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Full text of "Proceedings of the United States National Museum"

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOLUME 86 







UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON: 1940 



ADVERTISEMENT 

The scientific publications of the National Museum include two 
series, known, respectively, as Proceedings and Bulletin. 

The Proceedings series, begun in 1878, is intended primarily as a 
medium for the publication of original papers, based on the collec- 
tions of the National Museum, that set forth newly acquired facts 
in biology, anthi^opology, and geology, with descriptions of new 
forms and revisions of limited groups. Copies of each paper, in 
pamphlet form, are distributed as pubUshed to libraries and scientific 
organizations and to speciaHsts and others interested in the difterent 
subjects. The dates at which these separate papers are published are 
recorded in the table of contents of each of the volumes. 

The present volume is the eighty-sixth of this series. 

The series of Bulletins, the first of which was issued in 1875, con- 
tains separate publications comprising monographs of large zoologi- 
cal groups and other general systematic treatises (occasionally in 
several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, catalogs of 
type specimens, special collections, and other material of similar 
nature. The majority of the volumes are octavo in size, but a 
quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which large plates 
were regarded as indispensable. In the Bulletin series appear vol- 
umes imder the heading Contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium, in octavo form, published by the National Museum since 
1902, which contain papers relating to the botanical collections of 
the Musemn. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 

Washington, D. C, June 1, 1940. 
II 






CONTENTS 



Pages 

Barker, R. Wright, Species of the foraminiferal family 
Camerinidae in the Tertiary and Cretaceous of Mexico. 
No. 3052. May 16, 1939^ 305-330 

New species: Operculinoides prenummulitiformis, 0. muiri, 0. 

palmar ealensis, 0. jennyi, Camerina guayabalensis, C. pellati- 

spiroides. 
New varieties: Operculinoides ocalanus minor, Camerina jackson- 

ensis glohosa. 

Blackwelder, Richard E. Revision of the North American 
beetles of the staphylmid subfamily Tachyporinae — Part 2: 
Genus Coproporus Kiaatz. No. 3041. October 8, 1938 L. 1-10 

New species: Coproporus sparsus, C. arizonae. 
New name: Coproporus lecontei. 

BuscK, August. Restriction of the genus Gelechia (Lepidop- 
tera: Gelechiidae), with descriptions of new genera. No. 
3064. May 23, 1939 ' 563-593 

New genera: Keiferia, Friseria, Filatima, Frumenta, Fascista, 
Epilechia, Faculta. 

Chapman, Wilbert McLeod. Eleven new species and three 
new genera of oceanic fishes collected by the International 
Fisheries Commission from the northeastern Pacific. No. 
3062. April 28, 1939 ^ 501-542 

New family: Macropinnidae. 

New genera: Macropinna, Photonectops, Neoscopelarchoides. 

New species: Bathylagus alascanus, Macropinna microstoma, 
Photonectops muUipunctata, Sudis squamosa, Lestidium {Bathy- 
sudis) parri, Myctophum oculeum, Lampanyctus micropunciatus, 
Neoscopelarchoides dentatus, Melamphaes cavernosus , M. rugosus, 
Oneirodes bulbosus. 

Clark, Austin H. Echinoderms of the Smithsonian-Hartford 
Expedition, 1937, with other West Indian records. No. 

3056. April 5, 1939^ 441-456 

New species: Freyella mexicana, Ophiothrix hartfordi. 

. A new genus of starfishes from the Aleutian 

Islands. No. 3061. May 17, 1939 ' 497-500 

New genus: Aleutiaster. 

New species: Aleutiaster schefferi. 



' Date of publication. 

in 



IV PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

Pages 

Clark, Hubert Lyman. Two new opliiuraiis from the Smith- 
sonian-Hartford Expedition, 1937. No. 3054. April 4, 

1939^ 415-418 

New species: Ophiaclis notabilis, Ophiothrix platyactis. 

Fisher, Walter K. A new sea star of the genus Poraniopsis 

from Japan. No. 3059. AprU 4, 1939 ' 469-472 

New species: Poraniopsis japonica. 

GiLMORE, Charles W. Descriptions of new and little-knowji 
fossil lizards from North America. No. 3042. December 
16, 1938^ 11-26 

New genus: Paraprionosaurus. 

New species: Rhineura minutus, ? Xestops piercei, ? Harpagosaurus 
silberlingii, Paraprionosaurus wyomingensis. 

Hartman, Olga. The types of the polychaete worms of the 
families Polynoidac and Polyodontidae in the United 
States National Museum and the description of a new genus. 
No. 3046. December 7, 1938 ^ 107-134 

New genus: Halosydnclla. 

New combinations: llalosydnella grisca (Treadwell), H. fusca- 
maculaia (Treadwell), H. oculata (TreadwelD , Lcpidasthenia 
lucida (Treadwell), L. alba (Treadwell), Arclonoe tuberculata 
(Treadwell), Harmothoe trimaculata (Treadwell), Eunoe (?) 
crassa (Treadwell), Intoshella coeca (Moore), Malmgrenia nesiotes 
(Chamberlin), Macellicephala remigata (Moore), A/. (?) aciculala 
(Moore), Admetella renotubulala (Moore), Eupanthalis mulilala 
(Treadwell), E. maculosa (Treadwell), Eupolyodonles elongala 
(Treadwell), Panthalis evanida (Treadwell), Hermione tropicus 
(Treadwell). 

Heinrich, Carl. The cactus-feeding Phycitinae: A con- 
tribution toward a revision of the American pyralidoid 
moths of the family Phycitidae. No. 3053. March 16, 
1939' 331-413 

New genera: Alberada, Nanaia, Cahcla, Rumatha, Erembcrga, 

Salambona, Sigelgaita, Amalafrida. 
New species: Nanaia substituta, Cactoblastis doddi, C. mundelli, 

Eremberga insignis, Sigelgaita chilensis, S. huanucensis, JS. 

transilis, Ozamia punicans. 
New combinations: Cactoblastis ronnai (Brethes), Ozamia odio- 

sella fuscomaculella (Wright), O. stigmaferella (Dyar). 

HuBBs, Carl L., and Schultz, Leonard P. A revision of 
the toadfishes referred to Porichthys and related genera. 
No. 3060. April 29, 1939 ' 473-496 

New genus: Aphos. 

New species: Porichthys myriaster, P. analis. 
1 Date of publication. 



CONTENTS 



Hyman, Libbie H. New species of flatworms from North, 
Central, and South America. No. 3055. April 14, 
1939^ 419-439 

New species: Dugesia titicacana, Sorocelis americana, Geoplana 
mexicana, G. montana, Bipalium costaricensis, Leptoplana 
vesiculata. 

James, Maurice T. Neotropical flies of the family Strati- 
omyidae in the United States National Musemn. No. 3065. 
Augusts, 1939 1 595-607 

New species: Diaphorostylus interruptus, Nothomyia parvicornis , 
Cyphomyia nuhilipennis, C shannoni, C. planifrons, C. altifrons, 
Eupachygasler villosa. 

Kellogg, Remington. Annotated list of Tennessee mam- 
mals. No.3051. February 14, 1939 1 245-303 

LooMis, H. F. The cambaloid millipeds of the United States, 
including a family new to the fauna and new genera and 
species. No. 3043. December 17, 1938 * 27-66 

New genera: Tridere, Platydere, Pharodere, Odachurus, Endere, 

Leiodere. 
New species: Tridere chelopa, Cambala cristula, C. texana, Nanno- 

lene minor, N. violacea, Platydere caeca, Pharodere radiata, 

Odachurus petasatus, Endere disora, Leiodere torreyana, L. nana, 

L. dasyura. 

Maloney, James O. A new cave isopod from Florida. No. 

3057. May 26, 1939 ^ 457-459 

New species: Asellua hobbsi. 

Pearse, a. S. Polyclads of the east coast of North America. 

No. 3044. December 17, 1938 ^ 67-98 

New genera: Conjuguterus, Oculoplana, Oligoclado. 

New species: Discocelis grisea, Stylochusfloridanus, Eustylochus meri- 
dianalis, Stylochoplana floridana, Hoploplana thaisana, Conju- 
guterus parvus, Oculoplana whartoni, Pseudoceros maculosus, Oli- 
goclado floridanus, Acerotisa pellucida, Prosthiostomum lobatum. 

Saylor, Lawrence W. Revision of the beetles of the melo- 
lonthine subgenus Phytalus of the United States. No. 3048. 
February 15, 1939 ' 157-167 

New names: Phyllophaga (Phytalus) sandersonia, P. (P.) bilobatata, 
P. (P.) sonora. 

ScHAus, William. New species of moths of the families Noto- 
dontidae and Bombycidae in the United States National 
Museum. No. 3063. May 18, 1939 ' 543-561 

New species: Pronerice ludecia, Nystalea dahni, Proelymiotis suti- 
lans, Tachuda ernea, Salluca durani, S. deflectans, Disphragis 
coremista, D. bactrina, D. handleyi, Malocampa monita, M. 

' Date of publication. 



VI PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

Pages 
ednana, M. griffini, M. occama, M. delosia, Chadisra marcidana, 
C. ulsopia, Meragisa glacidia, M. nicolasi, Rifargia mulleri, R. ed- 
vina, R. valteria, R. ogdeni, Navarcostes oakleyi, Kurtia delosia, 
Hemiceras tristana, H. rosleria, Quentalia cameloi, Apatelodes 
merlona, A. florisa, A. vistana, A. damora, A. erotina, Thelosia 
mayaca, T. herta. 

ScHULTZ, Leonard P. Review of the fishes of the genera 
Polyipnus and Argyropelecus (family Stemoptichidae), with 
descriptions of tliree new species. No. 3047. December 

27, 1938^ 135-155 

New species: Polyipnus unispinus, P. asteroides, P. triphanos. 
(See also under Hubbs, Carl L.) 

Springer, Stewart. Two new Atlantic species of dog sharks, 
with a key to the species of Mustelus. No. 3058. April 27, 

1939 1 461-468 

New species: Mustelus norrisi, M. schmitti. 

Treadwell, Aaron L. New species of polychaete worms of 
the genus Euphrosyne, with notes on Euphrosyne borealis 

0rsted. No. 3049. January 20, 1939 ^ 169-173 

New species: Euphrosyne branchiata, E. longisetis. 

Wedel, Waldo R. Hopewellian remains near Kansas City, 

Missouri. No. 3045. December 16, 1938 * 99-106 

Wetmore, Alexander. Notes on the birds of Tennessee. 

No. 3050. January 31, 1939 ^ 175-243 

■Date of publication. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES 



Following 
page 

1. Skull and dermal armor of Glyptosaurus giganteus Gilmore 18 

2. Species of Pharodere, Leiodere, and Tridere, new genera, and Nanno- 

lene violacea, new species of millipeds 42 

3. Rim and body sherds from the Renner village site 102 

4. Miscellaneous stone, bone, horn, and clay artifacts from the Renner 

site 102 

5. Potsherds and portion of square vessel from the Renner site 102 

6. Portion of decorated bowl and restored vessel from the Renner 

site 102 

7. Vessel from earth mound near the Renner site, and i-estored vessel 

frem stone- vault burial mound near Waldron, Mo 102 

8. Vessel from stone-vault mound near Waldron, Mo 102 

9, 10. Genitalia and tarsal claw of Phytalus 162 

11-14. Species of OpercuUnoides and Camerina, fossil Foramlnifera from 

Mexico 313 

15-18. Species of OpercuUnoides and Camerina, fossil Foramlnifera from 

Mexico 320 

19-22. Species of OpercuUnoides and Camerina, fossil Foraminifera from 

Mexico 324 

23-51. Cactus-feeding Phycitinae 413 

52. Two new ophiurans: Ophiactis notabiUs said Ophiothrix platyacUs.. 416 

53. Ophiothrix hartfordi, new species 448 

54. Species of Ophioderma and Ophiocoma 448 

55-56. Poraniopsis japonica, new species 470 

57. AleuUaster schefferi, new genus and species 498 

58. Male genitalia of Gelechia, Gnorimoschema, Keiferia, Friseria, and 

Lita 593 

59. Male genitalia of Chionodes 593 

60. Male genitalia of Bryotropha, FilaUma, and Frumenta 593 

61. Male genitalia of Aroga and wing venation of Keiferia and Gelechia. 593 

62. Male genitalia of Faculta, Epilechia, Pseudochelaria, Fascista 593 

63. Male genitalia of Nothris, Stegasta, Evippe, and Anacampsis 593 

64. Male genitalia of Recurvaria, Strobisia, and Dichomeris 593 

65. Female genitalia of Gelechia, Keiferia, Gnorimoschema, and Ldta 

and head profiles of lAta 593 

66. Female genitalia of Chionodes and FilaUma 593 

67. Female genitalia of Bryotropha, Friseria, and FilaUma 593 

68. Female genitalia of Frumenta and Aroga 593 

69. Female genitalia of Faculta, Epilechia, Pseudochelaria, and Fascista. 593 

70. Female genitalia of Evippe, Recurvaria, Strobisia, and Stegasta 593 

71. Female genitalia of Dichomeris, Nothris, and Anacampsis 593 

vu 



VIII PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

TEXT FIGURES 

Page. 

1. Skull of Rhineura minutus, new species 13 

2. Skull and lower jaws of Rhineura sternbergii Walker, type 15 

3. Skull of Rhineura hatcherii Baur 15 

4. Skull and lower jaw of Glyptosaurus giganteus Gilmore 17 

5. Palatal view of skull and jaw of Glyptosaurus giganteus Gilmore J 8 

6. Right maxillary of ? Xestops piercei, new species, type 22 

7. Two dermal scutes of ? Xestops piercei, new species 23 

8. Left maxillary of ? Harpagosaurus silberlingii, new species, type 24 

9. Left maxillary of Paraprionosaurus wyomingensis, new species 25 

10. Tridere chelopa, new species: Antenna, gnathochilarium, legs, and 

gonopods 35 

11. Cambala annulata (Say): Gonopods 38 

12. Cambala cristiila, new species: Gonopods and first leg 40 

13. Catnbala texana, new species: Gonopods and legs 41 

14. Nannolene minor, new species: Gonopods and legs 44 

15. Nannolene violacea, new species: Anterior gonopod 47 

16. Pharodere radiata, new genus and species: Gnathochilarium, head, and 

gonopods 53 

17. Odac/iwrus peiasa<MS, new genus and species: Hea,d 56 

18. Endere disora, new genus and species: Antenna, head, gnathochilarium, 

and midbody segment 58 

19. Leiodere torreyana, new genus and species: Antenna, midbody segment, 

and gonopods 61 

20. Leiodere nana, new genus and species: Antenna, head, gnathochilarium, 

and gonopods 63 

21. Leiodere dasyura, new genus and species: Antenna, gnathochilarium, 

head, and gonopods 65 

22. Discocelis grisea, new species: Enteron and gonads 68 

23. Stylochus iniinicus Palombi 70 

24. Stylochus floridanus, new species: Anterior end 70 

25. Eustylochus meridianalis, new species 74 

26. Leptoplana angusta Verrill 76 

27. Stylochoplana floridana, new species 78 

28. Hoploplann thaisana, new species 79 

29. Conjuguterus parvus, new genus and species 82 

30. Oculoplana xoharloni, new genus and species 84 

31. Pseudoceros inaculosus, new^ species: Body, male and female genitalia, 

marginal tentacles, and tentacular and cerebral eyes 86 

32. Oligoclado floridanus, new genus and species: Ventral view and anterior 

end 88 

33. Acer otisa pellucida, new species: Dorsal view 90 

34. Prothiostomum lobalum, new species: Ventral view of body and of 

middle of body 92 

35. Species of Iphione and Lepidonotus 108 

36. Species of Halosydnella, new genus 112 

37. Species of Lepidasthenia, Eunoe, and Arctonoe 114 

38. Species of Harmotho'e and Eunoe 119 

39. Species of Harmothoe, Scalisetosus, Enipo, and Macellicephala 121 

40. Eupanthalis ynutilata (Treadwell) : Setae 124 

41. Eupolyodontes elongata (Treadwell): Prostomium, elytron, and setae. _ 126 

42. Diagrammatic sketch of Polyipnus 136 

43. Polyipnus unispinus, new species: Holotype 136 



ILLUSTRATIONS IX 

Page 

44. Polyipnus asteroides, new species: Holotype I39 

45. Polyipnus triphanos, new species: Holotype 140 

46. Species of Euphrosyne 171 

47. New species of Dugesia and Sorocelis 421 

48. New species of Sorocelis and Geoplana 424 

49. New species of Geoplana and Bipalium 429 

50. Species of Bipalium and Rhynchodemus 432 

51. Leptoplana vesiculata, new species: Type, copulatory complex 435 

52. Asellus hobbsi, new species: Legs of male and female 459 

53. Typical dermal denticles from the lateral surface of Mustelus norrisi, 

new species 463 

54. Typical dermal denticles from the lateral surface of Mustelus mustelus 

(Linnaeus) 464 

55. Outline of tails of Mustelus griseus Pietschmann and Mustelus norrisi, 

new species 465 

56. Poraniopsis japonica, new species: Spines 471 

57. Diagrams of portion of heads and bodies of Nautopaedium porosissimum, 

Porichthys myriaster, P. greenei, and P. margaritatus 487 

58. Bathylagus alascanus, new species: Holotype 506 

59. Macropinna microstoma, new genus and species: Holotype 510 

60. Macropinna microstoma, new genus and species 512 

6 1 . Macropinna microstoma, new genus and species 513 

62. Photonectops multipunctata, new genus and species: Holotype 517 

63. Sudis squamosa, new species: Holotype 521 

64. Lestidium (Bathysudis) par ri, new species: Holotype 521 

65. Myctophum oculcum, new species: Holotype 525 

66. Lampanyctus micropunctatus, new species: Paratype 528 

67. Neoscopelarchoides dentatus, new genus and species: Holotype 531 

68. Melamphaes cavernosus, new species: Holotype 534 

69. Melamphaes rugosus, new species: Holotype 536 

70. Oneir odes bulbosus, new species: Holotype 539 

71. Heads of Nothomyia parvicornis, new species, and Cyphomyia planifrons, 

new species, and wing of Macromeracis longicornis (Philippi) 598 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




issued R^?^viL QfM]} h ihe 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol.86 Washington: 1938 No. 3041 

REVISION OF THE NORTH AMERICAN BEETLES OF THE 
STAPHYLINID SUBFAMILY TACHYPORINAE— PART 2: 
GENUS COPROPORUS KRAATZ ^ 



By Richard E. Blackwelder 



About the year 1858 both Kraatz and Motschoulsky, working in- 
dependently, described and named a genus of Tachyporinae corre- 
sponding approximately to Erichson's Family I of Tachinus. To this 
genus Kraatz gave the name of Coproporik, and Motschoulsky that 
of Erchom/as. The identity of the two genera was soon recognized, 
but uncertainty as to the dates of publication, and therefore to the 
priority, resulted in opposing views by subsequent writers as to the 
proper name for the genus. LeConte, Fauvel, Sharp (1876), Eichel- 
baum, Bernhauer and Schubert, and Cameron have used Co'proporus, 
whereas Horn, Sharp (1883), Fowler, Fall, and Leng have used 
Erchomus. 

There have undoubtedly been previous investigations into this 
problem, but I believe no one has heretofore published the facts upon 
which the decision is based. The information outlined below was 
kindly supplied to me by A. Mequignon, member of the International 
Commission on Entomological Nomenclature. 

Coproporus Kraatz was published in the Naturgeschichte der 
Insecten Deutschlands, vol. 2, Staphylinii, p. 399, which was issued 
definitely in the year 1857, though bearing the date 1858 on the title 
page. Erchomus Motschoulsky was published in the Bulletin de la 
Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou, vol. 31, no. 3, p. 218, 
which was issued in 1858, probably in February. 

* Part 1 : Genus TachVporus Giavenhorst was published in Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 84, 
pp. 39-54, Nov. 17, 1936. 

83363—38 1 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

In 1877 the American species of this genus were monogi-aphed 
by Horn, who listed eight names and considered four to be valid. 
Since that time two new species have been described and one other 
reported from this countrj^ Both the new species are now considered 
synonyms, and three new species are described. 

In the original descriptions no genotypes of these genera are desig- 
nated, and I have found no later designations. In order to fix the 
names permanently I hereby designate Tachinus rutilus Erichson as 
genotype of Copi'oporus Kraatz, and Erchomus sanguinolentus Mots- 
choulsky as genotype of Ercliomus Motschoulsky. 

The material available includes approximately 775 specimens from 
North America and a considerable series of species from other parts 
of the New World. These comprise the United States National 
Museum collections and my own. 

Genus COPROPORUS Kraatz 

1857. Coproporus Kraatz, Naturgeschichte dor Insecten Deutschlands, vol. 2, 

p. 399, footnote. {Genotype: Tachinus 7-ufilus Erichson, designated 
here. ) 

1858. Erchomus Motschoui-skt, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscoii, vol. 31. pt. 3, p. 218. 
1869. Cilea Pandelle, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, sor. 4, vol. 9, p. 277. (Not J. 

Duval, 1857.) 

Body broad; head inclined, not margined at the sides; antennae 
11-segmented, feebly incrassate, inserted at the sides of the head ; 
maxillary palpi filiform, last segment acuminate; labial palpi fili- 
form, last segment longer; ligula bilobed; no ocelli; prosternmn 
short; anterior tarsi 5-segmented, simple; anterior coxae conical, 
prominent; elytra longer than pronotum, generally extended beneath 
the body; mesosternum carinate; posterior coxae transverse, contigu- 
ous, free ; first segment of hind tarsi moderate or short ; tibiae fim- 
briate at tip with unequal spinules ; abdomen feebly margined. 

This is a large genus occurring throughout the world. In all, 181 
species have been described from the New World, Europe, Africa, 
India, Australia, and the Philippine Islands. 

KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF COPROPORUS ^ 

1. Pronotum punctate 2 

Pronotum not punctate 4 

2. Elytra with a concavity at sides 3 

Elytra without a concavity at sides lecontei 

3. Elytra coarsely punctate ventriculus 

Elytra exceedingly minutely punctate infimus 

» The punctation of the pronotum and elytra is sometimes very minute and requires a 
high magnification to be vi.sible. Under low power the surface irregularities may appear 
to be punctures. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS COPROPORUS — BLACKWELDER 3 

4. Pronotum and elytra strigulose inflatus 

Pronotum and elytra not strigulose 5 

5. Elytra with a distinct concavity at sides 6 

Elytra at most flattened at sides 7 

6. Elytra distinctly punctate on disk nitilus 

Elytra not punctate on disk or very minutely and irregularly so laevis 

7. Elytra distinctly punctate on disk sparsus 

Elytra not punctate on disk or very minutely so arizonae 

COPROPORUS VENTRICULUS (Say) 

1834. Tachyporus ventricuhis Say, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 4, p. 466. 
3837. Tachyporus acuductus Kieby, Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol. 4, p. 90. 
1837. Tachyporus affinis Kirby, Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol. 4, p. 91. (Not 
Sharp, 1883.) 

1839. Tachinus giMulus Eeichson, Genera et species staphylinorum . . . , p. 252. 

1840. Tachinus ventriculus (Say), Erichson, Genera et species staphylino- 

rum . . . , p. 920. 
1846. Tachyporus punctulatus Melsheimeb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

vol. 2, p. 32. 
1859. Coproporus ventricuhis (Say), LeConte, The complete writings of Thomas 

Say . . . , vol. 2, p. 583. 
1877. Erchomus ventriculus (Say), Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, p. 108. 
1877. Erchomus acuductus (Kirby), Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, p. 126. 
1877. Erchomus affinis (Kirby), Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, p. 126. 
1877. Erchomus gibbulus (Erichson), Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, 

p. 126. 
1877. Erchomus punctulatus (Melsheimer), Horn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, 

p. 126. 
1884. Erchomus flavidus Casey, Contributions to the coleopterology of North 

America, pt. 2, p. 141. 
1915. Erchomus politus Manee, Ent. News, vol. 26, p. 175. (Not Sharp, 1876.) 

Color piceous; antennae, trophi, prosternum, and legs testaceous; 
frequently paler in great part. Head obtrapezoidal, abruptly trun- 
cated and declivous in front of the eyes ; surface above not distinctly 
punctulate but extremely minutely wrinkled, shining; gula wide 
but somewhat narrowed at middle, slightly elevated and convex. 
Antennae short, gradually expanding, segments 6-11 transverse, 
eleventh subequal to ninth and tenth together. Maxillary palpi 
short, stout; fourth segment longer than third but less thick and 
feebly tapering. Pronotum shining, minutely and irregularly punc- 
tulate. Mesosternum feebly carinate posteriorly, minutely strigulose. 
Surface of elytra uneven, distinctly punctate; with a broad con- 
cavity along the lateral margin; epipleurae inflexed against inner 
face of elytra. Abdomen feebly margined; the feeble punctures in- 
distinct because of the minute reticulations, above and beneath. 
Eighth tergite of male 4-lobed, lobes triangular, median pair a little 
longer; eighth sternite broadly semicircularly notched, this and the 
three preceding segments flattened at middle throughout their length. 



4 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM vol.80 

Eighth tergite of female Tvith four short bhmt lobes, the median 
pair slightly longer, all separated by narrow triangular excisions, 
lateral pair a little broader ; eighth sternite with four lobes, the me- 
dian pair broadly rounded, separated by a semicircular notch, and 
with four spinules on each, outer lobes shorter and more pointed and 
each with two or three long setae, a rudimentary third pair of lobes 
marked by a pair of long black setae on the lateral margins. 

Ty'pe locality. — Pennsylvania. 

Localities represented. — New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland. Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Ohio, Michigan, "Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, Texas, New 
Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Oregon, Washington, Ontario, 
Manitoba. Also recorded from Indiana and West Virginia. 

Remarks. — The type of this species has undoubtedly been lost. The 
Horn collection in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
contains specimens from Pennsylvania, Louisiana, Michigan, Fk)rida, 
and Arkansas. The variability of this species has given rise to the 
lengthy synonymy. The five specimens of E. flavidus in the Casey 
collection are uniformly pale, but any large series of this species 
contains similar immature specimens. No identified specimens of 
ventncuhis have been found in the Casey collection. E. politus Manee 
is represented in the collection of the writer by four specimens col- 
lected at the type locality by Manee. I am not able to separate these 
from a large series of ventriculus. The Horn collection contains a 
specimen labeled ''''Erchomus politus Manee n. sp. Type." 

COPROPORUS RUTILUS (Erichson) 

1839. Tachinus rutiUts Ebichson, Genera et species staphylinorurn . . . , p. 253. 
1855. Tachyporus brevis Sceiba, Ent. Zeit. Stettiu, vol. 16, p. 296. (Not Sharp, 

1876.) 
1859. Coproporus rutilus (Erichson), Kbaatz, Archiv fiir Naturg., vol. 25, pt. 1. 

p. 59. 
1883. Erchomus rutilus (Erichson), Sharp, Biologia Centrali-Americaua, Coleop- 

tera, vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 304. 
1924. Cilea rutilus (Erichson), Wolcott, Insectae Portoricensis, p. 79. 

Ruf opiceous to piceotestaceous ; base of antennae, trophi, legs, and 
often the pronotvmi testaceous. Head transverse, triangular in front, 
not abruptly declivous; surface smooth and shining; gula wide but 
narrowed at middle. Antennae shorter than the head and prothorax, 
segments 8-10 transverse, eleventh broad and flat, as long as the two 
preceding together. Fourth segment of maxillary palpi longer than 
third, as large at base and evenly conical. Pronotum smooth, shin- 
ing, impunctate. Mesosternum feebly carinate posteriorly. Elytra 



REVISION OF THE GENUS COPROPORUS — ^BLACKWELDER 5 

smooth, shining, sparsely but relatively coarsely punctured; with a 
distinct longitudinal concavity at the middle of the side, not close 
to the margin ; epipleurae free from inner face of elytra but inflexed 
far above the horizontal. Abdomen feebly margined, generally very 
much retracted ; sparsely and indistinctly punctate throughout, with 
minute reticulations. Eighth tergite of male with four narrow lobes, 
the median pair longer and separated by a shallow rounded incisure ; 
eighth sternite with a broad triangular notch, the angles prolonged. 
Eighth tergite of female with four slender lobes, the median pair a 
little longer, the outer pair each with a long black seta ; eighth ster- 
nite with four blunt lobes, the middle a little longer and with three 
spinules at tip, the outer each with a long black seta. 

Type locality. — Originally cited from "Americae ins. Puerto Kico 
et St. Thomae, in Columbia." 

Localities represented. — Texas (Brownsville, Victoria, Columbus, 
Houston). 

Remarks. — This species is common throughout Central America, 
northern South America, and the West Indies. It has not been pre- 
viously recorded from the United States. Tachyporus hrevis Scriba 
is included as a synonym on the authority of the Junk and Schenk- 
ling catalog. 

COPROPORUS LECONTEI, new name 

1863. Coproporus punctipennis LeConte, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 6, no. 167, 

p. 31. (Not Kraatz, 1859.) 
1877. Erchomus punctipennis (LeConte), Hoen, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, 

p. 107. 

Black; antennae, trophi, and legs rufotestaceous. Head trans- 
verse, not abruptly declivous in front of the eyes ; above impunctate, 
very minutely wrinkled, shining; beneath densely wrinkled; gula 
moderately wide and narrowed at middle. Antennae about as long 
as head and pronotum, feebly expanding distally but no segments 
transverse, eleventh equal to ninth and tenth together; finely pubes- 
cent from the fourth segment. Fourth segment of maxillary palpi 
longer than third, a little narrower at base than third and feebly 
conical. Pronotum minutely punctulate and very indistinctly and 
irregularly strigulose. Mesosternum carinate, carina elevated into a 
thin lamella nearly as high as long, abruptly terminated anteriorly. 
Surface of elytra uneven, finely and sparsely punctate, very indis- 
tinctly strigulose; sides without concavity except for a fine groove 
just at the edge ; epipleurae free from inner face of elytra and nearly 
horizontal. Abdomen distinctly margined; sparsely punctured and 
strigulose above and beneath. Eighth tergite of male with four short 
equal triangular lobes, the middle pair separated by a rounded exci- 
sion, laterals somewhat anterior ; eighth sternite triangularly notched, 



6 PROCEEDIIfGS OF THE IS^ATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

tlie notch slightly wider than deep, apex angular; seventh sternite 
very broadly and feebly emarginate throughout its width. Eighth 
tergite of female 4-lobed, the lobes long and slender, the median pair 
a little longer and separated by a narrow acute excision ; eighth ster- 
nite with six lobes, the median pair longest and each bearing two 
spinules at tip. laterals blunt and each bearing a stout spine. 

Type locality. — Valley of the Gila River, Ariz. 

Lectotype. — Mus. Comp. Zool. no. 6497. Bears only a silver disk. 

Localities represented. — Specimens have been seen also from Ari- 
zona (Tucson, Catalina Springs) and California (Hesperia, El Rio, 
Calaveras). 

Remarks. — The three males in the Horn collection all have the sex- 
ual characters of ventriculus. The name used by LeConte for this 
SDecies was preoccupied by Kraatz, who used it four years previously 
for a species from "India orientale." 

COPROPORUS LAEVIS LcConte 

1863. Coproponis lacvis LkConte, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. G, no. 167, p. 31. 
1877. Erchomus laevis (LeConte), Hokn, Trans. Anier. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, p. 108. 

Piceous to piceotestaceous ; antennae, trophi. and legs testaceous. 
Head transverse, not abruptly declivous, triangular in front; smooth, 
shining, impunctate; gula wide in front and at rear, narrowed be- 
liind the middle; ventral surface strigulose. Antennae not quite so 
long as head and prothorax together, with segments S-10 transverse, 
the eleventh not quite so long as the ninth and tenth together. Maxil- 
lary palpi unusually long, fourth segment longer than the third, as 
large at base, conical. Pronotum smooth, shining, impunctate. 
Mesosternmn moderately carinate posteriorly. Elytral surface un- 
even, but shining, impunctate except at the sides; sides with a dis- 
tinct concavity at middle above the margin; epipleurae free from 
inner surface of elytra but inflexed far above the horizontal position. 
Abdomen feebly margined, surface strongly but sparsely punctate 
throughout, strigulose. Eighth tergite of male with four triangular 
lobes, the median pair more posterior, separated by a narrowly 
rounded excision; eighth sternite with a broad triangular notch, one- 
quarter wider than deep, angles prominent. Eighth tergite of female 
with four slender elongate lobes, the median pair a little longer, all 
separated by acute incisures; eighth sternite with six lobes, the me- 
dian pair much longer, broad, and armed with three or four spinules 
at tip, lateral lobes descending, each bearing a large black seta at 
apex. 

Type locality. — Southern States. (The type specimen bears a small 
pink square, apparently indicating "Middle States.") 



EEVISION OF THE GENUS COPKOPORUS — BLACKWELDER 7 

Lectotype. — Miis. Comp. Zool. no. 6498. Bears only a small pink 
square. 

Localities refresented. — In the present collections are specimens 
from Florida, Maryland, Virginia, Louisiana, Tennessee, Ohio, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Alabama, Texas, and Kansas. It has been recorded 
from Mexico and Indiana. 

Rerrmrks. — This is the only species in our region that has the head, 
pronotum, and elytral disk totally devoid of punctation. It differs 
from C. lecontei.^ new name {punctipennis of LeConte), also in the 
development of the mesosternal carina, the lateral impression of the 
elytra, the inflection of the epipleurae, and minor characters of the 
eighth abdominal segment. 

COPROPORUS SPARSUS, new species 

Piceous ; antennae, trophi, and legs testaceous. Head oval, slightly 
transverse, obtusely triangular in front; surface shining, impunctate 
above. Antennae not quite so long as head and prothorax, gradu- 
ally expanded but only the ninth and tenth transverse, together as 
long as the eleventh. Gula broad, narrowed at middle. Maxillary 
palpi stout, fourth segment a little longer than third, about as large 
at base, conical. Pronotum smooth, shining, impunctate. Mesoster- 
num moderately carinate posteriorly. Elytral surface uneven but 
shining, sparsely and irregularly but distinctly punctured; flattened 
at sides but not distinctly concave ; epipleurae inflexed almost against 
the inner face of elytra. Abdomen feebly margined, strongly 
retracted, sparsely but coarsely punctured throughout, strigulate. 
Male unknown. Eighth tergite of female with four long, slender 
lobes, the median pair a little longer; eighth sternite with six lobes, 
the median pair longer and each bearing two curved spinules. 

Type locality. — Fort Grant, Ariz. 

Types. — Holotype (a female from Fort Grant, Ariz., 12.7, collec- 
tion of Hubbard and Schwarz), U.S.N.M. no. 51076; one paratype 
(same data) in the collection of the writer. 

This species was recognized as new by Schwarz and was so labeled 
by him in the Hubbard and Schwarz collection. 

COPROPORUS INFLATUS (Horn) 
1877. Erchomus inflatus Horn, Traus. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6, p. 107. 

Piceous to rufopiceous; base of antennae, trophi, and legs testa- 
ceous; elytra and sides of pronotum generally rufous. Head trans- 
verse, abruptly narrowed before the eyes but produced at middle and 
not declivous; surface shining but distinctly strigulose, impunctate; 
gula wide but strongly narrowed at middle, smooth and convex ; sur- 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

face beneath strigulose. Antennae about as long as head and pro- 
thorax; segments 8-10 about as wide as long, eleventh not equal to 
ninth and tenth together. Maxillary palpi long and slender, last 
segment nearly twice as long as third, as large at base, freely conical. 
Pronotum shining, impunctate, but distinctly strigulose. Mesoster- 
num strongly carinate- Elytra punctate ^ and strongly strigulose; 
not impressed at the sides ; epipleurae free but inflexed far above the 
horizontal position. Abdomen feebly margined ; coarsely but sparsely 
punctured throughout and strigulose. Eighth tergite of male with 
four slender lobes, tlie median pair longer and separated by a trian- 
gular incisure; eighth sternite witli an acute triangular notch, about 
as wide as deep, angles produced into slender lobes. Eighth tergite 
of female with four long slender lobes, the median pair a little longer, 
all separated by acutely rounded excisions wider than the lobes; 
eighth sternite with six lobes, the two median pairs long and slender, 
the middle pair armed each with two curved spinules, the others 
bearing each a long black seta. 

Type locality. — Camp Grant, Ariz. 

Lectotype. — Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia no. 3140. A male labeled 
"Ariz." 

Localities represented. — Specimens from the following additional 
localities have been seen: Arizona (Tucson), California, and Texas. 

Remarks. — This species is almost certainly involved in the syn- 
onj^my of the tropical American species fiavipalpis Sharp, ventralis 
Sharp, gravidus Sharp, ignavus Sharp, rotundatus Sharp, elatus 
Erichson, and convexus Erichson. 

COPROPORUS ARIZONAE. new species 

Piceous; antennae, trophi, legs, and sides of pronotum testaceous. 
Head transverse, triangular in front; smooth, shining, impunctate 
above; gula wide, but short and rapidly narrowed posteriorly. An- 
tennae nearly as long as head and prothorax, segments not transverse, 
eleventh subequal to ninth and tenth together. Maxillary palpi stout, 
fourth segment slender, small at base and one-half longer than third. 
Pronotum shining, impunctate, but with exceedingly minute surface 
irregularities. Mesosternum strongly carinate posteriorly, the carina 
forming a thin lamella between the coxae and ending abruptly over 
the apex of the metasternum. Elytra shining, with surface slightly 
uneven, but not punctate ; * without concavity at the sides, but gen- 
erally flattened, especially posteriorly ; epipleurae inflexed very close 
to inner face of elytra. Abdomen feebly margined; sparsely and 

» The punctures are frequently obscured by the convergence of the strigulae. 
*With low magnification the elytra appear to be minutely punctured, but with the 
highest magnification obtainable they are seen to be merely slightly uneven. 



REVISION OF THE GENUS COPROPOEUS — BLACKWELDER Q 

coarsely punctate tliroughoiit, reticulate. Eighth tergite of male with 
four blunt lobes, the outer pair twice as long as the inner but not 
extending as far posteriorly, separated from the inner pair by deep 
incisures and each bearing a long black seta, the inner pair separated 
by a very short notch and each bearing a short pale seta; eighth 
sternite with a large notch, nearly semicircular owing to obliteration 
of the apical angle, a little wider than deep. Eighth tergite of 
female Avith six lobes, the outer one-half as long as the intermediate, 
each bearing a short pale seta, incisures all narrow and deep ; eighth 
sternite with six blunt lobes, the median each bearing two curved 
spinules, the lateral four each with a long black seta. 

Tijpe locality. — Cave Creek, Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz, 
Typef^. — Holotype (a female from Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., 
24.5 (May 24, 1897), collection of Hubbard and Schwarz), and 31 
paratypes, U.S.N.M. no. 51078; four paratypes in the collection of 
the writer; paratypes from same locality and also Santa Rita Moun- 
tains and Catalina Mountains, Ariz. 

Remarks. — Thirty-six specimens of this species were segregated in 
the Hubbard and Schwarz collection as '"''Ercho'nius n. sp." One speci- 
men also bears the label '■''ErcJiomus convex\is Lee." in Schwarz's 
handwriting. This is probably a mistake for convexus Erichson, but 
that species is quite distinct. One specimen from west of Beaver, 
Devils River, Tex., and one from Cordova, Veracruz, Mexico, are 
doubtfully referred to this species. They are paler and larger but 
do not seem to differ structurally. 

COPROPORUS INFIMUS (Duval) 

1857. Tachinus infimuH J. DuVal in Sagra's Historia fisica, politica y natural 

de la isla de Cuba, Coleoptera, p. 33. 
38G3. Coproporus infimus (DuVal), Cheveolat and Fauvel, Ann. Soc. Ent. 

France, ser. 4, vol. 3, p. 430. 
1920. Erchomiis infimus (DuVal), Leng, Catalog of the Coleoptera of America, 

north of Mexico, p. 111. 

Piceous to piceotestaceous ; antennae, trophi, legs, and apex of 
elytra paler. Head transverse, abruptly narrowed in front of the 
eyes but produced into a broad clypeal lobe between the antennae; 
shining, exceedingly minutely punctate; gula broader at base than 
apex but narrowed at anterior third ; head beneath coarsely strigulose. 
Antennae about as long as head and prothorax, segments 7-10 trans- 
verse, eleventh about equal to ninth and tenth together. Pronotum 
smooth, shining, exceedingly minutely and sparsely punctured. Meso- 
sternum feebly carinate posteriorly. Elytra smooth, shining, irides- 
cent, very minutely and sparsely punctured similarly to the prono- 
tum ; sides explanate to form a broad marginal concavity extending 
throughout the length ; epipleurae broad, free, and nearly horizontal, 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Abdomen distinctly margined but generally much retracted and 
scarcely visible; moderately densely but not coarsely punctured 
throughout. Eighth tergite of male divided into three lobes, the me- 
dian broad and feebly triangularly notched, the lateral pair with 
black setae; eighth sternite with a shalloAv triangular notch, two- 
thirds wider than deep, the angles rounded. Eighth tergite of female 
with four narrowed lobes, the median pair a little longer, the laterals 
bearing each a long black seta; eighth sternite with six lobes, the 
median four nearly equal, median two each bearing four spinules at 
tip ; each lateral with a long black seta. 

Tyfe locality. — Cuba. 

Localities represented. — This species has been found at the follow- 
ing localities in the United States : Florida (Crescent City, Biscayne, 
Indian River). It is a common Cuban species. 

In the Hubbard and Schwarz collection this species was labeled b.v 
Schwarz as ^'■Erchomus n. sp." 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTINC OFFICE: 1931 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol.86 Washington: 1938 No. 3042 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN FOSSIL 
LIZARDS FROM NORTH AMERICA 



By Charles W. Gilmore 



Since the appearance of my memoir entitled "Fossil Lizards of 
North America" ^ in 1928, the United States National Museum has 
acquired, either through purchase or from its various paleontological 
expeditions, a number of fossil lizard specimens. Some of these con- 
tribute to a better understanding of forms already known, while 
others are here described as new. The type of Rhineura Htembergii 
Walker is illustrated for the first time. AJl the illustrations have 
been made by Sydney Prentice. 

Family AMPHISBAENIDAE 

Genus RHINEURA Cope 

The genus Rhineura as applied to extinct forms now includes the 
three species R. liatcherii Baur, R. coloradoensis Cope, and R. stern- 
hergii Walker. A fourth species, R. minutus, is described below. 
All are from the Oligocene, R. coloradoensis being from the Chadron, 
the others from the Brule. 



1 Gilmore, Charles W., Mem. Nat. Acad. Sri , vol. 22, 1928. 

85354—38 1 11 



X2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

RHINEURA MINUTUS, new species 

Figure 1 

Type. — U. S. N. M. no. 12158, consisting of the skull, lower jaws, 
23 articulated vertebrae, and a few incomplete ribs. Collected by 
M. V. Walker, 1931. 

Type locality. — A small badland area that is bisected by U. S. 
Highway No. 20, about 8 miles east of Douglas, Converse County, 
Wyo. 

Horizon. — Lower nodular layer of the Brule, Oligocene. 

Description. — The type specimen was found weathered out on the 
surface of a nodule. The skull of this specimen appears to be the 
smallest reptilian cranium that has yet been found in North America, 
measuring only 7.8 mm in length. It is thus slightly shorter than 
the type skull of Rhinsura stenibergii (see fig. 2) and also is less 
robust in its other proportions. Both of these specimens were found 
at the same locality, and the small size of the National Museum indi- 
vidual led me at first to regard it as pertaining to R. stei-nhergii. 
Through the courtesy of George F. Sternberg, who loaned me the 
type, I was able to make direct comparisons of the two skulls, and 
differences were found that indicate that they pertain to distinct 
species. 

From R. sterribei^gii the skull of R. minutus is distinguished by the 
less steeply arched profile, the absence of a distinct sagittal ridge, the 
absence of roughening on the frontal and parietal surfaces, nar- 
rower occipital region, slenderer maxillary, shorter precoronoidal 
part of jaw, and longer postcoronoidal part. All these differences are 
clearly seen by a comparison of figures 1 and 2. 

From R. hatcherii Baur, known from the Brule formation of South 
Dakota and Nebraska, R. minutus is at once distinguished by its 
much smaller size, being about one-half the dimensions of the known 
skulls of that species. Furthermore, those characters enumerated 
above tliat distinguished it from R. stemhergii also serve to differ- 
entiate R. minutus from R. liatcherii. 

The absence of a sagittal ridge on the parietal and supraoccipital 
and the lack of roughening of the frontal and parietal surfaces might 
suggest the juvenile character of the individual, if it were not for the 
fact that most of the skull sutures are so thoroughly coossified as to 
defy detection. It is concluded, therefore, that the type specimen is 
fully adult. 

In profile the upper border is evenly rounded from front to back, 
differing in this respect from all known species of Rhineura both 
living and extinct that have the facial and occipital angles much 
more steeply inclined. This depression of the skull brings about a 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS GILMORE 



13 




pmx-v^^^ ^ 



narrowing of the maxillary as compared with B. sterribergii^ ap- 
proaching R. hatcherii more nearly in this respect. 

Viewed from above (see fig. 1, B) the skull is more regularly 
elongate, with a relatively narrower occipital region than in any of 
the other known species. The paired f rontals are deeply emarginate 
at the center, but their superior surfaces are perfectly smooth, not 
roughened as in R. hatcherii and R. sternbergii. The anterior pa- 
rietal surface is flattened and gradually slopes off on either side, in- 
stead of being angular as in the 
other species. There is no trace of 
a median sagittal ridge more pos- 
teriorly, the surface rounding over 
evenly from side to side. There is 
faint indication of the sutural con- 
tact with the supraoccipital as 
shown in figure 1, B. None of the 
other sutures of the occipital region 
can be differentiated. 

The nose is slightly incomplete, 
as the thin part of the nasal bones 
forming the covering for the nares 
is eaten away, and in figure 1 it 
has been restored after Carnegie 
Museum specimen no. 423A. Un- 
fortunately, only a few of the 
sutures separating the individual 
elements can be distinguished. 

Since the premaxillary is com- 
plete only at the center, its lateral 
extent cannot be certainly deter- 
mined. On the ventral surface it 
bears a single tooth (see fig. 1, C), 
as in the other species. Its pos- 
terior extent between the nasals is 
not certainly determined as shown 
in the illustrations. 

The maxillary carries six small, sharply pointed teeth. It is tri- 
angular in outline, relatively narrower and slenderer in front than 
the maxillary of R. sternbergii. A row of small foramina extends 
along the lower edge parallel with the alveolar border. About mid- 
way of the length of the maxillary the three anterior teeth are 
separated by a considerable space from the posterior three. This 
same arrangement prevails in R. sternbergii but not in specimens 
of R. hatcherii. 




Figure 1. — SkuU of Rhineura minutua, 
new species, type (U.S.N.M. no. 
12158): A, Lateral view; B, dorsal 
view ; C, ventral view, an, angular ; 
ar, articular ; h», basisphenoid ; o, 
coronoid ; d, dentary ; f, frontal ; mx, 
maxillary ; n, external nares ; na, na- 
sal ; oc, occipital condyle ; p, parietal ; 
pmx, premaxillary ; pa, presphenoid ; pt, 
pterygoid ; a.oc, supraoccipital ; t, pre- 
maxillary tooth. Five times natural 
size. 



14 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



vou 86 



The nasals are as in R. stemhergii but relatively shorter. 

The frontals are differentiated only by the median and posterior 
sutures. The posterior median line is less deeply indented by the 
parietals than in R. stemhergii. 

The posterior extent of the parietal and its union with the supra- 
occipital are faintly indicated as shown in figure 1, B. This surface 
shows no indication of a sagittal ridge, which forms such a prom- 
inent feature of the other species. 

In the palatal view none of the sutures can be determined ; the up- 
ward pitch of the basisphenoid and parasphenoid surfaces is less 
pronounced than in R. sternbergii. The posterior limits of the large 
scalelike pterygoids can be clearly determined as shown in figure 1, C. 
Their junction with the palatines, however, is fully coalesced and 
cannot be determined. The anterior palatal region is hidden by the 
articulated lower jaws and is therefore not available for study. 

Lower jaws. — The lower jaws remained in an articulated state, but 
only the dentary and coronoid sutures show clearly, all others being 
fused. Compared with the ramus of R. stemhergii^ the jaw is slend- 
erer and the coronoid has a more anterior position, thereby making 
the postcoronoidal part of the ramus considerably longer. The 
number of teeth in the lower jaw cannot be determined from tliis 
specimen. 



Table 1. — Comparative measurements of skulls of Rhlneura 



Measurement 



Greatest length at center 

Greatest width across squamosals 

Greatest width across orbits 

Least width of brain case 

Length of lower jaw 

Space occupied by upper teeth 



R. minutus 

U.S.N. M. no. 

12158 (type) 



Mm 

7.8 
3.3 
2.9 
1.6 
5.0 
2.0 



R. sternbergii 
(type) 



Mm 
8.0 
4.0 
3.0 
1. 7. 
4. 1 
2.0 



R. hatcherii 

P. M. no. 

11309 (typo) 



Mm 
13.5 
5.7 
4.0 
3.2 
8.75 
3.3 



Vertebrae. — There are 23 articulated vertebrae preserved with this 
specimen. The anterior end of the series was in contact with the 
skull. The first two vertebrae, however, are damaged, and they can- 
not be positively identified as being the atlas and axis. In fact, the 
absence of hypapophyses indicates that a few vertebrae may be 
missing from the anterior end of the series. Except for their very 
much smaller size, I am unable to detect any features that would 
distinguish these vertebrae from those of R. hatcherii which I have 
previously described.- The series has a greatest length of 31 mm. 



• Mem. Nat. Acad. Scl., vol. 22, p. 43, 1928. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS — GILMORE 



15 



pr 



RHINEURA STERNBERGU Walker 
FiGITBE 2 

Rhineura sternbergil Walker, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol. 35, p. 223, 1932. 

This species was established by M. V. Walker on a beautifully 
preserved skull and lower jaws, with the sutures plainly discernible; 
thus most of the skull elements 
can be fully differentiated. A 

Walker gave a most complete 
and thorough description of the 
type specimen, but without illus- 
trations. Through the courtesy 
of George F. Sternberg, in whose 
private collection the specimen 
belongs, I am now enabled to 
present for the first time two 
views (fig. 2) of this interesting 
specimen. 

This species was distinguished 
from R. hatcheHi as follows : 
"Viewed from the side, the skull 
of Rhineura stemhergii differs 
from R. hatcherii in being pro- 
portionately longer in the facial 
angle, and proportionately 
shorter in the occipital angle. 
In other words, the slightly 
rounded ascending facial angle 
of R. stemhergii continues to a 
point considerably posterior of 

the point at which it turns and descends in R. hatcherii. The skull 
thus appears more highly arched, proportionately, than in R. hatch- 
Q^l * * *^ 'pj^g nasals are proportionately much longer in Rhi- 




FiGDRE 2. — Skull and lower jaws of RM- 
neura sternbergii Walker, type : A, Lateral 
view ; B, dorsal view, an, angular ; ar, 
articular ; c, coronoid ; d, dentary ; f, 
frontal ; mx, maxillary ; na, nasal ; oCj oc- 
cipital condyle ; p, parietal ; pf, prefrontal ; 
pmx, premaxillary ; pj-o, prootic ; qu, quad- 
rate ; s.oc, supraoccipital. Five times nat- 
ural size. 




ec 



pmx- 

ar 

FiGDRB 3. — Skull of Rhineura hatcherii Baur (Carnegie Museum no. 423A) viewed from the 
left side, alsp, alisphenoid ; ar, articular ; c, coronoid ; d, dentary ; ec, extra columella ; 
f, frontal ; mx, maxillary ; n, nasal ; oc, occipital condyle ; p, parietal ; pf, prefrontal ; 
pmx, premaxillary ; pro, prootic ; q, quadrate ; sa, surangular ; sq, squamosal ; st, stapes. 
Four times natural size. After Gilmore. 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

neura stembergii, and the superior process of the premaxillary ex- 
tends much farther posteriorly between the nasals. The maxil- 
lary is less triangular and more rounded anteriorly. The precoro- 
noidal part of the dentary is shorter than the postcoronoidal portion. 
Also, the most anterior process of the coronoid terminates slightly 
behind the last tooth.'' 

When direct comparison of the original skulls of R. sterribergii and 
R. hatcheHi is made, the supposed difference in the facial and oc- 
cipital angles of the skulls largely disappears, as may be clearly 
seen by comparing figures 2 and 3. The steeper premaxillary region 
in R. sterribergii makes the nose of this species much blunter than in 
R. hatcherii and R. minutus. 

The other characters used by Walker for differentiating R. stern- 
hergii are as stated by him and effectually distinguish the species. 

Family ANGUIDAE 
Genus GLYPTOSAURUS Marsh 

GLYPTOSAUBUS GIGANTEUS Gilmore 

FiGUBE 4; Pl-vte 1 

Olyptosaurus giganteus Gilmobh; Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 22, p. 119, pi. 14, 
fig. 1, 1928. 

The acquisition by the United States National Museum of two 
well-preserved specimens referable to the little-known Glypfosaur>/s 
gigant£us is of interest in contributing to a better understanding 
of this species. The type specimen, Carnegie Museum no. 1471, con- 
sists of the frontal portion of the skull, covered on its superior 
surface vrith osseous dermal scutes. Although this fragmentary 
specimen displayed minor distinctive characteristics, its large size 
was the principal distinguishing feature. 

The most complete specimen, U.S.N.M. no. 13869, consists of the 
almost complete skull and lower jaws to which is attached, in situ, 
a considerable portion of the dermal scuta that form the protective 
armor of the neck and the forward portion of the body (see pi. 1). 
In this latter respect it is the most complete specimen of a Ghjpto- 
saurus that has yet been discovered and the first to give an adequate 
conception of the arrangement of the dermal scuta on the anterior 
part of the animal. 

The second specimen, U.S.N.M. no. 13861, consists of a nearly 
complete skull with the articulated ramus of the right side. Both 
of these specimens were collected in 1935 by George F. Sternberg 
from the Brule formation (Oreodon beds) of the Oligocene, about 
8 miles southeast of Douglas, Converse County, Wyo. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS GILMORE 



17 



/Skull. — Both skulls lack their premaxillaries, but otherwise the 
crania are fairly complete. Since the skulls have much of their outer 
surfaces covered with tuberculated scuta, there is but little of the 
structure, aside from the palate, to be observed. The skull of this 
species is blocklike, broad across the parietals, and gradually nar- 
rowing from the back of the orbits forward. In profile there is a 
sag in the forward parietal region, but from a point above the center 
of the orbit the superior surface curves regularly downward to the 
nose. The central part of the frontonasal region of the skull is trans- 
versely hollowed out. 

The entire external surface of the skull, except for a narrow strip 
paralleling the dental border of the maxillae, is covered by tubercu- 
lated osseous scuta. From a study of both skulls it has been possible 
to work out the extent and arrangement of nearly the entire scutel- 
lation, as shown in figure 4. 




Figure 4. — Skull and lower jaw of Olyptosaurus giganteus Gilmore : Lateral view of 
U.S.N.M. no. 13869 ; scutellation restored from opposite side and from specimen U.S.N.M. 
no. 13861. ar, articular; ang, angular; c, coronoid ; d, dentary ; mx, maxillary; na, 
nasal ; o, orbit ; sa, surangular ; sq, squamosal. Natural size. 



Comparison of the scutellation of the top of the two skulls shows 
considerable variation in the sizes of the scutes, though their general 
arrangement is much the same in both specimens. Those of U.S.N.M. 
no. 13861 are the coarser and in that respect approach nearest to the 
type specimen with which it has been directly compared. On the 
dorsal side the scutes are arranged in irregular longitudinal rows, 
becoming more regular in their arrangement above the orbits. In 
this species the scutes have angularly convex upper surfaces, which 



18 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



are thickly studded with small tubercles without definite arrange- 
ment. On the sides of the skull posterior to the orbit the scutes are 
arranged in longitudinal rows, and they gradually increase in size 
from above downward, more especially on the posterior half of the 
skull. The form of their upper surfaces also changes from the highly 
convex to nearly flat surfaces with the tubercles arranged in three 
to four concentric rows around the periphery of the scute, the center 
being filled with smaller tubercles without definite arrangement. The 
tubercle pattern is similar to that of the type specimen of G. ocellatua 
Marsh, which is now regarded as a synonym of G. sylvestris.^ This 
specimen thus offers further proof of the correctness of that conclu- 
sion. 




FiGORB 5. — Palatal view of skull and Jaw of Olyptosaurus giganteus Gilmore : U.S.N.M. 
no. 13861. an, angular; bo, basloccipital ;'b«, basisphenoifi ; d, dentary ; Ju, jugal ; mx, 
maxillary ; oc, occipital condyle ; pi, palatine ; pt, pterygoid ; sa, surangular ; v, vomer. 
Natural size. 

The orbit is encircled by a complete row of 17 or more scutes. 
Douglass found 20 surrounding the orbit of G. montanibs. In the top 
of the right orbit of U.S.N.M. no. 13869 is a row of six scutes that 
completely covers the projecting edges of the postfrontal, frontal, 
and prefrontal bones and corresponds in position to the row of five 
supraorbital plates in Gerrhonotus or the lesser number in Peltosau- 
rus. 

In front of the orbit the scutes grow progressively smaller from 
above downward and cover all the bone surfaces except a 3-millimeter 
strip along the lower edge of the maxillary. All known Glyptosawras 



* Mem. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. 22, p. 99, 1928. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 1 







> 



-f , 5 



CI, oj 



[in rt 



p 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS — GILMORE 19 

specimens show this strip to be free of osseous scutes, nor have any 
been found attached to the lower jaws. There is a tendency for these 
cranial scutes to fuse with the underlying bones. The fusion or non- 
fusion of the scutes is probably largely determined by the age of the 
individual. 

Palate. — The palatal region of U.S.N.M. no. 13861 is quite complete, 
lacking only the left pterygoid and portions of the basioccipital and 
basisphenoid, and for the first time gives an adequate conception of 
the palatal structure in the genus Glyptosaurus as shown in figure 5. 

Most of the occipital condyle and the processes are missing from 
the basioccipital. It is coossified by a straight transverse suture with 
the basisphenoid. The basipterygoid gives off two wide divergent 
processes near its anterior termination for articulation with the ptery- 
goids. These are relatively shorter than in Peltosaurus. The ptery- 
goid extends forward and inward from the quadrate with which it 
was in contact. Forward of its contact wdth the basisphenoid, the 
inner border continues straight forward to the palatine. On the inner 
side of the ventral surface, beginning immediately in advance of the 
pterygoid-basisphenoid articulation, is an elongated narrow patch of 
so-called pterygoid teeth. These teeth are tubercular, closely and ir- 
regularly crowded together, and collectively resemble the pattern on 
some of the dermal scutes (see fig. 5). 

The palatine bone is short, with a bifurcated anterior end, the outer 
branch articulating with the inner side of the maxillary, the inner 
branch with the vomer. Much of the palatal surface is covered by a 
rounded patch of palatine teeth. These tubercular teeth are similar 
in form and distribution to those of the pterygoid, differing only in 
the extent and shape of the aggregation, which is shorter and more 
rounded than the long narrow patch on the pterygoids. In the pres- 
ence of patches of toothlike structures on both the pterygoids and pala- 
tines Glyptosaurus closely resembles Melanosaurus of the "Wasatch. 
The presence of patches of tooth structures on both pterygoid and 
palatine bones shows that I was in error in ascribing all fragmentary 
parts having tooth patches in Glyptosaurus to the pterygoids.* In 
my figures the rounded shape of the tooth patches shows them to be 
palatine, not pterygoid, as erroneously designated. 

The vomers are separated from one another along the median line 
except toward their anterior ends. They are elongate, with rounded 
swollen palatal surfaces. The posterior end is reduced to a slender 
rod that articulates with the inner anterior branch of the palatine. 
There is no indication of vomerine teeth, though they are present in 
the related Melanosaums. They are also absent in Peltosaurus. 

* Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., toI. 22, pi. 15, flgs. 4, 8 ; pi. 19, fig. 10, 1928. 
85354—38 2 



20 



PROCEEDIls'GS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



Lower jaws. — The sutures in the three rami under consideration are 
clearly determinable, but the arrangement and extent of the separate 
elements show no characteristics that would in any way distinguish 
them from the other species of the genus. Since the structure of the 
ramus in Glyptosauni^s has been quite fully described ^ it is unneces- 
sary here to enter into further details. 

Table 2. — Measurements of skulls and jaws of Glyptosaurus giganteus 



Measurement 



U.S.N. M. 
no. 13861 



U.S.N. M. 
no. 13869 



Skulls 

Greatest length of skull, about 

Greatest width of skull, across parietal 

Greatest width of skvill, between orbital borders. 

Greatest height of skull 

Greatest height of skull with mandible 

Anteroposterior diameter of orbit 

Vertical diameter of orbit 



Jaws 

Greatest length of ramus, about 

Depth of ramus at posterior end of tooth row 

Depth of ramus at anterior end of tooth row 

Depth of ramus posterior to coronoid 

Transverse width middle of tooth series 

Transverse width between coronoid and cotylus 

Greatest transverse diameter across articulated rami. 



Mm 

128 
54 

34. 5 
41. 5 
58 
24 
20.5 



112 
15 



A/m 



58 
36 



12 
9.5 
15 



60 
24 
19 



108 
14 

6 
11 
11. 5 

3 
56 



Dermal scutes. — The osseous dermal scutes of Glyptosaurus that 
surround the neck and anterior part of the body are beautifully 
preserved in U.S.N.M. no. 13869 (see pi. 1). These are arranged in 
transverse and longitudinal rows, parts of 15 transverse rows being 
present in this specimen and little disturbed from their normal place- 
ment. The transverse rows of rectangular scutes immediately pos- 
terior to the skull cover the dorsal surface, the right side, and the 
region under the throat. More posteriorly, however, the scutes are 
missing on the ventral surface, as are most of those on the left side. 
With the exception of the scutes forming the median dorsal row, the 
others are nearly all rectangular in shape. The first two rows pos- 
terior to the skull are about as long as wide, whereas those that 
follow are nearly twice as long as wide. The scutes are closely 
joined by their lateral edges, and their ends are imbricated, the extent 
of the imbrication indicated by a smooth transverse band across their 
anterior ends. In the few scutes Avhere the anterior end is exposed 
this smooth band is very narrow, measuring about one-sixth the total 
length of the scute. It is quite evident that this overlap is much 



•Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 22, pp. 110, 111, 1928. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS GILMORE 21 

greater in other parts of the animal, since scattered scutes found 
with other specimens show this smooth band to be one-fourth the 
total length of the scute. 

The exposed surfaces of all the scutes are thickly studded with 
rounded tubercles. Those on the margins are usually arranged in 
two or more concentric rows. The tubercles inside these outer rows 
are usuall}^ smaller and without definite arrangement, except that 
there is a tendency in some scutes to form subcircular rows around 
the low nodelike carina that occurs on the posterior dorsal surface. 
Except on the median dorsal row the carina is always placed nearer 
to the inner than to the outer side of the scute. This fact would 
enable one to segregate scattered scutes into the right and left series. 

The ventral scutes have the same rectangular shape, but they are 
distinguished from those described above by their smaller size, absence 
of a carina, and less prominently developed tubercles without def- 
inite arrangement. Since the anteriormost rows of the ventral 
scutes preserved cover the posterior end of the ramus, it seems quite 
probable that in life they continued farther forward under the jaws. 

The scutes of the median dorsal row differ from the others in being 
wedge-shaped, wider in front than behind, and the low nodelike 
carina centrally placed on the posterior half. Slight disarrange- 
ment renders the count a little uncertain, but there appear to be 14r 
longitudinal rows of scutes, enumerating from the median dorsal 
row to the midventral region. This would indicate the complete cir- 
cumference as being composed of 29 longitudinal rows of plates at a 
point inmiediately posterior to the skull. 

With the discovery of more and better-preserved specimens, it be- 
comes more and more apparent that in the genus Glyptosaurus the 
tubercular patterns on the scutes are of little assistance in taxonomy. 
Such differences as have been used in the past are found to be value- 
less from the fact that this ornamentation varies with the position 
of the scute on the body. Therefore until their limitations are known 
they will be of little use in characterizing species. 

The cranial scutes, on the other hand, appear to show definite dif- 
ferences, although, as indicated by the two specimens now before 
me, there is considerable individual variation that must be always 
taken into consideration. 

Genus PELTOSAURUS Cope 

PELTOSAURUS species 

In 1928 I referred ^ three incomplete dentaries from the Fort 
Union, Paleocene of Montana, to the genus Peltosaurus^ but without 

• Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 22, p. 137, 1928. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 86 

specific designation. A fourth specimen, U.S.N.M. no. 10920, con- 
sisting of an incomplete left maxillary containing a few teeth, has 
now turned up in the collections. This specimen was also collected 
by A. C. Silberling in 1908, in Sec. 4, T. 5 N., K. 16 E., Sweetgrass 
County, Mont. In size and in all other particulars, insofar as they 
can be compared, this maxillary and teeth are in full accord with 
those of Peltosaurus granul^sus^ with which they have been directly 
contrasted. In view of their much earlier geological occurrence, I 
am loath to assign them to the Oligocene species, as in all probability 
more complete specimens would show their specific distinctness. For 
the present, therefore, I shall continue to regard these specimens as 
specifically undeterminable. 



B 



S? 




FiGCBB 6. — Right maxillary of f Xestops piercei, new species, type (U.S.N.M. no. 13807) : 
A, Lateral view ; B, posterior view of tooth. Five times natural size. 

Genus XESTOPS Cope 

7 XESTOPS PIERCEI. new apecies 
FlQUBES 6, 7 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 13807, consisting of both maxillae, anterior 
ends of both dentaries with numerous upper and lower teeth, and 
many dermal scutes. Collected by George B. Pierce, 1935. 

Locality. — About 6 miles north of Tuttle Ranch, Elk Creek, Big 
Horn Basin, Big Horn County, Wyo. 

Horizon. — GraybuU formation, Wasatch, Eocene. 

DescHption. — All the bones comprising the type specimen were 
found cemented together in a compact mass by the iron-stone cover- 
ing so commonly found adhering to Wasatch fossils. It is quite evi- 
dent that originally the entire skull had been present, as the maxillae 
and dentaries are little disturbed from their normal relationships, the 
whole top of the skull having been eroded away. 

The right maxillary is complete in length, but the left one lacks 
a small portion of its anterior end. The right maxillary has the usual 
triangular outline, being deeply emarginated toward the upper an- 
terior end and thus forming much of the lower and posterior borders 
of the external narial opening. The external surface of the bone is 
smooth, with only slight indication of the former presence of osteo- 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS GILMORE 23 

derms, which probably covered much of the surface, as in the related 
Glyptosaurus, Melanosaurus^ and Peltosaurus. This bone is per- 
forated by the usual row of foramina. 

The precise number of teeth in the maxillary cannot be determined 
from this specimen. There is evidence of 13, but at least 3 more 
would be required to fill the space hidden by the overlapping of 
the dentary upon the anterior alveolar border. The teeth are pleu- 
rodont, robust, and extend well below the parapet of the maxillary. 
The apices are bluntly wedged-shaped, with the cutting edge run- 
ning longitudinal. The outer beveled surface is much shorter than 
the inner slope. Anterior and posterior sides of the teeth are flat- 
tened and closely placed in the series (see fig. 6). In a 10-milli- 
meter space there are 12 teeth, whereas in Melanosaurus maxirrms, 
also from the "Wasatch, 4^4 teeth occupy an equal space. The related 
Peltosaurus is intermediate in this respect, having 8 teeth in a 
10-millimeter space. The crowns are parallel-wrinkled, usually at 
right angles to the cutting edge. The right maxillary has a greatest 
length of 14.3 mm. Except that the maxillary teeth become smaller 
at the ends of the series, all seem to be very similar. 





FiQDRD 7. — Two dermal scutes of f Xestopa piercei: Type (U.S.N.M. no. 13807). Five 

times natural size. 

The few anterior teeth of the dentary that are present appear 
slenderer and extend relatively higher about the parapet than in 
the maxillary series. 

The few dermal scutes found with this specimen are keelless, but 
it may be that all these pertain to the underparts of the skull and 
neck, and these are usually without carinae. With the exception of 
the narrow smooth band on the anterior end, for the overlap of the 
next adjoining scute, the dorsal surfaces are sculptured by a series 
of pits sparsely placed and without regular arrangement, as shown 
in figure 7. 

One of the scutes has a beveled lateral edge, a condition previously 
observed ^ only in the genus Xestops. The presence of this type of 
scutellation and close resemblances of the dentition to that of Xestops 
vagans strongly suggest that the affinities of this new species lie in 
the genus Xestops, to which it is now provisionally referred. 

» Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 22, p. 145, 1928. 



24 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 88 



The presence of dermal scuta and pleurodont teeth, closely set 
with swollen obtuse summits, indicates the affinities of Xestops piercei 
to lie in the family Anguidae. 

From Xestops vagans this species is distinguished by its much 
smaller size and by the pitted character of the dermal scutes. The 
other species of the genus are all based on inadequate specimens and 
all are doubtfully referred, and in all probability they pertain to 
other genera. Their retention in Xestops has simply been a matter 
of expediency, and contrasting the present specimen with them would 
be of little significance. 




FiGnBB 8. — Left maxillary of / Harpagosaurus ailberlinffH, new Bpecles, type (D.S.N. M. no. 
13877) : A, External viow ; B, internal view. Five times natural size. 

SAURIA OF UNKNOWN FAMILY REFERENCE 
Genus HARPAGOSAURUS Gilmore 

7 HARPAGOSAURUS SILBERLINGn, new specie* 
FlQUBB 8 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 13877, consisting of the greater portion of a 
left maxillary containing whole or parts of 12 teeth. Collected by 
A. C. Silberling, 1908. 

Type locality. — Sec. 4, T, 5 N., R. 16 E., Sweetgrass County, Mont. 

HoHzon. — Fort Union No. 2, Paleocene. 

Description. — The type maxillary lacks a portion of its anterior 
end, and only 5 of the 12 teeth have their complete crowns preserved 
as shown in figure 8. 

The teeth, of which there is evidence of 14 in all, are pleurodont, 
with long shafts, rounded on the internal side but flattened on both 



DESCRIPTIONS OF FOSSIL LIZARDS — GILMORE 25 

anterior and posterior sides. The crowns have an obtuse longitudi- 
nal cutting edge that is rounded anteroposteriorly. One tooth near 
the middle of the series presents a small denticle, anterior to the 
center of the cutting edge. 

The crowns, except those of the most posterior teeth, which are 
shorter, curve slightly inward. In the center of the dental series 
there are 5i/^ teeth in a space of 5 millimeters. 

Similarity of the emplacement of the teeth strongly suggests rela- 
tionship with the genus Harpagosaurvs^ to which it is provisionally 
assigned. This species is distinguished from Harpagosaurus exidens, 
which occurs in these same beds, and also from H. parvus of the 
Lance formation by its much larger size, spatulalike form of the 
tooth crowns, and their longer protrusion below the parapet of the 
maxillary. Likewise these spatulalike teeth at once distinguish it 
from the wedge-shaped crowns of Peltosaurus sp., which also occurs 
in the Fort Union No. 2. 

The species name is in honor of A. C. Silberling, who collected the 
type as well as many other specimens now in the National Museum 
collections. 




Figure 9. — Left maxillary of Paraprionosaurus icyomingensis, new species : Type (U.S.N.M. 
no. 12955), lateral view. Mve times natural size. 

PARAPRIONOSAURUS, new genus 
PAKAPRIONOSAURUS WYOMINGENSIS, new species 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 12955, consisting of a nearly complete left 
maxillar}^, containing 16 perfect teeth. Collected by Charles W. 
Gilmore, 1931. 

Type locality. — Two miles north of Lone Tree P. O., Bridger 
Basin, Uinta County, Wyo. 

Horizon. — Horizon D, Bridger, Eocene. 

Description. — The type specimen consists of a nearly perfect left 
maxillary, wdth 16 teeth in situ, and there is evidence of 23 teeth in 
the complete dental series. This specimen is preserved attached to 
a small block of matrix and for fear of doing irreparable damage to 
it removal has not been attempted, and for that reason the internal 
side is not available for study at this time. It is presumed that the 
teeth are pleurodont in the manner of attachment to the maxillary. 
There are 91/2 teeth in a space of 5 millimeters. 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8« 

The distinctness of the present form is indicated by the character 
of the dentition. The great number of teeth (23) in the maxillary 
series, their uniformity in shape and size, transversely compressed 
crowns, and cutting edges angularly rounded anteroposteriorly dis- 
tinguish this specimen from all other extinct North American lizards. 

In the regularity of size of the maxillary dentition, this specimen 
resembles Prionosaurus regularis from the Lance of Wyoming, but 
the more transversely compressed and spatulalike tooth crowns and 
slightly larger size distinguish it. The name Paraprionosaurus 
Wyoming ensis is therefore proposed for it. No clue of its family 
relationships has been detected from this scanty specimen. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICEi lOt 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Vol. 86 Washington: 1938 No. 3043 

THE CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS OF THE UNITED STATES, 
INCLUDING A FAMILY NEW TO THE FAUNA AND 
NEW GENERA AND SPECIES 



By H. F. LooMis 



INTRODUCTION 

It is being recognized that the Pacific Coast States, particularly 
California, have a larger and more varied milliped fauna than is to be 
found in any like area of the Eastern United States. Indeed, it is 
possible that there are not more species of millipeds in the entire 
region east of the Mississippi River. Because of the more accessible 
territory and the proximity of interested workers, the millipeds of 
the Eastern States naturally were subjects of study and, as a group, 
became fairly well known much earlier than did the western ones. 
Several of the principal papers on millipeds by Wood, Bollman, and 
Cook and Collins, while national in scope, nevertheless were based 
primarily on eastern forms, as these were known in much greater 
abundance; and to this day the majority of papers on western mil- 
lipeds have consisted of disconnected descriptions of species with 
scarcely au}^ attempts at treatment of genera or larger groups, and 
only one or two lists of species in geographic or political areas have 
appeared. Such papers give some indications of the numbers of 
millipeds to be found in the West, but in several recent papers ^ the 
preponderance of western species has been shown more forcibly in 
direct comparison with the eastern species, and this preponderance 
is manifest in the present study and others in preparation. 



1 Cook, O. F., and Loomis, FI. P., Millipeds of the order Colobognatha, with descriptions 
of six new genera and type species, from Arizona and California, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 72, art. IS, pp. 1-26, 1928. Loomis. H. F., New millipeds of the American family 
Striariidae, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 26, pp. 404-409, 1936. Loomis, H. F., 
Crested millipeds of the family Lysiopetalidae In North America, with descriptions of 
new genera and species, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 84, pp. 97-135, 1937. 

8.5370—38 ^1 27 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.86 

The reason for such differences as exist between the number of 
millipeds of the two sides of the country may be understood from an 
examination of the environmental requirements of the animals. The 
limitations that confine groups of creatures to certain sets of con- 
ditions vary enormously; some have limitations so lightly drawn 
that they may inhabit great areas, while others may be restrained 
from spreading by more rigid requirements. The limitations im- 
posed on the millipe<:ls, and similar humus inhabitants, are especially 
restrictive, for their movements generally are held to localities hav- 
ing very uniform and constant supplies of food and moisture, or to 
areas in which they may move about following or keeping within 
such conditions. A few of the larger millipeds have been able to 
adapt themselves to semiarid or even arid regions, as the heavily 
armored, protective covering of their bodies allows greater freedom 
of movement in the open, above ground, but even these species re- 
quire some natliral protection, and where this is not provided by a 
humus layer they retreat into deep crevices in the soil or rocks, or 
into the burrows of other animals, and there spend much of their 
time. By far the largest number of species are definitely humus 
inhabitants, delicate creatures, most of them unable to withstand a 
few moments of hot sunshine or somewhat longer exposure to ex- 
treme dryness, whether above or below ground. 

Throughout the Eastern States, with their more general rainfall, 
lower elevation, and abundant deciduous forests, humus conditions 
occur frequently and over considerable areas, so that intennigration 
and wide distribution of the humus fauna are possible. In the Western 
States the rainfall is less uniform; many regions have long seasonal 
droughts, others are arid deserts; the country is much more moun- 
tainous and has higher elevations, and the forests are predominantly 
coniferous, so that satisfactory humus conditions are generally of 
smaller extent and more definitely separated than in the East, and 
examples of isolation and limited distribution among the millipeds 
are the common rule. While there are many species of restricted 
distribution in the East, there also are many examples of widespread 
species, such as ArctoholuH marginatum ^ Poh/Bonmm hirirgafvm, 
Spirostrephon lactarium, and Polydesmus serratu.s, to name but a 
few. From the literature on millipeds of the West and the col- 
lecting that has been done there exceedingly restricted distribution 
for most of the species is indicated, and none has been found that 
can be compared to the widely distributed eastern species. 

Frequently a few miles separate different but closely related species 
of western millipeds, and the evidence points to the fauna being 
chiefly residual, descended in a large number of more or less iso- 



CAMBAI.OID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 29 

]ated localities from a common and widespread ancient fauna, as in 
the eastern region. That the climatic and other changes that sepa- 
rated and restricted different parts of the western fauna occurred 
very long ago is shown by the many closely related species that 
have been found, for evolutionary changes sufficient to establish 
species undoubtedly take places more slowly in animals living under 
uniform conditions, as do the millipeds, than in animals whose en- 
vironment is less stable. The relatively large number of generally 
small but closely related genera among the western millipeds is still 
better proof of the long isolation that has existed between parts of 
the fauna, for a still greater length of time is required for the ac- 
complishment of changes of such magnitude as require generic 
recognition. 

The 20 species of millipeds of the suborder Cambaloidea found 
in the United States are arranged in 12 genera, of which 9 are mono- 
typic and 3 each contain three or four species. Of these 12 genera, 
9, containing 11 species, are strictly Callfornian; another genus of 
four species has three of them in California and one in Utah; one 
monotypic genus is confined to Tennessee; and last is the genus 
Cainbala, most widely distributed of the American group, with its 
four species scattered through many of the Eastern States, Texas, 
and Arkansas. Thus, approximately three-fourths of the members 
of this suborder are limited to the relatively very small area of Cali- 
fornia, while all the rest of the United States contributes only one- 
fourth to the population of the suborder. 

The material examined in the preparation of the present paper 
Avas collected principally by Dr. O. F. Cook, with a lesser amount 
collected by the writer and several of his friends. Most of the ma- 
terial plainly belonged to the family Cambalidae, but also included 
were four species, apparently new, that it has been necessary to re- 
fer to the Cambalopsidae, a family associated with India and the 
Malayan region and hitherto unknown in the Western Hemisphere. 
The wide removal of the American from the Asiatic branch of this 
family is, at present, lacking definite proof for explanation, but in- 
creased knowledge of the millipecl faunas of China, Japan, Siberia, 
and northwestern North America may indicate past connections, 
although such evidence may no longer be found except in fossil 
forms. 

Separation of the Cambalopsidae from the older Cambalidae has 
been made principally on the basis of the species in the former group 
having an entire or undivided mentum, while the latter group is 
characterized by species in which the mentum is transversely di- 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

vided. Wliether this difference and several less important and less 
constant features justify the maintenance of the two families is 
hardly to be determined from the American material, and for the 
present the division may be recognized and used without prejudice 
to simplify classification. 

Attems 2 has tentatively, and apparently mistakenly, transferred 
several American genera of Cambalidae to the Cambalopsidae, al- 
though in no instance does the original description give justification 
for such a course ; in fact, the remarks pertaining to the mentum in 
these genera usually leave no doubt as to its divided structure and 
would prohibit removal to the Cambalopsidae. 

ORDINAL POSITION OF THE CAMBALIDAE AND CAMBALOPSIDAE 

Comparing the Cambalidae and Cambalopsidae with the tropical 
orders of cylindrical millipeds that have closed segments, the Ano- 
cheta and Diplocheta, we find an association with the latter in the 
absence of legs on segment 4; the presence of two pairs of legs on 
segment 5; and the structure of the mouth parts and gonopods. Also 
the segments of these two families are like those of the Diplocheta 
in being divided by a transverse constriction into anterior and pos- 
terior subsegments, while in the Anocheta the segments are divided 
into three belts by two transverse sutures, which often may be seeu 
distinctly, although sometimes scarcely perceptible. The pleural 
sutures of the Anocheta do not appear in the Cambalidae or Cam- 
balopsidae, except that pleural elements may be indicated by oblique 
ridges that cross the posterior subsegment from the pedigerous lamina 
to the posterior margin. Hence the Cambalidae and Cambalopsidae 
have been placed in the Diplocheta as a suborder, the Cambaloidea. 
equivalent to the Spirostreptoidea, which is a very large tropical 
group. 

CHARACTERS OF THE CAMBALOIDEA OF THE UNITED STATES 

As has been stated, the most significant difference between the 
Cambalidae and the Cambalopsidae is whether the mentum is entire 
or is transversely divided, but inasmuch as the genera of these two 
families may not be separated readily by other contrasting features 
it is proposed to examine some of the outstanding characters of the 
American members of the suborder without regard to family 
alignment. 

The structural characters of the Cambaloidea of the United States 
are very diverse, and only a few of them are common to all the 



' Kukenthal's Handbuch der Zoologie, vol. 4, p. 207, 1926. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS — LOOMIS 31 

genera. The other characters are scattered among the genera in a 
quite indiscriminate manner and do not appear to be associated in 
regular groups to any great degree. This condition might be ob- 
served if only a few of a large number of genera were available for 
examination, for with additional genera the natural groups might 
be more clearly shown, as in the reconstruction of a broken prehis- 
toric pot, where many fragments are necessary before a correct con- 
ception of the shape and design of the pot may be had. Hence, if 
a few more genera of this suborder are discovered, it is quite probable 
that relationships will be better understood, and natural groupings 
made possible. 

With one exception the members of the Cambaloidea are slender 
creatures, 15 to 20 times as long as broad, but the genus Choctella 
is unique, with its stout body only 10 times as long as broad, quite 
like Spiroholus. In most of the genera a few segments immediately 
behind segment 1 are constricted and definitely necklike, and this 
condition is carried to its greatest extreme in Endere^ in striking 
contrast with Platydere^ Nannolene^ and Ghoctella, which have no 
noteworthy constriction. Five genera have strong dorsal crests on 
all but a few segments at each end of the body; three genera have a 
broad, indefinite swelling on each side of the middle and another at 
the pore; and in the remaining four genera the segments are uni- 
formly smooth. In Nannolene and Choctella the pores begin on seg- 
ment 6 instead of segment 5 as in the other genera, and in Choctella 
the pores are said to be "in front of the transverse suture of the so- 
mite." This would locate them in the anterior subsegment and furnish 
another unique condition for this genus, if it has not been misstated. 

Five of the genera are without eyes, while in seven genera eyes 
are present and composed of from 4 to 40 ocelli, but the presence or 
lack of eyes is not associated with other characters, such as dorsal 
crests or swellings, or secondary sexual characters. The antennae 
of all genera are clavate or subclavate, with the second or third joint 
usually longest and joint 5 the broadest, although joints 4 and 6 
sometimes are its equal. The clypeus has a row of four to six setif- 
erous punctures, except in Tridere, where the punctures are much 
more numerous and scattered over the surface without definite ar- 
rangement. The labrum of all genera has three distinct teeth, and 
the base is crossed by a series of 14 to 16 setae, except in Tridere, 
where there are 20 to 24. The mandibulary stipes are recessed for 
the reception of the antennae in Odachurus^ Pharodere, and Endere; 
in the other genera they are flat or definitely convex. 

The last segment is without crests or other surface modifications 
in all genera except Tridere^ which has a definite dorsal ridge pro- 
duced backward behind the valves into a rather blunt, decurved 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

mucro. In most of the genera there are two setae at the apex of the 
segment, but in Platydere and Leiodere, at least, the number is in- 
creased to four, six, or eight setae. No specimens of Paiteya or 
Choctella have been examined, and in the single specimen of Endere 
all setae have been lost. 

In all genera the anal valves are without thickened margins, are 
evenly inflated, meet at a reentrant angle, and each has two setae 
near the opening. The preanal scale usually is nearly three times 
as broad as long, and each lateral angle is covered by a small process 
from beneath the margin of the last segment. 

The first pair of male legs of Paiteya^ Nannolene^ and Camhala are 
reduced in size and 6-jointed, and the two latter genera lack a claw 
on the outer joint; instead this joint is short and rounded at tip in 
Nannolene, while in Ganibala the inner side is deeply excavated from 
near the base to the apex. In the other genera of which males are 
known the first male legs are normal as to structure but frequently 
reduced in size. 

The males of Nannolene, Tridere, Pharodere^ and Canibdla have 
lobes of various types on some of the joints of other legs in front 
of the gonopods, but in the other genera of which males were exam- 
ined none of the pregenital legs are lobed. 

From the foregoing brief delineation it is seen how inconsistent 
are the characters among the genera, and the following key to the 
genera of the family Cambalidae was prepared without attempting 
a natural arrangement. Diagnostic characters for the recognition of 
the genera of the family Cambalopsidae are given on page 57. 

Family CAMBALIDAE 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF CAMBALIDAE IN THE UNITED STATES 

I. Eyes present. 

1. Body stout, as in Spirobolus Choctella Cliamberlin 

Body slender, as in lultt.s 2 

2. Last segment projecting beyond anal valves in a distinct 

mucro ; clypeal setae scattered Tridere, new genus 

Last segment ni>t mucronate ; clyijeul setae in a transverse row .3 

3. Repugnatorial pores beginning on segment 6 Nannolene BoUman 

Repugnatorial pores beginning on .segment 5 4 

4. Dorsum with 2 indefinite crests between poriferous prom- 

inences Titsona Chamberliu 

Dorsum with 4 distinct crests between poriferous carinae 5 

5. Eyes with 4 to 8 ocelli in a single series ; first pair of male 

legs clawless Cambala Gray 

Eyes with 9 or 10 ocelli in 2 or 3 series ; first pair of male 
legs with claws Paiteya Chamberlln 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS — LOOMIS 33 

II. Eyes lacking. 

1. Repugnatorial pores beginning on segment 6; dorsum of 

segments with a weak longitudinal depression on each 

side, leaving mesial portion a little elevated Buwatia Chamberlin 

Repugnatorial pores beginning on segment 5 ; dorsum of 
segments withovit longitudinal depressions or a median 
elevation 2 

2. Anterior segments not strongly constricted ; dorsum with- 

out crests Platydere, new genua 

Anterior segments with sides converging backward, form- 
ing a pronounced neck ; dorsum with definite crests 3 

3. Segment 1 with anterior corners flaring outward away 

from sides of body ; lateral carinae and median dorsal 
crests produced beyond posterior margins of several cau- 
dal segments Odachunis, new genus 

Segment 1 with anterior corners not flaring away from 
body ; lateral carinae and dorsal crests not produced 
beyond posterior margin, even on caudal segments. 

Pharodere, new genus 

TRIDERE, new genus ' 

Type. — Tridere chelopa^ new species, from southern California. 

Diagnosis. — The strongly mucronate last segment is the most out- 
standing character, since in no other species in this country does 
the last segment definitely exceed the anal valves. Also the many 
scattered setae of the clypeus are unique. 

Description. — Body cylindrical, slender, about 16 times as long as 
broad; head concealed beneath the enlarged first segment; segments 
2 to 4 constricted, necklike ; last segment mucronate. 

Head with the vertex sulcate beneath the first segment, the ex- 
posed surface smooth and shining. Clj^peus smooth above, with 
numerous scattered setiferous punctations below. Labrum tridentate 
and with a transverse row of 20 to 24 fine setae. Mandibulary 
stipes concealed by the first segment, not recessed to accommodate 
the antennae. Eyes poorly developed and partially covered by the 
first segment. Antennae (fig. 10, a) inserted in widely separated, 
deep sockets at the sides of the head, each socket bordered by a raised 
rim on the upper side and by a projecting lateral corner near the 
eye; antennae moderately clavate; joints 5 and 6 distinctly thicker 
than the others ; joints 2 and 6 of nearly equal length, 3 and 5 some- 
what shorter, but longer than joint 4; joint 7 distinctly projecting 
and with four olfactory cones. Gnathochilarium as shown in 
figure 10, h. 

First segment large, concealing much of the head from above, 
longer than the next three segments together and much broader, with 



^The description and remarljs pertaining to Tridere chelopa were prepared jointly 
by Dr. O. F. Cook and H. F. Loomis. 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. S6 

lateral expansions carried below the head and mouth parts and much 
below the ventral line of the adjacent segments; anterior margin 
straight to below the eyes, then carried forward and downward in a 
broad, even curve to tlie rounded posterior corner, the curved margin 
bordered by a fine raised rim; median surface smooth and shining, 
lateral surface slightly granular. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 narrowing caudad ; segments 2 and 3 smooth 
above, finely striate low on the sides; segment 4 longer than 2 or 3, 
with dorsal crests of smaller size but in the same position as those 
on the ensuing segments, and with a small lateral tubercle in the 
position of the poriferous carinae. 

Succeeding segments gradually broadening, the anterior sub- 
segments considerably exposed, densely and minutely reticulated, 
the posterior portion constricted and coarsely and regularly fluted in 
front of the transverse suture; flutings on the lower half of the 
body usually corresponding to the crests of the posterior subseg- 
ment, but the dorsal flutings somewhat more numerous than the 
crests. Posterior subsegments with about 12 crests between the 
poriferous carinae; beginning at the middle of the dorsum there is 
a small crest, then a distinctly larger one, then 3 to 6 smaller crests, 
which are sometimes quite variable in size and length but are more 
prominent near the middle of the segment and abruptly lower and 
narrower behind; the large submedian crests often thickened in 
front, especially at the anterior end of the body. Lateral carinae 
with a very large poriferous prominence in front, the carina abruptly 
interrupted behind it but again raised into a large conic tubercle at 
the posterior margin. Pores beginning on segment 5 and ending 
on the antepenultimate segment, opening outward from the smooth 
oval surface of the pore prominence. Sides below pores with 10 to 
12 distinct crests separated by striations; a prominent oblique crest 
near the legs surrounding a slightly depressed area around the basal 
joints of the legs. 

Posterior segments narrowed gradually, with dorsal and lateral 
crests reduced; penultimate segment very short, with sculpturing 
reduced and pores lacking. 

Last segment rather long, with an elongate median thickening or 
ridge continued as a definite mucro beyond the anal valves, surface 
otherwise smooth. 

Anal valves facing obliquely downward, very prominent and in- 
flated, the margins meeting in a deep groove, surface smooth and 
shining. Preanal scale short and very broad, the posterior margin 
nearly straight across, somewhat thickened and prominent, with two 
minute submedian setiferous punctations. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 



35 



Legs rather long and slender in both sexes, sparsely hirsute ; basal 
joint longer than broad; joint 2 very short; joints 3, 4, and 7 long, 
subequal; joint 5 slightly shorter; joint 6 still shorter. Pedigerous 
laminae minutely reticulated, not striate, 

Gonopods quite similar in appearance to those in Carnbala, indi- 
cating rather close relationship with that genus. 

Segment 6 of the male with the ventral posterior margin behind 
each leg expanded backward and inward over the gonopods, form- 




FiGuuE 10. — Trideie chelopa, new species : a. Antenna ; b, gnathochi'avium ; c, fourth leg of 
male, posterior view ; d, seventh leg of male, posterior view ; e, seventh leg of female ; 
f, gonopods of male, anterior view ; g, posterior gonopods of male, outer lateral view. 

ing two flaplike pieces whose mesial margins lap well beyond each 
other instead of being in contact along the middle line of the body. 
In segment 7 the opening through which the gonopods are thrust 
is broadly rounded behind, the margin raised and thickened, and 
the median ventral suture is open. 

Males with the first three pair of legs somewhat reduced in size; 
legs 4 to 7 inclusive with joint 5 expanded on the inner-posterior 
side into a large truncated lobe projecting obliquely distad to near 
the middle of the last joint (fig. 10, c, d). Leg 7 of female shown 
in figure 10, e. 

85370—38 2 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATION/VL i\IUSEUM vol. 86 

TRIDERE CHELOPA, new species 

Figure 10; Plate 2, Figt-res 6, 7 

Several specimens -were collected beside the road from San Diego 
to El Centro, Calif., about 2 miles above Mountain Springs, on the 
eastern desert slope of the mountains, December 10, 1922, by Dr. 
O. F. Cook. The animals were found lying extended under stones 
on a hillside of decomposing granite rock. Their movements were 
slow and when first disturbed formed a close double coil. The type 
is a male, U.S.N.M. no. 1304. 

After the original collection was made, the type locality was 
revisited on several occasions, but no further specimens were found. 
From the dryness of the locality at that time it seemed a very 
unlikely place for humus inhabitants, but similar places are known 
in the desert regions of the Southwest where millipeds and other 
humus animals foDow the soil moisture below ground in times 
of drought but return to near the surface in seasons when moisture 
conditions improve. 

Descri'ption. — Length, 30-40 mm; width, 1.8-2.6 mm. Number 
of segments, 52 to 58. 

Living animals mostly light colored, rather dull pinkish or pur- 
plish; head and anterior segments much paler; antennae and legs 
also pale. 

Eyes composed of 10 to 15 rather small ocelli in two rows, forming 
a transverse, sharply wedge-shaped group, partly hidden beneath 
the first segment. 

First segment with dorsal surface smooth, the lateral surfaces 
with tiny scattered granules and a few short, fine, striations directed 
obliquely downward and forward from the posterior margin above 
the back corner. Last segment appearing smooth, but slight mag- 
nification shows a few faint striae and granules; apex of the mucro 
bearing two setae. Other segments as described under the genus. 

Gonopods as shown in figure 10, / and g. 

Genus CAMBALA Gray 

Head with eyes in a single series ; antennae moderately stout. 

First segment about as long as the next two segments together, 
not expanded on the sides. 

Body rather slender, the anterior segments not noticeably con- 
stricted to form a neck behind the head and first segment. One to 
three segments at each end of the body smooth above, the others 
with four strong crests between the large poriferous carinae. Pores 
beginning on segment 5. 

Last segment not projecting beyond the anal valves. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 37 

First pair of male legs 6-jointed and without a claw at tip. The 
fifth, sixth, and seventh male legs have a large lobe on the ventral 
side of the fourth joint and sometimes one on the fifth joint also. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CAMBALA 

1. Body small and slender, not exceeding 20 mm in length and 0.8 

mm in width ; dorsal crests beginning on segment 4 and ending 

on antepenultimate segment texana, new species 

Body larger and stouter ; crests beginning on segment 2 and end- 
ing on penultimate segment 2 

2. Body of intermediate size, 25 to 38 mm long and 1.2 to 2 mm 

broad ; color light yellowish brown minor Bollman 

Body considerably larger, 44 mm or more in length ; color defi- 
nitely darker brown 3 

3. Body 18 or 19 times as long as broad ; segment 1 with posterior 

angles produced backward ; poriferous keels very strongly de- 
veloped annulata ( Say) 

Body decidedly stouter, 14 to 15 times as long as broad ; segment 1 
with posterior angles less produced backward ; poriferous keels 
much less prominent; gonopods differing in a number of par- 
ticulars, as shown in the drawings cristula, new species 

CAMBALA ANNULATA (Say) 

FiGtJRE 11 

Julus unnulntvs Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 2, p. 103, 1821. 
Spiroholus annulafus (Say) Wood, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 13, p. 212, 

1865. 
Cambala annulata (Say) Cope, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 11, p. 181, 1869. 

Specimens of this species were collected between Roan Mountain and 
Elizabethton, Tenn., in October 1928 and between Marshall and Hot 
Springs, N. C, in October 1929 by O. F. Cook. The species has been re- 
ported from nearly all the Southeastern States and from Kentucky, but 
it now seems likely that at least two species, annulata and cristula, 
were confused, and the value of these older records must now be 
shared by these two species, though it is usually not definitely certain 
to which form specific records apply. The specimens here described 
and illustrated are believed to represent the typical annulata of Say, 
inasmuch as they are the only ones studied that have the poriferous 
carinae distinctly "pyriform" as stated in the original description. 
Bollman reported this species from Indiana and Arkansas, but later 
he designated the specimens as a subspecies of annulata on account 
of their smaller size and lighter color. It is proposed herein to 
elevate this subspecies to full specific rank. 



38 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



The following description has been prepared from the Tennessee 
and North Carolina specimens to facilitate comparison with the 
other species of the genus : 

Description. — ^Large but moderately slender animals; 45 to 58 mm 
long and 2.5 to 3.1 mm broad. The specimens examined had 56 to 65 
segments. Some of Bollman's specimens had as few as 50 segments. 

Head having eyes composed of four to eight ocelli in a single series 
paralleling and almost covered by the first segment. Antennae mod- 
erately stout ; joint 2 the longest ; joint C the broadest. Clypeus with 
six setif erous punctures ; labrmn with 16 smaller ones. Mandibulary 
stipes with the lower half slightly depressed for the reception of the 
antennae. Gnathochilarium with mentmn in two distinct parts, the 
basal one broader at its apex than the bottom of the upper part. 

First segment as long as the three succeeding segments combined 
and broader than any of the anterior segments; surface smooth; the 
lateral margin distinctly rimmed ; posterior angles slightly produced 
backward. 





a b 

FiGUKB 11. — Cambala annulata (Say) : a, Anterior gonopods, anterior view; b, posterior 

gonopods, lateral view. 

Behind segment 1 the ensuing segments are considerably narrowed 
and then increase gradually in breadth to near the middle of the 
body. Segments 2 and 3 have small distinct crests in the same posi- 
tions as those on the ensuing segments, the lateral carinae are no 
longer than the dorsal crests, but on segment 4 the lateral carinae 
are slightly more prominent than the dorsal crests. Segment 2 has 
a high, conspicuous ridge on each side just behind the posterior corner 
of segment 1. 

On the succeeding segments there are four very prominent crests 
between the poriferous carinae, intervals between the crests equal but 
narrower than the interval between the outer dorsal crest and the 
adjacent poriferous carina, these latter more prominent than the dor- 
sal crests, the anterior three-fifths thickened and inflated into an 
ovate process somewhat oblique to the side of the body with the pore 
near its posterior third; behind the thickened process the carina is 
abruptly retracted, forming a short, thin ridge about as high as 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 39 

the dorsal crests. On the anterior segments the pore swellings are 
conic and oblique to the sides of the body, while on the caudal segments 
they are lower, more flattened, and nearly parallel with the body. 
On the penultimate and antepenultimate segments the lateral carinas 
are no larger than the dorsal crests, but on the next segment in front 
the differentiation is evident. Below the poriferous carinae are 12 to 
14 crests decreasing in size toward the legs, even the upper ones less 
conspicuous than the dorsal crests. 

Last segment smooth, the apex rounded, not exceeding the valves. 

Preanal scale large, about half as long as broad ; the tab processes 
at the lateral angles relatively large and conspicuous. 

Gonopods as shown in figure 11, « and 6. 

First pair of male legs with the last joint bluntly and obliquely 
truncated on the inner side halfway to the base, the truncation deeply 
excavated, claws lacking. Legs 4 to 7 inclusive with the outer joint 
densely hairy beneath; behind the gonopods to the end of the body 
the five outer joints also are densely hairy beneath, those at rear 
somewhat less so than those in front. Female legs less hairy. Legs 
5 to 7 of the males with the fourth joint bearing a large, hairy -tipped, 
conic prominence near the distal end on the under side; the fifth 
joint of these legs sometimes with a similar but smaller lobe. 

Segments 6 and 7 of the males with the margin surrounding the 
genital opening greatly elevated mesially, equaling the top of the first 
joint of the adjacent legs. 

CAMBALA CRISTULA, new species 

Figure 12 

Many specimens collected at Etowah, Tenn. (type locality), No- 
vember 1, 1929, and a male and a female collected at Adams Run, 
S. C, October 11, 1929, by Dr. O. F. Cook. The type is a male, 
U.S.N.M. no. 1305. 

This species is closely related to annulata but distinguished from 
it by the stouter body, a female specimen 44 mm long being 3 mm 
broad; the much less prominent poriferous keels; the smaller pro- 
duced posterior angles of segment 1; lateral keel on each side of 
segment 4 no larger than the four dorsal crests, while in annulata 
there usually is a decided contrast; the presence of a lobe on the 
ventral surface of the fifth joint of legs 5, 6, and 7 of the males, a 
condition infrequently observed in annulata^ but like annulata^ with 
a large lobe beneath the fourth joint. 

The principal difference, however, is found in the structure of the 
gonopods (fig. 12, a and h) as a comparison of the drawings of the 
tvro species will show. 

Leg 1 of the male is shown in figure 12, c. 



40 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 





FlGURB 12. — Oambala cruttila, new species : a, Anterior ponopods, anterior view ; 6, pos- 
terior gonopods, lateral view ; c, first leg of male. 

CAMBALA MINOR Bollman 

Cambala annulata minor Bollman, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 11, p. 404, 1888. 
Camhala annuUiia (Say) Williams and Hefneb, Ohio State Univ. Bull. No. 18, 
vol. 4, p. 123, illus., 1928. 

Specimens of Camhala from Little Kock, Ark., and various locali- 
ties in Indiana were designated by Bollman as representing a new 
subspecies of C. annulata because of lighter coloration and smaller 
size than specimens from the Southeastern States, whence came Say's 
specimens of annulata. Although Boll man's specimens of minor have 
not been examined, it seems probable that they are the same species 
as the specimens from Ohio that Williams and Hefner described and 
figured as G. annulata. Comparison of their drawing of the gonopods 
of the Ohio form with drawings of the gonopods of annulata^ as inter- 
preted in this paper, shows that two species are involved. If we as- 
sume that the Ohio form is the same as that which Bollman had from 
Indiana, it is necessary to give full specific rank to these forms, using 
the name Bollman proposed for his subspecies. 

Specimens of annulata reported by Packard from the Kentucky 
caves were suspected by Bollman of being either his small subspecies 
minor., or a true and unnamed cave form, and this point still remains 
unsettled. 

CAMBALA TEXANA, new species 
FlQUBE 13 

A large number of specimens were collected at Nacogdoches, Tex., 
in January 1931 by H. C. McNamara and Dr. O. F. Cook. The 
type is a male, U.S.N.M. no. 1306. 

Diagnosis. — The smaller size of the body, more numerous non- 
crested segments, the granular crests, and the modifications of the 
gonopods distinguish this species from the other members of the 
irenus. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS — LOOMIS 



41 



Description: Length, up to 20 mm; width, to 0.8 mm. Number 
of segments, 45-51. 

Head with four to seven ocelli in a single series. Mentum nar- 
rower than in annulata. Mandibulary stipe flattened, with a raised 
rim along the lower margin. 

First segment wider than the head, providing a recess on either 
side into which the antennae may be bent back; lateral margin 
bordered by a very fine rim; posterior angles not produced. 

Segments 1, 2, and 3 smooth and shining, minutely and sparsely 
granular. Crests beginning abruptly on segment 4, with four broad 
crests on the dorsum between the scarcely more prominent poriferous 
keels, which are represented by oval or subelliptical swellings. On 
the side of the body below the poriferous keels there are 14 or 15 
thinner crests. Surface of the dorsal and lateral crests and the 
poriferous keels finely but distinctly gi*anular. Dorsal crests some- 
times evident on the antepenultimate segment but never on the last 
two segments. 




a c 

FiGUBB 13. — Camhala texana, new species : a. Anterior gonopods, anterior view ; 6, pos- 
terior gonopods, lateral view ; c, first leg of male ; d, outer joints of sixth leg of male. 

Last segment relatively longer than in annulata^ the apex more 
deflexed and the valves, in lateral view, more oblique. Preanal scale 
transverse, much less rounded than in annulata. 

Gonopods and first male legs as shown in figure 13, a-c. 

Legs 5, 6, and 7 of the male with a very large process on the 
ventral side of the fourth joint near its distal end, its apex extending 
beyond the end of joint 6 (fig. 13, d) . 



Genus PAITEYA Chamberlin 



This genus has some affinity with Canibala as shown by the pres- 
ence of eyes; four dorsal interporiferous crests; first male legs with 
six joints. The size, however, is much smaller; the eyes are in two 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

or three rows ; the body is "constricted caudad of head, most strongly 
so over from about fourth to the ninth segments"; the first four 
and the last three segments are smooth above; the pores are borne 
"on the enlarged caudal portion of edge of the lateral carina," 
contrary to the position in Camhala and Tridere^ which have the 
anterior portion of the carina enlarged and bearing the pore. 

PAITEYA ERRANS Chamberlin 

Paiteya errans Chambekijn, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 3, p. 258, pi. 43, figs. 
4-7, 1910. 

This species, which I have not seen, was described without definite 
locality from southern California. It is 19 mm long, 1.4 mm wide, 
and has 47-49 segments. 

Genus TITSONA Chamberlin 

Eyes well developed, five to seven ocelli in a single series. First 
segment longer than the next three segments together, the sides 
encircling the sides of the head but well removed, leaving an inter- 
vening space into which the antennae may be folded back. Body 
strongly constricted between segment 1 and segments 5 and 6. 
First four segments and the last two segments smooth above, the 
intervening segments with two low, rounded crests near the middle 
of the dorsum, between the hemispherical pore swellings. In the 
specific description it is stated that the crests begin on segment 4, 
but this condition is not shown in the illustration. First male legs 
reduced in size and 6-jointed, the last joint terminating in a strong 
claw. 

The single species seems more closely related to Paiteya than to 
other known genera. 

TITSONA SIMA Chamberlin 

Titsona sima Chamberlin, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 5, p. 161, pi. 10, figs. 
4-6, 1912. 

Known only from the original collection of two specimens at 
Oroville, Calif. The length is 16 mm; width, 1 mm; number of 
segments, 42. 

Genus NANNOLENE Bellman 

Body small, slender, luhis-like; smooth above; anterior segments 
definitely striate on the sides from the feet to near the pores, the 
striae receding on the other segments. Segments, except the first 
four and the anal segment, with a broad, deep transverse constric- 
tion around the middle, giving the body a submoniliform appear- 
ance, the constriction Avith a series of rounded pits at bottom. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 2 




1, Pharodere radiala, female, X Vr, 2, Leiodere dasyura, male, X 8; >, Nannolene vwlacea 
female X8; 4, Leiodere torreyana, lateral view of female, X IVr, 5, L. torreyana, dorsal 
view of female; 6, Tridere chelopa, lateral view of male, X 5>^; 7, T. chelopa, dorsal view 
of male, X 5^4. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 43 

Head with triangular eyes composed of 12 to 26 ocelli in three to 
five series. Antennae short and stout with joints 2 and 6 subequal. 
Clypeus with four setiferous punctures. Mandibulary stipes in- 
flated, not recessed for the reception of the antennae. Gnathochi- 
larium with the mentum in two parts. 

First segment long, usually equaling or exceeding in length the 
next two segments together; anterior angles very broadly rounded 
and not produced forward ; lateral margin with a raised rim ; lateral 
surface with one or more longitudinal striae. 

Segments 2 to 4 not narrowed to form a necklike constriction. 

Pores beginning on segment 6; each pore surrounded by a 
flattened rim. 

Last segment as long as the two preceding segments together, the 
apex broadly rounded and with two setae. 

Segment 6 of the males with the pleurae overlapping at the middle 
and produced caudad, partially covering the opening for the gono- 
pods. Anterior margin of segment 7 distinctly raised and thickened 
around the opening for the gonopods. 

First pair of male legs reduced in size, 6-jointed, the apical joint 
short, rounded-conic, and without a claw. 

Sixth and seventh male legs with a hollow conic process on the 
interior face of the penultimate joint. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF NANNOLENE IN THE UNITED STATES 

1. Size large, 25 mm in length ; eyes composed of about 26 ocelli. 

burkei (Bollman) 
Size not exceeding 20 mm : eyes composed of not more than 22 ocelli 2 

2. Body almost white except for a few segments at either end. 

minor, new species 
Body darker, more uniformly pigmented 3 

3. Length to 20 mm ; number of segments to 51 ; first segment longer 

than next two together violacea, new species 

Size somewhat smaller, number of segments less; first segment 
shorter than next two segments together uta (Chamberlin) 

NANNOLENE BURKEI (Bollman) 

lulvs iurkel Bollman, Amer. Nat., vol. 21, p. 82, 1887. 

Namiolene burkei Bollman, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 4, p. 40, 1887. 

This species was described from two mature female and two imma- 
ture male specimens from Ukiah, Calif., and no subsequent localities 
have been reported. Chamberlin does not state the source of the 
material from which his drawings were made.* 

This species is distinguished from our others by the greater num- 
ber of ocelli — 26 in five series; the larger size of the body — 25 mm 

* Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 61, art. 10, pi. 1, figs. 4-10, 1922. 
85370—38 3 



44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.86 

long and 1 mm broad; and the shape of the male genitalia, as 
shown by Chamberlin's drawing in which the anterior plate and the 
lateral plate on each side are united instead of two distinct struc- 
tures as in the other species. 

NANNOLENE MINOR, new species 

Figure 14 

Numerous specimens collected near Bakersfield, Calif., December 
12, 1927, by Dr. O. F. Cook. The type is a male, U.S.N.M. no. 1307. 

Diagnosis. — This species is closely related to N. hurkei and N. vio- 
lacea. It differs from both species in the smaller body, usually 
fewer segments, fewer ocelli, and in the structure of the gonopods. 

Description. — Body slender, 18 to 20 times as long as broad, mod- 
erately moniliform; length, 11 to 16 mm; number of segments, 40 
to 47; neck constriction slight, segments 2 to 4 but little narrower 
than the adjacent segments. 





« b 

KiGURB 14. — Sannolene minor, new speclea : a. Anterior gonopods, anterior view; b, three 
outer joints of leg 7 of male. 

Color in life whitish, the extremities of the body darker and very 
faintly maculate with light violet-brown without definite arrange- 
ment. Each side of body with a series of small, dark spots, the 
repugnatorial glands, showing through the segments. 

Head not bent under the first segment; surface distinctly reticu- 
late; vertex with a pronounced median impressed line, from the an- 
terior end of which, on each side, a finer impressed line curves for- 
ward and laterad, reaching the upper corner of the eye. Ocelli 12 
to 18 in three or four series, forming a subtriangular patch close 
to the margin of segment 1. Antennal sockets distant from the 
front corners of segment 1. Clypeus with two large setae on each 
side. Labrum with three teeth; the base crossed by a series of 16 
setae, those on the sides longer than at the middle. Mandibulary 
stipes flush with the sides of the head and the first segment, strongly 
inflated and with a distinct raised margin and a prominent lower 
corner; surface coarselj^ reticulated. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 45 

First segment as long as the next two and a half segments to- 
gether; surface finely reticulated; anterior corners inconspicuous, 
very broadly rounded but not produced forward; anterior margin 
straight; lateral margin very weakly rounded, descending obliquely 
to the posterior corner and with a distinct raised rim ; posterior cor- 
ner sharper than a right angle and clasping the side of the body; 
lateral striations distinct, four to five, the middle longest, crossing 
from behind to near the anterior margin. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4, viewed from the side, are almost flat along 
the dorsum, much less convex than the ensuing segments, which 
have the two divisions strongly separated by a transverse constric- 
tion. Lateral striations increasing in height to segment 5, but not 
reaching the line of the pores; thereafter receding gradually, and 
on the caudal segments almost entirely confined to the ventral sur- 
faces. 

Midbody segments with transverse constrictions very broad, rather 
shallow, and containing a row of large, irregularly rounded, shallow 
pits, frequently separated from one another by more than half their 
width ; anterior and posterior subsegments convex, the posterior divi- 
sion more strongly so and with fine, short, impressed longitudinal 
lines in addition to the tiny reticulations that cover the surface; 
anterior subsegments more coarsely reticulated. Pores located well 
behind the transverse constriction near the anterior third of the 
subsegment; each pore surrounded by a conspicuous, broad, flattened 
rim. 

Last segment as long as the tAvo preceding segments together; 
margin evenly rounded except for a short distance at the apex, be- 
tween the two setae, where it is more truncate. 

Anal valves projecting behind the last segment; strongly inflated, 
with margins meeting in a broad deep groove. 

Preanal scale a third as long as broad; transversely elliptic; the 
hind margin more acutely rounded and with a seta on each side of 
the middle; at each lateral angle a tiny, narrowly elliptic process 
bearing a seta projects out from under the margin of the last segment. 

Male genitalia nearly concealed, the prominent overlapping pleu- 
rae of segment 6 produced backward beyond the line of the margin 
elsewhere and partly covering the opening in segment 7, which is 
biarcuate behind and has the margin strongly raised and subrevolute. 

Male genitalia in two distinct parts. Anterior gonopods (fig. 
14, a) differing from those of N. hurkei, as figured by Chamberlin,= 
by having the ventral plate transverse at base instead of strongly 
produced downward from the lateral angles; each anterior plate 
with the apex produced into a short, slightly outward turned lobe, 



6Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 61, art. 10, pi. 1, figs. 4-10, 1922. 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

instead of being squarely truncate (the anterior plates in Chamber- 
lin's drawing appear united to the lateral plates) ; lateral plates 
more acute at apex, Avith the upper half of the posterior margin pro- 
duced inward and forward. Posterior gonopods erect, rather slender, 
hollowed in front to near the rounded apex from which numerous 
papillate hairs curve backward; anterior ectal margin with a tri- 
angular process directed forward. 

Penultimate joint of male legs 6 and 7 with a conical prominence 
on the inner side larger than in N. hurhei and with the apex squarely 
truncate and hollow (fig. 14, 5) 

First male legs sunilar to those of hurhei as shown in Chamberlin's 
drawings previously referred to. 

Legs behind the genitalia with a long cavity in the ventral surface 
of joint 3. 

NANNOLENE VIOLACEA. new species 

Figure ] 5 ; Plate 2, Figuke 3 

Collected by Dr. O. F. Cook in the following California localities: 
Many specimens of both sexes south of Atascadero, the type locality, 
January 1, 1928; one female from Tejon Pass, December 14, 1927; 
one male and many females from Grapevine, below Fort Tejon, 
February 28, 1929. Two males, lacking one molt of maturity, from 
Medford, Oreg., June 15, 1937, and a similar male from Chico, Calif., 
June 24, 1937, collected by L. D. Christenson and L. S. Jones and sent 
to me by the U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, 
have been identified as this species. The type is a male, U.S.N.M. no. 
1308. 

Descnption. — This species is very closel)^ related to N. minor, from 
which it differs most evidently in the following particulars: Body 
of the same proportion, but sometimes reaching a length of 20 mm ; 
segments as many as 51; ocelli in fully developed specimens in four 
series containing 18 to 22 ocelli. 

Body distinctly pigmented with violaceous-brown, maculate with 
colorless spots. Head with vertex colored and maculate with many 
small light spots, which sometimes are confluent; in front of this 
area the color is unevenly peppered over the surface, becoming lighter 
toward the front margin of the head; a very large, transverse, oval, 
colorless area on each side between the antennae; above and slightly 
mesad of these are two smaller rounded areas. First segment witli 
a very large oval area mottled with light blotches on each side of the 
fine dark median line ; these areas bounded by a solid band of color, 
broad at the middle of both the front and hind margin and still 
broader near the hind angles ; outside of this band the margins of the 
segment are colorless and semitransparent, the anterior colorless 
margin much broader than that behind. Other segments with the 




CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS — LOOMIS 47 

anterior subsegment and the front half of the posterior subsegment 
colored and finally maculate with tiny light spots and with a series 
of much larger light spots across the middle of the anterior subseg- 
ment and another less distinct series in the constriction; two areas 
maculate with colorless spots on the anterior subsegments near the 
legs; the caudal half of the posterior subseg- 
ment uncolored and transparent. The series 
of brown spots on each side of the body is not 
conspicuous as in the other species, the spots 
small and partly masked by the other coloring. 
Last segment with the colored surface ver}^ 
finely peppered with tiny light spots, except 
immediately behind and under the penultimate 
segment, where there are numerous large light 
spots; posterior margin colorless. Valves and 
preanal scale slightly colored. pigdre is.-iva^/^ewe mo- 

Genitalia (fig. 15) showing close relationship lacea, new species: Ante- 
to N. minor, but the ventral plate shorter and "°;' ^°"°p°^' ^°*''^^' 

' _ i view. 

broader ; the anterior plates less produced, more 

acute at tip, more abruptly expanded and wider at base ; lateral plates 
with the rolled margins of the apical lobes less conspicuous from in 
front, and the lobes of slightly different shape. Posterior gonopods 
not observed. 

NANNOLENE UTA (Chamberlin) 

Nemasoma uta Chamberlin, Ann. Ent Soc. Amer., vol. 5, p. 162, 1912. 
Nannole uta Chambeklin, Pan-Pac. Ent., vol. 2, no. 2, p. 61, 1925. 

This species was described as a member of the genus Nemasoina 
from a single female specimen found in Little Willow Canyon, Utah, 
and although the species was again reported from the same locality 
it was not stated that additional specimens were involved, and it is 
probable that its inclusion in the paper was for the purpose of re- 
locating it in the genus Nannolene, the designation '■^Nannole^'' which 
appeared in this second report, being a typograpliical error, I have 
been informed by Prof. Chamberlin. 

Because of the variations of size, color pattern, numbers of seg- 
ments, and ocelli, within the species of this genus, the value of these 
characters in single specimens is reduced, but the short first segment in 
uta probably is a constant character and should be sufficient to dis- 
tinguish this species from the other members of the genus in our 
fauna. 

Genus BUWATIA Chamberlin 

Head without eyes; antennae subclavate, resting in an excavation 
extending from the socket to the lower margin of the first segment 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUjNI vol. 86 

First segment large, embracing the head; with a fine transverse sulcus 
subparallel to the anterior margin and some distance from it ; a sec- 
ond, submedian, sulcus present. Ensuing segments constricted to 
segment 6. Segments smooth, the dorsum a little depressed, with a 
weak longitudinal depression each side of middle, leaving mesial 
portion a little elevated. Since it was stated that the genus is closely 
related to NannoJene, being distinguished from it by the lack of 
eyes, it is assumed that the pores begin on segment 6. Last segment 
with a depression in front of the apex. Claws long and slender. 

This genus may be intermediate in position between Nannolene 
and Plafydere, because it is thought that pores begin on segment 6 
as in the former genus, and it is without eyes as in the latter genus. 
From both it differs in having a necklike constriction behind the 
head, and the dorsum slightly depressed on either side of a slight 
median elevation. There is but one species. 

BUWATLA. MONTEREA Chamberlin 

Bmmtia mouterea Chamberlin, Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 5, p. 159, pi. 10, 
fig. 7, 1912. 

Described from a single specimen, apparently a female, found at 
Pacific Grove. Calif. The species has not since been reported. 

PLATYDERE, new genus 

Type. — Platydeve caeca., new species, from southern California. 

Diagnosh. — Closely related to Nannolenes as shown by the smooth 
segments, the inconspicuous constriction of the neck segments, the 
row of deep pits in the transverse constriction of the segments, and 
by the rimmed pores. It differs, however, in being without eyes, 
in having the first pores on segment 5, and in having four or possibly 
six apical setae on the last segment, the lateral margin of which is 
deeply emarginate in front of the processes covering the lateral 
angles of the scale. 

Description. — Body stout, about 16 times as long as broad; with 
scarcely any constriction of segments 2 to 4 to form a neck; surface 
appearing very smooth and strongly shining. 

Head without a median sulcus or transverse impressed lines as in 
Nannolene; eyes lacking. Antennae inserted on the dorsolateral sur- 
face; moderately clavate; joint 2 shorter than joint 3, which is 
slightly longer than any of the others; joints 4 and 6 subcqual, 
shorter than joint 5, which is the Avidest joint. Clypeus with sides 
almost continuous with the labrum but with middle abruptly raised 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 49 

above it; two setae on each side. Labriim tridentate, with a basal 
series of setae. Gnathochilariiim much as in Nannolene but pro- 
portionately wider and w^ith upper section of the mentum relatively 
shorter in relation to the lower section. Mandibulary stipes no- 
ticeably convex, not recessed to receive the antennae; with a raised 
margin. 

First segment shorter than the next three segments together; an- 
terior corners more prominent than in Nannolene and with the lateral 
margin much less oblique, with a raised rim reaching around the 
anterior corner, the sides without striae; posterior corners strongly 
curved under and clasping the sides of the second segment. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 almost as broad as segments 1 and 5. Seg- 
ment 4 with the anterior and posterior divisions distinct and sepa- 
rated by a shallow constriction lacking the pits of the succeeding 
segments; posterior division more convex than the anterior division 
or than segment 2 or 3. Segment 5 slightly larger than segment 4; 
the large repugnatorial pore on the anterior fourth of the subsegment 
surrounded by a broad flattened rim. On segments farther back the 
pore is located just in front of the middle of the subsegment. 

Anterior subsegments near the middle of the body but little less 
convex than the posterior subsegments and separated from them by 
a broad and shallow constriction, in the bottom of which is a row of 
closely placed deep oval pits; posterior subsegments evenly convex 
from the constriction to the back margin; with many tiny longi- 
tudinal impressed lines seldom connected as are those on the segments 
of Namwlene. Lateral striations few and wide-spaced, highest on 
segments 5 and 6, where they reach halfway to the pores; on the 
caudal segments they are almost entirely confined to the ventral 
surfaces. Segments near caudal end of body becoming less convex. 
Penultimate segment nearly as long as the antepenultimate, almost 
flat. 

Last segment relatively short, not as long as the two preceding- 
segments together; apex subangularly rounded but less produced 
backward than in Nannolene; with three setae on one side of the 
middle and two on the other side in the type specimen, indicating six 
setae normally ; an additional seta near the middle of the hind mar- 
gin on each side; margin immediately in front of the large tablike 
processes very deeply emarginate, exposing much of them. 

Valves moderately inflated; margins meeting in a deep groove; 
each valve with the usual two setae near the opening. Scale rela- 
tively long; posterior margin more rounded than the anterior mar- 
gin and with a pair of widely separated setae. 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

PLATYDERE CAECA, new species 

A single mature mule specimen collected with specimens of Leio- 
dere dmyura at Tajiguas, Calif., January 1, 1928, by Dr. O. F. Cook. 
Type: U.S.N.M. no. 1309. 

Descnption. — Body rather stout, 16 mm long and 1 mm wide. 
Xum.ber of segments, 44. Color almost -white, with the repugnatorial 
glands showing through the sides of the body as a series of small 
orange spots, which turned almost black after the specimen had been 
stored in alcohol. 

Head smooth and shining; surface of the vertex with tiny, very 
faint, impressed reticulations visible only by cross lighting under 
moderate magnification; labrum with a series of 14 setae at base. 

Segment 1 as long as the next two and a half segments together; 
the posterior corners strongly curved under and clasping the lat- 
eroA^entral surface of segment 2, not produced backward ; entire pos- 
terior margin straight ; as seen from above, the sides of the segment 
are almost parallel, being slightly rounded from front to back, 
the segment widest at the middle or a little way in front of it. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 scarcely constricted, the posterior margin of 
segment 4 being over seven-eighths the width of segment 1 at its 
widest part. Segments 2 and 3 not longitudinally convex, flat, when 
viewed from the side. 

Near the middle of the body the exposed portion of the anterior 
subsegments is very smooth and shining and has a few long, slightly 
wavy, impressed, longitudinal lines; the covered part of the sub- 
segment has coarse reticulations showing through the transparent 
posterior subsegment of the preceding segment; posterior subseg- 
ments scarcely higher than the anterior subsegments. 

Preanal scale about three times as broad as long, the posterior 
margin rounded. 

Genus CHOCTELLA Chamberlin 

Body large and stout, only about 10 times as long as broad; dorsal 
surface smooth; lateral surface strongly striate from the feet to 
the repugnatorial pores. Eyes composed of many ocelli arranged 
in five or six rows. Antennae short and stout. Clypeus with six 
setiferous punctures. First segment extending forward over the 
head and partly concealing the antennae; anterior angles broadly 
rounded and distinctly produced forward ; lateral margin with a 
raised rim. Repugnatorial pores large, beginning on segment 6 as 
in Nannolene^ but said to be "in front of and well removed from 
the transverse suture," a statement that is open to question, as in all 
the other members of the family that the writer has examined the 
pore is in the posterior subsegment, definitely behind the constric- 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 51 

tioii. Last segment evenly rounded at apex and exceeded by the 
anal valves. First pair of male legs reduced in size but otherwise 
normal. Segment 7 of the males with the margin around the gono- 
pods moderately elevated. 
Only one species is known. 

CHOCTELLA CUMMINS! Chamberlin 

Choctella cumminsi Chamberlin, Psyche, vol. 25, p. 2:5, 191S. 

This species was described from a dozen specimens collected in the 
Glendale Hills of Tennessee and has not since been reported. 

