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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



VOLUME 99 



PEF 



/ORE 



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UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 19S2 



IV PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Fisher, W. S. Now buprestid beetles from Mexico, Central pages 
and South America, and the AYest Indies. April 26, 
l!)i()i 327-351 

New species: Polycesta cnmposi, P. hrunneipcnnis, Tyndaris 
tJri)rrssicol1is, T. iniicolor, T. reedi, Acmaeodera ruricola, 
A. unicolor, A. neonrylccta, A. knnhi, A. 7-ustira, A. oaxacac, 
A. mnnilcola, A. aencicollis, A. striata, A. datiforthi, Evplec- 
talccia JcnaM, Peronaemis cupricollis, Taphroccrus haitien- 
sis, Mastoyenius perumanus, Trigonoyya insularis. 

Haktmax, Oloa. a iitMv iiKiriiie annelid from Florida. 

August 4, 1949^ 503-508 

New subspecies: Sabellaria floridensis stephenwni. 

Henderson, E. P., and Perry, Stuart H. The Pima County 

(Arizona) meteorite. April 27, 1949 ^ 353-355 

. The Linwood (Nebraska) meteorite. April 27, 

1949 ' 357-360 

Hersiikovitz, Philip. Mammals of northern Colombia. 
PiTliniinary Report No. 5 : Bats (Chiroptera). May 10, 
1949' 429-454 

Hoffman, Richard L. Nine new xystodesmid millipeds 
from Virginia and West Virginia, witli records of estab- 
lished species. June 14, 1949 ^ 371-389 

New species : Apheloria antrostomicola, A. klcinpcteri, A. picta, 
Dcltotaria coronata, Nannaria ericncca, N. laminatn, N. 
■simplex, N. tcilsoni, Sigmoria ftirdfera. 

HoLTiiuis, L. B. Redescription of the shrimp Bathypalae- 
monella pandaloides (Rathbun), with remarks on the 
family Campylonotidae. August 25, 1949^ 517-523 

lLL(i. Paul L. A review of the copepod genus Paranthesmis 

Claus. May 10, 1949^ 391-428 

New species: I'(tnnifhrHsin>^ pauopcav, P. tivclae, P. saxidomi, 
P. perpJeans. 

Mao, YiNG-Tou. The species of ichneumon-flies of the genus 
CardiocMle.H occurring in America north of Mexico. 
Marcli 21, 1949 ' 229-266 

New species : CardiochUcs aruyosns, C. hrci'ifarsiit, ('. diynus, 
('. aUutus, V. msculptns, C. levix, C. inagnus, C. ticbrasccnsis, 
C. niyricam, C. ruhicundtis, C. rulidns, <\ 7-iifostiymn, C. 
trnnessensis, C. tcxensis, C. transver.sii.s, (7. friinr^is. 

New variety: CardiochUes arugosus pulliin. 

New conilnnations: CardiochUcsi ralifoniicus. ('. flnrida)ius, 
('. wiviituft, 0. nrizahae, C. pluto, C. thoraciciis, C. viator. 



' Datp of piiblipation. 



CONTENTS V 

Menzies, Robert J. A new species of apseudicl crustacean Pagos 
of the genus Synapsendcs from northern California 

(Tanaidacea). August 4, 1949 ^ 509-515 

New species: Syvapseudcs intumescens. 

Monte, Oscar . The weevils of the genus Tachygomis in the 
United States National Museum, with descriptions of 
new species. May 25, 1949 ^ 213-227 

New species : Tachygonus huchanani, T. hicolor, T. montanus, 
T. minis, T. coniptus, T. niger, T. ferrugineus, T. utro-sig- 
natus, T. validus, T. femoralis, T. nitidus, T. rugosus. 

MuNRO, H. K. A remarkable new species of trypetid fly of 
the genus Oeratitis (sensu stricto) from East Africa in 
the collection of the United States National Museum. 

July 5, 1949^ 499-501 

New species: Crratitis (Oeratitis) caetrata. 

Perry, Stuart H. (See under Henderson, E. P.) 
Sciiui/rz, Leonard P. A further contribution to the ichthy- 
ology of Venezuela. May 10, 1949 ^ 1-211 

New genera: Hildebrandichthys, Hulbsivhtliys. 

New species: Vrotrygon venezuelae, Anchovia nigra, Ancfioa 
argenteiis, nildeirandichtliys setiger, Lyccngraulis Umnich- 
thys, Sternopygus pejeraton, Eigenmannia goajira, Aptcr- 
ovotus cuchillo, Sterna rcliogiton cuchillejo, Austrofundulus 
■stagiKilis, Riviilus bondi, Htibbsichthys laurae, Colcotropis 
blackburni, Diaptcrus limnaeus, Eugcrres aiclac, Cynoscion 
maracaibo.ensis. 

New subspecies: Avstrofiindtiliis transilis limnaeus. 

Townes, Henry. The Nearctic species of the family Ste- 

phanidae (Hymenoptera). June 10, 1949^ ;]61-370 

New species : Megischus californicus, M. arizonicus. 
New combinations : Megischus bicoJor, M. b. sickmanni, M. b. 
bicolor. 

-. The Nearctic species of Evaniidae (Hymenop- 



tera). September 1, 1949^ 525-539 

New species: Hyptia feinorata, H. oblonga. 
New combination : Prosevania punctata. 

Wilson, Mildred Stratton. A new species of copepod of the 
genus Corycaeus from the North American coast. June 

10, 1949^ 321-326 

New species: Corycneu-'i {Ditrirhocorycaeiis) americanns. 



1 Date of publication. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATES Following 

page 

1. Sternopygus pejeraton, new species, and Eigenmannia goajira, 

new species 211 

2. Hypopomus Veetei Schultz 211 

3. Apteronotus cuchillo, new species, and Sternarchogiton cuchillejo, 

new species 211 

4. Head, thorax, forewing, mesonotum, abdominal tergites, and tibia 

of species of Cardiochiles 266 

5. Hypopygium and ovipositor sheaths of species of Cardiochiles 266 

6. Species of Cheyletiella and Neocheyletiella 314 

7,8. Species of Cheyletus 314 

9. Species of Cheyletus and Cheletophyes 314 

10. Species of Cheletophyes and Eucheyla 314 

11. Species of Eucheyla, Cheletominius, and Eucheyleiia 314 

12. Species of Eucheyleiia and Cheyletia 314 

13. Species of Cheyletia and Cheletomorpha 314 

14. Species of Cheletomorpha, Eutogenes, and Cheletogenes 314 

15. Species of Cheletogenes and Chelonotus 314 

16. Species of Acaropsis and Eucheyletia 314 

17. Species of Cheletogenes and Chelacaropsis 314 

18. Corycaeus americanus, new species 326 

19,20. Pima County (Arizona) meteorite 354 

21-24. Linwood (Nebraska) meteorite 358 

25. Schlettererius cinctipes (Cresson), Megischus iicolor (Westwood), 

M. californicus, new species, M. texanus Cresson, M. arizonicus, 

new species, M. hrumieus Cresson 370 

26. Gonopods of new species of Apheloria and Deltotaria 380 

27. Gonopods of new species of Nannaria and Sigmoria 380 

28. Anelassorhynchus aiyssalis, new species 497 

29. I/istriolol)us hexamyotus, new species 497 

30. Arhynchite californicus, new species 497 

81,32. Arhynchite pugettensis, new species 497 

33,34. Prometor benthophila Fisher 497 

TEXT FIGURES 

Page 

1. Urohatis sloani (Bhiinville) 25 

2. Urotrygon venczuelae, new species 25 

3. Potamotrygon magdalenae (Dunii^ril) 30 

4. Anchovia nigra, new si)ecies 40 

5. Anchoa argenteus, new species 45 

0. Outline of opercular margin of Anchoa Irimtatis (Fowler) and A. 

argenteus, new species 45 

VII 



vni PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Page 

7. Eihlclrumlichthya seth/er, new genus and species 49 

S. LyccngrauUs Uiiinichthys, new species 52 

9. Arraugenicut of cephalic pores and position of eye in Hypopomus occi- 

dentalis Regan and H. heebei Scluiltz 66 

10. Austrofiuulultis transilis limnacus, new subspecies 85 

11. Austrofundulus stagnalis, new species 89 

12. Rividus liondi, new species 93 

13. Huhhsiclithys lanrae, new genus and species 96 

14. Adenops anaUs SchultK 165 

15. Coleotropis hlackburni, new species 169 

16. Diapicnis linniacus, new species 143 

17. Eugerrcs aiolre, new si)ecies 147 

IS. Ophioscion vcnczuclae Schultz 155 

19. Diagraniniatic slcetcbes of tip of snout and anterior part of underside 

of lower jaw of three species of sciaenid fishes 157 

20. Cynoscion maracaihoensis, new species 161 

21. Tachygonus huchanani, new species 214 

22. Tachygonus hicolor, new species 214 

23. Tachygonus montanus, new species 217 

24. Tachygonus mirus, new species 217 

25. Tachygonus coniptus, new species 219 

26. Tachygonus n'lgcr, new species 219 

27. Tachygonus ferrugineus, new species 221 

28. Tachygomis atro-signattts, new species 221 

29. Tachygonus validus, new species 223 

30. Tachygonus femoralis, new species 223 

31. Tachygonus nltidus, new species 225 

32. Tachygonus rugosus, new species 225 

33. Parnnihessius colunibiae (Thompson) 403 

34. i'aranlhessius columbiac (Thompson) 404 

35. Bodj' outline and api>endages of I'aranthcssius panopeac, new species, 

P. tivclae, new species, and P. pcrplexus, new species 414 

36. Appendages of I'aranthcssius panopeac, new species, and P. tivelae, 

new species 415 

37. Body outline and appendages of Pamnthcssius saxidomi, and append- 

ages of P. pcrplexus, new species 421 

38. Mau of northern Colombia sliowing collecting localities of bats 430 

39. Ccruiitis {Cerutitis) cuctrafa, new species 501 

40. Sahellaria f'lOridensis stcphensoni, new subspecies 507 

41. Synapseudcs inttonescens, new species 511 

42. Synapseudcs iniumesccns, new species 513 

43. Buihypalacmonclla pandaloidcs (Rathbun) 520 

44. Left mesopleura of the Nearctic species of Hyptia 532 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued M$(v d 0.?^ h the 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington: 1949 No. 3235 



A FURTHER CONTRIBUTION TO THE ICHTHYOLOGY OF 

VENEZUELA 



By Leonard P. Schultz 



This paper is the third report on the collections made by me in 
Venezuela during 1942 and those made by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela during 1924 and 1925. Other miscellaneous small 
collections were included when they were found in the National 
Museum, as were others kindly lent for study and report. To the 
following I express my sincere gratitude for their kindness and coop- 
eration: Dr. Reeve M. Bailey, Museum of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, lent some of the Bond Venezuelan collections made in 
1938-40. Dr. Karl P. Schmidt and Marion Grey, Chicago Natural 
History Museum, lent the W. H. Osgood specimens taken in the 
Maracaibo Basin. Dr. William Beebe, New York Zoological Society, 
lent his collections from the vicinity of Caripito. Isaac Ginsburg, 
U. S. Fish and WildUfe Service, identified all the specimens of Gobiidae 
and Eleotridae in the above-mentioned collections. Dr. Samuel F. 
Hildebrand, of the same Service, while working up his collections of 
marine fishes from Panama, identified several species of Venezuelan 
marine fishes and aided in many other ways. Luis Rene Rivas very 
kindly checked the spelling of the Spanish names of fishes and of the 
localities. 

My interest in Venezuelan ichthyology began in the winter of 1941- 
42 when, at the invitation of Dr. GuiUermo Zuloaga, assistant chief of 
explorations, Creole Petroleum Corp., Caracas, I undertook to study 

802207 — i9 1 1 



SEP 3 1952 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

and make collections of fishes in the Maracaibo Basm of Venezuela. 
This work continued from February through May of 1942. I pro- 
ceeded to Venezuela under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution 
and of the United States Department of State and was a guest there 
of the then Standard Oil Co. of Venezuela, and of the Lago Petroleum 
Corp., Lago de Maracaibo. To the officials of these companies I 
again express my gratitude for their full cooperation. 

My first report on these collections was entitled "The Catfishes of 
Venezuela, with Descriptions of Thirty-eight New Forms," published 
February 11, 1944, in the Proceedings of the United States National 
Aluseum, volume 94, pp. 173-338, 5 figs., 14 pis. In this report is 
given an itinerary of my travels in Venezuela along with a Ust of col- 
lecting stations. The second report, "The Fishes of the Family 
Characinidae from Venezuela, with Descriptions of Seventeen New 
Forms/' was published September 6, 1944, in the same Proceedings, 
volume 95, pp. 235-367, 27 figs. 

A summary of my Venezuelan collections during 1942 reveals that 
the largest number of species taken in one locality was 45 from the 
Rio Negro. The next largest collection numbered 35 from the Rio 
San Juan (Motatdn system), 33 from the Rio San Pedro, and 33 from 
the Rio Socuy. In the stream systems where fairly representative 
collections were made the following number of species were preserved: 
Rio Motatdn, 54; Rio Negro, 45; Rio Palmar, 41; Rio Socuy, 33; Rio 
Ap6n. 31; Rio Machango, 31; and Rio Chama, 10. There were 56 
species from Lago de Maracaibo and along the coast of Gulf of Vene- 
zuela to Cafio de Sagua. Altogether my collections contained 140 
species from the Maracaibo-Gulf of Venezuela Basins; 25 from Rio 
Gudrico and Rio Torbes; 1 from Rio Tuy system; and 3 species com- 
mon to the first two basins, a total of 169 species and subspecies that 
I collected. 

The present report is not intended to be comprehensive in scope, 
since there are not yet sufficient collections of fishes from Venezuela 
to justify the writing of a descriptive catalog. It is rather a report on 
several collections of Venezuelan fishes, with descriptions of new 
species, and represents only the beginning in the study of the fish 
fauna of Venezuela. It is highly desirable that much more extensive 
collections be made in all the stream systems and lake basins of the 
country. 

Unless otherwise indicated all collections were made in 1942 by 
L. P. Schultz in the Maracaibo Basin. Abbreviations used to indicate 
museum catalog numbers are as follows: 

A. N. S. P. = Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
C. N. H. M. = Chicago Natural History Museum. 
U. M. M. Z. = University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 
U. S. N. M. = United States National Museum. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZTJELA — SCHULTZ 3 

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE OF THE MARACAIBO BASIN 

Lago de Maracaibo has an average depth of about 100 feet (maxi- 
mum 34 meters, or 11 iK feet) and a soft muddy bottom. From its 
southern end to the beginning of the channel at Punta de Pahnas, 
south of the city of Maracaibo, it is 154.5 kilometers, or 95.8 miles, long; 
the length of the channel from Punta de Palmas to Punta Vigia at 
entrance into El Tablazo is about 39% kilometers, or 24.3 miles; and 
from Punta Vigia across El Tablazo to the entrance into the Gulf of 
Venezuela at Castillo de San Carlos is 20.75 kilometers, or about 12.9 
miles, making a total length from the Gulf of Venezuela to the southern 
end of the lake of 214.9 kilometers, or about 133.25 miles. The 
greatest width of the lake is about 121 kilometers, or 75 miles. The 
long axis of the lake is almost directly north-south. 

High mountain ranges enclose the T^Iaracaibo Basin on all sides 
except the north. The Sierra de Perija forms the western divide, 
whereas the Cordillera Oriental occurs at the southwestern side, and 
along the southern and southeastern side the lofty Cordillera de Los 
Andes, with Pico Bolivar reaching to a height of 5,005 meters. Another 
range of high hills and mountains forms the eastern rim of the basin. 
The northern end of the l\Iaracaibo Basin is semidesert, contrasting 
sharply with the tropical jungle at the southwestern and southern ends, 
where the rainfall is very great along the eastern slopes of the Cordil- 
leras de Perijd and Oriental even during the dry season. 

During 1941 the Maracaibo Nautical School recorded the following 
monthly average temperatures and total monthly rainfall at Mara- 
caibo, as published February 14, 1942, in the Maracaibo Herald: 
January, 81° F., 4 mm.; February, 83° F., 6 mm.; March, 82° F., no 
rainfall; April, 84° F., 16 mm.; May, 85° F., 144 mm.; June, 85° F., 
1 1 mm. ; July, 85° F., 9 mm. ; August, 85° F., 3 mm. ; September, 85° F., 
38 mm.; October, 83° F., 26 mm.; November, 84° F., 68 mm.; De- 
cember, 83° F., 5 mm. The rainfall thus totals 330 mm., or 13 inches. 

The average monthly rainfall for the eastern shore at LaguniUas is 
given below for a period of 14 years (1928-1941), from information 
furnished by the Lago Petroleum Corp. These records are in inches, 
with minima and maxima in parentheses. January, 0.22 (0.00 to 
1.33); February, 0.26 (0.00 to 1.08); March, 0.69 (0.00 to 2.09); April, 
1.59 (0.11 to 5.41); May, 4.47 (1.49 to 9.21); June, 3.20 (1.07 to 7.72); 
July, 3.81 (0.87 to 11.71); August, 4.05 (0.76 to 8.91); September, 
4.89 (0.94 to 11.90); October, 6.21 (2.62 to 11.53); November, 3.52 
(0.45 to 8.78); December, 0.80 (0.00 to 1.78). Total average rainfall 
33.98 inches, with a minimum of 18.40 in 1939 and a maximum of 
51.01 in 1933. These data indicate the increase in amount of rainfall 
southward in the Maracaibo Basin. Undoubtedly the heaviest rain- 
fall occurs at the southwestern corner of the Basin where the jungle is 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

heaviest and where the big rivers empty large quantities of muddy 
water into the lake. 

During the dry season from December through March the trade 
winds are strongest, blowing from the north and northeast through the 
channel and lengthwise across the lake, becommg strongest in the 
afternoon, late evening, or early part of the night. The surface water 
of the lake apparently has a counterclockwise rotation in the southern 
two-thirds of the lake. 

The specific gravity of the water was taken by means of a saU- 
nometor, and the following readings were recorded: Gulf of Venezuela, 
1.021 at mouth of Cafio de Sagua on incoming tide; El Tablazo and 
at Maracaibo Yacht Club, 1.006; Lago de Maracaibo, 2 km. off 
Lagunillas, 1.004; and at southwestern end of the lake 2 Ian. off Rio 
Concha, 1.002. The turbidity of the water may increase its specific 
gravity a httle at the southern end of the lake. Undoubtedly the 
deeper waters of this lake are salty. 

FISHERIES OF THE GULF OF VENEZUELA-MARACAIBO BASIN 

The fishes of the Gulf of Venezuela and Lago de Maracaibo are 
almost untouched commercially as compared with the great fisheries 
of the North Sea and those of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North 
America. I believe the fisheries of Venezuela cannot be greatly 
developed until more modern fishing equipment, including quick- 
freezing refrigeration and power fishing boats with refrigeration 
equipment, are used extensively. Such equipment would permit 
fishermen to go farther, stay out longer, and still be able to bring back 
desirable fishes to the market without deterioration and spoilage. 

These bodies of water contain an abundance of anchovies, completely 
unexploited and almost unkno\vn to the fishermen. Some are small, 
but others reach a length of nearly a foot, and all are delicacies. A 
special type of net would have to be developed for their capture. 
Other species, I found, such as mullets (lisa), various catfishes (bagre), 
bocachicas and p^mpanos (Characinidae), robalos (Centropomidae), 
kingfishes and Spanish mackerel (carite or carite sierra), pdmpanos 
(jurel), leatherjackets (zapatero de mar and palometa de lago), snap- 
pers (pargos), grunts (roncos), groupers (meros), sargos, croakers 
(corvinas), and moj arras de rlo, are common market fishes sold either 
fresh or salted. Further investigation over a period of a year would 
probably have revealed other fishes in the Maracaibo Market. 

This much was obvious: That new fishing methods should be tried, 
such as the beam-trawl, otter-trawl, fish traps, purse seines, and other 
fishing gear, depending on the bottom and depth of water and kind of 
fish desired. Now that sharks are in demand, shark fishing sbould be 
attempted in these waters. With the great abundance of blue crabs 
in the lake a valuable fishery could be developed. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 5 

Considerable destruction of fish life is undoubtedly caused by oil 
wells in the lake near the eastern shore for a distance of about 80 km. 
Far out into the lake the surface is more or less covered with a film of 
oil. At times and in certain places the petroleum forms a thick scum 
on the surface, and as the volatile portions evaporate the tarry residue 
becomes thicker and thicker, finally settling into the water in tiny 
to large globules. These, while suspended in the water, drift with the 
wind across the lake and saturate the beaches, covering the aquatic 
plants and shore vegetation and the bottom with a layer of petroleum, 
making existence for fish life very hazardous. Unless this oil leakage 
can be stopped the northern end of Lago de Maracaibo, at least, may 
become rather barren, the sources of fish-food production exterminated, 
and the possibilities of extensive and valuable fisheries in the future 
greatly reduced. 

These great shallow bodies of water with large rivers emptying into 
them should be considered one of Venezuela's great natural resources. 
Together with the Gulf of Paria and the Rio Orinoco and its delta they 
are capable of producing many millions of tons of fishery products 
annually. If they were developed and properly controlled a maxi- 
mum yield would result from a minimum of fishing effort. Such a 
balanced condition between fishing and natural reproduction of fishes 
can be obtained only through unbiased studies by adequately trained 
fishery biologists and ichthyologists, who would recommend the 
proper controls for the various fisheries. 

DISTRIBUTION OF FRESH-WATER FISHES 

In this report the fresh-water fish fauna of Venezuela is considered 
as including those families whose genera and species are predomi- 
nantly permanent inhabitants of fresh waters and which, except for 
the Cyprinodontidae, enter brackish waters only more or less as 
stragglers. Such families are: Pimelodidae, Callophysidae, Auchen- 
ipteridae, Ageneiosidae, Bunocephahdae, Cetopsidae, Pygidiidae, 
Doradidae, Callichthyidae, Astroblepidae, and Loricariidae (all 
catfishes), and in addition the Characinidae, Sternarchidae, Gymno- 
tidae, Electrophoridae, Cyprinodontidae, Poeciliidae, Synbranchidae, 
Polycentridae, and Cichlidae. 

The relationships and derivation of the fresh-water fish faunas of the 
various stream systems of Venezuela cannot be worked out at this 
time with any degree of certainty because the various species of fishes 
occurring in many of the drainage systems are as yet little known or 
unknown. 

A list of drainage basins or stream systems of northern Venezuela is 
presented below to aid in the interpretation of this report. Each 
indentation indicates that the body of water is tributary to the one 
under which it is indented. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Gulf of Venezuela 
Rfo Cocuiza 
Rfo Capatdrida 
El Tablazo 

Rfo Lim6n 
Rfo Socuy 

Lago Tul6 
Lago de Maracaibo ' 
Rfo Palmar 

Quebrada la G6 
Rfo San Juan 
Rfo San Ignacio 
Rfo Ap6n 

Rfo Cogollo 
Rfo Santa Ana 
Rfo Negro 
Rfo Catatumbo 
Rfo Zulia 

Rfo Pamplonita 
Rfo Tachira 
Rfo Escalante 
Rfo Chama 
Rfo Motatdn 

Rfo San Pedro 
Rfo San Juan 
Rfo Misoa 
Rfo Machango 
Caribbean Sea (coastal streams) * 
Rfo Tocuyo (Estado de Falc6n) 
Rfo Yaracuy (Estado de Yaracuy) 

Streams near Puerto Cabello (Estados de Carabobo and Aragua) 
Streams near La Guira and Macuto (Distrito Federal) 
Rfo Tuy (Estado de Miranda) 

Rfo Guaire 
Rfo Unare (Estado de Anzoategui) 
Rfo Manzanares (Estado de Sucre) 
Golfo de Paria 
Rfo San Juan 

Guanoco or Pitch Lake 
Rfo Guanipa 
Orinoco Delta 

Cano Mdnamo 

Rfo Morichal Largo 

Rfo Tigre 
Rfo Uracoa 
Rfo Orinoco 

Rfo Coroni 
Rfo Caura 
Rfo Suata 



' All rivers listed in a counterclockwise direction around this lake. 

' Listed from west toward the east beginning on the eastern side of the Peninsula de Paraguana, opposite 
Coro, and continuing to the Gulf of Paria. Lago de Valencia is an enclosed basin at present, but it is listed 
below under the Orinoco system. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 7 

Caribbean Sea (coastal streams) — Continued 
Golfo de Paria — Continued 

Orinoco Delta — Continued 
Rfo Orinoco — Continued 
Rio Manapire 
Rfo Apure 

Rio Gudrico 
Rfo Portuguesa 
Rfo Guanare 
Rfo Chirgua 
Rfo Pao 

Lago de Valencia ^ 
Rio Cojedes 
Rfo Uribante 
Rfo Frfo 

Rfo Torbes 

During the preparation of a working distributional chart or table 
of the form published by Eigenmann,* I came to the conclusion, after 
several days of labor, that such a chart, instead of giving a clear picture 
of the actual distributional relationships of the fish fauna for the 
various basins, instead presents a picture of the amount of collecting 
that has been done in these various basins, and the care mth which 
the material was studied or reported upon. For instance, Eigenmann's 
report on the fresh-water fishes of British Guiana has a large number 
of new species, many based on a single specimen. There is no com- 
parable work on the fauna of the Orinoco system or even the Amazon. 
Thus in such charts the Guianas appear to have a fauna greatly in 
excess of that of the Orinoco, because the fishes of the latter great 
river system have never been thoroughly investigated. The Orinoco 
system, with its direct connection through the Kio Negro with 
the Amazon, should have a fauna more extensive than that of the 
Guianas. Therefore, I concluded to confine my remarks on dis- 
tributional relationships between drainage basins to general state- 
ments, awaiting the time when these faunas are better known. 

The fresh-water fish fauna of the Maracaibo Basin is distinctive as 
to its species, since nearly every one except those living in river 
mouths is a little different structurally from those in adjoining basins 
and may be subspecificaUy distinct. When taken as a whole it appears 
that this fauna is almost as closely related to that of the Orinoco as 
to that of the Magdalena, especially those species inhabiting the upper 
courses of the rivers. The lowland species of the Maracaibo Basin 
appear to be very similar to those of the Magdalena, and some are the 
same species. Undoubtedly during the mountain building around the 

3 Lago de Valencia is said to have been much larger at one time and to have had an outlet to the Orinoco 
system through the Rio Pao. 

* Indiana Univ. Studies, vol. 7, No. 45, 1920; ibid., No. 47, 1920; Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western 
South America, pp. 53-61, 1942. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

western, southern, and southeastern sides of the Maracaibo Basin, 
stream capture has played some part in causing crossover of species 
among the Orinoco, Magdalena, Catatumbo, Santa Ana, and Chama 
Rivers. Just how extensive this may be must await extensive col- 
lecting in the headwaters of those rivers. In general, the genera 
occurring in the headwaters have a much more extensive distribution 
than those in the lower courses and in the lowlands. All the following 
genera of the Maracaibo Basin occur in the lower courses of the rivers 
and are distinctive for that Basin and so far have not been found 
outside of it: Sovichthys, Perrunichthys, Hoplomyzon, Tridensimilis, 
Doraops, Saccoderma, Creagrutops, and Hubbsichthys. In a recent 
letter Cecil Miles reports finding Dupouichthys in the Magdalena 
system. 

In view of the fresh-water nature of the southern part of Lago de 
Maracaibo, the fauna of all the rivers tributary to this lake may be 
expected to have the same species, with some distinctive ones isolated 
or restricted to the rapid or torrential parts of the rivers. This 
appears to be true so far as my collections from this Basin are con- 
cerned, but as yet no good collections have come from the headwaters 
of the Catatumbo, Escalante, or Santa Ana Rivers, among others. 
Undoubtedl}^ the number of species \^dll be nearly doubled when the 
Basin including the lake itself, is thoroughly searched and studied. 

The numerous coastal streams emptying into the Caribbean Sea 
along the north coast of Venezuela are almost unexplored ichthy- 
ologically. "When studied they should present another interesting 
chapter in Venezuelan ichthyology. These streams should be rich 
in cyprinodonts and other genera and species of the lowlands. 

The fish fauna of the Valencia Basin is strikingly like that of the 

Rio Gudrico, with which it was once connected, but as in most of the 

stream systems it contains distinctive species not yet reported from 

elsewhere. 

DISTRIBUTION OF MARINE FISHES 

The specimens of fishes forming the basis of this report indicate in 
general that the marine fishes of Venezuela form a part of that fauna 
which extends from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and West 
Indies southward along the coast of Brazil to the mouth of the Rio La 
Plata. Certain elements of that fauna, as far as is known at present, 
appear to be restricted to such bodies of water as the Caribbean Sea, 
Gulf of Venezucla-Lago de Maracaibo, and Gulf of Paria. Un- 
doubtedly as further collecting is done the ranges of these and many 
other species will be greatly extended. 

Lago de Maracaibo is a great body of water, brackish at its northern 
end, probably salty in its deeper parts, but at least the great southern 
end with its many canos is fresh at the surface. This condition has 
made possible the infiltration of marine fishes from the Gulf of 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 9 

Venezuela and of fresh-water species of fishes in the southern portion 
where the great rivers enter. Thus, Lago de Maracaibo contains an 
interesting mixture of marine, brackish, and fresh-water species. 
Although the fish fauna of the lake is not adequately known at present, 
enough knowledge has accumulated to indicate that the marine and 
fresh-water species have adapted themselves to live in this body of 
water, and in so doing some have changed a little structurally. These 
have evolved into more or less separate biological units, recognized in 
this report as either species or subspecies. 

Those families of fishes that are usually considered marine by 
ichthyologists and that have representatives that have been found in 
Lago de Maracaibo and in the Rio Orinoco are discussed below. 

In Lago de Maracaibo, sharks, sawfishes, and large stingrays were 
reported, but I did not have an opportunity to fish for these. Sharks 
are caught by fishermen as far south as off the mouth of the Rio Santa 
Ana. The occurrence of sharks in fresh-water lakes with access to the 
sea is not confined to Lago de Maracaibo. In Lake Nicaragua 
Eulamia nicaraguensis occurs in abundance and reaches a large size. 

Among the elasmobranch fishes the stingrays of the family Dasyati- 
dae have been most successful in evolving permanent species in South 
American fresh waters. The genus Potamotrygon has one species in 
the Rio Orinoco and the Guianas, another in the Rio Atrato, Rio 
Magdalena, and Maracaibo Basins, and others farther south. These 
fresh-water stingrays occur far upstream, the females when caught 
often carrying young. 

Several other marine families of fishes have representatives in fresh 
or brackish waters. The anchovies, or Engraulidae, have a few 
species occurring regularly in the fresh waters of the Rio Orinoco and 
of the Lago de Maracaibo and its tributaries. These belong to the 
genera Anchoa and Lycengraulis in Venezuela. 

The tarpon, Tarpon atlanticus, and the tenpounder, Elops saurus, 
are regular inhabitants of Lago de Maracaibo and in the lower courses 
of its large tributary rivers. The needlefishes, family Belonidae, were 
represented by Strongylura timuacu. The females, when taken at the 
southern end of Lago de Maracaibo, contained mature eggs that 
flowed from the vent with gentle pressure. This needlefish was taken 
far up the Orinoco system in the Rio Apure. The Hemiramphidae, or 
halfbeaks, were represented by Hyporhamphus roberti in Lago de 
Maracaibo. 

Two genera of pipefishes, or Syngnathidae, namely Oostethus and 
Pseudophallus, were found in the lower courses of rivers, probably in 
brackish water. Soles of the family Bothidae, genus Citharichthys, and 
tonguefishes, family Achiridae, of the genera Hypoclinemus, Achirus, 
and Trinectes, regularly occm- in brackish water, a few venturing even 
into fresh waters. 



10 PROCEEDESTGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

I found the Atheriiiidae, or silvcrsides, represented by a fresh-water 
species in Lago de Maracaibo, and another species in the northern end 
where the water is brackish. Lago de Valencia also has a species of 
silverside. 

The mullets, or Mugilidae, are represented by Agonostoma monticola 
in Venezuelan fresh waters. Mugil curema and M. brasiliensis are 
found in brackish water in abundance, along with ilf . trichodon. I took 
M. curema at the southern end of Lago de Maracaibo in fresh water. 

The robalos, family Centropomidae, are abundant in brackish, salt, 
and fresh waters, probably most abundant in brackish waters. 

In the family Carangidae the leather jacket, Oligoplites palometa, 
occurred in fresh, brackish, and salt waters. It is abundant in Lago de 
Maracaibo at the southern end in fresh water. 

The mojarros, or carpetas, family Gerridae, represented by the 
genera Eucinostomus and Diapterus, were abundant in the brackish 
waters of Lago de Maracaibo and in coastal lagoons. Two species, 
Eucinostomus argenteus from the Rio Apure and Diapterus plumieri 
from the Rio Concha, were from fresh water. 

The Ariidae are the only family of nematognaths, or catfishes, 
predominately living in salt and brackish waters. In my report on the 
catfishes of Venezuela I used the family name Bagreidae, which may 
be unfortunate since there is another family name spelled very simi- 
larly. I now use Ariidae in its place. Several genera and species of 
these marine catfishes occur regularly in both marine and brackish 
waters in abundance in Lago de Maracaibo and undoubtedly in the 
lower Rio Orinoco. 

In the croaker family, Sciaenidae, Plagioscion and Pachyurus may be 
considered fresh-water genera. They are found in the Rio Orinoco 
but are not yet reported from the Maracaibo Basin. The corvina, 
Cynoscion maracaiboensis, is a brackish-water species probably con- 
fined to Lago de Maracaibo. 

Several members of the Gobiidae and Eleotridae occur in brackish 
waters, such as the genera Gobiomorus, Garmannia, Evorthodus, 
Bathygobius, GobioneUus, and Sicydium, whereas the genera Micro- 
philypnus, Gobiomorus, and Sicydium have been taken in fresh water. 

Among the clingfishes, family Gobiesocidae, the only species occur- 
ring in fresh water is Gobiesox cephalus. 

I found the puffer, Sphoeroides testudineus, family Tetraodontidae, 
very abundant in the brackish waters near Maracaibo, whereas S. 
eulepidotus was very rare, but a single small specimen was collected in 
brackish water. 

Gordon Gunter (Amer. Midi. Nat., vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 305-326, 
1942) presents lists of fishes occurring in both fresh and salt waters of 
North and Middle America. No such list has been prepared for 
South America. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 11 

HISTORY OF ICHTHYOLOGY IN VENEZUELA 

As far as I have been able to find the fresh-water stingray of the KIo 
Meta in Venezuela, one of the most dreaded aquatic inhabitants, is 
the first fish of that country to be figured and described. It appeared 
in a paper by Rouhn (1829), but it was not given a scientific name. 
The first scientific contribution appears to be that by two other 
Frenclimen, Cuvier and Valenciennes, who included in their famous 
work "Histoire Naturelle des Poissons" descriptions of new fishes, 
published from 1828 to 1849. M. Plee apparently sent specimens to 
the Paris Museum from the vicinity of Maracaibo and Lago de Mara- 
caibo, Puerto Cabello, and La Guaira, as well as from other locahties 
in the West Indies. The few species described by these French 
authors represented the known ichthyological fauna of the Maracaibo 
Basin for a period of 75 years, until after the turn of the century. 

Although Boulenger in 1903 and Regan in 1903 and 1905 described 
a few new fishes from the Maracaibo Basin and from Venezuela, no 
extensive collecting of fresh-water fishes was done in the Maracaibo 
Basin until Dr. Franklin F. Bond took fair series during 1938 and 
1939, and I made extensive collections during February tlu-ough May 
of 1942. 

Numerous authors have reported on small collections of Venezuelan 
fishes from outside the Maracaibo Basin, but the fish fauna of the 
Basin itself has remained an ichthyological incognito until the present. 
Even now it cannot be said that the fish fauna of Venezuela is well 
known; perhaps it is only half known, for there are no extensive collec- 
tions from any of the major tributaries of the Orinoco system. The 
coastal rivers from the Gulf of Paria to the Ivlaracaibo Basin are 
practically unknown ichthyologically. New and unusual forms of 
fishes should turn up as experienced collectors begin to work in these 
and other rivers of Venezuela. Even with the collecting in the 
Maracaibo Basin the two major rivers, the Catatumbo and the 
Santa Ana of that Basin, as well as the lake itself, remain practically 
untouched. My work and that of others should be considered only 
preliminary, for years of collecting must be done before the fishes of 
Venezuela are well kno"\vn. 

The following minor contributions on Venezuelan fishes should be 
mentioned: Rudolph Kner m 1854 and 1859 and Wilhehn Peters in 
1860, 1868, and 1877 reported on early studies. Peters's 1877 report 
was based on specimens collected by Dr. Carl Sachs in Venezuela on 
his trip from September 27, 1876, to June 28, 1877. Albert Giinther, 
1859-1866, recorded a few species of fishes from Venezuela, mostly 
from Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, and the vicinity of Caracas. An- 
other early author, Adolfo Ernst (1877), pubhshed a book that devoted 
three pages to fishes. Two other early authors, Charles Liitken 



12 PROCEEDESTGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

(1874) and F. Mocquard (1886, 1889), have referred to or described 
a species or so of fishes from Venezuela. 

The outstanding contributions by Franz Steindachner, from 1868 
to 1917, were based largely on specimens from the Orinoco system. 
His most important work, as far as Venezuela is concerned, appeared 
in 1910 and 1917. 

Jacques Pellegrin (1899) reported on a small collection of fishes 
from the Rio Apure system and wrote other papers from 1903 to 1912 
that included Venezuelan records. 

During more recent years other authors have mentioned a few 
species of fishes. Most important among these is Jan Metzelaar's 
1919 report on the marine fishes taken by Dr. Boeke largely from the 
Venezuelan locahties of Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, and Guanta. 
Dr. Carl L. Hubbs in 1920 described a new goby from near Macuto. 
Francesca La Monte in 1929 named two fishes from Mount Duida. 
Ernst Ahl in 1928 and Enrico Tortonese in 1939 recorded a few fishes 
from Venezuela. 

Although Dr. Carl H. Eigenmann and his coauthors published a 
large series of papers on South American fishes, these give only casual 
mention of Venezuelan localities except in a single paper (Eigenmann, 
1920a). Dr. A. S. Pearse in 1919 and 1920 reported mostly on the 
ecology of this same collection from the Valencia and Rio Tuy Basins. 

Henry W. Fowler, although mentioning Venezuelan fishes in several 
of his numerous papers, made two reports (1911, 1931) on collections 
made in Venezuela. The specimens on which Fowler based these 
reports came from northeastern Venezuela from streams tributary to 
the Gulf of Paria and from the lower Orinoco system. 

Dr. George S. Myers, who has written numerous short papers on 
South American fishes, has referred to Venezuelan localities in several 
published from 1924 to 1944. He devoted a major part of the following 
contributions to Venezuelan fishes: 1927, "Descriptions of New South 
American Fresh-water Fishes Collected by Dr. Carl Ternetz"; 1928, 
"New Fresh-water Fishes from Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil"; 1932, 
"A New Genus of Funduline Cyprinodont Fishes from the Orinoco 
Basin, Venezuela"; 1935, "Four New Fresh-water Fishes from Brazil, 
Venezuela and Paraguay." His latest and largest contribution on 
Venezuelan ichthyology appeared in 1942 under the title "Studies on 
South American Fresh-water Fishes, I," in which he described some 
new species of fishes from the Maracaibo Basin, the first since the 
time of Cuvier and Valenciennes. The collections of Venezuelan 
fishes on which this paper was based were made largely by Dr. F. F. 
Bond during 1938-1939, but the bulk of Bond's fresh-water fishes are 
stiU at Stanford University and as yet not reported upon. 

Codazzi (1940) published a 3-volume work and mentioned common 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 13 

names of fishes in volume 1, pp. 259-267. His descriptions under each 
name indicate unfamiliarity with practically all the fishes discussed. 

The book by Eduardo Rohl (1942) devotes pages 353 to 413, 
figures 172 to 230, to fishes. Although it is intended for popular use, 
the author used a most antiquated scientific terminology, based in 
large part on papers written over half a century ago. However, 
Eohl's book has been a valuable source of common names of Vene- 
zuelan fishes in spite of its other shortcomings from an ichthyological 
standpoint. It contains numerous records of marine fishes for 
Venezuelan waters found nowhere else. 

My own contributions on Venezuelan fishes began in 1943, based 
on my collections made in 1942. In addition to these I have had at 
my disposal other collections that have been included in this and in 
previous reports. The first were a few specimens collected by Lyon 
and Robinson at Macuto, Venezuela, August 1 and 2, 1900, and given 
by them to the United States National Museum. Next, the Chicago 
Natural History Museum kindly lent for report and study a small 
collection made by Dr. W. H. Osgood in 1911 at Encontrados and 
other localities in the Maracaibo Basin, along with specimens collected 
in 1920 by Osgood and Conover. I also found in the national col- 
lections a few specimens collected by Dr. Henri Pittier in 1923, and 
by Dr. Arnoldo Gobaldon in 1935, probably in connection with the 
work of the International Health Board. Other fresh-water fishes 
from the vicinity of Caripito, collected by Dr. William Beebe in 1942, 
were kindly lent for study and report. Dr. Beebe has published a 
few papers on his Caripito expedition in Zoologica beginning in 1942. 
Almost the only marine fishes from Venezuela that I have had for 
study were those collected by the U. S. S. Niagara in the Gulf of 
Venezuela during 1924-1925, through the efforts of Capt. P. P. 
Blackburn, who sent them to the former U. S. Bureau of Fisheries. 
Later they were transferred to the National Museum through the 
courtesy of Dr. S. F. Hildebrand, who had reported on the anchovies 
from this collection in 1943. In addition I was able to obtain a few 
marine fishes during my 1942 Venezuelan trip. 

The history of Venezuelan ichthyology may best be gained by a 
glance at the section "Literature Containing References to Venezuelan 
Fishes" at the end of this paper. 

GLOSSARY OF VENEZUELAN LOCALITIES MENTIONED IN THIS 

REPORT* 

Altagracia: Town at mouth of Maracaibo Strait. 

Amuay, Bahfa de: Bay in Gulf of Venezuela. 

Asfdlto, Lago (or Pitch Lake) : Asphalt lake near Guenoco, east of Caripito. 

Barcelona: Town in northeastern corner of Estado de Anzodtegui. 



• A map of the Maracaibo Basin was included in each of my previous reports on Venezuelan fishes (Schultz, 
1944a, p. 175; 1944f, p. 367). 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Barquisimeto: Town on upper Rfo Cojedes, Estado de Lara (Orinoco system). 

Bifurcation of Rio Orinoco: Probably below Barrancas. 

Burro, Isla del: Island in Lago de Valencia. 

Caicara: Town on Rio Orinoco below mouth of Rio Apure. 

Calabozo: Town on Rfo Gudrico, Estado de Gudrico, 

Canos. (See under Rfos.) 

Capatdrida: Town near coast of Golfo de Venezuela, in Estado de Falc6n. 

Caracas: Capital of Venezuela, in Distrito Federal. 

Cariaco, Golfo de: Gulf on coast of Venezuela, Estado de Sucre. 

Caripito: Town on northern edge of Estado de Monagas. 

Cardpano: Town in Estado de Sucre. 

Ci6naga del Guanavana: Swamp about 10 km. north of Sinamaica. 

Ciudad Bolivar: City on lower course of Rio Orinoco. 

Cuman^: Coastal city at mouth of Golfo de Cariaco, in Estado de Sucre, 

Cumanacoa: Town in Estado de Sucre. 

Duida, Mount: Mountain on the upper Rfo Orinoco in southern Venezuela, 

Egido: Town 14 km. below M^rida, Estado de M6rida. 

El Cable: Submarine cable at Cariipano, Estado de Sucre. 

El Callao: Town on Rfo Yurupuri, south of Guacipati. 

El Mene: Town 56 km. east of Altagracia, 

El Sombrero: Town on Rfo Guarico in Estado de Gudrico near southern border 

of Estado de Aragua. 
El Tablazo : Bay between Gulf of Venezuela and Lago de Maracaibo. 
El Valle: Suburb south of Caracas. 
El Valle: Settlement at Porlamar, Isla de Margarita. 
Encontrados: Town on lower Rfo Catatumbo. 
Estanques: Town on Rfo Chama, Estado de Merida, 
Estanques, Bahia de: Bay in Gulf of Venezuela, 
Guacipatf: Town southeast of Ciudad Bolivar, 

Guanta: Coastal town 13 km. northeast of Barcelona, Estado de Anzodtegui. 
Guasdualito: Town in Estado de Apure. 
Guenoco. (See under Lago de Asfalto.) 
Higuerote: Seaport in Estado de Miranda, 
Irapa: Town on shore of Golfo de Paria, Estado de Sucre. 
Jacuque. (See under Punta.) 
La Boca: Lago de Valencia, 
La Florida: Town on eastern side of Caracas. 
La Gonzdlez: Town in Estado de Merida. 
La Grita: Town in Estado de Tdchira. 
La Guaira: Town on coast of Distrito Federal, 
La Pedrita: Near Uracoa, Estado de Monagas. 

Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida: Small lake at the mouth of the Rfo Capatdrida, 
Lagunillas: Town on east side of Lago de Maracaibo, Estado de Zulia. 
Lagunillas: Towoi on Rfo Chama, Estado de Merida, 
Los Castillos: Town on Rfo Orinoco, below Ciudad Bolivar. 
Los Monitos: Town near mouth of Rfo Lim6n, Estado de Zulia. 
Macolla. (See under Punta.) 

Macvito: Town on coast east of La Guaira, Distrito Federal. 
Maracaibo: Large city at northern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Maracaibo, Lago de : Largest lake of Venezuela, at northwestern end of country. 
Maracay: City on shore of Lago de Valencia. 
Margarita, Isla de: Island off northeast coast of Venezuela. 
Maturfn : Town in Estado de Monagas. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 15 

Mene Grande: Town east-central side of Lago de Maracaibo, Estado de Zulia. 

Mor6n: Town 23 km, west of Puerto Cabello. 

Motatdn : Town on eastern side of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Mucuchies: Town on upper Rfo Chama, Estado de M6rida. 

Noguera: Town probably in Valencia Basin. 

Ocumare: Town on coast of Estado de Aragua. 

Palmarejo: Town across channel from Maracaibo, 

Pampan: Town 5 km. north of Trujillo, Estado de Trujillo. 

Paraguand, Peninsula de: Peninsula in Estado de Falc6n. 

Pedernales : Town on Orinoco Delta at mouth of Cano Manarao. 

Perijd, Sierra de (Rio CoguoUo): Mountain range north of Maracaibo Basin. 

Petare: Town 13 km. east of Caracas. 

Piedras Bay: Bay in the Gulf of Venezuela. 

Pitch Lake. (See under Lago de Asfalto.) 

Porlamar: Town on Isla de Margarita. 

Pueblo Viejo: Town on east side of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Puerto Cabello: Coastal town, Estado de Carabobo. 

Punta Gorda: Point on east coast of Gulf of Venezuela. 

Punta Jacuque: Point in Gulf of Venezuela. 

Punta la Macolla: Point on Peninsula de Paraguand. 

Punta Salinas: Point in Gulf of Venezuela. 

Punta Tigre : Point at mouth of Rio San Juan, tributary of Golfo de Paria. 

Quebradas. (See under rios.) 

Rfos, CAiJos, and Quebradas: 

Agua Caliente: Southwestern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Agua Caliente: 6 km. west of Puerto Cabello. 

Albireggas (probably same as Barregas) : Above Merida (Rio Chama system). 

Alpargat6n: 5 km. north of Mor6n, Estado de Yaracuy. 

Amana: Tributary of Rio Guanipa, Estado de Monagas. 

Ap6n: About 35 km, south of Rosario, west side of Lago de Maracaibo, 

Apure: Large river, tributary of Rio Orinoco, in central Venezuela. 

Atabapo: Tributary of Rfo Orinoco, near San Fernando de Atabapo, 
Colombian border. 

Barregas: Tributary of Rio Chama, below Egido, Estado de Merida, south 
end of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Borburata: Near Puerto Cabello. 

Bue: Tributary of Lago de Valencia. 

Cabriale (probably equals Cabridn) : Valencia Basin, Estado de Carabobo. 

Cambur, Cano: Southeast of Valencia in Valencia Basin. 

Capatdrida: Tributary of the Gulf of Venezuela, north coast, Estado de 
Falc6n. 

Caripe: At Caripito, 

Caroni: Large tributary of Rio Orinoco: its mouth is below Ciudad Bolivar. 

Cassiquiare: Large branch of upper Rio Orinoco, connecting with Rfo 
Negro. 

Castafio: Valencia Basin. 

Catatumbo: Largest river at southwestern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Caura: Tributary of Rio Orinoco. 

Cerro Grande: 10 km, east of Macuto, 

Chacaito, Quebrada: Eastern boundary of Distrito Federal. 

Chama: Southern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Chirgua: Tributary of Rio Portuguesa. 

Cobre: Tributary of Rio la Grita below La Grita, Estado de Tdchira (Cata- 
tumba system). 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Cocuiza: Tributary of the Gulf of Venezuela, western boundary, Estado de 

Falc6n, 
CogoUo: Tributary of Rfo Ap6n, west side of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Cojedes: Tributar)'^ of the Rio Portuguesa. 
Concha: Southwestern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Coquendn. (See under Cuquendn.) 
Coroni: Tributary of Rio Orinoco. 
Corozal: Small cano or stream between Uracoa and Rio Tigre, Orinoco 

Delta. 
Cumboto: Near Ocumare, on the coast of Estado de Aragua. 
Cuquendn : Upper tributary of Rio Caroni, with headwaters at Mt. Roraima. 
Curiepe: At Higuerote, Estado de Miranda. 

Cuyuni: Extreme eastern Venezuela, mouth at Georgetown, British Guiana. 
Escalante: Southern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Frio: Tributary of Rio Uribante. 
G6, Quebrada la: Tributary of Rio Palmar near Rosario, west side of Lago 

de Maracaibo. 
Gonzdlez: Tributary of Rio Chama at La Gonzdlez, Estado de M^rida. 
Guaiguaza: 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello. 
Guaire: At Caracas, Rio Tuy system. 
Guanare: Tributary of Rio Portuguesa, 
Guanipa: Empties into Golfo de Paria, west of Pedernales. 
Guanoco, Cano de: Near mouth of Rio San Juan, tributary of Golfo de 

Paria. 
Gudrico: Tributary of Rio Apure, southeast of the Lago de Valencia Basin. 
Irapa: At Irapa, on Golfo de Paria, Estado de Sucre. 
Jimelles: Tributary of Rio Motatdn, east of Motatdn, eastern side of Lago de 

Maracaibo. 
La Grita: Estado de Tdchira (Catatumbo system). 
Lim6n: North of Maracaibo, tributary of El Tablazo. 
Macarupano: 5 km. southeast of Carupano, Estado de Sucre. 
Machango : Small stream east side of Lago do Maracaibo, south of Lagunillas. 
Mamo: 15 km. west of La Guaira. 
Mdnamo, Cano: Western channel of Orinoco Delta. 
Manapire: Tributary of Rio Orinoco. 

Manzanares: Empties into Gulf of Cariaco, Estado de Sucre. 
Marguanta (probably equals Maruanta): Tributary of Rio Orinoco east of 

Ciudad Bolivar. 
Meta: Large tributary of Rio Orinoco running along south-central border of 

Venezuela. 
Misoa: 20 km. south of Lagunillas, east side of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Morichal Largo: Tributary of Cano Mdnamo. 
Motatdn : Southeastern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Negro: Tributary of Rio Santa Ana, west side of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Noguera: At Noguera, probably Valencia Basin. 
Orinoco: Largest river of Venezuela, draining central and southern part of 

country. 
Paito: Valencia Basin, southwest and south of Valencia. 
Pdjaros, de los: Southwestern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Palmar: Western side of Lago de Maracaibo. 
Pamplonita: Tributary of Rio Zulia, Colombian and Venezuelan border,near 

Ciicuta, Colombia. 
Pao: Tributary of Rio Chirgua. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 17 

Paz : Valencia basin southwest of Valencia. 

Porlamar: Isla de Margarita. 

Portuguesa: Tributary of Rio Apure. 

Quiribana, Cafio de: Near Caicara, on Rfo Orinoco below mouth of Rfo 
Apure. 

Sagua, Cafio de: About 25 km. north of Sinamaica, Estado de Zulia. 

San Esteban: Near Puerto Cabello. 

San Ignacio : 20 km. south of Rosario, western side of Lago de Maracaibo. 

San Juan: South of Rosario, western side of Lago de Maracaibo, 

San Juan: Tributary of Rfo Motatdn, southeastern end of Lago de Maracaibo. 

San Juan: Tributary of Golfo de Paria. 

San Pablo: Caripito. 

San Pedrito: 55 km. east of Barcelona, Estado de Sucre. 

San Pedro: Tributary of Rfo Motatdn, south of Mene Grande. 

Sanch6n: 5 km. west of Tavorda or west of Puerto Cabello, Estado de Cara- 
bobo. 

Santa Ana: Large river western side of Lago de Maracaibo. 

Sargento, Quebrada: Tributary of Rfo Lim6n, north of Maracaibo. 

Socuy: Tributary of Rfo Lim6n, northwest of Maracaibo. 

Suata: Tributary of Rfo Orinoco. 

Tabor, Quebrada: Tributary of Rfo Motatdn, 30 km. north of Trujillo. 

Tdchira: Tributary of Rfo Pamplonita, west of San Antonio, Estado de 
Tdchira (Catatumbo system). 

Tamanaco: At headwaters of Rfo Tinaco, Estado de Cojedes. 

Tapa Tapa: Tributary of Lago de Valencia. 

Tigre: Tributary of Rfo Morichal Largo. 

Tinaco: Estado de Cojedes. 

Tiquirito: Valencia Basin. 

Tocuyo: Estado de Falc6n. 

Torbes: At Td,riba, Estado de Tdchira (Orinoco system). 

Turmero: Valencia basin. 

Tuy : Coastal river, Estado de Miranda. 

Unare: Estado de Anzoategui. 

Uracoa: Near Uracoa, west of Tucupita, Estado de Monagas. 

Urana: 40 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 

Uribante: Tributary of Rfo Apure, its mouth just northeast of Guasdualito. 

Valle: Tributary of Rfo Guaire, just southeast of Caracas. 

Yaracuy: 45 km. northwest of Puerto Cabello, in Estado de Yaracuy. 

Yarapa. (See under Irapa.) 

Yasa: Tributary of Rfo Negro, westemside of Lago de Maracaibo (Santa Ana 
system) . 

Yuruari: Extreme eastern Venezuela, tributary of Rfo Cuyuni, the mouth 
of which is at Georgetown, British Guiana. 

Zulia: Tributary of Rfo Catatumbo. 
Rosario : Town 95 km. southwest of Maracaibo. 
Salina Rica: Marsh 5 km. north of Maracaibo. 
Salinas, Bahfa: Bay in Gulf of Venezuela. 
Salinas. (See also under Punta.) 
San Antonio: Town in Estado de Tdchira. 
San Carlos: Town in Estado de Cojedes. 
San Casimiro: Town in Estado de Aragua. 
San Crist6bal: Town in Estado de Tdchira. 
San Esteban: Town near Puerto Cabello. 

802207 — 49—2 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

San Felipe: Town in Estado de Yaracuy, on Rfo Yaracuy. 

San F^lix: Town on western boundary of Estado de Falc6n, near mouth of Rfo 

Cocuiza. 
San Fernando de Apure: City just below mouth of Rio Portuguesa, tributary of 

Rio Apure. 
San Fernando de Atabapo: Town on Colombian border. 
San Romdn, Cabo: Cape at outer tip of Peninsula de Paraguand. 
San Sebastian: Town in Estado de Aragua. 
Santa Bdrbara: Rfo Orinoco, southern Venezuela. 
Santa Bdrbara: Town near upper Rio Amana, Estado de Monagas. 
Santa Rosa, Salina: About 3 km. north of Maracaibo. 
Sinamaica: Town near mouth of Rfo Lim6n, north of INIaracaibo. 
Soledad: Town across river from Ciudad Bolfvar. 
Tacarigua, Laguna de: Lake at coast, Estado de Miranda. 
Tdchira, Estdcion : Town 60 km. north of San Crist6bal, Estado de Tdchira. 
Tdriba: Town in Estado de Tdchira. 
Tavorda: Town 6 km. west of Puerto Cabello. 
Tigre. (See under Punta.) 

Tinaquilla: Town in Rfo Portuguesa drainage, Estado de Cojedes. 
Totuma: An oil field about 100 km. southwest of Maracaibo near Rfo Palmar. 
Trujillo: Town in Estado de Trujillo. 
Tucacas: City on east coast of Estado de Falc6n, about 60 km. northwest of 

Puerto Cabello. 
Tucupita: Town on Cano Mdnamo, Orinoco Delta. 

Tul6, Lago: Lake about 75 km. west of Maracaibo, tributary of Rfo Socuy system. 
Upata: Town about 125 km. east of Ciudad Bolivar. 
Uracoa: Town in Estado de Monagas, west of Tucupita. 
Valencia, Lago de: Large lake southeast of Puerto Cabello. 
Valera: Town in Estado de Trujillo. 



TAXONOMIC SECTION 

Class ELASMOBRANCHII 

Subclass Selachii 

Superorder Selachoidea: Sharks and Rays 

The sharks and rays may be distinguished from the bony fishes by 
the differences in the number of external gill openings, in sharks 5 to 7 
on each side, whereas in the bony fishes there is a single external gill 
opening. The gills of bony fishes are covered by the operculum. The 
upper lobe of the caudal fin is longest. 

The sharks of Venezuelan waters are fully described and keyed out 
to species in "Fishes of the Western North Atlantic" by Dr. H. B. 
Bigelow and William C. Schroeder (Mem, Sears Foundation Mar. 
JRes. No. 1, pp. 59-576, figs. 6-106, 1948). It is not considered neces- 
sary here to report upon them in detaU, since all my Venezuelan 
specimens were studied by those authors. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 19 

Order LAMNOIDEA 

Suborder Galeoidea 

Family ORECTOLOBIDAE: Nurse Sharks 

Genus NEBRIUS Ruppell 

Nebrivs Ruppell, Neue Wirbelthiere, Fische, p. 62, 1835. (Genotype, Nebrius 
concolor Ruppell.) (Ref. copied.) 

According to Fowler, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 100, vol. 13, p. 67, 1941, 
Ginglymostoma Miiller and Henle, 1837, is a synonym. 

NEBRIUS CIRRATUS (Gmelin) 

Gata 

Squalus cirratus Gmelin, Systema naturae, vol. 1, p. 1492, 1788 (American seas) 

(ref. copied). 
Ginglymostoma cirratum Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 365, fig. 178, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Family ISURIDAE: Mackerel Sharks; Tiburones 

Genus LAMNA Cuvier 

Lamna Cuvier, Le regne animal, vol. 2, p. 126, 1817. (Genotype, Lamna 
cornubica Cuviev= Squalus cornubicus Gmelin.) (Ref. copied.) 

LAMNA NASUS (Bonnaterre) 

Porbeagle; Tibur6n Carite 

Squalus nasus Bonnaterre, Tableau encyclop^dique ichthyologie, p. 10, pi. 85, 
fig. 350, 1788 (no locality) (ref. copied). 

Isurus nasus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 366, 1942 (coast of Vene- 
zuela) . 

Suborder Scyliorhinoidea 
Family GALEORHINIDAE : Gray Sharks; Tiburones 

Genus SCOLIODON Miiller and Henle 

Scoliodon Muller and Henle, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1837, p. 114. (Geno- 
type, Carcharias [Scoliodon] laticaudus Muller and Henle.) (Ref. copied.) 

SCOLIODON TERRAE-NOVAE (Richardson) 

Sharp-nosed Shark 

Squalus (Carcharias) terrae-novae Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol. 3, 

p. 289, 1836. 
Carcharias (Scoliodon) terrae-novae Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected 

by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch Vv^est Indies 1904-1905, p. 6, 1919 (Puerto 

Cabello, Venezuela). 

U. S. N. M. No. 127098, 4 small specimens, Gulf of Venezuela, U. S. S. 
Niagara, December 1924. 

U. S. N. M. No. 123221, a postembryo, 182 mm. in total length. Gulf of Vene- 
zuela, U. S. S. Niagara, 1925. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Genus GLYPHIS Agassiz 

Glyphis Agassiz, Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, vol. 3, 243, 1843. (Geno- 
type, Glyphis hastalis Agassiz.) (Ref. copied.) 

GLYPHIS GLAUCUS (Linnaeus) 

Great Blue Shakk; Tibur6n Aztjl 

Squalua glaucus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 235, 1758 (Europe.) 
Prionace glauca Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 364, fig. 176, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 

Genus GALEOCERDO Mtiller and Henle 

Galeocerdo Muller and Henle, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1837, p. 115. (Genotype, 
Squalus arciicus Faber, in Muller and Henle.) (Ref. copied.) 

GALEOCERDO CUVIER (Lesueur) 

Tiger Shark; Leopard Shark; Tintorera 

Squalus cuvier (Peron and Lesueur) Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

vol. 2, p. 351, 1822 (northwest coast of New Holland), 
Galeocerdus maculatus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 365, fig. 177, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 
This species is Galeocerdo arcticus of authors. 

Genus MUSTELUS Link 

Mustelus Link, Mag. Phys. Naturg. Gotha, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 31, 1790. (Genotype, 
Squalus mustelus Linnaeus.) 

MUSTELUS CAMS (Mitchlll) 

Dog Shark; Caz6n 

Squalus cams Mitchill, N. Y. Lit. Philos. Trans., vol. 1, p. 486, 1815 (New York). 
Mustelus canis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 364, 1942 (coast of 
Venezuela) . 

Family SPHYRNIDAE: Hammerhead Sharks 

Genus SPHYRNA Rafinesque 

Hammerhead Sharks; Pez martillo o cornuda 

Sphyrna Rafinesque, Indice d'ittiologia siciliana, p. 60, 1810. (Genotype, 
Squalus zygaena Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

SPHYRNA BIGELOWI Springer 

Sphyrna higelowi Springer, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 34, pp. 274-276, 
figs. lA-lD, 1944 (Uruguay and Brazil). 

XJ.S.N.M. No. 123217, head only, measuring 230 mm. across greatest width, 
Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

SPHYRNA ZYGAENA (Linnaeus) 

Squalus zygaena Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 234, 1758 (Europe; 

America) . 
Sphyrna zygaena Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 366, fig. 179, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 21 

Superorder Hypotremata 

Order BATOIDEA: Rays and Skates 

This order includes those elasmobranch fishes that have a greatly 
depressed head and body, with the pectoral fins greatly expanded and 
continuous with the head and body, forming more or less of a disk. 
The five gill openings occur on the ventral or under side of the head, 
in front of which is the mouth. The snout is depressed and forms 
part of the disk or projects forward. 

Suborder Rajiformes 
Family PRISTIDAE: Sawfishes 

This family is characterized by the presence of a long bladelike 
snout, the sides of which have large projecting "teeth" or spines set in a 
socket. In Venezuelan waters these number from 14 to 30 or a few 
more. 

Genus PRISTIS Link 

Sawfishes, Pez Sierra 

Pristis Link, Mag. Phys. Naturg. Gotha, vol. 6, pt. 3, p. 31, 1790. (Type, 
Squalus pristis Linnaeus.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PRISTIS REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Teeth on each side of "saw" number 15 to 22; lower caudal lobe present; origin 
of first dorsal in front of pelvic insertion Pristis microdon Latham 

16. Teeth on each side of "saw" number 24 to 32; lower caudal lobe absent; 
origin of first dorsal opposite pelvic insertion. .Pristis pectinatus Latham 

PRISTIS MICRODON Latham 

Pristis microdon Latham, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 2, p. 280, pi. 26, fig. 4, 

1794 (locaUty?). 
Pristis perrotteti Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 366, fig. 180, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

U. S. N. M. No. 27420, rostrum from Maracaibo. 

PRISTIS PECTINATUS Latham 

Pristis pectinatus Latham, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 2, p. 278, pi. 26, fig. 2, 
1794 (in the ocean). 

U. S. N. M. No. 121000, 1 specimen. Point Macolla, U. S. S. Niagara, April 19, 
1925. 

In addition, several saw blades of this species and of Pristis microdon 
were seen at the mouth of Cano de Sagua on the beach north of Sina- 
maica, where fishermen had left them. 

The teeth on several blades of both species were counted, and it is 
interesting to note that frequently one or two more teeth occur on the 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

right side than on the left. I record my counts below, first for the left 
side then for the right, respectively : 

For microdon, from the Rio Tuyra, Panama: 20-21; 21-22; 19-19; 
18-19; 21-23; 19-20; 20-20; 19-19; 17-18; 18-18; 19-20. Also from 
Lake Nicaragua: 18-18 and 15-15. 

For pectinatus, from the Gulf of Venezuela: 28-29; from Lake 
Nicaragua 26-26; from Florida 25-25. 

Family DASYATIDAE: Stingrays; Rayas 

This family may be recognized by the presence of a "sting" or sharp 
serrated spine, sometimes two of them, on the dorsal surface of the tail. 
The pectoral fins are continuous with the snout in this family, the snout 
scarcely projecting or not projecting in front of the general outline 
of the disk-shaped body. 

Many persons and some uninformed naturalists have the opinion 
that stingarees, as they are commonly called, do not have a poisonous 
sting. Those who have studied these fishes and have had personal 
experience with them are certain that the "sting" is highly venomous. 
Before I cite cases of persons who have been jabbed by the spine of a 
stingray, I shall acquaint the reader with these fishes and the nature 
of their sting or spines. 

The stingaree is one of the rays, fishes related to the sharks and 
greatly resembling them in structure. In shape, however, they are 
flattened and disk-shaped and have a long tail. The rays, which bear 
a long sharp spine, usually in the middle upper part of the tail, are 
known as stingrays, a word corrupted to stingaree. 

Several dozen species of stingrays are known to science. These 
creatures occur in all warm seas, as well as in many of the tropical rivers, 
some fresh-water stingrays in South America occurring even more than 
a thousand miles above the river mouth. Wherever stingrays occur — 
in the seas, bays, or in rivers — they are to be found hiding on the 
bottom in mud or sand. If disturbed, they swim with an undulating 
motion, usually close to the bottom, and stir up a cloud of mud, then 
come to rest on the bottom, the muddy cloud gradually settling 
around the ray. This "mud cloud" and the camouflaged coloration 
of the fish itself serve a definite purpose in concealing it. While thus 
partly buried in the sand or mud bottom the stingray is in perfect 
readiness to drive its sting into any unsuspecting victim that may 
step on it. The weight of a person stepping on the disk-shaped part 
of the body anchors the stingray, giving it the needed leverage to 
whip its tail upward with uncanny precision and drive the already 
erected spine or sting into its target. The sting on the powerful tail 
of even a small ray only a foot across in size can pass through a 
person's foot or into a leg bone. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 23 

During 1942 my assistant, Rafael Navarro, and I were collecting 
fishes in a swamp north of Sinamaica, Maracaibo Basin. We had 
walked nearly half a mile across this shallow muddy mire, pushing a 
small boat (cayuca) in front of us. Along the way we noticed many 
stingrays measuring up to a foot across their disks. The water was a 
few inches to a foot deep, and our feet sank as far into the soft muddy 
bottom. We made a fair collection of the various kinds of fishes 
present and started back. I urged Navarro not to pick up his feet 
in this mud but to push them forward at the surface to avoid stepping 
on a stringray. 

Suddenly I heard him cry out in agony. A stingaree had driven its 
spine into his anlde, but fortunately the spine did not break off. 
When we reached shore I cleaned the wound, swabbed it out with 
iodine, and bandaged it. At camp that night I found the wound 
was deep, to the bone, but the flesh showed little swelling. I washed 
it and put on a larger bandage saturated with 1:1000 metaphen. 
After a week of this treatment the lesion was completely healed. 

Since aU stingarees hide, partly bmied in the mud or sand of the 
bottom, they are always a potential danger to all who wade over such 
bottoms in tropical seas or in certain tropical rivers. Since the chief 
hazard is caused by stepping on one of these fishes it is almost com- 
pletely eliminated by pushing one's feet along the bottom in the upper 
layer of mud or sand. Another method of avoiding the danger would 
be to carry a pole and probe the bottom as one walks forward. The 
moment something touches the ray it wiggles off. 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF DASYATIDAE REPORTED OR EXPECTED IN 

VENEZUELAN WATERS 

la. Outline of disk concave at each side of projecting snout, then rounded; 
greatest width of disk a little more than length of disk from tip of snout to 
its most posterior margin, not including pelvics; caudal fin moderately 
narrow, with its tip bluntly rounded; caudal fiin with rays; eye and spiracle 
not quite equal to interorbital space; distance from front of oronasal groove 
to rear corner of nasal flap 2 in width of nasal flap; eye 2}^ in interorbital 
space and 4K in length of snout; an irregular series of small tubercles or 
spines along middle of back behind interorbital space and on tail; color 

plain Ught brownish gray in alcohol Urotrygon venezuelae, new species 

1&. Outline of disk, at each side of snout rounded or nearly so, not concave; greatest 

width of disk less than length of disk from snout to its posterior margin, 

pelvics not included. 

