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Full text of "Proceedings of the United States National Museum"

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



PROCEEDINGS 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



"Volnme XXI-V, 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 




WASHINGTON : 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
19 02. 



ADVERTISEMENT, 



The publications of the National Museum consist of two series: 
Proceedings and Bulletins. 

The Proceedings, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are 
intended primarily as a medium of publication for newly-acquired 
facts in biology, anthropology, and geology, descriptions of new forms 
of animals and plants acquired by the National Museum, discussions 
of nomenclature, etc. A volume is issued annually for distribution to 
libraries, while in view of the importance to science of the prompt 
publication of descriptions of new species, a limited edition of each 
paper is printed in pamphlet fooii in advance. 

The present volume is the twenty-fourth of the series. 

The Bulletin, publication of which was begun in 187.5, is a series of 
elaborate papers, issued sepa/rately and based for the most part upon 
collections in the National Museum, They are monographic in scope, 
and are devoted principally to the discussion-of large zoological groups, 
bibliographies of eminent naturalists, reports of expeditions, etc. 

A quarto form of the Bulletin, known as the "Special Bulletin," has 
been adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed 
indispensable. 

The Annual Report of the National Museum (being the second vol- 
ume of the Smithsonian Report) contains papers chiefly of an ethno- 
logical character, describing collections in the National Museum. 

Papers intended for publication by the National Museum ^are usually 
referred to an advisory committee, composed as follows: Frederick 
W. True (chairman), William H. Holmes, George P. Merrill, James 
E. Benedict, Otis T. Mason, Leonhard Stejneger, Lester F. Ward, and 
Marcus Benjamin (editor). 

S. P. Langley, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Ill 



TABLE OF OOT^^TElNrTS. 

Page. 

Banks, Nathan. Some Spiders and Other Arachnida from 
Porto Rico.— No. 1253, October 4, 1901 ' 217-227 

New species: Pardosa porto-ricensis, Prosthedina signata, Cynorta 
ohscura, Stygmis insnlamis. 

BuscK, August. A Review of the American Moths of the 
Genus Depressaria Haworth, with Descriptions of New 

species.— No. 1268. May 12, 1902 ' 781-749 

New species: Depressaria sanguinella, D.muricolorella, D. senicionella, 
D. canadensis, D. hetulella, D. harherella. 

Chamberltn, Ralph V. Henicops Dolichopus, a New Chilo- 

pod from Utah.— No. 1270. May 24, 1902 ^ 797-800 

New species: Henicops dolichopus. 

. List of the Myriapod Family Lithobiidi of SaJlt 

Lake County, Utah, with Descriptions of Five New Spe- 
cies.— No. 1242. September 27, 1901 ^ 21-25 

New species: Lithobius utahensis, L. coUium, L. socius, L. intermon- 
tanus, L. purpureus. 

CoQUiLLETT, D. W. New Diptera from Southern Africa. — 
No. 1243. September 27, 1901 ^ 27-32 

New genus: Zaprionus. 

New species: Simulium nigritarsis, Dacus lounsburyii, D. brevis, D. 

sigmoides, D. imrnaculatus, Ceratitis rubivora, C. lycii, Zaprionus 

vittiger. 

Dall, William Healey. Illustrations and Descriptions of 
New, Unfigured, or Imperfectly Known Shells, Chiefly 
American, in the U. S. National Museum. — No. 1264. 
March 31, 1902^ 499-566 

New genera: Toledonia, Antistreptus. 

New section: Agriopoma. 

New species: Conus stimpsoni, Daphnella eugrammata, Actseon [Micro- 
glyphis) brevicuius, Toledonia perplexa, Pleurotoma {Antiplanes) 
piona, P. {Antiplanes) thalxa, P. {Antiplanes) santarosana, P. calli- 
cesta, Tritonofusus {Plicifusus) herendeeni, Volutopsius trophonius, 
Antistreptus magellanicus, Trophon pelecetus, Boreotrophon maclaini, 
B. kamchatkanus, B. {StuartivarJ) smithi, B. peregritius, B. beringi, 
B. pacificus, B. tripherus, B. alaskanus, B. mazatlanicus, B. pana- 
mensis, B. avalonensis, B. rotundatus, Trophon pinnatus, Typhis 
martyria, Litorina atkana, Solariella carlotta, Ganesa? panamensis, 
Lejyidopleurus mesogonns, L. halistreptus, L. luridus, L. farallonis, 
Ischnochiton stearnaii, I. sarcosus, Crenella inegas, Limopsis pana- 
mensis, Cetoconcha scapha, Terebratalia hemphilli, Crania patagonica. 

' Date of publication. V 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

rage 

Jordan, David Starr, and Edwin Ciiapin Starks. A Re- 
view of tLB Atheriae Fishes of Japan. — No. 1250. October 
4, 1901^ ----- 199-206 

New genera: Alherion, Iso. 

New species: Atherina icoodwardi, A. tsuruga;, Atherion elymus, Iso 
flos-maris. 

, and John Otterbein Snyder. A Review of the 

Discobolous Fishes of Japan. — No. 1259. February 

10,1902' 343-351 

New genus: Cryslallias. 

New species: Lethotremus mvse, CrystalUas matsushimse. 

A Review of the Gobioid Fishes of Japan, with 



Descriptions of Twenty-one New Species. — No. 1244. 
September 25, 1901 ' 33-132 

New genera: Vireosa, Hazeus, Chloea, Suruga, Sagamia, Ainosus, 
Astrabe, Clariger, Eutseniichthys. 

New species: Vireosa hanse, Asierropteryx abax, Hazeus otakii, Oohius 
poecilichthys, Clenogobius abei, C. hadrojiterus, C. campbelli, C. virga- 
tulus, Chloea mororana, C. sarchynnis, Pterogobius claimio, P. zacalles, 
P. zonoleucus, Suruga fundicola, Sagamia russula, Chsehirichthys 
sciistius, Tridentiger bucco, Astrabe lactisella, Clariger cosmurus, 
Eutseniichthys gilli, Trypauchen wakse.. 

A Review of the Gymnodont Fishes of Japan. 



No. 1254. November 30, 1901' 229-264 

New species: Spheroides abbotti, S. exascurus, S. borealU, S. niphobles. 

A Review of the Hypostomide and Lophobranchiate 



Fishes of Japan.— No. 1241. September 27, 1901 ' 1-20 

New genera: Zalises, Yozia. 

New species: Zalises umitengu, Corythroichthys isigakius, Yozia waka- 

nourge, Urocampus rikuzenius, Hippocampus kelloggi, H. aterrhmis, 

H. sindonis. 

. A Review of the Labroid Fishes and Related Forms 



Found in the Waters of Japan.— No. 1266. May 2, 1902'. 595-662 

New genus: Verreo. 

New species: Stethojulis psacas, S. terina, S. trossida, Halichceres tre- 
mebundus. 

. A Review of the Sahnonoid Fishes of Japan. — 

No. 1265. March 25, 1902' 567-593 

New species: Argentina kagoshimse. 

. A Review of the Trachinoid Fishes and their Sup- 
posed Allies Found in the Waters of Japan. — No. 1263. 

March 28, 1902' 461-497 

New genera: Pleropsaron, Ariscopus, Stalix. 

New species: Parapercis ommatura, Pleropsaron evolam, P. verecun- 
dum, Ariscopus iburius, Gnathypops hopkinsi, G. evermanni, Stalix 
histrio. 

^ Date of publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII 

Page. 

Jordan, David Starr, assisted by Michitaro Sindo. A 
Review of tlie Japanese Species of Surf-Fishes or Embioto- 
cidffi.— No. 1260. February 26, 1902 ' 353-359 

. A Review of the Pedicuhite Fishes or Anglers of 

Japan.— No. 1261. February 26, 1902 ^ 361-381 

New species: Lophiomus litulon, Anlennarius scriptissimus, A. san- 
guiflims, A. nox, Malthopsis Harella. 

Lucas, Frederic A. A Flightless Auk, Mancalla Califor- 
niensis, from the Miocene of California. — No. 1245. Sep- 
tember 27, 1901 ' 133-134 

LvoN, Marcus Ward, Jr. An Annotated List of Mammals 
Collected in the Vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela. — No. 

1246. October 3, 1901 ' 135-162 

(See also under Robinson, Wirt.) 

]Mearns, Edc4Ar a. Descriptions of Three New Birds from 

the Southern United States.— No. 1274» June 2, 1902 ' 915-926 

New subspecies: Columiculus savannarum fJoridanus, Progne subis 
floridana, S'ltta raroUnensis nelsoni. 

. The Cacomitl Cat of the Rio Grande Valley. — 

No. 1251. October 4, 1901 ' 207-210 

Merrill, George P. A Newly Found Meteorite from 
Admire, Lyon County, Kansas.— No. 1273. May 31, 1902 ^ . 907-913 

On a Stony Meteorite, which Fell Near Felix, Perry 



County, Alabama, May 15, 1900.— No. 1249. October 7, 

1901 '\ 193-198 

Miller, Gerrit S., Jr. The Mammals of the Andaman and 

Nicobar Islands.— No. 1269. May 29, 1902 ' . 751-795 

New species: Sua nicobar Icus, Mas stoicus, M. tacllurnus, M, flebilis, 
M. pulliventer, M. atra'tun, M. burrus, M. burrulus, M. burreseeris, 
Crocidura nicobarica, C. andamanenms, Pipistrellus camorLv, Hippo- 
sideron nicobay'id.v, Pieropus faunulus, Macacus umbrosus. 

New subspecies: Tupnia nicohnrica mrda. 

Oberholser, Harry C. A Review of the Larks of the 

Genus Otocoris.— No. 1271. June 9, 1902 ' 801-884 

New subspecies: Otocoris alpestris arclicola, 0. a. enthymia, 0. a. dia- 
phora, 0. a. actio, O. a. ammophila, 0. a. aphrasta, 0. a. Uucansip- 
tila, Otocoris longirostrvi perissa, 0. I. argalea, Otocoris pemcillata 
oreodrama. 

. Catalogue of a Collection of Hummingbirds from 

Ecufidor and Colombia.— No. 1258. January 18, 1902 ' 309-342 

New species: Zodalia thaumasta. 

New subspecies: Topaza pella pamprepta, Boissoruieaua flavescens 
tinochlora, Heliangelus exortis soderstromi. 

^ Date of publication. 



VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Rathbun, Mary J. Descriptions of New Decapod Crusta- 
ceans from the West Coast of North America.— No. 1272. 

May 23, 1902' 885-905 

New species: Oregonia bifurca, Callianassa goniophthalma, Axius 
spinulicaucla, Calastacus qwinqueseriatus, Gemmdes borealis, Cran- 
gon holmesi, C. dalli, C. resima, C. abyssorum, C. acclivis, C. varia- 
bilis, C. splnosissima, C. spinirostris, Sclerocrangon alata, Nectocran- 
gon dentata, N. ovifer, N. californiensis, N. ledor, Spirontocaris 
arcuata, S. murdochi, S. truncata, S. Snyderi, S. sica, S. dalli, S. 
unalaskensis, S. vidua, S. washingtoniana, S. flexa, S. decora, S. 
tridens, 8. iownsendi, S. moseri, S. maxillipes, S. brachydadyla, S. 
Hncaidi, S. biunguis, ,S. stoneyi, S. macrophthalma, Pandalus jor- 
dani, P. slenolepis, Pandalopsis aleutica, P. longirostris, P. dispar, 
Pontonia californiensis, Paliemonetes kadiakensis, Urocaris infraspinis, 
Hymenodora frontalis, Parapasiphx serrata, Pasiphwa pacifica, P. 
emarginata, P. corteziana, P. affinia. 
New subspecies: Crangon alaskensis elongata, Crangon franciscorum 
nngnstimana, Pandalus montagui tridens. 

Richmond, Charles W. An Annotated List of Birds Col- 
lected in the Vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela. — No. 1247. 

Octobers, 1901.' 163-178 

(See also under Robinson, Wirt.) 

. List of Generic Terms Proposed for Birds During 



the Years 1890 to 1900, Inclusive, to which are Added Names 
Omitted by Waterhouse in his "Index Generum Avium." — 
No. 1267. May 2, 1902.' 663-729 

Robinson, Wirt, and Charles W. Richmond. An Anno- 
tated List of Birds Collected in the Vicinity of La Guaira, 

Venezuela.— No. 1247. October 3, 1901.'.^ 163-178 

New species: Microcer cuius pectoralis. 

Robinson, Wirt, and Marcus Ward Lyon, Jr. An Anno- 
tated List of Mammals Collected in the Vicinity of La 

Guaira, Venezuela.— No. 1246. October 3, 190L' 135-162 

New species: Oryzomys medius, Lophostoma venezuelw. 

ScHAUS, William. Descriptions of New American Butter- 
flies.— No. 1262. March 1,1902' 383-460 

New genus: Eucora. 

New species: Dircenna hugia, Leucotliyris raqnora, Episcada pascua, 
E. carcinia, Pteronymia minna, P. calgiria, P. carlia, P. ilsia, 
Ithomia salcata, Calloleria tosca, Euptychia ocelloides, E. castrensis, 
E. narapa, E. moneca E. burgia, E. morima, E. pallema, E. 
borasla, Lymanopoda varola, Narope marmorata, Acrxa ozirda, A. 
dognini, A. mitayna, A. surima, A. quadra, Eresia crina, Phyciodes 

^ Date of publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
fellula, P. sejona, P. brancodia, P. orticas, P. carigia, Adelpha 
goyama, A. barnesia, Chlorippe laurona, Eurygona cuciUa, E. micsela, 
E. rnsonea, E. tarinta, Mesosemia mathania, M. friburgensis, Lymnas 
pelta, Symmachia eurina, S. satema, Eucora sanarita, Charis incoides, 
C. dukinfieldia, Chamselimnas joviana, C. similis, Mesene strigulata, 
M. martha, Bxotu bacxnita, Calydna zea, Caria tabrenthia, Apodemia 
mulliplaga, Hamearis dovina, Lepricornia trislis, Lemonias malca, 
Ithomeis lauronia, Stalachtis sontella, S. stellidia, Lycsena griqua, 
L. cogina, Thecla giapor, T. xorema, T. carta, T. nugar, T. airana, 
T. talama, T. normahal, T. malia, T. vomiba, T. vieca, T. rickmani, 
T. zurkvUzi, T. epopeoides, T. conoveria, T. curtira, T. tella, T. 
chaluma, T. taminella, T. rana, T. inuattina, T. hmangula, T. bolima, 
T. polama, T. foyi, T. aritides, T. echinita, T. guadala, T. tigonia, 
T. illex, T. hostis, T. gentilla, T. guzanta, T. foslena, T. farmina, 
T. lanckena, T. chilica, T. huvaber, Leodonta marginata, Pier-is 
sublineala, Papilio socama, Jemadia paulensis, J. brevipennis, 
Eudamus callicina, E. janita, E. pithys, Thymele subiirescens, T. 
grenadensis, Telegonus janeira, T. hurga, Nascus orima, N. orita, 
Telemiades megalloides, Cecropterus ochrilinea, Grains choricus, 
Lignyostola cydana, Pellicia bipuncta, P. vecina, P. capitans, 
Cydoseniia trigonilla, Eudamidas obscurior, Gorgythion beggoides, 
G. marginata, Anisochosia stibpicta, StapJtylus scoramus, S. anginus, 
S. minor, S. tadus, S. ierrens, S. aliens, S. subapicatus, Heliopetes 
purgia, H. sublinea, Chiomara marthona, Thanaos austerus, Butleria 
arpia, Atrytone urqua, A. paranensis, A. brasina, Thymelicyus 
bahiensis, Augiades chalcone, A. anita, A. tania, A. turbis, A. aligula, 
Prenes diduca, Niconiades merendula, Phemiades jamaicensis, Cobalus 
fortis, C. rastaca, C. arita, EiUychide astiga, E. petrovna, E. barnesi, 
Thoon lugens, Rhinthon bomax, R. tanaris, Euroto elelka, E. purgis, 
E. coler, E. ritans, Phlebodes chittara, P. gidala, P. metonidia, P. 
farluga, CEonus garima, Phanis cumbre, P. tavola, Mucia matalma, 
Catia minaya, Euphyes menopis, Mnasalcas amatala, Papias tristis- 
simus, P. ctyanus, P. sobrinus, Lerodea tesera, Vehilius almonens, V. 
carasta, V. chinta, Megistias eorius, M. ranesus, M. polistion, M. 
rnonestes, M. miaba, M. chula, M. vanilia, M. gispara, M. vorgia, 
M. sancoya, M. carinna, M. jamaca, M. corescene, Lerema coyana, 
L. stacara, L. elgina, Padraona sartia, P. calcarea, P. radiata, Hes- 
peria sucova, H. altama, H. caligula, H. misera, Callimormus diseses, 
C. verames, Mnestheus petrovna, Cymienes nux, C. dubitans, C. inter- 
media, C. occulta, Flaccilla coatepeca, F. ergola, Thracides orusca, 
T. bajula, T. biserta, Periehares triplaga. 

Sin DO, MiciiiTARO. A Review of the Japanese Species of 
Surf-Fishes or Embiotocida?, — No. 1260. February 26, 

1902 ' 353-359 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

. A Review of the Pediculate Fishes or Anglers of 

Japan.— No. 1261. February 26, 1902 ' 361-381 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

^ Date of publication. 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Snyder, John Otterbein. A Review of the Discobolous 

Fishes of Japan. -No. 1259. February 10, 1902 ' 343-351 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

. A Review of the Gobioid Fishes of Japan, with 

Descriptions of Twenty-one New Species. — No. 1244. 

September 25, 1901 ^ 33-132 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

A Review of the Gymnodont Fishes of Japan. 



No. 1254. November 30, 1901 ' 229-264 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

A Review of the Hypostomide and Lophobranchiate 



Fishes of Japan.— No. 1241. September 27, 1901 ' 1-20 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

. A Review of the Labroid Fishes and Related Forms 

Found in the Waters of Japan.— No. 1266. May 2, 1902 ' . . 595-662 
(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 



. A Review of the Salmonoid Fishes of Japan. — 

No. 1265. March 25, 1902^ 567-598 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

. A Review of the Trachinoid Fishes and their Sup- 
posed Allies Found in the Waters of Japan. — No. 1263. 

March 28, 1902 ^ 461-497 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

Stanton, Timothy W. Chondrodonta, a New Genus of 
Ostreiform Mollusks from the Cretaceous, with Descrip- 
tions of the Genotype and a New Species. — No. 1257. 
December 30, 1901' _._ 301-307 

New genus: Chondrodonta. 

New species; Chondrodonta glabra. 

Starks, Edwin Chapin. A Review of the Atherine Fishes 

of Japan.— No. 1250. October 4, 1901 ' 199-206 

(See also under Jordan, David Starr.) 

Stearns, Robert E. C. The Fossil Fresh- Water Shells of 
the Colorado Desert, their Distribution, Environment, and 
Variation.— No. 1256. December 28, 1901 ' ... 271-299 

Stejneger, Leonhard. a New Species of Bullfrog from 

Florida and the Gulf Coast.— No. 1252. October 4, 1901 ' . 211-215 
New species: Eana grylio. 

* Date of publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI 

Stejneger, Leonhard. An Annotated List of Batrachians 
and Reptiles Collected in the Vicinity of La Guaira, Vene- 
zuela, with Descriptions of Two New Species of Snakes. — 

No.1248. October 3, 1901 ' 179-192 

New species: Phrynonax lyoni, Pseudoboa robinsoni. 

White, David. Two New Species of Algae of the Genus 
Buthotrephis, from the Upper Silurian of Indiana. No. 

1255. November 30, 1901 ' 265-270 

New species: Buthotrephis divaricata, B. newlini. 

^ Date of publication. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



TEXT FIGURES. 

Page. 

Vireosa hanve 38 

Asterropteryx abax 40 

Hazeus otakii 51 

Gobius poecilichthys 53 

Ctenogobius abei 55 

Clenogobius gymnauchen 59 

Ctenugobious hadropterus 60 

Clenogobius campbelli 62 

Clenogobius virgalulus 64 

A boma laclipes 68 

Aboma Isushimx 70 

Cryj)locenlrus filifer 73 

Cha'.nogobius macrognathos 77 

Chloea mororana 81 

Chloea sarchynnis 83 

Chasmias dolichognathis 85 

Plerogobius daimio 92 

Pterogobius zacalles 94 

Plerogobius zonoleucus 95 

Suruga fundicola 97 

Sagamia russula 100 

Chscturichlhys sciistius 108 

Trisenopogon barbalus Ill 

Tridenliger bucco 116 

Tridenliger bifascialus 118 

Aslrahe laciisella -' 120 

Clariger cosmurus 121 

Eutsef)iiichihys gilli 122 

Luciogobius giittalus 124 

Luciogobius gullatus ( elongate example ) 124 

Leucopsarion petersi 126 

Trypnuchen ivakie 127 

Tnmioides lacepedei 129 

Superior and inferior views of type specimen of Mancalla californiensis (figs. 1 
and 2); corresponding portion of left humerus of Lomvia troile calif arnica , 

all slightly enlarged (fig. 3) 134 

Ameiva ameiva (4 figs. ) 183 

Ameiva ameiva 184 

Boa ruschenbergii ( 2 figs. ) 185 

Phrynonax lyon'i ( 3 figs. ) 186 

Lepiophis ahxtulla (3 figs. ) 187 

XIII 



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page. 

Cleliadoliata (Sfige.) 187 

Cielia semicincta ( 3 Jigs. ) 188 

Pseudoboa neuidedii (5 figs) - 189 

Pseudoboa robinsoni (3 figs.) 190 

Oxybelis acuminatum; (3 figs. ) 191 

Leptognathus variegatus (3 figs.) 192 

Atherina woodwardi 200 

Aiherina tsurugss 202 

Atherion elymus 204 

Iso flos-maris - - 205 

Diagrammatic outlines of hind feet of Rana catesbeiana and Rana grylio, the 

former in soUd Hnes and the latter dotted 213 

Spheroides stidonotns (Nagasaki) 236 

Spheroides stictonotus (Hakodate) 236 

Spheroides abbotti 240 

Spheroides exascurus 242 

Spheroides horealis 245 

Spheroides niphobles 247 

Spheroides chrysops 249 

Tetraodon meleagrw 253 

Amnicola protea 276 

Amnicola longinqua (Gould) 285 

Fluminicola columbiana ( Hemphill) 285 

Amnicola micrococcus (Pilsbry ) 286 

Fluminicola merriami ( Pilsbry and Beecher ) 286 

Anodonta californiensis ( Lea) somewhat reduced 287 

Planorbis trivolvis Say (original) 296 

Planorbis trivolvis Say distorted (original) 296 

Planorbis ammon (Gould) 296 

Lethotremus awse 345 

Crystallias matsushimse aSO 

Neoditrema ransonneti 356 

Ditrema temmincki 358 

Lophiomus litidon 365 

Pterophryne histrio 368 

Pterophryne ranina 370 

Antennarius scriptissinius 374 

Antennarius sanguifluus 375 

Antennarius nox 376 

Malthopsis tiarella 379 

Paraperds ommatura 465 

Pteropsaron evolans 471 

Pteropsaron verecundum 472 

Ariscopus iburius 479 

Gnathypops hopkinsi 493 

Gnathypops evermanni 494 

Stalix histrio 495 

Oncorhynchus masou 572 

Oncorhynchus keta 573 

Hucho blackistoni 580 

Plecoglossus altivelis (from Formosa) 585 

Argentina kagoshima' 590 

Pomacentrus cvelestis 603 



• LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. XV 

Page. 

Lepidaplois perditio 618 

Verreo oxyeephalus 620 

i.S('») icossi/pJt'iis reticxdatus ( very young) 622 

Slethojulis psacas 630 

Stefhojidis terina 632 

Stethojtdh trossula 633 

Ilalichceres iremebundus 640 

Coris aygnhi 642 

CIrrhilabrus feinminckl 652 

Outline map of the Andaman and Nicobar islands and neighboring regions 753 

PLATES. 

Facins page. 

1-2. Zalises uinitengu 20 

3. Solenostomus cyanopterus 20 

4. Solenostomus paradoxus 20 

5. Corythroichthys isigakius 20 

6. Yozia wakanourse .* 20 

7. Urocampus rikuzenius 20 

8. Hippocampus kelloggi 20 

9. Hippocampus aterrimiis 20 

10. Hippocampua japonicus 20 

1 1 . Hijypocampus sindonis 20 

12. Hippocampus mohnikei 20 

13-14. The Felix Meteorite 198 

15. Some Arachnida from Porto Rico 228 

16. Bxdhotrephis divaricata. David White 270 

17-18. Buthotrephis newlini. David White 270 

19-21 . Varieties of Paludestrina protea. Gould 300 

22. American species of Physa 300 

23-24. Variations of desert Physidre 300 

25. Chondrodonta mumoni. ( Hill ) 308 

26. Chondrodonta glabra. Stanton 308 

27. Pulmonata, chiefly Xorth American 566 

28. American j^ulmonata 566 

29-30. East American gastropods 566 

31-32. East American pelecypods 566 

33. Argonauta expansa, Dall, Gulf of California 566 

34-36. West American gastropods 566 

37. Alaskan buccinum 566 

38-39. West American gastropods 566 

40. West American pelecypods 566 

41-42. Andaman and Nicobar Mammals 796 

43. Homes of (1) Otocoris alpestris praticola, Wooster, Ohio; and (2) 0. a. 

leucoliema, Staked Plains, near Dimmitt, Texas 884 

44. Homes of Otocoris alpestris leucolsema. (1) Near Stillwater, Nevada; 

(2) Toyabe Mountains, Nevada 884 

45. Homes of (1) Otocoris alpestris giraudi, shore of Matagorda Bay, Texas; 

and (2) 0. a. adusta, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona 884 

46. Map 1 . Distribution of the genus Otocoris 884 

47. ^lap 2. Breeding areas of hew world Otocoris 884 

48-49. ]\raps 3-4. Breeding areas of old world Otocoris 884 

50-55. Aihnire meteorite 914 

56. Outline map of Kansas, showing meteorite finds and falls 914 



A REVIEW OF THE HYPOSTOMIDE AND LOPIIOBKAN 
CHIATE FISHES OF JAPAN. 



By David SxAKii Jokdan and John Ottekbein Snyder. 

Of the Leldiid Stanford Junior Unirersiti/. 



The present paper contains a review of the Hypo.stoniide and Lopho 
liranchiate tishe.s of Japan, the families Pegasida", Solcnostoniidie, 
Syngnathidtfi, and Pegasidte. It is based on specimens obtained in 
Japan l)y the authors in the summer of 1900, a series of duplicates 
being- in the United States National Museum, and upon the collection of 
Japanese tishes in the United States National Museum, as well as upon 
specimens collected by the United States Fish Commission Steamer 
Albatro.s.s. 

In this work we have had the efficient aid of Mi'. iNlichitaro Sindo, 
who has carefully compared and measured all the recorded specimens. 

Sulxinltr HVPOSTOMIDES. 

Hody covered with bony plates, anchylosed on the trunk, movable 
on the tail. Gill cover formed by a large plate corresponding to the 
opercle, preopercle, and subopercle. One rudimentary l>ranchiostegal. 
Gills four, lamellated. Ventral tins abdominal. Dorsal and anal 
short, of soft rays onlv. No pseudobranchiic or air-l)lii(lder. This 
group contains a single family; fantastic little tishes of the Asiatic 



seas. 



{vTTo. lielow; ffro/Atx, mcnith.) 

Family 1. PEGASID^E. 

Body broad, much depressed, covered with bony plates; mouth 
small, below a prolonged snout, its margin formed by the premaxil- 
laries; no teeth; suborbital ring well developed, forming a suture 
with the gill cover. Pectorals broad, \-ery lar;'e, placed horizontally; 
ventrals well behind the pectorals, not far from the vent, of one or 
two rays, one of them very long; tail four angled, the short dorsal 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1241. 
■ Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv 01 1 i 



2 PROCEEDINaS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

and anal placed on it opposite to each other. Caudal small. Vertebrae 
few; no ribs. Intestinal canal short. East Indies. 

((. Pectoral' rayy etjually nleiider, none (if them apiiie-like; tail whort, of stout rinjjs, 
not tapering and flattened posteriorly Zallses. 1 

1. ZALISES Jordan and Snyder, ne^w genus 

Zaliseti Jordan and Snydeij, new genus (draconis). 

The genus contains those species of Pegan'uhb which have the tail 
short and not attenuate and compressed toward the tip, and in which 
the pectoral rays are all slender and simple, none of them spine-like. 
East Indies. [Cakr]^ surf; (T/;?, moth.) 

I. ZALISES UMITENGU Jordan and Snyder, new species. 
UMITENGU. 

(Plates 1,11.) 
J'ojdxn^^ dracoiih Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, j). 5, Poshu Kii (not of Linna'us). 

Head ;i| in length; width, posterior to pectorals, 3i. D. 5; A. 5; 
P. iU; V. 2. Vent midway between front of eye and base of caudal 
tin. Tail of 8 rings. Trunk gibbous, the median depressed part 
divided by three cross-ridges; obtitse tubercles at the meeting points 
of the lengthwise and cross ridges of the back; nape with two deep 
})its; first, second, fourth, and fifth tail rings each with a compressed 
spine directed backward; pectoral 3 in body, as long as from tip of 
snout to nuchal pits; fifth pectoral ray not enlarged; snout prolonged, 
longer than in any other species, its length from eye 5 in body, the 
part ))eforo the nK)utli more than twice as long as broad, with a finely 
serrated edge on the dilated blade on each side; distance from middle 
of shoulder girdle to tip of snout, 2f in total length (3i in P. draconis). 

Color brownish, finely marked with darker. The snout and the last 
two caudal rays black; pectoral with fine brown dots on the rays, the 
outer part of the fin paler. 

Seas of Japan, here described from a dried specimen, 75 millimeters 
long, from the province of Kii (Wakanoura), presented b}^ the Imperial 
Museum of Tokyo, 

Ty2)e. — No, 6518, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 

The species closely resembles 1*. dfuconls of the East Indies, but 
difi'ers from descriptions and figures in the longer and narrower snout, 
and rather longer tail. Other specimens supposed to be the same are 
in the collection from Boshu (near Misaki), and another from Kii. 

{^Uird^ sea; Tengu., a long-nosed god of a humorous nature, in Jap- 
anese mythology.) 



' The fifth pectoral ray is enlarged and spine-like in the genus Pegai^its (P. volitans 
Linn;eus). The tail is elongate, the posterior rings tiattened and compressed in the 
genus Farapegusux Dumeril, tyjie, J', mttcnix Bloch. 



NO. 1211. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



Order LOPHOBRANCHI I. 
THE LOPHOBRANCHS. 

Gills tiiftod, not lainiiuitod, ooinposod of .small rounded lol)cs attached 
to the iiill arches. Interclavicles well developed. Scapula suspended 
to the cranium by a post-temporal.' Superior branchih^^als and pharyn- 
geals, and basal branchihyals wanting or not ossified. Mouth \'ery 
small, bounded above I)}' the premaxillaries. Post-temporal simple, 
coossified with the cranium; l)asis of the cranium simple. Pectoral 
fins with elevated bases. Anterior vertebrae modified, the diapophyses 
much expanded. Air bladder simple, without air duct. Snout pro- 
duced, bearing the small toothless mouth at the end. Gill covers 
reduced to a large simple plate. Skin with bony plates. Muscular 
system little developed. 

(Ao^og, crest; fipayx. gill.) 

FAMILIKS OF LorilOHKANCIUI. 

a. Spinous and soft dorsal i)ivyent; vtniti'al tiuH present; trill (Openings wide. 

SoI.ENOSTOlMID.K. 2 

(lit. spinous dorsal tin wautiiig; no ventral lins; gill o})eiiiiigs narrow. 

Syngnatiud^e. 3 

Family ^I. SOLENOSTOMID.E. 

Body compressed, the tail very short, the snout long, compressed. 
All parts covered with thin skin, below which is the dermal skeleton 
with star-like ossifications. Spinous dorsal shoj-t; soft dorsal and anal 
long, with elevated base; caudal long. Ventrals close together, inserted 
opposite spinous dorsal, each of seven rays; the tins free in the male; 
in the female adnate to the body forming a large pouch for the 
reception of the eggs. Branchiostegals 4, very thin. Intestinal canal 
very simple. Singular tishes of the East Indies, constituting a single 
genus. 

2. SOLENOSTOMUS Laeepede. 

SulcnoxtomiiK Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 1803, p. 36 {paradoxus.) 

Characters of the genus included above. {acoXrjv^ razor; ar/ma^ 
mouth.) 

a. Snout rather stout, its median depth 4^ in its length; color pink, everywhere with 
fine brown spots; lirst dorsal with two large ovate black spots; caudal with 
smaller spots cyanopterm. 2 

aa. Snout elongate, its median depth 6^ in its length; color brownish, irregularly 
mottled with orange; membrane of dorsal and caudal blotched with darker, 
the spots on first and second membranes of dorsal most distinct . .paradoxus. 3 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



2. SOLENOSTOMUS CYANOPTERUS (Bleeker). 
(Plate 111.) 

Solenustomus paradoxus Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind., Ill, p. 308, Hawaii, 

Ceram. — Kaup, Lophobranchiates, 1856, p. 2, He of France, India, New 

Guinea (not of Pallas). 
Soloiodonia ci/anopterum Bleeker, Nat. Hist. Ned. Ind., VI, p. 506, Hawaii, 

Ceram. — Gunther, Fishes of Zanzibar, p. 137, pi. xx, flgs. 2, 3, Zanzibar; 

Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 151, Zanzibar, Ceram, China. — Dumeril, Hist. Poiss., 

II, 1870, p. 497, New Guinea. 

Head 2i in length; depth 5. D. V.-20; P. 27; V. 7; A. It); C. 15. 
Depth of snout at middle 4i in its lenjjfth. Eye 6i in snout; dorsal 
spines 2 in head; ventral equal to snout or a little more; caudal a little 
shorter than head. Caudal peduncle shorter than base of second dor- 
sal. Color pink, with small black dots like ink specks, scattered over 
head and upper part of body; eye red; iins pale, the spinous dorsal 
with two long black ocelli (said to be dark l)lue in life) on membranes 
of first and second spines, besides black dots, caudal with small inky 
spots like those on body, but more elongate, several of them drawn 
out into lines. 

Japan to Zanzibar, occasionally northward in the Kuro Shiwo, 
doubtfully recorded from Hawaii. Known in Japan from a single 
adult female, taken at Boshu (Awa) by Dr. Kishinouye, and by him 
presented to Stanford lTnivprsit3\ 

{Kvdveog^ blue; Trr^poi^ tin.) 

3. SOLENOSTOMUS PARADOXUS (Pallas). 

(Plate IV.) 

Fiahdaria paradoxa Pallas, Spicilegia, VIII, p. 32, i>l. iv, fig. 6, Amboyna. — 
Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1807, p. 114, pi. xxx, tig. 1 (copied). 

Solenostomus paradoxus Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 1803, p. 36, copied. — 
Richardson, Ichth. China, 1846, p. 203, Canton, after Chinese drawings. — 
DuMERiL, Hist. Poiss., II, 1870, p. 497, Mauritius. 

Solenostoma 2)aradoxa GvjfTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 152, Amboyna. 

Head 2f in length; depth 5i. D. V.-21; P. 24; V. 7; A. 22. Depth 
of snout at its middle 6i in length. Eye 7 in snout; dorsal spines 
1| in head; ventrals a little longer than snout; caudal a little longer 
than head; caudal peduncle a little more than 2 in base of second 
dorsal. 

Color light brown, with irregular oblong spots of orange brown, 
each with a paler center, one series of these forming an irregular 
stripe from eye to caudal; some darker blotches on snout and on ven- 
trals: two dark blotches with pale center between the dorsal fins; an 
oblong blackish blotch on each membrane of spinous dorsal, the first 
two most distinct, besides numerous other blotches; soft dorsal and 
anal mottled; caudal clouded with blackish. 



NO. 1 ■241. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AM) SNYDER. 5 

East Indies, north in the Kiiro Shi wo to Japan. One fine adult 
female specimen presented to us by Dr. K. Kishinouye, taken at 
Boshu (Awa) with the preceding species. It is not certain that this 
species is the original paradoxus of Pallas, but it is obviously nearer 
to it than the preceding. 

(n-apcrSo^os, paradox.) 

Family 8. SYNGNATHID^. 

THE PIPE FTSHES. 

Body elongate, usually slender, covered with ])ony plates which are 
firmly connected, forming a bon}^ carapace. Head slender, the snout 
long, tube-like, bearing the short toothless jaws at the end. Gill open- 
ings reduced to a small aperture behind the upper part of the opercle. 
Tail long, prehensile or not, usually provided with, a small caudal fin. 
Male fishes with an egg pouch, usually placed on the under side of the 
tail, sometimes on the abdomen, connnonly formed of two folds of skin 
which meet on the median line. The eggs are received into this pouch 
and retained until sometime after hatching, when the pouch opens, 
permitting the young to escape. Dorsal tin single, nearly median, of 
soft rays only; pectorals small, or wanting; ventrals, none; anal fin 
minute, usuall}' present. Small fishes, found in all warm seas, some- 
times entering fresh waters. 

Si/ngnathime: 

(I. Tail not prehensile, nsually with a caudal fm; axis of head nsnally in line 
with axis of body. 
h. Plumeral bones united. 
r. Pectoral fins present; caudal present. 

d. Male witli the egg pouch under the tail, formed hj' lateral membranes 
which become connected along the middle, forming a closed ])ouch. 
e. Dorsal fin inserted over or just before the vent. 
/. Base of the dorsal fin not raised above the level of the back. 
g. Opercle not crossed l)y a horizontal ridge; form slender. 

Syngnathus. 3. 
gg. Opercle crossed by a horizontal ridge; form rather rol)ust, the 

keels high Corythroichthgs. 4. 

//'. Base of dorsal fin raised above the level of the Ijaek. 

h. Snout elongate, not serrated nor spinulose; body slender; oper- 
cle without ridge I'ozia. 5. 

hh. Snout short, rough or serrate above. 

i. Opercle without })rominent ridge; body slender, without 

fleshy flaps Trachgrh(tmphus. 

il. Opercle with a prominent ridge; body stout, with fleshy 

flaps; forehead elevated; nape crested Halimmpns. 7. 

ee. Dorsal fin placed at a considerable distance behind the vent; pec- 
toral and caudal fins very small; base of dorsal not elevated. 

Urocnmpuii. 8. 



6 PBOOEEDTNaS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi,.xxiv. 

Ii ijijxtrnmjiiud': 

mi. Tail prehensile; caudal fiii .small; head shai)e(l like that of a horse, placed 
at a large angle with axis of body; egg j)ouch at base of tail. 

i. Body depressed ; shields smooth Gasterotokeus. 9. 

a. Body compressed. 

j. Occiput without coronet; sliields without tubercles. 

Aeentrnnnra. 10. 
jj. Occiput with a narrow bony crest, surmounted by a coro- 
net; shields with tubercles or spines HipjwmmpiiK. 11. 

S. SYNGNATHUS^ Linnaeus. 

Syngnathuii Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 337 {acus). 
Siphosto7n<i. R.\finesque, Caratteri Nuovi Generi, 1810, p. 18 (pelagicus). 
Syngnatlnix Swainson, Nat. Hist. Class'n. Anim., II, 1839, j). 332 (acus), and of 

authors generally; not of Linnaeus, as first restricted V)y Rafinesque. 
Dcrmofo.^ti'Oins Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 283 {pimctipinnis). 

Body elonii'ate, very slender, 6 or 7 angled, not compressed, taper- 
ing into a very long tail; the dorsal keels of the trunk not continuous 
with those of the tail. Head slender, tapering into a long tube-like, 
suV)terete snout, which ))ears the very short, toothless jaws at the end. 
Opercle without distinct ridge. Humeral bones iirmly united with 
the "breast ring." Body covered with a series of bony, keeled, radi- 
ated plates, arranged in linear series. Dorsal fin distinct, rather 
short, inserted ])efore or after the vent, which is near the middle of 
the body, its base not elevated above line of back; caudal fin present, 
rather small; anal fin minute, close behind vent; pectorals developed, 
short and rather broad. Male fishes with an egg pouch along the 
under side of the tail, formed by two cutaneous folds, and splitting 
lengthwise to release the young fishes. Species very numerous, 
inhabiting all warm seas; abounding in bays among the seaweeds, and 
entering the rivers. The females in most species are deeper than the 
males, with more robust trunk, with longer snout, and a more distinct 
ventral keel. 

[gdv^ together; yvaHog, jaw.) 

a. Snout slender, Ij in head; body rings about 19 + 40; dorsal rays about 37; body 
slender; coloration plain srhlegi'li. 4. 

' The genus Syngnathus of Linnaeus, originally equivalent to the modern family of 
Syngnuthidic, was first subdivided by Rafinesque in 1810. The name Siphostoma was 
given to S. pelagicus and its relatives, the Syngnathus of late writers; that of Tiplilc 
to S. lyphle, the Slphoitostotna of late writers; while Syvgnaihns was retained for 
>S'. aequorcus and its relatives, the group now usually called Ncrophis, the type of 
Ncrophis being Syngnathns ophidion Linnaeus. This arrangement has been previously 
adopted by us, but it is open to two very serious objections besides the fact that it is 
contrary to the general usage, which makes arvf.s^ the type of SyitgnatJius, in accord- 
ance with Swainson's arrangement. These objections are (1) that Artedi, from 
whom Linnaeus accepted the genus Syvgiiathns, did not know of the existence of 
Sipignathiis lequoreus, and (2) the statement of Linnaeus (which we have been 
unable to verify), that the type of each of his genera is the "best known European 
or officinal species." Syngnathus acus would meet this requirement, ])ut not Syngna- 
thus .'cquorciis, which had not then been found in Europe. 



NO. 1241. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN ANH SNYDER. 7 

4. SYNGNATHUS SCHLEGELI (Kaup). 
YOJI-UWO (CHOPSTICK UK TOOTHPICK FISH). 

Synr/nathnK tenuirostris Schlegel, Fauna .Taponica, Poiss., 1847, ]i. 273, pi. cxx, 

(ig. 5, Nagasaki (not of Rathke). 
Syngnatlms schlcrjeli^ Kaup, Lophobr., 1856, p. 46, Nagasaki, after Schlegel. — 

DriMERiL, Hist. Poiss., II, 1870, p. 554. 
Sipltostowa schlegeli Jordan and Snvder, Proe. IT. S. Nat. Mns., XXIII, 1901, 

p. 350, Tokyo. 
Sjfngnathns griseolineatus Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 5, Kagoshinia (not of 

Ayres). 

Head 2i to 2^ in trunk; head and trunk 1^ to If in tail; rings 
11) + 40 (18 to 20 + 39 to 43); dorsal rays 37 (35 to 41). Snout slender, 
If in head (If to If). Egg pouch If to If in tail. Dorsal inserted 
opposite the vent, or very slightly in advance of it, covering 8 or 9 
rings; depth of bodv 4^ to 4f in head. The specimens from Aomori 
are more slender, the depth 5 to 6 in head. 

Color light or dark brownish, frequently with small whitish dots. 

Baj's of Japan. Exceedingly common from Hokkaido to Nagasaki. 
Our many specimens from Otaru, Mororan, Hakodate, Aomori, Mat- 
sushima, Tokyo, Misaki, Wakanoura, Tsuruga, and Onomichi. North- 
ern examples are slightly slenderer, with rather longer snout, and the 
number of rings more often approaches the maximum. No tangible 
distinction is, however, apparent. (Named for Professor Schlegel, of 
Levden, the learned author of the volume on fishes in the Fauna 
Japonica.) 

4. CORYTHROICHTHYS Kaup. 

Cnn/tliroieJi(}iys Kaup, Lophobranehiates, 1856, p. 25 (all>lrn.'ifri.i). 

This genus is composed of stout-bodied roughish pipe-fishes, in 
which the opercle is crossed by a horizontal ridge, and the base of the 
dorsal fin is not elevated. Top of head keeled; dorsal rays and bod}^ 
rings rather few. Tropical. 

{KopvOpog^ crown; ix^^s, fish.) 

a. Snout short, about 2 in head; body rings about 17 + 35; dorsal rays al)out 29; body 
robust with marked angles; color olive, with dark bars; sides of head with black 
streaks; throat with black bars iaigakhts. 5. 

5. CORYTHROICHTHYS ISIGAKIUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

(Plate V.) 

Head 7^ in length; 2i in trunk; depth 2i in head; snout 2^,; eye 5; 
dorsal 27, on C» rings; anal 4; rings 16+35. 

Body short, rather thick; snout very slender, about as long as rest 
of head, straight, subterete in form and not serrate; a crest on each 



^Syngnatlms schlegeli Giinther, from China, seems to be a different fish. I). 40; 
osseous rings 19 + 44 to 46; tail more than thrice length of trunk, etc. 



PROCEEDfNaS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 



side of head al>ove eyes; interorbital space deeply concave; a promi- 
nent median crest of 3 lobes; opercle with a keel and a covered ridoe 
above it; ridges of body strongly developed; neither the dorsal nor 
the lateral keels of bod}^ connected with dorsal keels of tail. 

Dorsal inserted just posterior to anal opening; caudal contained 3 
times in head. 

Color light gray, with numerous dili'use dark cross l)ands, arranged 
in pairs, a black dot at edge of each plate on dorsal keel; sides of head 
with three black longitudinal streaks, the lowest below eye; throat 
below with a black median streak, behind which are three black cross 
bars, these bars wanting in one specimen. Described from the type, 
No. 6519, Leland Stanford Junior Universitj^ collection, taken at 
Yaeyama, Ishigaki Island, Riukiu group, by Capt. Alan Owston. 

Other examples from the same locality measure as follows: Head 21 
to 2f in trunk; head and trunk 1| to li in tail; rings 16+3*ito 30; D. 
27 to 29. Length 110 to 150 millimeters. 

{IshigaM^ stone-fence in Japanese.) 

B. YOZIA Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 
Yozia .Jordan and vSnyder, new »enus {vKikanoune). 

This genus is closely allied to Tracliyrliam^^lvus^ with which it agrees 
in the elevated ])ase of the dorsal fin. The snout is, however, essentially 
as in SyngnatJnix^ elongate and without serrations above. 

{Yoji-mvo, or toothpick fish, the Japanese name for all pipe-fishes.) 
6. YOZIA WAKANOURiE Jordan and Snyder, new species. 
(Plate VI.) 
fSiingnafhiis conrctatus Bleekkk, Fischf. Amboyna, 1857, p. 99, Amboyna. — 

DuMERiL, Hist. Poiss, II, 1870, p. 569, Amboyna. 
? SyncjnathiiH zanzlhareims GtixTiiER, Fishes Zanzibar, 186G, p. 140, ])1. xx, fio;. 5, 
Zanzibar; Coll. Lieut. Playfair; Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. KW, Zanzibar, 
China. 

Head 2| in trunk; head and trunk If in tail; rings 24+59. D. 27; 
P. 16; C. 5. Snout more than half head, equal to distance from front 
of eye to posterior edge of front ring, which is very near tip of 
pectoral. Eye 1 in snout, 2 in postorbital space. Snout slender, its 
upper edge smooth. Interorbital space rather broad, concave; occiput 
and nape with a low, roughish median ridge, or keel, posteriorly; a low 
keel above opercle; trunk rather deeper than broad, slightly swollen 
at the middle under the elevated base of dorsal fin; depth of bod}^ 1^ 
in head, 17 in total length. No spines. Vent below middle of dorsal, 
which stands on six rings. 

Color ver}^ dark brown, with lighter and darker marblings. 

One female specimen, 265 millimeters long, taken by Jordan and 
Snyder at Wakanoura. (Type, No. 6517, Leland Stanford Junior 
University Museum.) We describe it as new with some doubt, as the 
East Indian forms coaretain and ZiiiizUKtriii^h are very close to it. 



NO. 1241 . . CER TA IN FISHES O F J A PA N—JORDA N AND SN YDER. 9 

It aoToos very closely with Dr. Giinther's account of zanzHxircvKis^ 
iiotwithstaiuling- the wide diti'erence in locality. From Dumt'rirs 
account of coarctata it differs in the slightly longer snout and greater 
nuchal keel. Dumeril regards Zanziharensis as identical with Syngna- 
thux marctafus from Amboyna, which may be correct. In Y. coarctata 
the rings are 22 + 59 to 63; D. 30; P. 19; occiput not keeled. 

6. TRACHVRHAMPHUS Kaup. 

Trar])iirh(tmphuf: Kaup, Lophol)rancliiates, 1856, p. 2?> {srrraliis Kauj), not of 
Schle»el. ) 

This genus is very close to Syngnathiiii^ from which itdift'ers in hav- 
ing the base of the dorsal elevated, forming a slight protu})erance on 
the back, and in having the upper edge of the snout serrated. Japan. 

{rpaxvg, rough; pa/u(l>og, snout.) 

7. TRACHYRHAMPHUS SERRATUS (Schlegel). 

Si/ngnatJini^ .serm/M.s Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1847, p. 272, pi. ex x, fig. 

4, Nagasaki. — Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen., Nalez, XXV, p. 5.5, Jajfan. — Gun- 

THER, Cat. Fishes, VIII, 1870, p. 167, North China, Siam.— Dumeril, Hist. 

Poiss., II, 1870, p. 538, Macao. — Day, Fishes of India, p. 677, pi. clxxiii, fig. 

4. — Nystrom, Handl. Svensk. Vet. Akad., 1887, ]i. 47, Nagasaki. — Day, 

Fish. Brit. India, II, p. 461. 
Trfirlii/rJunnpliHS mltrirostris Peters, Monatsber, Ak. Wiss. Berlin, 1S69, ]>. 710 

(said to be a yonng example). 

Head 4 to -ti in trunk; head and trunk If in tail. Rings 23 or 24+ 
46 to 48. Dorsal rays 26 to 2S; pectoral 15 or 16; caudal 9. Snout 
2i in head. Eye If in snout, 2 in postor])ital part of head. 

Snout strongl}" serrated above, on its liasal two-thirds. Interor])ital 
space broad, with the orbital ridges prominent, smooth; occiput and 
nape with a median ridge. Opercle finely radiated. Lateral line bent 
downward, passing into the edge of al>domen. Body scarcely deeper 
than broad; shields without spines. Vent nearly below middle of dor- 
sal fin, which stands on six rings. Base of dorsal elevated; QA^g pouch 
If to 2 in tail. Color dark browni, plates with paler edges; body 
faintly l)anded in rings; neck below with dark cross-bands. Length 
about 300 millimeters. 

Coasts of Japan and China; rather common. Known to us from 
numerous specimens from Yokohama, Wakanoura, and Nagasaki; the 
present description from specimens from Wakanoura. 

{/Sei'i'atm, serrate.) 

7. HALICAMPUS Kaup. 

Ilnliciimpii.t Kaup, Lophobranchii, 1856, ]>. 22, [cnnnpicUlnlns Kaup, not of 
Jenyns.) 

This genus agrees with TrachyrhainpliUH in the serrated snout and 
in the elevated base of the dorsal tin. The snout is thin and short, set 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

with rows of small spines distinctly separated from the high forehead 
and elevated orbits. Nape and l)r(^ast with coml)-like crest. Dorsal 
tin short. Angles of body rough, furnished with tleshy tags. East 
Indies. 

{aXs, sea; Ka/^iTTog, caterpillar.) 

8. HALICAMPUS KOILOMATODON (Bleeker). 

Ha]icampuf< consjyiclllntiifi Kaup, Lophobr., 1856, p. 22, "India," New Hollaml 

(not of Jenyna). 
Halicam2ms grayi Kaup, Mannncript British Mnseiiin, "India," (noted by Kaiip 

in synonymy). 
Synfpiathufi koUomatodon Bleeker, Act. 8or. Sci. Indo-Nederl., Japan, V. ]). 10, 

pi. I, lig. 1, Nagasaki. Specimen 4 inches long. 
Syngnatlius grayi Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 169, after Kaup's type of 

uncertain locality, possibly Australia. 

D. 20. Rings 18 + 35. Base of dorsal fin elevated. Snout less 
than half head, with series of minutes spines; forehead high, its pro- 
file aliruptly descending toward snout. Occiput and neck elevated 
into a crest; eyes large, prominent; edge of orbit rough, Opercle 
with radiating strise and a vstrong ridge bent upward; humerus with a 
trihedral prominence. Body not deeper than broad; shields without 
spines, but the ventral edges of the caudal rings forming a pouch 
horizontally dilated. Tail half longer than the body. Vent ])elow 
middle of dorsal, which stands on four rings. Caudal very small. Egg 
pouch half length of tail. A deep brown spot on side of fourth body 
ring. (Gunther.) 

Coasts of Japan and southward, rare; recorded from Nagasaki hy 
Bleeker. Not seen by us. We use the name koUomatodon as being 
prior to the adoption of grayi by any author, and also as its type is 
certainly of Japanese origin. (KoiXco/ua^ a hallowed place ; odovg^ 

tooth.) 

8. UROCAMPUS Gunther. 

Urorampn.'^ Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 179 {namts). 

Pipe-fishes, with the dorsal on the tail far liehind the vent. Bod}^ 
elongate, compressed, with distinct longitudinal ridges; upper edge of 
trunk continuous with that of tail; lateral line continuous with lower 
caudal edge. Tail elongate, very slender, quadrangular, tapering, the 
last rings very small; pectoral developed. Dorsal entirely on the tail. 

[ovpa^ tail; KtY/.i7rog^ a])breviation for Hippocampus.) 

9. UROCAMPUS RIKUZENIUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

(Plate VII.) 

Head 11^ in length, 2| in trunk; depth 2^ in head; snout 2i; eye 
6i; dorsal 10, on .5 rings; anal rings 11 + 59. 

Body short; the depth anterior to anal opening about equal to length 
of snout; tail long, very slender, tapering to an extremely small caudal 



NO. 1241. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 11 

peduncle. Snout scarcely lower than forehead; its depth equal to 
diameter of eye; chin with two slender barbels, slightly longer than 
diameter of eye. Supraorbital ridges converging to median ridge of 
snout; lateral ridges of snout converging above at the tips. Opercle 
with divergent stria?, a ridge near the middle and one along its upper 
edge. Occiput with a low, three-lobed, median ridge. Dorsal keels 
of body continuous with those of tail; lateral keels of bodj^ continuous 
with the ventrolateral keels of tail; median line of belly with a high, 
narrow keel; under part of tail with a low ridge. 

Distance from dorsal to vent 5i times in tail; the height of dorsal 
about equal to depth of tail at base of tin; its base with a low ridge. 
Length of pectoral somewhat greater than the diameter of eye. Anal 
ver}' small. Caudal minute, scarcel}" discernible. 

Color dark brown, with white spots along the edges of each ring, 
these more conspicuous on tail, forming cross-bands; a dark streak 
along median line of belly. 

A single /specimen 119 millimeters long, type No. 6520 Leland 
Stanford Junior University Museum, taken in Matsushima Bay. It is 
very close to Urocampufi nanu,'<^ described from a single female speci- 
men from Manchuria; but that species has the rings 11 4- 50, appar- 
ently no barbels, a smooth operculum, and no anal fin, characters 
which, if authentic, may be of generic value. 

(Kikuzen, the province in which Sendai and Matsushima are located.) 

9. GASTEROTOKEUS Meckel. 

GasterotoJceus Heckel in Kaup, Lophobranchiate Fish, 1856, p. IS (hl(tciiJratii!<). 
SiinrjnathoidrK Bleeker, Nat. Tydskr. Ned. Ind., II, p. 259 {hlochi). 

General form of St/iifpiat/uf.'i. but the tail Unless and prehensile. 
Body depressed, the lateral line running along the margin of the 
abdomen. Shields smooth. Tail shorter than the rest of the ))ody. 
Pectorals present. Males carrying the eggs embedded in the soft 
mem])rane of the abdomen without a pouch. 

{yaffTt'jp, belly: roKog^ foetus.) 

lo. GASTEROTOKEUS BIACULEATUS (Bloch). 

Sijngnatlim hiacult'dtii.^ Bloch, Ichthyol., IV, 1787, p. 10, pi. cxxi, fitjs. 1, 2, Ea8t 
Indies. 

Gastcrotokeus hiaciilcatus Kaup, Lophobr., 1856, p. 19, Canton, Malayan Fishes, 
1850, p. 387.— GuNTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 194, Zanzibar, Seychelles, 
Singapore, Amboyna, Celebes, Philippines, -China Sea, Cape York. — 
DuMERiL, Hist. Poiss., II, 1870, p. 528; Amboyna, Nias, China, Red Sea, 
Zanzibar, Madasrascar. — Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 149; 
Shimoda.— IsiiiKAWA, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 4, Miyakoshima. 

Gmtfrotoceus Jdandealm, Day, Fish. India, pp. 6, 81, pi. clxxiv, fig. 5; Fish. 
Brit. India, II, p. 467. ' ' 

Syngnatkus letragoimsi Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 1453, after Bloch. 

Siiirgvnthoidex lilorhii Bleeker, Nat. Tydskr. Ned. Ind., II, p. 259. 

Solegmtthns lilocliii Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen.. XXV, p. 24. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi-.xxiv. 

Rings IS + 45 to 55. D. 40 to 45; P. 17 to 23. Head 2 in trunk; 
tail .shorter than trunk. A more or k'ss distinct space on upper 
margin of orbit. A blunt prominence on occiput. Origin of dorsal 
nearly opposite vent, its base covering ten rings; usually a small 
barbel on mandilile; adult sometimes with minute filaments along 
lower side of head, body, and tail. (Gimther.) 

Color pale green or brown, orange below, a pale spot edged with 
vermilion on each body-ring; lower side of head with dark markings. 
(Day.) 

East Indies, common, rarely north to Japan; one specimen taken at 
Shimoda l).y Commodore Perry's expedition; a specimen from Miyako- 
shima in the Imperial Museum of Tokyo; none taken by us. {hi.s, two; 
((culea, spine.) 

lO. ACENTRONURA Kaup. 

Arrntrovnra Kaup, Lophobranchiates, 1856, p. IS {f/rnrilissima) . 

Small slender sea-horses, without coronet. Trunk slightly' com- 
pressed; tail prehensile and finless. Occiput compressed into a crest, 
without coronet. Shields without spines. Pectoral tins present. 
Edge of trunk continuous with that of tail. Egg pouch as in lUppo- 
camp\(i<^ at base of tail.- 

[a — , without; Kivrpov^ spine; ovpa, tail.) 

II. ACENTRONURA GRACILISSIMA (Schlegel). 

Hippocampus granlisftrmiiK Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., p. 274, pi. cxx, fig. 6, 

Nagasaki. 
Acentronura graclUiwa Katp, Lophobr., 1856, p. 18, Nagasaki (rings 42 to 45). — 

GiJNTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 198, after Schlegel.— Dcmekil, Hist. Nat. 

Poiss. II, 1870, p. 527, after Schlegel.—? Day,' Fish. India, p. 681, pi. clxxvi, 

fig. 1; ? Fish. Brit. India, II, p. 467, Andamans.— Nystkom, Handl. Svensk. 

Vet. Akad., 1887, p. 47, Nagasaki. 

Head If in trunk; head and trunk 1^ in tail; rings 13 + 45 or 46 
(41 to 45, Day). D. 16; P. 12; A. 3. Snout 21 in head; eye li in 
snout; 2 in postorbital part of head. Egg pouch on 13 plates; dorsal 
on 4 rings; two on tail; its base with a prominent elevation. Dorsal 
ridges of body continuous with those of tail. Suborbital ridges very 
prominent, joining above the snout to form a triangular crest, then 
spreading out to form a triangular figure above snout. Occiput 
divided by a depression; body slightly thicker than head. 

Color iirownish, with small pale dots and dark markings; dorsal with 
groups of small blackish dots, forming a dark cross) )and. 

Coast of Japan, rare; one fine male specimen 62 millimeters long 
obtained off Misaki in the Kuro Shi wo {gracilimus, very slender). 



'The two specimens from the Andamans dredged by Mr. J. Wood-Mason : re 
described by Dr. Daj' as having 13 -|- 41 to 45 rings. 



N0.1241. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 13 

11. HIPPOCAMPUS Rafinesque. 
SEA-HORSES. 

Hi])pocatnpuH Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiologia Siciliana, 1810, \).'d1 {kippoaunpus) . 
Hippocampus \j^.\cii, Zool. Misc., 1814, ]>. 103 {hippocampus). 

Body strongly compressed, the belly gibbous, tapering abruptly to 
a long, quadrangular, prehensile tail. Head with a distinct curved 
neck, placed nearly at a right angle with the direction of the body, 
surmounted by a compressed occipital crest, on the. top of which is an 
angular, star-shaped coronet; top and sides of the head with spines. 
Ph3"siognomy remarkably horselike, like that of a conventional 
"knight" at chess. Body and tail covered with bony plates, forming 
rings, those on the body each with six spines or tubercles, those on 
the tail with four. Pectoral hns present, short and ])road; anal min- 
ute, usually present; dorsal tin moderate, opposite the vent. Egg 
pouch in the male a sac at the base of the tail, terminating near the 
vent. Species numerous in all warm seas. They attach themselves 
by their tails to seaweed and other floating substances, and are often 
carried to great distances by currents. 

{J7i7ioKa^i.7ioz^ the ancient name, from innoz^ horse; Ka^noz., a 
wriggling sea monster, or a caterpillar.) 

o. Dursal fin long, of 15 to 18 ra\'6. 

\i. Snout long, 2 to '2\ in head; coronet low. 
c. Spines of neck and body low, miu^h lower than coronet; vsize large. 

d. Spines on body not enlarged at intervals, the rings being each similar to its 
neighbor; rings 11+39; color brown, with white streaks and specks. 

kelloggi. 12 
dd. Spines on body enlarged at intervals, the rings l>eing not uniform; rings 
11+33 to 36. 
e. Snout equal to postorbital part of head; spines obtuse; color jet black, 

with grayish bands and spots aterriiims. 13 

ee. Snout longer than postorbital part of head; spines ratlier sharj); color 

brown, variously blotched and spotted kuda. 14 

cc Spines of neck and body very high, tlie longest as high as coronet; color 

brown, with wliite dots; snout with brown rings histrix. 15 

bb. Snout short, nearly 3 in head; size small. 

/. Coronet very low, compressed, without filaments; spines very low, 
blunt; tail very slim; color brown, plain or irregularly l)anded. 

japovicus. 16 
ff. Coronet high, compressed, first laterally then longitudinally, with fila- 
ments; spines all high, many <jf them filamentous; color greenish 

gray, with darker markings sindonis. 17 

aa. Dorsal fin short, of 10 to 13 rays; size small; coronet high; spines high, some of 
them filamentous. 

g. Snout short, nearly 3 in head; coronet compressed, notched, the an- 
terior part with long filaments. No small spine before each large 
supraorbital spine; body and tail banded with dark... mohnikei. 18 
gg. Snout long, slender, about 2^ in head, as long as postorbital part of 
head; coronet very high, pedunculate, not notched crosswise, its 
tip ending in about 6 lobes or spines; color various, usually with 
small light or dark dots or streaks coruitatus. 19 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

12. HIPPOCAMPUS KELLOGGI Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

0-UMI-UMA (GREAT SEA-HORSE). 

(Plate VIII.) 

Tfi])porainpiis longiroslris Sciilegel, Fauna Japoiiica, Poiss., 1847, p. 273, Nafja- 
saki, (not of Cuvier). — GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 202, China, 
Formosa. — Nysteom, Handl. Svensk. Vet. Akad., 1887, p. 47, Nagasaki. — 
IsHiKAWA, Prel. Cat, 1897, p. 4, "Japan." 

Head li in trunk; trunk 2 in tail. D. 17; P. IS. Rings 11+39, 
each of them essentiall}' siniikir to its neighbors, none of them espe- 
cially enlai'ged. Snout long, as long as from posterior margin of orbit 
to knol) above gill opening. P]ye about 3 in snout; supraorbital spine 
simple, not divided; no spine on median line before eye. Depth of 
body at tenth ring 1^ times snout. Dorsal on 3i rings (l^+i^). Egg 
pouch on 7 rings. Coronet low, about as high as eye, slanting })ack- 
ward and with <! diverging blunt spines; spines of body all low and 
obtuse; no tilaments. 

Color uniform yellowish brown or leather-color; with small scat- 
tered spots and short streaks of white on sides of head and trunk, 
most numerous about eyes; dorsal with a dark cross shade. 

Coasts of Kiusiu, not common, and known to us from a large dried 
example, 8 inches long, from Kagoshima. 

Type. — No. 6521, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum, 
presented by the Imperial University, and collected by Professor 
Mitsukuri. 

This is evidently the Ilippocainpus lonxjiroatrlH of Schlegel, but 
not of Cuvier, whose species is based on a figure of Willughby. It 
is close to //. kuda., but diti'ers, at least, in the greater number of 
rings and in their uniformity. (Named for Prof. Vernon Lyman 
Kellogg, of Stanford University.) 

13. HIPPOCAMPUS ATERRIMUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 
KURD UMI-UMA (BLACK SEA-HORSE). 

(Plate IX.) 

Head 1\ in trunk; tail twice as long as trunk; D. 17. P. 16. A. 4. 
Rings 11+36. Egg pouch of male on 9 rings. Length of snout equal 
to postorbital part of head; e3^e 3 in snout, equal to depth of snout. 
Body very deep, the depth of tenth ring twice snout. Spines low and 
blunt, without tilaments, those on first, fourth, and seventh body 
rings more prominent, also on first, fifth, eighth or ninth, and twelfth 
or thirteenth rings of tail. This character variable. Spines below 
dorsal not higher than others. Supraorbital spines blunt and low, 
pointing outward and slightly backward, notched or rather with a low 



N0.12U. CERTAIN FJSIIE,S OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 15 

protuborance before each. A siiuill blunt spine before eye. Coronet 
low, obliqueh' truncate, with three knob-like proce.s8e« posteriorly, 
pointing- backward. Base of dorsal elevated on l^+li rings. 

Color purplish l)lack, almost inky; grayish niarblings along the 
prominent rings on bod\' and tail, forming irregular crossbars. Gray- 
ish streaks on gill covers and other parts of head; tips of spines and 
warts grayish; dorsal with a blackish terminal band; dark streaks 
along each ray; pectoral and anal with a dark cross band. 

East Indies north to flapan. Known to us from six specimens, all 
alike, black, taken by Capt. Alan Owston, at Yaeyama, in the Ishigaki 
Islands, Riukiu. These are from 90 to 140 millimeters long. 

Tf//>e. — No. 6516, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 

This agrees in general with the accounts of H'lppocanipiiH kuda 
Bleeker, from the East Indies (wrongly called 11. (/uttulatw^)., but that 
species has ll+'^3 rings, and typical specimens difl'er greatly in color 
from our specimens. The original account of JI. iiichu}<)><plJvs by 
Bleeker diti'ers equallv- We may therefore provisionally regard our 
examples as distinct. 

{Aterrinms., very black.) 

14. HIPPOCAMPUS KUDA Bleeker. 

Hip])Ocam])uty kuda Bleekkr, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind., Ill, 1852, p. 82, Singapore. — 
Bleekek, Verh. Bat. Gen., XXV, p. 26. — Dumeril, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, p. 
506, after Bleeker. 

Ilijqiocainpas jiwluccemk Bleekek, Nat. Tydt<. Ned. Ind., Ill, 1852, p. 305, 
]\Iolucea. 

Hijipocampus t:(')il()j)t(riii< Bleekek, Nat. Tyd«. Ned.- Ind., Ill, 1852, p. 306. 

Ilippucampus poli/t:iuiu Bleekek, Nat. Tyds. Ned. Ind., Ill, 1852, j). 338, Floris. 

HippocLWiputi comes Kaup, Lopliobr., 1856, p. 10 (not of Cantor). 

Hippocampus jnmctulutus, guttulatns and monickei GtiNTiiER, Fish. Zanzibar, p. 
139, Zanzibar (not of authors). 

Hippocampus guttvlatus (part of authors) GIjntiier, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 
202 (Zanzibar, Amboyna, Red Sea, Floris) (not of Cuvier, H. kippocamjms 
from Venice). — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 4, Kagoshinia, Miyakoshima. 

Head U in trunk; trunk If in tail; rings, 11 + 35. D. 17; P. 16. 
Snout as long as from eye to knol) above gill opening. Eye 3 in snout; 
snout H hi depth of body; dorsal on, 1^ + 1^ rings. Supraorbital 
s|)ine simple, pointed outward and slightly backward. Body more 
slender than in //. atcrriniKs^ the snout longer. The spines much 
more prominent and somewhat acute, arranged much as in //, ater- 
/■niiuN, with enlarged one on tirst, fourth, seventh, and eleventh body 
rings, and lirst, tifth, sixth, ninth, twelfth, and lifteenth tail rings; 
no tilaments. 

Color light-brown, with gray streaks and blotches; white lines 
radiating from (\ve and white streaks on snout and side of neck; the 
pale markings on side of l)ody in our specimen suggest coralline 
patches; dorsal with a dark cross-shade. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

East Indies; widely distributed, north to Riu Kiu Islands. This 
description is from a specimen 115 niillin.eters lonj^-, from Ishioaki, 
Yaeyama Island, Riukiu. We identity this specimen with //. kuda 
with some doubt, and Ave are not sure of the synonymy of the species, 
even if the identification be accepted. According to Dr. Da}^ the 
number of ring's in IL l-mfa {(/uUi//afi/s) is 11 + 33. The relations of 
this species to the other large-sized and long-nosed sea horses are still 
obscure. 

{Kiida^ a tube, in Japanese.) 

15. HIPPOCAMPUS HISTRIX Kaup. 

Hip})()cainpus Idstrix Kaup, Lopho))r., 1856, p. 17., pi. 11, fig. 5, Japan. 
Hippocampus hystrix Gunthek, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 206, Zanzibar. — 
DuMERiL, Hist. Nat. Puiss., II, 1870, p. 514, Nagasaki, He of Reunion. 

Dorsal rays 17 or 18. Snout thin, elongate, longer than rest of 
head, as long as distance from front of orbit to first nuchal spine; all 
the tubercles of body developed into long, slender, acute spines, those 
on certain rings longer than the others. Color pale, with numerous 
white dots; snout with broad dark rings; each spine black at tip. 
Length, 2i inches. (Giinther, Zanzibar specimens.) Kaup does not 
count the fin rays, and says that his specimen is uniformly colored. 

In his figure the spines along the back are higher than the coronet, 
and 2i to 3^ in length of snout; the coronet is very low, bifurcate at 
tip; spines on back of tail especially prominent; body slender. 

East Indies: a few specimens known, recorded from Japan, Zanzibar 
and the Isle of Reunion, not seen by us. 

{IJf/st/'ix, porcupine.) 

16. HIPPOCAMPUS JAPONICUS Kaup. 

KITA-NO UMI-UMA (NORTHERN SEA HORSE). 

(Plate X. ) 

IlipjKjcaiiipasjaponims Kaup, Lophol^r., 1856, p. 7, Nagasaki, Ley<len Museum. — 
DuMERiL, Hist. Poiss., II, 1870, p. 505, same type. 

Head If (li to If) in trunk; trunk 2 to 2i in tail; D. 16 or 17; 
P. 11 or 12. Rings 11 + 39. Snout 2f to 3 in head. Eye 1^ to 2 in 
snout. Snout 2 to 2i in depth of body. Coronet from gill-opening, 
li to H in snout. Dorsal covering 2 + li rings. Prominent rings 
1, 4, 7, 11 on the body; 5, 10, 15 on tail, these subject to considerable 
variation. 

The body moderately deep, the tail very slim, the snout very short. 
Spines on ])ody blunt and short. Coronet low, compressed, keel-like; 
supraocular spine low; no spine before eye. Spines at base of dorsal 
little enlarged. Length 2i inches. 

Color various. A specimen from Tokyo is light brown, with two 
black cross bands on bodv and four of difi'erent widths on tail; head 



No.iJii. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 17 

mottled; a dark bar at })ase of snout. Dorsal usually dusky with a 
pale inodian band. A speeinien from Hakodate is leather brown, 
with dark markings on head; middle line of breast black; tail dark. 
A specimen from Onomichi is nearly uniform livid gray. One from 
Hakodate has almost no coronet. 

The combination of low, keel-like coronet with the short snout and 
16 dorsal rays at once distinguishes the species. Our numerous 
specimens are from Hakodate, Matsushima, Tokyo, Onomichi, and 
Wakanoura. The range of the species is farther to the northward 
than the others. 

17. HIPPOCAMPUS SINDONIS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

(riateXI.) 

Head lii in trunk; trunk 2 in tail. D. 15; P. 14. Rings 10 + ;37. 
Snout short, its length 2| times in head. Eye If times in snout. 
Depth of trunk 1^ times snout. Coronet high, almost as high as the 
length of snout. It is laterally compressed up to its middle, ends 
anteriorly in an acute triangular spine with a hlament, also terminates 
posteriorly in an acute spine, without tilament. From the middle up 
it is longitudinally compressed, giving rise to a laterally expanded, 
fan-like process, with live spines, pointing upward; the one next to 
each end with a filament. Supraorbital spines very prominent, with 
filaments and a distinct minor spine in the immediate front of each, all 
pointing anteriorly, large ones slightly outward as well; a well-marked 
spine on median line before eyes. Tubercles on body rather high, 
those in first, fourth, seventh, and tenth body rings, and second, 
fourth, sixth, eighth, tenth, and thirteenth tail rings enlarged and 
with filaments. The raised dorsal fin on li + i rings. Pectorals very 
nuich developed. 

Color greenish gray, with irregular darker markings on ])od3' and 
tail. Head mottled with dark gra}^ on greenish ground, interspersed 
with light cross bars and streaks. Middle line of belly black. Fins 
dusky, unmarked except the dorsal, which has a dark band longi- 
tudinally. Egg pouch occupies seven rings, greenish and covered 
with prickle-like processes. 

This species is known from one small specimen, an adult male 38 
millimeters long, type No. 47930 U. S. National Museum, dredged by 
the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross in Totomi Bay, ofi' 
Hamamatsu, in the province of Totomi, Japan. The species is allied 
to II. niohnikei, but differs in the form of coronet, the number of fin 
rays, and slimness of body, and also its size, which is much smaller 
than the smallest specimen of inoJinikci. 

(Named for Michitaro Sindo, late of Yamaguchi, assistant curator 
of fishes in Stanford Universit3^) 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 2 



18 PIIOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi.xxiv. 

i8. HIPPOCAMPUS MOHNIKEI Bleeker. 
.(Plate X 11.) 
TATSU-NO-OTOSIGO (DRAGON'S CHILD). 

ITqrpocatitpm brevirostris ScHLEciEL, Fauna Japonica, p. 274, Nagasaki, not of 
Cavier {H. hippocampus). 

I{ipp(j(:a)itpm viohnikei Bleekeh, Verb. Ak. Met. Amst., 1851, pp. 7, 16, Kaniino- 
seki Island, Prov. Suwo, Inland Sea. — Kaup, Lophobr., 1856, p. 8, Nagasaki, 
coll. Von Siebold. — GtJNTHER, Cat. Fisbes, VIII, p. 206, after Bleeker. — 
Du.MERiL, Hist. Nat. Poiss, II, 1870, p. 521, after Bleeker. — Ishikawa, Prel. 
Cat., 1897, p. 4, Bosbu (Awa) , near Tokyo. 

Head U in trunk; trunk U to 2 in tail. D. 11-13; P. 1012. Ringvs 
10 + 3«) or 37. Egg pouch on «5 rings. Eye 2i in snout. Snout 2f 
in head, 2 to 2i in depth of body, as long as from front of orbit to 
postorl)ital spine. Coronet 2 to 2i in snout; dorsal on 2it rings. First, 
fourth, seventh, and tenth body rings, and third, sixth, tenth, and 
thirteenth tail rings prominent. 

Coronet high, compressed, divided; the anterior part with long fila- 
ments, the posterior with 5 or 6 spines. Supraor])ital spines simple, 
high, each with a long filament, and with or without a small spine 
before the large one; a median spine before eye. Snout short, thick. 
Spines on body high, the long ones on back and tail each with a long- 
filament. 

Color gray, with 8 to 10 faint, dark cross bands; snout pale; dorsal 
with a dark band and a pale edge. Young with the band more dis- 
tinct. Southern Japan, north to Tokyo. Known to us from two 
specimens from Misaki, about S3 and .5.5 millimeters long; and one, 90 
millimeters long, from P^noura on Suruga Bay, presented by the 
Imperial University. This latter and the smaller one from Misaki are 
both light brown in color, with the dorsal l)ands, ])ody bands, and 
median line on belly colored dark brown. In size the small Misaki 
specimen is less than two-thirds of the Enoura specimen, although 
both are full-grown adults. 

The species is- allied to //. coronatm^ but has the snout mu(;h shorter, 
and the coronet lower and of a peculiar form. 

(Named for the discoverer. Dr. O. G. B. Mohnike.) 

19. HIPPOCAMPUS CORONATUS Schlegel. 
TSUNO-UMIUMA (HORNED SEA-HORSE). 

Hipftocampns coronatus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1847, p. 274, pi. cxx, 
fig. 8, Nagasaki. — Kaup, Lopbobr., 1856, p. 16, Nagasaki. — GUnther, Cat. 
Fisb., VIII, 1870, p. 205, after Scblegel.—DuMERiL, Hist. Poiss., II, 1870, p. 
520, after Scblegel.— Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 4, Tokyo. 

Head 1^ to If in trunk; trunk If to 2 in tail; D. 13 or 14; P. 11. 
Rings 10 -f 38 to 10. Snout slender, about as long as postorbital part 



NO. 1211. CERTAIN FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 19 

of head; eye 3 in snout; snout li to If in greatest depth of body. 
Coronet very high, pedunculate, not divided into two parts at the top; 
varying in form, its length from gill opening about equal to snout; its 
tip usually with six lobes or spines. Spines of head and body promi- 
nent, the coronet usually with a long filament; other spines occasion- 
allv prominent. First, fourth, and tenth body rings prominent, and 
usually the fourth, sixth, tenth, fourteenth, and sixteenth of the tail. 
Spines at base of dorsal especially long and prominent. Dorsal short, 
inserted on 1^ + 1 = -i rings; egg pouch on 7 rings. 

Color various, usually light brown with dark dots and mottlings, 
sometimes with pale dots and streaks, sometimes with dark brown 
streaks, the ground color sometimes almost black; usually light or 
dark streaks on opercle. Dorsal generally with a blackish band and 
pale edge, sometimes streaked like the body. 

Coasts of Japan, very common, in clear waters near shore. A 
small, slender sea-horse, varying considerably in form, and much in 
coloration, but alwaj^s readily known by the very high coronet, the 
sculpture of which is subject to great variation. Our many specimens, 
90 to 115 millimeters long, are from Matsushima, Tokyo, Misaki, Ono- 
michi, and Wakanoura. They would seem at first glance to compose 
five or six difi^erent species. 

( Coronatus, crowned. ) 

RECAPITULATION. 

Suborder HYPOSTOMIDES. 

Family 1. Pegasid^. 
1. Zalises Jordan and Snyder. 

1. umitengu Jordan and Snyder Wakanoura. 

Order LOPHOBRANCHII. 
Family 2. Solenostomid^. 

2. Solenostomns Lacepede. 

2. cyanopterns (Bleeker); Awa. 
.3. paradoxus (Pallas); Awa. 

Family 8. Syngnathid^e. 

3. Syngnathus Linnaius. 

4. schlcgcli (Kaup); Otaru, Mororan, Hakodate, Aomori, Matsushima, Tokyo, 

Misaki, Wakanoura, Tsuruga, Onomichi. 

4. Corythroichthys Kaup. 

5. isigakhis Jordan and Snyder; Ishigaki Island. 

5. Yozia Jordan and Snyder. 

6. wakanourx Jordan and Snyder; Wakanoura. 

6. Tntc}iyrhampliui< Kaup. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



7. serratus (Schlegel); Yokohama, Wakanoura, Nagasaki. 

7. Hi{lic<unpu)< Kaup. 

8. koiloiiKitodon ( Bleeker) . 

8. Urocampus Glinther. 

9. rikuzcniuii Jordan and Snyder; Mataushinia. 

9. Gusterotokeus Meckel. 

10. biaculcatus (Bloch). 

10. Acentronurd Kaup. 

11. gracilissima (Schlegel); Misaki. 

11. Hippocampus Rafinesque. 

12. keUoggi Jordan and Snyder; Kagoshima. 

13. aterrwms Jordan and Snyder; Ishigaki Islands. 

14. kuda Bleeker; Ishigaki Islands. 

15. histrix Kaup. 

16. jq,ponicus Kaup; Hakodate, Matsushima, Tokyo, Onomichi, Wakanoura. 

17. isindonis Jordan and Snyder; Hamamatsu. 

18. mohnikei Bleeker; Misaki, Elnoura. 

19. coronatus Schlegel; Matsushima, Tokyo, Misaki, Onomichi, Wakanoura. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PI., I 




Zalises UMITENGU. 
fofl explanation of plate see pace 2, 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. II 




Zalises UMITENGU. 

For explanation of plate see page 2. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. Ill 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. IV 




U. S. NATIONAL MU6EUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. V 




q § 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. VI 




< o 

5= S 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. VII 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. Vlli 



/^ 



^^ '€ 



%. 




Hippocampus kelloggi. 

Fon EXPLANATION^ OF PLAtE SEE PAGE 14. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. IX 




Hippocampus aterrimus. 

For explanation of plate see page 14. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEFDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. X 




Hippocampus japonicus. 
For explanation of plate see page 16. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XI 








Hippocampus sindonis. 

For explanation of plate see page 17. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XM 




Hippocampus mohnikei. 

For explanation of plate see page 18. 



LIST OV THE MYRIAPOP FAMILY LITHOBTID.E OF SALT 
LAKE COUNTY. LTTAH, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF FIVE 
NEW SPECIES. 



By Ralph V. Chamberlin, 

Of Ihc L<ittcr-(h(ii Salntfi' Cnlhyr, Salt Lakr Oily. 



I 



Tho five new species of Litliol)ius described in this paper are l)ased 
ii})on material in collections made by the author from June to October, 
1900. and in February, March, and April, 1901. Tj^pes of these new 
species have been deposited in the United States National Museum. 
Inasnuich as nothing upon the Myriapoda of Utah has been heretofore 
published, some notes are also given on the other species of the Litho- 
biidiv found within the limits of Salt Lake County. 

ANALYTICAL KKY TO THK SPECIES OF LITITOBIITS DESCRIBED. 

A. Posterior angles f)f none of the dorsal plates jjroduced. 
</,. Anal feet each armed with a single claw. 

/<,. Coxal pores in several series, round. 
c. Posterior coxa3 armed beneath with a stout spine. 

iJ. Antennpe long, articles 20; prosternal teeth, 9-fl; spines of anal legs, 1, 3, 2, 1. 

Iiipiivrfiiluft Wood 1 
}>.,. Coxal pores in a single series, round, 
c. Posterior coxse unarmed beneath. 

r/j. Articles of the antenn;e, 20-22; coxal pores- 2, 2, 2, 2—2, 3, 3, 3; ocelli, 5-11; 
spines of anal legs, 1, 3, 2, 0; length, 7.5-11 mm.. iitnhnhvs, new species2 
d.^. Articles of the antennae, 20-23; coxal pores,3, 4, 4, 3—3, 4, 4, 4; ocelli,18-22; 
spines of anal legs, 1, 3, 2, 0; length, 13-15.8 m^m... collimn, newspecies 3 
a.^. Anal feet each armed with two claws. 
/'. Coxal pores in a single series, round. 
c. Posterior coxa' unarmed beneath. 
d. Articles of the antennae, 20-25; coxal pores, 4,5,5,4 — 5,6,6,6; spines of 
the first legs, 1, 3, 2; of the anal, 1, 3, 2, 0; length, 12.2-13.8 mm. 

soeiu,i, new species 4 

B. Posterior angles of the ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth dorsal plates produced. 
(ii- Coxal pores in several series, round; anal feet with a single claw. 

/'. Posterior coxpe armed beneath with a stout spine. 

r. Antennae long, articles 20; prosternal teeth, 12 to 18; spines of anal legs, 
1, 3, 2, 1 xanti Wood 5 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1242. 

21 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSE I'M. vol.xxiv. 

ti.^. Coxal pores in a single series, transverse; anal feet with a single claw. 
I). Posterior coxje unarmed beneath. 
r. Articles of the antenna^ S8-48; prosternal teeth, 10 to 14; spines of anal 

legs, 1, 3, 3, 2 .forjicatus ( Linnaeus) 6 

a 3. Coxal i)ores in a single series, round. 
Jt. Pf)sterior coxa? unarmed beneath. 
r,. Articles of the antenme, 20; coxal ]iores, 3,3,3,3; ocelli, 10; prosternal 

teeth, 5-.5; length, 7.5-9 mm 'ititfrniovtmms, new species 7 

c-i. Articles of the antenmip, 28-32; coxal pores, 2,3,3,2 — 3,4,4,4; spines of 
first legs, 0, 0, 1; of anal, 1, 3, 3, 0—1, 3, 1, 0; length, 7-8.5 mm. 

purpvmts, new species 8 

I. LITHOBIUS BIPUNCTATUS Wood. 

It has seemed well to include a description of this form, as it has not, 
before been rediscovered or redescribed since Wood established the 
species in 180;^). 

De^cThjption. — Color, dark amber brown, th(^, head lighter; legs mostly- 
pale, posterior pairs and the antennse somewhat darker. Antennte, 
length, 16.5 mm, reaching to the eighth segment; pilose, articles 20. 
Ocelli, 18-22, in T series. Prosternal teeth, 9-9, black; the space 
between the second and third from the outer side much wider than 
between the other teeth. Spines of the legs, first, 2,3, 1; penult, 1, 
3^ 3, 2 — 1, 3, 3, 3; anal, 1, 3, 2, 1. The anal legs are long and slender, 
not at all (U'assate. Coxal pores round or somewhat oval; arranged in 
3-4 series in an oval patch. Genital forceps, claw long and pointed, 
tripartite, the middle lo})e largest, the outer lobe nearer apex than the 
inner; basal spines 3-3, the outermost largest. Length of body, 28. T 
mm; width of tenth dorsal plate, 3.9 mm; length of theanal legs, 16 mm. 

irah/tat. — P]migration Canyon, near the mouth. A nundier of speci- 
mens were taken in the dirt-tilled crevices of the rock in a limestone 
quarry. 

2. LITHOBIUS UTAHENSIS, new species. 

Dia(/nos'is. — This species is related to Litliohlus ohesus Stuxberg, but 
the claw of the genital fcrrceps is tripartite, the spines of the anal legs 
are 1, 3, 2, 0, and the size is always smaller. It is also near Litliohius 
eigenmanni Bollman, from which it is distinguished by the coxal pores, 
which are small and less in numl)er, by the number of spines of the 
anal legs, and by the ocelli, which are fewer. 

DeKcription. — Color yellow to brown, legs and antenna^ paler. 
Antenna?, length 2.6-3 mm.; hirsute; articles 20-22, gradualh' decreas- 
ing in length from the first few to the end. Ocelli 5-11, but mostly 
5-8, arranged in tt- 5 series. Prosternal teeth 2^ — 2, small, pale. Spines 
of the first legs 1, 2, 1-2, 3, 2; of the penult 1, 3, 3, 1—1, 3, 3, 2; of the 
anal 1, 3, 2, 0. The posterior coxa? laterally armed. The coxal pores 
small, round, 2, 2, 2, 2 — 2, 3, 3, 3. Genital forceps, claw tripartite, the 
middle lobe longest, the outer smallest; ))asal spines 2-2, rather stout, 
the outer usuall}^ thicken«^d upward and somewhat bifid at apex. 



FIVE XFAV LTTnOBIW.F^-CHAMBERLIN. 23 



Anal legs of male, tibia swollen and excavated within near its anterior 
joint, at which it, together with the femur, is produced inward into a 
lobe which is often veiy conspicuous. Length of the body 7.5-11 
mm.; width 0.8-1.2 nmi. ; length of the anal legs 2.5-3 mm. 

Ilahitat. — Common along all mountain streams, loving particularly 
the damp beds of decaying leaves and vegetable loam. 

7///>r.— lT.S.N.M.,No. 782; collected in Netf's Canyon, Salt Lake 
County, Utah, July 15, 1900. 

3. LITHOBIUS COLLIUM, new species. 

DragnonH. — Joints of the antennae 20-23; ocelli 18-22, in 7 vertical 
series; spines of anal legs 1,3,2,0; claw of genital forceps wide, 
lobes short, the middle one not much longest. 

Description. — Color brown, head and dorsal plates with a tendency 
to red brown, which may be strong; antennje and legs yellow or light 
brown. Head smooth. AntennaB, length 1-5.5 mm.; articles 20-23, 
graduallv decreasing in length toward the end; pilose. Ocelli 18-22, 
in 7 nearly vertical series. Prosternal teeth 2 — 2, small. Spines of 
the first legs 1, 3, 2—2, 3, 2; penult 1, 3, 3, 2; anal 1, 3, 2, 0. Posterior 
coxse laterally armed. Coxal pores 3, 4, 4, 3 — 3. 4, 1, 4, small, round. 
Genital forceps, claw rather long, wide, tripartite, the lobes short 
and rounded, the middle one but little longer than the lateral, or the 
claw subentire; basal spines 2-2, moderate, the outer spine on each 
side somewhat stouter. Length of body 13-15.8 mm.; width 1.6-1.7 
mm. ; length of the anal legs 4-5 mm. 

Ilahitat. — Common over the foothills about Salt Lake City during 
the spring and autumn months. 

ryy><^— U.S.N.M.,No. 783. 

4. LITHOBIUS SOCIUS, new species. 

Diagnoi<l)<. — This species is to be separated by the following points: 
Coxal pores 4, 5, 5, 4 — 5, 6, 6, 5; articles of .,the antennje 20-25; spines 
of the anal legs always 1, 3, 2, 0; characters of genital forceps; and size, 
12.2-13.8 mm. 

Deso'lption. — Color, head and posterior dorsal plates brown; other 
dorsal plates mostly dark brown to brownish black; antennjv and legs 
yellow to light brown. Head smooth, wider than long. Antennae, 
length 5-5.7 mm., but mostly near the lesser limit; articles 20-25; 
first 7-12 joints long, others short; pilose. Ocelli 16-22, arranged in 
6-8 series. Prosternal teeth variable in size and number, <) — to 2 — 2 
and 3 — 3 (as connnon) or even to 5 — 5. Spines of the legs, first 1, 3, 2; 
penult 1, 3, 3, 2; last 1, 3, 2, 1. Posterior coxae laterally armed. 
Coxal pores 4,5,5,4 — 5,6,6,5; large, subcircular, or in part trans- 
verse, (xenital forceps, claw normally tripartite })ut by obliteration 
of the outer lol)e often bipartite or subentire, and on the other hand 



24 PP.OCEEDTNGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. toi,.xxiv. 

sometimes possessing as many as small lobes or crenulations; basal 
spines 2 — 2, short, stout, usually widening upward to the middle and 
conical or pointed above. The head in the male is proportionately 
wider than in the female. The inner claw of the anal feet is also 
larger in the male, l)eing often indistinct in the female. Length of 
the body 12.2-13.8 mm.; width 1.8-2 nun.; length of the anal legs 
5-5.6 mm., mostly near the lesser limit. 

ITahitat. — With the preceding form over the foothills a])out Salt 
Lake City, but less al)undant. 

7}/7>.=.— U.S.N. M., No. 784. 

5- LITHOBIUS XANTI Wood. 

JTahitat. — Common along all mountain streams. This species and 
Litlu ihiam utahenx't X 'AXi^ the forms liy far most abundant in the canyons. 

6. LITHOBIUS FORFICATUS (Linnaeus). 

ITahitat. — In and aliout Salt Lake City, Avhere it is nuich the com- 
monest species, ]>ut not found in the mountains. 

The antenna' are most conunonly either 81! or Ht^ jointed. 

7. LITHOBIUS INTERMONTANUS, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Separated from other species previous I3' descrilied by 
the following points: Posterior coxae unarmed; articles of the antennt\3 
20; prosternal teeth 5 — 5; coxal pores B, 8, 8, 8, round; ocelli 10, in 
6 series; length 7.5-9 mm. 

Descripti(m. — Color, chestnut ])rown; antennae and legs paler. 
Antenna^, length 2.65-2.75 mm.; articles 20; sparsely hirsute at 
))ase, elsewhere nearly glabrous. Ocelli 10, arranged in 6 series in 
a linear patch. Prosternal teeth 5 — 5. Spines of the lirst legs 2, 3, 2. 
Last tarsal joints of the first pairs of legs more densely hirsute beneath 
than the inner ones. Posterior coxas unarmed. Coxal poi'es 3, 3, 3, 3, 
round. Length of the body 7.5-9 mm.; width 0.8-1 mm. 

llahitat. — Branch of Mill Creek Canyon. The eight specimens 
o])tained have all lost the posterior pairs of legs. 

ry/;t^.— U.S.N. M., No. 785. 

8. LITHOBIUS PURPUREUS, new species. 

Diagmms. — Anal feet each armed with two claws; articles of the 
antennae 28-32; spines of the first legs 0, 0, 1, of the last 1,3,8,0 or 
1, 3, 1, 0; coxal pores 2,3,3,2 — 3, 4, 4, 4; length 7-8.5 mm. 

Description. — Color, dark purple brown, the purple tint often con- 
spicuous and unmixed; head and legs yellowish brown, the tarsal 
joints of the last pairs of legs commonly lighter; antenna? dark, yel- 
low or rufous at ends. Antenn.e, length 2.3-8 mm.; articles, except 



NO. 1242. PIVE XFW LTTHOTITTD.I^CITAMBERLTK 25 

the first few, short or ver^^ short. Ocelli 12-13, in 5-6 series. Pro- 
sternal teeth, normally 2 — 2, rather large, pale, but occasionally 1 — 1. 
Spines of the tirst leg-.s 0, (), 1; of the penult 1, 3, 3, 1; of the anal 
1, 3, 3, 0, or less commonly 1, 3, 1, (J. Posterior coxse armed laterally 
with a small, indistinct spine. Coxal pores 2, 3, 3, 2^ — 3, 4, 1, 4, small or 
moderate. Genital forceps, claw rather long, tripartite, lobes pointed, 
the middle longest, the outer smallest, often nearer ])ase and incon- 
spicuous; basal spines 2 — 2, short and stout, widest at the middl(\ the 
outer largest. Length of the body 7-8.5 mm.; width 1-1.2 mm. 
Length of the anal legs 3-3.3 mm. 

Ilahitat. — Not very common under sticks, ])oards, and logs laid on 
fine, loose soil in and near growths of willows on the ))anks of the 
Jordan River, Salt Lake City. 

7Vi>e6-.— U.S.N.M.,No. 786. 

9. HENICOPS FULVICORNIS Meinert. 

Hahitaf. — Not uncommon in several canyons at middle and upper 
elevations in very damp and cool places. Many were found under the 
bark and between the fibers of decaying logs, and two were taken 
under the body of a dead skunk, which lay at a considerable distance 
from water. 

This species, tirst discovered in Europe, has been heretofore reported 
from the United States as occurring in New York (Mount Lebanon), 
Arkansas (Little Rock), and Minnesota (Winona). 



I 



NE\\' DIPTERA FROM SOUTHERN AFRICA. 



By JX ^^'. CoQiTiiXETT, 

Oixf 0(11(1)1. Sect 1(111 of Diptfrn. 



During n visit to tho United States National Museum last year, Mr. 
Charles P. Lounsl)urv. the o-overnment entomologist of Cape Colony, 
Africa, l)roug-ht with him a small but very interesting collection of 
Diptera which ht> wished to have identified, permitting the retention 
of specimens representing species new to the Museum collection and 
re(i nesting that the new forms be duly named and described. As this 
task has now l)een completcHl. the descriptions are ottered herewith. 

SIMULIUM NIGRITARSIS, new species. 

Black, thel)ases of the antenna?, humeri, halteres, front coxae, femora 
except apices of the middle and hind ones, and the tibite except their 
apices, yellow; front femora and their tibije sometimes wholly yellow; 
usually a yellow spot below the humeri; hairs of head and bod}^ pale 
yellow; wings hyaline, the costa, first three veins and first section of 
the foiirtli i-ol)ust, yellowish, the others nearly transparent; length 2.5 
to ?> nun. Six female specimens. Paratypes have }>een returned to 
Mr. Lounsbury. 

Hahltdf. — Cape Colony, Africa. 

Ti/jje.^Ciit. No. 5785." U.S. N.M. 

DACUS LOUNSBURYII, new species. 

Head yellow, occiput, except the upper and lateral margins, reddish 
brown, frontal vitta except its lower end reddish brown, an ocellar 
spot, one near center of front and one on the lunule, blackish, a row 
of four blackish dots along each orbit; a broad reddish stripe in mid- 
dle of face, a black spot on either side near its middle, an oblique 
reddish line near each orbit, and a large ))lack spot ])elow each eye; 
antenna^ nearl}^ twice as long as the head, l)rownish red, the extreme 
base yiellow, the third joint black; palpi and proboscis brownish red, 
apex of the latter largely yellow; body reddish brown, indistinctly 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1243. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

marked with })]ackish, mo.sonotuni iiiarkod behind the suture with 
three yeUow vitta', a Yelh)W fa.scia extends alonj^ the .suture, crosses 
the uiesopleura and enei-oaehes on the sternopkuira; a spot on the 
hypopleura, hind margin of the scuteUum and of the second abdominal 
segment kiterally yellow; abdomen three times as long as wide, the 
third segment in the male bearing a row of black bristles extending 
from the venter half wa}- to the middle of the dorsum, situated a short 
distance in front of the hind margin; wings hyaline, a brownish band 
along the costa, tilling apex of subcostal cell beyond auxiliary yein, 
the w^hole of the marginal and submarginal cells, apical three-fourths 
of the hrst posterior and upper edge of the second posterior cell, 
faintest in ))asal portion of submarginal cell and darkest in the pos- 
terior cells, that in first posterior cell sometimes haying a sulihyaline 
median streak; anal cell tilled with yellow and brown, its lobe and the 
vein extending beyond its apex bordered with brown; base of first 
basal cell to forking of second and third yeins yellowish; legs reddish 
brown, first tarsal joint except apex, and broad bases of hind femora, 
white; halteres whitish, leases of the stems reddish brown; basal seg- 
ment of ovipositor of female greatl}" flattened, shorter than the pre- 
ceding al)dominal segment; length 11 mm. Three males and seven 
females. Paratypes returned to Mr. Lounsbury, for whom this fine, 
large species is named. 

Ilabitat. — Capetown and Wynberg, Cape Colony, Africa. 

Tt/pe.— Cut. No. 57S0, U.S.N.M. 

DACUS BREVIS, new species. 

Head yellow, frontal vitta sometimes tinged in places with reddish 
yellow, the occiput except along the eyes j^eHowish l)rown, a dark 
brown spot above center of front, a small black spot on the ocelli, 
three along each orbit, one on the frontal lunule, and one on either 
side of center of face, a Ijrown spot below each ej^e; antenniv shorter 
than the head, yellowish l)rown, becoming dark ])rown at the apex, 
arista l)lack, the base yellowish, pi'oboscis and palpi Itrownish yellow; 
body reddish brown, mesonotum and a])domen with a mediodorsal 
black line, and sometimes Avith blackish markings; humeri, a stripe 
along the thoracic suture crossing the mesopleura and encroaching on 
the sternopleura, a rounded spot on the hypopleura, and the scutellum 
except its extreme base, yellow; a])domen one and a half times as long 
as wide, the third segment in the male bearing a row of ])lack liristles 
extending fi'om the venter nearly halfway to the middle of the dorsum; 
wings hyaline, the sulicostal and marginal cells, l)ase and usually the 
very narrow upper edge of the submarginal cell )>eyond apex of the 
marginal about halfway to tip of third vein, where it expands and fills 
the entire apical portion of this cell and encroaches on the first pos- 
terior cell, l)rown, a brown cloud on distal ])art of anal cell; apex of 



DIPTERA FROM SOUTHERN AFRICA— COQUILLETT. 29 



fourth M'in not or very slii^htly approaching toward the third vein; 
U'o-s yellow, apices of middle and hind femora and ])a,sesof middle tibiie 
ycUowi.sh ])rown, hind tibitv larj^'ely and last four joints of all the tarsi 
reddish l>rown; tibite and apices of femora sometimes yellowish red; 
halteres yellow; ovipositor of female almost cylindrical, the basal seg- 
ment shorter than the last abdominal segment; length 5.5 to 6.5 mm. 
Two males and four females. Paratypes returned to Mr. Lounsbury. 

ILihitat. — Bathurst, Cape Colony, Africa. 

Ty2^v.—Cdit. No. 5787, U.S.N.M. 

DACUS SIGMOIDES, new species. 

Differs from the above description of hreois only as follow^s: The 
dark brown spot above center of front is connected with the upper two 
spots in each of the orbital rows, no l)rown spot below each eve, no 
mediodorsal black line on the abdomen, apical section of fourth vein 
strongly l)isinuous, the apex strongly approaching toward the third 
vein, legs j^ellow, the apices of the femora, bases of the tibite and last 
four joints of the tarsi slightly darker, more lirownish yellow, knob of 
halteres yellowish brown, ovipositor greatly flattened, the basal seg- 
ment one and one-fourth times as long as the last abdominal segment; 
length 7 mm. A female specimen. 

Ildhltat. — Island of Mauritius, Africa. 

T>j2Jc.—Ojit. No. 5788, U.S.N.M. 

DACUS IMMACULATUS, new species. 

I )i Iters from hrevis as follows: The spot above center of front scarcely 
darkei- than the reddish-yellow frontal vitta, no black spots on the 
face, bases of palpi pale yellow, yellow spot on each hypopleura nearly 
twice as long as wide, abdomen almost twice as long as wide, brown in 
marginal cell not connected with that in apex of the submarginal, the 
latter extending one-third of distance from apex of third vein to apex 
of second, ovipositor of female greatly flattened, legs yellow; length 
5 to 6.5 mm. Four males and four females. Paratypes returned to 
Mr. Lounsbury. 

Ilahltat. — East London, Cape Colony, Africa. 

Type.—OAi. No. 5789, U.S.N.M. 

Near hhiotatus Loew, as 1 identify it, ))ut with nuich paler legs and 
flattened, instead of cylindrical, ovipositor. 

CERATITIS RUBIVORA, new species. 

Head yellowish, a gray spot streaked with ])lack a])ove the neck and 
sending a wide stripe to each eye, a black ocellar dot; mouth parts 
and antennai yellow, the arista short plumose, brown, the base yellow, 
antenna' three-fourths as long as the face, front in both sexes bearmg 
oidy normal bristles; thorax yellowish brown, largel}^ grayish prui- 
uose, mesonotum marked on each side with a broad, interrupted, black, 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

polished sti'i})(' iiiid with thi'ec narrow, indistinct, hlack, mcdiiin lines 
which at their posterior ends expand so as to meet each other; between 
this ])oijit and the sciitelluni is a transverse pair of })olished, whitish 
spots, humeri whitish, iip})er part of mesopleura yellow; sciitelhmi 
yellow, the outer margin marked with three black spots, metanotum 
polished black, crossed in the middle l)y a broad, transverse, opaque, 
grayish pruinose fascia emarg'inate in the middle of the lower edge, 
two yellow spots on each side of the metathorax; abdomen yellowish, 
the third and fifth segments, except a large triangular spot in middle 
of each, black; wings hyaline, a brown crossband on a line with the 
humeral crossvein, followed by a))out ten brown dots; a second l)rown 
crossband, yellowish in the vicinity of the small crossvein, extends 
from the costa beyond apex of auxiliary vein to apex of the sixth, 
including the small crossvein in its outer portion; a brown stripe, yel- 
lowish in the central part, extends close to the costa from l)eyond apex 
of first vein to beyond apex of the third, its margins marked with 4 or 
5 darker brown dots; an elongated, oblique, brown spot on the fourth 
vein before its apex, and a larger one bordering the hind crossvein; 
legs yellow, in the male the front femora marked with a black streak 
on the iq^per and another on the posterior side, middle femora on the 
broad apex, except a streak on the anterior side and the extreme apex, 
black; hind femora with a black spot before apex of under side pro- 
longed as a streak in the middle of the anterior side; middle tibise, 
except the extreme ends, black; in the male the under side of middle 
femora on the apical half, also the inner and outer sides of the middle 
til)ia^, densely fringed with long flattened bristles; halteres 3'ellowish; 
ovipositor of female greatly flattened, the basal piece as long as the 
last two abdominal segments; length 4 to 5 nun. Fifteen males and 
ten females. Paratypes returned to Mr. Lounsbury. 

Habitat. — Wynberg, Cape Colony, Africa. 

Type.^C^t. No. 5790, U.S.N.M. 

CERATITIS LYCII, new species. 

Head yellow, a black spot above the neck, sending a branch to each 
eye, a black spot in the :niddle of upper part of face; antenuic yellow, 
three-fourths as long as the face, proboscis brown, the palpi yellow; 
body black, mesonotum opaque, grayish pruinose, the margin, pro- 
duced inward at the front and hind angles and in the middle in front, 
also a pair of round dots behind the suture, polished; a spot on the 
humerus uniting with a broad stripe on upper edge of pleura, also a 
sinuous, interrupted line at base of scutellum, light yellowish; abdo- 
men polished, the posterior portion of the first and third segments 
opaque, whitish pruinose, remainder of third segment opaque, l)rown- 
ish pruinose; ovipositor Hat beneath, convex above, the basal portion 



N(..i-M3. DIPTEllA FROM SOrrilKIiy AFRICA— ('(H J UILJJ'JjT. 31 

as lonjr as tlic last two atxloiiiiiial seg'iiicnts; wings hyaline, a hroad 
brown ci'ossband on a line witli luuneral crossvein, followed ])y >■> or 4 
longitudinal brown streaks and al)out t» brown dots, a second brown 
crossband extends from l)eyond apex of aiixiliar}' vein to apex of last 
vein, at the eosta uiiitt'd witii a broad brown stripe that extends along 
the eosta to niidAvay ))etween apices of third and fourth veins, filling 
the costal margin to the third vein and near middle of last section of 
the latter sending a branch obliquely to the wing margin below apex 
of fourth vein; the second crossband also sends a branch from the 
small crossvein obliquely to the apex of the fifth vein, covering the 
hind crossvein; the costal margin is very narrowly hyaline betweeen 
apices of the first and third veins, except a pair of 1)rown dots between 
apices of first and second veins; extreme ])ase of wings yellowish; 
legs, including the front coxaj, yellow; length 4 nnn. Two female 
specimens. 

lluh'dat. — Cape Colony, Africa. 

Tijp<-.~Q'^t. No. 571)1," U.S.N.M. 

ZAPRIONUS, new genus, DROSOPH I LI D^«. 

Near Dro-sojjhlla, but the head longer than high, the front femora 
of the male with tubercles on the under sides, the bristly hairs of 
mesonotiun arranged in distinct rows, and the front and thorax marked 
with silvery white lines. Front noticeably longer than wide, narrow- 
ing anteriorly, two pairs of vertical, one pair of ocellar, and one of 
postvertical bristles, two pairs of reclinate and more anteriorly one 
proclinate pair of orbital bristles, vibrissa? stout, middle of face with 
a ver^^ high, broad, rounded carina, antennas three-fourths as long as 
the face, the third joint one and a half times as long as broad, arista 
bearing five long bristles on the upper side and two on the lower, 
clypeus projecting far beyond the oral margin; proboscis robust, 
labella fleshy, palpi large, eyes slightly higher than long, densely 
pubescent ; thorax bearing two pairs of dorsocentral bristles, the 
bristly hairs between the two dorsocentral rows arranged in six dis- 
tinct rows; five supra-alar bristles, the anterior one in front of the 
suture, two humeral, two posthumerai and two sternopleural bristles, 
scutellum bearing four bristles, otherwise bare; auxiliar}" vein distinct 
at its base only, small and hind crossveins present, second basal cell 
confluent with the discal, anal cell present, the vein at its apex reach- 
ing about halfway to the wing-margin, axillary angle distinct; front 
femora of male somewhat thickened, on the apical two-thirds of the 
under side bearing a row of four short, black, forwardl}^ directed 
tubercles, each of which bears at the base of the posterior side a back- 
wardh' directed spinous bristle; middle and hind femora and ail tibia? 
without bristles except one at apex of inner side of each middle tibia. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Type, the followin<i' species: 

ZAPRIONUS VITTIGER, new species. 

Head and its nicnibcrs y^How, front opacjue, dark reddish yellow, 
a silvery white line along each eye and next to this a dark brown line, 
a }>lack ocellar dot, several short bristly hairs on lower half of front, 
eyes bordered with whitish, outer side of second antennal joint largely 
white, the third joint and the arista brown; mesonotum and scutellum 
rich dark reddish brown, opaque, the former marked with four nearly 
ecjuidistant silvery white lines bordered with dark brown, the median 
pair prolonged over the scutellum, the others passing just above the 
posthumeral bristles; pleura marked with a median white lino, the 
portion above it yellowish brown, that below it yellow; metathorax 
brownish yellow, abdomen polished, yellowish brown; legs yellow; 
wings grayish hyaline; length, 2.5 to 3 nmi. Three male specimens. 

llahitat. — Cape Colony, Africa. 

Type— 0<it. No. 6792, U.S.N.M. 



A K^:vIE^v of the (ioiuoii) fishes of japan, with 

DESCUIPTIONS OF TWENTY-ONE NEW SPECIES. 



By David Stark Jordan and John Ottekbein Snyder, 

Of tJie Leland Stanford Junior Universitij. 



In the present paper is given a d(;,scriptive catalog-uc of tiic species 
of gobies found in the waters of Japan. It is l)ased primarily on the 
larg-e collection made l)y the authors in Japan in the sunnuer of 1900, 
under the auspices of the Hopkins Biological Lahoratorj^ of Stanford 
Universit}'. Numerous additional specimens have been presented by 
the Imperial University of Tokyo through Dr. Kakichi Mitsukuri, 
and by the Imperial Museum of Japan through Dr. Chiyomatsu Ishi- 
kawa. The gobies collected by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer 
Albatross in 1900, the collections in the United States National 
Museum, and the collections of Professor Keinosuke Otaki in 1895 and 
189B have also been considered, as well as the collections made by Mr. 
Pierre Louis Jou}^ in 1885. 

A series of typical specimens are in the U. S. National Museum and 
in the Imperial University of Tok\'o. Duplicates have been presented 
to several other institutions. 

The accompanying drawings are the work of Mrs. Chloe Lesley 
Starks, artist of the Hopkins laboratory, and of Mr. A. H. Baldwin. 

MEASUREMENTS. 

The measurements given in the tables were made by means of 
dividers and a proportional scale. In some cases they will be of great 
value as an aid in discriminating between closely related species. It 
is believed also that they will show, in an approximately definite wa}', 
some of the variations of certain characters useful in the determination 
of relationships. 

They are expressed in hundredths of the length of the body, which 
is measured from the tip of the snout to the end of the last vertebra. 
The depth of the body is measured at its deepest part; depth of caudal 
peduncle at its narrowest place; length of caudal peduncle from base 
of last anal ray to end of last vertebra; length of head from tip of 
snout to posterior edge of opercle; length of snout from its tip to 
anterior margin of orbit; width of interorbital space measured on 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1244. 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 8 33 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

the skull, the dividers compressed tightl}' between the ej'es; diameter 
of orbit, long'itudinally; length of caudal tin from end of last vertebra 
to tip of longest rays. Only fully developed fin rays are counted; the 
rudimentary rays of dorsal and anal when closely adnate to the first 
branched ray, are counted with it as one ray ; when the soft dorsal contains 
a spine, it is einunerated as a ray. When last ray of dorsal or anal is 
double it is counted as one. Scales in the lateral series are counted to 
base of caudal fin; transverse series from insertion of ventrals or anal, 
whichever is nearer middle of body, upward and forward; above or 
below lateral line as indicated in the description. 

Family GOBIID.E. 

THE GOBIES. 

Body oblong or elongate, naked or covered with ctenoid or cycloid 
scales. Dentition various, the teeth generallv small )»ut sometimes 
developed into great canines; premaxillaries protractile; suborbital 
without bony stay. Skin of head continuous with covering of (\ves. 
Eyes usually moderate, sometimes concealed. Opercle unarmed; pre- 
opercle unarmed, or with a short spine; pseudobranchia' present or 
absent. Gills 4, a slit behind the fourth; gill meml)rancs more or less 
united to the isthmus, the gill openings thus restricted to the .sides. 
No lateral line. Dorsal fins separate or connected, the spinous dorsal 
short, of !2 to S flexible spines, oi" sometimes wanting; anal usually 
with a single weak spine, the fin similar to soft dorsal; ventral fins 
close together, separate or united, each composed of a short spine and 
3 or 4 soft rays, the inner rays usually longest; the ventral fins when 
united form a sucking disk, a cross fold of skin at their base complet- 
ing the cup; caudal fin convex: anal papilla prominent. No pyloric 
CKca; usually no air bladder. Carnivorovis fishes, mostly t)f small 
size, living on the bottoms near the shores in warm regions. Some 
inhabit fresh waters and others live indiscriminately in either fresh or 
salt water; man}" of them Imi'v in the nuid of estuaries. Few of them 
are large enough to be of nmch value as food. The species are for 
the most part easily recognized, l)ut their arrangement in genera is 
a matter of extreme difiiculty. ITntil the multitude of Asiatic forms 
are critically studied, an}^ definition of the Japanese genera must be 
tentative only. 

ANALY.SI.S OF CiENKKA OF JAPANESE GOBIID.K. 

I. Soft dorsal ami anal fruc from the caudal; body olilonij ov moderati'ly elontiate; 
eyes distinct; no deep pit above the opercle. 
(I. Spinous dorsal well developed, of 6 or more rays; ventral lins well develo])ed; 
body well scaled in all Japanese species. 
h. Oxymi'iopvntiyix. Ventral rays I, 4, the two lins wholly sei>arate; tongue 
pointed; mouth oblique, 
c. Body elongate, compressed; scales small, cycloid; chin with a thick barbel 
followed by 3 smaller ones. Dorsal rays about VI-25; isthmus narrow; 
caudal with filaments Vireosa. 1 



i 



N0.1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 35 

bb. Ventral rays I, 5. 

(/. Eh'otrimr. Ventral fins entirely separate; pectorals normal; eyes not 
erectile; body scaly more or less. 
e. Vomer taothless. 
/. Preopercle without spine. 

g. Scales very larjre, 25 to 30; fins high; l)o<ly short, compressed. 

Aaterropteryx. 2 

(j(j. Scales moderate or small, 40 tu 100; body not nuich compressed. 

/t. Head not depressed above; scales very small, ctenoid; dorsal 

spines filamentous; isthmus broad Valenciennea. 3 

}ih. Head dei)ressed Ijehind eyes; scales moderate, ctenoid; dorsal 

spines not elevated; isthmus very narrow OdontobuUs. 4 

ff. Preoi)ercle with a concealed, hook-likespine; scales moderate, ctenoid; 

isthmus l:)road; dorsal spines low .Eleotrk. 5 

dd. Ventral fins joined at least at Ijase. 

/. I'eriophtlialmina: Pectoral fin with a scaly umscular base; eyes 
erectile; ventral fins joined at base or to the tip; no barbels; scales 
very small, cycloid; isthmus broad; tongue short, rounded, scarcely 
free at tip. 

h. Dorsal rays about V-25; head with fine roughnesses; ventral fins 
united; upper jaw with large exserted teeth; lower teeth hori- 
zontal Bok'ophthahiim. 6 

/(//. Dorsal rays about X to XV-12; head with small scales; ventral 
fins deeply notched; teeth not horizontal and not exserted. 

Perioph(h(dmas. 7 
ff. (lohiiiuv. Pectoral fins without scaly nmscular base; ventral fins 
large, completely united and not adnate to the belly; eyes not 
erectile; dorsal spines 6 or more; body well covered with scales. 
(. Teeth all simple, none of them trifid. 
j. Chin and lower side of head without barbels. 

k. Soft dorsal and anal short, each of 9 to 12 (rarely IS or 
14 ) soft rays. 

I. Cheeks and opercles with large scales; scales on body 

large, ctenoid; dorsal spines 6 Hazem. 8 

II. Cheeks naked; opercles chiefly or entirely naked. 

m. Tongue truncate or rounded or pointed at tip; gill 

openings chiefly (■(jnfined to the sides, sejiarated l)y 

a rather broad isthmus. 

u. Scales ctenoid, rather large, mouth moderate; 

. head not nuich depressed anteriorly or between 

the eyes, chin not prominent; isthnuis broad. 

p. Pectoral with silk-like free rays above; dorsal 

spines (i Gohhi.^. 9 

pj). Pectoral without silk-like free rays above. 

q. Dorsal spine 6 Cienogohius. 10 

([([. Dorsal spines 7 to 9 Aboma. 11 

oo. Scales minute, cycloid; dorsal spines 6; head 
compressed," convex above, mouth large, 
oblicpie, l)Ut not opening widely; no silk-like 
rays on pectorals; some of the dorsal spines 
often elongate; isthmus narrow. 

CrgplocentruH. 12 

mm. Tongue emarginate at tip; mouth very large, isth- 

nms narrow, the gill openings extending forward 

below, head low, depressed, flat between the eyes. 



3() PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

r. Pectoral without silk-] ike rays above; fhin 
prominent. 
s. Scales rather large, al)out 40; dorsal 
spines 6. 

(ilo><t<U(/0blUK. 13 

AS. Scales minute, 80 to 100. 

/. Dorsal spines 6 Clui-noijohmx. 14 

It. Dorsal spines 7 or 8 Chloea. 15 

rr. Pectoral with silk-like rays above; chin 
not i^rominent, head very l)road, de- 
pressed; scales minute, (myeloid. 

Chat^miufi. 16 
kk. Soft dorsal and anal long, the former of 14 to 30 rays; dorsal 
spines 7 to 10. 

u. Scales very small, often cycloid; 
tongue rounded; head compressed, 
narrow above, isthmus rather nar- 
row, mouth moderate, ol>lique; 
pectoral with free silk-like rays 
above; soft dorsal and anal rays 
numerous, slender; color bright. 
Fterogobivs. 17 
uu. Scales moderate, ctenoid; mouth 
moderate; isthmus broad. 
r. Soft dorsal moderate, of 14 to 20 
rays. 
IV. Cheeks naked ; snout sliort, very 
l)luntly decurved; mouth 
large, very oblique; pectorals 
without silk-like rays. 

SuriKjd. 18 
imv. Cheeks scaly, at least above; 
snout long, moderately de- 
curved. 
X. Pectorals without free silk-like 
rays above. 

AcaiifJiogohius. 19 

XX. Pectorals with free silk^like 

rays above ...Sagamla. 20 

vv. Soft dorsal very long, of 20 or more 

rays; body elongate; caudal 

pointed; cheeks naked. 

Synechogobiii.s. 21 
;'/. Cbin and edge ni lower jaw with barbels. 

.'■. Dorsal short, about (5 to 11; 
scales ctenoid, moderate; 
barbels many on each side; 
isthmus broad; (a black 
ocellus on base of caudal 
above). 

Faraduclurichthys. 22 
XX. Dorsals long, the rays VIII- 
14 to 25. 



i 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FTSIIES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 87 

y. Barbels about 3 on each side; 
cheeks scaly; scales cy- 
cloid, deciduous, of moder- 
atesize; caudalfin pointed; 
isthmus narrow. 

Chxtnrichthys. 23 
yy. Barbels about 10 on each 
side; isthmus narrow; 
scales moderate, rather 
firm; caudal lin truncate; 
dorsal rays short VIII-15. 
Ainosus. 24 
//. Teeth trilid in tlie outer series, the inner series simple; body 
robust, covered with rather large ctenoid scales; head very 
broad; cheeks tumid, scaleless; tongue rounded; gill openings 
separated by a broad isthmus; pectoral without silky rays; ven- 
tral s as in Gohina, not adnate to the belly; dorsal spines 6; soft 
dorsal and anal short. 

z. Edge of preopercle, pre- 
orbital, and ramiof lower 
jaw with fringes of bar- 
bels; a large pore be- 
hind eye. 

Tri nil opngon. 25 
zz. Edge of preopercle, pre- 
orbital, and lower jaw 
without l)arbels. 

Tridentiger. 26 

(in. lAiciogohiimr. Spinous dorsal wanting or reduced to a rudiment of less than 

6 rays; ventrals small, united in a short, rounded flap; body naked or with 

small embedded scales; head broad, depressed above, with tumid cheeks; 

teeth simple; soft dorsal and anal of moderate length. 

It' . Spinovis dorsal present, of three small spines; isthmus broad. 

//. Body short and deep; the skin largely scaly . Aslrahf. 27 

hi/. Body elongate. 

<■' . Mouth large, oblique, the chin projecting; body chiefly naked; insertion of 

dorsal opposite that of anal ; subor])ital with barbels danger. 28 

rc^. ^louth small, the chin included; body largely scaly; insertion of dorsal 
far in front of that of anal; suborbital without barbels. 

Eiitun lichtlnitt. 29 
(III'. Spinous dorsal wanting. 

'/'. Isthmus broad; anal lin moderate, its insertion almost dire(;tly below 
that of dorsal ; mouth large, obii(jno; coloration dark. 

Luciogobliis. 30 

(IiF. Isthmus very narrow, the gill ojienings continued forwai'd below; anal 

long, its insertion consi<lerably liefore that of dorsal; mouth moderate; 

color translucent Iy('iico))snrion. 31 

11. Soft dorsal and anal very long, joined to the caudal; body eel-sliaped, elongate 
and compressed, naked, or covered with very small scales. 

*'. Trypauchenma'. Temporal region with a deep pit; eyes distinct, small; 
teeth small; ventral fins small. 

f. Ventral fins divided, but united at base Trypaudien. 32 

re'. Gohioidmiv. Temporal region without fossa; eyes scarcely visible; 
teeth very long; curved, fang-like. 
g'. Soft dorsal and anal very long, of 35 to 50 rays each. 

Tanioiiles. 33 



38 PROCEEDTNGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

1. VIREOSA Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 
Vireosa Jordan and Snyder, new genus {Jiarue). 

'Body greatl}^ elongate, compressed, covered with minute, c^ycloid, 
separated, partly omiiedded scales; head naked, comparatively^ short, 
the forehead l)lunt, rounded; eyes large; chin with a long, flat barbel, 
followed by three smaller ones. Mouth large, sul)vertical; soiue of 
the teeth long; small canines present. Ventral lins entirely separate, 
the rays I, 4. Caudal fin with the upper and lower rays ending in 
long filaments. Dorsal spines not produced, the raj^s about YI-25; 
anal fin long. Gill openings wide, the isthmus narrow; gill-rakers 
long and slender, pseudo-branchia? present. 

A single species known, from the coast of Japan. The genus is not 
close to anj^ other, l^eing nearest Pfcreleotrh and Oxi/metopon. ( IV/vy>, 
to grow green, the name of a genus of l)irds.) 

I. VIREOSA HANJE, Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 5^ in length; depth, 6i; depth of caudal peduncle, 9i; eye, 3f 
in head; snout, 4i; maxillary, 2|; D. VI-25; A. 25; P. 21. 

Body very long; slender; compressed; caudal peduncle deep. Head 
short; its depth contained li times in its length. Interorbital space 
slightly convex; the distance between the eyes al)out e<|ual to their 




Fig. 1. — Vireosa hanje. 

longitudinal diameter. E^^e large; directed laterally. Snout shorter 
than diameter of eye; blunt. Lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. 
Cleft of mouth large; almost vertical. Maxillary extending to a per- 
pendicular passing midway between pupil and anterior edge of orbit; 
entirely concealed. Teeth in upper jaw in 2 series; the outer con- 
sisting of a few large, curved, fang-like canines; the inner of minute, 
simple teeth, growing close up to and between the canines; side of 
lower jaw with canines, 2 of which are notably large; minute teeth 
growing between the larger ones; posteriorly the jaw curves upward; 
its surface having a row of minute teeth. Tongue slender; compressed 
laterally; the tip free. Gill openings wide; extending forward below; 
the width of isthmus separating them about equal to half the diameter 
of eye. Inner edge of shoulder girdle without protuberances. Pseudo- 
branchiffi present. Gill-rakers on first aich long; slender; close set. 



NO. 1-4 1. aoiUOIl) FISHES OF JAPAN— JOItDAN AXD SXYDER. 39 



Chin with a large, median, flat barbel, al)out as long a.s the diameter 
of eye, followed l)v 3 minute ones which are concealed when the large 
one is depressed. Nostrils without tubes. 

Head naked. Body with minute, cycloid, parti}' embedded scales; 
smaller and farther apart anteriorly; larger and more close together 
post(M'i(>rly. The scales appear to the unaided eye like shallow depres- 
sions in the skin. 

Dorsals separate; the spines slender and flexible; the first 5 close 
together and evenly spaced; the sixth far removed; the distance 
l)etween its base and that of the sixth about equal to the space occu- 
pied 1>y the first 5; the last spine when depressed reaching insertion 
of soft dorsal. Anal inserted l)elow the fourth or fifth ray of dorsal; 
the rays when depressed extending a little farther posteriori}' than 
those of dorsal; neither reaching base of caudal. Caudal long; the 
upper and lower rays with long, ribbon-like filaments. Ventrals long; 
divided to the base; ra^'s I, ^; the spine slender. 

Color in spirits, whitish; growing brownish above; a narrow light 
band on posterior part of liody, running from a point a little a])ove 
insertion of dorsal, backward and upward to near middle of base of 
caudal; body l^elow the band yellowish white; eye with a slightly 
oblique silvery ])and a))out as wide as the or])it. Dorsal fins somewhat 
dusk}'; center of caudal dusky; upper and lower parts lighter; upper 
filaments pearly white; the lower ones dusky; anal light, with a nar- 
now, pearly band at base; pectoral with an indistinct, crescent-shaped 
light mark near its base. 

In life the upper parts are l)luish, becoming green on upper part of 
head with a shade of violet below the green; a reddish ])lotch at base 
of pectoral; lateral l>and above anal, brick red; the l)and extending on 
the caudal, where the reddish color ])ecomes diffused over the fin al)ove 
and ])elow. Spinous dorsal light l)lue, with a tinge of pink; violet at 
l)ase, becoming greenish aV)ove; 2 indistinct, narrow, l)lue lines run- 
ning horizontally near upper edge of fin; caudal bluish, tinged with 
red; the filaments greenish; pectorals and vt^ntrals with l)luish and 
greenish tints. 

The upper edge of the dorsal fins is damaged, so that the height of 
the rays can not l)e determined. The tips of the pectoral rays are 
broken ofl'. The upper edge of the fins shows no trace of filaments. 

Measurements. — Length of body, expressed in millimeters, 94; depth, 
expressed in hundredths of length, 15; depth of caudal peduncle, 10; 
length of head, 18; length of snout, 4^; width of interor])ital space, 4; 
diameter of orbit, 5^; distance from snout to spinous dorsal, 25; from 
snout to soft dorsal, 48; distance from snout to anal, 52^; height of 
longest anal rays, 13; length of caudal peduncle, 10; length of caudal 
fin, without filaments, 22; with filaments, 52; length of ventral fins, 17. 

7//y>(. — No. G444, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 



40 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Kuro Shiwo of Japan, one specimen known; taken oil' Misaki in a 
net used to sweep for J/y.sv'.s, by Professor Mitsukuri. Its colors iji 
life are singularly delicate. 

{I [(ma., a flower, the name of Professor Mitsukuri's daughter. ) 

2. ASTERROPTERYX Ruppell. 

yls/f)T0^9i!myj- RtippELL, Atlas, Kei.se in Nonl Afrika, 1S2S, p. 13S (ftt't)tij»tvflnlv>i). 

Priolepis EiiRENBERG flde Bleekcr. 

Ili/pselrniriff Gill, Proe. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 270 {ryprinoides). 

