridge on the blade is well 
pronounced, and the blunted part of the blade near the 
hilt is engraved or milled diagonally. The number of 
rivets is here larger than usual." 

In reviewing the evidence afforded by these cases, 
meagre as it is, one can hardly help being impressed by 
the coincidence presented, which indicate, I think, that 
the swords were buried with some care and under similar 
circumstances. They were lying apparently directed to 
the same point of the compass* and were perfect swords 
when committed to the keeping of the earth, and not 
broken or useless weapons, thrown aside to be re-cast. 
In both cases they were associated with stonesf and 
carbonised earth, and the site of their burial was not far 
removed from an ancient boundary dyke, in some fray in 
connection therewith, the chieftains who owned them, 
may have fallen. It is to be regretted that the evidence 
as to the finding of human remains in the Barrow case 
was so incomplete as to compel me to reject it, otherwise 
it appears to afford the most natural solution of the 
question, why these perfect, well balanced weapons, so 
superior to the iron ones that succeeded them, should 
have been thus hid away in the ground. The non 
occurence of any bones in the Chippenham burial would 
to my mind have presented no difficulty, for in porous 
soil, as I have shown elsewhere, human bones, unless 
cremated, frequently decay entirely and leave scarcely 
any evidence of their former presence. In making these 
observations I am aware that no instance has been 

* The ditch in the side of which the swords were found lies N.W. and S.E. and my 
informant, who was on the spot in the afternoon of the discovery leads me to 
believe, they lay along it. 

t For the occurrence of stones in the graves of the latter part of the bronze period ; 
see Kemble's Horse Ferales, p. 45. 

Y 



190 

recorded of bronze weapons of this type having been 
found in this country, or in Ireland, in tumuli, or in 
graves associated with human remains; but may not 
this have arisen from a want of due observation on 
the part of the finders, in the exceptional cases referred 
to at the commencement of this paper, who eager to 
secure the relic of value have been careless as to its 
surroundings ? In Scandinavia a good proportion of 
the leaf-shaped swords of bronze have so been found. 
Thus in the tumulus, Treenhoi, near Ribe, in Jutland, 
cited by Sir John Lubbock,* on the left side of the corpse, 
which had been buried in woollen clothing which was 
remarkably preserved together with portions of the body 
itself, was a bronze sword 27 inches long, in its wooden 
sheath ; and another burial in the same tumulus yielded 
with a javelin head of flint, and smaller articles of bronze, 
a second sword of that metal. So there appears some 
ground for the belief that in this country also ; these 
objects may have been interred in some cases with their 
deceased owners. 

Two or three other leaf-shaped swords are known to 
me to have been found in West Suffolk. One of these, 
a perfect weapon in citron coloured bronze of the second 
or narrow form of Sir Wm. Wilde, t is preserved among 
the antiquities at Hardwick House and was found, over 
a hundred years ago in cleaning out the river Lark 
at Icklingham.J This specimen is 24 inches and two 
tenths long, seventeen tenths of an inch in greatest 
width of blade, and 2 inches and two-tenths across 
the lozenge. It is furnished with a handle-plate of the 
same form as No. 1, perforated with six rivet holes, in 
the uppermost of the two in the grip the bronze rivet 
still remains, and is about six-tenths of an inch long. 
The blade has no mid-rib, but its faces are smooth, 
sloping away from a slightly thickened centre. The 
feather edge is sharp and intact. 

* Prehistoric Times, p. 29. + Catalogue of the Museum, Royal Irish Academy, p. 443. 
+ Suffolk Institute Proceedings, Vol. I, p. 24. 



191 

In the Norwich Museum is another specimen of the 
same form, which was found at Woolpit, and was pre- 
sented by Sir R. Beevor. This is 21 inches and eight- 
tenths long, and is proportionately narrower than the 
last. It has the handle plate perforated for seven rivets 
and its blade is strengthened by a flat mid-rib, which 
terminates in a point in the handle just by the upper 
rivet hole of the tang. The conditions under which it 
was discovered are not recorded. Another example was 
obtained from near Mildenhall in 1851, by the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society,* but further than "it was broken 
in half" no particulars of its form or dimension are given. 

The leaf- shaped bronze swords found in the British 
islands and France present a considerable resemblance, 
which suggests a common origin, whilst from those found 
in Denmark and the adjacent countries of the continent, 
they differ chiefly in the greater beauty of their form 
and manufacture, and also in the circumstance that they 
were hefted with a material liable to decay such as wood, 
horn, or bone, and not like those of Northern Europe, 
the majority of which have handles of bronze, more or 
less ornamented. Very few weapons retaining their 
handles have from this cause come to light in the British 
isles, probably not many more than a dozen examples 
are recorded, and these chiefly Irish. Of these again 
only three are leaf-shaped swords of the types shown in 
the illustration, and the material employed in their 
hefting appears to have been deer's horn and bone of the 
whale. 

The handles although mostly attached to the handle 
plates with rivets of bronze were in many cases, I am 
led to think, secured by pegs or plugs of wood, or of 
such material as the handle : or that the plates of bone, 
&c, were laced or braided on to the tang, through the 
perforations in the same, with cords of leather or gut. 
If this were not the case, the bronze rivets would be 
found with the swords offcener than they are. 

•Abstract of Proceedings, Vol. 1, p. 7. 



192 

In elegance of outline the British sword bears com- 
parison with those represented upon the painted Greek 
vases, which is suggestive of the models for these weapons, 
if not the art of casting them, being derived originally 
from an Eastern source, possibly by the agency of early 
intercourse with the traders of Phoenicia. Authorities 
are mostly agreed that this form of weapon was brought 
into use in Western and Northern Europe at a compara- 
tively late stage in the Bronze period. On the other 
hand, there are some, of whom the late Mr. Thomas 
Wright, f.s.a., was the principal exponent, who contend 
that with the celts and other instruments of bronze, they 
came to us at a still later period, and are essentially 
Roman.* These gentlemen have, however, failed to 
show why so many of these objects should be found in 
those countries where the Roman legions never pene- 
trated, and so few in Italy, the country of their supposed 
derivation. 

Regarding the leaf-shaped swords as undoubtedly 
Celtic or in our case as British, I incline to the opinion 
that they may have been first brought hither by the 
Belgse or some kindred people from the opposite shores 
of the continent, who are thought to have invaded this 
country and settled in it, some two or three centuries 
prior to the first Roman invasion, and of whom we may 
have traces in the lines of dykes which traverse West 
Suffolk and the neighbouring county of Cambridge. 

In Ireland where these weapons are apparently much 
more common than in this country, having probably 
continued in use to a later period, they with other bronzes 
are attributed by some to a people known in the legends 
as the Tuatha de Danann who in remote times entered 
Ierne as conquerors and colonists subduing and coercing 
the older inhabitants, the Fir-bolgi, whom, if they ever 
existed, must have been people of the later stone-period, 
for the former race as smelters of ore, and workers in 

* Journal of the British Archaeological Association, Vol. 22 : 80. The Celt, the 
Roman, and the Saxon, p. 74. 



193 

copper, bronze, and gold, were regarded by them as a 
race of magicians. 

In this paper I have intentionally omitted all refer- 
ence either to the bronze rapier, or to the leaf-shaped 
and triangular sword-daggers of the tumuli, of which 
forms some few examples have been found in the district ; 
for the reader will have inferred from my observations, 
that I consider them to be antecedent to the type of 
weapon treated of in the foregoing pages, although no 
doubt they continued to be used by some tribes until 
long after the introduction of the more perfect weapon. 

HENRY PRIGG. 



Whilst these pages were passing through the press, 
information reached me of a further discovery at 
Chippenham in close proximity to the spot where the 
bronze sword was found. In the early part of last 
month, it appears, the gravel-raisers were set to work 
the same pit in an eastward direction, and after a few 
days digging, exposed what would seem to have been an 
oblique section of a short and shallow trench, trending 
West by North West, or thereabouts. In this at about 
two feet from the surface, they found lying near each 
other three portions of a bronze leaf-shaped sword, or 
swords, for it is not clear that the fragments belonged to 
one weapon, and a leg bone which the finders assert was 
human, but which I think was more probably that of 
some animal. At a distance of about four yards, N. W., 
from these they came upon a deposit of blackened earth 
and charcoal, in which were many flints and pebbles 
bearing the marks of fire, and among them several crude 
lumps of metal, either copper or bronze, the entire 
weight of which was near upon five pounds. Mingled 
with the disturbed soil the workmen found some few 
fragments of pottery, reddish yellow in colour and very 
friable, which from their description was probably of 
Celtic fabric. 



194 

From a careful inspection since made of the pit and 
my previous knowledge of it, I am led to the conclusion 
that the spot where the sword was found is aligned with 
the two later discoveries to the North West, and distant 
from the deposit of the lumps of metal about ten yards. 
It is evident also that in the remains of the hearth and its 
surroundings we have the site of an extemporized 
primitive foundry, the proximity of which to the buried 
sword tends not a little to weaken the supposition of the 
latter having been laid in the earth besides a corpse, 
although,- why deposited, it is difficult to imagine. 

The perfect sword with the other relics, are in the 
possession of W. M. Tharp, Esq., of Chippenham Hall, 
whom it is hoped will allow a careful analysis of the 
lumps of metal to be made to ascertain their true 
character, as well as of the fragments of Swords. Also 
that the excavation which it is purposed to make through 
the ridge in the rear of the pit, will set at rest the 
question of its origin, and at the same time yield further 
evidence of the ancient occupation of this sun-bathed 
grassy slope. 

H. P. 



THE IPSWICH ' DOMESDAY' BOOKS, 

AND ESPECIALLY CONCERNING PERCYVALe's 

'GREAT DOMESDAY BOOK/ 

WITH THAT PART OF ' LIBER SEXTUS' CONTAINING THE 

TAXES PAID TO THE KING'S GRACE BY EVERY TOWN 

IN SUFFOLK. 



COMMUNICATED BY THE 

REV. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, Hon. Sec. 



The ancient Borough of Ipswich, besides possessing 
a rather remarkable and extensive collection of Rolls, 
Charters and Letters Patent, Deeds, both private and 
municipal, as well as other miscellaneous writings of 
varied worth, is fortunate in having among the town 
Archives, several books, both written and printed, 
which are of special value and importance, alike to the 
antiquary and historian, and of no small account in the 
eyes of the intelligent burgess, who rightly regards each 
as a link in the silver chain that connects the present 
with the past. The interest which attaches to these 
volumes may be said mainly to centre in those, known 
respectively as the ' New ' or ' Great ' Domesday and the 
1 Old ' or ' Little ' Domesday Book, concerning which, 
and especially the former, I desire to draw attention. 

The ancient laws and customs of Ipswich, dating 
from a very early period of the town's constitution and 
history, were originally contained in certain Rolls, once 
the cherished inheritance of our forefathers, but which, 
alas ! were in the 56th year of the reign of Henry III. 



196 

abstracted from the."Comyn Hutche or Cheste" and, 
regardless of the grievous injury inflicted thereby upon 
the town, purloined by a certain notorious Town Clerk 
f u un faus comun Clerk'''' J one, John le Blake, of whom, 
and the precious Rolls, it is almost needless to say, 
nothing further was heard. l Men of the East ' are 
proverbially ' toise? so that it is no cause for surprise, 
that we find the Ipswich townsfolk soon after this 
occurence, deputing to twenty-four of their number, the 
task of compiling afresh an account of the ancient 
usages of the Borough, of the extreme importance of 
which they thus appear to have been fully sensible. 
These revived customs, ordinances and regulations, were 
embodied in the volume since known as the u Domesday 
des Leyes e des usages de Gippeswis" but more commonly 
as the ' Little Domesday Book,' and appears to have 
51 been completed in the 19th year of Edward I. This 
work, however, seems very soon after to have disappeared, 
but not before two official copies had been made sometime 
during the reign of Edward II. , and these were a little 
later on, increased to the number of three. 

Of the fourteenth century transcripts, one is an 
octavo volume, containing within its leather covers, 
ninety-one leaves of vellum, upon fifty of which, appear 
in a neat hand, a copy in French of the former Domesday 
Book, while sundry other matters, of a later period, 
occupy the remaining forty one skins. 

The other transcript, or duplicate copy, is apparently 
the work of the same penman, and also contains on the 
leaves not used for the original purpose of the book, 
much interesting matter of a subsequent date. 

A third transcript of a similar character, and 
executed probably about the same time as the two copies 
just mentioned, but every way inferior to them, found 
its way some twenty-five years ago into the hands of 
the British Museum authorities,* under circumstances 

* " Le Domesday des Leyes et Usages de Gippewiz 19 Edw : I. Br: Mus; clvii. B. 
Add MSS. 25,011. 



197 

detailed at length in the Report recently made by Mr. 
J. C. Jeaffreson for the Historical MSS. Commission 
(Appendix ix, p. 242). Beside the French text, this 
copy has an English translation, and is easily accessible 
to the student in an admirable edition published in the 
Roll series,* which has an able introduction, pointing 
out especially the importance of the Ipswich Domesday 
as a unique volume among a rare class of documents : 
valuable foot notes, explanatory of obsolete terms, &c, 
are to be found on nearly every page. 

In addition to this volume, a fifteenth century copy 
of this Domesday, was, at the same time as the other 
transcript mentioned, purchased by the Trustees of the 
British Museum, in whose custody it remains. 

This latter volume was in all probability the pre- 
cursor of the ' new ' or ' Great ' Domesday Book, so called 
from having been compiled in the 12th year of Henry VIII, 
and owing also to its great size, compared with the earlier 
transcripts of the former Domesday. Except only in point 
of priority of date, the Great Domesday Book of Richard 
Percy vale, (formerly one of the Portmen of the Town,) is 
a volume of far greater interest and importance than the 
earlier volumes to which allusion has been made, and 
supplied, what must have been a long felt want, in giving 
(to use the words of the compiler) u as many of the old grants, 
liberties, ordinances, laws arid good constitutions" as he could 
find u prescription or good matter of record for, with divers 
and sundry other matters right necessary to he had and known 
in the town and borough of Ipswich? (see Prologue.) 

The Great Domesday Book is a finely written thick 
folio, bound in old embossed calf, measuring 16 in. by 
12 in. and containing 271 leaves of vellum, the whole 
being divided into seven Books (preceded by the prologue) 
which are as follows : — 

Libee Peimus, contains the Charter granted in the 
first year of the reign of King John, followed by records 

* The Black Book of the Admiralty, Appendix, Part ii, vol. ii, 1873. Edited by Sir 
Travers Twiss, Q.c, d.c.l. 

Z 



198 

of succeeding grants, &c, as far as 13 Edward I. This 
book is mainly taken up with matter contained in the 
Little Domesday Volume and consists of twenty-one 
vellum leaves, and one leaf blank. (It is preceded by 
five blank leaves, upon the back of one of these a 
memorandum is written.) 

Liber Secundus, has an English rendering of the 
eighty-three chapters contained in the earlier volume, 
where it is given in French ; to these ordinances and 
regulations affecting the municipal life, twenty others of 
a latter date are added in Latin, the most remarkable 
being those for the proper ordering of the religious 
observances connected with the famous Merchants Guild 
of Corpus Christi. This book occupies no less than 
fifty-eight leaves : there are beside seventeen that are 
plain. 

Liber Tertius, is taken up with 

(1) An Ordinance for the regulation of the beremen or 
Wynedraggers (porters) as laid down in the Little 
Domesday. 

(2) The Toune Custumes belonging to the Kynge's 
fee-ferme. 

(3) The Assise of weying of brede after the Statue 
of Wynchester, 

(4) The Assyse for buers. 

This book contains fifteen leaves, with one left plain 
at the end. 

Liber Quartus, has in Latin " the constitucion for 
Corpus Christi procession and in what maner the Maundy 
shulde yerely be kepte with other dyuers remembraunces 
requesy te to be had in memory ;" followed by an order 
"how euery occupacion or craftesmen shuld ordre them- 
selffes in their goyng * * * in the same procession." 
There are also between 30 and 40 other distinct entries 
consisting of copies of Indentures, acquittances, enrol- 
ments, grants, extracts, memorandums, &c, &c, the 
whole occupying seventy-eight leaves, 18 or 19 of which 
are written in a late (bad) hand (temp. Eliz: and Ph: and 



199 

Mary) and two blank leaves. Three leaves that follow, 
which may also be said to form part of Book iv, contain 
in several different hands, various oaths added at a 
subsequent time to those which appear in Book v. so as 
to meet the requirements of after legislation, viz. 

(a) The Bailiffs (as to Impanelling Juries.) 
(£) Justices of the Peace. 

(c) Searchers of Leather. 

(d) Sealer of Leather. 

(e) Fleshwardens. 

(V) Wardens of the Foundation (29 Sep. 1623) 
(g) Town Treasurer. 
(h) Clavigers. 

The fourth book is thus by far the largest portion 
of the several divisions marked in the volume, and has 
the widest range of subjects. 

Liber Quintus, is by reason of its contents, that part 
of the book which in former days was most frequently 
called into requisition, and from it, the markets &c, were 
periodically proclaimed, it consists of twenty leaves, 
which bear marks of long continued usage, at the end 
of which are two blank leaves, and contains " alle the 
othes that euery bayliff, portman, burgeys and alle other 
officers be wonte to swere when they be admyttyd into 
ther romys and offices with other dyuerse articules that 
the bayliffes of this towne be bounde to se obserued and 
kepte and to proclayme them euery yere in dyuers places 
of this Town with the Libertyes of this town by water 
and by land." 

Liber Sextus, may claim to be regarded as a book 
possessing more general interest than the others. 
The greater part of the contents of this portion, is taken 
up with matters relating, not to Ipswich only, but to 
the whole County of Suffolk i.e. (1) Taxes paid by every 
town in Suffolk to the King's Grace. (2) List of Knights' 
Fees of the Honors of Lancaster and Leicester in the 
County of Suffolk. It contains also, (a) a curious heraldic 



200 

description of the arms borne by divers Sovereigns ; (b) a 
quaint memorandum of ancient lineal measurements, and 
what I have elsewere spoken of as, (c) a " Rhyming 
Chronicle of the Kings of England," (William I. to 
Edward IV.), and attributed to Lydgate, the Monk-poet 
of Bury,* which brings' the sixth book to a conclusion. 
There are in this part, twenty leaves, three of which 
remain blank. 

Liber Septimus, is the last book: it contains the 
Charter confirmed to the town in the 3rd year of Henry 
VIII. with another Charter relating to the Admiralty, and 
sundry other matters, written upon nineteen leaves, and 
there are beside, nine leaves at the end left plain. 

The character and contents of the Great Doomsday 
Book, as well as the object and design of its predecessors, 
may, it is thought from this description, be deemed of 
sufficient interest to lead many to desire a further and 
fuller acquaintance with the volume, such as a study of 
the book in its entirety can alone give. 

It will be seen that the Great Domesday Book, is 
in point of fact, what in process of time the earlier 
Domesday volumes were inclined to become, a veritable 
olla podrida, for, if not exactly a receptacle for " odds and 
ends," many of the entries there made, cannot but be 
regarded as altogether foreign to the original purpose for 
which such a book was designed. We have, however, 
abundant cause for satisfaction, that the Great Domesday 
Book, is in respect of its varied contents, just what it is ; 
the antiquary especially will be sure to find pleasure in 
the preservation of such quaint things as some which 
are here recorded, and which might otherwise have 
disappeared altogether. This feature is prominent in, 
and indeed may be said in a great measure to be confined 
to, the sixth book. Beside all this the inhabitant of 
Suffolk may find therein matters of some importance to 
the whole County, which perhaps point to a position, 
more or less one of pre-eminence, which may have been 

* East Anglian, NewSe7\, vol. I., pp. 38, 41. 



201 

occupied by the town of Ipswich in the reign of Henry 
VI. and have caused the Borough to be regarded also as 
a * remembrancer ' and custodian for the County at 
large. The section which best illustrates this conjecture, 
is the following account, also from the sixth book, of the 
"taxes paid by every Town in Suffolk to the King's Grace" 
which deserves to be made accessible to all who are 
interested in the history of the County. Of such taxes 
it may be said, that originally the amount payable to the 
King was uncertain, being levied by fresh assessments at 
each grant made by the Commons, but in the 8th year of '3' 
Edward III. new taxations were made, by virtue of the 
King's Commission, of every township &c. in the kingdom, 
which quite settled the tax payable in each several case, 
and for the County of Suffolk, is that here recorded. 



jklrarir lUrjcg&ale'a feat §0ttW8&ag fxrali. 12 |«jr Mii - 



" HERE BEGYNNETH THE Vr. h PARTE OF THIS BOKE 
AND FIRST FOLOWITH WHAT TAXES EVY TOWN 
IN SUFFOLK PAYETH TO THE KYNGS GRACE. 



Villa de Gippo cu hamleta de Wyks Ufford hamleta de Wykys 
Episcopi hamleta de Stoke et hamleta de Brokys halle LXinj7a xs yd 
Et Inde p donatz in Anno xxxif Rege henrici sexti p dicta dnin 

Regem X xli 

Et sic Reman — 
Unde hamleta de Wyks Ufford soluit 
Item hamleta de Wyks epi soluit — 

Item hamleta de Stoke soluit 

Item hamleta de Brokys soluit 

Item Burgus Gippi soluit resid viz — 

Burgus dunwici soluit 

Burgus de Orford soluit 

Burgus de Eye soluit - 



Sm Burgo 1 ^ § diet cu hamlets-inj^i.- 



lljli 


xs 


yd. 




xxvjs 


viiio?. 




XX111JS 






xvs 




xijli 
xli 


VIIJ.S 

xvjs 


ixd 


villi 




xxd. 


Xllli 


xxs 


ijd 



202 



The hundred of Samford. 



Kyrketofi alias Shotley 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
ffreston 



Uncle p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Stratfford 



Unde p donatr p 
Berholt 



diet? Regem 



Unde p donatur p diet Regem 
Horkysted 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Capell soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Tatyngston soluit 



Unde p donatur p diet Regem 
Whersted soluit 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Copdok soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Wenham Magna & pua sol — 
Unde p donatur p diet? Regem ■ 
Holton soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
Bentley soluit- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
Holbroke soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem- 
Sprowtoii soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem- 
Hegham soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Hynlyshm soluit 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege. 
Burstall soluit 



Unde p donatur p diet* Regem 
Sehlley soluit 



Unde p donatur p dictu Regem 
Rey don soluit ■ 



Unde p donatur p dictu Regem 
Branthm soluit 



Unde p donatur p dictu Regem 
Belstead pua soluit- 



Unde p donatur p dictu Rege 
Stutton soluit 



Unde p donatur p dictu Rege 
Euwardeii soluit — 



Unde p donatur p dictu Rege 



iij7 



— xli 



li]li 



iijK 



iiij7a 



l VjS 


ijd 


xvs 




XXjS 


iiijd 


IXS 




XLVIJS 


iiijdT 


XIJS. 




vijs 


VIIIC? 


XXXIJS 


vine? 


VJS 


vine? 


I \s 




xxyjs 


vine? 


xxxs 


ivd 


xs 




xxxjs 


OD 


VIIjS 




XLJS 


Yjd 


XIIJS 


Illje?. 


LS 


\}d 


XXXS 




XXX VIJS. 


vie?. 


xs. 




XLS. 




VJS. 




XLJS. 


xd. 


V11JS. 




XIIIJS. 




xs. 




XXX VIJS. 


vjd 


VIJS. 


yjd. 


LIIJS. 


ijc? ob 


xs. 




xxvs. 


VIJC/ 


VJS. 




XLVIJS 


vnjcZ 


XIJS. 




VIJS 


ijd 


XVIIJS. 




LVJS. 




XIIJS 


nijrZ. 


XXXVJS 


uid. 


xs. 




XLS 


vie?. 


xs. 




XLinjs 


vnjcZ 


xs. 





203 

Belsted Magna soluit lvjs \id. 

Unde p douatur p dictu Rege xs. 

Chelmyngtoii &, Woluston \ ..... 

taxantur ad decuman / ^ 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xv js. 

Bona ruobilia hei*ed Willi de Berham \ j 

in villa de Berhm & Capell / J J 
Sni hundred p' del cu bona niobilia hered 

Willi de Barhm — Lxj/i viij yd. p Inde £ iijli 

Sin total — hxjli vs q^ Alloc xviij?* viij ijd. 

Sm de Claro XLij^i xvjs. xd % 

Hundrf de Bosmer^ 

Berkyng cu Nedehm sol \li xvjs. mjd 

Eston cu Wyllershrn sol ii]li xs. 

Somershm cu. fflokton sol iij& 

Unde p donatur p dictu Rege xxs. 

Blakehhm pua soluit XXXVlljs. Vic?. 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xnjs. mjd. 

Hemyngston soluit xlvjs. vjd 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xiijs. injc?. 

Beylhiri soluit iiijs. xd. 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xxijs. 

Blakenhfn magna soluit xxxiijs. v]d. 

Netylsted soluit xxviij.s. Vic?. 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xxs. 

Ryngesheld soluit iiijK iiijs. vjc?. 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xxyjs. viijg?. 

Ay she soluit XLiiijs. 

Estoh Gosbak sol xxxs. xjd. 

Unde p donatur p dictu. Regem xvs. 

Stonhm Antegan cu mekelfeld sol injfo' xms. xd. 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem xvijs viiijc? 

Stonhm Jernegan soluit xxyjs. 

Stonhm Comitis soluit lixs. Virjc? 

Unde p donatur p diet Regem xxs. 

Cretyng Sa Olavi See Marie 

et Omi Sco 1 ^ sol iiijfo vjc?. 

Batysford cu Badke sol mj?j xxd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xxs 

Codynhm cum Croeffeld sol xli xiiijs viijcZ 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xxs 

BramfFord cum Burst all sol vjZi xvijs vine?. 

Unde p donatur p dictum Regem xxs. 

Brysete magna & pua ls i]d. 

Sni hundr f? diet? Lxiij?i ixs iijc?. 



204 



hundr d de hertysmere. 



Mendyleshani soluit 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem 
Redgraue soluit 



Unde p donatur p dictum Regem- 
Palgrave soluit 



Unde p donatur p dictu Regem 
Broome 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Westethorp 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Rysehangyll 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem • 
Ocle- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege- 

Stutton ■ 

Breseworth 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Redelyngfeld 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Thakesle ■ 



Unde p donatur p dict9 do m Rege • 
Rekynghale pua- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem- 
Thardoli taxatur ad x am 



Unde p donaf p diet? Regem 
Wyeham ■ 



Unde p donaf p dict9 Regem 
Baketon 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege- 

Tharueston 

Wortham- 



vj?* 
xli 



Unde p donatur p diet? do m Rege- 
Cranele Cokelyngf 

langton % Suddon 
Gyslynghm ■ 



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iiijZ* 



iijli 
xli 



Unde p donatur p dict9 do m Regem 
Burgate 



Unde p donatur p do m Regem antedict' 
Thornham pua 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Aspale 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem — 
Ocolt cu Benynghm taxat z ad x m 



Unde p donaf p diet? Regem 
Stoke 



xnjs. 

xs. 

xxxvijs 

xxxijs. 

vnjs. 

xxvij 

xvjs. 

LIJS 

viijs. 
xxxviijs. 

xs. 
iiijs. 

xs. 
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vjs. 

ijs. 

viijs. 

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viijc?. 

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viijc?. 

iiijc?. 
vijc? 

xd. 



viijc?. 



iijc? 
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viijc?. 



205 



Wyftston — 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem • 
Melles 



Unde p donatur p dictp do™ Regem 
ffenynghm 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Wederyngsete cu. Brokford — 
Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Cotton- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Thornham magna 

Thweyte 

Unde p donatur p diet Rege — 

Sm hundr d f? dee mj xx — 

Inde x? 



hundrdf de Cleydon 1 . 



helmynghm 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Cleydon 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Akenhin 



Unde p donatf p dict9 Regem 
Thurleston cu Whytton 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Berenghum 



Unde p donaf p diet? Rege - 
Westerfeld cu Swynlond — 
Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
henley 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege- 



Sm hundred de Stowe. 



Weste Cretyng 

Unde p donatur p dict9 do™ Rege 
Wetherden 



Uncle p donatur p dict9 do m Rege 
Gyppyng cu Newton 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege - 
Onhows cu herlston & Shelond ■ 
Unde p donatur p diet" Regem 

ffynbregh magna 

Unde p donatur p diet* Regem 

Buxale 

dagworth 

Neuton Veta 



Combes cu ffynbregh pua 





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206 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 

Thornhey 

Stow merket 



am. 



haule taxatr ad x ! 

Uude p donat r p dict9 Rege 

Siri hundr d § diet XL,iij7* vjs iiijd t^ 

Inde x n ! a 

hundrf de hoxon. 

horam cu Alyngton 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Kelsale cu Carlton — 
Sylham cu Ersham- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regm 

Laxfelde 

Badyngham 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Tatyngstoii cu Brundyssh 

denyngton 



•J e> 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Wylvey 



Bedyngfeld cu Southoll 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Stradbroke cum Wyngfeld- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem- 
Bedfeld cu Saxsted 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
Waybred cu Wetherysdale — 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
ffresyngfeld cu Wetyngham 
& Chebenhale hamelette 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 



} 



Mendham cum Metfield ■ vij 06 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

hoxon cu debenham 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Wyrlyngworth cum Sohm 



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1/ t/ o 

Unde p donatur p dict9 do m Regem xs 

Sm hundrf p dict9 mj^L njM xvje? ob 

hundred de Blything 

Bronfeld cu pesenale et mell — 
Walpole cu Syptoii & Cokeley 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Upstori cu. henenynghm 

Bramston cu Stobene 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Medylton cu. ffordle 



mjli xixs 


xid 


mjli vs. 


ixd. 


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207 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Hensted 



huntyngfeld cu lynsted 

magna & pua 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
henghm 



\ njft 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Soterton 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Eston 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Southcoue 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Southwolde ■ 



Thornyngton cu Wenaston ■ — 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Westhale- 



Unde p donatr p diet? Regem 



Chedeston cu Blyford 

Unde p donatur p dict9 do in Regem 

Benacrf Bulcamp cu Breg$ 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem ■ 

hasylworth 

Unde p donatxir p diet? Regem - 



Onehale cum ffrostendori 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 



Blyburgh cu Walberswyke- 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Wrenhfn 

Reydon 

Westyltoii 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 

leyston cum Sysewell 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Northalys 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 

Cratfeld 

Unde p donatur p dictu Regem- 
Dersham cum Yoxford 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Wycett Rumbrugh Speksale &, holton 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Sin hundrf p dict9 



Wyrlynghm cu Cone 
Unde p donatur p " 



mli 



hundr d de Waynford 



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idem Regem- 



injs xd. 

1XS 



208 



Rynglesfeld cu Redeshm 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Sotyrle cu chadynfeld & Wyllynghm 

Unde p donaf p dict9 Regem 

Bungey 

Unde p donaf p diet? Rege 

Beclys • 



diet? Regem 



Bersham in Shipmedowe 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

metyngham 

Unde p donatur p 

Ilketsale 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Weston Elw & Upredeskni — ■ 

Taxantur ad x aI ? 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Southelmhm 

Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 



:} 



Sm hundrf p diet? 
Inde x™ a 



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vili 

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vijli 

injli 

xnijli 
llijli 

lll}li 



liundrf de lothynglond 



Blundestone 

Unde p donatur p diet? Rege' 
Olton cum fflyxton- 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
heryngflete 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Askeby 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 

Bradwelle 

lounde 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Belton 



Unde p donatur p diet? do m Rege 

Burgh 

hopton 

ffreton — 



nj& 



XLIIS. 
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xijs. 

vjs 

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xijs. 

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xvs. 

xxs. 
xnjs 

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xvs. 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Gunton 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Corton — 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Somletoii - 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
lowystoft taxaf ad x am 



njli 



njli 



Gorleston taxatur ad x am 



lvs 
xvjs. 

XLVIJS. 

XS. 

XXXS. 

vnjs. 

xxijs. 

vnjs. 

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vnjd 

nd q, 
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209 



Reyston cu Gorleston 

Unde p donatur p diet? Rege • 
pua Jeniemuth cu Northinll — 
Unde p donatur p diet? Regein 

Sm hundrf p del 

Inde x m 



hundrf de Mutford. 



Kessynglond 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
pakefeld cu Kyrkeley 



Gyssylham cu pte de Reysshemere 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regern 

mutford cu Banabye et 

pte Reysshemere 

Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 

Carleton 



:} 



Unde p donatur 
Sfri hnndrf 



diet? Rege 



diet? 



uiii 


mjs 
xxs. 

xvjs 
xxs. 


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xmd 




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lid 
mid 
mid. 


oh 


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vijs 


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Itm xxiiij s ob p mafiys de Cretyng & mekylfeld 

que fuer abbie de Grasteno Aliengine 

hie Incipit libtas Sa Edmundi 

& villa de Bury Sci Ed! xxmjZi 

hundred de Babbergh. 

Stoke 

Cavendessh 

Waldyngfeld magna 

Unde de xx£ bono^ August9 le Waleys- 
Neylond 



Corneherde magna 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Corneherde pua 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem - 
Newton 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem ■ 
lausille 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege- 
Illey combust • 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Bures 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Oerthest 



Unde p donat 1 ' p diet? Regem 
Soiriton 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Alfeton 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 



nij^i xvs 


vjd 


<t ixs 


vnjd. ob 


injK vjs 


viijcZ ob (^ 


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mid. 


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B 1 



210 



Asygnton 

Uncle p donatur p dict9 do™ Regeni 
Syymplyn^ 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Boxtede 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
Polstede 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
Westone — 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Prestone 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Waldyngfeld pua 

Boxford 
Cokefeld 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Edwardeston 

lavenham 

GlemefFord 

Melleford 
Sutbury 



Sm hundrf f? dci 



irjW 

uiii 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Unde de xv? bono^z Barthi Burgherssh 

Aketon 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Groten 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Stansted 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Illey monach^ 

Meldyng 






hundrdf de Cofford. 



- nrjW 

- vrjK 

- vij^ 

- XVIlj/i 
-4 XIX^' 



Bylston 

Aldham 

Unde p donatur p dict9 do m Regem 

Elmesset 

hegham 

Ketelbreston 



vij.s. 

njs 

xs. 

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vs. 

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xxs. 

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xiijs 

XLIS 

xs 

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vjs 

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LIJS 

xijs. 

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vjs 
xvs 

VIS 

xiiijs. 

XIXS 



Lvnjs 

xviijs 

xs. 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Kersey 

Reddyng 



Uncle p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Chelesworth 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Watefeld cu Naketon 



XLVJS. 

srli vujs 
xxxiiijs 
vijs. 

LVJS 
XXXIIIJS 

vijs. 
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iij/t xiuj.t 



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xijd oB q, 
injtf. 



211 



Uiide p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Semere 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regern 

lelesheye 

ley ham 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Thorpmoriens 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

hadley 

Bretenhm 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Watheshm 



Unde p donatur p diets Regem 
Sm hundrf r) del 



hundred cle Theugowe 



XII] * 


yd. 


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vs. 




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nd. 

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xxxvijs. 


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ffornhm Omi Sco^? 

Unde p donatur p diet* Regem - 
Chelmyngton 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem ■ 
Ikeworth- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Brokeleye cum Rede 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
lakford 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Saxhm- 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
hemgrave- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
hornyngf herthe magna - 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
hargue- 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Kenton 



Unde p donatur p diet* Regem 
Saxham pua 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
hausted 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Rysby 

Westele ■ — 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
hornyngf herth pua 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem - 
Bar we 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 



xxxvjs. 



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vnjc?. 



212 



fflempton 

Uncle p donatur p diet? Regem 
Whepsted 



Sm hundif f? dcl- 



LXVJH 



XXXVIJS 

vjs 

IXS 



Bertoii 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege- 
heggessete cu. Beketoii 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
levermer magna 



hundred de Thedwardestrf 

viij^i 

njh 

mjli 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Wolpett 

Creukeston 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Ratlesdeii 

Rousdim 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Tostoke 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
ffornhm 



Whelnethfn magna & pua 

Unde p donatf p dict9 Regem 
Geddyng cu ffelshm 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Tymworth cu Ampton 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Thurston 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Stanfeld cum Bradle pua 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
pakenhm 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem • 
Bradefeld monacho^ 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Bradfeld Seyntkelerf 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Rosshbrook 



Unde p donatur 
Sm hundrf 



Ixeworthe 



dict9 Regem 



dci- 



xis 



ijd 
xd 

id 
ujd oB 



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njs vuj(Z 
irjs vnjd 
yd 



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\jd 
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mjd. 

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mjd. 
mjd. 

vujd 



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uxijli 



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xnjs. 

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xxijs. 

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xxvujs 

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vijs 



laundry de Blakeborune. 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

hopton 

heldercle 



Unde p donatur p diet' Regem - 



XLVS 

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213 



ffakenham pua 

Unde p donatur p diet* Regem 
Stanton 



leumere pua 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Eustone 

Inghm 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Weston 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Berhm 



Aysshefeld magna 

hepworthe 

Rekynghale 

Elineswell 

Norton 

Berdewelle 



Aysshefelde pua 

Unde p donatur p dict,9 Regem 

Coneweston 

Capston 



Bernynghm — 
Reyssheworth 
Enateshale ■ — 



Unde p donatur p diot9 Regem 
Trostoii 



fifakenhm magna - 

laughfn 

Telvehm 



Stowelangtofte 

liuntestofi 



Ixworth thorpe 

honeweton 

Watleffeld 
Walsh ifi 
Westowe - 

Wrydewelle 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Culford — 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Sm hundrf ]l del nij5I. — 



hundrf de lakford. 



Mildenhale - 

Brandon 

[klynghm 

Unde p donatur p diet? do"' Regem 





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XXX VJS 


xd oB 




XXXVIJS. 






XXXVJS 


IIIJ7. 




LIIJS 


yjd. 




LIIIJS 


vjd 




LVJS 


viijd 


nj7/ 








XLIJS 


yjd. 




XS 


nj7. 




LSXIilJS 


YIIjU 




XIIIJS. 




xxli 


XVS 


njrf ob 


xjli 


XS 


jV/obq^ 




XVIJS 


Illjrf. 


vj/?' 


q* 


viljrf. 




ys 


Vljrf. 




C 1 



214 

lakynghetlie vj// xixs ixd c^ 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem xvnjs. 

heryngeswelle mli xinj.s. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xxjs vijc/ 

Eryswelle vij/?' ixd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xxijs. xyl. 

Eluedene iiijlt 

heghm .XLJ.s iiJc/odc^ 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xvd oh 

Dounham Liijs injt/. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xs vjd. 

Cavenhm nj// njs. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege xijs mjd. 

Wrydlyngton vli xs. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege xxs. 

ffrekenhfn nijli xmjs mjt/otS 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege s ixs. 

Wangford lvjs vd. 

Uncle p donatur p dict9 Rege xvijc/. 

Tudenlim inj& iljs yl o^ 

Unde p donatf p dict9 Regem xvs. 

BertoFi pua nj// x.s nijd. 

Unde p donat r p dict9 Regem xs vjcZ. 

Sm hundrf de p* del Lxxnj// xyjs v'yloh 

hundrf de Ryssebregge. 

Denhm xlvs yd. 

Unde p donaf p dict9 Regem vnj.s. 

hauhill ■ vj// xvs vnje/ob 

Kedyton nj// viijs vnjrf. 

Depdeii cu Cheldebergh — nj// xiijs mjc?. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 do" Rege xmjs V1 j"'- 

Bradley pua xxxs. 

Unde p donatur p diet 9 Regem - vijs. 

honedon inj// xxnjrfoB 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem vijs villj<f. 

Unesdene xxxrjs nn//. 

Bernerdeston xliijs. 

Thirlowe magna - lviijs mj</ ^ 

Wvkhm Brokf viljli iljs inj</ 

Unde p donatur p diet? Rege xxs. 

Stradeshyll cu denareston - nj// xinjs. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege vjs vnjd. 

hakedone cu Thurstantoii - xLijs nij(/. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Begem ix*. 

Clare vli 

Wrotyng magna nj// vd 



215 



Stanefeld 

Wydekeshoo 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Multon 



pollyngworth cu Chopeley 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
Thirlowe pua 



Datham cu Tunstall 

Stoke Chilton and Bovton 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Wrotyng pua 



Unde p donatur p dict9 do m Regem 

Bradley magna 

Wetheresfelde 

lydgate 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Ga}-slee cu Nedhm et kenford 
( loulynsr 



dict9 Regem 
del nij x — - 



Unde p donatur ; 
Sm hundrf ] 
Ixnyng dl hundr( 
Unde p donatur p dictu Rege 
Bona mobilia Johis Tendryng invent9 in 

villa de Stokenaylond polsted and 

Sprowton ad xv" 1 p se ad Summam 
Sin dl hundrf cu bonis mobilib,— 
Sin To.'e libtatis Sci Edmundi cu dl 

hundrf de Ixnyng it bonis mobilib; 

Johis Tendryng 



hie incipit libtas See Etheldrede 

hundrf de plomesgate 

Benhale Saxmudhm and ffarmhm inj/v 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 

Aldeburgh cu haswode 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Ikne cum Chesylford and Onynglborth — 

Unde p donatur p diet* Regem 

Sternefeld 





XLIIS 


mjd 




XXIXS 


ixd 


mj/i 


VIIjS. 

vjs 


vine? 




LIjS 


ijd 




VIJS. 
LVS 


iirje/ob 


vli 


Lvrjs 

IIS 


mjd. 
ixd oh c^ 


U]li 


XVIIJS. 

njs 


xd. 


U)li 


VjS. 

xs 


xiddh 


nij/i 
vli 


vjs 


oBq, 
xvd 


vli 


VIIJS 

njs 


mjc?. 


mjli 


XIIIJS 

xs 


4v 


xvij I i 


XVS 


vdoh 


xmj// 


mjs 

XN. 


ijcZ 




XXS 


IX</. 


xv// 


mjs 


Xld. 


XX 

mi U 


XIIS 


oba 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Glemhm pua cu Stratford 



Unde p donatur p dict.9 Rege 

Glemhm magna - 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 

Sudburne 

Unde p donatur p 



diet? Regem 



xiiijs 


yd. 


XXS 


vjd. 


LVjS 


Vlljrf. 


XS. 




XLVIJS. 




VJS 




XXX VJS 


ijd. 


virjs 




XLVIIJS 




XIIj.s 


mjd 


XLIIJS. 




Ill] 8. 




LIIIJS 




XXS. 





216 

Rendhm cum Brosyerd mjli mjs xd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege xnjs 

Blaxhale cu pte de TunstaH liiijs xd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem vis 



Snape cu ffrestofi liiijs. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xnjs mid. 

Cranyfford cu Swystlyng nj// xis vd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege vnjs. 



Peril 



in 



XLIIIJ.S 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege xs. 

Wanysden cum pte de Tunstall lijs ixd 

Sm hundrf p? del xxxvij/t xnyl. 

hundrf de Wylford 

Aldertoii Lm j s . viijd 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xs 

Baudesey v ij& xijd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xxxiijs mjrf. 

Sutton ujH vjs vnjt/. 

Unde p donatur p diet* Regem vs. 

Boyton cum Capell xxxvijs xjd. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem virjs. 

Rameshalt cu Bromeswell xls. 

Unde p donat' p diet* Regem vs 

hollysle cu Chatyshm xliijs iiijc/. 

Unde p donatur p dict.9 Regem xxs 

Wykhiu cu petryste and loudhm iij// xis nji/. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem xs. 

Boulge debache and Dalanghoo xliiijs mjrf 

melton cu Ufford mli mj.s injd. 

Unde p donatur p dicta Regem virjs. 

Bredfeld taxatur ad x am xvjs \d 

Sin hundrf j3 del xxvm// xixs vjd. 

Tnde x ma xrjs vd. 

hundrf de lose 



hachestoti 



XLVj 



letherynghni cu Chaffeld iij// mj.s- vjc/. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege xrjs 

Eston cu Ketelbregh wis vijd 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 



Vis. 



I Jnde de x"" l de bonis August? waleys xs vijd. 

Cretynghni cu Brandeston and Monewedene <l xj* virjrf. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege vnjs 

Aysshe . xij.v 

Rendeleshm nj^ virjs viije?. 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem- xs 



217 



Sokm cu Kenton 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
fframlyngkm 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Eyke 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
hoo dalanghoo & Wodbregg — 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 
Marlesford cu pte de Butle — 
Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Sm kundr' p dci 



hundr' de Carleford. 



Wytleskm 

Ryssekruere cu. Alesborne 
Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Playford cu Brigktwell 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Rege 
Todynkin cu Culplio 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Grondesburgb cu buredi 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Belyngf magna & pua 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
hakeston 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Clopton 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem • 
Martleshm 



Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 
ffoxkole cu Kesgraue 



Unde p donatur p diet? Rege 
Otleigk 



Sm kundr' f? dci 



njli 


vijs 




■njli 


XIJS 

xnjs 
xs. 


mji 




XLVJS 


viijc?. 




XXS 




mj7i 


xxs 
xijs 


xd 


xxxvli 


XL VIJS 

XS 

XIIIJS 


vjd. 
vijc? 


Irj7i 


VIJS 

XLIIIJS 

xvujs 

LVIJS. 
XS. 


Illjd. 
ixd 
xdofo 


njli 


IXS 




iijli 


XVIJS 
XS 


c t 


Illjli 


vjs 

XS 
LVjS 




m$li 


xijs. 

vs. 

xiijs 

LVIIJS. 
XS. 


injd. 




XXXJS 


vjd. 


xxxyU 


XIJS 

iris 


xd. 
vdoh 



hundr' de Coleneyse. 

Tremley and Tremley cum Alteston 

Unde p donatf p diet? Regem 

Naketon leuyngtoii & Stratton 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Kyrketoii ffaltenkm Bucleskm & Olmeslee 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Walton & ffylckestowe 

Unde p donatur p diet? Regem 

Sm kundr' pf del 



vijVi 


vjs 


xd. 




XXXIIJS. 


Illjrf. 


vjli 


XIIJS. 






X11J 


IIIJC?. 


vij7 4 


VJS. 
XLS 




vjli 


mjs 


VIIJC?. 




XXX11JS 


iirjd. 


xxnijli 


XS 


vjd. 



Dl 



Assheffeld cum Thorp 

Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

fframesden cum Pethaugh 

Debynhm cum Wyston 



218 

hundr' de Thredlyng 



Unde p donatur p dict9 Regem 

Sin hundr' j? del 

SiTi tot libtatf 
See Etheldrede 



XLVJS 


irrjdL 


VjS 


vii ]d 


XLIIJS 


mjtf. 


li XS 


i]d. 


XIIS 


ijd 


xli 


xd 



\ (i iij xx xhli xs ixd oB 



I am not acquainted with a perfect book of taxation 
belonging to any one county of so early a date as the 
foregoing. In the Chetliam Library at Manchester, 
there is a complete list of taxes for the County of 
Lancaster, but this goes no further back than the middle 
of the 17th Century. 

It may reasonably be supposed that the principle 
which guided our ancestors in the making of this early 
assessment, was akin to that which we now term ' rateable 
value.' We find at a later period (4 Henry vin. ad. 1513) 
that, for the " ray sing of a whole taxe granted to the 
King," the different parishes in the Town of Ipswich 
were assessed as follows : — 



St. Mary le Tower 


£5 4 


St. Mary Elms £2 


18 





St. Margaret 


5 11 


St. Lawrence 5 


5 


6 


St. Clement 


4 9 8 


St. Mary at the Quay 4 


9 


4 


St. Nicholas 


2 4 


St. Peter 4 


6 


4 


St. Stephen 


2 4 8 


St. Matthew 4 


3 







St. Helen 13s. 4d. 







the total sum of which is a few shillings in excess of the 
actual sum at which the Burgesses of the Town were 
assessed in the Taxation of Henry vi. For the levying 
of this later Ipswich tax, two Taxers and two Collectors 
were nominated for each parish. 

The Suffolk Taxation list gives as good an idea of the 
position held by the several parishes and townships in 
the early part of the 15th Century as could well be 
desired. It is interesting to note the change that has 
passed over many of these places since the time when 



219 

the assessment was made. To give a solitary instance, 
drawn almost at random from the Hundred of Lothing- 
land : the villages of Belton and Gorton are each taxed 
at only a few shillings less than the adjacent town of 
Lowestoft, which itself could then have been little more 
than a fishing village. 

The names of places as formerly written, additions 
made thereto, and the mention of places no longer to be 
found recorded in lists of Suffolk parishes, etc., are in 
many cases well worth notice. 

A tax imposed on every parish in the Kingdom, in 
the year 1370, was at a uniform rate, the larger in each 
Hundred being commanded to help the smaller. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



ON A SET OF "ROUNDELS" OR, OLD ENGLISH 
FRUIT TRENCHERS; temp. xvi th Cent. 



COMMUNICATED BT 

ERNEST H. WILLETT, Esq., p.s.a. 



The set of Old English Fruit Trenchers, or as they 
are sometimes called u Roundels," which are here 
described, were purchased by the Rev. James Beck, of 
Bildeston, at Clare, in this county, in the month of June 
last. 

They are small circular discs of lime or some other 
light wood, 4^ inches in diameter, quite plain on one 
side, but on the other ornamented with wreaths of scroll 
work of Arabic design intermingled with conventional 
fruit and flowers, painted in water colours. These 
wreaths are surrounded by a gilt border and in turn 
enclose a Distich or Poesie written, apparently with a 
reed pen, in old English characters. 

The Trenchers which are 10 in number are contained 
in a wooden box, made expressly for them, and which, 
when the set was complete, held 12. The box itself has 
at one time been decorated also, but the ravages of time 
have left scarcely any traces of the decoration. 

The Distichs or Doggerel Rhymes are all different, 
each verse conveying in barbarous and mis-spelt language, 
some moral aphorism or advice against greed, gluttony, 
miserly tendencies, family differences, vain hopes, etc., 
which are quaint in their way, but not always very polite 



Sbs*** 



/8 5$»*&«- 



J si' 



* J ii 1 1 



;.J^i 



awx 



mM 







te 



Jkl . 



221 

to the fair sex and sometimes not very intelligible in their 
meaning, they read as follows from 1 to 10, whilst the 
two last verses are taken from a similar set in the 
possession of Mr. Edward Frewin, of Brickwall, Northam, 
Sussex. 

/. 

Though hungrie meales bee put in pot. 
Yet conscience clean keept w h out spot 
Doth keepe the corpes in quiet rest. 
Than hee that thousaunds hath in chest. 

II. 

Thou gapest after deade menns shoes. 
But bare foote thou art like to goe. 
Content thy selfe and doe not muse 
For fortune saithe ytt must bee soo. 

Ill 

Judge not yll of thy sjxmse, I y e aduise. 

Itt hath benn sjyoken by them that are wise. 

That one Judge aboue in tyme to come. 

Shall Judge y e whole world bothe father & Sonne. 

IV. 

If that Dianas bird thou bee. 
And stile haste keept thy chatetie. (sic) 
Seeke not to thrale thy virgins lyjfe. 
In mariage with a cruel I ivyfe. 

V. 

Thoiv hopest for mariges more than three. 
Leaue off thy hope ytt will not bee. 
Thy mucke ivill breede thy heart suche care. 
That death ivill come or thou beware. 

VI. 

A quiet lyfe surmounteth golde. 

Though goodes great store thy cofers holde. 

Yet rather death I doe beeseche. 

Than mooste maister to weare noo breeche. 

VII. 

Hard is thy hape yj thou dooste not thriue. 

Thy fortune ys to haue wyues fyue. 

And euery one better than other. 

God send the good lucke I wishe the noo other. 



222 
VIII. 

Thy goods well got by knowledge sJcile. 
Will healpe thy hungrie bagges to fyll. 
But riches gayned by falshoods drift. 
Will run awaie as streams full sivift. 

IX. 

If that thou ivouldest fayne -wedded bee. 
Choose a wife meete for thy degree 
For womens hearts are sett on pride. 
And pouertis purse cannott ytt abide. 

X. 

Thy fortune is full longe to lyue. 
For nature doth longe lyfe the give. 
But once a weeke thou wilt bee sicke. 
And haue a sullen ageives fytt. 

XI. 

Content thy self e tvyth thyn estat 
And send no poore ivight jrom y r gate 
For why this councell I the give 
To learne to dyee and dyee to lyve. 

XII 

What needes such cares oppresse thy thought 
For fortune faith y r hap is nought 
A shroive thy Chauncejs for to keepe, 
But better a Shrowe saie than a sheepe. 

There has been some controversey at times, as to 
the use made by our forefathers of Roundels, but there 
can be but little doubt that they were employed in the 
double capacity of desert plate and doyley. It is usually 
supposed that the plain side was used to place the fruit 
or sweetmeat on, but the damaged condition and the 
scratched appearance of the faces of a large number 
suggest that in many cases those who used them were 
careless which side of the trencher was uppermost. 

There is a passage in " The Art of Englishe Poesie," 
published by one Suttenham in 1589, and which is cited 
by a correspondent in the Gentleman' 's Magazine for 1797, 
which refers to Roundels and which seems to set at rest 
all doubt as to the use to which they were put. 



223 
It runs thus 

"There be also another like epigrams that were sent usually for 
New Yeare's gifts or to be printed or put upon banketting dishes of 
sugar plate or of March paines etc they were called Nenia or Apophoreta 
and never contained above one verse or two at the most but the shorter 
the better. We call them poesies and do paint them now-a-dayes upon 
the back sides of our fruit trenchers of wood or use them as devices in 
rings and arms." 

Most Roundels seem to be of the date of the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and the lid of the box is frequently 
decorated in an effective manner with the Tudor Royal 
Arms, enclosed in a shield and supported on either side 
by the letters E.R. 

The set here described is of the type most frequently 
met with. Similar ones, moreorless complete, being in the 
possession of Augustus W. Franks, Esq., f.e.s., of Mr. 
Edwin Frewin, Brickwall Northam, of Mrs. Braith- 
waite, of Mr. Jervoise, Idoworth Park, Hants., of the 
Curators of the Colchester Museum, and of other persons. 
In fact the great similarity in design and character of 
writing, taken with the fact that the verses are the same, 
almost lead one to the conclusion that all these Roundels 
were from one factory. Mr. Frewin's set is complete 
and the box is richly decorated and bears the Tudor 
arms with the cypher E.R. before referred to. Queen 
Elizabeth visited Brickwall, and tradition assigns this 
set of Roundels to her possession. 

Mrs. Bird, of Upton-upon-Severn, has a very curious 
set of Fruit Trenchers, rectangular in form, 5J by 4J, 
and kept in a box in the form of a book, one end sliding 
out to allow of their insertion. This set is very complete 
and in an almost perfect state of preservation. It is 
decorated with scriptural texts and verses in compart- 
ments, the surrounding arabesques being mixed with 
representations of many old fashioned flowers from an 
English country garden. 

A set in the Doucean Museum, at Goodrich Court, 
is very similar to Mr. Beck's, and the Box being orna- 
mented with the badge of the rose and crown, has led 



224 

to its being supposed to be of the reign of Henry VIII. 

Mr. Henry Griffith, of Brighton, has a most interest- 
ing set, where the various flowers and fruit of an English 
garden are tastily portrayed, being arranged in bouquets. 
The verses in this set differ somewhat from those 
generally seen, the character of the writing is more like 
black letter, and the rhymes though less easy to interpret 
are quainter. 

A most interesting set of Roundels belonging to 
Col. Sykes, is described by Mr. Akerman in vol. xxxiv. 
of the Archceologia. This set is of the time of James I. 
and is composed of 10 pieces, each painted in the centre 
with a different figure, such as the soldier, the courtier, 
the merchant, the divine, the widow, the batchelor, the 
lawyer, etc. Each figure is enclosed in a circle, round 
the outer edge of which runs a verse, on the character 
ascribed to the type of person portrayed. These verses, 
which are extremely curious, are supposed to have been 
composed by Sir John Davis, and are printed as from his 
pen in a rare book, entitled " The xii Wonders of the 
World, set and composed for the Violl de Gambo the 

lute and the voyce, to sing the verse, etc 

composed by John Maynard, Lutenist at the most famous 
schoole of St. Julian's in Hartfordshire." folio Londion 
1611." 

ERNEST H. WILLETT. 



FURTHER NOTES UPON LAVENHAM CHURCH. 



COMMUNICATED BY 

E. M. DEWING, Esq., Hon. Sec. 



The paper upon Lavenham Church had already 
passed through the press, when I stumbled upon a 
reference to a MS. preserved in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, London, 
containing a record of the De Vere coats of arms as 
they existed in the year 1594. Upon calling the 
attention of the Rev. Henry Elliot to this MS. he 
most kindly volunteered to make a copy of it, and he 
suggested that it should be printed as an appendix to 
the Lavenham paper. 

The record is more extensive and complete than 
that given by Sir John Blois, which has been printed 
at pp. 120 — 124 of this volume; it is a small octavo, and 
is catalogued No. 4 in the Library of the Society. 

The arms are tricked on folios 43-70, four on each 
page, except on folio 69, where there are three, and on 
folio 70, where a coat Quarterly of 18 is given. The 
same escutcheons are verbally blazoned on fos. 335 — 343. 

The first six coats, numbered 1-6, the writer 
describes without saying where they were. They do 
not appear to have had reference to the De Vere family, 
though the sixth coat, St. George, was borne by Vere 
of Addington. These were probably in one of the 
lower windows of the church. 

With the seventh coat commences the blazon of the 
escutcheons contained in the clerestory windows, of 
which it will be seen that the writer assigns 48 to the 
south side, and 54 to the north side, the last being " Le 
grannd escue of Vere, Earl of Oxford." 

E. M. D. 

e1 



226 

The blazon that follows, is not given in the exact 
words of the MS., which is in French, but is derived 
from a comparison of the trickings, and verbal blazon. 

Lannam ats Laveham. 

1. gu. a fess betw. six martlets or 3. 3. 

2. az. on a bend arg. betw. 2 cotises and six lions rampant or, 

three mullets gu. 

3. arg. on a chevron gu., betw. three mascles of the last, as many 

cinquefoils or 
4- arg. a chevron (plain) within a bordure engrailed sa. on a 
chief gu. three mullets (pierced ?) of the first. 

5. arg. a chev. (plain) within a bordure engrailed sa. on a chief gu. 

three mullets (pierced 1) of the first, impaling, arg. a chief 
dancetty sa. 
[ The bordure, in this shield, is carried across the field, under 
the chief '] 

6. arg. a cross gu. 

Theis escochens next following are set out in the hiest wyndowes 
of the southside of the body of the Church at Laneham 
Suff. and som are broken away. 

7. Quarterly gu. and or in the first quarter a mullet arg. Veer or 

Vere 

8. or three chevrons gu. 

9. per pale or and vert a lion rampant gu. 

10. vert a lion rampant arg. 

11. gu. seven mascles, 3. 3. 1., or 

12. barry wavy of six azure and arg. 

13. barry of six or and az. an inescutcheon arg. on a chief of the 

second three palets between two esquires based dexter and 
sinister of the first. Mortimer 

11).. arg. five barrulets gu. 

15. or a fess betw. two chevrons gu. Walpole (sic) 

16. gu. a bend betw. six crosses croslet fitchy arg. Howard. 

17. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg. 

18. arg. a saltire sa. betw. 13 cherries gu. slipped vert. 

19. chequy or and az. 

20. per pale or and gu. a lion passant in fess arg. Plaise. 

21. gu. a lion rampant or 

22. arg, three fusils conjoined in fess gu. 

23. sa. a cross engrailed or 
24- arg. a chief indented az. 

25. per pale gu. and az. a lion rampant arg. 

26. or three torteaux over all a label of three points az. 

27. lozengy arg. and az. 

28. or a lion rampant az. 



227 



29. gu. a cinquefoil erin. 

SO. az. three cinquefoils or 

31. erru. three concentric annulets gu. 

[" 3 annellets lun desus lautre."] 

32. arg. on a chief indented sa. three bezants. 

33. gu. on a bend arg. three escallops purpure 
3J/.. gu. a cross rnoline arg. 

35. Quarterly, 1 & 4 Vere. 2 & 3. Howard. 

36. Quarterly, 1 & 4. Vere, 2 ife 3 Howard, impaling 



Quarterly, 1 & 4 
2 
3 



arg.] 3 fusils conjoined in fess [gules] 
or] an eagle displayed [vert] 
gu.] a saltire [arg.] over all a label go bony 
[of the second & azure.] 
[The tinctures of this Shield are not given in the MS.] 

37. Quarterly, 1 & 4. Vere, 2 & 3 Howard, impaling 
Quarterly, 1 & 4. az. a bend or 

2 & 3. gu. a saltire engrailed arg. (sic) 

38. Vere, impaling, or three chevrons gu 

39. Vere, impaling, per pale or and vert a lion rampant gu. 
J/0. Vere, impaling, vert a lion rampart arg. 

J/.1. Vere, impaling, or seven mascles gu. 

Jfi. Vere, impaling, barry wavy of six az. and arg. 

Jf.3. Vere, impaling, Mortimer. 

44- Quarterly, 1 & 4. Vere 

2 & 3. az. three crowns close or. (sic) 
Jf5. Vere, impaling, arg. five barrulets gu. 
46. Vere, impaling, sa, a cross engrailed or, in the first quarter a fleur 

de lis arg. 
4? '■ gu. three lions passant guardant in pale or, impaling, or a lion 

rampant double-tailed sa. 

48. Vere, impaling, or two bars gu. 

49. vert,, a lion rampant arg., impaling, vair. 

50. gu. seven mascles, 3. 3. 1, or, impaling, gu. a cinquefoil or. [?erm.] 

51. barry of six arg. and az, impaling, or a bend betw. six martlets gu. 

52. sa. a cross engrailed or, impaling, per pale gu. and az. a lion 

rampant arg. 

53. or a lion rampant sa. 
54- Vere, impaling, Howard. 

Theis escocheons following are set out in the hiest ivyndowes oj 
the body of the church of Laneham on y e north side. 

55. or a maunch gu., impaling, gu. a bend arg. 

56. Vere, impaling, gu. a bend arg. 

57. gu. a bend arg., impaling, arg. on a fess gu. 3 plates. 

58. Vere, impaling, arg. five barrulets gu. 

59. or three torteaux over all a label of three points az. Courtney, 

impaling, or a lion rampant az. 

60. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg., impaling, az. three cinquefoils or 



228 

61. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg. impaling, or three torteaux, over all 

a label of 3 points az. 

62. arg. a saltire engrailed gu., impaling, arg. five barrulets gu. 

63. arg. five barrulets gu., impaling, or three chevrons gu. a label of 

three points az 
64- gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg., impaling, or a lion rampant gu. 

65. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg., impaling arg. three bendlets gu. 

66. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg. impaling lozengy arg. and az. 

67. Vere, quartering, [in the blazon, impaling,] gu. on a bend arg 

three escallops sa. 

68. gu. seven mascles 3. 3. 1. conjoined or, impaling, sa. a cross 

engrailed or 

69. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg. impaling, sa. a cross engrailed or 

70. Quarterly, 1 & 4 Vere. 2 & 3 or three chevrons sa. 

71. sa. a cross engrailed or, impaling, arg. a chief indented az. 

72. arg. a lion rampant sa., impaling, or three bars gu. 

73. erm. a cross sa., impaling, gu. a cross patonce or 

74. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. arg. on a chief indented sa. 

three bezants 

75. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere, 2 and 3. gu. three chevrons or 

76. per pale or and gu. a lion passant in fess arg., impaling, gu. three 

chevrons or 

77. arg. on a chief dancetty (or indented) sa. three bezants, impaling, 

or three chevrons sa. 

78. arg. on a chief dancetty (or indented) sa. three bezants, impaling, 

gu. on a bend arg. three escallops sa. 

79. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. arg. a chief dancetty (or 

indented) az. 

80. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere, 2 and 3. per pale or and gu. a lion 

passant in fess arg. 

81. Howard (as before) impaling, erm. 3 concentric annulets gu. 

82. Howard, impaling, arg. a lion rampant sa. 

83. Howard, impaling, erm. a cross sa. 

84. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3 sa. a cross engrailed or 

85. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere 

2 and 3. arg. a fess gu., impaling, (sic) 
lozengy arg. and az. 

86. Howard, impaling, gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1., arg. 

87. Howard, impaling, per pale, or and gu. a lion passant in fess arg. 

88. Howard, impaling, arg. on a chief dancetty (or indented) sa. three 

bezants 

89. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. gu. a lion rampant or 

90. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. chequy or and az. Warren E. 

91. Chequy or and az. a bend gu., impaling, or three chevrons gu. 

92. or an eagle displayed vert, impaling, or three chevrons gu. 

93. or three chevrons gu., impaling, or a lion rampant purpure 
94- Quarterly, 1 and 4, Vere. 2 and 3. Sergeaux 



229 

95. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Vere. 2 and 3. gu. six escallops, 3. 2. 1. arg. 

96. Quarterly, 1 and 4. gu. a lion rampant or 

2 and 3. chequy or and az. 
impaling, [the impaled coat is not blazoned.] 

97. or a lion rampant purpura, impaling, 
Quarterly, 1 and 4. Sergeaux. 2 and 3. Warren. 

98. gu. a lion rampant guardant arg., impaling, 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Sergeaux. 2 and 3. Warren. 

99. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Vere. 2 and 3. Howard. 

100. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. arg. five barrulets gu. 

101. Sergeaux, impaling, Quarterly 1 and 4. gu. a lion ramp' or 

2 and 3. Warren. 

102. Quarterly, or and gu. in the first quarter a lion passant , 

impaling, Quarterly, or and gu. 

103. Bohun of Hereford [no mark of cadency] 
impaling, Quarterly or and gu. 

10J/.. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. barry wavy of six azure and 
argent. 

105. Quarterly, 1 and 4. Vere. 2 and 3. vert a lion rampant arg. 

106. Quarterly, 1 and 4. az. three fleurs de lis or 

2 and 3. gu. three lions pass' guard 1 in pale or 
impaling, Bohun [no mark of cadency.] 

107. Quarterly, or and a - u. over all a saltire flory sa., impaling Vere. 

108. Veer E. Oxford. Quarterly of 18 ; 5, 5, 4, 4. 

1. and 18. Vere 

2. vert a lion rampant arg 

3. barry wavy of six azure and argent 

4. arg. five barrulets gu. 

5. gu. a bend betw. six crosses crosslet fitchy arg. 

6. gu. six escallops, 3, 2, 1, arg. 

7. per pale or and gu. a lion passant in fess arg. 

8. or three chevrons sa. 

9. arg. on a chief dancetty (or indented) sa. 3 bezants 

10. gu. three chevrons or 

11. erm. three concentric annulets gu. 

12. sa cross engrailed or. 

13. arg. a chief indented az. 