2a. Caudal fin broad, short, and bluntly rounded; greatest width of caudal fin 

nearly equal to width of nasal flap; caudal fin with rays; eye and spiracle 

much greater than interorbital space; distance from front of oronasal 

groove to outer rear corner of nasal flap about 2 times in width of nasal 

flap; eye large, equal to or greater than interorbital space and about 2 in 

the snout; no spines along middle of back and tail only small prickles; 

fourth gill slit a little closer to center of anus than to snout tip; color in 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

alcohol brown with numerous small white spots everywhere on dorsal 

surface (fig. 1) - Urobatis sloani (Blainville)' 

2b. Caudal fin narrow, long, and tapering to a point (end of tail usually missing 
in adults) and without rays; eye and spiracle about lYs in interorbital 
space; distance from front of oronasal groove to corner of upper Up con- 
tained about lYs in width of nasal flap; eye moderate about 2}4 in inter- 
orbital space and 4 in snout; a series of rather strong spines along mid- 
dorsal line of tail in front of sting; middle gill slit, about equidistant 
between tip of snout and center of anus; color in alcohol brownish or 
blackish dorsally, tail with bars or underside sometimes blotched; outer 
part of disk on ventral side grayish to brownish — fresh-water species. 
(Potamotrygon.) 
3a. Coloration of ventral side of disk mottled with brownish; sides of tail 
in front of sting with regularly placed pale roundish to oblong spots 
and behind base of sting barred with pale spots (Amazon and 

Guianas) Potamotrygon hystrix (Muller and Henle) 

36. Coloration of ventral side of disk plain pale, the margins of disk plain 

darkish to pale grayish, not mottled. 

4a. Sides of tail in front of sting mottled but not with regularly placed 

pale or whitish oval spots; tail behind base of sting nearly plain 

black without definite pale bars (Magdalena, Atrato, and Maracaibo 

Basins) Potamotrygon magdalenae (Dum^ril) 

45. Sides of tail in front of sting with regularly placed pale or whitish oval 
to roundish spots; tail behind base of sting with distinct pale bars 
(Orinoco Basin) Potamotrygon humboldtii (Dum^ril) 

Genus UROTRYGON Gill 

Urotrygon Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1863, p. 173. (Genotype, 
Urotrygon mundus Gill, U.S.N.M. No. 7297, west coast of Central America.) 

UROTRYGON VENEZUELAE, new species 

Stingray; Raya de agtja salada 
Figure 2 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 121966, a female measuring 255 mm. 
from tip of snout to tip of tail, collected by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela at Point Macolla, April 19, 1925. 

Description (of only known specimen). — Width of disk a little 
greater than the length of disk from tip of snout to its posterior margin 
not including pelvic; snout a little produced so that at each side of 
snout the outline is a little concave, then convex; outline of pelvic fins 
rourded, completing the circular ouUine of the disk; center of anus to 
tip of tail equal to distance from tip of snout to rear margin of pel vies; 
length of snout 3.4 in snout to center of anus; least interorbital width 
2% in snout; middle gill sht equidistant between tip of snout and center 
of anus; base of sting closer to tip of tail than to anus by twice diameter 
of eye; eye 2.4 in interorbital space, and about 5.7 in snout; caudal fin 
moderately narrow, the greatest height of caudal fin about equal to 
diameter of eye; interorbital space a little concave; back everywhere 

• Not yet reported from Venezuelan waters. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



25 



covered with prickles; color in alcohol plain pale above and below, no 
spots anywhere, although specimen appears to be faded. 

The following measurements, expressed in hundredths of the dis- 
tance from tip of snout to tip of sting, 210 mm., were made: Width 
of disk 65.7; length of disk from snout tip to its rear edge not including 
pelvics 61.7; interorbital space 6.90; greatest interspiracular space 11.4 




Figure 1. — Urobatis sloani (Blainville) 
(U.S.N.M. No. 4656) from Cuba, 
collected by Poey. Sketch by author. 



Figure 2. — Urotrygon venezuelae, new 
species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. Nc. 
121966), female, 255 mm. in total 
length. Sketch by author. 



and least interspiracular space 8.57; diameter of eye 2.86; length^of 
oronasal groove from edge of upper lip to its anterior edge 2.95; length 
of snout 16.4; width across mouth 7.38; width of nasal flap 6.67; tip of 
snout to center of anus 56.2; anus to base of sting 32.4; anus to tip of 
sting 45.5; length of pelvics 12.6; anus to origin of the ventral fold of 
caudal fin 46.2; length of exposed part of sting 15.9; length of spiracle 
3.95; greatest width of basal part of tail 8.10; snout tip to first gill sht 
25.0; greatest height of caudal fin 3.19. 



26 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



The following counts were made: Number of oblique rows of teeth 
from middle of jaw to outer edge, upper jaw 15, lower jaw 15; about 
45 small spines along middle of back behind eyes and on middorsal 
side of tail. 

Remarks. — This new species appears to be the Atlantic representa- 
tive of Urotrygon asterias (Jordan and Gilbert) because it has in com- 
mon with that species a characteristic and definite single row of en- 
larged spines along the middorsal line of the back and tail. Urotrygon 
mundus differs from asterias and venezuelae by not having the enlarged 
spines in a definite continuous row along the midline of the back; 
instead they are irregularly placed. Measurements made on the types 
of U. asterias are recorded along with those for U. venezuelae in table 1. 
It may be distinguished from asterias and from other American rep- 
resentatives of the genus Urotrygon by means of the key printed by 
Beebe and Tee Van (Zoologica, vol. 26, pt. 3, p. 264, 1941): 

la. A continuous series of greatly enlarged spines from behind orbits along mid- 
line of back and tail to base of sting; eye about 3.5 to 4 in snout (Pacific 
side of Central America) Urotrygon asterias (Jordan and Gilbert) 

lb. Midline of back from behind orbits to just in front of base of tail with a very 
irregular series of slightly enlarged spines, these arranged in a continuous 
series on middorsal line of tail to base of sting; eye 5.7 in snout (Gulf of 
Venezuela) Urotrygon venezuelae, new species 

Table 1. — Measurements, expressed in hundredths of distance from tip of snout to 
tip of sting, made on two species of Urotrygon 





venezuelae 


asterias 


Characters 


Holotype 


Tsrpes: U.S.N.M. Nos.— 




29542 


28204 


29580 


Total length in millimeters 


255 
210 
65.7 
61.7 
6.90 
11.4 
2.86 
16.4 
2.95 
7.38 
6.67 
12.6 
15.9 
56.2 
32.4 
45.5 
46.2 
8.57 
8.10 
25.0 
3.19 
9.38 
L90 
1.48 


299 
256 
65.6 
62.5 
6.84 
10.7 
3.24 
16.6 
2.07 
6.37 
6.25 
10.9 
18.0 
53.5 
34.8 
46.8 
43.8 
8.60 
6.06 
25.1 
2.93 
9.69 
1.56 
1.41 


413 
327 
69.1 
64.6 
6.46 
11.3 
3.83 
15.0 
2.87 
6.24 
6.02 
10.5 
16.1 
59.6 
32.1 
43.1 
40.0 
8.56 
7.34 
23.5 
2.91 
10.9 
1.77 
L22 


361 


Length in millimeters from snout tip to end of sting 

Greatest width of disk 


306 
6S 6 


Length of disk from snout tip to rear disk 


62.1 


Least interorbital space 


6 54 


Greatest distance between spiracles 


10.8 


Diameter of eye 


3 98 


Length of snout (tip to eye) 


14.1 


Length of oronasal groove (to nasal flap) 


2.39 


Width across lower jaw 


6 54 


Width of nasal flap 


5 78 


Length of pelvic fin (free outer edge) 


10 6 


Length of sting 


16 8 


Snout tip to center of anus . 


54 6 


Center of anus to: Rear base of sting 


33.6 


Tip of sting 


46 


Origin of ventral fold on tail 


40.9 


Least interspiracular space 


8 40 


Width of base of tail 


7 52 


Snout to front edge of first gill slit 


22.6 


Greatest height or width of caudal fin.. . 


2.94 


Distance from first gill slit to last 


9 80 


Width of first gill slit 


1 70 


Width of last gill slit 


1 31 







ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 27 

Genus POTAMOTRYGON Garman 

Potamotrygon Garman, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 19, p. 210, 1877. (Geno- 
type, Pastinaca humboldtii Roulin designated by Eigenmann, The fresh- 
water fishes of British Guiana, p. 116, 1912.) 

Pastinaca Swainson (Natural history of fishes, amphibians . . ., 
vol. 1, p. 172, 1838), is not a synonym of the genus Potamotrygon 
Garman, as Swainson says: "Pastinaca Antiq. differs from Try g on 
only in having the tail entirely naked: the common sting ray of the 
Mediterranean is the type of this genus, to which we prefer retaining 
the name by which it was known to the ancients." Pastinacae 
Nardo, Giorn. Fisica de Pa via, vol. 1, p. 11, 1827, with genotype Raja 
pastinaca Linnaeus, is an older name according to Jordan (Genera 
of fishes, pt. 1, p. 121, 1917). 

I have had for examination, in addition to the series listed from the 
Maracaibo Basin, two specimens from the Orinoco system, two from 
the Kio Ampiyacu of the Peruvian Amazon, and one from the Rio 
Magdalena. On these I have based my key. Because of the vari- 
ability in body proportions I considered it advisable not to use the 
measurements. The coloration is so strikingly different for the 
specimens from the three drainage basins that I am able to dis- 
tinguish the three species at a glance. The presence or absence of 
white blotches or black spots on the dorsal surface was so variable 
for the large series of specimens from the Maracaibo Basin that I 
cast serious doubt on those characters as of value in distinguishing 
the species referable to the genus Potamotrygon. 

For detailed measurements made on specimens of Potamotrygon, 
see table 2. 

POTAMOTRYGON HUMBOLDTH (DumgrU) 

Stingray; Rata de agua DUiiCE 

Pastenaque Humboldt, Roulin, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 16, pp. 104-107, pi. 3, figs. 
1-3, 1829 (Upper Rio INIeta, Province San Martin at Giramena). (No 
binomial name given.) 

Pastin[aca] humboldtii, Roulin, in Dum^ril, Histoire naturelle des poissons ou 
ichthyologie g^n^rale, vol. 1, p. 625, 1865. 

Taeniura d'orbignyi Steindachner, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 41, p. 
159, 1879 (Ciudad Bolivar). 

Trygon hystrix Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 473 (Apure, 
Venezuela). — Sachs, Aus dem Llanos, 1879, p. 146 (Apure). — Rohl, Fauna 
descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 368, fig. 181, 1942 (Orinoco). 

Potamotrygon hystrix Eigenmann and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
14, p. 25, 1891 (Apure; Orinoco).— (in part) Fowler, Mus. Hist. Nat. Lima, 
1945, p. 19 (Venezuela). 

Potamotrygon d'orbignyi (in part) Eigenmann and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., vol. 14, p. 25, 1891 (Orinoco, near Ciudad Bolivar).— Eigen- 
mann, Reports Princeton Univ. Exped. Patagonia 1896-1899, vol. 3, pt. 4, 
p. 378, 1910 (Apure of Orinoco). 



28 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 29 

One specimen, 255 nana, in total length, Rfo Gudrico at El Sombrero, F. F. Bond, 
February 13, 1938. 

One specimen, 329 mm. in total length, Rfo Apure at San Fernando de Apure, 
F. F. Bond, February 16, 1938. 

POTAMOTKYGON MAGDALENAE (Dnin6ril) 

Stingray; Raya de agua dulck 
Figure 3 

Taeniura magdalenae Valenciennes, in Dum^ril, Histoire naturelle des poissons 

ou ichthyologie g^n^rale, vol. 1, p. 625, 1865 (Rfo Magdalena) . 
Trygon hystrix (in part) Muller and Henle, Systematische Beschreibung der 

Plagiostomen, p. 167, 1841 (Maracaibo). 
Trygon {Trygon) hystrix (in part) Dumeril, Histoire naturelle des poissons ou 

ichthyologie g6n6rale, vol. 1, p. 608, 1865 (L. Maracaibo). 
Potamotrygon hystrix (in part) Caporiacco, Mon. Zool. Ital., vol. 46, No. 3, 

p. 56, 1935 (Maracaibo). 
Potamotrygon magdalenae Schdltz, U. S. Naval Med. Bull., vol. 42, No. 3, p. 

752, 1944 (Sinamaica, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121665, 2 specimens, one, a female, 325 mm. in total length, gave 
birth to a postembryo 186 mm. in total length, Lago Tul6, about 75 km. west of 
Maracaibo, March 1, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121659, 5 specimens, all males, 184 to 302 mm., Rfo Palmar 
near Totuma, about 100 km. southwest of Maracaibo, February 21, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121667, 5 specimens, cf 123 (postembryo) to 348 mm.; ? 330 
and 450 mm., Rfo Negro below mouth of Rfo Yasa, March 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121666, 2 specimens, d" 260 and 9 312 mm., Ci^naga del Guana- 
vana, about 10 km. north of Sinamaica, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121661, 1 specimen, cf 310 mm., Rfo Agua Caliente, 2 to 3 km. 
above Lago de Maracaibo, May 1, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121662, 4 specimens, 2 embryos, cf 120 and 9 127 mm., cf 338 
and 9 440 mm,, Rfo Palmar at bridge, 70 km. southwest of Maracaibo, March 6, 
1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121668, 9 specimens, cf 175 to 445 and 2 9 202 and 235 mm., 
Rfo Ap6n, about 35 km. south of Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121664, 5 specimens, embrj-os cf 205 and 230 mm., 9 195 and 
209 mm., and adult 9 435 mm., Lago de Maracaibo near mouth of Rfo Concha, 
May 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121660, 5 specimens, 9 158 to 295 mm., and one cf 325 mm. 
Rfo Machango at bridge south of Lagunillas, March 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121663, 2 specimens, & 302 and 392 mm., cano Y^ mile west 
Sinamaica, March 11, 1942. 

This species of stingray occurs abundantly in the rivers, ponds, 
canos, and lakes of the Maracaibo Basin on sandy to muddy bottoms, 
where it partially conceals itself by burying itself in the bottom. In 
this position it is a dangerous fish because when it is stepped on it can 
drive its poisonous sting with great force into a person's foot or leg. 
The Venezuelans greatly fear it because its sting not only produces 
excruciating pain but may cause death. The largest stingray that I 
saw was a female in the Rio Machango. It measured a little over a 
foot across the disk. 



30 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



This stingray does not appear to have been described very fully in 
the past, and for that reason the following descriptive comments are 
recorded, along with measurements in table 2. 

The disk is a httle longer than wide, evenly rounded; the tip of the 
snout has a little soft knoblike projection beyond the outline of the 
disk; the tail is longer than length of the disk, although the end of the 
tail is almost invariably missing except on the embryos, and therefore 
total length means very little; spu-acles about size of eye and located 
just behind eyes; the space between the spiracles greater than inter- 




FlGURE 3. 



-Potamotrygon magdalenae (Dumerll) (U.S.N.M. No. 121665), 325 mm. in 
total length, from Lago Tule. Sketch by author. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 31 

orbital space, the latter about twice the length of the snout, interorbital 
space nearly flat; the mouth is a little closer to tip of snout than to 
front of the eye ; inside the mouth there are always five blunt papillae 
on the lower jaw behind the teeth, the papilla in the midline a little 
in advance of the others, all four of which are in a straight line or 
nearly so; behind the teeth of upper jaw is a broad membrane whose 
inner margin has about 25 lappets; the nasal flap is free with a truncate 
fringed margin; the teeth are diamond-shaped with a posteriorly pro- 
jecting blunt median tip, each side of which is a slight concavity; the 
greatest width of the toothed area of the upper jaw about two-thirds 
that of lower jaw; pelvic fins when spread with outer margins truncate 
or a little rounded, outer tips rounded; the claspers are variously 
developed at difl^erent sizes, the smallest specimen with fully developed 
claspers measures 210 mm. from tip of snout to end of sting and the 
diameter of the clasper was about 10 mm., its length 43 mm.; the 
spines along middorsal line of back in front of base of sting are absent 
on the embryos and postembryos but begin to appear at a length of 
about 200 mm. (from snout tip to end of sting) and the greatest num- 
ber of such spines coimted was 23; the sting when fully developed is 
about as long as the snout, fully barbed along its sides and with a 
lengthwise groove near base of the barbs that no doubt contains the 
poison glands and venom; the upper surfaces of the body are covered 
with minute scales and then in addition some specimens have numer- 
ous to few scattered stellate tubercles; under side of body naked. 

Color. — Dorsal surface plain dark bro\\Ti or dark brown with 
numerous scattered smaU black spots, and occasionally the dorsal 
surface has light blotches; ventral surface plain pale except rayed 
parts of pectorals, which are grayish to brownish, more intense around 
the margins, and sometimes a few black spots occur near margins of 
the disk; outer corners of upper lip sometimes darkish; under side of 
tail blotched or mottled; tail of young and postembryos somewhat 
faintly barred. When alive the under sides were purplish to pinkish. 

Frequently when a female ray was placed in the collecting can it 
would give birth to one to four embryos. 

Family MYLIOBATIDAE : Eagle and Cow-nosed Rays 

This family may be recognized by the pectoral fins not being con- 
tinuous to the end of the snout. They end on the side of the head 
behind the eyes, reappearing again in the front of the snout as one or 
two fleshy protuberances. The pectoral fins are pointed distally and 
the tail is long and whiplike with a spine basally. 

Genus RHINOPTERA Kuhl 

Rhinoptera Kuhl, in Cuvier, Le r&gne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 401, 1829. (Geno- 
type, Mylidbatis marginatus Geoffrey.) (Ref. copied.) 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. m 

RHINOPTERA LALANDII Mttller and Henle 

Cow-nosed Rat 

Rhinoptera lalandii Muller and Henle, Systematische BeschreibungderPlagiosto- 
men, p. 182, 1841 (Brazil). 

U.S.N. M. No. 123216, 1 specimen, 1,030 mm. in total length with length of 
disks 360 mm., Piedras Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, March 14, 1925. 

U.S.N. M. No. 123219, head only, Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

Genus AETOBATUS Blainville 

Aetohatus Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, vol. 8, p. 120, 1816. (Genotype, 
Raja narinari Euphrasen, designated by GiU.) (Ref. copied.) 

AETOBATUS NARINARI (Euphrasen) 

Eagle Ray; Chxjcho 

Rata narinari Euphrasen, Handl. Vet.-Akad. Stockholm, vol. 11, p. 217, pi. 10, 

1790 (St. Bartholomieu, West Indies.) (Ref. copied.) 
Aetohatus narinari Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 369, fig. 182, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela), 

U.S.N.M. No. 123218, smaU head, Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

Family MOBULIDAE 

Genus MANTA Bancroft 

Mania Bancroft, Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 144, 1828-29. (Genotype, Cephalop- 
ierus manta Bancroft.) 

MANTA BIROSTRIS (Walbaum) 

Devilrat; Manta 

Raja hirostris Walbaum, Artedi's Bibliotheca ichthylogica, vol. 3, p. 535, 1792 

(on Diabolus marinus Willughby). 
Manta birostris Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Veneuzela, p. 370, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela) . 

This giant ray may be recognized by the presence of a pair of fleshy 
hornlike projections from the front of the snout that turn inward. 
The eyes occur laterally near the outer base of each of the two fleshy 
cephalic projections. 

Suborder Narcobatoidea 

Family TORPEDINIDAE: Electric Rays; Tembladores 

This family of rays has a disk-shaped body that tapers posteriorly 
to a blunt thickish caudal fin; there are two small dorsal fins but no 
"sting" or spine on the tail. The disk-shaped part of the body lateral 
to and behind the eye is supphed with an electric gland capable of 
giving a powerful electric shock when it is touched. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 33 

Genus NARCINE Henle 

Narcine Henle, Uber Narcine, pp. 2, 31, 1834, (Genotype, Torpedo hrasiliensis 
von Olfers.) (Ref. copied.) 

NARCINE BRASILIENSIS (Olfers) 

Electric Ray; Temblador de Agua Salada 

Torpedo IradUensis Olfers, Die Gattung Torpedo, p. 19, pi. 2, fig. 4, 1831 (Brazil). 
Narcine hrasiliensis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 370, fig. 183, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela; ? Rfo Mazanares). 

Class OSTEICHTHYES 

Subclass ACTINOPTERYGII 

Superorder Teleostei: Bony Fishes 

This class includes the bony fishes, which have hard bones as con- 
trasted with the elasmobranch fishes with a cartilaginous skeleton. 
There is but a single external gill opening, the gills being covered by 
an operculum. 

Order ISOSPONDYLIOIDEA 

Suborder Clupeoidea 
Family ELOPIDAE: Tarpons 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Scales about 42 or 43; gill rakers very numerous; dorsal branched rays about 
10 or 11; anal branched rays about 18 or 19; last ray of dorsal fin fila- 
mentous Tarpon atlanticus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

1&. Scales small, 103 to 120 from upper edge of gill opening to midcaudal fin base; 
gill rakers on first gill arch 5 to 8+10 to 15; branched dorsal rays 17 to 
20; branched anal rays 11 to 13; last dorsal fin ray not filamentous. 

Elops saurus Linnaeus 

Genus TARPON Jordan and Evermann 

Tarpon Jordan and Evermann, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 47, pt. 1, p. 409, 1896. 
(Genotype, Megalops atlanticus Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

TARPON ATLANTICUS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Tarpon; SAbalo 

Megalops atlanticus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire natureUe des poissons- 
vol. 19, p. 398, 1846 (Guadeloupe; San Domingo; Martinique; Porto Rico). 

Tarpon atlanticus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 373, fig. 184, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 

Several specimens were seen rolling and diving in the Rio Concha 
about 4 or 5 km. above Lago de Maracaibo. A large school was 
reported in Lago de Maracaibo at its northern end during April 1942. 

802207 — J9 3 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Genus ELOPS Linnaeus 

Elops Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 518, 1766. (Genotype, Elops 
saurus Linnaeus.) 

ELOPS SAURUS Linnaeus 

MACABf 

Elops saurus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 518, 1766 (Carolina). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121694, 6 specimens, 113 to 127 mm. in standard length, Salina 
Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo, in brackish water, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121695, 1 specimen, 107 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Maracaibo 
Yacht Club, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121696, 1 specimen, 385 mm., Rfo Concha near mouth, May 2, 
1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121697, 3 specimens, 194 to 222 mm., MacoUa Point, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

2 specimens, 22.5 and 57 mm., a bajo seco, east side of Puerto Cabello, F. F. 
Bond, January 26, 1938. 

1 specimen, 28 mm., lagoons at Tucacas, 60 km. northwest of Puerto Cabello, 
F. F. Bond, January 29, 1938. 

2 specimens, 19.5 and 20 mm., Rfo Barburata at mouth, Puerto Cabello, F. F. 
Bond, January 19, 1938. 

Family ALBULIDAE: Ladyfishes 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Last dorsal and anal rays not elongate Albula vulpes (Linnaeus) 

16. Last dorsal and anal rays exceedingly prolonged _Dixonina nemoptera Fowler 

Genus ALBULA Scopoli 

Albula ScopOLi, Natural history of fishes, p. 454, 1777. (Genotype, Esox vulpes 
Linnaeus.) 

ALBULA VULPES (Linnaeus) 
BoNEFISH; MACABf 

Esox vulpes Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 313, 1758 (Bahamas). 
Albula vulpes Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 373, fig. 185, 1942 (coast 
of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 128265, 4 larval specimens, 33 to 44 mm. in standard length. 
Cape San Romd,n, U. S. S. Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128267, 1 specimen, 37 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
February 20, 1925. 

Genus DIXONINA Fowler 

Dixonina Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1910, p. 652. (Genotype, 
Dixonina nemoptera Fowler.) 

DIXONINA NEMOPTERA Fowler 

Dixonina nemoptera Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1910, p. 652 
(Santo Domingo).— Myers, Copeia, 1936, No. 2, p. 83 (Puerto Cabello [not] 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 35 

Curagao [but Venezuela]). — Beebe, Zoologica, vol. 27, No. 8, p. 43, 1942 
(Puerto Cabello). 
Albula nemoptera Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 
the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 9, 1919 (Puerto Cabello). 

Family CLUPEIDAE: Herrings; Sardines 

Since there were not many specimens of this family in the collections 
from Venezuela I have not made a critical study of them. The key 
to the genera of Clupeidae reported from Venezuela was extracted 
from Storey (Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 1, No. 1, p. 14, 1938). 
Those who wish to identify the species in the genus Harengula should 
consult Storey (loc. cit.), pp. 24-25. 

la. Anal fin short, of fewer than 30 rays or the mouth is inferior; no distinct 
median notch in upper jaw. 
2a. A bilobed dermal fold on anterior edge of cleithrum. 

3a. Last 2 rays of anal fin much enlarged, almost forming separate finlets, 
third from last smaller than the one preceding it. 

Sardinella Valenciennes 
3&. Last 2 rays of anal fin scarcely enlarged, third from last not smaller than 
one preceding it; last ray of dorsal not produced. 

Hareng^ula Valenciennes 
26. No bilobed dermal fold on anterior edge of cleithrum; body strongly com- 
pressed; scales on base of caudal lobes; one pointed retrorse spine near 

proximal end of maxillary Bhinosardinia Eigenmann 

1&. Anal fin long, of more than 32 rays; mouth never inferior. 
4a. Pelvic fins absent; maxillary not adherent to premaxillary; no canines; 
anal origin in front of dorsal origin; maxiUary tapering behind in adults 
extending to gill opening or beyond, but with rounded posterior end in 
the young at a standard length of about 40 mm. or shorter. 

OdontogTiathvis Lacep^de 
46. Pelvic fins present. 

5a. Maxillary adherent to premaxillary; canines present. 

Chirocentrodon Giinther 
56. Maxillary not adherent to premaxillary; no canines. Neosteus • Norman 

Genus SARDINELLA Valenciennes 

Sardinella Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 20, p. 261, 1847. (Genotype, Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 
designated on p. 263, loc. cit.) 

SARDINELLA ANCHOVIA Valenciennes 

Sardina 

Sardinella anchovia Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle 
des poissons, vol. 20, p. 269, 1847 (Rio de Janeiro, Martinique). 

The collection bearing U.S.N.M. No. 77962, 4 specimens, 96 to 
138 mm. in standard length, made by H. B. Ritchie at Pompater, 
Margarita Island, appears to consist of market fish of this species. 
They are in bad condition, having had all gill arches and viscera 
removed. 

' Not yet reported from Venezuela but undoubtedly occurring there. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Genus HARENGULA Valenciennes 

Harengula Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 20, p. 277, 1847. (Genotype, Harengula latulus Valenciennes, 
designated on pp. 277, 281, loc. cit.) 

For the identification of the species of Harengula see Storey's key 
(Stanford Ichthyol. BiiU., vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 24-25, 1938). 

HARENGULA CLUPEOLA (Cuvier) 

Sardine; Sardina 
Clupea clupeola Cuvier, Le rfigne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 318 footnote 2, 1829. 

The following specimens were collected by the U.S.S. Niagara in 
the Gulf of Venezuela: 

U.S.N.M. No. 128276, 5 specimens, 60 to 72 mm. in standard length, Amuay 
Bay, December 9, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128277, 2 specimens, 32 and 57 mm., Jacuque Point, January 
26, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No, 128279, 7 specimens, 45 to 56 mm., Salinas Bay, April 4-5, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128278, 4 specimens, 32 to 38 mm., Estanques Bay, February 

20, 1925. 

HARENGULA MAJORINA Storey 

Harengula majorina Storey, Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 25, 32, figs' 
9, 12, 17, 1938 (Santos and Province of Sao Paulo, Brazil; St. Lucia, B. W. I.). 

U.S.N.M. No. 128280, 4 specimens, 52 to 54.5 mm. in standard length, 
Salinas Bay, U.S.S. Niagara, April 4-5, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128281, a specimen, 141 mm., is probably this species, taken 
in Estanques Bay, U.S.S. Niagara, December 8, 1924. 

Genus RHINOSARDINIA Eigenmann 

Rhinosardinia Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, p. 445, 1912. (Geno- 
type, Rhinosardinia serrata Eigenmann.) 

RHINOSARDINIA AMAZONICA (Steindachner) 

Clupea amazonica Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. W^iss. Wien, vol. 80, p. 65, 1879 

(Amazon River at Pard). 
Rhinosardinia amazonica Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 

p. 406, 1931 (Cafio de Guanoco and Punta Tigre at mouth of San Juan 

River, Venezuela). 

Genus ODONTOGNATHUS Lacepfede 

Odontognathua LacepJide, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, p. 221, 1800. 
(Genotype, Odontognathua muricatua Lacep^de.) 

ODONTOGNATHUS COMPRESSUS Meek and Hfldebrand 

Odontognathua compressus Meek and Hildebrand, Marine fishes of Panama, 
vol. 1, p. 194, pi. 11, fig. 2, 1923 (Fox Bay, Colon, Panama). 

The following collections were made by the U.S.S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela in 1925: 

U.S.N.M. No. 128284, 6 specimens, 38 to 53 mm., in standard length, April 4. 
U.S.N.M. No. 128285, 19 specimens, 25 to 105 mm., Jacuque Point, January 26. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 37 

U.S.N. M. No. 128282, 2 specimens, 67.5 and 68 mm., Cape San Romdn, April 2. 
U.S.N.M. No. 128283, 9 specimens, 38.5 to 93 mm., Point Macolla, April 19. 

Genus CHIROCENTRODON Gunther 

Chirocentrodon Gi^nther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 7, 
pp. 382, 463, 1868. (Genotype, Chirocentrodon taeniatus Gunther.) 

CraBOCENTRODON BLEEKERIANA (Poey) 

Pellona bleekeriana Poet, Repertorio fisico-natural de la isla de Cuba, vol. 2- 
p. 242, 1867 (Cuba). 

U.S.N.M. No. 128275, 1 specimen, 50 mm. in standard length, from 
Point Macolla, Gulf of Venezuela, U.S.S. Niagara, April 19, 1925, was 
identified by Dr. Hildebrand. 

Family ENGRAULIDAE: Anchovies; Anchoas 

The recent excellent revision of this family by Dr. S. F. Hildebrand 
(Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 1943) was indispensable 
in this study of the anchovies of Venezuela. During the several years 
that Dr. Hildebrand was preparing this revision he assembled in the 
U. S. National Museum one of the most complete collections of Amer- 
ican anchovies to be found in any museum, including numerous types, 
cotypes, and paratypes. It gave me considerable pleasure to be 
able to add several thousand more specimens to this collection, among 
which were sLx known species and four undescribed ones, all collected 
by me in Venezuela during 1942. 

I have followed Dr. Hildebrand 's treatment of the Engraulidae to 
a large extent, deviating, however, in the anal-fin formula. Since 
the first three anal rays are unbranched I have represented them by 
lower-case Roman numbers followed by Arabic numerals for the 
branched rays, thus: iii,24. The first pectoral rays consist of two 
simple ones, followed by branched rays, the first pectoral ray being 
of paper thinness and lying close to the second. The dorsal consists 
of a minute simple ray, then two larger ones, followed by branched 
rays. 

The following key to the genera of Engraulidae reported from 
Venezuela is somewhat modified from Dr. Hildebrand's in order to 
call attention to the greatly coiled condition of the intestine in Ceten- 
graulis. Engraulis is omitted, since it has not as yet been found in 
Venezuela. 

lo. Intestine with one main loop, without numerous coils below air bladder; 
gill membranes never broadly united across the isthmus, at most only a 
narrow delicate membrane anteriorly. 
2a. Teeth in the jaws all small or minute, about equal in size. 

3a. Origin of anal fin posterior to origin of dorsal fin, very rarely almost under 
it; gill rakers long, narrow, and numerous; body compressed, except in 
young; vertebrae 37 to 46, rarely 46. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEXJM vol.99 

4a. Maxillary long and slender, generally reaching well beyond joint of 

mandible, frequently nearly or quite to margin of opercle, more or 

less sharply pointed posteriorly. 

5a. Gill rakers very close set, numerous,, increasing in number with age, 

about 60 to 130 on lower limb of first arch in adults, as few as 35 

or 40 in young; body deep, strongly compressed, depth in adults 

about 2.6 to 3.8 in standard length; attaining a standard length 

of 250 mm Anchovia Jordan and Evermann 

56. Gill rakers not very close set, less numerous, apparently not increas- 
ing in number with age, rarely as many as 32 on lower limb of 
first arch; body usually more elongate; some species very small, 
size not exceeding 150 mm, in stardard length. 

Anchoa Jordan and Evermann 

4b. Maxillary shorter, often rather broad, usually failing to reach joint of 

mandible, never reaching beyond it, square or broadly rounded 

posteriorly, never pointed; not exceeding 150 mm. in standard 

length Anchoviella Fowler 

36. Origin of anrl fin in advance of origin of dorsal fin, or rarely under it; 

pelvic fin inserted about equidistant from base of pectoral and origin of 

anal. 

6o. Origin of dorsal fin notably less than t-wice as far from tip of snout as 

from base of caudal; gill rakers short and broad, only about 14 on 

lower limb of first arch; anal with 29 to 33 ' rays. 

Pterengravilis Giinther 

66. Origin of dorsal fin about twice as far from tip of snout as from base of 

caudal; gill rakers long, sleader, and nv.merous, about 33 on lower 

limb of first arch in young (probably more numerous in adults); 

anal with about 25 rays Hildebrandichthys, new genus 

26. Teeth in the jaws, especially in the lower jaw, notably enlarged, usually 
unequal in size; origin of anal posterior to that of dorsal; pelvic in- 
serted about midway between base of pectoral and origin of anal; size 
attained large, about 250 to 300 mm. in total length. 

Lycengraulis Giinther 
16. Intestine black, greatly coiled in posterior part of abdominal cavity, pyloric 
caeca black; gill membranes broadly united across isthmus in adults by a 
thin membrane, easily torn; gill rakers long and slender, close set, increasing 
in number with age, 25 to 60 on lower limb of first arch; pelvic fin insertion 
under or only a little in advance of dorsal origin, size attained up to at least 
160 mm -_ .Cetengraiilis Giinther 

Genus ANCHOVIA Jordan and Evermann 

Anchovia Jordan and Evermann, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 47, pt. 1, p. 449, 1896. 
(Genotype, Engraulis macrolepidotus Kner and Steindachner). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ANCHOVIA FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Origin of anal fin well in advance of a vertical line through middle of dorsal 
fin base; vertebrae 42 or 43; length of cheek about equal to snout and eye; 
pelvic fin inserted about equidistant from pectoral insertion and a vertical 
line through dorsal origin and of anal origin; greatest depth 3.3 to 3.7, and 
postorbital length of head 5.4 to 6.4, both in standard length; anal rays iii, 
27 to iii, 32 Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson) 

' Dr. Hildebrand gives the range 27 to 35, but he informs me that the 27 is a typographical error and should 
be 20 as in his original data. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 39 

16. Origin of anal fin nearly under middle of base of dorsal fin; vertebrae 39 to 
41; length of cheek notably longer than snout and eye; pelvic fin insertion 
notably closer to a vertical line through dorsal origin than insertion of 
pectorals and nearer base of pectoral than anal origin; depth 3.5 to 4.2 and 
postorbital length of head 5.2 to 5.6 in standard length. 

Anchovia nigra, new species 

ANCHOVIA CLUPEOIDES (Swainson) 

Engraulis clupeoides Swainson, The natural history and classification of fishes, 

vol. 2, p. 388, 1839 (Pernambuco, Brazil). 
Engraulis productus Tortonese, Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, vol. 

47, No. 89, p. 6, 1939 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 
Anchovia clupeoides Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 

p. 27, fig. 9, 1943 (Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121767, 60 specimens, 52 to 118.5 mm., mouth of Cano de 
Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamaica, Gulf of Venezuela, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 127552, 2 specimens, 47 to 50 mm. in standard length, south 
coast Gulf of Venezuela, U.S.S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

3 specimens, 72 to 81 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. 
Bond, November 11, 1939. 

ANCHOVTA NIGRA, new species 

Anchoa 
Figure 4 

Holotype.— U.S.N.M. No. 121761, 97 mm. in standard length, 
collected by Leonard P. Schultz in Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht Club, 
Maracaibo, Venezuela, February 27, 1942. 

Paratypes. — All the paratypes were collected by Leonard P. Schultz 
in the Maracaibo Basin during 1942: 

U.S.N.M. No. 121764, 3 specimens, 41 to 99.5 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo, 
1 km. off Pueblo Viejo, April 7-8. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121762, a specimen, 61 mm., Rfo Agua Caliente, 2 to 3 km. 
above Lago de Maracaibo, May 1. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121763, 4 specimens, 39.5 to 51.5 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, May 16. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121766, 2 specimens, 81 and 92 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo 
near mouth of Rfo Concha, May 2, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121765, 7,000 specimens, 12 to 66 mm., Rfo de Los Pdjaros, 
3 km. above Lago de Maracaibo, April 30. 

A female at 99.5 mm. in standard length had her abdomen crowded 
with mature eggs on April 7-8, indicating that spawning time was 
near. 

Description. — Certain measurements were made, and these data, 
recorded below, are expressed in hundredths of the standard length, 
first for the holotype, then for three paratypes in parentheses, respec- 
tively. Standard lengths in millimeters 97 (97.6; 55.5; 92). 

Length of head 29.9 (31.3; 30.6; 30.5); greatest depth of body 28.9 
(27.2; 26.1; 26.1); length of snout 4.64 (4.71; 4.50; 4.89); diameter of 



40 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



eye 7.52 (8.20; 8.29; 8.05); distance from tip of lower jaw to rear of 
joint of mandible 20.1 (22.1; 20.5; 21.2); distance from tip of snout 
to rear of maxillary 22.5 (25.6; 25.6; 25.6); greatest width of inter- 
orbital space 7.02 (7.17; 7.57; 7.18); postorbital length of head 19.2 
(19.1; 18.0; 19.1); length of cheek 13.8 (13.2; 12.2; 13.0); length of 
longest gill raker on first gill arch 6.70 (8.00; 6.84; 8.15); length of 
longest ray of dorsal fin — (13.2; 15.5; 14.6); of anal fin 12.5 (— ; 
13.9; 13.3); of pectoral fin 14.4 (14.3; 16.6; 14.9); of pelvic fin 7.22 
(6.97; 8.10; 7.28); of lower lobe of caudal fin 23.4 (26.6; 26.1; 26.7); 
shortest midcaudal fin ray 9.28 (8.91; 11.7; 9.13); length of base of 
anal fin 27.7 (26.8; 30.1; 28.5); length of base of dorsal fin 11.3 (12.5; 
11.0; 10.9); distance from pelvic insertion to anal origin 17.5 (18.5; 
15.1; 16.3); tip of snout to dorsal origin 52.6 (56.3; 53.3; 52.6); snout 
to anal origin 60.3 (62.0; 56.6; 62.0); snout to pectoral insertion 30.0 
(30.7; 30.6; 31.0); snout to pelvic insertion 44.6 (46.1; 42.9; 46.2); 
length of caudal peduncle or distance from base of last anal ray to 
midcaudal fin base 16.5 (15.4; 16.4; 15.4); least depth of caudal pe- 
duncle 11.2 (10.8; 11.7; 11.2). 




Figure 4. — Anchovia nigra, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121761), 97 mm. in 
standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

The following counts were made, respectively: Dorsal rays iii, 11 
(iii, 11; iii, 11; iii, 11); anal rays iii, 28 (iii, 27; iii, 28; iii, 29); pectoral 
fin rays ii, 12-ii, 12 (ii, 12-ii, 12; ii, 11-ii, 12; ii, 11-ii, 11); pelvic rays 
always i, 6; scale rows from upper edge of gill opening to midcaudal 
fin base 42 (41; 44; 43). Additional counts are recorded in table 3. 

Table 3. — Counts made on species of Anchovia from Venezuela 





Number of anal fin rays 


Number of vertebrae 


Species 


iii, 25 


iii, 26 


iii, 27 


iii, 28 


iii, 29 


iii, 30 


ui,31 


iii, 32 


39 


40 


41 


42 
11 


43 








1 
8 


2 
9 


3 

2 


8 


3 


1 






5 




1 


8 


2 


11 


3 

















ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 41 

Body compressed, deep, greatest depth about 3.5 to 4.2, and head 
about 3.3 to 3.5, both in standard length; depth of head at joint of 
mandible much less than postorbital length of head; head longer than 
greatest depth of body; snout bluntly pointed, projecting more than 
half its length beyond mandible, shorter than eye, scarcely longer 
than pupil, contained 5% to 5% in head; eye 3.4 to 4.2 in head; maxillary 
ending in a triangular point, extending to or a little past joint of 
mandible, contained about 1.3 or 1.4 in head; mandible pointed, not 
curved upward at tip, reaching a vertical line through rear edge of 
posterior nostril when mouth is closed; teeth most minute but very 
numerous along edges of both jaws, often obsolete in adults; cheek 
6.6 to 7.1 and postorbital length of head 5.2 to 5.6 in standard length; 
gill rakers very long and slender and very numerous, increasing in 
number with increase in length or age; depressed length of dorsal 
fin 1.5 to 2 in head; the first branched rays of dorsal fin reaching a little 
past tips of last rays when the fin is depressed; distal margin of dorsal 
fin truncate or a little concave; caudal fin deeply forked; distal margin 
of anal fin a little concave, first anal rays longest; first upper ray of 
pectoral fin longest, tips of pectoral fins reaching past the insertion 
of pelvics, sometimes to opposite nearly halfway toward tips of pelvics 
in young specimens; pelvic fins reaching halfway to anal origin in 
young but scarcely halfway to anus in adults; dorsal fin origin equi- 
distant between midcaudal fin base and front half of eye; origin of 
anal fin under middle of base of dorsal fin; axillary scale of pectoral 
extending out about halfway to tip of pectoral fin; intestine with one 
main loop. 

Coloration. — In alcohol the adults are straw-colored dorsally, silvery 
on sides, with a dark brownish streak along middorsal line of back; 
inside of gill cavity blackish ventrally opposite region of maxillary; 
all fins translucent-whitish except caudal fin, which is dusky with the 
black pigment cells more intense on distal part of rays; peritoneum 
silvery but intestine blackish. In the young a silvery lateral band 
about as wide as eye anteriorly becomes narrower posteriorly. The 
most characteristic mark is a small black speck at lower base of 
caudal fin, with a small cross of X-shaped lines of black pigment 
more or less embedded; base of anal fin with black pigment spots; 
tip of snout blackish; middle basal part of each lobe of caudal fin 
more intensely pigmented than remainder of caudal fin; otherwise 
coloration is similar to that in adult specimens. 

Eemarks. — This new species would, with some exceptions, trace 
down through Dr. Hildebrand's key (1943, p. 21) to A. rastralis, but 
it differs from that Pacific species in having 39 to 41 (usually 40) 
vertebrae instead of 41 or 42. From A. clupeoides it may be separated 
by the key on page 38. Named nigra in reference to the black pig- 
mentation on inside of the gill cavity. 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Genus ANCHOA Jordan and Evermann 

Anchoa Jordan and Evermann, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 16, No. 15, 
p. 501, 1927. (Genotype, Engraulis compressus Girard.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ANCHOA REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA " 

la. Anal fin with iii, 14 to iii, 22 rays. 

2a. Gill rakers on lower limb usually 16 to 26, and upper limb 13 to 21. 

3a. Origin of anal under middle or a little behind middle of base of dorsal 
fin; cheek short and broad, usually not much longer than eye; depth 
about 5.0 to 5.75 and postorbital length of head 6.3 to 6.9, both in 
standard length; maxillary short, reaching only to joint of mandible, 
not sharply pointed, 1.3 to 1.5 in head; anal rays iii, 15 to iii, 19. 

Anchoa ginsburgi Hildebrand 
36. Origin of anal fin far behind middle of base of dorsal fin, somewhere 
under its posterior third and rarely behind base of dorsal; cheek longer 
and narrower, generally notably longer than eye; anal rays iii, 17 to 
iii, 22; dorsal fin when depressed usually with first rays extending to or 
beyond tip of last depressed ray; depth 5.0 to 6.0 in standard length; 
origin of anal under or slightly behind base of last dorsal ray; silvery 
lateral band as wide as eye. .Anchoa lyolepis (Evermann and Marsh) 
26. Gill rakers 22 to 33 on lower limb and 17 to 23 on upper limb of first arch. 
4a. Origin of anal generally under posterior third of base of dorsal fin; cheek 
short and broad, scarcely longer than eye; axillary scale of pectoral 
about Yi length of that fin and 1.9 to 2.7 in head; dorsal origin about 
equidistant between midcaudal fin base and middle of eye; maxillary 
not sharply pointed posteriorly, its upper free margin rounded, reach- 
ing to or slightly beyond joint of mandible; anal rays iii, 15 to iii, 19; 

gill rakers 18 to 22 + 24 to 28 Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz) 

46. Origin of anal about under middle of dorsal fin base, sometimes slightly 
behind middle; depth 4.5 to 5.0, anal base 3.8 to 4.8, both in standard 
length; maxillary long, sharply pointed, extending nearly to margin 
of opercle except in the young, 1.2 to 1.35 in head; gill rakers 17 to 
20 + 23 to 27; anal rays iii, 18 to iii, 22. 

Anchoa parva (Meek and Hildebrand) 
16. Anal rays iii, 23 to iii, 37; gill rakers on first gill arch 14 to 19 + 16 to 22; anal 
fin base 2.8 to 3.4 in standard length; axillary scale of pectoral broad reach- 
ing nearly to or a little past midlength of that fin, 2.4 to 3.6 in head. 
5a. Origin of dorsal fin notably closer to midbase of caudal fin than to tip of 
snout; posterior margins of operculum broadly convex, figure 8a; tips of 
pectorals not quite reaching to pelvic insertions; cheek as long as eye and 
half snout; scales about 38 to 42; anal rays iii, 24 to iii, 29. 

Anchoa trinitatis (Fowler) 

56. Origin of dorsal fin notably closer to tip of snout than to midbase of caudal 

fin; posterior margin of operculum truncate or slightly concave, figures 

5, 8, 6; tips of pectorals reaching well past pelvic insertions; cheek much 

longer, equal to eye and twice snout; scales about 45 to 48. 

6a. Anal rays iii, 29; caudal fin with posterior margin not blackish; tip of 

dorsal not blackish Anchoa argenteus, new species. 

66. Anal rays iii, 33 to iii, 38; caudal fin with posterior margin blackish; 
usually tip of dorsal blackish. 

Anchoa spinifer • (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 

• Extracted from Hildebrand's key to Anchoa. 
» Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 43 

ANCHOA GINSBURGI HUdebrand 

Anchoa ginsburgi Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 
p. 55, fig. 20, 1943 (Gulf of Venezuela). 

The following specimens were collected by the U. S. S. Niagara in 
the Gulf of Venezuela in 1925: 

Holotype, U.S.N.M. No. 119788, Estanques Bay, February 20. 

Paratypes as follows: 

U.S.N.M. Nos. 119789, 1 specimen, and 127608, 7 specimens, both lots bearing 
same data as holotype. 

U.S.N.M. No. 127609, 3 specimens, Salinas Bay, April 4-5. 
U.S.N.M. No. 127610, 4 specimens, Jacuque Point, January 26. 

ANCHOA LYOLEPIS (ETermann and Marsh) 

Stolephorus lyolepis Evermann and Marsh, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 20, p. 89, 

fig. 13, 1902 (Culebra, Puerto Rico). 
Anchoa lyolepis Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, p. 65, 

fig. 25, 1943 (Gulf of Venezuela). 

The specimen reported by Dr. Hildebrand bears U.S.N.M. No. 
127623 and is from Point Macolla, Gulf of Venezuela. 

ANCHOA TRICOLOR (Agassiz) 

Engraulis tricolor Agassiz, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species piscium 
. . . Brasiliam . . . , p. 51, pi. 23, fig. 1, 1829 iBahia, Pard). 

Anchoa tricolor Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, p. 74, 
fig. 30, 1943 (? Gulf of Venezuela), 

The specimen from Amuay Bay recorded by Dr. Hildebrand does 
not seem to be in the national collections. Both of the first gill arches 
were destroyed, according to his original data, and thus the specimen 
measuring 63 mm. in total length was referred to A. tricolor with 
much doubt. I have not seen any specimens of this species from 
Venezuela, and for identification the number of gill rakers must be 
known. 

ANCHOA PARVA (Meek and HUdebrand) 

Anchoa 

Anchovia parva Meek and Hildebrand, Marine fishes of Panama, vol. 1, p. 202, 

1923 (Porto Bello, Panama). 
Anchoa parva Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, p. 83, 

fig. 35, 1943 (Venezuela). 
Anchoa januaria (in part) Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, 

art. 2, p. 81, fig. 34, 1943 (Gulf of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121772, 18 specimens, 35 to 42 mm. in standard length, Rfo de 
Los Pajaros, 3 km. above Lago de Maracaibo, April 30, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121768, 7,000 specimens, 11 to 59 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121770, a specimen, 21.5 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht 
Club, March 5, 1942. 



44 PROCEEDESTGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 9» 

U.S.N.M. No. 121771, a specimen, 24 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. south of 
Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121774, 37 specimens, 29 to 34 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 2 miles 
oflf Lagunillas, March 15, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121773, 13 specimens, 16 to 33 mm., cano at Los Monitos, 
Estado de Zulia, Rfo Lim6n system, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121769, 41 specimens, 23 to 44 mm., mouth of Cano de Sagua, 
25 km, north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

One specimen, 35 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. Bond, 
February 3, 1939. 

I have carefully examined the two collections from the Gulf of 
Venezuela referred by Dr. Hildebrand to Anchoa januaria, U.S.N.M. 
Nos. 127675 and 127676, from Amuay and Salinas Bays, respectively. 
I found that the gill raker count of U.S.N.M. No. 127675 in one 
specimen was 18+24 and that the other two specimens had their 
first arches destroyed, which explains the fact that they were not 
counted by Dr. Hildebrand, who has been most cooperative in letting 
me use his original data. One specimen in U.S.N.M. No. 127676 has 
17+26 gill rakers, but the others have 12 on the upper arch and 
numerous small, sharp-pointed teeth in both jaws and a short maxillary 
with rounded posterior end. I am therefore referring them to 
Anchoviella hlackhurni. Thus, the range of A. januaria must again 
be restricted to Brazil. 

The following counts were made on specimens from Venezuela. 
Anal rays iii,18 in 4, iii,19 in 9, iii,20 in 6, and iii,21 in 9 specimens; 
pectoral rays i,ll in 2, i,12 in 4, and i, 13 in 4; vertebrae 39 in 1 and 
40 in 11 specimens; on 3 specimens the gill rakers were as follows: 
18+1+27; 18+1+26; 19 + 1+26; 17 + 1+25; 18+1+23; and 
18+1+25. The dorsal fin had ii,13 rays in 2 specimens counted. 

ANCHOA TRINITATIS (Fowler) 

Figure 6, a 

Anchovia trinitatis Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 67, p. 

527, fig. 3, 1915 (Trinidad). 
Anchoa trinitatis Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, p. 96, 

fig. 40, 1943 (coast of Venezuela). 

The following specimens were identified tentatively as belonging 
to this species: 

U.S.N.M. No. 121778, 3 specimens, 44.5 to 66 mm., mouth of Caflo de Sagua» 
25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12. 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 119812, 3 specimens, 50 to 56 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, 
Estado de Miranda, Venezuela, collected by Dr. F. F. Bond, February 3, 1939. 

From same collection as U.S.N.M. No. 119812, 15 specimens, 
44 to 54 mm. 

The following counts were made: Anal rays iii,25 in 3; iii,26 in one; 
iii,27 m 2 ; and iii,29 in 2 ; dorsal rays iii,l 1 in 3 and iii, 12 in 2 ; pectoral 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



45 



rays ii,12-ii-12;ii,13-ii,13; gill rakers 16+1+20; 17+1 +20; vertebrae 
40: 40; scales 40 in one, 41 in 3. 

ANCHOA ARGENTEUS. new species 

Figures 5, 6, 6 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 121777, only known specimen, 97 mm. 
in standard length, collected by Leonard P. Schultz in Lago de 
Maracaibo 1 km. off Pueblo Viejo in gill net, April 7-9, 1942. 

Description. — Certain measurements were made on the holotype, 
and these data expressed in hundredths of the standard length are 
recorded in table 4 along with similar data on other species. 




Figure 5. — Anchoa argenteus, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121777), 97 mm. in 
standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 




Figure 6. — Outline of opercular margin of: a, Anchoa trinitatis (Fowler) (U.S.N.M. No. 
123222); b, Anchoa argenteus, new species (U.S.N.M. No. 121777). Sketches by author. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays iii, 13; anal iii, 29; 
pectorals ii,12-ii, 12; pelvics i,6-i,6; scale rows from upper edge of 
gill opening to midbase of caudal fin 47; gill rakers on first gill arch 
15+1 + 18. 

Body compressed, somewhat elongate, greatest depth about 4.3, 
head rather long, 3.8, both in standard length; depth of head at joint 
of mandible slightly greater than postorbital length of head; head 
longer than greatest depth of body, snout bluntly pointed, projecting 
much more than half its length beyond tip of mandible, shorter than 
eye, a httle longer than pupil, contained about 6.75 in head; eye 0% 



46 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



in head; maxillary ending in an elongate triangular point, extending 
past joint of mandible but not past rear margin of operculum, con- 
tained 1.1 in head; mandible bluntly pointed, a trifle curved upward at 
tip, reaching a httle in front of a vertical line at front of nostrils, when 
mouth is closed; small numerous teeth along margin of both jaws; 
viUiform teeth on vomer, palatines, and pterygoids; cheek 7.2, postor- 
bital length of head 5.75, in standard length; gill rakers rather long, 
flattened and somewhat broadened at tips, with denticles on their 
inner edges; depressed length of dorsal fin 1 .3 in head, the first branched 
rays reaching past last ones, when depressed; distal margin of dorsal 
fin truncate; distal margin of anal somewhat concave; the first anal 
rays longest; simple ray of pectorals longest; tips of pectoral rays 
reaching well past the pelvic insertions; pelvics reaching a little more 
than halfway to anal origin; dorsal fin origin closer to tip of snout 
than midbase of caudal fin by a Httle more than length of snout; 



Table 4. — Measurements made on certain species of Anchoa and recorded in hun- 
dredths of the standard length 



Characters 



spinifer 



Gulf of Paria 



argeri' 
teiis 



L. de 

Mara- 

calbo 



trinitatis 



Colombia 



Venezuela 



131 



Standard length in millimeters 

Length of head 

Greatest depth of body 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eye ..- 

Length of mandible (from tip of chin) 

Length of maxillaries (from tip of snout) 

Greatest width of bony interorbital space 

Postorbital length of head 

Length of cheek 

Longest gill raker 

Length of longest fin ray of: 

Dorsal 

Anal 

Pectoral 

Pelvics 

Caudal 

Shortest caudal fin ray 

Length of base of anal 

Length of base of dorsal 

Distance pelvic insertion to anal origin 

Snout tip to dorsal origin 

Snout tip to anal origin_ 

Snout tip to pectoral insertion 

Snout tip to pelvic insertion 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Least depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of pectoral axillary scale from pectoral inser^ 
tion to tip of scale 



25.9 
26.3 

4.04 

5.95 
19.2 
24.4 

5.12 
17.4 
12.7 

3.05 

22.0 
14.8 
21.4 
9.77 
23.7 
11.2 
37.6 
11.8 
17.5 
44.7 
56.9 
26.2 
42.8 
12.4 
10.7 

9.54 



101 



97 



26.7 
25.5 

4.18 

6.14 
20.2 
25.8 

5.74 
17.4 
12.9 

4.85 

19.2 
14.5 
20.2 
9.32 



11.2 
35.7 
12.3 
14.6 
49.7 
56.4 
28.2 
42.6 
14.1 
11.4 

11.9 



26.6 
23.0 

4.12 

6.19 
20.4 
25.3 

5.67 
17.7 
13.2 

3.82 

17.3 
12.9 
14.6 

8.35 
23.2 

9.80 
32.1 
12.8 
15.6 
48.9 
56.7 
28.7 
41.9 
13.7 
10.9 

11.9 



71.5 



24.0 
25.4 
4.90 
7.40 
17.1 
22.4 
5.87 
12.9 
8.80 
3.64 



16.6 
9.08 



34.3 
12.0 
17.5 
55.4 
58.3 
25.7 
43.6 
13.7 
11.0 

9.09 



65 



26.9 
25.7 
6.00 
8.46 
18.5 
24.9 
7.38 
14.3 
9.84 
3.38 



8.02 



32.0 
10.9 
15.7 
55.7 
62.0 
29.2 
46.2 
12.6 
10.3 

10.0 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 47 

origin of anal fin under a vertical line through middle of length of dorsal 
fin base; axillary scale of pectoral extending out about halfway to tip 
of pectoral fin; upper posterior margin of operculum truncate or nearly 
so, the lower posterior corner angular with short concave edge, figure 
6, h, length of base of anal fin 3.2 in standard length. 

Coloration. — In alcohol, the back is straw colored with considerable 
dark pigmentation; these pigment cells extend over middle of front 
of snout but sparsely; the lower two-thirds of sides of body are silvery; 
dark pigment cells are numerous basally on dorsal fin becoming fewer 
distally and wholly lacking on outer third of fin; outer margins of 
caudal fin darkish, but middle of caudal fin and its distal parts non- 
pigmented; anal, pectoral, and pelvic fins nonpigmented. 

Remarks. — This new species would trace down through Dr. 
Hildebrand's key to the species of Anchoa on pp. 29-30 of his revision 
of the Engraulidae to his section "C" for Anchoa spinifer. However, 
A. argenteus differs from spinifer in having fewer anal rays, iii,29 
instead of iii,33 to iii,38, and the posterior margin of caudal and tip 
of dorsal fin are not blackish as in spinifer. From the local Venezuelan 
species of Anchoa it may be separated by the key on page 42. 

Named argenteus in reference to the briUiant silvery lower sides. 

Genus ANCHOVIELLA Fowler 

Anchoviella Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 63, p. 211, 1911. 
(Genotype, Engraulis perfasciatus Poey.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ANCHOVIELLA FROM VENEZUELA " 

la. Origin of anal entirely behind base of dorsal fin, generally under or behind 
tip of last dorsal ray when depressed; gill rakers on first arch 24 to 28 + 27 
to 33; eye small, 4.4 to 4.8 in head and 2.5 to 2.75 in postorbital part of 
head; anterior rays of dorsal reaching past tip of last ray when fin is de- 
pressed; gill rakers as long as eye, broad and close set, with minute serration 

on inner edge Anchoviella estauquae Hildebrand 

16. Anal origin under posterior half of base of dorsal fin; gill rakers on first arch 
16 to 18 + 23 to 26; pectoral fin with 12 or 13 rays; maxillary reaching ji 
diameter of eye beyond orbit; cheek as long as eye; eye 3.2 to 3.5 in head; 
axillary scale oi pectoral short, extending to or somewhat beyond midlength 
of that fin 2.4 to 2.9 in head; median dark stripe posterior to anal 

fin Anchoviella gnianensis (Eigenmann) 

Ic. Origin of anal fin under or in advance of middle of dorsal fin base. 
2a. Gill rakers 10 to 12 + 15 to 17; depth 4.8 to 5.5; head 4.0 to 4.6, both in 
standard length; anal rays iii,22 to iii,26; vertebrae 42 or 43, two spec- 
imens dissected Anchoviella blackbumi Hildebrand 

2b. Gill rakers 28 to 34 + 36 to 45; depth 3.5 to 3.9 in adults, head 3.5, both in 
standard length; anal rays iii,21 to iii,23 Anchoviella pallida (Starks) 

ANCHOVIELLA ESTAUQUAE Hildebrand 

Anchoviella estauquae Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 
p. 115, fig. 48, 1943 (Estanques, misspelled "Estauques" Bay, Gulf of Vene- 
zuela) . 

M Extracted from Hildebrand's key to Anchoviella. 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

U.S.N. M. No. 119795, holotype, Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara February 20, 
1925. 
U.S.N. M. No. 119796, 3 paratypes bearing same data. 

ANCHOVIELLA GUIANENSIS (Eigenmann) 

Stolephorus guianensis Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, p. 447, pi. 62, 

fig. 6, 1912 (Bartica Rocks, British Guiana). 
Anchoviella guianensis Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, p. 406, 

1931 (Cano de Guanoco, Venezuela). — Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. 

Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, p. 123, fig. 52, 1943 (Venezuela). 

ANCHOVIELLA BLACEBURNI HUdebrand 

Anchoviella blackburni Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 
p. 129, fig. 57, 1943 (Estanques (not "Estauques") Bay and Jacuque Point, 
Gulf of Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121775, 1 specimen, 37 mm. in standard length, mouth of Cafio de 
Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 127606, a paratype, Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, February 
20, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 119794, 9 paratypes, Jacuque Point, U. S. S. Niagara, January 
26, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121776, 3 specimens, 31.5 to 33.5 mm., Salinas Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 4, 1925. 

67 specimens, 18 to 22 mm., lagoons 15 km. north of Maracaibo, F. F. Bond, 
April 6, 1938. 

The following counts were made: Anal iii, 23 in 2 specimens; 
pectoral rays ii, 14-ii, 14; gill rakers 12 + 1 + 17 in 3 specimens and 
12 + 1 + 18 and 12 + 1 + 16 in 1 each, vertebrae 42 in 1 specimen. 

ANCHOVIELLA PALLIDA (SUrks) 

Anchovia pallida Starks, The fishes of the Stanford expedition to Brazil, p. 9, 

pi. 1, 1913 (Pard, Brazil). 
Anchoviella venezuelae Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, pp. 

406-407, fig. 6, 1931 (Cafio de Guanoco, mouth of Rfo San Juan, Venezuela). 
Anchoviella pallida Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 

p. 134, fig. 59, 1943 (Cafio de Guanoco, Venezuela, to Pard, Brazil). 

Genus PTERENGRAULIS Giinther 

Pterengraulis GtJnther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 7, 
p. 398, 1868. (Genotype, Clupea atherinoides Linnaeus.) 

The genus lacks gill rakers on the posterior side of the first two gill 
arches, the third may have a few on the upper limb, whereas the 
fourth arch has a full set of rakers on its posterior side. The anal 
origin is notably in advance of a vertical line through dorsal origin. 

PTERENGRAULIS ATHERINOIDES (Linnaeus) 

Clupea atherinoides Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 523, 1766 

(Surinam) (ref. copied). 
Pterengraulis atherinoides Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 

p. 407, 1931 (Cafio de Guanoco, Venezuela). — Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



49 



Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, p 139, fig. 63, 1943 (Cafio de Guanoco and Rio 
Apure, San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela). 
6 specimens, 18 to 27 and 143 mm., Rfo Apure at San Fernando de Apure, 
F, F. Bond, February 16, 1936. 

HILDEBRANDICHTHYS, new genus 

The characters of the genus are those of the genotype. 
Genotype: Hildebrandichthys setiger, new species. 

HILDEBRANDICHTHYS SETIGER. new species 

Figure 7 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 121779, only known specimen, 31.5 mm. 
in standard length, collected near mouth of Cafio de Sagua, about 25 
km. north of Sinamaica, by Leonard P. Schultz, March 12, 1942. 

Description. — The following measurements are expressed in hun- 
dredths of the standard length for the holotype: Length of head 32.8; 
greatest depth of body 22.6; length of snout 6.23; diameter of eye 8.85; 




Figure 7. — Hildebrandichthys setiger, new genus and species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 
121779), 31.5 mm. in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

length of mandible or from tip of lower jaw to rear edge of joint of 
mandible 18.3; distance from tip of snout to rear of maxillary 23.0; 
width of interorbital space 6.56; postorbital length of head 18.3; 
length of cheek 10.5; length of longest gill raker 6.56; longest ray of 
dorsal fin 10.8; of pectoral fin 11.2; of pelvic fin 8.85; shortest mid- 
caudal fin ray 11.5; length of anal fin base 23.9; length of dorsal fin 
base 9.50; distance from pelvic insertion to anal origin 16.4; tip of 
snout to dorsal origin 70.2; snout to anal origin 65.6; snout to pectoral 
insertion 35.2; snout to pelvic insertion 49.8; length of caudal peduncle 
or distance from base of last anal fin ray to midbase of caudal fin 18.0; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 10.8. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays ii, 10; anal rays 
iii, 22; pectoral rays i, 14-i, 15; pelvic rays i, 6-i, 6; and scale rows 
from upper edge of gill opening to midbase of caudal fin 43. 

Head 3.15 and depth 4.5 in standard length; body somewhat com- 
pressed, its greatest depth through pectoral fins; depth of head at 
joint of mandible a little greater than postorbital length of head; 
snout shorter than eye, nearly 9.2 in head; eye 3.7 in head; maxillary 

802207—49 1 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.9» 

short, its posterior tip rounded, not quite reaching to joint of man- 
dible; length of maxillaries about 1.7 in head; eye contained nearly 1.2 
in the length of cheek; postorbital length of head 5.6 and mandible 5.6 
both in standard length; gill rakers rather broad and moderately long 
in the young holotype; distal margin of dorsal fin truncate, when dorsal 
fin is depressed the first rays do not quite reach to tips of last rays; 
origin of dorsal fin behind that of anal fin a distance equal to pupil and 
equidistant between midbase of caudal fin and % of eye behind the 
head; anal fin base 4.2 in standard length and notably closer to rear of 
head than midcaudal fin base; pelvic insertion midway between pec- 
toral insertion and anal origin ; distal margin of anal fin a little concave ; 
pelvic fins reaching halfway to anal origin and pectoral fins reaching 
three-fourths the way to pelvic insertion; axillary scale of pectoral 
reaching not quite halfway to tips of pectorals ; caudal fin deeply forked. 

Coloration in alcohol. — Some dark pigment cells along midline of 
back and in two rows along dorsal fin base and thence posteriorly ; anal 
fin base with black pigment cells ; top of head brown with a few dark 
cells on upper surface of snout; caudal fin with dark pigment a little 
more intense on upper and lower margins and a black speck at midbase 
of each caudal fin lobe ; silvery lateral band not developed in the small 
type specimen, but operculum is silvery. 

Remarks. — The key on page 38 separates H. setiger from P. ather- 
inoides. See table 5 for counts made on the two species. 

Named setiger in reference to its numerous gill rakers. 

Genus LYCENGRAULIS Giinther 

Lycengraulis Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 7, 
pp. 385, 399, 1868. (Genotype, Engraulis grossidens Cuvier.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF LYCENGRAULIS REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA " 

la. Gill rakers 13 to 20 + 18 to 25 on first arch; origin of dorsal usually about 

equidistant from midcaudal fin base and posterior margin of eye; pectoral 

rays 14 to 16; origin of dorsal equidistant between midbase of caudal fin and 

posterior half of eye or a little behind eye. 

2a. Vertebrae 43 to 45, usually 43 or 44; anal rays iii, 22 to iii, 28; greatest 

depth 3.85 to 4.4 (in adults) in standard length; maxillary sharply pointed 

posteriorly, reaching well beyond joint of mandible, sometimes nearly to 

margin of opercle, usually 4.8 to 5.3 in standard length. 

Lycengraulis grossidens (Cuvier) 
26. Vertebrae 41 or 42, rarely 42; anal rays usually iii, 20 to iii, 24; depth 4.3 to 
4.9; maxillary not sharply pointed, more rounded at tip, reaching to or a 
little past joint of mandible, about 55^ to 5^ in standard length. 

Lycengraulis lironichthys, new species 
lb. Gill rakers 9 to 13 + 12 to 15 on first arch; cheek long and narrow, notably 
longer than snout and eye, 2.0 to 2.25 in head; body quite slender, the depth 
5.25 to 6.0 in length; maxillary reaching nearly or quite to joint of mandible, 
5.5 to 5.8 in length; origin of dorsal notably nearer base of caudal than 
eye; vertebrae 47; anal rays iii, 23 to iii, 25; pectoral rays 13 or 14. 

Lycengraulis batesii (Gunther) 

" Modified after Hildebrand. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 51 

Table 6. — CourU$ recorded for Pterengraulis* OTid Hildebrandichthys 





Number of anal fin rays 


Number of gill rakers on first 
gill arch 


Species 


iii, 
22 


iii, 
23 


iii. 
24 


iii, 
25 


iii, 
26 


iii, 

27 


iii, 
28 


iii, 
29 


iii, 
30 


iii, 
31 


iii, 
32 


10 
+ 
13 


10 
+ 
14 


10 
+ 
15 


11 
+ 
13 


11 

+ 
14 


12 
+ 
14 


12 
+ 
15 


13 

+ 
16 


22 
+ 
15 












2 


— - 


9 


6 


2 


1 


1 


3 


7 


1 


1 


5 


2 


2 


1 


~ 


H. setiger. 


1 








- 








































1 



1 The counts for all but four specimens of P. athennoides were kindly furnished me by Dr. Samuel F. 
Hildebrand from his original notes accumulated during his studies of the American Engraulldae. I take 
this opportunity to express my gratitude to him for this and other help furnished. 