Average length, 50 mm; number of segments, 44 to 48; general 
color black, the segments apparently v\"ith yellowish or reddish mark- 
ings in front and along the posterior margins. Eyes with 30 to 40 
ocelli in five or six series forming a triangular group. Antennae with 
joints 2 and 3 subequal, longer than the others; joints 5 and 6 
broadest. "Coleopods simple, thin plates, each of which is moderately 
narrowed distad and narrowly rounded at the apex; below apical 
portion the mesal border of each is bent subcaudad. Phallopods 
exceeded by the coleopods. Each with distal division narrowly sub- 
conical, distally curved mesad, the tip somewhat obliquely truncate." 

PHARODERE, new genus 

Type. — Pharodere radiata., new species, from southern California. 

Diagnosis. — This genus and Odaclmrus are the only eyeless mem- 
bers of the family in this country that have well-defined dorsal 
crests. Pharodere differs from Odachurus by lacking the flaring 
anterior corners of segment 1 and the swollen dorsum near the back 
margin, but there are prominent lateral striae on this segment; and 
on the caudal segments neither the lateral carinae nor the dorsal 
crests project as teeth beyond the back margin, and the crests are 
higher and more abruptly raised than those of Odachurus. 

Descri'ption. — Body slender, about 20 times as long as broad ; seg- 
ments as many as 64. 

Head without eyes. Antennae widelj' separated, inserted on the 
dorsolateral surface, moderately clavate, the basal joints slender as 
compared to the outer joints. Clypeus with three setae on each side. 
Labrum tridentate, somewhat depressed below the clypeus, and with 
a basal row of setae. Gnathochilarium as shown in figure 16, Oi. 
Mandibulary stipes receding beneath the head, the lower half hol- 
lowed to receive the antennae. 

First segment not quite so long as the next three segments together, 
widest near the front corners which are broadly rounded, somewhat 
produced forward, and w^ith the intervening front margin nearly 
straight; lateral margin with a raised rim, rounded and very obli- 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL IMUSEUM vol. 86 

qiiely descending to the back corner, which is not quite a right angle 
and clasps the side of the body; lateral surface striate. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 with the sides gradually converging behind, 
necklike, the posterior margin of segment 4 only three-fourths as 
wide as segment 1. Segments 2 and 3 flat, not at all convex, dorsum 
smooth, the sides with striations. Segment 4 with the anterior sub- 
division somewhat exposed ; the posterior subdivision moderately con- 
vex and with crests as on the subsequent segments, but less distinct. 

Anterior division of the midbody segments moderately convex; 
crossed behind by a series of channels nearly twice as long as broad 
and usually with a large, deep, round or oval pit occupying the 
back half of each channel ; channels separated from each other by a 
thin raised ridge; in front of the channels the surface is coarsely 
and distinctly honeycomb-reticulated. Posterior subsegments 
abruptly elevated from the constriction but with the dorsum flat, 
not at all convex as seen from the side; between the prominent 
])oriferous carinae are six to eight thin and high longitudinal crests 
crossing the subsegment, the inner pair conspicuously thicker and 
liigher than the others and more widely separated, the smaller crests 
number two to four on each side with three the rule. Lateral carinae 
])rominent, abruptly elevated from the sides, greatly thickened in 
front into a broad, oval area with a rather large depression contain- 
ing the pore; posterior part of the carina thin, ending in a right 
angled corner above the posterior edge of the segment. Beginning 
on segment 5 and for several segments thereafter the pores are borne 
on broad, rounded elevations rather than on a definite carina. Be- 
low the poriferous carinae are 12 to 15 longitudinal striations. 
Penultimate segment with dorsal crests and lateral carinae almost 
as strong as those on the foregoing segments. 

Last segment smooth and shining, the dorsum scarcely convex in 
lateral view, not quite so long as the two preceding segments to- 
gether; posterior margin thickened, especially at the apex, which 
bears two setae and is narrowly rounded and projects a little beyond 
the valves but not as a cons])icuous mucro. Valves little inflated and 
with margins meeting in a narrow, shallow groove. Preanal scale 
almost four times as broad as long, the posterior margin nearly 
straight; tab processes small. 

Segment 6 with the margin around the gonopods scarcely raised 
but the overlapping pleurae are strongly produced backward, nearly 
covering the gonopods. Segment 7 vrith the genital opening semi- 
circular, the margin not separately raised. 

First and second male legs smaller than ensuing legs, with well- 
developed claws. Sixth and seventh male legs with a process on the 
inner side of the penultimate joint somewhat similar to that in the 
same position in NannoJene. 



OAMBAIiOID MILLIPEDS — ^LOOMIS 53 

PHARODERE RADIATA. new species 
FiGtJBE 16 ; Plate 2, Figtjre 1 

Several males and numerous females collected with Odachurus 
petasatus and Leiodere tort^eyana under stones on the cliflfs near the 
sea at Torrey Pines, La Jolla, Calif., November 26, 1925, by Dr. O. F. 
Cook and H. F. Loomis. The type (U.S.N.M. no. 1310) is a male. 
Other specunens are from the same locality early in 1925 and also 
from Hodges Lake, Calif. 

Description. — Body slender, ranging from 12 to 20 mm in length 
and from 0.6 to 0.8 mm wide. Number of segments, 43 to 64, the 
smallest specimen being a male with 43 segments. Living color 
grayish white. 




FiGDKB 16. — Pharodere radiata, new genus and species : a, Gnatliochilarlum, the hypostoma 
not shown ; 6, head and first two segments, lateral view ; c, gonopods, anterior view. 

Antennae with joint 2 longest; joint 5 next in length and widest 
■of all; joints 3 and 4 subequal in length and shorter than joint 6. 
Labrum a little depressed below the level of the clypeus, especially 
at the middle, and with a row of 14 setae across the base. Mandi- 
bulary stipes large but receding beneath the head, the upper part 
of each stipe a little convex but the surface above the lower marginal 
rim distinctly hollowed for the reception of the antennae. Head 
and first two segments shown in lateral view in figure 16, h. 

First segment with the posterior margin noticeably emarginate at 
middle; lateral surface with six striae radiating from a short space 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

along the posterior margin a little way above each corner, the lovv'er 
striae about a third as long as the dorsum, the upper ones shorter 
and pointing obliquely upward; remainder of surface with minute 
impressed lines forming a very inconspicuous network visible only 
with rather high magnification. 

Segment 2 vritli a few fine striations low on the sides, the dorsum 
smooth. Segment 3 also smooth but with the lateral striations ex- 
tending above the line of the pores of the poriferous segments. 

Segments near the back end of the body with the pair of large, 
inner, dorsal crests and the lateral carinae more elevated than on the 
median segments and terminating in right-angled corners, but not 
projecting beyond the posterior margin of the segments. Penulti- 
mate segment a little shorter than the foregoing segment and Avith 
the crests and carinae almost as strong. 

Gonopods as shown in figure 16, c. 

ODACHURUS, new genus 

Type. — OdachuniH petasatu.^, new species, from southern Califor- 
nia. 

Diagnosis. — Closely related to Pharodere., with which it v/as found. 
It differs in the flaring anterior corners and swollen surface of seg- 
ment 1, which lacks lateral striations; the less prominent dorsal ridges 
of the principal body segments, although on several segments pre- 
ceding the penultimate the inner pair of ridges and the lateral ca- 
linae are produced beyond the posterior margin; penultimate seg- 
ment short and smooth. 

Descnption. — Body the same sha):)e and size as Phurodere. Head 
with the labral and clypeal setae broken off but otherwise not differ- 
ing notably from Pharodere. Cinathochilarium not dissected, but ap- 
parently the mentum is in two parts. 

First segment with the anterior corners obtusely rounded and in- 
conspicuously produced forward, very distinctly flaring outward 
away from the sides of the body, when seen from in front or above, 
jind forming the widest part of the segment; side margins very 
oblique, with a raised marginal rim visible only in front as the 
posterior half of the margin abruptly rolled under; posterior cor- 
nel's quite sharp and slightly flaring away from the sides of tlie body 
instead of clasping it as in other genera; dorsal surface inflated, 
especially in front of the median part of the posterior margin which 
is i^artly liidden from above; lateral .surface without striae. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 forming a neck gradually narrowed to the 
posterior margin of segment 4. which is onlv three-fourths the width 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 55 

of the first segment across the anterior corners. Segments 2 and 3 
nearly flat longitudinally, without a transverse constriction; lateral 
striae reaching to the edge of the dorsum on segment 3. Segment 4 
with a transverse constriction, the posterior subsegment moderately 
convex and with ridges arranged as on the ensuing segments but 
fainter. 

From segment 5 to the caudal end of the body the anterior sub- 
eegments are as in Pharodere^ with anterior portion coarsely reticu- 
late, the posterior part longitudinally channeled, each channel con- 
taining a rounded pit behind. Posterior subsegments abruptly 
raised from the transverse constriction, the dorsum a little convex, 
Avith ridges disposed as in Pharodere but less definite in shape; a 
large ridge on each side of the middle, the pair widely separated; 
between each large ridge and the lateral carina are two or three 
smaller, lower ridges; all ridges arising from the front of the sub- 
segment but not reaching the posterior margin on any but the hind- 
most segments; posterior margin flat and lower than the surface 
between the ridges. On several segments immediately preceding the 
penultimate segment the large median crests increase in size and 
project beyond the hind margin, the other ridges becoming less evi- 
dent and not projecting. Pores beginning on segment 5, borne in a 
very small and shallow depression in the broad margin of the lateral 
carinae. Lateral carinae of less definite shape than in Pharodere^ 
especially on the anterior segments, where they are little more than 
rounded swellings ; on the posterior segments they are more flattened 
than on segments farther forward, but each is strongly produced 
beyond the hind margin as a triangular tooth. Below the lateral 
carinae numerous prominent striae reach to the feet. Penultimate 
segment very short and without ridges or lateral carinae. 

Last segment long; dorsum nearly flat longitudinally; the thick- 
ened apex angularly rounded, a little projecting beyond the valves 
and with two setae. 

Anal valves inflated and meeting in a rather broad, deep groove; 
each valve with two setae near the opening. Preanal scale very 
short; the hind margin straight across, the front margin broadly 
rounded; processes small, each with a short seta. 

ODACHURUS PETASATUS. new species 
FiGTXBE 17 

A single mature female specimen collected with specimens of 
Pharodere and Leiodere beneath stones on the cliffs above the sea 



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VOL. 86 



at Torrey Pines, La Jolla, Calif., November 26, 1925, by Dr. O. F. 
Cook and H. F. Loomis. Type: U.S.N.M. no 1311. 

Description. — Body about 14 mm long and 0.7 mm broad. Num- 
ber of segments, 51. Color in life whitish gray. 

Head and first segments shown in figure 17, a and h. 

Segment 1 has the posterior edge distinctly emarginate medianly, 
but the pronounced inflation of the dorsal surface immediately in 
front of it hides much of the margin from above. 

From segment 5 to near the caudal end of the body the posterior 
portion of the anterior subsegments is longitudinally marked with 
channels nearly twice as long as wide, each usually containing a 
rounded or oval pit behind; channels separated from each other by 
a thin, raised ridge. On the anterior poriferous segments the lat- 





PiGDRH 17. — Odachurus petasatus, new genus and species : a, Head and segment 1, dorsal 
view ; b, head and first two segments, lateral view. 

eral carinae are rounded swellings, but toward the middle of the body, 
although low and not abruptly raised from the surface, they be- 
come more definite in outline, being distinctly obovate yet not reach- 
ing the back margin, as they do on several of the caudal segments, 
where they project beyond the margin as acute teeth. Antepenulti- 
mate segment with the two large dorsal ridges reduced in size but 
strongly projecting beyond the back margin as teeth. Penultimate 
segment less than half as long as the foregoing segment and without 
dorsal ridges or lateral carinae. 

Last segment nearl}^ as long as the three preceding segments to- 
gether, the thickened tip angularly rounded, projecting a little be- 
yond the valves and with two small apical setae. Preanal scale at 
least four times broader than long ; hind margin straight, front mar- 
gin rounded ; process on each side inconspicuous. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS^ — LOOMIS 57 

Family CAMBALOPSIDAE 

The members of this family differ most fundamentally from those 
of the Cambalidae in the possession of an undivided mentum. The 
family has hitherto been known only from southeastern Asia, but 
the discovery of four new species in California greatly extends the 
distribution, no forms being known as yet from the intervening 
countries. Two new genera have been required for the inclusion of 
these species in the classification system, the genus Eiidere having 
eyes, recessed mandibulary stipes, and very strongly constricted neck 
segments, in contrast to the genus Leiodere^ with its lack of eyes, con- 
vex mandibulary stipes, and much less strongly constricted neck 
segments, to mention only a few diagnostic points. 

ENDERE, new genus 

Type. — Endere disora^ new species, from California. 

Description. — Body slender, about 18 times as long as broad; dis- 
tinctly moniliform and a little depressed, as seen in cross section. 

Head with ocelli in a single series covered by the anterior mar- 
gin of segment 1. Antennae (fig. 18, a) short, subclavate, broadly 
separated, inserted on the sides of the head rather than on the dorso- 
lateral surface, the bases not exposed from above (fig. 18, 5). Clyp- 
eus with six setae. Labrum depressed below the level of the clypeus, 
tridentate, with sixteen short setae across base. Gnathochilariimi 
(fig. 18, c) with mentum entire, nearly as long as the stipes, the up- 
per fourth decidedly attenuated and reaching to near the tips of 
the lingual laminae, median surface with a rounded depression 
deepening behind ; stipes without a distinct outer angle, the sides con- 
tinuous, broadly and evenly rounded from the outer papillate process 
to the base ; lingual laminae slender, about half as long as the stipes. 
Mandibulary stipes inconspicuous beneath the lateral margin of the 
head, the surface distinctly depressed to receive the antennae ; lower 
margin with a raised rim. 

Segment 1 broad and longer than the next three segments com- 
bined; anterior corners prominent, produced forward, broadly 
rounded; posterior corners nearly right-angled, produced backward 
slightly and strongly curved under the body ; lateral margin descend- 
ing obliquely from in front to just behind the middle, where it bends 
upward, forming an obtuse rounded angle, margin with a faint rim ; 
lateral surface without striations. Head and first five segments 
shown in lateral view in figure 18, d. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 flattened, scarcely convex, lacking the trans- 
verse constrictions of the succeeding segments, the sides rapidly 



58 



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VOL. 86 



converging backward to the hind margin of segment 4, which is only 
iwo-thirds as wide as the widest part of segment 1; ensuing seg- 
ments abruptly larger. First six segments shown in dorsal view 
in figure 18, e. 

From segment 5 to the caudal end of the body the posterior sub- 
segments are conspicuously raised above the anterior subsegments 
and are more convex, with a low, tumid swelling on each side of the 
middle and a lateral swelling or prominence bearing the pore (fig. 18, 
/). Pores beginning on segment 5, small and lacking an encircling 
rim. 




Figure 18. — Endere disora, now genus and species : a, Antenna ; b, anterior portion of 
head ; c, gnathochilarlum ; d, head and first five segments, lateral view ; e, first six 
segments from above ; /, midbody segment, posterior view. 

Last segment long, the apex even with the valves; setae of inde- 
terminate number have been rubbed off. 

Anal valves moderately inflated and meeting in a broad, deep 
groove. 

Preanal scale a transverse ellipse; the process on each side large. 

Males unknown. 



OAMBALOID MILLIPEDS — ^LOOMIS 59 

ENDERE DISORA, new species 
FlGUKE 18 

A single female specimen collected in an ant nest at Sunnyside 
Mine, near Seneca, Plumas County, Calif., December 19, 1922, by 
H. S. Barber. Type : U.S.N.M. no. 1312. 

Description. — Body 18 mm long and 1 mm broad; slightlj^ flat- 
tened ; number of segments, 46. Color of body in alcohol light yellow 
throughout, indicating that it probably was nearly white in life. 

Head smooth and shining; vertex unimpressed; antennae widely 
separated, the distance between them nearly equal the length of one 
antenna; antennae rising from beneath the lateral margin of the 
head, the sockets and m-ost of the first joints hidden from above; 
joints 1 and 3 subequal in length, shorter than the subequal joints 
4 and 5; joint 2 longest, a third longer than joint 6; joint 7 very 
short, scarcely exposed; joints 4, 5, and 6 of nearly equal diameter; 
mandibulary stipes obscured from above by the sides of the head. 

Segment 1 smooth and shining; anterior margin straight and 
thickened; posterior margin straight across the median part but 
bending caudad some distance above the hind angles, which are 
somewhat produced backward. 

From segment 5 to the caudal end of the body the segments are 
strongly constricted at middle; anterior division of each segment 
moderately convex, v/ith a series of very shallow, indistinct, oblong 
channels behind, the channels separated by very fine raised lines 
slightly beaded along their crests ; in front of the channels the sur- 
face is marked with distinct honej^comb reticulations. Posterior sub- 
segments more elevated, exceedingly convex, without distinct crests 
but with a broad, tumid swelling on either side of the median line, 
the swelling gradually raised from in front to the middle; dorsal 
surface with smaller and less conspicuous reticulations than the an- 
terior subsegment. Pores beginning on segment 5, borne on the 
anterior slope of a lateral prominence similar to that on each side 
of the dorsum. Sides longitudinally striate below the pores, es- 
pecially on the anterior segments. Body narrowing rapidly back- 
ward at the last three segments. 

Antepenultimate segment slightly longer and a little more convex 
than the next segment but not so convex as the one before; dorsal 
elevations not evident, and the pore not on a prominence as on the 
foregoing segments. 

Last segment a little longer than the two preceding segments com- 
bined, the apex strongly rounded behind, the setae lost. Preanal 
scale elliptic and relatively long, being two-fifths as long as broad; 
the processes that project from under the margin of the last segment 
and cover the lateral angles of the scale are large and conspicuous. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUIM vol.86 

LEIODERE, new genus 

Type. — Leiodere torreyana., new species, from southern California. 

Description. — Body slender, 15 to 25 times as long as broad, sub- 
moniliform; surface smooth, without distinct dorsal ridges. 

Head without eyes; antennae rather short and subclavate; clj'peus 
with four large setae ; labrum with 14 smaller setae ; gnathochilarium 
with the sides converging toward the base, the mentum entire; man- 
dibulary stipes hidden from above, slanting under the head, slightly 
convex and with a fine raised rim below. 

First segment nearly as long as or longer than the next three 
segments together; with definite anterior and posterior corners, the 
latter somewhat clasping the sides of the body; lateral margin 
straight and with a raised rim. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 constricted caudad, forming a more or less 
distinct neck; dorsum flat longitudinally, not at all convex. Suc- 
ceeding segments with the posterior subsegment convex, abruptly 
elevated from the constriction above the anterior subsegment, caus- 
ing the body to appear submoniliform. In two of the species there 
is a general swelling of the surface on each side of the middle of the 
dorsum, with a concomitant median depression; the other species, 
having no dorsal swelling, lacks the median depression. Pores small, 
beginning on segment 5, the general surface about the pore slightly 
more convex than elsewhere, sometimes even raised into a noticeable 
swelling. Lateral striae not reaching to the pore on any segment. 

Last segment as long as or longer than the two preceding segments 
together; each lateral margin containing a seta and four to eight 
setae in the apical margin ; apex rounded and not projecting beyond 
the anal valves. 

Anal valves moderately convex, the margins meeting in a groove. 
Preanal scale transversely subelliptic. A process on each side of 
the scale but not prominent. 

First pair of male legs slightly reduced, 6-jointed, the terminal 
claw normal. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LEIODERE 

1. Body small, less than 15 mm in length; 40 segments or less; an- 

tennae with joint 2 longest nana, new species 

Body 15 mm or more long ; segments more than 40 ; antennae with 
joint 2 equaled or exceeded by at least one other joint 2 

2. Dorsum of segments with a shallow median depression, bounded 

on either side by a broad, indistinct swelling; first segment 
longer than next three segments combined; last segment with 

8 apical setae dasyura, new species 

Dorsum of segments lacking broad swellings or a median de- 
pression ; first segment shorter than next three segments com- 
bined ; last segment with 4 apical setae torreyana, new species 



CAMBALOID MELLIPEDS — ^LOOMIS 61 

LEIODERE TORREYANA. new species 

Figure 19 ; Plate 2, Figukes 4, 5 

Numerous specimens, including the male type (U.S.N.M. no. 1313), 
collected at Torrey Pines, La Jolla, Calif., January 11, 1925, by 
H. G. McKeever and A. D. Harvey. Others collected by Dr. O. F. 
Cook and H. F. Loomis at the same locality beneath stones on the 
cliffs above the sea, intermixed with specimens of Pharodere radiata 
and Odachurus petasatus^ November 26, 1925. Other specimens from 

20 miles below Tia Juana, Lower California, January 1925 by Dr. 
O. F. Cook. 

Description. — Body 20 to 26 times as long as broad ; a large female 

21 mm long, 0.8 mm broad, with 58 segments ; another mature speci- 
men has only 43 segments. Color in life dusky cream-white. 




PiGDRB 19.- 



-Leiodere torreyana, new genus and species : a. Antenna ; 6, midbody segment, 
lateral view ; c, gonopods, anterior view. 



Head eyeless, surface smooth and shining. Antennae (fig. 19, a) 
short and subclavate, separated by a distance equal to over half their 
length; joints 2, 3, 5, and 6 subequal in length; joint 4 shorter than 
any except the basal and apical joint, the latter a fifth as long as 
joint 6; joint 5 widest. Labrum depressed at middle below the 
level of the clypeus. Mandibulary stipes not prominent, slanting 
slightly inward, the surface faintly convex and coarsely reticulated. 
Gnathochilarium with sides almost parallel, converging toward the 
base much less than in the other species. 

First segment as long as or a little longer than the next three 
segments together; anterior edge subemarginate ; lateral margin ex- 



62 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

tending obliquely downward in an almost straight line and with a 
narrow rim reaching from around the anterior corner to the posterior 
corner, which is almost a right angle and not conspicuously clasping 
the side of the body and lacking pronounced striations. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 forming a moderately constricted neck, the 
posterior margin on segment 4 five-sevenths as wide as the first seg- 
ment at its broadest part. Segments 2 and 3 flat, without transverse 
constrictions ; segment 4 with a constriction behind which the surface 
is more convex. 

Anterior division of the subsequent segments quite convex; a 
series of shallow channels along its posterior part, the channels less 
than twice as long as broad, smooth within, separated by fine, raised, 
beaded lines; anterior part of subsegment coarsely reticulated; pos- 
terior subsegment abruptly raised from the constriction considerably 
higher than the anterior subsegment, strongly convex ; dorsal surface 
appearing smooth and shining but with correct magnification and 
lighting numerous short, irregular, impressed lines appear, which, 
when well developed, form reticulations having meshes longer than 
broad. A segment from the middle of the body is shown in figure 19, 
1). Pores beginning on segment 5, placed on a very slight swelling 
high on each side; on the anterior segments the pore is in front of 
the middle of the subsegment, but farther back it is at the middle. 
Sides below the pores finely striate longitudinally, the striae of 
the anterior segments farthest up the sides. 

Antepenultimate segment less convex than preceding but more 
so than the nearly flat penultimate segment. 

Last segment longer than tlie two preceding segments together; 
posterior margin broadly rounded, with four apical setae and another 
seta on each side. 

Anal valves strongly inflated; margins meeting in a narrow, shal- 
low groove. Preanal scale over three times broader than long ; front 
margin rounded more than the back margin; tab process on either 
side large. 

Gonopods as shown in figure 19, c. 

Segment 6 of male with pleurae not produced backward ; segment 
7 with the opening for the gonopods U-shaped, its margin strongly 
elevated. 

LEIODERE NANA, new species 

FiGtnsE 20 

Numerous specimens, including the male type, U.S.N.M. no. 1314, 
vrere collected between Vallejo and Cordelia, Calif., January 4, 1928, 
by Dr. O. F. Cook, who also collected a male and two females at 
Cordelia on February 20, 1929. 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS — LOOMIS 



63 



Description. — Body long and slender, 9 to 13 mm long and 0.6 
to 0.9 mm broad; cylindrical, not at all flattened as seen in cross 
section; number of segments 32 to 40; living color light grayish 
white with a series of internal orange spots, the repugnatory glands, 
showing through the body wall. 

Head with the antennae quite short and stout (fig. 20, a), arising 
from the dorsolateral surface, the basal joint almost entirely exposed 
from above; joint 2 longest; joints 5 and 6 subequal, next in length; 
joints 3, 4, and 1 decreasing in order named; joint 5 broadest. 




Figure 20. — Leiodere nana, new genus and species : a. Antenna ; b, anterior portion of 
head ; c, gnathochilarium of male ; d, head and first five segments, lateral view ; e, mid- 
body segment, posterior view ; f, gonopods, anterior view. 

Clypeus with two setae on each side. Labrum almost continuous 
with the clypeus, scarcely depressed, with 14 setae across the base. 
Anterior portion of head shown in figure 20, h. Gnathochilarium 
as shown in figure 20, c. 

First segment little longer than the next two segments together; 
ilie anterior corners broader than a right angle and slightly pro- 
duced forward ; lateral marghi obliquely descending to near the hind 
angle, where it is bent horizontal!}^, the margin with a raised rim; 
posterior corners square, slightly curved under the side of the body, 



64 PROCEEDI^^GS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM tol. 86 

two short rudimentary striae sometimes present in the angle; back 
margin straight througliout its length. Anterior segments shown 
in lateral view in figure 20, d. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 flat, without transverse constrictions; sides 
slightly narrowing backward, the posterior margin of segment 4 
about ten-thirteenths as wide as the widest part of segment 1 ; lateral 
striae reaching higher on segments 4 and 5 than on any other 
segment. 

From segment 5 to the antepenultimate segment strong transverse 
constrictions are present; anterior subsegments moderately convex, 
with coarse reticulations in front sometimes showing through the 
semitransparent posterior subsegments, and with shallow rectangular 
channels behind, twice as long as broad and separated by fine, raised, 
and very inconspicuously beaded lines. Posterior subsegments with 
fine median sulcus, more impressed on the back half ; surface shining 
and with many tiny impressed longitudinal lines except on the 
extremely faint lateral swelling where a considerable area around 
the pore is dull and conspicuously reticulated. Posterior view of a 
segment from near the middle of the body is shown in figure 20, e. 
Pores beginning on segment 5. borne on the anterior slope of the 
faint swelling, the pore minute, without an encircling rim. Penulti- 
mate segment much shorter and less convex than the preceding 
segment, the anterior subsegment exposed only on the sides. 

Last segment as long as the two preceding segments together; the 
apex rather narrowly rounded and exceeded by the anal valves, with 
four apical setae but none on the side margins. 

Anal valves moderately inflated, meeting rather abruptly in a 
narrow, shallow groove. Preanal scale less than half as long as 
broad; processes relatively large. 

Gonopods as shown in figure 20, /. 

First nuile legs reduced in size but with full}' developed claws. 
Other pregenital legs without special modifications. 

Genital segments prominent below ; the back margins of the broad, 
overlapping pleurae of segment G continuous with the back margin 
elsewhere, not produced caudad ; opening in segment 7 biarcuate 
behind, the surrounding margin strongly raised. 

LEIODERE DASYURA, new species 
FlOtTRE 21 ; Pl_\TE 2, FlOl'liE 2 

Several specimens, including the male type (U.S.N.M. no. 1315), 
collected at Tajiguas, Calif., January 1, 1928, by Dr. O. F. Cook, who 
also collected a male east of San Lucas, Calif., December 20, 1930 

Description. — Body slender, 15 to 18 mm long and 0.8 to 1 mm 
broad; females a little stouter than the males; body cylindric, com- 



CAMBALOID MILLIPEDS LOOMIS 



65 



posed of 41 to 51 segments; living color light grayish white, with a 
series of internal orange spots, the repugnatorial glands, showing 
through the body wall on each side. 

Head with antennae rising from the dorsolateral surface ; especially 
slender at base; joint 2 shorter than any of the next four; joint 5 
longest and broadest (fig. 21, a) . Clypeus with two large setae each 
side. Labrum nearly continuous with the clypeus, a series of 14 
short setae across base. ISIandibulary stipes slanting inward and 
downward from the lower margin of the head; with a fine marginal 
rim ; surface definitely convex. Gnathochilarium as shown in figure 
21,^. 




FiGUEB 21. — Leiodere dasyura, new genus and species : a, Antenna ; &, gnathochilarium ; 
c, head and first five segments, lateral view ; d, anterior gonopods, anterior view. 

First segment with the dorsum tvvo-thirds longer than the lateral 
margin and longer than the next three segments together; anterior 
corners rounded and somewhat produced forward; lateral margin 
nearly horizontal, with a raised rim; hind angles squarely rounded, 
scarcely curved under the sides of the body ; posterior margin straight 
its entire length; lateral surface with 5 to 10 striae directed forward 
from the back margin just above the angle, the lower striae longest. 
Anterior segments shown in lateral view in figure 21, c. 

Segments 2, 3, and 4 strongly constricted, necklike; the back 
margin of segment 4 only three-fourths as wide as the broadest part 
of segment 1 ; segments 2 and 3 with the dorsum flat, without trans- 
verse constrictions; segment 4 with the constriction evident, the 
anterior subsegment exposed and the posterior subsegment much more 
convex but lacking the swellings of the ensuing segments. 



QQ PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.86 

From segment 5 to the caudal end of the body the channels at the 
back of the anterior snbsegments are large and conspicuous, about 
twice as long as broad, and separated by distinctly beaded raised 
lines; in front of the channels the surface is coarsely reticulated. 
Posterior subsegments strongly convex, the caudal ones decreasingly 
so, the penultimate segment nearlj^ flat; surface of subsegments 
slightly rough, with rather coarse reticulations ; dorsum on each side 
of the middle swollen, the two inconspicuous prominences separated 
by a depression which is broader and deeper on the front of the sub- 
segment; high on each side, almost on the dorsum, is a slightly less 
apparent swelling with the pore on its anterior slope ; pores beginning 
on segment 5, small, without a raised rim; lateral striations strong 
and conspicuous, reaching nearly to the pores on segments 4 and 5 
but still apparent low on the sides of the caudal segments. 

Last segment slight 1}' longer than the two preceding segments 
together; the apex rather narrowly rounded and with eight setae 
projecting from the margin; each side with an additional setae. 

Anal valves rather strongly inflated and meeting in a broad, deep 
groove. Preanal scale only a third as long as broad; front margin 
rounded, the back margin straighter; processes at the lateral angles 
small. 

Gonopods as shown in figure 21, d. 

First pair of male legs small and with well-developed claws; other 
legs without secondary sexual characters. Genital segments rather 
prominent below; the pleurae of segment 6 somewhat raised over 
the opening in segment 7 but not produced backward; opening in 
segment 7 slightly biarcuate behind, its margin strongly raised. 



U. S. GOifERHMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1938 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




issued 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Washington: 1938 No. 3044 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA ^ 



By A. S. Pearse 



Between June 1935 and May 1936, while I was investigating the 
flatworms known to the oystermen of Florida as "leeches," a number 
of species of these polyclads were found along the shores of the Gulf 
of Mexico. In attempting to identify these specimens, I examined 
turbellarians in the United States National Museum, and the present 
paper is the result. Twenty-seven species of the order Polycladida 
are now known from the east coast of North America from Texas to 
Baffin Bay. Eleven species and three genera are here described as 
new. 

Grateful acknowledgments are made to George W. Wharton, who 
prepared serial sections and made valuable suggestions; to Miss Eliza 
Taylor, for serial sections of Emtylochus; and to Prof. Horace W. 
Stunkard, who read the manuscript of this paper critically and sug- 
gested several improvements. 

Order POLYCLADIDA 

Suborder Acotylina: Section Craspedommata 

Family DISCOCELIDAE 

Genus DISCOCELIS Ehrenberg 

DISCOCELIS GRISEA, new species 

FlGUBE 22 

A dozen specimens were collected from the Gulf of Mexico on No- 
vember 21, 1935, and one on February 10, 1936. When alive, an 

* Published with the permission of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries. 
85371—38 1 gy 



68 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



individual of this species looked somewhat like Stylochus inhnicus 
Palombi but was easily distinguished by the quicker movements and 
the fact that when crawling the anterior end was wider than the pos- 
terior, so that the shape of the body was oval. The largest individual 
was 18 mm long and 5 mm wide when extended. The color of the 




FicnnB 22. — Discocelis grisea, new species : Enteron at left, gonads at right, e, Ejes ; 
en, enteron ; g. gonads ; m, mouth ; p, pharynx ; pe, penis ; ag, shell gland ; sv, seminal 
vesicle; u, uterus; ug, uterine glands; vd, vas deferens; <f, male opening; $, female 
opening. 

dorsum was gray, with faint radiating light streaks (nerves) and a 
light median band (pharynx, etc.) through the middle half. The 
ventrum was cream-color, with white genitalia showing through. At 
times the worms swam about by waving the sides of the body. There 
were no nuchal tentacles, but the tentacular eyes were in low tubercles. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 69 

Preserved, stained, and mounted, the type measures 11.6 mm long 
and 5.8 mm wide. The structures in the median line are the following 
distances from the anterior end : Brain, 2,7 mm ; pharynx, 3.5-8.2 mm ; 
mouth, 8.0 mm ; male genital bursa, 8.2-8.8 mm ; genital opening, 8.9 
mm ; shell gland, 9.4 mm ; accessory uterine organs, 9.9 mm ; posterior 
loop of vasa deferentia, 10.2 mm. The cerebral and tentacular eyes 
are arranged in two pairs of lateral groups, about 15 in each ; about 
350 marginal eyes extend along the sides from the anterior end about 
halfway to the posterior end. 

The pharynx is folded into about 10 lobes and is rather narrow; 
1.0 by 5.1 mm. Ten pairs of branched, lobate caeca arise from the 
median stem of the enteron dorsal to the pharynx and extend to the 
margins of the body. The mouth is ventral, just anterior to the pos- 
terior border of the pharynx. 

Close behind the mouth the prostate gland and penis are enclosed 
in a pyriform sheath with two to four lateral appendages. The coiled 
vasa deferentia extend forward from the prostate gland close beside 
the pharynx. At about the posterior third of the pharynx each gives 
off a lateral branch, which coils posteriorly and fuses with the one 
from the opposite side behind the accessory uterine organs. The va- 
gina, behind the single genital pore, is surrounded by shell-gland fol- 
licles. Two lateral, longitudinal uteri extend forward from the shell 
gland along the sides of the pharynx. None of those available con- 
tain eggs, and all taper gradually toward the anterior. Behind the 
shell gland a slightly sinuous median duct connects with a pair of 
transverse accessory uterine organs, which are usually curved ante- 
riorly near their distal ends. Numerous ovaries and testes are dis- 
tributed in a ring around the pharynx and genital ducts, leaving a 
zone about O.T mm wide free about the margin. 

Type.—V. S. N. M. no. 20186, from Crooked Island Sound, Farm- 
dale, Fla.; collected November 21, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 

Remarks. — This species differs from Dlscocelis nmtahilis Verrill, 
1873, in having the cerebral and tentacular eyes arranged in two pairs 
of groups and in being colored with radiating light streaks and a 
lighter median band. 

Family STYLOCHIDAE 
Genus STYLOCHUS Ehrenberg 

STYLOCHUS INIMICUS Palombi 

FiGUEE 23 

Stylochus inimicus Palombi, 1931, p. 219. 

As Palombi has given a complete description of this species and 
as I have published (1938) a paper on the general ecology of this 



70 



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VOL. 86 




-s-^ 



FiGOBB 23. — Ftylochus inimicus Palombl. e, Eyes; en, enteron ; m, mouth; nt, nuchal 
tentacles ; o, ovary ; p, pharynx ; ag, shell gland ; sv, seminal vesicle ; t, testis ; «, uterus; 
vd, vas deferens; d", male opening; $, female opening. 




Figueb 24. — Stylochua floridantis, new species: Anterior end showing eyes (e) and 

tentacles (nt). 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST PEARSE 71 

polyclad and its relations as an oyster pest, it is discussed here but 
briefly. It is common on oyster beds, especially in summer and dur- 
ing dry periods when estuarine salinities are high, from Apalachicola 
Bay along the coast of Florida to Indian River. Palombi (1936) 
has described JS. tenax from Apalachicola Bay. After examining 
specimens from the same locality and comparing them with others 
from the localities from which he describes S. inimicus, I am con- 
vinced that all belong to one species. The characters that Palombi 
cites as different are variable. Perhaps this may be explained by 
the fact that he studied two lots of worms; one was preserved in 
alcohol, the other in formol. 

STYLOCHUS FLORIDANUS, new species 

Figure 24 

Body of largest specimen observed alive, expanded and actively 
creeping; length, 53 mm; width, 27 mm. Five preserved specimens 
measure : 31 by 24.5, 30 by 22, 29 by 21, 23 by 22, 20.5 by 13.5 mm. 
The margins of the body are always more or less thrown into small 
folds. The nuchal tentacles are 0.7 mm long when extended. They 
average about a fifth of the length of the body from the anterior end. 
They are conical, and each tapers to a rather sharp tip. The enteron 
has a median stem and branching lateral caeca, which extend to near 
the margins of the body ; the mouth is on the median line about two- 
fifths of the length of the body from the anterior end ; the pharynx 
is thrown into about 10 pairs of lateral folds. There are groups of 
from 40-odd to more than 100 eyes in and about the base of each 
nuchal tentacle. A more or less circular group of about 160 eyes 
surrounds the brain and leaves a clear space in the middle. Periph- 
eral to this group, eyes are scattered, and these decrease in number 
centrifugally. Many marginal eyes extend completely around the 
body. These are more numerous and somewhat larger toward the 
anterior end and are least numerous at about the junction of the mid- 
dle and posterior thirds. 

The male genital opening is about 0.5 mm in front of the female 
opening. Both are on the median line about one-seventh of the length 
of the body from the posterior end. Anterior to the male opening 
there is a short conical penis and a pyriform prostate gland. The 
vasa deferentia coil along the lateral margins of the pharynx, unite 
posterior to it, and enter the penis through a sinuous tube. The 
gonads and uteri do not show well in any of the specimens available. 
Behind the female opening there is a small globular vesicle. 

The color of living specimens is pink. The dorsum is covered 
with small pink spots, which measure 0.1 by 0.1 mm to 0.1 by 0.6 mm 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM voc. 86 

and show a tendency to be more elongated toward the margins. 
These are surrounded by a cream-colored background. The body 
appears slightly darker over the pharjmx and median portion of the 
gut. There are no spots over the brain. The ventrum is creamy, 
with a slightly reddish tint. The pharynx and vasa deferentia show 
as whitish areas. 

Type.—V.S.^M. no. 20187, from St. Vincent Bar, Apalachicola 
Bay, Fla. ; collected June 12, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 

Remarks. — Seven specimens were collected on the oyster beds in 
Apalachicola Bay, June 7 to July 25, 1935. Five of these are de- 
posited in the United States National Museum. This species was 
rather rare, for during the same period hundreds of specimens of 
Stylochus inimicus Palombi were found. In color it is somewhat 
like the species that Verrill (1873) described as ^''Stylochus^'' lltt oralis, 
but its tentacles are farther anterior, the size is larger, and the distri- 
bution of the eyes is different. 

STYLOCHUS ZEBRA (Verrill) 

Stylochopsis zebra Vekbill, 1882, p. 371. 

Several specimens of this species were obtained from Woods Hole, 
Mass., and are now deposited in the United States National Museum. 

Genus EUSTYLOCHUS Verrill 

As Bock (1925), Bresslau (1933), and Meixner (1907) have 
pointed out, the Stylochidae consist of a heterogeneous collection of 
Craspedommata, a fact that makes the separation of various species 
into genera rather difficult. Notwithstanding the fact that these 
writers do not recognize Verrill's (1893) genus Eustylochiis, it seems 
to me proper to do so. The Stylochidae on the east coast of North 
America appear to fall into two groups: (1) Those in the genus 
Stylochus have two genital pores, which are clearly separate and lie 
more than a seventh of the length of the body from the posterior end, 
and have marginal eyes around the whole body, weak dermal mus- 
culature, and ovaries ventral: (2) those in the genus Enstylochus 
have genital pores very close together and less than a twentieth of 
the length of the body from the posterior end, usually have marginal 
eyes only around the anterior half, heavy dermal musculature, and 
ovnries dorsal. Georfje W. Wliarton has bred out larvae from the 
eggs of Sfylorhtifi immievs Palombi and Eimfylochun m£ndiandlis, 
new species. He finds that at the time of hatching the former bears 
no lobes and that the latter has lobes. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 73 

EUSTYLOCHUS ELLIPTICUS (Girard) 

Planocera elliptica Girard, 1850, p. 251. 

In the collection of the National Museum there are five specimens 
of this species collected on Cape Cod, Mass., in 1879 at low tide mark; 
and a specimen from Newport, R. I., August 20, 1880. Although 
these are in poor condition, they were'stained, mounted, and used for 
comparison with specimens of the next two species. 

EUSTYLOCHUS species ? 

Two poorly preserved specimens in the National Museum collec- 
tion, one (U.S.N.M. no. 15624) collected off Newport, R. I., Sep- 
tember 2, 1880, the other (U.S.N.M. no. 14398) from Woods Hole, 
Mass., September 19, 1882, both determined by A. E. Verrill as 
Planocera nehulosus Girard, unquestionably belong to the genus 
Eustylochus. They have anterior marginal eyes and contiguous 
genital pores very close to the posterior end. These specimens prob- 
ably should be identified with the preceding species, but until some- 
one makes a careful study of the Eustylochi on the New England 
coast, their status, because of their poor state of preservation, must 
remain specifically uncertain. For that reason this questioned species 
has not been included in the key on p. 94. 

EUSTYLOCHUS MERIDIANALIS, new species 
FiGUBB 25 

Body elongate-elliptical; very flat; length of a specimen measured 
while crawling and extended on January 9, 1936, 24.0 mm; width, 
11.00 mm; another slender individual measured 20 by 5 mm when 
crawling; sizes of large preserved specimens are given in the table 
below. Tentacles in living specimen, slender, conical; with eyes 
extending to distal sixth ; 0.6 mm long ; about a seventh of the length 
of the body from the anterior end. Mouth, ventral and about in the 
middle of the median line. Pharynx a little less than half as long 
as the body ; with anterior, posterior, and about six lateral lobes. The 
enteron has a median stem and eight or more branched caeca on each 
side. Brain largely or wholly posterior to the bases of the tentacles. 
Eyes vary with age in number and arrangement. The marginal eyes 
are seldom distributed posteriorly beyond the anterior fifth or sixth 
of body, but in a few individuals they may be. One individual only 
1.8 mm long, which perhaps belongs to this species, has eyes all 
around its body Seven large individuals show the following ar- 
rangement of eyes : 



74 



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Locality 



Body size, 
mm 



Cerebral 



Frontal 



il 


Tentacular 


22 


44 


8 


62 


30 


150 


12 


44 


44 


44 


12 


60 


4 


22 



Marginal 



Apalacblcola, Fla 

Do 

Soabrook, Tex.- 

Charlotte County, Fla 

Do 

Pamlico Sound, N. C. 
Tampa, Fla 



13. 5 by 11.0 
14. 6 by 11.3 
11.0 by 11.0 
9. 3 by 6.8 
9.3*by 7.2 
10.0 by 5.8 
4. 7 by 3.0 



700 
448 
820 
490 
860 
500 
290 



-— & 




FiouRB 25. — Euatylochus meridianaUa, new species, h. Brain ; e, eyes ; ej, ejaculatory 
duct ; en, enteron ; m, mouth ; nt, nuchal tentacles ; p, pharynx ; pr, prostate gland ; 
u, uterus ; vd, vas deferens ; d", male opening ; ?, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 75 

The genital pores are close together and near the posterior margin 
of the body, less than one-thirtieth of the length of the body from the 
posterior end. On each side of the body is a concentric area where 
numerous small testes occur. The coiled vasa deferentia pass poste- 
riorly on either side of the pharynx. They unite to form a large, 
slightly coiled, pyriform seminal vesicle, which leads to the strong 
conical penis, adjacent to the genital pore. The prostate gland lies 
above the anterior half of the duct on the penis and opens independ- 
ently. The uteri when empty lie lateral to the vasa deferentia but 
when distended overlap them. They open into a globular vesicle, 
which is posterior to the genital pore. Into it open the shell glands. 
The ovate lobules of the ovaries lie in two crescentic areas lateral to 
the pharynx, about 170 on each side. 

Color reddish brown or, less often, gray; the dorsum finely macu- 
late. A light band, about 0.8 mm wide in a worm 22 mm long, ex- 
tends down the median line from the anterior tenth to the posterior 
fifth of the body. This is bordered for about 1.0 mm by a darker 
region where pigment flecks are thicker. The ventrum is brownish 
white, somewhat darker toward the margins; the pharynx and parts 
of the genitalia show as white bodies. 

ry;?e.— U.S.N.M. no. 20188, from St. Vincent Bar, Apalachicola 
Bay, Fla. ; collected December 27, 1935, by George W. Wharton. 

Remarks. — Specimens of this species have been taken from living 
oysters by Dr. H. F. Prytherch at Shell Point, Swanquarter, Pamlico 
Sound, N. C. ; J. F. Bass, Bulls Bay, Charlotte County, Fla. ; Albert 
Collier, Seabrook, Tex.; Prof. Clyde T. Reed, Matagorda Bay, Tex.; 
and by A. S. Pearse in Apalachicola Bay and in the region of Crooked 
Island Sound, St. Joe Bay, Tampa, Eau Gallic, Englewood, and Crys- 
tal River, Fla. In the National Museum collection are specimens 
from Plumpoint and Island Creek, Talbot County, Md. 

This species is readily distinguished from Eustylochus ellipticus 
(Girard) by the position of the brain and the cerebral eyes behind or 
between the tentacles and by the absence of a reticulate color pattern. 

Section Schematommata 
Family LEPTOPLANIDAE 

Genus NOTOPLANA Laidlaw 

NOTOPLANA ATOMATA (O. F. Muller) 

Polyscelis variabilis Gibakd, 1850, p. 251. 

This species has been reported from Maine by Miss Hyman (1938) 
and was collected by the writer on the coast of Newfoundland dur- 
ing the summer of 1938. 

85371—38 2 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Genus LEPTOPLANA Ehrenberg 

LEPTOPLANA ANGUSTA Verrill 



VOL. 86 



Leptoplana angusta Verrill, 1893, p. 105. 

An excellent specimen of this species is in the collection of the 
United States National Museum (no. 134562). Preserved and mount- 




PiGDRB 26. — Leptoplana angusta Verrill. ab. Accessory bladder ; b, brain ; e, eyes ; 
en, enteron ; m, mouth ; o, ovary ; p, pharynx ; pe, penis ; «r, seminal vesicle ; u, uterus ; 
V, vagina; cf, male opening; ?, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 77 

ed, it measured 22.5 by 12.7 mm. It was collected near Cobourg Is- 
land, Baffin Bay, August 13, 1935, by Capt. Robert A. Bartlett. A 
specimen found among ascidians on piles in St. Joe Bay, Fla., on 
March 28, 1936, measured 26 by 6 mm when alive and crawling ; pre- 
served and mounted, it measures 13.8 by 5.3 mm. Four other speci- 
mens were taken in this locality. I collected one specimen at Beau- 
fort, N. C, during the summer of 1938. 

Genus STYLOCHOPLANA Stimpson 

STYLOCHOPLANA FLORIDANA, new species 

Figure 27 

Many specimens of this polyclad were collected ; two on November 
21, 1935, and others in February and March 1936 in old shells from 
Crooked Island Sound and St. Joe Bay, Fla. Wlien alive these were 
active and moved about, often making quick j erics of their margins. 
When disturbed on the surface film they quickly darted to the bottom 
of the dish, like a wriggling fish. They had a delicate greenish tint. 
Many individuals appeared to be immature, as there were no eggs in 
the uteri, but in March some individuals laid eggs in the laboratory, 
and some of this group measured 8 by 3 mm when crawling and ex- 
tended. Preserved, stained, and mounted the largest individual meas- 
ures 6.4 mm long and 2.6 mm wide. The blunt, rounded anterior end 
in front of the brain is the widest part of the body ; the posterior end 
tapers to a point. Various organs are the following distances from 
the anterior end : Brain, 1.3-1.6 mm ; tentacles, 1.4-1.6 mm ; pharynx, 
2.0-3.5 mm; mouth, 3.1 mm; seminal vesicle, 3.6 mm; genital opening, 
4.2 mm; accessory bladder at posterior end of vagina, 4.3 mm. The 
pharynx is narrow (0.6 mm) and arranged in about 10 folds on each 
side. The lateral enteric caeca do not appear to anastomose. There 
are five or six pairs, and a median anterior caecum. The gut of one 
of the specimens collected contains a small polychaete worm, and an- 
other had eaten the posterior portion of a copepod. An individual 
examined alive on February 10, 1936, spit out some encysted proto- 
zoans, which contained red pigment spots and looked like euglenoids. 
The tentacles are about 0.1 mm long and bear five or six eyes. Six 
eyes lie on each side anterior and lateral to the brain and five on each 
side between and posterior to the bases of the tenacles. 

The globular seminal vesicle lies close to the posterior border of 
the pharynx. It connects with a long (0.3 mm) tube that bears pros- 
tate glands and leads to the penis, just anterior to the genital opening. 
The vasa deferentia are to be seen coiled on each side at the posterior 
end of the pharynx for a longitudinal distance of about 1.5 mm. 



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The vagina opens into a short shell gland and is connected by a 
sinuous course with a small, globular accessory vesicle. The uteri 
curve around the pharynx on each side from the vagina and unite in 
front of the pharynx. 

Type.—U.S.^M. no. 20190; from Crooked Island Sound, Farm- 
dale, Fla. ; collected November 21, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 




FiGURB 27. — Stylochoplana floridana, new Bpecies. ob. Accessory bladder ; 6, brain ; e, 
ryf's ; ej, ejaculatory duct; cti, enteron ; g, ^'onads ; tn, mouth; nt, nuchal tentacles; 
p, pharynx ; pr, prostate gland ; sv, seminal vesicle ; u, uterus ; vd, vas deferens ; d, male 
opening; J, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEAKSE 
Genus HOPLOPLANA Laidlaw 

HOPLOPLANA INQUILINA (Wheeler) 



79 



Planocera inquilina Wheeleb, 1894, p. 196. 

Several specimens were obtained from Woods Hole, Mass., and 
have been added to the National Museum collections. This polyclad 
lives in the shells of the large snail Busycon. 




FiGDRH 28. — Hoploplana thaisana, new species, h. Brain ; e, eyes ; en, enteron ; g, gonads ; 
tn, mouth ; nt, nuchal tubercles ; p, pharynx ; u, uterus ; vd, vas deferens ; d, male 
opening ; ? , female opening. 

HOPLOPLANA THAISANA, new species 

FiGUEE 28 

Body flat and short; in preserved specimens about two-thirds as 
wide as long (3.0 by 2.1; 2.4 by 1.5; 2.2 by 1.3, type; 1.6 by 1.3; 
1.4 by 0.9; 1.0 by 0.7 mm). Tentacular eyes are almost one-third of 
length of body from anterior end. The number in six specimens (3.0- 
1.0 mm) was 36, 52, 26, 28, 40, 20. The number of cerebral eyes in 
the same animals was 22, 12, 10, 10, 6, 4. The tentacular eyes are usually 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 86 

arranged more or less in a circle, or in an irregular circular group; 
not in horseshoe form with the opening directed posteriorly, as is 
usually the case in H. inquiUnu (Wheeler). The cerebral lobes are 
at the posterior end of the first quarter of the body. 

The enteron has about 12 lateral branches on each side. These are 
subdivided and extend nearly to the margin of the body of all sides. 
The mouth is slightly anterior to the center of the body. The 
pharynx has about six irregular lobes on each side, and the basal 
trunks of these are comparatively smooth. The genital openings 
are in the median line about one-fifth of the length of the body from 
the posterior end. The one for the female system is about 0.1 mm 
behind that of the male. A pyriform seminal vesicle is present but 
no separate prostate gland. The penis is armed with a stylet. 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 20189, from Thais foridana Conrad; col- 
lected at St. Vincent Bar, Apalachicola Bay, Fla., October 14, 1935, 
by A. S. Pearse. 

Remarks. — This polyclad was usually found on the sides of dishes 
in which crushed Thau foridana -fioridana Conrad were allowed to 
stand, but it was once taken from the sides of pails in which oyster 
shells were standing and once from a dish of barnacles. All speci- 
mens examined came from Apalachicola Bay, Fla. These have been 
compared with specimens of Ho'plopluna inquilina (Wheeler) that 
came from the shells of Busycon canalicuIatuTn Linnaeus at Woods 
Hole, Mass. The present species differs from the specimens of that 
in Massachusetts in its smaller size, in the arrangement and number 
of the eyes, and in the character of the lateral pharyngeal lobes. 

Family PLANOCERIDAE 
Genus PLANOCERA Blainville 

PLANOCERA NEBULOSA Girard 

Planocera nehulosa Girard, 1854, p. 367. 

The only specimens in the collection of the National Museum 
carrying this species designation are two determined by the late 
A. E. Verrill. These specimens properly belong to the genus 
EuMylochus, where I have also referred to them (p. 73). As a mat- 
ter of record and for convenience, I have included Girard's species 
in the key to the polyclads of our eastern seaboard, p. 96. 

Family STYLOCHOCESTIDAE 

CONJUGUTERUS, new genus 

Body elongated ; at least six times as long as wide when extended ; 
without marginal eyes, tentacles, or tentacular eye groups; pharynx 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 81 

slightly frilled, in anterior half of body; enteron anastomosed in 
posterior half; uteri united posteriorly; male and female genital 
apertures separate, at about the posterior end of the middle body 
fifth. 

Type. — Conjuguterus parvus, new species. 

CONJUGUTERUS PARVUS, new species 

FiGtntE 29 

Body at least six times as long as wide. The type, examined alive 
on March 11, 1935, was 5.2 mm long and 0.8 mm wide when extended 
and crawling; preserved, it measures 1.93 by 0.94 mm; two other 
preserved specimens measure 2.9 by 1.0 mm and 3.3 by 1.1 mm. A 
specimen that laid 150 eggs in a dish in the laboratory on January 
30, 1936, measures 1.5 by 0.6 mm preserved. A large specimen col- 
lected on March 24, 1936, measured 10.3 by 1.9 mm when alive and 
extended. In the preserved type, structures along the median line 
measure the following distances from the anterior end : Eyes 0.24-0.38 
mm; brain, 0.27-0.38 mm; pharynx, 0.39-0.82 mm; mouth, 0.58 mm; 
uteri, 0.55-1.23 mm; vasa deferentia, 0.54-1.06 mm; male genital 
aperture, 1.1 mm; female genital aperture, 1.3 mm. The eyes are 
arranged in four pairs of groups lateral to the brain, which consists 
of two elliptical lobes. The mouth, one-third of the body length 
from the anterior end, is about in the center of the pharynx. There 
are about 12 pairs of bifid enteric caeca lateral to the pharynx and 
iiteri; behind the transverse connecting loop of the uterus there are 
about 12 more pairs; about five caeca extend forward dorsal to the 
eyes and brain. Behind the uterus the enteron consists, besides the 
marginal caeca, of a median and two lateral trunks, which are con- 
nected by about six transverse canals. 

The male genital system is directed backward. The small penis 
is armed with a curved stylet. A pyriform seminal vesicle connects 
with it as its base and also with a slightly smaller pyriform prostate 
gland. The vasa deferentia unite anterior to the seminal vesicle; 
they extend forward on either side of the pharynx to form a V. The 
pyriform vagina is surrounded by the follicles of shell gland. The 
uteri lie lateral and dorsal to the vasa deferentia. They are swollen 
and somewhat twisted in gravid individuals; a transverse loop con- 
nects them posterior to the vagina ; they taper anteriorly and may be 
traced forward to about the middle of the pharynx. The body is un- 
pigmented on the ventral side but the dorsum has small gray-brown 
specks; the enteron and other organs are visible through the integu- 
ment ; hence most specimens appear to be a delicate light brown. 



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Type.—U.S.'NM. no. 20197, from St. Joe Bay, Fla.; collected 
March 11, 1936, by A. S. Pearse. 

Remarks. — Other specimens were collected in Florida from Apa- 
lachicola Bay, March IG, 1936; Crystal River, October 3, 1935; Eau 
Gallic, January 16, 1936; St. Joe Bay, March 24, 1936. The worms 
were always found among old shells. During the summer of 1938, 
one specimen was taken at Beaufort, N. C. ; and several were collected 
at Ellerslie, Prince Edward Island, Canada. 




FiGDRB 29. — Conjuguterus parvus, new genus and species. 6, Brain ; e, eyes ; en, enteron ; 
m, mouth ; p, pharynx ; u, uterus ; vd, vas deferens ; <S, male opening ; 9, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST PEARSE 83 

Section Emprosthommata 

Family CESTOPLANIDAE 

OCULOPLANA, new genus 

Similar to Cestoplana^ but with marginal eyes completely around 
the body. The brain is far back, at least a fifth of the length of the 
body from the anterior end. A branch of the gut extends forward 
in the median line dorsal to and between the lateral lobes of the brain 
to the anterior margin of the body. 

OCULOPLANA WHARTONI, new species 
FlGTJBE 30 

Body long and slender; in living specimens at least eight times as 
long as wide when crawling (8 by 1 mm), often longer when ex- 
tended. In three well-preserved specimens the body is five times as 
long as wide (11 by 2.1; 8.9 by 1.7; 8.3 by 2 mm, type). The body is 
blunt and rounded at both ends; the sides are parallel, and the mar- 
gins are so thin and mobile that they curl readily. At the posterior 
end there is a weak, poorly defined adhesive organ. 

The enteron extends throughout the body. From the median stem 
about 95 branched lateral twigs and a dozen short blind pouches ex- 
tend on each side. The median stem extends forward and branches 
along the anterior margin. The mouth is situated at the anterior 
end of the posterior fifth of the body. The pharynx at rest is about 
0.75 mm long and 0.35 mm wide; two-thirds of it lies behind the 
mouili. 

Ti ie brain is in the anterior end of the second fifth of the body. Its 
total width is about 0.35 mm ; the two lateral lobes are 0.1 mm apart. 
The single female genital aperture is about one-ninth of the length of 
the body from the posterior end, and the male aperture is about 0.1 
mm anterior to it and close to the pharynx. The vasa deferentia and 
the uteri are to be seen extending forward through a third of the 
length of the body. Both lie nearly parallel to the median line ; the 
former lie lateral to the latter and are more or less twisted. The 
penis is unarmed. A pyriform prostate gland is distinct from the 
siminal vesicle. About 50 small testes lie on either side of the body 
through about the middle fifth. 

Living animals are pale yellowish white, without pigment ; the yel- 
lowish enteron shows clearly through the integument; some individ- 
uals have a delicate pinkish tint. 

Type.—V.^.'^M. no. 20195, from St. Vincent Bar, Apalachicola 
Bay, Fla. ; collected August 16, 1935, by George W. Wharton. 



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VOL. 86 



—en 




-H—'-f^J 



Figure 30. — Oculo-plana ichartonl, new genus and species. 6, Brain ; e, eyes ; en, enteron ; 
m, moutb ; p, pharynx ; w, uterus ; vd, vas deferens ; cfi male opening ; $, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST PEARSE 85 

Remarks. — Specimens have been collected in Apalachicola Bay and 
near Crystal River, Florida, on shells from oyster bars; June 15 to 
October 15, 1935. During the summer of 1938 several specimens were 
taken at Beaufort, N. C. 

Suborder Cotylea 

Family PSEUDOCERIDAE 

Genus THYSANOZOON Grube 

THYSANOZOON BROCCHI (Risso) 

Tergipes hrochi Risso, 1818, p. 373. 
Thyaanozoon brocchi Grube, 1840, p. 55. 

Four specimens of this papillate polyclad were found among 
eelgrass at Crooked Island Sound west of Farmdale, Fla., No- 
vember 21, 1935. When alive and extended they measured 33 by 
10, 31 by 10.5, 28 by 12, and 28 by 8 mm. They swam about 
actively by waving the sides of their bodies. The colors of the 
four individuals varied somewhat. In one the dorsal papillae were 
light brown; between them the body was cream color, with a 
light yellow reticulum, and minute flecks of black pigment grouped 
so as to form spots ; a dark median streak had a light irregular stripe 
running through it ; the region over the brain was unpigmented, but 
an area about it and extending up onto the marginal tentacles was 
nearh^ black. The ventrum was buff, with a median light streak. 
Two specimens had purplish-brown papillae near the median line, 
and the color became light brown toward the sides; some of the 
papillae had white spots and dark tips; there was a white T-shaped 
area between the purplish marginal tentacles ; along the margin there 
was a brown and purple reticulum, with a tendency to the formation 
of radial bands. The ventrum was cream color and darker toward 
the sides. The fourth specimen was intermediate in color between 
the brown and purple individuals. On February 10, 1936, 11 more 
specimens of this species were collected in Crooked Island Sound, 
Fla. They were similar to those previously observed. On March 25 
and 26, 1936, 14 specimens were collected in St. Joe Bay, Fla. Some 
of these laid eggs in dishes in the laboratory. 

Genus PSEUDOCEROS Lang 

PSEUDOCEROS MACULOSUS, new species 
FlQUBE 81 

The following description is of a single specimen that was first 
examined alive and later preserved, stained, and mounted. In the 



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VOL. 8» 



living animal the body was extremely flat; length, 17 mm; width, 
7 mm. Tentacles : Length, 1 mm ; width, 0.7 mm. Color gray, with a 
median light dorsal band and a dark border about this, about 135 
small dark spots scattered irregularly but evenly over the dorsal 
surface ; ventrum lighter than dorsum but similarly colored, im- 
maculate. The dorsum was roughened by small, low, conical papillae, 
which were more numerous toward the median line; still smaller 
papillae occurred between these. The tentacles were folds in the 
anterior margin and had rounded distal ends. The enteron was re- 
ticulate and showed clearly. The animal swam abount by waving 
its margins but was not so good a swimmer as Thysanozoon. 



mt 




FioDRB .31. — Paeudoceroa maculoaufi, new speclps : A, Ventral view of body; B, terminal' 
portions of male and female genitalia; C, murjinal tentarles, lateral and dorsal views; 
D, distribution of tentacular and cereliral eyes, e. Eyes ; en, enteron ; p, jtonads ; m, 
mouth ; mt, marginal tentacles ; p, pharynx ; pe, penis ; pr, prostate gland ; sy, shell 
gliinil : vu, si.cker ; *i;, stMjiliijU v^sirle; u. uttrus ; U(j, uteiinc glands; id, vas diferens; 
(f, male opening; $, female opening. 

Preserved, the body is 13.1 mm long and 8 mm wide. The lobate 
pharynx is 1.3 mm from the anterior end, 2.7 mm long, and 1.5 mm 
wide; it has about seven folds on each side. The following figures 
indicate the distance of various median structures from the anterior 
end: Mouth, 1.7 mm; male genital opening, 4.2 mm; female genital 
opening, 4.8 mm; ventral sucker, 7.9 mm; end of median stem of 
enteron, 9.8 mm. There is a clear margin about 0.4 mm wide in 
which the reproductive organs are absent, and the branches of the 
enteron are therefore clearly visible all around the margin of the 
body. The ventral sucker is O.G mm in diameter; the muscular 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST PEAKSE 87 

border around it is 0.15 mm wide, and the aperture is 0.3 mm wide; 
the margin is wavy. The lateral canals of the enteron are reticulate, 
and about 42 pairs of lateral branches enter the median stem poste- 
rior to the pharynx. Small enteric twigs extend close to the margin 
of the body everywhere, and some are distributed to the tentacles. 

The tentacles are blunt and flat. When extended in a living ani- 
mal they have vertical grooves on their anterior surfaces. The eyes 
are arranged in two pairs of lateral groups. An elongated group of 
about 60 are found within and at the base of each tentacle. The two 
crescentic cerebral groups each contain 28 eyes. These lie anterior 
to the pharynx. 

The male genital opening is at the posterior border of the pharynx. 
A conical penis, surrounded by a sheath, lies just inside it. This is 
connected by ducts with a spherical prostate gland and a long, pyri- 
form seminal vesicle, which extends posteriorly to the female genital 
opening. The vasa deferentia enter the posterior end of the vesicle 
from each side. They have four branches on each side. These con- 
nect with the numerous testes, which lie in the lateral areas and ex- 
tend across the body posterior to the median enteric stem. The fe- 
male genital opening leads into an antrum and a shell gland. Pos- 
terior to this is a short slender duct that divides into two branches 
on the left side and three on the right. The anterior branches on 
each side lead to small uterine glands; the other branches extend 
posteriorly on each side of the body. The numerous ovaries are 
interspersed with the testes in the lateral and posterior areas. 

Tyye. — U.S.N.M. no. 20191, from Crooked Island Sound, Farm- 
dale, Fla., collected November 21, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 

Remarks. — This species is distinguished from others in the genus 
Pseudoceros by its maculate, papillate dorsum and the arrangement 
of the female genital ducts. 

Family EURYLEPTIDAE 

Genus EURYLEPTA Ehrenberg 

EURYLEPTA MACULOSA Verrill 

Eurylepta maculosa Veeriix, 1893, p. 495. 

Verrill's type and two cotypes are in the National Museum, but they 
are poorly preserved and, even stained and mounted, show very little. 

OLIGOCLADO, new genus 

Like Oligocladus Lang, 1884, but the mouth is not in front of the 
brain and the male genital aperture is near the posterior margin of 
the pharynx. The body is flat and elliptical. There is a pair of 



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VOL. 86 



slender conical tentacles at the anterior end, with eyes between the 
bases and in the basal halves of the tentacles. Two groups of cere- 
bral eyes lie on each side and connect across the anterior margin of 
the brain. The median stem of the enteron connects with three pairs 
of lateral branches. At its posterior end there is an anus. The uteri 
lie lateral to the median enteron, and outside (lateral to) them are 
two slender ducts, which connect a glandular organ at the anterior 
end of the uteri with the anus. Lateral to these ducts are the coiled 
vasa deferentia, which fuse behind the anus and extend beyond as 
a short loop. 

Type. — OUgoclado -fioridanus, new species. 




Figure 32. — Oligoclado floridanua, new genus and species : A, Ventral view, enteron on left, 
gonads on right; D, anteiior end showing eyes and tentacles, a, Anus; e, eyes; en, 
enteron ; g, gonads ; m, mouth ; mt, marginal tentacle ; p, pharynx, pe, penis ; su, sucker ; 
8v, seminal vesicle; u, uterus; ug, uterine gland; vd, vas deferens; d, male opening; 
$, female opening. 

OLIGOCLADO FLORmANUS, new ipedes 



Figure 32 

A single specimen was collected. When alive and crawling and 
extended it measured 18 mm long and 8 mm wide. The tentacles at 
the anterior end were slender and acute and bore eyes in their proxi- 
mal half. The color of the dorsum was brown, with a purplish me- 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 89 

dian band and a cream-colored margin. The brown color appeared 
to be due largely to the enteron. The ventrum was light brown, with 
a light band through the middle two-thirds of the body, probably due 
to the genitalia. 

The specimen preserved, stained, and mounted is 12.8 mm long and 
8.0 mm wide. Organs in the median line are the following distances 
from the anterior end : Brain, 1.5 mm ; pharynx, 1.75-4.4 mm ; mouth, 
2.0 mm; male genital opening, 4.2 mm; female genital opening, 5.2 
mm ; ventral sucker, 6.7 mm ; median enteric stem, 5.5-9.9 mm ; anus, 
9.8 mm. The tentacles are 1.3 mm long, slender, and tapering. About 
80 eyes are at and between their bases ; about 50 eyes occupy the prox- 
imal half of each tentacle ; about 70 cerebral eyes are arranged in the 
form of a horseshoe, with the opening posterior. 

The tubular pharynx lies immediately behind the brain. From it 
the median enteric stem extends to the anus. Three pairs of lateral, 
branched caeca leave the stem in its anterior half and extend to all 
margins of the body. On each side of the anus two tubes extend for- 
ward to the anterior ends of the uteri and there connect with the 
anterior ends of what appear to be two lateral glandular organs, which 
measure about 1.3 by 0.4 nma. 

The male genital system opens on the ventral side of the body at 
the anterior margin of the posterior ninth of the pharynx. A coni- 
cal antrum leads to a slender penis, which bears a spine and is en- 
closed in a sheath. Connected with the penis are two organs : A small 
spherical prostate gland and an elongated, pyriform seminal vesicle. 
The vasa deferentia extend forward on either side of the pharynx for 
a short distance and then coil backward and fuse behind the anus. 
They extend posteriorly beyond their point of fusion to form a small 
loop and a blind appendage. Numerous small testes are distributed 
all round the body, except for a band (0.75 mm wide) about the mar- 
gin and in the median space occupied by enteric and genital organs. 
The slightly larger ovaries have about the same distribution. The 
cylindrical uteri extend longitudinally on each side of the median 
enteric stem ; length, 3.7 mm ; width, 0.3 mm. The ventral sucker is 
between their middles. There appear to be three pairs of globular 
uterine glands on their anterior halves. Two ducts lead from their 
anterior ends to the shell gland and the ventral genital pore. 

r^/pe.— U.S.N.M. no. 20192, from Crooked Island Sound, Farm- 
dale, Fla. ; collected November 21, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 

During the summer of 1938 several specimens of this species were 
found at Beaufort, N. C. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Genus ACEROTISA Strand 

ACEROTISA PELLUCIDA. new speciea 



VOL. 86 



FlGtTRE 33 

Body flat, delicate and elliptical in outline; size of two preserved 
specimens : 7.1 by 4.3 ; 5.7 by 3.8 mm. The median ventral sucker is 
at the posterior end of the anterior third of the body; diameter, 0.2 
mm. The cerebral eyes in the two specimens number 34 and 24, re- 
spectively. They are arranged in two irregular, elongated gi'oups 
anterior and posterior to the brain lobes on each side. There are 
about 12 small eyes along the anterior margin; two near the median 
line; three lateral to these in a longitudinal series; and two farther 
toward the sides. The brain lies at the posterior end of the anterior 
ninth of the body. A reticulate nervous system is easily seen all 
around the margin and is especially clear at the anterior end. The 
mouth is immediately behind the brain, about 1.0 mm from the ante- 
rior end. The pharynx is tubular, 0.7 mm long and 0.5 mm wide. 




FiGDRB 33. — Acerotisa pellucida, new species : Dorsal view. 6, Brain ; e, eyes ; en, enteron; 
g, gonads; p, pharynx; au, sucker; u, uterus; vd, vas deferens; cf, male opening; 
$, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST PEARSE 



91 



The median stem of the enteron is readily seen extending from the 
pharynx to near the posterior end of the body, but the twigs of the 
four pairs of lateral branches cannot be made out well in the preserved 
specimens available. 

The male genital aperture is close to the posterior margin of the 
pharynx. The coiled vasa deferentia enter the male bursa near its 
anterior end and may be seen to extend posteriorly about 0.8 mm on 
either side. Oval testes about 0.05 mm long are scattered evenly 
through the interior of the body from the pharynx posteriorly, 
except in a zone about 0.5 mm wide about the margin. A prostate 
gland is separate from the seminal vesicle. The female genital pore 
is about 0.6 mm posterior to that of the male system. It is connected 
with two uteri, which bend posteriorly and then anteriorly. 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 20193, from St. Vincent Bar, Apalachicola 
Bay, Fla. ; collected June 25, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 

Remarks. — Only two specimens of this species were collected. 
These were pale, pellucid and had no pigment or distinctive color, 
the body appearing whitish. 

Family PROSTHIOSTOMIDAE 
Genus PROSTHIOSTOMUM Quatrefages 

PROSTHIOSTOMUM LOBATUM, new species 
FiGUKE 34 

Body of living specimen slender; head rounded and wider than 
body, which tapers toward the pointed posterior end ; three specimens 
studied alive on December 2, 1935, measured IT by 2.7, 11 by 2.3, and 
7 by 1 nun. Three preserved specimens show the following distances 
(in millimeters) from the anterior end to various organs and openings: 



Size 


Brain 


Mouth 


Male 
opening 


Female 
opening 


Sucker 


10. 8 by 3. 5 
5. 9 by 1.8 
5. 3 by 1.8 


1.1 
0.3 
0.3 


1.7 
1.3 
0.4 


5.1 
3.6 
2.7 


5.6 
3.8 
2.9 


6.4 
4.1 
3.3 



The last line shows that when the body is strongly contracted the 
mouth may be brought in close proximity with the brain. The 
sucker is often lobate in contracted specimens, as the figure shows. 
This feature is used to give the specific name to the species. 

The eyes number about 106 in adult worms, but younger speci- 
mens have been examined with 4, 12, 20, 22, 28, 40, 68, and 70. In 
three favorable large specimens the number of eyes is as follows : 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



Size 


Cerebral 


Intermedi- 
ate 


Marginal 


Total 


Mm 
10.8 by 3.5... 
5.9 by 1.8.... 
5.3 by 1.8.... 


35 
34 

17 



2 
2 


70 
70 
51 


105 
106 
70 





FiGDRB 34. — Prothiostomum loiatum, new species: A, Ventral view of body; B, ventral 
view of middli' of body, ab, Accessory bladder; b. brain; c, ^yes ; en, onttron; p, 
pharynx ; pe, penis ; au, sucker ; sv, seminal vesicle ; vd, vas deferens ; d, male opening ; 
?, female opening. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEAKSE 93 

There are no marginal eyes at the anterior end for a space of about 
0.15 mm wide ; on each side of this a group of about 35 eyes extends 
along the margin, about two-thirds of the eyes being anterior to the 
brain. The cerebral eyes are usually arranged in the form of a horse- 
shoe or a V, with the opening directed posteriorly. They lie dorsal 
to the brain and extend in front of and behind it. 

The enteron consists of a median stem and about 22 lateral branches 
on each side. The twigs of these extend to near the margin through- 
out the body. The pharynx is often coiled within its sheath or may 
even be thrown out of the body in preserved specimens, but in living 
worms it rests longitudinally and in moving specimens is indicated 
by a median ridge near the anterior end. In it longitudinal muscles 
lie within the circular muscles. 

About 300 small rounded testes may be seen interspersed among the 
lateral twigs of the enteron. They extend forward on either side to 
just posterior to the brain. The male genital pore lies immediately 
behind the pharynx. Two vasa deferentia enter the genital bursa 
near the posterior end from the sides and bend sharply to extend back- 
ward at right angles along each side of the median stem of the ente- 
ron. The female genital opening is close behind the male opening 
about 0.2 to 0.3 mm distant. The uteri coil along the sides and ex- 
tend almost to the posterior end of the body. The ovaries are diffuse 
lobate structures on either side of the median enteric stem forward as 
far as the anterior tliird of the pharynx. The genital organs do not 
■occur along the margins of the body ; a zone about 0.3 mm wide is thus 
left free. 

Color, unpigmented except for the eyes. Living specimens are 
■cream color or dirty white, and darker j'^ellowish-brown toward the 
median line because the internal organs show through the integument. 

Type.—V.S.'NM. no. 20194; from St. Vincent Bar, Apalachicola 
Bay, Fla. ; collected August 16, 1935, by A. S. Pearse. 

Reinarks. — This species was not uncommon in Apalachicola Bay 
during 1935-36. It was usually found at the surface of pails of shells 
that had been brought in from the oyster bars and allowed to stand. 
Several large specimens were collected in St. Joe Bay, Fla., March 
24, 25, 1936. Some of them laid eggs in the laboratory. The two larg- 
est measured 22 by 3 and 24 by 3.3 mm when extended and crawling 
A young specimen was collected near Crystal River, Fla., on October 3, 
1935. During the summer of 1938 specimens were collected at Beau- 
fort, N. C. The species differs from Prosthiostomum gracile Girard, 
1850, in its larger size and in the arrangement of the eyes. 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATION.YL MUSEUM vol.86 

KEY TO POLYCLADS REPORTED FROM THE EASTERN COAST OF 

NORTH AMERICA 

1 (40). Without ventral sucker or marginal tentacles — suborder Acotylea, 2 

2 (21). With marginal eyes; male genital organs directed pos- 

teriorly, no cirrus ; nuchal tentacles present or absent ; 

uteri never fuse anterior to pharynx section Craspedommata, 3 

3 (6). Nuchal tentacles absent (or rudimentary) ; pharynx long, 

central, frilled ; 1 or 2 genital openings close to pharynx, 
and not near posterior end; large muscular penis; no 
vagina bulbosa family Discocelidae, 4 

4 (5). Color gray, with radiating light streaks and a lighter 

median band ; cerebral and tentacular eyes in 2 pairs 

of groups; Florida, North Carolina Discocelis grisea, new species 

5 (4). Color yellowish brown, with or without darker median 

band ; cerebral and tentacular eyes tend to form 3 
pairs of groups ; Connecticut, Massachusetts. 

Discocelis mutabilis (Verrill, 1873) 

6 (3). Nuchal tentacles present 7 

7 (10). With 3 genital openings; penis unarmed and without 

sheath ; nervous system reddish in life family Latocestidae, 8 

8 (9). Size large, 20-25 mm by 10-15 mm; color yellowish, pale 

over pharynx ; Rhode Island, Massachusetts. 

Trigonoponis folium (Verrill, 1873) 

9 (8). Size small. 12-15 mm by 6-8 mm; color yellowish or pink- 

ish ; Cape Cod, 25 fathoms Trigonoporus dendriticus Verrill, 1893 

10 (7). With 2 genital openings; body broad or slender oval, 

firm ; eyes around all or part of margin ; tentacular 
and cerebral eye groups present but sometimes diffuse ; 
nuchal tentacles large, small (or absent in non-American 
species); pharynx central and frilled; male genital 
system directed posteriorly; prostate gland, separate; 
ejaculatory duct opens into prostate duct or separ- 
ately ; no vagina bulbosa family Stylochidae 

Female genital opening near posterior end and near that 
of male; female system without Lang's vesicle, genlto- 
intestlnal vesicle, or vaginal duct; nuchal tentacles 
present subfamily Stylochinae, 11 

11 (12). With 2 clearly separate genital openings at least a seventh 

of body length from posterior end genus Stylochus, 13 

12 (11). With genital openings very close together and less than 

a twentieth of body length from posterior end. 

genus Eustylochus, 19 

13 (14). Body when extended 30-40 mm long and 10-12 mm wide, 

rounded at ends; pharynx mostly anterior to middle, 
mouth at end of anterior third; color yellowish brown, 
with numerous transverse light stripes, sometimes with 
a light median band ; usually in Busycon shells ; New 
England, North Carolina Stylochus zebra Verrill, 1882 

14 (13). Body when extended not more than three times as long as 

wide; mouth and pharynx near middle; not trans- 
versely striped 15 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST — PEARSE 95 

15 (16). Color yellowish gray, with brown spots at margin; tenta- 

cles small obtuse ; pharynx with 5 pairs of lateral 
branches; Massachusetts, [? South Carolina]. 

Stylochus frontalis Verrill, 1893 

16 (15). Color pink or gray; tentacles acute; pharynx with more 

than 5 pairs of lateral branches 17 

17 (18). Body large, 53 by 27 mm ; color pink with small oval flecks 

on a creamy background ; Apalachicola Bay, Fla. 

Stylochus floridanus, new species 

18 (17). Body usually of medium size, 48 by 28 mm; color gray; 

east and west coasts of Florida — Stylochus inimicus Falombi, 1931 

19 (20). Body slender, 20 by 6 mm; brain and cerebral eyes in 

front of nuchal tentacles ; color yellowish brown or 
reddish, pattern reticulate ; New England. 

Eustylochus ellipticus (Girard, 1850) 

20 (19), Body little more than twice as long as wide when ex- 

tended, 24 by 11 mm ; brain and cerebral eyes behind 
and between nuchal tentacles ; color reddish or some- 
times gray, pattern not reticulate ; Maryland to Texas. 

Eustylochus meridianalis, new species 

21 (2), Without marginal eyes, or with body ribbonlike and eyes 

around whole margin ; body more or less delicate 22 

22 (39). No marginal eyes, and eyes that are present far from 

front ; male genitalia directed posteriorly ; body not 

ribbonlike section Schematommata, 23 

23 (36). Body somewhat elongated; without or with nuchal ten- 

tacles ; prostate gland separate when present ; penis 
with or without stylet ; uteri united anterior to pharynx. 

family Leptoplanidae, 26 

24 (29). No tentacles; body elongated, elliptical in outline; margin 

more or less folded genus Leptoplana, 25 

25 (26). With about 12 pairs of lateral pharyngeal lobes; color 

light brown with darker median streak ; length 12-16 
mm by 4-6 mm ; Massachusetts, Baflin Bay, North Caro- 
lina, Florida Leptoplana angusta Verrill, 1893 

26 (25). With 6 or fewer paired pharyngeal lobes 27 

27 (28). Mouth anterior to middle of pharynx; color pale brown, 

with darker flecks; size 18 by 10 mm; Cape Cod, 13.5 

to 31 fathoms Leptoplana virilis Verrill, 1893 

28 (27). Mouth about in middle of pharynx; color variable, yellow- 

ish brown, salmon, greenish ; Massachusetts, Maine, 
Newfoundland; to 42 fathoms. 

genus Notoplaua, N. atomata (O. F. Miiller, 1776) 

29 (24). With nuchal tentacles 30 

30 (33). Body elliptical with rather pointed ends ; in gastropods. 

genus Hoploplana, 31 

31 (32). Lateral pouches of pharynx with smooth basal trunks; 

cerebral eyes usually arranged in an irregular circle ; 
size 3.0 by 2.1 mm ; in Thais; Florida. 

Hoploplana thaisana, new si)ecies 

32 (31). Lateral pouches of pharynx saccate to base; cerebral eyes 

usually arranged in shape of a horseshoe with a pos- 
terolateral opening ; size 6 by 4 mm ; in Busycon; Massa- 
chusetts Hoploplana inquilina (Wheeler, 1894) 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

33 (30), Anterior end of body wide, tapering to a point poster- 

iorly ; very active, often swimming genus Stylochoplana, 34 

34 (36). Color bright red, with light margins on which are pale 

yellow spots ; size, 38 by 6 mm ; Massachusetts. 

Stylochoplana oculifera (Girard, 1854) 

35 (35). Unpigmented with a delicate greenish tint; size 8 by 3 

mm ; Florida, North Carolina. 

Stylochoplana floridana, new species 

36 (23). Uteri not united anterior to pharynx 38^ 

37 (38). Body when extended six times as long as wide; mouth 

and pharynx in anterior half of body ; Florida, North 
Carolina, Prince Edward Island, 
family Stylochocestidae, Conjuguterus parvais, new genus and species. 

38 (37). Body round-oval; with prostate gland separate from vesic- 

ular duct; genital pores not close to posterior end; 

mouth and pharynx central family Planoceridae 

Body 29 by 10 mm ; color olive-green, with median dorsal 
stripes; South Carolina to Massachusetts. 

Planocera nebulosa Girard, 1854 

39 (22) With or without marginal eyes'; body ribbonliko, delicate; 

pharynx and male genitalia near posterior end and 

the latter directed forward section Emprosthommata 

No nuchal tentacles ; eyes in genus Cestoplana do not 
occur on margin, but in the present new genus Oculo- 
plana they completely surround the body ; Florida, 
North Carolina, 
family Cestoplanidae, Oculoplana whartonl, new genus and species 

40 (1). With a sucker behind the genital pores; often with mar- 

ginal tentacles ; pharynx frilled, folded, or tubular. 

suborder Cotylea, 41 

41 (44). Usually large, often brightly colored, oval, rough or 

smooth; with foldlike marginal tentacles; mouth in 
middle of front half of body; pharynx folded; enteron 
reticulate ; sucker in middle of body ; vasa deferentia 
and uteri branched; eyes in double cerebral groups and 
anterior and posterior to tentacles family Pseudoceiidae, 42 

42 (43). Dorsum covered with long fingerlike papillae; Florida. 

Thysanozoon brocchi (Risso, 1818) 

43 (42). Dorsum not covered with long papillae ; Florida. 

Pseudoceros maculosus, new species 

44 (41). Marginal tentacles if present not foldlike, but .slender 

and conical or absent ; pharynx tubular 45 

45 (50). Body oval or elliptical in shape family Euryleptidae, 46 

46 (47). Without anterior tentacles; enteric caeca few and little 

branched ; P'lorida Acerotisa pellucida, new species 

47 (46). With 2 slender anterior marginal tentacles 48 

48 (49). Median stem of enteron with anus at posterior end; body 

18 by 8 mm ; brown, with median purplish band ; 
Florida, North Carolina. 

Oligoclado floridanus, new genus and species 



^ The presence of ej'es around the entire body in the genus Oculoplana makes a revision 
of Bresslau's Emprosthommata necessary. 



POLYCLADS OF THE EAST COAST PEARSE 97 

49 (48). Without anus; 15 by 10 mm; yellow, with brown spots; 

New England Eurylepta maculosa Verrill, 1893 

50 (45). Body elongated, ribbonlike, and delicate; without tenta- 

cles ; eyes along anterior margin and over brain ; 

pharynx tubular; mouth behind brain_ family Prosthiostomidae, 51 

51 (52). Body 4 by 1.25 mm; marginal eyes continuous across 

front ; tentacular, cerebral, and frontal eyes in 4 groups ; 

New England Prosthiostomum gracile Girard, 1850^ 

52 (51) Body 17 by 2.7 mm; eyes in 2 lateral marginal groups; 

with a space between them at anterior end, and an 
irregular cerebral group ; Florida. 

Prosthiostomum lobatum, new species 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bock, Sixten. 

1925. Planarians, pts. 1-5. Papers (nos. 25 and 27) from Dr. Th. Morten- 
sen's Pacific Expedition, 1914-16. Vid. Medd. Dansk. Naturhist^ 
Foren. K0benhavn, vol. 79, pp. 1-84, 2 figs., 3 pis.; pp. 97-184, 31 
figs., pis. 
Bresslau, Ernst. 

1928, 1933. Turbellaria. In Kiikenthal and Krumbach's Handbuch der Zo- 
ologie, vol. 2, pt. 1, pp. 52-320, 288 figs. 
GiRAED, Charles FEEofiRic. 

1850. Descriptions of several new species of marine Planariae from the 
coast of Massachusetts. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 3, pp. 251- 
256, 264-265. 
1854. Descriptions of new nemerteans and planarians from the coast of the 
Carolinas. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 6 (1852-53),. 
pp. 365-368. 
1893. Kecherches sur les planari^s et les n^mertiens de I'Am^rique du Nord, 
Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool., ser. 7, vol. 15, pp. 145-310, 4 pis. 
Gbuee, Adolph Eduaed. 

1840. Actinien, Echinodermen und Wiirmer des Adriatischen und Mittel- 
meers nach eigenen Sammlungen beschreiben, 92 pp., 1 pi. 
Konigsberg. 
Hyman, Libbie Henrietta. 

1938. Faunal notes. Bull. Mount Desert Island Biol. Lab., 1938, pp. 24-25. 
Laidlaw, Frank Fortescue. 

1903. Suggestions for a revision of the classification of the polyclad Turbel- 

laria. Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Philos. Soc., vol. 48, 
no. 4, 16 pp., 5 figs. 

1904. Report of the polyclad Turbellaria collected by Professor Herdman, 

at Ceylon, in 1902. Rep. Pearl Oyster Fisheries Gulf of Manaar, 
pt. 2, pp. 127-136, 1 pi. 
Lang, Arnold. 

1884. Die Polycladen. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, monogr. 11, 
688 pp., 54 figs., 39 pis. 
Meixner, Adolf. 

1907. Polycladen von der Somalikiiste, nebst einer Revision der Stylo- 
chinen. Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., vol. 88, pp. 385-498, 2 figs., 5 pis. 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Palombi, Abtuko. 

1931. Stylochus inimicus sp. nov. Polyclade acotileo commensale di Ostrca 
virgmica Gmelin delle coste della Florida. Boll. Zool., vol. 2, pp. 
219-226, 4 figs., 1 pi. 
1936. Policladi liberi e commensali raecolti sulle coste del Sud Africa, della 
Florida e del golfo di Napoli. Arch. Zool. Ital., vol. 23, pp. 1-45, 
27 figs., 1 pi. 
Pearse, Akthub Sperby, and Wharton, George Wijxard. 

1938. The oyster "leech," Stylochus inimicus Palombi, associated with 
oysters on the coast of Florida. Ecol. Monogr., vol. 8, pp. 605-055, 
37 figs. 
Risso, Antoine. 

1818. M^moire sur quelques gasteropodes nouveaux, nudibranches et tecti- 
branches, observes dans la mer de Nice. Journ. Phys., Chimie, Hist. 
Nat., et Arts, vol. 87, pp. 368-377. 
Stummeb-Traunfels, Rudolf, and Meixner, Josef. 

1930, 1933. Polycladida. I7i Bronn's Klassen und Ordmingen des Tier- 
Reichs, vol. 4, pp. 3371-3596, 1 pi. (col.). 
^'errixl, Addison Emory. 

1873. Report upon the invertebrate animals of Vineyard Sound and the 
adjacent- waters, with an account of tlie physical characters of the 
region. Rep. U. S. Comni. Fish and Fisheries, 1871-72, pp. 295-778, 
4 figs., 38 pis. 
1882. Notice of the remarltable marine fauna occupying the outer banlts off 
the southern coast of New P^ncland, No. 7, and of some additions 
to the fauna of Vineyard Sound. Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 24, 
pp. 300-371. 

1893. Marine planarians of New England. Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts 

and Sci., vol. 8, pp. 459-520, 2 figs., 5 pis. 
Wheeleb, William Morton. 

1894. Planocera inqxiilina, a polyclad inhabiting the branchial chamber of 

Sycoiopus canaliculatus. Gill, Journ. Morph., vol. 9, pp. 195-201, 2 
figs. 
Yeri, Mequmi, and Kabtjbaki, Toki5 

1918. Bestimmungsschliissel fiir die japanischen Polycladen. Annot. ZooL 
Japon., vol. 9, pt. 4, pp. 431-442. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1938 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Washington : 1938 No. 3045 

HOPEWELLIAN REMAINS NEAR KANSAS CITY, 

MISSOURI 



By Waldo R. Wedel 



Early in February 1937, the Bureau of American Ethnology was 
notified of an Indian village site in Platte County, Mo., about 5 
miles northwest of Kansas City. The information was shortly 
communicated to me, since at the time I was formulating plans for 
field work in nearby northeastern Kansas as the initial step in a 
projected State-wide archeological survey. According to the cor- 
respondent, J. M. Shippee, of North Kansas City, the site was lo- 
cated on Line Creek, a small formerly perennial stream falling into 
the Missouri from the north about midway between Kansas City 
and Parkville. Though long known to local collectors of surface 
relics, its possibilities were not realized until recent pipe-line and 
highway construction had revealed cultural material to a depth of 
2 feet or more. Aside from the fact that no village sites in this 
locality had ever been systematically excavated and described, it 
was also noted that'on the wooded blufi's just east of the village 
were located the Brenner, Klamm, and Keller mound groups. Ex- 
cavated many years ago and described by Fowke and others,^ some 
of these mounds have been found to contain stone-walled burial 
chambers, but their cultural identity has never been established. 
Upon request, sketches and descriptions of the pottery fragments 
and other remains on the nearby village site were furnished us, and 
it was at once suspected that the complex represented therein was 



* Fowke, (Jerard, Antiquities of centra) and southeastern Missouri. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
Bull. 37, pp. 65-73 and references, 1910. 

87104—38 m 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

very unlike any heretofore described from the Plains or the Mis- 
souri Valley. 

This suspicion was confirmed in May 1937, when I proceeded to 
Kansas City and made a personal examination of the remains in 
company with Mr. Shippee. It was found that the most promising 
undestroyed portions of the site were occupied by the owner's resi- 
dence, garage, poultry yard, and garden. Permission to excavate 
was nevertheless unhesitatingly granted by the owners, Mr. and 
Mrs. Leslie Remier, who had previously and have since protected 
the site against vandalism, besides extending to us at all times the 
utmost courtesy and cooperation despite the inconvenience to which 
they were put. Investigations, in which I was assisted by four 
students, subsequently covered the entire month of June. Through 
the good services of Ralph Henneman, another interested collector, 
and the kindness of Transcontinental Western Air and United States 
Bureau of Air Commerce officials, we were enabled to supplement 
our records with an aerial reconnaissance of the site and its sur- 
roundings. 

The Renner site, so named after the owners, is situated on a 
small terrace on the right bank of Line Creek about a mile north 
of the Missouri River. It covers an area of about 5 acres, imme- 
diately below the junction of Juntin Branch and Line Creek, just 
before the latter emerges from the bluffs zone to cross the alluvial 
river bottoms. Riverside Racetrack is nearby to the south. The 
bluffs east and west of the site rise to heights of 150 feet or more 
and are still partially covered with oak, ash, elm, walnut, hickory, 
and other hardwood species. To the north is the attractive and 
fertile Line Creek Valley, in which are other old villages as yet 
unexplored. 

The new road, on U. S. Highway 169 Ix^tween U. S. 71 and Missouri 
State Highway 45, cut a strip nearly 100 feet wide across the cen- 
ter of the site. In the roadside cross sections there had been re- 
vealed a dark soil zone extending from the ground surface to a 
depth varying from 13 to 30 inches. Below and usually sharply 
separated from this dark stratum was bright yellow clay subsoil. 
Numerous potsherds, burnt limestone boulders, animal bones, and 
flints occurred throughout the upper layer and appeared to be es- 
pecially plentiful in and near pits that extended to depths as much 
as 6 feet below the present ground surface. Unquestionably, great 
quantities of cultural material were destroyed in building the high- 
way, but through courtesy of the superintendent of construction, 
H. M. Kleifeld, most of what had been rescued was presented to us 
for the national collections. 



HOPEWELLIAN KEMAINS NEAR KANSAS CITY — WEDEL 101 

Up to the present, no detailed studies of our findings have been 
made. Since further investigations in the locality are now under 
consideration, it is likely that the full report will be delayed for 
some time. Meanwhile, a preliminary notice of the remains may be 
of interest, especially to those concerned with determining the rela- 
tionship between early Plains cultures and the archeological com- 
plexes found in the Eastern United States. Such generalizations 
as may be suggested here are subject to revision in the light of more 
intensive analyses and further field investigations. 

Our excavations were confined to the remaining part of the site 
lying east of the new road, between it and the creek bottoms. Here 
over an area of about 3,000 square feet the cultural layer was 
stripped off by troweling until subsoil was reached, at which level 
the pits showed as dark trash-filled circular spots. Thirty-six of 
these were opened, averaging about 3 feet in diameter and 2i/^ to 
more than 5 feet in depth. Originally these were probably used for 
storage of foodstuffs, but most of them yielded only refuse and a 
few artifacts. Noteworthy among their contents, aside from artifact 
materials, were charred maize, beans, pawpaw seeds, and several 
species of nuts, as well as quantities of mammal, bird, and fish bones. 
Bulk of the mammalian remains were apparently of the deer, but 
there is evidence also of the bison. No postholes, firepits, or other 
traces of houses were noted, although there were numerous large 
and small chunks of baked brick-red clay of unknown purpose. It 
is inferred that the habitations must have been entirely of perish- 
able materials rather than of the substantial earthlodge type used 
by many tribes and peoples of the Missouri Valley. There is 
some slight evidence for the former existence of refuse mounds, but 
mostly the detritus now occurs either in the pits or as admixture in 
the old living surface of the village. 

Potsherds were found in great abundance everywhere on the site. 
It was at first thought that these represented two distinct types, but 
more careful scrutiny suggests the presence of intergrading speci- 
mens. At one extreme are coarse, thick, gravel-tempered sherds with 
cord-roughened exteriors. These apparently are from large pointed- 
base jars, none of which have yet been actually reconstructed. Be- 
low the squared lip is usually a row of embossed nodes, punched out- 
ward from the interior, and above these may or may not be found 
the vertical or diagonal imprints of a small cord-wrapped stick or 
a dentate implement (pi. 3, G). Other large similarly shaped ves- 
sels, also bearing the bosses but with plain neck and rocker-rough- 
ened body decoration, are indicated (pi. 3, F, H, I). The heavy 
gravel -tempered pointed-base jars, with cord-roughening and 
punched bosses, are strikingly reminiscent of sherds found at sev- 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

eral deeply buried sites in eastern Nebraska, where they appar- 
ently represent the earliest known ceramic horizon. 

Greatly superior in quality and decorative technique are many 
sherds of a type heretofore unrecorded this far west. Here gravel 
or grit tempering is again universal, but it is more sparingly used 
and of finer texture. Vessels were small to medium in size (up to 
1 or possibly 2 gallons capacity), with thin walls and slightly con- 
stricted necks. Rim profiles show a more or less pronounced chan- 
nel or groove on the inside, an inward-beveled lip, with cross-hatched 
(or rocker-marked) and punctate decoration on the outer surface 
(pi. 3, A-D). This ornamentation also occurs on some fragments 
of the larger, rougher jars of the preceding type, where the zones 
of cross hatching and punctates are occasionally separated by a 
row of embossed nodes. From the restorable vessels and larger 
sherds it is evident that the neck in this second type of ware was 
usually a plain smoothed band, separated by a wide incised line or 
groove from the ornamented body. Decoration on the body usually 
consisted of rocker-roughening, sometimes with scroll or other cur- 
vilinear designs worked out in alternate smooth and roughened 
bands separated by narrow to wide shallow grooves (pi. 6, B). 
One incomplete jar was evidently square with rounded corners, each 
of the latter being rocker-rougliened (pi. 5, //). A few sherds sug- 
gest use of a dentate tool such as the roulette (pi. 3, E), but the 
majority were im])ressed Avith a smooth rocker. Many body sherds 
bear no decoration whatever. In most respects this ware closely 
approaches the so-called Hopewellian type, but the body ornamenta- 
tion is somewhat less intricate and the roulette or dentate stamp 
technique apparently less common than on pottery from the classic 
sites farther east.^ 

It is possible that detailed counts of the several thousand potsherds 
recovered will reveal some variation in the relative frequency of the 
several sherd types at different depths. Such variation, if it exists, 
is not now apparent, and it was definitely noted that the various 
types occurred together in a number of the pits as well as side by 
side throughout the culture stratum. 

Of unusual interest is a portion of a smoothed bowl bearing 
rocker-roughened designs suggestive of a conventionalized hand (pi. 
6, ^). Originally there were apparently four of these decorative 
units encircling the vessel, each inclosed by a broad incised line. 
Miniature pottery, including the bowl of j\ tiny ladle, a crude bird 
effigy (pi. 4, H), and a few pieces possibly representing human or 
animal heads were found. 



" Setzler. Frank M.. Pottery of the Hopewell type from Louisiana. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 82, art. 22, pp. 1-21 and references under footnote 1. 1933. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL, 86 PLATE 3 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOU 86 PLATE 4 




Z I 

CQ 1 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL 86 PLATE 5 




POTSHERDS FROM THE RENNER SITE. 




PORTION OF Square Vessel with Rounded corners from the Renner Site. 

(Scale: 5 inches.) 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL 86 PLATE 6 





_l I I I I 



Portion of Decorated Bowl from the Renner Site 
(Scale: 6 inches.) 




i'^yi 



Restored Vessel from the Renner Site. 
(Height, 6^2 inches; diameter, 6]-> inches.) 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 




VESSEL FROM EARTH MOUND NEAR THE RENNER SITE. 

(Height, 3}< inches; diameter, 4?i inches. Courtesy of J. AI. Shippee.) 




RESTORED VESSEL FROM STONE-VAULT BURIAL MOUND NEAR WALDRON, MO. 

(Height, 4?8 inches; diameter, 4^2 inches. Courtesy of A. H. Hansen.) 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 3 




SQUARE Vessel with Rounded Corners from Stone-vault Mound 

NEAR WALDRON. MO. 

(Hciglu, 5,'4 inches; maxiinuin diameter, .v^s inches. Courtesy of A. 11. Hansen.) 




Vertical View of a. 



HOPEWELLIAN REMAINS NEAR KANSAS CITY — WEDEL 103 

The associated traits in stone, bone, horn, and other materials 
represent a somewhat greater variety than occurs in most of the 
known Plains archeological complexes. Work in chipped stone 
includes numerous heavy stemmed and a few triangular projectile 
points (pi. 4, N, O), medium to large end scrapers (pi. 4, P), a 
variety of knives and side scrapers, drills of straight and expanded- 
base types, stemmed "snub-nose" scrapers (pi. 4, K), and various 
heavier agricultural, skinning, and other tools (pi. 4, Q). The 
largest chipped specimen was a well-made brown chert or jasper 
blade with rounded ends measuring lO^^ by 3 inches. Ground stone 
objects included diorite and hematite celts (pi. 4, M), large and 
small three-quarter grooved axes (pi. 4, L), quartzite balls and 
mullers, and cone-shaped or mammiform objects whose use is un- 
known (pi. 4, /). The unquestionably inclusive presence of grooved 
axes, including one unfinished specimen, is of interest. Implements 
of this type are not unknown in surface collections throughout the 
Plains, but so far as I am aware, the archeological complex in which 
they belong has never before been definitely established by excava- 
tion. Several lumps of pumice were evidently used as abradants. 
No pipes or pipe fragments were found. 

Among the artifacts in bone are deer metapodial beamers of "draw- 
shave" type (pi. 4, A), various forms of awls, needles, a dressed 
deer-toe bone perforated lengthwise for cup and pin game, a long 
thin mat-weaving needle, imitation perforated bear teeth (pi. 4, ^), 
a small carving of a bird head evidently broken from a larger 
object, and several unidentified forms. Conspicuously absent from 
the Renner site was the otherwise highly typical Plains digging tool 
or hoe made from the scapula of the bison, though the type occurs 
commonly in nearby sites of different cultural affinities and probably 
of later date. Socketed conical projectile points with characteristic 
single basal tangs (pi. 4, Z>), curved "cylinders" or tapping tools 
(pi. 4, F), flakers (pi. 4, O), and strainers (?) (pi. 4, E) were made 
of deer horn, while from various caches were taken several more or 
less complete sets of antlers. Shell was scarce; the only worked 
fragment found was small and nondescript, with a single perforation. 

One small worked piece of probable native copper was recovered. 
There was no metal, glass, or other material in any way suggesting 
contact with Europeans. 

No burials were found during the course of our excavations, but 
some years ago an earth mound was partially dug over by Shippee 
and Henneman on the bluffs overlooking the village site from the 
west. Interments included four stone-covered bundle and two full- 
length burials, as well as four unattached skulls. Scattered about 
through the mound dirt were pieces of red and yellow ochre and 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8& 

chipped flints, the latter including a very fine IQi^-inch white chert 
blade. There were also a few grit-tempered sherds and one small 
roulette decorated vase (pi. 7, A), but the latter was not directly 
associated with any of the skeletal remains. An extended infant 
burial yielded a few scraps of copper. The bluff north of this mound 
is littered with worked and unworked stone, and a large polished 
biperforate gorget of altered diorite is said to have been picked up 
on the surface here. 

More recently, since our work, I have been informed that another 
burial mound was opened in a group on the bluffs some 12 miles 
upriver from the Renner site, also on the left bank of the Missouri.' 
Full details are lacking, but it appears that remains of a number of 
skeletons were found here in an oval chamber of coursed stones with 
a walled opening toward the south. There was no satisfactory evi- 
dence of a specially prepared floor or burial surface. Two incom- 
plete male skulls and two frontal bones, including that of one 
infant, have been submitted to tlie National Museum for exami- 
nation. The frontal bones in all cases are extremely narrow, and 
three exhibit a slight flattening above the middle on each side of 
the median line. Both of the crania show simple occipital de- 
formity of moderate degree. One is evidently abnormal; the other 
is of dolichocranic type. The latter, it may be noted here, strik- 
ingly resembles one from the Brenner mound no. 2, described by 
Hrdlicka and now in the national collections.* Marks of rodent 
teeth occur on the bones, suggesting that they were originally 
placed in an open vault. In support of this view Shippee re- 
ports that "the mounds all appear to be flat topped over the vault 
enclosure. I presume they once had a roof of logs and stones." 
Associated cultural remains included a small stone knife and two 
Hopcwellian vessels strongly reminiscent of certain pieces from the 
Renner village site (pis. 7, B, and 8). This association, if correct, 
is of great interest since it would indicate a direct connection between 
at least one stone-vault mound and a village artifact com])lex similar 
to that described in this paper. It would be tempting to go a step 
further and view the Brenner, Ivlamm, and Keller mounds as burial 
places for the dead of the nearby Renner site, but in the present 
state of our information such a relationship can not be conclusively 
demonstrated. With the single apparent exception just noted, it is 
still impossible to identify with certainty the builders of this 



■ Excavated by Albert Hansen, •who kindly forwarded the pottery and part of the skeletal 
material found to the U. S. National Museum for study. Information that follows was 
furnished by Mr. Shippee (letters of Nov. 3 and 14, 1937), who visited the mound at my 
request. 

* Fowke, G., Op. cit., p. 109. There is no record of pottery or other artifacts associated 
with this last find, made within 900 yards to the east of the Renner village site. 



HOPEWELLIAN REMAINS NEAR KANSAS CITY — WEDEL 105 

type of mound, which has so long puzzled students of prehistory in 
the Kansas City region. 

Viewed in the light of Plains archeology, the complex briefly in- 
ventoried above presents a number of totally new features com- 
bined with others that have been known to workers in that area for 
some time/ Widespread throughout Nebraska and apparently also 
in Kansas are small often deeply buried sites distinguished by thick 
coarsely tempered cord-roughened sherds, with or without the rim 
bosses, which are much like the first type described above. These 
have heretofore generally been classed as Woodland, and as already 
stated stratigraphically they are believed to represent the earliest 
known ceramic horizon in the region. Little is known of the asso- 
ciated artifact types except that heavy stemmed projectile points 
are usually present. On several occasions three-quarter grooved 
axes have also been found on these camp sites. The relation between 
these small widely distributed sites with their single distinctive 
pottery type and such large and comparatively rich manifestations 
as the Renner site is still obscure. Otherwise the sherds previously 
described in this paper are of types not yet found in Nebraska, al- 
though our work in the Kansas valley disclosed at least one camp 
site with similar sherds near Manhattan, Kans., 120 miles west of 
Kansas City. Metapodial beaming tools have been reported sporad- 
ically from the Plains, but so far only in the precontact Upper Re- 
publican or a related context. Antler projectile points are scarce 
otherwise from the region save in the protohistoric Oneota and 
Lower Loup (Pawnee) complexes. Besides the generally more 
elaborate ceramic tradition, traits at the Reimer site that are either 
rare or unknown in other described Plains archeological complexes 
include stemmed scrapers, an unusual variety of chipped stone 
objects, cone-shaped stone and clay artifacts, imitation bear teeth, 
and "strainers." There is little resemblance to known protoliistoric 
and historic remains in this portion of the Missouri Valley, and in 
fact the complexion of the material is generally non-Plains. 

Despite the absence of a detailed tabular analysis by depths of the 
Renner site materials, it seems evident that all these various artifact 
types represent the remains of a single occupancy. Possibility of a 
mechanical mixing of vestiges from distinct culture strata is ruled 

•See: Wedel, W. R., Reports on fleldwork by the Archeological Survey of the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, May l-.Tuly 23, 1934, Nebraska Hist. Mag., vol. 15, pp. 132-255, 
1934. — Strong, W. D., An introduction to Nebraska archeology, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 
vol. 93, no. 10, 1935. — Hill, A. T., and W«del, W. R., Excavations at the Leary Indian 
village and burial site, Richardson County, Nebraska, Nebraska Hist. Mag., vol. 17, pp. 
3-73, 1936. — Wedel, W. R., An introduction to Pawnee archeology, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
Bull. 112, 1936. — Bell, E. H., et al.. Chapters in Nebraska archeology, vol. 1, University of 
Nebraska, 1936. — HiU, A. T., and Cooper, Paul, papers in Nebraska Hist Mag., vol. 17, 
pp. 222-292, 1937. 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

out by the fact that the great bulk of the material came from a rela- 
tively homogeneous and unstratified deposit below plow sole and out. 
of the old trash pits. Furthermore, the Renner site is not unique 
in the Kansas City area. Five or six miles to the west on a small 
unnamed creek about a mile south of the Missouri, in "Wyandotte 
County, Kans., nearly identical remains have been unearthed by 
H. M. Trowbridge, of Bethel. Practically every artifact and pottery 
type enumerated above from the Renner site can be duplicated in 
the Trowbridge collection. Surface finds have revealed good evi- 
dence for recurrence of the complex at five or six other smaller sites 
recorded in and below Kansas City, and it is quite likely that still 
others will eventually be found both up and down the Missouri 
River from this known area of occurrence. 

A brief survey of the more recent literature on the archeology of 
the upper ISIississij^pi drainage suggests that the Renner site and 
similar remains in the vicinity may prove to be rather closely related 
to certain Hopewellian manifestations in parts of Illinois and Wis- 
consin.*' From the limited studies so far made, it is not yet clear 
to which, if any, of the currently recognized aspects of the Hope- 
wellian phase the newly identified Missouri Valley variant is 
assignable. It apj)arently lacks among other things many of the prac- 
tices connected with disposal of the dead farther east and south, 
although the evidence hints at a basic similarity even here. Pos- 
sibly further work will show that these remains comprise the Kansas 
City focus of an as yet unnamed westerly aspect of the Hopewellian. 
This point, as well as the exact position of the complex in Missouri 
Valley archeology temporally and otherwise, must remain problemat- 
ical until systematic investigations have been made in additional 
related sites and in some of the fast-vanishing burial mounds of the 
Kansas City area. 

9 McKcrn, W. C, A Wisconsin variant of tln' Hopewell culture, Milwaukee Public Mua. 
Bull., vol. 10, no. 2, 1931. — Cole, F. C, and Deuel, T., Rediscovering Hlinols, Chicago, 1937. 



U. ». «OVERNIIENT PRINTIN8 OFFICEi l>lt 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued 1^5^, \X OS^Jl ^y '^fi 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Vol. 86 Washington : 1938 No. 3046 

THE TYPES OF THE POLYCHAETE WORMS OF THE FAM- 
ILIES POLYNOIDAE AND POLYODONTIDAE IN THE 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM AND THE DE- 
SCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS 



By Olga Hartman 



A SURVEY of the types of annelids of the families Polynoidae and 
Polyodontidae in the United States National Museum indicates the 
necessity of several nomenclatorial changes. The first part of this 
paper is a discussion of some of these types and a revision of some of 
the genera concerned. The second part lists all the types in the 
Museum, with changes of names and new combinations indicated. For 
convenience, type locality, place of publication, and museum catalog 
number are given. 

Family POLYNOIDAE 
Genus IPHIONE Kinberg 
IPHIONE FUSTIS Hoagland 

Figure 35, a 

Iphione ftistis Hoagland, 1920, p. 605 (U.S.N.M. no. 18941 ; Philippine Islands). 

The type may be an immature individual, as already stated by 
Hoagland. The paired prostomial antennae have their cirrophores 
and cirrostyles subequal. The place of articulation was not indicated 
by the describer, but the total length is about as shown. Neuropodia 
are considerably more oblique that Hoagland has shown, and the 
neuropodial aciculum projects beyond the Darapodial lobe ; neurocirri 
are long, digitiform (fig. 35, a). 

87105—38 1 107 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Genus LEPIDONOTUS Leach 

LEPIDONOTUS CAELORUS Moore 

FiGUBE 35, h-d 

Lepidonotus caelonis Mooke, 1903, p. 412 (U.S.N.M. no. ir)733 ; Japan). 
Polynoc spicula Treadweix, 1900, p. 1151 (U.S.N.M. uo. 5203: Monterey Bay). 
Lepidonotus minutus Tbeadwell, 1936, p. 202 (U.S.N.M. no. 20112; China). 
? Lepidonotus castriensis SfSDhER, 1924, p. 41. 

The type vial of PoJyno'd spicula contains three specimens. Each 
has 12 pairs of elytrophores, inserted as typical of the genus Lepido- 
notus. The prostomium has long anterior peaks and a stout median 
ceratophore; lateral antennae are inserted terminally (fig. 35, c). 
The scales are ornamented with spines and a marginal fringe (fig. 
35, d). Neuropodial setae are distally entire and have a stout tooth 




FiGUKB 35. — Species of Iphione and Lkpidonotl'S 
a, I phi one fustis Hoaulanil : Fifteenth neuropodium in posterior view, X 45. 
b~d, Lepidonotus caelorue Moore (figures based on type of Polynoc spicula Treadwell) : 
b, Twelftli foot In anterior view, X 45 ; c, prostomial outline, X 45 ; d, an elytron 
from posterior third of body, X 28. 

at the distal end of the toothed region. Parapodia are blunt, trun- 
cate (fig. 35, b). In both the types of L. caelonis and P. spicula the 
posteriormost scales have the most conspicuous spines. Numerous 
collections show variation, however, in relative sizes of spines. 

The type of Lepidonotus minutus Treadwell is a small representa- 
tive of this common north Pacific species. The prostomium is 
strongly retracted into the peristomial ring, and the posterior margin 
is thus made out with difficulty. It may be for this reason that the 
illustration of L. minutus shows the prostomium more produced at its 
posterior margin than is actually the case. The elytra of the type 
are strongly mottled with dark gray. There is great variation in 
pigmentation of this species (see also Moore, 1905, p. 546). The 
lengths of lateral and median antennae in the original descriptions of 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 109 

L. caelorus and L. minutus are seemingly reversed, but the degree of 
variation in this respect has ah-eady been commented upon (Moore, 
1908, p. 331) and is observable in numerous collections examined. 

Lepidonotus castriensis Ssidler, from northeastern Asia, is close 
to, if not identical with, L. caelor-us Moore. The descriptions agree 
reasonably well. Seidler describes the elytra as beset with large 
"Schuppen . . . die jede in der Mitte einen Hocker zeigt." The so- 
called "Hocker" are presumably the spines, shown by Moore (1905, 
fig. 36, a^c) . Seidler has not described or illustrated the shape of a 
typical parapodium, but the setal structures, prostomial proportions, 
and elytra are similar. 

LEPIDONOTUS HELOTYPUS (Grube) 

Polynoe (Lepidonotus) helotypus Grube, 1877, p. 49 (China). 
Lepidonotus robustus Moore, 1905, p. 544 (U.S.N.M. no. 5523; Alaska). 
(See Seidler, 1924, p. 56, for more complete synonymy.) 

Grube's type from China measures 56 mm long ; Moore's type from 
Shelikof Strait, Alaska, measures 45 mm. long. Seidler (1924, p. 56) 
indicated the possible identity of Moore's type with L. helotypus but 
gave no explanation. It seems that this synonymy may be verified 
in view of the similarity of the type of L. rohustus with the descrip- 
tion of L. helotypus given by Seidler, who examined Grube's type. 

Genus HALOSYDNA Kinberg, char, emend. 

Body moderately short, depressed; number of setigerous segments 
about 36; number of eltytra 18 (rarely 19), distributed on segments 
2, 4, 5, 7, 9 . . . 27, 28, 30, 31, 33 (or rarely also on 34). Otherwise 
as defined by Kinberg. 

Type of genus: Halosydna patagonica Kinberg, from southern 
Chile. 

The genus Halosydna, as restricted above, includes the following 
species which I believe to be valid : 



brevisetosa Kinberg (California). 
latior Chamberlin (California). 
nebulosa Grube (China). 
pissisi (Quatrefages) (Brazil). 
fuscomarmorata (Grube) (Peru). 
elegans Kinberg (Galapagos Islands). 
johnsoni (Darboux) (California). 
miilleri (Grube) (Chile). 



parva Kinberg (Chile). 
patiujonica Kinberg (Straits of Magel- 
lan). 
leucohyba (Schmarda) (Jamaica). 
virgini Kinberg (Hawaiian Islands). 
marginata (Grube) (Peru). 
samoensis Grube (Samoa). 
tubercuUfer Chamberlin (California). 



The following names, described in the genus Halosydna, all based 
on specimens from California, seem to be synonyms or species in other 
genera : 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Ualosydna lagunae Hamilton (1915, p. 235) is a Lci)idoiiotus. 
Ualosydna leioscta Chamberlin (1919b, p. 2) is Arctonoe pulchra (Johnson). 
Halosydna macroccphala Essenberg (1917, p. 53) is H. johnsoni (Darboux). 
Halosydna succiniseta Hamilton (1915, p. 234) is Arctonoe vittata (Grube). 

HALOSYDNA LATIOR Chamberlin 

Halosydna latior Chambeelin, 1919b, p. 1 (California). 

Halosydna obtusa-cirrata Tbeadweix (1937b, p. 143) (Ix)wer California). 

Halosydna obtusa-crrrata Treadwell, from Lower California, com- 
pares favorably with II. latior Chamberlin, from southern California. 
H. latior is readily distinguished from other species of Halosydna by 
its broad depressed form and its closely imbricated, broadly reniform 
scales, which have a conspicuous fringe on the outer lateral border. 
Another characteristic feature mentioned by Chamberlin, but not de- 
scribed for //, ohtusa-cirrata., is the elongate nature of the nephridial 
papillae ; they are about three times as long as thick. I have observed 
tliis feature in numerous specimens deposited in the collections of the 
University of California. 

Specimens of //. latior have been taken in abundance from the 
deeper waters of southern California by expeditions of the steamer 
Albatross. Many of these collections have not been reported upon. 
They are deposited in the University of California and the United 
States National Museum. 

HALOSYDNA LEUCOHYBA (Schmarda) 

Polynoii Icucohyba Sciimakda, 1861, p. 309 (Jamaica). 
Halosydna leucohyha Websteb, 1884, p. 3u9 (Bermuda). 

Halosydna brevisctosa Trelvdwexl, 1902, p. IGG (U.S.N.M. nos. 16009-16012) 
(Puerto Rico) ; not Kinberg, 1855, p. 385. 

Specimens of H. hrevisetosa Treadwell, from Puerto Rico, are all 
representatives of //. Icucohyba (Schmarda) as redescribed by Web- 
ster. H. brevisetosa Kinberg is thus not known outside of the eastern 
Pacific. 

HALOSYDNELLA, new genus 

Resembling Halosydna Kinberg in prostomiiun and body contour 
but longer. Differs from Halosydna in having about 45 setigerous 
segments and 20 to 24 pairs of scales, inserted on segments 2, 4, 5, 7, 
9 ... 23, 25, 28, 29, 32, and on every second or third segment more pos- 
teriorly. Ventral setae distally entire or with a subterminal tooth 
(fig. 36, c). Dorsal setae finer than ventral setae and ornamented with 
transverse rows of spines. Notopodial setae may be absent from some 
jjosterior parapodia. 

Type of genus: Halosydna australis Kinberg, from the La Plata 
River. 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 111 

The following species belong to the genus HdlosydneUa: 

Halosydna australis Kinberg, from the La Plata River. 

Halosydna hrasiliensis Kinberg, from Brazil. 

Halosydna fusca Grube, from Brazil. 

Halosydna alleni Day, from False Bay, South Africa. 

Halosydna grisea Treadwell, from Argentina. 

Polynoe punctulaia Grube, from Brazil. 

Halosydna galapagensis Monro, from the Galapagos Islands. 

Halosydna oculata Treadwell, from Samoa. 

Halosydna fusca-maculata Treadwell, from the Barbados. 

A comparative study of the types of these species, especially those 
from the eastern coast of South America, may reveal the identity of 
some of them. 

HALOSYDNELLA GRISEA (Treadwell), new combination 

Figure 36, d, e 

Halosydna grisea Tkhadwell, 1929, p. 1 (U.S.N.M. no. 19279; Argentina). 
? Halosydna australis Kinberg, 1S55, p. 385 (La Plata River). 

In the type, the lateral margin of the scales of the posterior half of 
the body is quite smooth, the margin of the anterior scales is succes- 
sively more ciliate, the scales 2 to 8, at least, being ciliate along their 
entire free lateral edges, where they do not overlap one another. 
Neuropodia are distally truncate, extending laterally well beyond the 
papillate notopodium (fig. 36, d). Neuropodial setae number 12 to 15 
in a fascicle and are arranged in two more or less irregular vertical 
ranks. The subterminal tooth is well outdistanced by the terminal 
fang (fig. 36, e). There are 4 to 9 transverse rows of pectinae along 
the thickened region. 

The identity of H. grisea and H. australis seems likely in view of the 
similarities that are to be observed in comparing Kinberg's description 
and figures with the type of H. grisea. Both are from Argentina. 

HALOSYDNELLA FUSCA-MACULATA (Treadwell), new combination 

Figure 86, /, g 

Halosydna fusca-maculata Treadwell, 1924, p. 5 (U.S.N.M. no. 20330; West 

Indies ) . 
Halosydna fuscomarginata Tre.«iDWELL, 1924 (in explanation of figures). 

The type has 45 setigerous segments and 21 pairs of elytrophores. 
Prostomium and elytra are as indicated by Treadwell. The scales, 
posterior to the first pair, are tiny and leave the dorsum broadly ex- 
posed; those on a side are widely separated from one another by 
almost the length of a segment. I was unable to detect a subterminal 



112 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



tooth in the neuropodial setae (fig. 36, /). Treadwell reported the 
presence of a subapical tooth in superior neuropodial setae. These 
setae have 7 to 10 rows of pectinae, restricted more completely to the 
outer side than in H. grisea. Notopodia are papillar, reduced, typi- 
cally with only an aciculum (fig. 36, g). 




Figure 36. — Species of H.^losydnelf-a, new semis 
a-c, UalosydneUa oculata (Treadwell) : a, Twentieth parapodium in posterior view, x 45; 
b, a median neuropodial seta from twentietli parapodium, X 294 ; c, tip of dorsal- 
most neuropodial seta from twentietli parapodium, X 2U4. 
d, e, Halosydnella (jrisea (Treadwell) : d. Twentietli parapodiv.m in posterior view, X 45; 

e, tip of neuropodial seta from twentieth parapodium, X 294. 
f, g, Hnln.otiilni llrt fuscii-macxtlara (Treadwell): /. Neuropodial seta from twentieth para- 
podium, X 294 ; g, twentieth parapodium in posterior view, X 45. 

Unidentate neuropodial setae have been described for H. galapa- 
gensis (Monro, 1928, p. 565). These two differ, however, in the shape 
of the feet, the dorsal cirrophore is notably stouter in H. fusca- 
maculata, and the notopodium is more reduced. 

HALOSYDNELLA OCULATA (Treadwell), new combination 
FlQUBE 36, OrC 

Halosydna oculata Tkeadwell, 1926, p. 8 (U.S.N.M. no. 19141; Samoa). 

The type consists of a complete specimen with 46 (possibly 47) 
setigerous segments and has 21 pairs of elytrophores, on segments 2, 
4, 5, 7, 9 . . . 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 40, 43, 44, 45 on the right side. A typi- 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN" 113 

cal parapodium (20th) has 60 or more neuropodial setae and only 20 
or less notopodial setae. The prostomium is unique in that it is broadly 
subquadrate and the lateral antennae are inserted ventrolaterally (see 
Tread well, 1926, fig. 9). There is a nuchal hood extending forward 
from the peristomium, 

Neuropodial setae are long, slender, with distal bladelike portion 
not much wider than the stem (fig. 36, 5) ; terminal end is bifid. The 
accessory tooth is largest in inferiormost setae (fig. 36, &), hardly 
visible in the superiormost setae (fig. 36, c). Transverse rows of 
pectinae are numerous on the cutting edge but exceedingly fine ; these 
are accompanied with a few heavier teeth on median and ventral 
bristles; the opposite edge or back, has a row of teeth (fig. 36, b). 
Notopodial setae include a few straight, smooth, acicular rods and 
more nmnerous straight setae resembling the superiormost neuro- 
podial setae but apparently entire at the tip, and with fainter rows 
of pectinae. 

Genus HYPERHALOSYDNA Augener 

HYPERHALOSYDNA STRIATA (Kinberg) 

Lepidofiotus striatus Kinberg, 1855, p. 384 (Australia). 
Polynoe platycirrus McIntosh, 1885, p. Ill (Australia). 
Hylostjvda carinata Moore, 1903, p. 417 (U.S.N.ai. no. 15732; "off Japan"). 

This species has been well described by Moore and by Augener 
(1922, p. 4; 1927, p. 105). It is present in the tropical and subtropi- 
cal Pacific. 

Genus LEPIDASTHENIA Malmgren 

LEPIDASTHENIA LUCIDA (Treadwell), new combination 

I'iGUEE 37 a-c 

Polyiwe lucida Treadwell, 1906, p. 1150 (U.S.N.M. no. 5202; off Hawaiian 
Islands). 

The type is a fragment consisting of the head and 64 setigerous 
segments; a posterior portion is missing. Lateral antennae are in- 
serted terminally. The notopodia are greatly reduced (fig. 37, a), 
without setae but with a slender aciculum. Neuropodia are elongate, 
deepest subterminally, with presetal and postsetal lobes broadly tri- 
angular and about equally long (fig. 37, a). 