Body short, deep, compressed, covered with large, nearl}^ smooth 
scales; eyes moderate; mouth moderate, the teeth medium, uniserial; 
chin prominent; no teeth on vomer; no spines on preopercle; dorsals 
separate, the first of six spines, the second like the anal short and high. 
Ventrals separate, close together, each I, 5. Gill openings moderate. 

Species rather numerous in the East Indian region, one of them 
ranging north to plapan. 

(affryjp, star: Trrepv^. tin.) 

2. ASTERROPTERYX ABAX Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 4 in length: depth if: depth of caudal peduncle 6|-; e3'e 3f in 
head; snout 4|; D. VI-11: A. 9; P. IH; scales in lateral series 28; 
in transverse series S. 

Body rather short, greatly compressed; caudal peduncle very deep. 
Head large; snout short; ])hintly rounded. Mouth oblique. Maxil- 
lary reaching a perpendicular through posterior edge of orbit. Lips 








ASTKRKIIITKRVX ABAX. 



thick. Anterior nostril with a high tube. Jaws without barbels, 
r^yes high in head, direct(^d almost lateralh'; interorbital space very 
narrow. Cheeks fleshy, though not nnich pufled out. Mouth well 
furnished with strong teeth; upper jaw with 2 series; an outer row of 
small canines, wideh^ spaced; an inner, narrow band of minute, simple 
teeth; lower jaw with ?> sei-ies: the (uiter and inncM- of hii"g(> canines; 



N0.1211. aonioiD FISHES of japan— jonnAX and sxydfr. 



41 



.slightly curved; widel}^ spaced; a narrow hand 'of villifonn teeth 
between the canines. No teeth on vomer. Gill opening' not extending 
far foi'ward; the isthmus l)road. No papillse on inner edge of shoulder 
girdle. Gill-rakers much reduced in size. 

Head naked: large pores on interorbital space and l)ehind eyes; a 
space anterior to dorsal and extending backward a short distance along 
its base, and the region anterior to pectoral and ventral tins naked; 
other parts of the bod}^ with large, smooth scales. Anal papilla? con- 
spicuous; its distal end fringed. 

Fins markedly prominent; dorsals close together; the tirst spine 
elongate; when depressed reaching a little beyond insertion of soft 
dorsal; the latter, when depressed, reaching past base of caudal. Anal 
inserted below l)ase of second or third dorsal ray; when depressed not 
reaching so far posteriorly as does the dorsal. Caudal large, rounded. 
Pectoral pointed; its upper edge without filamentous rays. Ventrals 
separated at base b}' a space about equal to half the diameter of eye; 
sharply pointed; the inner ray much longer than the others. 

Color in spirits, light olive; each scale with a dark border; head 
with black spots, a large prominent one on each side of nape; a median 
one posterior to these; 2 distinct spots immediately anterior to base of 
pectoral; rays of dorsals and caudal with small black spots; a vertical 
I'OAV of elongate spots on base of caudal; anal, pectorals, and ventrals 
with considerable dusk}^ color. 

Other specimens were lighter in color, the distinctive markings 
being more or less plainly represented. 

TyjM\- — No. 6445, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 
Locality, Misaki, Sagami, Japan. 

(a/:iixS, a checker-board.) 

ifcasiirrmciitfi of Aslcrroptrri/.r (thci.r. 



Lcnfrth in millimotcrs 

Dt'ptli expn-sscd in hundredtlis of lunpth. 

Dc'i)t h ( if ciiudal peduncle 

LeiiKth of head 

Length of snout 

Leiifitli of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distiiiice from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Heislit of lousiest dorsal spines 

HeiKht of loim'est d( irsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal lin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal ]ieil\nicle 

Length of cati<lal fin 

Length of pectoral tin 

Length of ^•entral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Numlicr of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



33 


32 


30 


2U 


23 i 


22 


16 


16 


16 


25 


26 


27 





6 


C 


m 


n 


in 


2 


n 


2 


8 


6 


6 


34 


36 


36 


52 


54 


52 


26 


28 


30 


21 


21 


20 


55 


57 


60 


22 


21 


20 


25 


27 


26 


28 




25 


27 


28 


27 


22 


24 


24 


6 


6 


6 


11 


11 


11 


9 


9 


9 


16 


16 


16 


23 


23 


23 


8 


8 


8 



42 PROCEEDINCiS OF THE NATIONAI. MUSEUM. voi.xxiv. 

8. VALENCIENNEA Sleeker. 

Valeneiennea Bleeker, Boeroe, 1856, p. 412 {strigata) . 
Calleleotris Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 270 {strigata). 
Valenciennesia Bleeker, Archives Nederl., 1874, p. 307 {Ktrigata). 
Gohiomorns Gill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, p. 69 {taiboa = t^tr'igata; not nf Lace- 
pede, 1801; type gi-oiumi = Nomeus, Cuvier). 

This g-eniis is allied to Eleotris., hiiving the same general form. 
Body rather elongate; head not much depressed, with no spine or 
bony crests. Mouth moderate, the jaws siibequal, the teeth uniserial 
or nearly so, unequal; no yomerine teeth; pharyngeal teeth sharp; 
no preopercular spine; head naked, body covered with small, ctenoid 
scales; isthmus very broad; dorsal spines 6, elevated; soft dorsal and 
anal short; caudal convex; ventrals separate, the rays I, 5. 

East Indies; species not ver}' numerous, one of theiu extending 
northward to the Riu Kiu Islands. 

(Named for Achille Valenciennes, the distinguished associate of 
Cuvier.) 

3. VALENCIENNEA MURALIS (Quoy and Gaimard) . 

Eleotris murali.'i Quoy and Gaimard, manuscript, Cuvier and Valenciennes, XII, 
1837, p. 253, pi. cccLVii, Tukopia. — Bleeker, Amlwyna and Ceram, p. 276, 
Ainboyna, Ceram. — GIjnther, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 130, I'hilipj)ines. — 
IsHiKAWA, Cat. Fish., 1897, p. 38, Miyakoshima Is., Riukiu. 

Valeneiennea muralis Bleeker, Boeroe, 1856, p. 412, Boeroe. 

Eleotriodes muralis Bleeker, Goram, p. 212, Gorani. ■ 

Eleotris longipinnis Lay and Bennett, Beechey's Voyage of the Blossom, 1839, 
p. 64, pi. XX, fig. 3, Riukiu, Coll. Lay and Collie. 

Head 3f; depth 5 to 6; D. Vl-1,12; A. 1, 12. Scales 80. Interor- 
bital space half diameter of eye; second, third, and fourtli dorsal 
spines filamentous. (;olor clear green, l)rOwnish in spirits; head and 
body with red longitudinal bands; l)ack with some irregular dark cross 
bars; fins 3'ellow; first dorsal with a lilack spot l)ehind the top of the 
third spine; dorsal and anal fins with red longitudinal bands; caudal 
with red and brown spots. (Giinther.) 

East Indies; not rare. Two Japanese records, the one that of Lay 
and Collie, from Riukiu, with a poor sketch, which does not agree 
with the description, the dorsal filaments being ])roken; the other 
that of a specimen from Miyakoshima in the Riu Kiu Islands, noted 
by Dr. Ishikawa. 

{Mnvdlh^ pertaining to a wall, the color markings resembling the 
lines in a stone wall: "forment un dessin semblable ii des assises de 
pierre de taille.") 

4. ODONTOBUTIS Bleeker. 
Odontohulis Bleeker, Archives Nerlandaises, IX, 1»74, p. 305 {ohscurus) . 

Body stout, not compressed, covered with rather large, ctenoid scales. 
Head large, scaly on top and sides, depressed at the crown; no l)ony 
crests above; mouth rather large, oblique, the chin projecting; teeth 



X0.1241. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAX AND SNYDER. 43 

short, in broad bands; no teeth on vomer; tongue broad, rounded; 
no preopercular spine; isthmus very narrow, the gill membranes 
alniost separate, and not united with the isthmus; branchiostegals 
unarmed. Dorsal fins short and low, the first of seven spines; ven- 
trals moderate, separate, each 1, 5. 

Japan and China, entering rivers; resem])ling- in form and haint the 
American genus Dormitator. 

{odovz^ tooth; Bidh a related genus, the name of Indian vernacuhxr 
origin.) 

4. ODONTOBUTIS OBSCURUS (Schlegel). 
KAWASUSUKT. 

EJeotris ohscura Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poissons, 1847, p. 149, pi. lxxvii, 
figs. 1-.3; streams tributary to the bay of Nagasaki. — GtiNTHER, Cat. Fishes, 
III, 1861, p. 115, .Japan, Chikiang. — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat. Fishes Imp. Mus., 
1897, p. 37, Lake P>i\va, Mail)ara, Matsubara, Hikone, Yamashiro, Yamato, 
Tsuyama. 

Odontohntiii ohscura .Tordan and Snyder, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. .370, 
Yokohama. 

Head 2f in length; depth 4; depth of caudal i:)eduncle 2f in head; 
eye fif; snout 3^; maxillary ^li; D. VII-9; A. 8; P. 15; scales in lat- 
eral series 3*), in transverse series If). 

Form ro))ust; the body thick-set; caudal peduncle deep; not much 
compressed. Head somewhat broader than the body, but less deep; 
snout long; pointed; the lower jaw projecting bej^ond the upper. Eye 
small; directed almost laterally; interorbital space concave; distance 
between eyes equal to about half their diameter. Mouth oblicpie; lips 
broad; maxillary concealed by lip and preor])ital; extending to a ver- 
tical through posterior edge of pupil. Tongue very ])road; rounded 
anteriorly. Teeth simple; in narrow ])ands on jaws; the outer ones 
not enlarged. Gill opening extending far forward; the isthmus nar- 
row. Inner edge of shoulder girdle without papillw. Gill-rakers on 
first arch 1 -f- 17; far apart; very stubby. Anterior nostril with a low 
tul)e. No l)arbels on chin. 

Occiput and cheeks with small scales; snout, preorbital area, chin 
and throat naked; liody with rather large, finely ctenoid scales. 

Dorsal fins separate; spinous dorsal when depressed just reaching 
insertion of soft dorsal. Anal inserted l)elow base of second or third 
dorsal ray; the posterior rays longest; reaching slightly farther pos- 
teriorly when depressed than does the dorsal; both falling far short of 
base of caudal. Caudel rounded. Pectorals acutely rounded; upper 
edge without filaments. Ventrals separate; the distance between their 
bases al)out equal to two-thirds the diameter of eye. 

Body with much l)rownish or bluish black, in blotches of irregular 
shai)e and distribution; sides with 7 or S indistinct, narrow, light, 
lateral bands, which are more evident posteriori}^ ; under part of head 
with large, light spots. 



44 



PROCEJ^niNaS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Soft dorsal and ;inal Avith dusky spots arranged in longitudinal rows; 
caudal with indistinct dark vertical bands; 2 or 3 on the })asal half of 
fin broadest; pectoral with indistinct, dark, vertical bands. 

Individuals from the same locality show considerable variation in 
color. Some are lighter, others darker than the one described. The 
light spots on the chin and throat are often represented by reticula- 
tions, while in some cases the white predominates, there being scarcely 
any dark color. Very young specimens have 3 dark bands passing- 
over the back, and a ])road band of dark color along the sides. 

Described from specimens from the Chikugo River, Kurume. This 
species reaches a length of nearly a foot. It is rather common in 
estuaries and I'iver mouths from Tokyo southward. Our specimens 
are from Tokyo Bay, Lake Biwa (Funaki), Chikugo River, at Kurume, 
and Kawatana, on the Bay of Omura. It is recorded by Giinther from 
Chikiang in China. 

(ohficuruf^, dusky. ) 



Measurements of Odontobutis obscurus. 



Length expressed in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of eandal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal sjiines 

Height of longest <1orsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal pedimcle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral tin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Nimiber of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



Chiktigo River, 


Tol 




Kurume; 


Jai 




Chikugo, Japan. 




114 


102 


82 


133 


123 


26 


24 


28 


26 


27 


14 


14 


14 


121 


13 


36 


35 


35 


35 


35 


11 


10 


10 


lU 


121 


15 


15 


10 


10 


15 


8 


9 


8 


8 


91 





H 


7 


6 


5i 


46i 


45 


46 


46 


46 


fi2i 


•f)3i 


64 


64 


64 


IH 


12 


lU 


14 


13 


15 


14 


15i 


15 


14 


69i 


67 


67 


711 


70 


15i 


Uh 


15i 


141 


15 


231 


23 


23 


. 22 


22 


26 


25 


20 


221 


23 


24 


25 


241 


211 


23 


17 


18i 


19 


101 


15^ 


•7 


'J 




8 


'? 


10 


9 


9 


10 


9 


,s 


9 


8 


8 


8 


35 


36 


34 


34 


32 


17 


16 


17 


14 


15 



B. ELEOTRIS (Gronow) Schneider. 

Eleotrh Gronow, Zoopli., 1763, ]>. S3 (nonbinomial). 
J^/eo<r(,s' Schneider, 8yst. Idith., 1801, p. 65 {jyisunis). 
Culiiis Bleeker, Arohiv. Neerl., IX, 1874,p. 303 {fnscus). 

Body long and low, compressed behind. Head long, low, flattened 
above, without spines or crests, almost everywhere scaly. Mouth 
large, ol)iique, lower jaw projecting. Lower pharyngeals rather 
broad, the teeth small, bluntish. Preoperclc with a small concealed 
spine lielow, its tip hooked forward. Branchiostegals unarmed. Ej^es 
small, high, anterior; isthmus l)road. Tongue ])road, rounded. Post- 
temporal bones very strongly divergent, their insertions close together; 



N0.1J44. aOBIOIl) FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 45 

top of skull somewhat elevated and declivous; interorbital area slightly 
c'onvcx transversely; dorsal tins well apart, the first of 5 or 6 low, 
flexible spines; v^entruls separate. Scales moderate, ctenoid, 45 to 70 
in a lon^^'itudinal scries; vertebra? {plsonls) 114-15. Tropical seas, 
entering- fresh waters. 

{i/Xeorpiz^ name of some small tish in the Nile, possibly from i}Xe6g^ 
bewildered, or f"A.eog, a pitiable thing.) 

a. Scales small, about 70. Scales of sides with dark centers, forming longitudinal 
streaks; usually a dusky lateral band; dorsal and caudal with distinct series 

of ])rown dots, anal and pectoral faintly barre< I fusca. 5 

an. Scales larger, about 50. Sides with pale streaks along the series of scales and 
with ilark dots; head below with round, pale spots; fins with serrated 
brown bands uxycephala. 6 

5. ELEOTRIS FUSCA (Schneider). 

Pacilia fusca Schneujer, Bloch, Syst., 1801, p. 453. (After Cobitis jxuujira Forster 

MS. Insuhe oviadte.) 
Eleotris fusca GvJiTHEii, Cat. Fishes, III, 1861, p. 125, Ganges, Calcutta, Bengal, 

Amboyna, Aneitum, Oualan, Wanderer Bay, Cejdon, Canton.— Ishikawa, 

Prel. Cat. Fishes, 1897, p. 31, Riukiu Islands. 
Cheilodiptcrus culms Buchanan and Hamilton, Fish. Ganges, p. 55, pi. v, fig. 16, 

Ganges. 
Eleotris nigra Quoy and Gaimard, Zool. Voy. Freycinct, ZooL, p. 259, pi. lx, 

fig. 2, Guam, Waigiou. — Cuviek and Valenciennes, XII, 1837, p. 235; Isle 

de France, Ganges, IMalabar, Bombay, Java, Otaiti, Borabora, Society 

Islands, Madagascar. 
Culius niger Bleeker, Boeroe, p. 411, Boeroe. 
Eleotris mauritianus Bennett, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc, I, 1831, p. 166, Mauritius. 

Head 3^ in length; depth 4; depth of caudal peduncle ^ in head; 
eye 6; snout 3|; maxillary 2i; D. Vl-9; A. 9; P, 18; scales in lateral 
series 73; in transverse series 23. 

Body low, deep; compressed posteriorly; the caudal peduncle deeper 
and more compressed than that of E. oxycejj/iala. Eyes small; directed 
almost laterally; interobital space flat; distance Ijetween eyes slightly 
greater than length of snout. Snout sharp; lower jaw projecting. 
Mouth oblique: lips rather narrow; maxillar}^ almost entirel}^ con- 
cealed, extending to a vertical passing between pupil and posterior 
edge of orbit. Tongue rounded anteriorly. Teeth simple: in bands 
on })oth jaws; the outer and inner ones slightly enlarged; a narrow 
naked space on lower jaw at the symphysis. Gill openings not extend- 
ing far forward below; width of isthnms about equal to length of 
maxillar}'. Gill-rakers on flrst arch 2 + 10; reduced to mere eleva- 
tions. Inner edge of shoulder girdle without papilhe. Nostrils 
small; the anterior with a tube. No barbels on jaw. Edge of pre- 
opercle with a strong, sharp spine, which projects downward and for- 
ward. 

Head almost completely scaled; a small, naked area in front of the 
eye and on anterior part of chin: minute scales on upper part of head, 
running forward on snout: on cheeks, rami of lower jaw, and on 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

branchiostegal region. Body covered everywhere with small scales; 
those on nape, breast, and belly c3^cloid; on sides weakly ctenoid. 

Dorsal spines slender; flexible; the tips with short, projecting flla- 
ments; the spines when depressed reaching slightly beyond insertion 
of soft dorsal. Caudal rounded. Anal rays longest posteriori}^; when 
depressed they reach as far ])ackward as do those of the dorsal, both 
falling far short of reaching the base of caudal. Pectorals pointed; 
the upper rays without free filaments. Ventrals separate; pointed. 

Color in spirits, brownish; with indistincrt, narrow, longitudinal, 
dark bands on body; 3 narrow, brownish Ijands radiating from 
posterior edge of eye. 

This description is of specimens about 130 millimeters long, collected 
by Dr. O. P. Jenkins in Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Islands and shores of the Western Pacific Ocean, especially in the 
mouths of streams; recorded from many localities. The only Japanese 
record is that of a specimen in the Imperial Museum, recorded by 
Ishikawa, from the Riukiu Islands. 

(fu^ca dusk3\) 

6. ELEOTRIS OXYCEPHALA (Schlegel). 

Eleotris oxyceplada Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, LS45 or 1846, p. 150, pi. Lxxvir, 
figs. 4, 5, Nagasaki. — GuNTirER, Cat. Fish, III, 1861, p. 116, China. — Jokdan 
and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., 1900, p. 871, Lake Biwa. 

Eleotris caniherius Richardson, Ich. China, 1846, p. 209, Macao. 

Head 3i in length; depth 4; depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in he.ad; 
eye Si; snout 3f; maxillary"; D. V-9; A. 9; P. 18; scales in lateral 
series 50; in transverse series, 15. 

Body deep; compressed; caudal peduncle greatly compressed. Head 
long; pointed. Snout rather sharp; the lower jaw projecting. Eyes 
very small; directed laterally; interorbital area flat; the distance 
between eyes 3i times their longitudinal diameter. Mouth very 
oblique. Maxillary except its distal part concealed; reaching a vertical 
between pupil and posterior edge of orbit. Tongue broad; the anterior 
edge concav^e. Teeth simple; in rather broad bands on jaws; the 
anterior and posterior ones enlarged. Gill openings not extending 
very far forward; the width of isthmus equal to length of snout. 
Inner edge of shoulder girdle without elevations. Gill-rakers on flrst 
arch 3 + 10; stubby; covered with seta^. Posterior ])order of pre- 
opercle with a l)lunt spine which projects downward. Anterior nostril 
with a low tube. No ])arbels on lower jaw. 

Head with scales, except on snout, throat, and chin; occiput and 
cheeks with small cycloid scales. Body with large ctenoid scales; those 
on nape, breast, and belly smaller; cycloid. 

Dorsals separate; the si)ines when depressed just reaching insertion 
of soft dorsal; posterior rays of soft dorsal longest; Avhen depressed 
they reach base of caudal. Caudal rounded. Anal mserted below 



N0.1J41. aOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 47 



bases of second or third dorsal rays; when depressed the rays do not 
(juite reach base of caudal. Pectoral acutely rounded; the upper rays 
without tilaniontous tips. Ventrals separate; pointed. 

Scales with subdued, dark, lateral bands; a narrow Ijrownish band 
running obliquely downward from eye to edge of preopercle; a simi- 
lar l)ut shorter liand above the latter extending directl}' backward. 
Spinous dorsal with two brownish lines running horizontally; soft dor- 
sal with brownish, inverted V-shaped marks on the membranes. 
Caudal and pectorals with small l)rownish spots arranged in vertical 
rows. Anal wath indistinct dark markings. 

Described from a specimen about 230 millimeters long from near 
Yokohama. A smaller specimen has <> dorsal spines. 

Coasts of China and southern Japan, rather rare, entering fresh 
waters; our specimens from Haneda, near Yokohama, from Waka- 
noura, and fi'om Lake Biwa. 

(o^t'b, sharp; KS(/)aXf'/^ head.) 

6. BOLEOPHTHALMUS Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Boleopldhalnms Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XII, 1837, p. 198 

[boddicrti) . 
/8V-arteZoas SwAiNSON, Classn. Fishes, II, 1839, p. 279 {viridis). 
Eoleops Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1803, ji. 271 {aucupatorius) . 

Body elongate, compressed behind; covered with very small or rudi- 
mentary scales. Head not depressed nor compressed, the mouth 
moderate, little oblique, the lower jaw included. Eyes placed high, 
close together, prominent, the lower eyelid well developed. Teeth in 
one row above, two below; some of the upper prominent, canine-like, 
projecting; outer row of lower teeth nearly horizontal (dilated at tip 
in typical species). Tongue broad, rounded, and scarcely free at tip. 
Dorsal tins separate, the first high, of about 5 slender spines, fila- 
mentous at tip; second dorsal and anal long; caudal rounded; Ijasal 
portion of the pectoral fin nmseular and covered with small scales; 
ventral tins completely united; caudal oblong, the lower part obliquely 
truncate; isthmus broad. 

Fishes of the estuaries of the East Indies, one species extending 
northward to Japan. Like the species of Periojjht/ad/jiu.s^ the}^ are 
able to skip about on the mud by the use of the muscular pectorals. 

(^oA//, throwing; o(])HaX^6g^ eye.) 

7. BOLEOPHTHALMUS CHINENSIS (Osbeck). 

Apocri/jdcn chincimnOsBECK, Aman. Acad., 1754, p. 29, fig. 23, Coll. Lagerstrom, 

Canton; Reise nach China, 1757, i). 170, Canton, pre-Linnccan; Voyage to 

China, English edition, 1771, p. 200, Canton. 
Gohius pectinirostris Gmelin, Syst. Nat., I, 1788, i>. 1200, China, after Lagerstrom 

and Osbeck, and of the copyists Bonnaterre, Schneider, Lacepede, Shaw, etc. 
Ajiocri/ples pectinirostris Cuviek and Valenciennes, XII, 1837, p. 150 (after 

Osbeck). 



48 PROCEEDING'S OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM v.l.xxiv. 

Boleuphthalmus jiectinirostris Richakdson, Ichth. China, 1846, p. 208, Canton. — 
GuNTiiEK, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 102, Penang, Molucca, Ningpo, Anioy. — 
IsiiiKAWA, Cat. Fish., 1897, p. 38, Hizen (Nagasaki), China. 

Ji(>li'oj)litltaIin:ufi hoddivrti SciiLEciEL, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 148, pi. i>x.vvi, fig. ."i, 
Nagasaki (not Gobius bodchcrtt Pallas, of the East Indies). 

Head 4^^ in length; depth Oi; depth of caudal peduncle 2f in head; 
eye 6; snout 3|; maxillary 2^; D. V-25; A. 25; P. 19. 

Body notably elongate; caudal peduncle deep; compressed. Head 
of moderate size, a little broader than body. Snout rather short, 
blunt. Eyes small, the lower lid enlarged so that it easily covers the 
eye; upper part of eye with skin similar to that of head. Interorbital 
space narrow; a slight i-idge along its middle. Mouth oblique; upper 
lip thick; maxillary concealed throughout, extending to a vertical 
through a point a little posterior to eye. Tongue not free at tip. 
Teeth of upper jaw in a single row; 3 or 4 enlarged canines on each 
side anteriorly; the teeth posterior to the canines abruptly smaller; 
sharp; those of lower jaw in 2 rows; the inner row represented by a 
strong canine on each side of symphysis; those of the outer row placed 
horizontally; projecting outward beyond edge of jaw; anteriorly, 
simple and Avith rounded points; posteriorly, their cutting edges are 
broadened and notched. Gill openings small, restricted to the sides. 
No elevations on inner edge of shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers 6-\-6', 
short; pointed. No barbels on chin. 

Head and anterior parts of body covered with conspicuous, conical, 
tuljular papillae. (On some specimens the skin is covered with nuicus, 
the large openings of the tubes looking like white spots.) Body with 
cycloid scales; rather large posteriorly, becoming smaller and disap- 
pearing anteriorly. 

Dorsals separate ; the spines long, slender, and filamentous; the third 
projecting about half its length beyond the membrane; soft dorsal 
with a very long base; the rays of about the same height throughout. 
Anal inserted )>clow base of fourth dorsal ray; similar in shape to 
dorsal, except that the rays are much shorter; when depressed, reaching 
base of caudal, but not extending so far posteriorly as do those of the 
dorsal. Caudal and pectorals rather acutely roiuided; no filaments on 
upper edge of the latter. Ventrals short; free posteriorl3\ 

Color of body plain brownish. Spinous dorsal bluish, with round 
or slightly ol)long white spots with darker borders. Soft dorsal of 
same color, with elongate white spots arranged in 7 longitudinal rows; 
the spots more nearly round near base of fin, becoming elongate and 
linear near the top. Caudal with round or elongate white spots in 
vertical rows. Other fins light in color and without spots. 

Coast of China and Japan, generally common in nuiddy bays south- 
ward. Our description based on specimens from the Bay of Tokyo. 
We also have representatives from Nagasaki. 



<;<)BJ(iU> FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



49 



Measurements of Boleophthabnus cMncitsh. 



Li'iiKtli expressed in iiiillimetcrs 

Deptli expresseil in huiidredtlis of IohkIIi 

Deptli of eaiulal [icduni'le 

Len^tlv ( )f lieiul 

Lenj^tli of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of intcrorbital spaee 

Oianieter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout lo soft dorsal 

Hcislit of lon,t,'est dorsal spines 

HeiKlit of lonffcst dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal tin 

Hei^'lil of lonf,'-est anal rays 

Lenijth of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 



Baj' of 


Tokyo. 


Ml 


1-20 


IT 


15 


9 


lOi 


•24 i 


20 


( 


Gi 


1 


1 


4 


^ 


33 


34 


51 


52 


34 


36 


14 


14 


5(i 


57 


9 


s 


9 


8 


•23 


25 


15 


14 


16 


12 


5 


5 


•25 


25 


25 


25 



Uriako, 

near 

Nagasaki. 



146 
16i 

9i 
24 

6A 
11 

1 

4 
33 
51 i 
35i 
lOi 
56i 

% 

"a 

27 
16 
16 
5 
25 
25 



7- PERIOPHTHALMUS Schneider. 

I'crloplitlitihiuis SciiNEiDKR, Syst. Ii-hth., Bloch, 1801, p. 63 {pap'dii)). 
Euchari.stopus Gill, Proe. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 271 {kaelrcuterl) . 
:' Periophthalniodon Blkekeh, Archiv. Neerl., IX, 187-1, p. 326 (schlosscri) ^ (Ven- 
tral fins more nearly united; dorsal spines in smaller number; scales large.) 

Body oblong-, .siibcylindrical, covered with vciy .small cycloid scales. 
Mead largo, the sides with minute scales; mouth rather small, hori- 
zontal, the chill included; teeth moderate, conical, vertical in both 
jaws; e3'es high, very close together, erectile, the outer eyelid well 
developed; tong-ue broad, rounded, little free at tip. Dorsal lins 2, 
the first long of 10 to 15 spines; second dorsal and anal short; pectoral 
tin with a seal}' muscular base; ventral tins broad each I, 5, more or 
less completely separated; caudal obliquely truncate below. Isthmus 
In-oad. Vertebras 11 + 15 = 26. No air bladder. 

Small tishes of the estuaries and mud Hats of the East Indian region, 
one species ranging northward to Japan. They are said to range about 
on land in muddy })laces, in pursuit of insects, etc., on which they feed. 

{TTspl, ai'ound; oi/)6(ifX/.<6g^ eye.) 

8. PERIOPHTHALMUS CANTONENSIS (Osbeck). 

A])orri/ples amtonerms Osbeck, Reise nach China, 1757, p. 171, Canton, pre- 

Linnsi^an; Voyage to China, English edition, 1771, p. 201, Canton. 
I'criophtJialvms modestus Cantok, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., IX, 1842, p. 29, Chusan. — 

Richardson, Ich. China, 1846, pp. 208, 319 (after Cantor and Schlegel). 
Pi'riophtlKdiiiiiH modestus Schleoel, Fauna Jai)onica, 1847, i>. 147, pi. lxxvi, fig. 2, 

Nagasaki. 
Rerioplithalmus helreutcri, var. inodestus GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 98, 

Ningpo, Hongkong, Chusan. — Ishikawa, Cat. Fish., 1897, p. 38, Gyotaku, 

Shimosa, Kishiw, Hizen. 
(rubinx tiiiniuitu Richakoson, Ichth. China, 1846, p. 206 (after Os1)eck). 

Head 1 in length; depth d^\ depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head; 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 4 



50 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



eye ^\ snout 3^; maxillary 2|; D. XIV-12; A. 12; P. 1-i; scales in 
lateral series 75; in transverse series 27. 

Body elono-ate; compressed. Head laro-o; the snout notaldy short 
and ))lunt anteriorly. Eyes small; hi^-h in head; their upper edges 
})rojecting a))ove the dorsal contour; interorbital space very narrow; 
with a median linear depression. Cleft of mouth horizontal. Lips 
thin; })endulous; suborbital i)art of head with a pendulous flap. 
Maxillary completely concealed; extending to a vertical through 
pupil. Teeth in a single row in each jaw; simple, strong, and sharp; 
no enlarged canines. Cxill opening small. Gill-rakers on tirst arch 
minute; stu))))y; no barbels on chin. Lower eyelid'well developed; 
cai)able of extending o\'er the whole eye. 

Head naked except on upper edge of opercle and on occiput. Body 
with very small cycloid scales. 

Spinous dorsal long and high, the spines var^nng in munber from 
12 to 16; higher anteriorly, growing gradually shorter posteriorly; 
when depressed not reaching insertion of soft dorsal. Kays of soft 
dorsal of about the .same length throughout. Anal inserted on a ver- 
tical passing a little anterior to insertion of soft dorsal, its rays when 
depressed not reaching so far Ywsteriorly as do those of dorsal, both 
falling far short of l)ase of caudal. Pectorals and caudal rounded. 
Ventrals short; partially united l)y a ver}^ thin mem))rane. 

Color in spirits brownish; darker above than below; small dark 
specks scattered over sides and u})per parts. Color of spinous dorsal 
growing a little darker toward border of tin. Soft dorsal with a row 
of brown spots, one on each ray, along its base; a broad brownish 
band a little above middle of tin; outer parts of tin trans})arent. 
Caudal and pectorals dusky; the latter with brown specks. Anal and 
ventrals light. 

Coasts of China, Korea, and southern eJapan; rather common in 
nmddy bays. Here described from specimens collected at Yotoku, Bay 
of Tokyo, presented by the Imperial Museum. 

Measurements of PeriopJdhalmus caritonensis. 



Length expressed in millimeters 

Deittli exjire-ssed iti liinidredths of leiigtli. 

I)ei)th of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital .space 

Diameter of orbit 

Oistanee from snout to .spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to softdor.sal 

Height of longest dorsal sjiines 

Height of longest dorsal ray.s 

Distance from ^nont to anal fin 

Heightof longest anal ray.s 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventriil fin 

Ntnuber of dorsal .spines 

Number of dor.sal ray.s 

Number f)f anal rays 

Nmnber of -scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse serie.s 



6« 


69 


73 


20 


19 


19 


11 


9^ 


11 


2.5 


24 


m 





6 


6 


Si 


8 


8 


1 


1 


1 


5^ 


5 


5i 


35 


35 


35 


61 


59 


59 


18 


15i 


18 


13 


12 


13 


64 


60 


6U 


8 


7 


8i 


20 


20 


21 


-22 


m 


23 


22 


20 


19 


12i 


11 


12 


13 


13 


13 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


76 


74 


78 


28 


27 


26 



NO. 1214. GOBIOIT) FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



51 



8. HAZEUS Jordan and Snyder. 

ILtziua Jordan and Snyder, new f^enuw {otakii). 

Thi.s o-enus agrees with Ctenogobiuti in nil respects, except tluit the 
cheeks are covered with large scales, as in Bollmannla^ from which 
the presence of but six dorsal spines especially separates it. Two 
species known. {^II(iz<\ the Japanese name for all small gol)ies.) 

g. HAZEUS OTAKII Jordan and Snyder, new species 

Head 8i in length; depth o^j; depth of caudal peduncle 2f in head; 
eye 3; snout 4; maxillary 2f; D. VI-9; A. 10; P. 17; scales in lateral 
series 24, in transverse series 7. 

Body thickset; the contours sloping slowly and gradually from head 
to caudal peduncle, which is about half as deep as body. Head large; 
as broad as deep. Snout short; rather pointed. Eyes large, directed 
ol>li(pieh' upward; interorl)ital space very narrow. Mouth ol)lique; 
the jaws equal; maxillary extending about to edge of pupil, concealed 
beneath the suborbital and the thick lip. Teeth simple; in bands on 




Fig. 3.— Hazeus otakii. 

both jaws; outer ones considerably enlarged; the most posterior large 
tooth on each side of lower jaw a little stronger than the others and 
curved backward. Gill openings not extending far forward; the 
isthmus narrow. No papilliB on inner edge of shoulder girdle. Gill- 
rakers rather long; not very slender. No barbels on jaw. Anterior 
nostril with a tube. 

Head with large cycloid scales on nape and cheeks; snout, chin, and 
throat naked. Body with large ctenoid scales, which are easily dis- 
placed. Scales on occiput and nape large, there being 7 in a row 
between interorbital space and base of tirst dorsal spine. Anal papilla 
notabh' long and slender. 

Dorsals separate; highest spines about equal in length to depth of 
body; ra^^s a little higher; when depressed, the tin does not reach 
base of caudal. Anal inserted below base of second or third dorsal 
ray; tip of depressed fin reaching slightly farther backward than does 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

the dorsal. Pectoral pointed; upper edge of fin without filaments. 
Ventrals free posteriori}^ extending to vent. 

Body with 6 snnxll, dark spots along the sides; the anterior one 
at upper edge of gill opening; the posterior on base of caudal tin; 
branchiostegal membranes edged with dusk}'; each scale on head and 
body with a dusky margin. Dorsals and caudal with small black 
blotches arranged in wavy lines; anal broadly l)ordered with dusky; 
pectorals and ventrals with but little dusky color. 

The species is represented by a single specimen, 4A millimeters long, 
from Nagasaki. It is recorded as type No. 6440, Leland Stanford 
Junior University Museum. 

(Named for Keinosuke Otaki, professor in the Imperial Military 
Academy of Tokyo, a former student of Stanford University, who 
accompanied us in our travels through northern flapan, and to whom 
we are indebted for many favors.) 

9. GOBIUS (Artedi) Linnaeus. 

6ro6ms Aktedi, Genera, 1738, p. 28 (ni/jcr). 
GoblusjA-ssjEVS, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 262 {niger). 

Body o])long, compressed behind. Head oblong, moderately 
depressed; the snout rounded. Eyes large, anterior, close together; 
oporcles unarmed. Mouth moderate, not greatly oblique, the chin not 
prominent. Teeth conical, in few series, none of them canine. Tongue 
not notched; isthmus broad. Skull depressed, abruptly widened behind 
the eyes and without distinct median keel. Scales moderate, ctenoid, 
cheeks naked, no barbels; no fleshy flaps on shoulder girdle. Dorsal 
with (3 slender spines and al)out 10 soft rays. Anal short; ventrals fully 
united, not adnate to the belly; pectorals with free, or silk-like rays 
above; caudal fin obtuse. 

Species few, but widely diffused; found in all wtirm seas. 

(Gobius, the gudgeon, or other small fish.) 

lo. GOBIUS PCECILICHTHYS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^ in length; depth 5; depth of caudal pediuicle '2^ in head; 
eye 3f ; snout 2^; maxillary 2f; D. VI-10; A. D; P. 18; scales in lateral 
series 37, in transverse series 13. 

Body rather thickset; cylindrical anteriorly; the caudal peduncle 
compressed. Head as broad as body. Eyes large; directed laterall}^; 
the upper edges projecting slightly, making the interorbital space con- 
cave. Snout ])lunt, rather acutely rounded. Jaws eqttal; lips wide, 
the lower forming a broad fold over the upper at their union; maxil- 
lary entirely concealed, extendijig to a vertical passing between pupil 
and {Ulterior margin of orbit. Teeth simple, in rather broad bands on 
jaws, the outer ones somewhat enlarged. Tongue broad anteriorly, 



No.lLMi. GOIilOTD FISHES OF JAFAX—JORDAX AND SNYDER. 



58 



only the edge of tip free. Gill openings restricted laterally; isthmus 
very ))road: its width almost equal to depth of caudal peduncle; edge 
of shoulder girdle without papilhv. Gill-rakers slender. 

Head naked; no bar})els on chin; anterior nostrils with tubes. Bod}' 
with large, finely ctenoid scales; those on nape and breast minute. 

Dorsals separate, though close together; spines slender, the anterior 
ones highest; rays somewhat higher than spines, growing gradually 
shorter from l)efore backward. Anal inserted below third or fourth 
dorsal ray, extending post(M'iorly as far as dorsal, both falling far short 
of base of caudal. Caudal large, hroadh' roiuided. Pectoi-al rounded 
posteriorly, its upper edge with conspicuous, free filaments. Ventrals 
nearly reaching vent; free posteriori}'. 

Head and body clouded with bi'ownish Idack. Spinous dorsal with 
a broad, l)lackish blotch; fin with a wide, white margin; the first spine 
with 4 small, black spots. Soft dorsal with narrow, zigzag, dusky 
bands; the spine with ?> small, elongate, l)lack spots. Upper two- 
thirds of caudal with ol)long, dusky spots; lower third without marks. 




I 



Fig. 4.— Gobius pcecilichthys. 

Pectoral with indistinct, dusky spots arranged in vertical rows. 
Ventrals and anal with a little dusky color; the latter with a white 
margin. 

The species is represented by 2 specimens, the type No. 6448, 
Leland Stanford Junior University Museum, and another very small 
one from Misaki, Sagami. 

Measurements. — Length expressed in millimeters, 48; depth ex- 
pressed in hundredths of length, 21; depth of caudal peduncle, 13; 
length of head, 29; length of snout, 10; length of maxillary, 11; 
width of interorbital space, 1; diameter of orbit, Ti; distance from 
snout to spinous dorsal, 37; to soft dorsal, 55; height of longest 
dorsal spines, 14; rays, 17i; distance from snout to anal, 51; height 
of longest anal rays, 15; length of caudal peduncle, 24; length of 
caudal fin, 25; length of pectoral, 25; of ventral, 23. 

PmeiUchthys^ noiKikoz variegated; zj^v? fish, name of a genus of 
American Percidte, Avhich this fish much resembles. 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 



lO. CTENOGOBIUS Gill. 

Ctenogohivs Gill, Fish. Trinidad, 1858, p. 874 (fasciatu.'i). 
Eucteno(jobius Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1859, p. 45 {hadms). 
Ehinogobius Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., I*hila., 1859 {mnilis). 
Coryphopterus Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1863, p. 263 {glaucofra'mim) . 
Acentrogohhis Bleeker, Archiv. Neerl., IX, 1874, p. 321 {c.hlorcMlgma). 
Zrmngoh'mx Bleeker, Archiv. Neerl., IX., 1874, p. 323 {nemifiisrirttHft). 

Body oblong, comprossed behind. Head oblong, not much de- 
prcs.sed. P^yes high, anterior, close together; opercles unarmed. 
Mouth moderate, the lower jaw u.'^ually shortest. Teeth on jaws only, 
conical, in few or several series, those in the outer row enlarged; no 
large canines; tongue usually truncate. Isthnnts l)road. Shoulder 
girdle without fleshy flaps or papilhe. Skull depressed, abruptly 
widened behind the eyes and without distinct median keel. Scales 
moderate or large, ctenoid, permanently covering the body; cheeks 
naked; opercles naked, or scaled above only; ])elly generally scaly. 
Dorsal with fJ rather weak spines; pectorals well developed, the upper 
rays without free or silk-like tips; ventrals completel}" united, not 
adnate to the belly; caudal fln usually obtuse. 

Species numerous in Asia and America. The genus Ctenog<>l)lnR^ as 
here understood, comprises a large number of species more or less 
closely related to the European genus Gohnm^ in which genus the 
species have been usually placed. The species of Gohlus are larger in 
size, with a difl'erent physiognomy and with silk-like free tips to the 
upper rays of the pectorals. 

(/cTf/g-, comb; Gohius.) 

I. Opercles scaly on the upper half; scales about 36; body with dark liands and 

streaks; first dorsal filamentous, with a black blotch on last rays; caudal 
streaked ahei. 11 

II. Opercles entirely naked. 

a. Nape with a naked area; head rather large; dorsal spines in adult filamentous. 
h. Scales 31; body rather robust; dorsal elevated in the adult and margined with 
white; caudal unspotted; l)ody olivaceous, with faint lateral l)lotches. 

Krmilh. 12 

hh. Scales 26; body more elongate; dorsals edged with black, finely spotted; 

caudal spotted above, the lower part abruptly without spots, l)ody with 

small spots gymnauchen. 13 

(la. Na])e closely scaled ; scales of body 26 to 28. 

c. Head large, 3 J in length; fins large; sides with 6 conspicuous black sjiots; 

dorsals spotted; caudal with faint wavy baud.s hndrnpterm. 14 

cc. Head moderate, a))out 4 in length. 

(/. Body sparsely covered with round dark spots, and with faint longitudinal 

stripes; dorsal spotted; caudal vaguely banded cionphcUi. 15 

(Id. Body without well-defined round l)lack spots; a Ijlack blotch at base of 
caudal. 
e. Sides with 5 distinct narrow streaks along the rows of scales; eye small, 
nearly 4 in head; no long dark blotch on chin and throat. 

virgatulus. 16 

ee. Sides without well defined stripes; eye large, 3^ in head ; branchiostegal 

region blackish .pjtaumi 17 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



55 



II. CTENOGOBIUS ABEI Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 'd'^ in leno-th; depth 5^^; depth of euudal peduncle )i in head; 
eye 31; snout 4; maxillary 2|; 1). VI-9; A. 9; P. 10; .seales in lateral 
series 30, in transverse series 13. 

Body short, thick, cylindrical anteriorh; caudal peduncle com- 
pressed. Head larg-e; snout bluntly rounded. Eyes of moderate 
size directed laterally; interorbital space somewhat convex; distance 
between eyes equal to 1^ times their diameter. Mouth ol)lique; jaws 
e((ual; maxillary concealed, extending to a vertical through posterior 
part of pupil. Teeth in narrow l)ands on both jaws; the outer ones 
eidarged. Tongue concave anteriorly. Gill openings restricted to 
the sides; isthmus l)road; its width contained about 3 times in head. 
No papilla* on inner edge of shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers very short 
and blunt. Anterior nostril with a tube. No barbels on head. 




Fig. .5. — Ctekogobius abei. 



Occiput and upper pai'tof opercles with scales, head otherwise naked: 
l)ody covered everywhere with finely ctenoid scales, small anteriorly, 
growing gradually larger posteriorly. 

Dorsals seymrate; the spines with long, projecting filaments; when 
depi-essed the}" reach beyond insertion of soft dorsal; raj's a little 
longer posteriorly; when depressed not reaching base of caudal. Anal 
inserttxl l)elow base of second dorsal ray; when depressed, reaching 
as far posteriorly as does the dorsal. Caudal rounded. Pectorals 
pointed; the upper rays without free filaments. Ventrals free poste- 
riorly from belly. 

Color in spirits, light olive, mottled and Ixmded with l)rownish l)lack. 
Anterior half of body with 5 broad, vertical dark bands; posterior 
half with '1 longitudinal dark ])ands extending on base of caudal fin; 
the uppci' l)and connected with its fellow on the opposite side of l)ody 
by indistinct dark bands which nearly coalesce into a dark mass of 
color. Head with dark reticulations. Spinous dorsal with a black 



56 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



spot on its posterior part; soft dorsal, anal, pectorals and ventrals 
dusk}^; caudal dusky, with dark lines running- in the direction of the 
rays. 

Ti/jM. — No. 6447, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum, col- 
lected at Wakanoura, Kii. 

Another specimen has 41 scales in the lateral series and 15 in the 
transverse series. 

The species is easily distinguished from /I. ofal-li by its much smaller 
scales and peculiar dark color marking's. 

(Named fo" Mr. Kakichi Abe, of Tokyo, a former student of Stan- 
ford University, who accompanied us in our travels throughout south- 
ern Japan, to the great advantage of our work.) 



Mcasurerneiiis of Ctenogohius ahei. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head. 

Length of snout 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Nunil)er of anal rays". 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



36 


35 


20 


19 


14 


13 


27 


29 


C, 


t 


11 
ti 


1 


38 


38 


68 


60 


24 


31 


13 


19 


CO 


57 


13 


16 


24 


24 


23 


25 


22 


22 


IG 


16 


6 


6 


9 


9 


9 


9 


41 


36 


15 


13 



12. CTENOGOBIUS SIMILIS (Gill). 

Rhinogobius shnUifi Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1859, p. 145, near Shimoda. 

Coll. J. Morrow, Comm. Perry Exp. 
Gobius similis Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 372, Ishikawa 

Province, Japan; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIIl, 1901, p. 759, Yokohama, 

Tsushima, Coll. P. L. Jouy. 
Gohius yokohamtv Gunther, Ann. Rlag. Nat. Hist., 1877, p. 437, Yokohama. 

Head 3i in leng'th; depth 5; depth of caudal peduncle 2^^ in head; 
eye .5^; snout 2i; maxillary 2; D. VI-9; A. 9; P. 19; scales in longi- 
tudinal series 31, in transverse series 11. 

Head and body of nearly the same depth throughout, the caudal 
peduncle slightly constricted. Head very ])road; its width contained 
If in its length; the muscles of the cheeks greatl}^ developed, and 
bulged out far 1)eyond the contour of the bod3^ Eyes small, directed 
obliquely upward, projecting above the dorsal outline of head, making 
the interorbital space convex. Snout long, rather blunt. Jaws about 
equal, the upper slightly projecting. Maxillary entireh^ concealed by 
the flesh}' lip and overhanging preorbital, extending to a vertical 



NO. 1241. GOBIOID FISHES OV JAPAN— JOKDAN AND SNYDER. 57 

pjissiiiu- hotween anterior oclgo of orl)it and pupil. Teeth in narrow 
bands on both jaws; those in outer row of iipper jaw consideral)!}" 
enlarged; the outer ones of lower jaw enlarged, though somewhat 
smaller than the corresponding ones above. The area bearing teeth 
extends farther l)aek on the lower than on the upper jaw. (xill open- 
ing not extending far forward, the Avidth of the isthmus contained 
about 3 times in length of hi^ad. Iiuier edge of shoulder girdle with 
a narrow I'idge. but without papilla\ Gill-rakers on iirst arch 2 + S; 
short: pointed: far apart. Anterior nostril with a short tu])e: the 
postei'ior with a narrow rim. Lower jaw without barbels. 

Head naked; the skin loose and somewhat wrinkled, with a luunber 
of elevated nuicous pores nearly as large as the nostrils: i on each 
side, al>ove and ]>efore the CAes; 1 on the posterior part of interorbital 
space; 2 behind each eye, and a row of -i, the uppermost of which is 
largest, along the posterior edge of preopercle. 

Scales large above, very small on bellv; ctenoid growing smooth 
on anterior and on ventral parts. Nape with a naked space, the scales 
extending forward in 3 pointed areas, the median of which is short 
and narrow; the lateral areas wider, extending farther forward and 
bordering upper edge of opercle. 

Dorsal tins separate, their bases short. Spinous dorsal greatly ele- 
vated; the spines slender and filamentous at tips; the second longest, 
its height 3i in length: the third a little longer than the hrst: the last 
about a third as long as the second. Soft dorsal high, the posterior 
rays longest; when depressed, the tip of tin just reaches bases of first 
caudal rays. Anal not so high as dorsal; the last ray inserted directl}' 
below that of dorsal: the tin, Avhen depressed, falling far short of base 
of caudal. Caudal rounded posteriorly. Pectorals almost reaching a 
vertical through vent. Ventrals short, free from body posteriorly. 

Color in alcohol, light brown; the tint not l)eing uniform, but darker 
near the center of each scale; sides with four or live very indistinct 
large dark blotches. Fins a little darker than body, upper anterior 
edge of soft dorsal white; soft dorsal, anal, and caudal bordered with 
white, especialh' in the adult. 

This description is of a male specimen collected at Tsushima by F. L. 
Jouy. Man}' other male specimens are like the one described. Others 
are somewhat lighter in color. There is some variation in the length 
of the tin raj's. 

Females have a shorter snout and smaller mouth: much lower and 
shorter tins, with the white borders narrow and indistinct. The 
females have 2 or 3 row^s of small dark brown spots, 1 spot on each 
scale of upper part of body, and a very narrow lateral band of the 
same color, more distinct posteriorly, extending along the sides. 

Specimens collected in Ishikawa Province by Prof. K. Kishinouye 
are very light in color, with darker spots on the sides; the spots a])sent 



58 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



in some iiidividiuils. The tins ai'(> dark, havino- small ln'own spots 
arranoed in lines. The oceiput has a few small brown spots. 

Several hundred specimens collected i)v iis in Lake Biwa, at Matsu- 
bara, are light colored, with five or six large, dark, lateral spots. The 
dorsal, anal, and caudal fins have light borders. The white edgings of 
the dorsal are especially conspicuous in the larger specimens. 

Fresh waters of Japan, from above Tokyo southward, everywhere 
very common; excessively abundant in Lake Biwa. It is one of the 
smallest gobies, being mature at 2 to 4 inches. Our specimens are 
from Ishikawa-ken, Lake Biwa, Tsushima, Nagasaki, Kurume, Kaga, 
Kana R. , Kawatana, and lyo. 

{Si mill K^ similar to Ctmogohiui^ i>i1'<iniiii.) 



Measurements of (tenogohiiis sImUls. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth cxiirvssed in hundredths of length 

Depth dl' ciUKliil peduncle 

LenKth of head , 

Lenifth of snout , 

Width of iiitiTorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal , 

Height of longest dorsal spines , 

Hcif^ht (if l(ini,'cst dorsal rays , 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

HciKhtof longest anal rays , 

TjCUKth of caudal ])cduncie , 

Lcii,t;th of caudal tin , 

LeiiKth of jiccloral tin 

Len,i;th of \ciitral tin , 

Nuiiil_icr of dorsal spines , 

Number of dorsal rays , 

Number of anal rays , 

Ninnber of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series. 

Locality, Tsusehima. 



75 


78 


69 


70 


69 


66 


60 


60 


54 


60 


18 


17 


21 


20 


19 


20 


20 


18 


18 


19 


14 


13 


14 


14 


14 


14 


13 


13 


13 


13 


;« 


31 


34 


32i 


31 


32 


28 


28 


28 


29 


15 


13 


16 


14 


13 


14 


12 


10 


11 


11 


2i 


2i 


2A 


2 


2 


2^ 


9 


2 


'> 


2i 


5i 


6 


6 


5 


6 


6 


( 


6 


61 


6 


42 


41 


44 


43 


43 


42i 


40 


39 


40 


42 


61 


m 


62 


62 


6U 


63 


62 


61 


(il 


62^: 


2S 


29 


27 


30 


24 


28 


15 


14 


16 


18 


25 


20 


25 


24 


21 


20 


15 


16 


15 


17^ 


()5 


U 


66 


66 


65 


66 


06 


66 


65 


(i5 


17 


15 


16 


17 


15 


15 


15 


IH 


14 


15 


24 


24A 


24 


23 


24 


24i 


25 


23 


24 


24 


20 


2() 


2(5 


26 


25 


26 


24 


25 


24 


26 


25 


23 


24 


24 


23 


23 


2() 


25 


24 


26 


12 


11 


13 


13 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


(5 


(> 


fi 


6 


6 


(i 


6 


6 


li 


6 


9 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


20 


19 


19 


20 


31 


31 


30 


31 


29 


29 


28 


32 


31 


33 


11 


11 


11 


11 


10 


11 


10 


11 


10 


10 



13. CTENOGOBIUS GYMNAUCHEN (Bleeker). 

. Gobius gijmnaiichen- Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Nederl., Japan, VI, p. 84, pi. i, 
fig. 2, Tokyo.— GtiNTiTER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 43 (after Bleeker). 
Arentrogobius gymniiucJien Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 
.372, Tokyo. 

Head 3| in length; depth 6; depth of caudal peduncle 2| in head; 
eye 4i; snout U; maxillary 3^; D. VI-10; A. 10; P., 16; scales in 
lateral series 26, in transverse series 7. 

Bod}' elongate; head about as deep as body, somewhat broader; 
eyes rather large, high up, directed laterall}^ or somewhat obliquely; 
interorbital space narrow, slightly convex. Snout rather sharp, its 
upper outline more oblique than that of C. 'pflaumi. Lower jaw 
slightly projecting. Mouth oblique. Maxillary concealed throughout, 
extending to a vertical through anterior edge of pupil. Teeth simple, 
in narrow bands on both jaws, outer row enlarged, the most posterior 
large tooth on each side of lower jaw strongly curved backAvard. Gill 
opening not extending far forward; isthmus broad, its width about 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



59 



e(|u:il to leiiyth of snout. No papilliv on Inner edge of shoulder girdle. 
Pseudohranchia' hirg-e. Gill-rakers on tirst arch 3 + 9; slender. 

Head naked; no barbels; a trianguhir naked space extending back- 
ward from occiput to insertion of dorsal; bod}' elsewhere covered with 
large, tinely ctenoid scales. 

Dorsals separatt;; spin(\s with tilaraents, the first and second very 
long and slender. Anal tin inserted below second dorsal ray, reaching 
posteriorly as far as the dorsal, ])oth touching base of caudal. Pec- 
torals and caudal I'ather pointed. Ventrals large, free postei'iorly. 

Coloi- in spirits, light olive; throat with a narrow, longitudinal dark 
spot: sides of head and upper parts of body with dark spots, those 
near niiddh^ of sides arranged in an indefinite undulating line. Spi- 
nous dorsal with a wide, black edge; 1)elow this a l)road l)and of pearly 









Fig. 6.— Ctenogobius gymnauchen. 

white; basal half of fin with 3 rows of oval, dusky, or Idack spots; 
soft dorsal similarly colored. Caudal with small, dusky, oval spots on 
interradial membranes, except on lower parts of fin. Anal liroadly 
edged with dusky. Pectorals dusky at Ijase, the dark color fading- 
out toward the edge. Ventrals streaked longitudinally with black. 
Described from a specimen from Enoshima. 

Some individuals are much lighter in color. They have a more or 
less conspicuous dark blotch at base of caudal, and occasional!}" a row 
of 4 or 5 poorly defined small spots along the sides. 

This small prettily colored gol)}' is rather common in Japan, living 
chiefly in the estuaries about and under muddy rocks. Our numerous 
specimens are from Misaki, Wakanoura, Nagasaki, Tokyo Bay, Tsu- 
ruga. and Knoshima. 

[yvfAvnc;, naked; (xvxi'/v, nape.) 



60 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NA TIONAL MUSEUM. 



Measurements of Clenogohms gymnauchen. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length. 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of mouth 

Lengtii i)f maxillary 

Widtli of iuterorbital space 

Diami'ter of (irliit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height ( if 1( ingest (h irsal spines (i 

Height (if longest dursal rays 

Distance from snciut to anal tin 

Height of IdUgest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length <if caudal tin 

Lengt li ( if iiectoral tin 

Length df ventral tin 

Nuudierof dorsal s] lines 

Numlierof dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Nuudierof ]iectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 

Locality, Tokyo. 



57 


50 


46 


52 


43 


14 


13i 


17 


16 


16 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8i 


26 


26i 


26i 


27 


28 


7 


Ci 


6i 


7 


74 


9i 


91 


9 


9i 


9 


(li 


Gi 


6i 


7 




34 


33 


36 


34 


36 


53 


54 


54 


51 


56 


37 


21 


23 


33 


14 


27 


27 


21 


25 


15 


55 


564 


54 


55 


57 


25 


22 


17 


23 


14 


19 


21 


22 


22 


20 


2S 


31 


28 


27 


26 


2fi 


25 


22 


24 


23 


25 


25 


24 


25 


25 


G 


6 


6 


6 


6 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


If) 


16 


IG 


17 


16 


23 


24 


26 


25 


27 


(i 


G 


6 


6 


/ 



a Including filaments. 
14. CTENOGOBIUS HADROPTERUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^ in length; depth 4i; depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head; 
eye-1; snout 2f; maxillary 2f; D. Vl-9; A. 1); P. 19; scales in lateral 
series 28; in transverse series 9. 

Body ro])U8t, a little deeper than wide. Snout long- and sharp. Eye 
high in head, the upper margin projecting above contour of head, 




Fig. 7.— CTENOGOBIUS hadkopterus. 

directed obliquely, situated at a point halfway between tip of snout 
and posterior edge of opercle. Interorbital space narrow, concave. 
Nostrils minute, the anterior with a distinct tube. Mouth moderate, 
somewhat oblique. Jaws subequal, the lower slightly shorter; upper 
lip very wide; maxillary entirely concealed, not quite reaching a ver- 
tical through anterior edge of orbit. Tongue })road, the tip truncate. 
Teeth of jaws in 2 series, outer ones in a single row, small, canine- 
like, not firmly attached; second series in upper jaw very minute, in 
lower jaw a little smaller than the anterior ones; no large canines. Gill 
opening extending upward to edge of base of pectoral; width of isth- 
mus about equal to length of snout. No papilh^ on inner edge of 
shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers small, 2 + 8 on first arch. No barbels on 
lower jaw. 



N0.12H. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



Bl 



Head, except occiput, naked; scales on occiput cycloid; those on 
bod}^ ctenoid, large and very regular; 5 lateral series on caudal peduncle; 
scales on breast anterior to the ventrals small, concealed in the thick 
epidermis. 

Dorsal fins well separated, short; height of longest dorsal spine al)out 
equal to postorbital part of head; depressed spines not reaching the rays; 
dorsal rays a little longer than the spines; anal inserted below })ase of 
second or third ray of soft dorsal; rays equal in height to those of dorsal; 
both tins when depressed extending an equal distance posteriorly, their 
tips separated from bases of caudal rays a distance equal to length of 
snout. Caudal rounded, almost truncate. Pectoral acutely roiuided, 
extending to a vertical through vent; upper rays without filamentous 
appendages. Ventrals long, not reaching vent, free posteriorly. 

Color in spirits, pale olive gray; the sides with 6 conspicuous brown- 
ish black spots, the first and smallest at angle of opercle, the last at 
base of caudal; each spot, except the first and last, is connected with 
the one on the opposite side by 2 tolerably well-defined dark l^ands 
passing over the back; a narrow dusky band extending forward from 
eye parallel with dorsal outline of snout; cheek with wavy, oblique 
})ars; occipital region with small, closely crowded blotches. Dorsal 
fins with dusky spots arranged in longitudinal rows; 3 rows on the 
first and 4 on the second fin, the outer row being very indistinct. 
Anal slightly tinged with dusky posteriorly. Caudal with a few very 
indistinct vertical wavy bands. Pectoral with a trace of dusky. Ven- 
trals dark, the color in lines parallel with the rays. 

Type No. 6449, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. Local- 
ity, Nagasaki, Hizen. 

Some of the cotypes are a little lighter in color. 

We also have specimens from Kurume, Tsuruga, and Kawatana. 

(I/adrojjterus^ a genus of Etheostomine perch of similar habit; aSpog^ 
strong; nrepov^ fin.) 



Meuiiiircmrnts of CteiKxjoliiiof hadropterus. 



Length in millimeters 

Deptli expressed in hundredths of length. 

Depth of ciiudal peduncle 

Leugtli of head 

Lengt h of snout 

Width of intcrorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to solt dorsal 

Heiglit c)f longest<iorsal spines 

HeiiL;ht<jf longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Iileight of longest anal rays 

Lwigth of caudal peduncle 

Lci'.^th of caudal fin 

Lenjctli of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral fin 

Nnnil)er of dorsal spines 

Numljer of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



47 


45 


44 


46 


48 


41 


42 


41 


40 




•21 


22 


21 


21 


28 


21 


21 


20 


21 


20 


11 


12 


12 


12 


11 


12 


12 


12 


11 


10 


HO 


■M) 


2H 


80 


80 


80 


30 


80 


29 


30 


12 


V2i 


12 


11 


12 


12 


n 


11 


10 


10 


2 


2i 


n 


o 


9 


•> 


2 


2 


2 


9 


7 


7 


7 


7^ 


/ 


7^ 


6^ 


7^ 


7 


7i 


40 


• 40 


40 


40 


40 


41 


40 


89 


40 


40 


60 


60 


60 


60 


60 


60 


59 


59 


60 


(iO 


Ift 


15 


14 


18 


15 


16 


15 


18 


16 


15 


15 


15 


16 


15 


15 


17 


16 


18 


17 


15 


GO 


(■>1 


60 


60i 


59 


60 


60 


60 


61 


60 


14 


14 


14 


15 


14 


15i 


15 


15 


16 


13 


26 


26 


26i 


27i 


27 


27 


27 


27 


27 


28 


20 


20 


21 


28 


28 


28 


28 


21 


28 


24 


24 


25 


26 


26 


25 


25 


26 


24 


25 


27 


20 


20 


' 21 


21 


20 


•)9 


20 


21 


28 


21 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


9 


9 


S 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


9 


9 


8 


9 


H 


9 


9 


8 


9 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


20 


19 


19 


2.S 


2S 


2S 


2>S 


28 


28 


28 


28 


2« 


28 


9 


10 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 



(i2 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



15. CTENOGOBIUS CAMPBELLI Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 4 in length; depth 5^; depth of eaudal peduncle '1^ in head; 
eye 3f ; .snout 3i; maxillary 2f; D. VI-11; A. 10; P. 18; scales in 
lateral series 26, in traverse series 1». 

Body thickset; cylindrical anteriorly; the caudal peduncle deep. 
Snout short; blunt. Eye very large; the upper margin projecting 
slightly above dorsal contour of head; directed obliquely upward. 
Interorbital space narrow; concave. Mouth somewhat oblique. Max- 
illary entirely concealed; extending to a vertical through pupil. Lips 
narrow. Teeth simple; in narrow l)ands on both jaws; outer ones 
somewhat enlarged; no canines. Tongue narrow; trvmcate anteriorly. 
Gill openings not extending far forward; isthnuis lu'oad; its width 
equal to distance ])etween tip of snout and middle of pui)il. Inner 
edge of shoulder girdle with a sharp ridge but no papilla". Gill-rakers 
long and rather slender. Anterior nostril with a conspicuous tube. 
No barbels on lower jaw. 




Fig. 8.— CTENOGOBIUS campbelli. 

Head naked, except on occiput. Body with large ctenoid scales; 
those on nape and occiput cycloid; smaller than those of body; those 
on l)reast anterior to ventrals and on region before pectorals cycloid. 

Dorsals separate; spines when depressed not reaching insertion of 
soft dorsal. Anal inserted below base of second or third dorsal ray; 
reaching as far posteriorly when depressed as the dorsal; neither touch- 
ing base of caudal. Caudal rounded. Pectoral pointed; its upper 
edge without free lilaments. Ventrals free posteriorly, their tijDs 
reaching anal opening. 

Bod}^ with small, round, dark spots; 5 or 6 very indefinite, narrow, 
dark, longitudinal bands. Head with small dark spots; those on 
nape arranged in longitudinal rows; a sharply defined, narrow, dark 
band running backward from eye; opercle with 2 small brown rings. 
Dorsal spines and ra3"s with small, ol)long, dark spots; caudal with 
small, dark spots on upper two-thirds; not evident on the lower part. 
Anal narrowly edged with white; sidlused with dusky below the white, 



N0.12U. GOBTOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JOUDAX AND SNYDER. 63 



growing- lighter toward the base. Pectorals and ventrals suffused 
with dusk}'; a spot about as large as pupil on u])per part of l)ase of 
the former. 

This species is probably closely related to C. virgatulw'i or to G. 
pjlinnn). It more closel}' resembles the former, but may be easily 
distinguished from it by its much less oblique mouth and b}^ having 
larger scales on the nape. In C. vimatuliiM the scales of the nape are 
minute when compared with those of the body, while on the species in 
hand they are at least one-half as wide as those of the body. 

The species is at present known from a single specimen 81 milli- 
meters long, from Wakanoura, Kii, Japan. Type No. 6-l:5(), Leland 
Stanford Junior University Museum. 

Mciisurements. — Length, tip of snout to l^ase of caudal, 65 milli- 
meters; depth, expressed in hundredths of length, 18; depth of caudal 
})eduncle, Hi; length of head, 25^; length of snout, 6i; width of 
interorbital space, 1; diameter of orbit, 7; distance from snout to 
spinous dorsal, 33; distance fron snout to soft dorsal, 5-1; height of 
longest dorsal spines 15^, of longest dorsal rays 15^; distance from 
snout to anal fin, 56; height of longest anal rays, 15; length of caudal 
peduncle 25, of caudal fin 25, of pectoral tin 26, of ventral tins 22. 

This species is named for Dr. Douglas Houghton Campbell, pro- 
fessor of botany in Leland Stanford Jimior University, in recogni- 
tion of his interest in the fioi'a of Japan and in all things Japanese. 

i6. CTENOGOBIUS VIRGATULUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 4 in length; depth 5|; depth of caudal peduncle It); eye 3| 
in head; snout 3i; maxillary 3; D. VI-11; A. 11; P. 16; scales in lateral 
series 26, in transverse series 9. 

Bod}^ elongate, the dorsal and ventral contours sloping gradually 
from occiput posteriorly; caudal peduncle compressed, narrowest near 
the middle, widening somewhat toward base of caudal; head large, 
deei)er and broader than body. Snout blunt. Ej^es prominent, though 
smaller than those of C. })flaiuiil; directed o))liquely. the upper edges 
projecting above dorsal contour of head; interorl)ital area very nar- 
row. Mouth o))lique, lower jaw slightlv projecting. Maxillary 
entirely concealed, extending posteriorly to anterior edge of orbit. 
Tongue l)road at tip, with a shallow notch. Teeth of jaws in narrow 
bands, simple, the outer ones enlarged; those near middle on upper 
jaw largest; a pair of short, strong canines on each side of lower jaw, 
the posterior one being larger, strongly curved l)ackward. Gill open- 
ings not extending far forward; the isthmus broad; inner edge of 
shoulder girdle without papilhe. Pseudobranchire consisting of 6 
large projecting tufts. Cxill-rakers on first arch al)out 3 + 8; those of 
u})])(M- liml) represented ])y minute elevations; those of the lower limb 
rather long and slender. No bar})els on chin. 



64 



PROCEEDINGH OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



Head, except a small occipital area, naked; a large pore above and 
between the nostrils; 2 similar pores on interorbital area; a row of 3 
running backward from the eye; sides of head with rows of minute 
pores. Body covered with large, weakl}" ctenoid scales, the rough 
edges of which are hidden by epidermis; scales on nape and occipital 
area very small. 

Dorsal fins separate; spines slender, the first 5 evenly spaced; the 
interval between fifth and sixth twice that between two of the others; 
spinous dorsal, when depressed, reaching past insertion of soft dorsal. 
Anal inserted below second or third dorsal ray, the fin extending 
slightly farther posteriorly than the dorsal, neither reaching base of 
caudal. Caudal acutely rounded. Pectoral without filaments on upper 
edge. Ventrals free posteriorly, extending as far backward as do the 
pectorals. 

Color in spirits much darker aljove than ))elow, the sides with 5 nar- 
row, dark, longitudinal streaks; a median row of indistinct, large, 
dark spots, the one at base of ca'idal being most prominent; cheeks 




Fi(i. y. — Ctenogobius virgatulus. 

with 1 or 2 dark lines; opercle with a large dark blotch; scales of 
breast each with a sul)dued dusky spot. Spinous dorsal dusky, with 
a narrow longitudinal band, the posterior part widened, forming a 
distinct oval spot; soft dorsal dusky, each ray with 3 indistinct spots; 
caudal rays with small, dusky spots arranged in vertical rows; spots 
on lower fourth of fin very indistinct or absent; ventrals and anal 
dusky; pectoral dusky, with an elongate dark spot at upper part of 
base and a narrow dark dash on the lower edge. 

Type. — No. (5451, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. Lo- 
cality, Misaki, Sagami, Japan. 

Many specimens from Misaki are lighter in color than the type, a 
highl}' colored male; on the lighter one the bands and spots are much 
more distinct. 

Individuals from Nagasaki have the color pattern in ever}" detail, 
as described a])ove, although it is much lighter and less distinct. 

The species is closely related to C. 2>fi'(u>ni. It may ])e distinguished 
l)y its smaller eyes and by the al)sence of a long, dark blotch on chin 
and throat. 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



65 



This species is found with Cttn<xjoh'i ns pfiaum > ., and equalh' common, 
in the bays and inlets of southern Japan. We have specimens from 
Misaki. Wakanoura, Nagasaki. Tokyo Bay. Matsushima, Onomichi. and 
from Semida R. . near Tokyo, 

( Virgiitiilus^ finely streaked.) 

Mtyisurfinenta of Ctenogohlus vlrgatnlns. 



Length in niillimfters 

Depth expR'ssiHl in hundredth.? of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length ( if head 

Length < if snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width (if interorbital .space 

Diameter of orVjlt 

Distance from .snout to .spinous dor.sal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dor^iil rays 

Iiistance from snout to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length fif ca tidal tin 

Length of pectoral tin 

Lengtli of ventral tin .' . 

Number of dorsal spine-^ 

Ntimlier of dorsal rays a c. 

Xuml.ier of anal raysd 

Nimiber of pectoral rays 

Xumber of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



Misaki, Sagami. 



Nagasaki, Hizen. 



as 



55 



58 



n The last dorsal and anal rays are cleft to the base. 
17. CTENOGOBIUS PFLAUMI (Bleeker). 

Gobius pflaumi Bleeker, Verb. Bat. GeiL, XXV, Japan, p. 42, figs. 8, IS, Nagasaki. 
Acentrogobius pflaumi Jordan and Sxyder, Proc. U. S. Xat. ^Miis., 1900, p. o72, 
near Tokyo. Coll. Kishinouye. 

Head 4 in length; depth 4^; depth of caudal peduncle 11; eye ^\ in 
head; length of snout 3^; maxillary 2t; D. VI-11; A. 11; P. IT; scales 
in lateral series 26, in transverse series 9. 

Body elongate, the dor.sal and ventral contours sloping gradually 
from occiput to caudal peduncle; caudal peduncle narrowest near the 
middle, widening somewhat toward base of caudal. Head about as 
deep and broad as body. Snout rather blunt, the lower jaw slightly 
projecting. E^es ver}^ large, directed obliquelv upward, the upper 
edges of orbit projecting slightlv above contour of head; interorbital 
space narrow; concave. Mouth oblique. Maxillary entirely con- 
cealed, extending posteriorly to a vertical through anterior edge of 
orbit. Tongue broad at tip; truncate. Teeth of jaws in narrow 
Vjands; simple; the outer ones enlarged; a pair of .short, strong canines 
on each side of lower jaw, the posterior one being larger and curved 
backward. Gill openings not extending far forward; the isthmus 
broad. Gill-rakers 2 + 8; those of the upper arch much reduced; the 
lower ones slender. Inner edge of shoulder girdle Avithout papilla?. 
No barbels on chin. 

Proc. N. :M. vol. xxiv— 01 5 



66 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



Head, except occipital area, naked. A large pore above and between 
the nostrils; 2 similar pores on interorbital area; a row of 3 running 
backward from the ej^e; sides of head with rows of minute pores. 
Body covered with large weakly' ctenoid scales; those of nape and 
occipital area very small. 

Dorsal tins separate; spines slender, the first 5 evenly spaced; the 
interval between tifth and sixth about double that between '1 of the 
others; spines when depressed reaching Ijeyond insertion of soft dor- 
sal. Anal inserted below second or third dorsal ray, the tin, when 
depressed, extending slighth" further posteriorly than the dorsal, both 
falling short of base of caudal. Caudal acutel}" rounded. Upper edge 
of pectoral without free filaments. Ventrals free posteriori}^, extend- 
ing al)out as far ])ackward as the pectorals. 

Body olivaceous, with dark markings; head blue in life. 

Scales on upper parts, with dusky margins; sides with 2 or 3 faintly 
outlined dark stripes; a median row of 4 or 5 indistinct dusky spots; 
a distinct, round, black spot about as large as e3'e at base of caudal; 
a small dark spot on lower part of opercle; branchiostegal region of 
throat dusky. Fins dusky, but without conspicuous markings. 

Southern ,Japan, generally common in the bays and inlets, in salt 
water: here described from specimens collected at Tsuruga, Echizen. 
Others are in the collection from Yokohama, Wakanoura, Aomori, 
Matsushima, Onomichi, Kobe, Owari Bay, and from Kawatana. 

This species very closely resembles Ctenogohius virgatuhis. It differs 
in having much larger e^'es, an oblong black blotch on ])ranchiostegal 
region, and in having the general color of body luuch lighter. 



Me(isurt')in'nts of Ctenogobivs pfaumi. 



Tsuruga, Echizen. 



Nagasaki, Hizen. 



Length in millimeters 

Dejith expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

AVidtli of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dor.sal rays 

Distance from snout to anal tin ". . . 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length < >f caudal tin 

Lengtii of pectoral tin 

Lens til of ventral tin 

Numljcr (if dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays a 

Number of anal rays a 

Numl>er of pectoral rays 

Numlter of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



56 


54 


19 


19 


9 


10 


•26 


25i 


7 


6 


10 


n 



s 



35 


34 


55 


52 


16 


14 


14 


19 


60 


56 


Hi 


18- 


20 


19 


26 


27 


25 


. 24 


20 


19 


6 


6 


11 


11 


10 


11 


16 


17 


25 


25 


« 


9 



8 
35 
53 
15 
17i 
56i 
18 
19 
29 
26 
22 

6 
11 
11 
16 
25 

9 



a The last dorsal and anal rays are cleft to the base. 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SXYDER. 67 



11. ABOMA Jordan and Starks. 
Aboma Jordan and Starks, Proc. Cal. Ac. ^ci., 1895, p. 497 {ffhenxtoma). 

Thi.s genus is very closely allied to Ctenogohhis, ditfering chietiy in 
the presence of 7 or S dorsal spines; head naked, rounded in profile, 
narrow and not depressed between eyes; month moderate, not very 
ol)lique, the chin usually not prominent; outer teeth somewhat 
enlarged; tongue not notched. Scales usually large, ctenoid, some- 
times rather small. Dorsals and anal short: no flaps on shoulder 
girdle; no silk-like ravs on pectoral. 

Species numerous, small in size and mottled in coloration, mostlv 
Japanese, three of them from the Avest coast of Mexico. 

{Aho))ia^ Spanish name of the small gobies in Mexico.) 

a. Scales large, 30 to 45 in longitudinal, 9 to 12 in transverse series; breast naked. 

h. Ventral fins dusky, with a Vjright yellow, broad median stripe; depth 4f in 

length; scales 36-10; coloration rather bright; caudal with zigzag bands 

above, plain below lactij)es. 18 

bh. Ventral fins plain; coloraticin rather oV)Scure; caudal spotted above, plain 
below. 
c. Scales large, 9 in transver.se series; depth 5f in length; a faint caudal spot. 

fsni^hiiiui'. 19 
r<\ Scales smaller, 12 in transver.se series; no caudal spot; first dorsal with a 

black spot with white before it : he})farard}ta. 20 

aa. Scales small, 15 t<< 20 in transverse series (prol)al)ly HO to 70 in Icmgitudinal 
series). . 
d. Scales in cross series 15; anal rays 10 or 11; caudal translucent, with fine 

dots brennigi. 21 

)l<l. Scales in cross series 20; anal rays 12 or 13; caudal with a median cross 
band always present . urotwnid. 22 

i8. ABOMA LACTIPES (Hilgendorf). 

Oobi^of litciipes Hilgp:xi)okf, Sitzber. Naturt. Freunde, 1S7S, p. 109, Tokyo; No. 

10650, Mus. Berlin. 
Ahdiiui Ifictipex Jordan and Snyder, Proc. I'. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 372, Tokyo, 

Tonegawa. 

Head ;->t in length; depth 4f ; depth of caudal peduncle 10; eye 5i 
in head; snout ^2i: maxillary 2i; D. VIII-11; A. 11; P. IS; scales in 
lateral series 36. in transverse series 10. 

Body cylindi'ical anteriorly, sloping gradually to the rather deep 
caudal pe^luncle. Head large; snout long; blunt. Eyes small: situ- 
ated high up: nearer to tip of snout than to posterior edge of opercle 
a distance equal to one-half the diameter: directed almost laterally. 
Mouth almost horizontal; jaws equal; upper lip wide; maxillary con- 
cealed except at distal end; reaching a vertical passing midway l)etween 
anterior edge of orbit and pupil. Teeth simple: in a narrow band on 
each jaw; outer ones but little enlarged. Tongue rather broad; its 
anterior edge truncate or slightly rounded. Gill opening.s restricted 
to the sides; widtli of isthnuis a little less than lenoth of snout. Inner 



68 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



edge of shoulder g-irdle with a low, narrow, sharp ridge, but no 
papillie. Gill-rakers 1 + 7; short; flat. Anterior nostrils with low 
tubes. No barbels on lower jaw. 

Head naked. Bod}- with large, tinely ctenoid scales: those on sides 
of nape small; middle of nape, breast anterior to ventrals and region 
before pectorals naked. 

Doi'sals separate; spines and rays of about equal height; the spinous 
dorsal when depressed reaching insertion of soft dorsal. Anal inserted 
below base of second dorsal ray; the raj^s a little shorter than those of 
dorsal; when depressed, reaching almost as far posteriorly as do those 
of dorsal; neither reaching bases of caudal rays. Caudal rounded. 
Pectorals rather pointed; the upper border without free filaments. 
Ventrals ver}' large, extending to anal opening; free posteriorly. 

In spirits the upper part of the body suli'used with dusky; sides 
with 9 rather definite, dark vertical bands, extending from a little 




Fig. 10.— Aboma lactipes. 

Itelow the middle of body uj)ward; darker near their lower edges. 
Head dark; a narrow blackish line I'unning from eye to tip of maxil- 
lary; under parts without dusky, except on throat and chin. Spinous 
dorsal edged with white; interradial membranes dusky; jet l)lack on 
upper posterior part of fin; soft dorsal with small, oblong, dark spots 
arranged in rows. Upper two-thirds of caudal with vertical, zigzag 
V)ands; the lower third dusky; without l)ands. Anal dark; narrowly 
bordered with white; pectoral dusky. Ventral with a white, median 
area broadl}' bordered with black. 

Color in life, lemon yellow; middle area of ventrals l)right yellow, 
slightly tinged with orange; spinous dorsal edged with orange; anal 
with a narrow marginal band of dead white. 

The a))ove description is of a specimen from the bay at Tsuruga. 
Other individuals from the .same locality are like it except in color. 
In some the lateral l)ands are very indistinct, the sides being covered 
with small dusky spots. Others are much lighter, the general color- 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



69 



pattern being" pre.served however. A large male .specimen has a 
series of narrow, bright, transverse lateral bands on the sides. The 
soft dorsal is distinctlv edged with whitt. Occasionally in males the 
anterior spines of the lirst dorsal have very long- filaments extending 
al)ove the margin of the tin. 

The species is generally common in the bays of Hondo. Our many 
specimens are from ]Matsushima. Aomori. Tokyo. Tsuriiga, Enoshima, 
and the Tone Kiver. near Tokyo. 

{Lac. lactis. milk: />ei^, foot.) 



Measirrenie)its of Abatna laetipei^. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Widtli of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Iiistance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spine 

Height of longc-t dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

N umber of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 

Locality, Tsuruga, 



66 


56 


48 


22i 


21 


21 


% 


10 


10 


26 


27+ 


28 


10 


11 


11 


2 


9 


2 


5 


6 


6 


U 


35 


36 


55 


55 


57 


15 


15 


15 


16 


15+ 


16 


60 


58 


59 


IB 


14 


16 


'22 


22 


23 


25 


26 


25 


28 


24 


25 


22 


27 


25 


8 


H 


8 


11 


12 


11 


10 


11 


11 


IS 


18 


18 


35 


35 


35 


9 


9 


9 



19- ABOMA TSUSHIMiE Jordan and Snyder. 

AlxDiia is((shiiii!i Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Xat. Miis., XXIII, ] 901. p. 759, 
Sasuna, Tstishima. Japan. 

Head 3^ in length: depth of: depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head; 
eye 4; snout 3^: maxillary 2|; D. Vin-12: A. 11: P. IT; scales in 
lateral series 33. in transverse series 9. 

Body not notal>ly elongate: gradually diminishing in size from the 
region of pectoral tins l)ackward. Head as wide as body. ])ut less deep. 
Snout verv blunt: rounded when viewed from al)ove: truncate when 
seen from the side. 

Eyes high in head: directed obliquely upward: interor1)ital space 
very narrow. Jaws subequal. the lower slightly included. ]SIouth 
rather small; the cleft somewhat oblique. Lips large. ]\Iaxillary, 
except the tip of the distal end. concealed; extending to a vertical 
through anterior edge of orbit. Space ])etwfeen orbit and maxillary 
about equal to longitudinal diameter of eye. Tongue broad: rounded 
anteriorly; its free edge narrow. Teeth simple; in narrow bands on 
jaws; outer ones largest, slender, sharp, slightly curved; the ones on 
sides of lower jaw enlarged, though not notably so, there being no 
strong canines. Gill opening not extending far forward; the width of 



70 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



isthmus about equal to length of maxillary. Inner edge of shoulder 
girdle projecting as a sharp ridge, without papilhe or other dermal 
moditioations. Gill-rakers on tirst arch, 2+7 or 8: short and pointed. 
A)iterior nostril with a high rim. No barbels on jaw. 

Head naked. Bod_y with large, finely ctenoid scales; the region 
immediately anterior to pectorals, the breast in front of ventrals, and 
a narrow space extending backward nearly to vent naked. 

Dorsal tins separate from each other and from the caudal; second 
spine highest; the others successively shorter; when depressed, just 
reached origin of soft dorsal. Dorsal rays, when depressed, falling- 
far short of base of caudal. Anal inserted directly below base of third 
dorsal ray; the rays somewhat longer posteriorly, when depressed 
ex-tending as far back as the dorsal. Pectorals pointed; their tips 
reaching a vertical through insertion of soft dorsal; the upper rays 
not peculiar. Ventrals long; not extending so far posteriorly as 
pectorals; free from body except at base. 




A.B(J>I.\ TSUSHI.M.K. 



Color in tilcohol light-brownish, everywhere with small, indistinct 
darker .spots and reticulations; sides with 6 or 7 poorly defined lateral 
spots, the last and most conspicuous one at tiase of caudal tin. 
Dorsals with markings of light l)rown, arranged in longitudinal rows 
on the membranes; similar marks assembled in wav^y lines on the rays 
of upper three-fourths of caudal; the lower part of tin without spots. 
Other tins somewhat dusky. 

Specimens smaller than the type have the dark marking a little more 
distinct. 

Known only from specimens collected at Sasiuui. on the island of 
Tsushima. Japan, by P. L. Jouy. 

2o. ABOMA HEPTACANTHA (Hilgendorf). 

Gohuii^heptacanthus Hilgendorf, Sitzber. Natur. Frennde, LS78, p. 110, Tokyo; No. 
10856, Mus. Berlin. 

Head 4i (with caudal); depth 6i; D. VII-12; A. 12; scales in 12 
rows between dorsal and anal. Eye equal to snout and to interorbital 
width, 4 in head. Profile of head nearly straight; lower jaw project- 
ing; mouth large, the maxillary reaching posterior border of eye; 



I 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 71 

teeth in several rows, the oixter larger; scales of body ctenoid, each 
with about 10 little teeth; a pair of large pores in posterior part of 
interorbital space; pectoral without silky rays. 

Color clear violet brown with darker net-like n.iarbling; throat dark 
brown; tirst dorsal with a black .spot with white below it, and a brown 
band forward and downward; second dorsal with about 5 oblique bands; 
anal with dark margin especially behind; pectoral colorless; ventral 
and caudal dusky with line points; no spot on base of caudal. 

Hay of Tokyo. (Hilgendorf.) Not seen by us. 

[inTa, seven; oiKiyvRa, spine.) 

21. ABOMA BREUNIGI ( Steindachner). 
Gdhiiix hreiiiii(j) Steindachner, lohth. Beitr. , VIII, 1879, p. 22, Hakodate. 

Head 1; depth of (with caudal); eye If in head; snout li; D. VIl-I, 
11; A. 10 or 11; P. 20 or 21; scales 60 to 6:^-15; snout li in head. 

Body slender, compressed; .scales .ctenoid; head naked; jaws sub- 
equal; maxillary reaching to opposite front of eye; teeth small, those 
of the outer row longest. Dorsal spines low, slender, the fourth about 
2 in head, not so high as body, a little lower than soft dorsal. Caudal 
a little shorter than head. Pectorals shorter than head, without silky 
rays; as long as venti'als. Reddish brown above, pale below, a dark 
.stripe from eye to side ot snout; dark brown close set spots forming 
narrow zigzag streaks on upper part of head and body; often a small 
dark spot at base of pectoral above; behind this dark cross streaks; 
b(jth dorsals and caudal translucent with dark spots and fine dots. 

Length 60 mm. Hakodate; not found by us. (Steindachner.) 

Named for Dr. Ferdinand Breunig, professor of natural history in 
the Imperial Gymnasium at Schotten. 

22. ABOMA UROTiENIA (Hilgendorf). 

(idh'ms urotivn'ut Hilgendokf, ."^itzher. Nat. Freumlf, Berlin, 1S7S, p. 1(1S, Tokyo; 
No. 10644, Mus. Berlin. 

Head 3t ; depth 5i ; D. VI or Vn-12 or 13 ; A. 1:^ or 18 ; .scales 
20 in cross series. Eye 4^ in head, scarcely less than snout; depth of 
head 2 in head, breadth 2f ; interorbital width equal to vertical diameter 
of eye; lower jaw projecting; teeth in several rows, the outer larger; 
rays of doi*sal not produced; profile of head very weakly convex; head 
scaleless; scales of body ctenoid, each with 7 to 9 teeth on the edge. 

Color clear brown, with irregular darker spots, those along lateral 
line mostly rhombic, a distinct spot at base of caudal; a horizontal 
streak before eye; a dark streak along caudal peduncle above and 
below ; caudal with a well-marked median cross band constantly 
present; a fainter band near the edge. Spinous dorsal with one. anal 
with two, distinct bands. 

Bay of Tokyo; known from small examples about 37 mm. in length. 
(Hilgendorf.) Not seen by us. 

[ovpa, tail; raivia, ribbon.) 



72 PJlOCEEDiXGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

12. CRYPTOCENTRUS Ehrenberg. 

Cri//>l(iir-idrnx (Ehrenberg ]M^;. ) Bleekek, Arch. Ni'-erl., IX, 1874, p. 322 {cri/pto- 

(riitnt.s). 
ParcKjohhis Bleeker, fide Bleeker, Arch. Nrerl., IX, 1S74, ji. 822. 

Body luoderately elongate, covered with minute cycloid sciiles. 
Head coinpres.sed. narrow above and convex in profile, the eyes close 
tog-other. Mouth large, oblique, the thick chin prominent; tongue 
nai'row, not notched; teeth rather strong; no Ijarbels; lower jaw not 
moving readily, so that the mouth is not easily opened wide; head 
naked. Dorsals short, the tirst of six spines, which are sometimes 
])roduced in lilanients in the male; caudal pointed; ventrals rather 
long; pectorals without silky rays; no filaments on the shoulder gir- 
dle; isthnuis very narrow; the gill membranes somewhat continued 
forward Ijelow. 

Species brightly colored; rather numerous in the seas of the East 
Indies. The Japanese species differs from the type in the elevation 
of the dorsal spines. 

(KpT'TTToi;, hidden; KtvTpnv, spine, from a concealed projection on 
the preopercle in C cry2)foccntnit<.) 

23. CRYPTOCENTRUS FILIFER ( Cuvier and Valenciennes ). 

Gohliix tiVtfer Ccvier and Valexciexxes, Hist. Xat. Poiss., XII, 18o7, p. 106. 

( " Mer des Indes. ' ' ) 
Gubia.^ liii.UfeJi Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Nederl., Ill, Japan, p. 16, i>l. i, 

fig. 2, Nagasaki. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., Ill, p. 73, H(jngkong. 

Head 3f in length; depth 5^; depth of caudal peduncle 2f in head; 
eye 5; snout U : maxillary If; D. VI-11 ; A. lU ; P. IS; scales in 
lat(>ral series about 95. in transverse series about 35. 

Body deepest at insertion of spinous dorsal, from where it grows 
gradually smaller to the caudal peduncle. Head large; snout about 
equal to diameter of eye; blunt, rounded. Eyes small; not directed 
upward; interorbital space narrow; convex. Mouth large, oblique; 
jaws equal; lips thick; no barbels; maxillary entirely concealed; 
extending posteriorly far lieyond eye to a point midway between tip 
of snout and posterior border of opercle. Teeth of jaws in broad 
bands; the outer row much enlarged and canine-like; curved back- 
ward; a large canine on each side of lower jaw; pharyngeal teeth 
bristle-like. Gill opening extending far forward below; the isthmus 
narrow, extending upward slightly above base of pectoral. Gill- 
rakers short, slender; 11 on lower limb of first arch; represented on 
upper limb of arch by 3 small papillae. Inner edge of shoulder girdle 
without papilhe. Head naked; skin on interorbital area, snout, and 
suborbital loose, wrinkled and folded; body ])ehind nape with minute 
cycloid scales, cleeph' embedded anteriorly, where their position is 



Nu.i.;44. GOBIOID FISHES OF J AFAX— JORDAN AND SXYDER. ( 3 

indicated by shallow pits: larger and more evident posteriorly. Lat- 
eral iini^ represented ])y a series of 15 or more vertical rows of minute 
])()r('s. the rows separated hy a space about equal to the diameter of 
eye. 

Dorsals well separated: the spines, except the last, long and fila- 
mentous: when depressed reaching almost to base of last ray: soft 
dorsal low: posterior rays longest, their height about ecpial to depth 
of ))ody. Anal inserted below third or fourth dorsal spine, the rays 
a little higher than those of dorsal: when depressed, extending as far 
l)Osteriorly as do the dorsal, both tins reaching base of caudal. Caudal 
and pectorals sharply rounded posteriorly, the latter extending to a 
vertical through last dorsal spine; without lilaments on its upper edge: 
A'entrals reaching a vertical through insertion of second dorsal: free 
posteriorly. 




Fig. 12. — CRYPTocENTRrs filifer. 



In spirits the color is brown, a little darker a])ove than below: sides 
with 5 broad, vertical brown l)ands, having narrow, indistinct ones 
between them, the second of the >yide bands located below the space 
between dorsals, the last at base of caudal: head, except lower jaw, 
dark: cheeks and opercle with small, pearly white spots (bright ))lue 
in life), surrounded by narrow, brownish rings. Fins dusky: the 
tirst dorsal with an elongate black spot on lower part of membrane 
between tirst and second spines, the spot preceded and followed ]>y a 
narrow strip of white: membranes of anal bluish white; interradial 
membranes of caudal bluish white, the upper half with elongate white 
(blue) spots; pectorals lighter than the other tins; two inner rays of 
ventrals darker than the outer ones. 

Coasts of southern Japan and China; living near the surface in open 
water or about rocks; generally common. Here described from a 
specimen 95 millimeters long from Nagasaki. Our numerous speci- 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi.xxiv. 

mens are from Tokyo, Tsuruii-u. Wakanoura, Kol)e, Onomichi, and 
Xao-a.saki. 

{FHuni, thread; /Ivvy, bear). 

13. GLOSSOGOBIUS Gill. 
a/(>.'<.s<,g,jhliis (iiLi., Ann. N. Y. Lye. N. H., VII, IS.^V), j>. 4f) (Plnlz rrpliah(s). 

From C/uenogobim, with which genus the alfinitie.s are most close, 
Glossoyohiu.H differs mainly in the large size of the scales, which num- 
ber about 31 in the lateral series. 

This genus is less closely allied to Ctenogohim^ from which it differs 
in the larger mouth, the strongly projecting chin, the deeply emar- 
ginate tongue, and in the narrow isthmus, the gill openings being 
extended considerably farther forward than in Ct<^nogoh!iis. Head 
naked; depressed anteriorly. Teeth moderate, in broad bands; the 
inner teeth depressible; pseudobranchiffi well developed; no flesh}' 
flaps on shoulder girdle; scales rather large, weakly ctenoid: dorsal 
fins both short, the first of six slender spines. 

Species few, one of them a large goby common in the streams of 
Japan. 

[yX(x}C)(j(x^ tongue; (rohJifs.) 

24. GLOSSOGOBIUS BRUNNEUS (Schlegel). 

(Tobius bruminis Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, p. 142, 1847, pi. lxxiv, fig. 2, Naga- 
saki. — GuxTHER, Cat. Fish., Ill, p. 65; after Schlegel.— Ishikawa, Cat. Fish., 
1897, p. 39, Tokyo, Boshu. 

(rohiiis olivaceits Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, p. 143, 1S47, pi. lxxiv, fig. 3, Naga- 
saki, on a drawing by Biirger. — Bleeker, Verb, en Meded. eft. Natuuik., 
1867, p. 24.5, Jedo. 

Head 3^ in length; depth -t^; depth of caudal peduncle 3 in head; 
eye 5t; snout 3; maxillary 2^; D. VI-K); A. 9; P. -20', scales in lateral 
series 30, in transverse series 10. 

Bod\' thickest; cylindrical; caudal peduncle deep; somewhat com- 
pressed; dorsal contour considerably arched; its highest point near 
insertion of spinous dorsal. Head very large; broader than body but 
less deep; sno'ut rather pointed; broadly rounded when viewed from 
above. Eye small; directed laterally; interorbital space flat; distance 
between eyes equal to their vertical diameter. Mouth oblique; maxil- 
lary concealed; extending to a vertical through middle of orbit; lips 
broad; lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. Teeth simple; in 2 
series; the outer ones somewhat enlarged; in a single row near edge 
of jaw, the inner ones depressible; in a narrow band. Tongue broad; 
deeply notched. Gill openings running far forward below; width of 
isthmus about equal to space between eyes. Inner edge of shoulder 
girdle without papilla?. Gill rakers on first arch 3 + 10; very short and 
flat; reduced to mere elevations near ends of arch. Anterior nostril 
with a tube. Chin without barbels. 



N0.1J44. GOBKJID FISHE>i OF J A PAX— JORDAN AND ,SNYDER. 



75 



Head naked except on occiput. Body with larue, linely ctenoid 
.scales; those on nape and ))rea.st minute. 

Dorsal tins separate; anterior spines highest; the second with a 
short, lilamentous tip; the fin when depressed just reaching insertion 
of soft dorsal; dorsal rays a little shorter than the spines. Caudal 
rounded. Anal inserted l)elow base of second or third dorsal ravs; 
its posterior ra3's long-est; reaching almost as far backward as do those 
of dorsal; both falling shoit of base of caudal. Pectoral rounded; the 
upper edge without free filaments. Ventrals free posteriori v. the 
disk very broad. 

Upper parts dark; sides with 4 or 5 large dark spots. Dorsal fins 
with small dusky spots in more or less definite longitudinal rows, the 
spots on anterior part of spinous dorsal large and black. Pectorals 
and caudal with small dark spots arranged in yertical rows. Ventrals 
and anal edged with white. 

Described from an individual from Wakanoura. Specimens from 
Onomichi are a little lighter in color. On the nape and along the 
back are scattered small spots of a deep brownish Idack. This large 
goby is common in the streams and estuaries of southern Japan. Our 
numerous specimens are from Hakodate, Onomichi. Kurume, Nagasaki, 
and Wakanoura. This species is closely related to the Chinese goby 
OJossogohlus (jlurli^. 

{BrumiimK^ brown.) 



Mf'iitfuri'iiieiitx of GluxKogohiuK Itniiimas. 



Length expressed in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal . . . 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral tin 

Number of d( irsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays" 

Number of scales In lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



Naga 


saki, Hizen. 


141 


119 


106 


20 


22 


20 


12 


11* 


10* 


29 


30 


30 


10 


10 


9* 


13* 


13 


13 


■u 


3* 


3 


5 


5* 


5* 


36 


39 


37* 


5Bi 


58 


58 


15i 


14 


15 


18* 


12* 


15 


59* 


62* 


61 


17 


12 


15 


24 


23* 


25 


26 


22* 


2-1* 


24 


23 


23 


20 


19 


20 


6 


6 


6 


10 


10 


10 


9 


9 


9 


32 


31 


31 


10 


10 


11 



Wa 


ka- 


nouri 


i, Kii. 


112 


S2 


21 


18 


11 


11 


32 


29* 


10* 


9 


14 


13 


3* 


3 


6 


5* 


35 


36 


58* 


57* 


19 


16 


15 


13 


61* 


61 


15* 


13* 


23* 


22 


26 


26 


25 


24 


20 


20 


6 


6 


10 


10 


9 


9 


30 


30 


10 


12 



14. CHyENOGOBIUS Gill. 

Chxntxjoljiu^ (iiLL, Ann. Lye. }sat. His^t. X. Y., 1859, p. IL' {mninlarlK). 
Gymnogohius Gill, Proc. Ac. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1863, \>. 269 {iiidrrogiiiilhus, bashed 
on i^pecimens wrongly described as scaleless) . 

Body rather elongate; the head ]>road and depressed anteriorly; 
mouth large, oblique, the lower jaw pi'ojecting; teeth moderate, in 



76 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

bands; tongue emarginate; sides of head naked; no barbels; eyes well 
separated; isthmus very narrow, the gill opening continued forward 
below. Scales verv small, cycloid or weakly ctenoid; dorsal tins short, 
the tirst of 6 slender spines; ventrals moderate, not adnate; caudal 
short. 

Gobies of moderate size abounding in the rivers of Japan. This 
genus ditl'ers from C'ff^/tor/ohh(S in the large mouth, notched tongue, 
wide g'ill openings, and very small scales. 

Not having seen the type of Chamogohhis, Ave are not quite sure of 
its identity with Gymnogohius. 

[XOiivGo, yawn; Gohius.) 

a. Dorsal rays VI-9; anal 9; scales small; ocellate spots aljout the vent. 

(iiiniiJarh. 25. 

aci'. Dorsal rays VI-12; anal 12; scales 70; body and fins tlnely dotted, the caudal 

with zigza.tr vertical bands macroynatliDS. 26. 

25. CH-(ENOGOBIUS ANNULARIS Gill. 

Chwnugoh'ms ((imularis Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. X. Y., 1859, p. 12, Hakodate. 
Gohius annularis Guxther, Cat. Fish., Ill, p. 65; after Gill. 

Head 4 in length; eye 4 in head; D. YI-9; A. 8. 

Body cylindrical anteriorly; compressed posteriorly. Head l)roader 
than deep. Eye located anteriorly; 4 in head; directed oldiquely. 
Interorbital space three-fifths diameter of eye. Mouth somewhat 
oblique; jaws equal. Scales small cycloid. Color brownish; dotted 
above with blackish; several ocellate spots about the vent; second dor- 
.^al with 8 bands. (Gill.) 

Hakodate, island of Hokkaido. Not seen l)y us. 

{AiiJddaris, having rings.) 

26. CHiENOGOBIUS MACROGNATHOS (Bleeker). 

GuJrius macrog)i(ithos Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sci. Indo-Nederl., VI, Jajjan, \>. 83, ]il. i, 

fig. 1, Rivers of Jeddo near Tokyo. 
Gobiofi07na )iKtrrognaf}i(iii GvyTKER, Cat. Fish., IH, 1861, p. 86, after Bleeker. 
ChcVnogohiux /luicrognntlios Jord.\x and Snyder, Proc. V. S. Nat. !Mus., 1900, p. 

372, Tokyo, Lake Biwa. 

Head 3| in length; depth -if; depth of caudal peduncle 2| in head; 
eye 6; snout 8; maxillary 1^; D. VI-12; A. 11; P. 20; scales in lat- 
eral series TO, in transvei'se series 20. 

Body thickset, rather cylindrical anteriorly; caudal pedimcle deep, 
compressed. Head l)road. its dorsal contour concave in reg'ion of 
e^^es; snout long, pointed. Eyes small, directed oV)liquely upward: 
space between eyes equal to 1^ times their diameter. ^Nlouth very 
large, oblique; lips rather l)road; lower jaw projecting beyond the 
upper. Maxillary exposed posteriorly, extending to a vertical through 
posterior edge of pupil, varying in length in diti'erent individuals. 



NO. 11244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



i I 



Tono-ue broad, notched anteriorly. Teeth minute, simple, in narrow 
Itands on both jaws; the outer ones but little enlarged. Gill openings 
large but not extending extremely far forward; the width of isthmus 
about equal to space between eyes. No papilla^ on shoulder girdle. 
Gill-rakers on first arch 2+8; short; rather slender. Anterior nostril 
Avith a short tube. No barbels on lower jaw. 

Head naked. Body with small cycloid or finely ctenoid scales, both 
kinds often occurring on the sides of the .same individual; scales on 
nape and breast minute; those on belh' small and easil}' displaced. 

Dorsals separate; the spines lower than the rays; when depressed 
the first dorsal does not reach insertion of second. Anal inserted 
below l)ase of third or fourth dorsal ray, extending when depressed 
a little farther posteriori}' than does the dorsal, both falling consider- 
ably .short of reaching base of caudal. Pectoral rather pointed, its 
upper edge without free filaments. Caudal rounded. Ventrals free 
posteriorly. 




Fig. 13.— Ch-kxugobius jiaceogxathos. 



Sides mottled with brownish or dusk}'; a lateral row of about V> 
indistinct large blotches present, the most posterior at ba.se of caudal 
fin; head with mottlings and reticulations of dark color. Spinous 
dorsal with a dark blotch on its posterior upper part; fin with a very 
narrow dark edge, below which is a light l)and anteriorly; other parts 
of fin dusky; .soft dor.sal dusky, with small white spots; caudal with 
dark broad zigzag vertical bands; anal dusky; the soft dorsal, caudal, 
and anal conspicuously Ixn'dered with white; pectorals light; ventrals 
dusky. 

Here described from a specimen collected near Tokyo by Professor 
Otaki. 

The species is of wide distribution, living in rivers, and is but little 
less abundant than Cttnogohius simllU. It is subject to considerable 
variation in shape of body, length of maxillary, and in color. Some 
specimens from Lake Biwahave the caudal peduncle narrower than have 
those from other localities. The length of the maxillary varies con- 
siderably with the sex, in the females l)eing much shorter than in the 
males. Some are very light in color, but the pattern as de.scribed is 



78 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



usually preserved. The darker ones may have either light or dark 
ventrals and anal, these fins in some eases lieing almost black. 

Our specimens are from Funaki, Omi; Kurume: Aomori; Tokyo; 
Tsurug-a; Chitose; Matsubara; Same; Gifu, Mino; Nagoya; Owari; 
Kawatana. 

{/uaKpo^, long; yvaftog^ jfi^-) 



Mi'iiKurcinciits of ( 'li;vn(M/(ihhix nHtrror/iiathos. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundreds of length 

Deptli (if caudal peduncle 

Leugili of head 

Length of snout 

Length of ■naxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from .snout to spinous dorsal . . 

Distance from snout to .soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dnrsal rays 

Distance from stmut to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal flu 

Length of jiectoral tin 

Length of ventral tin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales In transverse series. . . 



Matsubara. 
Lake Biwa. 



Fukabe 

River, 

Gifu, Mino. 


Bay of 
Tokyo. 


72 


65 


89 


,S2 


20 


18 


21* 


21 


12 


12 


10 


12 


30 


31* 


30 


30 


9 


9 


10 


10 


13i 


15* 


15 


15* 


.5 


5 


5* 


5 


6 


6 


5 


5 


42 


42 


41 


42* 


62 


62 


62 


62 


■14 


13 


13 


11* 


15* 


15 


15 


14 


66 


65 


65 


67 


13* 


11 


13 


12* 


19 


20 


21 


21 


22 


25 


21 


22 


23 


24 


22 


23 


18 


19 


17 


IN 


6 , 6 


6 


ti 


12 ! 11 


11 


12 


11 


12 


11 


11 


18 


18 


18 


19 


68 


67 


74 


OS 


21 


21 




22 





Fukabi 


<afu. 




Matsubara, 


Lake Biwa. 


71* 


73 


71* 


61 


70 


48 


42* 


42 


12 


11 


12 


12 


11 


11 


11 


11 


10 


9* 


9* 


10 


10 


8 


10 


9 


20 


16 


18 


17* 


17* 


13 


12 


!■' 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Male. 


Male. 




Female. 


Female. 



Length of body in millime- 
ters 

Depth of caudal peduncle 
expressed in hundredths 
of length 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary a 



fi Measured from tip of snout to i)osteri()r eud of maxillary. 



! 

Lake Biwa. 


Nagoya. 


Length of body 49 -^1 54 

Deptli of caudal peduncle . 8 8* .s 

Lenuth of snout 9* 9* 10 

Length of maxillary 20 20 19 

Male. Male. Male. 


50 


73 


75 
12 
8 
14 
Female. 


60 
10 
10 
18 
Male. 




8* 10 




9 

17 

Male. 


9* 
15* 




• 







15. CHLOEA Jordan and Snyder. 

('Iilorii JoKDAX and Snyder, new genus {cd-stanfa). 

This genus is very close to Clutinogolrnix. differing chiefly in the 

presence of T or 8 dorsal spines instead of 0. The isthmus is a little 

wider than in CJimiogohius^ and the head a little less depressed above. 

Salient characters of the two genera are the large oblique mouth, 



o(..i244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 7^ 

prominent chin, notciied tongue, moderate or short soft dorsal and 
anal, naked head, and the very small scales. No silkv rays to the 
pectorals. 

The species are small and speckled in coloration. a)H)unding on the 
sand}" shores of Japan, especialh" to the northward. 

Named for Mrs. Chloe Lesley Starks, artist and naturalist. 

It. Head large, 2| in lensth, rather pointed and not 4-angled in section; depth 4| 
in length; scales 67-19; dorsal rays VII-11; l)odY and tins tinely mottled or 

dotted cdstant'a. 27 

<!((. Head shorter, 3i to 3f in length, somewhat 4-angled in section; depth about 6 
in length. 

h. Dorsal ray-s VII-U; scales 72-20 laris. 28 

fih. Dorsal rays VII-13. 

r. Scales 90-26 morormi<i. ' 29 

cc. Scales 70-20 .•itirrhijniiis. 'M 

27. CHLOEA CASTANEA ( O'Shaughnessy). 
(4uhio ra.s'^n*f'»'.s (J'SHAroHXESsv. Aim. Mag. Nat. Hist., XV, 1875, p. 145, Nagasaki. 

Head 2f in length: depth 4f ; depth of caudal peduncle 2| in head: 
diameter of eye 4: length of maxillary 2f; D. VII-11: A. 11: P. 18; 
scales in lateral series 67, in transyerse series IH. 

Body robust, almost cylindrical: caudal peduncle narrow, some- 
what compressed. Head rather pointed, deeper than wide. Eye of 
medium size, directed almost laterally, the upper edge projecting 
slightly aboye the dorsal outline of head: width of space between eyes 
equal to about half their diameter. Mouth oblique, lower jaw pro- 
jecting somewhat beyond the upper. Maxillary exposed at its poste- 
rior end only, reaching a \'ertical between anterior edge of orbit and 
pupil. Teeth yilliform, in narrow bands on both jaws, the outer ones 
of lower jaw slightly enlarged. Tongue notched anteriorly. Gill 
opening not extending far forw^ard: the isthmus wide. Gill -rakers on 
lirst arch 2 -|- 11: rather thick set. P-seudobranchi^e large. No pa})il- 
1;^ on shoulder girdle. 

Head naked except on occiput, where there are minute scales. Body 
coyered with small, tinely ctenoid scales, except on })reast, which is 
naked; scales on median line of belly easily displaced. 

Dorsal tins separate, the spines almost as high as the rays. Anal 
inserted below base of second or third dorsal rays: the rays equal in 
height to the dorsal spines, the depressed tin reaching a little farther 
posteriori}' than does the dorsal, V)oth falling considerably short of 
base of caudal. Catidal round; pectoral without tilaments on upi)er 
edge; round posteriorly. Ventrals rather short and broad. 

Color in spirits 3'ellowish, tinged with oliye: upper parts haying- 
narrow dusky bands with a reticulate arrangement. Dorsal tins with 
small dusky spots on spines and rays in diagonal rows. Caudal with 
faint dusky spots. Othei' tins with a little dusky. 



80 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



Described from a specimen taken at Tsuruoa, Echizen. Other spec- 
imens are from Nagasaki, ]Misaki. Matsushima, Aomori, Tsuruga, 
Niig'ata. The species is connnon in sandy ))ays, 

( C'antantnts, chestnut). 



Meusuronents of Chloea castanea. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in huiidredth.s of 

length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinou.s dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal flu 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Ntimber of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in tran.sverse series. 



Tsuruga, Echizen. 



Nagasaki, Hizen. 



10 

■Si 

6 
38 
•57 
12 
14 
til 
II5 
24 
19 
18 
19 

11 
11 
18 
03 

18 



28. CHLOEA I.JEVIS Steindachner. 
Gobius Uevis Steindachner, Ichth. Beitr. VIII, 187V), p. 20, Hakodate. 

Head 3i; depth ti; D. VIl-1, 11: A. I, 11: P. 21. Eye in head; 
snout 3f : scales 70 to T5-2<). 

Body compressed. Head four-angied in section, fiat above; a streak 
of scales on middle of nape; sides of head naked. Mouth large, rising 
vertically; end of maxillary a little behind middle of eye. Teeth 
nunierous, small: no canines; tongue emarginate. Scales cj^cloid; 
small. First dorsal weakly convex, the fifth spine longest; second 
dorsal scarcely higher; pectoral long, about as long as caudal without 
silky rays. Clear ))rown, with many dark specks. A dusky spot at 
base of caudal; fins all translucent, with thick-sown points, especially 
the ventrals which are dusky in the males. Second dorsal and caudal 
with regular cross-bands; tip of first dorsal dusky. Length SO mm. 
(Steindachner.) 

Hakodate, not seen by us. 

{Lcevis, smooth.) 



29. CHLOEA MORORANA Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head Si in length; depth 6^; depth of caudal peduncle 8^ in head; 
eye oii; snout 3i; maxillary If; D. VH-IS; A. 12; P. 20; scales in 
lateral series 90, in transverse series 26. 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



81 



Body moderate!}" compressed, sloping considerably from the deepest 
part to caudal peduncle. Head as wide as body but much less deep, 
rather long, pointed. Ea'cs placed high, the upper margin projecting 
slightly above head, directed laterally; interor))ital area tiat; distance 
between ej^es about equal to their diameter. Mouth extremely large; 
ol)lique, the cleft curving upward in front. Maxillary notably long 
extending beyond eye a distance equal to the eye's diameter. Lower 
jaw projecting be3^ond the upper. Teeth villiform, in narrow bands 
on ))oth jaws, the outer ones slightly (enlarged; no canines. Tongue 
deeph- notched. Gill opening extending forward a short distance; 
width of isthmus equal to diameter of eye. Inner edge of shoulder 
girdle without papillae. Gill-rakers very long and slender, .5 + 19 
on lirst arch. Anteriar nostril with a tube. No barbels on head. 

Head naked; body with very small cycloid scales; nape with a naked 
space running from in.sertion of dorsal to occiput, the scales extending 
forward along the sides; breast and median part of belly naked. 

Dorsals separate, the spines slender, when depresi^ed not reaching 
insertion of soft dorsal; soft dorsal somewhat higher anteriorly, when 





FK;. 14. — CHLOEA MORdRANA. 



depressed, the rays fall far short of reaching the caudal. Anal 
inserted below base of third or fourth dorsal ray, extending a little 
farther jjosteriorly than does the dorsal. Caudal l)luntly roundi^d. 
Pectoral acutely rounded; the upper edge without free tilaments, 
Ventrals large, almost as long or longer than pectorals, free poste- 
riorly. 

Color in spirits light yellowi.sh olive, linely dotted with black; the 
dots gathered in clouds and reticulations on the upper parts; snout 
and lower jaw rather darker than other parts of head. Spinous dorsal 
dusky at base, growing lighter tow^ard the margin; soft dorsal with 
dusky spots arranged in oblique rows; caudal dusky, with very indis- 
tinct spots in transverse rows. Pectorals and anal >\ ith a little dusky. 

The species is represented by several specimens from ]\Iororan, 
Hokkaido. The type is No. <U5:>, Leland Stanford Junior University 
Museum. Locality, Mororan, Hokkaido. We also have two examples 
from Tokyo which are slightly darker in color; the spinous dorsal 
has a blackish blotch on its posterior part. The species is not rare 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— (11 ♦; 



82 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



vol,. XXIV. 



about rock.s and in rock pools to the northward. Our specinicn.s are 
from Mororan, Tokyo, and Matsnsliinia Bay. 

{Mororan., iri.s-huts; a town on Volcano Bay where the .species was 
first taken.) 

Measnrementx of < 'Idofd niororana. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length. 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of .snout 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dor.sal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from ,vno\it to anal fin 

Height of longest anal ra.vs 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

N umber of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 

Locality, Mororan. 



70 


62 


59 


19 


16 


18 


s 


,s 


9 


26i 


27 


27 


8 


,s 


8 


3i 


3 


3 


6 


5i 


5 


36 


36i 


37 


55 


57 


57 


m 


11 


.11 


12 


12 


11 


61 


59 


61 


lU 


11 


12 


21 


21 


20 


20 


20 


20 


18 


18 


18 


19 


17 


IC 


9 


/ 




14 


13 


It 


.14 


13 


14 


90 


91 


95 


26 


27 


26 



Number of dor.sal spines . 
Number of dorsal rays . . 
Number of anal ravs 



7 


- 


8 


7 


8 


8 


8 


14 


14 


14 


13 


13 


13 


14 


14 


14 


14 


12 


13 


13 


14 



30. CHLOEA SARCHYNNIS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 8| in Icng-th; depth 5i; d-^pth of caudal peduncle 3 in head; 
eye 4; snout 8^; maxillary 1|; D. Vll-18; A. 13; P. 20; scales in lateral 
series 70, in transverse series 20. 

Body rather elong-ate, somewhat compressed. Head long, sharp. 
Eyes directed laterally, the space between them about equal to their 
diameter. Snout a little longer than eye. Mouth larg-e, oblique; lower 
jaw projecting ])eyond the upper. Maxillary very long, extending 
beyond posterior border of qjq and considerabl}" farther than cleft of 
mouth, its posterior third being free. Teeth simple, ver}^ small , slender; 
in narrow bands on both jaws. Tongue very deeply cleft. Vomer 
with 2 conspicuous pads projecting downw ard, each apposed to a lobe 
of the tongue. Gill openings extending moderatelj^ far forward; the 
width of isthmus about equal to length of snout. No papilhB on inner 
edge of shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers on lirst arch (5 + 14, long and 
Very slender. Head without barbels. 

Head naked; l)ody covered with small, finely ctenoid scales, except 
on breast and nape; the naked space on nape not quite reaching inser- 
tion of spinous dorsal. 

Dorsals widely separated, the spines short and slender, the lays a 
little longer than spines; when depressed the lin falls far short of 
reaching caudal. Anal inserted below base of second dorsal ray; when 



N0.1244. GOBIOW FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



83 



depressed it extends slig'htly farther backward than does the dorsal. 
Caudal ol)tusel3" rounded or truncate ])ehind. Pectorals pointed; the 
ui)per edge without filamentous appendages. Ventrals free posteriorly. 
Sides Avith a row of 15 or more small dusky spots, some of which are 
joined together; upper parts Avith dusky r<>ticulations; a band extend- 
ing forward from eye; tjnout dusky. Spinous dorsal with a small 
dark spot on its posterior part; soft dorsal with small dusky spots ar- 
I'anged in 2 horizontal rows; anal Avith just a trace of dark color; lower 
half of caudal dusky; pectorals and \'entrals without dark color. 



,/^^ 




Fig. 15. — Ciii.ok.v sarciiyxnis. 



Type No. ()4()o, Leland Stanford Jiuiior University Museum. 
Locality, Wakanoura. We haA^c 7 small si)ecimeus only, all from the 
type locality. 

The species closely resembles ('hi oca moronnia. It has lai'ger scales 
and is differently colored. The latt(M- sixunes has not the vomerine 
pads described above, although some specimens show elevations on 
each side of the vomer. 

{ffdpB., liesh; vwi^^ vomer.) 

Measurements of Cldoca sdrclupnus. 



Lciigfth expressed in millimeters 

Deiith expressed in himdredths of length 

Depth of eiiiidal pedunele 

Length of head ' 

Length of snout 

Lengtli of maxillary 

Widtli ot interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distanee from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distanee from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distanee from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Numl)er of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Nuiiil)er of .scales in transverse series 



33 


32 


31 


17 


17 


16 


9 


9 


8 


•28 


20 


2G 


8 


7 


7 


15 


15 


16 


4 


4 


4 


6 


7 


( 


35 


35 


35 


57 


• 56 


5fl 


12 


10 


12 


12 


12 


14 


57 


55 


o< 


12 


7 


12 


21 


22 


23 


19 


18 


20 


19 


18 


16 


]i; 


15 


15 


/ 


7 


7 


13 


13 


13 


18 


13 


13 


70 


(i4 


70 


20 


20 


20 



84 PR0CEEDTNG8 OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vouxxiv. 

16. CHASMIAS Jordan and Snyder. 

Ch'i.smlns Jordan- and ^n'ydek, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIII, 1!H)1, p. 761 
{iiiiK((/:tvs). 

Body nioderately olongate, cov^ered with veiy small, cycloid .scales; 
head ))road, Hattish al)ove, wide ])etween the eyes, the cheeks without 
scales; mouth very larg'e, horizontal, the lower jaw inchided; teeth in 
moderate bands; maxillary much pi'oduced backward; tongue broad, 
rounded; isthmus very broad, the gill openings restricted to the sides. 
Shoulder girdle without fleshy flaps; no barbels. Dorsal flns short, 
the first of 6 low, flexible spines; caudal rounded; pectorals with free 
silky tips above; no filamentous rays on dorsal; vcntrals short and 
broad. 

This genus is near to J-*I(d(/(/o7)H(>t Bleeker {uKicrorJiyncJiNs)^ difi'ering 
at least in the small, smooth scales and in the narrow gill openings. 

[XoiffpiaGy^ to 3^awn, from the large mouth.) 

(I. Vertical fins distincth; spotted or checkered with Ijlack; scales moderate, about 

60-20; de])th 6 in length; a black caudal spot (I'lUHnKjiiathus. 31. 

aa. Vertical fins dusky, nearly plain or dotted with white, and with a broad 
whitish margin; scales minute, about 90-30; depth 4| in length; a black 
caudal spot 7n isakins. 32. 

31. CHASMIAS DOLICHOGNATHUS ( Hilgendorf ). 

Gobius dulidiugnatliKif Hiu;endorf, Sitzljer. Naturf. Frcunde, 1S7S, p. 108, Tokyo; 
Mus. Berl., Nos. 1065, 10654. 

Head 8-| in length; depth 6; depth of caudal peduncle 2f in head; 
eye 5i ; snout 3 ; maxillary If ; D. VI-11 ; A. 10 ; P. 20 ; scales in 
lateral s(?ries 58, in transverse series 19. 

Body al)out like that of 0. mimknfs', the head somewhat smaller, 
the space between, the eyes narrower, and the snout shorter and more 
rounded. Eyes small; not directed upward; interorl)ital space wide, 
the distance between the eyes a little less than length of snout. 
Mouth nearly horizontal, very large; the maxillary extending to a 
vertical through a point posterior to the hinder margin of the eye, 
a distance equal to one-half the diameter of eye. Lower jaw included 
by the upper. Lips rather thick and pendulous. A fleshy flap before 
and below the eye hanging down over the lip. Teeth in narrow bands 
near middle of jaws, the posterior half of each side of jaw being 
naked; teeth villiform; those of upper jaw with a somewhat enlarged 
outer series ; phar^^ngeal teeth above and below stifl', l)ristle-like. 
Gill openings extending but little forward of the base of pectorals, 
the isthnms wide. Gill-rakers on first ai'ch 3 + 8, minute, slender. 
No papilhe on inner edge of shoulder girdle. 

Head naked; skiu but little wrinkled or folded; pores on head sim- 
ilar to those of O. inisakius. Anterior nostrils with tubes. Scales 



NO. 1244. aOBIOID FISHES OF JA PAX— JORDAN AXT) SXYDFJi. 



85 



on ])ocly small and weak, cvcloid. A .suggestion of a lateral line 
s'lMiilar to that of f '. iiil.'<(il-'>is is ])i-('S(Mit. 

Fins like those of (\ nilxal-nis ; the upper edge of pectoral with 
thr(^ad-like appendages. 

Sides with distinct, elongate, light color patches which extend 
upward and doAvnward froiu a horizontal somewhat above the median 
pai"t of body; of tht)se l)elow. th(^ first spot is iumiediat(dy behind the 
base of pectoral: aV)ove this a very indistinct liglit t)and passes over 
the body ])ehind the occii)ut: the second has a fellow above, which 
unites with one on the op])osite side at insertion of spinous dorsal; the 
third has '1 l)ands above it, tiie posterior of which passes ovei- the body 
at insertion of soft dorsal; others with corresponding spots above, 
the last 2 uniting to form 1 band. Sides also with scattered small 




Fii;. ir,.— chasmias ixilichognathus. 



ligb.t spots, and with black dots, some of which are on the light 
areas. A large black spot at base of caudal. Head above with indi,;- 
tinct dark dots and bars, the latter extending backward from the eye; 
\'entral parts of head with minute spots of dead white. Pectorals, 
dorsal and caudal tins with small dark spots arranged in lines, trans- 
versely on pectoral and caudal, longitudinally on spinous dorsal. 
and obliquely on soft dorsal. Anal dusky. Ventrals without dark 
color. 

Described from a specimen collected at Misaki. The species is very 
abundant along the beaches and among the rocks between tide marks 
from Hakodate to Nagasaki, ])eing in many places the most a])undant 
species. It was taken by us at Misaki, AVakanoura, Nagasaki, Tsuruga, 
Matsushima, P^noshima. Hakodate, and Same. 

(fi(>XLX_<>>. long; yvaHo^^ jii^^'-) 



8(> 



PROCEEDTNOS OF THE NA 770.V.1 L yfU^EVM. 



MfiixiirciiieiilK of ( 'luthtiniux iJnl'iclnxjiKitlii 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length . 

Depth (if eaudal pedunele 

Length (if head 

Lengtli (if sniiut 

Widtli (if intenirliital space 

Diameter (if orbit 

Distance from snont to spinovis dorsal. . 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fln 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal jieduncje 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

NumVjer of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays . . 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series... 



r>a 


46 


51 


58 


46 


48 


48 


86 


86 


36 


16 


17* 


18 


19 


22 


19 


17 


19 


18 


18 


10 


11 


lU 


11 


11 


12 


10 


13 


lU 


12 


29 


81 


30 


29 


80 


80 


81 


82 


31 


81 


9i 


10 


10 


10 


lU 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


;i 


4 


4 


8A 


8* 


4 


4 


3^ 


4 


4 


5 


fii 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6i 


7 


9 


7 


•10 


41 


41 


41 


43 


42 


42 


42 


421 


41 


(iO 


59' 


(iO 


60 


60 


(>0 


60 


60 


60 


61 


181 


\U 


11 


12 


14 


14 


14 


18 


13 


14 


14 


15 


13 


14 


17 


14 


151 


16 


14 


15 


63 


62 


64 


64 


(i2 


65 


68 


62 


60 


59 


lli 


18 


18 


12 


14 


13 


14 


15 


141 


14 


22 


22 


21 


24 


24 


21 


24 


25 


241 


25 


22 


23 


22 


21 


24 


22 


25 


24 


22 


23 


19 


22 


21 


20 


22 


22 


23 


22 


21 


22 


Vlk 


12 


121 


11 


12 


10 


12 


14 


13 


14 


(i 


6 


6 


6 


6 


(; 


1 


6 


6 


6 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


10 


11 


11 


11 


10 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


20 


20 


20 


19 


20 


20 


20 


19 


20 


21 


58 


68 


5fl 


59 


62 


59 


65 


60 


56 


5fi 


19 


19' 


18 


17 


18 


18 


17 


19 


17 


17 



32. CHASMIAS MISAKIUS Jordan and Snyder. 

Chd.vnldf! iiii.'tdl-iii^: JoRD.YN aiid SxYDER, Proo. U. 8. Nat. ]Mns., XXIII, IHOl, 
p. 761, pi. xxxvi, ^Nliyaki, Tsushima, Nagasaki. 

Head 3|^ in body; depth 4|; depth of eaudal peduiude 2^ hi head; 
length of «nout 2|; maxillary If; D. VI-11; A. 10; P. 21; scales in 
lateral series SO, in transviM'se series 2<S. 

Body thickset, the caudal ptHluncle deep; head very broad, depressed, 
wider posteriori}" than the body; snout, viewed from above, broadly 
rounded Ey(\s small, directed ol)liquely; interorbital space markedly 
wide, the distance between the eyes equal to the length of the snout. 
Mouth extremely large, horizontal; lower jaw included l)y the upper, 
the wide upper lips hanging down over the lower; upper lip with a 
fringed interior border next the teeth. Maxillary extending posteri- 
orly to a vertical through a point midway between eye and edge of 
opercular flap; covered for the greater part of the length. Tongue very 
broad, slightly notched. Teeth villiform, none of them enlarged, in 
bands which extend backward a little less than half the length of mouth; 
pharyngeal teeth bristle-like. Gill opening not large; the lower edge 
an eye's diameter below base of pectoral; the width of isthmus slightly 
greater than depth of caudal peduncle. Gill-rakers on tirst arch )-> + 1<», 
short and slender, the length of longest less than diameter of pupil. 
No protu))erances on inner (Mlge of shoulder girdle. Lower jaw with- 
out barbels. Anterior nostril with a conspicuous short tube, widened 
at its opening. 

Head naked; the skin thick, not much wrinkled nor folded; preor- 
bital with a tleshy ilap which extends forward and downward below 
nostrils. A conspicuous line of port^s extends from a point above and 
posterior to i\\o nostrils forward and tluMi downward along upper edge 
of preorbital ilap, wherc^ it divid(>s, oiu^ hranch running backward below 
the eye and (•ur\'ing upward Ix^hind it, the other l)aekward toward i]\o 



Nu.ijii. (/oniOID FISHES OF JAPAN— .TOTWAN AND SXYDFJl. 87 

middle of (.'hcek. A similar line of pores lies on either side of lower 
jaw, hetwt'en the folds of skin. A larg'e pore oi\ int(>ror))ital space 
Ix'tween posterior parts of eyes. Body with small, thin, cycloid scales, 
which are more or less deeply embedded in the skin. Anteriorly the 
scales are closely crowded and somewhat irregularly placed; on the 
hreast and belly they are jninute and almost hidden beneath the skin. 