Table 6. — Counts made on species of Lycengraulis from Venezuela 



Species 


Anal rays 


Vertebrae 


Dorsal 
rays 


Pectoral rays 


iii, 
20 


iii, 
21 


iii, 
22 


iii, 
23 


iii, 
24 


iii, 
25 


iii. 
26 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


iii, 
12 


iii, 
13 


i, 13 


i,14 


1,15 


grossidens 








1 
14 


3 

4 


4 
1 


1 


14 


1 
1 


7 


3 


1 


1 
4 


6 
2 


2 
3 


10 
16 


14 


limnichthyt . . . - 


1 


4 


10 


2 













LYCENGRAULIS BATESH (Gttnther) 

EngrauUs batesii Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 7, 
p. 399, 1868 (Rio Pard). — Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, 
art. 2, p. 148, fig. 67, 1943 (Rio Apure at San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 119814, 2 specimens, 42.5 and 62.5 mm. in standard length, 
from Rio Apure, San Fernando de Apure, F. F. Bond, February 16, 1938. 
From same collection as U.S.N. M. No. 119814, 8 specimens, 20 to 70 mm. 

LYCENGRAUUS UMNICHTHYS, new speciea 

Figure 8 

Holotype.—\J.S,NM. No. 121751, 92 mm. in standard length, 
collected by Leonard P. Schultz on May 1, 1944 in the KIo Agua 
Cahente, 2 to 3 km. above Lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela. 

Paratypes. — All paratypes were collected by Leonard P. Schultz 
during 1942 in the Maracaibo Basiu of Venezuela: 

U.S.N. M. No. 121752, 59 specimens, 40 to 128 mm. in standard length, collected 
along with the holotype and bearing same data, 

U.S.N. M. No. 121756, 1 specimen, 117 mm., taken in gill net, in Lago de Mara- 
caibo, 1 km. off Pueblo Viejo, April 7-9. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121758, 6 specimens, 88 to 118 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121753, 40 specimens, 24 to 121 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo 
near mouth of Rio Concha, May 2. 



52 PROCEEDENGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

U.S.N.M. No. 121757, 84 specimens, 20 to 80 mm., from the Rio de Los Pdjaros, 
3 km. above Lago de Maracaibo, April 30. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121755, 1 specimen, 24 mm., from a pool in drying-up Rio San 
Ignacio about 20 km. south of Rosario, February 26. 

U.S.N.M, No. 121754, 2 specimens, 32 and 34.5 mm., off dock at Lagunillas 
in Lago de Maracaibo, April 14. 



Figure 8. — Lycengraulis limnichthys, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121751), 92 
mm. in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

Description. — Certain measurements were made, and these data, 
recorded below, are expressed in hundredths of the standard length, 
first for the holotype, then for two paratypes in parentheses, respec- 
tively. Standard lengths in millimeters 94.0 (48.1; 118.5). 

Length of head 27.7 (25.6; 25.2); greatest depth of body 23.6 (20.8; 
22.1); length of snout 4.78 (4.16; 4.47); diameter of eye 6.70 (7.69; 
6.07); distance from tip of lower jaw to rear of joint of mandible 18.2 
(16.6; 18.0); distance from snout tip to rear of maxillary 21.6 (19.7; 
21.1); greatest width of interorbital 5.64 (6.03; 5.06); postorbital 
length of head 16.0 (14.3; 15.3); length of cheek 10.1 (8.11; 10.5); 
length of longest gill raker on first gill arch 3.08 (4.36; 2.45); length of 
longest ray of dorsal fin 16.0 (15.4; 14.1), of anal fin 13.3 (12.9;—), 
of pectoral fin 19.1 (18.7; 17.3), of pelvic fin 9.56 (10.4; 8.69), and of 
lower lobe of caudal fin 27.1 (25.8; — ); shortest midcaudal fin ray 
7.76 (9.59; 7.34); length of base of anal fin 24.5 (24.1; 22.4); length of 
base of dorsal fin 11.2 (11.2; 13.0); distance from pelvic insertion to 
anal origin 19.9 (18.3; 20.5); tip of snout to dorsal origin 54.8 (53.2; 
54.4); snout to anal origin 62.4 (60.9; 59.9); snout to pectoral insertion 
27.4 (27.4; 24.7); and to pelvic insertion 44.2 (42.6; 38.4); length of 
caudal peduncle 18.8 (18.3; 19.0); least depth of caudal peduncle 10.0 
(9.77; 10.1). 

The following counts were made, respectively: Dorsal rays iii, 12 
(iii, 12; iii, 12); anal rays iii, 22 (iii, 22; iii 22); pectoral rays ii, 14-ii, 
15 (ii, 13-ii, 14; ii, 14-ii, 14); pelvic rays always i, 6; scales 42 (42; 43). 

Body compressed, rather slender, its greatest depth 4.3 to 4.9; 
depth of head at joint of mandible about four-fifths of postorbital 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 53 

length of head; head notably longer than greatest depth of body, 
nearly 4 times in standard length; snout bluntly rounded, projecting 
less than half its length beyond tip of mandible, shorter than eye, and 
contained 5.5 to 6 times in head; eye 3 to 4.2 times in head; maxillary 
slender, not notably pointed, extending to or a little past joint of 
mandible, 1.3 to 1.4 in head; mandible pointed, curved slightly up- 
ward at tip, reachmg a little past a vertical line through front of 
anterior nostril; teeth in lower jaw variable in size, usually 18 to 24 
enlarged, the enlarged ones of upper jaw more numerous; cheek longer 
than snout and eye, about 2.3 to 2.4 in head in specimens longer than 
85 mm.; postorbital length of head 6.5 to 7.2 in standard length; gill 
rakers slender, usually 16 to 18+20 to 23 on first arch; height of dorsal 
fin about equal to postorbital length of head, its distal margin a little 
concave; distal margin of anal a little concave; first branched ray of 
pectoral fin longest, reaching to or a little past insertion of pelvics; 
pelvic fins not reaching quite halfway to anal origin; caudal fm deeply 
forked, the lower lobe a little longer and stronger than upper lobe; 
origin of dorsal fin usually equidistant between midcaudal fin base 
and rear margin of pupil; origin of anal fin under bases of fifth to 
seventh branched rays of dorsal fin or a little behind middle of base 
of dorsal fin; axillary scale of pectoral about three-fourths length of 
pectoral fin. 

Color. — The color of preserved specimens in alcohol is grayish above 
with a dark streak along middle of back; margin of caudal fin with a 
narrow blackish band ; interradial membranes of caudal fin lobes with 
black pigment, especially intense between the third and fourth from 
middle on lower lobe and fourth and fifth from middle on upper lobe, 
the middle rays between almost unpigmented; middle of snout with 
black pigment; upper edge of maxillaries anteriorly with black pig- 
ment; inner side or opercle heavily pigmented; peritoneum silvery; 
silvery lateral band present and as wide as snout and eye over region 
of anal fin origin. 

Remarks. — This new species is so distinct that it does not resemble 
any form known at present. It is as slender as L. olidus but has 41 
(rarely 42) vertebrae instead of 46 to 48. L. grossidens has 43 or 44 
(rarely 45) vertebrae and a much greater depth of body than L. 
limnichthys. In Hildebrand's review of the American anchovies 
(1943, pp. 141-142), it would trace down to a new section in his key, 
ddd on p. 141. It may be distinguished from other Venezuelan 
anchovies by the key on page 50. 

The smallest female observed with fully mature eggs, apparently 
ready for deposition, was 75 mm. in standard length and came from 
the Rio Agua Caliente. 

Named limnichthys in reference to its occurrence in a lake. 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

LYCENGRAULIS GROSSIDENS (CuTler) 

Engraulis grossidens Cuvier, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species piscium 
. . . Brasiliara . . ., p. 50, pi. C, 1829 (Rio de Janeiro). 

Engraulis Janeiro Spix, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species piscium 
. . . Brasiliam . . ., pi. 24, fig. 1, 1829. 

Lycengraulis grossidens Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 
fig. 64, 1943 (Gulf of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121759, 9 specimens, mouth of Cano de Sagua, 25 km. north of 
Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No, 127620, 8 specimens, 31 to 142 mm., oflF south coast of the Gulf, 
U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121760, 2 specimens, 26.5 to 52 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

Genus CETENGRAULIS Giinther 

Cetengraulis Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 7, 
p. 383, 1868. (Genotype, Engraulis edentulus Cuvier.) 

CETENGRAULIS EDENTULUS (Curler) 

Engraulis edentulus Cuvier, Le rSgne animal, vol. 2, p. 323, 1817; ed, 2, vol. 2, 

p. 323, 1829 (Jamaica) (ref. copied). 
Cetengraulis edentulus Hildebrand, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 8, art. 2, 

p. 155, fig. 71, 1943 (Gulf of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121780, 165 specimens, 27.5 to 66 mm. in standard length, the 
mouth of Cano de Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 127677, 2 specimens, 56 and 64.5 mm., Amuay Bay, Gulf of 
Venezuela, P. P. Blackburn, of the U. S. S. Niagara, December 9, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 127682, 1 specimen, 72 mm., from south coast, Gulf of Venezuela, 
P. P. Blackburn, of the U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

The intestine is greatly coiled in both edentulus and mysticetus and 
should prove to be a character of generic significance in this famUy. 
The intestine and peritoneum are generally black. 

The following counts were made on the Venezuelan specimens: 
41 vertebrae in 4 specimens and 42 in 1; anal rays iii,20 in 1, iii,21 
in 2, and iii,22 in 6 specimens. 

Suborder Salmoniformes 
Family SALMONIDAE 

Genus SALMO Linnaeus 
Trout 

Salmo Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 308, 1758. (Genotype, Salmo 
solar Linnaeus.) 

SALMO GAIRDNERn Richardson 

Rainbow trout; Trucha de arco iris 

Salmo gairdnerii Richardson, Fauna Boreali-Americana, vol. 3, p. 221, 1836 
(Columbia River at Fort Vancouver, North America). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 55 

U.S.N. M. No. 121693, 1 specimen, 35 mm. in standard length, from the Upper 
Rfo Chama above Mucuchfes, Estado de M^rida, March 28, 1942. 

The rainbow trout introduced into the mountain streams of Vene- 
zuela some years ago appears to have become estabHshed there in 
rather limited numbers. 

Suborder Iniomoidea 

Family SYNODONTIDAE: Lizardfishes 

Genus SYNODUS Scopoli 

Synodus Scopoli, Introductio historiam naturalem, p. 449, 1777. (Genotype, 
Esox synodus Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

SYNODUS FOETENS (Linnaeus) 

Lizahdfish; Fez Lagarto 
Salmo foetens Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 513, 1766 (South Carolina). 

U.S.N, M. No. 123131, 3 specimens, 240 to 329 mm., ffrom Estanques Bay, 
U. S. S. Niagara, December 31, 1924. 

Order OSTARIOPHYSOIDEA 

Suborder Characinoidea 

Family CHARACINIDAE 

The characinid fishes were reported upon by me in a previous paper 
entitled "The Fishes of the Family Characinidae from Venezuela, with 
Descriptions of Seventeen New Forms," published in the Proceedings 
of the United States National Museum, volume 95, pp. 235-367, 
figs. 30-56, September 6, 1944. That study was based on the speci- 
mens that I collected in Venezuela during 1942 as well as on other 
specimens in the United States National Museum collections and on 
the literature. In that report were recorded from Venezuela 58 
genera and 117 species and subspecies, and 29 of these species were 
from the Maracaibo Basin. 

I take this opportunity to correct some of the more important 
errors that have been observed in my report on this group of fishes. 

On page 258 I introduced the new subfamOy name Ctenolucinae, 
but Dr. C. L. Hubbs has called to my attention that in Copeia, 1939, 
No. 3, p. 168, he had introduced the subfamily name Hepsetinae for a 
related characinid occurring in Africa. It is by no means certain that 
the African group is as closely related as the external features seem to 
indicate, but pending further investigations I shall recognize the 
subfamily Hepsetinae. 

In table 7, p. 263, for asper the number of scales above lateral line 
should be one count each for 7 and 8 instead of 11 under 7 as given. 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

On page 264, last two lines of large type 7 or 8 should be transposed 
with 8 or 9. 

I overlooked three species described as new by Valenciennes in 
Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire Naturelle de Poissons, volume 19, 
1846, until it was too late to enter them in my report. The following 
should be referred to the synonymy of Hoplias malaharicus (Bloch): 
Macrodon tareira, p. 508, from Lago de Maracaibo; Macrodon teres, 
p. 521, from Lago de Maracaibo; and Macrodon guavina, p. 527, 
from Laguna de Tacarigua, Valley of the Rio Aragua. 

Enrico Tortonese (1942, p. 75, pi. 2, fig. 3) reports Hemihrycon 
dariensis Meek and Hildebrand from Rio del Paso Real, Puerto 
Cabello, Venezuela. Since his description and figure agree fairly 
well with specimens from the Rio Tuy and Rio Gudrico systems, I 
refer the identification made by Tortonese to Hemihrycon dentatus 
metae Myers, keyed out in my characinid paper on p. 363. 

Suborder Gymnotoidea: Feces Cuchillo 

Body elongate, usually compressed, eellike; with or without scales; 
head naked; dorsal fin lacking or represented by a fleshy filament 
mostly attached along back posteriorly; pelvics absent; anal fin very 
long; pectoral fins short, rounded; caudal fin absent or very small, 
the tan tapering to a point in species lacldng the caudal fin; mouth 
with or without teeth; premaxillary and maxillaries forming upper 
jaws; anus always in front of middle of pectorals, usually under middle 
of head; shoulder girdle suspended from skull; symplectic bone present; 
air bladder in two parts connected by a tube; stomach with bhnd sac 
and pyloric caeca (after Ellis) . 

Since publishing my description of Hypopomus beebei in Zoologica, 
1944, and placing it in the family Gymnotidae, I have concluded that 
it may be advantageous to break this group up into at least three 
families as recognized in the following key: 

KEY TO THE GENERA REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA » 

la. Lower jaw not prolonged or longer than upper jaw; a large frontal and 
parietal fontanel along middorsal line of head; head not depressed; teeth if 
present villiform or minute; electric organs absent (family Sternarchidae). 
2a. Caudal fin absent; the tail behind anal fin slender and tapering to a point; 
dorsal filament absent. 
3o. Snout not tubular, but short or moderately elongate. 
4a. Orbital margin free; both jaws with villiform teeth. 

Stemopygus MiiUer and Troschel 
45. Orbital margin not free. 

5a. A cylindrical filament in a pair of grooves on under side of head in 
mental region; snout short, head chubbj^; teeth absent. 

Steatogenys Boulenger 

»* See table 7 for anal-ray counts. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



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58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

5b. Under side of head normal, -without a pair of grooves -with a filament. 
6a. Teeth present in both jaws; body compressed. 

Eigenmannia Jordan and Evermann 
6b. Teeth absent in jaws; head and body compressed to rounded; 
the length of head equal to or longer than greatest depth; 
anterior nasal opening in front of upper lip and posterior nasal 
opening rather close to front of eye; anal fin origin about under 
tips of pectoral fins; prominent pores along "lateral line" canals 

on head; anal papillae well developed Hypopomus Gill 

3b. Snout tubular, produced; jaws without teeth. 

Rhamphichthys Miiller and Troschel 
26. Tail rather short, caudal fin present sometimes minute; dorsal filament 
present; orbital margin not free. 
7a. Snout much produced (these genera not yet reported from Venezuela). 
7b. Snout heavy and blunt, not produced or tubular. 

8a. Teeth present in both jaws; gill opening extending a little over halfway 
down in front of pectoral fin base; posterior nostril a trifle closer to 

anterior nostril than to ej^e Apteronotus Lacepede 

8b. Teeth present in lower jaw; upper jaw without teeth; gill opening 
barely extends halfway to opposite pectoral fin base; posterior 
nostril closer to eye than to anterior nostril. 

Stemarchogiton Eigenmann and Ward 

8c. Teeth absent in both jaws; posterior nostril not quite touching the 

upper front margin of eye, anterior nostril midway between eye 

and tip of snout Adontostemarchus EUis 

lb. Lower jaw projecting in front of upper jaw; frontal fontanel absent; head 
depressed; dorsal filament absent; teeth conical in sockets. 
9a. Anal fin not continuous around end of slender tail; body scaled; no electric 

glands (family Gymnotidae) Qyranotus Linnaeus 

9b. Anal fin continuous around end of tail; body scaleless; electric glands 
present (family Electrophoridae) Electrophorus GiU 

Family STERNARCHIDAE 

Genus STERNOPYGUS Miiller and Troschel 

Sternopygus Miller and Troschel, Horae ichthyologicae, pt. 2, p. 13, 1849. 
(Genotype, Gymnotus macrurus Bloch and Schneider.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF STERNOPYGUS 

la. Anal rays number more than 300; snout very blunt, upper profile distinctly 
convex (Amazon) Sternopygus obtusirostris Steindachner 

lb. Anal rays fewer than 300 or the upper profile of the head concave or straight. 
2a. A black blotch behind head just above gill opening; interorbital space equal 
to distance from tip of snout to halfway between rear nostril and eye; 
dorsal profile of head convex or nearly straight; interorbital space into 
head 3.4 to 4 times and into length of pectoral fin 1.2 to 1.6 times; snout 
to occiput 7.4 to 8.4 and postorbital length of head 9.3 to 10.5, both into 
length of anal fin base; midaxis of body with a pale or yellowish streak 
posteriorly; anal rays 250 to 279 as counted by me on specimens from 
Venezuela Sternopygus macrurus (Bloch and Schneider) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 59 

26. No black blotch behind head; interorbital space equal to distance from 

snout tip to rear nostril; dorsal profile of head concave; interorbital into 

head 4.7 to 6.0 and into length of pectoral fin 1.6 to 2.2 times; snout to 

occiput 6.7 to 7.4 and postorbital length of head 7.2 to 9.3, both into 

length of anal fin base. 

da. Posteriorly along midaxis of body and on tail is a bright lemon yellowish 

streak, pale in alcohol; tail rounded behind anal base, tapering to a 

point; postorbital length of head 7.3 to 8.6 into length of anal base; 

snout to occiput into anal base 5.7 to 6.6; interorbital space 1.6 to 2.0 

into longest pectoral fin ray; anal rays 278 to 306. 

Stemopygus pe jeraton, new species 

36. Midaxis of body plain in color and without a pale streak; tail compressed 

behind anal base; postorbital length of head 8.1 to 9.3 into anal fin 

base; snout to occiput into anal base 6.3 to 7.3; interorbital into longest 

pectoral fin ray 1.8 to 2.2; anal rays 256 to 292 (Panama). 

Stemopygus dariensis Meek and Hildebrand 

STERNOPYGUS MACRURUS (Bloch and Schneider) 

Gymnonotus macrurus Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 522, 

1801 (Brazil). 
Stemopygus carapus Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 473 (San 

Fernando de Apure, Venezuela)— Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 279 (Apure). 
Stemopygus macrurus Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, 

p. 313, 1942 (Orinoco). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121574, 11 specimens, 94 to 210 mm. in total length, from Rio 
Gudrico and tributaries between San Sebastian and San Casimiro, L. P. Schultz, 
G. Zuloaga, Roger Sherman, and William Phelps, Jr., May 12, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121573, 2 specimens, 250 and 260 mm. in total length, from the 
Rio San Pedro at bridge, south of Mene Grande, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121577, a specimen, 378 mm., from Rio San Juan at bridge, 
south of Mene Grande, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121575, a specimen 443 mm., Rio Motatdn at bridge, 22 km. 
north of Motatfin, March 17, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121576, 6 specimens, 125 to 237 mm. and 1 480 mm. to end of 
anal (tail regenerating), Rfo Negro below mouth of Rio Yasa, March 2. 1942. 

The following measurements were made on a specimen 377 mm. in 
total length from the Rio San Juan, collected March 20; the data are 
expressed in hundredths of the length to end of anal fin (which is 
316 mm.): Length of anal fin base 83.8; head 16.3; snout 5.38; eye 
1.04; interorbital 4.05; postorbital length of head 9.97; snout to anus 
9.96; snout to anal origin 16.1; anus to anal origin 7.00; longest 
pectoral ray 6.42; longest anal ray 4.11 ; snout to occiput 9.97; greatest 
depth 13.1; depth of head through eyes 6.17; distance from anterior 
to posterior nostril 2.03; eye to posterior nostril 2.38; width of gill 
opening 4.68; snout to rictus 2.85; snout to end of maxillary 3.16; 
snout to pectoral insertion 15.7; length of tail beyond anal 19.9. 

Anal rays 277 and pectoral rays iii,ll-iii,12. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 9e 

STEBNOPYGUS PEJERATON. new species 

Peje rat6n 
Plaie 1, A 

Holotype.— U.S.N. M. No. 121572, 505 mm. in total length, collected 
by Leonard P. Schiiltz in the Rio Ap6n, about 35 km. south of Rosario, 
in the Maracaibo Basin, February 26, 1942, 

Paratypes. — The paratypes were collected by Leonard P. Schultz 
during 1942 in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela (measurements 
are for total length): 

U.S.N.M. No. 121564, 17 specimens, 121 to 645 mm., taken with the holotype 
and bearing same data. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121570, 14 specimens, 143 to 385 mm., Rfo Palmar at bridge, 
70 km. southwest of Maracaibo, March 6. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121568, 3 specimens, 165 to 188 mm., Rfo Machango, 20 km. 
above bridge, south of Lagunillas, March 21. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121569, 2 specimens, 195 and 228 mm., Rfo Pahnar near Totuma, 
about 100 km. southwest of Maracaibo, February 21. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121565, 14 specimens, 117 to 442 mm. Rfo Motatdn at bridge 22 
km. north of Motat^n, March 17. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121566, 7 specimens, 131 to 615 mm., Rfo Negro below mouth 
of Rfo Yasa, March 2. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121567, 17 specimens, 163 to 430 mm., Rfo Socuy, 3 km. above 
mouth, February 24. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121571, 2 specimens, 635 and 710 mm., Rfo Machango at bridge 
south of Lagunillas, March 16. 

Description. — Based on the holotype and paratypes. Measure- 
ments, expressed in hundredths of the distance from snout to rear end 
of anal fin, first for the holotype, then for a paratype, in paren- 
theses, are recorded below, respectively. Total length in mm. 505 
(187). 

Distance from tip of snout to rear end of anal fin in mm. 455 (160). 
Length of anal fin base 81.7 (86.3); length of head 16.5 (16.9); snout 
5.28 (5.75); eye 0.92 (1.06); interorbital space 2.75 (3.81); postorbital 
length of head 10.0 (10.6); distance from snout to anus 10.3 (11.9); 
snout to anal origin 16.8 (18.1); snout to occiput 12.9 (13.5); snout to 
pectoral insertion 16.1 (10.9); length of longest pectoral ray 6.26 
(6.88); longest anal ray 5.72 (6.56); greatest depth of body 13.1 (12.8); 
depth of head through eyes 5.82 (5.94) ; distance from anterior nostril 
to posterior nostril 1.87 (1.88); eye to posterior nostril 2,53 (2.56); 
width of gill opening 4.28 (5.38); tip of snout to rictus 3.41 (3.12); 
tip of snout to rear of maxillary 3.96 (3.44) ; length of tail beyond end 
of anal fin 11.2 (16.4). 

The following counts were made, respectively: Anal rays 298 (282); 
pectoral rays iii,13-iii,14 (iii,13-iii,13). There appear to be about 
20 to 25 scales between the lateral line and midline of the back. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 61 

Body compressed, tail rounded beyond end of anal fin; snout elong- 
ate; rear margin of eye in front of middle of length of head, a distance 
equal to the space between eye and posterior nostril; dorsal profile of 
head usually a httle concave, sometimes nearly straight in the young; 
pectoral fin equal to distance from rear of eye to snout tip ; margin of 
eye free ; gill opening extending some distance above and below pectoral 
fin base; anal origin under rear of base of pectoral fin; anus under 
middle of length of head; lateral line straight, complete; scales on 
upper sides of body and on tail a Httle enlarged; interorbital space 
convex equal to distance from tip of snout to rear nostril; length of 
head much longer than greatest depth; head about 5K to 6 times in 
distance to end of anal fin; tail extends beyond anal fin a distance 
about equal to or a little greater than length of head. 

Color. — Body uniformly dark brownish everywhere ; middle of sides 
posteriorly with a narrow pale streak, lemon yellowish in living fish; 
operculum with slight intensification of the pigment; all anal and aU 
pectoral rays darkish, the interradial membranes pale. 

Remarks. — This new species is most closely related to Sternopygus 
dariensis Meek and Hildebrand from Panama. It may be dis- 
tinguished from it by having the pale streak along midaxis of body and 
tail posteriorly and by the key on page 59. From S. macrurus the 
new species differs in having the head with a concave dorsal profile, 
and in addition, the interorbital space is more convex and narrower 
in S. pejeraton. 

Named pejeraton, after the common name of this fish, peje rat6n, as 
given to me many times in the Maracaibo Basin, in reference, no 
doubt, to its rathke tail. 

Genus STEATOGENYS Boulenger 

Steatogenys Boulenger, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 14, No. 7, p. 428, 1898. 
(Genotype, Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhamphichthys) elegans Steindachner.) 

STEATOGENYS ELEGANS (Steindachner) 

Rhamphichthys (Brachyrhamphichthys) elegans Steindachner, Denkschr. Akad. 

Wiss. Wien, vol. 42, p. 89, 1880 (mouth of Rfo Negro). 
Tateichthys duidae La Monte, Amer. Mus. Nov. No. 373, p. 1, fig. 1, 1929 (Burned 

Mountain Creek, Mount Duida, Venezuela). 

Genus EIGENMANNIA Jordan and Evermann 

Eigenmannia Jordan and Evermann, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 47, p. 341, 1896. 
(Genotype, Sternopygus humboldtii Steindachner [substitute name for 
Cryptops Eigenmann].) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF EIGENMANNIA REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Anal rays 185 to 224; rear margin of eye an eye diameter in front of middle 
of length of head; dorsal profile of head convex; snout shorter than interor- 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

bital space; a narrow black streak along lateral line; black pigment on 
each bony support along base of anal fin, 

Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes) 

16. Anal rays 255 and 263; rear margin of eye at middle of length of head; dorsal 

profile straight or a trifle concave; snout much longer than interorbital 

space; no black streak along lateral line; no black pigment along base of 

anal fin Eigenmannia goajira, new species 

EIGENMANNIA VIRESCENS (Valenciennes) 

Sternarchus virescens Valenciennes, in d'Orbigny, Voyage dans I'Amlrique 
M^ridionale, Poissons, vol. 2, pi. 13, fig. 2, 1847 (ref. copied). — Eigenmann and 
Ward, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 7, p. 172, fig. 14, 1905 (Rfo Magda- 
lena to Rio de La Plata, east of Andes). — Hildebrand, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist., zool. ser., vol. 22, No. 4, p. 292, 1938 (Rio Mamoni near Chepo, Rio 
Tuyra to Rfo Magdalena to Buenos Aires). 

Eigenmannia virescens humboldlii Iherino, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 7, p. 283, 
1907 (Venezuela, Amazona, Maraj6). 

Sternopygus virescens Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 279 (Apure). — Eigenmann 
AND Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, p. 16, 1891 (Orinoco). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121581, 8 specimens, 120 to 165 mm., Rfo Ap6n, about 35 km. 
south of Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121579, 4 examples, 88 to 128 mm., Rfo San Pedro at bridge, 
south of Mene Grande, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121578, 11 specimens, 80 to 136 mm., Rfo Negro below mouth 
of Rfo Yasa, March 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121583, 10 specimens, 73 to 165 mm. Rfo Socuy, 3 km. above 
mouth, February 24, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121582, 4 specimens, 97 to 160 mm., Rfo San Juan near the 
bridge south of Mene Grande, March 17 to 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121580, 10 specimens, 145 to 210 mm., Rfo Motatdn at bridge, 
22 km. north of Motatdn, March 17, 1942. 

The follow^ing number of anal rays were counted on the specimens 
hsted above: 179; 180; 182; 184; 185; 187; 187; 190; 194; 198; 199; 201 
and 205. 

This species, when taken from the water, was silvery in coloration 
and more or less translucent. 

As a result of my examination of various specimens of Eigenmannia 
centering around the species currently recognized as virescens, I am 
forced to conclude that this species should be broken up into one or 
more subspecies. One should especially note that in British Guiana 
two species are undoubtedly passing under E. virescens. Specimens 
from the Botanic Garden (U.S.N.M. No. 66296) and others have 185 
to 198 anal rays. Those from Wismar (U.S.N.M. No. 66298) have 
208 to 224 anal rays and the anal fin has a dark band distally more 
ntense anteriorly on these alcoholic specimens. I have not yet been 
able to work out the valid names for these two species. Undoubtedly 
the Panamanian form of virescens should be described as a new sub- 
species on the basis of fewer anal rays (165), a larger eye, and longer 
pectoral fin, but I hesitate to take this step as our only specimen is 
without a tail. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



63 



EIGENMANNIA GOAJIRA. new species 

Plate 1, B 

Holotype.— V.S.N. M. No. 121596, 500 mm. in total length and 385 
mm. from snout tip to end of anal fin base, collected by Leonard P. 
Schultz, February 24, 1942, in the Rio Socuy, 3 km. above its mouth. 

Paratype.—\J.S.1<^.M. No. 121597, 430 mm. total length (with 
regenerated tail), and 347 mm. from snout tip to end of anal fin base, 
taken along with the holotype and bearing same data. 

The types were collected over a sandy to muddy bottom. 

Description. — Measurements were made on the holotype and para- 
type, and these data, expressed in hundredths of the distance from 
tip of snout to rear end of anal-fin base, are recorded in table 8. 

The following counts were made, respectively, for holotype and 
paratype: Anal rays 263 and 255; pectoral rays ii, 18-ii, 19 and ii, 
16-ii, 17. 

Table 8. — Measurements, expressed in hundredths of the distance from snout to end 
of anal-fin base, for species of Eigenmannia 



Characters 



Total length in millimeters ..- 

Snout to end of anal fin in millimeters 

Length of anal base 

Length of head 

Snout -.- 

Eye 

Interorbital 

Postorbital length of head 

Distance between anterior and posterior nostrils 

Distance between eye and posterior nostril 

Width of gill opening 

Tip of snout to rictus 

Snout to anus 

Snout to anal origin 

Anus to anal origin 

Snout to occiput 

Snout to pectoral insertion 

Longest pectoral ray 

Longest anal ray 

Greatest depth of body 

Depth of head through eyes 

Length of tail beyond anal fin 



goajira 


ctmirostris > 






Holotype 


Paratype 




500.0 


430.0 


405.0 


385.0 


347.0 


275.0 


87.8 


85.6 


85.5 


12.0 


13.5 


12.9 


4.08 


5.18 


3.64 


1.56 


1.53 


2.63 


2.47 


3.05 


2.07 


6.80 


7.06 


7.64 


1.04 


1.38 


1.09 


2.05 


2.25 


1.27 


3.12 


3.75 


4.18 


1.69 


2.02 


3.09 


6.88 


7.06 


10.2 


14.0 


14.8 


14.2 


7.14 


7.87 


4.18 


10.3 


11.0 


9.24 


12.0 


13.2 


12.7 


6.94 


7.38 


7.10 


5.02 


5.19 


5.10 


12.1 


13.3 


13.0 


5.46 


5.90 


5.82 


29.6 


»22.2 


48.4 



207.0 
152.0 
88.2 
14.1 
4.28 
2.00 
4.74 
8.76 
1.71 
1.58 
4.60 
2.70 
7.57 
15.8 
8.95 
10.9 
13.6 



6.12 
17.4 

8.23 
36.9 



• This specimen, U.S.N.M. No. 62543, was reported upon by Eigenmann and Bean (Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 31, p. 666, 1907) as Eigenmannia troscheli, but I now identify it as E. conircatria Eigenmann and 
Allen. 

> Regenerated tail. 

The body is elongate, compressed, but the tail is rounded, and the 
length of the tail behind anal fin is contained 2.9 times in length of 



64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

anal-fin base; the dorsal profile of the head is straight or with a very- 
slight concavity; the snout is somewhat pointed and rounded; the 
rear margin of the eye is at about the midlength of the head or a httle 
in front of it; the eye is contained 2% to 3 K in the snout and 1.5 to 1.8 
in the interorbital space; the anus is under rear of eye; origin of anal 
fin under rear of base of pectoral fin; the gill opening extends above 
and below base of pectoral fin; upper and lower jaws with patches of 
vilHform teeth; the lower jaw is a little shorter than upper, so that 
the snout projects a little; the mouth is small, so that the rictus or 
corner of mouth is just a trifle behind a vertical line through anterior 
nostril; tip of snout to rear of maxillary 2 in snout; distance between 
anterior and posterior nostrils 1.5 times in distance from eye to 
posterior nostril; the interorbital space is convex, and its width is 
equal to the distance from the tip of snout to posterior nostril; the 
lateral line is straight; body and tail covered \Aath scales, head naked; 
the scales along sides of body largest; about 13 or 14 rows of scales 
between lateral line and middorsal line; the pectoral fin length is 
equal to the distance from center of eye to rear of head; fontanel 
present along middorsal line of head. Apparently both specimens 
are males with short anal papillae and the testes are fully developed. 

Color. — Live examples of this species were silvery on sides and a 
httle darker dorsally. In alcohol it is plain pale in color on sides and 
pale brownish dorsally; a dark brown streak continues on dorsal sur- 
face of tail to its tip, contrasting sharply \vith the whitish sides and 
whitish ventrally; pectoral and anal fins white; operculum with a 
dark blotch; peritoneum pale. 

Remarks. — This new species of gymnotid eel would trace do^vn 
through the "Key to the Species of Genus Eigenmannia" by Eigen- 
mann and Allen (1942, p. 315) to their new species E. conirostris on 
the basis of 239 to 259 anal rays; all other species of Eigenmannia, 
such as virescens, troscheli, and macrops, have fewer than 225 anal 
rays. In addition, macrops has the caudal filament equal to "half 
the total length without the head," while in goajira the caudal filament 
is contained nearly 3 times in the anal-fin base; virescens has a black 
streak along lateral fine, another along base of anal fin, both lacking 
in goajira; troscheli has a very bluntly rounded short snout contained 
about 3.75 to 4 in the head instead of 2.6 to 3 in the head of goajira. 
E. conirostris and the new species are closely related but differ in the 
position of the eye; in conirostris the rear margin of the eye is about an 
eye diameter closer to tip of snout than rear of head instead of equal 
distance as in goajira; in addition, goajira appears to have a larger 
number of anal rays, 255 and 263, than conirostris with 239 to 259. 

Named goajira in reference to the district inhabited by the Goajira 
Indians, where this fish was collected. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 65 

Genus HYPOPOMUS Gill 

Hypopomus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1864, p. 152. (Genotype, 
Rhamphichthys mulleri Kaup.) 

After examining the material in the national collections, along with 
four specimens collected by Dr. William Beebe at Caripito, Venezuela, 
and comparing these with figures and descriptions of the already 
described species, I have considerable doubt as to the identifications 
made by Ellis in his review of the family Gymnotidae and by Eigen- 
mann in his work on British Guiana fishes. (The two accounts are 
nearly identical.) The specimens from Caripito have a very bluntly 
rounded snout and shorter head, and the pore above the posterior 
nostril differs in position when compared with forms from other 
localities. Unfortunately, Kaup did not show the position of that 
pore in reference to the posterior nostril, but his measurements of 
and his figure of artedi indicate that this species has a pointed snout 
with the rear margin of the eye behind the middle of the length from 
snout to occiput, while in other forms it is equidistant between, as 
shown in figures and in the specimens before me. Steindachner's 
figure of brevirostris fortunately shows the position of the pores in 
reference to the posterior nostril, and these are the same as in the 
specimens that I am referring to occidentalis Regan from Panama and 
the Maracaibo Basin, but the species must be dift'erent since brevirostris 
has 259 or 260 anal rays instead of fewer than 240 in the other species. 
Because of the above differences it appears probable that the speci- 
mens from Caripito represent a distinct species, whereas those from 
the Maracaibo Basin are so close to those from Panama that I 
identify them as the same form. Measurements made on available 
specimens are recorded in table 9. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OP HYPOPOMUS 

la. Anal rays about 259 or 260; pore above posterior nostril (see fig. 9) lying 
behind a vertical line through rear edge of posterior nostril and this pore 
more remote from nostril than nostril is from edge of eye; tail behind anal 
fin rounded, tapering to a point, and length of tail contained about 4 times 
in total length; distance from posterior nostril to eye contained about 10 
to 15 times in snout to occiput (Rfo Guapor^). 

Hsrpopomus brevirostris (Steindachner) 
lb. Anal rays fewer than 240, usually from 204 to 238. 

2a. Rear margin of eye at least one-half to an eye diameter behind middle of 
length of distance from snout to occiput; snout contained 2.5 to 3 times 
in the head and about 1% in postorbital length of head; distance from 
posterior nostril to eye contained about 15 times in length from snout to 
occiput; pore above posterior nostril lying behind a vertical line through 
rear edge of nostril (Rfo Mona, French Guiana). 

H37poporQus artedi (Kaup)" 

1' Rhamphichthys mulleri Kaup is referred to this species as a synonym. I have examined a specimen of 
artedi. I. U. 12620, kindly lent by Dr. J. L. Kask, California Academy of Sciences, and refer it to this species. 

802207 — 49 5 



66 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



2b. Rear margin of eye midway between tip of snout and occiput; snout con- 
tained more than 2 times in postorbital length of head. 
3a. Distance from posterior nostril to eye contained 9 to 14 times in length 
from snout to occiput; pore above posterior nostril lying behind a 
vertical line through rear of nostril, or this hne bisecting the pore, the 
latter separated from nasal opening by an isthmus of skin; tail behind 
anal compressed and ending rather abruptly not gradually tapering to 
a rounded point and contained about 5 to 6 times in total length; snout 
2.2 to 2y3 into postorbital length of head (Rio Condoto; Panama; 

Maracaibo Basin) Hypopomus occidentalis Regan 

3b. Distance from posterior nostril to eye contained about 25 to 32 times in 
distance from snout to occiput; pore above posterior nostril lying close 
to margin of that nostril and bisected by a line through middle of pos- 
terior nostril or the pore is just in front of this line; snout very bluntly 
rounded, 2.5 to 2.8 times in postorbital length of head; tail very little 
compressed, tapering to a point and contained about bYz to 6 times in 
total length (Caripito, "Venezuela) Hsrpopomus beebei Schuitz 





a 

Figure 9. — Arrangement of cephalic pores and position of eye: a, Hypopomus occidentalis 
Regan; b, Hypopomus beebei Schuitz. Sketches by author. 



HYPOPOMUS OCCIDENTALIS Regan 

Figure 9, a 

Hypopomus occidentalis Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 14, p. 32, 1914 
(Rfo Condoto, Colombia). 

? Hypopomus brevirosiis Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 7, p. 281, 1907 (Vene- 
zuela) . 

U.S.N. M. No. 121586, 38 specimens, 63 to 167 mm., Rio San Pedro at bridge, 
Motatdn system, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121584, 8 specimens, 49 to 115 mm., Rfo San Juan, 12 km. south 
of Rosario, Februarj'^ 26, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121585, 11 specimens, 70 to 175 mm., Rio San Juan at bridge 
south of Mene Grande, tributary of Rfo Motatdn, March 20, 1942. 

HYPOPOMUS BEEBEI Schnltz 

Plate 2; Figure 9, b 

Hypopomus beebei Schultz, Zoologica, vol. 29, No. 1, p. 40, fig. 1, pi. 1, fig. 4, 1944 
(Caripito, Venezuela). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



67 



I wish to point out an error in the figure of this species as published 
(Schultz, 1944g, pi. 1, fig. 4). On the head occurs a small black spot 
that might be mistaken for the e5'^e but that does not occur on the 
fish or on the original photograph but mysteriously appeared when 
printed. The text figure fortunately shows the eye in its proper 
position as does the plate mentioned above. In the latter the eye is 
the whitish area near the front of the snout. 

The followmg description is of the holotype, U.S.N.M. No. 102753, 
and three paratypes in the collection of the New York Zoological 
Society. Measurements, along with those for other species, are 
presented in table 9. 

Body compressed, tail slightly compressed and tapering to a point; 
head bluntly rounded; snout short, about equal to interorbital space, 
contained about 4.2 times in head; jaws without teeth; length of pec- 
toral fin 2 in head; lateral line straight, the 3 rows of scales below and 
about 4 rows above enlarged ; scales along back and ventrally on body 
much smaller in size; head a trifle longer than greatest depth; origin 
of anal fin about opposite tips of pectorals; anal papilla present, its 
base under middle of opercle or a vertical Ime through occiput passes 
through base of anal papilla; lower jaw very slightly shorter than up- 
per; mouth terminal, small; cephalic canals and pores prominent; 
mucus pores numerous on head; gill openmg extending a little above 



Table 9. — Counts and measurements made on species of Hypopomus, expressed in 
hundredths of the length from snout tip to end of anal fin 



Characters 



Length to end of anal fin in millimeters- . 

Length of anal fln base -_ 

Length of head 

Length of snout 

Greatest depth 

Width of interorbital space 

Postorbital length of head 

Snout to occiput 

Diameter of eye 

Distance from anterior to posterior nostril 
Distance from eye to posterior nostril — 

Width of gill opening 

Snout to anus 

Snout to anal origin 

Anus to anal origin 

Snout to pectoral insertion 

Longest ray of pectoral fin 

Longest ray of anal fin 

Length of tail beyond anal fin 

Width of head at eyes - 

Number of anal rays 



Holo- 
type 



112.0 

83.0 

12.1 

3.21 

11.06 

3.03 

8.48 

8.57 

1.25 

2.23 

0.28 

2.41 

8.48 

17.4 

9.64 

11.2 

5.35 

4.02 

21.0 

4.46 

214 



beebei 



Para- 
type 



106.0 
84.0 
12.3 
3.11 
11.8 
3.30 
8.20 
8.49 
1.42 
2.08 
0.27 
2.73 
9.34 
16.6 
7.83 
11.3 
5.47 



22.3 
5.19 

228 



Para- 
type 



124.0 
83.9 
11.7 
3.06 
9.68 
3.14 
8.14 
8.06 
1.29 
2.26 
0.32 
2.58 
8.14 
16.1 
8.39 
11.3 



20.1 
4.92 
217 



occidentatis 



Maracaibo Basin 



100.0 

85.0 

13.1 
4.0 

12.0 
3.00 
8.30 

10.0 
1.50 
2.70 
0.80 
2.70 
9.50 

16.2 
7.50 

12.5 
6.20 
5.00 

20.5 

4.30 

204 



137.0 
81.7 
12.4 
3.87 
13.1 
2.72 
8.03 
9.20 
1.24 
2.12 
0.88 
3.22 
8.61 
16.8 
8.39 
12.1 
5.84 
4.60 
25.1 
3.87 
223 



artedi breeirostris 



After 
Kaup 



220 or 223 



After 

Stein- 

dachncr's 

figure 



244.0 


252.0 




86.5 


13.5 


11.7 


5.12 


2.78 


9.30 


9.33 


7.78 


7.34 


9.02 


7.74 


0.98 


1.59 




1.90 




0.56 




2.85 


7.10 


8.92 


20.7 


15.5 




7.54 




11.7 


5.29 


5.36 




3.77 


20.9 


32.9 



259 or 260 



gg PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

and below pectoral fin base and more or less enclosing it, except pos- 
teriorly; margin of eye not free, eye small, a little over two times in 
the interorbital space; interorbital space convex, about 3 times in dis- 
tance from snout tip to occiput; fontanel present from between 
eyes to occiput. 

Color. — Body light brownish in alcohol with 17 narrow dark-brown 
bars across sides to end of anal fin, sometimes an incomplete or broken 
bar between most of or all the nearly complete bars; pectoral fins 
and anal fin with numerous dark brown pigment specks; tail beyond 
anal fin with about 3 more brown bars more or less obscure or absent. 

Genus RHAMPHICHTHYS Muller and Troschel 

Rhamphichthys Mullek and Troschel, Horae ichthyologicae, pt. 2, p. 15, 1849. 
(Genotype, Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus.) 

RHAMPmCHTHYS ROSTRATUS (Linnaeus) 

Gymnotus rostratus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 428, 1766. 
Rhamphichthys schomburgki Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 58, 

p. 10, 1868 (Rio Negro). 
Rhamphichthys pantherinus Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 473 

(San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela). — Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 279 

(Apure). 
Rhamphichthys marmoratus Eigenmann and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

vol. 14, p. 62, 1891 (Orinoco). — Eigenmann and Ward, Proc. Washington 

Acad. Sci., vol. 7, p. 168, fig. 12, 1905 (Orinoco and Guianas south to Rio 

de la Plata). 
Rhamphichthys rostratus marmoratus Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 7, p. 280, 

1907 (Venezuela). 

Genus APTERONOTUS Lacepede 

Apteronotus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, p. 208, 1800. 
(Genotype, Apteronotus passau La.eepMe = Gymnotus albifrons Linnaeus.) 

Sternarchus Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologicae, p. 497, 1801. (Geno- 
type, Gymnotus albifrons Linnaeus.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Dorsal profile of head rounded or convex, the snout blunt; interorbital space 
3.25 to 3.5 in the head; rear margin of eye at middle of head length; snout 
about two-thirds length of pectoral fin and about 3 times in greatest depth; 
depth of head at occiput 1}^ in its length; a white band from tip of snout 
along middorsal line to top of head; two white bands encircle body, the 
first at rear of anal fin and the second smaller at origin of caudal fin; anal 

rays 155 to 170 Apteronotus albifrons (Linnaeus) 

16. Dorsal profile of head concave or straight in young, snout elongate, not blunt; 
interorbital space 6 to 9 times in the head and 2 to 2.5 in the snout. 
2a. Anal fin hyaline or pale; snout elongate, equal to pectoral fin and about 2 
times in greatest depth; depth of head at occiput 1.8 to 2 in its length; 
rear of eye about at middle of length of head; a white band from snout 
tip along middorsal line to and including dorsal filament; tip of chin 
white; posterior end of caudal peduncle encircled with white; anal rays 
142 to 158 Apteronotus leptorhjoiclius (Eigenmann) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 69 

26. Anal fin rays blackish except posteriorly, which may be white; snout 
elongate, equal to three-fourths to four-fifths length of pectorals and 
about 3 times in greatest depth; depth of head at occiput lys in its length; 
rear of eye in front of middle of head by more than the distance between 
the anterior and posterior nostrils or the width of interorbital space; a 
more or less interrupted white band from snout tip to top of head; a 
broad band encircling body and anal fin near rear of latter on specimens 
shorter than 200 mm. total length and on those larger this white band 
becoming mottled and broken up with black blotches, while in specimens 
300 mm. or longer only a trace remaining as a white blotch or so on the 
anal fin, or it may be lacking; anal rays 176 to 197. 

Apteronotus cuchillo, new species 

APTEKONOTUS ALBIFRONS (Linnaeus) 

Cuchillo 

Gymnotus albifrons Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 428, 1766 (ref. 
copied). 

Sternarchus albifrons Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 473 (Rio 
Apure, Venezuela). — Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 279 (Apure). — Eigen- 
MANN AND EiGENMANN, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, p. 61, 1891 (Apure). — 
EiGENMANN AND Ward, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 7, p. 163, fig. 2, 
1905 (Orinoco). — Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 7, p. 273, 1907 (Guianas, 
Venezuela, Ecuador, Rfo Amazon to Peru and Rfo Paraguay). 

Apteronotus albifrons Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, 
p. 321, 1942 (Orinoco). 

apteronotus LEPTOEHYNCHUS 14 (Eigenmann) 

Sternarchus leptorhynchus Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, p. 439, 1912 
(Amatuk; Warraputa). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121595, 10 specimens, 103 to 178 mm. in total length, Rfo San 
Juan near bridge south of Mene Grande, tributary of Rio Motatdn, March 17 
and 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121593, 3 specimens, 94 to 151 mm., Rfo San Pedro at bridge 
south of Mene Grande, Motatdn system, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121594, a specimen, 43 mm., Rfo Negro below mouth of Rfo 
Yasa, March 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121592, a specimen, 57.5 mm., Rfo San Juan, 12 km. south of 
Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

APTERONOTUS CUCmLLO. new species 

Plate 3, A 
Pez Cuchillo 

Holotype.—U.S.'NM. No. 121591, 363 mm. in total length, 350 
mm. to base of caudal fin and 330 mm. to end of anal fin, collected by 
Leonard P. Schultz in the Rio Socuy, 3 km. above mouth, February 
24, 1942. 

Paratypes. — All paratypes were collected by Leonard P. Schultz 
during 1942 in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela: 

» This species has been reported from the Orinoco Basin at Guaicaramo, Colombia, and from the RIos 
Calima, Saija, and Dagua, western Colombia. 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

U.S.N.M. No. 121587, 13 specimens, 156 to 385 mm. in total length, collected 
with the holotype and bearing same data. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121589, 11 specimens, 164 to 390 mm., Rfo Motatdn at bridge, 
22 km. north of Motatdn, March 17. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121588, 3 specimens, 215 to 375 mm., Rio Palmar at bridge, 
70 km. southwest of Maracaibo, March 6. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121590, 7 specimens, 132 to 194 mm., Rio Ap6n about 35 km. 
south of Rosario, February 26. 

Description. — The following description was based on the holotype 
and para types. Detailed measurements were made on the former 
and two of the latter, and these data are expressed in hundredths of 
the length to end of anal fin and recorded respectively for the holotype 
and the paratypes in parentheses. 

Total lengths 363 (221; 131.5); length to base of caudal fin 350 
(213; 128.5) ; length from tip of snout to end of anal fin 330 (202; 121). 
Greatest depth of body 15.8 (15.8; 16.8); length of head 16.4 (17.1; 
18.4); length of snout 5.60 (5.79; 6.28); least width of interorbital 
space 1.82 (2.38; 2.89); diameter of eye 0.76 (0.89; 1.16); distance 
between anterior and posterior nasal openings 1.67 (1.68; 1.98); 
distance from eye to posterior nasal opening 2.58 (2.23; 2.07); post- 
orbital length of head 11.8 (11.7; 11.6); length from tip of snout to 
rictus 3.82 (3.57; 5.12); width of gill opening 2.49 (2.72; 2.89); least 
depth of caudal peduncle 1.36 (1.24; 1,65); length of caudal peduncle 
from end of anal fin to midcaudal base 6.58 (5.60; 5.95); snout to 
occiput 13.8 (13.6; 15.7); snout to anus 8.33 (8.62; 11.7); snout to 
pectoral insertion 16.7 (16.7; 18.8); snout to anal origin 15.3 (14.8; 
11.7); snout to anterior end of groove between dorsal filament and 
back or rear base of dorsal filament 66.7 (69.0; 65.7) ; length of longest 
pectoral fin ray 7.88 (8.90; 8.85); longest anal ray 5.91 (6.68; 7.19); 
longest caudal fin ray 3.24 (3.46; 3.47). 

The following counts were made, respectively: Anal rays 187 
(197; 181); pectoral rays ii,16-ii,16 (ii,15-ii,16; ii,16-ii,16); number 
of pores to end of lateral line 100 (101; 96); 3 scales between base of 
dorsal filament and lateral line. 

Body compressed, caudal region compressed; caudal fin about 
three-fourths length of snout; caudal peduncle about one-half length 
of head; pectoral fin length a little over one-half length of head; 
snout elongate, somewhat pointed, the dorsal profile of head a little 
concave or straight; greatest depth of body a little behind tips of 
pectorals; lower edge of gill opening opposite middle of pectoral base 
or a little below the middle; eye small without a free membrane and 
contained from 6 to 11 times in the snout; rictus under posterior 
nostril; anterior nostril tubular; posterior nostril a little closer to 
eye than tip of snout; anus under a vertical about 2 diameters behind 
rear of eye; rear edge of base of dorsal filament about equal distance 
between tip of caudal fin and rear of head or base of pectoral fin; 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 71 

at about half the distance from tip of snout to base of dorsal filament 
there are 13 or 14 scales between lateral line and middorsal line; the 
third or fourth branched rays of pectorals longest; anal rays near mid- 
dle of that fin longest; lateral line straight, complete, the scales along 
lateral line and midsides largest, gradually becoming smaller dorsally 
and ventrally; caudal fin minutely scaled for three-fourths the way 
out, the last third naked; interorbital sharply convex, about equal 
to distance between anterior and posterior nostrils and about 3K in 
the head; origin of anal under gill opening; tip of lower jaw with a 
groove separated by a frenum at each side of tip from groove along 
sides of lower jaw; mouth terminal, lower jaw fitting up between the 
maxillaries; a small patch of villiform teeth on each side near front 
of upper jaw; two rows of a few conical teeth at sides of lower jaw; 
apparently no teeth near symphysis of lower jaw; a long fontanel 
along middorsal line of head. 

Color. — In alcohol the ground color is mottled dark brown or 
blackish at all ages, but the white color markings are greatly variable 
with increase in length. A specimen 132 mm. in total length has a 
cream-white band that encircles the body in the last one-fourth of 
the anal fin, but the white color does not quite reach to end of anal 
as the last few rays are blackish; the caudal peduncle is blackish 
except posteriorly where a second narrow wliite band encircles it 
just in front of base of caudal fin; caudal fin and anal fin blackish 
except posteriorly; tip of chin pale or white; a white band from snout 
tip along middorsal line to top of head thence represented by a few 
pale blotches for a short distance along the back; pectorals blackish. 

A specimen 250 mm. in total length has the white streak along 
top of head ending at occiput, and the wide white band near rear of 
anal is broken up by numerous dark brown blotches, but there is no 
dark blotch on the anal fin; otherwise coloration as in the specimen 
132 mm. long. 

In the holotype, 363 mm. long, the pale band at rear of anal is 
almost lacking, as the sides of the body in that region are blackish, 
along the midline of back are a few white blotches and part of anal 
fin is still white; the white band just in front of caudal fin is reduced 
in width. In the largest specimens the white band at rear of anal 
may be completely lacking but the narrow white streak at base of 
caudal fin does not completely disappear. 

The peritoneum is pale. 

Remarks. — This new species is close to leptorhynchus in shape of 
head and snout but dift'ers from it in having the eye considerably 
in front of middle of length of head and also in several other respects, 
as indicated in the key on page 68. In coloration this new species 
differs from all others referred to the genus Apteronotus except A. 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

alhifrons, which has the two white bands encircHng the body; it 
differs in its elongate snout, blunt and rounded in alhifrons, as indi- 
cated in the key. Apteronotus anas Eigenmann and Allen has the 
eye far back, considerably behind middle of length of head. 

Named cuchillo, the common name of this type of fish in Venezuela, 
probably referring to its knifelilve shape. 

Genus STERNARCHOGITON Eigenmann and Ward 

Sternarchogiton Eigenmann and Wakd, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 
p. 164, fig. 5, 1905. (Genotype, Sternarchogiton nattereri (Steindachner) = 
Sternarchus nattereri Steindachner.) 

STERN AKCHOGITON CUCHIIXEJO, new species 

Pez Cochillejo 
Plate 3, B 

Holotype.—U.S.^M. No. 121600, 168 mm. in total length, and 
156 mm. to end of anal base, collected by Leonard P. Schultz in Rio 
Motatdn, 8 km. below Motatan, March 24, 1942. 

Paratypes. — All the paratypes were collected by Leonard P. Schultz 
during 1942 in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela: 

U.S.N.M. No. 121601, 5 specimens, 148 to 177 mm., taken along with the 
holotype and bearing same data. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121599, 47 specimens, 92 to 189 mm., Rio Motatdn at bridge, 
22 km. north of Motatdn, March 17. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121602, 10 examples, 80 to 115 mm,, Rfo San Pedro at bridge, 
Motatan system, March 20. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121598, 7 specimens, 61 to 148 mm., Eio Negro below mouth 
of Rfo Yasa, March 2. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121603, 2 specimens, 120 to 156 mm., Rfo Machango, 20 km. 
above bridge south of Mene Grande, March 21. 

Description.- — The description is based on the holotype and para- 
types Hsted. Detailed measurements were made on the holotype 
and one paratype, and these data are recorded below in hundredths 
of the distance from the tip of the snout to end of anal fin, respect- 
ively. Total length 168 (112) ; length to base of caudal fin 156 (106) ; 
and length of snout tip to end of anal fin 130 (89.5). 

Greatest depth 15.0 (16.8); least depth of caudal peduncle 1.38 
(1.34); length of caudal peduncle from end of anal fin to midcaudal 
fin base 19.6 (22.3); length of head 14.4 (15.3); snout 4.62 (5.25); 
interorbital 4.00 (4.69); eye 2.00 (1.79); distance between anterior 
and posterior nostrils 1.85 (2.13); postorbital length of head 9.39 
(9.50); least width of preorbital space 2.92 (3.13); tip of upper 
Up to occiput 11.3 (12.0); length from tip of upper hp to rear edge 
of maxillaries or rictus 5.15 (6.14); width of gill opening 2.54 (2.13); 
tip of snout to anus 8.85 (10.6) ; snout to pectoral insertion 15.8 (16.7) ; 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 73 

snout to anal origin 13.5 (14.6); snout to anterior edge of groove 
between dorsal filament and back 63.8 (64.5); length of longest 
pectoral ray 9.23 (9.28); length of longest anal fin ray 7.69 (6.93); 
length of longest caudal fin ray 6.70 (6.37). 

The following counts were made: Anal rays 146 (139); pectoral 

rays ii, 12-ii, 11 (ii, 12 ); pores from rear of head to opposite 

end of anal fin 60 (64). 

Body compressed throughout its length, the greatest depth 5.25 
to 6K in length to end of anal fin and 6.5 to 7.75 in total length; head 
6 to 7.25 in length to end of anal and 8 to 9 in total length; eye small, 
about 3 to 3.5 in snout and about equal to distance between anterior 
and posterior nasal openings, the anterior pair tubular; eye consider- 
ably in front of middle of length of head; gape of mouth large, rictus 
under eye; mouth terminal; upper jaw toothless; lower jaw with two 
rows of short conical teeth at sides, the symphyseal region toothless; 
lower jaw fitting between the upper but the maxillaries fit into a 
groove of the lower Hp at sides of lower jaw; lower lip broad, fleshy, 
and free from lower jaw anteriorly, without a frenum; giU opening 
extending down in front of middle of pectoral fin base; the third 
or fourth branched pectoral rays longest; rear of base of dorsal 
filament or the most anterior extent of groove between filament 
and back is an equal distance between base of caudal fin and postor- 
bital length of head; origin of anal fin behind the middle of the opercle; 
interorbital space greatly convex, 3.5 to 3.75 in the head; dorsal profile 
convex; pectoral fin about 1?^ in the head; body covered with scales; 
caudel fin scaled nearly to tips of rays; midline of back naked, with a 
row of scales up to caudal peduncle; scales largest along midsides 
and on lateral fine, smaller toward back; posteriorly on caudal 
region the scales along lateral fine are much longer than high and the 
pores in lateral fine number from 56 to 64; 3 scales from rear base of 
dorsal filament to lateral fine; lateral line straight, much closer to 
back than ventral side of body and on caudal peduncle the lateral 
line is dorsal in position; caudal fin present, middle rays longest; head 
with an elongate fontanel along middorsal line; gill rakers short, few, 
1 or 2 + 3 or 4. 

Color. — In alcohol, ground color dark brown, fins hyaline, except 
caudal which is dark brown, with its tip white; a prominent white 
streak extends from tip of snout along middorsal line to base of dorsal 
filament, thence dorsal filament is pale; chin with white blotch; body 
and especially head profusely covered with mucus pores, which are 
white; posterior end of caudal peduncle encircled with white; perito- 
neum pale along midventral line, but pigmented on sides. 

Remarks. — This new species may be distinguished from all other 
species referred to the genus Stemarchogiton by its fewer number of 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

anal rays, 137 to 146, instead of more than 190 as well as in its colora- 
tion. In addition, there are two irregular rows of teeth on each side 
of the lower jaw instead of a single row in the other species. This 
tooth character may be of significance generically. The following key 
may be used to identify the species referred to Stemarchogiton: 

la. Anal rays about 197 or 200; sides of lower jaw with a single row of teeth; no 
pale streak along middorsal line. 
2a. Head about 12 in length; eye about 3J4 in the head. 

S. nattereri (Steindachner) 

26. Head about 9 in length, eye 7 in snout; posterior half of pectoral rays dark 

and distal part of anal rays blackish.S. porcinum Eigenmann and Allen 

lb. Anal rays 137 to 146; 2 rows of short conical teeth on sides of lower jaw; 

middorsal hue of back with pale streak anteriorly; pale blotch on chin; 

head 8 to 9 in total length; eye 3 to 3 >4 in snout; fins all pale in color. 

S. cuchillejo, new species 

Some of the females have pale amber-colored eggs in their ovaries 
and appear to be nearly ready to spawn. 

Named cuchillejo for the popular name of this small knife-shaped 
fish. 

Genus ADONTOSTERNARCHUS Ellis 

Adontosternarchus Ellis, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 6, No. 3, p. 155, 1913. (Gen- 
otype, Sternarchus sachsi Peters.) 

ADONTOSTERNARCHUS SACHSI (Peters) 

Fez Cuchillo de las Llanos 

Sternarchus sachsi Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. BerHn, 1877, p. 473 (San Fer- 
nando de Apure, Venezuela). — Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, pp. 153, 367, 
fig. on p. 279 (Apure). — Eigenmann and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 14, p. 62, 1891 (Apure). — Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western 
South America, p. 326, 1942 (Orinoco) — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Vene- 
zuela, p. 377, fig. 189, 1942 (Orinoco). 

Stemarchogiton sachsi Eigenmann and Ward, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 
7, p. 165, 1905 (Orinoco). 

Family GYMNOTIDAE 

Genus GYMNOTUS Linnaeus 

Gymnoius Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 246, 1758; ed. 12, vol. 1, 
p. 427, 1766. (Genotype, Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus.) 

GYMNOTUS CARAPO Linnaeus 

Gimnoto 

Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 246, 1758. — Eigenmann, 
Indiana Univ. Stud., vol. 7, No. 44, p. 12, 1920 (Maracay, Rio Bue, Vene- 
zuela). 

Carapus fasciatus Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist, Nat. Paris, vol. 5, p. 157, 1899 
(Apure River, Venezuela). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 75 

Family ELECTROPHORIDAE 

Genus ELECTROPHORUS Gill 

Electric Eel 

Electrophorus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1864, p. 151. (Genotype, 
Gymnotus electricus Linnaeus.) 

ELECTROPHORUS ELECTRICUS (Linnaeus) 

Anguila el£ctrica o temblador 

Gymnotus electricus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 427, 1766. — 
Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 473 (Calabozo, Venezuela). — 
Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 153, figs, on pp. 149, 154 (Apure). 

Electrophorus electricus Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, 
p. 330, 1942 (Venezuela). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 379, fig. 
191, 1942 (Orinoco). 

Suborder Cyprinoidea 
Family CYPRINIDAE 

Genus CYPRINUS Linnaeus 

Minnows 

Cyprinus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 320, 1758. (Genotype, 
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus.) 

CYPRINUS CARPIO Linnaeus 

Carp; Carpa 

Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 320, 1758. 

This species has been introduced into Venezuelan waters and on 
April 3, 1942, 1 observed several in a small pond at Estanques, Merida. 

Suborder Nematognathoidea: Catfishes; Bagres 

My first report on the collections of fishes that I made during 1942 
in Venezuela covered this group. The publication is entitled ''The 
Catfishes of Venezuela, with Descriptions of Thirty-eight New Forms," 
and it appeared in the Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum, volume 94, pp. 173-338, figs. 1-5, pis. 1-14, February 11, 
1944. This report contains an itinerary of my travels and a map 
showing the localities where specimens were collected, along with a 
Ust of collecting stations. For all of Venezuela 127 species and sub- 
species in 63 genera and 12 families are listed. 

Since the publication of this report two papers have appeared under 
my authorship on the catfishes of Venezuela: "Two New Species of 
Fishes (Gymnotidae, Loricariidae) from Caripito, Venezuela," Zoo- 
logica, New York, vol. 29, pt. 1, pp. 39-44, fig. 1, 2, pi. 1, May 10, 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

1944, and "Pygidium monodolfi, A New Catfish from Venezuela," 
Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 29-31, fig. 1, 
January 15, 1945 (near Caracas). In addition I have published two 
other recent papers on catfishes from Colombia: "A New Loricariid 
Catfish from the Kio Truando, Colombia," Copeia, 1944 No. 3, pp. 
155-156, September 30, and "A New Genus and Species of Pimelodid 
Catfish from Colombia," Joum. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 34, 
No. 3, pp. 93-95, fig. 1, March 15, 1944. 

A few errors in my report on the catfishes of Venezuela have been 
observed, and I take this opportunity to correct some of the more im- 
portant ones. On page 182, 11a should read without, and on the next 
page 36, next to last line should read 6 + H or 12 instead of 6 + 17. 
The tenth line, third paragraph p. 335, should read 47.6, not 4.76. 

Addenda to my report on the catfishes of Venezuela, 1944: 

1. Hexanemathichthys rugispinis (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 1 specimen 275 
mm., from mouth of Rfo San Juan, near Caripito, April 11, 1942, William Beebe. 

2. Selenaspis herzhergii (Bloch). 1 specimen for each — C.N.H.M. Nos. 41990 
and 41989, from Lago de Maracaibo, W. H. Osgood, 1911. 

3. Pimelodus darias coprophagus Schultz. 1 specimen each, C.N.H.M. Nos. 
41988, 42011, 42013, 42014, 42015, from Encontrados, W. H. Osgood, 1911. 

4. Pseudopimelodus villosus butcheri Schultz. Gomes, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Univ. Michigan, No. 494, p. 4, 1946 (Rfo San Juan, near Mene Grande, Venezuela). 

5. Microglanis poecilus Eigenmann. Gomes, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 
Michigan, No. 494, p. 15, 1946 (Cano de Quiribana, Rfo Apure into Rfo Orinoco, 
Venezuela) . 

6. Microglanis iheringi Gomes, Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 494, 
p. 9, pi. 1, 1946 (Rfo Turmero near Turmero, Aragua; Carabobo, Venezuela). 

7. Perrunichthys. Recently a skin and head of a species in this genus was 
found in the National collections collected by Prof. Orton probably at the junction 
of the Napo and Maran6n Rivers of the upper Amazon. This head with skin 
definitely represents a species distinct from P. perruno Schultz of the Maracaibo 
Basin, but a better specimen should be obtained before describing and naming it. 

8. Dupouyichthys sapito Schultz. Cecil Miles, of Colombia, wrote to me on 
July 2, 1945, that a man collecting for him in the Magdalena system just brought 
a specimen of this species %\ith 6 or 7 almost fully developed eggs adhering to the 
pelvic fins and the preanal region. Mr. Miles is to be highly complimented on 
the discovery of this remarkable habit of incubation of eggs for the genus, although 
such a type of egg incubation is known for certain Asiatic catfishes. He published 
on this in Caldasia, vol. 3, No. 15, p. 454, 1945. 

9. Pygidium conradi Eigenmann. 9 specimens, 20 to 33 mm., from Guachaco 
Cave, Rfo Caripe near Caripito, William Beebe, 1942. 

10. Ochmacanthvs flahelhferus Eigenmann. 1 specimen, 37 mm., East Caripito 
Creek, William Beebe, March 6, 1942. 

11. Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus). 2 specimens, 100 and 125 mm., from 
Caripito, William Beebe, May 7, 1942. 

12. Hoplosternum thoracatum thoracatum (Cuvier and Valenciennes). 2 speci- 
mens, 67 and 77 mm., Rfo Pablo, Caripito, William Beebe, March 19, 1942. 

13. Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock). 1 specimen, 117 mm., Rfo San Pablo, 
Caripito, William Beebe, March 19, 1942. 

14. Ancistrus hrevifilis hrevifilis Eigenmann. 1 specimeUj C.N.H.M. No. 
35341, Rfo Turmero, Venezuela, Ventura Barnes, September 24, 1937. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 77 

15. Ancistrus hrevifilis hodenhameri Schultz. 3 specimens, C.N.H.M. Nos. 
41999 to 42001, Elo CoguoUo, Sierra Perijfi, Venezuela, Osgood and Conover, 
March 1920. 

16. Hypostomus wahvata Hancock. 1 specimen each, C.N.H.M. Nos. 41995 
and 41996, from Lago de Maracaibo, W. H. Osgood, 1911. 

17. Loricaria typus (Bleaker). 1 specimen, 255 mm., from Caripito, Venezuela, 
WilUam Beebe, 1942. 

18. Loricaria caracasensis (Bleeker), Described by Bleeker in his "Systema 
Silurorum Revisum," Nederl Tijdschr. Dierk., vol. 1, p. 81, 1863, as Hemiloricaria 
caracasensis Bleeker, from Caracas. It is the genotype of Hemiloricaria, a 
monotypic genus. 