Neuropodial setae are of two kinds: A few very slender, superior 
setae (fig. 37, c) and a fan -shaped fascicle of numerous thicker setae 
(fig. 37, h). Peristomium has a nuchal hood that extends forward 
over the prostomium, its enterior margin in line with the anterior 
margin of the posterior pair of eyes. 



114 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, IMUSEUM 



VOL. 86 




Figure 37. — Species of Lepidasthexia, EiNofi, and AkctonoB 
a-c, Lepidasthenia lucida (Treadwell) : a. Thirty-fifth parapodium in anterior view, setae 
diagrammatically represented, dorsal cirrus lost, X 28 ; 6, tip of inferior nouropo- 
dial sola from thirty-fiftti parapodium, X 204 ; c, tip of superior neuropodial seta 
from thirty-fifth parapodium, X -04. 
d, Eunoe eura Chamherlin : Fourteenth parapodium in anterior view, X 28. 
e, t, Arctonoe tuberculata (Treadwell) : e. Tip of neuropodial seta from tenth parapodium, 
X 294 ; f, tenth parapodium in anterior view, dorsal cirrus lost, x 45. 

LEPIDASTHENIA ALBA (Trtadwell), new combination 

Pohjnoc alba Treadwell, 190G, p. 1149 ( U.S.N. M. no. 5201; Honolulu). 

The type compares favorably with the description given for L. 
longicirrata Berkeley (1923, p. 214) except that the latter has a row of 
papillae on the feet between the bases of the ventral cirrus and the 
body wall. L. longicirrata Treadwell (1928, p. 460) from Avest of 
Peru is probably a Halosydna Kinberg. The type is deposited with 
the New York Zoological Society. 

The tj'i^e of L. aJha differs, in part, from L. lucida (see above) in 
having shorter, blunter parapodia; also, presetal and postsetal lobes 
are oblique in L. aJba^ triangular in L. lucida. 

LEPIDASTHENIA INTERRUPTA (Marenzeller) 

Halosydna interrupta Mabenzbxler, 1902, p. 570 (Japan). 
Polynoe semienna Moork, 1910, p. 331 (U.S.N.M. no. 15738; Japan). 
Lepidasthenia ocellata Ti{E.\dwkll, 193G, p. 264 (U.S.N.M. no. 20113; China). 

P. semierma Moore has long been considered a synonym of L. inter- 
rupta (see Moore, 1910, p. 331). 

The type and description of L. ocellata agree favorably with the 
description of L. interrupta, which has been Avidely reported from 
the northwest Pacific. 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 115 

Genus EUPHIONE Mcintosh 

EUPHIONE CHITONIFORMIS (Moore) 

Lepidonotus chitomformis Mooee, 1903, p. 405 (U.S.N.M. no. 15646; Japan). 
"iLepidonotus branchiferus Mooke, 1903, p. 409 (U.S.N.M. no. 15721; Japan). 
(See Seidler, 1924, p. 108). 

Lepidonotus chitoniformis Moore has been transferred correctly to 
the genus Euphione by Seidler (1922, 1924), Seidler, furthermore, 
considered L. hranchiferus identical with L. chitoniformis. The type 
specimens, however, differ from one another in the character of the 
major spines on the elytra. In E. chitonlforinis these spines are 
nodular, the 6 to 15 blunt nodes produced about the tip of a club- 
shaped stalk in w^hich the stein is generally smooth. In E. hranchi- 
ferus the major spines are closely covered with sharp-pointed stellate 
spinelets, which are continued on the stalk and on the terminal knob. 
Both types were collected from almost the same depth (49-63 and 
34r-41 fathoms, respectively) from Sagami Bay. 

Genus ARCTONOE Chamberlin, char, emend. 

Arctonoe Chamberlin, 1920, p. 6B. 

Includes Halosijdnoides Seidler, 1924; EaJosydna Kineerg (pars); Polynoe 
(pars) ; Lepidonotus (pars) ; Acholoe (pars). 

Body depressed, moderately long, consisting of a varying number 
of segments, ranging from 39 [?] to 60 or more. Elytra 18 pairs or 
more, continued to end of body but often leaving a broad dorsal area 
exposed, inserted as in Halosycbia Kinberg on the first 26 segments, 
insertion more or less irregular more posteriorly. Last few pairs of 
scales usually small, delicate. Prostomium much as in Halosydna^ 
except that the eyes may be reduced or absent and the lateral paired 
antennae inserted somewhat ventrolaterally. 

Parapodia unequally biramous, the smaller notopodium provided 
with an aciculum and few or no setae; notopodial setae straight, 
slightly pectinated or quite smooth, distal end blunt, indiscretely bifid. 
Neuropodia often robust, though short, truncate, each provided with 
a heavy aciculum and few to many stout, falcate setae, lacking 
pectinae or with faint transverse rows of teeth. Falcate setae are 
sometimes accompanied by a few superior neurosetae resembling those 
of the notopodium. Ventral cirri present on at least the first two 
segments, those of the first resembling the dorsal cirri, with a sub- 
terminal knob, those of the second cirriform. Ventral cirri of other 
segments moderate to inconspicuous or absent. Dorsal cirri more or 
less similar throughout. 

Elytra soft, translucent, with few or no spines or nodules, lateral 
margins smooth to greatly frilled, lacking noticeable cilia or hairs. 

87105—38 2 



116 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Commensal, in ambulacral grooves of echinoderms or branchial 
chambers of mollusks. 

Type species: Arctonoe vittata (Grnbe), new combination. 

Discussion. — The genus Arctonoe includes a small group of anne- 
lids that differ, by degrees, in the reduction or loss of certain parts, 
such as the number of notopodial setae, presence or absence of ventral 
cirri, number of segments and of scales, size of eyes. The habit of com- 
mensalism is possibly largely responsible for certain of these reduc- 
tions or deletions. All known species are similar in that they have the 
peculiar, heavy, falcate neuropodial setae adapted for attaching to 
their hosts, and in other respects enumerated above. 

The first species of this group, Polynoe vittata^ was described from 
Alaska by Grube (1855, p. 82). It has subsequently been delegated to 
the genera Lepidonotus (Baird, 1863, p. 107), Hdlosydna (Baird, 1865, 
p. 190), Acholoe (Marenzeller, 1902,p. 576),andjEraZ6>s?/<^no2V;?es (Seid- 
ler, 1921, p. 134). It has been described as Lepidonotus lordi Baird 
(1863, p. 107), as Ilalosydna succiniseta Hamilton (1915, p. 234 [new 
syn.]), and more recently as Arctonoe lia Chamberlin (1920, p. 6B 
[new syn.]). Since Chamberlin's name Arctonoe precedes Halosyd- 
noides Seidler (1924), the former is used. 

There are now four known species that may be assigned to the genus 
Arctonoe. They are : PoJynoe vittata Grube (1855. p. 82) . Lepidonotus 
fragilis Baird (1863, p. 108), Polynoe pidchra Johnson (1897, p. 177), 
and narmothoe tuherculata Treadwell (1906, p. 1154) (see below). 
The first three of these have not been reported outside of the north 
Pacific, and A. pidchra and A. fragilis are knov.n onl}' in the north- 
east Pacific. A. tuherculata is known only from the Hawaiian Islands 
(Treadwell, 1906). 

An interesting correlation of host species may be observed. All are 
more or less commensal with asteroids. A. vittata is more commonly 
with fissurellids, though sometimes also on chitons and even in tube of 
TheJepus (Berkelej^, 1935, p. 212) . A. pulchra is more frequently with 
holothuroids. 

KEY TO THESE SPECIES OF ARCTONOE 

1. Dorsum of each segment with a consi)icuous median papilla ; noto- 

podial setae absent ; neuropodial setae with vestiges of pectinae 

(fig. 37, e) tuberculata 

Dorsum without such papillae; notopodial setae present on at 
least a few anterior segments though often reduced in size and 
number; neuropodial setae without pectinae 2 

2. External margins of elytra greatly ruffled or folded frag'ilis 

External margins of elytra smooth or only slightly ruffled 3 

3. Some superior neurosetae with bifid tip; dorsum usually with a 

darii pigment band across segments 7-S vittata 

Superior neurosetae resembling inferior ones ; dorsum without 
transverse band of pigment pulchra 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 117 

ARCTONOE TUBERCULATA (Treadwell), new combination 

Figure 37, e, f 

Harmothoe tuierculata TREAowELii, 1906, p. 1154 (U.S.N. M. no. 5205; Hawaii). 

The type is an ovigeroiis adult, its total length about 15 mm, its 
greatest width between segments 12 and 14 about 3 mm. All elytra and 
dorsal cirri have been lost. Ventral cirri of the first two segments 
remain and are moderately developed, as typical of the genus Arctonoe, 
defined above. The ventral cirri are completely lacking (fig. 37, /). 
Parapodia are short, broad, thick, similar throughout. The noto- 
podium is reduced to a fingerlike lobe, extending distally beyond the 
neuropodium (fig. 37, /) , provided with a slender aciculum and a few 
(3 to 6) falcate setae, smooth along their lateral margins except for a 
few closely set, transverse rows of minute pectinae in the subterminal 
region (fig. 37, e). 

The prostomium is macerated, its anterior appendages not dis- 
cernible, its posterior margin partly overlapped by a peristomial 
nuchal hood. 

Genus HARMOTHOE Kinberg 

HARMOTHOE ACULEATA Andrews 

Harmothoe aculeata Andrews, 1891, p. 278 (U.S.N.M. no. 4876; North Carolina). 

The type vial contains several specimens, 7 with anterior ends of 
which 3 are more or less complete. Total number of setigerous seg- 
ments varies from 34 to 36. II. aculeata resembles the European 
H. areolata Grube ; the areolations of the elytra, however, are much 
less marked in //. aculeata, and the spines of the first pair of scales 
are shorter than those more posteriorly. A characteristic feature 
is the neuropodial lobe, which is prolonged into a slender, dorsal, 
attenuated tip (see Andrews, 1891, fig. 3). 

HARMOTHOE VILLOSA Treadwell 

Harmothoe viUosa Treadwell, 1926, p. 10 (U.S.N.M. no. 19190; Samoa). 

Both dorsal and ventral cirri are hirsute, as are also the prostomial 
antennae. Palpi are smooth. This species approaches H. hirsuta 
Johnson in tlie character of its prostomium and appendages, its noto- 
podial and neuropodial setae, and the proportions of the parapodia. 
The elytra are ciliate along their outer, lateral margins and spiny, 
but there are no definite polygonal areas such as Johnson first de- 
scribed for//, hirsuta (Johnson, 1897). 

Ditlevsen (1917, p. 36) assigned Eucranta viUosa Malmgren (1865, 
p. 80) to the genus Harmothoe. This species is a Eiwranta Malm- 
gren. 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

HARMOTHOE TRIMACULATA (Treadwell), new combination 

FiGUEEs yS, a ; 39, */. h 
Evnrnella trimaculata Treadwell, 1924, p. G (U.S.N.M. no. 20326; West Indies). 

The type of this species has been deposited in the United States 
National Museum by the University of Iowa. It is being allocated to 
the genus Hai^motho'e because of the similarity of the neuropodial 
setae with one another and the anterior position of the eyes. Para- 
podia are long, extending laterally considerably beyond the scales 
(fig. 38, a). Dorsal and ventral cirri are hirsute. The nouroacicular 
lobe is prolonged in a papillar lobe. A typical parapodium (12th) is 
provided with about 12 stout, pectinated notopodial setae (fig. 39, h) 
and about 10 sliglitly slenderer, bifid neuropodial setae (fig. 39, a). 
The ventralmost neuropodial setae have the pectinated region more 
limited than those more dorsally; it is only about half as long as that 
of the dorsal most setae. 

11. trimaculata resembles U. variegata Treadwell (1917, p. 2G0) 
from Florida. I have not seen the type of the latter. The elytral 
color markings are somewhat different, the anterior eyes much smaller, 
and the parapodia said to be shorter, but whether these differences are 
real or of no significance is not certain. 

HARMOTHOE TENEBRICOSA Moore 

Harmothoc tenebricosa Moobe, 1910, p. 351 (U.S.N.M. no. 16877; California). 
Eunoe exociilata Treadwell, 1923, p. 4 (U.S.N.M. no. 19148; Lower California). 

Eurwe exoculata is identical with llarmothoe tenebricosa. The 
general aspect of E. exoculata is darker and the setae are a deeper 
amber color. A paratype of H. tenehricosa (U.S.N.M. no. 17153) is 
somewhat darker than the type but not so dark as E. exoculata. In 
other respects the two types are very similar. The characteristic 
neuropodial lobes, setae, and prostomium readily distinguish this 
species (cf. figures of Moore, 1910, and Treadwell, 1923). 

HARMOTHOE TRIANNULATA Moore 

Harmothoe trlavvulnia ]Moore, 1910, p. 346 (U.S.N.M. no. ]7]r)4; California). 
? Harmothoe honitevsis Esseneerg, 1917, p. 48 (California). 

The description of //. honitensis agrees reasonably well with that 
of H. triannulata. I have seen Essenberg's type at the University 
of California and Moore's type at the National Museum but have 
not compared them side by side. 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 119 

Genus EUNOE Malmgren 
EUNOE (7) CRASSA (Treadwell), new combination 

FiQTTEE 38, 6-e 

Lagisca crassa Treadwell, 1924, p. 1 (U.S.N.M. no. 19101, Chile). 

The type is a fragment consisting of 32 anterior segments. The last 
segment is provided with the fifteentli elytropliore. I could discern 
no bifid neuropodial setae. Tlie dorsalmost resembled the ventralmost 
(figs. 38, d, e) except for the decreasing length of blade and the 




Figure 38. — Species of Hakmothoe and Eunoe 

a, Harmothoe trimaculata (Treadwell): Twelfth parapodium in anterior view, notopo- 
dial setae indicated, uppermost and lowermost nenrosetae shown, X 38. 
i-e, Eunoe crassa (Treadwell) : 6, Prostomium and surrounding parts, X 23; c, tip of 
notopodial seta from a median parapodium, X 75 \ d, inferiormost neuropodial seta 
from same parapodium, X 73 ; e, superiormost neuropodial seta from same fascicle 
as d, X 75. 

smaller size of the ventral bristles. The few scales that remain (the 
left on segments 4, 5, and 7 and a pair on 29) are tough, firmly 
attached, suborbicular and partly overlain, laterally, by the fascicles, 
of spinelike notopodial setae. 



120 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.86 

Anterior pair of eves are directed forward; the base of the paired 
prostomial antennae is over half as long as the main portion of the 
style. Palpi, antennae, and cirri are smooth (fig 38, h). Acicula 
and setae are dark amber, but the distal ends of the acicula are darker 
and project beyond the acicular lobes. Xotopodial setae are entire 
distally, the transverse rows of pectinae fine, numerous, and extensive 
in width (fig. 38, c). 

EUNOE EURA Chamberlin 

Figure ',>1, d 

Eunoe eiira Chamberlin, 1919a, p. 58 (U.S.N.M. no. 193.5.5, Peru). 

Notopodial and neuropodial setae are slender, about equally thick, 
with extensive pectinated region. Acicular lobes of both notopodia 
and neuropodia are long, digitate throughout (fig, 37, d). The noto- 
aciculum emerges near the tip of the lobe, the neuroaciculum about 
halfway on the free length of the lobe. Ventral cirri are ciliate, dorsal 
cirri smooth. 

Genus ENIPO Malmgren 

ENIPO CIRRATA Treadwell 

Figure 39, d, e 

Enipo citrata Treadwell, 192.5, p. 1 (U.S.N.M. no. 19139, Alaska). 

Notopodial setae are reduced in number; there are few (5 to 6) in 
anteriormost parapodia (5 in the third foot), and they decrease gradu- 
ally in number to the twelfth segment, where only an aciculum is 
present. Notosetae, where present, are short, stout, finely |">ectinated, 
with tip entire (fig. 39, e). Dorsal cirri are unusually elongate be- 
yond the bulbous region (fig. 39, d). The acicular lobes of notopodia 
and neuropodia are produced, but the acicula do not extend beyond 
the fleshy lobes. 

Genus SCALISETOSUS Mcintosh 

SCALISETOSUS FORMOSUS Moore 

Figure 39, c 

Scaliaetosua fomiosus Moore, 1903, p. 403 (U.S.N.M. no. 16165, Japan). 

It is likely that /S. foi^nosus and S. praelongus Marenzeller (1902, 
p. 575), from south Japan, are identical. The parapodial and setal 
outlines are similar except that in S. for^mosus the neuroacicular lobes 
are somewhat spatulate distally (fig. 39, c) and seemingly tapering in 
S. praelo-ngus. Ventral cirri in both are short, inserted proximally 
on the foot (fig. 39 c). 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 121 

Genus INTOSHELLA Darboux 

INTOSHELLA COECA (Moore), new combination 

Harmothoe {Eunoc) coeca Moore, 1910, p. 338 (U.S.N.M. no. 17476, California). 

The type has two pairs of eyes faintly discernible, an anterior pair 
at the lateral margins where the prostomium is widest and a posterior 
pair near the posterior margin of the prostomium. All are pale, 
small, and about equal in size. 





Figure 39. — Species of HARMOTHofi, Scalisetosus^ Enipo, and Macellicephala 

a, 6, HarmothoS trimaculata (Treadwell) : a, Inferiormost neuropodial seta from twelfth 
parapodium, X 245 ; ft, one of the stouter notopodial setae from twelfth parapodium, 
X 245. 
c, Scalisetosua formosus Moore : Parapodium, probably from median part of body, in 
anterior view, X 38. 
d, e, Enipo cirrata Treadwell : d, Third parapodium in posterior view, X 38 ; e, notopodial 
seta from third parapodium, X 245. 
J , Macellicephala aciculata (Moore) : Notopodial seta, X 245. 

The genus Intoshella has been known for only one species, /. euplec- 
tellae Mcintosh (1885, p. 108) from the Philippine Islands. From 
that species /. coeca differs in the shape of the prostomium and in 
having the palpi long, tapering, about twice as long as the lateral 
antennae, and much thicker. /. coeca is about 40 mm long; /. euplec- 
tellae is only about half that long. 



122 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Genus MALMGRENIA Mcintosh 

MALMGRENIA NESIOTES (Chamberlin), new combination 

PoJynoe nesiotes Chamberlin, 1919a, p. 72 (U.S.N.M. no. li>160. Lower California). 

The type has the following characters, which agree with the genus 
Malmgi'enia: Lateral antennae are inserted terminally and they are 
smaller than the median antenna; there are 15 pairs of scales, covering 
the dorsum ; there are only 34 segments, but the type is in two pieces, 
and may be incomplete in the midregion. Chamberlin's description 
is as complete as is possible with the material. 

Genus MACELLICEPHALA Mcintosh 

MACELLICEPHALA REMIGATA (Moore), new combination 

Polynoe (?) rcmigata Mooee, 1910, p. 365 (U.S.N.M. no. 17220, California). 

Tills species, like the one following, consists of 18 setigerous seg- 
ments. The prostomium consists of a pair of subglobular lobes, the 
posterior margin more or less flattened, the dorsoanterior margins 
each with a minute, papillar, prostomial peak. Lateral antennae are 
probably absent. Moore (1910, p. 365) mentions the swellings just 
ventral to the prostomial peaks and says that they "probably repre- 
sent the bases of the lateral tentacles." They seem, more likely, how- 
ever, to be fleshy swellings which never had attached antennae. 

Neuropodial setae are serrated along one margin only, as in M. mira- 
hilis Mcintosh. It is likely that M. remigata and M. inirahilU are 
identical. The latter has been widely reported (New Zealand, north 
Atlantic, south Pacific, Hawaiian Islands, etc.). M. reinigata was 
dredged off Santa Catalina Island. 

MACELLICEPHALA (T) ACICULATA (Moore), new combination 

Figure 39, f 

PoJynoe (?) aciculata Moobb, 1910, p. 367 (U.S.N.M. no. 17405, California). 

The single type specimen is considerably macerated. It consists of 
18 setigerous segments; the prostomium is strongly bilobed, with a 
pronounced median fissure. Eyes are lackmg, and no trace of lateral 
antennae can be made out. The notopodium is gi'eatly reduced and 
the few small dorsal setae are smooth. Neuropodial setae are long, 
flattened, transparent, and serrated along two sides (fig. 39, /). 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WOKMS HARTMAN 123 

Genus ADMETELLA Mcintosh 

ADMETELLA RENOTUBULATA (Moore), new combination 

Polyno'e (?) renotubulata Moore, 1910, p. 368 (U.S.N.M. no. 16878, Calif oruia ) . 

Moore has already indicated the relation of this species with those 
of the genus Admetella. The type is notably smaller than those of 
two other species in the collections of the Museum, A. dolichopus and 
A. hastigerens Chamberlin. Also, it has only 35 segments and 14 
pairs of scales as against the 60-75 segments and 23-30 pairs of scales 
usually present. Moore's type may possibly represent an immature 
specimen. 

Genus Indeterminable 

Polynoe {?) fllamentosa Moore (1910, p. 366, U.S.N.M. no. 17221), 
from California, is unique in its parapodial structures. The noto- 
podium is well developed; notopodial setae are pale amber, heavier 
than the neuropodials and some quite as long. Neuropodial setae are 
flat, thin, transparent, somewhat resembling those in MacelUcephala. 
The prostomium is more than twice as broad as long, and apparently 
without eyes. The median ceratophore is stout, produced between 
the prostomial lobes and extends distally to the ends of tlie tiny 
papillalike prostomial peaks. The single type is fragmentary and 
does not permit a complete description. 

Polynoe innatam Chamberlin (1919a, p. 70, U.S.N.M. no. 19459), 
from near the Galapagos Islands, is perhaps a species of Eucranta 
Malmgren. It is tiny, only 9.5 mm long, translucent, and without indi- 
cation of sexual products; thus it may be an innnature pelagic stage. 
The tyj^e resembles Euoranta as defined by Monro (1936, p. 100) in 
that (1) the notopodial setae are stouter than the neuropodials, (2) 
the neurosetae are of two kinds, both bidentate distally, and (3) the 
superior neuropodial setae are long, slender, pectinated, the inferior 
are stouter, shorter. The prostomium is harmothoid. Tliere are only 
26 setigerous segments and 11 (or possibly 12) elytrophores. 

Family POLYODONTIDAE 
Genus EUPANTHALIS Mcintosh 

EUPANTHALIS MUTILATA (Treadwell), new combination 

FiGUEEs 40, a-f 

Polynoe mutilata Treadwell, 1906, p. 1152 (U.S.N.M. no. 5204, Hawaiian Islands). 
': Eupanthalis oahuensis Treadwell, 1906, p. 1155 (Hawaiian Islands). 

I have not seen the type of Eupanthalis oahuensis. There is no 
record of the deposition of this type in the National collections. 

The following description is based on the type of P. mutilata. The 
specimen consists of head and 78 segments, in two pieces. The head 



124 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



is macerated; tlie posterior end is lacking. Setae are of fonr kinds 
as characteristic of the genus Eupanthalis^ a typical parapodium has 5 
to 12 geniculate pointed setae (fig. 40, a) in the ventralmost part of the 
fascicle, about 10 spinelike aristate setae (fig. 40, c?), 1 or 2 penicillate 
setae (fig. 40, c), and a few fine capillary setae (fig. 40, h) in the 
superiormost part of a fascicle. The notopodium has a slender 
aciculum. 




FiGCRH 40. EUPANTHALIS MITIL.VTA (TrCldwell) 

a, Inferior pointed neuroseta, X 204 ; h, superiormost seta, X 204 ; c, bushy-topped seta, 
X 294 ; d, tip of acicular, bayonet seta, X 204 ; e, lower right jaw piece from inner 
side, X 50 ; /, tenth parapodium with parapodial cord turned to the side, setae dla- 
grammatically indicated. X 45. 

The parapodial cord is a long, brown, stiff structure, terminating 
at its proximal end in a coil of four or five turns within the body 
wall (fig. 40, /). The four jaws are similar, the lower pieces each 
with about 18 low, lateral teeth in addition to the main fang (fig. 
40, e). Elytra are pale, translucent, smooth. They are orbicular 
along their anterior and median sides, but along their posterolateral 
margin they are turned up so as to form a pouch, open dorsally. 

PoJynoe viutilata was taken from the same station, at the same 
time, as was Eupanthalis oahuensis. The two appear to be identical. 
The former name is being retained because its type is extant. 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 125 

EUPANTHALIS MACULOSA (Treadwell), new combination 

Macellicephala maculosa Treadwell, 1931, p. 313 (U.S.N.M. no. 19543, Philip- 
pine Islands). 

The type is a fragment of 64 segments; a posterior piece is lack- 
ing. Its setal, prostomial, and parapodial structures align it with 
the Polyodontidae. The body is long, vermiform. Eyes are sessile ; 
lateral antennae are inserted terminally, and the median antenna is 
near the posterior margin of the prostomium. Parapodia are pro- 
vided with glandular fibers. In these respects it agrees with 
Eupanthalis. 

Genus POLYODONTES Renier 

POLYODONTES OCULEA (Treadwell) 

Panthalis octilea Treadwell. 1902, p. 188 (U.S.N.M. no. 15961, West Indies). 
Polyodontes oculea Monro, 1928, p. 572. 

This species has been redescribed and assigned to tliis genus by 
Monro. Treadwell's illustration of the length of lateral prostomial 
antennae is practically as in the specimen; hence these appendages 
are notably longer than those in Monro's specimens. The absence of 
penicillate setae and the presence of a prostomial caruncle are char- 
acteristic of the type. 

Genus EUPOLYODONTES Buchanan 

EIJPOLYODONTES ELONGATA (Treadwell), new combination 

Figure 41, a-d 

Iphionella elongata, Treadwell, 1931, p. 315 (U.S.N.M. no. 19544, Philippine 
Islands). 

The prostomium consists of two rounded lobes separated by a 
median depression. Each half has a large anterior eye directed 
anteriorly and a smaller dorsolateral eye on the posterior half of 
the lobe (fig. 41, a). Paired antennae are inserted terminally; they 
are long, slender, with a slight subterminal enlargement (fig. 41, a). 
No nuchal tentacle or papilla has been distinguished. First segment 
(peristomial) is apparently without setae. 

Elytra are broadly orbicular, with a shallow indentation near the 
anteroectal margin; the margin is entire but slightly ruffled along 
the median or also the outer edges; the point of insertion is far to 
the side (fig. 41, h). Elytrophores are present as follows: On 2 
(first setigerous segment), 4, 5, 7, 9, . . . and on all alternate seg- 
ments at least to 43. 



126 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL jVIUSEUIM 



VOL. 86 



The lateral extensions of the jaw pieces ha^-e teeth as follows: 4 
above and 5 below on the right side, and 5 above and 4 below on the left 
side. Setae are of 3 kinds (description based on a 10th parapodium) ; 
A superior fan-shaped fascicle of 30-35 long, pointed serrulated setae 
and a similar fascicle in the inferior part of the nenropodium, (2) 
an anterior fan-shaped fascicle of finer, shorter bristled capillaries 
(fig. 41, d) in front of the serrulated setae, and (3) about 8 stout, 
aristate spines (fig. 41, c) in a posterior series. No plumose setae 
have been observed. 




PiGCRE 41. EUPOLTODON'TES ELONGATA (TroadweU) 

a, Pro.stomium in dorsal view with left lateral antenna turned unnaturally to right, X 45 ; 
h, eleventh right elytron in dorsal vii-w. clytral scar indicated in dotted outline, X 28 ; 
c, tip of stout aristate seta from tenth parapodium, the distal style probably lost, 
X 294 ; d, tip of slender capillary seta in anterior fascicle from tenth parapodium, 
X 294. 

Genus PANTHALIS Kinberg 

PANTHALIS ADUMBRATA Hoagland 

Panthalis adumhnita Hoagland, lt»20, p. 606 (U.S.N.M. no. 18944, Philippine 

Islands). 
PanthaUs helhri Holly. 1934, p. 148 (Philippine Islands). 

The description of P. helhri compares favorably with that of P. 
ad^unhrata. Holly has given good illustrations of the characteristic 
elytra as well as the setae. 

PANTHALIS PANAMENSIS Chamberlin 



PanthaUs panaiticnsis Chamberlin, 1919, p. 86 (U.S.N.M. no. 19431, Panama). 

This species resembles P. adiimhrata in having stalked ommato- 
phores. It is smaller, however, probably less than 50 mm long; the 
elytra lack the black edges, and the prostomium is widest in the 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 127 

posterior half instead of having its sides ahnost parallel as in P. 
adumhrata. The jaw pieces of P. panamensis have 5 erect lateral 
teeth, those of P. adumhrata have 7 blunt teeth. 

PANTHALIS EVANIDA (Treadwell), new combination 

Eupanthalis evanida Tkeadweix, 1926, p. 186 (U.S.N.M. no. 19208, Philippine 
Islands). 

This species has globular ommatophores as characteristic of the 
genus Panthalis. Parapodial glands are present from the eighth 
setigerous segment as in P. oersfedi Kinberg. The two may be 
identical. 

Family APHRODITIDAE 

Genus HERMIONE Blainville 

HERMIONE TROPICUS (Treadwell), new combination 

Melaenis tropicus Treadwell, 1934, p. 1 (U.S.N.M. no. 20031, Virgin Islands). 

This was originally described as a polynoid, but the type has the 
characteristic features of the genus Hermione^ of the family Aphro- 
ditidae. It is colorless except for the pale amber, stout spines. 
There are 15 pairs of soft, imbricated scales ; ventral setae are distally 
falcate, laterally with a few stout teeth ; notopodial setae include some 
barbed, arrow-headed. The prostomium has a single median antenna 
and a pair of anterior peduncled eyes. These are indicated in the 
original figure as the bases of a pair of lateral tentacles. 



LIST OF TYPES OF POLYNOIDAE AND POLYODONTIDAE IN THE 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, WITH CHANGES OF NAME 
AND NEW COMBINATIONS 

(Bibliographic source, Museum catalogue number, and type locality are given 
for ready reference. Synonyms are enclosed in brackets. Species discussed 
in the first part of this paper are followed by an asterisk.) 

AdmetrUa dolirhopuii Chamherlin (1919a, p. 67, pi. 10. fig. 1; U.S.N.M. no. 

19325; western Mexico). 
Admetella hastigerem Chamberlin (1919a, p. 64, pi. 9, figs. 6-8; U.S.N.M. no. 

19326; Central America). 
Admetella rcnotuhulata, new combination, for Polynoe renotubulata Moore.* 
Anthior onoculata Moore (1910, p. S-aS, pi. 30, figs. 34-40; U.S.N.M. no. 16882; 

California). 
Antinoe macrolepidia Moobe (1905, p. 538, pi. 35, figs. 21-23 ; U.S.N.M. no. 5509 ; 

Alaska). 
Arctonoc tuhcrculata, new combination, for ffartjiothoe tuberculata Treadwell.* 
Enipo cirrata Treadwell (1925, p. 1, figs. 1-4; U.S.N.M. no. 19139; Alaska).* 
Enipo gracilis Verrill (1874, p. 407, pi. 5, fig. 3; Maine). 
Eunoe (?) crassa, new combination, for Lagiscn crassa Treadwell.* 
Eunoe drprcs-m Moore (1905. p. 536, pi. 34, figs. 17, 18; pi. 35, figs. 19, 20; 

U.S.N.M. no. .5.'')90: Alaska). 
Eunoe euro Chami'.ert.jn (1910a, p. .58, pi. 3, figs. 2-6; U.S.N.M. no. 19355; 

Peru ) .* 
lEtninr cxocul'itfi Treadwetj,! (1023. p. 4, figs. 1-4; U.S.N.M. no. 19148; Lower 

California). See Harmothoe toiedricosa.* 
Eunor spinnlosa Vekrill (1879, p. 169; U.S.N.M. no. 7758; Nova Scotia). 
[Eupanfhalis cvanida Treadwell] (1926, p. 186, fig-S. 6-12; U.S.N.M. no. 19208). 

See Panthalis evanida.* 
Eupanthalis mutiluta, now combination, for Polynoe mutilnta Treadwell.* 
Euphione chitoni formic (Moore) ; includes Lepidonotus chitoniformis and pos- 
sibly L. bnnichifenis Moore.* 
EupolyodontcH clongnta, new combination, for Iphionella elongata Treadwell.* 
[Evaniclla trimacuhtta Treadwell] (1924, p. 6, figs. 1-3; U.S.N.M. no. 20326; 

Barbados). See Hannothoc trimaculaia* 
Gattyatm scnta Moore (1902, p. 2.59, pi. 13, figs. 1-13; U.S.N.M. no. 5598; Alaska). 
[Halosydna fuscn-maculata Treiadwell] (1924, p. 5, figs. 5-9; U.S.N.M. no. 

20.3.30; Barbados). i>oe H'llosydtieUa fusca-tnaculata.* 
[Halosydna fusconiarginata Treadwell] (1924, in explanation of figures). See 

Ilalnsifdnella fiisca-maciilata* 
[Halosydna grisra Treadwell] (1929, p. 1, figs. 1-6; U.S.N.M. no. 19279; Argen- 
tina). See HalosydncUa grisea.* 
Halosydna nebtilosa Grube (1877, p. 49; China) ; includes Halosydna vexillarius 

Moore (see Seidler, 1924, p. 110). 
[Halosydna vexillarius Moore] (1903, p. 415, pi. 23, figs. 13-15; U.S.N.M. no. 

15730; Japan). See Halosydna nebnlosa. 
Halosydnclla fusca-marginata, new combination, for Halosydna fusca-marginata 

Treadwell.* 
128 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 129 

Halosydnella grlsca, new combination, for Halosydiia grisea Treadwell.* 
Halosydnella oculata, new combination, for HaJosijdna oculata Treadwell.* 
Earmopsidcs natans Chamberlin (1919a, p. 48, pi. 6, figs. 1-5; U.S.N.M. no. 

19720; Peru). 
Harmothoe aculeata Andrews (1891, p. 278, pi. 12, figs. 1-5; U.S.N.M. no. 4876; 

North Carolina). 
[Harmothoe (Euiioe) coeca Moobe] (1910, p. 338, pi. 28, figs. 7-12; U.S.N.M. no. 

17476; California). See Intoshella coeca* 
Harmothoe (Evarne) fracjiUs Mooke (1910, p. 353, pi. 29, figs. 29, 30; pi. 30, figs. 

31-33; U.S.N.M. no. 17147: California). 
[Harmothoe levis Treadwell] (1937a, p. 26, figs. 1-5; U.S.N.M. no. 20222; 

Greenland). See Harmothoe imiricata.* 
Harmothoe mexicana Chamberun (1919a, p. 54, pi. 1, figs. 1-9; pi. 2, fig. 1; 

U.S.N.M. no. 19370; western Mexico). 
Harmothoe scriptoria Moobe (1910, p. 344, pi. 28, figs. 13-17; U.S.N.M. no. 17156; 

California ) . 
Harmothoe tevehricosa Moore (1910, p. S51, pi. 29, figs. 23-28; U.S.N.M. no. 

16877; California).* 
Harmothoe triavnulata Moore (1910, p. 346, pi. 29, figs. 18-22; U.S.N.M. no. 

17154; California). 
Harmothoe trimacnlat a, new combination, for Evarnella trimaculata Treadwell.* 
[Harmothoe tuberculata Treadweljl] (1906, p. 11-54; U.S.N.M. no. 5205; Ha- 
waiian Islands). See Arctonoe tuberculata.* 
Harmothoe villosa Treadwell (1926, p. 10, pi. 2, figs. 14-18; U.S.N.M. no. 19190; 

Samoa).* 
Hololepida magna Moore (1905, p. 541, pi. 35, figs. 24-29; U.S.N.M. no. 5521; 

Alaska ) . 
[Hylosijnda carinata Moore] (1903, p. 417; pi. 23, figs. 16, 17; U.S.N.M. no. 

15732; Japan). See Hi/pcr]ialosijd)w striata* 
Hgperhalosydna striata (Kineerg) (1855, p. 384; Australia); includes Hylo- 

synda carinata Moore.* 
Intoshella coeca, new combination, for Harmothoe (Eiinoe) coeca Moore.* 
Iphione fnstis Hoagland (1920, p. 605, pi. 46, figs. 4-8; U.S.N.M. no. 18941; 

Philippine Islands).* 
[Iphionella elongata Treadwell] (1931, p. 315, fig. 2; U.S.N.M. no. 19544; 

Philippine Islands). See Eupolyodontes elongata.* 
[Lagisea crassa Treadwell] (1924, p. 1, figs. 1-4; U.S.N.M. no. 19101; Chile). 

See Eunoe crassa.* 
Lagisea impatietis Webster (1879b, p. 102, pi. 1, figs. 1-7; U.S.N.M. no. 500; 

New Jersey). 
Lagisea irritans Marenzeller (1904, p. 92, pi. 1; U.S.N.M. no. 5231; mid-Pacific). 
Lagisea lamellifera (Marenzeller) (1879, p. 115, pi. 1, fig. 5; Japan) ; includes 

Lagisea multisetosa papillata Moore (see Moore, 1910, p. 341). 
[Lagisea multisetosa papillata Moore] (1908, p. 335; U.S.N.M. no. 5642; Alaska). 

See Lagisea lamellifera. 
Lepidametria commensalis Webster (1879a, p. 210, pi. 3, figs. 23-31 ; U.S.N.M. 

no. 521 ; Virginia ) . 
Lepidasthenia alba, new combination, for Polynoc alba Treadwell.* 
Lepidasthenia curia Chambeelin (1919a, p. 61, pi. 5, figs. 4-9; U.S.N.M. no. 

19399 ; western Mexico ) . 
Lepidasthenia interrupta (Marenzeller) (1902, p. 570, pi. 1, fig. 2; Japan); 

includes Polynoe semierma Moore and Lepidasthenia oeellata Treadwell.* 
Lepidasthenia lucida, new combination, for Polynoe, lueida Treadwell.* 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

[Lepidastheiua ocellata Trkadwell] (1936, p. 264, fig. IS; U.S.N.M. no. 20113; 

China). See L. mtcrrupta* 
[Lepidonotus bramhiferns Moore] (1903, p. 409. pi. 23, figs. 7-9; U.S.N.M. no. 

15721; Japan). See Eiiphiove chUoniformis.* 
Lepidonotus caeloriis Moore (1903, p. 412, pi. 23, fig. 13; U.S.N.M. no. 15733; 

Japan) ; includes PoJynoc spicula, Lepidonotus minutus, and possibly L. 

castrwnsis Seidler.* 
[Lepidonotus chito)nfornu.s Moore] (1903. p. 405. pi. 23, figs. 10, 11; U.S.N.M. 

no. 15646; Japan). See Euphione chitonifonnis.* 
Lepidonotus heloti/pus Gui'se (1877, p. 49: China) ; includes L. roiustus Moore.* 
[Lepidonotus tninutus Treadweix] (1936, p. 262. fig. IS; U.S.N.M. no. 20112; 

China). See L. caelorus* 
Lepidonotus nesophilus Chamberijn (1919a, p. 75, pi. 4, figs. 1-7; pi. 5, fig. 13; 

U.S.N.M. no. 19400; Galapagos Island). 
[Lepidonotus robustus Moore] (1905, p. 544, pi. 36, figs. 32-35; U.S.N.M. no. 

5523; Alaska). See L. helotypus.* 
Lepidonotus raridhilis Webster (1879, p. 205; pi. 1, figs. 6-11; pi. 2, figs. 12-14; 

U.S.N.M. no. 431; Virginia). 
MnecUiccphala (?) aricuhita, now combination, for PoJynoc aciculnta Moore.* 
[MaccUicephala maculosa TrkadweixJ (1931, p. 313, fig. 1 ; U.S.N.M. 19543; Philip- 
pine Islands). See Eupanthalis maculosa* 
MaccUicephala rcmigata, new combination, for Polynoe remigata Moore.* 
Malmyrenia nesiotcs, new combination, for Polynoe nesiotcs Chamberlin.* 
[Melaenis tropicus Tril\d\vkxi.] (1934, p. 1, pi. 1, figs. 1-6; U.S.N.M. no. 20031; 

Virgin Islands). See Ilcrmione tropicus.* 
Nemidin microlcpida M(Wre (1010. p. 3G2, pi. 30. figs. 42-44, pi. 31, figs. 45, 46; 

U.S.N.M. no. 17113; California). 
Panthalis adumhrota Hoagland (1920, p. GOG, pi. 46, figs. 9-14 ; U.S.N.M. no. 18944 ; 

Philippine Islands).* 
Panthalis cvanida, new combination, for Eupanthalis evanida Treadwell.* 
[Panthalis oculca Tre.\dwelt.] (1902, p. 188, figs. 14-18; U.S.N.M. no. 15961; 

Porto Rico). See Polyodontes oculca* 
Panthalis panamensis CnAMBE3U.iN (1919a, p. 86, pi. 11, figs. 4-8; U.S.N.M. no. 

19431; Panama).* 
Plotolepis nans Chamherun (1919a, p. 40, pi. 7, figs. 3, 4; U.S.NM. no. 19453; 

Easter Islands). 
Podarmus ploa Chamheklin (1919a, p. 45, pi. 6, fig. 6, pi. 7, figs. 1, 2; U.S.N.M. 

no. 19458; Easter Island). 
[Polynoe aciculata Moore] (1910, p. 367, pi. 31, figs. 57, 58; U.S.N.M. no. 17405; 

California), iiee ilacellicephala (?) aciculata.* 
[Polynoe alba Treadwei.l] (1906, p. 1149, figs. 4-6; U.S.N.M. no. 5201; Hawaiian 

Islands). See Lcpidasthcnia oZ&«.* 
[Polynoe branchiata Tkeadweu.] (1902, p. 186, figs. 5-7; U.S.N.M. 10006; Porto 

Rico) is identical with Chaetacanthus magnificus (Grube) (see Seidler, 1924, 

p. 97). 
Polynoe (?) fllamentosa Moore (1910, p. 366, pi. 31, figs. 52-56; U.S.N.M. no, 

17221; California).* 
Polynoe (?) innatans CHAMBEajLiN (1919a, p. 70, pi. 8, figs. 1-7; U.S.N.M. no. 

19459; near the Galapagos Islands).* 
[Polynoe lucida Tee.\dwell] (1906, p. 1150, figs. S-10; U.S.N.M. no. 5202; 

Hawaiian Islands). See Lcpidasthcnia lucida.* 
[Polynoe mutilata Treadwell] (190(), p. 1152, figs. 12-15; U.S.N.M. no. 5204; 

Hawaiian Islands). See Eupanthalis mutilata.* 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS — HARTMAN 131 

[Polynoe nesiotes Chambeklin] (1919a, p. 72, pi. 8, fig. 8, pi. 9, figs. 1-5; U.S.N.M. 

no. 19460; Lower California). See Malmgrenia, vesiotes.* 
{Polynoe nodosa Tkeadwell] (1902, p. 187, figs. 8, 9; U.S.N.M. no. 16014; Porto 

Rico) is identical with Hcrmenia verruculosa (Grube) (see Augener, 1925, 

p. 4, for synonymy). 
[Polynoe remigata Moore] (1910, p. 365, pi. 31, figs. 47-51; U.S.N.M. no. 17220; 

California). See Macellicephala remigata.* 
[Polynoe renotuhulata Moore] (1910, p. 368, pi. 31, figs. 59-64 ; U.S.N.M. no. 16878; 

California). See Admetella renotubulata.* 
[Polynoe semierma Moore] (1903, p. 402; pi. 23, figs. 2, 3; U.S.N.M. no. 15738; 

Japan). See Lepidasthenia interrupta.* 
[Polynoe spicula Treadweu.] (1906, p. 1151, fig. 11; U.S.N.M. no. 5203; Cali- 
fornia). See Lepidonotus caelorus* 
Scalisetosus formosus Mooeb (1903, p. 403, pi. 23, figs. 4-6; U.S.N.M. no. 16165; 

Japan).* 

LITERATURE CITED 

Andrbtws, Ethan Allen. 

1891. Report upon the Annelida Polychaeta of Beaufort, North Carolina. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, pp. 277-302, 7 pis. 
Augener, Hermann. 

1922. Revision der Australischen Polychaeten-Typen von Kinberg. Arkiv 

Zool. Stockholm, vol. 14, pp. 1-42. 

1925. tj'ber westindische und einige andere Polychaeten-Typen von Grube 
(Oersted) Kr0yer, Morch und Schmarda. Publ. Univ. Zool. Mus. 
K0benhavn, no. 39, 47 pp.. 3 figs. 

1927. Polychaeten von Siidost- und Siid-Australien (Papers from Dr. Th. 
Mortensen's Pacific Expedition 1914-16, no. 38). Vid. Medd. Dansk 
Nat. Foren. K0benhavn, vol. 83, pp. 71-275, 17 figs. 
Baird, William. 

1863. Descriptions of several new species of worms belonging to the An- 
nelida Errautia and Sedentaria or Tubicola of Milne-Edwards. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, pp. 106-110. 

1865. Contributions towards a monograph of the species of Annelides be- 
longing to the Aphroditacea, containing a list of the known species, 
and a description of some new species contained in the national 
collection of the British Museum. Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 
8, pp. 172-202. 
Berkeley, Edith. 

1923. Polychaetous annelids from the Nanaimo district. Pt. 1. Syllidae to 

Sigalionidae. Contr. Can. Biol., new ser., vol. 1, pp. 203-218, 1 pi. 
Berkeley, E. and C. 

1935. Some notes on the polychaetous annelids of Elkhorn Slough, Monterey 
Bay, California. Amer. Midi. Nat., vol. 16, pp. 766-775. 
Chambeislin, Ralph Vary. 

1919a. The Annelida Polychaeta. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 48, 514 pp., 

80 pis. 
1919b. New polychaetous annelids from Laguna Beach, California. Journ. 

Ent. and Zool., Pomona College, vol. 11, pp. 1-23. 
1920. The polychaetes collected by the Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-18. 
Rep. Can. Arctic Exped., vol. 9, pt. B, 41 pp., 6 pis. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

DlTl^SEN, Hjalmab. 

1917. Annelids, I. The Danish Ingolf-Hxpedition, vol. 4, pt. 4, pp. 1-71, 24 
figs., 6 pis. 

ESSENBEBG, CHRISTINE. 

1917. Description of some new species of Polynoidae from the coast of 
California. Univ. California Publ. Zool., vol. 18, pp. 45-60, 2 pis. 
Fauvel, Piekke. 

1923. Polychetes errantes. Faune de France, vol. 5, 488 pp., 181 figs. 
Gbube, Adolph Eduard. 

1855. Beschreibuugen neuer oder wenig bekannter Anneliden. Arch. Naturg., 

Jahrg. 21, Band 1, pp. 81-136, 3 pis. 
1857. Annulata Orstediana. Vid. Medd. Dansk Nat. Foren. K0benhavn, 
1856, pp. 44-62. 

1876. Bemerkungen iiber die Familie der Aphroditeen (Gruppe Polynoina, 

Acoetea, Polylepidea). 53ter Jahresber. Schles. Ges. fiir vaterl. 
Cultur (1875), pp. 46-72. 

1877. Uber eine Sammlung von wirbelloson Seethioren, welche Herr Dr. 

Eiigon Reimann dem hiesigen zoologischen Museum zum Gesclienk 
gemacht. 54ter Jahresber. Schles. Ges. fiir vaterl. Cultur (1876), 
pp. 48-51. 
Hamilton, Wiu.iam Ferguson. 

1915. On two new polynoids from Laguna. Journ. Ent. and Zool., Pomona 
College, vol. 7, pp. 234-240, 2 pis. 
HoAGL.\ND, Ruth Agnes. 

1920. Polychaetous annelids collected by the United States Fisheries steamer 
Albatro'^s during the Philippine Expedition of 1907-1909. U. S. Nat 
Mus. Bull. 100, vol. 1, pp. 603-634, 7 pis. 
Holly, Maximilian. 

1934. PolychJlten von den Philippinen, I. Erste Mitteilung iiber Polychiiten. 
Z<jol. Anz., vol. 105, pp. 147-150, 2 figs. 

HORST. RUTGER. 

1922. On some polychaetous annelids from Curacao. Bijdr. Dierk. Amster- 
dam, vol. 22, pp. 193-201, 2 figs. 
Johnson, Herbert Parlin. 

1897. A preliminary account of the marine annelids of the Pacific coast, 
with descriptions of new species. Pt. 1 : The Euphrosynidae, 
Amphinomidae, Palmyridae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae. Proc. 
California Acad. Sci., ser. 3, Zool., vol. 1, pp. 153-198, G pis. 

KiNBERG, JOHAN GUSTAF Hj.VLMAR. 

1855. Nya sliigen och arter af Anuelider. Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh., vol. 12, 

pp. 381-388. 
Malmgren, Anders Johan. 

1865. Nordiska Hafs-Annulater. 5fv. Vet.-Akad. Forh., vol. 22, pp. 51- 

110, 8 pis. 
Mare:nzeller. Emil von. 

1879. Siidjapanische Anneliden, I. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 41, 

pt. 2. pp. 109-154, 6 pis. 
1902. Siidjapanische Anneliden, HI : Aphroditea, Eunicea. Denkschr. 

Akad. Wiss. Wien. vol. 72, pp. 563-582, 3 pis. 
1904. Lnffisca irritaus, sp. nov.. ein Symbiont von Hydrokorallen. Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., vol. 43, pj). 91-94, 1 pi. 



TYPES OF POLYCHAETE WORMS HARTMAN 133 

McIntosh, Wilijam Cakmichael. 

1885. Report on the Annelida Polychaeta collected by H. M. S. Challenger 
during the years 1873-76. Challenger Reports, Zool., vol. 12, 
xxxvi+554 pp., 94 pis. 
Monro, Charles Cakmichael Arthur. 

1928. Polychaeta of the families Polynoidae and Acoetidae from the vicin- 
ity of the Panama Canal, collected by Dr. C. Crossland and Dr. Th, 
Mortensen. Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 36, pp. 553-576, 30 figs. 

1986. Polychaeta worms, II. Discovery Reports, vol. 12, pp. 59-198, 34 figs. 
Moore, John Percy. 

1902. Descriptions of some new Polynoidae, with a list of other Polychaeta 
from north Greenland waters. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 54, pp. 258-283, 2 pis. 

1908. Polychaeta from the coastal slope of Japan and from Kamchatka and 
Bering Sea. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 55, pp. 401-490, 
5 pis. 

1905. New species of Polychaeta from the North Pacific, chiefly from Alaskan 

waters. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 57, pp. 525-554, 3 pis. 
1908. Some polychaetous annelids of the northern Pacific coast of North 
America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 60, pp. 321-364, 
4 figs. 
1910. The polychaetous annelids dredged by the U. S. S. Albatross off the 
coast of southern California in 1904 : 2, Polynoidae, Aphroditidae 
and Sigaleonidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 62, pp. 
328-402, 6 pis. 
Seidler, Hans J. 

1922. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Polynoiden, I. Zool. Anz., vol. 55, pp. 

74-80. 
1924. Beitrage znr Kenntnis der Polynoiden, I. Arch. Naturg., vol. 89. 

(Abt. A, Heft 11), pp. 1-217, 2 pis. (maps), 22 fig.s. 
Sohmarda, LuBWiG Karl. 

1861. Neue wirbellose Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um 

die Erde 1853-57, vol. 1 : Turbellarien, Rotatorien imd Anneliden, 

pt. 2. 
Treadwell, Louis Aaron. 

1902. The polychaetous annelids of Porto Rico. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 

vol. 20 (for 1900), pt. 2, pp. 181-210, 81 figs. 

1906. Polychaetous annelids of the Hawaiian Islands collected by the 

steamer Albatross in 1902. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 23 (for 
1903), pt. 3, pp. 1145-1181, 81 figs. 
1917. Polychaetous annelids from Florida, Porto Rico, Bermuda, and the 
Bahamas. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 251 (Pap. Dept. Marine 
Biol., vol. 11), pp. 255-272, 3 pis. 

1923. Polychaetous annelids from Lower California with descriptions of 

new species. Amer. Mus. Nov., no. 74, pp. 1-11, 8 figs. 

1924. Polychaetous annelids collected by the Barbados-Antigua Expedition 

from the University of Iowa in 1918. Univ. Iowa Studies in Nat, 
Hist., vol. 10, no. 4, 23 pp., 2 pis. 

1925. A list of the annelids collected by Captain R. A. Bartlett in Alaska, 

1924, with a description of a new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 67, art. 29, 3 pp., 4 figs. 

1926. Polychaetous annelids from Fiji, Samoa, China, and Japan. Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 69, art. 15, 26 pp., 2 pis. 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Teeadwhx, Louis Aaron — Continued. 

1928. Polychaetous annelids from the Arcttirus Oceanographic Expedition. 

Zoologica, vol. 8, pp. 449-185, 69 figs. 

1929. Two new species of polychaetous annelids from the Argentine coast. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 75, art. 26, 5 pp., 12 figs. 

1931. Four new species of polychaetous annelids collected by the United 
States Fisheries steamer Albatross during the Philippine Expedi- 
tion of 1907-1910. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 100, vol. 6, pt. 5, pp. 313- 
321, 4 figs. 

1934. New polychaetous annelids. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 91, no. 8, 
9 pp., 2 pis. 

1936. Polychaetous annelids from Amoy, China. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
83, pp. 261-279, 3 figs. 

1937a. Polychaetous annelids collected by Captain Robert A. Bartlett in 
Greenland, Fox Basin, and Labrador. Journ. Washington Acad. 
Sci., vol. 27, pp. 2a-36, 16 figs. 

1937b. Polychaetous annelids from the west coast of Lower California, the 
Gulf of California and Clarion Island. Zoologica, vol. 22, pp. 1.39- 
160, 2 pis. 
Vehrill, Addison Emoey. 

1874. Results of recent dredging expeditions on the coast of New England. 
Nos. 6 and 7. Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 3, vol. 7, pp. 405-414, 498- 
506, 3 figs., 5 pis. 

1879. Notice of recent additions to the marine Invertcbrata, of the north- 
eastern coast of America, with descriptions of new genera and 
species and critical remarks on others, pt. I. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 2, pp. 165-205. 
Webstehi, Harrison Edwin. 

1879a. Annelida Chaetopoda of the Virginian coast. Tran.s. Albany lust., 
vol. 9, pp. 202-269, 11 pis. 

lS79b. Annelida Chaetopoda of New Jer.sey. 32d Ann. Rep. New York State 
Mus. Nat. Hist., pp. 101-128, 7 pis. 

18S4. Annelida from Bermuda, collected by G. Brown Goode. U. S. Nat, 
Mus. Bull. 25, pp. 30.1-327, 6 pis. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1938 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



by the 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

i^ ,:-■-■-—;■■... ■::- : ■■■ : — : ': r -- — ... . ... - . 

Vol. 86 Washington : 1938 No. 3047 

L 

REVIEW OF THE FISHES OF THE GENEEA POLYIPNUS 
AND ARGYROPELECUS (FAMILY STERNOPTICHIDAE),i 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES 



By Leonard P. Schtjltz 



This study is based on the specimens of fishes of the family Stern- 
optichidae in the genera Polyipnus and Argyropelecus in the collec- 
tions of the United States National Museum. The term length 
herein refers to the standard length, or the distance from the tip of 
the snout to the base of the midcaudal fin rays. In the literature 
cited in synonymy, all publications have been examined except papers 
by those authors whose names are preceded by an asterisk (*). 

Drawings for the figures, except figure 42, were made by Jane 
Roller. 

Genus POLYIPNUS Gunther 

Polyipmis Gunthek, Challenger Reports, vol. 22, pt. 57, p. 170, 1887 (P. spinosus 

Gunther). 
Acanthopolyipnus (subg.) Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 85, 

p. 257, 1934 (Polyipmis fraseri Fowler). 

This genus may be recognized by the following characters : A pair 
of diverging spines just in front of the origin of the soft dorsal fin; 
the absence of a dorsal blade; ten abdominal photophores; three 
supra-abdominal photophores; a lateral photophore; three suprapec- 
toral photophores; anal fin undivided. 

Figure 42 shows diagrammatically the positions and names of the 
various series of photophores as used in this paper. 

^ See Gill, 1884, for early history of names in references to this family. 

135 

89001—38 1 



136 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM 




A(7 SuAb PrA 



FiGUKE 42. — Diagrammatic sketch of Polyipnus showing the names applied to the various 
series of photopliores fouD<l in Arijyroiif Iccus nn<l I'oUiiiinus as used in this paper: A, 
Anal organs; Ah, abdominal or;;an8 ; Br, branchlostoiral ortians; Is, or^rans on isthmus; 
L, lateral organ; PoO, postorbital organ; PrA, preanal organs; PrO, preorbital organ; 
PrOp, preopercular organ; BbC, subcaudal organs; 8uA, supra-anal organs; SuAb, 
supra-abdominal organs; SuOp, subopercuiar organ; SuJ', suprupectoral organs. 




Figure 43. — Polyipnua uniapinus, new species : Holotype (U. S. N. M. no. 103153). 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYEOPELECUS — SOHULTZ 137 
POLYIPNUS UNISPINUS, new species 

FiGUEE 43 

Holotype. — ^U.S.N.M. no. 103153, 20.5 mm in standard length, 
Albatross station 5451, latitude 13°22'22'' N., longitude 124°00'48" 
E., depth 380 fathoms, June 5, 1909. 

Paratypes. — Five specimens from the same collection, U.S.N.M. 
no. 103029, 16 to 19 mm. 

Description, — The description is based on the holotype and the 
five paratypes. The counts and measurements given outside the 
parentheses were taken from the holotype, and those inside the 
parentheses were taken from the 5 paratypes, respectively. All 
measurements are expressed in hundredths of the standard length. 
The dorsal fin is preceded by a pair of short diverging spines, the 
number of dorsal soft rays are 12 (11, 12, 11, 12, 12) ; anal rays 14 
(13, 14, 13, 14, 13) ; pelvic fin rays 7 (probably always 7) ; pectoral 
rays 12 (13, — , 13, 15, 13) ; gill rakers on anterior margin of first 
gill arch 4+8 (4+7, 4 + 7, 4+8, 4+7, 4+7) ; abdominal plates al- 
ways 10. The lanterns (fig. 42) always occur in pairs on holotype 
and paratypes in the following numbers : Branchiostegals always 6 ; 
isthmus always 6; abdominals always 10; anals 12 (11, 13, 11, 11, 11), 
the first two or three are much smaller than those that follow and 
usually a trifle above the posterior ones; preanals always 5, the 
first usually smaller than the 4 posterior ones ; suprapectorals always 
3; subcaudals always 4; supra-abdominals always 3; preorbital al- 
ways 1; subopercular always 1; lateral organ always 1, this is a 
small photophore lying above the first preanal organ. Length of 
head 31.6 (32.6, 30.3, 31.6, 30.6, 31.2) ; length of snout 7.8 (8.6, 8.3, 
7.9, 7.1, 8.7) ; width of bony interorbital 5.9 (5.7, 5.6, 5.3, 5.9, 6.2) ; 
horizontal diameter of eye 15.6 (17.2, 16.7, 15.8, 17.7, 16.9) ; length 
from tip of snout to rear margin of maxillary 21.0 (24.2, 23.4, 22.6, 
21.2, 21.9) ; length from snout to origin of soft dorsal 56.2 (57.2, 55.6, 
60.5, 54.7, 52.0) ; greatest depth of body 48.8 (51.5, 50.0, 48.4, 53.0, 
50.0) ; least depth of caudal peduncle 10.3 (9.7, 11.1, 10.5, 11.2, 11.3) ; 
length of caudal peduncle 19.5 (17.2, 22.2, 21.2, 22.9, 18.8) ; length of 
longest gill raker on first gill arch 7.8 (8.6, 8.3, 7.9, 8.8, 7.5) ; length 
of abdomen 39.1 (34.3, 38.9, 33.2, 38.1, 34.4) ; distance from origin of 
soft dorsal to base of caudal fin rays 44.0 (45.7, 47.3, 47.4, 47.1, 43.7) ; 
length of the posttemporal (nuchal) process measured from nape to 
posterior tip of the spine 22.0 (24.0, 23.4, 21.2, 20.6, 21.9). 

Remarks. — This new species differs from all other members of the 
genus Polyipnus that lack the supra-anal organs by the single post- 
temporal spine without serrations below and the fewer gill rakers, 
4+7 or 8 instead of 7 to 10+12 to 18. The following synoptic 
key, based upon specimens in the United States National Museum, 



138 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



should enable the reader to distmguish each species referred to the 
genus Polyipnus. Table 1 presents comparative data on the several 
species of the genus. 
The name unispinus refers to the single long posttemporal spine. 

Table 1. — Counts made on various species of Polyipnus 





Dorsal soft rays 


Anal rays ' 


Pectoral rays 




10 11 


12 


13 


14 15 


16 


11 

1 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


12 


13 


14 

1 


15 




1 ... 
















3 
4 

1 


4 . 












2 


4 


1 


1 
1 
1 


5 
3 
3 






2 










3 


3 

1 


2 

4 


1 






6 

1 


1 ... 








4 


5 


1 
6 


2 






4 1 
1 ... 










1 




















1 






1 






. 3 


















3 






2 


































Gill rftkers on first gill arch 


Species 


1^ a 

+ - 


- + 


o 
+ 


+ 


+ + 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 

00 


+ 

00 


+ 

00 


+ 

00 


+ 


00 

+ 
o> 














1 ... 






















. 1 


1 


2 






3 














4 


2 ... 






























1 1 


. 1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


.... 


2 
2 


1 

3 


1 


1 


1 


1 




























1 














1 




3 . 


























































Total gill rakers on first gill arch 


Photopbores in the anal series 




11 12 1 


3 14 1 


5 16 17 


18 19 2 
.. 1 . 


21 2 


2 235 


4 25 


26 27 


4 
1 . 


5 6 


7 f 


9 1 


11 1 


2 13 


14 


IS 
















. 1 


1 5. 












. 5 
. 4 


2 .. 
1 1 
1 4 


3 






4 2 . 






























.. 1 


1 .. 
. 1 . 


1 3 
- 3 


2 1 
3 


1 S 










a 


















6 




























. 1 


2 .. 


-- 








. 1 


13.. 


















J •}. 





































I All rudiments counted as one ray. 



> Data from Carman, 1899, and Parr, 1937. 



POLYIPNUS ASTEROIDES, new species 

Figure 44 

Polyipnus latematus Norman, Discovery Reports, vol. 2, p. 305, fig. 14, 1930. — 
JE8PERSE2J, in Joubin, Fauue ichthyologique de I'Atlantique nord. No. 15, 
1934.— Fowler, Bull. Amer. Miis. Nat. Hist., vol. 70, no. 2, p. 1206, 1936. 

Holotijpe.—U.S.l^M. no. 102979, 39.5 mm in standard length, 
First Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-sea Expedition, 1933, tin tag no. 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYROPELECUS — SCHULTZ 139 



440, station 81, latitude 18°29'45'' N., longitude 65°25'50" W., to 
latitude 18°35'30'' K, longitude 65°23'54" W., depth 200 to 400 
fathoms, February 26, 1933. 

Paratypes. — U.S.N.M. no. 102978, 4 specimens, lengths 26 to 
39.5 mm, collected by the First Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-sea Ex- 
pedition, 1933, tin tag no. 516, station 83, latitude 18°32'54'' N., longi- 
tude 65°23'42" W., to latitude 18°32'15" N., longitude 65°18'45'' W., 
depth 250 to 320 fathoms, February 26, 1933. U.S.N.M. no. 
86131, length 20 mm, Grampus station 10482, Gulf of Mexico, depth 
500 to meters, March 23, 1917 (this specimen is in such poor con- 
dition that measurements and certain counts were not made). 

Description. — The description is based on the holotype and the 
five paratypes. The counts and measurements given outside the 
parentheses were taken from the holotype and those inside the paren- 









FiGUEB 44. — Polylpnua asteroides, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. no. 102979). 

theses, representing the minimum and maximum, were taken from 
the paratypes. All measurements are expressed in hundredths of 
the standard length. Standard lengths 39.5 (26 to 39.5 mm) ; the 
number of dorsal soft rays are 14 (12 to 15) ; anal rays 16 (17) ; 
pelvic fin rays 7 (7) ; pectoral fin rays 14 (14 to 15) ; gill rakers on 
anterior margin of first gill arch 8+16 (7+14 to 16-8+15 to 16) ; 
abdominal plates 10 (10). 

The lanterns occur as follows: Branchiostegals always 6; isthmus 
always 6; abdominals always 10; anals 9 (9); preanals always 5; 
supra-anals always 3 ; suprapectorals always 3 ; subcaudals always 4 ; 
supra-abdominals always 3; preopercular, postorbital, preorbital, 
subopercular, and lateral organs always 1 each. Length of head 
35.5 (34.2 to 35.5) ; length of snout 8.9 (8.7 to 9.3) ; width of bony 



140 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



interorbital 6.3 (6.6 to 7.2) ; horizontal diameter of eye 16.4 (16.7 
to 17.2) ; length from tip of snout to rear margin of maxillary 29.1 
(29.0 to 30.4) ; length from tip of snout to origin of soft dorsal 55.8 
(52.2 to 57.1) ; greatest depth of body 69.6 (72.2 to 77.8) ; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 11.6 (12.6 to 15.0) ; length of caudal peduncle, 
posterior base of anal to base of middle caudal rays, 11.9 (14.5 to 
16.0) ; length of longest gill raker on first gill arch 10.1 (8.7 to 10.1) ; 
length of abdomen 39.3 (37.7 to 40.0) ; distance from origin of soft 
dorsal to base of caudal fin rays 49.4 (52.2 to 55.8) ; length of base 
of dorsal fin 284 (27.6 and 29.1). 

Remarks. — This species differs from latematus in the number of 
anal photophores, 9 instead of 11 or 12, and in their size and ar- 
rangement. If Parr's (1937, p. 56) figure 22 is correctly drawn, 
then the width of the first three is equal to the width of the last 5 
or 6 anal organs in latematus., but only equal to the last 3% to 4^4 
in asteroides and triphanos; the first supra-abdominal photophore 
extends above the second organ a distance less than its width in 
latematus but more than its width in asteroides; the third supra- 
abdominal organ is only slightly higher than the second, or is even 
with it. 

The name asteroides refers to the starlike photophores. 



"rv- 








Figure 4o. — Polyipnus triphanos, new species: Holotype (U.S.N. M. no. 103027). 

POLYIPNUS TRIPHANOS. new species 

FiGtJBE 45 

Holotype.— V.S.'NM. no. 103027, 20 mm in standard length, 
Albatross station 5368, latitude 13°35'30" N., longitude 121^48' E., 
181 fathoms, February 23, 1909. 



KEVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND AKGYROPELECUS — SCHULTZ 141 

Paratypes. — U.S.N.M. no. 103028, 2 specimens, 1Y.5 and 21.5 mm, 
Albatross station 5500, latitude 8°37'45" N., longitude 124°36'45'' E., 
267 fathoms, August 4, 1909. 

Description. — The description is based on the holotype and the two 
paratypes. Counts and measurements made as in other two new 
species. Standard lengths 20 (17.5 and 21.5 mm) ; the number of 
dorsal soft rays are 12 (12 and 12) ; anal rays 17 (17) ; pelvic fin 
rays probably 7; pectoral fin rays 14 (14) ; gill rakers on anterior 
margin of first gill arch 5 + 9 and 5 + 10 (5 + 11) ; abdominal plates 
10 (10). The lanterns occur as follows: Branchiostegals always 6; 
istlimus always 6; abdominals always 10; anals 9 (8 or 9), the last 
organ usually rudimentary and very small; preanals always 5; 
supra-anals always 3 ; suprapectorals always 3 ; subcaudals always 4 ; 
supra-abdominals always 3; preopercular, postorbital, preorbital, 
subopercular, and lateral organs always 1 each. Length of head 35 
(33.5 and 34.3) ; length of snout 7.5 (6.9 and 7.9) ; width of bony 
interorbital 6.5 (5.7 and 7.0) ; horizontal diameter of eye 17.5 (16.3 
and 17.1) ; length from tip of snout to rear margin of maxillary 29.0 
(28.0 and 28.5) ; length from tip of snout to origin of soft dorsal 
60.0 (52.3 and 57.2) ; greatest depth of body 70.0 (62.9 and 64.0) ; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 14.0 (11.6 and 12.0) ; length of caudal 
peduncle 13.0 (13.1 and 14.0) ; length of longest gill raker on first 
gill arch 10.0 (8.4 and 8.6) ; length of abdomen 42.0 (37.2) ; distance 
from origin of soft dorsal to base of caudal fin rays 54.0 (51.3 and 
51.4) ; length of base of dorsal fin 20.0 (16.3 and 17.1). 

Remarks. — This species differs from laternatus and asteroides in 
the number of gill rakers, 5 + 9 to 11 instead of 7 to 8 + 14 to 16, 
and in the size and arrangement of the photophores. The width of 
the first three anal organs in triphanos equals the width of the last 
3 1/2 to 414 organs, instead of 5 or 6 in laternatus. The second supra- 
abdominal photophore is not in line with the third but is below it 
a distance equal to its width, and the second is below the first a 
distance equal to li/^ to 2 times the width of the first. 

The name triphanos refers to the characteristic position of the 
three supra-abdominal photophores. 

SYNOPSIS OP THE SPECIES OF POLYIPNUS 

a' Minute teeth present on vomer and palatines ; posttemporal process of one 
main spine, which is smooth and shorter than diameter of eye, usually 
not longer than diameter of pupil ; at anterior end of anal series of pho- 
tophores are 3 supra-anal photophores located much above general line of 
anal organs. 
&\ Anal organs 11 or 12; gill rakers on first gill arch about 8+14; vpidth of 
first 3 anal organs equal to width of last 5 or 6 anal organs ; first and 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

third supra-abdominal organs nearly in line, second is slightly below 
them, the distance not more than half width of first. Range: Atlantic 

(West Indies) laternatus Garman, 1899 

6*. Anal organs 7 to 9. 
c\ Gill rakers on first gill arch 7 or 8+14 to 16; width of first 3 anal 
organs equal to width of last 3% to 4Vt anal organs; last or third 
supra-abdominal organ in line with middle organ or only slightly 
above it ; first organ extends above second and third a distance equal 
to 1 or 1^2 times its width. Range: Atlantic (Bahama Islands; Gulf 

of Mexico) asteroides, new species 

c'. Gill rakers on first gill arch 5-f9 to 11; width of first 3 anal organs 
equals width of last 3M> to 4Vt anal organs ; last or third supra-abdom- 
inal organ above middle organ by a distance equal to its width ; first 
organ extends above second organ a distance equal to ly^ to 2 times 

its width. Range : Philippine Islands triphanos, new species 

a*. Minute teeth present on vomer but absent on palatines; at nnterior end of 
anal series of photophores no organ is located high above general line of 
these organs. 
d\ Posttemporal process of 3 spines, the middle one variable in length and 
position, sometimes almost lacking but never longer than upper spine, 
upper spine usually almost straight, pointing backward, variable in 
length, often shorter than diameter of pupil or as long as diameter of 
eye, upper spine alwiiys longer than lower spine, the latter usually 
curved downward. 
e\ Anal photophores about 1'- to 15 in adults ; photophores along ventral 
margin of body usually without definite spaces between the various 
series in large adults, while in smaller fish, between anal and sub- 
caudal series, there may be no space or space may equal width of 1 to 
3 of subcaudal organs, depending on size of specimen. Range : Pacific 
(Japan; Philippines; Celebes Sea; Strait of Macassar; Great Austra- 
lian Bight) ; Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea ?; Gulf of Mexico ?) ; Indian 

Ocean (Andaman Sea; Bay of Bengal) spinosus Giinthor, 1887 

c*. Anal photophores 4 in adults ; photophores along ventral margin of 
body with a definite space between preanal and anal series and an- 
other space between anal and subcaudal series, both spaces equal to 
or greater than length of subcaudal series. Range: Philippine 

Islands fraseri Fowler, 1934 

d'. Posttemporal process of one main spine, which may be smooth or very 
rough, spiny, or toothed below. 
f. Gill rakers on first arch 4-|-7 or 8; main spine of posttemporal process 
long and slender, without any trace of spine below it, length of this 
spine equal to or greater than diameter of pupil ; space between anal 
and subcaudal series of organs less than width of 3 subcaudal organs ; 
anal photophores about 11 to 13. Range : Philippine Islands. 

unispinus, new species 
f. Gill rakers 7 or 8+14 to 16 ; main spine of posttemporal process short 
and heavy, its length less than diameter of pupil ; space between anal 
and subcaudal series of organs greater than width of 3 subcaudal 
organs; anal photophores about 11 or 12. Range: Pacific (Hawaiian 
Islands; south of Minamitori Shima, Marcus Islands). 

nuttingi Gilbert, 1905 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYROPELECUS — SCHULTZ 143 

POLYIPNUS LATERNATUS Garman, 1899 

Pohjipnus latcrnatus Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 24, p. 238, 1899.— 
?Frasee-Bbtjnner, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, vol. 8, p. 218, 1931. — Pabb, 
Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, no. 7, p. 55, fig. 22, 1937. 

POLYIPNUS SPINOSUS Gunther, 1887 

Polyipnus spivosus Gunther, Challenger Reports, vol. 22, p. 170, pi. 51, 1887 
(depth 250 fathoms, station 200 between Philippine Islands and Borneo). — • 
Alcock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 4, p. 398, 1889. — Wood-Mason and 
Alcock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 8, p. 126, 1891. — Goode and Bean, 
Oceanic ichthyology, fig. 148 (reversed fig. of Giinther's fig. of type), 1895. — 
Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, p. 331, 1896. — Alcock, A descrip- 
tive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Museum, p. 138, 
1899.— Bbauek, Tief see-Expedition . . . Valdivia, 1898^1899, vol. 15, p. 120, 
fig. 64 and figs. 65, 66 (V), 1906 (Gulf of Guinea ) .—Weber and Beaufort, 
The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago, vol. 2, p. 130, fig. 47, 1914. — 
Nichols and Bredeb, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 37, p. 21, 1924 
{Grampus station 10482, Gulf of Mexico, lat. 28°52' N., long. 88°36' W., 
depth 500 to meters). — Babnard, Ann. South African Mus., vol. 21, p. 155, 
1925.— Fowler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, vol. 70, p. 240, fig. 112, 1936.— 
Pare, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, no. 7, p. 55, 1937. 

Polyipnus stereope Jordan and Starks, Bull. U. S. Fish Conim., vol. 22 (for 
1902), p. 581, 1904 (type: U. S. N. M. no. 51451; Albatross station 3698, 
Sagami Bay, Japan). — Jordan, Tanaka, and Snyder, Journ. College Sci. 
Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 52, fig. 30, 1913. 

Polyipnus tridentifer McCxjixoch, Biol. Results Fish Expt. F. I. S. Endeavour, 
190&-1914, vol. 2, pt. 3, pp. 78, 87-89, pi. 16, 1914. 

I have examined Jordan and Stark's type of P, stereope and found 
it to agree closely with a sketch of the posttemporal spine of Giin- 
ther's type ; the sketch was kindly furnished by J. R. Norman, of the 
British Museum. 

The following specimens are in the collections of the United States 
National Museum: U.S.N.M. no. 44429, one specimen, length 43 
mm, H. M. S. Investigator, Andaman Sea ; and 52 specimens collected 
by the steamer Albatross, as follows; 

U.S.N.M. no. 1029SO, 2 specimens, lengths 29 and 36 mm, station 4897, Goto 
Islands, latitude 32°33' N., longitude 128°19' E., depth 207 fathoms, August 10, 
1906. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102981, 2 specimens. 39 and 43 mm, station 4913, latitude 
31°39'10" N., longitude 129°22'30" E., 391 fathoms, August 12, 1906. 

U.S.N.M. no. 1029S2, 2 specimens, 52 and 55 mm, station 4967, latitude 
33°25'10" N., longitude 135°37'20" E., 244 fathoms, August 29, 1906. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103036, 2 specimens, 48 and 50 mm, station 5221, latitude 
13°38'15" N., longitude 121°48'15" E., 193 fathoms, April 24, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103039, 1 specimen, bad condition, station 5280, latitude 
13°55'20" N., longitude 120°25'55" E., 193 fathoms, July 17, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103032, 1 specimen, 49 mm, station 5113, latitude 13°51'30" N., 
longitude 120°50'30" E., 159 fathoms, January 17, 190S. 
S9001 — 38 2 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

U.S.N.M. no. 103033. 1 specimen, 37 mm, station 5171, latitude 5° 05' N., 
longitude 119 "28' E., 250 fathoms, February 28, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103034, 1 specimen, 44 mm, station 5179, latitude 12°3S'15" 
N., longitude 122°12'30" E., 37 fathoms, April 9, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103035, 1 specimen, 29 mm, station 5261, latitude 12°30'55" 
N., longitude 121=34'24" E., 56 fathoms, June 4, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103038. 1 specimen, 48 mm. station 5270, latitude 13<'35'45" 
N., longitude 120°58'30" E., 235 fathoms, June 8, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103040, 1 .specimen, 50 mm, station 5281, latitude 13°52'45" 
N., longitude 120°25' E., 201 fathoms, July 18, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103041, 1 specimen, 44 mm, station 5291, latitude 13°29'40" 
N., longitude 121°00'45" E., 173 fathoms, July 23, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103042, 1 specimen, 21 mm, station 5293, latitude 13°28'15" 
N., longitude 121°04'30" E., ISO fathoms, July 23, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103043, 10 .specimens, 10 to 56 mm, station 5363, latitude 13°47'20" 
N., longitude 120°43'30" E., 180 fathoms. February 20, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103044. 1 specimen, 38 mm, station 5374, latitude 13°46'45" 
N., longitude 121''35'0S" E., 180 fathoms, March 2, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 10.3045, 1 specimen. 54 nun, station 53S8, latitude 12°51'30" N., 
longitude 123°20'15" E.. 226 fathoms. March 11, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103046, 3 specimens, 45 to 54 mm, station 5409, latitude 10°38' N., 
longitude- 124''13'08" E., 385 fathoms, March 18, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103047, 1 specimen, 42 mm, station 5419, latitude 9°58'30" 
N., longitude 123°40' E., 175 fathoms, March 25, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103048. 1 specimen, 53 mm, station 5442, latitude 16°30'36" 
N., longitude 120''n'06" E., 45 fathoms, May 10, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103049, 1 specimen, 45 mm, station 5503, latitude 8°36'26" 
N., longitude 124°36'08" E., 226 fathoms, August 4, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103050, 1 spocimon, 65 mm, station .55.';7, latitude 9°11'00" 
N., longitude 123°23'00" E., 2.54 fathoms, August 19, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103051, 3 specimens, 45 to 59 mm, station .5538, latitude 
9°08'15" N., longitude 123°23'20" E., 256 fathom.s, August 19, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103052, 3 specimens, 36 to 43 mm. station 5.563, latitude 
5°48'12" N., longitude 120'30'48" E., 224 fathoms, September 2, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 10.30.53, 1 sperimcn, .34 mm, station 5569, latitude 5''33'15" 
N., longitude 120°15'30" E., 303 fathoms, September 22, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103054. 1 siwcimon. 59 mm. slation 5589, latitude 4°12'10" 
N., longitude 118''38'08" E., 260 fathoms, September 29, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103055, 1 specimen, 63 mm, station 5.590, latitude 4°10'50" 
N.. longitude 118°39'35" E., 310 fathoms, September 29, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103056, 2 specimens, 39 and 40 mm. station 5592, latitude 
4°12'44" N., longitude 118''27'44" E., 305 fathoms, September 29, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103057, 1 specimen, 57 mm, station 5593, latitude 4°02'40" 
N., longitude 118°11'20" E., 38 fathoms, September 29, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103058, 2 specimens, 57 and 63 mm, station 5621, latitude 
0°15'00" N., longitude 127''24'35" E., 298 fathoms, November 28, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103059, 1 specimen, 55 mm. station 5662, latitude 5°43'00" 
S., longitude 119»18'00" E., 211 fathoms, December 21, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103037, 1 .specimen, 50 mm, station 5267, latitude 13°42'20" N., 
longitude 120" 58'25" E., 170 fathoms, June 8, 1908. 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYROPELECUS SCHULTZ 145 

POLYIPNUS FRASERI Fowler, 1934 

Pohjipnus fraseri Fowleb, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 85, p. 257, 
fig. 19, 1934 (type, U. S. N. M. no. 92324, examined by the author).— Paer, 
Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, no. 7, p. 55, 1937. 

The correct catalog number for the type in the United States Na- 
tional Museum is 92324 and not as published. The correct locality 
is Albatross station 5476, which is in latitude 12°56'24'' N., longitude 
124°25'24''' E., and not as published. On Fowler's page 258, second 
paragraph, and fig. 19, p. 254, it is stated in the original description 
"no adipose fin." However, when the type was immersed in alcohol 
the small adipose fin showed up clearly. In fact all the species of 
this genus have a small adipose fin. 

POLYIPNUS NUTTINGI Gilbert, 1905 

Volyipnus nuttingi Gilbert, Biill. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 23 (for 1903), pt. 2, 
p. 609, pi. 73, 1905 (type, U. S. N. M. no. 51599, examined by the author, 
Albatross station 4088, Pailolo Channel between Molokai and Maui, 297 
to 306 fathoms). 

Polyipnus spinosus (non Giinther) Gilbert and Cramer, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 19, p. 416, 1897 (U. S. N. M. no. 51593, cotypes, 33 specimens, 34 to 70 
mm, Albatross station 4102, between Maui and Molokai Islands, Hawaii, 
122 to 132 fathoms, July 23, 1902). 

U. S. N. M. no. 47720, one specimen, 41 mm, Albatross station 
3476, latitude 21°09' N., longitude 157°53' W., December 6, 1891. 

Genus ARGYROPELECUS Cocco 

Argyropelecus *Cocco, Arch. Accad. Peloritano, 1829, p. 146 {A. hemigymnus 

Cocco), 
Pleurothyris *Lowe, A history of the fishes of Madeira, p. 64, 1843 {Stenioptyx 

olfersii Cuvier). 

This genus may be recognized by the following characters: A dis- 
tinct dorsal blade in front of the soft dorsal fin; no pair of spines 
just anterior to the origin of soft dorsal fin; 12 abdominal photo- 
phores; 6 supra-abdominal photophores; the lateral photophore is 
lacking, and 2 suprapectoral photophores ; anal fin divided. 

Argyropelecus elongatus Esmark (1871 p. 489) is too briefly de- 
scribed to be recognized. After examining the very inadequate de- 
scriptions and poor figure of Argyropelecus hocagei (Osorio, 1909, 
pp. 27-28, pi. 2, fig. 3; Seabra, 1911, p. 176; and Nobre, 1935, p. 350) 
I agree with Norman (1930) that it is unrecognizable. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES OF ARGYROPELECUS 

o\ No spine present at posterior end of abdomen below insertion of pelvic fins ; 
photophores forming a nearly continuous series from behind pectoral to 
base of caudal fin ; depth of body 1.8 to 2 and head 3.5 to 3.75 times in 
standard length (tip of snout to base of caudal fin rays) ; preopercle at 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

lower angle with one spine, which is nearly straight or a little curved out- 
ward and directed ventrally and above which is a very small one directed 
outward : greatest height of dorsal blade less than 1 time in base of soft 
dorsal and about 2.2 times in length of its own base. Range: Tropical 

Atlantic, off Africa gig'as Norman, 1930 

a". One or more spines (usually 1 or 2) located at posterior end of abdomen 
below insertion of pelvic tins. 
&\ Photophores forming a nearly continuous series from behind pectoral to 
base of caudal fin; posterior abdominal spines 2, of about equal length 
and directed downward; depth of body 2.2 to 2.6, head 3.2 to 3.5 times 
in standard length; preopercle at lower angle with 1 spine, straight or 
a little curved outward, directed downward, above which is a smaller 
one directed outward but not extending past rear margin of preopercle ; 
height of dorsal blade 2.8 to 3.3 times in length of its base; no subcaudal 
spines; gill rakers 7 or 8 -f 11 or 12. Range: Atlantic (West Indies; 
Caribbean: olT Strait of Gibraltar; southern tip of Africa), Indian 

Ocean affinis Garman, lcS99 

6'. Photophores not forming an almost continuous series but with spaces be- 
tween the various groups as f<jllows: Above insertion of pelvics, over 
first 1 to 3 or 4 anal rays, and anterior portion of caudal peduncle, some- 
times including last few anal rays. 
0^. A single spine at posterior angle of abdomen. 

d'. Abdominal spine serrated and directed backward (often a minute 
spinule above its ba.se posteriorly) ; depth of body 1.7 to 1.9, head 
3.1 to 3.5 times in standard length ; preopercle at lower angle with 
an almost straight .spine directed downward, upper spine directed 
outward and backward, with tip extending past rear margin of 
bone; .subcaudal .spines absent; gill rakers more numerous than in 
any other species, about 9 to 11 + 11 to 14, totaling 20 to 25; dorsal 
soft rays usually 8. Range: Pacific (Hawaiian Islands; Philippine 
I.><lands; New Zealand'.'). Atlantic (West Indies; Bermuda; off 
South Carolina; Mediterranean; Central Atlantic; South Atlantic), 

Indian Ocean hemigymnus Cocco, 1829 

d*. Abdominal .spine smooth and directed downward and usually curved 
a little forward ; depth of body 1.2 to 1.4, head 3.1 to 3.5 times in 
standard length ; preopercle at lower angle with one spine pointing 
straight downward and curved a little outward, the upijer spine 
small, pointing outward, its tip not extending pa.st rear margin of 
preopercular bone; .subcaudal spines present in adults in front of sub- 
caudal organs and below them; gill rakers 7 or 8 + 8 to 10, totaling 
16 or 17; height of dorsal blade 1 to 1.5 times in length of its base; 
dorsal soft rays usually 9. Range : Atlantic (West Indies : Bahamas ; 
off New" Jersey, New York, and Cape Cod), South Pacific (Lord Howe 

Island) amabilis (Ogilby, 1888) 

c^ A pair of smooth spines at posterior angle of abdomen ; gill rakers 
7 to 9+8 to 10. 
e^. Postabdominal spine longer than anterior .spine of pair of abdominal 
spines and directed backward, the two spines diverging at an angle 
of about 90° or a little more; adults with the dorsal and ab- 
dominal ridges serrated ; adults with a double series of spines 
on lower edge of caudal peduncle ; height of dorsal blade 1.3 to 1.5 
in length of its base; lower preopercular spine directed straight 
downward and curved a little outward, upper spine small, its tip 
not extending past rear margin of preopercle. Range: Atlantic 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYROPELECUS SCHULTZ 147 

(off Cape Cod, New Jersey, and Virginia; Grand B'anks; North 
Sea; Gulf of Mexico; West Indies; off Soutli African coast), Indian 
Ocean; Pacific (Philippine Islands). 

aculeatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1850 
e'. Postabdominal spine about equal in length to anterior spine, the two 
spines diverging at an angle of about 45° to 50° ; dorsal and ab- 
dominal ridges smooth; no spines on ventral margin of caudal 
peduncle. 
f. Lower preopercular spine pointing downward, curved slightly for- 
ward 'and outward, the upper very small or absent, its tip not 
extending past rear margin of preopercle in adults; depth of 
body about 1.5 times in standard length; height of dorsal blade 
1 to 1.4 times in length of its base. Range: Pacific (Baja Cali- 
fornia; off Panama), Atlantic (off New Jersey and off South 

Carolina), Indian Ocean olfersii (Cuvier, 1829) 

f. Lower preopercular spine straight, directed downward and often 
a little curved outward but not forward, the upper of moderate 
size, directed outward and backward, its tip extending past 
re-ar margin of preopercular bone ; depth of body 1.3 to 1.7 times 
in standard length; height of dorsal blade 1.7 to 2.3 times in 
length of its base. Range: Pacific (off Panama; Philippines; off 
southern Japan), North and South Atlantic, Antarctic, Indian 
Ocean sladeni Regan, 1908 

ARGYROPELECUS GIGAS Norman, 1930 
Argyropelecvs gigas Norman, Discovery Reiwrts, vol. 2. p. 302, fig. 10, 1930.— 
"jespeksen, hi Joubin, Faune ichthyologique de I'Atlantique nord, no. 15, 
1934.— Fowler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 70, p. 1208, 1936.— Parr, 
Bull Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, p. 49, 1937. 
ARGYROPELECUS AFFINIS Gaiman, 1899 

Argyropelecus hemigymnns (non Cocco) Wood-Mason and Alcock, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 8, p. 126, 1891. 

Argyropelecus hemigymnus (non Cocco) Goode and Bean, Oceanic ichthyology, 
pi. 39, fig. 147, 1895. 

Argyropelecus affinis Gauman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 24, p. 237, 
■i899.._*Brauer, Sitz. Ges. Beford. Naturw. Marburg, 1901, p. 120, fig. 1.— 
Brvuek, Tief see-Expedition . . . Valdivia, vol. 15, p. 103, pi. 7. figs. 1, 2, 
1906.— REGAN, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. 12, p. 218, 1908.— Murray and 
Hjokt, The depths of the ocean, p. 612, pi. 2, 1912.— Jespersen, Report 
on the Danish Oceanographical Expeditions, 1908-1910, vol. 2, A. 2, p. 6, 
1915.— Barnard, Ann. South African Mus., vol. 21, p. 152, pi. 8, fig. 1, 
1925 —Townsend and Nichols, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 52, p. 11, 
1925.— Norman, Discovery Reports, vol. 2, p. 301, fig. 9, 1930.— Roule and 
Angel, Rt^sult. Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 86, p. 46, 1933.--- 
Jespersen. in Joubin, Faune ichthyologique de I'Atlantic nord, no. 15, 
1934._Fowler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 70, p. 246, fig. 115; p. 
1208, 1936.— Parr, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, p. 49, 1937. 

Specimens in the National Museum as follows : 

U.S.N.M. no. 102776, length 39 mm. First Johnson-Smithsonian Deep-sea 
Expedition, 1933, tin tag no. 186, station 33, latitude 18°24'15" N., longitude 
67°17'50" W., to latitude 18°26'40" N., longitude 67°14' W., February 9, 1933, 
180 to 360 fathoms. 



148 PROCEEDIN^GS OF THE ^-ATIOXAL MUSEUM vol.86 

U.S.N.M. no. 10277S, 25 mm, First Johnson-Smithsouian Expedition, 1933, 
tin tag no. 515, station 83, latitude 18°32'54" N., longitude 65°23'42" W., to 
latitude 18°32'15" N., longitude 65°18'45" W., 250 to 320 fathoms, February 26 
1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 44593, 32 mm, Albatross station 2117, latitude 15°24'40" N., 
longitude 63°31'30" W., 683 fathoms, January 27, 1884. 

U.S.N.M. no. 87563, 42 mm, Albatross station 5686, SW. of Abreojos Point, 
26°14' N., 114° W., 930 fathoms, AprU 22, 1911. 

ARGYKOPELECUS HEMIGYMNUS Cocco, 1829 

Argyropclecus hemigymnus *Cocco, Arch. Accad. Peloritano, 1829, p. 146.— 
*Cocco, Giorn. Sci. Lett. Sicilia, vol. 26, fasc. 77, p. 146, 1829.— Cocoo, Isis, 
vol. 24, p. 1342, 1831.— BoNAPAETE, Iconografia della fauna italica per le 
quattro classi degli animali vertebrati, vol. 3, fasc. 28, pi. 121, fig. 3, 1840.— 
CuviER and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 22, p. 398, 
1849.— GiNTHEB, Catalogue of the fi.she.s in the British Museum, vol. 5, 
p. 385, 1864.— Canesteini, Tesci d'ltalia, in Cornalia's Fauna d'ltalia, pt. 3, 
p. 119, 1870. — Dodeelein, Atti Accad. Sci. Palermo, new ser., vol. 6, p. 54, 
1879. — Lets-dig, Die augenahnlichen Organe der FLsche, p. 26, pi. 1, fig. 5, 1881. — 
MoREAu, Histoire naturelle des poissons de la France, vol. 3, p. 498, 1881.— 
Facciola, Natural. Siciiiano, vol. 2, p. 206, 18S3.— Goode and Bean, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 10, p. 220, 1883.— Giglioli, 3d Cougr. Geogr. Internaz., 
Venice, 1881, vol. 5, pp. 195, 199, 207, 1884.— Vinciguei{r.v, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Storia Nat. Genova, ser. 2a, vol. 2, p. 469, 1885.— Guntheu, Report . . . 
voyage of the H. M. S. Challenger, vol. 22, pt. 57. p. 167, 1887.— Jordan, Rep. 
U. S. Comm. Fisli and Fisher., vol. 13 (for 1885), p. 833, 1887.— Vaillant, 
Expeditions scientifiques du TravaiUeur et du Talisman. . . , Poissons, p. 
103, 1888.- LiJTKEN, Spolia Atlantica, ser. 6, vol. 7, p. 283, 1892.— Cabus, 
Prodromus faunae Mediterraneae, vol. 2, p. 568, 1893.— Goode and Bean, 
Oceanic ichthyology, p. 126 (in part; non fig. 147), 1895.— Axcock, Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, p. 3;^, 1896.- Jordan and Ehrmann, U. S. Nat 
Mus. Bull. 47, pt. 1, p. 604, 1896.— Alcock, A descriptive catalogue of the 
Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Museum, p. 135, 1899.— Handrick, Zoo- 
logica (Stuttgart), pt. 32, pp. 1-68, 6 pis., 1901.— Lo Bianco, Mitt. Zool. 
Stat. Neapel, vol. 16, nos. 7-9, pp. 126, 127, 129, 131, 132, 135, 138-141, 
161, 1903.— CoLLETT, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christiania, 1903, no. 9, p. 110, 1904.— 
♦Bragan^a, Cat. Coll., p. 40, 1903.— Brauer, Tiefsee Expedition. . . Valdi- 
iva, vol. 15, p. 106, fig. 45, 1906.— Regan, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zool., vol. 12, 
p. 219, 1908.— Seabra, Bull. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat., vol. 5, fasc. 3, p.' 176, 
1911-— ZuGMAYER, Result Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 35, p. 51, 
1911.— Mui:r.\y and Hjort, The depths of the ocean, pp. 604, 612, 618, G43, 698, 
fig. 458, 1912.— Holt and Byrne, Fisher. Ireland Sci. Invest. 1912, no. 1, 
pp. 18-19, 21, figs. 7b, 8, 1913.— Pappenheim, Deutsche Sudpolar Expedi- 
tion, 1901-1903, vol. 15 (Zool. Abth. 7, p. 182, 1914).— Jespersen, Report on 
the Danish Oceanographie Expeditions, 1908-1910, vol. 2, A. 2, p. 7, 1915.— 
RouLE, RC'sult Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 52, p. 25, 1919. — 
Barnaiu), Ann. South African Mus., vol. 21, p. 153, 1925. — Jespebsen and 
TAning, Report on the Danish Oceanographie Expeditions, 1908-1910, vol. 
2, A. 12, p. 48, 1926.— Norman, Discovery Reports, vol. 2, p. 303, pi. 2, fig. 
4. 1930.— Borodin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 72, p. 08, 1931.— Zugmayer, 
Rfeult. Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 86, p. 80, 1933. — Parr, Bull, 
Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 4, art. 6, p. 5, 1934.— *Noronha and Sarmento, 
Peixes Madeira, p. 117, 1934.— Jespersen, in Joubin, Faune ichthyologique 



\ 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND AEGYROPELECUS SCHULTZ 149 

de I'Atlantique nord, no. 15, 1934. — Nobre, Faune marinha de Portugal, vol. 

1, p. 351, 1935.— Fowler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 70, p. 245, 1936.— 
Parr, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, pp. 49, 53, fig. 18 
(3), 1937. — Norman, British, Australia, and New Zealand Antarctic Re- 
search Expedition, 1929-1931, Kept. Ser. B (Zool. Bot.), vol. 1, no. 2, p. 82, 
1937. 

Sternoptix mediterranea Cocco, Giorn. II Faro, vol. 4, anno 6, p. 7, figs. 2a, 
2b, opposite p. 16, 1838 {Argyropclecus emiyynmus is the spelling used by 
Cocco, 1838, for a synonym of <S. mediterranea). — Bonaparte, Iconografia 
della fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati, vol. 3, fasc. 
28, pi. 121, fig. 3, 1840. 

lArgyropelccus d'urviUei CtniER and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 22, p. 405, 1850. — Gxjnther, Catalogue of the fishes in the 
British Museum, vol. 5, p. 386, 1864. — Goode and Bean, Oceanic ichthyology, 
p. 127, 1895. 

Argyropelectis intermedius Clarke, Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst., vol. 10 
(for 1877), p. 244, pi. 6, 1878. 

Argyropelecus lieatJii Gilbert, Bull. U, S. Fish. Comm., vol. 23 (for 1903), pt. 

2, p. 601, pi. 72, fig. 1, 1905 (U.S.N.M. no. 51632, type, examined by author).— 
Jordan and Jordan, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 10, no. 1, p. 9, 1922. — 
Fowler, Fishes of Oceania, vol. 10, p. 35, 1928. 

Argyropelecus ''lychmis" (non Garman) Lendenfeld, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
vol. 30, p. 170, pi. 6, figs. 24, 25, 1905. 

The following 35 specimens were collected by the First Johnson- 
Smithsonian Deep-sea Exj^edition, 1933, in the vicinity of the West 
Indies : 

U.S.N.M. no. 102779, 5 specimens, length about 5 to 9 mm, tin tag no. 328, 
station 62, latitude 19°25'45" N., longitude 69°09'00" W., to latitude 19''27'45" 
N., longitude 69°14'45" W., depth about 350 fathoms, February 18, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102780, 8 specimens, about 8 to 21 mm, tin tag no. 494, station 
86, latitude 19°30'30" N., longitude 65°14'00" W., to latitude 19°18'30" N., 
longitude 65°16'00" W., about 350 fathoms, February 27, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102781, 3 .specimens, about 15 to 20 mm, tin tag no. 498A, 
station 87, latitude 19n8'30" N., longitude 65°16'00" W., to latitude 19°13'00" 
N., longitude 65°16'00" W., about 350 fathoms, February 27, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102782, 8 specimens, about 7 to 14 mm, tin tag no. 176, station 30, 
latitude 1S°40'30" N., longitude 66°30'0O" W., to latitude 18°40'30" N., longitude 
66°36'15" W., about 1,200 fathoms, February 8, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102783, 1 specimen, length 19 mm, tin tag no. 461, station 85, 
latitude 18°39'30" N., longitude 65°16'55" W., to latitude 18°44'00" N., longi- 
tude 65°16'15" W., about 400 fathoms, February 26, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102784, 2 specimens, 13 and 20 mm, tin tag no. 452, station 
84, latitude 18°32'30" N., longitude 65°18'30" W., to latitude 18°39'00" N., 
longitude 65°17'00" W., about 300 to 350 fathoms, February 26, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102785, 2 specimens, 21 and 27 mm, the larger fish has tag no. 510, 
the other 511, station 83, latitude 18°32'54" N., longitude 65°23'42" W., to lati- 
tude 18°32'15" N., longitude 65°18'45" W., about 250 to 320 fathoms, February 
26, 1933. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102786, 6 specimens, about 4 to 11 mm, tin tag no. 24C, 
station 5, latitude 18°37'00" N., longitude 66°24'30" W., about 600 fathoms, 
January 31, 1933. 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

The following specimens are also in the collections of the United 
States National Museum : 

U.S.N.M. no. 100526, 1 specimen, 23 mm, Grampus station 10182, off Ber- 
muda, latitude 30°27' N., longitude 66°05' W., 1,400 to meters, February 19, 
1914. 

U.S.N.M. no. 100542, 1 specimen, 30 mm, Grampus station 10176, off Ber- 
muda, latitude 32°30' N., longitude 65°48' W., 750 to meters, February 5, 
1914. 

U.S.N.M. no. 100341, 1 siiecimen, 23 mm, Gnunpus, off South Caroliiin. 
latitude 32'"33' N., longitude 72''14' W., 1,100 to meters, January 30, 1914. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103022, 1 specimen, 15 mm (bad condition), Albatross station 
5184, latitude 10°18'30" N., longitude 122°23'30" E., 505 fathoms, March 30, 
1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 10302:3, 1 specimen, 13 mm, Albatross station 5120, latitude 
13''45'30" N., longitude 120°30'15" E., 393 fathoms, January 19, 1908. 

Three lots of Argyro pel ecus here referred to hemigymnus possess 
more numerous gill rakers and may represent a distinct form of that 
species. They were taken in the Mediterranean and are listed as 
follows : 

U.S.N.M. no. 40053, 18 specimens in bad condition. 20 to 28 mm, ]Mossina, Italy, 
November, 1883. 

U.S.N.M. no. 92244, 2 .specimens, 33 and 35 mm, Ganzirri, Messina, Italy. 

U.S.N.M. no. 10143, 2 si)ecimens, one in bad condition, other, length 30 mm, 
Mediterranean Sea. 

ARGYROPELECUS AMABILIS (Ogilby, 1888) 

Stentoptychidcs aniabilis Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, ser. 2, vol. 3, 

p. 1313, 1888. 
Argi/ropelecus olfersii (non Cuvier) Goode and Bean, Oceanic ichthyology, p. 

126 (in part), pi. 39, fig. 148a, 1895. — Roxjle and Angfx, Result. Campagnes 

Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 86, p. 48, pi. 2, figs. 24, 24a, 1933. 
Argyropelccus aniabilis McCuixocH. Rec. Australian Mus., vol. 14, no. 2, p. 118, 

pi. 14, fig. 3, 1923. 
Argyropelccus autrorsospinus Schultz. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 91, no. 27, 

p. 1, fig. 1, 1937. 
Argyropelccus micra can thus Parb. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, 

p. 52, fig. 21, 1937. 

Parr (1937, p. 52, fig. 21) described as new Argyropelccus micra- 
canthu-s^ based on a specimen but 13 mm in standard length. During 
my examination of many more than a hundred specimens of various 
species of Argyropelccus from postlarvae up to large adults, it was 
observed that the anal, preanal, and subcaudal photophores do not all 
appear at once but develop gradually, tlie posterior one forming last. 
This gradual development of the anal pliotophores also occurs in the 
genus Polyipnus. Dr. Parr's figure 21 of A. micracanfhus is obvi- 
ously taken from a very young Argyropelccus^ because the anal and 
subcaudal photophores are in little circular masses which at larger 
sizes extend a little anteriorly and considerably posteriorly. In con- 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYROPELECUS — SCHULTZ 151 

sideration of these facts and the lack of any other diagnostic char- 
acters, I consider it as a synonym of A. amabilis. 
The following specimens were examined: 

U.S.N.M. no. 102989 (holotype of A. antrorsospinus), off Culebra Island, 
latitude 18"32'54" N., longitude 65°23'42" W., to latitude 18°32'15" N., longitude 
65''18'45" W., February 26, 1933, 250 to 320 fathoms. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102987, Albatross station 2208, latitude 39°33'00" N., longitude 
71°16'15" W., August 21, 1884. 

U.S.N.M. no. 35561, Albatross station 2209, latitude 39°34'45" N., longitude 
71°21'30" W., August 21, 1884. 

U.S.N.M. no. 33393, Albatross station 2075, latitude 41''40'30" N., longitude 
66°35'00" W., September 3, 1883. 

U.S.N.M. no. 43855, Albatross station 2717, latitude 38°24' N., longitude 
71°13' W., September 18, 1886. 

ARGYROPELECUS ACULEATUS Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1849 

Argyropelecus aculeatus Cuvxeb and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des pois- 
sons, vol. 22, p. 406, 1849. — GtJNTHER, Catalogue of the fishes in the British 
Museum, vol. 5, p. 386, 1864. — Satjvage, in Grandidier, Histoire physique, 
naturelle et politique de Madagascar, Poissons, vol. 16, p. 483, pi. 48, fig. 5, 
1891.— LiJTKEN, Spolia Atlantica, ser. 6, vol. 7, p. 282, 1892.— Goodb 
and Bean, Oceanic ichthyology, p. 127, 1895. — Coluett, Forli. Vid.- 
Selsk. Christiania, 1903, no. 9, p. 108, 1904.— Collett, Zool. Anz., vol. 
28, p. 726, 1905. — Brauee, Tiefsee Expedition . . . Valdivia, vol. 15, p. 
110, fig. 47, 1906.— Regan, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 12, p. 218, 
1908.— MuERAY and Hjoet, The depths of the ocean, pp. 612, 618, 643, 
1912. — Jespeksen, Report on the Danish Oceanographic Expeditions, 1908- 
1910, vol. 2, A. 2, p. 27, 1915.— Noeman, Discovery Reports, vol. 2, p. 303, 
fig. 11, 1930.— Bokodin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 72, p. 68, 1931.— 
Zugmayeb^ Result. Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 86, p. 79, 19.33. — 
Jespersen, in Joubin, Faune ichthyologique de I'Atlantique nord, no. 15, 
1934.— Parr, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, pp. 47, 50, 53, 
fig. 18 (la-lc), 1937. 

Sternoptyx acanthurus Cuvier and Valenciennes^ Histoire naturelle des pois- 
sons, vol. 22, p. 408, 1849. 

Argyropelecus olfersii (non Cuvier) Collett, Festskrift H. M. Kong Oscar II 
ved Regjerings-Jubilaeet 1897, vol. 2, p. 14, 1897, 

^Argyropelecus caninus Gabman, Mem. Mus, Comp. Zool., vol. 24, p. 235, 1899. 

Argyropelecus olfersii (non Cuvier) Vladykov and McKenzie, Proc, Nova 
Scotia Inst, Sci., vol. 19, pt. 1, p. 60, fig. 40, 1935 (based on U. S. N. M. no 
33495). 

Argyropelecus acanthurus (non Cocco) Fowler, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 70, pp. 246; 1207, 1936. (Cocco described Oasteropelecus acanthurus, 
1829, and in Isis, vol. 24, p. 1342, 1831, Cocco states that the species has 
"A. 30," which is for another species of fish. Therefore, the use of the 
name acanthurus of Cocco by Fowler for species of Argyropelecus has no 
basis, in my opinion.) 

The following 9 specimens were examined : 

U.S.N.M. no. 102777, 2 specimens, 8 and 13 mm, First Johnson-Smithsonian 
Deep-Sea Expedition, 1933, tin tag no. 24C, Station 5, latitude 18°37'00" N., 
longitude 66°24'30" W., about 600 fathoms, January 31, 1933. 



152 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

U.S.N.M. no. 33495, 1 specimen, 18 mm, Albatross station 2063, latitude 
42°23'00" N., longitude 66°23'00" W., August 31, 1883. 

U.S.N.M. no. 35467, 1 specimen, 38 mm. Albatross station 2195, latitude 
39°44'00" N., longitude 70°03'00" W., August 5, 1884. 

U.S.N.M. no. 38116, specimen badly damaged. Grand Banks, September 3, 
1886 (coll. W. A. Wilcox ?). 

U.S.N.M. no. 74336, 1 specimen, 33 mm, Albatross station 2565, latitude 
3S°19'20" N., longitude 60°02' 30" W., August 28, 1885. 

U.S.N.M. no. 86124, 2 specimens, 12 and 14 ram, Orampus station 10445, 
Gulf of Mexico, January 25, 1917. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103024, 1 specimen, 16 mm, Albatross station 5246, latitude 
6°29'15" N., longitude 126°18'45" E., depth not given, May 15, 1908. 

ARGYROPELECUS OLFERSU (Cuvier. 1829) 

Stemoptyx olfersH Cuviek, Le regne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 316, 1829. — DtJBEN 
and KoBEN, Kungl. Vet.-Akad. Handl., 1844, p. 80, pi. 3, fig. 6, 1844. 

Argyropelecus olfcrsii CmiEB and Valkncienneb, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 22, p. 408, 1849.— Lowe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1850, pt. 18, p. 247.— 
GuNTHEE, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 5, p. 386, 
1864.— GtiNTHEB, Rep. Voyage H. M. S. Challenger 1873-1876, Zool., vol. 22, 
p. 167, 1887.— CoLLin-T, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christiania, 1879, no. 1, p. 84.— 
CoiXETT, Nyt. Mag. Naturv., vol. 29, p. 102, 1885. — Jordan, Rep. U. S. Comm. 
Fish and Fisher., vol. 13 (for lS8o), p. 833, 1887.— Vaillant, Expeditions 
scientifiques du TravaiUcur et du Talisman . . ., Poissons, p. 104, 1888. — 
LnxjEBOEG, Sveriges och Norges fiskarne fauna, vol. 3, p. 3, 1891. — LiJTKEW, 
Spolia Atlantica, ser. 6, vol. 7, p. 282, 1892.— Ltjtken, Vid. Medd. naturhist 
For. Kj0beuhavn, 1891, p. 211, 1892.— Vincigueeba, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat., 
vol. 34, p. 331, 1893.— Smitt, A history of Scandinavian fishes, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 
925, fig. 233, 1895.— GooDE and Bean, Oceanic ichthyology, p. 126 (non fig. 148 
or 148a), 1895. — Jordan and Evermann, U. S. Nat. Mu.s. Bull. 47, pt. 1, p. 
604, 1896. — CoLLETT, Result. Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 10, p. 
127, pi. 3, fig. 14, 1896.— CoLijrrT, Forh. Vid.-Selsk, Christiania, 1903, no. 9, 
p. 105, 1904. — Brauee, Tiefsee Expedition . . . Valdivia, vol. 15, p. 108, flg. 46, 
1906.— Regan, Trans. Linn. Soc. Loudon, vol. 12, p. 219, 1908.— Seabra, Bull. 
Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat, vol. 5, fasc. 3, p. 176, 1911.— Zuqmayeb, Result. 
Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 35, p. 52, 1911. — Murray and Hjobt, 
The depths of the ocean, pp. 612, 643, 1912. — Holt and Byrne, Fisher. Ire- 
land Sci. Invest. 1912, no. 1, pp. 18-20, fig. 7a, 1913.— Weber and Beaufort, 
The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago, vol. 2, p. 134, flg. 49, 1913. — 
Weber, Die Fische der Siboga Expedition, p. 21, 1913. — Jespersen, Report 
on the Danish Oceanographic Expeditions, 1908-1910, vol. 2, A. 2, p. 23, 
1915. — Roui£, Result. Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 52, p. 25, 
1919. — Barnard, Ann. South African Mus., vol. 21, p. 153, 1925. — Kyle and 
Ehbenbaum, Die Fische der Nord un Ostsee, p. xii, f. 54, fig. 32, 1929. — 
Norman, Discovery Reports, vol. 2, p. 304, fig. 12, 1930. — Zugmayer, Result. 
Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 86, p. 80, 1933. — Jespersen, in 
Joubin, Faune ichthyologique de I'Atlantique nord, no. 15, 1934. — Fowleb, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, vol. 70, p. 243, fig. 114, and p. 1207, 1930.— 
Parb, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, pp. 46, 50, flg. 18 (5), 
1937. 

Pleurothyris olfersi Lowe, A history of the fishes of Madeira, pt. 1, p. 64, 1843. 



EEVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND ARGYKOPELECUS — SCHULTZ 153 

Argyropelecus lynclius Gaeman, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZooL, vol. 24, p. 234, pi. J, 
figs. 1, lb, 1899. — Bexanske, in Vauderbilt, To Galapagos on the Ara 1926, 
Appendix C, p. 132, pi. 5, 1927. 

Argyropelecus lichnus Townsend and Nichols, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 
52, p. 11, 1925. 

The following specimens examined: 

U.S.N.M. no. 35534, 1 specimen, 39 mm, Albatross station 2208, latitude 
Sg^SS'OO" N., longitude 71°16'15" W., August 21, 1884. 

U.S.N.M. no. 38211, 1 specimen, 53 mm, Albatross station 2728, latitude 
SG-SO'OO" N., longitude 74°33'00" W., October 25, 1886. 

The recent work by Parr (1937) indicates that olfersii, lynchus^ 
and sladeni each may be distinct species. I have examined many 
specimens of this general form and have concluded that because of 
much variation in bodily proportions most of the differences indi- 
cated by Dr. Parr do not hold good. Therefore since lynchus ap- 
pears to have a higher dorsal blade and the upper preopercular spine 
is shorter, it is tentatively placed in the synonymy of olfersii. 

ARGYKOPELECUS SLADENI Regan, 1908 

Argyropelecus sladeni Regan, Trans, Linn. Soe. Zool., vol. 12, p. 218, 1908. — 
NoBMAN, Discovery Reports, vol. 2, p. 304, fig. 13, 1930. — Jespeesen, in 
Joubin, Faune ichthyologique de I'Atlantique nord, no. 15, 1934. — Fowleb, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. 70, p. 1207, 1936.— Paeb, Bull. Bingham. 
Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, art. 7, pp. 46, 47, 50, figs. 18 (4), 19, 1937. 

The following 50 specimens examined, all from Albatross stations: 

U.S.N.M. no. 57885, 2 specimens, 26 and 46 mm, station 3360, latitude 6°17' N., 
longitude 82°05' W., 1672 fathoms, February 24, 1891, or station 3395, latitude 
7''30'36" N, longitude 78°39' W., 730 fathoms, March 11, 1891. 

U.S.N.M. no. 102787, 1 specimen, 39 mm, station 4913, northwest Pacific, 
latitude 31''39'10" N., longitude 129°22'30" E., 391 fathoms, August 12, 1906. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103013, 2 specimens, one 11 mm, other larva, station 5120, 
latitude 13°45'30" N., longitude 120''30'15" E., depth 393 fathoms, January 21, 
1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103014, 1 specimen in poor condition, station 5185, latitude 
10''5'45" N., longitude 122°18'30" E., 638 fathoms, March 30, 1908. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103015, 2 specimens, 27 and 34 mm, station 5368, latitude 
13°35'30" N., longitude 121°48' E., 181 fathoms, February 23, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103016, 1 specimen, 27 mm, station 5387, latitude 12°54'40" N., 
longitude 123°20'30" E., 209 fathoms, March 11, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103017, 1 specimen in bad condition, station 5447, latitude 
13°28' N., longitude 123M6'18" E., 310 fathoms, June 4, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103018, 4 specimens, 14 to 19 mm, station 5497, latitude 9°7'15" N., 
longitude 124°59'30" E., 960 fathoms, August 3, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103019, 34 specimens, 7 to 19 mm, station 5500, latitude 8°37'45" 
N., longitude 124°36'45" E., 267 fathoms, August 4, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103020, 1 specimen, 35 mm, station 5525, latitude 9°12'30" N., 
longitude 123°44'7" E., 805 fathoms, August 11, 1909. 

U.S.N.M. no. 103021, 1 specimen in poor condition, station 5530, latitude 
9»26'45" N., longitude 123°38'30" E., depth not given, August 11, 1909. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Beebb, WmUAM. 

1929. Deei>sea fish of the Hudson Gorge. Zoologica, vol. 12, no. 1, 19 pp. 
Belanske, Whjjam E. 

1927. Fishes and birds caught. In "William K. Vanderbilt's "To GalSpagos 
on the Ara 1926," Appendix C, pp. 127-158, 30 pis. 
Borodin, Nikolai Andbeetvich. 

1931. Atlantic deep-sea fishes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 72, pp. 55-89, 
1 fig., 5 pis. 
Brauer, August. 

1906. Die Tiefsee-Fische. Wiss. Ergeb. Deutschen Tiefsee-Exped. Dampfer 
Valdivia 1898-1899, vol. 15, Syst. Abth. (I), 432 pp., 176 figs., 18 pis. 

ESMARK, LaUKITZ. 

1871. * * * Om tvende nye fiske-arter : Argyropelectis elongatns, Mauro- 
lirus tripunctulatus. Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christiania, 1870, pp. 486- 
490. 
Garman, Samuel. 

1899. Reports on an exploration off the west coast of Mexico, Central and 
South America, and off the Galflpagos Islands, in charge of Alex- 
ander Agassiz, by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, 
during 1891. The Fishes. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 24, 431 pp., 
97 pis. 
Gilbert, Charles Henry. 

1905. The deep-sea fishes of the Hawaiian Islands. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
vol. 23 (for 1903), pt. 2, pp. 575-713, 45 figs., 36 pis. 
Gnx, Theodorex 

1884. Note on the Stemoptychidae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. vol. 7, pp. 349-351. 
GooDE, George Brown, and Bean, Tarleton Hoffman. 

1895. Oceanic ichthyology. U. S. Nat. Mus. Spec. Bull. 2, xxxv-f 553 pp., 113 
pis. 
JouBiN, Louis Marie Adolphe Oijvieb Edouard. 

1934. Faune ichthyologique de I'Atlantique nord, no. 15, [27] sheets. 

NOBRE, ArOUSTO. 

1935. Fauna marinha de Portugal, vol. 1: Vertebrados, Ixxxiv -1-579 pp., 

77 pis. 
Norman, John Roxbobouoh. 

1930. Oceanic fishes and flatfishes collected in 1925-1927. Discovery Reports, 

vol. 2, pp. 261-370, 47 figs., 1 pi. 
OsoRio, Balthazar. 

1909. Contribuiguo para o conhecimento da fauna bathypelagica visinha das 
costas de Portugal. Mem. Mus. Socage, fasc. 1, pt. 1, pp. 1-35, 3 pis. 
Parr, Albert Eide. 

1931. Deep-sea fishes from off the western coast of North and Central Amer- 

ica. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 2, art. 4, 53 pp., 18 figs. 
1937. Concluding report on fishes. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 3, 
art. 7, 79 pp., 22 flgs. 
ScHULTZ, Leonard Peter. 

1937. A new species of deep-sea fish, Argyropelecus antrorsospinus, of the 
family Sternoptichidae. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 91, no. 27, 
5 pp., 1 fig. 
154 



REVIEW OF POLYIPNUS AND AEGYROPELEOUS — SCHULTZ 155 

Seabra, Anthero Feedebico de. 

1911. Catalogue syst^matiqiie des vertebres du Portugal, V : Poissons. Bull. 
Soe. Portugaise Sci. Nat., vol. 5, fasc. 3, pp. 12&-227. 
Vladykov, Vadim Dmitbij, and McKenzie, Eijssexl Aldeeson. 

1935. The marine fishes of Nova Scotia. Proc. Nova Scotian Inst. Sci., vol. 
19, pt. 1, pp. 17-113, 130 figs. 

ZUQMAYEE, EbIC. 

1911, Poissons provenant des campagnes du yacht Princesse-Alice (1901- 
1910). Result. Campagnes Sci. Prince de Monaco, fasc. 35, 174 pp., 
48 figs., 6 pis. 



U. S. eOVERNMENT PRINTINS OTriCt.tilt 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued iralflSvA, sIt^I ^y '^* 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Wa.hington : 1939 No. 3048 



REVISION OF THE BEETLES OF THE MELOLONTHINE 
SUBGENUS PHYTALUS OF THE UNITED STATES 



By Lawrence W. Saylor 



Several years ago I began the study of the scarabaeid beetles of 
the subgenus Phy talus Erichson (genus PhyUophaga Harris) with 
the aim of bringing together in one paper data on all the described 
species, since the literature on the group is somewhat scattered and 
unavailable to many. It develops that several changes in taxonomic 
standing are necessary, and the knowledge of the distribution of the 
various species is greater than has been recorded. In this subgenus 
the genitalia of both sexes are of great use as supplementary diag- 
nostic characters, and except in the case of PhyUophaga (Phy talus) 
omani Sanderson they have not been previously figured. 

I am indebted to Dr. E. A. Chapin, Dr. M. A. Sanderson, Prof. E, 
C. Van Dyke, and Mark Robinson for the loan of material and for 
many other kindnesses. 

The group as now defined is restricted to the American continents 
and adjacent islands and includes more than 60 described species, 
more than half of which inhabit Central America and the West 
Indies. In the United States the insects are found most commonly 
in the southern regions, specimens having been seen from Arizona, 
New Mexico, Texas, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee and also from 
New Jersey. I have recently received specimens of two of our 
United States species, P. pallida Horn and P. sonora Saylor {=deMlls 
LeConte), from northern Mexico; a check of the literature reveals 
that these two species are apparently not recorded under any other 
name in Mexican faunal works. 

107283 — 39 15J 



158 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Phy talus vexatus Horn { = cavifrons Linell) has been removed by 
Chapin to the genus Chlaenohia, which differs from Phyllophaga 
(and Phytalus) in that the tarsal soles are usually very densely pilose 
in the male and the hind thoracic angles usually constricted rather 
abruptly at the base ; the genus Chlaenohia also has a distinct facies, 
enabling one familiar with the group to recognize specimens on sight. 
Some of the true Listrochelus (e. g., scoparim) also have densely 
pilose soles in the male sex, and later studies may show that Chlaeno- 
bia may be better placed as a subgenus. 

Phytalus is no longer tenable as a genus because some of the species 
exhibit characters that absolutely grade into those of Phyllophaga 
and leave no single character or group of characters distinguishing 
the two. Although it can no longer be used in a generic sense, the 
name Phytalus is of use subgenerically as applied to a group of 
species having narrowly cleft claws in at least the male sex. 

In probably no other group of American scarab beetles is there 
such a variety of opinion as to the validity of genera and of their 
names as in that of the phyllophagans. In 1920 Arrow, of the Brit- 
ish Museum, stated that Phytalus, Brahmina, and Holotnchia were 
not separable from Phyllophaga (^Lachnosterna), and with this I 
heartily agree,^ as I have found by experience that the use of the 
claws alone for generic characters is in most instances unsatisfactory 
because the claws may be very different in species that in every other 
character are obviously of the same genus. 

In Phyllophaga, as at present recognized, there are several good 
groups, which, if segregated as different genera, however, would 
separate species greatly alike in most characters and apparently of 
the same lineage. Such a separation would, in most instances, be 
on the basis of the male characters alone, certainly undesirable cri- 
teria for generic definitions. Among such characters are the de- 
formed middle claws, fixed hind tibial spurs, and narrowly cleft 
tarsal claws; the first two are nonvariable, but the last varies greatly 
in degree in the sexes. Another group could be defined if the very 
long basal claw dilation, giving the appearance of a third tooth, 
were used; in the single species concerned, P. heteronycha Bates, 
the tarsal claws of the fore and midlegs are 3-toothed, while those of 
the hind pair, like those of Phytalus, are narrowly cleft. Such a 
segregation is unadvisable, however, as all degrees in length of the 
tooth formed by the basal dilation can be found in various species. 
Furthermore, in my opinion it would serve no useful purpose to 
form a special genus for those species in which the usual three seg- 
ments of the antennal club are increased to four or five, as other 
characters are the same as in the species with the normal number of 
segments in the club. 

» See Revista Ent., voL 7, fa«c. 2-3, pp. 818-322, 1937. 



HE VISION OF SUBGENUS PHYTALUS — SAYLOR 159 

In the course of the present studies, I examined nearly every one 
of the United States species and also well over a 100 species of 
Neotropical Phyllophaga and allied genera, and in addition more 
than 50 species of Oriental Brahminu^ Holotrichia^ and allied groups. 
The necessity is apparent of suppressing the name Brahmina entirely 
and of ranking the American Phytalus and the Oriental Holotrichia 
as subgenera of Phyllophaga. This action has been suggested at 
one time or another, in whole or in part, by nearly every serious 
student of the group from Blanchard's time on (Blanchard, Bates, 
Arrow, Chapin, and Saylor), and the change was finally made by 
me in a recent paper (see footnote 1). 

The position of other related genera, Listrochelus and Chirodmes, 
is also open to some question; the former name seems to be valid 
for subgeneric use if restricted to a certain group of species, as has 
been done in a revision now in preparation by Dr. E. A. Chapin and 
myself. The genus Chirodines was separated on the basis of only 
a slight difference in the claws, and when thoroughly studied may 
quite possibly be shown to merit only subgeneric status, or may 
entirely fail of recognition. 

Little is known regarding the economic status of the majority of 
the species, but P. pallida Horn has been observed doing a good deal 
of damage in Arizona by eating the foliage of rose bushes, young 
fruit trees, and walnut trees, often stripping them. 