14. arg. a saltire sa. betw. 12 cherries gu. slipped vert. 

15. chequy or and az. 

16. gu. a lion rampant or. 

17. arg. a fess gu., impaling (sic) lozengy arg. and az. 

Mr. Elliot has kindly prepared the following 
explanatory remarks on the foregoing- blazon, and the 
subjoined pedigree, illustrating the connection of the 



230 

De Veres with the several families commemorated in 
these windows. 

1. Beauchamp of Bedford and Essex 

2. Bohun of Northampton 

3. Spring 

4- 
5. 

6. St. George. Borne also by Vere of Addington, Northants. 

Clerestory Windoivs, South Side, Lavenham Church. 

7. Vere, Earl of Oxford 

8. Clare, Earl of Gloucester 

9. Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, Earl Marshal. 

10. Bolebec, Baron. [The lion in this coat should be, — vulned on the 

shoulder gu.J 

11. Quincey, Earl of Winchester 

12. Sampford, Baron. The coat is generally blazoned, — barry wavy 

of six argent and azure. 

13. Mortimer, Earl of March. 

14. Baddlesmere, Baron. Generally blazoned, — argent a fess between 

two bars gernel gu. 

15. Fitz Walter, Baron 

16. Howard, Baron 

17. Scales, Baron 

18. Sergeaux, [originally spelt Cerizeaux] 

19. Warren, Earl of Warren and Surrey. 

20. Plaiz, or Plaise, Baron 

21. Fitz Alan (as heir of Alhini) Earl of Arundel. 

22. Montacute, Earl of Salisbury 

23. Uford, Earl of Suffolk 

24. Glanvill 

25. Norwich 

26. Courtenay, Earl of Devon. 

27. This (which may possibly be [argent ?] three eagles displayed 

[azure?] for Limesi, Baron,) occurs, impaled by Odingcels, in 

Nos. 85, and 108. 
It is not difficult to imagine how a coat charged with three 
eagles, when represented in a window, assumes the appearance 
of a lozengy shield. 

28. Redvers, Earl of Devon 

29. Bellomont, Earl of Leicester 

30. Bardolf, Baron 

31. Fytton 

32. Walton of Wyvenhoe, Essex 

33. Byssett ? 

34. Beke. Baron of Eresby 



231 

35. Vere, quartering, Howard 

36. Vere and Howard Quarterly, impaling, Quarterly 1 & 4 Montacute. 

2 Monthermer. 3 Nevill 
For John de Vere, 13 th Earl of Oxford, and his first wife, 
Margaret Nevill, dan. of Richard, Earl of Salisbury. 

37. Vere and Howard Quarterly, impaling, Quarterly 1 and 4. Scrope 

2 and 3 Tiptoft 
[The coat of Tiptoft should be blazoned, — argent a saltire engrailed 

gules. See No. 62.] 
For John de Vere, 13 th Earl of Oxford, and his second wife, 
Elizabeth Scrope, daii of Sir Richard Scrope, and widow of 
William Lord Beaumont. 

38. Vere, impaling, Clare. 

For Aubrey, or Alberic, de Vere, Lord Great Chamberlain, who 
married Adeliza, dau of Gilbert de Clare. This Aubrey de Vere 
was the father of the 1 st Earl of Oxford. 

39. Vere, impaling Bigod. 

For Aubrey de Vere the 2 nd Earl of Oxford, who, (according to 
Leland,) married Adeliza, dau of Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. 
Jfi. Vere, impaling Bolebec. 

For Robert de Vere the 3 rd Earl of Oxford, who married 
Isabella, dau & h. of Walter de Bolebec. 
J/1. Vere, impaling Quince y. 

For Hugh de Vere, the 4 ,h Earl of Oxford, who married Hawys, 
dau of Saer de Quincey, Earl of Winchester 
Jf2. Vere, impaling Sampford. 

For Robert de Vere, the 5 th Earl of Oxford, who married 
Alicia, dau of Gilbert de Sampford, Chamberlain to Queen Eleanor. 
Jf.3. Vere, impaling, Mortimer. 

For Robert de Vere, the 6 th Earl of Oxford, who married 
Margaret, daii of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March 
JfJf. Vere, Quartering, [az. three coronets or within a bordure argent,] 
an Augmentation, granted by Richard II to Robert de Vere, 
the 9 th Earl of Oxford, who was created Marquis of Dublin, 
and Duke of Ireland. 
Jf5. Vere, impaling, Baddlesmere. 

For John de Vere, the 7'. h Earl of Oxford, who married Matilda, 
one of the sisters and cohs. of Giles de Baddlesmere, Baron of 
Seeds, in Kent. 
46. Vere, impaling, TJfford. 

For Thomas de Vere, the 8'. h Earl of Oxford, who married 
Matilda, dau. of Sir Ralph, brother of Robert de Ufford, Earl of 
Suffolk 
Jf.7. England, impaling Welles. 

For John, Viscount Welles, K.G., who married Cicely, 2 nd dau. 
of King Edward IV. 

The lady's arms are placed to the dexter, she being of royal 
descent. 



232 

48. Vere, impaling, a coat which is probably meant for De Couci ; 
harry of six vair and gules. 
For Robert de Vere, the 9^ Earl of Oxford, who married 
Philippa, dau. of Ingelram de Couci. 
Ifi. Bolebec, impaling, 

50. Quincey, impaling, Bellomont. 

For Saer de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, who married Margaret, 
dau. of Robert Bellomont, or Blachemaines, 3 rd Earl of Leicester, 
and one of the cohs. of her brother Robert, surnamed Fitz Parnel, 
the 4 1 .' 1 Earl. 

51. Grey of impaling Furnival 

52. Ufford, impaling, Norwich. 

For Robert de Ufford, I s , 1 Earl of Suffolk, of that family, who 
married Margaret, sister of Sir John Norwich. 
53. 

54- Vere, impaling, Howard. For John de Vere, the 12'. h Earl of 
Oxford, who married Elizabeth, the dau. and heir of Sir 
John Howard. 

Clerestory Windows, North Side, Lavenham Church. 

55. Hastings, impaling, Foliot. 

For Sir Hugh Hastings, of Gressing Hall, Norfolk, (eldest son 
of John Hastings, the 2 nd Baron Hastings, by his second wife, 
Isabel, dau. of Hugh Desjoencer, Earl of Winchester,) who 
married Margery, dau. of Sir Jordan, and sis. and coh. of Sir 
Richard Foliot 

56. Vere, impaling Foliot. 

For Alphonsus de Vere, (father of John the 7'. h Earl of Oxford,) 
who married Jane, dau. of Sir Richard Foliot, Knt. 

57. Foliot, impaling, Ettum. 

58. Vere, impaling Baddlesmere. 

For the 7'. h Earl of Oxford. See No. 45. 

59. Courtenay, impaling, Redvers. 

For Robert de Courtenay, Baron of Okehampton, who married 
Mary, dau. of William de Redvers, Earl of Devon, by which 
alliance that Earldom passed to the Courtenays. 

60. Scales, impaling, Bardolf. 

For Robert de Scales, the 5'. h Baron Scales, who married 
Elizabeth, dau. of William Lord Bardolf. 

61. Scales, impaling, Courtenay. 

For Robert de Scales, the 2 nd Baron Scales, who married 
Elizabeth, dau. of Hugh, and sister of Hugh Courtenay, the I s .' 
Earl of Devon. 

62. Tiptoft, impaling, Baddlesmere. 

For Sir John Tiptoft, the 2 nd Baron Tiptoft, who married 
Margaret, one of the daus. of Bartholomew, and one jf the sisters 
and cohs. of Giles, Barons Baddlesmere. 



233 

63. Baddlesmere, impaling, Clare. 

For Bartholomew, Lord Baddlesmere, who married Margaret, 

one of the daus. and cohs. of Thomas, 3 r . d son of Thomas, 2". d son 

of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. 
64- Scales, impaling, Felbrigg. see No. 86. 

65. Scales, impaling, Walisborough. 

For Thomas de Scales, the 7 l . h Baron Scales, who married Emma 
dau. of John Walisborough. 

66. Scales, impaling, 

67. Vere, quartering Byssett? (through Walton, and Howard.) see No. 78 

68. Ferrers, impaling Ufford. 

For William, Lord Ferrers of Groby, who married Margaret, 
one of the daus. of Robert de Ufford, K.G., I s .' Earl of Suffolk of 
that family, and one of the sisters and cohs of W? de Ufford the 
2 nd and last Earl. 

69. Scales impaling Ufford. 

For Robert 3 rd Lord Scales, who married Catherine, another of 
the sisters and cohs. of the last Earl of Suffolk. 

70. Vere, quartering Sutton (through Walton and Howard.) see No. 77. 

71. Ufford, impaling Glanvill 

72. Stapleton, impaling, Fitz Aleyn. 

For Sir Gilbert Stapleton, who married Agnes, eldest dau. and 
one of the heirs of Sii- Bryan Fitz Aleyn, Lord of Bedale. 

73. Boys, impaling, Latimer. 

For Sir Robert de Boys, or de Bosco, who married Christian, 
daughter of Sir William Latimer. Their daughter and heir married 
Sir John Howard, see No. 83. 
74-. Vere, quartering, Walton, (through Howard.) 

75. Vere, quartering, Montfichet (through Plaiz and Howard) see N° 76. 

76. Plaiz, impaling, Montfichet. 

For Hugh de Plaiz, who married Philippa, one of the daiis. and 
cohs. of Richard de Montfichet. 

77. Walton, impaling, Sutton of Wyvenhoe. 

For John de Walton, who married Margery Sutton. (Morant's 
Essex II. 187.) 

78. Walton, impaling, Byssett ? 

79. Vere, quartering, Glanvill (through Ufford, Scales, and Howard) 

see No. 71. 

80. Vere, quartering, Plaiz (through Howard.) see No. 87. 

81. Howard, impaling, Fytton. 

For Sir William Howard, of Wigenhall, Chief Justice of Court 
of Common Pleas, from 1297-1308, who married Alice, daii., and 
eventually h. of Sir Edward Fytton, Knt. 

82. Hovmrd, impaling Cornwall. 

For Sir John Howard, (son and heir of Sir William,) who 
married, Joan sister of Richard de Cornwall. In Harl. MS. 1411, 
fo. 1, the arms of this lady are blazoned, — arg. a lion rampant 
sa. armed and langued az. 

Fl 



234 

83. Howard, impaling, Boys. 

For Sir John Howard, (grandson of Sir William,) who married 
Alice, dan. of Sir Robert de Boys, of Fersfield, Norfolk 
8Jf. Vere, quartering Ufford (through Scales and Howard) 

85. Vere, quartering Odingcels? impaled with Limesi ? see No. 27. 

[The coat of Odingcels, should be, — arg. a fess and in chief a 
mullet pierced gu.] 

86. Howard, impaling, Scales 

, For Sir Robert Howard, of Fersfield, (great grandson of Sir 
W?) who married Margaret, dau. of Robert, 3': d Lord Scales. 
After the death of Elizabeth, the daughter and heir of Thomas, 
the 7^ Lord Scales, that Barony fell into abeyance between the 
descendants of this lady, and of her sister Elizabeth, who married 
Sir Roger de Felbrigg. see No. 64. 

87. Howard impaling Plate. 

For Sir John Howard, (son of Sir Robert) who married Margaret, 
dau. and h. of Sir John Plaiz, of Tofte, Norfolk, and of Stanstead- 
Montfichet, Essex. 

88. Howard, impaling, Walton. 

For Sir John Howard, (grandson of Sir Robert) who married 
Joan, dau. of John Walton, and sister and heir of Richard Walton, 
of Wyvenhoe, Essex. (Morant's Essex II. 187.) 

89. Vere, quartering Fitz Alan (through Sergeaux) 

90. Vere, quartering, Warren, (through Fitzalan and Sergeaux.) 

91. Clifford of Appleby, impaling, Clare. 

For Robert, Lord Clifford, of Appleby (temp. Ed. I.) who 
married Maud, dau. and coh. of Thomas, 2". d son of Richard de 
Clare, the 2 n . d Earl of Gloucester, of that family. 

92. Mont her mer, impaling, Clare. 

For Ralph, Baron Monthermer, who married Joan of Acres, 
dau. of Ed. I. and widow of Gilbert de Clare, surnamed the Red, 
the 3 rd Earl of Gloucester; and, in her right, during the minority 
of the 4'f 1 Earl, held the Earldoms of Gloucester and Hertford. 

93. Clare, impaling, Lacy. 

For Richard de Clare the 2 nd Earl of Gloucester, (temp. 
Hen. III.) who married Maud, dau. of John de Lacy, Constable of 
Chester, and 11 Earl of Lincoln of that family. 
9Jf. Vere, quartering, Sergeaux. 

95. Vere, quartering, Scales (through Howard) 

96. Fitzalan and Warren Quarterly, impaling, 

97. Lacy, impaling, Sergeaux and Warren Quarterly. 

98. Marney, impaling, Sergeaux and Warren Quarterly 

For Sir William Marney, who married Elizabeth, one of the 
daus. and cohs. of Sir Richard Sergeaux. 

99. Vere, quartering, Hoivard. 
100. Vere, quartering, Baddlesmere. 



235 

101. Sergeaux, impaling, Fitzalan and Warren Quarterly. 

For Sir Richard Sergeaux, who married Philippa, dau. of 
Richard Fitz Alan 9 th Earl of Arundel, son of Edmund, the 8 th 
Earl, by the lady Alice Plantagenet, his wife, sister and sole heir 
of John, last Earl of Warren and Surrey, of that family. 

102. Say, impaling, Mandeville. 

For William de Say, who married Beatrice, sister of Geoffrey 
de Mandeville, Earl of Essex. 

103. Bohun, impaling, Mandeville. 

For Robert de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, who married Maud 
Mandeville, dau. of Greffrey FitzPiers. 

By this alliance the Earldom of Essex, became ultimately 
vested in the family of Bohun, Earls of Hereford. 
lOJf.. Vere, quartering, Sampford. see No. 42. 

105. Vere, quartering, Bolebec. see No. 40 

106. France Modern & England Quarterly, impaling, Bohun. 

For Henry of Bolingbroke (afterward Hen. IV) who married 
Mary, younger dau. and coh. of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Northampton, Hereford, and Essex. 

The other coh. m. Thomas of Woodstock. 

107. Mandeville impaling Vere. 

For Geoffrey de Mandeville, 1 st Earl of Essex, who married 
Rohesia, sister of Alberic, or Aubrey, de Vere, who was created 
Lord Great Chamberlain A.D. 1100. 

[The Saltire flory in the coat to the dexter should be an 
escarbuncle.~\ 

108. Quarterly of 18 ;— 5.5.4.4. 



1 and 18 Vere 


6 Scales 


11 Fytton 


16 Fitzaleyn 


2 Bolebec 
o Sampford 


7 Plaiz 


12 Ufford 


17 Odingcels? see 


8 Sutton 


13 Glanvill 


[Nos. 27 and 85. 


4. Baddlesmere 


9 Walton 


14 Sergeaux 




5 Howard 


10 Montfichet 


15 Warren 





THE JOURNAL OF WILLIAM DOWSING, 
PARLIAMENTARY VISITOR, 

APPOINTED TO DEMOLISH CHURCH ORNAMENTS, ETC., 

WITHIN THE COUNTY OF SUFFOLK 

1643-1644. 

With Introduction, Notes, etc., by the 
REV. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, Hon. Sec. 

It falls to the lot of comparatively few, other than 
those whose lives and memories are consecrated in the 
affections of their fellow men, to acquire and retain so 
widespread a reputation (in this particular case such an 
unenviable one) as that which clings to the name and 
character of that uncompromising zealot of iconoclastic fame, 
William Dowsing. Judging from the scanty information 
we possess concerning him, it may possibly appear "to 
some, that so uninviting a character, and one we are led 
instinctively to condemn, is scarcely worthy of anything 
likely to further perpetuate his memory, beside that which 
we already possess in the well-known ' Journal.' But 
understanding that the two or three previous editions of the 
'Journal' were out of print, andcopiesnot easily obtainable; 
that the ' Journal ' moreover, in its complete form was but 
little known, and where known, was for the want of a few 
brief notes, not sufficiently understood, I deemed the 
present opportunity a favourable one for adding certain 
information concerning Dowsing and his family connec- 
tions, as far as appear to me correct and reliable. Also 
some further details, and sundry notes relating to his 
work in the character in which he is alone known, that 
of Parliamentary Visitor appointed under a warrant from 



237 

the Earl of Manchester, for the demolishing of super- 
stitious pictures and ornaments found in Churches, etc., 
throughout the assigned District. 

Of the original Manuscript of the ' Journal ' nothing 
is known, further than the fact that it was sold in the year 
1704, together with the library of Samuel Dowsing, a son 
of William Dowsing, to Mr. Huse, a London bookseller. 
It was from a transcript of this MS. made at the time, 
that the edition published by Mr. Loder, of Woodbridge, 
(4to. 1786) and afterwards a second edition, was issued in 
1818. To the transcript was added : — 

"A true Copy of a Manuscript, found in the Library of Mr. 
Samuel Dowsing, of Stratford, being written by his 
Father, William Doivsing's own Hand, carefully and 
almost literally transcribed Sejit. 5th, 1704." 

Mention is made in the Suffolk Traveller (2nd ed. p. 39) 

that a portion of Dowsing's ' Journal ' found its way into 

the hands of the Editor of that work (Mr. John Kirby ), but 

whether it was any part of the original is not clear. Up 

to the time of the appearance of Mr. Loder's first edition, 

copies could only have existed in MS., and it is not 

surprising that in some such copies, slight differences 

should be found. The 'Journal' was afterwards reprinted 

by Messrs. Parker, of Oxford, as a supplement to Wells' 

" Rich Man's Duty" and afterwards (1850) by the same 

in a separate form. This present edition, drawn from 

the several previous editions, and MS. copies, carefully 

compared with each other, has the several points of 

difference, etc., duly noted.* Loder's edition has an 

Introduction which is of quite sufficient interest, in its 

way, to merit a place here, while it may to some extent 

serve a like purpose : — 

"Toward the latter end of the reign of Henry VIII., and 
throughout the whole reign of Edward VI. and in the beginning of 

* F. C. Brooke, Esq., of Ufford, with his usual kindness has placed at my disposal 
an interleaved and annotated edition of the ' Journal' (Loder, 1818, 4to.), with 
materials collected for an introduction by the late Mr. John Wodderspoon. I 
have occasionally availed myself of this, but as it consists mainly of notes 
illustrative of church ornaments, monuments, coats of arms, rood screens, 
brasses, stained glass, &c, and a consideration of these being outside my original 
purpose, I have gleaned but little fresh information from this source. 



238 

queen Elizabeth, certain persons, of every county, were put in authority 
to pull down, and cast out of all churches, roods, graven images, shrines 
with their relics, to which the ignorant people came flocking in 
adoration. Or any thing else, which (punctually) tended to idolatry 
and superstition. Under colour of this their commission, and in their 
too forward zeal, they rooted up and battered down crosses in churches 
and church-yards, as also in other public places, they defaced and brake 
down the images of kings, princes and noble estates, erected, set up, or 
portraied, for the only memory of them to posterity, and not for any 
religious honour; they crackt a-pieces the glass windows wherein the 
effigies of our blessed Savior hanging on the cross, or any one of his 
saints was depictured ; or otherwise turned up their heels into the 
place where their heads used to be fixed ; as I have seen in the windows 
of some of our country churches. They despoiled churches of their 
copes, vestments, amices, rich hangings, and all other ornaments wdiere- 
upon the story or the portraiture of Christ himself, or of any saint or 
martyr was delineated, wrought, or embroidered ; leaving religion naked, 

bare, and unclad." 

" But the foulest and most inhuman action of those times, was the 
violation of funeral monuments. Marbles which covered the dead were 
digged up, and put to other uses, tombs hackt and hewn a-pieces ; images 
or representations of the defunct, broken, erased, cut, or dismembered, 
inscriptions or epitaphs, especially if they began with an orate pro 
anima, or concluded with cujus animce propitietur Deus. For greediness 
of the brass, or for that they were thought to be anti-Christian, pulled 
out from the sepulchres, and purlioned ; dead carcases, for gain of their 
stone or leaden coffins, cast out of their graves, notwithstanding 
this request, cut or engraven upon then, propter miserecordiam Jesu 
requiescant in pace." 

Weever's Discourses on Fxmeral Monuments, pa. l.li. 

What was thought to be left unfinished, by those Persons then in 

Power, the fanatical Zeal of the succeeding Century pretty fully 

accomplished ; a reference to this Journal alone, is sufficient to shew, 
how far the Ignorance and Obstinacy of selfish Men may be persisted 
in, and carried on, against the Remonstrances of sober and moderate 
Reason. 

In the eventful days of the Long Parliament, men 
in the name of religion, ran to an excess of riot that ill 
accorded with the spirit by which they were supposed to 
be actuated, and of this party, William Dowsing may be 
regarded as a faithful exponent. Those who had assumed 
authority, held out every encouragement to the lawless 
faction, to persevere in their deeds of ill, and consequently 
many were to be found ready to distinguish themselves 



239 

by acts of open violence. According to " Mercurius 

Rusticas" (p. 22) 

"In Aug. 1641. there was an Order published by the House of 
Commons, for the taking away all scandalous Pictures out of Churches, 
in which there was more intended by the Authors than at first their 
instruments understood, until! instructed by private information how 
faree the People were to inlarge the meaning." 

It may I think be reasonably supposed, that many 
of the " reliques of idolatry" were, during the interval 
of time which elapsed between the giving of this Order 
and the date of Dowsing's Commission, forcibly removed 
by the people, and that it was left for Dowsing to smite 
and not spare, at the subsequent period. 

It was soon after the publication of the Order, that 
country committees were called into existence for the 
exercise of certain powers conferred upon them by the 
Parliament, in connection with this undertaking. At the 
instance, and under the direction of the Earl of Man- 
chester, who received his commission as General of the 
associated counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Lincoln, 
Huntingdon, Cambridge, and Hertford, in 1642, and 
resigned it in 1645, William Dowsing received his 
appointment as Parliamentary Visitor of the Suffolk 
Churches. Of the five or six associations formed in the 
interest of the Parliamentarian party, this is the only 
one that stood its ground. 

A copy of the original Commission, formerly in the 
possession of the late D. E. Davy, has never I think been 
printed. It is as follows — 

A Commission from the Earle of Manchester. 

"Whereas by an ordinance of the Lords and Comons assembled in 
Parliamt beai'inge date the 28 th day of August last, it is amongst other 
thinges ordained y' all Crucifixes, Crosses & all Images of any one or 
more psons of the Trinity, or of the Virgin Marye, & all other Images 
& pictures of Saints & superstitious inscriptions in or upon all <k every 
y e s d Churches or Cappeles or other place of publique prayer, Church- 
yards or other places to any y e s d Churches or Chapells, or other place 
of publique praier belonginge, or in any other open place shalbe before 
November last be taken away & defaced, as by the s d Ordinance more 
at large appeareth. And whereas many such Crosses, Crucifixes 



240 

other superstitious images and pictures are still continued within y e 
Associated Counties in manifest contempt of the s d Ordinance, these 
are therefore to will and require you forthwith to make your repaier to 
the seueral associated Counties, &. put the s d Ordinance in execution in 
euery particular, hereby requiring all Mayors, Sheriffs, Bayliffs Constables, 
head boroughs & all other his Ma ties " Officers & loveinge subjects to be 
ayding & assisting unto you, whereof they may not fail at their perill. 
Given under my hand & seale this 19 th of December 1643." 

(Signed) Manchester 
"To Willm Dowsing Gen. 

& to such as hee shall appoint." 

' From a copy in my possession, nearly of the above date 

D. E. Davy.' 

The destruction wrought by Dowsing in Suffolk, 
was by no means the only task of the kind which he 
performed. In the same year (1643) he visited the 
county of Cambridge, also the University, where he 
entered and defaced the College chapels, demanding of 
each the sum of forty shillings for so doing. This 
abominable tryanny is set forth in a very rare and 
remarkable work, entitled u Querela Cantabrigicnsis ; or, a 
Remonstrance, by ivay of Apology for the banished members 
of the late flourishing University of Cambridge. By some 
of the said sufferers" (Oxford, 1646) in these words: — 

" And one who calls himself John Dowsing (a mistake for William 
Dowsing), and by vertue of a pretended Commission goes about the 
Country like a Bedlam breaking glasse windowes, having battered 
and beaten downe all our painted glasse, not only in our Chappies, 
but (contrary to order) in our publique Schooles, Colledge Halls, 
Libraryes, and Chambers, mistaking perhaps the liberall Arts for 
Saints (which they intend in time to pul down too) and having 
(against an Order) defaced and digged up the floors of our Chappels, 
many of which had lien so for two or three hundred yeares together, 
not regarding the dust of our founders and predecessors, who likely 
were buried there ; compelled us by armed Souldiers to pay forty 
shillings a Colledge for not mending what he had spoyled and defaced, 
or forthwith to go to Prison : We shall need to use no more instances 
than these two, to sheAV that neither place, person nor thing, hath any 
reverence or respect amongst them." 

In Master's u History of the College of Corpus Christi, 
with Continuations by J. Lamb, D.D." (1831) p. 47, is a 
further account of Dowsing's work in Cambridge. An 



241 

extract from a Journal which relates his doings at this 
place, is far too important to pass over ; I have therefore 
ventured to give the subject matter there contained: — 

" By the greatest good fortune, the furious zeal of a bigotted fanatic 
has been the means of preserving to us the monument of a very 
considerable benefactor and great ornament to this University, I mean 
Dr. Richard Billingford, who in 1432 founded a chest as a fund for its 
members, which has been ever since called after his own name, put into 
it a hundred marks and placed it in St. Benedict's Church, in the 
Chancel of which, then the only Chapel made use of for the devotions of 
the College, he was buried, but his tomb-stone has by some accident 
been since removed into the north aisle. In 1643, a fatal aera for this 
seat of learning, one William Dowsing, of whom an account is given 
by Dean Barwick in the Querela Cantabrigiensis p. 17, 18, was authorized 
by those then in power, to go through Cambridgeshire and eradicate all 
the relicts of superstition in the parish churches : in which progress his 
ignorant and mad zeal led him not only to deface all the painted glass 
he met with, to the great disfigurement of the windows, but also to 
reave and destroy all those inscriptions on brass or stone which had the 
precatory form (in use till the time of the reformation) before them, to 
the utter ruin of many monuments in this country : so that he is to be 
traced very exactly through most of the churches in these parts by the spoil 
and havock he made wherever it was his mischance to arrive. He was so 
well satisfied with what he was about, that he kept a journal of the 
reformation he made in each church ; by means of which published by 
a worthy friend of mine from the original MS.,* this tomb was happily 
recovered from the oblivion it has laid in ever since. It is a grey marble 
of about six or seven feet long, having in the midst of it the portraiture 
of a doctor of divinity on his knees, in his robes of Congregation and 
hood over his shoulders, exactly like the modern ones, with a scrole 
issuing from his hands, having on it, I imagine this inscription, Me tibi 
Virgo pia Genetrix commendo Maria, probably addressed to the picture 
of the Virgin Mary with her Son in her arms above his head, which is 
shaved ; but as the brass from that, as well as from the scrole, with the 
inscription beneath him, are reaved and lost, so nothing could have 
retrieved it, but the following barbarous account in the journal, which I 
take word for word as in the original, p. 50. 

"'At Bene't Temple,) There are seven superstitious pictures, 

Dec. 28. / fourteen cherubims, and two superstitious 

ingravings ; one was to pray for the soul of John Canterbury and his 
wife. And an inscription of a mayd praying to the Sonn and Virgin 
Mary, 'twas in Lating, Me tibi- Virgo Pia Gentier commendo Maria ; "a 
mayd was born from me which I commend to the oh Mary " (1432) 
Richard Billingford did commend thus his daughter's soule.' 

" From which particulars it is easy to gather that this must mean Dr. 

* Zachary Grey, LL.D., "Schismatics Delineated," 1739. 

G 1 



242 

Billingford, who, by his interpretation is metamorphorsed, intoamaid, recom- 
mending her daughter's soul to the Virgin Mary. The date and name are 
a sufficient proof of what is advanced : though it must be confessed there 
is as much obscurity thrown over it as the thing would admit of. In 
this instance however and one or two more he is of service : and had he 
been equally careful in minuting down the names and dates of other 
monumental inscriptions as in this, by the help of other lights which 
might have occurred, the mischief he did would not have been irrepar- 
able ; but this is so singular that he deserves not our thanks. Besides 
it would have taken up too much of his time, which was employed from 
December to March in this business : especially in places where they 
abounded ; as for instance in St. John's College Chapel, where there was 
no less than forty-five superstitious monumental inscriptions ; an 
abundance that would have employed more of his leisure, than we can 
suppose a person of his importance in the business of reformation had 
to throw away." 

As a record of wanton mischief, intermingled as one 
cannot help observing, with a desire for plunder and 
notoriety, such as makes it hard for the most determined 
enemy of superstitious ornaments to palliate or defend, 
this ' Journal ' stands without an equal, and it is to be 
most devoutly hoped, that the outburst of intolerant zeal, 
almost bordering on barbarism, may long remain without 
a parallel in the history of the country. 

The form of appointment of any one of Dowsing's 
Deputies is given at the foot of the ' Journal ' in the 
following form : — 



■& 



" Feb. 4th. By Virtue of a Warrant directed to me, by the right 
Hon b ! e the Earl of Manchester. I do hereby depute and appoint You 
T. D. fQy. Thomas Denning ) in my absence to execute the said Warrant 

in every particular, within the County of According to an 

Ordinance of Parliament therein mentioned, and Power given unto me 
by the said Warr 1 as fully as I myself may, or might execute the same 
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my Hand and Seal." 

This Memorandum of appointments made, is placed at 
the head of the ' Journal' : — 

" WILLIAM DOWSING substitutes Edmund Blomfield of Aspell- 
Stonham, Edmund Mayhew of GosbecJc, & Thomas Denning &, Mr. Thomas 
Westhorp of Hundon, (a godly man) and Mr. Thomas Glanfleld of 
Gosbrock, Francis Verden for Wang ford, Suthelham, Blything, Bosmere, 
Sudbury, Clare, Fordham, Blacksmere, and would have had Hartsmere. 
And Francis Jessup of Beccles, for Lethergland and Shutford Hundred 



243 

and Bungay, Blithborouyh, Yoxford, and RingshalV* 

Of these Deputies, one a " Mr. Thomas Westhorp, of 
Hunden," is referred to as "a godly man," probably 
owing to his excessive zeal in the cause. The same 
epithet is applied in the ' Journal ' to the Lecturer at 
Aldborough, and to a Churchwarden of St. Margaret's, 
Ipswich, who shewed themselves ready to pull down and 
destroy at Dowsing's bidding. Two other of Dowsing's 
associates, Blomneld and Glanfield, appear to have been 
related to him by marriage. A deputy, by name Crow, 
not included among those already mentioned, appears 
from the ' Journal ' to have exercised his office at Elmsett 
previous to Dowsing's arrival. Whatever may be said of 
the others, we need have no hesitation in speaking of the 
Deputy " Francis Jessup, of Beccles," as the very embodi- 
ment of ignorance, presumption, and knavery. A former 
Vicar of Lowestoft, the Rev. James Rowse, has left on 
record this account of Jessop's visit to the parish church : 

"In the same yeare after, on the 12th of June, there came one 
Jissope with a commission from the Earle of Manchester to take away 
from gravestones all inscriptions one wch hee fonnd ' orate pro 
anima.' A wretched commissioner, not able to read or find ont that 
wch his commission injoined him to remove : hee took up in our church 
soe much brasses, as hee sould to Mr. Josiah Wild for five shillings, wch 
was afterwards, contrary to my knowledge, runn into the little bell that 
hangs in the town house. Thear wearr taken up in the middle alley, 
twelve peeces, belonging to twelve severall generations of the Jettors. 

In the chancell, one belonging to Bpp. Scroope ; the words there, 
' Kichardus Scroope, Episcopus Dromorocensis, et hujus ecclie victCrius, 
hie jacet. qui obiit 10 May. anno 1364.' 

There was alsoe by this Jyssop taken up in the vicar's chancell one 
the north side of the church,' a fair peece of brasse with this inscription : 
' Hie jacet Johannes Goodknapp, hujus ecclesise vicarius, qui obiit 4 to 
Novembris, anno Dni, 1442.'" 

The doings of this man at Gorleston, surpass 
evervthing of the kind on record, and the account given 
here, is an example of the thoroughness, which, alas! 
characterized so much of the work done by these sacrilegious 
invaders of the churches of East Anglia. 

* Gosbrock, Suthelham, Blacksmere, Lethergland and Shutford ought respectively to 
be read as, Gosbeck, South Elmham, Blackhoum, Lothingland and Mutford. 



244 

Gorleston. " In the chancel, as it is called, we took up twenty 
brazen superstitious inscriptions, Ova pro nobis, &c. ; broke twelve apostles, 
carved in wood, and cherubims, and a lamb with a cross ; and took up 
four superstitious inscriptions in brass, in the north chancel, Jesu filii 
Dei miserere mei, &c. ; broke in pieces the rails, and broke down twenty- 
two popish pictures of angels and saints. We did deface the font and a 
cross on the font ; and took up a brass inscription there, with Cnjus 
animoe propitietur Deus, and 'Pray for y e soul,' &c, in English. We 
took up thirteen superstitious brasses. Ordered Moses with his rod and 
Aaron with his mitre, to be taken down. Ordered eighteen angels off 
the roof, and cherubims to be taken down, and nineteen pictures on the 
windows. The organ I brake ; and we brake seven popish pictures in 
the chancel window, — one of Christ, another of St. Andrew, another of 
St. James, &c. We ordered the steps to be levelled by the parson of the 
town ; and brake the popish inscription, My flesh is meat indeed, and my 
blood is drink indeed. I gave orders to break in pieces the carved work, 
which I have seen done. There were six superstitious pictures, one 
crucifix, and the Virgin Mary with the infant Jesus in her arms, and 
Christ lying in a manger, and the three kings coming to Christ with 
presents, and three bishops with their mitres and crosier staffs, and 
eighteen Jesuses written in capital letters, which we gave orders 
to do out. A picture of St. George, and many others which I 
remember not, with divers pictures in the windows, which we 
could not reach, neither would they help us to raise ladders ; so 
we left a warrant with the constable to do it in fourteen days. We 
brake down a pot of holy water, St. Andrew with his cross, and St. 
Catherine with her wheel ; and we took down the cover of the font, and 
the four evangelists, and a triangle for the Trinity, a superstitious picture 
of St. Peter and his keys, an eagle, and a lion with wings. In Bacon's 
isle was a friar with a shaven ci'own, praying to God in these words, 
Miserere mei Deus, — : which avc brake down. We brake a holy water 
font in the chancel. We rent to pieces a hood and surplices. In the 
chancel was Peter pictured on the windows, with his heels upwards, 
and John Baptist, and twenty more superstitious pictures, which we 
brake ; and I H S the Jesuit's badge, in the chancel Avindow. In 
Bacon's isle, twelve superstitious pictures of angels and crosses, and 
a holy Avater font, and brasses with superstitious inscriptions. And 
in the cross alley AA T e took up brazen figures and inscriptions, Ora 
pro nobis. We brake doAvn a cross on the steeple, and three stone crosses 
in the chancel, and a stone cross in the porch." 

At Somerleyton, Jessop removed the painted glass, 
and exacted the sum of 6s. 8d. for his labour. Some- 
times it would appear that the Deputy wrought indepen- 
dently of Dowsing, at other times 'master and man' 
were associated together in the work of spoliation. 






245 



Concerning Dowsing himself, it is difficult to speak 
with any degree of certainty. Nothing in the way of a 
pictorial representation of him is known to exist, it is 
however easy enough to imagine, from the word por- 
traiture by which he has become so familiar to us, that 
his severe and relentless spirit came out strongly in his 
personal appearance. 

There has been some difference of opinion respecting 
the place of Dowsing's birth. In the ' Journal,' he is 
alluded to as "of Stratford," (Stratford St. Mary, SufT:) 
but his connection with this place is unknown. It would 
appear, that probably during some portion of his life, 
Dowsing resided at Stratford, but there is no evidence 
to prove that the family ever settled there. Three 
individuals of the same name, mentioned in the Register 
as being interred in this parish, have apparently no 
connection with William Dowsing's family. It has been 
asserted, and " universal tradition " is said to confirm 
the opinion, (!) that Dowsing was a native of Pulham 
St. Mary, in Norfolk. Several entries in the parish 
Registers, in which the name of a William Dowsing 
occur, seen to have led to the formation of this opinion, 
and to the consequent acceptance in some quarters of 
the theory. It is, however, plain from a monumental 
inscription in the churchyard at Pulham St. Mary,* that 
a connection existed between the Dowsing's residing 
there, and others of the same name at Laxfield, at which 
latter place the Iconoclast's family were located, and 
where William Dowsing probably drew his first breath, 
and also expired. 

Mr. F. C. Brooke, has inserted in his Wodderspoon 
collection, previously referred to, a MS. note to the 

* In the churchyard of Pulham St. Mary, near the S.E. corner of the 
Chancel is a brick tomb covered by a slab, bearing the following 
inscription : — 

" Here lyeth the Body of Margaret, the wife of Peter Watts, daughter and 
sole Heiress of William Dowsing, of Laxfield, in the county of Suffolk, Gent., 
obijt 14th day of February, Anno Domini, 1707." 

Above is a shield bearing the arms of Watts, a lion rampant with a mullet for 
difference, impaling Dowsing, a fess between two lions passant. 



246 

effect that he was informed by W. Stevenson Fitch, in 
April 1849, that Dowsing lived at Eye; that he had in 
his possession Dowsing's admission as a copyhold tenant 
to the Manor of Eye Priory, and further that he had 
compared Dowsing's autograph (where this appeared is 
not stated,) with the one on the Eye document, and 
found them to be facsimiles. The date of the admission 
is not given, but most likely it was previous to the 
troublous times when Dowsing assumed the role of a 
mighty despoiler. Dowsing is sometimes referred to as 
" of Coddenham," but the village of Laxfield appears to 
be fairly entitled to the honour of having given birth 
to the man, who, in his mature years, did his utmost to 
disfigure the church of the parish in which he had been 
nurtured. In the course of his ' Journal,' under Laxfield, 
Dowsing incidentally mentions a " William Dowsing of 
the same town," as appointed to pull down the chancel 
steps. We find mention made of the name of Simon 
Dowsing, of Laxfield, as lending the sum of ten pounds 
for the defence of the Parliament in 1642, so that the 
family sympathy was clearly with the Parliamentarians. 

In the Laxfield Registers the William Dowsing is 
entered as baptised 2nd May, 1596, which would make 
him of about the age of fifty years at the time of his 
visitation. 

"1596. Will'm Dowsinge sonne of Wollfran & Johane was 
baptyzed the seconde daye of rnaye." 

To this is appended the following note : — 

" This man was by the Earl of Manchester, in the Great Rebellion, 
A.D. 1644, appointed Visitor of the Churches in Suffolk, to destroy and 
abolish all the remains of popish supei'stition in them. There are few 
which do not yet bear marks of his indiscreet zeal. 1804." 

This note, it must be borne in mind, is no older than 
the early part of the present century, and appears to be 
in the neat hand-writing of the late D. E. Davy. 

Dowsing seems to have been twice married. By 
his first wife, Thamar, he had ten children one of whom, 
Samuel, (born 1633, and living in 1682), is mentioned in 



247 

the introductory note at the commencement of the 
' Journal.' He is likewise there stated to be " of Strat- 
ford," which is the more remarkable as his father, 
William Dowsing, although said to be also "of Strat- 
ford," was buried at Laxneld, and Samuel is alluded to 
in the Will of his kinswoman, Mary Blomefield (1682 
Suff: Archd 1 '.), as of Neyland. The genealogical place 
of these Laxneld Dowsings, may be clearly seen on 
reference to the valuable pedigree which Mr. J. J. 
Muskett, — whose intimate acquaintance with Suffolk 
family history eminently fits him for the task, — has 
skilfully and most kindly worked out for me. 

The earliest known reference to the Dowsing's of 
Laxfield, dates back as far as the middle of the 15th 
century, and for a long period they retained a respectable 
position among the yeomanry of the county. 

There are several monumental inscriptions in 
Laxfield church and churchyard, to various members 
of the family. A brass has or had the following : — 

"HERE LYETH BURYED THE BODY OF WILLM 
DOWSING, WHO HAD ISSUE BY ELIZABETH 
HIS WIFE, 4 SONES AND 1 DAUGHTER, BEING OF 
ABOUT THE AGE OF 88 YEARES, DECEASED THE 
SECOND DAY NOUEMBER, ANNO DNI. 1614." 

There is also a brass to John Smyth and Margaret his 
wife, daughter of Wolferan Dowsinge, and who died 
1621. A stone with a Latin inscription to Sybilla, wife 
of William Dowsing, who died 21 March, 1676, set. 68. 
This stone bears the arms of Dowsing, — a fess between two 
lions passant, impaling Green. 

The following entry without doubt refers to the 
William Dowsing :* — 

"Mr. William Dowsing was buried the 14th day of March, 1679. 
And no Affidavit was given me in of his buriall according to the late 
Act in that case provided. And I certified the Churchwardens and 
Overseers of the same, vnder my Hand March 22th 1679. 

W. Adamson, Vicar 



Two other Dowsings, bearing the same christian name of William, are also entered 
as interred at Laxfield during the latter part of the seventeenth century. 



248 

It would appear from this, that William Dowsing 
lived to pass fourscore years, leaving behind him a name, 
which although probably an enduring one, can only 
continue, subject to the reproaches that will be heaped 
upon it, not only by an ever increasing number of such 
as cherish with affectionate feelings the "wonders of old 
time," but by those who hate base injustice and cruel 
wrong, especially if done, as not infrequently has been 
the case, in the name of truth and charity. 



THE 
JOURNAL, &c. 

SUDBURY, Suffolk. Peter's Parish. Jan. the 9th. 
1643. We brake down a picture of God the Father, 2 
Crucifix's, and Pictures of Christ, about an hundred in 
all ; and gave order to take down a Cross off the Steeple ; 
and diverse Angels, 20 at least, on the Roof of the 
Church. 

SUDBURY, Gregory Parish. Jan. the 9th. We 
brake down 10 mighty great Angels in Glass, in all 80. 

Alhallows, Jan. the 9th. We brake about 20 super- 
stitious Pictures ; and took up 30 brazen superstitious 
Inscriptions, ora pro nobis, and pray for the sold, &c. 

1. Suffolk. At HAVER L ' Jan. the 6th. 1643. 
We broke clown about an hundred superstitious Pictures ; 
and seven Fryars hugging a Nunn ; and the Picture of 
God and Christ ; and diverse others very superstitious ; 
and 200 had been broke down before I came. We took 
away two popish Inscriptions with ora pro nobis ; and 
we beat down a great stoneing Cross on the top of the 
Church. 

2. At CLARE, Jan. the 6th. We brake down 1000 
Pictures superstitious ; I brake down 200 ; 3 of God the 
Father, and 3 of Christ, and the Holy Lamb, and 3 of 
the Holy Ghost like a Dove with Wings ; and the 12 
Apostles were carved in Wood, on the top of the Roof, 



249 

which we gave order to take down ; and 20 Cherubims 
to be taken down ; and the Sun and Moon in the East 
Window, by the King's Arms, to be taken down. 

3. HUNDEN, Jan. the 6th. We brake down 30 
superstitious Pictures ; and we took up 3 popish Inscrip- 
tions in brass, or a pro nobis, on them ; and we gave order 
for the levelling the Steps. 

4. WIXO, Jan. the 6th. We brake a Picture ; 
and gave order for levelling the Steps. 

5. WITHERSFIELD, Jan. the 6th. We brake 
down a Crucifix, and 60 superstitious Pictures ; and gave 
order for the levelling the Steps in the Chancel. 

6. STOKE-NAYLAND, Jan. the 19th. We brake 
down an 100 superstitious Pictures; and took up 7 super- 
stitious Inscriptions on the Grave-Stones, or a pro nobis, &c. 

7. NAYLAND, Suff. Jan. the 19th. 1643. We 
brake down 30 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order 
for the taking clown a Cross on the Steeple ; We took up 

2 popish Inscriptions, or a pro nobis, Sfc 

8. RAYDEN, Jan. the 20th. We brake dow an 
Crucifix, and 12 superstitious Pictures; and a popish 
Inscription, ora pro nobis, &c. 

9. HOUGHTON, Jan, the 20th. We brake 6 
superstitious Pictures. 

10. BARHAM, Jan. the 22nd. We brake down 
the 12 Apostles in the Chancel, and 6 superstitious more 
there ; and 8 in the Church, one a Lamb with a Cross X 
on the back ; and digged down the Steps ; and took up 4 
superstitious Inscriptions of Brass, one of them Jesu, Fill 
Dei, miserere mei, and mater Dei, memento mei, — mother 
of God, have mere/ on me ! 

11. CLAYDEN, Jan. the 22nd. We brake down 

3 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take down 3 
Crosses of the Steeple ; and one of the Chancel. 

12. CODDENHAM, Jan. the 22nd. We gave 
order for taking down 3 Crosses of the Steeple ; and one 
of the Chancel. 

13. YKE, Jan. the 23rd. We brake down 25 

H 1 



250 

superstitious Pictures ; and took up a superstitious Inscrip- 
tion. 

14. DUNSTALL, Jan. the 23rd. We brake down 
60 superstitious Pictures ; and broke in pieces the Rails ; 
and gave order to pull down the Steps. 

15. ALDBOROUGH, Jan. the 21th. We gave 
order for taking down 20 Cherubims, and 38 Pictures ; 
which their Lecturer Mr. Swayn, (a godly man) undertook, 
and their Captain Mr. Johnson. 

16. ORFORD, Jan. the 25th. We brake down 28 
superstitious Pictures ; and took up 11 popish Inscriptions 
in Brass ; and gave order for digging up the Steps, and 
taking of 2 Crosses of the Steeple of the Church, and 
one of the Chancel, in all 4. 

17. SNAPE, Jan. the 25th. We brake down 4 
popish Pictures ; and took up 4 Inscriptions of Brass, of 
ora pro nobis, &c. 

18. STANSTED, Jan. the 25th. We brake down 
6 superstitious Pictures ; and took up a popish Inscription 
in Brass 

19. SAXMUNDHAM, Jan. the 26th. We took up 
2 superstitious Inscriptions in Brass. 

20. _ KELSHALL, Jan. the 26th. We brake down 
6 superstitious Pictures ; and took up 1 2 popish Inscrip- 
tions in Brass ; and gave order to levell the Chancel, and 
taking down a Cross. 

21. CARLETON, Jan. the 26th. We brake down 
10 superstitious Pictures; and took up 6 popish Inscrip- 
tions in Brass ; and gave order to levell the Chancel. 

22. FARNHAM, Jan, the 26th. We took up a 
popish Inscription in Brass. 

23. STRATFORD. We brake down 6 super- 
stitious Pictures. 

24. WICKHAM, Jan the 26th. We brake down 
15 popish Pictures of Angels and S ts ; and gave order 
for taking 2 Crosses ; one on the Steeple, & the 2nd on 
the Church. 

25. SUDBURNE, Jan. the 26th. We brake down 



251 

6 Pictures, and gave order for the taking down of a 
Cross on the Steeple ; and the Steps to be levelled. 

26. UFFORD, Jan. the 27th. We brake down 
30 superstitious Pictures ; and gave direction to take 
down 37 more ; and 40 Cherubims to be taken down of 
Wood; and the chancel levelled. There was a Picture 
of Christ on the Cross, and God the Father above it ; 
and left 37 superstitious Pictures to be taken down; and 
took up 6 superstitious Inscriptions in Brass. 

27. WOODBRIDGE, Jan. the 27th. We took 
down 2 superstitious Inscriptions in Brass ; and gave 
order to take down 30 superstitious Pictures. 

28. KESGRAVE, Jan. the 27th. We took down 
6 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take down 
18 Cherubims, and to levell the Chancel. 

29. RUSHMERE, Jan. the 27th. We brake down 
the Pictures of the 7 deadly Sins, and the Holy Lamb 
with a Cross about it ; and 15 other superstitious Pictures. 

30. CHATSHAM, Jan. the 29th. Nothing to be 
done. 

31. W ASHBROOK, Jan. the 29th. I broke down 
26 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take down a 
stoneing Cross ; and the Chancel to be levelled. 

32. COPDOCK, Jan. the 29th. I brake down 150 
superstitious Pictures, 2 of God the Father, and 2 
Crucifixes; did deface a Cross on the Font; and gave order 
to take down a stoneing Cross on the Chancel, and to 
levell the Steps ; and took up a Brass Inscription, with ora 
pro nobis, and cufus animce propitietur Dens. 

33. BELSTEAD. We brake clown 7 superstitious 
Pictures, the Apostles, and 2 others ; and took up 4 In- 
scriptions in Brass, of ora pro nobis, &c. 

34. IPSWICH, Stoke Mary's. 2 Crosses in Wood, 
and 2 Cherubims painted ; and one Inscription in Brass, 
with ora pro nobis, &c. 

35. At Peter's, was on the Porch, the Crown of 
Thorns, the Spunge and Nails, and the Trinity in Stone ; 
and the Rails where there, which I gave order to break 
in pieces. 



252 

36. Mary's at the Key. Jan. the 29th. I brake 
down 6 superstitious Pictures. 

37. St. Mary Elmes, Jan. the 29th. There was 4 
iron Crosses on the Steeple ; which they promised to 
take down that Day, or the next, 

38. Nicholas, Jan. the 29th. We brake 6 super- 
stitious Pictures ; and took up 2 Brass Inscriptions, of 
ora pro nobis ; and gave order for another, cujus anima 
(sic) propitietur Deas ; and there was the Crown of 
Thorns. 

39. Matthew's, Jan. the 29th. We brake down 35 
superstitious Pictures, 3 Angels with Stars on their breasts, 
and Crosses. 

40. Mary's at the Tower, Jan. the 29th. We took 
up 6 Brass Inscriptions, with ora pro nobis, and ora pro 
animabus, and cujus animce propitieiur Deus ; and pray for 
the soul, in English ; and I gave order to take down 5 iron 
Crosses, and one of Wood on the Steeple. 

41. Margaretfs, Jan. the 30th. There was 12 
Apostles in Stone taken down ; and between 20 and 30 
superstitious Pictures to be taken down, which a (godly 
man) a Churchwarden promised to do. 

42. Steven's Jan the 30th. There was a popish 
Inscription in Brass, pray for the Soul. 

43. Lawrence, Jan. the 30th. There was 2 popish 
Inscriptions, one with Beads, and written ora pro nobis. 

44. Clements, Jan. the 30. They four Days before 
had beaten up divers superstitious Inscriptions. 

45. At Elens, Jan. the 30th. Nothing. 

46. PLAYFORD. Jan. the 30th. We brake down 
17 popish Pictures, one of God the Father ; and took up 
2 superstitious Inscriptions in Brass ; and one ora pro nobis 
and cujus anivice propitietur Deus, and a 2nd pray for the 
soul. 

47. BLAKENHAM, at the Water, Feb. the 1st. 
1643. Only the Steps to be levelled, which I gave them 
8 days to do it. 

48. BRAMFORD, Feb. the 1st. A cross to be 



253 

taken off the Steeple ; we brake down 841 superstitious 
Pictures ; and gave order to take down the Steps, and 
gave a fortnight's time ; and took up 3 Inscriptions with 
ora pro nobis, and cujus animce propitietur Deus. 

49. SPROUGHTON. We brake down 61 super- 
stitious Pictures ; and gave order for the Steps to be 
levelled, in a fortnight's time ; and 3 Inscriptions, ora pro 
nobis, and cujus animce propitietur Deus. 

50. BURSTALL, Feb. the 1st. We took off an 
Iron Cross off the Steeple ; and gave order to levell the 
Steps. 

51. HINTLESHAM. Feb. the 1st. We brake 
down 51 superstitious Pictures; and took up 3 Inscrip- 
tions, with ora pro nobis and cujus animce propitietur Deus ; 
and gave order for digging down the Steps. 

52. HADLKIGH. Feb. the 2nd. We brake down 
30 superstitious Pictures, and gave order for taking down 
the rest, which were about 70 ; and took up an Inscrip- 
tion, quorum animabus propitietur Deus ; and gave order 
for the taking down a Cross on the Steeple ; gave 14 
days. 

53. LAYHAM, Feb. the 2nd. We brake down 6 
superstitious Pictures, and take down a Cross off the 
Steeple. 

54. SHELLY, Feb. the 2nd. We brake down 6 
superstitious Pictures ; and took off 2 Inscriptions, with 
cujus animce propitietur Deus. 

55. HIGHAM, Feb. the 2nd. We brake down L5 
superstitious Pictures in the Chancel j and 1 6* in the 
Church, (so called) ; and gave order to levell the Steps 
in 14 days. 

56. Ffb. the 3d. WENHAM Magna. There was 
Nothing to reform. 

57. Feb. the 3d. WHENHAM Parva. We brake 
down 26 superstitious Pictures, and gave order to break 
down 6 more ; and to levell the Steps. — One Picture was 
of the Virgin Mary. 

58. Feb. the 3d. CAPELL. We brake down 3 



254 

superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take down 31, 
which the Churchwarden promised to do ; and to take 
down a stoneing Cross on the outside of the Church, (as 
it is called.) 

Feb. the 3d. We were at the Lady Bruceh House, 
and in her Chapell, there was a Picture of God the 
Father, of the Trinity, of Christ, and the Holy Ghost, 
the Cloven Tongues ; which we gave order to take down, 
and the Lady promised to do it. 

59. NEEDHAM-MARKET, Feb. the 5th. We 
gave order to take down 2 Iron Crosses on the Chappel, 
and a stoneing Cross. 

60. BADLEY, Feb. the 5th. We brake down 34 
superstitious Pictures ; Mr. Dove promised to take down 
the rest, 28 ; and to levell the Chancel. We took down 
4 superstitious Inscriptions, with ora pro nobis, and cujus 
animce propitietur Deus. 

61. STOW-MARKET, Feb. the 5th. We gave 
order to break down about 70 superstitious Pictures ; 
and to levell the Chancel, to Mr. Manning, that promised 
to do it ; and to take down 2 Crosses, one on the Steeple, 
and the other on the Church, (as it is called) ; and took 
of an Inscription, of ora pro nobis. 

62. WETHERDEN, Feb. the 5th. We brake 
a 100 superstitious Pictures in S r Edtvard SilliaroVs Isle ; 
and gave order to break down 60 more ; and to take 
down 68 Cherubims ; and to levell the steps in the 
Chancel ; there was taken up 19 superstitious Inscrip- 
tions, that weighed 65 pounds. 

63. ELMSWELL, Feb. the 5th. We brake down 
20 superstitious Pictures ; and gave orders to break 
down 40 and above, and to take down 40 Cherubims. 
We took up 4 superstitious Inscriptions, with ora pro nobis. 

64. TOSTICK, Feb. the 5th. We brake down 
about 1 6 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take 
down about 40 more ; and to levell the Steps. We took 
a superstitious Inscription, with ora pro nobis. 

65. BURY St. EDMUND's, Feb. the 5th. Man/s 



255 

Parish. Mr. Chaplain undertook to do down the Steps ; 
and to take away the superstitious Pictures. 

6Q. James's Parish. Mr. Moody undertook for. 

67. KINFORD, Feb. the 6th. We gave order to 
take down a Cross, and other Pictures. 

68. Feb. the 6th. At NEWMARKET, They pro- 
mised to amend all. 

69. COMEARTH Magna, Feb. the 20th. I took 
up 2 Inscriptions, pray for our souls ; and gave order to 
take down a Cross on the Steeple ; and to levell the Steps. 
John Pain, Churchwarden, for not paying, and doing his 
duty injoyned by the Ordinance, I charged Henry Turner, 
the Constable, to carry him before the Earl of Manchester. 

70. Little COMEARTH, Feb. the 20th. There 
were 2 Crosses, one in Wood, and another in Stone, 
which I gave order to take them down ; and I brake down 
6 superstitious Pictures. Had no Noble. 

71. NEWTON, Feb. the 21st. William Plume, 
Churchwarden, and John Shrive, Constable. I brake 
down 4 superstitious Pictures, one of Christ, and 6 in the 
Chancel, one of Christ, and one of the Virgin Mary; 
and to see the Steps levelled. 

* NAYLAND, Feb. the 21st. Henry Hill, Henry 
Campin, Churchwardens ; Abraham Vangover, Constable. 
Churchwardens promised the 6s. 8d. within a Week. 

72. ASSINGTON, Feb. the 21st. We brake down 
40 Pictures, one of God the Father, and the other very 
superstitious ; and gave order to levell the Chancel ; and 
to take a Cross off the Steeple. Constable, James Springes. 

73. At Mr. Thomas Humberfield' 's or Sombey -field's, I 
brake down 9 superstitious Pictures, and a Crucifix, in 
the Parish of STOKE. He refused to pay the 6s. 8d. 
This was in the Lord Windsor's Chappel. 

74. Feb. the 23d. At Mr. Cap*. Waldgrave's 
Chappel, in BUERS, there was a Picture of God the 
Father, and divers other superstitious Pictures, 20 at 
least, which they promised to break, his Daughter and 

* Vide No. 7. 



256 

Servants; he himself was not at home, neither could 
they find the key of the Chappel. I had not the 65. 8d. 
yet promised it. And gave order to take down a Cross. 

75. BUERS, Feb. the 23d. We brake down above 
600 superstitious Pictures, 8 Holy Ghosts, 3 of God the 
Father, and 3 of the Son. We took up 5 Inscriptions of 
quorum animabis (sic) propitietur Deus ; one pray for the 
soul. And Superstitions in the Windows, and some 
divers of the Apostles. 

76. COMEARTH Magna. (Mentioned before, 
No. 69.) 

77. GLENSFORD, Feb the 26th. We brake 
down many Pictures ; one of God the Father, a Picture 
of the Holy Ghost, in Brass. A Noble. 

78. OTLEY, Feb. the 27th. A Deputy brake 
down 50 superstitious Pictures ; a Cross on the Chancel ; 

2 Brass Inscriptions ; and Moses with a Rod, and Aaron 
with his Mitre, taken down ; and 20 Cherubims to be 
broke down. — 6s. 8d. 

79. MULLEDEN, Feb. the 27th. He brake down 
6 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to levell the 
Steps in 20 Days. — 6s. 8d. 

80. HOO, Feb. the 27th. A superstitious Inscription 
of Brass, and 8 superstitious Pictures brake down ; and 
gave order to levell the Steps in 20 Days. — 65. 8d. 

81. LETHERINGHAM, Feb. the 27th. He took 
of three popish Inscriptions of Brass ; and brake down 
10 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to levell the 
Steps in 20 Days. — 6s. 8d. 

^ 82. EASTON, Feb. the 28th. He brake up one 
Inscription in Brass ; and 1 6 superstitious Pictures ; 3 
Crosses he gave order to take down ; & to levell the 
Steps in 20 Days. — 6s. 8d. 

83. KETTLEBURGH, Feb. the 28th. In the 
Glass, 6 superstitious Pictures ; gave order to break them 
down, and to levell the Steps in 20 days. — 6s. 8d. 

84. HELMINGHAM, Feb. the 29th. Brake down 

3 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take down 4 



257 

Crosses ; and 9 Pictures ; and Adam and Eve to be 
beaten down. — 6s. 8d. 

85. WOOLPIT, Feb. the 29th. My Deputy. 80 
superstitious Pictures ; some he brake down, and the rest 
he gave order to take down ; and 3 Crosses to be taken 
down in 20 Days. — 6s. 8d. 

86. BAYTON Bull, March the 1st. He brake down 
20 Pictures ; and the Steps to be levelled in 20 Days. — 
6s. 8d. 

87. KAYFIELD, April the 3d. A Deputy brake 
down divers, which I have done. 

88. April the 3d. BEDDINGFIELD. I brake 
down 14 superstitious Pictures, one of God the Father, and 
2 Doves, and another of St. Catherine and her Wheel ; and 
gave order to take down 3 stoneing Crosses on Porch, 
Church, and Chancel. 

89. TANNINGTON, April the 3d. My Deputy 
brake down 27 Pictures, 2 were Crucifixes, which I 
brake of part. 

90. BRUNDISH, April the 3d. There were 5 
Pictures of Christ, the 12 Apostles, a Crucifix, and divers 
superstitious Pictures. The Vicar have 2 Livings. 

91. WILBY, 1 superstitious Pictures. April the 4th. 
30 We brake down ; and gave order to take 10 more, 
and the Steps to be levelled ; and the Whip, and Pincers, 
and Nails, that was at Christ's crucifying, and the 
Trinity, all in Stone. 

92. STRADBROOK, April the 4th. 8 Angels off 
the Roof, and Cherubims in Wood, to be taken down ; and 4 
Crosses on the Steeple ; and one on the Church ; and one 
on the Porch ; and 17 Pictures in the upper Window ; and 
pray for such out of your charity ; and Organs, which I 
brake. 

93. Nether, or LINSTEAD Parva, April the 4th. A 
Picture of God the Father, and of Christ, and 5 more 
superstitious in the Chancel ; and the Steps to be levelled, 
which the Churchwardens promised to do in 20 Days. — 
And a Picture of Christ on the outside of the Steeple, 

I l 



258 

nailed to a Cross, and another superstitious one. Crosses 
on the Font. Will. (M.S. blotted) is Curate. 

94. LINSTEAD Magna, April the 5th, Here 
was 2 superstitious orate pro animabus, and cufus anima 
(sic) propitietur Deus. There was 2 Crucifixes and 8 
superstitious Pictures, and 3 Inscriptions of Jesus, in a 
Window. And gave order to levell the Steps, to Mr. 
Evered. Will. Aldice, Curate. D. ******* 
Francis Evered. 

95. Cheston, or CHEDISTON, April the 5th. 2 
superstitious Inscriptions, and 7 popish Pictures, one of 
Christ, and another of St. George. — 6s. 8d. 

96. HALLISWORTH, April the 5th. 2 Cruci- 
fixes, 3 of the Holy Ghost, and a 3d of the Trinity 
altogether ; and two hundred other superstitious Pictures 
and more; 5 popish Inscriptions of Brass, orate pro 
animabus] and cujus animce propitietur Deus ; and the Steps 
to be levelled by the Parson of the town ; and to take off 
a Cross on the Chancel. And then the Churchwardens 
had order to take down 2 Crosses off the Steeple. 

97. REDSHAM Magna, April the 5th. A Cruci- 
fix, and 3 other superstitious Pictures ; and gave order 
for Mr. Barenbg, the Parson, to levell the Steps in the 
Chancel. He preach but once a Day. 

98. REGINGFIELD, April the 5th. The Sun 
and Moon ; and JESUS, in Capital Letters ; and 2 Crosses 
on the Steeple : We gave order to take them down ; and 
levell the Steps in 14 Days. 

99. BECCLES, April the 6th. Jehovah's between 
Church and Chancel ; and the Sun over it ; and by the 
Altar, My Meat is Flesh indeed, and Mij Blood is Drink 
indeed. And 2 Crosses we gave order to take down, one 
was on the Porch ; another on the Steeple ; and many 
superstitious Pictures, about 40.' — Six several Crosses, 
Christ's, Virgin Mary's, St. George's and 3 more ; and 
13 Crosses in all; and Jesus and Mary, in Letters; and 
the 12 Apostles. 

100. ELOUGH, April the 6th. We brake down 



259 

12 superstitious Pictures ; and the Steps to be levelled ; 
and a Cross to be taken off the chancel, which they 
promised to do. 

101. SATERLY. There were divers superstitious 
Pictures painted, which they promised to take down ; 
and I gave order to levell the Steps ; and to break in 
pieces the Rails, which I have seen done ; and to take off 
a Cross on the Church. 

102. BENACRE, April the 6th. There was 6 
superstitious Pictures, one Crucifix, and the Virgin Mary 
twice, with Christ in her arms, and Christ lying in the 
Manger, and the 3 Kings coming to Christ with their 
presents, and St. Catherine twice pictured ; and the Priest 
of the Parish — (M.S. blotted) — materna (sic) Johannem 
Christi guberna. Christ govern me by thy Mother's 
Prayers ! — And 3 Bishops with their Mitres ; and the 
Steps to be levelled within 6 weeks. And 18 JESUS's, 
written in Capital Letters, on the Roof, which we gave 
order to do oat ; and the Story of Nebudchadnezzar ; and 
orate pro animabus, in a Glass window. 

103. COCHIE, April the 6th. We brake down 
200 Pictures ; one Pope, with divers Cardinals, Christ 
and the Virgin Mary ; a Picture of God the Father, and 
many other, which I remember not. There was 4 Steps, 
with a Vault underneath, but the 2 first might be levelled, 
which we gave order to the Churchwardens to do. There 
was many Inscriptions of JESUS, in Capital Letters, on 
the Roof the Church, and Cherubims with Crosses on 
their Breasts ; and a Cross in the Chancel ; all which, 
with divers Pictures, in the Windows, which we could 
not reach, neither would they help us to raise the ladders ; 
all which, we left a Warrant with the Constable to do, 
in 14 days. 

104. RUSHMERE, April the 8th. We brake 10 
superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to levell the Steps 
in 20 Days, to make their Windows ; and we brake down 
a Pot, for Holy Water. 

105. MUTFORD, April the 8th. We brake down 



260 

9 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take 9 super- 
stitious Inscriptions of Jesus ; 2 Crosses on the Steeple ; 
and the Steps to be levelled. 

106. FROSTENDEN, Apeil the 8th. 20 super- 
stitious Pictures, one Crucifix, and a Picture of God the 
Father, and St. Andrew with his Cross, and St. Catherine 
with her Wheel ; 4 Cherubims on the Pulpit ; 2 Crosses 
on the Steeple ; and one on the Chancel. And Mr. Ellis, 
an high Constable, of the Town, told me " he saw an 
Irish Man, within 2 months, bow to the Cross on the 
Steeple, and put off his hat to it." The Steps were there 
to levell, which they promised to do. 

107. COE, April the 8th. We took down 42 
superstitious Pictures in Glass ; and about 20 Cherubims ; 
and the Steps we have digged down. 

108. RAYDEN, April the 8th. We brake down 

1 superstitious Pictures ; and gave order to take down 

2 Crosses, one on the Chancel, and another on the Porch. 
Steps we digged up. 

109. SOUTHWOLD, April the 8th. We break 
down 130 superstitious Pictures ; St. Andrew ; and 4 
Crosses on the four corners of the Vestry ; and gave 
order to take down 13 Cherubims; and take down 20 
Angels ; and to take down the Cover of the Font. 