Bleeker described this species as follows: "Velum labiale vix fimbriatum 
postice latum, antice angustum. Dentes utraque maxilla conspicui. Cristae 
occipitales vel nuchales dentatae nullae. Scuta trunco carina dentata. Regio 
subthoracicoanalis scutata. Pinna dorsalis supra ventrales incipiens. 

"Spec. typ. Hemiloricaria caracasensis Blkr. sp. nov in Mus. L. B. sub. nom. 
Loricariae (Caracas) Conserv." 

Not having any specimens from the Rio Guaire at Caracas, I am unable to 
determine the species from Bleeker's description. 

19. Loricaria eigenmanni Pellegrin, Bull. See. Zool. France, vol. 33, p. 125, 
1908 (Sarare, Venezuela). This species was omitted. 

20. Forlowella acus (Kner). 3 specimens 94 to 134 mm., from Rfo Pablo, 
Caripito, William Beebe, March 19, 1942. 

21. Spathuloricaria may represent the adult male of some species of Loricaria. 

22. Chaetostoma dupouii Yepes (Mem. Soc. Cien. Nat. La Salle, Caracas, ano 
5, No, 14, pp. 27-34, figs. 1945) (Rfo Encanthado into Rfo Grande of Rfo Tuy 
system, Venezuela.) 

Order APODOIDEA 
Family MURAENIDAE: Morays 

Genus GYMNOTHORAX Bloch 

Gymnothorax Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 9, p. 83, 
1794. (Genotype, Gymnothorax reticularis Bloch as restricted by Bleeker, 
Nederl. Tijdschr. Dierk., vol. 2, p. 121 (9), 1865 = G. ruppelli McClelland.) 

The following species recorded from Venezuelan waters may be 
traced down by the following key extracted from that in Meek and 
Hildebrand's "The Marme Fishes of Panama," vol. 1, pp. 162-163, 
1923. 

la. Teeth all entire, without serrations. 
2a. Body mottled with dark brown or slightly purplish spots; lower jaw with 
about 22 teeth on side; tail longer than rest of body by about two-thirds 

length of head Qyranothorax vicinus (Castelnau) 

26. Body everywhere mottled or reticulated with pale or light yellow, varying 
among individuals; tail a little longer than head and trunk; snout short, 

about 6 in head Gymnothorax moringa Cuvier 

16. Teeth serrate, at least at base of posterior margin; body with irregular light 
yellowish spots, variable in size and number, often making the ground color 
appear as brown reticulations; dorsal fin with large black spots, sometimes 
running together and forming a black band; anal with a dark edge. 

Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

GYMNOTHORAX VIQNUS (Castelnau) 

Murenophis vicina Castelnau, Animaux nouveaux ou rares recueillis dans les 
parties centrales de TAmdrique du Sud, vol. 2, pt. 7, ZooL, Poissons, p. 81, 
pi. 42, fig. 4, 1855 (Bahia). 

Gymnothorax vicinus Tortonese, Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, 
vol. 47, No. 89, p. 51, 1939 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

GYMNOTHORAX MORINGA Cuvier 
MORBNA 

Gymnothorax moringa Cuvier, Le rftgne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 352, 1829 (Bahamas) 
(ref. copied). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 375, fig. 187, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 

Muraena {Gymnothorax) moringa Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by 
Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 18, 1919 (Venezuela). 

GYMNOTHORAX OCELLATUS Agassiz 

Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species 
piscium . . . Brasiliam . . . , p. 91, pi. 50b, 1831 (mouth of large Brazilian 
equatorial rivers). 

Muraena {Priodonophis) ocellata Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by 
Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 19, 1919 (Venezuela) 

Family ECHELIDAE: Worm Eels 

Genus MYROPHIS Liitken 

Myrophis LtJtken, Vid. Medd. Nat. For. K]0benhavn, 1851, p. 1. (Genotype, 
Myrophis punctatus Liitken.) (Ref. copied). 

An excellent key to the species of the genus Myrophis occurring in 
the Atlantic is given by Dr. A. E. Parr in the Bulletin of the Bingham 
Oceanographic Collection, vol. 3, No. 4, p. 9, 1930. 

MYROPHIS PUNCTATUS Lutken 

Myrophis punctatus Ltjtken, Vid. Medd. Nat. For. Kj0benhavn, 1851, p. 1 (West 
Indies) (Ref. copied). 

U.S.N. M. No. 123169, 1 specimen, 197 mm. in total length, from Cape San 
Romdn, April 2, 1925. 

Order SYNBRANCHIOIDEA 
Family SYNBRANCHIDAE 

Genus SYNBRANCHUS Bloch 

Synhranchus Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 9, p. 86, 1795. 
(Genotype, Synhranchus marmorata Bloch.) 

SYNBRANCHUS MARMORATUS Bloch 

Synhranchus marmoratus Bloch, Naturgeschichte auslandischen Fische, vol. 9, 
p. 86, 1795. — Ernst, Estudios sobrc la flora y fauna de Venezuela, p. 282, 
1877 (creeks near Caracas). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 79 

Symhranchus marmoraius Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 473 
(Calabozo, Venezuela). — Eigenmann, Indiana Univ. Studies, vol. 7, No. 44, 
p. 13, 1920 (Isla del Euro; rocks on shores of Lake Valencia and mud at depth 
of 15 meters; Rfo Guaire, near Caracas, and at Caracas; Maracay; all in 
Venezuela).— Pearse, Univ. Wisconsin Studies, No. 1, p. 23, 1920 (Isla del 
Euro, Lago de Valencia, Venezuela), 

4 specimens, 82 to 104 mm., near Caripito, William Eeebe, May 6, 1942. 
3 specimens, 88 to 108 mm., near Caripito, William Eeebe, April 11, 1942. 

Order SYNENTOGNATHOIDEA 
Family BELONIDAE: Needlefishes; Feces agujas, o Agujones 

KEY TO THE NEEDLEFISHES REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Postorbital length of head about equal to base of anal fin, much longer than 
base of dorsal fin, and contained about 2.5 times in distance from insertion 
of pectoral fins to that of pelvic fins; longest pelvic fin ray about 1.5 times 
in longest pectoral fin ray; caudal fin not forked but deeply concave, lower 
lobe a little longer than upper; side of body with a blackish streak; post- 
orbital length of head about 1.9 in snout, 1.1 in anal fin base, and 0.8 in 
dorsal fin base; dorsal origin notably behind anal origin. 

Potamorrhaphis guianensis (Schomburgk) 

16. Postorbital length of head much shorter than length of anal fin base, about 

equal to or much shorter than base of dorsal fin and contained more than 

3 times in distance from insertion of pectoral fins to that of pelvic fins. 

2a. Longest pelvic fin ray nearly equal to longest pectoral fin ray; caudal fin 

forked, lower lobe longest, pointed; dorsal origin nearly over anal origin; 

postorbital length of head contained about 2.5 in snout, 2.2 in anal fin 

base and 2.5 in that of dorsal fin; side of body without dark lengthwise 

streak Strongylura raphidoma (Ranzani) 

26. Longest pelvic fin ray about 2 or more than 2 times in longest pectoral fin 
ray; caudal fin not forked but posterior margin concave, lobes rounded; 
dorsal origin notably behind anal fin origin; postorbital length of head 
contained from 2.75 to 3 in snout, 1.6 in anal fin base, and 1.4 in dorsal 
fin base; side of body with a black streak running lengthwise. 

Strongylura timucu (Walbaum) 

Genus POTAMORRHAPHIS Giinther 

Potamorrhaphis Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the Eritish Museum, vol. 6, 
p. 256, 1866. (Genotype, Belone taeniata Gunther.) 

POTAMORRHAPHIS GUIANENSIS (Schomburgk) 

Belone guianensis Schomburgk, The natural history of the fishes of [British] 
Guiana, vol. 2, p. 131, pi. 1, 1843 (Guiana; Paduiri) (ref. copied). 
One specimen, 225 mm., Rfo Apure at San Fernando de Apure, F. F. Bond, 

February 16, 1938. 

Genus STRONGYLURA van Hasselt 

Strongylura van Hasselt, Alg. Konst. Letter-Bode, No. 35, 1823; Bull. Sci. Nat. 
Ferussac, vol. 2, p. 374, 1824. (Genotype, S. caudimaculata van Hasseit= 
Belone strongylura van Hasselt, 1823.) (Ref. copied.) 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

STRONGVLURA RAPHIDOMA (Ranzani) 

Aguja de mar o mono 

Belone raphidoma Ranzani, Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bonon., vol. 5, 

p. 359, pi. 37, figs. 1-5, 1842 (Brazilian seas). 
Tylosurus raphidoma Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 375, 1942 (coast 

of Venezuela). 

STRONGYLURA TIMUCU (Walbaum) 

Aquja 

Esox timucu Walbaum, in Artedi's Bibliotheca ichthyologica, vol. 3, p. 88, 1792 
(Brazil) (after Timucu of Marcgrave) . 

U.S.N.M. No. 121782, 5 specimens, 218 to 235 mm. in standard length, Lago 
de Maracaibo at Yacht Club, Maracaibo, March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121784, 7 specimens, 72 to 128 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121783, 3 specimens, about 73 to 80 mm. (beaks broken), from 
Lago de Maracaibo, 2 miles off Lagunillas, March 15. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121784, 3 specimens, about 67 to 208 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 
1 km. off Pueblo Viejo, April 7-8. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121781, 5 specimens, 574 to 690 mm., from mouth of Rfo Concha, 
and in Lago de Maracaibo, Maj^ 2. 

The base of the caudal fin of two specimens, 48 and 49 mm., Rio 
Apure at San Fernando de Apture, F. F. Bond, February 16, 1938, 
has a distinct black spot not observed in those of small size from 
the Maracaibo Basin. 

The large specimens from Lago de Maracaibo at the mouth of the 
Rio Concha were apparently ready for spawning, as a light pressure 
on the abdomen of the females caused pale yellowish eggs to flow 
freely. The eggs probably adhere to the vegetation, as they appear 
to possess fine adhesive threads and were very sticky when touched. 

Family HEMIRAMPHIDAE: Halfbeaks 

The identifications for this family were made by Dr. Robert R. 
Miller, former associate curator of fishes, United States National 
Museum, during his investigation of this group of fishes for the purpose 
of describing a new species from Mexico. 

Genus HYPORHAMPHUS Gill 

Hyporhamphus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1859, p. 131. (Genotype, 
Hyporhamphus tricuspidatus Gi\\ = Hemiramphus unifasciatus Ranzani.) 

HYPORHAMPHUS ROBERTI (Valenciennes) 

HaLPBEAK; BaLAO O BALAjtj 

Hemirhamphus roberti Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire 
naturelle des poissons, vol. 19, p. 24, 1846 (Ca3^enne). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121818, a specimen, 57 mm. in standard length, Lago de Mara- 
caibo at Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121816, a specimen, 103 mm., cano at Los Monitos, Rfo Lim6n 
system, March 11, 1942. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHTJLTZ 81 

U.S.N.M. No. 121819, a specimen, 96.5 mm,, Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. south of 
Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121725, 2 specimens, 106 and 121 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121820, 33 specimens, 14 to 102 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 1 km. 
off Pueblo Viejo, April 7-8, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121817, 12 specimens, 87 to 142 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club. Maracaibo, March 5, 1942. 

KYPORHAMPHUS UNIFASCIATUS (Ranzani) 

Hemiramphus tinifasciaius Ranzani, Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bonon., 
\ol. 5, p. 326, 1842 (Brazil) (ref. copied). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123285, 1 specimen 195 mm. in standard length, Estanques Bay, 
U. S. S. Niagara, December 19, 1924. 

Genus HEMIRAMPHUS Cuvier 

Hemi-ramphus Cuvier, Le regne animal, vol. 2, p. 186, 1817. (Genotype, Esox 
hrasiliensis Linnaeus.) 

HEMIRAMPHUS BRASHJENSIS (Linnaeus) 
BALAJtJ 

Esox hrasiliensis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 314, 1758 (Jamaica), 
Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 374, fig. 
186, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Family EXOCOETIDAE: Flyingfishes 

Genus EXOCOETUS Linnaeus 

Exocoetus LiNNAEUF, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 316, 1758. (Genotype, Exocoe- 
tus volitans Linnaeus.) 

EXOCOETUS VOLITANS Linnaens 

Pez volador 

Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p 316, 1758 (Atlantic 
Ocean). — Bredek, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., vol. 6, art. 5, p. 30, figs. 
15, 17, 1938 (one station at entrance to Gulf of Venezuela). 

Order CYPRINODONTOIDEA '' 

KEY TO THE CYPRINODONTS REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Eyes bulging, in elevated sockets, the pupil divided by a horizontal cross 
partition, adapting the eye for vision above and below the surface of the 
water; anal fin of male with a scaly tube; space between upper edges of 
orbital ridges or rims equal to or less than diameter of eye; sides with obscure 
stripes; scales 81 to 90, 17 or 18 in a transverse series; caudal fin obliquely 
rounded (after Eigenmann) (family Anablepidae) . 

Anableps microlepis Mtiller 
lb. Eyes normal, without cross partition. 
2a. Orbital rim with its margin not free but fused with eye; first rays of anal 
fin of male not specialized (family Cyprinodontidae) . 

16 Lima heterandria Regan (1913, p. 1017, pi. 101, figs. 3, 4, La Ouaira, Venezuela) actually came from Santo 
Domingo according to Myers (1940, p. 172). Heterandria zonata Nichols, 1915, is a synonym. Dr. Hubbs 
has found that this species is a new one and that it actually came from La Guaira. 

802207 — i9 6 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 9» 

3a, Caudal peduncle greatly compressed, its lower edge bladelike; fins, espe- 
cially caudal and pelvic, pointed and often greatly attenuated; dorsal 
rays about 10, origin considerably behind a vertical through anal 
origin over the base of the fourteenth anal ray; anal ra3's 22; color in 
alcohol dull yellowish brown with 11 narrow dark vertical bars on the 
sides, the last on the caudal peduncle; caudal fin with small blackish 
spots; scales about 34; pectoral rays 13; 12 scales from dorsal base to 
anal origin; about 28 or 29 predorsal scales to opposite pupil; 16 around 

caudal peduncle Pterolebias zonatus Myers 

35. Lower edge of caudal peduncle not bladelike; cleft of mouth forming a 
right-angled groove or pocket in front of eye; preorbital line nearly 
vertical or even inclined slightly backward. 
4a Dorsal rays 13 to 16; base of dorsal fin a little longer than that of anal 
fin; dorsal fin origin a little behind that of anal fin, usually over 
bases of first or second branched anal rays in females; anal rays 16 
to 18; scales from upper edge of gill opening to caudal fin base 30 
to 33 and usually 12 or 13 scales from anal origin to dorsal base; 
teeth in each jaw conical, recurved, in a relatively wide band of 
several irregular rows, the outer row considerably enlarged and 
widely spaced; caudal fin slightly but usually truncate; interradial 
membrane of caudal fin with fine scales in adults, lacking in half- 
grown and young Austrofundulus Myers 

5a. Number of scales in a zigzag row across breast between bases of 
pectoral fins about 5 or 6 and number of scales from lower edge of 
pectoral base to pelvic insertion about 9; greatest width of upper 
lip into length of upper lip between nostrils 3.8; length of pectoral 
fin into standard length 6^^ times; coloration not known. 

Austrofiindulus transilis transilis Myers 
56. Number of scales across breast between pectoral bases 7 to 11 and 
from pectoral base to pelvic insertion 9 to 12; greatest width of 
upper lip into length of upper lip 3.9 to 4.6; length of pectoral fin 
into standard length 4.5 to 4.8; a dark bar below eye more or less 
obscure on females; anterior parts of body with black spots faint 
or absent on females; fins plain in color. 

Austrofxindulus transilis limnaeus, new subspecies 
5c. Number of scales across breast between pectoral bases 10 to 14 and 
from pectoral base to pelvic insertion 12 to 14; greatest width of 
upper lip into length of upper lip 2.5 to 3.6; length of pectoral fin 
into standard length 3.8 to 4.5; bar below eye barely visible; body 
plain in color; basal parts of both dorsal and anal fins with 
several darkish spots just visible, the row of 4 or 5 at base of 

fin most intense Austrofvmdulus stagnalis, new species 

46. Dorsal fin base much shorter than anal fin base; dorsal origin consider- 
ably behind that of anal fin; all fins rounded, no produced pelvic 
rays. 
6a. Dorsal rays 8 to 10; head considerably wider than its greatest depth; 
body but little compressed, elongate {Rivulus Poey). 
7a. Scales from upper edge of gill opening to midcaudal fin base about 
29; origin of dorsal three-fourths the distance from middle of the 
eye to base of caudal fin; origin of anal halfway from head to 
caudal; origin of dorsal nearly over middle of anal base; anal 

rays 6, dorsal 8 Bivulus obscurus Garman 

76. Scales 35 to 43; origin of dorsal usually a little behind middle of 
anal base. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 83 

8a. Branched rays of dorsal 5 or 6, usually 6; of anal 11 to 14; total 
rays of pectoral 13 to 15; scales 35 to 38; 3 or 4 rows of spots 
on lower half of body most prominent. 

Bivulus hartii (Boulenger) 
86. Branched rays of dorsal 8; of anal 13 to 15, seldom 13; total 
rays of pectoral 15 to 17; scales 37 to 41; two rows of spots on 
lower side of young and half grown most prominent. 

Rivulus holmiae Eigenmann 
8c. Branched rays of dorsal 6 or 7, occasionally 6; of anal 12 to 15, 
usually 14; total rays of pectoral 14 to 16; scales 38 to 41; 
all rows of spots on females and young of about same promi- 
nence Bivulus bondi, new species 

6b. Dorsal rays 11 or 12; head as deep as broad; body compressed, tail 
more so; anal rays 12 or 13; pectoral 14; scales 30 to 32, 10 or 11 
below origin of dorsal; color brownish, upper parts of head and 
back darker; scales of opercle each with a large white or bluish 
white spot; some scales of preopercle with similar spots, similar 
but smaller spots scattered on some of the scales of the body and 
tail; a dusky vertical band through eye and suborbital region, a 
less distinct one along hind border of preopercle; dorsal, sometimes 
anal and pelvics, with rows of dusky spots; caudal dusky, with 
vertical rows of dark spots, but lower lobe of fin pure white, sharply 
contrasting with the rest.-Bacliovia hummelincki De Beaufort 
2b. Oribital rim with a free margin. 
9a. Anal rays of males unmodified. 

10a. Teeth in both jaws in a single series of 3-pointed incisors, with middle 
point a little longer and broader; origin of dorsal fin midway be- 
tween caudal fin base and snout; anal origin under rear of dorsal 
fin base or a little behind base; depth 2}^ to 2?^ head 2.7 to 2.9 in 
standard length; gill membranes broadly united with a wide free 
fold across the isthmus; about 23 or 24 rows of scales from head to 
midcaudal fin base; humeral scale enlarged; dorsal rays ii, 8 or ii, 9; 
anal rays usually ii, 8; a narrow blackish bar across base of caudal 
fin; sides of body with dark bars or males may lack the dark bars 
and have a dark streak along middle of sides; dorsal and anal fins 
often with a black spot posteriorly except in mature males; an 
elongate black bar occurs at front of fins; also in the males the fins 
are more elongate and more heavily pigmented. 

Cyprinodon dearbomi Meek 
106. Teeth simple, conical, in two series at front of both jaws; diameter of 
eye greater than length of snout; interorbital flat; maxillary and 
anterior edge of preorbital oblique, the upper corner farther for- 
ward than lower; no angular pocket formed at dorsal edge of pre- 
orbital; dorsal origin equidistant between midcaudal fin base and 
front of margin of eye; anal origin very slightly closer to rear margin 
of eye than midcaudal fin base; anal origin behind a vertical line 
through dorsal origin; caudal fin rounded; gill rakers short, about 
10 on lower part of first gill arch; the row of scales along middle of 
sides much larger than those above and below this row; dorsal rays 
i, 12; anal iii, 7; pectoral rays 15-15; pelvics 7-7; scales 32; scales 
before dorsal 9 + 3 or 4 enlarged ones on top of head; scales in 
zigzag row around caudal peduncle 14, and 8 from dorsal origin 
to anal fin base; about 12 scales on breast in front of pelvics, the 
middle row not regularly placed and not enlarged. 

Hubbsichthys laurae, new genus and species 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. » 

96. Anal fin of males modified, the first 3 branched rays or rays 3, 4, and 5 

greatly elongate with remarkably developed and specialized tips; dorsal 

origin in middle of length from caudal fin base and postoribtal part of 

head; teeth, minute conical, in villiform bands on jaws; depth and head 

more than 3 times in the standard length; pelvic fins enlarged and 

modified in the male, the first ray with a swollen tip, the second ray 

thickened and greatly elongate; a membranous swelling along anterior 

margin of gonopodium modified into a prepucelike hood (family 

Poecilidae). 

11a. Ray 3 of anal fin with retrorse spines along anterior margin, the 

proximal spine-bearing segments subspinous on posterior margin 

and no terminal hook; tips of all rays slender; origin of dorsal fin 

of female scarcely behind that of anal; subdistal segments of 

anterior branch of ray 4 short and spiniferous; processes of ray 5 

distinctly spinous; usually a blackish spot a little above midaxis 

near tip of pectoral fin; upper and lower edges of caudal fin base 

often edged with blackish; scale rows along side behind head to 

caudal fin base about 24 or 25. 

Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider 

116. Ray 3 without processes on posterior margin and terminal hook weakly 

or not at all developed. 

12a. Spines on anterior margin of ray 3 strong but terminal hook wholly 

undeveloped; tips of all rays of gonopodium slender; anterior 

branch of ray 4 often with weak serrae on posterior margin; 

males variously black spotted and with black streaks, the females 

plain in coloration; scale rows head to caudal fin base 25 to 27; 

pectoral fins usually ii, 12; dorsal ii, 6; no black spot on dorsal 

fin and no vertical dark bars Lebistes reticulatus (Peters) 

126. Sides of males with vertical darkish bars, a little wider than pale 
interspaces, these bars mostly absent on females, the width of 
the dark bars about equal to that of pupil and usually two of 
these dark bars beyond tip of depressed dorsal fin; dark bars 
fading ventrally and dorsalh'; dorsal fin with a large black blotch 
basally on posterior rays, base of anterior rays hyaline; middle of 
dorsal fin hyaline, then tips of dorsal rays blackish; prepucelike 
hood at tip of third anal ray usually blackish or grayish; about 
26 or 27 scales; dorsal rays ii,6, anal iii,6 (Maracaibo Basin). 

Mollienisia caucana (Steindachner) 
12c. Ray 3 with long more or less spinous processes on posterior margin; 
terminal hook of ray 3 usualh"^ weakly developed; tips of all the 
gonopodial rays slender; segments of anterior branch of ray 4 
without trace of serrae and not markedly elongate; anterior 
margin of ray 3 with strong spines; origin of dorsal approximately 
over that of anal in female; dorsal and caudal fins with numerous 
small black spots or in young a small blackish spot or group of 
spots near midcaudal fin base; sides of body without or with 
indistinct narrow vertical bars; about 26 or 27 scale rows; pectoral 
rays usually ii,12 or 13; dorsal rays ii,6, anal iii, 6. 

Mollienisia sphenops vandepolli (Van Lidth de Jeude) 

Family ANABLEPIDAE 

Genus ANABLEPS Scopoli 

Anableps Scopoli, Introductio ad historiam naturalem, p. 450, 1877. (Genotype, 
Cobitis anahleps Linnaeus.) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 85 

ANABLEPS MICROLEPIS MUller 

Fotjr-eyed-fish; Cuatro ojos 

Anableps microlepis Muller, Monatsb. Verh. Ges. Erdkunde Berlin, 1844, 
p, 36. — Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1911, p. 436 (Peder- 
nales, Venezuela); 1916 p. 439 (Pedernales, Venezuela). 

Family CYPRINODONTIDAE 

Genus PTEROLEBIAS Garman 

Pterolebias Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 19, p. 141, 1895. (Genotype, 
Pterolehias longipinnis Garman.) 

PTEROLEBIAS ZONATUS Myers 

Pterolehias zonatus Myers, Proc. Biol. Soc. 'Washington, vol. 48, p. 7, 1935 (Estado 
de Gudrico, in ponds in Orinoco Basin, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 92190, holotype of P. zonatus Myers. 




■^ 



Figure 10. — Austrofundulus transilis limnaeus, new subspecies: Holotype (U.M.M.Z. No. 
141916), 61 mm. in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Nancy Fatten. 

Genus AUSTROFUNDULUS Myers 

Austrofundulus Myers, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 45, p. 160, 1932. 
(Genotype, Austrofundulus transilis Myers.) 

AUSTROFUNDULUS TRANSIUS TRANSILIS Myers 

Austrofundulus transilis Myers, Proc. Biol. Soc. "Washington, vol. 45, p. 160, 1932 
(Orinoco drainage of Estado de Gudrico in ponds, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 92191, holotype of A. transilis Myers. 

AUSTROFUNDULUS TRANSILIS LIMNAEUS, new subspecies 

Figure 10 

Austrofundulus transilis Myers, Stanford Univ. Bull., vol. 2, No. 4, p. 110, 
figs. 13, 14, 1942 (15 km. west of San F^hx, Estado de Falc6n, Venezuela). 

Holotype.— VMM. Z. No. 141916, 61 mm. in standard length, 
collected by F. F. Bond (Field Coll. No. 86) 15 km. west of San Felix, 



86 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



which is at western border of Estado de Falc6n, Venezuela, March 21, 
1938. [In lower Rio Cocuiza.] 

Paratypes.—U.M.M.Z. No. 141917, 32 specimens, 38.5 to 73 mm., 
taken along with the holotype and bearing same data. 

In addition, I have examined two specimens reported upon by Dr. 
De Beaufort as A. transilis from Pozo del Arroyo de Apar6, El Card6n, 
Goajira, that I refer to this species. 



Table 10. — Counts and measurements made on species of Austrofundulus. (All 
measurements an, expressed in hundredths of the standard length.) 



Characters 



Standard length in millimeters 

Length of head... 

Greatest depth of body 

Length of snout. 

Diameter of eye 

Postorbital length of head... 

Width of fleshy interorbital space , 

Length from base of last anal ray to midcaudal 

fin base 

Least depth of caudal peduncle 

Greatest width of head 

Depth of head at occiput.. 

Length of upper lip 

Greatest width of upper lip 

Snout to dorsal origin 

Snout to anal origin 

Snout to pectoral insertion 

Snout to pelvic insertion 

Length of longest fin ray of: dorsal 

anal 

pectoral 

pelvic 

Length of depressed dorsal fin 

Length of depressed anal fin 

Length of base of dorsal fin. 

Length of base of anal fin 

Dorsal rays (counting all rays) 

Anal rays (counting all rays) 

Pectoral rays (counting all rays) 

Pelvic rays (counting all rays) 

Gill rakers on first arch 

Scale rows from head to midcaudal fin base... 
Number of scales in a row from origin of anal 

fin to dorsal fin , 

Number of scales in a zigzag row across breast 

between bases of pectoral fins 

Number of scales between pectoral and pelvic 

fin bases 

Number of scales in zigzag row around caudal 

peduncle 



Species 



transilis 



Holo- 
type 



40.0 
33.2 
32.0 
9.50 
9.75 
17.0 
14.3 

23.8 

16.7 

20.0 

25.0 

9.50 

2.50 

68.2 

60.2 

32.8 

53.8 

20.0 

17.5 

15.0 

11.3 

31.5 

30.8 

18.8 

20.0 

14 

16 

16-16 

8-8 

2+13 

32 



limnaeus 



Holo- 
type 



61.0 
31.2 
36.1 
9.02 
7.54 
17.9 
13.9 

23.1 

17.2 
20.5 
26.2 
9.02 
1.97 
07.4 
60.6 
32.8 
51.6 
23.3 
19.0 
23.0 
12.3 
37.7 



23.4 

23.4 

14 

16 

1&-15 

7-7 



Para- 
type 



45.5 
36.5 
32.0 
7.90 
10.3 
20.7 
12.7 

23.1 
16.0 
22.6 
23.1 
9.22 
2.42 
69.2 
63.7 
35.2 
57.2 
19.2 
24.6 
23.1 
13.2 
33.2 
33.0 
18.7 
17.2 
15 
16 
16-16 
8-8 
3+15 
32 

13 

10 
10 
19 



Para- 
type 



45.0 
39.5 
35.6 
9.55 
9.11 
18.9 
13.6 

22.5 
17.8 
21.1 
22.2 
8.22 
1.78 
68.9 
60.7 
36.5 
52.6 
22.2 
21.1 
22.2 
12.5 
33.0 
35.6 
18.9 
21.1 
14 
18 
— 18 
8-8 
3+14 
32 

13 



stagnalis 



Holo- 
type 



31.5 
36.2 
29.5 
11.1 
8.57 
21.9 
14.6 

21.3 
17.8 
23.8 
26.1 
11.1 
3.17 
68.6 
61.9 
30.8 
53.6 
24.8 
28.6 
23.8 
12.7 
36.5 
40.0 
21.3 
20.0 
14 
17 
17-17 



Para- 
type 



32.6 
37.7 
29.2 
10.4 
8.60 
22.1 
15.0 

20.3 

15.3 

23.3 

25.2 

11.0 

3.68 

69.0 

62.9 

37.7 

54.6 

25.6 

28.2 

2.5.6 

13.8 

36.8 

41.4 

19.3 

22.7 

14 

17 

15-16 

8-8 

3+12 

33 

12 

11 

13 

18 



Para- 
type 



32.5 
37.5 
28.9 
11.1 
8.30 
23.1 
15.7 

20.0 

l,'i.4 

22.8 

26.1 

11.4 

3.69 

66.8 

63.7 

36.9 

52.3 

26.8 

29.8 

24.9 

13.2 

40.6 

41.8 

21.5 

21.5 

14 

17 

16-15 

8-8 

3+13 

32 

13 

11 
14 
18 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHTJLTZ 



87 



Description. — The description is based on the holotype and para- 
types. Detailed measurements and counts are recorded in tables 10 
and 11. 

Head depressed, body compressed posteriorly, interorbital space 
flat except on large males that have the top of head including interor- 
bital space swollen and fleshy as shown in drasving (Myers, I. c, fig. 
13) ; profile on females and young nearly straight; tip of lower jaw not 
quite entering profile when mouth is closed; margin of eye not free; 
teeth essentially as in stagnalis, but inner row of villiform band with 
the teeth a little larger than others in this band; anterior nostrils 
tubular, posterior nasal opening a slit above front of eye; cheek and 
operculum scaled ; top of head scaled forward, a little in front of a line 
between front of orbits; caudal fin scaled from one-half to four-fifths 
the way out the rays, farther in the largest specimens; scales on 
breast only a little smaller than on sides ; anus immediately in front of 
anal origin; gill rakers about 3 -F 14 or 15; caudal fin with truncate 
rear margin; middle rays of paired fins longest; usuaUy the sixth from 
last ray of both dorsal and anal fins longest; pectoral fins usually reach 
just to pelvic insertions or a little past but not to anus; pelvics reach 
past anal origin; dorsal and anal fins when depressed reach to base of 
caudal fin; dorsal origin equidistant between midcaudal fin base and 
rear of head or a little behind head; anal origin in front of a vertical 
line through dorsal origin and equidistant between midcaudal fin base 
and middle of postorbital length of head to rear of head ; dorsal origin 
about over base of second branched ray of anal fin; caudal peduncle 
longer than deep in females or its length equal to its depth in large 
males; caudal fin a little longer than eye and postorbital length of 
head, anal fin of female with distal part of first or second to sixth anal 
rays hardened and more or less fused into a glandlike pad. 

Coloration. — In alcohol, pale tan with dark spots anteriorly on adult 
males; a dark bar below eye more prominent on males; several very 
faint small pale grayish spots on dorsal fin almost beyond visibility, 
none can be seen on anal fin; caudal fin of adult males blackish. 



Table 11. — Counts made on species of Austrofundulus 





Total number of fin rays 


Number of scales 


Species 


Dorsal 


Anal 


In a zigzag row across breast 
between pectoral bases 


From pectoral base 
to pelvic base 




13 


14 


15 


16 


16 


17 


18 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


9 


10 


U 


12 


13 


14 






1 

11 
U 


2 
6 


1 


1 

10 
1 


7 
13 


— 


1 




















1 
4 










3 




2 


5 


6 


3 
1 


1 
1 








7 


4 


1 
2 


4 






3 






6 


4 


2 


4 

























88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Remarks. — This new subspecies may be distinguished from the other 
members of the genus by means of the key on page 82. It has longer 
pectoral fins than A. transilis transilis and more numerous scales on its 
breast, whereas stagnalis has more numerous scales on its breast than 
limnaeus. 

Named limnaeus in reference to its habitat in ponds. 

AUSTROFUNDULUS STAGNALIS, new species 

Figure 11 

Austrofundulus transilis (in part) Myers, Stanford Ichthy. Bull., vol. 2, No. 4, 
p. 110, 1942 (20 km. south of Lagunillas, Venezuela). 

Holotype.—U. M.M.Z. No. 141918, 31.5 mm. in standard length, 
collected by F. F. Bond (Field Coll. No. 91) about 6 km. north of the 
Rio Misoa and 20 km. south of Lagunillas, Maracaibo Basin, March 
23, 1938. 

Paratypes.—U M.M.Z. No. 141919, 103 specimens, 14.5 to 34 mm. 
in standard length, taken along with the holotype and bearing same 
data; U.S.N.M. No. 121691, 125 specimens, 9 to 20 mm., collected by 
Leonard P. Schultz in a roadside pond, tributary to Rio Cocuiza, 10 
km. west of El Mene, Venezuela. 

Description. — The description is based on the holotype and para- 
types. Detailed measurements and counts are recorded in tables 
10 and 11. 

Head depressed, body compressed posteriorly, interorbital flat or 
nearly so ; profile of head straight or with a slight concavity opposite 
orbits; tip of the lower jaw entering profile when mouth is closed; 
margin of eye not free; outer row of teeth in both jaws formed by coni- 
cal teeth, widely spaced and larger than the wide villiform band behind 
them; anterior nostrils tubular, posterior nasal opening above front 
of eye; cheek and operculum scaled; top of head scaled to a line be- 
tween front of eye; on largest specimens the caudal fin is scaled not 
quite halfway out; scales on breast much smaller and more crowded 
than on sides; anus immediately in front of anal origin; gill rakers 
short, about 2 or 3 + 12 or 13; caudal fin truncate; middle rays of 
pectorals and pelvics longest; about fifth or sixth from last ray of 
both dorsal and anal fins longest; pectoral fins reach to the anus and 
pelvic fins reach past anal origin; dorsal and anal fins when depressed 
reaching a little past base of caudal fin; dorsal origin equidistant be- 
tween midcaudal fin base and rear of head or to upper edge of gill 
opening; anal origin in front of a vertical line through dorsal origin 
and equidistant between midcaudal fin base and posterior edge of 
preopercle; dorsal origin about over base of second branched ray of 
anal fin; caudal peduncle a little longer than deep; length of caudal 
fin about equal to eye and postorbital length of head. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 89 

Coloration plain pale brownish ; darker above and paler underneath ; 
below eye is a trace of a short indistinct dark bar; dorsal and anal fins 
with several darkish spots barely visible. 




,-^/f^*5*.^« 






Figure 11. — Austrofundulus stagnalis, new species: Holotype (U.M.M.Z. No. 141918), 
31.5 mm. in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

Remarks. — This new species may be distinguished from the other 
two forms in the genus Austrofundulus by its wider upper lip, longer 
pectoral fins, and crowded small scales on the breast. The key on 
page 82 should enable the reader to identify this species from the 
other two. 

Named stagnalis in reference to its habit of living in stagnant ponds 
or pools. 

Genus RIVULUS Poey 

Rivulus Poet, Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, vol. 2, p. 
307, 1861. (Genotype, Rivulus cylindraceus Poey.) 

RIVULUS OBSCURUS Garman 

Rivulus obscurus Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 19, p. 140, 1895 (Lake 
Hyanuary). — Pellt^grin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. 5, p. 157, 1899 
(R£o Apure, Venezuela). 

It is probable that Pellegrin's record for the Apure River actually 
is for another species and his material should be restudied. 

RIVULUS HARXn (Bonlenger) 

Haplochilus hartii Boulenger, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 6, p. 190, 1890 
(Trinidad). — Regan (in part), Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1906, pt. 1, p. 389, 
pi. 21, fig. 2 (Trinidad; Venezuela). 

Dr. William Beebe kindly turned over to me a specimen 31.5 mm. 
in standard length collected by him May 23, 1942, at Caripito, that 
I tentatively identify with this species. Its caudal fin is more pointed 
than usual in Rivulus. 

The two specunens before me (U.S.N.M. No. 94308) from Pitch 
Lake, Trinidad, have 6 branched dorsal rays, 11 branched anal rays, 



90 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



and 13-13 pectoral rays. Regan's figure (I.e. pi. 21, fig. 2), probably 
of the type of hariii, also shows 13 pectoral rays. Another important 
character is the presence of only 6 branched dorsal rays in hartii. 
Among the material of Rivulus available from Venezuela I fail to find 
specimens that consistently agree with hartii, although collections 
made in British Guiana and Brazil appear to agree fairly weU with 
my material from Trinidad, the type locality of hartii. 

RIVULUS HOLMIAE Eigentnann 

Rivulus holmiae Eigenmann, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 6, p. 50, 1909 (Holnaia, 
British Guiana). 

Rivulus hariii Myers, Copeia, 1924, No. 135, p. 96 (Margarita Island, Venezuela) ; 
Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 1, No. 5, p. 171, 1940 (Margarita Island). — de 
Beaufort, Freshwater fishes from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern 
Colombia. Studies on the fauna of Curagao, Aruba, Bonaire, and the 
Venezuelan islands, vol. 2, p. 110, 1940 (Margarita Island). 

U.S.N.M. No. 94150, 1 specimen, 71 mm. in standard length, El Valle, Isla de 
Margarita, Austin H. Clark. 

U.M.M.Z. Collection 142, 75 specimens, 14 to 73 mm., Rio Porlamar at El 
Valle, Isla de Margarita, F. F. Bond (lent by Dr. Carl L. Hubbs), AprU 1, 1939. 

Upon studying a series of specimens from El Valle, Isla de Mar- 
garita, Venezuela, and comparing them with a paratype of Rivulus 

Table 12. — Measurements made on certain species o/ Rivulus expressed inhundredths 

of the standard length 



Characters 



hartii 



Caripito 
N.Y.Z.S. 

No. 30239 



Trinidad 

U.S.N.M. 
No. 94308 



holmiae 



Margarita 

Island 
U.S.N.M. 
No. 94150 



bondi 



Caripito 
N.Y.Z.S. 

No. 30015 
Paratype 



U.M.M.Z. 
Holotype 



U.M.M.Z. 
Paratype 



Standard length 

Length of head 

Greatest depth 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eye 

Postorbltal length of head 

Interorbital space. .- 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Least depth of caudal peduncle. 

Greatest width of head.. 

Snout to dorsal origin 

Snout to anal origin 

Snout to pectoral insertion 

Snout to pelvic insertion 

Length of longest dorsal ray 

Length of longest anal ray 

Length of longest pectoral ray... 

Length of longest pelvic ray 

Length of longest caudal ray 

Length of depressed dorsal fin.. 

Length of depressed anal fin 

Length of base of dorsal fin 

Length of base of anal fln 



31.5 
27.0 
20.0 
6.35 
8.26 
14.0 
12.7 
21.3 
13.3 



81.0 
66.7 
26.7 
54.0 
13.7 
15.9 
21.1 

9.52 
27.0 
20.3 
31.8 

6.67 
19.4 



36.0 
27.8 
22.8 

7.50 

9.44 
12.8 
13.9 
20.0 
14.4 
18.1 
77.8 
61.4 
26.7 
51.4 
16.7 
16.7 
17.8 

8.05 
25.3 
21.9 
32.0 

8.33 
20.3 



30.5 
27.8 
19.7 

8.20 

9.84 
13.8 
14.1 
20.0 
13.1 
19.0 
80.3 
63.6 
28.5 
55.4 
15.1 
15.4 
17.0 

9.18 
25.6 
21.0 
28.8 

8.85 
19.7 



71.0 
26.2 
22.5 
8.04 
7.04 
12.7 
14.1 
19.7 
15.5 
20.3 
72.5 
57.0 
26.8 
48.0 
14.4 
15.1 
18.3 
10.6 
23.2 
24.7 
30.6 
12.4 
25.9 



66.0 
26.2 
20.4 
8.33 
6.52 
12.9 
12.9 
18.9 
13.5 
19.9 
73.0 
61.5 
26.0 
51.5 
14.1 
13.3 
17.0 
7.72 
24.2 
22.7 
31.8 
10.6 
23.6 



40.2 
29.2 
19.9 
8.70 
7.96 
14.2 
11.2 
16.2 
12.9 
19.7 
77.4 
6.3.4 
29.6 
51.2 
16.7 
15.2. 
18.9 
9.95 
26.6 
23.1 
32.3 
10.5 
22.4 



50.5 
27.1 
19.6 
8.32 
7.92 
13.1 
12.5 
16.4 
12.9 
17.8 
77.2 
61.0 
27.7 
51.5 
17.2 
17.2 
17.6 
10.3 
25.0 
24.2 
36.6 
10.5 
23.7 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



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92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

holmiae Eigenmann (U.S.N.M. No. 66302) and finding no significant 
differences, I decided to identify the specimens, at least tentatively, 
with holmiae from British Guiana. This leaves a problem concerning 
the distribution of holmiae to be studied when adequate series of this 
form are collected in the intervening territory, but until material is 
available it is preferable to leave the form on Margarita Island un- 
named. 

My chief basis for referring the specimens from the Isla de Mar- 
garita to holmiae was the fin-ray and scale counts and coloration which 
appear to agree in alcohol. It should be noted that in recording the 
dorsal and anal rays I have included only the branched rays in table 12. 

Dr. George S. Myers (1924, p. 96, and 1940, p. 171) has reported 
Rivulus hartii from Margarita Island, Venezuela, based on U.S.N.M. 
No. 94150, but I find that this specimen, as well as all the others from 
that island that I have studied, has 8 branched dorsal rays instead of 6 
as in hartii from Trinidad ; thus Ir efer Myers's records to the synonymy 
of holmiae. 

EIVULUS BONDI. new species 

Figure 12 

? Haplochilus harti Regan (in part), Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1906, pt. 1, p. 389 

(Venezuela) . 
Rivulus harti Regan (in part), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, vol. 10, p. 501, 1912 

(Venezuela). — Myers (in part), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 9, vol. 19, p. 123, 

1927 (Venezuela to Columbia). 
? Rivulus micropus (non Steindachner) Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the 

British Museum, vol. 6, d. 328, 1866 (Venezuela). — Eigenmann and Allen 

(in part), Fishes of western South America, p. 346, 1942 (Venezuela). 

Holoty^pe.—UMM.Z. No. 141914, a female, 40.2 mm. in standard 
length, collected at La Florida, Caracas, Venezuela, in a quebrada 
cano tributary to the Rio Guaire, by F. F. Bond, January 10, 1938. 

Paratypes.—UMM.Z. No. 141915, 126 specimens, 14 to 59 mm., 
taken along with the holotype and bearing same data. 

U.M.M.Z. No. 141929, 9 specimens, 20.5 to 36.5 mm., from a lagoon 
3 km. northwest of Petare, Venezuela (Rio Guaire system), collected 
by F. F. Bond, January 15, 1939. 

Dr. William Beebe kindly turned over to me for report the following 
specimens collected in Venezuela in 1942: 

N.Y.Z.S. No. 30015, 5 scecimens, 32.5 to 67 mm.. Caripito. 
N.Y.Z.S. No. 30234, 1 specimen, 54 mm.. East Caripito Creek, near Caripito, 
March 6. 

Description. — The description is based on the holotype and para- 
types listed above. Detailed measurements were made and these 
are recorded in table 12 for the holotype and two paratypes. 

The following counts were made, respectively, for the holotype and a 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 93 

paratype from Caracas: Dorsal rays ii, 7 (ii, 7); anal rays iii, 14 (ii, 15); 
pectoral rays 16-15 (15-16); pelvic rays i, 6-i, 6 (i, 6-i, 6); scales from 
upper edge of gill opening to midcaudal fin base 38 (39); scales from 
dorsal origin to front of anal 9 (9) ; scales in front of dorsal fin to occiput 
27 (28); number of scales in a zigzag row around caudal peduncle 
15 (16); scales in a zigzag row across breast between lower edges of 
base of pectoral fin 9 (10). 




^■^.. 



i'^ 



Figure 12. — Rivulus bondi, new species: Holotype (U.M.M.Z. No. 141914), 40.2 mm. in 
standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

Head depressed, but body compressed posteriorly, the greatest depth 
about 5 and head 3.5 in standard length; margin of eye not free; 
eye equal to snout and about 3K in the head; interorbital wider than 
eye and about 2 in the head; rear margin of eye a trifle closer to rear 
of head than tip of snout; origin of dorsal to midcaudal fin base con- 
tained 2.9 times in distance from tip of snout to dorsal origin; origin 
of anal fin a trifle closer to midcaudal fin base than middle of post- 
orbital length of head; base of last anal ray under the base of third 
from last ray of dorsal fin in posterior half of base of dorsal fin; pectoral 
fins reaching more than halfway to anal origin but not to bases of 
pelvics; pelvic fins reach just to anal origin; least depth of caudal 
peduncle contained about 1.3 in length of peduncle from base of last 
anal ray to midbase of caudal fin; caudal fin rounded; distal margin 
of anal fin rather straight; pectorals, pelvics, and dorsal with rounded 
margins; usuaUy fourth from last ray of dorsal and anal fins longest. 

Coloration. — The color in alcohol of the holotype consists of a light 
brownish background with rows of dark brown spots on sides, mostly 
posteriorly, the row along midaxis most prominent and beginning 
behind head, the other rows paler forward; each row of black spots 
corresponds to a row of scales and the dark spot is at center of each 
scale; dorsal and caudal fins barred, with a black ocellate spot at upper 
caudal fin base; bases of last two dorsal rays with a pale spot enclosed 
above by a brownish bar on base of fin; undersides in front of pelvics 
plain in color; underside of head finely pigmented; dorsal side of head 
and back dark brownish; lower lip or chin brownish; margin of anal 
fin and outer edge of pelvic fins blackish; pectorals finely pigmented. 

The coloration of the adult males is considerably different from the 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

females since the males lack the rows of spots on the sides and the ocel- 
late black spot on upper caudal fin base; back and sides blackish 
brown, gradually becoming paler underneath; sides of body with rows 
of pale specks corresponding to center of each scale; dorsal and anal 
fins faintly barred ; blackish color of body continuing to end of caudal 
fin, forming a wide band on middle four-fifths of caudal fin, sharply 
contrasting with the white dorsal and ventral edges of this fin; pec- 
torals dark; margin of anal and of pelvics black edged; chin and 
underside of head as in females. 

Remarks.— This, new species traces down to Rivulus harti in the key 
prepared by Regan (1912, pp. 495-496) but it differs from that 
species as indicated in the key on page 83 and the counts differ 
somewhat as indicated in table 13. 

Named bondi, in honor of Dr. F. F. Bond, who collected this species. 

Genus RACHOVIA Myers 

Rachovia Myers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 9, vol. 19, pp. 116, 119, 1927. (Gen- 
otype, Rivulus brevis Regan.) 

RACHOVIA HUMMELINCKI de Beaufort 

Rachovia hummelincki de Beaufort, Studies on the fauna of Curasao, Aruba, 
Bonaire, and the Venezuelan Islands, vol. 2, p. 110, pi. Xb, 1940 (Penfn- 
sula de Paraguana, Poza de San Antonio, east of Carirubana, Venezuela). 

Genus CYPRINODON Lacepede 

Cyprinodon Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 5, p. 486, fig., 1803. 
(Genotype, Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede.) 

CYPRINODON DEARBORNI Meek 

GUAJACON 

Cyprinodon dearborni Meek, Publ. Field Columbian Mus. (Zool.), vol. 7, No. 

7, p. 208, 1909 (Willemstad, Curasao, Dutch West Indies). 
Cyprinodon cyaneostriga Ahl, Zool. Anz., vol. 124, p. 58, 1938 (Curagao, in sea 

and in strong brackish water). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121692, 147 specimens, 11 to 45 mm. in standard length, Salina 
Santa Rosa, 3 km. north of Maracaibo in a pool with a specific gravity reading of 
1.029 and a temperature of 98° F., February 20, 1942. 

The following collections were made by Dr. F. F. Bond and were 
lent for report by Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, University of Michigan. 

1 specimen, 13.2 mm., from cemeterfo, Puerto Cabello, January 26, 1938. 
73 specimens, 8.2 to 27.4 mm., saline lagoon 5 km. west of Cumand, March 
25, 1939. 

1 specimen, 12 mm., coastal lagoon 15 km. north of Maracaibo, April 6, 1938. 
63 specimens, 10 to 27.5 mm., lagoons, Tucacas, Estado de Falc6n, 60 km. 

northwest of Puerto Cabello, January 29, 1939. 

2 specimens, 24 and 26 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida, 5 km. north of Capa- 
tdrida, March 4, 1938. 

50 specimens, 12.5 to 27.5 mm., tidal pools, Puerto Cabello, January 26, 1938. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHTJLTZ 95 

280 specimens, 10.5 to 27.2 mm., lagoon 3 km. northwest of Barcelona, March 22, 
1939. 

453 specimens, 10.2 to 28 mm., bajo seco east side of Puerto Cabello, January 
26, 1938. 

HUBBSICHTHYS, new genus 

Genotype: Hubbsichthys laurae, new species. 

This new genus of Fundulinae is characterized by the free orbital 
margin; eye diameter a little greater than the snout; interorbital 
space flat, much wider than eye diameter; premaxillaries protractile; 
lower jaw oblique; maxillary and anterior edge of the preorbital 
oblique, not quite vertical, no angular pocket formed along front of 
preorbital; fine conical teeth in upper jaw in two rows anteriorly, but 
laterally forming a patch that ends in a sharp angular point poste- 
riorly; teeth in lower jaw in two rows; dorsal origin in advance of 
that of anal fin; dorsal origin equidistant between midcaudal fin base 
and front margin of eye; anal origin very slightly closer to rear margin 
of eye than midcaudal fin base; caudal fin rounded; gill rakers about 
10 on lower part of first gill arch, short; gill membranes extending 
forward to under pupil where they join forming a free fold; the row 
of scales along middle of side much larger than those above and 
below; base of caudal fin scaled. 

Remarks. — The genus may be recognized from the American 
genera related to Rivulus as discussed by Myers (1927) by having a 
free orbital margin and from other genera by a combination of char- 
acters, as dorsal origin in advance of anal origin; an enlarged row of 
scales along midsides, with smaller scales in the rows above and below; 
cleft of mouth evenly curved and oblique; preorbital edge oblique 
without angular pocket at upper edge; flat interorbital space, and 
small conical teeth in two rows in both jaws. From Chriopeoides 
Fowler (Notulae Naturae No. 35, p. 4, 1939, Jamaica) with which 
this new genus is related it differs by having the upper edges of the 
preorbital a little farther forward than the lower corner, so that the 
preorbital edge slants forward, while in Chriopeoides the slant is in 
the opposite direction; scales on breast in front of pelvic bases smaller 
than on sides, the middle row irregular, with about 12 scales, while in 
Chriopeoides the midventral row is very regular on breast, as large as 
scales on sides, and number 8 scales. There are 12 scales in a zigzag 
row around caudal peduncle instead of 14 as in Hubbsichthys. Inter- 
orbital space very slightly convex in Chriopeoides but flat and on 
level of upper rim of orbit in Hubbsichthys. 

One of the paratypes of Chriopeoides pengelleyi Fowler, A.N.S.P. 
No. 68633, was kindly lent for examination by Henry W. Fowler, of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



96 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Named Hubbsichthys in honor of Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Cahf., who has con- 
tributed much knowledge concerning the cyprinodont fishes. 

HUBBSICHTHYS LAURAE, new species 

Figure 13 

Mollienisia caucana Gabaldon (in part), Journ. Parasit., vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 
311-312, 1935 (Pampdu, Trujillo, Venezuela). 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 120999, a specimen, 14 mm. in standard 
length, collected near Pampan, Estado de Trujillo, Venezuela, by 
Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldon, in 1935 and probably in Rio Motatdn drainage. 




Figure 13. — Hubbsichthys laurae, new genus and species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 120999), 
14 mm. in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

Description. — Certain detailed measurements and counts were made 
on the holotype and these data are recorded in table 14. 

In addition to the characters recorded in the generic description, 
in the key, and in the table, the following is given: Eye about 1.2 or 
1.3 in the flat interorbital space; head 3, depth 3.5, in standard 
length; pectoral fins not quite reaching to opposite anal origin but 
past middle of pelvics, the tips of latter extending a trifle past anal 
origin; caudal, anal, and pectoral fins with posterior margins rounded; 
the second ray of pelvic is longest; caudal fin scaled about one-third 
to two-fifths out from its base. 

Coloration. — General color in alcohol brownish, with a darker band 
along midsides, somewhat broken by pale centers of scales; anal with 
a black spot near middle of fin on posterior rays. 

Remarks. — This new species may be distinguished from all other 
related forms of cyprinodont fishes by means of the key. It differs 
in regard to free margin of eye, forward slant of anterior edge of 
preorbital, crowded scales on breast, origin of dorsal in front of that 
of anal, and in coloration. 

Named laurae, in honor of Laura Clark Hubbs (Mrs. Carl L. Hubbs). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



97 



Table 14. — Counts and measurements made on Hubbsichthys laurae 
[All measurements expressed in hundredths of the standard length] 



Characters 



U.S.N.M. 
No. 120999 
Holotype 



Standard length in millimeters - 

Length of head -- 

Postorbital length of head 

Greatest depth of body-- -.- -- 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eye. ..- 

Interorbital space at middle of orbits 

Length of caudal peduncle. - 

Least depth of caudal peduncle - 

Greatest width of head - 

Distance from snout to dorsal origin 

Snout to anal origin. 

Snout to pectoral insertion 

Snout to pelvic insertion 

Length of longest ray of dorsal fin 

Length of longest ray of anal fin 

Length of longest ray of pectoral fin 

Length of longest ray of pelvic fin 

Length of longest ray of caudal fin 

Length of depressed dorsal fin 

Length of depressed anal fin 

Length of base of dorsal fin — - 

Length of base of anal fin — 

Scales from head to midcaudal fin base... 

Scales from dorsal origin to anal origin 

Scales in a zigzag row around caudal pedimcle 

Scales in front of dorsal plus enlarged ones on head 

Dorsal rays.. .-- 

Anal rays - - 

Pectoral rays 

Pelvic rays 



14.0 
33.6 
13.6 
30.0 
8.57 
12.1 
15.7 
33.6 
15.7 
20.7 
52.8 
57.2 
32.9 
47.2 
12.1 
15.7 
20.7 
11.4 
25.0 
30.0 
21.4 
24.3 
8.57 

32 
8 

14 

9+3 or 4 

i, 12 

iii, 7 

15-15 

7-7 



Family POECILIIDAE 

As Dr. Carl L. Hubbs, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography- 
had begun work on the PoeciHidae of Venezuela collected by Dr. 
F. F. Bond, he wished to work up the national collections of this 
family. Since his studies are still in progress I have omitted this 
material, along with some collected by me in Venezuela, 

Genus POECILIA Bloch and Schneider 

Poecilia Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 452, ISOl. (Genotype, 
Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider.) 

POECILIA VIVIPARA Bloch and Schneider 

Poecilia vivpara Block and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 452, 1801 
(Surinam). — Ernst, Estudios sobre la flora y fauna de Venezuela, p. 282, 
1877 (creeks near Caracas). — Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1913, p. 1006, 
fig. 173c (Venezuela and Leeward Islands to Rfo La Phita). — de Beaufort, 
Studies on the fauna of Curasao, Aruba, Bonaire, and the Venezuelan Islands, 
vol. 2, p. Ill, 1940 (Peninsula de Paraguana, Estanque de Moruy, Estanque 
de Santa F6, Estanque de Santa Ana, Venezuela). 
802207 — 49 7 



98 PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

The following collection was lent by Dr. William Beebe: 

20 specimens, 17 to 27 mm., from Caripito, 1942. 

Genus LEBISTES Filippi 

Lebistes Filippi, Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol., vol. 1, p. 69, 1861. (Genotype, Poecilia 
reticulata Peters.) 

LEBISTES RETICULATUS (Peters) 

Poecilia reticulata Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1859, p. 412 1860 
(Caracas in Rfo Guaire). — Garman, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 19, No. 1, 
p. 62, 1895 (Venezuela). 

Cfirardinus reticulatus Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, 
vol. 6, p. 353, 1866 (Caracas, Venezuela). — Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, p. 65, 1891 (Caracas). 

Girardinus guppyi GtJNTHER, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 6, 
p. 353, 1866 (Venezuela). — Eigenmann and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 14, p. 65, 1891 (Venezuela). 

Lebistes reticulatus Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1913, p. 1008, fig. 173 D, 
(Venezuela). — Eigenmann, Indiana Univ. Studies, vol. 7, No. 44, p. 13, 
1920 (Maracay; Rfo Castano; Isla del Buro; Rfo Bue; all Lake Valencia 
basin). — Pearse, Univ. Wisconsin Studies, No. 1, p. 22, 1920 (Lake Valencia 
at Maracay and Isla del Buro). — de Beaufort, Studies on the fauna of 
Curasao, Aruba, Bonaire, and the Venezuelan Islands, vol. 2, p. Ill, 1940 
(Margarita Island). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121689, 290 specimens, Rfo Valle, south of Caracas, Venezuela, 
L. P. Schultz, G. Zuloaga, William Phelps, Jr., and R. Sherman, May 12, 1942. 
Two specimens, 15.5 and 18.5 mm., William Beebe, Caripito, 1942. 

Genus MOLLIENISIA LeSueur 

Mollienisia LeSueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 2, p. 3, 1821. 

(Genotype, Mollienisia latipinna LeSueur.) 
Allopoecilia Hubbs, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 13, pp. 11, 13, 

pi. 4, fig. 6 (gonopodium), 1924. (Genotype, Girardinus caucanus Stein- 

dachner.) 

MOIUENISIA CAUCANA (Steindachner) 

Giradinus caucanus Steindachner, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 42, p. 

87, pi. 6, figs. 4, 5, 1880 (Rio Cauca). 
Allopoecilia caucana Myers, Copeia, 1932, No. 3, p. 138 (? Maracaibo Basin). 
Mollienisia caucana Gabaldon (in part), Journ. Parasit., vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 

311-312, 1935 (Pampan, Trujillo, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121677, 33 specimens, 19 to 33 mm., from Rfo Motatdn, 4 km. 
above Motat^n, March 25, 1942, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121681, 34 specimens, 11 to 26 mm., Rfo Motatdn, 8 km. below 
Motatdn, March 24, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121679, 33 specimens, 14 to 28 mm., Rfo San Pedro at bridge, 
Motatdn system, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121686, 169 specimens, 8 to 32.5 mm., Rfo San Juan near bridge, 
Motatdn system, March 17 and 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121682, 11 specimens, 11.5 to 25.5 mm., Rfo Jimelles, 12 km. 
east of Motatdn, Motatdn system, March 24, 1942. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 99 

U.S.N.M. No. 121685, 191 specimens, 12 to 35 mm., Rfo Charaa at Estanques, 
Estado de M^rida, April 3, 1942, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121680, 16 specimens, 13 to 29 mm., Rfo Barregas, tributary 
Rio Chama just below Egido, Estado de M^rida, March 29, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121678, 5 specimens, 17 to 33 mm., Rfo Chama, 10 km. below 
Lagunillas, Estado de M^rida, March 30, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121676, 1 specimen, Rfo Palmar at bridge, 70 km. southwest of 
Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 109112, 2 specimens, Pampdn, Estado de Trujillo, Venezuela, 
Dr. Arnoldo Gabaldon, April 18, 1935. One specimen from this lot is the holo- 
type of Hubbsichthys laurae herein described. 

U.S.N.M. No. 86264, 4 specimens, 28 to 43 mm., Valera, Estado de Trujillo, 
Venezuela, H. Pittier, 1923. 

U.S.N.M. No. 86263, 2 specimens, 23 and 24 mm., Valera, Estado de Trujillo, 
Venezuela, H. Pittier, 1923. 

MOLLIENISIA SPHENOPS VANDEPOLU (Van Lidth de Jende) 

Poecilia vandepolli Van Lidth de Jeude, Notes Ley den Mus., vol. 9, p. 137, 1887 

(ref. copied). 
MolUenesia sphenops Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1913, p. 1012, fig. 173 F 

(Venezuela). — Meek and Hildebrand, Publ. Field Columbian Mus. (Zool.), 

vol. 10, No. 15, p. 327, fig. 10, 1916 (Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121687, 27 specimens, brackish cailo at Los Monitos, Rfo Lim6n 
system, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121688, 10 specimens, Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht Club, 
Maracaibo, February 27, 1942, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121690, 1,328 specimens, 9 to 70 mm., Salina Santa Rosa, 3 km. 
north of Maracaibo, specific gravity 1.029, temperature 98° F., February 20, 1942. 

Order BERYCOIDEA 
Family HOLOCENTHRIDAE: Squirrelfishes 

Genus HOLOCENTRUS Scopoli 

Holocenthrus Scopoli, Introductio historiam naturalem, p. 499, 1777. (Misprint 
for Holocentrus after Gronow's Holocentrus maxilla.) 

HOLOCENTRUS ASCENSIONIS (Osbeck) 

Squirrelfish, Matejuelo, Candil o Cakajuelo 

Perca ascensionis Osbeck, Reise nach Ostindien und China, p. 388, 1765 (ref. 

copied) (Ascension Island). 
Holocentrus ascensionis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 393, fig. 202, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Order SOLENICHTHYOIDEA 
Family FISTULARIIDAE : Trumpetfishes or Cornetfishes 

Genus FISTULARIA Linnaeus 

Fistularia Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 312, 1758. (Genotype, Fistu- 
laria tabacaria Linnaeus.) 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL RIUSEITM vol. 99 

FISTULARIA TABACARIA Linnaeas 

Trumpetfish; Trompetero o Corneta 

Fistularia tahacaria Linneaus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 312, 1758. — Rohl, 
Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 389, fig. 198, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Family SYNGNATHIDAE: Pipefishes; Seahorses 

Earl S. Herald (1942) has prepared a key to the pipefishes of the 
western Atlantic which includes all the known American species. 
I have prepared the following key for the identification of the pipe- 
fishes reported from Venezuela, but as more collecting is done several 
additional species should be taken: 

la. Tail prehensile, usually more or less in a curled condition; caudal fin absent; 

head at nearly right angles to body (Hippoccampus)?^ 

lb. Tail not prehensile; caudal fin present; head not at right angles to body but 

in same general axis. 

2a. The keel along the middle of the side of the trunk turns downward over the 

anus and without interruption continues posteriorly as the lower lateral 

keel on the tail region; dorsal and anal fins present; dorsal fin rays 38 to 

44; rings on body about 19 or 20 + 23 to 27; pectoral fin rays about 19 or 

20; dorsal origin in second or third ring in front of ring containing anal 

fin base Oostethus lineatu8 (Kaup) 

2b. The medial keel along side of the trunk not continuous with the lower 
lateral keel on tail. 
3a. Keel along middle of side of trunk turned upward over anus and without 
interruption continuing posteriorly as upper lateral keel on tail region; 
dorsal fin present; anal fin absent; dorsal fin rays usually 35 to 37; rings 
on body 14+35 to 38; pectoral fin rays 13 or 14; dorsal origin usually 
in body ring that contains anus. 

Pseudophallus mindii (Meek and Hildebrand) 

Zb. Keel along middle of side of trunk interrupted or discontinuous over anal 

region, then beginning in same body ring but continuing as upper 

lateral keel on tail region; dorsal and anal fins present. 

4a. Tail rings 30 to 38; brood pouch covering 11 to 20 tail rings; rings on 

body 16 to 18+30 to 35; dorsal rays 27 to 33; pectoral fin rays 13 or 

14; dorsal origin usually in first trunk ring in front of the one that 

contains anus. 

5a. Adult females flat-bellied and without vertical pale body stripes on 

middle of trunk rings Ssmgnathus rousseau Kaup 

5b. Adult females V-bellied and with vertical pale stripe in center of each 
trunk ring, striping usually present upon tail. 

Sjmgnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 
45. Tail rings 39 to 43; brood pouch covering 22 to 25 tail rings. 

Syngnathus fi.stulatus Peters 

Genus OOSTETHUS Hubbs 

Oostethus HtiBBS, Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 199, p. 3, 1929. 
(Genotype, Doryichthys lineatus Kaup.) 



>« Hippocampus punctulatus is recorded by R6hl (1942) from the coast of Venezuela but even with the aid 
of Ginsburg's review of the genus (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 83, pp. 497-694, figs. 54-71, 1937) I do not know 
what species he actually had. The common name in Venezuela is caballito de mar. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 101 

In 1943 (U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 180, p. 73) I included this genus 
in the synonymy of Doryichthys Kaup but upon fm-ther consideration 
I am incUned to recognize it as a distinct genus. 

OOSTETHUS LINEATUS (Kaup) 

Doryichthys lineatus Kaup, Catalogue of the lophobranchiate fish in the collection 
of the British Museum, p. 59, 1856 ("Bahfa, Mexico and Guadaloupe")- 

3 specimens, 139 to 159 mm., Rfo Sanch6n, 5 km. west of Tavorda, F. F. 
Bond, January 26, 1938. 

5 specimens, 104 to 165 mm., from Rfo Cumboto, near mouth, 2 km. northwest 
of Ocumare, F. F. Bond, May 5, 1939. 

1 specimen, 112 mm., from Rfo Cumboto, near Ocumare, F. F. Bond, January 

5, 1938. 

Genus PSEUDOPHALLUS Herald 

Pseudophallus Herald, Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition, vol. 9, No. 3, p. 51, 
1940. (Genotype, Sijjhostoma starksi Jordan and Culver.) 
PSEUDOPHALLUS MINDII (Meek and HUdebrand) 

Syngnaihus mindii Meek and Hildebrand, The marine fishes of Panama, 
vol. 1, p. 261, pi. 18, fig. 2, 1923 (creek near Mindi, Canal Zone). 

1 specimen, 95 mm., standard length, from Rfo Sanch6n, 5 km. west of Tavorda, 
F. F. Bond, January 26, 1938. 

2 specimens, 112 and 113.5 mm., from Rfo Cumboto, near mouth, 2 km. 
northwest of Ocumare, F. F. Bond, May 5, 1939. 

1 specimen, 100 mm. but with regenerated caudal region, Rfo Cumboto, near 
Ocumare, F. F. Bond, January 5. 1938. 

The following counts were made on the above hsted specimens: 
Dorsal fin rays 37 in three counts, 39 in one; pectoral rays 13 in one 
and 14 in three counts; body rings on trimk 14 in all four specimens, 
and tail rings 35 in two, 36 in one, and only 28 body rings left in the 
injured specimen; caudal fin had 10 rays in one count. 

The coloration consists of dark brown upper side, sharply contrasting 
with a pale grayish band along the dorsal side from snout to tail; 
ventral side pale; caudal fin bordered with pale; dark brown streak 
from lower jaw through eye to pectoral fin base; actual tip of lower 
jaw pale and forming part of pale band on dorsal surface of head. 

Genus SYNGNATHUS Linnaeus 

Syngnathus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 336, 1758. (Genotype, 
Syngnaihus acxis Linnaeus.) 

SYNGNATHUS ROSSEAU Kaup 

Syngnathus rosseau Kaup, Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection 
of the British Museum, p. 40, 1856 (Martinique). — Herald, Stanford 
Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 130, 133, 1942 (Venezuela). 
U.S.N.M. No. 123162, 4 specimens, 114 to 147 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123163, 1 specimen, 102 mm.. Cape San Romdn, U. S. S. Niagara. 
April 2, 1925. 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

SYNGNATHUS PELAGICUS Linnaeus 

Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 337, 1758. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123164, 1 specimen, 183 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 19, 1925. 

SYNGNATHUS FISTULATUS Peters 

Syngnathus fistulatus Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1868, p. 456 
(Puerto Cabello [undoubtedly Venezuela]). 

Order PERCOMORPHOIDEA 

Suborder Percesoces 

Family ATHERINIDAE: Silversides; Pescados del rey, o Pejerreres 

This family of world-wide distribution has only four species so far 
known from Venezuelan waters. They may be distinguished by 
means of the following key: 

la. Four glandlike depressions on dorsal surface of snout; anus far forward, 
equidistant or nearer pelvic bases than anal fin origin; air bladder and body 
cavity not reaching anywhere near to opposite anal fin origin; first dorsal 
origin notably in front of anal origin; scaly sheath along base of anal fin 
consisting of a few scales anteriorly; margins of scales wdth entire edges; 
ascending premaxillary process a narrow spinelike projection; dorsal rays 
IV or V — I, i, 7 or I, i, 8; anal rays I, i, 14; scales about 44. 