If the subgenus Phytalus is restricted to those species of Phyllo- 
phaga having the very narrowly cleft tarsal claws, it embraces the 
following species in our fauna: P. hilohatata Saylor, P. georgiana 
Horn, P. omani Sanderson, P. pallida Horn, P. sandersonia Saylor, 
P. sonora Saylor, and P. ohsoleta vanaJleri Schaeffer. The males 
usually have a flat or convex abdomen, as viewed from the side, and 
the antennal club is as long or nearly as long as the funicle; the 
females usually have the abdomen concave and robust and the an- 
tennal club much shorter than the funicle. 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THE SUBGENUS PHYTALUS 

MALES 

1. Hind tibiae with 1 spur free, tlie otlier fixed and immovable 2 

Both hind tibial spurs free, movable 4 

2. Upper tooth of claw longer to very much longer than lower 

one; antennae 9-segmented __ _ _ 3 

Upper tooth much shorter and narrower than lower tooth: 
antennae 10-segmented sandersonia 

3. Yellow-testaceous; scutellum distinctly punctured only at sides; 

lower tooth of claw two-thirds or more as long as upper; 

fixed spur of hind tibia directly contiguous with tibial margui omani 

Rufotestaceous ; scutellum evenly punctured over entire surface ; 
lower claw tooth shorter; not more than one-half as long as 
upper; entire apical margin or posterior tibia distinct georgiana 

4. Fifth abdominal segment flattened at middle and coarsely 

punctate, not granulate; color reddish brown to piceous bilobatata 

Fifth abdominal segment lobate or with granular tumosities 5 

5. Upper tooth of claw much shorter than lower, claw very wide 

at base; fifth abdominal segment with a large triangularly 
shaped lobe, the latter incised at apex and projecting back 

over sixth segment obsoleta vanalleri 

Upper tooth of claw much longer than lower, fifth abdominal 
segment without a triangular lobe 6 

6. Lobe of fifth abdominal segment reaching to or beyond apical 

margin, granulate, faintly bilobed at apex ; pygidium coarsely 

rugose-punctate pallida 

Lobe of fifth abdominal segment less evident, the surface more 
tumid, with transverse granules; pygidium smooth, sparsely 
punctured 3o„ora 

FF.MALE8 

1. Pygidium with a distinct tubercle just above apex 2 

Pygidium without tubercle, plane or sometimes thickened api- 

cally _ 2 

2. Densely clothed above with short, erect, tawny hairs; thorax 

regularly and densely punctured, the punctures practically 

touching one another sandersonia 

Pronotum and elytra nearly or quite glabrous; thorax sparsely 
punctured, the punctures separated by 2 to 4 times their di- 
ameters obsoleta vanalleri 

3. LaXeral thoracic margins distinctly crenulate ; claws narrowly 

cleft, upper tooth longer than lower; front very closely, 

coarsely rugose-punctate pallida 

Lateral thoracic margins entire or nearly so 4 

4. Clypeus narrowly and deeply emarginate; color dark castaneous 

to rufopiceous bilobatata 

Clypeus broadly but not deeply emarginate; color testaceous or 
rufotestaceous __ 5 

5. Last abdominal segment almost flat, slightly transversely sul- 

cata; pygidium densely or sparsely punctured (Eastern 

United States) _ 6 



REVISION OF SUBGENUS PHYTALUS — SAYLOR 161 

Last abdominal segment convex, not sulcate; yygidium sparsely 

punctured (Arizona, Mexico) sonora 

6. Scutellum densely, closely punctured ; pygidium evenly punc- 
tured georglana 

Scutellum punctured only at sides; pygidium irregularly punc- 
tured omani 

PHYLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) SANDERSONIA, new name 

Plate 9, FiotrREs la-lc 

Phytalus robustvs Hoen, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 12, p. 120, 1895 {nee 

LeConte, 1856). 
Phytalus trichodes Bates, Biologia Centrali-Americana, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 178. 

1890. 

Male. — Robust, elongate-oval, rufocastaneous, shining, entirely 
clothed above with short, very dense, suberect hair, that of front 
longer. Head with front exceedingly densely variolate-punctate, the 
punctures of moderate size and closely contiguous; clypeus punc- 
tured like front but less densely so, its apex moderately reflexed and 
slightly emarginate at middle. Antennae 10-segmented, club sub- 
equal to or very slightly longer than funicle. Thorax very regularly 
and extremely densely, evenly punctured over the entire surface ; hind 
angles obtusely angulate ; lateral margins almost evenly arcuate, cren- 
ulate, ciliate. Elytra very rugosely wrinkled, densely punctured, 
striae other than sutural weakly indicated. Pygidium with or with- 
out a very short longitudinal carina at center of basal margin, sur- 
face flattened near apex, evenly and densely punctured over the entire 
surface, with dense moderately long suberect hairs; apex subtruncate 
to subrounded. Abdomen polished, sparsely hairy, widely, shallowly 
and longitudinally concave at center; fifth segment plane, with mod- 
erately dense setigerous punctures at sides and apex ; sixth two-thirds 
as long as fifth, more coarsely punctured and with longer erect hairs. 
Fixed spur of hind tibia short and twisted. All claws with upper 
tooth much shorter and more slender than lower. Front tarsi with 
segments 1 to 3, inclusive, with the inner apical margin prolonged 
into a strong spine, this character most strongly marked in segment 1. 

Female. — Pygidium glabrous, sparsely punctured, declivate, and 
with a tubercle before apex; posterior tibial spurs free, elongate. 
(Amended from original description.) 

Length, 17-20 mm. Width, 8.5-10 mm. 

Remarks. — Horn described the species from the Rio Grande coun- 
try near Matamoros, and I have seen two specimens (that were com- 
pared with the type) from Brownsville, Tex. (F. H. Snow and 
Charles SchaefFer), and also one male from Del Rio, Tex. (May 15, 
1937, A. Meade). Described by Bates from Las Vigas, Veracruz 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Mexico, and seen by me from Jalapa and Monterrey in Mexico 
(June). A comparison of the external features and of the genitalia 
of a cotype of Bates' species with Horn's species proves the two are 
identical. This species, to date, has been very rare in the United 
States, and less than a dozen specimens in American collections are 
known to me as having been taken within our boundaries; it was 
cited by Bates as being rather numerous at Las Vigas, Veracruz. 
The species is named for my good friend Dr. M. \V. Sanderson. 

PHYLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) OMANI Sanderson 

Plate 9, FicxmES 2a-2e 

Phyllophaga (Phytalus) otnani Sanderson, Journ. Kansas Eut Soc, vol. 10, 
p. 66, 1937. 

Male. — Elongate, cylindrical, yellow-testaceous, the head piceous, 
surface shining. Head with front moderately and not closely punc- 
tured, the punctures separated by one to several times their own 
diameters; clypeus deeply marginate and moderately punctured; cly- 
peal suture lightly impressed. Antennae 9-segmented, the club as 
long as the entire stem, unicolorous. Prothorax moderately, rather 
unevenly punctured, the punctures closer along the anterior and basal 
margins; sides parallel in basal half, then gradually rounded to apex; 
with an indistinct fuscous spot near the rounded lateral margins. 
Elytra punctured like thorax, somewhat rugose, costae except sutural 
obsolete. Pygidium rather strongly convex, finely and evenly punc- 
tured with a few short hairs at apex, remaining surface glabrous. 
Abdomen somewhat flattened at middle and with vague longitudinal 
impressions on segments 3 and 4; segment 5 plane; segment 6 slightly 
excavated at middle and with a small punctate elevation each side 
of middle. One of the spurs of the hind tibia short and fixed. 
Upper portion of the claw nearly as wide as lower and distinctly 
longer. Lower claw margin very finely and minutely, irregularly 
crenulate. 

Female. — Club of antennae shorter than funicle; hind tibial spurs 
free; abdomen somewhat flattened at middle; pygidium transverse 
and evenly punctured. Otherwise similar to male. 

Length, 14 mm. Width, 6 mm. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 9 AND 10 

1, Phyllophaga (Phytalvs) sandersonia, new name; 2, P. (P.) omani Sander- 
son; 3, P. (P.) georgiana (Horn) ; 4, P. {P.) bilobatata, new name; 5, P. (P.) 
pallida (Horn); 6, P. (P.) sonora, new name; 7, P. (P.) ohsolcta vanalleri 
(Sehaeffer). 

Letters indicate views, as follows : a. En face view of male genitalia ; 6, side 
view of male genitalia ; c, tarsal claw ; d, female genitalia ; e, en face-ventral 
view of male genitalia. 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOLUME 86 PLATE 9 




Genitalia and Tarsal Claw of Phytalus. 

IFOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 16:.) 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 86 PLATE 10 






^f^ 




5b 



Genitalia and Tarsal Claw of phytalus. 

IFOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 162.) 



REVISION OF SUBGENUS PHYTALUS — SAYLOR 163 

Remarks. — This interesting species is known only from the type 
material ; the above description is condensed from the original. The 
holotype and allotype are from Burnsville, Ala. (July 20, 1930), and 
Prattsburg, Ga. (July 24, 1930), respectively; through the courtesy of 
Dr. Sanderson I was allowed to examine the male type before its 
description. One male in my collection from "North America." 

PHYLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) GEORGIANA (Horn) 

Plate 9, Figure Zd; Plate 10, Figubes 3a-3c 
Phy talus georgianus Hoen, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 12, p. 122, 1885. 

Male. — Rufous to rufotestaceous, head and thorax darker, surface 
shining with a few short scattered hairs. Front of head coarsely 
punctured, slightly rugose, with a small very irregular impunctate 
area near the vertex; clypeal suture deeply impressed at sides only; 
clypeus coarsely rugose-punctate; apex acutely not deeply but rather 
broadly emarginate ; antennal club slightly longer than remainder of 
the antennae, third and fourth segments elongate. Sides of thorax 
not crenulate, hind angles rectangular, front angles very obtuse, disk 
coarsely and densely variolate-punctate, a few minute hairs near 
middle of the base. Elytra densely and coarsely rugose-punctate. 
Pygidium very convex, rather densely and irregularly punctured, 
glabrous, apex broadly rounded. Abdomen flattened at middle, pol- 
ished, with a few setigerous punctures; segment 5 much shorter than 
6, abruptly and narrowly declivate at apical margin; segment 6 
slightly concave at center, with a transverse carina, the latter bearing 
a row of sparse hairs, and the row interrupted at middle. Hind 
tibial spurs spiniform, with the fixed one half as long as the other. 

Female. — In the specimen at hand, the antennae are 8-segmented, 
with segment 3 very elongate, but it is probable that the normal num- 
ber of segments is 9; club equal to segments 3-5 combined; last ab- 
dominal segment very shallowly transversely sulcate, sparsely punc- 
tured and fimbriate at apex; tibial spurs elongate, free; otherwise 
similar to male. 

Length, 12.5-13 mm. Width, 6-6.5 mm. 

Remarks. — I have seen collected specimens from Whitesbog, N. J. 
(July 9), "Barcoure," Ala., and three bred specimens from Lakehurst, 
N.J. 

Described from Georgia, this rather rare species is distinctly sepa- 
rated from the others by the sexual characters. Horn, in describing 
the species, apparently overlooked the fact that one hind tibial spur 
in the male is definitely fixed and immovable, though unless careful 
examination is made the spurs appear to be free. 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

PHTLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) OBSOLETA VANALLERl (Schaeffcr) 

Plate 9, FiorRE Id; Plate 10, Fig^tee 7a-7c 

Phytalus obsolctus Blanchabd, Catalogue de la collection entomologique, vol. 

1, p. 131, 1850. 
Phytalus vanalleri Schaeffer, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, vol. 22, p. 215, 1927. 

Mah. — Elongate, subparallel, head and thorax rufous, otherwise 
testaceous to rufotestaceous, thorax and elytra glabrous, shining. 
Front of head closely, more or less confluently punctured, with long, 
erect, testaceous hair; a narrow area behind clypeal suture smooth 
and impunctate ; clypeal suture not impressed ; clypeus broad, faintly 
emarginate at middle of the subtruncate apex, the latter strongly 
reflexed, disk coarsely and sparsely punctured; antennal club usually 
longer than the rest of the antennae. Thoracic angles obtuse but well 
defined, base margined except at the middle, sides subangulate, sub- 
crenulate; disk moderately, densely, and regularly umbilicate-punctate, 
with a small, irregular, median impunctate area; a few of the punc- 
tures with a minute testaceous hair. Elytra densely rugose-punctate, 
with a few hairs near apex. Pygidium very convex, polished, sparsely 
punctured, with suberect hairs ; disk narrowly impressed before apex, 
the latter broadly rounded and ciliate. Abdomen shallowly im- 
pressed at middle, the concavity densely and finely setigerously punc- 
tate, the hair long and fine: segment 5 with a broad transverse 
carina near apical margin widely interrupted at middle, the carina 
densely pilose; segment 5 including the lobe as long as segments 3 
and 4 combined; sides of abdomen sparsely punctured. Posterior 
spurs long, free. 

Female. — Median impunctate area of thorax broader, with the 
punctures more distinct, middle of abdomen very slightly canalicu- 
late, regularly and sparsely punctured, almost glabrous and highly 
polished; segment 5 more densely punctured at the slightly raised 
apical margin; segment 6 slightly convex, coarsely and sparsely 
punctured; antennal club equal to segments ^7 combined; otherwise 
similar to male. 

Length, 16-17 mm. Width, 7.-5-8 mm. 

Remarks- — This form is rather uncommon in the Southeast, but 
specimens have been seen from Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana. It 
is easily separated from all others of our fauna by the sexual charac- 
ters, and in these it is similar to P. ohsohta Blanchard, which is a 
common species in Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua ; the two are 
very close, and P. vanalleri Schaeffer is probably best regarded at 
present as a northern subspecies having a longer antennal club (often 
two-fifths longer than the funicle), more crenate lateral thoracic 
margins, less elevated pectinate teeth on the lobe of the fifth abdominal 



REWSION OF SUBGENUS PHYTALUS — SAYLOR 165 

segment, very sparsely punctured clypeus, and smoother front ; indi- 
viduals are not lacking, however, in which almost all intermediate 
degrees of these characters appear, and possibly when more specimens 
have been seen from northern Mexico and southeastern United States 
the name P. vanalleri Schaeffer may have to be withdrawn altogether. 
The antennal club of P. vanalleri Schaeffer is very variable ; in most 
specimens it is as long as or longer than the stem and scape combined, 
while in almost all specimens of typical P. ohsoUta Blanchard the 
club is noticeably shorter than the scape and funicle combined (aver- 
ages about one-fifth longer than the funicle) as w^ell as being lighter 
in color. The clypeus of typical P, ohsoleta Blanchard is almost 
always densely punctured, while that of P. vanalleri Schaeffer is 
sparsely punctured at the middle of the clypeal suture. 

PHYLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) BILOBATATA, new name 

Platk 9, FiGUBE 4d; Plate 10, FiotniES 4a-4c 

Phytalus cephalicvs Horn, Trans. Amcr. Ent. Soc, vol. 12, p. 120, 1885 (not 
cephalica LeConte, 1856). 

Male. — Elongate, dark castaneous to piceous, shining, usually gla- 
brous above. Head with front densely variolate-punctate ; clypeal 
suture rather deeply impressed, slightly bisinuate; clypeus broad, 
deeply and very narrowly emarginate at apex, giving a bilobed ap- 
pearance to the apical margin, surface slightly tumid in some ex- 
amples, densely, coarsely, and somewhat confluently punctured; an- 
tennal club slightly smaller than the stem, antennae 10-segmented. 
Thorax with a faint suggestion of a longitudinal sulcus on the disk 
in some examples, sides obtusely rounded, hind angles obtuse but dis- 
tinct, margin entire, disk finely, sparsely and rather regularly punc- 
tured, a more or less irregular smooth space at middle. Elytra mod- 
erately densely and rugosely punctured, sometimes with very minute 
testaceous hairs. Pygidium very convex, densely and rugosely punc- 
tured, the punctures each with a short hair; apex broadly rounded, 
with a few longer hairs. Abdomen convex, very spai*sely and finely 
punctured at middle, segment 5 depressed behind, a small group of 
sparse, long, erect hairs on each side of the segment; segment 6 ele- 
vated, densely punctate, abruptly declivous at base, in some cases 
with a faint trace of a longitudinal impression. Posterior spurs 
long, narrow, and free. 

Female. — Antennal club much smaller ; abdomen more convex, last 
segment longer and less densely punctured ; otherwise similar to male. 

Length, 15-18 mm. Width, &-7.5 mm. 

Remarks. — All positively identified material is from Arizona ; local- 
ities represented are Nogales, Carr Canyon, Fort Grant, and "Chiri- 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

cahua Mts.," all collected in June or July. The pygidium and clypeus 
vary from slightly convex to tumid ; in one female example the basal 
half of the pygidium is semitumid. Schaeffer points out that the last 
paragraph in Horn's description of P. robust a (Horn) (i. e., sander- 
sonia Saylor) in reality refers to this species, which would seem to 
indicate that this species occurs in New Mexico; I have not seen 
specimens, however, from that State. 

PHYLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) PALLIDA (Horn) 

Plate 9, Figure 5d ; Plate 10, Figures 5a-5c 

Phytalus pallidus Hobn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 12, p. 121, 1885; 6th Ann. 
Rept. Arizona Comm. Hort. and Ent., p. 30, 1914, 

Male. — Testaceous, head and thorax rufotestaceous, almost glabrous, 
surface moderately shining. Head with front densely and coarsely 
punctured; clypeal suture lightly impressed, bisinuate; clypeus 
slightly emarginate at center of apex, faintly reflexed, angles rounded, 
surface densely punctured ; antennal club slightly shorter than f unicle. 
Thorax with sides broadly rounded, crenulate, angles obtuse, disk 
coarsely sparsely and rather regularly punctured. Elytra densely 
punctured, rugose, sutural costae elevated. Pygidium flattened, 
coarsely rugose, moderately and densely punctured, glabrous except 
for a few erect hairs at the rounded apex. Abdomen finely and mod- 
erately densely punctured, the punctures with short hairs; apical 
half of segment 5 with a raised rounded lobe reaching to apical 
border, the surface of which is granular-strigose, its apex finely ser- 
rate ; segment 6 ratlier deeply and transversely sulcate, the apical and 
basal margins carinate. Posterior spurs free, elongate. 

Female. — Antennal club equal to segments 3-7 combined; abdomen 
convex, sparsely setigerously punctate, segment 5 longer than 4, 
slightly tumescent in apical half, densely and coarsely punctured; 
segment 6 one-half the length of 5, densely punctured; otherwise 
similar to male. 

Length, 12-14 mm. Width, 5.5-6 mm. 

Remarks. — Most of the specimens examined are from Arizona : Fort 
Huachuca, Fort Grant, and Ramsey Canyon, all taken in July. I have 
also in my collection a male from Bakachaka, Rio Mayo, Sonora, 
Mexico, taken in July by m\ friend Howard Gentry. 

Closely related to P. sonora Saylor but may be separated by the 
puncturing of the head and clypeus, as well as by the male sexual 
characters. 



REVISION OF SUBGENUS PHYTALUS — SAYLOR 167 

PHYLLOPHAGA (PHYTALUS) SONORA. new name 

Plate 9, FiGtnsE 6d ; Plate 10, Figures 6o-6c 

Phytalus debilis Horn, Trans Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 12, p. 122, 1885 (not 
LeConte, 1856). 

Male. — Highly polished, glabrous, rufotestaceous, varying at 
times almost to piceoiis. Head with front coarsely and moderately 
densely punctured, the punctures shallow, more or less umbilicate, 
usually separated by one to two times their diameters, a large im- 
punctate area on vertex; clypeal suture impressed, strongly biarcu- 
ate ; clypeus wide, relatively flat, apex narrowly emarginate, slightly 
reflexed, disk coarsely and sparsely punctured. Antennal club longer 
than funicle. Thorax with sides entire, obtusely rounded at middle, 
slightly sinuate behind, front and hind angles obtuse, the latter 
prominent; disk regularly punctured, the punctures separated by 
one to three times their diameters. Elytra sparsely and shallowly 
punctured. Pygidium flattened, sides slightly concave, very sparsely 
punctured, glabrous except for a few erect hairs on margin near the 
subtruncate apex. Abdomen slightly flattened and very sparsely 
punctured at middle; posterior half of segment 5 at center with a 
raised granulate lobe, the latter not quite reaching the apical margin 
of the segment, segment 6 narrowly and transversely impressed, with 
a row of cilia along apical margin. Posterior spurs free. 

Female. — More robust, clypeal suture more deeply impressed, faintly 
biarcuate; pygidium just before apex with a smooth slightly raised 
area, the apex of which has a single row of rather large punctures, 
each with a long erect hair; spurs long, apices rounded; abdomen 
convex, with segment 5 finely punctured in apical half, segment 6 
somewhat transversely impressed at base, sparsely punctured, apex 
ciliate; the 10-segmented unicolorous, dark antennae with the club 
elongate, equal to segment 3-7 combined; hind femora quite broad; 
otherwise similar to male. 

Length, 10-14 mm. Width, 5.5-6 mm. 

Remarks. — Most of the material is from Arizona: Tucson, Carr 
Canyon, Globe, Patagonia, and Badger, taken in June, July, and 
August. I have a dozen examples in my collection from Mexico, all 
collected in Rio Mayo, Sonora, by Howard Gentry, at Sierra 
Charuca (July), San Bernardo (July), and Vinaterio (June). The 
species has not been recorded from Mexico before. 

A not uncommon species of which the female has apparently not 
previously been recognized. In my collection is one individual of 
that sex from San Bernardo, Mexico (Gentry), from which the 
diagnosis has been drawn. The male pygidium may vary from 
almost flat to rather strongly convex. In some few examples, the 
sides of the thorax are very finely crenulate- 



U. S. SOVERNMCNT PRINTINS OFFICE: ISS9 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




' hy the 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Wa8hington: 1939 No. 3049 



NEW SPECIES OF POLYCHAETE WOEMS OF THE GENUS 
EUPHROSYNE, WITH NOTES ON EUPHROSYNE BORE- 
ALIS 0RSTED 



By Aaron L. Treadwelx. 



In a recent paper (Treadwell, 1937, p. 25) I identified as 
Euphrosyne borealis 0rsted some annelids collected in Greenland by 
Capt. Robert A. Bartlett. Later comparison of these with other 
members of the genus led me to question the accuracy of this iden- 
tification, and through the kindness of Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt I have 
had opportunity to examine all specimens of this genus in the col- 
lections of the United States National Museum. These were all 
labeled Euphrosyne horealis^ but it appears that three species are 
represented. 

Euphrosyne differs from the other members of the family 
Amphinomidae in that the neuropodia and notopodia are fused into 
a continuous ridge running from the ventrolateral border to the 
dorsal surface, leaving more or less of the middorsal region uncov- 
ered. The only species hitherto described from the northeastern 
coast of North America is E. horealis 0rsted (1842, p. 113). 0rsted's 
description is very brief, and the only addition to his account that 
I know is that of Mcintosh (1885, pp. 5-6; pi. 1, figs. 2, 3; pi. lA, 
figs. 4^6), who corrected ^rsted's statement that there are no dorsal 
cirri and gave some figures of the setae. To this account a few 
details may now be added. 

107282—39 169 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Genus EUPHROSYNE Savigny 

EUPHROSYNE BOREALIS 0rsted 
FiQUKE 46, a, 6 

Euphrosyna borealis 0bsted, 1842, p. 113. 

Body oval in outline ; length 14 mm, \Yidth 7 mm. The parapodial 
ridge is thickly set with setae and gills, the tips of the dorsal setae 
in each somite overlapping those of the opposite side, their bases 
leaving a median dorsal clear space hardly wider than one-eighth of 
the body diameter. The caruncle (fig. 46, a) extends onto the fourth 
setigerous somite and has three longitudmal lobes, the median cov- 
ering the laterals. At the anterior end of the caruncle lie tlie 
posterior eyes, overlapped by the basal portion of the median tentacle. 
This tentacle has a thickened, oval, basal portion that abruptly nar- 
rows distally into a slender process about one-third as long as the 
basal. An anterior pair of eyes lies on the ventral face of the 
prostomium and is not visible from above. In none of my material 
was I able to demonstrate the anterior paired tentacles that should 
lie at the level of the anterior eyes. In the other species these were 
easily seen. (See E. hranchiata below.) The dorsal cirrus is some- 
times difficult to see since it varies greatly in size. It is slender and, 
as noted by Mcintosh (1885, p. 6), is fastened to the body wall almost 
in contact with the base of the dorsalmost gill (fig. 46, h). The 
ventral cirrus is much larger and lies near the ventral end of the 
seta row, its base surrounded by the ventralmost setae. In two somites 
taken at random there were six and seven gills in a single row on 
the parapodial ridge of one side of the body. Some of these were 
single filaments, but others may be 2-, 3-, or 4-branched (fig. 46, h). 
0rsted described them as "bi-tripartitis." In the figure the dorsal 
cirrus is shown at the base of the gill. 

The ventralmost setae form a prominent tuft in which those nearest 
the ventral surface are the shortest. Dorsal to the tuft the setae 
are shorter and continue of uniform width to the end of the ridge. 
The setae are as figured by Mcintosh (1885, pi. lA, figs. 4-6). 

EUPHROSYNE BRANCHIATA. new species 

FiotTKE 46, c-f 

Description. — Body length 6-7 mm; width 2-3 mm. The body is 
elongate-oval in outline and somewhat less shaggy in appearance than 
others of this genus. The ventral setae are longer than the doi-sal 
and extend to a considerable distance from the body. Dorsal to this 
tuft of ventral setae the othei*s are much shorter, hardly longer than 
the gills. The caruncle extends to the fourth somite, and the median 

\ 



NEW SPECIES OF EUPHROSYNE TREADWELL 



171 



tentacle is about one-fourth as long as the caruncle. It is of uniform 
width throughout, lacking the slender terminal portion of E. horealis 
(fig. 46, c). The two pairs of eyes are situated as in horealis^ and 
near the ventral pair are two slender tentacles. From a dorsal view 
only the tips of these tentacles are visible. 

On the dorsal surface a clear space of about one-third the body 
width separates the upper ends of the parapodial ridges. At the 
ventral end of the ridge is a ventral cirrus with a tuft of long setae 
just dorsal to it. There follow rows of shorter setae with gills inter- 
spersed among them, and a dorsal cirrus is at the dorsal end of the 
row. In one row there were five gills, but I cannot say whether this 




Figure 46. — Species of Ecpheosynb 

a, 6, Euphrosyne lorealis 0rsted : a. Anterior end, x 6 ; b, gill and dorsal cirrus, x 22.5. 
c-f, Euphrosyne branchiata, new species : c. Anterior end, x 7.5 ; d, gill, x Q8; e, small 

seta, X 250 ; f, large dorsal seta, x 250. 
g-i, Euphrosyne longisetis, new species : g. Gill, x 22.5 ; h, smaller seta, x 185 ; i, larger 

seta, X 185. 

number is constant in all somites. The gills (fig. 46, d) are com- 
plexly branched and about as long as the setae. The long setae of 
the ventral tuft very considerably in width and in the size of the 
larger tooth but are all alike in general structure. At some distance 
from the apex is a sharp tooth followed by a narrowing to the 
curved, sharp apex. Just behind the apex is a very small, slender 
tooth (fig. 46, e) . In the row with the gills are shorter but heavier 
setae, which are hardly longer than the gills. They vary in size, 
but all have the general outline shown in figure 46, /. Some are 
smooth beyond the fork; others have the marginal lobing shown 
in the figure. 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Type.—U.S.l^M. no. 20412. Collected by the U. S. S. Albatross 
at station 2265, October 18, 1884, at latitude 37°07'40" N., longitude 
74°35'40" W., in 70 fathoms. 

Remarks. — In the character of the gills and setae this species agrees 
closely with E. armadillo Sars as described by Mcintosh (1900, pp. 
238-240, pi. 35, figs. 2, 8-14), and possibly it may be that species. 
Mcintosh described the median tentacle as biarticulate, by which I 
assume he meant like that figured for E. horealis^ but in the present 
specimens the terminal slender portion is not present. Also, the sub- 
terminal fine tooth on the seta is larger than is shown in Mcintosh's 
figure. 

EUPHROSYNE LONGISETIS. new Bpeciea 
FiGUBE 46, g-i 

Description. — Caruncle and median tentacle much as in E. 
horealis, except that in the tentacle the basal portion is much shorter 
and the terminal narrow part relatively much longer than borealis. 
The setae are of more uniform width than in other species and ex- 
tend to a greater distance from the body surface. It differs also from 
E. borealis in that the middorsal naked strip is much wider, being 
about as wide as one-third of the body width. In this respect it 
resembles E. hranchiata. The gills are cirruslike processes of uni- 
form diameter and generally unbranched (fig. 46, g)^ but in larger 
individuals a few may have two or three branches. On the para- 
podial ridge of one half somite there were six of these gills. Most 
of the setae are as shown in figure 46, A, having a conical subterminal 
tooth and the end of the seta blunt. In the dorsal part of the row 
the setae are as shown in figure 46, ?', differmg only slightly from 
those of E. boj^ealis. 

There is some difference in length between the ventral and the 
dorsal setae, this being more marked in large than in small indi- 
viduals. 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 338; labeled as collected in Greenland by 
Dr. Charles Liitkens. It is 15 mm long and 5 mm wide. 

Remarks. — This species is the commonest of the genus in tlie 
National Museum collections. It is recorded as taken in Massachu- 
setts Bay; off Head Harbor (probably U. S. Fish Commission station 
X, Aug. 2, 1872, Bay of Fundy, 2i/^ miles about southeast of Head 
Harbor Light, Campobello Island, 90 fathoms); Banquereau; and 
east end of Cobourg Island, Baffin Bay, latitude 75°40'' N., longitude 
78°50' W. 



LITERATURE CITED 

MclNTOSH, William Cabmichael. 

1885. Report on the Annelida Polychaeta collected by H. M. S. Challenger 

during the years 1873-76. Challenger Repts., Zoology, vol. 12, 

xxxYJ + 554 pp., 94 pis., map. 
1900. A monograph of the British marine annelids, vol. 1, pt. 2 (Am- 

phinomidae to Sigalionidae), pp. 215-444, pis. 24-^. Ray Society. 

0B8TED, Anders Sand^e, 

1842. Udtog af en Beskrivelse af Gr0nlands Annulata dorsibranchiata. 
Naturh. Tidsskrift, vol. 4, pp. 10&-127. 

Tbeadwell, Aaron Louis. 

1937. Polychaetous annelids collected by Captain Robert A. Bartlett in 
Greenland, Fox Basin, and Labrador. Journ. Washington Acad. 
Sci., vol. 27, pp. 23-36, 16 figs. 

173 



U. S. COVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1939 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued (j^flv S 0?M^ ^y '^^ 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Washington : 1939 No. 3050 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE 



By Alexander Wetmoee 



In continuation of studies begun last year in the east-central group 
of Statey, to secure needed material in birds and mammals for the 
United States National Museum, we conducted field work through 
the season of 1937 in the State of Tennessee. As in West Virginia 
in 1936, W. M. Perrygo of the National Museum was in charge of 
the field party; Carleton Lingebach assisted during the spring and 
Henry R. Schaefer during the fall. Traveling in a small truck, the 
party left Washington on April 3 and continued in the field until 
July 17, when work was terminated for the summer. In fall field 
work began on September 9 and continued to November 11. 

The following account presents in sufficient detail the results of 
studies of the birds obtained. A similar statement^ covering the 
mammals has been prepared by Dr. Remington Kellogg, assistant 
curator of mammals in the United States National Museum. 

In addition to remarks on the specimens obtained in 1937, I have 
included throughout this report reference to other skins from Ten- 
nessee in the National Museum so far as these have come to attention. 
Most of these were collected by W. H. Fox near Chattanooga and 
on Lookout Mountain in 1882 and near Rockwood in Roane County 
in the spring seasons of 1884 and 1885. Fox published only a few 
records from the Lookout Mountain area,^ but he gave a complete 
list of hi? observations in the latter region.^ It has seemed desirable 
to include his specimens so far as they have been found in order to 



1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 86, no. 3051. 

a Stray notes from Lookout Mountain, Tenn. Bull. Nuttall Orn. Club, 1882, pp. 191-192. 
»List of birds found in Roane County, Tennessee, during April, 1884, and March and 
April, 1885. Auk, 1886, pp. 315-320 ; 1887, p. 164. 

106951—39 1 175 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

bring their identification up to date, in view of the long period 
that has elapsed since his notes were published. Included also are 
notes on a few specimens from northeastern Tennessee collected by 
A. H. Howell in 1908 and 1910. 

All the data assembled are made available here for the use of 
those working on the list of birds of the State or occupied in other 
ways with the birds of Tennessee. I have not attempted to make 
an exhaustive search of literature for State records, as that is the 
province of those engaged on a complete report of all the birds that 
have been found in Tennessee. The notes include some records based 
on observations where specimens were not taken. 

Tennessee is so located geographically that it covers an area where 
there is intergradation between a number of forms, so that handling 
the present collection has been interesting and, in part, difficult. That 
a region of mergence is covered should be borne in mind in reading 
the following notes, as otherwise some of the statements may be mis- 
understood. Assignment of names has been made only after careful 
consideration of the characters found in the individual specimens. 

Our work was carried on under permits granted by Howell Buntin, 
Director of Game and Fish, Department of Conservation of Tennessee. 
We are deeply indebted to Mr. Buntin for his cooperation and to 
the officers under his direction throughout the State, who were 
uniformly of assistance. The National Park Service courteously 
granted permission for work in the Great Smoky Mountains Na- 
tional Park, where our party had the friendly assistance of J. R. 
Eakin, superintendent, and of Arthur Stupka, park naturalist. Ar- 
rangements for investigations in the Unaka National Forest were 
made through the courtesy of J. B. Spring, district forest ranger at 
Bristol, and in the Cherokee National Forest through J. W. Cooper, 
district forest ranger at Cleveland. 

Everywhere in Tennessee our party had friendly reception from 
citizens and landowners, who aided in many ways, particularly in 
granting permission to enter on their lands. We are much in- 
debted for this assistance, without which the work would not have 
been possible. 

ITINERARY 

The collecting work was planned so as to cover the different sec- 
tions of Tennessee as completely as possible in the time available. 
As stated above, the party had a small truck for transportation. 
Work began in the southwestern corner of the State with head- 
quarters at Ellendale, not far from Memphis, and covered Shelby 
and western Fayette Counties during the period from April 8 to 22. 
Important collections were made in a large area of cypress swamp 
near Hickory Withe, where permission for hunting over an exten- 



NOTES ON THE BIKDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 177 

sive tract was courteously afforded by A. Weber. On April 23 the 
party moved to a new base near Union City to remain until May 
8, collecting principally in the region adjacent to Reelfoot Lake. 
Through permission of the State authorities these investigations 
covered the lake and that part of the adjacent shore included in 
the State reserve. Dr. Herbert Friedmann joined the party here 
from May 2 to May 5. 

On May 9 Perrygo moved to Waynesboro, where collections were 
made until May 19 in a region of forested hills extending 10 miles 
to the north and covering sections on the Green River and near 
Flat Woods on the Buffalo River. 

The party then moved to a point near Crossville, on the Cumber- 
land Plateau. Collections were made here until May 31 over a con- 
siderable area, mainly on Birds Creek and near Pikeville and Mel- 
vine. The men then proceeded to the mountainous area of eastern 
Tennessee, and on June 1 through the friendly permission of Roy 
P. Blevins made camp on a grassy area above Beaverdam Creek 
behind the post office at Shady Valley. From this camp, at 2,900 feet 
elevation, there was easy access to the Holston Mountains on the west 
and to the Iron Mountains on the east, while to the south collections 
were made on Cross Mountain and in the valley to the south as far 
as Carter. I joined the party here from June 5 to 8. Perrygo and 
Lingebach remained in this region until June 16. 

On June 17 the men drove south to Gatlinburg in the Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park, where through arrangements made by J. R. 
Eakin, park superintendent, and Arthur Stupka, park naturalist, they 
located next day at a camp 4l^ miles southwest of Cosby at an eleva- 
tion of 2,700 feet, a point highly advantageous for the work in hand. 
From here studies were made on Cosby Knob, White Rock, Inadu 
Knob, Snake Den Mountain, Old Black Mountain, and Mount Guyot, 
the work extending to elevations of 6,600 feet. Much valuable and 
important material was obtained, the work continuing until July 5. 
Mount Guyot proved most fruitful for Canadian Zone birds. 

On July 6 camp was made at Ocoee in the Cherokee National Forest, 
through the kind permission of the district forest ranger, J. W. 
Cooper. In this region collections were made on Big Frog Mountain 
to elevations of over 4,000 feet, and on the dry, pine-covered slopes 
of Beans Mountain. Birds were most abundant between 1,800 and 
3,000 feet. The party broke camp for the return to Washington on 
July 16. 

In fall Perrygo left Washington on September 9, accompanied by 
Henry R. Schaefer, and on the following day called on the district 
forest ranger in Bristol, Tenn., to arrange permission for work on the 
lower slopes of Roan Mountain. That afternoon they drove up the 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

mountain, with some difficulty due to wet and slippery roads, and 
camped at 6,200 feet elevation. On September 13 camp was moved to 
the eastern side of the summit, and two days later the men secured a 
cabin as a necessary shelter from the almost constant fog and rain. 
While through force of circumstances the camp was located across 
the State boundary in North Carolina, all collections were made in 
Tennessee. There was much migration movement among the smaller 
birds here, black-throated blue warblers and red-eyed vireos being 
particularly abundant. Birds were obtained from altitudes of 4,200 
feet below Carvers Gap to 6,200 feet across the summit of the moun- 
tain. After the extreme heat of the lowlands the cool air of this high 
mountain was almost reminiscent of winter. 

On September 25 the men moved down to Elizabethton and the 
following day established a base near Bean Station 12 miles northeast 
of Rutledge in Grainger County for work in the Clinch Mountains. 
This area proved to be rather dry, with a mixed second-growth forest 
of pine and hardwood, with little of note except a considerable mi- 
gration of wood warblers. Collections were made here until October 
2. The following two days were occupied in driving across to Reel- 
foot Lake, where on October 4 the party located in a cabin on the 
western shore of the lake, 4 miles northeast of Tiptonville. Plans 
called for work here until October 23 to follow the fall migration, 
but results were less than had been expected as birds were only fairly 
common and often hard to find because of strong winds that made 
them seek cover. Trips were made on the lake by means of boats, 
and the western and southern shore lines and adjacent regions were 
covered from near Samburg around to Ridgely. They also worked 
along the Hickman-Reelfoot Levee near the Mississippi River. 

From October 24 to 31 the party located in the tobacco-growing 
section at Clarksville, collecting along the Cumberland River near 
Dover and Indian Mound and also working in heavy woods north of 
the latter point. On November 1 the work was transferred to a 
farming section in Lincoln and Giles Counties with headquarters at 
Fayetteville. Most of the specimens secured here were obtained in the 
vicinity of Pulaski and of Frankewing, near where there is a con- 
siderable tract of heavy timber. Work terminated on November 10, 
and the following day the party reached Washington. 

Family COLYMBIDAE 

PODILYMBUS PODICEPS PODICEPS (Linnaeus): Pied-billed Grebe 

An adult female was taken on May 14, 1937, on the Green River 
about 8 miles north of Waynesboro, Wayne County. It does not 
seem probable that the bird was on its breeding grounds, as suitable 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 179 

cover for nesting was not available. On October 8 an immature 
female, with the streakings on the head of the juvenile plumage, was 
shot on Eeelfoot Lake about 6 miles northeast of Tiptonville. Others 
were seen here on October 21. A bird only recently hatched was 
taken on Eeelfoot Lake on May 25, 1938. 

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE 

PHALACROCORAX AURITUS AURITUS (Lesson): Double-crested 

Cormorant 

Common on Eeelfoot Lake, where 12 were seen on May 7. Many 
were recorded from October 6 to 21. A female in brown plumage, 
taken 6 miles northeast of Tiptonville on October 8, is typical in size 
of the larger, northern race, having the following measurements: 
Wing 311, tail 140, culmen from base 56.2, and tarsus 64.8 nmi. 

Family ANHINGIDAE 

ANHINGA ANHINGA (Linnaeus): Water-turkey 

On Eeelfoot Lake two were seen on April 26 and another on 
May 1. 

Family ARDEIDAE 

CASMERODIUS ALBUS EGRETTA (Gmelin): American Egret 

Observed at Eeelfoot Lake from April 24 to May 7 and from 
October 5 to 22. 

BUTORIDES VIRESCENS VIRESCENS (Linnaeus) : Eastern Green Heron 

Observed as follows: Hickory Withe, April 14; Eads, April 21; 
Hornbeak, May 4; Eeelfoot Lake, 6 miles northeast of Tiptonville, 
October 6; Waynesboro, May 13 and 18; Pikeville, May 31; Eogers- 
ville, June 1 ; Shady Valley, June 3 to 9. 

NYCTICORAX NYCTICORAX HOACTLI (Gmelin): Black-crowned Night 

Heron 

Eecorded at Eeelfoot Lake April 30, May 7, and October 5. 

BOTAURUS LENTIGINOSUS (Montagu): American Bittern 

One seen at Eeelfoot Lake May 6. 

IXOBRYCHUS EXILIS EXILIS (Gmelin): Eastern Least Bittern 

On Green Island, Eeelfoot Lake, two were seen on May 7, and a 
female was taken. 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol 86 

Family ANATIDAE 

QUERQUEDULA DISCORS (Linnaeus): Blue-winged Teal 

Six seen on Reelfoot Lake on October 21. 

AIX SPONSA (Linnaeus): Wood Duck 

Seen regularly at Reelfoot Lake from April 29 to May 7 and Octo- 
ber 6 to 21. 

Family CATHARTIDAE 

CATHARTES AURA SEPTENTRIONALIS Wied: Eastern Turkey Vulture 

The turkey vulture was observed regularly tlioiigli not in great 
abundance in all the localities where collections were made from the 
Mississippi River to the mountains along the eastern border. On 
October 24 a flock of 34 passed traveling south, evidently in migra- 
tion. Three specimens taken, all females, one from Hickory Withe, 
Fayette County, April 10, and two from near Ridgely, Lake County, 
October 15, have the measurements assigned to the eastern form as 
defined by Dr. Friedmann,* the wings being 530, 532, and 538 nmi, 
and the tails 279, 283, and 287 imn. 

CORAGYPS ATRATUS (Meyer): Black Vulture 

Records for the black vulture are as follows : Eads, April 21 ; Ellen- 
dale, April 19; Reelfoot Lake, April 29, October 12-19; Union City, 
May 24; Pulaski, November 1-4; Frankewing, November 8; and 
Crossville, May 24. None were recorded from the higher elevations 
of the eastern mountain section, though the species is found there on 
occasion. 

On October 12 a male was taken near Phillippy, Lake County, in the 
vicinity of Reelfoot Lake. This bird has a wing measurement of 415 
mm. Friedmann,'' through examination of considerable material, has 
confirmed the impression of other workers tliat there is no appreciable 
difference in size between the black vultures of North America and of 
South America, so that subspecies in this group cannot be recognized. 
In the A. O. U. Check-list for 1931 this bird is listed as Coi^agyps 
otratus atratus. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE 

ACCIPITER STRIATUS VELOX (Wilson): Sharp-shinned Hawk 

Seen at Reelfoot Lake on October 16; Union City, April 30; Indian 
Mound, Cmnberland River, October 29; near Bean Station on Clinch 



* Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 46, Oct. 26, 1933, p. \i 
'ilbid., pp. 187-188. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 181 

Mountain, September 27; in Sliady Valley, June 9 (one chasing a 
quail) ; and at 6,000 feet elevation on Roan Mountain September 13 
and 14. 

As the sharp-shinned haAvk of the United States is conspecific with 
the West Indian races, it must bear the specific designation striatus of 
Vieillot as indicated above, since this name antedates in publication 
velox of Wilson. It is given in the A. O. U. Check-list for 1931 as 
Accipiter velox velox through error. 

ACCIPITER COOPERII (Bonaparte) : Cooper's Hawk 

A common species, recorded at Ellendale, April 20 ; Hickory Withe, 
April 9 ; Reelfoot Lake, April 29 and October 7 ; Tiptonville, October 
18 ; 12 miles northwest of Waynesboro, May 13 ; near Pulaski, Novem- 
ber 2 and 3 ; Crossville, May 28 ; Shady Valley, June 3 and 5 ; Roan 
Mountain, September 13 and 22; and 4 miles southeast of Cosby, 
June 29. 

BUTEO JAMAICENSIS BOREALIS (Gmelin): Eastern Red-tailed Hawk 

Recorded as follows: Ellendale, April 7 (partial albino) ; Samburg, 
October 18; Tiptonville, October 20; Waynesboro, May 16; Pulaski, 
November 2; Fayetteville, November 3; Frankewing, November 4; 
Birds Creek near Crossville, May 26 ; 3 miles north of Pikeville, May 
28; Clinch Mountain, west of Bean Station, September 27 and 28; 
6 miles northeast of Shady Valley, June 3 ; Roan Mountain, Septem- 
ber 20 and 23 ; Great Smoky Mountains, southeast of Cosby, June 19, 
SI, and 27, and Inadu Knob, a pair from June 25 to 29; Big Frog 
Mountain, July 10. Listed in the A. O. U. Check-list for 1931 as 
Buteo horealis horealis. 

BUTEO LINEATUS LINEATUS (Gmelin): Northern Red-shouldered Hawk 

The red-shoulder was fairly common, being recorded at the follow- 
ing points: Frayser, April 8; Hickory Withe, April 12 to 22 (three 
taken) ; near Reelfoot Lake, April 24 to May 5 and October 7 to 20; 
Dover, October 30; Pulaski, November 3; Melvine, May 21; and 
Kingston, June 1. 

The three specimens secured at Hickory Withe, Fayette County, on 
April 12, 13, and 15 include one male and two females. These are 
somewhat intermediate toward the southern form Buteo lineatus 
alleni but appear decidedly nearer to true liineatus and are identified 
as that subspecies. Measurements are as follows: Male, wing 309, 
tail 203, culmen from cere 20.4, tarsus 78.3 mm; two females, wing 
331, 327, tail 206, 199, culmen from cere 23.3, 23.3, tarsus 81.5, 82.1 mm. 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

The male is within the minimum range of lineatus and the maximum 
of alleni. The crown is slightly graj^er than most lineatus but is defi- 
nitely browner than typical alUni. The back is well marked with 
brown, agreeing with lineatus^ while below the bird is light, as in 
alleni. Both females are definitely like lineatus above and both are 
darker below than the male. Their measurements, while within the 
maximum for alleni^ are larger than the average for that form. 

The birds from Hickory AVithe were on their breeding grounds, 
and may be considered representative of the species from that region. 

BUTEO PLATYPTERUS PLATYPTERUS (Vieillot): Broad-winged Hawk 

Seen near Waynesboro, May 10, and 10 miles east of Pulaski, No- 
vember 2. In the mountain area one was recorded 4 miles southeast 
of Cosby on June 29, and others at 2,000 feet elevation on Big Frog 
Mountain on July 10 and 15. An immature was taken on July 10, 
8 miles southwest of Copperhill on Big Frog Mountain. 

AQUILA CHRYSAiiTOS CANADENSIS (Linnaeus): Golden Eagle 

On Roan Mountain one was seen over the summit on September 12 
and another on September 14. 

HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS LEUCOCEPHALUS (Linnaeus): 
Southern Bald Eagle 

On April 29 a bald eagle was seen at R^elfoot Lake, and a nest that 
may have been abandoned was recorded. In fall one or two were 
observed regularly from October 6 to 23. 

CIRCUS CYANEUS HUDSONIUS (Linnaeus): Marsh Hawk 

Seen at Reelfoot Lake, October 5, 19, and 21; Huntingdon, April 7; 
Dover, October 26 and 30; and near Pulaski, November 2 and 4. In 
Carvers Gap on Roan Mountain two were seen daily from September 
13 to 23, feeding over the grassy bald and occasionally flying over the 
low spruces. 

While given in the fourth edition of the A. O. U. Check-list (1931) 
as Circus hudsonius, current usage today recognizes the North Ameri- 
can marsh hawk as a geographic race of the Old World hen-harrier, 
Circus cyaneus. The difference between these two is found in the 
more heavily spotted under surface in the adult male of the American 
bird (this being regularly without spots in cyaneus) and in the darker 
coloration of the female and immature. The two are quite distinct 
but seem so allied as to belong to the same specific group. 



NOTES OK THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 183 

PANDION HALIAETUS CAROLINENSIS: Osprey 

An osprey was seen on Reel foot Lake on October 7 and another 3 
miles north of Waynesboro on May 12. 

Family FALCONIDAE 

FALCO PEREGRINUS ANATUM Bonaparte: Duck Hawk 

Near Walnut Lodge on Reelfoot Lake, October 14, a duck hawk 
swooped repeatedly at a barred owl. In the Great Smoky Mountains 
one was recorded on Mount Guyot at 6,300 feet on June 29 and 
another on Inadu Knob at 5,700 feet on June 30. One was noted 
at 6,200 feet on Eoan Mountain, September 16. 

FALCO SPARVERIUS SPARVERIUS Linnaeus: Eastern Sparrow Hawk 

The only sparrow hawk obtained was a male collected at an eleva- 
tion of 2,150 feet on Beans Mountain, 2^/2 miles northeast of Parks- 
ville, Polk County, on July 13, 1937. This bird has the wing 183, 
tail 109.5, culmen from cere 12.5, and tarsus 37 mm. The breast is 
nearly immaculate, but there are scattered spots over the abdomen. 
There is also in the National Museum a female, taken by W. H. Fox 
on Lookout Mountain, March 31, 1882, that held an egg ready to be 
laid. This bird has the following measurements: Wing 183, tail 
114, culmen from cere 13.5, tarsus 34.4 mm. In short tail and fine 
streaking of under surface this bird shows some approach to paulus 
but is considered to represent sparverius. 

Interesting sight records by Perrygo include a sparrow hawk at 
3,700 feet in the Great Smoky Mountains, June 21; two on Big 
Frog Mountain near Copperhill, July 8; and others on Roan Moun- 
tain at 5,900 feet on September 12 and at 5,500 feet on September 13. 

Family TETRAONIDAE 

BONASA UMBELLUS TOGATA (Linnaeus): Canada Ruffed Grouse 

Three specimens taken include one from Shady Valley, June 4 ; one 
from 6,300 feet elevation on Roan Mountain, September 25 ; and one 
from 6,600 feet on Mount Guyot in the Great Smoky Mountains, 
June 21. All these display the heavily barred under parts and the 
amount of brown in the under tail coverts that characterize this 
race.® 



« See Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 84, 1937, pp. 406-407. 
106951—39 2 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol, 86 

In addition to the specimens listed the ruffed grouse was recorded 
by Perrygo as follows: One was heard 5 miles east of Crossville on 
Birds Creek on May 28 and another in the Clinch Mountains 6 miles 
southwest of Bean Station on September 29. In the Holston Moun- 
tains above Shady Valley grouse were common' in June, and females 
with young were recorded from June 11 to 15. On June C on Iron 
Mountain I saw two females with young, one brood of half a dozen 
being as large as quail. In the Great Smoky Mountains Perrygo 
found two broods on Cosby Knob at 5,000 feet on June 19 and re- 
corded others on Mount Guyot, June 21, on Snake Den Mountain, 
June 23, and on Inadu Kjiob, July 2. Two were drumming on July 
13 at 2.100 feet on Big Frog Mountain. 

Family PERDICIDAE 

COLINUS VIRGINIANUS VIRGINIANUS (Linnaeus): Eastern Bobwhite 

Recorded at many localities. An adult male was taken at Shady 
Valley on June 10. 

Family MELEAGRIDIDAE 

MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO SILVESTRIS Vieillot: Eastern Turkey J 

One seen at 6,100 feet on Old Black Mountain in the Great Smokies 
on June 27. 

Family RALLIDAE 

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS CACHINNANS Bangs: Florida Gallinule 

On Reelfoot Lake an adult and an immature gallinule were taken 
on October 6, and nine others were seen on October 21. 

FULICA AMERICANA AMERICANA Gmelin: American Coot 

On Reelfoot Lake three coots were seen on April 26 and eight on 
May 7. In fall they were common from October 6 to 21, specimens 
being taken October 6 and 8. 

Family CHARADRIIDAE 
OXYECHUS VOCIFERUS VOCIFERUS (Linnaeus): Killdeer 

A male was taken at Hornbeak, Obion County, on May 4. Another 
was collected by W. H. Fox at Rockwood on March 9, 1885. 

While the killdeer is evidently allied to the plovers usually placed 
in the genus Charadrius, the decidedly longer and more graduated 
tail and the distinct color pattern seem to me to warrant its separation 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 185 

in a distinct genus, instead of listing it in Charadrius as proposed by 
Peters.'' 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE 

PHILOHELA MINOR (Gmelin): American Woodcock 

One was observed in Shady "Valley on June 11 and another at 
5,000 feet elevation on Cosby Knob, in the Great Smoky Mountains, 
on June 19. 

CAPELLA DELICATA (Ord): Wilson's Snipe 

One was seen 6 miles east of Pulaski on November 4. There is one 
in the National Museum taken at Eockwood, March 9, 1885, by W. H. 
Fox. 

TRINGA SOLITARIA SOLITARIA Wilson: Eastern Solitary Sandpiper 

Solitary sandpipers were seen near Phillippy on April 27 and near 
Keelfoot Lake on April 29. On April 15 near Hickory Withe three 
were seen and two were shot, one being the eastern form, a female 
with a wing measurement of 134 mm. A specimen collected by W. H. 
Fox at Kockwood on April 22, 1885, with a wing of 135.4 mm, is 
also the eastern form, though slightly intermediate. 

TRINGA SOLITARIA CINNAMOMEA (Brewster): Western Solitary 

Sandpiper 

A female taken in company with one of the eastern race 3 miles 
west of Hickory Withe, Fayette County, April 15, has the following 
measurements: Wing 140.5, tail 61.3, culmen from base 32.5, and 
tarsus 31.9 mm. In addition to large size this specimen has the white 
spottings on the back reduced and the inner web of the outermost 
primary distinctly marbled with whitish. 

This western race must be considered only casual in its occurrence 
so far east of its normal range. 

FamUy COLUMBIDAE 

ZENAIDURA MACROURA CAROLINENSIS (Linnaeus) : Eastern Mourning 

Dove 

The widely distributed mourning dove was recorded in all the areas 
visited both in spring and in fall. Specimens identified as the eastern 
form caroUnensis were collected 2 and 8 miles north of Waynesboro, 
May 12 and 13 ; near Rockwood, April 8, 1884 (taken by W. H. Fox) ; 



T Check-list of birds of the world, vol. 2, 1934, pp. 252-253. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.80 

and 3 miles north of Pikeville, Bledsoe County, May 21. The last 
is an immature male in juvenal dress. An immature male, supposed 
to be a migrant from farther north, was secured 7 miles northeast 
of Tiptonville, Lake County, October 20, 1937. The eastern race 
appears to be the breeding form of Tennessee except in the extreme 
west. It is almost certain that it extends clear to the Mississippi 
River from fall until the opening of spring, as in that period many 
northern migrants invade the State. 

ZENAIDURA MACROURA MARGINELLA (Woodhouse): Western 

Mourning Dove 

A pair of mourning doves taken 4 miles southeast of Hickory 
Withe, Fayette County, on April 20 show definitely the paler color 
above and below that characterizes the western form. A male se- 
cured at Hornbeak, Obion County, May 4, also belongs here though 
slightly darker in color and therefore somewhat intermediate toward 
the eastern bird. An immature male taken 7 miles northeast of Tip- 
tonville in Lake County on October 20 is also somewhat intermediate, 
being darker on the dorsal surface, but it is nearer marginella. Ap- 
parently the western bird is the mourning dove of the extreme western 
part of Tennessee, in the northwest intergrading with carolinensis^ 
the eastern race. Further details as to the range of marginella will 
be of interest, especially with regard to specimens that are definitely 
breeding. 

Family CUCULIDAE 

COCCYZUS AMERICANUS AMERICANUS (Linnaeus): Yellow-billed 

Cuckoo 

The first one of the season was collected on May 1 near Horn- 
beak, Obion County. In fall another was secured and others were 
seen on October 18 near Tiptonville. Near Waynesboro yellow -billed 
cuckoos were common from May 10 to 18, and two were taken. Others 
were found near Pikeville on May 28 and 31 (one collected on the 
latter date). They were recorded at 2,700 feet elevation near Cosby 
on June 25, at 2,000 feet on Big Frog Mountain on July 14, and on 
the same day at 2,900 feet on Beans Momitain near Parksville, where 
one was taken. 

COCCYZUS ERYTHROPTHALMUS (Wilson): Black-billed Cuckoo 

The two specimens taken of this cuckoo include a female from 
Obion County near Eeelfoot Lake on April 30. Others were seen in 
this area near Hornbeak on May 6 and on Caney Island on May 7. 
Another female was shot 4 miles east of Waynesboro on Buffalo 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 187 

River, May 17. One was recorded from Low Gap near Cosby in the 
Great Smoky Mountains on June 19. 

Family STRIGIDAE 

OTUS ASIO ASIO (Linnaeus): Southern Screech Owl 

A male taken 6 miles east of Frankewing in Lincoln County on 
November 9, with a wing measurement of 150 mm, belongs to the 
southern race, as defined by Bangs.^ A female collected on Lookout 
Mountain on March 20, 1882, by W. H. Fox, has a wing measurement 
of 160 mm and is also this form. On this basis the southern screech 
owl has a more extensive range through the southern section of 
Tennessee than has been supposed. 

BUBO VIRGINIANUS VIRGINIANUS (Gmelin): Great Homed Owl 

On September 20 a male was secured at 5,500 feet elevation in 
Carvers Gap on Roan Mountain. This species is not included in 
A. F. Ganier's list of the birds of Roan Mountain.^ 

STRIX VARIA VARIA Barton: Northern Barred Owl 

A male taken at Shady Valley on June 7 and a female from 3,500 
feet elevation on Snake Den Mountain (Cocke County) in the Great 
Smoky Mountains have the feathering on the toes extending down 
past the middle of the final joint, as is characteristic of the northern 
race. It is supposed that others heard or seen at 5,000 feet on Roan 
Mountain on September 22 and on Cosby Knob (5,000 feet), Inadu 
Knob (5,700 feet), and near Cosby (2,700 feet) between June 19 and 
June 29 were of this same race. 

One heard on Big Frog Mountain is of doubtful status. 

STRIX VARIA GEORGICA Latham: Florida Barred Owl 

Two young barred owls about two-thirds grown, taken near Eads, 
Shelby County, on April 20, have the distal joints of the toes entirely 
bare except for a narrow line of feathers down the side of the central 
toe. These are characteristic of the southern form. An immature 
about three-quarters grown, secured near Hickory Withe, April 22, 
seems somewhat intermediate, as the feathering comes down nearly 
to the middle on the two lateral toes and to about one-third of the 
length of the middle toe with a line down the outer side. This seems 
somewhat intermediate but is nearer the southern bird. An adult 
male, taken 3 miles south of Ridgely in Lake County on October 14, 

«Auk, 1930, p. 404. 
"Migrant, 1936, pp. 83-86. 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

has the outer toe with the proximal tliird feathered and a line of 
feathers down the inner side nearly to the end, the distal joint of 
the middle toe bare except for a fairly heavy line down its outer side, 
and the inner toe bare for half the distal joint, being somewhat inter- 
mediate but nearer the southern bird. These owls were noted in 
the vicinity of Reelf oot Lake on April 26 and May 7 and from Octo- 
ber 7 to 16. There is no question that Leon Kelso ^" is correct in 
indicating that Strix georgica of Latham " applies to the southern 
form of the barred owl, currently known as Stnx varia alleni Ridg- 
way.^2 In addition to the characters discussed by Kelso, it may be 
noted that Latham includes his Strix georgica in the group 
Inaunculatae^ as distinguised from his Auriculatae, pennis auricu- 
latum instar extantium^ showing clearly that he was describing a 
smooth-headed bird. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE 

ANTROSTOMUS CAROLINENSIS (Gmelin) : Chuck-will's-widow 

Heard calling near Ellendale on April 20 and 1 mile east of 
Waynesboro on May 10 and 11. 

ANTROSTOMUS VOCIFERUS VOCIFERUS (Wilson): Eastern 
Whip-poor-will 

Specimens were taken 9 and 10 miles north of Waynesboro on 
May 11 and 12 and 4 miles south of Crossville on May 29. Whip- 
poor-wills were heard in Shady Valley from June 1 to 13, 4 miles 
southeast of Cosby at 2,700 feet elevation on June 24, and on Big 
Frog Mountain on July 14. 

Family MICROPODIDAE 

CHAETURA PELAGICA (Linnaeus): Chimney Swift 

In the wilder sections of the Great Smoky Mountains from June 
19 to 30 chimney swifts were found nesting in hollow trees on 
Mount Guyot, Inadu Knob, and Old Black Mountain. A male was 
taken near Cosby on June 19. On July 10 several pairs were ob- 
served about old trees at 3,700 feet elevation on Big Frog Mountain, 
and it was supposed that they were using them for nesting sites. 



i» Auk, 1933, pp. 106-107. 

^1 Strix Oeorgica Latham, Supplemontum indicia ornithologlci, 1801, p. rv (southern 
Georgia). 

^ Strix nebulosa alleni Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 3, 1880, p. 8 (Clearwater, 
Fla.). 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 189 

Family TROCHILIDAE 

ARCHILOCHUS COLUBRIS (Linnaeus): Ruby-throated Hummingbird 

The first of the season was recorded at Hickory Withe on April 
21. Two females were taken in Shady Valley on June 5 and 10. 

Family ALCEDINIDAE 

MEGACERYLE ALCYON ALCYON (Linnaeus) : Eastern Belted Kingfisher 

Observed at the following places: Hickory Withe, April 15; Reel- 
foot Lake, April 24 to May 6 and October 11 and 14; Beech Creek, 
12 miles northwest of Waynesboro, May 13; Buffalo River, 4 miles 
east of Flat Woods, May 17 ; Pulaski, November 1. 

Family PICIDAE 
COLAPTES AURATUS AURATUS (Linnaeus): Southern Flicker 

The southern race of the flicker, marked by smaller size, is found 
through the greater part of the State, ranging east at least as far as 
Crossville and in the southeast to Beans Mountain. Records of 
breeding birds assigned to this form (with the wing measurements 
given in millimeters in parentheses) are as follows: Frayser, 4 miles 
east of Memphis, April 8, female (148.6) ; Hickory Withe, April 9, 
female (146) ; 4 miles west of Hornbeak, Obion County, May 3, male 
(149), female (148.2) ; 8 miles north of Waynesboro, May 13, female 
(151, a little larger than the average) ; T miles southwest of Cross- 
ville, May 26, two males (148, 150.5). 

The flickers of the eastern mountain section are somewhat puzzling. 
Those of Shady Valley are definitely the northern form luteus^ as is 
shown in the following account of that form. However, an adult 
male taken at 5,000 feet elevation on Cosby Knob in the Great Smoky 
Mountains June 19, in fresh plumage with the wing not worn, meas- 
ures only 149 mm. On the basis of size it is to be called auratus and 
may be either a specimen from a point where intergradation between 
the two birds begins or a wanderer from the nearby lowlands. In 
view of the strong flights made by flickers through mountain areas, 
the latter is possible. More specimens are needed from the Great 
Smoky Mountain area to determine the status of the bird in that sec- 
tion. A male taken on July 14 at 1,800 feet on Beans Mountain in the 
southeastern section of the State measures 148.5 mm. This mountain 
does not rise to high elevation. On the higher mass of Big Frog 
Mountain a little farther south and east the flicker population seems 
distinctly mixed, as in two females taken at 2,100 feet on July 15 
the wing in one measures 149 mm, agreeing thus with auratus, while 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

in the other it is 156.5 mm, being well within the limit of luteus. Ap- 
parently the two forms are definitely in contact at this point, so a mixed 
population is present. 

Specimens assigned to auratus taken in fall include a male from 
Tiptonville, October 6 (wing 150), and another from Frankewing, 
Lincoln County, November 3 (wing 150.2). 

The male from Cosby Knob has a few red feathers in the black 
malar stripe near the center of the dorsal margin on either side. A 
male from Crossville has a few red leathers along the anterior edge 
of the stripe. Other males in the series secured have this mark 
entirely black. 

COLAPTES AURATUS LUTEUS Bangs: Northern Flicker 

In the material collected in 1937 the northern flicker is represented 
by breeding birds in specimens from the mountain area, along the 
eastern border of the State. Three birds from the vicinity of Shady 
Valley in Johnson Count}' are definitely this form, a male taken on 
June 3 at 2,800 feet near the base of the Holston Mountains having 
a wing measurement of 154 mm and two females secured on June 5 
at 2,900 feet elevation near Shady Valley post office measuring 159.5 
and 154,5 mm. All three have the ends of the primaries considerably 
worn. Apparently it is near this point that the northern and southern 
birds begin to mix, as it will be recalled that one from Cosby Knob has 
the measurements of auratus. One female taken by Perrj-go on Big 
Frog Mountain at 2,100 feet on July 15 has a wing measurement of 
156.5 mm, equaling luteus^ though another specimen secured the same 
day has the small size of auratus. 

While auratus is indicated as the breeding bird at Hornbeak in 
Obion County, apparentlj^ luteus may extend across the northern 
border of the State from a short distance farther east, as a male col- 
lected by R. J. Thompson at Danville on the Tennessee River on June 
29, 1892, has the wing 154 mm, and one secured by A. H. Howell at 
3,400 feet elevation on Cross Mountain near the boundai-y of Anderson 
and Campbell Counties on August 15, 1908, measures 158.5 mm. 

From fall to spring the northem form covers the entire State. 
Dates of interest in the specimens before me include a female from 
Hickory Withe, April 9 (155), and a female from 2,000 feet elevation 
in the Clinch Mountains, 3 miles west of Bean Station shot September 
28 (wing 153). Possibly the latter is a representative of the breeding 
stock of its area. Others were obtained as follows: Reelfoot Lake, 
October 16; Samburg, October 11; Indian Mound, Stewart County, 
October 28 ; Pulaski, November 2 ; Lookout Mountain, March 24 and 
25, 1882 (W. H. Fox) ; and Rockwood, March 15, 1885 (W. H. Fox). 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 191 

COLAPTES AURATUS BOREALIS Ridgway": Boreal Flicker 

Though not induded in the fourth edition of the A. O. U. Check- 
list in 1931, I can see no reason for not recognizing the boreal flicker 
of Ridgway, with a breeding range across the north from Labrador 
to Alaska and extending south from the northern limit of trees to the 
northern border of the United States from northern Minnesota to 
eastern Montana. The majority of the breeding birds from this area 
have wing measurements ranging from 160 to 171 mm, dimensions 
that are considerably more than those of G. a. luteus to the south. 
When birds of this maximiun size occur in the south it is during fall, 
winter, and spring, when they may be assumed to be migrants from 
the north. 

Two of these large northern birds are included in the collection 
from Tennessee — a male taken by W. H. Fox at Rockwood on April 
1, 1885 (wing 164), and a female from Hickory Withe secured by 
Perry go and Lingebach on April 12, 1937 (wing 164). 

CEOPHLOEUS PILEATUS PILEATUS (Linnaeus): Southern Pileated 

Woodpecker 

Specimens of this fine woodpecker were obtained as follows: Reel- 
foot Lake (Obion County), April 26; 4 miles west of Hornbeak, May 
3 ; 8 miles north of Waynesboro, May 14 ; 6 miles east of Frankewing, 
in Lincoln County, November 3; 7 miles southwest of Crossvilie, May 
27 ; Rockwood, April 12, 1884, and Roane County, April 6, 1885 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 10 ; 4 miles southeast of Cosby, Cocke 
County, at 2,700 feet in the Great Smoky Mountains, June 30; Big 
Frog Mountain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 10 and 12. 
After careful comparison of this excellent series all are identified as 
of the typical race pileatus. The wing in males ranges from 216.5 to 
229 mm, except for one from Crossvilie that measures 236.6 ; in females 
from 213 to 225.7 mm. The large individual from Crossvilie is within 
the minimum range for G. f. abieticola and is a strong, robust bird. 
Though it stands out rather sharply from the others and appears 
somewliat intermediate, it is not sufficiently large in my opinion to call 
it the northern subspecies. It will be noted that birds from the moun- 
tains near the eastern border agree in size with pileatus, a male from 
Shady Valley (2,900 feet) having the wing 222.5 mm and a female 
from near Cosby (2,700 feet) in the Great Smoky Mountains measur- 
ing 223.5 mm. 

The pileated woodpecker was especially common in Lake and Obion 
Counties in the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake. One was seen near Hickory 

^ Colaptea av.ratus borealis Ridgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 24, Feb. 2-1, 1911, 
p, 31 (Nulato, lower Yukon River, Alaska). 
106951—39 3 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Withe on April 10, but residents in Fayette and Shelby Counties 
considered that these woodpeckers were becoming scarce in that area. 
They were common on Big Frog Mountain. Young just from the nest 
were found near Waynesboro on May 15, and grown young were 
recorded on Big Frog Mountain July 10 and 13. and at 2,900 feet 
on Beans Mountain 2 miles northeast of Parksville on July 14. 

CENTURUS CAROLINUS (Linnaeus): Red-bellied Woodpecker 

This woodpecker was common in the area adjacent to the Mississippi 
River, especially in the general region of Reelfoot Lake, while it was 
less numerous but in fair numbers through the south-central section 
visited. Records are as follows: Frayser, April 8; Hickory Withe, 
April 9; Reelfoot Lake, April 26 and 27; near Phillippy, Lake County, 
October 7, 9, and 12; Cumberland River, 2 miles west of Indian Mound, 
Stewart County, October 27 and 29; 8 miles north of Wayneslwro, 
November 13; western Lincoln County, 6 miles east of Fraiikewing, 
November 9; Rockwood, March 4, 1885 (W. H. Fox). 

Measurements of this series are as follows: Males (6 s])ocimens), 
wing 123.5-129.7, tail 74.5-79.5, culmen from base 28.9-31.9, tarsus 
22.3-24.2 mm. Females (8 specimens), wing 124.7-130, tail 73.(5-80.5, 
culmen from base 26-29.5, tarsus 21-22.9 mm. 

MELANERPES ERYTHROCEPHALUS ERYTHROCEPHALUS (Linnaeus): 
Eastern Red-headed Woodpecker 

A female taken 3 miles west of Hickory Withe on April 15 has 
about half of the brown head feathers of the immature dress replaced 
by red. An adult male was collected at Bartlett, Shelby County, on 
April 13. Other birds secured in the breeding season were taken as 
follows: Troy and Hornbeak, Obion County, May 4; 8 miles north 
of Waynesboro, May 13 and 14; 5 miles east of Crossville, May 28 and 
29 ; and Shady Valley, June 5. 

In fall, red-heads were common in the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake. 
An immature male with red feathere beginning to appear on forehead 
and auricular and malar regions was secured 3 miles south of Sam- 
burg, with an adult female, on October 11. Two were seen and one 
was taken 2 miles west of Indian Mound on the Cumberland River in 
Stewart County on October 29. 

Measurements of this series are as follows: Males (9 specimens), 
wing 130-137.7, tail 75-78.5, culmen from base 25.8-27.8, tarsus 23-24. 
Females (4 specimens), wing 128-134.5, tail 71-75.5. culmen from base 
24-26, tarsus 22.2-23.1. 



NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 193 

I liave given a brief statement of my views on the status of the 
eastern and western forms in an earlier paper on birds from West 
Virginia.^* 

SPHYRAPICUS VARIUS VARIUS (Linnaeus) : Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 

This connnon winter visitor throughout the State from fall to 
spring was recorded as follows: Frayser, 4 miles east of Memphis, 
April 8; Hickory Withe, April 9 and 10; 2 miles east of Phillippy, 
Obion County, October 9 and 12; 4 miles south of Samburg, October 
13; Indian Mound, Stewart County, October 27; 7 miles north of 
Dover, October 30 ; 10 miles east of Pulaski, November 2 ; 6 miles east 
of Frankewing, Lincoln County, November 4; Lookout Mountain, 
April 5, 1882 (W. H. Fox) ; Rockwood, April 3, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; 
Clinch Mountains, 6 miles southwest of Bean Station, September 29. 

In the breeding season it was seen on June 4 at 3,800 feet elevation 
in the Holston Mountains, above Shady Valley. 

Two years ago, in examining yellow-bellied sapsuckers collected in 
West Virginia, I noted an apparent difference in size between breeding 
birds from the mountains and individuals supposed to be migrant 
from the north, but on looking up further material for comparison I 
learned that this same problem was under study by Dr. H. C. Ober- 
holser, so I did nothing at that time with regard to it. Since then 
Oberholser ^^ has published on the matter, recognizing a northern and 
a southern race, using the subspecific name vaHus for the southern 
bird and atrothorax of Lesson for the northern one. 

In study of the present collection from Tennessee I have now 
examined tliis question carefully, with results that are of interest. 
The following statements are based on the study of approximately 60 
birds of both sexes taken when they were on their breeding grounds. 
Comparisons are made between the series from the southern area of the 
breeding range of the species in the Appalachian Mountain System 
and the northern region as represented by skins from Canada. Fol- 
lowing are comparative measurements of the wing (the average being 
given in parentheses). The dimensions of tail, culmen, and tarsus are 
omitted as they show nothing of significance. 

Maijcs 

North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia (5 .specimens)- 117.5-122.0 (119.3) 

Maryland (2 specimens) 118.7-122.5 (120.6) 

Pennsylvania f 6 specimens) 119.0-124.9 (122.7) 

Northern Ontario, Alberta, Athabaska, Mackenzie (15 

specimens) 121. 1-126. 2 (124. 2) 



i*Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. vol. 84. 1937. p. 411. 

i^Dept. Cods. State of Loui.siana Bull. 28, 1938, pp. 372-374. 



X94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATION.\L MUSEUM vol 86 

Females 

North Carolina, Virgiuia. West Virginia (10 speci- 
mens) 117. 7-124. 7 (121. 4) 

Maryland (3 specimens) 121.5-127.3 (124.3) 

Pennsylvania (3 specimens) 119.2-123.0 (121.0) 

Nova Scotia, Alberta, Atbabaska, Mackenzie (15 

specimens) 120. 8-128. 7 (125. 0) 

It appears from this tabulation that there is an average difference 
of between 3 and 4 percent in length of wing between the northern and 
southern groups. A study of the specimens, however, reveals that the 
ends of the primaries are more worn in the birds available from the 
south than in those from the far north. It is evident that this wear 
has shortened the wings of southern birds by at least a millimeter and 
probably more, so that the actual difference in size is less than the 
average figures indicate, in other words less than 3 percent. 

There is an extensive area from Pennsylvania across to North 
Dakota and from there north to Canada where birds vary between the 
two extremes. A fair number of southern birds are large, and many of 
the northern ones are small, so that the actual differences between the 
two groups are quite indefinite. Identification of fully half of the 
individuals off their breeding grounds, if two races are recognizerl, 
therefore necessarily must be i^iu'ely arbitrary. In view of this I do 
not feel that two geographic races can be accepted. In my opinion the 
slight differences that are shown between northei-n and .southern birds 
are to be considered merely an indication of the well-known fact that 
northern birds among the woodpeckers are larger than southern ones. 
In the case of the yellow-bellied sapsucker the difference has not 
progressed far enough to warrant systematic recognition. 

In this connection, notes that I have made recently oji Lesson's 
Picus atrothorax^^^ which Dr. Oberholser has used for his northern 
race of the yellow-bellied sapsucker, may be of interest. The original 
description of Lesson in full is as follows: 

62. Pic a plastron noir; Plcus atrothora.v. Tete brune, pictoee en avant de 
rouge; gorge blanche; plastron noir sur le thorax; parties lnfc>rienres blanches, 
tachet^es de brun. 

Pucheran '' wrote that he had not been able to identify this species 
of Lesson's, but two years later ^« he said tliat Malherbe had found in 
the collection at Paris a bird from Xewfoundhmd obtained in excltange 
from Canivet in 1828 that he, Pucheran, considered to be the female of 
Picm atrothorax and that he identified as Picus varh/s, in other 
words as the yellow-bellied sapsucker. Pucheran noted that the 
crown in this specimen was black instead of bnnvn. It is this .^i:>€ci- 
men that Berlioz has marked as the probable type of atrothorax. 

"P;c«s afroAftorfl.r Lesson, Traits d'ornithologie. 1S:>1. p. 229 (no loralitv givn). 
i^Rev. Mag. Zool.. 1853, p. 162. . - ;. 

"Rev. Mag. Zool., 1855, p. 22. 



NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 195 

When at the Paris Museum recently I took occasion to examine 
this bird and cliecked the discrepancy in head color noted by Pucheran. 
I went through the old catalog of the bird collection to find that in 
addition to this bird there had been another in the museum prior to 
1831, when Lesson named atrotharaa;, an individual cataloged as No, 
2170, marked as taken at Philadelphia by Lesueur in 1824. This second 
specimen was located after some search, and was found to be an 
iinmature individual of the eastern Sphyrapicus varitcs with the 
crown brown, spotted with red, but without the black crescent on the 
breast. 

The first specimen, No. 2168, female, from Newfoundland, is a 
mounted bird in fair condition, though a little faded from exposure 
to light, and has the following measurements : Wing 122.5, tail 72.8, 
culmen from base 22.5, tai'sus 21.2 mm. To repeat, this bird has the 
crown deep black, with three tiny dots of red on the left side of the 
center, and a prominent black crescent on the breast. The second 
specimen, No. 2170, an immatiu-e bird with sex not marked, from 
Philadelphia, is also a mounted bird, complete and in fair condition, 
except that some of the rectrices are loose. The crown is brown with 
)nunerous spots of red, and there is no black on the breast. It 
measures as follows: Wing 123.7, tail 70.8, culmen from base 23.0, 
tarsus 19.2 mm. 

It appears that Lesson must have drawn his description from these 
two individuals and that the type material is composite. 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS VILLOSUS (Linnaeus): Eastern Hairy 

Woodpecker 

The State of Tennessee includes an extensive area of intergradation 
between the northern and southern forms of the hairy woodpecker, 
races that differ mainly in smaller size coupled with some restriction 
of the white markings on the dorsal surface in the southern subspecies. 
Transition in size from north to south is gradual, without sudden 
break. Specimens from the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake are definitely 
intermediate between the two races under consideration (wing in 2 
males 117 and 119 mm, in 2 females 115 and 115.8 mm), but they seem 
slightly nearer the northern group. The specimens seen include skins 
from Reelfoot Lake, April 28 and May 7 ; 3 miles south of Samburg, 
October 11; 2 miles south of Ridgley, October 15; and 7 miles north- 
east of Tiptonville, October 22. Their identification as villosus is 
tentative in view of the fact that the southern race has been recorded 
from the Mississippi bottoms in southern Indiana and southern Illi- 
nois. In the Biological Survey collection there is a male with the 
M'ing much worn, taken at Lexington by A. H. Howell on July 9, 1910, 
with a measurement of 115.5, that seems also intermediate but is in 
such a state of plumage that it is difficult to place. 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol 86 

A pair of birds from western Lincoln County 6 miles east of 
Frankewing (male, wing 119.8, female 116.8), taken November 5 and 
6, in size and in the considerable extent of white on the back are of 
the northern type, as are two males (wing 120.3 and 119.3 mm) 
secured by W. H. Fox at Rockwood on March 9 and 28, 1885. A 
male collected at 1,900 feet elevation in the Clinch Mountains 3 miles 
northwest of Rutledge on October 1 (in molt so that the wing appar- 
rently is not quite grown) also belongs here, with a wing measure- 
ment of 118.5 mm. Specimens from the higher elevations in the 
eastern mountains are definitely of the northern race. A male (wing 
120.1) was taken at Shady Valley June 7. Birds secured at eleva- 
tions of 5,000 ieet or more on Roan Mountain on September 20 to 23 
are in molt, so that the wing is not grown but affords sufficiently 
large measurements to indicate that they are true vlUosus. In the 
Great Smoky Mountains a male (wing 118) was taken at 6,300 feet 
on Old Black Mountain on June 21, one (wing 122) at 2,700 feet 4 
miles southeast of Cosby on June 23, and one (wing 118) at 6,500 
feet on Mount Guyot on June 26. 

Birds of the year, fully grown, were taken at Reel foot Lake on 
May 7, at 3,000 feet elevation 7 miles north of Carter on June 7, near 
Cosby on June 23, at 5,700 feet elevation on Inadu Knob on June 24, 
and at 6,000 feet elevation on Old Black Mountain on June 24, the 
last three being in the Great Smoky Mountains. One of the juvenile 
females has the center of the crown definitely spotted with white and 
with elongated marks of red; another has four or five of the elongated 
red markings only ; and in a third markings are absent. 

DRYOBATES VILLOSUS AUDUBONI (Swainson): Southern Hairy 

Woodpecker 

The southern race of the hairj' woodpecker has a range uncertainly 
delimited at present in the southern section of the State. A female 
taken at Bartlett on April 19 has a wing measurement of 112.8 mm; 
a juvenile female not fully grown taken on May 14, 8 mile.s north of 
Waynesboro, is identified tentatively as auduboni. Adult material is 
necessary to check this allocation. A pair secured on May 27 on 
Birds Creek 7 miles southwest of Crossville measure as follows: 
Wing, in male 111.0, in female 112 nun. The three adults just men- 
tioned have the wings considerably worn, but after careful examina- 
tion it does not appear to me that enough of the end of the wing is 
gone to permit their being viUosm. I have examined with particular 
care the two from Crossville, since March birds from Rockwood a 
short distance east are the northern bird. A juvenile female with 
unmarked crown was taken also with the adults from near Crossville. 
The southern bird is also the form of Big Frog Mountain in Polk 
County, as indicated by two s])ecimens secured 8 miles southwest of 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — \VETMORE 197 

Copperhill, a male taken at 2,100 feet on July 15, with the wing 112 
mm, and a female secured at 1,800 feet on July 12, with the wing 
114.5 mm. A juvenile male was collected here on July 15. The 
adults are much worn, but the same statement holds with them as 
that made for the Crossville specimens. 

It is strange that the birds from Frankewing have the size and 
color of true villosus, in view of the fact that the bird from Cross- 
ville has the smaller size of mtduboni. As the Frankewing specimens 
were taken in November, it is barely possible that they had moved 
into that area from the north, though it seems more probable that 
they were resident. Considerable further collecting will be necessary 
to work out the status and distribution of the southern form, particu- 
larly in the area adjacent to the Mississippi River, and in the south- 
east, 

DRYOBATES PUBESCENS PUBESCENS (Linnaeus): Southern Downy 

Woodpecker 

As in the case of the hairy woodpecker, the downy woodpecker 
of Tennessee covers a considerable area where there is definite inter- 
gradation between the northern and the southern forms. The south- 
ern subspecies, pubescens, has the wing in both males and females 
ranging from 86 to 91 mm, while in the northern bird, medianus, 
the same dimension varies from 91 to 97 mm. It is usually supposed 
that the southern bird is duller white below, a character that is 
entirely unreliable, as any recent burn will smudge the breasts of 
all woodpeckers from the charcoal and ash on the bark of the trees 
and shrubs over which they clamber. 

Birds that I have identified as typical pubescens come from the 
southern sections of Tennessee. A male collected at Hickory Withe, 
Fayette County, on April 10 has the wing 88 mm, and a female from 
the same point taken on April 9 measures 90.5 mm. In the western 
edge of Lincoln County, 6 miles east of the post office of Fralik- 
ewing, a male measuring 88.3 mm was taken on November 3, and a 
female with tlie wing 90.5 mm on November 6. At this point there 
was a mixture, as larger birds measuring 93.8 and 94 mm were ob- 
tained at the same time. These are considered mediarius and may 
be migrant from some mountain or northern area nearby. A male 
from Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest of Crossville, May 24, has the 
wing 89.6 mm. Mixing is evident at Kockwood also, in material 
collected by W. H. Fox, as two males taken on April 11, 1884, and 
April 15, 1885, measure 91 mm, and a female secured April 7, 1884, 
is 91.1 mm. Another female, taken on March 13, 1885, is 95.5 mm 
and represents medmnus^ and again may have come from a nearby 
mountain. A male taken at 2,100 feet elevation on Big Frog Moun- 
tain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 9, measures 89 mm. 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATION.VL MUSEUM vol.86 

DRYOBATES PUBESCENS MEDIANUS (Swainson): Northern Downy 

Woodpecker 

In a considerable area in the northwestern part of the State inter- 
mediate specimens of the downy woodpecker occur that are barely 
within the size range of the northern form. Specimens of this type 
are represented from the region about Reelfoot Lake, as indicated in 
the following list where the wing measurements are enclosed in 
parentheses following the locality and date of the birds to which they 
pertain : Tiptonville, October 19 (2 males. 90 and 93.9 ; 2 females, 91 
and 92) ; Samburg, October 14 (91.9) ; and Reelfoot Lake, April 29 
(90.5). Specimens in this same category from other localities in- 
clude a male from the Cumberland River, in Stewart County, 2 miles 
west of Indian Mound, October 27 (wing 91.5), a female from 7 miles 
north of Dover in the same county, October 30 (92.4), and a female 
from much farther south, in Wayne County, 9 miles north of 
Waynesboro, May 11 (wing 92 mm). Further material from this 
area is required to establish more certainly the form found there. 
For the present it is considered to be medianus. 

As indicated in the account of D. p. puhescens^ there seems to be 
some mixing in the downy-woodpecker population at a few points, 
due perhaps to migratory movement or to specimens taken at dif- 
ferent altitudes. This is true in western Lincoln County 6 miles 
east of Frankewing, where males taken November 5 and 6 measure 

93.8 and 94 mm, though others have the size of puhescen.s, and at 
Rock wood where one female secured by W. H. Fox, March 13, 1885, 
measures 95.5 mm, though others are pubescent. 

In the mountain section in the northeast, from the Great Smoky 
Mountains northward, all the birds examined are definitely large 
and can be referred without hesitation to true medimms. These 
include the following (with the wing measurements again given in 
parentheses) : Cross Mountain, near the line of Anderson and Camp- 
bell Counties, August 15, 1908, taken by A. H. Howell (male 95.7, 
female 95) ; Bean Station, Grainger County, Octoljer 1 (male 95) ; 
3,800 feet elevation in the Holston Mountains, near Shady Valley, 
June 3 and 4 (male 95.5, female 92.7 and 93.8) ; 5,000 to 6,200 feet 
elevation on Roan Mountain, September 13 to 22 (male 94.2, females 

93.9 and 96.1) ; 6,300 feet elevation on Old Black Mountain, Great 
Smoky Mountains, June 25 (male, 95.5) ; Inadu Knob, near Cosby, 
June 21 (female 92.1). 

DRYOBATES BOREALIS (Vieillot) : Red-cockaded Woodpecker 

Perrygo recorded one of these birds near the Cumberland River, 7 
miles north of Dover on October 30 but did not collect it. There 
are three in the National Museum taken by W. H. Fox at Rockwood, 
a pair on April 11, 1884, and a male on April 22, 1885. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 199 

The considerable length of the wing tip in this species is equaled 
among our other wood|>eckers only by the sapsuckers of the genus 
Sphyrapiaus, and indicates a considerable divergence from the con- 
dition found in the related hairy and downy woodpeckers. 

Family TYRANNIDAE 

TYRANNUS TYRANNUS TYRANNUS (Linnaeus): Eastern Kingbird 

The kingbird was recorded as follows: Hickory Withe, April 10; 
EUendale, April 17 (specimen) ; Reelfoot Lake, April 27 (specimen) ; 
Troy, May 1; Hornbeak, May 3; Samburg, May 5 and 6; Waynes- 
boro, May 10 to 18 (specimen); Pikeville, May 21 and 29; Cross- 
ville. May 27 and 29 ; Rockwood, ilpril 17, 1885 (specimen by W. H. 
Fox); Bearden, June 1; and Cosby, July 5. The western race of 
this species described by Oberholser ^^ is marked mainly by slightly 
grayer dorsal coloration, the alleged difference of larger size hold- 
ing only for part of the individuals examined. The white band 
on the tip of the tail averages slightly wider in the western race but 
is subject to considerable abrasion, so that in numerous specimens 
from the west no difference is to be noted. Zimmer -° states that 
he has been hesitant about recognizing two races in this species, but 
such action to me seems valid, though as indicated the difference 
between the two is slight. 

MYIARCHUS CRINITUS BOREUS Bangs: Northern Crested Flycatcher 

On April 27 a female crested flycatcher was taken at Reelfoot 
Lake, and two othei's were seen. Two were seen near Hornbeak on 
May 1, and others about the lake on May 7. They were fairly com- 
mon at Waynesboro from May 10 to 14 and near Pikeville on May 
31. W. H. Fox collected one at Rockwood on April 15, 1885, One 
was taken in the Holston Mountains above Shady Valley on June 
4. One was seen on June 24 at 3,800 feet on Snake Den Mountain in 
the Great Smoky Mountains, and two at 3,900 feet on Big Frog 
Mountain, July 10. 

Eight specimens from Tennessee examined all agree in color and 
in size of bill with the northern race. 

SAYORNIS PHOEBE (Latham): Eastern Phoebe 

Specimens were seen or collected as follows: Hickory Withe, 
Fayette County, April 12 ; Samburg, May 2 ; Phillippy, Lake County, 



19 Tyiannus tyrannus hespericola Oberholser, Sci. Publ. Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 
4, Sept. 19, 1932, p. 3 (mouth of Twenty Mile Creek, Warner Valley, 9 miles south of Adel, 
Greg. ) . 

ao Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 962, Nov. 18, 1937, pp. 12-13. 

106951—39 4 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

October 23 ; Waynesboro, May 12 and 17 ; Lookout Mountain, March 
21, 1882 (specimen by W. H. Fox) ; Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest 
of Crossville, May 24 and 26 (the latter a juvenile bird just from 
the nest) ; Rockwood, April 12, 1884 (specimen by W. H. Fox) ; 
2,000 feet elevation. Clinch Mountains, 6 miles southwest of Bean 
Station, September 29 ; 2,800 feet elevation in the Holston Mountains, 
near Shady Valley, June 3; 2,700 feet elevation, 4 miles southeast of 
Cosby, June 23 and July 2. 

EMPIDONAX VIRESCENS (Vieillot): Acadian Flycatcher 

Specimens of the Acadian flycatcher were obtained as follows: 8 
to 10 miles north of Waynesboro, May 10, 12, and 19; near Shady 
Valley, at 3,600 feet in the Iron Mountains, June 6, and at 2,900 feet 
in the Holston Mountains, June 12; at 3,000 feet 7 miles north of 
Carter, June 7; and at 2,700 feet, 4 miles southeast of Cosby in the 
Great Smoky Mountains, June 30 and July 1 and 2. 

MYIOCHANES VIRENS (Linnaeus): Eastern Wood Pewee 

Specimens were obtained as follows: Eads, Shelby County, April 
20; Reelfoot Lake, April 27; near Hornbeak, May 3; 8 to 9 miles 
north of Wajmesboro, May 11 and 14; 7 miles southwest of Cross- 
ville, May 25; Clinch Mountains near Bean Station, September 27 
and 28; Shady Valley, June 10; Roan Mountain, at 5,000 feet eleva- 
tion, September 25. 

Van Rossem ^^ recently has brought up again the question of the 
relationship of the eastern and western groups of wood pewees by 
listing the western wood pewee as Myiochanes virens richardsonii. 
That the two wood pewees are so closely similar in color and form 
as to be distinguished at times with difficulty in museum skins is 
easily apparent, but that this is external resemblance without closer 
relationship than that of distinct species seems evident to me from 
knowledge of the two in life. After a familiarity of many years I 
am convinced that they are distinct, as indicated by entirely differ- 
ent voice. In this regard it is only necessary to consider the close 
resemblance of females of the blue-winged and cinnamon teals as a 
related case. With the teals the males are entirely different, so that 
there is no confusion. With the wood pewees the sexes are alike, so 
that the two are separated with difficulty. 

NUTTALLORNIS BOREALIS (Swainson): Olive-sided Flycatcher 

An adult male was collected at 5,000 feet elevation on Cosby Knob 
in the Great Smoky Mountains on June 19. Another was seen at 

« Birds of El Salvador. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool. ser., vol. 23, 1938. p. 371. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 201 

5,700 feet on Inadu Knob on June 23, and one was recorded at 6,100 
feet on Roan Mountain, September 12. 

In the fourth edition of the A. O. U. Check-list (1931, p. 211) 
the olive-sided flycatcher is listed as NuttdlJ'Ornis mesoleueus 
(Lichtenstein) following Hellmayr,^^ who based this on Muscicapa 
mesoleiwa Lichtenstein.^^ More recently, however. Van Rossem ^* has 
located Lichtenstein's type in the Berlin Museum to find that it is 
a species of South American flycatcher. This circumstance allows 
return again to the familiar name horealis as the specific term for this 
attractive flycatcher. 

The bird from Cosby Knob, an adult male in good plumage, is 
very small, measuring as follows : Wing 100.8, tail 65.9, culmen from 
base 17.5, tarsus 15.5 mm. 

After examination of a large series of specimens, the contention 
of some that there are eastern and western forms of this flycatcher 
in my opinion is not upheld. It is true that the specimens with the 
longest wings come from the west, and those with the shortest wing 
measurement from the east, so that by averages a slight difference 
between series from the two areas is evident. The overlap in size in 
skins from the two areas is such, however, that the majority of indi- 
viduals might be classed in either group, only a few specunens among 
the extremes of large and small being susceptible of separation. In 
these circumstances I do not consider recognition of two races war- 
ranted. The statement is made only after examination of a large 
number of skins. 

Family ALAUDIDAE 

OTOCORIS ALPESTRIS PRATICOLA Henshaw: Prairie Horned Lark 

One was seen 5 miles west of Lawrenceburg, May 16. 

Family HIRUNDINIDAE 
IRIDOPROCNE BICOLOR ( Vieillot) : Tree Swallow 

A male was taken at Rockwood, April 14, 1885, by W. H. Fox. 
Perrygo recorded this species near Eads on April 14 and found it 
common at the end of April in Obion and Lake Counties, recording 
two flocks near Tiptonville on May 1. In fall he observed it in the 
vicinity of Reelfoot Lake from October 5 to 21. 

RIPARIA RIPARIA RIPARIA (Linnaeus): Bank Swallow 

Recorded at Eads on April 16, 19. and 20 and at Reelfoot Lake on 
April 24. 



^ Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool ser., vol. 13. pt. 5, 1927, p. 189. 
^s Preis-Verzpichniss VSgel Mexico gepammelt, etc., 1830, p. 2. 
« Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 7, 1934, pp. 350-352. 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Oberliolser -^ has considered the bank swallow of North Aniorica 
when compared with that of Europe as separable under the name 
maximiliani of Stejneger,-'' stating that our bird is darker above in 
addition to being slightly smaller. After careful comparison of a 
good series in the American Museum of Natural History and the 
United States National Museum from England, Sweden, Germany, 
Austria, and Russia with a comparable set from Ontario, Quebec, New 
York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. I am unable to establish any line 
of demarcation betAveen them. There is considerable variation indi- 
vidually in the shade of brown above, but light and dark specimens 
occur on both continents. There is also considerable range in size in 
this race, and there appears no diiference in dimensions between Old 
World and New World birds. ]\Iy findings, therefore, agree with 
those of European ornithologists who have considered this matter. 

STELGIDOPTERYX RUFICOLLIS SERRIPENNIS (Audubon): Rough- 
winged Swallow 

The specimens secured include two innnature birds taken on Octo- 
ber" 6 at Reelfoot Lake, 6 miles northeast of Tiptonville. where hun- 
dreds were recorded, and a male from 3 miles north of Pikeville. on 
May 28. At Rockwood AV. H. Fox shot a female on April 16, 1884, 
and a male on April 4, 1885. I saw one near Cai-ter on June 7, 1937. 

Wliile the South American representatives of our rough-M-inged 
swallows are quite distinct in yellowish abdomen and reddish-brown 
throat, through Central America intergi-adation is complete to such 
an extent that I have taken specimens in the highlands of Guatemala 
that at first glance I thought must surely be migrants from the 
United States, All the forms of this widespread group are there- 
fore to be treated as geographic races of one species. 

After detailed study of the series of specimens in (he II. S. 
National Museum, I have been unable to detect any differences in 
birds from the west, which have recently been described by Ober- 
holser as a distinct subspecies aphractus.-^ In color and size speci- 
mens from the area in which aphraotm is supposed to range to me 
appear identical with birds from the east. The race named by Gris- 
com from Sonora as pmrnmochrovs -* is, on the other hand, distinct 
in being paler above than ser-npennis and in averaging somewhat 
hghter on the breast, though this last difference is slight and in- 



»" Dept. Cons. State of Louisiana Bull. 28, 1938, p. 407. 

» CUvicola riparia maximiliani Stejneger, L'. S. Xat. Mus. Bull. 29, 1885, p. 378, footnote 
(Ipswich, Mass.). 

'" Stelgidopterifx ruflcollis aphractm Oberholser, Scl. Publ. Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 
4, Sept. 19, 1932. p. 5 (Twenty-mile Creek, 9 miles south of Adtl, Greg.). 

'^ Stelyidopteryx ruflcollis psammochrom Griscom, Proc. New England ZoOl. Club, vol. 11, 
Dec. 14, 1929, p. 72 (Oposura, Sonora, Mexico). 



NOTES OX THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 203 

definite. As Oberholser states in his description of a supposed 
■western race just cited, psanimochrou^ enters the United States along 
the southwestern boundary, there being specimens in the U. S. 
National Museum as follows: Texas, near Laredo; Arizona, San 
Bernardino Ranch, Santa Cruz River west of the Patagonia Moun- 
tains, Adonde, Fort Verde, and Fort Whipple near Prescott; Cali- 
fornia, Jacumba and San Diego. 

Van Rossem ^^ at one time considered that the characters assigned to 
psammochroU'S were due to fading in specimens long in museum collec- 
tions, but after further work he informs me that he has found that this 
conclusion was wrong. In my own comparisons I have had available 
birds of equivalent condition as regards date of collection, and as the 
differences are apparent in these I must conclude that j^sammochrous 
is valid. 

HIRUNDO RUSTIC A ERYTHROGASTER Boddaert^: Bam Swallow 

Tlie barn swallow was seen as follows : Common near Reelfoot Lake 
at the end of April, seen October 8 and 16; Samburg, May 6, several ; 
Waynesboro, May 10, four; Shady Valley, June 1 to 11. seen daily, 
and a pair nesting in a barn at the post office. 

PROGNE SUBIS SUBIS (Linnaeus): Purple Martin 

Seen as follows: Hickory Withe, April 9: Ellendale, April 16; 
Eads, April 23; Tiptonville, May 1; Union City, May 2; Samburg 
and Hornbeak, May 6; near Beech Creek, 12 miles northwest of 
Waynesboro, May 13 ; Crossville, May 26 ; Shady Valley, June 4, one. 

Family CORVIDAE 

CYANOCITTA CRISTATA CRISTATA (Linnaeus): Northern Blue Jay 

As a winter visitor this form, marked by larger size, lighter, bluer 
dorsal coloration, and more extensive white on the tertials and sec- 
ondaries, should be found throughout the State. There are only two 
specimens in the present collection that are placed under this race and 
those with some reservations. A male taken near Phillippy on 
October T (with the wing 129.3) is small but has the color and wing 
marking of tlie northern form. While intermediate it is believed to 
be near cristata. A male from the Clinch Mountains 6 miles south- 
west of Bean Station taken on September 30 measures 131.7. It is of 
the proper shade of blue above but has the white margins on the wing 
feathers as in fonncoJa. It also appears intermediate. While these 
are listed here as cristata, it will be noted that neither is entirely 



2" Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, Apr. 30, 1931, p. 268. 

»" See Wetmore, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., vol. S4, 19;s7. pp. 413-414. 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATION.VL MUSEUM vol 86 

typical of that form. Collections made later in fall and in winter 
should include migrants from the north. 

CYANOCITTA CRISTATA FLORINCOLA Coues: Florida Blue Jay 

From examination of an excellent series of jays taken thnnigliout 
the State it appears that the breeding bird from the area represented 
is to be identified as the southern form. The identification is made 
on the basis of duller, more purplish dorsal coloration, less extent of 
white tipping on tertials and secondaries, and smaller size par- 
ticularly as indicated in length of wing. It is true that some birds 
from the eastern mountain area are larger than the average of 
-fiorincola^ and so come within the lower size range of crUtnta^ but 
in color these larger individuals resemble the others of smaller size. 

The birds just mentioned from the eastern mountains are puzzling 
and show definite intermediate characters. T^vo males taken in Shady 
Valley on June 8 have wing measurements of 12r).5 and 13r>.4 mm, 
and a female collected on June 2 measures 131.6 mm. A male taken 
at 4,500 feet on Snake Den Mountain in the Great Smokies on June 
24 has the wing 133.8. On the basis of size three of these four 
specimens could be called true cristata, but in dorsal coloration they 
are distinctly darker, more purplish, and have the white wing mark- 
ings restricted. They are identified at present as fforifwoh. A male 
from 5,000 feet elevation on Roan Mountain taken on Septeml)er 23 
is even more intermediate. The wing measures 129.5, and the white 
on the tertials is reduced as in -fiovhicola, but the blue above is brighter 
and less purplish. It is possible that when more skins are available 
it may prove better to place the jays of the mountain region with 
crhtata,, though the material now available points to tlie allocation 
made here. 

Other breeding bu-ds are all detiiutely of the favinvola type of 
coloration, and only a few approach crUtata in size. All are small 
enough to come within the range of measurement assigned to furin- 
cola. Following is a list of specimens, with the wing measurements 
indicated in parentheses: Hickory AVithe, A[)ril 1*2 and 13, 3 nudes 
(130.1, 131.7, 127); Reelfoot Lake, April 26 and 27, 2 males (127.3, 
128.6) ; Hornbeak, May 1, male (127.7) ; 8 miles north of Waynesboro, 
May 13 and 15, 2 males (180, 131.2) ; Melvine, Bledsoe County, May 
21 (133.5) ; Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest of Crossville, May 27, 2 
males (126, 132.2). 

Fall specimens allocated here include two from Saniburg, a male 
taken on October 11 (124) and a female October 13 \V1\) ; Cumber- 
land River 2 miles west of Indian Mound, October 27, female (123) ; 
and Cumberland River, 7 miles north of Dover, October 30, female 
(123.5). 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 205 

Blue jays were found to be commoner than anticipated through 
(he mountains of the eastern section of the State. In addition to the 
specimens seen they were recorded as follows : Clinch Mountains near 
Bean Station, September 27 to 30, several ; Holston Mountains above 
Shady Valley, June 2 to 16, common; Roan Mountain, September 
11, one, and September 23, five; Great Smoky Mountains, Low Gap 
near Cosby, June 19, one, Cosby Knob at 5,000 feet, June 19, one, 
Snake Den Mountain at 5,000 feet, July 2 ; Big Frog Mountain, July 
13, one. 

CORVUS CORAX PRINCIPALIS Ridgway: Northern Raven 

The raven was recorded in the Great Smoky Mountains near Cosby 
on June 19, when two were seen, and at 6,600 feet on Mount Guyot on 
June 27, when four were observed. At 3,000 feet elevation on Big 
Frog Mountain one was heard on July 13 and another on the follow- 
ing day, but because of the trees the birds were not actually seen. 
During work on Roan Mountain three were seen on September 11, 
five on September 12, and single birds were observed regularly. They 
passed in the morning flying toward the north and returned at dusk 
traveling toward the southeast into North Carolina. 

CORVUS BRACHYRHYNCHOS BRACHYRHYNCHOS Brehm: Eastern 

Crow 

The crow population through the greater part of Tennessee is 
decidedly intermediate between the rather poorly differentiated 
northern and southern subspecies. In general the birds from the 
northern part of the State west of the high mountain area to the 
Mississippi seem to agree best, on the material at hand, with true 
hrachyrhynchos when the tw^o characters of length of wing and size 
of bill are considered. Several are intermediate, and a larger series 
of birds may cause some change in this conclusion. In a pair taken 
at Reel foot Lake near Tipton ville, the male is distinctly of the 
hrdchyj'hynchos type with the wing 323 and the culmen from base 
52 mm. The female is somewhat small, with the wing 300 and the 
culmen from base 49.0. These two birds apparently were mated 
with grown young out of the nest. They are the only specimens 
taken in the breeding season that are identified as hrachyrhynchos. 
In three males secured near Phillippy in fall, a male shot on October 
7 is very large (wing 329, culmen from base 52 mm). Two others 
taken on October 7 and 12 measure as follows: Wing 305 and 300, 
culmen from base 51.7 and 50.8 mm. The wings in these two are 
decidedly worn, as the primaries have not yet been molted. This 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

accounts in part for the small wing measurement, and because of this 
condition and the large bill these are called hrachyrhytwhos. In two 
taken on the Cumberland River two miles west of Indian Mound on 
October 27, a male has the wing not yet fully grown, while the cul- 
men measures 50 mm. A female has the wing 305 and the culmen 
from base 48.5. "While intermediate these two are called hrachy- 
rhynchos. 

The recent pi-oposal of Dr. Wilhelm Meise ^^ and Dr. C. E. Hell- 
mayr ^^ to give the American crow status as a geographic race of 
CorvuH corone, the carrion crow of Europe, is one that does not to me 
seem proper. After a field experience gained through three journeys 
in western Eui-ope, I am convinced that the resemblance between these 
two birds is of a generic nature and that specifically they are distinct. 
Their resemblance is found principally in that the two are generally 
similar in form, are black in plumage, are alike in size, and have more 
or less the same habits and ecological status. In the field, the voice 
of the carrion crow is more like that of a itiven, quite distinct from 
that of our crow, so different in fact that in May 1938 in Switzerland 
I did not recognize the call of a carrion crow when heard for the first 
time in four years as that of a crow until it had been repeated several 
times. In flight the wing action of the carrion crow also is different, 
the wings having a wider sweep above and below the longitudinal axis 
of the body. Ordinarily, too, in the European species the tips of the 
primaries in flight are more widely separated, tlie wing appearance 
being that of a raven. In the hand, the outer primaries are actually 
narrower than in the American crow. In view of all this and of the 
geogi-aphic separation of the two, it appears to me that they should 
be considered specifically distinct. 

CORVUS BRACHYRHYNCHOS PAULUS Howell: Southern Crow 

A male secured near Hickory Withe on April 21 identified as 
paulus is distinctly intermediate toward the northern form, with the 
wing 305 and the culmen from base 50.2 mm. While this specimen 
is here called paulm, further material may demonstrate that the 
breeding crows throughout extreme western Tennessee are best called 
hrachyrhytwhos. A female from 5 miles north of Waynesboro on 
Green River, with the wing 300 and the culmen from base 44.5 nmi, 
has the small bill of paulm. A male from 7 miles southwest of Cross- 
ville on Birds Creek is intermediate, with the wing 309 and tlie culmen 
from base 50.5 mm. It is identified as pauJu.s with some reservation. 

■'"' .Tourn. fiir Orn., 1928, p. 8. 

" Fipld :Mi].«. Nat. Hist., zool. ser., vol. IS, pt. 7, 1934, p. 3. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 207 

Breeding specimens from 2,900 feet elevation at Shady Valley are 
definitely of the paulus type, a male shot June 5 having the wing 290 
and the culmen from base 48.8 mm, while a female taken on June 7 
has the wing 295 and the culmen from base 45.3 mm. These two agree 
with a breeding bird from White Top Mountain, Va., a short distance 
away to the northeast. A female collected in Lincoln County, Tenn., 
6 miles west of Fayetteville, November 1, measures as follows : Wing 
297, culmen from base 46.9. It also is considered paulus. 

Family PARIDAE 

PENTHESTES ATRICAPILLUS PRACTICUS Oberholser: Appalachian, 

Chickadee 

In the higher elevations of the Great Smoky Mountains the black- 
capped chickadee though not conunon is found in fair numbers. 
Adult males were taken at 6,300 feet on Old Black Mountain on June 
21 and 25, at 6,600 feet on Mount Guyot on June 21, and at 6,100 feet 
on Inadu Knob on June 24 and 26. 

In commenting recently on a series of these chickadees from the 
mountains of West Virginia,^^ I noted the slightly darker color of 
those birds compared with specimens from New York, New England, 
and Ontario. Since then Dr. Oberholser has described these southern 
mountain birds as Penthestes atricapiUus practicus?^ After com- 
parison of the series of these chickadees in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, I am prepared to recognize this as a distinct race though its 
characters are comparatively slight. Spechnens in worn breeding 
dress are most distinct, as the southern birds then are darker gray 
above. In fall and winter plumage they appear very slightly darker 
than the similar stage from the north, so that individual specimens 
can often be separated only with difficulty. This race will include 
those specimens noted above from West Virginia listed previously as 
Penthestes a. atricapillus. 

PENTHESTES CAROLINENSIS CAROLINENSIS (Audubon): Carolina 

Chickadee 

The nominate race of the Carolina chickadee differs from the 
northern subspecies extimus in being darker gray on the back and 
rump, paler buffy brown on the sides and flanks (especially in fall 
and winter dress), and in averaging very slightly smaller. It is 
interesting to find this form spread over eastern and central Ten- 



«3 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 84, 1937, p. 416. 

»* Penthestes atricapillus practicus Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 50, Dec. 
28, 1937, p. 220 (Mount Guyot, Great Smoky Mountains, N. C.) 
106951—39 5 



208 PKOCEEDIISrGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

nessee even in the lower levels of the eastern mountains. Folio wmg 
are records based on specimens : 9 miles north of Waynesboro, Wayne 
County, May 16; western Lincoln County, 6 miles east of Frank- 
ewing,' November 3 and 4; 5 miles east of Crossville, May 28 and 29; 
Rockwood, March 4 and 13, 1885 (taken by W. H. Fox) ; Rogersville, 
May 1885 (taken by J. W. Rogan) ; 2,000 feet elevation in the Clinch 
Mountains, 3 miles west of Bean Station, September 30; Holston 
Mountains and Shady Valley (2,900 feet elevation), June 3, 5, and 6; 
2,600 feet elevation 4 miles southeast of Cosby, June 28 (adult and 
immature fully grown) ; 1,800 to 3,000 feet elevation on Big Frog 
Mountain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill (adult and grown young), 
July 9, 10, and 11; 2,400 feet elevation on Beans Mountain 2 miles 
northeast of Parksville (immature), July 13. 

Specimens taken in the breeding season agree in dorsal color with 
a series of carolinensis from near Charleston, S. C, the restricted 
type locality. Fall birds from Bean Station and Frankewing are 
very faintly darker above than extimus but have the flanks and 
sides paler. Differences in size between extimus and carolinensis are 
not of much diagnostic value, as in dimensions the two races are very 
similar. 

The Tennessee specimens average about the same as those from 
South Carolina, and their color is such as to allow no hesitance in 
placing them with carolineTisis. Following are measurements from 
the series from Tennessee: Males (8 specimens), wing 68.4-64.0 
(61.3), tail 50.5-55.2 (52.7), culmen from base 8-9.3 (8.6), tarsus 
15-16.5 (15.5); females (9 specunens), wing 56.8-60.7 (58.3), tail 
49.1-53 (50.8), culmen from base 7.5-9.3 (8.6), tarsus 14-16 (15) mm. 

Birds from South Carolina (Kershaw County, Aiken, and the 
vicinity of Charleston) measure as follows: Males (8 specimens), 
wing 57.8-63.8 (61.0), tail 49.2-54.8=^5 (51.6), culmen from base 
7.8-9.7 (8.6), tarsus 15.3-17.2 (15.8); females (5 specimens), wing 
56.7-58.8 (57.5), tail 47.2^9.6 (48.3), culmen from base 8.1-8.7 (8.5), 
tarsus 14.8-15.8 (15.2) mm. 

Dr. Oberholser recently has named a race of this chickadee from 
Louisiana,^^ giving as the range the lower Mississippi Valley north 
to central Alabama and southwestern Kentucky, which includes 
a part of Tennessee. He states that his new form is "similar to 
Penthestes carolinensis impiger from Florida, but upper parts paler 
and more grayish. Like Penthestes carolinensis carolinensis but 
decidedly smaller. 



*^ Seven specimens. 

»» Penthestes carolinensis guilloti Oberholser, Dept. Cons. State of Louisiana Bull. 28, 
1938, p. 425 (Belair, La.). 



NOTES OK THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 209 

^'■Measurements. — Adult male: wing, 57-61 (average, 58.9) mm.; 
tail, 48-54.3 (50.5) ; exposed culmen, 6.8-7.5 (7.1) ; tarsus, 16; middle 
toe without claw, 9.5-11 (9.9). Adult female: wing, 53-59 (56.6); 
tail, 46.5-52 (48.5) ; exposed culmen, 6.5-7.5 (7.2) ; tarsus, 15-16.5 
(15.6) ; middle toe without claw, 9-10 (9.7)." 

Without going into the question of the validity of guilloti in the 
southern part of its assigned range, I consider the Carolina chicka- 
dees from Tennessee to be identified subspecifically as carolineiisis 
and extimus according to the data presented under the present and 
the following headings. 

PENTHESTES CAROLINENSIS EXTIMUS Todd and Sutton: Northern 

Carolina Chickadee 

In western Tennessee the northern race of this chickadee extends 
across the State from north to south as indicated by the following 
records based on specimens : Hickory Withe, April 10 and 16 ; Keel- 
foot Lake, April 29 ; Samburg, Obion County, October 11 ; Cumber- 
land Kiver 2 miles west of Indian Mound, October 27 ; and Cumber- 
land Kiver 7 miles north of Dover, October 30. 

These skins are identical in every way with specimens typical of 
extimus from West Virginia and elsewhere in the range of this race. 
Measurements of the Tennessee series are as follows: Males (6 speci- 
mens), wing 59.7-64.3 (62.4), tail 51.5-56.7 (53.9), culmen from base 
8.3-9.1 (8.7), tarsus 15.1-16.5 (16.0); females (2 specimens) wing 
56.2-59.4 (57.8), tail 51.5, culmen from base 8-8.5 (8.2), tarsus 15-16.2 
(15.6) mm. 

BAEOLOPHUS BICOLOR (Linnaeus): Tufted Titmouse 

This species is common throughout Tennessee except in the higher 
elevations of the mountains along the eastern border. Kecords in the 
collection are as follows: Hickory Withe, April 9 and 10; Reelfoot 
Lake, April 28; Waynesboro, May 11 and 12; Pulaski, November 1 
and 2; Chattanooga, March 13, 1882 (W. H. Fox) ; Lookout Moun- 
tain, March 24, 1882 (W. H. Fox) ; Crossville, May 26; Eockwood, 
April 8 and 19, 1884, and March 24, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; 2,000 feet 
elevation in the Clinch Mountains, 3 miles west of Bean Station, Sep- 
tember 30 ; 2,900 to 3,300 feet in the Holston Mountains, and Shady 
Valley, June 2, 5, and 12; 5,000 feet elevation on Roan Mountain, 
September 23; 1,800 feet elevation on Big Frog Mountain, 8 miles 
southwest of Copperhill, July 12. 

In examining this Tennessee material I have made careful compari- 
son again of the series in the National Museum to find that in fall 
and winter birds from South Carolina (Kershaw County and Charles- 
ton and vicinity) the brownish wash on the back is slightly duller 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

than in birds from the north, Tvhile in the breedmg season the back 
is very slightly darker gray. Specimens from Florida are less defi- 
nitely marked. In skins from West Virginia and Kentucky north- 
ward the dorsal wash in fall is very slightly brighter brown, and the 
gray of the back in summer barely perceptibly paler. The differences 
appear to me too slight to be worth separation. 

Family SITTIDAE 

SITTA CAROLINENSIS CAROLINENSIS Latham: White-breasted Nuthatch 

■\\Tiile the white-breasted nuthatches that I have seen from eastern 
Tennessee are not wholly typical of the northern bird, it appears to 
me that they are decidedly nearer to the northern form than to the 
southern one. The dorsal color is very sliglitly darker than in the 
bird of the north but is distinctly paler than in atkinsi The size is 
slightly intermediate, some having the somewhat larger dimensions of 
carolinensis and some being a little smaller. Specimens allocated here 
as carolinensis include the following: Eockwood, March 2, 13, 21, 30, 
and 31, 1885 (taken by W. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 4; and 3,800 
feet elevation in the Holston Mountains above Shady Valley, June 
9. Dr. Oberholser " has listed the Rockwood specimens as the south- 
ern form, but with more material for comparison they seem to me 
to fit better in the northern gi'oup. They are definitely paler than 
atkinsi^ and the single female shows a wash of gray over part of the 
black of the crown and nape. Measurements are as follows : Males 
(4 specimens), wings 85.8, 89.1, 89.4, 92, tail 46.7, 47.2, 47.4, 48.7, cul- 
men from base 16.9, 18.3, 18.5, 18.5, tarsus 17.8, 18.2, 18.5, 19.4; female 
(1 specimen), wing 87.6, tail 46, culmen from base 17, tarsus 17 mm. 

SITTA CAROLINENSIS ATKINSI Scott: Florida Nuthatch 

Birds from the following localities are identified as this southern 
race : Reelf oot Lake, April 27 ; 8 miles north of Indian Mound, Octo- 
ber 28 ; near Waynesboro, May 15 and 17 ; 7 miles southwest of Cross- 
ville, May 26. In color and in size these si^ecimens are similar to skins 
from Florida and South Carolina. They are definitely darker gray 
on the back than carolmensls and average small in size. Females 
from Indian IMound and Crossville have the crown and hindneck black 
without gray overwash. The size is definitely small as indicated by 
the following: Males (5 specimens), wing 85.4, 87.3, 88, 88.3, 89.5, tail 
45, 46.2, 47, 47.5, 47.5, cuhnen from base 17, 17.5, 17.6, 17.7, 18.3, tarsus 
18, 18, 18.9, 18.9, 19; females (2 specimens), wing 85.6, 86.4, tail 45.7, 
48.3, culmen from base 17, 17.5, tarsus 17.7, 18.5 mm. Crossville, 

•^ Auk, 1917, p. 185. 



NOTES ON THE BIKDS OF TENNESSEE WETMOKE 211 

where birds identified as atkinsi were taken, and Rockwood, where 
specimens called carolinensis were found, are not far distant, but the 
two series appear definitely different, though as indicated the Rock- 
wood birds are intermediate. 

The Florida nuthatch ranges well north and skins from as far north 
as Kershaw County, in the north-central section of South Carolina, 
belong to this race. 

SITTA CANADENSIS (Linnaeus): Red-breasted Nuthatch 

At the higher elevations on Roan Mountain these nuthatches were 
very common from September 13 to 23. One immature male secured 
on September 16 still has most of the juvenile plmnage, though three 
others have nearly completed the molt. These birds were coromon 
also in the higher areas of the Great Smoky Mountains, where speci- 
mens were obtained at 5,000 feet on Cosby Knob, June 19, at 6,300 
feet on Old Black Mountain, June 21, at 6,600 feet on Mount Guyot, 
June 21, 24, and 25, and at 4,700 feet on Snake Den Mountain, June 29. 
These are all in worn plumage, with the breast feathers so abraded 
that most of the reddish brown color has been lost. 

Family CERTHIIDAE 

CERTHIA FAMILIARIS AMERICANA Bonaparte: Brown Creeper 

The following records pertain to this migrant form: Samburg, 
October 11; Ridgely, October 15; Rockwood, April 3, 1884, March 25 
and 30 and April 15, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; Lookout Mountain, March 30, 
1882 (W. H. Fox). 

CERTHIA FAMILIARIS NIGRESCENS Burleigh:" Southern Creeper 

Marked by darker color above, particularly on the crown and 
anterior part of the body, this form is known at present in Ten- 
nessee only from the Great Smoky Mountains, where it breeds in 
the high elevations. Specimens were taken as follows : 6,300 to 6,600 
feet elevation on Mount Guyot, June 21, 24, and 25; at 5,500 feet 
elevation on Inadu Knob, June 29. These are in fair plumage though 
somewhat worn and are decidedly darker than the migrants taken 
elsewhere. The birds were found on large spruces. 

Family TROGLODYTIDAE 
TROGLODYTES AEDON BALDWINI Oberholser: Ohio House Wren 

The only house wren secured is an immature male collected 2 
miles east of Phillippy, Lake County, on October 23. This is an 



^ Certhia familiaris nigrescens Burleigh, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 48, May 3, 
1935, p. 62 (Mount Mitchell, N. C). 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8C 

example of this recently described race,^» being apparently the first 
identification of this bird for Tennessee, though it is probable that 
part of the records of the western house wren {T. a. parkmanii) for 
the western part of the State refer to this form. The specimen is in a 
somewhat grayish phase. 

NANNUS TROGLODYTES HIEMALIS (Vieillot): Eastern Winter Wren 

The migrant form of the winter wren is recorded in the collectioa 
at the following points: Hickory Withe, April 10; western Lincoln 
County, 6 miles east of Frankewing, November 4 and 6; Rockwood^ 
March 21, 1885, and April 3, 1884 (W. H. Fox). 

While the A. O. U. Check-list has included the American wrens of 
this group as specifically distinct from those of the Old World, it 
appears that the resemblances between them are so close that they 
are best considered as of one species. In view of this opinion I have 
listed the winter wrens here under the specific name troglodytes instead 
of hiemalis. 

NANNUS TROGLODYTES PULLUS Burleigh: Southern Winter Wren 

Two winter wrens were taken at 6,200 feet elevation on Roan 
Mountain, a male on September 13 and one marked questionably as a 
female on September 20. The bird has been recorded as nesting there 
by A. F. Ganier,*'' but specimens were not available to Burleigh when 
he named this southern race. In the Great Smoky Mountains on 
Inadu Knob an adult male was collected at 5,400 feet on June 23, and 
a juvenile recently from the nest at 5,600 feet on June 28. Another 
juvenile comes from 6,600 feet on Mount Guyot, June 24 ; another from 
4,500 feet on Snake Den Mountain, June 28; and an adult female 
from 6,300 feet on Old Black Mountain, June 29. One was observed 
on Snake Den Mountain at the low level of 3,600 feet on June 25. 

THRYOMANES BEWICKII BEWICKII (Audubon) : Bewick's Wren 

An adult male was taken near Hornbeak on May 6, and three were 
seen near tlie Mississippi in the vicinity of Tiptonville on October 
19. One was recorded 12 miles northwest of Waynesboro on May 13, 
and several were observed near Crossville, where a male was taken on 
May 27. Others were noted at Melvine and Pikeville on May 31 and 
10 miles east of Pulaski on November 2. Immature birds recently 
from the nest were taken at 3,300 feet elevation on Cross Momitain, 
3 miles south of Shady Valley post office, June 7. 

s» Troglodytes domesUcus ialdicini Oberholser, Ohio Journ Sci. vol 34 Mar 1934 d 90 
(Gates Mills, Ohio). , . , , y. »y, 

*« Migrant, 1936, p. 85. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 213 

THRYOTHORUS LUDOVICIANUS LUDOVICIANUS (Latham): Carolina 

Wren 

This is one of the common species throughout the State, except in 
the higher mountains. Specimens were taken as follows: Frayser, 
4 miles east of Memphis, April 8; Hickory Withe, April 9 and 10; 
Reelfoot Lake, April 28; Hornbeak, May 3; Ridgely, October 15; 
near Tipton ville, October 16; Dover, October 26; Indian Mound, 
October 29 ; Waynesboro, May 18 ; Pulaski, November 1 ; near Frank- 
ewing, November 3 ; Lookout Mountain, March 25 and 30, 1882 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Rockwood, March 16 and 30 and April 14, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; 
2,000 feet elevation in the Clinch Mountains 5 miles southwest of Bean 
Station, September 27; 2,900 feet in Shady Valley, June 7 (juvenile 
just from the nest) ; and 2,700 feet elevation in the Great Smoky 
Mountains near Cosby, Juno 30, This excellent series shows the usual 
variation in amount of reddish brown on the lower surface, birds 
taken in fall being much more riclily colored than those in spring and 
summer. 

CISTOTHORUS STELLARIS (Naumann): Short-billed Marsh Wren 
One was seen at Reelfoot Lake on April 30. 

Family MIMIDAE 

MIMUS POLYGLOTTOS POLYGLOTTOS (Linnaeus) : Eastern Mockingbird 

The mockingbird, of State-wide distribution except in the high 
mountains, was collected as follows: Hickory Withe, April 10 and 
12; Hornbeak, May 4; Tipton ville, October 18 and 22; Waynesboro, 
May 17 ; Pulaski, November 3 ; Pikeville, May 31. Mockingbirds were 
seen in Shady Valley on June 3 and 11. 

DUMETELLA CAROLINENSIS (Linnaeus): Catbird 

A common species of which specimens were obtained as follows: 
Eads, Shelby County, April 20; Reelfoot Lake, April 27; Waynes- 
boro, May 10; Crossville, May 25; Rockwood, April 19, 1884 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 3; 4,200 feet elevation on Roan Mountain, 
September 20 and 22; 6,000 feet elevation on Inadu Knob, Great 
Smoky Mountains, June 26; Beans Mountain, 2 miles northeast of 
Parksville, July 14. 