Dorsal tins well separated; height of longest spines about equal to 
length of snout; posterior spine connected with the back by a large 
triangular nnMubrane; rays somewhat higher than the spines, the long- 
est al)out equal to depth of caudal peduncle; no memlirane connecting 
posterior ra}' with the ])ack. Anal equal in height to spinous dorsal; 
when depressed the anal and dorsal extend an ec[ual distance posteri- 
orly, both falling short of l)ases of tirst caudal rays a distance equal to 
one-half the depth of caudal peduncl(\ Caudal rounded. Pectoral 
rounded; its upper edge with a fringe of 14 or 15 thread-like tilaments, 
of which each ray except the uppermost contributes 2. Ventrals 
short, free from body posteriorly; the membrane connecting the spines 
fleshy, elevated; its height equal to diameter of eye, its edge concave. 

Color in spirits dark above, the throat and belly light; head with 
indistinct dots above, and scarcely discernible bars on cheeks; sides of 
body with irregularly shaped small white spots, in which a transverse 
arrangement is suggested. Dorsal, anal, and caudal tins edged with 
white, the white of caudal forming a distinct band; membranes of tins 
with indefinite light spots; first dorsal with a large, round, white spot 
just behind last spine, where the meml)rane is black; caudal with a 
large l)lack blotcl at its base, followed by a transverse row of small 
Avhite spots, 1 on each ray. Pectorals and ventrals without spots 
except at the base of the former. 

Length of the type 1»)U nun. 

Smaller specimens have the spots on top of head and the bars or 
spots on cheeks distinct; anterior parts of bod}" with small dark spots; 
sides with 8 or 9 transverse, light-colored bands with small light 
blotch(\s between them, in some cases the bands being broken up into 
elongate blotches. The dark caudal spot and the white terminal band 
are very distinct. 

On the smaller specimens a lateral line is suggested by a row of 29 
groups of minute papilhe extending along the middle of the sides. 
Each group has 5 or ('» papilla in 1, or occasionally 2, vertical rows, 
which are a little less than the width of a scale in length. A mere 
trace of the lateral line is seen on large specimens. 

A specimen from Tsushima appears to have no light spots on the 
sides. The dark spot at base of caudal is scarcely pei-cepti))le. 

Type No. (U.S-t, Leland Stanford Junior University ]\Iuseum. 

This species very closely resembles /'. doUchogndfhHH. It difi'ers 
from it in coloration, not having verv distinct, nari'ow, wavy, dark 



88 PROCEEDINaS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

bands on pectorals, dorsals, and caudal; in having a terminal band of 
whit(^ on the caudal, a sharper snout, and much smaller scales. 

It is very abundant about the rocky headlands of Japan, especially 
about Misaki. Our specimens are from Misaki. Nagasaki, Enoshima, 
Tsushima, and Hakodate. 

(J/^', red; mk!^ point; name of a very tine collecting ground on which 
the investigation station of the Imperial ITniversity of Tokyo is situ- 
ated.) 

17. PTEROGOBIUS Gill. 

T'h'r<i(/()J)iKs (iuAj, Proc. Ac. Nut. Sci. Phila., l<S(i:^, j). 266 {i-iryo). 

Body moderately elongate, somewhat compressed, covered with very 
small cycloid or finely ctenoid scal(\s; iiead not depressed, I'oundcd in 
profile, broad betw(»en the eyes, the cheeks with a patch of small scales 
above or wholl}- naked; mouth moderate, terminal, ol)li(|ue, the lower 
jaw more or less prominent; tongue rounded, scarcely or not at all 
notched at tip; teeth moderate, the outer enlarged; gill openings 
moderate, separated by a rather broad isthmus. No l)arbels. First 
dorsal of about <S slender spines, sometimes produced in the male; 
soft dorsal and anal very long, of "iO to 30 very slender, close-set rays; 
caudal fin moderate; pectoral fin of slender rays, tiie upper silk-like, 
with free tips. Ventrals well developed, not adnate to the 1)elly. 

Gobies of rather large size and striking coloration, the most brilliant 
members of the family, found about the rocks in clear water on the 
shores of Japan and Korea. 

(TTTf/joK, fin; (roh/i/s^ from the long fins.) 

((. Body without vertical bands; its color stri))es of orange and dark blue running 
horizontally; tins washed witli orange and dark blue; I*. VIII-28; A. 27; scales 

133 rirffo. 33 

(Id. Body \\ith vertical bands, light or dark, and no horizontal stripes. 
/'. Body with black cross-bands on a background of clear brown. 

c. Eye with a dark cross-band; bands .on body sharply defined and edged 
with paler. Dorsal rays YIII-22; scales 78. 
(1. C-audal fin with a 1)lack cross-band at its base; dark rings on body bor- 
dered with yellow flapoides. 34. 

(hi. Caudal fin without dark cross-band at base; dark rings on body edged 

with pale daimio. 35. 

cr. Eye without dark cross-band; bands on body broad, diffuse, not edged 

with pale. Dorsal VIII-26; scales 96 zacalles. 36. 

hh. Body with very faint, pale cross-bands on a ground color of light olive. Dor- 
sal VIII-20; scales 66 zonole/ucua. 37. 

33. PTEROGOBIUS VIRGO (Schlegel). 

(luhina rir(/o Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1847, p. 143, pi. lxxiv, fig. 4, 
Nagasaki. — GtJXTHER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 79; after iSchlegel. 

Head -t in length; depth 6i; depth of caudal peduncle 10; eye (5 in 
head; snout 2|; maxillary 2|; D. Vni-'28; A. 27; P. 22; scales in 
lateral series 133, in transverse series -tl. 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPA\—./(JlH>AX AXD SXYDFIl. 89 

Shape of head and body similar to that of /*. ddlnuo. Eyes of mod- 
erate .size, directed laterally; iiiterorbitul space concave, the distance 
between the eyes equal to H times their lonoitudinal diameter. Max- 
illary concealed, extending- to a vertical between anterior edg-e of 
orbit and pupil: mouth oblique. Teeth simple, slightly curved, in 
y or 3 rows on each jaw, the outer row slightly enlarged; no canines. 
Tongue broad, its edge slightly concave. Gill-rakers on first arch 
4+10. slender, about equal in length to diameter of pupil. No 
papilhe on inner edge of shouldiM- girdle. No barbels on chin. Nos- 
trils without tubes or evident rims. 

Head w:ith minute scales on occiput and on upper part of opercle and 
preopercle, those on occiput not extending forward to edge of orbit. 
Other parts of head naked. Body covered with small, finely ctenoid 
scales; those on under parts and on upper posterior region cycloid. 

Dorsals separate. Spinous dorsal, when depressed, reaching a short 
distance beyond insertion of soft dorsal. Anal insei'ted below third 
or fourth dorsal ray, extending posteriorly an equal distance with the 
dorsal, both tins reaching base of caudal. Caudal rounded. Pectoral 
with a few short filaments on upper border, Ventrals rather long, 
free posteriorly. 

Color in alcohol light olive; 2 narrow, parallel, dark, lateral bars, 
the lower of which is on median part of body, extending from tip of 
snout to caudal; a third line on cheeks parallel to the others. Fins 
dusky, the dorsals bordered with white, below which is a dark band; 
margins of anal and caudal broadly sufiused with black; pectorals and 
ventrals dusky. 

Color in life light grayish olive, somewhat greenish on the back; a 
lateral band of bright orange bordered above and below by sky blue, 
the lower border tinged with violet ventrally; sides of head orange, 
the blue bands of body extending in wavy or broken lines, growing 
brighter in color, to end of snout; a violet-blue band on cheeks extend- 
ing backward from mouth; a blue spot above each eye; forehead and 
lips dusky; under part of head tinged with violet. Dorsal fins olive, 
bordered below with orange, above with a narrow band of sky blue; 
the dorsal edges of fins orange; a blackish blotch on anterior part of 
spinous dorsal; caudal olive, broadly margined with violet, the edges 
black; ])ands of body extending on l)asal third of fin; anal with a broad 
violet ])and and a dark margin. Pectoral and ventral olive gray, 
slightly shaded with dusky. 

The specimens of wdiich this description was written were collected 
in the inland sea of Japan, at Miyajima, in the province of Aki. 
Other specimens w^ere taken at llraga. The species reaches the length 
of 150 to 200 millimeters. It is taken rather rarely in clear water 
about rocks in the sea, and is one of the most l)rilliantly colored of 
Japanese fishes. It is known as lli'iihazc or Laln-oid g<)l)y. 



yo 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOT,. XXIV. 



It may ho known ffom the other species of the Gfenas by the iil)sencc 
of vertietil color hands on the body, its briglit stripes running 
horizontally. 

( V!r(jo^ a vir<>'in, in allusion to the gay coloration.) 



Maisuremeritx <if ItrrogohhiR riri/o. 



LeiiKth in milliiiietors 

l)ei)th exprussed in liundrodths of length . 

Depth of ciUidal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Width of interorbital space . . . 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsiil 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



Klli 


158 


144 


u; 


15i 


17 


10 


10 


10 


25 


24 


24 


9 


8^ 


9J 


5 


5 


5 


4^ 


4i 


5 


31 


30 


30 


51 


51 


52 


U 


11 


11 


9^ 


10 


10 


56 


56 


55 


9^ 


10 


10 


lU 


m 


11 


20 


21 


21 


20 


20 


21 


15 


14 


14 


8 


8 


8 


28 


26 


27 


27 


27 


27 


22 


22 


23 


133 


130 


136 


41 


40 


39 



34. PTEROGOBIUS ELAPOIDES (Gunther). 

f,'()]tinx cliipiiidfK (jtiNTiiEiJ, Proe. Zonl. Soc. LoiKion, 1S71, p. ()()5, pi. lxiii, fip. 
1). Locality unknown, supposed to he t'roni Japan. Coll. A. Adams. 

Pter<)<j(tl>'ni^ ('lap(>!<lr.<t is very closely related to P. daini'io. ^^'e 
have been able to find no striking- ditference l^etween the two except 
in color. The former is lighter, the ground shades pinkish-brown and 
the dark cross-bands dark brown instead of deep brownish black, as 
in the latter. The bands are narrower in P. el<vpoi(les^ and there is, in 
addition to those on the body, alike in the two species, a distinct ver- 
tical band on base of caudal. This band on the caudal serves to dis- 
tinguish the species at a glance. 

In life the dark rings of the l)ody are liordertnl liy narrow bands of 
bright lemon yellow. The dorsal and caudal tins are dull, brick red. 

The range of the species is evidently farther to the northward than 
that of Pterogohlus dalmio, both species living in clear water about 
rocks in the open sea. 

In the original descrii^tion by Dr. Giinther the habitat of this species 
was doubtfully assigned to the seas of Japan. We ol)tained many 
specimens. at Aomori, at Hakodate, from Matsushima l^ay, and from 
Utatsii in Noto. P. L. Jouy collected numerous individuals at Fusan, 
Korea. 

{E/{(pf^, the coral snake; sidos^ likeness, from the ri'semblance of 
the cross-bands.) 



aoniOH) FJSIJES of JAPAX—.JOIIDAX and .SNYDEJi. 



91 



Measurements of Fterofjohinx <l<ij)oidei<. 



Length in millimeters 

Iifpth expressed in huiidretlths of length... 

Iicplh (if cuudiil peduncle 

Lrnifth of head 

Lei iKth of .snout 

\\i<llli of interorbital spaee 

lii.LHU'ter of orbit 

I'i^tanee from snout to spinous dorsal 

liisianee from snout to soft dorsal 

lleiji'ht of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral (in 

Length of ventral tin 

Number of dorsal spines 

N umber of dorsal rays 

Number of.anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



Hakodate, 


Hokkaido. 


78 


02 


22 


22 


12 


11 


26 


26 


9 


9 


5 


5 


5J 


6 


35 


36 


52 


52 


21 


18 


13 


11 


58 


58 


12 


12 


17 


18 


21 


21 


19 


22 


12^ 


12 


8 


8 


21 


21 


20 


20 


21 


20 


83 


88 


27 


27 



Fusan, Korea. 


73 


02 


08 


21 


20 


22 


12 


12 


12 


27 


•'0 


27 


9 


8 


8 


5i 


6 





5 ' 


(> 





34 1 


35 


34 


52 1 


53 


53 


19 


23 


21 


14 


14 


13 


57 ; 


58 


57 


12i 


15 


13 


15 1 


17 


17 


23 1 


23 


22 


21 j 


21 


22 


12^' 


14 


14 


8 


8' 


.s 


21 


21 


20 


21 


19 


20 


19 : 


19 


20 


90 


91 


83 


31 


31 


32 



35. PTEROGOBIUS DAIMIO Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Hejid Hf in leno-th; depth 4|; deptli of cuudiil puiicle '2\ in head: eye 
4i; snout 8; maxillary 2|; D. VIlI-22; A. 22; P. 28; scales in lateral 
series 7<S, in transverse series 27. 

Body cylindrical, compressed posteriorly, the dorsal and ventral con- 
tours sloping but little to caudal peduncle; depth and width of head 
equal. Snout bluntly rounded. P>es i-ather large, dii-ectxnl laterally; 
the dorsal rim projecting- slightly, making the interorbital space some- 
what concave. Mouth oblique; jaws equal, maxillary extending to a 
perpendicular through anterior edge of pupil; lips thin. Teeth in 2 
series, slender and sharp, the inner ones minute, in a narrow band; 
outer ones much stronger, those of upper row growing successively 
smaller from before backward, the lower ones becoming larger later- 
erally to the fang-like ones on sides of jaw, then abruptly smaller, 
(iill opening not extending far forward below, the width of isthmus 
equal to distance between eyes. No elevations on inner edge of .shoul- 
der girdle. Gill-rakers on tirst arch long, ver}^ slender, and stiff. 
No barbels on lower jaw. 

Head with a few rather deeply em))edded scales on upper edge of oper- 
de and pi-eopercle; occiput with small scales; other parts of head 
naked. Bod}^ with small cycloid scales; a few- ctenoid scales below 
tip of depressed pectoral; scales on breast immediately ])ehind isthmus 
minute, similar to those on occiput. 

Dorsals separate, though close together, the 4 spines after the tirst 
greatly lengthened; when depressed their tips reach nearly to the mid- 
dle of base of dorsal; the last 2 much shorter, just reaching insertion 
of soft dorsal when depressed; I'ays growing successively longer pos- 
teriorly, the last or next to last IxMng longest. Anal similar to dorsal 



9^ 



PltOCEEDINd^ OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



ill .shapo, in.scrted Inflow l)ii,sc of third or fourth dorsal ra3\ Pectoral 
rounded; each of the (1 u])i)er rays with 2 long .silky tilaments. Ven- 
trals short, free posteriorly. 

Color in spirits dusky above, lighter underneath, the body eonspic- 
uously marked with broad, light-edged, ])rownish-black lateral rings; 
the first passing through ])ases of iirst, second, and third dorsal spines; 
the second passing on eithei" side of base of last spine; the third, fourth, 
and iifth crossing the base of anal; the sixth on caudal peduncle some 
distance anterior to base of fin; a dark band extending across the 
interor))ital space encroaching a little on the upper surface of the eye; 
below the eye it is continued downward to the lower edge of cheek, 
growing narrowei' and lighter toward the lower end; upper part of 
head with a U-shaped mark, the open ptirt of which is forward, the 
ends touching the middle of posterior edges of the eyes. Bases of 
dorsal and anal tins with large black spots, connected with the body 
rings; spinous dorsal narrowly edged anteriorly with l)lack; pectoral, 
ventral, and caudal tins without distinct markings. 

Living individuals have the dark rings bordered by bright yellow, 
the dorsal and caudaLtins reddish. 




U^'* ^ * 




Fio. 17.— Fterogobius daimio. 



This species is closely related to /*, ehip(>)des< (Giinther). We have 
been al)le to find no great differences betw^^cn the two forms, except in 
color. /-*, daim'io is darker; the dark bands on body are wider than 
those of P. elapoides^ and there is no vertical band on caudal. These 
differences, though slight, are definite and constant in a large number 
of individuals examined by us. 

Our collecting in Japan seems to indicate that 1\ dahn/o is a south- 
ern form, the Bay of Tokyo l)eing somewhere near its northern limit, 
/', cldjxtldi's is found farther to the north, or if extending south is not 
found on tlie shores washed by the warm southerly currents. Our 
specimens are from Misaki, and from Wakanoura, 

Type No, (!4:55, Leland Stanford Junior University Mu.-euin, Local- 
ity. Misaki, Sagami, Japan, 

Described from a male specimen ion mm. in length, 

{Ihduilo^ a feudal lord in Japan). 



NO. 1244. aOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



93 



Measurements of Pterogobiufi daimio. 



Length in millimeter.^ 

Depth expre.Ksefi in hundredths of length. 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of lioad 

Length ( if .sin mt 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from .snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal s|iines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal iieduncic 

Length of caudal t\n 

Length of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines '. 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of di>r.sal rays 

Number of dor.sal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transver.se series 



84 


81 


81 


S.S 


SI 


20 


25 


20 


20 


20 


12i 


13 


14 


12i 


12.L 


26 


28 


28 


28 


261 


9 


10 


10 


10 





fH 


6i 


7 


■ C4 


6 


6 


6 


6 


. 1) 


I'l 


34 


35 


37 


31 


31 


52 


55 


54 


55 


.53 


39 


30 


32 


23 


m 


21 


11 


20 


13 


17 


59 


58 


59 


62 


.58 


15 


12 


Kii 


13 


15 


14i 


15 


16 


16 


15 


25 


22i 


27 


22 


25 


21 


21 


23 


21 


21 


15 


13 


15 


13 


13 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


22 


23 


20 


22 


22 


22 


20 


19 


21 


21 


21 


22 


21 


- 22 


22 


77 


89 


78 


79 


80 


28 




26 


26 


27 



\ 



36. PTEROGOBIUS ZACALLES Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 4^ in length; depth 5|; depth of caudal peduncle 1<>; eye 3^ 
in head; snout 3i; maxillary 2i; D. VIIl-26; A. 26; P. 22; scales in 
lateral series 96, in transverse series 33. 

Body somewhat cylindrical, becoming more compressed near caudal 
tin; contours of body sloping slowly to caudal peduncle, which is little 
more than one-half the depth of body. Head large; not so deep or 
broad as body. Snout short and blunt, its length equal to diauieter 
of eye. Interorbital space broad, concave. Eyes large; directed 
almost laterally. Mouth olilique; maxillary concealed b}" the tleshy 
lip; extending to a vertical passing between pupil and anterior edge of 
orbit. Teeth simple, in 2 series; an outer row of enlarged ones; an 
inner, narrow band of minute teeth; lower jaw with a small, curved 
canine on each side. Width of isthmus equal to length of snout. 
No papilhe on inner edge of shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers slender. 
Anterior nostril with an elevated rim or tube. Chin without barbels. 

Head with minute scales on nape, upper edge of opercle, and on 
preopercle; those on preopercle extending downward considerably 
])elow the level of eye; other parts of head naked. Body closely cov- 
ered with small, cycloid scales; a small patch of ctenoid scales in region 
of pectoral. 

Dorsals separate, though the membrane posterior to last spine 
extends to insertion of soft dorsal. Fifth or sixth dorsal spine longest; 
the fin when depressed reaching a little beyond insertion of soft dor- 
sal. Second dorsal very long; its base contained about 2^ times in 
length. Anal inserted below base of third or fourth dorsal ray; when 
depressed it extends slightly beyond dorsal posteriorly, both reaching 
the first basal rays of caudal. Caudal acuteh^ rounded; small upper 
and lower basal rays extending a short distance forward on caudal 
peduncle. Pectorals sharph^ rounded; 3 or -i upper ra3^s with small 
filaments. Ventrals free posteriorly. 



94 PROCEEDTNGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Body with 5 dark, l)r()ad. vortical bands; the last on base of caddal; 
the first at intin'section of spinous dorsal; a suggestion of a darkl)and 
on nape; color bands of body saddle-like; extending over the back, 
but not luiiting below. Each scale with a conspicuous, narrow, dusky 
edging. Fins more or less dusky throughout. 

This s])ecies may be distinguished at once from P. dapoidix and /'. 
da! UNO h\ its not having a dark l)and passing through the eye tuid 
over the head. The bands of the ])ody are less sharply defined and 
not edged with paler. It differs in color from J\ chgo in having ver- 
tical l)ands on the bod}'. 

llepresented by a single specimtMi, Tyi)e No. 0453, Leland Stanford 
Junior University Museum. Locality, Misaki, Sagami, Japan. 




'Vi. 



Fio. IS. — Pterogobius zacalles. 



MeaKtircmcntK. — Length in millimetei's Ul; depth, expressed in hun- 
dredths of length, IS; depth of caudal peduncle 9i; length of snout 
7i; width of interorbital space 3i; diameter of orbit 6i; distance from 
snout to spinous dorsal 3^; snout to soft dorsal 59; height of longest 
dorsal spines 13; rays 12; distance from snout to anal fin 58; height 
of longest anal ra3^s 9; length of caudal peduncle Hi; of caudal fin 
19; of pectoral fin 20; of ventral lin 16. 

A single specimen is known, 95 millimeters long, taken at Misaki, 
Sagami, in a i-ock pool on the island of Yogashima. 

{CmKaXXys^ very beautiful.) 

37. PTEROGOBIUS ZONOLEUCUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 4r\ in length; depth If; depth of caudal peduncle 2it in head; 
eye 3f ; snout 3|; maxillary 2|; I). VIII-20; A. 19; P. 21; scales in 
lateral series 60, in transverse series 21. 

Body large; deep; compressed, the caudal peduncle notably so. 
Head small, pointed, deeper than broad. Eye very large; directed 
laterally; interorbital space Hat; its width equal to diameter of eye; 
preorbital area narrow. Mouth oblique; jaws subequal. Maxillary 
concealed, extending to a vertical between pupil and anterior edge of 
orbit. Tongue of medium width, its anterior edge concave. Teeth 
simple; in narrow bands on both jaws; outer ones much enlarged; 
those of upper jaw, rather larger before, growing gradually smaller 



NO. 1244. GUBIUID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



95 



posteriorly; lower jaw with 2 or 8 much euliiroed teeth near the syni- 
})hysis, these followed on each side by a few sinalhn* ones; then '2 larger 
curved canines, after which the teeth are abruptly smaller. Gill open- 
ing not extending- very far forward; the width of isthmus about equal 
to dianieter of eye. No papilhx? on inner edge of shoulder girdle. 
Cxill-rakcrs slender. 

Head naked except on occiput; l)ody everywhere covered Avith small, 
tinely ctenoid scales. 

Dorsals separate; spines slender; the lirst short; the .second, third, 
fourth, and fifth nota])ly elongated; the others much shorter though 
having free tips; rays somewhat longer anteriorly than posteriorly. 
Anal inserted below Ijase of fourth or fifth dorsal rays; when depressed, 
reaching as far posteriorly as does the dorsal; both falling far short of 





Fig. 19. — Pterogobius zonoleucus. 

basoof caudal. Caudal truncate or ver}' obtusely roiuided. Pectorals 
with free filaments on upper edge; 2 filaments to each i-ay bearing 
them. Ve! trals short; free posteriorl3\ 

Color rather dark above, with 8 narrow, indistinct, light, vertical 
bauds; fins du.sky; the soft dorsal with 2 dark long-itudinal bands; the 
upper being lighter and less distinct than the lower; anal with a dark 
longitudinal band; ventrals almost black. 

T^'pe No. 6454, Leland Stanford Junior Univ<>rsity ]\luseum. from 
]Misaki, Japan. 

A smaller specimen from the same locality has larger eyes; is much 
lighter in color, showing just a trace of the vertical bands. No ])auds 
can l)e distinguished on the fins. 

Three specimens were obtained aljout the rocks of Yoga Island at 
Mi.saki. 

{Ccjvi/. zone; XevKos, white.) 



96 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ^IVSEUM 



vol.. XXIV. 



Measurements of Ptenxjuh'ms zouoleueas. 



Length in iiiillimoters 

Deptli t'X]ir(.'ssr(l in Innidredths of leng-th. . 

DejiUi of caudal iicduncle 

Lenf,-tli of licad 

Lengtli of snout 

Lenktli of maxillary 

Width of inttTorbital .space 

Diamctur of orbit 

Distance from .snout to .spinous dorsal 

Distil nee from snont to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dor.sal rays 

Distanee from snout to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of ratidal pt'ilunele 

Length ( )f caudal tin 

Length of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral tin 

Number of dorsal s]>ines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



71 


42 


44 


22 


22i 


20 


12 


121 


12 


24 


27 


26 


6 


7 


6; 


9 


9 


9 


5 


7 


6 


6 


8 


7.T 


85 


35 


34 


56 


53 


53 


31 


18 


20 


13 


15 


13 


62 


5S 


60 


12 


13 


13 


17 


18 


16 


23 


23 


21 


22 


26 


23 


14 


16 


16 


8 


8 


8 


20 


20 


22 


19 


20 


20 


66 


63 


65 


21 


19 


22 



18. SURUGA Jordan and Snyder. 
Sirnii/a Jukdax and Sxydek, new genus (fimdicola) . 

Body nioderately elongate, covered with rather large, finely ctenoid 
deciduous scales; head large, not depressed; the interorbital space 
very narrow; eyes very large, longer than the short, blunt snout: 
cheeks scaleless; ni(nith rather large, very oblique; the chin ])roini- 
nent; teeth rather strong; tongue not notched; isthmus ))road, the gill 
openings not continued forward below; tins all low; dorsal of eight 
spines and IT to 20 rays; pectorals modearte, without silk-like rays; 
ventrals well developed. 

Small plainly colored gobies inhabiting considerable depths in the 
sandy bays; allied to Ahonuu but with the long soft dorsal and anal of 
AcantJto(joh!ii.s, and ha^'ing the eyes larger than in any of the shore 
species. 

{>>*i/ri/(/((, name of the ])ay where especially abmidant; Japanese, 
Si/r>(, stork; v^ good; the bay of the good stork.) 

38. SURUGA FUNDICOLA Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3f in length; depth 5^; depth of caudal peduncle 8f in head; 
eye 2|; snout 4; maxillary 2i; 1). Vlil-lS; A. 16; P. 21; scales in 
lateral series about 41, in transverse series a])out 12. 

Head deeper and broader than body. Eye notably large; directed 
obliquely upward; interorbital space very narrow, the e3"es nearly 
meeting al)Ove. Snout short; its length about equal to distance from 
anterior edge of orbit to posterior edge of pupil. Mouth large; 
oblique. Maxillary concealed except at its posterior end, extending 
to a ^'ertical through pupil. Jaws equal. Teeth in narrow bands on 
both jaws, not close-set. simple; tho.se of outer series of upper jaw 
much enlarged; the corresponding ones of lower jaw slightly enlarged. 
Tongue thick, rather broad, round anteriorly. Gill openings broad 



NO. 1244. GOBlOli) FlhiJtlES OF JAJ'AA—.fOJWAX AND SNYDER. 



97 



but not oxtendinof far forward. No papilla? on inner edo-e of .shoulder 
girdle, (iill-raker.s long and very sltMider, 8 + 8 on first arch. No 
barbels on jaw. 

Head naked; body, except part of nape, region anterior to peetorals, 
and breast covered with linel}' ctenoid scales, the rough edge of which 
is easily effaced; a triangular patch of small round scales extending 
forward on nape. The scales are easih' displaced, n(^arly all of our 
specimens having them entirely removed. 

Sj)ines of doi-sal long; slender, tilanuMitous at ti])s, when depressed 
reat'hing insei'tioii t)f soft dorsal: i-avs somewhat shorter than the 




Fig. 20.— SiTRUG.\ fundicol.\. 



spines. 



.-|........ Anal inserted below third or fourth dorsal ray; (extending 

posteriorly as far as the dor.sal, l)()th reaching base of caudal. Pectorals 
rounded; the upper edge without tilanients. Caudal pointed. Ventrals 
long, free posteriorly. 

Color dusky above; darker on snout; H or T indelinite dusky spots 
on sides; tins duskv. 

Type No. 4!>7-l4, U. S. N. M. Co-type No. (M^O, Leland Stanford 
eJunior University Museum, dredged at a depth of 05 fathoms, station 
8745, off Sagami. I)y the United States Fish Commission steamer 

We have examined very many specimens from Siiruga Bay, Mats i- 
shima, Owai-i Ray. and from the coast of Sagami. All are from sandy 
bottom at a depth of 40 to SO fathoms. 

{VhikIk.s, bottom; colo, inhal)it.) 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv — 01 7 ' 



ys 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



vol,. XXIV. 



Measurement of Suruga funclicola. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length. 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of hvnci 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal sj lines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Lengtli of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral (in 

Numlier of dorsal spines 

Number of dor.sal rays 

Numl)er of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series a 

Number of scales in transverse series a 

Locality, Suruga Bay. 



fi Careful estimates only, as the .scales had all been displaced, and even the scale pouclics had in 
some specimens been rubbed oflf. 

19. ACANTHOGOBIUS Gill. 
Acanthogobhts Gill, Prof. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1859, }). 145 {flamnamis). 

Body oblong, little compressed, covered with medium-sized i-ough- 
ish scales; cheeks with small scales; snout rather long, the head 
rounded in profile; mouth moderate, oblique, the jaws about equal, 
the teeth moderate; tongue truncate or very slightly notched; isthmus 
rather broad, the gill openings slightly continued forward l)elow; no 
flaps on shoulder girdle. Dorsal fins rather long, the first of 7 to 9 
slender spines, the second of 14 or 15 soft rays; anal of 12 to 13. 

Species of large size inha))iting the rivers and shores of Japan. The 
genus is near Ahonia^ differing in the scaly cheeks and longer second 
dorsal. 

{^(XKavOa, spine; Gohtus.) 



39. ACANTHOGOBIUS FLAVIMANUS ( Schlegel). 

Gohias flavlmaimi< Schleuel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 141, pi. lxxiv, [\\i. 1, 
Nagasaki. — Bleeker, Ver. Bat. Genootsch., Japan, p. 42. — GtrNTiiEu, Cat. 
Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 77, after Schlegel.— Ishikawa, Cat. Fish., 1898, p. 88, 
Rikuzen, Yeehizo, Hokkai<lo, Tokyo. 

AcmUho</ohiiif<fl((rliit((iiU!^GnAj, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 145, Shimoda. 

Head 3| in length; depth of; depth of caudal peduncle 3i in head; 
eye 6; snout 2|; maxillary 2^-; D. VIlI-1-1; A. 12; P. 19; scales in 
lateral series 48, in transverse series 17. 

Body elongate, somewhat cylindrical anteriorly; the caudal peduncle 
compressed. Head large; snout rather blunt. Ej'^es small, high up, 
directed ol)liquely; interor])ital space concave; distance between eyes 
less than their diameter. Mouth very large, ol)li(}ue; jaws equal; lips 
broad; maxillary concealed, extending to a vertical through anterior 



NO. 1214. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 99 



part of pupil. Tono-ue l)i"oad, truncate, with but a uai'row free 
margin. Tooth simplo, small, in narrow hands on l)oth jaws. Ante- 
rior nostrils with low rims. No barl)ols. Gill o})enings not extending 
far forward: the isthnuis broad, it.s width al)out o([ual to li times 
diameter of eye. Inner edge of shoulder girdU» with a narrow ridge, 
but no ])apilhe. (rill-rakoi's on first arch 8 + H, short, rather thick. 

Head with scales on upper parts of opercles and cheeks, and on 
occiput; those on cheeks small, round, difficult to detect. Body com 
ph^tely covered with large ctenoid scales, except on nape and breast, 
whore the}^ are small and c^'cloid; those of breast minute. 

Dorsals separate, the spines slender. Avhen depressed reaching inser- 
tion of second dorsal. Anal inserted below base of third or fourth 
dorsal rays, when depressed reaching posteriori}^ about as far as the 
dorsal, both touching base of caudal. Pectorals and t-audal i)ointed or 
acutely rounded; upper edge of the former without tilauients. Ven- 
trals large; free posteriorly. 

Color light yellowish olive; dusky above; sides with 5 ver}" indis- 
tinct spots; snout rather darker than body. Dorsals with dusky 
spots arranged in oblique rows; upper two-thirds of caudal with 
zigzag dusky bands; the lower third of lin plain dusky; pectorals 
with a little dark color at base; ventrals and anal with Kon\c dark 
color. In some specimens the ventrals and anal have scarcely a trace 
of dark color, Avhile in others they are dusky, often approaching 
black. The latter condition is found to obtain usually in the males, 
although males with light fins and females with dark ones have been 
o})served. 

Descri})ed from specimens collected at Wakanoui-a, Kii. 

One of the most abundant fishes of Japan, reaching a length of 200 
to 250 millimeters, and abounding in all sluggish rivers and estuaries. 
We have numerous rei)resentatives from Hakodate, Onomichi, 
Kurume, Nagasaki. Wakanoura, Misaki, Matsushima, Aomori, Tokyo, 
Tsuruga, Enoshima, Niigata. and the Yodo Kiver, near Osaka. 

(7•'^//"/^s■, yellow; inanus^ hand.) 



100 



FROCEEDiyaS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



MHUsurt'iiiciitx of Acaiithogobius jiamaayms. 



Tokyo Bay. 



Length in millimeters 137 

Depth expressed in hundredths of lens^th is 

Depth of caudal peduncle '. . . 10 

Lenirtli of liead '& 

Length of snout 10 

Length oi maxillary IQJ 

Width of interorbital space 2 

Diameter of orbit 5 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 'i^ 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal ■'io 

Height of longest dorsal spines U 

Height of longest dorsal rays 13 

Distance from snout to anal fhi i 60 

Height of longest anal rays i 12 

Length of caudal peduncle 21 

Length of caudal tin 2ti 

Length ( )f pectoral tin 20 

Length of ventral fln 19 

Number of dorsal spines 8 

Number of dorsal ray.s 14 

Number of anal rays 11 

Number of scales in lateral series 44 

Number of .scales in transverse series ! 17 



143 
14 

9 
28 
10 
10 

2 

5 
34 
?A 
134 
14 
58 
11 
21 
24 
19 
IS 

8 
14 
12 
48 
IS 



132 
16 
10 
28 
10 
104 

2 

5i 
344 
534 
13 
13 
60 
11 
20 
27 
20 
17 

S 
14 
12 
47 
17 



Nagasaki, Hizen. 



123 

17 

95 

26 
10 
10 

2 

6 

33 
55 
11 
12 
58 J 

9J 
22 
21 
16 
14 

8 
14 
12 
48 
16 



118 
20 
10 
28 
104 
10 
2 

3f>'' 
56 
13 
124 
62 
104 
21 
22 
18 
15 
8 
14 
12 
50 
17 



121 
18 

94 
28 
11 
10 

2 

6 

36 
56 
15 
12 
59 
114 
224 
23 
18 
18 

8 
14 
12 
50 
18 




Fig. 21. — Sa<;.\m:.\ ki'sstla. 
20. SAGAMIA Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 
Sa(j(niiia .Tokj).\n and SyvDEK, new ^enus (riixsu/ds.) 
This g-emus agrt'os with Acuoifh/xjohliis in ncavly :ill rcspoc-ts, differing' 
in the pre.sence of free .silky rays on the pectorals, as in Gohluis^ Pten>- 
gohiiis^ and C'Ikixhi his. Japanese. 
(Name from Sagami Bay.) 

40. SAGAMIA RUSSULA Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^ in length; depth 5f ; depth of caudal peduncle o in head; 
eye 3i; snout 3i; maxillary 2f; D. VlII-15; A. l-t; P. 21; scales in 
lateral series 51, in transverse series 1(). 

Body I'ather long, somewhat cylindrical, a little less wide than deep, 
caudal peduncle deep. Eyes very large, rather oblong, directed 
upward, nearer tip of snout than posterior edge of opercle a distance 
equal to one-half their diameter; interorbital space very narrow, 
slightly concave. Snout ))lunt; nostrils with slight rims, the anterior 
of which is the hig-her; width of preorbital area equal to diameter of 
pupil. Jaws subequal, the lower just included; maxillary extending 
to a vertical midway between pupil and anterior edge of eye; concealed 
beneath preorbital except at its distal end. No barbels. Tongue very 



N0.1J41. aOBIOII) FISHES or JAPAX—.TOliDAX AND SNYDER. 101 

broad, tho anterior odjie com-avc. Tooth on jaws in 2 rows; the outer 
ones enlarood; the iimor ones minute; a stronii' canino on oacli side of 
lower jaw curving ])ackward. (lill opiMiing extendino- above to upper 
edge of l)ase of pectoral; the width of isthmus ec^ual to diameter of 
eye. No projection on iiuier edoo of shoulder oiixUo. (Till-rakers on 
first arch 2 + 11; slender; the hMigtli of the longest a))out ecjual to 
diameter of pupil. Cheeks with 4 rows of elevated nuu-ous pores; the 
first just below the eye; the tiiird. branched posteriorly, joining the 
fourth and curving upward around the anterior edges of the first and 
second; a double row along the lower and posterior edges of preop;>rcle, 
extending forward on lowoi- jaw; 2 rows on opercle; one extending 
downwai'd, and the other l)ackward from its upper anterior angle; a 
row running })ackward from eye. above opercle to upper edge of gill 
opening; a conspicuous pore above and l)etween the nostrils; rows of 
niiiuite pores on upper part of snout. 

Head, except snout, lower jaw. throat, and opercle, except its upper 
part, with cycloid scales. Body with rather small, finely ctenoid scales. 

Dorsal fins separate; the spines not elongate; the longest contained 
twice in head; rays a little shorter than spines. Anal inserted below 
third or fourth dorsal ray; the depressed fin extending as far poste- 
riorly as does the dorsal, })oth falling far short of base of caudal. 
Caudal acutely rounded. l^'ctorals pointed; reaching a \ crtical 
through insertion of soft dorsal; the upper edge with 1 or .'> slender 
filauKMits, Ventrals free posteriorly; extending to a point as far 
before vent as the insertion of anal is behind. 

Color in spirits soiled wdiite; upper parts with dark spots and reticu- 
lations; sides with 7 or 8 dark spots, indistinct anteriorly, better 
defined posteriorly; the last of the series at base of caudal fin. ^'ery 
prominent; a small spot on upper part of base of pectoral; ?> poorlj^ 
defined, oblique lines on sides of head, the posterior one on opercle; 
the anterior one running forward and downward from eye. Spinous 
dorsal with a dark spot near ends of last two spines; with 8 longitudinal 
rows of dark spots; soft dorstd with -t longitudinal rows of dark spots; 
anal edged with dusky; upper part of caudal with veitical, wavy, 
dark ])ands; pectorals and ventrals suffused with dusky. In life bluish 
olive; the lateral spots rather l)right 1>rick red with darker centers. 

Described from Type No. 6157, Leland Stanford Junior [University 
Museum. Locality, Misaki, Sagami, Japan. 

Specimens from Nagasaki are much lighter in color, though ])re- 
serving in an indefinite way the general markings of the typ(\ The 
spinous dorsals have 2 dark spots, one situated anteriorly, the other 
posteriorly. 

We have many specimens from ^Nlisaki. Wakanoura, and Nagasaki. 
It is one of the commonest species found in the clear Avaters of the 
})ays; never in the rivers. 

{Rhssu1u.s^ reddish.) 



102 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MVSE^'M. 



M('((!<iiri'j)iriits of Saijaniia rii.ssiilH. 



Miaaki, 
Sagami. 






Nagasak 


, Hizeii. 




61 


53 


63 


63 


64 


62 


58 


57 


47 


41 


10 


16 


18 


16 


15 


16 


17 


16 


16 


IS 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


9 


10 


10 


9 


9 


80 


31 


30 


29 


27 


30 


30 


28 


29 


30 


10 


9 


9 


8 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 


1-; 


•) 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


o 


8 


9 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


9 


8 


9 


U 


37 


36 


33 


33 


36 


35 


34 


35 


36 


55 


55 


5() 


54 


53 


55 


56 


54 


52 


56 


15 


14 


15 


14 


16 


15 


]8 


16 


17 


17 


13 


14 


16 


16 


13 


14 


15 


16 


15- 


16 


58 


56 


57 


57 


56 


58 


59 


59 


58 


58 


10 


10 


10 


10 


lU 


12 


12 


12 


13 


11 


1'8 


20 


21 


21 


21 


20 


22 


21 


21 


20 


21 


23 


22 


20 


21 


22 


22 


22 


22 


21 


'22 


25 


24 


24 


23 


25 


22 


23 


24 


25 


19 


20 


•» 


20 


19 


23 


19 


21 


20 


23 


8 


8 


8 


s 


8 


S 


S 


,s 


8 


8 


15 


15 


14 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


15 


14 


14 


13 


14 


13 


14 


13 


13 


14 


14 


21 


20 


21 


22 


22 


20 


20 


21 


20 


20 


51 


49 


53 


54 


55 


51 


55 


55 


57 


52 


16 


16 


16 


16 


17 


17 


17 


16 


17 


16 



Length in millimeters 

Deptli expressed in hnndredthsof length. 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



21. SYNECHOGOBIUS Gill. 
Sjincchoyoh'niii Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 266 (hasta). 
This genus seems to T)e closely allied to AcantJiogohhis^ differing in 
the more elongate body and fins and in the naked head. From Goh/o- 
7iellus, an American genus of similar form, it differs in the presence 
of 8 or 9 dorsal spines. The single known species is Japanese. 

[ffvv^X^^ repeat; Gohius, the form repeating the elongate body and 
lanceolate caudal of Gohlonellu^i.) 

41. SYNECHOGOBIUS HASTA (Schlegel). 

Gnhiiis hasla Schlegel, Fauna Japonit-a, Fishes, Tp. 144, j)!. lxxv, fig. 1, Nag- 
asaki. — GuNTHER, Cat. Fishes, III, 1861, p. 78, Japan. 

Head 5i in length; depth lo; D. VIII-20; A. 17; P. 22. 

Body (>longate; caudal peduncle long and slender. Ej^es small; 
high up; interorl)ital width equal to yertical diameter of eye. Snout 
rather long; pointed; jaws equal; mouth oblique. Maxillary extend- 
ing to a yertical through anterior edge of orbit. Teeth in l)ands, the 
outer ones slightly enlarged. Head naked; no barbels. Body with 
rather large scales. 

Dorsals separate; the spines slender, their tips filamentous; when 
depressed not reaching insertion of soft dorsal. Anal inserted below 
base of fourth dorsal ray; when depressed, reaching about as far 
posteriorly as does the dorsal, neither fin touching base of caudal. 
Caudal pointed. Pectoral pointed; its upper edge Avithout filaments. 
Ventrals free posteriorly. 

Color ))rownish green; pectoral, anal, and lower part of caudal suf- 
fused Avith brow^nish red; soft dorsal with elongate dusky spots in 
longitudinal rows. (Schlegel.) 

Nagasaki, not seen by us. 

{If (da, a dart). 



NO. 1211. (JOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 108 

22. PARACHyETURlCHTHYS Sleeker. 

l'((r(ic}i;ihn'lchlln/!< Blkkkeh, Arcliives Neerl., 1.S74, [>. ;->25 (/>o///7«'m(«.s). 

Body moderately elongate, cov^ered with rather large, ctenoid scales; 
head rounded in profile, not depressed above, the e3'es close tog-ether; 
cheeks scaly; mouth modei-ate, obli((ue. the chin not very prominent; 
teeth moderate, simple; chin with many small barbels on each side along 
the ramus of the lower jaw; dorsal tins short, the rays about Vl-11. 
Caudal i)ointed with a black ocellus at base al)ove; pectorals pointed, 
without silk-like raj's; ventrals united, not adnate to the belly. 
Isthmus broad, the gill openings not continued forward l>elow. 

One species, in the Japanese and Indian seas.- 

[Tcapa, near; ClKdurichflnix.) 

42. PARACH.ETURICHTHYS POLYNEMUS Bleeker. 

f'hsrtHrifliniiispnhiiiiiiKi Bi.eekku, Wrli. Batav. (ienootf^., XXV, Japan, p. 44, fisr. 4, 

Nagasaki. 
nobius polynema Guxthek, C!at. Fisli., Ill, 18<)1, ]>. 46, China, Madras. 

Head 4^ in length; depth 5|; depth of caudal peduncle '^ in head; 
eye Hi; snout 3|; maxillary 2f ; D. VI-11: A. 10; P. 22; scales in lateral 
series 28, in transverse series H. 

Body elongate, somewhat compressed; caudal peduncle deep, nuich 
compressed. Head broader than bod}^, but a little less deep. Snout 
Ijlunt. Eye large, the upper edge projecting slightly above dorsal 
contour of head; interorbital area concave; the space between the 
eves equal to their vertical diameter. Mouth oblique; jaws equal. 
Maxillary entirely concealed, extending posteriori}- to a vertical 
through center of pupil. Tongue rather narrow, rounded anteriorly. 
Teeth simple, in narrow bands on both jaws, the outer ones slightly 
enlarged; no canines. Gill opening not extending far forward; width 
of isthmus equal to diameter of e}^. Inner edge of shoulder girdle 
without papilla?. Gill-rakers 3 + 10, rather short and blunt. Anterior 
nostril with a low tube. Lower jaw with a row of slender ))ar])els 
along under sides of rami; branchiostegal region with barbels. 

Cheeks, occiput, interorbital space, and posterior part of snout 
with cvcloid scales. Bod}- everywhere covered with large scales, 
those on nape and anterior under parts cycloid, the others tinely 
ctenoid. 

Dorsal fins separate; the spinous dorsal when depressed not reaching 
insertion of soft dorsal; the rays longer posteriorly. Anal inserted 
below- base of second or third dorsal ray; its rays when depressed 
reaching as far posteriorly as do those of the dorsal, both touching 
bases of caudal rays. Caudal pointed. Pectoral pointed, its upper 
edge without filaments. Ventrals rather short; free posteriorly. 

Bodv with considerable duskv color, a little lighter ])elow than 



104 



PROCEEDrmiS OF THE XATTONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



above. Fins du.sky, g-rowing darker toward the edges; caudal with 
a conspicuous, l)lack, oval spot al)out as large as eye on upper half; 
the spot surrounded by a lighter border. 

Described from a specimen from Wakanoura. Representatives from 
other localities show no important differences. 

The species may be recognized at once among Japanese gobies ])y 
the large, oval, black spot on the upper half of the caudal fin. 

Our collections include individuals from Tsuruga, Kobe, Nagasaki, 
Wakanoura, Hiroshima, and Onomichi. The species is generally 
common in Southern Japan and grows to a length of 1.50 millimeters. 

(;ro/\t>cr, many; vij/^xa, thread.) 

}[eitKiir('mciitx of I'lirncluiiiiriclitJiifs fin] ijiiciiiiis^. ' 



Length expressed in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth (if caudal peduncle , 

Length of head 

Leiigtli of snout 

LenKth of maxillary 

Widt h ( )f interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinou.s dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longt'st di irsal .spines , 

Height of longest dorsal rays , 

Distance friHU snout to anal fin 

Heiglit of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of (n'ctoral tin 

Length of ventral tin 

Nunil)er of <lorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



Naga.saki, 


Waki 




, Kii. 


Hizen. 








100 


90 


85 


95 


78 


20 


18 


19 


19 


21 


13 


12 


12 


11 


11 


•25 


25 


24 


24 


25 


(th 


6 


5i 


6 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


% 


3^ 


2 


3 


3 


•>i 


'ik 


^5 


7 


7 


1 


35 


35 


35 


33 


35 


53 


54 


52 


52 


53 


13 


12 


13 


12 


13 


18 


19 


19 


19 


18 


59 


59 


57 


66 


58 


16i 


19 


19 


18 


18 


23 


23 


22 


23 


24 


36i 


41 


44 


43 


38 


27 


29 


31 


30 


27 


18 


17 


18 


17 


17 


6 


6 


6 


6 





n 


11 


11 


11 


11 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


28 


28 


28 


28 


27 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 



23. CHv^TURICHTHYS Richardson. 

Oiictnrichihijs Richardsox, Voyage Sulphur, 1844, ]). 5-5 {stigmaiias). 
Ambb/chreturicJithi/x Bleeker, Archives Neerl., 1874, p. 324 {hexcmcmna). 

Body moderatel}' elongate, covered with moderate-sized cycloid 
scales, which fall readih^; head broad, rounded in profile, the e3^es 
close together, the cheeks scaly; mouth moderate, oblique; the teeth 
pointed, medium; tongue truncate; isthmus narrow, the gill openings 
continued well forward below; lower jaw with 3 small ))arbels on 
either side. Dorsal fins long of 8 slender spines and 11 to 2,5 rays. 
Caudal more or less pointed, with shorter rays at l)ase above and 
below; pectorals pointed, without silky rays. 

S})ecies few, mostl}- Japanese. Large gobies of dull coloration, 
chiefly of the seas of Japan and China. 

(j«'/r?/, bristle; <n)pa, tail; /'j^?'?, fish, from iho short marginal rays 
of the caudal.) 

, rr. fliaiuriehthysi Dorsal rays VIlI-22; anal 19; scalcH 57-14; caxidal long and 
pointed; spinous dorsal with a large black spot xtigiiidtidK. 43 

((II. AmblychniuricJifJii/K. Dorsal rays VIII-15 to 17; anal 13 or 14; scales 35 to 40; 
caudal shorter. 



NO. 1211. aoBJOJD FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAX AND SXYDETL 105 



h. T)oTsal ravp VIII-17; scales 39-15; color soiled olive without distinct inarkini;;s; 

■ first <li irsal without distimit black .si)ot licrdnniinK. 44 

/*//. Dorsal ray.s VIII-15; scales 3o-10; color olivaceus; a large ])lac,k ocellus on 
spinous dorsal - sciistius. 45 

43. CH2ETURICHTHYS STIGMATIAS Richar Ison. 

('Iiiiliiriclilhi/x >ftli/iii<itii(s Rr(iiAKi)sox,Voy. Sulphur, 1S44, j>. 55, locality uut'crtaiu — • 

JoKD.AX an(i SxYDKK, VnHU U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIII, 1901, p. 764, Tsushima. 
(rohiiis .sllginalids (JtTXTnER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, jt. 78, from Eichardson's ty])('. 

Head H^ in Iciig-th; dopth T; depth of caudal peduncle 41 in head; 
eye -if; snout ?>i: niiixillaiy '2: D. VlII-!>2: A. lt>; P. 24; scales in 
lateral series al)out 57, in ti"ansv(M-sc series al)oat 14. 

Body elono-jite i)osteriorly, the dorsal and ventral contours sloping- 
gradually to the caudal peduncle, which is narrow and conipi-ess(^d. 
Head large; Avider than body; the width equal to distance fi'oiii tip of 
snout to posterior border of eye. 

Eves high in head; ()l)long: directed obliquely upward, nioi-e of the 
oyo being visible when viewed from above than when seen from the 
side. Interorbital space slighty concave. Mouth large; ol)li(|ue; 
lower jaw projecting somewhat beyond the upper; li})s thin; maxillary 
(extending to a perpendicular throitgh middle of pupil; entirely con- 
ceided beneath a pendulous dermal fold of the su])orbital. Tongue 
broad; concave anteriorly. Teeth in 2 rows on each jaw; slender, 
pointed and curved; those in outer row stronger and fang-like, dill 
oi)ening (extending far forward, the isthmus narrow. Three large 
papilla' on inner edg-e of shoidder girdle. Gill rakers on iirst arch 
3 + 11; long and slender. Lower jaw with 3 barbels on each side, the 
distance l)etween them equal to the diameter of the orbit; anterior 
barbel shorter and thicker than the others. 

Occiput, opercles. and preopercles with small, round, smooth scales, 
scarcely or not at all imbricated. Body with cycloid scales, small near 
the head, growing larger posteriorly. 

Dorsal fins sepai'ate; the first (! spines evenly spaced, the others 
farther apart. When depressed the tin does not extend to insertion 
of soft dorsal. Dorsal rays growing higher from Itefore l)a('kward; 
when depressed, reaching l)ase of upper caudal rays. Anal inserted 
beh)W l)ase of third dorsal ray; the rays not reaching- so far postei-iorly 
when depressed as do those of the dorsal. Caudal long, pointed, with 
short accessory rays above and l)elow (hence the name *' (Jluvturich- 
t/il/-'<^'); short dorsal and ventral ra^s of the fin g-rowing far forwai'd on 
the caudal peduncle. Pectorals pointed, extending to vent. Y(Mitrals 
free from body posteriorly, extending to a point below base of seventh 
dorsal spine. 

Body without distinctive color markings. Spinous dorsal Avith a large 
black spot on its posterior border. Soft dorsal, caudal, and pectorals 



106 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



with iiidistiiK't dark Avavv luarking.s. Vcntrals and anal without dark 
markings except a little dusky on posterior ])order of the latter. 

This species, the haliitat of which was heretofore unknown, is rep- 
resented in our collection by 2 poorly preser\^ed specimens obtained 
by F. L. Jouy at Sasuna, island of Tsushima, .Japan. Richardson's 
specimens collected by the Sulj)]^!/' were in a bottle labeled "Southern 
Pacific," ])ut Richardson observes, "As the bottle held several species 
fi'om the China Sea, there appears some doubt as to the native place 
of the fish." It probably came from China. 

[(}Tiy).iaTuyg^ ])randed.) 



Measia-fiiii'iitK of Chu'tarichlJiyn Migmafins. 



Length in miHimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length . . 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales In lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



79 


92 


15 


15 


6 


5 


•29 


27 


9 


S 


^ 


U 


6 


6 


34 


33 


52 


51 


13 


12 


14 


12 


56 


57 


13 


11 


16 


16 


32 


23 


24 


23 


20 


IS 


8 


8 


••>■•> 


21 


19 


20 


24 


25 


a 57 


a 60 


a 14 


a 14 



a The above counts are only approximately correct, the specimens being so poorly preserved that 
but few of the scales remain in place. 

44. CHiETURICHTHYS HEXANEMUS (Bleeker). 

Chxturidithys hexanerna Bleeker, Verh. Batav. Genootsch., XXV, .Tapan, p. 4.S5, 
Nagasaki — Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1859, p. 16, Shimoda — 
JoRD.vN and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 372, Lake Biwa. 

Gohius hexanerna Gunther, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 77; after Bleeker. 

Head 8f in length; depth 5^; depth of caudal peduncle 2f in head; 
eye 4i; snout 3f, maxillary 2|; D. VIII-IT; A. l-t; P. 28; scales in 
lateral series 80, in transverse series 15. 

Body thick-set. Snout blunt. Eyes high in head, directed obliquely 
upward, nearer tip of snout than to posterior end of opercular flap a 
distance ecpial to their diameter; width of interorl)ital space ecjual to 
diameter of pupil. Anterior nostril with a slight rim. Mouth large, 
oblique; lower jaw slightly projecting. Maxillarj^ entirely concealed 
beneath preorbital; extending posteriorly to a vertical through a point 
midwav between pupil and anterior edge of orbit. Lower jaw with 
3 pairs of slender barbels; each of the anterior pair inserted on either 
side of a large pore at angle of lower jaw; others juat posterior, at 
intervals e(}ual to diameter of orbit. Teeth on jaws in bands, bristle^ 
like; outer ones slightly enlarged; no canines. Gill openings extend- 



GOBTOIl) FISHES OF JAP.W— JORDAN AXJ) SXYDFR. 



107 



\n^ far forward below; the isthmus nari'ow. No protulxM-ances on 
inner edg-e of shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers on first arch it, sUmkUt. 

Head, except anterior part of snout, lower jaw, and throat, with 
ctenoid scales; body with large ctenoid scales. 

Dorsals separate; the height of longest spines contained about 3 
times in length of head, rays somewhat longer; spinous dorsal when 
(U'pressed just reaching insertion of soft dorsal; the hitter touching 
bases of upper caudal rays. Anal inserted below base of fifth dorsal 
ray; posterior rays longest, not extending so far posteriorly when 
depressed as do those of dorsal. Caudal and pectorals pointed; the 
latter without filaments on upper edge. Ventrals free posteriorly. 

Color dusk}' olive; sides with a row of 5 dark spots; the posterior 
ones, especially that at base of caudal most conspicuous. Fins dusk}' ; 
the ventrals with a wide, light, posterior border. 

Here described from a specimen 130 millimeters long from Nagasaki. 

We have specimens from Tsuruga, Ov,^ari Bay, Aomori, Tokyo, 
Matsushima, Mororan, Hakodate, and Nagasaki. The species is 
extremely common throughout Japan, in all bays and estuaries. It 
I'eaches a length of 150 to 200 millimeters. It is called Akahazi' or red 
Goby. 

(f<?, six; vrji^ux^ thread.) 



Me.anuri'mi')di< of ChuiiirirJitlii/x ln'.i<inemiis. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length. 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 

Locality, Nagasaki. 



134 


127 


115 


95 


90 


20 


19 


18 


19 


20 


10 


10 


94 


10 


10 


■2G 


25i 


26 


264 


21 


i~ 


7s 


74 






10 


104 


11 


lOi 


10 


2^ 


24 


24 


24 





7 


64 


7 


74 


8 


34 


334 


334 


32 


35 


52 


524 


54 


521 


53 


13i 


13 


134 


14 


13 


16i 


16i 


15 


14 


15 


59 


59 


59 


594 


60 


18 


164 


16 


15 


16 


25i 


22i 


22 


, 22 


00 


34 


324 


33 


30 


26 


19 


184 


18 


19 


20 


17 


16 


16 


164 


16i 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


17 


17 


17 


17 


17 


13 


14 


14 


13 


14 


42 


46 


42 


40 


43 


16 


16 


15 


14 





45. CHiETURICHTHYS SCIISTIUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3f in length; depth 5i; depth of caudal peduncle '2^ in head; 
eye 3; snout 4; maxillary 2^; D. VIII-15; A. 12; P. 20; scales in 
lateral series 82, in transverse series 10. 

Shape like that of C. heocaneinus. Eye ver}' large, the diameter 
greater than length of snout; directed obliquely upward; interorbital 
space narrow. Mouth oblique. Maxillary entirely concealed; extend- 
ing to a perpendicular through posterior part of pupil. Lips thin. 
Tongue truncate anteriorly. Teeth simple, in 2 rows on each jaw. 



108 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



th()s(^ of the out(M" toav slio-htly onlarg'ed, oxteiidiji"' farther l)ack on 
jaw than do those of iniiei' row; no canines. Gill opening' extending 
far forward; the isthmus narrow. No protuberances on inner edge of 
shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers on tirst arch 4 + 18, very long and slen- 
der. 7Vnterior nostril with a low rim. Lower jaw with 3 slender 
hiU'lx'ls on each side of inner edge. 

Head with scales on opercles, preopercles, and on nape; other parts 
naked. Body with large cycloid scales. 

Dorsal tins separate; spines slender; the tilamentous tips projecting 
slightly l»eyoiid the meml)rane; the fin when folded just touching 
insertion of second dorsal; posterior rays of anal longest; reaching, 
when depressed, a little beyond bases of lirst upper caudal rays. Anal 
inserted below l)ase of third or fourth dorsal ray; posterior rays much 
lonwr than the anterior ones; reaching almost as far backward when 
depressed as do those of the dorsal, ('audal pointed. Pectoi-al with- 
out free filaments on its upper edge; pointed posteriorly. V(»ritrals 
long; free posteriorly. 




Fh;. '12. — <'!r.KTrKicnTH Ys sciisTirs. 



Color in spii-its yellowish white; sides with T) oi- (5 very indistinct 
dusky spots, thi^ most post(M-ior of which is near base of anal; dorsal 
surface of ])ody and upp(M- part of head with a little dusky color. 
Spinous dorsal with a broad ])la(lv blotch on posterior part; the dark 
area preceded by H or ?> rows of white spots; anterior part of fin 
duskv; soft dorsal dusky; with 2 narrow longitudinal light ])ands. 
Airal with 5 or (> \'ertical zigzag dusky bands about equal in width to 
their light interspaces. Anal dusky. Pectorals and vcMitrals without 
light color. 

TyP^ No, r)158, Leland Stanford Jiuiior University ]\Iuscum. 
Locality, Hakodate, Hokkaido. 

This species differs from C //«w;?«r//?c.s- in having fewer dorsal and 
anal I'avs and larger scales. It is lighter in color, has a conspicuous 
black spot on spinous dorsal, and is smaller in, size. Some of our 
spcH-iuuMis were obtained offshore at a depth of 11 to 18 fathoms. 

We have the species from Tsuiuga. Owari liay, Aomori, Tokyo, 



NciuH. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



109 



Mtityii.shiiiui, ]\Iororan, and Hakodat(\ It i.s found on yaiidy l)ottoms 
in rather deep water, and ap})arently rather to the northward. 

[ffKLix^ .shadow; iffriov, sail, tin.) 

McasnrciiiciilK of ( 'lurlKriflilhi/s .sy-//.s//((.s-. 



lA'ngth in millimeters 

Depth expresserl in liiinrtredthsof loiifitli. 

I)('lith of cm Ida 1 peduncle 

lA'iiKtli of iu'iid 

LoUKtli of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

ninmeter of orbit 

Distancu from sikmU to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

HeiKlit of lont;i'st <lorsal spines 

Height of loni,'est dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal i>edunele 

Lengtli of caudal (in : 

Length vi jiectoral fill 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 





Owari Bs 


47 


47 


47 


18 


20 


20 


9 


9 


9 


27 


28 


28 


/ 


di 


6 


]2 


12i 


12 


9 


9 


9 


36 


34 


36 


of; 


54 


56 


14 


16 


15 


19 


16 


19 


59 


(iO 


61 


IS 




15 


23 


22 


22 


28 


30 


■ 28 


•» 


22 


20 


■?•> 




24 


S 


8 


8 


15 


15 


15 


12 


13 


13 


32 


33 




12 


11 


i 



Hakodate, 
Hokkaido. 



12 


12 


9 


10 


34 


36 


55 


57 


14 


16 


19 


16i 


58 


62 


15 




22 


20 


31 


27 


21 


23 


o>> 


22 


8 


8 


14 


15 


13 


13 


32 


31 


10 


12 



24. AINOSUS Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 
.liiiosns JoKDAX and Snydiok, new .trciiuH ((/I'liridiieiiuix). 

This genus is allied to ( //Ht'ti/r/'cht/ii/s^ differing- jn the presenee of 
about 10 l)ar})eLs on either side, in the smaller, tinner, and rougher 
scales, the shorter soft dorsal, the free filaments on upper edge of 
pectoral, and in the truncate caudal fin. The isthmus is somewhat 
narrow, as in (J/uMuricht/ii/s, and the tongue is truncate^. 

The known species is small and spotted, ]-eseml)ling CfciKHjohniH^ 
])ut with more dorsal spines and rays and with the luimerous white 
barbels along the lower jaw. 

{Arno, the name of the l)earded al)origines of Japan, a lost otfshoot 
from the Indo-European race of ukmi.) 

46. AINOSUS GENEIONEMUS ( Hilgendorf ). 

dohinx t/fiifii>ni'ina Hilgkndokf, SitzgNcr-. Xaliii'f. I'lX'iiiulc, ls7l», \>. los, Hay of 
Tokyo, No. 10653, Miis. of Berlin. 

Head 3i in length; depth 4-; depth of caudal peduiule >> in head; 
eye 3|; snout 3|; maxillary 3; D. VIII-K;; A. 11; P. 20; scales in 
lateral series 62. 

Body elongate; cylindrical anteriorh\ Head large; the snout rather 
sharp. Eyes large; the diameter a))out equal to length of snout; 
directed obliquely upward. Mouth o1)lique; jaws (>((ual; maxillary 
entireh" concealed; extending to a perpendicular through anterior 
edge of orbit. Teeth simple; in 2 w(dl-separated nnvs on each jaw; 
the outer row enlarged; notably so in lower jaw where posteriorly 
they assume the shape of canines, (rill openings extending some dis- 



110 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



tance forward; the width of isthmus slightly greater than diameter of 
pupil. Gill-rakers on tirst arch 2 + 9; long and very slender. No 
papilhe on inner edge of shoulder girdle. Lower jaw and anterior 
part of throat with about 2-1: slender barbels; the longest somewhat 
shorter than diameter of pupil. Nostrils with rims, the anterior one 
the higher. Cheeks below eye with 4 rows of minute pores. 

Head naked, except occiput and upper edge of opercle, which have 
small scales. Bod}^ completely covered with small ctenoid scales. 

Fins large. Dorsals separate; the spines and rays of about the 
same height; nuich higher anteriorly than posteriori}^; spines, Avhen 
depressed, just reaching insertion of soft dorsal. Anal inserted below 
base of third dorsal ray; the tips of the rays not extending quite so 
far posteriorly as do those of the dorsal, both falling far short of 
base of caudal. Caudal truncate posteriorly; the upper rays slightly 
longer than the lower. Pectoral pointed; the upper edge with fila- 
mentous rays. Ventrals free posteriorly; extending a little bevond 
vent. 

Color in spirits light; t) or 7 large, dusky spots along middle of 
sides; a row of similar spots ])elow these; upper parts of head and 
body with small, elongate spots, indistinct in outline; suborbital and 
cheeks with 4 obli(][ue, parallel, dusky lines, the anterior extending 
from eye forward and downward. Spinous dorsal with 3 or 4 narrow, 
longitudinal, dusky bands; a large black blotch on the posterior mem- 
branes; soft dorsal with 3 bands similar to those of spinous dorsal. 
Caudal with oblong, dusky spots arranged in 3 or 4 zigzag vertical 
rows. Anal with a white margin, suffused with dusky between liiargin 
and base. Pectoral somewhat dusk3^ Ventral without dark color. 

Here described from a small specimen collected at Misaki. 

The species is as 3'et known only from about Tok^^o, in cleai' >vater. 
It reaches a small size. Our specimens are from Misaki. 

[yiveiov^ chin; rf/jni\!, thread.) 



Measnreinmts of A'mosus geneionenius. 



Lc'iiH-th cxjiressed in miilimotcrs 

Dfjith expressed in Ininilrcdthts of length .. . 

iJcptli dl' caudal peduncle 

Length (if head : 

Length of snout 

Length of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal . 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Heiglit of longest diirsal sjiines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length ( if caudal peduncle 

Length of C'audal tin 

Length of jiectoral tin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales In transverse series. . 



54 


50 


37 


37 


](i 


17 


IS 


17 


9 


10 


9 


9 


-"a 


30 


30 


31 


s 


10 


8 


S 


9 


9i 


10 


11 


■-> 


9 


2 


2 


8 


8 


9 


10 


34 


34 


36 


37 


53 


53 


55 


55 


16i 


16 


17 


17 


17i 


16 


18 


20 


56 


58 


58 


57 


12 


12 


16 


12 


22 


22 


23 


23 


20 


20 


23 


25 


22 


23 


25 


24 


20 


20 


■>■> 


22 


« 


8 


8 


8 


Ki 


16 


15 


15 


14 


14 


14 


14 


Gl 


62 


59 


t;2 


'18 


16 


IS 


17 



N0.1-2II. aOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAX— JORDAN AXD SX^DFJi. 



Ill 



25. TRl^ENOPOGON Bleeker. 
TrinuvjnMjvii Bleekek, Archives Neerl., 1874, p. 1'4 [IxtrlmliiK) . 
Thi.s g-(nui.s is close to Tiideidujei'^ from which it differs in the pres- 
ence of a conspicuous fringe of barbels, the one series along the suT)- 
or])ital and preorbital region, another along the edge of the preopercle 
and the rami of the lower jaw to the chin. Body ver}" ro])ust. 

A single known species, from Japan, distinguished from all other 
gobies by the combination of l)arbels and tritid teeth. 
{rpiaiva^ three fork; nc^yoov, ])eard.) 

47. TRI^NOPOGON BARBATUS Giinther. 

lYiRmophorlclidtys hurhatun Gunther, Cat. Fish., VII, ISIil, locality unkiiDW 11, 

"l)r()bal)ly from China;" Hasler collection. 
Tri'I('iill(jcr lutrhatux Steixdacpixer, Ichth. Beitr., VIII, ISTit, p. .■!."!, '"Celebes or the 

rhilijjpines." 

Head :■{ in length: depth 3^; depth of caudal })e(luncle lif in head; 
eye 6|; snout rU; maxillary 2; I). VI-11; A. 10; scales in lat(>ral 
series 3G, in transverse series 1.4. 




Fh;. 12:1.— Tki.en'opogon barbatcs. 



Bod}' stout; caudal peduncle deep, compressed. Head large, much 
broader than the body; cheek muscles bulging out conspicuously. 
Snout short, blunt. Mouth l>road, somewhat oblique; jaws ecptal; 
distal part of maxillary exposed, extending much farther posteriorly 
thiui cleft of mouth, reaching a vertical passing a little beyond poste- 
rior edge of or]»it. Tongue broad, rounded anteriorly. 

Teeth of jaws in 2 series, the outer ones of upper jaw placed 
alternately in 2 rows; trilobed; the middle lobe much the highest, the 
inner ones in a single roAV, simple, small; the teeth of lower jaw in 2 
rows; the outer trilobed; the inner simple, small; no canines. 

Gill openings confined to the sides; the width of isthmus about equal 
to depth of caudal peduncle. No papillae on inner edge of shouldei- 
girdle. Gill-rakers on first arch 2 + 5 short, rather slender. Edge of 
suborbital with a double frinsi-e of barbels which extends on cheek a 



112 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



short distance be^'oiid eye; lower jaw with 2 rows of harbels, which 
extend upward along edge of preopercle; opercle with a few scattered 
barbels. A conspicuous Hap covering a pore near posterior edge of 
eye. Anterior nostrils with tubes. 

Head naked. Body with rather large ctenoid scales; l)reast anterior 
to ventrals naked. 

Dorsals separate; the spines Avhen depressed not reaching insertion 
of soft dorsal; rays higher than the spines, not touching base of caudal 
when depressed. Anal inserted below base of third or fourth dorsal 
ray; the depressed raj's reaching as far posteriori}' as do those of the 
dorsal. C'audal acuteh' rounded. Pectoral pointed; the upper edge 
with 1 or i:i filamentous rays. Ventrals free from l)ody posteriorly. 

Color in spirits light olive, with 4 or 5 broad, indistinctly outlined, 
vertical, dusky bars on body; a transverse bar on nape; anterior part 
of head dusky. Spinous dorsal with 2 broad, blackish, oblicpie bands; 
soft dorsal dusky, with longitudinal rows of indistinct dusky spots; 
caudal very dark, ^vith light spots in vertical rows; pectorals some- 
what lighter, though similarly marked; anal dusky; ventrals white. 

Here described from 3 specimens from the bay of Tokyo, the only 
definite locality yet known for the species, the earlier specimens being 
from uncertain collections. Giinther states that it is ''probably from 
China,'' while Steindachner assigns it to "Celebes or the Philippines." 

{Barbatus, bearded.) 

Meatfiiri'iiicnU nf 7)-i;ni(>j><iijnii hdrlniliix. 



Leiistli in millimeters 

Depth e.xpressed in hundredths of leiiffth. 

Deptli of CiUidal pedunele 

Length ( if head 

Lengtli of snout 

Widtli of interorbital spaee 

Diameter of orbit 

Distaneo from snout to siiinousdcrsal 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal lin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal jiedunele 

Length of caudal tin , 

Lengtli of pectoral tin 

IjCngth of \entral tin 

Numlicr of dcu'sal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Numljer of anal rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series .. . 



sy 


98 


65 


•27 


25 


22 


14 


14 


14 


33 


36 


?2 


9^ 


101 


<) 


6 


7 


7 


5 








42 


42 


11 


(i2 


61 


61 


13.1 


14 


14 


16 


loi 


17 


67 


66 


63 


15i 


15i 


15;- 


2U 


22 


23 


2U 


23 


21 


26i 


25 


25 


21 i 


21 


20 


6 


6 


6 


11 


11 


12 


10 


10 


11 


30 


33 


33 


14 


15 


15 



26. TRIDENTIGER Gill. 

Trklcidujcr (iii.b, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1858, Dec. (o/;.sYvrr».s'). 
Trvvmrphoriis Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1859, ]i. 17 {IrlijoiiucejilKihis; 

name preoccupied by Truviiopliorus Rudolpiii, a genus of wuruis). 
Triimophorlchihys Gi-Li., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 195 {trigonoccjtli(this). 
Trijisms Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 372 {ioturux) . 

Body robust, little compressed, covered with moderate or rather 
large ctenoid scalt\s; head ))road. little d<^pressed above, the e3^es well 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 113 



separate, the cheeks tumid, scaleless; mouth moderate, oblique, the 
lower jaw rather prominent; teeth rather large, fixed, in about 2 
rows, those in the outer row trifid, the middle cusp the longer; inner 
series of sjualler, pointed teeth; tongue rounded at tip; no barbels; 
gill openings restricted to the side, the gill openings very broad. 
Dorsals short, the first of slender spines, the second of 10 to 12 
rays; caudal rounded; pectoral rounded, some of the upper rays 
short, none of them silky. Ventrals rather long, formed as in Gohius, 
not adnate to the belly. 

Rivers of China and Japan. Robust species, allied to Oteiiogohius, 
but with the teeth trifid. We follow Steindachner in identifying 
Trkenophork'hthy)^ with Trldentiger. Trijissus is also unworthy of 
separation. This genus has no especial afiinity to Sicydmm. 

{Tres, three; de7is^ tooth; (/i-ro, bear.) 
Tridentiyer. 
a Body olive green, witli faint cross l)an<ls but no lengthwise stripes; scales less 
than 50. 
h. Scales 34-18; D. YI-12; head '.)\ in length; depth 42; cheeks moderately 
tumid; head with pale spots; i)ectoral with a dark spot and pale bar at 

base ohscarm. 48. 

hh. Scales 48-15; D. YI-13; head 3| in length; depth 6^; cheeks excessively 
swollen ; head with pale spots ; a pale band on pectoral at base . . buccu. 49. 
Tnfissiis. 

aa. Body olive green, with 2 black lengthwise bands; I). VI-13; scales 54-16; head 
Sj in length ; Iwdy 4 J ; cheeks little tumid bifasckihis. 50. 

48. TRIDENTIGER OBSCURUS 1 Schlegel). 

Sicydium ohxcnrtDii Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1847, }>. 145, pi. lxxvi, fig. 1, 

Nagasaki. 
Tridentiyer ohscurus Gill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1858, Shimoda. — GtJNTHER, 

Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 566; after Schlegel. — Steindachner, Ichth. Beitr., 

YIII, 1879, p. 29. 
Tri;fnop]i()rie}il)n/s squa)ui^:triyatiis Hilgendorf, Sitzber. Naturf. Freunde, 1879, 

III, Tokyo; No. 10647, :Mus. Berl.— Jordan and Snyder, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mns., 

1900, p. 372, Yokohama; Coll. Otaki. 
Tridentiyer squamistriyatiis Steindachner, Ichth. P>eitr., YIII, 1879, p. 3], Japan. 

Head 8^ in length; depth -Ij; depth of caudal peduncle 2i in head; 
eye oi; snout 3i; D. VI-12; A. 11; P. 20; scales in lateral series 34, 
in transverse series 16. 

Head large and l)road, the cheek muscles not so greatly developed 
as in T. hurro. Snout l)lunt; the jaws equal; mouth oI)li(|ue. Maxil- 
lary reaching a vertical passing between pupil and anterior edge of 
orbit. Teeth in 2 series, those of the outer series in 2 closely apposed 
rows, the teeth alternating in position, flat, trilobed, except 2 or 3 
posterior ones on each side of jaw; teeth of inner row small, simple, 
curved backward. Tongue broad, rounded anteriorly. Gill opening 
not extending far foi'ward; the isthnms lirojid, its width equal to dis- 
tance from pupil to tip of snout. Inner edg(> of shoulder girdle with 

Proc- N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 8 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

a narrow, elevated ridge; but no papillse. Gill-rakers 3 + 12, rather 
short and l)lunt. 

Head naked, without barbels; anterior nostril with a high tube. 
Body with large, ctenoid scales; those anterior to dorsal and pectorals 
and on belly small and smooth; those on breast anterior to ventrals 
minute, embedded in the skin. 

Dorsals separate; the spines long and filamentous, those of the 
females much shorter. Anal inserted below third or fourth dorsal 
ray. when depressed extending as far posteriorly as the dorsal, neither 
quite reaching the caudal. Caudal fin rounded. Pectoral without 
filaments on its upper border. Ventrals of moderate size; free 
posteriorly. 

Color dark; head with a few small, faint light spots; body with nar- 
row, light, lateral bands, which are more distinct posteriorly; dorsals 
dusky; with subdued darker markings; the first spine or ray of each 
fin with -l sharply outlined black dots; soft dorsal and anal narrowly 
edged with white; interradial membranes of caudal dark; pectoral 
with a vertical white band near its base, and a dark spot at upper edge 
of base. The band of pectoral is bright orange in life. 

In some specimens the snout is broader, the cheek muscles more 
pufl'ed out, the eye a little smaller, and the maxillary slightly shorter 
than in others. Those from some localities are a little lighter in color 
than the one described. They have definite, small, round, white spots 
on the lower parts of the cheeks; the longitudinal bars on the body 
are more distinct and the spot at upper part of base of pectoral is more 
conspicuous. 

TrioeiwphorlcJitliys squamistrigattis of Hilgendorf is believed to be 
identical with Sicydiiim obscurunn of Schlegel. The series of speci- 
mens examined by us agree with the descriptions of both species 
referred to above, except in the covering of the breast. Hilgendorf s 
statement that the breast is naked is probably due to an oversight, as 
the region anterior to the ventrals is covered with small, deeply 
embedded scales. The species is represented in our collection by 
specimens from Nagasaki on the south to Tokj'o on the north. 

The present description is taken from an individual from Enoshima. 
Our specimens are from Tsuruga, Aomori, Matsushima, Kawa- 
tana, Kobe, Kurume, Nagasaki, Mis'aki, Wakanoura, Same, Enoshima,, 
Niigata, Tone River, Ise, and from Ishikawa-ken. 

The species is ver}^ abundant in the river mouths and estuaries 
throughout the southern islands of Japan. It is called Torahaze or 
Tiger goby. 

{Ohscurus, dusky.) 



1 



NO. 1241. OOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



115 



Measurements of Tridentiger obscurus. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length. . 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to spinous dorsal 

Distance from snout to soft ilorsal 

Heightof longest dorsal spines 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal fin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 







Naga- 


Ishika- 


saki, 


walien. 


Hi- 




zen. 


80 


66 


55 


26 


21 


24 


13 


13 


12i 


30 


30 


31 


10 


9 


U 


4^ 


4^ 


4i 


4 


H 


5 


41 


42 


40 


61 


60 


60 


23 


m 


28 


16i 


14 


16 


65 


66 


65 


15 


14 


14 


22 


24 


22 


2H 


22 


22 


23i 


25 


24 


16 


16 


18 


8 


6 


6 


11 


12 


12 


11 


11 


11 


20 


21 


20 


34 


37 


33 


15 


16 


17 



49. TRIDENTIGER BUCCO Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^ in length; depth 5^; depth of caudal peduncle 7; eye T in 
head; snout -li; maxillary 2i; D. Vl-13; A. 11; P. 20; scales in lateral 
series 48. in transverse series 15. 

Body rathei- robust, not tapering much toward the tail; caudal pedun- 
cle almost as deep as body, compressed. Head broad and depressed; 
its depth contained If times in its width; cheek muscles enormously 
developed, puffed out on either side beyond contour of body; top of 
head flat; interorbital space broad, the distance between eyes 2^ times 
their diameter. Snout rounded. Eyes very small, directed laterally; 
anterior in position. Mouth oblique; jaws equal; maxillary reaching 
a vertical, passing a little beyond eye; entirely concealed by the lip 
and suborbital. Tongue broad, round anteriorl3^ Teeth in 2 series 
on the anterior part of jaws; the outer ones in a single row, trilobed, 
except 2 or 3 posterior ones, which are simple; the middle lobe high 
and rounded, the lateral lobes short and sharp; inner series of lower 
jaw in 3 rows; simple, slender, sharp, and curved backward; inner 
series of upper jaw in a single row, similar to those in the corre- 
sponding position below; no canines. Gill opening extending a little 
below base of pectoral; width of isthmus equal to space between eyes. 
Shoulder girdle with a narrow ridge on inner edge; no papillae. Gill- 
rakers on first arch 3 + 8 ; short and pointed. 

Head naked; no barbels or conspicuous rows of mucous pores. 
Anterior nostril with a thin-walled tube. Bod}^ covered with large, 
weakly ctenoid scales, except a small naked sjmce beneath ventrals. 

Dorsals separate, the membrane of the spinous dorsal attached to 
the base of the first ray; spines slender and flexible; the third longest; 



116 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



vol.. XXIV. 



the 6 anterior ones evenly spaced; the. distance between the last 2 about 
twice that of the others; rays of soft dorsal growing successively 
longer toward posterior end of fin; the last rays when depressed just 
reaching bases of upper caudal rays. Anal inserted below base of 
third dorsal ray; the first ray short; the others successively longer to 
the fourth, which is about twice as long as the first; the fin when 
depressed not reaching so far posteriorly as does the dorsal. Caudal 
rounded. Pectoral round, extending almost to a vertical through 
posterior end of base of spinous dorsal; the upper edge without fila- 
mentous ravs. Ventrals free from body posteriorly; their tips reaching 
a point halfwa}' between base of fin and insertion of anal. 

Color in alcohol pale olive gray; sides of body with 6 or 7 narrow, 
dark, lateral cross-bands, the upper and lower of which are indistinct; 
on the anterior half of body all but 2 of the bands fade out and dis- 
appear; head dark, covered with small, closely crowded, light spots. 




Fig. 24. — Tridentiger bucco. 

Dorsals and anal edged with black; the color more intense in the region 
of the first and second dorsal spines; soft dorsal with an indistinct, 
narrow, dusky horizontal band near the middle. Caudal dusky; black 
spots on interradial membranes. Pectorals and ventrals dusky; the 
former with a light, vertical band at base. 

Description of t3'pe No. 6459, Leland Stanford Junior University 
Museum. Localit}^, Misaki, Japan. We also have specimens from 
Tokyo. 

Some other specimens from the type locality are a little lighter or 
darker in color; some have the small caudal spots arranged in more 
or less distinct wav}", vertical lines; others have the soft dorsal and 
anal narrowly edged with lighter color. 

T. hucGo is closely related to T. ob.scurus. It is easily distinguished 
})y its larger mouth, broader head, smaller eye, and smaller scales; the 
latter species has al)out 36 scales in a lateral series. 

{Bucco, thick-cheeked.) 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



117 



Measurements of Tridentiger hucco. 



Length in raillimeter.s 

Deptli e.xprci<sed in hundredths of 

length a 

Depth of eaudul peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Widtli of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from .-^nout to spinous dor.«al 
Distance from snout to soft dor.sal ... 

Heiglit of longest dorsal spines 

Height <if longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal pe<luucle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal spines 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of scales in lateral series 

Number of scales in transverse series 



78 


74 


75 


69 


67 


67 


72 


70 


70 


18 


18 


17 


19 


20 


20 


20 


19 


19 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


15 


14 


14 


14 


29 


29 


29 


30 


29 


30 


30 


30 


30 


8 


8 


7^ 


8 


8 


7i 


84 


8 


8 


6i 


7 


65 


6 


7 


6i 


7 


7 


7 


4i 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4i 


14 


4 


4 


37 


37 


36i 


39 


40 


39 


39 


38 


38 


57 


57 


56i 


58 


57 


59 


59 


57 


58 


15 


15 


14 


16 


16 


18 


16 


11 


114 


17 


15 


144 


16 


15 


15 


17 


14 


144 


63 


60 


61 


62 


63 


63 


624 


65 


62 


15 


14 


15 


15 


13 


154 


15 


13 


14 


25 


23 


22 


2U 


22i 


234 


244 


23 


23 


22 


22 


22 


24 


21 


22 


22 


22 


22 


22 


26 


24 


24 


23 


25 


24 


24 


24 


16 


17 


m 


16i 


17 


17 


18 


17 


164 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


13 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


19 


20 


19 


20 


48 


53 


48 


48 


49 


48 


50 


49 


52 


15 


15 


15 


15 


16 


16 


17 


17 


17 



aThe measurements of tlie dei)th in this case are only approximate, the abdomen having shrunken 
in preservation. 

50. TRIDENTIGER BIFASCIATUS Steindachner. 
SniMAHAZE (STRIPED GOBY). 

Tridcnti//tr hl/asciatm Steindachner, lehth. Beitr., X, p. 12 (190), Bay of Strielok, 

Japan Sea, near Vladivostock. Coll. Professor Dybowski, based on adult 

specimens without black caudal spot. 
IVifissKS iotarus^ Jordan and Snyder, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., XXIII, 1900, p. 873, 

Bay of Tokyo. Coll. K. Kishinouye; type No. 49403 U. S. Nat. Mus. ; (;o-type 

No. 6270, L. S. Jr. Mus. ; based on young specimens. 

Head 3i; depth 5; D. VI-13; A. 11; P. 19; .scales 54-16. Eye 7i 
in head (less in young specimens); interorbital space 3^ (the bony 

^ The followuag is the description of Japanese specimens ( T. ioturusi) , which we are 
unable to separate from T. bifasciaUis, except by characters siil)ject to change with 
age: 

TRIFISSUS lOTURUS Jordan and Snyder. 

Descrijjiion — Head 3*111 length; dei3th4^; depth of caudal peduncle 6i; eye 4 in 
head; snout 4|; interorbital space, bony ridge, 7 to 8 (fleshy jiart 3} to 4); height 
of longest dorsal s^nne, 7 in length, ray 7; longest anal ray 72; length of jiectorals 3^; 
ventrals 4j; caudal 45; dorsal VI-13; anal 12; scales in lateral series 54, in trans- 
verse series 16, between origin of soft dorsal and anal. 

Head wide and flat, its width contained li times in its length; interorbital 
space convex. Snout blunt. Mouth slightly oblique; jaws equal; premaxillary 
extending to a vertical through anterior edge of pupil; lips thick. Upper jaw with 
a row of 18 long, flat, trilobed, movable teeth, behind which is a row of small, 
sharp, simple teeth; lower jaw with 20 trilobed teeth, followed by a narrow band of 
simple, sharj), curved ones; each side of lower jaw with a small, curved canine 
scarcely larger than the other teeth. Gill-rakers short, pointed. Body covered 
with small, ctenoid scales, large posteriorly, smaller anteriorly, extending forward 
on nape and top of head to within a short distance — about the diameter of pupil — 
of the edge of orbits; other parts of head naked; without barbels. Dorsal fins not 
connected; third spine longest; others gradually shorter; rays, except first and last, 
of about the same length. First ray of anal short, simple; others gradually longer. 
Soft dorsal and anal projecting an equal distance posteriorly. Caudal rounded. 



118 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



vol,. XXIV. 



ridg-0 7 to 8); snout 4^; breadth of head 1^; height 2. Body moder- 
ately compressed. Head yery broad, CoUus-liko., flattish above; eyes 
small; interorbital broad; pectorals without silky rays. Snout 
decurved. Teeth in the outer row trifid, well separated from the inner 
row of smaller pointed teeth, hindmost tooth sometimes a little larger. 
Cleft of mouth broader than long, its breadth half length of head; 
maxillary reaching to posterior margin of eye. Head naked; nape 
with small scales. Scales on body moderate, ctenoid. 

Color olivaceous, a broad black band on each side beginning at the 
forehead and extending along below the dorsals to the caudal; a second 
band much narrower along middle of side from base of pectoral to 




Fig. 25. — Tridentiger bikasciatus. 

caudal; a blackish cross streak on bases of upper pectoral rays. Black 
streaks along near upper edge of lirst dorsal and front of second 
dorsal and along anterior rays of anal; caudal with luunerous streaks 
of blue-gray specks; scales with dark points. Length 110 mm. 

Steindachner's description, al)ove condensed, was taken from speci- 
mens from the Bay of Strielok, near Vladivostock. 

Pectoral somewhat pointed, extending poHteriorly as far as tip of depressed dorsal. 
Ventrals not adherent to belly; their length equal to distance from center of pupil 
to edge of opercle. A dark color hand, equal in width to vertical diameter of pupil, 
extending from upper edge of eye, along base of dorsal fins to the caudal, where it 
ends in a distinct, dark spot; a similar band running from tip of snout, through eye, 
upper edge of base of pectoral and along side of body to a little below middle of base 
of caudal; an indistinct dark spot on lower part of base of caudal; sides of head with 
small, light spots; first spine and first ray of dorsal fins with three distinct dark dots; 
the color extending posteriorly to the membrane; similar spots faintly outlined on 
the other spines and rays; the membranes with minute, dark dots; edges of fins a 
little dusky. Anal, with a dark band along the edge. Caudal, with indistinct cross- 
bars of bluish spots. Base of pectoral with a white l)and with a dusky spot before it. 

Type.—^o. 49403, U.S.N.M. 

Locality. — Bay of Tokyo, Japan. Collector, K. Kishinouye. Japanese name, 
Shimahaze (striped goby). 

Besides the type, one other specimen (cotype, No. 6270, Leland Stanford Junior 
University Museum) was collected. It is a little smaller and has somewhat brighter 
colors than the type, but differs from it in no other important way. 

{libra, jot; uvpd, tail) 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 119 



We have specimens from Tok^^o Bay and from Nagasaki, the tirst 
named 3'oung', types of T. lotiirus. 
{B/\ two; fasciatui^^ banded.) 

27. ASTRABE Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 
AMralic, new genus [lactisella). 

I>ody thick-set; caudal peduncle deep. Teeth in both jaws simple; 
no canines; no teeth on vomer. Gill opening's not extending far for- 
ward; the isthnuis broad; 2 low, papillas-like elevations on inner edge 
of shoulder girdle. Head naked; the skin conspicuously wrinkled 
and folded; body with small embedded scales on posterior parts, extend- 
ing on sides almost to base of pectoral; other parts naked. Dorsals 
separate; 3 spines, 11 rays. Anal with 10 rays. Spines and rays of 
the 3 fins enveloped in thick skin. Upper rays of pectoral simple, 
free at tips. Ventral rays 1, 5; the fins united; free from the body 
posteriorly. Color black, conspicuousl}^ marked with white. A single 
species from the rock pools of Japan. Its relations are evidently with 
L((cio(/o7}i(fs, Vlarlger being intermediate. 

{a a r pa jit] ^ a saddle.) 

51. ASTRABE LACTISELLA Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3 in length; depth li; D. IH-11; A. 10; P. 21. 

Body short, robust; depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head. Head 
depressed, broad posteriorly, its width equal to depth of Iwdy. Snout 
1 in head, broadly rounded when viewed from above. Nostrils with 
high rims. Eyes small, perfect; iuterorbital space 3 in head. Jaws 
subequal, the lower slightl\^ projecting; maxillary not greatly pro- 
longed, extending to a vertical through posterior edge of orbit. Lips 
pendulous. Teeth on both jaws simple; no canines; no teeth on A'omer. 
Gill opening extending upward as far as does the base of the pectoral, 
not running far forward below; the isthmus wide. Inner edge of 
shoulder girdle with 2 small elevations. 

Skin thick, considerabl}^ wrinkled and folded on head, a V-shaped 
ridge extending from the interorbital space toward the upper edge of 
gill openings; a low crest above the eye; a preorbital fold running 
downward parallel with the maxillary, a branch passing backward 
below the e3'e well on to the cheek; snout and interorbital area con- 
spicuously wrinkled; lower jaw with a low median fold, a larger one 
on either side, the anterior part of which is cut off, forming a small 
pendant flap; a third fold, the edge of which has bead-like elevations 
h'ing between the latter and the lower lip; branchiostegal area with 
small folds. 

Dorsal fins separate; the longest spine contained about 3 times 
in head; soft dorsal free from caudal; when depressed not quite reach- 
ing base of latter; the rays slighth' longer than the spines of first 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. \v)i..xxiv. 

dorsal. Anal inserted below base of second dorsal ray ; when depressed 
it extends a little farther posteriorly than does the dorsal. Dorsals 
and anal covered with thick skin, making the determination of the 
number of rays difficult. Caudal rounded. Pectoral similar in shape, 
extending to a vertical midway ])etween tip of ventrals and the anal 
opening; of 24: or 25 rays, the upper 6 of which are detached and sim- 
ple. Ventrals rays I, 5; the tins united; the disk elevated anteriorly; 
free from body posteriorly. 

Head and anterior parts of Ijody naked; small, thin, embedded scales 
on posterior parts, the scales growing forward on a V-shaped area 
almost to base of pectoral. Lateral line indicated anterior!}' by a 
series of 9 or 10 groups of little pores, 3 or 1 pores arranged vertically 
in each group. 

Color blue black; a broad, white band passing over l)ack part of 
head and anterior region of body, including basal third of pectoral fin; 
another narrower and shorter band between the dorsals, encroaching 




Fig. 2fi.— Artrabe lactisei.t.a. 



on base of soft dorsal; a third passing over the ventral surface at 
insertion of anal, its ends in the central region of the bod}'^ being near 
those of the dorsal band just mentioned; several large and small white 
spots on body and on the unpaired fins posterior to the bands; throat 
white; cheeks and chin with white specks; pectorals spotted with white 
near the tips; ventral disk bordered with white. 

The general form of the l)ody and the peculiarly wrinkled and folded 
skin of the head reminds one of the blind goliy of Point Loma, Tyjjldo- 
gobius calif orniensis. 

Type No. filGO, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 

The single known specimen was taken in August, 1900, at the rock 
pools near Misaki, in Sagami. 

{Lac, luctls, milk; sella, saddle.) 

28. CLARIGER Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 
Clarlger Jordan and Snyder, new genuH {co.vnurus) . 
This genus has the form and general appearance of L^iciogohiiis, 
difi'ering in the presence of a short spinous dor.sal of three slender 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYNER. 



121 



-;pinos. The bod}' is elongate, the head })road and flattened, and the 
skill with a few cycloid scales on the tail. BeloAV the eye are a few 
short iilanients or barbels. 

Ja|)an. 

(('/(O-i/.s. clear; (/err), to bear, from the white back.) 

52. CLARIGER COSMURUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^^ in length; depth Tt; depth of caudal peduncle 10; 63-6 7f 
in head; snout 5; D. III-12; A. 12; P. 18. 

Body not sloping- much from its deepest part toward caudal peduncle; 
cylindrical anteriorly; caudal peduncle greatl}^ compressed. Head 
elongate; broad; flat on top. Snout long; pointed; lower jaw project- 
ing. Maxillary extending beyond eye. Mouth almost horizontal. 
Tongue broad, notched anteriorly. Teeth simple, in narrow bands 
on both jaws; lower jaw with a small canine on each side. Eyes 
directed ()])lic|uely upward; the space between them about equal to 
their diameter. Gill openings not extending far forward. No papilUe 



/^ 




Fig. 27. — Clabiger cosmurus. 



on inner edge of shoulder girdle. No l)arbels on jaw. A row of 
slender barbels extending along suborbital area from snout to a point 
a little beyond eye. 

Head naked; a row of rather large, round, cycloid scales on median 
part of caudal peduncle. Dorsals separate, the first of 3 slender 
spines; soft dorsal with fleshy membrane. Anal inserted below first 
dorsal ray. Caudal round. Pectorals acutel}' rounded. Ventrals 
free posteriorly from bod}. 

Color white; a broad, chocolate-colored lateral band. Avith irregular 
borders, extending from tip of snout to base of caudal fin; the band 
narrow on snout, gradually widening to the posterior end; at base of 
caudal the white encroaches on the band from above and below, nearly 
dividing it. and causing it to spread out in a fan-shaped figure almost 
entirely covering the fin, the solid color broken up into dots and ver- 
tical bands on posterior part of fin. 

The species is known from a single specimen. 37 millimeters long, 
secured at Misaki. Sagami. Type 6161, Leland Stanford Junior Uni- 
versity Museum. 

(/cocT/zfca, to adorn; ovpa, tail.) 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

29. EUT.^NIICHTHYS Jordan and Snyder, new genus. 

Euticniidithys new genus {gilli) . 

Body elongate, compressed, with rudimentary, embedded, rather 
small, cycloid scales. Head short; mouth small, oblique, the chin not 
prominent; teeth simple; isthmus broad; no barbels; dorsal rays 
III, 17; anal 12, the soft dorsal much larger than the anal, and begin- 
ning- far in front of it. Ventrals well developed. Caudal pointed, 

Japan. 

{Eutmnla, a garter snake; ft", well; raivia^^ ribbon; ix^^'s, lish. 

53. EUT.(ENIICHTHYS GILLI Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 6i in length; depth 11; depth of caudal peduncle 8 in head; 
eye 4i; D. III-18; A. 11. 

Body very long and slender. Snout blunt, about equal in length 
to diameter of eye; jaws equal. Eyes directed obliquely upward; 
interorbital space narrow. Mouth oblique, cleft reaching a vertical 




Fig. 28.— Eut.'eniichthys gilli. 



through anterior edge of pupil. Teeth simple, curved, in 2 or 3 rows 
on each jaw; no canines. Gill openings not extending far forward 
below; the isthmus broad. No papilhe on inner edge of shoulder 
girdle. No barbels on head. 

Head naked; body with rather small, round, cycloid, scattered scales. 

Dorsals separate, the spinous dorsal far in advance of soft dorsal; 
spines short, slender; soft dorsal, when depressed, not quite reaching 
caudal. Anal inserted below anterior third of dorsal, extending as far 
posteriorly as does the dorsal. Caudal acutely rounded. Pectoral 
pointed, the upper edge without free tilaments. Ventrals long, free 
posteriorly. 

Color in spirits yellowish white; a broad band of brownish and 
blackish dots extending along sides throughout the entire length, the 
color on caudal fin darker than that of body; median dorsal region 
with brown dots grouped together, forming spots of irregular outline. 

The species is easily recognized by its short spinous dorsal and very 
slender body. Known only from four specimens about 35 mm. long, 
collected by Dr. K. Kishinouye in the Tone River, near Tokyo. Type 
No. 61:62, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 

(Named for Dr. Theodore Gill, in recognition of his studies of 
Japanese gobies.) 



N0.1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 128 

SO. LUCIOGOBIUS Gill. 
Luciogobius Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 146 {guttatu^) . 

Body elongate, moderately compressed, the skin naked. Head long 
and low, depressed above, with tumid cheeks^ mouth rather large, 
terminal, oblique, the chin prominent; teeth pointed; no barbels; 
tongue^ notched; gill openings narrow, not extending forward below, 
separated by a broad isthmus. Spinous dorsal wanting. Soft dorsal 
rather short, opposite the short anal; caudal short, roiuided, remote 
from dorsal and anal; pectorals rather large, without silk-like rays; 
ventrals very short, the rays indistinct, the two fins united in a rounded 
disk. Color dusky. 

One species known, a small gob}" of the muddy shores of Japan, 
resembling Zoarcids in appearance, but evidently belonging to the 
same family with the other gobies. 

{Lucius, pike; Gohius, goby.) 

54. LUCIOGOBIUS GUTTATUS Gill. 

Lveiogobiuff guiiatus Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, p. 146 (Shimoda; Coll. 

J. Morrow).— GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 152; after Gill. 
Luciogobius guttatus Steindachner, Ichth. Beitr., VIII, 1879, p. 26, Yokohama. 

Head 4^ in length; depth 6i; depth of caudal peduncle 9i; eye 8^ 
in head; snout 4i; D. 13; A. 12; P. IT. 

Body cylindrical anteriorly; caudal peduncle not much compressed. 
Head broad and depressed; the cheek muscles greatly developed, bulg- 
ing outward and upward, making a deep concavity on top of head. 
Eyes small, directed obliquely upward; interorbital space concave, 
the eyes projecting somewhat above its floor. Snout rather pointed, 
its length contained about 3 times in postorbital part of head; lower 
jaw projecting. Mouth almost horizontal; the cleft wide, extending 
to a vertical passing just behind orbit. Teeth minute, in narrow 
bands on both jaws; no canines. Tongue broad, forked at tip. Gill 
openings narrow, extending upward but little above middle of base of 
pectoral; the isthmus very broad, its width about equal to depth of 
caudal peduncle. Inner edge of shoulder girdle without protuber- 
ances. Gill-rakers on first arch represented by slight elevations only. 

Head and body naked; skin of snout wrinkled; lips pendulous; 
anterior nostril with a short tube. No barbels. 

Spinous dorsal absent. The skin in the region which is occupied by 
the fin in other gobies has a peculiar folded structure, shaped some- 
what like a feather, a median elevated ridge, with smaller radiating 
ridges on either side; the latter extending posteriorly along the base 
of soft dorsal. Soft dorsal inserted directly above first ray of anal; 
the distance between tip of snout and insertion of dorsal about equal 
to 3 times length of head; depressed fin falling far short of base of 



124 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



caudal; anal lower than dorsal; the height of rays about 2 times the 
diameter of eye; membranes of both dorsal and anal flesh}^ Caudal 
rounded posteriorly. Pectoral rounded, the upper edge without fila- 
mentous rays. Ventral disk small, ])road, free posteriorly. 

Color in spirits light yellowish olive; upper parts darkened by a 
close stippling of blue-black, the points growing larger and farther 
apart on the ventral surface; dorsal parts and sides of head and l)ody 
with small, round spots of the light body color. Dorsal fin with about 





Fig. 29. — Luciogobius gutt.\tus. 



4 longitudinal rows of indistinct, small dark spots on the rays. Caudal 
with vertical, wavy, dark bands, broader than the light interspaces. 
Anal Avhite, except a very narrow dusky area at base. Pectoral dusky. 
Ventrals without dark color. 

A small species found living in little sandy pools under rocks at low 




Fig. 30. — Luciogobius guttatus (elongate example). 

tide; the specimens here described found among stones on one of the 
old artificial islands in the bay of Tokyo. We also have very numerous 
specimens from Hakodate, Wakanoura, Same, and a very small one 
from Nagasaki. In the rock pools of Hakodate Head they are espe- 
cially abundant. The species varies widely in depth of body and in 
breadth of the head. We are unable, however, to recognize more than 
one sDecies in the genus. 
{GuttcUus^ spotted.) 



NO. 124-1. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



125 



Measurements of Ludogobius guttatus. 



Length in mil]iiTieters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length ... 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of liead 

Lengtli of snout 

Width of interorbital space a 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snout to anal 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal tin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral tin 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 



47 


51 


46 


51 


15 


14i 


14i 


15i 


9i 


9 


Hi 


9i 


24 


09 


25 


24 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


3 


3i 


3i 


u 


65 


65 


66 


66 


5 


5 


5i 


Si 


65 


65 


66i 


65 


5 


4^ 


05 


6i 


18 


19 


18 


17i 


14i 


14 


14 


15 


15 


14 


14* 


14 


5 


5 


6 


5 


12 


12 


12 




12 


12 


12 


12 


17 


16 


17 


16 



a Distance between eyes. 

31. LEIJCOPSARION Hilgendorf. 
Leucopsarion Hilgendorf, Berliner Monatsber., 1880, p. 339 {petcrsi) . 

Body elongate, compressed, scaleless, the substance translucent; head 
short, depressed above; the cheeks little tumid; the eyes prominent; 
mouth rather large, terminal, oblique; teeth simple, no barbels; tongue 
notched; isthmus narrow, the gill openings continued forward below. 
Spinous dorsal wanting; soft dorsal moderate, well separated from the 
short caudal; anal longer than the soft dorsal and inserted well in 
advance of the latter; pectorals rather long; ventrals very small, fully 
united, forming a rounded scale-shaped disk, the rays obscure; the 
structure seems exactly as in Gohius, but the tin much less developed. 

Small translucent fishes of the estuaries of Japan, evidentl}^ closely 
allied to Luciogohkis and related to the true gobies. One species 
known. 

(A.fL'/cocr, white; oi/^dpiov, a little fish.) 



55. LEUCOPSARION PETERSI Hilgendorf. 
SHIRO-UWO (WHITE FISH): HIO. 

Leucopsarion peterd Hilgendorf, Berliner Monatsber., 1880, j). 340, April 5, 
Southern Japan. 

Head 5i in length; depth 7i; depth of caudal peduncle 12f ; eye 4: 
in head; snout 3^; maxillary 2i; D. 18; A. 17; P. 15. 

lk)dy long, slender, considerably compres.sed; caudal peduncle nota- 
bly long. Head long, not so deep or l)road as body; snout rather 
blunt, the lower jaw projecting. Eyes small, directed laterally; inter- 
orbital space convex, the distance between eyes equal to leng-th of 
snout. ^louth oblique; maxillary extending to a point below middle 
of pupil. Teeth simple, long, slightly curved backward, in a single 
row on each jaw; no canines. Gill opening l)road, extending very far 
forward; the isthmus narrow. No papillte on inner edge of shoulder 
girdle. Gill-rakers long and slender. No barbels on head. 



126 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



Head and bod}^ naked. Skin along median part of back anterior to 
dorsal, with a peculiar feather-shaped structure; a median elevation 
with short, oblique, lateral branches. 

Dorsal extending a little farther posteriorly than the anal. Caudal 
slightly notched, the lobes rounded. Anal inserted much in advance 
of dorsal. Pectoral rounded, without detached rays on upper edge. 
Ventrals short, free from body posteriorly. 

Color in life translucent, in spirits yelloAvish white; lips with minute 
brownish dots; occiput with a few small spots of same color; median 




Fig. 31. — Leucopsarton petersi, 



dorsal area with small dots; a brownish black line on throat and 
anterior half of belly. Some specimens have the color less intense 
than have others, the small spots on occiput often being absent. 

Described from numerous specimens collected at Niigata, in Echigo, 
presented b}' Dr. C. Ishihawa. We also have representatives from 
Hiroshima. It was not seen elsewhere b}^ us. (Named for Dr. W. 
Peters, of the Universit}^ of Berlin.) 

Measurements of Leucopsafion petersi. 



Length in millimeters 

Deptli expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Width of interorbital space 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to soft dorsal 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Distance from snovit to anal tin 

Height of longest anal rays , 

Length of caudal pi'dunele 

LeTigth of caudal fui 

Length of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 



39 


36 


36 


13 


13 


14 


8 


1i 


8i 


21 


20 


21 


(i 


5i 


5i 


4 


5 


5 


4 


5 


5 


bl 


61 


60 


10 


11 


6 


55 


55 


54 


12 


n 


7 


21 


21 


21 


14 


15 


15 


14 


17 


14 


7 


6 


17 


13 


13 


13 


17 


17 


17 



32. TRYPAUCHEN Cuvier and Valenciennes. 
Triipauchoi Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hiat. Nat. Poiss., XII, p. 152 (vagina). 
Body elongate, compressed, covered with minute cycloid scales; 
head short, compressed, l)luntly rounded in profile; mouth rather 
small, terminal, oblique, the thick lower jaw very prominent; teeth 
moderate, in bands; tongue inconspicuous, not notched; no barbels; 
gill openings confined to the side, the isthnuis very broad; eyes very 



NO. 1244. OOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JOIWAN AND SNYDER. 127 



small, but distinct, the interorbital space elevated; a pit above the 
opercle, opening into a cavitv which is separate from the gill cavity. 
Dorsal fin continuous, verj^ long and low, of 6 short spines and 40 
to 60 soft rays; soft dorsal and anal continuous with the pointed 
caudal; pectoral fins small; ventral fins very small, I, 4, more or less 
fully united, but usually notched at tip. Vertebrae 10 + 24 = 34. 

East Indies, north to Japan. Slender, eel-shaped gobies, remark- 
a)>le for the cavity above the opercle. 

(rpvTnf, hole; cyvxf}v, nape.) 

56. TRYPAUCHEN WAK^ Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Trypauchen vagina Steindachner, Reise Schiff Aurora, 1898, p. 220, Kobe (not 
of Schneider). 

Head ♦>! in length; depth 8f ; eye Hi in head; interorbital space 
6f ; snout 4; maxilliar}' 3; D. VI, 52; A. 40; scales in lateral series 
55, in transverse series about 12. 

Body very long; greatly compressed. Head short, as wide and 
deep as body; its dorsal part, posterior to eyes, with a sharp, bony crest. 
Eyes very small, directed obliquely forward; interorbital area conA^ex; 




I. ' •• • ► « s » v., .■' » T i 



Fig. 32.— Trypauchen wak.e. 



space between the eyes about equal to twice their diameter. Snout 
short, blunt; lower jaw projecting beyond the upper. Mouth oblique. 
Maxillary concealed, extending to a vertical through anterior edge 
of orbit. Teeth in 2 rows, simple, the outer ones enlarged; no ca- 
nines. Gill opening not extending far forward; the isthmus broad, its 
width contained about 3 times in head. No papilla? on inner edge of 
shoulder girdle. Gill-rakers reduced to mere elevations on the arch. 
Anterior nostrils with distinct tubes. Deep pit at upper edge of 
opercle, about as long as eye. No barbels. 

Head naked; the skin with many mucous pores. Body with small, 
thin, round, cycloid scales; nape to front of dorsal and breast to 
beyond tip of pectoral and ventral naked; belly nearl}' back to vent 
naked, or with a few scattered scales. 

Dorsals connected; the spines short and strong; the rays slightly 
longer than the spines; anal rays as high as those of dorsal; both 
dorsal and anal connected with caudal. Caudal pointed. Pectoral 
acutely rounded above; the lower rays shortened, its upper edge 
without free filaments; its length 3i in head. Ventrals very small, 
5 in head, free posteriorly; the tip of the unit(^d fin notched. 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Color in spirits bluish brown. 

Type No. 6515, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum, 

Wakanoura, Kii. 

Th(^ species is close to Tnjpauclien vagina of India, but the pectorals 
and A^entrals are much shorter than in the latter species.' According 
to Cuvier's description and Da3^'s figaire, the naked area on front of 
trunk in nmch smaller, and the lio-ure shows a more elongate mouth 
and head. 

Inland sea of Japan in sandy bays. AVe have specimens from 
Wakanoura, Owari Bay, and Kobe. 

{Waka-iio-^ira, bay of Waka, or romantic song.) 

33. TyENIOIDES Lacepede. 

Ta'tiioidex Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, 1798, p. 580 (IwrrincDwianui;). 
Amhlyopas Cuvier and Valenx'iennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XII, 1837, p. 157 {herr- 

mannianus). 
Odontamblyopus Bleeker, Archives Neerl., IX, 1874, g. 330 {riibicundus) . 

Body elongate, compressed, eel-shaped, naked or with very rudi- 
mentary scales. Head ol^long quadrilateral, flatfish above. Mouth 
almost vertical, the lower jaw prominent, thick, its cleft directed 
upward; maxilhiry not produced backward; tongue not notched. 
Teeth slender, in a band, the outer ones, especiall}" below, very long 
and curved. Eyes minute, hidden. Gill openings confined to. the 
sides; the isthnms l)road. Dorsal fin very long-, the anterior part of 
5 or 6 slender, wide-set spines, more or less distinct; the soft dorsal of 
30 to 50 rays; soft dorsal and anal continuous with the slender, pointed 
caudal; pectoral fins short; ventral fins long, I, 5, completely united, 
not adnate to the belly; no pseudobranchiaj. Vertebrie 11 + IT = 28. 

Estuaries of Japan, China, and southward; several species known. 
Distinguished from the American genus Gohioides by the nuich larger 
num))er of dorsal and anal rays. (D. VI, 16 in Gohloides.) 

(raivia-^ ril)bon; fr^^'og, resemblance.) 

57. T/ENIOIDES LACEPEDEI (Schlegel). 

Avihliiojfiia laeepedei Schlegel, Fauna .Taponica, Poiss., 1848, p. 146, pi. lxxv, fig. 2. 
Bay of Onuira, near Nagasaki. 

Head 7i in length; depth IT; depth of caudal peduncle 4 in head; 
maxillary 8; D. YI, 46; A. 41:. 

. Body extremely elongate, compressed. Head long, rounded ante- 
riorly. Mouth almost vertical, the lower jaw projecting ))eyond the 
upper. Maxillary concealed, not extending far back. Eyes small; 
covered by the skin. Teeth in 2 series; an inner narrow l)and of villi- 
form teeth, and an outer row of large, loosely attached, fang-like teeth. 
Tongue rounded anteriorly. Gill opening restricted to the sides; the 
isthnms broad. No jrapilhv on injier edge of shoulder girdle. Gill- 



NO. 1211. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 



129 



rakers very .short and blunt. No pscudobranchia\ Anterior nostrils 
with small tubes. Symphysis of lower jaw w4th a pair of short, slen- 
der barbels. Skin much wrinkled on snout and lower jaw. 

Head and body naked. Lateral line represented by a series of about 
27 groups of minute pores, each group arranged in vertical lines. 

Dorsal continuous; 6 slender spines; 46 rays; anal of about 44 rays; 
dorsal and anal continuous with the caudal; the membranes tumid. 
Caudal pointed. Pectoral very small, contained about 3 times in 




FlC. ii3.— T>ENIOIDES LACEPEDEI. 

head; acuteh^ rounded; the upper edge without free filaments. Ven- 
trals large; about (Mpml to length of head; free posteriorly; the ante- 
rior half connected to the l)ody by a flexible fold of skin. 

Color in spirits l)luish l)rown. 

Its slender body, long dorsal and anal, concealed eyes, and other 
peculiar characters make it easy to recognize among Japanese gobies. 

Southern Japan, in sandy bays; apparently not common. Our spec- 
imens were obtained at Wakanoura. It is called Warasubo, or straw- 
eel. (Named for Bernard Germain Etienne de la Ville-sur-Illon, 
Comte de La Cepede.) 

KECAPITULATION. 

Li.st of the species of Gobiidie known to be found in Japan, witli localities from 
which we have specimens. Species marked * are here described for the first time. 



1. T'/reo.m Jordan and Snyder. 



* //(///.(' Jordan and Snyder. 

^lisaki, Sagami. 

* abax Jordan and Snyder. 

^lisaki. 



2. AstrrropfiTi/.r Riippell. 



3. Valfnclennea Bleelcer. 
iiiiinilix ((^uoy and <Taimard). 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 9 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

4. Odoiitohiifis Bleeker. 

4. ohsriiriis (Schlegel). 

Tokyo; Kurume, Chikngo; Lake Biwa (Funaki); Kavvatana. 

5. Elmtrh Sclineider. 

5. faaca (Schneider). 

6. oxycephala (Schlegel). 

Yokohama; Wakanoura, Kii; Lake Biwa. 

(i. BoleojifitlKihiriit^ Cnvier and Valenciennes. 

7. chinensis (Osbeck). 

Nagasaki; Tokyo. 

7. PcrioplitlKtlmim Schneider. 

8. cautoiiensis (Osbeck). 

Tokyo. 

8. Hazciix Jordan and Snyder. 

9. * otakii Jordan and Snvder. 



9. GooiuH Liniifeiis. 

10. * pivcil.icJdhi/s Jordan and Snyder. 

Misaki. 

10. Cteri.ogohins Gill. 

11. * (ihfi Jordan and Snyder. 

Wakanoura. 

12. simills (Gill). 

Nagasaki; Kurume; L. Biwa, Matsubara; Kaga; Kana R., Yaniashiro; Tsu- 
shima; Ishikawa-ken; Kawatana, Hizen; lyo, Shikoku. 
lo. ;/i/)ini<(uc}ien (Bleeker). 

^lisaki; Wakanoura; Nagasaki; Tokyo Bay; Tsuruga; Enoshima, Sagami. 

14. * Jiddropterus Jordan and Snyder. 

Nagasaki; Kurume; Tsuruga; Kawatana. 

15. "" annpbeUi Jordan and Snyder. 

Wakanoura. 
If). ■" rirgatulns Jordan and Snyder. 

Misaki; Wakanoura; Nagasaki; Tokyo Bay; Matsushima; Onomiclii; Seniida 
R., near Tokyo. 

17. /;//'f*(»»' (Bleeker) . 

Yokohoma; Wakanoura; Tsuruga, Echizen; Aomori, Rikuoku; Matsushima; 
Rikuzen; Onomichi, Bingo; Kobe, Settsu; Owari Bay; Kawatana. 

11. Aboimt Jordan and Starks. 

18. Jdctipes (Hilgendorf). 

Matsushima; Aomori; Tokyo; Tsuruga; Enoshima; Tone R., near Tokyo. 

19. tsushimx Jordan and Snyder. 

Tsushima. 

20. JieptacanfJut (Hilgendorf). 

21. hreunigi (Steindachner). 

22. itrof.Tnia (Hilgendorf). 

12. CrijptoreiUruH Ehrenl>erg. 

23. fjlifer (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 

Onomichi; Nagasaki; Wakanoura; Tokyo; Kobe; Tsuruga. 



NO. 1244. GOBIOID FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 131 

18. O'loKXIMJohlKX Gill. 

24. hrimnctiK (Sclilegel). 

Hakodate; Onomichi; Kuniiiic; Nagasaki; Wakanoiira. 

14. < 'hicnogohlnx (tIU. 

25. <(nnulari!< Gill. 

26. iiKtcnxjiiathos (Bleeker). 

Funaki, Omi; Kunime; Aoiuori; Tokyo; Tsuruga; Chitose; Matsnbara; Same; 
Gifu, iMino; Nagoya, Owari; Kawatana. 

15. ( 'h/ot'd Jordan and Snyder. 

27. radanea (O'Shaughnessy). 

Nagasaki; Misaki; IVIatsushinia; Aoniori; Tsuruga; Niigata, Echigo. 

28. livviH Steindachner. 

29. * mororavu Jordan and Snyder. 

Mororan, Hokkaido; Tokyo, IMatsusJiinia. 

30. * sdrcht/nnis Jordan and Snyder. 

Wakanoura. 

16. Chasmins Jorilan and Snyder. 

31. doUrhognatlins (Hilgendorf). 

Misaki; Wakanoura; Nagasaki; Tsnrnga; ]\ratsushinia; Enoshiuia; Hakodate, 
Hokkaido; Same, Rikuokn. 

32. misakius Jordan and Snyder. 

]\ri,«aki; Nagasaki; Enoshima; Hakodate; Tsushima. 

17. licroyobius Gill. 

33. vin/o (Schlegel) 

Miyajima; Uraga, Sagami. 

34. elapoides (Giinther). 

Hakodate; Matsushima; Aomori; Utatsn, Noto. 

35. * (labnio Jordan and Snyder. 

INlisaki; Wakanoura. 

36. "^ zacalles Jordan and Snyder. 

Misaki. 

37. *zonoleu(:u!< Jordan and Snyder. 

Misaki. 

18. Suruya Jordan and Snyder. 

38. * ftindicola Jordan and Snyder. 

Suruga Bay; Matsushima; Sagami; Owari Bay. 

li>. AcanthogohiuH Gill. 

39. flavimaniia (Schlegel). 

Hakodate; Onomichi; Kurume; Nagasaki; AVakanoura; ^lisaki; Matsushima, 
Aomori; Tokyo; Tsuruga; Enoshima; Niigata; Yodo R., Osaka. 

20. Sagnmia Jordan and Snyder. 

40. * russidd Jordan and Snyder. 

Nagasaki; Mi.«aki; Wakanoura. 

21. SynecJiogohiiis Gill. 

41. liasid (Schlegel). 

22. Paradnvturi.rltlhgK Bleeker. 

42. polgnemus Bleeker. 

Tsuruga; Kobe; Nagasaki; Wakanoura; Hiroshima; Onomichi. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

23. C}in'.tur!c}iilti/f< Richardson. 

43. sligmatids Richardson. 

Sasuna, Tsushima. 

44. hcxancmus (Bleeker). 

Nagasaki; Tsuruga; Owari Bay; Aoniori; Tokyo; Matsu«hima; INIororan, 
Hakodate. 

45. "" .^ciisiius Jordan and Snyder. 

Tsuruga; Owari Bay; Aomori; T(jkyo; Matsushima; Mororan; Hakodate. 

24. Ainosus Jordan and Snyder. 

4G. (jnteioncmns (Hilgendorf). 
Misaki. 

25. TrUvnojxxjo)!. Bleeker. 

47. Iidrhaliis (Tiinther. 

Tokyo. 

26. Trhlentujcr Gill. 

48. olixcurus (Schlegel). 

Tsuruga; Aomori; Matsushima; Kawatana; Kobe; Kurume; Nagasaki; Misaki; 
Wakanoura; Same; Enoshima; Niigata; Tone R. ; Ise; Ishikawa-ken. 

49. *hucco Jordan and Snyder. 

Misaki; Tokyo. 

50. lilfasciatiis Steindachner. 

Tokyo; Nagasaki. 

27. AMnd'c Jordan and Snyder. 

51. *hu-lhella Jordan an<l Snyder. 

Misaki. 

28. Clarlgcr Jordan and Snyder. 

52. *r(wmi/n(.N' Jordan and Snyder. 

Misaki. 

29. Eutnmiwhfhyft .Tordaii and Snyder. 

53. *(jilli Jordan and Snyder. 

Tone R. , near Tokyo. 

30. Liicidi/dhiiis (iill. 

54. (/iilliiliis (iill. 

Tokyo; Hakodate; Nagasaki; Wakanoura; Same, in Rikuoku. 

31. Ijf}icii))it(trU»i Hilgendorf. 

55. ])f'tcrsi, Hilgendorf. 

Niigata; Hiroshima. 

32. Trypaarhea Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

56. * vdlcic Jordan and Snyder. 

Owari Bay; Kobe; Wakanoura. 

33. Tnnuoldfs Lacepede. 

57. Jdccpedel (Schlegel). 

Wakanoura. 



A FLIGHTLESS AUK, IVI ANCALLA CALIFORNIENSIS, FROM 
THE MIOCENE OF CALIFORNIA. 



By Frederic A. Lucas, 

Acting Ciirdior of Yertehrale Fossils 



The name Jfajiealla caHforniensis is proposed for a fossil llightless 
auk, i-eprosented l)}- a nearly complete left humerus found in excavat- 
ing Third street tunnel at Los Angeles, California, in strata considered 
by Mr. W. H. Dall as belonging- to the Upper Miocene or Lower Plio- 
cene, probably the former. The type is No. JrOTG in the catalogue of 
fossil vertebrates, U. S. National Museum. The genus is character- 
ized by a short flattened humerus, devoid of the customary sigmoid 
flexure, l)y the moving of the articular head of the humerus toward 
the ulnar border, and l)y the development of the ridge for the attach- 
ment of the brachialis inferior muscle. Total length of specimen 
68 mm. 

That the bird was flightless is shown at once by the shortness and 
flatness of the humerus, and further by the fact that the bone lacks the 
slightly sigmoid shape characteristic of the humeri of flying birds, 
being instead slightly concave on the ulnar border. Absence of the 
power of flight is also shown by the moving of the articular head of 
the humerus toward the ulnar side, as in birds which fly well the 
articular face is well toward the radial border. In the penguins this 
face is as far dow^n on the ulnar border as the lowest point of the 
inferior crest, and in the flightless Great Auk the articular surface is 
nearer the ulnar border than in any other member of the auk family 
save the one under consideration. The inferior crest is stout and well 
developed, and incloses a large subtrochanteric fossa. This is pierced 
for an artery, and so is the corresponding fossa of the Great Auk, while 
no such perforation is present in the specimens of Lomvia, Alca, or 
L}inda examined. 

The humerus has a larger medullary cavity than has the correspond- 
ing bone of the Great Auk, and it is interesting to recall that the leg 
bones of Hesperonis, the most highly specialized of aquatic birds, 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1245. 

133 



134 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



were also hollow, and probably filled Avith marrow. In the pe^nguins 
the leg bones are lilled with cancellar tissue. 

The l)ird to which this humerus l)elonged was more highl}" special- 
ized, more completely adapted for subaquatic flight, than the Great 
Auk, although the wings were not so extremely modified as those of 
the penguins. This is probably due to the fact that the penguins swim 
solely with their wings, while the auks use both wings and feet. The 
occurrence of a flightless auk at so low a geological liorizon as the Mio- 
cene is of great interest, as indicating a much earlier origin for the 
family. From the greater degree of specialization of the wings, it is 






Pigs. 1 and 2.— Superior and infeeior views of type specimen of Mancalla californiensis. 
Fig. 3.— Corresponding portion of left humerus of Lomvia troile californica, all slightly 
enlarged. 

fair to infer that the bod}" of Mancalla was larger in proportion to the 
size of the humerus than that of the Great Auk, and that hence the 
actual bulk of the two was not greatly dissimilar. Mancalla was cer- 
tainl}^ larger than any of the murres, although its nearest living rela- 
tive appears to be the Pacific Murre, Lomvia troile californica. 

In small birds absence of the power of flight implies freedom from 
enemies, and as this practically means isolation, it is probable that this 
flightless auk bred on some islands near the coast. The mollusk fauna 
associated with the specimen is Miocene in its aspect, and also indicates 
a cooler climate than that now prevailing in the latitude of Los 
Angeles, approxmiately that of Puget Sound, 



t\ 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF MAMMALS COLLECTED IN THE 
VICINITY OF LA GLJAIRA, VENEZUELA. 



By Wirt Robinson, 

Captain, U. S. Army, 
and 

Marcus Ward Lyon, Jr., 

Aid, Division of ifamrnah. 



During the summer of 1900 the authors spent six weeks colleetino- 
in the vicinity of La Guaira, Venezuela. The present paper embodies 
the results of the trip so far as mammals are concerned; the birds, 
reptiles, and batrachians are treated in the two succeeding articles in 
this volume. 

La (juaira, the seaport town of the Venezuelan capital, Caracas, lies 
dong the foot of a range of lofty mountains. This range breaks away 
from the eastern chain of the Andes in Colombia, bears northeast until 
it reaches the coast of the Caribbean Sea near Puerto Cabello, thence 
hugs the shore in an almost due east direction, and finally ends opposite 
the island of Trinidad. For the greater part of this latter course the 
slopes fall precipitately into the sea, the waves of the Carib])ean break- 
ing against the foot of the mountains themselves, but in places there 
is a littoral strip or terrace of no great width. 

The mountains immediately behind La Guaira reach a height of 8,000 
feet, but from this point fall away gradually as one proceeds to the 
eastward. There are in the vicinity of La Guaira few or no passes 
through these mountains. Seven miles to the west there is a rugged 
gap, high up on the side of which winds the English railroad to Caracas. 
To the eastward there are no near-by breaks in the chain. 

Upon these peaks there is constant precipitation, and frequent streams 
of fine water furrow ravines in their course to the sea. The channels 
of these streams are well wooded, and would afford good ground for the 
collector were they not rendered so difficult by their cramped canyon- 
like character, their precipitous descent, and their bowlder-strewn beds. 
The few trails that exist avoid these streams and zigzag up the crests 
of the more practicable slopes. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1246. 

135 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

This northorti coast of Venezuela is noted for its heat. The tropi- 
cal sun beats upon it without mercy, and where water fails the aspect 
of the country is that of a desert. The littoral plain near La Guaira, 
where not watered by the acequiax^ or irrigation trenches, which bring 
the water from high up on the courses of the mountain streams, is 
parched and dusty, and given over to Agaves, Cacti of various kinds 
[Ojxnitta^ (Jereui<^ Jfelocaefns), and to a sage-brush-like plant (Zr(^;?i«7?r/) 
of characteristic odor. But wherever water can be obtained the plain 
assumes a most fertile and flourishing character. Such is the condi- 
tion at Macuto, three miles east of La Guaira. Still farther to the 
east, some seven miles from La Guaira, a large stream comes down a 
fair-sized valle3\ Before debouching upon the plain, its water is all 
carried ofl" to the right and left by the accqulas, and used to operate 
sugar mills and afterwards to irrigate wide fields of cane. 

1\\ what might he called the delta of these two aceqtuas lies the little 
straggling village of Caraballeda, and a short distance up in the mouth 
of the valley itself are some dozen scattered huts, the group bearing 
the name of San Julian, 

Immediately back of the littoral plain there rises to about 50(> feet a 
first row of red-clay foothills of the same character of vegetation as 
the plain. Behind these foothills, and springing almost from their 
tops, rise the mountains proper, and these latter are more or less well 
wooded, but are too steep and rough to aflford collecting ground. On 
their southern aspect these mountains appear to be wooded only in the 
folds, while the ridges are covered with coarse grasses. 

The western slopes of the San Julian Valley, although precipitous, 
have been cleared where it was possible for the peons to climb, and 
have been planted with coffee; but as the coffee plants require shade, 
fruit trees of several kinds have been set out, so that the hills may 
still be said to be wooded. About three miles up the valle}^ the virgin 
forest is encountered. 