Adenops analis Schultz 

16. No glandUke depressions on dorsal surface of snout as in Adenops; anus just 

in front of anal origin or much closer to anal origin than to pelvic bases; 

ascending premaxillary process a wide-based triangular projection; margins 

of scales entire. 

2a, Posterior end of body cavity extending to anal origin or well past anal fin 

origin; belly rounded; no sheath of scales along anal fin base; first dorsal 

origin over or nearly over anal origin, sometimes over base of first 

branched anal ray; dorsal rays III or IV — I, i, 5 to I, i, 7; anal rays 

I, i, 14 to I, i, 19. 

3a. Scale rows from upper angle of gill opening to midbase of caudal fin 38 

to 40 Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Quoy and Gaimard) 

ob. Scale rows 41 or 42 Xenomelaniris venezuelae (Eigenmann) 

26. Posterior end of body cavity notably not reaching anal fin origin; belly 
compressed; anal fin base with a wide scaly sheath composed of two rows 
of scales along its entire length; first dorsal origin over bases of fourth or 
fifth branched rays of anal fin; maxillary reaching to below front part of 
eye; dorsal rays III — I, i, 7 or I, i, 8; anal rays I, i, 21 to I, i, 23; scales 
44 to 48 Coleotropis blackbumi, new species. 

Genus ADENOPS Schultz 

Adenops Schultz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 98, p. 34, 1948. (Genotype, 
Adenops analis Schultz.) 

This genus has the premaxillary dilated posteriorly; premaxillary 
or gape of mouth a little concave at side; rictus restricted by a 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



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membrane folding between jaws; dentigerous surface of premaxillaries 
not reflected outward and covering face of that bone with "shagreen"; 
two dorsal fins present; silvery lateral band present; mouth small, the 
maxillary not reaching to e3'^e; air bladder and body cavity not 
reaching anywhere near to opposite anal fin origin; first dorsal origin 
notably in front of anal origin; pelvic insertions much closer to oper- 
cular margin or upper angle of pectoral fin base than to anal origin; 
about 5 or 6 scales forming a sheath anteriorly along base of anal 
fin; margin of scales entire; distal margins of dorsal and anal fins 
concave; ascending process of premaxillary a narrow based spine- 
like projection; vertebrae in one count 16 + 24. 

It differs from all other genera of Atherinidae by having the anus 
far forward, equidistant between pelvic insertion and anal origin or 
nearer pelvic base than anal origin in combination with the four 
glandlilvc depressions on dorsal surface of snout and the body cavity 
nowhere near reaching to opposite the anal fin origin. 

The only other related atherine fishes with the posterior end of the 
premaxillary dilated that have the anus far forward is Archomenidia 
sallei (Regan), but that genus has the air bladder and body cavity 
conspicuously extending some distance past the anal fin origin. 

The only related genus of atherine fish with the four glandlike 
depressions on the dorsal surface of the snout is Membras, but that 
differs from Adenops in having the anus just in front of the anal -fin 
origin. 

ADENOPS ANALIS Schultz 

Figure 14 

Adenops analis Schultz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 98, p. 34, 1948 (type locality, 
Lago de Maracaibo.) 

Holotype.' — U.S.N.M. No. 121824, a specim.en, 59 mm. in standard 
length, collected by Leonard P. Schultz at night by flashlight in 
Lago de Maracaibo, 1 km. off Pueblo Viejo, Venezuela, on April 7-8, 
1942. 

Paratypes.—U.S.'NM. No. 121823, 66 specimens, 9 to 53.5 mm. 
in standard length, taken along with the holotype and bearing same 
data. There appear to be at least two age groups in this lot with 
25 specimens 9 to 17.5 mm. and 41 fishes 19.5 to 53.5 mm. 

Description. — Detailed measurements were made on the holotype 
and two paratypes, and these data, expressed in hundredths of the 
standard length, are recorded in table 16. 

Greatest depth of body about 5.5 to 5.75, head 4.5 to 4%, both in 
standard length; snout 3.5 to 3.75, orbit 3)3 to 3.5, interorbital 3 to 
SYz, all in length of head; premaxillary a little curved, causing gape 
of mouth to be somewhat concave; mouth rather smaU, the maxillary 
not reaching to front of orbit; gill rakers slender, the longest about 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



105 



% diameter of pupil; rear margin of pupil about in middle of length 
of head; pelvic fin insertions a little closer to upper angle of pectoral 
fin base than to anal origin; anal origin equidistant between midbase of 
caudal fin and the second third of length of opercle; first dorsal origin 
conspicuously a little in front of a line through anal origin; second 
dorsal origin about over base of sixth from last anal fin ray; pelvic 
fins short usually reaching a trifle over halfway to anal origin; the 
anus is located nearly equidistant between anal origin and pelvic 
bases, but much closer to pelvic bases in the smaller ones; the body 
cavity extends only a trifle past anal opening; the ascending premaxil- 
lary processes are long, slender, with narrow bases, not triangular in 
shape; pectoral fins pointed, reaching a short distance past pelvic 
bases; interorbital space a Uttle convex, belly rounded; posterior 
margins of scales entire; silvery lateral band present, wider than pupil 
anteriorly, but constricted a httle on caudal peduncle where it is not 
quite as wide as pupil; least depth of caudal peduncle 2K to 2% in its 
length; lower jaw a little shorter than upper, slightly included; 
teeth minute in both jaws in a narrow villiform band. 




Figure U.—Adenops analis Schultz: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121824), 59 mm. in standard 
length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

The following counts were made, respectively: Dorsal rays, IV-I, 
i, 8; V-I, i, 7; and IV-I, i, 7. Anal rays I, i, 14; I, i, 14; and I, i, 14. 
Pelvics always I, 5. Pectoral rays, i, 12-i,12 ; and i, 12. Branched cau- 
dal rays 15; 15; 15. Scales above lateral line to first dorsal origin 3^; 
3K; 3K; and below lateral Une to anal origin 2)^; 2)^; and 2K. Scales 
in the lateral Hne 44; 44; 44. Scales in front of first dorsal to rear of 
pigmented area over brain 20; 21; 20. Scales between anal origin 
and anus 4; 4; 4. Scales between dorsal bases of dorsal fins 7; 7; 6. 
Zigzag scales around least depth of caudal peduncle 12; 12; and 12. 
Gill rakers on first gill arch 4 + 1 + 14; — ; and 2 + 1 + 13. Addi- 
tional counts will be found in table 16. 

Coloration. — In alcohol, straw-colored with silvery lateral band, 
bordered above by a narrow dark streak, wider anteriorly; middorsal 
line with a prominent row of black pigment spots or cells; each scale 



106 



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►:! ^ ^q H^ H? h:i h:; 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 107 

of back above silvery lateral band with a black spot, some scales with 
two of these small pigment spots, thus making 2 rows of spots each 
side of middorsal line; tip of snout with black pigment; a few black 
pigment cells on sides of lower jaw and a few near its tip. 

Genus XENOMELANIRIS Schultz 

Xenomelaniris Schultz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 98, p. 33, 1948. (Genotype, 
Atherina brasiliensis Quoy and Gaimard.) 

XENOMELANIRIS BRASILIENSIS (Quoy and Gaimard) 

SiLVERSiDEs; Pejerret de mar 

Atherina brasiliensis Quoy and Gaimard, Voyage autour du monde . . . 
"L'Uranie" et "La Physicienne," Poissons, p. 332, 1824 (ref. copied). 

Thrina brasiliensis Jordan and Hubbs, A monographic review of the family 
of Atherinidae or silversides, p. 59, 1919 (Lago de Maracaibo). — Hubbs, 
Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 88, p. 3, 1920 (salt and brackish 
waters from Lago de Maracaibo to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121822, 1 specimen, 100 mm., Maracaibo Yacht Club, Mara- 
caibo, March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121821, 2 specimens, one 68 mm., the other with broken caudal 
peduncle, Maracaibo Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 123204, 10 specimens, 245 to 48.5 m.m.. Point Macolla, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

Three specimens, 15 to 50 mm. in standard length, Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida 
at mouth, 5 km. north of Capatdrida, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

I have made counts and measurements on the above-listed material 
and have compared these with similar counts made on specimens from 
Trinidad and Brazil. Because of a large variation and a small series 
of specimens it is not possible to separate the Lago de Maracaibo 
population from that of the Gulf of Venezuela or of Brazil. Perhaps 
when an adequate number of specimens has been studied throughout 
the range of this species, it may be possible to break it up into sub- 
species. 

XENOMELANIRIS VENEZUELAE (Eigenmann) 

Pejerret de Agua Dulce 

Menidia venezuelae Eigenmann, Indiana Univ. Stud., vol. 7, No. 44, p. 12, 1920 
(Rfo Tapa Tapa, Lago de Valencia Basin, Venezuela). 

I have had for examination five small specimens, 25.5 to 33.5 mm. in 
standard length, collected by Dr. F. F. Bond at La Boca, Lago de 
Valencia, June 20, 1938. 

Measurements and counts were made on the above-mentioned lot, 
and these data are recorded in tables 15 and 16, respectively. 

Genus COLEOTROPIS Myers and Wade 

Coleotropis Myers and Wade, Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition, vol. 9, No. 5, 
p. 136, 1942. (Genotype, Menidia starksi Meek and Hildebrand.) 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

COLEOTROPIS BLACKBURNI. new species 

Pejerret db mab 
Figure 15 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 123205, a specimen 82 mm. in standard 
length, collected in the Gulf of Venezuela at Jacuque Point, by the 
U. S. S. Niagara on January 26, 1925. 

Paratypes. — U.S.N.M. No. 123207, 4 specimens 45 to 65 mm. in 
standard length, collected in the Gulf of Venezuela at Point Macolla, 
by the U. S. S. Niagara, April 19, 1925; U.S.N.M. No. 123206, 2 
specimens, 36 to 37.5 mm., collected in the Gulf of Venezuela by the 
U. S. S. Niagara, April 4, 1925. 

Description. — Detailed measurements were made on the holotype 
and one paratype, and these data, expressed in hundredths of the 
standard length, are recorded in table 16. 

Greatest depth of body 4.8 to 5.25, head 4.5 to 4.75, both in standard 
length; snout 3.25 to 3.5, orbit 2.8 to 3.5, interorbital 2.8 to 3, all in 
length of head; premaxillary a little curved, causing gape of mouth to 
be somewhat concave; mouth of moderate size, the posterior tip of 
maxillary reaching to under front margin of orbit; gill rakers rather 
slender, the longest about equal to diameter of pupil; rear margin of 
pupil at or very slightly in advance of midlength of head; pelvic fin 
insertions about equal distance between anal origin and upper angle 
of pectoral fin base; anal fin origin equidistant between midbase of 
caudal fin and near middle of length of snout; first dorsal origin con- 
spicuously behind a vertical line through anal origin, about over base 
of second branched anal ray; second dorsal origin over beginning of 
last third of length of anal fin base; pelvic fins reaching from one-half 
to two-thirds the way to anal origin but not quite to anus; anus is 
located a very short distance in front of anal origin but much closer 
to anal origin than to base of pelvics; the body cavity and air bladder 
notably do not extend posteriorly to opposite the anal fin origin; the 
ascending premaxillary process is broadbased, and triangular in shape; 
pectoral fins pointed reaching about halfway out length of pelvics; 
interorbital space slightly convex; belly somewhat compressed, not 
fully rounded ; posterior margins of scales entire, not crenulate ; silvery 
lateral band much wider than pupU anteriorly, then partially con- 
stricted on caudal peduncle and narrower than pupil, thence a little 
wider before ending at base of caudal fin ; least depth of caudal peduncle 
not quite twice in its length; lower jaw a httler shorter than upper, 
and a little included; teeth small, in upper jaw in two rows, these 
separated by a narrow nondentigerous space, those in lower jaw in two 
rows anteriorly, becoming one row on sides; the posterior end of 
dentary scarcely elevated; a scaly sheath along base of anal fin, two 
scales wide anteriorly. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 109 

The following counts were made, respectively, for holotype and 
paratype: Dorsal rays III-I, i, 7 and III-I, i, 7. Anal rays I, i, 22 
and I, i, 22. Pectoral rays i, 12-i, 13 and i, 12-i, 12. Pelvics always I, 
5 and branched caudal fin rays always 15. Scales from first dorsal 
origin to lateral line 5 and 5 and from lateral line to anal origin 4 and 4. 
Scale rows from head to midbase of caudal fin 45 and 48. Scales 
from first dorsal origin to pigmented area over brain 22 and 23. One 
or two scales between anal origin and anus. Scales between bases of 
dorsal fins 7 and 7. Zigzag scales around least depth of caudal 
peduncle 16 and 16. Gill rakers on fii'st gill arch 3 + 1 + 15 and 
3 + 1 + 15. Vertebral count for one of the paratypes 14 + 27. 



v^^ , 




V 




Figure 15. — Coleotropis blackburni, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 123205), 82 mm; 
in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 

Coloration. — In alcohol, plain except for silvery lateral band which 
has a blackish dorsal border; a few dark pigment cells stiU visible on 
posterior border of scales that occur above silvery lateral band. 

Remarks .—ThiQ new species is related to Coleotropis starksi (Meek 
and Hildebrand) from the Pacific side of Panama but differs from 
that species by having I, i, 21 to I, i, 23 anal rays instead of I, i, 25 
to I, i, 28. In addition C. blackburni has 44 to 48 scales instead of 41 
to 42 as in C. starksi. 

Named in honor of Capt. P. P. Blackburn, of the U. S, S. Niagara, 
who preserved all the fishes collected in Venezuelan waters in 1924- 
1925 reported upon in this contribution. It gives me great pleasure 
to name this interesting species of silverside after Captain Blackburn. 

Family SPHYRAENIDAE: Barracudas 

Genus SPHYRAENA Walbaum 

Sphyraena Walbaum, Artedi's Bibliotheca ichthyologicae, vol. 3, pp. 94, 584, 
1792. (Genotype, Esox barracuda Walbaum.) 

SPHYRAENA BARRACUDA (Walbaum) 
PiCUDA 

Esox barracuda Walbaum, Artedi's Bibliotheca ichthyologicae, vol. 3, pp. 94, 

584, 1792 (West Indies). 
Sphyraena barracuda Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 392, fig. 201, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL IVIUSEUM vol.99 

U. S. N. M. No. 123220, large head, Punta Gorda, east coast of 
Gulf of Venezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, December 18, 1924. This 
specimen measured 4 feet 6 inches in total length and weighed 33 K 
pounds. 

SPHYRAENA GUACHANCHO Valenciennes 
GUAQUANCHO 

Sphyraena guachancho Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire 
naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 252, 1829 (Havana). — Metzelaar, Report 
on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, 
p. 41, 1919 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Family MUGILIDAE: Mullets; Lisas 

No careful comparison of European and American mullets has been 
made; Mugil cepfialus therefore is usually considered to have a world- 
wide distribution. However, my preliminary study of specimens of 
M. cephalus from Europe compared with some American ones indi- 
cates possible differences. Before any definite conclusion can be 
reached a large series will have to be studied. I have not found any 
specimen from Venezuela that could be definitely classified as cephalus, 
and I have serious doubt that M. cephalus occurs along the east coast 
of South America or in the West Indies. 

During my study of the mullets of Venezuela I considered it neces- 
sary to revise provisionally the genera of Mugilidae, since much con- 
fusion exists in regard to genera. The results of this preliminary 
revision have been published (Schultz, 1946). 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF MUGILIDAE REPORTED FROM 

VENEZUELA 

la. Upper and lower jaws inside of lips with a wide band of villiform teeth, but 
no teeth on outer margin of lips, nor is the lower lip directed or folded 
downward; anterior margin of lower jaw broadly rounded; gill rakers about 
17 to 20 on lower part of first gill arch; maxillary reaching past front of 
orbit and past posterior tip of preorbital bone; lower lip thick, not thin at 
edge and not bearing teeth; no adipose eyelid; nostrils much closer together 
than anterior is from edge of snout, lip excluded; anal rays III, 9; scales 
about 38 to 41 Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) 

16. Lower jaw without a wide band of villiform teeth; gill rakers more than 25 on 
lower part of first gill arch; lower lip with a thin edge directed horizontally 
forward or nearly so, usually with a uniserial row of slender simple teeth 
more or less ciliform, sometimes embedded and almost obsolete; upper jaw 
with or without a narrow band of minute villiform teeth and lip usually 
with a single row of minute slender teeth; adipose eyelid well developed, 
reaching to or nearly to pupil except on young 40 mm. in standard length 
and shorter, in which case the preorbital is narrower than space between 
nostrils; nostrils wider apart than anterior nostril is from edge of snout, 
lip excluded; anterior margin of lower jaw triangular in shape; preorbital 
posteriorly narrower than distance between nostrils and its posterior tip 
not reaching front of eye; maxillarj' reaching to rear edge of preorbital but 
not beyond front of eye (Mugil). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 111 

2a. Anal rays III, 9; dorsal and anal fins heavily scaled. 

3a. Scales usually 38 to 41 (rarely 37 or 42); accessory scales at base of first 
dorsal reach from four-fifths to past tip of fourth dorsal spine; least 
depth of caudal peduncle into distance from tip of first dorsal fin to 
second dorsal origin 0.54 to 1.1; snout tip to first dorsal origin into 
distance from first dorsal origin to midbase of caudal fin 0.94 to 1.13; 
distance from tip of depressed first dorsal to origin of second dorsal 
fin into snout tip to origin of first dorsal 4.04 to 8.26; depth 3.53 to 
4.7 and head 3.06 to 3.92 in standard length. 

Mugil curema Valenciennes 
36. Scales usually about 45 or 46; accessory scales at base of first dorsal 
reaching one-third to three-fourths the way to tip of fourth dorsal 
spine; depth 4.3 to 5.0 and head 3.7 to 4.2 in standard length. 

Mugil incilis Hancock 
2&. Anal rays III, 8. 

4a. Scales 31 to 34; depth 4.2 to 5.0, head 3.7 to 4.0 in standard length; 
least depth of caudal peduncle about 1 to 1.1 in distance from tip 
of depressed first dorsal to origin of second dorsal; distance from 
tip of snout to origin of first dorsal into distance from origin of first 
dorsal to midbase of caudal fin about 1.1; anal and dorsal fins scaled 
anteriorly and basally only on interradial membranes. 

Mugil brasiliensis Spix 
4&. Scales 29 to 32; depth 3.3 to 3.4, head 3.3 to 3.6 in standard length; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 0.3 to 0.4 in distance from tip of 
depressed first dorsal to origin of second dorsal; distance from tip of 
snout to origin of first dorsal into distance from origin of first dorsal 
to midbase of caudal fin 0.9 to 1.0; anal and dorsal fins heavily scaled. 

Mugil trichodon Poey 

Genus AGONOSTOMUS Bennett 

Agonostomus Bennett, Proc. Committee Sci. Correspond. Zool. Soc. London, 
No. 14, p. 166, 1832. (Genotype, Agonostomus ielfairii Bennett, from 
Mauritius.) 

AGONOSTOMUS MONTICOLA (Bancroft) 

Lisa de agua ogLCB, o Dajao 

Mugil monticola Bancroft, in Griffith's ed. Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, 
Fishes, p. 367, pi. 36, 1836 (Jamaica) (ref. copied). 

U.S.N. M. Nos. 93811-93813, 93818-93819, and 93826, totahng 16 specimens, 61 
to 179 mm. in standard length, from a fresh-water stream at Macuto, Venezuela, 
August 1-2, 1900, collected by Lj'on and Robinson. 

The following collections were made by Dr. F. F. Bond: 

2 specimens, both 61 mm., Rio Cumboto, near mouth, 2 km. northwest of 
Ocumare, May 5, 1939. 

3 specimens, 30.5 to 37 mm., Rio Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 
January 15, 1938. 

4 specimens, 28 to 66 mm., Rio Cumboto near Ocumare, January 5, 1938. 

1 specimen, 51.5 mm., lagoon, 3 km. west of Cumand, on road to Cumanacoa, 
March 26, 1939. 

1 specimen, 73 mm., tributary to Rio San Pedrito, 55 km. east of Barcelona, 
March 25, 1939. 



112 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

2 specimens, 35 and 36 mm., Rio Agua Caliente at Tavorda, 6 km. west of Puerto 
Cabello, January 15, 1938. 

30 specimens, 23 to 106 mm., Rio Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, De- 
cember 22, 1937. 

43 specimens, 22 to 43.5 mm., Rio Mamo, 15 km. west of La Guaira, November 
11, 1938. 

In the young of A. monticola, the rear end of the maxillary scarcely 
reaches to the eye at a standard length of 50 mm., but in adults 150 
mm. and longer the maxillary reaches well past the front of the orbit, 
sometimes to under the front of the pupil. I am unable to find any 
significant differences in any counts made on Venezuelan specimens 
and other localities in the West Indies and Central America. The 
origin of the dorsal fin is equidistant between tip of snout or a little 
closer to tip of snout. 

The following counts were made on Venezuelan specimens: Anal 
rays III, 9 in 14; gill rakers 9 to 12 + 1 + 17 to 20 on first arch in 8 
specimens; scales 38 in 1, 39 in 2, and 40 in 6 specimens. 

Genus MUGIL Linnaeus 

Mugil Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol, 1, p. 316, 1758. (Genotype, 
Mugil cephalus Linnaeus.) 

MUGIL CUREMA Valenciennes 

Mullet; Lisa 

Mugil curema Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 11, p. 87, 1836 (Brazil, Martinique, Cuba). 

7Mugil cephalus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 392, fig. 200, 1942 
(Venezuela). 

Myxus calancalae de Beaufort, Freshwater fishes from the Leeward Group, 
Venezuela and eastern Columbia: Studies on the fauna of Curasao, Aruba, 
Bonaire, and the Venezuelan Islands, vol. 2, p. 112, pi. Xa, 1940 (Goajira, 
lower course of the Rfo Calancala near San Antonio, Colombia). 

I have compared De Beaufort's description and figure of his new 
species in connection with my revision of the genera of Mugilidae and 
find calancalae to be in the querimana stage of development of Mugil 
curema, the commonest mullet along the northern shores of South 
America. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121793, a specimen, 67.5 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, in Maracaibo, May 16. 

U.S.N.M, No. 121794, 21 specimens, 8 to 61 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club in Maracaibo, February 27. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121792, 126 specimens, 20 to 173 mm., from Cafio de Sagua, 
25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121797, 1 specimen, 19 mm., Cafio de Los Monitos, Rfo Lim6n 
system, north of Maracaibo, March 11. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121795, 5 specimens, 147 to 218 mm., from Lago Maracaibo near 
mouth of Rfo Concha, May 2. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 113 

U.S.N.M. No. 121796, 11 specimens, 74 to 240 mm., from mouth of 
Cafio de Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamaica, taken March 12, were 
separated from the other specimens of this species taken at the same 
place and date, U.S.N.M. No. 121792, because they appear to be more 
elongate, with a more slender caudal peduncle, and the space from 
tip of depressed first dorsal to origin of second dorsal is greater. 
There is too much overlapping, however, to permit the consideration 
of this lot as a new form. 

The following collections were made by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela: 

U.S.N.M. No. 122969, 5 specimens, 24 to 149 mm., Point Macolla, April 19, 
1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122971, 12 specimens, 39 to 86 mm., Jacuque Point, January 26, 

1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122965, 4 specimens, 37 to 280 mm., Piedras Bay, March 14, 
1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122964, 2 specimens, 48 and 61 mm., Amuay Bay, December 9, 
1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122968, 4 specimens, 33 to 84 mm., south coast of Gulf, Novem- 
ber 15, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122970, 18 specimens, 27 to 30 and 143 mm., Salinas Bay, 
April 4-9, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122967, 1 specimen, 30 mm., Estanques Bay, February 20, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122966, 3 specimens, 16 to 30 mm.. Cape San Romdn, April 2, 
1935. 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

23 specimens, 19 to 44 mm., Rfo Cumboto near mouth, 2 km. northwest of 
Ocumare, May 5, 1939. 

9 specimens, 43 to 64 mm., salt-water lagoon on coast, 5 km. west of Cumand, 
March 25, 1939. 

2 specimens, 94 and 99 mm., Rfo Cumboto near Ocumare, January 5, 1938. 

10 specimens, 25 to 30 mm., Rio Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, Decem- 
ber 22, 1937. 

13 specimens, 39 to 49 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida, at mouth, 3 km. north 
of Capatdrida, March 21, 1938. 

3 specimens, 28 to 47.5 mm. Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, Febru- 
ary 3, 1939. 

5 specimens, 25.5 to 51 mm., baja seco east side of Puerto Cabello, January 26, 

1938. 

6 specimens, 28 to 38 mm., "Paparo," Estado de Miranda, February 2, 1939. 

The following counts were made: Anal rays 111,9 on 32 specimens; 
scales 38 on 6, 39 on 11, 40 on 9, 41 on 4, and 42 on 1. 

MUGIL INCmS Hancock 

Mugil incilis Hancock, Quart. Journ. Sci., 1830, p. 127 (Guiana) (ref. copied). 

U. S. N. M. No. 121791, 2 specimens, mouth of Cafio de Sagua, 25 km. north 
of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942: 

3 specimens, 43 to 44.5 mm., Rfo Borburata at mouth, 3 km. east of Puerto 
Cabello, F. F. Bond, January 15, 1938. 

802207 — 49 8 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

The following counts were made: Anal rays 111,9 on 5 specimens 
and scales 45 on 2 and 46 on 2 specimens. 

MUGIL BRASIUENSIS Spix 

Mullet; Lebrancho 

Mugil hrasiliensis Spix, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species piscium . . . 

Brasiliam . . ., p. 134, pi. 72, pi. F, 1831 (Ocean at Brazil). — Rohl, Fauna 

descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 391, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 
Mugil liza Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 

poissons, vol. 11, p. 83, 1836 (Brazil, Surinam, Puerto Rico, Maracaibo, 

Martinique, Cuba). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121788, 6 specimens, 215 to 250 mm., market at Maracaibo, 
probably caught in El Tablazo, May 15, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121789, 2 specimens, 305 and 310 mm., Salina Rica, north of 
Maracaibo, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121786, 3 specimens, 93 to 100 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Maracaibo Yacht Club, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121787, 3 specimens, 44 to 115 mm., from Cafio de Sagua, 25 
km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122972, 1 specimen, 360 mm. in standard length. Gulf of 
Venezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, February 20, 1925. 

The following counts were made: Anal rays 111,8 on 15 specimens; 
scales 31 in 1, 32 in 2, 33 in 7, and 34 in 3 specimens. 

MUGIL TRICHODON Poey 

Lisa 

Mugil trichodon Poey, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 11, p. 66, pi. 8, 
figs. 4^8, 1875 (Cuba). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121970, 9 specimens, 26 to 89 mm., mouth of Cafio de Sagua, 
25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 122963, 1 specimen, 91 mm., Cape San Romdn, Gulf of Venezuela, 
U. S. S. Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

10 specimens, 21 to 23 mm., Rfo Sanchdn, 5 km. west of Tavorda, January 26, 
1938. 

29 specimens, 19 to 22 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, Decem- 
ber 22, 1937. 

107 specimens, 19 to 27 mm., Rfo Yaracuy, Boca Yaracuy, 45 km. northwest 
of Puerto Cabello, January 28, 1938. 

29 specimens, 23 to 24 mm., Rfo Borburata at mouth, 3 km. east of Puerto 
Cabello at Gananga, January 15, 1938. 

14 specimens, 21.5 to 27 mm., bajo seco east side of Puerto Cabello, January 
26, 1938. 

1 specimen, 35 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida, at mouth, 5 km. north of 
Capatdrida, March 21, 1938. 

7 specimens, 19 to 26 mm., coastal lagoons, 15 km. north of Maracaibo, April 
6, 1938. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 115 

The following counts were made: Anal rays 111,8 in 9 specimens; 
scales 29 in 1, 30 in 3, 31 in 3, and 32 in 3 specimens. 

Suborder Polynemoidea 
Family POLYNEMIDAE: Threadfins; Barbudos 

Genus POLYDACTYLUS Lacepede 

Polydactylus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 5, p. 419, 1803. 
(Genotype, Polydactylus plumierii 'La,cep^de= Polynemus virginicus Linnaeus.) 

POLYDACTYLUS VIRGINICUS (Linnaeus) 

Barbudo 
Polynemus virginicus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 317, 1758 (America). 
The following collections were made by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela in 1925: 

U.S.N. M. No. 123180, 1 specimen, 44 mm. in standard length, from Jacuque 
Point, January 26. 

U.S.N. M. No. 123178, 3 specimens, 45.5 to 47 mm., Piedras Bay, March 14. 
U.S.N. M. No. 123179, 7 specimens, 48 to 52 mm., Cape San Romdn, April 2. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123181, 4 specimens, 47 to 49 mm., Gulf of Venezuela, April 4. 
U.S.N. M. No. 123182, 12 specimens, 42 to 54 mm., Estanques Bay, February 20. 

Suborder Percoidea 
Family CENTROPOMIDAE: Robalos 

Only two species of Centropomus have been collected in Venezuelan 
waters, although additional forms are to be expected, such as the 
widely ranging C. pectinatus and C. parallelus. 

Genus CENTROPOMUS Lacepede 

Centropomus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 4, p. 248, 1802. 
(Genotj'pe, Sciaena undecimalis Bloch.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CENTROPOMUS FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Scales 66 to 72 from supraclavicle serrae to base of caudal fin above lateral 
line; gill rakers on first gUl arch, not counting rudiments, about 3+1 + 7 or 
8 and by counting all rudiments about 6+1 + 13 or 14; preorbital edge 
smooth or nearly so; eye 5 to 6.5 in head; second anal spine not quite reach- 
ing to opposite base of caudal fin; depth about 4 to 4.8 in standard length; 
dorsal rays VIII-I, 10; anal III, 6; pectorals ii, 13 or ii, 14; lateral line with 
a black streak; interspinal membranes of dorsal fin blackish from base to 
tips, sometimes intensely black distally. 

Centropomus xondecimalis (Bloch) 

16. Scales about 54 to 56 from supraclavicle serrae to base of caudal fin above 
lateral line; gill rakers on first gill arch, not counting rudiments, about 
6+l + llorl2 and by counting all rudiments 9+1 + 16 or 17; preorbital edge 
serrate; eye 4 to 5.5 in head; anal spine very long, usually reaching a little 
beyond caudal fin base and much longer than length of caudal peduncle; depth 
about 3.5 in standard length; dorsal rays VIII-I, 10; anal III, 6; pectorals 
ii, 13 or 14; lateral line without black streak; interspinal membranes of 
dorsal fin blackish from base to tips Centropomus ensiferus Poey 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CENTROPOMUS UNDECIMAUS (Bloch) 
ROBALO 

Sciaena undecimalis Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 6, p. 

60, pi. 303, 1792 (Jamaica). 
Ceniropomus undecimalis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 402, fig. 216, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121740, 2 specimens, 87 and 108 mm. in standard length, Lago 
de Maracaibo, opposite Salina Rica, 5 1cm. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121739, a specimen, 119 mm., mouth of Carlo de Sagua, 25 km. 
north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121741, 2 specimens, 67 and 78 mm., Salina Santa Rosa, 3 km. 
north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121733, 3 specimens, 118 to 140 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27 and March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121734, 3 specimens, 66 to 192 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121737, a specimen, 178 mm., cano H mile west of Sinamaica, 
March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121735, 10 specimens, 94 to 143 mm., Salina Rica, 5 km. north 
of Maracaibo, in brackish water, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121736, 4 specimens, 130 to 205 mm., Rio Socuy, 3 km. above 
mouth, February 24, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121732, 11 specimens, 91 to 210 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. 
south of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121738, 1 head, Rio de Los Pdjaros, 3 km. above Lago de 
Maracaibo, April 30, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123065, 1 specimen, 360 mm. in standard length, Amuay Bay, 
U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

2 specimens, 66.5 to 92 mm., Rio Sanch6n, 5 km. west of Tavorda, January 
26, 1938. 

3 specimens, 58.5 to 82 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, 
February 3, 1939. 

3 specimens, 39 to 67 mm,, a bajo seca, east side of Puerto Cabello, January 
26, 1938. 

2 specimens, 52.5 and 85 mm., salt-water lagoon on coast, 5 km. west of Cua- 
mand, March 25, 1939. 

6 specimens, 32 to 39 mm., Laguna de Rfo Capatdrida, March 21, 1938. 

This species was observed in the mouth of Cano de Sagua to reach 
a length of nearly 3 feet. No specimens of such large size were 
preserved but one was photographed, 

CENTROPOMUS ENSIFERUS Poey 
ROBALO 

Ceniropomus ensiferus Poet, Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, 
vol. 2, p. 122, pi. 12, fig, 1, 1860 (Havana). 

U.S.N.M, No. 121728, 4 specimens, 46 to 138 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27 and March 5, 1942. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 117 

U.S.N.M. No. 121727, 17 specimens, 53 to 70 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, oppo- 
site Salina Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121729, a specimen, 138 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. south 
of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121730, 2 specimens, 137 and 150 mm., Salina Rica, 5 km. north 
of Maracaibo, Februarj' 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121731, 3 specimens, 84 to 147 mm., mouth of Cano de Sagua, 
25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

One specimen, 74 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. Bond, 
February 3, 1939. 

Family SERRANIDAE: Sea Basses 

This family is so poorly represented from Venezuela that it is not 
practicable to make a key. Instead, the reader is referred to volume 
2, pp. 435-436, of Meek and Hildebrand's "The Marine Fishes of 
Panama" for a key to the genera of Serranidae likely to occur in 
Venezuela. 

Genus PARALABRAX Girard 

Paralabrax Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 8, p. 131, 1856. 
(Genotype, Labrax nebulifer Girard.) 

PAEALABRAX DEWEGEKI (Metzelaar) 

Serranus (Paralabrax) dewegeri Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by 
Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch V/est Indies, 1904-1905, p. 52, fig. 20, 1919 (Guanta, 
Venezuela) . 

U.S.N.M. No. 123134, a specimen, 127.5 mm. in standard length, from south 
coast of Gulf, U. S. S. Niagara, November 7, 1924, 

As this species has never been recognized since its original discovery 
and probably the specimen before me is only the third one collected 
and made known, I am giving the following rather full diagnosis and 
a comparison with other species closely related to it: 

The following measurements, expressed in hundredths of the 
standard length, were made: Greatest depth of body 35.5; length of 
head 43.9; length of snout 12.5; least width of bony interorbital space 
4.97; diameter of eye 8.78; postorbital length of head 23.1 ; least width 
of preorbital space 4.31; distance from tip of snout to rear edge of 
maxillaries 19.0; length of longest gill rakers 3.37; length of caudal 
peduncle or from rear base of last anal ray to midbase of caudal fin 
21.4; least depth of caudal peduncle 14.3; length of pelvic spine 11.4; 
length of spines of dorsal fin — first 5.49, second 10.1, third 18.3, fourth 
19.5, fifth 14.9, sixth 12.8, seventh 12.4, eighth 11.4, ninth 11.2, tenth 
13.7; length of anal spines — first 6.20, second 11.8, third 11.9; longest 
soft ray of dorsal fin 17.9; of anal fin 19.6; of pectoral fin 23.0; of pelvic 
fin 20.4; longest ray of caudal fm 24.8; distance from tip of snout to 
origin of dorsal fin 42.6, and to origin of anal fin 63.0; snout tip to 
pectoral fin insertion 35.5 and to pelvic insertion 37.4. 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays X,14; anal rays III, 
7; pectoral fin rays i, 16-i,16; branched caudal fin rays 8 + 7=15; 
pelvic rays I, 5-1, 5; gill rakers on first gill arch 7 + 1 + 13; number of 
transverse scale rows just above lateral line from upper edge of gill 
opening to midbase of caudal fin 75; pores in lateral line 55 with 8 
additional ones on caudal fin; scales from dorsal origin to lateral line 
11 or 12 and from base of first soft ray of dorsal to lateral line 8; 
scales from anal origin upward to lateral line 19 or 20 in an oblique 
row; zigzag scales around least width of caudal peduncle 39 or 40. 

Body a little compressed, greatest depth through middle of spiny 
dorsal; caudal peduncle a little compressed; pelvics inserted under base 
of pectoral fins; dorsal origin over base of pectorals; anal origin under 
base of second or third soft ray of dorsal fin and anus close in front of 
anal fin; distal margin of caudal fin truncate or a little rounded when 
fully distended ; distal margins of soft dorsal and anal fins rounded, that 
of pectoral rounded with the seventh to ninth branched rays longest, 
counting down from the dorsal edge; third and fourth dorsal spines 
longest, the fourth projecting a little beyond third and fifth spines; 
second and third anal spines projecting about the same amount; 
scales small, ctenoid, covering body and bases of all fins, and the scales 
extending two-thirds the way out on the rays of caudal, pectoral, and 
pelvic fins but not over halfway out on soft dorsal and anal fins; scales 
occur only on the basal third of the dorsal spines, the membranes being 
naked; scales occur on operculum and cheeks and forward on top of 
head to a line connecting across rear of orbits, the rest of the top of head 
and snout naked; underside of head naked; scales in front of pelvics 
smaller than elsev/here on body; lower jaw projecting but not quite enter- 
ing profile ; gill membranes free from isthmus, extending far forward ; gill 
rakers moderately long, not quite so long as the least width of the 
preorbital; each pair of nasal openings separated by a narrow dermal 
isthmus; the anterior nasal opening, tubelike, with a fringed dermal 
flap posteriorly; the rear opening with a low fringed tube; interorbital 
space flat; maxillary reaching to under or a little past rear edge of 
pupU; teeth on dentary in an enlarged row of short cacinelike teeth 
with a few tiny ones at sides but in a band anteriorly; teeth on upper 
jaw similar but in a narrow band on sides; villiformlike teeth on 
vomer and palatines, but apparently no teeth on tongue or pterygoids. 

Color in alcohol. — Lower sides with 7 dark brown vertical bars, about 
twice width of pale interspaces; these bars join along middle of sides to 
form an irregular mottled pattern; upper sides dark brown with 
several narrow oblique bars ending at lateral line; posteriorly under 
soft dorsal two of the vertical dark brown bars are visible and two more 
on caudal peduncle, these continuous from those ventraUy; base of 
caudal fin with 4 dark brown spots surrounded with paler tan; caudal 
fin with numerous dark brown spots; base of pectoral fin with dark 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 119 

brown blotch circled with pale, then posteriorly at base of fin a dark 
circle; a dark bar extends downward from eye ending on subopercle; 
pelvic fins very dark brown or blackish; anal and pectorals brown; 
membranes near tips of dorsal spines anteriorly blackish; soft dorsal 
mottled with brownish. 

Paralabrax dewegeri is related to that group of fishes now represented 
by the following species: humeralis Cuvier and Valenciennes, cal- 
laensis Starks, castelnaui Jordan and Eigenmann, clathratus Girard, 
nebulifer Girard, maculatofasciatus Steindachner, maculata Howell- 
Rivero, tortugarum Longley, and beta HUdebrand. 

From nebulifer and maculatofasciatus (of Pacific coast), which have 
the third dorsal spine much longer than the fourth, it differs by having 
the third dorsal spine a little shorter than the fourth, and in having 
fewer scale rows above the lateral line; clathratus (of Pacific coast) has 
more scales, 90 to 100, and more gill rakers, 20 to 24 on the lower part 
of first arch, instead of 75 and 13 or 14 respectively for dewegeri. Two 
other Pacific coast species, humeralis and callaensis, have 18 to 22 gill 
rakers on the lower part of first gill arch and the former has too many 
scales. Paralabrax maculata Howell-Rivero of the Atlantic has but 
X,ll dorsal rays and only 45 scales. P. castelnaui from Rio de 
Janeiro has but X,12 dorsal rays. There remain two species that 
may be related to the Venezuelan one, but not closely: They are 
Serranus tortugarum Longley (Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book 
No. 34, p. 87, 1935; Longley and Hildebrand, Carnegie Inst. Washing- 
ton Publ. 517, p. 238, fig. 8, 1940 [south of Tortugas, Fla.]) and Serranus 
beta Hildebrand in Longley and Hildebrand (l. c), p. 239, fig. 9, 1940 
(south of Tortugas, Fla.). Both of these species have too few soft 
dorsal rays, X,ll or 12 and X,12, and, in addition, too few scales, 50 
or 60, respectively. 

Genus HYPOPLECTRUS Gill 

Hypopledrus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, p. 236. (Genotype, 
Plectropoma puella Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

HYPOPLECTRUS UNICOLOE (Walbaum) 

Perca unicolor Walbaum, Artedi's Bibliotheca ichthyologicae, vol. 3, p. 352, 1792 

(locality not known) (ref. copied). 
Hypopledrus unicolor Tortonese, Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp, Univ. Torino, 

vol. 47, No. 89, p. 52, 1939 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Genus^DIPLECTRUM Holbrook 

Dipledrum Holbrook, Ichthyology of South Carolina, ed. 1, p. 32, 1855. (Geno- 
type, Dipledrum fasciculare Holbrook = Perca /ormosa Linnaeus.) 

DIPLECTRUM RADIALE (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Serranus radialis Quoy and Gaimard, in Freycinet, Voyage autour du monde 
. . . "L'Uranie" et "La Physicienne," JPoissons, p. 316, 1824 (Rio de 
Janeiro). 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL IVIUSEUM vol.99 

Serranus iDiplectrum) radialis Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. 
J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 54, 1919 (Cumand, 
Venezuela) . 

U.S.N.M. No. 123132, 1 specimen, 103 mm., Arauay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 9, 1924. 

Genus RYPTICUS Cuvier 

SOAPFISHES 

Rypticus CuviER, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 3, p. 60, 1829. (Genotype, Anthias saponaceus Bloch and Schneider.) 

RYPTICUS ARENATUS Cuvier 

Fez Jabon 

Rypticus arenatus Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 3, p. 65, pi. 46, 1829 (Brazil), 

For a revision of this genus see Schultz and Reid, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 87, pp. 261-270, 1939. On page 269, table 1, the preo- 
percular spines for R. arenatus were transposed; they should read 
2 in column 2 and 32 in 3. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121809, a specimen, 114 mm. in standard length, mouth of Cafio 
de Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

Genus EPINEPHELUS Bloch 

Meros 

Epinephelus Bloch, Naturgeschichte auslandischen Fische, vol. 7, p. 11, 1793. 
(Genotype, Epinephelus marginalis Bloch= Perco fasciata Forsk§,l.) (Ref. 
copied.) 

EPINEPHELUS MORIO (Cayier and Valenciennea) 

Merc cherno 

Serranus morio Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 

2, p. 285, 1828 (New York and San Domingo) (ref. copied). 
Epinephelus morio Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 403, fig. 218, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123135, a specimen, 271 mm. in standard length, Estanques Bay 
U. S. S. Niagara, December 13, 1924. 

EPINEPHELUS INTERSTITIAUS (Poey) 

Serranus inter siitialis Poey, Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, 
vol. 2, p. 127, 1860 (Cuba). 

Epinephelus (Mycteroperca) inter stitialis Metzelaar, Report on the fishes col- 
lected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 51, fig. 19, 
1919 (Guanta, Venezuela). 

EPINEPHELUS ADSCENSIONIS (Osbeck) 

Mero cabrilla 

Trachinus adscensionis Osbeck, Reise nach Ostindien und China, p. 388, 1765 

(Ascension Island) (ref. copied). 
Epinephelus adscensionis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 402, fig. 217, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 121 

U.S.N.M. No. 123133, 1 specimen, 104 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 19, 1925. 

EPINEPHELUS STRIATUS (Bloch) 

Mero gallina 

Anthias striatus Bloch, Naturgeschichte auslandischen Fishe, vol. 6, p. 92, pi. 

324, 1792 (Atlantic Ocean) (ref. copied). 
Epinephelus striatus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 403, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela). 

Genus PROMICROPS Poey 

Promicro'ps Poey, Synopsis piscium cubensium, p. 287, 1868. (Genotype, 
Serranus guasa Poey.) 

PROMICROPS ITAJARA (Lichtenstein) 

Mero Brasil 

Serranus itajara Lichtenstein, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1821, p. 278 (Brazil) 

(ref. copied). 
Promicrops itaiara Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezi ela, p. 402, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela) . 

Genus CEPHALOPHOLIS Bloch and Schneider 

CephalophoUs Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 311, 1801- 
(Genotype, CephalophoUs argus Bloch.) 

CEPHALOPHOUS FULVUS (Linnaeus) 

MULATO 

Labrus fulvus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 287, 1758 (Bahamas). 
CephalophoUs fulvus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 404, 1492 (coast of 

Venezuela). 
CephalophoUs fulvus punctatus Tortonese, Bol. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. 

Torino, vol. 47, No. 89, p. 52, 1939 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Family PRIACANTHIDAE: Big-eyes 

Genus PRIACANTHUS Oken 

Priacanthus Oken, Isis, p. 1782 [=1182], 1817. (Genotype, Anthias macroph- 
thalmus Bloch.) 

PRIACANTHUS ARENATUS Cuvler and Valenciennes 

Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 3, p. 97, 1829 (Brazil; Atlantic). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, 
p. 404, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Family POMATOMIDAE 
Genus POMATOMUS Lacepede 

Pomatomus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 4, p. 435, 1802. 
(Genotype, Pomatomus skib Lacepede = Perca saltatrix Linnaeus.) 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

POMATOMUS SALTATRIX (Linnaeus) 

Pez azul 

Perca saltatrix Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 293, 1758 (America). 
Temnodon saltator Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 

the Dutch West Indies 1904^-1905, p. 125, 1919 (Cardpano, Venezuela). 
Pomalomus saltatrix Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 399, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela). 

The following collections were made by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela: 

U.S.N.M. No. 123046, 1 specimen, 75 mm. in standard length. Point Macolla, 
April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123047, 2 specimens, 112 and 125 mm., Salinas Bay, April 5, 1925. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123048, 2 specimens, 84 to 266 mm., Piedras Bay, March 14, 1925. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123045, 1 specimen, 132 mm., Cape San Romdn, April 2, 1925. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123117, 1 specimen, 515 mm., Sahnas Point, December 18, 1924. 

Family RACHYCENTRIDAE 

Genus RACHYCENTRON Kaup 

Rachycentron Kaup, Isis, vol. 19, p. 89, 1826. (Genotype, Rachycentron typus 
Kaup.) 

RACHYCENTRON CANADUS (Linnaeus) 

Serge antfish; Crabeater 
Gasterosteus canadus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 491, 1766 (CaroHna). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123064, a large specimen, from the south coast of the Gulf of 
Venezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, November 8, 1924. 

Family CARANGIDAE: Pampanos 

The material representing this family from Venezuela is rather 
scanty. A few genera that are to be expected in Venezuelan waters 
do not occur in the national collection, but undoubtedly they will 
be taken when adequate collections are made. I am copying Meek 
and Hildebrand's "Key to the Genera" of this family from "The 
Marine Fishes of Panama," part 2, pp. 332-333, 1925. This key, 
however, has been somewhat modified and more or less restricted to 
cover the Venezuelan coastal waters. 

la. Lateral line wholly or in part armed with bony scutes (very weak and occa- 
sionally wanting in Chloroscombrus) . 
2a. Dorsal and anal each with a single detached finlet (see also Elagatis); 
dorsal rays VII or VIII, 29 to 31,1; anal II-I, 25 to 27, 1; lateral scutes 

35 to 42 Decapterus " Bleeker 

26. Dorsal and anal without finlets. 

3a. Shoulder girdle with a deep furrow near its juncture with the isthmus, and 
a fleshy projection above it; eye large; dorsal rays VIII-I, 23 to 26; 
anal II-I, 20 to 23; about 23 to 27 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill 

arch Trachurops Gill 

3b. Shoulder girdle normal, not as above; eye of moderate size. 

" Not yet reported from Venezuelan waters. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 123 

4a. Lateral line armed with deep bony scutes for its entire length; last ray 
of second dorsal and anal enlarged, nearly separate in adult; dorsal 
rays VII or VIII-I, 29 to 35; anal II-I, 24 to 29. 

Trachurus " Rafinesque 

4?>. Lateral line with plates in its straight portion only; last ray of second 

dorsal and anal not notably enlarged. 

5a. Maxillary very narrow; head small; teeth in jaws in a single close-set 

series, few or none on vomer, palatines, and tongue; dorsal and 

anal low; never with salient lobes, each with a conspicuous sheath 

of scales at base; dorsal rays VII or VIII-I, 26 to 30; anal II-I, 

22 to 25 Hemicaranx " Bleeker 

5b. Maxillary broad; head rather large; teeth, if present, in one or more 

series or in bands on jaws, never in a single close-set series as above. 

6a. Teeth uneven, in one or a few series on jaws, persistent; villiform 

teeth usually present on vomer, palatines and tongue, these 

deciduous or wanting in some species; dorsal VII or VIII-I, 18 

to 28; anal II-I, 15 to 24 Caranx Lacepfede 

6&. Teeth small and even, in a single series, or in vilUform bands, on 

jaws, vomer, tongue, and usually on palatines, at all ages. 

7a. The back much elevated; the dorsal outline more strongly 

curved than the ventral. 

8a. Snout well in advance of the forehead; anterior profile convex; 

anterior rays of second dorsal and anal filamentous; body 

strongly ovate in young, somewhat elongate in adult, very 

strongly compressed, the outlines everywhere trenchant; 

scales very small; dorsal and anal filaments long, extremely 

long in young; dorsal rays VI-1, 18 to 20; anal II-I, 15 to 17. 

Alectis Rafinesque 

86. Snout scarcely in advance of forehead; anterior profile nearly 

vertical; soft dorsal and anal low, never falcate, the anterior 

rays not produced into filaments; dorsal rays VIII-I, 21 to 

24; anal II-I, 17 to 19 Vomer Cuvier 

76. The back little elevated; the ventral outline much more strongly 
curved than the dorsal; lateral line with few very weak bony 
scutes or none; dorsal rays VIII-I, 26 to 28; anal II-I, 26 to 
28; gill rakers slender, close set, 28 to 35 on lower limb of first 

gill arch Chlorosconibrus Girard 

16. Lateral fine entirely unarmed. 

9a. Second dorsal and anal about equal in length, both longer than the abdomen. 

10a. Body deep, ovate; premaxillaries protractile; second dorsal and anal 

fins anteriorly elevated, falcate. 

11a. Body very closely compressed, the outlines everywhere trenchant; 

preorbital extremely deep; maxillary broad, with a well-developed 

supplemental bone; dorsal rays VII or VIII-I, 16 to 23; anal II-I, 

15 to 20 Selene LacepSde 

116. Body less closely compressed, the abdomen never trenchant; pre- 
orbital very narrow; maxillary narrow, without a distinct supple- 
mental bone; dorsal rays V to VII-I, 17 to 27; anal II-I, 16 to 24. 

Trachinotus Lacepede 

106. Body oblong; premaxillaries not protractile, except in very young; 

maxillary narrow, without a supplementary bone; second dorsal and 

anal fins low, never falcate; scales embedded, represented by short low 

" Not yet reported from Venezuelan waters. 



124 PROCEEDENGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

ridges set at slightly different angles; dorsal rays IV or V-I, 18 to 21; 

anal II-I, 18 to 21 Oligoplites Gill 

96. Anal fin much shorter than second dorsa', its base shorter than abdomen. 
12a. Dorsal and anal each with a single detached finlet, composed of 2 rays; 
dorsal rays V or VI-I, 24 to 26-2; anal I or II-I, 16 to 18-2. 

Elagatis " Bennett 
125. Dorsal and anal without finlets. 

13a. First dorsal with 6 to 8 slender spines, connected by membrane at all 
ages; lateral line with a long, low arch, forming a slight keel on 
caudal peduncle in adult; dorsal rays VI to VIII-I, 28 to 36; anal 

rays I or II-I, 19 to 22 Seriola Cuvier 

136. First dorsal with 3 or 4 low, stiff spines, separate in adult, or con- 
nected by a membrane in very young; lateral line scarcely arched, 
forming a prominent dermal keel on caudal peduncle; dorsal rays 
III or IV-I, 26 to 28; anal rays II-I, 15 or 16. 

Naucrates Rafinesque 
Genus TRACHUROPS Gill 

Trachurops Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 14, pp. 238, 261, 431, 
1862. (Genotype, Scomber crumenophihalmus Bloch.) 

TRACHUROPS CRUMENOPHTHALMA (Bloch) 

Big-eyed Scad; Chicharro 

Scomber crumenophihalmus Bloch, Naturgeschichte auslandischen Fische, vol. 
7, p. 77, 1793 (Acara in Guinea) (ref. copied.) 

Caranx {Trachurops) crumenophihalmus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes col- 
lected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 119, 1919 (La 
Guaira, Venezuela), 

Genus CARANX Lacepede 

Caranx Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 57, 1802. (Geno- 
type, Scomber carangus 'B\och.= Caranx hippos Linnaeus.) 

The three species of Caranx so far recorded from Venezuelan waters 
may be separated by means of the following key : 

la. Arch of lateral line usually shorter than straight portion, or about of same 

length; gill rakers about 13 to 18, omitting rudiments, on lower part of first 

gill arch. 

2a. Breast naked, except for a small triangular patch of scales just in front of 

pelvics; a large opercular dark spot present; gill rakers 13 to 15, omitting 

rudiments, on lower part of first gill arch; lateral line scutes 25 to 40; 

second dorsal and anal fins with none or with a few scales in addition 

to the basal sheath; dorsal rays VII or VIII-I, 18 to 21; anal II-I, 

16 or 17 Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) 

26. Breast covered with small scales; a small dark opercular spot; gill rakers 13 
or 14, omitting rudiments, on lower part of first arch; dorsal and anal with 
sheath of scales only at base; lateral line scutes 35 to 38; dorsal raj's 

VIII-I, 20 to 22; anal II-I, 17 or 18 Caranx latus Agassiz 

16. Gill rakers about 24 or 25, omitting rudiments, on lower part of first gill 
arch; depth of body 2.8 to 3.0; mouth 2.3 to 2.5 in head; second dorsal and 
anal completely covered with minute scales; dorsal rays VIII-I, 23 to 25; 
anal II-I, 19 or 20; lateral scutes 40 to 50; breast scaly. 

Caranx crysos (Mitchill) 

" Not yet reported from Venezuelan waters. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 125 

CAHANX mPPOS (Linnaeus) 
JUREL 

Scomber hippos Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 494, 1766 (Charleston, 

S. C.) (ref. copied). 
Caranx hippos Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 398, fig. 210, 1942 (coast 

of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121801, 10 specimens, 143 to 202 mm., market at Maracaibo, 
probably caught in Gulf of Venezuela, May 15-19, 1942. 

The following collections were made by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela : 

U.S.N.M. No. 123040, 1 specimen, 155 mm., February 20, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123041, 2 specimens, 40 mm.. Point Macolla, April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123042, 4 specimens, 36 to 38 mm., Amuay Bay, December 9, 
1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123043, 11 specimens, 41 to 66 mm., Cape San Romdn, April 2, 
1925. 

CARANX LATUS Agassiz 

Caranx latus Agassiz, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species piscium. . . 
Brasiliam. . ., p. 105, pi. 56b, fig. 1, pi. E, 1831 (Atlantic). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121800, 1 specimen, 184 mm., market at Maracaibo, May 15, 
1942. 

1 specimen, 51 mm., Rfo Mamo, 15 km. west of La Guaira, F. F. Bond, Novem- 
ber 11, 1938. 

1 specimen, 45.5 mm., Rio Cumboto, near mouth, 2 km. northwest of Ocumare, 
F. F. Bond, May 5, 1939. 

The following collections were made by the U. S. S. Niagara m the 
Gulf of Venezuela : 

U.S.N.M. No. 123058, 1 specimen, 205 mm., Amuay Bay, May 15, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No, 123060, 4 specimens, 50 to 70 mm., Cape San Romdn, April 2, 
1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123059, 5 specimens, 39 to 93 mm., Amuay Bay, December 9, 
1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123061, 2 specimens, 50 and 53.5 mm., Estanques Bay, Febru- 
ary 20, 1925. 

CARANX CRYSOS (MitchiU) 

Scomber crysos Mitchill, Trans. Lit. Philos. Soc. New York, vol. 1, p. 424, 1814 
(New York). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123039, 1 specimen, 178 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 8, 1924. 

Genus VOMER Cuvier 

Vomer Cuvier, Le regne animal, vol. 2, p. 316, 1817. (Genotype, Vomer brownii 
Cuvier.) (Ret. copied.) 

VOMER SETAPINNIS (Mitchill) 

Zeus setapinnis Mitchill, Trans. Lit. Philos. Soc. New York, vol. 1, p. 384, 1814 

(New York). 
Selene setipinnis Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 

the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 123, 1919 fcoast of Venezuela). 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL aiTJSEUM vol. 99 

Genus CHLOROSCOMBRUS Girard 

Chloroscomhrus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1859, p. 168. (Geno- 
type, Seriola cosmopolita Cuvier and Valenciennes = (Scomber chrysurus Lin- 
naeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

CHLOROSCOMBRUS CHRYSURUS (Linnaeus) 

Scomber chrysurus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 194, 1766 (Charleston, 
S. C.) (ref. copied). 

U.S.N. M. Nos. 123054 to 123056, 3 specimens, 131 to 192 mm., U. S. S. Niagara 
Estanques Bay, December 7-8, 1294. 

U.S.N. M. No 123057, 3 specimens, 25.5 to 27 mm., south coast, U. S. S. Niagara, 
November 15, 1925. 

Genus SELENE Lacepede 

Selene LacepJ^de, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 4, p. 560, 1802. (Genotype, 
Selene argentea Lacepede = Zeus vomer Linnaeus.) 

SELENE VOMER (Linnaeus) 
LaMPAROSA O PeZ LUNA 

Zeus vomer Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 266, 1758 (America). 
Selene vomer Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 398, fig. 212, 1942 (Coast 
of Venezuela). 

The following collections were made by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela in 1925: 

U.S.N. M. No. 123053, one specimen, 79 mm., Cape San RomdL, April 2. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123050, one specimen, 49 mm., Jacuque Point, January 26. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123049, one specimen, 32 mm., Point MacoUa, April 19. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123051, one specimen, 135 mm.. Gulf of Venezuela, February 20. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123052, one specimen, 138 mm., Piedras Bay, March 14. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123063, one specimen, 260 mm., Amuay Bay, May 15. 

Genus TRACHINOTUS Lacepede 

Trachinotus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 78, 1802. (Geno- 
type, Scomber falcatus Forskil.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF TRACHINOTUS REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Dorsal rays VII, 17 to 21; anal III, 16 to 20; second or soft dorsal and anal 
fins greatly elongate, falcate anteriorly in adults. 
2a. Depth 1.45 to 1.9; dorsal rays usually VII, 19 to 21; anal III, 17 or 18; gill 
rakers 9 to 12 on lower part of first arch with 2 or 3 more rudiments; no 

vertical dark bars on sides Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus) 

2b. Depth. 1.9 to 2.65; dorsal rays usually VII, 19 or 20; anal rays III, 17 or 18; 
gill rakers on lower limb of first arch 8 to 10 with 2 or 3 more rudiments; 
sides with 4 or 5 narrow dark crossbars, absent on specimens 75 mm. in 

standard length Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch) 

16. Dorsal rays usually VII, 23 to 25; anal III, 20 to 23; depth 2.0 to 2.35; gill 
rakers on lower part of first arch 7 to 9, not including rudiments, usually 
3 of latter; anterior rays of soft dorsal and anal fins reaching about to 
middle of base of fins in adults Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus) 



J 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 127 

THACHINOTUS FALCATUS (Linnaeus) 

Labrus falcatus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 284, 1758 (America). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121799, 1 specimen, 25.5 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Maracaibo 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27. 

THACHINOTUS GLAUCUS (Bloch) 

PXmpano 

Chaetodon glaucus Bloch, Naturgeschichte auslandische Fische, vol. 3, p. 112, pi. 

210, 1787 (Martinique) (ref. copied). 
Trachinotus glaucus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 398, fig. 211, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 
Trachinotus goodei Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 398, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela) . 

U.S.N.M. No. 123068, 3 specimens, 24 to 84 mm.. Cape San Romdn, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123066, 1 specimen, 36 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
February 20, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123069, 7 specimens, 68 to 147 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

TRACHINOTUS CAROLINUS (Linnaeus) 

Pampano 

Gasterosteus carolinus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 490, 1766 (Carolina) 
(ref. copied). 

One specimen, 21.5 mm., Rfo Mamo, 15 km. west of La Guaira, F. F. Bond, 
October 11, 1938. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123071, 7 specimens, 21 to 66 mm., Piedras Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
March 14, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123070, 2 specimens, 17.5 to 21.5 mm., south coast of Gulf, 
U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

Genus OLIGOPLITES Gill 

Leatherjackets 

Oligoplites Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1863, p. 166. (Genotype, 
Oligoplites inornatus Gill.) 

In an attempt to determine what name should be applied to the 
Oligoplites inhabiting Lago de Maracaibo I made a study of nearly all 
the specimens of this genus in the United States National Museum. 
My results were pubhshed (Schultz, 1945d) and it is not deemed 
necessary to repeat them here. In all, seven species were recognized, 
three in the Atlantic and four in the Pacific, all in American waters. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF OLIGOPLITES FROM THE WESTERN ATLANTIC 

la. Number of gill rakers on first arch, including rudiments, 5 to 7 + 16 to 20; 
premaxillary with a single row of short conical teeth along its entire length, 
except in young this row is irregular or nearly in two rows anteriorly at 
front of snout: teeth on dentary in two distinct rows; dorsal rays IV-I, 20 or 
21; depth 3 to 3.4; head 1.3 in young, 1.4 to 1.6 in adults; posterior margin 
of maxillary more or less truncate Oligoplites saliens (Bloch) 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

16. Number of gill rakers on first arch, including rudiments, 4 to 6 + 1 + 12 to 14. 
2a. Premaxillary with a band of villiformlike teeth along its entire length, 
posteriorly narrow, but anteriorly wide, consisting of several rows; teeth 
on dentary becoming a band anteriorly; dorsal rays IV-I, 19 to 21, rarely 
with V free spines; depth 3.4 to 3.8; head in greatest depth of body 1.2 to 
1.4; posterior tip of maxillary rounded, reaching past orbits in adults; gill 
rakers on lower limb of first arch 12 or 13. 

Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
26. Premaxillary teeth essentially in two distinct rows along its entire length 
except far posteriorly, where it may become an irregular row, and far 
anteriorly near tip of snout where a minute row of teeth may occur be- 
tween the two distinct ones; teeth on dentary in two rows; dorsal rays 
V-I, 18 to 21, rarely IV or V free spines; depth 3.4 to 4.1; head in greatest 
depth 1.0 to 1.6; posterior edge of maxillary rounded and usually not 
reaching past orbits; gill rakers on lower limb of first arch usually 13 or 
14, counting rudiments Oligoplites saurus saurus (Bloch) 

OUGOPUTES SAUENS (Bloch) 

Zapatero de mar 

Scomber saliens Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 10, 
p. 41, pi. 335, 1797 (Antilles). 

I have examined specimens of this species from the Atlantic coast of 
Central America, Gulf of Venezuela, Trinidad, and Brazil. The 
following specimens were collected by the U. S. S. Niagara in the GuK 
of Venezuela : 

U.S.N. M. No. 123075, 1 specimen, 84 mm. in standard length, from Amuay Bay, 
December 9, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123073, 1 specimen, 79 mm., Estanques Bay, February 20, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123074, 1 specimen, 33.5 mm., from south coast, November 15, 
1925. 

OUGOPLITES palometa (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Palometa de lago 

Chorinemus palometa Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 

vol. 8, p. 392, 1831 (Lake Maracaibo). 
Chorinemus saliens, var. palometa Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British 

Museum, vol. 2, p. 475, 1860 (Lake Maracaibo). 
Oligoplites saliens palometa Jordan and Evermann, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 47, 

pt. 1, p. 899, 1896 (Lake Maracaibo). 
Oligoplites palometa Jordan, Evermann, and Clark, Rep. U. S. Comm. Fish. 

for 1928, pt. 2, p. 278, 1930 (Lake Maracaibo). 
Scombroides palometa Regan, Biologia Centrali-Americana, Pisces, p. 15, fig., 1908 

(Lago Yzabal, Guatemala; Lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121804, 4 specimens, 114 to 230 mm., Lago Maracaibo near mouth 
of Rfo Concha, May 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121805, 2 specimens, 230 and 290 mm., from Rio de Los P^jaros, 
3 km. above Lago de Maracaibo, April 30, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121S03. 1 specimen, 335 mm., from market at Maracaibo, May 
15. 1942. 



I 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 129 

U.S.N.M. No. 121806, 1 specimen, 123 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht 
Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123072, 1 specimen, 24 mm., south coast of Gulf of Venezuela, 
U. S. S, Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

The specimens from the mouth of the Rio de Los Pdjaros had been 
feedmg on anchovies. 

OUGOPUTES SAURUS SAURUS (Bloch and Schneider) 

Zapatero 

Scomber saurus Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 32, 1801 

(Jamaica) . 
Oligoplites saurus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 399, fig. 213, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela) . 

U.S.N.M. No. 123077, 1 specimen, 86 mm., from Salinas Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 4, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123078, 1 specimen, 128 mm., from Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 9, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123076, 3 specimens, 69 to 74 mm., from Estanques Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, February 20, 1925. 

Genus SERIOLA Cuvier 

Seriola Cuvier, Le rSgne animal, vol. 2, p. 315, 1817. (Genotype, Caranx 
dumerili Risso.) (Ref. copied.) 

SERIOLA DUMERILI (Risso) 

Caranx dumerili Risso, Ichthyologie de Nice, p. 175, pi. 6, fig. 20, 1810 (Nice). 
Seriola dumerili Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 400, 1942 (coast of 
Venezuela). 

Genus NAUCRATES Rafinesque 

Naucrates Rafinesque, Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali 
Sicilia, p. 43, 1810. (Genotype, Naucrates fanfarus Ra.Gnesque = Gasterosteus 
ductor Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

NAUCRATES DUCTOR (Linnaeus) 

Pilotfish; Piloto 

Gasterosteus ductor Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 295, 1758. 
Naucrates ductor Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 400, 1942 (coast of 
Venezuela). 

Family CORYPHAENIDAE 

Dolphins; Dorado 

Genus CORYPHAENA Linnaeus 

Coryphaena Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 261, 1758. (Genotype, 
Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus.) 

CORYPHAENA HIPPURUS Linnaeus 

Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 261, 1758 (open 
seas). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 400, fig. 214, 1942 (coast 
of Venezuela). 

802207 — 49 9 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Family LUTJANIDAE: Snappers; Pargos 

This family is represented by so few species and specimens from 
Venezuela that it is not practicable to make a key. Instead, the 
reader is referred to volume 2, p. 491, 1925, of Meek and Hildebrand's 
"The Marine Fishes of Panama" for a key to the genera of the 
Lutjanidae likely to occur in Venezuela. 

Genus LUTJANUS Bloch 

Lutjanus Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 4, p. 107, 1790. 
(Genotype, Lutjanus lutjanus Bloch.) 

LUTJANUS GUTTATUS (Steindachner) 

Mesoprion guttatus Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 60, p. 18, pi. 8, 
1869 (Mazatldn). 

The following specimen, collected by the U. S. S. Niagara in the 
Gulf of Venezuela, is referred to this species with some uncertainty: 
U.S.N.M. No. 123139, a specimen, 48 mm., Amuay Bay, December 9, 1924. 

LUTJANUS GRISEUS (Linnaeus) 

Pargo de Piedra; Aguadera; o Caballerotb 

Labrus griseus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 283, 1758 (Bahamas). 
Lutianus griseus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 405, fig. 220, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123140, 1 specimen, 53.5 mm,, Point MacoUa, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 19, 1925. 

LUTJANUS JOCU (Bloch and Schneider) 

Joct; 
Anthias jocu Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 310, 1801 (Cuba). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123137, 2 specimens, 70 to 71.5 mm,. Point MacoUa, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

One specimen, 70 mm., Rfo Borburata at mouth, 3 km. east of Puerto Cabello, 
F. F. Bond, January 15, 1938. 

LUTJANUS APODUS (Walbanm) 

Caji 

Perca apoda Walbaum, Artedi's Bibliotheca ichthyologicae, vol. 3, p. 351, 1792 
(ref. copied). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123138, a specimen, from Point MacoUa, U. S. S. Niagara, AprU 
19 1925. 

LUTJANUS SYNAGRIS (Linnaeus) 
BlAJAIBA 

Sparus synagris Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 280, 1758 (Bahamas). 
Lutianus [s]aynagris Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 404, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela). 
Mesoprion uninotatus GtJNTHER, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, 

vol. 1, p. 202, 1859 (Puerto CabeUo). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 131 

LUTJANUS AYA (Bloch) 

El pargo real 

Bodianus aya Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, pt 4 p 45 pi 
227, 1790 (Brazil). ' * 

Lutianus aya Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 405, fig. 219, 1942 (coast 
of Venezuela). 