TOXOSTOMA RUFUM RUFUM (Linnaeus) : Eastern Brown Thrasher 

This widely distributed bird was collected at the following places: 
Frayser, 4 miles east of Memphis, April 8 ; Hickory Withe, April 8 ; 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8« 

Hornbeak. Obion County, May 4: Reelfoot Lake, 2 miles east of 
Phillippv, October 9: Crossville. May 26; Roct«-ood, April 7; and 
Eoane County, April 20, 18S5 (W. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley. June 9 
and 10; 4,100* feet elevation on Eoan Mountain, September 20; 2,700 
feet elevation 4 miles southeast of Crosby, Jime 23 ; 3,000 feet eleva- 
tion on Big Frog Mountain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 
10; and Beans Mountain, 2 miles northeast of ParksviUe, July 13 
and 14. 

TOXOSTOMA RUFUM LOXGICAUDA (Baird): Western Bro\sTi Thrasher 

An adult male taken on the Buffalo River 4 miles east of Flat 
"Woods, Wayne County, on May 17 has the maximum size of the 
western race of the brown thrasher and is identified as that form. 
It measures as follows: Wing 110.0, tail 133.0, culmen from base 
26.9, tarsus 34.2 mm. It is of necessity a migrant bird whose pres- 
ence at this late date here may arouse some speculation. Possibly 
it had been injured in some way, though it may have been merely 
a belated migrant, since in the extreme northern part of the range 
the first arrivals do not reach the breeding grounds until May 10 
or 12, and some come still later. 

The western race of the brown thrasher was described originally 
by Baird.*^ Ridgway '- discussed it but did not recognize it, partly 
because of unsatisfactory material and partly through some con- 
fusion in the allocation of some of the specimens available. Ober- 
holser -^ has separated the western form again, and after survey of 
a considerable series I agree with him that it is valid. Its principal 
character is found in its definitely larger size. The alleged differ- 
ence of paler color appears to me inconclusive, since while western 
birds in worn dress are lighter on the dorsal surface I can see no 
difference between the few specimens available in fresh fall plumage 
and skins in similar stage from the East. The lighter color found 
in the breeding series possibly is due to wear and fading through 
the influence of the more intense light and the drier atmosphere in 
which the western birds are found ; in other words, to actual bleach- 
ing. Measurements of skins taken in the breeding season of the two 
forms are as follows: 

Toxostofrca nifum rufum: Males (43 specimens), wing 97.3-106.2 
(102.6), tail 112.3-129.0 (121.0), culmen from base 23.1-29.2 (25.9), 
tarsus 31.3-36.1 (34.1) mm. Females (27 specimens), wing 96.3-103.8 

*i HarporhvnchuJi longicauda Baird. Reports of explorations and surveys . . . for a rail- 
road from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean . . . Birds, vol. 9, 183?. p. 353 
'Republican River, -western Kansas). 

« U. S. Nat. Mus. Boll. 50. pt. 4, 1907. p. 188. 

« Dept. Cons. State of Louisiana Bull. 28, 1938. pp. 4."9-460. 



XOTES OX THE BIRDS OF TEXXESSEE WETMORE 215 

(100.4), tail 111.1-126.0 (118.9), culmeii from base 22.1-27.2 (25.3), 
tarsus 32.4-35.4 (34.0) mm. These are the birds that breed fi'om 
Louisiana through eastern Kansas northward and eastward. 

Toxostoma rv.fum Jongicavda: Males (18 specimens), wing 104.1- 
116.7 (109.5), tail 120.8-135.7 (127.5). culmen fi^om base 24.2-29.5 
(26.8), tarsus 32.7-35.8 (34.6) mm. Females (9 specimens), wing 
104.4-116.6 (108.5). tail 122.0-136.7 (126.6). culmen from base 24.7- 
27.5 (26.0), tarsus 33.2-37.0 (34.4) mm. The specimens seen come 
from the Great Plains area fi'om western Kansas and eastern Colo- 
rado (near Denver) north to Alberta and Saskatchewan. Winter 
and migrant birds have been examined fi'om Texas. IVIississippi. and 
Tennessee. 

Family TURDIDAE 

TURDUS MIGRATORIUS MIGRATORIUS Linnaeus: Eastern Robin 

From material available it appears that this race breeds in the 
liigher altitudes of the mountains of the eastern part of Tennessee 
and that it is found at other seasons through the State. Individuals 
off their breeding grounds were taken at Ellendale, April 17 (female, 
wing 129.4) ; Frankewing, November 6 (male, wing 130; female, 
wing 126.7) : and Roc-kvrood. March 3. 1885 (dark, richly colored 
male, wing 128.7, taken by W. H. Fox). 

Four males secured in the Hoist on Mountains, bordering Shady 
Valley, on June 3. 4. 8, and 9. are large and dark colored (wings 
125.9. 128.1. 129.6, and 132 mm). They were taken from the base 
of the mountains at 2.800 feet to 3,800 feet elevation. An immature 
female in spotted dress was shot at 6.2O0 feet on Roan Mountain. 
Septeml^er 23. In a pair taken on June 21 on Inadu Knob in the 
Great Smoky ^Mountains, the male has the wing 132.4 nnn, while in 
the female it measures 124.7. Both birds are dark above and are 
richly colored below. 

TURDUS MIGRATORIUS ACHRUSTERUS ( Batchelder) : Southern Robin 

The collection includes only a few specimens of robins from the 
lowlands that belong to this race, which is presumed to be the breed- 
ing form throughout most of the lowland area of the State. A 
female taken at Ellendale on April 17 (wing 124.7) has the pale 
color of the southern form. The wings are somewhat worn, and it 
is believed to be the breeding bird of the area. A male fi'om Union 
City, May 6 (wing 125.4). is decidedly dark above but a little paler 
below than the average of the northern bird. It is called achru-<feru.s 
hut is considered intermediate toward miprafonu-s. A female from 
Rockwood. with the wiuij 118.3 mm and the color verv light above 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol 86 

and below, taken April 12, 1884, by W. H. Fox, is definitely the 
southern bird. Two females, collected along Beaverdam Creek at 
Shady Valley (2,900 feet elevation) on June 5 and 11, have the 
wing 119 and 121.4 mm, respectively, and are light in color. They 
appear typical of achnistems, an interesting fact since specimens 
from the slopes of the Holston Mountains bordering the valley, and 
only a few miles distant, are the northern subspecies. An immature 
female in juvenal dress that is barely grown, taken at 2,700 feet ele- 
vation 4 miles southeast of Cosby on July 2, is referred to the south- 
ern form, as the brown of sides and flanks is pale. No adults were 
obtained at this point. An immature male in fall plumage taken 
at 6,200 feet on Roan Mountain, September 25, wliich represents 
achnisterus, is a fall wanderer from low elevations, since the breed- 
ing bird of this mountain is migratonus. 

HYLOCICHLA MUSTELINA (Gmelin): Wood Thrush 

Specimens were obtained as follows : Reelfoot Lake, April 29 ; Mel- 
vine, May 29; Rockwood, April 23, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley, 
June 7 and 14; 5,100 feet elevation at Wliite Rock, Great Smoky 
Mountains, July 1; 2,700 feet elevation, near Cosby, in the Great 
Smoky Mountains, July 2. Tlie bird from "WHiite Rock is a juvenile 
only recently from the nest. 

HYLOCICHLA GUTTATA FAXONI Bangs and Penard: Eastern Hermit 

Thrush 

Found in migration as follows : Hickory Withe, April 9, 12, and 14 ; 
Reelfoot Lake 2 miles east of Phillippy, October 12; Indian Mound, 
October 28; Lookout Mountain, April 3, 1882 (W. H. Fox); Rock- 
wood, March 3, 4, and 16, 1884, and April 5 and 11, 1885 (W. H. Fox). 

HYLOCICHLA USTULATA SWAINSONI (Tschudi): Olive-backed Thrush 

In the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake these thrushes were fairly common 
in spring, specimens being taken at the lake on April 27 and 28 and 
near Hornbeak on May 1. Numbers were seen near Waynesboro fi^om 
May 11 (M^hen one was taken) to May 17. In fall three were secured 
at 5,000 feet elevation on Roan Mountain, September 20 and 22. 

HYLOCICHLA MINIMA ALICIAE (Baird): Gray-cheeked Thrush 

Eight specimens were taken at the following localities: Reelfoot 
Lake, April 24 and 29; Hornbeak, May 1 and 3; near Waynesboro, 
May 15 and 18; and at 6,100 feet elevation on Roan Mountain, Sep- 
tember 20. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 217 

HYLOCICHLA FUSCESCENS FUSCESCENS (Stephens): Veery 

Migrants -svere taken 9 miles north of Waynesboro on May 11. 
Several were seen on Roan Monntain from September 13 to 20, one 
being taken on September 18. In the Great Smoky Mountains two 
were taken at 5,500 and 5,700 feet elevation on Inadu Knob on June 24 
and 29, and t^\o at 6,000 feet in Yellow Creek Gap on June 25. 

SIALIA SIALIS SIALIS (Linnaeus): Eastern Bluebird 

Except in the forested areas of the mountauis bluebirds were re- 
corded throughout the State. Specimens were obtained as follows: 
Hickory Withe, April 13 ; Hornbeak, May 4 ; Waynesboro, May 10 and 
15 ; Lincoln County, 6 miles east of Frankewing, November 4, 8, and 9 ; 
Pikeville, May 31, Crossville, May 26; Shady Valley, June 5 (imma- 
ture recently from nest) and June 11. 

Family SYLVIIDAE 

POLIOPTILA CAERULEA CAERULEA (Linnaeus): Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 

This interesting species was collected as follows: Hickory Withe, 
April 9; Hornbeak, May 1 and 4; Waynesboro, May 10; Melvine, 
Bledsoe County, May 21 ; Lookout Mountain, March 27, 1882 ( W. H. 
Fox) ; Rockwood, April 4 and 5, 1884 (W. H. Fox). Most records 
for this bird are made early in the season ; it is seldom seen after nest- 
ing when it ceases to sing, as it is small and keeps in the cover of leaves. 

REGULUS SATRAPA SATRAPA Lichtenstein : Eastern Golden-crowned 

Kinglet 

In migration specimens come from Reelfoot Lake near Tiptonville, 
October 18; from Chattanooga, March 13, 1882; from Lookout Moun- 
tain, March 22, 1884; and from Rockwood March 20, 1885 (the last 
three taken by W. H. Fox). Possibly this kinglet is more numerous 
in the higher mountains as a breeding bird than has been supposed. 
On Roan Mountain from September 12 to 16 it was fairly common. 
As the specimens taken include one secured September 16 with crown 
still in full juvenile plumage with no trace of yellow, there can be 
no question that the birds nest in that region. This bird has the wings 
and tail just grown, while the soft immature dress still clothes the 
anterior part of the body. In the Great Smoky Mountains these 
kinglets were common in June at several localities in the high alti- 
tudes. Specimens were taken on June 24 and 26 at 6,400 to 6,600 
feet elevation on Mount Guyot, and on June 21 at 6,300 feet on Old 
Black Mountain. One taken on June 21 is only recently from the 
nest and is in full juvenal plumage. Several were seen on Inadu 
Knob on June 24. 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol 86 

Breeding birds are almost imperceptibly darker in color above 
when compared with birds from tlie north, but they do not seem to 
differ sufficiently to warrant separation. 

Regulus satrapa and its races differ from RegvJus regulus and its 
forms of the Old World definitely and strikingly in the well-marked 
white superciliary line of the former. The only approach in the 
Palearctic group to this character is found in Regulus regulm japoni- 
cus. in which the whole side of the head is lighter but in which there 
is no definite superciliary stripe. In fact, to my eye satrapa resembles 
Regulus ignicapiUus as much as it does R. regulm. I may add that 
the song of the goldcrest {Regulus r. regulus), familiar to me in the 
field from work in the Sierra Cantabrica of northern Spain, is quite 
distinct in form and phrase from that of our golden-crown. I can 
see no basis for the action of Hartert,"* Hellmayr,*"' and others in 
listing the North American satrapa as a geographic race of regulus. 
In my opinion the two should be treated in our Check-list as distinct. 

CORTHYLIO CALENDULA CALENDULA (Linnaeus): Eastern Ruby- 
crowned Kinglet 

Obtained in migration as follows : Frayser, April 8 ; Hickoi-y Withe, 
April 14; Samburg, October 14; Ridgely, October 15; Pulaski, No- 
vember 2; Rockwood, April 3, 1884 (W. H. Fox) ; 2,000 feet elevation 
in the Clinch Mountains, 3 miles west of Bean Station, September 
28 and 30; Roan Mountain at 6,200 feet elevation, September 15 and 
18, and at 4,900 feet, September 20. 

Family MOTACILLIDAE 

ANTHUS SPINOLETTA RUBESCENS (Tunstall) : American Pipit 

On March 23 and 24, 1885, W. H. Fox secured specimens of the 
pipit at Rockwood. 

Family BOMBYCILLIDAE 

BOMBYCILLA CEDRORUM Vieillot: Cedar Waxwing 

Cedar waxwings were taken at Hickory Withe, April 15, and at 
Reelfoot Lake, April 27. Birds were seen at Waynesboro, May 11; 
near Frankewing. November 7; and on Cross Mountain near Shady 
Valley, June 13. One was collected at 6,100 feet elevation on Old 
Black Mountain in the Great Smoky Mountains on June 29. 

"Die V<5gel der p.alaarktlschen Fauna, vol. 1, 1910. p. 394. 
«5 Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zoo!, ser.. vol. 13. pt. 7, 1934, p. 510. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 221 

the proposal of Bangs and Penard ^"^ to call the red-eyed vireo Vireo 
■virescens on the grounds that the name Motacilla olivacea Linnaeus 
in use for it could not properly be applied to this species, but they 
did not find sufficient reason for discarding the current name. The 
sajne question has been revived recently by Hellmayr.^^ 

Family COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 

MNIOTILTA VARIA (Linnaeus): Black and White Warbler 

The present species was fairly common during summer in the 
eastern two-thirds of Tennessee, as shown by the following records: 
10 miles north of Waynesboro, May 12; 7 miles southwest of Cross- 
ville, May 24 and 25; Lookout Mountain, March 24, 1882 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Rockwood, March 31, 1885, and April 5 and 11, 1884 (W. H. 
Fox); Shady Valley, June 7 and 8; 6,000 feet elevation on Roan 
Mountain, September 20; 5,000 feet elevation on Inadu Knob, Great 
Smoky Mountains, June 26 ; 2,700 feet elevation, 4 miles southeast of 
Cosby, June 30 and July 2; 2,100 feet elevation on Big Frog Moun- 
tain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 9 and 15 (including 
immature birds not quite grown on both dates) . 

PROTONOTARIA CITREA (Boddaert): Prothonotary Warbler 

The brilliant prothonotary warbler was seen at Hickory Withe 
on April 10. At Reelfoot Lake, where three specimens were taken on 
April 27 and 29 and May 7, these birds were common, particularly 
on Green and Caney Islands. One was seen near Tiptonville on 
May 1. 

LIMNOTHLYPIS SWAINSONII (Audubon): Swainson's Warbler 

On June 8 an adult male was taken at 3,000 feet elevation in the 
Holston Mountains, 3 miles northeast of Shady Valley, in a swampy 
area shaded heavily with hemlock and rhododendron. Two others 
were recorded at 2,600 feet elevation 5 miles north of Shady Valley, 
near Beaverdam Creek. 

HELMITHEROS VERMIVORUS (Gmelin): Worm-eating Warbler 

The first one observed was found 8 miles north of Waynesboro 
on May 16. W. H. Fox secured a male at Rockwood April 24, 1884, 
and Perrygo and Lingebach obtained one at 3,000 feet elevation on 
Big Frog Mountain 8 miles southwest of Copperhill on July 10. 



« Bull. Mus. Comp. ZoOl., vol. 67, 1925, p. 206. 

"Field Mus. Nat. Hist, zool. ser., vol. 13, pt. 8, Sept. 16, 1935. p. 130. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

VERMIVORA PEREGRINA (Wilson): Tennessee Warbler 

A common migrant that was obtained in spring at Reelfoot Lake 
on April 27 and 30, and in fall in this general area, near Samburg 
on October 11, and near Tiptonville on October 16 and 18. One 
was seen 8 miles north of Waynesboro on May 19. Two were col- 
lected at 6,200 feet elevation on Roan Mountain on September 13. 

VERMIVORA CELATA CELATA (Say): Orange-crowned Warbler 

An immature male was secured along the Ciunberland River on 
October 26 near Dover. 

COMPSOTHLYPIS AMERICANA AMERICANA (Linnaeus): Southern 

Parula Warbler 

A male taken at Rockwood on April 24, 1884, by W. H. Fox has 
the paler upper surface and less heavily banded breast of the south- 
ern race. It has the following measurements: Wing 59.4, tail 42.8, 
culmen from base 11.7, and tarsus 15.5 mm. Whether this individual 
is a wanderer or whether the southern form has a definite range in 
the State is something to be ascertained only through further collect- 
ing. All others taken belong to the subspecies pusilla. 

COMPSOTHLYPIS AMERICANA PUSILLA (Wilson): Northern Parula 

Warbler 

Birds from the following localities are identified as this race: 
Reelfoot Lake, April 24; about 4 miles west of Hornbeak, May 3; 
Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest of Crossville, May 24, 25, and 27; 
and Shady Valley, June 10. All are heavily banded with black and 
bro\vn across the chest and are darker above than the southern form. 

DENDROICA AESTIVA AESTIVA (Gmelin): Eastern Yellow Warbler 

A female was taken at Reelfoot Lake on iS^pril 27. Others were 
seen near Hornbeak on May 4 and at Shady Valley on June 3. 

DENDROICA MAGNOLIA (Wilson): Magnolia Warbler 

Two were collected, an adult male 10 miles north of Waynesboro 
on May 12, and a female in the Clinch Mountains, 3 miles west of 
Bean Station, on September 28. 

DENDROICA TIGRINA (GmeUn): Cape May Warbler 

There is one specimen of this warbler in the National Museum 
collections taken at Rogersville, Tenn., in May 1885, by James Rogan. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 221 

the proposal of Bangs and Penard *® to call the red-eyed vireo Vireo 
virescen-s on the grounds that the name MotacUla olivacea Linnaeus 
in use for it could not properly be applied to this species, but they 
did not find sufficient reason for discarding the current name. The 
same question has been revived recently by Hellmayr.*^ 

Family COMPSOTHLYPIDAE 

MNIOTILTA VARIA (Linnaeus): Black and White Warbler 

The present species was fairly common during summer in the 
eastern two-thirds of Tennessee, as shown by the following records: 
10 miles north of Waynesboro, May 12; 7 miles southwest of Cross- 
ville. May 24 and 25; Lookout Mountain, March 24, 1882 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Rockwood, March 31, 1885, and April 5 and 11, 1884 (W. H. 
Fox); Shady Valley, June 7 and 8; 6,000 feet elevation on Roan 
Mountain, September 20; 5,000 feet elevation on Inadu Knob, Great 
Smoky Mountains, June 26; 2,700 feet elevation, 4 miles southeast of 
Cosby, June 30 and July 2; 2,100 feet elevation on Big Frog Moun- 
tain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 9 and 15 (including 
immature birds not quite grown on both dates) . 

MNIOTILTA VARIA (Linnaeus): Black and White Warbler 

The brilliant prothonotary warbler was seen at Hickory Withe 
on April 10. At Reel foot Lake, where three specimens were taken on 
April 27 and 29 and May 7, these birds were common, particularly 
on Green and Caney Islands. One was seen near Tiptonville on 
May 1. 

LIMNOTHLYPIS SWAINSONII (Audubon): Swainson's Warbler 

On June 8 an adult male was taken at 3,000 feet elevation in the 
Holston Mountains, 3 miles northeast of Shady Valley, in a swampy 
area shaded heavily with hemlock and rhododendron. Two othei^ 
were recorded at 2,600 feet elevation 5 miles north of Shady Valley, 
near Beaverdam Creek. 

HELMITHEROS VERMIVORUS (Gmelin): Worm-eating Warbler 

llie first one observed was found 8 miles north of Waynesboro 
on May 16. W. H. Fox secured a male at Rockwood April 24, 1884, 
and Perry go and Lingebach obtained one at 3,000 feet elevation on 
Big Frog Mountain 8 miles southwest of Copperhill on July 10. 



« Bull. Mu8. Comp. ZoOl., vol. 67, 1925, p. 206. 

*■' Field Mu8. Nat. Hist., zool. ser., vol. 13. pt. 8, Sept. 16, 1935. p. 130. 



222 PR0CEEDI2JGS OF THE NATION.\L MUSEUM vol. 86 

VERMIVORA PEREGRINA (Wilson): Tennessee Warbler 

A common migrant that was obtained in spring at Eeelfoot Lake 
on April 27 and 30, and in fall in this general area, near Samburg 
on October 11, and near Tiptonville on October 16 and 18. One 
was seen 8 miles north of Waynesboro on May 19. Two were col- 
lected at 6,200 feet elevation on Roan Mountain on September 13. 

VERMIVORA CELATA CELATA (Say): Orange-crowned V/arbler 

An immature male was secured along the Cumberland River on 
October 26 near Dover. 

COMPSOTHLYPIS AMERICANA AMERICANA (Linnaeus): Southern 

Parula Warbler 

A male taken at Rockwood on April 24, 1884, by W. H. Fox has 
the paler upper surface and less heavily banded breast of the south- 
ern race. It has the following measurements: Wing 59.4, tail 42.8, 
culmen from base 11.7, and tarsus 15.5 mm. Whether this individual 
is a wanderer or whether the southern form has a definite range in 
the State is something to be ascertained oidy through further collect- 
ing. All others taken belong to the subspecies pusilla. 

COMPSOTHLYPIS AMERICANA PUSILLA (Wilson): Northern Parula 

Warbler 

Birds from the following localities are identified as this race: 
Reelfoot Lake, April 24; about 4 miles west of Hornbeak, May 3; 
Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest of Crossville, May 24, 25, and 27; 
and Shady Valley, June 10. All are heavily banded with black and 
brown across the chest and are darker above than the southern form. 

DENDROICA AESTIVA AESTIVA (Gmelin): Eastern Yellow Warbler 

A female was taken at Reelfoot Lake on April 27. Others were 
seen near Hornbeak on May 4 and at Shady Valley on June 3. 

DENDROICA MAGNOLIA (Wilson): Magnolia Warbler 

Two were collected, an adult male 10 miles north of Waynesboro 
on May 12, and a female in the Clinch Mountains, 3 miles west of 
Bean Station, on September 28. 

DENDROICA TIGRINA (Gmelin): Cape I^Iay Warbler 

There is one specimen of this warbler in the National Museum 
collections taken at Rogersville, Tenn., in May 1885, by James Rogan. 



XOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENISTESSEE WETMORE 223 

DENDROICA CAERULESCENS CAERULESCENS (Gmelin): Black- 
throated Blue Warbler 

On September 13 Perrygo noted hundreds of these warblers passing 
over Roan Mountain dunng a heavy fog. This was the period of 
migi'ation from the north, and several specimens of this northern race 
were taken here at elevations varying from 4,700 to 6,200 feet between 
September 13 and 20. These are the only certain records for true 
caerulescens in the collection. 

DENDROICA CAERULESCENS CAIRNSI Coues: Cairns's Warbler 

In June in the Holston Mountains bordering Shady Valley these 
birds were common, specimens being taken on June 4 and 9. I saw 
several in the Iron Mountains on June 6 and one on Cross Mountain 
south of Shady Valley on June 7. On Roan Mountain, among the 
host of migrant black-throated blue warblers, a male of this race was 
taken at 6,200 feet on September 13 and another at 5,000 feet on Sep- 
tember 23. In the Great Smoky Mountains Cairns's warbler was 
common, being collected in Low Gap 6 miles southeast of Cosby on 
June 19, when an adult male and a young bird recently from the nest 
were taken, and on Inadu Knob June 21, 24, and 26, Two were seen 
at 3,700 feet on Big Frog Mountain on July 10. The males have the 
blue dark in color, and most of them show a heavy suffusion of black 
in the back. The females are darker and duller than those of the 
northern form. The young bird secured is decidedly different from 
the only juvenile of the black-throated blue warbler available, a bird 
just from the nest taken at Upton, Maine, on August 11, 1873, by 
William Brewster (U. S. N. M. no, 233447), the specimen of Cairns's 
warbler being much darker colored on the back, and decidedly green- 
ish instead of brown. The difference is striking. 

DENDROICA CORONATA CORONATA (Linnaeus) : Myrtle Warbler 

This species, abundant at the proper seasons, was taken as follows : 
Hickory Withe, April 15 and 16 ; Reelf oot Lake, April 27 and October 
13 (4 miles south of Samburg) ; 7 miles northeast of Tiptonville, 
October 22 ; Cumberland River near Indian Mound October 27 (hun- 
dreds seen here on the following day) ; 10 miles east of Pulaski, 
November 2; Lookout Mountain, March 29, 1882 (W. H. Fox) ; and 
Rockwood, March 3, 1885 (W. H. Fox). 

As I have stated elsewhere, I consider the western race of this bird 
valid, though it is not recognized in the latest edition of the A. O. U, 
Check-list. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol 86 

DENDROICA VIRENS VIRENS (Gmelin): Black-throated Green Warbler 

Specimens at hand come from the following localities : Hornbeak, 
May 1 ; Sambiirg, October 19; Rock wood, April 3 and 7, 1884 (W. H. 
Fox); 3,400 feet elevation on Cross Mountain (near Briceville), 
August 15, 1908 (A. H. Howell) ; Clinch Mountains near Bean Sta- 
tion, September 28 and 29; 5,700 feet elevation on Roan Mountain, 
September 16; 3,200 to 3,400 feet altitude near Cosby, Juue 30 and 
July 1; 3,800 feet elevation on Snake Den Mountain, July 2; 2,100 
feet elevation on Big Frog Mountain, 8 miles southwest of Copper- 
hill, July 9. Apparently these birds are commoner as nesting birds 
in the State than has been supposed. The specimens from Cross 
Mountain probably were summer residents. In the Great Smoky 
Mountains two were seen on Mount Guyot at 6,600 feet in addition 
to those listed. On Big Frog Mountain black-throated green warblers 
were common, as 15 were noted one day. Those taken there include 
young birds recently from the nest. 

From the few specimens that I have seen, the southern race of 
this species, Dendroica viretu iraynei, is distinguished only by its 
somewhat smaller and slenderer bill. To me color differences that 
have been alleged are not apparent. The breeding birds from Ten- 
nessee resemble birds from the north and are to be placed with the 
typical race. 

DENDROICA CERULEA (Wilson): Cerulean Warbler 

A male was taken 8 miles north of Waynesboro on May 19. One 
was recorded 7 miles southwest of Crossville on May 25. 

DENDROICA FUSCA (Miillcr): Blackburnian Warbler 

The first one observed was taken at Reelfoot Lake, A))ril 24, 
followed by others 4 miles west of Hornl^eak, May 4, and 9 miles 
north of Waynesboro, May 11. A female was secured on June 4, at 
3,800 feet in the Holston Mountains above Shady Valley, and on 
June 6 I found Blackburnian warblers common along the sunmiit of 
the Iron Mountains 2 miles east of Shady Valley, where I secured a 
pair. We saw at least a dozen at an elevation of 4,000 feet in decid- 
uous forest, where they ranged both through the higher trees and 
in the undergrowth. Subsequently Perry go found them on Inadu 
Knob in the Great Smoky Mountains, at elevations of 5,700 to 5,900 
feet on June 23, 24, and 26. 

Female birds taken in June appear less yellowish above than those 
from the north, the white markings being clearer and the general 
tone grayer and darker. There is much individual variation in this 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 225 

species, however, and it seems probable that the difference apparent 
is due to this. One breeding male is similar to skins from the 
north. 

DENDROICA DOMINICA ALBILORA Ridgway: Sycamore Warbler 

Specimens were obtained near Hickory Withe on April 10, 12, and 
16 and at Reelfoot Lake on April 29. Others were observed in the 
latter region on May 1 and 7. 

DENDROICA PENSYLVANICA (Linnaeus): Chestnut-sided Warbler 

Recorded as follows: 4 miles west of Hornbeak, May 4; Cross 
Mountain, 3 miles south of Shady Valley, June 7; and near Cosby, 
in the Great Smoky Mountains, June 21 and July 1. 

DENDROICA CASTANEA (Wilson): Bay-breasted Warbler 

This migrant species was taken near Hornbeak on May 1 and at 
Reelfoot Lake on May 7. In fall it was fairly common in this area, 
specimens coming from near the lake, 2 miles east of Phillippy, 
October 9 and 12, and from 4 miles below Samburg, October 13. A 
number were seen near Samburg on October 19, North of Waynes- 
boro specimens were secured on May 10 and 11, and one was seen on 
May 12. In the Clinch Mountains one was taken 5 miles southwest 
of Bean Station, September 27, and one 3 miles northwest of Rut- 
ledge, October 1. One was collected at 5,200 feet elevation on Roan 
Mountain on September 23. 

DENDROICA STRIATA (Forster): Black-poll Warbler 

About Reelfoot Lake this species was collected on April 27 and 28. 
Others were seen near Bluebank on May 3 and Hornbeak on May 4, 
while on May 7 they were very common on Green and Caney Islands 
in Reelfoot Lake. A few were recorded near Waynesboro on May 
11 and 12. 

Hellmayr ** has listed this species under the name Dendroicd 
hreviunguis (Spix) on the ground that '■''Muscicapa striata Forster 
seems to be baiTed by MotaoiUa striata Pallas (in Vroeg, Cat. Rais. 
d'Ois., Adumbr., p. 3, 1764) now referred to the genus Muscicapa.'" 

While this is true under the International Code, which recognizes 
secondary synonyms, it does not hold under the A. O. U. code as at 
present constituted, as this does not recognize secondary allocation of 
names as preoccupation unless in current usage they come within the 
limits of the same genus. If the A. O. U. code is followed, the name 



** Field Mus. Nat. Hist., zool. set ., vol. 13, pt. 8, 19r>5, p. 403. 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8G 

of this warbler will remain striata. If the International Code is 
accepted, then the name will change to hreviwnguis. 

DENDROICA PINUS PINUS (Wilson): Northern Pine Warbler 

W. H. Fox collected pine warblers at Rockwood on March 13 and 
26, 1885. Perrygo secured one in the Clinch Mountaiiis 6 miles south- 
west of Bean Station on September 29 and one at 6,200 feet elevation 
on Roan Mountain on September 22. On Big Frog Mountain young 
recently from the nest were taken on July 9 at 2,100 feet elevation, 8 
miles southwest of Copperhill. Another young bird molting into 
first fall plumage was secured on July 14. 

DENDROICA DISCOLOR DISCOLOR (Linnaeus): Northern Prairie 

Warbler 

Near Waynesboro these birds were connnon from ^lay 10 to 15. 
Specimens were taken also near Crossville, May 24. 25, and 26, and 
there are two in the National Museum taken by W. H. Fox near 
Rockwood, April 15, 1885, and April 16, 1884. 

DENDROICA PALMARUM PALMARUM (Gmelin): Western Palm Warbler 

Fairly common in the general vicinity of Reelfoot Lake from April 
26 to May 7. Specimens were taken at Reelfoot Lake on April 26 
and near Hornbeak on May 4. 

SEIURUS AUROCAPILLUS (Linnaeus): Oven-bird 

Records for this connnon bird are as follows: 4 miles west of Horn- 
beak, May 3; 5 miles east of Crossville, May 29; Rockwood, May 15, 
1884 (W. II. Fox) ; Clinch Mountains, 3 miles west of Bean Station, 
September 30; Shady Valley, June 2 and 4 (common in the Holston 
and Iron Mountains) ; Carter, June 7; I..ow (nip in tlie Great Smoky 
Mountains near Cosby, June 19 ; 3,000 to 3,200 feet elevation on Big 
Frog Mountain 8 miles southwest of G>pperhill, July 10 (one imma- 
ture bird); 2,900 to 3,000 feet elevation on Beans Mountain 2 miles 
northeast of Parksville, July 13 and 14 (the latter an immature 
individual). 

SEIURUS MOTACILLA (Vieillot): Louisiana Water-thrush 

A small series taken during the spring months includes specimens 
from the following localities: Hickory Withe, April 9 and 16; Reel- 
foot Lake, April 28 ; 7 miles southwest of Crossville, May 25 ; Melvine, 
May 29 and 31; Rockwood, April 12, 1884 (W. H. Fox); Holston 
Mountains near Shady Valley, June 3 (including a young bird just 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETIMORE 227 

from the nest) ; 3,600 feet elevation in the Iron Mountains above 
Shady Valley, June 6 (others seen at Shady Valley post office and 
on Cross Mountain, June 7) ; at 2,900 feet elevation near Cosby in 
the Great Smoky Mountains, June 29; 2,000 feet elevation on Big 
Frog Mountain near Copperhill, July 8 (one juvenile). 

OPORORNIS FORMOSUS (Wilson): Kentucky Warbler 

Found at Hickory Withe, April 16 ; Eads, April 20 ; Reelfoot Lake, 
April 28 ; Hornbeak, May 1 and 3 ; Waynesboro, May 10 to 19 ; Cross- 
ville, May 25 to 28; Shady Valley, June 11; Low Gap in the Great 
Smoky Mountains near Cosby, June 19; 3,500 feet elevation 4 miles 
southeast of Cosby, June 29. 

GEOTHLYPIS TRICHAS BRACHIDACTYLA (Swainson): Northern 

Yellow-throat 

Specimens were secured as follows: Eads, April 20; Ellendale, 
April 17 and 21; Hickory Withe, April 20; Reelfoot Lake, April 28 
and 30; Waynesboro, May 17; Crossville, May 26; Kockwood, April 
23, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 5 and 11; and at 6,100 feet 
elevation on Inadu Knob, in the Great Smoky Mountains, June 26. 
Males from Shady Valley are very slightly larger than others. All 
have the yellow on the lower surface extensive. 

ICTERIA VIRENS VIRENS (Linnaeus): Yellow-breasted Chat 

Specimens were taken at Reelfoot Lake, April 30; 10 miles north of 
Waynesboro, May 12 ; near Crossville, May 26, 27, and 28 ; Rockwood, 
April 23, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 16; at 2,700 and 2,800 
feet elevation near Cosby, in the Great Smoky Mountains, June 23 and 
29 ; at 3,000 feet on Big Frog Mountain 8 miles southwest of Copper- 
hill, July 10; and at 1,800 feet on Beans Mountain, 2 miles northeast 
of Parksville, July 14. 

Birds from near Reelfoot Lake have slightly more M'hite on the 
malar region than those from the eastern part of the State but in no 
other way show approach to the western form. 

WILSONIA CITRINA (Boddaert) : Hooded Warbler 

Records for this species are as follows: Hickory Withe, April 14; 
Hornbeak, May 1; 10 miles north of Waynesboro, May 12; 7 miles 
southeast of Crossville, May 25; Rockwood, May 19, 1884 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 7 and 10; Low Gap, June 19, and 3,700 feet 
elevation on Snake Den Mountain, June 24, in the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains (seen near Cosby June 19) ; Big Frog Mountain, 8 miles south- 
west of Copperhill. July 14 and 15; Beans Mountain, 2 miles northeast 
of Parks^■ille, July 14 (including one young just from nest). 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

WILSONIA CANADENSIS (Linnaeus): Canada Warbler 

Taken only in the Great Smoky Mountains, where specimens were 
secured at 5,000 feet on Cosby Knob, June 19, on Inadu Knob, June 21, 
and at 4,200 feet on Snake Den Mountain, June 26. 

Breeding specimens from the mountains of North. Carolina (Mount 
Mitchell, Graybeard, and Roan Mountain), Tennessee (Great Smoky 
Mountains), southwestern Virginia (White. Top and Mount Rogers), 
and West Virginia (Middle Mountain, Yokum Knob, and Cranberry 
Glades) are very faintly darker gray above, with slightly less greenish 
yellow wash, than those from the noi-thern United States and south- 
ern Canada. The difference is barely perceptible on close compari- 
son and is not one that in my opinion merits a name. 

SETOPHAGA RUTICILLA (Linnaeus): Redstart 

The following specimens were taken: Eads, April 20; Hornbeak, 
May 3; 10 miles north of Wajniesboro, May 12; 7 miles southwest of 
Crossville, May 25; Rockwood, April 15, 1885 (W. H. Fox); Roan 
Mountain, September 16 and 23. 

Family PLOCEIDAE 

PASSER DOMESTICUS DOMESTICUS (Linnaeus) : English Sparrow 

A female was taken at Indian Mound on October 29, and a male 
was collected at Rockwood on March 24, 1885 (by W. H. Fox). 

Family ICTERIDAE 

DOLICHONYX ORYZIVORUS (Linnaeus): Bobolink 

Seen 2 miles north of Waynesboro on May 17 and 18. 

STURNELLA MAGNA ARGUTULA Bangs: Southern Meadowlark 

Study of the meadowlarks available from Tennessee has brought to 
light an interesting condition in that while all I have seen are to be 
identified as the southern form argutuJa, those from the eastern sec- 
tion of the State are intermediate toward the northern bird. 

Specimens from the folloAving localities are considered typical of 
the southern race: Ellendale, April 17; 7 miles northeast of Tipton- 
ville, October 22; Union City, May 4 and 6; 4 miles east of Waynes- 
boro, May 17; Fayetteville, November 3; Pikeville, May 31. Meas- 
urements of birds in this series are as follows : Males, wing 111.8-121.0, 
tail, 71.6-78.3. culmen from h&m 31.5-36; tarsus 39.6-44: females, 
wing 103.5-106.6, tail 62.8-72.1. culmen from base 28.6-31.5, tarsus 
36.7-39.3 mm. 



^OTE.S OX THP: birds of TENNESSEE WETMORE 229 

In specimens from farther east the color of the breast is distinctly 
paler yellow as in magna^ while the size remains small and the dorsal 
coloration is dark as in argutida. These are considered intermediate 
but as nearer to argutula. This series includes the following birds: 
Rockwood, April 15, 17, and 23, 1885 (AV. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley, 
June 11. The specimens measure as follows: One male (from Shady 
Valley), wing 115.6, tail 70.3, culmen from base 33.2, tarsus 41.4; four 
females, wing 101-108, tail 62.8-70.1, culmen from base 27.8-32.1, 
tarsus 35.6-38.3 mm. These all seem to be breeding birds and may 
indicate that S. m. magtm is found in Tennessee only as a winter 
migrant. 

A bii'd that I collected in the Elk Gardens at 4,000 feet elevation on 
White Top Mountain, Va., on September 28, 1935, agrees in dark dor- 
sal coloration with the birds from Shady Valley, Temi., though as it is 
in molt comparative measurements are not available. 

AGELAIUS PHOENICEUS PHOENICEUS (Linnaeus): Eastern Red-wing 

Specimens of this common bird were secured as follows : Ellendale, 
April 21; Hickory Withe, April 20; Tiptonville, Octolier 8; Phil- 
lippy, October 23; Reelfoot Lake, May 7; Indian Mound, October 
29; Rockwood, March 13 and April 17, 1885 (W. H. Fox); Shady 
Valley, June 11, 12, and 14. 

AGELAIUS PHOENICEUS ARCTOLEGUS Oberholser: Giant Red-wing 

In the small series of red-wings obtained there are two females that 
are migrants of this large northern race. One taken at Ellendale, 
Shelby County, April 17, with the wing 101.4 mm, is noticeable for 
the wide, heavy, black streaks on the under surface and the dark 
coloration above. Another secured 7 miles northeast of Tiptonville 
on October 20 is larger, having the wing 104 mm. It also is heavily 
marked below and is especially noticeable for its dark color above. 

ICTERUS SPURIUS (Linnaeus): Orchard Oriole 

Specimens were taken at Eads, April 22; Hickory Withe, April 22; 
and Reelfoot Lake, April 26. The bird was observed near Waynes- 
boro, May 11 to 18, and in the vicinity of Pikeville, May 21 to 29. 

ICTERUS GALBULA (Linnaeus): Baltimore Oriole 

Several Avere seen and two were taken at Reelfoot Lake on April 30, 
Others were seen near Hornbeak on May 3 and 4 and on Caney Island 
in Reelfoot Lake on Mav 7. 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol 86 

EUPHAGUS CAROLINUS (MQller) : Rusty Blackbird 

One was taken from a flock of three along the Ciunberland River 
near Dover on October 26. There is also a female in the collection 
from Rockwood taken on April 18, 1885, by W. H. Fox. 

QUISCALUS VERSICOLOR Vieillot: Bronzed Crackle 

This form of gra<?kle has the back and rump metallic bronze with- 
out concealed purplish bars, except at the point of j miction of the 
head color with that of the back. It is represented in the collection 
by birds typical in every way that are supposed to have been breed- 
ing, taken at Hickory Withe, April 15, and at Union City, May 4. 
A female from Hickory AVithe has not molted properly and is in 
such worn plumage that practically all metallic sheen has disap- 
peared except on the head and upper breast. In fall, specimens 
were obtained at Reelfoot Lake, 3 miles south of Samburg, October 
11, on the Cumberland River, 7 miles north of Dover, October 30, 
and near Pulaski in Giles County, November 1. 

I have indicated beyond that this bird is probably best treated as 
a species distinct from the purple and Florida grackles of the east 
and south, and now it is with much regret that I have to record 
that the long-familiar name of aeneas proposed by Ridgway *' for 
this grackle has to be replaced by versicol&i' of Vieillot,^" a name 
at one time used for the purj^le grackle. Hellmayr -'^ has listed 
Quiscalus versicolor Vieillot as a synonym of Qiihcdlus quiscula 
gimcula, saying that it is a "new name for Graeula quiscula Latham 
(Ind. Orn., 1, p. 191, VJ^O)^GracuIa quiscula Linnaeus." There is, 
however, in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris a specimen that 
is marked definitely as Vieillot's tyj)e of ve7\ncolor and that is a 
typical bronzed grackle, so that this name must be used for the 
western bird. In May 1938, in company with A. J. van Rossem, I 
examined this specimen to find that there is no question as to its 
identification as indicated, and there seems to be no doubt that it is 
the basis of Vieillot's description. Hellmayr's supposition that 
versicolor is merely a substitute name for Graeula quiscula Latham 
is not borne out by examination of Vieillot's account, which is not 
a transliteration of Latham's statement but is written anew, evidently 
from the specimen cited. The type is labeled as from "I^^tats-Unis." 

The name for the bronzed gi-ackle, therefore, becomes Qui^^calus 
versicohr Vieillot if it is considered a distinct species, or Quiscdltis 

*» Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiiadflpbia, 1869, p. 134. 

«> Quiscalus versicolor Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hiat. Nat., vol. 28, 1819. p. 488, pi. P. 3, flg. 
1 ''no locality Riven'). 

=1 Field Mus. Nat. Hi^it.. zool. sor., vol. 13. pt. 10. 1937, p. 75. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 231 

versicolor versicolor if the belief is held that it is conspecific with 
the eastern and southern grackles of this group. 

QUISCALUS QUISCULA STONEI Chapman: Purple Crackle 

The subspecific names applied herein to this grackle and its relative 
^^ridgtvayi''^ are used in accordance with the treatment of Dr. Frank M. 
Chapman in his detailed studies of these interesting birds.^^ In the 
identification of the specimens available from Tennessee I have had the 
benefit of Dr. Chapman's advice from his personal examination of th© 
material. 

In my opinion the nomenclatural status of these grackles is subject to 
some adjustment from the currently accepted view as expressed at 
present in the A. O. U. Check-list of one species divided into several 
subspecies. As knowledge of the ranges of the phases in which these 
birds occur has grown, it has appeared to me that we have here two 
specific groups, one of bronzed grackles (not divided into subspecies) 
and the other of purple grackles (with two geographic races, the 
Florida grackle and the purple grackle), with hybrids {ridgioayi) 
occurring in abundance when the ranges of the two overlap. If this 
view is accepted, the case would then be like that of the red-shafted and 
the yellow-shafted flickers. 

Four birds assigned to the purple grackle now known as Quiscalus q. 
stonei were secured by W. H. Fox near Rockwood, Tenn., on March 26 
and 30 and April 11 and 16, 1885. These show the purplish to greenish 
head, the bronzy purplish blue back and sides, and the more or less 
concealed iridescent bars on the back, especially on the rump, that 
mark the race here under discussion. The April specimens are pre- 
sumably breeding birds. Those collected in March may liave been 
migrants, or they may have been taken on their breeding grounds. 

QUISCALUS QUISCULA RIDGWAYI Oberholser: Ridgway's Grackle 

As used by Dr. Chapman, birds to which this name may be applied 
have the back and sides brassy green, and the rump bronze without 
evident or concealed iridescent bars. The group to which this name 
is applied is one that is definitely variable, and as indicated above 
it seems probable that it represents a series of hybrids between birds 
of the purple grackle complex and the bronzed grackle. Among 
specimens taken by W. H. Fox at Rockwood is a male, secured on 
March 26, 1885, that is entirely typical of this supposed form. The 
back is brassy green with evident iridescent bluish bars and the rump 
plain bronze, without markings. A female secured on April 11, 1885, 



M Auk, 1935, pp. 21-29 ; 1936, pp. 405-416. 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM vol.86 

has a bare indication of bars on the rump and so approaches stonei^ 
though another male taken on April 20, 1885, in somewhat worn 
breeding dress, shows somewhat more of an approach toward the 
bronzed grackle in the more greenish cast of the dorsal surface, 
though this appearance may be due to feather wear. Other birds of 
the ridgwayi type were secured by Perrygo at Shady Valley, John- 
son County, on June 11 and 14, 1937. A male and two females are 
typical in color of the birds placed under this name. A third female 
shows a little more approach to stonei. 

These birds are segregated under the name ridgioayi as a matter 
of convenience, but I believe they are hybrids and therefore are to be 
doubtfully considered as a separate subspecific group, 

MOLOTHRUS ATER ATER (Boddaert): Eastern Cowbird 

In Lake and Obion Counties the cowbird was fairly common from 
April 24 to Ma}' 7, specimens being taken at Reelfoot Lake on April 
26 and 4 miles west of Hornbeak on May 3. Others were collected in 
the vicinity of Waynesboro on May 17 (4 miles east of Flat Woods) 
and May 19 (8 miles north) . One was collected at Rock wood on April 
17, 1885, by W. H. Fox. Perrygo recorded cowbirds at Crossville, 
May 29, 4 miles east of Knoxville, June 1, and Shady Valley, June 
9, 10, and 11. 

Family THRAUPIDAE 

PIRANGA ERYTHROMELAS Vieillot: Scarlet Tanager 

Specimens were obtained at the following localities : Reelfoot Lake, 
April 29; 10 miles north of Waynesboro, May 10; Melvine, May 21; 
7 miles southwest of Crossville, May 24; Rockwood, April 19, 1884 
(W. H. Fox); Shady Valley, June 3 and 15; Great Smoky Moun- 
tains, Low Gap, near Cosby, June 19, and 3,700 feet elevation on 
Snake Den Mountain, June 24; and 2,100 feet elevation on Big Frog 
Mountain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 15. Two males in 
the nine taken have red markings in the middle wing coverts. Two 
others (the last two listed) have only partially attained adult color, 
the red being dull, with considerable mixture of greenish. 

PIRANGA RUBRA RUBRA (Linnaeus): Summer Tanager 

Wliile all the records of this tanager are for spring, it is probable 
that the birds noted were on their nesting grounds. Specimens were 
collected at Hickory Withe, April 15 and 16; Reelfoot Lake, April 
28; near Waynesboro, May 11 and 12. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 233 

Family FRINGILLIDAE 

RICHMONDENA CARDINALIS CARDINALIS (Linnaeus): Eastern 

Cardinal 

This abundant resident was recorded throughout the State except 
in the higher elevations of the eastern mountains. Cardinals were 
common in Shady Valley and were found to at least 3,300 feet in the 
Holston Mountains. In the Great Smoky Mountains they were seen 
near Cosby at 2,700 feet, and they were found on Big Frog and Beans 
Mountains. 

Specimens were obtained at the following localities: Frayser, 
April 8; Hickory Withe, April 12; Reel foot Lake, April 26; Phil- 
lippy, October 7; Samburg, October 13; Dover, October 25; Indian 
Mound, October 27; Waynesboro, May 11 and 17; Frankewing, No- 
vember 3 and 4; Lookout Mountain, March 24, 1882 (W. H. Fox); 
Crossville, May 25; Rockwood, April 16, 1884, and Roane County, 
April 6, 1885 (W. H. Fox) ; Bean Station, October 2; Shady Valley, 
June 10 and 12 ; near Cosby in the Great Smoky Mountains, July 3. 

HEDYMELES LUDOVICIANUS (Linnaeus): Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Wliile these birds were noted at Eads, April 20, Hornbeak, May 1 
and 4, and Samburg, May 7, the only one collected in the western 
section of the State was a female secured 7 miles northeast of Tipton- 
ville on October 19. Near Shady Valley I saw one at 4,000 feet in 
the Iron Mountains on June 6, and Perrj^go observed a pair at 3,800 
feet in the Holston Mountains on June 10. In the Great Smoky 
Mountains several were seen on Inadu Knob, in Low Gap, and on 
White Rock, between June 19 and July 2, and an adult male was 
taken on the latter date at 5,000 feet on Inadu Knob. The most inter- 
esting specimen is an adult female secured on July 10 at 3,700 feet 
elevation on Big Frog Mountain, 8 miles southwest of Copperhill. 
This bird has the lower throat, the upper breast, and an indefinite 
line down the center of the breast antimony yellow, a marking that I 
liave not observed in any other specimen. From September 20 to 23 
rose-breasted grosbeaks were common at 4,000 to 5,000 feet on Roan 
Mountain, when several were taken. It is probable that part of these 
were migrants. 

PASSERINA CYANEA (Linnaeus) : Indigo Bunting 

This handsome bunting is State-wide in its distribution, having 
been noted everywhere except in the higher altitudes. Specimens 
were taken as follows: Reelfoot Lake, May 4 and October 7; near 
Hornbeak, May 3 and 4; 7 miles northeast of Tiptonville, October 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

22; Waynesboro, May 17; Pikeville, May 31; Bean Station, October 
2; Shady Valley, June 4 and 10; near Cosby in the Great Smoky 
Mountains, June 23 and 30; 2,000 to 2,300 feet on Big Frog Mountain, 
8 miles southwest of Copperhill, July 8, 10, and 15. 

SPIZA AMERICANA (Gmelin): Dickcissel 

In the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake from April 30 to May 7 these 
interesting birds were common. Three were taken 4 miles west of 
Hornbeak on May 1 and 3, and they were seen at Samburg, Ridgely, 
and Union City. One was observed 6 miles west of Waynesboro on 
May 9. 

CARPODACUS PURPUREUS PURPUREUS (Gmelin): Eastern Purple 

Finch 

Found only in spring migration in the western part of the State, 
where sj^ecimens were taken at Frayser, April 8, and near Hickory 
Withe, April 9 and 14. There is an old specimen in the collection 
taken at Rockwood, March 28, 1885, by W. H. Fox. 

SPINUS PINUS PINUS (Wilson): Northern Pine Siskin 

One of the surprises in the present collection is a pine siskin taken 
on July 2 at 2,700 feet elevation, 4 miles southeast of Cosby in tlie 
Great Smoky Mountains. The bird is a young female barely grown 
and must have been reared at some nearby point. Several were found 
mixed with goldfinches on July 2 and 3. As this report was going to 
the printer, Ganier and Clebsch ®^ reported the siskin from Cling- 
mans Dome in June 1938. 

SPINUS TRISTIS TRISTIS (Linnaeus): Eastern Goldfinch 

Recorded as follows: Hickory Withe, April 15; Reelfoot Lake^ 
April 27; Waynesboro, May 17; Rockwood, March 14, 1885, and 
April 19, 1884 (W. H. Fox) ; Shady Valley, June 11; Great Smoky 
Mountains, near Cosby, June 19, and at White Rock (5,000 feet eleva- 
tion), July 1. 

PIPILO ERYTHROPHTHALMUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS (Linnaeus) : 

Red-eyed Towhee 

The distribution of the towhees of Tennessee is somewhat involved^ 
as two forms are concerned with specimens from certain localities 
that are definitely intermediate between the two. After prolonged 
study of the series at hand it appears that true erythropJithalmm may 
range in the breeding season in the western part of the State west of 

» Migrant, 1938, p. 42. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 235 

Wayne County, and from there across the north. Migrants of this 
race occur all through Tennessee. 

Specimens taken at Frayser, April 8, and near Hickory Withe, 
April 12 and 15, are representatives of the northern bird and are as- 
sumed to be breeding individuals. A series of five from the Holston 
Mountains adjacent to Shady Valley, secured on June 2, 3, and 12, all 
have the darker sides and large white area on the outer rectrix char- 
acteristic of the northern race. The elevations at which these birds 
were collected range from 2,800 to 3,300 feet. Two birds from the 
center of the valley, however, are canaster. A series secured by W. H. 
Fox near Rockwood is somewhat confusing, since birds that may be 
assigned to both races are included. Five taken on March 16 and 
April 7, 8, 14, and 15 are referable to true erythrophthalmus. They 
may come from a different elevation than one other that I consider 
oanaster. Though part may be migrants, it seems probable that part 
are breeding birds. This may be an area of intergradation. 

Other specimens, taken in fall where they may have been migrant 
from the north, include birds from the following localities: Tipton- 
ville, October 20 ; Samburg, October 14 ; Dover, October 25 ; Pulaski, 
November 1 and 2 ; and Frankewing, November 4. 

PIPILO ERYTHROPHTHALMUS CANASTER Howell: Alabama Towhee 

As indicated above, the ranges of the two forms of towhee found 
in Tennessee can be determined only in general from the material 
at hand. It appears that the Alabama towhee, P. e. canaster^ is 
found from Wayne County eastward throughout the southern section 
of the State, its area increasing to the northward as the eastern border 
is approached. Two males taken on May 10 and 15 at points 8 and 
10 miles north of Waynesboro fall within the limits of canaster in 
color of sides and in the extent of the white on the outer rectrix, 
this measuring 33.0 and 34.5 mm (the latter bird tending to be inter- 
mediate but nearer erythrophthalmus). Another taken 8 mil6s north 
of Waynesboro on May 15, with the tail spot 32.9 mm, has the sides 
appreciably darker than the other two and is more definitely an 
intermediate individual. An immature male shot 6 miles east of 
Pulaski on November 4 is typical of the Alabama form. (Two speci- 
mens of erythrophthalmus from this same region taken in November 
may be northern migrants.) A male from 9 miles southeast of 
Spencer in Van Buren County, May 21, is canaster., as are three from 
Birds Creek 7 miles southwest of Crossville. A male taken by W. H. 
Fox near Rockwood on April 1, 1885, has the tail spot only 28.6 mm 
long and is considered intermediate because of the darker color of 
the sides. Three others from near this same point seem typical of 
erythrophthalmMS^ indicating that the line of intergradation is near. 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 85 

A male and a female shot near Beaverdam Creek in the valley bot- 
tom at Shady Valley on June 5 and 10 are canaster, though birds 
from low in the Holston Mountains a few miles west are referred to 
erythrophthalmus. This is the farthest north and east that canaster 
is recorded. An immature female taken on September 18 at 5,900 
feet elevation on Roan Mountain has the tail spot only 27.2 mm, 
though the flanks are dark. It is considered intermediate but nearer 
canaster. This may be an area of intergradation. Two from the 
Great Smoky Mountains, a male taken on June 19 at 5,000 feet on 
Cosby Knob and a female on June 29 at 6,100 feet on Old Black 
Mountain, are both canaster. These two indicate that the southern 
form extends through these mountains and on to the south. 

PASSERCULUS SANDWICHENSIS SAVANNA (Wilson): Eastern 
Savannah Sparrow 

Two eastern Savannah sparrows were taken at Bartlett on April 
19, at the same time as one of the paler Churchill form. At Rockwood 
W. H. Fox secured specimens on March 18, 21, and 31 and April 7, 
1885. These are all dark in general appearance, with the lighter 
edgings of the dorsal feathers distinctly brownish. 

PASSERCULUS SANDWICHENSIS OBLITUS Peters and Griscom:" 
Churchill Savannah Sparrow 

Two females collected by Perrygo and Lingebach, at Ellendale on 
April 17 and near Bartlett on April 19, are marked by the pale 
gray margins and heavy black centers of the dorsal feathers, gray 
and black being the predominant colors, with little or no buff or 
brown. They are considered migrants of this race, which is recorded 
in the original description ^= from the Great Smoky Mountain region. 
The form is well marked and easily distinguished. The abundance 
of this subspecies and of the true Savannah sparrow in Tennessee 
has still to be ascertained. 

In the paper containing the description of this new form, a treat- 
ment of geographical variation in the Savannah sparrow, the 
authors'* list the Ipswich sparrow as Passerculus sandicichensis 
princeps, saying that "there is no absolute difference of any kind 
between this form and one or more races of P. sandwichensis. In 
size it is not only no larger than P. s. sandwichensis^ but the smallest 
specimens are smaller than the largest specimens of P. s. savanna. 
The pallor of its coloration is not very marked when compared 
with P. 8. nevadensis, and is exceeded by certain races of the rostratits 

^ Passerculus sandwichensis ohlitus Peters and Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 80, 
Jan. 1938, p. 454 (Fort Churchill, Manitoba). 
^lUd., pp. 456, 458. 
^Ibid., pp. 447-448. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 23T 

group in Lower California." That Passerculus princeps is closely 
related to the Savannah sparrows is easily evident. It is also evident 
that it is very distinct from those forms of the Savannah sparrow 
Idbradorius and savanna with which it may associate {ohlitus pos- 
sibly included on rare occasions on the southeastern coast). If we 
concede pHnceps position as a subspecies of Paj^serculus sandwich- 
ensis by linkage through forms now and probably for all past time 
geographically remote, then we arrive at a difficult situation. 

It is common in a genus of birds for certain characters of pattern 
or color to be repeated in different racial groups. Thus a spotted 
shoulder is common among pigeons of the Columba group (using 
this name in a broad sense), or a patch pattern, where black and white, 
or their combination, gray, occurs in varying arrangements, is found 
in the stilts of the genus Himantopus. To me it does not appear 
proper to consider such resemblances in gi'oups of individuals geo- 
graphically remote from one another, where there is no definite indi- 
cation of earlier direct connection through which intergradation might 
occur, as denoting subspecific relationship. Such resemblances arei 
of a generic rather than of a subspecific nature. 

It appears to me therefore that Passerculus princeps should be 
retained as a species distinct from sandwichensis and its races and 
that resemblances between it and far distant races of sandwichensis 
are to be ascribed to convergence, and not to that closer genetic rela- 
tion that must be held to exist between nearly allied subspecies. The 
range and ecological preference of princeps are so restricted as to give 
definite support to its separation as a distinct group. If we are to 
accept the other line of reasoning proposed, then we might be under 
necessity of recognizing with similar nomenclatural treatment far 
more remotely connected forms through relationships in remote ages; 
and if we were to follow such a line of reasoning far enough we might 
be brought to the situation of treating all existing birds as geographic 
races of one species through relationship in time and space ! The 
problem tends to become complicated and to assume a highly hypo- 
thetical aspect. 

AMMODRAMUS SAVANNARUM AUSTRALIS Maynard: Eastern 
Grasshopper Sparrow 

Near Pikeville several were seen and three were taken on May 29 
and 31. In Shady Valley they were fairly common, two being taken 
on June 9 and 15. At Rock wood W. H. Fox secured one on March 24 
and another on April 18, 1885. 

These birds all have the darker coloration of the eastern bird,, 
though they are of the maximum size for that race. The western 
form may occur in migration in the western part of the State. 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Measurements of the Tennessee specimens are as follows: Males (5 
specimens), wing 60.0, 60.2, 61.8, 62.2, 63.7, tail 40.8, 41.3, 41.8, 45.4, 
46.6, culmen from base 11.8, 12.6, 12.8, 13.0 (one imperfect), tarsus 
19.2, 19.3, 19.6, 20.7, 20.8; females (2 specimens), wing 57.9, 58.9, tail 
40.0, 43.8, culmen from base 12.6, 12.7, tarsus 19.1, 20.0 mm. 

POOECETES GRAMINEUS GRAMINEUS (Gmelin): Eastern Vesper 

Sparrow 

As a breeding bird the vesper sparrow was fairly common in 
8hady Valley from June 5 to 15, a male being taken on June 12. It 
is probable that birds collected at 5,500 feet elevation on Roan Moun- 
tain on September 13, 16, and 17 were local birds also. A male, 
assumed to be in migration, was taken 7 miles northeast of Tipton- 
ville, October 20. Other specimens in the National Museimi were col- 
lected by W. H. Fox at Chattanooga on March 13, 1882, Lookout 
Mountain on March 23, 1882, and Rockwood on March 6, 1885. 

AIMOPHILA AESTIVALIS BACHMANII (Audubon): Bachman's Sparrow 

The only specimens are a small series collected by W. H. Fox, in- 
cluding birds from Lookout Mountain, April 4, 1882, and from Rock- 
wood, April 3, 1884, and April 14, 15, 17, 22, and 25, 1885. 

That there are three geographic races of Aiinophila aestivalis in- 
stead of the two currently recognized in the A. O. U. Check-list is 
evident on examination of the material in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum. A. a. aestivalis, very dark brown above, with the feathers 
margined broadly with gray and streaked heavily with blackish, is 
restricted to southeastern Georgia and Florida. Birds from south- 
western Indiana and southern Illinois to southern Mississippi and 
eastern Texas are much lighter, more rufescent-brown above, with 
black strealdngs usually entirely absent and where present much 
reduced. These are to be known as Aimophila aestivalis illinoensis 
(Ridgway)." As these lines were written Sutton "^^ has identified 
as illinoensis specimens from McCurtain County, Okla., and Ober- 
holser ^^ has listed under this name birds from Louisiana. 

A. a. hachmanii stands midway between these two, differing from 
A. a. aestivalis in being brighter, more rufescent, with the gray mar- 
gins of the feathers less evident, and from illinoensis in being darker 
brown, with prominent blackish streaks on the back. 

The birds from Tennessee, as might be expected, are definitely in- 
termediate between hachmanii and illinoensis. One or two are closely 

^Teucaea illinoensis Ridgway, Bull. Nuttall Orn. Club, 1879, p. 219 (Wabash County, 

ni.). 

68 Auk, 1938, p. 508. 

" Dept. Cons. State of Louisiana Bull. 28, 1938, p. 661. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE — WETMORE 239 

similar to the latter, but the series averages slightly darker brown 
above and is marked by definite blackish streakings above (though 
these are much reduced in two specimens). They are identified as 
intermediate, but nearer to 'bachmanU. True ilUnoensis should occur 
in western Tennessee at least in migration. 

JUNCO HYEMALIS HYEMALIS (Linnaeus) : Slate-colored Junco 

Represented by specimens as follows: Hickory Withe, April 15 j 
Tiptonville, October 22; Dover, October 25; Frankewing, November 
9; Lookout Mountain, March 20, 1882 (W. H. Fox); Rockwood, 
March 2, 13, and 21, 1885, and April 7, 1884 (W. H. Fox) . 

JUNCO HYEMALIS CAROLINENSIS Brewster: Carolina Junco 

Juncos were fairly common in the mountains bordering Shady 
Valley, specimens being taken at 3,800 to 4,000 feet in the Iron Moun- 
tains on June 6 and 14 (the latter a bird in juvenal plumage) and 
at 3,800 feet in the Holston Mountains on June 4. On Roan Moun- 
tain skins were secured at 6,200 feet on September 22. One is par- 
tially albinistic on the throat. In the Great Smoky Mountains the 
Carolina junco was very common. Specimens were taken at 5,000 
feet on Cosby Knob June 19, at 6,300 feet on Old Black Mountain 
on June 21, and at 6,600 feet on Mount Guyot on June 21 and 24. 
Others were seen at 5,000 feet and above on Inadu Knob, Camels 
Hump, and White Rock. On July 10 a junco was recorded at 4,100 
feet on Big Frog Mountain. 

SPIZELLA PASSERINA PASSERINA (Bechstein): Eastern Chipping 

Sparrow 

The familiar chipping sparrow is common in Tennessee, being rep- 
resented as follows: Hickory Withe, April 15; Dover, October 25; 
Waynesboro, May 11 and 14; Melviue, May 21; Pikeville, May 31; 
Crossville, May 27; Rockwood, March 9 and April 1, 1885 (W. H. 
Fox); Shady Valley, June 10 and 11; and at 2,700 feet elevation 
near Cosby in the Great Smoky Mountains, June 20 and 29. 

SPIZELLA PUSILLA PUSILLA (Wilson): Eastern Field Sparrow 

A common sparrow that as a breeding bird covers the State except 
in the extreme western portion. Records attributed to true pusilla 
are as follows: 4 miles west of Hornbeak, May 3; 10 miles east of 
Pulaski, November 2 and 3; Chattanooga, March 15, 1882 (W. H. 
Fox) ; Rockwood, March 4, 18, and 28, 1885, April 3, 6, and 8, 1884 
(W. H. Fox); Shady Valley, June 3; 2,700 feet elevation, 4 miles 
southeast of Cosby, Great Smoky Mountains, June 30. A bird from 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Waynesboro taken on May 14 is somewhat intermediate toward 
arenacea but is decidedly nearer to pusilla. 

SPIZELLA PUSILLA ARENACEA Chadbourne: Western Field Sparrow 

There are three specimens in the collection that may be ascribed 
to this race, a female taken at Hickory Withe, April 15, and two 
immature birds, male and female, from 7 miles northeast of Tipton- 
ville taken on October 22. The two last are probably migrants, as 
a male taken near Hornbeak on May 3 is the eastern form. It will 
be recalled that a female from near Waynesboro while identified as 
the eastern form is somewhat intermediate. 

The identification of these western Tennessee specimens has come 
as the result of speculation and study as to the identity of the western 
field sparrow that began more than 30 years ago with skins that I 
obtained in southeastern Kansas. In brief summary, Spizella pusilla 
arenacea is marked by the very pale brown of the markings of the 
upper surface, gray predominating, wuth little or no bright chestnut, 
the restriction of the brown on the crown which usually has a gray 
median band, the light margins on the secondaries, the narrowed 
black lines on the back, and the grayish white on the lower surface, 
which has a suffusion of buffy broAvn on the breast in fall and 
winter only. This type of coloration finds its highest expression in 
the Great Plains area in birds from such widely separated localities 
as Medora, N. Dak., Fort Pierre, S. Dak., and San Angelo, Tex., 
in which the crown in summer is largely or almost wholly gray. 
These Great Plains specimens have the wing, tail, and tarsus actu- 
ally, as well as on the average, very slightly longer than specimens 
from the East. Measurements are as follows: Males (10 specimens), 
wing 67-70, tail 65-72, tarsus 17.5-21.1; females (2 specimens), wing 
60.5-64.0, tail 62.^63.0, tarsus 17.7-17.8 mm. 

Spizella pusilla pusilla is extensively brown above, with bright 
brown predominating in the coloration of the upper surface, the black 
streakings of the back broad and heavj^, the lighter areas on rump 
and shoulder darker in tone, ordinarily brownish gray, the margins 
on the secondaries darker, more rufescent, and a suffusion of pinkish 
buff on the breast that is indicated even in worn breeding plumage. 
Measurements are as follows : Males, wing 59.7-65, tail 58-65, tarsus 
17.2-18.5 ; females, wing 59.4-62.7, tail 54.3-62.2, tarsus 17.2-18.2 mm. 
(These measurements are in part those made for Mr. Ridgway and in 
part from specimens measured recently for or by me.) Birds of this 
type of coloration and with these dimensions are found from southern 
<iuebec to the Carolinas and west to Ohio, West Virginia, central 
Tennessee, and Mississippi. 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 241 

There remains between the two ranges indicated an area of consid- 
erable extent, reaching in general from the region near the Mississippi 
Eiver to eastern Texas, eastern Kansas, and northward (I do not 
have material at hand from the section north of Kansas), in which 
the field sparrows have the slightly smaller size found in typical 
jmsilla of the East but are definitely paler and grayer than that bird. 
Some are almost as gray above and below as typical arenacea. The 
majority are somewhat browner, the brown being dull, however, with 
gray predominating, the black streakings reduced, and the light mar- 
gins on the secondaries paler. They are distinctly intermediate be- 
tween the two races and are variable between the two in their color 
characters. In the eastern section of this area of intergradation in- 
dividual birds may verge toward the paler group, or they may be 
reddish like true 'pusUla. This condition is found in two skins from 
Waterloo, Mich., in which a male taken on April 30 is definitely red- 
dish brown, and a female collected on April 16 is distinctly grayer, 
though of the -pusilla type. Specimens from Mount Carmel, 111., 
Wheatland, Ind., and western Kentucky are of the true pusilla type, 
verging only slightly toward the grayer tone of birds of farther west. 

After somewhat prolonged consideration it appears to me, and to 
some others who have examined the problem with me, that we have 
here the ideal condition as regards the concept of subspecific groups 
in a species of considerable range. The two races of Spizella piisiUa 
occupy definite geographic areas with a region of intergradation as 
they approach. To put the majority of the intergrades with the 
western form is to place greater emphasis on color than on size, which 
seems proper, as the size differences separating arenacea from pusilla 
are minor and the color differences considerable. Color, therefore, 
is more important than size. To give the series of intermediates a 
separate name would serve in my opinion only to complicate the 
picture, with no useful result because of the definitely mixed char- 
acter of the population concerned. 

ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS LEUCOPHRYS (Forster): White- 
crowned Sparrow 

Specimens were collected near Hornbeak, April 28; near Reelfoot 
Lake 7 miles northeast of Tiptonville, October 22; and on the Cum- 
berland River near Indian Mound, October 27. 

ZONOTRICHIA ALBICOLLIS (Gmelin) : White-throated Sparrow 

An abundant bird at all localities worked at the proper seasons. 
Records are as follows : Hickory Withe, April 9, 10, and 13 ; Reelfoot 
Lake, April 24 and 26 ; Hornbeak, May 4 ; Reelfoot Lake, 4 miles south 
of Samburg, October 13 ; Dover, October 25 and 26 ; Waynesboro, May 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

10 and 11; Pulaski, November 1 and 3; Frankewing, November 4; 
Rockwood, March 20 and April 1, 1884, and April 16, 1885 (by W. H. 
Fox). The first noted in fall by Perrygo were seen near Reelfoot 
Lake, 2 miles east of Phillippy, on October 12. 

PASSERELLA ILIACA ILIACA (Merrem): Eastern Fox Sparrow 

The fox sparrow was taken at Reelfoot Lake near Tiptonville, 
October 18, and on the Cumberland River, 2 miles west of Indian 
Mound, October 27. There is one in the collection taken at Rockwood^ 
March 18, 1885, by W. H. Fox. 

MELOSPIZA LINCOLNII LINCOLNII (Audubon) : Lincoln's Sparrow 

This shy migrant was collected at Reelfoot Lake, April 29 and 30 
and October 23 ; near Hornbeak, May 3 ; on the Cumberland River 7 
miles north of Dover, October 30; and near Waynesboro, May 13 
and 17. 

MELOSPIZA GEORGIANA (Latham): Swamp Sparrow 

A common visitor recorded as follows: Hickory Withe, April 10 
and 16; near Tiptonville, October 16; near Reelfoot Lake, 2 miles east 
of Phillippy, October 12 and 23; on the Cumberland River, near 
Dover, October 26; near Pulaski, November 4; near Frankewing, 
November 4; Rockwood, :March 19, 20, and 23, 1885 (W. H. Fox). 

MELOSPIZA MELODIA MELODIA (Wilson): Eastern Song Sparrow 

Present in the State as a migrant, apparently in small numbers. 
Perrygo obtained his first specimen ascribed to this race on Clinch 
River, 6 miles northwest of Bean Station, on October 2. Two others 
were taken on the Cumberland River near Dover, on October 26, and 
another 6 miles east of Pulaski on November 4. These four are dis- 
tinctly lighter, and have less distinct dark dorsal markings than 
M. m. euphonia obtained at the same season of the year, but are 
slightly grayer than the average of typical M. m. melodia. They are, 
however, to be ascribed to melodia. 

MELOSPIZA MELODIA EUPHONIA Wetmore: Mississippi Song Sparrow 

This is the common form of song sparrow of Tennessee according 
to present information. In Shady Valley, along Beaverdam Creek, 
it was a common breeding bird from June 2 to 15, specimens taken 
being typical in dark coloration and heavy black dorsal streaks. 
I collected a set of five nearly fresh eggs here on June 7, the nest 
being a cup of gi-asses and other herbaceous material placed on the 



NOTES ON THE BIRDS OF TENNESSEE WETMORE 243 

ground in a clump of grass. The ground color is pale greenish white, 
marked heavily with russet, which occurs in small dots or patches 
and large blotches, in the main obscuring the lighter background. 
One egg is broken. The other four measure as follows : 19.4 by 15.5, 
19.4 by 15.6, 19.4 by 15.7, and 19.6 by 15.3 mm. 

Several song sparrows were seen in the valley near Carter on June 
7, and Perrygo observed one on June 19 and another on June 22 
about 4 miles southeast of Cosby in the Great Smoky Mountains. 
On Roan Mountain at 5,900 to 6,200 feet song sparrows were fairly 
common from September 11 to 18. The five taken are all immature 
birds, one being mainly in juvenal plumage, two in heavy molt from 
this dress, and two in nearly complete fall dress. These are believed 
to be resident birds in this area. 

Birds taken in migration season include the following: 7 miles 
northeast of Tiptonville, October 22 ; Reelfoot Lake, 2 miles east of 
Phillippy, October 23; Cumberland River near Dover, October 26; 
and 10 miles east of Pulaski, November 4. There are also in the 
Museum skins taken by W. H. Fox at Lookout Mountain, March 21, 
1882, Chattanooga, March 13, 1882, and Rockwood, March 4, 13, and 
23, 1885. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1939 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




issued IpS-^tvL Hli^i ^y '^« 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Washington: 1939 No. 3051 



ANNOTATED LIST OF TENNESSEE MAMMALS 



By Kemington Kellogg 



During 1937 the United States National Museum conducted natural- 
history field work in Tennessee, for the purpose of making a collec- 
tion of birds and mammals of the State. Watson M. Perrygo was 
in charge of the field party, with Carleton Lingebach and Henry R. 
Schaefer acting as field assistants. Leaving Washington on April 
3, Perrygo and Lingebach traveled across Virginia and Tennessee to 
Ellendale, Shelby County, where they established their first camp on 
April 7. From this camp they collected at several localities in Shelby 
and Fayette Counties until April 22. They worked in the vicinity of 
Reelfoot Lake, Obion County, from April 23 to May 9; in Wayne 
County from May 9 to 20 ; and in Cumberland County from May 20 
to June 1. The party then commenced field work in the eastern 
mountainous section, where with Shady Valley as a base camp they 
made collections in this valley and in the Holston Mountains from 
June 2 to 16. Moving camp to Cosby, in Cocke County, they worked 
in the Great Smoky Mountains from June 18 to July 5. After work- 
ing in the vicinity of Big Frog Mountain, Cherokee National Forest, 
from July 8 to 15, they discontinued field operations for a few weeks 
and returned to Washington on July 17. 

On September 9 Perrygo and Schaefer left Washington and drove 
to Roan Mountain, where they worked from September 11 to 25. 
They collected in the Clinch ISIountains and elsewhere in Grainger 
County from September 27 to October 2, and around Reelfoot Lake 
from October 4 to 24. They worked in Stewart County from Octo- 
ber 25 to 30 and in Giles and Lincoln Counties from November 1 to 
10, when the season's work was concluded. 

107573—38 1 245 



246 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL. MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



The present paper reports not only on the mammals collected dur- 
ing the course of the field work in Tennessee conducted in 1937 but 
also on all the Tennessee specimens in the National Museum and the 
Biological Survey collections. The collectors of the specimens herein 
discussed are listed as follows chronologically according to the year 
in which the material was obtained : 



JJ. S. Biological Survey 
T. J. Park, 1891. 
G. A. Colemau, 1892. 
Russell J. Thompson, 1892. 
H. C. Oberholser, 1895. 
Chailos R. Ellis, 1904. 
Stanley E. Piper, 1904. 
Arthur II. Howell, 1908, 1910, 1930. 
W. H. Provins, 190S. 
W. J. Millsaps, 1909, 1910. 
Adam G. Millsaps, 1912. 
Morton L. Church, 1912. 
Earl May, 1931. 
James Silver, 1933. 
R. J. Fleetwood, 1934. 



U. 8. National Museum 
Richard Owen, 1854. 
J. B. Mitchell, 1856. 
John Constable, 1877. 
James W. Rogan, 1884. 
C. S. Brimley, 1891. 
H. H. Brimley, 1891. 
William Palmer, 1897. 
W. P. Hay, 1902. 
Paul Bartsch, 1907. 
Porter Dunlap, 1911. 
Robert Gorhani, 1911. 
Clarence B. Moore, 1914, 1915, 1916. 
Lloyd Branson, 1915. 
J. D. Ives, 1925, 1926. 
J. G. Gillespie, 1927. 
R. J. Fleetwood, 1934. 
Carleton Lingebach, 1937. 
Watson M. Perrygo, 1937. 
Henry R. Schaefer, 1937. 
A. R. Cahn, 1938. | 

Measurements herein are given hi millimeters. 
The birds collected in the Tennessee field worlv have been reported 
on by Dr. Alexander Wetmore.^ 

Family DIDELPHIIDAE 
DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA VIRGINIAN A Kerr: Opossum 

The opossum seems to be distributed over the whole State, occur- 
ring most frequently in the timbered bottomlands and in the rock 
ledges on the blutfs bordering the stream valleys. In the mountain- 
ous sections of eastern Tennessee, the vertical range of the opossum 
goes at least to 3,700 feet. Perrygo and Schaefer were told in Sep- 
tember 1937 that opossums were common in valleys northwest of Roan 
Mountain. 

S. C. Williams relates (1921:, p. 217) that Senator Hugh Lawson 
White of Tennessee, in replying to a speech by Senator Webster, re- 
ferred to the abundance of opossums in the short-lived State of 
Franklin. He stated that about 1785 the subtreasurers or collectors 
took in peltries for taxes, as provided by law. Although raccoon 



iProc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 86, no. 3050. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 247 

skins were readily procured, opossum skins that had little or no value 
were even more plentiful. The collectors obtained the requisite num- 
ber of opossum skins, cut the tails off the raccoon skins and sewed 
them to the opossum skins, and then deposited them in the general 
treasury. The raccoon skins were sold by the collectors to the hatters. 

During the spring of 1937 it vras reported that opossums were not 
so abundant as formerly in Shelby and Fayette Counties. One that 
had been run over by an automobile was seen on April 13, 1937, on 
the road near Memphis. On April 23, 1937, in Obion County, one was- 
seen crushed on the road near Hornbeak, and the following day on 
the road between Troy and Keelfoot Lake three crushed opossums 
were noted. Rhoads (1896, p. 176) did not collect opossums in Ten- 
nessee, but he was told by B. C. Miles that the Negroes of Haywood 
and Lauderdale Counties claimed there were two kinds, one with 
black and the other with white feet. 

On May 11, 1937, another crushed opossum was seen on the road 11 
miles north of Waynesboro, Wayne County. On November 8, 1937, 
a feraaJe opossum was taken near Frankewing in a Schuyler trap 
set for flying squirrels. Fourteen embryos, the largest of which have 
a liead and body length of 60 mm, were removed by Russell J. 
Thompson from the pouch of a female collected on June 23, 1892, at 
Big Sandy. The measurements of the largest male (U.S.N.M. no. 
46895, Danville) in this series of 11 Tennessee specimens are as fol- 
lows: Total length, 785; tail, 320; hind foot, 52. 

Specimens taken at Greenbrier, Sevier County, are listed by Koma- 
rek and Komarek (1938, p. 145). 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 1. 

Carter County: Carvers Gap, Roan Mountain, altitude 3,700 feet, 1. 

Grainger County: Tliorn Hill, Clinch Mountains, altitude 1,800 feet, 2. 

Houston County: Danville, 1. 

Humphreys County: South of Johnsonville, 1. 

Lincoln County: 6 miles east Frankewing, 1. 

Montgomery County: Clarksville, 3. 

Sumner County: Rockland [Hendersonville P. 0.1, 1. 

Family TALPIDAE 

PARASCALOPS BREWERI (Bachman): Hairy-tailed Mole 

Hairy-tailed moles were reported to be common in cultivated fields 
in the vicinity of Shady Valley. A female was trapped by W. M. 
Perrygo and Carleton Lingebach on June 13, 1937, in a cornfield near 
a bog. Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 145) report that hairy- 
tailed moles were trapped in damp rhododendron thickets in Sevier 
County along Chapman Prong (altitude 3,200 feet) and Buck Fork 
of Little Pigeon River. 

Johnson County: Shady Valley, altitude 2,900 feet, 1. 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 86 

SCALOPUS AQUATICUS AQUATICUS (Linnaeus): Eastern Mole 

The range of this race seems to be restricted to the drainage basins 
of the upper Tennessee— Clinch, Holston, and French Broad Rivers 
in the eastern part of the State. Howell (1909, p. 67) states that 
this mole was reported to occur in the vicinity of Briceville, Ander- 
son County, and that it was scarce on Walden Ridge near Soddy, 
Hamilton County. On the western slope of Low Gap, two moles 
were trapped in an old cornfield. The male (U.S.N.M. no. 267145) 
from Low Gap has a somewhat shorter skull than average individuals 
of the race from Virginia and Maryland, although the well-worn 
teeth show that it is fully adult. It is, however, approximately the 
same size as a skull (U.S.N.M. no. 99639) from Falls Church, Va., 
which has similarly worn teeth. This mole has been recorded from 
Dry Valley, Blount County (Komarek and Komarek, 1938, p. 145). 

Blount County: 1. 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 4% miles southeast of Cosby, altitude 2,700 feet, 2. 

Hamilton County: Walden Ridge near Rathburn [Soddy P. O.], 1. 

SCALOPUS AQUATICUS MACHRINUS (Rafinesque): Prairie Mole 

This mole occurs in the bluegrass region of middle Tennessee, 
chiefly in the lower drainage areas of the Big Sandy, Tennessee, and 
Cumberland Rivers, as well as in the bottomlands bordering the small 
tributaries of the Mississippi River. Jackson (1915, p. 44) lists three 
specimens from Nashville, Davidson County. 

From Benjamin C. Miles, Rhoads (1896, p. 201) received informa- 
tion that the mole is common in Haywood County "wherever land 
is rich, and is troublesome in that he burrows in the rows and destroys 
growing plants, and runs tunnels up and down hill which I have 
seen in one season wash into gullies 18 inches deep." 

Four moles taken by W. M. Perrygo and Carleton Lingebach 
during April 1937 extend the range of this race to the southwestern 
corner of the State. These moles were trapped in a cottonfield and, 
judged from the number of runways, moles were apparently common 
in northwestern Shelby County. The four specimens from Shelby 
County resemble machrinus in general coloration, but they have 
shorter skulls and slightly lighter dentition, as well as a shorter 
total length. These specimens approach individuals of howelli from 
Ardell (U.S.N.M. no. 207227) and Greensboro (U.S.N.M. no. 57050), 
Ala., in the length of the skull and size of the teeth, but differ in 
coloration. The above-mentioned specimens of hoioeJli are consider- 
ably larger than topotypes. Burrows made by moles were seen along 
the edge of the cypress swamp near Hickory Withe, but the museum 
party did not succeed in trapping any. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 249 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 1. 
Humphreys County: South of Johnsonville, 1. 
Montgomery County: Clarksville, 1. 
Shelby County: Ellendale, 4. 
Sumner County: Bethpage, 1. 

CONDYLURA CRISTATA (Linnaeus): Star-nosed Mole 

On June 13, 1937, a desiccated mole was picked up by W. M. 
Perrygo and Carleton Lingebach at their camp on the edge of the 
rhododendron bog at Shady Valley. Audubon and Bachman (1851, 
vol. 2, p. 142) refer to this mole's occurrence in the State as follows: 
"To the west we have traced it in Ohio and the northern parts of 
Tennessee." 
Johnson County: Shady Valley, altitude 2,900 feet, 1. 

Family SORICTDAE 
SOREX CINEREUS CINEREUS Kerr: Cinereous, or Masked, Shrew 

The range of this masked shrew in Tennessee seems to be re- 
stricted to the eastern mountainous portion of the State. Ehoads 
(1896, p. 202) writes that the burrows of this shrew "were found 
under decaying logs and large stones in moist places along the bridle 
path leading directly from Cloudland to the Doe River Valley," Car- 
ter County. Two were taken in September 1937, at an altitude of 
6,200 feet in moss at the base of fir trees in the forest on the summit of 
Roan Mountain. Masked shrews were trapped by A. H. Howell in 
a spruce and fir forest near the summit of the ridge at Indian Gap. 
On the summit of Old Black Mountain, these shrews were caught in 
runways in damp moss at the base of fir trees. Masked shrews appear 
to be generally distributed throughout the wooded ridges of the 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park. They have been recorded 
from the Buck Fork of Little Pigeon River, Dry Sluice, and Mount 
Guyot in Sevier County by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 146). 

In tabulating a series of 17 skulls from Roan Mountain, N. C, it 
was found that 14 have the third and fourth unicuspids subequal, 
3 have the third unicuspid smaller than the fourth, and 1 has the 
fourth unicuspid larger than the third. In the case of 11 skulls 
from New York (8 from Montauk Point, Suffolk County, and 3 from 
Mountain View, Franklin County), 5 have the third and fourth uni- 
cuspids subequal and 6 have the fourth unicuspid larger than the 
third. 

Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitude 6,200 feet, 1. 

Cocke County: Old Black Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains, altitude 6,300 

feet, 2. 
Sevier County: Indian Gap, altitude 5,200 feet, 2. 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIOISTAL MUSEUM vol.86 

SOREX LONGIROSTRIS LONGIROSTRIS Bachman: Bachman's Shrew 

These minute shrews are rarely taken by collectors. One was 
found by Raymond J. Fleetwood in a posthole in a field overgrown 
with sedgegrass at Greenbrier, Sevier County. Komarek and 
Komarek (1938, p. 146) mention another that had been trapped in 
one of the buildings of a C. C. C. camp in the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains National Park. The Sevier County occurrence indicates that 
this species may range northward in the valleys of eastern Tennessee. 
The taking of one of these small shrews by Perrygo and Schaefer 
near Reelfoot Lake on October 1, 1937, extends the range across the 
State to the Mississippi bottomlands. This male was trapped barely 
above the water line in matted decayed leaves beside a rotten log in 
the swamp bordering Eeelfoot Lake. 

The identification of these two specimens from Tennessee has led 
to a restudy of specimens previously referred to Sorex fontinalls and 
Sorex longirostris longirostris. It so happened that the specimens 
from southern localities available to Hollister (1911, pp. 378-380) 
had the third upper unicuspid smaller than the fourth. The larger 
series of specimens now available exhibits so many exceptions that I 
am unable to accept the conclusions of Jackson in regard to the dis- 
tinctness of these two slirews. The characters listed by Jackson 
(1928, pp. 37, 83) as distinguishing S. longirostris from S. fontinalis, 
including (1) relatively shorter, broader rostrum, (2) shorter and 
more crowded unicuspid row, (3) third upper unicuspid smaller than 
fourth, (4) anteroposterior diameter less than transverse diameter of 
unicuspid teeth, (5) anteroposterior diameter of molariform teeth 
relatively greater, and (6) first incisors, upper and lower, relatively 
smaller, do not appear to me so to diflferentiate a series of 20 speci- 
mens. This series comprises 10 Maryland specimens previously re- 
ferred to /S. fontinalis, collected at Bowie, Cabin John, Cold Spring 
Swamp, Glen Echo Heights, Hollywood, Hyattsville, Laurel (2), 
and Sandy Spring (2), and a like number of S. longirostris from 
Chesapeake Beach, Md., Falls Church, Va., Pisgah National Forest 
and Raleigh (2), N. C, Young Harris, Ga., Phillippy and Greenbrier 
(Sevier County), Tenn., and Bicknell, Ind. (2). After tabulating 
this series according to the relative sizes of the third and fourth 
unicuspids, it was found that this character cannot be relied on. 
The dimensions of the molariform teeth, the unicuspids, and the 
first incisors can be matched in several specimens in both groups. 
In one of the Tennessee specimens the anteroposterior diameter of the 
third molariform teeth is less than the transverse, and in the other 
these measurements are reversed. Micrometer measurements of the 
rostrum and of the teeth made with a binocular failed to differentiate 
readily specimens from the supposed range of S. longirostris from 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 251 

those of S. fontinalis. A similar crowding of unicuspid teeth was 
observed in individuals in both series. Tabulations based on the 
above-mentioned characters indicate that they are so highly variable 
that not even a limited correlation with geographic distribution 
can be discerned. In the light of the present series of specimens it 
seems clear that the supposed distinctions between Sorex longirostris 
and S. fontinalis are nothing more than individual variations. 

Lake County: Reelfoot Lake, 2 miles east of Phillippy, 1. 
Sevier County: Greenbrier, 1. 

SOREX FUMEUS FUMEUS Miller: Smoky Shrew 

Smoky shrews in Tennessee are most frequently found in moist 
heavy spruce forests in the colder parts of the Transition and Cana- 
dian Zones. They were trapped in runways in the damp moss at base 
of balsam fir trees on the west slopes of Mount Guyot and Old Black 
Mountain. On the west slope of Inadu Kjiob, smoky shrews were 
caught in the moss on banks of a spring in a balsam-fir forest. They 
were likewise taken in moss on the west slope of Low Gap, 4l^ miles 
southeast of Cosby. According to Komarek and Komarek (1938, 
p. 146), this shrew has been taken at the following localities in Sevier 
County: Chapman Prong and Eagle Rocks Prong of Little Pigeon 
River, Dry Sluice (near Mount Collins), and Little River (altitude 
2,900 feet). A. H. Howell took one on August 21, 1908, near High- 
clifF in a damp heavily timbered ravine near the base of the north 
escarpment of Pine Mountain. 

Campbell County: HighclifE, altitude 1,000 feet, 1. 

Cocke County: Mount Guyot, Great Smoky Mountains, altitude 6,300 feet, 1; 
Old Black Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains, altitude 6,300 feet, 4 ; Inadu 
Knob, Great Smoky Mountains, altitude 5,700 feet, 2; Low Gap, 41^ miles 
southeast of Cosby, altitude 3,400 feet, 2. 

Sevier County: Indian Gap, altitude 5,200 feet, 3. 

CRYPTOTIS PARVA (Say): Small Short-tailed Shrew 

Five of these little short-tailed shrews were taken during Novem- 
ber 1937 by Perrygo and Schaefer in traps set in cotton-rat runways 
in thickly matted grass and broomsedge growing between the road 
and a small creek east of Pulaski. Four were trapped in Microtus 
ochrogaster runways during April and May 1937 in an abandoned 
alfalfa field on the edge of Reelfoot Lake. Three were trapped by 
A. H. Howell on one night, all within a few yards of one another, in 
prairie meadow mouse runways in a patch of dry grass and briers in an 
old field near Clarksville. Dr. A. R. Cahn submitted for identifica- 
tion a short-tailed shrew collected on October 18, 1937, at Norris, 
Anderson County. 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

These shrews were reported by Komarek and Komarek (1938, 
p. 147) as having been trapped in Sevier County in fallow fields over- 
grown with broomsedge at Greenbrier, along Fighting Creek near 
Gatlinburg, and in the runways of Stone's lemming mouse along Fish 
Camp Prong of Little River (altitude 2,730 feet). 

Giles County: 6 miles east of Pulaski, 5. 

Lake County: Reelfoot Lake, 3 miles north of Tiptonville, 4. 

Montgomery County: Clarksville, 3. 

BLARINA BREVICAUDA TALPOIDES (Capper): Short-tailed Shrew 

The short-tailed shrew is the largest of the five shrews recorded 
for the State. It lives in underground burrows and also makes 
surface runways under matted leaves and decaying vegetation. 
When hunting for food it frequently uses the runways of other small 
mammals. Blarinas were caught in the Great Smoky Mountains in 
large Schuyler traps that had been nailed to the trunks of trees 
5 or 6 feet above ground. 

At Shady Valley short-tailed shrews were trapped in a bog in 
which rhododendron and hemlock were growing. On the south- 
eastern slope of Holston Mountain they were trapped along a small 
mountain stream in runways under moss in a growth of rhododen- 
dron and hemlock. On the west slope of Mount Guyot they were 
taken in a balsam-fir forest and at Low Gap in runways under moss 
in hemlock. On Snake Den Mountain, blarinas were trapped in 
runways under moss under mixed deciduous and hemlock trees 
growing on the banks of a swift-flowing mountain stream. The 
vertical range of this shrew extends to at least G,300 feet. Komarek 
and Komarek (1938, p. 147) list specimens from the following local- 
ities in Sevier County: Fish Camp Prong of Little River, Grassy 
Patch (on Alum Cave Creek, 2 miles east of The Chimneys, altitude 
4,000 feet), Greenbrier, Horsehoe Mountain (about 3 miles east of 
Mount LeConte and li/^ miles north of Mount Kephart), Silers Bald, 
and Walker Prong of Little River. 

Specimens from eastern Tennessee average somewhat smaller than 
those taken in eastern and southern West Virginia, but they have a 
larger hind foot than those referred to carolinensis. Until this genus 
is revised, this series may be tentatively allocated to taJpoides. From 
the eastern mountainous section the average measurements of 11 
males are as follows: Total length, 115.6 (110-125); tail, 23.2 
(19-27) ; hind foot, 14.7 (13-16). For 9 females from the same area 
the average measurements are: Total length, 117.2 (108-126); tail,. 
23.5 (16.5-27) ; hind foot, 15.1 (14-16.5). 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 253 

Johnson County: Shady Valley, altitude 2,900 feet, 1 : Holston Mountain, 4 miles 

northeast of Shady Valley, altitude 3,800 feet, 5 ; Holston Mountain, 3 miles 

northeast of Shady Valley, altitude 3,000 feet, 1. 
Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitude 4,100-5,000 feet, 6. 
Cocke County: Mount Guyot, altitude 6,300 feet, 1 ; Low Gap, 4i^ miles southeast 

of Cosby, altitude 3,300-3,400 feet, 3 ; Snake Den Mountain, altitude 3,800 

feet, 1. 

BLARINA BREVICAUDA CAROLINENSIS (Bachman): Carolina Short- 
tailed Shrew, or Mole-shrew 

Jtihoads (1896, p. 202) found that the southern mole-shrew was 
present "in the bottom lands of west Tennessee both in the open and 
in deep swampy woods." He collected specimens at Samburg on the 
shore of Reelfoot Lake and in the bottom lands of Wolf River near 
Raleigh, Shelby County. Rhoads also lists specimens from Belle- 
view in Davidson County, Sawyers Springs on Walden Ridge in 
Hamilton County, and Harriman in Roane County. 

At Hickory Withe the National Museum party trapped these 
blarinas in runways under matted leaves on tussocks on cypress 
knees in the swamp as well as in the canebrake, at Frankewing under 
matted leaves alongside rotten logs in deciduous woods, and also on 
a dry hillside in deciduous woods 8 miles north of Waynesboro. 

The short-tailed shrews collected in southern and western Ten- 
nessee average somewhat smaller than the eastern series. The aver- 
age measurements of three males are as follows: Total length, 98.3 
(85-112); tail, 19 (17-22); hind foot, 12.6 (11-14). For three 
females the average measurements are: Total length, 96.3 (85-109) ; 
tail, 19.6 (18-22); hind foot, 11.5 (11-12.5). These measurements 
correspond rather closely with those that are considered typical of 
the subspecies carolinensis. The average measurements of 15 males 
from localities in South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama are as 
follows: Total length, 97.7 (94-110); tail, 18.8 (15-21); hind foot, 
12 (11-13). For 10 females from the same States the average meas- 
urements are: Total length, 95 (86-103); tail, 19.9 (17-25); hind 
foot, 12 (11-13). 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 1. 

Davidson County: Nashville, 1. 

Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 3. 

Lincoln County: 6 miles east of Frankewing, 1. 

Obion County: Samburg, 1. 

Wayne County: 8 miles east of Waynesboro, 2. 

Family VESPERTILIONIDAE 

MYOTIS GRISESCENS Howell: Gray, or Howell's, Bat 

Several thousand of these bats were found by Mohr (1933, pp. 
50-51) during June 1932, hanging in compact masses from the roof 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

of a small chamber leading off from the main portion of Indian Cave. 
Wlien the bats were disturbed, Mohr observed that hundreds flew 
around in the chamber and that probably only 5 percent carried 
their young, most of the females leaving their young hanging to the 
roof. The youngest of the bats were naked, and the oldest were 
about 3 weeks old. Mohr estimated that less than 10 percent of the 
bats were mature males. All the bats collected were in the russet 
phase. The Museum series from this cave was collected ISIay 23, 1925, 
by Prof. J. D. Ives. 

During June Mohr likewise found great numbers of these bats 
lining the roof of Nickajack Cave. When Mohr (1932, pp. 272-273) 
visited this cave on December 24, 1931, he found only a solitary 
female in the russet phase. On returning again to the cave on 
January 4, 1932, he located three males in the dusky phase. Arthur 
H. Howell collected a large series of these bats at Nickajack Cave on 
August 31, 1908. Under the name of Myotis velifer^ Halin (1908, 
p. 580) listed this bat as occurring in Nickajack Cave. 

Grainger County: Indian Cave, on Holston River north of New Marlcet, 15. 
Marion County: Nickajack Cave, near Shell Mound, 76. 

MYOTIS KEENII SEPTENTRIONALIS (Trouessart) : Trouessart's Bat 

On July 2, 1892, Russell J. Thompson found tliree of these bats 
hanging to rocks in Bellamys Cave, 4 miles from the Cumberland 
River. Miller and Allen (1928, p. lOG) list two specimens from 
Hickman County. 

Montgomery County: Bellamys Cave, 3. 

MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS LUCIFUGUS (LeConte): Little Brown Bat 

Rhoads (1896, p. 203) mentions four little brown bats collected by 
J. T. Park at Warner, Hicbnan County. Two specimens from 
Greenbrier, Sevier County, are listed by Komarek and Komarek 
(1938, p. 148). 

MYOTIS SODALIS Miller and Allen: Indiana Bat 

About 300 yards from the entrance of Nickajack Cave, Mohr (1932, 
pp. 272-273) on December 24, 1931, found a colony of about 300 
Indiana bats hanging from the ceiling of a low chamber. On the far 
side of the stream in this cave Mohr found four additional clusters 
of these bats, each comprising several hundred individuals. On a 
second visit, January 4, 1932, Mohr estimated that there were 1,200 to 
1,500 bats hibernating in this cave. The clusters contained individ- 
uals of both sexes. Not a single specunen of this bat was located 
when Mohr (1933, p. 51) revisited Nickajack Cave during June 1932. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 255 

Dr. A. R. Calm submitted for identification two of these bats that 
were collected during April 1937 in Ward Cave, Bedford County. 
Arthur Stupka, park naturalist, Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park, submitted for identification a male taken on September 2, 1937, 
at Keener House, Sevier County (altitude 1,500 feet). 
Marion County: Nickajack Cave, near Shell Mound, 1. 

MYOTIS SUBULATUS LEIBII (Audubon and Bachman): Leib's Bat 

This bat may occur in Teimessee, since it has been recorded on the 
north from White Sulphur Springs, W. Va., and Hickmans Cave, Ky. 

LASIONYCTERIS NOCTIVAGANS (LeConte) : Silver-haired Bat 

Ehoads (1896, p. 205) tentatively identified as this species bats 
seen at Sawyers Springs on Walden Ridge, Hamilton County, and 
on Roan Mountain. It was Rhoads' belief that "the fluttering, moth- 
like flight of some of these mountain bats was characteristic of the 
peculiar movements of noctivagansP Two specimens from Cades 
Cove, Blount County, and one from Greenbrier, Sevier County, are 
listed by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 148). 

PIPISTRELLUS SUBFLAVUS SUBFLAVUS (F. Cuvier) : Southern 
Pipistrelle, or Georgian Bat 

The southern pipistrelle is one of the most widely distributed bats 
in the State. It is found hibernating in caves during winter, and in 
summer it speiids the day in rook crevices and the like. Near dusk 
and later in the evening during the summer months it may be recog- 
nized by its erratic, butterflylike flight over fields, in clearings in 
the woods, and near j)onds. The two collected at Low Gap were 
shot in the evening of July 5, 1937, while flying around abandoned 
buildings of a Civilian Conservation Corps camp. On December 24, 
1931, Mohr (1932, p. 272) observed a few of these bats about 300 
yards from the entrance of Nickajack Cave. Prof. J. D. Ives col- 
lected for the Museum a few individuals during December 1925 in 
Indian and Nickajack Caves. Dr. A. R. Calm submitted for identi- 
fication five pipistrelles collected during April 1937 in Ward Cave, 
Bedford County, and another lot of ten that were captured on 
February 10, 1938, in a cave near Dry Creek, Hardin County. Arthur 
Stupka, park naturalist. Great Smoky Mountains National Park, sub- 
mitted for identification five males taken during July 1937 in Salt- 
peter Cave, Blount Comity (altitude 1,750 feet). Komarek and 
Komarek (1938. p. 148) record a specimen from Greenbrier, Sevier 
County. 

Anderson County: Briceville, 6. 
Benton County: Big Sandy, 9. 



256 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 4% miles southeast of Cosby, altitude 2,700 feet. 2. 

Grainger County: Indian Cave, on Holston River near New Market, 2. 

Hamilton County: Rathburn (Soddy P. O.), 2. 

Hickman County : 1, 

Houston County: Danville, 5. 

Jefferson County: Jefferson City, 2. 

Marion County: Nickajack Cave, near Shell Mound, 1. 

Shelby County: Arlington, 3. 

EPTESICUS FUSCUS FUSCUS (Beauvois): Big Brown Bat 

Rhoads (1896, p. 204) reports that the brown bat is found on the 
Cumberland Plateau but that none were seen on Roan Mountain. He 
lists three specimens from Vaughans Cave, Belleview, Davidson 
County. H. Allen (1893, p. 152) lists a specimen collected in 1856 by 
Prof. J. B. Mitchell in Roane County. Dr. A. R. Cahn submitted for 
identification a brown bat collected on July 30, 1937, in Hatmaker 
Cave, Andei-son County ; another taken on October 2, 1937, at Norris ; 
and a third captured on February 10, 1938, in a cave near Dry Creek, 
Hardin County. A specimen taken at Greenbrier, Sevier County, is 
listed by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 148). 
Hamilton County: Rathburn (Soddy l\ O.), 1. 

LASIURUS BOREALIS (Mtiller): Red Bat 

The red bat is occasionally found in caves during winter, but in 
summer it is usually found during daylight hours hanging from 
the smaller limbs of trees in wooded tracts. G. A. Coleman shot red 
bats in the open woods near the Loosahatchie River and in a clearing 
along the creek near Big Sandy. Rhoads (1896, p. 203) observed a 
few red bats in the mountains of eastern Tennessee. H. Allen (1893, 
p. 152) lists a specimen, which cannot now be located, collected in 
1854 by Prof. Richard Owen at Tyree Springs, Sumner County. 
Miller (1897, p. 108) lists a specimen from Alexandria, De Kalb 
County. This bat has been taken also at Cades Cove, Blount County, 
and at Greenbrier, Sevier County (Komarek and Komarek, 1938, 
p. 148). 

Anderson County: Briceville, 2; Coal Creek, 1. 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 11. 

Cumberland County: 2 miles east of Crossville, altitude 2,000 feet, 1. 

Houston County: Danville, 1. 

Humphreys County: Waverly, 1. 

Knox County: Knoxville, 1. 

Marion County: Nickajack Cave, near Shell Mound, 1. 

Montgomery County: Clarksville, 1. 

Shelby County: Arlington, 2. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 257 

LASIURUS CINEREUS (Beauvois): Hoary Bat 

Rhoads (1896, p. 203) concluded that the hoary bat "is likely to 
occur either as a migrant or resident anywhere east of the Cumber- 
land Plateau." 

NYCTICEIUS HUMERALIS (Rafinesque): Evening, or Rafinesque's, Bat 

The recorded occurrences of this bat in the State are all west of the- 
southern Allegheny Mountains. The evening bat begins to hunt con- 
siderably before dark and may be recognized by its rather slow and 
steady flight. G. A. Coleman collected a number of individuals dur- 
ing June 1892 in an open space near the creek and along the railroad 
tracks at Big Sandy, as well as in the open woods near Arlington. 
Rhoads (1896, p. 204) refers to specimens of this bat taken in Hick- 
man County by J. T. Park during August and Sei)tember. 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 14. 

Hickman County: Warner, 1 ; Hickman County : 1. 

Houston County: Danville, 1. 

Shelby County: Arlington, 4. 

CORYNORHINUS MACROTIS (LeConte): LeConte's Lump-nosed, or 

Big-eared, Bat 

Arthur Stupka, park naturalist. Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park, lent eight specimens from Cades Cove, I4I/2 miles southeast of 
Maryville, Blount County (altitude 1,750 feet). Of these one was 
a female collected at Cades Cove on September 12, 1936, and the 
remainder, four males and three females, were taken at the Cades 
Cove C. C. C. camp schoolhouse on July 12-15, 1937. This bat has 
been taken also in Sevier County at Gatlinburg and Greenbrier 
(Komarek and Komarek, 1938, p. 148). 

The lump-nosed bat may occur in middle Tennessee, since it has 
been recorded by Howell (1921, p. 28) near the northern boundary 
line of Alabama at Huntsville, Madison County, and by Miller (1897, 
p. 52) at Bowling Green, Warren County, Ky. 

Family URSIDAE 
URSUS AMERICANUS AMERICANUS Pallas: Black Bear 

Black bears appear to have ranged over all Tennessee in early 
times, but they have since been exterminated in many sections. No 
skulls are available for examination, and this makes it impossible 
to say whether the Florida black bear {Ursus flondanus) formerly 
occurred in the southern parts of the State. 

The Virginia trader Abraham Wood sent James Needham and 
Gabriell Arthur in 1673 to the Cherokee Indian town Cota, located 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIOIi^AL, MUSEUM vol.86 

in what is now Monroe County, Tenn. While enroute to this place, 
Needham, as reported by Wood (Williams, 1928, p. 27), saw bears 
along the Holston River in the vicinity of Bays Mountains [ ? Haw- 
kins County]. Dr. Thomas Walker (Williams, 1928, p. 172) relates 
that he had killed a male bear in Hawkins County on his trip in 
April 1750 to save his dog from further injury. In the valley of 
Boones Creek, a tributary of the Watauga River, near the old stage 
road between Jonesboro, Washington County, and Blountville, Sulli- 
van County, there stood for many years a beech tree on which Daniel 
Boone in 1760 carved a notice that he had killed a bear there 
(Ramsey, 1853, p. 67). Lt. Henry Timberlake, on his trip down 
the Holston River during December 1761 from Kingsport, Sullivan 
County, to a large cave below the present site of Three Springs Ford, 
Hamblen County, commented on the amazing number of bears that 
he had seen (Williams, 1927, pp. 45, 47). The same traveler reported 
an abundance of bears in 1762 along the Little Tennessee River near 
the mouth of Tellico River (Williams, 1927, p. 71). Local residents 
reported that a bear was seen near Shady Valley, Johnson County, 
in 1936. Perrygo and Lingebach saw a black bear on June 25, 1937, 
and also on the following day at an altitude of 5,200 to 5,700 feet 
on Inadu Knob, Cocke County. Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 
148) report that a female and a large male black bear were taken 
above Greenbrier and another male along Ramsey Fort of Little 
Pigeon River in Sevier County. The visible bear "sign" noted by 
members of the field parties of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 
indicates that black bears are increasing in numbers since the estab- 
lishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 

Bears at one time were plentiful in the vicinity of the Cumber- 
land settlements at Nashville, and many were killed for food by the 
early settlers. A hunter, Thomas Sharp Spencer, who was well 
known to the French and the Indians as the giant with "the big feet," 
hunted bears as early as 1775 a few miles southeast of Castalian 
Springs, Sumner County. Ramsey (1853, p. 450) states that a party 
of 20 hunters from Batons Station [Nashville] traveled up the Cum- 
berland River to the region between Caney Fork and Flynns Lick 
Creek [Smith, Putnam, and Jackson Counties], where they killed 
105 bears during the winter of 1782. Putnam (1859, p. 296) writes 
that "bears and wolves were found in great numbers for a half-a- 
dozen years after the first settlements in the Harpeth Hills," 10 or 
12 miles south of Nashville. During one winter Capt. John Rains 
"killed 32 bears within 7 miles of the Bluff, mostly in Harpeth Knobs, 
South of Nashville" (Putnam, 1859, p. 122). William Neelly, who 
had established a station for making salt at Neellys Bend of the Cum- 
berland River, was killed by the Indians in 1788 on the night he 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 259 

returned from a hunt for bear and buffalo meat for the workers 
(Putnam, 1859, p. 117). The records of Sumner County for 1787 
show that "good fat bear meat" was accepted for taxes at 14 pence 
per pound, if delivered where troops were stationed (Putnam, 1859, 
p. 252). 

Francis Baily (Williams, 1928, p. 407) mentions that while travel- 
ing the trail between Duck River and Nashville he heard bears and 
wolves howling on July 29, 1797. Andrew Michaux also records 
(Williams, 1928, p. 335) that bears were present in 1799 in the 
vicinity of Nashville. Abraham Steiner and Christian Frederic de 
Schweinitz wrote in their journal (Williams, 1928, pp. 504, 505, 519) 
that a bear was killed on November 24, 1799, near Drowning Creek 
and that John Binkley's party killed three bears the following 
day near Flat Rock [Cumberland County]. These two missionaries 
also mention that a Mr. Shaw^, at whose cabin they stayed for one 
or two days, hunted bears in the vicinity of the Caney Fork road 
[Putnam County]. 

Black bears could be found without difficulty in 1881 in the moun- 
tains 15 or 20 miles from Chattanooga (Cee, 1881, p. 309). A few 
bears were reported in 1880 (Antler, p. 306) in the Caney Fork 
district, Van Buren County. Edward I. Mullins reported to me 
that a bear was seen about 1910 on his father's farm near Huntsville, 
Scott County, and that he had followed the tracks for a short dis- 
tance. W. M. Perrygo was told by a local resident that a female 
and her cubs were killed in 1905 about 6 miles east of Waynesboro, 
Wayne County. This was the last bear seen in that vicinity. While 
collecting in Cumberland County, Perrygo was informed that a 
bear had been killed in 1921 near Crossville. 

Black bears were plentiful for many years in the western part of 
the State. In his account of a voyage down the Mississippi River 
in 1700, Father James Gravier mentioned (Williams, 1928, p. 68) 
that "a quantity of bears" had been killed the preceding year at 
Fort Prud'homme [above Memphis]. While on his journey up the 
Mississippi River in 1723, Diron d'Artaguette camped a league above 
the second "Ecores a Prud'homme" [above Memphis, between the 
mouths of the Hatchie and Coal Creeks] where a "fat she bear of 
enormous size" was killed on March 23 (Williams, 1930, p. 10). 
Henry Rutherford and his guide, while surveying a large tract of 
land in 1785 on the south side of Forked Deer River, Lauderdale 
County, killed bears and other game for food (Williams, 1930, p. 44). 
David Crockett (1834, pp. 81, 92, 101), in relating his hunting ex- 
periences in the lowlands of Obion County, said that he killed bears 
in Obion County as early as 1822, and this county, longer than any 
other, remained a good hunting ground for bears and deer (Wil- 



2QQ PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

liams 1930, p. 153). Crockett mentioned that in 1825 he killed 
four bears on one day and 105 in less than a year. During the 
year 1820, it is reported (Williams, 1930, p. 156) that Reuben 
Edmondson and John Bradshaw killed 85 bears in Weakley County. 
Benjamin Porter, Jr., born June 12, 1820, at Porters Gap, is said 
to have killed more than 100 bears in Lauderdale County during 
his lifetime (Williams, 1930, p. 161). From Benjamin C. Miles, 
Rhoads (1896, p. 199) learned that a bear killed in 1865 appeared 
to be the last record for Haywood County, though bears were oc- 
casionally killed in Lauderdale County as late as 1895. 

Family PROCYONIDAE 
PROCYON LOTOR VARIUS Nelson and Goldman: Alabama Raccoon 

Although raccoons are still numerous in some districts in Ten- 
nessee, they were even more plentiful when the first settlers arrived. 
Lt. Henry Timberlake (Williams, 1927, p. 71) wrote in his journal 
under date of January 2, 1762, that raccoons were numerous in the 
vicinity of Tellico River, Monroe County. On March 31, 1785, an 
act was passed by the General Assembly of the State of Franklin 
that made lawful the payment of land taxes in pelts and other 
specified commodities. The value of a raccoon skin was fixed at 1 
shilling 3 pence (Ramsey, 1853, p. 297). On account of the de- 
ranged currency and the scarcity of specie or notes of specie-paying 
banks, the General Assembly of the State of Franklin passed an 
act authorizing the payment of salaries to civil officers in pelts be- 
ginning January 1, 1788. The salary of the secretary to the Gov- 
ernor was fixed at 500 raccoon skins (Williams, 1924, p. 215). 

Five specimens from Greenbrier, Sevier County, are listed by 
Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 149). They report that raccoons 
occur in the Great Smoky Mountains at all elevations but are more 
numerous at lower altitudes. 

About 40 years ago Rhoads (1896, p. 197) stated that raccoons 
were "excessively abundant in the bottoms of West Tennessee." Rac- 
coons were reported in 1937 to be quite rare in Fayette County. 
They are said to be fairly numerous, however, in the swamps along 
the Loosahatchie River, Shelby County, and along the bottoms of 
Obion River in Dyer and Obion Counties. Tracks were seen by 
Perrygo and Lingebach during April 1937 along a creek in a hard- 
wood swamp near Reelfoot Lake, Obion County. Raccoons were 
reported (Will, 1884, p. 106) as being abundant near Savannah, 
Hardin County, during the winter of 1883-84. Local residents near 
Waynesboro in 1937 stated that raccoons were becoming scarcer in 
Wayne County. A few are caught each year near Crossville. 



TENNESSEE I^.IAMMALS KELLOGG 261 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 1. 
Montgomery County: Clarksville, 1. 
Shelby County: Arlington, 1. 

Family MUSTELIDAE 

MARTES PENNANTI PENNANTI (Erxleben): Eastern Fisher, or Pekan 

Althouo-h Dr. C. Hart Merriam (1888, p. 159), after having accom- 
panied Henry Gannett, of the U. S. Geological Survey, several hun- 
dred miles through the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and 
North Carolina, reported that the pekan was unlmown m 1887 to 
local residents, reliable information exists that this animal formerly 
occurred in that area. Audubon and Bachman (1816, vol. 1, p. 311) 
refer to the former presence of the fisher as follows: "We have seen 
several skins procured in east Tennessee and we have heard of at 
least one individual that was captured near Flat Rock [? Cumber- 
land County] in that State, latitude 35°." The Flat Rock was a we 1- 
known landmark when the wagon road from Clinch River to Nash- 
ville was opened for travel in 1795. Latitude 35°, however, is 
approximately the southern boundary of the State. 

MUSTELA FRENATA NOVEBORACENSIS (Emmons) : New York Weasel 

The available specimens of this weasel were all taken in the eastern 
half of the State. Rhoads (1896, p. 196), however, states that it is 
said to be common in west Tennessee." A weasel was taken at an 
altitude of 3,800 feet near Shady Valley on June 13, 1937, m a large- 
size Schuyler trap nailed to the trunk of an oak tree. Another 
weasel was trapped on Roan Mountain during September 1937 in a 
balsam-fir forest. Local residents in 1937 reported to Perrygo that 
weasels were fairly numerous at lower altitudes in the valleys of 

eastern Tennessee. ^^ . i t.t i 

Curiously enough, the three weasels in the National Museum col- 
lection from the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia, as well as 
the two collected in eastern Tennessee by the Museum party m 1937, 
are all somewhat darker than the Campbell and Hamilton County 
specimens. The coloration of the upper parts of these five speci- 
mens approaches Front's brown or sepia. This coloration is of 
doubtful significance, since three specimens from 6.000 feet elevation 
on Roan Mountain, N. C, as well as five others from Magnetic City 
at the foot of Roan Mountain, have the usual cinnamon-brown colora- 
tion Furthermore, in a series of 37 specimens from localities in 
Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a young male 
and a young female have this dark-colored pelage. 

107573—38 2 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Specimens from Lower Eamsey Branch of the Little Pigeon River, 
from Pinnacle in Sevier County, and from Knoxville in Knox 
County are referred tentatively to the southern weasel {M. n. notia) by 
Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 150). 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitude 6.100 feet, 1. 
Hamilton County: Walden Ridge, near Soddy, 3. 

Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Shady Valley, 
altitude 3,800 feet, 1. 

MUSTELA VISON VISON Schreber: Mountain, or Black, Mink 

The early records seem to indicate that the dark-colored mink v.as 
formerly common in the mountainous portion of eastern Tennessee. 
Under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Franklin, the 
remuneration of a constable serving a warrant was fixed at one mink 
skin beginning January 1, 1788 (Williams, 1924, p. 215). W. M. 
Perrygo was told iii 1937 that a few minks are taken on Roan jNloun- 
tain by local trappers, but that they are not so abundant as formerly. 
One mink was trapped and another seen in 1933 at Greenbrier, Sevier 
County (Komarek and Komarek, 1938, p. 150). 

MUSTELA VISON MINK Peale and Beauvois: Common, or BrowTi, Mink 

Minks were formerly generally distributed over most of Tennessee. 
In many localities they are now rather scarce, and high prices for 
pelts about 1920 almost resulted in their extermination in some 
counties. Minks were reported (Will, 1884, p. 106) very abundant 
near Savannah, Hnrdin County, during the winter of 1883-84. I>ocal 
trappers reported in 1937 that minks were becoming rare in Shelby 
and Fayette Counties. Perrygo likewise learned from trappers that 
minks are caught occasionally in the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake, Obion 
County. Rhoads (1896, p. 198) lists a specimen from Open Lake, 
Lauderdale County. 

LUTRA CANADENSIS INTERIOR Swenk: Mississippi Valley Otter 

The otter doubtless occurred throughout Tennessee in early times, 
but persistent trapping by the early hunters and settlers soon reduced 
its numbei-s. No specimens have been received by the U. S. National 
Museum from the State, and it is therefore impossible to identify 
with certainty the race that may occur there now. 

While residing with the Cherokee Indian chief Ostenaco at the 
mouth of Tellico River, Monroe County, Lt. Henry Timberlake on 
January 2, 1762, made a note in his journal (Williams, 1927, p. 69) 
concerning "brooks well stored with fish, otters, and beaver." Under 
an act of the General Assembly of the State of Franklin, passed and 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 263 

signed on March 31, 1785, the vahie of a cased otter skin was fixed 
at 6 shillings and that of an uncased skin at 5 shillings (Ramsey, 
1853, p. 297). The same Assembly in 1788 fixed the salary of the 
State treasurer at 450 otter skins (Williams, 1924, p. 215). 

B. C. Miles reported to Rhoads (1896, p. 197) that he had seen an 
otter that was killed at Open Lake, Lauderdale County, during the 
winter of 1895. Rhoads also learned that otters were often seen by 
hunters at Reelfoot Lake. 

SPILOGALE PUTORIUS (Linnaeus): Alleghenian Spotted Skunk 

Howell (1909, p. 65) states that the spotted skunk was reported 
scarce in the vicinity of Briceville, Anderson County. Komarek and 
Komarek (1938, p. 150) list one specimen that was taken in the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park but give no definite locality. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Sullivan County: Holston Mountains, head of Flshdam Creek, 1. 

MEPHITIS MEPHITIS NIGRA (Peale and Beauvois): Eastern Skunk 

The eastern skunk seems to be distributed in Tennessee west of 
the southern Allegheny Mountains. It occasionally takes up resi- 
dence under a house or barn but generally is found in its own bur- 
rows or in abandoned burrows of some other animal. These are 
usually located in rocky terrain hidden by thickets or in clumps of 
brush at corners of rail fences. Rhoads (1896, p. 199) was told that 
skunks were "rare in the IMississippi lowlands" and reported that he 
"rarely detected the signs of this animal in Tennessee, though every- 
one seems to be acquainted with the animal in all localities visited 
except, perhaps, on the summits of the highest mountains." Perrygo 
reports that he saw no crushed skunks on the roads over which the 
Museum party drove their car during 1937 and that the familiar 
odor was not noted at any time except in the case of one taken in 
Lincoln County. This skunk was trapped in a rock ledge partially 
hidden in a hedgerow consisting of scrub cedar, briers, and cacti near 
farm buildings west of Fayetteville. Near Waynesboro one was killed 
in the deciduous woods on a rather dry hillside. Skunks were re- 
ported to be fairly common in Wayne County, but more skimks were 
said to be present in Lincoln County than in any other part of the 
State visited by the Museum party. The specimen from Camp- 
bell County, although not typical, is referred to nigra rather than to 
elongata^ which occurs in eastern West Virginia. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Lincoln County: 2 miles west of Fayetteville, 1. 

"Wayne County: Waynesboro, 1. 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

MEPHITIS MEPHITIS ELONGATA Bangs: Florida Skunk 

Five specimens taken in Sevier County at Greenbrier and Pin- 
nacle are referred to the southern skunk by Komarek and Komarek 
(1938, p. 150). 

Family CANIDAE 

VTJLPES FULVA FULVA (Desmarest) : Red Fox 

The red fox seems not to have been one of the native mammals 
of Tennessee, but it has been introduced into various sections of the 
State at diiferent times by those interested in hunting with hounds. 
Perrygo was told that red foxes have been liberated recently in a 
number of localities. Local residents informed him that red foxes 
were plentiful in the vicinity of Waynesboro, Wayne County, but 
that they were not common near Crossville, Cumberland County. 

Contrary to general belief, Rhoads (1896, p. 200) states that the 
red fox was "always numerous in the mountains" but "has spread 
with increasing population uito west Tennessee, where it was un- 
known to the early pioneers." Benjamin C. Miles is authority for 
the statement that this fox was introduced or migrated into Hay- 
wood and Lauderdale Counties about 1845. 

Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 150) mention a red fox that 
was found dead along Dudley Creek, Sevier County. From the 
Blount County Fox Hunters' Association they obtained informa- 
tion that in the years 1924 to 1926 approximately 150 red foxes 
were shipped from Waterloo, Minn., and liberated in the Chilhowee 
Mountains at several localities in the area between Sevierville and 
the Tennessee River. 

UROCYON CINEREOARGENTEUS CINEREOARGENTEUS (Schreber): 

Gray Fox 

The gray fox in former times occurred in most sections of the 
State and is still common in many localities. Hunting with hounds 
has resulted in the reduction and in some cases the extermination of 
this fox in the vicinity of thickly settled regions. 

Lt. Henry Timberlake (Williams, 1927, p. 71) mentions that 
foxes were very abundant in 1762 along the Little Tennessee River 
near the mouth of Tellico River. Ramsey (1853, p. 206) states 
that when the first settlers came to the Bluff [Nashville] in 1780 
foxes were present in the vicinity. 

Under the act of March 31, 1785, of the General Assembly of the 
State of Franklin, the value of a fox skin was fixed at 1 shilling 3 
pence (Ramsey, 1853, p. 297). 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 265 

Local residents reported to Perry go that gray foxes are occasion- 
ally caught in Fayette and Shelby Counties. He was told that 
gray foxes were still plentiful in the vicinity of Waynesboro, Wayne 
County. Similarly, trappers residing near Crossville informed him 
that this fox was no longer caught very often in Cumberland County. 

In eastern Tennessee, Rhoads (1896, p. 200) states that the gray 
fox "sometimes courses over the balsam belt of Roan Mountain, 
when pursued by dogs, but does not reside at so great an altitude." 
Arthur Stupka, park naturalist, has informed me that specimens 
from Cades Cove, Blount County, and Elkmont, Sevier County, have 
been acquired by the museum of the Great Smoky Mountains Na- 
tional Park and that he has sight records from Gatlinburg, Sevier 
County, and elsewhere in the park. His observations indicate that 
the gray fox outnumbers the red fox at elevations below 2,000 feet. 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 1. 

Hamilton County: Walden Ridge, near Soddy, 2. 

CANIS LUPUS LYCAON Schreber: Gray Wolf 

Wolves, although once numerous, were exterminated in many sec- 
tions of Temiessee many years ago. Unfortunately there are few 
published records. 