110. WALBERWICK. Brake down 40 super- 
stitious Pictures ; and to take off 5 Crosses on the 
Steeple, and Porch ; and we had 8 superstitious 
Inscriptions on the grave Stones. 

111. BLYFORD, April the 9th. There was 30 
superstitious Pictures ; a Crucifix ; and the 4 Evangelists ; 
and the Steps promised to be levelled, and begun to be 
digged down ; a Cross on the Chancel they promised to 
take down ; and a Triangle on the Porch, for the Trinity ; 
and 2 Whips, &c. Christ and a Cross all over the Porch. 

1 1 2. BLYBOROUGH, April the 9th. There was 
20 superstitious Pictures ; one on the Outside of the 
Church ; 2 Crosses, one on the Porch ; and another on 
the Steeple ; and 20 Cherubims to be taken down in the 



261 

Church, and Chancel ; and I brake down 3 orate pro 
animabus ; and gave order to take down above 200 more 
Pictures, within 8 days. 

113. DUNWICH, April the 9th. At Peter's 
Parish. 63 Cherubims ; 60 at least of JESUS, written 
in Capital Letters, on the Roof; and 40 superstitious 
Pictures ; and a Cross on the top of the Steeple. All 
was promised by the Churchwardens to be done. 

L14. Allhallows. 30 superstitious Pictures ; and 28 
Cherubims ; and a Cross on the Chancel. 

115. BRAMFIELD, April the 9th. Twenty-four 
superstitious Pictures ; one Crucifix, and Picture of 
Christ; and 12 Angels on the Roof; and divers 
JESUS's, in Capital letters; and the Steps to be 
levelled, by Sir Robert Brook. 

116. HEVININGHAM, April the 9th and 10th. 
Eight superstitious Pictures, one of the Virgin Mary ; 
and 2 Inscriptions of Brass, one fray for the soul, and 
another orate pro animabus. 

117. POLSTEAD, April the 15th. Forty-five 
superstitious Pictures ; one of Peter with his Keys. 2nd 
a Bishop's Mitre on his head. — 6s. Sd. 

118. BOXTEAD. We had 6 superstitious Pictures. 

119. STANSTEAD, April the 15th. 5 super- 
stitious Pictures. 

120. LAXFIELD, July the 17th, 1644. Two 
Angels in Stone, at the Steeple's end ; a Cross in the 
Church; and another on the Porch, in Stone; and 2 
superstitious Pictures on Stone there. Many superstitious 
Inscriptions in Brass, orate pro animabus, et cujus animce 
propitietur Deus. A Picture of Christ, in Glass. An 
Eagle, and a Lion, with wings, for 2 of the Evangelists ; 
and the Steps in the Chancel. All to be done within 20 
Days ; the Steps, by William Doivsing, of the same Town. 

121. TREMBLY, Aug. the 21st., 1644. Martin's. 
There was a Fryar, with a shaven crown, praying to 
God, in these Words, miserere mei Deus ; which we brake 
down ; and 28 Cherubims in the Church ; which we gave 
order to take down, by Aug. 24th. 



262 

122. Aug. the 21st. BRIGHTWELL. A Picture 
of Christ, and the Virgin Mary, that we brake down ; 
and the 12 Apostles painted, in Wood; and a Holy Water 
Font ; and a Step to be levelled ; all which, we gave 
order to be broke down, and Steps to be levelled, by 
Aug. 31st. 

123. LEVINGTON, Aug. the 21st. The Steps 
only to be levelled, by Aug. 31st. And a double Cross 
on the Church. 

124. UFFORD, Aug. 31st. (See No. 26.) Where 
is set down what we did, Jan. the 27th. " 30 superstitious 
Pictures ; and left 37 more to brake down" ; and some 
of them we brake down now. In the Chancel, we brake 
down an Angel ; 3 orate pro anima, in the Glass ; and 
the Trinity in a Triangle ; and 12 Cherubims on the 
Roof of the Chancel; and nigh a 100 JESUS— MARIA, 
in Capital Letters; and the Steps to be levelled. And 
we brake down the Organ Cases, and gave them to the 
Poor. — In the Church, there was on the Roof, above a 
100 JESUS and MARY, in great Capital Letters ; and 
a Crosier Staff to be broke down, in Glass ; and above 
20 Stars on the Roof. There is a glorious Cover over 
the Font, like a Pope's Tripple Crown, with a Pelican 
on the Top, picking its Breast, all gilt over with Gold. 
And we were kept out of the Church above 2 hours, and 
neither Churchwardens, William Broivn, nor Roger 
Small, that were enjoined these things above three 
months afore, had not done them in May, and I sent one 
of them to see it done, and they would not let him have 
the key. And now, neither the Churchwardens, nor 
William Brown, nor the Constable James Tokelove, and 
William Gardener, the Sexton, would not let us have 
the key in 2 hours time. New Churchwardens, Thomas 
Stanard, Thomas Stroud. And Samuel Canham, of the 
same Town, said, "I sent men to rifle the Church;" 
— and Will. Brown, old Churchwarden, said, " I went 
about to pull down the Church, and had carried away 
part of the Church." 



263 

125. BAYLHAM. There was the Trinity in a 
Triangle, on the Font, and a Cross ; and the Steps to be 
levelled, by the Minister, in 21 days. 

126. NETTLESTEAD, Aug. the 22d. An Inscrip- 
tion in the Church, in Brass, orate pro anima ; and 6 
of the Apostles, not defaced; and St. Catherine with 
her Wheel ; and 3 superstitious Pictures more, 2 with 
Crosier Staves, with Mitres ; and the Picture of St. 
George, St. Martin, and St. Simon. 

127. SUMMERSHAM. The same Day. A Cross 
in the Glass, and St. Catherine with her Wheel, and 
another Picture in the Glass in the Church ; and 2 super- 
stitious Pictures in the Window ; and a Holy Water 
Font in the Church ; and on the outside of the Chancel 
Door, Jesus. Sancta Maria. Jesus. 

128. FLOUGHTON, Aug. the 22d. A Holy 
Water Font in the Chancel. 

129 ELMSETT, Aug. the 22d. Crow, a Deputy, 
had done before we came. We rent apieces there, the 
Hood and Surplice. 

130. OFTON, Aug. the 22d. There was a Holy 
Water Font in the Chancel ; and the Steps ; and some 
Crosses on the outside of the Church, and Chancel ; and 
we gave order to deface them. We gave order to have 
them all defaced, and 2 more in a window of the Church ; 
and 2 Stone Crosses on the top of the Steeple. All 
which we gave order to mend all the defaults, by Satur- 
day come 'Sennight. At Ipstvich, at Mr. Coley's. 

131. BARKING, Aug, the 21st. There was St. 
Catherine with her Wheel. Many superstitious Pictures 
were done down afore I came. There was Maria's on the 
Church Door. 

132. WILLESHAM, Aug. the 22d. An Holy 
Water Font in the Chancel ; the Steps were levelled ; and 
had been so once before, by a Lord Bishop's Injunction ; 
and by another Lord Bishop after commanded ; testified 
to me, by him that saw it done, Mr. John Brownhridge. 

133. DAMSDEN, Aug. the 23d. Three Crosses in 



264 

the Chancel, on the wall, and a Holy Water Font there ; 
and the Chancel to be levelled by Saturday S'ennight 
after. 

134. WETHERINGSETT, Aug. the 26th. 19 
Crosses. 1 6 about the Arches of the Church ; and 3 on the 
Porch ; a Picture on the Porch a Triangle for the Trinity, 
to be done. Thomas Colby, and Thomas Eley, Church- 
wardens. Constables, John Suton, and John Genkthorne. 

135. MICKF1ELD, Aug. the 26th. 2 Crosses. 
And the Glasses to be made up by Saturday come three 
weeks. And 10s. to be paid to the Poor within that 
Time ; and the rest afterwards. — 4s. Qd. 

136. HORHAM, Aug. the 27th. In the Chancel a 
Holy Water Font ; and the Steps to be levelled ; and 
there was the 4 Evangelists ; and a part of a Crucifix ; 
and divers Angels, 8 ; and other superstitious Pictures ; 
and, orate pro animabus ; and on a Grave Stone, cvjus 
animoe propitietur Dens. All which I brake up; and gave 
20 days to levell the Steps, and make the windows. And 
in the Church, orate pro animabus ; and divers superstitious 
Pictures ; and a Triangle on the Font ; and a superstitious 
Picture 6s od 

137. ALLINGTON, Aug. the 27th. In the 
Chancel, was Peter pictured, and crucified with his heels 
upward ; and there was John Baptist ; and 1 more 
superstitious Pictures in the Church. 

138. WALLINGWORTH, Aug. the 27th. A 
Stone Cross on the top of the Church ; 3 Pictures of 
Adam on the Porch ; 2 Crosses on the Font ; and a 
Triangle for the Trinity, in Stone ; and 2 other super- 
stitious Pictures ; and the Chancel ground to be levelled ; 
and the Holy Water Font to be defaced; and Step 

levelled in 14 days. Edmund Dunstone, and John 

Constables. Will. Dod, and Robert Bemant, Church- 
wardens. — 3s. 4d. 

139. HOLTON, by Halesivorth, Aug. the 29th. 2 
superstitious Pictures in the Church ; and I 4- H 4* S the 
Jesuit's Badge, in the Chancel Window ; promised by 
the Minister, Mr. Wm. Pell. 



265 

140. WANGFORD, Aug. the 28th. 16 super- 
stitious Pictures ; and one I brake. 14 still remain ; and 
one of God. 

141. WRENTHAM, Aug. the 28th. 12 super- 
stitious Pictures ; one of St. Catherine with her Wheel. 

142. HOXNE, Aug. 30th. 2 Stone Crosses on 
Church, and Chancel ; Peter with his Fish ; and a Cross 
in a Glass Window, and 4 superstitious ones. The 
Virgin Mary with Christ in her Arms ; and Cherubims 
Wings on the Font. Many more were broken down afore. 

143. EYE, Aug. the 30th. Seven superstitious 
Pictures in the Chancel, and a Cross ; one was Mary 
Magdalene ; all in the Glass ; and 6 in the Church 
Windows ; many more had been broken down afore. 

144. OCKOLD, Aug. Divers superstitious Pictures 
were broke. I came, and there was Jesus, Mary, and St. 
Lawrence with his Gridiron, and Peter's Keys. Church- 
wardens promised to send 5s. to Mr. Oaks, before 
Michaelmas. 

145. RUSSINGLES, Aug. the 30th. Nothing but 
a Step. The Pictures were broke before. 

146. METTF1ELD, Aug. the 30th. In the 
Church, was Peter's Keys, and the Jesuit's Badge, in the 
Window ; and many on the top of the Roof. I. for Jesus, 
H. for Hominum, and S. for Salvator ; and a Dove for the 
Holy Ghost, in Wood; and the like in the Chancel ; and 
there, in Brass, orate pro animabus ; and the Steps to be 
levelled, by Sept. the 7th. Mr. Jermin, the Gentleman in 
the Town, refused to take the Inscription, as the Church- 
wardens informed, whose Name is . 

147. DINNINGTON, Sept. the 26th, 1644. Angels 
in S' John Rouse's Isle, and 2 Holy Water Fonts ; and 
in Bacon's Isle, 9 Pictures of Angels and Crosses, and 
a Holy Water Font, and 2 superstitious Inscriptions of 
Christ ; the Spear and Nails, on 2 Stools, at the lower 
end of the Church ; and a Cherubim in S r John House's 
Stool. 

148. BADDINGHAM, Sept. the 28th. The Steps 

K 1 



266 

to be levelled in the Chancel; and 16 superstitious 
Cherubims with Crosses on their Breasts. — All to be done, 
by the Churchwardens, by the 13th of October. 

149. PARHAM-HATCHESTON, Oct. the 1st. 
There was 21 Cherubims with Wings, in Wood; and 16 
superstitious Pictures, and popish Saints ; with a double 
Cross in the Church ; and the representation of the 
Trinity on the Font ; and the Spears and Nails, that 
Christ was pierced and nailed with ; and 3 Crosses, all 
in Stone ; 4 superstitious Pictures in the Chancel, and a 
Cross, all in Glass ; and the Steps to be levelled, by Mr. 
Francis Warner, by Oct. 15th. All to be done. 



Thomas Umberfteld of stoke, refused to pay the 6s. 8d. 
A Crucifix; and divers superstitious Pictures, Feb. 21st.* 

End of the Manuscript. 

* A reference is made in the previous editions to No. 6. (the Stoke-Nayland entry) 
but except in the name of the parish, this has no bearing on the note. The reference 
should have been to No. 73. (" The Lord Windsor's Chappel in the parish of Stoke.") 



NOTES ON DOWSING'S JOURNAL. 



[The folloiving ' Notes ' are compiled as having a distinct 
hearing, more or less, on the subject matter of the several 
entries in the '■Journal.' 1 The ordinary sources of information, 
will, as a rule, supply what might otherwise be thought lacking 
in this Edition, in which an attempt is made to supply the 
shortcomings of any former one, and it is thought equally 
superfluous to encumber these notes with what after all, can 
scarcely be said to elucidate the text. 

For the purpose of reference and identification, the 
figures used are those which mark the various entries, and the 
names of the several parishes are given in the modem and more 
generally accepted mode of spelling. ~\ 



267 

The parish Churches throughout the land, must have 
suffered considerably at the time of the Reformation. In 
the year 1559, commissioners were appointed "to establish 
religion," and the orders issued by them were carried 
into execution by "the common people," with great 
avidity. This was especially manifested in " beating 
down, breakinge and burninge images * * in many 
places, walls were rased, windows were dashed down, 
because some images (little regarding what) were painted 
on them. And not onely images, but rood lofts, relickes, 
sepulchres, bookes, banners, coopes, vestments, altar 
cloathes, were in diverse places, committed to the fire, 
and that with such shouting and applause of the vulgar 
sort, as if it had been the sacking of some hostile city." 
(Hay ward's Annals of Queen Elizabeth, pp. 28, 29). 
Proceedings of this disorderly nature, were probably of 
short duration, and did not reach anything like the 
height witnessed during the Great Rebellion, either in 
point of vehemence or continuance. 

The work of William Dowsing in Suffolk, of which 
an account is here given, extended from January Gth, 
1643, to October 1st, 1644. During this period upwards 
of one hundred and fifty places were visited in less than 
fifty days. The greatest apparent vigour was shewn in 
and near the Town of Ipswich, where in one day (Jan. 
29th, 1643) no less than eleven churches appear to have 
passed the fiery ordeal of the despoiler's wrath. No 
regular plan appears to have been followed, fancy and 
convenience seem alone to have led the way, although 
a centre where the choicest spoil was likely to be found, 
no doubt influenced Dowsing greatly in the principle of 
selection. Notwithstanding the excitement attending so 
strangely fascinating (!) a work, the long intervals of time 
that often elapsed between the several visits, whatever 
the cause may have been, seem to shew that the perform- 
ance at times really flagged. The work was in great 
part, executed in the months of January and February, 
and, with the slight exception of five days, drawn from 



268 

the ensuing months of March, July, September, and 
October, the undertaking may be said to have been 
wholly confined to the four months of January, February, 
April, and August. 

The number of churches — often rich in decoration 
and ornament, — in the districts visited, that were 
seemingly quite passed over, and as far as we know 
remained unmolested by Dowsing, is remarkable. With 
abundant exercise of power, and with no lack of help on 
the part of the appointed deputies and their adherents, 
to which the oft recurring and significant 'We,' gives 
expression, we should, if only the work had been con- 
tinuous and more systematic, have certainly looked for a 
wider range of ' objects,' and an amount of havoc, which 
would have caused the details related above, to sink 
into comparative insignificance. Probably Dowsing's 
presence was required elsewhere on a similar errand, 
and certainly his ' Journal ' in the form bequeathed to us, 
gives but a partial account after all, of the task committed 
to Dowsing and his associates. There are in Suffolk 
considerably over five hundred parishes, but little more 
than one third of the whole number, find any mention 
in the ' Journal.' At the same time it would be idle to 
attribute anything like the entire work of destruction, 
wrought during the period of the Rebellion, to Dowsing 
and his emissaries. The unrestrained violence of the rank 
and file of the Parliamentary party during periods of 
comparative leisure, doubtless accomplished what Dowsing 
in his moments of haste was scarcely able to perform. 
The profanation of the Sanctuary of God, by oft repeated 
acts of vandalism at subsequent periods, must have 
wrought no inconsiderable amount of damage, which is 
frequently and most inconsiderately, laid to the charge 
of Dowsing. Such spoilation, often under the garb of 
Church Restoration, &c, is constantly going on still, to 
the lasting disgrace of those, who can scarcely be held 
so free from blame as even William Dowsing and his 
Deputies. The latter, although clearly guilty of extreme 



269 

wantonness, have at least something to urge, which in their 
own minds at any rate, would justify such conduct, 
heinous as it is. It seems necessary to say this much, in 
order to remove any misapprehension which may exist, 
with regard to the present state of much of the ancient 
work in many of our Churches, and especially as to the 
origin of the evil we so much deplore. 

SUDBURY. It will be observed that the first 
entries in the l Journal,' having reference to the three 
Sudbury parishes of St. Peter, St. Gregory and All Saints, 
stand by themselves in a kind of isolation, and that the 
acts there recorded, were perpetrated three days after 
those of which an account is given in the entries 1 — 5 
which follow. The cause for this is not clear : if not a 
mere whim, it may perhaps be attributed to pure acci- 
dent, anyhow the precise arrangement does not seem to 
possess any real significance. 

ST. PETER'S. "A picture of God the Father."— 
There is frequent allusion to such a representation, 
generally it may be assumed in the stained glass of the 
windows, which Dowsing ' brake down.' Mediaeval art 
was somewhat partial to this most objectionable form of 
caricature, which found its way into the books of devotion, 
as well as the painted glass frescos, carvings both of 
wood and stone, etc., that adorned the Churches. This 
class of pictorial imagery can certainly be well spared, 
and on no ground whatever ought we to lament the 
destruction of that which can only tend to debase the 
Deity. The very conception of the idea, seems lowering 
to the mind, while the actual representation is nothing 
less than an outrage upon all true religious feeling, 
against which we feel we must instinctively rebel. 

"2 Crucifix's j and Pictures of Christ." — Of all mediaeval 
art subjects, the representation of Christ our Lord under 
a variety of forms, and especially as seen in the great event 
of the crucifixion, is the most frequent. Such representa- 
tions, whatever may be said for or against them, have 



270 

frequently minstered to superstition and idolatry ; the 
belief that such is the case, is however, by no means 
universal, but in former days men thought differently, 
and, as a rule, the balance of opinion was decidedly 
in favour of retaining them. Bishop Sandys, in his 
letter to Peter Martyr, April 1, 1560 (Zurich Letters, 
First Scries, p. 34), says, "the Queen's Majesty con- 
sidered it not contrary to the Word of God, nay 
rather for the advantage of the Church, that the image 
of Christ crucified, together with those of the Virgin 
Mary and St. John should be placed as heretofore in 
some conspicuous part of the Church, where they might 
the more readily be seen by all the people,"* but, with 
praiseworthy boldness he adds, "some of us (Bishops) 
thought far otherwise." In the eyes of the Puritans 
they became so obnoxious, that a speedy destruction 
followed their discovery. 

11 A cross off the Steeple and diverse angels on tie roof" 
might well have remained unmolested; the beauty of 
the roof must have been considerably enhanced by the 
presence of the latter, whilst the Church fabric in losing 
the cross could not be said to be improved. Such 
destruction may be denominated 'thorough,' but it may be 
more properly regarded as the work of reckless fanatics. 
In reply to a request made by Mr. Wodderspoon, in 
the year 1843, Mr. Gr. W. Fulcher wrote, concerning the 
mischief wrought by Dowsing in connection with the 
Sudbury Churches, that the remains of Do wsing's painted 
angels were discovered in 1825, when the workmen 
were employed in paving the town. Also directly 
opposite the Church, a large quantity of stained glass 
was found broken into very small pieces, but these frag- 
ments, beneath the men's pick-axes, became " beautifully 
less "; what remained has been lost to the town. Mr. 
Fulcher added "about 10 years ago, when the walls 
were scraped, preparatory to whitewashing them, sundry 
paintings in fresco of Saints and Angels were brought to 

* The allusion is of course to the well-known rood-loft arrangement. 



271 

light, just over the rood-loft, which were doubtless 
objects of devout invocation in the olden time, and would 
provoke the unmitigated wrath of Master Dowsing." 

ALL SAINTS. (' alhallows') " took up 30 brazen 
superstitious Inscriptions" Perhaps there is no single 
feature of Dowsing's work of so reprehensible a character 
as that which concerns the destruction of monuments, 
and especially the sepulchral brasses. The parliamentary 
visitor carried out his designs without reverence for the 
deceased, with scarce a thought for the living, and certainly 
regardless of posterity. An unfortunate ' orate pro animaf 
1 or a pro nobis,' or ' cujus animce propitietur Deusf sealed the 
fate of these interesting memorials of the dead, and 
thus it was that brasses, which at one time existed in 
such profusion, perished to so large an extent. Weever's 
work on Funeral Monuments, which gives very full 
information upon the subject, and contains the inscrip- 
tions found on the sepulchral brasses, etc., is the result 
of an examination personally made in the year 1631, 
twelve years prior to Dowsing's visit.* It is hence a 
reasonable supposition, that the brass inscriptions noted 
by Weever, which might be in any way deemed super- 
stitious, were reived by Dowsing and his colleagues. 
This receives undoubted confirmation upon a comparison 
of the earliest church notes subsequently made. 

1. HAVERHILL. (' haver l ') " Seven Fryars hugging 
a Nunn" It is difficult to say what so strange a picture 
really was intended to represent. At first sight it might 
appear to be a gross exaggeration of some legendary or 
other story, depicted — so charity should incline us to 
think, — for the purpose of inflaming the devotion of the 
people, and not calculated to endanger the moral sense. 
But it was undoubtedly the work of the ' seculars,' who 
lost no occasion of shewing their dislike of the ' regulars,' 
and many of our Churches still give evidence of this in 
the ancient carved work now remaining. A picture of 

* The shadows cast by corning events in all probability influenced Weever to undertake 
this useful work, in which he was followed by Sir William Dugdale and others. 



272 

like character to the above, is to be seen among the 
illustrated Manuscripts in the British Museum (Decretals. 
10 E iv. f. 185 b.) where a monk is represented embracing 
a nun. In the following ff. 187, 187 b., the same Monk 
and Nun are together in the stocks ! Perhaps the most 
determined ' Dowsing hater,' ought to be grateful to that 
em-worthy for the removal of so incongurous a subject 
from a parish church. 

"200 (superstitious pictures) had been broke clown 
before I came.'''' It is plain from this and other similar 
allusions, that an infuriated populace, released from the 
bands of law <aid order, had preceded Dowsing in the 
endeavour to efface and demolish every vestige of 
superstition, without apparently calling into exercise any 
nice feelings of discernment as to what did or did not 
constitute an object of superstition. Certain portions of 
old stained glass remain here still. 

" We beat down a great stoneing Cross on the top of the 
Church" Undoubtedly a gable or pinnacle Cross of 
Stone, such as is to be found ornamenting the different 
parts of a Church exterior. I have elsewhere,* in my 
paper on u The l Stoneing ^ Cross of Dowsing J s Journal" 
inquired into the precise meaning and application of the 
term ' Stoneing Cross ' (which epithet has for a long time 
awakened some amount of interest), and I have there 
adduced examples in support of my contention as to a 
more restricted use, than that applied to it in the 
' Journal.' 

2. CLARE, " We brake doivn 1000 Pictures super- 
stitious" &c. The stained glass in this Church must 
have been both rich and abundant, and the pictorial 
effect grand in the extreme, especially when it is 
remembered that Dowsing passed over glass having 
armorial bearings. The Chancel which had fallen down, 
was rebuilt in the years 1617 and 1618, and the glass 
then inserted in the windows contained the names and 
arms of the several benefactors, which were rather 

* Proceedings Suff : Inst : of Arch : Vol. vi. , pp. 1-8. See also Vol. vi. , pp. 88, 89. 



273 

numerous. As Tylletson saw these when he visited the 
Church in 1658, it is clear that Dowsing did not put forth 
a hand to touch them. 

"3 o/ the Holy Ghost like a Dove ivith ivings." The 
emblem of a Dove, with which we are familiar as repre- 
senting the Holy Spirit, apparently somewhat exercised 
Dowsing's mind, the three however which he found, 
he " brake down." 

" 20 Chernbims to be taken doivn." The Cherubims 
would be represented as heads merely, with two, four, 
or six wings. " The Sun and the Moon # * to be 
taken down." Dowsing could scarcely have been ignorant 
enough to suppose that there was the slightest danger of 
the Churchmen of his day, becoming worshippers of the 
Sun and Moon, but the desire for a clean sweep of every- 
thing emblematic, and therefore superstitious, (!) probably 
was the cause of the order. 

One point in connection with the " Journal," which 
is deserving of special notice, is the scrupulous exactness 
with which the various details are throughout recorded ; 
this is especially marked in connection with the numerical 
portion of the entries. 

3. HUNDON (hunden), " We gave order for the 
levelling the Steps." This forms as might be expected, a 
prominent feature in Dowsing's work. Seven or eight 
years previously the order had gone forth to raise the 
Chancels, then it afterwards became a perfect rage to 
throw them down. Facilis est descensus. 

4. WIXOE (wixo). 

9. HOLTON? (HOUGHTON). 

10. BARHAM, "A Lamb with a Cross x on the 
back" would correspond with that which in the Clare 
entry Dowsing terms " The Holy Lamb," the Agnus 
Dei * a frequent device found in ancient Christian Art, the 
earliest known representation of this emblem of the 
Saviour is in the Catacombs, and probably dates from the 
Fourth Century. 

* See also No. 29 Rushmere. 

LI 



274 

" 4 superstitious inscriptions of brass, one of them, Sfc." 
Several stones have had the brasses abstracted. One of 
these shews ejaculatory labels to have issued from the 
mouths of a male and female figure, probably having the 
very words here mentioned by Dowsing. 

13. EYKE (yke). 

14. TUNSTALL (dunstall), " Broke in pieces the 
Rails." An act quite on a par with pulling down the 
Chancel Steps. Where found, the one would surely follow 

\ h f* o1" n f*v 

15. ' ALDBOROUGH, " Their Captain, Mr. 
Johnson," may have reference to a party organized 
for the purpose of furthering the interests of the Parlia- 
mentarians, and having a duly appointed leader or 

' Caf) tain . ' 

18. STANSTED, occurs again (see No. 119) 
Probably sternfield is intended here, it is nearer to 
Saxmundham and Snape. 

20. KELSALE (kelshall). 

21. CARLTON (carleton). 

23. STRATFORD ST. ANDREW (stratford). 

25. SUDBOURNE (sudburne). 

27. WOODBRIDGE. The superstitious pictures 
were probably in connection with the rood-loft and 
screen, erected by John Albrede and Agnes his wife — 
"whereupon the pictures of the Cross, Crucifix, the 
Virgin Mary, of Angels, Archangels, Saints and Marters, 
are figured to the Life ; which how glorious it was when 
all standing may be discerned by that which remaineth." 
Weever. — This rood, now removed, had drawings made of 
it by Johnson, of Woodbridge, previous to demolition; 
they were sold to Nicholls f l Gentleman' ] s Magazine' ) for 
fifteen guineas. 

30. CHATTISHAM (chatsham\ "Nothing to he 
done." " Had the worthy Squire at the Hall been 
beforehand with him ? This was Daniel Meadows, of 
Chattisham, 1577 — 1651. (' Suffolk Bar 'tholomeans''), pp. 
7, 8. 



275 

32, COPDOCK, " Did deface a Cross on the Font." 
The slight mention of damage done to Fonts, which 
frequently had subjects carved upon them, and some- 
times inscriptions, that must have given great offence, is 
rather remarkable. We constantly hear " Dowsing's 
chisel " blamed, for hacking and defacing what there is 
certainly no record of his having been instrumental in 
accomplishing. Considering Dowsing's accuracy, and 
evident desire above all else, to relate his doings very 
fully, the guilt of bringing our (Suffolk Church Fonts (as 
is so often the case) into their present forlorn condition, 
may be attributed to other hands than his. The Font 
at Copdock, which is Octagonal, having on its panels 
Angel and rose alternately, is much mutilated. 

33. BELSTEAD, " Brake down 7 superstitious 
Pictures" These were probably in glass : some small 
portions I believe still remain, including the head 
(apparently) of an Apostle, which is almost entire. At 
least one brass has it label reived. Dowsing's u fyc" 
may include inter alia damage done to the rood-screen, 
the portion now remaining having the faces of the figures 
mutilated. 

IPSWICH. ST. MARY AT THE QUAY (key). 
The good open timber nave roof at this Church has been 
almost entirely denuded of the figures that formerly 
ornamented the hammer beams ; those which remain are 
much mutilated. Here again the rude axe of Dowsing is 
held responsible for this atrocious work, but there is no 
allusion to it in his ' Journal.' Neither again does he 
mention the destruction of superstitious inscriptions, for 
several fine brasses have been reived. The celebrated 
Pownder Brass may have escaped, having no super- 
stitious inscription, although it probably was overlooked 
by Dowsing, as owing to the devotional attitude of the 
figures, and the emblems of the Evangelists in the four 
corners, it could scarcely have been deemed unworthy of 
attention. 

ST. MATTHEW'S. " We brake dmn 35 superstitious 



276 

Pictures" Sfc. These may have been wholly of glass, 
but some at least, probably formed part of the interesting 
parclose screen now in the vestry, consisting of three double 
panels, painted and gilt, and representing St. Erasmus 
and other male and female figures ; the latter are 
apparently pictured to represent the sisters of St. 
Erasmus' Guild. 

" 3 Angels with Stars on their Breasts" most likely 
taken down from the ancient Nave roof, which has 
wholly disappeared. 

ST. MARY AT THE TOWER. The brasses now 
remaining' must have escaped Dowsing' s notice. 

ST. ^MARGARET'S. "There was 12 Apostles in 
Stone taken doivn." These were probably dethroned 
from the Church exterior, which was highly ornamented. 

u Between 20 and 30 superstitious pictures to be taken 
down." By the frequent expression ' taken downf the 
supposition is that the objectionable pictures existed in 
the windows. Many mural paintings were formerly 
here. A fine St. Christopher has been only recently 
blotted out. No old stained glass remains. No 
mention is made of the glorious roof, covering the 
nave. The numerous figures once occupying the place 
of supporters to the hammer beams have been sawn 
away, and others have been decapitated, but the 
cornice, which has upon it the emblems of the Passion, 
etc., has only very partially suffered from harsh treat- 
ment of this kind. The unique octagonal Font has 
been most roughly used. Dowsing does not allude to 
it, which makes it probable that a greater part of the 
mischievous work that characterized this period, had 
been previously enacted. The 'godly man] as Dowsing 
terms the individual, who at the time was Churchwarden, 
most likely had something to do with the horrible mutila- 
tion which this Font has undergone, and its former 
position, placed with one of its faces against the wall, near 
the South entrance, probably saved a part of the interest- 
ing inscription— sal ft Saltba — appearing on the scrolls 
borne by angels. 



277 

43. ST. LAWRENCE. The depredations which 
had previously been committed here, are exemplified in 
the return, from which the following is taken, made in 
obedience to the King's command a.d., 1547 : — 

" Item we have in our Churche and chancell ix glas wyndows of 
fajned story se contrary to the king's majesties injouncions whiche we 
have bargayned for to be glaced w' whyght glas ffor the wiche Ave haue 
payd and must paye for the said glas xij u 

A mistake is often made in hastily attributing such works 
of destruction to the period of the Great Rebellion. 

44. ST. CLEMENTS. " The// four days before had 
beaten up" fyc. This probably has reference to the 
virulence of the Parliamentary party, who had a strong 
following in Ipswich. 

45. At elens ('ELMS'). So it is printed in the 
' Journal ' as hitherto printed, and drawn forth the 
remark, that it may refer to a second visit to St. Mary at 
Elms, or, Qitere, St. Helens ? The reference is of course 
to the latter, which was constantly written, as it is indeed 
sometimes now spoken by working-class people, ' elens.' 

47. BLAKENHAM MAGNA (< blakenham at the 
water'). " Gave them 8 days to do it." Such work as 
levelling chancel steps, &c, which it was impossible to 
carry into immediate execution, was generally ordered 
to be done in the least possible time ; the position of 
affairs fully warranted the belief that delay was dangerous. 

48. BR AM FORD. " We brak dotvn 841 superstitious 
Pictures." The great proportion of this very large 
number was probably in glass. The handsome exterior 
of this church still retains several remarkable stone 
carvings, chiefly marking the contest between the 
"regulars" and the "seculars"; it is strange that even 
these were allowed to remain. 

52. HADLEIGH. " gave order for taking dotvn the 
rest " f pictures J. Probably this was never wholly carried 
out, for a large number of u superstitious pictures" (Virgin 
and Child, &c.) were found among the stained glass in 
the early part of the last century. 



278 

55. HIGHAM, " the Church so called:' This mode 
of expression serves to give some idea of the spirit in the 
whole undertaking was carried out. See (58) capel and 

(61) STOWMARKET. 

57. WHENHAM PARVA, " One picture, was of the 
Virgin Mary." From some cause or another the mention 
of such representations is not so frequent as might have 
been expected. 

58. CAPELL. " The Lath) Unices ChapelV Thus 
we see that Parish Churches were not alone in experienc- 
ing the stroke of the scourge which the Iconoclast 
wielded. Whether Dowsing did not really overstep the 
boundary line in such interference with the rights of a 
private person, may be questioned. But perhaps, as a 
Chapel which formed part of a private establishment, 
was usually licensed by the Bishop, it might be therefore 
deemed a "place of publique prayer." The ready 
compliance of "the Lady" (awed into submission prob- 
ably by 'Master Dowsing and his troopers'), and the show 
of respect for her person, if not for her property, is 
noteworthy. 

60. BADLEY, " Mr. Dove promised to take down the 
rest?' This individual it would seem, with all the 
gentleness with which his name is associated, and per- 
haps with not a little of a distinctly opposite tendency, 
pleaded, at least, for a more convenient season, and thus 
averted to some extent the destroyers hand. 

61. STOWMARKET, " gave order to break doivn 
about 70 superstitious Pictures.'''' In the Churchwardens' 
Accounts for the year (1644) is the following entry : — 

" Laide out for the towne paide to ffyler for glassinge , ~ „ 

where the pictures were battered out 

This appears to have been but half the sum actually 
paid. The havoc which resulted from Dowsing's visit, 
as far as here recorded, was unfortunately only a part of 
the lamentable work of destruction which soon followed. 
Organ pipes, carved seat-ends, pinnacle cross, surplices, 
and tippet, &c, were all in turn given over to the 



279 

destroyer, who received payment for his work out of the 
Church funds. " Mr. Manning," (William) who promised 
to perform the task allotted to him by Dowsing, is 
mentioned by name in Hollingsworth's ' Stowmarket ' as 
one of several who opposed the compulsory loan levyed 
by King Charles. From Manning's descendents, Mr. 
Hollingsworth obtained an oil painting of Dr. Young, 
the puritanical Vicar of Stowmarket, and Tutor to John 
Milton. 

62. WETHERDEN, " Sr Edward Sittiard," read 
Sir Edward Sulyard, 

" 19 superstitious Inscriptions that weighed 65 pounds." 
This is the only time that the actual weight of the 
purloined brass is mentioned. The weight was probably 
taken in prospect of a ready sale. 

64. TOSTOCK ( ' tostick ' ) 

65. BURY ST. EDMUNDS ('st. makyV). "Mr. 
Chaplain." Thomas Chaplin, Esq 16 Justice of the Peace 
for Bury, and the County of Suffolk. 

66." St. james'. " Mr Moody" Samuel Moody, 
Esq., of Bury St. Edmund's. His daughter Margaret 
was the wife of that ' godly man ' previously referred to, 
Mr. Thomas Westliorp of Hunden. 

67. KE>JTFORD ('kinford'). 

69. CORNARDMAGNA('comearthmagna'). "John 
Pain, Churchwarden, for not pa/jing, Sfc." Stout hearted John 
Pain, who rather than lift a finger to destroy, or pay one 
farthing in aid of so outrageous a work as the dismantling 
of the church, of which he was the legally appointed 
custodian, was content to be hauled before the Earl of 
Manchester by the parish constable, and to suffer the 
pains and penalties of the default. Where not otherwise 
mentioned, it may be taken for granted that the appointed 
'fee' of 6s. 8d. (a Noble) was duly paid, however 
reluctantly. Here it was refused point blank ! 

70. CORNARD PARVA ('little comearth'). 
" Had no Noble." From some cause or other the required 
fee was not forthcoming. 



280 

71. STOKE NAYLAND (< nayland').* 

73. Mr. Thomas ffumber field ^ 

74. BURESST.MARY('bueks'). " At Mr. <ap l 
Waldcgrave 1 s Chappel." This chapel was either annexed 
to the church, or far more probable at the mansion of the 
family known as " Smallbridge" 

75. BURES (' buers'). The fine brasses of the 
noble family of Waldegrave were once very numerous : 
they have now entirely disappeared, and the church has 
been thoroughly l cleansed ! ' 

77. GLEMSFORD (< glensfoed '). 

78. OTLEY. " Moses with a Bod, and Aaron with a 
Mitre, taken down." This sufficiently shews the determina- 
tion to take away every kind of pictorial representation, 
albeit the Christian Church lias never shewn the slightest 
inclination to render any form of worship to Moses and 
Aaron. Probably such figures were of a date subsequent 
to the Reformation. 

79. MONEWDEN (< mullenden >). 

81. LETHER1NGHAM. "He took;' Sfc. The 
reference here and elsewhere is to Dowsing's deputy. 
The payment of the " 6s. 8d." is now mentioned with 
something like regularity. 

84. HELMINGHAM. "Adam and Eve to be 
beaten down." Another instance that Biblical story was 
counted on a par with the legendary fable that tended 
to foster superstition. 

86. BEYTON('baytonbull'). The 'Bull' probably 
was the ' Inn ' at which the Deputy sojourned, and 
perhaps held his ' Court !' but no such Inn ' sign ' is now 
found in the parish. 

87. CRATFIELD(?)orBEDFIELD(?) ('kayfield.') 
An old MS. copy of the Journal reads " My Deputy broke 
down divers pictures and I have done the rest" which is 
really but an expansion of Dowsing's imperfect wording. 
However successful in his marauding, the l Journal ' is 
certainly not a literary success ; of this fact there is 
repeated evidence. 

* See No. 7. t See Note at the end of the Journal. 



281 

90. BRUNDISH. u The Vicar have 2 Livings." 
The only instance adduced in the ' Journal ' of a plurality 
of benefices. 

91. WILBY. " The Whip and Pincers and Nails 
that was at Christs crucifying." The emblems of the 
Passion, so frequently found represented in our Churches 
are thus referred to. 

92. STRADBROKE. " Pray for such out of your 
charity" is an unusual form for such words as these to take. 
The mention of " organs ivhich I brake" seems to imply 
the existence here at this time of the antiquated ' payre ' 
of instruments. (See also Ufford.J 

95. CHEDISTON ('cheston,' or Chediston). 

96. HALESWORTH ('hallisworth'). 

97. RED1SHAM MAGNA (< redsham magna '), "The 
parson * * preach but once a day.' 7 A state of things 
apparently less common in the year 1643 than a hundred 
years later, when it was not an unknown thing for one 
service to suffice for a fortnight in this locality. 

98. RINGSFIELD (< reginfield '). 

99. BECCLES. " Jehovah 1 s between Church and Chan- 
cel; and the Sun over it" (i.e. Chancel). The 'Jehovah's,' 
if indeed the expression be correctly given, were probably 
some form of that Divine name figured in connection 
with the rood loft : it may be that the Hebrew word was 
employed. 

100. ELLOUGH («elough»). 

101. SOTTERLEY ('saterly'). 

102. BENACRE. The decorations at this church 
seem to have been profuse, and judging from the other 
entries here made, of a rather uncommon character. 
The blotted MS. leaves us in doubt as to a portion of the 
entry, but it is worthy of notice that the Incumbent is 
alluded to as " Priest of the parish." 

103. COVEHITHE ('cochie'), commonly called 
"cothie," otherwise "North Hales." ' We brake down 
* * the pope with divers Cardinals.'' The only mention 
throughout the ' Journal ' of anything precisely of this 

Ml 



282 

character. These were perhaps mural paintings, towhich 
the expression " brake down" must occasionally be held 
to apply. 

11 Divers Pictures in the Windows, which we could not 
reach, neither would they help us to raise the ladders." That 
strong resistance was frequently shewn by the parishioners 
is evident, if they could not quite frustrate the designs 
of those making onslaught upon their Parish Church, 
they would be no party to the actual work of destruction. 
The church is now a picturesque ruin. 

104. RUSHMERE (near Lowestoft). " We brake 
doivn a Pot for Holy Water. ," There are several allusions 
of this kind in subsequent entries. 

106. FROSTENDEN, The little bit of 'narrative' 
here is unique, and doubtless duly impressed Dowsing 
with a high sense of his mission, and of the desirability 
of leaving ' neither root nor branch.'' 

107. SOUTH COVE (Cove Magna) ('coe.') There 
has been some little doubt as to which of the two parishes 
(North or South Cove) is here meant. That the ' steps ' 
which are said to have been ' digged up ' still remain at 
North Cove, apparently undisturbed from that time to 
the present, is conclusive as to South Cove, and as the 
latter parish adjoins the parish of Frostenden, and 
Rayden — between which two entries in the ' Journal ' 
1 Coe ' stands, — and North Cove being some miles distant, it 
may be taken for granted that the parish is ' South Cove.' 

109. SOUTHWOLD. It is a matter of surprise 
that so much beautiful decorative work has been allowed 
to remain. The Church exterior still carries enriched 
crosses on its battlements, elaborate tracery with grotesque 
carved work, &c, while the interior, with the beautiful 
rood screen paintings of the Apostles, the sculpture which 
adorns the Lady Chapel (angels, evangelists, &c.) and 
the parclose screens furnishes a remarkable instance of a 
"brand," (in some way or another,) " plucked from the 
burning." 

110. WALBERSWICK. A fine ruined church. 



283 

112. BLYTHBOROUGH (< blyborough.') A 

grand church made desolate by repeated acts of vandalism. 

Although Jessop, the deputy, had the task apparently 

allotted to him, yet we find from the Churchwardens' 

accounts, that ' Master Dowsing ' was actually before him. 

The following entries having reference to this visit, are 

singularly corroborative of that made in the 'Journal:' — 

1644 April 8th. Paid to Master Dowson that came with] 

the Troopers to our Church, about the taking!- 6s. 
down of Images & Brasses off the Stones. 

Paid that day to others for taking up the Brasses^ , 
of Gravestones before the Officers of Dowson came/ s ' 

(Qy. for Concealment ?) 

And the next day to Edwards & Pretty taking \ R , n , 
down 26 Rheils - J bs ' 1UcL 

Rec d this 6'. h day of January 1644 from out of] 
the Churche, 40 pounds Weyght of Brasse, at J- lis. 8d. 
three pence Halfpenny per pound - - J 

The pre-Reformation references to the ornaments 3 
&c, existing in this church, witness to the profuse 
liberality shewn in providing ' things superstitious.' 

113. DUNWICH. The churches now submerged. 
St. Peter's was lost in the year 1702, and All Saints 
(Allhallows) was dismantled in 1754. 

116. HEVENINGHAM (< heviningham'). 

118. BOXTED ('boxtead'). 

120. LAXFIELD. " The steps to be done by William 
Doivsing of the same Town." It must not be supposed that 
the Dowsing' s were inferior people so far as worldly status 
went (see Introduction), or that manual labour or anything 
of the kind was required of ' William Dowsing of the 
same town,' in the matter of the steps. It is just such 
another allusion as that under (115) Bramfield, were the 
steps were " to be levelled by Sr Robert Brook." 

121. TRIMLEY (' trimbly ') St. Martin. " There 
was a Fryar, with a shaven crown 'praying to God. v A 
praying Monk, hooded and tonsured was the no uncom- 
mon adornment to a bench end, where this ' Fryar ' was 
probably found. 



284 

124. UFFORD. " We brake doivn the Organ cases 
and gave them to the poor" Such kind consideration for 
the poor was apparently restricted to a gift of firewood ; 
what was of real value seems to have entered some other 
channel. 

" On the Roof above a 100 Jesus and Mary in great 
capital letters" A large number of these are still to be 
seen. 

" A glorious cover over the Font, fyc" Even the harsh 
eye of Dowsing could appreciate ' a thing of beauty.' 
This Font Cover is one of the finest specimens in the 
kingdom, and certainly receives only its due meed of 
praise, when it is referred to as ' glorious.' It is, all 
things considered, in a marvellous state of preservation, 
and the hand of the would-be destroyer seems to have 
paused, ere it ventured to strike a blow, and the Cover 
was spared. In several places the delicate tracery has 
been renewed, but it appears to have beeu done owing 
to decay, rather than wantonness. The lower panels of 
the rood screen, with painted figures, still remain. 
Bearing in mind the persistency of the Church and 
parish officials in thwarting Dowsing in the accomplish- 
ment of his purpose, we cannot but wonder that when he 
"carried away part of the Church "(!) he should have 
left so much behind, if not absolutely untouched, yet 
but little the worse for so portentous a visit. 

127. SOMERSHAM ('summeksham'). 

128. FLOWTON ('floughton'). 

130. OFFTON ('ofton.') "At Ipswich, at Mr. 
CoUys." Probably the name should be that of Mr. Jacob 
Caley, who was elected in 1643 by the "Twenty-four" 
to be one of that body of Town Governors, and after- 
wards filled the office of Claviger and Guildholder. 

132. YYTLLISHAM (< willesham.') " The Steps 
were levelled ; and had so been once before, by a Lord Bishop's 
Injunction; and by another Lord Bishop after commanded" 
&.G. The latter has reference to the action of Bishop 
Matthew Wren in causing an ascent to be made to the 



285 

Communion Table in the parish Churches throughout 
the Diocese, generally of three steps. 

133. DARMSDEN ('damsden.') 

135. MICKFIELD. " The glasses to be made up" 
&c. It would appear that the window glass was ordered 
to be carefully preserved, instead of being ' battered 
down '; this seems to be a just inference. If too super- 
stitious to remain, why was the glass accounted worthy 
of preservation?! Anyhow there is here a pleasing 
variation from the recognized principle, for the poor were 
to have 10s. and the rest afterwards! Whether this 
latter sum amounted to 4s. 6d. or whether the 4s. 6d. 
mentioned may not be regarded as the amount paid to 
the visitors by the parish, is uncertain, owing to the 
ambiguity of the entry. 

137. ATHELINGTON (< allington.') 

138. WORLINGWORTH (< walling worth.') 

139. HOLTON. " I + H'+ S the Jesuits Badge." 
A very hard and uncalled for epithet to be applied to 
this ancient monogram, signifying Jesus Hominum Salvator, 
which really is of Greek, (I H C the first three letters of 
the Greek jesus) and not Latin origin. (See also (146) 
metfield, and Jessop's work at gorleston.) 

144. OCCOLD ('ockold.') 

145. RISHANGLES (< russingles.') 

147. DENNINGTON ('dinnington.') " S r John 
Bouses Stool." The seat or stall occupied by Sir John. 



" Thomas TJiixberfield of stoke," &c. The Chapel for 
which Thomas Umberfield was held responsible, was that 
appertaining to Henry, Lord Windsor, of Bradnam, in the 
County of Buckingham, through his marriage with Anne, 
only daughter of Sir Thomas Revett, Knt. 

It would appear that many brasses (and of course 
divers other goods and ornaments) being spared by those 
authorized to demolish them, were subsequently taken 
away or destroyed by the soldiery during the Common- 



286 

wealth. Evelyn, in his Diary, alluding to a visit made 
by him to Lincoln in 1 654, says — 

" The souldiers had lately knocked off most of the brasses from 
the gravestones (in the Cathedral) so as few inscriptions were left ; they 
told us that these men went in with axes and hammers, and shut them- 
selves in, till they had rent and torn off some large loads of metal, not 
sparing even the monuments of the dead, so hellish an avarice possessed 
them." 

Good Bishop Hall, of Norwich, draws a sad picture 
in his " Hard Measure" of the lamentable workings of 
the l Spirit of the age.' He says, in the well known 
passage (p. lxvi) : — 

" What work was here. What clattering of glasses ! What beating 
down of walls ! What tearing up of monuments ! What pulling down of 
seats ! What wresting out of irons and brass from the windows and 
graves ! What defacing of Arms ! What demolishing of curious stone- 
work, that had not any representation in the world, but only of the coat 
of the founder, and the skill of the Mason ! What tooting and piping 
upon the destroyed organ pipes ! And what a hideous triumph on the 
market-day before all the country ; when, in a kind of sacrilegious and 
profane procession, all the organ pipes, vestments, both copes and 
surplices, together with the leaden cross which had been newly sawn 
down from over the Green-yard Pulpit, and the service books and 
singing books that could be had, were carried to the fire in the public 
market place ; a lewd wretch walking before the train, in his cope 
trailing in the dirt, with a service-book in his hand, imitating in an 
impious scorn the tune, and usurping the words of the litany used 
formerly in the Church. Near the Public Cross, all these monuments 
of idolatry must be sacrificed to the fire ; not without much ostentation 
of a zealous joy, in discharging ordnance, to the cost of some, who 
professed how much they had longed to see that day." 

Two extracts from Blomefield's History of Norfolk) 

will give some idea of a similar work carried out in that 

county, and will complete the picture, as pourtrayed by 

William Dowsing: — 

"In 1644 — April 7 th ' Captain Gilley was paid 6/- by the town for 
viewing the Church of Bressingham to abolish superstitious pictures, 
and immediately after, John Nunn was paid for two days work for 
taking down glass and pictures about the Church and filing the lettei's 
off the bells, and it was plain there were many effigies and arms for the 
glazing of the windows after this reformation came to .£2:6: 0. But 
though several of them were lost, some were preserved and put up in 
the hall windows, as the emblem of the Trinity, S' John, S t- Catherine, 



287 

the Virgin and S 1, Margaret, together with the arms of Verdon &c. 
The Church suffered much, for in 1644 £54 : 11 : 8 was raised by rate 
to put it in order, and to buy its ornaments of all which it was spoiled." 

Blomefieldp. 70. Vol. I. 

" In the time of the Rebellion, the Church (Fersfield) was purged 
of superstition by the rebels, who defaced the carvings of the heads of 
the seats, with their swords, and hacked the effigies of the bosses. 
What few brasses there were, were all reaved and several arms broken 
out of the windows, and the altar rails pulled down. The evidences, 
king's arms &c. were taken down previously by Mr. Piddock, Church- 
warden, who justly returned them at the Reformation." 

Blomefieldp. 112. Vol. i. 

In bringing the ' Notes ' to a conclusion, it is but 
fair to say, that throughout this unhappy period, the 
Church fabric always seems to have been respected, but 
the ruling idea all along, appears to have been to leave 
the building as bare of ornamentation as circumstances 
permitted, and expediency required. The disgraceful 
and often violent depredations, of which the ' Journal ' 
makes mention, were ostensibly wrought to extirpate 
idolatry. How far did this succeed ? It may well be 
questioned whether, supposing gentler modes of treat- 
ment had been used, the desired object would not have 
far more effectually brought about to the lasting good of 
both the Church and the Nation. That many foul abuses 
did exist, and greatly needed to be uprooted with a firm 
hand is unquestionable, as for instance the many forms of 
creature and image worship, and their numerous adjuncts, 
and other objects of superstitious adoration. But far too 
often the work undertaken by these Parliamentary Visitors 
was as needless and profane as it was melancholy and 
indecent, and fraught moreover with no good to the 
inner life of the Church, unless indeed it be. that the 
purification wrought by adversity, had her ' perfect work.' 



It only remains for me to summarize the contents of 
1 Journal,' and this I think can be best done by giving a 
short view of the districts traversed in the somewhat 
erratic course, and the time occupied in the whole under- 



288 

takmg, noting also the several districts of more or less 
importance, passed over by Dowsing, and his Deputies, 
at least so far as the entries in the ' Journal ' are con- 
cerned. 

Beginning on the Essex border Jan. 6th, 1643, 
the parishes of Haverhill, Clare, Hunden, Wixoe, and 
Withersdale, were visited, and after a break of three 
days, the town of Sudbury. An interval of ten days 
elapsed ere the work was resumed, when Stoke by 
Nayland and Nayland were taken, and two days after, 
leaving the western division, Ray don and Holton, (?) 
Barham, Claydon and Coddenham. The next day, Eyke 
and Tunstall were visited, followed the day after by a 
visit to Aldborough, the next day Orford, Snape and 
Stanstead, and the following day Saxmundham, Kelsale, 
Carleton, Wickham Market and Sudbourne. The day 
following, Ufford, Woodbridge, Kesgrave, and Rushmere. 
A day elapsed, when the last two days of the month of 
January were occupied in visiting Chattisham, Wash- 
brook, Copdock, Belstead, Ipswich (12 Churches) and 
Playford. 

On the 1st February Great Blakenham, Bramford, 
Sproughton, Burstall, and Hintlesham were visited. 
The next day, returning to West Suffolk, Hadlcigh, 
Layham, Shelley and Higham. The day following, 
having crossed the West Suffolk boundary, the Wenhams 
and Capel, including Lady Brevvse's Chapel, and turning 
northwards, Needham Market, Badley, Stowmarket, 
Wetherden, Elmswell, Tostock and Bury St. Edmund's. 
The next day Kentford and Newmarket, and after 
an interval of a fortnight, the two Cornards, and the 
day following iSlewton, Nayland, Assington and Stoke 
(Lord Windsor's Chapel). The next day but one, 
13ures. Three days after, Glemsford ; the day fol- 
lowing, Otley, Monewden, Hoo and Letheringham. 
The next day, Easton and Kettleburgh. The next 
day, Helmingham and Woolpit. The following day 
being March 1st, Beyton ; a month having elapsed, 



289 

Kayfield, Bedingfield, Tannington and Brimdish were 
visited, and the day following, Wilby, Stradbrooke, and 
Linstead Parva. The next da)^, Linstead Magna, Chedis- 
ton, Halesworth, Redisham Magna, and Redingfield, and 
the day following, Beccles, Elough, Sotterly, Benacre, 
and Covehithe. Two days after, Rushrnere, Mutford, 
Frostenden, South Cove, Raydon, Southwold, and perhaps 
Walberswick. The next and following day, Blyford, 
Blythburgh, Dunwich, Bramfield and Hevingham. Five 
days after, being April 15th, Polstead, Boxstead, and 
Stanstead. The work was not resumed until July 17th, 
when Laxfield (the supposed home of the Dowsing's) was 
officially visited. Five weeks later (August 2 1st) Trimley 
St. Martin, Brightwell, Levington, Baylham and Barking. 
The next day, Nettlestead, Somersham, Flowton, Elmsett, 
Ofton and Willisham, and the day following, Darmsden. 
Three days after, Wetheringsett, and Mickfield; the 
following day, Horham, Allington and Wallingworth. 
The next day, Wangford and Wrentham ; the day follow- 
ing, Holton, and the next day being 30th August, Hoxne, 
Eye, Occold, Rishangles, and Metfield. After an interval 
of nearly a month, (Sept. 26th) Dennington : the next 
day but one, Baddingham, and three days after, (Oct. 1st) 
the work was brought to a conclusion by a visit to 
Parham-Hatcheston. 

The Churches in the Hundreds of Mutford and 
Lothingland were visited by Jessop, the Deputy, and are 
almost entirely passed over in the ' Journal.' It seems 
likely that only those churches which Dowsing visited, 
either by himself or in company with the Deputy 
specially appointed for the work, are mentioned. Thus 
the town of Bungay, and also the parishes of Yoxford 
and Ringshall were presumably visited by Jessop and 
his subordinates, while he was apparently joined in the 
enterprise of despoiling Blythborough, which was (specially 
entrusted to him,) by his superior William Dowsing. 
Probably few, if indeed any suspected churches, were 
altogether passed by, although the entire number of 

Nl 



290 

churches in some of the l Hundreds ' are almost wholly 
unmentioned. This of course is specially the case with 
the ' Hundreds ' for which Deputies were appointed, as 
Lackford, (in which is included Wangford) Risbridge, (in 
which is included Clare), &c, &c. Hartismere, to which 
no special appointment seems to have been made, 
(although Francis Verden ' would have had it'), is poorly 
represented ; so also Claydon, Thingoe, Blackbourne, 
Wilford, &c, &c. Many of the churches omitted are 
among the most prominent ecclesiastical buildings of the 
county, and from what still remain of a like character, 
must have abounded with ornaments, etc., which would 
have been deemed, and in some cases were, really super- 
stitious. Anyhow they have suffered by mutilation and 
otherwise, equally with the rest. 

William Dowsing, with a disposition unworthy of 
respect, and apparently incapable of anything high and 
lofty, has bequeathed to us this sad and unworthy 
memorial of indiscreet zeal. While it produces within 
us a feeling of strong revulsion at such practices as his, 
and the bitter spirit of which they doubtless were largely 
born, it should also lead us to reflect, whether there may 
not be after all, some cause for fear, lest we and our 
descendents should desire and do the same things, which, 
have unfortunately caused the name of Dowsing to 
become famous. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



291 



An old MS. of Dowsing's Journal in private posses- 
sion, has the following variations, inter alia, from the 
generally received text. 

18. STANSTED, is written ' StemfieW 

87. "KAYFIELD, April 3rd, 1644. My deputy broke down 
divers pictures, and I have done the rest." 

94. Heads "Will. Aldice, Curate, and drunkard ffrancis Evered." 

109. "Thirty Cherubims." 

111. BLYFORD "twenty superstitious pictures" and "St. 
Andrew's cross in the window." 

114. " Twenty Cherubinis." 

137. ALLINGTON, " and Paul and another superstitious picture," 
in addition to those printed. 

Hi'. SS} both are written "Aug. the 29th." 



ERRATA. 

p. 249, line 20, for, dow an, read, down a. 

p. 272, line 7, for, incongurous, read, incongruous. 



Dowsing Pedigx-ees (see over). 



292 



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FOUNDATION DEED OF 
S. SAVIOUR'S HOSPITAL, BURY ST. EDMUND'S. 



Jocelin de Brakeloud tells us, that there were three 
things which were proofs of the great worthiness of his 
patron, Abbot Samson. One was the recovery of the 
manor of Mildenhall, which had been usurped by the 
Crown, since Edward the Confessor granted it to the 
convent, at the instance of Abbot Baldwin, that the monks 
might have better food. Another was the ejection of 
the Jews from the town of S. Edmund. The third was 
the foundation of the new hospital of Babbewell. This 
had taken place soon after the election of Samson to the 
abbacy in 1182, and it was confirmed by a grant from 
Pope Urban 3rd, whose reign was comprised between 
1185 and 1187. The original endowment was for a 
warden, twelve chaplains priests, six clerks, twelve poor 
gentlemen, and twelve poor women. The grant, how- 
ever, merely specifies the infirm and poor. The endow- 
ment therein mentioned was especially the tithes of the 
newly cultivated land at Redgrave and Rickinghall. To 
this was added shortly afterwards, the manor of Ickling- 
ham, which, forming part of that of Mildenhall, the 
convent had conceded to the Abbot for this purpose, in 
consideration of the trouble and expense he had incurred 
for the benefit of the community, in the recovery of the 
manor. Further additions were made to the endowment, 
one of the principal of which was that of two-thirds of 
the tithes of Melfbrd. Much interesting information, 
relative to this and to the hospital generally, will be 
found in Sir W. Parker's History of Melford. 



97 



The hospital appears to have been found very useful 
as a retreat for decayed chaplains, and as a provision for 
the relatives of the monks. In the former aspect it is 
seen in the foundation deed of the chapel of the charnel 
by Abbot John of Northwold in 1301, where he mentions 
his distress at seeing the bones of the dead scattered 
about, " non sine cordis angustia et vehementis doloris 
angaria," and piously resolved to build a chapel for their 
reception with two chaplains to serve therein. These when 
they became infirm, were to be taken into the hospital of 
y. Saviour, unless afflicted with contagious disease, in 
which case they were to be taken care of in the hospital 
of S. Peter or that of S. Nicholas. In the latter aspect, 
we find in 1389, Abbot Cratfield, at the instance of the 
Prior, granting an annual pension of 40s., in lieu of a 
corrody in the hospital of S. Saviour, to John Clement, 
of Navestock, a relative of the said Prior. The grant 
was under the seal of the Abbot, and that of Adam of 
Lakenheath, the warden of the hospital. The condition 
is added that so long as the religious man Dominus 
John de Gosford had the government of the Priory of 
the monastery of S. Edmund, or some other benefice of 
equal or greater value, the said John Clement was to 
receive nothing on account of the pension. Next year, 
however, he appears enrolled as the recipient of a weekly 
corrody. This was probably an external payment. In 
the year 1392, John Reve, of Pakenham, is admitted as 
an inmate on the following terms. He was to have his 
food and a chamber in the hospital for life, and to receive 
annually a garment, with one pair of stockings and one 
pair of shoes. In order to enable the funds to bear this 
charge the better, the hospitaller was to be allowed to 
retain in hand the corrody of one poor man for that 
period. A memorandum is added, that in consideration 
of this grant, John Reve is to pay to the hospitaller, 
towards the new fabric of the hospital, twenty-six marks 
by the hands of Robert Ashfield. 

This is an interesting entry, as it marks the time of 

Ml 



298 

a rebuilding of, or addition to, the hospital, part of which 
work still remains in the ruin of the entrance, which is 
of the period in question. 

In the same year the Abbot appears to have met 
with a troublesome inmate in John Lomb, with whom 
he not only had to go to law, but, what was worse, to 
withdraw his action and pay 30s., which John Lomb 
agreed to accept, in full of all demands against the 
Abbot, the Warden, and their respective predecessors in 
office. 

In the 30th year of Edward III., the king grants 
a charter of indemnity in case a corrody should be 
granted at the instance of the king. This appears to have 
been consequent upon a circumstance which had taken 
place in 1320, when there was a suit between the Crown 
and Abbot Draughton, at the instance of some of the 
townspeople, on the ground that Samson, as confessor to 
King Henry, had enjoined on him as a penance, the 
founding of this hospital, and that the advowson had 
remained with the Crown. A jury, however, gave a 
verdict in favour of the Abbot. 

The name of John Baret, of Cratfield, occurs in 
1399, as the recipient of a corrody. He was a relative, 
no doubt, of his namesake, who attained a very different 
position, and who has left us a most interesting record 
of the funeral ceremonies of the time in his Will dated 
1163, which will be found in Mr. Tymms' Bury Wills, 
edited by him for the Camden Society. 

S. Saviour's hospital, according to a legend for which 
the authority has yet to be found, was the scene of the 
murder of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. Bale, in his 
life of the Duke, asserts that, while attending the parlia- 
ment at Bury, he was seized during the night by William 
Pole, Duke of Suffolk and his accomplices, hired at a 
great price by Charles, King of the French, and by the 
rulers of England, and suffocated with pillows. Camden 
makes the Abbey itself the scene of the crime. It 
appears not improbable that the duke would be lodged 



299 

in some other building than that occupied by the Court, 
and S. Saviour's hospital would perhaps be considered 
the most suitable public building for the purpose. 

The existing remains of S. Saviour's hospital are small 
indeed. They consist of the lower part of the tower forming 
the entrance gateway. In the centre is the doorway, 
under a point arch of two orders plainly chamfered, and 
dying into a single chamfer at the spring. The arch 
has a label, and over this is a window of which only 
the sill and jambs remain. This probably lighted a 
chamber over the gateway. On each side of the front 
of the tower was a buttress set diagonally. The rough 
rubble work of the side walls shows that other buildings 
adjoined it. Possibly these may have been of stud 
work. The remains suggest the idea of a building of 
moderate proportions. No attempt has yet been made 
to investigate the foundations, and this work has now 
become more difficult through the erection of modern 
houses on part of the site. What remains will, it is 
hoped, be preserved, some members of the Suffolk 
Archaeological Institute having consented to raise the 
small sum of money required to make the ruin safe, on 
an undertaking by the Town Council, to whom the 
property now belong, to maintain the building for the 
future. 

By a happy coincidence, just as attention has been 
called to the subject, Canon Green well has found among 
his stores of MSS. what appears to be, if not the original 
grant by Abbot Samson for the foundation of the hospital, 
at least a very early repetition of it. Of this he has 
kindly furnished us with a transcript, which the members 
of the Institute will doubtless be glad to have preserved 
in the pages of the Proceedings. The deed is endorsed, 
in a contemporary had, " Confirmacio Samsonis Abbatis 
et Conuentus Sancti Edmuridi. De hospitali," and in a 
15th century handwriting, " Carta Sampsonis Abbatis et 
Conventus de prima fundacione Hospitalis Sancti Salua- 
toris in villa de Bury." In a still later hand (16th cent.) 
"Temp. Regis Johannis." 



300 

The endowment specified consists of the charge on 
the manor of Icklingham, two-thirds of the tithes of 
Melford, two-thirds of the demense tithes of Worling- 
worth, Sahara, Tilney, Elmswell, Elveden, Herringswell, 
Nowton and Cockfield, and in this last place the produce 
of two acres of wheat, rye, barley, and oats respectively. 
Also one-third of the demesne tithes of Pakenham, 
Runcton, Tivetshall, Oulford, Horningsherth, and Chels- 
worth. Also the whole tithes of the land newly taken 
into cultivation in Redgrave, and Rickinghall, and one- 
third of the tithes of the land reclaimed from the marsh 
at Tilney, near Lynn. Also the houses belonging to 
the Abbot, at Thetford, saving the payment of 2s. to 
the monks of the Priory there, and 12c/. to the Canons 
of S. George, whose house was subsequently converted 
into a nunnery. Among the witnesses to the document 
Herbert the Prior stands first, and next to him Hermer 
the sub-prior. How the former became Prior, and how 
Hermer was in the opinion of some the more eligible for 
the office, forms the subject of an amusing account in 
the pages of Jocelin. Jocelin himself stands sixth 
among the witnesses. Richard of Ickworth, Robert of 
Horningsherth, William of Wordwell, and possibly others, 
were amono; the knio-hts holding; fees under the Abbot. 
The deed appears to have passed through the hands of 
Mr. Yates, who lias figured the Abbey seal appended to it 
in his History of Bury. It is of vesica shape, and exhibits 
a seated figure of S. Edmund, holding in his right hand a 
sceptre tipped with a fleur de lis, and in his left an orb 
and cross. It is imperfect and only a few letters of the 
inscription remain. The seal of Abbot Samson is also 
attached, but a fragment only remains, the head and 
mitre. This seal, however, is given in its perfect state 
as the frontispiece to Jocelin de Brakelond, issued by 
the Camden Society. 