Owing to several causes of uncertainty the trip could not be decided 
upon until the last minute, and less than a week was available for 
preparation. As a consequence there were some deficiencies in the 
outfit, notably in the number of Schuyler rat killers, the trap which 
was found to be b\' far the most useful. 

Sailing from New York on June 21, the writers reached La Guaira 
on the morning of July 1. 

Ten days spent in collecting in the vicinity resulted in but slight 
success, owing partly to a week's delay in getting guns through the 
custom-house, partly to the apparent scarcity of mammalian life, and 
partly to the prevailing drought and to poor luck at trapping. For- 
tunately a portion of the outfit was a cane gun, which escaped the 
notice of the customs officials, and with which a number of bats and 
small birds were secured. 



NO. 1246. MAMMALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 137 



On July Captain Robinson made a reconnoissance along- the rail- 
road to Caracas in .search of better collecting- ground, but saw only one 
place that looked at all promising, a station called Cucuruti, about 
halfway up the road. He spent a half da}' here on July 7, Init was 
unable to arrange for food or shelter. 

On July 11 he made a second reconnoissance, this time to San Julian, 
and tinding that the ground was favorable and that he could secure a 
vacant hut, he moved there on July 13 and remained until August 10. 
Mr. Lyon joined him on July 16, but was compelled by illness to 
return to La Guaira on July 22. He shortly after moved to Macuto, 
where he collected until August 10, in the meantime making- one 
excursion for bats to a cave near Peiia de Mora, on the La Guaira and 
Caracas Railroad, 9 miles l)elow Caracas and at an elevation of 2,295 
feet. 

The return steamer to New York was taken on August 13. 

In submitting the.se notes the writers wish to express their indebted- 
ness to Mr. Gerrit 8. Miller, jr., for much advice on technical points; 
to Dr. J. A. Alleii, of New York City, Mr. Witmer Stone, of Phila- 
delphia, and Mr. Outram Bangs, of Boston, for the examination of 
South American material in their possession; and to Mr. Oldlield 
Thomas, who compared several specimens with types in the British 
Museum. 

Owing- to his connection with the U. S. National Museum and facili- 
ties for comparisons and references, the descriptions of new species 
and the technical parts of this paper are entirely the work of the junior 
author, while the field notes have been almost exclusively compiled ])y 
Captain Robinson. 

Where specimens are listed by numbers in the following pages it 
should be observed that those specimens preceded by the letters " W. 
R." are in Captain Robinson's collection,^ while specimens unpreceded 
by letters belong- to the Museum collection. Measurements of speci- 
mens are in millimeters unless otherwise stated. 

I. DIDELPHIS KARKINOPHAGA Zimmermann. 
FLESH-EATING OPOSSUM. 

Load iKtinc: Rabo I'elado, I. f., skinned, or hairless tail. 

1897. T)iddp]>is birliii(>}i}t<i(/(( Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mup. Nat. Hist., IX, 

p. 2.3. 
1900. Didelphis karkinophaga Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Zool. Club, I, p. 89. 

Represented by five specimens, an adult female and four young. 
This was the first mammal trapped, and all were taken in rat killers 
baited with bananas. They are very tenacious of life, none being 
killed by the traps. 

' During the course of printing this i)aper Captain Eobinson has generously jire- 
sented a large number of his specimens to the U. S. National ^luseum. 



]38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

The adult and two of the 3^oung possess long black hairs scantily 
overlying the under-fur. One of the young has these black hairs 
replaced by white, and in another most of the black hairs are so 
replaced. The tail is eminently prehensile. Measurements of the 
adult female: Length, 700; tail, 350; hind foot, 50. 

2. CALUROMYS PHILANDER (Linnaeus). 

WOOLLY OPOSSUM. 

Local name: Comadreja, a misnomer, as tJtervord is Spanish for weasel. 
1888. Didelphys philander Thomas, Gat. Marsupialia and Monotremata, Brit. Mus., 

p. 337. 
1894. Didelphys {Philandfr) philander Thomas, Ami. Mag. Nat. Hist., 6tli ser., 

XIII, p. 439. 
1900. Calnromys 2Mlander Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 189. 

One adult female and three ,young collected by Captain Robinson 
at San Julian. The tail is uniformly brown in color, as in O. trimtatis 
(Thomas) instead of having the terminal portion white, which is said 
to be typical of specimens from Guiana. Its skull measures a trifle 
less than that of the female given by Mr. Thomas in his Catalogue 
of the Marsupialia. In the following measurements the figures in 
parentheses are those given by Mr. Thomas. Skull: Basal length, 44 
(48); greatest breadth, 28.5 (31); nasals, length, 20 (21.5); maximum 
breadth, 7 (6.8); minimum breadth, 3.5 (3.3); postorbital processes, 
tip to tip, 15.5 (16); intertemporal constriction, 9.8 (9.5); palate, 
length, 25 (28); breadth outside m\ 15 (16.5); inside m\ 10.5 (11.5); 
length molars 1-3, 7 (8). 

Dimensions of female collected at San Julian, August 1: Length, 
517; tail, 307; hind foot, 38. 

One is struck at once by the difl'erence in aspect between this and 
the common opossum; its rounded head, much- more rounded than is 
usually represented in cuts; its large, mild, yellowish-brown eyes, so 
different from the beady black eyes of the other species; its woolly fur 
with no coarse hair, and its very long and slender prehensile tail. 
The young cling to their mothers' wool by their tails, mouths, hands, 
and feet, and the strength of their grasp is remarkable. The pouch 
of the female is lined with orange-brown hair and. contains six rather 
prominent mamma\ 

3. PERAMYS BREVICAUDATUS (Erxleben). 
SHORT-TAILED PIGMY OPOSSUM. 

Local name: Raton Casiragua. 
1888. Didelphys hrevicandata Thomas, Cat. Marsupialia and Monotremata, Brit. Mus., 
p. 356. 

Only one specimen of this interesting little animal was secured, a 
young female trapped at San Julian on August 7. It was taken in a 
thicket of vines near a stream, in a cyclone trap baited with rolled oats. 
Its tail is not prehensile. The specimen was identified by Mr. Oldfield 
Thomas. It measures as follows: Length, 144; tail, 55; hind foot, 17. 



NO. 1246, MAMMALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYOX. 139 

4. CABASSOUS LUGUBRIS (Gray). 

NAKED-TAILED ARMADILLO. 

Local name: Cachicamo. 

1873. Ziphila Juguhris Gray, Hand-List of the Edentate, Thick-skinned, and Rumi- 
nant Mammals in the British Museum, p. 23. 

1899. Tatoua (Ziphila) lugnbris Miller, Pror. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIII, p. 6. 

1900. Cabassous hispidus Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Z06I. Club, I, p. 89. 

One specimen, a 3'oung- male, was obtained by Captain Robinson at 
San Julian on July 11. Its measurements were: Length, 1:98; tail, 
192; hind foot, 73. 

It was kept alive until the following- da3\ When put down near 
water it waded in and drank f reel}- by rapidly protruding and retract- 
ing its slender tongue. This was 8 mm. wide at the widest point, 
and could be extended 60 mm. beyond the tip of the nose. There 
were fleshy h laments in the nostrils pointing to the front, and prob- 
ably serving the purpose of the hairs in the nostrils of other animals. 
Its gait was very awkward; it stepped on the tips of the large claws 
of its forefeet and turned in its hind feet with the waddle of a musk- 
rat Its testes were abdominal. Its penis was recurved and turned 
to the left, so that in urinating a fine stream was ejected backward 
between its hind legs and to the left of its tail. This is probably a 
result of its burrowing habits. Its excrements were rounded and 
very hard, consisting apparently of earth}^ and gritty matter taken in 
along with its food. It made no attempt to roll up when molested, 
but if grasped around the middle would press forcibly against one's 
fingers with its heavy foreclaws. 

5. TAYASSU TAJACU (Linnaeus). 
BRAZILIAN COLLARED PECCARY. 

Local name: Baqiiira. 

1889. Dicotyles tajassu Cope, Amer. Naturalist, XXIII, pp. 146-147. 

1897. Dicotyles tajacii Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, p. 22. 

Represented b}- one living specimen purchased in the market at 
La Guaira and now in the National Zoological Park, Washington, 
D. C. It may be T. torvus Bangs,^ but this can not be determined 
without an examination of its skull. At San Julian Captain Robinson 
saw the hides of four that had been killed the previous year by the 
dogs of one of the natives. Some years ago small bands of six or 
eight came frequentl}' to the clearings, but now thej' are not so 
abundant. 

iProc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, 1898, p. 164. 



140 



PROCEEDINOS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



6. PROECHIMYS GUAIR^E Thomas. 
LA (iUAIUA 8PINY RAT. 
1901. ProecJiimys guair.v TuoM AH, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XIV, j). 27. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas kindly described this rat from specimens sub- 
mitted to him. In his description he says that it is ch)sely relat(^d to 
I*ro('<'hiinys niin<-(C Allen, from the Santa Marta region of Colombia. 
As he had no specimens from that locality with which to make the 
actual comparison, the following comparison made with topotypes 
of 1\ iniitae in the American Museum of Natural History will be of 
interest in proving the distinctness of the Venezuelan species. 

Proecli/hiys iiiincm is much brighter in coloration throughout, the 
bright ochraceous color of the hairs is retained all over the upper 
parts, sides, legs, and cheeks. In P. gnairm the back alone is a 
rather dull ochraceous which bleaches out along the sides, legs, and 
cheeks so that viewed from the side P. guairm is clay color instead of 
the ochi'aceous seen in P. mincm. The tail of P. giminM is slightly 
lighter above, has slightly longer hairs, a few of which are whitish in 
color, while the hairs on the dorsal surface of the tail in P*. minccB 
are invariably dark. The skulls are quite similar, but in P. guairce 
the anterior palatine foramina are much wider than they are in P. 
riiincw^ and the outer edges more concave and scooped out. The con- 
dyloid process of the mandible in P. guairca is wider by from 1 to 2 
millimeters than it is in P. niinece., and the distance between the 
coronoid process and the condyle is greater than the corresponding 
distance in the Santa Marta animal. 

Six were taken around the edges of a small clearing about two miles 
up the ravine east of La Guaira. All were caught in rat-killers 
baited with bananas and set under bowlders on the precipitous hill- 
sides. Three were taken in a similar locality at San Julian. An 
adult female taken at San Julian on July 17 had 6 mamma?, 2 ingui- 
nal and 4 latero-pectoral. These last 4 are readily overlooked, as 
they are not at all on the under surface of the animal, but well up on 
the tlanks among the coarse hair of the upper parts. The skin of 
these rats is of extreme tenderness, especially around the root of the 
tail and the back of the neck, tearing at the slightest touch. 

Measurements. ' 



No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Foot. 


WR 1476 

1 102731 

WR 1484 

102732 

102733 

2102734 

WR 1509 

WR 1516 

WR 1633 


La Guaira 

do.. 


July 8 
. ..do... 


Male 

... do 


455 
430 
387 
209 
361 


203 
190 
180 
No tail. 
148 


52 
48- 
47 
48 
45 


do 

do 

do 

do 

San JuliiVn 

do 


July 9 
July 11 
July 12 
July 13 
July 17 
do ... 


Female 

Male 

Female 

Male 


Female 

Male 

Young male 


435 
450 
351 


210 
195 
170 


50 
51 
46 


do 


Aug. 4 



1 Type. 



■ Presented to British Museum. 



MAMAfALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 



141 



7. COELOGENYS PACA (Linnaeus). 
SPOTTED CAVY. 

Local name: Lapa. 

1893. Coelogenys paca Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., V, p. 228. 
1900. Codogenys paca Ba-ngs, Proc. New Eng. Z06I. Club, I, p. 99. 

Two specimens badly mutilated b}^ dogs and machetes were secured 
from the natives at San Julian. They were pdult males. These are 
thickset animals of the general proportions of a guinea pig and ex- 
tremel}^ heavy for their size. Their eyes are nearer the frontal plane 
than usually represented in figures. The tail is a mere stub with a 
callous tip. The skin is composed of several layers. The outer, which 
is brown on the upper parts and white beneath, is of extreme tender- 
ness and tears even under the edge of a keen knife. The under layer 
is thick and fibrous and cuts like wet surgeon's cotton. It clings so 
tightlv to the flesh that it must be dissected free. Any attempt to 
remove the hide by pulling results in splits in the tender outer skin, 
showing the white fibrous layer beneath. 

On each side of the anus there is a large oval gland protruding farther 
to the rear than the tail and resembling a testis. These glands measure 
30 by 20 mm. Horizontally across the middle runs a cleft, and if the 
gland be pressed at the top and bottom, it opens along this cleft and 
becomes everted like two thick, protruding lips, rolling back and 
revealing a somewhat nodular surface. 

The sexual organs are peculiar. The testes are abdominal. The 
penis has on either side of the dorsum of the glans a corneous plate, 
hinged on the inner edge and with strong hooked thorns on the free 
edge. The fore part of the organ is thickly beset with recurved spines 
and terminates in two white, horny, conical tubes or awns, one-half 
inch long. 

The flesh of the lapa is more highly esteemed ])y the natives than 
that of any other game, and the animals readily bring from $2 to $3 
each in the markets. 

They were formerly abundant in the forests at San Julian, and are 
still fairh" common. At a small village 10 miles farther to the east 
there are two brothers who had killed over 60 lapas in the preceding 
twelve months. 

As might be inferred from the character of the feet and hair and 
position of the e3^es, the lapa takes freely to water when pursued and 
dives and swims beneath the surface with ease. They often squat 
with only their nostrils and eyes above the water. 

Measurements. 



No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Foot. 


WR 1604 
WR 1659 


San JulWn.. 
do 


. Aug. 1 
. Aug. 8 


Male 

....do 


665 
633 


26 
22 


110 
116 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

8. HETEROMYS MELANOLEUCUS Gray. 

WHITE AND BLACK POUCHED RAT. 

Local name: Mochilero, i. e., one vjJto c(irries a " morJiila," or knapaack. 

1868. Jleterornya meUmokuras Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 204. 
1900. Ileteromys ■melanoleucus Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Zool. C'lub, I, p. 98. 

Three (one adult and two young) were taken at San Julian and 
another immature specimen at Macuto. Mr. Oldfield Thomas says of 
these that they are essentially topotypes. They were taken among 
vines and underbrush, not far from open spots covered with coarse 
grass. Their pouches are lined scantily with short, whitish hairs, and 
will contain almost a teaspoonf ul. It is worthy of note that a portion 
of the contents of the pouches of the Macuto specimen and of one of 
the San Julian specimens consisted of fragments of a shed skin of a 
snake. 

Measurements of the adult female taken at San Julian August 7: 
Length, 282; tail, 156; hind foot, 33. 

g. SIGMODON SANCTiEMART^ Bangs. 

SANTA MARTA COTTON RAT. 

1898. Sigmodon sanctscmarlfc Baj^gs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, pp. 189-190. 
1900. Sigmodon sanclxmarUe Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Zool. Club, I, p. 98. 

Only one specimen, an adult male, trapped at San Julian on July 29. 
It was taken in a rat-killer baited with corn and set under some loose 
stones on the edge of a small cleared patch. Persistent trapping in 
the same locality for some days thereafter produced no result. 
Measurements: Length, 288; tail, 127; hind foot, 35. 

lo. ORYZOMYS MEDIUS, new species. 
LA GUAIRA RICE MOUSE. 

Type.— Young adult male, skin and skull. No. 105405, U. S. N. M. 
From San Julian, 8 miles east of LaGuaira, Venezuela, August 8, 1900. 

Characters. — Most nearly related to Ori/somys mollipilosus Allen and 
O. magdalince Allen, both from the Santa Marta district of Colombia. 
In external size and in coloration of the skin it most nearly resembles 
O. niagdalino}., but in size and shape of skull it agrees more closely 
with O. mollipilosus. 

Pelage. — Soft and velvety, hairs on the back about 9 or 10 milli- 
meters long; about half that length or a little less on the under parts. 

Color. — Type: The upper parts an indefinite mixture of raw sienna 
and a deep blackish brown, the latter predominating on the median 



No.i24r,. MAM}rALS OF VEXEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 143 

dorsal area. The raw sienna is more extensive on the lateral dorsal 
regions and on the sides; as it approaches the belly it bleaches out to 
buff in color. Upper surfaces of the legs grayish. Dorsal surface of 
tVet covered with a few short whitish hairs. Entire under parts, 
including region about mouth and under surfaces of legs, light gray. 
Fur everywhere slate color at base. Tail brownish throughout, darker 
above and at the tip, lighter beneath; clothed with a few tine short 
dark hairs about three to a scale, and in length equal to about a scale's 
length and a half. Ears brownish, clothed inside and out with a few 
short tine dark hairs, more numerous and darker externally. 

An old adult nursing female has a greater predominence of the raw 
sienna. This color is lirighter than in the tj-pe and approaches tawn}^ 
ochraceous. The hairs of the under parts are much worn and almost 
slate gray. 

Jfeasure// tents. — Type: Total length, 262; tail, 138; hind foot, 31; ear 
from meatus (measured on the dr}^ skin), IT. Average of four speci- 
mens, length, 260; tail, 134; hind foot, 31. 

Shf/l. — Intermediate in size between that of Oryzomys nioUip'dosxis 
and 0. magdaluim, but similar in shape to that of former. The inter- 
orbital region is narrowed and the temporal beading well developed, 
as in (K nioJIipiJoKus^ but the brain case is broader behind and the 
upper tooth row longer by half the last molar. Palate wider between 
the mohii's. Comparing the skull of Oryzoryiys m.ediiis with that of O. 
niagdal/mw it is seen to be narrower interorbitally, the beading more 
convergent, so that if prolonged forward the lines would meet at the 
posterior end of the nasals. In O. magdalbuB they would meet at 
middle of nasals. The l)rain case of O. medius is more expanded, the 
rostrum shorter. The upper tooth rows are of the same length in each, 
but the teeth are wider in 0. medius than in 0. magdalincB. 

Measurements of the t3^pe skull: Total length, 30.4; basal length, 
25; zj^gomatic width, 14.2; mastoid width, 11; least interorbital width, 
5; length of nasals, 12; palatal length, 6.4; length of palatal foramina, 4; 
length of upper tooth row, 4.6; greatest length of lower jaw, 17.6; 
depth of lower jaw at condyle, 7.2; length of lower tooth row, 5. 

Oryzomys rnedhis is based on four specimens, a fully adult female 
and three young adailt males, measurements of which are given below. 
As alreadv mentioned, it is intermediate between and at the same time 
entireU" distinct from 0. moUijpilosus and O. magdaUnce. The color 
of the old female is almost precisely the same as that of O. inagdalinoe., 
but 0. inollljj'dosus is a lighter colored animal. In the structure of the 
skull, however, 0. medius and O. inollip'dosus are remarkabl}' alike. 

Three specimens were taken at San Julian under some vines and 
stones around a dead stump on the edge of a coffee plantation. They 
were captured in cyclone traps baited with rolled oats. A fourth 
specimen was taken at Macuto. 



144 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Measurements. 



No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Foot. 


WR 1048 

WR 1654 

102735 

1 105405 


San Julidn.. 

do 

Macuto 

San Julidn.. 


Aug. 7 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 5 
Aug. S 


Male ... 
....do... 
Female . 
Male ... 


246 
262 
271 
262 


128 
130 
140 
138 


30 
32 
31 
31 



iType. 

II. MUS NORVEGICUS Erxleben. 

COMMON BROWN RAT. 

Common at Macuto and at La Guaira, where they were found 
around the sewer openings along the beach and in the houses of the' 
town. Two specimens from La Guaira; one from Macuto. 

12. MUS MUSCULUS Linnaeus. 
HOUSE MOUSE. 

Abundant. They plaj^ed around the hotel floor at La Guaira in 
broad daylight. Several were trapped at San flulian at a considerable 
distance from an}^ hut. Two specimens from La Guiara; one from 
San Julian. 

13. SCIURUS GRISEOGENA (Gray). 

GRAY-CHEEKED SQUIRREL. 
Local name: Ardifa. 
1867. Macroxus griseogena Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3d ser., XX, p. 429. 

Mr. Thomas 8a3^s of specimens 'submitted to him: "The squirrel is 
very typical of S. (jrlseogena Gray, the specimen, No. 103721, being 
more exactly like the type than any others of the large numbers we 
have here [in the British Museimi]." 

As this species is imperfectly known, the following dest^ription will 
not be out of place: 

ChJor. — Entire upper surface of head, body, hind legs, and base of 
tail, and sides of body a fine grizzle of dull orange-buff and black. 
Bases of hairs and underfur slate color; rest of hair black to and 
including the tip, except two, or sometimes only one, ring about 
li mm. wide of dull orange-buff. A few hairs are black throughout. 
In some specimens the black hairs are quite abundant and the orange- 
buff rings reduced to very narrow bands, so that the back appears 
darker than in the average specimen. Under parts of body and legs, 
orange-rufous; upper surface of forelegs, fore and hind feet, a dull 
hazel or cinnamon-rufous; base of tail above and below colored as the 
back; the tip black. The intermediate portion above varies in indi- 
viduals from bright hazel to orange-rufous, and a few specimens have 
some black intermixed. Outer edge of under surface of tail about 



MAMMALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 145 



10 mm. in width, the same color as upper surface; that is, hazel or 
orang-e-rufous. This is followed by a narrow band almost black in 
color. The central portion of the under surface of the tail is a mixture 
of blackish and dull orang-e-bufl', the latter color predominating-. 

Ski//l. — Premolars }, braincase somewhat elongated; highest point 
of skull just posterior to line of postorbital processes. Audital bullte 
rather small. The skulls show little individual variation, and three 
adults average as follows: Maxinuun length, 50.4; basal length, 48.3; 
maxinuun width, 29.8; interorbital constriction, 16.3; length of nasals, 
median line, 15.7; Icng'th of upper molar series, 9. 

Scit/nf-s (/riseogena very closel}' resembles Sciurus aidtuDhs hojfmaiod 
Peters. The general appearance of the dorsal surface of the body and 
limits is more olivaceous, due to the more buft'y color of the sub- 
terminal bands of the hairs. The under parts are nmch brighter in 
color, being orange-rufous instead of tawny-ochraceous or dull fer- 
ruginous as in lioffriiannL The coloration of the tail in grheogeiia is 
much redder than that of hojfniannl and lacks the conspicuous admix- 
ture of black seen in the Central American squirrel, the terminal 
reddish bands being much wider and the subterminal Idack ])ands 
narrower than the corresponding ones found in JioJfuKiJU)!. The 
skulls resemble one another very closely and present no differences 
except that the premolars in (jrlseogena are larger than they are in 
hoJfmannL It apparentl}^ needs no comparison with the ))right 
colored, white-bellied squirrels of the variahilis type that have been 
collected in the Santa Marta region of Colombia. 

These squirrels were abundant at San Julian and were also found at 
La Guaira and at Macuto. In all '21 specimens were secured. Kt 
San Julian the majorit}^ were taken in the coffee plantations where 
they resorted to feed on the sweet pulp in the seed pods of the various 
species of Guamas, one of the fruit trees planted to shade the coffee. 
Others were shot as they fed on aguacates, on mangoes, and on bana- 
nas. The natives stated that they do nmch damage to green corn. 

At San Julian in the latter part of July and first of August at least 
a dozen Avere seen daily. They were rutting at this season and the 
males were pursuing the females. On July 24 five males were shot 
in a few minutes, all after the same female. At these times they bark, 
but the sound is low and guttural. There was not heard any chirring 
sound nor the shrill sneezing, characteristic of our red squirrel. They 
resemble this species in the readiness with which the}^ descend to the 
ground and take refuge in holes in the rocks instead of hiding among 
the branches. 

Pi-oc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 10 



146 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



Measurements. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Foot. 


Remarks. 


WR 1492 


Young 
male. 


345 


170 


50 




WR 1499 


Male 


480 


208 


52 




WR 1501 


Female... 


390 


177 


50 


Mamm;L', 6. 


WR 1517 


Male 


400 


184 


53 




WR 1528 


Female ... 


383 


180 


51 


do. 


WR 1529 


Male 


393 


192 


52 




WR 1546 


Female . . . 


411 


210 


53 


do. 


WR 1547 


do.... 


3S8 


187 


50 


do. 


WR 1548 


do.... 


411 


198 


51 


do. 


WR 1555 


Male 


400 


188 


50 




WR 1556 


Young 
male. 


383 


194 


54 




WR 1557 


Male 


396 


195 


51 




WR 1558 


do.... 


406 


192 


54 




WR 15.59 


do.... 


397 


190 


54 




WR 1564 


Female... 


393 


197 


53 


do. 


WR 1565 


Young 
male. 


367 


172 


52 




WR 1596 


Male 


412 


197 


52 




WR 1630 


do.... 


386 


182 


50 




WR 1631 


do.... 


408 


194 


52 




102718 


do ---. 


382 


175 


51 




102719 


do.... 


390 


186 


49 




102720 


Female ... 


396 


199 


51 




102721 


Male 








Pre.sented to British 
Museum. 










102722 


Female . . . 


409 


190 


51 




102723 


Young fe- 
male. 


376 


205 


49 




10''724 










do. 


102725 


do .... 


395 


195 


49 





14. CANIS CANCRIVORUS Desmarest. 



CRAB-EATING DOG. 

Local name: Zorrn Perro, i. e. Dog Fox, to distinguish it from other widely different 
animals to whirJi the name Zorro, Fox, is applied. 

1820. Canis cancrivorus Desmarest, Mammalogie, p. 199. 

1898. Urocyon aquilus B.\ngs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XII, pp. 93-94. 

1900. Urocyon aquilus Bangs, Proc. New Eng. ZotJl. Club, I, p. 109. 

In the hut of a native at San Julian there were two small fox cub.s 
that had been caught some time in June in a cane field as the cane was 
being cut. They were dusky colored like the cubs of our gray fox. 
One died about July 20, and the other had become very tame when 
he was killed for catching a newly hatched cliicken. On July 31 a 
half-grown cub was brought in by some boys whose dogs had caught 
and killed it. On August 3 the same boys brought in an adult male 
and on August 7 another half-grown cub. 

The cubs are very like our gray fox of the same age, but the like- 
ness disappears in the adult, which, although of al)out the same size, 
has a much less bushy tail, is more tawny about the flanks, and is not 
so grizzled. 

The adult measured: Length, 940; tail, 200; hind foot, 145; height 
tit shoulder, 400. 



NO. 121G. 



MAMMALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 



147 



There is some variation in the sizes of the skull and teeth of the 
crab-eating- dogs along- the northern coast of South America, as is seen 



by the following- table: 



Measurevients. 







.£3 






^1 




So 


xi 


^ 


.13 






f 


■S 




|3 


OJ 

s 


Qj'5 


C 
a> 


be 


is 


Locality. 


bo 
C 




2 

^ 


S2 




ft 
o 


9 tif° 


si 


si 


3 OS 






03 










5.5 'o 
a ;z c 








"3 


i 

be 




36.8 




to 
a 




OS 
IS 


1° 


San ta Marta, Colombia ' 


123 


G4 


42.8 


19 


- 
61 


94 


14 


9.8 


11.6 


do-' 


122 


74.6 


48 


42 


22.8 


63.6 


104 


12.2 


9 


10 


can Julian, Venezuela 


123 


7fi 


45 


43 


20.2 


65 


107 


13.2 


10.4 


12.2 


Maturin, Venezuela 


122 


74 


45.5 


37.5 


21.8 


65 


105 


13.2 


9.4 


10.4 


British Guiana 




74 




36 


21 


65 


101 


14.2 


9.8 


12.2 







1 Bangs's collection, No. 8002. 

2 Type of Uroci/on aqidUis Bangs, Bangs's collection, No. 8001. 

Mr. Bangs's specimens from Santa Marta have a slightly gra3'er 
color and the hind feet are rather smaller. The material is too limited 
to form definite conclusions on the local forms of this dog. 

15. PUTORIUS AFFINIS (Gray). 
SOUTH AMERICAN WEASEL. 

Local name: Huron, the Spanish for ferret. 

1874. MuMela affinis Gray, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 4th ser., XIV, p. 375. 
1896. Putorius affinis Merriam, N. A. Fauna, No. 11, p. 31. 

A young male was shot at San Julian as it ran over some bowlders 
in a ravine. Its eyes shone with the same greenish light as do the eyes 
of our common weasel, and it emitted the same strong- odor. 

The specimen, identified by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, measures: Length, 
431: tail 168; hind foot, 51. 

i6. DESMODUS ROTUNDUS (Geoffroy). 
VAMPIRE, OR BLOOD-SUCKING BAT. 

1878. Desmodus rvfus Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 547. 

1900. Desmodus rufus J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 87. 

1900. Desmodus rotundus Thomas, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genoa, 2d ser., XX, p. 2. 

In the cave at Pena de Mora one specimen of this interesting bat 
was found in a mummified condition. It gave the following measure- 
ments: Forearm, 53; longest finger, 88; thumb with claw, IT; tibia, 
23; foot, U. 

At San Julian the donkeys were l)itten almost nighth^ by bats, but 
although many attempts were made to secure specimens, and rewards 
were ofi'ered for them, none were obtained. The donkeys were usually 



148 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



bitten on the withers or just along- the base of the mane, and on sev- 
eral occasions the blood had flowed from the wound and trickled down 
the forelegs as far as the knee. In almost every shed or stable there 
was some contrivance to frighten away the bats. Usually pieces of 
tin or the wings of a ]>lack vulture stuck into a fruit of a pawpaw were 
suspended from the roof, so as to swing just al)ove the backs of the 
animals. 

17. ARTIBEUS PLANIROSTRIS (Spix). 



LESSER ARTIBEUS. 

1878. Artiheus planirostris T)oBi^o^s, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 515. 

1897. Artibeus planirostris Allen and Chapman, Bull. Ainer. Mnn. Nat. Hist., IX, j). 15. 

1900. Uroderma planirostris Bangs, Proc. New Eng. Z06I. Clul), I, p. 101. 

While this bat is smaller than the one described under the same 
name by Dobson, it is the one usually caWed A. plan Irostr is., and shows 
no tangible differences from Brazilian examples in the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences. 

Three specimens were obtained at Macuto. At first sight they 
resemble immature specimens of the large A.jxdinarum. They, along 
with a couple of the larger species, Avere obtained hy swishing- the air 
with poles in a garden at night, at the same time attracting them by 
making with the tongue a clicking noise in imitation of their cry. 
They are preserved in alcohol and give the following measurements: 

Measurements. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


102894 
102895 
102896 


Male 

Female . . . 
do.... 


75 
73 
70 


60 

59 
57.4 


117 
121 
120 


22 
22 
21 


14 
15 
16 



18. ARTIBEUS PALMARUM Allen and Chapman. 

PALM ARTIBEUS. 

1S97. AftUims pabnarum Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, \k Ki. 
1900. Artibeus palmarum J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 89. 

Represented by 66 specimens — 36 skins and 30 alcoholics. 

At early dawn on July 3 a number of these large bats were seen to 
fly into a cocoa palm near La Guaira. When the day became suffi- 
ciently bright to see clearly they were discovered hanging from the 
midribs of the leaves, and six were secured. Thej^ were afterwards 
found aluindantly in the trees in the streets and park at Macuto. They 
hung in clusters of from one to a dozen or more. Mr. Lyon secured 
22 one morning, of which 10 were killed at one shot. Two were shot 
at San Julian. The}^ evidently roost by sexes. They were often found 



MAifMALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 



149 



ill the dark recesses between the trunk of the cocoa palms and the 
pendent clusters of nuts, but were found most frequently in dense 
shade trees. 

They averag'e over 21 inches in extent, and as their wings are broad 
they make a striking- appearance when flying. When in flight, the 
white tips of their wings are conspicuous, although these are hardlj"^ 
noticeable in the dead specimens. Their eyes are prominent and light 
t)rown. There are two nuunnue. 

Nearly all of the females obtained were either nursing or pregnant. 
A female taken at La Guaira on August 11 contained a nearly mature 
fcetus 65 mm. in length and 218 in extent. Its body, including its 
cars and a portion of its wings, was covered with a very fine mem- 
brane which made it appeal* hairless, but when this meml)rane dried 
it could be brushed awa}', showing the short hair ])eneath. 

3fea.^ure)nent>i. 



No. 



102866 
102867 
102868 
1028G9 
102870 
102S71 
102872 
102873 
102874 
102875 
102876 
102877 
102879 
102880 
102881 
102as2 
102883 
102885 
102886 
102892 



Sex. 



Female 
Male . . 
Female 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
Male .. 
Female 
Male . . 
....do. 
Female 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
Male . . 



Length. 


Fore- 
arm. 


Longest 
finger. 


83 


69 


150 


89 


65 


140 


88 


68 


147 


93 


68 


144 


86 


71 


150 


88 


71. 


148 


87 


65 


138 


S3 


68 


142 


87 


67 


147 


92 


68 


146 


S(i 


70 


148 


96 


70 


145 


81 


68 


139 


80 


68 


141 


91 


70 


147 


90 


69 


147 


87 


71 


148 


90 


71 


150 


83 


70 


147 


83 


69 


145 



Tibia. 



Foot. 



ig. VAMPYROPS HELLERI Peters. 



HPXLER'S STRIPED-BACKED BAT. 



187S. V(iuii>]ir(ij)i< hrllri-i Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mils., p. 524. 

This species has usual!}- been confused with V. Uneati/s, but the 
distinctness of the two can no longer be questioned. The present 
specimens agree perfectly with Dr. Peter's original description. The}^ 
are much lighter in color than V. lineatus^ and have the markings 
much more distinct. It is much smaller in every way, and both skins 
and skulls can ))e thus distinguished at a glance. The difl:'erence in size, 
however, is not so great as it is between F. vittatus and V. Ihieatus. 

The following are the measurements of the two species. No. 8180, 
Bangs's collection, and No. 1513, Robinson's collection, the measure- 
ments in parentheses being those of Jielleri. Forearm, 13 (37); long- 



150 



proceedings; of the national museiul 



vol.. XXIV. 



est Unger, 100 (S7); tibia, 1<> (i:^.); foot, 18 (11); o-reatest length of 
skull, 27 (23); greatest width of .skull, 10.2 (14). 

Four females were secured at San Julian. They were found hang- 
ing together from the underside of some large plantain-like leaves 
in a dense and gloomy thicket at the foot of a cliff. When flushed 
they flew but a short distance, and on being started again they returned 
at once to their first roosting place. All contained foetuses almost 
ready for exclusion. 

The interfemoral membrane extends about 6 mm. beyond the end 
of the spine. The mamma? are two. The tragus, lobe, base and rims 
of the ears, and parts of the nose leaf are lemon yellow. This color 
fades rapidly in the dried skins. 

Measiurementsi. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


WR 1541 
WR 1542 
WR 1543 
WR 1544 


Female... 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 


63 
61 
63 
61 


38 

35 

• 37 

35 


82 
85 
87 
87 


13.6 
13 
13 
14 


10.6 
10 
11 
10 



20. DERMANURA QUADRIVITTATUM (Peters). 
FOUR-STRIPED DERMANURE. 

1878. Artiheus quadririUatus Dobson, Cat. Chiro]it. Brit. Mns., p. 521. 
1900. Dermanura quadririttata B.\ngs, Fyov. New Eng. Zoul. Chib I, p. 101. 

Two nursing females and a young male of this species were caught 
under a loose scale of bark on a mango tree at San Julian on July 27. 
On July 31 two more were obtained in a clump of banana plants^ — one 
a nursing female, the other on the point of giving birth ; and on 
August 3 three more were shot in a dense thicket of coffee plants — one 
a nursing female, one pregnant, and the third a male. 

One specimen, a male, preserved in alcohol was obtained at Macuto 
by swishing the air with sticks. 

In this species the rims of the ears, the tragus, and lol)e are light 
3'ellowish, but not so highly colored as in the preceding species. 

Measnrrnirvfs. 



Number. 


Sex. 


Length. 1 Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


WR 1585 
WR 1586 
WR 1587 
WR 1601 
WR 1602 
WR 1617 
WR 1618 
WR 1619 
102897 


Female 

Young male. 

Female 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Male 

do 


61 40 
54 i 37 
60 ; 40 
63 i 38.4 

60 1 39 

61 i 41 
61 i 38 

59 ' 


84 
71 
84 
85 
87 
86 
84 


16 

13 

14.2 

15 

14 

15 

15 

15 

14 


10 
10 

9.6 
10 
10 
10 

9.4 
10 

9.4 


54 1 40 


^ 87 



N0.124G. MAMMALS OF VENEZUELA—HOB TNSON AND LYON. 



151 



21. GLOSSOPHAGA LONGIROSTRIS Miller. 

MILLER'S GLOSSOPHAGA. 

1S9S. r;inswphaf/a Inngirnxlriii Miller, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 189S, p. 880. 
1900. (rlossophaga loiiglroi^tris J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. <S9. 

Represented by 48 specimens — 30 skins and 18 alcoholics. 

Found abundant!}' at La Guaira, Macuto, San Jvilian, and at Pena 
de Mora, and in a great variety of situations — in hollow trees, in 
small caves and crevices in rocks, in holes under bowlders, under the 
drooping- roots dangling from an overhanging bank, in unoccupied 
huts, in the attics of houses, etc. Nearly all of the females taken 
were either nursing or else far advanced in pregnancy. A female 
taken at La Guaira on July 4 measured 67 mm. in length and 292 in 
extent, and was carrying a 3'oung male whose length was 53 and extent 
215. The tongue can be extended 34 mm. beyond the tip of the nose. 
The interfemoral membrane extends 8 mm. beyond the tip of the tail. 
The mamniffi are two. 

Measurnni'vfi^. 



Number. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Fo)t. 


Greatest 
length 
of skull. 


\VR 14:)8 


Female . . . 


67 


- 


36. 6 


78 


15 


n.4 


23 


WR 1470 


Male 


70 


11 


37 


81 


16 


12 


23.6 


WR 1471 


do.... 


70 


9 


37 


77 


16 


11.4 


22.6 


WR 1472 


do.... 


69 


8 


37 


78 


15.4 


10.4 


23 


WR 1473 


do.... 


74 


7 


35.2 


79 


15 


11 


23.4 


WR 1474 


do .... 


70 


9 


36 


77 


16 


10.4 


23 


WR 1.553 


Female . . . 


69 


7 


36 


78 


15 


11 


23 


WR 15.51 


Male .... 


71 


8 


36 


76 


15 


11 


23 


WR lotiS 


Female . . 


71 


8 


36 


80 


15 


10 


23.2 


WR 1610 


Male 


70 


11 


36 


77 


14 


11 


23 


WR 1611 


do ... . 


68 


8 


37 


78 


15 


11 


23 


WR 1614 
WR 1658 


do.... 

Female . . . 


68 
74 


8 
10 




77 
78 


15 
16 


11 
11.6 




38 


23.4 



22. GLOSSOPHAGA SORICINA (Pallas). 
SHREW-LIKE GLOSSOPHAGA. 

1897. GIosKophaga snrlcliin, Allex and Chapm.\n, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, 

p. 15. 

1898. Glosaophaga Koririiia, J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. INIns. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 89, 

Represented b}' 4 skins collected at San Julian, where they were 
found associating with the much commoner species, (r. Imigirostris. 
The habits of the two species are evidently the same. 

Mrnifiirciiieiits. 



152 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



23. HEMIDERMA BREVICAUDUM (Wied). 
.SHORT-TAILED HEMIDERMA. 

1878. CnroUia hrevimuda Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 493. 

1897. Ilemidernia bremcaudiun Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, 

p. 15. 
1900. Ilemiderma hrerieauda J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 90. 

Two males wei'e socured at San Julian. The tir.st was caught hi a 
net as it darted out from under an overhanging rock where it was in 
company with several others of the same species, and with a number 
of the common Glosmpliaqa. The second was shot a few days later 
in a small cave where it hung among a cluster of the Glo.sxopjKigas. 

M('(i><mrriinils. 



Number. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 

14 
11 


Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


WR 1609 
WR 1C53 


Male — 
....do... 


77 
73 


44 
43 


101 
95 


19 
18 


13 
13 



24. PHYLLOSTOMA HASTATUM (Pallas). 
SPEAR-NOSED BAT. 

1878. Pliyllo.ttoma hastatum Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 484. 

1897. I'lij/llostniiKi hdMahuu. Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mu«. Nat. Hist., IX, 

p. 15. 
1900. rhy/Iodonia hastatmn J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 90. 

Kepresented b}^ 20 specimens. Most of these bats were purchased 
from a native boy who found them in a hollow tree at Macuto. A 
bunch of smoking palm leaves was applied to the opening in the tree 
and as the bats Hew out they were struck down with sticks or caught 
in a butterfl}" net. One specimen was struck down with a cane one 
evening in the city of La Guaira, and on August 3 one was shot at 
San Julian as it hung from a branch in the edge of the forest. Some 
individuals of this species were seen roosting in an unused house at 
Macuto. 

Like the 2Io1ossi this bat appears in two color phases, a dark one, 
between l)lack and clove brown, which is characteristic of all the young, 
and a red phase, between tawny and chestnut. No. 1020, Robinson 
collection, presents a mottled appearance due to an admixture of the 
two phases. 

This is the largest species of l)at taken, some specimens exceeding 
2 feet in expanse. 



N0.124C. MAM.UALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 153 



Measurements. 



Nf). 



WR1464 
WR 1465 
WR 140G 
V.'K 1508 
WR iivjd 

10-J'.H12 
1(>J'.K)4 
lO'J^M)') 
1 02'. II It i 
102y07 
10290S 
102911 
102912 



Female . 

do.. 

do.. 

Male ... 
Female - 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

Male . . . 

do.. 

Female . 
Male ... 

do.. 

do.. 



Length. 


Tail. 
20 


Fore- 
arm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


130 


81 


154 


29 


20 


130 


17 


81 


157 


30 


20 


133 


19 










133 


20 


79 


143 


29 


20 


124 


19 


84 


163 


30 


21 


138 


17 


81 


15S 


30 


20 


122 


18 


83 


160 


33 


20 


125 


14 


SO 


163 


32 


21 


135 


21 


85 


159 


32 


20 


120 


15 


88 


157 


34 


20 


lis 


12 


.S3 


158 


31 


19 


110 


14 


82 


157 


29 


19 


115 


13 


81 


153 


30 


21 


lie. 


12 


85 


161 


32 


19 



Remarks. 



Black phase; skin. 
Red phase; skin. 

do. • 
Black phase; skin. 
Red and black; skin. 
Red phase; skin. 

do. 
Black phase; skin. 

do. 
Black phase; alcoholic. 
Red phase; alcoholic. 
Blaclv phase; alcoholic. 

do. 

<lo. 



25. MICRONYCTERIS MEGALOTIS (Gray.) 
COMMON LONG-EARED BAT. 

1878. Schizn.'<forna m(>galolisT><)\iso^, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 478. 

1900. Mieroiiiirtcris inegalotis J. A. Allex, Bull. Ainer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 90. 

On July 3, in the ravine to the east of La Guaira, a native was met 
who, in answer to questions, stated that he knew where there were 
some ])ats in a cave near by. Upon being asked to point out the 
place, he went to a pile of vine-covered, waterworn bowlders 20 feet 
away and, kneeling down, parted the leaves and revealed a small open- 
ing several feet wide and IS inches high. By Ij^ing prone and waiting 
until the eyes grew accustomed to the faint light it was seen that the 
opening extended al)out 4 feet under the bowlder and that a small 
cluster of l)ats of this species was clinging to the stone above. When 
disturl)ed they flew out, but some returned and others lit under over- 
hanging stones near by. Two were shot and two caught in the butter- 
fly net. One female was carrying a large-sized young. 

At San Julian they were found in little communities of not over six 
individuals and in every case were in most insignificant little openings, 
usually beneath waterworn bowlders. 

A pair were taken in a similar position at El Valle, island of Mar- 
garita, Venezuela, by Captain Robinson on July 12, 1895. The female 
was well advanced in pregnancy. 

All of th(> females taken at San Julian during the last week of July 
and first w^H^k of August were nursing w'ell-grown young. 

Measurements. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Fore- 
arm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


Remarks. 


WR 1452 


Male 


62 


14 


32 


62 


13 


9 


Skin. 


WR 1463 


do.... 


57 


12 


34 


65 


15 


9.6 


do. 


WR 1.599 


do.... 


58 


12 


33 


61 


14 


8 


do. 


WR1626 


Female... 


61 


14 


34 


67 


14 


10 


Nursing one young; 
skin. 


WR ]i;27 


do.... 


59 


13 




65 


15 


9 


do. 


WR 1628 


do.... 


58 


13 




65 


15 


9 


do. 


WR ](«4 


do .... 


58 


13 


33. 6 


67 


15 


10 


do. 


WR 1635 


do.... 


61 


12 


34 


64 


15 


9 


do. 


WR 16.57 


Male 


62 


12 


32 


62 


14 


8.4 




102913 


do.... 


56 


11 


32 


61 


15 


9 




102915 


Female . . . 


54 


13 


34.6 


65 


16 


9.6 


Nursing one young; 
alcoholic. 


102916 


Male 


50 


12 


33 


61 


15 


10 


Alcoholic. 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

26. LOPHOSTOMA VENEZUEL/E, new species. 
VENEZUELAN LOPHOSTOMA. 

Type.— Adu\t female preserved in alcohol. No. 102919, U.vS.N.M. 
From Macuto, Venezuela. 

Charaeters. — Like LopluMotiut hrazUlenRe in size, but resembling 
L. (onhlyotis in the possession of the low band across the forehead 
between the ears and the narrow interort)ital constriction of the skull. 
It apparently bears the same relation to L. amhlyotis that L. hraziliense 
bears to L. Indens. 

Color. — Type; isabella color throughout, but much lighter on the 
under parts than above. The two males are dark drab, but nnich 
lighter on the under parts. One of them, No. 102918, has a few irreg- 
ular patches of wood brown about the shoulder and top of the head. 
The hairs in all the specimens are nearly white at the bases. The fur 
is about 8 mm. long on the back. Above it extends over the humerus 
and halfway up the forearm and about halfway down the femur. Below 
it has the same extension, but is scantier. 

Membranes. — Entirely naked except for a few short, dark hairs in 
the angle of the elbow above, and a few long, light scanty ones about 
the elbow joint beneath. Uropatagium large, coming from entire leg 
and the long calcar. Membranes lilackish brown. 

Ears. — Large and wide, united by a low band across forehead. 
When laid forward they extend 5 mm. beyond tip of muzzle. The outer 
half is marked with about 1.5 striations. Tragus long, pointed at the 
apex, two-toothed about the middle, when laid forward reaching to 
the middle of the eye. Antitragus a small rounded lobe. 

Chin with 10 rounded warts arranged in a semicircle, inside of which 
are 4 secondary warts. Nose leaf cordate-lanceolate, a row of 2 or 3 
small warts arranged vertically in the median line between the nos- 
trils. The tail does not project from the interfemoral meml)rane. 

Cranial measurementx of the type. — Greatest length, 21.2; Ixasal 
length, 17.4; basilar length, 10; median palatal length, 9; breadth of 
palate at first premolar, 2.4; at second molar, 3.6; zygomatic In'eadth, 
10.4; mastoid breadth, 9.8; greatest breadth of brain case, 8.4; least 
interorbital breadth, 3.2; breadth of rostrum at premolars, 4.4; depth 
of cranium from saggital ridge to ])asi-sphenoid, 8.4; greatest length 
of Diandible, 14; depth of mandible from coronoid process, 6; length 
of upper tooth row from front of canine, 7.4; greatest width between 
upper tooth rows from external surfaces of teeth, 6.8; length of lower 
tooth row from front of canine, 8.4. 



IVA^L^^ALS of VENEZVELA—ROBINSON axd lyon. 



155 



Meuiiuremeniti. 



Lensrth: 

T(.)tal 
Tail . 



Ear In im meatu.s 

Tra ii;us , 

Width, ear 

Heig'ht of nose leaf from lower edge of n])per lip 

Greatest width nose leaf 

Length of — 

Forearm 

Thumb 

Third linger (longest) 

Metacarpal 

First phalanx 

Second phalanx 

Fourth, finger — 

Metacarpal : 

First phalanx 

Second phalanx : j 11 

Fifth finger — 

Metacarpal j 32 

First phalanx ." I 13 

Second phalanx 1 12 

Tibia 20 

Foot 10 



102919, 

female 

type. 



G5 
11 
25 
10 

17 
9 
fi. 2 



38 

14 

71 

31 

13. C 

15 

30 
13. G 



Calcaneuni 13 



102918, 
male 


102920, 
male 


adult. 


young 
adult. 


f.4 


."^s 


10 


10 1 


22 


22 


8 


8.2 


17 


17 


8 


10 


5 


6 


40 ' 


39 


12.4 


13 


74 


75 


30.0 


32 


14 


14.4 


15. (•) 


16.6 


32 


33 


14 


15 


12 


13 


34 


34.4 


15 


15 


11.4 


12 


20 


21 


11 


11.4 


13. r. 


15 



The three specimens were brought in by a boy at Macuto, who said 
that the}' Avere found in a small cave under a pile of rocks. 

27. THYROPTERA DISCIFERA (Lichenstein and Peters). 

DISC BAT. 

1896. Thyroj,(er<i discifcra Miller, Proc. P.iol. Soc. Wash., X, p. 109. 

This rare and interesting l)at is represented by 10 adults and T young. 
The specimens measure slightly larger than two alcoholics from Nic- 
aragua. With more material from Central America the Venezuelan 
specimens may ]>e found to represent a larger race. The adults give 
the following measurements: 

Measureme)d>(. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Fore- 
arm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


Remarks. 


\VR 1510 

\VR 1511 

\VR 1513 

\VR 1515 

WR 1533 

WR 1535 

102926 

102927 

102922 

102923 


Female... 
do.... 

Male 

Female... 

Male 

Female ... 

do.... 

do .... 

Male 

Female . . . 


/5 
76 
76 

80 
74 
74 
80 
70 
07 
72 


32 
28 
28 
28 
30 
27 
32 
33 
26 
27 


35 

35 

32.6 

33.2 

32.4 

33 

35 

34 

34.4 

35 


66 
06 
64 
64 
64 
62 
64 
64 
63 
67 


15.4 

16 

15 

15. 2 

15 

14 

16 

15 

1.5.4 

16 


5 

5.2 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5.2 

5 

5 

5.4 


Skin. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Alcoholic. 

do. 



On July IT, at San Julian, ten of these little bats were brought in Ijy 
a native, who had caught them with one grasp of his hand, as they 
cliuig closely grouped on the under surface of a dead banana leaf. His 
attention had been attracted to them by their droppings on the ground 



IGC) PROCEEDTNaS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vouxxiv. 

beneath. To carry them, he had simply wrapped them up in a piece 
of the leaf to which they clung, and by the time the}^ were broug'ht in 
all but one were smothered. This one was placed under an inverted 
tumbler, to the vertical surface of which it adhered with ease, the 
vacuum spots under its disks g'listening like globules of quicksilver. 
On July '21 seven more were brought in by a native, who had captured 
them in the same manner as the tirst. He stated that two or three had 
escaped. Of this second lot several weri^ alive and unhurt. Both lots 
contained males, females, and young. The young, although still 
nursing and clinging to their mothers, were a])le to fly with ease. 

The sucking disks having largely usurped the clinging functions of 
the thuinl) and toes, these latter have dwindled to insignificant pro- 
portions, the hind feet l)eing especially weak and partly attached to 
the interf emoral membrane. The disk at the base of the thumb is 
much larger than the one at the ankle, being al)out 3.5 nun. in diameter 
as compared to 2 mm. in the latter. The surface of these disks 
appears to ])e constantly moist, so as insure perfect contact with 
smooth surfaces, and the ])ats cling to the under surface of leaves or 
to the sides of a glass without any effort to use their claws. 

Young nursing bats cling to their mother's neck or breast with 
claws and teeth and are carried al)out as she flies, even when they 
almost equal her in size and when their weight makes her flight labored 
and slow. With this species the sucking disks are of no help in cling- 
ing to fur, and the claws are so small and weak as to be almost useless; 
nevertheless, the young manage to hold on with no risk of falling. 
The mamma? of the female are strap-like, broad and fiat, 3 mm. wide 
by 2 nun. long. Seizing one in his teeth, the young holds on like a 
bulldog, dangling by the strength of his jaws alone. One of the young 
that was brought in hung in this way for twenty minutes, and in all 
that time made no effort to grasp its mother with its claws. 

28. MOLOSSUS RUFUS Geoffroy. 

RUFOUS MOLOSSUS. 

1878. 3folossr(s ruf us DoBSO^, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 112. 

1897. MoIoHKUfi rufus Allen and Chapman, Bull. Ainer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, p. 14. 

This species is represented by a series of 71 specimens — 44 skins and 
27 alcoholics — consisting of adults of both sexes, as well as veiy imma- 
ture to nearly full-groAvn young. The very j^oung are almost naked 
and the surface of their body is smooth and of a bluish-black color. 
The first coat of hair is invariably black. Among the adults there is 
consideral)le variation in color. In the majority it is some form of red- 
dish brown; but six of tht' adult skins are entirely melani.stic. About 
half of the specimens have a prevailing scal-l)rown coloration. Four 



MAMMALS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 



157 



have a g-eneral color of burnt umber or chestnut, and three are dark 
tawny, niottlod with deep browni. 

All wore obtained from the natives. On the 6th of July there were 
brought in 26 alive in a sack, and on the following da}^ 39 more. 
Later, still others were l)rought in. The adult females were all nurs- 
ing, although the majority of the young w^ere able to fly. These bats 
are veiy rat-like in their actions, running about on a horizontal surface 
W'ith ease and rapidity. Some that were liberated made no attempt to 
rise from the floor, but scurried first to an open window and did not 
spread their wings until the}^ had launched themselves into the air. 
They were all captured in unused houses, where the}" stow themselves 
in the cracks, between the roof and the walls. When poked out they 
dropped to the floor and crawled about, and did not fly away like other 
bats, though perfectly able to do so. 

The}^ possess a peculiar gland in the throat, lying in front of the 
larynx. It is rudimentary in the female, but in the male it is about 
the size and shape of a white bean. It lies transversely under the 
skin and exudes a whitish, creamy fluid, which has a faint, but char- 
acteristic disagreeable odor. This persists in the dried skins, so that 
the sexes can be separated by the sense of smell. 

Bats of this genus could be seen fl.ying rapidly about early in the 
morning just before sunrise and in the evening just after sundown. 
Their flight is very rapid, and their pointed tails readily distinguish 
them from other bats. 

Measnremeritfi. 



No. 


Se.x. 


Length. 


Tail. Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


102737 
102738 
102741 
1^)2742 

102745 
102746 
102747 
102748 

- 102749 
102750 
102751 
102752 
102753 
102754 
102765 
102766 
102767 
102768 

WR 1475 


Female . . . 

Male 

do.... 

Young 
male... 

Female . . . 

do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

Male 

do.... 

Female . . . 

Male 

do.... 

Female . . . 

do.... 

do.... 

Male 

do.... 

do . 


118 
127 
129 

123 
114 
118 
115 
120 
128 
131 
108 
118 
120 
117 
124 
122 
123 
130 
121 


40 
40 
47 

42 
43 
34 
34 
35 
36 
36 
39 
42 
33 
35 
38 
42 
43 
43 
44 


46 
48 
46.4 

45 

45 

46 

45.4 

45 

46 

48 

45 

47 

46 

46 

46 

47 

46 

46 


86 
91 
93 

83 
87 
91 

87 

95 
91 
88 
88 
91 
87 
89 
89 
92 
90 


15 
16 
19 

16 

17 

17 

16 

18 

18 

17.4 

18 

17. 4 

17 

17.4 

16 

17 

18 

18 


13 
12 
14.4 

13 

12 

12 

11.4 

12 

13 

li 

13 

13 

13 

12 1 

12 

12 

12 


WR 1477 i Female... 

WR 1478 \ do.... 

WR 1479 1 Male 

WR 1480 Female... 

WR 1482 : do .... 

WR 1483 , do .... 

WR 1488 Male 

WR 1489 Female . . 
WR 1490 do 


121 ' 44 

125 1 45 


















128 


45 










127 
130 
124 
126 
119 


44 
45 
44 
44 


46 


89 ! 17 


12 




] 








40 




1 1 


121 


39 




1 








1 1 



158 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. X.XIV. 



29. MOLOSSUS OBSCURUS Geoffroy. 

LITTLK MOLOSSUH. 

1.S78. Molossvs ohsrurvK Dobson, Cat. Chiroi")t. Brit. Mus., p. 410. 

1897. Molot<ms ohsctirits Allen and Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hitst., IX, p. 14. 

First obtained 1)}^ Captain Robinson, at San Julian, in tlie form of a 
slvull taken from the stomach of a bat falcon {Falco cdhogularis, 
Daudin). Later five others were secured at Macuto. Its habits and 
flight are identical with those of the larger 3L rufus. 

Measurements. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tail. 


Forearm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


Remarks. 


102798 
102799 
102800 
102801 
102802 


Female 


95 
90 
96 

87 
76 


32 
30 
31 
31 
23 


38 
36 
40 
39 

28 


75 
69 
72 
73 
45 


12 
12 
13 
12 
12 


8 
8 
9 

8 
8 


Alcoholic, 
do. 

Skin. 
do. 
do. 


do 


Male 

Female 

Young female . . 



30. PEROPTERYX KAPPLERI Peters. 
LARGE SAC-WINGED BAT. 

1878. Saccoj)tfriix kappierl Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. INIus., p. 374. 

This bat, which has usually been regarded as a mere local variety 
or an age variation of I^. canina, is represented by a splendid series 
of 16 specimens, all taken by Captain Robinson, at San Julian. 

The tail is free for 3 mm. on the upper surface of the membrane, 
which extends for 24 mm. beyond the tip. 

The first of these bats was prodded out from a deep crevice that 
extended horizontally under a large bowlder, and was caught in a but- 
terfly net. It was alone. Several weeks later a number were discov- 
ered in a small cave formed by a huge rock that rested against a larger 
vertical one, leaving a tunnel-like opening beneath. This and the 
following species resemble each other closel}^ in habits and general 
form, but differ in size and color. Their pointed muzzle and over- 
hanging upper lip, pompadour bang, and protruding eyes, rather large 
for a bat and much more protuberant than in other genera, give them 
somewhat the countenance of a King Charles spaniel. The two nip- 
ples of the nursing females are long and fusiform. The wing sacs are 
much larger in the males than in the females, but do not approach in 
size those of Saccopteryx leptura. 

Some were found hanging from a horizontal surface, but the 
majoritj" clung to a more or less vertical wall. They can be told at a 
glance, as they brace themselves by their widely-spread forearms 
which, being excessively long, give them a rather " sprangly ■' 
appearance. They are easily caught, some even permitting them- 
selves to be picked off' by hand, while the Glossopkagas, which inhabit 
similar caves, begin to flutter al)out at the first intrusion and seek to 
dart by and escape. 



NO. 1246. MAMMAL.S OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 



159 



Measurements. 



No. 


Sex. 


a 


'S 


1 


60 

a 
« 

m 
be 
a 
o 


=3 

s 


o 


.5 
o 

a 
3 


3 
M 

O 

jo 


Remarks. 


WR1498 
WR 1570 
WR1571 
WR1572 
WR 1573 
WR1574 
WR 1575 
WR1588 
WR 1589 
WR1590 
WR1591 
WR1592 
WR1600 
WR1643 
AVR 1644 
WR 1645 


Male 

Female 

Male 

Young male. 

Male 

Young male. 
do 

Female 

Male 

do 

Young female 

Female 

Male 

Female 

do 

Male 


71 1 15 
75 ! 14 
74 14 

72 : 13 

73 14 
72 ' 14 

77 1 16 
80 ! 16 

79 ! 17 
83 ; 18 

78 ': 15 

80 i 16 
77 i 15 
80 15 
77 i 15 
77 14 


47 

51 
48 


80 
86 

75 


18.6 

21.6 

20 

19 

19 

19 

22 

19.6 

19.4 

19.2 

20.2 

20 

19 

19.2 

19.6 

20 


8.6 
11 
10 
10 
10 

9.2 
11 
10 
10 
10 
11 
10 

9.4 

9.4 
10 

9.4 


17 
18 


10.5 


Skin. 

do. 
Alcoholic. 
Skin. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Alcoholic. 


47 : 75 

47 { 79 

48 82 
84 

49 85 
48.5 84 

49 85 

50 81 
52 ' 86 
48 ; 82 

48 ; 86 

49 86 
48 1 78 


17.5 

17.5 

17 

17.5 

17 

IS 

17.5 

17.5 

18 

17.5 

17 

17 


10.5 















31. PEROPTERYX CANINA (Wied). 

LITTLE SAC-WINGED BAT. 

1878. Sacroplery.r canina Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus., p. 373. 

1900. Peropteryx canina J . A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIII, p. 93. 

A short distance below the summit of the tirst foot hill which walls 
in the west bank of the ravine east of La Guaira, there runs a small 
shelf, and in the vertical rock which forms its back there are a few 
irregular cavities, not large enough to be designated as caves. The}^ 
are so shallow that the light enters freely, and thev do little more 
than afiord a shade from the glare outside. Here was found, on July 
9, a small colony of the present species, and twelve were taken. On 
the following day the spot was revisited, but only four were seen, of 
which two were captured. These two were females, one containing a 
foetus ready for exclusion, the other carrying a large young one cling- 
ing about her neck. When disturbed in one cavit}^ they tiitted to the 
adjoining one, returning to the original point when again disturbed, 
and so on. They take the same sprawling position as the preceding- 
species. In addition to being smaller, they are more reddish than 
P. IiapplerL The interfemoral membrane extends 19 mm. beyond 

the tip of the tail. 

Measnroncnts. 



■ 










^ 






■U-( 


«4-l 














M 














No. 


Sex. 


to 


Tail. 


tH 


Tibia. 


Foot. 




•53 


Remarks. 










2 








c-^ 


-Crii 






















^... 








a 




^ 


iJ 






►-) 




WR 1485 


Male 


63 


13 


41 


68 


19 


8.2 


14 


8 


Skin. 


WR 1486 


Female... 


65 


14 


43 


72 


18.2 


8.2 


14 


8.5 


do. 


WR 1487 


! do.... 


64 


13 


43 


75 


17.6 


8.6 


15 


8.5 


do. 


WR 1491 


do.... 


65 


14 


42 


72 


18 


8.4 


14 


8.5 


do. 


10'^9''9 




67 


16 


44 


74 


19 


9 






do. 


102930 


do .... 


64 


15 


42 


71 


18 


8 






do. 


10'932 


do 


60 


15 


42 


73 


19 


7.4 






do. 


10''934 




60 


15 


45 


72 


19 


,s 






Alcoholic. 


10''935 


do 


58 


15 


43 


68 


18.4 


7. 6 






do. 


10''936 


Male 


50 


14 


41 


69 




8 






do. 


102939 


do.... 


56 


12 


42 


70 


18.2 


8.4 






do. 







160 



PROVEEDINGH OF THE NATTOXAL MUSEUM. 



vol,. XXIV. 



32. SACCOPTERYX LEPTURA (Schreber). 

STRIPED SAC-WINGED BAT. 

1878. Saccopieryx leplura Dobson, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mns.,p. 371. 

1897. Saccopferyj- Zcp/»ra Allen and Ch.\pm.\n, Bull. Amer. Muy. Nat. Hint., IX, ]>. 14. 

1900. SaccopteryxlephiraJ. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mu.s. Nat. Hint., XIII, \k 94. 

Of this species, onl}^ three specimens were obtained — a male and two 
females — all from San Julian. The male was cut down with a pole 
as it flew about the hut at dusk; a female was secured in the same 
manner a few days later, and the third was shot in a small cave, where it 
was in company with J^erojjfcJ'i/,r lajjjder/' iind Gloampluuja longlr<isf)'h. 
This species differs greatly in general appearance from the other two 
species of sac- winged bats; It lacks the pompadour bang, its ears are 
very ditferently shaped and proportioned, the w^ng sacs are difl'erently 
located, are operated l)y a larger muscle, are larger, and are very 
difterent on the interior. Both sexes have the sacs, but those of the 
male are much the larger. When opened, the interior is seen to be 
coarsel}^ rugose and whitish in color. The odor emitted is not very 
decided. 

The two whitish lines on the back are not parallel l>ut wavy, making a 
double lyre-shaped pattern as they exteild out upon the interfemoral 
mem))rane. 

Both females contained f(jetuses ready for exclusion. 

MeasuTcmenis. 



No. 


Sex. 


Length. 


Tall. 


Fore- 
arm. 


Longest 
finger. 


Tibia. 


Foot. 


WR 1537 
WR 1567 
WR 1642 


Male 

Female . . . 
do.... 


58 
64 
65 


18 
16 

15 


39 
42 
40 


69 

72 
70 


16 
17 
17 


6.6 

7 
7 



33. LASIURUS BLOSSEVILLEI (Ferussac). 

SOUTH AMERICAN RED BAT. 

One specimen preserved in alcohol, a nearly adult male. It was 
brought in by a small boy at Macuto. The specimen, although present- 
ing some diflerences from topotypes of L. hlo-sseviUel from Paraguay, 
seems not to be separal)le from it, as the differences are slight and 
may be due to age. The Venezuelan bat is in every way a slightly 
smaller animal. The ear is smaller than that of Paraguayan s})ecimens, 
with smaller tragus, which is straighter and less convex anteriorly. 
The skull is smaller, with a rather relativel}' shorter facial portion. 
The palate is narrower, and also the notch between the incisors in 
front. Compared with the Mexican red l)at, it differs in being some- 
what smaller, Avhich may be due to its immaturity, and in having a 
slightly narrower ear, a noticeably smaller skull, relatively smaller 



NO. 124(5. MAMMALS OF VEXEZUELA— ROBINSON AND LYON. 161 

audital bulla?, narrower palate, smaller teeth, and much narrower 
intermaxillary notch. 

Its dimensions are: Length, iS2; tail, 44; forearm, 38; longest finger, 
75; tibia, 18; and foot, 7. 

NOTE. 

In addition to the foregoing. Captain Robinson saw evidences or 
gathered information at 8aii flulian of the occurrence of some twenty- 
odd other mammals, among them: 

1. Chironevtes sp. (local name ""perro de agua," i. e. , water dog). 
The natives described a spotted, or striped, web-footed opossum which 
they had killed in the stream at San Julian. It was said to be scarce. 

2. SlotJi sp. (local name ''pereza"). Described as being tolerably 
couunon in the forests and feeding on the leaves of the aruma. In the 
market at Caracas the hides of two species were seen; one with coarse 
grayish hair, the other with a peculiar mark in the back consisting of 
a j'ound spot of orange, rimmed with ])lack and divided longitudinally 
by a black line. 

?>. " Oso Jionniguero^''- !. c. ant hear. Occasionally met with at 
San fluliiin. There was seen in the market at Caracas a small fiaxen- 
haired hide, said to be the skin of this animal. 

4. Tatua noveniciricta (local names ""cupa" and ''cachicamo"). 
Described as being more connnon than the Caha)<son>t. There was 
seen in a hut at San Julian the dried carapace of one of these animals, 
which was used as a tobacco box. 

5. Odocoileus sp. (local name ''venado"). Several sets of ))ranch- 
ing antlers were seen at San Julian. They were said to c(Miie from a 
deer considerably larger than the following. 

6. Mazaina sp. Two were killed at San Julian in July, l)ut both 
were cut up before they could be secured as specimens. They were 
quite small, about the size of a goat, but with longer and slenderer 
legs. Their horns, or ""cachos" are mere spikes a couple of inches in 
length. 

7. Tapirs (local name "danta") arc occasionally killed at »San Julian. 
A native at that place had a couple of hoofs or nails of a tapir which 
had been killed near by. The scrapings of these mixed with wine made 
what he declared to be an infallible remedy against weak heart. 

8. Coe^idou 2)Tehen.nh\ Porciqmw. One of these was offered for sale 
at La Guaira, and the intention was to purchase it for the National 
Zoological Park, but before the sale was effected it gnawed out of its 
cage and made good its escape. 

9. Dasyprocta sp. (local name "acurri"). Described as a yellowish 
brown guinea pig, considerably larger than the domesticated species, 
but smaller than the lapa, and found in the woods back of San Julian. 

10. Lepus sp. (local name "conejo"). The natives sa}' that rabbits 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 11 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi-.xxiv. 

are found, but are sc-arce. On the island of Margarita Lepus mar- 
garitcB is so plentiful that the animals are split and dried like codfish 
and brought I)}' the ])oat load to La Guaira for sale. 

11. i^6'Z/.s', Jaguar. Local name, "tigrc." Several have been killed 
within the last five years within 10 miles of La Guaira. Man}' hides 
were seen in the market at Caracas. The natives say that this is the 
only Venezuelan beast of prey that will attack man. Like its cousin, 
the leopard, it has a great fondness for dog's flesh. There was hardly 
a native at San Juliiin who at some time in the past had not lost one 
or more dogs by jaguars. 

12. Felis^ Puma. Local name "leon."" Not rare. Manj^ hides 
were seen in the market at Caracas. The puma does not attack dogs, 
but is destructive to goats, calves, and pigs. It is described as very 
cowardly. 

13. Felis sp. Numerous hides of tiger cats were seen. According 
to the natives three species of small cats were found at San Julian; 
the "tigrillo," or "tigrecunaguaro," probably the ocelot; the "zorro 
oncita," a spotted cat smaller than the preceding, and a third, stiK 
smaller, tawny or brownish color, without spots. 

14. Procyon ^^. ? Local name, ''zorro lava tu mano," i. e., '"fox 
wash thy hand." Said to be common around San Julian, and described 
as having a ringed tail, frequenting the vicinity of streams and climb- 
ing well. 

15. Conepatus sp. ? Local name, "mapurito.-' Common at San 
Julian, where their unmistakable odor was frequently noticed at night, 
and where were often seen their excavations, where they had dug out 
lizard eggs or insects. 

16. Galictts sp. 'i Local name, "zorro guapan." A hide seen at 
San Julian indicated an animal of about the size and proportions of 
an otter. It was chocolate brown, with tawny neck and head. 

IT. "Mona cuchi cuchi," a nocturnal monke}^ of medium size. 

18. "Mona tui tui," a very small monkey, usually found in pairs. 
It attempts to hide like a squirrel, instead of making off as do the other 
monkeys. 

19. "Macaco," a large monkey. 

20. "Mona frontina," a white-crowned monkey, which barks like 
a dog. 

21. Mycetes sp. Local name, "arajuata." At San Julian the roar- 
ing of these monke3's was heard on several occasions, but the animals 
frequented an inaccessible mountain crest, and no specimens could be 
obtained. Their cry is indescribabl}!- wild. It starts with a series of 
short barks in deep tone, increasing progressively in rapidity, and 
sounding at a distance like the pufl's of a heav}' locomotive as it pulls 
out. Finally it winds up with a prolonged sullen roar of great volume. 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF BIRDS C0LLECTP:D IN THE 
VICINITY OF LA GFAIRA, VENEZUELA. 



By WiiiT Robinson, 

Captain, U. S. Army, 
and 

Charles W. Richmond, 

Assistant Curator of Birds. 



The following- list enibraccs two colloetion.s made b}' Captain Robin- 
son, one in the summer of 1895 ^ and the other in the .summer of 19< >0, 
together with a few specimens collected by Mr. Marcus W. Lyon, jr., 
who accompanied Captain Robinson on his second trip. In this list 
the identilications. descriptions of new species, and critical notes are 
I)}' Dr. Richmond and the field notes b}^ Captain Robinson. 

For detailed information relating to the second trip, the localities 
visited, etc., the reader is referred to the introductory remarks in the 
paper on the mammals, pages 135 to 162 of this volume. 

Family TINAMID.E. 

I. CRYPTURUS sou: (Hermann). 

PILEATED TINA:M0U. 

Local name: Ponchita. 

Three were obtained at San Julian, where the}^ were found in the 
brush on the lower hills. A female taken August 8 contained an egg 
nearl}- read}' for exclusion, the shell being partly formed, although 
still soft and not pigmented. Its dimensions were iO by 30 mm. 
(li by 1\ inches). There was in the ovaries a second Qgg the size of 
a cherry. The natives stated that it lays but two eggs. Its flesh is 
white and tender. Irides light brown; tarsi olive. 

Another and considerably larger species of tinamou was said to be 
found at San Julian. 

^ For details of this trip, see An Annotated List of Birds Observed in Margarita 
Island and at Guanta and La Guaira, Venezuela, by Wirt Robinson, Proo. L'. S. Nat. 
Mus., XVIII (1895), pp. 649-680. 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1247. 

163 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Family LARID^. 

2. LARUS ATRICILLA (Linnaeus). 
LAUGHING GULL. 
Small flocks of 6 or 8 seen along the beaches at La Giiaira. 
Family PELECANID^. 

3. PELECANUS OCCIDENTALIS (Linnaeus). 
BROWN PELICAN. 

A good man}^ seen near Ija Guaira and around a mangrove swamp 
at San Julian. 

Family FREGATID.E. 

4. FREGATA AQUILA (Linnaeus). 
MAN-O'-WAR BIRD. 
Common in the vicinity of La Guaira. 

Family ARDEID.E. 

5. TIGRISOMA SALMONI Sclater and Salvin. 
.SALMON'S TIGER BITTERN. 

Mr. Lyon secured a specimen at Macuto on August 10. It was 
young, the neck feathers showing still the characteristic yellow fila- 
mentous tippings. 

Dr. Sharpe has placed T. cabanisi of Central America in a new 
genus, Ileterocnus^ on account of its naked throat. However, in both 
his original diagnosis^ and his key^ he has reversed the actual condi- 
tions, making Heterocnus the form with the throat feathered on the 
median line, and Tigrisonia the naked-throated one. 

Family SCOLOPACID^E. 

6. TRINGA MINUTILLA Vieillot. 

LEAST SANDPIPER. 

A specimen was found dead by a puddle in the road near Macuto on 
August 10. It was greatly emaciated. Tarsi greenish yellow. 

7. EREUNETES PUSILLUS (Linnaeus). 
SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. 

Two specimens were given to Mr. Lyon at Macuto on August 10 by 
a boy who had snared them on the beach. Tarsi dark green. 

iBull. Brit. Orn. Club, V, 1895, p. xiv. 
^Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XXVI, 1898, p. 59. 



NO. 1247. BIRDS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND RICHMOND. 165 



8. ACTITIS MACULARIA (Linnaeus). 
SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 
Mr. Lyon obtiiiiiod a female at Macuto August 4. 

Famil}^ CRACID^. 

9. CRAX DAUBENTONI Gray. 

DAUBENTON'S CURASSOW. 

Local name: Pauxi. 

None of these were seen in a wild state, l)ut three were purchased 
at La Guaira and brought back to the Zoological Park in Washington. 
In two of these the beak was solid black, but the third had the base 
clear light yellow. They were said to be quite common about 5 miles 
east of San Julian. They have the habit of erecting and throwing for- 
ward their tine, recurved crest. In captivity the}- are a uuich quieter 
bird than the guacharaca, their principal note being a long, descending 
whistle, almost exactl}^ like the sound made when the air brakes on a 
train are released. 

While at San Julian the natives several times reported that they had 
seen some "camates,"a bird described as midwa}^ in size between a 
pauxi and a guacharaca. 

lo. ORTALIS RUFICAUDA Jardine. 
GUACHARACA. 

A few very shy individuals were seen up the ravine east of La 
Guaira. At San Julian they were plentiful on the wooded slopes 
around the valley. Plight were secured here, of which five were pre- 
served, and in addition six of various ages were purchased and brought 
back alive. At San Julian they uttered their characteristic noisy cries 
at day])reak and at sunset. They usually go in pairs. When they 
are appi-oached they keep up an incessant call of alarm, yet all the 
time conceal themselves in the tree tops with great cunning, and it is 
not at all easy to get within range. 

It is difficult to convey an idea of the resonant, vibrant, and trumpet- 
like (luality of their notes. The tone is somewhat like that of a g-uinea- 
fowl, l)ut much more voluminous. The call note is uttered by the male, 
who is aided b}- a peculiar development of the windpipe. This, ])efore 
passing into the thorax, runs down between the skin and fiesh of the 
breast to the lower end of the steriuun. thence back to the neck. 

As far as was observed they kept strictly to the branches of the 
trees. The stomachs of those killed were filled with the buds and 
blossoms of a small but very ])r(^tty white and yellow passion flower. 
They also feed on plantains and othei- fruit. They are much hunted 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

for food, their flesh being- white and of fine flavor. When eaptured 
young' the}" are easily domesticated, and associate freely with chickens. 
They are continually erecting and throwing forward their frontal 
crest. They have under the throat two oblong- bare spots. These 
are red in life, and on hot days, when the birds are panting, hang down 
like wattles. The beak and tarsi are blue, and skin of face dark blue. 

Family COLUMBID^. 

II. COLUMBA PLUMBEA Vieillot. 

WINE-COLORED PIGEON. 

Local name: Falta pnco, frniii the fancied reMmbhince of its call of four notes to those words. 

One specimen, a female, was obtained at San Julian on August 3. It 
difi^ers from the other doves and pigeons seen at that place in its note, 
which is a whistle and not a coo, and in the color of its irides, which 
are light grayish blue, instead of reddish 3^ellow. Its flesh is said to 
have an unpleasant, bitter taste. 

Tarsi pink, lids red. 

12. LEPTOTILA INSULARIS Richmond. 

MARGARITAN DOVE. 

Local name: Paloma, i. e., dove. 

Abundant. This is the common object of pursuit of the gunners, 
and numbers are caught by the children in coop traps with flgure-four 
triggers and in snares of horse hair. Many fledglings were seen at 
San Julian. They difler very markedly in color from the adults, being 
much darker and mottled, the back bronzy-green and purple in places. 

Feet purplish in the young. Adults have the irides yellow, feet 
reddish. 

Three specimens were secured, which are to be referred to the 
Margaritan form, although they average a trifle larger in wing- meas- 
urements. 

Family PERISTERID^F. 

13. SCARDAFELLA RIDGWAYI Richmond. 
RIDG WAY'S SCALED DOVE. 

A few were seen in the dry cactus region along the coast at the 
mouth of the San Julian Valley. Their notes give them the name 
"potoco." One specimen, a male, was shot July 11. 

This is the same as the Margaritan form. Those who do not wish 
to recognize this bird as difterent from that of Brazil will still have to 
use the name ridgwat/i, as the term xqaaiii(>><<i is preoccupied. 



NO. 1247. BIRDS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND RICHMOND. 167 

14. COLUMBIGALLINA PASSERINA' (Linnaeus). 
GROUND DOVE. 

LocM name: Tortoht, i. c, tnHle dove. 

Very abundant. They were nesting in July and August and a num- 
ber of nests were seen with the usual complement of two eggs. The 
nests are not placed in trees as a rule but rather upon brush heaps, in 
tussocks of coarse grass, on bowlders, or on fallen logs. Nests found 
at San Julian on July 30 and July 31, both on prostrate logs, con- 
tained pipped eggs. A pair built on the stump of a papaya tree 
within 20 feet of the door of our hut and hatched early in August.' 
The young, naked at first, soon assumed a coat of sulphur-yellow 
down, which with their purplish skin made them unpleasant looking 
objects. 

15. GEOTRYGON VENEZUELENSIS Salvador!. 

VENEZUELAN QUAIL DOVE. 

Local luime: Paloma de monte, i. e. , wood dove. 

The peculiar booming coo of this dove was occasionally heard at 
San Julian, but only one specimen was secured, an immature female. 
Irides bluish, feet purplish. 

This specimen. is quite young, but without much doubt is of the 
form called venezuelensis by Salvador!. 

Family CATHARTID^. 

16. CATHARTES AURA (Linnaeus). 
TURKEY VULTURE. 
Not very common. Only a few seen, 

17. CATHARISTA URUBU (Vieillot). 

BLACK VULTURE. 

Very abundant, especially around the slaughter pens east of La 
(iuaira. 

Family BUTEONID^. 

18. BUTEO ABBREVIATUS Cabanis. 

ZONE-TAILED HAWK. 

The only specimen obtained, a female, was brought in alive at La 
Guaira on August 12 by a native, who, discovering it roosting the night 
before, had crippled it with a stone. Irides brown, cere and tarsi 
yellow. Several were seen near Macuto. 

iProc. U. S. Nat. Mas., XVIII, 1895, p. 659. 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

19. MICRASTUR MELANOLEUCUS (Vieillot). 
BLACK AND WHITE MICRASTUR. 

One speciiiien, a male, secured at San Julian on July 28, It was in 
full molt, chang'ino- above from a brown and rufous to a ])laek and 
white plumage. Its stomach contained a sparrow {ArrenioiKJ'p.s). 
Cere greenish, irides brown, tarsi 3^ellow, 

20. RUPORNIS MAGNIROSTRIS (Gmelin). 
LARGE-BILLED RUPORNIS. 

This noisy hawk was common in the dryer foothills at La Guaira 
and at San Julian. A female shot on July 19 had its stomach filled 
with a mass of grasshoppers, crickets, roaches, and other insects, and 
parts of several scorpions. Its cere, lids, irides, base of lower mandi- 
ble, and tarsi were 3'ellow, A male shot Jul}^ 26 had orange cere itnd 
tarsi. Its stomach was tilled with a mass of insects and with parts of 
some small striped lizards. The diet of grasshoppers gives to these 
birds a characteristic odor which clings to their skins for some time 
after they have lieen cured. 

21. LEUCOPTERNIS ALBICOLLIS (Latham). 
WHITE HAWK. 

Several of these line hawks were seen at San Julian, but only one 
was obtained, a female taken July 16. Its stomach contained a varied 
assortment — pieces of a snake, crabs, beetles, and grasshoppers. On 
July 31 one was seen flying around its nest, a Inilk}' mass of sticks in 
the top of an immense thorny-trunked tree. 

Irides light brown, tarsi yellow. 

Family FALCONIDiE. 

22. GAMPSONYX SWAINSONI Vigors. 

SWAINSON'S PEARL KITE. 

At San Julian about sunset on July 29 this small hawk, which was 
at first taken for a gray kingbird, was seen to light in the dead top 
of a small tree near the road. On Ijeing shot it started oti' as if 
untouched, but after going some 80 yards spread its wings and settled 
gently to the earth, where it was found dead. Upon picking it up I 
was at once struck by its coloration, the absence of V)ars or stripes on 
its plumage, the glistening white luider surface of its wings, its rela- 
tively heav}' feet with the tarsi feathered halfway to the toes, the 
heron-like powder down patches on its hips, and its crimson irides. 
Its cere was green, tarsi yellow. This was the only one seen, although 



NO. 1247. BIRDS OF VENE7AJELA— ROBINSON AND RICHMOND. 169 



the natives stated that it was not rare. It was a female and must 
have been an industrious hunter, as its stomach contained no less 
than 5 of the common small striped lizards {Cnemidoph/rui). 

Dr. Sharpe ^ quotes Chondrohierax rufifrons Lesson (first described 
as Dmhdloi) rufifronH Lesson) as a synonym of this species. This 
name is, however, referable to Falco uncinatais Temminck, which 
species should properh^ be called ChondroJd&i^ax lincinatus^ as Beger- 
hmus Kaup, 1845, is antedated by Chondrohierax Lesson, 1843. 

23. FALCO ALBOGULARIS Daudin. 

WHITE-THROATED BAT FALCON. 

A few of these beautiful little falcons were seen around San Julian. 
They were all in the tops of dead trees high up on the mountain 
sides. A female was shot on July 19 whose stomach contained frag- 
ments of a beetle and the skull and other parts of a Molossus ohscurus^ 
one of the swiftest flying bats. Irides brown, lids, cere, and tarsi 
yellow. The striking efl'ect of the clear dark eyes with the brilliant 
gamboge lids against a background of dark plumage is lost in the 
stufled skin. 

Family BUBONID^. 

24. MEGASCOPS BRASILIANUS (Gmelin). 
BRAZILIAN SCREECH OWL. 

A pair of screech owls were obtained at San Julian on July 26. 
They were in poor plumage. Irides ^^ellow. 

Other owls were seen but not secured, among them a small owl, 
probably Glcmcidium^ and a very large owl seen flying at dusk. 

Family PSITTACID^F. 

Parrots of the genera ^lr«, Amazona^ Oonuru.% and Psittacida were 
seen at San Julian but none were secured. 

Family CUCLJLID^F. 

25. CROTOPHAGA ANI Linnaeus. 

AN I. 

Iiical )i(ime: Garrajmtmi, i. c, tick-eater, from (Is alleged liabitof entim/ the ticks on cattle. 

Common in open land about La Guaira and at San Julian. Usually 
seen in small bands of six to a dozen individuals, and frequently seen 
walking about almost under the feet of grazing cattle. 



^British ^Museum Catalogue of Birds, I, p. ;^40. 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

26. PIAYA CAYANA THERMOPHILA (Sclater). 

SQUIRREL CUCKOO. 

Local name: Rabo de ardito, i. e. , squirrel (ail. 

A few seen at La Guaira. Abundant at San Julian. The stomachs 
of all killed were packed to distension with insects, mainly caterpillars. 
Beak and lids 3'ellowish g-reen, tarsi bluish, irides red, inside of mouth 
black. 

27. COCCYZUS MELANOCORYPHUS Vieillot. 
DARK-HEADED CUCKOO. 
One specimen obtained at La Guaira, June 25, 1896. 
Family RAMPHASTID^. 

28. AULACORHAMPHUS ERYTHROGNATHUS Gould. 
RED-BILLED GREEN TOUCAN. 

Local name: Pico de franco, i. e. , bottle beak. 

Fairl}^ common at San Julian. Tarsi olive, irides brown. 
Toucans of the genus Ramphastos are known to the natives at San 
Julian, who call them "Dios te de." 

Family TROGON1D.F:. 

.29. TROGON COLLARIS Vieillot. 
COLLARED TROGON. 

Local name: Pavita, i. e., IHtle peacock. 

Common at San Julian, and easily found by its clear, loud note. 
Beak yellow, lids red. The beak of the female is shaded with brownish. 

Family GALBULID^F:. 

30. GALBULA RUFICAUDA Cuvier. 
KUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR. 

Common at La Guaira and at San Julian. They nest in holes like 
bank swallows. The natives regard it as a large-sized humming bird 
and call it '"tocuso de inontana," mountain humming bird. 

Family ALCEDINID.FI 

31. CERYLE AMERICANA (Gmelin). 
SMALLEST GREEN KINGFISHER. 

Local name: Martin pescador. 

Common along the small streams at La Guaira, Macuto, and San 
Julian. 



NO. 1217. BIRDS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND RICHMOND. 171 



Family PICID^E. 

32. CHLORONERPES RUBIGINOSUS ( Swainson). 

SWAINSON'S (JREEN WOODPECKER. 

Two were shot as they were feeding on allig-ator pears in the coffee 
plantation at San Julian. Others were seen. 

33. MELANERPES SUBELEGANS (Bonaparte). 

BONAPARTE'S WOODPECKER. 

Abundant. A pair had their nest in the top of a dead papaya tree 
in front of the hut at San Julian. 

34. CAMPEPHILUS MALHERBII Gray. 

MALHERBE'S IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. 

Local name: Carpiniero, i. e., carpenter, the general name for all ivoodpeckers. 

Five or six were seen at San Julitin, but only one, a female, secured. 
The}" were usuall}^ seen in loft}- dead trees around the edges of 
mouTitain clearings. They have a loud, discordant note. Irides yel- 
low, tarsi bluish green, soles of feet yellow. 

A piculet {Plcumrius f) was seen excavating its nest in a dead branch 
at Cucuruti on July 7, and others were seen at San Julian. 

Family CAPRBIULGID^E. 

35. ANTROSTOMUS RUFUS (Boddaert). 

RUFOUS WHIP-P( )OR-WILL. 

One specimen, a female, secured at San Julian. Other species of 
goat-suckers were seen. 

Family TROC'HILTD.E. 

36. GLAUCIS HIRSUTUS (Gmelin). 
HAIRY HERMIT. 

Quite common at La Guaira and at San Julian. Several nests were 
seen, all of which were woven to the under side of a tatter at the 
extreme tip of a banana leaf. A nest taken at La Guaira, on July 4, 
contained 2 fresh eggs. Another at San Julian, on July 11, contained 
2 young, several days old. On July 27 a female was seen ])uilding. 
At San Julian an individual largely blotched with w^hite on the back 
and rump was seen several times. 

]\Iandi])le bright yellow, not flesh color as stated by Elliot. 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF TtTE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

37. DOLEROMYA FALLAX (Bourcier). 
BUFF-BREASTED HUMMING BIRD. 

One specimen taken at San Julian in an extensive cactus thicket on 
the dry lowlands. I do not think that this species is ever found out- 
side of such localities. 

The characters given for the Margaritan form (of which we have 
fifteen or more examples) are perfectl}^ good, unA pallida is readily to 
be distinguished from falla;r. 

38. PHiETHORNIS AUGUSTI (Bourcier). 
SALLE'S HERMIT. 

Seen in the ravines at La Guaira, at San Julian, and at Cucuruti. 
On July 24 at San Julian, in search of bats, I crept on hands and knees 
into a sort of cave made by an immense slab of stone leaning against 
another. At somedistance from the entrance an object dangling from 
the rocky roof brushed against my head. Striking a match to examine 
it, I was surprised to find it the nest of a humming bird. The suspend- 
ing cord, composed of twined spider's webs, was fastened to a pro- 
I'ecting splinter of stone, and the nest hung almost a foot below. To 
keep it upright and to balance the weight of the bird, quite a mass of 
material was woven below and on the opposite side of the cord. 
It contained two partly incubated eggs. The parent was secured. A 
few days later a second nest, similarly situated in a cave and contain- 
ing a newly hatched young, was found. 

Feet flesh color and lower uiandihle vermilion, not flesh color as 
stated by Elliot. 

The nest of a species of PJiwthorms, probably P. supe7'cillosus^ was 
found at La Guaira on July 5. It was woven to the under side of a 
leaf. The bird was shot, but fell in a tangle of vines and was lost. 

39. PYGMORNIS LONGUEMAREI (Lesson). 

LONGUEMARE'S PIGMY HERMIT. 

Common at San Julian. Basal half of mandiWe ])right yellow, not 
flesh color. 

40. HYPUROPTILA BUFFONI (Lesson). 
BUFFON'S PLUMETEER. 
Common at La (hiaira and at San Julian. 

41. CHRYSOLAMPIS MOSCHITUS (Linnaeus). 
RUBY and TOPAZ HUMMING BIRD. 
One seen at Cucuruti July 7. 



NO. 1247. BIRDS OF VENEZUELA— ROBINSON AND RICHMOND. 173 

42. AMIZILIS FELICI2E (Lesson). 

FELICIA'S HUMMING 151 KD. 

Abundant at La Giiaira and at San Julian. A nest saddled on a 
l)ranch and containing- one egg was found at La Guaira on July 4. On 
July T) a female of this species was seen to make, in the absence of its 
owner, several visits to the nest of a PluvthoruU and each time rol) it 
of a poi'tion of its lining. 

43. CHLOROSTILBON CARIBB^A Lawrence. 
ATALA'S EMERALD. 
Abundant in the flat coast region. 

Family PIPRID.E. 

44. CHIROXIPHIA LANCEOLATA ( Wagler) . 

LANCE-TAILED MANAKIN. 

Fairly common in the well wooded and shaded ravines at La Guaii-a 
and at San Julian. A nest with 2 eggs was taken at La Guaira on 
Julv 25, 1895. 

Family TYRANNID^. 

45. MUSCIVORA TYRANNUS (Linnaeus). 
FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER. 
A number seen at San Julian. 

46. TYRANNUS DOMINICENSIS (Gmelin). 
GRAY KING BIRD. 
Abundant at San Julian. 

47. PITANGUS DERBIANUS RUFIPENNIS ( Lafresnaye). 
RUFOUS-WINGED DERBY FLYCATCHER. 
One male obtained at San Julian Juh' lf>. Others seen. 

48. LEPTOPOGON SUPERCILIARIS Cabanis. 

WHITE-BROWED FLYCATCHER. 

One specimen taken at San Julian on August 5. Tarsi blue. 
Has l)een previously recorded from Venezuela on one occasion, by 
Chapman and Phelps.^ 

49. POGONOTRICCUS sp. 
An immature specimen taken at La Guaira in 1895.^ 



lAuk., XIV, 1897, p. 369. ^ Proc. U. S. NatMus., XVIII, 1895, p. 684. 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vouxxiv. 

50. PLATYRHYNCHUS MYSTACEUS INSULARIS (Allen). 
TOBAGO BROAD-BILLED FLYCATCHER. 
One taken at La Giiaini in 1895.^ 

51. TODIROSTRUM CINEREUM ( Linnxus) . 
BLACK-CROWNED TODY FLYCATCHER. 
Common. 

Family FURNARIID.E. 

52. SYNALLAXIS STRIATIPECTUS Chapman. 
STREAKED-BREASTED SPINETAIL. 
One obtained and several seen at San Julian, August 5. 

Family DENDROCOLAPTID^E. 

53. SITTASOMUS PHELPSI Chapman. 
PHELPS'S CREEPER. 
One female taken at San Julian, July 18. 

54. DENDROPLEX PICIROSTRIS (Lafresnaye). 

white:-throated tree creeper. 
A numb(;r seen at San Juliiln. Tarsi gTeenish. 

Family FORMICARIID^E. 

55. THAMNOPHILUS DOLIATUS (Linnaeus). 
BARRED ANT SHRIKE. 
Abundant at La Guaira and at San Julian. 

56. THAMNOPHILUS MELANONOTUS Sclater. 
BLACK-BACKED ANT SHRIKE. 
One specimen taken at La Guaira, Jul}' 5. 

57. FORMICIVORA INTERMEDIA Cabanis. ' 
INTERMEDIATE ANT WREN. 
Abundant in the scrub. 

58. GRALLARIA sp. 

A specimen, apparentlj' a member of this genus, was shot at San 
Julian July 19, but was too badly injured to be preserved. 

iProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVIII, 1895, p. 684. 



NO 1247. BIRDS OF VEXEZrELA— ROBINSON AND RICHMOND. 175 

Family CORVID^. 

59. XANTHOURA C^RULEOCEPHALA (Dubois). 
BLUE-HEADED GREEN JAY. 

Loral iiamr: (^wrre querre. 

Abundant at San Julian. Found in small flocks in the coflfec plan- 
tations. Many of their notes are like those of our blue ]'A,y. 

Family ICTERID^E. 

60. OSTINOPS DECUMANUS (Pallas). 

COMMON OROPENDOLA. 

Load name: Conoto. 

Seen at Cucuruti and in large flocks at San Julian. The variation in 
size of the individuals of a flock is remarkable. They have a strong, 
disagreeable odor, which persists for some time in 'the stufi'ed skin. 

61. OSTINOPS OLEAGINEUS Sclater. 
VENEZUELAN GREEN OROPENDOLA. 

Local name: Conoto. 

Large straggling flocks were seen in the coflee plantations at San 
rluliiln. The}^ have the same strong smell and vary in size as do the 
preceding. Thej^ have a loud, yelping note, and an alarm note like the 
cackle of a startled hen. Both species were in very poor plumage. 

Feet green, beak light greenish-white. 

62. ICTERUS AURICAPILLUS Cassin. 

GOLDEN-CROWNED ORIOLE. 

Local name: Gonzalito. 
Abundant. 

Family FRINGILLID^. 

63. ARREMONOPS VENE2UELENSIS Ridgway. 
VENEZUELAN GROUND-SPARROW. 

Local name: Rayadito. 

Abundant. Eight specimens were taken in traps baited with bananas 
and set for small mammals. 

64. VOLATINIA JACARINI SPLENDENS iVieillot). 

GLOSSY GRASSQUIT. 
Abundant. 

65. EUETHEIA OMISSA (Jardine). 

VENEZUELAN GRASSQUIT. 
Abundant. 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Family TANAGRID^]. 

66. TANAGRA GLAUCOCOLPA (Cabanis). 
VENEZUELAN BLUE TANAGER. 

The ))luo tanagers seen were probably of this form. The}^ Avere 
al)imdant. 

67. PIRANGA ARDENS Sclater. 

BLACK-LORED SCARLET TANAGER. 

Local name: Cardinal de montana, riiountam cardhnd. 
A male taken at San Julian August 8, and several others seen the 
same da3^ 

68. TACHYPHONUS MELALEUCUS (Sparrman). 

BLACK AND WHITE TANAGER. 
Common. 

69. SALTATOR OLIVASCENS Cabanis. 

GREY-BREASTED SALTATOR. 

A few seen at San Julian, where one was shot as it fed on a ripe 
papaya fruit. 

Family CCEREBIDyJ^]. 

70. CHLOROPHANES SPIZA (Linnaeus). 
GREEN HONEY CREEPER. 

One specimen in full molt taken at San Julian Jul}^ 26. Irides 
reddish, tarsi dark green, lower mandible and base of upper yellow. 

71. CYANERPES CYANEA EXIMIA (Cabanis). 
VENEZUELAN GUITGUIT. 
Common in the forests at San Julian. 

72. CCEREBA LUTEOLA Cabanis. 
VENEZUELAN HONEY CREEPER. 

Abundant in the dry coast region. 

Family HIRUNDINID^F. 

73. PROGNE CHALYBEA (Gmelin). 

STEELY-BACKED MARTIN. 

Very abundant in La Guaira, where they nested in the crevices 
alonp' the eaves of the tiled roofs. 



No.ij-iT. niRDS OF VEXEZUELA—noBIXSON AM) lUClIMoXD. 177 



74. ATTICORA CYANOLEUCA (Vieillot). 

BLUI'; AND WIIITK SWALLOW. 
Very uhundaiit in and around La (Juaira. 

Family VIKP:()NID.l^:. 

75. VIREO CHIVI AGILIS ( Lichtenstein). 

AGILE VIKEO. 
C-oininoii. 

76. HYLOPHILUS AURANTIIFRONS Lawrence. 

GULDEN-FRONTED HYLOPHILUS. 

One specimen taken at San Julian August 5. Tarsi very })ale blue, 
lower mandible yellowish flesh. 

Family MNIOTILTID.5^]. 

77. BASILEUTERUS FLAVEOLUS Baird. 
YELLOW GROUND WARBLER. 

One specimen obtained at La Guaira, where it flitted about in the 
bushes close to the ground much like a redstart, apparently somewhat 
north of its previously known range. 

Family TROC^LODYTID^. 

78. RHODINOCICHLA ROSEA (Lesson). 

ROSE-BREASTED WREN. 

Local iiaiue: Sdrld sarta. 

Seen at La Guaira and San Julian. It has a wonderfull}" loud and 
clear song. It is frequently seen on the ground scratching among the 
fallen leaves. One specimen, a male, obtained. 

This is the true Furnarius roseus of Lesson. The Central Auun-ican 
i)ird is (luite different and is apparently unnamed. 

79. THRYOTHORUS RUTILUS Vieillot. 

RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN. 
One o))tained at La Guaira in 1S!).5. 

80. TROGLODYTES RUFULUS Cabanis. 
WHITE-BREASTED HOUSE WREN. 

Abundant at La Guaira, nesting at the l)ase of the leaf stalks of the 
cocoa i)alms. 

Troc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 VI 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

8i. MICROCERCULUS PECTORALIS, new species. 
SCRUB WREN. 

When at La Giiaira on July 25, 1895, I .saw walking about in the 
holes and crannies under a nia.s.s of overhanging roots in the ravine 
east of the town, a curious-looking bird which I recorded in my diary 
at the time as l)eing like a chocolate-colored, tailless Carolina wren. I 
had only my insect net and could not secure it. Imagine my surprise 
when, on July 2, five years later, I saw under a heap of l)rush, within 
ten feet of the original spot, another specimen of the same ])ird. This 
one I secured. It crept about slowly among the roots and twigs, did 
not use its wings, and moved more like a mouse than a 1)ird. 

This individual does not agree with an}^ of the described species, 
although it appears to be related to M. squaimdatKS of Sclater and 
Salvin. It is, however, not nearly so white below, and the colors of 
the upper parts are darker, judging from the plate. ^ 

It may be described as follows: Type, female adult. No. 175251, 
U.S.N.M.; La Guaira, July 2, 1900; Wirt Robinson, collector's No. 
1451. Above Mars brown, uniform on back, rump, and upper tail- 
coverts, but feathers of head Avith slightly darker centers; tail and 
wing quills clove brown, some of the latter bordered with the color of 
the back. Wing-coverts like the back, some of the innermost greater 
coverts with minute russet spots. Throat white, the lower part finely 
and rather indistinctly barred with grayish brown; sides of head and 
foreneck drab, feathers of the latter part tipped with wood 1)rown; 
sides of breast, flanks, under tail-coverts, and abdomen nuuinny l)rown, 
more inclining to Prout's brown on the latter; the flanks and under 
tail-coverts with more or less indistinct blackish bars; center of the 
breast, Prout's brown with V-shaped and U-shaped grayish white 
markings; under wing-coverts wood brown. Bill and feet blackish 
in the dried skin, basal part of mandible paler. Wing, 57; tail, 20; 
tarsus, 23; culmen, 19 millimeters. 

Family SYLVIID.E. 

82. POLIOPTILA PLUMBICEPS Lawrence. 
LAWRENCE'S GNAT CATCHER. 
Conunon in the scrub of the dry coast lands. 
Family TURDID^. 

83. ? MERULA FUMIGATA Lichtenstein. 

SABIAN THRUSH. 

One young ]>ir(l, ol)tained at San Julian July 17, agrees moi'(^ nearly 
with M. fmnlxjata than with any other species. 

' Proc. Zool. Soc. Loml., lS7;i, pi. vi. 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF BATRACHIANS AND REPTILES 
COLLECTED IN THE VICINITY OF LA GUAIRA. VENE- 
ZUELA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES 
OF SNAKES. 



Bv Leonhaui) Stejneger, 

Ctirator, Division of Rpptiles and Batradmnts. 



The collectioii.s here reported upon were made in 1895 by Captain 
Rol)ins{)n, and in 1900 by Messrs. Robinson and Lyon jointl3^ 

For detailed information relatini^ to their trips, the localities visited, 
etc., the reader is referred to the introdiictorj^ remarks by the collect- 
ors in their paper on the manmials, pages 185 to 1H2 of this volume. 

I. BATRACHIA. 

ECAUDATA. 
PHYLLOBATES TRINITATIS Garman. 

Garman's orig-inai description ' tits the two specimens from Venez- 
uela and contains nothing by which I can separate them. In the speci- 
mens before me the tibio-tarsal articulation reaches to the anterior 
border of the orbit; first finger is shorter than second; there is a large 
metacarpal pad, and two metatarsal tubercles, the inner one being 
almost as long as the diameter of the largest digital disk, though 
narrower; on the lower half of the tarsus a very distinct fold, which 
is a continuation of the lateral narrow fringe of the inner toe, extend- 
ing from the base of the latter obliquely across the underside of the 
tarsus to the median line. The blackish lateral band is very broad 
between shoulder and groin, and semidivided lengthwise by a whitish 
line extending forward somewhat obliquely from the groin; a blackish 
longitudinal streak on anterior face of upper arm. The dusky band 
across the chest is not well marked in No, 27808. 

With the latter there are 11 tadpoles, which adhered to its l)ack 

when caught. 

Ijid of .yjemnens. 



U.S.N.M.No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Remarks. 


27792 
27808 


7 
43 


La Guaira 

San Julian 


July 2,1900 
Aug. 8,1900 


With tadpoles. 



1 Bull. Essex. Inst. XIX, 1887, p. 13. 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No, 1248. 



179 



180 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



vol.. XXIV. 



LEPTODACTYLUS OCELLATUS (Linnaeus). 

Ill both specdmens the tursal fold is ((uitc distinct. 

Li!<t of speciincitii. 



U.S.N.M.No. 

•22539 
27793 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


A3 

16 


La Guaira 

do 


June 22, 1895 
July 8, 1900 





Captain Robinson writes regarding specimen No. 22539: 

Common. Taken in acequia near the town. This frog makes a noise like the 
sound of water gurgling from a bottle, only it is a single note and louder. They 
make in the weeds in the water's edge a "bird's nest" of bubbles, or rather more 
like the whipped-up white of eggs and even more glutinous. The depression in the 
center goes entirely through, and the frog sits in the water below, with its nose and 
eyes appearing in the bottom of the nest. 

BUFO MARINUS (Linnaeus). 

List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M.No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When 
collected. 


22637 
22538 
27796 
27800 
27801 
27802 
27803 
27804 
27805 
27806 
27807 


A5 
A4 
6 
21 
22 
20 
24 
26 
25 
23 
29 


La Guaira 

...do 


June 22, 1895 

do.. 
July 2, 1900 
July 15,1900 

do. 
July 20,1900 
July 15,1900 

do. 

do. 

do. 
July 20,1900 


do 


do 

do 


San Julian 

La Guaira 

do 

do 


do 


SanJulian 



According to Captain Robinson this species is common and well 
known under the name "Sapo," the Spanish word for toad. Their 
eggs are laid in long glutinous cords. 

HYLA VENULOSA (Laurenti). 
List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M.No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When 
collected. 


22545 
27797 


A6 

8 


La Guaira 

...do 


June 22, 1896 
July 3, 1900 





Captain Robinson's remarks about No. 2254.5 are as follows: 

Taken swimming in the acequia. I was attracted to it l)y its loud, monotonous 
note like the bleating of a goat, and fully as loud. It was heard a long distance. 
On each side of its head it has a sac which can be largely inflated, and wliich were 
so inflated when the animal was caught. 



NO. 1248. VENEZUELAN BATRACHIANS, REPTILES—STEJNEnER. 181 



HYLA CREPITANS Wied. 



List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M. No. 


Collector's | Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


22541 
22542 
22.543 
22544 
27791 
27794 
27795 


A.52 
A30 
AlO 


La Guaira 

. .do 


July 24,1895 
June 26, 1895 
June 22, 1895 
June 24, 1895 
Julv 10,1900 
July 2, 1900 
"do. 


do 


, A22 
17 
4 
5 


.do 


. ...do 


do 


.do 







According to Captain Robinson, Nos. 22541 to 22541: were caught on 
upper surface of large green leaves overhanging water. No. 22542 
was- colored light buff above, below orange. No. 22543, which is 
much smaller, was very pale green with whitish ej^es. 

II. REPTILIA. 

SAURIA. 

GONATODES VITTATUS (Lichtenstein). 

No. 27820 has a white, black- margined dorsal band and black con- 
verging lines on throat, exactly as Dr. Werner describes a specimen 
from Trinidad.^ The other is uniformly drab above, with large, 
rounded, black and pale spots, which are smaller and less pronounced 
on head and extremities. There are also some dusky lines in front of 
and behind the e3'es; underside uniform whitish. 

List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M. Xo. 


Collector'.s 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


27819 
27820 


27 
26 


San Julian 

do 


July 19,1900 
do. 







THECADACTYLUS RAPICAUDA (Houttuyn). 
List of specinu'its. 



U.S.N.M. No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


22514 
22515 
27790 


A 26 

A 29 

11 


La Guaira 

do 


June 25, 1895 
June 26, 1895 
July 5, 1900 


...do 





According to Captain Robinson's notes, the first two specimens were 
caught in a damp and dark gorge, clinging to the bare trunks of large 
trees. He adds that they change color to suit the background. 



1 Verb. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wieii, 1900, p. 263. 



182 



PROVEEDTNGS OF THE NATIOXAL MUSEUM. 



ANOLIS CHRYSOLEPIS Dumeril and Bibron. 
List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M.No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


22522 
22523 
22524 
22525 
27818 


A 16 
A 17 
A 18 
A 20 
20 


La Guaira 

do 

do 

do 

do 


June 23,1895 

do. 

do. 

do. 
.Iiilv 12, l'.)UO 



The distended dewlap is "red," as noted by Captain Robinson, 
specimens were caught in small bushes with the butterfly net. 



His 



IGUANA IGUANA (Linnaeus) 



The specimens are perfectly typical, showing no tendency toward 
7. TlihiolopTius. In the only two specimens with well-developed dorsal 
spines, viz, Nos. 22516 and 2TS17, the number of spines between their 
origin on the nape and the level of the vent is 56 and 59, respectively. 

List of specimens. 



U.S.N. M. No. 


Sex. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


22516 
22517 
27817 

27827 
27828 


Female . . . 


A 24 
All 

18 


La Guaira 

do 


June 25, 1895 
June 22,1895 
July 10,1900 


Male 


do .... 


Rio Chico 






do 









POLYCHRUS MARMORATUS (Linnaeus). 

List of sj)ecim.e)is. 



U.S.N.M.No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


27783 
27784 
27785 


10 
14 
15 


Macuto 


July 5, 1900 
July 7,1900 
"do. 




.do 





PLICA PLICA (Linnaeus). 

Boulenger has followed Gray in applying ^''Uraniscodon Kaup" to 
the present genus, a course not warranted by the histoiy of the case, 
which is as follows: 

In 1825 Kaup^ plainly based his Uranoscodon., as he then wrote it, 
on Agama supereiliosa., though including l)oth L. jyl'ica and umbra in 
the genus. These species were excluded by Boie a few months later," 
and the amended name Uraniscodon restricted more emphatically to 
A. sup&rciUosa. This fixes the latter as the t^^pe, and the subsequent 
application of Uraniscodon. to the present genus is inadmissible. On 
the contrary, the genus which Boulenger credits to Fitzinger as 
^'' Oplvryoessa^'' 1826 (though spelled by Fitzinger Opkryessa)^ must 
henceforth be known as UTanoscodon Kaup, 1825. 



ilsis, 1825, p. 590. 



■M,><is, 1825, p. 1090. 



N0.1248. VENEZCELAX BATRACHIANS, REPTILES— STEJXEGER. 



183 



Fitzinger's Ecphymotes^ which ho established in 1826 without indi- 
cating a t3-pe, niig-ht have ])een applicable- to the present genus, as it 
embraced nominally both species which Boulenger now includes in it, 
but in 1813^ he clearly indicates the type to have been a young speci- 
men of J*(>h/<lir>(s iiiKi'inondux^ of which genus it thus becomes a 
synonym. 

iMi of Rpecimens. 



U.S.N.M.No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


27798 
27799 


9 
13 


La Guaira 

do 


July 3, 1900 
Julv ■'), 1900 







AMEIVA AMEIVA (Linnaeus; 






Fig. 1.— AMEIVA AMEIVA, X 2. Fig. 2.— Ameiva ameiva, x 2. 



Fig. 1.— .Vmkiv.^ 

AMEIVA, X 2. 




Fig. 3.— Ameiva ameiva, >: 2. 



'Syst. Rept., pp. (il-()2. 



184 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



List (if x/tccijiii)ix. 




Fig. 5.— Ameiva ameiva, 

X 2. 



U.S.N. M. No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


22526 

27787 


A 25 
S 


La Gnaira 

do 


June 25, 1895 
July 2.1900 
July 5, 1900 


27788 12 


flo 









This species, according to Captain Ro])inson, is 
common at La (iuaira, where it is known as the 
"mato." He describes the color of the living- 
animal (No. 22526) as follows: Head, brown above: 
chin and throat, black; center of back, l)ronze 
o-reen. Lives in burrows, and has a habit of 
licking- out its forked tongue like a snake. 

CNEMIDOPHORUS LEMNISCATUS (Daudin). 
Lixt (if ff])echneiis. 



U.S.N.M. No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


22528 
22529 

27786 
27809 
27S10 
27811 
27812 
27813 
27814 
27815 
27816 
27829 
27830 


A 1 
A 8 
2 
31 
33 
32 
27 
37 
34 
36 
35 


La Guaira 

do 


June 21, 1895 
June 22, 1895 
July 2,1900 
July 25,1900 

do. 

do. 
July 15,1900 
July 25,1900 

"do. 

do. 

do. 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do.. . 


RioChico 

do 







Captain Robinson's notes contain the following 
description of the living animal (No. 22528): 



Head, neck, front legs, and portions of hind legs "birds'-egg" blue; flanks golden 
green; baek of head and back brownish, with fine lighter stripe, then darker; tail 
greenish; iris bright yellow. He adds that this is by far the commonest lizard on 
the Venezuelan coast. It runs with great rapidity. During the halts, after its little 
darts, it has the hal)it of nervously {latting one of its fore feet as if in a hurry to make 
another start. 

SERPENTES. 



BOA RUSCHENBERGII (Cope). 

The generic name B(Hf must ho retained for the genus afterwards 
known as Corallus Daudin (1803), while Constrictor must .be used for 
the group ordinarily designated as Boa., as will ])e seen from the 
following analysis. 



T 'ENEZ VELA N BA TEA CHI A NS, REPTILES— STEJNEGER. 185 



In 1768 Linnasus established the genus Boa^ in which, among other 
species, he inchided B. canlnd, B. e<))i><tr!ct(>r, and B. orophias. Of 
course he indicated no generic type, which must 
therefore be ascertained by the process of elimi- 
nation. In 1768 Laurenti subdivided the genus 
into two genera, for one of which he retained 
the name Boa., proposing Constricfor for the 
other. Boa he made to contain three nominal 
species, but they all belong as synonyms to Lin- 
nteus's B. canina, which, therefore, must stand 
as the type. Go7iHtHctoi\ on the other hand, 
contains the two 
other Linnean 
species mention- 
ed above (the 
additional B. di- 




FiG. 0. — Boa kusche^j- 

BERGII, X Ij. 



vlnoloquus])Q\\\g 
only a synonym 
of B. (rroj/hiafi). 




Fig. 7.— Boa rischenbergii, x Ij. 



The case is as plain as it can possibly be, and the well-known Boa 
QondT)cfj:>r must henceforth be known as Constrictor con.strletor. 

List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ventruls. 


Subcau- 
dal.s. 


27832 




Rio Chico 




43 


260 


109 









PHRYNONAX LYONI, new species. 

D!a(/iioi<!s. — Scales in 23 rows, smooth except three median ones 
which are feebl}^ keeled; ventrals r.>!>; anal 1; subcaudals 111 pairs; 
preocular well separated from the frontal; eight upper labials, posterior 
very long; interparietal suture equals length of frontal as well as the 
distance of the latter from tip of snout. 

Ti/jM'.—Cut No. 27826, U.S.N.M.; Macuto, Venezuela; August 1, 
1900; M. W. Lyon, jr., collector, 

Jlalj'itat. — Venezuela. 

Description of type specimen. — Rostral much l)roader than deep, 
visible from above; internasals slightly shorter than prefrontals; 
frontal much longer than ])road, as long as its distance from the tip of 
the snout, and as long as the interparietal suture; parietals as long as 
frontal and half the interprefroutal suture; loreal as long as deep; one 
preocular, not in contact with frontal; two postoculars; tempora-is 
2 + 2; eight supralabials, fourth, fifth, and sixth entering eye, eighth 



186 



PROCEEDINQS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 




very long; .six lower labials (seven on left side) in contact with ante- 
rior chin-shields, which arc slightly shorter than posterior; scales in 23 
rows, smooth except three median rows which are feebly keeled; two 
apical pits; ventral.s 199, distinctly angular laterally; 
anal entire, siibcaudals 111 pairs. Black above, each 
scale with a yellowish spot, without forming any 
stripes or definite pattern; throat and anterior third 
of under side white (in alcohol) with a narrow l)lack 
edge on each side of the ventrals from about the 
thirty-eighth ventral, these black edges becoming 
broader posteriorly, so as to finally occupy the whole 
of the ventrals with the exception of 
two pale lateral spots; head above 
black, each plate with a few yellowish 
spots; supralabials yellowish (white 
in alcohol), the black of the sides of the head invading 
the upper edge angularly, but vertical sutures not 
blackened. 

Total length, 1,085 mm.; 
tail, 270 mm. 

RemarJiS. — PJirynonaxlyoni 
appears to be allied to P. 
(juentheri, from Mexico, from 
which it differs chiefly in the 
fewer supralabials and the longer parietals. The coloration is quite 
similar, black with 3^ellow spots, but there are no regular longitudinal 
stripes on the body or on the tail, and the sutures of the supralabials 



Fig. 8.— Phrynonax 
LYONI, X 1. 





Fig. y.— Fhkynonax lyuni 
X 1. 



Fig. 10.— Phryno- 
nax LYONI, X 1. 



are not marked with black. 



List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ventrals. 


Anal. 


Siibcau- 
dal.s. 


27826 


38 


Macuto 


Aug. 4,1900 


23 


199 


1 


111/111 







DRYMOBIUS BODDAERTII (Sentzen). 

List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Collector'.s 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ventrals. 


Anal. 


Siibcau- 
dals. 


22535 
27822 


A7 

37 


La Guaira 


June 22, 1895 
Aug. 2,1900 










17 


182 


1/i 


106/106 





Color of No. 22535 given by Captain Robinson as brownish with 
obscure lighter stripes; iris reddish brown. Shot on edge of acequia. 



N0.124S. VENEZUELAy BATRACIIIANS, BEPTILES—STEJNEGER. 187 



LEPTOPHIS AH^TULLA (Linnaeus). 




Fig. 11.— Leptophis ah.etulla, x Ij. 





Pig. 12.— Leptophis 

AH^TULLA, Xlj. 



Fig. 13.— Leptophis 
ah^tulla, x ij- 



Both Lcennberg and Andersson, from examination of the Linnean 
type specimens, have come to the conchision that the species often 
known as L. lioctrcm (Wied) is the true Coluher ahmtuUa of Linnjeus. 

List of specimens. 



U.S.N.M.. 
No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ventrals. 


Anal. 


Subcau- 
dals. 


27821 
27831 


39 




A-bg. 8,1900 


15 


164 


1/1 134/134 

















CLELIA DOLIATA (Dumeril and Bibron). 




Fig. 14.— Clelia doliata, 
X2. 





Fig. 15.— Clelia 
doliata, x 2. 



Fig. 16.— Cleli/ 
doliata, x 2. 



As Fitzinger in plain words indicated Daudin's Coluhet' cUdia as the 
type of his new genus Clelia there can be no excuse for the retention 
of Wagler's Oxyrhopus which is four years younger. 1 may add here 



188 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEmf. 



VOL. XXIV. 




Fig. 17.— Clelia skmicincta, 



that it appears prefera])le to separate the groups of species with undi- 
vided suhcaudals as a distinct genus, for whicli Schneider's Pmadohoa 
is available/ 

The specimen before me is in most excellent condition and shows 

the original coloration to perfection. 
The anterior six black crossbars are 
broader than the light interspaces, 
which are white with black tip to each 
scale; all the following interspaces are 
broader than the black bars, being 
bright red, with the row adjoining the black bars 
pure white and all tipped with black; the black 
bars on neck and body (29) invade the ends of 
the ventrals, while those on the tail (15) are con- 
tinuous across the underside, forming complete 
rings; black on top of head reaches to the pos- 
terior third of the parietals; first' black cross- 
bar begins on the fifth scale behind the parie- 
tals. This specimen agrees in every particular 
with the two enumerated by Boulenger as " B" ^ 
and has the identical scale formula. It differs, 
consequently, from the type specimens described 
by Dumeril and Bibron, and from Boulenger's 
specimen A, in which the majority of the ))lack 
bands form more or less complete annuli. It is 

also to be noted that the two specimens of the latter 
group have 191-199 ventrals and 61-66 subcaudals, 
while inthe former the ventrals are 183-186 and 
caudals TT-80. The exact locality of the type speci- 
men is not known, nor that of the three specimens 
in British Museum. On the other hand. Dr. 
Boettger'' records two specimens of Oxyrr'hojnts 
dolidfiis- from Santa Ana, Province Cuzco, Peru, 
without giving particulars as to coloration and 
scale formula. Under the circumstances it is 
impossible to say whether the differences indi- 
cated above are of specific significance, which, 
in view of the geographical distribution, would 
certainly seem to be the case, if the Peruvian 
specimens should be found to agree w ith the tjqDe 
of ('. dol!<(ta and with specimen A in British Museum. 

It should be noted in this connection that the type of Cope's O.ri/r- 




FiG. IS.— Clelia skmi- 
cincta, X 2. 




Flli. 19.— ("I.EI.TA SKMI- 
CINCTA, - '_'. 



' Sohneider, Aniph., II, 1801, p. 281. The type, by elimination, is P 
■' Cat. Snakes Brit. Mus., Ill, 1896, p. 106. 
■^ Kat. Sciilangen Mus. Senckenb., 1898, \k 97. 



irniKila. 



i-'i^- VENEZUELAN IIATRACHEINS, liKI'TI LES—STEJNEGER. 189 



r/i(}j)m doli(itii.'< sriiilclnctuti (Cat. No. ^SIXH), U.S.N.M., Costa Rioa, 
(labb, collector) (tio-s. 17-19) is colored like the Veneznelaiv specimen 
so far as the underside is concerned, the bars on neck and ))ody nuni- 
berino-25 and the rino-s on tail 13, but the dark bars and rings through- 
out are broadtM" than the light interspaces, which are not regularly 
spotted with black; the black l)ars anteriorly often alternate and 
coalesce ])roadly on the median line. The scale formula differs also 
considerably from those mentioned above, being as follows: Scale 
rows, 10; ventrals, 200; anal, 1; suV)caudals, 90/90. 

Lht uf sjieclnieiifi. 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Collect- 
or's No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ven- 
trals. 


Anal. 


Sub- 
candals. 


27823 


44 


La Guaira 


Aug. 11, 1900 . . 


19 


184 


1 


79/79 



PSEUDOBOA NEUWIEDII (Dumeril and Bibron) 




Fig. 20.— Pseudoboa neuwiedii, 

X2|. 





Fig. 21. — PsEUDOBo.\ 

NEUWIEDII, X 2f. 



Fk;. 22.— Pseudoboa 
neuwiedii, x 2|. 




Fig. 24.— Pseudoboa 
neuwiedii, x 2. 



Fig. 23. — Pseudoboa neuwiedii, 

X 2. 



The specimen from La Guaira differs from two from Trinidad in 
having a wide, white band across occiput, as in 3^oung Clelia cloelia. 

List of xpecimens. 



U.S.N.M. 

No. 


Collect- 
or's No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ven- 
trals. 


Anal. 


Sub- 
caudal.s. 


27824 19 


La Guaira 


July 10,1900 .. 


19 


182 


1 


89 



190 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



PSEUDOBOA ROBINSONI, new species. 




Fig. 25.— Pseudoboa kobin 

SONI, X Ij. 



DtiK/iKms. — Scales in l!» rows; ventrals, 186; anal single; subcaudals, 
82, sinolo; posterior nasal and loreal widely separated by second labial 
which is ))i-oadly in contact with prefrontal; rostral prominent, slightly 
upturned, broader than deep, the portion visible 
from above one-half as long as its distance from 
the frontal; supralabials eight. 

Type.—C^d.. No. 22532 U.S.N.M.; La Guaira, 
Venezuela; June 21, 1895; Capt. Wirt Robinson, 
collector. 

Ilahitat. — Venezuela. 
Description of type specimen. — Eye rather small; snout projecting; 
rostral large, prominent, slightly upturned, broader than deep, its 
upper portion forming an obtuse angle and measuring one-half 
its distance from the frontal; internasals slightly 
shorter than prefrontals; frontal much longer than 
broad, equally its distance from tip of snout and 
longer than interparietal suture; parietals as long as 
frontal and one-half the interpref rental suture; loreal 
small, much longer than deep, broadly separated from 
posterior nasal; one preocular scarcely reaching the 
upper surface and widely separated from frontal; two 
postoculars; 2 + 3 temporals, the upper one of the first 
row only in contact Avith postoculars; eight supralabials, 
second broadly in contact with prefrontal and sixth in 
contact with upper anterior temporal, fourth and fifth entering eye; 
four lower labials in contact with anterior chin-shields, which are 
slightly longer than the posterior; scales smooth, in 19 rows, with two 
terminal pits; ventrals, 186; anal single; subcaudals, 
82, single; color (in alcohol), above, uniform drab, be- 
coming paler on the three lower scale rows; top of 
head and a spot on upper neck behind occiput darker; 
underside, including upper labials, uniform whitish. 
Total length, 700 mm; tail, 175 mm. 
Remarks. — Pseiidohoa rohinsoni in some respects 
occupies an intermediate position between P. neunnedii 
and P. guerini., having a snout more projecting than 
the former, but less so than the latter, though the 
portion of the rostral visible from above is not greater 
than in P. neuwiedii. It dift'ers from both most strikingly in the 
separation of the loreal from the posterior nasal, the second super- 
labial thus coming broadly in contact with the prefrontal. 




Fig. 26.— Pseudo- 
boa ROHINSONI, 




Fig. 27.— Pseudo- 
boa ROBINSONI, 

X n. 



NO. 124,H. 1 'ENEZUKLA N BA TRA CHIANS, REPTILES— STEJN EG ER. 191 



L/.X/ of !<jH'( 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ventrals. 


Anal. 


Subcau- 
dals. 


L>2532 


A 2 La Guaira 


.Time 21, 1895 


19 


186 


1 


82 



OXYBELIS ACUMINATUS (Wied) 




Fig. 28.— Oxybelis acumin.\tus, x 2. 




Fig. 29. — O.XYBELis 

ACUMINATUS, X 2. 




Fig. 30. — Oxybelis 
acuminatus, x 2. 



List of upccimcnf. 



U.S.N.M. 

No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Top-ilUv ' When col- 
Locdlit). 1 jgptg^^ 


Scales. Ventrals. 


Anal. 


Subcau- 
dals. 


22.'S36 
2782.5 


A 28 
30 


La Guaira 

San Julian 


June 26, 1895 
July 21,1900 






17 1 182 


2 


166/166 



Captain Robinson writes that this snake in crawling- carried from 
oiK^-third to one-half of its ))ody erect in the air. It was killed on the 
pround. 



192 



1'Ro<'t<:edings of the national museum. 



Vol.. x\rv. 



LEPTOGNATHUS VARIEGATUS Dumeril and Bibron. 




FlU. 31. — LEPTOGNATHUS VARIE- 
GATUS, X 3. 





Fig. 32.— LEPTOGNATHUS 
VARIEGATUS, X 3. 



Fig. 33.— LEPTOGNATHUS 
VARIEGATUS, X 3. 



The .specimen collected l)v Capttiiii Ro])inson has fewer supralabials 
than the normal number credited to this species. In view of the great 
variability of this character, and also because the present specimen is 
manifestly abnormal on the left side, I have not attached an}^ impor- 
tance to this circumstance. On the left side there are onl}' eight 
supralabials, nevertheless the third is excluded from the eye, which is 
onl}^ in touch with the fourth and fifth. On the right side the number 
of supralabials is nine, third, fourth, and lifth entering the eye. Nasal 
is apparently undivided. 

List of specimeDS. 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 


Collector's 
No. 


Locality. 


When col- 
lected. 


Scales. 


Ventral.s. 


Anal. 


Subcau- 
dals. 


22.531 


1 
A 15 h La Guaira 

1 


June 23, 1895 


15 


179 


1 


81/81 



Captain Robinson writes that this snake was coiled up in a tight 
knot at the end of a twig on a small bush. A blow from the handle 
of his butterfly net killed it, hut it hung until taken down. 



CHELONIA. 
TESTUDO DENTICULATA Linnaeus. 



Four live specimens of this common South American land tortoise 
were brought home and deposited in the National Zoological Park. 

The colU^ctors state that these turtles are eaten by natives, who call 
them iii(n'(H-(nj><. 



ON A STONY METEORITE, WHICH FELL NEAR FELIX, 
PERRY COUNTY, ALABAMA, MAY 15, 1900. 



By George P. Merrill, 

Head Curator, Department of Geology. 



The meteorite here described fell about 11.30 a. m. on May 15, 1900, 
near Felix, Alabama. For the details concerning the fall, as well as 
for securing the specimen itself, the United States National Museum is 
indebted to Mr. J. W. Coleman, who visited the locality and obtained 
the statements of eyewitnesses. These statements, somewhat abridged, 
are as follows: 

Mr. Robert D. Sturdevant, a farmer of Augustin, Perry County, 
said that while at work in his cotton field his attention was attracted 
b}^ a loud rumbling noise sounding very much like thunder. It being 
a clear, cloudless daj', he immediately looked up and saw the meteor- 
ite directly overhead. There was one very loud report, followed by 
two lesser ones, the appearance being compared to that of "a big piece 
of red-hot iron being struck with a hammer, causing many sparks to 
fly in all directions. After the explosion the smaller pieces popping 
ofl' sounded much like a small stone or nail being* thrown with great 
force, making a humming or hissing noise. The meteor seemed to be 
passing from east to west." 