The first recorded mention of wolves in eastern Tennessee appears 
to be that of James Needham (Williams, 1928, p. 27), who in 1673 
saw wolves while traveling from near the present site of Trade, John- 
son County, to the Cherokee Indian town Chota in what is now 
Monroe County. Wliile engaged in carrying out a peace treaty with 
the Cherokee Indians, Lt. Henry Timberlake wrote in his journal 
(Williams, 1927, p. 71) under date of January 2, 1762, near the 
mouth of Tellico River, Monroe County, that there were an incredible 
number of wolves. Dr. C. Hart Merriam (1888, p. 459) wrote, after 
his trip through the region in 1887, that wolves were present in the 
Smoky Mountains. Rhoads (1896, p. 200) states that a wolf was 
seen during the winter, about 1883, near the Cloudland hotel on 
Roan Mountain and that a few may persist in the southern Alle- 
ghenies. Early settlers in the vicinity of Shady Valley, Joluison 
County, resorted to the use of high pen traps baited with live sheep 
to rid the country of wolves. Perrygo was shown the location of 
some of these trapping sites in the Holston Mountains. These pens 
were constructed of logs and built so that one side abutted against 
some abrupt cut in a gradual hill slope. A pack of wolves, having 
scented the bait, generally came down the slope and jumped into 
the pen, from which they could not escape. The trapped wolves were 
then killed with a gun or club. 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IsTATIONiyL, MUSEUM vol.86 

Eeferences to ATolves are more numerous in the early records of 
middle Temiessee. Ramsey (1853, p. 206) mentions that wolves were 
present in 1780 in the vicinity of the Bluff [Nashville]. Other rec- 
ords show that wolves were so numerous at the time the Nashville 
settlements were established that the settlers were compelled to build 
pens as traps. During the winter of 1788, wdien many of the settlers 
had sought refuge from the Indians at Rains Station [on Browns 
Creek, 21/2 miles south of Nashville], the hunters, men and boys, 
would "occasionally visit their wolf and turkey pens" (Putnam, 1859, 
p. 296). An entry in the journal of Andre Michaux (Williams, 1928, 
p. 335) written at Nashville on June 21, 1795, indicates that wolves 
were present in the vicinity. Francis Baily (Williams, 1928, p. 407), 
while traveling the trail from Duck River to Nashville, mentions hear- 
ing the howling of wolves on June 29, 1797. In John Lipscomb's 
journal (Williams, 1928, p. 276) under date of June 29, 1784, it is 
recorded that two big buffalo bulls followed by a wolf were seen at 
a lick near Little Barren River [Macon County, Tenn., or Allen 
County, Ky.]. Abraham Steiner and Christian Frederic de Schwein- 
itz, while traveling eastward on the Caney Fork road, stopped for 
a day or so at the cabin of a Mr. Shaw. Under date of December 
12, 1799, they wrote in their journal (Williams, 1928, p. 519) that 
"here [Smith or Putnam County], in proximity to the wilderness, 
there are deer, bear, and wolves in great numbers." Williams (1930, 
pp. 96, 180) writes that in 1819 v.olves attacked pigs, young calves, 
and fawns and that bounties were paid to the trappers and hunters 
for scalps of wolves. Audubon and Bachman (1851, vol. 2, p. 129) 
describe a pit trap that was used in Kentucky, and it is quite likely 
that similar wolf pits were constructed in western and middle Ten- 
nessee. In 1880 (Antler, p. 306) it was reported that gray wolves 
were occasionally found in the Caney Fork district. Van Buren 
County. It was reported to W. M. Perrygo that a female and her 
pups had been killed about 1917 near Waynesboro, Wayne County. 
Another wolf was killed in 1919 on North Fork River, Cumberland 
County. 

No specific mention of gray wolves has been found in the early 
accounts of western Tennessee. Benjamin C. Miles (1895, p. 182) 
supposed that the large gray wolf extended its range into the river 
bottoms of Lauderdale County about 1890 or 1891. Subsequently he 
learned from Major Shaw (Rhoads, 1896, p. 200), an old hunter of 
Haywood County, that the latter had "captured a litter of seven 
wolf pups, three of which were gray and four black." Major Shaw 
was inclined to believe that the "big gray wolf has always been here 
and some favorable circumstance must have developed his numbers." 



TENNESSEE ]MAMMALS KELLOGG 267 

Some time later JNIiles wrote Rlioads (1896, p. 200) that two wolves 
had been poisoned about December 10, 1895, within 7 miles of Browns- 
ville, Haywood County. 

CANIS RUFUS FLORID ANUS Miller: Florida Red Wolf 

A right mandible (U.S.N.M. no. 200145), referred to this wolf, 
was found by Clarence B. Moore in 1914-15 a short distance above 
Chattanooga in debris from the Citico aboriginal mound near Citico 
Creek, Hamilton County. It is quite likely that this red wolf ranged 
over southeastern Temiessee at least until the time of the arrival of 
the first white traders, since iron-blades manufactured by the whites 
were found at this site (Moore, 1915, pp. 373-374). 

CANIS RUFUS GREGORYI Goldman: Mississippi Valley Wolf 

The specific identity of the gray and black wolves of Tennessee is 
quite puzzling in view of conflicting statements. According to Ben- 
jamin C. Miles (1895, p. 182) the small black wolf was exterminated 
about 1870 in Haywood and Lauderdale Counties. Major Shaw 
(Rhoads, 1896, p. 200) says that "our present wolf is larger and very 
much fiercer than those of my childhood, at least those specimens 
were which came under my observation." Audubon and Bachman 
(1851, vol. 2, p. 130) refer to having seen black wolves on trips 
through southern Kentucky and mention one hunter who had trained 
a black wolf to trail deer. No specimens are available for examina- 
tion. It is known, however, that the black phase is quite common in 
this species of wolf. Goldman (1937, p. 44) states that "a specimen 
from Cherokee, Colbert County, northwestern Alabama, is somewhat 
intermediate, but in heavy dentition is nearer -floridanusy 

CANIS LATRANS Say: Coyote 

Coyotes are reported to have been introduced in Tennessee in recent 
years, though no information is at present available as to the source 
where they were obtained. A female killed in Maury County was 
acquired by the Tennessee State Museum in 1930. According to an 
item that appeared in the Migrant,- "it is believed that it is from a 
stock of coyotes that were liberated in west Tennessee at Grand Junc- 
tion [Hardeman County] for the purpose of training hounds." The 
Bureau of Biological Survey obtained from Earl May the skin and 
skull of a female killed on May 23, 1931, at, McCains. 

Maury County: McCains, 1. 



^ Quart. Publ. Tennessee Orn. Soc, vol. 1, nos. 3-4, p. 19, Dec. 1930. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

FELIS CONCOLOR COUGUAR Kerr: Cougar, Panther, or Eastern Mountain 

Lion 

An entry in the journal of Lt. Henry Tiniberlake (Williams, 1927, 
p. 71) under date of January 2, 1762, indicates that panthers were 
numerous at that date in the vicinity of Tellico River, Monroe Coun- 
ty. Dr. C. Hart Merriam, however, reported in 1888 (p. 459) that 
the panther was unknown in the Great Smoky Mountains region of 
Tennessee and North Carolina. Perrygo was told that a panther 
had been killed in 1929 in the Holston Mountains near Shady Valley, 
Johnson County. Another panther was seen crossing the trail on 
Hoan Mountain on September 18, 1937. 

Ramsey (1853, p. 206) states that panthers were present in 1780 
in the vicinity of the Bluff [Nashville]. While staying at the home 
of a Mr. Shaw on the Caney Fork road [? Smith County], Abraham 
Steiner and Christian Frederic de Schweinitz wrote on December 12, 
1799, that panthers were present in that vicinity. A panther was 
seen on May 30, 1937, by local residents on North Fork River near 
Crossville, Cumberland County. 

Williams (1930, p. 96) writes that panthers were present in western 
Tennessee in 1819. Some years later Benjamin Porter, Jr., is re- 
ported to have killed on one day four full-grown panthei-s, which av- 
eraged 91/2 feet in length, in Lauderdale County (Williams, 1930, p. 
161). Hallock (1877, p. 153) stated that the canebrakes of Shelby 
County afforded fine grounds for hunting panthers. It is also reported 
that a panther measuring 7i/^ feet from ti]) to tip was killed by Robert 
H. Weaver on Wheatley's plantation, 8 miles south of Memphis 
(Anon., 1880, p. 11). Benjamin C. Miles reported to Rhoads (1896, 
p. 201) that a few panthers were said to occur in the most impassable 
brakes and "harricanes" of the bottoms of Lauderdale County. 

LYNX RUFUS RUFUS (Schreber): Bobcat, or Wild Cat 

The first mention of wild cats occurring in the State of Tennessee 
appears to be that recorded by Abraham Steiner and Christian 
Frederic de Schweinitz. On December 12, 1799, they recorded in 
their journal (Williams, 1928, p. 519) that wild cats occur near the 
Caney Fork road [Smith or Putnam County]. Williams (1930, pp. 
96, 180) records the occurrence in 1819 of wild cats and catamounts 
in western Tennessee. 

Perrygo was informed by local residents that wild cats are occa- 
sionally trapped in cypress swamps in Fayette and Shelby Counties. 
In the vicinity of Waynesboro, Wayne County, it was reported that 
there were still a few wild cats on the ridges and that a female had 
been killed there during March 1937. Local residents in the vicinity of 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 269 

Crossvillo reported that there were relatively few wild cats in Cum- 
berland County. The specimens from Walden Kidge are indis- 
tinguishable from those taken in eastern West Virginia. 

Tracks were seen by Perrygo and Schaefer during September 193T 
on Roan Mountain, and they were told that wild cats were not 
abundant in the Great Smoky Mountains. Komarek and Komarek 
(1938, p. 151), however, report that wild-cat tracks were frequently 
seen in Sevier County near Mount Guyot and on Brushy Mountain, 
Three specimens were taken by their party at Greenbrier, Sevier 
County. Wild cats are frequently trapped in the Cherokee National 
Forest. The Florida wild cat {Lyn-x rufus floridanus) may occur in 
this forest. 

Hamilton County: Walden Ridge, near Soddy, 3. 

Family SCIURIDAE 

MARMOTA MONAX MONAX (Linnaeus) : Southern Woodchuck, or 

Groundhog 

During April and May 1937 Perrygo and Lingebach learned that 
a few woodchucks were to be found in the bluffs bordering the Mis- 
sissippi River lowlands but that they were not common in any of 
the western counties drained by the small tributaries of the river^ 
One was seen April 29, 1957, crossing the road northeast of Horn- 
beak, Obion County. In 1895, Benjamin C. Miles informed Rhoads 
(1896, p. 193) that woodchucks were very rare in Haywood County. 
As far back as the oldest residents could recall, no woodchucks have 
been found in Fayette and Shelby Counties. 

In middle Tennessee, two were seen during May 1937 near Waynes- 
boro, Wayne County. Local residents near Crossville reported to 
Perrygo in May 1937 that woodchucks were rather scarce in Cum- 
berland County. On the western slope of the Clinch Mountains, a 
few occur in the farming sections near the Clinch River, Grainger 
County. According to Howell (1909, p. 60) woodchucks were re- 
ported as being common in Anderson County on Cross Mountain and 
in Hamilton County on Walden Ridge near Soddy. They also occur 
on the ridge between Fayetteville, Lincoln County, and Pulaski, 
Giles County. 

Woodchucks appear to be slightly more abundant in eastern Ten- 
nessee. Perrygo and Lingebach found that there were a few living 
in the hedgerows bordering farming land in Shady Valley, Johnson 
County. Woodchucks were reported as being not at all abundant 
in the Great Smoky Mountains. A few were seen in the rocky 
ground between hemlock woods (altitude 2,700 feet) and an old 
abandoned field at Low Gap, 4I/2 miles southeast of Cosby, but only 



270 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

one was trapped. In eastern Tennessee, according to Klioads (1896, 
p. 193), the vertical range of the woodchuck does not extend upward 
into the fir belt, which begins approximately at an elevation of 5,000 
feet. Two woodchncks were taken by the Museum party, however, 
during September 1937 at Carvers Gap on a bald spot at an altitude 
of 5,500 feet. A specimen from Greenbrier, Sevier County, is listed 
by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 151). 

A few woodchucks occur along the edges of mixed deciduous and 
pine woods on Big Frog Mountain, Polk County, where no farming 
has been carried on for a great many years. In this region the 
vertical range of this animal goes up to at least 2,500 feet. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Carter County: Carvers Gap, Roan Mountain, altitude 5,500 feet, 2. 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 4i^ miles southeast of Cosby, altitude 2,700 feet, 1 

Humphreys County: Duck River, 6 miles southwest of Waverly, 1. 

Polk County: Big Frog Mountain, 12 miles west of Copperhill, altitude 1,800 

feet, 1. 
Stewart County: Dover, 1. 

TAMIAS STRIATUS STRIATUS (Linnaeus): Southeastern Chipmunk 

Very few chipmunks were seen in Tennessee by the Museum party. 
Several were observed during June 1937 at an altitude of 3,800 feet 
in oak and beech woods on the Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast 
of Shady Valley, Johnson County. Chipmunks appear to be more 
numerous here than at any other locality visited in 1937. Two were 
seen September 18, 1937, at an altitude of 4,000 feet on Roan Moun- 
tain, Carter County. One was seen during June 1937 at an altitude 
of 2,700 feet on Low Gap southeast of Cosby, Cocke County. 
Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 152) state that chipmunks are com- 
mon in the deciduous woods of the Great Smoky Mountains and list 
specimens from Eagle Rocks Prong of Little Pigeon River, Green- 
brier, Horseshoe Mountain (about 3 miles east of Mount LeConte 
and 11^ miles north of Mount Kephart), Mount Harrison, and Por- 
ters Flats in Sevier County, and also from Thunderhead in Blount 
County. Rhoads (1896, p. 194) observed chipmunks at Johnson 
City, Washington County, and at Greeneville, Greene County. 
Howell (1909, p. 59) states that chipmunks were reported to occur 
at Highcliff, Campbell County, and on Walden Ridge near Soddy, 
Hamilton County, and that one was seen on Coal Creek in Ander- 
son County. 

In middle Tennessee, Rhoads observed chipmunks at Nashville, 
Davidson County, and mentioned two specimens taken at Warner, 
Hickman County, during November and December. No chipmunks 
were seen by Rhoads "at Chattanooga or Knoxville, nor on the Cum- 
berland plateau." Perrygo reports that a few chipmunks were noted 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 271 

in a hardwood forest 8 miles northeast of Waynesboro, Wayne 
County. Tas'o were seen near Dover, Stewart County, October 30, 1937. 
According to Rhoads, observations (1896, p. 193), chipmunks were 
"very sparingly and irregularly distributed in the lowlands of Ten- 
nessee." He observed them near the springs at Raleigh and along 
the road from Raleigh to Bartlett, Shelby County. Benjamin C. 
Miles informed Rhoads that he saw five or six chipmunks every 
summer near Brownsville, Haywood County. Chipmunks were not 
found to be very numerous in the sections of Obion and Lake Coun- 
ties visited in 1937. 

Hicknian County: 1. 

Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Shady Valley, 

altitude 3.800 feet, 1. 
Montgomery County: east of Clarksville, 1; Dunbai's Cave, Clarksville, 4. 
Obion County: Reelfoot Lake, Samburg, 1. 
Stewart County: Cumberland River near Dover, 1. 
"Wayne County: 8 miles northeast of Waynesboro, 2. 

TAMIASCIURUS HUDSONIUS ABIETICOLA Howell: Cloudland Red 
Squirrel, Pine Squirrel, or Boomer 

No red squirrels were seen by the Museum party outside of the 
hemlock, spruce, and fir forests of eastern Tennessee, except in the 
pine woods of the Cherokee National Forest. One was seen during 
June 1937 at an altitude of 2,900 feet in a hemlock bog near Shady 
Valley. Rhoads (1896, p. 196) reports that "owing to the severe 
winter of 1894—95, the 'Boomer' was very scarce in its usual haunts 
on the summit of Roan Mountain." Red squirrels were rather scarce 
in 1937 in the balsam-fir and beech forests on Roan Mountain, Carter 
County, but Perrygo and Schaefer succeeded in collecting a 
few specimens. In the Great Smoky Mountains district it 
required considerable effort on the j)art of Perrygo, Lingebach, 
and Schaefer to collect even a few red squirrels in the balsam-fir 
forests on Mount Guyot, Old Black Mountain, and Inadu 
Knob. They were nowhere numerous, and local residents were of 
the opinion that red squirrels would be exterminated within a few 
3^ears. Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 152), how^ever, report that 
red squirrels were abundant in 1931 and 1932 in the deciduous and 
evergreen forests of the Great Smoky Mountains and list specimens 
from the following localities in Sevier County: Buck Fork and 
Ramsey Prong of Little Pigeon River, Dry Sluice [Gap] (intersec- 
tion of Richland Mountain with Tennessee-North Carolina boundary 
line), Greenbrier, Horseshoe Mountain, Mount Guyot, and Porters 
Flats. One was seen during July 1937 in pine woods at an altitude 
of 4,100 feet on Big Frog Mountain, Polk County. 



272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8» 

Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitudes 5,000 to 6,100 feet, 4. 
Cocke County: Inadu Knob, altitudes 4,500 to 5,900 feet, 7; Mount Guyot, alti- 
tude 6,500 feet, 2 ; Snake Den Mountain, altitude 4,500 feet, 1. 
Sevier County: Indian Gap, altitude 5,200 feet, 2. 

SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS CAROLINENSIS Gmelin: Gray, or Cat, Squirrel 

The gray squirrel was formerly one of the commonest and most 
widely distributed mammals in Tennessee. It frequents not only the 
moist bottomlands and swamps, where there is an abundance of nut- 
bearing deciduous trees, but is also found on wooded hills and the 
lower mountain slopes. Four gray squirrels were seen and two col- 
lected in deciduous woods on Poor Valley Kidge, Clinch ;Mountains, 
Grainger County. Although both of these are young individuals, 
they appear to resemble carolinensis more closely than leucotis. 

The gray squirrel is no longer abundant in the more settled parts 
of middle Tennessee. Andre Michaux (Williams, 1928, p. 335) refers 
to the presence in 1795 of small gray squirrels in the vicinity of 
Nashville. Four years later, Abraham Steiner and Christian Fred- 
eric de Schweinitz (Williams, 1928, p. 516) comment on the "tre- 
mendous number of squirrels" in the Cumberland settlements in 
the vicinity of Nashville. The Museum party did not collect or see 
any gray squirrels in middle Tennessee, except in the vicinity of 
Fayetteville, Lincoln County, where six were seen and two collected, 
and in the deciduous woods 8 miles north of Indian Mound, Stewart 
County, where two were seen. 

Gray squirrels were fairly common in some parts of southwestern 
Tennessee. Only a few were actually seen, however, near Hickory 
Withe, Fayette County, during April 1937. Benjamin C. Miles 
(Ehoads, 1896, p. 196) in describing the migrations of gray squirrels 
from Arkansas to Tennessee states that he has "seen them exhausted 
and wet on the east bank of the Mississippi River." This would 
indicate that gray squirrels can swim considerable distances when 
necessary. 

The hind feet of the specimens from Big Sandy average larger than 
those taken in the southern part of the State. The average measure- 
ments of 10 males from this locality are as follows: Total length, 
453.5 (428^80) ; tail, 215.9 (207-230) ; hind foot, 66.2 (63-68). For 
six females from the same locality the average measurements are: 
Total length, 475.5 (460-485) ; taif, 225.3 (220-230) ; hind foot, 66.3 
(63-68). 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 18. 
Campbell County: Highcliff, 4. 
Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 1. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 273 

Grainger County: Poor Valley Ridge, Clinch Mountains, 3 miles northeast of 

Rutledge, altitude 1,200 feet, 2. 
Hamilton County: Walden Ridge near Soddy, 3. 

Lincoln County: 3 miles south of Fayetteville, 1 ; 3 miles north of Fayetteville, 2. 
Shelby County: Arlington, 7. 

SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS LEUCOTIS Gapper: Northern Gray Squirrel 

Although not typical, the specimens from the southern Alleghenies 
and the Great Smoky Mountains in eastern Tennessee are referred to 
leucotis^ since they resemble those taken on the north in the moun- 
tainous sections of eastern West Virginia in the predominance of 
whitish-tipped or whitish-gray-tipped hairs in the tail as well as large 
hind feet. The measurements of two males are, respectively: Total 
length, 457, 452; tail, 220, 215; hind foot, 69, 68. For two females 
the measurements are, respectively: Total length, 451, 454; tail 203, 
205; hind foot, 67, 67. 

Gray squirrels appeared to be fairly numerous in eastern Tennes- 
see during 1937, although it was reported to Perrygo that they were 
rapidly diminishing in numbers. One gray squirrel was seen and 
another one collected in oak and beech woods on the Holston Moun- 
tains. Rhoads (1896, p. 196) reports that he had seen the skin of 
one taken at an altitude of 4,000 feet on Roan Mountain. Gray 
squirrels have been taken along Fighting Creek, at Greenbrier, on 
Horseshoe Mountain (about 3 miles east of Mount LeConte and 11/2 
miles north of Mount Kephart), and along the Ramsey Prong of 
Little Pigeon River in Sevier County, and also on Russell Field, 
Blount County (Komarek and Komarek, 1938, p. 153). Six were 
seen and two collected in mixed hardwood and pine woods on Big 
Frog Mountain. 

Cocke County: Snake Den Mountain, altitude 3,600 feet, 1 ; Inadu Knob, altitude 

5,000 feet, 1. 
Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Shady Valley, altitude 

3,800 feet, 1. 
Polk County: Sheeds Creek, Big Frog Mountain, 12 miles west of Copperhill, 

altitude 1,600 feet, 2. 

SCIURUS NIGER NEGLECTUS (Gray): Northern Fox Squirrel 

A few fox squirrels were reported to Perrygo to occur in the 
deciduous woods on the lower levels (altitude 1,500 to 2,000 feet) of 
Denny Mountains near Cosby, Cocke County. These are most likely 
referable to the northern race but can be only tentatively placed here 
until actual specimens are available for examination. These large, 
and generally white-bellied, long-tailed fox squirrels have been taken 
at two localities in Greenbrier County, W. Va., and should range 
southward in the southern Allegheny Mountains. 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

SCIURUS NIGER RUFIVENTER Geoff roy: Mississippi Valley Fox Squirrel 

According to Benjamin C. Miles (Rhoads, 1896, p. 194) the fox 
squirrel is always found in big timber but prefers the gum and cy- 
press trees in the swamps of Haywood and Lauderdale Counties. 
Fox squirrels appear to be most numerous in the northwestern corner 
of the State. During May 1937 one was seen near Union City, two 
were seen and one collected near Hornbeak, and one was collected on 
Green Island, Reelfoot Lake, Obion County, On returning to this 
county in October 1937, Perrj'go saw two and collected one 3 miles 
south of Samburg. Perrygo learned from local residents that fox 
squirrels were no longer very numerous in Fayette and Shelby Coun- 
ties. He was informed that none occur in the cypress swamp near 
Hickory Withe, Fayette County. Along the southern border of the 
State, a few fox squirrels were reported to occur in the woods south 
of Fayetteville, Lincoln County. 

The upperparts of the skins from Obion and Lincoln Counties 
appear much darker than those from Campbell County. This con- 
dition appears attributable in part to wear, since the black subapical 
bands are more conspicuous than the grayish or buffy-gray hair tips. 
Howell (1909, p. 59) referred the small series from near the soutliern 
end of Pine Mountains in Campbell County to Sciurus niger texianus. 
The ground color of the upperparts of these specimens is more 
rufous than those from Obion County. As noted by Howell, five of 
these specimens have white noses and the underparts are rufous and 
not whitish like those referred to negJectiis. Out of a series of 24 
skins of Scmnis niger negJectns from eastern West Virginia, 14 have 
whitish underparts, 9 have the white underparts more or less suffused 
with yellowish or light rufous, and 1 has the underparts black. 
Three in this series have whitish noses. Howell also states that "fox 
squirrels are becoming scarce in many parts of the South, and speci- 
mens are often difficult to obtain." 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 3 miles east of Jellico, 7. 
Lincoln County: 3 miles south of Fayetteville, 1. 

Obion County: Green Island. Reelfoot Lake. 1; Reelfoot Lake, 4 miles west of 
Hornbeak, 1 ; Reelfoot Lake, 3 miles south of Samburg, 1. 

GLAUCOMYS VOLANS SATURATUS Howell: Southeastern Flying Squirrel 

Flying squirrels are inhabitants of woods and generally reside in 
hollow trees, abandoned woodpecker holes, or cavities in stumps. Al- 
though rather active at night in good weather, they are seldom seen 
and frequently are common without their presence being generally 
known. In middle Tennessee, five were trapped in the deciduous 
woods along Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest of Crossville, Cumber- 
land County. A dead young one was seen caught in a wire fence 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 275 

at the same locality. Five were trapped in deciduous woods north of 
Waynesboro, Wayne County. Another one was trapped on an oak 
tree near Frankewing, Lincoln County. Howell (1918, p. 24) lists 
one specimen from Nashville, Davidson County. 

In the southwestern corner of the State, four were trapped in the 
cypress sw^amp near Hickory Withe, Fayette County. Local residents 
did not know that flying squirrels were present in this area. In the 
lowlands of Haywood County flying squirrels were common accord- 
ing to B. C. Miles (Rhoads, 1896, p. 197), and in 1890 he routed 30 
out of his martin box. Flying squirrels seemed to be less numerous 
in the northwestern corner of the State. Only two were trapped in 
Obion County, one on a beech tree south of Hornbeak and another 
one near Samburg. 

This southern race resembles volmifi rather closely in external meas- 
urements, and typical specimens are darker than the latter. jSIost of 
the Tennessee specimens referred to this race have lighter upperparts 
than those from Alabama listed by Howell (1918, p. 25) . The average 
measurements of eight males are as follows: Total length, 223.7 
(211-237); tail vertebrae, 97.2 (93-101); hind foot, 30.1 (29-31). 
For 11 females the average measurements are : Total length, 221.7 
(205-233); tail vertebrae, 94.5 (88-102); hind foot, 30.1 (^28-32). 

Cumberland County: 7 miles southwest of Crossville, 6. 
Fayette Coimty: Hickory Withe, 4. 
Lincoln County: 6 miles southwest of Frankewing, 1. 

Obion County: Reelfoot Lake. .3 miles south of Samburg. 1; Reelfoot Lake, 5 
miles west of Hornl^eak, 1. 

GLAUCOMYS VOLANS VOLANS (Linnaeus): Small Eastern Flying 

Squirrel 

These small flying squirrels appeared to be rather common in the 
Holston Mountains northeast of Shady Valley, for eight were taken 
in Schuyler traps nailed to the trunks of oak and beech trees at 
elevations of 3,000 to 3,800 feet. One was taken on the trmik of 
an oak tree at an altitude of 4,200 feet on Koan Mountain. 

Specimens from Greenbrier, Sevier County, and Eaioxville, Knox 
County, are listed by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 154). 

Detailed comparisons of the series from the mountainous section 
of eastern Tennessee with a comparable series from eastern West 
Virginia failed to reveal any valid differences. It should be noted, 
however, that relatively few specimens from the southern Alle- 
gheny Mountains were available when Howell (1918) revised this 
genus. In the whiter pelage, the toes and the fore parts of the 
feet are generally whitish in volans in contrast to the rather imi- 
formly dark feet of saturatus^ although the external measurements 
of this race do not differ appreciably from those of the latter. The 



276 PROCEEDINGS OE THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

average measurements of five males are as foUo^vs: Total length, 

217 (202-234) ; tail vertebrae, 91 (75-101) ; hind foot, 29.8 (28-31). 

For eight females the average measurements are: Total length, 

230.7 (210-241) ; tail vertebrae, 102.6 (95-116) ; hind foot, 30.5 

(29-32). 

Carter County: Watauga Valley, 2; Roan Mountain, altitude 4,100 feet, 1. 

Cocke County: Snake Den Mountain, altitude 4,700 feet, 1. 

Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 3 miles northeast of Shady Valley, alti- 
tudes 3,000 to 3,800 feet, 6; Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Shady 
Vallev, altitude 3,000 feet, 2. 

Polk County: Big Frog Mountain, 12 miles west of Copperhill, altitude 2,000 

feet, 1. 
Wayne County: Waynesboro, 8 miles north, 6. 

GLAUCOMYS SABRINUS FUSCUS Miller: West Virginia Flying Squirrel 

The trapping of a male of this gray-faced flying squirrel on Sep- 
tember 23, 1927, in a birch forest on the north slope of Roan Moun- 
tain, Carter County, extends the range of this race more than 200 
miles south of Cranberry Glades, W. Va. This specimen was caught 
in a large-size Schuyler trap nailed to the trunk of a large birch 
tree. No additional information has been secured in regard to the 
habits of tliis flying squirrel. 

Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitude 5,500 feet, 1. 

Family CASTORIDAE 

CASTOR CANADENSIS CAROLINENSIS Rhoads: Carolina Beaver 

When the French, Virginia, and Carolina traders first visited the 
Indian settlements in what is now Tennessee, beavers were generally 
distributed in the watercourses over the whole State. ^lany traders 
were bartering for pelts long before 1700, but it is quite unlikely 
that any marked depletion of the beaver stock took place until after 
1760. 

Lt. Henry Timberlake, on his trip down the Holston River dur- 
ing December 1761 from Kingsport, Sullivan County, to a large cave 
below the present site of Three Springs Ford, Hamblen County, 
commented on the abundance of beavers along that watercourse 
(Williams, 1927, p. 47). The same traveler stated that beavers were 
plentiful along the Little Tennessee near the mouth of Tellico River 
(Williams, 1927, p. 69). 

According to the verdict brought in by a jury and signed by An- 
drew Jackson, attorney for the State, the value of a beaver skin 
stolen in 1780 in Davidson County was given as 30 shillings (Lewis, 
1903, pp. 294-295). This is rather interesting, for under the act of 
March 31, 1785, of the General Assembly of the State of Franklin, 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 277 

the value of a "good, clean beaver skin" was fixed at 6 shillings 
(Ramsey, 1853, p. 297). The same Assembly fixed the salary of each 
county clerk at 300 beaver skins, the clerk of the House of Commons 
at 200 beaver skins, and members of the Assembly at 3 beaver skins, 
. beginning January 1, 1788 (Williams, 1924, p. 215). 

According to an entry in the journal of Andre Michaux (Williams, 
1928, p. 335) under date of June 21, 1795, beavers were present in the 
vicinity of Nashville. Williams (1930, p. 96) states that in 1819 
beavers were still present in western Tennessee, without giving any 
definite localities. 

Rhoads (1896, pp. 192-193) examined a beaver house in the cypress 
swamp bordering Reelfoot Lake, about 3 miles west of Samburg, 
Obion County, and was told by his guide, H. B. Young, that there 
were 20 beavers in that district. B. C. Miles informed Rhoads that 
he knew of an inhabited beaver house within 9 miles of Brownsville, 
Haywood County. 

Under the pen name "Will" (1884, p. 106), a resident of Savannah, 
Hardin Count}', wrote on February 11, 1884, as follows: "A few 
foxes and otters, several beavers, and multitudes of raccoons have 
been trapped here this winter. There are parties who make good 
wages trapping, as minks and 'coons are very abundant." 

Family CRICETIDAE 

REITHRODONTOMYS HUMULIS HUMULTS (Audubon and Bachraan): 

Eastern Harvest Mouse 

Although this harvest mouse is known at present from only one 
locality in the south-central part of the State, it is quite likely that 
it ranges over most of middle Tennessee, It seems to prefer old fields 
and tangled brier patches bordering cultivated fields, especially areas 
where there is an abundance of matted grass, broomsedge, or weeds. 
One was trapped at Giles in a cotton-rat runway in a pasture over- 
grown with broomsedge. 

Six specimens are recorded by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 
154) as having been taken in Sevier County in broomsedge areas 
around apple trees; another specimen was trapped in a similar field 
along Laurel Branch in Greenbrier. 

Giles County: 6 miles east of Pulaski, 1. 

PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS BAIRDII (Hoy and Kennicott): Prairie 

White-footed Mouse 

The discovery by Perrygo and Lingebach of this short-tailed white- 
footed mouse in Fayette County has extended its range in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley at least 250 miles south of previously known Illinois 
records. Seven were trapped alongside of logs in a drained cypress 

10757»— 38 3 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 86 

swamp near Hickory Withe. Inasmuch as the Campbell County 
specimens were taken near one of the smaller tributaries of the 
upper Cumberland River, this mouse may occur elsewhere along 
areas drained by that river. 

For three males from Hickory Withe the measurements are, re- 
spectively: Total length, 153, 145, 141; tail, CO, 61, 59; hind foot, 
18.5, 19, 18. The measurements of two females from Hickory Withe 
are, respectively: Total length, 166, 137; tail 67, 56; hind foot, 19, 19. 

Campbell County: La FoUette, 2. 
Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 7. 

PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS NUBITERRAE Rhoads: Cloudland White- 
footed Mouse 

The ran"-e of this mouse so far as known is restricted to the eastern 
part of the State, occurring chiefly at higher altitudes of the southern 
Alleghenies. Though most plentiful in forests of the Canadian 
Zone, they frequently occur at lower altitudes in rhododendron 
thickets bordering cold mountain streams. Contrary to the assump- 
tion of Rhoads (1896, p. 188) that the Cloudland deer mouse was 
"exclusively a dweller of the balsam or spruce belt," which crowns 
the summits of the southern Allegheny Mountains, it is now Imowii 
to range downward into the hemlock timber as low as 2,700 feet. 

Of the 14 taken during July 1937 by Perrygo and Lhigebach near 
Shady Valley, 4 came from a hemlock and rhododendron bog behind 
camp (altitude 2,900 feet). The remainder were caught either among 
moss-covered boulders in a dense hemlock forest on the southeastern 
slope of Holston Mountains or in large-size Schuyler traps set for 
flying squirrels on the trunks of beech and oak trees (altitude 3,800 
feet). These mice were found on the west slope of Roan Mountain 
in spruce and fir timber as low as 5,000 feet and up into the balsam 
fir forest at 6.300 feet, chiefly where there was a thick undergTOwth 
of rhododendron. Near the foot of the west slope of Low Gap, these 
mice were trapped at an altitude of 2,700 feet around the moss- 
covered roots of hemlock trees. The sun never penetrates in this 
heavy hemlock timber, and the cool air may explain their presence at 
this low level. On Inadu Knob these mice were trapj^ed at an altitude 
of 4,500 feet in a dense rhododendron undergrowth in hemlock and 
spruce woods and also at an elevation of 5,700 feet in birch and 
spruce. They are somewhat arboreal, for the majority of those 
collected on Inadu Knob were taken in large-size Schuyler traps 
nailed to trunks of spruce trees about 6 feet above the base. On 
the west slope of Mount Guyot and likewise on Old Black Mountain, 
these mice were caught in runways in the moss growing around 
the roots of balsam fir. On Snake Den Mountain, they were taken 
at an altitude of 3,700 feet along the banks of a swift mountain stream 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 279 

in a dense growth of rhododendron in oak, birch, maple, and hemlock 
woods. At 4,500 feet they were trapped between the rocks around 
the roots of hemlock trees. Komarek and Komarek (1938, pp. 154r- 
155) trapped this mouse in spruce forests along the divide of the 
Great Smoky Mountains and at lower elevations in shaded ravines 
and forested areas with dense crown. They list specimens from the 
following localities in Sevier County : Buck Fork, Chapman Prong, 
Eagle Roclis Prong, Ramsey Prong, and AValker Prong of Little 
Pigeon River, Brushy Mountain, Grassy Patch (on Alum Cave Creek, 
2 miles east of The Chunneys), Greenbrier, Mount Guyot, and Silers 
Bald. Specimens were taken also at Russell Field and Thunderhead 
in Blount County. 

This white-footed mouse may be recognized readily by its long 
penicillate tail. The average measurements of 10 males from Inadu 
Knob (2), Snake Den Mountain (2), Low Gap (1), and Roan Moun- 
tain (5) are as follows: Total length, 180.5 (174-185); tail, 92.5 
(87-98) ; hind foot, 20.1 (20-21). For 12 females fi-om Indian Knob 
(3), Low Gap (1), Snake Den Mountain (4), Roan Mountain (4) the 
averag-e measurements are as follows: Total length, 182.9 (170-196) ; 
tail, 91 (76-98) ; hind foot, 20.45 (19.5-22). 

Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitudes 5,000 to 6,300 feet, 11. 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 414 miles southeast of Cosby, altitudes 2,700 to 3,400 
feet, 6 ; Inadu Kuob, altitudes 4,500 to 5,700 feet, 13 ; Mount Guyot, altitude 
6,300 feet, 1 ; Old Black Mountain, altitude 6,300 feet, 1 ; Snake Den Moun- 
tain, altitudes 3,700 to 4,500 feet, 11. 

Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 3 miles northeast of Shady Valley, alti- 
tude 3,000 feet, 4; Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Shady Valley, 
altitude 3,800 feet, 5; Shady Valley, altitude 2.900 feet, 5. 

Sevier County: Indian Gap, altitude 5.200 feet, 2. 

Sullivan County: Holston Mountains, head of Fishdam Creek, 1. 

PEROMYSCUS LEUCOPUS LEUCOPUS (Rafinesque) : White-footed Deer 

Mouse 

This white-footed mouse is generally found in upland woods but 
occurs also along the borders of poorly kept cultivated fields, espe- 
cially w'here the hedgerows or fences are a tangled mass of bushes 
and briers. At higher elevations it has been found living in crevices 
in rock ledges. In the vicinity of Samburg, Rhoads (1896, p. 187) 
fomid that these mice "seemed to fi*equent the intermediate grounds 
between the overflowed bottoms and the bluff." Osgood (1909, p. 
117) lists five specimens from Samburg, Obion County. Five were 
caught by Perrygo and Lingebach in wet boggy places in the decidu- 
ous woods near Reelfoot Lake, Obion Coimty. Rhoads (1896, p. 187) 
trapped this mouse at Raleigh, Shelby County, and at Belleview, 
Davidson County. They were rather numerous in sparse second- 
growth deciduous woods on the dry hillside north of Waynesboro, 



280 PROCEEDIIs^GS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 80 

Wayne County. Others were trapped in rock ledges in the woods 
along Birds Creek, south of Crossville, and in mixed pine and hard- 
woods on the Cumberland Plateau near Melvine. Near Pulaski and 
also at Frankewing, Perrygo trapped this mouse during November 
1937 in patches of cacti growing on rocks in clumps of scrub cedar. 

The average measurements of 12 males from Waynesboro (3), 
Frankewing (1), Crossville (2), Melvine (1), Big Sandy (1), and 
Reelfoot Lake (4) are as follows: Total length, 162.4 (152-171); 
tail, 71 (59-79); hind foot, 20 (19.5-21). For 7 females from 
Waynesboro (2), Pulaski (1), Big Sandy (2), Clarkesville (1), and 
Reelfoot Lake (1) the average measurements are: Total length, 170.5 
(156-181) ; tail, 73.28 (67-83) ; hind foot, 20.2 (20-22). 

Anderson County: Briceville, 1, 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 9. 

Cumberland County: Birds Creek, 7 miles southwest of Crossville, 2; Mehine, L 

Davidson County: Nashville, 5. 

Giles County: 10 miles east of Pulaski, 1. 

Henderson County: Lexington, 2. 

Houston County: Danville, 1. 

Lincoln County: 6 miles east of Frankewing, 1. 

Montgomery County: Clarksville, 4; Duubars Cave, 1. 

Obion County: Samburg, 1; Reelfoot Lake, 5 miles west of Ilornbeak, 5. 

Selby County: Arlington, 4. 

Wayne County: 8 miles north of Waynesboro, 6. 

PEROMYSCUS LEUCOPUS NOVEBORACENSIS (Fischer): Northern 
White-footed Mouse, or Deer Mouse 

The specimens from eastern Tennessee are not typical, although 
they do not diflfer appreciably from those taken in the mountainous 
section of eastern West Virginia. Two were taken on June 15, 1937, 
in a hemlock and rhododendron bog behind the camp at Shady Val- 
ley. At an altitude of 3,800 feet on the Holston Mountains, 4 miles 
northeast of Shady Valley, one was trapped in a large-size Schuyler 
trap nailed to an oak tree for flying squirrels. 

For two males from Watauga Valley the measurements are, re- 
spectively: Total length, 161, 157: tail, 69, 66; hind foot, 20, 19.5. 
For two females from Johnson County and one female from Watauga 
Valley, the measurements are, respectively: Total length, 186, 172, 
176; tail, 83, 83, 76; hind foot, 21.5, 22, 20. Komarek and Komarek 
(1938, p. 155) have commented on the difficulty of identifying sub- 
specifically the white-footed mice of this area and refer specimens 
taken in Sevier County along Fish Camp Prong of Little River, at 
Greenbrier, and on Porters Flats provisionally to Peromyscus leuco- 
pus leucopus. 

Carter County: Watauga Valley, 5. 

Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 4 miles northeast of Shady Valley, alti- 
tude 3,800 feet, 1 ; Shady Valley, altitude 2,900 feet, 2. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 281 

PEROMYSCUS GOSSYPINUS MEGACEPHALUS (Rhoads): Rhoads's 
Cotton Mouse, or Cane Mouse 

The cotton mouse may occur in suitable localities throughout 
western and middle Tennessee. It seems to show some preference for 
cliffs and rocky bluffs, especially caves and crevices, and is found also 
in brushy thickets and timbered uplands, as well as in swampy areas. 
Rhoads (1896, p. 189) found this mouse abundant in deciduous 
woods with dense underbrush in the lowest and wettest parts of 
overflowed lands bordering Reelfoot Lake near Samburg, Obion 
County. In the vicinity of Big Sandy, G. A. Coleman trapped cot- 
ton mice in timbered bottomlands. The same collector caught others 
in traps set under rocks near the mouth of Dunbars Cave near 
Clarksville. 

Cotton mice seem to prefer open woodlands and the growths of 
brush bordering old cultivated fields in the Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park, according to Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 156). 
Specimens were collected by their field party at Greenbrier and along 
Fighting Creek near Gatlinburg in Sevier County. 

This large-footed mouse resembles leucopus in general coloration 
but attains a somewhat larger size. For six males from Arlington 
(4) and Duck River (2) the average measurements are as follows: 
Total length, 189.4 (179-200) ; tail 84.5 (78-90) ; hind foot, 24.08 
(23-25). The average measurements of nine females from Arlington 
(3), Big Sandy (1), Clarksville (4), and Duck River (1) are as 
follows: Total length, 190.7 (170-205); tail, 83.44 (78-92); hind 
foot, 23.55 (23-25). 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 3. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Humphreys County: Duck River, 6 miles southwest of Waverly, 3. 

Lawrence County: Lawrenceburg, 1. 

Montgomery County: Clarksville, 7. 

Shelby County: Arlington, 9. 

PEROMYSCUS NUTTALLI NUTTALLI (Harlan): Northern Golden Mouse 

The golden mouse may be recognized by its soft, thick pelage and 
heavily furred underparts, the white of the latter being suffused with 
ochraceous. At an altitude of 3,000 feet in a dense hemlock forest 
on the southeast slope of the Holston Mountains, golden mice were 
caught by Perry go and Lingebach in traps set among moss-covered 
boulders. They have been taken along the borders of broomsedge 
fields, brier patches, and old fences near Fighting Creek, Greenbrier, 
and Porters Flats in Sevier County (Komarek and Komarek, 1938, 
p. 15G). In middle Tennessee they may occur in swampy woodland, 
as well as on brushy hillsides and in dry thickets bordering timber. 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ]SrATIOX-\L MUSEUM vol.86 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Carter County: Koan Mountain Stalion, altitude 2,500 feet, 1. 

Johnson County: Holston Mou)itains, 3 miles northeast of Shady Valley, altitude 

3,000 feet, 4. 
Knox County: Knoxville, 1. 

ORYZOMYS PALUSTRIS PALUSTRIS (Harlan) : Rice Rat 

The lice rat frequents wet marshy areas in fields, wooded swamps, 
grassy bottomlands, and occasionally the edges of cultivated fields. 
A female trapped by A. H. Howell on September 13, 1908, near 
Lawrenceburg contained four embryos. 

Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 156) record the finding of a 
dead rice rat on the sill of an old barn near a marshy creek in 
Greenbrier (altitude 2,-200 feet), Sevier County. Specimens from 
three widely separated localities indicate that rice rats may occur 
in suitable localities over most of the State west of the mountains 
of eastern Tennessee. 

Campbell County: HighclilT, 1. 
Lawrence County: Lawrenceburg, 2. 
Shelby County: Arlington, 1. 

SIGMODON HISPIDUS HISPIDUS Say and Ord: Eastern Cotton Rat 

The cotton rat makes runways in old fields overgrown with gras^ 
and weeds, under brush and weeds growing along borders of culti- 
vated fields, as well as in marshes. Near Hickory Withe, Perrygo 
trapped cotton rats in runways under a scraggly hedgerow border- 
ing a cottonfield. Cotton rats were apparently abundant in the 
vicinity of Pulaski during November 1937. Numerous rtmways 
were noted in an abandoned field covered with matted grass and 
broomsedge and likewise on a nearby dry hillside. Cotton rats 
were taken in 1931 and 1932 by Komarek and Komarek (1938, pp. 
156-157) in a field overgrown with broomsedge near Greenbrier 
(altitude 1,700 feet), Sevier County. They state that these rats 
occur also near Knoxville, Knox County. 

Hamilton County: Soddy [Rathbiirn Station]. 1. 
Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 3. 
Giles County: 1 mile east of Pulaski, 5. 
Lincoln County: 6 miles east of Frankewing, 1. 

NEOTOMA FLORIDANA HAEMATOREIA Howell: Blood Mountain 

Wood Rat 

The range of this wood rat in Tennessee seems to be restricted to 
the eastern Great Smoky Mountains. Arthur Stupka, park natu- 
ralist, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, submitted to the 
U. S. Biological Survey for identification two specimens taken 3 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 283 

miles above Townsend, on Little Kiver, Blount County. These 
specimens were caught, respectively, at 1,200 and 1,400 feet altitude. 
The type specimen was collected by Dr. Francis Harper near the 
summit of Blood Mountain, altitude 4,400 feet, Lumpkin County, 
Ga. A. H. Howell in 1931 trapped an immature individual of this 
race at Highlands, Macon County, N. C, about 40 miles south- 
southeast of the Tennessee line. 

NEOTOMA FLORIDANA ILLINOENSIS Howell: Illinois Wood Rat 

This wood rat may inhabit the bluffs and swamp bottomlands 
bordering the Mississippi River. Ehoads (1896, p. 192) received 
information from hunters that some form of wood rat occurred in 
southwestern Tennessee. 

NEOTOMA PENNSYLVANICA Stone: Allegheny Wood Rat 

The recorded occurrences of this wood rat are all east of the north- 
ward-flowing portion of the Tennessee River, but no specimens, so 
far as known, have been taken in eastern Tennessee. Rhoads (1896, 
p. 192) states "that this large mountain-dwelling rat \Neotom.(i 
magister] is found in the cliffs of Roan Mountain and other peaks 
of the Southern Alleghenies," although he cites no definite Tennessee 
records. Howell (1909, p. 62) reported that there were numerous 
signs of wood rats in the rocky bluffs on Walden Ridge, and he found 
signs also in the bluffs along a creek near Lawrenceburg. 

Hamilton County: Walden Ridge, near Soddy (3 miles southwest of Rathburn), 

10. 
Humphreys County: Duck River, 2 miles southwest of Waverly, 2. 
Lawrence County: Lawrenceburg, 1. 
Montgomery County: Clarksville, 1. 

SYNAPTOMYS COOPERI STONEI Rhoads: Stone's Mouse Lemming 

This mouse occurs in sphagnum bogs, bluegrass pastures, old 
abandoned fields, and hillsides. Rhoads (1896, p. 183) trapped "a 
lately nursing female and five young * * * in a small springy 
place on the Carolina side of the summit of Roan Mountain." 
Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 157) stated that these lemming mice 
were taken in grassy patches on the mountains of Sevier County at 
the following localities: Buck Fork and Roaring Fork of Little 
Pigeon River, Greenbrier, Little River (altitude 2,900 feet), and 
Silers Bald. It was found also on the grassy bald known as Spence 
Field (altitude 5,000 feet), about 1 mile west of Thunderhead 
Mountain, Blount County. 

Hawkins County: Rogersville, 1. 
Sevier County: Indian Gap, 1. 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM von. 86 

CLETHRIONOMYS CAROLINENSIS (Merriam): Carolina Red-backed 
Mouse, or Wood Vole 

The recorded occurrences of this red-backed mouse are all in the 
eastern mountainous portions of the State. The vertical range here 
extends from about 3,000 to 6,500 feet. In the Holston Mountains 
northeast of Shady Valley these mice were trapped in the moss cov- 
ering the roots of trees and rotten logs in hemlock timber. On Roan 
Mountain, Mount Guyot, Old Black Mountain, and Inadu Knob red- 
backed mice were caught in traps set in clumps of moss around roots 
of balsam fir. Rhoads (1896, p. 186) writes, "Contrary to my expec- 
tations, the wood vole of Roan Mountain was not found in wet places 
but seemed to prefer rather open runways among the fallen logs, 
moss and ferns on the borders of the forest * * *. Such situa- 
tions were preferred to the depths of the forest, owing to the variety 
of edible grasses and weeds only found in clearings." Red-backed 
mice were trapped by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 157) in the 
humid forests as well as around isolated shrubs on the grassy balds 
at elevations above 3,000 feet. They list specimens from the follow- 
ing localities in Sevier County : Buck Fork and Chapman Prong of 
Little Pigeon River and Mount Guyot. It was also taken in Blount 
County at Spence Field, a grassy bald located about 1 mile west 
of Thunderhead Mountain. 

Carter County: Roan Mountain, altitude 6,000 to 0,300 feet, 6. 

Cocke County: Inadu Knob, altitude 5,700 feet, 4; Mount Guyot, altitude 6,300 

to 6,500 feet, 9 ; Old Black Mountain, altitude 0,300 feet, 6. 
Johnson County: Holston Mountains, 3 miles northeast of Shady Valley, altitude 

3,000 feet, 6. 
Sevier County: Indian Gap, altitude 5,200 feet, 10. 

MICROTUS PENNSYLVANICUS PENNSYLVANICUS (Ord): 
Pennsylvania Meadow Mouse, or Vole 

There are no specimens of this vole from Tennessee in the National 
Museum collection. Rhoads (1896, p. 185) stated that he felt justi- 
fied in including this mouse among the mammals listed for Tennessee 
since "on the summit of Roan Mountain two specimens of the meadow 
vole were secured in a little 'bulrush' swamp below Cloudland hotel, 
about 100 yards from the Tennessee line in Mitchell County, N. Caro- 
lina." Furthermore, runways similar "to those in which the Mitchell 
County specimens were taken were observed in swampy ground near 
the summit of the mountain in Carter County, Tennessee, during my 
ascent thither from the Doe River ravine." Perrygo trapped without 
success at this same locality from September 14 to 22, 1937. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 285 

MICROTUS CHROTORRHINUS CAROLINENSIS Komarek: Smoky 
Mountain Rock Vole 

This vole was found by Komarek (1932, pp. 155, 158) on "the 
wooded slopes above 3,000 feet altitude of the Great Smoky Moun- 
tains," Sevier County, Tenn., and Swain County, N. C. Two were 
trapped at an elevation of approximately 4,300 feet on the Dry Sluice 
Trail near the divide (Mount Collins), Sevier County. The type 
locality is about 5 miles north of Smokemont, on a tributary of 
Bradley Fork, a small branch of the Oconalufty River, altitude 3,200 
feet, Swain County, N. C. Komarek reports that these voles were 
trapped "near rotted and moss-overgrown logs resting on rocky 
terrain, near rhododendron thickets," in a "rather open forest having 
a dense crown." All were caught within 50 yards of small mountain 
streams. Subsequent field work by Komarek and Komarek (1938, 
p. 158) revealed that this rock vole was most plentiful around mossy 
rocks and logs in the humid forests and in rock outcrops on the 
grassy balds. They list specimens from the following localities in 
Sevier County : Buck Fork, Chapman Prong, and Eagle Rocks Prong 
of Little Pigeon River, Sawtooth Mountain (on the Tennessee-North 
Carolina boundary line, 5 or 6 miles northeast of Newfound Gap), 
Silers Bald, and Thunderhead. 

MICROTUS OCHROGASTER (Wagner): Frame, or Buflf-belUed, 

Meadow Mouse 

A small series of these voles was trapped by Perrygo and Linge- 
bach during April 1937 in runways in an abandoned cloverfield, 
overgrown with broomsedge and weeds, near Reelfoot Lake. A. H. 
Howell collected three of these mice during July 1910 near Clarks- 
ville. 

Lake County: Reelfoot Lake, 3 miles north of Tiptonville, 8. 
Montgomery County: Clarksville, 3. 

PITYMYS PINETORUM AURICULARIS (Bailey): Bluegrass Vole, 
or Southern Pine Mouse 

This pine mouse shows some preference for the bluegrass barrens 
of Kentucky and northern Tennessee, digging tunnels in the edges 
of old fields and open grassy places. Underground burrows made 
by these mice are found also along the borders of cultivated fields, 
meadows, and pastures adjoining woods. Rhoads (1896, pp. 185- 
186) trapped them near Samburg in Obion County, Raleigh in Shelby 
County, Belleview in Davidson County, and Harriman in Roane 
County. Near Hickory Withe, Perrygo trapped one pine mouse 

107573—38 4 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

in a runway in heavy matted bluegrass on low ground bordering a 
cottonfield. A pine vole taken June 17, 1937, at Norris, Anderson 
County, was submitted for identification by Dr. A. H. Cahn. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 2 ; La FoUette, 1. 
Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 1. 

PITYMYS PINETORUM SCALOPSOIDES (Audubon and Bachraan): 
Northern Pine Mouse 

The northern pine mouse is mainly a forest vole and is usually 
found along the margins of wooded tracts, but it spreads into dense 
forests during periods of abnormal abundance. It has been trapped 
on rocky hill slopes, in dense woods where there is a thick carpet of 
matted leaves, at low altitudes along the moist banks of mountain 
streams, and in sphagnum swamps. In eastern Temiessee it has been 
caught also along edges of cultivated fields. Komarek and Komarek 
(1938, p. 159) state that pine mice were taken in tunnels in an apple 
orchard and also in a marshy area bordering woods at Greenbrier, 
Sevier County, and under matted leaves in open deciduous woods at 
Cades Cove, Blount County. 

Carter County: Watauga Valley, 1. 
Hawkins County: Rogersville, 1. 

ONDATRA ZIBETHICA ZIBETHICA (Linnaeus): Muskrat 

The common muskrat formerly occurred in most of the streams and 
ponds of Tennessee. At the time the early traders and trappers 
penetrated into the State, pelts of muskrats apparently were not an 
important item for barter. No reference is made to them in pub- 
lished accounts until 1788, when the General Assembly of the State 
of Franklin fixed the compensation for a justice in signing a war- 
rant at one muskrat skin (Williams, 1924, p. 215). Andre Michaux, 
while residing at Nashville in 1795, listed (Williams, 1928, p. 335) 
the muskrat as occurring in the vicinity. Rhoads (1896, pp. 186-187) 
concluded that the food of the muskrat in Tennessee consisted very 
largely of mussels. In a fish dam on the Holston River, near its 
junction with the French Broad River [Knox County], Rhoads found 
that mussel shells had been wedged in among the rocks by the 
muskrats. 

Local residents of Fayette and Shelby Counties reported to Per- 
ry go that muskrats were getting scarce since the drainage of the 
cypress swamps. A few muskrats are trapped each year in the 
marshes around Reelfoot Lake. Perrygo and Schaefer found that 
they were fairly common during October 1937 along the Cumberland 
River and some of its smaller tributaries west of Indian Mound. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 287 

Those collected were trapped in slides on the river banks and no 
houses were seen. A few occur along Clinch River near Bean Station 
[11 miles northeast of Rutledge], Grainger County. Local residents 
did not believe that any muskrats were left around Roan Mountain 
Station. Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 159) report that a musk- 
rat was trapped on Little Pigeon River, 2 miles below Greenbrier, 
Sevier County. 

According to Howell (1909, p. 63) muskrats were reported to be 
numerous near Briceville, Anderson County, and common near High- 
clifF, Campbell County. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 5. 

Carter County: Roan Mountain Station, 1 ; Watauga Valley, 1. 

Stewart County: Cumberland River, 2 miles west of Indian Mound, 3. 

Family MURIDAE 

RATTUS RATTUS RATTUS (Linnaeus): Black Rat 

The black rat appears to have been introduced at an early date into 
Tennessee. It may be recognized by its slender body, long tail, and 
blackish coloration. B. C. Miles, of Brownsville, Haywood County, 
wrote Rhoads (1896, p. 192) that black rats were formerly present 
in western Tennessee but that he had seen none for 20 years. Koma- 
rek and Komarek (1938, p. 159) state that the black rat is abundant 
around barns and that three were trapped at Greenbrier, Sevier 
County. 

RATTUS RATTUS ALEXANDRINUS (Geoffrey): Roof Rat 

This slender, long-tailed rat, with whitish or yellowish underparts, 
prefers the attics of houses or the roofs of barns and sheds. A male 
trapped by W. J. Millsaps on February 15, 1910, at Soddy, Hamilton 
County, is the sole record for the State. 

Hamilton County: Soddy, 1. 

RATTUS NORVEGICUS (Erxleben) : Norway, Brown, or Bam Rat 

The Norway rat is a destructive pest in most of the larger cities 
of Tennessee. Although it shows a decided preference for buildings 
in towns, it is frequently found around farm sheds in which stores of 
feed or grain are kept. This rat also digs burrows in the banks of 
farm ditches and streams and is found along marshy areas bordering 
cultivated fields. One specimen was trapped, according to Komarek 
and Komarek (1938, p. 159), at an elevation of about 3,800 feet on 
Eagle Rocks Prong of Little Pigeon River, and another at Green- 
brier, Sevier County. 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.88 

MUS MUSCULUS MUSCULUS (Linnaeus): House Mouse 

The house mouse, a native of Europe, appears to be abundant and 
generally distributed throughout the State. As its name implies it 
shows some preference for buildings, but it occurs also in the wild 
state in abandoned and cultivated fields. Perrygo and Lingebach 
trapped this mouse in cotton-rat runways in broomsedge and weeds 
bordering a cottonfield on the edge of the cypress swamp near Hick- 
ory Withe, at least half a mile from the nearest house. Near Pike- 
ville one was caught in runways in weeds and matted grass on the 
edge of a cloverfield. Another mouse was caught in cotton-rat run- 
ways in an abandoned field overgrown with broomsedge 6 miles east 
of Pulaski. At Shady Valley four were trapped in grass and weeds 
around the edge of a wheatfield, quarter of a mile from the nearest 
buildings. Two were trapped in moss in hemlock woods at an eleva- 
tion of 2,700 feet at the base of the northwest slope of Low Gap, 4y2 
miles southeast of Cosby. Three specimens taken at Greenbrier, 
Sevier County, are listed by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 159). 
Rhoads (1896, p. 192) reports that he had specimens of house mice 
from Raleigh, Shelby County, and Roan Mountain. 

Benton County: Bifr Sandy, 2. 

Bledsoe County: Pikeville, 2 miles north, 1. 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 4^/4 miles southeast of Oosby, 2. 

Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 2. 

Giles County: 6 miles east of Pulaski, 1. 

Johnson County: Shady Valley, altitude 2,900 feet, 4. 

Family ZAPODIDAE 

ZAPUS HUDSONIUS AMERICANUS (Barton): Carolinian Jumping Mouse 

This jmnping mouse has been taken in the mountains of western 
North Carolina within the limits of Great Smoky Mountains Na- 
tional Park. Arthur Stupka, park naturalist, lent a male found 
hibernating November 7, 1935, by Granville Calhoun on Noland 
Creek, altitude 2,800 feet, Swain County, N. C. The measurements 
of this specimen are as follows: Total length, 190.5; tail, 114.3; hind 
foot, 31.75. 

NAPAEOZAPUS INSIGNIS ROANENSIS (Preble): Roan Mountain Wood- 
land Jumping Mouse 

The woodland jumping mouse is found most frequently in dense 
woods with little or no underbrush, usually near streams. A. H. 
Howell trapped two of these mice at Indian Gap. Perrygo and 
Lingebach caught one on a rotten log in open hemlock timber with 
dense crown on the west slope of Low Gap, 41/2 miles southeast of 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS KELLOGG 289 

Cosby. Woodland jumping mice were trapped by Komarek and 
Komai'ek (1938, p. 160) in the humid forest along Eagle Rocks Prong 
of Little Pigeon River, Sevier County. The measurements of the 
three females listed below are, respectively: Total length, 185, 221, 
233; tail, 120, 133, 142; hind foot, 29, 29, 29. 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 4^2 miles southeast of Cosby, altitude 2,700 feet, 1. 
Sevier County: Indian Gap, altitude 5,200 feet, 2. 

Family ERETHIZONTIDAE 

ERETHIZON DORSATUM DORSATUM (Linnaeus): American Porcupine 

No mention of the porcupine within the State of Tennessee has 
been found in the accounts of early explorers. Mercer (1897, pp. 42, 
58, fig. 2), however, found the dried feces and quills of a porcupine 
in Bigbone Cave near Elroy, Van Buren County, Tenn. During the 
recent rearrangement of the mammal collection in the National Mu- 
seum, a left mandible of an immature porcupine labeled as coming 
from a "Tennessee cave," but with no other data, was found. 

Family LEPORIDAE 

LEPUS AMERICANUS VIRGINIANUS Harlan: Virginia Varying Hare 

Information received from local residents suggests that varying 
hares were formerly present in the mountainous district extending 
from Mount Guyot to White Rock, Cocke County. These residents 
inquired if Perrygo had seen any of the rabbits that turned white in 
winter and made such long jumps when chased in the snow by dogs. 
He was told that they were usually "jumped" fi'om rhododendron 
thickets near the summits of the peaks. From repeated inquiries, 
Perrygo learned that these rabbits were very rare now but formerly 
were often seen during winter months by local hunters. 

SYLVILAGUS FLORIDANUS MALLURUS (Thomas): Eastern Cottontail 

The eastern cottontail ranges westward into the valleys, foothills, 
and even the higher mountain slopes of eastern Tennessee. It is 
abundant and generally distributed over most of middle and western 
Tennessee and occurs along some of the smaller tributaries of the 
upper Cumberland River drainage area. It is most abundant in 
abandoned farm fields overgrown with broomsedge, weeds, and brush, 
brier patches, and the thickets bordering deciduous woods and small 
streams. Although largely nocturnal, when routed during the day 
from their "form" in some tussock or grass and clump of weeds these 
rabbits run with surprising speed, twisting and doubling across the 
field or thicket until they reach shelter in a thicket or hollow log. 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

One of these cottontails was collected by Perrygo and Lingebach 
at the edge of a hemlock bog behmd the camp at Shady Valley. At 
an elevation of 2,700 feet on the west slope of Low Gap, 4^2 miles 
southeast of Cosby, one was shot in a rhododendron thicket in hem- 
lock woods. A cottontail with short ears, but with pelage coloration 
and skull similar to that of malhtms, was caught at an elevation of 
6,300 feet on Koan Mountain in a large-size Schuyler trap set by 
Perrygo and Schaefer in a rhododendron thiclvet in a balsam-fir 
forest. Cottontails were reported as numerous in the open woods 
and broorasedge fields near Greenbrier, Sevier County, and 14 were 
collected by Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 160). 

Writing in 1896, Khoads (p. 182) stated that this cottontail was 
so abundant in the woods and thickets bordering the canebrakes along 
the Mississippi River that it had almost become a nuisance. Near 
Brownsville, Haywood County, B. C. Miles wrote Rhoads that cotton- 
tails had doubled in numbers during the preceding 20 years and that 
he could recall parties of hunters that had killed 100 in a single day's 
hunt during February 1895. In the vicinity of Hickory Withe, Ar- 
lington, Eads, and Hornbeak, in the western part of the State, these 
cottontails were taken in broomsodge and brier patches on abandoned 
fields. At Crab Orchard cottontails were found in laurel thickets in 
deciduous woods. One cottontail was collected north of Indian 
Mound in dense deciduous woods with relatively little underbrush. 
Bangs (1894, p. 409) records three specimens from Trenton, Gibson 
County. Specimens from Samburg, Obion County, and Raleigh, 
Shelby County, are listed by Rhoads (1896, p. 183). * 

Nelson (1909, pp. 174-176) referred specimens taken at Arling- 
ton, Big Sandy, and Danville during June 1892 to S. f. alacer. All 
these have a much richer suffusion of rusty reddish over the entire 
upper parts, the obliteration of the grayish rump patch, and decidedly 
rusty legs. Nevertheless, all the cottontails in the collection received 
since 1900 have a somewhat different general coloration, being much 
lighter and more grayish buff. Howell (1921, p. 70), on the basis 
of more abundant material than that at the disposal of Nelson, as- 
signed the form ranging through the South Atlantic States to S. f. 
'iimllurus and remarked that "they agree very closely with this race 
in color and differ only in having slightly smaller audital bullae.'^ 
The series of cottontails from Tennessee is quite unsatisfactory, inas- 
much as relatively few of the specimens have the fresh fall pelage. 
It is likely that a more adequate series will show that cottontails 
from the eastern mountainous portion of the State should be re- 
ferred to mallurus and that those occurring in middle and western 
Tennessee are either meamsi or intermediates between maHunis and 
mearnsi. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 291 

Benton County: Big Sandy, 2. 

Campbell County: Highcliff, 1. 

Carter County: Watauga Valley, 2; Roau Mountain, altitude 6,300 feet, 1. 

Cocke County: Low Gap, 4% miles southeast of Cosby, altitude 2,700 feet, 2. 

Cumberland County: Crab Orchard, 1. 

Fayette County: Hickory Withe, 1. 

Hamilton County: Walden Ridge, near Soddy, 1. 

Houston County: Danville, 1. 

Humphreys County: South of .Tohnsonville, 2. 

Jolmson County: Shady Valley, altitude 2,900 feet, 1. 

Knox County: Knoxville, 1. 

Obion County: Hornbeak, 1. 

Shelby County: Arlington, 2; Eads, 1. 

Stewart County: 8 miles north of Indian Mound, 1. 

Sullivan County: Holston Mountains, head of Fishdam Creek, 1. 

SYLVILAGUS TRANSITIONALIS (Bangs): New England Cottontail 

No specimens of the New England cottontail taken in the State 
are listed by Nelson (1909, p. 199). Kegarding its possible occur- 
rence in the Great Smoky Mountains, Bangs wrote Rhoads (1896, 
p. 183) that he had "examined a large series last winter from Roan 
Mountain, and they were all true sylvaticK^'' \^=^Sylvilagus floridanus 
7nallurus\. Inasmuch as Howell (1921, p. 71) has taken this cotton- 
tail at three localities in northeastern Alabama and has recorded its 
occurrence at Brasstown Bald Mountain in Georgia, more intensive 
field work should reveal its presence at localities other than those 
listed below in the Great Smoky Mountams of eastern Tennessee. 

Cocke County: liow Gap, 4^4 miles southeast of Cosby, altitude 3,300 feet, 1. 
Hamilton County: Walden Ridge, near Soddy, 1. 

SYLVILAGUS AQUATICUS AQUATICUS (Bachman): Swamp Rabbit 

The swamp rabbit lives in the canebrakes and deep woods along 
the Mississippi River and is found elsewhere in the State in the 
swamps and wet bottoms bordering the Tennessee River. Rhoads 
(1896, pp. 181-182), after having observed this rabbit on the borders 
of Reelf oot Lake, writes as follows : "It preferred hiding among the 
half submerged vegetation and piles of driftwood, and when it broke 
cover would run with bold, high leaps from log to log for so great 
a distance that it was difficult to find it again." I have observed in 
southeastern Kansas that this rabbit will take to water as readily as 
a raccoon. Rhoads (1896, p. 182) lists one specimen from Samburg, 
Obion County. Perrygo and Lingebach took a male in the cypress 
swamp bordering Reelfoot Lake, 5 miles west of Hornbeak. On 
Caney Island, Reelfoot Lake, tv/o were seen in a tangle of pea vines, 
fallen logs, and cypress trees. Two were seen in another cypress 
swamp bordering Reelfoot Lake, 2 miles east of Phillippy. All these 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 86 

swamp rabbits made for the edge of the lake when routed from 
their "forms." 

A. H. Howell (1909, p. 64) states that swamp rabbits "wei-e re- 
ported to be found sparingly at Henryville," Lawrence County, 
"probably ranging up Buffalo Creek from the Tennessee River." 
Perry go thought he recognized a swamp rabbit in the cypress swamp 
near Hickory Withe. 

Obion County: Keelfoot Lake, 5 niilos west of Hornbeak, 1; Reelfoot Lake, 2 
miles southwest of Samburg, 1. 

Family SUIDAE 

SUS SCROFA SCROFA Linnaeus: WiM Boar 

In the spring of 1912, a stock of 15 wild swine of both sexes, 
which had been captured in northern Germany, probably in the Harz 
Mountains, was purchased by a group of English sportsmen and lib- 
erated in an enclosure near Hooper Bald, N. C. According to Stege- 
man (1938, p. 280), this original stock was not disturbed for 8 or 
10 years. In 1920, however, when an attempt was made to hunt 
the animals within the enclosure, about 100 broke through tlie fence 
and escaped into the mountains, Stegeman reports that wild boars 
increased in numbers on the Cherokee National Forest notwithstand- 
ing the fact that they were freely hunted by natives with dogs until 
the outbreak of an epidemic of hog cholera in 1932. It is estimated 
by Stegeman that there are now some 115 wild boars distributed over 
an area exceeding 50 square miles. 

So far as known to Arthur Stupka, park naturalist, no wild boars 
have come into the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. He be- 
lieves that the Little Tennessee River, which separates the park from 
the Cherokee National Forest, may constitute a real barrier against 
the northward spread of this introduced species. 

Family CERVIDAE 

ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS VIRGINIANUS (Boddaert): Virginia Deer 

The former abundance of deer in all parts of Tennessee is attested 
by records left by the early traders, hunters, settlers, and travelers. 
For many years deer skins constituted an important item in the trade. 
When dressed they were made into vests, pants, and shirts and also 
the fringed hunting shirts and leggings. Under the act of March 31 » 
1785, the General Assembly of the State of Franklin fixed the value 
of "deer skins, the pattern" at 6 shillings (Ramsey, 1853, p. 297). 
The same Assembly fixed the salary of the governor, per annum, at 
1,000 deer skins and that of the chief justice at 500 deer skins, be- 
gimiing January 1, 1788 (Williams, 1924, p. 215). Good venison, if 



TENoSTESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 293 

delivered where troops wei-e stationed, was, according to the records 
of Sumner County, accepted for taxes in 1787 at 9 pence a pound 
(Putnam, 1859, p. 252). 

The first mention of deer in eastern Tennessee seems to be recorded 
by James Needham (Williams, 1928, p. 27), who traveled in 1673 
down the valley bounded by the Holston Kiver and Bays Mountains 
to the Cherokee Indian town Chota [Monroe County]. From that 
time onward Virginia and Carolina traders had posts in these Chero- 
kee Indian villages, and large numbers of deer skins and other pelts 
obtained by barter were transported on pack horses to Charleston 
and to the Virginia stations. 

Lt. Henry Timberlake ("Williams, 1927, p. 47) was impressed in 
December 1761 by the number of deer seen during his trip down the 
Holston River from Kingsport, Sullivan County, to a large cave be- 
low the present site of Three Springs Ford, Hamblen County. Tim- 
berlake mentioned that there were an incredible number of deer 
along the Little Tennessee River near the mouth of Tellico River 
(Williams, 1927, p. 71). 

In Martin Schneider's report (Williams, 1928, p. 253) of his jour- 
ney to the upper Cherokee towns there appears the statement under 
date of January 1, 1784, that the traders on the French Broad River 
had paid one quart of an inferior grade of brandy for two deer skins. 

After crossing the Holston River at Stonypoint, Hawkins County, 
in April 1797, the Duke of Orleans and his party saw deer and wild 
turkeys (Williams, 1928, p. 435). 

In middle Tennessee deer appear to have been even more abundant 
than in the eastern part of the State. French traders and hunters 
had posts and station camps on or near the present site of Nashville 
at least as early as 1714. The "long hunters" of the Carolinas and 
Virginia did not do much hunting in this general region until 1769. 
Isaac Bledsoe mentions (Henderson, 1920, p. 125) that during the 
winter of 1769-70 he shot two deer near the lick that has since been 
known as Castalian Springs, Sumner County. In 1775, Timothe 
de Monbreun, a French voyageur, had a cabin and depot for deer and 
buffalo hides and tallow at a mound on the north side of Sulphur 
Spring branch [Nashville] (Putnam, 1859, p. 65). 

When the settlers arrived at the Bluff [Nashville] in 1779-80, deer 
were plentiful in the vicinity (Ramsey, 1853, p. 206), and large num- 
bers came to the sulphur or salt spring [French Lick] near that set- 
tlement. So abundant were deer and buffalo that Col. John Donel- 
son, who settled in 1780 in a tract known as "Clover bottom" a few 
miles up from the mouth of Stone River [Davidson County], was 
obliged to keep close watch over his growing corn (Putnam, 1859, 
p. 622) . One party of 20 hunters from Batons Station [Nashville] 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM tol. 86 

traveled up the Cumberland River in canoes to the region between 
Caney Fork and Flyims Lick Creek [Smith, Putnam, and Jackson 
Counties], where they killed more than 80 deer during the winter of 
1782 (Ramsey, 1853, p. 450). Deer were likewise plentiful along 
the wagon road between Clinch River and Nashville when it was 
opened in 1783 (Ramsey, 1853, p. 501). 

John Lipscomb (Williams, 1928, p. 277) reports that he saw sev- 
eral deer on July 1, 1784, in Macon County. 

Deer were listed by Andre Michaux (Williams, 1928, p. 335) as 
being present in the vicinity of Nashville in 1795. Abraham Steiner 
and Christian Frederic de Schweinitz, after arriving at Camp Sta- 
tion [Sumner County] on their journey from Nashville to Knoxville, 
noted in their journal (Williams, 1928, p. 516) on December 8, 1799, 
that deer were present in the Cumberland settlements in the vicinity 
of Nashville. These same travelers refer (Williams, 1928, p. 519) 
to the great number of deer in the wilderness near the Caney Fork 
road [Smith or Putnam County]. Deer appear to have been plenti- 
ful in the region of the Cumberland settlements for many years, 
Putnam, writing in 1859 (p. 127), mentions that 200 deer were then 
kept in a woodland tract of several thousand acres at Belle Meade 
[Davidson County]. 

Relatively few records are available for the region around Chatta- 
nooga before 1800. During the Chickaniauga expedition commanded 
by Evan Shelby, one party of troops in 1779 captured a great quan- 
tity of deer skins owned by the trader McDonald at Little Owl's 
town on the Tennessee River (Ramsey, 1853, p. 188) . Francis Baily 
(Williams, 1928, p. 402) while traveling during July 1797 through 
the wilderness east of the Tennessee River reported that deer were 
plentiful in the region between Muscle Shoals and Duck River. 

Western Tennessee was visited by traders from the Carolinas before 
1700. According to Williams (1928, p. 94) several were with the 
Cliickasaw Indians in 1699. trading for toe-buckskins and Indian 
slaves. Father James Gravier mentions (Williams, 1928, p. 69) that 
his party killed four does on October 25, 1700, near the present site 
of Memphis. 

Forked Deer River, which separates Dyer and Lauderdale Coun- 
ties, received its name from a buck with peculiar antlers that was 
killed in 1785 by a surveying party organized by James Robertson, 
Henry Rutherford, and Edward Harris (Williams, 1930. p. 43). This 
party depended for subsistence on deer, elk, and bears, while surveying 
in Lauderdale County. 

According to S. C. Williams (1930, p. 180) an English visitor, 
S. A. Farrell, described the deer hunts in the vicinity of Memphis in 
1830 as follows : Hunting was done on horseback with dogs. When 
the dogs came on fresh deer tracks, the hunters were posted and 



TENIifESSEE MAMMAL.S — KELLOGG 295 

then three persons set forward with the dogs, always following the 
deer against the wind. When the deer was started, the hunters fired 
as he passed their posts. 

Obion County, according to Williams (1930, p. 153), longer than 
any other, remained a good hunting ground for deer. Hallock, writ- 
ing in 1877 (pp. 152-153), states that deer were then hunted around 
Reelfoot Lake, Obion County, and in the vicinity of Trimble, Dyer 
County, that tliere were deer near Hales Point, Lauderdale County, 
and that deer afforded good sport in the canebrakes below Memphis, 
Shelby County. He also saj's that deer were then found in abundance 
along the Cumberland River, Davidson County, in the mountains in 
the vicinity of Sewanee, Franklin County, and also in the mountains 
in the vicinity of Wauhatchie and Chattanooga, Hamilton County. 

During the following 15 years, the number of deer was markedly 
reduced in many of these areas. A. B. Wingfield (1895, p. 515) states 
that "the Cumberland Mountain range has been almost entirely 
depleted of its stock of deer" and that 248 carcasses of deer were 
shipped from Crossville, Cumberland County, during 1894. The 
Tennessee State Legislature in 1895 passed a law prohibiting the 
killing of deer for 5 years in Cumberland, Claiborne, Scott, Morgan, 
and Anderson Counties. Rhoads (1896, p. 180) was told that there 
were then about 20 deer in Haywood County. 

Komarek and Komarek (1938, p. 161) report that several deer were 
seen near Cades Cove, Blount County, and also near Cosby, Cocke 
County, and that until hunting was prohibited with the establish- 
ment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, several were 
taken each year in the Butlei* Tract near Gregory Bald, Blount 
County. 

CERVUS CANADENSIS CANADENSIS Erxleben: Eastern Elk, or Wapiti 

Curiously enough, although there are numerous references to other 
kinds of game, only incidental reference is made to elk in the ac- 
counts left by early hunters, settlers, and travelers. 

James Needham, who was sent in 1673 on a trading expedition to 
the Cherokee towns in southeastern Tennessee, wrote in his journal 
(Williams, 1928, p. 27) that while traveling down the valley 
bounded by the Holston River and Bays Mountains, he observed a 
"great store of game, all along as turkes, deere, elkes, beare, woolfe 
and other vermin." 

Ramsey (1853, p. 206) remarks that when the settlers arrived at 
the Bluff [Nashville] in 1779-80, the surrounding region was "one 
large plain of woods and cane, frequented by buffaloes, elk, deer, 
wolvas, foxes and panthers." Putnam (1859, p. 81) likewise states 
that "innumerable herds of buffalo, deer and elk came to the "sul- 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

phur or salt spring at Nashville. During 1783 when the road was 
opened from Clinch River to Nashville by way of Crab Orchard 
[Cumberland County] it passed through "vast upland prairie, cov- 
ered with a most luxuriant growth of native grasses, pastured over as 
far as the eye could see, with numerous herds of deer, elk, and buf- 
falo" (Ramsey, 1853, p. 501). 

Lewis Brantz, who had been sent out by the merchants of Balti- 
more, departed from Nashville on December 28, 1785, and traveled 
with a pack horse 140 miles through the barrens to the Holston River 
settlements. He noted in his journal (Williams, 1928, p. 286) that 
while enroute he saw but one rlk, although he observed large numbers 
of antlers. 

Henry Rutherford and his guide, while surveying a large tract of 
land in 1785 on the south side of the Forked Deer River, Lauderdale 
County, killed elk and other game for food (Williams, 1930, p. 44). 

Andre Michaux, while residing at Nashville, noted in his journal 
under date of June 21. 1795, that elk were present in that region 
(Williams, 1928, p. 335). 

Putnam (1859, p. 127) states that half a dozen elk were kept in 
1859 in a private woodland tract at Belle Meade, or Dunhams Station. 

Elk at one time were plentiful in most parts of Tennessee, occur- 
ring not only in the high passes and narrow valleys of the moun- 
tainous sections but also in association with the buffalo visited the 
licks of middle Tennessee, browsed along the rivers and creeks in 
the southern counties, and wandered through the canebrakes of the 
Mii^sissippi bottomlands. 

When the early hunters and settlers first set foot in eastern Ten- 
nessee, there were many large tracts covered with native grasses on 
the low hills and narrow valleys of the southern Allegheny Moun- 
tains that afforded pasture lands for herds of elk and in the summer 
for buffalo (Ramsey, 1853, p. 96). 

David Crockett (1834) in his autobiogra})hical sketch repeatedly 
refers to elk in the bottomlands of Obion and Dyer Counties in the 
decade between 1820 and 1830. 

According to B. C. Miles (Rhoads, 1896, p. 181) an elk was killed 
by David Merriwether about 1849 at Rpelfoot Lake, and another was 
reported to have been killed in Obion County in 1865. 

Under the pen name "Antler" (1880, p. 306) a resident of Piney 
Creek Falls, Van Buren County, wrote in 1880 as follows: The Caney 
Fork district "embracing the tributaries of the Caney Fork, remains 
a wilderness still. The stirface is rough and broken. Deer and wild 
turkevs are found here in moderate numbers, with a few bears, and 
occasionally some gray wolves are found ; but the oldest mountaineer 
can not remember back to the time when elk and buffalo roamed 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 297 

through these forests." This report seems to indicate that elk were 
exterminated on the Cumberland Plateau early in the nineteenth 
century. 

Family BOVIDAE 
BISON BISON PENNSYLVANICUS Shoemaker: Eastern Woodland Bison 

Bison once roamed in large numbers over some parts of Tennessee, 
but so far as known not a single skull from a Tennessee locality can 
be found now in any of the larger museums. All the early explorers 
followed buffalo trails through the wilderness, and the Spanish and 
French settlements relied to some extent on the buffalo for meat. 

J. A. Allen (1876, p. 102), after commenting on the former 
abundance of bison in the region around Nashville, concluded that 
they probably ranged southward to the Temiessee River, since a 
stream called Buffalo River forms one of the larger tributaries of 
Duck River. As will be shown hereinafter, bison formerly ranged 
southward to below Memphis in the western part of the State and 
at least to Monroe County in eastern Temiessee. 

James Needliam, who was sent by Abraham Wood (Williams, 
1928, p. 28) on a trading expedition, in relating his experiences in 
1673 at the Cherokee Indian town Chota [located on the south side 
of the Little Tennessee River a short distance below Citico Creek, 
Monroe County] remarked that "many homes like bulls homes lye 
upon theire dunghills." There is at least one bit of evidence to show 
that the buffalo may have ranged farther south than Monroe County. 
The left mandible of an immature buffalo (U.S.N.M. no. 200148) 
was found in 1914-15 by Clarence B. Moore (1915, p. 368) in an 
aboriginal burial mound at Hampton Place on the Tennessee River 
opposite Moccasin Bend, Hamilton County. There are other rec- 
ords showing that buffaloes were found before 1700 much farther 
south than the southern boundary of eastern Temiessee. Boyd 
(1936, p. 203), quoting from old Spanish documents relating to the 
expedition of Marcos Delgado from Apalachee to the Creek country 
in 1686, has shown that this Spaniard saw buffaloes near Russ Creek 
and northwest of Marianna, Jackson County, Fla., and near the 
Little Choctawhatchee River, Houston County, in the southeastern 
corner of Alabama. 

On March 30, 1750, Dr. Thomas Walker (Williams, 1928, p. 170) 
caught two young buffaloes on Reedy Creek and then traveled down 
this creek to Long Island, Holston River [Kingsport, Sullivan 
County] . 

On the trip during December 1761 down the Holston River from 
Kingsport, Sullivan County, to a large cave below the present site 
of Three Springs Ford, Hamblen County, Lt. Henry Timberlake 



298 PIIOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

wrote in his memoirs (Williams, 1927, p. 47) that "nothing more 
remarkable occurred, unless I mark for such the amazing quantity 
of buffaloes, bears, deer, and beavers." In another entry in his 
memoir (Williams, 1927, p. 71) Timberlake wrote on January 2, 
1762, while residing near the mouth of Tellico River, that "there 
tire likewise an incredible number of buffaloes." Again after cross- 
ing the French Broad River enroute to Great Island [Kingsport, 
Sullivan County] along the Great Path, he wrote on March 15, 
1762, that 17 or 18 buffaloes ran among the party (Williams, 1927, 
p. 120). 

The settlers in Carters Valley, Hawkins County, during the win- 
ter of 1776 killed bison 12 to 15 miles northwest of the settlement 
(Ramsey, 1853, p. 144). 

From these sources we observe that bison formerly passed over 
the Cumberland Gap into Tennessee along the Holston, Clinch, and 
Powell River Valleys. The number of buffalo in eastern Tennessee, 
judged from the records, was never very large. 

B}' far the larger number of bison occurred in the vicinity of 
the Cumberland River and its tributaries in middle Tennessee. It 
will be recalled that French voyageurs had been hunting and trad- 
ing in that region for more than 75 years before the establishment 
of the Nashville settlement, killing buffaloes mainly for tongues and 
tallow, and to a less extent for hides. M. Charloville, a French 
trader and hunter from Crozat's colony at New Orleans, came upon 
the Shawnees then inhabiting the Cumberland region and built a 
post in 1714 on a mound near the present site of Nashville on the 
west side of the Cumberland River, near French Lick Creek, and 
about 70 yards from each stream (Ramsey, 1853, p. 45). Subse- 
quently other French hunters and trappers from Illinois and New 
Orleans camped in the same region. 

In 1769, Isaac Bledsoe and Kasper Manscoe [sometimes Gasper 
Mansker] established camp on Station Camp Creek in Sumner 
County. From that camp each of these men followed in opposite 
directions the nearby buffalo trail, one finding the salt licks since 
known as Bledsoes Lick and the other Manscoes Lick. On the 
100-acre surrounding flat, Bledsoe saw thousands of bison (Hender- 
son, 1920, p. 125). This lick is now known as Castalian Springs, 
Sumner County. 

In 1770, Manscoe, Uriah Stone, and eight others hunted at French 
Lick [Nashville], where they found immense numbers of bison and 
other wild game (Ramsey, 1853, p. 105). Captain Timothe de 
Monbreun, a French voyageur from Illinois, who as late as 1823 
lived at Nashville, hunted in that vicinity in 1775. During that 
summer Monbreun and one companion had a camp at a site since 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 299 

known as Batons Station [Nashville]. An enormous number of 
buffaloes were killed by these French hunters, but only the tallow 
and the tongues were saved. These were taken down the Cumber- 
land River in a keel boat (Ramsey, 1853, p. 192; Henderson, 1920, p. 
128). For more than a decade Monbreun hunted in this general 
district, and it is quite likely that his or some other party of French 
hunters was responsible for the slaughter of buffaloes at Bledsoes 
Lick in Sumner County, which Isaac Bledsoe related to an early 
settler, William Hall. According to the latter (Henderson, 1920, 
pp. 128-129), "one could walk for several hundred yards a round 
the Lick and in the Lick on buffelows skuls, & bones, and the whole 
flat round the Lick was bleached with buffelows bones, and they 
found out the Cause of the Canes growing up so suddenly a few 
miles around the Lick which was in consequence of so many buffe- 
lows being killed." 

In February 1777, de Monbreun arrived at Deacons Pond [near 
Palmyra, Montgomery County], where he met a party of six white 
men and one woman who had traveled by boat down the Cumberland 
River from a point near the mouth of Rockcastle River [Laurel 
County, Ky.]. This party reported that they had seen immense 
herds of buffaloes on this trip (Ramsey, 1853, p. 193). 

When the first settlers arrived at Nashville in 1780, bison were still 
present in the surrounding country (Ramsey, 1853, p. 206). Col. 
John Donelson's party killed buffaloes along the Cumberland River 
near the Kentucky-Tennessee line on March 30, 1780 (Williams, 1928, 
p. 241 ) . When Colonel Donelson settled in 1780 a few miles up from 
the m.outh of Stones River [Davidson County], in a tract called 
"Clover Bottom" and planted his corn, there were "immense herds of 
buffalo, deer, etc., ranging through these forests" (Putnam, 1859, 
p. 622). 

According to Ramsey (1853, p. 450) a party of 20 hunters from 
Eatons Station [Nashville] traveled up the Cumberland River in 
canoes to the region between Caney Fork and Flynns Lick Creek 
[Smith, Putnam, and Jackson Counties], where they killed 75 buffa- 
loes during the winter of 1782. 

When the road from Clinch River to Nashville by way of Crab 
Orchard [Cumberland County] was opened in 1783, the top of the 
mountain was described as a "vast upland prairie, covered with a 
most luxuriant growth of native grasses, pastured over as far as the 
eye could see, with numerous herds of deer, elk and buffalo" (Ram- 
sey, 1853, p. 501). 

John Lipscomb wrote in his journal (Williams, 1928, p. 276) under 
date of June 29, 1784, that having com.e to the lick near Little Barren 
River [Macon County, Tenn., or Allen County, Ky.] , they "crept to 



300 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

the Lick where we found there had been great slaughter made 
amongst the buffelow ; we had not been there long before we saw two 
big buffelow bulls coming toward us accompanyed with a wolf." 
Again on August 7, 1784, John Lipscomb's party (Williams, 1928, 
p. 278) reached Red River Station, and then traveled through the 
barrens, where they saw a "gang of buffaloes" [Sumner Coimty]. 

After leaving Nashville on December 28, 1785, enroute to Holston 
River, Lewis Brantz (Williams, 1928, p. 286) traveled with a pack 
horse 140 miles through the barrens where nothing but grass grows. 
Brantz remarked that the buffaloes had been considerably hunted by 
the woodsmen and were diminished in number. The fii-st records of 
Sumner County show that "prime buffalo beef" was accepted for 
taxes in 1787 at 3 pence a pound, if delivered where troops were sta- 
tioned (Putnam, 1859, p. 252). Bisou apparently were still to be 
found in Montgomery County in 1793. Goodpasture (1903, p. 206) 
has published a contract signed October 4, 1793, by John Dier for 
delivery of 35 hundredweight of buffalo beef to John Edmonson, at 
$2 a hundred. 

Andre Michaux (Williams, 1928, p. 335) listed buffaloes as being 
present in June 1795 in the region around Nashville. Abraham 
Steiner and Christian Frederic de Schweinitz in December 1799 re- 
ported that bison were still present near the Caney Fork Road [Put- 
nam County] but were "rarely killed by the hunters, as they are shy 
and fleet and do not usually fall at the tiist shot" (Williams, 1928, 
p. 519). Writing in 1859, iPutnara (p. 127) stated that a woodland 
tract of several hundred acres at Belle Meade [Dunhams Station] 
belonging to Gen. William G. Harding was stocked at that time with 
200 deer, 20 buffaloes, and half a dozen elk. In 1916 Clarence B. 
Moore excavated a left metacarpal (3 + 4) and two ])halanges (U.S. 
N.M. no. 216652) from a mound at Hales Point, Lauderdale County. 

Wliile collecting in Tennessee, Rhoads (1896, p. 179) received in- 
formation from local residents that the last buffalo in Fentress 
County was killed by John Young, but the date was not obtained. 

Bison were once present in some numbers in western Tennessee 
along the Mississippi River. From the journal of Diron d'Arta- 
guette, inspector-general under the Duke of Orleans, we get our 
first information as to the former presence of great herds of bison 
in west Tennessee. Traveling up the Mississippi River in March 
1723, he saw bison at many places on both sides of the river. It is 
recorded in his journal (Williams, 1930, p. 10) that a buffalo cow 
was killed near Wolf River, Shelby County. As he continued on 
this journey upstream, many buffalo were killed before he passed 
the present boundaries of Tennessee. 



TENNESSEE MAMMALS — KELLOGG 301 

111 the course of his journey down the Mississippi River during 
November 1766, George Morgan (Williams, 1928, pp. 216-218) 
passed a number of French hunting parties who had ascended the 
river from New Orleans to kill buffaloes and bears. Along the 
eastern shore between the mouth of Hatchie River above Prud'- 
homme Cliff and the present site of Memphis, 10 French hunting 
parties were seen. Again in June 1768, Jolin Jenning saw French 
hunters on both sides of the Mississippi River in the same region 
(Williams, 1928, p. 221). 

In 1819, Williams (1930, p. 96) states, the "buffalo, once numer- 
ous, had disappeared" in west Tennessee. Haywood, writing in 
1823 (p. 234), confirms this and says that "at this time there is 
not one in the whole State of Tennessee." 

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vol. 14, ne. 1, pp. 49-53. 
MooKE, Clarence Bloomfield. 

1915. Aboriginal sites on Tennessee River. Journ. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila- 
delphia, new ser., vol. 16, pp. 170-428. 
Nelson, Edward William. 

1909. The rabbits of North America. North Amer. Fauna 29, 314 pp., 19 
figs., 13 pis. 
Osgood, Wilfred Hudson. 

1909. Revision of the mice of the American genus Peromyscua. North 
Amer. Fauna 28, 285 pp., 12 figs., 8 pis. 
Putnam, A. W. 

1859. History of middle Tennessee; or Life and times of Gen. James Rob- 
ertson, xvi-fOGS pp., illus. Nashville. 
Ramsey, J. G. M. 

1853. The annals of Tennessee to the end of the eighteenth century : Com- 
prising its settlement, as the Watauga Association, from 1769 to 
1777; a part of North Carolina, from 1777 to 1784; the State of 
FrankUn, from 1784 to 1788; a part of North Carolina, from 1788 
to 1790; the Territory of the U. States, south of the Ohio, from 
1790 to 1796; the State of Tennessee, from 1796 to 1800; viii+744 
pp., 2 maps. Philadelphia. 
Rhoads, Samuel Nicholson. 

1896. Contributions to the biology of Tennessee, No. 3: Mammals. Proc 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 48, pp. 175-205. 
Stbxseman, LeRoy C. 

1938. The European wild boar in the Cherokee National Forest, Tennessee. 
Journ. Mamm., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 279-290, 3 figs. 
Will. 

1884. Tennessee notes. Forest and Stream, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 106. 
Wn-LiAMS, Samuel Cole. 

1924. History of the lost State of Franklin, xiii-f371 pp., illus. Johnson 
City, Teun. 

1927. Lieut. Henry Timberlake's memoirs, 1750-1765: With annotation, in- 

troduction and index, 197 pp., illus. Johnson City, Tenn. 

1928. Early travels in the Tennessee country, 1540-1800: With introduc- 

tions, annotations and index, xi-j-540 pp., illus. Johnson City, Tenn. 
1930. Beginnings of west Tennessee: In the laud of the Chickasaws, 1541- 
1841, xii 4-331 pp. Johnson City, Tenn. 

WlNGFEELD, A. B. 

1895. Tennessee deer and quail. Forest and Stream, vol. 45, no. 24, p. 515. 



U. S. SOVCRNMENT PRINTING OFFICE) 1938 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



by (he 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Vol.86 WMhington: 1939 No. 3052 

SPECIES OF THE FORAMINIFERAL FAMILY CAMERIN- 
IDAE IN THE TERTIARY AND CRETACEOUS OF MEXICO 



By R. Wright Barker 



During my work as micropaleontologist in Mexico, I have met 
with many species of Camerinidae, but in many cases, owing to inade- 
quate literature available on the American species of the family, I 
have deferred identification of them. During the past few years this 
has resulted in the accumulation of many species with only tentative 
identifications and in many manuscript names of species believed to 
be new. 

Recently it became jiossible to carry out research on the collection, 
and I made and photographed large numbers of sections. I wish 
to express my thanks to the Compailia Mexicana de Petroleo "El 
Aquila," S. A., and to the Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij for 
permission to publish material that originally formed part of confi- 
dential reports; and also to numerous individuals from whom help 
and advice Mere received, i^jnong these must be mentioned especially 
Thomas F. Grimsdale, who assisted in sectioning and photographing 
the specimens, and Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, who gave helpful 
criticism and supplied comparative material. Mrs. R. H. Palmer 
furnished valuable samples from Cuba ; Dr. Lloyd G. Henbest kindly 
sent topotype material from the United States National Museum; 
and J. B. Garrett sent further specimens. To all these workers I am 
especially grateful, as correctly named material is essential in the 
study of any of the so-called "larger Foraminifera," particularly the 
Camerinidae, Avhich do not lend themselves to detailed diagnosis as 
110179—39 1 305 



306 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

do most of the other groups, and moreover they have frequently 
suffered in the past from very inadequate descriptions and figures. 

STRATIGRAPHY 

John M. Muir (1936) has recently published an excellent account 
of the stratigraphy of the area in which the present collections 
were made, and he clearly differentiates the various horizons. I havQ 
been accustomed, in common with many workers in Mexico, to a 
slightly different nomenclature, such as Alazan in place of Huasteca 
formation, Cole's Guayabal in place of ver Wiebe's Tempoal, and 
Velasco rather than Tamesi. Though there is little doubt as to the 
soundness of Muir's reasons for changing the nomenclature, both 
systems are given in the present account since the ages of the beds 
containing the species described were determined by means of the 
smaller Foraminifera as described by Nuttall (1932) in his account 
of the Upper and Lower Alazan and by W. Storrs Cole (1927, 1928) 
in his papers on the Chapapote and Guayabal. As there is some 
doubt as to the exact equivalence of the Huasteca to the Alazan as 
understood by Nuttall and also a possibility that the Guayabal of 
Cole represents a higher horizon than ver Wiebe's Tempoal (as 
exposed at the type localities of these formations), it has been 
thought better to give the older nomenclature and, in parentheses, 
what is considered to be the equivalent horizon of Muir. 

The nomenclature alternative to that of Muir may be found in 
a recent publication of the writer (Barker, 1936). 

PREVIOUS PUBLISHED WORK 

Beginning with Cushman's monograph, "American Species of 
Opei'culina and Heterostegina''' in 1921, a large number of species 
referred to Operculina and NummuUtes have been described from, 
the New World, though it had long been denied that true Num- 
muUtes existed there. The greater number of species have been 
contributed by Cushman, the elder and younger Kutten, Willard 
Berry, Mrs. Palmer, W. Storrs Cole, Dr. Vaughan, and Gravell and 
Hanna. The species of both L. and IM. G. Kutten are in general 
well described, with fairly adequate illustrations; those of Cushman 
are very incompletely described, and in many cases sections either 
are not illustrated or are so badly illustrated as to be of little value ; 
the work of Willard Berry is similar to his work on the Peruvian 
species of Lepidocycliria and may be neglected in the present resume. 
Of most importance is a re<;ent account by Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan 
and W. Storrs Cole (1036) entitled "New Tertiary Foraminifera 
of the Genera Operculina and Operculinoides from North America 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE — BARKER 307 

and the West Indies," in which some new Mexican forms, hitherto 
unpublished, are described and figured. I have traced 50 recognized 
species of the genera Nummulites {Camerina), OpercuUnella, and 
OpercuUnoides described from the Americas, but it is not considered 
necessary to list these here, beyond stating that careful comparison 
has been made in the case of all Mexican forms with those previously 
found in the New World. 

CLASSIFICATION 

The Camerinidae possess the most extensive literature of any group 
of Foraminifera, so it is not proposed to give here long bibliographic 
lists, but only the more important references to American species. 

The question of nomenclature is a difficult one, the accepted custom 
being to follow d'Orbigny in allotting the various species to the 
genera Nummulites {Camerina of Bruguiere), Operculina, and As- 
silina, with the addition of Yabe's genus OpercuUnella for such 
forms as appear intermediate between Camerina and Operculina. 

The establishment of Nummulites or Camerina for completely in- 
volute forms with lateral spaces between successive laminae, Opercu- 
lina for completely evolute forms, and Assilina for forms that are 
involute but lacking the lateral cavities, the laminae being thin and 
closely appressed, seems at first to be a simple and clearly defined 
system of classification. Unfortunately, a certain number of species 
commence with an involute spire and later open out becoming com- 
planate and evolute. Such forms were included by d'Orbigny and 
by Brady (see classification of the Nummulinidae in the Challenger 
Report) in Operculina, since the definition clearly states that the 
early whorls may be more or less embracing. Yabe, however, pre- 
ferred to take such forms out of Operculina into a new genus Oper- 
culinella, producing more confusion, as individual ideas as to the 
characters of the new genus seem to be greatly varied. 

Furthermore, none of the genera satisfactorily fitted the majoritj'^ 
of American species, which are thin, of few whorls, complanate, and 
nearly always completely involute, without lateral cavities. As a 
result species have been variously attributed to Camerina, Num- 
m.ulites, Assilina, OpercuUnella, and Operculina according to the 
opinion of each individual author. In 1935 Hanzawa erected the 
genus OpercuUnoides for the American group of species mentioned 
above ; he refers a number of species to the new genus, on the evi- 
dence of actual specimens and on the original figures (Hanzawa, 
1935. pp. 16-19) but does not illustrate the new genus, and the de- 
scription might well be amplified. The genotype is given as Oper- 
culinoides icillcoxii (Heilprin), and most American species formerly 
considered to belong to Operculina are transferred to OpercuUnoides. 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

The classification of Hanzawa has been adopted by Vaughan and 
Cole (1936) in the description of a number of new species of Oper- 
cuUnoides from North and Central America and the West Indies, 
and it is also followed herein. 

I am not yet convinced as to the advisability of splitting up the 
group into so many genera, as in all cases forms can be found inter- 
grading from one so-called genus into another. Thus it is often, 
impossible to state with certainty whether a species should be Oper- 
culinella or Operculina, Opei^cuUnoides or C amerina^ or even Oper- 
cuUnoides or Operculina (as in the case of Op€rculin.a tuherculata 
Vaughan and Cole), thus leaving much to the discrimination and 
personal opinions of the individual workers. There is also the prob- 
lem as to whether the law of priority should be followed for Cam- 
erina, or the custom of accepted usage involving the use of the term 
NummuUtes, to which many of the older workers still adhere. In 
the present account Camerina has been used, in accordance with the 
classifications of Cushman and Galloway, and the question as to 
whether the various "genera" could be better considered as subgenera 
of Camerina and Operculina has been deferred. I am of the opinion 
that Hanzawa (1935) rightly abandoned Hofker's theory that all 
the genera are synonymous with Camerina^ and until more work has 
been done on the evolution and phylogeny of the group it seems 
preferable to adhere to the accepted classification as modified by 
Hanzawa. 

In addition to the genera mentioned above we have two new genera re- 
cently erected by Hanzawa (1937), namely Para.spiroclypeus^ referred 
to the Camerinidae, and PelJatispireUa, included with Pellatlspira in a 
new family Pellatispiridae. As Hanzawa notes, Pellatispira was in- 
cluded by Umbgrove and by Galloway in the Camerinidae, though 
considered by Cushman as showing more affinities with the Calcarin- 
idae. Hanzawa removes the genera Pellatispira and PeUatispirella 
from the Camerinidae on structure of the shell wall and peculiarities 
of the canal system. 

The double nature of the walls, which is well exemplified by Pel- 
Jatispirella matleyi (Vaughan) and most species of Pellatispira^ is 
much less marked in PeUatispirella antillea Hanzawa and appears to 
be a variable character. The principal difference between the canal 
system in the Camerinidae and the Pellatispiridae appears to be the 
presence of "vertical canals" in the latter. Thus Hanzawa (1937, 
p. 114) remarks as follows: "Vertical canals are always found in 
the genera Calcarina, Rotalia, and Elphidium, especially in their um- 
bonal regions, but never in Camerina, Assilina, Opercidimi, Heter- 
ostegina, and Spiroclypeusy 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE BARKER 309 

I am not wholly in agreement with this statement, since vertical 
canals are seen in transverse sections of Cmnerina figured by Hofker 
(1927, p. 58) and of Heterostegina (1927, pi. 35). Carpenter 
(1862) mentions the presence of canals in the pillars in Camerina^ 
and Mobius (1880, pi. 13) has figured similar canals in Heterostegina. 
In addition I have obtained Canada-balsam preparations of Camerina 
vaiiolaria (Lamarck) that show excellently developed vertical 
canals in the bosses of clear shell material in the umbonal area ; Heter- 
ostegina also shows vertical canals, and in some sections the aper- 
ture is clearly seen to be multiple, along the base of the septa, as 
described for PeUatisinvella. The vertical canals are, admittedly, 
never so well developed in typical Pellatispiridae, but the differences 
do not seem to me to justify the formation of a new family. The 
various members of the Camerinidae show wide variation in the 
form of the canal system, in some cases as great as that shown by 
PeTlatispireTla from typical Camerina^ and for these reasons it is 
proposed that the Pellatispiridae be allowed to remain in the Cam- 
erinidae, as a subfamily. The new species Camerina 'pellatispiroides 
is looked upon as linking the Pellatispiridae with the Camerinidae, 
since its canal system is closer to the former than to the latter, 
though the aperture is typical of Camerina and there is no sign 
of the double nature of the walls described for Pellatispirella. 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

Family CAMERINIDAE Meek and Hayden, 1865 

Genus OPERCULINOIDES Hanzawa, 1935 

OPERCULINOIDES WILLCOXII (Heilprin) 

Plate 13, Figueb 3 ; Plate 16, Figxjeb 1 ; Plate 21, Ftqure 13 

18S2. Nummulites willcoxU Heilprin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 

34, p. 191, figs. 1, 2 ; iUd'., vol. 36, pp. 321-322, figs. 1, 2, 1884. 
1921. Operciilina willcoxii (Heilprin) Cushman, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 

128-E, p. 129, pi. 20, figs. 9-11. 
1928. Operculinella willcoxii (Heilprin) Vauqhan, 19th Ann. Rep. Florida State 

Geol. Surv., p. 158. 
1935. Operculinmdes willcoxii (Heilprin) Hanzawa, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. 

Univ., ser. 2 (Geol.), vol. 18, no. 1, p. 18. 

This species has recently been made the genotype of the new genus 
Operculinoides (see Hanzawa above). The Mexican specimens have 
been compared with specimens from the Gulf coast of the United 
States and seem essentially the same species. Their description is as 
follows : 

Test large, very compressed, completely involute, the last whorl 
showing rather clearly on the exterior (after the fashion of Assilina). 
Sutures not clearly visible on the exterior. Diameter, average 5.3 mm, 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.83 

with an observed maximum of 7.0 mm; thickness, up to 1.0 mm, with 
an average of between 0,8 and 0.9 mm. 

Sections show the coiling to be regular, mature specimens showing 
5 to 6 whorls with 37 or 38 chambers in the final one. The septa 
are thin and slightly sigmoid in shape, recurving sharply toward tha 
periphery. Chambers numerous, rather long in proportion to their 
width. Transverse sections show that there is a tendency for the 
outer walls of succeeding coils to become closely appressed, without, 
however, becoming fused. 

Pleswfypes.—U.S.l^M. nos. 497829 and 497830. 

Other specimens.— U.S.^M. nos. 497831 and 497832. 

Occurrence. — Common in the Tantoyuca formation, Jackson Eocene. 

OPERCULINOIDES NUMMULITIFORMIS (L. Rutten) 

Plate 17, Figure 5 ; Plate 21, Fiquke 1 

1928. Operculina nummuUtifonnis L. Rutten, Proc. Sect. S?ei. Kou. Akad. 

Wetensch., Amsterdam, vol. 31, no. 9, p. 941, figs. 1-12. 
1932. Operculina nummulitiformis L. Rutten, M. G. Rutten and VEaiiiuNT, Proc. 

Sect. Sci. Kon. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 239, 

pi. 1, figs. 7, 10; pi. 2, fig. 1. (Full synonymy given in this account.) 
1937. OpercuUnella nmnmuVitiformis (L. Rutten) Vaughan, in Sheppard's 

"The Geology of South-Western Ecuador," pp. 159-160, figs. 116 (1-3). 

Mexican specimens identified as this species are described as 
follows : 

Test of medium size, very compressed, completely involute. The 
sutures are strongly beaded and slightly raised, the test being a 
little thicker in proportion to diameter than in 0. prenummuUti- 
formis. Diameter, average 8.0 mm; thickness, average 0.5 mm. 

Sections show numerous long narrow chambers, the test showing 
31/2 to 41/2 whorls, with 28 to 33 chambers in the final whorl. The 
septa' are rather irregular as shown in Rutten's original figures of 
O. nummulitiformis. The Mexican specimens differ from L. Rutten's 
original description in that they are slightly thicker (0.5 nnn average 
compared with 0.35-0.45 mm) and from Rutten and Vermunt's de- 
scription in having beaded sutures in place of a smooth surface. This 
latter difference may be due, perhaps, to state of preservation and to 
local variation, as the degree of beading is variable in specimens 
examined. In other respects the species are remarkably similar, and 
Rutten and Vermunt's figure (1932, pi. 2, fig. 1) leaves little doubt 
in my mind that the Mexican specimens should be referred to O. nu7n- 
mulitiformis. It seems doubtful Avhether Vaughan's Ecuadorian 
material should be referred to this species, since the specimens fig- 
ured show a more rapidly opening spiral with fewer whorls and 
fewer chambers in the final whorl in proportion to the size of the 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE — BARKER 311 

test than is shown in the figures of Rutten or Rutten and Vermunt. 
The latter authors place O. afascaderensis Berry and 0. peruviana 
in the synonymy of 0. nummulitifoimiis^ with which I am in agree- 
ment. Thus we have a wide-ranging form occurring in the upper 
Eocene of Peru, Ecuador, Curasao, alid Mexico. 

PJesiotyjyes.—U.^.'^M. no. 497834. 

Other specimens.— U.S. ^M. no. 497833. 

Occitrrence (in Mexico). — Tantoyuca formation, Jackson Eocene. 

OPERCULINOIDES PRENUMMULITIFORMIS, new species 

Plate 12, Figures 1, 2 ; Plate 17, Figuke 4 ; Plate 21, Figure 2 

Test of medium size, very compressed, completely involute, the last 
whorl somewhat thinner than the earlier coils. Sutures are slightly 
raised, rather limbate, and show a tendency to become beaded, 
especially toward the center of the test. Diameter, up to 4.0 mm, 
average 3.25 mm; average thickness, 0.5 mm. 

Sections show the test to be composed of 314 to nearly 4 whorls, 
with 22 to 27 chambers in the final whorl. The septa are numerous, 
thin, and uniformly curved throughout their length. The chambers 
are long and narrow and of even size and shape, in contrast to the 
irregularities shown by the closely allied form O. nummulitiformis 
(Rutten). Sections also reveal the presence of numerous supple- 
mentary or secondary apertures, irregularly distributed along the 
septa as illustrated by Carpenter ("secondary pores," 1862, p. 254, 
fig. 12). The exact significance of these has not yet been satisfac- 
torily explained, but they may have been developed in the first place 
in connection with adaptation to such factors as food supply. As 
remarked under O. jennyi, the development of multiple apertures 
probably led at a later stage to formation of subsidiary chamberlets, 
such as are found in Heterostegina and Spiroclypeus. 

Ootypes.—V.S.'^M. nos. 497835 and 497836. 

Occurrence. — Guayabal (Tempoal) formation, Claiborne Eocene. 
Cotypes have been selected from Poza Rica Well no. 8, a further 
excellent suite of specimens being obtained from core samples of 
Mecatepec Well no. 6. 

OPERCULINOIDES TUXPANENSIS (Thalmann) 

Plate 16, Figure 2 ; Plate 17, Figuee 2 

1935. Operculina tuxpanensis Thalmann, Eclogae geol. Helvetiae, vol. 28, 

pp. 603-604, figs, a, b (Tuxpam formation, Mexico). 

1936. Operculmoides tuxpanicus Vaughan and Cole, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 

83, p. 494, pi. 37, figs. 4-9. 



312 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



This form, which is of medium size, thin and compressed, and 
completely involute, is described by Thalmann as having a diameter 
of 3 to 4 mm; thickness 0.2 to 0.3 mm, and 31/2 ^'horls with 28 to 32 
chambers in the last whorl. This, according to Thalmann, is for 
the microspheric form, though from his figure this is not certain. 
The surface is smooth in all specimens examined. 

Sections made from material collected by Thalmann, near his type 
locality (various outcrops along the Tuxpam River between Cobos 
and Tuxpam) show 3 to 314 whorls, with 20 to 24 chambers in the 
final whorl. The coiling is somewhat irregular; the sutures thin, a 
thick outer wall giving a thickened, rounded periphery; the chambers 
are numerous, long, and narrow. 

Specimens from Biche Quarry, Nariva District, Trinidad, British 
West Indies (the Guaracara limestone), in the collection of T. F. 
Grimsdale, are considered to belong to this species. There seems to 
be no doubt that Operculinoides tuxpanicus Vaughan and Cole is a 
synonym of Operculina tuxpanensis Thalmann, though Thalmann un- 
doubtedly had much better material than Vaughan. Various meas- 
urements are given below for comparison : 



Species 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Number of 
whorls 


Number of 

chambers 

in final 

whorl 


Opercutina tiiipanensis Thalmann 

Specimens sectioned by the writer 

Operculinoides tuxpanicus Vaughan and 
Cole. 


Mm 

3-4 
2. ^3. 

1. 7-3. 2 


Mm 
0.2-0.3 
0.3-0.4 

0. 3-0. 5 


3^^ 
3-3H 

3-3 Ji 


128-32 
20-24 

19-20 





> Microspheric. 

Plesiotypes.—U.S.'NM. no. 497838. 
Topotypes ( .?) .— U.S.N.M. no. 497837. 
Occurrence. — Tuxpam formation, lower Miocene. 

OPERCULINOIDES MUIRI. new species 

Plate 14, Figure 4 ; Plate 20, Figube 1 ; Plate 22, Figukb 1 

Test small to medium in size, completely involute, lenticular and 
rather close-coiled, with a fairly well developed, rounded keel of 
clear shell material. Diameter, up to 3.0 mm (average for 10 spec- 
imens, 2.6 mm) ; thickness, 0.7 to 0.9 mm. 

Median sections show regular, rather close coiling, with 4 to 4% 
whorls, with 20 to 24 chambers in the final Avhorl. The sutures are 
slightly oblique, curving rather strongly as they approach the 
periphery. In transverse section the rather inflated lenticular form 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 11 




1, Operculinoides oliveri i,Cushman), probably a topotype, from Guayabal beds, near Romance, Rio Moctezuma, 
Mexico; 2, 3, 0. vaughani (Cushman), Guayabal beds, Guayabal, Tamatoco, Veracruz (type locality of W. S. 
Cole). XIS. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 12 




1, Operculznoidei prenumm-ilitijormis, new species, Guayabal formation, Poza Rica Well no. S ne ir CVintzintla, \ era- 
cruz; 2, 0. prenummnlitiformis, Guayabal formation, collection E. Gevaerts no. 551, Zanatepec, Veracruz; 3, 
OpercuHnoides sp. B, Guayabal formation, near Tantoyuca, Veracruz, collection H. Rankin no. 277, Tantoyuca 
region; 4, O. ocalanus (Cushman) minor, new variety, Guayabal formation, collection P. von Schumacher no. 
2S89, east of Tempoal, Veracruz; 5, 0. ocalanus (Cushman), Tantoyuca, Jackson Eocene, collection K. Goldschmid 
Pit no. 283, southeast of Tempoal; 6, O. vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole, Alazan formation, collection E. Gevaerts 
no. 292, southern Miahuapara, Veracruz: 7, O. jenn\i, new species, Guayabal formation, collection H. Meyer no. 
1477, Santa Clara, southeast of Tantoyuca. X15. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 13 




1, 2. Camerina jackfonensis Gravell and Hanna giobo:a, new variety, lower part of Tantoyuca formation, Jaclcson 
Eocene, collection H. Rankin no. 50, east of Tantoyuca, \"eracruz; 3, Operculinoides willcoxii (Heilprin), Tantoyuca 
formation, Jackson Eocene, Tantoyuca type locality: Tantoyuca-Chopopo road, east of Tantoyuca; 4, Camerina 
giiayabalensis, new species, Guayabal, Claiborne, from Mecatepec Well no. S; 5,C. moodybranchensis Gravell and 
Hanna, Tantoyuca formation, well sample, Poza Rica no. 7; 6, C. jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna, Tantoyuca 
formation, Tantoyuca-Chopopo road, near Tantoyuca; 7, C. vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt), Guayabal forma- 
tion, collection H. Meyer no. 1017, southern Chila Cortaza, east of Tantoyuca; S, Operculinoides palmareaUnsis, 
new species, Alazan formation (Hua?teca of Muir), lower Oligocene, Mecatepec Well no. 5, near Poza Rica,\'eracruz. 
X15. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 14 




1, 2, OperculinuiJfs amigi-ensis Va'jghan and Cole (fig. 1, microspheric form. Meson formation, below Tampico Country 
Club, Tampico, Tamaulipas; fig. 2, megalospheric form. Meson formation, near Bustos, Veracruz); 3, S, 0. tuber- 
culatus (Vaughan and Cole), Tantoyuca formation, collection W. H. Hegwein no. 1559, near Tantoyuca, Veracruz; 
0. muiri, new species, Alazan formation, collection E. Gevaerts no. 269, southern Miahuapam, Veracruz; 6, 8, 0. 
caienula (Cushman and Jarvis), lower part of Chicontepec, near Sabaneta, Veracruz, collection VV. Tappolet no. 1908; 
7, 0. jennyi, new species, Guayabal formation (Tempoal of ver Wiebe and Muir), near Sabaneta, collection H. 
Jenny no. 1573. X15. 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE — BARKER 313 

of the test, the regular nature of the coiling, and the even develop- 
ment of the walls are well brought out (see pi. 22, fig. 1). 

The species seems to be identical with an undescribed species ob- 
served in samples from the By ram marl of Byram, Miss, (for which 
the writer is indebted to Mrs. F. B. Plummer). The nearest de- 
scribed species seems to be O. vickshurgensis Vaughan and Cole, but 
O. muiri is considerably thicker than that species (0.7 to 0.9 mm 
as compared with 0.3 to 0.6 mm) and rather more closely coiled. 
Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan has examined the types and is of the 
opinion that the species is new. It has been named after the late 
John M. Muir, who contributed much toward the elucidation of the 
stratigraphy of the Tampico region, and whose recent death was 
felt very deeply by all connected with Mexican stratigraphy and 
petroleum geology. 

Coty'pes.—V.^:^M. nos. 497839 and 497840. 

OcGun^ence. — ^Lower Alazan (probably restricted to the lower part 
of Muir's Huasteca formation). 

OPERCULINOIDES ANTIGUENSIS Vaughan and Cole 

Plate 14, Figubes 1, 2; Plate 16, Figure 3; Plate 17, Figuee 1; Plate 21, 

Figures 10, 11 

1936. Operculinoides antiguensis Vaughan and Cole, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

vol. 83, p. 492, pi. 38, figs. 7-10. 

1937. Camerina sp. B Thiadens, Journ. Pal., vol. 11, p. 95, figs. 3B, 3D, pi. 15, 

fig. 3 (Oligocene, Cuba). 

Test small to medium in size, completely involute, lenticular in 
cross section, with a rather acute periphery. Diameter (megalo- 
spheric form), average 2.4 mm, with a maximum observed of 2.8 mm; 
thickness, average 1.00 mm. The microspheric form (which is fairly 
plentiful in the Meson outcrops below the Tampico Country Club) 
is a little larger, averaging 3.5 mm in diameter. 

The sutures, seen from the exterior, are radiating, lying flush 
with the surface of the test, showing as lines of clear shell material 
proceeding from a clear central mass. In general, sections show 
4 whorls, regularly coiled, with a thick outer wall, the final whorl 
showing 23 to 26 chambers. Exceptional specimens may show 28 
or 29 chambers in the last whorl. 

The most marked characteristic of the species seen in median, 
sections is the shape of the septa, w^hich are straight and radial 
for a little more than half their length and then recurved at an 
abrupt angle toward the periphery (see figure). This character is 
well shown by Thiadens's Camerina sp. B (1937, pi. 15, fig. 3), and 
there seems little doubt that this should be referred to O. antiguensis. 

Plesiotypes.—U.S.^M. nos. 497841 and 497842. 

110179—39 — —2 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Other speciTnens.—V.^.'^M. no. 497843. 

Occurrence. — This species has been recorded only from the Meson 
formation, middle to upper Oligocene. 

OPERCULINOIDES SEMMESI Vaughan and Cole 

Plate 19, FiGintES 1-6 

1936. Operculinoides semmesi Vaughan and Cole. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mils., vol. 
83, p. 491, pi. 37, figs. 10-13 and probably 14 ; pi. 38, figs. 1-4 and prob- 
ably 5 and 6. 

In early work I included O. antigiiensk and O. semmesi in a sin- 
gle species, with a considerable range in variation, but Vaughan 
and Cole have separated slightly smaller specimens, with a thinner 
test and fewer chambers in the final whorl, as O. semmesi. This 
species is similar to O. antiguemis in general appearance, but, in 
large numbers of specimens seen by me, is generally smaller and 
thinner, though the range in diameter (1.75 to 2.8 mm) is almost 
the same for the two species. Thickness, 0.55 to 0.65 mm. 

Sections show 3 to 31/0 whorls, with 18 or 19 chambers in the final 
whorl. The septa show the same characteristic curvature as O. anti- 
giie')isis. It is still thought that 0. semmesi may be only a variety 
or a dwarf race of 0. anfigu^ensis, since botli liave the same range in 
Mexico and have not yet been found to occur in the same localities, 
suggesting that the dijfferences may be due to local changes in en- 
vironment. 

Plesiotypes.—U. S.^.M. nos. 497844 and 497845. 

Other specimens.— U.S. ^^.M. nos. 497846 and 497847. 

Occurrence. — Believed to be restricted to the Meson formation. 

OPERCULINOIDES PALMAREALENSIS, new species 

Plate 13, Figure 8 ; Plate 18, Figure 1 ; Plate 22, Figures 7, 8 

Test small, stoutly lenticular, completely involute, with an acute 
periphery. The septa show as gently curved lines of clear shell ma- 
terial radiating from a large, clear central mass. Diameter, 1.8 to 
2.2 mm ; thickness, average 0.9 mm. 

Sections show the septa to be sharply recurved, somewhat as in 
Operculinoides antiguensis and O. semmesi., but the curvature is not 
so abrupt, the coiling is less regular, and the test is consistently 
smaller and thicker in proportion to the diameter. Mature speci- 
mens usually show 4 whorls, with 18 to 20 chambers in the final 
whorl. The chambers are somewhat irregular in size and shape. 

Cotypes.—V.SI^M. nos. 49784^-497850. 

Occurrence.— AXaz^w formation (Huasteca formation of Muir), 
lower Oligocene. The description is based on cotypes from Meca- 
tepec Well no. 5, Mecatepec, Veracruz. 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE BARKER 



315 



OPERCULINOIDES JENNYI, new species 

Plate 12, Figure 7 ; Plate 14, Figuke 7 ; Plate 17, Figure 3 ; Plate 19, Figure 7 ; 

Plate 21, Figure 9 

This species was at first separated into tAvo groups according to the 
degree of granulation of the sutures and the closeness of the coiling, 
but it is now believed that only one species is represented with a wide 
range of variation. 

Test of medium size, compressed lenticular, completely involute, 
complanate to a variable extent. The sutures are frequently irregu- 
larly beaded, and the poles are sometimes covered with a thick 
tuberculate mass of shell material, which is part of the final whorl. 
The sutures are generally raised, and strongly curved near the periph- 
ery, which they join at a very oblique angle, as in figures given by 
Cushman (1921) for O. ocalanus. Diameter, up to 6.0 mm, averaging 
3.8 mm for 20 specimens ; thickness, 0.8 to 1.0 mm. 

Sections show rather irregular coiling, a very thick outer wall, and 
a rapidly opening spiral of 2i/^ to 3i/2 whorls, with 18 to 28 chambers 
in the final whorl. Five sections selected to show the range of varia- 
tion show the follow^ino- characters: 







Number of 


Diameter 


Number of 
whorls 


chambers 
in final 
whorl 


Mm 






3.0 


2.6 


22 


3.1 


3 


18 


3.8 


3 


23 


3.7 


3.6 


21 


4.0 


3.5 


28 



The species was at first considered to be a variety of O. ocalanus 
(Cushman), but careful comparison with material from the Ocala 
limestone and with figures recently published by Vaughan (1937), 
taken in conjunction with the discovery of 0. ocalanus at a con- 
siderably higher horizon in Mexico, have led me to consider this as 
a distinct new species. Typical specimens of 0. ocalanus show fewer 
chambers in the final whorl and in general a more rapidly opening 
spiral, though rare specimens of 0. jennyi occur which show all the 
essential features of O. ocalanus. 

An interesting character of this species is show^n by transverse 
sections (see pi. 21, fig. 9). The spiral laminae show incipient sub- 
division, with splitting off of thin walls, giving lateral cavities sug- 
gestive of the lateral chambers of the Orbitoididae. This is a sim- 
ilar character to that shown by Gamerina chaiuneri Palmer, which 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

has recently been made the genotype of a new genus, Paraspiro- 
dypeus., by Hanzawa (1937, pp. 116-117). In 0. jennyi, however, 
the subdivision is much less plainly marked, the species being con- 
sidered intermediate between OpercuUnoides and Para-spiroclypeud, 
thus substantiating Hanzawa's theory of the relationship between 
the two genera. 