Beckford Bevan. 



301 

Uniuersis Sancte Matris ecclesie filiis ad quos presens scriptutn 
peruenerit Salutem. Sanson Dei Gracia Abbas Sancti Eadmundi et totus 
conuentus ejusdem loci eternam in Domino salutem. Nouerit uniuersitas 
uestra nos unanimi assensu et voluntate pro salute Domini Johannis 
illustris Regis Angiie et pro redemptione animarum omnium predeces- 
sorum suorum Regum Angiie et nostrarum concessisse et dedisse in puram 
et perpetuam elemosinam Deo Patri et Sancto Saluatori locum ilium in 
quo hospitale quod dicitur Sancti Saluatoris situm est extra uillam Sancti 
Eadmundi ex parte aquilonali cum suis pertinentiis ad susceptionem 
pauperum Christi et languidorum pro necessitatibus et indigentiis suis 
ad predictum locum concurrentium. Preterea concessimus et dedimus 
prefato hospitali Sancti Saluatoris ad pauperum sustentationem xij libras 
argenti de villa nostra de Ykelingeham per manum Sacriste nostri 
annuatim percijoiendas. Necnon duas portiones ecclesie nostre de 
Meleford cum omnibus ad illas duas portiones pertinentibus. Preterea 
concessimus et dedimus eidem loco duas portiones dominicarum 
decimarum de Wirlingeword, de Saham, de Tileneie, de Elmeswelle, de 
Eluedene, de Heringgeswelle, de Newetune, de Cokefeld et in eadem 
villa de Cokefeld viii acras bladi annuatim, duas scilicet de frumento, 
duas de siligine, etnas de ordeo, duas de auena. Et in hiis villis nostris 
tertias portiones dominicarum decimarum de Pakeham, de Rungetune, 
de Tysteshalle, de Culeford, de Horinggeserd, de Chelesword. Conces- 
simus etiam eis omnes decimas nouorum assartorum in villis nostris de 
Redgraue, de Rihkinkeliale et tertiam poi'tionem decimarum de adquis- 
itione super mariscum in Tileneie. Domos etiam nostras de Teford cum 
omnibus pertinentiis saluo seruitio annuo monachorum, scilicet, ij solidis, 
et canonicorum xijd. Et ut hec nostra donatio et concessio rata sit et 
stabilis in perpetuum earn presenti scripto commendauimus et sigillorum 
nostrorum appositione corroborauimus. Hiis testibus. rierberto Priore 
Sancti Eadmundi, Hermero subpriore, Waltero sacrista, Gocelino celerario, 
Roberto camerario, Gocelino elemosinario, Willelmo et Ricardo capellanis, 
Willelmo de Gretingeham senescallo, Ricardo constabulario, Magistro 
Stephano, Magistro Rogero, Magistro Herueio, Magistro Alexandra, 
Magistro Gileberto, Benedicto de Blakeham, Ricardo de Ykewrde, 
Roberto de Horniggeserd, Willelmo cle Wridewelle, Alexandra fratre 
ejus, Gilleberto de stagno, Ricardo Romano, Salomone de Wethested, 
Alano de Stowe et multis aliis. 

Seal of monastery (imperfect) St. Edmund seated facing holding 
sceptre in right hand and globe in left. 

Seal of Abbot Samson, mere fragment, head wearing mitre. 



ON A RELIQUARY OR SHRINE, OF SUPPOSED 
ITALIAN WORKMANSHIP, 

IN THE POSSESSION OF MR. BUCHANAN SCOTT, IPSWICH. 

COMMUNICATED BY THE 

REV. C. H. EVELYN WHITE, Hon. Sec. 

A few days previous to the meeting of the Institute 
held in Ipswich, in the month of October, 1884, it came 
to my knowledge that a Reliquary or Shrine, of rare and 
exquisite workmanship, was in the possession of Mr. 
Buchanan Scott, of that town. It being an object well 
worthy of a place among the antiquities, &c, which 
were being gathered together as a kind of temporary 
museum on that occasion, I sought and immediately 
obtained the consent of Mr. Scott to have it placed 
among the exhibits. The most superficial glance is 
enough to convince even a mere sight-seer, that the 
Reliquary is a work of uncommon merit, and one more- 
over to which I think it extremely desirable that the 
attention of Antiquaries and others should be drawn. 
In order to a due appreciation of the object in question, 
a close and really minute inspection is necessary ; this 
at the time of its exhibition at the Ipswich meeting was 
quite impossible, and little more than a hurried glance 
was bestowed upon it. The evident pleasure with which 
the Reliquary was regarded, has led me to make a close 
examination of it, with the view of affording such 
further information as a paper of this kind I trust may 
be the means of imparting. 

Previous to coming into the hands of the present 
owner, the Reliquary was in the possession of a well- 
known Ipswich collector, the late Mr. William Cuthbert, 



303 

whose art treasures were little known during- his life, 
and it would appear that he had little knowledge of the 
value and importance of this Reliquary ; consequently no 
information is forthcoming as to its past history. The 
presence at the Ipswich meeting of several gentlemen of 
long and varied experience in matters of this kind, led 
me to hope that some light would at least be thrown upon 
the subject, but this I regret to say was not the case. 
Some few surmises as to its date and origin did not in 
the least tend to elucidation : the detailed account, which 
is here offered, may to some extent prove useful in this 
direction. 

The Reliquary, in its entirety, stands 21 inches 
high, and is 16 inches wide, with a depth of case and 
carving- of 4J inches. The case or framework, which pre- 
sents a front of classic design, is made of ebonized wood, 
with solid brass scroll castings at the top and sides, richly 
gilt. Below the cornice of the entablature, within the frieze, 
which is left quite plain, is an oval crystal of green colour, 
in a gilt setting. At the base of the case front there is a 
corresponding clear white crystal, only somewhat larger, 
in which are reserved the greater portion of the precious 
relics for which the case is the repository, and which the 
glorious work within is intended to honour. These 
consist of the merest fragments of the bones of seven 
departed Saints held in some reputation : they are 
mounted upon, what I am inclined to regard, a piece of 
some ecclesiastical vestment of a brick-dust or salmon 
colour, which is apparently ancient, and may itself have 
a history — real or supposed — more or less remarkable. 
Beneath each bony fragment, there is inscribed on a 
small scrap of paper, in italic letters, the names of the 
respective Saints, who while they were in the body, are 
supposed to have had these fragments as part and parcel 
of themselves. The names, &c, are thus arranged: — 
S. Concord S. Cosmi 

S. Ciriati S. Deodati S. Leonard 

S. Maximi S. Felicis 



304 

On the projection at the corners of either side, is a white 
crystal, small and round, also in a gilt setting. That on 
the left contains a fragment of bone, similar to those 
already mentioned, underneath which appears the name 
of 

S. Cristince. 

Of these several Saints, I can learn nothing that would 
lead to the formation of conclusive evidence as to any 
special country or place delighting in paying them 
particular reverence. On the whole I incline to the 
opinion that Italy is the country which could more 
suitably 'appropriate' these Saints to itself. Of two of the 
saints who are here honoured — S. Cosmus and S. Cristinae 
— it may be said that the former is one of the patron 
Saints of the Medici, and the other is one of the 
patronesses of the Venetian States, and also patroness 
of Bolsena. This would alone favour the idea of Italian 
origin and guardianship. The corresponding crystal on 
the right hand projection is not quite clear, having a 
streaked appearance. It was also supposed to enshrine a 
fragment of bone, formerly belonging to some deceased 
Saint, but on a close examination I found the ' object ' to 
resemble clotted blood — a kind of relic which I believe 
not to be uncommon — and this it undoubtedly is. As the 
1 relic ' is laid upon a ground formed of red paper, not 
unlike in appearance and size to a paper seal, such as are 
occasionally fixed on paper deeds, it is not to be very 
clearly discerned. There is an accompanying inscription, 
if such it can be called, on a very small scrap of paper, 
but it is quite unintelligible. A supposition (which I 
altogether discouraged) that it might be Arabic, and so 
possibly establish a claim for the Reliquary to be of 
Spanish origin, led me to shew it to Professor Cowell, 
but he can form no conception as to its meaning : it is 
reasonable to suppose that it has a meaning, although it 
will probably never be discovered. The characters com- 
posing this writing, somewhat resemble, (as far as they 



Q 



05 



are capable of being re-produced in printers' type,) 
a 3 i : o. There is of course just a chance, that the whole 
history of the Reliquary might be unravelled, if this 
inscription could be made plain. The inner portion of 
the frame-work is delicately wrought, and is formed of a 
rounded arch, having raised and panelled spandrils, with 
keystone springing from moulded jambs with finely 
moulded caps and bases, the whole resting upon the 
pedestal. The entire case is remarkably handsome and 
in perfect condition, and rather suggestive, I make bold 
to say, of not being much more than a century old. Thus 
much concerning the case. 

The real interest which this Reliquary would possess 
in the estimation of any but a religious devotee, centres 
in the very striking work of art — for such indeed it is — 
contained within the case in a framework of rosewood, and 
viewed in the ordinary way through glass, but easily re- 
movable. The extraordinary perfection of the workman- 
ship, displays remarkable taste and consummate skill, while 
the design and arrangement shew equal masterly power 
on the part of the person or persons employed in its pro- 
duction. Considerably over a hundred figures, with their 
proper surroundings, are brought together within a compass 
measuring 7 in. by 11 in., and from this the top angles 
are cut off. The work is altogether a remarkable piece 
of ingenuity. It is uncertain of what material the 
figures etc., are formed, and unless subjected to a chemical 
analysis which would involve destruction, and is there- 
fore undesirable, must so continue. These figures, both 
as regards colouring, form, and bearings, are wonderfully 
real in appearance, and seem to be formed of a composition 
of some kind. I have little doubt but that these figures 
have all been carved by hand. At first sight they might 
probably be thought to be ' modelled,' but viewed under 
a strong glass, they certainly shew undisputable traces 
of the knife of the skilful carver, and have rather a 
' wooden ' appearance. Mr. J. W. Buck, B.Sc, whom 
I asked to examine this special feature, draws attention 

PI 



306 

to a scroll-like ornamentation in the middle lower division, 
which, when looked at through a microscope, shews 
such very fine shapely forms that he can hardly believe it 
to be artificial work, and speaking from my own observa- 
tions, I feel sure that in this he is correct. It reminds 
him he says u of the stem of a stone-crop, crowded with 
its little leaves, and if it be anything natural, it may 
possibly in the end throw some light on the substance 
of which the figures are made, for they seem to be of 
the same material." The ground of the case upon which 
the work is placed, is in colour, ' ethereal blue,' picked 
out with gilt figure work. The border work at the sides, 
and the different divisions necessary for carrying out the 
artist's design, is somewhat suggestive of Arabesque, the 
ornamentation with which the pilasters, &c, are 
decorated, and of which they may almost be said to 
be composed, being formed of a kind of filagree work 
wrought in gold lace, &c. The effect is heightened by 
a tasty adoption of colour, and the work is set off by 
what appear to be rubies, and pearls. 

The series of subjects, comprising the chief portion 
of the work, can be only very inadequately described ; 
I can but regret the impossibility of any kind of pictorial 
representation accompanying this paper.* 

Surmounting the whole scene, is the sacred Dove 
with outspread wings, symbolizing the Holy Spirit, 
beneath which there appears, on the one hand, an aged man 
with luxuriant white hair, (the usual painful representa- 
tion of god the Father,) who holds out to the emaciated 
form, intended to represent the Son of Man, a golden 
Crown. The latter, having on His Head the Crown 
of thorns, set with pearls, has a rough garment cast 
loosely about the body ; the hands and the feet are 
pierced, and one arm is put forth to receive the proffered 
Crown. An angel desending from above is in attend- 
ance upon each. In the clouds beneath, ingeniously 

* Two excellent cabinet photographs of the Reliquary have been taken by Mr. 
W. Vick, of Ipswich. 



307 

formed of line white wool, is the Mother of Jesus, occupy- 
ing a central position. She is seen kneeling upon a 
Crescent, in an attitude of entreaty. Angels encircle her, 
and cherubs having their wings beautifully feathered, 
and of divers colours, are placed among the clouds. 
Immediately below, and extending to the full limit on 
either side, is the full voiced choir of angels, forming an 
extensive and most interesting group, hymning the 
praises of a once despised, but now exalted Saviour. 

The harp, the solemn pipe 
And dulcimer, all organs of sweet stop, 
All sounds on fret by string or golden wire, 

. . . and with songs 
And choral symphonies, . . . 

Circle His throne rejoicing. 

In the centre is the pealing organ with its range of 
pipes in front, at which an angel, having a profusion of nut 
brown hair, and glorious wings prominently displayed, pre- 
sides in an attitude of ecstacy, and apparently with much 
fervour. Below the organ, a little on one side, is an angel 
playing a virginal or harpsicord. The minstrelsy of the 
spheres is further sustained by angels with nearly every 
conceivable kind of musical instrument, prominent among 
them being the harp, bagpipes, ' hurdy-gurdy,' viols of 
all kinds, (large as well as small,) and other stringed 
instruments : there is also the pipe, flute, timbrel, 
drum, cymbals, triangle, castanet, dulcimer, trumpet, 
horn, &c, with singers, in great variety, and to crown 
all, a director of the Choir — truly a representative 
body. Each member of this choir seems to be 
thoroughly intent on his particular vocation, as if all 
depended on his individual effort ; a grander display 
in so small a compass could scarcely be conceived. 
A semi-circle beneath is made up of tiny human figures 
bearing the instruments of the Passion— ladder, nails, 
scourge, whipping post, &c. Another semi-circle carried 
on horizontally to the side of the divisions, is composed of 
an interesting group of figures, the central one being 



308 

that of the Son of Man, standing erect upon the globe, 
which is of blue and gold, and in the centre is a large 
pearl. Upon His Head is the Crown of Thorns, the 
arms are extended, and the hands and feet show the 
marks of the crucifixion nails. Ranged on either side 
are figures of apostles, evangelists, martyrs, and others, 
each with their several emblems (St. Andrew, with his 
Cross, St. Peter with Key, St. Paul with Sword, St. Simon 
with Saw, St. Lawrence, tonsured and habited in rich 
vestments, having a Censer in his hand, and the 
Gridiron by his side, etc., etc.) Conspicuous among 
this company is the kneeling figure of the Virgin, 
crowned, and with upraised hands ; immediately in front 
of her there are several female saints : a figure on 
the opposite side, in a corresponding position, is probably 
intended to represent St. Joseph. The entire group 
have their faces turned in the direction of the Saviour. 
The ' clouds ' upon which these are placed, form the 
dividing line from the two compartments immediately 
beneath. From these ' clouds ' on either side, two 
archangels are seen sounding their trumpets. It is the 
call to the Judgement, which those below are hastening 
to obey. The dead are seen emerging from the tombs ; 
on the one hand, some are being presented to the Judge 
with evident signs of joy, while others on the left hand 
are appaled at His presence. The Angel of Judgement, 
placed between the long-necked trumpets of the Arch- 
angels, is seen holding in one hand the scales, and in the 
other a rod. The yawning mouths of two dreadful 
monsters, having fiery tongues and immense teeth, are 
opened wide to receive those who are being driven into 
their jaws by a grim satanical being, who has one little 
figure — a human being — upon his back. Flames of fire 
are round about, and devils hover near ; one of these 
latter is placed on a wire, which works from beneath, 
and is in continual motion, giving a weird aspect to the 
strange scene. Immediately under, separated only by 
another dividing line, are depicted four scenes from the 



309 

early life of Jesus Christ, above which is a representation 
of the Virgin and Child. The events thus figured are : — 

(1) The Magi 'presenting their Offerings to the Saviour. 
— The Infant is on a kind of dais. The three Kings are 
seen, and near them stand a black servant, who is hold- 
ing a golden Crown. 

(2) The Presentation in the Temple. — The pair of 
turtle doves are being presented to the Priest who wears 
his mitre, and stands at an Altar. 

(3) The Annunciation. — The Dove is seen hovering 
overhead. The angel proclaiming the message has a 
sceptre in his hand. Near the Virgin, who is seated on 
an eminence or raised structure of some kind having a 
canopy, is the familiar pot out of which springs the lily. 

(4) The Babe in the Manger. — Mary and Joseph are 
figured, while two angels appear above, one having a 
scroll, the other offers a basket, apparently containing 
eggs. 

In addition to these there are two additional scenes 
introduced into those numbered 1 and 3, which are of 
an almost microscopical description. They are situate 
beneath the ' thrones,' and seem to be representations of: — 

(a) The Entombment, which displays the dead Christ, 

(b) The Temptation (?). — A Wilderness, in which is 
an unclothed male figure before a lion standing in the way. 

These four chief divisions are formed of raised 
work, made to represent pillars and other ornamental 
work, the same being further adorned with pearls and 
rubies. The remainder of the space in this compartment 
is occupied with the genealogy of Christ. On each side 
there are six Kings, having on the head a crown of gold, 
and in the hand a golden sceptre. They each display a 
small scroll upon which something is written, but what 



310 



it is, is difficult to say. In one or two instances I fancied 
I could discern the Hebrew character, and in another, 
Greek ; if the latter, one may be almost certainly pro- 
nounced as bearing a contracted form of Christus : so 
likewise thought Professor Cowell, who pointed it out to 
me. Possibly the names of the twelve Kings may be 
given. The figures are dispersed throughout, what is 
meant to represent a tree, of thick growth, and they 
may be said to rest among its branches. The tree is of 
a brown colour, and formed apparently of some natural 
production, and is that to which Mr. Buck refers. On 
either side of these two lower middle compartments, 
there are eight representations of Biblical events, four 
of which are from the New Testament, and four from 
the Old Testament, answering to some extent at least to 
their counterpart. As far as I am able to form a judge- 
ment of these, they may be described as follows : — 



Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria at Jacob's Well. 
(The waterpot is sus- 
pended over the well's 
mouth on a minature 
chain which sways back- 
wards and forwards.) 



Mary Magdalene (?) in the 
midst of a rocky solitude. 
She faces a scull, near which 
is a cross, and close by her 
is the pot of ointment. 



Christ in the Garden of 
Gethsemene. An angel 
above bears the Cup. The 
disciples are sleeping. 



Jacob and Rebecca at the 
Well. (A pastoral scene, 
sheep feeding, etc., in 
other respects corres- 
ponding to the opposite 
design.) 



Jephthah performs his vow (?) 



David's repentance. The 
Angel above with the drawn 
sword in hand. The King's 
Crown and Harp are on 
the ground. 



311 



The Resurrection of Christ. 
The pierced hands are ex- 
tended. (The monastic 
garb is adopted.) 



Elijah fed by the Ravens. Th », 
Virgin appears crowned 
as the Queen of Heaven. 



It only now remains for me to point out in few words 
the probable use originally made of this Reliquary. Un- 
questionably it had a place of honour in some Chapel or 
Oratory, perhaps even in some Cathedral Church, and 
well answered the purpose of arresting the attention of 
passers by ; while inspiring the devotions of the people, 
it may also have provoked some to deeds of charity. 
The only account of an object of this kind that I ever 
remember meeting with, is a very brief description given 
in Hone's well-known " Every Day Book" (Vol. ii., p. 537) 
where there is an illustration of a Reliquary, said to 
to be in Ausburg Cathedral. Mention is there made of 
the sculls of several Saints " blazing with jewellery, 
mitred or crowned, reposing on Altars or Reliquaries." 
Except that the case of the latter is broader, and able to 
accommodate a cushion with any selected object that 
might be required to be placed on the top, this engrav- 
ing gives the idea of an object precisely of the same 
character as the one I have described, and probably 
may have been put to a similar use. The Ausburg 
Reliquary, as far as one can judge from the engraving, is 
however, immensely inferior in point of design and 
workmanship to that in Mr. Scott's possession. 

I am not disposed to assign to this Reliquary so 
early a date as that hitherto claimed for it, viz., the 16th 
Century. I think I am supported in my view of a date, 
certainly not earlier than the 17th Century, by several 
features, both in the design and workmanship. 

C. H. EVELYN WHITE. 



[Observing that no accounts of the meetings held for some years past had 
been published in the printed '■Proceedings,' as was formerly the case, 
the present Editor has gathered up such records as he has been able, 
and they are now presented with every apology for their meagre 
character, and for the shortcomings of the Society in not offering 
better accounts at an earlier periodi\ 



LAKENHEATH MEETING 1875. 



LAVENHAM and COCKFIELD 
GENERAL MEETING, August 7, 1877. The Lord John Hervey, 

President. 



On Tuesday, August 7, the hour of eleven found a large contingent 
of Suffolk Archaeologists assembled at Lavenham Hall, where they 
were hospitably received by Mr. and Mrs. Bidden. After a welcome 
refreshment of fruit, cake, and wine, the party examined the old 
house of the De Veres which is situated within Mr. Biddell's 
grounds ; little remains beyond the foundations from which however a 
plan of the house might probably be made out. From the site of the 
old house the party crossing the drive leading to the hall proceeded to 
examine a discovery lately made by Mr. Biddell. When raising gravel 
his men came upon a pair of potters ovens, not more than two feet 
below the surface of the ground. They are constructed of flat tiles 
and each measures 2ft. Sin. in height and 2' 10" in width. The tops 
are semicircular and the depth from front to back is about 9 feet. 
When these ovens were first discovered there was an impression that 
they might be assigned to the Romano British period, an impression 
strengthened by the abundance of oyster and whelk shells found when 
excavating the pit. But the better opinion and that which received the 
greater support at the meeting, is that the ovens are comparatively 
modern, constructed probably in connection with potters works ; this 
view was confirmed by a statement of Mr. Biddell's that near by is a 
lane called " Pot-Lane." From the ovens the party proceeded to the 
Church, where the President and numerous friends joined. After a few 
minutes spent in glancing round the building, a descriptive paper 
was read by Mr. E. M. Dewing (see p. 105). Leaving the church, 
the visitors were conducted through the streets of Lavenham, observ- 



313 

ing by the way many interesting remnants of early domestic archi- 
tecture, and having their attention directed to evidences of some 
revival of manufacturing industry, in the shape of looms, at which 
women might be seen through the open cottage-windows, busily 
engaged in weaving horsehair seating. It was stated that many more 
are occupied in this way than there were ten years ago, notwithstanding 
the competition of steam power. The company were invited into Mr. 
Barkway's garden, and saw there the remains of what is supposed to 
have been a bath, discovered a few years ago. In it is a spring, which 
keeps up a constant supply of water. At the back of Mr. Barkway's 
premises is a good example of the front of an old timber house no 
longer used as a habitation, and in another street is a large house, now 
unoccupied, which possesses some interesting features, the ceilings of 
the rooms being adorned with plaster-work decorations, in which the 
Tudor rose and the fleur-de-lis predominate. But the most interesting 
relic of old Lavenham is the Guildhall, now belonging to Mr. Hitchcock, 
and used by him as a granary. The company lingered for some time in 
and about this picturesque building, and it is to be hoped that some 
means will be adopted for its preservation from further decay. The 
principal apartment is spacious and lofty, and might well serve some 
useful purpose more dignified than that to which it is now devoted. 
Some of the members found their way into the kitchen, where many a 
good dinner has been prepared, and a few explored the cellar, in which 
it is said that Dr. Taylor was confined the night before he suffered at 
the stake on Aldham Common. 

After luncheon at the Swan Inn the whole party consisting of some 
35 to 40 ladies and gentlemen proceeded to Cockfield Church, where the 
rector, the Rev. Professor Churchill Babington, read the paper printed 
in vol. v. (p. 195), of the 'Proceedings.' 

At the conclusion of his paper Professor Babington led the way 
to the Rectory, where the excursionists again met with a very kind 
and hospitable reception. After a welcome cup of tea or coffee Dr. 
Babington drew attention to some of the choice treasures with which his 
house is filled, speaking first of his superb collection of ancient vases, 
arranged in glass cases in the drawing-room. These include vases from 
Cyprus, the workmanship of which may be as early as 1,000 B.C., Dr. 
Babington stating that the earliest vessels of this pale clay were 
not adorned with figures. Another and later one was from Rhodes with 
waterfowl ; others had plants or fishes. At first these figures were 
entirely brown or black, but about the 5th century B.C. some white or 
red was introduced, the flesh of the women being white. Human 
figures are now more common and are better drawn. A fine vase of this 
period was shown, on which was depicted a statue of Minerva, with 
Achilles and Ajax on either side, playing at dice. The two heroes have 
their names written against them, so that there can be no mistake as to 
whom they are intended for, and there are in existence vases on which 
are also recorded the numbers thrown, in illustration of a line of 

Ql 



314 

Aristophanes. The later vases with black figures belong to " the 
Second Period," and these were succeeded by the red figure vases. 
These latter vases are of the fine-art period of the 4th century B.C., 
in which the figures are of the colour of the clay, with details in 
black lines upon them. As an example of this period, Dr. Babington 
exhibited a cylix — a saucer-shaped cup on a stem, about nine inches 
in diameter — showing on the exterior a party of revellers, and on 
the inside a drunken man on a couch, attended by a physician, the 
design being probably introduced as a warning against excess. Dr. 
Babington next called attention to a phiale (a patera or saucer), which 
was the "vial" of Rev. xv., 7. Jeremy Taylor, ignorant of this, spoke 
of the patience of God being displayed by dropping vengeance out of a 
small-necked bottle, whereas it was precisely the contrary, for these 
vessels were used for pouring wine on the altar over the flaming 
sacrifice. A comparison was next drawn between the stiffness of the 
early styles and the grace of the fine-art period, in wdiich the decoration 
is executed with all the delicacy of miniature painting. A vase of 
great beauty was shown as a fine example of the latter period. 
Allusion was next made to the period of decadence, in which the flesh- 
tint became redder, and accessory colours were more abundantly 
introduced than in the second and third periods. In this period not 
only did the art become degenerate, but the subjects were for the most 
part effeminate in character, and some examples were placed before the 
company in illustration of this criticism : the vases of the decadence 
came mostly from Italy. Two specimens of the alabastron, one of 
alabaster and the other of glass, were shown, and it was explained that 
what Avere generally known as lachrymatories ought to be called by the 
same name : they were simply vessels for holding perfumes. Having 
selected as many examples as were necessary for his purpose, Dr. Babington 
explained that none of them were later than about 150 B.c. : the art of 
painting vases was unknown to the Romans, but was continued by the 
Greeks. Proceeding to his library, Dr. Babington next called attention 
to some fine examples of early printed books, which had been already 
arranged for inspection. They included three leaves of Caxton's 
Polychronicon (published in 1482), another edition of the same work 
(1495) by Wynkyn de Worde ; a very early Greek Grammar (1494) by 
Aldus ; Apollonius Rhodius, the text printed in capitals, not dated, but 
ascribed to the end of the 15th century; a herbal (1485) by Peter 
Schaeffer, &c, &c. Dr. Babington remarked by the way that Caxton was 
a most unscrupulous editor, for when he found an obsolete word he 
" made no bones " about changing it ; at the same time he had the 
greatest possible respect for him as the father of English printing. He 
also called attention to a fac-simile (edited by himself) of the Benejicio di 
Christo, which Lord Macaulay had spoken of as being as hopelessly lost 
as the second decade of Livy's history ! Dr. Babington finally conducted 
his visitors to an upper room containing his coins, of which he possesses 
some thousands, and selected some of the choicest treasures of his 



315 

cabinets for inspection, dealing with them chronologically, and thus 
illustrating the various stages of the numismatic art. In this manner 
the time passed pleasantly and profitably until seven o'clock, when the 
visitors took leave of their entertainer, and a very enjoyable day was 
brought to a termination. 



GENERAL MEETING— CLARE. August 8, 1878. 

The] members and their friends assembling at the Church in 
conjunction with the Essex Archaeological Society, a paper was read by 
the Rev. T. Parkinson (formerly vicar of Clare). In the afternoon the 
party re-assembled at the Castle, where Mr. Parkinson read a paper on 
the general history of the Town, its Castle, Earls, Honor, &c, after 
which the company proceeded to the Priory, where a paper was read by 
the Rev. H. Jarvis, vicar of Poslingford, which is printed at p. 73. 

The following day an excursion was made into Essex. 



GENERAL MEETING— ASPALL, KENTON AND DEBENHAM. 

July 18, 1879. 

The party was entertained at Aspall Hall, by the Rev. Canon and 
Mrs. Chevallier, a paper being read by Canon Chevallier, on the Hall. 
The Rev. W. H. Sewell, Vicar of Yaxley, at the same time read a paper 
on "Church Hour Glasses." At Kenton, the Vicar, the Rev. R. 
Lawrence, read a paper on the Church and Parish. Kenton Hall and 
Crowe's Hall, Debenham, were also visited. At Debenham Church, the 
Vicar, the Rev. C. J. Cornish, read an interesting paper upon the 
building:. 



*&• 



A second excursion was made on August 14th of the same year, 
when at the invitation of Lord "Waveney, the members met the British 
Archeeological Association, at Wingfield Castle. The party afterwards 
visited South Elmham and Flixton Hall, where they were kindly received 
by Lord Waveney. 



GENERAL MEETING— WATTISFIELD, RICKINGHALL, and 

REDGRAVE. August 19, 1880. 

At the Rickinghall churches, the Rev. R. C. Maul, Rector, read papers, 
after which the members and their friends were entertained at luncheon 
at the Rectory. The Chapel of Ease at Botesdale, and Redgrave 
church, were next visited ; the day's proceedings ending by a reception 
of the party at Redgrave Hall, by George Holt Wilson, Esq., and Mrs. 
Wilson. 



No Meeting was held in the year 1881. 



316 



GENERAL MEETING.— HITCHAM, BILDESTON, and 

CHELSWORTH, September 7, 1882. 

The members of this Society had an excursion on Thursday, Sept. 
7th. The places announced to be visited were Hitcham and Bildeston, 
and also the church of Chelsworth, if time permitted. Conveyances met 
the train at Stowmarket at 11.25, and the party drove to Hitcham 
church, where they were received by the rector, the Rev. Canon Grant, 
who said the church evidently belonged to the period of great church- 
building activity in this county — that is to say, the 15th century. He 
found no trace of any earlier building. It would be remarked, however, 
that the part of the churchyard which lies to the north of the church 
had evidently been a very old burial ground. That part of the church- 
yard was not in use when he first came there, and it had been actually 
consecrated by Bishop Turton not very long before, under the idea 
that it was a new piece of ground. For some time no graves were 
dug, as there seemed to be a prejudice against graves on the north 
side. When, however, the south side became full, he insisted upon 
graves being dug on the north side, and in every case where the 
ground had been opened, very early remains had been found. The 
earliest part of the present church was the chancel, dating from 
the 14th century. This, however, only applied to the north wall, 
as the east and south walls were taken down and re-built at the 
restoration, retaining as nearly as possible the style of the original 
building. The south wall was very much out of the perpendicular. 
The east wall was in very bad repair, and the window was in a very 
debased style. The remains of the old window were found built up in 
the east wall, and this was very much in the style of the window which 
now replaced it. The nave belonged to the 15th century. The arches, 
pillars and clerestory were of the early part of the century. The walls 
of the aisles were probably of the same date, but the windows were 
later. The tower was probably of early 15th century work, A remark- 
able feature about it was that the eastern buttresses rise from the floor 
of the nave, and overlap the western arches thereof This peculiarity 
was also found in Cockfield church, which had a general resemblance to 
this. There was a still more remarkable example in Bramford church, 
where the buttresses of the tower cut off nearly half of the adjacent arches. 
There was an appearance on these buttressses of having been at one time 
exposed to the weather, which would lead to the conclusion that the present 
aisles were built up to the tower. The roof of the nave was of the 
15th century, with additions of much later date. The lower part of it 
had been mutilated by the defacing of all the figures. It would appear, 
then, that at the end of the 15th century the church externally was 
much what it was now. Subsequent to that time there was evidently a 
destruction of all carved human figures, no doubt as being superstitious. 
They might fairly suppose that the ends of the hammer-beams of the 



317 

roof had some such figures on them — possibly angels very similiar to 
those in a church at March, in Cambridgeshire. If there were such 
figures at the end of the hammer-beams, they were clearly destroyed. 
One or two grotesque figures remain, so that it would appear only human 
figures were destroyed. At all events, the present ends of the lower 
hammer-beams, which were heraldic devices, were clearly of the 17th 
century, as they had the monogram "I.R." as well as the thistle 
and rose, which showed that they were of a date subsequent to the 
union of the Crowns of England and Scotland. They were evidence 
that some interest was taken in ornamenting the church in the reign of 
James I., and the monogram, "C.R." showed that the work was con- 
tinued into the following reign. It would be observed that each of the 
heraldic devices was surmounted by a coronet, which appeared to be the 
semi-crown of the Prince of Wales, and there was also in one place a 
device resembling his plume of feathers. If so it was a matter of some 
curiosity what the Prince of Wales had to do with the church. The 
living was, he believed, in the gift of the Bishops of Ely, but came into 
the patronage of the Crown in the early part of the 1 7th century. But 
independently of any Royal influence, there was a way of accounting 
for the work done at this period. There was an incumbent of the 
parish, who was a very eminent man, about whom he had an account, 
but had unfortunately mislaid it, and could not recollect his name. He 
was deprived under the Commonwealth, and possibly might have held 
the living during these two reigns. He was a man of considerable 
private fortune, and was the donor of the communion plate, the date 
of which was, he believed, 1639 and 1641. It was said in the account 
that he had referred to that this man would in all probability have been 
a bishop, only that he died in 1659. It was easily conceivable that out 
of his private fortune he spent money upon the church. Proceeding 
with his paper, Canon Grant said he did not find any date given by the 
architect to the south porch, except that it was later than the nave. 
It was very like the corresponding porch of Bildeston Church, and was 
still more like the north porch of Preston Church. It was now 
under restoration as a memorial to the late rector (Professor Henslow), 
his family and friends having taken the chief part in raising the sub- 
scriptions. The history of the church from the Commonwealth to a 
recent date was that of the majority of the churches of the country. 
Neglect, and worse than neglect, and alterations, supposed to be improve- 
ments. The church was seated with carved oak seats of the 15th 
century, the carving of which was very good. Most of those seats were 
mutilated for the pupose of being converted into pews, the carved 
poppy-heads being sawn through to let in the deal sides of the pews. 
At the restoration these seats had to be removed for a time, being unfit 
in their then state for use. They were all preserved under the idea that 
some day there might be the means of restoring them. It was found 
necessary also at the restoration, to remove the lower part of the rood 
screen, which consisted of painted panels, on which were figures bearing 



318 

the instruments of the Passion. The figures were too much defaced 
to be replaced, but the screen had been carefully preserved, and it was 
a problem not easy of solution, how it was to be made suitable for being 
replaced. Among other things which at the restoration had to be 
obliterated, were some mural paintings, which seemed to have occupied 
spaces between the nave arches. There was only one that could be 
made out, and that was in the arch exactly opposite the door. There 
was an appearance of colour on the plaster, and when it rained and the 
plaster was washed off, the colour deepened, and a friend of his, who 
had done something of the kind before in his own church, with very great 
difficulty took off the outer plaster, and discovered a painting below, 
which was that of a large and very fine head. Over the head had 
been put at first a coat of plaster, and upon it a text in black 
letters. They found some traces of the text, but it was impossible 
to make out what it was. There was extreme difficulty in taking 
off the outer plaster in such a way as to avoid injuring the painting 
below. That was the only painting they could make anything of. 
This head it was impossible to restore, it was so much obliterated, 
and he really believed it was about the only thing of any antiquity 
which was destroyed in the restoration of the church. Lastly, with 
regard to the monuments. There were some very fine stones in the 
chancel, from which the brasses had been removed — one very large one, 
over 10 feet in length. There was no trace whatever of any inscription 
upon it. With this exception the monuments were extremely scanty. 
There was a tablet just outside the chancel door to the memory of one 
of his predecessors. There was also a monument to Sir George 
Waldegrave, and the only other monument was one in the chancel, to 
the memory of Dr. Batty, who was rector from 1645 to 1707. Dr. 
Batty, it was said, owed the living to a chance visit of James II., when 
Duke of York. The Duke was at Alderton, near Bawdsey, and being 
very thirsty was reccommended to call and see Dr. Batty, the then Vicar 
of the parish. He did so, and partook of some of the Doctor's choice 
cider, which pleased him so much that he promised to use his influence 
at Court to procure the rev. gentleman's advancement. Afterwards, 
when he became King, he remembered his promise, and the living 
becoming vacant, presented it to Dr. Batty. 

The party then drove to Bildeston, where luncheon was partaken of 
at the King's Head Inn. They thereafter adjourned to the church to 
listen to an address from the Rector upon its history. 

The Rev. Jambs Beck, after a few introductory remarks, said the 
church, as standing at the close of the 14th century, was probably a 
small Decorated one, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a tower of 
somewhat later erection. The nave and chancel becoming dilapidated 
were pulled down, and the present church restored upon the old site. 
On the western wall might still be seen the position of the old roof. 
The aisles were added and clerestory windows put in. The roof, he 
believed, was one of the loftiest in Suffolk. This was no doubt done at 



319 

the time when the craze for Perpendicular work was going through this 
country, about 1420. The tower was left intact, and was out of all 
proportion to the present building. The Decorated windows of the old 
church were probably preserved in good order, and were inserted in the 
new building, one on each side of the chancel, and the other three at 
the end of the aisles. The window at the east end of the south aisle 
was a very fine Perpendicular one, but within the last 20 years it had 
been removed and the present Decorated window substituted. The 
aisle windows were, no doubt, at one time all transom windows, and 
must have looked very handsome indeed. An idea of what they were 
like might be formed from the churches at Bury. Why these transoms 
were removed he could not say, but, at any rate, if his life were spared, 
he hoped some time or other to replace them. Within the last 50 years 
a carved rood screen stood between the first two pillars; that was removed 
at the time the roof was repaired. In the north wall, just underneath 
the projection of the organ gallery, was the old rood staircase, which 
was quite perfect, but was now blocked up. The roof of the church 
was somewhat peculiar, being one continuous level from the nave to the 
chancel, not an unusual thing in Suffolk and Norfolk churches. The 
roof of this church was not so handsomely decorated as Hitcham. 
Very pi'obably the want of funds would account for that. Formerly, he 
believed, the hammer-beams were ornamented with carved figures of 
angels, bearing scrolls ; but a man of the name of Welham, a carpenter, 
of Bildestone, who died some 40 or 50 years ago, told Mr. Whittle, 
the parish clerk, that when he was a young man he was ordered by the 
churchwardens to cut down those angels and burn them as idolatrous 
images. That was about the time when Whitfield was very popular in 
this part of the country, and he (the Rector) supposed the churchwardens 
were strong disciples of that eminent man. Thei^e were formerly twelve 
clerestory windows on either side of the church — ten over the nave and 
two over the chancel, but the latter were filled up a few T years ago by 
his predecessor. The "Miserere" seats in the chancel, much mutilated, 
were brought there originally from the chapel of St. Leonard, which 
once stood in the town, connected with the old Bridewell, and was pulled 
down some years ago. He hoped to make use of them ere long in 
the restoration of the chancel. The porch was a very good specimen of 
Perpendicular work. The lower stages of the buttresses had cut flint 
panelling, which was only to be found in the neighbourhood of the old 
flint works. The upper stages, niches, and canopies w T ere all very good. 
The tower arch was within a square head, and over it was a very good 
niche, with flowered cornice and battlement. The south door was a 
very good piece of Perpendicular panelled work. Over the porch is a 
parvise, or priests' chamber, formerly lined with iron. The door was a 
very strong one, with a complicated arrangement of springs, bolts, 
and bars, and had probably been the door of a large German coffer. 
The staircase that led to the parvise was pulled down in 1857. On the 
west wall was formerly a large fresco painting, representing St. George 



320 

and the Dragon. That was discovered about 1850, but in those days it 
was perhaps considered a superstitious vanity, and it was plastered over. 
Under the chancel was a crypt, afterwards converted into a burial place 
for the Revett family, who had large property about here. The entrance 
was at the east end of the north aisle. The windows lighting the crypt 
were filled in a few years ago. There were several monumental slabs 
in the chancel floor to the memory of the Revett and Beaumont families, 
of former rectors of the parish, William Sparrow and Benj. Brundish, 
Bartholomew Beale and Elizabeth his wife, Captain Rotherham, who 
commanded the "Royal Sovereign," at the battle of Trafalgar, and died 
suddenly at the Manor of Bilderstone ; besides others. There were formerly 
several brasses in the church, but only one was preserved. It bore the 
following inscription : — "Here lyeth bvried William Wade of this pishe 
and one of the heigh Covnstables of this hovndred, who had to wife Alice 
Boggis by whoine he had sixe children liveinge at his decease, two sonnes, 
viz., William and Robert, and fower davghters, viz., Alice, Anne, Ioane, and 
Mary, and died the xixth day of Febvrary, 1599." The brass of the wife 
remains, and also two groups of children. The brass of the lady 
measured one foot ten inches, and a very good example of the 
Elizabethan costume. She wore a hat, ruff, and sleeveless gown, open 
up the front, and secured round the waist by a sash. Her underdress 
had a richly-ornamented skirt and striped sleeves. The figure of the 
husband was lost. Of the children, the sons were dressed in cloaks, 
doublets, and knee breeches, and the daughters the same as the mother, 
except that they had plain underskirts. There were several other 
brasses in the aisle, but they had been stolen ; they could not have been 
lost. The font is an octagon of Perpendicular work, with sculptured 
panels, (now much defaced,) the emblems of the four Evangelists, 
alternating with angels bearing shields, on one of which was the verbal 
symbol of the Trinity, with the words effaced. On another a chalice, 
with two streams of blood flowing into it. The other two were worn 
quite smooth. Round the pedestal were eight grotesque figures (as 
in the font at Barking), of which four had disappeared. The belfry 
contained a peal of six bells, with the following inscriptions: — (1) 
" Sancte Toma ora pro nobis ';" (2) " Subveniat digna sonantibus hoc 
Caterina;" (3) "Miles Greye made me 1683;" (5) "Thomas Farrow, 
Joseph Prokter, churchwardens, 1704." The two first inscriptions 
were in old English character with ornamental capitals. In the 
south aisle was a piscina with elegant double canopy in stone, 
under a square head. The chapel in which it stood was traditionally 
said to have been dedicated to St. Catherine. The registers dated from 
1558, and were kept in an iron safe at the rectory. The Communion 
plate included an Elizabethan chalice, two patens, and another chalice of 
a later date. The flagon was the old pewter flagon which now stood in 
the vestry. The modern one was a plated affair, of which the less said 
the better. 

At the conclusion of the address, the charming little village of 



321 

Chelsworth was visited, and its extremely interesting church inspected. 
The curious fresco over the chancel arch, representing the Day of 
Judgement, was a feature which naturally attracted much attention. 
There were many other objects which were of great interest from an 
archaeological point of view, and it was generally felt that the church 
was one which would well repay a more extended visit. From Chelsworth 
the party drove to Bildeston Rectory to inspect the valuable antiquarian 
collection of the Rev. James Beck, by whom they were hospitably 
entertained. 



GENERAL MEETING.— SHELLEY, POLSTEAD, BOXFORD, 
KERSEY, and HADLEIGH. August 23, 1883. 

It would have been hardly possible to have chosen a finer day than 
the members of the Suffolk Institute enjoyed throughout this excursion. 
The heat was intense, and the dust very intrusive, but beyond these 
slight discomforts, nothing could have been more enjoyable. It was 
arranged that the members should be at the starting point, the White 
Lion, Hadleigh, at 9.30 a.m., but more presented themselves than were 
expected, and owing to difficulty in obtaining horses, the expedition did 
not start until a much later hour. The first place named in the list was 
Layham. It was approached through genuine old Suffolk lanes, full of 
quiet peaceful beauty, to which even a party of archaeologists seemed 
much like desecration. The first halt was made at Overbury Hall, the 
residence of J. F. Dipnall, Esq. The name is, of course, derived from 
the Saxon Ueberbury, and there is the corresponding Netherbury, about 
a mile and a half the other side of Hadleigh. The dining-room was 
originally all of oak, but some parts have been restored. It has a 
unique ceiling formed of close set oak beams, dating back perhaps as 
far as the house, to 1520. A second room had at one time evidently 
been divided into several, the beams marking the original divisions still 
remaining. Mr. Dipnall pointed out the Tudor windows with their 
carving, and mentioned that ten years ago these were hidden in plaster, 
and had only just been properly i*estored. Layham church was not 
visited, and the next object was the church of All Saints, at Shelley, a 
pretty little Perpendicular structure. Against the wall of the chancel 
are the perfect remains of a panelled oak canopy, which used to belong 
to a pew occupied by some noble frequenters of the cluirch. The 
chapel, now the vestry, of some unknown patron, contains his coat of 
arms and an iron and wood structure, like a small gallows, which is 
supposed to have been for the purpose of hanging a banner therefrom 
when the family attended here. The carved heads of the choir stalls 
are exceptionally well preserved, and bear the arms of Tylney quartered 
on Thorpe. An adjoining pew has some well-carved panels of the old 
"linen" pattern. On an altar tomb is the recumbent effigy in stone 
of Dame Margaret Tylney, in Elizabethan costume, bearing the date 

Rl 



322 

1598. After some of the inscriptions on tombs in the churchyard had 
been copied, the party proceeded to Shelley Hall, the residence of Mr. 
Charles Partridge, in the occupancy of whose family the hall has been 
for the past 140 years. The three griffins of the Tylney arms seem 
almost ubiquitous, and above them in one place on the wall is a motto 
in Norman French, signifying " Hope gives me strength." In a bedroom 
of the house are some very fine carved oak panels above the chimney 
piece. The Dutch tiles of the fire-place are probably of later date. 
One corner of the house, from its ornamented buttresses and general 
structure, was undoubtedly the chapel. The whole fabric presents a 
most picturesque appearance, built of red brick in Tudor style. The 
entrance is underneath the shade of two old yew trees, which looked as if 
they might be as old as the house itself. A somewhat curious feature 
is presented by a piece of land adjoining the hall completely surrounded 
by a moat, looking as if it were intended to preserve from attack the 
food supplies of the inhabitants. The manor in the time of Henry IV. 
was held by John d'Orby and Adam Blyston of the King, at the annual 
rent of twenty pence. The hall for over three centuries being the 
residence of the Tylneys, accounts for the frequent occurrence of their 
crest. From here the major part of the visitors took a short cut across 
the fields, over a hill commanding very fine views of the country for 
miles round, to Gifford's Hall. This is in the parish of Stoke-by- 
Nayland, and is most charmingly placed, almost buried in trees, 
and approached by a long avenue of lime trees, but in sorry condi- 
tion owing to want of use. The mansion is the property of Walter 
Mannock, Esq., coming into the possession of the Mannocks by purchase 
from the Crown in 1428. About two centuries before this the manor 
was held by Richard Constable, who built the chapel of St. Nicholas, 
the ivy-mantled remains of which are opposite the entrance to the 
hall. Considerable doubt exists as to whether this Richard Constable 
built the older part of the present mansion, the first record of it being 
in the time of Henry III., when it seems to have belonged to one Peter 
Gifford. In this latter family it remained from about the middle of the 
13th to the middle of the 14th century. In the first } T ear of Richard 
II., Simom Burley held the manor, and after him, John and Richard 
Withermarsh. It was purchased in 1428 by Phillip Mannock from the 
Crown, and was held by the different members of the Mannock family 
till 1814. Under the will of Lady Elizabeth Mannock, Patrick Power 
inherited the property, taking upon him the name of Mannock, and on 
his death in 1874 he was succeeded by his son, the present proprietor. 
The Mannocks seem to have been a very persecuted family for their 
religion, or rather want of religion, as in 1596 Queen Elizabeth let 
two-thirds of the estates to Richard Croft for Wm. Mannock's recusancy 
in not going to church. James I. pardoned him, and shortly afterwards 
forfeited two parts of the estate for futher recusancy. Charles I. grants 
Francis Mannock a general pardon and creates him a baronet by letters 
patent, and in the same year orders an inquisition to be taken of his 



323 

estate for recusancy. There are several monuments to this family in 
Stoke-by-Nayland Church, the principal one being a recumbent figure of 
Sir Francis Mannock in alabaster. The Hall like most Elizabethan 
mansions, is a huge rambling old place, surrounding a quadrangular 
court, to which a fine gateway gives entrance. Over this latter, which 
has frequently been engraved, is a shield bearing the arms of Mannock. 
It is of red brick, the greater portion of it being re-built in the reigns 
of Henry VII. and VIII. Crossing the courtyard, the party .were 
invited to enter, first, the grand old dining hall, with its fine oak roof 
and oak carvings. It is a lofty room, with a minstrels' gallery on one 
side. Here Mr. F. Machell Smith read some interesting notes on the 
Hall and its history, the substance of which is given above. The 
Tapestried Chamber was next visited, some very quaint Flemish tapestries 
giving the room its name. One of these gives a representation of the 
house itself, and another is that of the chapel referred to above, built 
by Richard Constable. A curious hiding-place giving access to the 
chimney was here shown. It has a false door covered with tapestry, 
which would be, if perfect, quite indistinguishable from the rest, and 
afford effective concealment. In the panelled-room there is said to be a 
sliding panel opening into a passage communicating with the exterior, 
but although diligent search has been made none can be discovered. 
There is also said to be a subterranean passage to the chapel, but the 
entrance cannot be found. An oak gallery runs quite round the house, 
containing portraits of family ancestors. Up a winding stairway, past 
the back of the old timepiece which has a face to the minstrels' 
gallery, one arrives on the top of the turret, from which a fine view can 
be obtained of the gardens and grounds attached to the house ; then 
into the room, which was formerly the chapel, attached to the hall ; 
thence through numberless passages and rooms, filled with nick-nacks 
and most lovely objects. Some grand specimens of inlaid work, in the 
shape of escritoires, &c, attracted much attention, and it is to be feared 
that the tenth commandment was broken more than once, perhaps at 
the sight of some fine old clock, panel, bronze, or any of the thousand 
and one beautiful things that crowded the rooms. Many regrets were 
expressed at the time being so short. Leaving Gifford's Hall about one 
o'clock, the next place on the programme was Polstead church, which 
ought to have been reached at 11.30. Just before reaching this, one 
passes the site of the Red Barn, of Polstead, the scene of the murder 
of Maria Martin. It was stated that in the Archaeological library at 
Bury St. Edmund's there was a history of the murder bound in the skin 
of the murderer ! The barn itself was burnt down years ago, but the 
house in which the unfortunate woman lived, and her tomb in the 
churchyard, were pointed out to the visitors. In this churchyard there 
is a " Gospel Oak," which doubtless has heard many a fiery denunciation of 
sinners in days gone by. The church itself, dedicated to St. Mary, is 
Norman. It possesses the somewhat unusual distinction of a stone spire. 
Having just been restored, everything looks fresh and clean, but the 



324 

characteristic features have been well preserved. The pulpit, a modern 
structure, has one of the old sounding boards still suspended over it. 
The remains of a painted ceiling still exist in the north aisle, but the 
chief interest centred in a splendid Norman arch under the tower, the 
moulding quite perfect, and the care bestowed upon it seems to indicate 
that this was originally the principal entrance to the church. This was 
quite a discovery, as no mention of any Norman doorway was given in 
works referred to by the members. The font is supported by five pillars, 
and is well preserved. No time could be wasted here, so leaving the 
church, and passing by Polstead Park, with the deer reclining in the 
shady groves, the excursion wended its way to Boxford church, a fine 
structure, with a most elaborate stone porch on the south side. On 
entering the church the first object which meets one's eye is the font, 
with its plain wooden cover painted inside with various mottos and 
devices. The nave is lofty, and so are the pews ! Some remains of 
brasses still exhibit traces of very fine work ; one of these bears the date 
1598. At the west end is a rood loft opening in one direction upon the 
roof. The east window has five lights, and exhibits some very fair 
tracery. By far the most interesting part of the church, however, was 
the north porch, often called "Death's porch," because the dead were 
brought in at the south and carried out at the north door. This is 
quite a unique specimen of woodwork. It is of oak and richly carved. 
The light spandrils, arranged in the same form as the groins in a stone 
roof, are still perfect, and the tracery of the sides and roof is in 
exceptionally good condition. The exterior of this structure has 
suffered considerably. An inscription on a tombstone in the church 
tells of a lady, "Elizabeth Hyam, of this parish," who had buried four 
husbands, and then " was hastened to her end on the 4th of May, 1748, 
in her 113th year." Kersey church was the next on the list. This is a 
Perpendicular structure, with a lofty tower overlooking the quiet little 
village, which nestles quite down ■ in the hollow. This church is 
dedicated to St. Mary. It was repaired about 1851, and the chancel 
rebuilt in 1862. The Provost and Fellows of Kino's College, Cambridge, 
are the patrons and appropriators. With its pinnacled buttresses and 
somewhat ornate style, the church presents a pretty appearance from 
the roadway. The interior, like those of all the churches in this district, 
is carefully whitewashed, no regard being paid to oak carving or delicate 
moulding — whitewash is omnipotent. It makes the inside look very 
clean certainly, but one occasionally wishes for a little more variety. 
The octagonal font has some well cut panels, with angels bearing shields, 
and, what is rarer still, some with a rose pattern, which produce a very 
good effect. There is some most elaborate carved oak work in the north 
aisle — white-washed of course, — representing scenes from our Lord's life. 
A recess in the wall evidently contained the finish of this, but the 
figures have long since disappeared ; judging, however, from the lovely 
work displayed above, this tail-piece must originally have been a grand 
piece of work. Some discussion took place as to the meaning of a high 



325 

pew in Sampson's chapel, as it is called, with some elaborately painted 
panels, representations of kings or saints ; the conclusion arrived at was 
that these panels belonged to a rood screen, which had been cut down, 
and its lower part used for the side of this pew. Thei*e are still to be 
seen two brasses partly covered by one of the pews, evidently representing 
the children of a person, the brass of whom, if it exists, is underneath 
the pew. The next place to visit was the Priory, but as dinner had been 
ordered at the White Lion, Hadleigh, for 3 p.m., after some consultation it 
was decided to leave out the Priorj T . A general meeting of the members 
was afterwards held, at the close of which most of the members took the 
opportunity of viewing the church of St. Mary, the history of which, 
written by the late Rev. Hugh Pigot, formed Part I. of the third volume 
of the Society's 'Proceedings.' It is a large and handsome structure, 
with a lofty nave and aisles. The altar window has seven principal 
lights filled with fine stained glass ; the window at the east end of the 
chancel is in memory of the wife of a late rector, by whom the chancel 
was restored and re-seated in 1859. It is by Hedgeland, from a painting 
by Overbeck, representing Christ blessing little children. Some of the 
members expressed very strongly their sense of the incongruity of the 
gaudy texts at the west end of the nave. They have only been placed 
there quite recently, and are decidedly out of harmony with the rest 
of the building. After this the party broke up, expressing their great 
pleasure at the success of the excursion, and congratulating Mr. F. 
Machell Smith on his able discharge of the arduous duties of leader. 



GENERAL MEETING.— CHIPPENHAM, LANDWADE, 
and SNAILWELL. June 6, 1884. 

Notwithstanding the threatening aspect of the weather, which 
proved as bad in reality as the gloomiest imagination could have 
anticipated, there was a very good muster of members, most of whom left 
Bury St. Edmund's for Kennett station by the 11.30 train. Convey- 
ances were in waiting at Kennett station, and a start was made for 
Kentford church. The short journey of half a mile crossed the 
boundary between Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. No arrangements had 
been made for a prolonged stay at this point, and the excursionists 
made but a cursory inspection of the church. The building does not, 
in fact, present many features of interest. It dates from the 14th 
century, and is a combination of Decorated and Perpendicular work ; 
the only feature attracting attention was arose window, of five lights, filled 
with stained glass, and placed in the tower ; a gargoyle over the porch also 
caught the eye, but the roof of the church is hidden, the interior is 
whitewashed, and there is nothing calling for special notice. A start 
was then made for Chippenham Park, and the drive to the entrance 
was pleasant and enjoyable. On the way an ancient tumulus was 
pointed out, and the party crossed the old coach-road from London to 



326 

Norwich, where there is a grand avenue of trees, which continues for 
some miles. About this time the rain commenced falling in earnest, 
and thenceforth the excursion was continued beneath a whole series of 
drenching showers with thunder and lightning at intervals. At the 
park gates a guide awaited the party, and he showed the way — and a 
very rough one it was for vehicles — to the site of an old cemetery. 
There was no " stoi'ied urn or monumental bust " to suggest the fact 
to ordinary observers. It appeared to be nothing more than a very 
uninteresting gravel pit. Mr. H. Prigg said that the pailicular spot at 
which they were standing was, a somewhat recent addition to the 
park. It was called the "half moon," and was at one time heath 
and open field. In the latter part of last year, a pit was opened for 
gravel, and in the course of the excavations a number of skeletons were 
unearthed. Hearing of the discovery, he went over, and had since 
watched the operations very closely, in the hope that something definite 
might be ascertained as to the date and character of these interments. 
Unfortunately, however, the w T orks had been delayed, and it was hardly 
possible to state the full character of the discovery. However, it was 
necessary to say, in the first place, that the ground upon which they 
were standing was very near indeed upon the intersection of two ancient 
roads — one of them known as the Peddar .Way and the other as the 
Suffolk Way. Here some dozen skeletons had up to the present time 
been found, and the question they had then to consider was the relative 
ages of the interments and of the people who were there buried. These 
people had evidently been put into the ground in a very barbarous 
fashion. A shallow trench, deeper on one side than on the other, had 
been made, and into this the body had been thrust, with the back to 
one side of the trench, and the head and legs doubled together in what 
appeared to be a very ignominious and hasty fashion. No relics had 
been found with the remains, and the probability was that they were 
put into the ground naked. Certainly there was no christian burial ; 
they were a rude, and no doubt a heathen people. The complete 
remains of only three or four had been recovered, and they represented 
individuals not more than 5ft. 5in. in height — scarcely that. Their 
formation of head was strikingly peculiar. It was that of the dolicho- 
cephalic, or long-headed race, who presented characteristics that were 
not usually found in the ancient cemeteries of the district. He had 
made a^ series of measurements of these skulls, in order to obtain some 
little idea of the race of the people whose remains had thus been found. 
The skulls were remarkably alike, showing that the persons must have 
been of the same race, and that nearly a pure race, and not a mixed 
people. Where remains were unaccompanied by relics, it w ? as only by 
comparision that they could obtain an idea as to the character of the 
people interred. In this case, the cephalic index (to use a scientific 
phrase) was 71 2-3rds, and this corresponded very closely with the 
measurement of skulls of the long-headed race which had been found in 
Yorkshire and a portion of Lancashire, but not in this immediate district. 



327 

At that point they were on the edge of the fen, and it was just possible 
that the skeletons found might be those of persons Avho had made an 
incursion into the country of the short-headed race, and remained there. 
In the trenches there had been found a few animal bones and some 
fragments of the finer Roman pottery ; also a piece of metal, which 
seemed to be part of an armlet, although it was of more solid make 
than was usually found in connection with Roman remains. Mr. Prigg 
added some interesting particulars with reference to the roads converg- 
ing almost at that point, one of which had, it seemed, been the old 
boundary between the counties of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. That 
there had at one time been a road through the park at this point was 
evident from a break in the trees near the wall, and, standing on the 
spot, Mr. Prigg's remarks could be followed with interest. It had been 
arranged that the party should walk through the park and around the 
house, but this part of the programme was abandoned. The rain came 
down in torrents, and archaeological inquiry was pretty well washed out. 
This was the more to be regretted because the house has an interesting 
history. Charles I. once paid a visit there, while other facts connect it, by 
way of contrast, with the fortunes of Oliver Cromwell and his family. 
But the whole place was seen at a disadvantage, and it was with a sense 
of relief that the party were at length brought to 

Chippenham Church. 

It had been announced that a paper would here be read by the 
Rev. Kenelm H. Smith, one of the local secretaries of the Society of 
Antiquaries of London for the county of Cambridge and Isle of Ely. 
Mr. Smith, as a Cambridgeshire man, bade the visitors a hearty and 
graceful welcome to the county. From his account some particulars 
of general interest may be gathered. The manor of the parish was 
given in 1184 to the Society of Knights Hospitallers, who had a chapel 
on or near the site of the church. After passing through various hands, 
it went at the dissolution to Lord North (who secured a good deal, it 
was added, in those times) ; from him it went to Sir Thomas Revet and 
the Montgomeries, and at last to the Thorpe family, who are the present 
holders. The church is dedicated to St. Margaret. It is believed to 
have been built between 1272 and 1377, and the character of the work 
is late Decorated, with Perpendicular portions. Owing to the fact that 
it is largely constructed of the stone of the district, the building is now 
in a somewhat dilapidated condition, but a restoration is contemplated. 
On the wall of the north aisle, the remains of a fresco painting may be 
seen, but it has been so much affected by the damp that the subject 
could scarcely be made out ; apparently it was a representation of our 
Lord's Resurrection, and there is but little hope of saving it from 
complete destruction. Close by is a curious painting on wood, bearing 
no name or any indication of the reason why it was placed there. 
Some discussion took place as to the character of the piers, which are 
on the north alternately octagonal and circular, and on the south 



328 

four-clustered, and of rude construction. The general opinion seemed 
to be that the piers were roughly repaired at some period, and that 
the Norman work, of which traces exist outside, had been rudely 
followed. It is upon record that the original church was burned down 
in 1447, and that the Pope of the time granted indulgencies to all who 
contributed to its rebuilding ; but some doubt was thrown upon this 
statement, as the rood screen, still almost perfect, was probably placed 
in the church prior to the date in question. The monuments include 
one in the chancel to the Revet family, and a number of curious lozenge- 
shaped marble tablets. These are all to the memory of members of 
the Tookie family, who, wherever buried, have placed over them 
monuments of this form. In this novel fashion the name of Tookie 
has been immortalised. While other matters of interest to the anti- 
quarian may be passed over, . something should be said of the five bells. 
The third and fourth are said to be capital specimens of the art of bell- 
founding. They were cast about the time of Henry VII., by somebody 
named Thomas, who always put the word " Darbie " on his bells — but 
who this Thomas was, and where he lived, are mysteries of entrancing 
conjecture to the archaeological mind. For the rest, the oddest things 
noticed were perhaps the huge corbel heads of the doorway of the porch, 
which were pointed out just as the party left. The pitiable state of 
decay into which the church has fallen, w r as only too obvious to the 
most casual inspection, and a very general hope was expressed that 
something would soon be done by way of restoration. Perhaps it may 
be of interest to state that the communion-table is covered with a very 
old-fashioned and peculiar piece of cloth, which is believed to have been 
saved from the wreck of some old religious house on the continent. 
The font is simply atrocious. 

From the church the excursionists walked to the Hope Inn, wdiere 
luncheon was served. Professor Babington referring to the ancient 
cemetery in Chippenham Park, expressed an opinion that the fact of the 
skeletons having been found with the heads and feet close together was 
not necessarily an evidence of hasty burial, as he had seen many 
representations of persons being buried in that way. He hoped that 
the church Avould be restored, and that a careful drawing would be 
taken of the fresco on the wall. 

Freckenham Church. 

The distance was not much over a mile, but it was a -wet and dreary 
journey, the flat country around all blurred and hidden in mist and rain. 
This visit was one of an informal character. No paper was read, and 
those present were left to make their own observations. The Rev. W. S. 
Parish and Mr. E. M. Dewing, however, gave some interesting information. 
The tower of the church fell down on December 29th, 1882. Like the 
famous " One-hoss Shay," if an apparent irreverent comparison may be 
allowed, "it went to pieces all at once." The bells were not injured 
and nobody was hurt. This part of the edifice is now in course of 



329 

re-construction, and something like .£250 is required to complete the 
work. The interior of the church presents a somewhat modern appear- 
ance, the building having been " restored " almost beyond recognition. 
But it presents some few points of interest. The benches are old- 
fashioned, with carved poppy heads, one of them giving a lively 
representation of satan thrusting a sinner into the jaws of hell. Upon 
one of the walls there is a monument of alabaster, illustrating a curious 
legend. In the time of Dagobert there lived a man named Eligius, who 
became a bishop and the patron saint of the blacksmiths, as St. Crispin 
is of the shoemakers. On one occasion a horse was brought to him 
which would not allow itself to be shod. The saint, who was of course 
gifted with miraculous powers, adopted the uncommon method of taking 
off the leg of the horse, and, when it had been shod, he restored it to 
animal. The monument gives a representation of this marvellous pro- 
ceeding ; a similar record may be seen in some church in Norfolk. A 
" low-sided " window was also the subject of remark. The purpose of 
these contrivances is a disputed point, but the explanation possessing 
most interest is that they were places through which pei'sons who were 
suffering from disease could receive the sacrament without coming in 
contact with the priest — hence the name " leper windows." Some further 
information upon this subject, was given by the Rev. Evelyn White, and 
the slight stay here was not uninteresting. An abrupt turn from the 
high road brought the party in sight of 

Landwade Church. 

Landwade church is, properly speaking, a private chapel, belonging 
to the Cotton family. In early times, the patronage was in the hands 
of Battle Abbey, but it passed to a Sir Robert Cotton in the reign of 
Edward III. The history of the family who thus became associated 
with the church is remarkable. They dwelt in a moated house hard by, 
and for many long years were in the enjoyment of wide lands and fair 
possessions. Only about 100 years ago, the funeral procession of one 
of them extended from Exning to Landwade, one and a half miles. The 
monuments erected to their memory are of the most costly and elaborate 
design, while the inscriptions (making all allowance for elegiac exaggera- 
tions) show that they played a somewhat prominent part in the history 
of the times. But the glory of the family has departed. The male 
line is extinct, and it is now represented by only two or three estimable 
ladies. To return to the church itself — it is a small perpendicular 
building, with nave, tower, transept, chancel, and south porch. At one 
time it is believed that it contained a great quantity of armour and of 
other curiosities, but in 1794 the tower fell down, and some gipsies, who 
had encamped in the neighbouring wood, obtained an entrance and 
carried off a good deal. The whole character of the work is perpendicular, 
and the details generally good. Points of special interest to which 
attention was directed were the carved corbels of the roof, representing 
faces which are supposed to be studies from life ; the stained glass in the 

S 1 



330 

windows depicting St. Margaret and St. Etheldreda, and showing some 
pieces of richly-coloured blue; the "quari'ies" in one of the windows, 
always marked with special interest by archaeologists ; and the chalice 
and paten, which were spoken of as very beautiful specimens of the 
silversmith's art. The chalice will hold more than a bottle of wine, and 
the suggestion was made that its large size was intended as a protest 
against the denial of the cup to the laity. It was presented to the 
church by one of the Cotton family in 1642. Right in front of the 
altar there are two oblong tombs, the larger of which was evidently at 
one time rich with brasses. The object in placing these tombs side 
by side was discussed by Mr. Smith, who concluded that the smaller 
grave was that of a chantrey priest of known sanctity, buried by the side 
of a great member of the family for the better repose of the latter's soul. 
The sculptured effigy of one of the Cottons is calculated to excite a smile. 
It is supposed to be a likeness. The representation is that of a fatuous- 
looking old simpleton, who has been frozen into an " attitude " the most 
ludicrous. This ancient gentleman was three times married, and one of 
his three w T ives (who must have been a very pretty woman, if this be a 
likeness also) sleeps in cold serenity by his side. It may be noted, as 
a curious fact, that the Rev. Canon Cockshott annually receives the sum 
of £3 12s. 6d. (originally remitted from the endowments of Battle 
Abbey), in consideration of his engagement to preach a sermon to any 
member of the Cotton family who may visit the church. In the 
churchyard is an old stone cross, and two graves only. These are 
placed north and south — a departure from the ordinary custom of which 
no explanation has been given. The Rev. Kenelm Smith testified, 
before leaving, to the great interest that had been taken in the church 
by Canon Cockshott, and said that Mr. Death, the churchwarden, was 
the most kind and considerate of custodians. Altogether, this was 
perhaps the most interesting halt made during the journey. 