LUTJANUS ANALIS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Pargo sebadal o Ceibadal 

Mesoprion analis Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 

2, p. 452, 1828 (San Domingo). 
Lutianus analis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 405, fig. 221, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M.No. 123141, 8 specimens, 52.5 to 156 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

Genus RHOMBOPLITES Gill 

Rhomboplites Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, p. 236. (Genotype, 
Centropristes aurorubens Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

RHOMBOPLITES AURORUBENS (Cnvier and Valenciennes) 

Pargo guachinango o Mal nombrb 

Centropristes aurorubens Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 3, p. 45, 1829 (Brazil; Martinique; San Domingo). 

Rhomboplites aurorubens Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 406, fig. 222, 
1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Genus OCYURUS GUI 

Ocyurus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, p. 236. (Genotype, 
Sparus chrysurus Bloch.) " " 

OCYURUS CHRYSURUS (Bloch) 

Rabirubxa 

Sparus chrysurus Bloch, Naturgeschichte auslandischen Fische, vol, 5, p. 28, pi, 
262, 1791 (Brazil) (ref. copied).— Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 
406, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Family EMMELICHTHYIDAE 

Genus INERMIA Poey 

Inermia Poet, Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, vol. 2, p. 
193, 1860. (Genotype, Inermia vittata Poey.) 

INERMIA VITTATA Poey 

Inermia vittata Poey, Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, vol. 
2, p. 193, pi. 14, fig. 3, 1860 (Cuba). — Jordan, Evermann, and Clark, Rep. 
U. S. Comm. Fish, for 1928, pt. 2, p. 340, 1930 (Venezuela), probably based on 
Jordan, Copeia, 1922, No. 106, p. 34 (Curagao). 

In my revision of the family Emmelichthyidae (Schultz, 1945b) I 
described a new genus and species from the Bahamas. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. m 

Family POMADASYIDAE: Grunts; Roncos 

KEY TO GENERA REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Gill membranes broadly connected across the isthmus, with a free fold; 2 
pairs of pores on chin; preopercle serrate, with 2 spines at lower angle a 
little enlarged; no spines directed forward; snout short; lower jaw a little 
shorter than upper, mouth short; preorbital very narrow, about 3 times in 
eye; dorsal with shallow notch between spiny and soft portions; soft rays 
of dorsal and anal fins with a basal sheath of scales but no scales on inter- 
radial membranes or on rays; depth about 2 and head 3)^; dorsal rays 

XIII, 12; anal III, 10 Qenyatremus Gill 

16. Gill membranes narrowly connected forward across apex of isthmus, forming 
a more or less acute angle, with a narrow free fold; on chin, one pair of 
pores behind which is a median pore. 
2a. Soft rays of dorsal and anal fins without scales on interradial membranes 
or on rays except the sheath of scales along base of these fins. 
3a. Preopercle strongly serrate with 2 or 3 spines somewhat enlarged at 
lower angle; second anal spine enlarged; lower jaw a little shorter than 
upper; dorsal fin notched nearly to base between spiny and soft por- 
tions; preorbital width about two-thirds of or equal to eye; dorsal rays 

XI to XIV, 11 to 15; anal III, 6 to 8 Pomadasya Lacepfede 

3&. Preopercle very finely serrate; second anal spine scarcely larger than 
third spine; jaws equal; dorsal fin not notched; preorbital wider than 
or about as -wide as eye; depth 2.5, head about 3; dorsal rays XII or 

XIII, 12 to 17; anal III, 9 to 13._ Orthopristis Girard 

2&. Soft rays of dorsal and anal fins with scales on interradial membranes in 

addition to the basal sheath of scales; second anal spine enlarged; dorsal 

fins deeply notched nearly to base between spiny and soft parts. 

4a. Preopercle strongly serrate with one or two enlarged spines at lower angle 

and the serrae along ventral edge directed forward, at least on adults; 

lower jaw a little longer than upper jaw; depth about 3.4; head about 

3; dorsal rays XII, 12 or 13; anal III, 8 Conodon Cuvier 

46. Preopercle serrate but no spines enlarged and none directed forward; 
lower jaws slightly shorter than upper jaw; depth about 2.4; head 2.8; 
dorsal rays XI to XIII, 13 to 18; anal III, 8 to 10. 

Anisotremus Gill 
2c. Soft rays of dorsal and anal fins profusely covered with scales. 

5o. Second and third anal spines about equally enlarged; preopercular edge 

serrate; lower jaw about equal to upper jaw; preorbital width not as 

wide as eye. 

6a. A shallow depression between spiny and soft part of dorsal fin; base of 

caudal fin with a black spot, extending a little on caudal peduncle; 

depth about 2.8 to 3; head about 2.8; dorsal spines XIII, 13 to 15; 

anal III, 8 or 9 Bathystoma Scudder 

66. Dorsal fin with a deep notch, nearly to base, between spiny and soft 
parts; base of caudal fin without a black spot; depth about 2.9 to 
3.25; head about 3 to 3.25; dorsal rays XII, 13; anal III, 9 to 10. 

Brachygenys ^^ Scudder 

56. Second anal spine greatly enlarged; preopercle weakly serrate; lower jaw 

a Uttle shorter than upper jaw; preorbital as wdde as or wider than eye; 

dorsal fin notched nearly to base; back elevated; dorsal rays XI or 

XII, 14 to 17; anal III, 7 to 9; Hps usually thick.. Haemulon Cuvier 

" Not yet reported from Venezuela although found on both sides. 



'ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 133 

Genus GENYATREMUS Gill 

Genyatremus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1862, p. 256. (Genotype, 
Diagramma cavifrons Cuvier and Valenciennes = Luiyanifs luteus Bloch.) 

GENYATREMUS LUTEUS (Bloch) 

Lutjanus luteus Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des . . . poissons, vol. 7, 
p. 89, pi. 247, 1797. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121808, a specimen, 213 mm. in standard length, from market at 

Maracaibo, May 15, 1942. 
U.S.N.M. No. 121807, a specimen, 112 mm., mouth of Cano de Sagua, 25 km. 

north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

This characteristic genus and species in general resembles Anisotre- 
mus but differs in the very narrow preorbital, its least depth is con- 
tained about 3 times in the eye and 9 times in the head; in addition 
the gill membranes form a broad fold across the isthmus as in the 
Kyphosidae, but the gill membranes are naked. In Anisotremus the 
posterior edge of the gill membranes form an acute angle over the 
isthmus, and in Genyatremus this is evenly curved. There are no 
scales on the soft rays or membranes of the dorsal and anal fins, only 
a sheath of scales basally, in Genyatremus, whereas in Anisotremus the 
median fins are scaled wholly or in part, always some scales on the 
interradial membranes. The dorsal rays are XIII, 12 and anal III, 
10 in both specimens from Venezuela. The pectoral fins are equal in 
length in the distance from the nostrils to rear of head. The margins 
of the dorsal fins are blackish; there is some indication of a dark, 
wide, wedge-shaped saddle in front of the dorsal fin, and another over 
the region of the orbits, both barely discernible in the alcoholic 

specimens. 

Genus POMADASYS Lacepfede 

Pomadasys LACEPfePE, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 4, p. 515, 1802, 
(Genotype, Sciaena argentea Forskal.) 

POMADASYS CROCRO (Curier and Valenciennes) 

Pristipoma crocro Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 5, p. 264, 1830 (Martinique). 

The identification is not certain because of small size and lack of 
intermediate sizes. 

6 specimens, 21 to 33 mm., Rio Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, F. F. 
Bond, January 15, 1938. 

1 specimen, 22 mm., Rfo Mamo, 15 km. west of La Guaira, F. F. Bond, Novem- 
ber 11, 1938. 

Genus ORTHOPRISTIS Girard 

Orthopristis Girard, United States and Mexican boundary survey. Ichthyology, 
p. 15, 1859. (Genotype, Orthopristis duplex Girard = Perco chrysoplerus 
Linnaeus.) 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

ORTHOPKISTIS RUBER (Cuvier) 

Pristipoma ruhrum Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 5, p. 283, 1830 (Brazil). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123136, 1 specimen, Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 
U.S.N.M. No. 123123, 6 specimens, 114 to 158 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, December 7 to 11, 1924. 

I have made the following counts on the specimens listed above: 
Dorsal rays XII, 14 in one; XII, 15 in four, and XII, 16 in one; anal 
rays III, 9 in three and III, 10 in three; gill rakers on lower limb of 
first gill arch number 11 in three and 12 in one, the raker at the angle 
not included and the upper part of the arch has about 10 rakers. 
There are 9 or 10 scales from lateral line to base of first dorsal spine 
and a more or less distinct dark shoulder blotch. 

Genus CONODON Cuvier 

Conodon Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 5, p. 156, 1830. (Genotype, Conodon aniillanus Cuvier=Perca nobilis 
Linnaeus.) 

CONODON NOBIUS (Linnaeus) 

Perca nobilis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 191, 1758 (North America). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123119, 1 specimen, 65 mm. in standard length. Point Macolla, 
U. S. S. Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123118, 1 specimen, 270 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 7, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123120, 1 specimen, 54 mm.. Cape San Romdn, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 2, 1925. 

Genus ANISOTREMUS Gill 

Anisotremus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, pp. 32, 105. (Geno- 
type, Pristipoma rodo Cuvier and Valenciennes =Sparws virginicus Linnaeus.) 

ANISOTREMUS SURINAMENSIS (Bloch) 

Lutjanus surinamensis Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 5, 
p. 3, pi. 253, 1791 (Surinam) (ref. copied). 

U.S.N.M, No. 123121, a specimen, 235 mm. in standard length, from Amuay 
Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

Genus BATHYSTOMA Scudder 

Bathystoma Scuddeh, in Putnam, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 1, p. 12, 1863. 
(Genotype, Perca melanura Linn&ens = Haemulon jeniguano Poey.) (Ref. 
copied.) 

BATHYSTOMA RIMATOR (Jordan and Swain) 

Haemulon rimator Jordan and Swain, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 7, p. 308, 1884 

(Charleston, S. C; Key West and Pensacola, Fla.). 
Haemulon {Bathystoma) rimator Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by 

Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies in 1904-1905, p. 81, 1919 (Puerto 

Cabello, Venezuela). 

Genus HAEMULON Cuvier 

Haemulon Cuvier, Le rSgne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 175, 1829. (Genotype, 
Haemulon elegans Cuvier =Sparu8 sciurus Shaw.) (Ref. copied.) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 135 

A more complete key to the species of Haemulon likely to occur in 
Venezuela will be found in volume 2 of Meek and Hildebrand's "The 
Marine Fishes of Panama." 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF HAEMULON REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Scales below lateral line enlarged, very deep; sides with yellow stripes, parallel 

with lateral line above it, very oblique below it; dorsal rays XII, 14 or 15; 

anal III, 7 or 8; scales 47 to 53. .Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest) 

16. Scales below lateral line not notably enlarged; 5 or more scales between lateral 

line and dorsal origin. 

2a. Maxillary reaching to below middle of eye or nearly so, 1.8 to 2% in head; 

gill rakers on lower part of first gill arch 16 to 18; head and body with 

about 10 lengthwise blue stripes (pale in alcohol) usually best defined on 

snout and cheeks; soft dorsal with convex margin; dorsal rays XII, 16 

or 17; anal III, 8 or 9; scales 48 to 57 Haemulon sciurus (Shaw) 

2b. Maxillary reaching scarcely past anterior margin of eye, about 2 to 2% in 
head; sides with stripes following rows of scales. 
3a. Rows of scales with pearly gray stripes; caudal spot present; maxillary 
2 to 2.1 in head; snout long pointed, 2.5 to 2.8 in head; dorsal rays 
XII, 15 to 17; anal III, 8 or 9; scales 53 to 62. 

Haemulon steindachneri (Jordan and Gilbert) 
36. Rows of scales with continuous dark lines, wavy above lateral line; 
dorsal rays XII, 15 to 17; anal III, 8 or 9; scales 43 to 50. 

Haemulon bonariense Cuvier 

HAEMULON FLAVOLINEATUM (Desmarest) 

CoROCORo; Amarillo 

Diabasis flavolineatus Desmarest, Premi&re decade ichthyologique, p. 35, pi. 2, 

fig. 1, 1823 (Cuba) (ref. copied). 
Haemulon flavolineatum Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 407, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

HAEMULON SCIURUS (Shaw) 

Cachicoto 

Sparus sciurus Shaw, General zoology, vol. 4, p. 64, 1803 (Antilles; based on 

Anthias formosus Bloch) (ref. copied). 
Haemulon sciurus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 406, fig. 223, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

HAEMULON STEINDACHNERI (Jordan and Gilbert) 

Diabasis steindachneri Jordan and Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm. for 1881, 

vol. 1, p. 322, 1882 (Panama; Mazatl^n) (ref. copied). 
Haemulon steindachneri Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. 

Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 79, 1919 (Quanta, Venezuela). 

HAEMULON BONARIENSE Cuvier 

Haemulon bonariense Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 5, p. 234, 1830 (Buenos Aires). — Metzelaar, Report on the 
fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 77, 
fig. 25, 1919 (Venezuela). 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Family SPARIDAE: Pargos 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES OF SPARIDAE REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Front teeth conical or pointed, not incisorlike. 
2a. Second interhaemal spine enlarged and hollowed anteriorly; preorbital much 
wider than eye; head 3.25 to 4; depth 2 to 2.2; dorsal rays XII, 12; anal 
III, 11; scales 50 to 53; about 6 blunt gill rakers on lower limb of first 

gill arch Calamus calamus (Cuvier) 

26. Second interhaemal spine normal, not swollen and hollow; preorbital as 

wide as or broader than eye in large adults; depth about SYz; head nearly 

4; depth SYz; dorsal rays XII, 11; anal III, 8; scales about 54 to 57; about 

9 blunt gill rankers on lower part of first arch.-Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) 

lb. Teeth at front of jaws broad incisors. 

3a. A small antrorse spine at origin of dorsal, this spine visible by dissection; 

no black spot on caudal peduncle; sides barred, often disappearing in 

adults. 

4a. Dorsal rays XIII, 11 or 12; anal III, 10 or 11; scales 43 to 48; a black 

blotch on lateral line belov/ origin of dorsal fin; sides with yellowish 

stripes; margin of dorsal blackish; sides of body sometimes with traces 

of dark vertical bars Archosargus unimaculatus (Bloch) 

46. Dorsal rays XII, 12; anal III, 10; scales about 52; no black shoulder spot; 
7 persistent dark vertical bars; no lengthwise stripes on sides; pelvic 

fins blackish Archosargfus aries (Cuvier) 

36. No antrorse spine at dorsal origin; a large black blotch on caudal peduncle 
just behind base of last dorsal ray; dorsal rays XII, 14 or 15; anal III, 13; 
scales about 56 to 60 Diplodus argenteus (Cuvier) 

Genus CALAMUS Swainson 

Calamus Swainson, The natural history and classification of fishes, vol. 2, p. 
221, 1839. (Genotype, Pagellus calamus Cuvier and Valenciennes= CaZamus 
megacephalus Shaw.) (Ref. copied.) 

CALAMUS CALAMUS (Cnvier) 

Pes de pluma 

Pagellus calamus Ctjvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 6, p. 206, pi. 152, 1830 (Martinique; San Domingo). 

Calamus calamus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 
the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 86, 1919 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Genus PAGRUS Cuvier 

Besxjgo 

Pagrus Cuvier, RSgne animal, ed. 1, vol. 2, p. 272, 1817. (Genotype, Sparus 
argenteus B\och= Sparus pagrus Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

PAGRUS PAGBUS (Linnaeus) 

Sparus pagrus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 279, 1758 (southern Europe). 
Pagrus vulgaris Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the 
Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 87, 1919 (coast of Venezuela). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 137 

Genus ARCHOSARGUS Gill 

Sargo 

Archosargus Gill, Can. Nat., vol. 2, p. 266, 1865. (Genotype, Sparus prohatoce- 
■phalus Walbaum.) 

ARCHOSARGUS UNIMACULATUS (Bloch) 

Perca unimaculata Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 6, pi. 

308, fig. 1, 1792 (Brazil). 
Sargus unimaculatvs Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke 

in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 88, 1919 (Guanta, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123126, 2 specimens, 179 and 194 mm. in standard length, 
Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123125, 1 specimen, 88 mm., Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 9, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123124, 1 specimen, 24 mm., Point MacoUa, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 19, 1925. 

ARCHOSARGUS ARIES (Cuvier) 

Sargo 

Sargus aries Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 6, p. 58, 1830 (Rio de Janeiro; Lago de Maracaibo). 

Archosargus aries Jordan, Evermann, and Clark, Rep. U. S. Comm, Fisheries, 
1928, p. 338, 1930 (Maracaibo). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123127, 1 specimen, 227 mm. in standard length, Amuay Bay, 
U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

Genus DIPLODUS Rafinesque 

Diplodus Rafinesqite, Indice d'ittiologia siciliana, p. 54, 1810. (Genotype, 
Sparus annularis Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

DIPLODUS ARGENTEUS (Cuvier) 

Sargo 

Sargus argenteus Cuvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 6, p. 60, 1830 (Brazil). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123128, 1 specimen, 218 mm. in standard length, Estanques 
Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, December 11, 1924. 

Family GERRIDAE: Mojarras; Carpetas 

The following abridged key to the genera of Gerridae was extracted 
from a manuscript on West Indian fishes by Luis Rene Rivas, of Cuba, 
through his kindness and with his permission: 

la. Preopercular margin entire; second dorsal spine about equal to or shorter 
than distance between tip of snout and posterior margin of orbit; second 
anal spine shorter than caudal peduncle, more than 6 in standard length; 
greatest depth of body 2.3 to 3.3, usually 2.4 to 3.2 in standard length; 
maxillary usually not quite reaching to vertical from anterior margin of 
pupil; air bladder ending posteriorly in a median extension, or in a pair of 
diverticula; anterior interhaemal bone simple, or with a funnel or spoon- 
shaped cavity. 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. m 

2a. Air bladder ending posteriorly in a median extension reaching backward and 
downward into a cavity in the anterior interhaemal bone, which is funnel- 
or spoon-shaped; depressed area over premaxillary processes longer than 
wide, crossed by scales in front leaving a naked pit behind, or open and 
narrowly U-shaped and sometimes slightly restricted by scales in front. 
Sides of body without vertical dark bands. 

Eucinostomus Baird and Girard 

2b. Air bladder ending posteriorly in a pair of diverticula extending backward 

on each side of the anterior interhaemal bone, which is simple; depressed 

area over premaxillary processes about as long as wide, always open and 

broadly U-shaped; sides of body crossed by vertical irregular dark bands. 

Qerres Cuvier 
16. Preopercular margin serrate; second dorsal spine longer than distance be- 
tween tip of snout and posterior margin of orbit; second anal spine about 
equal to or longer than caudal peduncle, less than 6 in standard length; 
greatest depth of body 1.7 to 2.4, usually 1.8 to 2.3 in standard length; 
maxillary reaching to or beyond vertical from anterior margin of pupil; 
air bladder ending bluntly, without posterior diverticulum or median 
extension; anterior interhaemal bone simple. 
3a. Sides of body without longitudinal black stripes; preorbital entire; second 
anal spine shorter than anal base; its length 2.2 to 3.2, usually 2.3 to 3.1 
in greatest depth of body; greatest depth of body 1.7 to 2.1, usually 1.8 
to 2.0 in standard length; anal base 3.8 to 4.5, usually 3.9 to 4.4 in stand- 
ard length; last dorsal spine 2.0 to 4.0 in anal base; eye 2.0 to 2.8, usually 

2.1 to 2.7 in anal base Diapterus Ranzani 

36. Sides of body with longitudinal black stripes; preorbital serrate except in 
young; second anal spine longer than anal base, its length 1.4 to 2.4, 
usually 1.5 to 2.3 in greatest depth of body; greatest depth of body 1.9 
to 2.5, usually 2.0 to 2.4 in standard length; anal base 4.5 to 6.0, usually 
4.6 to 5.9 in standard length; last dorsal spine 1.4 to 1.9 in anal base; 
eye 1.4 to 2.1, usually 1.5 to 2.0 in anal base. 

Eugerres Jordan and Evermann 

Genus EUCINOSTOMUS Baird and Girard 

Eucinostomus Baird and Girard, in Baird, Rep. Smithsonian Inst, for 1854, 
p. 334, 1855. (Genotype, Eucinostomus argenteus Baird and Girard.) (Ref. 
copied.) 

I am very grateful to Luis Rene Rivas for the identification of the 
specimens reported upon under this genus and for permission to print 
his key to the West Indian species of Eucinostomus. 

la. Anterior interhaemal bone funnel-shaped; maxillary longer than second anal 
spine, about equal to or greater than diameter of eye, about equal to or 
greater than least depth of caudal peduncle; second anal spine more than 
2.6 in head, shorter than distance between tip of snout and center of eye; 
snout about equal to or longer than second anal spine; pectoral fin naked. 
2a. Funnellike cavity in anterior interhaemal bone more conspicuous, about 4 
times as long as wide, the lateral ridge low and not reaching to lower- 
most part of edge of funnel; anal rays III, 7; greatest depth of body 2.3 
to 3.2, usually 2.4 to 3.1 in standard length. 
3a. Gill rakers 7 on lower limb of first arch (not counting rudiments or gill 
raker at angle) ; maxillary more than 2.3 in distance between posterior 
tip of premaxillary process and origin of spinous dorsal fin, usually less 
than perpendicular distance between origin of spinous dorsal fin and 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 139 

lateral line; posterior tip of premaxillary process not reaching to verti- 
cal from center of eye, its length (from tip to snout), 1.8 to 2.4 in 
distance between its posterior tip and origin of spinous dorsal fin; 
second anal spine shorter than diameter of eye, more than 3 in distance 
between posterior tip of premaxillary process and origin of spinous 
dorsal fin; spinous dorsal fin more or less dusky, but without a jet- 
black blotch at its tip, or definite whitish or colorless area below it. 
4o. Greatest depth of body 2.3 to 2.6, usually 2.4 or 2.5 in standard length; 
head 2.8 to 3.1, usually 2.9 or 3.0 in standard length; the distance 
between tip of snout and origin of spinous dorsal fin, 2.1 to 2.3, 
usually 2.2 in standard length; eye 2.7 to 3.1, usually 2.8 to 3.0 in 
distance between origin of anal fin and caudal base; area over 
premaxillary processes usually crossed by scales anteriorly leaving a 
naked area behind. Eucinostoraus gula (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
46. Greatest depth of body 2.8 to 3.3, usually 2.9 to 3.2 in standard length; 
head 3.1 to 3.5, usually 3.2 to 3.4 in standard length; the distance 
between tip of snout and origin of spinous dorsal fin, 2.3 to 2.5, 
usually 2.4 in standard length; eye 3.1 to 3.6, usually 3.2 to 3.5 in 
distance between origin of anal fin and caudal base; area over pre- 
maxillary processes usually depressed and narrowly U-shaped some- 
times slightly restricted by scales anteriorly. 

Eucinostoraus argenteus Baird and Girard 
36. Gill rakers 8 on lower limb of first arch (not counting rudiments or gill 
raker at angle); maxillary less than 2.3 in distance between posterior 
tip of premaxillary process and origin of spinous dorsal fin, usually 
about equal to, or somewhat greater than perpendicular distance 
between origin of spinous dorsal fin and lateral line; posterior tip of 
premaxillary process reaching to or somewhat beyond vertical from 
center of eye, its length (from tip of snout) 1.3 to 1.8 in distance 
between its posterior tip and origin of spinous dorsal fin; second anal 
spine equal to or greater than diameter of eye, less than 3 in distance 
between posterior tip of premaxillary process and origin of spinous 
dorsal fin; spinous dorsal fin with a conspicuous jet-black blotch at 
its tip, separated from the basal dusky area by a whitish or colorless 

area Eucinostoinus pseudogula Poey 

26. Funnellike cavity in anterior interhaemal bone less conspicuous, more than 
4 times as long as wide, the lateral ridge high and reaching beyond lower- 
most part of edge of funnel; anal rays II, 8; greatest depth of body 3,1 
to 3.5, usually 3.2 to 3.4 in standard length. 

Eucinostoinus lefroyi " (Goode) 
16. Anterior interhaemal bone spoon-shaped; maxillary shorter than second anal 
spine, less than diameter of eye, somewhat less than least depth of caudal 
peduncle; second anal spine less than 2.6 in head, usually about equal to, 
or slightly longer than distance between tip of snout and center of eye; 
snout shorter than second anal spine; pectoral fin scaled. 

Eucinostomus havana '9 (Nichols) 

EUCINOSTOMUS GULA (Cuvier and Valenciennea) 

La Mojarra 

Gerres gula Cuvier and Valencienes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 6, 

p. 464, 1830 (Martinique). 
Eucinostomus gula Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 407, 1942 (coast 
of Venezuela). 

'• Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 09 

U.S.N.M. No. 121705, 3 specimens, 47 to 70 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 5 and 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121706, 2 specimens, 36 and 53 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121704, 1 specimen, 68 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. south 
of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121703, 14 specimens, 14 to 42 mm., Lago de Maracaibo op- 
posite Salina Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121707, 135 specimens, 28 to 77 mm., Salina Rica, 5 km. north 
of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942, 

The following collections were made by Dr. F. F. Bond: 

10 specimens, 13 to 55 mm., coastal lagoons 15 km. north of Maracaibo 
April 6, 1938. 

1 specimen, 53 mm., lagoons, Tucacas, 60 km. northwest of Puerto Cabello, 
January 29, 1938. 

1 specimen, 29 mm., Rfo Borburata, 3 km. east of Puerto Cabello at Gafianga. 

2 specimens, 20 and 23 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, 
December 22, 1937. 

EUaNOSTOMUS ARGENTEUS Baitd and Girard 
MOJARRA 

Eucinostomus argenteus Baird and Girard, in Baird, Ann. Rep. Smithsonian 
Inst, for 1854, p. 335, 1855 (Bessley Point, N. J.). 

U.S.N.M, No. 121798, 62 specimens, 20 to 67 mm., Salina Rica, 5 km. north of 
Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

The following specimens were collected by the U. S, S. Niagara in 
Gulf of Venezuela: 

U,S.N.M. No. 121943, 1 specimen, 80 mm, in standard length, Point MacoUa, 
April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N.M, No. 121945, 2 specimens, 81 and 87 mm. in standard length, Salinas 
Bay, April 4-5, 1925. 

U.S.N.M, No. 121947, a specimen 89 mm., Estanques Bay, February 20, 1925, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121944, 2 specimens, 56 and 67 mm., Amuay Bay, December 
9, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121946, 10 specimens, 45.5 to 80 mm.. Cape San Romdn, April 
2, 1925. 

The following collections were made by Dr. F. F. Bond: 

40 specimens, 15 to 27 mm. in standard length, Rfo Borburata, 3 km. east of 
Puerto Cabello at Gafianga, January 15, 1938. 

9 specimens, 14 to 27 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, December 
22, 1937. 

1 specimen, 19 mm., coastal lagoon 15 km. north of Maracaibo. 

1 specimen, 21 mm., Rio Apure at San Fernando de Apure, Feburary 16, 1938. 

The young of this species and of E. gula are separated Nnth con- 
siderable difficulty, and I am not positive that my identification of 
specimens under 25 mm. is correct. 

In the Maracaibo Basin specimens, in addition to the difference in 
depth of body between E. gula and E. argenteus, I observed that the 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 141 

tip of the lower jaw or lip was almost invariably without scattered 
black pigment in argenteus, whereas in gula the tip of the lip of lower 
jaw almost always had several black pigment cells somewhat em- 
bedded. The character of the area over the premaxillary process and 
scales meeting in front of this groove is of no value on small specimens. 
However, specimens from the coast of Venezuela south of the Gulf of 
Venezuela had their chins pigmented. Thus specimens 25 mm. and 
shorter can be separated only on their slenderness as compared with 
those of gula which are a little more robust. 

EUCINOSTOMUS PSEUDOGULA Poey 

Eucinosiomus pseudogula Poey, Enumeratio piscium cubensium, p. 53, pi. 1, 
1875 (Havana). 

7 specimens, 34 to 47 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida, 5 km, west of Capatdrida, 
F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

Genus GERRES Cuvier 

Oerres Cuvier, in Quoy and Gaimard, Freycinet, Voyage autour du monde. 
L'Uranie et La Physicienne, Poissons, p. 293, 1824. (Genotype, Gerres 
vaigiensis Quoy and Gaimard.) (Ref. copied.) 

GERRES CINEREUS (Walbaum) 

Mugil cinereus Walbaum, Artedi genera piscium, pt. 3, p. 228, 1792 (Bahamas) 
(ref. copied). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121942, 1 specimen, 217 mm. in standard length, Gulf of Ven- 
ezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, Feburary 20, 1925. 

1 specimen, 65 mm., from lagoons at Tucacas, 10 km. northwest of Puerto 
Cabello, F. F. Bond, January 29, 1938. 

2 specimens, 36 and 39 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida at mouth, 5 km. 
north of Capatdrida, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

1 specimen, 47 mm., from baja seco east side of Puerto Cabello, January 26, 1938. 

Genus DIAPTERUS Ranzani 

Diapterus Ranzani, Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bonon., vol. 4, p. 340, 1840. 
(Genotj'pe, Diapterus auratus Ranzani.) 

It is with considerable reluctance that I add two new names to the 
genera Diapterus and Eugerres in my study of the Venezuelan forms. 
These genera have not been revised to my knowledge, and no one has 
as yet determined the constancy of the niimber of anal spines in large 
series of specimens. This should be done when the genera are revised, 
and then the validity of these new species as well as others may be 
evaluated. My counts, however, indicate a rather constant number 
of rays for most of the fins, and there appears to be little variation in 
the number of scales or gill rakers for any species from one locality. 

The following key is based on specimens collected in Venezuelan 
waters, as well as on other materials in the national collections from 
the Western Atlantic: 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

la. Anal rays 111,8. 

2a. Gill rakers on lower part of gill arch 10 or 11; dusky bars on sides of young 
but adults with dusky punctulations and no bars; second dorsal spine a 
little shorter than third, both shorter than head, the second contained 
nearly 4 times in standard length; second anal spine strong, but a little 
shorter than third, the second anal spine 1.8 in head and 1.5 in second 
dorsal spine; area over premaxillary groove free of scales in young but 
covered with small scales in large specimens. 

Diapterus olisthostomus (Goode and Bean) 
26. Gill rakers on lower part of first arch 15; second dorsal spine a little shorter 
than third, the second spine about 1}^ in head; second anal spine enlarged, 
a little longer than third spine, the second 1.5 in head and lYs in second 
dorsal spine; second row of scales below lateral line continuous to end of 
caudal; area over premaxilary processes on top of head free from scales; 
no dark stripes or distinct bars visible. 

Diapterus limnaeus, new species 
16. Anal rays II,i,8 or 11,9. 

3a. Anal rays 11,9; gill rakers on lower part of first arch 14 or 15, rarely 16; 
second dorsal spine a little shorter than third, the second spine contained 
1.2 to 1.4 in head and about 3.2 to 3.5 in standard length; second anal 
spine 1.4 to 1.6 in head and 4 to 4.5 in standard length; second row of 
scales below lateral line continuous to caudal fin. 

Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) 
36. Anal rays II,i,8: gill rakers 10 or 11 on lower part of first arch; second dorsal 
spine a little shorter than third, about 1}^ to IJ^ in head and 3.5 to 3.75 
in standard length; second anal spine strong, 1.6 in head and 4.2 in 
standard length; third row of scales below lateral line continuous to 
caudal Diapterus evermanni Meek and Hildebrand 

DIAPTERUS OLISTHOSTOMUS (Goode and Bean) 

Gerres olisthostoma Goode and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 5, p. 423, 1882 
(Indian River, Fla.). 

U.S.N, M. No. 121941, 1 specimen, 177 mm. in standard length, Amuay Bay, 
Gulf of Venezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

DIAPTERUS UMNAEUS, new species 

FiGUBE 16 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 121726, only known specimen, 08 mm. 
in standard length, collected by Leonard P. Schultz in Lago de 
Maracaibo at Maracaibo Yacht Club, May 16, 1942. 

Description. — Certain measurements were made on the holotype 
and these are recorded in hundredths of the standard length in 
table 18. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays IX, 10; anal rays 
111,8; pectoral rays iii,12-iii, 12; scales from upper edge of gill opening 
to midcaudal fin base 40; scales from base of first soft ray of dorsal 
to lateral line 4, and 9 from base of first anal spine to lateral line; 
gill rakers on lower part of first arch 15. 

Greatest depth of body 2.2 and head 3, in standard length; snout 
3.25, eye about 2%, and postorbital length of head 2}^ in length of 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



143 



head; maxillary reaches to below anterior margin of pupil; area 
above premaxillary processes broad and free from scales; preorbital 
edge smooth; posterior margin of preopercle serrate; gill rakers short, 
strong, on lower part of first arch; second dorsal spine not reaching 
quite to tip of third; second anal spine strong, reaching past third 
which is slender; second dorsal spine 1.1 and second anal spine about 
1.4 in head; distal margin of dorsal fin concave, that of anal fin a 
little concave; pectoral fin pointed, the second branched ray longest, 
and reaching opposite base of third anal spine; third dorsal spine 
when depressed reaches to opposite base of fourth soft dorsal ray; 
second anal spine when depressed reaches past base of last anal ray; 




Figure 16. — Diapterus limnaeus, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121726), 68 mm. 
in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 



profile of head slightly concave over eyes; first soft ray of pelvics 
with a short filament, the pelvic spine reaching nearly past anus; 
second row of scales below lateral line continuous to caudal fin base; 
greatest depth of body at origin of dorsal fin. 

Color. — Plain silvery without dark streaks on sides and no dark 
bars; distal margin of dorsal fin black edged; a few blackish pigment 
cells on interradial membranes of dorsal and anal fins but not forming 
spots or blotches; tips of rays of caudal fin with a few dark pigment 
cells. 

Remarks. — This new species differs from all others of the genus in 
the Atlantic as indicated in the key on pages 141 and 142, chiefly in 
having 15 gill rakers in combination with a smooth preorbital, no 
scales on area over premaxillary groove, and the second dorsal 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

spine not reaching quite to tip of third dorsal spine. From D. 
peruvianus of the Pacific with which this new species is most closely 
related, it differs by having 15 gill rakers instead of 12 or 13. 

Named limnaeus (meaning "lake") in reference to its occurrence in 
Lake Maracaibo. 

DIAPTERUS RHOMBEUS (Cnvier) 

La Carpeta 
Gerres rhombeus Cuvier, La r^gne animal, vol. 2, ed. 2, p. 188, 1829, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121710, 5 specimens, 56.5 to 83 mm. in standard length, from 
Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121713, 2 specimens, one 67 mm., the other only anterior part of 
body and head, Lago de Maracaibo, 1 km. off Pueblo Viejo in gill net, April 7-9, 
1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121712, 5 specimens, 35 to 59 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht 
Club, Maracaibo, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121711, 3 specimens, 43 to 64 mm., mouth of Cano de Sagua, 
25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121708, 29 specimens, 36 to 62 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121714, 12 specimens, 28 to 43 mm., Sahna Rica, 5 km. north of 
Maracaibo, February 20, 1942, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121709, 1 specimen, 20 mm., cano at Los Monitos, Rfo Lim6n 
system, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121949, 1 specimen, 36 mm.. Point Macolla, U, S. S. Niagara, 
April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121948, 6 specimens, 35 to 39 mm., Amuay Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 9, 1924. 

1 specimen, 25 mm., bajo seco east side of Puerto Cabello, F, F, Bond, January 
26, 1938. 

3 specimens, 40 to 42 mm., Laguna del PJo Capatdrida at mouth, 5 km. north 
of Capatdrida, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

1 specimen, 22 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. Bond, 
February 3, 1939. 

DIAPTERUS EVERMANNI Meek and Hildebrand 

Diapterus evermanni Meek and Hilderrand, The marine fishes of Panama, 
pt. 2, p. 594, pi. 63, 1925 (Mindi River, near Mindi; Fox Bay, Colon, Panama). 

3 specimens, 40 to 44.5 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida at mouth, 5 km. 
north of Capatdrida, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

3 specimens, 47 to 53.5 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. 
Bond, February 3, 1939. 

2 specimens, 54 and 55. 5 mm., salt-water lagoon on coast, 5 km. west of Cumand, 
F. F. Bond, March 25, 1939. 

The three collections listed above contain eight specimens in which 
the anal rays are II, i, 8. The type and paratype of evermanni, 
U.S.N.M. Nos. 81738 and 81322, have II,i,8 rays, the third ray 
simple and with its tip cross striated, indicating that this is a soft 
ray but unbranched. This species is the counterpart of the four 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHTJLTZ 



145 



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146 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



specimens mentioned under plumieri that have the third anal ray 
simple but cross striated. 

This modification of the third anal ray has been considered by 
Meek and Hildebrand as of specific significance, but its occurrence 
in other species causes me to cast serious doubt on its validity as a 
dependable character when considered alone. However, in view of 
the small series of specimens for certain species of Diapterus, I am 
tentatively referring the above listed specimens to evermanni. 

Table 18. — Measurements made on certain species of Diapterus. (All measure- 
ments expressed in hundredths of the standard length.) 



Characters 



D. 

limnaeus 


E. awlae 


E. plumieri 


Holotype 


Holotype 


Paratype 


U.S.N.M. 


No. 121728 


68 


75 


79 


45.7 


43.5 


33.8 


36.6 


35.4 


37.2 


37.2 


14.3 


15.7 


15.2 


15.1 


15.4 


12.8 


14.0 


12.7 


13.6 


15.4 


10.3 


10.0 


10.1 


10.1 


11.3 


12.1 


13.1 


12.0 


12.9 


13.3 


9.56 


9.34 


8.98 


8.75 


8.96 


44.1 


44.7 


43.9 


39.4 


37.9 


16.5 


19.6 


19.7 


19.7 


18.8 


12.5 


12.0 


11.9 


11.6 


11.5 


33.8 


34.0 


33.2 


28.9 


29.0 


27.9 


30.7 


27.0 


27.8 


28.7 


40.4 


40.0 


41.8 


37.6 


37.9 


30.1 


44.8 


40.6 


39.4 


39.5 


30.1 


40.1 


35.4 


32.8 


35.6 


22.8 


36.7 


37.3 


33.9 


34.5 


20.0 










45.6 


48.0 


47.4 


45.3 


45.5 


67.6 


68.0 


66.4 


66.0 


65.3 


33.8 


36.0 


35.4 


35.4 


37.7 


41.8 


40.8 


41.0 


42.4 


43.6 


49.2 


51.3 


51.3 


47.0 


49.2 


23.5 


20.0 


22.1 


20.8 


19.5 


18.7 


20.3 


19.7 


18.6 


17.7 


10.3 


11.1 


7.59 


8.30 


8.28 



Standard length in millimeters 

Length of head 

Postorbital length of head 

Diameter of eye 

Length of snout 

Tip of snout to rear of maxillary 

Width of bony interorbital space 

Greatest depth of body 

Least depth of caudal peduncle... 

Length of: 

Caudal peduncle 

Longest ray of pectoral 

Longest branched ray of pelvic fins. 

Longest branched ray of caudal fln. 

Second dorsal spine 

Third dorsal spine 

Second anal spine 

Third anal spine 

Tip of snout to: 

Dorsal origin 

Anal origin 

Pectoral insertion 

Pelvic insertion 

Length of: 

Base of dorsal fln 

Base of anal fin 

Pelvix spine 

Pelvic axillary scale 



Genus EUGERRES Jordan and Evermann 

Eugerras Jordan and Evermann, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4., vol. 16, 
p. 506, 1927. (Genotype, Gerres plumieri Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

la. Gill rakers on lower part of first arch usually 10; anal rays 111,7; second dorsal 
spine a little shorter than head but a trifle longer than third dorsal spine 
and about 3.5 in standard length; second anal spine equal to second dorsal 
spine in length Eugerres brasilianus '" (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

lb. Gill rakers on lower part of first gill arch usually 14 to 16; second dorsal spine 
longer than third and longer than head, about 2% in standard length; 

» Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



147 



second anal spine about 1 to 1.1 in head, and 2.75 to 3 in standard length; 

young with 4 to 7 narrow vertical dusky bars on sides. 

2a. Anal rays 11,8 or 9 Eugenes awlae, new species 

26. Anal rays II,i,7 or 8 or 111,7 to 9. 

Eugerres plumieri (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

EUGERRES AWLAE. new species 

Figure 17 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 121721, a specimen, 74 mm. in standard 
length, collected by Leonard P. Schultz in the channel of Salina Rica, 
5 km. north of Maracaibo, Venezuela, February 20, 1942. 

Porafypes.— U.S.N.M. No. 121722, 3 specimens, 37 to 79 mm., 
taken by Leonard P. Schultz in Lago de Maracaibo opposite Salina 
Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942; tF.S.N.M. No. 
121723, a specimen, 57 mm., collected in Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. 
south of Maracaibo, by Leonard P. Schultz on March 6, 1942. 




Figure 17. — Eugerres awlae, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121721), 74 mm. in 
standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 



Description. — Certain measurements were made on the holotype 
and one paratype and these data are recorded in table 18, expressed 
in hundredths of the standard length. 

The following counts were made, respectively, for the holotype and 
one paratype, and additional counts are recorded in table 17: Dorsal 
rays IX,10 (IX,10); anal rays 11,9 (11,9); pectoral rays iii,13-iii,13 
(iii,13-iii,13); scales 37 (37); scales above lateral line to base of first 
soft ray of dorsal 4 (4) and below lateral line to origin of anal fin 9 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

(9) ; gill rakers on lower half of arch 14 to 15, the most anterior tiny- 
rudiment or two not included. 

Greatest depth of body 2.3 to 2.5, head about 2.6 or 2.7 in standard 
length; snout 3.5 to 3.7, eye 2.7 or 2.8 and postorbital length of head 

2.3 or 2.4, all in length of head; maxillary reaches to below anterior 
margin of pupil ; area above premaxillary processes broad and without 
scales; preorbital edge smooth in young or a little rough or somewhat 
serrate in adults; rear margin of preopercle serrate; gill rakers strong 
and short; second dorsal spine long, reaching past third, contained 

2.4 to 2.6 in standard length, much longer than length of head, about 
equal to greatest depth of body; second anal spine long, strong, equals 
length of head or nearly so; distal margin of dorsal and of anal fins 
strongly concave; pectoral fin long, pointed, the third branched ray 
usually longest, reaching to opposite base of first or second soft anal 
rays; second dorsal spine when depressed reaches to opposite bases of 
seventh or eighth soft dorsal rays; second anal spine reaches to opposite 
caudal fin base or a little beyond in the large specimens; profile of 
head slightly concave over orbits; first soft ray of pelvics with a short 
filament, the pelvic spine shorter but readiing a little past anus; 
third row of scales below lateral line continuous to caudal fin; greatest 
depth of body at origin of dorsal. 

Color. — Each row of scales with a dark streak dorsally, but more or 
less lacking ventrally; margin of dorsal fin blacldsh distally, rest of 
fin dusky, except the sheath of scales along the base are white; anal 
fin dusky, basal sheath of scales white; pelvic fins and caudal fin 
dusky; pectoral fins pale; top of snout dusky, but lips are white except 
some black pigment on middorsal part of upper lip. 

Remarks. — This new species is separated from other western 
Atlantic representatives of the genus by the key on page 146. Other 
minor differences are given in tables 17 and 18. 

Named awlae, in honor of Mrs. Aime M. Awl, artist. United States 
National Museum, who has willingly and expertly drawn for me very 
numerous figures of new fishes over a period of years. 

EUGERRES PLUMIERI (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

La Mojarra 

Gerres plumieri Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 6, p. 452, pi. 167, 1830 (Puerto Rico; Antilles). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121720, 7 specimens, 63 to 85 mm. in standard length, from 
Salina Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121719, a specimen, 123 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo near 
mouth of Rfo Concha, May 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121717, 5 specimens, 55 to 87 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo, 
7 km. south of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121716, 4 specimens, 53 to 82 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 149 

U.S.N. M. No. 121715, 10 specimens, 33 to 50 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo 
at Yacht Club, Maracaibo, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121718, 6 specimens, 45 to 100 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, March 5, 1942. 

There are four specimens measuring 37.5 to 51 mm,, from Lago de 
Maracaibo at Yacht Club, A/faracaibo, that I have separated from the 
February 27 collection (U.S.N.M. No. 121715) and I have placed 
them in a separate jar that bears U.S.N.M. No. 121725. They are 
referred to this species but vary from it in having II, i, 7 (in one 
specimen) and II, i, 8 (in three specimens) instead of the usual three 
anal spines. The third anal ray is usually a small slender spine but 
in the four specimens under consideration here the third ray is simple 
with a few cross-striations near its tip. I cannot otherwise distinguish 
these four specimens from typical specimens of D. plumieri. 

Should a larger series become available to someone and should these 
prove to represent an undescribed species, I have carefully measured 
two specimens and recorded the data in table 18. In addition, the 
following description was drawn up. 

Dorsal rays VIII, 11 (in one) and IX, 10 (in three); pectoral rays 
IV, 12 in two counts, V, 11 in three, V, 12 in one; gill rakers on lower 
part of first gill arch 14 or 15 in all four specimens. 

Greatest depth of body 2.5 or 2.6, head 2.7 or 2.8 in standard length; 
snout 3.2 to 3.5, eye 3.6 to 3.8, and postorbital length of head 2.3 
or 2.4, all in length of head; maxillary reaches not quite to below 
anterior margin of pupil; area above premaxillary groove naked; 
preorbital edge smooth or slightly rough; rear margin of preopercle 
serrate; gill rakers strong and short; second dorsal spine long, reaching 
past third dorsal spine and longer than head, contained 2.5 or 2.6 in 
standard length and equal to or a little longer than greatest depth of 
body; second anal spine long and strong, a trifle shorter than head, 
about three times in standard length; distal margins of dorsal and of 
anal fins concave; pectoral fins long, pointed, the first or second 
branched rays longest and reaching to opposite origin of anal fin; 
second dorsal spine when depressed reaches to opposite bases of 
seventh or eighth soft dorsal rays; second anal spine when depressed 
reaches to caudal fin base or nearly to it; profile of head barely concave 
over orbits; first soft pelvic ray with a filament, the pelvic spine shorter 
but reaching a little past anus; third row of scales below lateral line 
continuous to caudal, rarely the second row; greatest depth of body 
at origin of dorsal fin. 

Color. — Each row of scales has a darkly pigmented area giving the 
appearance of streaks of small spots along each row of scales along 
upper sides; distal margin of dorsal fin blackish, and rest of fin dusky, 
except the basal sheath of scales, which are white; caudal fin dusky; 
anal dusky forward; pectorals pale; snout dusky and dorsal tip of 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

upper lip dusky, rest of upper and lower lips white; these young 
specimens have 4 to 7, usually about 5, narrow vertical dusky bars on 
sides. 

In addition, I refer to this species a small specimen, 17 mm. in 
standard length, collected April 6, 1938, by Dr. F. F. Bond in a 
coastal lagoon 15 Ion. north of Maracaibo. 

Family SCIAENIDAE: Croakers; Corvinas 

During my study of this family I carefully dissected the skin and 
scales from the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the head for the purpose 
of determining which genera have "cavernous skulls" and found that 
all of the genera listed herein have the narrow bony bridges and sunken 
spaces, otherwise called cavernous skulls. In those genera and 
species with broad interorbital spaces similar to Stellifer and with 
thinner skin or scales the caverns are more easily felt by touch than 
in certain other genera such as Equetus. 

The counting of the number of scale rows above the lateral line is 
subject to error since certain rows run together as they approach the 
lateral hne. To avoid this error and keep my counts consistent, I 
counted the rows directly above the lateral line. 

KEY TO THE SCIAENIDAE REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Tip of chin with a short stubby barbel, or each side of lower jaw anteriorly 
with a row of minute barbels; width of preorbital wider than eye diameter; 
scales along lateral line not enlarged; lower jaw included, teeth in villiform 
band; teeth in upper jaw in a villiform band, outer row a Uttle enlarged. 
2a. Tip of chin with a short, stout, blunt barbel; gill rakers on first arch very 
short or almost rudimentary. 
3a. Anal with one weak or nonpungent spine; preopercular edge not serrate 
but its edge rather firm; first soft ray of pelvic fin not ending in a 
filamentous tip; dorsal rays X-I,23 to 25; anal rays 1,7; pectoral rays 
22 or 23; scale rows 74 to 82. 

Menticirrhus martinicensis Cuvier and Valenciennes 
36. The two anal spines pungent; preopercular edge finely serrate; tip of 
first soft pelvic ray more or less ending in a short filament. 
4a. Vertical scale rows above lateral Une 57 and 58 (in two counts); 
dorsal rays X-I,26 to 28; barbel blunt. 

Umbrina coroides Cuvier and Valenciennes 
46. Vertical scale rows 48; dorsal rays X-I, 22; barbel tapering to a point. 

Umbrina gracilicirrhus Metzelaar 
26. Each side of middle of lower jaw anteriorly with a short row of fine barbels; 
gill rakers of moderate length, well developed on first arch; two pungent 
anal spines; first soft pelvic ray with a short filamentous tip; dorsal rays 
X-I, 26 or 27; anal rays 11,8; pectoral rays 18 or 19; gill rakers 7 or 8 + 
13 to 15; scale rows about 68 to 70--Micropogon fumieri (Desmarest) 
16. No barbels at tip of chin or on lower jaw. 

5a. Scales along the lateral line enlarged, partly overlapped by adjoining 
smaller scales; mouth terminal, sometimes obUque in position; two 
pungent anal spines; scale rows below lateral line slanting obliquely 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 151 

upward to lateral line, not parallel with it on caudal peduncle; lower jaw 
nearly equal to upper, with two irregular rows of teeth, inner row enlarged 
some more or less caninelike; upper jaw with a narrow villiform band of 
teeth, with outer row enlarged, more or less small canines; gill rakers 
moderately long; maxillary reaching well under or past eye; preorbital 

usually wider than eye Plagioscion Gill 

5b. Scales along the lateral Une of about same size as adjoining scales. 

6a. Preopercular edge with one or more projecting sharp spines; 2 pungent 

anal spines. 

7a. Anal rays 11,8; teeth in upper jaw in a vilUform band with outer row 

a little enlarged. 

8o. Lower jaw included, with the villiform teeth in a wide band, none of 

which is enlarged; mouth inferior, scarcely oblique; gill rakers 

short to moderately long, 9 or 10 + 1 + 16 to 18; first soft ray of 

pelvic fins ending in a short filament; dorsal rays XI, I (rarely 

XII,I) 21 or 22; anal rays 11,8; pectoral rays ii,16 or ii, 17; scale rows 

52 to 54 Ophioscion venezuelae Schultz 

86. Lower jaw a little included, with a narrow band of villiform teeth, 
the inner row of which is a trifle enlarged; mouth nearly terminal, 
oblique; gill rakers long and slender, 19 or 20 + 1 + 28 to 30; first 
soft ray of pelvic fin ending in a short filament; dorsal rays Xf, I, 
or XII, 1, 21 to 24; anal rays 11,8; pectoral rays about 20; scale 
rows about 50 or 51. (See fig. 19)„Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan) 
8c. Lower jaw oblique, equals upper jaw or nearly so, with the minute 
teeth in a narrow band of 2 or 3 rows forward and in a single row 
of slightly enlarged teeth posteriorly; gill rakers moderately long, 
9orl0+l + 15orl6; first soft ray of pelvic fin not ending in a 
filament; dorsal rays X,I,23 to 25; anal rays 11,8; pectoral rays 
about 17; scale rows about 55 or 56. (See fig. 19.) 

Bairdiella ronchus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
76. Anal rays 11,6; lower jaw included, snout projecting a little in front 
of the premaxillary, the maxillary not quite reaching to under front 
of eye; teeth in both jaws minute, in vilUform bands, none enlarged; 
preopercular edge with several short spines; gill rakers rather short, 
5 or 6 + 1 + 10 or 11 on first gill arch; dorsal rays X,I,24 to 29, 
usually 25 to 27; pectoral rays 16 to 18; vertical scale rows above 

lateral line 81 to 87 Pachyurus schomburgkii Giinther 

66. Preopercular edge membranous, without pungent spines or with the edge 
rather hard and finely serrate, but without projecting spines (except in 
young about 35 mm. and shorter); preorbital usually narrower than 
eye. 
9a. Anal spines minute or nonpungent or flexible; upper jaw with canine 
teeth; lower jaw longer than upper, entering or nearly entering 
profile. 
10a. Upper jaw with a pair or so of lance-shaped teeth, the tips flattened, 
with cutting edges; canine teeth present in lower jaw in a single 
row; first soft ray of pelvic fin not ending in a filamentous tip, 
dorsal rays X,l,28; anal 11,9; gill rakers 3 -f 1 + 9; scale rows 
120; pectoral 16 (counts made on one specimen). 

Macrodon ancylodon Bloch and Schneider 

106. Upper jaw with a pair or so of round conical pointed teeth, and 

other teeth enlarged, and in a narrow band; teeth of lower jaw 

in a narrow band with outer and inner teeth enlarged and with 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

some villiform teeth between the enlarged ones forward; gill 
rakers moderately short; first soft pelvic ray without fila- 
mentous tip. Csmoscion Gill (see key to speciesonp. 150). 
96. Two pungent anal spines. 

11a. First or spiny dorsal fin with second to sixth spines short as length 
of head, not filamentous. 
12a. Teeth of upper jaw in a villiform band with outer row enlarged; 
lower jaw with single row of teeth; lower jaw slightly longer 
than upper but not entering profile; first soft ray of pelvic 
fin without filamentous tip; dorsal rays X-I,23 to 25; anal 
rays 11,9; gill rakers 8 or 9 + 1 + 17 or 18; scale rows about 

50 to 52 Corvula sanctae-luciae Jordan 

126. Teeth of upper jaw very small in one row with 2 or 3 rows 
posteriorly; lower jaw very oblique, tip of chin projecting, not 
quite entering profile; teeth of lower jaw small in a single row; 
first soft ray of pelvic fin with a short filamentous tip; body 
compressed; dorsal rays X-I,27 to 31; anal rays 11,6; gill 
rakers about 9 or 10 + 1 + 18 to 20; scale rows about 48 

49 Larimus breviceps Cuvier and Valenciennes 

116. Second to sixth dorsal spines long, filamentous, at least l}i times 
length of head and when fin is depressed reaching to middle of 
base of soft dorsal fin; a broad brownish band bordered by a pale 
band from base of spiny dorsal fin curves downward behind 
pectoral fin thence posteriorly along midaxis of body, two other 
dark bands separated by pale ones occur on head, one behind eye 
and the other through front of eye; median fins pale spotted; 
dorsal raj's about XIII-47 to 50; anal 11,7. 

Equetus punctatus Bloch 

Genus MENTICIRRHUS Gill 

Menticirrhus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, p. 86. (Genotype, 
Perca alburnus Linnaeus^ Cyprinus americanus Linnaeus.) 

MENTICIRBHUS MARTINICENSIS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Umbrina martinicensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 5, p. 186, 1830 (Martinique). 

U.S.N. M. No. 128252, 1 specimen, 47 mm. in standard length, from Point 
Macolla, U. S. S. Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

U.S.N. M. No. 128253, 1 specimen, 46 mm., southern coast of the Gulf of 
Venezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

U.S.N. M. No. 128254, 3 specimens, 179 to 295 mm,, Estanques Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, December 8 and 12, 1924. 

The following counts were made on the above listed specimens: 
Dorsal rays X-I,23; X-I,25; X-I,24; X-I,24; X-I,23; anal rays 1,7; 

1,7; 1,7; 1,7; 1,7; pectoral rays —; 23; 22; 22; 22; scales — ; 74; 75; 

82; 79; usually 6 or 7 scales from lateral line to front of soft dorsal 

and 11 or 12 to anal origin; gill rakers about 3 or 4 + 5 to 8 counting 

rudiments; about 50 pores in the lateral line. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 153 

Genus UMBRINA Cuvier 

Umbrina Cuvier, Le r^gne animal, ed. 1, vol. 2, p. 297, 1817. (Genotype, 
Sciaena cirrhosa Linnaeus.) 

UMBRINA COROIDES Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Umbrina coroides Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 5, p. 187, 1830 (Brazil). 

U.S.N.M. No. 128259, 1 specimen, 265 mm, in standard length, from Amuay 
Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

The following counts were made on the above listed specimen. 
Dorsal rays X-I,26; anal rays 11,7; vertical scale rows 57 above lateral 
line, 5K from lateral line to base of first soft dorsal ray, and 10 from 
lateral line to anal origin. 

umbrina GRACIUCIRRHUS Metzelaar 

Umbrina gracilicirrhus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J, 
Boeke in the Dutch West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 72, fig. 24, 1919 (coast of 
Venezuela). 

Genus MICROPOGON Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Alicropogon Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 5, 
p. 215, 1830. (Genotype, Micropogon lincatus Cuvier and Valenciennes = 
Perca undulala Linnaeus.) 

MICROPOGON FURNIERI (Desmarest) 

Umbrina furnieri Desmarest, Premi&re decade ichthylogique — Cuba, p. 22, pi. 
2, fig. 3, 1823 (Havana) (ref. copied). — Metzelaar, Report on the fishes 
collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 71, 1919 
(Carupana, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121748, 2 specimens, 108 and 114 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121747, 1 specimen, mouth of Cano de Sagua, 25 km, north of 
Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

The following collections were made by the U, S. S. Niagara: 

U.S.N.M. No. 128247, 1 specimen, 310 mm. in standard length, Piedras Bay, 
Gulf of Venezuela, March 14, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128246, 1 specimen, 213 mm., Gulf of Venezuela, 1924-25. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays X-I, 26 in 4 speci- 
mens and X-I, 27 in one; anal rays II, 8 in 5 specimens; pectoral rays 
19; 18; 18; gill rakers on first gill arch 7+14; 8+15; 8 + 13; and 7+13; 
vertical scale rows above lateral line 68 and 70; 7 or 8 scales from 
lateral line to base of soft first dorsal ray and 7 to 9 from lateral line to 
anal origin. 

Genus PLAGIOSCION Gill 

Plagioscion Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, p. 82. (Genotype, 
Sciaena squamosissima Heckel.) 

Since I have no specimens from Venezuela I hesitate to make a 
key. Steindachner (1917b) reviews eight species of this genus, in- 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

eluding those recorded below from Venezuela, and his contribution 
should be consulted for the identification of specimens. 

PLAGIOSCION SQUAMOSISSIMUS (Heckel) 
CORVINA O CORVINATA 

Sciaena squamosissimus Heckel, Ann. Wein. Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 438, pi. 30, 

figs. 26-28 (scales), 1840 (Rfo Negro; Rio Branco). 
Plagioscion sqriamosissimus Steindachner, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 41, 

p. 151, 1879 (Rio Negro; Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela); Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. 

Wien, vol. 126, p. 663, pi. 1, fig. 2, pi. 2, fig. 1, 1917 (Rio Negro; Ciudad 

Bolivar on Rio Orinoco). 
Sciaena amazonica Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 469 (Calabozo, 

Venezuela). — Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 226 (Calabozo). — Regan, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905, pt. 1, p. 190 (Rio Negro). — Rohl, Fauna 

descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 407, 1942 (Orinoco). 

plagioscion AURATUM (Castelnan) 

Johnius auralus CASTELNAtr, Animaux nouveaux ou rares recueilles dans les 
parties centrales de I'Am^rique de Sud, vol. 2, pt. 7. Poissons, p. 12, pi. 4, 
fig. 2, 1855 (Ucayala). 

Plagioscion auratum Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, p. 
387, 1942 (Apure River). 

Genus OPHIOSCION Gill 

Ophioscion Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1863, p. 165. (Genotype, 
Ophioscion iypicus Gill, U. S. N. M. No. 22861, west coast of Panama.) 

OPmOSCION VENEZUELAE Schnltz 

Figure 18 

Ophioscion venezuelae Schultz, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 96, p. 131, fig. 7, 1945 
(Cano de Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamaica, Venezuela). 

The following types were collected by Leonard P. Schultz in Vene- 
zuela during 1942: Holotype, U.S.N.M. No. 121749, and 6 paratypes, 
U.S.N.M. No. 121750, all from south of Cano de Sagua about 25 km. 
north of Sinamaica, May 12. 

Description. — Certain measurements were made, and these data, 
recorded below, are expressed in hundredths of the standard length, 
first for the holotype and then for three paratypes in parentheses, 
respectively. Standard lengths in millimeters, 139.5 (68.8; 150; 139). 

Length of head 28.6 (30.5; 32.4; 30.2) ; greatest depth of body 30.1 
(27.0; 31.2; 30.9); diameter of eye 6.24 (7.12; 5.93; 6.11); length of 
snout 8.74 (8.14; 9.34; 8.63) ; distance from tip of snout to rear edge of 
maxillaries 13.1 (12.6; 13.0; 13.2); least width of preorbital 3.65 (3.63; 
4.13; 39.5); postorbital length of head 18.0 (15.8; 17.9; 18.5); width of 
bony interorbital space 9.68 (9.16; 9.66; 10.3); length of caudal pe- 
duncle 25.1 (25.1; 24.3; 25.4); least depth of caudal peduncle 10.7 
(9.88; 10.9; 10.9); length of base of second dorsal fin 32.6 (32.5; 32.1; 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



155 



32.4); length of base of anal fin 11.0 (11.6; 11.7; 11.2); length of 
longest dorsal spine 18.6 (21.1 ; 18.5; 19.3) ; length of longest soft dorsal 
ray — (13.1; — ; 13.2); longest soft anal ray 16.1 (17.0; — ; 14.7); 
length of second anal spine 16.3 (17.4; — ; 15.8); longest pectoral fin 
ray 25.2 (23.1; 22.7; 25.2); longest soft pelvic ray 13.0 (18.6; 12.3; 
13.9); length of pelvic spine 9.32 (11.5; 8.34; 8.85); longest or middle 




Figure 18. — Opkioscion venezuelae Schultz: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121749), 139.5 mm* 
in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 



caudal fin rays 25.9 (26.9; 22.7; 25.5); distance from tip of snout to 
dorsal origin 37.1 (35.9; 38.5; 37.7); snout to anal origin 67,2 (65.4; 
65.1; 66.2); snout to pectoral msertion 32.6 (31.1; 32.2; 31.6); snout 
to pelvic insertion 32.6 (30.5; 30.6; 30.9); length of longest gill rakers 
on first gill arch 1.58 (2.76; 1.66; 3.22). 

The following counts were made, respectively: Dorsal rays XI-I, 21 
(XI-I,22; XII-1,21; XI-I,21; XI-I,21; XI-I,21; XI-I,22); anal rays 
on all types 11,8 ; pectoral rays ii, 17-ii, 17 (ii,16;ii,17-ii,17;ii,17-ii,17; 
ii,16); pelvics always 1,5; number of vertical scale rows above lateral 
line 52 (53; 52; 54); scales from dorsal origin to lateral line 6 ( — ; 6; 
6) and from base of first soft dorsal ray to lateral line 6 ( — ; 6; 6); 
scales from lateral line to anal origin 8 ( — ; S>', S)] scales in a zigzag 
row around the caudal peduncle 19 ( — ; 19; 19); number of gill rakers 
on first gill arch 9 + 1 + 16 (— ; 10 + 1 + 18; 10+1 + 18; 9 + 1 + 16; 
10 + 1 + 16). 

Head depressed forward but rounded dorsally, the interorbital space 
convex, broad, about equal to the snout; body compressed; anterior 
profile nearly straight but the dorsal contour curved, the ventral 
contour but slightly curved backward to anus; back highest at base of 
spiny dorsal fin; eye about 2% in postorbital length of head, 1.8 in 
interorbital space; posterior nasal opening rounded, slightly larger 
than the anterior one; tip of lower jaw without barbels; anal origin 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

equidistant between pelvic insertion and midcaudal fin base; pelvic 
fins reaching halfway to anus, the first soft ray ending in a short 
filament; preopercle with eight or nine short spines, the lowest one 
strongest but not hooked downward; caudal peduncle least depth 
2}i in its length; tips of pectoral fins reaching a trifle past anus; teeth in 
jaws in bands, the outer row of upper jaw a little enlarged ; pseudobran- 
chiae well developed; gill rakers short, not quite so long as pupil 
diameter; scales strongly ctenoid; lateral line curved over pectoral fin, 
then running a straight course on caudal peduncle along its midaxis; 
fourth scale row below lateral line, anteriorly, the first one extending 
to base of caudal fin; first dorsal spine rudimentary, second 2.5 in 
third, the latter nearly as long as the fourth; second and eighth to 
eleventh and the next spine heavier than the third to seventh spines 
of dorsal fin ; fourth or longest dorsal spine about equal to postorbital 
length of head; distal margin of spiny dorsal fin truncate or a very 
little concave, that of soft dorsal probably a trifle rounded (the tips 
of the soft rays are lacking and this cannot be determined accurately) ; 
middle rays of caudal fin longest, edges of lobes more or less truncate 
to rounded (double truncate) ; distal margins of anal and pelvic fins a 
little rounded; pectoral fins somewhat pointed, the fourth branched 
ray from above longest. 

Color. — In alcohol the upper sides and back are grayish brown, 
white below; dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins dusky, more intensely 
pigmented distally; soft dorsal and caudal fins dusky; pectoral fin 
darker than other fins except tip of spiny dorsal; lower jaw and upper 
lip white; peritoneum white. In the smaller paratypes the dusky 
upper sides are broken up with several pale blotches, which appear to 
have a small cyst at their centers. 



Genus STELLIFER Oken 

Stell 



ifer Oken, Isis, 1817, p. 1182. (Genotype, Bodianus stelhfer Bloch.) (Ref. 1 
copied.) 

STELLIFEB RASTRIFER (Jordan) 



Stelliferus rastrifer Jordan, in Jordan and Eigenmann, Rep. U. S. Fish Comm. 
for 1886, vol. 14, pp. 391, 393, 1889 (coast of Brazil). 

U. S. N. M. No. 128257, 3 specimens, 16.5 to 72.5 mm., Jacuque Point, U. S. S. 
Niagara, January 26, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128258, 8 specimens, 38 to 123 mm., Point Macolla, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays XI-1, 22 in 4 specimens, 
XI-I, 23 in one, XI-I, 24 in two, XII-I, 21 in two, XII-I, 22 in one; 
anal rays II, 8 in 8 specimens; gill rakers on first gill arch were 19+1 
+ 28 and 20 + 1 + 30, and in two other counts on lower part of 
first gill arch there were 28 and 30 gill rakers; pectoral fin rays in 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



157 



one specimen counted numbered 20, and the vertical scale rows above 
lateral line numbered 51 in two specimens with 6 scales from base of 
first soft dorsal ray to lateral line and 8 from the lateral line to the 
anal origin. 

Genus BAIRDIELLA Gill 

Bairdiella Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, p. 33. (Genotype, 
Bodianus argyroleucus Mitch.i\\ = Dipterodon chrysurus Laceplde.) (Ref. 
copied.) 

BAIHDIELLA RONCHUS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Corvina ronchus Cuviek and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 5, p. 107, 1830 (Surinam; San Domingo; [?] Maracaibo). 

Bairdiella ronchus Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, p. 72, 1912 (Mara- 
caibo). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121746, 4 specimens, 61.5 to 102 mm., from mouth of Cafio de 
Sagua, 25 km. north of Sinamica, March 12, 1942. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays X-I, 23 in one speci- 
men, X-I, 24 in two, and X-I, 25 in one; anal rays II, 8 in 4 specimens; 
pectoral rays 17 in one count; gill rakers on first gill arch 10+1 + 16 
in one, 9 + 1 + 15 in three specimens; scale rows in one count 55. 










Figure 19. — Diagrammatic sketches of the tip of the snout and of the anterior part of the 
underside of the lower jaw of three species of sciaenid fishes: a, Snout tip of Bairdiella 
chrysura (Lacepede); b, lower jaw of B. chrysura; c, snout tip of Siellifer rastrifer (Jordan); 
d, lower jaw of S. rastrifer; e, snout tip of Ophioscion iypicus Gill (type U.S.N.M. No. 
22861); /, lower jaw of 0. typicus. Sketches by author. 

Genus PACHYURUS Agassiz 

Pachyurus Agassiz, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species piscium Brasi- 
liam, p. 128, 1831. (Genotype, Pachyurus sqtiamipinnis Agassiz.) 