A further point that may perhaps have some bearing on this is the 
presence of well-marked multiple apertures (seen in median sections) 
in 0. jennyi. These have been figured by Carpenter as "secondary 
pores" (see also under 0. prenummulitlformis) and may have led 
later to subdivision of the chambers into chamberlets as seen in 
Spiroclypeus and Heterostegina. 

Ootypes.—V.^.'^M. nos. 497855-497858. 

Occurrence. — Fairly common in the Guayabal (Tempoal of ver 
Wiebe and Muir), Claiborne Eocene. Cotypes selected from an out- 
crop 11 kilometers southeast of Sabaneta, Veracruz; collection of 
Dr. H. Jenny no. 1573. 

This species is named in memory of the late Dr. Hans Jenny, who 
spent many years carrying out pioneer work in Mexican stratigraphy 
and collected the types of this and numerous other new species of 
larger Foraminifera. 

OPERCULINOIDES OCALANUS (Cushman) 

Plate 12, Figure 5; Plate 15, Figure 5 

1921. Operculina ocalana Cushman, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 12S-E, p. 129. 

pi. 19, figs. 4, 5. 
1935. Operculina ocalana Cushman, referred to new genus OpercuUnoides by 

S. Hanzawa, Sei. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., ser. 2 (Geol.), vol. 18, no. 1, p. 18. 
1937. Operculina ocalana Cushman, Vaughan in Sheppard's "Tbe Geology of 

South-Western Ecuador," pp. 158-159, figs. 113, 114. 

Cushman's original description of O. ocalanus reads as follows: 

Test complanate, much compressed, composed of two to three coils, the 
last with 16 to 18 chambers; sutures raised, confluent in the center, some- 
what rounded, the area between concave and smooth ; chambers three to four 
times as long as wide ; central area of the test umbonate ; periphery somewhat 
raised by a thickening in which the raised sutures terminate. Length as much 
as 6 millimeters. 

Geologic occurrence, Ocala limestone and Jackson formation. 

Specimens from Ecuador are considered by Vaughan to differ in 
no essential particulars but are generally of smaller size. Speci- 
mens from Mexico agree well with the general description of Cush- 
man and the later figures of Vaughan but, like the Ecuadorian 
specimens, are consistently smaller than the types. The following 
is a brief description: 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE — BARKER 317 

Test complanate, much compressed, composed of 2 to 21/2 whorls, 
the final whorl opening into a broad flange occupying the greater 
part of the test. Owing to bad state of preservation no ornament 
can be seen, the surface being worn smooth in all specimens found; 
there is evidence of the presence of an umbo at the center of the test, 
though not so marked as in typical specimens of O. ocalanus. Di- 
ameter, up to 3.0 mm (broken) ; thickness, 0.5 mm. Sections show 
12 to 14 chambers in the final whorl, chambers long and narrow and 
the septa curved throughout, more strongly so as they approach the 
periphery. As in typical 0. ocalanus the septa are somewhat raised 
and there is a strong tendency toward thickening at the periphery. 

If we take into account the fact that all the specimens examined 
were incomplete, the slight differences in size, number of whorls, and 
number of chambers in the final whorl may be neglected, especially 
as the proportional development is almost identical with typical 
specimens of O. ocalanus from Ocala limestone. 

Pleswtyfes.—V.%:^M. nos. 497859 and 497860. 

Occurrence. — In Mexico the species occurs in the Tantoyuca for- 
mation, which is considered to belong to the Jackson Eocene. A 
larger species, very closely alHed to O. ocalanus., and for a long 
time confused with that species, occurs in the Claiborne. This 
has now been referred to a new species, Operculinoides jennyi. 

OPERCULINOIDES OCALANUS (Cnshman) MINOR, new variety 

Plate 12, Figure 4; Plate 15, Figubes 1, 2; Plate 21, Figubei 3 

A number of specimens of a small species of Operculinoides have 
been sectioned and are referred to a variety of O. ocalanus (Cush- 
man), though perhaps the differences from that species are sufficient 
to warrant specific distinction. The test is much smaller but shows 
a similar umbonate form, with raised septa, the septa showing 
coarser beading or granulation than is customary in O. ocalanus. 

Sections show the test to consist of 21/2 whorls, with 15 or 16 
chambers in the final whorl. The chambers are long and narrow, 
the sutures gently and regularly curved, but showing in general a 
rather more pronounced "angle" near the periphery than O. ocalanus., 
as may be seen from the figures (pi. 15, figs. 1, 2). Diameter, 2.1 to 
2.5 mm ; thickness, 0.4 mm. 

Cotypes.—V.^.'^.'M.. nos. 497861 and 497862. 

Occurrence. — This form occurs rarely in the Guayabal formation 
(Tempoal of ver Wiebe and Muir, Claiborne) near the town of 
Tantoyuca, Veracruz. The cotypes were obtained from a locality 
east of Tempoal, Veracruz; collection of Dr. P. von Schumacher no. 
2589. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL INIUSEUM vol.86 

OPERCULINOIDES VICKSBURGENSIS Vaughan and Cole 

Plate 12, Figuke 6; Plate 18, Figitbe 2; Plate 19, Figures S, 9 

1936. Opercitlmoides vicksburgcnsis Vaughan and Coi-e, Proc. U. S. Nat. Miis., 
vol. 83, p. 490, pi. 36 (Byram Marl, Vicksburg, Jliss.). 

Description of Mexican specimens is as follows: Test small to 
medium size, compressed lenticular, completely involute, periphery 
rather thick and rounded. The sutures as seen on the exterior are 
clear lines of shell material, flush with the surface, and slightly sig- 
moid in shape. The most important feature in the external appear- 
ance is the presence of thin lines of clear shell material similar to 
the subdivision into chamberlets shown by Hefet'osteginu; these dis- 
appear on sectioning, however, or merely show as thin transparent 
lines in the shell wall. This character was also seen to be well de- 
veloped in specimens identified by the writer as O. vickshurgensis 
from the Byram marl of Byram, Miss, (see pi. 19, figs. 8, 9). Diame- 
ter, 2.0 to 3.0, average approximately '2.5 mm (compare 1.3 to 3.1 
mm for O. vickshurgensis) . 

Sections show the presence of 3 to 31 1 whorls, with 18 to 24 cham- 
bers in the last whorl. This compares closely with ?>Yi to 4 whorls, 
with 18 to 26 chambers in the final whorl in O. vickshurgensis. The 
septa are straight for two-thirds of their length, then recurve regu- 
larly and rather abruptly toward the periphery. 

Plesiotypes.—JJ.S.'^M. no. 497863. 

Occurrence. — Alazan formation (Huasteca formation of Muir), 
lower Oligocene. (Occurs generally in association with O. rnuiri.) 

Note. — There is clearly an error in the footnote given by Thiadena 
(1937, p. 97), referring his Camerina sp. C to this species, since the 
former, in my opinion, is either Plamdaria or Cristellaria (see Thia- 
dens's pi. 15, fig. 4) . 

OPERCULINOIDES OLIVERI (Cushman) 

Plate 11, Figure 1; Pl.slte 1.5, Figire 3 

1925. OpercuUna olivcri Cushman, Bull. Ainer. Assoc. Petr. GooL, vol. 9, p. 298, 

pi. 6, figs. 1, 2 (Guayabal, Rio Moctezuma, Mexico). 
1927. OpercuUna cushmani Cole, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 14, no. 51. p. 23, pi. 2, 
fig. 14 (Guayabal tj^e locality, Guayabal, Mexico). 

Test large, involute, very thin, and complanate. From the ex- 
terior the test is seen to consist of a rapidly opening spiral, the septa 
showing as raised ribs, recurved strongly toward the periphery. 
There is at times a tendency toward beading on the septa, this being 
usually more strongly developed toward the center of the test. Di- 
ameter, up to 8.0 mm, averaging 4.0 mm. 

Sections show the presence of 2 to 3 whorls, with 16 to 28 cham- 
bers in the final whorl. This large range is due to the inclusion of 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE BARKER 319 

incomplete or immature specimens, adult tests showing generally 
24 to 28 chambers in the last whorl. The chambers are long and 
narrow, the length being about five times the width, the septa thin 
and regularly curved throughout. 

Cole's O. cushmani is considered to be the same as Cushman's 
O. oliveri after careful comparison of topotype material of both 
species (from the Guayabal of the Guayabal type locality and the 
Moctezuma River, respectively), although it is possible that Cole also 
included in his species forms referred by the writer to OifercuUnoides 
vaughani (Cushman), q. v. 

0. oUveri is considered to be intermediate between O. coohei (Cush- 
man) and 0. vaughani (Cushman) and may perhaps be ancestral 
to both. These species have all been referred to Operculinoides by 
Hanzawa, and the involute nature of O. oliveri and O. vaughani is 
clearly seen on plate 11, figures 1-3, of the present account. 

Plesiotypes.—U.S.'^M. nos. 497864 and 497865. 

Occun-ence. — So far as is known, restricted to the Guayabal 
(Tempoal of ver Wiebe and Muir, Claiborne). 

OPERCULINOIDES VAUGHANI (Cushman) 

Plate 11, Figukes 2, 3 

1921. Operculina vaughani Cushman, U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 128-E, p. 

128, pi. 19, figs. 6-7. 
1933. Openulina oUveri Ellisor, non Cole, Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petr. Geol., vol. 

17, p. 1299, pi. 2, fig. 15. 

1935. Operciiliiia vaughani Cushman, Gravell and Hanna, Journ. Pal., vol. 9, 

p. 334, pi. 29, figs. 6, 9, 12, 16-21. 

As this species has been well described recently by Gravell and 
Hanna, and specimens so identified in the Mexican material are rare, 
it is not considered necessary to give here a detailed description. 
The species differs from O. oliveri (Cushman) in being of smaller 
size, rather more tightly coiled, and narrower and more numerous 
chambers and in having more regularly beaded sutures. In Mexico 
it occurs rather high in the Claiborne and is much less frequent than 
O. oUveri. The best specimens have been found in the Guayabal 
(Tempoal), Claiborne Eocene, of the Guayabal type locality of Cole; 
it also has been observed in the Guayabal exposed in the neighbor- 
hood of Tantoyuca, Veracruz. 

OPERCULINOIDES TUBERCULATUS (Vaughan and Cole) 

Plate 14, Figures 3, 5 ; Plate 20, Figures 9, 11 

1936. Operculina tuherculata Vaughan and Cole, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 83, 

p. 488, pi. 35, figs. 1-4. 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

The following description, though to some extent a repetition of 
that of Vaiighan and Cole, is based on a larger collection of ma- 
terial, including specimens from near Tempoal, Veracruz, and from 
near Tantoyuca, Veracruz. 

Test small, flattened, very thin, involute, septa raised, somewhat 
limbate, and broken up into large tubercles. The poles of the test 
also show a group of tubercles, or a large central tubercle surrounded 
by small beads. A well-developed keel gives the test a rather trun- 
cated periphery. Diameter, up to 2.0 mm, average 1.8 mm. 

Sections show regular, rather open coiling, with 2i/^ to 3 whorls, 
with 15 to 20 chambers in the final whorl. The septa are thin and 
nearly straight for one-half to two-thirds of their length, then 
gently curved toward the periphery. Chambers not very numerous, 
with a rather rectangular appearance. 

This species was long considered to be a variety of 0. mariannensis 
Vaughan (1928), from which it differs principally in the possession 
of a greater number of chambers, a thicker test and generally more 
robust form, but it is considered by Vaughan and Cole to rank as 
a distinct species. In spite of the thinness of the test and the clear 
marking of all whorls on the exterior, I believe that this species 
should be referred to Opercidirwkles. This is supported by 
Hanzawa's placing the closely allied O. mariannensis in that genus and 
by the involute nature of the test shown by the transverse sections 
figured by Vaughan and Cole (193G, pi. 35, figs. 3, 3a, and 4). My 
preparations also show this involute character. 

PJesiotypes.—V.^.'^M. nos. 407866, 409868, and 497869. 

Other specimens. — U.S.N.M. no. 497867. 

OcGwrreThce. — Tantoyuca formation, Jackson Eocene. 

OPERCULINOIDES CATENULA (Cushman and Jarvis) 

Plate 14, Figures 6, 8; Plate 18, Figuke 5; Plate 21, Figures 7, 8 

1932. OpercuUna catcnula Cushman and Jakvis, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., vol. 80, 
art. 14, p. 42, pi. 12, fig.s. 13a-b. 

Description of ^Mexican specimens ascribed to this species is as 
follows : 

Test small to medium in size, compressed lenticular, completely 
involute, with a strongly developed rounded keel. The sutures (on 
rather weathered specimens) show as raised radiating ribs, irregu- 
larly beaded, with a strong umbonal boss. Diameter, up to 3.0 mm 
(average 2.5 mm for 5 specimens) ; thickness, 0.7 to 0.85 mm (cf. 
diameter 2.25 mm, thickness 0.6 mm for O. catenula). 

Sections show a rather loosely coiled test of 2 to 2i/4 whorls with 
17 to 22 chambers in the final whorl (compare 15 chambers in the 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 15 




1, -, Opercuhnoidfs ocalanus (Cushman) minor, new variety, Guayaba! formation (Tempoa! of ver Wiebe and Muir) 
collection P. von Schumacher no. 2S89. east of Tempoal, Veracruz: 3, 0. oliveri (Cushman), Guayabal formation, 
topotype material from Romance, Rio Moclezuma; 4, Opercdinoides sp. A, Tantoyuca formation, collection P. 
von Schumacher no. 1624. east of Tempoal; 5, O. ocalan'^s (Cushman), Tantovuca formation, collection K. T. 
Ooldschmid Pit. no. 285, southeast of Tempoal. X20. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 16 




1, Opercuh'-.oide! wiUcoxu (Heilprin), Tantoyiica formation, near Tantoyuca, X'eracruz (Tanioyuca type locality): 
2, O. tuxpanemis (Thalmann), Tuxpam formation, lower Miocene, near Tuxpam, Veracruz; 3, 0. antiguensis 
Vaughan and Cole, Meson formation, near Bustos, Veracruz (Bustos Well no. 1). X20. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 17 




1, Operculinoides antiguensis Vaughan and Cole, Meson formation, Bustos Well no. 1, near Bustos, Veracruz; 2, 0. tux- 
panensis (Thalmann), Tuxpam formation, near Tuxpam, V'eracniz; 3, O. jenn\i, new species, Guayabal formation, 
near Sabaneta, Veracruz, collection H. Jenny no. 1573; 4, 0. prenummuliiijormis , new species, Guayabal formation, 
well sample, Poza Rica no. 8; 5, 0. nummiditijormis (Rutten), Tantoyuca formation, collection P. von Schumacher 
no. 2412, east of Tempoal, Veracruz. X20. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 18 




1, Operculinoides palmarealensis, new species, Alazan formation (Huasteca of Muir), Mecatepec Well no. 5; 2, O. 
vicksbuTctnsis Vauchan and Cole, Alazan formation, collection E. Gevaerts no. 292, southern Miahuapam, Vera- 
cruz; 3. Camerina v3ndfrsioki (Rutten and Vermunt), Guayabal formation, near Furbero. Veracruz., collection J. 
Clopton no. 21: 4, C. guayahiUns^s, new species, Guayabal (Tempoal of ver Wiebe and Muir), well sample, Poza 
Rica no. S; 5, Operculinoidts catenida (Cushman and Jarvis), lower part of Chicontepec formation, near Sabaneta, 
Veracruz, collection W. Tappolet no. 1848. X20. 



SPECIES OF CAMERIIsriDAE — BARKER 321 

last whorl in 0. catenula). The sutures are rather thick and gently 
curved, the keel showing as a thick outer shell wall along the 
periphery. 

O. catenula was described by Cushman and Jarvis from beds in 
Trinidad regarded as Upper Cretaceous, showing many species in 
common with the Velasco of Mexico. There seems little doubt that 
the Mexican species should be referred to 0. catenula, or, if not to 
that species, to a variety, but the original description alid figures 
are inadequate for exact determination of the original species and 
compai-ative material was unfortunately not available for study. It 
has been placed in O perculinoides on account of the involute nature 
and the rather loose coiling. In some respects it is not unlike 
Pellatispirella but lacks the special features of the aperture and 
construction of the shell wall of that species. 

Plesiotypes.—V.^.'^M. nos. 4978T0 and 497871. 

Occurrence. — In Mexico the species occurs in beds of doubtful 
age, which may perhaps be referable to the Chicontepec (probably 
Tanlajas formation of Muir). 

OPERCULINOIDES species A 

Plate 15, Figure 4 ; Plate 21, Figure 6 

Test small, compressed, completely involute. Ornamentation, if 
present, is completely obscured by the bad state of preservation. 
Diameter, 2.2 mm (average) ; thickness, 0.5 mm. Sections show 214 
to 21/2 whorls, with 21 to 23 chambers in the final whorl. The septa 
are rather thick and regularly curved throughout their length. 

In many respects this species is simila'r to perculinoides advenus 
Vaughan and Cole, which has not been observed in the collections 
examined. It differs from the latter, however, in having fewer coils 
and being in general a smaller form. On account of the small amount 
of material available, it has been thought inadvisable to give a 
specific denomination at the present time. 

Gotypes.—V.^.'^M. nos. 497872 and 497873. 

Occurrence. — Rare in the Tantoyuca formation, Jackson Eocene. 
The above description is based on specimens obtained east of Tempoal, 
Veracruz ; collection of Dr. P. von Schumacher no. 1624. 

OPERCULINOIDES species B 

Plate 12, Figure 3 ; Plate 20, Figure 7 ; Plate 21, Figure 5 

Test small, compressed lenticular, completely involute, surface 
smooth, without ornamentation, septa showing as lines of clear shell 
material. A number of small, regularly spaced tubercles occur be- 
tween the septa, in a line parallel to and near the periphery (see 



322 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

pi. 12, fig. 3) ; these may appear only on weathering and are of value 
in distinguishing this species from other closely similar small species. 
Diameter, average 2.0 mm ; thickness, 0.5 mm. 

Sections show the test to be close-coiled, consisting of 4 to 5 whorls, 
with 22 to 24 chambers in the final whorl. The septa are of mod- 
erate thickness, oblique and gently curved, the chambers being only 
slightly longer than wide. Owing to the rarity of the species in the 
collections examined the material is considered insufficient for the 
erection of a new species. 

Ooti/pes.—U.S.l^M. nos. 497874, 497875, 497876, and 497877. 

OccurreTwe.—Gnayahal (ver Wiebe's Tempoal), Claibor.ie Eocene; 
rare. The description is based on specimens from the Tantoyuca 
region, Veracruz ; collection of H. E. Rankin no. 277. 

? OPERCULINOIDES species 
Plate 20, Figure 6; Plate 21, Figure 4 

Test small, compressed lenticular, sharply keeled, and completely 
involute. The sutures are nearly straight, radiating, and show a 
slight tendency to become beaded toward the center. The appearance 
is similar to flattened specimens of Camerina jack.9on^nsis Gravell and 
Hanna. Diameter (for 10 specimens), 1.3 mm; thickness, 0.3 to 
0.4 mm. 

Sections show a test of 3 to 3i/^ whorls, with 11 to 13 chambers 
in the final whorl. The septa are oblique and only slightly curved, 
the chambers being slightly greater in width than in length. From 
the scarcity and bad state of preservation of the material it is diffi- 
cult to say whether the species should be referred to Camerhia or 
Operculinoides, and for these reasons it is considered unwise to give 
a name to the species until more and better preserved material is 
available for further study. 

Cotypes.—U.S.l^iM. nos. 497878 and 497870. 

Occurrence. — ^^^ery rare in the Tantoyuca formation, Jackson 
Eocene. The description is based on specimens from near Los Ajos, 
Hacienda Santa Clara, southeast of Tantoyuca, Veracruz; collection 
of Dr. H. Meyer no. 1471. 

Genus CAMERINA Bruguiere, 1792 

CAMERINA VANDERSTOKI (Rutten and Vermunt) 

Plate 13, Figure 7 ; Pl.\te 18, Figure 3 ; Plate 22, Figures 10-12 

1932. Nnmmulites vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt, Proc. Sect. Sci. Kon. Akad. 
Wetensch. Amsterdam, vol. 35, p. 240, pi. 1, fig. 8 ; pi. 2, figs. 6, 12. 

One of the commoner forms of Camerina found in Mexico has been 
referred to C. vanderstoki, after careful comparison with the fig- 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE — BARKER 



323 



ures and description of that species, and although it occurs at a 
lower horizon in Mexico (Claiborne) than in Curasao (Jackson) it 
is considered to be at most only a minor variant of Rutten and 
Vermunt's species. As the stratigraphy of the various West Indian 
islands is in a somewhat chaotic state, there may perhaps be an 
error in the horizon ascribed to N. vanderstoki in Curasao. 

Description of the Mexican specimens is as follows : Test small to 
medium in size, flattened lenticular, completely involute, sutures 
rather obscure owing to state of preservation, radiate, may be slightly 
raised (due to weathering?), with a tendency to form beads of clear 
shell material in the umbonal region. Diameter, up to 4.5 mm, average 
3.5 mm; average thickness, 1.2 mm (1.1 to 1.3 mm for 7 specimens). 

Sections show 4% to 51/2 whorls, with 27 to 30 chambers in the 
final whorl. The septa are regular, nearly straight for a little more 
than half their length, then evenly recurved toward the periphery. 
The chambers are rather longer in proportion to their width than 
in the smaller, somewhat similar species, Cainerina guayahalensis. 
Below are given figures for comparison of material from Mexico 
with the type from Curagao : 



Species 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Number of 
of whorls 


Chambers 
in final 
whorl 


Camerina vanderstoki Mexican specimens.. 
Nummulites vanderstoki Rutten and Ver- 


Mm 
3.5 

3.0 


Mm 
1.2 

1.2-1.25 


4.5-5 
4.5-5 


27-30 
18-24 





Phsiotypes.—V.S.^M. nos. 497880, 497881, and 497882. 
Otlcer specimens.— U.S.^M. nos. 497883 and 497884. 

CAMERINA MOODYBRANCHENSIS Gravell and Hanna 

Plate 13, Figxxre 5 ; Plate 20, Figube 2 ; Plate 22, Figure 2 

1935. Camerma moodyhranchensis Gr^vvell and Hajnna, Journ. Pal., vol. 9, p. 
332 ; pi. 29, figs. 15, 22-24. 

This species has been well described and figured already by Gravell 
and Hanna, so only a few notes will be given on Mexican specimens 
ascribed to this species. 

Test small to medium in size, compressed lenticular, completely in- 
volute. The septa are not raised and show as nearly straight radiat- 
ing lines of clear shell material. Diameter, average 2.5 mm; thick- 
ness, 0.7 to 0.8 mm. 

Sections show a rather tightly coiled test of 4 to 5 whorls with 
25 to 30 chambers in the final whorl. The septa are gently curved 
and only very slightly oblique. A comparison of the dimensions and 



324 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.88 

the accompanying figures with those given by Gravell and Hanna 
sliows only slight divergences, and this is supported by comparison 
of Mexican specimens with material identified as G. moodyhranchsmi^ 
from a well core in Montgomery County, Tex. 

PUsioty'pes.—V.S.'^:^l. nos. 497885, 497887, and 497888. 

Other specimens.— U.S.IUM. no. 497886. 

Occurrence.— Tantojucsi formation, Jackson Eocene, in Tantoyuca 

area. 

CAMERINA JACKSONENSIS Gravell and Hanna 

Plate 13, Figube 6 ; Plate 20, Figure 8 ; Plate 22, Figure 9 

1935. Camerina jacksonemis Geavell and Hanna, Journ. Pal., vol. 9, p. 331; 
pi. 29, figs. 1-5, 7-8, 10-11, 13-14. 

Mexican specimens identified as C. jachsonemis may be described 

as follows: 

Test small, lenticular, completely involute. The septa are of clear 
shell material, radiating, straight to slightly curved, and generally 
obscurely beaded toward the mnbonal region, where there is a mass 
of clear shell material of varying extent. Diameter (average for 
10 specimens), 1.6 mm; thickness, average 0.6 mm. 

Sections show a regularly coiled test of 4 to 4>/2 whorls with 
15 to 19 chambers in the final whorl. The septa are oblique and 
show a gentle, even curvature. The spacing of the septa appears 
to be somewhat variable, some specimens showing open spacing with 
chambers nearly as wide as long (see pi. 20, fig. 8) and others a much 
closer spacing with chambers correspondingly more elongate. Typi- 
cal specmiens, as figured by Gravell and Hanna, show stronger bead- 
ing than is usually shown by the Mexican material, but this is con- 
sidered to be insignificant. 

PZesw)%/>es.— U.S.N.M. nos. 497889 and 497890. 

Occwrrence. — Occurs fairly abundantly in the lower part of the 
Tantoyuca formation, Jackson Eocene. 

CAMERINA JACKSONENSIS GLOBOSA new variety 

Plate 13, Figubes 1, 2 ; Plate 20, Figubes 4, 5 ; Plate 22, Figures 5, 6 

Test small, stoutly lenticular to subglobose, completely involute, 
with sharply keeled periphery. The sutures are seen to be radiate 
and may be raised into ribs, which tend to be beaded to a variable 
extent, especially toward the center, where they frequently coalesce 
into a boss of clear shell material. Diameter, up to 2.0 mm (average 
1.7 mm) ; thickness, average 0.9 mm. 

Sections show the test to be rather tightly coiled, consisting of 
41^ to 5 whorls, with 15 to 17 chambers in the final whorl. The 
septa are oblique and gently curved throughout their length. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 19 









*^^^f' 




1-6, Operculinoides semm.'si V'aughan and Cole, Meson formation, near Potrero del Llano, Veracruz; 7, 0. jennyi 
new species, Guayabal formation (Tempoal of ver VViebe and Muir), near Sabaneta, Veracruz, collection H. 
Jenny no. 1573; 8, 9, 0. vicksburgensis Vaughan and Cole, specimens from Byram, Miss., for comparison with 
Mexican specimens. X20. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 20 




1, Operculinoides muiri, new species, A'.azan formation (Huasteca of Muir), collection E. Gevaerls no. 269, southern 
Miahuapam, Veracruz; 2, Camerina moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna, Tan'.oyuca, well sample, Poza Rica 
no. 7; 3, .?C. dickfrsoni Palmer, Cardenas beds (Upper Cretaceous), near Cardenas, San Luis Potosi, X42; 
4, S, C. jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna globosa, new variety, Tantoyuca formation, near Tantoyuca, Veracruz, 
collection W. H. Hegwein no. 2483; 6, Wperculinoides sp., Tantoyuca formation, collection H. Meyer no. 1471, 
near Los Ajos, Santa Clara, southeast of Tantoyuca; 7, Operculinoides sp. B, Guayabal formation (Tempoal of 
Muir and ver Wiebe), collection H. Rankin no. 277, Tantoyuca region; 8, Camerina jacksonensis Gravell and 
Hanna, Tantoyuca formation, Tantoyuca type localiry, near Tantoyuca; 9, 11, Operculinoides tuberculatus 
(Vaughan and Cole), Tantoyuca formation, collection W. H. Hegwein no. 1559, Tantoyuca region; 10, Camerina 
pellatispiroides, new species, El Cristo Well no. 1. All figures e.xcept fig. 3 X20. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 21 




1, OpercuUnoides ntimmulitiformis (Rutten), Tantoyuca formation, collection P. von Schumacher no. 2412, east 
of Tempoal, Veracruz; 2, 0. prenunimulitiformis, new species, Guayabal formation, well sample, Poza Rica 
no. 8; 3, 0. ocalanus (Cushman) minor, new variety, Guayabal formation, collection P. von Schumacher no. 
2589, east of Tempoal; 4, tOperculinoides sp., Tantoyuca formation, collection H. Meyer no. 1471, near Los 
Aj'os, Santa Clara, southeast of Tantoyuca: 5, OpercuUnoides sp. B, Guayabal formation, collection H. E. 
Rankin no. 277, near Tantoyuca; 6, OpercuUnoides sp. A, Tantoyuca formation, collection P. von Schumacher 
no. 1624, east of Tempoal; 7, 8, 0. catenula (Cushman and Jarvis), lower part of Chicontepec formation, near 
Sabaneta, collection W. Tappolet no. 1848, X27; 9, O.jennyi, new species, Guayabal formation (Temporal of 
ver Wiebe and Muir), near Sabaneta, collection H. Jenny no. 1573; 10, 11, 0. anti^uensis V'aughan and Cole, 
Meson formation, bluff below Tampico Country Club, Tampico, Tamaulipas; 12, i'C. dickersoni Palmer, Car- 
denas beds (Upper Cretaceous), Cardenas, San Luis Potosi, X42; 13, 0. zuillcoxii (Heilprin), Tantoyuca type 
locality, near Tantoyuca on road to Chopopo, Veracruz. All figures except figs. 7, 8, and 12 X20. 



U. S. NATIONAL. MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 22 




1, Operculinoides muiri, new species, Alazan formation '.Huasieca of Muir), collection K. Cjevaerts no. 20'', 
southern Miahuapam, Veracruz; 2, Camerina moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna, Tantoyuca formation, 
well sample, Poza Rica no. 7; 3, C. guayabaUnsis, new species, Guayabal formation (Tempoal of ver Wiebe 
and Muir), well sample, Poza Rica no. 8: 4, C. ptllatispiroides, new species, lower part of Chicontepac forma- 
tion, Fl Cristo Well no. 1, Veracruz; 5, 6, C. jachsoiensis Gravell and Hanna globoid, new variety, Tantoyuca 
formation, collection W. H. Hegwein no. 1503, near Tantoyuca; 7, 8. Operculinoides palmareaUnsis, new 
species, Alazan formation (Huasteca of Muir), Mecatepec Well no. 5, Veracruz; 9, C. jacksomnsis Gravell 
and Hanna, Tantoyuca formation, Tantoyuca type locality, Tantoyuca-Chopopo road, Veracruz; 10-12, 
Camerina vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt), Guayabal formation, near Tempoal, Veracruz, collection A. T. 
Nolthenius no. 157. X20. 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE — BARKER 325 

The principal difference from typical C. jachsonensis lies in th© 
more globose form of the test, as is indicated by the varietal name. 
This is clearly shown by the transverse sections figured. 

Cotypes.—U.^.'^M. nos. 497891, 497894-497896. 

Other speciTnens.—V.S.^M. nos. 497892 and 497893. 

Occurrence. — The variety occurs in the Tantoyuca formation, 
Jackson Eocene, possessing a similar range and distribution to the 
typical form. 

CAMERINA GUAYABALENSIS, new species 

Plate 13, Figuee 4 ; Plate 18, Figuke 4 ; Plate 22, Figltke 3 

Test small to medium in size, compressed globose-lenticular, and 
completely involute. The strongly developed rounded keel of clear 
shell material gives a somewhat truncated appearance to the periph- 
ery. Septa nearly straight, anastomosing to a variable extent at the 
poles of the test, where there may be developed a small mass of clear 
shell material. Diameter averages 2.8 mm, with a maximum ob- 
served of 3.5 mm ; average thickness, 0.85 to 0.95 mm. 

Median sections show regular coiling with a thick outer wall 
(forming the keel mentioned above). The chambers are typically 
camerinid in character, being nearly as wide as long, with nearly 
straight septa, slightly oblique and joining the periphery in a gentle 
curve. There are 4% to 5 whorls, with 24 to 27 chambers in the 
final whorl. The canal system is typically that of Camerina. 

This species is in many respects similar to G. vanderstoki (Rutten 
and Vermunt), both in exterior and in section, but the latter is gen- 
erally larger and thicker, does not show such a heavily developed 
keel (with truncation of the periphery), and in section shows more 
chambers in the final whorl (28 to 30 chambers in G. vanderstohi 
compared with 24 to 27 in G. guaydbalensis) . 

Gotypes.—V.^.'^M. nos. 497897 and 497898. 

Occurrence. — In the Guayabal (Tempoal of ver Wiebe and Muir) 
this species is of fairly frequent occurrence, in association as a rule 
with Eulinderina guaydbalensis (Nuttall) and Operculinoides pre- 
numrriulitiformis. Cotypes have been selected from Mecatepec Well 
no. 5 and Poza Rica Well no. 8, Veracruz, the latter material giving 
superior results on sectioning. 

CAMERINA PELLATISPIROIDES, new species 
Plate 20, Figure 10 ; Plate 22, Figure 4 

While investigating samples from El Cristo Well no. 1 with a 
view to obtaining topotype material of Discocyclina eristensis 
(Vaughan) and Actinosiphon semmesi Vaughan, I found several 
specimens of a small globose camerinid. On sectioning, the species 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

was seen to differ very considerably from any other Mexican form 
examined, being similar in some respects to Camerina icadiai (L. M. 
Davies, 1927, p. 273, pi. 21, figs. 17, 18; pi. 22, figs. 7-9), from the 
Eocene of India. With the recent appearance of Hanzawa's (1937) 
paper on PeUatispireUa it was seen to show close affinities with that 
genus, and for a time was thought to be allied to P. antiUea Han- 
zawa. Detailed sectioning shows, however, that though measure- 
ments agree well with that species, the apertural characters are those 
of OpercuUna and Camerina^ and no evidence was found of the 
complex double shell wall characteristic of PeUatispireUa. The canal 
system seems to be much simpler than is usual in Camerina^ showing 
many similarities to Pellatisplrella., and the species may be ancestral 
to that genus, thus giving some slight evidence for the inclusion of 
PeUatispireUa in the Camerinidae. 

A description of the new species is as follows : Test small, globosely 
lenticular, completely involute. The ornament is not discernible 
owing to the very poor state of preservation, with secondary crystal- 
lization on the exterior. Diameter, 1.5 to 2.0 mm; thickness, 1.0 mm. 

Sections show the test to consist of 2 to 2i/^ whorls, with 7 or 8 
chambers in the first whorl. 15 or 16 in the second whorl, and in the 
case of larger specimens (21/2 whorls), 16 or 17 chambers in the 
final whorl. The initial chamber, which is spherical to subspherical 
in shape, measures 220/i, to 270/i. in diameter. The walls and septa 
are very thick, the latter being rather irregular and only slightly 
curved. The canal system consists of a well-developed marginal cord, 
as in Rotalia, with few branches (in distinction from the many 
branching marginal system in Camerina) ; strongly developed septal 
canals; vertical canals, especially in the umbonal region, are seen in 
transverse sections. 

Cotypes.—V.^.^M. no. 497899. 

Occurrence. — Basal Eocene, in association with Discocyclina cris- 
tensis (Vaughan) and Actinosiphon semmesi Vaughan (probably 
€hicontepec, or the Tanlajas of Muir). Cotypes have been selected 
from samples from El Cristo Well no. 1, 3,785-3,790 feet. 

7CAMERINA DICKERSONI Palmer 

Plate 20, Figure 3 ; Plate 21, Figube 12 

1934. ICamerina dickersoni Palmer, Mom. See. Cubana Hist. Nat., vol. 8, p. 243, 
figs. 4, 5, pi. 14, figs. 1, 2, 4, 6, 8. 

Test very small, compressed lenticular, completely involute, with 
a well-developed keel of clear shell material. The septa are radiate, 
gently curved, terminating at the umbo in a rather large central boss. 
Diameter (average for 10 specimens), 1.0 mm; thickness, 0.3 to 
0.45 mm. 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE BARKER 



327 



Sections show 2l^ to 2% whorls, with 17 to 20 chambers in the 
final whorl, but as the specimens are badly preserved it is possible 
that well-preserved adult specimens would show a slightly larger 
test with more chambers in the final whorl. The septa are seen to 
be thick, with well-marked canals giving the appearance of double 
shell walls. The general appearance in both median and transverse 
sections differs considerably from that of Camerina, there being 
closer resemblance to PeIlatisj)irelJa as suggested by Hanzawa (1937, 
p. 115), though the sections fail to reveal the typical apertural char- 
acters and structure of the shell wall and canal-system of that genus. 
It is possible that this species, with C. cubensis Palmer and G. ver- 
munti Thiadens, all occurring in the Upper Cretaceous, should be 
referred to a new genus, one of the principal features being the 
presence of a deep peripheral groove not seen in other species of 
Camerinidae. 

The principal difference between C. dichersoni and C. vermunti 
(from study of Mexican specimens of the former) seems to be in 
the form of the septa, which are much thicker and more curved in 
the former species. Other characters are compared in the following 
table : 



Species 


Diameter 


Thickness 


Number of 
whorls 


Number of 

chambers 

in final 

whorl 


C dickersoni Palmer. 


Mm 
I 1.0 
U.O 
1.0-1.5 


Mm 
10.33 
0. 3-0. 45 
0. 4-0. 7 


2.5 
2. 5-2. 75 
3-3.5 


16 
17-20 
19-23 


C. dickersoni Palmer (Mexican specimens). 
C. vermunti Thiadens 





» CotjT)e. 
> Average. 

It is seen that the Mexican specimens approximate very closely C. 
dicJcersoTd^ although the differences between the three species are not 
great. 

Plesiotypes.—U.S.'^M. nos. 497901 and 497902. 

Other specimens. — U.S.N.M. no. 497900. 

Occurrence. — This species occurs in Mexico in the Upper Cretaceous 
Cardenas beds exposed in the railroad cuttings near Cardenas, San 
Luis Potosi, where it is associated with Lepidorhitoides ininima 
Douville and fMeandropsina rutteni Palmer. This is a similar assem- 
blage to that reported from Cuba, and to date the species has not been 
recorded from other localities in the Tampico Embayment. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Babkes(, Reginald Wright. 

1936. Micropaleoutology in Mexico with special reference to the Tampico 

Embayment. Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petr. Geol., vol. 20, pp. 433-456, 

2 figs. 
Cakpenteb, WnxiAM Benjamin. 

1862. Introduction to the study of the Foraminifera, xxii + 319 pp., 47 figs., 

22 pis. Ray Society, London. 
Cole, W. Stoeks. 

1927. A foraminiferal fauna from the Guayabal formation in Mexico. Bull. 

Amer. Pal., vol. 14, no. 51, 46 pp., 5 pis. 

1928. A foraminiferal fauna from the Chapapote formation in Mexico. Bull. 

Amer. Pal., vol. 14, no. 53, 32 pp., 4 pis. 

1929. Three new Claiborne fossils. Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 15, no. 56, 10 pp., 

2 pis. 
Cole, W. Stobrs, and Ponton, Gehiald Mungo. 

1930. The Foraminifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida. Florida 

State Geol. Surv. Bull. 5, pp. 19-69, 7 pis. 
CusHMAN, Joseph Augustine. 

1918. The larger fossil Foraminifera of the Panama Canal Zone. U. S. 

Nat. Mus. Bull. 103, pp. 89-102, 12 pis. 

1919. Fossil Foraminifera from the "West Indies. Carnegie Inst. Wash- 

ington Puhl. 291, pp. 21-71, 8 figs., 15 pis. 
1921. American species of OpercuUna and Heterostegina and their faunal 
relations. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 128-E, pp. 125-137, 4 pis. 
1925. An Eocene fauna from the Moctezuma River, Mexico. Bull. Amer. 
Assoc. Petr. Geol., vol. 9, pp. 29&-303, 3 pis. 
Davies, Arthur Morley. 

1935. Tertiary faunas, vol. 1 (see section on Nummulitldae, pp. 32-49, and 
bibliography of that group), 406 pp., 565 figs. London. 
Davies, L. Meeson. 

1927. The Ranikot beds at Thai (North-west Frontier Provinces of India). 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. 83, pt 2, pp. 260-289, 7 figs., 5 pis. 
Geaveix, Don^vld Winchester, and Hanna, Marcus Albert. 

1935. Larger Foraminifera from the Moody's Branch marl, Jackson Eocene, 
of Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. Journ. Pal., vol. 9, pp. 327- 
340, 1 map, 4 pis. 
Hanzawa, Shoshir6. 

1935. Some fossil OpercuUna and Miogypsina from Japan and their strati- 
graphical significance. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ., ser. 2 (Geol.), 
vol. 18, pp. 1-29, 3 pis. 

1937. Notes on some interesting Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifera from 

the West Indies. Journ. Pal., vol. 11, pp. 110-117, 2 pis. 
Heilprin, Angelo. 

1882. On the occurrence of nummulitic deposits in Florida, and the as- 
sociation of Nummulites with a fresh-water fauna. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 34, pp. 189-193, 2 figs. 

328 



SPECIES OF CAMERINIDAE BARKER 329 

HOFKEB. J. 

1927. The Foramiuifera of the Siboga Expedition. Siboga-Bxpeditie, 

monogr. 4 (livr. 107), pt. 1, 78 pp., 11 figs., 38 pis. 
MoBius, Karl. 

1880. Foraminifera von Mauritius, in "Beitrage zur Meeresfauna der 

Insel Mauritius uud der Seychellen," pp. 66-136, 14 pis. Berlin. 
MuiB, John M. 

1936. Geology of the Tampico region, Mexico, xix+280 pp., 41 figs. Tulsa, 

Okla. 

NUTTALL, WiNFRED LAURENCE FalKINEK. 

1928. Tertiary Foraminifera from the Naparima region of Trinidad, British 

West Indies. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soe., vol. 84, pp. 57-115, 6 pis. 
1932. Lower Oligocene Foraminifera from Mexico. Journ. Pal., vol. 6, 
pp. 3-35, 9 pis. 
Palmer, Dorothy Kemper. 

1934. Some large fossil Foraminifera from Cuba. Mem. Soc. Cubana Hist. 

Nat., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 235-264, 5 pis. 
KuTTEN, Louis Martin Robert. 

1928a. On Tertiary rocks and Foraminifera from north-western Peru. 

Proc. Sect. Sci. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, vol. 31, pp. 

931-946, 6 figs., 2 pis. 

1928b. On Tertiary Foraminifera from Curagao. Proc. Sect. Sci. Kon. 

Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, vol. 31, pp. 1061-1070, 2 figs., 1 pi. 

RUTTEN, M. G. 

1935. Larger Foraminifera of northern Santa Clara Province, Cuba. 

Journ. Pal., vol. 9, pp. 527-545, 3 figs., 4 pis. 
Rutten, M. G., and Vermunt, L. W. J. 

1932. The Seroe di Cueba limestona from Curagao. Proc. Sect. Sci. Kon. 
Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, vol. 35, pp. 227-240, 2 figs., 3 pis. 
Thalmann, Hans E. 

1935. Liste der Foraminiferen von der Typus-Lokalitat der miozanen 

Tuxpan-Stufe (Ciudad de Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico). Eclogae 
geol. Helvetiae, vol. 28, pp. 602-605, 1 fig. 
Thiadens, a. a. 

1937. Cretaceous and Tertiary Foraminifera from southern Santa Clara 

Province, Cuba. Journ. Pal., vol. 11, pp. 91-109, 3 figs., 5 pis. 
Vaughan, Thomas Wayland. 

1924. American and European Tertiary larger Foramiuifera. Bull. Geol. 
Soc. Amer., vol. 35, pp. 785-822, 6 figs., 7 pis. 

1928. New species of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala limestone. 

19th Ann. Rep. Florida State Geol. Surv., pp. 155-165, 2 pis. 

1929. Additional new species of Tertiary larger Foraminifera from Jamaica. 

Journ. Pal., vol. 3, pp. 373-383, 3 pis. 
1937. The Tertiary larger Foraminifera of South-west Ecuador, in George 
Sheppard's "The Geology of South-Western Ecuador," chap. 5, pp. 
150-175, 9 figs. London. 
Vaughan, Thomas Wayland, and Cole, W. Stobbs. 

1936. New Tertiary Foraminifera of the genera Operculina and OperciiUn- 

oides from North America and the West Indies. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 83, pp. 487-496, 4 pis. 



NOTE 

Additional American species of OpercuUna and Nummulites (Camerina) have 
been described by F. M. Anderson {N. carmencnsis. Proc. California Acad. Sci., 
ser. 4, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 26, pi. 1, figs. 23, 24, 1928) ; Katherine van Winkle 
Palmer (N. costaricensis, Bull. Amer. Pal., vol. 10, no. 40, p. 9, pi. 1, fig. 9, 
1923) ; P. J. Pijpers (0. ionaircnsis, "Geology and Palaeontology of Bonaire 
(Dutch West Indies)," p. 56, pi. 1. figs. 32, 33, 1933); and Willard Berry 
(O. atascaderensis, 0. a. samanlca, O. peruviana, O. samanica, and O. talara, 
Eclogae geol. Helvetiae, vol. 23, 1930, and Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 
22, 1932). These are not considered of suflicient importance in connection 
vrith the present studies to warrant their inclusion in the foregoing list of 
literature. 

While the present account was awaiting publication two important additions 
were made to the literature of the American species of Camerinidae ; namely, 
"The Lcpidocj/cUna tcxana Horizon in the Ilctcrosicijixa Zone, Upper Oligocene 
of Texas and Louisiana," by Donald AV. Gravell and Marcus A. Hanua (Journ. 
Pal., vol. 11, pp. 517-529, pis. (50-65, 1937), in which two new species wene de- 
scribed {Opcrculinoides cUisorae and 0. hou-ei), and "Stratigraphy and Micro- 
paleontology of Two Deep Wells in Florida," by W. Storrs Cole (Florida Dept. 
Couserv. Geol. Bull. 10, pp. 1-73, pis. 1-12, 1938), referring to several American 
species of Operculinoides, with excellent figures. It is regretted that these 
publications were received too late for inclusion in the discussion of the Mexican 
species of Operculinoides. Reference should also be made to a recent paper by 
Donald W. Gravell and Marcus A. Hanua, entitled "Subsurface Tertiary Zones 
of Correlation through Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida" (Bull. Amer. Assoc. 
Petr. Geol., vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 984-1013, pis. 1-17, 1938), in which notes are given 
regarding the distribution and zonal value of a number of species of Camerin- 
idae, and several species are figured. 
330 



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Vol. 86 Washington : 1939 No^ 3953 

THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE: A CONTRIBUTION 
TOWARD A REVISION OF THE AMERICAN PYRALI- 
DOID MOTHS OF THE FAMILY PHYCITIDAE 



By Carl Heinrich 



INTRODUCTION 

This paper is the first of a proposed series dealing with the Amer- 
ican moths of the family Phycitidae. It is my intention to publish 
from time to time revisions of those groups that, in other orders, are 
usually designated as tribes, and to conclude with a general discus- 
sion of the family, synoptic keys to these groups and their genera, 
and, if circumstances permit, an illustrated catalog of the American 
species. 

The cactus-feeding group is treated first because names are desired 
for certain undescribed species reared in connection with the investi- 
gations of the Commonwealth Prickly-Pear Board of Queensland. 
For several years A. P. Dodd and his associates on the board have 
been experimenting with cactus insects in an effort to eradicate or 
control the prickly pear in Australia. Apparently they have been 
successful. One phycitid species, Cactohlastis cactorum (Berg), has 
been liberated in Queensland and New South Wales and seems to 
have established itself and attacked the "pear" with phenomenal suc- 
cess. Mr. Dodd has in preparation a book dealing with the experi- 
ments of the board and the life histories of the insects they have 
studied. It is largely in anticipation of that book that the present 
taxonomic paper is offered. 

109335—39 1 331 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.88 

Eighteen genera, 46 species, and 2 varieties are here treated. Of 
these, 8 genera and 8 species are described as new. The genus Zopho- 
dia Hiibner is included because, although not a cactus insect, its 
structural characters link it closely with the cactus-feeding group and 
also because a number of cactus phycitids either have been described 
in that genus or later referred to it. In addition to Zophodia itself 
there are a few species now listed in Eumysia Dyar and Laetilia 
Eagonot that share most of the structural characters of the cactus- 
feeding group. To the best of my knowledge, however, they are not 
cactus insects and belong to a different though closely allied group. 
They will be treated separately in a later paper. 

I am greatly obliged to Alan P. Dodd and R. C. Mundell, of the 
Australian Prickly-Pear Board, for specimens, larval and adult, of 
the tropical species. Nearly all the reared material in this group 
from South America has come to the National collection from Mr. 
Dodd, Mr. Mundell, and Mr. Haywood or has been received through 
them. Mr. Dodd also has sent me his unpublished notes on the dis- 
tribution, food plants,^ and larval habits of the tropical species. 
With his permission I am using such of this information as is needed 
for purely taxonomic purposes. His forthcoming book will contain 
more detailed accounts of the various species, their life histories and 
earlier stages. 

The Phycitidae is a family of prime economic importance. For its 
size it probably contains a greater percentage of species of concern 
to the economic entomologist than any other family of the Lepidop- 
tera. It is important, therefore, that its members be classified in 
something approaching a natural order, that the genera and their 
grouping conform to the facts of biology and host relationship, and 
that larvae and unassociated females may be identified as well as the 
male moths. In the cactus-feeding group, as also in some other 
groups, we have enough information to attempt such a classification ; 
and in future papers I hope to be able to follow through the scheme 
here adopted, namely, a definition of genera based upon adult and, as 
far as they are known, larval structural characters, host associations, 
wing pattern, and biology. I do not flatter myself with the thought 
that I shall entirely succeed ; but the trial at least is imperative. 

At present the classification of the Phycitinae is a hopeless muddle. 
No one seems to know just what a generic concept stands for or to 
what genus a given species (which is not a genotype) should go. 
This is not so much the fault of any entomologist as it is of the 
phycitids themselves. The family is a fluid one. There are few 
obvious, hard-and-fast divisions anywhere, nor can real divisions, 
when established, be defined in simple, categorical terms; for there 

1 Plant names used in this paper follow Britton and Rose, "The Cactaceae," Carnegie 
Inst. Washington Publ. 248, vols. 1-4, 1919-1923. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 333 

is hardly a single structural character that does not break down 
somewhere. In any large series of any given species there are speci- 
mens wherein the venation, for example, varies from that of the 
genus or the larger group. The palpal characters grade into one 
another by almost imperceptible degrees and are apt to explode 
altogether. For example, a perfectly good Dioryctria may have an 
aigrettelike male maxillary palpus (which should place it in 
Sdlebria) while its most closely related species and one hardly dis- 
tinguishable otherwise may have a perfectly normal squamous pal- 
pus. The male of one species may have a short cell and seven veins 
in the hind wing while its female exhibits a long cell and eight veins. 
Wing pattern and color also vary to some extent but on the whole 
are more reliable for specific placement than are venational, palpal, 
or antennal characters for genera. The genitalia, both male and 
female, seem to be more constant than other structures and to offer 
the best characters for the identification of species and genera; but 
they, too, must be used with caution. A classification based upon 
them alone would be as misleading as any other. 

Up to the present only one serious and noteworthy attempt has 
been made to classify the family, that of Ragonot in his monumental 
"Monographie des Phycitinae et des Galleriinae." ^ He left the 
second volume unfinished at his death, but Hampson completed it 
from his notes, and Hampson himself was working on a generic 
revision of the Phycitinae when he retired from active entomological 
work. Ragonot's system was based chiefly upon venation, palpal 
structure, vestiture, and secondary male characters. In its broader 
outlines it was a natural classification; but its great reliance upon 
secondary male characters made it unworkable for unassociated 
females; and many species were then and later described from such 
females and had to be placed by guesswork. The genera themselves 
were more or less artificial entities and (except for the monotypic 
genera and some with very few species) usually included species not 
closely related to one another or not conforming on all definitive 
characters. 

Hulst, who worked contemporaneously with Ragonot, followed, 
in his own careless fashion, the Ragonot system. He made some 
attempt to use the male genitalia, but his observations were entirely 
superficial and sporadic, and his statements concerning these struc- 
tures are more often misleading than not. Dyar, Hampson, Meyrick, 
Caradja, and later authors have published only descriptions of new 
genera and species. Dr. A. J. T. Janse has made an extensive study 
of the South African Phycitidae and has given special attention to 



» Mfimolres sur les Lfipldoptferes, toI. 7, 1893 ; toI. 8, 1901. 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

the genitalia. He probably knows the family better than any living 
lepidopterist, but as yet he has not published any revisionary work 

on it. 

From my own studies I feel that the only possible way to get a 
classification that will permit of workable keys and the ready identi- 
fication of moths of both sexes is to make small genera, to limit them 
to only obviously related species, to define them rigidly, and in the 
definition to utilize every available character of structure, habitus, 
and biology. I do not suggest that I have done this here or shall 
be able to do it in future papers on the group ; but such is the ideal. 

Family PHYCITIDAE 
Subfamily Phycitinae 

^^w/^._Labial palpus well developed. Maxillary palpus always 
present. Tongue developed; basal portion scaled. Fore wing en- 
tire (not divided) ; 11 veins or less; 7 absent; 8 and 9 stalked or 
united; Ic absent (represented by a fold or crease in the wing mem- 
brane) ; no areole. Hind wing with 8 veins or less; 8 closely approxi- 
mate to, anastomosing or completely fusing with 7 beyond cell; Ic 
always present; a fringe of pecten on lower median vein at base; 
frenulum of female simple (a single strong spine). 

Larva. — ^With primary setae only ; two setae on prespiracular shield 
of prothorax ; IV and V approximate and under the spiracle on ab- 
dominal segments 1 to 8; a sclerotized, pigmented ring encircling or 
partially encircling the tubercle of seta lib on mesothorax and a sim- 
ilar ring encircling tubercle of seta III of eighth abdominal segment 
[this character absent from Etiella zincheneUa (Treitschke) and 
Ulophora grotei (Kagonot) ]. Prolegs normal ; crochets in a complete 
circle. 

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF THE CACTUS-FEEDING GROUP 

Adult. — Antenna pectmate or pubescent; sometimes with modified 
setae on the basal segments or pectinations of the shaft, but never 
with sinus and strong scale tuft ; basal segment simple. Labial pal- 
pus upturned, oblique or porrect, stout ; third segment always ex- 
posed, never longer than second. Maxillarj' palpus alike in both 
sexes; usually squamous (with the scales spread on third segment), 
rarely filiform (fig. 134a) or flamboyant (fig. 126) ; never otherwise 
modified. Front rounded, the scales either appressed or conically 
projecting. Fore wing smooth, oblong, broadest toward termen ; ter- 
men vertical or slanting; color blue-gray, grayish fuscous, whitish 
ocherous, or ocherous-fuscous, with dark markings fuscous or black, 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 335 

color alike in both sexes; 11 veins, 10 from the cell, 4 and 5 stalked, 
2 and 3 from near lower outer angle of cell, approximate or separate ; 
no costal fold or other secondary sexual modifications. Hind wing 
with 7 veins; 7 and 8 approximate or anastomosing beyond cell 
(never completely fused); 3 and 5 connate or stalked; 4 absent; 2 
from cell before (but near) lower outer angle ; no sex scaling or other 
sexual modifications ; structurally alike in both sexes ; color white in 
the male (except in Cactohlastls hucyrus Dyar), white to fuscous in 
the female ; cell about one-half the length of wing. Abdomen of male 
with a pair (rarely two pairs) of ventrolateral hair tufts at base of 
eighth segment or with eighth segment simple.^ 

Male genitalia with uncus broad, subtriangular, never hook-shaped 
or otherwise modified ; the lateral edges sometimes slightly sinuate or 
concave; apex rounded; outer (dorsal) surface densely covered with 
■ bristlelike scales. Gnathos terminating in a flanged and hooked 
apical process, which is normally bifid but sometimes fused. Trans- 
tilla represented by a pair of separate, more or less elongate, and 
triangular plates; never forming a bridge or otherwise modified. 
Harpe simple, without clasper or extensions from sacculus or costa; 
apex broadly or obliquely rounded, rarely bluntly pointed {Tucii- 
mania tapiacola Dyar). Anellus U-shaped, either flat or slightly 
curved, the lateral arms often twisted slightly to rest against the 
lateral sides of the aedeagiis, but otherwise unmodified. Aedeagus 
straight or slightly sinuate; usually smooth, but occasionally with 
a few very small scobinations at apex. Penis smooth, finely scob- 
inate or with sclerotized wrinklings but not otherwise armed. 
Vinculum stout and broad, short or long, with terminal margin 
normally broadly rounded. 

Female genitalia with bursa copulatrix membranous, smooth or 
with very minute scobinations on inner surface; signum frequently 
absent, when present consisting of a small ribbed, weakly serrate, 
finely scobinate or cupped plate; bursa never strongly sclerotized or 
pigmented. Ductus bursae membranous throughout, never strongly 
sclerotized; gradually widening into and not sharply differentiated 
from bursa copulatrix. Genital opening normally simple, sornetimes 
minutely scobinate, rarely with sclerotized dorsal or ventral plates 
or a few setae on the inner surfaces of the ductus bursae at the open- 
ing; otherwise unmodified or unarmed. Ductus seminalis from 
bursa or, rarely, from ductus bursae near junction with bursa. 

Larvae. — Internal feeders in the fruits and stems of various cacti. 



• The eighth segment is considered to be simple when the sternite and tergite appear 
merely as flat narrow sclerotized plates (compare figs. 8d, 17d, 21d) and are not developed 
into sclerotized pockets or projecting processes, and when sensory hair tufts are absent. 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

KEY TO THE GENERA 

For convenience of identification separate generic keys are given for males 
and females. 

KALES 

1. Maxillary palpi squamous or flamboyant 2 

Maxillary palpi filiform 16 

2. Hind wing with veins 3 and 5 connate (rarely, very shortly 

stalked) ,■ 3 

Hind wing with veins 3 and 5 definitely stalked 5 

3. Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 approximate; antenna bipec- 

tinate; aedeagus smooth 4 

Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 shortly anastomosed; antenna 
pubescent ; apex of aedeagus finely spined 3. Olyca Walker 

4. Labial palpus obliquely ascending 2. Olycella Dyar 

Labial palpus porrect 1. Melitara Walker 

5. Eighth abdominal segment simple 6 

Eighth abdominal segment with paired tufts 13 

6. Antenna bipectinate 7 

Antenna pubescent 8 

7. Maxillary palpus not extending above middle of face (United 

States and Mexico) 4. Alberada, new genus 

Maxillary palpus extending above middle of face (South Amer- 
ica) 5. Nanaia, new genus 

8. Apical process of gnathos partially or completely fused 9 

Apical process of gnathos bifid 11 

9. Apical process of gnathos partially fused 6. Cactoblastis Ragonot 

Apical process of gnathos completely fused 10 

10. Harpe without subbasal .sclorotlzed pocket ; anellus with base of 

plate narrowly sclerotized ; aedeagus moderately long and 

sclerotized throughout 7. Cahela, new genus 

Harpe with subbasal sclerotized pocket; anellus with base of 
plate broadly sclerotized ; aedeagus short and partially 
sclerotized 8. Rumatha, new genus 

11. Labial palpus porrect 9. Yosemitia Ragonot 

Labial palpus upturned 12 

12. Anellus with arms rather long; aedeagus smooth 10. Tucumania Dyar 

Anellus shieldlike, with the arms short ; aedeagus with a 

minutely scobinate flange at apex 11. Eremberga, new genus 

18. Antenna pubescent 14 

Antenna unipectinate 13. Parolyca Dyar 

Antenna bipectinate 15 

14. Antenna with basal segments of shaft bearing papillalike setae. 

16. Ozamia Ragonot 
Antenna without such setae on shaft 12. Salambona, new genus 

15. Maxillary palpus flamboyant, reaching well above middle of face. 

14. Sigelgaita, new genifS 
Maxillary palpus squamous, not reaching above middle of face. 

15. Amalafrida, new genus 

16. Antenna pectinate or serrate and pubescent; labial palpus up- 

curved 17. Cactobrosis Dyar 

Antenna simple and pubescent ; labial palpus oblique— 18. Zophodia Htibner 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 



337 



FEMALES 



6. 



8. 



1. Maxillary palpi squamous or flamboyant 2 

Maxillary palpi filiform 16 

2. Hind wing with veins 3 and 5 connate (rarely very shortly stalked) 3 

Hind wing with veins 3 and 5 definitely stalked 5 

3. Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 approximate; antenna bipectinate 4 

Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 shortly anastomosed ; antenna 

pubescent 3. Olyca Walker 

4. Bursa without signum 1. Melitara Walker 

Bursa with signum 2. Olycella Dyar 

5. Labial palpus porrect 6 

Labial palpus obliquely ascending 16. Ozamia Ragonot 

Maxillary palpi flamboyant 14. Sigelgaita, new genus 

Maxillary palpi squamous 7 

Bursa with signum 8 

Bursa without signum 13 

Signum a small, shortly spined plate 9. Yosemitia Ragonot 

Signum otherwise 9 

9. Ductus seminalis from middle of bursa copulatrix — 4. Alberada, new genus 
Ductus seminalis from bursa near or at junction of bursa and 

ductus bursae 10 

Ductus seminalis from bursa at junction of bursae and ductus 

bursae, remote from signum 6. Cactoblastis Ragonot 

Ductus seminalis from bursa near (but not at) junction of 

bursa and ductus bursae, more or less approximate to signum 11 

Habitat, South America 10. Tucumania Dyar 

Habitat, southwestern part of United States and northern Mexico 12 

12. Dark markings on fore wing longitudinal ; no discal spot. 

7, Cahela, new genus 
Dark markings on fore wing transverse (at least in part) ; discal 

spot prominent 8. Rumatha, new genus 

13. Ductus seminalis from ductus bursae 11. Eremberga, new genus 

Ductus seminalis from middle or from near end of bursa copulatrix 14 

14. Bursa copulatrix large 15. Amalafrida, new genua 

Bursa copulatrix small 15 

15. Ductus bursae finely scobinate at genital opening 5. Nanaia, new genus 

Ductus bursae smooth at genital opening 12. Salambona, new genus 

16. Labial palpus oblique; bursa copulatrix large, without signum. 

17. Cactobrosis Dyar 
Labial palpus porrect; bursa copulatrix small, with signum. 

18. Zophodia Hiibner 



10. 



11 



LIST OF GENERA AND SPECIES 



Melitara Walker 

1. prodenialis Walker 

2. dentata (Grote) 
Olycella Dyar 

1. junctolineella (Hulst) 

2. junctolineella pectinatella 

(Hampson) 

3. nephelepasa (Dyar) 

4. suMmhrella (Dyar) 



3. Olyca Walker 

1. pliryganoides Walker 

4. Alberada, new genus 

1. paraiates (Dyar) 

2. bidentella (Dyar) 

3. holochlora (Dyar) 

5. Nanaia, new genus 

1. substituta, new species 



338 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL.88 



6. Cactoblastis Ragonot 

1. cactorum (Berg) 

2. ronnal (Brethes) 

3. doddi, new species 

4. mundelli, new species 

5. bucyrus Dyar 

7. Cahela, new genus 

1. ponderosella (Barnes and Mc- 
Dunnough) 

8. Rumatha, new genus 

1. glattcatella (Hulst) 

2. bihinda (Dyar) 

3. poJingella (Dyar) 

9. Yosemitia Ragonot 

1. gracicUa (Hulst) 

2. longipennella (Hulst) 

3. neldiella (Dyar) 

4. didactica Dyar 

10. Tticumania Dyar 

1. tapiacola Dyar 

2. porrecta Dyar 

11. Eremberga, new genus 

1. leuconips (Dyar) 

2. creahates (Dyar) 

3. insignis, new species 

12. Salamhonn, new genus 

1. analampreUa (Dyar) 



13. Parolyca Dyar 

1. asthcnosoma (Dyar) 

14. Sigelgaita, new genus 

1. chilcn^is, new species 

2. huanucensis, new species 

3. transilis, new species 

15. Amalafrida, new genus 

1. IciiheVa (Dyar) 

16. Ozamia- Ragonot 

1. lucidalis (Walker) 

2. odiosella (Hulst) 

3. odiosella fuscomaculella 

(Wright) 

4. thalassophila Dyar 

5. stigma ferella (Dyar) 
G. hcmiluteUa Dyar 

7. pitnicans, new species 

17. Cactobrosis Dyar 

1. fcnialdialis (Hulst) 

2. longipennella (Hampson) 

3. maculifera Dyar 

4. in-signatclla Dyar 

5. sirigalis (Barnes and McDun- 

nough) 

18. Zophodia Hiibner 

1. convolutella (Hiibner) 



1. Genus MELITARA Walker 

Melitara Walkehi, List of specimens of lepidopterous insects in the collection 

of the British Museum, vol. 27, p. 13G, 18G3.— Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. 

Soc, vol. 17, p. 171, 1890.— Ragonot, M(^moiros sur les L<?pidopt$res, vol. 

8, p. 12, 1901.— Dyab, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 133, 1928. 

(Genotype: Melitara prodenialis Walker.) 
Megaphycis Grote, Can. Ent., vol. 14, p. 30, 1882. (Genotype: Zophodia hollii 

Zeller.) 

Antenna of male bipectinate, of female shortly bipectinate. Labial 
palpus porrect. Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing with veins 
7 and 8 approximate beyond cell; 3 and 5 connate (rarely very 
shortly stalked). Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded; vinculum short; anellus with base of plate 
narrowly sclerotized, arms moderately long and stout; aedeagus 
stout, moderately long. 

Female genitalia without signum, the latter replaced by a few 
very fine scobinations (not distinguishable in most preparations ex- 
cept under high magnification), bursa copulatrix otherwise simple; 
ductus seminalis from bursa near junction of ductus bursae and bursa 
copulatrix. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 339 

Larva bluish, not banded ; sclerotic plates surrounding body setae 
rather small; 3 setae in group VII on abdominal segments 7 "and 8. 

The larvae feed gi-egariously in the joints of various species of 
Platypuntia. 

Eggs laid in chains. 

Remarks. — The genus as here defined is separated from other 
cactus-feeding phycitids by the following combination of charac- 
ters: Antennae pectinate in both sexes; labial palpi porrect in both 
sexes; veins 7 and 8 of hind wing approximate; veins 3 and 5 of 
hind wing connate ; eighth abdominal segment of male simple ; larvae 
not banded or conspicuously spotted, gregarious in habit throughout 
feeding period. 

Two species only are recognized as belonging to the genus, and 
its distribution is apparently limited to the United States and 
adjacent areas in northern Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF MELITARA 

1. Subterminal dentate line of fore wing with a rather shallow 

angulation between veins 5 and 6 1. prodenialis Walker 

Subterminal dentate line of fore wing with a deep angulation 
between veins 5 and 6 2. dentata (Grote) 

1. MELITARA PRODENIALIS Walker 

Plates 23, 36, 44, 45 ; Figtjkes 1-lf, 41^1a, 81, 8»-83a, 84 

Melitara prodenialis Walkee, List of specimens of lepidopterous insects in the 
collection of the British Museum, vol. 27, p. 137, 1863. — Hxjlst, Trana. 
Amor. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 171, 1890 ; U. S. Nat, Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903.— 
Ragonot, M^moires sur les Lepidoptferes, vol. 8, p. 13, 1901. — Huntee, 
Pratt, and Mitchell, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 113, p. 28, 1912.— 
Baknes and McDunnough, Check list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal Amer- 
ica, no. 5693, 1917. — Dodd, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 
Australia, Bull. 34, p. 27, 1927.— Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, 
p. 133, 1928. 

Zophodia bollii Zellee, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, p. 550, pi. 3, fig. 21, 1872, 

Megaphycis tollii (Zeller) Grote, Can. Ent., vol. 14, p. 30, 1882. 

Melitara prodenialis hollii (Zeller) Dyab, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 
30, p. 133, 1928. 

Melitara Bollii (Zeller) Dodd, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 
Australia, Bull. 34, p. 29, 1927. 

Male. — Palpi, head, and thorax cinereous-fuscous sparsely dusted 
with white, especially on basal segments of labial palpi; posterior 
margin of thorax blackish. Fore wing cinereous-fuscous with a 
heavy dusting of white on costal half ; the fuscous and whitish areas 
contrasted but not sharply defined, the white dusting most pro- 
nounced between antemedial and subterminal lines and in subapical 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

area beyond subterminal line ; a few black scales scattered over entire 
wing; antemedial line narrow, black, outwardly angled from basal 
fourth of costal margin, the apex of angle at vein lb, strongly 
marked from costal margin to lb, less sharply defined from there to 
inner margin; subterminal line narrow, black, outwardly margined 
by a narrow border of white, beyond which is a faintly dark shading 
which forms an obscure line paralleling the subterminal line, the 
parallel black lines most pronounced from costal margin near apex 
to vein 6 ; subterminal line irregularly dentate and sinuate, the angu- 
lations rather shallow; discal dots fused, forming a black line or 
smudge along discocellular vein; a row of black dots along termen 
at the vein ends; cilia grayish fuscous; underside of wing grayish 
fuscous, in some specimens with a more ocherous tint. Hind wing 
white, semihyaline with more or less fuscous suffusion at apex and 
along costal and terminal margins ; cilia white with a narrow, dark, 
subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 31-38 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 1-lf) with outer margins of vinculum evenly 
curved ; elements of transtilla rather broad. 

Female. — Similar to the male except that pectinations of antenna 
are much shorter (fig. 84), and fuscous shadings on hind wings are 
more extended. 

Alar expanse, 35^5 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 41-41a) with ductus bursae rather slender for most 
of its length. 

Types. — ^In British Museum {prodenialis) ; in Cambridge Museum 
of Natural History (hoUii). 

Type localities. — "United States" (prodenialis)', Texas {hollii). 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) spp. 

Distribution. — ^United States: Texas., Dallas, Freeport, Utopia, 
College Station (Oct.), Brownsville; Mississippi, Biloxi (Sept.); 
Oklahoma, Wichita National Forest (June) ; Florida. Altamont 
(Sept., Oct.), Key West, Lakeland (Apr.), Crescent City (May), 
Miami (Oct.), St. Petersburg (March, June, Sept., Oct.), Fort Meade 
(Apr.), Fort Myers (Apr.), Venice (May); North Carolina, South- 
ern Pines (June) ; Delaware, Indian River Bay (July) ; New Jersey, 
Lakehurst (Sept.) ; New York, Rye (July). 

Eighty-two specimens examined. 

Remarks. — Hulst, Ragonot, and, for several years, Dyar regarded 
loUii as nothing more than a synonym of prodenialis, and it has so 
appeared in our lists. Dodd treated it as a distinct species and ap- 
plied the name to specimens from a restricted area in southern Texas. 
In a letter dated July 7, 1936, he writes me that "what we call M, hol- 
lii is a form with certain constant differences in habits and life-cycle 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRIOH 341 

which attacks O. lindheimeri in the Laredo-Uvalde section of Texas. 
On the Gulf coast of Texas the Melitara attacking 0. lindheimeri and 
other pricklypears we consider to be 'prodenialis, identical with Flor- 
ida prodenialis. Hence we would continue to retain the Laredo- 
Uvalde insect as a distinct form." Upon similar information from 
Dodd, Dyar, in 1928, removed hollii from synonymy but did not give 
it full specific rank. He characterized the supposed race as follows J 
"Smaller than prodenialis^ whiter and smoother, from Texas." 

I am unable to see these distinctions and can find nothing in struc- 
ture, color, or size to distinguish pinned specimens of the supposed 
hollii from equally small specimens of typical prodenialis. There 
may be a biological race or strain in southern Texas that can be dis- 
tinguished in the field; but, if so, it is doubtful if the name hollii 
can be applied to it; for Boll's specimens (from which Zeller de- 
scribed his species) were collected in the neighborhood of Dallas, 
well north of the range of the supposedly distinct form. 

Descriptions of eggs and larvae and a brief note on the life history 
are given in the Hunter, Pratt, and Mitchell bulletin. 

2. MELITARA DENTATA (Grote) 
Plates 23, 36, 45 ; FiGxmES 2-2c, 40, 85-85a, 86-86a 

Zophodia dentata Gbote, Can. Eut., vol. 8, p. 158, 1876; Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., vol. 3, p. 799, 1877. 

Megaphycis dentata (Gbote), Can. Ent., vol. 14, p. 30, 1882. 

Melitara dentata (Grote) Hxjxst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 172, 1890; 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903.— Kellogg, Kansas Univ. Quart, vol. 
1, p. 39, 1892. — Ragonot, M^moires sur les L^pidopt^res, vol. 8, p. 14, 1901. — 
Hunter, Pratt, and Mitchell, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 113, p. 
28, 1912. — Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the Lepidoptera of 
Boreal America, no. 5694, 1917. — Dodd, Council for Scientific and Indus- 
trial Research, Australia, Bull. 34, p. 29, 1927.— Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Washington, vol. 30, p. 134, 1928. 

Melitara doddalis Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 13, 1925; 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, 134, 1928.— Dodd, Council for Scien- 
tific and Industrial Research, Australia, Bull. 34, p. 29, 1927. (New 
synonymy.) 

Melitara junctolineella Hulst (in part). Can. Ent., vol. 32, p. 173, 1900. — 
Barnes and McDuNNoroH, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. North America, vol. 
3, no. 3, p. 199, 1916. 

Male. — General color and pattern as in prodenialis except as fol- 
lows: Blackish shading on posterior margin of thorax less pro- 
nounced and in some specimens not distinguishable. Fore wing with 
white dusting rather evenly distributed over the entire wing, the 
whitish and fuscous areas not contrasted except (in some specimens) 
for a rather narrow pale suffusion along costal margin and a more 
or less pronounced dark shade from eiid of cell to middle of inner 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

margin; the subterminal line with no black shading beyond its white 
border except for a short distance from apex, markedly dentate and 
sinuate, the angulations deep, the angulation between veins 5 and 6 
reaching to the cell. Hind wing semihyaline, almost pure white 
with little or no fuscous shading, the latter, when present, confined 
to a narrow band along costal margin and a fine line along termen ; 
cilia white. 

Alar expanse, 33^3 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 2-2c) with outer margins of vinculum slightly 
sinuate; elements of transtilla slightly narrower than those of 
prodenialis. Slight differences in the shape of the anellus in the two 
species are shown in figures Id and 2b. 

Female.— SimW^Y to the male except that the pectinations of the 
antenna are shorter, the maxillary palpus is longer and the fuscous 
shadings are nearly ah\ays pronounced on the hind wing, though 
limited to a narrow border along the costal margin, a slight clouding 
at apex, and a thin line along the termen. 

Alar expanse, 35-50 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 40) essentially like those of 'prodenialis except that 
the ductus bursae is normally stouter. 

Types.— 1\\ British Museum {dentnta) ; in United States National 
Museum {doddalis). 

Type localities. — Clear Creek Canyon, Colo, {dentata) : Mesilla 
Park, N. Mex. (doddalis). 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) spp. 

Distiihution. — ^United States : Colorado.^ Glenwood Springs (July, 
Aug., Sept.), Foil Collins, Denver, Rocky Ford (Sept.) ; Utah., Buck- 
skin Valley (Iron Countj', June, July), Eureka (Aug.), Dividend 
(Aug., Sept.) : Kaiisas. Manhattan (Sept.) ; Arizona^ Mormon Lake 
(July), Douglas (Aug., Sept.), Oracle (Sept.), Globe (Sept.), Quijo- 
toa Mountains (Oct.), Chiricahua Mountains; New Mexico., Mesilla 
Park (Sept.), Silver City (Sept.), Julimes (Sept., Oct.), Jemez 
Springs (July, Aug., Sept.) ; Texas., Uvalde (Sept., Oct., Nov.), Hen- 
rietta (Oct.), Trent (Oct.), Rock Springs, Laredo (Sept.), Shafter 
(Sept.), x\lbany. Panhandle (Aug.). Mexico: Chihuahua City, 
Morelia (Oct.). 

One hundred and forty specimens examined. 

Remarks. — In his description of doddalis.^ Dyar pointed out a num- 
ber of supposed differences in genitalic and palpal structure between 
his species and dentata. These differences are entirely imaginary. 
There is not a structural character separating the two forms. There 
are some slight color differences between specimens from Colorado and 
specimens from Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The latter seem to 
have a slightly denser dusting of white scales on the fore wing and 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 343 

consequently appear somewhat more ashy gray than the Colorado 
specimens ; but this pale suffusion also shows in Kansas specimens and 
in a number of those from Utah. 

Dodd has also treated doddalis and dentata as separate species. 
He writes : "In our concept, M. doddalis is distinct from M. dentata. 
We would give the distribution of dentata from the Panhandle of 
Texas across to northern Arizona, north through Colorado, Utah, 
and Kansas to Idaho and "Wyoming. M. doddalis occurs through 
western Texas and New Mexico to southern Arizona." 

Possibly there may be local races involved, but if so their distribu- 
tion does not correspond with any consistent differences in color or 
habitus, for, as stated, the Kansas specimens that fall within the 
supposed dentata area are more like typical doddalis than they are 
like Colorado dentata. 

I think that the two names apply to nothing more than local vari- 
ants of one rather variable species. 

Descriptions of the o^gg., larva, and pupa are given in the paper by 
Kellogg. 

As pointed out by Barnes and McDunnough, the female paratypes 
of junctolineella (from Colorado) are not conspecific with the male 
type (from Texas) but must be referred here. One of these para- 
types is now in the National collection. 

2. Genus OLYCELLA Dyar 

Olycella Dyab, Proc. Eut. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 134, 1928. (Genotype: 
Melitara junctolineeUa Hulst.) 

Antemia of male bipectinate, of female shortly bipectinate. Labial 
palpus obliquely ascending (sometimes in the female the third seg- 
ment is bent forward, which gives the palpus a porrect appearance, 
but the second segment is always deflected upward and reaches nearly 
as high as the top of the head). Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind 
wing with veins 7 and 8 approximate beyond the cell ; 3 and 5 con- 
nate. Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded; vinculum short; anellus with base of plate 
narrowly sclerotized, arms moderately long and stout ; aedeagus stout, 
moderately long. 

Female genitalia with signum, the latter a small ridged plate ; bursa 
copulatrix wrinkled, otherwise simple and without scobinations ; 
ductus bursae with a pair of sclerotized plates on inner wall at genital 
opening; ductus seminalis from center of bursa. 

Larva white with broad blackish or purplish cross bands on the 
caudal margins of the segments; sclerotized plates surrounding setae 
rather small ; three setae in group VII on abdominal segments T and 8. 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM tol. 86 

The larvae feed gregariously for a short period after hatching 
(probably during the first instar) but thereafter are solitary in habit. 
They feed in the joints of various Platypuntias. 

Remarks. — In his description of the genus Dyar gives the male palpi 
as upturned and those of the female as oblique. Strictly speaking 
they are obliquely upturned in both sexes, though in many females the 
third joints are bent forward, which gives the palps a porrect ap- 
pearance. The genus is close to Melitara and distinguished from it 
only by the following characters : Labial palpi obliquely ascending ; 
larvae transversely banded and solitary in habit during most of the 
feeding period. 

Three species and one local race are here recognized. They are 
remarkably alike in structure, whatever diflferences in genitalia there 
may be between specimens being individual rather than specific. The 
species, however, can be distinguished easily enough by the characters 
given in the following key : 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF OLYCELLA 

1. General color of fore wing ocherous-fuscous ; hind tibia white 

with very little dark dusting 2 

General color of fore wing grayish fuscous; hind tibia heavily 
dusted with fuscous 3 

2. Transverse markings of fore wing fairly distinct — 1. junctolineella (Hulst) 
Transverse markings of fore wing obsolete. 

2. junctolineella pectinatella (Hampson) 

3. General color grayish with a slight brownish overtint (distri- 

bution, the central plateau of Mexico) 3. nephelepasa (Dyar) 

General color decidedly grayish (distribution, western Texas 
and Arizona to California and Utih) 4. subumbrella (Dyar) 

1. OLYCELLA JUNCTOLINEELLA (Hulst) 

Plates 24, 36, 45 ; Figures 3-3c, 42^2a, 88-88a, 89-89a 

Melitara junctolineella Hulst, Can. Ent, vol. 32, p. 173, 1900; U. S. Nat. Mus. 

Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903.— Hunter, Pratt, and Mitchell, Bur. Ent, U. S. Dept. 

Agr., Bull. 113, p. 25, 1912.— Barnes and McDunnough, Contr. Nat. Hist 

Lepid. North America, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 199, 191G. — Dodd, Council for Scientific 

and Industrial Research, Australia, Bull. 34, p. 27, 1927. 
Olyca junctolineella (Hulst) Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the Lepi- 

doptera of Boreal America, no. 5695, 1917. 
Olycella junctolineella (Hulst) Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 134, 

1928. 

Male. — ^Head, thorax, and fore wings ocherous-fuscous dusted with 
white and marked with patches and lines of black scales. Labial palpus 
with the apical ends of the segments blackish. Maxillary palpus cross- 
banded with black scales. Thorax with some black dusting on posterior 
margin. Fore wing with whitish dusting slightly intensified in costal 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 345 

area; veins faintly outlined in black; a row of more or less obscure 
black dots on termen between the vein ends; antemedial line inter- 
rupted, sometimes obscure, in fresh, well-marked specimens its outer 
dentation much extended and meeting a shade from the inner angula- 
tion of the subterminal line at the fold (which indicates the normal 
position of the absent vein Ic) ; subterminal line interrupted, strongly 
indicated only between veins 5 and the fold and for a short distance 
from inner margin ; black discal dots at end of cell more or less fused 
and pronounced ; cilia ocherous-fuscous. Hind wing pure white. 

Alar expanse, 38-45 mm. 

Male genitalia as figured (figs. 3-3c). The genitalia (male and 
female) present no outstanding specific characters. 

Female. — Similar to the male except that the antennal pectina- 
tions are shorter, the labial palpi appreciably longer, the fore wings 
a trifle darker, and the hind wings generally suffused with fuscous, 
the intensity of the fuscous shade differing in different specimens. 

Alar expanse, 45-55 mm. 

Female genitalia as figured (figs. 42-42a). 

Type. — In Rutgers College collection. 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) spp. 

Distribution. — United States: Texas, Brownsville (Apr., June, 
July, Aug.), Corpus Christi (Sept., Oct.), Burnet County, San 
Benito (Mar., Aug., Sept.), Shovel Mountain (May), Kerrville 
(Apr.), Victoria (Oct., Nov.), Laredo (Sept). 

Forty-one specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This species is most readily distinguished from the 
others in the genus by its ocherous-fuscous color, which seems to be 
constant. It is remarkably so in the specimens before me. 0. 
nephelepasa and subumbrella are decidedly gray in appearance. 

Rather full notes on the life history and larval habits of ywdc- 
tolineella are given in Dodd's bulletin and the bulletin by Hunter, 
Mitchell, and Pratt. The latter also contains descriptions of the 
larva and pupa. 

2. OLYCELLA JUNCTOLINEELLA PECTINATELLA (Hampson) 

Plate 24, Fiqubej 4 

Olyca pectinatella Hampson, M^moires sur les L^pidopt^res, vol. 8, p. 35, 1901. 
Olyca junctolineella (Hulst) Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the 

Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 5695, 1917 (in part). 
Olycella junctolineella (Hulst) Dyab, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, 

p. 134, 1928 (in part). 
In removing pectinatella from the synonymy of junctolineella^ 
where it was placed by Barnes and McDunnough and by Dyar, I am 
doing so chiefly as a precautionary measure. Hampson described his 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

species from a single collected male. There is one other male in 
the National collection from the type locality. These two specimens 
are a trifle paler than normal juncfolineella and are less clearly 
marked except for the pronounced discal spots. The transverse 
lines on the fore wing are almost obsolete and the veins very slightly 
indicated by dark shading. 

Inasmuch as we have no larvae or females, or any information on 
the life history of the form from Jalapa (which is far south of 
the known range of typical junctoUneeUa) , I do not think we are 
justified in treating it as a mere synonym ; or, on the evidence before 
us, as a distinct species. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Jalapa, State of Veracruz, Mexico. 

Ejiown only from the two males from the type locality. 

3. OLYCELLA NEPHELEPASA (Dyar) 

Plate 45, FiGxmEs 87-87a 

Olyca nephelepasa Dtar, Insccutor luscitiae Menstruus, vol. 7, p. 55, 1919. 
Olycella nephelepasa (Dyak), Proc. Eut. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 134, 1928. 

Male. — Similar in pattern and general appearance to junctoline^lla; 
but darker. The fore wing is grayish fuscous with a slight 
brownish tint, but decidedly more grayish brown than ocherous- 
fuscous. Also the hind tibiae of nephelepasa are heavily dusted with 
fuscous, while those of junctoUneella are nearly pure white. 

Alar expanse, 42-44 mm. 

The male genitalia cannot be distinguished from those of juncto- 
Uneella. 

Female. — Similar to the male except pectinations of antennae much 
shorter, labial palpi longer, and hind wings fuscous rather than white 
and semihyaline. 

Alar expanse, 45-52 mm. 

Female genitalia essentially like those of junctolineeUa. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Tyj)e locality. — Tehuacan, Mexico. 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Plafy puntia) spp. 

Distribution. — Mexico: Tehuacan (Sept.), Mexico City, Gierna- 
vaca, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosi (June). 

Eleven specimens examined. 

Remarks. — The known distribution of this species is confined to 
the central plateau of Mexico. In the National collection there is 
one female (determined as nephelepasa) from Monclova, Mexico. 
This specimen is colored like typical subumbrella and is, I think, 
only a southern example of that species. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 347 

OLYCELLA SUBUMBRELLA (Dyar) 

Plate 36, Figure 43 

Olyca suhnmhrella Dyak, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 14, 1925. 
Olycella nephelepasa (Dyar), Proc. Eut. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 134, 1928 
(in part). 

Male. — Similar to that of nephelepasa except that the fore wing is 
less brownish and more grayish than that of nephelepasa. The gen- 
eral color is decidedly gray rather than brownish or ocherous. 

Alar expanse, 40-52 mm. 

Male genitalia as in nephelepasa and junctolineella. 

Female. — Similar to that of nephelepasa but without the brownish 
overtint characteristic of the latter. 

Alar expanse, 43-55 mm. 

Female genitalia (figured from paratype from the type locality) 
like those of junctolineella. Figure 43 shows the extreme variation 
from typical junctoliTieella; but the differences in the shape of the 
sclerotized areas of the collar of the eighth segment and the length 
of the supporting rods of the collar are not specific. Every inter- 
grade between this and typical junctolineella may be found in each 
of the species in the genus. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Carlsbad, N. Mex. 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) spp. 

Distrihution. — ^United States: Texas, El Paso (Mar.) ; Ne-w Mex- 
ico^ Carlsbad (Sept.) ; Arizona., Dewey, Redington, Palmerlee, Para- 
dise (Cochise County, Mar., Apr., May, June), Douglas (May, Aug.), 
Pinal Mountains (Apr.), Hualapai Mountains (May); CoJifomia, 
Warner (Sept.), Santa Clara (Apr.) ; Utah, Dividend (May, June), 
Stockton (May), Eichfield (May); NehrasTca, Scotts Bluff (June). 

Sixty-three specimens examined. 

RemarJcs. — In addition to the above there are before me two speci- 
mens from Monclova, Coahuila, Mexico (E. Mortensen collection, 
Sept. 1926), which probably are referable here. One (a male) was 
in the collection under jimctoUneella., the other (a female) under 
nephelepasa. The male is in' very poor condition but obviously be- 
longs with the female. The latter is in fair shape, and its color 
is that of typical suburribrella. More material is needed from north- 
ern Mexico before we can determine what species inhabits that region. 

In 1928 Dyar sank suhumhrella as a sjmonym of nephelepasa; but 
Mr. Dodd informs me that the larval habits of the two are quite dif- 
ferent. As he expects to publish his biological notes on the cactus- 
feeding Lepidoptera, I shall not discuss these differences, except to 
say that they seem sufficient, coupled with the different distributions 

109335—39 2 



348 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol. 86 

of the two forms and their slight, but apparently consistent, color 
differences to warrant their separation. I am therefore removing 
subvmhrella from synonymy. 

3. Genus OLYCA Walker 

Olyca Waxkeb, List of specimens of lepidopterous insects of the British Museum, 
vol. 11, p. 725, 1857. — Hampson, M^moires sur les L^pidoptferes, vol. 8, p. 34, 
1901._Dyab, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 133, 1928. (Genotype: 
Olyca phryganotdes Wallcer.) 

Antennae pubescent in both sexes (the pubescence longer in the 
male than in the female), slightly serrate in the male. Labial palpus 
of the male obliquely ascending; of the female porrect and down- 
curved. Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing with veins 7 and 
8 shortly anastomosed beyond cell; 3 and 5 coimate (occasionally very 
shortly stalked). Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded ; vinculum short ; anellus with base of plate nar- 
rowly sclerotized, arms moderately long and stout; aedeagus stout, 
moderately long, apex armed with many minute, liairlike spines. 

Female genitalia without signum; bursa copulatrix simple except 
for a few microscopic scobinations ; ductus bui-sae short; ductus 
seminalis from bursa somewhat caudad of middle. 

Larvae not banded, solitary in habit, feeding in Platypuntias (pre- 
sumably in the stems). 

Eggs unknown. 

Rem<irks. — Olyca is readily separated from other genera of the 
cactus-feeding Phycitinae having veins 3 and 5 of hind wing connate 
by having the antennae pubescent in both sexes. 

The male genitalia are similar to those of Olycella^ differing only 
in slight details; the vinculum is slightly shorter, the uncus broader 
in proportion to its length, the cleft apical process of gnathos smaller, 
the elements of transtilla longer and straighter. 

The females differ chiefly in that they lack the signum in the bursa 
and the sclerotized plates in the opening of the ductus bursae. 

The genus as here defined contains only the type species from the 
West Indies. 

1. OLYCA PHRYGANOroES Walker 

Plates 24, 37, 46 ; FiorrBEs 5-5c, 44-44a, 90, 91 

Olyca phryganoides Walkeb, List of specimens of lepidopterous insects of the 
British Museum, vol. 11, p. 726, 1857.— Hampson, M('-moires sur les L^pi- 
dopt&res, vol. 8, p. 35, 1901.— Dyae, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 
134, 1928. 

Male.— General color (except hind wings) pinkish white, more or 
less spotted and suffused with black. Palpi, thorax, and underside of 
body heavily dusted and shaded with black. Fore wing with no dis- 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 349 

tinguishable antemedial line, the latter being replaced by two more 
or less transversely extended black spots ; subterminal line only par- 
tially and faintly indicated, irregularly dentate; vein ends marked 
with blackish dots or dashes; black discal spot large, conspicuous; 
below the discal dot a more or less extended black smudge. Hind 
wing white ; a very narrow blackish-fuscous shade on terminal mar- 
gin and a slightly wider dark shade along costal margin ; cilia white 
with a dark subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 35-40 mm. 

Male genitalia figure from specimen from Azuda, Hispaniola. 

Female. — Similar to the male except for the sexual differences in 
palpi and antemiae noted in the generic description and for the 
broader diffusion of the dark areas on fore and hind wings. About 
three-fourths of the fore wing is suffused with black, the pinkish- 
white color being strongly contrasted and limited to a rather narrow 
area along the costa, with a triangular projection at the end of the 
cell ; terminal area and a patch on inner margin opposite discal spot 
also pale, but duller and less contrasted than the costal color. Hind 
wing with fuscous terminal and costal dark shading somewhat 
broader than in the male ; veins outlined by fuscous scaling. 

Alar expanse, 45-47 mm. 

Female genitalia as figured (figs. 11 1 1 a) ; bursa copulatrix with 
a scattering of microscopic scobinations, otherwise simple; scobina- 
tions in genital opening stronger and more dense, also in genital 
opening a few fine setae (the latter probably constitute a generic 
character) . 

Eggs unknown. 

Larva. — "Cream or buff colored, with dark spiracular markings" 
(Dodd). 

Tyfe. — In the British Museum. 

Tyfe locality. — ^Hispaniola. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) sp. 

Distribution. — Santo Domingo: Azuda (Jan.). Haiti: Port-au- 
Prince (Jan.). 

Seven specimens examined. 

Remarks. — Nothing has been published on the life history of this 
species, and presumably little is known about it. Wliat information 
I have on the larvae and larval habits is from notes supplied by Mr. 
Dodd. The larvae are presumably solitary in habit and confined to 
the Platypuntias. The distribution of phryganoides is probably con- 
fined to the West Indies. Druce,° under the combination '■''Euzophera 
phryganoides^'' records it from two Mexican localities (Presidio and 
Jalapa) ; but this is an error. His figure suggests that what he iden- 



"Biologia Centrali-Americana, Insecta, Lepldoptera — Heterocera, vol. 2, p. 285, 1896. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.86 

tified as phj^ganoides is one of the species of Cactohrosis. If the 
figure is anything like the specimens Druce had, they cannot be 
phryganoides, 

4. ALBERADA, new genus 

Genotype. — Melitara parahates Dyar. 

Antenna of male bipectinate, of female pubescent. Labial palpus 
porrect and downcurved. Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing 
with veins 7 and 8 anastomosing beyond cell; 3 and 5 stalked. 
Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid, the two prongs 
rather widely separated; harpe with the apex evenly rounded; vin- 
culum short; anellus with base of plate narrowly sclerotized, arms 
moderately long and stout ; aedeagus stout, weakly sclerotized in mid- 
dle except on midventer. 

Female genitalia with signum developed as a ridged plate; bursa 
copulatrix finely scobinate and wrinkled ; ductus seminalis from mid- 
dle of bursa. 

Larvae bluish, not banded; solitary feeders in the joints of Cylin- 
dropuntias. 

Eggs laid singly or in masses of two or three. 

Remurks. — The genus is close to Melitara., differing in the follow- 
ing characters: Veins 7 and 8 of hind wing anastomosed, 3 and 5 
stalked, aedeagus only partially sclerotized, apical process of gnathos 
with prongs well separated, bursa copulatrix with signum. 

The distribution is apparently limited to Mexico and the south- 
western part of the United States. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ALBERADA 

1. General color cinereous-fuscous ; expanse 35 mm and over. 

1. parabates (Dyar) 
General color pale ocherous-fuscous ; expanse 25 mm or less. 

2. bidentella (Dyar) 
3. holochlora (Dyar) 

1. ALBERADA PARABATES (Dyar) 

Plates 25, 37, 4G ; Fiqxtres 7-7c, 45-45a, 92-92a, 93-93a 

Melitara paraMtes Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 44, p. 322, 1913 ; Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 134, 1928. — Baenes and McDunnough, Contr. 
Nat. Hist. Lepid. North America, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 175, 1918. — Dodd, Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Research, Australia, Bull. 34, p. 27, 1927. 

Male. — Palpi, face, head, and thorax dark cinereous-fuscous, more 
or less dusted with dull ocherous; posterior margin of thorax black- 
ish. Fore wing fuscous with area between lower vein of cell and 
costal margin and from antemedial to subterminal lines heavily 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 351 

dusted with white; area between lower vein of cell and inner margin 
and from base to subterminal line suffused with ocherous-f uscous ; 
on the middle of this area a more or less extended smudge of blackish 
brown ; antemedial line black, bordered inwardly by a line of white 
scales, dentate and sinuate, a sharp dentation at vein 11, a longer one 
in the cell (extending nearly to middle of wing), another equally 
long and acute dentation at the fold, and two very slight dentations 
between lb and inner margin; subterminal line black with a white 
outer border, dentate and sinuate, the angulations deep, the angula- 
tion between 5 and 6 reaching almost to cell ; area beyond subterminal 
line dark fuscous, paler in some specimens; along termen a row of 
black dots at the vein ends; discal black dot at end of cell conspic- 
uous in most specimens. Hind wing white, semihyaline ; costal mar- 
gin bordered with fuscous and a fine dark fuscous line on termen 
for a short distance from apex. 

Alar expanse, 35-45 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 7-7c) over twice as large as those of hidentella; 
aedeagas more extensively sclerotized. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except that, 
in many specimens, there is a somewhat stronger fuscous shading in 
the apical area of the hind wing. Labial palpi longer than those of 
the male. 

Alar expanse, 36-48 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 45-45a) lal-ger than those of the other species of 
the genus and with scobinations in bursa finer. 

Eggs laid singly or in masses of two or three. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Cerritos, San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Cyliridropuntia) imhricata (Ha worth) 
and probably several other Cylindropuntias. 

Distribution. — United States: California, San Diego, Warner 
(Sept.), Palm Springs (Apr.), Oceanside (Aug.), Riverside (Oct.); 
Arizona, Christmas (Gila County), Fort Grant (July), Oracle 
(July), Redington, Santa Catalina Mountains (Sept.), Baboquivari 
Mountains (Apr., June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct.), Sells P. O. (Indian 
Oasis, Apr.), Douglas (June, Sept.), Mohave County (Aug.) ; Texas, 
Presidio County (July) , Brewster County. Mexico : San Luis Potosi, 
Cerritos (Aug.), Tamaulipas, Tula (June). 

Ninety-five specimens examined. 

Remarks. — The specimens before me are remarkably uniform in 
color and markings except for a male from Texas and two males 
from Riverside, Calif. These are darker than normal parahates. 
In the Riverside specimens there is no appreciable white dusting 
on head, thorax, or fore wing. The fore wing is almost entirely 
suffused with blackish scales, and the pale areas and lines (normally 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

white) are light ocherous-fuscous. The two specimens are other- 
wise normal and represent nothing more than an aberrant color form. 

2. ALBERADA BmENTELLA (Dyar) 

Plates 25, 37, 46 ; Figukes 6-6c, 46, 9&-95a, 96-96a 

Zophodia bidentella Dtae, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 10, p. 114, 1908. 
Eumysia Udentella (Dyah), Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 221, 1925. 

Male. — ^Much smaller and paler than that of pardbates but with 
similar pattern, the ground color more ocherous than fuscous, the 
white dusting on fore wing heavier, the dentations of antemedial and 
subterminal lines shorter ; discal dots distinct and not fused as is fre- 
quently the case in jmrabates. 

Alar expanse, 20-24 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 6-6c) similar to those of farabates but much 
smaller and with central ventral part of aedeagus more narrowly 
sclerotized. 

Female. — Similar to the male except for the normal sexual differ- 
ences in antennae ; the female palpi are little if any longer than those 
of the male. 

Alar expanse, 19-23 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 46) appreciably smaller than those of fardbates; 
bursa wrinkled and more coarsely scobinate. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — San Antonio, Tex. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

Distribution. — UNrrEu States: Texas^ San Antonio (July), San 
Benito (June, Aug., Sept.), Brownsville (June); Arismm, Phoenix, 
"route between Dewey and Salome." 

Twenty-one specimens examined. 

Remarks. — A uniformly marked and colored species, known only 
from collected specimens. 

3. ALBERADA HOLOCHLORA (Dyar) 

Plates 37, 46; Figubes 47, 94-94a 

Zophodia holochlora Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 15, 1925. 

This is probably a synonym or, at most, a variety of bidentella. 
The three females of the type series are the only specimens I have 
seen. They are a trifle smaller than typical bidentella, and there are 
some slight, though hardly significant, differences in the female geni- 
talia (shown in figs. 46, 47). However, until males of holochlora are 
discovered and bidentella has been reared, it will be wiser to keep the 
two as separate species. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 353 

According to Mr. Dodd the larvae are solitary in habit and dark 
blue and the eggs laid singly. 
Alar expanse, 18 mm. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 
Type locality. — Uvalde, Tex. 
Food plant. — Opuntia (Cylindropimtia) leptocaulis De Candolle. 

5. NANAIA, new genus 

Genotype. — Nanaia suhstituta, new species. 

Antenna of male bipectinate; of female pubescent. Labial palpus 
obliquely porrect (second segment obliquely upturned nearly to top 
of face and third segment bent forward or slightly downcurved) ; 
third segment long (in the female as long as second segment), 
pointed in the male, blunt in the female. Maxillary palpus large, de- 
veloped as a broad, curved, somewhat flattened tuft of scales which 
reaches well above middle of face. Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 
anastomosing beyond cell; 3 and 5 stalked. Eighth abdominal seg- 
ment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid, the two prongs 
narrowly separated; harpe with the apex somewhat tapering but 
bluntly rounded; vinculum moderately long (longer than broad); 
anellus with base of plate narrowly sclerotized, arms long, tapering 
and slightly twisted; aedeagus moderately stout, strongly sclero- 
tized throughout. 

Female genitalia without signum; ductus bursae and bursa copu- 
latrix simple except for fine scobinations in ductus at genital opening ; 
ductus bursae long; bursa copulatrix small; ductus seminalis from 
middle of bursa. 

Larva bluish, not banded; sclerotized plates surrounding body 
setae small ; 2 setae in group "VII on abdominal segments 7 and 8. 

The larvae are solitary feeders in the trunks of Gylindr opuntia and 
Trichocereus. 

Egg and egg-laying habits unknown. 

Remarks. — This genus is close to ATberada but distinguished by 
several characters: The fore wings are distinctly narrower, the vin- 
culum is longer in proportion to its width, the aedeagus more evenly 
sclerotized, the apical process of gnathos more narrowly cleft, the 
anellus more decidedly curved, the bursa simple, without signum or 
scrobinations, the transverse markings on fore wing almost oblit- 
erated, and the maxillary palpi much larger. The maxillary palpi 
are similar to those of Sigelgaita.^ the moths of which resemble in 
general habitus those of Nanaia. The two genera, however, ate 
easily distinguished by their different labial palpi, porrect in Naimia., 
upturned in the males of Sigelgaita. 

Known only from Peru. 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

1. NANAIA SUBSTITUTA, new species 

Plates 25, 42, 47; Figures &-8d, 7^72a, 97-97a 

Male. — General color (except hind wings) ocherous-fuscous pep- 
pered with black and white ; the type darker than most of the para- 
types. Fore wing with pale color confined to costal half of wing; 
terminal area and the area between cell and imior margin darker, 
with very little white dusting; in most specimens a rather pronounced, 
broad, longitudinal, ocherous-fuscous shade in the fold; transverse 
and discal markings almost obsolete; in a few specimens the ante- 
medial line faintly indicated and in the palest of the paratypes the 
discal black dots distinguishable, also some black scaling along the 
veins. Hind wing white with a smoky tint toward apex and termen ; 
terminal margin blackish fuscous; cilia smoky white with a dark 
subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 37-39 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 8-8c) figured from type. 

Female. — Colored like the male except that the hind wing is 
darker, whitish ocherous rather than white. 

Alar expanse, 38-40 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 72-72a) with no appreciable scobinations or gi*an- 
ulations in bursa; ductus bursae minutely scobinate at genital open- 
ing, otherwise smooth. 

Type and paratypes. — U. S. N. M. no. 52748. Paratypes also sent 
to Mr. Dodd. 

Type locality. — Cuzco, Peru. 

Food plant. — Opuntm {Cylindropuntia) exaltata Berger. 

Remarks. — Described from male type and 5 male and 6 female 
paratypes, all from the typo locality and reared by Dr. J. E. Wille 
from larvae feeding in the trunks of Opnntia exaltata ("Em. XII- 
6-8-36, 1-5-19, 37," Wille no. 336-36). I also have before me two 
specimens (male and female) that may be a variety of snhstituta but 
that are probably a distinct species. They were reared by Dr. Wille 
from larvae feeding in trunks of Trichocereiis at Cocachacra, Peru 
(«Em. Xn-12-36 and XIT-19-36," Wille no. 333-36) . Unfortunately 
these specimens lack abdomens and are otherwise in such poor con- 
dition that it is impossible to determine them any further than to 
the genus. 

6. Genus CACTOBLASTIS Ragonot 

Oactotlastis Ragonot, M^moires sur les L^pidopt^res, vol. 8, p. 15, 1901. — 
Dyab, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928. (Genotype: 
Zophodia cactorum Berg.) 

Neopyralis Br^thes, Chacaras e Quinaes, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 18, 1920. (Genotype: 
NeopyraUs ronnai BrSthes.) (New sjnionymy.) 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 355 

Antenna of male pubescent, of female shortly pubescent. Labial 
palpus of male ascending (upcurved), of female porrect. Hind wing 
with veins 7 and 8 shortly anastomosed beyond cell ; 3 and 5 shortly 
stalked. Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos partially fused, the 
prongs separated only for a short distance; harpe with apex evenly 
rounded ; vinculum short ; anellus with base of plate narrowly sclero- 
tized, arms moderately long and rather slender, slightly twisted, very 
finely serrate on outer edges toward apices ; aedeagus stout, moderately 
long. 

Female genitalia with signum developed as a series of more or less 
fused plates; bursa copulatrix weakly and very finely scobinate; 
ductus seminalis from bursa at junction of ductus bursae and bursa 
copulatrix. 

Larva bright orange or red, with rows of large black spots resem- 
bling broken cross bands ; two setae in group VII on abdominal seg- 
ments 7 and 8. 

The larvae feed gregariously in the joints of Platypwntia^ Cylin- 
dropuntia^ Trichocereus, Echinopsis, and Denmoza. 

Eggs laid in long chains. 

Remarks. — The genus as here defined is distinguished from other 
cactus-feeding phycitids by the following combination of characters : 
Antennae of both sexes pubescent ; labial palpi upcurved in the male, 
porrect in the female; veins 7 and 8 of hind wing shortly anasto- 
mosed ; veins 3 and 5 shortly stalked ; apical process of gnathos par- 
tially fused ; eighth abdominal segment of male simple ; larvae bright 
orange or red, with rows of large black spots resembling broken 
cross bands, gregarious in habit. 

Four (possibly five) species are recognized as belonging to the 
genus. Its natural distribution is apparently limited to South Amer- 
ica, south of the Equator; but at least one of its species {cactoi^m) 
has been introduced and become established in Australia. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CACTOBLASTIS 

MALES 

1. Hind wings white 2 

Hind wings brown 5. bucynis Dyar 

2. Hind wings semihyaline 3 

Hind wings dull white 4. mundelli, new species 

3. Fore wing with a row of 7 distinct black dots along termen. 

1. cactorum (Berg) 
Fore wing without such terminal dots or with 3 or 4 very faintly 
indicated 3. doddi, new species 



356 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

FEMALES 

1. Hind wings semihyaline toward their bases 1. cactorum (Berg) 

Hind wings brownish or fuscous throughout 2 

2. Hind wings smoky fuscous 3 

Hind wings brownish fuscous 5. bucyrus Dyar 

3. Hind wings pale smoky fuscous 4. mundelli, new speclea 

Hind wings dark smoky fuscous 3. doddi, new species 

1. CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (Berg) 

Plates 26, 38, 44, 47; Figures 9-9c, 48-48a, 80, 98-98a, 99 

Zopliodia cactorum Berg, Anal. Soc. Cient. Argentina, vol. 19, p. 276, 1885. 

Cactoilastis cactorum (Berg) Raqonot, M^moires sur les L^pidoptferes, vol. 8, 
p. 16, 1901. — DoDD, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Austra- 
lia, Bull. 34, p. 30, 1927; Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 27, p. 509, 1936.— Dyar, Proc. 
Ent Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928. 

Male. — Head sordid whitish ocherous. Palpi pale cinereous, the 
tips of the maxillary palpi and the ends of the segments of the labial 
palpi blackish fuscous. Thorax dull ocherous- fuscous rather heavily 
dusted with blackish fuscous on posterior half. Fore wing ocherous- 
fuscous more or less dusted with white on costal half between ante- 
medial line and apex; antemedial line black, angulate, the apex of 
angle at vein lb, sometimes obscure except on costal half; subterminal 
line black, with a narrow whitish outer border and beyond this a 
faint fuscous band, the black line straight from near apex to vein 6, 
thence sinuate and dentate to inner margin, the ends of the dentations 
rounded; a black spot at end of cell and a few scattered black scales 
on disc; along termen at vein ends a row of seven distinct black 
dots. Hind wing white, semihyaline, costal margin narrowly bor- 
dered with fuscous and on termen a fine black line, the latter not 
extending to inner angle. Mid tibia pale cinereous with a narrow, 
black, transverse band at outer fourth. 

Alar expanse, 23-32 mm. 

Genitalia not exhibiting any marked specific characters; the slight 
comparative differences from the genitalia of the other Cactohlastis 
species are shown in figures 9-9c, 10, 11, and 12-12c. 

Female. — Hind wing white, semiliyaline with some fuscous shading 
on the veins and a rather broad fuscous suffusion at apex and along 
termen for a short distance from apex. Otherwise similar to the 
male except for the normal sexual differences in antennae and labial 
palpi. 

Alar expanse, 27-40 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 48-48a) not exhibiting any marked specific differ- 
ences from those of other Cactohlastis species except perhaps in the 
narrower width of the eighth segment collar. This character, how- 
ever, is individually variable. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 357 

Type. — Location unknown. 

Type locality. — Argentina. 

Food plants. — Opimtia {Platypuntia) spp. Apparently limited to 
the Platypuntias. 

Distribution. — Argentina : La Plata, Concordia, Tacanitas, Santi- 
ago del Estero. Uruguay: Piriapolis. Australia (introduced and 
established) . According to Dodd '"'•cactomum is a native of Uruguay 
and the northern Argentine provinces of Entre Rios, Corrientes 
Sante Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman, Salta, and Chaco." He also 
includes Paraguay and southern Brazil in its possible range; but we 
have no adult specimens from the latter localities. 

Thirty-five specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This is the species that has been used with such re- 
markable success in the biological campaign against the pricklypear 
in Queensland and New South Wales. In 1925, when some 2,750 
eggs of cactomm were taken to Australia for rearing and distribu- 
tion of the moths, about 60,000,000 acres had been overrun by prickly- 
pear. By 1936 "approximately 25,000,000 acres of good grazing and 
agricultural land, previously a wilderness of dense pricklypear, had 
been retrieved to such an extent that they are rapidly being de- 
veloped and brought into production. The remarkable results are 
due to the activities of one insect, the Argentine moth-borer, Gacto- 
hlastis cactoinim Berg." Dodd's 1936 paper gives a detailed and 
moving account of the great campaign, probably the most spectacular 
in the history of economic entomology. 

The species seems to be definitely established in Australia. 

Descriptions of the larva are given by Berg and Eagonot. They 
are detailed and accurate but apply to the genus rather than to 
cactorum specifically. 

2. CACTOBLASTIS RONNAI (Brethes), new combination 

Neopyralis ronnai Brethes, in Ronna, Chacaras e Quinaes, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 18, 
1920. — Costa Lima, Terceiro catalogo dos insectos que vivem nas plautas 
do BrazU, p. 268, no. 1031, 1936. 

The description of Brethes's supposed new genus and new species 
is misleading, and the placement of them in the Schoenobimae obvi- 
ously an error. Roima states that the species was reared from cater- 
pillars feeding in spineless cactus in Rio Grande do Sul. They are 
described as clear yellowish, with black transverse bands or rows of 
black spots on each segment. This description can hardly apply to 
any cactus larva other than Cacfohlastis. Dodd writes that "Mr. 
Mundell carried out investigations in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa 
Catherina in May 1937. The only larva found attacking pricklypears 
was a Cactohlastis, which was generally distributed and often com- 



358 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

mon. The main host plant was an Opuntia closely related to 0. vul- 
garis Miller ( = (9. monacantha"R.2i'V} ovih) ^ih^ sole indigenous prickly- 
pear located in these states; the larvae were encountered in the spine- 
less O. -ficus-indica in garden plots. Mr. Mundell was unable to rear 
adults, but considered that the larvae and eggs were not typical c(Ui- 
tomm. I think there can be little doubt that Neopyralis ronnai is 
the CactoUastis of southern Brazil, which is either G. cactorum or an 
allied form." 

Until the Brazilian form can be reared or Brethes's types exam- 
ined, ronnai must remain as an unrecognized Cactohlustis. 

Type. — ^Location unknown. 

Type locality. — Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

Food plant. — "Spineless cactus." 

3. CACTOBLASTIS DODDI, new Bpccies 

Plates 26, 38; Figtjbes 10, 49-49a 

CactoUastis tucyrus Dodd (not Dyar), Council for Scientific and Industrial 
Research, Australia. Bull. 34, p. 30, 1927. 

Male. — Similar to that of cactorum except as follows : Wliite dust- 
ing on fore wing less contrasted, sparser; general color darker, de- 
cidedly grayish fuscous in specimens from Tucuman; dentations of 
subterminal line of fore wing acute and their ends pointed; black dots 
along termen very faintly indicated, normally altogether absent. 

Alar expanse, 31-38 mm. 

Genitalia similar to those of cactorum., differing chiefly in the 
shorter cleft between the prongs at apex of gnathos (fig. 10). This 
character, however, is subject to some individual variation, and 
should be used with discretion. 

Female. — Similar in color to the male except that the hind wings 
are smoky fuscous throughout. Similar to the female of hucyrus 
except for the absence of terminal black dots on fore wing. 

Alar expanse, 35-41 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 49-49a) with scobinations of bursa somewhat more 
uniformly distributed than in other species of Cactoblastis, not an 
altogether reliable or satisfactory character in this genus. 

Type and paratypes. — U.S.N.M. no. 52749. Paratypes also sent to 
Mr. Dodd. 

Type locality. — Tapia, Tucuman, Argentina. 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypunfia) sidphurea G. Don, Opuntia 
{Platypuntia) ficus-indica (Linnaeus). 

Remarks. — Described from male type, three male and four female 
paratypes from the type locality, reared in October 1936 by R. C. 
Mundell from larvae feeding in O. sulphurea; six males and eight 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 359 

female paratypes from the type locality reared (by Mundell) in 
October 1936 from larvae in O. f,cu3-indica; six male and three 
female paratypes from Mendoza, Argentina, reared (by Mundell) in 
October 1937 from larvae in O. sulphurea; and three male and four 
female paratypes reared in Australia (Dodd no. 49). 

Thirty-eight specimens examined. 

According to Dodd, this species "is distributed along the eastern 
edge and foothills of the Andes from Mendoza right to the northern 
boundary of the Republic in O. sulphurea, and almost certainly into 
southern Bolivia at altitudes to 8,000 feet and probably more. Hence, 
as far as our information goes, No. 49 {doddi) inhabits territory 
lying in between that of cactorum and the Peruvian insect {mun- 
delli)P 

0. sulphurea seems to be the favored host of doddi. Mr. Dodd 
tells me that cactoi'um does not attack this cactus although it is 
abundant in territory within the range of that insect. He also states 
that there are consistent differences in the eggs and egg sticks between 
the two species and that their larvae can be distinguished in the 
field. I am unable to separate alcoholic specimens of the larvae 
with any certainty. The moths can be distinguished easily enough 
by the characters given in the key. 

Named in honor of Alan P. Dodd. 

4. CACTOBLASTIS MUNDELLI, new species 

Ptj^tes 26, 47; Fiquees 11, 100, 101 

Male. — Head ocherous. Palpi cinereous, dusted with black. Thorax 
ocherous-fuscous, heavily dusted with white and black scales, espe- 
cially on tegulae and posterior margin. Fore wing ocherous-fuscous 
with a fine dusting of white scales in costal area from base to apex ; 
some black scaling on the veins; discal dot at end of cell somewhat 
obscured by a dark smudge which extends beyond the cell toward 
vein lb; transverse black lines distinct and well contrasted against 
the ground color; dentations of subterminal line as in doddi; a row 
of seven small black dots on termen at the vein ends. Hind wing 
dull white with a faint smoky tint ; veins faintly outlined in f uscous- 
ocherous; some fuscous shading along costa and a fine fuscous line 
on termen from apex to about vein lb. 

Alar expanse, 38-40 mm. 

Genitalia with base of apical process of gnathos (fig. 11) nearly 
square when viewed from beneath. 

Female. — Like the male in color and markings except that the 
hind wing is pale smoky fuscous. 

Alar expanse, 42 mm. 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL, MUSEUM vol.86 

Genitalia not specifically different from those of cactorvm except 
for a somewhat shorter ductus bursae. 

Type and paratypes.—V.S.'N.'M. no. 52750. Paratypes also sent 
to Mr. Dodd. 

Type locality. — Arequipa, Peru. 

Food plant. — punt la {Cylindropuntia) exaltata Berger. 

Remarks. — Described from male type and five male and one female 
paratypes, all from the type locality and reared by R. C. Mundell 

(Oct.-Nov. 1936). 

Apparently this species does not attack the Platypuntias. Mr. 
Dodd writes that "the Platypuntia, 0. ficus-indica (which is a host 
of cactorum in Argentina), is grown in cultivations around Arequipa 
but seems to be immune from attack. Mr. Mundell states that he 
found larvae in 0. exaltata growing alongside noninfested plants of 
■ficus-iTidica.^'' 

The species is easily recognized by the color of the hind wings and 
the ocherous suffusion on the fore wings. 

Named in honor of R. C. Mundell. 

5. CACTOBLASTIS BUCYRUS Dyar 

Plates 26, 38 ; Figures 12-12c, 50-50b 

Cactoblastis biicynts Dyar, Insccutor Inscitiae Monstnins, vol. 10, p. 16, 1922; 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928. 

Male. — Much darker than males of other species of Oactohlastis. 
Palpi and thorax heavily dusted with blackish scales. Head and 
collar ocherous. Fore wing brownish fuscous; white dusting incon- 
spicuous, the pale scales more ocherous than white; black antemedial 
and subterminal lines somewhat obscured by the dark ground color, 
conspicuous only toward costa, dentations of subterminal line as in 
doddi; a row of seven black dots along termen at vein ends. Hind 
wing brownish fuscous. 

Alar expanse, 30-32 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 12-12c) with arms of anellus somewhat shorter 
than those of cactoi^m, doddi, and mundelU. 

Female. — In color and markings similar to the male, pale dusting 
on fore wing a trifle more noticeable, more whitish than ocherous. 

Alar expanse, 40-41 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 50-50b) with bui'sa very minutely and sparsely 
scobinate. The signum, like that of other species of Oactohlastis, is 
individually variable. Extremes of variation are shown in figures 
50 and 50b. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — ^Mendoza, Argentina. 

Food plants. — Trichocereiis, EchinopsiSj Denmoza, 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 361 

Distribution. — ^Argentina : Tucuman, Tapia, Mendoza, Catamarca, 
Andalgala. 

Twelve specimens examined. 

Remarks. — Concerning hosts, Mr. Dodd supplies the following 
note: "The food plants of G actohlastis hucyrus in Tucuman are 
TricJiocereus terschechii (Parmentier) and Echinopsis shaferi Brit- 
ton and Rose ; Stetsonia is not a known host plant. Dyar described 
this insect from material reared by W. B. Alexander from Echino- 
Goctus (?) at Mendoza and from Echinopsis at Andalgala. The 
''Echinocactus'' from Mendoza is undoubtedly Denmoza rhodacantha 
(Salm-Dyck). The Echinopsis from Andalgala is probably E. tubi- 
flora (Pfeiffer)." 

7. CAHELA, new genus 

Genotype. — Olyca ponderosella Barnes and McDunnough. 

Antennae of male and female pubescent, the pubescence shorter in 
the female. Labial palpus of male obliquely upturned, of female 
porrect, with third segment downcurved and second and third seg- 
ments longer than those of male; male palpus not extending above 
middle of front and with third segment short. Maxillary palpus 
squamous. Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 shortly anastomosing be- 
yond cell; 3 and 5 stalked. Eighth abdominal segment of male 
simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos fused; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded; vinculum short; anellus with base of plate 
narrowly sclerotized, arms long and broad, slightly twisted ; aedeagus 
stout, sclerotized throughout. 

Female genitalia with signum developed as a ridged plate (a hol- 
low, blunt, flattened, more or less thornlike projection into the bursa) ; 
bursa copulatrix large, finely scobinate especially in the neighbor- 
hood of the signum; ductus bursae scobinate at genital opening; 
ductus seminalis from bursa near signum. 

Larvae whitish, not banded or conspicuously spotted; solitary in 
habit ; stem borers in Cylindropuntias. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — This genus and the following {Rumatha) are dis- 
tinguished from all others in the cactus-feeding group by the com- 
plete fusion of the apical process of the gnathos. Several male char- 
acters distinguish the two genera from each other, but Cahela is most 
easily recognized by the black longitudinal lines between the veins 
on the fore wing. 

The genus is apparently limited in distribution to the southwestern 
part of the United States and northern Mexico. 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE InTATIONAL MUSEUM vuu 86 

1. CAHELA PONDEROSELLA (Barnes and McDnnnoogh) 

PISTES 26, 38, 47; Figukes 13-13f, 51-51a, 102-102a, 103-103a 

Olyca ponderosella Babnes aud McDunnough, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. North 

America, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 175, 1918. 
Zophodia piirgatoria Dyab, Insecutor Insscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 222, 1925. 

(New synonymy.) 
Cactolrosis interstitialis Dtab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 223, 

1925; Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. (New synonymy.) 
Cactohrosis phooih-is Dyar, Insyeutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 223, 1925; 

Free. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. (New synonymy.) 
Cactohrosis (?) ponderosella (Barnes and McDunnough) Dtab, Proc. Ent. Soc 

Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. 

Male. — Head, thorax, fore wings, and body dark fuscous-gray pep- 
pered with white and with pronounced, longitudinal, black lines on 
the fore wing ; a long black line through the cell and extending from 
near base of wing to termen; another long black line from base to 
tornus running parallel and very close to the fold; in outer area, 
from beyond cell to apex and termen, five other shorter black lines, 
the longest and most pronounced above vein 6; all the black lines 
between and not on the veins; antemedial and subterminal lines 
normally obsolete; in a veiy few specimens a faint indication of a 
partial, black, antemedial line and in several specimens a dark shade 
from end of cell to middle of inner margin, but no trace of any 
transverse subterminal line ; body somewhat paler than fore wing or 
thorax. Hind wing white, semihy aline, termen for a short distance 
from costa very faintly and narrowly edged with fuscous. 

Alar expanse, 30-40 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 13-13f ) figured from type. There is some variation 
in the shape and size of the terminal process of the gnathos in differ- 
ent specimens from any given locality. The extremes of variation are 
shown in figures 13-13c. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except for a 
more pronounced fuscous shading along termen of hind wing. 

Alar expanse, 26-42 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 51-51a) figured from paratype from the type locality. 
The size of the signum and bursa varies somewhat in different speci- 
mens, but the variations are slight and can be found in any series from 
one locality. 

Types. — In United States National Museum {ponderosella, purga- 
toria, interstitialis, phoenicis). 

Type localities. — Palm Springs, Calif, {ponderosella, phoenicis) ; 
Colorado Desert, Yuma County, Ariz, {purgatoria) ; Presidio, Tex. 
{interstitialis). 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 363 

Food plant.— O'puntia {Cylindropuntia) imhricata (Haworth) and 
probably other Cylindropuntias. 

Distribution.— United States: California, Palm Springs (Apr., 
Aug.), San Bernardino (Apr., May) ; Utah, St. George (May, June) ; 
Nevada, Charlestown Mountains (July), Clark County (Apr., May, 
June) ; Arizona, Yuma County, Mohave County (Apr., May), Dewey 
(June), "en route from Dewey to Salome" (Apr.), Maricopa County 
(July), Prescott (Apr., June), Redington, Baboquivari Mountains 
(Pima County, May, July, Aug.), Phoenix (May), Tucson (June), 
Douglas (May), Christmas (Gila County), Paradise (Cochise 
County, June) ; Texas, Brewster County, Alpine (Apr.), Presidio. 

One hundred and thirty-two specimens examined. 

Dodd states that the range of the species includes the central 
plateau of Mexico, which is what we should expect. I have seen 
no Mexican specimens. 

Remarks. — The species is remarkably uniform in color and mark- 
ings but varies considerably in size, which accounts for some of the 
synonymy. Dyar described his purgatoria from an exceptionally 
small female (26 mm). There is a male in the National collection 
(from Phoenix, Ariz.) only 23 mm in expanse, but this is obviously 
an abnormal specimen. Its genitalia are correspondingly smaller 
than those of normal males. The usual expanse of both males and 
females is about 35 mm. When Dyar described his three species 
he had not seen the types of ponderosella and had very few speci- 
mens from any locality. 

Superficially ponderosella is similar to both Ererriberga leuconips 
(Dyar) and Cactohrosis strigalis (Barnes and McDunnough). 
They also are dark gray with conspicuous black longitudinal lines 
on their fore wings, but in leuconips and strigalis the black lines are 
on the veins, while in ponderosella they lie between the veins. This 
character at once distinguishes it from other known cactus phycitids. 

8. RUMATHA, new genus 

Genotype. — Zophodia hihinda Dyar. 

Antenna of male shortly serrate and pubescent, of the female simple 
and pubescent, the pubescence shorter in the female than in the male. 
Labial palpi porrect in both sexes; third segment of palpus about 
half as long as second. Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing 
with veins 7 and 8 anastomosing beyond cell; 3 and 5 stalked. 
Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos fused; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded and with a subbasal sclerotized pocket {pM, 

109335—39 3 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

fig. 14) between sacculus and costa ; uncus truncate and short in pro- 
portion to its breadth ; vincuhim short, truncate, ahuost square in out- 
line; anellus with base rather broadly sclerotized, arms short, broad, 
slightly twisted; aedeagus very short, stout, partially sclerotized (on 
ventral half only) . The entire genitalia have a squat appearance that 
is characteristic. 

Female genitalia with signum developed as a ridged plate with in- 
wardly projecting ridge bluntly serrate (except in glaucatella^ in 
which the signum is as in Cahela poTiderosella) ; bursa copulatrix 
large, finely scobinate, especially in neighborhood of signum ; ductus 
bursae scobinate at genital opening and with a pair of more or less 
defined sclerotized plates on the dorsal membrane of the ductus at 
the opening ; ductus seminalis from bursa near signum (but somewhat 
farther removed than in Cahela). 