Snailwell Church 

was the last place visited. This church is beautifully situated, but, 
externally, the low tower and high pitched roof give it a someAvhat 
peculiar appearance. It has been restored, however, with great care 
and attention, and is a model of what should be aimed at in church 
restoration. Before entering, the Rev. Kenelm Smith, pointed out a 
tombstone erected to the memory of a family of the name of Twiddy. 
Part of the inscription states that the grandmother of Thomas Twiddy 
died on January 18th, 1832, at the age of 109 years. The old lady 
lived at the Snailwell Water Mill, and it is recorded that, when asked 
how she accounted for her long life, she said that her father had always 
insisted upon everyone in his house " resting awhile " after dinner. 
When the company had assembled, Mr. H. Pi'igg read a paper, giving a 
detailed account of the manor and church. The name of the place is 
supposed to be derived from a spring in the neighbourhood, at the head 
of which there may be found a great many snails — hence the name 



331 

"Snail-well." An old inhabitant of the village bequeathed a sum of 
money to one William Shakespeare. The church includes a Norman 
tower, nave, north and south aisles, chancel, and south porch, and it 
presents many features of interest to the antiquarian. In the work of 
restoration, a stone coffin, containing the skeleton of a priest, was found. 
The lid may now be seen outside, near the porch. The Rector of the 
parish (Rev. E. Mortlock) entertained the party at tea, and directly 
after a start was made for Newmarket. 



GENERAL MEETING.— IPSWICH. October 6, 1884. 

Between 40 and 50 members and friends of the Suffolk Institute 
of Archaeology and Natural History spent a most interesting day in 
Ipswich on Thursday, October 6. Fine autumn weather, numerous and 
varied objects of antiquity lying within a comparatively small area, and 
detailed descriptive papers combined to render the revived autumn 
excursion one of the most successful in the recent history of the Society. 
The long programme had been compiled with great care by the 
Rev. C. H. Evelyn White, one of the hon secretaries. Perhaps the work 
undertaken was too extensive, only a cursory glance of many antiquities 
being possible under the circumstances. 

St. Peter's Church. 

The rendezvous was at St. Peter's Church, and here, at 10 a.m., a 
good company had assembled. In a paper on the church and parish, 
the Rev. Evelyn White stated that St. Peter's had an historical importance, 
causing it to stand prominently forward in the annals of Ipswich. The well- 
known parish, he said, was, perhaps, more largely frequented by strangers 
bent on seeing antiquities, than any other of the parishes in the heart of 
the town. The position of the church in close proximity to the decaying 
gateway of Wolsey's College, and the once favoured site of that grand 
anticipation of a gigantic mind, brought it to the notice of many who 
might otherwise quit the place in total ignorance of one of the many 
interesting ecclesiastical edifices that adorn the town, and gave the 
designation to a parish which in past days had done much to make 
Ipswich famous. It was a river-side parish, lying on both sides of the 
Gipping, but that part of it bordering on the south side of the river, 
much of which was anciently marsh and plantation, formed a separate 
parish known as St. Augustine's, where stood St. Leonard's Hospital. This 
was thrown into St. Peter's at the close of the 15th century. Coming to 
the church Mr. White said that a series of restorations, for the most part 
judicious and sound, had been carried out. The church was somewhat 
remarkable for the massive appearance of its tower, which rises to a 
height of 93 feet, and is 24 feet square, and is, with the exception of 
the modern erection of St. Mary Tower, the finest church tower in the 
town. After an allusion to the re-building of the upper stages of the 



332 

tower last year, Mr. White said the north-east side rested upon a very 
massive arch scarcely to be equalled in the county. This was formed 
chiefly of rubble and stone. The tower is a fine example of flintwork, 
the battlement and buttresses being wrought with freestone. The style 
of the interior of the church was principally Decorated. There were 
on either side of the nave clustered pillars with richly moulded caps. 
The windows in the aisles and the north side of the clerestory were 
Decorated, those on the south side of the clerestory being Perpendicular. 
There was no chancel arch. The modern ceiling of the nave cut off 
the head of the fine Perpendicular tower arch. The font was especially 
worth notice, probably Norman ; it was of black marble, large, and in 
shape square, sculptured with twelve quaint repi*esentations of animals, 
somewhat similar to one at Winchester cathedral. It was mounted 
on a Perpendicular base, on which were four mutilated figures. Among 
the numerous bequests Mr. White mentioned that in 1446 Alice 
Bawde left to the Guild of St. Gregory in St. Peter's 20d. Iois 
Caldwell de Soham Monachorum, by his will dated 1506, directed his 
body to be buried by his father "yn the chapel of St. Jno. withyn the 
Parish Church of St. Petyrs in Ipswich." In 1509 Wm. Plesyngton 
left to the church, two processionaries, &c. ; thirty masses to be sung in 
the church for his soul and the soul of Emma, his wife ; a sheet for 
covering the high altar, and a barrel of beer, with bread, to be given in 
the church at his expense to the poor of the parish ; two silver clasps 
and two silver pins to the best mass book in St. Peter's "for as long as 
they will endure," and concluded by declaring his wish that Sir Jeffry 
(a priest) should be the supervisor of his will, and to have for his labour 
20d. and "a payer of pabylls with gold waytes and a boke of comem- 
moration." In 1503 Agnes Walworth left to the church a cup of silver 
gilt, and a request to be prayed for in the Bead Roll for one whole year. In 
a Will dated 27th April, 1510, the devisor deputes Sir Jeffry his ghostly 
father to sing a trental of thirty masses for his soul in St. Peter's 
church. John Heyneys, of Ipswich, on May 19th, 1495, bequeathed 
to the guild of St. Peter 3s. 4d., and to the reparation of the Holy Cross 
in the house of St. Peter, " when it is amended and newly-repaired," 
6s. 8d. John Keve, in 1526, after leaving 20d. to the High Altar of 
St. Peter's, leaves the residue of his goods, after the payment of his 
debts, towards certain pilgrimages that he promised in his life time to 
Our Lady of Grace at Ipswich, Our Lady of Walsingham, St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, and to St. Cornelius of London. Elizabeth Watson, 
in 1525, ordered her executors to sell her six silver spoons, and with 
the money give towards a silver chrismatory for the same church. 
According to the church books in 1576 large reparations of the 
church took place, and in 1593 the chancel was entirely rebuilt. 
The Register Books are somewhat disappointing, being almost entirely 
devoid of entries of interest. What is specially vexatious is the loss 
of the earliest register, dating from about 1500 to 1657. The dates 
of the entries in the earliest now existing are from 1657 to 1790. Mr. 



333 

White quoted some of the entries, among them, " 1667, June 5, a child 
that was hurt with a gun was buried." "1720, William Ewen, from 
Hadley, buried in y e Quaker's burying place in S' Peters, Aug' 7." 
"1727, William Gardiner, killed by a" fall from a tree, buried Sep. 12." 
" 1 735, Daniel Howes, a sojourner, was buried of ye snmll-pox. August 5." 
About that time the small-pox carried off a large number of inhabitants. 
"John Christmas, stab'd by a Boy, was buried December 8th." Among 
entries in later register books was "1806, John Scarlett and John 
Scarlett, his son, the former aged 34, and the latter, aged 6 weeks, were 
both killed in one awful moment under a building on the north side of 
the churchyard then erecting, and which fell upon them, buried in one 
grave. August 6." On a fly leaf is written, " On taking a census of 
the parish of St. Peter's in Ipswich on May 27th, 1811, the population 
(exclusive of register'd seamen) was one thousand one hundred and 
twenty-five souls. Edward Griffin, minister." Very few uncommon or 
remarkable names occur. Ruphasha, a female Christian name, occurs 
twice. The ravages of small-pox led the penman to indicate deaths 
from that disease by the initials S.P. In 1734, when the total 
recorded deaths were 27, 16 were from this cause. The rate of 
infant mortality appeared about 1790 to have been very high — 
often the number was more than half the whole number of deaths 
recorded. There are several volumes of parish accounts ; the earliest 
date is 1666. Among the entries are — " 1667. Imprimis, Layd out for 
a pawne upon the steeple and for mending the sparre and spindell and 
painting it ; one hour glass and frame, 5s. 8d." "Payd the preambu- 
lation day for a diner for the men and breade and beare for the boyes, 
£2 12s. 2d." "Payd for the clock mending, £3 12s." "Payd mor to 
the Doktor ffor setting his hand to a Rat, (sic) 2s. 6d." " 1673. Paid for 
a book of prayers for the fast, 8d." " 1675. For paintinge ye church 
dyell, £15 10s." Extracts from the overseers' books were given. Many 
were in the nature of parish relief. In 1681, "Goody Browne to buy a 
wheel, 2s." 1697, " To redeem Goody Smith's bed, lis." 1700, "Paid 
for taking of Cook out of ye Goale, £2 6s. 5d." Throughout the books 
were entries of sums of money raised by the then usual method of 
briefs. In 1698 there was a list of the unfortunate poor who were 
compelled to wear "badges "to show they received parish relief. In 
1721 a rate was made according to the Act of 30th Elizabeth for the 
support of a stipendiary minister at the rate of Is. 6d. in the £, and 
this means of raising money continued for some time, and the rate was 
often recovered by distraint. Near Silent street was a malting, said to 
be the remains of" a mansion granted by Edward VI. to the Bishop of 
Norwich after the decease of Thomas Manning, Prior of Butley, 
who was created Suffragan Bishop of Ipswich in 1525, and had that 
house for his residence. For more than 40 years a Presbyterian 
congregation occupied a small Chapel, situate in the 'Green Yard/ 
until the erection in 1720 of the Independent Meeting House in 
Tacket Street, The is an entry made in 1696 of the payment by 



334 

Mr. Wineall of the Church Rate for this Chapel. Mr. White pro- 
ceeded to point out the priest's doorway in the North wall, which, 
undoubtedly, communicated with the adjacent Priory, and the Decorated 
piscina close by having purbeck marble, one of which only now remains. 
On the south side is a piscina of late date, the adjunct to a side altar 
that was formerly placed here. A list was given of the Incumbents and 
Curates and other ministers who acted in the parish. Mr. White read 
some notes on the Priory of St. Peter and St. Paul, contiguous to the 
churchyard of St. Peter's, founded in the reign of Henry II. and sup- 
pressed when Wolsey proposed to found a college here. At the dis- 
solution the site occupied six acres. Mr. White's paper concluded with 
notes en the church plate, bells, &c, and the more modern history of the 
parish, with quotations of some of the inscriptions on monuments in 
the paiish church ; the two following are of special interest : — 

"Here lyeth the body of John Knapp Marchat 
and portman op this towne of ipswich who 
died y e second day of maye, ann", 1604 and had 
issue by Martha his wife 4 sones & 8 Davghters." 

This appears on a brass laid on the floor of the south chancel aisle, 
above which are figures of a man and woman, the former in the Portman's 
gown, &c. The brasses bearing the coat of arms, and representations of the 
children are gone. There is a good engraving of this brass in Cotman's 
Brasses. The following singular inscription is on a slab at the west 
end of the nave : " Hier lieth Interred Adriaen Adriaenzoo Waywell, 
who when he lived was both Marchand and Master of a Shipp, He 
deceasen the xxn of Decemb A° m.d.c.xx." Mr. H. C. Casley stated 
that during the restoration of the church a few years ago two doors 
were found in the east wall, but where the doors led to had never 
been settled. It had been surmised that the doors gave entrance to 
the priory of St. Peter and St. Paul. Mr. White pointed out that 
early in the 18th century a vestry was erected on the north side of the 
chancel and said it was just possible that these doorways may have been 
erected at the time. 

Mr. Sterling Westhorp read some notes made on his visit to Oxford in 
the year 1879, when he went to the University with a view of obtaining 
the copy of the portrait of Wolsey, by Holbein, now in the Museum. 
When he asked permission of the Dean of Christchurch, the Dean 
informed him that he would find in the Chapter-house, then under 
repair, an interesting stone, Upon inspecting this stone, which was 
inserted in the wall on the right hand of the entrance to the Chapter- 
house of Christchurch, Mr. Westhorp found it to be the foundation stone 
of Wolsey's College at Ipswich, bearing the following inscription — 
"Anno Christi 1528, et regni Henrici Octavi Regis Anglise. 20, Mensis 
Vero Junii 15, positum per Johannam Episcopum Lidensem (Lincoln)." 
Under this was another stone, inscribed as follows : — " Lapidem hunc e 
Ruberibus Collegii Wolseiani Gipovicensis erutum, Decano et Canonicis 
^dis Christi, supremo Testamento legavit Ricardus Canning, A.M., 



335 

Ecclesiorum de Harkstead et Freston in Agro Suffolk, Rector. A.D. 
MDCCLXXXIX." From this it appeared that the stone was given to 
Christchurch by Mr. Canning, and it was on record that the stone was 
found in two pieces worked into a common wall in Woulfounslane. The 
translation of the inscription on the foundation stone was as follows : — 
"In the year of Christ, 1528, and the twentieth of the reign of Henry 
VIII., King of England, on the fifteenth of June, laid by John Bishop 
of Lincoln." This was the John Langland who was also employed by 
the Cardinal to lay the first stone of his college at Oxford. As to the 
origin and character of Wolsey, it might be interesting to some present 
to know that there was very early and independent testimony amongst 
the State papers and MS. of the Republic of Venice. Sebastian 
Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in England from April, 1515, to 
September, 1519, and in constant communication with Wolsey, said in 
his report on returning to Venice that the Cardinal was of low origin, 
and that "he ruled both the King and the entire kingdom." On 
Giustinian's arrival in England the Cardinal used to say to him, " His 
Majesty will do so and so." Subsequently, by degrees, he went, 
forgetting himself, and commence, " We will do so and so." Then he 
reached such a pitch that he used to say, " I shall do so and so." He 
was about 46 years old, very handsome, learned, extremely elocpient, of 
vast ability and indefatigable. He transacted alone the same business 
which occupied all the magistracies, officers, and councils of Venice, both 
civil and criminal, and all state affairs were managed by him. He was 
pensive, and had the reputation of being extremely just. He favoured 
the people exceedingly, and especially the poor, hearing their suits and 
seeking to despatch them instantly. He also made the lawyers plead 
gratis for all poor men ! He was in very great repute, seven times more 
so than if he were Pope. 

St. Mary at the Quay Church. 

Wolsey's gateway en route to St. Mary-at-the-Quay church was 
inspected. It is in the prevailing style of early 16th century archi- 
tecture, and consists of a wide well formed arch, with a square hood 
moulding, above which is a stone bearing the royal arms with supporters, 
on either side is a trefoil headed niche ; this can scarcely have been 
intended for a principal entrance. The Rev. Evelyn White read lengthy 
exti'acts from his published accounts of this church. The most remark- 
able object of interest was the brass tablet at the east end of the 
church to the memory of Thomas and Emma Pounder. This, which 
is one of the best brasses known to be in existence, is in an excellent 
state of preservation, and probably of Flemish workmanship. An 
engraving of it forms the frontispiece of Wodderspoon's Memorials 
of Ipsivich, and it occupies a prominent position in all standard works 
on church brasses, &c. Mr. White stated that the chief points of interest 
in the brass are the two figures of husband and wife, the dress convey- 
ing accurate ideas of how our ancestors clothed themselves. The 



33G 

inscriptions runs, " Here lieth buried Thomas Pounder, merchant and 
some time bailiff of Ipswich, which departed in the year 1525, on the 
7th day of November, and Emma Pounder, his wife, which departed in 
the year 15 — ." The date in the case of the wife had not been filled 
in, because she survived her husband. Another well preserved brass of 
a peculiar shape and dated 1590, was in memory of Augustin Parker. 
In the part of the church known as Tooley's chapel there is a high table 
or altar with a canopy affixed to the east head, with a brass upon which 
some quaint lines are engraved. There are many other curious inscrip- 
tions. This church anciently afforded the right of sanctuary. The pulpit 
is a beautiful piece of work richly carved and panelled. It was an excellent 
specimen of the Jacobean period formerly covered with gilt and paint 
and had a high desk for the clerk attached. The roof of the nave is 
very fine, being a double h tmmer beam roof of handsome construction, 
without a vestige of colour. It suffered somewhat from rough usage during 
the time of the Commonwealth. The carved angels which figured at 
the ends of the hammer beams have disappeared, but the cornice beneath 
retains some of its elaborate work. The compartment nearest the 
chancel arch is boarded, not an uncommon thing in roofs of this kind. 
Just by Tooley's chapel is a squint or hagioscope. It is an opening 
through the pier of the wall near the pulpit for the purpose of enabling 
the worshippers to witness the elevation of the Host and other ceremonies 
once performed at the high altar. The perpendicular font is in a remark- 
ably good state of preservation. There is an Elizabethan chalice marked 
"M.K. 1583." The Register Books contain many interesting entries. 

The Half Moon Inn. 

Leaving St. Mary-at-the-Quay church, the next object attracting 
attention was the ' Half Moon Inn,' remarkable for the well-known corner- 
piece of "the Fox and Geese." Similar representations, slightly altered 
in detail, are not uncommon both in wood and stone, in ecclesiastical 
buildings and elsewhere. Many of the party entered the house, in the 
upper story of which two of the rooms, oak panelled throughout, having 
a handsome old mantle piece, and with oak beams and ornamentation 
in the ceiling, appear to have been originally one. 

The Old Black Friars' Refectory. 

The supposed remains of the Dominican or Black Friars' Refectory, 
at the rear of Christ's Hospital School, were next visited. The remains 
comprise a number of roughly formed arches, and give but a feeble idea 
of the extensive stretch of buildings which formerly occupied so much 
space between the old Shirehall and Lower Orwell street. The materials 
of the ancient buildings were evidently worked into those now standing 
in the locality, this is specially apparent in Star lane. 

The Maltster's Arms, Quay Street. 
In an upper room on the premises was to be seen in a rather 
dilapidated state, an interesting carved mantelpiece, which had been 



purchased by Mr. Felix Cobbold, for his residence at Felixstowe. A 
portion of the material was of deal, the lower part of stone. Some 
interesting features were observed in this neighbourhood. 

"Drake's Cabin." — The Neptune Inn — Mr. Ridley's Premises. 

The Jew's burial-ground and other features of the locality sustained 
the interest until the residence of Mr. Sheldrake, No. 99, Fore street, 
was reached. The " notes " read by the Rev. Evelyn White stated 
that the little that remains here was worthy of special notice. The 
small room on the ground floor is pannelled throughout with oak, but 
the centre of attraction is a mantelpiece of exquisite beauty and 
workmanship. In addition to the ordinary charms which characterise 
this class of work, three distinct compartments contain paintings — one 
is a portrait of a gentleman in Elizabethan costume, using a telescope ; 
the other two represent a terrestrial globe and a ship. Beneath the 
portrait are the lines — 

" He that travels God's world about 
Shall see God's wonders in His Works," etc. 

It is conjectured, and there is some show of reason for the belief, that 
^Thomas Eldred, who accompanied Cavendish in his far-famed nautical 
expedition round the world, resided here — some even say died. Although 
there is much to favour the former, there is but little or nothing in the 
parish register to confirm the latter statement. The popular belief in 
the parish was that the panelling formed the cabin of the renowned Sir 
Francis Drake, hence it was spoken of as " Drake's cabin." The similarity 
of the portrait to well-authenticated pictures of Eldred was sufficient to 
warrant the supposition that the paintings relate to him and his exploits. 
The bold and striking exterior of the "Neptune," immediately 
opposite, and the ornamental work of the interior, occupied the party 
for some little time. The same kind of work is found in a large 
proportion of the ancient houses in the locality, A move was then 
made to the premises of Mr. Ridley, higher up the street, characterised 
by a pargetted exterior, with fine bay windows and ornamental eaves. 
The mantel-piece in the counting-house is especially good. In the old 
court yard was a moulded beam running the entire length, upon which 
is carved "JHON VMERE. 1588;" a date occuring elsewhere in the 
same street. The points of interest en route to St. Stephen's Church 
were the Tankard Inn, formerly part of the town residence of Sir 
Anthony Wingfield, the "Coach and Horses," on the site of Charles 
Brandon's mansion, and some carved house ornamentation opposite. 

St. Stephen's and St. Lawrence Churches. 
Arrived at St. Stephen's church, the archaeologists inspected a little 
niche close by the north door and opposite the principal entrance, and the 
curious pillars, believed to be Purbeck marble. The remains of two 
brasses attracted a good deal of attention. On leaving the church 
attention was directed to a holy water stoup in the west wall of the 

Tl 



338 

tower, observable from St. Stephen's lane, and the Priest's doorway of 
which remains exist in one of the south buttresses. Perhaps the most 
interesing feature of the church is a handsome mural tablet of alabaster, 
gilt, and painted, to the memory of Robert and Mary Leman, who are 
represented in a kneeling attitude and in a like posture below are their 
five children. The inscription is interesting : — 

" Beneath this Monument entombed lye 
The rare remark of a conivgall tye 
Robert and Mary who to show how neere 
They did comply how to each other deare 
One loath behind the other long to stay 
(As married) dyed to-gether in one day." 

At St. Lawrence the handsome and elaborate carving of the outer west 
door of the tower, and similar work on a second door on the left of the 
entrance, attracted notice. A curious relic — the remains of brasses on 
a ground work of stone, with an inscription not satisfactorily deciphered 
— was believed to have been taken from a tomb. The Rev. Evelyn 
White stated that the churchwardens' books were of some interest, and 
read some few extracts from them. On the outside of the east wall an 
inscription beneath the window reads as follows : — " Pray for the souls 
of John Baldwyn and his wife Joane, and all Christian souls." Mr. 
White remarked that the church gave the idea more of a college 
chapel than a parish church. The chancel of the church was built by 
John Draper, whose trade is indicated by the shears which are carved on 
the east wall. The remainder of the church was erected by John 
Botwood, in the 15th century. A church stood on the spot in Norman 
times. The fine tower, recently rebuilt, was much admired The pro- 
gramme included a visit to a subterranean chapel on the premises lately 
occupied by Mr. William Hunt, in Tavern street and Dial lane. This, 
however, had been recently bricked up. The Rev. Evelyn White 
stated that it was brought to his notice by Mr. H. C. Casley. The 
entrance was some feet below the street level, and he thought there 
was no reason to doubt that there were portions of old English doorways. 
He believed one door communicated with St. Lawrence church, and the 
other with a vault lower down the street. There was a feeling at first 
that the subterranean way communicated with the priory which formerly 
stood on the other side of the street. Mr. White also alluded to the 
Priory. 

The "Ancient House," occupied by Messi's. Pawsey and Hayes, 
having been visited some years ago by the Society, was not included in 
the programme, but many of the visitors availed themselves of the 
opportunity of inspecting the interesting building. 

The Luncheon. 

At 1.30 upwards of 40 ladies and gentlemen sat down to luncheon 
at the White Horse Hotel, at which Lord John Hervey presided. 

The President having referred in terms of high appreciation to the 
services rendered to the Institute by the Rev. Evelyn White, and 



339 

especially in reference to the immense pains he had been at in 
making the arrangements in connection with the present occasion, 
his Lordship proceeded to say that the Institute existed for the 
purpose of studying and recording the archaeology, natural history, and 
antiquities of the county. They did not wish to confine their operations 
to West Suffolk, but rather to extend them over the couutv. It was 
a long time since they visited Ipswich, and when they came they 
saw so little of the many objects of interest and histoiical memorials of 
the past that he felt they had done wisely in coming again. They had 
that morning learned a great deal of the religious and social life of their 
ancestors, still much remained behind. Since the Society visited Ipswich, 
two things of importance had occurred, viz., the arrangement of the 
records of the Corporation, and the creation of the new Museum. 
Besides the creation of the material building, the collection had been 
admirably housed by the Curator, Dr. J. E. Taylor. He regretted 
that while they had a good number of new members, they were aware 
of the loss of an old and valued member, the Rev. Hugh Pigot, late of 
Hadleigh, author of the history of that Danish town and other writings 
on Suffolk subjects. His loss left a vacancy it would be difficult to fill. 

The Borough Archives and Regalia. 

The afternoon's work was commenced by inspecting the borough 
archives and regalia, which were displayed in the Council Chamber 
of the Town Hall, the Mayor (John May, Esq.), and other gentle- 
men being present. The objects inspected included "the loving 
cup," the silver oar, and the valuable records frequently referred to. 
Mr. Westhorp read extracts from the report of the Historical Manu- 
scripts Commission, which referred to the flight of "John the Black," 
with the records in the reign of Henry III. To replace these records 
24 bailiffs, in the 19th of Edward III., prepared the Little Domesday 
Book. Two of these remain in the possession of the Corporation, the 
third having passed, under circumstances familiar to the townsfolk, to 
the British Museum. Another volume was the Great Domesday Book — ■ 
a beautiful specimen of penmanship — associated with the name of 
Richard Percival, (see pp. 195). The manuscript of Nathaniel Bacon was 
also very interesting. Bacon, was a great supporter of the Parliamentary 
party in the time of Cromwell. He (Mr. Westhorp) had lately been 
obtaining information for a memoir of him, and he appeared to be a 
most extraordinary man, of indefatigable industry. He was Recorder of 
Ipswich and Bury St. Edmund's, Town Clerk of Ipswich, once repre- 
sentative of the University of Cambridge, and Chairman of the seven 
associated counties, member in four successive Parliaments for Ipswich 
with his brother Francis, churchwarden of St. Margaret's, &c. Bacon 
seemed to have taken great interest in the restoration of St. Margaret's 
church, and in proof of this fact, Mr. Evelyn White had informed him 
that his arms appeared in the roof. This remarkable manuscript was 
compiled from the old records of the borough, and concluded in this remark- 



340 

able way : — " The last day of January put a sad period into my pen, and it 
is in the goodness of Almighty God I have summed up the affairs of the 
government of this town of Ipswich by bailffs, who are happy in this — 
that God hath established their seat more surely than the throne of 
kings." 

The President tendered the thanks of the Society to the Mayor, 
and expressed regret that other arrangements having been made they 
were compelled to decline his worship's invitation to luncheon in the 
Council Chamber. The Mayor replied, and the party inspected the 
ancient stocks stored in the Police Station. The portrait of Nathaniel 
Bacon in the Council Chamber — said to have been taken during life — 
was also examined. 

The Town Library and Museum. 

Proceeding next to the Museum, the party assembled in the Curator's 
room, where a small collection of antiquities specially gathered for the 
occasion was displayed. Here the Rev. Evelyn White was to have read 
his specially prepared paper on " The Old Inns and Taverns of Ipswich," 
but its extreme length led him to defer it. The paper appear at pp. 136 
— 183. Mr. Westhorp first read a paper descriptive of the ancient 
library, stating that it was the same information he had given at the 
visit of the British Archaeological Association a few years since. Refer- 
ence to the early printers of Ipswich, elicited from the Rev. Evelyn 
White a statement that Bale's Britanicorum Scriptorum printed in Ipswich 
in 1548 by Joan Overton contained a portrait of Wickliffe many years 
older than the most ancient portrait of Wickliffe lately exhibited in the 
British Museum in connection with the Wickliffe Quincentenary. On 
making this known to the British M\iseum authorities, the book containing 
the portrait was at once added to the collection. The Rev. Evelyn White 
exhibited an ancient steelyard weight (13th century) found in the grounds 
of Mr. Hale, at Claydon, and read his paper which appeal's at page 131, &c. 
Mr. White also exhibited a fine copy of the old Sarum Hours and an 
illuminated Latin Psalter, in the original pigskin binding (15th century). 
Mr. Chas. Golding contributed a collection of ancient Suffolk prints and 
manuscripts chiefly relating to the town. The Rev. J. Beck exhibited 
and described a very interesting collection of antiquities. The principal 
feature was a set of ten curious Elizabethan fruit platters or trenchers, 
purchased for 2s. at a sale at Clare (see page 220). A Runic calendar, 
commonly called a "clog almanck," purchased in Sweden in 1866. It 
was made of reindeer horn, and was unique, owing to the fact that it 
extended only to 364 days. Mr. Beck mentioned a legend on the point, 
and said this was one of the few calendars siqyporting it. The date of the 
calendar was believed to be between 1220 and 1250. Games, or cock- 
fighting spears, a Persian inkhorn, and some remarkable specimens of 
flint weapons from Narbonne, in France, were included in the case. A 
very .fine Reliquary, sent by Mr. Buchanan Scott, was much admired 
(see page 302). Dr. Taylor read a paper on 



341 

The Results of Some Excavations in the Streets op Ipswich. 

He said : — " Excavations have been made in Tavern-street, Westgate- 
street, and St. Matthew's-street, Ipswich, for the purpose of sewering 
that part of the town. The trench dug for the sewer pipes went 
down to the previously undisturbed beds of the lower drift, so that 
a section could thus be seen of all the materials which had been 
collected and arranged since the settlement of mankind in this part of 
the world. In many places the trench was dug to the depth of ten feet. 
The first feature observed was a bed of virgin soil, covering a stratum of 
irregular sized pebbles and sand, at the end of Tavern-street, and in 
front of the Cornhill. This bed of undisturbed soil contained much 
vegetable matter, and occasional trunks of trees. Passing the Cornhill 
is the commencement of Westgate-street, and in tracing the bed of 
virgin soil it was found to undergo a remarkable change. The stratum 
on which it rested became more clayey and impervious to moisture, so 
that it was evident a kind of marsh had thus been formed. It should 
be stated that the progress of all the sewerage excavations is along the 
base of the high and suddenly rising ground which forms this side of 
the valley of the Orwell and Gripping. Many springs flowed from along 
this steep side, and the moisture would naturally collect at the bottom, 
especially if it happened to be capable of holding it. The virgin soil 
which covered the drier parts was changed to peaty matter under these 
circumstances. In some places this peaty soil was five feet in thickness. 
A "corduroy" road had evidently been carried through this marsh, for 
the logs of wood were piled on each other in alternate fashion, as if to 
bridge the marshy places. Near the opening of Providence-street into 
Westgate-street the section showed this corduroy road very plainly, 
and I had a piece dug out, when the logs were seen to be secured 
to each other by wooden pegs. In this part was found a bone- 
needle and a portion of a comb, also formed of bone. A similar 
portion had been met with in the virgin soil bed near the Cornhill 
about a hundred yards lower down. From the ornamentations 
I judge them to be of rude Saxon workmanship. The black soil was in 
places abounding in oyster and mussel shells. Bones of animals were 
also plentiful, especially of swine, deer, sheep, and oxen. In one place 
the skull of a horse was dug out. The quantity of red deer's antlers 
(all with burs attached, showing they were the antlers of slain animals) 
was surprisingly great. Many of these antlers had had the main shaft 
cut off, no doubt to serve as handles for whittles or knives. The great 
number of deer give evidence of the wild state of the surrounding 
country where they abounded. The bed of virgin soil, as well as what 
I may call its continuation into a bed of muddy peat, contained quan- 
tities of rude pottery, all broken into shreds. From the character of 
this pottery I judge it to be of Saxon workmanship. The bed of peat 
was very full also of trunks and branches of such trees as love to grow 
in swampy spots, such as alder, birch, and hazel. Five or six feet of 
" made " earth, and accretions from road mending overlaid the two beds 



342 

just mentioned. From this accumulated and overlaying material I 
obtained, first, some very broad-headed nails, used for tyring waggon 
wheels, and also pieces of the iron tyres, both indicating that the wheels 
must have been very large and broad. An iron stirrup turned up, 
remarkable for its rude workmanship. In the uppermost part of the 
road material, a steel " strike-a-light " brought us up to the date of 
tinder-boxes. No coins whatever were met with in the older beds, and 
only a few of Anne and the Georges in the later road material. After 
passing the site of the ancient Westgate, on the outer part of it, in St. 

Matthew's, we came upon five human skeletons, at a depth of six feet 
from the surface. The skull of one was broken into, as though its 
owner had died a violent death. No metal or coins of any kind were 
associated with these remains. Continuing the sewerage cutting up to 
the top of St. Matthew's (where for the present it terminates) we find it 
ascending higher ground. In the section, the place previously occupied 
by the virgin soil, and the peat bed, was taken by a layer of wiry 
peat, very dry, of about 18 inches in thickness. This I found to be 
almost entirely composed of roots and branches of the common heather. 
The absence of Roman remans is very remarkable. The ancient history 
of the town of Ipswich, is very poor in incident, and this chapter in its 
early physical history may in some measure help us to realize its first 
beginnings as a group of rude huts, inhabited by as rude inhabitants." 

The Christchurch Mansion. 

Mr. T. N. Fonnereau kindly granted permission to visit the Christ- 
church (Elizabethan) mansion, and the large party, on leaving the Museum, 
proceeded thither at 4.30. 

The Rev. Evelyn White read from copious notes in the dining hall. 
He stated that the mansion occupied the site of the old Christchurch or 
Holy Trinity Priory, established in 1172 — one of the earliest monasteries 
in the town. It was inhabited by Augustine Canons, but was not large. 
He invited the company to inspect a fine monumental slab, now used as 
a door-step outside the conservatory, stating that he had very little doubt 
in his mind that it formerly covered the remains of the founder of the 
priory and his wife Norman and Langeline, notwithstanding that the slab 
only dated from the 13th century probably. Tracing the history of the 
priory, Mr. White said he had been informed by Mr. Fonnereau that the 
late Mr. Powell Hunt, a local antiquary, stated with much assurance that 
remains of a Druid temple were found during excavations on the bowling 
green. Fragments of tesselated pavement had been discovered at the 
spot where the ice-house now stands, where there was also a covered well, 
no doubt used by the inmates of the Priory ; fragments of ornamental 
masonry were constantly being turned out, showing clearly that the 
mansion was largely made up of material which in olden days formed 
another building. The date of the mansion (1549) was stated in a stone 
over the chief entrance, and there are several interesting inscriptions of 



343 

this character. The entrance hall is very imposing, and presents sunie of 
the best features. It is oak panelled, and overlooked from a gallery on 
each side, the latter leading to several suites of large and well-pro- 
portioned apartments. The hall is richly adorned with portraits, among 
them being Charles, Earl of Yvery and his Countess, ancestors of the 
Fonnereau family. Several beautifully-carved and inlaid chests stand in 
the hall and adjacent corridors. One of the rooms on the ground floor 
contains a numerous collection of stuffed birds, and on the wall hangs some 
handsome tapestry work, representing Venus and the Graces, the colours 
being still bright. In another room a large cartoon, by Edward Smythe, 
adorns the wall. The subject is Sir Philip Sidney at the battle of 
Zutphen ; the hero is depicted at the moment of declining the proffered 
cup of cold water, and motioning that it be given to the wounded 
soldiers. All the rooms were unreservedly thrown open to the visitors. 
The tradition of " confessional " attaches to a small room on the second 
floor, owing probably to the form of an opening, somewhat resembling a 
squint, in the wall. The tradition was declared to be purely mythical. 

Several members of Mr. Fonnereau's family were present and used 
every endeavour to interest the large party. Before leaving the mansion, 
the visitors were invited to partake of refreshments. 

St. Margaret's Church. 

The daylight was fast waning when the remnant of the party 
visited St. Margaret's Church, and the numerous objects of interest 
could only be seen by the aid of gaslight. The octagonal font is 
remarkable for a curious inscription sal et saliva, on one of the shields. 
The Rev. C. H. Evelyn White stated that the inscription referred to the 
ancient custom of the priest, when baptising the child, putting salt in its 
mouth and anointing with spittle. The splendid open timber roof, a curious 
slab in memory of the first of the Withipole's occupying Christ Church 
mansion, (fixed near the north transept door,) the almost perfect remains 
of an altar tomb in the Lady chapel, rood staircase with doorway on 
either side, stone coffin lid with floriated pattern, a curious painting of 
the Prince of Wales' Feathers (a.d. 1660), and other objects were examined. 
The register dates from 1536, and is one of the oldest in England. The 
Rev. Mr. Murray, a former incumbent of the parish, converted the earliest 
book from a fragment into a well-preserved volume ; it is written on 
paper. The entries include the burial of a female hanged for witchcraft 
on Bolton Common, a reference to the character and death of Edward VI, 
etc., etc. The deeply interesting history of the old Priory, and the church, 
&c, will shortly be published in a volume compiled by the Rev. C. H. 
Evelyn White, curate of the parish. With this visit the long, but most 
pleasant day came to an end, the meeting having afforded the greatest 
satisfaction to a considerable body of ardent archaeologists, who throughly 
appreciated the efforts that had been made to interest them. 



GARIANONUM, 

AND THE COUNT OF THE SAXON SHORE. 

By the REV. JOHN JAMES RAVEN, D.D., 

Vicar of Fressingfield with Withersdale. 



(Read in part at Burgh Castle, July 6th, 1885.) 

It is a matter for genuine congratulation that the 
members of the Suffolk Archaeological Institute have at 
last paid a visit to the great Roman Camp situated in 
their county. Few counties are so favoured as to contain 
a Camp with stone walls, and in no instance is the 
preservation of these ramparts more complete than we 
find it in this secluded spot, where most are inclined to 
recognise the Garianonum of the Notitia Imperii, and the 
Cnobbersburh of Bede. 

The normal Roman Camp was square, as we find 
from Polybius, the length of each side being 2,017 
Roman feet, with a clear space of 200 feet left every- 
where between the vallum and the tents.* 

In England, however, we have not such an example, 
even at Richborough (Ritupice). At Pevensey (Anderida) 
and Silchester (Calleva) the rubble walls apparently 
follow in part the irregular lines of a British earth-work, 
while here, although the rectangular form is adhered to, 
the length is more than half as much again as the 
breadth. The dimensions are, internally, 620 ft. by 
383 ft., and the average height is from 14 to 15 feet, 

* Polyb. Hist. Lib. vi, 28. 
Vol. vi. Part 3. 



346 

according to measurements made by me, Sept. 13, 1886. 

The question at once arises as to whether Burgh 
Castle originally had four walls, or was protected on the 
*W.N.W. side by what was then an arm of the sea. To 
this question Mr. Harrod's labours were largely directed 
by desire of the late Sir John Boileau, to whose spirit 
the preservation of this splendid monument is due. 

The opinion of those who denied the existence of a 
fourth wall was defended on the ground that the sea 
would form an adequate protection at the back. No 
doubt the whole of the marsh might be flooded at an 
exceptionally high spring-tide, or under the influence of 
a north-westerly gale, or by heavy freshets, or by a 
combination of these causes, but a dry, still season, and 
the absence of unusual tides, would bring about a 
different state of things ; and indeed the most unfavour- 
able condition of the marshes would offer no fatal obstacle 
to the pirates who swarmed up the estuaries and creeks of 
this part of the country. On this ground there is really 
no presumption against the hypothesis of a fourth wall. 
Rather, the existence of a British tumulus on the spot 
where the Thorpe station now stands, and the salting 
mound just above the present average water level, in 
Herringfleet, would favour the idea that there has been 
but little change in that level, since the days of the 
Roman occupation. But Mr. Harrod's excavations went 
to the extent of affording strong positive evidences 
as to the fate of the fourth wall. The ragged ends of 
both north and south walls, and the broken bonding 
courses convinced him that both walls must have been 
extended beyond their present terminations, and thus he 
was led, at his first visit in 1850, to make a series of 
trenches on the low ground to the west, separated by a 
hedge from the present path leading to the Cement 
Works. He began nearly opposite to the Praetorian 
Gate, but a little further to the north, and worked 

*The bearings of the walls are E.S.E., S.S.W., W.N.W., and N.N.E. 
We shall distinguish them hereafter as E., S., W., N., respectively. 



347 

steadily southward. Very little reward he met with at 
first, broken mortar, loose flints, and fragments of tiles ; 
but in one place he found a layer of flints, placed on 
the clay, with a thin covering of gravel sifted over 
them. One of Sir John Boileau's gardeners, James 
Kettle, drew Mr. Harrod's attention to this, as the 
same thing had been observed in the foundations of a 
small building within the walls, to be noticed presently. 
But this faint indication of the foundation of a wall was 
soon excelled by that which was found in the trench 
numbered 3. Here, four feet below the surface a frag- 
ment of the wall was reached, which in its fall had 
retained its continuity. Penetrating a little below this 
a number of oak piles about a foot apart were discovered. 
On these the wall had originally rested, and further 
investigations in the trench No. 1, showed the piling 
precisely in the line of foundation indicated in the other 
trenches. The piles, Mr. Harrod tells us, "were about 
a foot apart, and had clay, chalk-stones, mortar, &c, 
very firmly rammed in between them to the depth of about 
eighteen inches, after penetrating which space, black mud 
was thrown out, speedily followed by the water, which 
then rose a little above the top of the piling, and, as I 
judge, to the level of the water in the adjacent drains." 
The obvious difficulty of carrying out extensive diggings 
in such a position as that of that of the foothpath below 
the Camp, prevented Mr. Harrod's enquiries from being 
pushed much further. In one trench, marked 15 on his 
plan, a solid mass of mortar was found seven feet below 
the footpath, but the hole had to be filled up, and from 
that day to this no further excavation has been made on 
that special spot. 

Where then is the West Wall ? Its fragments have 
doubtless been dispersed over the vicinity of the camp. 
Some, perhaps, underlie the oozy bed of the Waveney, 
or even of Breydon. Some may be looked for in farm- 
buildings, cottages, or in the walls of the parish church 
of Burgh Castle. Much very likely has been ground to 



348 

powder on the roads of the Lothingland Hundred. But 

Mr. Harrod's investigations will carry conviction to most 

minds that at Burgh Castle, as at Richborough, the camp 

originally had four walls.* 

The characteristic — 

" Indurate flint, and brick in ruddy tiers 
With immemorial lichen frosted o'er." 

— require no notice here; but it may be a question 
whether the overhanging of the walls is not to a certain 
extent intentional, and the higher level of the ground 
inside the camp is to be remarked. 

Six cylindrical bastions remain, of which one on 
the west side has fallen, — 

" undergnaw'd by years." 

— The diameter is about 14 feet, and only the upper part 
is at all bonded with the walls, which circumstance 
suggests that they were built at a time between the com- 
mencement and the completion of the walls. Down the 
middle of each is a round hollow space, apparently for 
the insertion of the centre timber of a temporary wooden 
turret, to be raised in case of an attack on the camp. 

Adjoining the West wall was a room sixteen feet six 
inches square, the foundation resting on a layer of flints 
with fine gravel sifted over them, as described above. 
The flue formed by the usual flanged tiles was found, 
with some indications of a furnace. 

On each side of the Praetorian Gate the remains of 
a wall were discovered, turning inwards at right angles 
to the main wall. Mr. Harrod conjectures this to have 
been merely intended to keep the roadway clear of 
earth. No other discoveries were made hereabouts, 
save a narrow trench just within the gate, apparently for 
the reception of a wooden threshold ; but Mr. Harrod 
expressed his conviction that he was wrong in not digging 
to a greater depth, and in adhering too closely to a 
straight line. 

Thus far later investigations on the spot take us ; but 

* See Norfolk Archceology v, 146. 



349 

we cannot leave the material aspect of Garianonum, 
without recording the cinerary urns found at Runham 
Vauxhall a few years ago. Mr. H. Watling, of Stonham, 
is my informant. The urns, with a coin of one of 
the Constantine family, were on his brother's property, 
on what was then probably the west bank of some 
backwater joining various branches of the estuary. 
This little Roman or Romano-British settlement may thus 
have been the parent of the Borough of Great Yarmouth. 

Written testimony will take us no further back than 
the geographer Ptolemy, whose great work dates from 
about the time of Hadrian. 

In Ptolemy* (Geog. Lib. n. cap. 3) the mouth of 
the Yare takes its place thus on the East Anglian coast : — 



LONG. LAT. 



Metaris sestuarium 


20 


30 


: 55 , 


, 40 


Garieni flu. ost. 


21 




55 . 


, 20 


Extensio 


21 . 


, 15 : 


: 55 . 


6 ? 


Idumanii flu. ostia 


20 




55 , 


, 10 


Tamesa sestuarium 


20 . 


30 


54, 


. 30 



16 



However much he may have been misinformed as to 
the Scotch coast, imagining it to run out nearly eastward 
from the Forth, his account of our own shore shows 
practical acquaintance with its outline. The tendency 
of the measurements is to thrust the mouth of the 
Garienus northward and Extensio eastward, which tallies 
with the natural changes of situation, the Caister mouth 
being then probably regarded as the principal haven, and 
Lowestoft Ness having suffered curtailment in common 
with other points of projection. Ptolemy's degrees of 
longitude, it must be remembered, start from Fortunatce 
Insulce, which are generally regarded as the Canary Isles. 
A gap of some 240 years occurs before we meet with 
Garianonum in the Survey of the Roman Empire, made 
shortlv before its division into Eastern and Western 

* My quotations are from Sebastian Munster's edition (Basle, 1540.) I have to 
thank the Mayor and Corporation of Colchester for access to the book, which forms 
part of Archbishop Harsnet's library. 



350 

Empires, under Arcadius and Honorius. This great 
work, generally known as Notitia Imperii, bears on its 
title page, as published by Frobenius in 1552 : — 

"Notitia Utraque cum Orientis turn Occidentis ultra Arcadii 
Honoriique Csesaruni tempora, illustre vetustatis mouumentum, imd 
thesaurus prorsum iuconiparabilis." 

From this work it appears that the Britains were 
then divided into five provinces. 

(1) Britannia iT, South of the Thames 

(2) 11% Wales 

(3) Flavia Ccesariensis, all the country between 

the Humber and the Thames, including 
all the Eastern Counties but the coast line. 

(4) Maxima Ccesariensis, from the Humber to the 

Cheviots, and 

(5) Valentia, the Scottish Lowlands. 

— These were under Consulares (4) and (5), or Prcesides 
(1), (2), (3), who were subject to the Vicar of the 
Britains, himself one of the six Vicarii or Deputies of 
the Proconsul of Africa. Their jurisdiction, though 
mainly fiscal,* (" Virum spectabilem Vicarium, quern, 
totius collectionis et transmissionis cura constringit." 
Cod. Th. ut infra) extended, through the Agentes in rebus, 
to the Public Post and the Detective Police, under the 
Stationarii and Curiosi respectively ; and it is remarkable 
that on the staff of the Vicar of the Britains is one officer 
entitled Princeps de 8chola\ Agentum in rebus, the 
Principal of the College or Corporation of these officials. 
Again, these four provinces were under the Praetorian 
Prefect of the Gauls, among whose functions was that of 
the Judge in a Court of Final Appeal.^ Again, three 
officers, the Count of the Britains, the Duke of the 
Britains, and the Count of the Saxon Shore throughout 
the Britains, were under the Master of the Foot in the 

* I. Cod. Just, xxxviii. I. Cod. Theod. Tit. vi. 

t Probablv equivalent to consortium, Amm. Marc, xv, 5. 

X I. Cod. Just. xxvi. I. Cod. Theod. Tit. v. 



351 

West ; and this expression must not be read too definitely, 
as a great body of cavalry was under this command. 

Of these three, the jurisdiction of the Count of the 
Britains was apparently in the central parts of the island, 
that of the Duke of the Britains unquestionably in 
Maxima Ccesariensis, for to him was committed the North 
Wall, the Stations of Doncaster {Danum) Lancaster 
(Longovicus), Borough (Braboniacum) &c. ; and that of 
the Count of the Saxon Shore, with whom our paper is 
concerned, over the whole coast line from Brancaster to 
the middle of Sussex. His stations were 

(1) Brannodunwn — Brancaster 

(2) Garianonum — Burgh Castle 

(3) Othona — Bd-adwell-juxta-Mare. 

(4) Regulbium — Reculver 

( 5 ) Ritupia? — Richborough 

(6) Dubri — Dover 

(7) Lemanni — Lympne in Romney Marsh 

(8) Anderida — Pevensey 

(9) Portas Adarni — now swallowed up by the sea, 

near New Shoreham, where the mouth of 
the Adur used to be. 

Now our Garianonum being " sub disposition e viri 
spectabilis, Comitis Litoris Saxonici per Britanniam " it 
is certain to have been visited and inspected in its turn, 
from time to time. This officer must have been a man 
of high dignity, though not of the highest, spectabilis, 
but not illustris, with a staff rather greater than that of 
the Comes Britanniarum, whose name follows his in the 
Notitia. 

A passage in Ammianus Marcellinus (xv. 5) throws 
light upon the title spectabilis, and the way in which it 
might be acquired. 

In the year 355 Silvanus, Master of the Foot in the 
West, and thus the superior officer of the Count of the 
Saxon Shore, assumed the purple in Gaul, casting 



352 

Constantius II. into abject terror. The Emperor could 
not meet his rival in the field, but despatched Ursicinus, 
an officer who had fallen into disfavour through his 
military successes, and who was anxious to retrieve his 
position in any way, to compass treacherously the 
destruction of Silvanus. Ursicinus started at once from 
Italy, accompanied by only twelve men, of whom the 
historian himself was one, and using all possible expedi- 
tion arrived at Cologne, whither Silvanus had betaken 
himself, before any imagined that the assumption of the 
Empire had become known at Rome. The rumour of 
their approach, however, preceded them, and they found 
the city in a state of excitement. It was agreed to lull 
the new Emperor into security by every mark of out- 
ward respect. Ursicinus was brought courteously into 
the Imperial presence, and after having performed the 
customary acts of profound obeisance was himself 
regarded as spectabilis and intimus, the latter epithet being 
naturally suitable to the status of a Comes * How he 
improved the occasion to the murder of Silvanus does 
not belong to our work. Such then was the rank and 
dignity of the great officer to whom the protection of the 
Saxon Shore was entrusted. 

The Notitia gives the following as the forces under 
his command : — 

" Sub dispositione uiri spectabilis, Comitis litoris saxonici per 
Britanniam. 

Praepositus numeri Fortensium Othonae praepositus militu. 
Tungricanorum Dubris, praepositus numeri Turnacesium Lemannis. 
Praepositus equitum Dalmatarurn Branodunensis Branoduno. Praepositus 
equitii Stablesian' Garianonensis Garianono. Tribunus cohortis primae 
Vetasiorii Regulbio Praepositus Legionis Secundae Augustae Rutupis. 
Praepositus numeri Abulcorum Anderidae. Praepositus numeri 
exploratorum portu Adurni." 

The Dalmatian horse were scattered in many 
stations and under many skies, from Brancaster, where 

* Susceptus tamen idem Dux leniter, adactusque, inclinante negotio ipso cervices, 
adorare sollenniter anhelantem Celsius purpuratum, ut spectabilis colebatur et intimus. 
Amm: Marc: xv. 5. 



353 

they could almost see the sea-walls which the Coritani 
were throwing up under Roman supervision, to Phoenicia, 
the Euphrates valley, and where Beer-sheba loots north 
towards the hill country of Judah, and south over the 
wilderness of Arabia. 

The Stablesian (African) horse were also posted at 
other places besides Burgh Castle — at Pelusium in the 
Delta of the Nile, in Scythia, in Moesia. The Fortenses, 
of whom we know less, were in Spain and Africa, as well 
as on the Essex coast. 

The Tungrican foot at Dover, from what is now 
Tongern in the Bishopric of Liege, were of a race which 
had thrown off its allegiance to the Romans during the 
revolt of Civilis (a.d. 70), and joined the standard of 
that gallant chief with their leaders Campanus and 
Juvenalis.* They had become serviceable enough again 
by the time of the Notitia. Among the Auxilia Palatina 
we find Sagitarii Tungri, and again Tungri, no doubt 
infantry. Both archers and foot appear also as serving 
under the Count of Illyricum. 

The Turnacenses at Lympne, from Tournay, and 
the Abulcians at Pevensey, I can find at no other stations. 

We cannot go wrong in identifying the Vetasii at 
Reculver with the Betasii, neighbours of the Tungri, and 
coupled with them by Tacitus in the place already referred 
to. Archdeacon Battely, in his Antiquitates Rutupinae\ 
directs attention to five important passages, of which I 
quote one. " Rhutupi portus, hand procul a Morinis, in 
austro positos Menapios, Batasiosque prospectat."J The 
limits of paper and time must be my excuse for leaving 
the Second Legion and the Exploratores. 

The Notitia then gives the Officium or staff of atten- 
dants and other subordinates at the disposal of the Count 
of the Saxon shore in these terms : — 

" Officium autem habet idem uir spectabilis Comes hoc modo. 

* Tac. Hist. iv. 66. t p. 35. 

t Orosius I. 2. The other four are. Tac. Hist. IV. 56, 66, Plin. H. JV., iv. 17, and 
Cic. Ep. ad Atticum, xiv. 10. The last depends on a reading of Beatus Rhenanus. 



354 

Principem ex officio Magistri prsesentalium a parte peditum. Numer- 
arios duos ut supra ex officio supradicto. Commentarieusem ex officio 
supradicto. Cornicularium. Adiutorem. Subadiuuam. Regerendarium. 
Exceptores. Singulares, & reliquos Officiales. " 

— Of these the Princeps, who seems to be the Lieutenant 
of the Count, two Numerarii and the Commentariensis come 
from head-quarters, being from the staff of the Master 
of the Foot Guards, as we should term prcesentales pedites. 
In the Theodosian Codex (vn, 1, 17) is a constitution 
of Arcadius, given at Constantinople, a.d. 398, command- 
ing the recall of all soldiers, prsesentals as well as pro- 
vincials, to their proper quarters — 

" Revocari suos quosque ad numeros et sedes, tarn Prsesentales, 
quam Provinciales milites jubentur." On which Gothofred says 
" Prsesentales dico, qui, de more in Urbe Constantinopolitana, prsesenti 
in ea Principe, ejusque comitatu versari solebant, et Principis obsequio 
deputati erant, &c. His scilicet verbis intelliguntur Praesentales, qui 
Principe Constantinopoli hserente inibi quoque degebaut." 

In the Western Empire, mutatis mutandis, the preesentals 
must have been normally at Rome. 

The functions of the Count of the Saxon Shore must 
have been partly fiscal, from his having two Numerarii on 
his staff, for these were revenue officers, as we learn from 
the Theodosian Codex (vm, 1). They bear no good 
name, various rescripts referring to their pride, greed, 
fraud, and sloth. They may be placed on the ecukus, 
if necessary, for the detection of the falsification of their 
accounts. No military promotion is for them. They 
are to buy and sell nothing during their term of office, 
which lasted at first two years, then was increased to 
five, and finally diminished to three. When their time is 
up they are to wait in their provinces a year to answer 
any charges brought against them. Altogether they are 
regarded as a bad lot, and they do not seem to have 
improved, as the last period mentioned was subsequently 
doubled. 

Among the functions of the Commentariensis was the 
superintendence of prisons, and the Cornicularius, Adjutor, 



355 

and Subadj'uva, were in all probability his assistants. A 
constitution of Valentinian, Valens and Gratian (a.d. 371) 
De Fideli Custodia shows this group of officials to have 
been as tricky as the last. 

" Ad Commentariensem receptarum personarum custodia observa- 
tioque pertineat nee putet hominem abjectum atque vilem objiciendum 
esse Judiciis, si reus condicione aliqua fuerit elapsus. Nam ipsum 
volumus ejus paena consurni, cui obnoxius docebitur pusse, qui fugerit. 
Si vero Commentariensis necessitati aliqua procul ab ofiicio egerit, 
Adjutorem ejus pari jubemus invigilare cura, et eadem statuimus legis 
severitate constringi " (Cod. Th. ix, 3, 5). 

The actual custodians of the prisons were Clavicularii. 
The Commentariensis is so called " quod Commentarios, 
id est rationes custodiarum et damnatorum conficeret." 
The Corniculum was in earlier days, apparently, a horn- 
shaped ornament awarded for distinguished service in the 
field. L. Papirius (Liv. x, 44) rewards his cavalry, 
" corniculis armillisque argenteis," after the taking of 
Aquilonia aud Cominium. Hence came the military office 
of Cornicularhis, transferred afterwards from the adjutant 
of a centurion to the deputy of a commentariensis. The 
Bubadjuva I find only in the Theodosian Codex (vi, 27, 3) 
in the civil service among the Agentes in rebus, but from 
the collocation of offices in the Notitia, he must have 
been a subordinate of the Commentarienis and Cornicularius. 
I can find nothing about the Regerendarius, and am driven 
to conjecture from the form of the word that his function 
was to block out fresh work for his superiors, arrange 
new expeditions, &c. 

Uxceptores, who were originally amanuenses, came 
to be officers in the Chancery of the Imperial Court, and 
Singulares, so called from their not using letters, but 
words, notce, were short-hand writers, mentioned in 
Codex Justinianus (I. 27, 1 & 8). 

I pass to a notice of the doings of Counts of the Saxon 
shore given by Ammianus Marcellinus (xxvn, 8). It is 
the only one I have lighted on. 



356 

It is the year 368. The morose and sanguinary- 
Emperor Valentinian is hurrying from Amiens to Treves. 
The itinerary route is by Cormeilles, Soissons, Arlon, &c. 
Somewhere in this wild forest district a message from our 
island reaches him. The barbarians have reduced the 
Britons to the last stage of distress. Nectaridius, Count 
of the Maritime district ("maritimi tractus") is killed. 
Fullofaudes, the Duke, in the north, is surrounded by 
enemies. Horror-stricken, the Emperor despatches to the 
spot Severus, Count of the Body-guard, almost imme- 
diately recalls him, replaces him by Jovinus, who sends 
on Provertides with the utmost speed to organise the 
army. Then as rumours thicken and the gloom deepens, 
Theodosius (father of the Emperor of the same name), a 
man of high military reputation, takes the supreme 
command. He takes the sea at Boulogne, crosses to 
Richborough (Rutupiae), close to Sandwich, one of the 
stations of the Count of the Saxon shore. Gathering his 
forces, Batavians, Heruli, Jovini, Victores, he attacks the 
disorderly band of plunderers near London ( a Lundinium, 
vetus oppidum, quod Augustam posteritas appellavit"), 
wins an easy victory, sets the captives free, restores the 
booty, reserving but a moderate share for his men, settles 
the country under a firm and just ruler, Civilis, and 
returns to France, covered with glory, next year. But 
the tide of barbarian invasion was not thus to be arrested. 
In the following year (a.d. 370) Nannenus, a veteran 
commander, now Count of the Saxon shore, bore the 
first brunt of the sea-rovers' assault. Weakened in 
numbers, and wounded in body, he begged the Emperor 
to send Severus, who at last had an opportunity of showing 
his quality. The Saxons were so alarmed at the appear- 
ance of his army, and the glitter of eagles and other 
standards that they desired a truce, which Severus granted 
on receipt of the usual hostages. The truce ended in 
the Saxons receiving permission to return whence they 
had come, without baggage. He arranged ambuscades, 
however, for the slaughter of the whole of them : but 



357 

the Saxons discovered his perfidy, offered a stubborn 
resistance, and would have destroyed their assailants, 
had they not been taken in flank by a body of mail-clad 
horsemen (" catafracti "*) and in the end butchered to a 
man. A just umpire, says Ammianus Marcellinus, will 
censure this perfidy, but will not take it amiss when he 
estimates the character of these pirates. The retired 
valley (" abdita vallis ") mentioned by the historian would 
lead us to select Kent or Sussex, rather than Norfolk or 
Suffolk, as the scene of this treacherous exploit. 

Thus the Roman records come to an end, and a 
Hiatus valde deflendus separates the Count of the Saxon 
shore from the blessed Furseus, whose settlement at 
Cnobheresburg is thus described : — 

" Ubi quadam infirmitate corporis arreptus, angelica meruit visione 
perfrui, in qua admonitus est coepto verbi ministerio sedulus insistere, 
vigiliis consuetis et orationibus indefessus incumbere ; eo quod certus 
sibi exitus, sed incerta eiusdem exitus hora esset futura, dicente Domino : 
' Vigilate itaque, quia nescitis diem neque horam 'f Qua visione con- 
firmatus, ■ curavit locum monasterii, quern a praefato rege Sigberto 
acceperat, velocissime construere, ac regularibus instituere disciplinis. 
Erat autem monasterium silvarum et maris vicinitate amoenum, con- 
structum in castro quodam, quod lingua Anglorum Cnobheresburg, id 
est, urbs Cnobheri vocatur ; quod quidem monasterium rex provinciae 
illius Anna ac nobiles quique augustioribus aedificiis, ac donariis postea 
adornarunt." (Ric. de Cirenc. Spec, n, c. 38. Rolls Series I, 157.) 

And again : — 

"Anna ... a beato Furseo viro Dei monasterium in regno suo 
aedificatum augustioribus aedificiis ac donariis adornavit, possessioni- 
busque ac copiis temporalium rerum Christo ibidem servientibus aug- 
mentare non desiit. (Id. u, 64. Rolls Series i, 263.) 

If Furseus' s monastery was actually within the 
Camp, no trace of it remains, but in the outbuildings at 
the Rectory is the base of a flint wall of no great length, 

* " Quos clibanarios dictitant Persae, thoracum muniti tegminibus, et timbis ferreis 
cincti, ut Praxitelis manu polita crederes simulacra, non viros quos laminarum circuli 
tenues apti corporis flexibus ambiebant, per omnia membra deducti : ut quocumque 
artus necessitas commovisset. vestitus congrueret junctura cohaerenter apta." 

Amm. Marc. xvi. 10. 

t S. Matt, xxrv, 44. 



358 

surmounted by later work, in which is embedded an 
arch stone of the Norman period, with a double 
moulding, zig-zag and cable. I do not see to what part 
of the present church this stone can be referred. 

The coins found at Burgh Castle are on the whole of 
a later period than those from Caister, which may have 
shared the name of Garianonum with Burgh, in the days 
of Honorius, or possessed it solely in the days of Ptolemy. 
Instead of the large brass Trajans and Adrians, we have 
all those from the "Thirty Tyrant" period onwards. 
A good Gallienus was a few years ago put into the 
offertory at Gorleston, possibly with eleemosynary 
intent, possibly regarded as a mere Nehushtan. A 
Constans, with a not uncommon reverse, representing the 
Emperor seated in a galley under a XP labarum is in 
the possession of Sir Francis Boileau. The small medal 
bearing the head of a young Mars, with the wolf and 
children for reverse, is common enough, as also the 
corresponding Constantinople medal. Horses' teeth 
abound to such an extent that the place might have been 
inhabited by a professor of equine dentistry. The only 
remarkable ceramic relic from Burgh, which I know, is a 
fine Durobrivian vessel, in the possession of Mr. Nash, of 
Great Yarmouth.* 

To trace the fortunes of the Castrum, till its happy 
purchase by Sir John Boileau, in 1845, or thereabouts, 
would require a separate paper. In concluding this brief 
notice of its earlier history, I would recommend to all 
who have not visited this camp to give plenty of time to 
an examination of its character, and so to become 
thoroughly impressed with a sense of that might which 
pertained to 

" Romanos, rerum dominos, genternque togatam." 

Our present Oxford Professor of Poetry, Mr. Francis 
Turner Palgrave, of a family well-known and respected 
in Yarmouth, in his Visions of England, has given us the 

* For a detailed account of it see Norfolk Arehceology ill., 415. 



359 

results of his meditation on Garianonum in these powerful 
and suggestive lines, descriptive of a dead earth revolving 
round a dying sun :— 

Yet on her outworn surface bearing round 
Perchance, with rocks and plains and dwindling seas, 
Some sign of the lost race, — some walls like these, 

With flint-work iron bound ; 

Gray towers and gables ; roads through mountains hew'd ; 
Outlines of cities, crumbling in their sleep ; 
— Such as in Equatorial forests deep 

The wayfarer has viewed 

Crying, what vanished race these regions trod 1 — 
But none will be to ask our history then : 
Silence and death : — the busy tribes of men 

Gather'd to rest and God. 




VESSEL FOUND AT BURGH CASTLE. 
Never previously engraved. One-fourth original size. Draivn by H. Watting. 



360 



I 3 

Co 



o 



o 

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THE CONDITION OF THE ARCHDEACONRIES 

OF SUFFOLK AND SUDBURY 

IN THE YEAR 1G03. 

Among the Harleian Manuscript Collections in the 
British Museum, (595, No. n., f. 168) is to be found the 
substance of certain Returns, made by the Clergy of 
the Diocese of Norwich, in answer to a circular letter 
addressed by Archbishop Whitgift, to the Bishops of the 
Province of Canterbury in June, 1603, (probably in 
obedience to some desire on the part of the King, 
James I.), requesting to be informed of the number of 
Communicants in the several dioceses, and what number 
of Recusants ; also the names of such of the Clergy as 
held two benefices, the number of impropriations and how 
they were served ; what parsonages that had vicarages 
belonging to them, and the values ; and, who the patrons 
were of the several livings. 

A portion of these tabulated Returns for the Arch- 
deaconry of Norwich, bound up in the same volume 
with those of Suffolk and Sudbury, has recently been 
printed in Norfolk Archaeology,* with a short introduction 
by the Rev. Dr. Jessopp, to which reference may be 
made for some interesting particulars connected with the 
period referred to, and other matters. 

The chief value of the Returns consists in the 
insight we obtain of the actual condition of the Church 
of England at one of the most eventful periods of her 
history. It may be, as Dr. Jessopp points out, that the 
Returns furnish us with " as near an approximation to a 
census of the population as in those days had ever been 
aimed at. For in every parish the communicants comprised 

* N. & N. Arch. Soc, vol. x, pp. 1—49, 166—184. 