PACHYURUS SCHOMBURGKH Gtinther 

Pachyurus schomburgkii Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 
vol. 2, p. 282, 1860 fRio Capim, Pard; Caripe, Pard, Brazil). 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Dr. F. F. Bond collected 45 specimens 17 to 57 mm. in standard 
length in the Rio Apure at San Fernando de Apm'e on February 16, 
1938. These small specimens warrant a brief description because 
this and allied species are not well known and are rather scarce in 
museum collections. In fact, for several reasons, among them the 
small size and coloration of the specimens, I am not even sure these 
specimens are P. schomburgkii. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays X, I, 24 in one, X, I, 25 
in three, X, I, 26 and X, I, 27 in four each, one count each of X, I, 28 
and X, I, 29. Anal rays II, 6 in 14 counts. Pectoral rays ii, 16 in two; 
ii, 17 in five; and ii, 18 in three counts. Gill rakers on first gill arch 
5 + 1 + 10 in three counts, 5 + 1 + 11 in two, 6 + 1 + 10 in six, 
and 6 + 1 + 1 1 in three counts. Number of vertical scale rows from 
upper edge of gill opening to midbase of caudal fin 81 in one count, 
82 in two, 83 in two, 84 in one, 85 in six, 86 in one, and 87 in one count. 
There were 8 scales from the base of the first soft dorsal ray to lateral 
line in 14 counts and from the anal origin to lateral line 9 scales in 
four and 10 in eight counts. 

The coloration is somewhat uniform. A series of about five to 
seven vertically elongate brown spots occur along the middle of the 
sides; on the smallest specimens only occur four brown blotches on 
the back along base of dorsal fin, the first in front of spiny dorsal, 
second along rear of base of spiny dorsal, and two along base of soft 
dorsal; opercle of all specimens with a brownish blotch; tips of dorsal 
spines blackish; soft dorsal with a row of small dark spots extending 
along its middle on the membranes; caudal fin dusky. 

Genus MACRODON Schinz 

Macrodon Schinz, Das Thierreich, vol. 2, p. 482, 1822. (Genotj'pe, Lonchurui 
ancylodon Bloch and Schneider.) (Substitute name for Ancylodon, pre- 
occupied.) (Ref. copied.) 

MACRODON ANCYLODON (Bloch and Schneider) 

Lonchurus ancylodon Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 102, pi. 25, 
1801 (Surinam). 

U.S.N. M. No. 128251, 1 specimen, 270 mm. in standard length, Gulf of Vene- 
zuela, depth 35 feet, U. S. S. Niagara, December 1, 1924. 

This specimen has X-I,28 dorsal rays and 11,9 anal rays. The giU 
rakers on the first giU arch number 3+1 + 9 and are about one-third 
the diameter of the eye. The vertical scale rows above the lateral 
line number 120, and there are about 13 scales from base of first soft 
dorsal ray to lateral line and about 15 from anal origin to lateral line. 
The pectoral fin has about 16 rays. The pectoral fins extend con- 
siderable distance past tips of pelvics. The soft dorsal fin is not 
heavily scaled except its basal two-thirds but caudal and anal fins 
are thickened with scales over two-thirds the way out. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 159 

Genus CYNOSCION Gill 

Cynoscion Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861, p. 81. (Genotype, 
Otolithus toeroe Cuvier and Ya\enciennes= Cheilodipterus acoupa Lacepdde.) 

Undoubtedly additional species of Cynoscion will be reported from 
Venezuela, such as jamaicensis from the West Indies and acoupa from 
British Guiana. 

The following key, constructed mostly from the literature, should 
serve to distinguish those species expected to occur in Venezuelan 
waters : 

la. Soft dorsal rays 23 to 30. 

2a. Soft dorsal rays 29 or 30; anal rays usually 11,8; scales cycloid, with about 
120 to 130 vertical rows above lateral line; about 6 gill rakers on lower 
part of first gill arch; head 3.5 to 3.66; depth 4.8 to 5.2. 

Cynoscion virescens ^i (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

2b. Soft dorsal rays 23 to 25; anal 11,9; scales ctenoid, in about 68 to 79 vertical 

rows above lateral hne; about 4+7 on first gill arch; head 3.2 to 3.4; 

depth 3.5 to 3.8 Cynoscion jamaicensis " (Yaillant and Bocourt) 

16. Soft dorsal rays 18 to 22. 

3a. Scales cycloid in about 100 to 120 rows above lateral line; soft dorsal rays 20 
to 22, anal 11,10 or 11; gill rakers about 2 + 1 + 6 or 7 on lower part of first 
gill arch; head 3 to 3.4; depth 3.6 to 4.2. 

Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Zb. Scales ctenoid, in from 65 to 90 rows above lateral line; dorsal soft rays 18 to 

21; gill rakers on first gill arch 3 to 5 + 8 to 10; anal rays 11,8 to 10. 

4a. Soft dorsal rays 20 to 21; anal rays 11,8 to 10; scales with pores number 57 

to 64; head 3.8 to 4; depth 4; soft dorsal and anal heavily scaled; 

highest dorsal spine 1.8 in head; pectorals extending about two-thirds 

the way out the pelvics; axil of pectoral dark. 

CsTioscion steindachneri ^i (Jordan and Eigenmann) 

4&. Soft dorsal rays 19 to 21; anal rays 11,8 or 9; scales with pores number 55 

to 65; soft dorsal and anal with basal two-thirds scaled only; pectorals 

not quite reaching tips of pelvics; head 3.4 to 3.8; depth 3.8 to 4; axil 

of pectoral pale Cynoscion acoupa ^i (Lacep^de) 

4c. Soft dorsal rays 18 or 19, usually 18; anal rays 11,8; scales with pores 54 to 
59; soft dorsal and anal with scales on basal one-third only; head about 
3.25; depth 4.25; axil of pectoral dark. 

Cynoscion maracaiboensis, new species 

CYNOSCION LEIARCHUS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

CORVINA 

Otolithus leiarchus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 5, p. 78, 1830 (Brazil; Cayenne). 

U.S.N. M. No. 128255, 1 specimen 395 mm, in standard length, Amuay Bay. 
U. S. S. Niagara, May 15, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128256, 1 specimen 395 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
December 8, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123198, 3 specimens, 23 to 26 mm., south coast of Venezuela, 
U. S. S. Niagara; these are identified with doubt as this species. They have 
11,11 anal rays and X-I, 21 to 23 dorsal rays. 

" Not yet reported from Venezuela, 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CYNOSCION MARACAIBOENSIS. new species 

corvina de lago 
Figure 20 

Otolithus toe-roe (in part) Cuvii^r and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 

poissons, vol. 5, p. 72, 74, 1830 (Lago de Maracaibo). 
Otolithus cayennensis (in part) Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British 

Museum, vol. 2, p. 309, 1860 (Lago Maracaibo). 

Holotype. — U.S.N.M. No. 121742, 255 mm. in standard length, col- 
lected in the Rio Agua Caliente, 2 to 3 Ion. above Lago de Maracaibo, 
Venezuela, by Leonard P. Schultz, May 1, 1942. 

Paratypes. — (All paratypes collected by Leonard P. Schultz in 1942). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121743, a specimen, 226 mm., bearing same data as 
the holotype. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121745, 1 specimen, 266 mm., from Rio de Los 
Pdjaros, 3 km. above Lago de Maracaibo, April 30, 

U.S.N.M. No. 121744, 2 specimens, 239 and 261 mm., Lago de Mara- 
caibo, 2 km. off Lagunillas, March 15. 

Description. — Aleasurements were made on the types and these, 
expressed in hundredths of the standard length, are recorded first for 
the holotype, then for the four paratypes in parentheses, respectively. 

Standard lengths in millimeters 255 (266; 226; 261; 239). 

Length of head 31.0 (29.3; 30.3; 28.7; 29.0); greatest depth of body 
23.1 (21.8; 22.6; 22.8; 24.3); diameter of eye 5.49 (5.26; 5.75; 5.25; 
5.44); length of snout 6.88 (7.14; 7.26; 6.97; 6.90); tip of snout to rear 
of maxillary 13.3 (13.3; 13.5; 13.0; 12.8); least width of preorbital 
2.20 (1.88; 2.21; 2.04; 1.88); postorbital length of head 19.3 (18.6; 18.1; 
17.4; 17.4); least width of bony interorbital space 5.53 (5.64; 5.75; 
5.60; 5.15); length of caudal peduncle or distance from base of last 
anal ray to midcaudal fin base 21.2 (22.1 ; 20.8; 21.3; 20.9) ; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 7.26 (7.70; 7.78; 7.51 ; 7.95) ; length of base of second 
dorsal fin 31.8 (33.1; 33.4; 34.1; 33.1); length of base of anal fin 9.10 
(9.58; 10.2; 9.20; 9.79); length of longest spine of dorsal fin 15.7 (14.1; 
16.0; 14.3; — ); longest soft ray of dorsal 13.5 (13.7; 14.1; — ; — ); 
longest soft ray of anal 14.9 (13.7; 14.7; 14.7; 14.2); length of second 
anal spine 6.47 (6.20; 6.33; 6.13; 6.07); longest ray of pectoral fin 
17.1 (16.2; 17.7; 17.5; 16.9); longest soft ray of pelvic fin 17.9 (17.1; 
17.0; 16.5; 17.3); length of pelvic spine 10.2 (10.7; 11.5; 10.4; 9.50); 
length of longest or middle rays of caudal fin 22.6 (21.8; 23.2; 23.0; 
23.2); tip of snout to dorsal origin 35.3 (35.3; 35.2; 33.5; 34.7); snout 
to anal origin 69.8 (72.6; 72.6; 69,7; 72.4); snout to pectoral insertion 
28.9 (28.6; 29.4; 27.4; 27.5); snout to pelvic insertion 30.6 (32.3; 31.9; 
31.6; 31.6); length of longest gill raker 4.00 (3.57; 3.10; 4.22; 4.40). 

The following counts were made respectively: Dorsal fin rays X-I,19 
(X-I,18; X-I,18; X-I,18); anal rays 11,8 (11,8; 11,8; 11,8; 11,8); 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



161 



pectoral rays ii,14-ii,15 (ii,15; ii,15-ii,15; ii,15; ii,15); pelvic rays 
always 1,5; number of gill rakers on first gill arch 5 + 1+9 (4 + 1+9; 
3 + l+8;5 + l+9;4 + l+9) the rudiments without elevations on upper 
anterior part of gill arch not counted usually number 2 or 3; vertical 
scale rows above lateral line 85 (79; 83; 81 ; 84); pores in lateral line 59 
(60 ; 54 ; 57 ; 56) ; scales in a vertical row from lateral line to origin of 
spiny dorsal fin 9 (10; 10; 10; 10); to origin of second dorsal 9 (8; 9; 
9; 9); and to anal origin 8 (8; 8; 8; 8); number of scales in a zigzag 
row around caudal peduncle 22 (23; 22; 22; 23). 








"^^ 



Figure 29. — Cynoscion maracaiboensis, new species: Holotype (U.S.N.M. No. 121742), 255 
mm. in standard length. Drawn by Mrs. Aime M. Awl. 



Body elongate, somewhat compressed, the head about 3.25, depth 
about 4.25, in standard length; anterior profile rounded, the greatest 
depth at origin of dorsal; snout a little longer than interorbital space; 
eye nearly equal to interorbital space, the latter 5% in head; rear 
edge of maxillary under rear margin of eye ; two pairs of canines at 
midfront of premaxillary, these teeth hooked backward, the posterior 
pair largest; both upper and lower jaws with a band of villiform teeth, 
along the outer margin of which are widely spaced short canine teeth ; 
preopercle without spines, with a membranous edge; opercle ending 
in a wide membranous edge, the portion between the flat spinelike 
angles at upper posterior end covered with minute scales; scales on 
head smooth but those on body ctenoid; scales above lateral line 
anteriorly much smaller than those between soft dorsal fin and 
lateral line; scales below lateral line anteriorly much larger than the 
scales above lateral line; pectoral fins not quite reaching opposite 
tips of pelvic fins; posterior margin of spiny dorsal fin nearly straight, 
the fourth spine projecting past the third when fin is distended; 
distal margin of soft dorsal nearly straight, the anterior rays longest, 

802207 — 49 11 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

gradually becoming a little shorter posteriorly; middle rays of caudal 
fin longest; distal margin of anal fin nearly straight, or slightly 
rounded ; distal margins of paired fins rounded ; origin of second dorsal 
fin equidistant between midcaudal fin base and front of eye; anus equi- 
distant between pelvic insertion and midcaudal fin base; base of anal 
fin 3.5 times in base of second dorsal fin; pelvic fins reach one-half the 
way to the anus; least depth of caudal peduncle about 3 times in its 
length. 

Coloration. — Silvery on sides, white below, dusky above; back 
along base of spiny and soft dorsal brownish; base of each lobe of 
caudal fin with some brownish pigment; spiny dorsal fin dusky brown 
and soft dorsal and anal fins pale dusky; a brownish spot at upper 
edges of pectoral fin base; pelvics pale; pectoral fin with a little 
brownish pigment; upper edges of maxillary and premaxillaries brown- 
ish; peritoneum white. 

Remarks. — This new species of Cynoscion is abundant in Lago de 
Maracaibo, where large numbers are caught on hook and line and by 
jigging. It is usually in the market at Maracaibo. 

Cynoscion maracaiboensis, with its ctenoid scales, with scales only 
on the basal parts of soft dorsal and of soft anal fins, and with but 
18 or 19 soft rays in the dorsal fin, is readily distinguished from all 
other species of Cynoscion in American Atlantic waters except C. 
acoupa. C. steindachneri, C. nothus, C. regalis, C. arenarius, and 
C. jamaicensis all have 20 or more soft dorsal rays. C. striatus has 
about 19 or 20 soft dorsal rays, 8 or 9 soft anal rays, and ver}^ large 
scales, about 52 to 56 pores and 62 to 66 vertical scale rows above the 
lateral line, whereas C. maracaiboensis has 54 to 59 pores and 79 to 
85 scale rows respectively. The number of gill rakers on a specimen 
of C. striatus numbered 6 + 1 + 16, including all rudiments that 
showed any development. 

Cynoscion maracaiboensis is most closely related to C. acoupa 
(Lacepede) but differs from it by having 18 or 19 soft dorsal rays, 79 
to 85 vertical scale rows above the lateral line, and 54 to 59 pores in 
lateral line instead of about 85 scale rows above, 19 to 21 soft dorsal 
rays, and about 55 to 66 pores in the lateral line, according to Ribeiro 
(Arch. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, vol. 17, p. 36, 1915) and Eigenmann 
(1912). 

Genus CORVULA Jordan and Eigenmann 

Corvula Jordan and Eigenmann, Rep. U. S. Comm. Fish, for 1886, vol. 14, p. 377, 
1889. (Genotype, Johnius batabanus Poey.) 

CORVULA SANCTAE-LUCIAE Jordan 

Corvula sanctae-luciae Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 12, p. 649, 1890. 

U.S.N. M. No. 128248, 2 specimens, 54 and 66 mm. in standard length, from 
Jacuque Point, U. S. S. Niagara, January 26, 1925, 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 163 

U.S.N.M. No. 128261, 1 specimen, 178 mm., from Estanques Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, December 8, 1924. 

U.S.N.M. No. 128249, 1 specimen, 131 mm., from Point MacoUa, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 19, 1925. 

The following counts were made on the above Hsted specimens 
Dorsal rays X-I, 23; X-I, 25; X-I, 23; X-I, 23. Anal rays II, 9 
II, 9; II, 9; II, 8. Number of gill rakers on first gill arch 8 + 1 + 17 
8 + 1 + 17; 9 + 1 + 18; 8 + 1 + 17. Vertical scale rows above 
lateral line 50; 51; 52. Usually 7 scales from lateral line to base of 
first soft dorsal ray and 7 scales to anal origin. 

Genus LARIMUS Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Larimus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 5, 
p. 145, 1830. (Genotype, Larimus breviceps Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

LARIMUS BREVICEPS Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Larimus breviceps Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 5, p. 146, pi. Ill, 1830 (San Domingo; Brazil). 

U.S.N.M. No. 128250, 3 specimens, Point MacoUa, U. S. S. Niagara, April 
19, 1925. 

The following counts were made: Dorsal rays X-I, 31; X-I, 27; 
X-I, 27. Anal rays II, 6; II, 6; II, 6. Gill rakers, long, slender, 
on first arch number 9 + 1 + 20; 9 + 1 + 18. Number of vertical 
scale rows 49; 49; 48; 6 scales from lateral line to base of first soft 
dorsal ray and 6 to anal origin. 

Genus EQUETUS Rafinesque 

Equetus Rafinesque, Analyse de la nature, p. 89, 1815 (substitute for Eques 
Bloch, preoccupied). (Genotype, E. americanus B\och.= Chaetodon lanceo- 
latus Linnaeus.) 

EQUETUS PUNCTATUS Bloch 

Eques punctattis Bloch, in Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 106, 
1801 (Cuba). — Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke 
m the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 73, 1919 (coast of Venezuela). 

Family MULLIDAE: Salmonetes 

Genus MULLUS Linnaeus 

Mullus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 299, 1758. (Genotype, M. 
barbaius Linnaeus.) 

MULLUS AURATUS Jordan and Gilbert 

Mullus barbaius auratus Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 5, 
p. 280, 1882 (Pensacola, Fla.). 

The following specimen was identified by Dr. S. F. Hildebrand: 
U.S.N.M. No. 123177, 1 specimen, 42 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
February 20, 1925. 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Genus PSEUDUPENEUS Bleeker 

Pseudupeneus Bleeker, Versl. Akad. Amsterdam, vol. 14, p. 134, 1862. (Geno- 
type, P. prayenis Bleeker.) (Ref. copied.) 

PSEUDUPENEUS MACALATUS (Bloch) 

Chivo 

Mullus maculatus Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 7, p. 95, 
1793 (Brazil). — Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke 
in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 88, 1919 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Family POLYCENTRIDAE 

Genus POLYCENTRUS Miiller and Troschel 

Polycentrus Muller and Troschel, in Schomburgk, Reisen in Britisch-Guiana, 
vol. 3, p. 622, 1848. (Genotype, Polycentrus schoniburgkii Muller and 
Troschel.) 

POLYCENTRUS SCHOMBURGEn MUlIer and Troschel 

Polycentrus schomhurgkii Mt^LLER and Troschel, in Schomburgk, Reisen in 
Britisch-Guiana, vol. 3, p. 622, 1848. — Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1906, 
pt. 1, p. 391, pi. 25, fig. 12 (Trinidad; Venezuela; Guiana). — Fowler, Fish 
Culturist, vol. 22, No. 9, p. 65, 1943 (Trinidad; Guiana; Venezuela). 

3 specimens, 22 to 37 mm., near Caripito, William Beebe, August 10, 1942. 
1 specimen, 34 mm., near Caripito, William Beebe, 1942. 

Family CHAETODONTIDAE: Butterfly-fishes 

Genus CHAETODON Linnaeus 

Chaetodon Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 272, 1758. (Genotype, Chaetodon 
capistratus Linnaeus.) 

chaetodon STRIATUS Linnaeus 

Chaetodon striatus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 275, 1758 (India). — 
Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West 
Indies 1904-1905, p. 91, 1919 (Venezuela). 

Family EPHIPPIDAE 

Genus CHAETODIPTERUS Lacepede 

Chaetodipterus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 4, p. 503, 1802. 
(Genotype, Chaetodipterus plumierii Lacepede.) 

chaetodipterus FABER (Broussonet) 

Spadefish 

Chaetodon faber Broussonet, Ichthyologia sistens piscium, p. 19, pi. 6, 1782. 
Ephippus faber Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 
the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 90, 1919 (Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 123080, 1 specimen, 57 mm. in standard length, Cape San 
Romdn, U. S. S. Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123183, 1 specimen, 15 mm., south coast of Gulf of Venezuela, 
U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 165 

Family ACANTHURIDAE: Surgeonfishes 

Genus ACANTHURUS Forskil 

Acanthurus ForskAl, Descriptiones animalium, p. 59, 1775. (Genotype, Chaeio- 
todon schal Forsk&l.) 

ACANTHURUS HEPATUS (Linnaeus) 

Teuthis hepatus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 12, p. 507, 1766 (Carolina). 
Acanthurus hepatus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 
the Dutch West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 95, 1919 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Family CICHLIDAE: Mojarros de Rio 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF CICHLIDAE REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Dorsal with a notch posteriorly in spinous part of fin; gill rakers elongate, 
setiform, about 5 + 16; lateral line continuous at least in young; preopercle 
entire; jaws with a band of villiform teeth; dorsal rays about XV, 17; anal 
rays III, 11 or 12; about 85 scale rows below lateral line from head to mid- 
caudal base; mouth large, lower jaw projecting a little; body elongate. 

Cichla Bloch and Schneider 
15. Dorsal fin without a notch; giU rakers short, stubby, not elongate. 
2a. A dark brown bar from dorsal origin through eye to isthmus, another 
across middle of body, and a third one from prolonged soft rays of dorsal 
and anal fins across body; base of caudal with dark bar and this fin 
barred; preopercular edge entire; dorsal rays XI to XIII, 23 to 30; anal 
rays V to VII, 24 to 32; teeth conical, occurring along the front and sides 
of the jaws; scale rows from head to midcaudal base 33 to 47; depth of 
body from 1 to 1.5 in standard length; scales rough; first soft rays of 
dorsal, anal, and pelvics prolonged or filamentous; jaws about equal. 

Pterophyllum Heckel 
25. Body without 3 dark cross bars as described in 2a. 

3a. Scales of the lateral line larger than those above or below it; preopercular 
edge serrated posteriorly; body elongate; lower jaw projecting; scale 
rows from upper edge of gill opening to mid-caudal fin base below 
lateral line 38 to 130; dorsal rays XVI to XXV, 11 to 19; anal rays III, 

7 to 12 Crenicichla Heckel 

35. Scales along lateral line about same size as others; preopercular edge 
entire. 
4a. Upper part of first gill arch with a downward-projecting lobe, the gill 
rakers near its margin; upper lateral line well separated from dorsal 
fin base; mouth small; premaxillary not greatly protractile; pre- 
orbital width twice the eye; scales rough, large, about 25 to 39; 
dorsal spines XII to XIX and anal spines III. (Not yet reported 
from Venezuela but to be expected in that region.) 

Geophagus Heckel 
45. No downward-projecting lobe on upper part of gill arch. 

5o. Anal spines III or IV, or if IV the lateral line is one-half a scale from 
dorsal fin posteriorly; soft vertical fins scaleless or with a row of 
scales at base only. 
6a. Rear end of maxillary well exposed under eye; premaxillaries 
excessively protractile, the posterior ascending process extend- 
ing to opposite rear of orbits, or past beginning of scaled area on 
top of head; giU rakers about 2 + 10 or 11; scales 23 or 24; 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

dorsal rays XIII or XIV, 9 to 11; anal rays III, 8 or 9; upper 
lateral line posteriorly with one-half scale between it and base 

of dorsal fin Acaronia Myers 

66. Rear end of maxillary not exposed. 

7a. Upper lateral line separated from dorsal fin base by one-half a 
scale for part of its length posteriorly; preopercle scaled; 
dorsal rays XVI or XVII, 7 or 8; anal rays III or IV, 7 or 8; 
scales about 23 or 24; body somewhat elongate, compressed. 

Nannacara Regan 
76. Upper lateral line one or more scale rows from dorsal fin base 
even at its posterior end; preopercle naked; body compressed; 
dorsal rays XIII to XVI, 7 to 12; anal III, 6 to 11. 

Aequidens Eigenmann and Bray 

56. Anal spines IV to VII or if IV spines the lateral Mne is separated 

from the dorsal fin base by more than one row of scales; preopercle 

naked; teeth conical; inner ones smallest. 

8a. Posterior ascending process of premaxillaries as long as head or 

extending as far as opposite rear of orbits, much past beginning 

of scaled area between orbits; lower jaw longest; the rear of 

maxillary much exposed and projecting beyond preorbital 

sheath; body compressed; dorsal rays XV or XVI (rarely XVII). 

10 to 13; anal rays V to VI (rarely VII), 8 to 10; gill rakers 

about 8 to 11 on lower part of first arch; pores in lateral line 

about 20 or 21-1-9 to 11 Petenia Giinther 

86. Premaxillary process not extending past middle of interorbital 
space, and much shorter than head; dorsal rays XIV to XIX, 
7 to 15; anal rays IV to XII, 6 to 14; base of soft rays of median 
fins usually with a few rows of scales Cichlasoraa Swainson 

Genus CICHLA Bloch and Schneider 

Cichla Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthologiae, p. 336, 1801. (Restricted to 
Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider by Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., 
vol. 2, p. 308, 1840. Genotype designated by Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie 
Mus., vol. 5, p. 509, 1912, as Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider.) 

CICHLA OCELLARIS Bloch and Schneider 

Pav6n 

Cichla ocellaris Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 340, 1801. 

Crenicichla orinocensis [Humboldt] GtJNTHER, Catalogue of the fishes in the 
British Museum, vol. 4, p. 309, 1862 (Rio Negro; Orinoco). — Eigenmann 
and Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, p. 70, 1891 (Orinoco). — 
Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 384, 1942 (Orinoco; Rio Negro). 

Cichla temensis Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, p. 403, 
1942 (Orinoco). 

Genus PTEROPHYLLUM Heckel 

Pterophyllum Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 334, 1840. (Geno- 
type, Pterophyllum scalaris Heckel — Platax scalaris Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PTEROPHYLLUM REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Scale rows 33 to 38 on side of body from head to base of caudal fin; gill rakers 
12 to 14 on lower part of first arch* lateral line pores 17 to 19-f9 to 11; 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 167 

dorsal rays XI to XIII, 23 to 27; anal rays V to VII, 24 to 29; cheek with 
4 or 5 series of scales.. Pterophyllum. scalaris (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 
16. Scale rows 41 to 47; gill rakers on lower part of first arch 11; lateral Une pores 
17 to 19 + 9 to 11; dorsal rays XII or XIII, 27 to 30; anal rays V or VI, 28 
to 32; cheek with 6 or 7 series of scales.. Pterophyllum altum Pellegrin 

PTEROPHYLLUM SCALARIS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

SCALARE 

Platax scalaris Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 

7, p. 237, 1831. 
Pterophyllum scalaris Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol, 2, p. 335, 1840 

(Barra do Rio Negro). — Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 71, 

p. 76, 1875 (Barra do Rio Negro). — Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905, 

pt. l,p. 190 (Rio Negro). 
Pterophyllum Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, p. 406, 

1942 (Orinoco). 

PTEROPHYLLUM ALTUM Pellegrin 

Pterophyllum altum Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, vol. 9, p. 125, 1903 
(Atabapo, Orinoco); Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 16, p. 252, 1903 (Atabapo, 
Orinoco).— Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 7, vol. 16, p. 442, 1905 (Rio 
Orinoco). — Ahl, Zool. Anz., vol. 76, p. 255, 1938 (Orinoco). 

Genus CRENICICHLA Heckel 

Crenicichla Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus., vol. 2, p. 416, 1840. (Genotype, Creni- 
cichla vittata Heckel designated in Jordan's Genera of fashes, vol. 2, p. 207, 
1919.) 
The species of Crenicichla centering around macrophthalma Heckel 
in the Rio Negro and Orinoco systems are not clearly defined and 
need revision. Probably macrophthalma should be broken into sub- 
species and C. lacustris (Castelnau) included with this group. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CRENICICHLA REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Nostril nearer to tip of snout than eye; scales smooth, not rough or ctenoid, 
about 97 to 107 rows from upper edge of gill opening to base of caudal fin 
below lateral line; maxillary reaching to under anterior margin of eye; 
lateral-line pores 26 or 27 + 13 or 14; 10 or 11 scales from base of last 
dorsal spine to lateral line and 6 or 7 scales between lateral lines; dorsal 
rays XXI to XXIV, 16 or 17; anal rays III, 11 or 12; caudal spot absent; 
10 to 12 dark cross bars dorsally, but absent on adults. 

Crenicichla Johanna Heckel 

lb. Nostril nearer eye than snout tip or equidistant between snout tip and eye; 

scales rough or ctenoid at least on side of body. 

2a. Maxillary reaching to under the eye, at least considerably beyond the 

anterior margin of eye. 

3o. Dorsal rays XVII to XX, 13 to 16; ocellated black caudal spot present. 

4o. Humeral spot present on lateral line, not below it, except absent on 

young; a dark band from snout passes through eye to midbase of 

caudal fin; each side of tip of chin blackish, interspace pale; dorsal 

rays XVIII or XIX, 13 to 15; anal rays III, 9 or 10; scale rows from 

upper edge of gill opening to caudal base below lateral line 58 to 69; 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

pores in lateral line about 23 or 24 + 11; about 4 scales from base 
of last dorsal spine to lateral line and 2 scales between lateral lines. 

Crenicichla alta Eigenmann 
46. Humeral spot below lateral line; a dark band from snout passing 
through eye ending in humeral spot; sides of body dorsalh' some- 
times with dark bars; chin darkish, middle not pale; dorsal rays 
XVII to XX, 13 to 16; anal III, 8 to 10; scale rows about 50 to 60; 
pores in lateral line 22 to 26 + 9 to 12; 3 or 4 scales from base of 
last dorsal spine to lateral line and 2 or 3 scales between lateral lines. 

Crenicichla sazatilis (Linnaeus) 

36. No humeral spot; dorsal rays XXII, 11; anal III, 8; scale rows about 57; 

pores in lateral line 24 + 10; scales between lateral line and last 

dorsal spine 4, and between lateral lines 2; a dark stripe from eye to 

operculum and sometimes dark blotches along middle of sides. 

Crenicichla geayi Pellegrin 

26. Maxillary reaching only to a vertical line through front of eye or not to 

front of eye. 

5a. Maxillary not extending to a vertical line through front margin of eye; 

scale rows about 57; lateral line pores about 21 + 10; dorsal rays 

usually XX or XXI, 9 to 11; anal raj's III, 7 to 9; scales from base of 

last dorsal spine to lateral line 2 and 3 between lateral lines; no humeral 

spot; a dark streak from snout past eye to caudal fading on caudal in 

adults; young with 7 or 8 dark cross bars on back. 

Crenicichla wallacii Regan 
56. Maxillary reaching to a vertical line through front margin of ej'e. 

6a. Scale rows from upper edge of opercular opening to midcaudal fin base 
62 to 70; pores in lateral line 23 to 25 + 11 to 13; 4 scales between 
base of last dorsal spine and lateral line, and 2 or 3 scales between 
lateral Hnes; dorsal rays XX to XXII, 10 to 13; anal rays 111,7 to 9; 
a dark stripe through eye to operculum; in young about 7 double 
cross bars; no distinct humeral spot; ocellated caudal spot at least 

in j'oung Crenicichla macrophthalma Heckel 

66. Scale rows 106 to 113; pores in lateral Hne 25 to 27 + 14 or 15; 10 or 
11 scales from last dorsal spine to lateral line and 4 to 6 scales between 
lateral lines; black spot at base of middle caudal rays; young with 
lines of black dots Crenicichla lugubris Heckel 

CRENICICHLA JOHANNA Heckel 

Crenicichla Johanna Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol. 2., p. 425, 1840 (Rio 
Guapor6). — Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905, pt. 1, p. 168 (Vene- 
zuela). — Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 7, p. 307, 1907 (Venezuela). — 
Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, p. 406, 1942 
(Venezuela). 

CRENICICHLA ALTA Eigenmann 

Crenicichla alta Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, p. 516, pi. 68, fig. 3, 1912 
(Gluck Island and other localities in British Guiana). 

One specimen, 51 mm., from near Caripito, William Beebe. 

The above specimen lacks the humeral spot, but the black lateral 
band is prominent; ocellated black caudal spot at base of caudal fin 
rays above end of lateral line. The following counts were made: 
Dorsal rays XVIII,15; anal 111,9; scale rows 58, pores in lateral line 
24 + 11. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 169 

CRENICICHLA SAXATIUS (LInnaeaa) 

Sparus saxatilis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 278, 1758 (Surinam) 

(ref. copied). 
Crenicichla saxatilis Regan, Proc, Zool. Soc. London, 1906, pt. 1, p. 391 (Rio 

Grande do Sul to Venezuela; Trinidad). 

Two specimens, 91 and 112 mm., Caripito, William Beebe, May 7, 1942. 

CRENICICHLA GEAYI Pellegrin 

Matoguaro 

Crenicichla geayi Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. 9, p. 123, 1903 
(Venezuela); Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 16, p. 375, 1903 (Venezuela). — 
Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905, pt. 1, p. 161 (near Bogotd; Rfo 
Orinoco). — Eigenmann, Indiana Univ. Stud., vol. 7, No. 44, p. 13, 1920 
(Concejo, Rio Tiquirito; Isla del Euro; Maracay, Rfo Bue; Rfo Castafio — 
all Venezuela). — Pearse, Univ. Wisconsin Studies, No. 1, pp. 20, 43, 1920 
(Isla del Euro and Rfo Castafio, Lake Valencia, Venezuela). — Rohl, Fauna 
descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 384, 1942 (Venezuela). 

The records for this species for the upper Orinoco system should 
be rechecked to determine if they have been confused with macroph- 
thalma. 

crenicichla WALLACn Regan 

Crenicichla wallacii Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905, pt. 1, p. 163, pi. 14, 
fig. 2 (Rio Essequibo; Rfo Negro). 

CRENICICHIA MACROPHTHALMA Heckel 

Crenicichla macrophthabna Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 427, 
1840 (Rio Negro).— Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1877, p. 469 
(Calabozo).— Sachs, Aus den Llanos, 1879, p. 127 (Calabozo).— Eigenmann 
AND Eigenmann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, p. 70, 1891 (Orinoco). 

The following collections were made in Venezuela during 1942: 

U.S.N. M. No. 121658, 2 specimens, 42 and 50 mm. in standard length, Rfo 
Gudrico and tributaries between San Sebastian and San Casimiro, L. P. Schultz, 
G. Zuloaga, William Phelps, Jr., R. Sherman, May 12. 

3 specimens, 41 to 63 mm., near Caripito, Dr. William Beebe. 

The above specimens are referred to this species with some uncer- 
tainty since the numbers of fin rays do not exactly agree and both 
collections may represent new subspecies of macro phthalma. The 
specimens from the Rio Guarico have the following counts: Dorsal 
rays XXI, 13, XXII, 12; anal rays III, 7 and III, 8 while those from 
near Caripito have XXII, 11; XXII, 12; XXII, 12; anal rays 111,9; 
III, 9; III, 9. The number of scale rows are about 62 to 64 in both 
collections and 26 scales in a zig-zag row around caudal peduncle. 
The coloration in all specimens consists of about 7 blackish doubled 
crossbars, the middle of each dark bar is pale; oceUated caudal spot 
prominent; a dark band past eye to end of opercle, thence represented 
along anterior midside by intensification of pigment in each bar, 
interspaces pale; no humeral spot; caudal fin slightly barred or plain. 



170 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



CRENICICHLA LUGUBRIS Heckel 

Crenidchla luguhris Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol, 2, p. 422, 1840 
(Rio Negro). — Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1905, pt. 1, p. 165 (Brazil; 
Guiana; Venezuela). 

Genus ACARONIA Myers 

Acaronia Myers, Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 1, No. 5, p. 170, 1940 (replaces 
Acaropsis Steindachner, preoccupied). (Genotype, Acara nassa Heckel.) 

Acaropsis Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 71, p. 99, 1875. (Geno- 
type, A. nassa Heckel.) 

ACARONIA NASSA (Heckel) 

Acara nassa Heckel, Ann. Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 353, 1840 (Rio Guapor6). 
Acaronia nassa Eigenmann and Allen, Fishes of western South America, p. 
388, 1942 (Orinoco). 

Genus NANNACARA Regan 

Nannacara Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 15, p. 344, 1905. (Geno- 
type, Nannacara anomala Regan.) 

NANNACARA ANOMALA Regan 

Nannacara anomala Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 15, p. 344, 1905 
(Rio Essequibo). 

Three specimens, 27 to 31 mm. in standard length, from Caripito, William 
Beebe, 1942. 

Table 19. — Counts of fin rays made on Nannacara anomala Regan 



Locality 


Dorsal 


Anal 


XVI, 7 


XVI, 8 


XVII, 7 


XVII, 8 


111,7 


111,8 


IV, 7 


Caripito. 


1 
3 


1 


2 








3 


? British Guiana. U.S.N.M. No. 
94919 


1 


3 


1 


1 









Genus AEQUIDENS Eigenmann and Bray 22 

Aequidens Eigenmann and Brat, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol, 7, p. 616, 1894. 
(Genotype, Acara tetramerus Heckel.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF AEQUIDENS REPORTED OR EXPECTED TO OCCUR IN 

VENEZUELA 

la. Two or 2^ scales between base of first soft ray of dorsal fin and lateral line; 

the blackish lateral streak or band, if present, extending from eye through 

black lateral blotch to upper half of base of caudal fin rays; gill rakers 2 or 

3 + 5 or 6 on first arch. 

2a. Base of caudal fin rays with a prominent black spot, about one-half size of 

eye, located entirely above midaxis of caudal fin or lateral line if it 

extends on base of fin. 



" As here understood, Acara Heckel, 1840, with its t3rpe restricted by Gill to Acara crassispinis Heckcl= 
Lobotes oceltatus Agassiz, is a synonym of Astronotus Swainson, 1839, with its type, Lobotes ocellatus Agassiz, 
the only species mentioned. Thus, in Regan's revision of the South American cichlid genera, his use of 
Acara is a synonym of Aequidens. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 171 

3a. Dorsal rays usually XV or XVI, 10; anal rays III, 8 to 10, usually 111,8 
or 9; a dark blotch present under rear of eye; usually 2.5 scales between 
lateral line and base of first soft ray of dorsal (Amazon, Rfo Negro, and 

Guianas) Aequidens tetramerus (Heckel) 

36. Dorsal rays XIV or XV, 11 or 12; anal 111,8 to 10; a dark bar under rear 
margin of eye extending downward parallel with edge of preopercle; 
usually 2 scales above lateral line to first soft ray of dorsal fin (Rfo 

Meta) Aequidens metae ^J Eigenmann 

26. Base of caudal fin with a rather wide dark bar, this bar usually more in- 
tensely pigmented above the lateral line than below it, the lateral band 
meeting this bar in its upper half at base of upper caudal fin rays; a dark 
bar under eye extending toward lower preopercular angle; dorsal rays 
XIV, 9 or 10; anal rays III, 7 or 8 (British Guiana). 

Aequidens potaroensis ^s Eigenmann 
16. One and one-half scales between base of first soft ray of dorsal fin and lateral 
line; blackish lateral streak, if present, extending from eye through black 
lateral blotch to rear of base of soft dorsal fin or anterior upper edge of 
caudal peduncle; base of caudal fin with a small to large blackish bar some- 
times obscure, except at lateral line, usually a little more developed above 
lateral line than below lateral line or at midaxis of caudal fin; no black spot 
at base of upper rays of caudal fin; a dark bar or oblong spot, extending 
from below eye toward lower preopercular angle; gill rakers 2 or 3 + 5 or 6 
on first arch. 
4a. Caudal fin base with a bar or with an obscure spot at end of lateral line, 
oa. The blackish lateral band prominent and extending forward to upper rear 
edge of orbit, thence across top of head, meeting its fellow between rear 
margins of orbit; lateral blotch lacking, vertical color bars barely visible; 
dorsay rays XIV, 9 or 10; anal rays 111,7 or 8; caudal blotch present 
near end of lateral line on base of caudal fin rays (Rio Meta). 

Aequidens raariae 2» Eigenmann 

56. Vertical bars more prominent than lateral band, the latter indistinct or 

absent between rear of eyes on dorsal surface of head; lateral blotch 

usually obvious; fifth dorsal spine equal to or a little shorter than tenth 

dorsal spine (Trinidad to Colombia) Aequidens pulcher (Gill) 

46. Upper half of caudal fin base with a large prominent spot half size of eye; 
fifth dorsal ray longer than tenth dorsal ray. 

Aequidens vittata ^3 (Heckel) 

AEQUIDENS TETRAMEKUS (Heckel) 

Acara tetramerus Heckel, Ann. Wien Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 341, 1840. 
Acara diadema Heckel, Ann. Wien Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 344, 1840 (Rfo 
Negro in Venezuela). 

AEQUIDENS PULCHER (Gill) 
MOJARRO 

Cychlasoma ■pulchrum Gill, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 6, p. 382 
(22), 1858 (Trinidad). 

Aequidens latifrons Eigenmann, Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 9, No. 1, p. 197, pi. 33, 
fig. 1, 1922 (Colombia and Panama, in Magdalena, Atrato, and San Juan 
Basins). — Myers, Stanford Ichthyol Bull., vol. 2, No. 4, p. 114, 1942 (Que- 
brado Sargento, tributary Rio Lim6n, north of Maracaibo). 

Aequidens pulcher Eigenmann, Indiana Univ. Studies, vol. 7, No. 44, p. 13, 1920 
(Isla del Buro, Lago Valencia; Maracay, Rfo Bue, Venezuela). — Pearse, 

" Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Uuiv. Wisconsin Studies, No. 1, p, 18, 1920 (mouth Rfo Bue, Lake Valencia, 
Venezuela). 

Aequidens tetramerus Beebe, in part, Zoologies, vol, 28, No. 3, pp. 13-16, pi. 1, 
1943 (Caripito, Venezuela). 

Acara vittata Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vol. 7, p. 310, 1907 (Rio Cabriales, 
Venezuela) . 

Acara pulchra Pellegrin, Mem, Soc. Zool. France, vol. 16, p. 176, 1903 (Mara- 
caibo). — Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 15, p. 335, 1905 (Vene- 
zuela); Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1906, pt. 1, p. 392, pi. 25, fig. 1 (Venezuela). 

Aequidens vittata Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 95, p. 264, 1943 
(Cucuta, Colombia, Maracaibo Basin). (The other specimen listed by Fowler 
from Florencia, Colombia, probably is not vittata.) 

U.S.N.M. No. 121639, 81 specimens, 11 to 83 mm., from the Rio San Pedro at 
bridge, Motatdn system, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121651, 108 specimens, 10 to 79 mm., Rio San Juan near bridge, 
south of Mene Grande, March 17 and 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121638, 7 specimens, 17.5 to 38 mm., Rio Ap6n, about 35 km. 
south of Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121642, 12 specimens, 11 to 98 mm., Lago Tul6, about 75 km. 
west of Maracaibo, March 1, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121640, 2 specimens, Rfo San Ignacio, pool in drying up stream, 
20 km. south of Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121645, 4 specimens, 25 to 71 mm., Rio Motatdn, 8 km. below 
Motatdn, March 24, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121643, 6 specimens, 16 to 23 mm., Rfo Socuy, 3 km. above mouth, 
February 24, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121657, 46 specimens, 21 to 101 mm., cano }i mile west of Sina- 
maica, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121647, 30 specimens, 11 to 79 mm., Rfo Machango at bridge 
south of Lagunillas, March 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121650, 7 specimens, 20 to 57 mm., Rfo Palmar near Totuma, 
about 100 km. southwest of Maracaibo, February 21, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121655, 13 specimens, 61 to 80 mm., Salina Rica (brackish water), 
5 km. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121656, a specimen, 10 mm., Cano de Sagua, 25 km. north of 
Sinamaica (salt water), March 12, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121653, 15 specimens, 11 to 74 mm., Rfo Negro below mouth of 
Rfo Yasa, March 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121654, 5 specimens, 17 to 25 mm., in creek below warm spring 
tributary to Rfo Machango, 20 km. above bridge south of Lagunillas, March 21, 
1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121644, 10 specimens, 26 to 50 mm., Rfo Machango, 20 km. 
above bridge south of Lagunillas, March 21, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121646, 40 specimens, 16 to 65 mm., Rfo San Juan at bridge 
south of Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121637, 2 specimens, 15 and 15.5 mm., Lago de Maracaibo oppo- 
site Salina Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo. February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121648, 25 specimens, 8 to 81 mm., Ci6naga del Guanavana about 
10 km. north of Sinamaica, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121641, 4 specimens, 28 to 37 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Maracaibo Yacht Club, February 27, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121652, 4 specimens, 19 to 28 mm., Rfo Palmar at bridge, 70 km. 
southwest of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 173 

U.S.N.M. No. 121649, 7 specimens, 13 to 33 mm., pond tributary to Rfo G6, 
near Rosario, L. P. Schultz, W. W. Butcher, and B. C. Refshauge, March 8, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121636, 16 specimens, 32 to 74 mm., Rio Gudrico and tributaries, 
between San Sebastidn and San Casimiro, L. P. Schultz, G. Zuloaga, William 
Phelps, Jr., and R. Sherman, May 12, 1942. 

The following collections were made by Brother Niceforo Maria in 
the Catatumbo system of the Maracaibo Basin: 

U.S.N.M. No. 100780, 1 specimen, 21 mm., Cucuta, Colombia. 

U.S.N.M. No. 101618, 1 specimen, 109 mm., Rio Pamplonita, near Cucuta. 

I have examined the five specimens, 64 to 75 mm., from Caripito, 
collected by Dr. William Beebe, March 21, 1942, and reported upon 
by him (1943b) as A. tetramerus and I refer them to this species. 

The Chicago Natural History Museum lent for report one specimen, 
their No. 42009, Rio CogoUo, Sierra Perijd, Osgood and Conover, 
March 1920. 

Color when alive consisted of several short irregular iridescent blue 
wavy lines below eye on operculum and lower side of head; the scales 
on front of body have bluish iridescent reflections; there is an orange 
tinge in the pale interspaces between the blackish vertical bars. 

Genus PETENIA Giinther 

Petenia Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 4, p. 301, 

1862. (Genotype, Petenia splendida Gunther.) 
Coquetaia Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 97, p. 133, 1945. 

(Genotype, Coquetaia amploris Fowler.) 

PETENIA ERAUSSn Steindachner 

Petenia kraussii Steindachner, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 39, p. 28, 
pi. 1, figs. 2, 3, pi. 2, fig. 1, la, lb, 1878 (Rfo Magdalena). — Pellegrin, 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 16, p. 244, 1903 (Maracaibo). 

Cichlosoma kraussi Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 16, p. 339, 1905 
(Venezuela) . 

Cichlasoma kraussi Myers, Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 2, No. 4, p. 114, 1942 
(Quebrada Sargento tributary to Rio Lim6n, north of Maracaibo). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121625, 4 specimens, 71 to 127 mm. in standard length, Rio 
San Juan near bridge south of Lagunillas, March 17 and 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121628, 6 specimens, 35 to 103 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at 
Yacht Club, in brackish water, February 27 and March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121632, 2 specimens, 89 and 101 mm., Rio San Pedro at bridge 
south of Lagunillas, March 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121627, 8 specimens, 18 to 130 mm., Rfo Ap6n about 35 km. 
south of Rosario, February 26, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121626, 78 specimens, 16 to 110 mm., Rfo Machango at bridge 
south of Lagunillas, March 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121633, 4 specimens, 77 to 118 mm., Sahna Rica, 5 km. north 
of Maracaibo in brackish water, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121634, 1 specimen, 21 mm., Rfo Agua Caliente, 2 to 3 km. above 
Lago Maracaibo, May 1, 1942. 



174 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



U.S.N.M. No. 121630, 37 specimens, 40 to 106 mm., Rio Socuy, 3 km. above 
mouth, February 24, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121631, 46 specimens, 13 to 48 mm., Rfo Machango, 20 km. 
above bridge, south of Lagunillas, March 21, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121629, 57 specimens, 12 to 106 mm., Lago Tul6 about 75 km. 
vpest of Maracaibo, March 1, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121624, 3 specimens, 110 to 140 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. 
south of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M, No. 121635, 4 specimens, 14 to 34 mm., pond tributary to Rfo G6, 
near Rosario, March 8, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121619, 15 specimens, 15 to 170 mm., Rfo Negro below mouth 
of Rfo Yasa, March 2, 1942. 

U.S.N.M No. 121623, 16 specimens, 17 to 96 mm., Rfo Palmar at bridge 
70 km. southwest of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121621, 28 specimens, 10 to 143 mm., Cidnaga del Guanavana 
about 10 km. north of Sinamaica, March 11, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121622, 49 specimens, 30 to 171 mm., caflo K mile west of 
Sinamaica, March 11, 1942. 

Table 20. — Measurements and counts made on species of Petenia {all measurements 
expressed in hundredths of the standard length) 



Characters 



Holotype 



Paratype 



kraussi 



Maracaibo 

Basin, 
Venezuela 



Standard length in millimeters 

Length of head 

Greatest depth of body 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eye 

Width of interorbital space 

Least width of preorbital 

Postorbital length of head. 

Snout tip to rear end of maxillary 

Snout to nostril 

Eye to nostril 

Length of caudal peduncle 

Least depth of caudal peduncle 

Length of fifth dorsal spine 

Length of last dorsal spine 

Longest ray of pelvics.. 

Longest ray of pectorals 

Distance out that caudal fin is scaled basally 

Longest caudal fin ray 

Dorsal rays 

Anal rays 

Pectoral rays _ 

Pelvic rays 

Branched caudal fin rays 

Scale rows below lateral line 

Scales from dorsal origin to lateral line 

Scales from pelvic base to lateral line 

Pores in lateral line 

Scales between lateral lines.. 

Scales from base of last dorsal spine to lateral line and on base of 

dorsal. 

Zigzag row of scales around caudal peduncle 



137.0 
37.9 
43.1 
14.6 
8.61 
10.2 
4.89 
15.7 
24.1 
10.9 
3.65 
17.7 
14.2 
12.4 
12.4 
31.0 
21.5 
13.9 
25.5 
XV, 13 
V, 9 
ii, 13-ii, 13 
I, 5-1, 5 
14 
32 
6 
12 
18+13 
2 

5+2 
20 



65.0 
40.0 
46.9 
13.1 
11.5 
9.23 
4.62 
16.9 



3.08 
14.2 
13.8 
16.5 



31.5 

24.9 

11.5 

26.2 

XV, 13 

V, 9 

ii, 13-ii, 13 

I. 5-1, 5 

14 

32 

6 

12 

18+U 

2 

5+2 
20 



149.5 
40.1 
43.6 
12.5 
9.16 
10.7 
4.68 
19.1 
20.1 
9.36 
3.34 
13.0 
14.8 
12.0 
16.1 
34. 1 
30.4 
21.4 
31.8 
XVI, U 
VI, 10 
ii, 13-ii, 13 
I, 5-1. 5 
14 
32 
7 
13 
20+10 
2 

4+2 
20 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 



175 



U.S.N. M. No. 121620, 98 specimens, 26 to 139 mm., Rfo Palmar near Totuma, 
about 100 km. southwest of Maracaibo, February 21, 1942. 

Recently I described (Schultz, 1944d) a new species of Petenia from 
Colombia. In table 20 the species P. kraussi and P. myersi Schultz 
are compared. H. W. Fowler (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 97, pp. 133-135, figs. 46, 47, 1945) described Coquetaia amploris 
from the Rio Coquetd, but this is a synonym of Petenia myersi 
Schultz; they came from the same river. 

Table 21. — Fin ray counts made on Petenia kraussii from the Maracaibo Basin 



Dorsal rays 


Anal rays 


XV, 10 


XV, 11 


XVI, 11 


VI, 8 


VI, 9 


VII, 8 


4 


1 


14 


4 


14 


1 



Genus CICHLASOMA Swainson 

Cichlaurus Swainson, The natural history of fishes, vol. 2, p. 173, 1839 (no 

species listed) . 
Cichlasoma Swainson, The natural history of fishes, p. 230, 1839. (Genotype, 
Labrus punctata Bloch.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CICHLASOMA 

la. Anal rays usually IV, 8 to 9; dorsal rays usually XV, 9 to 11; depth of body 
1.75 to 2.5, head 2 % to 3; caudal rounded; a dark spot below rear of eye; 
black caudal spot on upper part of base of caudal fin and on base of upper 
caudal fin rays; a black band from eye to the black lateral blotch; about 8 
blackish vertical bars, sometimes obscure. 

Cichlasoraa bimaculatum (Linnaeus) 

16. Anal rays usually V, 8 to 10; dorsal rays XV, 12 or 13; depth of body 2, head 
2.75; caudal rounded; a lengthwise band from eye to caudal base where it 
forms a spot Cichlasoma psittacum (Heckel) 

CICHLASOMA BIMACULATUM (Linnaeus) 

Labrius bimaculatus LiNNAtus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 285, 1758. 
Cichlasoma bimaculatum Regan, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1906, pt. 1, p. 392 

(Venezuela). 
Aequidens tetramerus (in part) Beebe, Zoologica, vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 13-16, pi. 1, 

1943 (Caripito, Venezuela). 
Acara bimaculata Pellegrin, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol, 5, p. 158, 1899 

(Apure River, Venezuela). 
Three specimens, 19 to 60 mm,, Caripito, William Beebe, 1942. 

CICHLASOMA PSITTACUM (Heckel) 

Heros psittacus Heckel, Ann, Wien. Mus. Naturg., vol. 2, p. 369, 1840. 
Cichlasoma psittacum Regan, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 16, p. 324, 1905 

(Rio Orinoco).— Haseman, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 7, p. 343, 1911 (Orinoco 

rivers). 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 9» 

Family POMACENTRIDAE: Desmoiselles; Damselfishes 

^ Genus ABUDEFDUF Forsk&I 

Abudefduf ForskAl, Descriptiones an^nalium, p. 59, 1775. (Genotype, Chaetodon 
sordidus Forsk&l.) 

ABUDEFDUF SAXATIUS (Linnaeus) 

Chaetodon saxatilis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 276, 1758 ("India"). 
Abudefduf sasatilis marginatus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by 

Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 100, 1919 (La Guaira, 

Venezuela). 

Family LABRIDAE: Wrasses 

Genus HALICHOERES Riippell 

Halichoeres Ruppell, Neue Wirbelthiere, Fische, p. 14, 1835. (Genotype, Hali- 
choeres bimaculatus Riippell.) 

HAUCHOERES RADIATUS (Linnaeus) 

DONCELLA 

Labrus radiatus Linnaeus, 8ystema naturae, ed. 10, p. 288, 1758 (America). 
Halichoeres radiatus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 408, fig. 225, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela; Lago de Maracaibo). 

Genus LACHNOLAIMUS Valenciennes 

Lachnolaimus Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 
poissons, vol. 13, p. 200, 1839. (Genotype, L. aigula Cuvier and Valenciennes 
= Labrus maximus Walbaum). 

LACHNOLAIMUS MAXIMUS (Walbaum) 

Perro 

Labrus maximus Walbaum, Artedi's Byoliotheca ichthyologicae, vol. 3, p. 261, 

1792. 
Lachnolaimus maximus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 408, fig. 224, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Genus BODIANUS Bloch 

Bodianus Bloch, Naturgeschicte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 4, p. 48, 1790. 
(Genotype, Bodianus bodianus Bloch.) (Ref. copied.) 

BODIANUS RUFUS (Linnaeus) 

Labrus rufus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 284, 1758 (America). 
Cossyphus rufus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in 
the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 103, 1919 (Puerto Cabello, Venezuela) 

Family SCARIDAE: Parrotfishes; Loros 

No key is attempted for this family because there are too few 
specimens available from Venezuelan waters. The reader is referred 
to Meek and Hildebrand's "The Marine Fishes of Panama," part 3, 
pp. 732 to 760, 1928 for keys that will aid in the identification of the 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 177 

parrotfislies. Also see Longley and Hildebraiid's "Systematic Cata- 
logue of the Fishes of Tortiigas, Florida," Carnegie Institution 
of Washington Publication No. 535, pp. 205-221, 1941. I am listing 
below the species reported from Venezuela without attempting to 
straighten out the sjTionymy. 

Genus SPARISOMA Swainson 

Sparisoma Swainson, The natural history and classification of fishes, vol. 2, 
p. 227, 1839. (Genotj^pe, Sparus dbildgaardi Bloch.) 

The following collection I am unable to identify with certainty 
down to species: 

U.S.N. M. No. 123176, 7 specimens, 27 to 40 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, February 20, 1925. 

SPAHISOMA ABILDGAARDI (Bloch) 

Sparus ahildgaardi Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 5, p. 22, 
pi. 259, 1791 (America) (ref. copied). — Metzelaar, Report on the fishes 
collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 112, 1919 

(Venezuela) . 

SPARISOMA FLAVESCENS (Bloch and Schneider) 

Scarus flavescens Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 290, 1801 
(Cuba). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123175, 4 specimens, 29 to 70 mm., from Cape San Romin, 
U. S. S. Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

Genus SCARUS Forsk&l 

Scarus Forskal, Descriptiones animalium, p. 25, 1775. (Genotype, Scarus 
psittacus Forsk&l.) 

SCARUS PUNCTULATUS (Cnvier and Valenciennes) 

Scarus punctulatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 14, p. 195, 1839 (Martinique). — Metzelaar, Report en the fishes col- 
lected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch "West Indies 1904-1905, p. 115, 1919 
(Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

SCARUS CROICENSIS Bloch 

Scarus croicensis Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 4, p. 27, 
pi. 221, 1790 (St. Croix). — Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by 
Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904-1905, p. 116, 1919 (Venezuela). 

SCARUS EVERMANNI Jordan 

Scarus evermanni Jordan, in Jordan and Evermann, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
9, p. 469, 1887 (Snapper Banks off Tampa Bay). — Metzelaar, Report on the 
fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West Indies 1904r-1905, p. 116, 
1919 (Venezuela). 

Longley and Hildebrand (see reference above) suggest this species 
may be Scarus croicensis. 

802207 — 49 12 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

SCARUS VIRIDIS (Bonnaterre) 
LORO 

Scarus viridis Bonnaterre, Tableau encyclop^dique, Ichthyologie, vol. 6, p. 96, 

1788 (Bahamas) (ref. copied). 
Sparisoma viridis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 409, 1942 (coast of 

Venezuela). 

Suborder Blennioidea 

Family CLINIDAE: Blennies 

The specimens and number of species from Venezuela are too few 
to warrant the construction of a key for their identification. Instead, 
the reader is referred to Meek and Hildebrand's "The Marine Fishes 
of Panama," part 3, pp. 928-953, 1928, and to Longley and Hilde- 
brand's "Systematic Catalogue of the Fishes of Tortugas, Florida," 
Carnegie Inst. Washmgton Publ. No. 535, pp. 246-276, 1941, for aid 
in identification of the blennies likely to occur in Venezuela. 

Genus LABRISOMUS Swainson 

Lahrisomus Swainson, The natural history and classification of fishes, vol. 2, p. 
277, 1839. ("Genotype, Clinus pedinifer Cuvier and Valenciennes = CZinus 
nuchipinnis Quoy and Gaimard.) (Ref. copied.) 

LABRISOMUS NUCHIPINNIS (Quoy and Gaimard) 

Clinus nuchipinnis Quoy and Gaimard, Voyage autour du monde . . . 
L'Uranie et La Physidenne, p. 255, 1824 (Rio de Janeiro) (ref. copied). — 
Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch 
West Indies 1904-1905, p. 154, 1919 (Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. Nos. 78251 and 78252, Puerto Cabello, J. N. Rose. 

U.S.N. M. No. 123173, 1 specimen, 46.5 mm., Estanques Bay, U. S. S. Niagara, 
February 20, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123174, 1 specimen, 61 mm.. Cape San Romdn, U. S. S. Niagara, 
April 2, 1925. 

Genus PARACLINUS Mocquard 

Paraclinus Mocquard, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 8, vol. 1, No. 1, p. 41, 1889 
(■substitute name for Acanthoclinus Mocquard, 1886. (Genotype, Acantho- 
clinus chaperi Mocquard.) 
For synonymy of this genus see Storey (1940, pp. 85-86). 

PARACLINUS NIGRIPINNIS (Steindachner) 

Clinus nigripinnis Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 50, p. 45, 1867 
(Barbados). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123172, a specimen, 34 mm., from Cape San Romdn, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

PARACUNUS CHAPERI (Mocquard) 

Acanthoclinus chaperi Mocquard, Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 7, vol. 10, pp. 
18-20, 1886 (Guanta Bay, near Barcelona, Venezuela). — Storey, Copeia, No. 
2, p. 82, 1940 (Guanta Bay). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 179 

Paraclinus chaperi Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke 
in the Dutch "West Indies, 1904-1905, p. 156, fig. 50, 1919 (Venezuela).— 
Storey, Copeia, No. 2, pp. 82, 86, 1940 (Quanta Bay, near Barcelona, Vene- 

Genus MALACOCTENUS Gill 

Malacoctenus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1860, p. 103. (Genotype, 
Clinus delalandii Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 

MALACOCTENUS DELALANDH (Valenciennes) 

Clinus delalandii Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle 
des poissons, vol. 11, p. 378, 1836 (Brazil). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123171, 5 specimens, 37.5 to 55 mm., Cape San Romin, U. S. S. 
Niagara, April 2, 1925, 

U.S.N.M. No. 123170, 2 specimens, dried, 45 and 52 mm.. Gulf of Venezuela, 
U. S. S. Niagara, April 4, 1925. 

Suborder Trichiuroidea 
Family TRICHIURIDAE: Hairtails 

Genus TRICHIURUS Linnaeus 

Trichiurus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 246, 1758. (Genotype, 
Trichiurus Upturns Linnaeus.) 

TRICHIURUS LEPTURUS Linnaens 

Trichiurus Upturns Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 246, 1758 (America), — 
RoHL, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 396, fig. 207, 1942 (coast of 
Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123079, 3 specimens, 180 to 193 mm. in total length, from 
Jacuque Point, U. S. S. Niagara, January 26, 1925. 

Suborder Scombroidea 
Family SCOMBRIDAE 

The Venezuelan material of this family is so limited that I have not 
attempted to make a key. Instead I am copying the "Key to the 
Genera" which appears on pages 307-308, part I, of Meek and Hilde- 
brand's "The Marine Fishes of Panama." This key includes those 
genera of scombroid fishes most likely to be found along the coast of 
Venezuela. 

la. Maxillary wholly concealed bypreorbital; no median keel on caudal peduncle. 

Scomber" Linnaeus 
16. Maxillary not wholly concealed by preorbital; median keel on caudal peduncle 
more or less developed. 
2a. Scales present on anterior part of body only, forming a corselet, the rest of 
body naked; palatine teeth wanting. 
3a. Dorsal fins close together, contiguous; the first with XV or XVI spines. 

Gyranosarda ^* Gill 
36. Dorsal fins far apart, the interval between them nearly equaling the 

length of the head; the first with IX or X spines Auxis 2* Cuvier 

'* Not yet recorded from Venezuela. 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. w 

26. Entire body covered with scales, sometimes very small or rudimentary, 
forming a corselet or not; palatine teeth present. 
4a. Snout of moderate length, not beaklike; maxillary posteriorly exposed, 
not concealed by preorbital. 
5a. Teeth on jaws small, conical, not compressed; gill rakers long and 
slender, numerous, 20 or more on lower limb of first arch. 
6a. Body oblong, compressed, not exceptionally robust; pectoral fins of 
moderate length, always notably shorter than head. 

Thvmnus South 
66. Body short, slightly compressed, very robust; pectoral fins of extreme 

length, much longer than head Germo ** Jordan 

56. Teeth on jaws rather strong, more or less compressed, sometimes 
triangular, with sharp cutting edges; gill rakers rather short, fewer 
than 20 on lower limb of first arch. 
7a. Vomer toothless; palatine teeth in a single series, similar in size and 
shape to those on jaws; first dorsal long, with XVIII to XXII 
spines; scales of pectoral region forming a rather distinct corse- 
let Sarda Cuvier 

76. Vomer and palatines with bands of granular teeth; first dorsal rathei 
short, with XIV to XVIII feeble spines; scales not forming 

corselet Scomberomorus LacepMe 

46. Snout extremely long, beaklike, longer than rest of head; maxillary 
posteriorly concealed by preorbital -.Acanthocybium Gili 

Genus THUNNUS South 

Thunnus South, Encyclopedia metropolitana, vol. 5, p. 620, 1845. (Genotype 
Scomber thynnus Linnaeus.) (Substitute for Thynnus Cuvier, preoccupied.) 
(Ref. copied.) 

THUNNUS THYNNUS (Linnaeus) 

Tuna; Albacora o AttJn 

Scomber thynnus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 297, 1758 (Europe). 
Thunnus thynnus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 394, fig. 203, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 

Genus SARDA Cuvier 

Sarda Cuvier, Le rfegne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 199, 1829. (Genotype, Scomber 
sarda Bloch.) 

SARDA SARDA (Bloch) 

BONITO 

Scomber sarda Bloch, Ichthj'^ologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 10, 

p. 35, pi. 334, 1797 (Europe). 
Sarda sarda Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 394, 1942 (off coast of 

Venezuela). 

Genus SCOMBEROMORUS Lacepede 

Scomberomorus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 292, 1802. 
(Genotype, Scomberomorus plumieri 'La.c^p&de = Scomber regalis Bloch). 

" Not yet recorded from Venezuela. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 181 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SCOMBEROMORUS LIKELY TO OCCUR ALONG THE COAST OP 

VENEZUELA " 

la. Body very slender, its depth 5.5 to 6.25 in its length; gill rakers e.xtremely 
short, not more than one-fourth length of eye in adult, 7 or 8 more or less 
developed on lower limb of first arch; lateral line with an abrupt downward 
curve under second dorsal; sides in adult plain silvery, without spots or 
streaks, in young with yellowish spots; dorsal rays about XIV, 17,9; anal 

11,14 to 17,9 or 10 Scomberomorus cavalla 2' (Cuvier) 

lb. Body deeper, its depth usually less than 5.5 in its length; gill rakers longer, 
more numerous, about 10 to 12 on lower limb of first arch; lateral line 
descending gradually, not with an abrupt curve; sides with dark spots or 
dark streaks; dorsal rays about XVII or XVIII, 15 to 18, 8 or 9; anal 
11,14 to 17,8 or 9. 
2a. Pectoral fins covered with small scales almost to their tips; sides with one 
or two longitudinal dark streaks and a few rows of elliptical spots. 

Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch) 

26. Pectoral fins without scales; sides with bronzy spots, but without dark 

streaks Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) 

SCOMBEROMORUS REGALIS (Bloch) 

Scomber regalis Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 10, 

p. 31, pi. 333, 1797. 
Scomberomorus regalis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 395, fig. 206, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

SCOMBEROMORUS MACULATUS (Mitchill) 

Spanish Mackerel; Carite 

Scomber maculatus Mitchill, Trans. Lit. Philos. Soc. New York, vol. 1, p. 426, 

1815. 
Scomberomorus maculatus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 394, fig. 205, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121802, 2 specimens, 280 and 312 mm., market at Maracaibo, 
May 15, 1942. 

The following specimen was identified by Dr. S. F. Hildebrand: 

U.S.N.M. No. 123081, 1 specimen, 340 mm., from Amuay Bay, May 15, 1925. 

Genus ACANTHOCYBIUM Gill 

Acanthocybium Gihij, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadephia, 1862, p. 125. (Genotype, 
Cybium sara Bennett.) 

ACANTHOCYBIUM SOLANDRI (CuTier) 

Wahoo; Peto 

Cybium solandri Cxjvier, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 

poissons, vol. 8, p. 192, 1831. 
Acanthocybium solandri Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 394, fig. 204, 

1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

» Modified after Meek and Hildebrand. 
" Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. D9 

Family ISTIOPHORIDAE: Sailfishes 

Genus ISTIOPHORUS Lacepede 

Istiophorus Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 374, 1803. 
(Genotype, Istiophorus gladifer Lacepede =«Scom6er gladius Broussonet.) 
(Ref. copied.) 

ISTIOPHORUS AMERICANUS (CuWer and Valenciennes) 

Sailfish; Aguja vela 

Histiophorus americanus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des 

poissons, vol. 8, p. 303, 1831 (Brazil). 
Istiophorus nigricans Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 396, fig. 208, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

Family XIPHIIDAE: Swordfishes 

Genus XIPHIAS Linnaeus 

Kiphias Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 248, 1758. (Genotype, Xiphias 
gladius Linnaeus.) 

xiphias GLADIUS Linnaeus 

Swordfish; Emperador, Espad6n, o Fez espada 

Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 248, 1758 (Europe). 
Tetraopterus imperator Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 397, fig. 209, 
1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

Suborder Stromateoidea 
Family STROMATEIDAE: Harvestfishes 

Genus PEPRILUS Cuvier 

Peprilus Cuvier, Le regne animal, ed. 2, vol. 2, p. 214, 1829. (Genotype, 
Stromateus longipinnis Mitchill = Stromateus paru Linnaeus.) 

PEPRILUS PARU (Linnaeus) 

Harvestfish: Palometa de mar 

Stromateus paru Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 248, 1758 (America), 
Peprilus paru Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 401, fig. 215, 1942 (coast 
of Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 123044, 5 specimens, 54 to 68 mm. in standard length, Piedras 
Bay, U. S. S, Niagara, March 14, 1925. 

Suborder Gobiformes 

Upon my return from Venezuela in 1942 I turned over to Isaac 
Ginsburg for study all the gobiid fishes that I collected, along wdth a 
large collection made by Dr. F. F. Bond. All the identifications 
reported upon for the two following families, Eleotridae and Gobiidae, 
were made by Mr. Ginsburg, and to him I extend my appreciation of 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 183 

his work and of the opportunity to include his identifications in this 
report. These specimens will be fully treated some time in the future 
in a big work on American gobies that he has been preparing for a 
number of years, and I shall not attempt to make a key to this group. 

Family ELEOTRIDAE 

Genus EROTELIS Poey 

Erotelis Poet, Memorias sobre la historia natural de la isla de Cuba, vol. 2, 
p. 273, 1860. (Genotype, E. valenciennesi 'Poey=Eleotris smaragdus Cuvier 
and Valenciennes.) 