Larva of only one species {glaucatella) known; whitish, not banded 
or conspicuously spotted; solitary in habit; stem borer in Cylindro- 
jmntia. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — This genus is very close to Cahela, and for some time I 
hesitated about erecting it, for both genera have similar larvae and 
host associations and a like structure of the gnathos; but there are 
too many other differences in male characters and adult habitus to 
permit their lumping. The partially sclerotized aedeagus, the short 
stout arms of the anellus, the squat appearance of the whole male 
genitalia, the porrect male labial palpi, and the serrate male an- 
tennae at once distinguish the males of Rumutha from those of Ca- 
hela; and i\\Q^ wing patterns readily separate both sexes. In Rmimtha 
the discal dot is prominent and the transverse lines on the fore wing 
are well defined for at least half their length. In Cahela the distinc- 
tive wing markings are longitudinal. 

Three species are recognized as belonging to the genus. Its dis- 
tribution is limited apparently to the southwestern part of the 
United States and possibly the adjacent regions of northern Mexico, 
although as yet no specimens have been received from Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF RUMATHA 

1. Ground color of fore wing white ; expanse 20 mm or less. 

1. glaucatella (Hulst) 
Ground color of fore wing fuscous ; expanse 23 mm and over 2 

2. Indentation of subterminal line of fore wing between veins 5 

and 6 deep, extending to cell ; no pinkish scaling on costal area 

of fore wing 2. bihinda (Dyar) 

Indentation of subterminal line of fore wing between veins 5 and 6 
shallow, not extending to cell ; a scattering of pinkish scales 
among white scales on costal area of fore wing 3. poling-ella (Dyar) 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 365 

1. RUMATHA GLAUCATELLA (Hnlst) 

Plates 27, 39, 48 ; Figures 16-16c, 52, 104-104a, 105-105a 

Honora glaucatella Hulst, Eutomologica Americana, vol. 4, p. 117, 1888. 

Zophodia glaucatella (Hulst), Traus. Amer. Eut. Soc, vol. 17, p. 174, 1890; 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 430, 1903. — Ragonot, Memoires sur les L6pi- 
dopt^res, vol. 8, p. 23, 1901. — Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the 
Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 5712, 1917. 

Male. — Palpi, head, and thorax pale fuscous, sparsely sprinkled 
with white ; posterior margin of thorax edged with blackish fuscous. 
Fore wing dull white, sparsely sprinkled with fuscous and with a very 
pale fuscous stain in a broad area bordering imier margin ; antemedial 
line angulate, fuscous, rather faint but complete and always distin- 
guishable; subterminal line double, consisting of two parallel, faint, 
pale-fuscous lines, almost vertical and but very slightly dentate ; discal 
spot at end of cell blackish fuscous, prominent ; a row of small blackish 
dots along termen between the vein ends. Hind wing whitish with a 
very pale fuscous line edging termen. 

Alar expanse, 15-18 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 16-16c) much smaller than those of either hihinda 
or polingella; basal portion of aedeagus narrower in proportion; 
harpe with apex more bluntly rounded than that of polingella but 
with width of harpe less in proportion to its length than that of 
hihinda. 

Female. — In color, markings, and palpal structures similar to the 
male. Pubescence of antenna much shorter. 

Alar expanse, 16-20 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 52) with signum similar to that of Cahela fondero- 
sella.^ the inwardly projecting edge not appreciably serrate ; sclerotized 
plates in genital opening very weak, hardly distinguishable except 
under very liigh magnification. 

Larvae. — Solitary in habit, white, not banded or conspicuously 
spotted. 

Type. — In Rutgers College collection. 

Tyjye locality. — Texas. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Oylindroptmtia) leptocaulis De CandoUe. 

Distribution. — United States: Texas., San Benito (May, June, 
July, Aug.), Brownsville (June), San Diego (May), Laredo (July), 
San Antonio; Florida (one female, so labeled and without other lo- 
cality, from the Fernald collection in the United States National 
Museum) . 

Seventeen specimens examined. 

Remarlis. — The labial palpus of the male is somewhat misleading. 
In natural position the third segment is projected forward as in 
fig. 104 ; but in relaxed and badly prepared specimens it may be bent 



366 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

upward. The pattern markings (particularly the pronounced discal 
spot) and the male genitalia show that glaucatella belongs with 
hihinda and polingella rather than in Cahela. 

2. RUMATHA BIHINDA (Dyar) 

Plates 27, 39, 48 ; Figubes 14-14c, 54, 108-108a, l(»-109a 

Zophodia hihinda Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 10, p. 173, 1922. 
Eumysia hihinda (Dyab), Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 221, 1925. 

Male. — Palpi, head, thorax, fore wings, and abdomen dark fuscous, 
dusted with white, giving a decidedly grayish-fuscous appearance 
to the moth; the white dusting heavy on costal half of fore wing 
and upper surface of abdomen ; discal spots and transverse markings 
en fore wings blackish fuscous. Fore wing with area between cell 
and imier margin brownish, with little or no white dusting and with 
transverse lines obscured; costal half (especially above cell) strongly 
suffused with white; transverse antemedial line blackish, distinct 
only from costa to fold ; subterminal line markedly dentate and sin- 
uate, blackish, oblique, broad and conspicuous from costa to vein 8, 
with a slight dentation between veins 8 and 6 and a deep angulation 
between veins 5 and 6 extending to cell, between vein 5 and the fold 
straight and inwardly slanting, thence obscure to inner margin of 
fore wing ; discal dots at end of cell normally conspicuous and fused 
into a single black spot, obscure in a few specimens; a row of black 
dots along termen at the vein ends; in some specimens faint traces 
of a black longitudinal line through center of cell and a line of 
blackish scales along the fold. Hind wing white, semihyaline, with 
a fine, faint, fuscous line along termen and some fuscous shading 
on costal margin. Under surface of abdomen decidedly brownish 
fuscous, sparsely dusted with white. Legs with femora whitish, with 
some fuscous spotting; coxae uniformly dark brown, with no white 
dustings or markings, strongly contrasted against femora. 

Alar expanse, 30-35 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 14-14c) appreciably larger than those of other 
species in the genus; harpe broader in proportion to its length and 
with apex more broadly rounded. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings. Labial pal- 
pus somewhat longer and pubescence of antenna appreciably shorter. 

Alar expanse, 32-36 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 54) similar to those of polingella and hardly to be 
distinguished; signum with inner projecting edge irregularly and 
bluntly serrate. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Jemez Springs, N. Mex. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 367 

Distribution.— [JsiTESi States : Texas, Alpine (Apr.) ; New Mexico^ 
Jemez Springs (June, July); Arizona, Yuma County (Apr.), "en 
route from Dewey to Salome" (Apr.), Dewey (May), Mohave County 
(March); Nevada, Clark County (March, Apr., May), Bellevue 
(Washington County, May). 

Tliirty-eight specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This species has never been reared and its larva is un- 
known. From its close relationship to glaucateJla we may expect that 
its host will prove to be one of the Cylindropuntias. 

3. RUMATHA POLINGELLA (Dyar) 

Plates 27, 39, 48 ; Fiqubes 15-15c, 53, 106-106a, 107-107a 

Zophodia poUngella Dyak, Jouru. New York Eut. Soc, vol. 14, p. 31, 1906. — 
Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America, 
no. 5713, 1917. 

Male. — Similar in appearance to that of hihinda but with trans- 
verse antemedial and subterminal lines more distinctly continued to 
inner margin of fore wing; indentations of subterminal line not so 
deep as in hihinda and not extending to cell ; a scattering of pinkish 
scales among the white scales on costal area of fore wing. 

Alar expanse, 23-34 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 15-15c) similar to those of hihinda but with harpe 
narrower, apex of harpe more acutely rounded, and aedeagus slightly 
narrower in proportion to its length. 

Female. — Similar to the male except for shorter pubescence on 
antenna. 

Alar expanse, 26-35 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 53) essentially like those of hihinda except that the 
sclerotized plates in genital opening are not so distinct and the 
signum is on the average smaller. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Southern Arizona. 

Food plant. — Unknown, presumably a Gylindropuntia. 

Distrihution. — United States: Arizona, Douglas (June, Aug.), 
Kedington, Palmerlee, Paradise (Cochise County, July, Sept.), Pinal 
Mountains (Apr.), Baboquivari Mountains (June, July, Aug., Sept.), 
Santa Catalina Mountains (Aug.), "southern Arizona" (Apr.). 

Seventy-one specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This species also has not been reared, and its life his- 
tory is unknown. It is obviously distinct from hihinda but evidently 
very close to that species and is quite similar to it in general appear- 
ance. The characters given in the key will separate it readily 
enough. 



368 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

9. Genus YOSEMITIA Ragonot 

Yosetnitia Ragonot, Memoires siir les Lepidopteres, vol. 8, p. 17, 1901. (Geno- 
type: Spennatopthora graciella Hiilst.) 

Yosemetia Hulst, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903. — Dyar, Insecutor Insei- 
tiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 220, 1925. (Misspelling for Yosemitia.) 

Antemia of male weakly serrate and pubescent, of female simple 
and shortly pubescent. Labial palpi obliquely porrect. Maxillary 
palpus fan-shaped and held vertically to the face. Hind wing with 
veins 7 and 8 anastomosing beyond cell; veins 3 and 5 stalkeu. 
Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded; vinculum moderately long; anellus with arms 
broad, short, slightly twisted, and base of plate broadly sclerotized ; 
aedeagus short and slender, sclerotized throughout. 

Female genitalia with signum developed as a small, shortly spined 
plate; ductus biirsae short; bursa copulatrix finely scobinate, espe- 
cially in area about signum; ductus seminalis from bursa near junc- 
tion of bursa and ductus bursae. 

Larva bluish, dark, not banded or conspicuously spotted. 

The larvae feed gregariously (sometimes singly) in Echinocereus, 
Coryphantha^ Ilomnlocephuhi, and presumably also in Echinocactvs 
and N eomamillaria. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — This genus as here defined is distinguished by the fol- 
lowing combination of characters: Male antenna serrate and pubes- 
cent; labial palpi porrect in both sexes; maxillary palpi fan-shaped; 
male genitalia with vinculmn moderately long and rather narrow, 
apical process of gnathos bifid, anellus small and stout with broad 
short arms, aedeagus slender; eighth abdominal segment of male 
simple; female genitalia with signum a small, shortly spined plate, 
ductus bursae short and ductus seminalis from bursa copulatrix near 
junction of bui'sa and ductus bursae; larvae not banded and normally 
gregarious. 

The male genitalia have a characteristic habitus which makes them 
easy to place generically; but the differences between species are very 
slight and not altogether trustworthy, hardly more than might be 
expected within specific limits. 

Four species are recognized as belonging to the genus. Its distri- 
bution is the southwestern part of the United States and Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF YOSEMITIA 

1. A short blackish line on midcosta of fore wing 4. didactica Dyar 

No such line on midcosta of fore wing 2 

2. Subterminal line of fore wing interrupted between veins 6 and 5. 

1. graciella (Hulst) 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 369 

Subterminal line not interrupted between veins 6 and 5 3 

3. A blackish curved line from antemedial line through cell to upper 

outer angle of cell 3. fieldiella (Dyar) 

No such blackish line connecting antemedial line and outer angle 

of cell 2. longipennella (Hulst) 

1. YOSEMITIA GRACIELLA (Hulst) 

Plates 28, 40, 44, 48 ; Figotes 21-21d, 57, 79, 111-llla 

Spermatopthora graciella Hulst, Entomologica Americana, vol. 3, p. 134, 1887. 
Zophodia graciella (Hulst), Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, 173, 1890. 
Yosemitia graciella (Hulst) Ragonot, Memoires sur les L^pidoptferes, vol. 8, 

p. 13, 1901. — Baenes and McDunnough, Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. North 

America, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 199, 1916; Check list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal 

America, no. 5699, 1917. 
Yosemetia graciella (Hulst), U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903. — Dyab, 

Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 220, 1925. 

Male. — Palpi, face, head, and thorax pale brownish fuscous, the 
palpi sparsely dusted with white, the tegulae with posterior ends 
shaded with black. Fore wing pale brow^nish fuscous dusted and 
streaked with black and dusted with white scales; the white scaling 
concentrated on and strongly whitening the costal half of the wing; 
the black scaling thinly dusted over the lower half of the wing 
(between cell and inner margin) and outlining the veins; transverse 
lines incomplete, blackish; the antemedial line indicated only by a 
transverse dash in the cell and a dot or very short streak on inner 
margin; subterminal line prominent from costa near apex to vein 8 
(sometimes to vein 6), inwardly slanting, interrupted between veins 
6 and 5, obscure between vein 2 and inner margin ; discal dots fused 
into a line of black scales on discocellular vein; a row of small 
black dots along termen between the vein ends. Hind wing whitish, 
shaded with very pale fuscous at apex, along coeta, and narrowly 
along termen ; cilia white with a very fine, pale fuscous, subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 25-30 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 21-21c) very little different from those of other 
species in the genus ; the vinculmn is not so broad as that of -fieldiella 
or so long as that of didactica; the anelli of the several species (figs. 
18b, 19b, 20b, 21b) seem to offer the best characters for separating the 
species on genitalic characters; those of graciella and longipennella 
are much alike, but in didactica the arms appear to be more sharply 
twisted and in fieldiella the basal portion is more narrowly sclero- 
tized and the free arms, therefore, correspondingly longer. These 
characters, however, may not be constant in long series. 

Female. — Superficially like the male except that the labial palpus 
is appreciably longer, the anteimal pubescence shorter, and the hind 
wings very pale, smoky fuscous rather than white. 

Alar expanse, 25-30 mm. 



370 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM VOU 86 

Genitalia (fig. 57) with signum a trifle smaller than that of any 
other Tosemiiia, otherwise not specifically distinguished. 

Larvae "dark, dull blue, and solitary or gregarious in habit" 
(Dodd). 

Type. — In Rutgers College collection. 

Type locality. — Blanco County, Tex. 

Food plants. — Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelmann, E. polyacan- 
thus Engelmann, and Coryphantha aggregata (Engelmann). 

Distribution. — United States: Colorado^ Denver (July) and one 
specimen with only the State designation; Nevada^ Clark County 
(Apr., May) ; Calif o'tmia, San Bernardino County (Apr.), Providence 
Mountains (May), one specimen with only State designation (Apr.) ; 
Arizona, Yavapai County, Ajo (Pima County, March), Baboquivari 
Mountains (May), White Mountains (June), Pinal Mountains 
(Apr.), Quijotoa Mountains (June), Santa Rita Mountains (June), 
Sells P. O. (Pima County, May), "en route from Dewey to Salome" 
(Apr.), Mojave County (May), Roosevelt (June), Phoenix (March, 
Apr.), Redington, no locality except the state (2 specimens reared 
from Coi'yphantha aggregata., June) ; New Mexico (March) ; Texas 
(no specific locality, one specimen reared from Echinocereus viridi- 
fiorus, Apr.). 

Seventy-six specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This species bears a superficial resemblance to Rumatha 
hihinda (Dyar) and might easily be confused witli that species. On 
other than structural characters it is most readily distinguished by 
the distinct black scaling outlining the veins and rather strongly con- 
trasted against the white dusting on the costal half of the fore wing. 

I follow Barnes and McDunnough (1916) and Hulst (1890) in 
reference to the type locality. According to the former the type is 
from Texas and not Colorado as given by Hulst in 1888. 

2. YOSEMITIA LONGIPENNELLA (Hulst) 

Plates 28, 40, 48 ; Figures 20-20c, 58, 112-112a, 113-113a 

Zophodia longlpenneUa Hulst, Eutomologica Americana, vol. 4, p. 118, 1888. 
Zophodia graciella (Hulst, in part), Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 173, 1890. 
Yosemitia graciella (Hulst, in part) Ragonot, M^moires sur les L4pidopt6res, 

vol. 8, p. 13, 1901. 
Yosemetia graciella longipennella (Hulst), U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 

1903. 
Yosemitia graciella longipennella (Hulst) Baenes and McDunnough, Check 

list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 5699, 1917. 
Yosemetia longipennella (Hulst) Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, 

p. 220, 1925. 

Male. — Similar to that of graciella except black dusting on fore 
wing sparse, veins not or but very faintly outlined by black scales, 



THE CACTUS-FEEDINa PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 371 

transverse subtermiiial line not interrupted between veins 6 and 5, 
dentate. 

Alar expanse, 21-25 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 2(>-20c) essentially like those of graciella. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except 
that the hind wings have a very pale smoky tint, paler on the average 
than the hind wings of females of graciella. 

Alar expanse, 22-26 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 58) similar to those of graciella but with signum a 
trifle larger. 

Larvae "dark dull blue, gregarious in habit" (Dodd). 

Type. — In Kutgers College collection. 

Type locality. — Texas. 

Food plant. — Homalocephala texensis (Hopffer). 

According to Dodd the larvae also feed in Neomamillaria. 

Distribution. — United States: Texas^ Uvalde (June), "Big Bend" 
(Apr.), San Antonio (June), Van Horn (June), San Diego (Apr.), 
San Benito (Apr., May). 

Fifteen specimens examined. 

Remarks. — ^When Hulst (1890) transferred his graciella from Sper- 
matoptliora to Zophodia^ he sank longipennella as a synonym of gror 
ciella. Ragonot also treated them as one species. Dyar, in his catalog 
(1903), listed longipennella as a race or subspecies. Later (1925) he 
restored it to full specific rank. He was apparently justified in so 
doing, for, while the two species are close and the differences between 
them slight, these differences are constant. The host association, the 
smaller average size, and the shallow indentation of the subterminal 
line of the fore wing between veins 6 and 5 suggest that longipen- 
nella is a distinct species rather than a race or variety of graciella. 

3. YOSEMFTIA FIELDIELLA (Dyar) 

Plates 28, 49; Figuees 18-18c, 114-1 14a, 115-115a 

Zophodia fieldiella Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 1, p. 35, 1913. — 
Babnes and McDunnough, Cheek list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America, 
no. 5711, 1917. 

Male. — Palpi pale brownish fuscous more or less dusted with white 
and with some black scaling on ends of maxillary palpi. Head and 
thorax paler brown, almost clay colored; tegulae tipped with black- 
ish scales. Fore wing heavily dusted with white on costal half and 
with some scattered white scales on remainder of wing ; area between 
inner margin and cell pale brownish, concolorous with thorax ; ante- 
medial line incomplete, distinct only from costa to lower vein of cell ; 
subterminal line complete but obscure except for the blackish costal 
dash, dentate, the incurvation between veins 6 and 5 shallow; from 



372 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

antemedial line, where it meets the cell, a thirty obscure^ curved^ tlack- 
ish line extends to upyer outer angle of cell; discal dot small, ob- 
scure; on some specimens a few black scales outlining vein 6; on 
termen a row of obscure blackish dots lying between the vein ends. 
Hind wing white, with a very pale fuscous line along termen. 

Alar expanse, 22 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 18-18c) with basal portion of anellus more nar- 
rowly sclerotized and arms correspondingly longer than in the other 
species of the genus ; vinculum also broader and shorter. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and pattern except that the 
hind wings are very faintly tinted with smoky fuscous. 

Alar expanse, 21-25 mm. 

Genitalia similar to those of longipennella., but signum somewhat 
larger. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — La Puerta Valley, Calif. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

Distribution. — United States: California., La Puerta Valley 
(July) ; Arkana., Catalina Springs (May). 

Remarks. — The only specimens I have seen are those of the type 
series in the National collection (one male and five females). The 
species has not been reared and its larva is unknown. It is easily 
distinguished from the other North American species of Yosemitia 
by its paler color and the fine, curved, blackish line on the fore wing 
from the apex of the antemedial line to the outer end of the cell. 

4. YOSEMITIA DIDACTICA Dyar 

Plates 28, 48; Figxjees 19-19c, 110-llOa 

Tosemitia didactica Dyab, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, p. 408, 1915. 

Male. — Palpi pale brownish fuscous sparsely dusted with white. 
Head and thorax paler fuscous; tegulae shaded with blackish- 
fuscous scales at their apices. Fore wing heavily dusted with white 
on costal half; a short blackish line on midcosta; lower half of wing 
concolorous with thorax; antemedial line obscure, incomplete; discal 
dot at outer end of cell distinct, blackish ; subterminal line complete, 
dentate, double for a short distance from apex and thence outwardly 
margined by a narrow pale shade, obscure toward inner margin, 
parallel to termen ; veins 5 to 9 very faintly outlined by dark scaling ; 
terminal row of dots almost obsolete. Hind wing whitish, faintly 
smoke-tinted, somewhat darker toward apex and along termen; cilia 
with a pale smoky subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 22 mm. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 373 

Genitalia (figs. 19-19c) with vinculum rather longer than that of 
any other species in the genus ; anellus with arms bent about aedeagus, 

FeTnale. — Similar to the male in color and markings except that 
the hind wings are a trifle darker. 

Alar expanse, 2^23 mm. 

Genitalia similar to those of gradella. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Tehuacan, Mexico. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

Dktrihution. — ^Mexico: Tehuacan (May, June), Orizaba. 

Three specimens (one male and two females) examined. 

Remarks. — This species resembles gradella but is somewhat paler 
and the male has slightly darker (smoky) hind wings. It is at once 
distinguished by the dark line on the midcosta of the fore wing. Its 
life history is unknown. 

10. Genus TUCUMANIA Dyar 

Tucttmcmia Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruns, vol. 13, p. 224, 1925. (Genotype : 
Tucumania tapiacola Dyar.) 

Antenna of male shortly serrate and pubescent, of female simple 
and shortly pubescent. Labial palpus of male upturned, reaching 
almost to level of top of eye ; of female porrect (the second segment 
oblique, the third slightly downcurved) . Maxillary palpus squamous. 
Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 anastomosing for a short distance be- 
yond cell; 3 and 5 stalked. Eighth abdominal segment of male 
simple. 

Male genitalia witli apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex bluntly pointed or elliptically rounded; vinculum moderately 
long (it is somewhat foreshortened in fig. 17), broad; anellus with 
base of plate moderately sclerotized, arms rather broad and long, 
slightly twisted ; aedeagus long, slender ; penis weakly scobinate to- 
ward outer extremity. 

Female genitalia with signum a small ridged or granulate plate; 
bursa copulatrix with some fine scobinations in the area about sig- 
num; ductus seminalis from bursa near junction of bursa and ductus 
bursae. 

Larva purplish or wine colored with sclerotized areas about body 
tubercles dark brown and large; two setae in group VII on abdominal 
segments 7 and 8. 

The larvae are solitary feeders in the joints of Platypuntias. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks.— This genus is distinguished from others having serrate 
and pubescent male antennae and squamous maxillary palpi by its 
host association, its upturned male palpi, slender aedeagus, female 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

genitalia with signum and with ductus seminalis from the bursa. It 
is nearest to Eremberga, but that genus is broad-winged and has a 
flat, more strongly sclerotized anellus, a scobinate aedeagus, stouter 
male genitalia, no signum, and the ductus seminalis coming from the 
ductus bursae. In Tueumania the wings are long and rather narrow. 
The known distribution is Argentina and Uruguay. 

KEY TO THE SPKCIES OF TUCUMANIA 

1. General color of fore wings dark grayish fuscous ; expanse 30 mm 

or less !• tapiacola Dyar 

General color of fore wings pale purplish fuscous ; expanse over 
30 mm -• porrecta Dyar 

1. TUCUMANIA TAPIACOLA Dyar 

Plates 27, 40, 44, 49; Figubes 17-17d, 59-59a, 82, 121-121a, 122 
Tiicumania tapiacola Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 225, 1925. 

Male.—Psdp'i, face, head, thorax, and fore wings dark grayish 
fuscous with a sparse scattering of obscure whitish scales (Dyar 
states that the coxae and parts of the femora and tibiae of the legs 
are black, but even on these parts there is some scattered pale scaling 
and the ground color is fuscous rather than black). Fore wing 
almost uniformly dark, sometimes a very faint luteous tint in the 
median area and a slight pale suffusion in terminal area; transverse 
lines black but not strongly contrasted against the dark ground color; 
antemedial line bidentate, its apex extending almost to center of cell ; 
subterminal line dentate, sinuate, the dentations short, bordered out- 
wardly by a pale line and beyond this by a rather broad blackish 
band, from costa well before apex; apical spot at end of cell large; 
veins beyond cell faintly outlined by dark scaling; a row of black 
dots along termen at the vein ends. Hind wing whitish, semihyaline, 
strongly shaded with fuscous at apex and narrowly along margin of 
termen almost to anal angle. 

Alar expanse, 27-28 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 17-17c) with apex of harpe bluntly pointed ; anellus 
with the apices of the arms appreciably broadened. These are pre- 
sumably specific characters. I have seen no males of any other species 
of Tucumania. 

Female. — In color and markings like the male except that the 
fuscous shading on the hind wing is a trifle more extended. 

Alar expanse, 30 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 59-59a) with scobinations of bursa very weak and 
distinguishable only in area surrounding signum; signum somewhat 
granulate. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 375 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Tapia, Tucuman, Argentina. 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) discolor Britton and Eose, 
O. {Platypuntia) auromtmca Lindley. 

Distribution. — Argentina. 

Remarks. — Only three specimens are before me, the male type and 
a pair (male and female) reared in Australia from Argentine stock 
and sent me by Mr. Dodd. 

2. TUCUMANIA PORRECTA Dyar 

Plates 40, 49; Fiqtjees 60, 123 

Tucumania porrecta Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 225, 1925. 

Male. — Unknown. 

Female. — Larger and paler than that of tapiacola. Thorax pale 
fawn color. Fore wing pale purplish fuscous with black markings 
diffused ; antemedial and subterminal lines narrow, black, irregularly 
dentate, distinguishable throughout but somewhat interrupted; dis- 
cal dots at end of cell rather large but not sharply contrasted against 
ground color of the wing because of scattered black dusting in the 
surrounding area; dots along termen distinct; a short black streak 
from base through middle of cell to apex of angulate antemedial line. 
Hind wing white, faintly smoke-tinted, especially toward apex. 
Legs pale purplish fuscous; femora and tibiae transversely banded 
with blackish fuscous on outer sides. 

Alar expanse, 32-35 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 60) with scobinations of bursa very fine but denser 
than in tapiacola; a small patch of somewhat larger scobinations in 
neck of bursa ; signum larger, with a thin even keel but no granula- 
tions. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Paysandu, Uruguay. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) sp. 

Distribution. — Uruguay. 

Remarks. — Kepresented in the National collection only by the type 
and paratype from the type locality (A. P. Dodd, Feb. 1925), both 
females. 

11. EREMBERGA, new genus 

Genotype. — Oactobrosis Uuconips Dyar. 

Antenna of male serrate and pubescent, of female simple and 
shortly pubescent. Labial palpus of male upturned, of female ob- 
liquely porrect. Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing with veins 
7 and 8 very shortly anastomosed beyond cell; 3 and 5 stalked. 
Eighth abdominal segment of male simple. 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex evenly rounded; vinculum broad and short; anellus with base 
of plate broadly and strongly sclerotized, arms short, broad, not 
twisted or bent and with apices pointed ; aedeagus moderately long, 
rather slender, sclerotized throughout and with a minutely scobinate 
flange at apex. 

Female genitalia without signum ; bursa copulatrix smooth or with 
a few scattered microscopic scobinations ; ductus bursae short, sco- 
binate at genital opening ; ductus seminalis from ductus bursae. 

Larva white with dark spots forming incomplete cross bands ; two 
setae in group VII on abdominal segments 7 and 8. 

The larvae are solitary or semigregarious feeders in Echinocereus. 
The larva of only one species (leuconips) is known but the characters 
here given presumably apply to the genus. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — This genus is close to Tiwuniania and has many charac- 
ters in common with Olyca. The latter, however, has veins 3 and 5 
of the hind wing connate, the ductus seminalis from the bursa rather 
than from the ductus bursae, the male labial palpus oblique, the 
aedeagus stout, and the basal plate of the anellus narrowly sclerotized. 
The characters separating Eremherga from Tucumania have been disr 
cussed in connection with the latter genus. 

Three species are here recognized as belonging to Eremherga. 

Its distribution is the southwestern part of the United States and 
Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF EREMHERGA 

1. A conspicuous, blackish, discal spot on fore wing at end of cell. 

3. insignis, new species 
No such discal spot on fore wing 2 

2. General color of fore wing pale slate-gray 1. leuconips (Dyar) 

Predominant colors of fore wing white and luteous 2. creabatea (Dyar) 

1. EREMBERGA LEUCONIPS (Dyar) 

Plates 29, 39, 49 ; Figures 22-22c, 55-55a, ll&-118a, 119-119a 

Cactobrosis leuconips Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Meustruus, vol. 13, p. 224, 3925; 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. 

Male. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore wings grayish fuscous densely 
sprinkled with white, giving the insect a pale slate color. Labial 
palpus banded with blackish fuscous toward the ends of the segments. 
Fore wing with veins 3 to 10 outlined in black, the black scaling es- 
pecially strong on lower vein of cell; antemedial and subterminal 
lines very fine and faint but usually discernible, black; antemedial 
line acutely angulate and irregularly sinuate and dentate, more or less 
broken and normally obliterated at costa; subterminal line also ir- 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 377 

regularly sinuate and dentate, decidedly slanting, obscured toward 
costa ; no distinct discal marks at end of cell and no dots along termen. 
Hind wing glistening white, semihyaline with a band of fuscous 
shading along costa and a fine pale-fuscous line along termen for a 
short distance from apex. 

Alar expanse, 27-37 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 22-22c) with lateral edges of anellus finely and 
irregularly serrate; vinculum with terminal margin evenly rounded, 
lateral margins not concave or excavate. 

Female. — Color and markings as in the male except hind wings 
dark smoky fuscous, the fuscous shading extending into the cilia and 
strongly outlining most of the veins; hind wings paler toward their 
bases. 

Alar expanse, 26-37 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 55-55a) without any trace of signum; bursa nearly 
smooth; ductus seminalis from ductus bursae a short distance from 
genital opening. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Baboquivari Mountains, Ariz. 

Food plant. — Echinocereiis polyacanthus Engelmann. 

Distribution. — United States: Arizona.^ Baboquivari Mountains 
(July, Sept.), Roosevelt (July), Oracle (July), Huachuca Moun- 
tains (Aug.), Chiricahua Mountains, Mohave County (Sept.). 

Eighteen specimens examined. 

ReTYiarks. — This species bears a strong resemblance to Cactohrosis 
strigalis (Barnes and McDunnough) and might easily be confused 
with it. The latter, however, has filiform maxillary palpi while 
those of leuconips are distinctly squamous. Dyar seems to have over- 
looked this character in placing many of his species. Also there is 
a difference in the longitudinal markings. In strigalis the strongest 
black longitudinal line is that along the top of the cell and vein 6, 
while in leuconips the strongest line is that along the lower vein of 
the cell. 

In two males and some of the females of leuconips there is a faint 
brownish-fuscous suffusion on the lower third of the fore wing 
(bordering the inner margin), but this is not distinguishable on all 
specimens and does not seem to be a specific character. 

2. EREMBERGA CREABATES (Dyar) 

Plates 29, 49; Fiqubes 24-24c, 120-120a 

Olyca creabates Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 11, p. 29, 1923. 
Cactohrosis creaMtes (Dtae), Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. 

Male. — Palpi grayish fuscous. Head grayish fuscous shaded with 
white. Thorax luteous, whitish toward anterior margin. Fore wing 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Iwith basal area (to antemedial line), and all the area between ante- 
medial and subterminal transverse dark shade and the fold and costa, 
;white; area between fold and inner margin luteous; outer area (be- 
yond subterminal dark shade) ashy white, shading to luteous at 
tornus; transverse antemedial line well contrasted against ground 
color, thin, black, irrorate, forming a sharp angle at the fold, the 
apex of the angle extending almost to the middle of the fold; sub- 
terminal line obsolete, replaced by a dark, transverse shade below end 
of cell and some scattered blackish dusting toward apex; veins 2 to 
10 and upper and lower veins of cell more or less outlined in black, 
the lines very faint on all the veins except vein 4; along termen, 
between the vein ends, a row of very famt blackish dots; no discal 
marks at end of cell. Hind wing shiny white, semihyaline, with a 
faint pale- fuscous shading along costa, on veins 6, 7, and 8, and at 
extreme apex. 

Alar expanse, 34 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 24-24c) with lateral margins of anellus smooth; 
vinculum with terminal margin straight, rather broad, lateral margins 
excavate. 

Female. — Unknown. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — San Diego, Calif. (July). 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

Remarks. — Known only from the unique male type. It is a strik- 
ing species and should be easily recognized from the description and 
genitalic figures. 

S. EREMBERGA INSIGNIS, new species 

Plate 29 ; Fiqukes 2a-23c 

Male. — Palpi, face, head, thorax, and fore wing dark grayish 
fuscous. Fore wing very faintly dusted with white on costal half; 
lower half of wing faintly shaded with dull luteous-ocherous ; ante- 
medial and subterminal lines as in leuconips^ except antemedial not 
obliterated toward costa ; veins 2 to 9 very faintly outlined in black, 
the black lining most distinct on lower vein of cell; a conspicuous 
black spot at end of cell ; along termen, between the vein ends, a row 
of rather conspicuous black dots. Hind wing shiny white, semi- 
hyaline, with a fuscous shade bordering costa and a pale fuscous lino 
on termen for a short distance from apex. 

Alar expanse, 35 nun. 

Genitalia (figs. 23-23c) with lateral margins of anellus smooth; 
vinculum with terminal margin straight and narrow, lateral margins 
outwardly angled. 

Femxile. — Unknown. 



THE CAOTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 379 

r?/^^.— U.S.N.M. no. 62754. 

Type locality. — San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

iffemar/^5.— Described from male type dated July 26, 1930, and 
submitted by R. C. Mundell. The specimen may haVe been reared, 
but the label gives no food plant, and the assumption is that it was 
merely a collected specimen. A female, collected on July 19 in the 
same locality and sent as a presumptive female of the same species, is 
a Tosemitia close to and closely resembling graciella. I think it is 
undescribed alid have figured the genitalia (fig. 56), but I am not 
naming it as the moth is in too poor condition for accurate deter- 
mination. 

E. insignis is easily distinguished from the other two species in 
the genus by the conspicuous discal spot on the fore wing. The 
palpi were not figured, as they are like those of leuconips. 

12. SALAMBONA, new genus 

Genotype. — Zophodia analamprella Dyar. 

Antenna of male pubescent and slightly serrate, of female simple 
a'nd shortly pubescent. Labial palpi of both sexes porrect with the 
third segments downcurved, the third segment slightly longer in the 
female than in the male. Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing 
with veins 7 and 8 anastomosed for more than one-half their length 
beyond the cell; 3 and 5 stalked. Eighth abdominal segment with 
a pair of strong ventrolateral hair tufts. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid, small; uncus 
constricted toward apex; harpe with apex oblique; vinculum long; 
anellus with base of plate narrowly sclerotized, arms long, curved 
and twisted part way around aedeagus ; aedeagus long, stout. 

Female genitalia without signum or scobinations in bursa; bursa 
small, smooth; ductus bursae long, slender, smooth; ductus seminalis 
from near end of bursa. 

Larvae "grayish-green or blackish" (Dodd), not banded or con- 
spicuously spotted ; solitary feeders in fruits of Platypuntia. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — The genus is distinguished from other genera in the 
cactus-feeding group by the following combination of characters: 
Antenna of male serrate and pubescent; labial palpi of both sexes 
porrect and downcurved; maxillary palpus squamous; harpe of 
genitalia with apex oblique; vinculum long; eighth abdominal seg- 
ment of male beating a pair of ventrolateral tufts ; bursa copulatrix 
of female small and without signum or scobinations (smooth) ; 
ductus seminalis from near end of bursa; larvae unhanded, dark, 
fruit feeders in Platypimtia. 

109335—31 A 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

Only the type species is recognized as belonging to the genus. It 
is known only from Argentina. 

1. SALAMBONA ANALAMPRELLA (Dyar) 

Plates 30, 42, 49 ; Figubbs 26-26c, 69, ll&-116a, 117-117a 

ZopTiodia analamprella Dtar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstnius, vol. 10, p. 17, 1922. 

Male. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore wings dark stone gray; the 
scales under magnification dark grayish fuscous tipped with dull 
white. Fore wing with the costa broadly margined (to top of cell) 
with white, the white streak diminishing toward base of wing and 
terminating before apex; no transverse lines, or discal or terminal 
dots. Hind wing semihyaline with a smoky shade along costa and 
a narrow smoke-brown line along termen. 

Alar expanse, 25-27 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 26-26c) as figured; characters as given for the 
genus. 

Female. — Color and markings as in the male, except that the 
smoky shade is somewhat more extended on the hind wing. 

Alar expanse, 25-27 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 69) with bursa very small and ductus bursae long 
and very slender. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Carmen Pat agones, Argentina. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) sulphurea G. Don and prob- 
ably other species of Platypuntia. 

Distribution. — Argentina: Carmen Patagones (Jan.), Andalgala 
(Mar.), La Rioja. 

Seven specimens examined. 

Remarks. — Dodd states that "this insect is usually predacious on 
cochineal {Dactylopius spp.) but not uncommonly the larvae feed in 
Opuntia fruit and flower buds." From tlie genitalic and other struc- 
tural characters of the moth I am inclined to doubt this. I think 
analamprella will prove to be primarily a cactus feeder and only sec- 
ondarily predacious on the cochineal scales on the cactus. It is the 
other way around with Laetilia coccidivora (Comstock). The latter 
is a true predator and follows its coccid hosts no matter to what plant 
they may go. It also varies its diet somewhat by occasional feedings 
on buds and flowers. According to Dodd it sometimes feeds in 
Opuntia flowers ; but this is a secondary habit and the association with 
Opuntia accidental. Laetilia is close to but not a part of the cactus- 
feeding group of Phycitinae. Salamhona, on the other hand, is, in 
all adult characters, definitely a member of the group. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 381 

The species is a striking one, easily recognized by the white costal 
stripe on the fore wing. It most resembles some species now under 
Epischnia. The latter, however, have 8-veined hind wings and need 
not be confused. 

13. Genus PAROLYCA Dyar 

Parolyca Dyae, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 17, 1928. (Genotype: 
Olyca asthenosoma Dyar.) 

Antenna of male unipectinate. Labial palpus of male upcurved. 
Maxillary palpus squamous. Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 shortly 
anastomosed beyond cell ; 3 and 5 shortly stalked. Eighth abdominal 
segment with a strong pair of ventrolateral tufts. 

Male genitalia with apical portion of gnathos bifid; uncus nar- 
rowed well before apex ; harpe with apex oblique ; vinculum long, its 
terminal margin rounded, its lateral margins excavate (probably a 
specific character only) ; anellus with base of plate broadly sclerotized, 
arms long, rather broad and slightly twisted; aedeagus long, stout; 
penis weakly scobinate. 

Remarks. — The genus is known only from the male of its type 
species. Its biology is unknown, but from the genitalic and other 
structural characters of the adult its larvae are presumed to be cactus 
feeders. It is easily recognized, for it is the only genus in the cactus- 
feeding group with unipectinate antenna. The habitat is French 
Guiana. 

1. PAROLYCA ASTHENOSOMA (Dyar) 

Plates 30, 49; FigubjeS 25-25c, 124-124a 

Olyca asthenosoma Dyae, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 7, p. 55, 1919. 
Parolyca asthenosoma (Dyar), Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 137, 1928. 

Male. — Palpi, head, and thorax sordid white. Fore wing white, 
with a yellowish tint on area between fold and inner margin; ante- 
medial band angulate, consisting of parallel black lines and a central 
white line ; a black oblique dash in median area from inner margin to 
origin of vein 2 ; subterminal line broken, indicated by a pair of black 
dashes at apex, black dots on the veins, and a black spot on inner 
margin; a black discal dot at end of cell and some black scaling on 
bases of veins 2 to 4 ; a row of small black dots along termen, between 
the vein ends. Hind wing white, semihyaline, with a pale-fuscous 
shade along costa, a narrow fuscous line along termen, and some pale 
fuscous scaling on veins 2 to 8. 

Alar expanse, 30 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 25-25c) with lateral margins of vinculum excavate. 

FeTnale. — Unknown. 



382 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8« 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 
Type locality. — Maroni River, French Guiana. 
Food plant. — Unknown. 
Remarks. — Known only from the unique male type. 

14. SIGELGAITA, new genus 

Genotype. — Sigelgaita chilensis, new species. 

Antenna of male bipectinate (in transilis with a few flattened setae 
on the inner row of pectinations of the first five or six segments of the 
shaft and also on the same segments) ; antenna of female shortly 
pubescent. Labial palpus of male upcurved, of female porrect (the 
second segment obliquely upturned, the third bent forward). Max- 
illary palpus large, extending above front, flamboyant. Hind wing 
with veins 7 and 8 anastomosing beyond cell ; 3 and 5 stalked. Eighth 
abdominal segment with two pairs of thin hair tufts (very slight in 
chilensis) . 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos small, bifid; harpe 
with apex oblique; vinculum long; anellus with base of plate some- 
what broadly sclerotized, arms moderately long, slightly twisted (in 
transilis) \ aedeagus moderately stout, long; penis weakly scobinate. 

Female genitalia with signum weak or absent; bursa small and 
finely scobinate; ductus bursae moderately long, finely scobinate 
toward bursa and genital opening; ductus semmalis from middle of 
bursa. 

Larva "blue or blue green" (Dodd), not banded or conspicuously 
spotted ; two setae in group VII on abdominal segments 7 and 8. 

The larvae are solitary feeders in the fruits of Eulychnia^ Tri- 
chocereus^ and Plutypuntia. 

Egg and egg-laying habits unknown. 

Remarks. — This genus is closest to Amalafrida but in many char- 
acters more nearly resembles Nanaia. The maxillary palpi are long 
in both Sigelgaita and Nanaia but are not so closely appressed to the 
face in the former as in the latter. The labial palpi of the males 
(upcurved in Sigelgaita^ porrect in Nanaia) readily separate the two 
genera. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SIGELGArTA 

1. Fore wing with a dark shade from outer end of cell to inner mar- 

gin; alar expanse over 30 mm 2 

Fore wing with no such marking ; alar expanse less than 30 mm. 

3. transilis, new species 

2. General color of fore wing dark gray (from Chile)- 1. chilensis, new species 
General color of fore wing pale brownish fuscous (from Peru) . 

2. huanucensis, new species 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 383 

I. SIGELGAITA CHILENSIS. new species 

Plates 31, 42, 50 : Figukes 28-28c, 70-70a, 125-125a, 126 

Male, — Palpus, head, and thorax fuscous, strongly irrorated with 
white ; head and collar more whitish than fuscous ; posterior margin 
of thorax shaded with black. Fore wing fuscous, dusted with white, 
giving the wing an ashy-gray (in some specimens a bluish-gray) 
color ; a white suffusion filling the cell ; antemedial line near middle 
of wing, black, outwardly angulate; from upper angle of cell to 
middle of inner margin a more or less prominent blackish shade; 
subterminal band dentate, consisting of a thin, black, inner line, a 
parallel outer black line, and a central pale line, the dentations of the 
outer line acute and extended in short dashes onto the veins ; a row of 
black dots along termen between the vein ends. Hind wing whitish, 
smokj^- fuscous toward termen, apex, and costa, and on the veins; 
cilia white with a pale- fuscous subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 31-42 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 28-28c) with harpe fairly broad, aedeagus some- 
what stouter than in transilis^ vinculum shorter. 

Female. — Pattern and color as in the male except smoky-fuscous 
shading on hind wing somewhat more extended. 

Alar expanse, 38-44 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 70-70a) with signum present, the latter con- 
sisting of three or four minute, more or less coalesced, blunt spines. 

Type and paratypes. — U.S.N.M. no. 52751. Paratypes also sent to 
Mr. Dodd. 

Type locality. — Ovalle, Chile. 

Food plants. — Eulychnia acida Philippi, Trichocereus chiloensis 
(CoUa). 

Remarks. — Described from male type and two male and four female 
paratypes from the type locality, reared March 7, 9, 10, and 11, 1937, 
from larvae feeding in fruits of Eulychnia acida; and two male and 
four female paratypes from La Serena, Chile, reared January 6, 12, 
13, 1937, from larvae feeding in fruits of Trichocereus chiloensis. 

Superficially this species and huanucensis resemble Nanaia substi- 
tuta. The latter, however, lacks altogether the dark shade between the 
outer angle of the cell and the inner margin so characteristic of 
chilensis and huanucensis. The fore wings of the three species are 
similar, long and narrow and of about the same size and shape. 

2. SIGELGAITA HUANUCENSIS, new species 
Plate 42; Figuees 71-71a 

il/aZe.— Similar to that of chilensis, except as follows : Paler, white 
dusting on head, thorax, and fore wing more pronounced; general 



384 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

color of fore wing brownish rather than gray ; transverse dark sliade 
from outer upper angle of cell to inner margin pale brown; ante- 
medial and subterminal lines interrupted, the latter indicated only by 
blackish scaling on the veins; a pale brownish shade in area bor- 
dering inner margin; hind wing pure white, with a very faint fus- 
cous shade along costa and a thin pale-fuscous line on termen for a 
short distance from apex. 

Alar expanse, 45 mm. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except that 
on the hind wing the fuscous line on the termen is a trifle broader 
and extends nearh' to the anal angle of the wing. There is also 
some fuscous scaling on the veins. 

Alar expanse, 45 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 71-71a) without signum. 

Type and parafype. — ^U.S.N.M. no. 52752. 

Type locality. — Huanuco, Peru. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) ficits-indwa (Linnaeus). 

Remarks. — Described from female type and male paratype from 
the type locality, reared December 12, 1928, by R. C. Mundell from 
larvae feeding in the fruits of Opuntia {Platypuntia) -ficiis-indica. 

The male paratype was in rather poor condition when received and 
had no abdomen. 

3. SIGELGAITA TRANSILIS. new species 

Plates 30, 50; Fioubes 27-27d, 127-127c 

Male. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore wing dark grayish fuscous 
finely peppered with white, giving them a slate-gray color. Fore 
wing with antemedial and subterminal lines obscured, indicated by 
faint whitish lines bordered, for a short distance from costa, by 
blackish streaks; discal spot at end of cell blackish, rather large; a 
row of black dots along termen between the vein ends. 

Alar expanse, 26 nmi. 

Genitalia (figs.27-27c) with harpe narrower than that of chilensis, 
vinculum considerably longer, and aedeagus slenderer and appre- 
ciably tapering toward apex. 

Femxile. — Unknown. 

Type.—V.S.'^M. no. 52753. 

Type locality. — Santa Eulalia, Peru. 

Food plant. — Trichocereus sp. 

Remarks. — ^Described from male type reared November 26, 1936, by 
Johannes Wille from larva feeding in fruit of an undetermined 
species of Tnchocereus (Wille no. 329-36). 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 385 

On some of its characters this species would fit better in the follow- 
ing genus {AmalafHda) than in Sigelgaita. The male antemia (figs. 
127a-c) has flattened setae on the first five or six segments of the 
shaft. In transUis these setae are on the shaft itself as well as on the 
inner row of pectinations. Neither chilensis nor huanucensis shows 
any trace of such setae. This one character, however, is all that sug- 
gests association with Amalafrida leithella. The maxillary palpus 
and the larval habits show that tramilis belongs with chilensis and 
huanucensis rather than with leithella. 

15. AMALAFRIDA, new genus 

Genotype. — Cactoblastis leithella Dyar. 

Antenna of male bipectinate; on each of the inner pectinations of 
the first five segments a row of from three to five flattened, spinelike 
setae (figs. 128a-c) ; antenna of female simple and finely pubescent. 
Labial palpus of male obliquely ascending, of female obliquely por- 
rect. Maxillai-y palpus squamous. Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 
anastomosing for over half their length beyond cell; veins 3 and 5 
stalked. Eighth abdominal segment of male with two pairs of ven- 
trolateral hair tufts. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid; harpe with 
apex oblique; vinculum long; anellus with base of plate rather 
broadly sclerotized, arms long, slightly twisted ; aedeagus long, mod- 
erately stout ; penis scobinate. 

Female genitalia without signimi; bursa copulatrix large, weakly 
and scatteringly scobinate ; ductus bursae long, slender ; ductus semi- 
nalis from about middle of bursa. 

Larvae "grayish in color with a tendency toward pale transverse 
bands after the manner of Olycella larvae" (Dodd) ; solitary 
tunnelers in Platypuntia. 

Egg unknown. 

Remarks. — The genus, at present, is represented by only the type 
species. When Dyar described the latter he had only one female be- 
fore him. Had he seen a male he never would have placed it in 
Cactoblastis., to which the moth bears only a superficial resemblance. 
The new genus is closest to Sigelgaita, one species of which {transilis) 
also has setiferous pectinations on some of the basal segments of the 
male antennal shaft. The form of the maxillary palpi, as well as 
the shape of the fore wings, distinguishes the two genera. In Sigel- 
gaita the fore wing is much longer in proportion to its width and the 
termen more rounded than is the case in Amalafrida. According to 
Dodd, leithella differs markedly from the species of Sigelgaita in 
larval and pupal habits. 



386 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

1. AMALAFRIDA LEITHELLA (Dyar) 

PiATES 31, 42, 50 ; Figubes 29-29d, 68-68a, 12S-128c, 129 
CactoUastis leithella Dyab, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928. 

Male. — Palpi whitish, peppered with pale fuscous. Head and 
thorax ocherous-fuscous with a very faint rufous tint, some white 
dusting on thorax and the thoracic hind margin shaded with black. 
Fore wing with the areas between cell and costa, between vein lb and 
inner margin for a short distance, and along costal half of termen 
white with a scattering of black scales; ground color of remaining 
areas ocherous-fuscous, very faintly shaded with rufous above inner 
margin; transverse and discal markings black; antemedial line in- 
complete, indicated by a thin, blackish, irregular line from inner 
margin to cell and a broad black streak from costa to about middle 
of the fold (in some specimens this fuses with a black streak, which 
extends from middle of vein lb to end of cell) ; subterminal line 
black, faint (obscured below vein 6 in some specimens), sinuate and 
dentate, outwardly bordered by a whitish line and beyond this by a 
second, very faint, parallel, pale-fuscous line; at end of cell a large, 
irregular, black spot; a line of distinct black dots along termen be- 
tween the vein ends. Hind wing white, semihyaline, with a narrow 
pale-fuscous shade along costa and termen ; cilia white with a f uscou3 
basal band. 

Alar expanse, 30-32 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 29-29c) with characters as given for the genus. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except hind 
wing dark smoky fuscous shading to white toward base. 

Alar expanse, 31-33 mm. 

Genitalia ,figs. 68-G8a) with bursa very large and irregularly 
shaped, minutely scobinate. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Curasao, Dutch West Indies. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Platypimtia) sp. 

Distribution. — Dutch West Indies: Curasao (Jan.). Venezuela. 
Caracas (Jan.). Colombia: Province of Colombia (Jan.). 

Nine specimens examined. 

Reinarkn. — Superficially leithella resembles C actohlastis cacforum 
but is easily distinguished on structural characters of the male and 
female genitalia and of the male antennae. 

16. Genus OZAMIA Ragonot 

Ozamia Ragonot, M6moires sur les L^pidoptdres, vol. 8, p. 34, 1901. (Genotype: 
Trachonitis lucidalis Walker.) 

Antenna of male serrate (except in hemilutella and punicans, 
where it is simple) and pubescent with a series of modified, papilla- 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 387 

like setae on the inner side of several basal segments of the shaft 
(fig. 130a) ; antenna of the female simple and pubescent. Labial 
palpi obliquely ascending in both sexes. Maxillary palpus squamous. 
Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 anastomosing beyond the cell; 3 and 
5 stalked. Eighth abdominal segment bearing one pair or two 
{odiosella) pairs of ventrolateral hair tufts. 

Male genitalia with apex of gnathos small or moderately large, 
bifid; apex of harpe oblique (except in punicans) ; vinculum long; 
anellus with base of plate broadly rather than narrowly sclerotized, 
arms long, slightly twisted and curved; aedeagus rather long and 
moderately stout (except in lucidalis) ; penis scobinate. 

Female genitalia with signum weak or absent {lucidalis)^ when 
present developed as a thin, short, scobinate or shortly thorned plate 
or a series or cluster of small, weak spines ; bursa copulatrix minutely 
scobinate, at least toward ductus bursae (wrinkled in the South 
American species) ; ductus bursae long or moderately long, scobinate 
toward bursa; ductus seminalis from bursa near signum. 

Larvae wine-colored, olive-green, or blackish, not banded or con- 
spicuously spotted; with two setae in group VII of abdominal seg- 
ments 7 and 8 ; solitary feeders in fruits and flower buds of Opuntia 
and Cereus^ sometimes (some South American species) in the stems 
of Cereus. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — This genus divides into two natural groups: The 
North American species with unwrinkled bursa and minutely scobi- 
nate ductus bursae, and all fruit or bud feeders, and the South Ameri- 
can species with wrinkled bursa and coarsely scobinate ductus bursae 
and either fruit or stem feeders. The West Indian species {luci- 
dalis) is anomalous in some genitalic characters (small abdominal 
tufts, rather slender aedeagus, long ductus bursae, and no signum), 
but on habitus and other characters it appears closely allied to the 
North American group. When males of all the species are known 
it may be possible to give a separate generic designation to the 
South American forms, but in the absence of definitive male char- 
acters that does not seem justified. 

The papillalike setae in the male antemial shaft of Ozamia also 
occur in Cactohrosis and Zophodia, but the last two genera are dis- 
tinguished by filiform maxillary palpi. 

Seven species are here recognized as belonging to the genus. Its 
distribution appears to be the southwestern part of the United States, 
Central and South America, and the West Indies. 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 8« 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF OZAMIA 

1. Fore wing dark gray with white transverse antemedial n.nd siiU- 

terminal lines, but with very little white marking or dustiiiu' 

otherwise 4. thalassophiia Dyar 

Fore wing sordid white or gray, heavily dusted with white in 

some areas 2 

2. Predominant color of moth sordid white; ductus bursae of fe- 

male finely scobinate (West Indies, North and Central 

America) 3 

Predominant color of moth gray ; ductus bursae of female coarsely 

scobinate (South America) 5 

3. Area bordering inner margin of fore wing shaded with ferru- 

ginous; female without signum (West Indies) 1. lucidalis (Walker) 

Area bordering inner margin of fore wing not ferruginous ; fe- 
male with signum (United States and Mexico) 4 

4. Fore wing with a greenish tint on area bordering inner margin 

(discernible only in fresh specimens) ; sigiuim of female a short 
line of minute spines (southern California). 

3. odiosella fuscomaculella (Wright) 
No such greenish tint on fore wing; signum of female a narrow, 
minutely spined plate (Texas and eastern Mexico) 2. odiosella (Hulst) 

5. General color of fore wing dark gray ; midcostal half of wing 

white finely peppered with black 5. stigmaferella (Dyar) 

General color of fore wing paler gray ; midcostal half of wing 
ashy white (an even peppering of whitish and fuscous scales) 6 

6. Fore wing with large pale rust-colored blotches at base and on 

inner half 7. punicans, new species 

Fore wing with area between lower vein of cell, vein 2, and inner 
margin clear yellow and unmarked 6. hemilutella Dyar 

1. OZAMIA LUCIDALIS (Walker) 

Plates 32, 41 ; Figures 30-30e, 66-66a 

Trachonitis lucidalis Walker, List of specimens of lepidopterous Insects in 
the collection of the British Museum, vol. 27, p. 39, 1863. 

Ozamia luchUdiH (Walker) Kagonot. M^moires sur les L4pidopt^res, vol. 8, 
p. 34, 1901. 

Male. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore \vin«^ sordid white. Fore 
wing with ferruginous-fuscous spottings on the area bordering inner 
margin; transverse markings black, shading to ferruginous-fuscous 
toward inner margin; antemedial line angulate, white, bordered on 
inner and outer sides by black or ferruginous, the outer black marking 
at costa a broad spot; subterminal line dentate, slanting from costa 
near apex to outer fourth of inner margin, bordered inwardly and 
outwardly by dark lines, shading from black to ferruginous; discal 
spot at end of cell irregular, frequently extended beyond cell into 
two short dashes, black; a row of black dots along termen at the 
vein ends. Hind wing white, semihyaline, with a fine fuscous line 
along termen ; cilia white with a faint, dark, subbasal line. Abdom- 
inal tufts small. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 389 

Alar expanse, 25-26 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 30-30d) with apical process of gnathos small; end 
of vinculum bluntly rounded. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings, except for a 
stronger fuscous line on termen of hind wing. 

Alar expanse, 26-30 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 66-66a) without signum; bursa and part of ductus 
bursae minutely scobinate; ductus bursae long, slender, bent at 
middle. 

Type. — In British Museum. 

Type locality. — Santo Domingo. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) sp. 

Distribution. — West Indies: Cuba., Jamaica., Kingston (Jan.). I 
have seen no specimens from the type locality. 

Seven specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This species is easily identified by the characters given 
in the key. It has the smallest bursa of any Ozamiia., and there is no 
trace of a signum. 

2. OZAMIA ODIOSELLA (Hulst) 

PLATES 33, 41 ; Figures 33-33d, 34, 64-64a 

Nephopteryx odiosella HvhST, Entomologiea Americana, vol. 3, p. 132, 1887. 
Salehria odiosella (Htjlst), Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 155, 1890; 

U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 425, 1903.— Ragonot, M6moires sur les L6pi- 

doptferes, vol. 7, p. 366, 1893. — Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the 

Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 5645, 1917. 
Ozamia clarefacta Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 7, p. 55, 1919. 

(New synonymy.) 

Male. — Ground color and markings similar to those of lucidalis 
except that transverse markings are blackish throughout, paling 
somewhat toward inner margin but not shading into ferruginous; 
no ferruginous coloring on fore wing. In fresh specimens a green 
shading on area bordering inner margin of fore wing and on collar 
of thorax. Abdominal tufts (fig. 33d) much stronger than in luci- 
dalis and in two distinct pairs. 

Alar expanse, 23-28 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 33-33c, 34) with apical process rather large; end 
of vinculum bluntly angulate. 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except that the 
fuscous line along the termen of the hind wing is a trifle stronger. 

Alar expanse, 2^28 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 64, 64a) with signum a narrow, minutely spined 
plate; bursa copnlatrix smooth except toward ductus bursae, where 
it is finely scobinate ; ductus bursae of moderate length, swollen toward 
bursa. 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou M 

Types. — In United States National Museum {odiosella and clare^- 
facta) . 

Type localities. — Texas (odiosella) ; Orizaba, Mexico {dare facta) . 

Food plants. — Opuntia {Platypuntia) spp. 

Distribution. — United States: Texas., Brownsville, Victoria 
(May), Burnet County (Oct.), Uvalde (June, July), Kerrville (May, 
June), San Benito (Aug.). Mexico: Orizaba (Apr.), Jalapa. 

Twenty-two specimens examined. 

Remarks. — In the original description of odiosella Hulst called his 
specimen a male and gave the type locality as Colorado. In his 1890 
paper he gives the locality as "central Texas" and shifts the species 
from Nephopteryx to Salehria. Wliy he ever put it in either genus 
is a mystery; for it obviously has but seven veins in the hind 
wing. What is presumably Hulst's original type is before me. It 
came from the Fernald collection and bears Hulst's label : '"'Nephop- 
teryx odiosella Hulst, Type, Tex." It is a female, as is Dyar's type 
of clarefacta. Dyar evidently considered his name a synonym for 
he had all the North American specimens under odiosella with clare- 
facta placed after it. The two types are identical in genitalic struc- 
ture, color, and markings. 

3. OZAMIA ODIOSELLA FUSCOMACULELLA (Wright), new combination 

Plates 32, 41, 50; Figures 31-31 c, 67, 130-130a 

Euzophera fnscomaculclla Wright, Ent. News, vol. 27, p. 27. 1916. — Baknes aud 
McDuNNouGH, Check list of the Lopidoptora of Borenl America, no. 5723, 
1917. 

Ozamia hcliophila Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 222, 1925. 
(New synonymy.) 

This variety is distinguished from typical odiosella only by its dis- 
tribution, the lack of any green shading along the inner margin of the 
fore wing (a character seen only in fresh specimens), and the char- 
acter of the signum of the female. In ftiscomaculella the signum 
consists of a thin, short line of minute spines. A paratype (male) 
of fuscomaculella from the Barnes collection is before me. It agrees 
in every detail with the male type of heliophila. 

Types. — In collection of W. S. Wright (fuscoTnaculella) ; United 
States National Museum (heliophila). 

Type localities. — San Diego, Calif, (fuscomaculella) ; Los Angeles, 
Calif, (heliophila). 

Food plants. — Opuntia (Platypuntia) spp. 

Distribution. — United States : California, San Diego (May, June, 
Aug.), Los Angeles (July), Pasadena (Aug.). 

Twelve specimens examined. 

Remarks. — I was inclined to treat fuscomaculella and heliophila 
as nothing more than synonyms of odiosella, but Mr. Dodd informs 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 391 

me moths of odiosella {= dare f acta) ^ when alive, have a decidedly- 
greenish tint, while living adults of fuscomaculella { = heliophila) 
are uniformly "gray" with no suggestion of green, and that this dif- 
ference corresponds with the distribution of the two forms; namely, 
southeastern Texas and eastern Mexico as against the coastal region 
of southern California. Such differences seem to indicate geographical 
races, but, in view of the similarity of the two forms otherwise, not 
distinct species. 

4. OZAMIA THALASSOPUILA Dyar 

Plates 41, 50; Figttkes 63-63a, 131-131a 

Ozamia thalassophila Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p, 15, 1925. 

Female. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore wing dark grayish fuscous, 
lightly sprinkled with white. Fore wing with some white dusting on 
costal half and a slightly more brownish shade on inner half; ante- 
medial and subterminal transverse lines whitish, bordered with black 
or blackish fuscous, the pattern as in lucidalis and odiosella; discal 
spot at end of cell curved, black ; between this and subterminal lines 
one or two small, obscure, blackish dots; upper and lower veins of 
cell faintly outlined by white scales ; a row of black dots along termen 
at or close to the vein ends; cilia pale ocherous-fuscous. Hind wing 
white with a narrow fuscous shade along termen ; cilia white, with a 
fuscous subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 28 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 63-63a) with signum a small cluster of two or three 
more or less fused and minute spines; bursa copulatrix partially 
wrinkled (in the region of the signum) ; ductus bursae of moderate 
length, finely scobinate toward bursa. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Oceanside, Calif. 

Food plant. — Opuntia {Cylindropuntia) sp. 

Remarks. — Kjiown only from the unique female type, reared Au- 
gust 1924 from larva in a Cylindropuntia., presumably feeding in the 
fruit. 

5. OZAMIA STIGMAFERELLA (Dyar), new combination 

Plate 41 ; Figxjbes 62-62a 

Zophodia stigmaferella Dyae, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 10, p. 17, 1922. 
Female. — Palpi, head, and thorax dark grayish fuscous sparsely 
sprinkled with white. Fore wing dark grayish fuscous ; extreme base 
black; remainder of basal area and area between cell and costa and 
to the subterminal line white lightly dusted with black; antemedial 
line obsolete, indicated only by a large black spot on costa (cor- 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL JIUSEUM VOL.86 

responding to the black shade outwardly borderino; the white an- 
temedial line in the North American species of Ozamia) ; subterminal 
line whitish, dentate, bordered inwardly and outwardly by black; a 
short, dentate, black line from vein 8 to vein 2, midway between the 
end of cell and the subterminal line and parallel with the latter; a 
black curved mark at end of cell ; a row of black dots along termen 
at or near the vein ends; a faint wliitish color dusted with black in 
apical area. Hind wing white, seniihyaline, with a fuscous shade 
at apex and for a short distance along termen; cilia whitish with a 
very faint fuscous subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 26 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 62-62a) with signum a small buttonlike thorn; 
bursa copulatrix wrinkled and finely scobinate; ductus bursae long, 
coarsely scobinate toward bursa. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Catamarca, Argentina. 

Food plant. — Cereus validiis Haworth. 

Remarks. — This species is known only from the female type reared 
March 7, 1921, by W. B. Alexander from a larva that had excavated 
a hollow in a stem of Cereus validus. 

O. stigmaferelJa and the two following species {hemilutella and 
pimicans) are the South American representatives of the genus and 
differ from the North American and "West Indian forms in having 
the ductus bursae of the female coarsely scobinate and the bui"sa 
copulatrix decidedly wrinkled. 

6. OZAMIA HEMILUTELLA Dyar 

Plates 33, 41; Figures 35-35(1, 65-65a 

Ozamia hemilutella Dyae, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 10, p. 17, 1922. 

Male. — Palpi, head, and thorax brownish fuscous, finely and evenly 
sprinkled with white, making the general color (to the naked eye) 
pale gray; collar of thorax with a slight yellowish tint. Fore wing 
with area between lower vein of cell, vein 2, and inner margin pale 
yellow without any markings; remainder of wing pale gray, concolor- 
ous with head and thorax; antemedial line obsolete: from costa just 
before middle to middle of lower vein of cell, a rather broad, trans- 
verse, brownish shade; a brown discal dot at end of cell and some 
brown shading just beyond; subterminal line faint, weakly dentate, 
parallel with termen, bordered inwardly and outwardly by thin 
faintly brownish lines; a row of minute black dots along termen at 
the vein ends ; cilia pale gray. Hind wing white, semihyaline with a 
thin fuscous line along termen and some fuscous shading bordering 
the costa. Abdomen with one pair of strong tufts. 

Alar expanse, 29 mm. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 393 

Genitalia (figs. 35-35c) with apical process of gnathos small; end 
of vinculum bluntly angulate. 

Female. — Color and markings as in the male. 

Alar expanse, 27-30 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 65-65a) with signum a single, weak, irregular, 
thornlike patch; bursa copulatrix wrinkled and finely scobinate; 
ductus bursae coarsely scobinate toward bursa. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — La Rioja, Argentina. 

Food plant. — Cereus validus Haworth. 

Distribution. — ^Argentina: Rioja., La Rioja; Santiago del Estro. 

Three specimens (one male and two females) examined. 

Remarks. — The moth is easily identified by the clear yellow inner 
area of the fore wing. The larvae feed in the fruits and flower buds 
and, possibly, to some extent, in the stems of Cereus. Dodd states 
that they also attack fruits of Platypmitias. 

7. OZAMIA PUNICANS, new species 

Plates 32, 40 ; Figures 32-32c, 61-61a 

Male. — Palpi fuscous sprinkled with white. Head and thorax 
fuscous heavily dusted with white and more or less shaded with pale 
rust color, especially on top of head and on collar of thorax. Fore 
wing pale gray (fuscous heavily dusted with white) marked with 
darker gray and with large blotches of pale rust color; the rust 
shade filling about one-fourth of the basal area and nearly all the area 
between antemedial and subterminal lines, lower vein of cell, vein 2, 
and vein lb; antemedial line obscure, indicated chiefly by a rather 
broad dark-gray shade from costa to lower vein of cell and a thin 
dark-gray line thence to inner margin ; subterminal line faint, some- 
what sinuate but not dentate, approximately parallel with termen, 
bordered inwardly and outwardly by obscure dark gray ; apical mark 
at end of cell irregular, dark gray ; between cell and subterminal line 
some faint rust shading in the interspaces between the veins; a row 
of black dots along termen between the vein ends ; cilia pale rust-red. 
Hind wing white, semihyaline, with a fuscous shade in costal area to 
top of cell and vein 8, some fuscous shading on the vein ends, and a 
fine fuscous line along termen to vein lb ; cilia shiny white. Abdom- 
inal tufts as in hemilutella. 

Alar expanse, 36-38 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 32-32c) with apical process of gnathos moderately 
large ; apex of harpe more rounded than in other species of Ozamia; 
end of vinculum more rounded than angulate and lateral margins 
excavate ; penis bearing a number of coarse spines. 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Female. — Color and markings as in the male. 

Alar expanse, 38-40 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 61-61a) larger than those of any other Ozamia; 
with signum a small granulose plate containing a stubby central 
thorn ; bursa copulatrix wrinkled and finely scobinate ; ductus bursae 
long, very coarsely scobinate toward bursa. 

Type and paratypes. — U.S.N.M. no. 52755. Paratypes also sent to 
Mr. Dodd. 

Type locality. — Tapia, Tucuman, Argentina. 

Food plant. — Cereus validus Haworth. 

Remarks. — Described from male type and two male and four fe- 
male paratj'pes from the type locality and reared by R. C. Mundell 
October 19, 23, 25, 28, 29, and 31, 1936, and October 17, 1933, from 
larvae boring in the stems of Cerevji validus. 

According to Dodd punican^ differs from other species of Ozamia 
in that it is a stem borer and apparently does not attack the fruits or 
flower buds. It differs also in that the apex of the harpe is not defi- 
nitely oblique, and the maxillary palpi are somewhat narrowly scaled. 
However, the latter are of the squamous rather than the filiform 
type, and from its general habitus the species is obviously closely 
related to hemilutella. The moth can be easily identified by the 
rust-red cilia and blotches on the fore wing. 

17. Genus CACTOBROSIS Dyar 

Cactobrosis Dyab, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, p. 406, 1915; Proc. Ent. Soc 
Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928. (Genotype: Moodna eJongatella 
Hampson.) 

Antenna of male with a series of modified, papillalike setae on the 
inner sides of several basal segments of the shaft, bipectinate {fer- 
naldialis, longipennella) or strongly serrate and pubescent {maculi- 
fera., strigalis) ; antenna of female simple and shortly pubescent. 
Labial palpus upturned in the male, oblique in the female. Maxil- 
lary palpus filiform (fig. 134a). Hind wing with veins 7 and 8 
anastomosing beyond the cell ; 3 and 5 shortly stalked. Eighth ab- 
dominal segment bearing a pair of ventrolateral hair tufts (the tufts 
long and dense except in strigalis). 

Male genitalia with apex of gnathos large, bifid; apex of harpe 
evenly rounded; vinculum long (moderately long in strigalis); 
anellus with base of plate narrowly sclerotized, arms long, slender, 
slightly twisted; aedeagus long, stout (shorter and less stout in 
strigalis) ; penis more or less densely pubescent (armed with short 
hairlike spines). 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 395 

Female genitalia without signum; ductus bursae long, finely sco- 
binate only at genital opening or (in strigalis only) sparsely so at 
junction of bursa copulatrix and ductus bursae, with two small scle- 
rotized dorsal plates and a single ventral plate at genital opening 
(the ventral plate absent in strigalis) ; bursa copulatrix large, smooth 
(except in strigalis, in which it has a few minute scobinations) ; 
ductus seminalis from near end of bursa. 

Larvae bluish, not banded or conspicuously spotted ; with two setae 
in gi'oup VII on abdominal segments 7 and 8; gregarious feeders in 
Ferocactus, Echinocereus, Peniocereus, and, probably, Camegiea. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — The genus as here defined is distinguished from all 
other genera of the cactus-feeding group by its filiform maxillary 
palpi. Zophodia, which it resembles in most structural characters, is 
not a cactus-feeding genus, has the male antenna unserrate, the labial 
palpus of the female porrect, and a small signum in the bursa 
copulatrix. 

Five species are recognized as belonging to the genus. They are 
fairly easy to distinguish but subject to so much individual variation 
in wing markings that it is very difficult to key them satisfactorily. 

The known distribution is the southwestern part of the United 
States and Mexico. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CACTOBROSIS 

1. Fore wing without transverse marliings and witli veins strongly 

outlined in black, the strongest black line from base to termen 
along upper vein of cell and vein 6; abdominal tufts of male 

weak 5. strigalis (Barnes and McDunnough) 

Fore wing normally with transverse markings and with some 
black scaling on veins ; but if transverse markings are absent, 
veins are not strongly lined nor is there a conspicuous black 
line from base to termen ; abdominal tufts of male strong 2 

2. Fore wing with a strong, submedian, luteous shade ; thorax pale 

clay color 3. maculifera Dyar 

Fore wing sometimes with a faint ocherous-fuscous tint on sub- 
median area, but never with a strongly contrasted luteous 
shade ; thorax grayish fuscous 3 

3. Fore wing without discal spot or transverse dark markings ; a 

nearly uniform grayish fuscous with a faint brownish tint. 

4. insignatella Dyar 
Fore wing normally with dark discal spot and transverse dark 
shadings; when suffused, pale slate-gray without brownish 
overtint 4 

4. Pectinations of male antenna (at middle) longer than width of 

segments 1. fernaldialis (Hulst) 

Pectinations of male antenna not longer than width of segments. 

2. longipennella (Hampson) 

109335—39 5 



396 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

1. CACTOBROSIS FERNALDLALIS (Hoist) 

Plates 43, 51 ; Figubes 73-73a, 134-134c, 135-135a 

Megaphycis fernaldialis Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 13, p. 163, 1886. 
Euzophcra glgantella Ragonot, Nouveaux genres et esp^ces de Phycitidae et 

Galleriidae, p. 32, 1888; Memoires sur les Lepidopt^res, vol. 8, p. 51, 1901. 
Melitara fernaldialis (Hxtlst), Tran.s. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 172, 1890 

U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903.— Schwarz, Psyche, vol. 8, Snppl. 1, p, 

13, 1899. — Ragonot, Memoires sur les L^pidopt^res, vol. 8, p. 15, 1901. — 

Hunter, Pbatt, and Mitchell, Bur. Ent., U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 113, p, 

29, 1912. 
Eonora cinerella Hulst, Journ. New York Ent. Soc, vol. 8, p. 223, 1901 ; U. S 

Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 433, 1903. 
Melitara fcrnaldalis Dyab, Proc Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 7, p. 36, 1905. (Mis 

spelling for fernaldialis Hulst.) 
Caotohrosis fernaldalis (Dyak), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, p. 407, 1915 

Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 223, 1925 (iu part) ; Proc Ent 

Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928 (in part). 
Cactohrosis fernaldialis (Hulst) Baknes and McDunnough, Check list of the 

Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 5G9C, 1917. 

Male. — Antenna bipectinate. Palpi, head, and thorax grayish fus- 
cous dusted Avith wliite. Fore wing graj'ish fuscous dusted with 
white and more or less blotched with black; some specimens with a 
faint ocherous-fuscous tint in the middle of the cell and on the area 
between vein lb and the cell; normally with antemedial and subtermi- 
nal transverse markings indistinct, but indicated by whitish angu- 
late and dentate bands shaded inwardly and outwardly by black; 
a blackish shade at end of cell, often extending to costa; below it on 
inner margin a similar dark spot ; veins 2 to 8 faintly lined with black 
and in many specimens the fold to a little beyond its middle. Hind 
wing white, semihyaline, shaded in costal area above vein 6 and cell 
with pale fuscous, with some fuscous scaling on the veins and a fine 
fuscous line along termen; anal margin and adjoining cilia faintly 
ocherous; cilia otherwise white, with a narrow, fuscous, subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 36-47 mm. 

Male genitalia essentially like those of Jongipennella but somewhat 
larger, in size and habitus like those of macidifera. 

Female. — In color and markings like the male except that there is 
never any black streak on the fold of the fore wing; some specimens 
are heavily dusted with black over the entire base of the fore wing 
as far as the antemedial line; others have the transverse lines and 
contrasted dark spots almost obliterated and the wing of a pale 
slate-color with only the faintest remnants of the normal markings. 

Alar expanse, 34-50 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 73-73a) with the sclerotized ventral plate in ductus 
bursae at genital opening smaller than those in longipennella, insig- 
nafella, and maculifera. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 397 

Types.— In Eutgers College collection {femaldialis) \ United 
States National Museum {cinerella) ; Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris {gigantella) . 

Type localities. — Arizona {fernaldialis^ gigantella) ; Santa Rita 
Mountains, Ariz, {cinerella). 

Food plants. — Ferocactus wislizeni (Engelmann) and probably 
other species of Ferocactus; Peniocereus greggii (Engelmann), one 
reared specimen from Maricopa County, Ariz., in National collection 
60 labeled. 

Distribution. — United States: Arizona, Catalina Springs (Apr.), 
Oracle (July), Tucson (June), Baboquivari Mountains (Apr., May, 
June, July, Aug., Oct., Nov.), Christmas, Redington, Pinal Moun- 
tains, Santa Rita Mountains (May, June), Huachuca Mountains 
(Aug.), Douglas (Apr., May), Mohave County (May), Sells P. O. 
(Indian Oasis, Apr.), Dewey (June), Maricopa County (July), "en 
route from Dewey to Salome" (Apr., May) ; Califomia, San Diego 
(May, Oct.). 

Seventy-three specimens examined. 

Remarks. — The synonymy as given here was established by Dyar. 
However (in 1915, 1925, and 1928) , he also listed the Mexican species 
longipenneJla Hampson and its synonym elongatella under fem- 
aldialis, incorrectly, I believe, because the forms from Mexico and 
the United States have different male antennae. In his original 
description of gigantella Ragonot gives the type locality as "Mexico 
or."; but in his Monograph of the Phycitinae he cites Arizona as 
the only locality. If the later citation is correct, gigantella is pre- 
sumably a synonym of femaldialis. If, however, eastern Mexico is 
the locality, the name gigantella will probably replace longipen- 
nella for the Mexican species. It is quite likely that femaldialis 
also occurs in northern Mexico near the Arizona border; but we 
have no specimens from that country. All the specimens in the 
National collection that have been identified as feTmaldialis are 
longipennella. 

In addition to moths reared from Ferocactus and Peniocereus the 
National collection contains the moths referred to by E. A. Schwarz 
(Psyche, 1899) as reared from larvae "feeding in decaying pulp of 
the Giant Cactus." One of the specimens (a female) bears the fol- 
lowing label in Schwarz's handwriting: "bred from cocoons under 
Giant Cactus. Em. Apr. 15." From this it would appear that Car- 
negiea gigantea (Engelmann) may also be an occasional host. 

2. CACTOBROSIS LONGIPENNELLA (Hampson) 

PI.ATES 34, 43, 51 ; Figures 37-37e, 74-74a, 136-13Gb 

Euzophera longipennella Hampson, M^moires sur les L^pidopt&res, vol. 8, p. 52, 
1901. 



398 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

Moodna elongatella Hampson, M6moires sur les L^pidoptdres, vol. 8, p. 269, 

1901. 
Cactobrosis longipennella (Hampson) Dyab, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, p. 

407, 1915. 
Cactobrosis elongatella (Hampson) Dyab, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., vol. 47, p. 

407, 1915. 
Cactobrosis femaldalis (Dyab, in part), Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, 

p. 223, 1925; Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 135, 1928. 

Male. — Like that of fe7"naMi-alis except that pectinations of an- 
tenna are about half the length of those on femdldialis (compare 
figs. 134a, 134b, and 136a, 136b) ; transverse pale markings on fore 
wing obsolete in some specimens. 

Alar expanse, 34-40 mm. 

Genitalia (figs, 37-37d) figured from type of elongatellu; similar 
to those of femcddidlis except smaller ; harpe not so markedly creased. 

Female. — Similar in color and markings to the female of fern- 
aldialis. 

Alar expanse, 33-43 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 74-74a) figured from specimen from Oaxaca; 
with sclerotized ventral plate in ductus bursae at genitalic opening 
larger and the opposing small plates on the dorsal wall of the ductus 
narrower than those of fertialdialis. 

Types. — In British Museum [longipennella) \ United States Na- 
tional Museum {elongatella). 

Type localities. — Tres Marias Islands, Mexico {l<^ngipennella) ; 
Orizaba, Mexico {elongatella). 

Food plant. — Unknown, probably Ferocactus. 

Distribution. — ^Mexico: Orizaba, Oaxaca, Tchuacan (June), Cuer- 
navaca (June, July), Zacualpan (March, Oct.). 

Eleven specimens examined. I have seen no examples from the 
type locality of longipennella. 

Remarks. — Dyar (1925) made the synonymy of longipennella and 
elongatella and sanlc both names to femaldialis. The differences be- 
tween their male antennae clearly indicate that longipennella and 
femaldialis are distinct, if very close, species. The differences in 
female genitalia, while slight, appear to be constant. They are com- 
parative, however, and apparent only when one has slides of both 
species before him. 

3. CACTOBROSIS MACULIFERA Dyar 

Plates 35, 43, 51 ; Figukeb 38-38d, 75-75a, 137-137a 

Cactobrosis maculifera Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, p. 407, 1915 ; Proc 
Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. 

Mole. — Antenna strongly serrate and fasciculate. PaJpi, head, 
and thorax pale clay color ("luteous"). Fore wing luteous-gray 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 399 

shaded and spotted with dark grayish fuscous, the kiteous tint pro- 
nounced on basal third of costa and over the submedian area of the 
wing ; transverse antemedial and subterminal lines obsolete ; a fuscous 
shade from costa before middle to cell, another from costa at middle, 
and below these corresponding streaks or spots on lower vein of cell 
and vein lb ; a thin blackish line on the fold from its base to near its 
middle ; a similar dark streak on vein lb at outer third ; short, broken, 
dark streaks on the veins at or near the cell ; a clouded fuscous spot 
at end of cell; outer half of costa shaded with fuscous; a row of dark 
spots along termen at or very close to the vein ends. Hind wing 
white, semihyaline with only the faintest indication of a fuscous line 
on termen toward apex. 

Alar expanse, 32-45 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 38-38d) agreeing in size and nearly all details with 
those of longipennella except that the arms of the anellus are a trifle 
longer in niaculifera. 

Fevidle. — In color and pattern like the male except that there is 
some gray shading on the head and thorax and considerably more 
gray on the fore wing (the single specimen before me is in much 
better condition than the males, which may account for some of the 
differences) ; basal third of wing clouded with dark fuscous; termi- 
nal area more faintly clouded; subterminal line faintly indicated, 
sharply angulate at middle, broken below; the luteous shade more 
contrasted than in the male, but restricted to middle of cell and the 
area between veins lb and the fold. Hind wing white, semihyaline 
with a narrow fuscous shade along termen and on the veins near 
their apices. 

Alar expanse, 37 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 75-75a) similar to those of insignatella but with 
sclerotized ventral plate in ductus bursae at genital opening smaller. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

Distribution. — Mexico: Oaxaca., Salina Cruz (Sept.). 

Eight specimens examined. 

Remarks. — This species may be distinguished from other species of 
Cactohrosis by the strong luteous (pale clay) shade on the fore wing 
and the serrate-fasciculate male antenna. 

4. CACTOBROSIS INSIGNATELLA Dyar 

Plate 43, Figure 76 

Cactol)rosis insignatella Dyab, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 47, p. 407, 1915 ; Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 1928. 



400 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL IMUSEUM vol. 86 

Male. — Unknown. 

Female. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore wing of a soft, nearly uni- 
form grayish fuscous (with a more brownish than slate-gray tint). 
Fore wing without discal spot or transverse dark markings; costa at 
base very slightly paler than ground color of wing, concolorous with 
collar of thorax ; an obscure pale shade on midcosta and the faintest 
indication of a pale subterminal line, the latter broadly angulate at 
middle; some faint dark shading on the veins from cell to termen 
and a row of small, dark dots along termen near the vein ends. Hind 
wing white, semihyaline, with a pale fuscous line along termen; 
cilia white with a narrow, pale fuscous, subbasal line. 

Alar expanse, 37-40 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 76) with the doi^al plates in ductus bursae at 
genital opening strongly sclerotized; ventral plate at opening slightly 
larger than in any of the other species. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Food plant. — Unknown. 

Remarks. — Known only from the female type and paratype from 
the type locality. These specimens resemble suffused specimens of 
femaldialis and langipennella except that the latter are more slat© 
colored. The slight genitalic differences seem to indicate that insig- 
natella is a good species and not a mere color form. 

5. CACTOBROSIS STRIGALIS (Barnes and McDunnoDgrh) 

Plates 35, 44, 51 ; Figures 39-39c, 77, l.'JS-lSSa, 13{)-139a 

Euzophera strigalis Barnes and McDuNNorGH, Can. Ent., vol. 44, p. 127, 1912; 
Contr. Nat. Hist. Lopid. North America, vol. 1, no. 4, pi. 1, fig. 14, 1912. 

Cactobrosis strigalis (Barnes and McDrNNoi-OH), Chock list of the Lepidoptera 
of Boreal America, no. 5G97, 1917. — Dyar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 
vol. 13, p. 224, 1925; Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 30, p. 136, 192a 

Male. — Antenna strongly serrate. Palpi, head, thorax, and foro 
wing grayish fuscous sprinkled with whitish (the ends of the scales 
white) making the ground color a pale slate-gi'ay. Fore wing with 
the veins outlined in black, the strongest black line being that along 
upper vein of cell and vein 6 ; transverse lines and discal mark absent ; 
no dots along termen. Hind wing white, semihyaline, with a faint 
fuscous shade bordering costa, and a fine fuscous line along termen 
for a short distance from apex. Tufts on eighth abdominal segment 
weak. 

Alar expanse, 30-43 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 39-39c) with vinculum moderately long, but con- 
siderably shorter than in other species of Cactobrosis; aedeagus also 
shorter. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 401 

Female. — Similar to the male in color and markings except that 
hind wing is more or less suffused with smoky fuscous beyond the 
base, especially along the veins and termen. 

Alar expanse, 33-44 mm. 

Genitalia (fig. 77) with sclerotized plates on dorsal wall of ductus 
bursae behind the genital opening well developed, but with opposing 
ventral sclerotized plate absent, replaced by minute scobinations ; 
ductus bursae shorter than in other Gactohrosis species; bursa copu- 
latrix not entirely smooth, having a few weak scobinations toward 
ductus. 

Type. — In United States National Museum. 

Type locality. — Eureka, Utah. 

Food plants. — Echinocereus 7i(/klissi'mus (Engelmami), E. pecti- 
natus (Scheidweiler), and probably a number of other species of 
Echinocereus. 

Distributimi. — United States: Utah., Eureka (Aug., Sept.), Divi- 
dend (Sept.) ; California., San Gorgonio Pass (July) ; Arizona., Tuc- 
son (Apr., July), Texas., Brewster County (July, Aug.), Alpine 
(Apr.). Mexico, Mexico City (National University, male reared 
from E. pectinatus., June 3, 1931). 

Eighteen specimens examined. 

Remarks. — In a number of respects (its shorter vinculum and 
ductus bursae, its weak abdominal tufts, and its partially scobinate 
bursa copulatrix) this species fits badly into Gactolyvosis. Eventually 
it may need a separate generic designation; but this had better be 
postponed until the life histories of the other species of Gactohrosis 
are more fully known. 

The fore wing markings of strigalis resemble those of Eremberga 
leuconips (Dyar). The latter, however, is easily distinguished by its 
squamous maxillary palpi. 

18. Genus ZOPHODIA Hiibner 

Zophodia HuBNEB, Verzeichniss bekaunter Schmettlinge [sic], p. 370, [1825]. — 
Ragonot, Ent. Monthly Alag., vol. 22, p. 19, 1885.— Hut.st, Trans. Amer. Ent. 
Soc. vol. 17, p. 172, 1890. — Hampson, M^moires sur les L^pldopteres, vol. 8, 
p. 18, 1901.— Spui^r, Die Schmetterlinge Europas, vol. 2, p. 207, 1910.— 
Dtar, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 220, 1925. (Genotype: 
Tinea convoluteUa Hiibner.) 

Dakruma Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., vol. 4, p. 702, 1878. 
(Genotype: Dakruma turiatella Grote.) 

Antemia of male pubescent and with a series of modified, papilla- 
like setae on the inner sides of several basal segments of the shaft ; 
of female simple and very shortly pubescent. Labial palpus oblique 
in the male, porrect in the female. Maxillary palpus filifonn. Hind 
wing with veins 7 and 8 anastomosing beyond the cell ; 3 and 5 con- 



402 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

nate (in occasional specimens very shortly stalked). Eighth abdomi- 
nal segment with a pair of weak ventrolateral hair tufts. 

Male genitalia with apical process of gnathos bifid, large ; apex of 
harpe evenly rounded; vinculum long; anellus with base of plate 
narrowly sclerotized, arms moderately long, slender, slightly twisted; 
aedeagus moderately long and stout; penis partially ribbed and 
pubescent. 

Female genitalia with a small weak signum developed as a plate 
with an inwardly projecting flange ; bursa copulatrix small, minutely 
and very weakly scobinate; ductus bursae minutely scobinate, with 
two rather large, sclerotized, dorsal plates at genital opening; ductus 
seminalis from bursa near signum. 

Larva white or green, faintly striped longitudinally but without 
cross bands or conspicuous spots; with two setae in group VII on 
abdominal segments 7 and 8. 

The larvae are solitary feeders in the fruits of gooseberry and 
currant. 

Eggs laid singly. 

Remarks. — This genus is close to Cactobrosis but is not one of tlio 
cactus-feeding group. I treat it here because so many cactus phy- 
citids have been referred to it at one time or another and because 
in genitalic characters it (with some species now listed under 
Laetilia and Euzoph^ra) resembles more closely the cactus feeders 
than any other group in the Phycitinae. 

As here defined the genus is limited to its type species. Its 
distribution is central and southern Europe, the northern part of the 
United States, and southern Canada. 

1. ZOPHODIA CONVOLUTELLA (Hflbner) 

Plates 34, 44, 51 ; Figures 36-36e, 78-78c, 132-132a, 133-133a 

Tinea convolutella Hubnee, Sammluug europilischor Schraetterllnge, Horde 
VIII, Tineae, fig. 34, 1796. 

Tinea grossularicUa Hubnehi, Gcschichte europjiischer Schmetterlinge, Tineae 
II, Ca.b., fig. 2.a.b.c., [1807-1809] (larva). 

Phycis grossularicUa (Hiibiior) Zincken, Magazin dor Entomologie, vol. 3, p. 
144, 1818. — Tbeitschke, Die Schmetterlinge von Europa, vol. 9, pt 1, 
p. 172, 1832 ; vol. 10, pt. 3, p. 275, 1835.— Ditponchel, Histoire naturelle des 
L^pidopteres, vol. 10, p. 206, pi. 279, fig. 9, 1830. 

Zophodia grossiilariaUs Hubnee, Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge [sic], 
p. 370, [1825]. (Emended spelling for grossularicUa and to replace con- 
voluteUa.) 

Zophodia convoluteUa (Hijbneb), Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge [sic], 
p. 370, [1825]. — VoN Heinemann, Schmetterlinge Deutschlands und dcr 
Schweiz, Abt. 2, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 190, 1865.— Ragonot, Bnt. Monthly Mag., 
vol. 22, p. 19, 1885. — Hampson, M^moires sur les L^pidopteres, vol. 8, p. 20, 
1901. — Staudinger and Reibel, Catalog der Lepidopteren des palaearctischen 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 403 

Faunengebietes, vol. 2, p. 25, 1901. — Spixleb, Die Schmetterlinge Europas, 

vol. 2, p. 207, 1910. 
Myelois (Zophodia) convolutella (Hiibner) Zexler, Isis von Oken, 1839, p. 178; 

1848, p. 679. 
Homoeosoma, convolutella (Hiibner) Heekich-Schaffer, Systematische Bear- 

beitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa, vol. 4, p. 107, 1849. 
Pempelia grossulariae Riley, 1st Ann. Rept. Ins. Missouri, p. 140, 1869; Papilio, 

vol. 1, p. 108, 1881 (suggests synonymy with convolutella). — Packard, Guide 

to the study of insects, p. 331, 1869. 
Dakruma turhatella Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., vol. 4, 

pp. 702, 703, 1878 ; North Amer. Ent., vol. 1, p. 11, 1879. 
Myelois convolutella (Hiibner) Packard, Guide to the study of insects (ed. 7), 

p. 331, 1880. 
Dakruma grossulariae (Riley) Grotb:, North Amer. Ent., vol. 1, p. 68, 1880. 
Dakruma convolutella (Hiibner) Gbote, New check list of North American 

moths, p. 55, 1882. (Gives grossulariae and turbatella as synonyms.) 
Zophodia grossulariae (Riley) Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 173, 

1890; U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 52, p. 429, 1903.— Hampson, M^moires sur les 

L6pidopteres, vol. 8, p. 21, 1901. — Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 7, 

p. 37, 1905; Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 221, 1925. — Babnes 

and McDuNNouGH, Check list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 

5705, 1917.— Pack, Utah Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 216, pp. 1-12, 1930. 
Euzophera franconiella Hulst, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 17, p. 177, 1890. — 

Hampson, M^moires sur les L(5pidoptSres, vol. 8, p. 61, 1901. 
Zophodia bella Hulst, Can. Ent., vol. 24, p. 61, 1892. — Dyae, Proc. Ent. Soc. 

Washington, vol. 6, p. 228, 1904. 
Zophodia franconiella (Hulst) Barnes and McDunnough, Check list of the 

Lepidoptera of Boreal America, no. 5706, 1917. 
Zophodia grossulariae franconiella (Hulst) Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, 

vol. 13, p. 221, 1925. 
Zophodia grossulariae ihouna Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, p. 221, 

1925. (New synonymy.) 
Zophodia grossulariae dilativitta Dyar, lasecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, 

p. 222, 1925. (New synonymy.) 
Zophodia grossulariae magnificans Dyab, Insecutor Inscitiae Menstruus, vol. 13, 

p. 222, 1925. (New synonymy.) 

Male. — Palpi, head, thorax, and fore wing fuscous dusted with 
white, the white color strongest in central costal area of fore wing, 
the general color gray. Fore wing with antemedial line outwardly 
oblique to lower vein of cell and notched between cell and inner mar- 
gin, white, bordered outwardly by a more or less extended black 
shade; subterminal line oblique, slightly dentate and sinuate, white, 
bordered inwardly by a black line and outwardly by a narrow black 
line for a short distance from costa; the fold and veins at extreme 
base of wing and in area beyond subterminal line faintly outlined in 
black; discal mark at end of cell black, curved, rarely replaced by 
a pair of dots; a row of black dots along termen between the vein 
ends. Hind wing pale smoky white with a narrow dark line along 
termen. 

Alar expanse, 25-35 mm. 



404 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vou 86 

Genitalia (figs. 36-36d) drawn from slide of European specimen. 
American examples are identical in all details. Vinculum with lat- 
eral margins broadly and sliallowly excavate, posterior margin 
straight. 

Female. — Color and markings as in the male, except hind wings 
slightly darker. 

Alar expanse, 26-35 mm. 

Genitalia (figs. 78-78c) with signum small and weak. The eighth 
segment collar is subject to considerable variation in the size and 
shape of the unsclerotized dorsal area. Some variations are shown 
in figures T8a, 78b, and 78c. These, however, do not conform to the 
varieties that have been named and can be found in any series from 
one locality. 

Larva. — Body cream-white, becoming bright green toward ma- 
turity and just before pupation purplish green; a dusky green, longi- 
tudinal, dorsolateral stripe and a fainter, middorsal stripe extend 
from the prothorax to the tenth abdominal segment. 

Types. — No known existing types for convolutella., grossuJarieUa, or 
grossulariae \ Rutgers College collection {francaniella hello) \ British 
Museum ? {turhatella) : United States National Museum {ihouna^ 
dilativitta, magni-flcarvi) . 

Type localities. — Germany {convolutella, grossulm'iella) ; Missouri 
{gi'ossnlariae) ; Oldtown, Maine {turhatella) ; Franconia, N. H. 
{franconiella) ; Massachusetts (hella) ; southern Utah {ihouna) ; San 
Diego, Calif . {dilativitta) ; Seattle, Wash, {magnificans) . 

Food plants. — Rihes grossularia Linnaeus and other Rihes species 
(larva feeding in the fruit). 

Distrihution. — Europe (central and southern). United States: 
Maine, Orono; New Hampshire, Hampton (May), Durham; Mis- 
souri; Colorado, Manitou, Denver (Apr.), Fort Collins (Mar., Apr.), 
Utah, Logan ("June"), Beaver Canyon ("VII") ; Oregon; Califor- 
nia, San Diego; Washington, Seattle, Bellingham (Apr.). Canada: 
Quehec, St. Johns County (Apr.), Mount St. Hilaire (May); On- 
tario, Hymers; Alberta, Edmonton (May), Bilby (May) ; British Co- 
lumbia, Kaslo (Apr.), Wellington (Apr.), Alberni (May), Gold- 
stream (May), Vancouver Island (Apr.). 

The foregoing localities are for the specimens before me. The 
species is generally distributed over the northern part of the United 
States and southern Canada. 

Seventy-four specimens examined. 

Remarks. — As far back as 1880 Packard identified the gooseberry 
feeder in America with the European convolutella, and Grote (1882) 
listed convolutella Avith grossulariae and turhatella as synonyms. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 405 

Later writers, however, all treated grossulariae as a distinct species, 
and it so stands at present in our lists and economic literature. I 
see nothing either in pattern or genitalic structure to distinguish 
grossulariae from corwolutella even as a geographic race. The sup- 
posed western races named by Dyar are nothing but color forms, dif- 
fering less from typical European or eastern American forms than 
do many specimens from a single eastern State. His ihouna was 
described from two faded specimens and dilativitta from a single 
fresh and perfect female. His magniflcans^ though larger than most 
eastern examples, can be matched in any long series of specimens 
from Europe or eastern Canada. 

The species does not feed upon cactus. It is treated here because 
its genus has been used as a receptacle for many cactus-feeding species 
and also because it is similar in genitalic structure to the cactus feed- 
ers. In this country it is popularly known as the gooseberry fruit- 
worm and has a rather extensive economic literature. Only one of 
the more recent economic references is quoted, but the foregoing 
synonymy is complete so far as I can judge, and the principal sys- 
tematic references are cited. 

It is the most important lepidopterous pest of the gooseberry here 
and abroad and often does serious injury. It also is recorded as an 
occasional enemy of currants. 

There is one generation a year, moths flying from mid-April to early 
in June. About 10 months are passed in the pupal stage, the insects 
overwintering as pupae in loose cocoons on the ground under fallen 
leaves or other rubbish. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

The drawings for the plates accompanying this paper were made 
under the author's supervision by Mrs. Eleanor A. Carlin, of the 
U. S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. The female 
genitalia and head structures were drawn to smaller scale than the 
male genitalia. 

EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS APPLIED TO GENITALIA 

Male 
aGn, Apical process of gnathos. 

An, Anellus. 

Hp, Harpe. 

pkt, Sclerotized pocket in subbasal area of harpe. 

Tn, Elements of a divided transtilla. 
U, Uncus. 
Vm, Vinculum. 

Female 

Be, Bursa copulatrix. 

Clr, Collar of eighth abdominal segment. 

Db, Ductus bursae. 

dp, Dorsal plate in ductus bursae at genital opening. 

Ds, Ductus seminalis. 

Go, Genital opening. 

Sn, Signum. 

vp, Ventral plate in ductus bursae at genital opening. 

Plate 23 

1-lf. Melitara prodenialis Walker: 1, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; la, dorsal view of uncus and 
tegumen; lb, gnathos; Ic, elements of divided transtilla; Id, anellus; 
le, aedeagus, lateral view; If, aedeagus, ventral view. 

2-2c. Melitara dentata (Grote) : 2, Ventral view of male genitalia with aedeagus 
and one harpe omitted; 2a, elements of transtilla; 2b, anellus; 2c, 
aedeagus. 

Plate 24 

3-3c. Olycella junctolineella (Hulst): 3, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted (the apical process of gnathos 
shown bent somewhat to the side); 3a, elements of transtilla; 3b, 
anellus; 3c, aedeagus. 
4. Olycella junctolineella pectinatella (Hampson): Gnathos of male genitalia 
(the apical process shown in full ventral view). 

5-5c. Otyca phryganoides Walker: 5, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 5a, elements of transtilla; 5b, 
anellus; 5c, aedeagus. 
406 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 407 

Plate 25 

6-6c. Alberada bidentella (Dyar): 6, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus onntted; 6a, elements of transtilla; 6b, anellus; 6c, aedeagus. 

7-7c. Alberada parabates (Dyar): 7, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 7a, elements of transtilla; 7b, 
aneUus; 7c, aedeagus. 

8-8d. Nanaia substituta, new species: Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 8a, elements of transtilla; 8b, 
anellus; 8c, aedeagus; 8d, sternite and tergite of eighth abdominal 
segment of male. 

Plate 26 

9-9c. Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg): 9, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 9a, elements of transtilla; 9b, 
anellus; 9c, aedeagus. 

10. Cactoblastis doddi, new species: Gnathos of male genitalia. 

11. Cactoblastis mundelli, new species: Gnathos of male genitalia. 
12-12c. Cactoblastis bucyrus Dyar: 12, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeaguB and one harpe omitted; 12a, elements of transtilla; 12b, 
anellus; 12c, aedeagus. 
13-13f. Cahela ponderosella (Barnes and McDunnough): 13, Ventral view of 
male genitalia with aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 13a-c, various 
modifications of apical process of gnathos; 13d, elements of transtiUa; 
13e, anellus; 13f, aedeagus. 

Plate 27 

14-14c. Rumatha bihinda (Dyar): 14, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 14a, elements of transtilla; 14b, 

anellus; 14c, aedeagus. 
15-15c. Rumatha polingella (Dyar): 15, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 15a, elements of transtilla; 15b, 

anellus; 15c, aedeagus. 
16-16c. Rumatha glaucatella (Hulst): 16, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus omitted; 16a, elements of transtilla; 16b, anellus; 16c, 

aedeagus. 
17-l7d. Tucumania tapiacola Dyar: 17, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus omitted; 17a, elements of transtiUa; 17b, anellus; 17c, 

aedeagus; 17d, sternite and tergite of eighth abdominal segment of 

male. 

Plate 28 

18-18c. Yosemitia fieldiella (Dyar): 18, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus omitted; 18a, elements of transtilla; 18b, anellus; 18c, 

aedeagus. 
19-19c. Yosemitia didactica Dyar: 19, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus omitted; 19a, elements of transtilla; 19b, anellus; 19c, 

aedeagus. 
20-20c. Yosemitia longipennella (Hulst): 20, Ventral view of male genitalia 

with aedeagus omitted; 20a, elements of transtilla; 20b, aneUus; 

20c, aedeagus. 
21-21d. Yosemitia graciella (Hulst): 21, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus omitted; 21a, elements of transtilla; 21b, aneUus; 21c, 

aedeagus; 21d, sternite and tergite of eighth abdominal segment of 

male. 



408 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOL. 86 



Plate 29 

22-22C. Eremherga leuconips (Dyar): 22, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 22a, elements of transtilla; 22b, 

anellus; 22c, aedeagus. 
23-23c. Eremherga insignis, new species: 23, Ventral view of male genitalia 

with aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 23a, elements of transtilla; 

23b, anellus; 23c, aedeagus. 
24-240. Eremherga creahates (Dyar): Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 24a, elements of transtilla; 24b, 

anellus; 24c, aedeagus. 

Plate 30 

25-25c. Parolyca asthenosoma (Dyar): 25, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 25a, elements of transtilla; 25b, 

anellus; 25c, aedeagus. 
26-26c. Salamhona analamprella (Dyar): 26, Ventral view of male genitalia 

with aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 26a, elements of transtilla; 

26b, anellus; 26c, aedeagus. 
27-27d. Sigelgaila iransilis, new species: 27, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 27a, elements of transtilla; 27b, 

anellus; 27c, aedeagus; 27d, eighth abdominal segment of male, 

showing hair tufts. 

Plate 31 

28-28c. Sigelgaita chilensis, new species: 28, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 28a, elements of transtilla; 28b, 
anellus; 2Sc, aedeagus. 

29-29d. Amalafrida leithella (Dyar): 29, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 29a, elements of transtilla; 29b, 
anellus; 29c, aedeagus; 29d, eighth abdominal segment of male, 
showing hair tufts. 

Plate 32 

30-30e. Ozamia lucidalis (Walker): 30, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted (apical process of gnathos partly 

bent); 30a, gnathos (full ventral view); 30b, elements of transtilla; 

30c, anellus; 30d, aedeagus; 30e, tufts of eighth abdominal segment 

of male. 
31-31c. Ozamia odiosella fuscomaculella (Wright): 31, Ventral view of male 

genitalia with aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 31a, elements of 

transtilla; 31b, anellus; 31c, aedeagus. 
32-32c. Ozamia punicans, new species: 32, Ventral view of male genitalia with 

aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 32a, elements of transtilla; 32b, 

anellus; 32c, aedeagus. 

Plate 33 

33-33d. Ozamia odiosella (Hulst) { — clarefada Dyar, type): 33, Ventral view 
of male genitalia with aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 33a, elements 
of transtilla; 33b, anellus; 33c, aedeagus; 33d, hair tufts on eighth 
abdominal segment of male. 
34. Ozamia odiosella (Hulst), Texas specimen: Side view of male genitalia 
with one harpe omitted. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE HEINRICH 



409 



35-35d. Ozamia hemilutella Dyar: 35, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagu3 and one harpe omitted; 35a, elements of transtilla; 35b, 
anellus; 35c, aedeagus; 35d, hair tufts on eighth abdominal segment 
of male. 

Plate 34 

36-36e. Zophodia convolutella (Hiibner): 36, Ventral view of male genitalia 
with aedeagus omitted (apical process of gnathos bent to one side) ; 
36a, ventral view of apical process of gnathos; 36b, elements of 
transtilla; 36c, aneUus; 36d, aedeagus; 36e, tufts of eighth abdominal 
segment of male. 

37-37e. Cadobrosis longipennella (Hampson) {^= elongatella Hampson): 37, 
Ventral view of male genitalia with aedeagus omitted; 37a, dorsal 
view of uncus and tegumen; 37b, elements of transtijla; 37c, anellus; 
37d, aedeagus; 37e, tufts of eighth abdominal segment of male. 

Plate 35 

3^38d. Cadobrosis maculifera Dyar: 38, Ventral view of male genitalia with 
aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 38a, dorsal view of denuded harpe 
showing transverse creases; 38b, elements of transtilla; 38c, anellus; 
38d, aedeagus. 

39-39c. Cadobrosis slrigalis (Barnes and McDunnough): 39, Ventral view of 
male genitalia with aedeagus and one harpe omitted; 39a, elements 
of transtilla; 39b, anellus; 39c, aedeagus. 

Plate 36 

40. Melitara dentata (Grote) : Female genitalia. 
41-41a. Melitara prodenialis Walker: 41, Female genitalia; 41a, dorsal view of 

eighth segment collar. 
42-42a. Olycella jundolineella (Hulst): 42, Female genitalia; 42a, collar of 
eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
43. Olycella subumbrella (Dyar): Collar of eighth abdominal segment, 
dorsal view. 

Plate 37 

44-44a. Olyca phryganoides Walker: 44, Female genitalia; 44a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
45-45a. Alherada par abates (Dyar): 45, Female genitalia; 45a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 

46. Alberada bidentella {T)ya,T): Female genitalia. 

47. Alberada holochlora (Dyar) : Female genitalia. 



Plate 38 



48-48a. 



Cadoblastis cadorum (Berg): 48, Female genitalia; 48a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
49-49a. Cadoblastis doddi, new species: 49, Female genitalia; 49a, collar of 

eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
50-50b. Cadoblastis bucyrus Dyar: 50, Female genitaha; 50a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view; 50b, signum, showing extreme of 

reduction in the species. 
51-51a. Cahela ponderosella (Barnes and McDunnough): 51, Female genitaha 

51a, collar of eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 



410 PROCEEDIK^GS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

Plate 39 

52. Rumatha glaucatella (Hulst): Female genitalia with eighth-segment 

collar and ovipositor omitted and with signum shown, much 
enlarged, to tne side of bursa. 

53. Rumatha poUngella (Dyar): Female genitalia with eighth-segment 

collar and ovipositor omitted. 

54. Rumatha bihinda (Dyar): Female genitalia. 

55-55a. Eremberga leuconips (Dyar): 55, Female genitalia; 55a, collar of eighth 
abdominal segment, dorsal view. 

56. Yosemitia sp.: Female genitalia (see remarks under Eremberga insignis, 

p. 379). 

Plate 40 

57. Yosemitia graciella (Hulst): Female genitalia (signum shown to the 

side, much enlarged). 

58. Yosemitia longipennella (Hulst) : Female genitalia with eighth segment 

collar and ovipositor omitted (signum shown to the side, much 

enlarged). 
5&-59a. Tucumania tapiacola Dyar: 59, Female genitalia; 59a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
60. Tucumania porreda Dyar: Female genitalia with eighth -segment collar 

and ovipositor omitted (signum shown to the side, much enlarged). 
61-61a. Ozamia punicans, new species: 61, Female genitalia; 61a, collar of 

eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 

Plate 41 

62-62a. Ozamia stigmaferella (Dyar): 62, Female genitalia; 62a, collar of 

eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
63-63a. Ozamia thalassophila Dyar: 63, Female genitalia; 63a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
64-64a. Ozamia odiosella (Hulst): 64, Female genitalia; 64a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
65-65a. Ozamia hemilutella Dyar: 65, Female genitalia; 65a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
66-66a. Ozamia lucidalis (Walker): 66, Female genitalia; 66a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
67. Ozamia odiosella fuscomaculella (,\\ Tight): Female genitalia. 

Plate 42 

68-68a. Amalafrida leithella (Dyar): 68, Female genitalia; 68a, collar of eighth 

abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
69. Salambona analamprella (Dj-ar): Female genitalia. 
70-70a. Sigelgaita chilensis, new species: 70, Female genitalia; 70a, collar of 

eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
71-71a. Sigelgaita huanucensis, new species: 71, Female genitalia; 7la, collar 

of eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 
72-72a. Nanaia subsiituta, new species: 72, Female genitalia; 72a, collar of 

eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDIXG PHYCITIXAE HEmEICH 411 

Plate 43 

73-73a. Cactobrosis fernaldialis (Hulst): 73, Female genitalia; 73a, collar of 

eighth abdonimal segment, dorsal viev/. 
74-74a. Cactobrosis longipennella (Hampson) [ = elongatella (Hampson)]: 74, 

Female genitalia; 74a, collar of eighth abdonimal segment, dorsal 

view. 
75-75a. Cactobrosis maculifera Dyar: 75, Part of female genitalia showing 

genital opening and eighth segment collar, ventral view; 75a, collar 

of eighth abdominal segment, dorsal view. 

76. Cactobrosis insignatella Dyar: Female genitalia. 

Plate 44 

77. Cactobrosis sirigalis (Barnes and McDunnough): Female genitalia. 
78-78c. Zophodia convolutella (Hiibner): 78, Female genitalia; 78a-c, variations 

in the collar of eighth abdominal segment, dorsal views. 

79. Yosemitia gracielia (Hulst): Wings, showing venation. 

80. Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg): Wings, showing venation. 

81. Melitara prodenialis Walker: Wings, showing venation. 

82. Tucumania tapiacola Dyar: Wings, showing venation. 

Plate 45 

83-83a. Melitara prodenialis Walker: 83, Side view of head of male showing 

palpi; 83a, part of shaft of male antenna. 
84, Melitara prodenialis Walker: Part of shaft of female antenna. 
85-85a. Melitara dentata (Grote): 85, Side view of male head; 85a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
86-86a. Melitara dentata (Grote): 86, Side view of female head; 86a, part of 

shaft of female antenna. 
87-87a. Olycella nephelepasa (Dyar): 87, Side view of male head; 87a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
88-88a. Olycella junctolineella (Hulst): 88, Side view of male head; 88a, part 

of shaft of male antenna. 
89-89a. Olycella junctolineella (Hulst): 89, Side view of female head; 89a, part 

of shaft of female antenna. 

Plate 46 

90. Olyca phryganoides Walker: Side view of male head. 

91. Olyca phryganoides Walker: Side view of female head. 

92-92a. Alberada parabates (Dyar): 92, Side view of male head; 92a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
93-93a. Alberada parabates (Dyar): 93, Side view of female head; 93a, part of 

shaft of female antenna. 
94-94a. Alberada holochlora (Dyar): 94, Side view of female head; 94a, part 

of shaft of female antenna. 
95-95a. Alberada bidentella (Dyar): 95, Side view of male head; 95a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
96-96a. Alberada bidentella (Dyar): 96, Side view of female head; 96a, part of 

shaft of female antenna. 



109335—39- 



412 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM vol. 86 

Plate 47 

97-97a. Nanaia substituta, new species: 97, v^ide view of male head; 97a, part 

of shaft of male antenna. 
98-98a. Cactohlasiis cactorum (Berg): 98, Side view of male head; 98a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
99. Caciohladis cactorum (Berg): Side view of female head. 

100. Cactoblastis mundelli, new species: Side view of male head. 

101. Cactoblastis mundelli, new species: Side view of female head. 
102-102a. Cahela ponderosella (Barnes and McDunnough): 102, Side view of 

male head; 102a, part of shaft of male antenna. 
103-103a. Cahela ponderosella (Barnes and McDunnough): 103, Side view of 
female head; 103a, part of shaft of female antenna. 

Plate 48 

104-104a, Rumatha glaucalella (Hulsl): 104, Side view of male head; 104a, part 

of shaft of male antenna. 
105-105a. Rumatha glaucalella (Hulst): 105, Side view of female head; 105a, part 

of shaft of female antenna. 
106-106a. Rumatha polingella (Dyar): 106, Side view of male head; 106a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
107-107a. Rumatha polingella (Dyar): 107, Side view of female head; 107a, part of 

shaft of female antenna. 
108-108a. Rumatha bihinda (Dyar): 108, Side view of male head; 108a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
109-109a. Rumatha bihinda (Dyar): 109, Side view of female head; 109a, part of 

shaft of female antenna. 
110-1 10a. Yosernitia didactica Dyar: 110, Side view of male head; 110a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
11 1-1 11a. Yosemilia graciella (Hulst): 111, Side view of female head; 11 la, part 

of shaft of female antenna. 
112-112a. Yosemilia longipennella (Hulst): 112, Side view of male head; 112a, 

part of shaft of male antenna. 
113-1 13a. Yosemilia longipennella (Hulst): 113, Side view of female head; 113a, 

part of shaft of female antenna. 

Plate 49 

114-114a. Yosemilia fieldiella (Dyar): 114, Side view of male head; 114a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
11 5- 11 5a. Yosemilia fieldiella (Dyar): 115, Side view of female head; 115a, part of 

shaft of female antenna. 
116-116a. Salambcna analamprella (Dyar): IIG, Side view of male head; 116a, 

part of shaft of male antenna. 
117-117a. Salambona analamprella (Dyar): 117, Side view of female head; 117a, 

part of shaft of female antenna. 
118-1 18a. Er ember ga leuconips (Dyar): 118, Side view of male head; 118a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
119-119a. Eremberga leuconips (Dyar): 119, Side view of female head; 119a, part 

of shaft of female antenna. 
120-120a. Eremberga creabates (Dyar): 120, Side view of male head; 120a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 
121-121a. Tucumania tapiacoln Dyar: 121, Side view of male head; 121a, part of 

shaft of male antenna. 

122. Tucumania tapiacola Dyar: Side view of female liead. 

123. Tucumania porrecla Dyar: Side view of female head. 



THE CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE — HEINRICH 413 

124-124a. Parolyca asthenosoma (Dyar): 124, Side view of male head; 124a, part of 
shaft of male antenna. 

Plate 50 

125-125a. Sigelgaita chilensis, new species: 125, Side view of male head; 125a, part 
of shaft of male antenna. 
126. Sigelgaita chilensis, new species; Side view of female head. 

127-127C. Sigelgaita transilis, nev,- species: 127, Side view of male head; 127a-b, 
two views of basal segments of male antenna; 127c, three segments 
from basal part of shaft, greatly enlarged, showing attachment of 
modified setae to shaft and inner row of pectinations. 

128-128C. Amalafrida leithella (Dyar): 128, Side view of male head; 128a-b, two 
views of basal segments of male antenna; 128c, inner pectination 
from one of basal segments of shaft showing attachment of modified 
setae (greatly enlarged). 
129. Amalafrida leithella (Dyar): Side view of female head. 

130-130a. Ozamia odiosella fuscomaciilella (Wright): 130, Side view of male head; 
130a, basal segments of male antenna. 

131-131a. Ozamia thalassophila Dyar: Side view of female head; 131a, part of 
shaft of female antenna. 

Plate 51 

132-132a. Zophodia convolutella (Hiibner): 132, Side view of male head; 132a, 
basal segments of male antenna. 

133-133a. Zophodia convolutella (Hiibner): Side view of female head; 133a, part of 
shaft of female antenna. 

134-134c. Cactobrosis fernaldialis (Hulst): 134, Side view of male head; 134a, 
maxillary palpus, greatly enlarged; 134b, part of shaft of male 
antenna, ventral view; 134c, basal segments of male antenna, lateral 
view. 

135-135a. Cactobrosis fernaldialis (Hulst): 135, Side view of female head; 135a, 
part of shaft of female antenna. 

136-136b. Cactobrosis longipennella (Hampson): 136, Side view of male head; 
136a, part of shaft of male antenna, ventral view; 136b, basal seg- 
ments of male antenna, lateral view. 

137-137a. Cactobrosis maculifera Dyar: 137, Part of shaft of male antenna, ventral 
view; 137a, basal segments of male antenna, lateral view. 

138-138a. Cactobrosis strigalis (Barnes and McDunnough): 138, Side view of male 
head; 138a, part of shaft of male antenna, lateral view. 

139-139a. Cactobrosis strigalis (Barnes and McDunnough): 139, Side view of fe- 
male head; 139a, part of shaft of female antenna. 



U. S, 50VERNMENT PR!NT1N5 OTFICE: 1939 



/ . z • 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 2': 




2. den tat a 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 406. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 24 




5. phnyganoides 



Cactus-Feeding phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANAT;0N of plate see page 406. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PRCCEEDINGS, VOL E6 PLATE 25 




8. su6sh/-u^a 
Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANAXrON OF PLATE SEE PAGE 407. 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 26 




15. ponc/erose//a 



CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE. 

FOR EXPUANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 40: 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 27 




17. f-apiaco/a 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 407. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 28 





f/e/d>'e//a 



(f\ 



19"^ 



19^ 



18- 






19- alrc/ac/-/ca 




2.]. ^rac/e//a 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLAN/lTION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 407. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOU. 86 PLATE 2; 




2-4 creaAaf-es 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 408. 



U. 3 NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 30 




2l./-rans/7/s 



2je 
Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION CF PLATE SEE PAGE 40E 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 31 




Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 408. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 32 










32 pun/cans 



ZQ" 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 408. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PRCCEEDIKGS. VOL. £6 PLATE 




•35. hemt7uf-e//a 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPUANArON OF PLATE SEE PAGES 408. 409. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 34 




cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 4C9. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 35 




59- sf-H$oIis 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 4C9. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 36 



m^ 




^2.. Juncf'o/ihee //a 
Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 
for explanation of plate see page 409. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 

\ 11// / 



W-W^^ 




'4^5. parabafes 



^Q 3fdenfe//a 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 4C9. 



■47 ho/ochhr'a 



U. S, NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 38 




CACTUS-FEEDING PHYCITINAE. 

FOR EXPUANAHON OF PLATE SEE PAGE 409. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 3? 




5)2 p/auGa^e//a 




55 po/fn0e//o 




5^ 6,h,nc/a ^^ yoserrnha sp. 

Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 4iO. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 40 




61. pun/cans ^Q, fapracoh 



60 pOrrecfa 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 410. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 41 




65. hemi/ufe/Ia 66 /ueida/fS 67 fuscomaoo/e/Za 

Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATJON OF PLATE SEE PAGE 410. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 42 




66. /etf-hella 



~]\. h uonueens/s 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATJON OF PLATE SEE PAGE 410. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
,.1 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 43 




1^. fenna Idi'a/ts 



76. rnsi^nate/la 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION 0'=' PLATE SEE PAGE 411. 



U S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 44 




61. f^e/ifana 



Q2 Tvcomania 



Cactus-Feeding phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 411 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 45 




66 Juncfo//nee//a S 



&Q- jancfo/;nee//a 9 
Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 411. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 86 PLATE 46 




Q^.parabaf-es ?• 





QC).bidenf-e//a d" 



QQ. bf'denfe//a ^ 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 411. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 47 





102. pondenose//Q cT 



^^-' 



(r\ 



< 




10 1 . munde/li ? 




^O^.pOna/er-os&J Iq $ 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 412. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 43 





\OA-0JavcareJ/Q c? 



\00- pJauoate/Ia 9 




112 . /onp:penne7/a 3 



115. fon^jpennQJJa ? 



cactus-Feeding phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 412 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 49 



,./- 



Il^a 






WA.fie/dieIJa i 




1 16- ana /ampre/Za S 




1J7. ana/ampreJJa ? 



\\^°- 




W^/euoonips S 





119. leooonips ? 



\'20.creabafes S 





12 1 . f-ap/acofa S 




\Q2.fapfaco/Q ? 




12^' 



12^. Qsfh&nosorna d* 



^QZi.por-fGof-a ? 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGES 412. 413. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 50 




150 fvseomaotj/e//a i 



\Z)\.fha/assophifa 2 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION Of PUATE SEE PAGE 413. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 86 PLATE 51 





133« 



152. oon^o/vf-eJIa <^ 




I>5v5. Qon^o/uf^eZ/a $ 




iod- 



ise « 



■maouh/era S' 




V 

13-4'= 




15^. fer-no/c/ra/fs c? 




135. /'er-r7c/t//6'//5 2 




\^<0- /on^fpenne/Za <? ^Z)d> .sf-^/$a//s S 



159. 5A/-/^«//5? 



Cactus-Feeding Phycitinae. 

FOR EXPLANATION OF PLATE SEE PAGE 413. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




issued 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 86 Washington : 1939 No. 3054 



TWO NEW OPHIUKANS FROM THE SMITHSONIAN 
HARTFORD EXPEDITION, 1937 



By Hubert Lyman Clark 



New echinoderms from the shallow waters of the West Indies are 
still to be expected, but it is probable that our knowledge of the 
littoral forms will not require the addition of many new names to the^ 
list. It was therefore a great surprise to find that each of two speci- 
mens, kindly sent to me for examination by Austin H. Clark, of the 
U. S. National Museum, proves to represent an undescribed species. 
Each, moreover, is a representative of one of those large and hetero- 
geneous genera our knowledge of which is too superficial or frag- 
mentary to permit its dismemberment into smaller and more natural 
groups. 

It is always regrettable to describe a new species from a unique 
specimen and never more so than in such genera, but on the other 
hand such unique specimens must have names assigned to them if 
they are to be of any value in extending our knowledge of those 
genera. This is the only justification for publishing the following 
descriptions. 

I wish to thank Mr. Clark for his generous kindness in permitting 
me to examine and describe these interesting novelties. 

Genus OPHIACTIS Lutken 

OPHIACTIS NOTABILIS, new species 

PI.ATE 52, Figures 1, 2 

Desc7iption.— Bisk very nearly 5 mm in diameter, hexamerous, 
slightly puffed out in the interradii and somewhat elevated, though 
irregularly, on the upper surface. The disk covering consists of 

116508—39 415 



416 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.86 

oval or circular, flat or slightly convex scales, scarcely or not at all 
overlapping, and 6 i^airs of radial shields, which are flat and very 
small, but little larger than the largest of the disk scales; the two 
radial shields of each pair are separated from each other or are 
barely in contact distally. The interbrachial areas below are cov- 
ered near the margin with thin, flat, rounded scales, like those of the 
upper surface but much more evidently overlapping: toward the 
mouth the scales are lacking and only a thin dark skin covers the 
area near the oral shields; there are no granules or spinelets on the 
disk, either above or below. 

Arms 6, rather short, less than 15 mm long, slender at tip. Upper 
arm plates at base of arm at least twice as wide as long, very com- 
pletely in contact but the proximal side is not quite so long as the 
distal; the lateral margins are very evenly rounded, with no hint 
of angles; near the tip of the arm the plates are much smaller and 
more nearly separated from each other, the proximal side having 
become a more or less truncated i)oint, the general form of the plate 
being triangular. 

Oral shiekls small, somewhat elliptical, wider than long, not so 
large as the first under arm plate. Adoral plates relatively very 
large, narrow and truncate in front of the oral shield, where they are 
in contact, much wider, and rounded, radially, where they meet and 
almost overlap in front of the first under arm plate. It is possible 
that these wide ends cover over and conceal the true first under arm 
plate and that the apparent firet under arm plate is really the second. 
Oral papilla single, located on the small narrow oral plate; it is 
about twice as high as wide, flattened, and truncate or bluntly pointed 
at tip; apparently it is easily knocked off for several appear to be 
wanting; on only one jaw is the papilla present on both sides. Under 
arm plates, except the apparent first, which is smallest and evidently 
wider than long, squarish with rounded corners: the distal end is a 
trifle wider than the proximal and its margin is very slightly con- 
vex; lateral margins a very little concave; at the tip of the arm the 
plates are much longer than wide: they are more or less fully in con- 
tact throughout. Side arm plates low and small, meeting above near 
tip of arm, but not below ; each carries a series of 4 arm spines, of 
which the uppermost and lowest are smallest and subequal; the other 
two are also subequal, but noticeably longer, about equaling the 
width of the arm; all the spines are blunt and obviously thicker at 
base than near tip; compared to the arm spines of 0. savignyi they 
could