362 ARCHDEACONRIES OF 

the whole body of the adult inhabitants — who were all bound 
to receive the Sacrament on certain occasions under 
heavy penalties — and who, if they did not receive it, 
were classed under the head of Recusants, and stigmatized 
accordingly." In this connection it ought not to be lost 
sight of, that the year 1603, was generally marked by 
an excessive rate of mortality. Lowestoft, e.g., which 
in the Return here given is stated to have had six 
hundred communicants, (according to Dr. Jessopp the 
approximate number of the adult population), has 
recorded in the Parish Register, no less than 316 deaths, 
more than half the number of the adult inhabitants. 

The number of pluralists, it may be remarked, is 
disappointingly small, but the proportion of Graduates 
and Non-graduates, is what might have been expected. 

C H. EVELYN WHITE, F.S.A. 



Returns, similar to those which form the substance 
of the following paper, were furnished by other Dioceses. 
Several are bound up in the same volume, and thus 
endorsed ; " Original Certificates of the State of Dioceses, 
a.d. 1563 — 1603, Llandaff, Lincoln, London, S. David's, 
Norwich, Salisbury, Worcester, Winchester." 

It appeared desirable to compare the original with 
the transcript before being printed. It was found that 
the ink had in many parts faded, and that the writing 
was otherwise difficult to read ; indeed in some instances 
the transcriber had utterly failed. For example, the 
name of Jernigan Jenney was deciphered only by 
reference to Davy's MS., where, in his pedigree of the 
family, he mentions that he was Rector of Fritton, from 
a.d. 1600 to 1624. [Add. MS. 19,137, lxi. 181.] 



FRANCIS HASLEWOOD, F.S.A. 



SUFFOLK AND SUDBURY. 363 



Harl. MS. 595, No. ii, fo. 168. 

[The document begins with the circular letter addressed to the 
Archdeacons.] 

Salutem in Christo : Wheras I have receyved this daie, beinge the 
12th daie of this instant Julie, from the most reverend father in God, 
the Lord Archbishopp of Canterburie his grace, letters bearing date the 
laste of June 1603, the true copie wherof with all other thinges specified 
in the same I send you with theis my letters hereinclosed. Theis are in 
his Graces name straightly to require, chardge and comaund yow that 
presentlie uppon the receipt herof yow do use all diligent and carefull 
endevour, for the satisfienge of his graces pleasure and comaundement 
concerning the contents of his said letters and all other thinges inserted 
in the same, And uppon the accomplishinge of this busines that yow do 
retourne unto me your certificate what you have done and founde out, 
about the premisses, att or before the 12th of August next. 

Wishing you to deale the more carefullie with all diligent cercum- 
spection, and your uttermost endeavour for the good and spedie 
accomplishinge of this busines, for that the same maie muche concerne 
and import your selfe, in the places of the severall jurisdictions which 
you occupie and sustaine : And thus not doubtinge of your dutifull 
employment of your best endevour in this behalfe, with my loving 
comendacions I comitt you to God's tuicon from our palace att Norwich 
this 12 of Julie 1603. 

Your loving frend 

Jo : Norwicen. 

After my hartie comendacons to your Lordship, I have thought 
good uppon some speciall occasion me thereunto movinge to praie and 
require your Lordship, that presentlie uppon the receipt hereof you do 
send letters as well to all your Archdeacons as to all severall Com- 
missaries within your diocesse willing and requiring then in my name 
to send for everie parson, vicar, and curat within their severall 
jurisdictions, and as secretlie and particularlie as they can to receive of 



364 ARCHDEACONRIES OF 

them in wrightinge their severall answers, to every one of theis poynts 
following. 

And that the said Archdecons and Comissaries so sone as they shall 
have received the said awnswers in wrighting from the several ministers, 
They do presentlie transmitt them in anctenticall forme to yonr Lord- 
ship, to be presentlie sent from your Lordship unto me wherein I must 
put your Lordship in remembraunce that you had nede to give some 
touch unto your Archdecons and other Comissaries, that if they thought 
of it howe much theis thinges, which I desier to be informed in, maie 
concerne their severall jurisdictions, they would both have more care 
particulerlie to enforme them-selves, by all means of everie such matter 
required of them and speedelie to retoume certificate of them. The 
matters that I do desire to be advertised of with all convenient speede 
are theis : — 

1. First the certaine nomber of those that doe receive the 
communion in everie severall parrishe. 

2. The certain nomber of everie mann recusant inhabitinge in 
everie severall parishe within their severall jurisdictions without 
specifienge their names, and likewise the certaine nomber of everie 
woman recusant distinct from the men in maner as aforesaide. 

3. The like enquirie to be obtained as well what the certaine 
nomber is of everie manne as afore who dothe not receive the comunion, 
as also the certain nomber of everie woman in each severall parishe who 
dothe not receive the comunion without specifieng their names. 

4. The particuler name of everie double-beneficed manne in your 
dioces who houldeth two benefices with cure, his degree of schole and 
qualificacon, the names of the severall benefices with cure which he so 
houldeth, how many miles distant each of the benefices which he 
houldeth is from the other, and as neer as yow canne the valuacon of 
them in the kinges bookes. 

5. How many severall impropriacons there be within your dioces, 
whether they be endewed with vicaredges or served by curates : if with 
vicaredges what everie of those severall vicaredges is valued att as nere 
as you cann enforme yourself in the kinges books. If by curates what 
the ordynarie stipend is that the proprietorie paieth for the maintenaunce 
of the curate. 



SUFFOLK AND SUDBURY. 365 

6. The name of everie parsonage within your dioces which is 
endewed with a vicaredge, what the said parsonage is valewed att in the 
kinges books and what the vicaredge is valued att. 

7. Who is patron of everie severall benefice within your diocese 
so neere as your recordes of institutions can give direction. 

And thus, praying your Lordship to be verie carefull in the 
premisses, I comitt you to the protection of Almightie God. 
From Lambehith this last of June 1603 

Your Lordship's loving brother in Christ 

Jo : Cantuarien. 

To the reverend father in God 
my loving brother in Christe, 
the Lord Bishop of Norwich 
be theis delivered. 



[The folloiving is prefixed to the Return.'] 

1603 

Right Reverend I have receyved yor Lordshipps Ires a copie 
whereof herunto are affixed, with a copie of Ires and Articles directed 
to yor Lordshipp from the most Reverend father in God the Lord 
Archbyshopp of Canturbury, by force whereof I have geven notice to 
all psons vicars and curates within my Jurisdiccion (that is the Arch- 
deaconry of Suff : aforesaid) to appeare before me at tymes and places 
to them assigned to the end conteyned in the sayd letters and in the 
p'sence of my Regre have examied them upon the said Articles 
whose severall Answers therto I have caused to be put in wrightiug in 
manner and forme as in this booke or calender maye appeare to yor 
Lordship. And in Testimonie hereof have hereunto affixed my seale of 
Office this sixt daye of August 1603. 

Your Lordshipps in all dutie to comande 

Jo. Aldriche 

Comissy Suff. 
Ri. Crampton Reaving. 



366 



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DEANERY OF BOSMERE AND CLAYDON. 



o 
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03 




Lord Windesor 
Robert Barker 
Mr. Choppinge 

Samuel Aylmer 
The King 
Do. 


& . 

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CO "■* 

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Imp 11 - endowed with 
a vicarage, valued 
£12 5s. 


T3 
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Degree and Qualification of double- 

beneficed Clergymen. Distance apart 

of Benefices. Valuations, &c. 








M.A. chaplain to Lord Thomas 
Howard, vicar of Codden- 
ham, and parson of Gos- 
beck, \ mile apart. 
Values — 

Coddenham, £12 Os. 5d. 
Gosbeck, £8 5s. 5d. 


See deanery of Wilford and 

Loose 




Number of 

Persons who 

do not 

receive. 


None 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


<" s 

s - 
£2 


None 
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Do. 
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1 man 
1 woman 

None 
Do. 


Number of 
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cants. 


t- © © © © o © 

CO CO O ">* O CO to 

1 1 1 1 T— 1 I— 1 


Names of Parish and 
Minister. 


4. Bricet Magna - 

5. Baylham 
Mr. Wm. Holgate 

6. Battisford 
Mr. John Prince (?) 

7. CODDENHAM 

Mr. Andrew 

Kinwelmshe 

8. Cleydon 
Mr. John Norton 

9. Framisden 
Mr. Robt. Magnells 

10. Helmingham - 
Mr. Thos. Wilkenson 



DEANERY OF BOSMERE AND CLAYDON. 



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DEANERY OF BOSMERE AND CLAYDON. 



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DEANERY OF BOSMERE AND CLAYDON. 



395 



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396 



DEANERY OF HOXNE. 



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DEANERY OF HOXNE. 



397 



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COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF DENSTON. 



BY THE 

REV. FRANCIS HASLEWOOD, F.S.A. 



Denston, or as it was anciently written, Denardeston, 
and Denerdestuna in Domesday, is situate within the 
franchise or liberty of S. Edmund, in the hundred of 
Risbridge, the Deanery of Clare, and Archdeaconry of 
Sudbury. The Church is a fine example of the Per- 
pendicular style, and is one of the 18 churches in Suffolk 
dedicated to Saint Nicholas. It was, probably, erected 
towards the end of the reign of Henry vi., or at the 
beginning of the reign of Edward iv., say about a.d. 1470. 
The fabric is similar in design to that of Melford, from 
which it is only eight miles distant. It consists of a 
nave and aisles, seven bays long, with a south porch, and 
tower at the west end. The building is lofty, having 
transomed windows, that is to say with horizontal mul- 
lions, and a fine clerestory, rising above the arcades of 
the nave. The roof deserves special attention, large 
figures of animals, comprising lions, crocodiles, stags, 
dogs, and hares, all courant, formerly covered the wall- 
plates ; nine now exist in the nave, only seven in the 
north aisle, and but three on the south side. The ancient 
wood-work has been well preserved ; the screens, and 
choir stalls in the chancel, as well as the seats in the nave, 
have suffered but little during the Reformation period. 
The elbowed stalls have Miserere* seats, which lift up and 
fold back. Such seats were common in collegiate churches, 
being designed so as to afford very considerable rest to 

* French, Misericorde, mercy. 



402 COLLEGIATE CHURCH 

those who used them. They were allowed in the Roman 
Catholic church as a relief to the infirm, during- the 
long services that were required to be performed by the 
ecclesiastics in a standing posture. The old oak pewing* 
in the nave remains in its original position. This fact 
serves to prove that many of our churches were fitted 
with fixed seats for a long time before the Reformation. 
Such appears to have been the case here, the termination 
of the ends of these open seats, being carved with poppy- 
heads, f of lions, rabbits, and other devices. The 
entrance to the old rood loft is clearly seen in the north 
wall, whilst the embattled rood or candle-beam remains 
in situ over the lower portion of the chancel screen which 
extends across the nave and aisles. The fine east window, 
of five transomed lights, is filled with ancient painted 
glass, which has been collected from other parts of the 
church, and arranged as at present within the recollection 
of persons still living. Under the eastern arch, on the 
north side of the chancel, will be seen a curious altar 
tomb of open work, enclosing the effigies of a man and 
woman in their shrouds, but to whose memory it was 
erected is not known. 

There are some brasses ; one on the chancel floor to 
a man in armour with his wife by his side. This for 
Henry Everard, Esq., who died in 1524, and Margaret, 
daughter of Sir Robert Broughton, in heraldic dresses. 
The figures, with their coats-of-arms, are engraved in 
Cotman's work of Suffolk brasses, and this circumstance 
led to some comments in the Gentleman! s Magazine, which 
are interesting to archaeologists, it is remarked that a 
helmet, under the head of sepulchral effigies, seems to 
have belonged to knighthood, and no inferior rank. All 
persons who in their lifetime were accustomed to follow 
•the profession of arms, were entitled to have the head 
of their sepulchral effigy placed on a helmet. Cotman 

* Pew or pue, derived from the Latin podium, originally meant anything on which 
we lean ; and retained in the French s'appuyer, to support one's self. 

t Pupa-heads from French, poupee — a doll. 



OF DENSTON. 403 

gives at least three effigies where the figure rests its head 
on a helmet, and the parties represented had obtained no 
higher ranks superior to that of esquire, as for example 
Henry Everard, Esq., in Denston church (Gent. Mag., 
1826, i., 584). There is another brass, that of a female 
figure with a shield over it for one of the family of 
Drury, one Felice, who died 1480. 

The font is perpendicular, with light carved panels 
representing the crucifixion, resurrection, &c. Lovers 
of architecture cannot fail to notice the well proportioned 
porch with its fine ceiling of fan tracery, whilst ecclesio- 
logists will take note of the Benatura* or Holy Water- 
Stoup against the south-east buttress. The position is 
somewhat unusual, as they are generally found within 
the porch, and inserted in the south wall of the church. 
It wilt be observed, likewise, that the buttresses of the 
aisles are terminated with battlemented caps, which give 
them a neat and finished appearance. 

The church plate deserves attention : upon the foot 
of the chalice, which is unusually small (5 inches high by 
2| across the bowl) is engraved " Denardston : ' ; the 
paten (likewise of silver, but very thin,) is embossed 
with pattern work, and has at opposite sides two handles, 
which resemble small escallop shells. It measures 
5 inches in diameter. Though of plainer design, it is 
similar in form to the paten, or alms-dish, belonging to 
Bredgar church, Kent ( Archseologia Cantiana, xvi., 348). 

The tower contains only two bells. Finding such a 
magnificent church in a retired spot like this, one is 
naturally led to enquire further into its history. This 
informs us that this magnificent church was erected in 
connection with a College of Secular Canons, consisting 
of a warden and a certain number of priests. It was 
endowed with the Collegiate Church of Denston, and 
with a manor called Beamonds, and lands in Monks 
Eleigh, Groton, and Little Bradley. It is said to have 
been founded by one John Denston, on the day of whose 

* French beniticr. 



404 COLLEGIATE CHURCH 

anniversary 40s. were customarily given to the poor, but 
about 1474 Sir John Howard, Knt., and John Broughton, 
jun., are styled founders. According to the King's 
Books, made in 1534 by the order of Henry viil, with 
a view to obtaining a correct return of ecclesiastical 
revenues, the clear annual value was £22 8s. 7d. Upon 
the dissolution of monasteries in 1548, Sir Thomas 
Smith, Knt., and John Smith, appear to have obtained 
a grant of the same, and it has since passed with the 
lordship. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it came into 
the possession of William Burd, who died in 1591. It 
was purchased of a William Burd, Esq., by Mr. Robinson, 
who died in 1609. Thence it descended to Lieut. -General 
Robinson, a distinguished soldier, who married Rebecca, 
eldest daughter of Robert, Lord Clive. This gallant 
officer raised and commanded a corps of fencibles, and 
was for many years one of the members in Parliament 
for Bishop's Castle, in the county of Salop ; that borough 
having returned two members until disfranchised in the 
reign of William iv. According to the author of Magna 
Britannia, Roger, Earl of Clare, who died 1173, con- 
firmed to the monks of Bee, dwelling in Clare Castle, 
the gift of Gilbert de Bailol, of two parts of the tithes 
of Denardeston. We possess some reliable facts in 
regard to the chantry at Denston, the following being 
the substance of a patent roll granted by Edward iv. in 
1474. The original is in Latin, much abbreviated, and 
written in legal phraseology, with the usual repetitions 
belonging to such documents. 

It runs thus : — " The King to all whom these presents shall come 
Greeting ; Know ye that we of our special grace, and out of sincere love 
and devotion and regard for the Holy and glorious undivided Trinity, 
and the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and all saints — Grant and give 
license to our beloved and faithful John Howard, Knt., and our beloved 
John Broughton, Junior, Esq., and their heirs to the praise and honor 
of God, a certain Chantry for ever of one Prior and religious Society of 
Chaplains in the town of Denardeston, in the county of Suffolk, for our 
profitable state and our beloved consort Elizabeth — [She was daughter 
of Sir Richard Woodville, afterwards Earl Rivers, and widow of Sir 



OF DENSTON. 405 

John Grey, a Lancastrian, who was killed in the battle of St. Albans. 
She was obliged, on accession of Henry vn., to enter a convent.] — Queen 
of England, and our eldest son Edward, Prince of Wales, Duke of 
Cornwall, and Count of Chester, also of the said John Howard, and 
John Broughton, and Anne his wife, and their heirs, and for our souls, 
when we have departed from this light, and for the souls of John 
Denston and Katherine his wife, of William Denston and Margaret his 
wife, of Robert Clerk, Parson, of John Marshall and Alice his wife, and 
that the aforesaid Chantry when it is thus made, founded, and 
erected, shall be termed Denston 's Chauntery for all future times to be so 
called and styled, and that the said Prior and Fraternity of that 
Chantry may be fit persons, and efficient in the law, &c, further we 
grant and give licence for the aforesaid John Howard and John Broughton, 
when the said Chantry shall be built and constituted, the lands, and 
other possessions to the value of £40 per annum, and we grant to the 
aforesaid John Howard and John Broughton, without hindrance or 
disturbance to enjoy the same, being unwilling that the aforesaid Priors 
and Fraternity of Chaplains of the aforesaid Chantry be molested in 
any way. And in Testimony Whereof witness the King Himself, at 
Westminster, 1st March, 1474." 

From a study of the painted glass in Melford church, 
we are able to obtain some information in regard to 
several of those persons named in the document just 
noted. There are three effigies of John Denston and 
Katherine his wife, and their only daughter, Ann, who 
married John Broughton. This is clear from the 
inscription : — " Pray for the soul of John Denston and 
for the happy state of Catherine his wife, daughter of 

Clopton, Esq., and of Anne Broughton, daughter 

and heir of the aforesaid John and Katherine.' From 
the above we learn then, that Katherine, the wife of 
John Denston, of Denston Hall, was the daughter of Sir 
Wm. Clopton, and her only daughter Ann married Sir 
John Broughton, Knight. Putting all the foregoing 
facts together, and remembering that this fine church 
was built in connection with the chantry founded in 
1474, in the reign of Edward iv., and suppressed by 
Henry vin., in 1548, we are now able to explain why 
such a grand collegiate church came to be built in so 
retired, though albeit so picturesque, a spot. Our fore- 
fathers were great admirers of nature, as well as patrons 



406 COLLEGIATE CHURCH 

of art, and we find it an invariable rule, that when 
erecting their churches, colleges, and religious houses, 
they selected spots where the noble features of architec- 
ture and the glorious works of nature might be har- 
moniously blended. 



HATCHMENTS. 



In the north chancel (now used as a vestry) are some hatchments 
which Davy in his MS. (19,102) thus heraldically describes : — 

1. Robinson : Az. on a chev. arg. betw. 3 bucks statant, or. 3 cinque 

foils gu. impaling 
Elives : or. a fess, az. over a bend, gu. dexter side, sa. 

2. Robinson as before impaling Bromsall : az. a lion rampant, or. 

Crest, Robinson, a buck passant. Dexter side, sa. 

3. Robinson as before impaling Coates, Quarterly, 1 and 4, 5 ermine 

spots, in saltire ; 2 and 3 or. 3 pales sa. 
Crest, Robinson as before. Dexter side sa. 

4- In a lozenge the whole sa. Robinson as before, three bucks trippant 
impaling Coates. 

5. Robinson as the last impaling Clive, arg. on a fess sa. 3 mullets or. 

sinister side sa. 

6. On the groined stone roof of the south porch, there appears to be the 

following coat of arms : a fess between 3 mullets. 



OF DENSTON. 



407 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 
IN THE PARISH OF DENSTON, SUFFOLK. 

TRANSCRIBED BY THE 

REV. FRANCIS HASLEWOOD, F.S.A. 



INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 



NORTH CHANCEL. 



(Mural Tablet.) 



Within the chancel of this church 

are deposited the earthly remains of 

Robert Robinson esq 1 ' 

third & youngest son of the late 

Lieut Gen 1 . John Robinson, of Deuston Hall ; 

he was one of the lieutenants of H:M:S: Minden, 

in the memorable & successful attack on Algiers, 

for the deliverance of christians from slavery, 

under the command of Lord Esmouth, in 1816, 

after a long and painful illness, he departed this 

life, in humble hope of a joyful resurrection, 

on the 19* h of October 1822, in the 28* year of his age; 

deeply lamented by all who knew the honourable 

sentiments & excellence of his heart. 

This tablet is dedicated to his memory 

by his sorrpwing widow. 



On the floor. 



to the memory of 

The Hon b . le Rebecca Robinson 

Wife of John Robinson Esq 1 ; 

Colonel in the Army, 

and Eldest Daughter of 

Robert Lord Clive, 
She died at St Heliers, 
in the Island of Jersey, 



on the 18" 1 of Nov 1 : 1795, 

Aged 34. 

Her extensive benevolence, 

amiable Manners, 

& unremitted Affection 

for her Husband & Children, 

render 'd her an object of 

the highest estimation, 

as a Friend, a Parent & a Wife. 



408 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 



(A Brass Plate with a square matrix above.) 

!§m tytfy burger xmbtx tl;is stout fyt bob-gt of SEilliam 
^nxb tzqmn fofro Irao t0 bs'ih $®\nb\t una foas mxx'ub 
to b,tx 40 -gmt*, mo £ao gzmt bg btx b ssoraws mb frif 
oaiujljtm, toYidgz Wiilimm btctutb fyi *ij'fr bug at grow in 
fyt %txt of out t,oxb (&ob, 1591, bting, of g £ ap of 69 %m%, 

[A case appears in the " Proceedings in Chancery " in the time of 
Queen Elizabeth thus : — Robt. Lovell <k Eliz. his to., wid. <k Adx. of 
Thomas Burd deceased ; defendant Wm. Burd & W. Burd his son. 
Relating to personal matters, and the stock on the Manor or farm of 
Denston Hall, late in the occupation of W. Burd, father of the said 
Thomas.] 



This Stone 

is 

Sacred, to the Memory 

of 

Lieut 1 . 1 * Colonel John Robinson 

whose Virtues as a Christian, 

Soldier, Husband, Parent, 

and Friend, 

Most eminently shone forth 

in Acts of Piety ; Bravery, 

and Benevolence, 

He died 9* Jan 1 ? 1772 

Aged 53. 



Here lies 
The Hon b . le Colonel 

lOHN ROBINBON 

Eldest Son of 

S^ Iohn Robinson 

and Amy his Wife 

who Serv'd Several Campaigns 

in Flanders under his Grace 

Iohn Duke of Marlborough 

and Died y e 21 ?* Oct 1 : 1734 

Lievtenant colonel 

of y e Cold Stream Regiment 

of Foot Guards, 

Aged 55. 



Also here lieth 

Elizabeth the Wife 

of 

Lieut 1 ?* Colonel John Robinson 

She was ever Distinguished 

by the most ardent affection 

for her Family &, Friends, & 

was an humane protectress 

of the Poor 

She died 16* Jan 1 ? 1781, 

Aged 47. 

Also the Body of 

Ml' s Jane Coates, 

who died Unmarried on the 

12* h of Feb 1 ? 1792, Aged 64. 

She was Sister to Elizabeth 

Wife of John Robinson Esq 1 : 



Also Here lieth 

Frances the Wife of 

The Hon ble Iohn 

Robinson of Denston Hall 

and Daughter of 

Ralph Bromsal Esq 1 : 

of Northhill in Bedfordshire 

And Frances his Wife 

Who was Daughter of 

St Gervase Elwes Bar*; 

of Stoke by Clare 

Who died the 24*. h of Dec br ; 

1742 

Aged 58 



IN DENSTON CHURCH. 409 

Here Lies y e Body of Amy Robinson 

Daughter of col : John Robinson 

And Frances His Wife, 

Who departed this Life y e 15 th day of 

July In the year of Our Lord 1724, 

in the Eigth year of Her Age. 



CHANCEL. 

(Within Altar Rails.) 

Here Lyeth the Bodys of 
Clement Raye bd| ( A n 6 1685 

Ma^Wife { ^^ J Sep t 22 1680 

[The Parish Register has : — " Clem* Raye Clerke was shrowded in 
woollen and buryed Apri. 6. 1685. 

1680 Mary the wife of Clem* Raye Cleric was buryed the 22 day 
of September shrouded in woollen, Testifyed under the hands of Tho : 
Golding justice of the peace."] 



Here lieth the Body of the Lady 

Eliz' Jones Mother to S 1 : John Robinson 

by John Robinson Esq. And after Maried 

to S* W M Jones Kn*, She Departed 

this Life the 27t h of July, 1699, 

Aged 68 years. 



(Table Monument between High Chancel and South Chancel ; partly within altar rails.) 

On top. 

This monument was erected 

by William Henry Robinson, son of 

Lieu* Gen 1 . Robinson & Rebecca his wife, 

a.d. 1822. 

De Carle, of Bury executed it. 

Sacred to the Memory of 

William Henry Robinson Esq 1 : 

who died November 237* 1826, 

Aged 42 Years. 



Memoriae Sacrum 
John Robinson, Esq 1 '., lies buried under the marble beneath, 

which tells you when he died, & his great age. 

He had issue, by Bridget his only & loving wife, daughter of 

Robert Jenkinson, of London, Esqr., 

E 



410 MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 

one son, & five daughters ; viz, 

John, Katherine, Mary, Bridget, Martha, & Elizabeth. 

He was in his conversation truly pious, 

exactly just &, very charitable ; a loving husband, a tender father, 

and a faithful friend. 

He lived with Jacob's blessing, & died with Simeon's prayer. 

Hoc posuit amoris ergo Bridgetta 

charissima conjux 1672. 

An exact copy of the inscription on the mural monument 

in the chancel of the church at Gravesend, which was 

totally destroyed by fire in 1727, erected to the memory 

of the above mentioned, (son of John Robinson, Esq., by 

Martha Cruixton his wife, who purchased Denston Hall 

in the latter part of the sixteenth century of William 

Burd, Esq 1- ., & died in 1609.) who died at the great age 

of 96, in 1673 j & his wife Bridget in 1675, aged 90. 



Here lieth the body of 

John Robinson, 

the son of John Robinson, Esq r . 

He was born in 1625 at Denston Hall, in Suffolk; 

died y e 21^ of November, 1659, 

being the age of 34 years ; 

axid buried the I s } of December following. 

He had three sons, and one daughter ; 

whereof two, viz. Edmund and Bridget, 

lye buried by him. 

An exact copy of the monument at Gravesend. 

He was the son of John Robinson by Bridget his wife ; 

and married Miss Allen, 

only sister of Sir Edmund Allen, Bart. 

of Hatfield, in Essex. 



Other side of Table Tomb. 

John Nbvill Robinson, 

(second son of Lieu* Gen 1 . Robinson & Rebecca his wife,) 

Lieutenant in the 43"? R.L.I. 

whose gallant spirit, good conduct, and conciliating 

manners, gained him the love and respect 

of his Regiment, and of all who knew him. 

He died at Brompton, in Deer. 1818, Aged 24. 

Harriet Robinson, 

(youngest daughter of 

Lieu* Gen 1 . Robinson and Rebecca his wife,) 



IN DENSTON CHURCH. 411 

in whom elegance of form and mind was united 

to the pure and benevolent qualities of the heart, 

Scarcely recovered from the loss of her beloved sister, 

she watched with tender solicitude 

and unremitting attention over the death-beds 

of her brother and her father : 

but, although animated by the firmest christian faith, 

her feeble frame sunk under the pressure 

of such accumulated sorrows. 

She died at Paris, in February, 1820, aged 32. 



Lieutenant General Robinson, 

(son of 

Colonel Robinson and Elizabeth his wife,) 

who, during the revolutionary war, 

raised and commanded a Corp of Fencibles ; 

and was one of the members of Parliament 

for Bishop's-Castle many years. 
He conscientiously performed his duty in his 

civil and military capacities ; 
was a most affectionate husband and parent, 

and sincere friend. 

Religion, the only true source of consolation, 

enabled him to bear 

the severe domestic losses 

by which 

his latter days were imbittered. 

He died at Paris, in June, 1819, aged 62. 



Rebecca, 

eldest daughter of Lord Clive, 

wife of Lieu* Gen 1 . Robinson. 

She perfectly executed her duty to her 

beloved husband, children, friends, and dependants ; 

was religious, amiable, accomplished, and lovely. 

She died, aged 32. 

Charlotte, 

eldest daughter of Lieu* Gen 1 Robinson & Rebecca his wife, 

born in March, 1 784, 

whose personal loveliness, amiable disposition, 

and active benevolence, rendered her, while living, 

an object of general endearment ; 

and left behind her the regret and the blessings 

of the afflicted and necessitous. 

In March, 1812, she was married 



412 MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 

to the Hon b . le William Eliot, of S* Germains 

(, from whom she experienced the tenderest affection) ; 

and died in June, 1813, 

surviving her infant only nine days. 



SOUTH CHANCEL. 

Here Lyeth y e Body of Dame 

Ambb Robinson 

the Widow & Relict of S r Iohn Robinson Knt 

She Departed this Life 

v e nth D a y of March 

1720 

Aged 63 Years. 



Here lieth the Body of 

S r John Robinson, Kn*. 

who Departed this Life 

the 19 th of December, 

1704, 

Aged 49 years. 

In Memory of 

John Clive Robinson 

Son of John Robinson Esqr. 

and Rebecca his Wife 

who departed this Life 

on the 23 1 ? j) ay f j an ry 

1786 

Aged 6 Months and twenty 

three Days. 

Here lies the Body of 

John Clive Robinson 

Eldest Son of 

John &, Rebecca Robinson 

who died the 14" 1 of May 1784 

Aged 14 Months. 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

Sir, Thomas Pigott, bart ; 

born October 12; 1796, 

died October 7 ; 1847. 



IN DENSTON CHURCH. 



413 



Q£ 



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a 

o 

a 

o 



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10 



ft 

P3 



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a 






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Ph ft* 

£> 

W 
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414 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 



u tfr 





On the floor of Nave. Inscription gone. 

FELICE DRURY, died circa a.d. 1480. 

DENSTON CHURCH. 

From a Rubbing by Rev. C. G. R. Birch, LL.M. 



IN DENSTON CHURCHYARD. 415 

IN THE CHURCHYARD. 



EAST OF CHURCH. 

Son of 
nn Ford 
. . n'T the 19* 

. 94 
... 67 Years. 

[This broken stone was to : — " George son of George and Ann 
Ford." Feby 24* 1794.] 



In memory of 

Thomas Garsbought, 

late of Hundon ; 

who died 23rd February 1869, 

aged 79 years. 



SOUTH OF CHURCH. 



®o t\t ^temorjr of 



Martha, the Wife of 

James Crisp, 

departed this life 

May 21 st 1802, 

Aged 54 Years. 



James Crisp, 

departed this life 

March the 7* 

1809, 
Aged 59 Years. 



To The Memory of 

James, the son of 

John and Hannah Crisp 

who died 15 th June 

1816, 

guittf 23 WittU airtr 3 gags. 



|r; ggtauzy af 

Richard Everard 

who died on the 26: of Novr. 

18 JO, in his 77 ye ir. 



416 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 



Here rest the mortal remains of 

Martha 

the Wife of 

M r . Richard Everard 

(of this Parish) 

Who after passing this life, with 

strict integrity, departed, to the 

great grief of her friends. 

on the 17* h of Feb*? 1827, 

gigeir 52. 

$« Uttnttorg of 

Richard Everard 

who died 5* h Dec r . 

1833, 

gugeir 56 ffiars. 



In memory of 
John Brown 

who died 

March 29* h 

1848 

Aged 76 Years. 



In memory 

of Ann, wife of 

Charles Martin, 

who died March 16*j h 

1803, 

aged 34 years. 



In memory of 

Mary his wife 

who died 

January 8* b 

1859. 

Aged 67 Years. 



Also in memory 

of the said 

Charles Martin, 

who died September 

1803, 

aged 46 years. 



Susan the Wife of 

John Cook 

who died Oct the 5* h 

1754 

Aged 58 Years. 

|n femora 0f 

William Brown, Sen r . 

who died 20^ March 1803 

Aged 82 Years. 



IN DENSTON CHURCHYARD. 



417 



In Memory of 

Ann Brown, 

Daughter of 

W™ & Mary Brown 

Aged 18 Months. 



Mary the Wife of 

William Brown 

who died 24 th Dec 1 ? 1- 1799, 

Aged 72 Years. 



Eliz™ Brown 

Daughter of 

Will? 1 & Mary Brown 

who died 16 th Jan^y 1795 

Aged 38 Years. 



gix $£tctturrg of 

Chilvers Son of 

Will? <fc Mary Brown 

who departed this Life 

April 18* 1796, 

Aged 43 Years. 



,3ti ^Irmnrw $f 

Mary Brown 

Daughter of 

Will™ & Mary Brown 

who died 22? May 1777 

Aged 27 Years. 



Sacred to the Memory of 

Susan, the DaugM of 

Will" & Mary Brown 

who died 11* Jan?? 

1818, 

Aged 54 Years. 



Sacred to the memory of 

Phcebe, Daughter of 

Will? & Mary Brown 

who died Nov 1 : 28* 

1826, 

&g*ir 68 |m«. 



To the Memory of 

Lucy Brown 

Daughter of 

William and Mary 

Brown, 

who died April 14* 1837 

Aged 71 Years. 



M r . Joseph Palmer 

late of this Parish 

who died 14, April 1778 

Aged 52 Years. 



In Memory of 

Joseph Martin 

who died 27* June 1765, 

Aged 37 Years. 



In Memory of 

Elizabeth Bay 

who died Feb? 1761 

Aged 22 Years. 



In 

memory of 
Eliza Daug<F of George 

& Susan Peacock, 

who died Oct** 19* 1840, 

aged 17 years. 



418 MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 

In memory of 

Philip Westrup who died 

Feb 1 ? 26* h 1838 in the 74 year of his age. 



In memory of 

Herbert Rollinson 

who died Aug?* 16* h 1873 

aged 17 years. 

also of 

Mary Rollinson 

who died Dec 1 : 7* h 1874 

aged 25 years. 

and of 

James Rollinson 

who died April 16* 1876 

aged 20 years. 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

Rachel daughter of 

Richard & Sophia 

Rutter, 

who died August 27. 1843, 

aged 15 years. 

JJacteir 

To the Memory of 

Mary Wife of M^ Jo: Martin 

of Great Bradley 

and Dau* of the Rev? John Piper 

of Sudbury 

who after a short but Painful Illness 

sustained with unparrallel'd Fortitude 

Died the 7* h of Aug* 1801 

She was endeared to all 

who had the happiness of knowing her 

by amiableness of Temper & Manners 

habitual rectitude in social conduct 

and undissemled and 

furvent Piety. 



(A long wooden board.) 

In Memory of Martha, the wife of John Daines. 
who died Septr 10t h 1840, aged 68 years. 



IN DENSTON CHURCHYARD. 



419 



Sarah Turner, 

late of Stradishall, 

who died 22<* Jan 1 ? 1794 

Aged 77 Years. 



In 
Memory of 

who died June y e 29 

1743 

Aged 71 Years. 



Here Lyeth y e Body 

of John Brinkley who 

Dep* this Life y e 29 th of 

August in 1727, 

Aged 82 Years. 

Here lyeth y e Body of 

gobii grhifcleg 

Son of John and 

Sarah Brinkley 

who Departed this Life 

May ye 26. 1719, 

Aged 22 Years. 

[1719. John Brinkley jun r . was 

shrouded in Woollen & buried May28.] 



$n fftemcrrg of 

$a!m ^.fcaraa 

who died Nov 1 : the 19? 1 

1747, 

Aged 69 Years. 



In Memory of Joseph 

And Benjamin two twins 

of John and Alice Adams 

Joseph Died j e 15 May 1724 

In ye 3 : Year of his age 

And Benja™ Died y e 12: July 

1730 In y e 9, Year of his 

Age. 



Also 

£ara|r y e Wife of 

John Brinkley 

died Nov 1 ; the 16* h 

1746, 

Aged 82 Years. 



Sacred 

to the memory of 

Frederic, son of 

John & Mary Murrells 

who departed this Life 

November 26* h 1835, 

aged 19 years. 



In Memory of 

Rich? Cornwell 

late of Stadishall 

who died 30* h Nov 1 : 1779 

Aged 98 Years. 



&XCUO 

to the memory of 

Tho^ Coote 

who died 

March IS" 1 1839, 

gujcir 46 %m% 



Also of 

Tho? Will* 1 Coote 

who died 

March 30t h 1845 

Aged 48 Years. 



420 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 



John 

Barnard 

late of this Parish 

who departed 

this Life on the 

24* h of May 

1810 

Aged 66 Years. 



In Memory of 



Frances 
Wife of John 

Barnard 

who departed 

this Life on the 

6* h of February 

1793 
Aged 42 Years. 



to the memory of 

John Howe, 

who died Jan 1 ? 4 4 . h 1839, 

Aged 89 Years. 

Also of 

Sarah his wife, 

who died April IS? 1 1793, 

Aged 36 Years. 

This stone was 

erected by their daughter 

M. r . 3 Ann Hinsch, 

in affectionate 

remembrance. 



To the Memory of 

Henry Briggs 

who departed this Life 

March 1^ 1814, 

Aged 72 Years. 



Catharine the Wife of 

Henry Briggs 

who departed this Life 

the ll? 1 of July 1799 

Aged 59 Years. 



In loving 

memory of 

Simeon Shave, 

died Jam? 25t h 1886, 

Aged 81 Years. 

In memory of 

Joseph Martin, 

late of Kedington Hamlet, who 

died at Haverhill March 11th 1870, 

aged 80 years. 



In memory of 

Sarah, the wife of 

Joseph Martin, 

who died September 12th 1865, 

aged 74 years. 



to the memory of 

William Cooke 

who died January l s > 1882, 

aged 65 years. 

also 

on June 23^ 1882 

Susan Cooke, 

the beloved wife of 

the above, 

aged 58 years. 



(A long Board.) 

&ii mtmotg of 

Westley Whiterod, who died July 28 th , 1826. Aged 82 Years. 

Also of Elizabeth his wife, who died Jan 1 :? 22^ 1837, Aged 81 Years. 



IN DENSTON CHURCHYARD. 



421 



In memory of 

Anna Maria 

the beloved wife of 

G. B. Webb of Balsham, 

and youngest daughter of the late 

W. Shave of the street farm Wickhambrook 

died Nov. 29. 1880, 

aged 72 years. 

also of 

G. B. Webb of Balsham 

died June 16. 1884 

aged 78. 



To the memory of 


Anna Maria Webb 


died Nov 1 : 29* h 1880 


aged 72 years. 


also of 


G. B. Webb of Balsham 


died June 16 1884 


aged 78. 



$ara£r to lli£ gpptjorg of 

Ann Wife of 

Matthew Mellor 

who died Jatf? 24* h 1818 

Aged 50 Years. 

This stone was erected 

in Affectionate Remembrance 

by her Son Joshua Mellor 

of Nacton. 



to the memory of 

Thomas Webb 

who died February 14* h 1814 

aged 81 Years. 

Also of Mary his Wife 

who died December 22» d 1799 

Aged 60 Years. 

This Stone 

was erected by their Grandson 

Thomas Webb 
in Affectionate Remembrance. 



To the memory of 

Harriet 

the daughter of 

Thomas & Nancy Webb, 

who died Aug?* 24* h 

1817 

aged 15 years. 



To the memory of 
Thomas Webb 

of 

Wickhambrook 

who died Sep 1 : 7* h 

1832 

aged 67 years. 



To the memory of 

Nancy his widow 

(and dau? of the late 

George & Margaret Bennett.) 

native of Stone 

in Staffordshire; 

who died Nov 1 : 18* h 1839 

aged 78 years. 



422 MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS 

To the memory of 

Sarah King 

Many years 

Housekeeper to the late 

Gen 1 . Robinson 

of Denston Hall. 

She died on the lO*:' 1 of August 

1835 

Aged 70 Years. 



To The Memory of 

George Kinghorn 

(a Native of Fogo in Scotland) 

gujeir 24 f£m«. 
This most excellent young Man, 
surviv'd his Masters, Lieutenant 

J. N. Robinson, and General 

Robinson, but a short time, whom 

he had serv'd with the utmost fidelity, 

and with the permission of Providence 

was the Victim of it, he died of a rapid 

Consumption, on the 24* h of Nov^ 1819. 

Erected by W. H. Robinson of Denston Hall, 

in grateful Remembrance of 

this faithful Servant. 



to the Memory of 

Jonh Walker, 

who died Jan. 19^ 1837; 

Aged 37 Years. 

I hope this change is for the best ; 

To live with Christ, and be at rest. 

this stone is erected by his 

beloved Wife. 



Phillip Westrup, 

died April 21«* 1841, 

in the 39 t . h year 

of his age. 

Search the Scriptures. 

also 



WEST OF CHURCH. 

Qn mmorg of 



Phillip his son, 

who died in his 

infancy. 

Hannah, his wife 

died Jan: H* 1874, 

aged 72 years. 



IN DENSTON CHURCHYARD. 



423 



$ntnb 

to the memory of 

Elizabeth Summers, 

Daughter of 

Philip & Hannah Westrup, 

who died 15* h Nov 1 ? 1851, 

aged 20 years. 



tcr tilt ^tmettg 0f 

Maryanne Kersey 

Niece of the late 

John Westrup, 

of this Parish, 

who died June 8* h 1870 

aged 46 years. 

ic ibt ^motQ of 

Deborah, 

Second Wife of the late 

John Westrup, 

of this Parish, 

who died Dec 1 : 8* 1865 

aged 76 years. 



In memory 

of 

Henry James, Son of 

John &, Lucy Hayward, 

who died Feb 1 ? ll* 1825, 

aged 8 years. 
This Memorial was erected 

by his affectionate Aunt 
Ann Hull of Denston Hall. 



To 

the memory of 

Sarah, the Wife of 

Robert Everard 

who departed this life 

Augst 12«i 1828, 

&pb 47 fmss. 

And Frederick, their Son 

$gtb 2 § ms. 

Also of the said 

Robert Everard 

who departed this life 

Dec 1 : 12* h 1850, 

|h Ijis 79t& § m . 



Sacred to the memory of 

Thomas Everard 

who died Nov 1 : 6* h 1855 aged 44 years. 



To the Memory of 

Catharine, the Wife of 

Simon Brinkley, 

who died April 24* h 

1823, 

Aged 51 Years. 



%mtb 

to the memory of 

Simon Brinkley 

who died 

October 8^ 1827, 

Aged 50 Years. 



$n UJJtmorjr of 

Catherine Ann Sirr 

who died April 17" 1 1830, 

QQtO 25 %Zm&. 



424 MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS IN DENSTON CHURCHYARD. 

$n ^.ffaciwttate Qtmmbmict of 

George Westrup, 

son of William and Caroline Rollinson, 

who died August 20 t . h 1877, in his 24t. h year. 



^sctto to tl]t Iptturrg of 

John Westrup, 

late of Sheepcote Farm, in this Parish, 

who died April l 8 * 1877, in his 80* h year. 



^uxto to fyt IJjtowrrg oi 

Elizabeth, 

Wife of John Westrup, 

who died Sep* 8* 1824, in her 25t h year. 



daughter of the above 

who died Oct 1 ?' 20* h 1877 

Aged 37 years. 



$it louhnj xatmoxg of 

Henry Medcalf, 

who died May 4* h 1886 

Aged 78 years. 

<|JS0 xrf 

Mary Ann Medcalf 

wife of the above 

who died Feb 5 ? 9^ 1887 

Aged 81 years. 

&teo of 
Emily Brewster, 

In affectionate remembrance of Ann, daughter of W. S. and M. A. Lee 
who died October 18* h 1845 ; aged 18 months. 



To the memory of 

Henry Medcalf, 

who died Aug 8 * 9«* 1867 

Aged 34 years. 



In affectionate remembrance of Mary, daughter of W. S. and M. A. Lee 
who died November 7*. h 1871 : aged 19 years. 



In Affectionate 

Remembrance of 

Joseph Hicks 

Orbell, 

who departed this life 

April 24* h 

1878 

Aged 39 years. 



In Affectionate 

Remembrance of 

Alice Emma 

daughter of 

Joseph Hicks & Alice Emma 

Orbell, 

who died in her infancy 

14" 1 August 1870. 



PARISH RECORDS OF DENSTON. 



In the Parish Chest is a paper folio volume, enclosed 
in a portion of a parchment deed relating to certain 
messuages and cottages at Wickhambrook, and endorsed 
1646. 

The first page begins thus : — 

A Booke of Towne Accounts 1665. 

These accounts are chiefly in connection with the 
election of Parish Officers. Besides these, however, are 
entries of more general interest, as a list of Church 
Briefs from 1665 to 1808; the names (with amounts 
given) of those who contributed towards the Redemption 
of his Majesty's English subjects from Turkish slavery 
in 1671 ; a reference to the Chimney tax ; and a remark- 
able allusion to the King's Evil. 

CHURCH BRIEFS. 

1665 Collected at the ffast August the second towards ' 
the releife of those that were sick of the Plague 
in London & in other places, as by Proclamation 
by his Maiestie giuen July the sixtenth & sento 
M r William Colman Register of the Eclesiasticall 
Count for the hundred of Rishbridge & the 
whole Denarie of Sudbury in Suff. 

set downe by John Parman Curate ibid. 

„ It. Collected to a Breife for diuers persons In- 
habitans of North Church in Hertfordsheire ; by 
Thomas Midleditch & John Albon Churchwardens 
in Denston in Suff. August 27th 

„ It. Collected on the ffast day being Sept r . the sixt 
towards the releife of those w ch were sick of the 
plague in London, by the Churchwardens of 
Denston ... 4 

„ It. Collected on the fast day beinge the fourth of 
October towards the releife of those that were sick 
of the plague in London - - - 2 

„ It. Collected to a Breife Oct. 15 for shelling ffleete 

in the East ridinge of Yorkesheire Oct. 15. 1665. 2 1 



li 


s 


d 


■ 









8 






3 



2 





3 


6 


2 





3 





2 


6 


5 


1 


4 


9 


3 






426 DENSTON 

1665 It. Collected on the fast day Nom the 8th towards li s d 
the reliefe of those that were sick of the plague 

in London & els where by the Churchwardens in 

Denston 1665 - - -030 

„ It. Collected this sixt day of December being the 
fast day for the reliefe of those w ch were afflicted 
w th the plague & pestilence in diuers places in the 
nation - - - - - 4 

„ Collected 3 Jan, being the fast day for those afflicted 

with the plague 

„ „ 7 Feb. for ditto 

„ „ 7 March for ditto - 

1666 ,, 3 Aprill the fast day for ditto 
,, ,, 6 May being fast day for ditto 
„ „ 4 July the fast day 
„ ,, 20th of October in our parish of Denston 

to the releife of the distressed 
people of London being the ffast day 
It. - 

It. - 

Mem : Received an acquittance for ye said moneys 
being in all thirty & two shillings, and ten pence 
by order of y e Lord Maior of London under the 
handsofThomasPloyerthe23 th dayofNovem: 1666. 
This acquittance was deluered to John Albone 
Churchwarden of Denston in Suffolk to be shewn 
to Mr Coleman Register by me Clem* Raye Clerke : 
Decern: 11 : 1666. 

Received by me John Albone in witness whereof 
I have subscribed My marke ye mke A of John Albone. 
Received by me Barnabas Houlton sixteen shillings, 
& a peny for ye reliefe of ye pore of Haveril in 
Suff. who suffered by fire, together with a briefe of 
ye Kings Maj. letters pattents for ye collecting 
thereof I say were - - - 16 1 

By me Barnabas Houlton. 
1677 May 11. 77. 

Delivered then to Thomas Haile of Northampton 
the brief for Northampton, with y e Collection of 
fiue, and twenty shillings and received by me Tho : 
Hayle Collector. 
1688 Apr. 27. P d . then to M r Henry Goodwin upon the 
second breife for the French protestants the sum 
of twenty fiue shillings and six pence by us 

Isaac Raye Rect r . 

Tho Snell 

Sam. Ray 



J- Churchwardens. 



)) 
)) 
J) 


June 6. 
July 6. 
Aug: 3. 

» 30. 


169? 


Nov. 2. 
Feb. 8. 



2 


5 


1 


3 


4 





1 





1 


9 


1 


6 


8 


9 


2 


4 



CHURCH BRIEFS. 427 

1689 Oct. 3. Paid then to M 1 ' Henry Goodwin upon the s d 
breife for the Irish protestants the sum of two 

pounds and two shillings and fiue pence by us 
Isaac Raye, Eect r . 
16f§ Denston. Jan 17. Collected then upon the breife 
for new Alesford - 

1690 Apr: 6. For East Smithfeild 
„ May 2. For the parish of S* George in the bur- 
rough of Southwark 

For S* Jues (Ives) 

For Bishops Lavington in Wiltshire 

For Staiford ... 

Collected then upon the second Breife 
for the Irish Protestants 

For Morpeth in Northumberland 
Collected then upon the breife for John 

Clopton of Norwich - - 2 4 

[The "Eastern Counties Collectanea" by John 
L'Estrange (published 1872, p. 116), states a brief 
was read at Easton, Northants 1692 Mar. 19. when 
6 s was collected for " John Clapton & others, Nor- 
wich, poor sufferers by casualties at sea." A brief 
was also read at Cranbrook, Kent, Oct. 4, for John 
Clopton of Norwich, when 15s. 2d. was collected. 
Archaeologia Cantiana, xiv., 211.] 

1691 July 14. For Teinmouth and Shaldon - 4 
„ Aug. 16. For Thirske (Poor Persons, in N. Riding 

of Yorks. Arch. Cant. xiv. 211) 10 
,, Sept. 27. For Beal (Poor persons of Bealt, Brecon, 

Arch. Cant. xiv. 211) - - 10 

1692 June 12. For Havant in Southamptonshire - 4 

Isaac Raye Rectr 
„ Collected upon y e Brief towards ye Redemption of 

Captives in Algiers ye sum of - - 14 9 

W™ Edgely Curat. 
„ For Hedon in Yorkshire 
,, towards Changford Brief - 

1693 For a Fire near ye Saw-mill Yard in Lambeth 
,, towards Ledbury Brief in Herefordshire 
„ For Druridge, Widdrington & Chibborn in North- 
umberland - - - - 

„ towards Churchill Brief 

„ ,, Elseworth - - - 

169| ,, Dennis Gunton's Brief 

["Collectanea," p. 116. 1693. At Easton, Northants; 

Dennis Gunton of Wickmar. Norwich. 3s. 4d.] 

Denston Briefs rec d May 30 ( . h 180J/.. 



1 


1 


1 


9 


1 


lob 


2 


3 


2 


4 


2 


HJ 


2 





1 


7 



428 DENSTON 

1804 When Read— £ s. d. 
June 3 r . d Haughton Barn Fire in Staffordshire - 422 

July 1^ Chiswardine Church Salop. Charge - 1,019 15 

29 t . h Newton Chapel, com. Lancaster - 858 7 3 

12t h Wetton Church, Stafford, charge - 1,292 2 2 

August 5* h Ince Fire, Lancaster - - 603 10 6| 

Denston Briefs recd June % n . d 1805. 

1805 June 9 Woodbury Fire coun. Devon, collected 

nothing. Charges - - 1,005 8 2 

16 Coley Chapel coun: York. Charges - 106 10 8 

23 Kighley Church coun: York. Charge - 2,620 12 9 

collected nothing 

2 Eastham Church coun: Worcester. Charges 705 5 

collected nothing 

30* h Stivichall Church coun: Warwick charges 1,064 16 

Rob: Brook Cur collected nothing 

Denston Briefs Received October 27^ 1805 

Kingston Church coun Stafford. Charges - 1,337 6 9 

collected nothing 
Nov. 10. North in Hales Church Coun: Salop 

Charges 1,353 4 9 
House to House collected nothing 

17. Chipnall Fire coun. Salop. Charges -1,084 7 

24. Wobsey (?) Chapel Coun. York, collected 833 14 9 

charges, collected nothing 

1806 June 8. Rec d Denston Briefs. 

S*. S within Church in Coun: of Lincoln. 



charges 777 8 1\ 

15. Luddenham Church in Coun. York „ 1,413 18 

22. Northwood Fire in Coun: of Southampton 1,500 

29. Buxton Chapel in coun: Derby - 2,247 

July 6. Church Kirk Chapel Coun: Lancaster - 1,691 10 

13. Elton Church coun: Derby - - 1,100 12 10 

1807 June 7. Recd the Briefs 1807. 

Codsall Church County of Stafford 

charges 687 5 3 \ 

14. Woodseaves Fire county of Salop - 541 

21. Cedfall Church County Stafford - 687 5 3| 

28. Darlaston Church Co. Stafford charges 2,200 

July 5. Oldbury Chapel, co. Salop - „ 2,311 4 
12. Saint Andrew's Church coun: Worcester 

charges 1,784 8£ 

19. Thornwaite Chpel, coun: York „ 253 11 5f 

26. Ranton Church, coun. Staffoi'd 

House to house throughout England. 
Charges 1016 17 s collected nothing. 



CHURCH BRIEFS. 429 

1807 August 2» d Childs Ercall Church, coun: Stafford £ s. d. 

charges 1,098 5 

9. Follyfoot Fire, coun: York „ 306 

1808 June 19th. Received Denston Briefs. 

Ellel Fire, County of Lancaster „ 294 13 4£ 

26th. Bishop Chapel & Brainton Church in 

Coun: Warwick and Hereford. Charges 

£205 9s. and £353 15s. 

July 3^ Sutton Mill, Fire, coun: Lancaster charges 298 

17 Fewston Church in coun: York „ 750 

24 Shireside Chapel ,, Lancaster,, 719 16 5£ 

31 Cold Hatton Fire „ Salop „ 300 

Sep. 18 Pudsey Mill Fire „ York „ 123 14 

8 Middlewich Church „ Chester „ 165 4 7 

25 Littleborough Chapel,, Lancaster,, 1,009 13 If 

Oct. 16 Lognor Chapel „ Stafford „ 1,196 14 1 
23 S* Helens Church „ Worcester,, 1,107 15 



REDEMPTION OF CAPTIVES. 



Denston in Suff. March 26. 1671. 

A note of such persons who have contributed there, & what they 
have contributed upon the briefe for redemption of his Majestyes 
English subjects from Turkish slavery : 

In pr: Clem 1 Raye Clerke - 

It: Abraham Browne his manservant - 

John Goodey his servant 

Margaret Deere his maid servant 

M r John Parman curate ibid 

M r Willia Gattyward gen. 

John Name his manservant 

Mr Hamond ----- 

Lydia Hamond his sister 

George Hamond jun: - 

Thomas Snel servant to y 6 said George Hamond 

Willia Rowley his servant 

Bridget Marishe his servant 

Sarah Prior his „ 

Joseph Raye - - - - - 

Goodm Disbo rough - 

Goodm Jual ----- 

M™ Floyde ----- 

Goods Middleditch - 

Goodm George Nune - 



£ s. 


d. 


5 







4 




4 




4 


1 


O 


2 


6 




4 


4 





2 







6 




4 




4 




4 




4 


2 





1 





1 







6 




6 




6 



430 DENSTON 

<£ s. d. 

It. Goodfn Henry Ticost - 6 

, „ Prigge .... 6 

, wid: Paske ----- Q 

, Goodfn John Worlidge sexten ... 4 

, John Middleditch - 4 

, Goodfn Laugh am - 4 

, Wid: Rowley .... 4 

, Dorothy Filacke Goodfn Inals servant - - 6 

, Edward Worlidge - - - 4 

, Willia Worlidge - - - 4 

Thomas Smith - - - 4 

John Osborn - 4 

Isaac Butcher Goodfn Disborough servant - - 4 

James Ticost - - - 3 

Austin Ticost - - - 3 

Wid. Snell - 3 

Richard Seeley • - - - 2 



John Parman Cur: ibid: Su. tot. 19 1 



Mem Oct 24 Agreed with M r Pleasarice of Sudbuiw, & he is to 
make the Church clocke goe well, & to I y e writings upo the Church- 

wals, & to haue for his paines twelve shillings, & what more the 
Churchwardens shall thinke fitt, viz he is to haue yeerely, the first yeere 
ending at Michaelmas next 1666 eight shillings p* an. to keepe ye said 
clocke going well so long as ye churchwardens shall consent. 

This agreement made with M r Pi ice by goodfn Above church- 
wardens in presence of us. Clemt Ravi sen: Clemt Raye jun: 

CHIMNEY T [. 

June 9* 1667. Denston in Suff. 

These are to certifie in behalfe of these underwritten, y* non of 
them pay either to Church or pore, nor* are soe farr as we know, or can 
iudge, are worth ten pounds, nor any of them dwell in a house of more 
then two Cheimnes : Joh Worlidge, Edmund Prigg: Ralph Nunn, John 
Nunn, William Worlidge seni, widd< \\ >xidge, The towne houses, 
widdow Smith John Tridget, Thomas Abery, Henry Howe: Phillip 
Worlidge William Worlidge in 

Clement Ray Gierke 

William Gattyward I beleiue this certificate to be true 

Joseph Ray iry North 

George Hamond 

William Disborough 

Thomas Medleditch 

John Parman Curat ibid 



PARISH RECORDS. 431 

Denston in Suff. Dec: the 8 th 1678 

A note of such persons who haue contributed there and what they 

haue contributed upon the breife for the burning of S*. Pauls Church 

in London 

£ s. d. 

Imp : Clem* Raye Clerke and Isaac Raye \ 

his sonne curate ibid / 00 10 00 

It: Tho: Wright Gent: ... - 1 

George Cooke his servant ... 2 

George Harndn 1 

Lydea Hamon - 6 

John Firman his servant ... 2 

John Goodeue his servant ... 2 

John Turner his servant ... 2 

Willia Desborough .... 6 

John Alborn sen .... 2 

Jacob Froast ... - 2 

George Knock .... 1 

Tho: Inald - - - 1 

Will Worlidge jun: - - - - 1 

Wid Pask .... 3 

Tho : Snel .... 1 

Wil Worlidge sen .... 2 

Wil Langha .... 3 

Sam 1 Gattaward .... 4 

Su tot 00 15 4 

The following entry upon the same subject is found 
in the Parish Register: — 

1633. Gathered towards the repayringe of S* Paules Church in 
London the sum of thre shillings and eight pence. Given by the Chiefer 
sort of the pish in perticular as here followeth : — • 



s 
s 

d 



John Robinson Esq. xj 

John Tallokarne Gent j 

John Ray Gent. iij 8 mj c 

John Hulls ij 8 

Widow Hamond j 8 vj d 

Ffrauncis Westropp j 3 

William Mayor j 8 

Richard Ceely j 8 

John Bulhooke j s 

Jofi Hubbert minister ibid. 

1684. Mem: April 9. The churchwardens by consent of ye towne 
did allow to Ralph Nune ye sexten one shilling, & they allow y e Church- 



432 DENSTON 

wardens to buy him a dust-sloppe, & a shovel, but he promiseth to have 
ye spade amended of himself. 

By me Clemt Raye sen r 

Mem Apr 17: 1687 

there was given a certificate by the minister and Churchwardens 
that Mary the wife of Joseph Middleditch had not been heretofore for 
the Kings evill witnes our hands 

Isaac Raye Rect r 
Sam well Raye 
Thomas Snell 

1687. Officers chosen for the town of Denston 28 March 
Imp. Churchwardens Samll. Raye and 

Tho: Snell 
Overseers John Bridge 

Will Desborough 
Constables William Langham 

Will Harvy 
Surveyours John Robinson Esq r 

George Raye 
Sidesman Tho: Smith 

chosen by us 

John Robinson 
Isaac Raye Clerke 
George Daye 
J oh Bridge 

(In faded ink a note) the name of Robinson, Esq., appears first on 
this page. 

170o Dec. 26. Serueyors Sir John Robinson or Henry Teuerson. 

1705 Samuel Raye churchwarden. 

1714 I nominate and appoint my Brother Ambrose Raye to be my 

Churchwarden for the year 1715 witnesse my hand Isaac 

Raye Rector. 

An Account of the 

election of Parish Officers, and sacrement money (H. Com. being 
celebrated four times a year from 1815 to 1830) is continued down to 
the year 1830. 




o 






'Jl ■*£ 



S> 






£ 8 






434 DENSTON HALL. 

DENSTON HALL. 

Denston Hall is approached by a fine avenue of 
limes, and situated within half a mile of the church. 
The mansion has been greatly altered from time to time, 
and the front possesses no special features ; the offices, 
however, at the back are of considerable extent, and the 
windows and door-ways furnish good examples of early 
brick-work. These long corridors have suggested the 
idea that they once formed a part of the old College : 
but this theory requires confirmation. Traces of the 
ancient moat are clearly visible, and upon one side water 
still flows up to the foundations of the outbuildings. 

From an old map at the Hall, kindly lent by Mrs. 
Tharp, the present tenant, we are enabled to give some 
idea of the ground plan, as well as the front elevation 
of the mansion as it appeared two centuries ago. This 
map has been traced from the original, whilst a drawing 
of the Hall itself, placed at the top of the same map, 
appears in our engraving one-third of the size. 

The Indian ink sketch (made by W. N. Last) clearly 
shows that the moat completely surrounded Denston 
Hall in 1676, and from another ground plan dated 1778, 
it appears to have remained intact up to that period. 

The two central towers resemble those now existing 
at Sissinghurst Castle, Kent, leading one to suppose that 
the mansion was originally built after the same style. 
(Archaeologia Cantiana ix., xci.) 

In a window at the Hall are the following Arms, having over them 
an Earl's coronet, 

Russell of eight Coats. 

1. Russell, Arg. a lion rampant, gu. on a chief, sa. 3 escallops of the 

field. 

2. A device resembling a pillar. 

3. Or. 4 bars, gu. a crescent of the last, in chief. 

4. Heringham, Gu. 3 lucies hauriant, arg. 

5. Fraximere, Sa. a griffin segreant, between 3 cross-crosslets fitche" arg. 

6. Wyse. Sa. 3 chevrons, erm, in dexter chief, a crescent or. 

7. De la Tour, sa. 3 castles arg. a mullet in chief or. 

8. Badeham (?) Arg. on a cross gu. 5 mullets, or. 



DENSTON HALL. 435 

These are probably the Arms of John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford. 
He married Anne, da. and heir of Guy Sapcote, Esq., and widow of 
John Broughton, in whose right he held the Manor of Denston Hall in 
1548. He was then Lord Russell, but the next 18 June, 3 Ed. ill., he 
was created Earl of Bedford. He died 14 March, 1554. An account 
of the aboveArmswas given by Rev. T.Mills, 1833. (Davy MS. 19102, xxvi.) 

At the foot of the map is written : "A Survey of 
the Maner of Den son, and other Lands adjoyning lying 
in the several Parishes of Denson, Stragwel, Wickham- 
brook and Stansfield, in the County of Suffolk, parcel of 
the possessions of John Robinson, Esq 1- ., afterwards Sir 
Jo. Robinson, Knight Banneret. 

Distinguishing by one and the same Colour what is 
held by each particular Tenant ; expressing the Ichno- 
graphy or Ground-plot of the Mansion-house, and all 
other houses, and buildings belonging to the said Maner, 
and shewing where the Fence and Ditch is included or 
excluded by a prickt line drawn within or without the 
out-lines of the same." 

By Robert Felgate of Gravesend Ao. 1676. 

Copied by B. Last, and Son, January 1822. This 
map measures 3 ft. 3 in. by 3 ft. 8 in. No scale of feet is 
drawn, but merely indicated thus (Scale 4). 

KEY TO THE GROUND PLAN. 



A. 


DENSON HALL. 


B. 


THE MOTE. 


C. 


THE YARD, STABLES AND BARNES. 


D. 


THE POUND. 


E. 


THE GREEN. 


F. 


THE PARSONAGE HOUSE. 


G. 


DENSON CHURCH. 


H. 


THE COLLEGE. 



From a study of the Map it is evident that the 
College could not have occupied the site of the present 
Hall, for it is clearly marked near the church. 

No Parsonage now exists, but a farm house close to 
the church gates, is still known as the Chantry Farm. 
This contains a well carved mantel piece, whilst the 
ceilings and old panel work merit attention. 



davy's notes on denston. 437 



DAVY'S SUFFOLK COLLECTIONS. Vol. xxvi., Ad. MS. 19,102. 

Hundred of Risbridge. I. 
Denston. 

1. Situs Collegii de Duueston & alia in Com. Suff. concessa Thomse 

Smith, Militi, & Johanui Smith. 

4 p. Orig. 3 E. 6. Rot. 133 (a.d. 1549). 

2. De manibus Reginse amovendis de Manerio de Denston, & Willielmo 

Burde & uxori liberandis. 

Hil. Rec. 8. El. Rot. 99 (a.d. 1565). 

3. Lady Elizabeth Jones, mother of Sir John Robinson, died 1699, 

aged 68, buried at Denston, where the seat of the Robinsons is. 
Morant, in his History of Essex, p. 99, mentions Elizabeth, dr. 
of Edmund Alleyn, of Little Lees, in Essex, married first to John 
Robinson ; afterwards to Sir William Jones, Attorney General to 
Chas. 2. Letters to and from Granger, p. 128. Sir Jno. Cullum. 

4. Denston or Denardeston. Here was a College or Chauntry endowed 

with £22 8s. 9d. per ami. & granted with a Manor called 
Beaumonds thereto belonging 17 June, 2 Ed. 6. (a.d. 1548) to 
Thomas & John Smith. Thos. Smith sold it 9. Eliz. (1566) to 
William the son of William Bird, Citizen & mercer of London. 
In this Parish is a Beautiful Seat, which is now the Mansion of 
John Robinson, Esq., late Lieut. Col. in the Coldstream Regt. of 
Foot Guards, who has the Lordship. 

Kirby, 249. Bacon, Lib. Reg. 728. Atlas, 288. 

5. Archdry. of Sudbury, Dry. of Clare. 

Denston Cur. (St. Nicholas). Pri. Tunbridge, Co. Kent. 
Propr. Mr. Robinson, Patr. Bacon, 731. 

6. Fin. Suff. 19. H. 3. (1234) n. 175. de terris in Denardeston. 

Prior, de Chipley, (or Chilton) et n. 192. See Chilton, 3. 

7. College. A College or Chantry consisting of a warden & a certain 

number of Priests founded here about 14 E. 4. (1474) by Sir 
John Howard, Knt., & John Broughton, jun., which was endowed 
with £22 8s. 9d. p. ami. & granted, 2 E. 6. (1548) to Thos. & 
John Smith. Vide Pat. 14 E. 4. p. 2. m. 5. Tanner Not. Mon. 

8. Plac. in Com. Suff. 14 E. 1. (1285) Apis. rot. 34. d. de eccl. de 

Denardeston. (pro Prior de Tunbridge.) Tanner. 



438 davy's notes 

9. John Robinson, Esq., father of Sir John Robinson, of Denston Hall, 
Knt., married Elizabeth, dr. of Edmund Alley n, son of Sir 
Edward Alleyn Bart, of Little Lees, Essex. She married after- 
wards Sir Win. Jones, Attorney General to K. Chas. 2. 
Morant's Essex, il, 99. 