The main mass of the stone, weighing about 7 pounds, was subse- 
quently' brought by a colored boy to Mr. Sturdevant, who visited the 
localit}', about half a mile away, and found that in falling it had made 
a hole about 6 inches deep in the soft plowed ground. 

Mr. Robert S. Browning, who was on Mr. Sturdevant's place at the 
time of the fall, stated that, ' • There was a rumbling noise, followed by 
three loud reports much like thunder or a big gun.'' He compared 
the appearance of the meteorite to that of "a big shovel of red-hot 
coals being upset." 

]Mr. W. A. Kenan, of Benton, Alabama, some 25 miles from the place 
where the stone was found, stated that the report was heard in Selma, 

Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1249. 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 13 193 



19-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Montgomery, and Marion, the latter place lieing about 16 miles west 
of Augustin. 

So far as can be learned — a part of the information being obtained 
by Mr. Coleman from negroes — the stone at the time of the explosion 
broke into thi-ee pieces, the larger of which AYas the one brought to 
Mr. Sturdevant and which is said to have originally weighed about 7 
pounds, as already noted. Another small piece was found, but has 
disappeared, and the third, if such there was, was never found. The 
stone, as obtained by Mr. Coleman, was broken into five pieces which 
weighed altogether 2,049 grams. As shown in the illustration (Plate 
XIII), it was about 13 centimeters in its greatest length, by 9 in l)readth, 
and about the same thickness, and was covered except where broken, 
by a very thin black crust, nowhere more than half a millimeter in 
thickness. The color on the broken surfaces is dark smoky gray, 
almost black. It is very fine grained, with numerous small dark 
chondrules, not more than 1 to 2 millimeters in diameter at most, 
and with no metallic iron visible to the naked eye. The mass is quite 
soft and friable and resembles in a general way the stones of Warrenton, 
Warren County, Missouri, and Lance, France, more closely than those 
of any other locality with which the author is acquainted. 

The color is, however, darker than is the Warren Countj^ stone, and 
the chondritic structure more pronounced than in that of Lance. It is, 
moreover, uniformly gray in color, and not speckled with white, as is 
the last named. Under the microscope the stone is seen at once to 
belong to the chondritic t^q^e, as is indeed evident on close inspection 
by the naked eye. The essential minerals are olivine, augite, and 
enstatite, with troilite and native iron, the silicates occurring in the 
form of chondrules, or associated more or less f ragmental particles, 
embedded in a dark, opaque, or faintl}^ translucent base, which is irre- 
solvable so far as the microscope is concerned. The structure is 
pronouncedly fragmental and the stone belongs, beyond question, to 
the group of tuffs. 

The details of the microscopic structure are as follows: In a very 
dense, dark gray, seemingly amorphous base are scattered various 
silicate minerals in the form of fragments and chondrules, and inter- 
spersed with occasional minute blebs of native iron and troilite. The 
chondrules are composed of olivine, enstatite, or augite, and are some- 
times monosomatic and sometimes polysomatic, holocr3"stalline, or 
with a varying amount of glassj^ base. Interspersed with these are 
fragments of olivines and enstatites of all sizes, from a half a milli- 
meter down to the finest dust. Scattered through the ground mass are 
proportionalh' large plates or clusters of enstatites, as shown in Plate 
XIV, fig. 1. These are verj^ light gray in color, with poorly defined 
outlines and extreme^ irregular borders projecting into the black 



NO. 1249. THE FELIX METEORITE— MERRILL. 195 

irresolvable material which forms the base. The enstatite chondrules 
are in some cases almost completeh' amorphous or cryptoerystalline. 
Fig. 2 of Plate XIY shows an impure nucleal mass surrounded by a clear 
transpai'ent border of the same material. In this case the chondrule 
extinguishes in polarized light as a unit, and the general appearance is 
remarkably like that of the quartz granules which have undergone 
secondary enlargement in sandstones.^ 

Many of the augites show poh'synthetic twinning such as was noted 
by Tschermak in the meteorites of Renazzo and Mezo Madras, as do 
also, according to the present writer's observation, those of the mete- 
orite of Warrenton, Warren County, Missouri. The banding is in some 
cases so regular and the colors so light that it was at first thought 
such might be in part plagioclase feldspars. The forms are, however, 
those of augite; the}" lack the pellucidity of feldspars, and, moreover, 
sections of the mineral showing no twinning bands always extinguish 
parallel with the vertical axes, while those showing twinning bands 
give extinctions as high as 39 degrees. There is, therefore, apparenth^ 
no doubt of their augitic nature. (See Plate XIV, fig. 2.) 

The most striking features of the stone are the extremely irregular, 
almost amorphous, areas shown in figs. 4, 5, and 6 of the same plate. 
These seem in a general waj' to resemble the amorphous chondrules 
described by Tschermak from the meteorite of Grosnaja and figured 
on Plate 20, fig. 2 of his MikrosJcojnsche Beschaffenheit der Meteoriten. 
They present, however, certain features such as suggest quite a differ- 
ent origin. 

In fig. 4 the outlines are very jagged, sharp crystal points projecting 
into the black ground mass and the whole made up of an extremely 
fine aggregate of nearly colorless, faintly polarizing granules inter- 
spersed with a few black spots. Fig. 5, on the other hand, is that of 
a nearh" amorphous or faintly cryptocrj'stalline mass. Fig. 6. which 
is one of the most striking, shows a distincth" crj^stalline border with 
an interior crj'stalline aggregate merging outward into cryptoerystal- 
line matter, as in the last case. The border, as shown when the body 
is viewed between cross nicols, belongs to a different and probabh'^ 
earlier stage of crj^stallization than the interior, and were the rock a 
terrestrial tuff, I think beyond question a majorit}' of petrographers 
would regard the entire aggregate as secondary, and as due to a deposit 
in a preexisting cavity through infiltration of solutions. The exact char- 
acter of the mineral comprising these areas can not with certaint}'^ be 

^ Tschermak described a like border in the chondrules of the meteorite of Gros- 
niija. He accounted for it by supposing it to be of secondary origin, a product of a 
second rise in temperature (accompanied it may be reducing vapors) not sufficient 
to produce fusion, but merely to bring about a structural modification in the super- 
ficial portions. (Min. u. Pet, Mittheil. I, 1878, p. 160.) 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

made out. It is colorless, polarizes in light and dark shades only, 
shows no satisfactory crystal outlines or cleavage, and in but one 
instance was I able to get what was apparently one of the bars of a 
biaxial interference figure. They are perhaps feldspathic. Their 
small size (the entire aggregate in fig. 6 being onlj^ some four-tenths 
of a millimeter in diameter) renders their separation for microchemical 
tests practically impossible. 

Others of these areas are so finely cryptocrystalline and merge sa 
gradually into the ground mass that it is scarcely possible to consider 
them as mechanically included fragments. 

The chemical composition of the stone is shown in the analyses given 
below, as made in the laboratory of the department by Dr. Peter 
Fireman. 

By treatment with solution of the double salt of mercuric ammonium 
chloride, after the method of Carl Friedheim,^ there was obtained: 

Per cent. 
(«) Metallic portion 3. 04 

[b) Nonmetallic portion (inclnding troilite and chromite) 96. 96 

100.00 
The metallic portion 3nelded: 

Per cent. 

Fe '. 85. 04 

Ni 11. 93 

Co 2. 79 

Cu 0. 24 



100. 00 



The silicate portion was digested with hydrochloric acid and sodium 
carbonate solution after the usual method. The soluble and insoluble 
portions then yielded results as below, deducting those constituents 
present in combination, as troilite, chromite, or as free carbon. 



Soluble silicate. 

Per cent. 

SiO, 32. 91 

AL63 2. 73 

Feb 34. 74 

MnO - 0. 94 

NiO & CoO 1. 39 

CaO 6. 43 

MgO 19. 39 

K.O ■ 0. 11 

Na.O 0. 70 

H.,0 at 110° 0. 22 



99.56 



Insoluble silicate. 

Per cent. 

SiO, 53. 59 

Al^Og 6. 97 

FeO 3. 50 

CaO 4. 33 

MgO 31. 33 

K2O 0. 34 

JSfaoO 0. 63 



100. 69 



^ Sitz. d. k. Preuss. Akad. der Wissenschaft 1888, p. 345. 



THE FELIX 3IETE0RJTE— MERRILL. 



197 



From these analvses the total chemical composition of the entire 
stone was calculated as follows: 



Fe 2. 59 

Ni 0. 36 

Co 0. 08 

Cu 0. 01 

SiO, 33.57 

AlA ---- 3.24 

CrA 0.80 

FeO 26.22 

FeS 4. 76 

MnO 0. 68 

XiOctCoO 1.01 

CaO 5.45 

MgO 19.74 

K^O 0.14 

N a.,0 0. 62 

C (Graphite) 0.36 

H.,Oatll0° 0.16J 



Metallic portion =3. 04 per cent. 



Stony portion =96. 96 per cent. 



99.79 



Specific gravity, at 30° c, as determined by Mr. Tassin, 3.78. 

The mineralogical composition may therefore be given as follows: 

Per cent. 

Metal 3. 04 

Troilite 4. 76 

Chromite 1.17 

Graphite 0. 36 

Soluble silicate ( olivine in part ) 72. 60 

Insoluble silicate (enstatite and augite in part) 18. 07 



100. 00 



There are certain points of these analyses which I am unable, at 
present, to satisfactorily explain. The insoluble portion ma}^ be con- 
sidered as essentially enstatite and an aluminous monoclinic pyroxene, 
and the soluble portion as largely olivine. But the high per cent of 
iron protoxide (FeO) as well as the lime and alumina in this latter 
portion, are not easily accounted for. It is possible that the last two 
elements may be constituents of the colorless, undetermined mineral 
referred to, but the source of the iron protoxide is for the present 
unexplainable. 

The case is, however, not without precedent, J. Lawrence Smith 
reporting^ similar conditions in the Warrenton, Warren County, Mis- 
souri, stone, which, hoAvever, he allows to pass without comment. 



^ Original Researches in Mineralogy and Chemistry, p. 532. 



198 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



For purposes of comparison, I give below the anal3^ses of the soluble 
and insoluble silicate portions of the Felix and Warrenton meteorites: 



CoiLstituent. 


Felix. 


Warrenton. 


Soluble 
silicates. 


Insoluble 
silicates. 


Soluble 
silicates. 


Insoluble 
silicates. 


Si0.i 


32.91 
2.73 

34.74 
0.94 

} 1.39 

6.43 
19.39 
0.11 
0.70 


53. 59 
6.97 
3.50 


33.02 
0.12 
37.57 


56! 90 
0.20 
10.20 


Al.,Oa . . . 


FeO 


MnO 


NiO 


4.33 
31.33 
0.34 
0.63 


f l.M 

1 0.31 

Trace. 

28.41 




CoO 




CaO 


7. 62 
22. 41 


MerO 


K..0 


Na..0 


0. 07 1 1. 00 




99.34 


100. 69 


101.04 98.33 



The dark color of the rock is undoubtedl}^ due to the carbon it con- 
tains, since the amount of iron and troilite, as shown b}^ the analyses, 
is extremely small. More than that, the finely pulverized rock, after 
having been subjected to prolonged digestion in hydrochloric acid and 
sodium carbonate solution, still shows minute black, amorphous, and 
opaque flakes distributed through it, which are presumably carbon in 
the form of graphite. The stone evidently belongs to Brezina's class 
oi Kugdcheyiehondrites ?in& to Isieume^v^i^ group of Ornajiites. It will 
be known as the Felix meteorite. 

I am indebted to Dr. F. Berwerth, of the k. k. Hof Museum at 
Vienna, for a fragment of the Lance meteorite for comparison, and 
to the Shepard collection for material for thin sections of the Warren 
County stone. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Plate XIII. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Felix meteorite. The size is indicated by the centimeter rule below 
each figure. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1 . Enstatite plates in ground mass. The black in this and in figs. 5 and 6 is a little 
too dense. It is intended to show the dark, irresolvable base. 

Fig. 2. Monosomatic enstatite chondrule with clear, colorless border. 

Fig. 3. Twinned augite. 

Figs. 4, 5, and 6. Colorless, granular, and cryptocrystalline areas of an undetermined 
mineralogieal nature, which it is thought may be of secondary origin. The 
actual size of the particles figured on this plate in no case exceeds 0.5 mm. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XIII 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 



The Felix Meteorite. 

For explanation of plate see page 198. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XIV 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 




Pig. 5. 



fef 



Fig. 4. 




Fig. 6. 



The Felix Meteorite. 

For explanation of plate see page 198. 



A REVIEW OF THE ATHERINE FISHES OF JAPAN. 



By David Starr Jordan and Edwix Chapin Starks, 

Of the Leland Stanford Junior I'niirrsity. 



In the present paper is given an account of the Japanese species of 

Atherinida?. It is based on the collections made in 1900 by Messrs. 

Jordan and Snyder and upon the specimens contained in the United 

States National Museum. The drawing-s are by Mrs. Chloe Lesley 

Starks. 

Family ATHERINID^^. 

THE SILVERSIDES. 

Bod}^ rather elongate, somewhat compressed, covered with scales of 
moderate or small size, which are usually, but not alwa3^s, cycloid. 
No lateral line; some scales often with rudimentar}' mucous tubes. 
Cleft of the mouth moderate. Teeth small on jaws and sometimes 
on vomer and palatines, rareh^ wanting. Premaxillarics protractile 
or not. Opercular bones usually without spines or serrature. Gill 
openings wide, the gill membranes not connected, free from the 
isthmus; gills I, a slit behind the fourth. Pseudobranchite present; 
gill-rakers usually long and slender. Branchiostegals 5 or 6. Dorsal 
fins 2, well separated, the first of 3 to 8 slender flexible spines, the 
second of soft rays; anal with a weak spine, similar to the soft dorsal, 
Vjut usually larger; ventral fins small, abdominal, not far back, of 
1 small spine and 5 soft rays; pectorals moderate, inserted high. 
Air bladder present. No pyloric caca. . Vertebrte numerous, usually 
about 23 + 23=1:6; third and fourth superior pharyngeals coossified, 
with teeth. Carnivorous fishes, mostly of small size, living in great 
schools near the shore in temperate and tropical seas; a few species in 
fresh w^ater. All the species have a silvery band along the side; this 
is sometimes underlaid by black pigment. All of them which are 
large enough are highly valued as food. 

a. Premaxillaries protractile, the skin not continuous with that of the forehead. 
b. Premaxillary narrow posteriorly, its edge nearly straight. 

c. Body little compressed, the belly rounded; pectorals short; scales cycloid; 
vomer with teeth; first dorsal with 5 or 6 spines, inserted in front 
of the rather short anal; mouth short. 

d. Head without spines Atherina 

dd. Head with rows of small sharp spines along the various ridges. 

Atherion. 

cc. Body much compressed, the breast compressed to a sharp edge; belly 

(in male) with a fleshy fold Iso 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1250. 

199 



200 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



ATHERINA (Artedi) Linnaeus. 
FRIARS. 

Atherina (Artedi) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 315 (hepsetus). 
Membras Bonaparte, Fauna Italica, 1836 (no type indicated). 

Body oblong, compressed. Mouth large, terminal, oblique; jaws 
about equal, their edges nearly straight; maxillar}^ extending to the 
front of eye. Preuiaxillaries narrow posteriorly, strongh" protractile. 
Villiform teeth in bands on jaws, vomer, and palatines. Species 
numerous, mostl}' European. 

{adspivy^ the ancient name, from aOjfp^ a spike or arrow.) 

o. Vent between the ventral fins. 

h. Scales with entire edges, about 40 in number; lateral band narrow, .i/'oodwardi 
hi). Scales obtusely denticulate, about 45 in number; lateral band hvo?i6.eY Meekeri 

aa. Vent well behind tip of ventrals; scales 45; scales with entire edges isurugie 

ATHERINA WOOD\A^ARDI Jordan and Starks, new species. 

Atherina f pinguis Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 33, Okinawa, Miyakoshima, 
Riukiii Archipelago, not of Lacepede. 

Head 4i in body without caudal; depth 5^. Eye 2| in head; snout 
4; maxillary 2|. Dorsal V-1, 10; anal I, 12. Scales 10, transv^erse 6. 




Fig. 1.— Atherina woodwardi. 

Mouth moderate in size, the maxillary reaching to just past anterior 
orbital rim. Teeth very small, in narrow bands on jaws and vomer. 
Gill-rakers slender, about half eye in length, their number about + 16. 

Head as viewed from above essentially as here descril)ed for ^4. hleekeri 
and with the same ridges. 

Cheeks and suborbital region evidently with scales, though but two 
or three scales remain on head on our specimens. Scales on body with 
entire edges. Fifteen scales in the median series on back before 
spinous dorsal, and 7 between dorsal bases. » 

Origin of ventrals midway between front of anal and middle of eve; 
distance between front of first dorsal and front of second If in head. 
Pectoral reaching to above tirst third of ventrals. Vent between 
ventrals as in A. hleekeri. 

Color probably silvery; the back very sparsely covered with coarse 
brown dots set more or less in rows. A rather narrow silvery lateral 



NO.T250. ATHERINE FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND STARRS. 201 

liand bordered with black above is nearly confined anteriorly to the 
third row of scales below superior median series. Its posterior two- 
fifths being slightly wider and the scales being- smaller it involves the 
lower edge of the second row of scales and the upper edge of the 
fourth; its anterior end does not show above upper edge of pectoral. 
Tip of snout dusky with brown dots. Opercles silvery. Another series 
of specimens from the same locality, probably owing to a different 
method of preser\ation, are more silvery with the lateral band not so 
conspicuous and with the border above it not so dark. 

This species differs from A. I'cdeiiciennesii and A. hieel'eri in having 
scales with entire edges, and from the latter particularl}' in having 
fewer scales. 

The type and 7 cotypes are from Okinawa, in the Riukiu group. 
The former bears the number 6529 on the catalogue of the Leland 
Stanford Junior University Museum. It was numbered 566 in the 
Imperial ]\Iuseum of Tokyo, a type specimen being presented by 
Dr. Ishikawa. Others numbered 567, from Miyakoshima, are in the 
Imperial ]\Iuseum. 

The junior author wishes to name this species ,for Dr. Smith 
"Woodward, of the British .Museum, as a slight acknowledgment of 
the interest Dr. Woodward has shown in his work on fish osteology. 

ATHERINA BLEEKERI Giinther. 

Atherina japonica Bleeker, Yerh. Bat. Gen., XXV, Japan, p. 40, fis. 2, Nagasaki, 

(not of Houttuyu). 
Atherina bleekeri Gunther, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 398, China. 
Atherinichtlnis sp. Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 33, Ise, No. 565. 
Atherina valenciennesi Nystroji, Kong. Svensk. Ak. Vet., 1887, p. 38, Nagasaki (not 

of Bleeker). 

Head 4^ in bod}' without caudal; depth of. Ej-e 3 in head; snout 
4; maxillary 2f, Dorsal VI-I, 10; anal I, 13; scales 15; transverse 
series 7. 

Mouth rather oblique and moderate in size; the maxillary reaching 
just past the anterior orbital rim; jaws about equal. Teeth very small, 
in bands on jaws and vomer. Gill-rakers slender, in length a little less 
than the diameter of pupil; about 19 present on lower limb of arch. 

Nasal bones forming a ridge or angle continuous with supraorbital 
rim hiaking the head as viewed from above fiat, with the lateral edges 
straight and gradually approaching each other as a long triangle, and 
with the apex cut squarely off or bluntly rounded at tip of snout. 
Distance across tip of snout 1^ in interorbital space, which is a little 
greater than diameter of eye. A broad low ridge decreasing in size 
anteriorh' extends from the first scales on top of head to anterior inter- 
orbital edge where a depression separates it from a ridge on middle of 
snout formed by the process of premaxillaries. These ridges arc partly 
formed hj a depression on each side of them. 



202 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Scales on back extending over occiput to posterior margin of eyes; 
a few scales behind and below eye; head otherwise naked. Scales on 
body obtusely denticulated; tins scaleless. In a median line on back 
before dorsal are 20 scales, and between the bases of dorsals are 8. 

Origin of soft dorsal about over the first third of anal base, the tips 
of its rays extending a little be3'ond those of anal. Origin of ven- 
trals nearer front of anal base than tip of snout by a distance equal to 
diameter of eye. Pectoral reaching slightly past origin of ventrals. 
Origin of first dorsal before that of second a distance contained 1\ in 
length of head. Vent between ventrals, midway between their tips 
and base. 

Color. — Edges of scales of back broadly edged with blackish or 
dusky; this more pronounced on back as viewed from above. Top of 
head and tip of snout black. Tip of mandible variously dusky or 
colorless. Lateral band silvery, dark above; occupying nearly the 
entire third and upper half of fourth series of scales below median 
series of back. Ventrals and anal colorless. Dorsals and caudal 
dusky. Pectoral dusk}^ at base. 

This species is represented in great abundance in the Japanese 
collection. Specimens were obtained from the following localities. 
Tsuruga, Tokyo, Misaki, Wakanoura, island of Numata, Hakata, 
Nagasaki. It is everywhere common in sandy bays from Tok3"0 
southward to Kiusiu. 

Here described from a specimen 5t inches in length from Misaki, 
Sagami, Japan. 

Of 16 other specimens counted, 11 have 5 spines in the first dorsal, 
while 5 have 6 spines. The soft dorsal varies from I, 9 to I, 10, and 
the anal I, 11 to I, 12. 

(Named for Pieter van Bleeker.) 

ATHERINA TSURUGA Jordan and Starks, new species. 

Head 4i in body without caudal; depth 5f . Eye 2f in head; snout 3^; 
maxillary 3. Dorsal V-1, 10; anal 1, 12. Scales 45; transverse series 7. 



^^ 





Fig. 2.— Atherina tsuruga. 



The maxillary reaches scarcely past anterior orbital rim. Jaws about 
equal. Teeth very small, in narrow bands on jaws and vomer. Gill- 
rakers slender; the longest about 2^ in eye; their number about 6 + 21. 



NO. 1250. ATHERINE FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND STARKS. 208 



The iiiterorbital space is a little oivater than the diameter of the e3"e. 
The shape of the head and the ridges are as described for ^4. lAeelieri. 

Scales with entire edg-es; their number and arrang-ement as in A. 
hleel'eri. 

Origin of soft dorsal about over the tirst fourth of anal. Orioin of 
ventrals midway between front of anal and anterior orbital rim. 
Pectoral reaching- a little past front of ventrals. Origin of spinous 
before that of soft dorsal a distance contained IfV in head. 

Vent a little over half the length of ventrals posterior to the tips of 
those fins. 

Color. — Sides silvery. Lateral l)and silvery bordered above with 
dark blue, occupying the thiixl and part of the fourth series of scales. 
Top of head and a border to scales of back an opaque cobalt blue. 
This sometimes more or less replaced on scales by dark brown or black, 
but the blue is nearly always present as small dots on the median row 
of scales of back and nvcxj be seen bv the aid of a magnifier. Pectoral 
dusky at tip. Ventrals and anal colorless. Dorsals and caudal dusky. 

This species differs from A. hleekeri in having scales with entire 
edges, in having the top of head a conspicuous cobalt, in having the 
pectoral tipped with dusky, and particularly in having the vent much 
more posterior, which character will at once separate the species. 

The type is 132 mm. in entire length and is from Nagasaki, Hizen, 
Japan, where many cotypes were taken. Other specimens are from 
Misaki and Tsuruga. 

The type bears the number 6530 on the Leland Stanford Junior 
University ]Museum Register. 

ATHERION Jordan and Starks, new genus. 

This genus differs from Atherlna in having small, sharp, tooth-like 
spines set in rows on the head. Maxillary anteriorly covered with 
them, a row following lower edge of mandible and another along inner 
under edge; these continue along interopercle and anterior part of 
subopercles as a band of scattered spinules; a row along lower limb 
of preopercle: a row on preorbital; and a row on superior orbital rim. 

It also differs from the known Japanese species of Atherlna in hav- 
ing the vent near front of anal. 

(Diminutive of aBr]p, the rough spike of wheat.) 

ATHERION ELYMUS Jordan and Starks, new species. 

Head 4 in bod}" without caudal; depth 6. Eye 3 in head; snout -i. 
Dorsal V-1, 11; anal I, 16. Scales 43; transverse 7. 

Mouth oblique and ver}- small; the maxillary not nearh" leaching 
to eye. Teeth evident on jaws, and apparently the whole roof of the 
mouth is granulated. Interorbital wide and convex, its width greater 
than diameter of eye. Top of head smooth, convex, and without 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

ridges. The supraorlntal rim separated from central portion of inter- 
orbital space by a depression. Head with rows of small, sharp, and 
tooth-like spines, as described for the genus. 

0|3ercles with three or four large scales, and cheeks and suborbital 
region with scales. Scales on body with entire edges. About 16 
scales in the median series in front of dorsal. Second .dorsal originat- 
ing nearly above middle of anal, and extending a little posterior to it. 
Front of spinous dorsal before front of soft dorsal a distance contained 
li in head. Pectoral reaching to above middle of ventrals. Origin of 
ventrals midway between the vertical from middle of eye and front 
of anal. Vent near front of anal. ■ 

Color slaty, no silvery apparent except a trace at opercles. Scales 




Fig. 3.— .\therion elymus. 

of back each with a large blackish spot. Top of head and snout black. 
Lateral edge of lower jaw black. A black lateral stripe on third and 
part of fourth rows of scales, growing broader at about its middle, 
thence narrower at caudal peduncle and again expanding at base of 
caudal tin, somewhat involving base of caudal raj^s. Fins without 
color, except caudal, which is slight!}^ dusk3\ 

The largest specimen is 38 mm. in length. About a dozen specimens 
were taken in tide pools at Misaki, Sagami, Japan. The species seems 
to reach only a ver}" small size. 

The type here described is about 33 mm. in entire length, and is 
numbered 6528 on the register of the Leland Stanford Junior Uni- 
versity Museum. 

{Elymus., rj^e-grass, from the rough head: sXv^og, a quiver). 

ISO Jordan and Starks, new genus. 

Body elongate, strongh^ compressed, deepest at nape, anteriorly 
scaleless. Breast compressed to an edge. Belly with a thick, sharp, 
ileslw fold of skin, at least in the male. Vertebrje about 43. Head 
short and blunt. Mouth small, oblique. Premaxillaries protractile 
but not movable. Pseudobranchiaj present. The gills, except the 
first, which is free from the second, are separated onl}' b}^ a short 
slit at the angle. Last gill with a slit behind it. Gill-rakers slender, 
about 4+ 13 in number. Gill membranes separate and free from the 
isthmus. Scales entire. First dorsal well separated from the second. 



NO.1250. ATHERINE FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND STARKS. 205 

Second dorsal shorter than anal and similar to it. Caudal forked. 
Body with a wide black and silvery lateral band in strong- contrast to 
body color. 

{Iso Iwashi, surf -sardine: the Japanese name.) 

ISO FLOS-MARIS Jordan and Starks, new species. 

ISO-IWASHI (SHORE SARDINE); NAMI-NO-HAXA (FLOWER OF THE 

WAVE.) 

Atherinidx ? Genus ? Species Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, \). 3.3, Boshu, Hash- 
igo, Nos. 568, 569. 

Head of in body without caudal tin: depth 5. Eye 3 in head: maxil- 
lary 3; pectoral li; depth of head 1. Anal I, 23; dorsal lY— I, 16. 
Scales about 59; vertebra 18+26=43. 

Body strongh' compressed and deepest at pectorals. Dorsal profile 
obtuseh" rounded at snout, thence rather slightly and evenly rounded 
to second dorsal and becoming straight at the long caudal peduncle. 
Ventral profile with a sharp regular curve from tip of lower jaw to 
veutrals, thence almost straight to caudal. Bod}^ as viewed from before 




Fig. 4.— Iso fi.os-maris. 



over twice as deep as wide; the back rounded; the greatest width in 
the upper third or fourth; thence tapering wedgelike to the sharp 
breast. The anterior part of sides of body and head flat below the 
temporal region. 

Mouth small and very oblique; its angle about 45 degrees. The 
maxillary scarceh' reaches to the vertical from the anterior rim of the 
orbit while the angle of the lower jaw reaches very slightly past. 
Mandible triangular in shape, three-fourths as wide as long. When 
the mouth is closed the mandible closes tightly within the maxillaries 
and upper jaw leaving the latter slightl}^ projecting. 

Teeth very small on jaws, vomer, and palatines, those on the jaws 
in a very narrow band. Snout a little shorter than the diameter of 
eye. Interorbital space a little wider than eye. 

Gillrakers slender, about two-thirds the diameter of the eye in 
length; their number about 4+13. The first and second gill arches 
entirely free from each other as usual, but the second and third, and 
the third and fourth are separated oxAj by a short slit which is not 
longer than eye at about the angle; the fourth gill with only a tiny slit 
behind it. 

Head entirely scaleless. Scales with entire smooth edges; those on 
anterior part of bod}' variable; on some specimens the side is naked 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

anterior to a little behind the pectoral fin while the back and belly are 
naked anterior to the spinous dorsal and the vent; on others a few scales 
extend to a little in front of the ventrals, and nearly to the base of 
pectoral, while on the back they are present a short distance in front 
of the spinous dorsal. Between these two extremes are all g-radations. 

Pectoral broad and short, with a bluntly curved posterior outline; 
its tip in some specimens reaches slig'hth^ more than halfway' between 
its upper base and spinous dorsal; in others scarcely halfway. Origin 
of ventrals about under the last fifth of pectoral fin; their length equal 
to snout and half e3^e. Front of spinous dorsal a little nearer snout 
than base of caudal fin (by from diameter of pupil to diameter of 
ej^e), and much nearer anterior end of anal base than base of ventrals. 
Base of second dorsal shorter than that of anal by a distance equal to 
a little more than diameter of eye; it ends a little posterior to anal. 
Second dorsal rays anteriorly a little higher than those of anal, which 
are higher than dorsal spines. Distance between front of first dorsal 
and front of second dorsal a little g-reater than the base of the latter, 
which in turn equals the length of caudal peduncle. Upper lobe of 
caudal equals the head's length. Belly with a thick sharp fleshy fold 
of skin. In two females with eggs this flap is absent. 

Color. — Body probably translucent in life, colorless in spirits, with a 
broad lateral blackish and silver}' band running from base of pectoral to 
base of caudal; its width near pectoral about equal to length of ventrals, 
growing somewhat broader posteriorly and reaching its greatest width 
behind its middle, thence growing narrow on caudal peduncle and broad- 
ening at base of rays, where a V -shaped area constricts it above and below, 
thence continuing on base of caudal rays as a double spot. The band 
black, with more or less silver difiused over it, except at its upper edge. 
Lower jaw dusky; top of head and snout with black markings. A double 
row of dots from first dorsal to occiput, with sometimes other scatter- 
ing dots. Behind first dorsal is a broken band of dots, parting to run 
each side of second dorsal and continuing on caudal peduncle as a 
double row of dots or a difiused band. At shoulder is a dusky spot 
which is sometimes replaced by scattered dots. Opercles and cheeks 
more or less dusky. A dark spot at anterior anal base. Caudal finely 
marked with transverse zigzag dark bands. 

This pretty little fish is common in the surf breaking into tide pools 
about Sagami and Izu, where numerous specimens were taken, the 
largest about 2^ inches in length. Our specimens are from Enoshima, 
Misaki, Hada, Yogashima, and Hashigo, the last presented by Dr. 
Ishikawa. It is known to fishermen as Iso-iwashi or surf sardine, and 
as Namino-huna or flower of the waves. 

The type, numbered 6527, in the Leland Stanford Junior University 
Museum catalogue. 

{jFIo.s. flower; niarts, of the sea.) 



THE CACOMITL CAT OF THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY 



By Edgar A. Mearns, M. D., 

Major and Surgeon, United States Army. 



Professor Baird, on pa^'e SS of his Mammals of North America, 
published in July, 1857, characterized the Cacomitl Cat under the name 
Felis yaguanmdi^ Desm., but in the synonymj^ of the species placed 
''Felis cacomitJ, Berl. MSS.,"' and said: "A skull (No. 1426) of this 
species, in the collection of Dr. Berlandier, collected at Matamoras, 
with a full description of the animal by him, establishes a more northern 
range for this species than has hitherto been accorded. In its southern 
range it reaches as far as Paragua}'. A full description of the skin 
and skull of this species will be found in the zoological report of the 
United States and Mexican Boundary Survey,''' where (p. 12) Baird 
quotes Berlandier's manuscript description. The name Fells caco- 
mitliy as spelled by Berlandier, will date from the special report upon 
the ]\Iammals of the Mexican Boundary", published in 1859, it being- a 
nomen nudwii as printed by Baird in 185T. The animal in question 
proves to be distinct from Fells yaguarundi^ and is described below: 

FELIS CACOMITLI Berlandier. 
CACOMITL CAT. 

1857. Felis cacomitl Baird, Mammals of North America, p. 88, synonymy {nomen 
nudum). 

1859. Felis cacomitli Berlandier, in Baird, Report United States and ^Mexican Bound- 
ary Survey, II, Mammals, p. 12 (original description). 

1883. Felis calomiUi Elliot, Monograph of the Felidse, p. 97, synonymy. 

Characters. — Proportions as in other members of the Felis yagua- 
rundi group. Larger than Azara's ' ' j'aguarundi " {^= Felis yaguarundi 

* I have used the spelling of Azara, being uncertain as to the original reference. 
Trouessart's first reference is to Fischer's Zoognosia, but the name is not used in that 
work. Fitzinger's first binomial reference is '''' Felis yagouarondi. Geoffr. Catal. du 
Mus." [1803]. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1251 . 

207 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi.xxiv. 

of authors); color lighter and g-raj^er. Skull strongly constricted 
postorbitally, flattened superiorly. Mammae, 3 pairs. 

Colour in summer (based on specimen No. ffffT? U.S.N.M., Biological 
Surve}^ collection; adult female, taken at Brownsville, Texas, June 14, 
1892). — Seen at a distance, the animal appears of a nearly uniform 
smoke-gray color, without strong contrasts. On close inspection the 
under surfaces of body and tail are seen to be considerably paler 
than the upper, and certain light and dark areas are apparent. Upper- 
parts, including upper side of tail and outer surface of limbs, uni- 
form pepper-and-salt graj^; underfur and concealed bases of the 
coarse overhair whitish gray; overhair 10 to 20 mm. in length, 
pointed with black and ringed with white, bufl', and black. Under- 
parts paler, manj^ of the hairs, especially of axillje and hollows of 
thighs, being tipped with whitish. Under surfaces of fore and hind 
feet strongly tinged with bistre. Under side of tail whitish smoke- 
gray, the overhairs narrowly ringed with black. Head with areas of 
light bufl'y gray bordering the blackish eyering, on chin and throat, 
and within and behind ear; a short, narrow line of blackish midway 
between eyes, and another between ears, and faintly brownish black 
edges to the ears; muzzle tinged with wood brow n. Whiskers mostly 
white, shading apicall\" to hair brown; stiff hairs above orbits, 10 to 
15 mm. in length and uniform hair brown. Claws light horn color. 

Color in winter (based on specimen No. fflH? U.S.N. M., Biological 
Survey collection; adult female, taken at Brownsville, Cameron 
County, Texas, February 23, 1892). — Darker, pelage longer, with a 
greater amount of black in vertebral area than laterall}^; under side of 
feet bistre, upper side more mixed with brownish black; otherwise 
similar to the summer pelage al)ove described. 

Skull and teeth. — Skull compressed in front of orbits and flattened 
above; braincase narrow and strongly constricted postorbitally; nasal 
processes of frontals ending well in front of the plane of malar bone; 
nasal bones elongated laterally and strongly depressed; zygomata 
relativel}^ broad posteriori}^; audital bullas large and high, antero- 
laterally compressed; posterior narial fossa wide. The canines, upper 
carnassials, and middle superior premolars are about the size of the 
same teeth in specimen No. 10018, U.S.N.M., assumed to represent 
the Fells yaguarondi tolteca of Thomas; but the upper lateral incisor, 
first premolar, and true molar are larger teeth. A supernumerary 
first upper premolar is present, on the right side only, in female No. 
35953, U.S.N.M,, from Texas (see measurements). 

Remarks. — Mr. Oldfield Thomas ^ separates a subspecies tolteca 
from the true Felis yagaojvundi of Paraguay. I have identified with 

^Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 7th ser., I, p. 41, January, 1898. 



No.i-T,!. THE RIO GRANDE CACOMITL CAT—MEARNS. 209 

Thomas's J^di.'< ydguarondi tolteca, the type of which came from Tete- 
males, State of Sinaloa, Mexico, specimen No. 10018, U.S.N.M., from 
Tehuantepec, Mexico. Although the skull of this specimen is longer 
In' 11 nun. than the type, it agrees with it so closely in proportions 
that it nuist be regarded as probably conspecific. Besides the dif- 
ference in the size of the upper true molar and tirst premolar, which 
are much smaller, the skull is higher and more convex, zygomata 
more massixe, and audital bullse lower and more inflated anteriorh^ 
than in Felis cacomitU. The skull is also remarkable for the great 
postorbital breadth of the braincase and for the brevity of the nasal 
processes of the frontal bones, which end on a line vertically over the 
anterior extremities of the jugals. Felis cacomitU requires no color 
comparison with Felis y<iguarondi tolteca. Mr. Thomas regarded the 
latter as probably the same as Baird's ''' Felis cacomlfJ, Berl. MSS.," 
in the synonymy of F. yaguarandi^ but did not consider the name 
tenable. 

External measuremenU. — Average of two adult females (described 
above): Length, 1060 mm.; tail vertebrte, 480; length of hind foot, 
140; height of ear above crown, 40. 

Craniid viea^surements. — I have used the same cranial measurements 
as Thomas, for convenience of comparison with Fells yaguarondi 
tolteca, those of his type following in parenthesis those of specimen 
No. 35645, U.8.N.M., an adult male of Felis cacomitU from Texas: 
Basilar length of Hensel, 95 (82); zygomatic breadth, 70 (64); least 
interorbital breadth, 20(18); intertemporal breadth, 30(33.5); breadth 
of braincase above auditory meatus, 46 (43); palate, length from hen- 
selion to posterior edge, excluding median notch, 40.7 (36); breadth 
between outer corners of carnassials, 39 (38.7); breadth of posterior 
narial fossa, 13.3 (14); front of canine to back of carnassial, 31 (28.7); 
length of upper carnassial, 13 (11.3); length of lower carnassial, 9 (9). 

x\verage and extremes of four adult females from Texas and Mata- 
moras, Mexico: Basilar length of Hensel, 87.4 (85.5-89); zygomatic 
breadth, 64.5 (64-66); least interorbital breadth, 18 (lT-19); intertem- 
poral breadth, 29.5 (28.5-30); breadth of braincase above auditory 
meatus. 44 (43-45); palate, length from henselion to posterior edge, 
excluding median notch, 36.4 (36-37); breadth between outer corners 
of carnassials, 38 (37-38.5); breadth of posterior narial fossa, 12.9 
(12.7-13); front of canine to back of carnassial, 29.5 (28.5-30); length 
of upper carnassial, 12.5 (12.3-12.8); length of lower carnassial, 8.9 
(8.8-9). 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 14 



210 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Delailed rnmi<d )neasurements of Felis yaguarondi tolteea and F. racomitli. 



Name. 


Felis yaguarondi 
tolteea Thomas. 


Felis eaeomitli Berlandier 




Sex, niiml)or, and locality. 


Male, type of Felii< 
yaguarondi tolteea 
(from Thomas). 


2 J 

O 0) 

S ft 

-^■^ 

0) 0) 0) 

93 
70 
22 
35 

47 

38 

40.3 
14.3 
30 
12.3 
9 


— ' o 

5" 


- > 

1^ 


5 S 

c oT 

(in 


5! 0! 

CO OJ 

ooT 

zS 


Female, type of Felis 
eaeomitli, M a t a - 
moras, Mexico, No. 
1426. 




82 
64 
18 
33.5 

43 

36 

38.7 
14 

28.7 
11.3 
9 


95 
70 
20 
30 

46 

40.7 

39 

13.3 
31 
13 
9 


88 
64 
18 
29.6 

45 

36.7 

38 
13 

28.5 
12.5 
8.8 


89 
66 
19 
30 

44 

37 

38.5 
12.7 
29.5 
12.8 
9 


87 
64 
17 
28.5 

43 

36 

37.5 
13 
30 
12.5 
9 


85.5 




64 




18 




30 


Brcadtli of braincase above auditory 


44 


Palate, length from hensellon to posterior 


36 


Breadth between outer corners of carnas- 


37 




13 


Frout of canine to bac k oi carnassial 


30 
12.3 




8.9 







A NEW SPECIES OF BULLFROG FROM FLORIDA AND 
THE GULF COAST. 



By Leonhakd Stejneger, 

Curator, Division of Reptiles and BatracMans. 



A few years ago Mr. RolxTt Ridgwa}', returning from a collecting 
trip in southern Florida, assured me that the bullfrog there had such 
a peculiar voice that he could scarcely believe it to be the same 
species as the one found elsewhere in the United States. Moreover, 
it was so excessively shy and wary that he had failed to secure any 
specimens. Requests were sent to various correspondents to catch 
and forwai'd specimens, but ih&y were equally unsuccessful. 

During the summer of 1900 Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, jr., obtained a 
series of live bullfrogs from New Hauipshire and another from Ba}^ 
St. Louis, Mississippi, all of which he kindl}" donated to the Museum. 
It w^as at once apparent that there was a great difference between the 
two lots, the northern ones being much greener and lighter, the 
southern specimens being brown and dark, with very little green. 
The large series of alcoholic bullfrogs in the collection of the U. S. 
National Museum failed to throw an}" light upon this question. The 
difference of the proportions of the toes was also noted, but as speci- 
mens from New Orleans did not correspond in this respect the impor- 
tance of that character was not realized at the time, and the question 
of the specific or subspecitic distinction of the Bay St. Louis speci- 
mens was left in abej^ance pending the accumulation of additional 
material. 

This additional material was obtained recently when Dr. E. A. 
Mearns, U. S. A., sent a lot of bullfrogs from Kissimmee, Florida, 
with the statement that their voice was entirely different from that of 
the northern bullfrogs, resembling the grunt of a herd of pigs. He 
also reported that the}^ were very difficult to catch. 

Here was clearly the Florida bullfrog mentioned by Mr. Ridgway, 
and a direct comparison with the Bay St. Louis specimens proved the 
identity of the Florida and Mississippi form. The whole series of 
the museum was then carefully reviewed, with the result of finding two 
additional specimens of the new species from Pensacola. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1252. 

211 



212 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



RANA GRYLIO, new species. 

Dia(/nos/s. — Similar to Rana catesbeiana^ but with the fourth toe 
much shorter in proportion, the third toe, measured from the inner 
metatarsal tubercle, being more than three and one-half times the 
difference between the third and fourth toes. 

Type.— C?it. No. 27443, U.S.N.M.; Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. 

Ilahitat. — Florida and Gulf coast west to Mississippi. 

Remarks. — The most obvious difference between this species and 
the ordinary bullfrog- {Rana catesbelana) is the great length of the toes, 
except the fourth, the latter consequently projecting much less beyond 
the others than in R. catesheiana., in which the third toe, measured 
from the inner metatarsal tubercle, is considerablj^ less than three and 
one-half times the difference between it and the fourth toe. In fact, 
this difference is seldom more than one-fourth in the new species and 
seldom less than one-third in R. catesheiana. 

In order to ascertain exactly the proportions of the first four toes 
in both species large series of both species were measured, viz: 13 of 
R. grylio and 50 of R. catesbekma., the measurements, as well as their 
equivalents expressed in percentages of the fourth toe, being given at 
the end of this article. In order to get as stable a starting point as 
possible for these measurements the anterior edge of the inner meta- 
■ tarsal tubercle was chosen and the length of the toe in this case conse- 
quently means the distance from this point to the tip of the toe in 
question. 

The proportions obtained in this way may lie expressed as follows: 





Rana grylio. 


Rana catesheiana. 


Third toe 


Per cent of fourth toe. 
80 'to 84 
55 61 
34 39 


Per cent of fourth toe. 
■ 70 to 76 
47 51 
27 33 


Second toe 


First toe 





There is consequently no overlapping or intergrading. The fourth 
toe has the same relative length in both species, but in the new one 
the other toes have become considerably lengthened, thus giving a 
much larger surface of web than in the ordinary bullfrog. 

From the above it will be seen that a specimen of Rana, grylio., in 
which the distance from the tip of the fourth toe to the anterior edge 
of the inner metatarsal tubercle measures 50 mm., should normally 
have — 

The first toe, similarl}^ measured, 18.5 mm. (varying between 17 
mm. and 19.5 mm.). 

The second toe, similarly measured, 29 mm. (varying between 27.5 
mm. and 30.5 mm.). 



A NEW BULLFROG— STEJNEGER. 



213 



'riie third toe, .siiiiihirly niotisured, 41 niiii. (varviniL»- l)otweoii -tO 
null, and 4li iiini.). 

Conversely, a Rami aitcshcldud of exactly the .same size (fourtli toe 
50 mm.), should normally have — 

The tirst toe, similarly measured, 15 mm. (varying ])etween 13.5 
mm. and 1(),5 mm.). 

The second toe. similarly measured, ^4.5 mm. (varying between 23.5 
mm. and 25.5 mm.). 

The third toe, similarly measured, 36.5 mm. (varying between 35 
mm. and 38 mm.). 

These average jjroportions are shown diagram maticallj" in the accom- 
panying figure, in which the dotted outline represents an average B. 
yn/Iio and the solid lines an average liidia catesbelana. 

These ditt'erences in the relative length of the toes, being capable of 
the most concise definition, have been utilized 
primarily for the characterization of the new 
species, but there are numerous other fea- 
tures which prove it to be very distinct from 
R. catesheiana. Thus for instance, the snout 
is much shorter and less high, so that the 
nostrils appear to be nearer the tip of the 
mouth; the head is also narrower behind; the 
\omerine teeth are very close together, with 
hardly any space l^etween the two patches; 
the tongue is much broader and thinner, with 
remarkal)ly long and thin "horns," which are 
very far apart; the color is apparently much 
darker brown, though there may be li. cates- 
hrlana nearly as dark. Add to this the differ- 
ence in voice and we have clearly one of the most 
distinct species of frog in the United States. 

The general habitus of R. grylio is that of 
R. catesheiana^ including the large tympanum and the absence of a 
dorso-lateral glandular fold. It is also a large frog, though whether it 
reaches the extreme size of R. catesbelana ma}^ be doubted. 

The range of the new species is as yet known but f ragmentarily, as 
we have specimens only from southern Florida, Pensacola, Florida, 
and Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The habitat of R. grylio is thus 
parth^ occupied by R. (Xitesheicma, which certainl}^ occurs in northern 
Florida and on the Gulf coast reaches New Orleans. The overlapping 
of the two forms afi'ords additional evidence of their specific distinct- 
ness, if such were needed. It ma}^ be mentioned in this connection 
that the most southern specimens of R. catesbeiana do not show the 
slightest tendency of a variation toward R. grylio^ as is clear!}- proven 
by the measurements in the appended tables. 




DiAGEAMMATIC OUTLINES OF 

HIND FEET OF R. catcsbeiaiia 
AND R. grylio, the former 

IN SOLID LINES AND THE LAT- 
TER DOTTED. 



214 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



vol,. XXIV. 



3fr(isiirt'iii('iilx of li<ui(i (/n/lio. 





Locality. 


Dist 


■Awcv cif tip 111' toes from inner metatarsal 
tubercle. 




U.S.N.M. 

No. 


1 


1 millimeters. 


In percentages of fourth 
toe. 


So 


6 

o 

E 


o 

o 

u 


Third toe. 
Fourth toe. 


o 


O 
"C 

el 
c 

CD 


o 

i 


6 
o 

a 
1 


a^'C CD 


27443 

27444 


Bay St. Louis, Mississippi 

do 


21 
16 
19 
17 
18 
19 
17 
17 

20.5 

9 

20 

12 


33 

23.5 

30 

29 

28. "> 

30.5 

27 

26.5 

32 

14.5 

32 

19 


46.5 ! 57.5 
34 i 42.5 
42.5 ! 53 


36 
38 
36 
34 
37 
38 
37 
38 
37 
35 
37 
39 


.57 
55 
56 
58 
58 
61 
58 
59 
58 
- 57 
59 
61 


80 
80 
80 
84 
83 
80 
81 
8t 
81 
80 
81 


100 
100 
100 
100 
lOU 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
lUU 


11 

8.5 


27445 


do 


10.5 


27446 


do 


42 

40.5 

40 

37.5 

38 

45 

20.5 

43.5 


50 

49 

50 

46 

45 

55.5 

25.5 

53.5 

31 


8 


27447 


do 


S.5 


3688 (a) 

3688 (b) 

29007 




10 


do 


8.5 






29008 


.. do 


10.5 


29009 
29010 


do 

do '. 


5 
10 


29011 


do 




















37 


58 


81.3 


100 



















Measurements of Rana catesheiana. 



U.S.N.M. 

No. 



9475 

3539 

9469 

13201 

3687 

9389 

3512 

3508 

10878 

10879 

15984 

15986 

3691 

14441 (a) 

14441(b) 

10346 

10099 

15277 

14,544 

17365 

26321 

26320 

3532 

3531 (a) 

3531(b) 

3513 

4835 
3534 (a) 
3534 (b) 
3534 (c) 
3533 (a) 
3533(b) 
3507 (a) 
3507 (b) 
3507 (c) 



Locality. 



St. Johns River, Florida 

Prairie Mer Rouge, Louisiana. . . 

New ( )rleans, Louisiana 

do , 

Mobile, Alabama 

Liberty County. Georgia , 

Riceboro, Georgia , 

Charleston, South Carolina 

Oaklev, South Carolina 

do 

Goldsboro, North Carolina 

Raleigh, North Carolina 

Tarboro, North Carolina 

VV vtheville, Virginia 

do 

Arlington, Virginia 

Southampton County, Virginia 

District of Cohimbia 

do 

do 

Laurel, Maryland 

do '. 

Carlisle, Pennsylvania 

Foxburg, Pennsylvania 

do : 

Lancaster Cotmty, Pennsylva- 
nia '. .. 

Brookville, Pennsylvania 

Saranac Lake, New York 

do 

do 

Westport, New York 

do 

Elizabethtown, New York 

do 

do 



Distance of tip of toes from inner metatarsal '^ ■^- 
tubercle. 




A NEW BULLFROG— STEJXEGER. 



215 



Measurements of Rnna catesheianci — Continued. 





Locality. 


Distance < 


)f tip ( 


f toes 
tubt 


from inner metatarsal 
rcle. 




r.S.N.M. 
No. 


In millimeters. 


In percentages of fourth 
toe. 


.1 


a 

s 

a) 


'3 
o 

i 


1 
1 


First toe. 
Second toe. 


2^ 

i 

s 


1 


t% . 

0) i: a> 


3507(d) 
3-507 (e) 


Elizabethtown. New York 

do 


11.5 

13 

11 

19 

18.5 

17.5 

18 

10.5 

19 

11.5 

13 

24 

7.5 

7 
12.5 


19 

20. 5 

18 

29 

30 

29. 5 

28 

28.5 

30 

18.5 

21 

38.5 

20 


28.5 

30.5 

27 

44 

43. 5 

43.5 

43.5 

41.5 

45 

27.5 

32.5 

58 

17.5 

16.5 

30 


38.5 

41 

36.5 

59.5 

60 

59 

57 

57 

60 

37 

42.5 

77 

23 

22.5 

40 


30 49 

31 1 50 
30-1 49 

32 [ 49 
31 ! 50 


74 
74 
74 
74 
72 
73 
76 
73 
75 
74 
76 
75 
76 
73 
75 


100 10 
100 10.5 


3507 (f) 
27435 
27437 


do 


100 9.5 


Intervale, New Hampshire 

do 


100 1.5.5 
100 16.5 


27438 


.do 


29 
31 
29 
31 


50 
49 
50 
50 


100 : 15.5 


27439 


do 


100 13.5 


27440 
27441 


do 

.do 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


16.5 
15 


27442 


do 


31 1 50 

30 49 

31 : 50 

32 ] 50 
31 49 
31 1 50 


9.5 


3339 




10 


3337 




19 


3321 (a) 

3321 (bi 

3520 




5.5 


do 


6 


St. Louis, Missouri 


10 
















30 49. 2 


73.2 


100 





















1 



SOME SPIDERS AND OTHER ARACHNIDA FROM PORTO 

RICO. 



B}^ Nathan Banks, 

Custodian of Aradmida. 



This paper is based principally on material collected in Porto Rico 
b}^ Mr. August Busck, who visited that island in the early part of 1899. 
Since then some specimens have been received from several collectors 
whose names will ])c found in connection wnth the species the}^ col- 
lected. All uncredited records are those of Mr. Busck. 

This list shows a total of forty-nine spiders and live other arachnids. 
Although there are less than fifty spiders they are disposed in fifteen 
families. The Epeiridre stands first with sixteen species; no other 
family haA^ing more than four species, and four families are repre- 
sented by but one species each. There are but few small forms in the 
collection, although these are doubtless fairly common on the island. 
Two spiders and the phalangids are described as new, a few other 
species are probably new, but more material is necessary for determi- 
nation. 

Most of the species are quite widely distributed in the West Indies 
and the northern border of South America. A few species are known 
only from Porto Rico, but with larger collections from the other islands 
these forms Avill be found to occur elsew^here. Twenty of the spiders 
are known to occur in the United States, mostl}" in the extreme south- 
ern portions. This collection would indicate that the Porto Rican 
fauna is more intimately related to that of northern South America 
than to the fauna of the United States. 

The material forms part of the collection of Arachnida of the United 
States National Museum. 

Order ARANEIDA. 
Family THERAPHOSID.E. 

AVICULARIA LiETA Koch. 

Mygale Ixia Koch, Die Arach., IX, 1842, p. 66. 
Two specimens; one from Culebra Island, February 11, the other 
from Utado, January 27. Koch's figure is not good, but the scopulas, 
when dry, are plainly greenish; venter is black. A true Avicidaria. 
It was described b}^ Koch from Porto Rico. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1253. 

217 



218 PROCEEDINCIS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vouxxiv. 

SCHIZOPELMA ERICHSONII Koch. 

Mj/yalc crirhsonii Kocn, Die Anicli., IX, 1842, p. 28. 
Various specinien.s; Lares, January 25; Auasas, Januaiy 20; Culebra 
Island, February S; San Juan, January 1-10; also Hacienda Espa- 
ranza, June 6, from E. A. Wagener, and Isolina, April, Koch's figure, 
as usual, is too highl}' colored, but the specimens agree well with his 
description; the leg-s are lineate as he tigures them. The type was 
from Santo Domingo. 

ISCHNOCOLUS Species. 

One female and several young from El Yunque, 2,800 feet, February 
(Richmond). It has black mandibles; all scopulas are divided, the 
hind ones broadly; tibi« and metatarsi III and IV, with spines in rows 
beneath; steriuim flat, nearly circular; anterior eye-row straight. 

Family FILISTATID^. 

FILISTATA CAPITATA Hentz. 

Filistata capitata Hentz, Jour. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., IV, 1842, p. 228. 
Teratodes deprmsxi^ Js^och, Die Arach., IX, 1842, p. 103. 
Filistata cubsecola Lucas, Sagra's Hist. d. Cuba, Ar., 1853, p. 74. 

One specimen from San Juan, flanuary 1-10. 
Family SCYTODID^E. 

SCYTODES LONGIPES Lucas. 

Scytndes longipes Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1845, p. 71. 
Scyt()di'!< iiiannorata Taczanowski, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross, 1873, ]i. 107. 
Scyl(j(U's taczanowakii Thorell, Ragni. Mai., IV, 1890, p. 301. 

Two specimens; one from Lares, «Ianuary 25, th(> other from 
Luquillo, March 4 (Richmond). 

SCYTODES FUSCA Walckenaer. 

Sn/todcs fvsca Walckenaer, Apteres, 1, 1837, p. 272. 

Scytodex guyanein^ix Taczanowski, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross, 1873, p. 108. 

Several specimens from a cave near Pueblo Viejo, February 17 
(Stejneger and Richmond). 

Family CLUBIONID^E. 

AYSHA TENUIS Koch. 

Anyphcma ten^iua Kocn, Arach. Fani. Drass., 1867, p. 211. 

Several specimens from Culebra Island, February, and San Juan, 
Januar}" 1-10. Described from Santo Domingo, but now known to 
occur on several of the West India islands. 



NO. 1253. SOME ARACHNID A FROM rORTO RICO— BANKS. 219 

i 

CHIRACANTHIUM INCLUSUM Hentz. 

Clnbionit inchtud IIkntz, Journ. Bojst. Hoc. N. II., V, 1,S47, ]>. 451. 
Cluracanthinm )'(>/'/(' Emerton, Trans. Conn. AciuL, VIII, 1890, }>. 20. 

One pair from Aguadilla, January. Widely distril)uted throughout 
temperate and subtropical America. 

HYPSINOTUS HUMILIS Keyserling. 

Ilypsinotus hiunilis Keyserlixc;, Verh. zool.-1)Ot. Ges. Wien, 1884, p. 446. 

One specimen from Luquillo, March 4 (Richmond). Another from 
Hacienda Esparanza, June 6 (Waoener). Described from 8t. Kitts. 

Family ULOBORID.^. 

ULOBORUS GENICULATUS Olivier. 

Araneus geniculaius Olivier, Encyl. iNIeth., II, 1789, p. 214. 
Uloborus zosis Walckenaer, Apteres, II, 1842, p. 2:31. 

One specimen from Lares, January 25. A well-known cosmotropi- 
cal spider. 

Family PHOLCID.F. 

ARTEMA ATLANTA Walckenaer. 

Arteina atlanta Walckenaer, Aptere;?, I, 1837, p. 056. 

Pholcus convexus Blavkwell, Ann. Mas. Nat. Hist, (2), III, 1858, p. 332. 

Two specimens from Utado, January. Distributed throughout the 
tropical regions of America. 

Family THP:RIDI1D^. 

LATHRODECTES MACTANS Fabricius. 

Aranea muctans Fabricius, Entoni. Syst., II, 1775, p. 410. 
Titeridiumforniidabilis Walckenaer, Apteres, 1, 1837, p. 647. 
Lathrodecius dotatus Koch, Die Aracii., VIII, 1841, p. 115. 
TJieridium verecundum Hentz, Jour. Bost. See. N. H., VI, 1850, p. 280. 

Several specimens from Mayaguez, Januaiy. Common in the trop- 
ical and subtropical parts of America. 

THERIDIUM VOLATILE Keyserling. (?) 

Tlicridiuiii rohtflle Kevseklixu, Die Spinn. Anier., Therid., 1, 1884, p. 60. 

One immature specimen from Culebra Island, Fe])ruary, upparenth" 
belonging to this species. It was described from Venezuela, but also 
occurs in Florida. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Family TETRAGNATHID.E. 

TETRAGNATHA LABORIOSA Hentz. 

Tetragnatha labor iosa Hentz, Jour. Boat. Soc. N. H., VI, 1850, p. 27. 
One male fi'om Utado, January, is rather smaller than usual, ))ut 
does not appear to differ from Florida specimens. 

TETRAGNATHA ANTILLIANA Simon. 

Tetragnatha antllliana Simon, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1897, p. 868. 
One female from Lares, January 25. Readily known bj^^ the large 
tooth on apex of mandible below. It appears to be very close to T. 
2?rotensa Keyserling, from Mauritius. It was described from St. 
Vincent. 

TETRAGNATHA VICINA Simon. 

Tetragnatha ricina Simon, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1897, p. 8()9. 
One pair from San eJuan, January 1-10. The female is much like 
that of T. antilUa?m, but the lower apical tooth is much smaller. 
Described from St. Vincent. 

EUGNATHA GRACILIS Cambridge. 

Eugnatha gracilis Cambridge, Biol. Cent.-Amer., Arach.-Aran., 1, 1889, p. 11. 
One male and two young from Bayamon, Januaiy. The tibial joint 
of the male palpus is longer than in I^. pallida. 

Family P^PEIRID^E. 

ARGYROEPEIRA ARGYRA Walckenaer. 

TelragnaiJia argyra Walckenaer, Apteres, II, 1842, p. 219. 
Linyphia ornata Taczanowski, Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross., 1873, p. 11. 

Many specimens: Lares, Januarj^ 25; Aguadilla, January; Vieques 
Island, February 11; Arroyo, February; and small specimens from 
El Yungue, March (Richmond). Conunon in ti'opical America. 

ARGYROEPEIRA BIGIBBOSA Keyserling. 

Meta bigihbosa Keyserling, Sitzungsber. d. Isis, Dresden, 1863, p. 144. 
Several from Aguadilla, January, and El Yungue, March, 2,800 
feet (Richmond). Known from northern South America. 

ALCIMOSPHENUS LICINUS Simon. 

AlcimospJienus licinus Simon, Hist. Nat. Ar., 2d ed., I, 1896, p. 931. 
Two specimens from Adjuntas, April 13 (Richmond). It is strange 
that such a handsome species was not previously described. It occurs 
throughout the West Indian region. The markings vary in extent, 
and sometimes some are wantinjjf. 



NO. 1253. SOME ARACHXIDA FROM rORTO RICO— BANKS. 221 

ARGIOPE ARGENTATA Fabricius. 

Aravea argentafa Fabkicii's, Entoni. Syst., II, 1775, p. 414. 
Argiopes fenestrirmx Kovii, Die Arach., V, 1839, p. 155. 

Several specimens: Culebra Island, Februaiy; Aguadilla, January; 
San Jiian, January 1-10, and Utado, April 7 (Richmond). A larg-e and 
well-known cosmotropical spider. 

ARGIOPE FASTUOSA Olivier. 

AranriiK fdstno.ms Olivier, Encycl. Metli., II, 1789, p. 202. 
Epeira fasciata Hentz, Jour. Bost. Soc. N. H., V, 1847, p. 468. 
Argiope transversa Emertox, Trans. Conn. Acad., VI, 1884, p. 330. 

Two females from San Juan, January 1-10. Common in the United 
States and Mexico. 

NEPHILA WILDER! McCook. 

Nephila uilderi McCook, Anier. 8pi(l., Ill, 1893, p. 251. 

Xepkild plu)itq)e.s Kocii, Die Arach., YI, 1839, p. 138 (not of Latreille). 

Two specimens from Aguadilla, January. 

EPEIRA LABYRINTHEA Hentz. 

Epeira labyrinthea Hentz, Jour. Bost. Soc. N. H., V, 1847, p. 471. 
Epeira rectangula Nicolet, Gay's Hist. d. Chile, Zool., Ill, 1849, p. 500. 

Several specimens: Culebra Island, February; Aguadilla, January, 
and Viegues Island, March 27 (Richmond). 

EPEIRA THEISII Walckenaer. 

Epeira theisii Walckenaer, Aptdres, II, 1842, p. 53. 
Epeira mangarera Walckenaer, Apteres, IV, 1847, p. 469. 

Manj^ specimens: Culebra Island, January; Aguadilla, January; 
Bayamon, January; Ma3'aguez, January, and El Yungue, February 
11>. This is smaller and more slender than E. oaxensls Keyserling, 
and I think ditferent, although small specimens of the latter look much 
like large specimens of the former. Widel}" distributed throughout 
the Tropics. 

EPEIRA BALAUSTINA McCook. 

Epeira halanalina McCook, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1880, p. 198. 

Epeira purpuranrens Cambridge, Biol. Cent.-Amer., Arach. -Aran., I, 1889, p. 33. 

One female from San Juan, Januaiy 1-10. Known from Florida 
and Mexico. 

EPEIRA FUSCO-VITTATA Keyserling. 

Epeira fusco-vittata Keyserling, Sitzungsber. d. Isis, Dresden, 1863, p. 129. 
Cydosa thorelli McCook, Amer. Spid., Ill, 1893, p. 228. 

A male from San Juan, Januar}' 1-10; a female from Utado, Janu- 
ary. Distributed throug-hout the West Indian region. 



222 rnOCEEDINGS of the national museum. vol. XXIV. 

EPEIRA GRANADENSIS Keyserling. 

Epeira r/rmiaden^is Key.seklino, Sitznnfj;8ber. d. Isi«, Dresden, 1868, p. 86. 

Several specimens from Luquillo, March -t (Richmond). This species 
is close to K trlmttata. Described from Colombia. 

EUSTALA PROMPTA Hentz. 

E2>cir(i jmiiiijiia Hextz, Jour. Bost. .Soe. N. H., V, 1847, p. 472. 

Epeira parvulaKBYSERmmi, Sitzuiigsber. d. Isis, Dresden, 1863, p. 131. 

One from El Yunque, 2,800 feet, February (Richmond). Distrib- 
uted throughout the United States, Mexico, and West Indies. 

EUSTALA CONCHLEA McCook. 

Epeira rovrlded. McCook, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1888, p. 199. 

Epcira dmmpma Cambridge, Biol. Cent.-Amer., Arach. Aran., I, 1889, p. 37. 

One specimen from Utado, January. Probably only a variety of 
the preceding-, and found in the southern United States and Mexico. 

GASTERACANTHA HILARIS Thorell. 

Gnstcrdniidliii A /Vac/.s Thorell, Ofvers. k. Vet-Akad. Forh., 1859, p. 302. 
Gasteraccmtha ccnvcs/rf'/n* Cambridge, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 282. 

Several specimens from Aquadilla, January; and from Adjuntas, 
April (Richmond). Thorell's t_vpe came from the island of St. Bar- 
tholomew; Cambridge's was from Antigua. I also have it from Haiti. 

GASTERACANTHA SEXSERRATA Walckenaer. 

Pledana se.cscrrafa Walckenaer, Ajitures, II, 1842,* p. 157. 
Several specimens from Baj^amon, January. Known from northern 
South America. 

GASTERACANTHA TETRACANTHA Linnaeus. 

Aranea letracantha Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. II, 1740, p. 1037. 
Plectana Unnxi Walckenaer, Apteres, II, 1842, p. 163. 
Gasteracantha quadridens Koch, Die Arach. XI, 1845, p. 59. 

One specimen from Culebra Island, February. Known from the 
West Indian region. 

Family THOMISID^F. 

MISUMENA ASPERATUS Hentz. 

J7io»n>(/.s (isperutus Hentz, Jour. Bost. Soc. N. H., V, 1847, p. 447. 
Misuniena rosea Keyserling, Die Spinn. Amer., Laterigr., 1880, p. 82. 
Misumemi foliafa Banks, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1892, p. 57. 

Several specimens from El Yun(jue, and from Bayamon, January. 
Distributed throughout the United States, Mexico, and West Indies. 



I 



^ The oft-quoted date, "1837," for the second volume of this work is evidently 
wrong, as references in it to later dates are not uncommon, even 1841. 



No.i25a SOME ARACHXIDA FROM PORTO RICO— BAXKS. 223 

MISUMENA Species. 

Two spocinions, tVnuilos, from San Juan, January, and Aguadilla, 
January. They arc quite robust, pale, and with a white line through 
eve region. 

Family SPARASSID.E. 

SELENOPS INSULARIS Keyserling. 

Sc/i'iio/ix /;/.s7(/a/w',s- KKVsEKi,iX(i, Verh. zool.-bot. (les., Wien, 1880, p. 311. 

Throe spocimon.N from San Juan, January 1-10. Described from 
Porto Kico. 

HETEROPODA VENATORIA Linnaeus. 

Ardiwa rciKilofi'i Linx.kis, Syst. Xat., 10th ed., 1758, ji. 1037. 
OlioK anti/llamiK Wai.ckkxaer, Apteres, I, 1837, p. 568. 

Several specimens from San Juan, January 1-10. A wide-spread 
tropical species. 

OLIOS ANTIGUENSIS Keyserling, 

Sjxiraxsiis aiiflijumsis Is.KY'i^ERLiyiG, Die Spinn. Aiiier. , Laterg,, 1880, p. 264. 

Several specimens from Utado, Januar}^, and from Culebra Island, 
February it, the latter with egg sacs. Described from Antigua. 

Family CTENID.E. 

MICROCTENUS Species. 

One female from a cave near Pueblo Viejo, Feliruaiy IT (Richmond 
and Stejneger). It appears to be new; there is a broad, pale stripe on 
the t'cphalothorax, the abdomen dull gray, unmarked, mandibles black, 
the (}uadrangle of M. E. is as broad as high, narrow in front, A. M. E. 
small; second eye row nearly straight; legs rather long, IV longest, 
i)ut patella plus tibia I is a trifle longer than patella plus tibia IV, the 
metatarsi and tarsi I being short; four pairs of spines under tibia I. 
The species of this genus and allied forms are very much mixed up. 

Family LYCOSID.E. 

LYCOSA AUSSERERI Keyserling. 
Tdrtiiifiila (titssfirri Keyserling, Verh. zool.-bot. Ge.s., Wien, 1876, p. 657. 
Three examples: One Vietjues Island, February; one Culebra Island, 
February 11, and one from Vieques Island, March 18 (Stejneger). 
Described from Santa Fe de Bogota. It is very close to ourZ. erratica 
Htz., but has a pale venter. 

LYCOSA FUSCA Keyserling. 

Tarniliild fnHcit Key.seiu.inc, WmIi. zool.-ljot. Ges., Wein, 1876, p. 640. 
Two specimens from San Juan, January 1-10, appear to belong to 
this species, which was (leserib«Hl from Cuba. It is very close to, and 
perhaps identical with, Lijcoxd ittlant'ivn Marx, from the Bermudas. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

PARDOSA PORTO-RICENSIS, new species. 

Cephalothorax yellowish; 03^0 region black, a })road, brown stripe 
each side reaching from side eyes to hind margin, the side margins 
narrowly black; mandibles j^eilowish, darker on the tips: sternum 
pale yellowish; legs pale, ])arred and ringed with ])i-own; the marks 
on femora rarely show on the under side. A))domen blackish above, 
with a broad, whitish median stripe reaching from ])ase to tip, taper- 
ing somewhat from the basal third; venter pale yellowish. Cephalo- 
thorax not very long, quite broad, first eye row shorter than second, 
nearly straight, the eyes subequal; eyes of second row about one and 
one-half their diameter apart: mandibles long; legs quite long, three 
pairs of spines under tibia I, two pairs under metatarsi I. Length, 
5 mm. One specimen from San ,Tuan, January 1-10. 

DOLOMEDES MARGINELLUS Koch. 

Dolomedes morgiiiellus Kocn, Die Arachn., XIV, 1848, p. 120. 

One female from Vieques Island, March 25. Known from the 
coasts of tropical America. 

Family OXYOPID^. 

OXYOPES SALTICUS Hentz. 

Oxyopcs saUicui^ Hentz, Jour. P>ost. Soc. N. H., Y, 1845, j). 196. 
Oxyopes gracilis KBYSBUhiisiG, Verb. zo()l.-l)ot. Ges. Wien., 1876, p. 698. 

Several specimens from El Yunque and Culebra Island, February. 
Widely distributed throughout both North and South America. 

OXYOPES Species. 
Afew specimens of uncertain position from Culebra Island, February. 
Family AmD.F. 

PLEXIPPUS PAYKULLI Audouin ot Savigny. 

Aitus paykuUi Aitdouin et Savigny, Descr. de I'Egypte, XXII, 1827, p. 172. 
Attus ligo Walckenaer, Apteres, I, 1837, p. 426. 

Many specimens: Lares, January 25; Adjuntas, February 14 (Rich- 
mond); San Juan, March 31 (Richmond), and Arecibo, April 3 (Rich- 
mond). A well-known cosmotropical spider. 

WALA VERNALIS Peckham. 

Anoka vernalix Peckham, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, }>. 701. 

Several specimens from San Juan, January 1-10; Vieques Island, 
February, and Aguadilla, January. Described from Jamaica. The 
genus Anoka Peckham is synonymous with Wala Keyserling, since 
Keyserling's type appears to be our common A. pah/tar um Hentz. 



No.ms. SOME ARACHNIDA FROM PORTO RICO— BANKS. 225 

PROSTHECLINA ILLUSTRIS Koch. (?) 

Erh illustris Koch, Die Arachn., XIII, 1846, p. 192. 
One male from El Yimque, 2,800 feet, Februaiy 24 (Richmond), 
appears to be this species which Koch described from Porto Rico. 

PROSTHECLINA SIGNATA, new species. 

Male: Cephalothorax red-brown, ej^e region black, both with some 
iridescent scales, a row of g-reen ones above the anterior eyes; mandi- 
))les dark brown; palpi light brown, the patella clothed above with 
shining snow-white hairs; legs j^ellowish brown, their anterior sides 
blackish, unhanded, tarsi nearl}^ white; coxae and sternum pale yel- 
lowish. Al)domen above dark brown; on each anterior side is an 
oblong patch of iridescent scales, and behind, on each posterior side, 
is a circle of iridescent scales, inclosing a jet-black spot; a black spot 
in front of the circle; venter black. 

Female: Cephalothorax pale yellow-brown; eye region black, deepl}^ 
emarginate behind, and there containing a large black spot which, 
tapering behind, is continued as a narrow median stripe to the poste- 
rior margin, the hairs each side of this are glistening white; from 
each dorsal eye there extends backward a broad dark-brown stripe; 
a point of white hair betw^een the anterior eyes above; mandibles 
brown; palpi pale, annulate; legs pale, marked and annulate with 
black, not very plainly on the anterior pairs; sternum and coxje pale 
yellowish. Abdomen brown, with a glistening white line around the 
base; from it, each side, is a submedian white line reaching toward the 
middle of dorsum; behind this on each side is a white circle inclosing 
a black patch; the circle is often extended backward to the spinnerets; 
in front of the circle is another black patch; venter pale, with a 
median brown stripe, and darker marks on the sides. 

Length, male 3.0 mm., female 3.5 mm. 

Several specimens from Utuado, January; Aguadilla, January; and 
Culebra Island, February. 

Order SCORPIONIDA. 

CENTRURUS INSULANUS Thorell. 
Centrnrux iusn'anu.s Thorell, Atti. Soc. Ital., XIX, 1877, p. 148. 

Tw^o specimens: Culebra Island, February 11, and Vieques Island, 
F(>bruary. Known from several West Indian islands. 

- ISOMETRUS MACULATUS De Gear. 

Scorpio mandatas De Geek, Mem. Hist. Ins.. VII, 1778, p. 346. 
Scorpio americanm Herbst, Natursyst. uiigefl. Ins. IV, 1800, p. 60. 
Isometrm filum IlEMPRicn and Ehrenberg, Sym. phys., Scorp., 1828, p. 3. 
lyychas paraensis Koch, Die Arach., XII, 1845, p. 6. 
One specimen from San Juan, February 13 (Stejneger). A common 
cosmotropical species. 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 15 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Order PHRYNIDA. 

PHRYNUS PALMATUS Herbst. 

Phalmigimnpalmatum Herbst, Natursyst. ungefl. Ins., I, 1800, p. 82. 

Two specimens: Lares, January 25; Hacienda Esperanza, June 6 
(Wagener). They will not agree with any of Pocock's numerous 
species based on forms of this variable Phrynid, and so might be 
classed as a new form. 

Order PHALANGIDA. 

CYNORTA OBSCURA, new species. 

Dorsum brown, with yellowish marks; a spot at each posterior side 
of the cephalothorax usually connected h\ a curved transverse line; 
four transverse lines on the abdomen, the anterior two ending in a 
larger spot each side; some of these lines, usually the hind ones, 
are connected in the middle; legs and palpi pale, more or less netted 
with black; venter dark red-brown. Palpus of usual shape, legs not 
very long, with few granulations; hind coxa3 with some short, but 
prominent blunt tubercles on outer side at base; eye tubercle ver^^ low. 
Abdomen with two submedian rows of four tubercles each; the basal 
four are very small and rounded, the next pair longer, prominent, and 
acute; the last pair somewhat smaller. In the male the legs are rather 
more granulate, the basal four tubercles are acute, and the mandibles 
are greatly enlarged above and gibbous, marked with netted and wavy 
dark lines. 

Length, 5 mm. 

Several specimens from Bayamon, January, and one from Ponce, 
April 16 (Richmond). 

STYGNUS INSULANUS, new species. 

Dark reddish brown, the hind margins of the median abdominal 
segments margined with pale; mandibles and palpi rather dirty yellow 
ish; the tarsi pale, especially the hind pair. Eyes widely separated, 
between them a large spine that is bifid at tip; basal shield of abdomen 
smooth, with two submedian rows of four small tubercles each, each 
lateral margin with a row of rounded granules close by; behind the 
submedian tubercles are three median spines, the basal one smaller 
than the other two, which are nearly subequal; posterior segments 
with a few short spines. Mandibles large, second and third joints 
swollen above. Coxa of palpus with a spine beneath, femur with four 
spines below, patella unarmed, tibia swollen at tip and with two 
projections on inner margin. Legs short and slender, the fourth pair 
much the longest; femora II and III with a row of small spines 



N0.1253. SOME ARACHNIDA FROM PORTO RICO—BANKS. 227 

beneath; trochanter IV with one spine above, femur IV with a vow of 
iive large spines below and one at tip above; several near tip of the 
patella; a few small ones on tibia; tarsi of fore legs four-jointed, 
hind tarsi six-jointed, the basal joint longer than the others. 

Length of body, 5.5 mm. 

One specimen from El Yunque, 2,800 feet, February (Richmond). 

This species is evidently related to Styj)helu8flavitars!s Simon, from 
Guadeloupe, but it has not the tarsal arrangement of that genus, so I 
retain it in the genus Stygnus. The tarsal characters, in my opinion, 
are scarcely of generic value. In Simon's species the ocular spine is 
not bitid at tip, and there are only two large median spines behind. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV. 



Fig. 1. Prostheclina signata, spider. 

2. Pardosa porto-ricensis, spider. 

3. Pardosa porto-riceiuis, epigynum. 

4. Prostheclina signata, epigynum. 

5. Cynorta obscura, side view. 

6. Prostheclina signata, palpus. 

7. Stygnus insulanus, side view. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XV 




Some Arachnida from Porto Rico. 

For explanation of plate see page 227. 



A. REVIEW OF THE GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN. 



Rv David Stakh Jordan .md John Ottkrbein Snyder, 

Of the Ldand Stanford Junior University. 



In the present paper is given an account of the CrA^mnodont fishes 
(Tetraodontidte, Tropodichthj^idffi, Diodontidtp, Triodontidse, and Mol- 
ida?) known from the waters of Japan. The paper is based on the 
collections made b}' the writers in Japan in 1900 under the auspices of 
the Hopkins Laboratory of Leland Stanford Junior University, and 
on the collections contained in the United States National jNIuseum. 
A series of duplicates is in the United States National Museimi. The 
accompanying drawings are the work of Miss Lydia M. Hart and 
:\ir. A. H. Baldwin. 

MEASUREMENTS. 

The measurements given in this paper, except those quoted from 
other authors, were made as follows: Length of caudal peduncle, 
measured from end of base of anal to middle of base of caudal ; length 
of head, from tip of snout to upper edge of gill opening; width of 
interorbital space, measured on the bony septum between the eyes; 
length of snout, from tip of snout to orbit; diameter of eye, longi- 
tudinal diameter of exposed iris; in numbering the dorsal and anal 
rays the short anterior rays are included. 

Suborder GYMNODO\TES. 

Plectognaths without a spinous dorsal, with the bod}" short and 
with the bell}' inliatalile; the scales typically spiniform, with root-like 
insertions, and with the jaws enveloped in an enamel-like covering, 
without distinct teeth. This group contains degraded Plectognaths, 
which have lost the scales, spinous dorsal, and distinct teeth. In the 
extreme forms the pelvis, i-ibs, and caudal vertebri>? are also lost, the 
species depending on their dermal armature, leathery skin, or inHat- 
able belly for protection from enemies, while little power of active 
movement remains, {yvixvos^ naked; odovg^ tooth.) 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1254. 

229 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

a. Pelvis very long, supporting the fan-shaped ventral area; upper jaw divided by a 
median suture; lower jaw undivided; skin covered with rough plates; nostrils 

as usual among fishes Triopontid.k I. 

aa. Pelvis and ril^s obsolete. 

Ik Caudal region normally developed, with a caudal peduncle. 
c. Upper and lower jaw each divided by a median suture; maxillaries and 
dentaries each curved outward behind the premaxillaries; ethmoid more or 
less projecting in front of frontals; postfrontals extending outward at least 
as far as frontals. 
d. Vertebrae comparatively few, 15 to 21 in number; dorsal and anal short, of 
7 to 15 rays. 
e. Back broadly rounded; frontal bones articulated with the supraoccipital, 
postfrontals confined to the sides; ethmoid short, narrow, little promi- 
nent to view above; vertebrte few; head broad; nostrils various. 

Tetkaouontid.f. II. 

ee. Back more or less sharply ridged; frontal bones separated from the 

supraoccipital by the postfrontals, which meet in the middle; ethmoid 

prominent above, enlarged and narrowed forward; snout pointed; 

dorsal and anal very short; nostrils obsolete or very small. 

TROPIDICHTHYIDyE III. 

cc. Upper and lower jaw each undivided, the premaxillary and dentary bones 
coossified into sutureless arches; maxillaries extended laterally behind; 

body covered with stout, rooted spines DioDONTiniE IV. 

hh. Caudal region of body aborted, the body truncated behind the dorsal and 
anal; jaws each without median suture Molid.e V. 

Family I. TRIODONTID^. 

Body covered with small, bony, scale-like, partly imbricated laminse. 
Abdomen dilatable into a very large compressed pendant sac, kept 
expanded by a very long pelvic bone; lower par-t of sac merely a flap 
of skin, into which the air does not penetrate. Skeleton ossified, the 
ribs well developed. Dorsal and anal short. Tail long, ending in a 
many-rayed forked fin. Upper jaw divided by a median suture; lower 
entire. Nostrils normal, with two openings on each side. 

A single known species, representing a transition from the ordinary 
fishes to the Gymnodont type. 

1. TRIODON Reinwardt. 

Triodon Reinwardt, Cuvier, Rcgne Anim., 3d ed., 1829, p. 588 {hursnrius) . 

(Characters of the genus indicated above.) 
[rpsh, three; odoi>g^ tooth.) 

I. TRIODON BURSARIUS Reinwardt. 

Triodon bursarius Reinwardt, Cuvier, Regne Animal, 2d ed., 1829, p. 588, 
Sumatra. — Bleeker, Atlas Gymnodontes, 1867, j). 84, pi. x, fig, 1, Amboyna, 
Harouka, Banda. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 270, Mauritius, India. 

Triodon macropteruf! Lesson, Voy. Coquille, 1830, p. 103, pi. iv, Mauritius. 

Head, 3f ; depth, with sac, 3f; depth, without sac, 3i; dorsal rays 10; 
anal rays 0. Eye large, 4 in head; mouth rather large, its cleft as 
long as eve. Color brown, with a large irregular ocellated black spot 



NO. 1254. G YMNODONT FISHES OF J A PA N—JORDA N A NT) SN 3 'DFJl. 231 

on side of bodj^ at base of ventral sac and between pectoral and anal, 
(Bleeker.) 

East Indies, not common; rarely north to Japan; a specimen from 
Misaki in the Imperial University' of Tokyo. Also recorded from 
Japan by Dr. S. Matsnbara. (^M7'6"ar/W, purse-like.) 

Family II. TETRAODONTID^. 

PUFFERS. 

Body oblong or elongate, usually little compressed, sometimes very 
broad; head and snout broad; belly capaV)le of great inflation; skin 
scaleless, usually more or less prickly, the spines or prickles usually 
weak and movable, not rooted; rarely the skin is armed with bony 
scutes forming a sort of carapace; each jaw confluent, forming a sort 
of beak, which in each jaw is divided by a median suture; maxillaries 
curved outward behind the premaxillaries; lips full; nostrils various. 
Spinous dorsal and ventral fins wanting, the fins composed of soft 
ra3'S only; dorsal fin posterior, opposite and similar to anal; caudal 
tin distinct; no ventral fins, the pelvic bone undeveloped; no ribs; 
pectoral fins short and broad, the upper rays longest; caudal fin and 
caudal vertebr<» normally developed. Medifrontals articulated with the 
supraoccipital, the postfrontals confined to the sides, the ethmoid more 
or less projecting in front of frontals; postfrontals extending outward 
as far as frontals; prosethmoid short and narrow, little prominent to 
view above; vertebrae few, 7 or S + 9 to 13. Gill openings small, 
placed close in front of pectorals; air bladder present. Fishes of 
sluggish movements, inhabiting warm seas, noted for their habit of 
tilling the stomach with air. When disturbed they then float on the 
surface, belly upward. They are not much used as food, even in 
Japan, the flesh ))eing ill-flavored and sometimes reputed poisonous. 

a. Frontal bones expanded sidewise and forming the lateral roofs of the orbits, the 
postfrontals limited to the posterior portions. Species chiefly marine. 
b. Nostril on each side with 2 distinct openings nsually in a low tube or 

papilla; frontal region longer than broad Spheroides, 2. 

hh. Nostril on each side with a bifid tentacle without distinct opening; frontal 
region broader than long; tins rounded Teiraodou, 3. 

2. SPHEROIDES Lacepede. 

SWELL-FISHES. 

Crayracion Klein, Missus 1742 {spengleri; nonbinomial). 

Les spheroides Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, 1798, p. 1 (French name only; 

tuber cule). 
Spheroides Dumeril, Zoologie Analytique, 1806, p. 342 {tnhercitlatiis— spengleri, 

from a drawing showing a front view) . 
Orbidus RAFiNESciUE, Analyse de la Nature, 1815, p. 90 (substitute for Les 

spheroides Lacepede ) . 
Spha-roides Lacepede, Pillot Edition, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VI, 1831, p. 279 

{tii,bercidatus=spe)u/leri). 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voI,.^-xIv. 

Lagocephalus Swainson, Nat. Hist. Class. Fishes, II, 18.39, pp. 194, 328 

{pennanti^lagocephalns) . 
Clrrhisomus Swainson, Nat. Hist. Class. Fishes, II, 1839, ])p. 194, 328 {gpcngleri). 
Cheilichthys MtJLLER, Abhandl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1839 (1841), p. 252 {tef<ti(- 

dineus). 
PhysogaMer MiJhhER, Abhandl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1839 (1841), p. 252 {hwaris) 

(name preoccupied). 
Gaf<trop}t!/siif> MvLhER, Wiegmann's Archiv., IX, 1843, p. 330 {Innaris). 
Hohtcantlmx Gronow, Syst. Nat., p]d. Gray, 1854, ]). 23 (includes all Tdmndonfidx 

and Dindontldic); name preoccupied. 
Anchisormts Kaup MS., Richardson, Voyage Herald, 1854, ])p. 156, 162 {spen- 

gleri, etc. ) . 
Les stenometopi's (Stenometopus) Bibron, Revue de Zoologie, 1855, p. 279 (teMiidi- 

neus, etc. ) . 
Geneion Bibron, Revue de Zoologie, 1855, p. 279 [maculatum). 
Catophrynchiis Bibron, Revue de Zoologie, 1855, p. 279 (Imirprh). 
Les j)romecocephales {PromecorepJtalus) Bibron, Revue de Zoologie, 1855, p. 279 

( argentalus) . 
Apsicephalus Hollarp, Etudes sur les Gynniodontes, 1867, j). 324 {testiidineus, 

etc.). 
lAosacoiH GiJNTHER, Cat. Fish., \'III, 1870, p. 297 (cutaneus). 

Body oblong or elongate; skin variou.sly prickly or smooth, .some- 
times with cirri. A single, short, simple nasal tube on each side, with 
2 rather large openings near its tip, the tube sometimes reduced to a 
mere rim. Dorsal and anal lins of 6 to 15 mys each; caudal truncate, 
rounded, or concave. Vertebrae IS to 21. Frontal bones expanded 
sidewise and forming the lateral roof of the orbit, the postfrontals 
limited to the posterior portions. Species verj^ numerous in warm 
seas. The group contains 2 or 3 strongly marked subgenera, which 
would be regarded as distinct genera if only extremes were considered. 
But the transition is very gradual from Lagocephalus., with elongate 
body, silvery skin, prominent lateral fold, long falcate dorsal and anal, 
with forked caudal, to typical Spheroldes^ with short fins and the form 
of Tetrodon. Most Japanese species belong to the subgenus Lagoce- 
phalus. 

{ff(])aip(x^ sphere; eiSog^ resemblance; the genus based on a front 
view, in which the fish was represented as spherical.) 

a. Lagocephalus. Dorsal and anal each with 12 to 14 rays, the fin usually acute at 
tip; nostril short, scarcely produced as a pajiilla. 
b. Caudal fin more or less distinctly lunate; dorsal and anal falcate; mucous tul)es 
on head distinctly developed. 
c. Lateral fold on sides of body evident. 

d. Back and belly distinctly prickly, the prickles sometimes embedded in the 
skin. 
e. Back with rather large scattered black spots; sides with a silvery band; 

gill opening black sceleratus, 2. 

ee. Back nearly plain gray, without spots; sides silvery; gill opening pale. 

spadiceus, 3. 

eee. Back with close-set black dots, coarse or fine; sides not silvery; prickles 

very small, often entirely hidden stictonotus, 4. 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 233 

(Id. Back and belly without prickles, or very nearly so; color plain brown above, 

without dark spots; sides silvery; lateral fold very distinct hiermis, 5. 

cc. Lateral fold obsolete; color i)lain I)rown, a dark blotch behind pectoral; skin 

without prickles ]>orp]iyr('us, 6. 

hli. Caudal fin subtruncate or rounded; dorsal and anal less falcate; lateral fold 
usually obscure. 

/. Spots or stripes on body blackish, distinctly darker than the ground 
color, and well defined. 

ff. Back and belly with strong prickles; region behind pectoral with 
a black blotch or biack streaks; form robust; ground color 
brownish, the fins reddish. 
i. Side of tail without dark horizontal stripes; a large l)lack ocellus 

behind pectoral, another at base of dorsal ruhripcx, 7. 

a. Side of tail with two or three black horizontal stripes; back 

plain or with dark blotches xantho]>ten(s, 8. 

gg. Back and belly without prickles; no distinct black l)lotch behind 
Ijectoral or at base of dorsal, the back and sides covered with 
round black spots; lateral fold evident. 
j. Caudal fin blackish, without bars or spots. 

k. Caudal fin rounded; spots on back sparse on a brow^iish 

ground color pardalis, 9. 

kk. Caudal fin truncate; spots on back close-set on a pale 

ground abbutti, 10. 

jj. Caudal fin barred, the l)ars formed of black spots on the rays; 
sides with a gray lateral band and large dark spots and 

venniculations above it exascurus, 11. 

If'. Spots on body pale, light gray, or white (sometimes forming vermicu- 
lations about the darker ground color); a large blackish blotch 
behind pectoral and another below dorsal. 
I. Back and belly distinctly prickly. 
m. Black blotch behind pectoral connected by an ocellated 
black bar over the back with its fellow . .ocellatm, 12. 
mm. Black blotch behind pectoral not connected with its 
fellow; back with spots and streaks of gray. 

alboplumbeus, 13. 

U. Back and belly without jarickles or very nearly so; pectoral 

blotches not connected. 

n. Spots on back mostly broader than the interspaces, 

dull gray in color. 

0. Pale spots vermiculate, irregular in form; bony 

interorbital broad, 2 J in head vermicularis, 14. 

00. Pale spots rounded in the young, becoming with 
age pale areas which coalesce about round spots 
of the olivaceous ground color; bony interorbital 

narrow, 3^ in head borealis, 15. 

nn. Spots on back pure white, sharply defined, mostly 

narrower than the interspaces niplioblc!^, 16. 

aa. Dorsal and anal short, rounded in outline, each of 6 to 10 rays; nostrils in a 
prominent tube; caudal rounded; no lateral fold. 

p. Spiieroides. Body above and below closely 
prickly; back with irregular dark blotches. 

ricJwl, 17. 

pp. LiosACCus. Body entirely smooth, back and sides 

chocolate brown, with irregular scattered black 

streaks and spots chrysops, 18. 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi,.xxiv. 

2. SPHEROIDES SCELERATUS (Forster). 
GINFUKU (SILVER PUFFER). 

Tetraodon sceleratus (Forster) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1788, p. 1444 (Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans). — Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 506, fair description after 
Forster. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 276, Zanzibar, Ceylon, Madras, 
Amboyna, Philippines, Formosa, South Australia. — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 
1697, p. 2, Kagoshima. 

Tretrodon argenteus Lacepede, Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat., 1804, p. 211, pi. lviii, 
fig. 2, New Holland. — Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., p. 275, pi. cxxi, tig. 2, 
Nagasaki. — Bleeker, Atlas Gymnodontes, p. 64, pi. v, fig. 1, Java, Bali, 
Singapore, Bangka, Biliton, Borneo, Celebes, Amboyna. 

Tetrodon. argyropleura Bennett, Proc. Comm. Zool., II, 1832, p. 184. 

Tetrodon argentatus Blyth, Prodr. Fauna, Zeyl., p. 49, Ceylon. 

Tetrodon bicolor Brevoort, Exped. Japan, 1856, p. 283, Shimoda. 

Head 3i; depth 4; dorsal rays 12; anal rays 12. Head and back 
covered with line shagreen; abdomen with small, three-rooted spines; 
side naked. Body very slender, the tail depressed, the lateral fold 
di.stinct from the chin to the tail; dorsal and anal falcate; caudal 
lunate, with pointed angles; pectoral with its upper angle sharp. 
Greenish, with round scattered black spots above, not confluent and 
all smaller than pupil; sides with a distinct silver}^ band, below which 
is a brownish band which runs around the chin; a triangular silvery 
area before eye; gill opening jet black. Vertebrae 7 + 10 = 17. Length 
2i feet. (Gunther.) 

East Indies, north to Japan (Nagasaki, Kagoshima, Shimoda) ; rather 
scarce; not seen by us. {Sceleratm, rascall}', the flesh being reputed 
poisonous.) 

3. SPHEROIDES SPADICEUS (Richardson). 
SABA-FUKU (MACKEREL PUFFER). 

Tetrodon lunar'ts'^ Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 277, pi. cxxii, fig. 1, 

Nagasaki (probably not of Schneider, 1801). — Nystrom, Handl. Svensk. 

Vet. Ak., 1887, p. 48, Nagasaki.— Ishikavva, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 1, Boshu, 

Tokyo. 
Tetrodon spadicevs Richardson, Voy. Sulphur, Ichth., 1844, p. 123, pi. lviii, 

figs. 4, 5, Canton. — Bleeker, Atlas Ichth. Gymnodontes, p. 64, pi. in, fig. 

1, Java, Sumatra, Banka, Borneo, Celebes, Amboyna. 
Tetrodon lunaris var. spadiceus Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 275, Vizaga- 

patam, Malabar, Borneo, Philippines, China. 

Head 3i in length; depth 3f ; depth of caudal peduncle 5 in head; 
eye 4it; snout 2; interorbital space 2^; dorsal vays 12; anal ra3^s 12. 

Body rather elongate, the caudal peduncle narrow, cylindrical; 
dorsal contour little elevated; head flat above, the interorbital space 

'According to Dr. Bleeker, Spheroides spadiceus is distinguished constantly from 
S. lunaris (Schneider) of the East Indies by the longer body, the relatively smaller 
head, the smaller ey6s, the rounded and not angular form of the subocular part of 
lateral line, and by the smoothness of the region behind the tip of the pectoral. One 
of our specimens from Nagasaki has the subooular part of the lateral line evenly 
rounded, while the others have it quite angular. 



N0.1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JOttDAN AND SNYDER. 21^5 



,sli<rhtly concave, the distance lietween eyes about equal to twice their 
diameter; snout rather long, about twice the diameter of eye. Nostrils 
separate, not tubular, in a shallow, oval depression, their distance 
anterior to eye about equal to half the space between eye and upper 
edge of gill opening. Teeth pointed in front, their cutting edges 
concave, the groove between upper teeth pronounced, bordered on 
each side by a ridge. Gill opening extending a little above base of 
pectoral, the inner or secondary Hap completel}^ hidden by the outer. 

A line of mucous pores extending from the upper, anterior part of 
snout backward below eye, curving upward behind ey^e, passing in a 
broad curve above the pectoral, bending downward in the region of 
the dorsal, and running along middle of caudal peduncle to base of 
caudal tin; a transverse line extending across nape, connecting the 
lateral lines and forming the posterior boundary of a quadrangular 
space, the upper and anterior boundary lines of which unite to pass 
forward over the eye, then downward just posterior to the nostrils 
to join the lateral line; a branch line extending from snout, bending 
downward behind mouth to chin, then running backward along breast 
and disappearing on belly; each line composed of two rows of minute 
papillw. A small but distinct ridge passing along lower side of head, 
below base of pectoral, curving upward over base of anal and extend- 
ing along lower part of caudal peduncle to base of caudal tin. A 
dorsal patch of small pricklej extending backward from nostrils, the 
posterior border acutely convex in shape, ending at a point a))ove tips 
of pectorals; in one specimen a few prickles grow back almost to 
insertion of dorsal; throat, breast, and belly with a patch of prickles, 
larger and farther apart than those above, not extending to the vent. 

Dorsal and anal somewhat falcate, the latter inserted on a vertical 
passing through a point a little anterior to the middle of the former; 
the dorsal slightly higher than the anal, li in head. Caudal lunate, 
the upper lobe slightly longer than lower. Edge of pectoral straight. 

Color gray or faintly mottled above; silver^'- on lateral and ventral 
parts; tins pale; edges of dorsal and caudal darker. ^ 

Here described from Nagasaki specimens. An example from Tokyo 
has a brownish spot on upper part of base of pectoral. 

East Indies, north to Japan; rather common. Our specimens from 
Tokj^o (2) and from Nagasaki (8). {S_padiceus^ nut-brown.) 

4. SPHEROIDES STICTONOTUS (Schlegel). 

Tetrodon stictonotus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 280, pi. cxxvi, fig. 1, 
Nagasaki. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, p. 281, Nagasaki. — Nystrom, Hand. 
Svensk. Vet. Ak., 1887, p. 48, Nagasaki.— Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p 2, 
Tokyo. 

Gasirophi/Kus .<itkirmotus Bleeker, Act. Soc. Indo-Nederl., Japan, IV, p. 30. 

Head 8| in length; depth -ir^; depth of caudal peduncle H| in head; 
eye 7i; snout 2i; interorbital space ^|; dorsal rays 16; anal rays 14. 



236 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Body very long, the head much shorter than the distance between 
nape and insertion of dorsal; upper contour of head evenly rounded, 
the back not much elevated; caudal peduncle somewhat compressed, 
its depth 3| in head, its length about equal to that of head. Eye 
rather small, aliout 2f in snout. Interor})ital space slightly convex, the 
distance between eyes -ii times their longitudinal diameter. Nostrils 




Fig. 1. — Spheroides stictonotus (Nagasaki). 

separate, located almost transversely on an oval elevation a little 
larger than pupil. Teeth bluntly pointed in front; the cutting edges 
concave, the groove between the teeth scarcely perceptible; ridges on 
either side of groove not prominent; upper and lower teeth of about 
the same width. Inner or secondary flap at gill-opening protruding. 
Lines of mucous pores on body like those of S. rt/lrijje.s. Lateral 




Fig. 2. — Spheroides stictonotiis (Hakortate). 

fold evident, though not very prominent. Skin with small prickles, 
those on the upper anterior parts completely embedded; snout, sides 
of head, chin, upper and lower parts of caudal peduncle, and a narrow 
area along side of body naked. 

Dorsal inserted a little in advance of anterior rays of anal; lioth fins 
falcate, of about equal height. If in head, the anterior rays shortened. 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 237 



tho fourth or fifth ray longest. Caudal truncate, the upper and lower 
ravs slio-htly leng-thened at tips. Posterior edge of pectoral straight 
or slightly convex; length 2 in head. 

Color dark slaty gray above, belly white; sides of head closely 
sanded with bhick points; rest of body almost uniforiiilj" colored, 
without distinct points; dorsal and caudal black, the tip darkest. 

Schlegers description and figure of the species is founded on a stuffed 
skin, which accounts for the prominence of the prickles and the short- 
ening of the space between the head and the insertion of the dorsal fin. 

Coasts of Japan; here described from a fine specimen about 480 
mm. long from Hakodate. 

Two specimens, about 350 mm, long, from Misaki, agree with the 
above description except that they are very finely marbled above. 
Another of about the same length from Nagasaki is also finely marbled; 
in some places entirely black, {GriKtog, spotted; vrotog^ back. 

5. SPHEROIDES INERMIS (Schlegel). 
KANABUKU (METAL PUFFER). 

Tetrodon inermis Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 278, pi. cxxii, fig. 2, 
Shimabara. 

Head 3|; depth 3; dorsal rays 12; anal rays 12, Body rather elon- 
gate, the lateral fold distinct; back entirely smooth; belly with small 
spines; fins rather falcate; the caudal lunate, with pointed angles. 
Color olive-green, unmarked; sides and below silvery. (Schlegel.) 
Southern Japan, once taken at Shimabara in Kiusiu, not seen by us; 
evidently very close to the American species S. Imvigatus. {mermis^ 
unarmed.) 

6. SPHEROIDES PORPHYREUS (Schlegel). 

NAMERABUKU (SLEEK PUFFER). 

leirodon porphyreus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 282, pi. cxxi, tig. 1, 
Nagasaki. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 287 (after Schlegel). — 
Nystrom, Handl. K. Svensk. Vet. Akad., 1887, p. 48, Nagasaki. 

Head 2f; depth 3; dorsal rays 11; anal rays 12, Body rather stout, 
the tail shortish, the distance from-vent to base of caudal less than 
half the distance to tip of snout; lateral fold wanting or reduced to a 
trace; skin everywhere smooth, the back with scattered papillre; fins 
falcate, the caudal lunate, the anal li in head. Color purplish brown 
above, white below^; a large blackish blotch behind pectoral; papillae 
pale. (Schlegel.) 

Coast of Kiusiu; not seen by us. Said to be taken at Nagasaki in 
winter. [Ttop^vpeog, purple.) 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSFAJM. vol.xxiv. 

7. SPHEROIDES RUBRIPES (Schlegel) . 

MABUKU (TRUE PUFFER), TORABUKU (TIGER PUFFER), YANAdlBUKU 

(WILLOW PUFFER). 

Ttirodon rtihrijx's Schlegkl, Fauna Japoniea, 1847, p. 283, pi. cxxiii, fig. 1, 
Nagasaki. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 279, Nagasaki. — Nystrom, 
Handl. Svensk. Vet. Ak., 1887, p. 48, Nagasaki.— Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, 
p. 2, Rikiiizen, Kaga. 

Gadrophysus rubripes Bleeker, Act. Soc. Indo-Nederl., Japan, VI, p. 68. 

Lacjocephalus rubripes Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , 1900, p. 360, 
Tokyo. 

Head 3 in length; depth 3i; depth of caudal peduncle 3| in head; 
eye 8; snout 2|; interorbital space 2f ; dorsal rays 14; anal rays 13. 

Body rather stout, the caudal peduncle not very slender, compressed 
laterally. Head large, nearly square, in transverse outline, its length 
almost equal to distance between head and insertion of dorsal; inter- 
orbital space broad, fiat. Eye small, 3^ in snout. Nostrils sepa- 
rate, located almost transversel}^ in an oval elevation; about an eye's 
diameter from eye. Teeth rather pointed anteriorly, the cutting edge 
concave; groove between the upper ones well defined, the ridges 
prominent; lower teeth wider than the upper ones. Inner flap of gill 
opening exposed. 

Latter fold of ])ody rather distinct posteriorly. A line of nnicous 
pores extends from a point on the snout backward, below and close 
to the eye, bends upward behind the eye to a point above the gill- 
opening, from which point a branch crosses the occiput to meet the line 
of the opposite side; thence backward along the upper part of the side 
of body and caudal peduncle and slopes downward to middle of base of 
caudal fin; from a point behind eye a branch runs downward, disap- 
pearing on the throat; from behind the origin of this branch a line 
extends upward, bending forward above the eye and downward pos- 
terior to the nostril, joining the line first mentioned; no inclosed 
quadrangular space behind eye; snout with a transverse line above; a 
line passes backward from chin on each side and disappears on the 
breast; an indistinct line extends from below pectoral backward above 
base of anal to caudal tin. Back with rather small prickles from inter- 
orbital space to near insertion of dorsal fin; under parts with slightly 
larger prickles from just behind chin to vent; other parts of head and 
body naked. 

Dorsal and anal rather pointed, not falcate, both of about the same 
height, 2 in head; dorsal inserted a little in advance of anal. Caudal 
truncate, If in head. Pectoral convex posteriorly, about 3 in head. 

Color dark brown above, white or yellowish below; a large black 
ocellated blotch behind the pectoral; another at base of dorsal, extend 
ing on the fin; two or three smaller blotches faintly ocellate behind 
the pectoral blotch; caudal blackish; lower fins orange in life; no hori- 
zontal stripes on sides of body. 



N0.12M. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAl'AN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 239 

Described from a .specimen about 350 mm. long, collected at Waka- 
noura. Younger examples about 200 nmi, long, have small pale spots 
on the back and have the post-pectoral row of fainth^ ocellate spots 
absent; otherwise they are colored as the adult, with the exception 
that the large ocellate spot behind pectoral is more conspicuous. 
Young of 70 or 80 mm. length, gra}', with five dark cross bands 
above, besides dark clouds; -black blotches obscure. 

Length 450 to 500 mm. Coast of southern Japan: not rare. Our 
four specimens from Tok\'^o and AYakanoura. It is one of the most 
strongly marked species. {riihei\ red; />(«, foot.) 

8. SPHEROIDES XANTHOPTERUS (Schlegel). 

Telrodon ranthopterus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 284, pi. cxxv, fig. 1, 
Nagasaki. — Nystrom, Handl. Svensk. Vet. Akad., 1887, p. 48, Nagasaki. 

Gastruphysus xantJiopterns Bleeker, Act. Sue. Indo-Nederl., Ja])an, 1852, VI, 
p. 68. 

Head 3f in length; depth 3^; dorsal rays 16; anal ra} s 13. 

Length of head less than distance between head and insertion of 
dor.sal; interorbital space broad, If in head. Teeth bluntly pointed 
before, the cutting edge concave; groove between teeth prominent, the 
ridge on either side of groove low. Back prickl}- from nostrils to 
dorsal tin: abdomen with rather long, sharp prickles: sides and tail 
smooth. Lateral fold obscure. Dorsal and anal rather high and fal- 
cate. Caudal moderately lunate. 

Color bluish; sides silver}^, the back with cro.ss .shades or bands; 3 
or 4 o])lique streaks behind pectorals, besides some roundish blotches; 
sides of body and tail with 3 horizontal stripes, the upper fading into 
the color of the back, the stripes oblique at the anterior end. Base of 
dor.sal and pectorals dusky; fins yellow. The dark markings behind 
the pectorals vary, even in the same tish. 

Length 400 or 500 mm. Southern Japan; rare. A single stuffed 
specimen obtained by us at Nagasaki. 

It is regarded by Dr. Giinther as a variation of S. rubri^jes, but the 
coloration is markedly different and the fins'are higher and more acute. 
{SavOos^ yellow; Ttrepov, fin.) 

g. SPHEROIDES PARDALIS (Schlegel). 

Tetrudon jxirdalis Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, p. 282, pi. cxxi, fig. 2, Nagasaki. — 
GtJxTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 281, Nagasaki. — Nystrom, Handl. Svensk. 
Vet. Ak., 1887, p. 48, Nagasaki. — Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1900, p. ;360, Tokyo. 

Head 3 in length; depth 8^; depth of caudal peduncle 3i in head: 
e3'e 5^; snout, 2f ; interorbital space 2f; dorsal rays 10 or 11; anal 
rays 8 or 9. 

Body rather robust; caudal peduncle conical, its length 1^ in head; 
length of head .somewhat less than distance between gill-opening and 



240 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



insertion of dorsal. Eye 2 in snout; interorbital space concave. Nos- 
trils separate, placed laterally in an oval elevation. Teeth bluntly 
pointed in front, the cutting edges slightly concave; suture without a 
deep groove, ridges on either side not prominent. Inner fold of gill- 
opening slightly exposed. 

Lateral fold perceptible onl}^ posteriorly, where it is rather obscure. 
Lines of mucous pores like those of S. ruhrijyes,' skin soft, without 
jn-ickles, almost entirely covered with small elevations resembling- 
embedded scales. Fins low, about 2J- in head, not falcate, the poste- 
rior edges convex. Caudal If in head, rounded posteriorly. Pectoral 
short, 2i in head. 

Color brownish, rather dark; back and sides covered with round, 
blackish spots, somewhat smaller than the pupil; the interspaces not 
so wide as the spots; no large black spot above tip of pectoral or at 
base of dorsal. Fins dull orange; dorsal dusky; caudal blackish. 

Coasts of Japan, rather common, reaching a length of about 380 
mm. It varies somewhat in markings, but is easily distinguished 
from related species by the black spots. Our specimens are from 
Tokyo, Misaki, Matsushima, Onomichi, and Nagasaki. {napdaXig^ 
leopard.) 

lo. SPHEROIDES ABBOTTI Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 2f in length; depth 4; depth of caudal peduncle 4 in head; eye 
6; snout 2|^; interorbital space 2^; dorsal rays 13; anal rays 12. 

Body rather broad, robust, tapering posteriorly to the small, cylin- 
drical, caudal peduncle, which is a])out equal in length to head; length 




Fig. 3.— Spheroides abbotti. 



of head considerably less than distance between gill-opening and inser- 
tion of dorsal; head nearly square in cross section; eye small, about 
half way between tip of snout and gill-opening; interorbital space 
broad, flat; distance between eyes about 3i times their diameter; jaws 
equal; teeth with scarcely perceptible ridges in front, the suture with- 
out a deep groove; not pointed anteriorly, the cutting edges almost 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 241 

.straight: inner flap at gill-opening* equal in length to the outer, pro- 
trudnig a little; no.strils .separate, in an oval elevation. 

Lateral fold })re,sent. A line of nuicoas pores extending from a 
point behind the mouth backward, below, and close to the eye, passing 
in a broad curve above the pectoral, bending downward and running 
to the middle of base of caudal; a branch passing over nape just above 
gill-opening; another leaving the lateral line behind the eye, going 
downward and disappearing on the throat; a third, having its origin 
immediately ]»ehind the latter, going upward and forward, passing 
downward close behind the nostrils, and joining the lateral line; a 
branch crossing the snout above; a line extending along side of body, 
below lateral fold, from a point below tip of pectoral to base of caudal; 
no inclosed quadrangular space behind e3^e. Skin smooth. 

Dorsal and anal tins pointed, the edges straight or slightly concave; 
of about equal height; If in head. Caudal 1| in head, subtruncate, 
the upper lobe slightly pointed, the lower somewhat rounded. Pec- 
toral -2.^ in head; of 13 rays. 

Color light gray, abruptly white below; back covered with close-set 
black spots mostly smaller than the pupil and broader than the inter- 
spaces which form reticulations around them; numerous small spots 
below the eye; spots largest on upper part of tail, some of them con- 
fluent; spots on upper part and below Ijase of dorsal mostly confluent, 
forming elongate blotches. Caudal dusky posteriorly; edged above 
and below with pale; other fins grayish. 

Tokyo Bay. Known from one specimen about 325 mm. long. Type 
No. 6523, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 

It is distinguished from S.pardalis by the smaller, closer set spots, 
the general gray coloration, and the more concave caudal. From 
S. sficfonotxs it difi^ers in color, in having smooth skin, less falcate 
fins, and fewer dor.sal and anal rays. (Named for James Francis 
Abbott, of Hachiman. fJapan, formerly of Leland Stanford Junior 
University, in recognition of his studies of Japanese animals.) 

II. SPHEROIDES EXASCURUS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^ in length, depth 1^; depth of caudal peduncle 3^ in head; 
eye 1; snout 2f ; interorbital space 2^; dorsal rays 12; anal rays 12. 

Body moderateh' elongate, not broadened anteriorly; caudal pedun- 
cle not compressed, its length slightly less than that of head; length 
of head much less than distance between gill opening and insertion of 
dorsal. Eye large, 1^ in snout. Interorbital .space concave; distance 
between e3'es a little more than twice their diameter. Nostrils separate, 
in an oval elevation. Teeth bluntly pointed anteriorly, the cutting 
edges concave, the suture without a deep groove; ridges on either side 
of groove scarcely perceptible. Lower jaw projecting beyond the 
upper. 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 16 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Skin smooth ; a few small, deeply imbedded prickles on the breast 
and belly. Lines of mucous pores distinct; the lateral line extending 
from a point behind the mouth backward below and close to the eye, 
passing in a broad curve above the pectoral, bending downward and 
running to the middle of base of caudal; a branch passing over nape 
just above gill opening; another leaving the lateral line at a point 
close behind eye, going downward and disappearing on the throat; a 
third having its origin immediatel}^ before the latter, going upward 
and forward, passing downward close behind the nostrils and joining 
the lateral line; no inclosed quadrangular space behind eye; a branch 
crossing the snout above; a line originating near the angle of mouth, 
extending downward along the chin; curving backward along throat 
and bending upward to near base of pectoral; another beginning 
below and a little before the end of the latter, running backward, 
curving upward over anal, and extending to base of caudal. 

Fins high, the dorsal pointed, its posterior edge straight, the longest 




Pig. 4. — Spheroides exascurus. 



rays li in head; anal similar in shape, slightly higher than dorsal. 
Caudal subtruncate, somewhat rounded posteriorly. Pectoral about 
2i in head; of 14 rays. 

Dark gray abo>e, the color ending abruptly at the lateral fold; belly 
white; back blackish, with obscure grayish vermiculations; sides with 
very distinct, gray reticulations around irregular black spots, some of 
which are as large as pupil; sides of head very distinctly marked; a 
large black spot on ])ase of pectoral; no distinct black ])lotch behind 
pectoral or below dorsal; dorsal with dark clouds; caudal with its rays 
distinctly spotted and reticulated like sides of bod}'; gra}' area of sides 
extending below the dark spots. 

Misaki; described from a fine specimen about 200 mm. long. Type 
No. 6524, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. The species 
is related to S. ahhottl^ but differs from that and all others in its pecul- 
iar markings and especially in the extension of the spots and streaks 
on the caudal fin. 

{iB>aaKeoo^ to adorn; ovpd, tail.) 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 243 

12. SPHEROIDES OCELLATUS (Osbeck). 

Tetrodon ocellatus Osbeck, Iter Chinensi.s, 1757, p. 226; English ed. I, p. 364; II, 
p. 331, Canton. — Linn^us, Syst. Nat, 12th ed., p. 411, after Osbeck. — Rich- 
ardson, Voyage Sulphur, 1843, p. 120, pi. lviii, figs. 1, 2; Canton, Japan. — 
GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 279, China. 

Head 3; depth 3. D. about 14; A. 14. Body rather robust, cov- 
ered with minute spines from near nostrils to dorsal fin; abdomen 
entirely cov^ered with similar spines, sides naked; dorsal and anal low, 
slightly falcate; lateral ridge obscure; caudal truncate; upper teeth 
without ridge in front; olivaceous, sides silvery, young with round 
pale spots; a large black spot behind pectoral on each side, this con- 
nected with its fellow b}^ a black cross band over the back; this band 
and the spots edged all around by white; a black, white-edged blotch 
at base of dorsal. Length about a foot. (Giinther); (Richardson). 

Coasts of China, mentioned b}" Richardson as from Japan, where it 
is probably' rare; not seen by us. Common about Canton. {Ocellat-m, 
ocellate.) 

13. SPHEROIDES ALBOPLUMBEUS (Richardson). 

XAGOYABUKU (XAGOYA PUFFER); KOMONBUKU (SMALL MARBLED 
PUFFER); SHIWOSAIBUKU (ESTUARY PUFFJER). 

Tetraodon alhoplumbeus Rich.vrdson, Voy. Sulphur, Ichth., 1S44, p. 121, pi. lviii, 

figs. 6, 7, Canton; Ichth. China, p. 199, Canton. — Bleeker, Atlas Gymno- 

dontes, p. 62, pi. i, fig. 1, Sumatra, Borneo, Java. 
Gastrophysus alboplumbeus Bleeker, Nat. Tydskr. Nederl. Ind., VII, p. 104. 
Lagocephalus alboplumbeus Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , 1900, p. 360, 

Tokyo. 
Tetrodon oblongus var. alboplumbeus GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII., p. 278, Sumatra, 

China, Japan. — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 2, Izu, Riukiu, Kiusiu, Tokyo. 
Tetrodon parilonofus Sciilecjel, Fauna Jap., 1847, p. 279, pi. cxxvi, fig. 2, Nagasaki. 
Tetrodon niveatus Brevoort, Japan. Fish., 1856, p. 284, Shimoda. 
f Tetrodon hartlandi Bianconi, Mem. Accad. Bologna, VI, p. 146, pi. 11, fig. 1, 

Mozambique. 
f Gastrophysus niicrophthalrnus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, XXIX, 1867, p. 174, 

Sifang. 

Head 3i in length, depth 3|; depth of caudal peduncle 3f in head; 
eye of; snout ^i; interorbital space 3; dorsal rays 12; anal ra3^s 11. 

Body rather elongate, the dorsal contour little elevated; caudal 
peduncle not compressed, its length li in head; length of head much 
less than distance between gill opening and base of caudal. Eye 2^ in 
snout; interorbital space broad. Hat. Nostrils in elevated, oblong, 
papilla?, the openings lateral. Teeth scarcely pointed before, the 
cutting edges somewhat concave; suture without groove; no vertical 
ridges on either .•side of suture. Inner flap at gill opening exposed; 
width of gill opening equal to base of pectoral. 

Lateral fold prominent. Lines of mucous pores as described in 
aS'. abbottl^ with the addition of one extending from chin backward and 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

upward to near base of pectoral. Skin of back and belly covered with 
prickles; the two areas confluent both before and behind pectorals. 

Color very much as in S. vermicularis ; grayish black above with 
numerous round, pale spots which are larger, more confluent, and more 
irregular on sides, none of them sharply defined or stellate, most of 
them broader than the interspaces; a dark blotch behind pectoral; 
another at base of dorsal; the dark blotches more apparent on young 
individuals; caudal dusky toward tip; other fins more or less dusky. 

Coasts of Japan, especially southward, generally common. Our 
specimens are all small, none over 160 mm. in length. They are from 
Aomori, Tokyo, Wakanoura, Onomichi, and Tsuruga. 

Except for the prickly back and sides, this species is scarcely 
difi^erent from Sjjheroldes vennicularis. Our specimens represent 
Tetraodon jjmcilonotlis Schlegel, which seems to be identical with the 
Chinese species called 8. alhoplumbeus. Spheroides oblongus of the 
East Indies is different in color from any of these, Tetrodon niveatus 
from Shimoda with "many small blotches of bluish white" must be 
the present species rather than aS. nlpliobleH^ which has small stellate 
spots of pure white. 

{Alhwi^ white; j^l/umheim^ lead color.) 

14. SPHEROIDES VERMICULARIS (Schlegel). 

MABUKU (TRUE PUFFER). SHIWOSAIBUKU (ESTUARY PUFFER). 

Stachelloser AufUaser aus Nagasaki Krusenstekn, Reise, Atlas, pi. li, fig. 1. 
Tetrodon vermicularis Schlegel, Fauna .Taponica, 1847, p. 278, pi. cxxiv, fig. 1. 

Nagasaki. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870,p.280, after Schlegel. — Ishikawa, 

Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 2, Esashi, Tokyo, Boshu. 
Gastrophysus vermicularis Bleeker, Verh. Bat. Gen., Japan, XXV, p. 125. 

Head, 3i in length; depth 3^; depth of caudal peduncle 3| in head; 
eye 5i; snout 2f ; interorbital space 2|; dorsal rays 12; anal rays 12. 

Bod}^ somewhat elongate, the caudal peduncle not compressed, its 
length 1^ in head; length of head considerably less than distance 
between gill opening and insertion of dorsal fin. Eye 2^ in head; 
interorbital space flat. Nostrils in an oblong elevation, not tubular. 
Teeth scarcely pointed anteriorl}^, the cutting edges concave; no con- 
spicuous depression along suture, and no vertical ridge on either side. 
Width of gill opening equal to that of base of pectoral, the inner flap 
exposed somewhat. 

Lateral fold well developed. Lines of mucous pores not very distinct, 
arranged as in S. ahhottl. Skin smooth. 

Dorsal and anal If in head, pointed; the anal somewhat falcate. 
Caudal truncate If in head. Pectoral 2 in head, the upper angle rather 
acute, the lower rounded. 



N0.1254. GYMNODONT FISHES Of JAPAN— JORDAJ^ AND SNYDER. 245 

Color dark, with rounded or oblong irregular bluish white spots 
a])ovo, which are confluent along- sides into larger, elongate spots and 
vermiculations which are smaller on head and middle of back; a large 
dark blotch behind pectoral; traces of a dusky spot below dorsal; 
caudal dusky posteriorly; other lins with a little dusky; the anal often 
without dark color. The ground color is sometimes gray; in other 
cases almost black. There are some variations in amount of pale 
markings. 

Southern Japan, rather common. Known from the other entirely 
smooth species by the vaguely defined vermiculate pale spots, which 
are larger along the sides. 

Here described from a specimen from Kobe; numerous others are 
from Tokyo, Misaki, Tsuruga, and Nagasaki. The species seems to 
reach a small size only, and none show any signs of prickles. 

{Vermicidaris^ with worm tracks.) 

15. SPHEROIDES BOREALIS Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 3^ in length; depth 4i; depth of caudal peduncle 4^ in head; 
eye 5^; snout 2i; interorbital space 8f, dorsal raj's 13; anal vay^i 11. 




FlO. 5. — SPHEROIDES BOREALIS. 



Body moderately elongate, the dorsal contour little elevated; the 
caudal peduncle narrow, not compressed, its length contained about 
li in head. Length of head much less than space between gill-opening 
and insertion of dorsal; interorbital space slightl}^ convex. Ej'^e 2f in 
snout. Nostrils located in an oval elevation. Jaws equal. Teeth not 
pointed anteriorh", the cutting edges straight; suture between teeth 
without deep groove, the vertical ridges on either side of suture 
evident though not prominent. Gill opening not quite so wide as base 
of pectoral, the inner flap exposed along its edge. Lateral fold 
present. Skin without prickles. Lines of mucous pores indistinct; 
lateral line running from snout backward below eye, curving upward 
over the pectoral, passing downward and backward to base of caudal 
fin; a branch passing over the nape above gill openings; a branch pass- 



246 



PROCEEDIN'GS OP TItE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Vol. XXIV. 



ing from behind e3^e, upward and forward, curving downward between 
nostril and eye, and joining the lateral line; another branch, having 
its origin posterior to the eye, coinciding with the latter, passing down- 
ward and disappearing on the throat; a branch passing over the snout 
just anterior to the nostrils; a line extending downward and backward 
from chin to a point near base of pectoral;" another, having its origin 
below and a little anterior to the latter, running l)ackward below 
lateral fold to base of caudal. 

Dorsal and anal pointed, the latter slightly falcate, the height a])out 
If in head. Caudal truncate, its length 1^ in head. Pectoral slightly 
rounded posteriorly, 2| in head, the num])er of rays 14. 

Color dark brown above, with faint, rounded, pale spots, sometimes 
confluent in vermiculations, around darker spots, pale spots, those on 
back a little smaller than those on sides, none of the spots white and 
none sharply deflned. A round jet-black spot, edged with pale above 
tip of pectoral, this well defined and larger than eye, not meeting its 
fellow across the back; a large black blotch on and below base of dorsal; 
dorsal and caudal largely dusky toward tip; pectoral and anal pale. 

Here described from a specimen about 180 mm. long, from Mororan, 
Hokkaido. Type No. 6525, Leland Stanford Junior University 
Museum. 

This species is ver}^ close to Spheroides vermicularis, but the body 
is stouter, the bony interorbital area narrower, and the spots are 
more distinctly rounded, when vermiculate surrounding darker spots 
of the ground color. It is extremely abundant in northern Japan. 
Our ver}^ many specimens, none more than 6 inches long, are from 
Otaru, Mororan, Hakodate, Aomori, Same-Minato, and Matsushima. 

{Borealis^ northern.) 



Measurements of SpheroUles horealis. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length . 

Depth ol' eandal peii uncle 

Lengtli of eiiiiilal peduncle 

Length <il head 

Width I if interorbital space 

Length of snout 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to dorsal fln 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Height of longest anal rays .' 

Length of caudal fin 

Number of rays in dorsal fin 

Number of rays in anal fln 



Mororan, 


Hokkaido. 


Hak 
131 


odate, 


Hokkaido. 


151 


142 


142 


98 


113 


100 


54 


26 ,t 


25 


26 


27 


26 


26 


25 


28 


7 


7 


7i 


7 


V* 


8 


7 


8 


26 


• 25 


251 


24 


25i 


23i 


25 


24 


31 


31 


32 


32 


32i 


31 


32 


35 


9 


9^ 


9 


9 


9 


8 


7 


6* 


15 


14 


13 


14 


14 


13* 


13 


15 


6 


6 


6 


6i 


7 


6* 


7 


7* 


65 


64i 


65 


67 


67 


65* 


66 


69 


18i 


18i 


16i 


18 


17 


17 


17 


17* 


20 


18 


17* 


19 


17 


16i 


18 


17 


18 


19 


19 


•)•) 


19 


21 


19 


22 


13 


13 


13 


14 


13 


13 


13 


13 


11 


12 


11 


11 


12 


11 


12 


11 



i6. SPHEROIDES NIPHOBLES Jordan and Snyder, new species. 



Head 3^ in length; depth 8|; depth of caudal peduncle 3f in head; 
eye 5; snout 2i; interorbital space 3; dorsal rays 12; anal rays 10. 



N0.1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 247 

Body rather robust, almost as wide as deep; caudal peduncle conical, 
not compressed, its length If in head. Head much shorter than dis- 
tance between gill opening and insertion of dorsal. Eye about Ih; in 
snout; interorbital area flat, the space between eyes 2^ times their 
diameter. Nostrils in low, oblong, elevations. Teeth obtusely pointed, 
the cutting edges concave; sutures between teeth without groove, 
the elevations on either side scarcely noticeable; width of gill-opening 
somewhat less than that of base of pectoral, the edge of inner flap 
exposed. 

Small prickles on nape, anterior part of back, and on lielly. the skin 
elsewhere smooth. Lateral fold rather prominent posteriori}-. Lines 
of mucous pores rather distinct; arranged as in S. horeaUs. 

Dorsal and anal fins rounded, their height 2 in head. Caudal convex 
posteriorly; its length li in head. Pectoral 2^ in head, its posterior 
edge convex; number of rays, l-t. 




Fig. 6.— Sphekoides niphobf-es. 



Color dark grayish, everywhere above covered with sharply defined 
white stellate spots; nearly all round, narrower than their interspaces, 
and not enlarged or confluent along sides; a distinct black blotch above 
pectoral, with white below it, but not surrounded by white; a black 
blotch below soft dorsal; caudal dusky at tip; fins otherwise pale. 

Described from type No. 6526, Leland Stanford Junior Universit}^ 
Museum; from Tokyo, Japan. 

Our numerous specimens are from Tokyo, Misaki, Wakanoura, 
Tsuruga, and Nagasaki. On some of these the dark color on the side 
is bordered by a dusky shade. In a few the lateral spots are a little 
larger than those on the back. In all the space just below eye is 
without distinct spots. 

This species is very close to S. aJhojilumheus^ but is smoother, and 
differs from all the others in the stellate character of the spots, which 
are distinctly white. 

{vi(^o/3X?}g, snowed on, from the stellate spots.) 



248 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Measurements of Spheroldes nipliohles. 