10. Sir John Green of Little Sandford, Essex, married 2ndly. Lucy, dr. 

of Sir William Broughton, of Denston, in Suffolk. Ibid. p. 525. 

11. Denston was the Lordship of Thomas de Grey. 9. E. 1. (1280). 

Atlas, 244. 

12. Lands &c. holden of the honour of Clare. 

E. 6. 2. Johes Dnus Russell tenuit in jure Dne Anne uxis sue 
quondam um. Joins Browton p. tern, vitse dee Anne reman, 
hered. Joins Browton Maner. de Denston Hall de honore de Clare 
p. servic. dni feod, Milit. 

Idem tenuit maner. de Stonehall & Shepasta in Denston de hon. 
pred. p. servic. dni feod. milit. 

Idem ten. Maner de Stansfield Hall de Hon. pred. p. iiij pr. 
feod. Milit. Et Maner de Gatesburyes als Catesbies per servic di. 
feod. Milit. 

Idem ten. Maner de Clopton Hall in Wickham de hon. pred. 
p. iiij pr. feod. milit. 

Idem ten. cert. terr. & tent. voc. Cockerells als Fosters in 
Farley & ex acr. terr, & ij acr. bosc. quond. voc. Conyerth & modo 
voc. lockinge p. serv. ij part. feod. Milit. 

Rental of the Honor of Clare in Duchy Crt of Lane. 

13. Lre paten, de Maner. de Beamondes in com. Suff. concess. Thorn. 

Smith & John Smith &■ hered imppm. Dat. xvij , die Junii A°. ij. 
E. 6. Index of Inrollt. in Ench trib. nonus Deerham, fo. 262. 

14. Cart. 30 E. 1. (1301) m. 33. Thome de Graye, Bures, Cavendish, 

Denardeston, Cornerthe pva, Stanefeld, lib. Warr. 
Cal. Rot. Chart, p. 132. 

15. Cart. 22 E. 3 (1348) m. 37. Willus de Clopton, Wickham broke, 

Denardeston, Stradesete, Stansfield, Haukedon, Depedon, Floke- 
ton, Hadele, Wratting, Thrillaw, Hundene, Neuton, Ashdene, 
Sampford pva, lib. Warr, Brunne lib. War. Ibid. p. 180. 

16. 2 Pat. 14. E. 4 (1474) m. 5. Pro Cantar de Denardeston in Com. 

Suff. Cal. Rot. Pat. in Turr. Lond. p. 319. 

17. Sir Roger Grey, Knt. by his last will dated at Dover 45 E. 3. (1371) 

directed that his Feoffees Sr. William Bawd, Robt. Kedyntone, 



ON DENSTON. 439 

Jeffrey de Hundon, & Wm. Keteryngham Clk, & Willm. Hore 
should, out of the profits of the Manor of Denstone, pay an 
annuity of xx marks to his brother Thomas Grey for his life, & after 
his death to be at their disposal. See the Will int. Pedig. Grey. 

18. Each. 45. E. 3. Tho. de Grey Chr. pater Rogeri de Grey Chr. fuit 

scit in feodo de Mnio de Denardiston, & cone. Tho: de Grey filio 
suo un. annual, redd xl/. de Mnio prdco. Et Man. ten. de Com. 
Staff, de honor Glouc. Harl. MSS. No. 5193. fo. 7. b. 

19. Esch, 11. R. 2. Hugo Comes Stafford tent d. g. o. j feod. mie in 

Denardeston, ptm Mnio suo de Havrell, de Rg. in cap. Thos. 
Stafford fil. ejus & heres. Ibid. No. 708. 

20. Denardeston, Ecclia. A paper Roll intitled, " Hec sunt decime 

pochial de Denardston, about the time of Hen. 8. 
Suff. Bag of Miscellanea, No. 8. Chapter House. 

21. Licenc. H. 8. Tho. Wolsey Card. Ebor. qd. ipse Ecclias sive 

Rectorias, (inter al.) de Chattisham, Denardstone, &c. in Com. 
Suff. 10 Maij, 18 H. 8. 

In the attic rooom of the Chapter House, A. 10. C. 3. 

22. Claus. 6. H. 4. Josia Vine filia Joh. Vine relax. Tho. Culpeper Mil. 

de Com. Kent, & Josise ux. ejus matris prdese Josise & hered. 
masc. de corp. prdese Josise matris suse legit pcreat. tot. jus in 
Mnrio de Cornerde in Bures, & in Man. de Denherston in Com. 
Suff. & in Man. de Finchingfield in Com. Essex. 
Harl. MS. No. 971, p. 113. 



23. Edms. Comes Staffordie obiit seisitus, 21 die Julij, A 4 R. R. H. 4. 

inter alia, De uno feod, Mil. in Denarston qd. Willus Hoore tenet 
de Mnio de Havengll qd. valet p. ami. Cs. lb. No. 700. 

24. E Libro. cui titulus, Feoda Militaria Edw. nup. Due. Buckingham, 

13 H. 8. Inter record. Recept. Scacc. 

Suff. The Honor of Clare. 

Wm. Hore holdeth a Knight's fee in Denston of the Manor of 
Haverell. 

Walter de Clopton holdeth the iiijth pt. of a Knt's fee in 
Denaston. MS. pen. Rob. Sparrow Ann. 1813. 

25. Rog. Com. de Clar. confirm, oes donacoe, &c. Mon de Stokes, & 

inter al. ex dono Gilbti de Baillul, duas ptes decime sue in 
Denardestune. Reg. de Stoke, p. 8, fo. 24. 

26. Lre patent de Mnio de Stonehall & divers, al. tent, in Com. Suff. 



440 davy's notes 

concess. Thome Goldinge & Georgio Goldinge & hered. impptm. 

Dat. xxxj die Martij A , vij E. 6. 

Index of Inrolmts. in Exch. Aud. off. Lib. nonns. Denham, fo. 168. 

27. The names of all such psonages as were to be impropriated unto 

Cardinal College in the Universitie of Oxforde. 

Inter als in div. Com. 
The psonage of Denarston & als. in Suff. 

Cotton MSS. Cleopatra E. 4. fo. 373 b. 

28. Abstract of the Valuation of all the lands belonging to any religious 

house in England, taken out of the Court of First fruits & tenths. 
Com. Suff. Coll. de Denston. £22 8s. 9d. lb. fo. 390. 

29. Dennardeston, Leta ptinet ad Castr. de Clare 35 E. 1. no. 47. 
Dennardiston, fo. 16 Gilb. Clare Com. Glouc. 8 E. 3. 8 E. 2. 68. 

m. Rog. Grey Knt. 45 E. 3. 27—46. E. 3. 17 b. 
Denardeston, Leta Ed. Mortimer Com. Marsh. 5 R. 2. 43. 
„ m. Tho. Gray, 7 R. 2. 41. 

„ f. Com. Stafford, 10 R. 2. 38. 

„ f. ptinet Man. de Haverhall, Tho. Com. Stafford. 

Ext. 16 R. 2. 27. pt. 1. 
Leta Rog. de Mort. Com. Suff. 24 R. 2. 34. 
Denarston, f. ib. 

Denardestone, f. 1 6 p J oh. de Kersnoreext. Rog. Com. March 22. R. 2. 34. 
Denardeston, f. p. Tho. Grey Clk ext. W. Co. Stafford. 22 R. 2. 46. 
Donerston, f. 16 Ed. Co. Stafford 4 H. 4. 41. 
Denaston, M. ux. Rog. Grey 6 H. 4. 24. 
Donaston, Tho. Grey Knt. pt. m. 5. H. 4. 11. 
Deneston, f. Ed. Co. March. 3 H. 6. 32. 
Dernaston, xe redd. Edm. Co. March 3 H. 6. 32. 
Denarston, f. p. W. f. h. (Fitz hugh.) Walt. Fitz. Humfrey. 3 H. 6. 32. 
Deneston, f. ib. 11 H. 6. 12. 

Dermandeston, f. 1. p. Cath. Reg. Angl. 11 H. 6. 43. 
Denardeston, in Com. Suff. de Cantaria ib. fac. voc. Denston's 
Chauntry p. E. 4. A°. 14. pt. 2. m. 5. 
Tho. de Grey Knt. lib. Warren ib. A°. 30 E. 1. 35. 
Will de Cloptone lib. Warr. ib. A 32 E. 3. 37. 
Harl. MSS. No. 4626. Gipp's Collns. 

30. Plita de Banco, Term Mich. 7 E. 2. Suff. 5. 

Henr. atte Wode de Couling & Agnes ux. pett. vers Walt, de 
Clopton & Clement frem ejus un. Mess, viij acr. tre di & tres rod. 
prati in Denardeston, & Henedene ut jus. Def. diet. qd. tene fuer. 
in seisa Johis Garlee, qui ipsos inde feofft. Et. pt. Agn. remist. 
tot. jus p script &c. rot. 388. 
Plita temp. E. 2. fo. 140, MSS. St. John. pen. R. Sparrow, An. 1819. 



ON DENSTON. 441 

31. Denardeston. Johna Trauns de Denardeston tenet unum Mesuag. 

inead. villa & sex acr. tre jacem. inter tram Ric. 61. Gilbti ex pte 
una, ifc tram Thome le Feverere ex altera de tenement, quond. 
Petri Appelgar, & redd. p. ann. iijrf. 

Henricus Faber de Hundene tenet un. acram terre in vill de 
Denardeston qm Avicia de Bernardiston quond. tenuit abutant 
contra tuftam Galfri Presbyteri qm terram idem Henric. tenet de 
Willmo de Haverhill Caplo. & idem Willms de Sacrista (Sci 
Edmi.) & redd. p. ann. jd. ob. 

Petrus Gascoyn de Denardeston tenet imam tuftam quond. 
Walteri Loveday de Oiling apd. Wilmundiston redd. p. ann. ijd. 
M. tenet Isabella Underwode de Stratesele. Gilbertus Under- 
•vvode tenet vj acr. terre in villa de Denarston in campo vocat. 
Traunscroft, & redd, p ann. vjc?. 

Registr. Kempe. Harl. MSS. No. 645, fo. 84. 

32. In Deneston terr. tent. p. Johem Cheke sibi & hered. suis de R. in 

ea. (inter alia) p serv. C. ptis un. feod. Mil. p. 10 po. 1 E. 6. 
ut Hunden Man. 

Dennerston. Advoc. Ecclie cum ptin. tent. p. Thomam Cardin. 
& Archiep. Ebor. sibi & hered. suis de R. p fidel. tant. p 1 po. 
17 H. 8. ut Thorney Man. 

Denardeston als Denston imp. Coll. sive Cantar. domus & Scit. 
& Maner. de Beaumondes, camp. terr. & pastm. voc. Malelyn's 
field ac al. ten. & heredit. in little Bradley Beaumonds & Lindsey 
tent. p. Thoman Smythe & John Smythe sibi & hered. suis de R. 
in cap. p. serv. xl. ptis un. feod. Mil. p. 5 p. o. 2 E. 6. 

Denardston imp. Colleg. sive Cantar. Cap. Doms. & Scit. med. 
ac Mediat. Mnii de Beaumonds & Lyndsey cum omnibus ptin, 
tent. p. Thomam Smythe de R. in cap. & het licenc. alien. Thome 
Lawrence & hered. suis 1 p. o. 6 Eliz. 

Denardston imp. Coll. sive Cantar. cap. doms. & Scit. med. & 
med. Mnii de Beamondes & Lyndsey cum omnibus ptin. tent, p 
Thomam Smythe de R. in ca. & het peon, de acquis, de Johe 
Smythe 1 p. o. 6 Eliz. 

Denardeston als Denston nup Collegii Scit. cum ptin. in vill. 
pcd. tent p Thomam Smythe de R in cap. & het licenc. alien. 
Willo Burde junr. & hered. suis p 9 po. 9 Eliz. 

In Denardeston als Denston terr. p Thomam Smyth alien. 
Willo Burde junr. & hered suis tent, in cap. p L. d. 22 Oct. 9 Eliz. 
lib. 24 fo. 60 ab Denardeston nup. Colleg. sive Cantar. cap. 
domus & Scit. Harl. MSS. No. 1232, p 113. 

33. Orig. de A . 15 Jac. p. 3 rot. 20 Suff. 

Rex dimisit ad finu. Rico Ray divers, ten. & tent, in Denston 
& Wickhambrooke de ten. Willi Birdie Gen. nup Collect, pve 
custume dne nup Rne Eliz. in portu Civit. Lond. hehd qm diu in 

G 



442 davy's notes 

man. dni Rg. nunc reman, contigt rone debit, dci Willi, sub redd, 
ibm. specif. Index Orig. in Mus. Brit. Vol. 24 p. 2. 

34. Pat. 18 H. 8 p 1 m 22. 1526. 

De concessionibus, pro Collegio Cardinalis Eborum. 

Rex omnibus, &c. Sciatis qd. nos de gra, &c. concessimus, &c. 
Thomse Cardinali Eborum, &c. qd. ipse Rectorias seu Ecclias de 
Chettisham, Swillond, Falkenham, Snape, Friston, Bedyngefelde 
& Denarston in Com. iiro SufF. de ipsius Cardinalis Patronatu 
existentes, cum omnibus ptin, &c. Decano & Canonicis Collegii 
Thoma3 Wolsey Cardinalis Eborm Angliae vocati Cardinali College 
in Oxonia, appropriare, &c. possit. 

Proviso semper qd. perpetuee Vicariae in eisd. Eccliis de uno 
Presbytero idoneo in ear. qualibet impptm dotetur & qd. com- 
petentis summa inter Pauperes parochianos Eccliam, Predicte 
per Ordinarios in eisd. annuatim distribuatur, juxta formam 
Statuti in hujusmodi casu provisi, &c. 

Teste R apd Westm. 10 die Maij 

Rymer's Feod. Vol. 14 p 172. 

35. Inquis Ao. 3 E 1. 

Jurat, dicunt qd. Com. Glovernie appropt. sibi vis franc, pleg. 
de ten to Appilgar. in Denardiston, in prjudic. dni Rg. 

Rot. Hundr. Vol. 2 p. 152 and 172. Quam. Balls, Hund. 
solebt tenere. p 195. 

Item dicunt qd. Comes Glovernie het warenn. in Denardeston 
de novo and nesct. quo warant. et excedit metas. Ibid, p 153. 

Item dicunt qd. com. Glovernie clamat here fure in feod. 
Glovem in Denardeston et cap. neend (?) pan. & cervis. Ibid 1 72. 

Item dicunt qd. idem Comes Clamat here warren in vill. de 
Denadeston in tris libor hoium ultra dfiicum suum et nesct. 
quo warant. Ibid p 173 and 196. 

36. Orig. de A . 29 H. 8 rot. 45. 

Rex xiij Feb. de advisament Johis Dauncy et al. dimisit ad 
firmam Hen. Everard Rectoriam de Denerston, hend. a festo Sci. 
Michis ult. prter. usq ad finem term, xxj annor. redd, inde iiij I. 
et xijc? de incio p ann. Index Orig. in Brit. Mus. Vol. 3 fo. 18. 

37. Orig. de A . 3 E 6 p 4 rot. 137. 

Rex 17 die Junii cone. Thome Smythe and Johi Smythe Scitum 
Collegii de Denerdeston, ac. Maner. de Beamondes, simul cum 
div. al. ten. ibm specif, hend sibi and hered. suis impptm. 

Ibid Vol. 5 fo. 101. 

38. Orig. de Ao. 6 Eliz. p 3 rot. 20. SufF. 

De licenc Thome Smyth alien, mediat. domus et scitus nup. 



ON DENSTON. 443 

Collegii sive Cantar, de Denardeston Thome Lawrence de. 
suis impptm. Ibid Vol. 9 fo. 19. 

39. Orig. de A . 9 Eliz. p. 1 rot. 45 Suff. 

Rna. licenc. dedit Thome Smyth alien dom. et scit. nup 
Colleg. de Denston cum ptin. Willo Burde jun. et hered. suis. 
Ibid fol. 127. 

40. Esc. Ao. 35 E. 1 n 47. 

Joha uxor Gilbti de Clare Com. Glouc. et Hertf. conjunct, cum 
Gibto viro suo Dennardeston leta eid. ptin vir. Clare Custi bon. 
Suff. Cal. Inq. p mort. Vol. 1 p. 221. 

41. Esc. Ao. 8 E. 2 n 68. 

Gilbertus de Clare Conies Glouc. et Hertf. 

Chippeleye Cloptone Wyhleshey et Denardston, Suff. 

Hershau. Haverhill Withersfield Hersethe, Denardeston et 
Rede 4 feod ... Suff. 

Mymmes, Bygrave and Denardestone tria feoda... Herts, and 
Suff/ Ibid p 269, 270. 

42. Esc. Ao. 43 E. 3 p 1 n 23. 

Leonellus Dux de Clarencia and Elizabetha uxor ejus Dinner- 
diston leta ... Suff. Ibid Vol. 2 p 295. 

43. Esc. Ao. 46 E. 3 n 17. 2 d . 

Rogerus Grey chr pro Thoma de Grey filio suo. 

Denardeston Maner. ut de honore de Clare. Suff. Ibid p 324. 

44. Esc. A . 45 E. 3 n 27. 

Rogerus Grey chr. Denerdeston Maner ... Suff. Ibid p 309. 

45. Augmentations 

Denston 1811 By Lot. Royal Bounty £200 

1817 Ditto Parliamentary Grant £200 

1824 Ditto Royal Bounty £200 

Hodgson's Acct of Queen Anne's Bty. 

46. Fecsda Mil. quond. Gilbti de Clare, Com. Glouc et mo. ptin ad 

Coronam, A°. 8 E. 2. 

Quinque feod. Mil. cum suis ptin in Chipley, Clopton, Winsley, 
et Denardston in dco Com. Suff. que Walterus fil. Humfridi 
tenet. MS. Sparrow. 

47. Heredes Johis Bayliol tent 4 feod. Mil. in Horsham Hersecell, 

Withersfield, Horseth, et Denardeston als Denston et Reede, 
de eod. Comite Ibid. 



444 davy's notes 

48. Johes dela Kersauer tent tres ptes unius feod. Mil. in Cavendish, 

Denardston Hawkedon et Stansfield in dco Com. de dco Comite. 
Ibid. 

49. Feoda Mil. quond. Edi Com. March and mo. ptin, ad Dnam Rnam, 

Esc. A°. 3 H 6. 

Johes de Brassmore tent. 3 pt. un. feod. Mil in Cavendishe, 
Denardston, Hawkedon, and Stanfield. Ibid. 

50. Waltertts fil. Humfridi tent. un. feod. and dim. Mil. in Chipley, 

Clopton, Winlesley, et Denardston (de dco Comite) Ibid. 

51. Feoda Mil quond. Humfri Bohun, Com. Hertford and Essex, et 

m° ptin. dne Rne. A 47 E. 3. 

Un. feod. Mil. in Denarston quond. Wills. Hore tent, de prdco 
Comite ut de Mnio suo de Haverell A . 47 E. 3. Ibid. 

52. Tot. ill. capital domus et Scit. nup. Collegii de Denarston sive 

Cantaria de Denarston, Que quid. Thomas and Johes Smyth 
habuert. ex dono Rg Edw. 6 de dono Rg in cap. p Lionellum 
Smyth Ao. 1 1 Eliz. nunc Rne, p Memorand. Ao. 4 dci Ed. 6 rot. 
133. Ibid. 

53. Catalogue of the Lansdowne MSS. Brit. Mus. 

No. 108, An unnamed person to the Lord Treasurer, for 
purchase of the Manor of Deverston in Suffolk, Act. 73. 

54. County Bags. Stiff. Miscellaneous Records, In the Chapter House. 

Denardston, ecclesia. A paper roll, entitled " Hie sunt x 1 ? 6 
pochional de Denardston," about the time of Hen. 8. Report of 
the Record Corns. 1837, p. 59. 



MANOR OF DENSTON HALL. 

Lords. 

20 W. 1 1086 Richard fil. Comit. Gisleberti, dead in 1090 
4 W. 2 1090 Gilbert de Clare, son and heir 

Richard de Clare, son and heir. Slain 1136 
1 Step. 1136 Gilbert de Clare, E of Hertford, son and heir 

Died 1151 
16 Step. 1151 Ralph de Clare, E of Hertford, bro. Died 1173 

19 H. 2 1173 Richard de Clare, E of Hertford, son & heir Died 1211 
1 3 Joh. 1211 Gilbert de Clare, E of Gloucester and Hertford, 

son and heir Died 1229 

13 H. 3 1229 Richard de Clare, E of Glouc. and Hert., son 

and heir Died 1262 



30 E. 1 


1301 


HE. 2 


1321 


45 E. 3 


1371 


6 H. 4 


1405 


6 H. 4 


1405 


19 E. 4 


1479 


22 H. 7 


1507 


9 H. 8 


1517 


2E. 6 


1548 


36 Eliz. 


1594 


15 Ja. 


1617 



ON DENSTON. 445 

46 H. 3 1262 Gilbert de Clare, E of Glouc. and Hert., son 

and heir 3 Ed. 1 1275 

Thomas de Grey, had free warren Died 1321 

Sir Roger Grey, Knt., son and heir. Will dated 45 E. 3. 
Thomas Grey, son and heir. Died unmar. 7 R. 2 1384 
Margaret (Alice?) widow of Sir Roger Grey 
Josia Vine, daughter of John Vine released to Sir 
Thos. Culpeper, Knt., and Josia, his wife, her mother. 
John Broughton, mar. Anne, da. of John Denston 

Died 19 E. 4 
Sir Robert Broughton, Knt., son & heir Died 22 H. 7 
Sir John Broughton, Knt, son & heir Died 9 H. 8 1517 
JohnBroughton,Esq.,son&heir Died21H. 8 1529 s.p. 
John Lord Russell, in right of his wife Anne (or 
Agnes) late wife of Sir John Broughton, Knt. 

Died 1558 
William Bird, Esq. Died 36 Eliz. 1594 
William Bird, son and heir 

William Robinson had a lease of it from the Crown, in 
which it then was, for a debt due from Wm. Bird 
John Robinson, Esq. Died 1659 
1659 Sir John Robinson, Knt. of Denston, son and heir 

Died 1704 
1704 John Robinson, Esq., son and heir Died 1734 

1734 John Robinson, Esq., son and heir Died 1772 

1772 John Robinson, Esq., Genl. son and heir Died 1819 
1819 William Henry Robinson, Esq., son &heir Died 1826 s.p. 
1826 Henrietta Jeaffreson, daughter and heiress of Lt. Gen. 
Christopher Jeaffreson, and Henrietta his wife, 
sister of Gen. Robinson. She mar. Wm. Pigott, 
Esq., 3rd son of Sir George Pigott, Bart, of Knap- 
ton Queen's County in 1827, and died 1838, 
leaving one son 
1857 Christopher William Robinson, The present Lord, 
now living at Dullingham House, Newmarket, 
took the name of Jeaffreson on the death of Mrs. 
Pigott, and that of Robinson on coming of age, and 
under the will of William Henry Robinson in 1857 

MANOR OF BEAUMONDS. 

Lords. 

Sir John Howard, and John Broughton, jun. founded 
about 
14 E. 4 1474 The College or Chauntry of Denston 
The Crown at the Dissolution 
2 E. 6 1548 Thomas Smith, & JohnSmith, by grant from the Crown 



446 davy's notes 

6 Eliz. 1564 Thomas Smith had licence to aliene a moiety to 

6 Eliz. 1564 Thomas Lawrence 

9 Eliz. 1567 William son of William Bird, Citizen and Mercer of 

London, by purchase of Thomas Smith 
John Robinson Esq. by purchase Died 1659 
Sir John Robinson, Knt. 
1826 William Henry Robinson Esq. 

From 1567, this Manor appears to have had the same 
Lords, as Denston Hall Manor. 

MANOR OF STONEHALL AND SHEPCOTE. 

Lord*. 

John Broughton Esq. 

Sir Robert Broughton Knt. son and heir Died 22 H. 7 
Sir John Broughton, Knt. son and heir Died 9 H. 8 1517 
John Broughton Esq. son & heir Died s.p. 21 H. 8 1529 
John Lord Russell, in right of his wife, Anne or 
Agnes, late wife of Sir John Broughton, Knt. 

She died 1558 

7 E. 6 1553 Thomas Golding, and George Golding, by grant from 

the Crown 
William Bird, Esq. (2 E. 6) Died 36 Eliz. 1594 
36 Eliz. 1594 William Bird, Esq. son and heir 

It probably descended from hence with the Chief Manor. 



22 H. 7 


1507 


9 H. 8 


1517 


2E. 6 


1548 



DENSTON CHURCH NOTES. 



In Glass to Denston. 

1 Arms. Denston, quartering 

Wanton, Arg. on a chevron S. a cross fl. of the field 

2 Clopton 

3 Arg. a chevron between 3 mulletts gu. 

4 Howard 

5 Clopton 

6 Mild. sa. a lion arg. 

On a grave Stone (see page 413). 

The first Coate on the man, the 4 last on the woman 

1 On a fess between 3 estoiles 3 mullets 

2 A chevron between 3 mullets 

3 On a chevron 3 fleurs de lis 

4 On a cross 5 escallops 

5 Denston 

A fayre Tombe with a man naked, and a woman, I suppose for Denston. 



ON DENSTON. 447 

A Stone (see page 408). 

Wm. Bird Esq. who died 1591. 
Arms. Quarterly 1 Bird, 2 an eagle, 3 Quarterly, 4 2 Trefoils, not Denston. 

MS. Church Notes pen. Sir J. Blois p 282. 

Church Notes taken March 22, 1814, by H. I. & D. E. D. (David E. Davy) 

The church consists of a Nave, Chancel, and 2 Isles, all covered 
with lead. 

The Chancel is 35 ft. in length, and 16 ft. 6 in. in breadth. Under 
the E. window on the wall is painted the Lord's Prayer (not existing in 
1887). The Communion table is raised one step, and railed off. There 
is scarcely any distinction between this and the Nave, except that the 
former is rather lower in the roof. Between the Chancel and the Isles, 
are 3 lofty arches on each side, but little pointed, and supported by light 
pillars, above which, are 3 windows on each side. In the 1st N. clerestory 
Window from the W. is a shield of Arms, which, tho' much broken, 
appear to be Clopton, impaling Clopton, and under it Will iris Clopton. 
The E. window is large and handsome. Between the Nave and Chancel, 
in 2 and 3 arches, a carved wooden Screen. 

The Nave is 44 ft. 1 in. long, by 14 ft. Tin. wide. The Pulpit stands 
in the N.E. corner, of oak, ordinary. Between the Nave and the Isles 
are 4 arches on each side as those in the Chancel : above the arches on each 
side are 4 windows, by which the Nave is lighted. The seats are chiefly 
of oak, with carved ends. The Font stands in the last arch near the 
W. end, on the S. side, of sand stone, octagon, the faces carved with 
figures. At the W. end is a small gallery. (The Font stands in the 
Nave near the Western Arch, and no gallery now exists.) 

The Isles extend to the full length of both the Nave and Chancel, 
and are each 80 ft. 1 in. long, by 8 ft. 10 in. wide. The last arch of the 
S. isle is inclosed with a wooden palisade. In the E. window hangs a 
hatchment nearly destroyed (see page 406, 1). 

Against the S. side hang, a small shield of Robinson, and a banner 
of the same, with helmet, sword &c. 

The last arch of the N. isle is also inclosed, like that in the S. isle. 
In the E. window hangs a Hatchment (see page 406, 2). 

1. Against the N. side (see page 406, 3). 

2. Above the last, in a lozenge, &c. (see page 406, 4). 

3. (page 406, 5). 

In the N. wall of the N. isle, is a stone stair case to the rood loft, 
the door into which still remains. In the windows are many remains of 
painted glass. 

The Steeple is a square embattled Tower of flints cast over, with 
buttresses ; In it are 2 Bells. 



I 



448 davy's NOTES 

On the S. side of the Nave is a Porch, with a groined stone roof, 
the Key stone of which appears to have the following coat of arms 
upon it, — A fess between 3 mullets. 

The outside walls of the Church are of flint plaistered over, with 
buttresses ; the parapet of Sand stone. 

In the E. buttress of the Porch is a Piscina. (Davy mistook this 
for a Holy Water Stoup. f.h.) 

The whole Church will have a very neat and elegant appearance, 
when the repairs which it is now undergoing, are completed. 



MONUMENTS, INSCRIPTIONS, &c. 
In the Chancel. 

Between the Chancel and E. end of the N. isle, on a kind of altar 
tomb raised about a foot and half from the floor, lie the figures in stone 
of a man and woman : the man nearly naked, on a shroud ; the woman 
also in a shroud : they lie under a stone canopy, covered with a large 
slab of marble full of shells. Upon the top of this slab were the figures 
in brass of a man and woman, with 3 shields of brass at top, & 3 others 
at bottom : all now gone. Round the edge appears to have been an 
inscription likewise on brass. 

Within the Communion rails, are 2 stones, which had formerly 
small brasses. 

Below the Rails, near the W. end, on a large stone, are the figures 
in brass, of a man and woman (page 413) : the man in armour, his head 
and hands bare, his head resting upon a helmet (side faced), upon which 
is his crest, a man's head nearly full faced, couped at the shoulders, on 
his head a cap, fretty : the helmet lies on a mantle. Upon his surtout, 
are his arms, 

Everard. On a fess between 3 etoiles, as many mullets, a crescent 
for difference. Upon each arm, is a shield of the same Arms. The 
Woman rests her head upon a large square cushion, and has over her 
shoulders, a mantle, upon which, are her husband's, and her own arms : 
over her right arm, the coat of arms above mentioned, and over her left 
shoulder, a coat, quarterly. 

1 A Chevron, between 3 mulletts, Broughton (?) [sic f.h.] 

2 Chevron 

3 On a cross, 5 escallops, Weyland (?) [sic] 

4 2 lions passant guardant, Denston (?) [sic] 

Beneath their feet was an Inscription, now gone, and over their 
heads 2 shields, that over the man has his arms, as on his surtout ; that 
over the woman, the same, impaling, her own arms quarterly, as above. 



ON DENSTON. 



In the Nave. 



449 



On a flat Stone, a whole length small figure of a woman in brass, 
which had below it an inscription which is gone : above her head is a 
Shield of Arms (page 414). 

Drury ? (sic) On a chief, 2 mullets, pierced. 
Roger Drury of Hawsted Esq. mar. Felice or Phillis, d. and hr of 
Wm. Denston of Besthorp. Roger died in 1500. She was his second 
wife. (Thus bracketed by Davy.) 



In the South Isle. 

Arms, above Amee Robinson, &c, set 63 Years (page 412). 
Robinson, bucks statant : — Impaling Elwes — a fess, and bend. 

Arms, above monument to Sir John Robinson, who died 1704 (page 
412). Robinson, as the last. Crest, on a Knt's helmet, and torse, a 
buck trippant. 

Arms, above monument to Lady Elizabeth Jones (page 409). 
Robinson, as before, Impaling, Allen, a Cross potent. 



In the North Isle. 

Arms, above, Amy Robinson (page 409). In a lozenge, Robinson. 

Arms, above Hon. Col. John Robinson (page 408). Robinson, 
bucks trippant, Impaling Bromsal, A lion rampant. Crest, Robinson, as 
before. 

Arms above monument to Lieut. Col. John Robinson (page 408) 
Robinson, as last, Impaling Cotes, Quarterly, 1 and 4, 5 erm spots in 
saltire ; 2 and 3, 3 pales. Crest, Robinson. 

Arms above monument to Hon. Rebecca Robinson (page 407). 
Robinson, with quatrefoils on the chevron, impaling Clive, on a fess, 
3 mullets. Crest, Robinson, as before. 

Byrde (page 408) 1 quarterly, arg. a crosse flower'd betw. 4 martlets 

gu. upon the 1st martlet, a canton verte. 

2 ptie per pale, or and arg. surtout an aigle disploie sa. 

3 quarterly gu. and or. in ye 1st and 4th. 6 fleur de 

lis arg. yt is in eache q 1 3. 

4 (sic) Arg. 2 trefoyle slypped, a cheefe sa. sur tout 

crescent for diffce. 

His creaste in a crowne arg. a greyhound's hed cowpee or. 

(Page 413). Orate pro aiabus Henrici Everard Armigeri et Margaretse 
uxoris ejus, quae Margareta obiit 6 die Augusti Anno Dni 1524 : cujus 
animse propitietur deus. Amen. 



450 davy's notes 

Everarde G. 2 molletts of the same upon a fesse arg. between 3 staues 
of 6 points argt. crescent for difference. 

The arms of his wyfe, Quarterly, 

1 Arg. a chevron between 3 molletts pierced, gu. 

2 Arg. upon a chevr. gu. 3 de lis, argt. 

3 Arg. 5 escallops or. upon a crosse sa. 
5 As 1. 



In Denston church, in the wyndowes these belowe 

A woman kneelinge and prayinge, ye coat armour of Clopton, on 

hir breste 
A woman kneelinge, on hir breste ; Cavendish, sa. 3 bucks heads 

erased and arg. attd. or. 
A man armed, kneelinge with the Coate armor of Cavendess on his 

breste 
A man armed kneelinge, with Harleston and Walton on his breaste, 

empaled 
A woman kneelinge, ye coate of Clopton on hir breste 
A man kneelinge, his coat armour, Clopton, his wyfe on the other 

syde 

1 Clopton 

2 Sa. upon a griffin segreant arg. a barre cheeky of 2 partes, 

arg. and or. 

Harl. MSS. No. 381 fo. 169 b. 



In Glasse, 

Johannes Denston 

Denston, B. ij lions passant gardant, or, quartered with 
Wanton Arg. on a chevron, Sa. a cross croslett, arg. 

(not a crosse floree, sic). 

Clopton 

Arg. a chevron between iij mulletts, g. 

In a window, the name Broughton. MS. of Suff. Fams. Conder, p 198. 

Further Notes taken (by Davy) Augt. 23rd, 1831. 

The Church has lately been put into a complete state of repair, and 
considerable alterations have been made. It is now one of the prettiest 
Churches in Suffolk. 



ON DENSTON. 451 

In the E. window of the Chancel, have been placed the following 
Arms, besides figures, flowers &c. 

1 Clare, or. 3 chevrons, gu. 

2 A cross of the Union, Az. a saltire, arg. surmounted of a cross, 

gu. edged, of 2d. 

3 Gyronny of 8 ... patched 

4 Le Hunte, Vert, a saltire or. 

5 Dabanon (?) Az. a chevron or. 

6 Paly of . . . patched 

7 Wanton, Arg. on a chevron, sa. a cross patonce of the 1st. 



S. side. 



On the roof of the Nave. 

1 Robinson, impaling, Allen, Sa. a cross potent, or. 

2 Robinson on an inescutcheon, Bromsall. 

3 Robinson Qy. 1 and 4 Robinson, 

2 and 3 Bromsall, impaling Clive. 

On the N. side. 

1 Robinson, quartering Bromsal, impaling blank. 

2 Robinson, quartering Bromsal, impaling Cotes. 

3 Robinson, impaling Elwes. 

4 Robinson, impaling 

Jenkinson, Az. on a fesse dancette, arg. a cross patee, gu. 
in chief 2 etoiles or. 

The windows are all similar. 

Only 1 bell remains in the Steeple ; dimensions of Steeple, 
9 ft. 2 in. sq. 

Arms, below monument to Robert Robinson (page 407). 
Robinson, impaling 

Bingham, Qy. 1 and 4 Bingham, a bend double cotised betwn. 
6 crosses patee. 
2 and 3 Douglas, Qy. 1 and 4 Douglas, a human heart, 

imperially crowned, on a chief, 3 mullets. 
2 and 3 on a chief raisonnee, 2 mullets. 
Crest and Motto, Robinson. 



MINISTERS OF DENSTON. 



Richard Peachie, Minr. 1602. 

Henry Whitehead 1628. 

John Hubberd, Clk. 1637. 

John Snowden, Minr. and Prudence Debnam mar. 17 Nov. 1579. 



452 davy's notes 

Robt. Raie, Minr. and Alice Web, mar. 7 Feb. 1587. 

George Harelakenden, Minr. and Judeth Raie mar. 7 Octr. 1596. 

Clement Raye, Clk. bur. 6 Apr. 1686. 

Mr. Isaac Raye, Minr. of this Parish, bur. 21 Apr. 1720. 

Died, Tuesday, in an advanced age, the Rev. Beriah Brook, perpetual 

Curate of Denston, Suffolk, and formerly Vicar of Wressel in Yorkshire. 

Ipsiv. Journ. Sat. Dec. 30, 1809. See Gent. Mag. Vol. 79, p. 1238. 

Monday last, the Rev. Thos. Seabrook, A.M. was licensed to the 
perpetual Curacy of Denston in this County, on the nomination of 
Major General Robinson, of Denston Hall. 

lb. Sat. July 14, 1810. 

Rev. Beriah Brook, buried at Stansfield, of which he was Curate 
42 years. 

Regr. of Stansfield, and Church Notes. 

In the morning of Tuesday sennight, died much regretted, in his 
58th year, the Rev. Thomas Seabrook, M.A. Caius Coll. Camb. B.A. 
1799; M.A. 1800: he was Perpetual Curate of Denston, and last year 
was presented to the Vicarage of Wickham Brook ; he has left a widow 
and 10 children. 

Ips. Journ. Aug. 1, 1829. 

Monday last, the Rev. Augustus James Tharp, A.B. was licensed to 
the pei-petual Curacy of Denston, in this County, on the nomination of 
Wm. Pigott, Esq. of Denston Hall. 

Ibid. June 12th, 1830. 

At a General Ordination, holden in the Cathedral of Norwich, on 
Sunday last, the following was admitted into Holy Orders, as Priest. 
Augustus James Tharp, A.B. Christ's Coll. Camb. Ibid. 

On the 19th ult. the Rev. William Leonard Suttaby, Clk., A.B. was 
licensed to the Perpetual Curacy of Denston, in this co. on the nomination 
of Wm. Pigott, of Denston hall afsd. Esq. 

Ibid. Dec. 3, 1836. 

Leonard Klamborovvski, M.A., the present Vicar (formerly Vice- 
Principal of the North Wales Training College, Carnarvon), was 
appointed 1876. 



ON DENSTON. 453 

PARISH REGISTERS. 

Extracts from the Parish Registers dating from 1561. 

The Parish Registers have been well kept, and are 
in good order. 

They commence thus : — " The Regester Booke of 
Denston beginninge at the yere of our Lord 1561." 

Preceding the Baptisms is : — " There is a tyme to be 
borne and a tyme to dye." 

Heading the Marriages is : — " Whom God hath 
ioyned together let noe man seperate." Before Burials : 
"The last Enemy yt shall be distroued is death." 



BAPTISMS. 

Susan, dau. of Thomas Smith, Gent., 15 March, 1561 

Roberte, son of Ditto 18 April, 1565 

William, son of William Harvie, Gent., 18 July, 1563 

Susanna, dau. of John Higham, Gent., Sept., 1563, bur. 30 Sept., 1563 

Judith, dau. of William Burd, Gent., 12 Sep., 1565 

Alice, dau. of William Burd, Esq., 9 Oct., 1566 

Katherin, da. of William Burd, Esq., and Mirable, 22 Aug., 1568 

Mirable, dau. of Thomas Burd, Gent., and Elizabeth, 1 Sept., 1577 

William Worledge, several of his children about 1590 to 1598 

Elizabeth, dau. of Richard Peachie, minister, and Judeth, 11 July, 1602 

Theophilus, son of Ditto ditto 19 Feb., 1603 

Joseph, son of Ditto ditto 3 July, 1606 

John, son of Robert Robinson, Gent., and Apolina, 21 March, 1623 

Bridget, dau. of Ditto ditto 25 July, 1625 

Katherin, dau. of William Robinson, citizen and mercer of London, and 

Katherine, 11 Oct., 1625 
John, son of John Robinson, Esq., and Bridget, 15 Jan., 1625 
Elizabeth, dau. of John Robinson, Esq., 7 June, 1682 
Isabella, dau. of Ditto and Amy, 4 Jan., 1684 

Bridgett, dau. of Ditto and Ama, 23 July, 1689 

Francis, dau. of Ditto ditto 2 Aug., 1692 

Anne, dau. of Henry Whitehead, Minister, and Anne, 1 Feb., 1628 
Thomas, son of Ditto ditto 16 Jan., 1630 

George, son of John Tallakerne, and Martha, 25 March, 1630 
Martha, da. of John Tallakerne, Gent., and Martha, 23 March, 1632 
Anne, da. of John Hubberd, Clk., and Ann, 29 Sep., 1637 
Charles, son of Ditto ditto 7 Oct., 1638 

Mary, dau. of Ditto ditto 5 March, 1639 

Hothersall, son of Ditto ditto 6 May, 1641 

William, son of Ditto ditto 24 July, 1642 



454 davy's notes 

William, son of William Gattaway, Gent., 1 Nov., 1641 
Samuel, son of William Gatiward, Gent., and Sarah, 23 Ap., 1649 
Elisabeth, dau. of Ditto ditto 23 Ap., 1649 

Abigal, dau. of Samuel Gatiward, and Abigal, 5 Oct., 1673 
Samuel, son of Ditto ditto 11 March, 1677 

William, son of Samuel Gattyward, and Abigal, 2 Augst., 1679 
Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Wright, Gent., and Edith, 21 Aug., 1674 

i ane J twin daus. of Ditto ditto 30 July, 1677 

h ranees J J 

Thos., son of Mr. William and Mrs. Amie Wood, 11 June, 1714 

Morice, son of Ditto ditto 5 Aug., 1716 

Amie, dau. of John Dirling, and Mrs. Rebecca, 11 Oct., 1719 

MARRIAGES. 

Thomas Symond and Thomasin Golding, 12 Sept., 156... 

Anthony, the sonne of Sir Robert Wingfeilde, Knt., and Anne, the dau. 

of William Burd, Esq., 27 Apr., 1575 
George Harelakenden, Minr., and Elizabeth Raie, 7 Oct., 1596 
Richard Peachie, Mynister, and Judeth Nynge, 21 Sep., 1601 
Richard Flacke, of Sandon, Co. Hertford, Gent., and Marie Emerson, W., 

of Stansfield, 13 Feb., 1631 
William Colt, of Cavendish, and Rebecca Crispe, of Clare, W., 29 Oct., 1663 
John Hill, Gent., and Anne Soame, of Little Thurlow, 29 June, 1669 
Richard Godfrey, Gent., and Mrs. Mary, dau. of Mr. Clement Ray, Minr. 

of Denston, 6 Apr. Easter Tuesday, 1675 
Mr. George Raye, of Denston, and Mrs. Mary Write, 9 Sept., 1683 
William Taylor, Gent., and Mary Godfrey, 9 Jan, If™ 
Mr. Francis Trobridge, of Crutchett Friars, London, and Mrs. Mary 

Robinson, 12 Oct., 1703 
John Dirling, and Mrs. Rebecca Robinson, 2 July, 1719 

BURIALS. 

Mirable Burd, 31 March, 1578 

Thomas Burd, Gent., last of Feb., 1578 

William Burd, Esq., 14 June, 1591 

Mirable, late wife of William Burd, Esq., dec, 1 June, 1602 

Lidiah, dau. of Sir Roger Thorneton, 8 Mar., 1630 

John, son of John Raye, Impropr., 9 Mar., 1635 

William, son of John Hubberd, Ok., and Ann, 16 Sep., 1641 

Sarah, wife of Mr. William Gattiward, died 1 Apr., 1644 

Mrs. Dorothy Sikes, 30 Sept., 1666 

William, Gattaward, Gent., 2 Sept., 1672 

George Hamond, Gent, and singleman, 5 Feb., 1676 

William, son of Willm. Gattyward, and Abigal, in wollen, 6 Feb., 1680 



ON DENSTON. 455 

Mary, wife of Clement Raye, Clericus, 22 Sept., 1680 

Mr. Thomas Harrison, 10 Sept., 1684 

Joseph, son of Clement and Mary Raye, 2 Feb., 1684 

Abigal, dau. of Samuel Gattyward, 18 June, 1684 

Susan, wife of Mr. Samuel Raye, 8 June, 1694 

Dame Elizabeth Jones, 29 July, 1699 

Thomas, an Infant, son of Sir John Robinson, 20 June, 1700 

Anne, wife of Mr. Clement Raye, of Sudbury, 23 Dec, 1700 

Sir John Robinson, Knt., 27 Dec., 1704 

Mr. Clement Raye, jun., of Sudbury, 26 May, 1707 

Mrs. Ann Plum, Stanstead, 14 Sept., 1708 

William, son of Mr. William and Mrs. Amie Wood, 22 Jan., 1709 

Mr. Clement Raye, of Sudbury, 29 Apr., 1709 

Mr. Clement Raye, of Bury St. Edmds., 29 Aug., 1712 

Mrs. Frances Robinson, 14 Sept., 1715 

The Lady Robinson, 17 March, 1720 

Amie, dau. of Col. John Robinson and Amie, 18 July, 1724 

Mr. Ambrose Raye, 9 Feb., 1727 

John Brinkley, Sen., of Lawshall, 1 Sept., 1727 

Mr. Samuel Raye, 4 Aug., 1729 

The Hon. Col. John Robinson, 28 Oct., 1734 

Anno 1641. November the 5th. 

A Protestation approved by the House of Commons sittinge in 
Parliament was made by the Minister and Parishioners agst. all Poperie 
and popish Innovations. 



Among other records in the Parish Chest are good 
black letter copies of a Prayer Book, dated 1676, also 
" The Workes of Rev. Father in God John Jewell 1611." 



456 ARMORIAL INSIGNIA OF THE BOROUGH OF IPSWICH. 



ARMORIAL INSIGNIA OF THE BOROUGH 

OF IPSWICH. 

BY 

B. P. GRIMSEY, Deputy Mayor of the Borough, 1886-7. 



The accompanying copy grant (reprinted from, and 
examined with, the actual grant) of the supporters to, 
and confirmation of, the Ancient Arms of this Borough, 
has before appeared in a more or less imperfect state, 
but without the heraldic description at the foot. The 
block for the engraving of the Arms, therewith, was 
recently made from the original deed at my cost, and 
I have pleasure in offering copies to the members of 
the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology. " The difference 
between the blazon and the arms depicted in the margin 
is curious," Mr. H. Farnham Burke, Somerset Herald, 
writes me, adding " I infer that no distinction was made 
at that time between guardant and regardant. The 
Lion should undoubtedly be guardant as it so appears 
on our MSS." There are four brasses in three of the 
churches in Ipswich purporting to give the arms, the 
dates of these are quoted as 1500, 1525, 1551, 1583. 
The first two are utterly, and the last is greatly, at 
variance with the ancient arms, that of Henry Toolye 
quoted as 1551 being like the depictment on the grant, 
though Toolye died before the date thereof. This brass 
however refers to the death of his wife in 1564, and 
could not have been put up earlier, or was then added to. 




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03 






GENERAL INDEX. 



Abbott, Rev. A. R., on Gorleston 

church, xiv. 
Abbas Hall, Manor of, 18 
Abbys, Christopher, 390 
Acre, Joan of, 234 
Acton church, visit to, xl., Jennens 

chapel, ib. 
Adams, John, 419 
Akenham, 391 

Aldborough church, 250, 274, 380 
Alderton, 384 
Aldringham, 376 
Ale Conner, Ale Founder, Ale 

Taster, 158 
Ale House, 138, 143 
Ale, price of, 11th Cent., 150 
Allen, Sir Henry, 410; Miss, ib. 
Allington church, 264,' 285 
Amicia, d. and h. of William Duke 

of Gloucester, 73 
Amphora, Roman, found at Hawke- 

don, 10 
Ampton Earthworks, 54 
Amye, Robert, 376 
Anderida, 351 
Anglo-Saxon graves, Warren" 1 Hill, 

57 
Appelgares, 31 ; Appylgare, manor 

of, 31 
Applegate wood, 31 
Appleton, Thomas, 109 
Archdeaconries of Suffolk and Sud- 
bury, condition of, in the year 

1603, 361 
Argall, John, 373 
Armond, James, 387, 390 



Arms — 

Allen, 451 ; Badenham, 434 ; 
Bingham, 451 ; Broughton, 

448 ; Bohun, 230 ; Byrde, 

449 ; Cavendish, 450 ; Clare, 
451 ; Clive, 406 ; Clopton, 
446 ; Clyfton, 25 ; Cornearth, 
15, 16 ; Dabanon, 451 ; Daundy, 
92; De la Tour, 434; de 
Vere, Earls of Oxford, Coats 
illustrating the alliances of, 
120, 225; Denston, 446, 448; 
Douglas, 451; Dowsing, 245. n; 
Drury, 409 ; Elwes, 406 ; 
Everard, 448 ; Eye town, 85 ; 
France and England, 235 ; 
Fraximere, 434 ; de Grey, 

232 ; Hastings, 232 ; Hering- 
ham, 434; Howard, 226, 230, 
232, 233; Jenkinson, 451; 
Leedes, xlvii ; Le Hunt, 451; 
Mandeville, 235 ; Oxford, Earls 
of, on porch of Lavenham 
church, 124 ; Plaiz, 226, 230, 

233 ; Robinson, 406 ; Russell, 
434; Sampford, 230, 235; 
Spourne, 117; Spring, 114; 
Tiptoft, 231, 232; Walpole, 
226; Warren, 228*230; Watts, 
245 ; Weyland, 4f8 

Arragon, Catherine of, 178 

Ash, 381 

Ashbye, 366 

Ashe, Elizabeth, 19, 33 

Ashbockinge, 391 

Ashfield cum Thorpe, 391 



458 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Aske, Robert, 80 

Aspall, General meeting at, 315 

Assington, 38 ; Church, 255 

Ashton, Win, 395 

Athlington, 396 

Auncel weight, 131 

Awdye, Bartholomew, 399 

Babington, Rev. Professor Churchill, 

on Cockfield, 313 ; remarks on 

Greek vases, ib ; early printed 

books, 314 
Bacon, of Hesset, pedigree of, 47 ; 

Nathaniel, 339 ; Chapel, Gorles- 

ton, xiv ; Brass, ib 
Baddingham church, 265, 396 
Badges of the De Veres, 126 
Badlesmere, Baron, 230, 232, 233, 

234 ; Matilda, 231 j Barony, 107 
Badley church, 254, 278, 394 
Baldwyn, John, 376 
Ball, Edward, 386 
Ballard, Edw., 396 
Bansfield hall, xliii 
Bardolf, Baron, 230 
Barham church, 249, 273 
Barker, Thomas, 83 ; Joseph, ib ; 

Martha, ib ; Lydia, ib ; John, ib ; 

Thomas, 398 
Barking church, 263, 394 
Barnardiston, Eleanor, 24 ; Thomas, 

83 ; Sir Thomas, 83 
Barnard, John, 420 ; Frances, ib 
Barnaby, 366 
Barnes, John, 373 
Baron, Clemen, 367 
Barrow, bronze sword from, 186, 

189 
Barsham, 370 

Batho, Wm, 374 ; Richard, 375 
Battisford, 392 
Batty, Dr., 318 
Baylham church, 263, 392 
Baynard, Isabel, 21, 23 
Bayton church, 256, 280 
Bayliol, Johis, 443 
Bawdsey, 384 



Beads from Warren Hill, 59, 60, 63 
Bealings Magna, 384 ; Parva, 385 
Beamonds, manor of, 403, 438 ; 

Lords of, 445 
Beating the bounds, 172 
Beauchamp, 230 ; Sir John, 80 
Beaumond, George, 366 ; John, 369 
Beaumont family, 320 
Bee, Priory of, 77 
Beccles church, 258, 281, 369 
Beck, Rev. J., on Bildeston church, 

318, 321 
Bederick, Henry, 81 
Bedfield, 396 

Bedingfield, Cross at, 3, 397 
Bedle, Samuell, 400 
Beer, Brewing, 151 
Beke, Baron, 230 
Belfort, Colonel, xv 
BelgEe, The, 192 

Bellomont, Earl of Devon, 230, 232 
Belstead church, 251, 275, 389 
Belton church, visit to, xvi ; Frescoes, 

xvii, 366 
Benacre church, 259, 281, 372 
Bends, Wm., 400 
Benhall, 377 

Bentlye, William, 367, 368 
Bently, 389 
Bergham, 395 
Bevan, Mr. Beckford, on S. Saviour's 

Hospital, Bury S. Edmund's, 300; 

Mr. Gascoine, xxiv 
Biddell, Mr., 312 
Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, 230 
Bildeston, visit to, 316 ; church, 318 
Billingford, Dr., Richard, 241 
Bingham arms, 451 
Bird, William, 404, 408, 449 
Birkbeck, Paull, 380, 384 
Black Death, the, 20 
Black Ditch, the, Barrow, 187 
Blakenham church, 252, 277, 395 
Blaxhall, 378 
Bliford, 377 

Blois, Sir John, 120, 225 
Bloomfield, Noah, 179 



GENERAL INDEX. 



459 



Blundeston, 366 

Blyborough, Blvthborough church, 

260, 283, 372 
Blyford church, 260 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, arms of, 

230, 235 
Bolebec, Baron, 230, 231, 235 
Boothe, George, 373 
Bosruere and Claydon, Deanery of, 

391 
Bouldg cum Debach, 381 
Boweling, John, 26 
Bowes, Sir Thomas, 113 
Boxford, visit to, 321 ; church, 324 
Boxstead church, 261, 283 
Boys, 233, 234 
Boyton, 381 
Bracelet, Silver, from Warren Hill, 

63 
Bradley, Thomas, 391 
Bradshaw, Brian, 379 
Brad well church, visit to, xvi, 366 
Bradve, John, 387 
Bramford church, 252, 274, 394 
Bramfield church, 261, 372 
Brampton, 372 
Brandeston, 384 
Branch, Simon, chapel of, at Laven- 

ham, 116 
Branodunum, 351 
Brantham, 389 
Brassmore, Johes de, 444 
Brass of Thomas Pounder, 335 ; 

Augustine Parker, 336 ; Bacon, 

xiv ; Robert de Bures, illustration 

of, xl ; Alice de Brian, xl ; Daniel, 

xl ; Thomas Burrugh, xlii 
Braunch, Sir Peter, 23 
Braye, Edmund, 28, 29; Reginald, 28 
Bream, Richard, 390 
Bredfield, 381 
Brewster, Henry, 375 
Bricet Magna, 392 
Briggs, Henry, 420 ; Catherine, ib 
Brightwell church, 262, 387 
Brinkley, John, 419; Sarah, ib ; 

Catherine, 423 ; Simon, ib 



Britain, Roman, Provinces of, 350 

Broade, Wm, 379 

Bromiswall, 381 

Bromley, N. Warner, Esq., xliii 

Bromsall Arms, 406 

Bronze Swords found in West Suf- 
folk, 184 ; Spearhead, Timworth, 
54.n ; Tweezers, rings, etc., 
Warren Hill, 62 

Brook, Beriah, 452 

Brooke, Mr. F. C, 237 ; John, 386 

Broughton, John, 404 ; Ann, 405 

Brown, John, 416 ; Mary, ib ; 
William, ib ; Ann, 417; Phoebe, 
ib; Mary, ib ; Lucy, ib; Elizth., 
ib ; Chilvers, ib ; Mary, ib : 
Susan, ib 

Bruce, Lady, house and chapel of, 
254 

"Bruers," The Assize for, 183 

Brandish church, 257, 281 

Bruisyard, 377 

Buck, 116 

Buers' church, 256, 280 ; Walgrave 
chapel at, 255 

Bull stake, Bull baiting, 162 

Bungay, S. Mary, 370; Holy 
Trinity, ib 

Bures, Effigy in wood, 1 6 ; Cornhill 
Farm, ib ; Robert de, brass of, 
illustration of, xl 

Burgh church, visit to, xv, 366 ; 
Castle, xv, 345 ; illustration of, 
360, 384 

Burgh, John de, 76 ; Margaret de, 74 

Burstall church, 253, 391 

Bury S. Edmund's, S. Mary's, 254, 
279 ; S. James, 255, 279 ; seat of 
Abbey, 301 ; S. Saviour's hospital, 
296 

Bury, John of, 80 

Butlye, 381 

Butterwyke, Robert, 80 ; Elizabeth, 
76 

Buxlowe, 376 

Byssett, 230, 233 



460 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Cage, Wm, 393 

Caistor, xvi 

Calverley, Francis, 283 

Cambridge, Dowsing at, 240 

Candy sse, Joan, 81 

Caneworth, manor of, 30 

Canopp, Nicholas, 380 

Capel, cross at, 3 ; church, 253, 

278, 389 
Capel, William, 80 ; Elianor, ib 
Captives, Redemption of, Denston, 

429 
Carbonell, John, 15 
Carleton church, 250, 274, 367, 377 
Carleford and Colenies, Deanery of, 

384 
Carter, Thomas, tomb of, xxvi ; 

John, 394 
Carthew, Mr. G. A., f.s.a., on 
Armorial Insignia of the Borough 
of Eye, 85 
Catcheleigh, manor of, 30 
Catlyn, Radus, 390 
Cavendish, de Greys of, 13 
Cawston, 387 

Caxton, Advowson of, 19 ; Manor 
of, 21, 18, 22; Notes from Court 
Rolls of, 23; Minor Notes and 
names from Court Rolls, 27 ; 
Notes and names from rental of, 
28 ; Notes and names from rental 
of Richard de, 22 ; Walter de, 
21 ; Dates of the Courts of 
Manor of, 22 
Chadborne, Oliver, 375 
Chapleyn, John, 389 
Chapman, Alexander, 386 ; John, 

393 
Chasfield, 381 

Chatisham church, 251, 274, 390 
Chayce, John, 37 
Chediston church, 258, 281, 372 
Chedworth, Lord, 165 
Chelmondeston church, 390 
Chelsworth church, 316, 321 
" Chequers, The," origin of sign, 168 
Cheshire, Thomas, 385 



Chesilford, 380 

Chevallier, Rev. Canon, 315 

Child, John, 367 

Chiltone, near Sudbyre, 15 

Chilton hall and church, visit to, 

xxxix 
Chimney tax, Denston, 430 
Chippley Abbey, 78 
Chippenham, bronze sword from, 
184, 193 ; Visit to Park, " Peddar 
way," "Suffolk way," Old Ceme- 
tery, 325-6 ; Church, 327 
Church briefs, Denston, 425 
Church ornaments, destruction of, 
. 285 

Clare church, 248, 272 ; Priory, 73, 
74 ; Burials in, 81 ; College, 76 ; 
General Meeting at, 315 
Clare, Richard de, 73 ; Richard, 
Earl of, 73, 80 ; Gilbert, Earl of, 
76, 443 ; Amicia de, 73 ; Eliza- 
beth de, 76; Margaret de, 132; 
Earl of Gloucester, 230, 233, 234 
Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, 78, 79, 

80, 443 ; Funeral of, 80 
Clasp, bronze, from Warren Hill, 

58, 60, 63, 67 
Clayden church, 249, 392 
Clifford of Appleby, 234 
Clive arms, 406 

Clopton, Lucy, 81 ; Thomas, ib ; 
Ada, ib; Sir William, 405 ; Manor 
of, 438 ; parish, 387 
Cloud, Gabriel, 373 
Clyfton, Sir Robert, 24 ; arms of, 

25 ; Margaret, 23 
Cnobbersburgh, 345, 357 
Coates, arms, 406 ; monument, 408 
Cochie church, 259 
Cockfield, General Meeting at, 313 
Coddenham church, 249, 392 
Coe church, 259 ; William, 366 
Coffees houses, 169 
Coins found at Burgh Castle, 358 
Cockerells als. Forsters in Forley, 

438 
Colts hall, Cavendish, 13 



GENERAL INDEX. 



461 



Constable, Richard, of Gifford's hall, 

322 
Cook, John, 416 
Cooke, William, 420 ; Susan, ib 
Cookley, 372 

Coote, Thos., 419 ; Thos. Willm., ib 
Copdock, cross at, 3 ; church, 251, 

275, 390 
Coping, Wm., 384 
Coppinger, Dr., 112; Ambrose, ib 
Corbet, Sir John, 23, 30 ; Robertus, 

30 ; Family of, 30.n 
Corder, J. S., 345 
Corker, Gilbert, 371, 372 
Cornard, manor of Great, 13, 15, 

17; manor of Little, 15, 18, 20, 

37, 38 ; names and notes from 

records of, 20 ; de Greys of, 13 ; 

Peacock, manor in, 33; church,279 
Cornearth Magna, church, 255 ; 

Minor, ib ; family of, 16; arms 

of, 15, 16; pedigree of, 16; 

Alice de, 16 ; Sir Richard de, 15, 

17, 21.n 
Cornish, Rev. J. C, 315 
Cornwall, arms of, 233 
Cornwell, Richd., 419 
Corton, 367 

Cotton monuments, 329 ; family, ib 
Cottyford, Robert, 395 
Council Meetings, xxi, xl, xli 
Count of the Saxon Shore, 345 ; 

functions of, 354 
Courtney, arms of, 227, 230, 232 
Covehithe church, 281 
Cow-path Breck, 42, 53 
Crabbe, Rev. George, on the de 

Greys of Little Cornard, 13 
Cradock, Samuel, d.d., xliii 
Crane, Robert, 20, 37, 109 ; of 

Chilton, xxxix 
Cranisford, 378 
Cranis, Thomas, 395 
Cratfield church, 280, 373 ; Abbot, 

297 
Creeting S. Mary, 395 ; S. Olave, ib 
Cretingham, 381 



Cremation in Eastern Britain, 50 
Crisp, James, 415; Martha, ib 
Croftes, Lord, xlvii ; monuments, 

ib ; family of, ib 
Croker, Rev. J. M., 112 
Cross, Gold, found at Clare, 18 ; 

Churchyard, 3 ; Daundy's, 6 ; 

Lewys, 6 ; Market, Ipswich, 6, 8n. ; 

of Stone, 2 ; Wayside, 3 
Crosse, the round, Ipswich, 7 
Crosses, ancient, of Ipswich, 88 ; 

town, 6 
Croy, 14 

Crucifixion Nails, 55 
Cruixton, Martha, 410 
Culford, cemetery near, 52 
Cullingworth, 378 
Cullum, G. M. G., Esq., 115.n; Sir 

J., 114, 117 
Culpeck, 116 
Culpeper, Tho., 439 
Culpho, 387 
Curson, Lord, 178 
Curtis, Davyell, 26 ; Edward, 37 
Curties, John, 384 

Daines, Martha, 418 

Dalinghoo, 381 

Damsden church, 263, 285 

Daniel Brass, xl 

Darlye, Thomas, 372 

Darsham, 373 

Daundy, armorial bearings, 92 ; 

Cross, 90 ; Edmund, 6 
David Osmond, 394, 398 
Davison, Wm., 382 
Davy, on Denston, 116, 437 
Dawes, Abraham, 391 
"Death's Porch," Boxford, 324 
Debenham, General Meeting at, 315, 

396 
De Clare, family of, 73 ; Adeliza, 

231 ; Maud, 234 ; Richard, ib 
De Couci, Philippa, 232 
De Grey, see Grey 
De Greys of Little Cornard, article 

upon, 13, 14 



462 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Denham church, visit to, xliv, 397 

Dennington church, 265, 285, 397 

Denston, John, 403, 405; Catherine, 
405 ; arms, 446 

Denston, Denardeston, Collegiate 
church of, 401, xli ; Hatchments 
in, 406 ; Monumental inscriptions, 
407, 448 ; Ministersof, 451; Parish 
Registers : Baptisms, 453 ; Mar- 
riages and Burials, 454 ; Notes 
on, Sir J. Blois, 446 ; Do. Davy, 
447; Parish records, 409; Church 
briefs, ib ; Contributions towards 
redemption of captives, 429 ; 
Chimney tax, list of persons 
exempted from, 430 ; " Repayr- 
inge St. Paule's church," list of 
contributors, 431 ; the Hall, 434 ; 
Illustration of, 433 ; Ground plan 
of, 436 ; Extracts from Davy's 
Suffolk Collections, 437; Chantry 
of, 404, 437 ; Patent Roll, 404 ; 
Manor of Beaumonds, 438, 441 ; 
Manor of Denston Hall, 438 ; 
Lords of, 444 ; Traunscroft, 441 ; 
Malelyn's field, 441 ; Augmenta- 
tions, 443 ; General Meeting at, xli 

De Veres, Earls of Oxford, 105 et 
seq. ; Armorial bearings of, in 
Lavenham church, 120; Badges 
of, 126 

D'Ewes, 115; Clopton, ib ; Paul, 
105, 111 ; Sir Simon, ib 

Dewing, Mr. E. M., on Lavenham, 
105, 226 

Devies, Daniell, 381 

Dinnington church, 265 

Disks, silver, found at Warren Hill, 
63, 66 

Dister, Alleine, brass of, 119 

Dorrington, Thomas, 399 

Douglas arms, 451 

Dowe, Richard, 391 

Dowsing, William, Journal of, 248 ; 
Armorial bearings of, 245. n, 247 ; 
Deputies of, 242 ; Notes on, 267 ; 
Pedigree, 292 ; Summary of 



visits, 287 ; Simon, 246 ; of Lax- 
field, 287 

Drurv, Roger, 83 ; Felice, brass of, 
403, 449; Illustration of, 414 

Dubri, 351 

Duning, Launcelot, 385 

Dunwich churches, 283 ; All Hal- 
lows, 261, 377; S. Peter's, ib ; 
Deanery of, 372 

Dysart, Earl of, 172 



Eager, Thomas, 372 

East Lowe hill, 56 

Easton church, 256, 373, 382 

Eden chapel, xxiv ; Pedigree, ib ; 
Sir Thomas, ib 

Ed war ton, 390 

Eliot, Charlotte, 411 

Elliott, Rev. H. L., on the de Vere 
arms, 121, 226; on the de Vere 
badges, 126 

Elmsett church, 263 

Elmswell church, 254 

Elough church, 258, 281, 370 

Elvedon, old track way, 41 

Elwes, arms, 406 

Ettum, 232 

Evans, Richard, 382 

Everard, Henry, 442 ; Brass of, 
402, 448, 449; Arms, 450 
Margaret, ib; illustration of, 413 
Richard, 415 ; Martha, 416 
Richard, ib ; Sarah, 423 
Frederick, ib ; Robert, ib 
Thomas, ib 

Eye, Insignia of, 85 ; church, 265 

Eyke church, 274, 381 

Faltenham, 385 
Farnham church, 250, 380 
Fawcett, Mr. W. M., xxiii 
Fawdon, Nicholas, 373 
Fayreman, Phillip, 397 
Felbrigg, 233 
Felton, Thomas, 37 
Fenton, Mr. Simeon, Notes on Saxon 
Cemetery at Warren Hill, 61 



GENERAL INDEX. 