Length in millimeters 

Depth expressed in hundredths of length 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Length of head 

Width of interorbital space 

Length of snout 

Diameter of orbit 

Distance from snout to dorsal fln 

Height of longest dorsal rays 

Height of longest anal rays 

Length of caudal fin 

Number of rays in dorsal fin 

Number of rays in anal fin 





Tok 


•0, .Ta 


pan 




119 


120 


100 


98 


98 


28 


28 


26i 


26 


29 


9 


8i 


8i 


8 


8i 


24 


24i 


25 


24 


22 


3B 


32 


32 


32 


34 


lOi 


9 


10 


8i 


10 


14i 


12i 


14 


14 


If) 


8 


7 


8 


7 


7 


tJ9 


(i8 


(i9 


07 


70 


18 


18 


17i 


18 


18 


19 


17i 


17 


17* 


20 


22 


22 


23i 


21 


24 


12 


12 


12 


12 


12 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 



17. SPHEROIDES RICHEI ( Freminville ). 

NAGOYABUKU. 

Tetrodon richei Freminville, Nouv. Bull. Philom., II, p. 250, pi. iv, fl^. 2. — 
Bleeker, Atlas lehth. (Tyninodontes, p. 461, pi. ix, fig. 3, Derwent, Hobart- 
town, Ta.«niania. — Guxther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 285, New Zealand, 
South Australia, Hobarttown. — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 2, Kagoshima. 

Head 3i: depth 3f ; D. <); A. 10. 

Body from the lips, above, below, and on both sides, closely covered 
with small spines; caudal peduncle smooth; snout obtuse; interorbital 
space broad; orbit with a free fold for its whole circumference; no 
lateral fold on })ody or tail. 

Color greenish, whitish below, with a few large irregular l)lack 
spots or blotches above, some of these about as large as eye. 

Coasts of Australia and New Zealand (Bleeker); a specimen from 
Kagoshima, referred to this species l)y Dr. Ishikawa, is in the Imperial 
Museum of Tokyo. This identification is by no means certain. 

18. SPHEROIDES CHRYSOPS (Hilgendorf) . 

Tetrodon cJirysops Hilgendorf, Ritzgber. Naturf. Freunde, May 20, ls79, p. 80, 
Tokyo, typ- No. 10625, Mus. Bed. 

Head 2i in length; depth 2^; depth of caudal peduncle 3 in head; 
eye 5i; snout 2f, interorbital space 2|; dorsal ravs 10; anal raj'^s 9. 

Body very robust, the caudal peduncle somewhat compressed, its 
length about li in head. Head large, its length equal to distance 
between gill opening and insertion of dorsal (not quite so long in one 
specimen). Interorbital space somewhat concave, occasionallv Hat or 
slightly convex. Eye moderate, 2 or 2i in snout. Nostrils with tubes, 
the openings lateral. Teeth not pointed in front, the cutting edges 
straight or somewhat concave, the suture without a deep groove, no 
ridges bordering suture. Gill opening small, not extending above 
upper edge of base of fin,. the inner or secondary flap slightly exposed. 

Body naked, the skin covered with minute pits. Lines of nuicous 



NO. 12.54. GYMXODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 249 

pores similar to those of S. ahhotti^ except that the upper and lower 
branches just behind the eye are concurrent, and the line extendinj^ 
from the chin backward is very indistinct. 

Dorsal and anal of equal height; If in head; rounded. Caudal \\\ 
rounded posteriorly. Pectoral about 2 in head; its posterior edge 
convex. 

Pinkish brown above or chocolate color, becoming gradually paler 
below; back with scattered, very irregular l)lack spots and mottlings, 
all smaller than eye; no large black blotches behind pectoral or below 
dorsal; lins j)lain dusky; the caudal tipped with l)lackish in one speci- 
men; iris vellow. 




Fin. 7. — SPHEROIPES (-HRYSOPS. 

Coast of Japan, here described from four specimens, the largest 
about 300 mm. long, from Tokvo market and from Misaki. 

It is a well marked species, allied to S. pardal'ts^ but known at once 
by its color and its ])lump form. 

(Xpt'fTOs, gold; coi\\ eye.) 

3. TETRAODON Linnseus. 

Teiraodon LiNX.EUs, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758 {lineatm). 

IjCS Oroides L.\cepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, 1797, p. 256 {fascc; French names 

only); based on front view of Tetraodon stellatus. 
Oruin Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 530 {rommersoni); after 

Lacepede; name preoccupied in mollusks. 
Oroides Dumeril, Zoologie Analytique, 1806; after Lacepede. 
Oonidus R.\finesque, Analyse de la Nature, 1815, p. 90 (substitute for Orurii). 
Arothron ]Muller, Abh. Berl. Akad., 1839, p. 252 {1estudinarius=reticularis) . 
Les Epipedorhynques {Epipedorlnjnrhus) Bibron, Rev. Zool., 1855, p. 279. 
I^es Dilohomycteres {Dilobomycter) liiBRoy, Eevue Zool., 1855, p. 279 {retiodaris, 

etc). 
I^es Dichotomycteres {Dicho(omycter) Bibrox, Rev. Zool., 1855, p. 279 {furiatilis; 

no diagnosis). 
Brachycephalus Hollard, Gymnodontes, 18(57, p. 324. 
Crayracion Bleekeh, Atlas Gymnod., p. 65, after Klein, 1742; type spengleri, 

erroneously supjwsed to belong to this group. 



25U PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Bod}' rather robust, the skin usually more or less prickly. Nostril 
on each side with a tentacle, bifid to the base, its tips without opening, 
the branches of the large olfactory nerve ending in cup-like depres- 
sions along the inner edges of the two flattish lobes. Dorsal and anal 
^fins rounded, each of 7 to 14 rays; the dorsal more or less in front of 
anal; caudal rounded. Vertebra? usually 8+10 = 18. A ring muscle 
about the eye forming eyelids. Species numerous, chiefly of the 
tropical Pacific; distinguished from Spheroidex by the solid nasal 
tentacles. Most or all of our species belong to the section or genus 
Ovotfles, distinguished by the form of the postf rontals and prefrontals, 
which are deflected to describe the segment of a circle. The value 
of this character should be tested before Ovoldes is recognized as a 
distinct genus, {rhpa^ four; oSovg, tooth.) 

a. Tetraodon: Dorsal and anal rather large, each of about 14 rays; body everywhere 

with round pale spots; belly paler than back .firtnameidum, 19. 

aa. OvoiDEs: Dorsal and anal small, each of about 10 rays. 

h. Spots on back.})lack, darker than the ground color; spines on belly black; 

forehead broad, flattish; spines stiff aerustaticm, 20. 

hb. Spots on back whitish or pale, paler than the ground color; spines on belly 
whitish, rather flexible, 
c. Belly crossed by black parallel stripes with white interspaces, the stripes fad- 
ing with age; interorbital are; con -^ave; gill-opening black hispidvs, 21. 

cc. Belly covered with round white spots on a dark background, like the back; 
interor1)ital area narrow, flattisli; prickles very close-set rneleagri.% 22. 

19. TETRAODON FIRMAMENTUM (Schlegel). 

HOSHIFUKUTO (STARRY PUFFER). 

Tetrndon fir „i amentum Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, p. 280, pi. cxxvi, fig. 2, 1847, 
NagasakL — Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Uen., Japan, XXVI, p. 124.— Gunther, 
Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 299, Nagasaki. 

Body rather elongate; small two-rooted spines covering every part, 
except snout and posterior part of caudal peduncle. Snout 2| in 
head, a little less than width of interorbital space, which is rather 
convex. Dorsal and anal higher than in other species, each of about 
14 rays, the front of anal nearly under middle of dorsal; caudal long, 
truncate. 

Color grayish above, paler below; the entire body and base of the 
caudal covered with ovate white spots, smaller than the eye and nar- 
rower than the interspaces of the ground color. Length, a foot. 

Nagasaki; known only from the original types; not seen by us. 

{Ftnit((ii(enfi(iii, the sky; from the starry spots.) 

20. TETRAODON AEROSTATICUS (Jenyns). 

Tetrodon line(dvs Bloch, Ausliind. Fische, I, 1785, p. 128, pi. cxli (not of 
Linnajus), and of various authors. — Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 287, 
pi. cxxv, fig. 2, Nagasaki. 

ArothrouHneatus Bleeker, Verb. Bat. (Jen., Ja]ian, p. 40. 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 251 

Orayracion Ihwahis Bleeker, Atlas Gymnodontes, p. 70, pi. ii, %. 1; pi. viii, 

fig. 1, Bali, Singapore, C'elebes, Amboyna. 
Tetrodon aerostaticus Jenyns, Voy. Beagle, p. 152, 1842, locality unknown. 

Head, 2^ in length; depth of caudal peduncle, 3^ in head; eye, 7i; 
snout. 2i; interorbital space, 2f ; dorsal rays, 10; anal rays, 10. 

Body short, broad, and very deep, the -belly greatly inflatable; 
caudal peduncle somewhat compressed, its length 3 in head. Eye 
small, ;H ill snout. Interorbital space broad, flat, the distance between 
eyes i times their diameter. Mouth small, its width about 2 times 
diameter of eye. Cutting edges of teeth concave, the suture without 
deep groove, and without ridges on either side. Nostrils with ])ifld 
tentacles; no apparent openings. Gill-opening almost as wide as base 
of pectoral. 

Lips, liases of flns, and caudal peduncle naked, the other parts of 
body covered with prominent spines; those of the upper parts and 
sides sharp, those of belly club-shaped. 

Fins all rounded, the membranes thin; dorsal and anal about 3 in 
head, caudal 2 in head. Pectoral rays 19. 

Color veiy dark brown; everywhere above with round, jet-black 
spots of different sizes, but all smaller than eye; belly with broad, 
black bands, more or less confluent and irregular, those anteriorly 
forming black reticulations around pale spots; vent black; base of pec- 
toral and anal with black spots, the caudal spotted, the other tins plain. 

East Indies; occasionally north to Japan; here described from a fine 
specimen taken at Houmoku, near Misaki, b}" Capt. Alan Owston. 
A smaller specimen, also from Misaki, shows no black spots abore and 
the liands below are narrower, widely separated, and parallel. In both 
the spines are black, both on the light and dark ground color. 

Dr. Giinther unites this, with several other of Bleeker's species, 
under the name of Tetrodon stellatus. The oldest name, however, 
certainly belonging to the present form is aerostaticus. Tetrodon 
stellatii.s is figured as having the rather high dorsal, like the caudal, 
well spotted with l)lack. It is, however, possible that Tetraodon 
stellatus is the adult of the same fish. 

{Aerostations, resting in air as a balloon.) 

21. TETRAODON HISPIDUS Linnaeus. 

? Tetraodon hispidus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 333, China, after 
Lagerstrom (probably this species, the spots not indicated in Lagerstrom's 
figure); Syst. Nat., 12th ed., 1766, p. 41L— ? Bloch, Ausl. Fische, I, about 
1786, p. 130, pi. cxLii, Coromandel. 

Tetrodon hispidus Gijnther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 297, Red Sea, Zanzibar, 
Ceylon, Mozambique, Port Natal. 

Tetrodon perspiciUarls RtJppELL, Atlas Fische, p. 63, Red Sea. 

Tetrodon implutus Jk^yss, Voyage Beagle, Fish., 1842, p. 152, Vanikoro. 

Crayracion implutus Bleeker, Atlas Gymnodontes, p. 71, pi. i, fig. 5, Sumatra, 
Cocos, Solor, Timor, Batjan, Amboyna, Banda. 



252 PRfX'EEDINQS OF THE NATTONAL MUSEUM. vouxxiv. 



Telraodon Interna Richardson, V(iy. Sulphur, 1842, p. 124, pi. lxi, fiij;. 2, Canton, 
after an incorrect drawinj^ l)y John Rfeeves. — Richardson, Ichtli. China, 
p. 199, Canton. 

Arothron laternn Bleeker, P^nnm. Pine. Archip. Ind., p. 200. 

TetrodonJiispidns (senmtriatns) GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 297, Amboyna, 
Aneitum, Australia. 

Head, 2| in length; depth of caudal peduncle, 3 in head; eye, 6; 
snout, 2i; interorbital space, 3; dorsal rays, 10; anal rays, 10. 

Body robust, the belly enormously distensible, caudal peduncle 
compressed; the length 2i in head. Length of head less than distance 
between gill opening and insertion of dorsal. Interorbital space flat or 
somewhat concave, the distance between eyes 3i times their diameter. 
Cutting edges of teeth concave; suture without a deep depression, on 
vertical ridges along its side. Gill opening not quite so wide as base 
of pectoral. Nostrils with bifid tentacles, without apparent openings. 

Lips, upper part of snout, bases of fins, and caudal peduncle naked; 
other parts covered with prickles or short, slender spines; those of the 
upper parts very short and pointed; of the lower parts longer, pointed, 
and with a minute, fiesh}^ bulb near the tip. Lines of mucous pores 
very indistinct; a line (encircling the eye) passing in a broad curve 
above pectoral, then bending downward and extending to base of 
caudal fin. 

Fins small, their edges rounded; dorsal and anal, 3^ in head; ?audal. 
If; pectoral, 3. 

Color blackish gray, the upper parts with oblong or rounded pale 
spots alK)ut as large as pupil; interspaces wider than spots; a large 
black blotch surrounded by a white ring around base of pectoral and 
gill opening; chin dusky; belh" whitish, with parallel stripes of black, 
which fade and grow narrower on the median part; caudal Avith small 
white spots; other fins pale or with a little dusk3\ 

Smaller specimens have the pale spots above much more obscure, 
while the black stripes on the belly are very distinct. The upper 
stripes arc most distinct and are deeper in color at intervals, leaving a 
trace of about -t dark cross bars on the side. 

In adult specimens, apparently of the same species, collected in 
Honolulu by Dr. O. P. Jenkins, the stripes on the belly are obsolete. 
In the young from the same locality they are very distinct. 

East Indies, north to the Riukiu Islands. Here described from a 
specimen, 5^ inches long, from Okinawa (Coll. Y. Koneyama), and from 
two others, each of which is about 4 inches long, from Ishigaki Islands 
(Yaeyama; Coll. Capt. Alan Owston). The larger specimen is evidently 
identical with Bleeker's imjjlutm and Richardson's laterna. The 
synonymy of Riippell we have taken from Dr. Giinther. The unidenti- 
fied description of Tetrodon hispidus seems to belong to this species. 
The type came from China and was marked by vague, dark cross 
bands, but no pale spots are figured. 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 258 



22. TETRAODON MELEAGRIS Lacepede. 

Tetrodon melcdyrla Lacepbde, Hiwt. Nat. PoLss., I, 1799, pp. 476, 505; seas of 
Asia, on a drawing by Cpmrnerson. ^Richardson, Voyage Sulphur, Fish, p 
122, pi. XLVii, 57, figs. 1-3, locality unknown, probably China Seas; also 
notes a drawing from Tahiti by Solander. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, 
p. 299, Richardson's type. 

f Arothron ophryas Cope, Fishes Lesser Antilles, 1870, jj. 479, Navigator Islands. 

f Ovoides ophryas Fowler, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1900, p. 528, pi. xx, fig. 
2, after Cope's type. 

f Ocoideg lafifrons Je^^ki^h, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1899 (June 8, 1901), p. 398. 
Honolulu. 

Head, 2^ in length; depth of caudal peduncle, 3^ in head; eye, 8; 
snout, 2|; interorbital space, 2^; dorsal vajii, 10; anal rays, 10. 

Body robust, the belly capable of great inflation; dorsal contour 
evenly rounded, not much elevated; contour of snout slightly concave. 




Fk.; s.— Tetraodon meleagris. 



Head large, its length less than distance between gill opening and 
insertion of dorsal fin; interorbital space somewhat convex. Eye 
small, the diameter about 3 in snout; a little nearer to tip of snout 
than to gill opening. Dental plates of about equal width, the suture 
without a deep groove, and without vertical ridges on either side. Gill 
opening not so wide as base of dorsal. Nostril with a bifid tentacle 
with 2 compressed flaps; no apparent opening. 

Lines of mucous pores not evident except above eyes. Bod}^ every- 
where except lips, border of gill openings, and bases of fins hispid 
with rather slender, thick-set spines; those of the back short and 
rather rigidly set; those below nearly twice as long and more easily 
depressed; the transition from shorter to longer spines gradual on 
the sides. 

Fins with rounded edges; dorsal and anal of equal height, 2| in 
head; caudal. If; pectoral, 2. 

Color dark brown or blackish, the spines whitish; everywhere 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

covered with small, round, stellate, whitish spots, rather regularly 
placed, all narrower than pupil, and narrower than the interspaces. 
All the spots are round and those on sides of head, throat, and ])elly 
are largest. No bands on belly; base of pectoral black, with white 
spots; dorsal and anal dusky. Caudal spotted like the body. 

Pacific Ocean. 

One specimen from Okinawa, 125 mm. long, collected by Yonekichi 
Komeyama. 

We identify this species with some doubt with Tetraodon melear/ri>< 
as described, and as figured by Richardson. The only notable difler- 
ence lies in the form of the pale spots, which are lenticular or oblong 
in T. ineleagris and round in our specimen, as also in the specimens 
called ophryas and Jatifrons. 

{Meleag7HS^ a Guinea hen.) 

Family III. TROPIDICHTHYID^. 

SHARP-NOSED PUFFERS. 

This family includes small puffers, similar in external appearance to 
the Tetraodontida% but with the snout sharp and the back more or 
less compressed or ridge-like. The skeletal characters by which the 
group is defined are thus given by Dr. Gill: Medifrontals separated 
from the supraoccipital by the intervention of the sphenotics which 
are connected together and laterally expanded, but short; theproseth- 
moid prominent above, enlarged and narrowed forward. Vertebrge 
about S + 10. Head compressed, with a projecting, attenuated snout; 
dorsal and anal short, few-rayed. Nostrils wanting or little developed. 
Tropical seas; small species; none of them reaching a length of more 
than 6 inches. 

a. Nostrils small, consisting of a raised rim with a small perforation 

Euimidcrias^ -i^. 
4. EUMYCTERIAS Jenkins. 

Eumycterias Jenkins, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1899 (Jmie 8, 1901), p. 399 

{bitieniatus) . 

This genus differs from Tra'pidichtkyK. in the less complete atrophy 
of the nostrils. These are reduced each to a raised rim or small 
papilla with a small perforation like a pin-prick. 

(ew, well; fxvKxi^p^ nostril.) 

^ The nostrils are entirely wanting in TVopidichthys, the other genus of this family. 
The following is the synonymy of Tropidichthys: 

C'anthigaster Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fishes, II, 1839, p. 194 (diagnosis only; no 

species mentioned) . 
P.s?7ono<«s Swainson, Nat. Hist. Fishes, II, 1839, p. 328 {rofiiratas); substitute for 

C'anthigaster; not Psllunotua, a genus of Hymenoptera of prior date. 
Prilonotus (Kaup MS.) Richardson, Voyage Herald, 1854, p. 162 {rudrutus; 

misprint). 
Tropidichthys Bleeker, Nat. Tyds. Nederl. Ind., IV, 1854 {valentini). 
Anosmius Peters, Wiegmann's Arch. 1855, p. 274 {txniatus). 
Rhynchotus (Bibron) Hollard, Etudes Gymnodontes, 1857, p. 320 {peroni). 



No.l2^. GYMXODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 255 

23. EUMYCTERIAS RIVULATUS (Schlegel). 

KITAMAKURA (SLEEPER WITH IIPIYD TO NORTH); YOKOBUKU 
(CROSSWISE PUFFER); AKAMEBUKU (RED-EYED PUFFER). 

Teirodon rivulatus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poises., 1847, p. 285, pi. cxxiv, 

fig. 3, Nagasaki. — Gdnther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 305 (copied). — Ishi- 

KAWA, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 2, Sagami, Tokyo. 
Tetrodon grammatocephalus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Pois8., 1847, p. 286, pi. 

cxxvi, fig. 3, Nagasaki (young with obscure coloration). 
f Eumycterias hitxniatus Jexkixs, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1899 (June 8,1901), 

p. 400. Honolulu. 

Head 2f in length; depth 2|; depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head; 
e,ye 4i; snout If; interorbital space 3f ; dorsal rays 10; anal rays 10. 

Bod}^ robust, deep, compressed, the dorsal contour greatly elevated, 
the outline from snout to occiput straight, the ventral contour evenly 
rounded; caudal peduncle deep, compressed, its length 1| in head. Head 
triangular in outline, its length equal to distance between gill-opening 
and dorsal fin; interorbital area narrow, nearly flat. Eye oblong, 2^ 
in snout. Snout long, pointed. Nostrils with a single tube in a small, 
round papilla. Teeth scarcely pointed anteriorly, the cutting edges 
straight, the suture without a deep groove; no vertical ridge on 
either side of groove. Width of gill-opening equal to one-half base 
of pectoral. 

A median elevation or fold of the skin extending from chin to anal 
opening. Skin smooth or with embedded prickles on adult specimens 
(100 to 150 mm. long). Young individuals with prickles above and 
below. With increasing age the prickles sink into the thick skin and 
entirely disappear. In dried specimens the}^ are present, having 3 
roots. 

Color, olivaceous above, bright violet below. Adults marked above 
with numerous narrow l)right blue lines running in various directions 
on the nape and back, mostly longitudinal on front of snout, and on 
back of tail, and descending vertically or obliquely about the eye; 
besides these lines are numerous vermiculations, especially on bod}^ 
and tail, while the belly and sides are sprinkled with orange dots. 
These are especially numerous above and behind the chin and about 
the gill opening. Belly with blue spots. All these markings are 
variable and some of them fade in spirits. Dorsal blackish at base, 
otherwise pale; caudal dusky bluish, its base dusky above and below. 
Specimens of about 150 mm. are marked as above. Those of about 
100 mm. have in addition a dark curved line before gill opening, the 
upper part of which extends backward toward caudal. Smaller ones 
show in addition two blackish lateral stripes, the one extending from 
the eye nearl}- to the caudal, the other from the tip of snout, below 
pectoral; dark streaks before and behind gill-opening. Still smaller 
ones lack streaks and spots and have two black lateral bands, with 
a silvery interspace. 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Some specimens of 100 mm. (Nagasaki), corresponding to grammato- 
cephalus, lack streaks except about the eye, have no spots, the belly 
plain whitish, and the dark lateral streaks vaguely defined, the body 
mottled or blotched with paler. 

Comparison of ver}^ many specimens from Tok}^©, Misaki, Waka- 
noura, Kobe, and from Nagasaki leaves no doubt that all belong to a 
single species which varies much with age, as well as with the sur- 
rounding conditions. Additional variations arise in alcohol, which 
causes the fading of the violet and golden markings. 

Southern Japan, common in shallow bays about rocks from Tokyo 
to Nagasaki. The description of Emnycterias hitmiiatiis from Hono- 
lulu applies ver}^ well to a young specimen of this species. 

{Hlvulatus, having streaks like streams.) 

Family IV. DIODONTID^. 

PORCUPINE FISHES. 

Body short, broad, depressed above. Bell}^ moderately inflatable; 
body covered ever^^where except on the lips and caudal peduncle with 
spines, which are usually 2-rooted or 3-rooted at their bony base. 
Caudal peduncle short and slender. Mouth moderate, terminal, each 
jaw covered with a bony plate like the beak of a bird; these not divided 
by a median suture. Nostrils on each side forming a small tentacle, 
usually with 2 openings. Eye rather large, gill opening moderate, 
immediately in front of the pectoral, which is short, broad, and 
rounded. Dorsal and anal fins short, similar to each other, rounded 
in form and placed posteriorl3^ Sluggish fishes, living on the bottom 
among weeds and corals, in tropical seas. When disturbed, they 
swallow air and float belly upward on the water. Their capacity of 
inflation is very much less than that of the Tetraodontidoe,^ from which 
family they" differ chiefl}' in the stronger armature and in having no 
division in the bony plate of either jaw. They are rarel}^ used as 
food, being generally regarded as poisonous. The species are mostly 
well known in collections, the singular form having attracted the 
attention of travelers in the earliest times. 

a. Dermal ossifications mostly 2-rooted; the spines rather slender, but stiff and 

erectile. Nasal tentacle simple, with 2 lateral openings Diodon, 5. 

aa. Dermal ossifications all or nearly all o-rooted, each with a short, stiff, immovable 
spine. Nasal tentacle simple, with 2 openings C}dlo)nycterus, 6. 

5. DIODON Linnaeus. 

Diodon Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 335 {Jtystrix). 

Paradiodon Bleeker, Atlas Ichth., Gymnodontes, 1867, p. 56 {Itijstriv); name a 
substitute for Diodon, transferred to another genus; the first species mentioned 
by Linnteus being Diodon atinga, which was therefore taken by Bleeker as 
the type. 

Body robust, the bell}^ moderately inflatable. Dermal spines strong, 
stiff', most of them 2-rooted and erectile, a few 8-rooted and therefore 



NO. 1254. GYMNODONT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 257 



immovable; both jaw.s entire; nasal tube .simple, with 2 lateral open- 
ing.s. Pectoral,'^ l)road. theii' margin uncUihite. the upper lobe longest; 
vertical lin.s rounded, the dorsal and anal short, posteriorly inserted, 
similar to each other. Tropical seas: the few species very widely 
distributed. 

((J/b, two: odovg, tooth.) 

24. DIODON HOLACANTHUS Linnaeus. 

HARISEMBON (THOUSAND-NEEDLES) ; YATSCMEBVKr (EIGHT-EYED 
PFFFER); HARIFUKU (NEEDLE PUFFER). 

Ostracion oblongns ]ialaca»tlin.s ARTEin, Genera 60, No. 20, 1738, India. 
Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1738, p. 335, after Artedi. 
Diodon holacantJius Jordan and Evekmaxx, Fish. N. M. America, 1898, p. 1746, 

Florida Keys, La Paz. 
Diodon Uturosus Shaw, Gen'l Zool.. 1806, X, p. 436, pi. ir. New Gytherea after 

le diodon tachete of Lacepede. 
Diodon spinosissimits Cuvier, Mem. Mu.<., IV, 1818, p. 134; no locality. , 
Diodon novemmaculatus Cuvier, Mem. Mus., IV, 1818, p. 134; no locality. — 

ScHLEGEL, Fauna Japonica, 1847, p. 289, pi. cxxvni, fig. 2, Nagasaki. 
Diodon se.rmaculatus Cuvier, Mem. I\Ius., IV, 1818, p. 134, no locality. 
Diodon midiimaculatus Cvvier, Mem. Mus., IV, 1818, p. 134, no locality. 
Diodon quadrimaculatus CvxiER, Mem. Mus., IV, 1818, p. 134, Otaiti. 
Paradiodon quadrimacidaius Bleeker. Atlas, (iymnodontes, 1867, p. 58, pi. viii, 

fig. 2, Solor, Amboyna. 
Diodon melanopsis Kaup, Wiegmann's Archiv., 1855, p. 228. 
Diodon macuIatHs Guxther, Cat. Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 307, St. Croix, Jamaica, 

Hawaii, China, Sulu Sea, Indian Ocean. — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 1, 

Tokyo, Miyako-Shima, Riukiu. 

Eyes well behind line of angle of mouth. Frontal spines long, 
usually longer than post-pectoral spines, about twice as long as eye 
in adult; predorsa'l spines not shortened. 2-rooted, erectile: 1-i to 17 
.spines in a series betw^een snout and dorsal; post-pectoral spines not 
especially elongate, their development variable; dorsal ravs usually 
12; anal 12; pectoral V)roader than long, its upper lobe pointed, lower 
lobe rounded. Body marked with black spots and blotches irregular 
in size, usually a broad black bar from eye to eye, continued below 
eye as a narrow bar; a broad bar across occiput: a black blotch above 
each pectoral; a short bar in front of dorsal; another in which the 
dorsal is inserted; a blotch behind pectoral, and many small spots and 
blotches on upper parts: tins with few spots, usually unmarked in the 
young. Young (Mi.saki) with the belly .spotted: adult with tlw belly 
white, or with few spots. 

In all warm seas. Our Japanese specimens agree entirely with the 
description given by Jordan and Evermann, printed above. This 
species ma}^ be simply the young of the larger, equally co.smopolitan 
species, Dwdon hystr!,i'. In this form the frontal spines are smaller 
than those behind the pectorals. We have six specimens from \A'aka- 
noura and two from Misaki. 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 IT 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

6. CHILOMYCTERUS Bibron. 
KFRR-FISHES. 

f'liilomycfems Bibkox, in Barneville, Revue Zoologique, 1846, p. 40, (reficnlatus= 

figrlmis). 
<'}nl.omycterus Kaup, Wiegni. Archiv., 1847, p. 365 {antennatus). 
(tydlchthys Kaup, Wiegni. Archiv., 1855, ]:». 231 {orbimlaris). 
CynnicJifJn/s Kaup, Wiegm. Archiv., 1855, p. 231 (cwruleus) . 
THodoi) Bleeker, Atlas Ichth., (Tymnod., 1865, p. 55 {atinga), the first species 

named by Linnanis; not Diodnn, as properly restricted by Kanp to THodon 

hyMri.r. 

l^ody broad, depressed, moderatel}" inflatable. Dermal spines short, 
stout, ininiovable, triang'ular, each with 3 roots; nasal tube simple, 
with two lateral openings: the tube sometimes rounded, sometimes 
flattened, and with the partition feeble and easily torn so that the ten- 
tacle appears undivided: caudal peduncle short; tins small, formed as in 
D/odott ; jaws without median suture. Species numerous, of smaller 
size than those of Diodon, the spines broader and lower, their bases 
forming' a coat of mail. 

(jf?\oj, lip; }Avnri]p^ nose ''Narines non closes au sommet, mais 
chacune ayant Tapparence de deux levres, ou formee de deux tenta- 
cules reunis a la base.") 

a. C'hilomvcterus: Nasal tentacle flattened, divided; fins spotted with black; snpra- 
orliital spines 3, feeble; no s]>ine on forehead; supraocular cirrus wanting; upper 
parts with short, dark streaks or bars, becoming blotches on the sides. 

caVtJoTn\erm». 

25. CHILOMYCTERUS CALIFORNIENSIS Eigenmann. 

TORABUKU (TIGER PUFFER); HISHIBUKU (DIAMOND PUFFER); KAERU- 
BUKU (FROG PUFFER). 

DiotlDii ligriiius Schlec^el, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1847, p. 228, pi. cxxviii, 

fig. 1, Nagasaki, not of Cuvier. 
Chilomyciervf: figrinus Ishikawa. Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 1, Tokyo, Misaki. 
Chilomyctenoi ealiforniensis'^ Eigenmann, Amer. Nat., V, 1891, pp. 25, 1133, Ban 

Pedro, California. 
Chilomycterus californiensis Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 

p. 361, Tokyo. 
( 'lii/iimycterus ccdifornle7ms Snodgrass and Heller, Proc. Biol. S<jc. Wash., 1901, 

(Talapagos Islands. 

^The following is the substance of Dr. Eigenmann's account: No tentacles any- 
where. Spines of back all low, those of front especially so, increasing in size toward 
belly, where the}- become much larger than those of back. No spine on middle of 
forehead. A spine at upper anterior angle of orbit; one above, somewhat behind its 
middle; one slightly behind and above its upper posterior angle; another halfway 
between the last and the upper angle of pectoral, and another before and a little 
above the upper margin of pectoral. Blue above, white below; forehead and bases 
of all the fins with small (one-sixteenth inch) dark spots, fewer on anal; back 
<lensely covered with short streaks or bars, which become larger spots on sides; a 
few round dark si^ots (one-fourth inch in diameter) on belly; spots below eye larger 
tliaii those on forehead, similar in size to those on caudal peduncle. Length 9|- 
juclies. San Pedro, California. • 






NO. 1254. GYMNODOXT FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 259 

Head 2| in length; depth 3|; depth of caudal peduncle 5i in head; 
eye (width of bony orbit) 3f ; snout 3; interorbital space If; dorsal 
rays 12; anal raj^s 11. 

Upper contour of snout somewhat concave: interorbital space broad; 
concave; eyes placed obliquely, the anterior part of margins being 
nearer together than the posterior parts. Nasal tentacle flattened, 
bilobed. Gill opening somewhat wider than base of pectoral. No 
supraocular cirrus. Dental plates with a rough surface, without 
median suture, bluntl}" pointed anteriorh', the cutting edges concave. 

Spines all short and blunt, increasing in size posteriori}" both above 
and below; a very low, four-rooted spine on posterior part of inter- 
orl)ital space; three low supraocular spines, followed by a row of three 
somewhat higher spines, the posterior of which is above the pectoral 
fin; no spines on cheeks; middle of belly with very low spines; two 
small spines on upper part of caudal peduncle. 

Fins rounded; dorsal 2i? in head, anal 2^, caudal li, pectoral 2i. 

Color brown above, 3'ellowish white below, the color distributed in 
indistinct clouds on back; five more or less distinct broad vertical 
bands on sides, the first extending downward from front of orbit and 
across chin below, the second immediately anterior to gill opening, the 
third posterior to base of pectoral, the fourth just anterior to inser- 
tion of dorsal, the fifth at base of caudal fin; upper lip dark; fins with 
many round brown spots. 

Coasts of Japan, rare; also recorded from San Pedro. California, 
and the Galapagos; here described from a specimen from TokA'o. This 
specimen we can not separate from a Galapagos example which we 
identify as Chilomycterus calif orniensi'^ Eigenmann, obtained at the 
Galapagos Islands by Snodgrass and Heller. It is close to Chilomyc- 
terus atinga (Linnaeus) (= reticulatus) of the Atlantic. Comparison 
of specimens shows considerable variation, but no unquestionable dif- 
ferences among the Pacific examples. 

Family V. MOLID^E. 

HEAD-FISHES. 

Body oblong or more or less short and deep, compressed, truncate 
behind, so that there is no caudal peduncle. Skin rough, naked, spi- 
nous, or tessellated. Mouth very small, terminal; teeth completely 
united in each jaw, forming a bonj^ beak without median suture, as in 
the Diodontidxe. Dorsal and anal fins similar to each other, falcate in 
front, the posterior parts more or less perfectly confluent with the 
caudal around the tail; no spinous dorsal; no ventral tins; pelvic bone 
undeveloped; pectorals present. Belly not inflatable; gill openings 
sniall, in front of pectorals; an accessor}^ opercular gill; no air bladder. 
Fishes of the open seas, apparently composed of a huge head to which 
small fins are attached; found in most warm seas, pelagic in habit, 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

and reaching a very large size. The veiy young are variou.sl}" short- " 
ened in form and armed with spines. The flesh in these fishes is 
coarse and tough, and they are not used as food. 

a. Body suborl)iciilar, not twice as long as deep; skin tliick, rough, gristly, without 

hexagonal plates Mola, 7. 

aa. Body ol)long, about twice as long as deep; skin smooth, tessellated, with smooth 
hexagonal plates Raman ia, 8. 

7. MOLA Cuvier. 

Mol'i CrviER, Tal)leau Elem. Hist. Nat. Animaux, 1798, p. 323 (rotunda = mola). 
Oiihvagoriscus Bloch, Syst. Ichth., Schneider ed.,1801, p. 510 (mola); misprint 

for Ortliagoriscus. 
Cephalus Shaw, General Zoology, V, 1804, ])p. 2, 432 {mola). 
Orthragus Rafinesque, Caratt. Ale. Nuov. Gen. e Nuov. Sp. Anim. e Piante 

della Sicilia, 1810, p. 17 (Inna = mola). 
Diplanchias Rafinesque, Caratt. Ale. Nuov. Gen. e Nuov. Sp. Anim. e Piante 

della Sicilia, 1810, p. 17 (na.^u.'< = mola). 
Tympanomium Ranzaxi, Novi Comm. Ae. Sci. Bonon., V, 1837, p. 3, pi. after p. 

81 (planci-=mola). 
Trematopsis Ranzani, Novi Comm. Ac. Sci. Bonon., V, 1837, p. 3, .pi. after p. 81 

(willughheii = mola). 
Ozodura Ranzani, Novi Comm. Ac. Sei. Bonon., V, 1837, p. 3, pi. after p. 81 

(orsini = mola) . 
Pedalion (Guilding MS.) Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Cla.-s'n. Fishes, etc., 1839, I, 

p. 199; II, pp. 195, 329. 
Aledon Castelnau, Mem. sur Poissons Afrique Aust., 1861, p. 76 (sloreri = mola). 

larval forms. 

Molacanthus Swainsox, Nat. Hist, and Class'n Fishes, etc., IT, 1839, pp. 195, 

329 (pallasi). 
Pallasia, Nardo, Ann. Sci. Regno Lombard., Venet., V, 1840, pp. 10, 112, (pallasi). 
Acanthosoma De Kay, New York Fauna, Fishes, 1842, p. 330 (carbiatum) . 
Centotnts Kaup, Archiv. Naturgesch., I, 1855, p. 221 (hoops). 

Body ovate, strongly compressed, covered with a thick, rough, 
leathery, elastic skin, which is without bony plates. Profile forming 
a projecting fleshy nose above the mou^h. Dorsal fin beginning not 
far behind pectorals, short and high, falcate, confluent with the anal 
around the tail; no large spines on the body. Clumsy fishes, found 
in most warm seas, reaching a great size; the young {Jlo/aan/f/ia.s) 
with the body deeper, much compressed, without trace of caudal fin, 
its place taken by a row of marginal spines. 

{Mola, a millstone.) 

26. MOLA MOLA (Linnaeus). 

Tetrodon mola Linn^us, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, pp. 334, 412, Mediterranean; 

after Ostracion catheoplateus suhrotundus A.b.tedi, Genera, 1738, j). 61. 
Ortliagoriscus mola Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 510. — Schlegel, 

Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1847, p. 288, pi. cxxvii, Nagasaki. — Guxthek, Cat. 

Fish., VIII, 1870, p. 317. 
Mola iicaleata Kolreuter, Nov. Comm. Petropo!., X, 1766, ]>. 337, pi. viii, figs. 

2 and 3. 



I 



NO. 1254. (n'MXODOXT FISHES OF JAPAX—JORDAX AXD SXYDER. 261 

Mala roturnla Ccvier, Tableau Elem. Nat. Hist., 1798, p. 323; after Tetrodon mola 

Linnseus. 
Tetrodon lune Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, 1798, p. 509. 
Orthragoriscus Idsjndus Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 511. 
OrthagoriscHS fasciatus Bloch and Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 511. 
Cephalus brecis Shaw, Gen. ZooL, V, 1804, p. 437, pi. clxxvi. 
Cephahis pallasimms SnAvr, Gen. Zool., V, 1804, p. 440. 
Diodon carinatus Mitchill, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, II, 1815, p. 264, pi. 

V, fig. 1, New York. 
Acanthosoma carinatum De Kay, New York Fauna, Fishes, 1842, p. 330, pi. lv, 

fig. 179. 
Orthugoriscus spinosus Cuvier, Regne Animal, 1817. 
Cephalus 07-thagoriscus Risso, Eur. Merid., Ill, 1826, p. 173. 
Ozodura orsini Ranzani, Nov. Connn. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, 1839, p. 82, 

Mediterranean Sea; Nov. Coinm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., 111,18.39, pi. vi. 
Tympanomium inland Ranzani, Nov. Conim. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, 1839, 

p. 82, Adriatic Sea. 
Dtplanchias nasus Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, "in 

marei siculo." 
Trematopsis icillughbei Ranzani. Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, \>. 82, in 

oceano. 
Orthragoriscus retzii Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, no 

locality. 
Orthragoriscus ghini Ranz.\ni, Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, Medi- 
terranean Sea. 
Orthragoriscus rondeletii Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, 

3Iediterranean Sea. 
Orthragoriscus blochii Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, 

"in mari oceano." 
Orthragoriscus alexandrini Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Sci. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, 

Adriatic Sea. 
Orthragoriscus red i Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82, Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 
OrtJiragorisais oculeatus Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Inst. Bonon., Ill, p. 82. 
Orthragoriscus lunaris Gronow, Cat. Fishes, ed. Gray, 1854, p. 165, Mediterranean 

Sea. 
Orthragoriscus Solaris Gronow, Cat. Fishes, ed. Gray, 1854, p. 165, Mediterranean 

Sea. 
Orthragoriscus elegans Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Inst. Bonon., Ill, Atlantic Ocean. 
Orthragoriscus battarse Ranzani, Nov. Comm. Ac. Inst. Bonon., Ill, Adriatic Sea. 
AJedon storeri Castelnau, Poiss. Afr. Austr., pp. 75, 76. 

Aledon capensis Castelnau, Poiss. Afr. Austr., jjp. 75, 76, Cape of Good Hope. 
Pallasia pallasi Nardo, Ann. Sci. Regno Lombard., Venet., X, 1840, p. 112, Venice. 
Orthagoriscus analis Ayres, Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., II, 1854, p. 31, fig. liv, San 

Francisco. 
Mola ma^us Steenstrup and Lutken, Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh., 1863, p. 36. 
Mola retzii Steenstrup and Lutken, Overs. Dansk. Yid. Selsk. Forh., 1863, p. 36. 
Orthragoriscus ozodura Harting, Verhand. Ak. Wet. Amsterd., 1868, pp. 1—48, 

pis. I-VIII. 
Ostracion boops Richardson, Voy. Erebus and Terror, Ichth., 1844, p. 52, South 

Atlantic. 

Head 3; depth Ig; D. IT; A. 16, Dorsal and anal lin.s high in front, 
rapidly decreasing backAvard, the height of each about 2i in length of 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi.xxiv. 

body in adult; caudal tin low, with a wavy outline. Depth always more 
than one-half length, and in the young- the vertical diameter exceeding 
the longitudinal. Form varying nmch with age, the T)ody becoming- 
more elongate, the lin.s comparatively shorter, the eye much smaller, 
and a hump being developed above the mouth, topped by an osseous 
tubercle. Dark gray; sides graj^ish brown with silvery reflections; 
belly dusky ; a broad blackish bar running along the bases of the dorsal, 
caudal, and anal fins. 

Pelagic, inhabiting most temperate and tropical seas, swimming 
slowl}^ about, the high dorsal above the surface. Occasionallj' north- 
ward to Tokyo, England, Cape Cod, San Francisco; rare in the West 
Indies. It reaches a weight of 300 to 1.800 pounds. Japanese speci- 
mens are occasionally taken, but onl}- one, from Nagasaki, has been 
closely examined by us. This specimen has the dorsal very high, 2yV 
in body. The above description is from Atlantic examples. The 
published figures of Japanese specimens indicate no difl'erence. 

(Jfola, a millstone.) 

8. RANZANIA Nardo. 

Hanzania Nardo, Ann. Sci. Regn. Lonil)ar(l., ^'enet., V, 1840, jip. 10, 105, 

[tniitcatiis) . 

Body oblong, the depth about one-half height; skin smooth, tessel- 
lated, divided into small hexagonal scutella; caudal truncate. Other- 
wise essentially as in Mola, the size smaller. The larval forms are 
unknown. Pelagic. 

(Named for Camillo Ranzani, of Bologna, an excellent naturalist, 
who was led by the variations in the form of Jlola to an ineffective 
subdivision of the species in many genera.) 

27. RANZANIA MAKUA Jenkins. 

Ranzania makua Jenkins, Proo. C'al. Ac. Sci., 2(1 yer., V, October 31, 1895, pp. 
780, 784, with colored plate, Pearl Harbor, near Honolulu. — Jordan and 
EvERMANN, Fish. X. yi. America, 1898, p. 1755, copied. 

D. IT; A. 18; C. 19; P. o. Depth 2i in length to base of caudal; 
head 2f ; eve in head, 2^ in snout. 

Body much compressed, the ventral margin a sharp, evenly curved 
keel. Eye much above axis of body, a little nearer snout than base of 
pectoral. ■ Teeth forming a turtle-like beak completely hidden l)y 
projecting folds of skin, which form a truncated opening to the mouth. 
Gill opening just in front of upper base of pectoral, covered by a 
2-lobed valve. Body covered by an armor of small plates, more or 
less hexagonal and concealed. Pectoral about 1^ in head, above axis 
of body; height of dorsal about equal to head; anal slightly lower; 
dorsal and anal each separated from the caudal by a notch. Color 
bright silvery on sides, upper parts dark; sides with brighter silvery 



i 



(tYMXODONT fishes of japan— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 263 



bands, the first 3 with distinct black borders, the next 4 with nimierous 
black spots, the black margins appearing only on lower parts. 

Differing- from Ranzanla truncata chiefly in the smaller eye, in hav- 
ing the eye placed well a])Ove the mouth and abov^e the axis of the 
body, in the high position of the pectoral tin. in the higher dorsal and 
anal, and in the coloration. Originally known from one specimen in 
Leland Stanford Junior Universit}' Museum. 20 inches long, taken at 
the mouth of Pearl Harbor, Oahu. by Mr. Hiel Kapu. and sent to 
Stanford University by Mr. Charles B. Wilson. A second example 
about 4 inches long was secured by the senior author at Honolulu 
during the summer of 1901. 

It is rarelv taken in Japan. In a collection of old paintings l)elong- 
ing to Count Date, examined l)v us in Sendai. is a fine colored figure of 
this species with the legend in Japanese, "Off" the Sea of Akabane in 
Mikawa by Sokichi Minake." The picture was made about 1850. 
The coloration is rather more spotty than in the type of Riinzanla 
tnakua. 

(Ji^/A7/(/. the native name of the fish, meaning "the source from 
which the Bonito and the Albacore sprung in ages past.") 

RECAPITULATION. 

Suborder GYMNODONTES. 

Family 1. Triodoxtid.e. 

1. Triodon Eeinwardt. 

1. bursorius Reinwardt; Misaki. 
Family II. Tetraodoxtid.e. 

2. Spheroides Lacepede. 

§ iMfjocephalus Swainson. 

2. sceleratus (Forster). 

3. upadiceus (Richardson); Tokyo, Nagasaki. 

4. stictonotufi (Schlegel); Hakodate, ^Nlisaki, Nagasaki. 

5. inermis (Schlegel). 

6. porphyreus (Schlegel). 

7. rubripes (Schlegel); Tokyo, Wakanoura. 

8. xanthopteris (Schlegel) . 

9. pardaUs (Schlegel); Hakodate, Aomori, Matsnshima, 

Tokyo, Misaki, Onomichi, Nagasaki. 

10. abbotti Jordan and Snyder; Tokyo. 

11. exascurnn Jordan and Snyder; iSIisaki. 

12. ocellatus (Osbeck). 

13. alboplmnheus (Hichard^on); Aomori, Wakanoura, (Onom- 

ichi, Tsuruga. 

14. rcDnindaris (Schlegel); Tokyo, Misaki, Ko})e, Tsuruga, 

Nagasaki. 

15. borealh Jordan and Snyder; Otarn, ^Nlororan. Hak<xlate, 

Aomori, Same, Matsushima. 

16. nip>hohles Jordan and Snyder; Tokyo, Misaki, AVakanoura, 

Tsuruga, Nagasaki. 
§ Spheroides. 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

17. rldicl (Fr^minville). 

18. chrysops (Hilgendorf ); Tokyo, Misaki. 
8. Tefraodon Linnseus. 

§ Tefraodon. 

19. firmamentum (1-^chlegel). 
§ Ovoides Dumeril. 

20. aerostaticus (Jenyns); Misaki. 

21. hispidus Linnaeus; Okinawa, Ishigaki. 

22. melmgriii Lat-epede; Okinawa. 
Family III. Tropidichthyid.f.. 

4. Eumi/cterias Jenkins. 

23. rimlattts (Schlegel); Tokyo. ]Misaki, Wakanonra, Kobe, 

Nagasaki, 
family JV. Diodontid^e. 

o. Diodon Linnseus. 

24. holacanthus LinnaniH; Misaki, Wakanoura. 

6. Chdomycterus Bibron. 

25. californiensis Eigeninaini; Tokyo. 
Family V. Moun.E. 

7. M:>Ja Cuvier. 

26. »i o/a (Linnpeus); Tokyo. 

8. Hanzania Nardo. 

27. makna Jenkins; Akabane. 



TWO NEW specip:s of alg.e of the genus BUTHO- 

TREPHIS. FROM THE UPPER SILURIAN OF INDIANA. 



By David White, 

Cu8f(xlian of Paleozoic PlanU. 



The specimens which form the subject of this paper were collected 
by ]\lr. C. E. Newlin from the Eiuypterid beds at Kokomo, Indiana, 
and were communicated by Dr. E. M. Kindle, assistant State geolog-ist. 
The Eurypterid beds are correlated with the Rondout of Schuchert 
and Clarke, and the fossils are therefore nearl}' contemporaneous 
with the closel}' allied species Buthotrephm lesque'reuxii Gi'ote and Pitt, 
from the Waterlime of western New York. 

The orig-inal of Plate XVII. Bvthotrtq)hli< ■nerdlnL is in the Paleo- 
zoic plant collection of the U. S. National Museum. The type of B. 
divarleatd, Plate XYI. is in the private collection of Mr. Newlin in 
Irvington, Indiana. 

The characters of the specimens in hand will first be described before 
entering upon a discussion of the nature or affinities of the genus 
BntliofiU'ph'ix. 

BUTHOTREPHIS DIVARICATA, new species. 

(Plate XVI. ) 

Fronds very openly fasciculate from a Inroad attachment; lamina 
relatively broad, sinuately curved, two or three times dichotomous, 
beginning near the base, the distance between the bifurcations being 
about three times the width of the lamina, which is of nearly equal 
breadth at all points; divisions and lobes divaricate, usually at a wide 
ang-le, and outward curved; lobes rounded or round-truncate at the 
apex, which is slightly denser; carbonaceous residue thin, rug-ulose 
or minutely granulose, and marked, especially along the medial por- 
tion, by very delicate, irreg'ularh^ but more or less obliquely, arranged 
trichomatose or filamentose ( '.) impressions. 

The aspect and general features of this well-marked species are well 
shown in the photographic illustration, Plate XVI, which represents 
the only specimen of this type communicated. The most salient char- 
acters are the divaricate position of the subdivisions of the frond at 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1255. 

265 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

the frequent and equal dichotomies; the continuit}^ in width of the 
lamina, which is without a central axis or strand; and the very obtuse, 
slightly thickened apices. The greater density or more compact 
organization of the latter is shown by the slight increase of the car- 
bonaceous residue. In many of the lobules the impressions seem to 
indicate groups of compressed, nearl}" contiguous, globular l)odies, the 
largest of which, shown in the upper portion of the hgure, attain a 
diameter of about 2 mm. These globules (?), of varying size, appear 
in some cases to occupy nearly the entire apex of the lo])e. The 
impressions, which are less distinct in passing downward along the 
center of the lobe, are at best a little vague. It is possible that they 
are due only to the mode of cleavage in the denser carbonaceous resi- 
due; but it seems probable that they owe their presence to ditferences 
in the composition of the lamina. They are suggestive of the sporan- 
gia in the lobes of the living F'ucas. 

BUTHOTREPHIS NEWLINI, new species. 

(Plates XVII, XVIII. ) 

Fronds fasciculate from a rather thick, scarcely axial base, the 
divisions forking generally distantly, but equally or nearly so, or 
sometimes subfasciculately, at a moderate or wide angle, the lobes 
often linear, sometimes terminally bifurcated, obtusely rounded and 
denser at the apex; lamina of nearly constant width, though narrow- 
ing slightly for a distance below each bifurcation; texture slightly 
rugose, marked by irregular, very slender, intermingled and tangled tri- 
chomatose or tilamentose elements, those near the center being coarser, 
often threadlike, and more or less longitudinal in their arrangement. 

This species has much in common with Bnthott'ephh lenqnet'euxii 
Grote and Pitt, from which it is distinguished by its narrower and 
much more frequentl}^ forking divisions, the divisions of the latter 
species being much elongated and very distantly forked. 

The trichomanose or rather coarsely tomentose character is distinctly 
visible in the impression of the lower portion of the plant as well 
as at the apices of the lobes. In the lower portion of the frond it 
appears to be produced by a tangle of filaments suggestive of the 
texture of felt cloth, although those nearer the middle of the lamina 
are coarsest. A similar texture is seen in Biithotrephh lesquereuxil 
and, with tiner tilaments (?), in B. divaricata. In the lower part of 
the main division on the right in Plate XVII some of the coarse 
fibroid filaments (?) are by the aid of a weak lens clearh^ seen on the 
surface of the carbonaceous residue. No trace of fructification is 
recognizable. 

The fragment illustrated in Plate XVIII is here regarded as a more 
delicate or perhaps younger example of the B. newlhiL although the 
more slender proportions of the divisions and the more delicate texture 
possibl}^ merit a varietal distinction. The surface is of the same 



NO. V2.55. ^'E W SPECIES OF A L G.E— WHITE. 267 

general character as that of the orig-inal of Plate XVII. In portions 
of the impression it presents a slighth' irregularly woven or cloth -like 
mesh striking!}' suggestive of the spongy composition of the living 
Codium. 

The genus Butliotrephiji was described in 18-1:7 l)y HalP as an alga 
characterized by •' Stems subcvlindrical or compressed, branched; 
branches numerous, divaricating, leaf -like; structure vesicular T' The 
species ButhotrepMs antigua^~' from the Calciferous sandstone at Chazy, 
New York, generally cited as the type of the genus, is a distinctly 
algoid form with a narrow, flattened lamina, irregularly branching at 
a wide angle along the imperfectly defined axis, and dichotomous in 
the upper part, with more or less acute, narrowly lanceolate or sub- 
falcate lobes or ultimate divisions. Buthotrephis grac'tliK^ the form 
described b\' HalP' as t^^pical of the genus, resembles a linear-leaved 
Pofanuxjeton. It presents an axial development, although the divi- 
sions fork and are slightly recurved. 

In form, aspect, and even in their supposed vesicular structure the 
Kokomo types appear undoubtedly to belong to the group of narrow 
forms originalh' included by Hall, on the basis of their superficial 
characters, in Buthotrephh. It is, however, understood by all pale- 
ontologists that the discovery of the reproductive organs in the vari- 
ous species of this artificial genus may necessitate their ultimate 
reference to more than one family as well as to seveilil genera. Of 
Hairs species, that most closely resembling the plants in hand is the 
B. succulens*' from the Trenton at Glens Falls, New York. The latter 
agrees in its dichotomizing fronds, lax habit, nearl}' constant width of 
the lamina in passing upward, and the blunt apices of the lobules, 
though diflering. especially from B. divarlcata, by the more distant 
bifurcations, and the less divaricate position of the branches and lol)es, 
while the latter are terete and less truncate. The enlarged apices of 
B. ntwlinl suggest the B. hupjuUca Hall,' from the Clinton, though 
the same feature is slightly apparent in B. 2)tdmata, whose general 
plan recalls that of B. divaricata. BHthotrc2}hlssuhnodosa Hall,'' from 
the Hudson River group, like the B. graclU^ has a somewhat elon- 
gated or axial form of development.' though the lateral divisions are 
dichotomous. 

Of all the species as yet ascribed to this genus that which seems to 
be most closely related to the fossils in hand is the Buthof7'eph/s les- 



' Palaeontology of New York, I, p. 8. 
^Ideui.,1, p. 8, pi. ii, fig. (i. 
^Idem., I, p. 62, pi. xxi, fig. 1. 
^Idem., I, p. 62, pi. xxii, fig. 2. 
^Idem., II, p. 20, pi. vi, fig. 2. 
®Idem., I, p. 262, pi. Ixviii, fig. 3. 

'Certain of the elongated forms of the genus might with convenience in classifica- 
tion be set apart as a distinct section. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEVM. vol.xxiv. 

giu'i'eii.rll described hy Grote and Pitt^ from the Wat^rliiue near 
Buffalo, New York. 

The examination of specimens of tliis species in the collections of 
the U. S. National Museum shows it essentially to differ from B. 
newlhil o\\\\ l)y its more robust, linear, and more rarely forked divi- 
sions. The texture is of precisely the same character, thoug-h the 
filamentous ( ^) elements are less distinct. 

On account of the relatively large amount of carl)onaceous residue 
and the slightly rugose or vesicular texture, which is in strong con- 
trast to the delicate tilm, smooth impression, noncarbonaceous cast, or 
the coralline residue of most fossil algte, those forms with the charac- 
ters of the types in hand or of BHthotrepMs lesquereuxii are regarded 
by many paleontologists as probabl}' representing sponges. Neither 
of the specimens described above, which have been submitted to a num- 
ber of experts" in Paleozoic invertebrate paleontology, nor the exam- 
ples of the species last mentioned, appear to reveal a sponge structure 
or the normal occurrence of sponge spicules. The evidence in support 
of a sponge relationship for these organisms appears therefore to lie 
in their dense, apparently vesicular texture, and their occurrence in 
distinctly marine beds and in association with a marine fauna. 

It is not the purpose of the writer to strenuously urge that these 
fossils are marine alga?, although he believes them to be such. The 
evidence, or perhaps to speak more accurately, the circumstances 
which point toward a place for these types among the marine alga? are: 
(«) The marine habitat; (/>) the typically algoid form of development 
and growth, and (c) the aspect of the residue. All of these features may 
pertain to a fossil sponge; yet the absence of a regular sponge struc- 
ture, and especiallj" the lack of spicules in these well-preserved speci- 
mens, argues somewhat strongly against a reference to a sponge group. 
Without such characters these fossils can not safely be referred to that 
class of organisms. On the other hand, the reference of the forms 
from the Waterlime to the alga? can not be conclusively demonstrated, 
since neither the histology nor the fructification is known. Evidence 
of this class, though most important, is, however, Avanting in most of 
the fossil types whose thalassophytic nature is generally admitted, 
although the innnediate systematic classification of the latter is usually 
artificial and largel}" conjectural. 

There are many types of living algse representing various genera 
and even families with which the Bufhotreph/K group may with interest 
be compared. One of these which, in the judgment of the writer. 



iBull. Buffalo Boe. Nat. Hist., Ill, 1876, p. 88. 

2 The thanks of the writer are due to Mr. Charles Schuchert, of the U. S. National 
Museum, and Mr. E. 0. Ulrich and Dr. George H. Girty, of the IT. S. Geological 
Survey, for their courtesy in examining the fossils from Kokonio with a view to the 
detei'tion of sponge characters. 



NO. 1255. NE W SPECIES OF ALG.E— WHITE. 269 



demand.s most consideration is the genus Codrnm Stackhouse, to which 
reference has already been made in the description of Bnth<>treph)K neio- 
11 1(1. In Cod iu III we find spong-e-like fronds which may be simple or 
branched, and which are composed of a mass or plexus of innumerable 
slender, inextricabh' tangled or interwoven and irregularly branched 
unicellular filaments whose ramules form the surface of the frond. 
Near the center of this mass of curled and branched filaments which 
gives form to the frond, the individual filaments are often threadlike 
and sometimes largely longitudinal. The more or less club-shaped 
ramuli radiate outward and are contiguous, though not united, so as 
to constitute the periphery of the frond. The fructification of Codiurn 
i.s contained in oval or ovate sporangia laterally situated near the 
bases of the ramules. It is hardh' to be expected that such sporangia, 
enshrouded by ramules, would be discernible in carbonized and com- 
pi'essed specimens except by a most favorable accident of preservation. 
The analogy between the impression of or the residual surface of the 
spongoid Bnthotrephis and the texture of Codium, is forcibly sugges- 
tive: and although the stronger, apparentl}" central, filaments {'.) of 
B. newlinl (Plate XVII, a) are (.'oarser than any to be seen in such 
specimens of the dried Codium tomentosnm as the writer has had for 
examination, the comparison of the specimens can hardly fail to raise 
the question as to whether the general structure and nature of the 
organisms are not essentially the same. In some species of Codium 
the filaments are often somewhat regularly meshed, so that the surface 
suggests a looseh" though irregularh" woven cloth-like structure. It 
is worthj^ of mention that in Udotea Lamouroux, which stands next to 
Codium in the Codiaceie., the frond bears a calcareous incrustation, while 
in Halimeda Lamouroux, another genus of the same family, we lind a 
false epidermis, though the filamentose internal composition of the 
plant is like that of the other genera of the family. 

It is not the object of this discussion to argue that the BnthotripJiin 
types under consideration are to be conclusively regarded as belong- 
ing to or, at least, as closely allied to the Codium group of the Siphon- 
ous ChlorophycecB (green alga?), or even that they are indisputably 
proven to be algte; it is to call attention to the fact that we have 
among the algse, notably in the CodioGeih, types which would seem 
calculated, under favorable circumstances of fossilization, to present 
characters of form, aspect, and carbonaceous texture similar to and 
pei-haps essentially the same as those of Bnthotrephis. The specimens 
in hand appear, so far as their characters are revealed, to conform to 
and to be admissible to the algte. there being no inherent evidence to 
the contrary.^ A reference of these forms to the sponges would there- 



'It i? possible that a slight caU-areous envelope, comparable to that of Udotea, 
might assist in presening both the form and the substance in the alga? of this group. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

fore appear, in the absence of distinctive sponge characters, to be 
unwarranted at present. 

It nia}" not be improper in this connection to add that certain of the 
organisms generality though doubtfully ranged with the Graptolites 
might be more at home among the alg?e.^ 

Among other living alga^ whose form is comparable to that of 
Buthotrephis, though agreeing less closel}' in texture, the genus Lia- 
gora (Z. corymhosa J. Agardh) may be mentioned, while among the 
fossil types fronds resembling in a general way those under consider- 
ation are found among the abundant Eocene species of Chondrites^ 
some of the remains of which are rather densely carbonaceous.^ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES XVI-XVIII. 

BUTHOTREPHIS FROM THE EURYPTERID (rONDOUt) BEDS AT KOKOMO, INDIANA. 

Plate XYI. 

ButhotrepJrs diraricata David White. Natural size. Collection of C. E. Newlin, 
Irvington, Indiana. 

Plate XVII. 

Buthotrephis newJhv David White. Natural size. a. Enlarged detail showing fila- 
mentose texture (x4). Collection of the U. S. National Museum. Cat. No. 8175, 
IT.S.N.M. 

Plate XVIII. 

Buthotrephis nen'lini David White. Form with narrow thalli. Natural size. Col- 
lection of C. E. Newlin, Irvington, Indiana. 



^The texture of the forms from Kokomo and the Buffalo Waterlime appears to have 
much in common with some of the specimens now resting in or near Inocaulis. 

'^ See Chondrites dolichophyllus Squinabol, Contrib. Fl. foss. Terz. Liguria, pt. i, 
Alghe, pi. B. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. XXIV PL. XVI 




BUTHOTREPHIS DIVARICATA DaVID WhITE. 
For EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 270. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. XXIV PL. XVII 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XVIII 




54Safeii:^K£ 



Mi^' 




*,%■ 



THE FOSSIL FRESH- WATER SHELLS OF THE COLORADO 
DESERT, THEIR DISTRIBUTION, ENVIRONMENT, AND 
VARIATION. 



B}'^ Robert E. C Stearns, Ph. D., 

Honorary Associate in Zoology. 



On turning to an}' authentic map it will be seen that the o-reat 
range of the Sierra Nevada, as it approaches the south, makes a rather 
abrupt divergence in a westerly direction, between latitudes 35- 30' 
and 36° 30'. Here also it throws out a great spur which, after extend- 
ing for a considerable distance toward the east in a nearly easterly 
and westerly course, then deflects in its main mas.s toward the .south- 
east, with broad flanks, finally breaking down into hills of greater or 
less elevation. These lower and somewhat detached portions reach 
the Avesterh' margin of the Colorado River in the vicinity of Fort 
Yuma. This, the main spur, is known as the San Bernardino range, 
and the northerly (east and west section) is called the San Gabriel 
range, though topographically a part of the other. The rocky ram- 
parts of the San Gabriel Mountains separate the depressed levels on 
the south from the more elevated plains of the Mojave desert. On 
the west, facing the westerly slopes of the San Bernardino range, are 
the San Jacinto Mountains, a part of the Peninsular range, which 
extends southerly into the Mexican territory of Lower California. 

These mountain walls inclose a vast area of arid, desolate waste, the 
Colorado desert of California. Surrounded by mountains except in 
the south, and there opening out upon the head of the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, it is seen that the desert was a portion of the old gulf which at 
some former time extended 200 miles above its present limits. The 
cause of the separation of the upper end of the former gulf, making 
what is now the Colorado desert, is so apparent that a moment's exam- 
ination reveals it. The same agency is still operating, widening the 
space between the present gulf and the desert. Here, nearl}' 150 miles 
from the head of the ancient gulf, came in from the east side the Colo- 
rado River, bearing in its thick floods quicksands and the red mud 
from the great plateaus of northern Arizona. The contour of the 
country shows the gulf to have been narrow here. The tilling in 
went on unceasingh' as at the mouth of every great river which enters 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1256. 

271 



272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



the sea at a sheltered point. The water became constantly shoaler, 
until at length the separation was complete. " The deposited material 
has steadily increased the distance between the gulf and the low bed 
of the desert, until now the division is marked by a narrow neck of 30 
or 40 miles of land but little raised above the level of the sea. 

To quote Professor Blake: If the alluvial deposits brought down 
by the Colorado River were removed, the gulf would How inward and 
again occupy its ancient bed. When the stupendous work done b}' 
the Colorado K.iver in cutting deep canyons along its course is consid- 
ered, it is easy to realize the vast ciuantity of detritus brought down 
and deposited by that industrious and mighty stream. 

The Colorado desert of California is only a portion of a much greater 
desert area, which extends on the easterly side of the river into western 
and southwestern Arizona, including the desert of the Gila, reaching 
for a long distance to the base of a mountain range in the Mexican 
State of Sonora, the Sierra del Nazareno {(), or spurs of that range 
outlying to the north, and on the westerly, south of the California 
boundary, an area of great extent reaches still farther to the south 
into Lower California, bordering on the gulf. 

Here, also, we find a small depressed basin, known as Lake Maquata, 
its northern end about 10 miles south of the United States boundary, 
between the Peninsular and Cocopah ranges of mountains. Its surface 
is doubtless below sea level, but the sediment deposited by the Colo- 
rado has created a ^^ermanent barrier between it and the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Millions of fresh-water snail and "clam" shells are strewn 
over the bed or along the former shores of the lake, sufficient evidence 
that it had once been filled with fresh water. ^ In Sonora it embraces a 
large and indefinite area, of which but little is known. The northerly 
portion of the desert, that is to say, the California section, contains 
approximately 6,000.000 acres, inchided in the boundaries of San Diego 
and Riverside counties. To the east and northeast of the San Bernar- 
dino range, in these counties, lying between the range and the Colorado 
River, extending to the higher desert levels to the north, there is a 
region of numerous dr}^ lakes and springs, the latter usually dry or 
intermittent, according to the seasonal rainfall. Of the desert region 
exterior to the California portion but little is known, and the Califor- 
nian area, so far as the Mollusca are concerned, has been only partially 
explored. The species we are considering have been found in manv 
places quite remote from the Colorado desert. 

At the north, ranging as far as Death Valley in Inyo Countv, thence 
northeasterly to the shores of Sevier Lake in Utah. Turning south- 
ward, the occurrence of the PaJudrfdr/na in the States of Durango and 
Michoacan, Mexico, the latter region 1,800 mdes south of the Colorado 
desert, may well be regarded as most extraordinarv, as well as the 

'C. R. Orcutt, in West American Scientist, 1891. 



NO. 126b. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLOR A DO DESER T— STEARNS. 273 



circumstances under which the examples from this remote locality 
were discovered. 

The souther! 3' portion of the Great Basin, including the immense 
area from the easterly flanks of the Sierra Nevada across the State of 
Nevada to the westerly flanks of the Rocky Mountain ranges in Utah, 
is characterized by innumerable mountain ranges of varied extent, 
more or less detached or broken; with intervening valleys of a general 
desert aspect; with dry lakes and numerous springs of hot or cold, 
sweet or bitter Avaters, some perennial, others dr}^ or intermittent, 
according to the precipitation of the seasons, which varj- exceedingly 
when one year is compared with another; with an occasional season 
of excessive rainfall, like those of 1840, 1852, 1859, 1861-62, and sub- 
sequently, when every water course and depression was filled to over- 
flowing, and springs that had been dormant for years, their sources 
replenished, became active and continued to flow for months afterwards. 

In considering more particularly the Colorado desert region, we 
find that in these seasons of exceeding precipitation the more depressed 
portion becomes a lake 60 miles long and 30 wide, as in the winter 
months of 1861-62, through the inflow by the way of New River,^ a 
branch of the Colorado which enters the desert from the south, form- 
ing the so-called Salton Sea of more recent years. Aside from these 
unusually rain}' seasons, which are of infrequent occurrence, thunder- 
storms^ of exceeding violence, with a downpour that may be called 
torrential, often occur during the hottest weather; these are usually 
of brief duration and their waters fall upon a comparatively limited 
area. They contribute, however, to the maintenance of animal life 
and help to perpetuate such forms as we are here considering. Atmos- 
pheric agitation at such times, as well as during the hotter weather 
in ordinary seasons, plays its part. Living and dormant individuals 
in and around the springs and pools, as well as the dead shells in their 
immediate neighborhood, are picked up b}- the wind and carried hither 
and thither, the greater part buried under the drifting sands, the spiral 
storms or sand spouts assisting in the general displacement. 



' What is known as "New River" had no existence before the year 1840, when it 
broke away from the Colorado and for a time partly submergecl the desert. For 
several years after a chain of lagoons remained. The same thing has probably 
occurred many times in the history of the desert. H. G. Hanks in Second Report 
of State Mineralogist of California, 1880-1882, appendix, p. 238. 

^Cloud-bursts and waterspouts, accompanied by fearful thunder and lightning, are 
of frequent occurrence. The ground near Frinks Spi-ing and Flowing Wells stations, 
a distance of 17 miles, is cut and gullied in a most remarkable manner. In this dis- 
tance there are no less than 75 bridges and culverts on the railroad track. The 
gullies vary from 5 to 25 feet in depth and about the same in width. The banks are 
so steep and precipitous that, in walking along, one does not see the canyon until it 
yawns at one's feet. These gullies are all caused by the rush of water from cloud- 
bursts and waterspouts. Joseph F. James in Popular Science Monthly, January, 
1882. 

Proc. N. M. vol. x.>civ— 01 18 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

While the winds and waters have no doubt played an important part 
in the dispersion of these and related molluscan forms, we are not 
restricted to these agencies to explain their widespread distribution. 
At the present day we find numerous species of aquatic birds fre- 
ciuenting- the springs, pools, and marshes or wet meadows wherever 
such places occur within the larger or general desert area, both north 
and south. When the present deserts were lakes or lagoons, whose 
waters covered several hundreds of square miles, and the numerous 
springs, now dry or intermittent, filled their basins to overflowing, the 
number of swimming, diving, and wading birds throughout the region 
must have been very great. In their seasonal migrations or ordinary 
flights from lake to spring or spring to lake they would unavoidably 
have carried from one place to another such indiv^idual mollusks as 
adhered to their legs or feathers, and the sticky Q,g^ masses of these pond 
snails also; it is not unreasonable to assume that these were frequently 
transported in this wav over considerable or even great distances. 

It should be borne in mind that these tiny mollusks live in the midst 
of the conferva, and that the best way to obtain specimens is to col- 
lect a large quantit}^ of this green scum-like material and spiead it on 
paper in the sun, when it quickly dries up and the shells are easily 
shaken out. The carrying of these little forms from place to place is 
facilitated by the character of this vegetable growth which they fre- 
quent, as a comparatively small quantity, a little bunch of it, entan- 
gled in the feet or on the legs or among the feathers of a duck might 
contain many individuals. 

That these minute forms {Paludestrince) are still living in many other 
localities in the Great Desert than the few which we now know of 
seems altogether probable when we consider their inconspicuous size 
and that their shells are usually coated over with the confervoid 
growth that is generall}^ present in and around springs. Being 
immersed in this green vegetable scum, they escape detection and are 
not likely to be seen by persons not familiar with their habits or not 
especially interested in searching for them. Wherever they do occur 
they compensate by vast numbers for lack of size, for these little 
fellows are wonderfully prolific.^ 

The evidence of lake or lagoon conditions resulting from the over- 
flow of the Colorado River in the past, is corroborated by the perpen- 

^ Some idea of the immense number of these shells on the surface of the desert may 
be derived from the following: " We soon noticed that the soil was, to a large extent, 
made up of minute turreted shells, so small that they could hardly be distinguished 
from the grains of sand. At certain points they were blown by the wind into wind- 
rows, and lay in vast numbers, concentrated from the sands by a natural winnow- 
ing process. These are the * * * fossils described in the Smith. Misc. Colls., 
No. 144, part 3, folio 70. * * * On my return to San Francisco I made experi- 
ments showing that it required 166,000 of these minute shells to weigh a {)ound." 
H. G. Hanks in Second Report of State Mineralogist of California, 1880-1882, 
appendix, i)p. 227-228. 



NO. i-2o(;. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STE A RNS. 275 

dicular section exhibited in the well at Walter's station on the South- 
ern Paoitie Railroad, as noticed by me in 1879 \ This well was sunk 
to the depth of 45 or 47 feet when water was struck. The section 
showed a fine claj'ey sediment such as is precipitated from turbid 
waters in a sluggish or placid condition; this sedimentary deposit con- 
tained throughout examples of Paliidestrina and Physas, or fragments 
of l)oth. 

At many places in the desert occur what are known as "dry bogs." 
These are the dried up pools of former j^ears; they are a most danger- 
ous menace to the unwary traveler; the vegetation which the waters 
of these former ])asins supported, when dried, is sufficiently strong to 
support the coating of drifted sand by which they are disguised; the 
weight of man or beast is sufficient to break through this thin crust 
and submersion is inevitable. Some idea of the number, extent, and 
character as well as of the apppearance of the desert at the time when 
these bogs were pools or lagoons, may be seen at a glance in the local- 
ity known as Flowing Springs, 40 miles west of Yuma, where many 
of these so-called springs have the area of ponds or lakelets of consider- 
able size and support a luxuriant aquatic vegetation. Here also may 
be seen thousands of birds of various species, swimmers, waders, etc., 
as well as land birds, and the part feathered tribes have performed in 
the distribution of these little conferva inhabiting moUusks is forcibly 
suggested. 

THE PALUDESTRIN.^. 

The forms under consideration were collected b}" the writer in 1882, 
in the immediate neighborhood of various stations along the line of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad in the Colorado desert of California. 

Favorable circumstances afforded considerable time at each of the 
places stopped at, so that a large number, man}" thousands, of the few 
species that are so abundant on the surface of the desert were obtained. 
The shells specially reviewed belonging to the genera Paludextrina 
and PJu/m, inhabit springs, pools, and the shallow, marshy borders 
of ponds and lakes; they appear to prefer quiet waters rather than 
flowing brooks or larger streams. Though classed as fresh-water 
species, they are not infrequently found in waters that are alkaline or 
saline, also in springs of a temperature as high as 100° F. The par- 
ticular species of Paludestrlna mentioned has heretofore been vari 
ously referred to the genera Amnicola, Ifelania, HydTobia^ and later 
to Stimpson's genus Trymiia;^ still later to Bythinella. It has been 

' Remarks on iossil shells from the Colorado Desert, in the American Naturalist, 
March, 1879 (read before the California Academy of Sciences). 

^For Stimpson's figure of the type of Tryonia, see fig. 29, and pp. 48 and 49 of 
Researches upon the Hydrohiinse, etc., Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection No. 
201, August, 1865. Binney's figure in Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, 
p. 71, Part III, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, September, 1865, does not 
represent it. 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 



widel}' distributed in the course of exchanges between conchologists 
as Tryonla ; the latter genus is based on external or shell characters 
only, and upon these characters is readily separable from any of the 
numerous varieties of the much commoner form illustrated herein. 

From Flowing Springs, many miles from the railway and the station 
known by said name, I haye received probably over a thousand exam- 
ples of PaludestTma since the major portion of this paper was 
written \ 

The species assigned to the first of these genera which exhibits the 
numerous varietal aspects figured below, as well as certain other forms 
hereinafter mentioned, was first detected by Prof, William P. Blake '^ 
and Dr. Thomas H. Webb. It was described by Dr. A. A. Gould in 
March, 1855, as Amnlcola iwotea^ and by T. A. Conrad as Melania 
exigua, in Februar}^, 1855. Gould's description was published first, 
therefore his name has precedence. Binney placed it in Stimpson's 
genus Tryonla, which error has been continued by subsequent authors, 
including the writer, who removed it in 1893 to Bythinella. 

As the numbers of the Smithsonian publications containing Binney's 
Land and Fresh-water Shells of North America are out of print, and 
the original descriptions are accessible only to a small number of stu- 
dents, I have quoted Gould and Conrad as below from Binney.^ 

AMNICOLA PROTEA Gould. 

Shell elongate, slender, variable; whirls seven to eight, rounded, divided by a 
deep suture, simple or variously ornamented, and barred with revolving ridges and 
longitudinal folds; aperture ovate; lip continuous, simple, scarcely touching the 
penultimate whirl. Length of the largest specimen, three- 
tenths, breadth, one-tenth inch. 

From the Colorado Desert (Gran Jornada), Dr. T. H. 
Webb, W. P. Blake. 

Peculiar from its large size and slender form, though 

differing greatly in its relative proportions. It differs from 

all others in being variously sculptured with revolving 

Fig. 1.— AMNICOLA protea. ridges and longitudinal folds, like most Melnui.r. It varies 

greatly also in the relative proportions of length and 

breadth. It is as slender as Amnlcola attemmte Hald., and much larger. This appears 

to be the same shell as that subsequently descrilied by Mr. Conrad, under the name 

of Melania exigua. (Gould. ) 

MELANIA EXIGUA Conrad, 

Turreted; volutions eight, disposed to be angulated and somewhat scalariform 
above, cancellated, longitudinal lines wanting on the lower half of the body whirl; 



' The great canal system of the Imperial Company by which the waters of the 
Colorado River are in part diverted so as to irrigate hundreds of square miles of the 
desert is rapidly approaching completion. The water is already flowing in a consider- 
able portion of the system and soon a part of the sandy waste will give place to green 
and fertile fields, forming an oasis in the midst of the arid desert. 

'' Pacific Railroad Reports, V, 1857, p. 332. 

=* Part III, p. 70 (Tryonia). 



NO. 1256. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEARNS. 277 



columella reflected; aperture elliptical. T.ength, one-fifth of an inch. Colorado 
Desert, California ( Dr. LeConte) . 

The specimen.s are numerous and of a chalky whiteness, showing that they are 
all dead shells. Said to have been found 120 miles distant from any stream passed 
on the route. 

Following Dr. Pilsbry, whose familiarity with these puzzling little 
shells entitles his conclusions to acceptance, the present status and 
synouomy should be arranged as below. 

Genus PALUDESTRINA Orbigny. 

PALUDESTRINA PROTEA Gould (Pilsbry).i 

Plates XIX-XXI. 

= Bytliinella protea Gould (Stearns, 1893)^. 

= Amuicold protea Gould 1855.^ 

= ^felania exigua Conr.\d, 1855.* 

= Tryonia protea Gould (Binney et auct., 1865).* 

-t- Bythinellu seeinani Frauexfeld (Pilsbry, 1893)'''. 

= Hydrobia i<eeinani Fkauenfeld, 1863.* 

This species from 1854:, the 3'ear of its discovery, was regarded as 
extinct until June, 1888, when Mr. C. R. Orcutt, of San Diego, col- 
lected luuiierous living examples in Indian or Fish Springs, some 15 
miles northwest of the station known as Salton, on the Southern 
Pacitic Railroad. These pools and springs, of which there are several, 
varying from 10 to 20 feet across, are at the base of the San Jacinto 
Mountains. "They are only a few feet deep and are surrounded with 
an almost impenetrable mass of tides, canegrass, and mock willows; 
the mesquit. screw bean, and various shrubs, rushes, and sedges form 
the bulk of the wild vegetation." The water is warm, in Mr. Orcutfs 
judgment not under 100^ F., and tastes like the water of the Dos 
Falmos Springs, 6 miles north of Salton, on the opposite side of the 
desert, at the base of the Chuckawalla or Lizard mountains. An 
analysis of the water from the latter springs showed slight traces of 
alum, soda, sulphur, and considerable salt, but not so much as to make 
it unfit for use. 

These springs are all below the present sea level about 100 feet, 



' "Includes Bythinella Moq. Tand. and authors generally," Pilsbry in Catalogue of 
Amnicolida? of the Western United States, Nautilus, jNIarch, 1899, pp. 121-127. 

^ Report on the Land and Fresh-Water Shells collected in California and Nevada 
by the Death Valley Expedition, North American Fauna No. 7, Part II, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, May, 1893, p. 278. 

* Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., V, p. 129, March, 1855; Otia, 217. 

* Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., VII, p. 269, February, 1855. 

'" Land and Fresh-Water Shells of North America, Part III, Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections, No. 144, September, 1865, p. 72. 

® Verhandlungen der k. k. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien, Jahrgang, 
1863, p. 1025. 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MVSEVM. vni,.xxiv. 

judging- from the fact that Salton, lying in the depression between 
Dos PahiKis and Indian Springs, is reported to be 250 feet below the 
sea level from actual measurements. These springs and pools, like 
those before named, are surrounded by a luxuriant growth of cane 
grass, tules, etc., and the mesquit, screw bean, and other trees of 
the same order occur in great numbers. Specimens from this place, 
presented by Mr. Orcutt, are contained in the National Museum 
(No. 10-4886). 

Orcutt's discover}' was followed, in 1891, by the detection of living 
examples far to the north in Saratoga Springs, In3'o County, where 
Mr. E. W. Nelson collected several hundred, and a large number were 
collected in a marsh near the springs by Mr. Vernon Bailey. These, 
also, are warm springs, situated in the extreme southeast end of Death 
Valley, near the bend of the Armagosa River, so called (usually noth- 
ing more than a dry wash), at an altitude of 352 feet. The valley is 
the deepest depression in North x\merica, being 480 feet below the 
level of the sea. The geographical range, as. shown by dead or semi- 
fossil examples, is far greater and most extraordinary, extending from 
the shores of Sevier Lake, in middle Utah, as seen by Dr. H. C. Yar- 
row's collection in 1872 ^ (U. S. N. M., No. 73960), to Andocutira, in the 
State of Michoacan, Mexico. From the latter locality examples were 
sent to the National Museum (No. 73908) by Prof. A. Duges some years 
ago, with the following interesting note: 

"Ces moUusques ont ete trouves dans une fourmiliere a, Andocutira, Etat de 
Michoacan. La personne qui me les a reniis pense qu'ils proviennent d'une ancienne 
formation lacustre, aujourd'hui convert par des terrains posterieurs. " ^ 



^Explorations and surveys of Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, U. S. A., V, p. 498; also 
G. W. Tryon, in Proe. Acad. Nat. Science, Phila., May 1, 1873, or to Dr. H. C. Yarrow's 
collection. 

Mr. Call, in his interesting paper on the recent and fossil shells of the Great Ba^^in, 
has not credited this form to either of the ancient lake areas. Attention is directed 
to Bulletin No. 11 of the U. S. Geological Survey (1884), which contains Call's paper 
and the following from Prof. G. K. Gilbert's introductory sketch of "The Quater- 
nary lakes," etc.: 

"In the northern portion of the Great Basin there were two large water bodies; 
the one, Lake Bonneville, covering the Great Salt Lake and Sevier deserts, in west- 
ern Utah; the other, Lake Lahontan, occupying a group of communicating valleys in 
western Nevada." 

The elevation of Pyramid Lake is given by Gannett as 4,890 feet, and Sevier Lake, 
by the same authority, is 4,600 feet above sea level. 

'^With these shells from Professor Duges there was a single example (U. S. N. M. 
No. 73907) of the very rare and little known Valvata humeralis, collected by Thomas 
Say in Mexico, and described by him nearly three-quarters of a century ago in the 
New Harmony Disseminator of Useful knowledge, II, No. 16, August 12,1829. See 
Binney's Bibliography of North American Conchology, 1863, part 1, p. 204. 

The foregoing is the third instance that has come under my observation of 
important though indirect assistance rendered by the lower animals in furnishing 
biological and geological data. 



NO. 1256. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLOR A DO DESERT— STEARNS. 279 

Here we find the southerly ran^e extending- 1,800 miles from the 
Colorado desert, as before mentioned, and the occurrence of this form 
is corroborated and its presumable wide dispersion in that country 
shown b}' Frauenfeld's examples from Durango. The Michoacan and 
Diirango shells, like the Death Valley specimens, lielong to the smooth 
variety which occurs with the other varietal facies in the Colorado 
region of California. 

This smooth form has recently been detected by Dr. Pilsbry ^ in some 
fiuviatile debris from South Spring Creek, near Roswell, New Mexico. 

Orcutt's Fish Spring examples are finely granulose. I am further 
indebted to Mr. Orcutt for several specimens, recently received, that 
were detected by him living in the Dos Palmas Springs. The Dos 
Palmas shells vary from individuals with a smooth surface to those 
that are sculptured by fine revolving- threads. 

The Sevier Lake (middle Utah) specimens collected by Dr. Yarrow 
in 1S72 are so much weathered as to efface the sculpture. It should 
be borne in mind, however, that the Yarrow specimens are so few in 
number that it would be quite unsafe to assume that many other 
varietal aspects do not occur at the Bonneville localities.^ 

The collection made by me in 1882, now in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, included some 40,000 examples of Paludestrina from the surface 
of the desert at the localities known as Indio, Walters, Dos Palmas, 
and Volcano Springs. These stations are all within the great depres- 
sion, being, respectively, 20, 195, 253, and 225 feet below sea level. 
At these places several hundred specimens of the pond snails Physa 
were collected, as well as a few examples of Paludestrina Jonglnqua 
{^Amnicola longinqua Gould), for which no special search was made. 
A dwarfed aspect of Fluminlcola {coliwihiana) occurs occasionally, 
and two or more species of Planorhls are met with, but the absence 
of any form of the genus Limncea is noteworthy. 

In considering the principal varietal features of P. protea^ we may 
conveniently group them as follows: 

VARIATION IN FORM. 

First. It is seen that some individuals are much more attenuated than 
others. In certain instances the shells are quite robust as compared 
with length, the basal whorl being conspicuously larger and forming 
nearly two-thirds of the total length as compared with five-ninths or 
much less than one-half in other specimens. In diameter the extremes 
are as 13 to 20. 

' Nautilus, XIII, November, 1899, p. 79. 

^ P. protea was not detected by Call in the Lahontan region, its place being appar- 
ently taken by Pyrgulopsis nevadensis, which, though not found in the Lahontan 
beds, occurs in countless thousands living in Pyramid Lake as well as in Walkers 
Lake (dead only?). 



280 PIIOCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Second, The convexity or angulation of the whorls is another marked 
feature. This, it will be seen, is exhibited in various degrees, by com- 
paring ligs. 1-4 with 7, 9, 12, and others, until the extreme of angula- 
tion and tabulation is reached, as in examples 8 and 11, where, as in 
the latter, the flattening of the upper part of the whorls is remarkably 
uniform and produces a turreted effect. Both 8 and 11 are exceedingl}^ 
rare varieties, only one of each in the many thousands of specimens 
critically examined. 

Third. The aperture or mouth, it will be noticed, is quite variable, 
both in shape and size, often small, as in tig. 14; the edges simple or 
thin, generally continuous; again more or less thickened or flattened 
and flaring, as in ligs. 6, 12, and 14; sometimes closely appressed to 
the basal whorl, frequently barely touching, and often free or not 
touching it. These latter aspects suggest an umbilicus, as in fig. 13, 
but the gap is only superficial. In fig. 10 it will be seen the lip is not 
continuous. The aperture may be round, or very nearly so, rounded 
ovate, ovate or angulated ovate, as in fig. 11. The length of the 
aperture and its position as related to the axis of the shell varies in 
different examples. Compare 9, 11, and 12 with 1, 3, 5, and 10. In 
11 there is a sinuous curving callous or fold in the umbilical region 
just above the mouth. 

Gould remarks in his description of protea: " It varies greatly 
* * * in the relative proportions of length and breadth." He also 
noticed the strength of the sutural definition; and Conrad mentions 
the general scalariform aspect which is so strikingly exhibited in 
many of the examples, whether plain or sculptured. 

VARIATION IN SCULPTUPE. 

First. Plain smooth shells like figs. 1 and 2 (with convex whorls), 
from Death Valley, at Saratoga Springs (Nelson and Bailev); in the 
Mexican States of Michoacan (Duges), and Durango (Frauenfeld); near 
Roswell, New Mexico (Tinsley-Pilsbry). The eroded Sevier Lake, Utah, 
specimens (Yarrow) may be included with the above. Then follow the 
smooth-surfaced forms, with whorls somewhat angulated on the upper 
part, as shown in fig. 6, and the unique, strongly angulated example, 
fig. 8. In this the pronounced angulation of the whorls points toward 
my species, Pyrgulopsls nevadensls of Pyramid Lake. 

Second. Spirally Urate or threaded (whorls convex), the lirse more or 
less prominent, as in figs. 3 and 4. All of Orcutt's Dos Palmas Springs, 
ten living specimens are of this pattern. In fig. 9 is shown an unusally 
robust example (whorls slightl}^ angulated above), the lirte distinct, but 
much less conspicuous than in the slenderer, more strongly angulated 
and threaded fig. 10. In fig. 11 the angulation of the part of the 
whorls is extremely developed, passing into tabulation or flattening, 
producing a turreted effect, and the spiral threading numerous, closely 
set, and well defined. 



NO. 1-56. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEARNS. 281 



Third. A connecting' link between the above and the cancellated 
forni.s — that is to say, forms that are sculptured both transverseh' and 
longitudinally — as seen in fig. 12. Robust, angulated, spirally lirate, 
and longitudinally plicate on the third and fourth whorls from the tip 
of the apex; the eccentric character of the aperture makes this a 
unique example. In fig. 5 is presented a slenderer form with the chief 
sculpture characters of fig. 12. In this the threading of the penulti- 
mate whorl is inconspicuous, increasing in prominence on the three 
whorls above, which are also strongl}" ribbed longitudinally; the whorls 
are rounded above. 

Fourth. Longitudinal sculpture strongest. In all of the following- 
examples the spiral sculpture is seen and is more or less conspicuous. 
This character varies, however, in figs. 6 and l-l; the lir^e are numerous 
and closely, evenly placed; in these also the shells are slenderer, and 
the longitudinal ribs cross the spiral threading without interruption. 
In fig. 6 it will be noticed the whorls are convex, in fig. 14 somewhat 
angulated above, and the mouth in the latter is small. No. 5, in the 
third group, might be included here, perhaps, as appropriately as 
where I have placed it. 

Fifth. Cancellated and nodose sculptures are the prominent features 
in the forms here included. The whorls in all are angulated above; 
the spiral threadings vary in number, and where crossed b}" the 
lengthwise ribs become tul)erculated or nodose. In fig. 13 is seen a 
repetition of the slenderer aspect, and in fig. 18 is shown the maxi- 
mum of robustness. On the basal w^horl, close-set fine threading 
below, above a double threading is a conspicuous feature, with wider 
interspaces, which extends to the upper whorls. 

In figs. 15 and 16 are examples intermediate in size and other 
I'haracters. A ventricose example is presented in tig. 17, distinctly 
but not strongly threaded with man}" of the features of No. IS; in 
this the longitudinal sculpture is only suggested. 

These filose, cancellated, and tuberculated varieties call to mind 
familiar forms ])elonging to the American Strejjomatidm^ which, no 
doubt, were in Conrad's mind when he described certain aspects of 
the shells herein reviewed as Melania exlgua. 

Orcutt's recent examples, collected b}" him at the Fish Springs 
locality, contained in the U. S. National Museum (No. 10-1886), are not 
figured ; in these the surface is finely granulose. As only a small 
number of shells from the Orcutt localities have been examined, it is 
not known whether the springs visited by Mr. Orcutt contain other 
varieties than those described. 

It will be observed that the forms from the remote localities, namely. 
Death Valley and Sevier Lake in the north, Durango and Michoacan 
in the south, and New Mexico in the east, are sculptureless; that is to 
say. are of the smooth surfaced form described bv Frauenfeld. These 
Roswell, New Mexico, examples determined by Dr. Pilsbry extend the 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi..xxiv. 

distribution 80 much farther in that direction than before known as to 
warrant the expectation of the tinding- of /*. proUa in some of its 
man}^ varieties at intermediate localities. 

The eighteen examples figured as representatives of the many facies 
of this exceedingly variable form are connected in one character or 
another by innumerable individuals which blend or intergrade, and 
which it would be impracticable to describe. The above are numbered 
in the IT. S. National Museum Register 47854, with second or index 
numbers 1 to 18, in as many tubes corresponding to the number of 
each figure as given in this paper. 

With the exception of the New Mexico and Durango localities, all 
of the others are represented in the U. S. National Museum collection. 

The occurrence in the Colorado desert of California, of the well- 
marked form described b}- the late Dr. Stimpson as Tryon'm cJofhrata 
has not been verified by any of the collections made b}^ various parties, 
as well as uwself ; not a single example having been detected in the 
thousands of specimens examined. The only localit}^ where it is defi- 
nitely known to occur is in the Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, where 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam collected a number of living specimens in a hot 
spring. The dead bleached shells collected forty years ago b}- Prof. 
W. P. Blake, and later by General Carlton in 1861-62, were probably 
found somewhere in the region of the Merriam locality, which is at a 
high altitude, 3,000 feet or more, in southern Nevada. There is a 
vast area between the Pahranagat and California localities practically 
unexplored; of its molluscan life scarcely anything is known. 

As to the causes of the extreme variation exhibited by the shells of 
this species, I will repeat what I have heretofore written by quoting" 
from the '"'Report on the Land and Fresh- Water Shells collected in 
California and Nevada by the Death Valley expedition,""^ as follows: 

The suggestion that arises from the study of the forms above reviewed and the 
regions and conditions to which they are related point to the causes that induce 
variation and to the permanency of species and genera, or to the mutabihty of the 
same, as dependent on environmental characteristics. 

If we are warranted in assuming * * * that Avith a volume of 
water ample or maximum and chemical proportions as related to vol- 
ume minimum our Tryonkoi would be smooth, and that the smooth or 
sculptureless surface that so generally prevails in the Bytli'inelhiH and 
related groups is, in a conventional sense, normal, then we may rea- 
sonablv assume that to the opposite of these conditions, with volume 
of water variable or minimum and chemical proportions as related to 
volume of water increased or maximum, the phenomena of variation 
may be attri?>uted. That fluctuations in volume of water in the springs, 
pools, lagoons, etc. , throughout the entire desert region above descrilied 
are occa.donal, if not of frequent occurrence, is well known, and in 
some years the maximum is extreme, as has been pointed out. 

^ North American Fauna, p. 280, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1893. 



NO. 1256. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEARNS. 283 



In revitnviiig the forms herein considered it will hardly l)e ques- 
tioned that the variation the}' exhibit is correlated with salinity, 
using" the word as synonymous with alkalinity, or the mineral character 
of the waters in which the shells are found. In connection with the 
foregoing- the suggestion arises that some of the many springs now 
obsolete contained what in common parlance may be called a distinct 
species, or shells that were characterized Iw a single facies of sculp- 
ture, etc. Thus, in Mr. Orcutt's Indian or Fish Springs specimens the 
surface is finely granulose. His Dos Palmos shells are spirally threaded, 
though these aspects of sculpture are not alwa^^s — that is to say. in all 
the specimens — equally conspicuous. The Saratoga Springs examples 
of the Death Valley expedition are, like those of Michoacan, Durango, 
and New Mexico, smooth surfaced. The few Sevier Lake (Utah) speci- 
mens were sculptured, but so nmch eroded as to obscure the character 
of the surface. Doubtless many living springs remain to be explored 
and some of these mux furnish special facies of this versatile form, 
perhaps shells with the longitudinal sculpture only. With the above 
facts and suggestions before us, a coming together of these various 
forms would, it may be assumed, lead to hybridization and the phe- 
nomenal variation of P. jrrotea be thus explained. But here we must 
remember the fact that in all of the shells from all the localities, what- 
ever may be the surface characters in the main, the apex and early 
whorls are universally smooth. 

In the several hundred specimens recently received from the Flow- 
ing Wells locality, where the bodies of water are of considerable size, 
all of the varieties are included except Nos. 8 and 11. 

From the suggestion of variation through h^^bridization the follow- 
ing hypothetical views as to the formation of sculpture may be 
indulged in: 

The spiral sculpture or Urate character may be due to puckering of 
the mantle upon its being withdrawn into the shell, which would cause 
an increased deposit at certain points along or upon the edge of the 
outer lip. the lirate and intermediate depressed grooving correspond- 
ing to the wrinkling of the mantle edge. In examples that show the 
thread-like ridges on some whorls and not on others we may suppose 
that the shell-forming material, or lymph, as it may be called for con- 
venience, was less abundant one time compared with another. 

Where the double .system of sculpture is exhibited the forming of 
the lirate ridges was at times interrupted by a short period of rest, 
when the rim or edge of the mouth received the greater proportion 
of the secretions, thus making the thread-like sculpture secondary to 
the longitudinal for the time being. It would seem that alternations 
in the volume of lymph deposited as suggested, or from pores around 
the edge of the mantle and possibh' somewhat molded or shaped by 
the foot, may furnish a hint as to the various facies of sculpture. 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi,.xxiv. 

The character of the lymph may have .somethinj^ to do vv ith sculpture. 
It quite likely varies in density one time compared with another 
according to the proportions of conchiolin or lime; with the first 
maximum, would be greater fluidity and less tendency to set, at the 
expense of diffusion or quick spreading, than when the lime factor 
dominated and made it more viscous. 

As to the proportions of the mantle and its size as related to the 
size of the mouth and other characters we have no certain knowledge. 
It ma}" be that the edge of the mantle is thin and simple; that a series 
of pores occur that are parallel to but not quite at the edge of the 
mantle; that these pores are nearl}" equally spaced as to distance apart. 
In that case we may suppose the two forms of sculpture could be made 
at the same time — that is, the spiral or transverse and the longitudinal — 
the deposition from the mantle's edge forming on the edge of the 
outer lip the longitudinal plicae and the secretions from the pores 
simultaneously deposited forming the lirse. In this case any differen- 
tiation in the size of the lira^ — that is to sa}^ coarseness or fineness- 
would be due to lack of uniformity in the size of the pores, and irreg- 
ularity or differences in distance apart might be attributed to the par- 
tial or absolute congestion of some of them. 

Angulation or shouldering, in some instances amounting to absolute 
distortion, as seen in asymmetry and bulging, are presumably due to 
hypertrophy of the visceral mass, especially the liver, and to entan- 
glement at some time during the period of growth in the vegetable 
matter in the midst of which they live, and the flaring of the mouth, 
as seen in fig. 12, to the close pressing to some flat surface, like a tule 
stalk or the stem of some other aquatic plant. 

The register number of the shells, figured 1 to 18 inclusive, is 
U.S.N.M. 1:7851. 

OTHER SPECIES OF THE AMNICOLID^. 

There will generally be found in an}' collection of the Desert shells 
a small proportion of the following: 

PALUDESTRINA LONGINQUA Gould (Pilsbry). 

Amnicola longinqna Gould, Proe. Boston Society Nat. History, Mar., 1855; Binney 
Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, Part III, Smithsonian Miscellaneous 
Collections, No. 144, Sept., 1865, p. 87, fig. 173. 

In Dr. Pilsl))y\s revised Catalogue of the Ainnlcolkla^ etc., he 
includes this form in the genus above named. Its presence in the 
desert is inconspicuous when compared with the vast numbers of 
P. protea. Those factors in the environment to which is apparently 
attributable the variability of P. protea^ do not seem to affect 
P. longinqua^ for all of the shells in the latter have a smooth unsculp- 



NO. 1250. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEA RXS 285 




Fig. 2. — Amnicola i.ongin- 



identitied." 



tared surface. This little species is widely distributed; it occurs not 

only in the Colorado desert in a semifossil state, 

but throughout the Great Basin, living and dead, 

as follows: Upper Lahontan beds at south end of 

Winnemucca Lake, and at Buffalo Springs (Call); 

Nevada and Utah (Hemphill); Bear Lake and 

Utah Lake (Hayden, Putnam); Southeastern 

Oregon (Gabb); at Campo and Springs in Cuya- 

maca Mountains. San Diego Co. (Hemphill); Indio 

and other localities in Colorado desert (Stearns). 

Dr. Gould's specimens were collected in the 

'^Cienaga Grande" by Prof. William P. Blake, 

of the Pacific Railroad surveys. 

Dr. Pilsbry regards Bythinella hitermedla 
Tryon, as a synonvm and speaks of P. Jonylnqua^ 
as " extremely variable, * * * often incorrectly 
[U.S.N.M. No.'l04885.] 

FLUMINICOLA COLUMBIANA (Hemphill) Pilsbry. 
Fluminicola columbiana Pilsbry, Nautilus, XII, No. 11, March, 1899, p. 125. 
Fhiminicola nuttalliana var. columbiano Hemphill manuscript. 

Columbia River, near Wallula and near mouth of Snake River in 
southwest Washington ; Snake River near Weiser, western Idaho (Hemp- 
hill). Colorado desert, semifossil (Stearns). 

A single example was detected by me while 
examining the 40,000 examples of /*. protea^ 
etc. I had labeled it F. nuttalliana. It agrees 
so well with Dr. Pilsbry's description of F. 
colunihiana that I have no doubt it belongs to 
that species. [U.S.N.M. No. 3847.] 

The following forms collected by the Death 
Vallev Expedition in 1891 were tirst made 
known in the report of said expedition pub- 
lished in 1893.'^ As the report has long since 
been out of print and many persons interested 
in the study of the mollusca have never seen the descriptions or 
figures, it is thought advisable to republish them in this connection, 
although the shells have not as yet been detected in that portion of 
the Great Desert to which this paper in the main refers. 




Fig. 3.— Fluminicola Colum- 
biana (Hemphill). 



' The figure (173) in Binney is so very poor that the species could hardly be deter- 
mined by it. The figures in the text numbered 2 and 3 are by Dr. McConnell. The 
latter form has not been figured before. 

^ North American Fauna No. 7, Part II, U. S. Dept. Agriculture, pp. 269 to 283. 

Through the courtesy of the Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, and the 
kindness of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, (;hief of the Biological Survey of above Department, 
I am able to present the figures of these species. 



286 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEVM. 



VOL. XXIV. 




Fig. 4.— Amnicola 

M I C R f I (' O C C U S 

(Pilsbry). 



AMNICOLA MICROCOCCUS Pilsbry. 

Shell minute, globose, with short conic spire and narrow umbil- 
icus. Whorls 3f , convex, especially below the sutures, the apex very 
obtuse. Surface smooth, light olive colored. Aperture 
ovate, about half the length of the entire shell, bluntly 
angulated above; the inner lip is either free from the 
preceding whorl or in contact only at the upper part. 
Alt. 1.5, diam. 1.3 mm. 

A smaller species than A. granum. Say, with oval 
instead of round aperture and shorter spire. 

Type from small spring in Oasis Valley, Nevada 
(U.S.N.M., No. 123622), by Dr. C. Hart Merriam, June, 
1891. Collected also in Death Valley by Nelson and Bailey, February 
4,1891 (U.S.N.M., No. 123904). 

Several examples of this interesting little shell were detected as 
above. 

FLUMINICOLA MERRIAMI Pilsbry' and Beecher. 

Shell small, globose turbinate, narrowly but distinctly and deeply 
umbilicated. Spire low conic, acute; whorls four, slightly shouldered 
below the sutures, the upper lateral portion rather flattened, periphery 
and base convex. Surface smooth, horn-colored. 
Aperture oblique, ovate, angled above, broadly 
rounded below; upper portion of the inner lip 
adherent to the body whorl, lower portion arcu- 
ate, without a callous thickening. 

Alt. 3, diam. 2^ mm. 

This species differs from F. fasca Haldeman in 
the much more distinct umbilicus, thin texture, 
and the nonthickened lip. 

Collected from a warm spring (temperature 97° 
F.) in Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, by Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam, May 25, 1891 (U.S.N.M., No. 123626). 

Dr. Merriam detected in the same spring numerous living examples 
of the long-sough t-f or Tryonla dathrata Stimpson, previously known 
only by dead or semifossil examples collected by Prof. William P. 
Blake in 1855 and General Carlton in 1861-62. It is quite evident 
that the term "Colorado desert," as used in connection with the 
Blake-Carlton shells, included a much larger part of the Great Basin 
than is now understood when the "Colorado desert" is mentioned. 
Attention is again called to the Hgure "139, Tryonla dathrata^'''' as 
given in Binne}^^ which does not represent Dr. Stimpson's shell; for 

iThe Nautilus, V, Apr., 1892, p. 143; also XII, Mar., 1899, p. 121 et seq. 
^Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, No. 144, p. 71, Sept., 1865. 




Fig. 5.— FLUMINICOLA Merri- 
AMi (Pilsbry and Beecher). 



NO. I2r6. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORA DO DESERT— STEARXS. 287 

a proper ligure see the last author's Researches upon the Hydrobmaj/ 
etc. , page 48. 

THE PHYSAS. 

dissociated with Paludedrina and scattered far and wide over the 
desert in immense numbers are various forms of Pkym. Though less 
niunerous than the former, they are particularh' abundant in the 
depressed portion (below sea level) from Indio to Volcano Spring-s, 
their larger size making them far more conspicuous. The desert is 
strewn in like manner with the dead shells of PIanorhl>< ^\\^ Anodonta^ 
far to the south, along the course of New River especially. This dis- 
tribution extends to the " dry lake,'' the before-mentioned Laguna 
Maquata, south of the United States boundary line, where Mr. Orcutt 
observed "" along the bottom of 
the lagoon numerous examples 
of the same species of P/ti/sa, 
l^lanoi'hls^ and Anodonta^^ that 
are found at the north. He also 
mentions the occurrence of cer- 
tain marine shells, Tagelus and 
Cylichna. The first of these, 
as well as a single example of 
Oeinehr'a jpoidsoni Nuttall, were 
collected by me near Indio. 

Regarding the large PJanorhls 
«/><'//'/(9// Gould, Mr. Orcutt found it "about equally abundant '^ * * 
in a fossil state with Physa humerosa.''^ At the stations Avhere 1 col- 
lected both P. amnion and P. gracilentus Gould {\ = P. Jlebmanm 
Dunker) were apparently scarce. So also with Paludedrlna longhiqua 
(= Amnicolalonginqua) Gould. 

The surface of the desert in the neighborhood of these localities and 
for miles beyond those visited by me is covered with the glittering 
fragments of Anodonta calif or niensis Lea, which form a noticeable 
feature of the region, as seen from the moving cars. Perfect valves 
are frequently met with. 

Probably there is no area of equal extent on the face of the earth 
Avhere such an immense number of shells of the genera above named 
may be seen. Millions of the tiny shells of Paludedr'nia^ with their 
varied and beautiful sculpture and the countless thousands of many 
species and varieties of Phym^ indicate this region above all others 
that are known as the metropolis of these groups and prove that the 
environmental conditions throughout this vast territor}' must have 
been preeminently conducive to their multiplication and development. 

While the Pliyms of the desert, as before remarked, are, as a whole, 
rather above the average of their congeners elsewhere in point of size, 




Fig. 6. — Anodonta califoeniensis (Lea), somewhat 
reduced. 



Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, No. 201, Aug., 1865. 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vni.xxiv. 

the maximum of development in this direction is farther to the south, 
as shown by the fine, large, highly polished shells of the west Mexi- 
can species P. (Aplexa) aurmitia Carpenter, of Mazatlan. This form, 
which the author remarks as "not common" at that place, sometimes 
measures nearly an inch and a half in length.^ As Llmncm i<tag nails 
and L. megasoma of more northerly latitudes exhibit the culmination in 
size of the LmiiKBldce^ so in the south does P. aurantia of the l*1iy)<!(l<E. 

That several species of Limncea occur at numerous localities in the 
Great Basin to the north, at various elevations from 1,300 to 4,0()0 feet^ 
and upward, and eastward in Arizona at Tucson, elevation 2,300 feet, 
to the higher altitude of Walker Lake, in the San Francisco Moun- 
tains, 8,250 feet, and (Z. hidhnoidei<) still nearer, both in distance and 
altitude, at Daggett, on the Mojave River, in the Mojave Desert, 2,000 
feet, points to the thermal factor of the lower levels in this region as 
the uncongenial feature which excludes Limncea from the desert. 
Thus L. Jiuinllts becomes a mountain species in the Sierra Laguna of 
Lower California, and other species of the genus occur to the south- 
ward not far from the coast, at lower levels, within reach of the cool 
winds and fogs of the Pacific. Evidence is not wanting to show that 
depauperation in the Limncea is coincident with high thermal condi- 
tions,^ where such temperatures are continuous or prevail the greater 
part of the year. 

In considering the L^hysas of Indio and other desert localities, a 
glance at Plate V shows many forms that are familiar to students of 
North American Lhnnojjhila. To facilitate comparison, on Plate IV 
are presented several figures from Binney * of described species from 
regions both north and south of the desert. With the distributive 
agencies previously indicated in mind, it ma}' be well to turn to these 
forms and note the localities at which they were detected. Call credits 
P. (jyrlna, which he suggests is a variety of P. heterostropJia, to the 
Upper Bonneville beds, near Salt Spring Creek, and the variety 
P. elliptica, to Warm Spring Lake, near Salt Lake City, both places 
in Utah. Of the latter he says it occurs "abundantly and of large 
size." The same author remarks of jP. heterostropha that it has not 
been found in the lake beds of either Bonneville or Lahontan, l)ut is 
abundant as a semifossil on the surface of Sevier Desert. Both 
P. lidenmtroplia and P. gyrlna were found living by the Death Valley 
expedition at many places in the Great Basin much farther south than 
the Lahontan and Bonneville regions. P. heterostroplM was collected 

^Over a hundred were obtained by me at Aeapulco in 1868. [R. E. C. 8.] 

^ Mr. Vernon Bailey collected L. palustris in the Uintah 3Iountains in a creek at an 
elevation of 10,000 feet. 

^Doubtless great extremes of temperature in either direction are detrimental to 
the existence of these forms. 

* Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, Smithsonian ^Miscellaneous Col- 
' lections, No. 143, Part II, 1865. 



NO. 1256 FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COL OR A D DESER T—STEA RNS. 289 

h\ Mr. Vernon Bailey among moss " in an irrigation ditch " at Phoenix, 
Arizona, and by the same party at Magdalena, northwestern Mexico, 
"in a similar situation." It has been reported from other places in 
Mexico, as Avell as from Hot Springs, Lower California, where it was 
detected hy H. and C. R. Orcutt in 1882. 

7'*. lord!, *■■ is rare as a fossil; it does not occur living in the Bonne- 
ville Basin; a few examples have been found on the surface of the 
Sevier Desert." 

For the distribution of the following I quote Dr. Cooper's catalogue. ^ 
"P. gahhu northern California to Lower California. * * * P. 
cmijmllaeea^ Columbia River, latitude 49°, to Owens River, California. 

* * * Physa dia])lianci.^ Lake County, Cal. , to Cape St. Lucas. 

* * * Physa virginea, Oregon and northwestern California to 
Santa Barbara, Cal." 

Call found P. amjmUacea common, living in the Bonneville area; 
it is found also in the Mono Basin, California. P. gabhi was collected 
by Professor Gabb in the Santa Ana River, Los Angeles County; P. 
osculans in Devils River, Arizona (Lloyd), and at Del Rio, Rio Grande 
Valley (Bailey): P. mexicana^ "from Seven Wells, the Colorado 
River, and the Santa Cruz River near Tucson, Ariz., at Laguna, 20 
miles north of Campo, and at Cameron's ranch, San Diego County, 
Cal. Some strongh" shouldered specimens in a subfossil state, from 
the Colorado Desert, are perhaps a variety of this species, which is 
extreme] V variable" (Dall). Professor Dall also identifies a single 
specimen of a physoid form collected bj^Dr. E. A. Mearns in the drift 
of the Santa Cruz River near Tucson, Arizona, as Aple,i'<i hyjjnoriDii.'^ 

Physa virgata^ described from specimens collected by Dr. Webb in 
the Gila River, Arizona; also occurs near San Diego and at Los Angeles, 
where I have collected numerous specimens. 

Physa dlstingxienda^ a species with which I am not familiar, was 
reported by Mr. Orcutt as occurring in a little creek near San Diego 
in 18!t(:). 

Of the 56 figures in Plate XXIII, Nos. 1, 2, and 3 have been made from 
a lot of i92 collected bv Prof. I. C. Russell at Pyramid Lake, Nevada, 
in the extinct Lahontan Lake region. These give a fair idea of the 
differentiation of Physa humerosa from that locality, a species quite 
persistent in its main characteristics, first described from the Colorado 
Desert by Dr. Gould. The other figures represent examples forming 
a second selection from over 1,500 individuals collected by the writer, 

^ Catalogue of AVest North American and many Foreign Shells, etc. Printed for 
the State Mining Bureau, Sacramento, April, 1894. 

^ This extends the distribution of hypnorum by an immense leap to the south, its 
previous most southerly locality considered. It may poi?sibly be shown by additional 
examples to be a long spired variety of ahUa, which is found in Lower California, or 
a slender aspect of niiens, a Mexican species. 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 19 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

a first serios, which exhibited the extremes and other aspects of varia- 
tion more markedly, having unfortunately been misplaced/ 

A fair idea of the size as a whole is not given by the plate, the 
examples selected being- simply to illustrate variation; they are con- 
sideral)!}^ under the average. 

SCULPTURE AND SALINITY. 

The presence of sculptural characters in the Phys/dce is of rather 
rare occurrence, though frequently met with in many species of the 
Linmiplclw, which sometimes exhibit much diversit}- within quite 
limited geographical areas. While the Paludestrina? of the desert are 
so conspicuous in prominence and diversity of sculpture, the Physas, 
on the contrary, show only the usual incremental lines more or less 
defined. The following species of Physa^ as described by various 
authors,' are said to be sculptured: P. costata Newcomb, from Clear 
Lake, California;'' P. lord! Baird, Lake Osoyos, British Columbia; 
P. innom Gould, Lake Superior; P. pllcata De Kay, Manhattan 
Island; P. sol! da Philippi, New Orleans. 

In all of the foregoing, excepting Dr. Newcomb's P. costata, the 
sculpture consists either of fine lir^e or indented grooving, which 
crosses the incremental strite or lines of growth. This is what I 
have called tran.werse sculpture. 

The elevation of Clear Lake is 1,350 feet, with an area of 80 square 
miles. It is subject to only slight fluctuations in volume. 

The incremental strife, though sometimes quite conspicuous, are 
ordinarily exceedingl}^ fine or nearh^ obscure. They^ can onh' be 
regarded as sculpture in a negative sense. These are, of course, longi- 
tudinal, being parallel to the axis of the shell, or nearly so. In some 
instances "'fine broken microscopic wrinkles parallel to the lines of 
growth occur,"' as mentioned l)v Philippi in his description of P. 
HK^i'lcana. P. idiUlppii Kiister is described as having "waving 
wrinkles." 

Where these forms of sculpture are present the result is seen in a 
more or less finely decussated or reticulated surface, which may extend 
over a part or cover the entire surface of the shell, the latter rarely. 

Dr. Newcomb's Phym. costata is the only species which exhibits 
really conspicuous longitudinal sculpture. In this regard it is a 
remarkable exception to all others of the Physida'. It is a very pretty 

^ See Plate xxiv. 

'"'See Binney's Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, Part II, Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, p. 143. 

*Dr. Cooper, who collected some fifteen species of moUusks in Clear Lake, says: 
The borax, soda, alum, iron, sulphur, etc., found around the lake, do not affect the 
taste of the water, and do not seem to influence animal life except in limited spots 
where no mollusca are found, perhaps on account of subaqueous mineral springs. 
Proc. Cal. Acad. Science, IV, p. 154. 



NO. 1256. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEA RXS. 2 9 1 

form, with ten to fourteen regiilarh'^ occurring rounded undidation.s 
or ribs. HemphilFs Pompholyx codatci^ from near the Dalles of the 
Columbia River, has the same sculpture. 

Another sculptural aspect that is not infrequently met with is what 
has been termed malleated. 

De Ka3'\s P. jMcata^ ''in some specimens," exhibits ''distinct square 
facets." Physa carltoni Lea, from near Antioch, at the junction of 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, is sometimes malleated. In 
P. malleata Tr3'on we have another illustration. 

All of the various sculptural aspects above described occur also 
in the Limnceidce^ of which the following species may be named: L. 
caj)erata^ L. cataseopiiim^ L. colinneUa, L. decoUata, L. emarginata, L. 
elodes, L. lanceata, L. lepida. L. indtaJliana^ L. pahistris^ L. simiassi., 
L. umhrosa^ and innumerable varieties or races of the above, and in 
Call's fossil L. honnevillensis, from the quaternary of the Great Basin 
and his living Z. {Radix) ampla., var. utahensl.s from Lake Utah. 

It will be observed by reference to the descriptions of the many 
species of Physa herein quoted that no mention of salinity is made in 
connection with the waters in which the shells were found; the same 
remark also applies to the various species of Liiiiiuea above named. 
Regarding the latter we hnd the longitudinal, transverse or spiral 
sculpture, the latter either incised or produced. The malleated aspect, 
etc., in Z. aatpla^ and these in many and various aspects of differen- 
tiation in Limncea einarglnata^ as may ])e seen in the National Museum 
(Cat. Nos. 12388T to 123894, inclusive). 

In the large series from Eagle Lake' in central Minnesota, where 
neither saline or thermal conditions need to be considered, nearly all, 
if not all, of the sculptural characters that occur in the numerous 
species of Physa and Limncea^ above cited, are present, besides such 
features as relate to form and solidity. 

The partially or wholly malleated surface so often met with in the 
Limnceids regardless of altitude or the salinity of the water, and less 
frequently in the Physas^ is explainal)le by the character of the lake 
or pond bed in which these dinted forms occur. The character of the 
bottom, even in a pond of limited size, often exhibits very consider- 
able differences in the matter of compactness or density; alluvial 
mud, clayey mud, clay or sand, with tine or coarse gravel intermixed 
with fragments of aquatic plants and plant stems in varying propor- 
tions. The habits of these mollusks include, if not properly speaking- 
burrowing, wallowing or submersion, and moving as they do with 
somewhat of a rotating motion, this, combined with the moderate 
impact of the surrounding mattin-. contril)ute to produce the malle- 
ated or dinted surface, which frequentl}' exhibits a somewhat spiral 
arrangement. 

iProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXII, No. 1190. 



292 PROCEEDrXGS OF THE NATIONAL }IUSEVM. vol.xxiv. 

The late Dr. James Lewis "attributed malleation to rapid growth 
in warm water, causing the shell to solidify unevenly. He also men- 
tioned apparent metamorphoses of one species into another quite dif- 
ferent, merely from change out of still canal water to that of a rapid 
brook. " 

Neither Dr. Lewis's hypothesis nor Call's Lltnnmi honnevillensis 
and the same author's variety utahensis of Z. ampl<(, the latter occur- 
ing' in an environment wherein salinity is a factor, are of much value 
as bearing on the phenomena of sculpture in these and related forms 
in the fa(;e of the Eagle Lake shells before referred to and Lea's 
PhyKCi carlton! from near Antioch, at the junction of the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento rivers in California. 

SCULPTURE AND THERMAL WATERS. 

Phym frequently occurs in thei'mal springs or waters far above 
their ordinary summer temperature. Dr. Lea's P. aurea from Hot 
Springs, in Bath County, Va., included by Binney as a synonym of 
P. heteroxtrojjha^ is an instance in point. Here waters of different 
temperatures come together forming a little stream — on one side of 
106'-', the other, 56°. Dr. Lea made no note of sculptural differences. 
Numerous examples of another form from a hot spring in Alameda 
County, California, examined b}^ me, showed only fine growth lines. 
Dr. Merriam's specimens of P. gyrina from Hot Springs, Panamint 
Valley, California, "fine, large, dark-colored shells," exhibited no 
special sculptural features, and the same may be said of Bailey's 
examples of P. heterostropha from the same region. From the above 
we may conclude that sculptural character is not affected or developed 
by the thermal factor in springs, etc. , and this is still further supported 
by the desert shells, which, outside of the hot springs, were subjected to 
the sun-heated waters of the shallow pools during the long and exces- 
sively hot summers of the desert region. 

Incidentally, mention may here be made that the shells of PJiysa 
from thermal stations are noticeable for their fine texture, shining 
surface, and clear dark or light amber color. 

SIZE AS RELATED TO HYPSOMETRIC TEMPERATURES. 

"Hypsometric distribution has received from conchologists," as 
Dr. Call has said, "much less attention than it apparently deserves. 
Within small areas, comparatively, there are presented by hypsometry 
those various physical conditions that must otherwise be sought 
through several degrees of latitude." 

So it may be said that the paths of distribution of various living 
forms are along the lines of temperature, measurably, wherever such 
lines may lead, which may explain the southing of many so-called 
Northern species and the northing of so-called Southern forms, with 



NO. 1256. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEARNS. 293 

but little reo^ard to lines of latitude. While altitude, which in this 
connection is equivalent to decreased temperature, has apparently no 
sculptural influence, it seems to bear a close relation to size in the 
Phy.sas. That aspect of depauperation called dwarfing is shown in 
Call's (Table XIV) comparative measurements^ of Physa mnpuUacea 
from Little Gull Lake, in the Mono Basin of California, altitude 7,000 
to 7,500 feet, and Church Lake, near Salt Lake City, Utah, elevation 
I . . 14 95 

about 4,300 feet, the ratio of lengths being- :i— ^— ^ and the ratio of 
I 12,97 

9 81 
widths -^——. The value of this comparison is impaired, first, because 

8.45 

the number of examples from these places is unequal, being only twelve 
from Gull Lake against eighteen from Church Lake, and, second, 
liecause a comparison of this kind to be satisfactory should embrace a 
much larger number of individuals. 

As to the relation between depauperation and salinity, CalTs table 
(XI) giving the mea-surements of thirteen examples of Physa gyriiia 
from ponds near Salt Lake City, elevation about 4,500 feet, and thirty- 
nine specimens from brackish springs at Promontory, elevation 4,900 
feet, the same objections appl3^ His tables (VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, and 
XI), ];ased on comparative measurements of Ponipholyx effusa^ Cari- 
n'lfex newherryi^ Ilelisoina trivolvis^ Limnophysa palustris^ and Physa 
(fyrhia^ indicate, as he says, that "brackish water is correlated with 
depauperation.'"^ While numerous examples of 1\ gyrlna collected 
by Dr. C. Hart Merriam in Bennett Springs, Meadow Valley, Nev^ada, 
elevation 6,0<)0 feet, and the large number (492) of P. humerosa from 
Pyramid Lake, 4,890 feet altitude, after comparison with Colorado 
desert shells of the same species, are afiirmative testimony as to the 
dwarfing influence of higher altitudes (i. e., lower temperature), the 
desert shells being uniformly of larger size. This applies not only to 
the species just named, but to the desert Physas as a whole. Hypso- 
meti'ic or lower temperatures neutralized by thermal conditions, as 
related to size in the I^ysas, is illustrated liy the examples of 1\ gyrina 
collected b}' Dr. Merriam at the Hot Springs in Panamint Valley, the 
shells being fine, large, and dark colored. Here the altitude above the 
level of the desert was not so very great, being about 1,500 feet. CalTs 
Warm Springs, Utah, specimens of P, gyrina var. ellipUca afl'ord a 
similar illustration. "The variet}" " he saj^s, "is found abundantly and 
of large size." The elevation of Warm Springs is over 3,800 feet. 

From the consideration of the relations of sculpture to salinity and 
to thermal waters, of size in connection with hypsometric distribution, 
variation in form as related to environment attracts attention. 

^ A comparison between forms from high altitudes with those from stations nearer 
to the level of the sea would be more satisfactory than that above quoted, where 
both localities are mountain stations. 

^This point discussed elsewliere. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

VARIATION IN FORM. 

The Physas of the desert, however affected by the environment, in 
the matter of sculpture are absolutely wanting in the characters so 
conspicuous in the Paludestrmce. Evidence of hybridization is at 
once suggested when a large number of individuals is compared. Dis- 
tortion and pathologic deformit}^ are of frequent occurrence, and are 
exhibited in the strong shouldering of the basal whorl and the bulging 
of the latter, which is not uncommon, as in certain California species 
of L'viinuca from sweet waters. This aspect of deformity may be 
attributed to abundance of food supply, resulting in hypertrophy of 
the viscera. The surface of the shells may sometimes be uneven and 
the incremental stria? be coarse, as the whole is heavier than is usual 
in the shells of this genus from ordinary localities or stations. These 
characteristics are apparently due to the environment, but sculpture 
in the proper sense is not manifest. The excess of mineral matter in 
the waters is exhibited in greater solidity and a sturdier growth. 

The Physas of the Great Basin from the extreme north to the Col- 
orado River and l^eyond show a notable tendency to shortness of spire 
and shouldering or symmetrical bulging and flattening of the upper 
part of the basal whorl. These characters, when pronounced, approach 
distortion. Normal or typical individuals of /"*. hninerom. exhibit 
these features moderately. P. virgata Gould, from the River Gila 
and near San Diego and at Los Angeles, a not remote neighbor of P. 
/lumerosa, which may be regarded as a less chunky aspect of the latter, 
show these peculiarities still less. Both I\ /lefe/'ostrojiha and P. gyrina^ 
if these may be called different species, in some localities within the 
area above mentioned show moderate tabulation of the basal volution, 
with spires of variable height. P. Jordi., sparsely represented in the 
Great Basin, is a conspicuous illustration of the low-spired ventricose 
body whorl type. 

In this connection attention is called to figs. 1 to 10 on Plate XXIV, 
and the modification of the shell through hypertroph}^ is fondbly sug 
gested b\" some of the figures on the same plate. 

A glance at Plate XXIII and a comparison of the figures therein 
exhibits the range of variation from the low-spired, rather chunky 
shells of P. huinerosa 1 and 10 to the elongated forms {approaching 
P. gyrina) P. virglnea 53, 55, and 56, while 18, 23, and 26 may be 
assigned to P. me.ricana. In fig. 29 we have a typical humerom. Figs. 
51 and 5-1 may be regarded as robust examples of P. heterostropha^ 
while hybridization is suggested by many of the intermediate forms 
not specified above. 

Cooke gives several figures ^ illustrating the effect of salinity upon 
LimncBa jjeregra and Z. stagnalis from the salt marshes near the sea 

' Cambridge Natural History, III, 1895, p. 85. 



NO. iL'5r,. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLOR A DO DESER T—STEARXS. 295 

of Aral, and our desert Physas exhibit similar, if not as extreme, dis- 
tortion. With the latter, as heretofore intimated, the abnormalities 
are quite as likely to l)e due to visceral hypertrophy through overfeed- 
ing- as to the salinity of the waters. 

To ilkistrate any species of Physa by a single ligure is, in the present 
state of our knowledge of the susceptibility of the mollusks of this 
family to environmental influences, quite an absurd thing to do. 
While the shells of a colony of any one species inha])iting a spring or 
pool of limited area might be nearly or quite uniform in size, shape, 
texture, and color, aiu)ther colony of the same species not ver\" far 
distant, at a slightlv higher or lower elevation, may pi'esent very con- 
siderable variation in one or more of these characters. 

This variation or tendenc}" thereto is sometimes exhibited when a 
large number of individuals ai'e brought together from a pond or 
spring of large area where the volume of water is subject to seasonal 
mutations. Binney in illustrating Limnma palustris^ and certain other 
species of this genus has very properh^ given several figures. The 
same course is necessary in the Physas. 

In Plate XXII, which folloAvs, may be seen the figures of the types 
of several species, as given by Binney,'* which will facilitate compari- 
son with the figures in Plate XXIII and enable the student to draw his 
own deductions, though, as before stated, no species of PJiysa can be 
satisfactorih" illustrated by a single figure, however accurately di-awn. 

The following notes have reference to the figures on Plate XXIII: ^ 

No. 7. Upper part of basal whorl extremely tabulated; variation from P. hnrnerom? 

Kg. 8. Basal whorl flattened; apex depressed and short; the same features less pro- 
nounced exhibited in 9 and 10. 

No. 11. Apex short; basal whorl rounded. 

No. 12. Much like a lar^e ten; apertures patulous and reflected below. 

Nos. 21, 27, 28, and 49. Outer lip pinched above and sinuous. 

Nos. 28, 39, 46, and 47. Heavily calloused on body whorl, forming with tlie outer lip 
a nearly continuous rim. 

No. 33. Anterior portion of aperture or lip thrice repeated; see also fig. 4 in Plate \l. 

Through the courtesy of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 
the author has been permitted to use the cuts in Plate XXII; he is also 
indebted to Prof. W. H. Dall and Mr. C. T. Simpson of the U. S. 
National Museum for kind attention to various matters on several 
occasions. 

^ Land and Fresh Water Shells of North America, Part II, p. 47, and elsewhere. 

^ Idem, p. 75, et seq. 

^The majority of the forms have been compared wdth material in the National 
Museum; those not referred to in the index or notes are left to the judgment of the 
reader. ]Many of the determinations may be regarded as arbitrary; criticism on this 
point is excusable. 



296 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



THE PLANORBES. 



Of the numerous species of Planorbis inhabiting North America, 
the larger forms occur west of the Kockj Mountains and north of lat- 





FiG. 7. — Planorbis trivolvis 
Say (original). 



Fig. 8. — Planorbis trivolvis 
Say, distorted (original). 



itude 30° N. Thus we find P. {IIclisonKi) frlvolois of conspicuous 
size, as is shown hj the accompanying figures. These represent 
examples from the cool Avaters of mountain lakes 
where the elevation is about 5,000 feet. 

Another characteristic form peculiar to the West 
coast is 1\ {Ilelisoma) aminon. The metropolis of 
this species is apparentl}^ the Colorado Desert where, 
as previously stated, it is found in the greatest 
abundance. It is distinguished not alone b}' its 
rugged and rather irregular growth, l)ut b}" the mass 
of the soft parts as seen in living examples, which 
probably exceeds that of any other species. In the 
case of this form we lind it scattered over a large 
area at 200 feet below the level of the sea, where 
the waters of contiguous springs have a temperature 
of 100° F. 

These forms exhibit a swollen ventricose irregu- 
larity and patulous expansion of the aperture atti'ibu- 
table to visceral hypertrophy, quite as likely as to 
salinit}^ and the distortion of the example of /''. tri- 
volvis, above figured, is presumably due to the same 
cause, as the specimen was collected in the sweet 
waters of a mountain lake. 




Fig. 9. — Planorbis 
AMMON (Gould). 



N0.1256. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEARNS. 297 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BiNNEY, W. G. Land and freshwater shells of North America, Parts II and III. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Nos. 143-144. 
Blake, William P. Explorations and surveys for a railroad route from the Mississ- 
ippi River to the Pacific Ocean, Y, pp. 174-228. 
Call, R". Ellsworth. On the quaternary and recent moUusca of the Great Basin, etc. 

Bulletin 11, r. S. Geological Survey, January, 1884. 
Dall, William Healey. Report on the inollusks collected by the International 
Boundary Commission of the United States and Mexico, 1892-1894. 
Proceedings of the V. S. National Museiun, XIX, No. 1111, pp. 333-379; plates 
xxxi-xxxiii. Washington, 1896. 
Hanks, Henry G. Mud volcanoes and the Colorado desert. 

Second Annual Report of the State Mineralogist of California, pp. 227-240, 1880-1882. 
Hyatt, A. On the Tertiary species of Planorbis at Steinheim. 

Anniversary Memoirs Boston Society Natnnd History, 1880. 
Ja.mes, Joseph F. The Colorado Desert. 

Popidar Science Monthly, January, 1<S82, pp. 384-390. 
Merriam, C. Hart, and assistants. The Death Valley Expedition. A biological 
survey of parts of California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah. 
North American Fauna, No. 7, jtart 11. U. S. Dept. Agriculture, Washington, 
1893. 
Okccit, Charles Russell. The Colorado Desert. 

Tenth Annual Rejwrt of the State Mineralogist of California, pp. 899-919, 1890. 
PiLSBRY, Henry A. Catalogue of the Amnicolidse of the Western United States. 

The Nautilus, XII, No. 11, pp.' 121-127. Philadelphia, March, 1899. 
Stearns, Robert E. C. Remarks on Fossil Shells of the Colorado Desert. 

American Naturalist, XIII,' pp. 141-154, March, 1879; XVII, pp. 1014-1020, Octo- 
ber, 1883. 

. On the History and Distribution of the Fresh-AVater Mussels, and the 

Identity of Certain Alleged Species. 
Proceedings, California Academy of Sciences, November 20, 1882, 21 pp., pis. i-vi. 
. Observations on Planorbis. 



Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1881, pp, 91-110, 27 figs. 
Description of a New Hydrobiinoid Gasteropod from the Mountain Lakes of 



the Sierra Nevada, with remarks on allied species and the physiographical 
features of said region. 
Proceedings, Academy of Natural Sciences of PhiladelpJda, 1883, pp. 171-176, and 
figure. 

Notes on Physa triticea of Lea, its relations, and comments on the variation. 



etc., of Physte. 
The Nautilus, III, No. 5. Philadelphia, September, 1889, pp. 49-51. 

Report on the Land and Fresh Water Shells collected in California and 



Nevada by the Death Yalley Expedition, etc. 
North American Fauna, No. 7, pp. 269-283, 1893. 
Wheeler, Lieut. G. M. Annual Report of Geographical Exploration, etc., 1876. 
VVidney, Dr. J. P. The Colorado Desert. 

llie Overland Monthly, X, pp. 44-50. San Francisco, 1873 (also various papers on 
Arizona, Colorado River, etc., in Yols. lY, YI, and IX of the magazine. 
Yeatch, Dr. J. A. Mud Volcanoes of the Colorado Desert. 

Proceedings, California Academy Sciences, I, p. 104 et seq. and ])late, 1857. 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi..xxiv. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

The figures are all largely magnified. The length of the aetual specimen!?, Nos. 1 
and 2, are respectively twenty and sixteen hundredths of an inch; the diameters of 
the same, nine and six hundredths of an inch. The robust example, 18, is 0.23 by 
a diameter of a trifle over 0.1 of an inch. These dimensions exceed the average of 
any large number of shells. Particular attention is called to the variation in size 
and form of the aperture. The figures were all drawn V)y Dr. J. C. McConnell, 
whose skill and taste are too well known to require praise. 

Plate NLX. 

Piiliidcslrina protca Oould. 

Slender, elongated forms with rounded whorls. 

Fig. 1. Whorls smooth, without sculpture. 

2. Same as above, dwarfed form. 

3. Whorls spirally threaded or lirate. 

4. Shorter form of same. 

5. Middle whorls cancellated, basal whorl threaded sculpture only. 

6. Longitudinal sculpture strongest throughout. 

Platk XX. 

PalndcMrlna proica Gould. 

Whorls angulated or tabulated above. 

Fig. 7. Surface smooth, upper portion of whorls angulated. 

8. Surface smooth, strongly angulate (unique example). 

9. Eobust form slightly angulated above and faintly threaded. 

10. Rather slender form, strongly angulated and conspicuously threaded. 

11. AVhorls flattened or tabulated above, an<l faintly threaded throughout 

(unique example). 

12. Whorls angulated above, basal and penultimate whorl, faintly threaded. 

The two whorls above these sculptured both ways; the mouth rimmed 
and reflected (a very rare form). 

Pl.ATK XXL 

P(thidei<triii<i jirolca- Gould. 

Fig. 13. Whorls angulated above and exhibiting the two systems of sculpture, which 
in the middle whorls are subnodose at points of crossing. , 

14. Longitudinal sculpture strongest; plications on middle whorls less numer- 

ous and farther apart than on basal whorl. 

15. Short form, with strongly latticed sculpture on principal whorls. 

16. AVhorls angulated above, sculpture like middle whorls of thirteen. 

17. Robust form, angulated above, faintly threaded; longitudinal sculpture 

consisting of rather inconspicuous rounded swollen plications. 

18. Robust, angulated above, the middle of the whorls sculptured both ways, 

the lower part of basal whorl faintly sculptured transversely. 
The various examples above figured are connected by an endless chain of inter- 
mediate forms. 



NO. 1250. FOSSIL SHELLS OF THE COLORADO DESERT— STEARyS. 299 

Plate XXII. 
Recognized species of PJiysa. 
The figures on this plate are taken from Binney's Land and Fresh Water Shells 
of North America, Part II, Smithsonian Institution Miscellaneous Collections No. 143, 
Washington, September, 1865. The numbers in parentheses and the page num- 
bers correspond with those in the above publication. 

Fig. 1 (127). Phimilordi Baird (p. 76). 

2 (128). Fhysa gabbi Tryon (p. 77). 

3 (129). Physa gabbi Try on (p. 77). 

4 (130). Physa gyrina Say (p. 77). 

5 (133). Physa ampuUacea Gould (p. 79). 

6 (134). Physa ampuUacea Gould (p. 79). 

7 (135). Physa ampuUacea Gould (p. 79). 

8 (139). Physa ancUlaria Say (p. 81). 

9 (140). Physa obesa l)e Kay (p. 82). 

10 (142). Physa oscidaiis Haldeman (p. 83). 

11 (143), Physa mexicana Philippi (p. 83). 

12 (144). Physa heterostropha Say (p. 84). 

13 (146). Physa osculans Haldeman (p. 85). 

14 (156). Physa virginea Gould (p. 92). 

15 (157). Physa humerosa Gould (p. 92). 

16 (158). Physa virgata Gould (p. 93). 

17 (168). P/)_(/.<(o ?7i/fns Philippi (p. 98). 

Plate XXIII. 
Variations of desert Physidse. 
Figs. 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 17. P. humerosa and ordinary varieties. 

7. P. Jiumerosa, extreme variation. 

29. P. humerosa, typical; compare with Binney's fig. 157. 

14, 16, 17. P. humerosa, unusually large. 

44, 46, 50, 52. Compare with P. ampnUacea, Binney's 133. 

53, 55, 56. P. virginea; compare with Binney's 156 and same author's 129, P. gabbi. 

24. P. mexicana; compare witli Binney's 139, P. anriUaria. 

6, 8, 9. P. humerosa, abnormal, very short apex, etc. 

24, 26. P. mexicana, nearly or quite typical; see Binney's 143. 

13, 18, 22, 23. P. mexicana, ordinary varieties. 

8, 27. Hybrids of humerosa and mexicana, or varieties of either. 
54. P. heterostropha, robust form, approaching ampidlacea. 

Plate XXIY. 

Variations of desert Physidse. 
The figures in this plate, illustrating diversity of form, were drawn by the author 
from specimens collected by Prof. George Davidson ^ at or near Indio in 1883, and 
referred to on page 290 as a "first series." The shells are now unfortunately mis- 
placed or destroyed; but the drawings were made soon after they were received. 
Fig. 1 is very near to fig. 7 in Plate XXIII and represents an extreme variation from 
P. humerosa. 

3 is unique in being the only specimen of this form or shape. 

4 may be compared with fig. 33 of Plate XXIII, showing a triple repetition of 

the anterior part of tlie aperture. 
5-10. Varieties of P. Jiumerosa- or P. mexicana, or hybrids of the two species. 

11. Another rare variety; should be compared with P. osculans, Binney's 142. 

12, 13, 13a, 14, 14a, 14b. Varieties of P. heterostropha from sweet water. 



^ American NaturaUst, October, 1883, p. 1014 et seq. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VC- XXIV PL. XIX 









6 



Varieties of Paludestrina protea Gould. 

For explanation of plate see page 298. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XX 





8 





10 





11 

Varieties of Paludestrina protea Gould. 

For explanation of plate see page 298. 



12 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XXI 






15 



14 






17 



16 



18 



Varieties of Paludestrina protea Gould. 

For explanation of plate see page 298. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XXII 

















American Species of Physa, 

For explanation of plate see page 299. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XXIII 



I 2 ,' 4 5 



10 II 



13 14 



# # # #f ^ 



i; 



# # # # # 



26 27 



28 



# # 



36 37 



38 39 



# # f # # 



46 




56 



Variations of Desert Physid/e. 

For explanation of plate see page 299 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XXIV 















10 



11 



12 






13 13a 14 14a 14b 



Variations of Desert Physid/e. 

For explanation of plate see page 299. 



CHONDRODONTA, A NEW GENUS OF OSTREIFORM MOL- 
LUSKS FROM THE CRETACEOUS, WITH DESCRIPTIONS 
OF THE GENOTYPE AND A NEW SPECIES. 



By Timothy W. Stanton, Ph. D. . 

Paleontologist, U. S. Geological Survey. 



A peculiar group of fossils that has hitherto been referred to the 
genus OHtrea has for some years been known to occur in the Creta- 
ceous of southern Europe and of Texas. Attention was first promi- 
nently called to it by Choffat's description and figures of Ostrea 
joanncB from Portugal. The very similar form from Texas has been 
described by Hill as 0. munsoni^ and almost simultaneously by Cragin 
as a part of Hippurites flahelUfer. Similar forms, to which reference 
will again be made, have been found in the Venetian Alps. 

All these fossils have the general shape of Ostrea., but are very thin 
compressed forms, with the two valves similar and almost invariably 
still attached to each other, and wi-th rather prominent dichotomous 
ribs. That this peculiar sculpture is not essential to the group, how- 
ever, is proved by the occurrence of the smooth species described in 
this paper. 

In connection with m}" general work on the invertebrates of the 
Comanche series, 1 have restudied Ostrea munsoni^ examining the 
types of Hill and Cragin, together with a larger suite of specmiens 
collected by myself near Austin and a few obtained by Messrs. Hill, 
Vaughan, Prather, and others at various points in Texas. By means 
of polished sections and by carefully cutting away the upper valve 
from a number of specimens, with the study of fragments and acci- 
dental fractures, it has been possible to determine satisfactorily most 
of the internal features of the shell and to prove that the species is not 
an Ostrea nor referable to any described genus. The new generic name 
Chondrodonta is therefore proposed with Ostrea mtmsoni Hill as the 
type. The new species described on a following page, though difi^er- 
ing greatly in external appearance, has the same hinge structure, and 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1257. 

301 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

is referred to this g-enus. Authentic examples of Osti'ea joannce also 
show the characteristic hinge structure of Choiidrodonta as seen in 
cross section. The collections referred to, except the types of Hill 
andCragin, are in the United States National Museum, and this notice 
is published here by permission of the Director oi the United States 
Geological Survey. The descriptions of the genus and of the two 
American species follow. 

CHONDRODONTA, new genus. 

Shell of rather large size, sessile, ostreiform, attached by the left (?) 
valve; texture, subnacreous; hinge plate greatly elongated, without 
proper teeth, but with a long chondrophore in each valve a little back 
of the median line, extending from the beak across the hinge plate 
and projecting considerably beyond it into the body cavit}^ the chon- 
drophore of the attached valve forming the overhanging anterior wall 
of a deep, narrow groove into which is received the chondrophore of 
the upper valve in the form of a rather thin oblique lamella, whose 
free edge is slightly curved upward. Near their umbonal ends the 
chondrophores are nearly in contact, but toward their other extremities 
they are separated by a space of from 1 to 3 millimeters (according to 
the size of the shell). This space must have been filled by the resilium, 
which was evidently attached to the under side of the chondrophore in 
the lower valve and to the upper side of that in the free valve, the 
whole forming an interlocking arrangement that could have allowed 
very little motion of the valves, and is effective even after the resilium 
has disappeared, for the two valves are almost invariably found firmly 
united. 

Pallial line remote from the margin, as in Pectinidae, Spondylidae, 
etc., usuall}^ not ver}^ distinctl}^ marked; adductor muscle doubtless 
single, though its faint impression has not been positively recognized; 
lower valve, moderately convex; upper valve, flat or concave, so that 
the bod}" cavity is very shallow; surface, either with radial, irregularly 
dichotomous plications, or nearly smooth, with only concentric growth 
lines. 

Tyx)e. — Ostrea Diunsoni Hill, from the Edwards limestone of Texas; 
also represented by Chondrodonta glabi'ci^ new species, from probably 
the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone near Kerrville, Tex. 
European representatives of the genus are Ostrea joannce from Portu- 
gal, probably (). aff. niunmnl (Hill) Boehm, and possibly Terqiiemla 
forojxdiensh Boehm from the southern Alps, all of which have been 
referred to the Cenomanian, though varjing opinions have been held 
as to their exact position in the Cretaceous, the latest reference of O. 
joaniHV being to the Turonian and of the Italian form to the Albian 
or Gault. 



NO. 1257. A NEW GENUS OF MOLLUSKS— STANTON. 303 



The peculiar interlocking chondrophores ^ will serve to distinguish 
this genus from any described type known to me, making it so distinct 
tliat it is diiEcult to assign it to any of the established families. The 
superficial resemblance of the shell to Ostrea is probably due almost 
entirely to its similar sedentary habit, and its internal features are too 
distinct to permit its reference to the same family. 

The genus Tergiiem ia Tate^ {—Carpenterla Deslongschamps ^ not 
Gray) is somewhat similar externally, but it is attached by the right 
valve, has a long, narrow^, ligamental groove in each valve, and the 
rounded muscular scar is deeply impressed, while the pallial line is 
not visible. This name, Terquemia, was proposed for a few^ species 
of Liassic shells, was afterwards applied, probabl}^ erroneously, to 
several Triassic species, and still more recently to the above-mentioned 
Cretaceous form, which I suspect to be based on an imperfectly pre- 
served specimen of Chondrodonta. 

Some of the internal features of Hlnnltes, especially the pallial line 
and in thin-shelled specimens the faintly marked muscle scar, are 
suggestive of CJwndrodonta. The chondrophore also extends across 
the hinge plate and projects slightl}' beyond it into the bod}' cavity, 
but it is a deep, simple groove in each valve. In the early stages of 
growth the shell has w^ell-marked ears, and in the right (attached) 
valve a byssal sinus, neither of which features has been recognized in 
Cliondrodijiiia. 

The affinities of Chondrodonta seem to be with the superfamily 
Pectinacea, which includes the Spondylidse and Limid^e as well as the 
Pectinidie, Terquemia has usually been referred to the Spondylidse, 
but in Zittel's Grundziige der Paljeontologie, and also in the English 
edition of the same work, it is transferred to the Ostreidfe, without 
good reason, as it seems to me. Judging from figures and descriptions 
only, I would place it at least in the same superfamily with Chondro- 
donta. 

CHONDRODONTA MUNSONI (Hill). 

(Plate XXV, figs. 1-5.) 

Ostrea munsoni Hill, Proc. Biol. Soc. of Washington, VII, 1893, p. 105, pi. xii. 
Hippurites flahell{fer Cragin (in part), 4th Ann. Rept. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1893, 
p. 190, pi. XL, fig. 1 (not pi. XXXVIII, fig. 3). 

Shell attaining a large size, varying in outline from ovate to 
elongate-ovate, and irregularly triangular; beaks inconspicuous, 
slightly deflected laterally, with a variable, usually small, area of 

^This structure has been observed in eight specimens of C. munsoni, five of C. 
glabra, and four of C. joannse. 

' Appendix to Woodward's Manual of the Mollusca, 1867, p. 65. 
'Mem. Soc. Linn, de Normandie, XI, pp. 127-131, pi. xix, figs. 2-11. 



304 PROCEEDING'S OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vouxxiv. 

attachment on the lower valve; attached valve moderately convex, 
but varying- considerably in this respect; upper valve ^ slightly con- 
cave, almost conforming to the curvature of the lower valve, so that 
the space between them is extremely thin; surface of both valves 
marked by rather line radiating ribs, about equal in width to the 
interspaces, and many of them branching one or more times before 
reaching the margin, or with short ribs interpolated between them; 
sculpture often equally strong on both valves, but in some cases 
nearly obsolete on the upper valve; internal features as described for 
the genus. 

Average specimens usually measure from 130 to 150 mm. in length 
and about 70 to 75 mm. in greatest breadth. One ovate specimen 
measures 121 mm. in length and 94 mm. in greatest breadth and occa- 
sional examples are more nearly circular in outline. One very large 
triangular specimen collected by Mr. Hill is 166 mm. in length aild is 
expanded in fan-shape toward the base until it is 172 mm. broad. 
The convexity or thickness of the two valves united is seldom more 
than 10 mm. and there is little difference in this respect between young 
and adult shells. 

There is a perceptible, though not great, variation in the coarse- 
ness of sculpture of different individuals, as may be seen by the illus- 
trations. 

The species is associated at most localities with RadioUtes dcwid- 
soni Hill and it is often found attached to that form. This habit led 
Cragin and other members of the Geological Sui'vey of Texas to sup- 
pose that both shells belonged to the same animal which was described 
as Ilipjntntes flahellifer.^ The shell is usually attached by one edge 
of the lower valve near the beak and it often shows a tendency to grow 
around the supporting object. A curious example of this is seen in 
the smaller of Hill's figured types (now preserved in the geological 
department of Johns Hopkins University), which shows a fragment of 
RadioUtes shell nearly half an inch long firmly attached in a deep 
notch that involves both valves of the Chondrodonta. 

Ostrea joannm Choff'at^ from the Cretaceous of Portugal is very sim- 
ilar to this species in form, sculpture, and all other described characters, 
except that the sculpture is considerably coarser. Through the 
courtesy of Prof. Paul Chofl'at I have received a dozen specimens of 
0. joanncB from Monte Serves and Runa, Portugal, since this descrip- 
tion was written. Sections were ^ut across the umbonal region of 

^ Mr. Hill inadvertently described the upper valve as the lower. 

^ This name has a few weeks' priority over Osfrea munsoni, but since it was applied 
to two entirely distinct forms its designation as Hippurites necessitates its restriction 
to the Rudistid portion of the complex species. 

^ Recueil d'etudes paleontologiques sur la faune Cretacique du Portugal, I, p. 34, 
Ostreidae, pi. i, figs. 1-7, and pi. ii, figs. 8-19. Lisbon, 1886. 



No.11'57. A NEW GENUS OF MOLLUSKS— STANTON. 805 



several specimens, and in at least four these show essentially the same 
hinge structure as C. jmtnsouL I do not consider the Portuguese and 
Texan forms specifically identical, however, as Professor Choffat ^ has 
done, though they are certainly congeneric. The sculpture is nuich 
coarser in 0. joannce and the ribs are much more angular even when 
thev are not larger. Choffat at first referred the horizon of 0. joannce 
to the Cenomanian, but in later papers he treats it as Turonian. 

G. Boehm ^ has figured a form from the Venetian Alps as Ostrea ajf. 
iinoimnl that still more closely resembles the Texan species in external 
features. Associated with it are some smaller shells that Boehm has 
described as Terquemia forojuliensu^^ figuring the interior of a worn 
specimen. This figure is such as might be drawn with a few slight 
errors in restoration from an imperfectl}^ preserved attached valve of 
Chondrodonta onunsoni^ and it is very probable that the types of Ter- 
(jnernia forojidiensis are young specimens of the 0><trea aff. munsoni, 
and that thej^ all belong to Chondrudonta. From the same region 
Futterer has described Pinna ostremformh^'' which, according to 
Boehm, is identical with his Ostrea aff. nninsoni., and more recently 
Schnarrenberger^ has identified probably the same form as Ostrea 
nunsoni. These Italian fossils also have been referred to the upper 
Cenomanian by Boehm, though the beds containing them have at dif- 
ferent times been referred to horizons as widely separated as the 
Urgonian and the Turonian. Schnarrenberger considers them older 
than the Cenomanian. In Choff'at's latest paper, above cited, O. rnun- 
sojH Hill, 0. aff. munsoni Boehm, and Pinna ostrea^formis Futterer, 
are all treated as synonyms of 0. joannce., and the Portuguese beds in 
which the species occurs are placed in the middle Turonian. 

A note by Virgilio ^ treating of the group of Ostrea joannce., to which 
Professor Choffat kindly referred me, has not yet reached Washington, 
and so could not be consulted. 

A few other forms, including one from the Nummulitic of Egypt, 
have been referred to the "group of Ostrea joannce^''- but as nothing- 
could be learned as to their internal features, the}^ have not been con- 
sidered. The sculpture alone is not to be depended upon as character- 
istic of this group. For example, Conrad^ figures a form under the 

' Revue Critique de Paleozoologie, II, 1898, p. 174, and Mon. Strat. systeme creta- 
cique du Portugal: La Cretacique superieur au nord du Tage, pp. IS.S-lSl, Lis1)on, 
IHOO. 

■^ Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Kreide in den Siidalpen. I. Die Schiosi- und Calloneghe- 
Fauna, Palfpontographica, XLI, 1894, p. 96, pi. viii, flg8. 1, 2. 

•^ Idem., figs. 5 and 6. 

* Palpeont. Abhandl., Dames und Kayser, VI (new series II), 1896, Pt. 2, p. 259. 
;S * Berichte d. Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Freiburg i. Br. XI, July, 1901, Pt. 3, 
■ p. 196. 

*Bolletino della Societa Geologioa Italiana, XX, 1901. 

' Lynch' s Report of the United States Expedition to Explore the Dead Sea and the 
River Jordan, pi. i, figs. 7 and 8. 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 20 



306 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

name Ostrea virgata., which has a lower valve, with sculpture quite 
similar to that of C. niunsonl^ but examination of the original speci- 
men, now in the museum of Yale University, shows that it is a true 
Odrea with a smooth upper valve and not at all related to C mmisfmi. 
Localities and position. — HilTs figured types came from Bel ton, 
Texas: those discussed bj^ Cragin as part of a supposed I/ij)jnn'ites., 
from Bartons Creek, near Austin, Double Mountain, in Stonewall 
County, and Big Springs, Howard County; additional specimens in the 
Texas State collection are labeled "Cooper Mountain, Kent Count}";" 
the specimens now figured are from Nolands River at Belton, and from 
the bed of Bartons Creek, near the stone bridge 2 miles from Austin, 
where the species is abundant; a few additional specimens are from 
near Kickapoo Springs, on the west fork of Nueces Kiver, from High 
Bridge, on Pecos River, and from Bluff Creek, about 25 miles west of 
Waco, the latter collected by Mr. elohn K. Prather. The species is 
confined to the Edwards or "Caprina" limestone, in the Fredericks- 
burg division of the Comanche series. Precise correlation of the hori- 
zon with the European section will not now be attempted, but it is 
certainly much older than the Turonian. 

CHONDRODONTA GLABRA, new species. 
(Plate XXVI, figs. 1-3.) 

Shell rather large, flat, or sometimes variously ))ent; lower valve 
gently convex; upper valve concave, closely conforming to the curva- 
ture of the attached valve; beaks inconspicuous, submedian, scarcel}' 
at all deflected laterally, with a very small area of attachment on the 
lower valve; surface of both vah'es .smooth with only irregular lines of 
growth; internal characters as described for the genus, the hinge plate 
of the lower valve showing also one or two obscure shallow grooves 
in advance of the chondrophore. 

An average specimen measures 117 mm. in length, QS mm. in greatest 
breadth, and 10 nun. in convexity of the two valves united. The 
general ha))it of the shell is very similar to that of C. niunsoni and the 
structure of the hinge is essentially the .same. The smooth surface at 
once separates it from that species. It also appears to be somewhat 
more regular in form and more nacreous in texture. 

Locality and position. — The types (five specimens) were collected b}- 
the writer in 1895 at a quarry one mile east of Kerrville, Texas, where 
the species is abundant, associated Avith Monopleura in a thin band near 
the middle of the limestone then quarried. The horizon was thought 
to be the upper part of the (xlen Rose, and therefore considerably older 
than the horizon of ('. munsoni, though I did not have the opportunity 
to study the stratigraphy of the neighborhood in detail. 



NO. 1257. A NEW GEXUS OF ^fOLLUSKS— STANTON. 307 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate XXV. 

Chondrodonta inunsoni {Hill), p. 302. 

I'itr. L Lower valve of a medium-sized somewhat elongate specimen lacking nearly 

an inch of the umbonal portion and cut across the lower part of the hinge. 
2. View of the upper end of specimen represented by tig. 1, polished to show 

transverse section of the two valves and their chondrophores. 
8. A similar section across the lower part of the hinge of the same specimen at 

the cut shown in tig. 1. 
4, 5. Opposite views of a small specimen showing sculpture of the same strength 

on both valves. 

(The specimen represented by tigs. 1-3 has the upper valve nearly smooth. ) 

Plate XXVI. 

Chondrodonta glafn-a, new species, p. 305. 

Fig. 1. Exterior of a small attached valve. (The striations on the lower portion are 
accidental, due to slight slipping movements of the rocks. ) 

2. Interior of same, showing the hinge and the pallial line; pp, palUal impression; 

H, chondrophore of lower valve; cu, broken edge of chondrophore of the 
•upper valve still adhering in the groove of the lower valve. At its broken 
distal extremity it may be seen curving under the other chondrophore. 

3. Cross section of lower part of the hinge of a larger specimen. 



I 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XXV 



A 



f 







'ff 



J 








,i.f/ 



} 






* ■ i 




'J 



'<^l 



5 



Chrondrodonta munsoni (Hill). 

For explanation of plate see page 307. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. XXIV PL. XXVI 




X 









Chrondrodonta glabra Stanton. 

For explanation of plate see page 307. 



CATALOGUE OF A COLLFXTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS 
FROM ECUADOR AND COLO^SIBIA. 



By Harry C. Oberholser, 

Afislsiioit OrnitJiohx/ist, Tk'jxirfment of Agrirulturf 



Tho collection of hummingbirds gathered l)}- Messrs. Claud Hamil- 
ton and Walter Goodfellow during their trip to Ecuador and Colombia, 
in 1S9S and 1899, came finally, b}^ purchase, into possession of the 
United States National Museum. With the possible exception of that 
brought together b}- Baron,^ it is probabh' the finest single collection 
ever made, comprising, as it does, 1,136 specimens, almost all in fine 
condition of plumage, and accompanied by proper data. Although 
some of them came from Colombia, by far the greater nuuiber were 
collected in Ecuador. One hundred and nine species and subspecies 
are represented, including, besides several hitherto undescribed, such 
rare and otherwise interesting forms as Topaza pyra^ Phaiolaima 
cervinigularis, Colihri huckleyi^ Helianthea lutetiae liamiUon)., and 
Eutoxeres haroni. 

Under many species of the sulijoined list there are added in smaller 
type the field notes of the collectors, which Mr. Goodfellow has kindly 
furnished for this purpose. As he has recentl}^ published an account 
of the expedition's itinerary and a description of the region traversed,* 
these need not be inserted here. Additional information regarding 
the altitude of some of the places at which the humming-l)irds were 
taken has been supplied by Mr. Goodfellow, and is given. ])elow as of 
possible interest: 



Western Ecuador: Feet. 

Aloag 7, 800 

Guallal)ainl)a 6, 500 

Ibarra 6, 800 

Mindo 7, 000 

Chota Valley 4, 250 

Canzacota 6, 100 

:viillij^alli 6,600 

Santo Doniin,sj:o 600 

Xanegal 1, 000 

Gualea 6, 000 



Western Ecuador — Continued. Feet. 

Intag 5, 000 

Central Tableland: 

Puembo, Chillo Valley 7, 500 

Pifo, Chillo Valley 7, 800 

(juapalo, Chillo Valley S, 080 

Quito 10, 000 

F>astern Ecuador: 

Papallacta 11,500 

Baeza 5,900 



^ Hartert, Novitates Zoologicae, I, 1894, pp. 43-64. 
■' Ibis, April, 1901, pp. 300-309. 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1258. 

309 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

The writer here takes oeca.sioii to thank the authorities of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History' for the loan of material necessar}^ for 
comparison in the preparation of this paper. He is, as well, under 
great obligation to Mr. Robert Ridgway and Dr. Charles W. Richmond 
for various courtesies. 

The systematic sequence of the following list is that of Mr. Hartert, 
in the Tierreich, which seems to be by far the best arrangement yet 
proposed. All measurements in this paper are in millimeters. 

DORYFERA JOHANNAE (Bourcier). 

Trijcltllus joliannae BorRtiEK, Proc. Zool. Sof. Loud., 1S47, ]>. 45. 
Dorifera Jo]i(mniii' BoyAPARTE, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 68. 

Two specimens — male and female — from Archidona, east Ecuador, 
April, 1899. They appear not to differ from Colombian specimens. 

A ]>air sh<it in the depth.'J of the forests on our way down to the Napo, a day's 
walk above the village of Archidona. They liad a very loud, sharp call note. 

DORYFERA LUDOVICIAE RECTIROSTRIS (Gould). 

Dory/era rectirostrit< Gould, Introd. Troch., 1861, p. 71. 

Dor yf era ludovickw reetirostrls Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 11. 

Nine specimens, all but one from Milligalli, west Ecuador. A single 
male from Baeza, east Ecuador, does not differ from the others. The 
females closely resemble the males, })ut lack the glittering green fore- 
head. Aside from the greater length of bill this form differs from 
true ludookvae in its much longer wing and tail, characters not com- 
monly mentioned. 

I was told that at one time these birds used to be met with regularly at Milligalli, 
but now they are only occasionally seen there. Local name, " Viudas" — widows. 

THRENETES CERVINICAUDUS Gould. 

llirciuics rerrinicandu Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1854, p. 109. 

Two adult males from Napo village, east Ecuador, are apparently 
not different from Colomliian specimens. 

THRENETES FRASERI (Gould).' 

(ylanclsfrasi'ri Gould, Mon. Troch., I, 1861, i)l. xn. 
Tlireiu'tesfraseri Boucakd, Humming Bird, 1, 1892, p. 17. 

Four specimens, from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. Although 
most closely allied to T/wenetes ruckeri, the present species is yet quite 
distinct, and in any plumage can be readily identiiied. An additional 
character separating it from T. rackeri is the darker, less golden shade 
of the upper parts. Immature birds have the feathers of the upper 
surface narrowly margined with buft'y or grayish white. There seems 
to be no difference between the sexes. 



COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 



311 



They frequent the depths of the forests around Santo Douiiugo, where they feed on 
the red liowers of a parasitical plant growing high up on the tree trunkn. Conse- 
cpiently it was always necessary to use a gnn to shoot these birds. 

GLAUCIS HIRSUTA AFFINIS (Lawrence). 

67o((r/.sw////»/> Lawkexck, Ann. N. Y. l.yc, Nat. Hist., VI, 1858, p. 2<U. 

One adult nuile, from Napo village, ea.st Ec-uador. 

Although in color G/auci« hirsuta varies so much iiidi\-idually that 
it seems impossible to make out an}' geographical forms, there is 3'et 
such a great difference in size between specimens from eastern Brazil 
and those from Costa Rica that at least two sul)species may easily be 
recognized. Birds from eastern Brazil, Trinidad, Tobago, and Gre- 
nada agree in being of very large size; while those from Nicaragua 
and Costa Rica are the smallest. A single individual from Peru, and 
the above-mentioned one from Ecuador are practically identical with 
those from Costa Rica. A series of specimens from central and north- 
ern Colombia seems to show intermediate tendencies, though much 
nearer this than to the tj'pical form from eastern Brazil. 

The original description of Glands hirsuta ^ was based undoubted!}' 
upon the Brazilian bird, so that the form ranging from Grenada to 
.•southeastern Brazil nmst be called Glaucls hirsuta hirsuta. For the 
western race, occurring from Nicaragua to Peru, the earliest available 
name appears to be Glaucis affinis Lawrence.' based on the bii'd from 
Ecuador, and it should therefore now stand as Glaucis Idrsuta ajjinis. 
The bird described by Boucard as Glaucis columhiana^^ from the Rio 
Dagua, Colombia, is undoubtedly the same, as may easily be seen by. 
reference to his original description. No importance can be attached 
to the uniform rich cinnamon color of the lower surface in his speci- 
mens, for such a condition of plumage occurs by no means infrequently 
throughout the range of Glaucis hirsuta. 

The difference between the two races is sufficiently emphasized by 
til':" followino- measurements: 



Name. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
eulmen. 




Male ? . - 
Male?.. 
Male ... 
Male ... 


Bahia, Brazil 


66 

.,65 

.53 

53 


41.0 
41.0 
33.0 
32.5 


30.5 


Do 


... .do 


30.0 




Escondido River, Nicaragua 

Napo village, Ecuador 


28.0 


Do 


30.0 











The sole specimen of this species was shot under the eaves of an Indian hut at a 
\ illage near the headwaters' of the Napo, where it was searching for insects. 

^ Trochibis hirsutus Gme\m, Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 490. 
2 Ann. X. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist.,Vl, 1858, p. 261. 
^Genera Hummingbirds, 1895, p. 402. 



312 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



PHOETHORNIS YARUQUI (Bourcier). 

Trorhihts yarurjui Bourcier, Compt. Rend. Ac. 8ci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 

Phru'thoriris ymviqui GovLD, Mon. Troch., I, 1852, pi. xxvii. 

Four specimens, from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. The female 

of this species is somewhat smaller than the male, though apparently 

almost identical in color. xVccording to the collector's notes upon the 

labels of these examples the mandible in both sexes is c7'rmso7i in life. 

PHOETHORNIS LONGIROSTRIS BARONI (Hartert). 

PJiai'thornif! huroirl Hartkrt, Ibis, 1897, p. 426. 

A single specimen from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador, belongs 
apparently to this form. It is similar to Phoeihornis. longirodvh Jon- 
(jiroi<trh., but nuich smaller; the upper surface is green, with ver}' much 
less of l>ronzy tinge; the ochraceous of rump and upper tail-coverts 
much paler; the lower parts much less ochraceous, the crissum almost 
white; the tips of rectrices grayish white instead of ochraceous. It 
may l>e described as follows: 

Top of head dull brown; cervix the same, with greenish gloss, the 
feathers margined with ochraceous; back and rump metallic grass 
green, the feathers of the former narrowl}', of the latter broadly edged 
with bufly and ochraceous; upper tail-coverts ochraceous buff, more 
or less barred with dusky green; wings sepia, with a purplish sheen, 
the superior coverts green like the back; tail greenish on basal por- 
tion, terminall}' brownish black, broadly tipped with white, this last 
on the long central feathers amounting to much more than a third of 
their total length; superciliary and loral stripes deep buff; auriculars 
brownish black; throat and l>reast dull grayish, with a wash of ochra- 
ceous; a central gular and the rictal stripes buffy white; abdomen and 
crissum buffy white. 

Phoethornis longirrMrh haroni is very different from typical longi- 
7'ostris^ taking birds from Honduras as such, and, in fact, is nearer to 
Phoethornis Uwgrrostris mexicanu^ (Hartert). From the latter it may 
be distinguished by its decidedly smaller size {mexicanus is somewhat 
larger than the true longi7'Ostris), less bronzy upper parts, and the 
ver}'^ much less ochraceous lower surface. Specimens from Panama 
are, in size and color, somewhat intermediate between loiigirostris and 
haroni^ though certainly referable to the former. 

The following measurements exhibit the differences of size between 
PhodhovniR longirostris Jongh'ostrh and P. longirostris haroni: 



Naiiie. 


Sex. Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


E.xposert 
culmen. 


Phncthornis I. UnirjiroMrin 

Do '. 




63 
64 

58 


67 
72 
63 


■ J 


Male do 

Male \ Santo Domingo, Ecuador 


4-2 




41 




1 





N0.125.S. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 313 



There are apparently" five recognizable races of this species, namely: 

Phoethorni^Iongirostris longirostris (Delattre). — Guatemala to Colombia. 
Plioethornitt longirostris mexicnnus (Hartert). — Southern INIexico. 
rhoethornis longirostris susur^'us Bangs. — Santa Marta, Colombia. 
Phoeihornis longirostris baroni (Hartert). — Western Ecuador. 
PhoetJiornis longirostris boliridnus (Got'Ln). — Bolivia and Peru. 

PHOETHORNIS HISPIDUS (Gould). 

TrocMlus ( ?) hispid us Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1846, p. 90. 

Phaetornis liispidus Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 68. 

The one adult male from Archidona, east Ecuador, apparently does 
not differ materially from Colombian specimens. 

All the specimens we procured of these three species {PlmetJiornis yaruqiii, P. lon- 
girostris, and P. hispidus) were shot in the gloomier parts of the forests among the 
undergrowth, and all had the same peculiar way of hovering at times in front of 
one's face or close to the barrel of the gun, a peculiarity which I never once observed 
in any of the hummingbirds found out in the open. P. hnigirostris and P. yanupd 
are confined solely to the western forests, and P. hispid its to the eastern side. 

PHOETHORNIS SYRMATOPHORUS BERLEPSCHI (Hartert). 

Phaethornis berlepschi Hartert, Nov. Zool., I, 1894, p. 56. 
A single example from Milligalli, west Ecuador, seems to be typical 
of herlepsch!, which evidenth^ represents true syrmatoj^horus on the 
west side of the Andes. Apparenth" typical specimens of herlepschi 
from Quito are in the collection of the National Museum. 

The single specimen was shot whilst hovering over a bush on the river l>ank. 1 
was told that these birds used to be very plentiful in this locality, but of recent years 
they have almost entirely disappeared. 

PHOETHORNIS GRISEOGULARIS Gould. 

Phaethornis griseogularis Govi.T>, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1851, p. 115. 

Three specimens, from Archidona, east Ecuador. While the best 
character separating this species from I*, drilgularis seems to be 
the color of the tail, yet the deep, almost uniform rufous of the lower 
surface will almost, if not quite, alwaj^s serve to distinguish the 
present l)ird. 

Confined to the eastern forests, and we did not once see them in the open. They 
have nuich the habits of Phoethornis. 

PHOETHORNIS STRIIGULARIS ATRIMENTALIS (Lawrence). 

PJiuethomis dtrimentalis Lawrence, Ann. N. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., VI, 1858, p. 260. 

Two specimens, from Milligalli, west Ecuador. These differ from 
Colom])ian birds in being brighter, more rufescent below, and in 
having the chin together with the upper throat less conspicuously 
streaked with dusky. These differences appear to be sufficient for the 
recognition of the Ecuador l^ird as a geographical race. The type of 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

striigularis came from Bogota/ as did also the type of (unaura^ leav- 
ing ai/rimentalh^^ based on a specimen from between Quito and the 
headwaters of the Rio Napo, as the proper name for the present form. 

Was met with only on the western side, but at a much liiglier altitude (6,000 feet) 
than P. (ji-lH'iHjnUirix on the eastern side, and, unlike the latter bird, freqiiented the 
flearings. Both species continually uttered a sharp call note, remarkably loud for 
the size of the bird. 

EUTOXERES CONDAMINI (Bourcier). 

TwchilK.s condnmini Bourcier, Comjjt. Rend. Ac. Sci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 
Eiito.i-erei^ co)ula)innii Govhv, Mon. Troch., I, 1851, i>l. iv. 

Two specimens, from Archidona, east Ecuador, 

This very distinct species is contined solely to tlie forests at the foot of the eastern 
side of the eastern Andes, but seemed to be rare, as we saw only the two specimens 
procui-ed. Its habits resemble those of the following species [Entoxeres aquila heterura 
and Eiitoxeri')< baronil and, like them, feeds on the wild plantain flowers. 

EUTOXERES AQUILA HETERURA (Gould). 

Euto.veres heterura Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 1868, p. 456. 
Entoxeres aquila hetervrns Tacz.vnowski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 
1885, p. 102. 

Sixteen specimens, all from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. These 
exhibit, with comparatively little variation, the characters~of heterura. 
The females, though in color practically identical with the males, are 
in size somewhat less. In immature birds the feathers of the upper 
surface ha^'e narrow dull buffy edgings. 

At Santo L>omingo, on the western side of the western Andes, we found these 
birds plentiful during the month of October. They live among the thick under- 
growth of the hot forests, are never seen out in the open, and feed on the flowers 
of the wild plantain, their curved bills exactly fitting the shape of the flowers. 
Their stomachs always contained many small insects. In their dark haunts, where 
little light penetrated, they were ditficult l)irds to see, as they have a rapid, jerky 
flight. It was often only the loud hunnning noise made by their wings that betrayed 
their presence. Sometimes they would hover for some seconds within two feet of 
one's face or an inch or two from the end of the gun or blowpipe, and then suddenly 
dart off again. Once I caught in a butterfly net one hovering thus. 

The localities Quito and Sarayacu, on the labels of the British Museum catalogue, 
are qxiite erroneous. The base of the lower mandible is very yellow in life. Local 
name, "Picocurvo." 

EUTOXERES BARONI E and CI. Hartert. 
Eutoxerett liaruni P^rnst and Cl. Hartert, Nov. Zool., I, 1894, p. 54. 
A single specimen, from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador, is referred 
to this species. Though closely allied to Euto.i'eres a. heterurcu E. 
ha roil I is apparently distinct. This example exhibits the characters 

Hxould, Mon. Troch., I, 1854, pi. xxxvii. 

^Bourcier, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1856, p. 552. 

■^ Lawrence, Ann. X. Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., VI, 1858, i>. 260. 



COLLECTION OF HUMMIXGBIRDS—OBERHOLSER. 315 



assigned by Hartert in his original description, the small white tips to 

the tail feathers readil}' distinguishing it from allied forms. Judging 

by the present specimen, E. Ixwonl is decidedly larger than E. a. 

Jtrtci'ura. 

CAMPYLOPTERUS OBSCURUS Gould. 

C'lmpiiloptcrns obsrunis G0VI.T1, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1848, p. 18. 
Two specimens, from Baeza and Archidona village, east Ecuador, 
respectively. The female is like the male in color, but has a shorter 
wing and tail, with a hnujrr bill. Both of these are apparentlv iden- 
tical with an example from Peru. 

This is a forest haunting ^'pecies, and the paii* obtained were ^hot whibt feeding on 
the flowers of an orchid. 

CAMPYLOPTERUS LAZULUS (Vieillot). 

Trochilus lazulns Vieillot, Tabl. Encyc. Meth., II, 1S22, p. 557. 
CartvpiilojAerus hiziduH Bonaparte, Consp. Avium., I, 1850, p. 71. 

Nine specimens, from Baeza and Archidona, east Ecuador. These 
apparently- do not dilfer from Colombian birds. The color of the 
throat varies considerably, ranging from violet to almost pure blue. 

Found on only the eastern side of the eastern Andes, and most of our specimens 
were shot while feeding on the flowers of the tobacco plants growing around the 
huts at Baeza. The iris was distinctly dark red in the males, but a young male 
and a female shot above Archidona both had the irises black. Local name, "Ala 
hueso" — bone wing. 

CAMPYLOPTERUS VILLAVISCENSIO (Bourcier). 

Trochilux rilhivii<censio Bourciee, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 
Campyloptenis dllavicencio Gould, Mon. Troch., II, 1859, pi. xlvii. 

One adult male, from Baeza, east Ecuador. 

The single specimen of this s]iecies was shot around the tobacco plants at Baeza. 

FLORISUGA MELLIVORA (Linnaeus.) 

Trochilus nnilivorHs IBIS'S JEVS, Syst. Xat., I, 1758, p. 121. 
Florimga mellivorus Bonaparte, Consj). Avium., I, 1850, p. 73. 

Two specimens, from the vicinity of Baeza, east Ecuador. One of 

these is an immature male with the center of the throat blue. This 

species is very constant throughout its range, for there seems to be 

scarcely any difference between birds from Guatemala. Ecuador, and 

Trinidad. 

PATAGONA GIGAS (Vieillot). 

TrochilvA gicjas Vieillot, Gal. Ois., I, 1825, \). 296, pi. clxxx. 
Patuguna gigas Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 75. 

Six specimens from Guapalo and elsewhere in the valley of Chillo, 
near Quito, and from the road between there and Papallacta, Ecuador. 
This extends the range of the species to northern Ecuador, as 
Riobamba seems to be the northernmost previous record. 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

There .seems to be considerable variation in the color of Patagonn 
gigas that is not satisfactorily ascribable to sex or age. The lower 
surface in the present examples ranges from a dull mottled brown to 
an almost uniform chestnut-rufous. 

They feed on the flowers of the giant aloes. Local name, ''Quinde golondrina" — 
the swallow hnniniintr bird. They are occasionally seen in the gardens of Quito. 

AGYRTRIA VIRIDICEPS (Gould). 

Thaumatias viridiceps Gould, Proc. Zool. 8oc. Lond. , 1860, p. 307. 
Agyrtria riridiceps HEiyiE, Journ. f. Orn., 1863, p. 185. 

Seven specimens from Santo Domingo,_west Ecuador, The females 
appear to have the crown and forehead noticeabl}' duller than the 
males, and possess, furthermore, a distinct blackish subterminal bar on 
the tail-feathers. This latter is, however, sometimes indicated in 
the males. 

AGYRTRIA FLUVIATILIS (Gould). 

Thaumatias flurinfilift Govhn, Introd. Troch., 1861, p. 154. 
Agyrtria Jivriatilix Heine, Journ. f. Orn., 1863, p. 184. 

One apparently typical adult male, from Archidona village, east 
Ecuador. 

AGYRTRIA AMABILIS (Gould). 

Trochilus ( ?) amabilis Goi'ld, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1851, p. 115. 

Agyrtria amabilis HARTEnT, Tierreich,,IX, 1900, p. 48. 

Five specimens from near Guayaquil, Ecuador. Careful compar- 
ison with a series from Central America and Colombia fails to reveal 
any essential difference. It seems impossible to find an}- structural 
characters to separate Polyerata from Agyrirui. 

LEPIDOPYGA GOUDOTI (Bourcier). 

TrochUus goiuloti Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 100. 
Lepidopyga goudoti Simon, Cat. Troch., 1897, p. 12. 

The one specimen of this species in the collection was taken by Mr. 
Goodfellow from an Indian necklace at Santo Domingo, Ecuador; but 
the make of the skin strongly suggests the probabilit}^ that it originally 
came from the neighborhood of Bogota, Colombia. The fact that the 
species has never been recorded from Ecuador serves to strengthen 
this opinion. 

Personally we never recognized any of these birds alive, and this single specimen 
I found a Colorado Indian woman wearing on her necklace at Santo Domingo. I 
was told it had been shot in that neighborhood. 

SAUCEROTTIA EDWARD (Delattre and B&urcier). 

Trochilus edward Delattre and Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 308. 
Saucerottia edvardi Qci,A.TER and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, p. 365. 

Two specimens from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador, add the species 



N0.125S. COLLECTION OF HrMMING BIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 317 

to the fauna of Ecuador, thus extending its range more than 500 miles. 
A careful comparison of these Ecuador birds with a series from Panama 
fails to reveal any tangible difference. 

AMIZILIS TZACATL JUCUNDA (Heine). 

Ermina jucunda Heine, Journ. fiirUrii., 1868, p. 188. 
Amazilia tzacntl jucunda Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 229. 

Three specimens from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador, apparently 
typical of this race. 

Generally seen feeding with A. dvmerilii. 

AMIZILIS DUMERILII (Lesson). 

Ornisnuja dumerilii Lesson, Hist. Nat. Colibris, suppl., p. 172, pi. xxxvi. 
AiniziUs dumeriU Oberholser, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1899, p. 207. 

Fourteen specimens from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. These 
seem to be identical with examples from Puna Island and Guayaquil. 
There is considerable variation, aside from that ascribable to sex, in 
the extent and shade of the rufous on the lower parts. 

Found feeding in the small clearing of Santo Domingo, western Ecuador, on the 
low bushes and plants. 

HYLOCHARIS GRAYI (Delattre and Bourcier). 

Trochilus grayi Delattre and Bourcier, Rev. Zool. , 1846, p. 307. 
Ili/locharis grayi Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 74. 

Twenty specimens, from Chota Valley; La Juna, above Chota Val- 
ley, north Ecuador; and Patia Valley, southern Colombia. 

The Chota Valley, where we obtained most of our specimens, is a hot, sandy, burnt- 
up valley in the north of Ecuador, with precipitous sides covered in parts with 
thorny bushes and acacias which during our visit were devoid of all trace of green; 
and it was a wonder what these birds could possibly find to feed on there. In life 
the bill is almost wholly pale tiesh color, and on two occasions when I saw them 
copulating the bill of the male became a diffused blood color. In Quito they are 
called "Chotas," but they are not found nearer to that city than the Chota Valley. 

^Ir. Hartert is apparently right in uniting Eucephala and Tlylocha 
r'lx, for structuralh" they can not be distinguished. 

CHRYSURONIA OENONE OENONE (Lesson). 

Oruismi/u oenone Lesson, Hist. Nat. Colibris, suppl., 1832, p. 157, pi. xxx. 
Cliri/suronia oenone Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 75. 

Ten specimens, from Archidona, Baeza. and Rio Napo, east Ecuador. 
These are typical of true oenone^ as is shown bv comparison with birds 
from Trinidad and Colombia. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

DAMOPHILA JULIE FELICIANA (Lesson). 

Ornismya feliciana'LESiiO's, Rev. Zool., 1844, p. 433. 

Da mophila Julie feliciana Hartert, Novit. Zool., V, 1898, p. 494. 

Fifteen specimens, from Santo Domingo, and near Gua.yaquil, west 
Ecuador. The onl_y difference between the present form and true 
Damo2)h'da jvlie seems to be the longer bill of the former. 

CHLOROSTILBON MELANORHYNCHUS Gould. 

ChloroMilbon mehmorhynchus GoviuT)^ Proo. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, p. 308. 

Twenty-four specimens, all males, from Jombaco and Chi llo Valley, 
Ecuador. They seem to be identical with birds from Colombia, and 
in color exhilnt a comparatively small amount of individual variation. 

A large series of males from the Chillo Valley, near Quito, where a o;rcat influx of 
them took place about Januarj-. We were unable to secure even one female. They 
feed on the guava flowers, and also on flowering acacias. Local name, " Verdes." 

CHLOROSTILBON PUMILUS Gould. 
CMorostilbon jnimilus Gov Lv, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., IX, 1872, p. 195. 

A single female from near Guayaquil, Ecuador, is apparentl}^ refer- 
able to this species. It differs from the same sex of Chlorostilhon 
melanorhynchus in its decidedly smaller size, but is practicall3Mndis- 
tinguishable in color. 

CHLOROSTILBON PRASINUS DAPHNE (Gould). 

Chlorostllbon daphne Gould, Introd. Troch., 1861, p. 177, 
CMorostilbon prashiKS daphne Haktert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 77. 

Seven adult males from Archidona, east Ecuador. All are in per- 
fect plumage and bear out the subspeciffc characters assigned b}^ 
Hartert.' 

From Archidona, at the foot of the eastern Andes, near the headwaters of the 
Napo. Seen only in the evenings around the orange trees. 

CHLOROSTILBON STENURUS (Cabanis and Heine) . 

Panychlora stenura Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., Ill, 1860, p. 50. 
ChloroMilbon stenura. Mulsant and Verreaux, Mem. Soc. Imp. Sci. Xat. Cher- 
bourg, XII, 1866, p. 186. 

Two adult females from Baeza, east Ecuador, belong apparently to 
this species. 

THALURANIA HYPOCHLORA Gould. 

Thahiranla hypochloru Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, pp. 803, 804. 

Five specimens, all males, from Gualea, west Ecuador. In some of 
these the green of the sides of the bodj' has a noticeable bluish tinge. 

1 Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 77. 



NO. 1258. COLLECTION OF ITTWMIXG BIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 3 1 '. I 

THALURANIA FANNYI ( Delattre and Bourcier). 

TrochUui^ fannyi Delattre and liornciEU, Rev. ZooL, 1846, p. 310. 
Thahiran'm fanny Bonaparte, Rev. Zool., 1854, p. 254. , 

Eleven .specimens, from ISanegal, (TUtilea, and Milligalli, west Ecua- 
dor. There is considerable difference in the shade of the abdomen in 
the different adult males, this ranoing- from a rich violet purple to deep 
blue with but a slight tinge of violet. The four adult females ar<: of 
unusual interest, for they prove beyond much doubt that the female 
of this species is, as supposed ])y Salvin.^ quite different from the same 
sex of Thahi/zcmia erij)hlh' in haxing the abdomen dull brownish slate 
color glossed with metallic green, instead of being like the rest of 
the under surface, dull grayish white. Mr. Tlartert's opinion' that 
this represents the plumage of only the vouug male seems not to be 
correct, as a young male in the present collection is apparently not 
distinguishable from the adult females. 

THALURANIA NIGROFASCIATA (Gould). 

Trocldhis ( ?) nigrofuseiata Ctoild, Prot'. Zcx)!. .Sue. Loud., 1846, p. 89. 

Tliolurania nigrofasciata Gould, Proe. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1852, p. 8. 

Three specimens, from Archidona, east Ecuador, April, 1899, 
seem not separable from Colombian examples. 

COLIBRI DELPHINAE (Lesson). 

Ornismya delphinac LessOx, Rev. ZooL, 1839, j). 44. 
Colibri delphinae Bonaparte, Congp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 09. 

Five specimens, from Mindo and Gualea. west Ecuador. These 
apparenth; differ in no essential respect from either Guatemala or 
Guiana examples. 

COLIBRI CYANOTUS (Bourcier and Mulsant). 

TrochUun cyanoins Bofrcier and Mclsant, Ann. Se. Phys. et Xat. Lyon, VI, 

1843, p. 41. 
Colibri cyanofis Bonaparte, C'onyp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 69. 

Three examples, from Baeza, east Ecuador. Seemingly identical 
with birds from Venezuela, the type locality; but evidently not fully 
adult, as there are traces of ochraceous edging to some of the feathers, 
and the lower tail-coverts are largely ochraceous. The kinship of this 
species to Colihri thcdassinvs of ^Mexico and Guatemala is evidenced 
l)y the strongh^ bluish tinge of the central abdomen in the Costa 
Kican race, Colihri cyanotiis cahanidis (Heine), but this does not appear 
to bridge the gap between tJinhissinu.'< and ci/anotiis sufficiently to 
render a trinomial necessaiy for the latter. 

'Cat. Birds Brit. :\ru8.. XVI, 1892, p. 82. '^Tierreieh, IX, 1900, p. 85. 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

COLIBRI lOLATUS (Gould). 

Petamphora lo!((ta Gould, Pruc. Zuol. Sue. Loud., 1847, p. 9. 
Colibrl jolata Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 69. 
Colibri. iolatuiit Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 94. 

Fort3^-eioht specimens, from Chillo Valle^^, Jambillo, Aloag, Quito, 
Papallacta, Valle de Viciosa, and Jablon, Ecuador; Pasto, United 
States of Colomliia. Birds of this series from the eastern side of 
the mountains average more golden green both above and below than 
those from'the western ;5lope, but as this character does not appear to 
be at all coincident Avith geographical distribution, it can not be used 
as the basis for subspecific separation. Examples of both styles of col- 
oration occur in the same localities in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Colombia; 
and, furthermore, neither is contined to one side of the Andes. 

Thi« is Huother liuniniingbird very common in Quito and its environs and indeed all 
over Ecuador, at altitudes of from about 8,500 to 11,500 feet. We found it pai t'cularly 
plentiful in the Chillo Valley when the guava flowers were out. It does not range 
to so high an altitude on the western Andes as it does on the eastern ranges. I had 
these birds constantly under observation during our stay at the British consulate 
in Quito, and they appeared to nest in the courtyards there nearly all the year round. 
When the nest was destroyed by mice, another one was immediately started elsewhere. 
They were placed in all sorts of positions, in the creepers by the sides of the doors 
and windows, and in low ti'ees. One nest was built in a loquat tree and much exposed 
to the rain. After a few days I noticed the female bird drawing together a few of 
the large leaves overhead, and securing them in position with cobwebs, which canopy 
afterwards quite protected her from the rain. These birds would never telerate the 
presence of others of even the same species in the garden when nesting, and chased 
away other birds much larger than themselves. On one occasion they pulled to 
pieces the nest of a Diglusfta aterrima and drove its owners away. They feed largely 
on small insects, darting into the air and taking them on the wing. The young put 
their bills right down the throats of the females when feeding. On many occasions 
the parent birds have flown into the room where I have been skinning birds and 
seized small pieces of cotton wool from my work table with Avhich to build their 
nests. They also searched all the corners of the ceiling for spiders. When the flrst 
egg is laid, the male bird entirely disappears from the garden and never once comes 
near it again until the young have flown. On several occasions I saw them copulating 
in the air, when the male spreads out the blue feathers on the sides of the neck, the 
only time at which I have seen him do it. The local name is "Quinde real'^ — royal 
hummingbird. 

COLIBRI BUCKLEYI (Gould). 

Pinarohviiia backlei/i (iorLD, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Y, 1880, p. 489. 
Colihri hiwkkiii Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 95. 

A single specimen fromPueml)o, Chillo Valley, near Quito, Ecuador, 
taken in December, 1898. The type of this very interesting species 
was collected by Buckley at Misqui, Bolivia, and up to the present 
has remained unique. The example here recorded thus considerably 
extends the bird's range. This specimen is a male in perfect plumage 
and is apparently adidt. Details of coloration evident in this indi- 
vidual, but not mentioned in descriptions of the type, are the pale 



N0.125S. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERIIOLSER. 321 

liroAvn terminal band on the tail and the metallic green auricular.s; 
but in other respects it seems to agree with the type. 

This ])ir(l exactly resembles the only other specimen known, which is in the 
British 3Iuseum collection, antl which Gould considered a distinct species and named 
after its collector. Our specimen was shot in the Chillo \'alley near Quito, and was 
feeding on the aloe flowers in company with P(itagon(( gl(j(ts. 

There appear to be absolutely no structural differences to sepai'ate 
this species genericalh', and Mr. Hartert has very properly placed it 
in the genus Collhrl {^^ Pctasophora)^ . Indeed, there arc not lacking 
indications that it ma}' prove eventually to lie but a peculiar color phase 
of Colihn ioJatus {— Petasoj)hora iolata)^ corresponding to that of the 
specimen of Ocreatus nidanantheras described hereafter. 

ANTHRACOTHORAX VIOLICAUDUS IRIDESCENS (Gould). 

Lampomi^ iridescens Gould, Introd. Troch., 1861, p. 65. 
Six .specimens from the vicinity of Nanegal, Ecuador. These are 
subspecitically distinguishable from true m'olicaudus of northeastern 
South America, and should bear the name above given. They differ 
from the tj^pical form by reason of a decided bluish tinge on throat 
and breast, and also in the usually longer bill. 

Confined to the western side, and I believe we obtained all our specimens in the 
banana plantations at Nanegal, where I frequently saw them hovering among the 
ragged leaves hanging down the trunks of the banana trees. Local name, "Plata- 
neros negros." 

TOPAZA PELLA PAMPREPTA, new subspecies. 

Three adult males, all from Suno, on the Rio Napo, east Ecuador. 
These extend the range of the species a long distance to the westward, 
and add it to the fauna of Ecuador. They differ from typical Tojxiza 
pella from British Guiana in the very much greater length of the long 
tail feathers and in the somewhat shorter wing. There appears to 
be absoluteh' no constant difference in color, but the discrepancy in 
size is so marked that it seems advisable to recognize the Ecuador 
bird in nomenclature. It may be described as follows: 

7//7>c.— Male, adult, No. 174294, U. S. N. M.; Suno, Rio Napo, 
Ecuador, May, 1899; Goodfellow and Hamilton. Top and sides of 
head velvety purplish black; cervix and sides of neck rich metallic 
maroon purple; back shining reddish orange, shading posteriorly into 
the bright metallic green of the upper tail-coverts; wings fuscus with 
a purplish gloss, the innermost secondaries chestnut, the superior 
coverts like the back; tail chestnut, the two middle pairs metallic 
green, the succeeding pair much elongated, purplish black; throat 
glittering greenish ^^ellow; jugular band purplish black, continuous 

1 Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 95. 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 21 



322 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



with that of sides of neck; breast maroon like the cervix, and shading 
posteriori}' into a more reddish shade; crissum shining green; lining 
of wing chestnut. 

The following table of measurements expresses best the difference 
between the two races of this species: 



Name. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Wing. 


Tall (Chord E„„„^prt 




Male 

....do 


British Guiana 


84 
82 
77 
78 


92 

88 
122 
108 


25 


Do 


do 


24.5 


Topaza pclla pnmprcpta ' . . . 
Do 


do 

do 




24.5 


do 


23 











1 Type. 

Frequent in the edges of the forests around the small Indian clearings, and we 
also observed a few of them along the forest-covered banks of the smaller rivers 
running into the Napo, but they were by no means common anywhere. Local name, 
" Urcu-Quinde." 

TOPAZA PYRA (Gould). 

Trochilus (Tojmza) pyra Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1846, p. 85. 
Topazn pyra Gr.^v, Genera Birds I, 1848, p. 110. 

One adult male of this magniticent and decidedl}^ uncommon species, 
from Coca, on the Rio Napo, east Ecuador. 

This single specimen was shot at the mouth (if the Curarai, the largest tributary 
of the Napo. They are pro])ably even rarer than T. pella, and are, I believe, not 
found on the upper waters of the Napo. 

OREOTROCHILUS CHIMBORAZO (Delattre and Bourcier). 

Trochilus chbnborazo Dklattke and Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 305. 
Oreotrochihis clumhorazo Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1847, p. 10. 

Three adult males from the volcano of Chimborazo, west Ecuador. 

This species, I believe, is never met with north of Chimborazo. It occurs at alti- 
tudes of from 12,000 to 15,000 feet, though according to Hartert, to 17,000 feet, 
but this must be a mistake, as 16,000 feet is the snow line at the equator in 
Ecuador, and it is not likely to be found above that. Its local name is " Estrella 
de Chimborazo." 

OREOTROCHILUS JAMESONII Jardine. 

Oreoirochilus Jameson il Jardixe, Contr. Orn., 1849, p. 67. 
Oreoirochilus chimborazo jamesonii Hartert, Tierreich IX, 1900, p. 109. 

Thirty specimens, from Pichincha, Antisana, and Cotopaxi, Ecuador. 
There is no apparent difference between the birds from Antisana and 
Cotopaxi and those from Pichincha. There is in all this splendid 
series not the slightest indication of intergradation with 0. chimhorazo; 
therefore we do not follow Hartert^ in using a trinomial. 

Now very much rarer on Pichincha than formerly. They are in fine plumage in 
December, and during that month in 1898 we found them plentiful near the snow 



'Tierreich IX, 1900, p. 109. 



NO. 1258. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 823 

on the western side of Antisana in the eastern Cordillera, but not on the eastern 
side of that mountain. They do not remain here all the year round, and some years 
very few come. Females were remarkalily in the minority, this possibly to be 
accounted for by later arrival or the use of other feeding grounds. Local name, 
"Pecho bianco" — white chest. 

UROCHROA BOUGUERI (Bourcier). 

Trochilus hougueri Bourcier, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., XXXII, 1851, p. 186. 
Urochroa hougueri Gould, Mon. Troch., II, 1856, ]il. lvii. 

Two adult males from near Quito, Ecuador. They were taken in 
the Guallabamba, which the collector.s describe as "a deep, hot ravine 
north of Quito.'' 

From the rocky ravine of tlie Guallabamba at about 7,000 feet. They appeared 
swifter on the wing than any other hummingbird I can remember, and were conse- 
quently difficult to shoot, so that a gun had to be used, it being impossible to aim at 
them with a blowpipe. 

CLYTOLAEMA AURESCENS (Gould). 

Trochilus {Lam2)ornis) auresceus Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1846, p. 88. 
CJytoliema aurescens Gould, Mon. Troch., IV, 1861, pi. ccl. 

Two adult males from Napo village, east Ecuador. These are 
identical with a specimen from Pebas, Peru. 

PHAIOLAIMA AEQUATORIALIS Gould. 

Pliaiolaima xquatorialis Gould, Mon. Troch. , IV, 1860, pi. cclxix. 

Six specimens from Canzacota, west Ecuador. The female differs 
from the male in lacking the glittering throat spot, in having the green 
of the chin much mixed with huffy, and the bend of the wing less red- 
dish. From the female of Pliaiolaima ruhinoides^ which the female 
of the present species closeh^ resembles, it ma}- be separated b}^ the 
longer bill, usually darker head, and paler under parts. This species 
is confined apparentl}^ to the western side of the Andes. Though 
closely allied to ruhinoides^ it seems to be a distinct species. 

All our specimens were obtained at Canzacota, at 6,500 feet elevation. They are 
not common, appearing here only periodically, and are called locally "Canzacotas." 

PHAIOLAIMA CERVINIGULARIS Salvin. 

Ph.rolxma cervinigularis Salxi};, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XVI, 1892, p. 325. 

Seven males, from Baeza, and from Cosanga, below Baeza on the 
road to Archidona — both localities in east Ecuador. These examples 
are exceedingly interesting, since they determine for the first time 
the exact habitat of the species. The two type specimens which are 
now in the British Museum, and which seem to be the only ones hitherto 
recorded, were without definite locality data, but were supposed b}' 
Mr. Salvin to have come from Ecuador. Pliaiolaima cervinigidaris 
apparently reipXaces Phaiolaiina aequatorial is on the eastern side of the 



324 FROCEEDIX<^,S OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. v..i.xxiv. 

mountains, and, though closely allied to the latter, is apparently dis- 
tinct. The inniiature male of ctnv'nlf/nlat'lx does not materially differ 
from the adult, except in the absence of the glitterino- gular patch. 
The female is probably like the young male. The present species 
may be distinguished from ruhinoides by its somewhat larger size, this 
most evident in the ])ill; by the lack of green on the chin and sides of 
the throat; and ])y the usualh' paler under surface. The gular spot 
has generally a more coppery tinge, but this is not diagnostic. From 
aeqaatorlalh^ cervlnigularh differs in the less extent of the glittering- 
green of the crown, the lack of green on the chin and sides of the 
throat, and in the almost entire absence of reddish tinge in the color 
of the bend of the wing. 

This is the eastern variet)^ of the western P. aequator talis. Their stomachs con- 
tained chiefly insects, but they also feed on the flowers of a tall tree. 

HELIODOXA LEADBEATERI (Bourcier and Mulsant.) 

Trochilus leadbeattri Bourcier and Mulsant, Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, VI, 

143, p. 43. 
Jfelindo.m leuiVictUcri Goui.i) Mon. Troch., II, ISHO, pi. xcvii. 

Two males, one each from Archidona and Baeza, east Ecuador. 
The status of the Ecuador bird can n<)tl)e determined by our material. 
In one of the specimens in this collection the bill is unusually long 
even for true leadhcatrr!^ while in the other it is as short as in Helio- 
doxa I. parvula. 

HELIODOXA JACULA JAMERSONI (Bourcier). 

Troc/Mfesjomerso/zi Bourcier, Conipt. Kend. Ac. ISci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 
Heliodoxa jacula jamesonl Hartert, Novit. Zool., V, 1898, p. 494. 

Nine specimens, from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. The female 
oi jamei'sonl is distinguishable from that of true jacula by its longer 
bill and by the lack of butfy suffusion on the abdomen, in this latter 
character resembling IleUodoxa jacula Junryl of Costa Rica, 

In fine plumage at Santo Domingo in October, and were found about the clearings. 
I took from a guava tree a nest containing 2 eggs belonging to these birds. It was 
very neat, covered on the outside with flat, pale-gray moss, and lined inside with soft, 
brown vegetable down resend)ling vicuna. 

lONOLAIMA SCHREIBERSII (Bourcier). 

Trochilus schreibersii Bourcier, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1847, p. 43 (Loddiges 

manuscript). 
loiiotaima schreihevKi Gould, Mon. Troch., II, 1857, pi. xciii. 

Three specimens from Baeza, east Ecuador. One of these, appar- 
ently an immature female, has no black on the lower surface, has green 
instead of blue lower tail-coverts, and green middle tail-feathers. 



NO. 1258. COLLECTION OF HUMMLXGIURDS—OBERHOLSER. 825 



EUGENIA IMPERATRIX Gould. 

Eugenia imperatiix Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, p. 192. 
Ten specimens, from Gualea, west Ecuador. The females are appre- 
ciably smaller than the males, and lack the attenuation of the tail. 

HELIANTHEA LUTETIAE LUTETIAE ( Delattre and Bourcier). 

Trochilus hUe1inDEh\TTB.E and Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, j). 307. 
Hclkmthea lutetiae Boxaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, ]). 74. 

Twenty-seven specimens, from Atcatzo. Quito, and Pichincha. Ecua- 
dor — chiefly from the last-mentioned locality. Judging from this series, 
the innnature females lack the glittering green forehead, though in 
other respects they are similar to the adults. 

We found these birds exceedingly common on Pichincha in Noveml>er, December, 
and January, between 9,000 and 12,000 feet. We never met with them on the 
eastern Andes. Local name, "Ala blanca" — white wings. 

HELIANTHEA LUTETIAE HAMILTONI (Goodfellow). 

HeUanthea hamiltoni Goodfellow, Bull. Brit. Orn. Clulj, X, 1900, Xo. LXIX, p. 
xlviii. 

Fifteen specimens, all from Papallacta, east Ecuador. 

The males difl'er from Ilelianthea lutetiae lutetiae chiefly in the more 
golden shade of the green portions of the plumage, and indicate b}^ 
their individual variation that hamiltoni is but a subspecies of lutetiae^ 
which hitter it represents on the eastern side of the Andes. The same 
difierence in the hue of the green exists in the females, and an addi- 
tional character in this sex of lunnlltenti is the decidedly deeper ochrace- 
ous of the throat. 

In a comnuuiication addressed to the authorities of the United States 
National Museum, Mr. Goodfellow assured them that the type of 
Iltlianthea hamiltoni was among' the examples of this form trans- 
mitted with the rest of the collection. As he failed in the original 
description to designate the specimen, there has been selected as type 
the one which corresponds to the measurements given. This is No. 
173708, U. S. N. M.. and was taken at Papallacta, east Ecuador, iu 
February, 1899. 

We met with this species only on tlie eastern side of the Andes. 

HELIANTHEA TORQUATA ( Boissonneau). 

W' Ornismia torquaia Boissoxxeau, Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 6. 

Bourcieria torquutuK Boxaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 73. 
HeUanthea torqiiata Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 130. 

Ten specimens from Baeza, east Ecuador. These apparently do not 
difl'er from Bogota examples. Young males, almost like the adults in 
other respects, still lack the violet crown patch. 

Found only on the eastern si<le of the eastern Andes. 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi.xxiv. 

HELIANTHEA FULGIDIGULA (Gould). 

Botircieriafulgidigula Govho, Mon. Troch., IV, 1854, p. 252. 
Helianthea fulgidignla Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 131. 

Twentj-onc specimens, from the following' localities in western 
Eouudov: Canzacota; lower west side of Pichincha; lower west side 
of Corazon; Mindo, west side of Pichincha; and above Milligalli. 
There is considerable individual variation in the oreen of the throat, 
and as well in the metallic crown patch, this latter ranging- from violet 
purple to greenish blue. 

Confined to the western side of the western Andes, and were common and in good 
pknnage at Canzacota in September. They frequent the more open parts of the 
mountain sides, and in the morning were generally seen sitting about sunning them- 
selves. Local name, "Cravata blanca." 

HELIANTHEA COELIGENA COLUMBIANA (Elliot). 

Lampropygia columbiana Elliot, Ibis, 1876, p. 57. 

Helianthea coeligena columbiana Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 132. 

Seventeen specimens, all from Baeza, east Ecuador. They seem to 
be identical with birds from Colombia. 

Confined to the eastern side of the eastern Andes, and were common at Baeza in 
March. 

HELIANTHEA WILSONI (Delattre and Bourcier). 

Trochilus mlsoni Delattre and Bourcier, Rev. ZooL, 1846, p. 305. 
Helianthea wilsoni Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 133. 

Seven specimens from Milligalli, west Ecuador, The one imma- 
ture female is noticeablv darker throughout than the adult of the 
same sex. 

Confined to the western Andes. 

DIPHOGENA' IRIS (Gould). 

Helianthea iris Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1853, p: 61. 
Diphogena iris Gould, Mon. Troch., IV^, 1854, pi. ccxlvii. 

This magnificent species is represented in the collection by a single 
adult male, from the west side of Pichincha, Ecuador. 

Lower west side of Pichincha, at about 7,500 feet. They are very rapid flyers and 
difficult to shoot as they dart in and out among the rocks of the narrow torrents and 
ravines. 

DIPHOGENA HESPERUS Gould. 

Diphlogpcna hesperus Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., XV, 1865, p. 129. 
Tw^o specimens, from Mindo, west Ecuador. One of these is an 
immature male and differs from the adult of the same sex in the fol- 
lowing particulars, indicating a condition almost adult: The lower 
parts are duller, owing principally to butfy and rufous edgings, par- 

' Diphogena is the original spelling. 



No.ii'os. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 327 

ticularl}'' on the posterior portions; the violet throat spot is wanting-; 
the green of tlie upper surface is more bronzy; remainder of upper 
parts much duller, the violet blue of the center of the crown barely 
indicated, the metallic coppery red of the sides of the crown extend- 
ing backward over the nape. 

LAFRESNAYA SAUL (Delattre and Eourcier). 

Trochilus saul Delattre and Bocrcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 309. 
Lufresnaija saulae Bonaparte, Cousp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 68. 

TwentA'-four specimens, from Pichincha, Lloa, west side of Corazon, 
and above Milligalli, west Ecuador; Papallacta, east Ecuador; and 
Pasto, Colombia. Birds from the east and west sides of the moun- 
tains seem to be alike. The single example, an immature female, 
fioni Pasto, Colombia, differs from the others in being much more 
ochraceous below, particularly on the anterior parts, this being fully 
as conspicuous as in many specimens of L. Jafrcsnayi. 

We met with them in both ranges of the Andes at elevations of from 10,000 to 
12,500 feet, but the greater number of those we obtained were in immature pkimage, 
especially those from the eastern Andes shot in February. At times they are fairly 
plentiful around the village of Lloa, on Pichincha; and in Quito they are called 
"Pico curvo de Lloa." 

ENSIFERA ENSIFERA SCHLIEPHACKEI (Heine). 

Docimastes scldiephackt'iUEiSE, Journ. f. Orn., 1863, p. 215. 

Docimash's cnsife7-us scldiepJiackei Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc, 
Lond., 1884, p. 304. 

Thirty-seven specimens, from Papallacta, on the east side of the 
Andes, and Pichincha, west Ecuador. There seems to be no differ- 
ence between the birds from the two sides of the mountains, but, 
judging from the present series, the Ecuador form of £. ensifera 
is worthy of subspecitic recognition. The distinction lies apparently 
in the bill alone, wdiich in the Ecuador form averages nmcli longer 
than in true etiisifera. With regard to the constancy of this char- 
acter, it may be said that out of the present series there are but ten 
having the bill not longer than the longed hllltd example from a series 
of Colombian specimens. Thus, though this difference can not be 
regarded as absolute, it is so decided and obtains in so large a majority 
of the specimens that it is full}" as worthy of recognition as similar 
differences in other cases which pass unchallenged. 

Feed on the flowers of the long Datura. The bills of the females average longer 
than those of the males. They frequent both ranges of the Andes, but personally 
we met with them only on the eastern sides of the two ranges, at altitudes between 
9,000 and 11,500 feet. Local name, " Pico largo." 



328 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xmv. 

PTEROPHANES TEMMINCKII (Boissonneau) . 

Ornismya Icmminckil Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 18.39, p. 354. 
Pterophanes temmineki Gould, Mon. Troch., Ill, 1849, pi. clxxviii. 

Seventeen specimens, from Pichincha and Corazon, Ecuador. This 
fine series has been carefully compared with birds from C'oloml^ia, l)ut 
they seem not to differ. Two immature males are like the adults save 
for a rather more golden cast to the plumage, together with the lack 
of steel blue on the primaries and the presence of rufous edgings on 
the feathers of throat and abdomen. 

At elevations of from 11,500 to 13,000 feet on Corazon and Pichincha, west Ecua- 
dor. Local name, "Gruesos." 

AGLAEACTIS CUPRIPENNIS AEQUATORIALIS (Cabanis and Heine). 

Aglalactis aequatorialis Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., Ill, 1860, p. 70. 
Aglxactis cupripemiis var. iequatorialig Mulsant and Verreaux, Mem. Soc. Imp. 
Sci. Nat. de Cherbourg, XII, 1866, p. 210. 

Twenty-six specimens, from the following localities in Ecuador: 
Papallacta, Fadregal, Corazon, Pichincha, and Mojanda. The separa- 
tion of aequatorialis from true ciipripejiyiis is based on very slight 
characters, and if the former stands at all it must be on average 
slightly greater size, more l)lackish chin, and darker under surface. 
Birds from the eastern side of the mountains in Ecuador are paler 
below than those from the west side, and in this respect scarcel}" dis- 
tinguishable from true eujyrijjennis, but altogether the}' seem to be 
nearer aequatorialis. 

Met with in all parts of Ecuador at high altitudes, generally seen singly and 
perched on the summit of bushes uttering a mournful and monotonous note. Local 
name, "Quinde cafe" — coffee-colored humming bird. 

BOISSONNEAUA MATTHEWSII (Bourcier). 

TrocJiilus maUJiewsii Bourcier, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1847, p. 43 (Loddiges 

manuscript). 
Bomonneaua VKtitheumi Reichenbach, Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 8, pi. dcclxxxvii. 

Fifteen specimens, from Baeza, east Ecuador. Immature birds of 
both sexes have the middle of the lower surface chestnut, this color 
apparently spreading irregularly as the individual advances toward 
maturity. 

Met with only at Baeza, on the eastern side, where they were fairly plentiful in 
March, but not in very good plumage. Local name, " Pecho cafe." 

BOISSONNEAUA JARDINI (Bourcier). 

Trochilusjard'nri Bourcier, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 
Boissonneauxia jardinei Snws, Cat. Troch., 1897, p. -9. 
Boissonneana jar dine i Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 141. 

Eleven specimens, from Nanegal, west Ecuador. The females have 



NO. 1258. COLLECTIOX OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 329 

the feathers of the posterior abdomen very broadly tipped with dull 
ochraeeous. 

In fine plumage in July and August. These liinls are very local, and, unlike 
many species, they are not found all along the western Andes of Ecuador. Xanegal 
was the only place where we met with them, though we visited other places at the 
same altitude and with similar surroundings. Local name, "Vicente." 

BOISSONNEAUA FLAVESCENS TINOCHLORA, new subspecies. 

Fifteen specimens, from Corazon, Pichincha. and Canzaeota, west 
Ecuador. This series, when compared with an equally good series 
of Boissonneaua Jlavescens from Bogota, makes evident certain ditter- 
ences which surely justify the subspecitic separation of the former. 
The t^'pe of B. jlovexccns'^ came from Popayan, Colombia, and though 
intermediate, is probably nearest like the Bogota bird. The only 
other synonym is (9/7? /.w? A/ ^w/Y?^/.«7(;Y^^ described from Bogota; and 
the Ecuador form thus being without a name, may be described as 
follows: 

7}/^>t^.— Adult male. No. 174520, U.S.N.M.; west side of Corazon, 
Ecuador. September, 1898; Goodfellow and Hamilton. Rich metallic 
green, the crown and breast glittering green; tail darker and duller 
than the back, the basal three-fourths of all but the middle pair of 
feathers butlv ochraeeous; wing-quills purplish brown, the coverts 
like the back; abdomen feathers with butfy or whitish margins; lower 
tail-coverts buffy ochraeeous, obsoletely spotted with dusky: tibial 
tufts white: axillars rufous; lining of wing metallic green. 

This race differs from true Jlavescens in the very much ])roader 
green tips of the tail-feathers, particularly on the inner webs of the 
two outer pairs, where they occupy fully a quarter of the total length 
of the feathers; the wing quills are darker, more purplish; the middle 
tail-feathers are usually darker; the crissum and the l)uffy portions of 
the tail are darker. There is no essential difference in size. 

The statement by Hartert'^ that in the young the ))urt'v of the out- 
ermost tail-feathers reaches to the tips does not hold in this form. 
Except for rusty edgings to some of the feathers, the inunature male 
is in all respects ver}- similar to the adult female. 

A good series collected on Corazon, west Ecuador, at elevations of from 11,000 to 
13,000 feet. It was somewhat strange that we never once saw one of these birds on 
the neighboring mt)untain of Pichincha, which almost joins Corazon. 

VESTIPEDES LUCIANI (Bourcier). 

Trochilus luciani Bourcier, Ann. Sc. Phys. et Xat. Lyon, X, 1847, p. 624. 
Eriocnemis hiciam Gould, Mon. Troch., IV, 1853, pi. cclxxiii. 

Forty-six specimens, from the following localities .in Ecuador: 

' Loddiges, Proc. Zool. Sec. Lond., 1832, p. 7. 
■^ Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 6. 
^Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 142. 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Mojanda; Padreu-al; Corazon; Aloag, Corazon; Lloa, Pichincha; 
Pichincha. In this large series there is a siirprising'ly small amount 
of individual variation. 

Noted on the western Andes at elevations of from 9,000 to 12,000 feet. We found 
them exceedingly common on Pichincha during the months of November, Decem- 
ber, and January, when great numbers of them seemed to arrive suddenly. Local 
name, "Palo bianco." 

VESTIPEDES VESTITUS SMARAGDINIPECTUS (Gould). 

Eriocnemis smaragdlnlpectm Gould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., I, 1868, p. 322. 
Erlocnemis vestita smaragdinipectus Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 145. 

Three adult males, from Papallacta, east Ecuador. This form is 
very close to true vestitus, but is probably retainable as a subspecies. 

From Papallacta, eastern Andes, 11,500 feet, in company with Laticaada primolina. 
Local name, "Calzones blancos." 

VESTIPEDES MOSQUERA MOSQUERA (Delattre and Bourcier). 

Twchilus inosqnera Delattrk and Boukcier, Kev. Zool., 1846, p. 306. 
Eriocnemis moxquera GouLn, ]\Ion. Troch., IV, 1853, pi. cclxxiv. 

Nine specimens, from Pichincha, Ecuador. So far as these examples 
indicate, the white bases of the feathers of the chin and upper throat 
are the mark of the inale, as the live individuals so sexed have this 
marking, while the four females lack it entirely. This is exactly oppo- 
site to the opinion of Mr. Hartert/ who supposed it to be distinctive 
of the ye?/i ale. 

Now rare on the mountains in the vicinity of Quito, where they occur at long inter- 
vals. We shot them sometimes feeding in the company of P. luciani. Local name, 
"Dorado." 

VESTIPEDES LUGENS (Gould). 

Eriopus luyens GovLV, Contr. Orn., 1851, p. 140. 

Eriocnemis y. Threptria lugens Reichenbach, Aufz. d. Col., 1854, p. 9. 

Six specimens (three males and three females), from Papallacta, east 
Ecuador. One of the males lacks almost entirely the squamate white 
feather margins of the under surface, but is otherwise not different. 
According to the evidence of the present series, Mr. Hartert is mis- 
taken in the statement that it is the viale which has a portion of the 
tibial tufts dull rufous,^ for in all the specimens marked females this 
coloring is present, while in those sexed as males the tufts are pure 
white. He is, however, undoubtedly correct in considering V. squa- 
mata and T^ la(/e>h'< merel}' different sexes of the same species. 

From the eastern Andes, at 11,500 feet. Local names, "Quinde feo" and "Oscu- 
ros. ' ' 

1 Tierreich, IX, 1900, i>. 147. ^Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 148. 



NO. 1258. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 331 

VESTIPEDES NIGRIVESTIS (Bourcier). 

Trochilns nigriirsfis BorRCiER, Ann. Se. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, IV, 1852, p. 144. 
EriocnemyK nigrirestis Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 252. 

Twenty-three specimens, from Atacazo and from Pichincha (12,000 
feet to summit), Ecuador. 

Tliese little hunnningbirdti i:)rol>ably range to a higher altitude than any others in 
Ecuador. When camping on Pichincha at 14,500 feet elevation, we often saw them 
flying past our tents in a blinding snowstorm, uttering their rather harsh note, and 
taking shelter for the night under the cliffs above us, where we found their deserted 
nests under the ledges. I also saw them on several occasions at 15,500 feet, near the 
edge of the crater, but this was at times when there was little snow on the moun- 
tain. They hover close to the ground, feeding on the small obscure flowers which 
manage to flourish among the cinders and ash. The males are locally called ' ' Quinde 
negro" or black humming bird, but the females are known by the name of "Pichin- 
chanos." We never saw the two sexes together, and all the females we procured were 
shot, at from 9,000 to 10,000 feet, on the west and north sides of the mountain, but 
we saw no males at such a low elevation. 

VESTIPEDES ALINAE (Bourcier). 

Ornismi/a (ilinae Bourcier, Ann. Sc. Phys. et Nat. Lyon, V, 1842, p. 344, pi. xix. 
Eriocnemis cx. Engi/cte (dim' Reichenbach, Aufz. d. Col., 1854, p. 9. 

Two adult males from Pasto, southern Colombia. These are rather 
larger than two specimens from Bogota, and have considerably more 
of a reddish gold tinge in the malar region, but the available material 
is too limited to determine the significance of these ditferences. 

From near Pasto, south Colombia, at about 9,000 feet elevation. Local name, 
"Esmeraldas." 

VESTIPEDES DERBYI DERBYI (DelaUre and Bourcier). 

Trocldlus derbyi Delattre and Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, }). 306. 
Eriocnemis y . Threptria (ferftyi Reichexbach, Aufz. d. Col., 1854, p. 9. 

Three specimens from Pasto, southern Colombia. The difference in 
the color of the upper tail-coverts, assigned by Mr. Hartert to sepa- 
rate the present form from T" (hrhi/i lonf/i/'o.sfr/'s,^ is apparently of no 
value; Init the length of the bill is probabl}' sufficient for the recog- 
nition of the latter. 

Shot along the hedgerows on the south road abbve the town of Pasto. Local 
name, "Calzones negros." 

OCREATUS MELANANTHERUS (Jardine). 

Trocldlus (Spatlntra) melauanthcra Jardine, Cont. Orn., 1851, !>. Ill, pi. lxxx. 
Ocreatus melanantJierus Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 151. 

Eighteen specimens, from Milligalli, Mindo, and Gualea, west Ecua- 
dor. Immature males are practically identical Avith adult females. 
One of the adult males in this series exhibits an interesting abnor- 

1 Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 149. 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

mality, evident!}^ tending toward albinism. The upper parts and 
posterior lower surface are almost uniform pale brown, though some-- 
what liohter on the lower back; the wings, tail and auriculars are of 
a darker shade of the same color; the tiliial tufts are white, as usual; 
while the throat is dull metallic brown, slightly darker and more rufes 
cent than the color of the upper surface. 

These hummingbirds have a pretty habit of suddenly rising from the tops of the 
bushes for some yards into the air, where they remain poised for a few seconds, 
uttering some very sweet notes, then suddenly descend. Often two would meet thus 
in the air, but only the males do this. Local name, "Tijerettas" — scissortail. 

OCREATUS CISSIURUS (Gould). 

Spathura cissiura GovhT), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 109. 
Ocreatus cissmnis Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 151. 

One adult male from Baeza, east Ecuador. 

Confined to the eastern side and rare at Baeza. The single specimen we obtained 
was feeding on the flowers of a small ground plant close to our hut. 

UROSTICTE BENJAMINI (Bourcier). 

Trochihis be^yamini BouRCiER, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 
Urosticte benjamini Gould, Mon. Troch., Ill, 1853, pi. cxc. 

Twelve specimens, from Gualea and Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. 
One of these is an immature male and differs from that of Urost!cte 
rufierissa., as do the females of these two species — in the color of the 
crissum. 

Local name, "Cinco reales" — five reals; but why they are called l)y such a curious 
name I was unable to find out. 

ADELOMYIA MELANOGENYS MELANOGENYS (Eraser). 

TrochUus melanogru IIS FnxsER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1840, p. 18. 
Adelornyia mdanogenys Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, p. 145. 

Fourteen specimens, from Papallacta and Baeza, east Ecuador. 

ADELOMYIA MELANOGENYS MACULATA (Gould). 

Adelornyia maculata GovLT), Mon. Troch., Ill, 1861, pi. cxcix. 
Adelornyia melanogenys maculata Haktert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 155. 

Thirteen specimens, from above Milligalli; Canzacota; and the west 
side of Pichincha, west Ecuador. These bear out the differences men- 
tioned by Hartert^ as separating this form from true melanogenys of 
the east side of the mountains. 

Very silent birds, which seem to spend most of their time sitting alwut on the 
bushes and branches near the ground, a trait that has earned for them the native 
name of "Muertes." 

^ Tierreich, IX, 1900, pp. 154, 155. 



I 



NO. 1258. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 333 

HELIANGELUS STROPHIANUS (Gould). 

Trocliilas ( •?) stropliianuH Govhv, Proc. Zool. Soo. Loml., 1846, p. 45. 

Hdiangehis sirophianus Bonaparte, Consp. Avium I, 1850, p. 76. 

Tliirty-tive specimens, from the t'ollowino- localities: San Gabriel; 
Gualea; Canzacota; lower west side of Pichincha, Ecuador; Popa^^an, 
Colombia. The birds from San Gabriel have the rump only a little 
more bronzy than the back, but as this is also the case in some of the 
specimens from other localities, no importance attaches thereto. The 
single bird from Popayan adds the species to the fauna of Columliia. 
The throat in this individual is rather more violet purple than in any 
of the others, in this respect apparently approaching Ild/anc/elus 
rioUcollis^ but it otherwise does not differ from typical specimens of 
f<tro2)hianus. Whether or not Ileliangelus violicollis is a good species 
can of course not be determined b}^ the present material, ])ut too 
nuich importance must not be attached to the precise shade of metallic 
feathers in separating species of hummingbirds. In the present 
series there is an unbroken range of shades in the metallic throat 
patch of various individuals, from the violet purple of this Popa3'an 
specimen to a pure solferino, and this variation is not at all correlated 
with localit}", but is undoubtedly individual, induced doubtless in part 
at least b}- the difference in age of the feathers and the amount of wear 
to which the}' have been subjected. 

One shot in the patio of a house near Popayan, southern Colomljia, at 5,600 feet, 
where it was hunting for spiders under the veranda. Local name, "Cravata malva." 

HELIANGELUS AMETHYSTICOLLIS (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye). 

Orihorhynchus amethysticollis d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, Mag. Zool., VIII, 1838, 

p. 31. 
Hcliaugelus amethysticollis Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 76. 

One adult male from below Baeza, on the road to Archidona, 
east Ecuador. 

I 1)elieve this species has not been recorded before from Ecuador. The single 
specimen was obtained on a river bank a little below Baeza, on the eastern side of 
the eastern Andes, where we noticed it darting out into the air from a branch to 
catch the small gnats hovering over the water. 

HELIANGELUS EXORTIS EXORTIS (Eraser). 

Trocfdlus exortis Y^.M^YLR, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1840, p. 14. 
Ileliangelus exortis Hartert, Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 160. 

Five specimens from Papallacta, east Ecuador. They have been 
compared with a good series from the vicinity of Bogota, Colombia, 
the t3pe locality, and seem to be identical. 



334 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



HELIANGELUS EXORTIS SODERSTROMI, new subspecies. 

A single specimen from the lower side of Corazon, Ecuador, is the 
only one in the collection, but it difters so much from birds taken on 
the eastern Andes that in all probabilit}^ it represents the form of this 
species occurring on the west side of the mountains. It differs from 
true exortis in its very much smaller size and in the decidedly more 
golden tint of the green portions of the plumage, this particularh' 
evident on the upper surface. It may be described as follows: 

T[ipe.—^o. 17-1008, U.S.N. M., male adult; lower west side of Cora- 
zon, Ecuador, September, 1898; Goodfellow and Hamilton. Body 
plumage golden bronze green, least golden on back and sides; a glit- 
tering green frontal patch; middle of chin violet blue, shading into 
solferino on the center of the throat; wing quills fuscous, with a gloss 
of purplish or bluish; tail bluish black, the two middle feathers green 
like the rump; feathers of central abdomen edged with buff'y grayish; 
under tail-coverts white. The following measurements show the 
difference in size between the two forms: 



Narae. 


Sex. 


Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Ueliangclus exortis exortis .... 


Male adult, 
do 


Papallacta, east Ecuador 

Corazon, west Ecuador 


67 
62 


48 
42 


17 
15 











At the request of Mr. Goodfellow this race is named for Mr. Soder- 
strom, the English consul-general at Quito, who manifested much 
interest in the gathering of the present collection. 

HELIANGELUS VIOLA Gould. 

Heliangelus viola Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1853, p. 61. 

Four specimens, from Papallacta, east Ecuador, and the west side 
of Pichincha, west Ecuador. 

LATICAUDA PRIMOLINA (Bourcier). 

MetaUurajirunolimisBovRCiER, Rev. et. ]\Iag. Zool., 1853, p. 295. 

Seventeen specimens, from the following localities in Ecuador: 
Papallacta; road to Baeza; Curiurcu (above Baeza). 

Generally in the coniiiany of AdeJomyia meJanogenys, feeding on the wild fuchsias. 

LATICAUDA TYRIANTHINA TYRIANTHINA (Loddiges). 

Troclnlus tyriantldnus Loddiges, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, p. 6. 
Metallura tyrianthinus Bonaparte, Consp. Avium, 1, 1850, p. 75. 

Sixteen specimens, from Papallacta, east Ecuador. These agree 
closely with a series of true tyrianthina from Colombia, differing 
onl}" in averaging slightly paler below, verging thus a little toward 



N0.125.S. COLLECTION OF HUMMINGBIRDS— OBERHOLSER. 335 

L. tyrianthina qultens/s. From specimens collected at various locali- 
ties on the west slopes of the mountains, and which represent quitensis, 
the present birds ditfer very materially, being decidedh' smaller, rather 
darker, less brownish below, and with a more purplish g-loss to the tail. 

LATICAUDA TYRIANTHINA QUITENSIS (Gould). 

M'lalhmt (juitentiis Govld, Introd. Troch., 1861, p. 112. 

Mt'tdllura tyrianllnria ijnite)isis E. and Cl. Hartert, Xovit. Zool., I, 1894, p. 48. 

Twenty -eight specimens, from the followino- localities in Ecuador: 
Pichincha; Atacazo; Jambillo; Jablon; Corazon. This is a readily 
recognizable race, and replaces true ti/pi(inth!na on the west side of 
the mountains. An adult male from Atacazo exhibits a very pretty 
case of partial albinism, the whole forehead being pure white, and a 
few white feathers intermingled with the plumage of the breast. 
Albinism seems to be of rather rare occurrence among the Trochilidje, 
thus making this case worthy of record. 

A very common bird in western Ecuador at altitudes Itetween 9,000 and 12,000 
feet, and, like all the other members of this genus we came across, were chiefly found 
feeding very early in the morning; often at no other part of the day could we find 
them. Local name, " Ubellus coniun." 

CHALCOSTIGMA HERRANI (Delattre and Bourcier). 

Trochilus herraid Delattre and Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 309. 
Chalcosligma herrani Simon, Cat. Troch., 1897, p. 33. 

Six specimens from Pichincha, west Ecuador. 

These birds appear on Pichincha about January and remain until May, when they 
entirely disappear, no one knows whither. During their stay they seem to frequent 
only the west and north sides of the mountain, at about 12,000 feet elevation. I was 
told that some years very few come, and that they sometimes stay away for two years 
together. Local name, " Ubellus finos." 

CHALCOSTIGMA STANLEYI (Bourcier). 

Trocldlus stanleyi Bourcier, Compt. Rend. Ac. Sci., XXXII, 1851, p. 187. 
Chalcostigma stanlei/i Simon, Cat. Troch., 1897, p. 33. 

Four specimens, from Papallacta and Pichincha, Ecuador. 

RAMPHOMICRON MICRORHYNCHUM (Boissonneau). 

Ornismya microrJiyncJia Boissonneau, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 354. 
Ramphomicroii microrhyncha Bonaparte Consp. Avium, I, 1850, p. 79. 

Thirty-tive specimens, from Papallacta {11,500 feet) and Pichincha, 
Ecuador. There seems to be absolutely no appreciable difference 
between birds from these two localities which represent respectively 
the east and west sides of the mountains. Examples from Colombia 
have often a somewhat shorter wing, and in the males there is fre- 
quenth' a deeper ochraceous suffusion on the posterior lower parts, 
but these characters are apparently too inconstant to warrant recog- 
nition in nomenclature. Several of the young males in the present 



386 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

series are in process of change from the g-reen-backed to the purple- 
backed plumage, and exhibit various .stages in this transition, from the 
presence of a few purple feathers sprinkled among the green to an 
almost solidly purple upper surface with a few scattered green feathers. 
So far as these examples indicate, the sides of the neck and back are 
the last portions to change. 

From both sides of the Andes at elevations of from 10,000 to 12,000 feet. Local 
name, "Obispos" — l)ishops. 

OPISTHOPRORA EURYPTERA (Loddiges). 

Trocliilns t'ltri/jderux LouDiGEs, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1832, y>. 7. 
Opisthoprora euryptera Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., Ill, 1860, p. 76. 

Four specimens from Papallacta, east Ecuador. This is apparently 
the first time the species has been taken in Ecuador, but these examples 
are exactly like a specimen from Colombia. The female is colored like 
the male, but is appreciably smaller. 

From Papallacta, east Ecuador, 11,500 feet. Four shot on the same tree — one on 
each of four successive mornings. They feed on the flowers of the red datura and 
pierce them with their bills at the base. 

CYANOLESBIA KINGII MOCOA (DelaUre and Bourcier). 

Trochilus mocoa Delattre and Bourcier, Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 311. 
Ci/anolesbia kingi mocoa Simon, Cat. Troch., 1897, p. 34. 

Thirty-three specimens, all from Baeza, east Ecuador. 

The typical form of this species is the Oi/anolesbia cyanura of Har- 
tert,^ which is the Cyanoleshla gorgo of Salvin^ and Sharpe.^ Neither 
of these names is, however, the proper one for the species, since the 
first is preoccupied by Trochilus cyanur m GnwoWw^ and Vieillot,^ and 
the second is antedated by Ornismyia Mngii Lesson," which last 
name, though based on a bird from erroneous locality, must become the 
proper name for the species. The various races, according to Har- 
tert's catalogue,' will thus stand as follows: 

Cijanolesbui kingi i kbigii (Lesson). 
Cyanoleshla kingil emmae (Berlepsch). 
Cyanolesbia kingii mocoa (Delattre and Bourcier). 
Cyanolesbia kingii smaragdina (Gould) . 
Cyanolesbia kingii margarethae (Heine). 
Cyanolesbia kingii caudata (Berlepsch). 

iTierreich, IX, 1900, p. 175. 

^Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XVI, 1892, p. 137. 

3 Hand List Gen. and Spec. Birds, II, 1900, p. 135. 

*Syst. Nat, I, 1788, p. 485. 

SNouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VII, 1817, p. 369. 

«Hist. Nat. Troch., 1832, p. 107, pi. xxxviii. 

'Tierreich, IX, 1900, pp. 175-177. 



No.i.;58. COLLECTION OF HUMMIXGBIRDS—OBERHOLSER. 337 

Confined to the eastern side of the eastern Andes, and we secured a large series 
at Bacza in INIarch, most of them tlien being in beautiful plumage. They feed on 
tlie thnvers of a high tree, so that we had to use a gun to secure them, which is a 
pity as it often spoils their long tails. Local name, "Cola verde" — green tail. 

CYANOLESBIA COELESTIS (Gould). 

Cynanthus ccelestis Gould, Introd. Troch., 1861, j). 102. 
Cpanoleshia ccelestis Sai^vis, Catbirds Brit. Mus., XVI, 1892, p. 1.39. 

Twent3'-one specimens, from Gualea and Milligalli, .west Ecuador. 

Confined to the western side, and in beautiful plumage in August and September. 
Their favorite flowers seem to be those of the papayia tree, but in some localities 
we found them feeding only on the coffee flowers. Their stomachs also contained 
insects, which I have seen them fly into the air and take on the wing. Local 
name, " Cola azul " — blue tail. 

PSALIDOPRYMNA VICTORIAS AEQUATORIALIS (Boucard). 

Leshia sequaiorialis Boucaed, Humming Bird, III, 1893, p. 8. 
Psalidopryinna victoriae aequatorialis Hartert, Novit. Zool., VI, 1899, p. 74. 

Fifty-six specimens, from the following- localities in Ecuador: 
Quito; north of Quito; Chillo Valle}"; Aloag; Mojanda; Jaml)illo; road 
to Papallacta: near Julcan: Padregal. Even with this iine series it is 
not very eas}' to distinguish aifipudoi'iallx from true rlcfortat^ but its 
axerage characters are probably sufficient to entitle it to recognition. 

Very common in the gardens of Quito and its neighborhood, but not observed by 
us at elevations above 10,000 feet nor below 8,000. They are very tame, and appear 
to Ijreed nearly all the year round, Deceml)er and January being the only months 
when we did not find their nests. The nest is loosely constructed and rather slipper- 
shaped, un<l we found them in all sorts of i^ositions, chiefly among the creepers on 
old walls, l)ut also one in a fuchsia bush, as well as many others suspended from the 
ends of the branches of large eucalyptus trees, but always well concealed. The female 
sits in the nest with the tail turned up over the back. Although these birds feed 
indiscriminately from all the flowers in the gardens, they certainly prefer the fuchsia, 
and one can see all the \moi>ened buds pierced in many places at the base of the 
calyx by these birds' bills. At the close of the day, especially after rain, numbers 
of the birds fly about in the gardens, and it is curious to observe the way in which 
they turn up their long tails often nearly parallel with the body, while the usual 
jiosition when feeding is to hold it at right angles to the body. I did not once observe 
them spread the tail-feathers out when flying. When courting, the males fly straight 
up into the air, almost out of sight, like an arrow shot from a bow, singing a 
remarkal)ly melodious song, and then return again to chase the females about the 
garden. So tame are these birds in the towns that I have often secured them by 
pinching the Imse of the flower together when one had its bill inside, but I always 
gave l)irds so obtained their freedom again. Local name, "Cola larga" — long tails. 
One specimen we shot I think nuist have had a record tail for length. 

PSALIDOPRYMNA GOULDI GRACILIS (Gould). 

Tr(tchUu!< {Leshia) gracilis Gov lv, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1846, j). 86. 
J'salldoprymna goiildi gracilis Haktert, Novit. Zool., VI, 1899, p. 75. 

Twenty-four specimens, from Papallacta, Pichincha. and the west 
side of Corazon, Ecuador. This foi-m ditt'ers from true I\ gouldl of 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 l>2 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Colombia in its smaller size, this most appreciable in the tail (of males), 
though the bill averages decidedly shorter. 

We never observed them in Quito, but in November and December we found them 
fairly numerous on the slopes of Pichincha above Quito. Local name, " Finos." 

ZODALIA THAUMASTA, new species. 

Char,'<. .v/>.— Similar to Zodalia glyceria (Gould), but with no whitish 
on any of the tail feathers; the glittering throat patch grass green 
instead of olive; bill of greater length; wings and tail slightly shorter. 

Description.— Ty^Q, adult male, No. 173911, U.S.N.M.; lllalo, 
Valley of Chillo, Ecuador, November, 1898; Goodfellow and Hamilton. 
Upper surface shining bluish green; wings dark brown with a purplish 
gloss, the superior wing-coverts like the upper parts; tail rich purple, 
the middle rectrices tipped with bluish green, the outermost pair with 
the outer webs and margins of inner webs deep brown washed with 
purplish; sides of head and neck like the back; chin and throat glitter- 
ing grass green; breast and abdomen shining bluish green, the feathers 
with ochraceous margins, these most extensive posteriorly; lower tail- 
coverts ochraceous buff spotted wdth purplish; lining of wing bluish 
green wnth rust}" edgings. Length of wing, 62 mm. ; tail, 77 mm. ; 
exposed culmen, 15 mm. 

Adult female. — Upper parts, tail, and wings similar to the male but 
duller; lower surface deep buff', spotted with bluish green, these 
markings largest on breast and sides; crissum almost immaculate. 
Length of wing, 56 mm. ; tail, -±9 mm. ; exposed culmen, 14 mm. 

The two specimens above described are both from the same locality 
and are the onlv ones of this Aery interesting new species of a rare and 
little-known group. The black shafts and uniform deep brown of the 
exterior webs of the outer tail-feathers distinguish at sight the male of 
this species from that of Zodalia glyceria, and other differences not 
apparent from descriptions might be found were specimens of the 
two compared. If the female of Zodalia ortord., described by Salvin ^ 
and ])y Hartert,^ belong really to that species, and be not simply the 
immature of Z. thaurnasta., the female of the latter may be distinguished 
from the same sex of the former bj^ the entire lack of whitish tips to 
the tail-feathers. 

Perhaps this is the rarest of all the Ecuadorian humming Ijirds, and is probably 
now almost extinct. I was told by an old resident in Quito, and one who knows all 
the birds well, that in the parts they once frequented they had not been seen for 
years, in fact, not since the last eruption of Cotopaxi. He said they built their nests 
on the maize stalks, in the vicinity of that volcano, and were nesting at the time 
of the last great eruption, when the country for many miles around was covered deep 
in ashes, and darkness reigned for two days. Numliers of birds of all sorts perished 
at this time, and probably the young and nests of Z. thamaasla also, which inhabited 

lOat. Birds Brit. Mus., XYI, 1892, p. 142. ^Tierreich, IX, 1900, p. 184. 



NO. 1258. COLLECTION OF HVMMiyGBIRDS—OBERHOLSER. 339 

only the end of the Chillo Valley nearest to the volcano. That they are exceedingly 
rare is quite certain, for though we were constantly out there for two nionths, and had 
shooters out besides, we saw none but the one pair secured. 

SCHISTES ALBOGULARIS Gould. 

Schisies alhogularis Goulo, Contr. Orn., 1851, p. 140. 
Fourteen specimens, all from Milligalli, west Ecuador. September, 
1898. Among them are four white-throated birds, one of which is 
evidenth' an immature male, the others adult females, thus leaving 
little doubt of the correctness of Mr. Salvin's opinion,^ 

They evidently occur only periodically at IMilligalli, for during the month of Septem- 
ber we shot 14 there in fine plumage; while a few weeks later we failed to find one in 
their old haunts, although the flowers they fed on were still in bloom. This was the 
only place we met with them. Local name, "Orejas de fuego" — fire ears. 

HELIOTHRIX AURITUS (Gmelin). 

Trochilus auritiis GmeJjH^, Syst. Nat., I, 1788, p. 493. 
Heliothryx auritns Boie, Isis, 1831, p. 547. 

Two adult males from Archidona, Rio Napo. April, 18H9. One of 
these has a decided coppery tinge on the nape. 

HELIOTHRIX BARROTI (Bourcier). 

Trochihis harroti Bocrcier, Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 72. 
Heliothrix harroti Gray, Genera Birds, I, 1848, p. 115. 

Fourteen specimens, eight of them males, all from Santo Domingo, 
west Ecuador; September and October, 1898. 

No specimens from the type locality of this species, Carthagena, 
United States of Colombia, have been available, but these Ecuador 
examples seem to be indistingidshable from Panama and Yeragua 
specimens, with which true Ilejiothrh' barrotl is undoubtedly identical. 
Birds from Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica, however, have 
much longer wings and tails, slightlv longer bills, and more restricted 
bluish purple crown patches, ditierences sufficient to entitle them to 
subspecitic separation. There is no name available for this form since 
Heliotlirix puTpuTeicep^ Gould, ^ from Papayan, Colombia, and Helio- 
thrix violifrous Gould, ^ from Veragua, belong lioth to true Heliothrix 
harroti. The . Central American race may therefore be called Ilelio- 
thrix harroti alincius.^ 

^Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XVI, 1892, p. 35. 

-Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855, p. 87. 

='Introd. Troch., 1861, p. 122. 

*New subspecies; type, No. 33649, U.S.N.M., Choctun, Vera Paz, Guatemala, 1862; 
O. Salvin. Crown and post-auricular patch metallic bluish purple; restof upper surface 
brilliant grass green with a golden tinge in places; wings blackish slate, the coverts 
like the back; middle tail-feathers dark steel blue, the three outer pairs white; lores, 
cheeks, and auriculars, black; sides of cliin and throat glittering green; remainder 
of lower ]iarts white. Length of wing (type), 66 mm.; tail, 50 mm.; exposed cul- 
men, 17 mm. 



9. 

I 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Immature specimens of TTdlothrir ha r rot! resemlile in color the adult 
females, but the feathers of the upper surface are more or less mar- 
gined with rusty, this persisting' longest on the head. 

Confined to the western side. These birds fly very rapidly and are somewhat difl[i- 
cult to shoot. Local name, "Angel quinde." 

FLORICOLA ALBICRISSA (Gould). 

Heliomaster <ilhl(yrism. Gould, Proe. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 504. 
Flnricold alhicrisfiii'EijJAOT, Classif. Synop. Troeh., 1879, p. 83. 

Four specimens from Nanegal, west Ecuador. There is considerable 
individual variation in the color of the crown and throat, in some cases 
these parts being exactly like the same in Floricola superba, thus 
obliterating the specific diti'erences based thereon. The plain graj^ish 
white crissum will, however, alwa^^s serve to distinguish the present 
species. 

MYRTIS FANNY (Lesson). 

Orn'ismya fanny Lesson, Am. Sci. Nat., 2d ser., IX, 1838, p. 170. 
Myrtls frniny Cabaxis and Heine, Mus. Hein., Ill, 1860, i*. 59. 

Thirty specimens, from Chillo and Chota valleys, Ecuador. There 
is considerable variation in the amount of rufous on the lower surface 
in dili'erent examples, but this is apparently not to be correlated with 
locality. Immature males resemble the females. Contrary to the 
statement of Hartert,^ ])irds from Ecuador seem to average slightly 
larger than those from Peru, but there is no other observable 
difference. 

Common in parts of the Chillo Valley in Jannary. They feed chiefly on the flowers 
of the giant aloes, bnt we occasionally shot them about the guava flowers. Only 
one female was oljtained out of a series of .30. Local name, "Prelado" — prelate. 

MYRMIA MICRURA (Gould). 

Calothorax micrums Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1853, p. 109. 
Mi/rmia rnicrura Mulsant and Verreaux, Hist. Nat. Ois.-Mouches, IV, 1877, 
p. 113. 

A single adult male from Santo Domingo, west Ecuador, taken in 
October, 1898, is the only specimen in the collection. This adds the 
species to the fauna of Ecuador, extending its range at least 300 miles, 
but this specimen seems to be typical, at least in so far as it is possible 
to judge from descriptions. 

A single specimen killed at Santo Domingo at dusk. Our attention was attracted 
to it by seeing it drive all other hummingbirds, large or small, away from the orange 
tree on which it was feeding. Being so small they are very difficult to shoot, as they 
seldom settle for an instant. Local name, " Quinde mosca" — fly hummingl)ird. 

iTierreich, IX, 1900, ].. 195. 



COLLECTION OF HUMMIXGBIRDS—OBERUOLSER. 3-11 



CALLIPHLOX MITCHELLII (Bourcier). 

Trochilus mitchelUi BovRCiER, Proe. Zool. Soc. Loml., 1S47, i>. 47. 
Calliphlox mitcheUi GovhD, Mon. Troch., Ill, 1860, pi. cl.\. 

Seven specimens, from Milligalli and Gualea, west Ecuador, and 
Baeza, east Ecuador. The single male from the east side of the 
mountains is considerably smaller than corresponding individuals 
from the west side; but as no eastern adults are available, proper, 
comparisons can not be made. Four immature males differ from an 
adult female in being less uniformlj' rufous-chestnut below the ante- 
rior portions being much lighter, even whitish. 

CHAETOCERCUS MULSANTI (Bourcier). 

Omismya mulsanti Boubciek, Ann. Sc. Phys. et Xat. Lyon, V, 1842, jx 344, pi. xx. 
Chaetocercus mulsanti Cabanis and Heine, Muf?. Hein., HI, 1860, p. 60. 

Twenty-four specimens, from the following localities: Corazon, 
Pichincha, Jombaco (vallev of Chillo, near Quito), west Ecuador; and 
Papallacta, east Ecuador. There seems to he no constant difference 
between these and Colombian specimens. Birds from both sides of 
the mountains appear to be identical. The immature male differs from 
the adult female in the lack of rufescent tinge on the anterior lower 
parts, in the less extent of rusty on the abdomen, and in the buff'y or 
ochraceous instead of rufous or chestnut shade of the crissum and tips 
to the tail-feathers. One of the young males appears to be abnormal 
in having the throat of a brownish gray shade instead of white, 
though this condition is indicated in one or two other specimens. 

Found feeding chiefly on the flowers of the guava tree and in rather dry, sandy 
localities. Adult males always seemed very scarce, but immature males and females 
were fairly numerous in certain parts of the Chillo Valley in December and January. 
Local name, "Soldado." 

POLYXEMUS BOMBUS (Gould). 

Chaetocercus hombiis Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, pp. 803, 804. 
Polj/.remus ho.nhus Mulsant and Verreaux, Hist. Nat. Ois.-Mouches, IV, 1877, 
p. 123, pi. CXI. 

Four specimens, from Guayaquil and Santo Domingo, west Ecuador. 
An immature male is practically identical in plumage with the adult 
female. 

Mr. Hartert is undoubtedly right in merging CJiaetocerciisviith Aces- 
trura^ for C. jourdanii^ the type of the former, is undoubtedly con- 
generic with C. iindsanti^ the type of the latter. The present species 
is, however, by reason of its very short wings and narrow, lengthened 
tail feathers, genericall}' distinct from the species with which it has 
commonly been associated. 

Found feeding just before dusk on the orange flowers at Santo Domingo. They so 
exactly resemble the hawk moths also seen around the flowers at the same time that 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

it was impossible on the wing to distinguish one from the other, and on one or two 
occasions Mr. Hamilton actually killed moths with a pellet from the blowpipe, mis- 
taking them for the humming! jirds. 

POPELAIRIA POPELAIRII (Du Bus). 

Trochilus jwpelairii Du Bus, Esq. Orn., 1S46, pi. vi. 
Popelairea pnpelmrei Simon, Cat. Troch., 1897, p. 41. 

One adult male from Archidona, east Ecuador. 

POPELAIRIA LANGSDORFFI (Temminck). 

Trochilus Umgsdorffi Temmhsck, Planch. Color., 1821, ])1. lxvi, fig. 1. 
Popelaria langsdorffi Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, 1880, p. 315. 

One specimen from Coca, Rio Napo, east Ecuador. This is an 
immature male, differing from the adult of the same sex in the lack of 
the long tail-feathers and in the slight indication of the reddish bronze 
breast patch. 

POPELAIRIA CONVERSII AEQUATORIALIS ( Berlepsch and Taczanowski). 

Gouldia conversi aequutorialit Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1883, p. 567. 
Popelairia conveivi aeqiuitorialis Hartert, Novit. Zool., V, 1898, p. 494. 

Five specimens from Santo Domingo and Nanegal, west Ecuador. 
Among the females there is consideral)le difference in the amount of 
white on the posterior lower surface. The female of this species may 
be distinguished from that of Popelairia langsdoi'jji by its shorter bill 
and more solidly black throat. 



A REVIEW OF THE DISCOBOLOUS FISHES OF JAPAN. 



B}^ David Starr Jordan and John Otterbein Snyder, 

Of the Leland Stanford Junior University. 



In the present paper is given a review of the Discoboli ( Cyclopteridm 
and L) pa rid id ft;) found in the waters of Japan. It is leased on the 
collections made hy the writers in 1900, on the collections in the United 
States National Museum, and on the cpllections of the United States 
Fish Commission steamer AJhatross made during the same year, which 
have been deposited in the United States National Museum. 

The Discoboli are degenerate cottiform fishes, characterized as such 
by the presence of the suborbital stay. From related families they 
are separated by the obsolete myodome, by the reduced ventrals united 
to form a sucking disk or altogether wanting, and b}^ the little develop- 
ment of the spinous dorsal. 

The two families are thus separated: 

a. Body cavity large, caudal region short, skin prickly or smooth. .Cyclopterid.e, I. 
aa. Body cavity short, caudal region elongate, skin smooth Liparidid^e, II. 

Family I. CYCLOPTERID^E. 

THE LUMP SUCKERS. 

Body short and thick, more or less elevated, covered with a thick 
skin, which is smooth, tubercular, or spinous ; head short and thick; 
suborbital stay present, thin and flatfish; mouth small, terminal; jaws 
with bands of slender, simple teeth; no teeth on vomer or palatines; 
gill openings narrow, restricted to the sides, the membranes being 
broadly joined to the isthmus and shoulder girdle; branchiostegals 6; 
gills 3i; pseudobranchise present; dorsal tins 2, the anterior part of 
flexible spines, which, in the adult, are sometimes hidden by a fleshy 
hump, in one subfamily entirelj^ wanting; soft dorsal usually opposite 
the anal and similar to it; caudal fin rounded, free from the dorsal and 
anal; ventrals thoracic, rudimentary, forming the bony center of a 
sucking disk; pectorals short, placed low, their bases broad and pro- 
current; pyloric cteca numerous; intestine elongate; vertebne 12+16, 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1259. 

343 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

the skeleton feebly ossitied. Northern seas of both hemispheres. B_y 
means of the adhesive ventral disk these fishes are enabled to attach 
themselves very firmly to rocks or other objects. The}^ feed on Crus- 
tacea, worms, small fishes, and plants. The young of Cj/doj^terus 
bear a close resemblance to Ziparu\ an evidence of the common origin 
of the 2 groups which is borne out by the anatomy. 

Cyclopterinre : 

I. Spinous dorsal present, sometimes concealed in adult. 
a. Barbels small or none; disk anterior, below the head. 

b. Skin naked or with scattered slender spines; no lateral \hw..Leihotremns, 1. 
Liparopsina' : 

II. Spinous dorsal wholly wanting. 

a. Dorsal short, opposite anal, of 9 or 10 rays; skin wholly smooth, without 
bony tubercles Oijdopterichthys, 2. 

1. LETHOTREMUS Gilbert. 
Lethoiremus Gilbert, Rept. U. S. Fish Connu., 1893 (1896), p. 449 {muticns). 

This genus differs from Ewnicrotrem i/s in the total absence of the 
bon}^ plates and of a lateral line or pores on sides of head and body. 
The skin is smooth in the typical species. 

The ventral disk is large, placed below the gill openings and base of 
pectoral. Barbels absent in the typical species, present in the Japan- 
ese. The body is almost spherical except for the short tail. The 
spinous dorsal is well developed. Gill opening very small. The genus 
is very close to Cydopteroides from Bering Sea, difl'ering chiefly in 
the absence of prickles and perhaps in the more anterior insertion of 
the ventral disk. 

(A7^6';;, f orgetf ulness ; rp?} /,<«', aperture.) 

I. LETHOTREMUS AWJE Jordan and Snyder, new species. 

Head 2i in length; depth 2; depth of caudal peduncle 3i in head; 
length of snout 4; diameter of orbit 3i; width of interorbital space 
2|; D. VI, 8; A. 7; P. 21. 

The body is almost globular, the width about equal to the depth; 
the tail compressed posteriorly. Head large, snout short, the jaws 
about equal. Eye large, lateral, situated much nearer to snout than 
to gill opening, the preorbital area about equal to diameter of pupil; 
interorbital area broad and flat. Mouth somewhat oblique, the cleft 
extending backward to a perpendicular passing between pupil and 
anterior part of orljit; jaws with l)i-()ad bands of close-set, blunt 
teeth. Gill opening narrow, located about midway between upper 
edge of base of pectoral and insertion of dorsal, the flap triangular in 
shape. 

Skin smooth. A short barbel above eve, posterior to nostril; a long, 
slender barbel on lower jaw; a second, similar one at lower edge of 



N0.1259. DISCOBOLOUS FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 345 

cheek, on a vertical passing between pupil and posterior edge of orbit; 
a third just posterior to angle of preopercle. 

Dorsal fins 2, the first inserted immediately above gill opening; its 
rays enveloped in a thick, fieshy covering which almost completelv 
conceals them; insertion of second dorsal a little in advance of anal, 
the rays of both fins with thin membranes, extending when depressed 
a little beyond base of caudal. Pectoral large, rounded posteriorly, 
its edge continuous. Ventral disk romid, with a wide, free margin; 
its diameter contained If times in length of head. 

Color in spirits, light ))rown, without spots or bands. 

The species is known from specimens about 300 millimeters in length, 
from Kominato, in the province of Awa, at the mouth of Tokyo Bay. 




Fig. 1. — Lethotkemi's aw.e. 



Type. — No.^ 6539, Leland Stanford Junior University Museum. 

One of the cotypes diifers from the specimen described in having a 
long, slender barbel over eye, posterior to nostril tube; a row of 4 
small, slender barbels below eye; a row of 4 — the first of which is 
shortest, the last being longest — extending from near mandibular sym- 
physis posterioi'ly to opercle; a few minute barbels on upper posterior 
part of head. 

The type and other specimens were presented to the university by 
Dr. Ishikawa. Similar examples are in the Imperial Museum of Tokyo, 
No. 629. 

2. CYCLOPTERICHTHYS Steindachner. 
Cj/cIopterichi}q/><STEi-ST)ACHSKR, Ichth. Beitriige, X, 1881, p. 14 {glaber=rentrico8us). 

Body short and thick, rounded, covered with thick, smooth skin, 
destitute of bony tubercles; tail slender, compressed, the bod}" abruptly 
contracted to its base; head broad, obtuse; mouth oblique, the lower 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

jaw prominent; teeth rather small, simple, hooked, sharp, in 2 rows 
anteriorl}^; pseudobranchije large; gills 3^; 8ul)orbital connected by a 
bony stay with the preopercle; gill opening small, above the base of 
the pectoral, which is broad and procurrent; ventral disk moderate, 
fringed. Dorsal short and high, of soft rays only, opposite the short 
anal, both well separated from the small caudal. {C ydoptenii<\ ix^v^^ 
fish.) 

2. CYCLOPTERICHTHYS VENTRICOSUS Pallas. 

Oyclopterus ventricosus Pallas, Spicilegia ZooL, VII, 1769, p. 15, pi. ii; Kam- 
chatka. 

Cotylis ventricosHs Gdnther, Cat., Ill, 1861, p. 498 (copied). 

Cydopterichthyii ventricosus Jordan and Gilbert, Synopsis 1883, p. 745 (after 
Steindachner). — Garman, Discoboli, 1892, p. 41. — Jordan and Evermann, 
Fishes of North and Middle America, II, 1898, p. 2104; St. Paul Island, 
Pribilof, Petropaulski. — Jordan and Gilbert, Fishes of Bering Sea, III, p. 
475; Petropaulski, St. Paul, Bering Island, Atka. 

Cydopterichth/s ylaber Steindachner, Ichth. Beitr., X, 1881, p. 14, pi. viii; 
Ochotsk Sea. 

Head 3 in length; depth 3i; depth of caudal peduncle 3f in head; 
length of snout 3; maxillary 2i; eye 6; interorbital space If; D. 9; 
A. 7; P. 20. 

Body stout, thick, abruptly- compressed behind ; the head broad, 
depressed, slightly convex on the crown; the snout blunt, broadly 
rounded w^hen seen from above. Mouth wide, the angle on a line 
passing about midway between tip of snout and eye, the lower jaw 
projecting bej^ond the upper; teeth small, simple, pointed, close set; 
in 2 prominent series, the outer ones minute, especially on posterior 
part of lower jaw; 3 or 4 large teeth form a third rather indefinite 
inner series on front of jaws. Eye lateral, much nearer to tip of snout 
than to gill opening. Gill slit about .5 in head, with a rounded fiap. 

Spinous dorsal wanting, the soft dorsal short, inserted on the tail. 
Anal similar to the dorsal in shape, inserted a little behind it. Pec- 
toral If in head; the lower part of its base extends far forward below. 
Ventral disk nearly round, wnth a broad, free margin, its longitudinal 
diameter contained about 1^ times in head, its center on a perpendic- 
ular passing aljout midway ijetween e3'e and gill opening. 

Color dark olive, with numerous small, round, black dots on the 
upper parts. Posteriorly the dots coalesce forming indistinct, irreg- 
ular, narrow bands or reticulations. 

Described from an example from Aomori, 170 millimeters long 
exclusive of the caudal fin which is broken. The specimen was pre- 
sented by Mr. Sotaro Saito. Of 2 specimens from the Pribilof Islands, 
1 has ver}' small spots scarce!}" distinguishable from the general dark 
color; the other is similar in color to the Japanese example. 

Bering Sea and southward to northern Japan. 



N0.1259. DISCOBOLOUS FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 347 



Family 11. LIPARIDID^E. 

THE SEA SNAILS. 