403 



Ferrers, of Groby, 233 

Ferror, John, 373 ; George, 400 

Ffranclyn, Richd., 375 

Fibulae, bronze, from Warren Hill, 

59, 62, 63, 67 ; Wickhambrook, 

xliii 
Figures, Roman, found at Hawkedon, 

10 
Firbranck, Richard, 370 
Fisher, Agnes, 34 ; Margaret, ib ; 

Sir Michael, ib ; Pedigree, ib ; 

Mathew, 370 
Fitton, 230, 233 
Fitz Allan, 230, 234-5 
Fitz Aleyn, 233 
Fitz Gilbert, Richard, 73 
Fitz Walter, Baron, 230 
Fleming, William, 369 
Flesh Warden, 158 
Fletcher, John, 385 
Flixton, 367, 399 
Floughton church, 263, 284, 395 
Flowerdew, Win., 372 
Fokes, Frances, 383 
Foliot, arms of, 232 ; Jane, ib 
Folybrok, manor of, 31 
Fonnereau, Mr. T. N., 342 
" Ford," meaning and usage of, 31.n 
Ford, Mr. J. C, on Sir John Schorn, 

xxvii ; George, 415 
Fordley, 373 

Fornham, ancient burial place in, 53 
Fortescue, John, 26 
Fortetine, John, 37 
Framlingham, 382 
Framisden, 392 

France and England, arms of, 235 
Franks, Mr. A. W., f.r.s., f.s.a., 

remarks on an Amphora and two 

figures found at Hawkedon, 10 
Freckenham church, visit to, 328 
Fressingfield, 397 
Freston, 378, 390 
Friend, Richard, 83 
Fritton church, visit to, xvii, 367 ; 

wall paintings and piscina, ib ; 

Decoy and Lake dwelling, ib 



Froagg, Henrie, 386 

Frostenden church, 260, 282, 373 

Frowykes, The, of South Mimms, 

19 ; of Manor of Peacock's Hall, 

33 ; Pedigree of, 34 
Frowyck, Elizabeth, 33; Henry, 19 ; 

Joan, 34 ; Margaret, ib ; Thomas, 

19, 28, 29, 33, 34; Sir Thomas, 

19, 33, 34 
Furnival, 232 
Fursseus, 257 

Gainsborough, Thomas, xxiv 

Gannokers, 150 

Garianonum, xv, 345, 351 

Garsbought, Thomas, 415 

Garth, Radus, 381, 388 

Gatesburyes, manor of, 438 

Gifford's Hall, 322 

Giglis, John, 112 

Gill, Mr. John, 383 

Gily, Sir Thomas, 81 

Gislaham, 367 

Glanvill, 230, 233 

Glenham Magna, 378 ; Parva, ib 

Glensford church, 256, 280 

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of, 

298 ; Richard, Earl of, 73 ; 

William, Earl of, 73 ; Matilda, 

Countess of, 75 ; Richard Duke 

of, 110 
Glovernie Comes, 442 
Goddard, John, 393, 399 
Godderd, John, 385 
Golden Road Lane, 93 
Goldryche, William, 80 
Goodknapp, Johannes, 243 
Goodwyn, Rob., 391 
Gorleston church, visit to, xiv ; 

Bacon chapel and brass, 367 
Gosbeck, 396 
Gospel Oak, 323 
Gould, Robert, 375 
Gouldeston, 397 
Goulding, 370 
Grant, Rev. Canon, on Hitcham 

church, 316 



4G4 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Graye, Alice, 26 ; Margaret, ib 

Gray, Will de, 32 

Green, Rev. T. L., xxv ; on S. 
Gregory's church, xlviii 

Grey, de, Pedigree, 39; Alice, 17, 
18; Fulk, 17, 24; Robert, 26, 
37 ; Sir Roger, 15.n, 17, 23, 443 ; 
Thomas, 15.n, 17, 18, 21, 23, 33, 
38, 438, 439; Thomas, clerk, 
15.n, 25; Thomas, Baron Walsing- 
ham, 22, 38; William, 14, 15, 
25 ; Sir William, 26 ; Notes on 
Cornard property of, 38 

Grey arms, 232 

Grey's hall, Cavendish, 14; Manor 
of, in Great Cornard, 17 

Grey, Sir Roger, 438 

Grenehill, Stephen, 382 

Green, Sir John, 438 

Griffith, Richard, 395 

Grimsey, B. P., Esq., 456 

Grundisburgh, 385 

Gunnersbury, 19 

Gurnall, William, 112 

Gunton, 367 

Gybon, Mr., 385 

Hacheston, 382 

Hadleigh, visit to, 321 ; church, 
253, 277, 325 ; way, 88 

Hallam, Henry, 370 

Hallisworth church, 258, 281, 373 

Handbv, Wm., 378, 381 

Handford Bridge, 5; Hall, 177 

Hardcar, Wm., 377 

Harelakenden, George, 452 

Harkstead, 391 

Harrod, Mr., 346 

Hart, Richard, 394 

Harte, Wm., 393 

Hasketon, 385 

Haslewood, Rev. F., f.s.a., xli, 362 ; 
on Denston church, xlii ; on 
Wickhambrook church, xlii ; on 
the Collegiate church of Denston, 
401 

Hastings, armorial bearings of, 232 



Hatton, Edward, 375 
Haughsen, John, 378 
Haverhill, Stoneing Cross at, 3 ; 

church, 248, 272 ; " Way," 88 
Hawkedon, amphora and figures 

found at, 9 
Hay ward, John, 367 ; Henry James, 

423 
Hawsden, George, 379 
Hedingham Castle, 105 
Heigham, Clement, Monument of, 

116 
Helmingham church, 256, 280, 392 
Hemely, 385 
Hemmingstone, 393 
Hendly, 393 
Henniker, Lord, f.s.a., xxi, xxxix, 

xlii 
Henstead, 374 ; Magna, ib ; Parva, 

ib 
"Heraldry, sham," 128 
"Herbagies," 139 
Hertford, Richard Earl of, 73 
Hervey, Lord John, 338, xxi 
Hevenham church, 261, 283, 373 
Hewett, John, 381 
Higham church, 253, 278 
Hintlesham church, 253, 399 
Hitcham, Meeting at, Notes on 

church, 316 
Holden, Dr., on Sudbury Strata, 

xxxviii 
Hodson, Mr., on Sudbury records, 

xxx ; S. Gregory's church, xxv ; 

S. Peter's church, xxviii 
Holbrooke, 400 
Holgate Will, 392 
Hollesly, 382 
Holton church, 264, 273, 285, 373, 

400 
Homersfield, 398 
Hoo church, 256, 382 
Hopton, 368 
Hore, Wm., 439 
Horham church, 264, 397 
Horningsheath, ancient nails found 

at, 55 



GENERAL INDEX. 



465 



Horse, burial of, 64, 70 
Hospitals, Bury S. Edmund's, S. 
Saviour's, 296 ; S. Peter's and 

5. Nicholas, 297 
Hostelries, 139 
Hostmen, 146 
Houghton church, 249 

Howard, armorial bearings of, 226, 
230, 232, 233 ; Sir Robert, 234 ; 
Sir John, ib, 404 

Howe, John, 420 ; Sarah, ib 

Howes, Rev. T., xvi 

Hoxne church, 266 ; parish, 397 ; 
Deanery of, 396 

Hubberd, John 

Hugham, 391 

Hulkes, George, 397 

Humberfield, Thomas, 280 

Hunden church, 249, 273 

Hnntingfield, 373 

Hunt, John, 395 

Hurd, William, brass of, 408 

Hutton, Josua, 366 

Hyam, Elizabeth, 324 

Icklingham, Cemetery at, 71 

Iken, 379 

Ilkettishall S. Andrew, 371 ; S. 
John, ib ; S. Lawrence, ib ; S. 
Margaret, ib 

Ingham, Cemetery at, 42 ; Cowpath, 
ib 

Inglish, John, 381 

Inns, old, 136 

Institute of Archaeology and Natural 
Historj-, Suffolk : officers, mem- 
bers, rules, and reports 1884-5-6-7, 
i to ix ; balance sheet for 1886, 
x, xi ; societies in union, xii ; 
abstract of proceedings, 1885 — 
1887, xiii 

Ipswich — 

General Meeting at, 331 ; Deanery 
of, 387; Domesday Books, 195; 
Ancient Crosses of, 88 ; Church- 
yard Crosses, 7 ; Market Crosses, 

6, 8.n, 90; Christ Church mansion, 



342 ; Churches, SS. Augustine, 
331 ; Clement, 252, 277, 389 ; 
Helen, 277, 388 ; Lawrence, 252, 
277, 337, 388; Mary at Elms, 
252, 389 ; Mary at Key, 252, 275, 
335, 388 ; Mary at Tower, 252, 
276, 389 ; Margaret, 7, 252, 276, 
387 ; Mary Magdelene, Chapel 
of, 171; Matthew, 4, 252, 375, 
388 ; Nicholas, 7, 252 ; Peter, 7, 
251, 331, 389 ; bequests to, 332 ; 
register, ib ; Monuments, 334 ; 
Stephen, 252, 337, 388; Stoke 
Mary, 251, 388 ; Leonard's 
Hospital, 321 

Borough Archives and regalia, 
339; Christ Church mansion, 342; 
Coffee Houses, 170; "Cross 
Days," 172 ; Drake's Cabin, 337 ; 
Excavation in streets, 341 ; King's 
Hall, 158 ; Old Blackfriars 
Refectory, 336 ; Town Books, 
extracts from, 90 ; Town Library 
and Museum, 340 ; Wolsey's 
College, 331 ; Foundation Stone, 
334 ; Gateway, 335 ; Wool trade, 
133 

Old Inns and Taverns, 136 ; 
List of Ancient, 159, 180 ; Regu- 
lations concerning, 156; The 
Angel, 168; Admiral's Head, 176; 
Bull, 162; Chequers, 167; Case 
is altered, 176 ; Coach and Horses, 
175 ; Cock and Pye, 161 ; Cross, 
171 ; Crooked Billett, 177 ; Cross 
Keys, 179; Dog's head in the 
pot, 161 ; Fighting Cocks, 162 ; 
Galiot Hoy, 175; Griffin, 165; 
Half Moon, 172, 336; Maltster's 
Arms, 174, 336; Mitre, 171 ; 
Neptune, 174, 337; Old Bell, 167; 
Pack Horse, 163 ; Salutation, 161 ; 
Tankard, 174; Three Tuns, 166; 
Waggon and Horses, 169 ; White 
Hart, 168; White Lion, 164; 
White Horse, 163 

Grant of Arms to Borough, 456 



466 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Ireland, Duke of, 231 
Iron relics, Warren hill, 68 

Jackson, Richard, 379 ; Roger, 381 

Jarvis, Rev. H., on Clare Priory, 
74, 315 

Jaye, Robt., 382 

Jellis, Thomas, 37 

Jenkinson arms, 451 

Jennens Chapel and Monuments, 
Acton, xl 

Jeny Jernigham, 367 

Jermyn, Thomas, 118 

Jessopp, Rev. Dr., on the Arch- 
deaconries of Suffolk and Sud- 
bury, 361 

Jessup, Francis, 243, xiv 

Joan of Acre, 76, 79, 80 

Johnson, Mr. Goddard, 188 

Jonis, Wm., 373 ; Doctor, 389 ; 
Lady Eliz', 409, 437 

Journal of William Dowsing, 236 

Kayfield church, 257 

Keeling, Rev. W., on the Barrow 

Bronze Swords, 187, 188 
Kellishall, 379, 398 
Kelshall church, 250, 274 
Kempe, of Clare, 80 
Kentford church, 325 
Kenton, meeting at, 315 ; Hall, ib ; 

Parish, 397 
Kersauer, Johes de la, 444 
Kersey, visit to, 321 ; church, 324 ; 

Sampson chapel, 325 
Kersey, Mary Anne, 423 
Kesgrave church, 251, 387 
Kessingland, 368 
Kettleburgh church, 256, 382 
Kilner, Rev. H. I., on Saxhorn 

church, xliv 
Kinford church, 255, 279 
Kinghorn, George, 422 
King, Sarah, 422 
Kingsburgh hill, 53 
King's Evil, Denston, 432 
Kinwelinshe, Andrew, 393, 396 



Kirketon, 385 ; als. Shotley, 390 

Kirkly, 368 

Klamborowski, Leonard, 452, xlii 

Knapp, John, 334 

Knife and hook iron from Warren 

hill, 58 
Knighte, Thomas, 372 

Lacres, Mr., 399 

Lacy, Maud, 234 

Landwade church, visit to, 329 

Lark River, bronze sword found in, 
190 

Larwood, Rich., 384 

Latimer, 233 

Laughlyn, Richard, 380 

Lavenham, meeting at, 312 ; Notes 
on church and parish, 105, 225 ; 
Lordship of, 105 ; Manors of, 110; 
rectory and rectors of, 111 ; 
church, remarks on architecture 
of, 114 ; chapels of, 116 ; chantry 
chapel, 118; vestry, 116; tower 
and bells, 127; arms and emblems, 
120; churchyard, epitaph in, 129; 
the guilds of, 113; the guildhall, 
113, 313 ; ancient ovens at, 312 

Lawrence, Rev. R., 315 ; Wm., 377, 
379 ; Thomas, 443 

Lawrence, Mr., 374 

Layham church, 253 

Laxfield church, 261, 283, 397 ; 
Dowsing monument at, 247 

Leader, Rich., 389 

Keakey, Rev. A., on Acton church, 
xl 

Lee, Ann, 424 ; Mary, ib 

Leedes, Samuel, xlvii ; arms of, ib 

Leigh, John, 379 

Leman, Robert and Mary, 338 

Lemanni, 351 

Lenninge, W., 390 

Letheringham church, 256, 280,382 

Levett, Ja., 399 

Levington church, 262, 387 

Lewes, John, 384 

Leyston cum Sisewell, 377 



GENERAL INDEX. 



467 



Linstead Magna church, 257 ; Do., 

Parva, 259 
Linton, Hugo de, xxiii 
Litherland, John, 382 
Lothingland, Deanery of, 366 
Lovell, Francis, 25 
Lowestoft, Jessop's visit to church 

of, 243, 368 
Lowes, George, 396 
Lucas, Thomas, monuments and 

bequests of, xlvi 
Lundinium, 356 
Lynge, Ric, 368 

Magnells, Rob., 392 

Mailing, convent of, 17; Abbess 

of, 18, 29 
Manchester, Earl of, 239 
Mancknoll, Robert, 383 
Manderville, Earl of Essex, arms of, 

235 ; Beatrice, ib 
Mannocks of Gifford's hall, 322 ; 

monuments of, 323 
Maplizden, John, 369 
Marlyford. 383 
Marney, 234 
Martlesham, 385 
Martin, Charles, 416; Ann, ib ; 

Joseph, 417 ; Mary, 418 ; Joseph, 

420 ; Sarah, ib 
Martyn, Wm, 372 
Mason, Francis, 379 
Maul, Rev. R, C., 315 
Mc Kecknie, Rev. A., xliii 
Medculf, Henry, 424 ; Mary Ann, 

ib ; Emilv Brewster, ib ; Henry, 

ib 
Melling, William, 366 ; Robert 369, 
Melton, 382 
Mendham, 397 

Merton, notes from old rentals at, 24 
Mercelyn, John, 400 
Meryman, Edw., 394 
Metcalfe, John, 393 
Metfield church, 265, 397 
Mettingham, 370 
Mickfield church, 264, 285, 393 



Middleton, 377 

Mimms, south, 18, 19 

Mitchell's hill, Roman nails found 
at, 56 ; horse burial at, 71 

Monodon, 383 

Montacute, barony of, 106 

Montfichet, 233 

Monte Hermer, Ralph de, 76 ; 
Edward, 79, 80 

Monthermer, barony of, 106; Baron, 
234 ; arms of, 226, 230 

Monticute, arms of, 226, 230 ; Mar- 
garet, 231 ; Roger de, xxxiii 

Moody, Samuel, 279 

Mortimer, 76 

Mortlock, Rev. E., 331 

Mowste, Richard, 375 

Mullenden church, 256, 280 

Mumford, Mr., 38 

Murrells, Frederic, 419 

Musket, Mr. J. J., on Suffolk wills, 
94 

Mutford church, 259, 369 

Mutley, Richard, 396 

N acton, 385 

Nails, supposed crucifixion found at 

Horringer, 55 
Nannenus, 356 
Nayland church, 249, 255 
Needham Market, cross at, 3 ; 

church, 254 
Nettlestead church, 263, 393 
Nevill, 116 

Neville, arms of, 231 ; Margaret, 106 
Newborne, 385 
Newbury, John, 80 
Newman, 20, 37 
Newmarket church, 255 
Newton, 14, 38 ; church, 255 ■ 
Northales, 374 
Northcove, 370 
Norton, John, 392 
Norwich, 230, 232 
Notilia Imperii, 350 

Ockold church, 265, 285 



468 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Odingcels, 234 

Offeton cum Bricet Parva, 395 

Ofton church, 263, 284 

Orbell, Joseph Hicks, 424 ; Alice 
Emma, ib 

Orford church, 250 ; deanery of, 377 

Osborne, Benjamin, 6 

Othona, 251 

Otley church, 256, 280, 386 

Oulton, 369 

Ovens, Potters at Lavenham, 312 

Overbury hall, 231 

Oxford, Earls of, 105, et seq. ; 
arms, 120, 226 ; badges of, 
1 26 ; shields of, on Lavenham 
porch, 124; John, 13th Earl, 
pedigree of, 225 

Pack horse, the, Ipswich, 163 

Pagett, John, 400 

Pakefield, 369 

Palgrave, Mr. F. T., 358 

Palmer, Joseph, 417 

Palmer, Mr. Danby, xx 

Parham church, 266, 379 

Parish, Rev. W. S., 328 

Parker, Augustine, brass of, 336 ; 

Robert, 380 
Parkinson, Rev. T., 315 
Parliament, gift to members, xxxv, 

xxxviii 
Paul's, S., cathedral, London, 431 
Peachie, Richard, 451 
Peacock, Eliza, 417 
Peacock's manor, 19, 21 ; Lords of, 

33, 37 ; notes from rental of, 38 
Peasinghall, 374 
Pecock, John, 29,- 33 
Peddar way, the, 326 
Petistrie, 383 
Peter de Savoy e, 74 
Pettaugh, 393 
Pevensey, 345 
Pew, derivation of, 402 
Phillipps, Barnard, 374 
Pigott, Sir Thomas, 412 
Pilkenton, John, 367 



Plaitz, arms of, 226, 230, 233 ; Mar- 
garet, 234; barony of, 106 

Plantagenet, Edmund, 132 ; Eliza- 
beth, 76 ; Lionel, ib 

Playford church, 252, 387 

Plumer, Reignold, 377 

Polstead, visit to, 321 ; church, 261, 
323 ; the Red barn, 323 

Portus Adurni, 351 

Poslingford, 16 

Pottell, James, 383 

Pounder, Thomas, brass of, 335 

Prigg, Mr. Henry, on a Roman 
cemetery at Ingham, 54 ; on 
supposed crucifixion nails, 56 ; on 
Anglo-Saxon graves, "Warren Hill, 
72 ; ancient burials, Chippenham 
Park, 326 ; Snailwell church, 
330 ; on a bronze sword found at 
Chippenham, 193; on Bansfield 
hall and manor, xliii 

Prince, John, 392 

Proceedings, abstract of, xiii 

Pulham S. Mary, 245 

Pulpit, early, xxii 

Puttock's Hill, Roman road near, 54 

Quiucey, Earl of Winchester, arms 

of, 230, 232 ; Hawys, 231 
Quintin, Robert de, xxvii ; John, ib 

Raie, Robt., 452 

Ramsholt, 383 

Randall, Edw., 395 

Ransom, Mr. W. B., xxxi; Mr. E., ib 

Raven, Rev. J. J., d.d., on Garia- 

nonum, 345 ; Burgh Castle, xv 
Ray, Elizabeth, 417 
Rayden church, 249, 260 
Raye, Clement, d.d., 409, 452 ; 

Mary, ib ; Isaac, 452 
Rawlings, John, 397 
Rawson, Randall, 398 
Record, Wm, 399 
Red barn, Polstead, 323 
Reddisham Magna, 371 
Redgrave, visit to, 315 



GENERAL INDEX. 



469 



Redsham church, 258, 281 

Redvers, Earl of Devon, 230 ; 
Mary, d. of, 232 

Regalbium, 351 

Regingfield church, 258, 281 

Reliquary of supposed Italian work- 
manship, 302 

Rendham, 379 

Rendlesham, 383 

Revell, 378 

Revet monument, 320, 328 

Reydon, 377, 400 

Reynard the fox, 173 

Richborough, 345 

Rickenhal], visit to, 315 

Ring, bronze, from Warren hill, 59 ; 
silver, 64, 65 

Ringsfield, 370 

Ringshall, 393 

Ritupise, 351 

Robinson, monument of Robert, 
407, 451; Lt.-Col. John, 408; 
Honb. Col. John, 408, 449 ; 
William Henry, 409 ; John, ib ; 
John, 410, 438; John Neville, 
410; Lt.-General, 404, 411; Sir 
John, 412, 435, 449 ; John Clive, 
412; Rebecca, 407, 449; Eliza- 
beth, 408 ; Amy, 409 ; Frances, 
ib ; Bridget, ib ; John, Katherine, 
Mary, Bridget, Martha, Elizabeth, 
410; Rebecca, 411; Charlotte, 
441 ; Amee, 412, 449 ; arms, 406 

Rollinson, Herbert, 418; Mary, ib ; 
James, ib ; George Westrup, 424 

Roman road, Ampton, 54 

Roundels, on a set of, 220 

Rumburgh, 377 

Runham, Vauxhall, Urns found at, 
349 

Russell, John, 1st Earl of Bedford, 
435, 438 ; arms of, 434 

Rushmere church, 251, 259, 282, 
369 

Rushmor, 387 

Russingles church, 265, 285 

Rutter, Rachel, 418 



Rysby, William, 109 ; Margaret, ib 

Sagar, John, 386, 399 

Saint Cristinae, 304 ; S. Cosmos, ib ; 
S. Margaret, South Elmham, 399; 
S. James, ib ; S. Nicholas and All 
Saints, ib ; S. George, also Sand- 
croft, ib ; S. Peter's, ib ; S. 
Michaels, ib 

S. Saviour's hospital, Bury S. 
Edmund's, foundation deed, 296 

Salmon, Edward, 390 

Samian ware from Ingham, 53 

Sampford, Baron, arms of, 230, 235 ; 
Alicia, 231 ; Deanery of, 389, 400 

Samson, Abbot, 296 ; Seal of, 300 

Saterly church, 259, 281 

Say, 235 

Sayer, Mr. Serjeant, 84 ; Thomas, 
397 

Saxham Parva church, visit to, xliv ; 
Lucas chapel, xlv ; Croft monu- 
ment, xlvii; Samuel Leedes, ib; 
arms of, ib 

Saxmundham church, 250, 380 

Saxon Shore, Count of, 350; Sea 
Rovers, 356 

Scales, Baron, 230, 232-4 

Scroope, Richardus, Bishop, 243 

Scroop, Elizabeth, 106 

Scrope, Margarete, 81 

Scott, Mr. Buchanan, 302 

Seabrook, Thomas, 422 

Seaman, Robt., 367 

Selby, Robt., 396 

Sergeaux, 230, 234, 235 

Series, manor of, 30n. 

Serviens of a manor, 17n. 

Severus, 356 

Sewell, Rev. W. H., remarks on 
piscina, Fritton church, xvii, 315 

Shadingfield, 371 

Shave, Simeon, 420 

Shelford, Robt, 370 

Shelly church, 253, 391 

Shelley, visit to, 321 ; hall, 322 

Sherman, Richard, 397 



470 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Shipmeadow, 371 

Shottisham, 384 

Shrive, William, 83, 84 

Sibbeton, 374 

Silchester, 345 

Sileham, 397 

Silver ornaments in Saxon graves, 
64 

Sirr, Catherine, Ann, 423 

" Sir John Schorn," xxvii 

Skinner, Sir Thomas, 111; Thomas, 
397 

Skulls, typical British, 49 

Smith, Mr. Machell, 323, 325; 
Rev. Kenelm, 327, 330 ; Christo- 
pher, 370; Robert, 388; Wm, 
390 ; R., 394 ; Sir Thomas, 404 ; 
John, ib, 442 

Snailwell church, visit to, 330 

Snape church, 250, 379 

Snowden, John, 451 

Soham, 383 ; Monachorum, 398 

Sornerleyton church, 244, 369 

Somersham, John, 18, 19, 33, 393 

Sotherton, 364 

South Cove church, 282, 374 

South Elmham, Deanery of, 399 

Southwold church, 260, 262 

Spear head from Timworth, 54.n 

Spectishall, 375 

Sparrow, Robert, 38; Newman, 38 

Spelmans of Narborough, 19 

Spencer, Alice, 80 ; Miles, 398 

Spourne, arms of, 117 

Spring, Family of, 107; Agnes, ib ; 
Alice, 110, 116, 118; Bridget, 
109; Margaret, 107; Sir John, 
manors owned by, 110; Thomas, 
arms of, 114, 128 ; chapel and 
monument, 116; brass of, ib ; 
chauntry chapel, 117 

Sproughton church, 253, 400 

Spryng, Thomas, 29 

Stafford, Edms. Comes, 439; Squire, 
116 

Stansfield hall, manor of, 438 

Stanstead church, 250, 261, 274 



Stapleton, 233 

Stavelev, Leond., 383 

Steele, Richard, 379 

Steelyard weight, ancient, 132 

Sternsfield, 379 

Steward, 116 

Stoke church, 255 ; by Clare, Col- 
lege of, 77 ; by Nay land church, 
249, 280 ; bridge, 5 

Stonehall, manor of, 438, 439 ; 
lords of, 446 

Stoneing cross, the, 1 ; street, 88 

Stonham Aspall, 393 ; Count, 394 ; 
Parva, 395 

Stower, Rev. C. J., on All Saints' 
church, Sudbury, xxii 

Stoven, 374 

Stowmarket church, 254, 279 

Stradbrook church, 257, 281, 398 

Stratford church, 250, 274, 380, 391 

Stutton, 391 

Styles, Bartholomew, 398 

Sudbume church, 250, 274, 269, 379 

Sudbury, S. Peter, 248, 269 ; visit 
to, xxviii ; S. Gregory, 248, xlviii ; 
visit to, xxv ; chapel of S. Anne, 
xxvi ; Hermitage, xxvii ; All 
Hallows, 248; general meeting, 
xxi, xxviii ; All Saints' church, 
visit to, xxii ; Eden chapel, xxiv ; 
ancient house, Stour street, xxiv ; 
Mr. Hodson on town records, xxx ; 
charters, xxxiii ; town seal, xxxiv ; 
maces, ib ; S. Gregory's croft, 
xxxii; Portman's croft, ib; "Splash- 
lick," xxxii ; Dobb's hole, ib; 
grant of arms, xxxiii ; loving cup, 
xxxv ; bye-laws, a.d. 1515, xxxvi ; 
the Mayor's accounts, xxxviii ; 
Simon de Sudbury, xlviii ; tern 
porary museum and meeting at 
town hall, xxx 

Sudbury, Archdeaconry, temp. 1603, 
361 

Suffolk, Archdeaconry, temp. 1603, 
361, 366 

Suffolk, Duke of, 175 ; '■ Way," 326 



GENERAL INDEX. 



471 



Summers, Elizabeth, 423 

Summersham church, 263, 284 

Suttaby, William Leonard, 452 

Sutterly, 371 

Sutton, 233, 383 

Sweftling, 379 

Swett, Rob., 398 

Swilland, 394 

Swords, bronze, from Chippenham, 

184, 193; Barrow, 186, 188; 

Icklingham, 190; Woolpit, 191 ; 

Mildenhall, ib 

Tannington church, 257, 396 
Tattingston, 391 
Tavern, Taverner, 138, 143 
Taylor, Rowland, 114; Dr., on 

excavations in Ipswich, 341 
Tey, John, 25 

Tharp, Augustus James, 452 
Thebarton, 377 
Theobald, Elizabeth, xxiv 
Theodosius, 356 
Threlkeld, John, 386 
Thornington, 375 
Thorne, Thomas, 393 
Tipplers, 148 
Tiptoft, arms of, 231, 232 
Toftes, John, 385 
Tong, Roger, 395 
Tooley, Henry, 173, 179 
Tostick church, 254, 279 
Townrowe, Henry, 381 
Trendle, Thomas, 397 
Trimbly church, 261, 283, 386 
Tuddenham, 386 
Tunstall church, 274, 380 ; Thomas, 

371 
Turner, Sarah, 419 
Tylney, Margaret, tomb of, 321 
Tym, Thomas, 385 
Tyrell, 116 

Ubbeston, 375 

Ufford church, 251, 262, 284, 384 
Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, 230, 232, 
233, 234; Matilda, 231 



Uggishall, 375 

Umberfield, Thomas, 2S5 

Underwood, John, 366 

Urns from Warren hill, 60, 62, 70 ; 
from Burgh Castle, 358 ; illustra- 
tion of, 359 

Utting, Jo., 371 

Valentinian, the Emperor, 356 
Vases, ancient Greek, 313 
Venables, Rev. G., on the Toll house, 

Yarmouth, xviii ; James, 379 
Vere, origin of name, 126 ; de Vere, 

Aubrey, 109, 110 ; Edward, 111 ; 

see Oxford, Earls of 
Vesey monuments, xvi 

Wade, William, brass of, 320 ; Alice, 

ib 
Walberswick church, 260, 282, 376 
Waldringfield, 386 
Walgrave, Waldegrave, xxiv, 29, 30; 

Sir George, 318 ; Sir William, 118 
Walker, Rev. John, xvi ; John, 422 
Wallingworth church, 264, 285 
Wallisborough, arms of, 233 
Wall paintings, Beltou, xvii 
Walpole, arms of, 226 ; parish, 376 
Walsingham, Baron, 22, 38 
Walton, 230, 233, 234, 386 
Wangford deanery, 369, 375 ; 

church, 265 
Wantisden, 380 
Ward, Samuel, 155 
Warlter, Griffin, 391 
Warren, arms of, 228, 230; Hill, 

Auglo-Saxon graves at, 57 
Washbrooke, cross at, 3 ; church, 

251, 234, 235, 400 
Watkinson, Robert, 377 
Watling, Mr. H., 349 ; illustrations 

by, 345, 359, 360 
Wattisfield, meeting at, 315 
Watts, arms of, 245 ; Margaret, ib 
Waveney, Lord, 315 
Waybread, 398 
Way well, Adrien, 334 



472 GENERAL INDEX. 

Webb, John, 385; Anna Maria, 421 ) Wickham church, 250, 383 

Nancy, ib ; Harriet, ib ; Thomas, Wickliffe, portrait of, 340 

ib; Mary, ib ; G. B., ib Widley, Nicholas, 373-4 

Weight, ancient steel, 131 Wilby church, 157, 281, 398 

Welles, arms of, 231 ; Cicely, ib Wiles, John, 129 

Wenham church, 253, 278, 390, 400 Wilford and Loes, deanery of, 380 

Wenhaston, 375 Wilkenson, John, 380 ; Thomas, 392 

Wentworth, Margery, 30 Willesham church, 263, 284, 396 

Westerfield, 394 Willet, Mr. E. H., f.s.a., on a set of 
Westhall, 375 Roundells, 220 

Westhorp, Mr. Stirling, on Wolsey's Williams, John, 384 

college, 334 Wilson, Mr. G. H., 315 

Westleton, 375 Winckop, William, 386 

Weston, 371 Wing-field, Sir Anthony, 174,337; 
Westrup, Philip, 418 ; Philip, 422 ; Castle, 315 ; parish, 398 

Hannah, ib ; Deborah, 423; John, Winston, 393 

424 ; Elizabeth, ib Wissett, 375 

West Stow Heath, ancient road, 54 Withersdale, 398 

West, Thomas, 17 Withersfield church, 249 

Wetheringsett church, 264 Witnesham, 386 

Wetheden church, 264, 279 Wixo church, 249, 273 

Weyburgh, John, 80 Woden, Isaac, 111 

Weyland, Richard de, 29 Wolsey Cardinal, 334, 439, 442 

Wherstead, 390 Woodbridge church, 251, 274, 383 

Whetcroft of Suffolk, 94 ; pedigree, Wood, Moses, 393, 400 ; William, 

104 ; Will of Henry, 96 xxvii 

Whitby, Thomas, 394 Woolpit church, 257 

White Horse, the, Ipswich, 163 Woolverston, 400 

White, of Little Cornard, 20, 37 Worlingham, 372 

White, Rev. C. H. Evelyn, f.s.a., Worlingworth cum Capellade South - 

on the Stoneing cross, 1 ; on the holt, 398 

ancient crosses of Ipswich, 88 ; Worlledge, E. W., Esq., xviii 

on an ancient steelyard weight, "Worth," 31n. 

131 ; on the old Inns of Ipswich, Wrenford church, 265 

136; on the Ipswich Domesday Wrentham, 375 

books, 195; on the Journal of Wright, Thomas, 381; Robert, 397 

William Dowsing, 236 ; on a Wynkeperry, Alianor, 81 

reliquary of Italian workmanship, 

302, xvi ; on the returns of the Yarmouth, General Meeting xiii ; 

Archdeaconries of Suffolk and Toll house hall, xviii ; charters, 

Sudbury 1603, 362 xx 

Whitehead, Henry, 451 Yarner, Thomas, 375 

Whiterod Westley, 420 ; Elizabeth, Yke church, 249 

ib Yonges, Nicholas, 400 

Whitton cum Thurleton, 394 Young, Doctor, 279 

Wickhambrook church, visit to, xli ; Yoxford, 376 

men of note, xliii 

E. M. D. 



Suffolk ^Institute of ^rdja^lflgy 

AND 

Ulctfurctf <&x$toxy. 

ISTABLISIIB 18 48. 
patron : 

The Most Noble the MARQUESS of BRISTOL. 

jjrcsiocnt : 

LORD JOHN HERVEY. 

The LORD BISHOP of BATH ami I SLR EDWARD KERRISON, Bart. 

WELLS. J. H. P. OAKES, Esq. 
JOHN BERNERS, Esq. SIR CHAS. ROWLEY, Bart. 
SIR CHAS. J. F. BUNBURY, Bart. The LORD WAVENEY. 
EDWARD GREENE, Esq., M.P. The LORD BISHOP of WIN- 
LORD HENNIKER. CHESTER. 



Council : 



Rev. JAMES BECK. 
The Venble. ARCHDEACON CHAP- 
MAN. 
E. M. DEWING, Esq. 
Rev. R. S. FOX. 
C. E. GIBBS, Esq. 
Rev. H. S. HAWKINS. 



R. E. LOFFT, Esq. 
Rev. C. R. MANNING 
R. M. PHIPSOW Esq. 
Mr. HENRY PRIGG. 
Rev. W. H. SEWELL. 
JAS. SPARKE, Esq. 
GEORGE THOMPSON, Esq. 



* honorary Secretaries : 

Rev. Dr. CHURCHILL BABINGTON, Classical Antiquities. 

BECKFORD BEVAN, Esq., Mediaeval and Ecclesiastical ditto. 

F. MACHELL SMITH, Esq., Secretary and Treasurer. 

iS)onorani JH embers : 

J. G. AKERMAN, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Honble. NATHAN APPLETON, Boston, United States. 

Rev. CANON GREENWELL, M.A , F.S.A. 

J. J. HOWARD, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 

C. R. SMITH, Esq., F.S.A., DURHAM. 

The Honble. R. C. WINTHROP, Boston, United States. 

|3ankers : 

Messrs. OAKES, BEVAN, & Co. 



Annual Subscription 10/- due January 1st ; Life Composition, £-5. 
* Members of the Council, ex officio. 



RULES. 



I. The Society shall be called the " Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and 
Natural History." 

II. The objects of the Institute shall be — 

1. To collect and publish information on the Archeology and Natural 

History of the District. 

2. To procure careful observation and preservation of Antiquities, 

Fossils, and other objects, which from time to time may be 
discovered, and to collect accurate drawings, plans, and descrip- 
tions thereof. 

III. The Institute shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary Members. 

IV. Each Ordinary Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of 10s., to be 
due in advance on the 1st of January, and shall be considered to belong to the 
Institute until he withdraw from it by a notice in writing to the Secretary. A donor 
of £5 shall be a Life Member. 



V. The Officers of the Institute shall be a President, Vice-Presidents, a 
Treasurer and Honorary Secretaries. The President and Vice-Presidents shall be 
elected for life, the other Officers for the year, at the Annual Meeting. 

VI. The general management of the affairs and property of the Institute shall 
be vested in a Council, consisting of the Officers elected from the general body of the 
Subscribers, to retire annually but be eligible for re-election. 

VII. The Council shall meet to transact the ordinary business of the Institute, 
not less than three times a year. They shall have power to make Bye-Laws, appoint 
Committees and Local Secretaries, elect Honorary Members, supply vacancies that 
may occur during the year in their own body or among the officers, and to make 
arrangements for Excursion meetings. They shall also annually frame a report and 
prepare the accounts for submission to the Annual Meeting. At the Meetings of 
the Council three to be a quorum, and the Chairman to have a casting vote. 

VIII. Each Member shall be entitled to free admission to the General 
Meetings of the Institute ; and he shall also be entitled to the use of the Library 
and to a copy of each publication of the Institute ; but no copy of any such publi- 
cation shall be delivered to any Member whose subscription is more than twelve 
months in arrear. 

IX. The First Meeting, to be held in February in each year, shall be the 
Annual Meeting, or such time as shall be fixed upon by the Council. 

X. All papers presented to the Institute shall thereby be considered its 
property, and the Council may publish the same in any way and at any time that 
they may think proper. 



REPORT. 1883-84. 



ttfolli Jwstttittc of glitolajgg 



%\\t\ Jtetal §iHtoi|D. 



E ST^BLI S HE ID 1848 



BARKER, PRINTER, 8, LOWER BAXTER STREET, BURY. 



j&ujfoth- Jirctiiufc of gwteotofjg & Jjtetaral Hiatorg. 

Established 1848. 

jpatrmt : 

THE MOST NOBLE THE MARQUIS OF BRISTOL. 

president : 

THE LORD JOHN HERVEY. 

IJta-pwBtdettte : 



The Lord Bishop of Bath and 

Wells 
John Berners, Esq. 
Sir Charles J. F. Bunbury, Bart. 
His Grace the Duke of Grafton 
Edward Greene, Esq., M.P. 



Lord Henniker 

Sir Edward Kerrison, Bart. 

J. H. P. Oakes, Esq. 

Sir Charles Rowley, Bart. 

The Lord Waveney 

The Lord Bishop of Winchester 



Council : 



Rev. James Beck 

Ven. Archdeacon Chapman 

E. M. Dewing, Esq. 

Rev. R. S. Fox 

C. E. Gibbs, Esq. 

Rev. H. S. Hawkins 



Sir Louis S. Jackson 
R. E. Lofft, Esq. 
Rev. Charles R. Manning 
R M. Phipson, Esq., F.S.A. 
Mr. Henry Prigg 
Rev. W. H. Sewell 
G. Thompson, Esq. 

Jonorarn Secretaries : * 

Rev. Dr. Churchill Babington, Classical Antiquities, &>c. 
Beckford Bevan, Esq., Mediaeval and Ecclesiastical Antiquities 
F. Machell Smith, Esq., (West Suffolk) Bury St. Edmund's 
Rev. C. H. Evelyn White, (East Suffolk) Ipswich 

treasurer : * 

F. Machell Smith, Esq. 

Honorary Utembers : 

J. Y. Akerman, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Hon. Nathan Appleton, Boston, United States 
Rev. W. Greenwell, M.A., F.S.A, Durham 
J. J. Howard, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
C R. Smith, Esq., F.S.A., Strood, Kent 
The Hon. R.C. Winthrop, President of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, Boston, United States 



Bankers : — Messrs. Oakes, Bevan, and Co., Bury St. Edmund's. 
Annual Subscription, 105-., due January 1st. Life Composition, £$. 

* Members of the Council, ex officio. 



3 
RULES. 



I. The Society shall be called the " Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 
and Natural History." 

II. The objects of the Institute shall be — 

i. To collect and publish information on the Archaeology and Natural 
History of the District. 

2. To procure careful observation and preservation of Antiquities, 
Fossils, and other objects, which from time to time may be 
discovered, and to collect accurate drawings, plans, and descrip- 
tions thereof. 

III. The Institute shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary 
Members. 

IV. Each Ordinary Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of 
ios.,to be due in advance on the ist of January, and shall be considered 
to belong to the Institute until he withdraws from it by a notice in writing 
to the Secretary. A donor of ^5 shall be a Life Member. 

V. The Officers of the Institute shall be a President, Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, and Honorary Secretaries. The President and 
Vice-Presidents shall be elected for life, the other Officers for the year, 
at the Annual Meeting 

VI. The general management of the affairs and property of the 
Institute shall be vested in a Council, consisting of the Officers elected 
from the general body of the Subscribers, to retire annually but be 
eligible for re-election. 

VII. The Council shall meet to transact the ordinary business of 
the Institute, not less than three times a year. They shall have power 
to make Bye-Laws, appoint Committees and Local Secretaries, elect 
Honorary Members, supply vacancies that may occur during the year in 
their own body or among the officers, and to make arrangements for 
Excursion Meetings. They shall also annually frame a Report and prepare 
the Accounts for submission to the Annual Meeting. At the Meetings 
of the Council three to be a quorum, and the Chairman to have a casting 
vote. 

VIII. Each Member shall be entitled to free admission to the 
General Meetings of the Institute ; and he shall also be entitled to the 
use of the Library and to a copy of each publication of the Institute ; 
but no copy of any such publication shall be delivered to any Member 
whose subscription is more than twelve months in arrear. 

IX. The First Meeting, to be held in February in each year, shall 
be the Annual Meeting, or such time as shall be fixed upon by the 
Council. 

X. All papers presented to the Institute shall thereby be considered 
its property, and the Council may publish the same in any way and at 
any time that they may think proper. 



MEM 



Almack, H. H., Esq., Long Melford 

* Amherst, D. T., Esq., Didlington Park 

Amyot, Thos., Esq., Diss 

Angerstein, \V., Esq., Weeting Hall, Brandon 

*Babington, Professor C. C, Cambridge 

*Babington, Rev. Dr., Cockfield 

Bacon, Mr. H. F., Bury St. Edmund's 

Barnardislon, N., Esq., The Ryes, Sudbury 

Beale, Thos. B., Esq., Brettenham Hall 

Beck, Rev. Jas., Bildeston 

Bence, Capt. E. R. S., Kentwell Hall, Long Melford 

Berners, John Esq., Wolverstone Park, Ipswich 

Bevan, Beckford, Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Bevan, J. J., Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Bevan, Mrs. W. R., Plumpton Hall 

Biddell, W., Esq., M.P., Lavenham Hall 

Bingley, Rev. R. M., Braiseworth 

Binyon, B. ; Esq., 2, Princes Street, Ipswich 

Bisshopp, E. F., Esq., 32, Museum Street, Ipswich 

Boreham, W. Long, Esq., Haverhill 

Boreham, W. W., Esq., Haverhill 

Bristol, The Marquis of, Ickworth Park 

Brooke, F. C, Esq., Ufford, Woodbridge 

Brown, W., Esq., Gippeswyk Hall, Ipswich 

Bulwer, Col., Quebec House, East Dereham 

*Bunbury, Sir Chas. J., Bart., Barton Hall 

Burrell, Robt., Esq., Westley 

Campbell, Rev. D., Eye 

Casley, H. C, Esq., Ipswich 

Chapman, Ven. Archdeacon, Ely 

Chevallier, Rev. Canon, Aspal 

Clemence, J. L., Esq., Lowestoft 

Cobbold, Felix, Esq., Ipswich 

Connell, Rev. J. C, Monks Eleigh 

Cooke, Rev. Canon, 6, Clifton Place, Sussex Square, London 

Croker, Rev. J. M., Lavenham 

Cullum, G. Milner Gibson, Esq., Hardwick House 

Dewing, E. M., Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Ebden, Wm., Esq., Haughley 

Evans, John, Esq., Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead 

Evans, Rev. R., Eyton Llall, Leominster 

Ford, Mr. Francis, Bury St. Edmund's 

Ford, Mr. John C, Bury St. Edmund's 

Fox, Rev. R. Stote, Red House, Horringer 

♦Franks, A. W., Esq., F.S.A., British Museum 

Gibbs, C. E., Esq., Icldingham 

(iolding, Mr. C, High Street, Colchester 

Gray, Rev. John Durban, Nayland Vicarage, Colchester 

Green, Herbert, Esq., Norwich 

Greene, E., Esq., M.P., Nether Hall 

Groome, Ven Archdeacon, Monks Soham 

Growse, F. Salmon, Esq., CLE., Bildeston 

Grubb, Mr. J., Sudbury 

Gurney, J. H., Esq., Jun., Northrepps 

Hall, Rev. Wm., Saxham Parva . 

Harrison, S. J., Esq., Haughley 

Haslewood, Rev. F., St. Matthew's, Ipswich 



Those Names to which 



1884. 



Hawkins, Rev. H. S., Beyton 

Hemsworlh, Rev. A. B., Bacton 

*Henniker, Lord, Thornham 

Hervey, Lord John, Ickworth Park 

Hewitt, Rev. Thos., Preston 

Hind, Rev. Dr., Honington 

Image, W. E., Esq., Herringswell 

Jackson, J., Esq., Fornham 

Jackson, Sir L. Stewart, CLE., Hadleigh 

Jarvis, Rev. H., Poslingford 

Jennings, G. Esq., Lagrange House, Newmarket 

Kerrison, Sir Ed., Bart., Broome Park 

Kilner, J., Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Layton, Rev. W. E., Ipswich 

*Lewis, Rev. S., C.C.C., Cambridge 

Lingwood, Edwd., Esq., Needham Market 

Lofft, R. E., Esq., Troston Hall 

Macnab, R., Esq., M.D., Bury St. Edmund's 

Manning, Rev. C. R., Diss 

Martyn, Rev. C. J., Long Melford 

*Maude, Rev. S., Needham Market 

Metcalfe, W. E., Esq., 8, Lupus Street, London 

Methold, Fredk., Esq., Livermere Parva 

Muskett, J. J., Esq., 5, Park Crescent, Stoke Newington 

*Newton, Professor, Magdalen College, Cambridge 

*Norwich, Lord Bishop of 

Oakes, J. H. Porteus, Esq., Nowton Court 

*Ouvry, F., Esq., F.S.A., 12, Queen Anne Street, London 

Parker, Colonel, Clopton Hall 

Pettiward, R. J., Esq., Finborough Hall 

Phillips, March, Esq., Hitcham Hall 

Phipson, R. M., Esq., Norwich 

Pigot, Rev. H., Stretham, Ely 

Powell, T. Harcourt, Esq., Drinkstone Park 

Prigg, Mr. Henry, Bury St. Edmund's 

Raven, Rev. Dr., Great Yarmouth 

Ray, Mr. C, Clare 

Rix, S. W., Esq., Beccles 

Rowley, Sir Chas., Bart., Tendring Hall 

Sewell, Rev. W. H., Yaxley 

Smith, F. Machell, Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Spanton, Mr. W. S., Bury St. Edmund's 

Sparke, J. J., Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Temple, Rev. R. E., Thorpe Morieux 

Thompson, Geo., Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Thornhill, T., Esq., M.P., Pakenham Lodge 

Turner, Mrs. F. M. H., Ixworth Abbey 

*Turner, Rev. G F., Rede 

*Turner, J., Esq., Rickinghall 

Waveney, Lord, Flixton 

White, Rev. C. H. Evelyn, St. Margaret's, Ipswich 

Wilson, Rowland H., Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

*Winchester, Lord Bishop of 

Woolnough, Francis, Esq., Eye 

Wright, Freeman, Esq., Needham Market 

Yelloly, Rev. J., Chilton, Sudbury 

Young, A. J., Esq., Bradficld Hall 



affixed, are Life Members. 



REPORT 18S3-S4. 



During the year 1SS3 the efforts of the Secretary were chiefly directed 
to the collection of Papers, and to printing and publishing the new Part 
(Vol. VI., Part I.) which was issued and sent out to the Members in the 
latter part of December. 

An Excursion was arranged for August 23rd, starting from Hadleigh. 
Visits were made to Layham, Shelly Church and Hall, Clifford's Hall, 
Polstead Church, Boxford Church, and Hadleigh. There was a good 
attendance of Members, and the places visited awakened much interest ; 
but the want of original Papers was felt to be a great drawback, and 
somewhat marred the complete success of the meeting ; notwithstanding 
it was generally felt to be a profitable one. 

During the year 1SS3, it new Members have joined the Society. Of 
the old members 2 have retired, and 2 are deceased. The finances are 
in a satisfactory state, as the annexed Balance Sheet will show. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held at the Athenaeum, 
Bury St. Edmund's, on the iSth of February, 1SS4, when a Report and 
Statement of Accounts was submitted to the Members. 

The Rev. C. H. Evelyn 'White was elected Secretary for East Suffolk, 
and it was hoped that the appointment would lead to greater interest 
being taken in the Society on that side of the county. 

Sir Louis S. Jackson, C.I.E., was elected a Member of the Council, in 
the place of James Sparke, Esq., deceased. 

It was decided that the Land and Water Birds of Suffolk, by the 
Rev. Dr. Babington, should complete Vol. V. of the Proceedings, and any 
further Archaeological Papers should form Parts of Vol. VI. 

The question of holding two Meetings during 1S84 was discussed, and 
it was proposed (weather permitting) that the neighbourhood of Kennet 
and Chippenham should be visited at the end of May, or early in June. 
A gentleman well acquainted with the neigbourhood has undertaken 
to conduct the Excursion. 

A visit to Ipswich, in August or September, was also proposed, and 
agreed to ; the town not having been visited by the Society for some 
time past. 

Of these Meetings due notice will be given to the Members. 

A re-arrangement of the Books, and the issue of a Catalogue of the 
Library belonging to the Society, will shortly be undertaken. The 
President has promised his attention and assistance. 

The Secretaries beg to remind the Members that all Subscriptions 
for the present year were due on January 1st, 1884, and may be paid to 
them, or to Oakes, Bevan, and Co., Bury St. Edmund's. They trust 
that the Members will do all in their power to promote the objects and 
interests of the Society, as its success, must, after all, largely depend 
upon their individual exertions. Six new Members have already joined 
in 1884. 

The Land Birds of Suffolk are issued with this Report, and the 

Hater Birds and Accidental Visitors are in the press, and will be ready 

next year at the latest. Copies of many of the single Parts of the 

I^rocecdings may be had, price 3s. 6d. each, or 10s. per Volume complete. 



The Treasurer in Account with the Suffolk Institute of 
Archceology and Natural History. 



1883. 



1882. 
Dec. 31. 
1883. 



May 8. 



RECEIPTS. 

Balance, as per Bank Book — Oakes & Co. 
Members' Subscriptions, paid through Oakes & Co 

„ „ „ to Treasurer 

Sale of Publications during 1883 
Balance from Hadleigh Excursion 
Interest on Deposit Account 
Payment from late Treasurer 



£ s. 

56 16 

20 14 

41 o 

6 9 

o 4 

5 5 

4 18 



d 

4 
o 
6 
o 

o 

7 
6 



£ l S5 7 « 



PAYMENTS. 



1883. 

March 28. Carriage of papers from Haughley 

„ 30. Taylor's Index Monaslieus 
May 6. Two Parts Xorfolh Areh&obgy and P.O. Order 

Book Case 

Notes from British Museum 

Barker for Printing 

Cheque Book 

Stamps, &c. 

J. W. Clarke— Photos for Dr. Babington's Birds 

Cash in hand 

Balance at Oakes, Bevan, & Co.'s, Dec, 1883 ... 



£ 


s. 


d 





1 


8 


1 


1 








13 


8 


2 


15 








7 


6 


1 


8 








2 


6 


1 


n 


8 


6 








1 


9 






.. 119 17 II 
^135 7 11 



SUMMARY. 



Cash in hand ... 
Balance of Current Account 
Deposit Account 
Interest 



£ 

1 

119 

80 



s. 
9 

17 

o 

4 



d 

o 
II 

o 

o 



^203 



10 II 



There is the cost of the Part issued in 1883 — ^33 — to deduct from the 

balance at Oakes & Co.'s. 

Examined; with the Vouchers, and found correct. 

HENRY PRIGG. 
February, 1884. 



8 

SOCIETIES IN UNION, 
FOR THE INTERCHANGE OF PUBLICATIONS, &>c. 

i. — The Society of Antiquaries, London. Sec. C. Knight Watson, 
Esq., M.A. 

2. — The Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, United States. 

3. — Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society. Hon. Sees., Rev. 
C. R. Manning, Diss ; R. Fitch, Esq., F.S.A., F.G.S., Norwich. 

4. — Cambridge Society of Antiquaries. Hon. Sec, Rev. S. S. Lewis, 
C.C.C., Cambridge. 

5. — Essex Archaeological Association. Hon. Sec, H. W. King, Esq., 
Leigh Hill, Leigh, Essex. 

6. — London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. Hon Sec , E. 
Price, Esq., F.S.A., 60, Albion Road, Stoke Newington. 

7. — Architectural Society for the Diocese of Lincoln. Hon Sec, Rev. 
G. T. Harvey, Lincoln. 

8. — Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of Northampton, Mr. 
Wright, Gold-street, Northampton. 

9. — Architectural and Archaeological Society of the County of Bedford. 
Hon. Sec, Rev. J. W. Haddock, Bedford. 

10. — Surrey Archaeological Society. Hon. Sec, E. V. Austen, Esq., 
8, Danes Inn, Strand, W.C. 

1 1. — Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. Hon. 
Sec, G. E. Giles, Esq., Taunton. 

12. — Architectural Society of the County of York. Rev. G. Rowe 
Training College, York. 

13. — The Royal Historical and Archaeological Society of Ireland. 
Hon. Sec, Rev. James Graves, F.S.A., Stoneford, Ireland. 

14. — Kent Archaeological Society. Rev. W. A. Scott Robertson, 
Whitehall, Sittingbourne. 

15. — Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. Lyceum, Liver- 
pool. 

16. — Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Secretary, Professor 
Spencer Fullerton Baird. 

17. — The Powys Land Club. Hon. Sec, Morris C. Jones, Esq., 
F.S.A., 20, Abercromby Square, Liverpool. 



THE SUFFOLK 



INSTITUTE OF AECH^IOLOGY 



AND 



NATUKAL HISTOEY. 



REPOET, 1885-6. 



K... 



REPORT 1885-6. 



There have been indications during the past year that the work of 
the Institute has not been entirely unappreciated or barren of results, 
although, on the other hand, the steady progress which formed a matter 
of congratulation in the last Report, has not, it must be felt, been fully 
maintained. 

In the month of July, a General Meeting of the Members and their 
friends was held in the neighbourhood of Great Yarmouth, which gave 
abundant proof of the useful work the Society is capable of doing, and, 
it may be added, of the esteem in which the Society is held. The 
distance of the place of meeting from West Suffolk prevented many 
from attending who otherwise would have been present at this interestiug 
gathering. After visiting Gorleston Church, the journey was continued 
to Burgh Castle, where an admirable paper was read by the Rev. Dr. 
Raven on the interesting Roman remains, and some few objects of 
interest were exhibited ; the church was also visited. At Bradwell the 
party, after paying a visit to the church, were most hospitably enter- 
tained at the Rectory, by the Rev. J. Walker ; and, at the meeting 
afterwards held, several new Members were elected. The churches of 
Belton and Fritton were afterwards visited, a contemplated visit to the 



IV. 

Lake (Lound Water) being relinquished, owing to want of time. The 
day's excursion concluded with a visit to the historic Tolhouse at Great 
Yarmouth, to the re -opening ceremony of which the Society had been 
invited by the Worshipful the Mayor, followed by an inspection of the 
various interesting architectural features of the building. At the close, 
the Society were very kindly entertained by the Rev. Dr. and Mrs. 
Raven, at the School-house. 

The Sudbury meeting, which had been arranged for the Autumn, was 
unavoidably postponed, owing to the difficulties attending the arrange- 
ments, and the near approach of the General Election. It is proposed 
to hold the Sudbury meeting some time during the next few months ; 
it is a question for future consideration whether a Summer meeting 
should be also held. 

The Second Part of Volume VI. of the Society's Proceedings has been 
issued to the Members, to their general satisfaction. It is hoped that 
the nature of this publication is such as to atone, in some measure, for 
past arrears in the issue of Parts. The remainder of the Rev. Dr. 
Babington's work (The Water Birds mid Accidental Visitors), completing 
Volume V. of the Proceedings, is ready to be issued, and will be placed 
in the hands of Members very shortly. 

The Library still remains in an unsatisfactory condition, and we 
regret to say that circumstances have quite prevented any progress 
being made with the new Catalogue, an entire re-arrangement of the 
books being necessary to this work. The Library has been sparingly 
used, about 40 volumes having been lent, the books being more generally 
consulted than borrowed. The Council are anxious to place the 
Library on a more satisfactory footing, and it is anticipated that 
arrangements will shortly be carried out to effect this. 



V. 

During the year, five new Members have been elected. The hand of 
death has removed from us two o f our respected Vice-Presidents (the 
Duke of Grafton and Lord Waveney), and we have also to lament 
the decease of our much-respected friend, Francis Capper Brooke, 
Esq., of Ufford. 

If the usefulness of the Society is to continue, it is really necessary 
that increased interest should be taken in its affairs. We are persuaded 
that much might be done in this direction, and the prosperity of the 
Society greatly enhanced, if Members would make the work of the 
Society more generally known throughout the county. Much has been 
done in this direction during the past year by a wide circulation of the 
Society's Prospectus and Report, with but slight results If Members 
would come forward to relieve the Secretaries of some share of the entire 
work of the Institute, which, during the time of making arrangements 
for the excursions, and at other times, falls heavily upon them, it would 
tend greatly to further the Society's prosperity. Suffolk, which offers a 
fine field for antiquarian study and research, stands in great need of 
diligent workers, and it is not without some hope that the Council 
ventures to bring this matter to the special notice of the Members. 



vi. The Treasurer in Account with the Suffolk 

YEAR ENDING 

RECEIPTS. 

1885. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Dec. 31. Balance in hand — In hands of Bankers 99 8 11 

Ditto Treasurer ... 1 1 



Subscriptions received during 1885 — 

By Bankers, &c 

„ Secretary* 

Sale of Publications — 

Through Mr. T. Stephens 

„ Secretary 

Interest allowed by Bankers to end of 



50 10 


6 


4 10 





3 11 


6 


4 19 






100 9 11 



55 6 



8 10 6 



1884 — now brought into Account 12 6 



SUMMARY OF CASH ASSETS. 

Balance in hands of Bankers 

Ditto on Deposit Account... 

Interest accrued on ditto, December 31st, 1885 

Cash in hands of Secretary 



£lfi8 


3 


5 


£ 


s. 


d. 


. 57 


13 


11 


. 90 








3 2 


5 





4 


5 


6 


£154 


4 


5 



H. F. BACON, 

Treasurer. 



Institute of Archceology and Natural History. yii. 

DECEMBER 81, 1885. 

PAYMENTS. 
1885. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Dec. 31. By Messrs. Pawsey and Hayes (old 
Account) ... 
„ Mr. Armstrong ... 
„ Messrs. Pawsey and Hayes — Print- 
ing Part 2, Vol. VI., of 
Proceedings 
"Wrappers and Postages for ditto 
Report and List of Members 
Printing Circulars — Annual Meeting, 

Postages, &c. ... . , ... 13 

Printing Circulars — Summer Excursion, 

Postages, &c. 16 2 







15 

1 19 


6 




68 9 
3 1 
6 


6 
8 
6 







Advertising Meetings — 
East Anglian Daily Times 
Ipswich Journal 
Suffolk Chronicle ... 
East Anglian Daily Times . 



17 


6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


7 






73 6 10 



1 18 6 



Mrs. Barker, Printer— On account of Dr. 

Babington's " Birds of Suffolk " 20 

Collingridge— Lithographing 16 6 

Librarian— Salary for 1883 and 1884 4 

Ditto, for Postage, and Carriage of Parcels ... 13 10 

Secretary's Incidental Expenses 2 13 10 



Cash in hands of Secretary 
Ditto „ Bankers „. 



£106 


4 





. 4 


5 


6 


. 57 


13 


11 


£168 


3 


5 



■uffottt institute of JU-feijtogji 



AND 



§totM»l gistovg. 



OFFICERS, MEMBERS, RULES, AND REPORT. 

1886—1887. 




ESTABLISHED 18^8. 



IPSWICH : PAWSEY AND HATES, PRINTERS, ANCIENT HOUSE. 



stjifif'oil.k: 

gt*<stitttiU of ^xthmUfy mu\ §ktutat psstwt)* 

ESTABLISHED I84S. 



Patron. 

THE MOST NOBLE THE MARQUIS OF BRISTOL. 

©resident 

THE LORD HENNIKER, F.S.A. 

^tce-^cesitjentis. 

HIS GRACE THE DUKE OE GRAFTON. 

THE RIGHT REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF BATH AND WELLS. 

THE RIGHT REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF ELY. 

THE RIGHT REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. 

SIR LOUIS STEWART JACKSON, KNT , CLE., F.R.G.S. 

EDWARD GREENE, ESQ., M.P. 

THE VEN. ARCHDEACON CHAPMAN. 

THE VEN. ARCHDEACON WOOLLEY. 

REV. CHURCHILL BABINGTON, D.D. 

COLONEL WINDSOR PARKER, 

BECKFORD BEVAN, ESQ. 

G. MILNER GIBSON CULLUM, ESQ. 

J. H. PORTEUS OAKES, ESQ. 

R. J. PETTIWARD, ESQ. 

i&oitorarp Secretaries. 

REV. FRANCIS HASLEWOOD, F.S.A. 
EDWARD M. DEWING, ESQ. 

(all these gentlemen are ex-officio members of the council.) 

oBlcctcti i$lemoers of tljr Council* 



Rev. James Beck 

E. F. Bisshopp, Esq. 

W. Brown, Esq. 

Robert Burrell, Esq. 

Henry C. Caslet, Esq. 

Rev. R. S. Fox 

The Lord John Hervey 



Rev. H. S. Hawkins 

Rev. W. E. Layton 

R. E. Lofft, Esq. 

Rev. C. R. Manning, f.s.a. 

Henry Prigg, Esq. 

Rev. Dr. Raven 

Rev. W. H. Sewell. 



Collector. 

Mr. Thomas Stephens, The Athenaeum, Bury S. Edmund's. 

Bankers 

Messrs. Oakes, Bevan, and Co., Bury S. Edmund's. 



Appleton, The Hon. Nathan, Boston, United States 

Bath and Wells, The Rt. Rev. the Lord Bishop of, The Palace, Wells 

Greenwell, Rev. W., m.a., f.r.s., f.s.a., Durham 

Howard, J. J., Esq., ll.d., f.s.a., Dartmouth Row, Blackheath, S.E. 

Smith, 0. R., Esq., f.s.a., Strood, Kent 

White, Rev. C. H. Evelyn, f.s.a., Christ Church Vicarage, Chesham 

Winthrop, The Hon. R. C. , President of the Massachusetts Historical Society 



Annual Subscription, 10/-, due January 1st. Life Composition, £5. 



RULES OF THE 



RULES PASSED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING, 12th MAY, 1887. 
Edward M. Dewing, Esq., in the Chair. 



1. The Society shall be called the " Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 
and Natural History." 

2. The objects of the Institute shall be — 

1. To collect and publish information on the Archaeology and Natural 

History of the District. 

2. To oppose and prevent, as far as may be practicable, any injuries with 

which ancient monuments of every description within the district, 
may from time to time be threatened, and to collect accurate draw- 
ings, plans, and descriptions thereof. 

3. The Institute shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary Members. 

4. Each Ordinary Member shall pay an Annual Subscription of 
10s., to be due in advance on the 1st of January, and shall be considered 
to belong to the Institute until he withdraws from it by a notice in 
writing to the Secretary. A donor of £5 shall be a Life Member. 

5. The Officers of the Institute shall be a President, Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, and Honorary Secretaries, all of whom shall be 
elected for the year at the Annual Meeting. 

6. The general management of the affairs and property of the 
Institute shall be vested in a Council, consisting of the officers, and of 
twelve members elected from the general body of the Subscribers, to 
retire annually, but eligible for re-election. 

7. The Council shall meet to transact the ordinary business of the 
Institute, not less than three times a year. They shall have power to 
make Bye-Laws, appoint Committees and Local Secretaries, recommend 
Honorary Members for election by the Annual Meeting, supply vacancies 
that may occur during the year in their own body or among the officers, 
and to make arrangements for Excursions and other meetings. They 
shall also annually frame a Report and prepare the Accounts for sub- 
mission to the Annual Meeting. At the Meetings of the Council, three 
to be a quorum, and the Chairman to have a casting vote. 

8. The ordinary place of meeting shall be Bury S. Edmund's, but 
it shall be in the discretion of the Council to hold meetings at other 
places, if and when they shall think it advisable. 

9. Each Member shall be entitled to free admission to the General 
Meetings of the Institute ; and he shall also be entitled to the use of 
the Library and to a copy of each publication of the Institute ; but 
no copy of any such publication shall be delivered to any Member 
whose subscription is more than twelve months in arrear. 

10. The Annual Meeting shall be held in the month of April or May 
in each year, or at such other time as shall be fixed upon by the Council. 

11. All papers presented to the Institute shall thereby be con- 
sidered its property, and the Council may publish the same in any way, 
and at any time, that they may think proper. 



MEMBERS, SEPTEMBER, 1887. 



THE * DENOTES A LIFE MEMBER. 



Almack, H. H., Esq., Long Melford, Sudbury 

*Amherst, D. T., Esq., M.P., f.s.a., Didlington Park, Brandon, Norfolk 

Angerstein, W., Esq., Weeting Hall, Brandon 

*Babington, Professor C. C, f.r.s., f.s.a., Cambridge 
*Babington, Rev. Dr., F.L.S., Cockfield, Sudbury- 
Bacon, Mr. H. F., 110, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 

Badeley, Rev. John Joseph, M.A., Great Whelnetham, Bury S. Edmund's 
Barnardiston, N., Esq., Th« Ryes, Sudbury 
Barrett, Edwin, Mr., 8, Queen Street, Ipswich 
Beale, Thos. B., Esq., Brettenham Hall, Ipswich 
Beck, Rev. Jas., Bildeston, Ipswich 

Bedell, Rev. Air. J., The Parsonage, Waterloo, Liverpool 
Bence, Capt. E. R. S., Kentwell Hall, Long Melford 
Bevan, Beckford, Esq.