Bod}' more or less elongate, tadpole-shaped, subcylindrieal anteri- 
orly, compressed behind, the head depressed; both head and body cov- 
ered with smooth, thin skin, which is very lax. Head broad, obtuse, 
the snout short, wide, and blunt; third suborbital bone styliform behind, 
formino- a bonv stay articulating- with the preopercle, as in CottidcB; 
mouth moderate, anterior, terminal, the jaws equal, or the lower 
included; jaws with bands of small teeth, which are simple or more 
or less tricuspid, usuall}^ close set, forming a pavement; no teeth on 
vomer or palatines; premaxillaries protractile, little movable; oper- 
cular bones unarmed; interopercle slender, ray-like, overlying the 
branchiostegals; gill openings small, the membranes joined to the broad 
isthmus and to the humeral arch below. Branchiostegals 6. Gills 3i, 
no slit behind the last; pseudobranchia? small or w^anting; dorsal fin 
rather long, the spines feeble and flexible, low, similar to the soft 
rays; anal long, similar to the soft dorsal; ventral fins 1, 5, the two 
completely united and forming the bony center of an oval sucking 
disk, or else sometimes entirelj^ wanting; pectoral fin very broad, the 
base procurrent, extending forward under the throat, the outline usually 
eraarginate, some of the lower rays being produced; tail diphycercal; 
caudal fin short, convex; vertebrae numerous, 35 to 50; pyloric cseca 
numerous; no air bladder; stomach siphonal. U-shaped, intestine 
elongate. Small, sluggish fishes, nearl}- all of the Arctic seas, a 
few belonging to the Antarctic; found adhering to rocks at various 
depths. The group is evidently closeh' allied to the Cottklce^ and its 
origin must be sought in the ancestors of such types as Psychrolutes 
and Cottunculus^ the Cyclo2)ter{dw representing a coordinate phase of 
degradation, 

Li PA RIDING. 

a. Ventral disk present, large or small. 

h. Ventral disk normal, composed of 13 lobes, a median one in front and one 
corresponding to each of the fin rays, each lobe with a decidnons horny- 
covering or papilla. Teeth close set in pavement-like bands, tricuspid in 
the young, some or all becoming angular or bluntly arrow-shaped in the 
adult; caudal fin well developed, rather broad, 
c. Dorsal fin continuous, the spines not separated from the soft rays. 
d. Nostrils, 2 on each side, the posterior in a more or less distinct tube. 

e. Tip of snout without barbels Liparis, 3. 

ee. Tip of snout with several barbels or tubular projections; substance of 
body translucent C'rystallias, 4. 



348 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

3. LIPARIS (Artedi) Scopoli. 

SEA SNAILS. 

Liparis Artedi, Genera, 1738, p. 117 (nonbinomial). 

Cyclogaster Gronow, Museum, 1763, p. 157, (nonbinomial). 

Liparis Scopoli, Introd. Hist. Nat., 1777, p. 453 (liparis). 

Liparis CuviER, Regne Anim., 1st ed. 1817 (liparis; not Liparis Ochsenheimer, 

1810, a genus of Lepidoptera). 
Cyclogaster Groxow, Cat. Fishes, Grayed., 1854, p. 40 (liparis; not of Macquart, 

1854, a genus of flies) . 
Actinochir Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 193 (major). 
Careliparis G arm ax. Discoboli, 1892, p. 56 (agassizii). 
Lyoliparis 3oRT).\^ and Evermanx, Check-List Fishes, 1896, p. 451 (pulchellus). 

Bod}' rather elongate, covered with .smooth skin, which is usually 
freely movable; head short, flattened above; mouth horizontal, the 
jaws equal or the lower jaw included; teeth in several series, close set, 
always more or less tricuspid, the adult with the outer cusps often worn 
or obliterated; maxillary covered by skin of preorbital region; anterior 
nostrils present, tubular or not; posterior nostrils usually tubular, no 
barbels or tubes at tip of snout, ventral disk well developed on the 
breast, its front below or ]>ehind the middle of the head, its surface 
with 13 lobes; an anterior median lobe, and 1 corresponding to each 
of the 6 rays in each fin; each lobe with a horny papilla covering, 
which is sometimes lost; vent well behind the head, about midway 
between the sucking disk and anal fin; dorsal fin continuous, undivided, 
its spines not dift'erentiated; caudal well developed; dorsal fin free 
from caudal or joined; pectoral Inroad, procurrent at base, emarginate 
and free at tips, some of the lower rays produced; vertical fins envel- 
oped in the lax skin; vertebrae 35 to 55. Northern seas near the shores; 
the species less arctic in distribution and in general inhabiting shal- 
lower water than is the case with Carejyroctm and ParaUpari><^ a fact 
associated with the reduced number of vertebra in Lijxiris. The spe- 
cies are numerous, but in general well defined, their characters vary- 
ing with age. In most of the species color varieties occur, several 
{pulchellus^ liparis^ aleuticus^ agassizii) having the bod}" often marked 
everywhere with concentric curved stripes or rings. {Xinapog^ sleek- 
skinned.) 

3. LIPARIS AGASSIZII Putnam. 

CyclopterusliparisBhocH, Ausliind. Fische, I, 1785, p. 48, in part; Pacific specimens. 

Liparis agassizii Putxam, Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1874, p. 339; Sakhalin, 
Channel of Tartary (Coll. Pierce and Smith). — Garmax, Discoboli, p. 62, 
1892, pis. i-iii. — Jordan and Evermaxx, Fish. North and Middle Amer., II, 
1898, p. 2121; Bristol Bay, Alaska. — .Jordan and Gilbert, Fish. Bering Sea, 
III, p. 473; Bristol Bay.— Jordax and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, 
p. 369; Hakodate. 

Liparis gibhus Beax, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, p. 148; Unalaska, St. Paul 
Island, Indian Point, Cape C-haplin, and Plover Bay, Siberia. — Jordax and 
Gilbert, Synopsis, 1883, p. 741. 

Liparis? pulclicllus Ishikawa, I'rel. Cat., 1S97, pp. 36-37; Hakodate, Sakhalin. 



NO. IL'59. DISCOBOLOUS FISHES OF JAPAN— JORD AX AXD SXl'DER. 349 

Head 3i in length-, depth 4; length of snout 3^ in head; diameter 
of eye Yi: width of interorliital space 3; D. 4-1: ; A. 3-1: : P. 34. 

Bod}" elongate, compressed posteriorly, about as wide as deep ante- 
riorly. Head large, interorbital space broad and flat. Mouth large, 
the maxillar}' extending nearly to middle of e3'e; lower jaw included; 
teeth tricuspid, in oblique rows, forming broad bands on the jaws. 
Anterior nostril with a large tube, the posterior with a low rim. Gill 
opening extending a short distance below upper edge of base of pec- 
toral, its width contained 3 times in head. 

Dorsal and anal tins enveloped in loose skin and gelatinous tissue, 
the anterior rays hidden from view; dorsal inserted a])ove posterior 
edge of ventral disk, its distance from tip of snout about 3 in bodv; 
anal inserted farther back, its distance from snout a])out 2 in bod}"; 
both dorsal and anal joined to the caudal, the tips of the posterior rays 
separated by a shallow notch. Posterior edge of pectoral rounded, 4 
or 5 of the lower rays elongate, their free tips extending beyond margin 
of fin; length of pectoral about 5 in head. Ventral disk nearl}- round, 
with a broad, free border, its diameter contaiiKMl about 2^ times in 
head. 

Skin smooth; distinct pores on upper jaw, no barbels. 

Color in spirits pale brownish with dark markings. The color varies 
considerably; some specimens are almost translucent, the sides with 
dusky clouds, the fins edged with blackish; other individuals have 
irregularly shaped, dark spots on the sides or dusky vertical bands 
beginning near median line and extending to edge of dorsal tin; an 
example from Hakodate has many narrow purple bands extending 
from snout to caudal fin. 

North Pacific; common south to Unalaska on the American side and 
to Myiako in Rikuchu on the Japanese. It is especially abundant 
about rocks around Hakodate Head. Our numerous Japanese speci- 
mens are from Otaru, Hakodate, Aomori, and Myiako. The original 
types were collected by Messrs. Pierce and Smith at Sakhalin. Channel 
of Tartary. 

(Named for Prof. Louis Agassiz.) 

4. CRYSTALLIAS Jordan and Snyder, wewv genus. 
Crifstallia.s Jordan and Sxydek, new genuiJ {uiat^noiJiirmf). 

Allied to Liparh^ differing in the diaphanous body which is strongly 
compressed, and especially in the possession of a number of barbels on 
the jaws. The presence of barbels distinguishes it from Crystallich- 
tJn/x, which it very closely resembles. 

(KftvffTaXXog, crystal.) 



350 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



4. CRYSTALLIAS M ATSUSHIM^E Jordan and Snyder, new species. 



Head -i^ in length; depth tt^; snout 3i in head; eye 3i; interorbital 
space 2f ; D. 58; A. 51; P. about 31. 

Body and head markedly compressed; upper profile of head rather 
abrupt in front; mouth inferior, oblique; the maxillary extends to a 
point below anterior part of iris. Teeth small, trilobed; the lateral 
lobes minute, larger on posterior teeth, scarcely discernible or absent 
on anterior ones. E3^e large, directed laterally, situated a little nearer 
to tip of snout than to gill opening. Snout apparently without pores; 
three or more small, fleshy barbels on each side of upper and lower 
jaws; those on upper jaw slightly longer than those below, both groups 
located on the part of jaw anterior to angle of mouth. Nostral single, 
with a large tube located in the position occupied ])y the anterior 
nostril in Liparis. Gill opening small, entirely above base of pectoral 
fin. No lateral line can be detected. 

Fin rays enveloped in a gelatinous, fleshy covering which grows 
thinner posteriorly where the rays are more exposed to view. Dorsal 
fin beginning just above gill opening, the rays growing graduall}'' 




Fig. 2. — CRYSTALLIAS MATi5USHIMiE. 



higJaer posteriorly to near the caudal fin, where they become shorter; 
anal inserted behind beginning of dorsal, a distance equal to one-half 
the length of head, similar in shape to dorsal; both dorsal and anal 
continuous with caudal, the latter rounded posteriorly. Pectoral large, 
its edge divided by a shallow notch, the two parts thus separated being 
broadly rounded; the fin extends forward below to the anterior middle 
portion of ventral disk. Ventral disk small, round; its edge free. 

Color translucent; head and body with narrow dark l)ars and oblong 
spots. The bars, 7 to 8 above, 5 below, have their origins near median 
line of bod}', where they are darkest and better defined; passing outward 
they become less distinct and disappear near edges of fins. A row of 
4 or 5 spots on upper edge of fin, 2 spots near middle of body, several 
spots and bars on upper part of head. 



Nu. r.'oy. DISCOBOLOUS FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SNYDER. 351 

The species is represented hy a single specimen 120 millimeters 
long, in a bad state of preservation, the skin in many places torn from 
the body. It is not evident whether the posterior border of the pectoral 
is entire or notched, or whether the dorsal and anal are partl}^ separated 
from the caudal. 

Trjpt'.So. 49802, U.S.N.M., collected by the United States Fish 
Commission ^tQuwi^r Alhatross in the Bay of Matsushima, station 3T73, 
at a depth of 78 fathoms. 

(Jfafsx, pine; s/i/'//ia, island.) 

Sii])j)lementaTy nott-. — In the Museum of Hakodate is another species 
of Liparidid(M^ called Kokkoda, from Kayabe in Hokkaido. It is 
probably a species of Neolijyaris Steindachner, a genus distinguished 
from Llparls bv the separation of the dorsal spines from the soft rays 
bv a notch. 

The specimen examined was 4^ inches long: D. about VI, 30; P. about 
24. Disk round. If in head. Gill opening extending downward to 
base of uppermost pectoral ra}^ ; nostrils all similar, each with a raised 
rim. Dorsal free from caudal; anal slighth^ connected. Body very 
limp, pale in color. The species is allied to the Californian Neolqxiris 
mucfmus. It is to be hoped that some Japanese naturalist may find 
and describe this species. 



A KEVIEW OF THE JAPANESE SPECIES OF SURF-FISHES 
OR EMBlOTOCIDxE. 



By David Stake Jordan (assisted by Michitaro Sindo), 

Of the Leland Sfavford Junior University. 



In this paper is given an account of the surf-tishes or Embiotocidae, 
constituting- the suborder of Holconoti, which are known to inhabit 
the waters of Japan. The famih^ is confined mainly to the shores of 
California, where M genera and 22 species have been described. The 
few species in Japan are evidenth^ an overflow from this characteristic 
Californian fauna, and are interesting as completing the series of 
known species of the group. They are known to fishermen by the 
name of Tanago. The species mentioned are preserved in the United 
States National Museum. 

Suborder HOLCONOTI. 

The singular family of Embiotocida? appears to constitute a distinct 
group or suborder allied to the Percoidea on the one hand and to the 
Pharj'ngognathi on the other, but without very close affinities with 
either. The structures connected with the viviparous habit, the 
united pharyngeals, the increased number of vertebrse, the double 
nostrils, the perfect gills, and the presence of many rays in the soft 
dorsal and anal, together with the unarmed bones of the head, con- 
stitute the chief characters of the Holconoti. 

(6\koz^ groove; vooroz^ back.) 

Family EMBIOTOCIDiE. 

THE SURF-FISHES. 

Bod}' ovate or oblong, compressed, covered with cycloid scales of 
moderate size. Cheeks, operculum, and interoperculum scaly; lateral 
line continuous, running high, without abrupt flexure, not extending 
on the caudal fin; head rather short; mouth small, terminal; jaws with 
conical or compressed teeth of moderate or small size, in 1 or 2 series; 
rarely wanting; no teeth on vomer or palatines; no canines; lower 
pharyngeals united without suture, their teeth conical or paved; upper 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1260. 
Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 23 353 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

jaw freely protractile; lips full, the lower either forming a free border 
to the jaw or else attached l\y a frenuni at the symphysis; maxillar}'- 
short, without supplemental bone, slipping for most or all of its length 
under the preorbital; opercular bones entire; branchiostegals, 6 (or 5); 
gill rakers usually slender; gill openings wide, the membranes free 
from the isthmus or ver}- slightly connected; pseudobranchi^e present; 
gills 4, a slit behind the fourth; nostrils round; the openings, 2 on each 
side; dorsal fin single, long, with 8 to 18 usually slender spines, which 
are depressible in a groove; a sheath of scales along the base of the 
anterior part of soft dorsal and posterior of spinous dorsal, this sheath 
separated by a furrow from the scales of the body; anal fin elongate, 
with 3 moderate or small spines and 15 to 35 slender soft raj^s, its form 
and structure differing in the two sexes; ventral fins thoracic, 1, 5; 
pectorals moderate; caudal forked; oviduct opening behind the vent, 
the two apertures always distinctly separated; air bladder large, sim- 
ple; no pjdoric caeca; vertebra3 13 to 19, 19 to 23, 32 to 42. Viviparous. 
The young are hatched within the body, where they remain closel}^ 
packed in a sac-like enlargement of the oviduct analogous to the uterus 
until born. These foetal fishes bear at first little resemblance to the 
parent, being closely compressed and having the vertical fins exceed- 
ingly elevated. At birth the}" are from li to 2i inches in length .and 
similar to the adult in appearance, but more compressed and red in 
color. Since the announcement of their viviparous nature bv Prof. 
Louis Agassiz in 1853 and by Dr. William P. Gibbons in 1854 these 
fishes have been objects of special interest to zoologists. One species 
{IlysterocciTpus traski) inhabits fresh water; one species {Zalemhnis 
rosaceus) descends to considerable depths. These species reach a length 
of from 6 to 18 inches and are very abundant where found. The}'' are 
much used for food, but the flesh is comparatively poor, tasteless, and 
bony. Most of them feed on Crustacea, but one genus (Aheona) is 
partly or wholly herbivorous. The species mostly live in the surf 
along sandy beaches and are confined to California and Japan, their 
origin being evidently Californian. The two Japanese species are of 
separate Californian origin, Dltrema being descended from ancestors 
of Phanerodon and Emhlotoca^ while JVeoditrema must have sprung 
from ancestors of Ilypocritichthys and Ilyperprosoixm. 

a. Embiotocin.e. Spinous dorsal shorter than soft dorsal, of 6 to 11 spines; anal 
spines graduated; marine species. 
h. Scales relatively small, 60 to 70 in lateral line. 
0. Gill rakers numerous, long and slender, about 25 below angle of arch; lower 
lip without frenum; profile of head depressed above eye; mouth oblique, 
short; lower pharyngeals small. 
d. Males with one row of teeth in upper jaw, the lower with few or none; 

females with toothless jaws Neoditrema. 

CO. Gill rakers few, small, about 15 below angle; lower lip with a frenum; mouth 
with teeth in one series; sexes similar; lower pharyngeals rather slender, 
with small teeth Ditreina. 



NO. 1200. THE SURF-FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SINDO. 355 

NEODITREMA Steindaehner. 

Neoditrema Steindachner, Beitr. Kenntn. Fische Japans, II, 1883, p. 32 {r-an- 
sonneti). 

Bod}' elongate, compressed, with rather long- caudal peduncle; fron- 
tal region depressed above e^'es. Mouth small, the lower jaw pro- 
jecting; dentition unlike in the two sexes; females without teeth in 
the jaws; males with one row of l^luntish teeth above, these wide set 
and turned forward in a line with direction of edge of premaxillary 
bone, the lateral teeth largest; lower lip thin, without frenum; gill 
rakers close set, long and slender, about 25 below angle of arch; lower 
pharyngeals small, with small teeth; scales small, deciduous, about 70 
in the lateral line; dorsal fin low^, rather short; anal low, rather short, 
luuch distorted in the male; alidomen shorter than anal fin. 

One species known, a small fish closely allied to the American genus, 
JIi/j)ocritichthj/s, from which it diifers in the dentition. From Ditrema^ 
both genera are separated b}' the long and slender gill rakers, the 
depressed frontal region, and the free lower lip. 

{vaoz^ new; Ditrema.) 

NEODITREMA RANSONNETI Steindachner. 

NE, OKITANAGO (OFFSHORE SURF-FISH). 

iV<?odi<remff rf(nson)je<i Steindachner, Fische Japan.s, II, 1883, p. 32; Yokohama. — 
Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1901, p. 752; Tsushima Island, 
Straits of Korea. 

Head, U to 3f in length; depth, 3 to 3^. D. VI to VIII, 20 to 22. 
A. Ill, 26 or 27. Scales, 6—70 to 72—14 to 16. Eye, 3^ to 3| in head; 
interorbital, 3^ to -1; snout, 4; maxillary, 3|. Body strongly com- 
pressed, the nape and breast especiallj' so; profile above eyes strongly 
concave; mouth oblique, the chin projecting; lower lip thin, without 
frenum; eye rather large; gill rakers close set, long and slender, 20 to 
25 below angle; spinous dorsal low, the spines slender; soft dorsal low; 
caudal peduncle moderate, the fin well forked, \\ in head; pectorals, \\ 
in head; ventrals somewhat shorter; ?>\ to 4 rows of scales on cheek. 
The males have teeth in the upper jaw, sparse, bluntish, wide set, in 
one row, directed forward in line with edge of the bone, those on 
sides of mouth largest; lower jaw usualh" with two or three small 
teeth in front; females toothless. Color, dark olive brown above, the 
lower parts copper}' or golden, with traces of faint dark streaks along 
the rows of scales; chin dusk}-; a dusky spot on upper part of opercle; 
no spots on preopercle or snout. Males with a jet black spot on the 
premaxillary, which is wanting in the females; fins dusky yellowish; 
the anal and dorsal black in front, the ventrals black at tip; a dark 
streak across base of pectoral. 

This little fish is known to us from upward of a hundred examples 



356 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



of both sexes taken by us in Koajiro Bay, near Misaki, where the 
species is locally very abundant. It has not been seen elsewhere save 
on the island of Okishinia in the Japan Sea, whence one male example 
was received from Dr. K. Kishinouye, and from the island of Tsushima 
in the Korean Straits, where one female example was taken by Mr. 



, 4 ..iC-^ ■.:,.-, 








'/Z^a. 




Fig. 1.— Neoditrema ransonneti. 

P. L. eTouy. The original types, female, found by Baron Eansonnet 
in the market of Yokohama, doubtless came from Misaki. The native 
name at Okishima is Ne. At Misaki it is called Okitanago, or offshore 
surf -fish. The largest example (from Okishima) is but 100 mm. long. 

Measurements of Neoditrema ransonneti. 



Length in millimeters 

Head in hundredths of length . 

Depth 

Snout to dorsal 

Snout to anal 

Depth of caudal peduncle , 

Snout 

Eye 

Tip of snout to end of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Length of dorsal fin 

Length of anal fin 

Height of longest dorsal spine. . 

Height of longest dorsal ray 

Height of longest anal spine 

Height of longest anal ray 

Length of pectoral fin ..." 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of scales 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays. 

Number of pectoral rays , 

Locality 



100 
28 
31 

36 
61 
11 



Oki 



28 
19i 
6-72-16 
VII, 20 
111,20 
1,19 
Island 



DITREMA Schlegel. 

D'drema Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Poiss., 1846, p. 77, pi. xl, fig. 2 {temm'mcki). 
Body oblong, more or less elevated, somewhat compressed, the cau- 
dal peduncle robust. Head moderate, the jaw included. Lips mod- 
erate, the lower attached b}" a frenum at the chin. Maxillary short, 



KOJ2G0. THE SURF-FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SINDO. 357 

its whole length slipping under the preorbital. Teeth few, conical, 
bluntish, in one series. Gill rakers weak, rather short and slender. 
Pharyngeals nomial, the anterior and lateral teeth small, conic, none 
of them especially enlarged ; males with a gland on some of the ante- 
rior anal raj^s, but none of them moditied to forma definite plate. Ver- 
tebra? 1-1 + 18 or 19, the base of anal below 9 caudal vertebra ; first 
ha?mal spine small, applied to the second. Caudal fin lunate; anal fin 
rather long, much longer than abdomen, its spines small. Scales small, 
60 to SO in the lateral line. This genus is close to the American genus 
Eniblotoca^ the most generalized and perhaps the most primitive genus 
of the famih^ The only difl'erence of importance is the slight one of 
the coarser and blunter teeth of Emblotoca. 

(cJ^zV, two; rpfjixa^ aperture, the generative organs in all Enibiotoddm 
having a distinct opening from the intestines.) 

DITREMA TEMMINCKI Bleeker. 
UMI-TANAGO (SEA SURF-FISH); AKATANAGO (RED SURF-FISH). 

Ditrema Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1846, p. 77, pi. xl, fig. 2; Nagasaki. 

Ditrema temmincki Bleeker, Yerh. Bat. Gen., XXV, Japan, p. .33; Nagasaki. — 
GtJXTHER, Cat. Fish., IV, 1862, p. 246. — vSteindachner and Doderleix, 
Fische Japans, II, 1883, p. 31; Tokyo, Yokohama. — Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 
1897, p. 27; Hokkaido, Tokyo, Fukushima. — Jord.\x and Evermanx, Fish. 
N. and M. Amer., II, 1898, p. 1510; Tokyo. 

D/rjYJHai.TreGuxTHER, Cat. Fish., II, 1860, p. 392; Jaj^an. — Nystrom, Kong. Svensk. 
Vet. Akad., 1887, p. 32; Nagasaki. 

Ditrema smitti^ Nystrom, Kong. Svensk. Yet. Akad., 1887, p. 32; Nagasaki (adult 
example). 

Emhiotoca smitti Jordan and Sxyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 358; Yoko- 
hama, Coll. Albatross. 

D. X, 21; A. Ill, 26. Scales, 11—75—19. Head measured, exclu- 
sive of opercular flap, 3i in length, exclusive of caudal fin; depth, 2^. 
Snout, 3i in head; eye equal to snout; interorbital space, 3; caudal 
fin, 1 in head; pectoral, l^V; ventral, If; the longest dorsal spine, 3; 
longest dorsal ray, the fifth, If; third anal spine, 5^; the longest anal 
ray, the ninth from the last, equal to the pectoral; depth of caudal 
peduncle, 2. 

Body ovate, compressed, the nape somewhat prominent; nasal bone 
slightly prominent; ventral outline from throat to vent almost straight. 
Mouth small, maxillary nearly equal to snout; lower jaw slightly 
included; teeth conical, blunt, in a .single series, on the front of lower 

^Dltrona smitti is described as having the head 4 in total length with caudal, the 
depth nearly 3, D. XI, 21, A. Ill, 27. Scales, 11-78-18; spinous dorsal black with a 
narrow line of the same color at the base of the soft rays. Pectorals yellowish, and 
with black tips, the first ray with a black spot at base. Preopercle with a blackish 
spot on the lower limb and a larger one behind it. Length, 180 mm. This is cer- 
tainly the adult of the species, of which a rather faded young specimen was first 
described as Ditrema. 



358 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



jaw only, those on upper jaw pointing- more outward than downward. 
Nostrils small, posterior ones slightly larger. Gill rakers short and 
slender, anteriorly inclined, about 15 on lower limb of arch; 5 rows of 
scales on cheek. Mandibles and edge of opercle naked. Scales below 
lateral line on middle of body largest, their depth being greater than 
the length. Fins naked, the dorsal with a scaly sheath. Pectoral fins 
pointed behind, the upper rays long'est, graduated, the tip reaching 
to yent. Ventral fins inserted below the second dorsal spine, their tips 
not reaching to that of the pectorals. Dorsal spines shorter than the 
soft rays, the last the longest; soft dorsal highest in front; anal spines 
small, the third the longest, much shorter than the soft ra3^s, in male 
seventh to tenth soft anal rays from the last prolonged almost eqvial to 
the length of pectoral fin, graduated posteriorly; males with the anal 
considerably depressed in front with a glandular appendage, the soft 
rays sometimes considerabl}" produced ; caudal wideh^ forked. 




Fig, 2.— Ditrema temmincki. 



Color silvery, steel blue on back; lower limb of preopercle with a 
black spot in front and another at the angle, these verj^ rarely obsolete: 
two black bars from eye toward maxillary, a dark blotch on upper end or 
opercle; upper half of spinous dorsal black; soft fin uncolored, or with 
a dark edge; anal and caudal fins dusky; pectorals uncolored, axil 
slightly dusky; tips of ventrals dark, with the first rays and the mem- 
brane between the fourth and fifth rays chalkv white. The ground 
coloration is sul)ject to consideral)le variation, but the two spots below 
the eye and the two stripes on snout are rarely absent. 

Here described from a specimen 8 j inches long from Tokyo. Our 
numerous specimens were collected Ijy Jordan and Snyder at Nagasaki, 
Hakata, Onomichi, Kobe, Wakanoura, Misaki, Tokyo, Same, Aomori, 
and Hakodate. The specimen from Hakata is the type of the accom- 
panj'ing figure. 



THE SURF- FISHES OF JAPAN— JORDAN AND SINDO. 



359 



Those from Misaki, obtained in rather deeper water than the others, 
were distinctly of a copper}- red in lif e, with a redder line running later- 
alh' forming- the chord to the arc of the curved lateral line. These were 
locally called Aka-tcui ago (red surf -lish) . The majorit}- of these red spec- 
imens have their dorsal spines reduced to 7 or 8, but some have 9; the 
body is rather more roundish than in those from other localities, the 
tins duskier with a slender black bar running at the base of the dorsal 
and anal fins; the lips are dusky. We do not, however, regard them 
as forming a distinct species. One specimen from Hakata has the 
body and tins except the pectorals blackish duskj , with the spinous 
dorsal uncolored, and the body considerably thicker than in the others. 
Many specimens have a black spot at the pectoral axil, and the ventral 
tins are often black from root to end; a black bar running along the 
root of dorsal and anal tins; the vertical tins higher, the eyes larger 
and the head longer in 3-oung specimens than in the adult. All these 
pecidiaiities seem to depend upon the character of the water or of the 
bottom and are within the range of specitic variation. * 

(Xamed for Prof. C. J. Temminck, the associate of Professor 
Sc'hlegel.) 



Measureinents of Ditrema temmincki. 



Locality. 

Length in millimeters 

Head in body 

Depth 

Snout tadorsal 

Snout to anal 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Snout. ...-. 

Eye 

Tip of snout to end of maxillary 

Width of interorbital space 

Length of dorsal fin 

Length of anal fin 

Height of longest dorsal spine . . 

Height of longest dorsal ray 

Height of longest anal spine 

Height of longest anal ray 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Scales above lateral line 

Scales on lateral line 

Scales below lateral line 



Nagasaki. 


Misaki. 


Tokyo. 


149 


105 


172 


28 


31 


29 


ibh 


45 


45 


39 


42 


40 


. 59 


59 


62 


13 


13 


14 


9 


9i 


9 


9 


9i 


8 


8 


7j 


8i 


9 


81 


9i 


51 


45 


49* 


27 


28 


27 


Si 


IQi 


9i 


Hi 


13 


17 


4i 


C 


6 


22i 


12 


15 


25 


25 


25 


29 


27 


30 


16 


17 


m 


X,20 


IX, 21 


X,20 


111,26 


111,26 


111,26 


1,19 


1,19 


1,19 


10 


11 


10 


/O 


71 to 74 


76 


19-20 


21 


19-20 



Hakodate. 
191 
29i 
47 
41 
64 
14 
10 
Sh 
8i 
9i 
501 
25 
8 
17 
5 
22i 
26 
30 
15 
X,21 
111,25 
1,19 
10 
77 
19-20 



A REVIEW OF THE PEDICULATE FISHES OR ANGLERS 

OF JAPAN. 



B}' David Starr Jordan (assisted l\v Mtchitaro Sindo), 

Of the Leland Stanford Junior Universitii. 



In the present paper is given an account of the species of Pedicu- 
lati, or Angler-lishes, known to inhabit the waters of Japan.. With 
other papers of this series it is based on the collections made by 
Messrs. Jordan and Snyder in 1900, under the auspices of the Hop- 
kins Seaside Laboratory of Leland Stanford Junior University, a 
duplicate series being deposited in the LTnited States National Museum, 
and upon specimens colle'cted b}" the United States Fish Commission 
steamer Alhatross. 

Order PEDICULATL 
THE PEDICULATE FISHES. 

Carpal bones notably elongate, forming a kind of arm (pseudobra- 
chium) which supports the broad pectoral. Gill opening reduced to a 
large or small foramen situated in or near the axil, more or less pos- 
terior to the pectorals. Ventral fins jugular if present; anterior dor- 
sal reduced to a few tentacle-like, isolated spines; soft dorsal and anal 
short; no scales. First verteljra united to cranium b}^ a suture; epi- 
otics united behind supraoccipital; elongate basal pectoral radii (acti- 
nosts. reduced in number; no interclavicles; post temporal broad, flat, 
simple; upper pharj'ngeals 2, similar, spatulate, with anterior stem 
and transverse blade; basis of cranium simple; no air duct to the swim 
bladder. Marine fishes, chiefly of the tropics and the oceanic abj^sses. 
The group is an ofl'shoot from the Acanthopteri, its chief modification 
being in the elongation of the actinosts and in the position of the gill 
opening. The Batrachoidida? are perhaps its nearest relatives. 

(PcdicKhftus, having a foot-stalk.) 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1 261 . 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Analysis of families of Japanese PediculatL 

a. Gill openings in or ))ehin(l the lower axil of the pectoral; mouth large, terminal. 
b. Pseudobranchiie present; base of jiectoral with two actinosts; head broad, 
depressed, the enormous mouth Avith very strong teeth; ventrals large. 

LOPHIID.E, I. 

lb. Psendobranchi;e none; base of jiectoral with 3 actinosts. 
c. Ventrals present; the arm angulate, pseudobraehia elongate. 

AXTEXXARIID.K, II. 

aa. Gill openings in or behind upper axil of pectoral; mouth small, inferior; skin 
with warts or prickles OacocEPnALiD.p., III. 

Family I. LOPHIID^. 
THE ANGLERS. 

Head wide, depressed, veiy large. Body contracted, conical, taper- 
ing rapidly backward from the shoulders. Mouth exceedingly large, 
terminal, opening into an enormous stomach; upper jaw contractile; 
maxillary without supplementar}^ bone; lower jaw projecting; both 
jaws with very strong, imequal, cardiform teeth, some of teeth canine- 
like, most of them depressible; vomer and palatines usually with 
strong teeth. Gill openings comparative!}^ large, in lower axil of 
the pectorals. Pseudobranchije present. Gill rakers none; gills 3. 
Skin mostly smooth, naked, with many dermal flaps about the head. 
Spinous dorsal of 3 isolated, tentacle-like spines on head and 3 smaller 
ones behind, which form a continuous tin; second dorsal moderate, 
similar to the anal; pectoral members scarcely geniculated, each with 
two actinosts and with elongated pseudobraehia; ventrals jugular, I, 6, 
widely separated, large, much enlarged in the 3'oung. Young with 
the head spinous. Pyloric cfeca present. 

Fishes of the sea bottom, living at moderate depths, remarkal>le for 
their great voracity. 
a. Vertebrae reduced in numl:>er, 18 to 20 in all Lophioinuii, I. 

1. LOPHIOMUS Gill. 

■ Lophiomus Gill, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., V, 1882, p. 552 {ad i gems). 

This genus includes those species of Lophiidje which have the 
vertebra reduced in number, 18 or 19, instead of about 30, as in 
Zophius, a fact associated with their tropical distribution. The 
species inhabit the Pacific, those of Zophius being found in the 
Atlantic. 

{Zophim: (y/iOb, shoulder, in allusion to the tritid humeral spine.) 

<i. First dorsal spine higher than second; ventral fins pale; inside of mouth anteri- 
orly black, with pale spots; peritoneum blackish; head less than half length. 

seiigervs, 1. 

(ta. First dorsal spine not higher than second; ventral fins black on the inner side; 

inside of mouth unmarked; peritoneum jmle; head not less than half length. 

litulon, 2. 



.N. ,. 1261. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SIXDO. 363 

I. LOPHIOMUS SETIGERUS (Vahl). 

ANKO. 

Lophitis seflgerusYA-Hh, Skrivt. Naturh., IV, 1797, p. 214, pi. iii, figs. 5, 6; China 
Sea. — CuviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XII, 1837, p. 383, after 
Vahl and a Japanese drawing. — GtrNTHER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 180; Japan 
(not Lophiomus setigerus Gilbert and of Jordan and Evermann, an American 
species, Lophiomus caulinaris Garman, from the Galapagos). 

Lophius nviparus ScnyiBiDER, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 1-42, pi. xxxii, after Vahl. 

Head, measured to the anterior edge of gill opening, 2f in length of 
body without caudal; width, 2 in head; width of mouth, 3^; snout, 9^ in 
total length, or 1^ in interorbital space; e^'e, 2i in snout; D. 1V + II, 9; 
A. 7; P. 22; V. 7; caudal fin, 4|; pectoral fiii, 6; first dorsal spine, 4| in 
length, with a simple slender flap on end, placed on the edge of receding 
lip; second spine li to If in the first, standing ver}" closely behind the 
latter; enveloped in filamentous skinny fold; third spine inserted under 
tip of the depressed second spine, slender and bony as the first spine, but 
tapering to a fine point without a filament; its proximal end concealed; 
fourth spine beginning on cross line from the tip of humeral spine to 
the other, and of exactly the same structure as the third, but in some 
cases a little shorter; two very short spines similar to the second 
spine placed close together half way between the fourth spine, and 
dorsal fin; rays of soft dorsal nearly equal in height, except the first 
and last, which are somewhat shorter than the rest, their free tips 
projecting; numerous spines on head, those at the tip of snout and on 
the ridge above eye, at the angle of mouth, and the region of occiput 
being most prominent, especially in young specimen; humeral spine 
trifid, with a minor branch near its root, the posterior branch longest 
and usuall}' bifid, pointing backward; the spine thus ends in five 
points; long filaments along jaw, angle of mouth, and side of body; 
small ones all over dorsal side of body and fins; one specimen from 
Nagasaki has also two tentacles on snout developed into two knob- 
like processes. Ventral side free from filaments; teeth on mandible in 
alternate rows, those in the inner row being longest and pointing 
inward; all except a few on outermost row near the angle depressible; 
teeth in maxillary also very irregular in height and arrangement; 
those on outermost row short and pointing outward and generally 
depressible, those near the angle inward; those on inner rows inclining 
inward and nearly all depressible. 

Color of body gray to grayish brown, with numerous lighter dots 
with black border. The specimens from Nagasaki are more grayish 
than brownish, with numerous minute black dots on back of head, 
body, and spines; small filaments generally black; four black filaments 
equally distributed in a row on caudal fin near the end; dorsal fin 
marbled with blackish markings; pectoral fins darker than head; ven- 
tral side white; ventral fins pale, unmarked, sometimes a dusky shade 



364 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



on lower side of pectoral and around vent; peritoneum black; inside 
of mouth anteriorly black, with round j^ellowish spots. 

Coasts of southern Japan, rather common; our specimens from Wak- 
anoura and Nagasaki. This species is evidently identical with Vahl's 
original figure as copied b}^ Schneider. 

{Setige)\ bristle-bearing.) 

Measurements of Lophiomus setigerus. 



Locality. 

Length" in millimeters without caudal 

Dorsal rays 

Caudal ray 

Anal rays 

Pectoral rays 

Ventral rays 

Head in hundredth of length without caudal 

Width of head 

Width of body close to gill opening 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of tail 

Snout • 

Length of maxillary 

Intermaxillary space 

Diameter of eye 

Interorbital space 

Snout to tip of humeral spine 

Distance between tips of humeral spine 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Height of first dorsal spine 

Snout to second dorsal spine 

Height of second dorsal spine 

Snout to third dorsal spine 

Height of third dorsal spine 

Snout to fourth dorsal spine 

Height of fourth dorsal spine 

Snout to dorsal fin 

Length of base of dorsal fin 

Height of dorsal ray 

Length of caudal ray 

Height of anal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Ventral fin to vent 

Vent to anal fin 



Nagasaki. 


Nagasaki. 


238 


175 


IV-II, 9 


IV-II, 9 


8 


8 


7 


7 


23 


22 


5 


5 


65 


57 


60 


66 


22 


27 


5 


5 


35 


35 


14 


17 


20 


22i 


8 


8 


7 


7 


IH 


12 


45 


47 


40 


41 


4 


5 


27 


26 


6 


7 


15 


16 


24 


26 


21i 


23 


38 


37 


21 


20 


60 


58 


30 


25 


20 


20 


25 


25 


17 


18 


20 


23 


14 


14 


43 


41 


6 


5i 



2. LOPHIOMUS LITULON Jordan, new species. 

Lophius setigerus IsniKAW'A, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 36; Boshu (not of Vahl). 
Lophiomus setigerus Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXIII, 1900, 
p. 380; Tokyo. 

Head of the type specimen, measured to gill opening, 2 in length to 
base of caudal; its width equal to its length; snout, 6f in head; eye, 2^ 
in snout; length of maxillary, 5 in head; space between maxillaries, 
2i in maxillary; interorbital space, 8 in length of bod}'^; snout to tip 
of humeral spine, 2i; distance between tips of opposing humeral 
spines, 2f ; D. IV-11 9; A. 8; C. 8; P. 23; V. 5; width of body close 
to gill opening, 5i, being a little more than its depth; length of tail, 3; 
depth of caudal peduncle, 2 in snout; base of dorsal fin, 3; its height, 
6|; base of anal fin, 4^, height, 4|; caudal fin, 4; pectoral fin, 4^; 
ventral tin, 6i. 

First dorsal spine lower than the second, its height being equal to 
snout, with rather stout, simple tentacle. Second dorsal spine thinly 



NO. 1261. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 



365 



concealed in a scantilj^ filamentous membrane, with a small tentacle 
on tip, its height 5 in length. Third .spine 5i, standing one-fourth of 
length behind snout, proximally embedded, slender, and tapered into 
a hairy point. Fourth, fifth, and sixth spines of same structure as 
the third, frail, followhig closely together behind the third; the height 
of the fourth the same as that of the first, the remaining two some- 
what shorter. Soft dorsal fin beginning a little in advance of vent, 
its membrane extending to end; tips of vays curled back; anterior rays 
shorter, especially the first; fifth ray highest, its tip, held down, 
reaches to the posterior base of the fin, where the tips of the remain- 
ing rays also terminate. Anal fin begins a little behind vent, its 
membrane extending to the end as in the dorsal; fifth or longest ray 




extending beyond the posterior base of the fin. Filaments around 
mouth and on body not so numerous as in Z. setigerus, those on bod}'' 
not forming a row. Spine on head rather high. Humeral spines 
simple, stout, pointing more upward than backward. Peritoneum 
uncolored, pale; teeth arranged as in L. setigerus. IVIouth unmarked, 
pale within, and without spots. 

Color of the tvpe specimen pale brownish orange, with brown streaks 
and numerous small, light dots reticulating all over dorsal surface; roots 
of posterior dor.sal spines and ends of fins blackish brown, as are also the 
iilaments on bod3\ Belly whitish, without markings except the inner 
^-ide of ventral fin, which is dark brown; lower side of body brown, 
unmarked; inside of mouth without markings. 

Coasts of middle Japan, as common as the preceding, but ranging 



366 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



farther north. Our specimens are from Tokj'O, Wakanoura, Totomi 
Bay and Matsushima Bay, the last two dredged b}^ the U. S. Fish 
Commission steamer Albatross. 

This description is from a specimen obtained in Tokyo. All other 
specimens have a blackish gray color, especially that from Matsu- 
shima, with the ends of fins and filaments black or blackish. 

The chief difi'erences between L. litithm and L. setigerus are the fol- 
lowing-: In L. Utidon. the first dorsal spine is not longer than the 
second, the ventral fin is colored, the inside of the mouth is unmarked, 
the membranes in the dorsal and anal fins extend to the tips of the 
rays, the peritoneum is uncolored, the head is generalh" less than 2 in 
length, but never more, as is invariably the case in L. setigeyms, and 
the pectoral fins are slenderer. 

This species, with the preceding, is known as Anko; in some localities 
the male is called Klanko., or true Anko., the female Mizxiko (water 
creature). 

Q^iroz., plain-colored; ovkov^ gums; the species lacking the peculiar 
mouth markings of L. setigerus.) 



Measurements of LopMomus litulon. 



Locality. 

Length in millimeters 

Number of dorsal rays 

Number of caudal rays 

Number of-anal rays 

Number of pectoral rays 

Number of ventral ray's 

Head in hundredths of length 

Width of head 

Width of body close to gill opening 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of tail 

Snout 

Length of maxillary 

Space between maxillaries 

Diameter of eye (transversely) 

Interorbital space ". 

Snout to the tip of humeral spine 

Distance between tips of humeral spine . 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Height of first dorsal spine 

Snout to second dorsal spine 

Height of second <l<irsal spine 

Snout to third dorsal spine 

Height of third dorsal spine 

Snout to fourth dorsal spine 

Height of fourtli dorsal spine 

Snout to root of dorsal fin 

Length of Ijase of dorsal tin 

Height of dorsal ray 

Length of caudal fln 

Base of anal tin 

Height of anal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 

Ventral fin to vent 

Vent to anal fin 



Tokyo. 

192 

II-IV-9 

S 

8 
23 

5 
51 
51 
19 

5 
35 
15 
20 

8 

6. I 
13 
39 
35 

b\ 
15 

9 
20 
26 
19 
37i 
15 
62 
32 
18 
25 
27 
21i 
2U 
16 
43 

4 



Matsushima. 
266 
lI-IV-10 

8 

8 
23 

5 
49 
51 
17 

5 
38 
15 
20 

Ih 

13 
40 
33 

5 
19 

8i 
22i 
24 
14 
35 
14 
60 



Wakanoura. 
97 86 

II-IV-9 II-IV-9 



23 

6 
45 
54 
18 

5 
34 
15 
21 

7i 

8 

131 
39i 
32 

5 
12 

8i 
19 
25 
14 
38 
13 
60 
31 
23 
27 



NO. 1261. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 367 

Family II. ANTENNARIID.E. 

FROG-FISHES. 

Head and body more or less compressed. Mouth vertical or very 
oblique, opening- upward; lower jaw projecting; jaws with cardiform 
teeth; premaxillaries protractile. Gill openings small, pore-like, in 
or behind the lower axils of the pectorals. No pseudobranchia?. Gills 
2i or 3; skin naked, smooth, or prickly. Pectoral members forming 
an elbow-like angle. Pseudol^rachia long, with 3 actinosts. Ventral 
fins present, jugular, near together. Spinous dorsal of 1 to 3 serrated, 
tentacle-like spines; soft dorsal long, larger than anal. Pyloric cteca 
none. Inhabitants of tropical seas, often living on floating seaweed, 
and enabled, by filling the capacious stomach with air, to sustain them- 
selves on the surface of the water, therefore wideh' dispersed by 
currents in the sea. 

■a. Head compressed; a rostral spine or tentacle, followed by two larger spines; jiala- 
tiue teeth developed; dorsal spines disconnected. 

b. Skin naked and smooth ; ventral lins elongate Pterophryne 2 

hh. Skin covered with prickles; ventral fins short Antennar'ms, 3 

au. Head cuboid; a single rostral spine or tentacle, received in a 

groove; soft dorsal low Chaunax, 4 

2. PTEROPHRYNE Gill. 

IHerophryne Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, p. 90 {histrio). 
Pteruphrynoides Gill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., I, 1878, p. 216 {histrio). Name a 

substitute for Pterophryne, if regarded as preoccupied by an earlier name 

PteropJtrynus. 

Body short, somewhat compressed, with tumid alidomen, and cov- 
ered by smooth or slightly granular skin; mouth small, oblique; 
palate with teeth; wrist slender; ventrals elongate; color light brown, 
much varied, with silvery dark markings. Small fishes of fantastic 
-forms, widely distributed, living in floating seaweed. The species are 
very much alike and subject to much variation, and therefore not well 
defined or understood. 

(TtTepov, wing; ^pvvt/, toad.) 

a. Body with very few round, small white spots or none; belly with faint blackish 
spots; sides with numerous filaments liistrio, 3 

<aa. Body with very many round white spots of different sizes; belly without dark 
spots; sides with few filaments; dark markings sharper and broader than in 
P. histrio ran i)ia, 4 



368 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NA TIONAL MUSEUM. 



3. PTEROPHRYNE HISTRIO (Linnaeus). 

Lophius histrio Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1758, p. 327; China, after Lophius 
pinnis dorsrtlibus tribus of Lagerstrom; may be any Histrio of Asiatic waters. 

f Lophius histrio var. marmoratus Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 1801, p. 142; after a 
figure of Klein, locality unknown, called Batrachus mollis Klein, Missus 
III, 1742, p. 16, pi. XIV, fig. 4, white spots very few; may be any Pterophryne. 

Chironectes marmoratus Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, 1846, p. 159, pi. lxxxi, fig. 
1; Nagasaki. 

Antennarius marmoratus of most recent authors. 

Head measured to gill opening 2 in length, depth If; width 5; 
length of tail 3; caudal peduncle 6f ; length of maxillary 5; snout 2i 
in maxillai'}^; eye 2 in snout; snout to end of actinosts If in length; 




Fig. 2. — Pterophryne histrio. 



height of dorsal, anal, and caudal rays each 3 in length of body; base 
of dorsal tin If. Pectoral and ventral fin each 4 in length. D. III-12; 
A. 7; C. 8; P. 10; V. 5. Height and position of dorsal spines essen- 
tially as in J^. ranlni/s^ except that the tentacle on first spine is smaller; 
mouth oblique; skin not very loose; filaments numerous, rather stout, 
high, those on jaw and belly specially so; dorsal, pectoral and ventral 
fins with very small filaments — anal, and caudal fins free from them. 
Color pale yellowish, with grayish tinge, marbled with blackish 
streaks punctuated by a few dots of the ground color; belly with faint 
blackish dots, filaments on belly immaculate; streaks on fins forming 
irregular bands; four cross bands on caudal very distinct, with sharp 
edges; marking around head on same general plan as that of 1\ ranl/ia, 



NO. 1261. JAPANESE PEDWULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 



369 



but with the light streaks wider; sides of body with few filaments and 
no well-defined round white spots. 

The cliief points of difference between this species and the next are 
the following: I^o'ojjhryne histrlo has \e.Y\ few pale spots or dots on 
bod}'; the filaments are more numerous and stouter, the four dark 
bands on the caudal more sharply defined, the belly with a few dark 
spots. 

Coasts of Japan, in the open sea or current of the Kuro Shiwo, not 
rare. Our two specimens are from Kisaki and Enoshiiiia. 

The s3'nonjmy of this species is extremely dou])tful. Probably 
most of the descriptions published under the names of marmoratns and 
Jiixtrh) belong to it. The American species, called Pteropltrune histrlo 
l)y Jordan and Evermann, if distinct, should probabh' stand as Ptero- 
jjhryne tumida (Osbeck). This species was based on specimens from the 
Sargasso Sea, while the original type of Loj)hius Idstrio was Chinese. 

{Histrlo^ a harlequin'). 



Measurements of Pleroplirynv histrlo. 



Locality. 

Length in millimeters 


Misaki. 

D. in, 12; 

A. 7; C. 8; 

P. 10; V.5. 
50 
20 
56 
33 
15 
12 
9 
4 
10 
20 
5 
5 
13 
17 
18 
44 
32 
56 
32 
32 
GO 
24 
25 
40 


Fin ravs 


Head in hundredth.^ of length 


Width of head 


Depth of head 


Length of tail 


Depth of caudal peduncle 


Width of body above vent 


Snout 


Eve 


Width of interorbital region 

Length of maxillarv 


Snout to first dorsal spine 


Height of first dorsal s[)ine 


Height of sei'oud dorsal spine 


Snout to third dorsal spine 


Height of third dorsal spine 


Snout to root of dorsal fin 

Height of dorsal ravs 


Length of dorsal fin 

Length of caudal fin 

Height of anal fin 


Snout to end of actinost 


Length of pectoral tin 

Length of ventral ravs 


Snout to root of ventral rays 





4. PTEROPHRYNE RANINA ( Tilesius) . 

Lophhi s ranbius TiLESii», Mem. Natur. Mosc, XI, pi. xvi, 1809; Japan. 
Antennarius nitidus Bennett, Zool. Journ., Ill, p. 375, pi. ix, fig. 2. 
Antennarms mnrmoralus var. raniniis, Gunther, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 187; 
China, Pinang. — Ishik.\w.a, Pre!. Cat., 1897, p. 36; Tokio, Sagami. 

Head measured to gill opening in axil, If in length, its depth slightly 
exceeding its length, width 6 in its depth; length of tail, 2f ; snout, 5^ 
in depth of head; eye, 2^ in snout; length of maxillary, 4. D. III. 12; 
A. 7; P. *J; V. .5. Snout to end of wrist. If; height of dorsal rays, 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxi\ — 01 24 



370 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



2^; its base, 4; length of caudal fin, 2^; that of pectoral fin, 3|; ventral 
rays, 3|. 

First dorsal spine placed an eye's length ))ehind tip of snout, slender, 
one-half in height of the second or equal to diameter of eye, with 
short, uncolored bifid tentacle; second dorsal spine situated just pos- 
terior to the first, straight filamentous, curved, imbedded posteriori}^ 
in a fold of skin extending from the back. Posterior rays of dorsal 
and anal fins extending one-fourth way into caudal fin. Wrist a little 
shorter than pectoral fin, with gill opening at its middle. Tip of pec- 
toral fin reaches back to the middle of caudal peduncle. ^ Ventral fins 




Fig. 3. — Pterophryne ranina. 



slender, thQ tip reaching anteriorly to the vertical line from front of 
eye. Mouth oblique. Body finely granular, the skin very loose. 

Color of body pale, yellowish gray, marbled with blackish In'own; 
belly uncolored; many small sharply -defined white spots all over body 
except on caudal fin. Filaments on head and belly rather few, those 
on belly rising from center of white spots. A narrow, white-margined 
gra}^ streak radiating posteriorily from eye and dilating l)ehind; a 
wide, irregular, unmargined streak upward, meeting with the opposite 
one at posterior base of second dorsal spine; another wide streak of 
siuiilar nature ventrally dilating and ending at the angle of mouth. 
Two large, pale, white-margined gray spots on side of body, each 
with a white filament in its center; ventral fins irregularly barred; 



NO. i2.;i. JAPANESE PEDICVLA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 



371 



the an tero- ventral side of pectoral fins light, except a brown bar run- 
ning obliquely across each; postero-dorsal side thickl}- marbled, tips 
of raj's pale yellow; caudal fin somewhat more regularly barred than 
others. 

Coasts of Japan: less common than the preceding; here described 
from a specimen 4i inches long from Wakanoura. 

This species is apparently distinct from the preceding, and both are 
probably different from the American species, Pterophryne tumida and 
P. (/lhh((. A fourth species, very close to the Ptfvopli ryne ranina simi- 
larly spotted with white, but differing in other markings, is found 
in the Philippines. This form may be the original nim'moratux of 
Klein and Schneider, or it may be that all these various patterns of 
coloration maj' be mere varieties of P. Justrio and that but a single 
species of Pterophryiie exists. 

The synonymy of this species, like that of the preceding, is very 
doubtful, the names adopted for both being tentative only. 

{Ranina^ like a frog.) 



Measurements of Pterophryne ranina. 



Locality. 

Length in millimeters j 

Fin ravs D 



Head measured to gill opening in hiindredth.sof length 

Width of head 

Depth of head 

Length of tail 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Width of body above vent 

Snout 

Eve 



Width of head at orbital region . 

Length of maxillary 

Snout to first dorsal spine 

Height of first dorsal spine 

Height of second dorsal spine.. 

Snout to third dorsal spine 

Height of third dorsal spine 

Snout to root of dorsal fin 

Height of dorsal rays 

Length of dorsal fin 

Length of caudal fin 

Height of anal fin 

Snout to end of actinosts 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral rays 

Snout to root of ventral rays 



akanoura. 
84 
III, 13; 

A.(;;C.8; 

P. 9; V. 5 
56 
29 
60 
36 
17 
11 
11 
5 
12 
25 
6 
5 
12 
21 
20 
45 
37 
58 
37 
35 
63 
27 
29 
42 



8. ANTENNARIUS Lacepede. 



Atifennarius Com.mersox in Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, 1798, p. 323. Foot- 
note only; not accepted by Lacepede. 

1 Hi stria Fischer, Zoognosia, 3d ed., 1, 1813, p. 78. Definition incorrect; through 
a slip of the pen, " caput depressuin " written instead of " caput compres- 
sum." No type mentioned. Fischer's Lophius histrio (Bloch, IV, p. 10, pi. 
cxi) is partly a true Antennarius according to Dr. Gill, probably A. scaber. 

LesCldronectes {Antennarius Commerson) Cuvier, Regne Animal, Ist ed., I, 1817, 
jj. 310; 2d ed., II, 1829, p. 251. Chironectes preoccupied in mammals by 
Chironedes lUiger, 1811. 



372 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

Body oblong, compressed, very deep through the occipital region, 
tapering l^ehind; breast tumid; mouth rather large, more or less oblique, 
or even vertical; cardiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines; eye 
small; skin with small granules or spinules, these usually forked, and 
often with numerous iieshy slips. First dorsal spine developed as a 
small rostral tentacle; second and third dorsal spines strong, covered 
with skin, often with numerous fleshy filaments; soft dorsal high and 
long; anal short and deep; caudal fin rounded, the peduncle free; pec- 
toral fins wide, with a rather wide wrist, at the lower posterior angle 
of which are the very small gill openings; ventral fins short. Fantastic 
looking fishes, often gayly colored; very numerous in warm seas, 

{Antenna, a feeler or tentacle,) 

a. Color brown, with blackish streaks and markings, and without red spots; first 
dorsal spine trifid. 
b. Dorsal fin without large black ocellus at its base just behind its middle; stripes 
on body rather broad and more or less irregular, without the definite arrange- 
ment seen in the next species trideiis, 5. 

bb. Dorsal fin with a single large black ocellus at its base just behind the middle; 

lines on body narrow, forming a regular complicated pattern. scnp^immw-s, 6. 

aa. Color pinkish with a few blood-red spots, besides red streaks and markings; first 

dorsal spine trifid sangnifluus, 7. 

aaa. Color black, with small white specks, and larger jet-black blotches; first dorsal 
spine simple nox, 8, 

5. ANTENNARIUS TRIDENS (Schlegel). 

IZARI-UWO (CRAWLING FISH). 

Chironectes trklens Schlegel, Fauna Japon., 1846, p. 159, \A. lxxxi, figs. 2, 3, 
5; Nagasaki. — Bleeker, Verb, Bat. Gen. Japan, XXV, p. 47; Nagasaki. 

Antennarhis tridens GtJNTHER, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 191; China. — Nystrom, 
Kong. Svensk. Vet. Ak., 1887, p. 37; Nagasaki.— Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, 
p. 36; Tokyo, Kagoshima, Ogosahara, Bonin Islands. — Jordan and Snyder, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1900, p. 380; Yokohama. 

Head If to 2 in body, 2i in total length. Depth 2i (2i to 2f) in 
body. Snout 5^ in head, 2i in cleft of mouth, which is almost vertical. 
Eye li in snout. 

D, III, 12; A. 7; P, 11; V, 5; C, 9. First dorsal spine 1 in head, 
with trifid tentacle of variable length, the two outer flaps are longer 
and stouter than the middle one, usually as long as the spine or even 
longer. Second spine shorter than the first b^' one-third to one-fourth 
of its height, slightly curved, its filamentous tip, when laid down, 
reaching the same point as that of the first. Third spine rising proxi- 
mal to this point, which is opposite to the posterior edge of the max- 
illary; height of the spine 2i to 2| in depth of body, 3i in head; a 
dermal fold extends posteriorly to the base of soft dorsal. Soft dor- 
sal beginning opposite to the anterior margin of the pectoral fin, its 
height about equal to the anal, its length 1| in head; its last ray does 



NO. 1261. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 373 

not extend to caudal fin; length of anal 4^ in head, the last ray usually 
extends to or beyond the root of caudal fin; length of caudal fin some- 
what greater than the height of the dorsal, being 2i-2^ of caudal 
peduncle, 2i in head. Pectoral fins short, about 1^ in caudal; 4^ in 
head; bent backward, the tips do not quite reach to vent. The 
majority of Nagasaki specimens have longer pectoral fins, their tips 
reaching to vent. Ventral fins very short, about 2 in the pectoral. 

Body covered with bifid spinules. Stubble-like mucous tubes with 
clusters of spinules around them running in a row along supraorbital 
edge and extending along edge of cheeks or scattered over head, 
especiallv on lower jaw; filaments rather numerous over head and 
body, conspicuous on jaw and around mouth; some specimens have 
scarcel}" any on body. 

Ground color pale bluish gray, marked with black elongate spots or 
detached bars of various forms, those on body usually running diago- 
nally transverse, those on abdominal region almost laterally; fins more 
or less regularly barred Avith rows of dots, those of the caudal being 
more regular; the dorsal fin, or its base, often marked with two or 
more large, difi^use, semiocellated spots, similar spots sometimes present 
on side of body also; usually seven black streaks radiating from eye 
in equal distance to each other; rest of head and body covered with 
numerous black spots, most conspicuous around ventral fins; first 
dorsal spine checked with six or more black bars. 

Coast of Japan, in shallow, mudd}- bays, almost everywhere very 
common, the colors variable, but always dull. 

Yellow specimens, similar to the yellow variety figured by Schlegel 
and referred by him to A trldeiis^ were taken at Nagasaki. These 
have been mislaid and can not be compared by us with the typical 
form. The yellow form is probably not a distinct species. 

Our many specimens are from Nagasaki, Wakanoura, Kobe, Eno- 
shima. Uraga, Misaki, and Tokyo. 

{T/'fdcn.^, three-toothed.) 

6. ANTENNARIUS SCRIPTISSIMUS Jordan, new species. 

Head to gill opening about i the length; a little less than depth of 
body. Lateral line ceasing under soft dorsal composed of 1-i large 
pores; skin everywhere veiy rough. D. III-12; A. 8; pores of lateral 
line 1-t. First dorsal spine slender; its length scarcely more than two 
times diameter of ej-e; third dorsal spine ver}' stout, rough. 

Color yellowish gray: everywhere covered with narrow straightish, 
parallel, dark brown lines running in difi^erent directions on difterent 
parts of the l)ody; some radiate from eye; some extend from eye hori- 
zontally to above pectoral; those below eye extending downward and 
backward to pectoral, ventral, and throat; stripes behind pectoral radi- 
ating from axil: those nearest gill opening curving around it; streaks 



374 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



above level of gill openino- nearly vertical, below nearly horizontal; 
the former at right angles to those running backward from eye; streaks 
on back above lateral line nearly vertical and extending upward across 
third dorsal spine and soft dorsal fin; anal, caudal, and pectoral with 
oblique, wavy, dark cross streaks. A single ocellus present, large, 
dark brown, with a pale edge, on base of soft dorsal, behind its middle. 




Fig. 4. — ANTENNARIUS SCRTPTISSIMl'S. 

The type, a stuffed specimen in good condition, 10 inches long, is in 
the Imperial Museum at Tok^^o. It was taken at Boshu, province of 
Awa, at the entrance of Tokyo Bay. 

The accompanying illustration is from a cop}' of a rough sketch of 
the type. It was designed only to show the markings. It is not cor- 
rect as to details of form. 

{Scriptissiniuft^ much written over.) 

7. ANTENNARIUS SANGUIFLUUS Jordan, new species. 

Head, measured to gill opening at the base of pectoral tin, 2 in 
body, 2f in total length. Depth If in body, 2| in total length: trunk 
equal to tail; D. Ill— 12; A. 7; C. 9; P. 10; V. 5. Caudal fin 1\ in 
tail, 2| in caudal peduncle. First dorsal spine slender, high as the 
length of snout, placed above nostrils, with a stout, knob-like tentacle; 
second spine free, rough, curved backward, half the eye's length 
higher than the first; third spine embedded, very stout, curved 
strongly backward, 3 in depth. If of the second. Snout 5^ in head. 
Eye li in snout. Length of base of dorsal fin equal to depth of body. 
Pectorals reaching to vent. Spines bifid; integument firm. General 
features essentially as in Antennarlus nox, except as to color. 

Color in life, as in spirits, pinkish; a blood-red spot with lighter 
center on each side of body, above gill opening, on the level of angle 
of mouth; one red spot at anterior base of dorsal fin; a red streak 
along the antero-dorsal edge of wrist; last rays of dorsal and anal fins 
and tip of caudal fin also red; minute red spots on dorsal fin; a large 



NO. 1261. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 



375 



brown .spot at middle of the base of dorsal fin; first ray of dorsal fin 
and upper part of caudal fin brown; brown streaks radiating from eye; 
numerous minute brown spots in form of rings or streaks on side of 
bod}', especially at the root of pectoral fins; spinules uncolored. 




Fig. 5.— ANTENNARirS SANGUIFLUrS. 



Two specimens are known, both from Misaki, the one collected by 
Dr. Jordan, the other by Dr. Mitsulvuri. 
{Sa?i(/uf-s\ blood; Jluw<, flowing.) 



8. ANTENNARIUS NOX Jordan, new species. 

Head If in body, or 2f in total length. Depth equal to head; height 
of the dor.sal fin equal to the length of the caudal. D. III-12; A. 7; 
P. 11; V. 5; C. 9. Caudal peduncle 2 in caudal fin; .snout (! in head, 
2i in cleft of mouth, which is nearh^ vertical; eye less than 2 in snout. 
First dor.sal spine 2 in caudal fin, or 3i in head, the stout tentacle 
usually quadrifid, but sometimes trifid, as in A. tridois; second spine 
stout, slightly lower than the first, perceptibly curved, devoid of fila- 
ments, with a thin, free membrane posteriorly; it stands f the length 
of e3'e behind the base of the first. Third dor.sal spine 1^ in caudal fin, 
2i in depth; curved considerably backward; dermal fold extending 
from the top to the base of first soft dorsal ray, whence the tip of 
.spine also reaches. Dorsal fin a little longer than head; the third ray 
from last extending ^;o the caudal fin; anal slightly lower than dorsal, 
length 1^ in caudal peduncle, 2^ in head; the tip extending well }>eyond 
base of caudal. Pectoral fin 2i it.s width. 3 in head; laid against body 



376 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. XXIV. 



its tip reaches to vent; A'cntral lin ;"> in head, placed directly beneath 
eye. 

Body covered with forked spinules; .skin lirmer and tighter than that 
of A. tride'Ds. Color black or dusky brown, with two (or three) large 
and several small jet-black spots on each side of body and dorsal tin; 
black streaks radiating from eye; a white blotch at the posterior base of 
second dorsal spine; minute white spots scattered on dor.sal tin; each 
caudal ray with a white spot a little below middle, forming a transverse 
row on the tin. Some specimens are almost perfectly black, hardly 




Antknnarhs nox. 



any marks being distinguishable. Belly and tip of pectoral, ventral, 
and anal tins dull dark gray; very short filaments from the tops of 
small white protuberances sparsely scattered over body ; arrangement 
of mucous tubes similar to that of A. fridens. 

This species differ from ^I. trldens in color, length of fins, especially 
that of dorsal and anal fins, and in having firmer and tighter integu- 
ment; second and third dorsal spines and soft dorsal without filaments. 

Our specimens, 6 in number, are from Wakanoura and Nagasaki. 

(iV^Ar, night). 

4. CHAUNAX Lo^Are. 

Chauna.r IjOwk, Trans. Zool. 8oe. Loud., Ill, 1846, \). 339 (pictus). 

Head verv large, depressed, cuboid. Mouth large, subvertical; jaws 
and palate with bands of small teeth. Skin with small, sharp spines. 
Spinous dorsal reduced to a small tentacle above the snout, retractile into 
a groove; soft dorsal moderate, low; anal short; ventrals small. Gills 
2i; no pseudobranchia\ Mucif erous channels very conspicuous, the lat- 
eral line prominent, undidate; anothei' seines of mucous tubes extending 



NO. 12G1. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 377 

from lower jaw to axil; still another extending- backward from snout 
and maxillary to a point behind eye, when it ceases, uniting with a 
vertical line which extends from the lateral line to the lower line; these 
lines thus inclose a quadrate area on the cheek. Grill opening small, 
well ]>(>hind pectoral under front of soft dorsal. Deep seas. 
[XocvvaB^ one who gapes). 

g. CHAUNAX FIMBRIATUS Hilgendorf. 

ChauncLv fimhriatus Hilgendorf, Gesellsch. Xaturf. Freunde, 1879, p. 80; off Tokyo. 
Chaunax pictus Ishikawa, Prel. Cat., 1897, p. 37; Japan (not of Lowe). 

Head measured to the anterior edge of gill opening. 1^ in length, 
excluding caudal tin; 2 in total length; depth 2f in body; Si in total 
leng-th; snout 6^ in head; eye 2 in snout. Head wider than deep. 
Rostral spine short, nearly equal to eye. Gill opening below lifth or 
sixth soft rays of dorsal. 

D. I-I-I-il; A. 6; C. S; P. 14; V. 4. Mouth vertical, the end of 
maxillary not hidden. Length of maxillary 3| in head. Posterior 
part of spinous dorsal of one spine hidden in a fold of skin. Mucous 
channel chain-like; extending from tip of snout above eye to a point 
])ehind eye along supraorbital edge, then downward, connecting with 
lateral line which is a))ruptly ))ent above anal fin; branch extending 
})ackwai'd from middle oi maxillary below eye; a similar groove from 
lower jaw backward to upper base of pectoral tin. Series of pores 
below eye connected by a vertical series of pores to base of lateral 
line; these pores on cheek surrounding a quadrangular patch of skin. 
Spinules simple, rather high. 

Color, in spirits, uniform pale pinkish yellow; the largest specimens 
dirty gi"ay- Skin semitransparent on belly; very loose. 

Coast of Japan, in rather deep water, here described from a speci- 
men lo inches long, from Sagami Bay. Many smaller specimens were 
dredged in Suruga Bay by the United States Fish Commission steamer 
Alhatros)^, and two m(.)re in Sagami Ba}'. 

{Fhrnhriatus^ fringed). 

Family III. OGCOCEPHALID^. 

THE BAT FISHES. 

Head very broad and depressed, the snout more or less elevated, 
the trunk short and slender. Mouth not large, subterminal or infe- 
rior, the lower jaw included; teeth villiform or cardiform. Gill 
openings ver^^ small, above and behind the axils of the pectoral fins. 
Body and head covered with bony tu))ercles or spines. Spinous 
dorsal reduced to a small rostral tentacle which is retractile into a 
cavity under a prominent process in the forehead; in one genus the 
rostral tentacle is obsolete; soft tin well developed, its base strongly 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

anofled, with long- pseudobrachia and 3 actinosts; branchiostegals, 5; 
no pseudobranchia?. 

a. Ogcocephalhuv: Disk with frontal region elevated and the snout more or less 
produced forward, the tail stout; orbit lateral; teeth on vomer and palatines; 
rostral tentacle present. 

b. Gills 2; disk broad Malthopm, 5 

aa. Halieutseinx: Disk with frontal region depressed, not elevated aljove the rest 
of body; eyes partly superior; snout rounded, obtuse in front; tail slender, 
c. Dorsal fin present; vomer and palatines toothless; disk subcircular; gills 2J; 
mouth rather large, subvertical; prickles rather strong Halieutxa, 6 

5. MALTHOPSIS Aleock. 
Maltliopsisi X1.COCK, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891, j). 26 (hUeus). 

Disk triang-ular, usually wider than long, when expanded about as 
long a.s rest of body (including caudal lin); middle line of head ele- 
vated, the forehead more or less projecting beyond mouth; rostral 
tentacle present, its cavity about as wide as high; mouth small; minute 
teeth on vomer and palatines. Gills, 2. 

Small fishes of the sea bottoms of Asia; differing from the New 
World genus Ogcocephalus {2falthe), chiefly in the reduced gills, 

{fxaXdr]^ Malthe, a synonym of Ogcocephalus; otpig, appearance.) 

10. MALTHOPSIS TIARELLA Jordan, new species. 

Head triangular, measured to gill opening, a little more than one-half 
of length exclusive of caudal fin, the elevated snout at the apex; a 
stout, protruding supraoral spine on the tip of snout, the height of 
which from eye is 7\ in length; base of triangle of disk rather longer 
than the sides; the length of the latter equal to that of head. Eyes 
large, lateral, their diameter nearly equal to the height of supraoral 
spine. Snout short, a])out two-thirds of eye; mouth smaller than eye; 
a groove above mouth containing a small rostral tentacle; the cavity 
higher than wide; interorbital space one-half of the height of supra- 
orbital spine ; width of trunk at axil tJf in length. Length of tail 2h : dis- 
tance between vent to anal fin slightly more than two in tail; D, 7; A, 3; 
P. 10 (?); C, 6; tip of anal rays extending to root of caudal fin; root 
of caudal fin to anterior base of dorsal fin 3 in length; length of 
caudal fin 3i in length; ventral fin slender; pectoral fin i in length; 
depth of caudal peduncle equal to height of cavity above snout. 

Cranial region elevated in front, depressed posteriorly; trunk slen- 
der, somewhat deeper than wide, tapering toward caudal fin; spines on 
supraorbital and occipital region rather prominent, forming two rows, 
leaving a clear space along median line of head. Three rows of spines 
on edge of head, the middle row terminating in lower jaw, the upper 
row dilating under eye and continued to the end of maxillary. Pos- 
terior angle of head ending in a shaip triangular protuberance with 
four spinules on tip. Body and wrists covered with bony })lates in 



NO. 12C1. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDA N AND SINDO. 



379 



irregular rows, each with a prominence in center, surmounted by a 
posteriorly-pointed spine. Gills, 2, 

Color, gra}", with a brownish patch with small dark dots around 
region of axil; suborbital region reticulated with brown streaks; a 
dark band crossing near end of caudal and pectoral fins and base of 
caudal fin; anal fin dark; heWy dusky. Skin on dorsal side of abdominal 
region and ventral side of head, thin and rather loose. 



«<?*■ 




Fig. 7. — Malthopsis tiarella. 

Coast of Japan, in rather deep water; described from a specimen li 
inches long from Suruga Ba^. near Numazu, dredged by the United 
States Fish Commission steamer Alhatross. This specimen is in the 
United States National Museum. No. 49801, U.S.N. M. 

(Name, a diminutive of tiara ^ a miter.) 

Measurements of Malthopsis tiarella. 



Rays, D. 7: A. 3: P. 10; C. 6. 

Length in millimeters 

Head in hundredths of length, measured to gill opening 

Supraoral .spine, from anterior edge of eye 

Diameter of eye 

Interorbital sjtace 

Width of mouth 

Height of groove 

Width of groove 

Snout to posterior angle of opercle 

Depth of head at vertical line over eye 

Snout to dorsal tin 

Snout to anal fin 

Width of body at axil 

Depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Snout to angle of wrist 

Length of ventral fin 

Length of tail 

Vent to anal fin 



880 PIIOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

6. HALIEUT^^A Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

Halieutsca Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hiat. Nat. Poiss., XII, 1837, p. 455 
{siellaUis). 

Head very large, broad, depressed, its outline nearly circular; cleft 
of mouth wide, horizontal; jaws with small cardiform teeth; no teeth 
on vomer or palatines. Skin everywhere covered with s<rnall, stellate 
spines. Forehead with a transverse bony ridge, beneath which i^ a 
tentacle, retractile into a cavity, the only rudiment of the spinous 
dorsal fin; soft dorsal and anal very short, far back. Gills 2i, the 
anterior gill arch without lamina?. Branchiostegals 5; vertebrae 17. 

{aXisvTtjg^ a tisher.) 

II. HALIEUTiEA STELLATA (Vahl). 
AKAGUTSU (RED SHOE). 

Lophius steUata Vahl, Skr. NaUirh. Kjobenh., IV, p. 214, pi. in, figs. 3, 4, 

1797; Japan. 
Halieutsea stellata CvviER and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., XII, p. 456, pi. 

cccLxvi; China. — Schlec4el, Fauna Japonica, 1846, p. 160, pi. lxxii; Nagasaki. — 

Bleeker, Amboyna et Ceram., p. 279. — Gunther, Cat. Fish., Ill, 1861, p. 203; 

China. — Nvstrom, Kong. Svensk. Ak., 1887, p. 37; Nagasaki. — Ishikawa, Prel. 

Cat., 1897, p. 36; Boshu, Tokyo, Ajiro, Izu. 
Lophius faujas Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., I, 1798, p. 318; museum of the Hague. 
Lojihius muricatus 8b AW, Gen. Zool., V, 1805, p. 382, pi. ci-xii (after Lacepede). 

Disk circular, with a groove posteriorly; wrists, with transversely 
projecting pectoral iins, forming angles at the beginning of the groove; 
diameter of disk three-fourths of length, exclusive of caudal tin; 
head measured to gill opening If in length; eye large, oblique, dorsal 
half covered by an extension of interorbital skin; mouth oblique, semi- 
inferior; gape 4 in length; a triangular cavity above mouth containing 
a stout tentacle, consisting of two equally divided lobes, with thin 
fleshy flaps at tip; height of cavit}' hardly less than its base, which is 
over 2 in eye; body tapering rapidly from axil toward caudal fin. 
Vent placed a little in advance to angle of wrist; distance from vent 
to root of caudal fin 2f in length. Vent to anal fin 2 in caudal fin; 
D. 5; A. 3; P. 12; V. 5; C. 8 or 9; length of caudal fin 3i in body; 
pectoral fin 3^; ventral fin 6i; cranial region raised; skin rather firm; 
dorsal surface covered with rather high, simple, straight spines, except 
the horny edge of disk and side of body, which are fringed with bony 
prominences, each terminating in three, four, or five spinules; inter- 
orbital space slightly depressed, free from spines; occipital region 
highest, covered with low spines, depressing gradually toward body; 
skin on belly and ventral side of head granular to touch, free from 
spines, except the bony edge of disk and mandible, which are covered 
with low l>lunt spines. 

Color uniformly light yellowish, with slight brownish tinge, doubt- 



Ko. 1261. JAPANESE PEDICULA TE FISHES— JORDAN AND SINDO. 881 



less crimson or orange in life; tips of fins brown, except dorsal fin, 
which is somewhat lighter than other fin.s; tentacle slightly darker 
than l)ody. 

Coast of Japan, not veiy common. We have one specimen 68 
millimeters long from Ajiro near Atami, presented b}" Dr. Ishikawa, 
from the Imperial Museum. 

{Stcllatas. Starr}'.) 

Measurements of Halieutvca Mellnia. 



Rays, D. 5; A. 3; P. 12: V. 5: C. 8 or 9. 

Length in millemeters 

Diameter of disli in hundredths of length 

Head, to gill opening 

Snout 

Eye 

Interorbital space 

Gape of mouth, from angle to angle 

Height of supraoral eavity 

Width of supraoral cavity 

Snout to dorsal fin 

Width of trunk at axil 

Depth of caudal peduncle . .,. 

Vent to root of caudal fin 

Vent to anal fin 

Length of caudal fin 

Length of pectoral fin 

Length of ventral fin 



SUMMARY. 

Family I. Lophiid.e. 
1. Lopliiomus ^^i\\. 

1. setigeruf: (Yahl); Wakanonra, Nagasaki. 

2. litulon Jordan; Tokyo, Wakanonra, Totomi Bay, Matsushima Bay. 

Family II. ANTENNARIIDiE. 

2. Pterophrijiie Gill. 

3. histrio (Linnpeus); Misaki, Enoshima. 

4. ranina (Tilesius); Wakanonra. 

3. Antennarinit Lacepede. 

5. tridens (Schlegel); Nagasaki, Wakanonra, KoVje, Enoshima, Uraga, Misaki, Tokyo. 

6. scriptim>nus Jordan; Boshn. 

7. sanguifluus Jordan; Misaki. 

8. jio.r Jordan; Wakanonra, Nagasaki. 

4. ('hauna.r Lowe. 

9. Jimbriatus Hilgendorf ; Sagami Bay, Snrnga Bay. 

Family III. Ogcocephalid.«. 
5. MaKhopsis Alcock. 

10. /mr^-Z/rt Jordan; Snrnga Bay. 

6. Ilalieat.ra Cnvier and Valenciennes! 

11. stellata (Vahl); Ajiro. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES. 



Bv William Schaus. 



The following- descriptions of new species of American butterflies 
were prepared from the author's collection which is now deposited in 
the United States National Museum. The species are from various 
localities, mostl}" in Brazil, although a few are from Mexico and the 
West Indies. In the Hesperiidte I have followed closeh" Godman's 
recent work, and I may have created a few synonyms, as both Plotz's 
and Herrich-Schaefi'er's descriptions are diificult to identify. I 
believe, however, that the species here described are all new to science. 

Family NYMPHALID^E. 

DIRCENNA HUGIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings hyaline, yellowish gray; the veins and margins 
brown, widest at end of veins; large hyaline 3'ellowish spots between 
the veins, along the outer margin and beyond the cells above vein 4; 
an opaque yellow streak on costal margin al)ove end of cell on pri- 
maries, and a broad, brown discocellular shade ; secondaries with 
less brown on discocellular and the outer margin somewhat broader. 
Underneath, primaries as above. Secondaries with the margin reddish 
brown; a blackish streak along upper portion of cell; linear white 
terminal spots shaded with black. 

Expanse. — Seventy millimeters. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Ti/pe.—'So. 5859, U.S.N.M. 

LEUCOTHYRIS MANORA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wrings hj-aline, blue white; the veins and margins 
Vjlackish. Primaries, the margins rather broad; the outer margin 
narrowest between veins 3 and 4; the apex inclosing a hyaline spot 
above vein 6; an oblique median spot from costa to veins 4 and 5; a 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. XXIV— No. 1262. 

383 



384 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

white spot on costa and a white streak on vein 6 beyond median spot. 
Secondaries, the outer margin broad, tapering to anal angle; some 
whitish shades between the veins on outer margins of l)oth wings. 
Underneath the markings are reddish l)rown, edged with black; some 
terminal white spots on primaries above vein 5 to apex. Secondaries, 
a marginal gray line interrupted by the veins, and dark streaks between 
the veins. 

Expa n se. — Fo r ty - s i x mill imeters . 

Habitat. — Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Type.—^o. 5860, U.S.N.M. 

EPISCADA PASCUA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body dark brown above, gray below. Wings h^^aline, 
the veins and margins very narrowly brown. Primaries, a narrow 
brown discocellular shade; a hyaline costal streak above end of cell. 
Underneath, the margins reddish brown; a terminal black line on outer 
margins; a small apical white spot on secondaries. 

Expanse. — Fort3^-six millimeters. 

TIahitat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

Ti/pe.—^o. 5861, U.S.N.M. 

EPISCADA CARCINIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings hyaline; veins and margins very narrowly dark 
brown, thickening on outer margin at end of veins. Primaries, a red- 
dish brown streak on basal half of costa; a discocellular dark brown 
shade tapering to a point at vein 4; the inner margin blackish brown 
below the submedian; a white costal spot beyond cell. Secondaries, 
the outer margin slightly wider than on primaries. Underneath, the 
margins light reddish brown; the costal margin of secondaries yellow- 
ish; some greenish scales at apex of secondaries. 

Expanse. — Forty-live millimeters. 

Ilahitai. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Type.—^o. 5862, U.S.N.M. 

PTERONYMIA MINNA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings transparent, the veins and margins narrowly 
blackish brown. Primaries, the discocellular iinely dark, followed by 
a yellow streak on costa, and a faint yellow shade from costa to vein 4; 
a marginal row of faint yellow spots; a reddish line above subcostal 
vein from base to end of cell. 

Secondaries, the cell and inner margin faintly tinged with yellow. 
Underneath, the costal and outer margins reddish brown. Primaries, 
the discocellular streak reddish brown; a graj^ish streak on costal edge 
of median space; secondaries, a blackish streak on anterior portion of 
cell; a white spot at apex; one on extreme margin between 2 and 3. 



NO. 1262. NE W AMERICAN B UTTERFLIES—SCHA US. 385 

and another between 3 and 4; these spots edged with dark brown; 
fringe brown. 

Expanse.- — Fifty-five millimeters. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Type.-l^o. 586;-}, U.S.N.M. 

PTEkONYMIA CALGIRIA, new species. 

DlagnoKls. — Wings hyaline yellowish; the veins and margins nar- 
rowly dark brown. Primaries, a dark discocellular shade slightly 
curved; a yellow semihyaline costal streak beyond cell; marginal semi- 
hyaline 3'ellowish spots; the cell shaded with yellow interrupted b}" a 
dark transverse shade at half its length. Secondaries shaded with yel- 
low; the margin widest before vein 3 and at apex. Underneath, the 
apex and outer margin of primaries shaded with reddish brown; three 
apical white spots. Secondaries, the margins black; a reddish costal 
streak; a wav}" reddish line in outer margin followed by linear white 
spots; two linear white spots on costal margin. The antennee black, 
tipped with orange. 

EirpanHe. — Fifty-seven millimeters. 

[[(ill tat. — Bolivia. 

Ti/pe.—^o. 5864, U.S.N.M. 

PTERONYMIA CARLIA, new species. 

Diagnosis^. — Wings, hyaline blue white; the veins and margins nar- 
rowl}' black; Primaries, a broad blackish discocellular shade, widest 
on costa: a reddish brown streak on basal half of costa; a white spot 
on costa beyond cell; a semih^'^aline white spot above inner angle 
Underneath, the margin and discocellular shade light reddish brown. 
Primaries, the inner margin blackish; the costa and apex irro rated 
with white hairs; a terminal black line on outer margin. Secondaries, 
a terminal dark line irrorated with white hairs, especially at apex. 

E.npaiixc. — Fort3"-six millimeters. 

Ilahltat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

Typc.—^o. 5865, U.S.N.M. 

PTERONYMIA ILSIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings hyaline. Primaries, costa on basal half nar- 
rowl}" black with a reddish brown streak; a broad brown median spot 
from costa narrowing slightly at veins 3 and 4, followed b}' a white 
band which becomes semihyaline toward outer margin above vein 4; 
apex broadly brown; outer margin brown, moderately broad; inner 
margin grayish brown below submedian. Secondaries, a fairly broad 
brown outer margin, widest at apex, tapering to anal angle. Under- 
neath, inner margin bark gray ; outer margin reddish brown from inner 

Proc. N. M. vol. xxiv— 01 25 



386 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

angle to vein 4; apex crossed by a reddish-brown band followed hy three 
siibapical whitish spots; median spot reddish brown edged with black- 
ish. Secondaries, the margins light reddish brown; a terminal dark 
line; a white spot at apex; some white scales above and below the spot. 

Expanse. — Forty-seven millimeters. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Type.—^o. 5S06, U.S.N.M. 

ITHOMIA SALCATA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Male. — Head black spotted with white. Collar reddish. 
Wings hyaline white, the veins and margins blackish brown. Pri- 
maries, the discocellular wide on eosta, tapering to a point at vein 4, 
slightly curved, and followed b}' some white scales on costa; the outer 
margin narrower. Secondaries, the outer margin fairly broad. 
Underneath, the margins and discocellular shade light reddish brown 
edged with black. Primaries, three apical white spots. Secondaries, 
the costa yellowish; the gland and upper part of cell black; some 
small white spots above vein 3 on outer margin. The female has the 
hyaline portion irrorated with grayish scales. 

Expanse. — Male, 42 millimeters; female, 48 millimeters. 

Hob itat. — Col om bia . 

Type.—^o. 5867, U.S.N.M. 

CALLOLERIA TOSCA, new species. 

D/ae/nosix. — Wings thinly scaled, semitransparent. Primaries, 
costal, innei" and outer margins narrowly black; between inner margin 
and submedian vein a reddish-brown shade from base to outer margin; 
the same on costal margin, from base to median black shade; cell irro- 
rated with carneous and yellow scales; a black spot near base; a broad 
black median shade oblique from costa to veins 3 and 4, indentated at 
end of cell, and followed by a broad pale yellow shade deepl}^ dentate 
between 4 and 5, incurved below 4, then oblique to outer margin 
above vein 2; this yellow space is followed b}" a paler black shade 
which reaches the outer margin from below vein 3 to above vein 4, 
inclosing a round yellowish marginal spot between veins 3 and 4; the 
apex yellow, preceded by a broad pale yellowish transverse band from 
costa to below vein 5. Secondaries reddish brown; a black subcostal 
streak; the outer margin black, the border forming inward curves 
between the veins on basal side; a blackish band from middle of inner 
margin to vein 5; the space between this band and outer margin 
tinged with yellow. Underneath brighter in tone; a marginal row of 
white spots. On secondaries the subcostal and median black lines 
meet between veins 5 and 6. 

Expanse. — 51 millimeters. 

Ilalntat. — Colombia. 

Type.— 1^0. 5868, U.S.N.M. 



1262. x^-EW AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES— SCHA US. 387 

EUPTYCHIA OCELLOIDES, new species. 

Diagnosis. — J/a^^'.— Wings brown; a darker terminal and marginal 
line. Primaries, a subapioal black spot containing some lilacine scales 
and circled with yellowish; a similar spot on secondaries subtermi- 
nalh' between veins 2 and 3; before the marginal line is another faint 
darker line somewhat wavy. Underneath gra^dsh brown; the mar- 
ginal lines more distinct. Primaries, the subapical spot as on upper 
surface. ])ut again circled with a line brown line; a faint oblique 
brownish outer line from costa to inner angle. Secondaries, a fine 
transverse brown line at one-third from base and another at two- 
thirds from base; a large apical ocellus containing two white points; 
the ocellus between veins 2 and 3 preceded and followed \>^ a smaller 
ocellus, the yellow circles coalescing and the three tinelv edged with 
dark brown; the space between marginal and terminal lines yellowish. 

Female. — Primaries similar to the male; secondaries with two ocelli 
near anal angle, both above and below. 

Expanse. — Male. 27 millimeters; female, 31 millimeters. 

Habitat.- — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

2ijpe.—^o. 5869, U.S.N.M. 

EUPTYCHIA CASTRENSIS, new species. 

DiagnosfS. — Female. — Wings brown with darker lines; a terminal 
and marginal line; a wavy dentate subterminal line; a straight outer 
line just bej^ond celli. Secondaries, the subterminal preceded b}^ a 
subapical black point; a small ocellus below vein 2 and a larger one 
above vein 2; the ocelli black with white points and tinel}^ circled 
w'th yellow. Underneath brownish fawn color, the lines darker and 
as on upper surface; also a fine inner line, slightly curved on prima- 
ries, fainth' wavy on secondaries. Primaries, an ocellus between veins 
5 and 6; a small annular 1)rown ring above vein 6, and three from veins 
2 to 5, contain ing a few yellowish scales. Secondaries, the space between 
outer and subterminal lines whitish with a large ocellus between veins 
5 and 6 and 2 and 3; a small ocellus below vein 2 and above vein 3, 
and a smaller geminate ocellus between veins -i and 5. 

The male is darker. The secondaries are without a subapical spot 
above. Underneath the primaries have only a single black subter- 
minal point between veins 5 and 6; on the secondaries there is a small 
ocellus above vein G, and the ocelli between veins 3 and 5 are reduced 
to lilacine flecks surmounted with brown. 

Allied to E. widina Butler. 

Expanse. — Thirtj'-two millimeters. 

Habitat, — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Ti/jje.—^o. 5870, U.S.N.M. 



388 " PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

EUPTYCHIA NARAPA, new species. \ 

Diagnosis. — Male. — Wings uniform brown; a dark terminal line. 
Underneath brown; a fine darker inner line; a straight outer line, dark 
brown, outwardly shaded with whitish; a lunular wav}' subterminal line; 
a straight marginal line; the terminal line blackish. Primaries, four 
blackish ocelli with white points and faintl}^ circled with yellow from 
veins 2 to 6. Secondaries, five ocelli as on primaries from veins 2 to 
7, those between 2 and 3 and 5 and 6 slightly larger. 

Expanse. — Thirty-one millimeters. 

Habitat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Ttjpe.—^o. 5871, U.S.N.M. 

EUPTYCHIA MONECA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Female. — Wings dark brown, with darker terminal, 
marginal and subterminal lines; the latter wavy. Primaries, a dark 
point at end of cell; a dark outer line angled below costa, then straigh^, 
to inner margin. Secondaries, the outer line incurved between 5 and 6 ' 
then wavy to inner margin; a faint inner line; an ocellus above vein 
2, a smaller one below it. Underneath light brown, irrorated with 
darker strife; tha lines as above; the space between marginal and ter- 
minal lines 3^ellowish. Primaries, a distinct inner line, nearly straight^ 
a small ocellus between veins 5 and 6. Secondaries, a wavy inner 
line; an ocellus between veins 2 and 3, and one between 5 and 6, wit 
two silver points; a smaller ocellus below vein 2 with a single silve 
point; a small geminate ocellus between 4 and 5; a minute ocelluc 
above vein 3 and above vein 6. 

Male. — The ocelli on secondaries above very small; those underneath 
also small, and not geminate between veins 4 and 5. 

Expanse. — Male, twenty-nine millimeters; female, thirty-three mi' 
limeters. 

Hahitat. — Castro, Parana; Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

7]/i?e.— No. 5872, U.S.N.M. 

EUPTYCHIA BURGIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Female. — Wings dark brown; an outer dark straigh 
line to near anal angle of secondaries; a wavy lunular subterminal line 
a fine marginal and terminal line. Underneath olivaceous brown; 
wavy dark brown inner line not reaching costa on primaries; a straight 
dark brown outer line, broadly shaded outwardly with lilacine gray; 
four minute ocelli on primaries between veins 2 to 6; five similar 
ocelli on secondaries between veirus 2 to 7; the subterminal, marginal, 
and terminal lines very fine; the fringe gray, spotted with blackish. 

ExiKvnse. — Fort}^ millimeters. 

Hahitat. — Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Type.—^o. 5873, U.S.N.M. 



N..1262. NEW AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES— SCHA US. 389 

EUPTYCHIA MORIMA, new species. 

D/'agnosi-s. — Wings dark brown, without marking-s; the apex of 
primaries somewhat truncated. Underneath brown. Primaries, a 
darker inner line, slightlj" curved: a wavy, indistinct outer line; five 
white points between veins 2 to Y; the outer margin irro rated with 
lilacine above vein 2; a faint wavy subterminal line. Secondaries, a 
wav}' inner line; the median space from vein 6 to inner margin, also the 
outer margin, irrorated with lilacine scales; a straight outer line; six 
faint white points before the subterminal, which is fine, wavy, dentate. 

Expanse. — Forty millimeters. 

IlaVitat. — -Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Tyjye.—^o. 5874, U.S.N.M. 

EUPTYCHIA PALLEMA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Male. — Wings light Ijrown, with darker wav}', subtermi- 
Aal, marginal, and terminal lines. Underneath lilacine brown; a broad 
inner and outer transverse ochreous brown band, edged with dark 
brown, the latter angled near anal angle of secondaries; a broad brown 
shade beyond, on which are the ocelli; a small subapical ocellus on 
primaries; five ocelli on secondaries; those between veins 2 and 3 and 
3 and 6 large, black, circled with yellow, and containing two silver}- 
points; the ocellus above vein 6 similar but smaller; the ocelli between 
ri:and 4 and -t and 5 consisting of two silvery streaks on a brownish 
spot circled with yellow; a fine wav}" subterminal line, divided by 
echreous brown scales near anal angle; the marginal and terminal lines 
fine. 

Expanse. — Forty-four millimeters. 

Ilahitat. —Peru. 
■ Type.—^o. 5875, U.S.N.M. 

EUPTYCHIA BORASTA, new species. 

Dfagnosis. — 31ale. — Wings brown, the lines darker; the subterminal 
nearh^ straight, parallel to margin; the marginal line similar; the ter- 
minal line finer; a large and a smaller black ocellus with silvery points, 
nd broadly circled with ochreous near anal angle of secondai'ies. 
.Jnderneath grayish brown, thinly irrorated with darker brown; the 
f nner and outer lines fine, dark brown, shaded with lighter brown 
toward median space, the former line slightly excurved, the latter 
faintly incurved on primaries, faintly wav\" on secondaries; the space 
between outer and subterminal lines whitish, divided by a broad brown- 
ish shade, becoming ochreous between vein 3 and inner margin on sec- 
ondaries, and on which are the ocelli; an almost imperceptible ocellus 
or. primaries between veins 5 and (3, on secondaries a black ocellus with 
silver point and circled with yellow between veins 5 and 6; a minute 
similar ocellus above vein 6; a black spot with a silver point above 



390 ■ PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

vein 2 and a similar spot below vein 2; these are on the ochreous por- 
tion of band and the yellow circle is obsolescent; the subterminal, 
marginal, and terminal lines as on upper side; fringe brown at base, 
outwardly grayish. 

Expanse. — Forty-five millimeters. 

Habitat.- — Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Tyiye.—l^o. 5876. U.S.N.M. 

LYMANOPODA VAROLA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings brown, faintly tinged with rufous. Underneath 
similar; some lilacine scales on outer margin, limited by a fine irregular 
reddish brown line. Primaries, a darker indistinct outer line; a 
marginal ocellus between veins 2 and 3, black containing a white point 
and circled with ochreous. Secondaries, an irregular reddish sub- 
terminal line followed between veins 2 and 3 by a small round yellow 
spot. 

Expanse. — Thirty -six millimeters. 

Ilal) itat. — Peru . 

Ti/pe.—^o. 5877, U.S.N.M. 

BR^ssoLiisr.;^:. 

NAROPE MARMORATA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings brown, the veins paler; also the basal and ante- 
rior portion of primaries to the dark violaceous brown apical portion 
which does not reach vein -i on the outer margin. Underneath, pri- 
maries fawn color, irro rated with dark brown strite; a narrow inner 
and a broad median irregular brownish shade; a white shade from 
apex to middle of inner margin; a white costal spot before apex; a 
marginal black spot mottled with white scales between veins 5 and 6. 
Secondaries darker; an oblique violaceous shade from middle of costal 
margin to near base of inner margin; a similar median shade from 
vein 5 to middle of inner margin; an outer shade not quite so dark 
and mottled with lilacine from vein 5 to inner margin and anal angle, 
containing four subterminal yellow spots edged with reddish brown, 
the largest spot between veins 2 and 3; the outer margin light brown^ 
limited by a luiuilar dentate darker brown line. 

Another specimen has the upper surface of a more uniform brown, 
merely the apex and outer margins being slightly darker. 

Expanse. — Fifty-eight millimeters. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Type.—^o. 5878, U.S.N.M. 



NO. 1262. yE W AMERICAN B UTTERFLIES—SCHA US. 391 

ACRiEA OZINTA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings deep blue black. Primaries, a roseate basal 
.>;pace confined within the subcostal and submedian veins, and oblique 
from •subcostal to below vein 2. Underneath, primaries duller; the 
roseate spot on primaries as on upper surface. Secondaries dull black, 
the veins brilliant black, thinly irrorated with reddish scales; the base 
and cell yellow, streaked with l)lack. 

J^.vjxuise. — Forty -eight millimeters. 

Habitat. — Venezueja. 

Ti/pc.—^o. 5879, U.S.N.M. 

ACRiEA DOGNINI, new species. 

Dlagnosi.s. — Wings 1)lue ])lack. Primaries, the cell, a space between 
veins 2 and 3, and a space below the end of cell and vein •! bright red, 
not reaching the submedian; sometimes a subapical reddish transverse 
line. Underneath, primaries black; the red not so })right and extend- 
ing to base and inner margin; a subterminal reddish shade consisting 
I 'f short longitudinal streaks. Secondaries dull black; the costa, base, 
and inner margin streaked with red; some indistinct streaks on outer 
]wrtion. 

Ex])anse. — Fifty-two millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Ambato, Ecuador. 

7>7>e.— No. 5880, U.S.N.M. 

ACR/EA MITAMA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings .somewhat transparent, especialh' the outer mar- 
gins, fulvous; the outer margins l)roadly Ijrownish l)lack, with dai'ker 
streaks between the veins. Primaries, the costa and inner margins 
narrowly blackish; a transverse black streak in cell from subcostal to 
\ t'in 2; a broad black streak at end of cell; a short longitudinal ))lack 
streak below median vein near 1)ase; an oblique black shade from 
costa touching the discocellular at vein 5, incurved below vein 2. 
>econdaries, the discocellular velvet}^ black followed by a broad 
curved velvety black line from middle of costa to middle of inner 
margin. Underneath brownish, thinly scaled, showing the markings 
of upper surface. 

^ iLA-panse. — Forty-seven millimeters. 

< Ilahitat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 
Allied to ^1. inamita Burmeister. 

I Tyx?e. —No. '5881 , U . S. N. M. 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.xxiv. 

ACRiEA SURIMA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings light fulvou.s brown, the veins l)lack. Pri- 
maries, the costal, outer and inner margins narrowly black; the apex 
broadly black; a black point below median near base; a broad black 
mai'k in cell from costa to vein 2, basall}^ excavated; a broad black 
outer band inclosing discocellular touching outer margin at vein 2, and 
inwardly dentate below it. Secondaries, the outer margin broadly 
black, tineh'^ toothed between the veins; discocellular black adjoining 
a short black longitudinal streak in cell; a broad black outer band 
slightly oblique from middle of costa to vein 4, then curved toward 
base to below vein 2, where it is angled and diminishes in width to 
middle of inner margin; two l)lack streaks below cell from base to 
outer band. Underneath similar, but duller. 

Expanse. — Fifty-four millimeters. 

liohHat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Type.—^o. 5882, U.S.N.M. 

ACR^A QUADRA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Secondaries slightly angled at vein -i. Wings light 
brown, the veins black. Primaries, the costal, inner and outer 
margins narrowW black, the latter with darker and deeper intervenal 
streaks; the apex broadl}' black similarly streaked; an irregular black 
spot in cell beyond vein 2, not reaching the subcostal; a broad outer 
oblique band from costa to outer margin at vein 2, inclosing a few 
light l)rown scales between veins 2 and 3; a black streak from base to 
outer margin above submedian vein; a transverse black mark from 
the middle of vein 2 to inner margin. Secondaries, a short black 
longitudinal streak in cell; outer margin narrowly black; long black 
intervenal streaks from near cell to outer margin. Underneath, 
primaries flesh color, the black margins replaced b}^ greenish bufl', 
streaked with black; the veins black; the discal spot and mark Ijelow 
vein 2 as on upper surface; the outer transverse band black, narrower 
from vein 7 to 2 near outer margin, inclosing a small pale spot above 
vein 5. Secondaries greenish buff, the veins and black streaks as on 
upper surface. 

Expanse. — Sixty-four millimeters. 

TTahifat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

A very distinct species. 

Type.—l^o. 5883, U.S.N.M. 

ISTYlVrPH^I^IlSrAE. 

ERESIA CRINA, new species. ^ 

Diagnosis. — Primaries roseate; the costa and inner margin tinely 
black; the outer margin broadly, and apical third of wing bhick; a 
lu'oad oblique black band from middle of costa to outer margin at 



NO. 1262. NEW AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES— SCHAUS. 393 

vein 2; this band widest toward costa. Secondaries black; the basal 
half tinged with drak gray. Underneath, primaries similar but the 
roseate more delicate in color. Secondaries dark brown, the veins 
T)lack; streaks of dark reddish scales at base of costa in cell and along 
the inner margin. 

Ed'jHinxt'. — Forty-one millimeters. 

Ilah'dat. — Ecuador. 

Type.^^o. 5884, U.S.N.M. 

PHYCIODES FELLULA, new species. 

Dia(/nosls. — Wings above black, markings white. Primaries, a 
small spot at end of cell; beyond cell a geminate spot divided by 
vein (5; a large spot on inner margin at two-thirds from base, and a 
similar spot above vein 2 a little closer to margin; a large subterminal 
Avhite spot between veins 4 and 5; two minute spots near costa before 
apex; fringe spotted with white at apex, and between veins 4 to 6. 
Secondaries, a broad median white band, cut by black veins; a faint, 
fine, subterminal reddish line. Underneath, primaries; the basal half 
olivaceous gra}-, the outer half blackish; the spots as above; the discal 
spot much larger, bordered with black; a white space at apex, and on 
outer margin between veins 4 to 0, cut hy a wavv subterminargeminate 
dark line. Secondaries, the basal two-thirds white, the outer third 
brownish; some irregular anular spots on basal half, light brown, and 
a darker brown spot at end of cell; the median white band containing 
minute brown specks on veins; a subterminal row of deep black spots 
partl}^ edged with white; marginal white lunules. 

Expanse. — Thirty-three millimeters. 

JIahltat. — Colombia. 

Allied to P. ianthe Fabricius. 

Tyjx.—^o. 5885, U.S.N.M. 

PHYCIODES SEJONA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Female. — Primaries black-brown, spotted with light 
reddish brown; the spots on basal half small and darker; an oblique 
streak from costa at two-thirds to vein 4; two small spots beyond, 
between veins 4 and 6; a large space on inner margin before angle to 
vein 3, cut l)y a tine transverse dark line; some marginal reddish brown 
shadings widest between veins 3 and 4. Secondaries bright reddish 
Ijrown; the base and costa blackish; an outer black band from inner 
margin to vein 6; the margin black; the space between divided by a 
))lack lunular line; fringe grayish white. Underneath, primaries 
fulvous, the dark markings of upper side replaced by reddish brown, 
except a submarginal band from vein 4 to inner angle, which is black; 
a lilacine patch before apex; a fine marginal line. Secondaries, the 
basal two-thirds and apex lilacene, irrorated with reddish brown: the 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

outer portion from inner margin to vein 6 brownish; a fine irregular 
inner and an outer brown line; a median similar line, inclosing a 
fulvous discal spot; subterminal dark points below vein 6; a dark 
marginal lunular line. 

Expanse. — Thirty-iive millimeters. 

Habitat. — Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil. 

Type.—l^o. 58S6, U.S.N.M. 

PHYCIODES BRANCODIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings l^rown irrorated with fulv^ous scales at the base, 
and spotted with paler fawn color. Primaries, a small discal spot in 
cell; a much larger one near end of cell; a spot below each of these 
above the submedian; a fulvous streak on discocellular; four spots 
between vein 4 and submedian, the lower two the smallest; slightly 
beyond these spots from veins 4 to T, and two above inner margin, 
above and below vein 2; two subterminal spots between veins 4 to 6 
and a smaller one on costa; a marginal spot between veins 3 and 4. 
Secondaries, a basal spot on costa, one in cell, and another below it; 
a large spot at end of cell followed b}' a fulvous crescent; four small 
spots from vein 4 to costa; a broader band from near inner margin to 
vein 7, cut by the black veins, followed by a darker irregular line, 
also cut by the veins, and a row of somewhat luiuilar spots; fringe 
white, spotted with brown at veins. Underneath, basal half of pri- 
maries whitish, crossed by a broad basal inner and median yellowish 
band partly bordered wnth dark brown; the outer half black, the spots 
as above, but larger and white; a pale marginal space from veins 2 to 
4; some lilaeine and brownish mottlings at apex; a marginal line wavy 
dark line. Secondaries whitish irrorated with fulvous; a wavy basal 
geminate inner and geminate outer fine reddish brown line; a brown 
patch bej'ond the latter on costa; a smaller brown patch beyond the 
cell; subterminal spots black between veins 2 and .5, otherwise reddish 
brown; a geminate marginal lunular line, partly shaded with lilaeine 
and light brown. 

Expanse. — Thirty-two millimeters. 

Ilahltat. — Sao Paulo, southeast Brazil. 

Allied to P. t idols Bates. 

Ti/pe.—^o. 6887, U.S.N.M. 

PHYCIODES ORTICAS, new species. 

Dlac/noslx. — Male. — Primaries, a small pale s})ot near end of cell; a 
small oblique whitish liand from above vein 4 to just above vein 6; a 
larger whitish spot at two-thirds from base from just below vein 2 to 
just above vein 3. Secondaries, a broad whitish transverse band from 
inner margin to vein 7, somewhat yellowish between 6 and 7, and on 
inner margin; a marginal fine lunular grayish-l)rown line. Under- 



NEW AMERICAN B UTTERFLIES—SCHA US. 395 



neath, basal half of primaries reddish brown; the discal spot larger 
and parth^ edged with reddish brown; the oblique band reaching costa, 
and preceded by a broad black shade which borders the large spot 
above inner margin; the outer margin brown; a marginal tine darker 
line; some white at apex. Secondaries, the basal two-thirds whitish 
crossed by line irregular brownish lines, partly geminate and lilled in 
with lilacine; the outer third light brown; the subterminal points 
>uiall, darker brown, followed by a tine lunular reddish-brown line 
and parallel to it a marginal grayish lunular line. 

KrjMJhse. — Thirty-tive millimeters. 

Ilahltat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Ti/pe.—^o. 5888, U.S.N.M. 

PHYCIODES CARIGIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Primaries, basal half rich brown with a basal and a 
geminate inner transverse wavy black line; an oblique ocherous spot 
at end of cell edged with black; outer half black with ocherous spots; 
a large spot at vein 3 extending slightly below vein 2; an oblique row 
of spots from costa to vein 4; a large subterminal spot above inner mar- 
gin, another slighth' smaller between -i and 5, and a tine curved spot 
on costa; an irregular marginal line, broken by veins, and enlarging 
between veins 3 and 4, obsolescent between 5 and 6. Secondaries, cell 
and below it rich brown; costa and outer margin black; a broad median 
ocherous band to v'ein 7; the inner margin brown irrorated with yel- 
low; an ocherous outer line from inner margin to vein 4; a marginal 
lunular ocherous line from anal angle to apex. Underneath the spots 
on primaries are yellowish white and larger; the outer margin dark 
reddish 1)rown crossed by a tine dark line; some gray at apex; the basal 
half yellowish white With a large irregular annular mark; on the inner 
margin and between the large spots black. Secondaries, basal half 
whitish with large bufl' spots outlined with reddish brown; a median 
brown line followed by a small dark space on costa; a pinkish white 
space between veins 2 and 6; outer margin broadlv gray mottled with 
fulvous; the extreme margin reddish brown; a darker geminate mar- 
ginal lunular line. 

Expanse. — Thirty-six millimeters. 

Hahitat. — Colombia. 

Tyj^c.—^o. 5889, U.S.N.M. 

ADELPHA GOYAMA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings dark brown; a terminal, marginal, and subter- 
minal darker line, all rather broad, and the subterminal geminate on 
secondaries. Primaries, four transverse darker lines in cell, and two 
below it; a median white band from inner margin to just above ^ein 



396 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

2, surmounted by a large fulvous space outwardl}^ limited b}^ the sub- 
terminal, and becoming narrower above vein 6, from which point to 
costa near apex are three small fulvous spots. Secondaries, a broad 
median white band from costa to near anal angle; a fulvous spot at 
anal angle. Underneath primaries, costa gray streaked with white and 
reddish at base; cell lilacine white at base with an upwardly oblique 
reddish streak from median vein; four reddish transverse lines, the 
space between the hrst two and last two grayish brown, between the 
second and third lilacine; the base below cell and a narrow space 
be3'ond it, grajnsh brown; the white median band extending to costal 
margin, but tinged with reddish brown above vein 3, outwardly lim- 
ited by a reddish l)rown line, which is followed on costa by a quadrate 
dark l)rown space, and then three whitish spots, and on inner margin 
by a dark grayish space to vein 2; the space between 2 and 5 whitish, 
tinged with reddish; a subterminal grayish line; the outer margin 
tinged with gray and whitish; a marginal reddish brown line; .the apex 
and extreme margin tinged with reddish brown. Secondaries, whitish 
gray at base; a basal reddish line from costa along inner margin; a 
geminate reddish inner line, coalescing at veins forming three elongated 
spots; the white median band broadl}^ edged with reddish brown; the 
space beyond grayish brown, divided by a heavy reddish brown line, 
and limited b}' a darker gra}' line; the outer margin grajdsh white; 
a marginal and a terminal reddish brown line; two small black cres- 
cents surmounted by bright reddish brown near anal angle. 

E;q?anse. — Forty-three millimeters. 

Habitat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Allied to A. erotla; also in the collection of Godman from Para- 
guay. 

fype.—^o. 5890; U.S.N. M. 

ADELPHA BARNESIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings brown; terminal, marginal, and subterminal 
darker lines, the latter geminate on secondaries. Primaries, fine 
darker brown lines crossing the cell and one beyond it; the first line 
continued to submedian, the second line forming an 8 below the 
median; a white median band from inner margin to vein 3; abroad 
fulvous space above vein 3, excavated on its basal side at vein 4, and 
excavated anteriorl}^ below vein 6, outwardl}' followed to costa by two 
minute fulvous spots. Secondaries, a broad white median band ter- 
minating above the anal angle, which is rather produced; a fulvous 
spot close to anal angle; underneath lilacine, the lines reddish brown. 
Primaries, an oblique streak at base of cell; four transverse lines 
forming two spots; a similar spot below the cell; the white median 
band as above; the fulvous replaced b}" a dull whitish space cut into 
spots by the reddish veins, followed on costa and inner margin by a 
violaceous brown space; the lilacine outer margin divided by a reddish 



NO. 1202. XE W AMERICAN B UTTERFLIES—SCHA US. 397 

brown line. Secondaries, a streak at base, geminate and diverging 
below the cell; a geminate streak from vein 8 to median vein, forming 
an elongate spot; the white median band inwardly edged with reddish 
brown, outwardly with violaceous brown; the inner portion of .sub- 
terminal broad, reddish brown, the outer portion fine, violaceous; the 
marginal line reddi.sh brown; the terminal line black. 

£',rjxin.sc. — Fifty mill imeters, 

Hahitat. — Bolivia. 

Near A. plexaure Hiibner. 

Type.—^o. 5891, U.S.N.M. 

CHLORIPPE LAURONA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — 2Iale. — Allied to C. laure Drury. The wings have the 
same dark violet gloss; the orange band of the primaries is broader 
and reaches the apex and outer half of costa. 

Female.— FvimsiviQ^, the anterior and outer portion of the white 
band is edged with fulvous, and is outwardly surmounted above vein 4 
by a large fulvous space, which does not reach apex. 

Expam^e. — Male, 56 millimeters; female, 65 millimeters. 

Hahitat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

Ty2)e.—^o. 5892, U.S.N.M. 

Family LYC^EIND^E. 
E;RYCi]sri]sr.3E. 

EURYGONA CUCUTA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Primaries dark brown; a large dark red space on inner 
margin extending slighth^ into cell and along vein 3, not reaching the 
outer margin; a short red streak at base of cell below subcostal. 
Secondaries dark red, the costal and the inner margins brown. Under- 
neath brownish graj^; a reddish median line edged with black, curved 
near inner margin of secondaries; a narrow brownish subterminal 
shade. Secondaries, the outer margin light brown; a black spot out- 
wardly edged with white between veins 3 and 4; two j^ellowish streaks 
mottled with black and terminating in white spots below vein 2; a 
similar streak above anal angle; the extreme margin darker, ocherous 
below vein 2. 

Expanse. — Twenty-two millimeters. 

Hahitat. — Cucuta, Venezuela. 

7]/y>t^— No. 5893, U.S.N.M. 

EURYGONA MICAELA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings dark violaceous brown. Primaries, a large 
fulvous patch beyond the cell from vein 2 to above vein 4, not reach- 
ing outer margin. Underneath light brown; a median reddish brown 
line, shaded with black near costa of primaries, curved close to inner 



398 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

margin of secondaries, a larger subterminal shade, lunular on prima- 
ries, broken into spots on secondaries, containing two black points 
between veins 3 and -i; a faint dark outer shade. 

Expanse. — Thirty-two millimeters. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Type.—^o. 5894, U.S.N.M. 

EURYGONA RASONEA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings dark l)rown, the outer margin of primaries below 
vein 5 and the secondaries from ])elow apex to vein 2 shot with dark 
metallic blue. Underneath light reddish brown. Primaries, a darker 
subterminal shade; an outer darker band edged with duller brown 
oblique from middle of costa to below vein 2. Secondaries, a darker 
outer band as on primaries, straight from costa to vein 4, then starting 
more outwardly, wavy, and curved to inner margin, followed b}^ longi- 
tudinal reddish brown streaks between the veins; these streaks not 
reaching the outer margin and terminating in black points outwardly 
shaded with white; a marginal black spot between 3 and 4, outwardly 
shaded with white, inwardly with reddish brown; above this spot to 
apex the outer margin is broadly darker. 

ExpaTise. — Th i rty millimeters. 

Halntat. — Cucuta, Venezuela. 

Allied to E. enoras Hewitson. 

Type.—^o. 5895, U.S.N.M. 

EURYGONA TARINTA, new species. 

Diagnosis.— ^Ymg^ dark brown; the outer half of primaries and ^he 
outer margin of secondaries narrowly shot with dark metallic blue. 
Underneath dull orange. Primaries, a straight darker outer line; a 
broad darker subterminal shade; the inner margin gra3\ Secondaries, 
the outer line of primaries forming a median line, straight, only curved 
close to inner margin; the outer margin broadly darker, forming 
streaks below vein 3, terminating in black points; a large black spot 
between veins 3 and 4, outwardly shaded with white, inwardl}^ with 
ocherous; a black marginal point below vein 6 and another above it. 

Ex2)anse. — Thirt^^-five millimeters. 

Halntat. — Colombia. 

Allied to E. eupiola Hewitson. 

Type.—^o. 5896, U.S.N.M. 

MESOSEMIA MATHANIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings brown. Primaries, a large round black spot at 
end of cell containing a large and a smaller white point; the ocellus 
preceded and followed by two fine dark brown lines to inner margin; 
the two inner lines not reaching costa and preceded below the median 



NO. 1262. NEW AMERICAN B UTTERFLIES—SCHA US. 399 

vein b_y a third line; a broad dark brown subterminal shading, slightly 
curved and widest on costa, followed by a blackish line somewhat 
interrupted by the veins. Secondaries, three much darker lines; a 
broader median shade containing a black disoal point; three outer lines; 
a broad subterminal, followed by a blackish line as on primaries. 
Underneath paler, the markings similar, only the lines curve round 
and meet above the ocellus on the primaries; on the secondaries the 
marginal black line thickens between veins 2 and 3. 

Expatue. — Twenty-nine millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Peru. 

^y^^^^.— No. 5897, U.S.N.M. 

MESOSEMIA FRIBURGENSIS, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings dark blackish brown with still darker lines; a 
straight inner line, indistinct on secondaries, followed In' a finer, paler 
line curving around the ocellus and returning to the inner margin of 
secondaries; the outer line heavily marked, distinct, nearly straight 
on both wings; the subterminal shade broad, especially on costa of 
primaries; a tine marginal line, interrupted by the veins; the ocellus 
black with a white point. Underneath paler; the inner and outer lines 
most distinct; the inner line more wavy than on the upper side; on 
primaries a dark median spot below vein 2; on secondaries a small 
geminate dark discal spot; the subterminal shade somewhat lunular 
and toothed. 

Ei'panse. — Twent3'-nine millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Nova Friburgo, Brazil. 

Allied to M. rhodia Godart. 

T(/2Je.—^o. 5898, U.S.N.M. 

LYMNAS (?) PELTA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — 3fale. — Bod}' black; a transverse orange line on head; 
anal hairs orange. Wings violaceous black; greenish brown streaks 
between .the veins. Primaries, a broad orange band from middle of 
costal margin to inner angle. Underneath black; the intervenal 
streaks lighter. Primaries, base of costa orange; the transverse band 
paler. Secondaries, a yellow spot at base; a small orange spot close 
to anal angle. 

FetiiaJe. — The band on primaries much narrower. Secondaries, a 
marginal orange band outwardly edged with black. Underneath 
similar. 

Exjxinse. — Male, 35 millimeters; female, 37 millimeters. 

Hahitat. — Nova Friburgo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

Ti/pe.—lso. 5899, U.S.N.M. 



400 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

SYMMACHIA EURINA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings orange red. Primaries, outer margin narrowly 
black; base finely black; base of costa finely black, widening and 
forming a broad streak which extends obliquely into cell to near lower 
angle, followed by a white space; beyond this to apex the costa is 
finely black and is joined by a thick black discocellular streak followed 
by a curved white line, and another short black streak from vein 5 to 
costa, and from this last a black streak extends above vein 6 to costa 
near apex, inclosing a small white spot on costa. Secondaries, the 
outer margin and anal third of inner margin black, broader than on 
primaries. Underneath the same. 

Expanse. — Twenty-foui millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Allied to S. ritbina Bates. 

Tyj)e.—^o. 6900, U.S.N.M. 

SYMMACHIA SATEMA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings very dark olivaceous brown with still darker 
markings, all interrupted by the veins; marginal dark spots; a sub- 
terminal shade; the outer line incurved below cells, irregular; disco- 
cellular streaks; two inner lines and a basal line. Underneath similar, 
but somewhat paler. 

Expanse. — Twenty-four millimeters. 

Hahitat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

Allied to S. temesa Hewitson. 

Type.—^o. 5901, U.S.N.M. 

EUCORA, new genus. 

Diagnosis. — Female. — Primaries broad; costa convex toward apex; 
apex acute; discocellular inwardly curved; veins 3 and -i well apart; 
4 from lower angle of cell; 5 from above middle of discocellular; 7 
and 8 stalked; 10, 11, 12 equally distant apart from before end of cell. 
Secondaries long; discocellular obliquely straight; veins 2, 3, and 4 
equally distant apart, 5 from near upper angle of cell; 6 and T from a 
point. 

Type of ge7ius.~—Eucora sanarifa Schaus. 

EUCORA SANARITA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Primaries black, irrorated with pale blue between the 
veins; a large white space at end of cell bordered on either side by a 
broad black liand; beyond cell from veins 3 to 6 the intervenal spaces 
are also whitish; apex broadly, outer margin more narrowly black; a 
marginal geminate blue line, interrupted by veins, simple at apex, and 
preceded between veins 6 and 7 by a large white spot. Secondaries 
similar; the costal margin blackish; a marginal white spot between 



N0.1262. XEW AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES— SCHAUS. 401 
. ^_ — — — ■ ■ 

5 and 6; the cell and space between veins 4 and 5 whitish; underneath 

more whitish, and less blue on margins. 

Exjyanse. — Forty-two millimeters. 

Habitat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

Type.—^o. 5902,U.S.N.M. 

CHARIS INCOIDES, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Male. — Wings dark brown with blackish lines not 
reaching the costa; two inner lines, interrupted by veins and most 
noticeable in and below the cells; a dark discocellular streak on pri- 
maries; the outer line irregular; marginal dark points between the 
veins, and slight clusters of silvery scales near tips of veins; a terminal 
dark line; fringe paler brown; underneath light brown; the dark lines 
broken into spots; no metallic scales near margins; some white marks 
on fringe. 

Female. — Wings lighter brown than in the male; the lines more 
distinct; the outer margin shaded with pale reddish brown, in which 
the dark spots are very distinct, the metallic scales forming streaks on 
tips of veins; underneath fawn-colored; the markings ver}' distinct; 
traces of a subterminal darker shade; the white marks on fringe of 
primaries very distinct. 

Ki-panse. — Male, 17 millimeters; female, 18 millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Peru. 

Tyjye.—^o. 5903, U.S.N.M. 

CHARIS DUKINFIELDIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body black; collar and a lateral streak on abdomen dark 
orange red; wings, brownish black. Primaries, an oblique orange 
red band from costa across discocellular to median vein; another simi- 
lar band from costa, near apex, to outer margin above inner angle. 
Secondaries, an orange red subterminal band, widest near anal angle. 
Underneath similar, with traces of darker transverse shades. 

E.i-panse. — Twenty millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Castro, Parana, Brazil. 

Type.— No. 5904, U.S.N.M. 

CHAMAELIMNAS JOVIANA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Bodv black; collar yellow; wings black. Primaries a 
broad bright j^ellow streak from base through cell, angled above dis- 
cocellular, and extending to near outer margin between veins 3 and 4. 
Secondaries a broad bright yellow streak from base, chiefly below 
cell, to near outer margin between veins 4 and 5. Underneath similar. 

E.rpanse. — Twenty-eight millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Peru. 

Type.— No. 5905, U.S.N.M. 

Proc. N. :M. vol. xxiv— 01 26 



402 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

CHAMAELIMNAS SIMILIS, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body and primaries as in C. joviana Scbaus. Second- 
aries black; a few j^ellow scales on median vein. 

Expanse. — Twenty-four millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Peru. 

In a good series of both this and C. joviana I find no intermediate 
forms, and therefore consider them distinct, though closelj^ allied. 

Ty2)e.—l^o. 5906, U.S.N.M. 

MESENE STRIGULATA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body orange above, brown below. Wings orange, the 
margins and fringe narrowly black. Primaries, the costa broadly 
brown; a short black discocellular streak, a black point beyond touch- 
ing the brown costal margin. Underneath duller; the basal two-thirds 
crossed b}^ black lines and spots. 

^a?/>«ws6.— Twenty-one millimeters. 

Ilahitat. — Petropolis, Brazil. 

Allied to M. sinqidex Bates. 

Type.—^o. 6907, U.S.N.M. 

MESENE MARTHA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body black; wings bright crimson, the outer margin 
and fringe broadly black. Primaries, the costal margin black extend- 
ing into cell on its basal half and reaching inner margin; a thick black 
discocellular mark not reaching lower angle of cell. Underneath, 
primaries brownish black, the outer margin darkest; the inner margin 
yellowish streaked anteriorly with red; a white marginal spot l^etween 
veins 3 and 4; a darker discocellular streak. Secondaries bright crim- 
son; outer margin black with two small white spots, one below vein 2. 
the other above vein 3; the base brown; the costal and inner margins 
finely brown. 

Expanse. — Twenty-six millimeters. 

Hahitai. — Peru. 

A specimen which maj" belong here is of a duller red, the margins 
ver}' narrowly black. Underneath the red streak on primaries above 
the inner margin is broader and extends to cell at its lower angle; the 
bod}^ is crimson. 

Type.—^o. 690S, U.S.N.M. 

BAEOTIS BACiiENITA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Body black above; abdomen white below; a yellow 
lateral stripe. Wings blackish; a yellow basal line from subcostal on 
primaries to inner margin of secondaries; a broad median yellow space 
starting in a point at subcostal, widening at vein 3, then remaining 



NO. 1262. NEW AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES— SCHAVS. 403 

broad to the inner margin of secondaries, which is also yellow; a sub- 
terminal darker yellow line, not reaching costa of primaries, slighth^ 
interrupted at vein 2, preceded on secondaries near costal and inner 
margins by some silverj^ scales; a marginal silverj' line; fringe brown 
divided b}' a darker line. Underneath the yellow markings are still 
broader and there are no silver}^ scales on lines. 

ExpanHe. — Twentj^-one millimeters. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Allied to B. lacaenis Hewitson. 

Type.—^o. 5909, U.S.N.M. 

CALYDNA ZEA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Male. — Primaries, black; a few bluish scales on outer 
margin; some transpai ent opalescent spots; a small one in middle of 
cell; a large quadrate spot at end of cell; a small spot beyond end of 
cell above vein 8, and another smaller one beyond it between veins 7 
and 8. Secondaries black; the outer margin broadly pale blue con- 
taining some small black spots. Underneath dark brownish gra} ; 
yellow streaks and spots on costa of both wings. Primaries, some 
black spots in cell and below it; the median space between cell and 
submedian shaded with dark red; an outer row of black spots parth' 
shaded with dark red; subterminal smaller black spots partly shaded 
with white. Secondaries with black spots as on primaries, and reddish 
mottlings above the cell. 

Female. — Primaries, the small white spots as in the male; the large 
spot at end of cell smaller and irregular; wings dark brown; the costa 
with thick light red stri«; inner, median, and outer irregular black 
bands edged with dark red; large subterminal dark red spots contain- 
ing black spots, somewhat confluent. Secondaries with the bands as 
on primaries; eome minute transparent spots in cell, also one near base 
of inner margin, and another on costal margin beyond the outer band. 
Underneath similar but more brightly colored. 

Expanse. — Male, 25 millimeters; female, 22 millimeters. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Ty2)e.—^o. 5910, U.S.N.M. 

CARIA TABRENTHIA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings brown, irrorated with metallic green scales. 
Primaries, a broad inner space devoid of green scales, and crossed by 
a darker line; a marginal metallic steel blue line interrupted b}^ a red 
spot at apex, and followed b}" a dark brown line. Secondaries, a mar- 
ginal green line followed b}' dark points between the veins. Under- 
neath dark violaceous gray; a darker wavy outer line; some basal 
spots, and median line, geminate in cell of secondaries. Primaries, 



404 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.xxiv. 

some silvery scales at base of costa, at apex, before apex, and in cell; 
a large silvery spot at end of cell. 

Expanse. — Twenty-one millimeters. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

Type.—^o. 5911, U.S.N.M. 

APODEMIA MULTIPLAGA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Wings above dark blackish brown; the fringe white 
with brown blotches; the spots white. Primaries, a small spot in cell 
followed by a large spot at end of cell; a small spot near base above 
submedian, and a large one below origin of vein 2; a large spot 
between veins 2 and 3; a small spot between 3 and 4; a row of live 
spots from costa to vein 4; marginal black points between the veins, 
preceded above vein 4 by small white spots. Secondaries, a small and 
a large spot in cell; two small spots below cell; a row of four small 
spots from costa to vein 4; small subterminal white spots and indistinct 
marginal whitish spots. Underneath, primaries dark gray; the spots 
as above, slightly larger; the cell and just below it bright ocherous; 
the outer margin whitish with intervenal black points. Secondaries, 
lilacine white; a median brown costal patch followed and preceded by 
a black spot; a broad subterminal dark gray shade spotted and streaked 
with black; marginal black spots shaded with white. 

Expanse. — Thirty-two millimeters. 

Habitat. — Rinconada, Mexico. 

A very distinct species. 

Typ>e.—^o. 5912, U.S.N.M. 

HAMEARIS DOVINA, new species. 

Diagnosis. — Female. — Wings bright rufous brown. Primaries, a 
black spot at end of cell, preceded by a small dark brown spot in cell; 
some olivaceous shading at base of wrings; a broad blackish band from 
costa angled bej^ond cell, narrowing and indistinct below vein 3, and fol- 
lowed above vein 6 by a whitish spot; a blackish subterminal band, hardly 
visible below vein 2, and connected to the black outer margin by a 
black streak on veins, forming large marginal rufous brown spots. Sec- 
ondaries, a black median and apical patch on costa; sma