EROTELIS SMARAGDUS (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Eleotris smaragdus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 12, p. 231, 1837 (Cuba). 

U. S. N. M. No. 123145, 1 specimen, Point Macollo, TJ.S.S. Niagara, April 19, 
1925. 

Genus MICROPHILYPNUS Myers 

Microphilypnus Myers, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 68, No. 3, p. 134. 1927. 
(Genotype, Microjphilypnus ternetzi Myers.) 

MICROPHILYPNUS TERNETZI Myers 

Microphilypnus ternetzi Myers, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 68, No. 3, p. 134 
1927 (Cano de Quiribana, near Caicara, Venezuela). 

Genus DORMITATOR Gill 

Dormitator Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 14, p. 240, 1862. (Geno- 
type, Eleotris gundlachi Poey.) 

DORMITATOR MACULATUS (Bloch) 

Mapo 

Sciaena maculata Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, pi. 299, 
fig. 2, 1785 (West Indies) ref. copied). 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond : 

26 specimens, 18 to 63 mm. in standard length, Rfo Cumboto, near Ocumare, 
January 5, 1938. 

1 specimen, 14 mm., coastal lagoons, 15 km, north of Maracaibo, April 6, 1938. 

9 specimens, 13 to 21 mm., Rfo Curiepe at Higuerote, February 2, 1939. 

53 specimens, 13 to 26 mm., Eio Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 
January 15, 1938. 

2 specimens, 10.5 and 19 mm., Rfo Noguera at Noguera, January 13, 1938. 

10 specimens, 12.5 to 30 mm., Rfo Borburata, 3 km. east of Puerto Cabello. 

1 specimen, 15 mm., Rfo Cambur, tributary of Lago de Valencia, January 13, 
1938. 

Genus GOBIOMORUS Lacep^de 

Gobiomorus Lacep^de, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, p. 583, 1800. 
(Genotype, Gobiomorus dormitor Lacep^de.) (Ref. copied.) 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

GOBIOMORUS DORMITOR Lacep^de 

GUAVINA 

Gobiomorus dormitor LACEpfeoE, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, p. 583, 
1800 (Martinique) (ref. copied). 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond. The speci- 
mens were identified by Isaac Ginsburg: 

2 specimens, 69 to 71 mm., lagoon 3 km. west of Cumand, March 26, 1939. 
1 specimen, 50.5 mm., Rfo Borburata, 3 km. east of Puerto Cabello, January 
15, 1939. 

1 specimen, 18 mm., Cano Cambur, tributary of Lago de Valencia, 11 km. 
southeast of Valencia, January 13, 1938. 

Genus ELEOTRIS Bloch and Schneider 

Eleolris Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 65, 1801. (Geno- 
type, Gobius -pisonis Gmelin.) (Ref. copied.) 

ELEOTRIS AMBLYOPSIS (Cope) 

GUAVINA 

Culius amblyopsis Cope, Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 14, p. 473, 1871 (Surinam) 
(ref. copied). 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

2 specimens, 19 and 30 mm. in standard length, Rio Borburata, 3 km. east of 
Puerto Cabello, January 15, 1938. 

1 specimen, 64.5 mm., Rio Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, December 
22, 1937. 

2 specimens, 47 and 49 mm., Rio Cumboto, near mouth, 2 km. northwest of 
Ocumare, May 5, 1939. 

6 specimens, 15 to 65 mm., Rio Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 
January 15, 1938. 

4 specimens, 29 to 59 mm., Rio Sanch6n, 5 km. west of Tavorda, January 26, 
1938. 

ELEOTRIS PISONIS (Gmelin) 

GUAVINA 

Gobius pisonis Gmelin, Systema naturae, p. 1206, 1789 (Rio Almendares, Cuba) 
(ref. copied). 

U.S.N. M. No. 123144, 2 specimens. Point Macolla, U.S.S. Niagara, April 19, 
1925. 

U.S.N.M. Nos. 123155 and 123156, 3 specimens, Macuto, Lyon and Robinson, 
August 2, 1900. 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

4 specimens, 26 to 80 mm. in standard length, Rio Cumboto, near mouth, 2 
km. northwest of Ocumare, May 5, 1939. 

2 specimens, 63 and 76 mm., Rfo Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 
January 15, 1938. 

1 specimen, 30 mm., Rfo Cumboto near Ocumare, January 5, 1938. 

1 specimen, 49 mm., saline lagoon. El Cable at Cariipano, March 30, 1939. 

7 specimens, 30 to 68 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, Decem- 
ber 22, 1937. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHTJLTZ 185 

Family GOBIIDAE 

Genus GARMANNIA Jordan and Evermann 

Garmannia Jordan and Evermann, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 5, 
p. 497, 1895. (Genotype, Garmannia paradoxa [Gilnth.eT]= Gobius paradoxus 
Giinther.) 

All the specimens of this genus that I collected were reported upon 
by Isaac Ginsburg (1944). 

GARMANNIA SCHULTZI Ginsburg 

Garmannia schulizi Ginsburg, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 34, p. 375, 
1944 (Lago de Maracaibo; 7 km. south of Maracaibo, Maracaibo Yacht Club; 
Salina Rica north of Maracaibo; Ci^naga del Guanavana north of Sinamaica). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121546 and 121547 (holotype and paratypes) 34 specimens, 
from Lago de Maracaibo 7 km. south of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121548, 7 specimens, from Lago de Maracaibo opposite Salina 
Rica, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121549 and 121550, 3 and 4 specimens, from Lago de Maracaibo 
at Yacht Club, March 5 and May 16, 1942, respectively. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121552, 3 specimens, from Ci^naga del Guanavana, 12 km. north 
of Sinamaica, March 11, 1942. 

GARMANNIA SPES Ginsburg 

Garmannia spes Ginsburg, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 29, p. 62, 1939 
(Canal Zone, Panama); vol. 34, No. 11, p. 377, 1944 (cano west of Sinamaica, 
Venezuela). 

A collection of 107 specimens, U.S.N.M. No. 121551, was made by 
Leonard P. Schultz on March 11, 1942, in a cafio about % km. west 
of Sinamaica. 

Genus EVORTHODUS Gill 

Evorthodus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 11, p. 195, 1859. (Geno- 
type, Evorthodus breviceps Gill = Gobius lyricus Girard.) 

EVORTHODUS LYRICUS (Girard) 

Gobius lyricus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 10, p. 169, 1858 
(Rio Brazos, Tex.). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121545, 1 specimen, cano at Los Monitos, Rio Lim6n system, 
March 11, 1942. 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

9 specimens, 35 to 76 mm., Rio Borburata at mouth, 3 km. east of Puerto 
Cabello, at Gafianga, January 15, 1938. 

5 specimens, 46 to 60 mm., Rfo Cumboto near Ocumare, January 6, 1938. 

3 specimens, 21 to 89 mm., saline lagoon, El Cable at Carupano, March 30, 1939. 
29 specimens, 16 to 58 mm., Rfo Curiepe at Higuerote, February 2, 1939. 

4 specimens, 44 to 52 mm., Rfo Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 
January 15, 1938. 

6 specimens, 33 to 53 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, December 
22, 1937. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

3 specimens, 48 to 57 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida at mouth, 5 km. north 
of Capatdrida, March 21, 1938. 

15 specimens, 21 to 38 mm., Rfo Yaracuy at mouth, 45 km. northwest of Puerto 
Cabello, January 28, 1938. 

2 specimens, 26 and 31 mm., Rfo Alpargatdn, 5 km. north of Mor6n, January 
28, 1938. 

1 specimen, 77 mm., Rfo Cumboto near mouth, 2 km. northwest of Ocumare, 
May 5, 1939. 

Genus BATHYGOBIUS Bleeker 

Bathygobius Bleeker, Arch. N6erl. Sci., Nat., vol. 13, p. 54, 1878. (Genotype, 
Gobius nebulo-punctatus Jiuppell=Gobius fastiatus Riippell.) 

BATHYGOBIUS SOPORATOR (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

Gobius soporator Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, 
vol. 12, p. 56, 1837 (Martinique) (ref. copied). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121543, 43 specimens, from Lago de Maracaibo at Maracaibo 
Yacht Club, May 16. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121544, 2 specimens, from Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht Club, 
February 27. 

Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. Bond, February 3, 1939, 
1 specimen, 70 mm. 

SaHne lagoon. El Cable at Carupano, F. F. Bond, March 30, 1939, 1 specimen, 
50 mm. 

Genus GOBIONELLUS Girard 

Gobionellus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 10, p. 168, 1858. 
(Genotype, Gobionellus hastatus Girard.) 

GOBIONELLUS BOLEOSOMA (Jordan and Gilbert) 

Gobius boleosoma Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 5, p. 295, 
1882 (Laguna Grande, Pensacola, Fla.). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123273, 1 specimen, 32 mm., Point Macolla, April 19, 1925. 

2 specimens, 31 and 37 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. 
Bond, February 3, 1939. 

4 specimens, 42 to 48 mm., Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida, at mouth, 5 km. north 
of Capatdrida, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1939, 4 specimens, 42 to 48 mm. 

1 specimen, 39 mm., Rfo Borburata at mouth, 3 km. east of Puerto Cabello 
at Gananga, F. F. Bond, January 15, 1938. 

GOBIONELLUS CLAYTONH (Meek) 

Gobius claytonii Meett, Publ. Field Columbian Mus. (Zool.), vol. 3, p. 121, 1902 
(La Antigua). 

33 specimens, 28 to 86 mm., saline lagoon, El Cable at Carupano, F, F. Bond, 
March 30, 1939. 

1 specimen, 40 mm., Rfo Macarupano, 5 km. southeast of Cardpano, F. F. Bond. 

1 specimen, 31 mm., coastal lagoon, 15 km. northeast of Maracaibo, F. F. Bond, 
April 6, 1938, 

Genus AWAOUS Steindachner 

Awao7is Steindachner, Sitzb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 42, p. 289, 1860. (Geno- 
type, Gobius ocellaris Cuvier and Valenciennes.) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 187 

AWAOUS TAJASICA (Lichtenstein) 

GUAVINA HORERA 

Gobius tajasica Lichtenstein, Abh. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1822, p. 273 (Brazil). 
The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

4 specimens, 25 to 206 mm., Rfo Cumboto, near Ocumare, January 5, 1938, 

4 specimens, 60 to 121 mm., Rio Agua Caliente, at Tavorda, 6 km. west of 
Puerto Cabello, January 15, 1938. 

1 specimen, 171 mm., Rio San Esteban at San Esteban near Puerto Cabello, 
December 25, 1937. 

9 specimens, 30 to 68 mm., Rio Cumboto near mouth, 2 km. northwest of 
Ocumare, May 5, 1939. 

14 specimens, 18 to 70 mm., Rio Guaiguaza, 3 km. west of Puerto Cabello, 
January 15, 1938. 

1 specimen, 114 mm., a tributary of Rio Manzanares, 12 km. northwest of 
Cumanacoa, March 26, 1939. 

4 specimens, 23 to 92 mm., Rio Sanch6n, 5 km. west of Tavorda, January 26, 
1938. 

2 specimens, 19 to 39 mm., Rio Borburata, at mouth, 3 km. east of Puerto 
Cabello at Gananga, January 15, 1938. 

1 specimen, 24 mm., Rio Yaracuy, 8 km. southeast of San Felipe, January 27, 
1938. 

1 specimen, 16 mm., Rio Curiepe at Higuerote, February 2, 1939. 

Genus SICYDIUM Cuvier and Valenciennes 

Sicydium Cuvier and Valenciennes, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 12, p. 
168, 1837. (Genotype, Gobius plumieri Bloch.) (Ref. copied.) 

SICYDIUM PUNCTATUM Penigia 

Sirajo 

Sicydium punctatum PERtrGiA, Ann. Mus. Civ. Storia Nat. Genova, ser. 2, vol. 16, 

p. 18, 1896 (Martinique) (ref. copied). 
Sicydium montanum Hubbs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 33, p. 89, 1920 

(mountain brook at Macuto, Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 122452, 1 specimen, Macuto, Lyon and Robinson, August 2, 
1900. 

The following collections were made by F. F. Bond: 

1 specimen, 22 mm., Rfo Guataparo, tributary Rio Paito to Rfo Paz, 8 miles 
west of Valencia, January 13, 1839. 

1 specimen, 22 mm., lagoon 3 km. northwest of Petare, 15 km. east of Caracas, 
January 15, 1939. 

1 specimen, 75 mm., saline lagoon. El Cable at Carupano, March 30, 1939, 

2 specimens, 43 and 46 mm., stream tributary to Rfo San Pedrito, 55 km. east 
of Barcelona, March 25, 1939. 

21 specimens, 25 to 75 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, Decem- 
ber 22, 1937. 

11 specimens, 23 to 58 mm., Rfo Cumboto near Ocumare, January 5, 1938. 

5 specimens, 29 to 45 mm., Rfo Cumboto near mouth, 2 km, northwest of 
Ocumare, May 5, 1939, 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

SICYDIUM PLUMIERI (Bloch) 
SiRAJO 

Gobius plumieri Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, p. 125, 
pi. 178, fig. 3, 1797 (Martinique) (ref. copied). 

U.S.N. M. Nos. 93823 and 93824, 3 specimens, 77 to 83 and 94 mm., respec- 
tively, from Macuto, Lyon and Robinson, August 12, 1900. 

U.S.N. M. No. 122454, 6 specimens, Macuto, Lvon and Robinson, August 2, 
1900. 

1 specimen, 39 mm., Rfo Cerro Grande, 10 km. east of Macuto, F. F. Bond, 
December 22, 1937. 

17 specimens, 45 to 104 mm., Rio Cumboto near Ocumare, F. F. Bond, January 
5, 1938. 

Order SCLEROPAREIOIDEA 
Family SCORPAENIDAE: Scorpionfishes 

Genus SCORPAENA Linnaeus 

Scorpaena Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 266, 1758. (Genotype, 
Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus.) 

SCOBPAENA PLUMIERI Bloch 

Rascacio 

Scorpaena plumieri Bloch, Vet.-Acad. Nya Handl., vol. 10, p. 234, 1789 (Mar- 
tinique) (ref. copied). — Gunter, Copeia, 1941, No. 2, p. 119 (Venezuela); 
1942, No. 2, p. 106 (Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123197, 1 specimen, 47 mm. in standard length, from Cape San 
Romdn, U. S. S. Niagara April 2, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123196, 1 specimen, 26 mm., from Jacuque Point, U. S. S. 
Niagara, January 26, 1925. 

Family TRIGLIDAE: Gurnards; Sea-robins 
Genus PRIONOTUS Lacepfede 

Prionotus Lacep^de, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 336, 1802. 
(Genotype, Trigla evolans Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

PRIONOTUS PUNCTATUS (Bloeh) 

RuBio; Volador; Gallina del mar 

Trigla punctata Bloch, Naturgeschichte der auslandischen Fische, vol. 7, p. 125, 
pi. 353, 1793 (Martinique) (ref. copied). 

Prionotus punctatus Metzelaar, Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke 
in the Dutch West Indies in 1904-1905, p. 147, 1919 (Venezuela).— Rohl, 
Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 411, 1942 (Venezuela). 

U.S.N.M. No. 123168, 1 specimen, 209 nun. from Jacuque Point U. S. S. 
Niagara, January 26, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123167, 2 specimens, 135 and 194 mm., from Piedras Bay, 
U. S. S. Niagara, March 14, 1925. 

U.S.N.M. No. 123166, 1 specimen, 187 mm., from Estanques Bay, U. S. S. 
Niagara, December 7, 1924. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 189 

Order CEPHALACANTHOIDEA 
Family DACTYLOPTERIDAE: Flying Gurnards 

Genus DACTYLOPTERUS Lacepfede 

Dadylopterus LACEpfeoE, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 3, p. 325, 1802. 
(Genotype, Dadylopterus pipapeda LacepSde = TnjZa volitans Linnaeus.) 
(Genus selected by first reviser instead of Cephalacanthus Lacep6de, ibid., 
p. 323.) 

DACTYLOPTERUS VOUTANS (Linnaeus) 
VOLADOR 

Trigla volitans Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 302, 1758. 
Cephalacanthus volitans Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 411, fig. 228, 
1942 (Venezuela). 

Order PLEURONECTOIDEA 

Suborder Psettodoidea 

Family BOTHIDAE: Soles 

A key to the species of the flatfish family Bothidae is given by 
J. R. Norman in a systematic work, "Monograph of the Flatfishes 
(Heterosomata)," vol. 1, pp. 60-61, 1934, pubhshed by the British 
Museum. Not enough species have been recorded from Venezuela 
to make it worth while to construct a key in this report. Several 
other species of flatfishes will undoubtedly be taken when adequate 
collecting is done along the Venezuelan coast. 

Genus CITHARICHTHYS Bleeker 

Citharichthys Bleeker, Versl. Akad. Amsterdam, vol. 13, p. 423, 1862. (Geno- 
type, C. cayennensis Bleeker.) 

CITHAHICHTHYS SPILOPTEBUS Giinther 

Citharichthys spilopterus Gxjnther (part), Catalogue of the fishes in the British 
Museum, vol. 4, p. 421, 1862 (New Orleans; Jamaica; San Domingo; Bahia). 

U. S. N. M. No. 121812, 1 specimen, 47 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Maracaibo 
Yacht Club, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121813, 6 specimens, 30 to 66 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Mara- 
caibo Yacht Club, March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121814, 2 specimens, 22 and 40 mm., mouth of Cano de Sagua, 
25 km. north of Sinamaica, March 12, 1942. 

1 specimen, 84 mm., Laguna del Rio Capatdrida at mouth, 5 km. north of 
Capatdrida, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

1 specimen, 101 mm., saline lagoon. El Cable at Cardpano, F. F. Bond, 
March 30, 1939. 

3 specimens, 45 to 77 mm., Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, F. F. 
Bond, February 3, 1939. 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

The following counts were made on the above-listed specimens: 
Dorsal rays, four counts for 78, one for 79, two for 80, one of 83; 
anal rays, one count each for 56, 58, 59, two counts each for 60 and 
61, one for 62. 

Genus ETROPUS Jordan and Gilbert 

Etropus Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 4, p. 364, 1882. (Geno- 
type, Etropus crossutus Jordan and Gilbert.) 

ETROPUS LONGIMANUS Norman 

Etropus longimanus Norman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, vol. 12, p. 202, 
1933 (C. Frio, Brazil). 

The following small specimen is identified as this species with un- 
certainty: 

U.S.N. M. No. 123142, 1 specimen, 36 mm., south coast of Gulf of Venezuela, 
U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1924. 

ETROPUS DELSMANI Chabanand 

Etropus delsmani Chabanaud, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, vol. 12, p. 149, 
1940 (Isla de Santa Margarita). 

Suborder Soleiformes 
Family ACHIRIDAE: Tonguefishes; Soles; Lenguados 

KEY TO THE GENERA AND SPECIES REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Interbranchial septum between the right and left gill chambers perforated 
by a roundish opening (fenestra) posteriodorsally. 
2a. Gill membranes fused with the hyoid, internally and above the pelvic arch, 
anteroventrally to the fenestra; nasal spine not projecting through the 
skin in front of tubular nostril; posterior dorsal side of gill opening on 
blind side with a double membranous flap of skin fringed with cirri along 
both edges; pectoral fin of one to four short rays; a deep pit on blind side 
above upper jaw a short distance in front of tubular nostril. 

Hypoclinemus mentalis (Giinther) 
26. Gill membranes not fused to the hyoid-pelvic region, entirely free ventrally; 
nasal spine projecting through the skin, in front of tubular nostril; 
posterior dorsal edge of gill opening on blind side with a single fringed 
membranous flap of skin; pectoral fin well developed, of about 5 rays; 
no deep pit on blind side above maxillaries and a short distance in front 

of tubular nostril Achirus achirus maculipinnis (Agassiz) 

16. Interbrancliial septum not perforated; gill membranes free from h3'oid region; 
nasal spine not projecting through the skin in front of tubular nostril; 
posterior dorsal side of gill opening on blind side with a single free fringed 
dermal membrane; pectoral fin absent or with one short ray; practically no 
depression or pit above maxillary and in front of tubular nostril on blind 
side Trinectes raaculatus brownii (Giinther) 

Genus HYPOCLINEMUS Chabanaud 

Hypoclinemus Chabanaud, Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., No. 523, p. 32, 1928. (Geno- 
type, Solea mentalis Giinther, fixed by Myers, Copeia, No. 171, p. 37, 1929.) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 191 

HYPOCUNEMUS MENTAUS (Gunther) 

Solea mentalis Gunther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 4, 
p. 475, 1862 (Rio Capim, Pard). 

The following collection was made by Dr. F. F, Bond. 

Six specimens, 47.5 to 123 mm., from Rfo Apure at San Fernando de Apure, 
November 11, 1938. 

These specimens have the following number of fin rays: Dorsal, 
53 in two and one count each for 56, 57, 58 and 59; anal, one count 
each for 41, 42, 43, two for 44, and one for 45; pectoral, one count 
each for 2 and 4 and four for 3; pelvics, two counts for 4 and ten for 
5 rays. 

Genus ACHIRUS Lacepede 

Achirus LacepJ:de, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 4, p. 658, 1802, (Geno- 
type, Pleuronectes achirus Linnaeus.) 

ACHIRUS ACmRUS MACUUPENNIS (Agassiz) 

Sole; Carnada de San Pedro; Lengtjado o sol 

Monochir maculipennis Agassiz, in Spix and Agassiz, Selecta genera et species 
piscium . . . Brasiliam . . ., p. 88, pi. 49, pi. D, 1831 (Atlantic Ocean, 
Brazil). 

? Achirus li?ieatus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 390, fig. 199, 1942 
(coast of Venezuela). 

One specimen, 375 mm. in standard length, from Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado 
de Miranda, F. F. Bond, February 3, 1939. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121815, a specimen, 48 mm. in standard length, from Lago de 
Maracaibo at Maracaibo Yacht Club, Maracaibo, March 5, 1942. 

The above-listed specimens have dorsal rays 54 and 54; anal rays 
43 and 41; the pelvics 5-5 and 5-5; median fins with roundish dark 
brown spots. 

Genus TRINECTES Rafinesque 

Trinectes Rafinesque, Atlantic journal and friend of knowledge, vol. 1, p. 20, 
1832. (Genotype, Trinectes scabra Rafinesque =ylc/iirus fasciatus Lacepede.) 
(Ref. copied.) 

TRINECTES MACULATUS BROWNH (Gunther) 

Lenguado 

Solea brownii Gitnther, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 4, 
p. 477, 1862 (New Orleans; Texas). 

The following collections I am referring to this subspecies mostly 
on the basis of Chabanaud's work (Bull. Inst. Oceanogr., No. 661, 
pp. 1-24, figs. 1-11, 1935). 

U.S.N.M. No. 121810, 7 specimens, 18 to 94 mm., from Lago de Maracaibo at 
Maracaibo Yacht Club, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N.M. No. 121811, a specimen, 79 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 7 km. south of 
Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

2 specimens, 25 and 29 mm., from salt-water lagoon on coast, 5 km. west of 
Cumand, F. F. Bond, March 25, 1939. 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

1 specimen, 26.5 mm., from Laguna del Rfo Capatdrida at mouth, 5 km. north of 
Capatdrida, Estado de Falc6n, F. F. Bond, March 21, 1938. 

1 specimen, 15 mm., from Rfo Marguanta, tributary to Rfo Orinoco, F. F. 
Bond, March 10, 1939. 

7 specimens, 26 to 43 mm., from Laguna de Tacarigua, Estado de Miranda, 
F. F. Bond, February 3, 1939. 

Order DISCOCEPHALIOIDEA 
Family ECHENEIDAE: Sharkpilots; Remoras 

Genus ECHENEIS Linnaeus 

Echeneis Linnaeus, after Artedi, Systems naturae, ed. 10, p. 260, 1758. (Geno- 
type, Echeneis neucrates Linneaus.) 

ECHENEIS NEUCRATES Linnaeus 

R^MORA O PeGA 

Echeneis neucrates Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 261, 1758. — Rohl, 
Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 410, fig. 227, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 128264, 1 specimen, 159 mm. in standard length, from Piedras 
Bay, Gulf of Venezuela, March 14, 1925, U. S. S. Niagara. 

Order PLECTOGNATHOIDEA 

Suborder Balistoidea 
Family BALISTIDAE: Triggerfishes 

Genus BALISTES Linnaeus 

Balistes Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 327, 1758. (Genotype, 
Balistes vetula Linnaeus.) 

BAUSTES vetula Linnaens 

Cach^a o Cochino 

Balistes vetula Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 329, 1758 (Ascension 
Island). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 409, fig. 226, 1942 (coast 
of Venezuela). 

Suborder Ostracioidea 
Family OSTRACIIDAE: Trunkfishes; Cofres 

Genus LACTOPHRYS Swainson 

Lactophrys Swainson, Natural history and classification of fishes, vol. 2, pp. 194, 
324, 1839. (Genotype, Lactophrys trigonus (Linnaeus).) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Bony covering or carapace without spines anywhere; body with numerous 
pale spots dorsally Lactophrys triqueter (Linnaeus) 

16. Carapace with a spine in front of each eye, another posteriorly on each ventral 
ridge, and one above and below at front of caudal peduncle; color brownish 
with blackish spots except on ventral surfaces. 

Lactophrys tricomis (Linnaeus) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 193 

LACTOPHRYS TKIQUETER (Linnaeus) 

Chapin o Sapo de mar 

Ostracion triqueter Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 330, 1758 

("India"). 
Lactophnjs triqueter Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 3S5, figs. 192, 193, 
1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

LACTOPHRYS TRICORNIS (Linnaeus) 

ToRO o Vaquito 

Ostracion tricornis Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 331, 1758. 

("India"). 
Ladophrys tricornis Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 386, fig. 194, 1942 

(coast of Venezuela). 

Suborder Tetraodontoidea 
Family TETRAODONTIDAE: Puffers; Tamboriles 

KEY TO GENERA OF TETRAODONTIDAE REPORTED FROM VENEZUELA 

la. Dorsal rays 8, anal 7, counting rudiments; 2 distinct openings on each more- 
or-less tubular nostril; inner surface or nasal tube with one or more folds; 
lower sides of body without a dermal fold along a lateral line tube. 

Sphoeroides Anonymous 

16. Dorsal rays 10 to 15; anal 9 to 13. 

2a. Dorsal rays about 10, anal rays 9 to 10; no dermal fold along lower sides of 

body; gill opening extends down in front of about 7 pectoral rays; caudal 

fin truncate or a little concave. 

3a. Nostrils without a distinct tube or tentacle but with a small porelike 

opening on each side; back in front of dorsal fin compressed into a lovV 

keellike ridge or short prominence; margin of eye without eyelid; snout 

somewhat pointed CanthigastGr Swainson 

36. Nostrils with 2 distinct openings on each side at tip of a short tube; back 
without keel, more or less depressed; membrane of eye free ventrally 
for a short distance, but fused dorsally; snout blunt, rounded. 

Colomesus Gill 
26. Dorsal rays about 13 to 15; anal rays 12 or 13; lower sides with a dermal 
fold along a lateral line tube; tubular nostrils with 2 small openings 
distally; back without ridge, more or less depressed; membrane of eye 
free ventrally, fused dorsally; gill opening extending down in front of 
about 8 to 10 pectoral rays; caudal fin forked -Lagocephalus Swainson 

Genus SPHOEROIDES Anonymous 

Sphoeroides (Author anonymous), Allg. Lit.-Zeit., column 676, 1798. (Genotype, 
Tetrodon spengleri Bloch.) (Ref. copied.) 

The correct identification of the puffers in the western Atlantic 
referred to the genus Sphoeroides is very difficult if not impossible for 
certain forms. There appears to be so much variation in size of 
eye and head and in other morphological characters that most keys lead 
to doubtful identifications. Since no revision of tliis genus has been 

802207—49 13 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 09 

made and sufficient material of the various forms described are lacking 
for study, the following tentative key must be used with caution for 
the area adjacent to the coast of Venezuela and northward. A species 
difficult to place is Sphoeroides harperi Nichols (Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., vol. 33, art. 3, p. 81, 1914) from Cape Sable, Fla. This 
species may be maculatus. 

Meek and Hildebrand ("The Marine Fishes of Panama", part 3, 
p. 813, pi. 77, 1928) use the name Sphoeroides marmoratus (Ranzani) 
for a species covered v/itli minute imbricated scales that lacks the line 
of black spots set off below the dark coloration of upper sides. How- 
ever, Tetraodon marmoratus Ranzani (Dissertationes Quat. NoviComm. 
Acad. Sci. Inst. Bonon., vol. 4, p. 73, pi. 10, figs, la, lb, 1840) as 
represented by the figures is definitely not the same species as the 
one illustrated on plate 77 of Meek and Hildebrand. I see no reason 
at present why T. marmoratus Ranzani cannot be considered a synonym 
of Sphoeroides spengleri as currently recognized. Specimens of 
spengleri from Brazil appear to be the same as those from Panama and 
the West Indies. 

Sphoeroides marmoratus Meek and Hildebrand (not of Ranzani) I 
refer to Sphoeroides eulepidotus (Metzelaar), basing my opinion on 
several small series in the national collections. 

The color patterns of maculatus and nephelus and the imbricate 
scales indicate that eulepidotus is very closely related and possibly not 
distinct from nephelus. I do not find any specimens of the typical 
color pattern of maculatus south of the Carolinas in the national col- 
lections. 

KEY TO CERTAIN SPECIES OF SPHOEROIDES 

la. Lower sides with a line of dark bars or roundish spots a little below and 

well set off from darker ground color of upper sides and back, these bars 

or spots numbering 5 in front of the pectoral base and 7 or 8 behind it, 

totaling 12 or 13. 

2a. Dark spots in a line roundish to oval in shape and black spot at lower 

rear base of pectoral not quite reaching to middle of pectoral fin base 

and little or no darker than others in line; a black bar across caudal fin 

distally and another basally, separated by a pale bar; back variably 

light spotted and dark spotted; least distance between bases of nasal 

tubes about 5 to 7 times in the snout; postorbital length of head 1.5 to 

2 times in snout; dermal papillae often present on sides; body often 

with prickles in front of dorsal and anal fins; distal margins of dorsal 

and anal fins rounded; dermal cirri often occurring on the sides of young 

specimens Sphoeroides spengleri (Bloch) 

26. Line of dark bars vertically elongate and extending up into dark ground 
color of .sides; black spot or bar in axil of pectoral much darker than 
any of others in the line and usually reaching up to or above midpectoral 
base; no blackish or pale bars across caudal fin; back usually dark 
spotted; least distance between bases of nasal tubes about 3.5 to 5 
times in snout; postorbital length of head 1.25 to 1% in snout; anterior 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 195 

parts of body in front of dorsal and anal fins profusely prickly, and 
scales somewhat imbricated occurring all over body in young, but in 
adults the body smoother, especially caudal region. 

Sphoeroides maculatus ^^ (Bloch and Schneider) 
2c. Line of dark bars vertically elongate but hourglass-shaped behind pectoral; 
black spot in axil of pectoral intensified but not reaching above middle of 
base of pectoral; upper part of body brownish and overlaid with numerous 
very small circular-shaped white blotches everywhere; caudal fin plain 
pale in color; least distance between bases of nasal tubes about 4.5 to 5 
times in snout; postorbital length of head 1.5 to 1% in snout; body prick- 
ly anteriorly and covered with small imbricated scales; prickles usually 
with 4-pointed bases; distal margin of dorsal fin truncate, that of anal 

rounded Sphoeroides nephelus ^^ (Goode and Bean) 

16. Line of dark bars or spots absent, or, if present, not separated from dark 
ground color of sides and back. 
3a. Back darkish (often greenish when alive) with pale lines forming a coarsely 
reticulated pattern and the sides have small dark spots, more numerous 
with age, but fading ventrally so that the belly is white as usual; caudal 
fin more or less darkish with a pale bar across the fin a little closer to its 
base than distally; scales not noticeably developed although anteriorly 
the body is prickly; least distance between nostrils 2.75 to 3 times in 
snout; postorbital length of head 1.2 in snout; distal margin of dorsal 

truncate or shghtly rounded Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus) 

3&. No pale lines forming a reticulated color pattern on back, 

4a. Color plain brownish above and largely on sides, with a single large 
blackish spot, somewhat vertically elongate, on middle of sides a 
little in advance of dorsal origin; sometimes a pair of dermal cirri on 
middle of back; brownish color of back with small pale specks or spots; 
body not covered with small imbricated scales although small glandu- 
lar-like scales occurring irregularly on body; body prickly anteriorly; 
caudal fin with a dark bar distally and one basally separated by a 
pale bar; least distance between bases of nasal tubes about 5 to 6.25 
times in snout; postorbital length of head about 1.75 to 2 times in 
snout; distal margin of dorsal fin truncate; that of anal truncate or a 
trifle rounded; outer rays of caudal fin a little longer than others, so 
that distal margin of this fin is slightly concave. 

Sphoeroides dorsalis ^s (Longley) 
46. Body everywhere, except ventrally, with brown spots, these spots not 
in rows, their number apparently increasing with age; caudal fin usual- 
ly, except in larger specimens, with a pale bar across middle separat- 
ing more or less distinct darker bars distally and basally; body every- 
where covered with numerous very small imbricated scales; least dis- 
tance between bases of nasal tubes contained 4.5 to 6 times in snout; 
postorbital length of head 1.25 to li/i in snout; dorsal shghtly rounded 
to truncate distally, anal fin rounded; dermal cirri usually present on 
sides Sphoeroides eulepidotus (Metzelaar) 

SPHOEROIDES SPENGLERI (Bloch) 

Tetrodon spengleri Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, voL 
4, p. 134, pi. 144, 1797. 



« Not reported from Venezuela and probably not occurring south of Florida. 
8' Not reported from Venezuela but occurring oft Florida and in West Indies. 

802207—49 14 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

This species has a distribution from Florida and Gulf of Mexico 
through the West Indies to Brazil and most certainly will be taken 
off Venezuela, although so far I fail to find any record of its capture 
from that country. 

SPHOEROIDES TESTUDINEUS (Linnaeus) 

Yeqtje o Sapo bruto 

Tetraodon testudineus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, p. 332, 1758. 
Sphoeroides testudineus Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 387, fig. 195, 
1942 (coast of Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 121700, 36 specimens, 22 to 118 mm. in standard length, Lago de 
Maracaibo at Yacht Club, Maracaibo, May 16, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121701, 22 specimens, 20 to 61 mm., Lago de Maracaibo opposite 
Salina Rica, 5 km. north of Maracaibo, February 20, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121699, 94 specimens, 18 to 94 mm., Lago de Maracaibo at Yacht 
Club, Maracaibo, February 27 and March 5, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121698, 17 specimens, 21 to 101 mm., mouth of Cafio de Sagua, 
25 km, north of Sinamaica, March 21, 1942. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121697, 78 specimens, 17 to 122 mm., Lago de Maracaibo, 
7 km. south of Maracaibo, March 6, 1942. 

Two specimens, 60 and 93 mm., a baja seca, east side of Puerto Cabello, F. F. 
Bond, January 26, 1938. 

SPHOEROIDES EULEPIDOTUS (Met2elaar) 

Tetrodon (Spheroides) eulepidotus Metzelaar, Rapport Onderz. Toest. Viss. Ind. 
Zeeprod. Kol. Curagao, vol. 2, p. 170, fig. 54, 1919 (Lesser Antilles). 

Specimens before me from the collection in the United States 
National Museum indicate that this species ranges from Texas, Pana- 
ma, and West Indies to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

U.S.N. M. No. 122001, 4 specimens, 22 to 5 mm., in standard length. Cape San 
Romdn, U. S. S. Niagara, April 2, 1925. 

U.S.N. M. No. 122002, 1 specimen, 13 mm., south coast of Gulf of Venezuela, 
U. S. S. Niagara, November 15, 1925. 

U.S.N. M. No. 121702, 1 specimen, 29.5 mm., from a brackish cafio at Los 
Monitos, Rfo Lim6n system, Leonard P. Schultz, March 11, 1942. 

Genus CANTHIGASTER Swainson 

Canthigaster Swainson, The natural history and classification of fishes, vol, 2, 
p. 194, 1839, (Genotype, Tetrodon rostratus Bloch.) 

CANTmCASTER ROSTRATUS (Bloch) 

Tetrodon rostratus Bloch, Ichthyologie, ou Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 5, 

p. 4, pi. 146, fig. 2, 1787 ("Indes orientales"). 
Tetrodon {Canthigaster) rostratus Metzelaar, Rappt. Onderz. Toest. Viss, Ind, 

Zeeprod. Kol, Curagao, vol. 2, p, 171, 1919 (Venezuela), 

Genus COLOMESUS Gill 

Colomesus Gill, Proc, U, S. Nat. Mus., vol, 7, p, 422, 1884. (Genotype, Tetrodon 
paittacus Bloch and Schneider,) 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 197 

COLOMESUS PSITTACUS (Bloch and Schneider) 

Tetrodon psittacus Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 505, 1801 

(Malabar). 
Colomesus psittacus Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1911, p. 437 

(Tucapita on Rfo Manamo; Pedernales, Venezuela). 

Genus LAGOCEPHALUS Swainson 

Lagocephalus Swainson, The natural history and classification of fishes, vol. 2, 
pp. 194, 328, 1839. (Genotype, Lagocephalus stellatus Donovan.) 

lagocephalus LAEVIGATUS (Linnaeus) 

Tetraodon lagocephalus Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 332, 1758 

("India"). 
Tetraodon (Lagocephalus) pachycephalus Metzelaar, Rappt. Onderz. toest. Viss. 
Ind. Zeeprod. kol. Curagao, vol. 2, p. 169, 1919 (Cumana, Venezuela). 

U.S.N. M. No. 122000, 1 specimen, 230 mm. in standard length, Estanques 
Bay. U. S. S. Niagara, December 9, 1924. 

U.S.N. M. No. 122003, 1 specimen, 42 mm., Jacuque Point, U. S. S. Niagara, 
January 26, 1925. 

Our series of Lagocephalus laevigatus before me indicates that 
Tetraodon pachycephalus Ranzani is a synonym and that the depth 
and head length vary considerably with increase in size. 

Suborder DIODONTOIDEA 
Family DIODONTIDAE: Porcupinefishes 

Genus DIODON Linnaeus 

Diodon Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 334, 1758. (Genotype, 
Diodon hystrix Linnaeus.) 
Two species of Diodon — hystrix and holacanthus — are currently 
recognized, but after examining a rather large series of both as indenti- 
fied by several ichthyologists in the past, I find so much overlapping 
in the two forms that I must cast serious doubt on their distinctness. 
I notice that specimens up to 50 to 200 mm. in standard length have 
relatively longer frontal spines than postpectoral spines, some dermal 
cirri along lower sides of body and usually a pair under the chin. 
On all the large specimens of Diodon, however, I fail to locate these 
dermal cirri, and the frontal spines appear to be shorter than the 
postpectoral ones, but this is caused by more of the base of the frontal 
spines being embedded in the skin. The genus is in need of revision. 
Provisionally I am combining hystrix and holacanthus because I am 
unable to separate the two species as based on the material before me 
from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

DIODON HYSTRIX Linnaeus 
ErIZO O PuERCO ESPfN 

Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 335, 1758 (India). — 
RoHL, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 388, fig. 196, 1942 (coast of Vene- 
zuela) . 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

U.S.N.M. No. 122004, a specimen 100 mm. in standard length, Gulf of 
Venezuela, U. S. S. Niagara, 1925. 

The folloAving counts were made: Dorsal rays 14 in 3 and 15 in 1 
specimens; anal 13 rays in 2, and 14 in 3 specimens; pectoral rays 21 
in one specimen, 22 in 6 counts, and 23 in 3. 

Order GOBIESOCIFORMES 
Family GOBIESOCIDAE: Clingfishes; Trepadores 

During my attempt to identify the Venezuelan specimens of cling- 
fishes in the national collections, it became clear to me that the Amer- 
ican Gobiesocidae were in a state of confusion and were in need of 
revision. This was necessary before I could determine the genus or 
species to which the Venezuelan clingfishes belonged. After 3 months 
of work, a manuscript was prepared and published (Schultz, 1944e). 
The following key was modified from that publication so as to key 
out all American genera, and it includes only those species that have 
been reported from Venezuela: 

la. Groove between tip of snout and upper lip of premaxillaries extending around 
front of snout and not forming a convex curve dorsally over tip of snout; 
width of middle of upper lip narrow, about the same as laterally, and ap- 
proximately equal to width of pupil; gill membranes attached opposite 
third and fifth upper pectoral fin rays; axial flap of skin behind pectoral 
fin with its upper edge attached at midbase of pectoral fin or below mid- 
base; fleshy pad on outer pectoral base present only ventrally, without 
a free margin posteriorly and enlarged or swollen at lower posterior corner 
of pectoral fin base; the lower first to fifth pectoral rays short, about half 
length of longest pectoral ray, the eighth and ninth much longer than 
lower pectoral rays; anal rays 6 or 8; dorsal rays 6 or 7 (all rudiments 
counted as one ray). 
2a. Incisorlike teeth at front of lower jaw with 4 minute points '"; those at 
front of upper jaw mostly conical; each jaw with 1 or 2 inner rows of 
minute conical teeth; axial flap of skin behind pectoral fin attached at 
lower part of pectoral fin base; anal origin a little behind a vertical line 
through dorsal origin; greatest depth of body 5.5 to 6.5, length of head 
3 to 3.25, greatest width of head 4.5 to 5, length of disk 5 to 5.5, all in 
standard length; length of disk about equal to distance from tip of snout 
to front of disk; pectoral rays about 19 to 21; color when alive green or 
reddish, with or without light spots (Florida Keys and West Indies). 

Acyrtus Schultz ^° 
26. Incisorlike teeth at front of lower jaw with smooth tips; middle front teeth 
of upper jaw conical; teeth in inner rows of both jaws shorter, smaller, 
and conical; axial flap of skin behind pectoral fin attached opposite 
middle of pectoral base; greatest depth of body 8 or 9, length of head 
3.5 to 3.8, greatest width of head 5, length of disk 5.5, all in standard 
length; anal origin a little in advance of dorsal origin; interorbital space 
3.5 in head, eye 1.5 in interorbital space; length of disk about equal to 



'» Sometimes the middle two teeth are worn down nearly smooth, as in the type of G. beryllinus Hildehrand 
and Ginsburg. 
»o Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 199 

caudal peduncle; lower pectoral rays shorter, second and third from 
bottom about half length of longest pectoral fin rays; pectoral fin rays 
about 16 or 17 (Todos Santos Bay, Baja Cahfornia, to Monterey, Bay 
and west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia). 

Rimicola Jordan and Evermann 

lb. Tip of snout formed by premaxillaries, which are much wider at middle of 

snout than laterally, groove arched dorsally over tip of snout; axial flap 

of skin behind pectoral fin with its upper edge attached much above the 

midbase of this fin; lower first to seventh pectoral fin rays not shortened, 

about as long as eighth or ninth from bottom. 

3a. Anterior teeth of lower jaw trifid incisors, trifid tips usually evident, except 

the middle 2 or 3 may be worn off smooth although 1 or 2 of more lateraUy 

placed incisors at front of lower jaw are always trifid. 

4o. Gill membrane attached opposite third to fifth pectoral fin rays; front 

teeth of upper jaw smooth-tipped incisors (sometimes flattened- 

coniform); front of both jaws with 1 or 2 inner rows of small conical 

teeth behind outer row of enlarged incisorUke teeth, sometimes these 

inner rows apparently represented by only 2 or 3 teeth; fleshy pad on 

outer base of pectoral fin with free posterior margin ending a little 

below attachment of gill membranes; greatest width of head 3, length 

of head 2.75 to 2.8, greatest depth of body 5 to 6, length of disk 3.5, 

all in standard length; length of disk much greater than distance from 

tip of snout to front of disk; distance from dorsal origin to midbase of 

caudal fin contained 1.75 to 1.8 times in snout tip to dorsal origin; 

anal origin under base of the third or fourth dorsal fin ray; caudal 

peduncle short, its depth about equal to its length and about 3 times 

in base of dorsal fin; dorsal fin rays 11 to 13, anal 10 or 11, pectoral 

18 or 21 (usually 19 or 20) (Gulf of Cahfornia; southern California). 

Infratridens Schultz 
4b. Gill membranes joined opposite upper edge of pectoral fin base; incisor- 
like teeth of both jaws with trifid tips except middle pair or two some- 
times smooth tipped; teeth in both jaws in a single row, lateral 2 to 
4 conical and last 1 or 2 sometimes strong canines; outer lower base 
of pectoral fin with fleshy pad poorly developed and without any 
trace of free margin; pelvic fins joined about halfway out fourth to 
sixth pectoral fin rays and not near base; dermal flap in axil of pectoral 
fin joins opposite the fourth to tenth pectoral fin ray; width of head 
3.5 to 6, length of head V-/z to 5, greatest depth of body usually 6 to 10, 
length of disk usually 4 to 6, all in standard length; opercular spine 
not strongly developed and not reaching to rear of head. 

Arbaciosa Jordan and Evermann 
ha. A pair of black spots (more or less ocellate) on back behind head over 
pectorals usually distinct, each spot well separated; dorsal surface 
of back in front of dorsal origin variously barred or mottled or dark 
spotted but without 3 hourglass-shaped large dark blotches. (Species 
inhabiting waters of Pacific coast and offshore islands.) 
5b. Three or four large hourglass-shaped dark brown or blackish blotches 
from in front of dorsal fin to rear of head; a fainter one sometimes on 
top of head; side of head with 4 oblique bars and sides of body with 
dark bars; incisors with trifid tips; dorsal rays 7 to 9; and 6 to 9 
(rarely 6 or 9) ; pectorals 18 to 23 (West Indies; Guatemala to Brazil). 

Arbaciosa fasciata (Peters) 
3 b. None of teeth with trifid tips. 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

6a. Middle pair of incisors on both jaws much broader and longer than ad- 
joining pairs; posterolateral teeth small and conical; rims of orbits 
bony, elevated; opercular spine strongly developed and forming 
posteriormost tip of head; valvular flap and margin of anterior nostril 
with its margin finely fringed with short cirri; gill membrane attached 
at upper anterior edge of pectoral fin base; fleshy pad well developed 
on outer lower surface of pectoral base, with a free membranous edge 
posteriorly ending at base of tenth to twelfth pectoral ray; shoulder 
girdle with a free dermal flap extending dorsally nearly to attachment 
of gill membrane; anal origin under base of second or third from last 
dorsal fin ray; disk large, its length about equal to head and contained 
about 2.4 to 2.8 in standard length; anus just behind rear margin of 
disk; origin of dorsal fin a trifle closer to tip of opercular spine than 
midcaudal fin base; dorsal rays 10 or 11 (usually 11); anal 8 or 9; 
pectoral 24 or 25 (Chile and Peru; Juan Fernandez Islands). 

Sicyases (Miiller and Troschel) 

66. Middle pair of incisors not enlarged, all incisorlike or conical teeth at front 

of both jaws of nearly same size and length; front of lower jaw with 

small incisors in 2 or 3 pairs, with smooth tips; posterolateral teeth 

smaller, conical, sometimes one or two a little enlarged and almost 

caninelike; usually a small patch of very short conical teeth behind 

outer row of larger teeth at front of jaws but sometimes lacking or 

reduced to 1 or 2 teeth; rims of orbits not elevated or bony; anterior 

nostril with a dermal flap, sometimes with bifid or even multifid tips 

arising on posterior rim, but nostrils not fringed with short cirri. 

7a. Short blunt papillae on lips and around mouth generally, these in form 

of short barblets, arrangement as follows: Median part of chin and 

lower jaw with 2 or 3 rows of papillae, or chin anteriorly with a pair of 

low lobes in form of reversed parentheses [) (] and sometimes at their 

inner tips a pair of papillae (more or less fused with the anterior lobes 

in nigripinnis and in pinniger); an inner row of barblets lateral to 

median lobes, one pair on each side; lower lip at each side of median 

part of chin lobelike, sometimes bearing 2 small papillae; 2 or 3 large 

papillae or knobs on each side along inner edge of groove of lower 

jaw; upper lip with a median papilla or knob and 5 more on each side; 

front edge of snout above groove without papillae but laterally 3 to 5 

knobs or papillae present or absent; sometimes another papilla 

occurring behind rictus and still another below rictus; gill membranes 

joined opposite fifth to seventh upper rays of pectoral fin; fleshy pad 

on outer base of pectoral fin with a free posterior membranous margin 

extending dorsally to opposite attachment of gill membranes; dorsal 

rays 10 to 19; pectoral fin rays 21 to 27; anus closer to anal origin 

than to rear margin of disk. (Maryland to West Indies to Brazil in 

Atlantic; Gulf of California to Peru and Cocos Island, in Pacific, 

Cotylis Miiller and Troschel.) Depth 4.5 to 6.5, eye 3.1 to 3.6 in 

length of base of dorsal fin; dorsal rays usually 11, anal usually 9, 

pectoral rays 22 to 26 (Maryland to West Indies to Brazil). 

Cotylis nigripinnis nigripinnis (Peters) 
lb. No papilla on upper lip, lobelike structures occurring around lips of the 
lower jaw when best developed being low knobs or ridges, chin lack- 
ing inner series of papillae as described for Cotylis. 
8a. Gill membranes joined at upper edge of pectoral fin base, sometimes 
a little anteriorly, giving appearance of being opposite bases of 
upper first to third pectoral fin rays or the orbits larger than inter- 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHXJLTZ 201 

orbital space; incisorlike teeth at front of lower jaw projecting 
forward in a nearly horizontal or oblique direction, usually middle 
pair a little larger than those laterally. 
9a. Anal rays 10 to 14; dorsal rays 12 to 16, pectoral rays 19 to 23 (count- 
ing all rudiments) ; fleshy pad on outer margin of pectoral fin base 
very well developed and free membranous border along its 
posterior edge extending up to or beyond twelfth pectoral ray 
from the dorsal edge; interorbital space equal to or wider than 
eye; least depth of caudal peduncle 4.5 to 5.25 times in dorsal 
origin to midcaudal fin base; anal origin under anterior third 
of dorsal fin base (Peru and Chile; San Diego to Queen Charlotte 

Island, Puget Sound) Sicyogaster Brisout de Barneville 

96. Anal rays 7 or 8; dorsal 7 to 9; pectorals 22 to 25; diameter of eyes 
greater than interorbital space except in large adults equal; 
interorbital space about three-fifths to three-fourths in eye, 
color usually reddish when ahve (Galdpagos Islands: Panama 
Bay; Mazatldn, Gulf of California; Bahama Islands; West 

Indies) Arcos " Schultz 

8b. Gill membranes joined opposite third to seventh upper pectoral fin 
rays somewhat more anteriorly than in Cotylis; incisorlike teeth 
at front of lower jaw not projecting horizontally forward but curved 
obliquely upward so as to be nearly opposite those in upper jaw, 
the pair of incisors at middle of lower jaw nearly same size as adjoin- 
ing ones; outer surface of pectoral fin base with a distinctly fleshy 
pad, posterior margin free and joined opposite attachment of gill 
membranes (Bahamas and West Indies; Texas, Central America 
to Brazil in Atlantic; Gulf of California to Colombia and Cocos 
Island in Pacific, Gobiesox Lacepfede). Disk much greater than 
distance from tip of chin to front of disk ; origin of dorsal fin equi- 
distant between midcaudal fin base and rear one-third of pectoral 
fin rays or a little behind them; anal origin under fifth dorsal fin 
ray, behind middle of base of rays of that fin; teeth of lower jaw 
not projecting forward in a nearly horizontal position but directed 
nearly straight upward in adults, a little more obUque in young 
specimens; head 2.2 to 2.7, disk 2.6 to 3.3 and depth 4 to 5.5, all 
in standard length; dorsal rays 8 or 9, anal 5 to 7, pectoral 18 to 
21; anus equidistant between anal origin and rear margin of disk 
or a little nearer to anal origin; eye 1}^ (young) to 5 (adults) times 
in interorbital space; length of disk when measured from its rear 
margin reaching nearly to end of anal fin usually from midbase to 
base of last anal ray; small dark spot often present near front of 
base of dorsal fin (Costa Rica, West Indies, to Brazil). 

Gobiesox cephalus Lacep^de 

Genus ARBACIOSA Jordan and Evermann 

Arbaciosa Jordan and Evermann, in Jordan, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 2, 
vol. 6, p. 230, 1896. (Genotype, Gobiesox humeralis Gilbert.) 

ARBACIOSA FASCIATA (Peters) 

Sic7jases fasciatus Petfrs, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1859, p. 412, 1860 
(Puerto Cabello).— GtJNTHER, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, 
vol. 3, p. 497, 1861 (Puerto Cabello) ; Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 6, p. 390. 

»i Not yet reported from Venezuela. 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

1868 (Puerto Cabello). — Jordan, Evermann, and Clark, Rep. U. S. Comm. 
Fish, for 1928, pt. 2, p. 490, 1930 (Puerto Cabello). 
Gobiesox fasciatus Jordan and Evermann, Rep. U. S. Comm. Fish and Fish, for 
1895, App., p. 492, 1896 (Puerto Cabello) ; U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 47, pt. 3, 
p. 2338, 1898 (Puerto Cabello). 

Genus COTYLIS Muller and Troschel 

Cotylis MtJLLER AND Troschel, in Muller, Arch, fiir Naturg. (Wiegmann), 
Jahrg. 9, vol. 1, p. 297, 1843. (Genotype, Cotylis nuda Muller and Troschel = 
Lepadogaster nudus Bloch and Schneider =Go6zesox gyrinus Jordan and 
Evermann = (ro6j'esox nigripinnis Peters.) 

COTYUS NIGRIPINNIS NIGRIPINNIS Peters 

Cotylis nigripinnis Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1859, p. 412, 1860 
(Puerto Cabello). 

Gobiesox nigripinnis GiJNTHER, Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, 
vol. 3, p. 502, 1861 (Puerto Cabello); Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 6, p. 390, 
1868 (Puerto Cabello). — Jordan and Evermann, Rep, U. S. Comm, Fish 
and Fish, for 1895, App., p. 491, 1896 (Puerto Cabello); U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Bull. 47, pt. 3, p. 2331, 1898 (Puerto Cabello). — Jordan, Evermann, and 
Clark, Rep. U. S. Comm. Fish, for 1928, pt. 2, p. 488, 1930 (Puerto Cabello). 

Genus GOBIESOX Lacepede 

Gobiesox Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, p. 595, fig., 1800. 
(Genotype, Gobiesox cephalus Lacepede.) 

GOBIESOX CEPHALUS LacepSde 

Gobiesox cephalus LacepJide, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, pp. 595, 596, 
fig., 1800 (fresh-water rivers of South America). 

The following specimens in the collections of the U. S. National 
Museum were collected by Lyon and Robinson on August 1 and 2, 
1900, at Macuto, near La Guaira, in a fresh-water stream. 

U.S.N. M. No. 93815 to 93817, 8 specimens, 115 to 145 mm. in standard length, 

U.S.N. M. No. 93820 to 93822, 5 specimens, 73 to 100 mm. 

U.S.N. M. No. 93827, 3 specimens, 124 to 132 mm. in standard length. 

Order BATRACHOIDEA 
Family BATRACHOIDIDAE: Toadfishes 

Genus BATRACHOIDES Lacepede 

Bairachoides Lacepede, Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 2, p. 451, 1800. 
(Genotype, Bairachoides tau Lacepede.) 

BATRACHOIDES SURINAMENSIS (Bloch and Schneider) 

Sapo de mar 

Bairachus surinamensis Bloch and Schneider, Systema ichthyologiae, p. 43, 

1801 (Surinam). 
Bairachoides surinamensis Fowler, Proc. Acad. Nat, Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 63, 

p. 437, 1911 (Pedernales, Venezuela). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, 

p. 412, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 203 

Order PEDICULATIFORMES 

Suborder Antennarioidea 

Family OGCOCEPHALIDAE: Batfishes 

Genus OGCOCEPHALUS Fischer 

Ogcocephalus Fischer, Zoognosia, Tabl. Syn., ed. 3, vol. 1, pp. 70, 78, 1813. 
(Genotype, Lophius vespertilio Linnaeus.) (Ref. copied.) 

OGCOCEPHALUS VESPERTILIO (Linnaeus) 
MURCIELAGO DE MAR 

Lophius vespertilio Linnaeus, Systema naturae, ed. 10, vol. 1, p. 236, 1758 
(Oceano Americano). — Rohl, Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, p. 413, figs. 
229, 230, 1942 (coast of Venezuela). 



LITERATURE CONTAINING REFERENCES TO VENEZUELAN 

FISHES 
Ahl, Ernst. 

1928. Ubersicht iiber die Fische der siidamerikanischen Cicliliden-Gattung 
Pterophyllum. Zool. Anz., vol. 76, pp. 251-275, fig. 
Beebe, William. 

1942. Atlantic and Pacific fishes of the Genus Dixonina. Zoologica, vol. 27, 

No. 8, pp. 43-48, 2 pis. 
1943a. Pattern and color in the cichlid fish, Aequideus tetramerus. Zoologica, 

vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 13-16, 1 pi. 
1943b. Physical factors in the ecology of Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica, 
vol. 28, No. 29, pp. 53-59, 2 figs., 2 pis. 
BxGELOW, Henry B., and Schroeder, William C. 

1948. Fishes of the western North Atlantic: Sharks. Mem. Sears Founda- 
tion Mar. Res. No. 1, pp. 59-576, figs. 6-106. New Haven. 

BOULENGER, GeoRGE A. 

1903. Description of a new fish of the genus Arges from Venezuela. Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 11, pp. 601-602. 
Caporiacco, Lodovico di. 

1935. Spedizione nello Beccari nella Guiana Britannica. Monitore Zool. 
Itahano, vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 55-70. 
CoDAZZi, Agustin. 

1940. Resumen de la Geograffa de Venezuela, vol. 1, 303 pp.; vol. 2, 148 pp.; 
vol. 3, 382 pp. Caracas. 
CirviER, G., AND Valenciennes, A. 

1830-1849. Histoire naturelle des poissons, vol. 5, 499 pp., 1830; vol. 6, 
559 pp., 1830; vol. 8, 507 pp., 1831; vol. 11, 506 pp., pis. 307-343, 
1836; vol. 15, 540 pp., pis. 421-455, 1840; vol. 19, 544 pp., pis. 544- 
590, 1846; vol. 22, 532 pp., pis. 634-650, 1849. 
De Beaufort, L. F. 

1940. Freshwater fishes from the Leeward group, Venezuela and eastern 
Colombia. Studies on the Fauna of Curasao, Aruba, Bonaire and 
the Venezuelan Islands edited by Dr. P. W. Hummehnck. vol. 2, 
pp. 109-114, 1 pi. 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

DuM^RiL, Aug. 

1865. Histoire naturelle des poissons, ou Ichthyologie g6n6rale, vol. 1, 
Elasmobranches, 702 pp; Atlas, 26 pis. 
DupouT, Walter. 

1944. Dr. Leonard P. Schultz: Ictiologia Venezolana. Revista Nac. Cul- 
tura, Caracas, No. 45, pp, 148-149. 

ElGENMANN, CaRL H. 

1911. Description of two new tetragonopterid fishes in the British Museum. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. 7, pp. 215-216. 

1912. The freshwater fishes of British Guiana, including a study of the 

ecological grouping of species, and the relation of the fauna of the 
plateau to that of the lowlands. Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 5, 
xvii + 578 pp., 103 pis. 
1915. The Serrasalminae and Mylinae. Ann. Carnegie Mus., vol. 9, Nos, 
3-4, pp. 226-272, 1 fig., 15 pis. 

1917. Pimelodella and Typhlobagrus. Mem. Carnegie Mus., vol. 7, No. 4, 

pp. 229-258, 5 pis. 

1918. The Pygidiidae, a family of South American catfishes. Mem. Carnegie 

Mus., vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 259-398, 39 figs., 21 pis. 
1918. The American Characidae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, pt. 2, 

pp. 103-208, pis. 9-11, 13, 17-29, 33, 78-80, 93. 
1919-1921. Peces Colombianos de las cordilleras y de los llanos al oriente de 

Bogota. Bol. Soc. Colom. Cien. Nat., vol. 7, pp. 126-136, 1919; 

vol. 8, pp. 159-168, 1920; vol. 9, pp. 191-199, 1921. 
1920a. The fishes of Lake Valencia, Caracas, and of the Rfo Tuy at El Concejo, 

Venezuela. Indiana Univ. Studies, vol, 7, No. 44, pp. 1-13, 3 figs., 

3 pis. 
1920b. South America west of the Maracaibo, Orinoco, Amazon, and Titicaca 

Basins, and the horizontal distribution of its fresh-water fishes. 

Indiana Univ. Studies, vol. 7, No. 45, pp. 1-24. 
1920c. The fish fauna of the Cordillera of Bogotd, Journ, Washington Acad. 

Sci., vol. 10, No. 16, pp. 460-468. 

1921. The American Characidae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, pt. 3, 

pp. 209-310, pis. 30-32, 40-45, 61-62, 64, 66, 69, 85, 87, 89, 92. 

1922. The fishes of western South America. Part I: The fresh-water fishes 

of northwestern South America including Colombia, Panama, and 
the Pacific slopes of Ecuador and Peru, together with an appendix 
upon the fishes of the Rfo Meta in Colombia. Mem. Carnegie Mus., 
vol. 9, 346 pp., 38 pis. 

1925. A review of the Doradidae, a family of South American nematognaths 
or catfishes. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 22, pt. 5, pp. 280-365, 
22 figs., 28 pis. 

1927. The American Characidae. Mem. Mus, Comp, Zool,, vol. 43, pt, 4, 
pp. 331-428, pis. 34-39, 56, 58-60, 65, 67-68, 75-77, 84, 86, 88, 90, 91, 
96-97, 99, 
EiGENMAJSTN, Carl H,, and Allen, William Ray. 

1942. Fishes of western South America. I. The intercordilleran and Amazo- 
nian lowlands of Peru. II. The high pampas of Peru, Bolivia, and 
northern Chile. With a revision of the Peruvian Gymnotidae, and 
of the genus Orestias, xv -}- 494 pp., 48 figs,, 22 pis., map, Univ. 
Kentucky, Lexington, 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 205 

ElGENMANN, CaRL H., and ElGENMANN, R. S. 

1889. A revision of the edentulous genera of Curimatinae. Ann. New York 

Acad. Sci., vol. 4, pp. 1-32. 

1890. A revision of the South American Nematognathi. Occ. Pap. California 

Acad. Sci., vol 1, 509 pp. 

1891. A catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of South America. Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., vol. 14, pp. 1-81. 
ElGENMANN, C. H., and Myers, G. S. 

1929. The American Characidae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, pt. 5, 
pp. 429-558, pis. 57, 63, 70-74, 81-83, 94. 
ElGENMANN, C. H., and Ogle, Fletcher. 

1907. An annotated list of characin fishes in the United States National 
Museum and the Museum of Indiana University, with descriptions 
of new species. Proc. U. S. Mat. Mus., vol. 33, pp. 1-36, 8 figs. 
ElGENMANN, C. H., and Ward, David Perkins. 

1905. The Gymnotidae. Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 167-186, 
5 pis. 
Ernst, Adolfo. 

1877. Estudios sobre la flora y fauna de Venezuela. Fishes, pp. 281-283. 
Caracas. 
Fowler, Henry W. 

1911. Some fishes from Venezuela. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 
63, pp. 419-437. 

1915. Notes on nematognathous fishes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

vol. 66, pp. 203-243. 

1916. Notes on fishes of the orders Haplomi and Microcyprini. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, pp. 415-439, 5 figs. 
1931. Fishes obtained by the Barber Asphalt Company in Trinidad and 
Venezuela in 1930. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 83, 
pp. 391-410, 6 figs. 

1943. Some Trinidad fresh-water fishes. The Fish Culturist, vol. 22, No. 9, 

pp. 65-67, 6 figs. 
Gabaldon, Arnoldo. 

1935. Molliensia caucana (Steindachner) a larvivorous top-minnow from 
Venezuela. Journ. Parasit., vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 311-312. 
Garman, Samuel. 

1890. On the species of the genus Anostomus. Bull. Essex Inst., vol. 22, 
No. 4, pp. 15-23. 
Ginsburg, Isaac. 

1944. A description of a new gobiid fish from Venezuela, with notes on the 

genus Garmannia. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 34, No. 11, 
pp. 375-380. 
Gomes, A. LouRENgo. 

1946. A review of Microglanis, a genus of South America catfishes, with 
notes on related genera. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 
No. 494, pp. 1-19, 1 pi. 
Gosline, William A. 

1940. A revision of the Neotropical catfishes of the family Callichthyidae. 
Stanford Ichthyol. Bull., vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-29, 4 figs. 

1944. [Review] The catfishes of Venezuela, with descriptions of 38 new forms, 

by Leonard P. Schultz. Copeia, 1944, No. 3, p. 194. 

1945. Catalogo dos Nematognatos de agua-doce da America do Sul e Central. 

Bol. Mus. Nac. Zool., No. 33, 138 pp. Rio de Janeiro. 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

GtJNTER, Gordon, 

1941. Notes on variation in Scorpaena plumieri Bloch. Copeia, 1941, No. 2, 

pp. 119-120. 

1942. A new Scorpaena from the Texas coast with notes on Scorpaena mystes 

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GttNTHER, Albert. 

1859-1866. A catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, vol. 1, 524 
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1862; vol. 5, 455 pp., 1864; vol. 6, 368 pp., 1866. 
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Salvin, Esq. Trans, Zool, Soc. London, vol, 6, pp. 377-494; 25 pis. 
Haseman, John D. 

1911, An annotated catalog of the cichlid fishes collected by the expedition 
of the Carnegie Museum to Central South America, 1907-10. Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., vol. 7, Nos. 3, 4, pp. 329-373, 20 pis. 
Heckel, Jacob. 

1840. Johann Natterer's Neue Fliissfische brasiliens nach den Beobachtungen 
und Mittheilungen des entdeckers beschrieben, Zool. Abh, Ann. 
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Herald, Earl S, 

1942, Three new pipefishes from the Atlantic coast of North and South 

America, with a key to the Atlantic American species, Stanford 
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HiLDEBRAND, SaMUEL F, 

1943, A review of the American anchovies (family Engraulidae) , Bull. 

Bingham Oceanogr, Coll,, vol, 8, art, 2, 165 pp., 72 figs. 
HuBBs, Carl L. 

1920. Notes on the atherine fishes of Colombia. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 

Michigan, No, 88, pp, 1-6, 
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Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 33, pp. 89-90. 
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Ihering, Rodolpho von, 

1907, Os peixes da agua doce do Brazil, Rev, Mus, Paulista, vol. 7, pp, 258- 

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vol, 8, pp, 380-404, 
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America, Rep, U, S, Comm, Fish and Fisheries for 1895, Append. 

5, pp. 207-584, 
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Bull. 47, pt. 1, pp. 1-1240, Oct. 3, 1896; pt. 2, 1241-2183, Oct. 3, 

1898; pt. 3, pp. 2183a-3136, Nov, 26, 1898; pt, 4, pp, 3137-3313, 

pis, 1-392, June 26, 1900, 
Jordan, D. S., Evermann, B. W., and Clark, H. Walton. 

1930. Check-list of the fishea and fishlike vertebrates of North and Middle 

America north of the northern boundary of Venezuela and Colombia. 

Rep. U, S, Comm, Fish, for 1928, Appendix, pt, 2, 670 pp. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 207 

Kner, Rudolph. 

1854. Die Hypostomiden. Zweite Hauptgruppe der familie der Panzer- 
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La Monte, Francesca. 

1929. Two new fishes from Mt. Duida, Venezuela. Amer. Mus. Nov. No. 
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LtJTKEN, Charles. 

1874. II. Nye eller Mindre vel kjendte Malleformer fra forskjellige Ver- 
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1916. The fishes of the fresh-waters of Panama. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. 
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Metzelaar, Jan. 

1919. Report on the fishes collected by Dr. J. Boeke in the Dutch West 
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tropical West Africa. Rapport Voorloopig Onderzoek toesland 
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MOCQUARD, FRANgOIS. 

1886. Sur un nouveau genre de Blenniidae voisin des Clinus (Acanihoclinus) . 

Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, ser. 7, vol. 10, pp. 18-20. 
1889. Revision des Clinus de la collection du Museum. Bull. Soc. Philom. 

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1841. Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen, xxii+205 pp., 60 pis. 

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Mters, George S. 

1924. The largest Rivulus. Copeia, 1924, No. 135, p. 96. 

1927. An analysis of the genera of Neotropical killifishes allied to Rivulus. 

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1927. Descriptions of new South American fresh-water fishes collected by 

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1928. New fresh-water fishes from Peru, Venezuela, and Brazil. Ann. Mag. 

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1935. Four new fresh-water fishes from Brazil, Venezuela, and Paraguay. 

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1936. A third record of the albulid fish Dixonina nemoptera Fowler, with 

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Bull., vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 89-114, 19 figs. 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM tol. w 

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Norman, J. R. 

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Pearse, a. S. 

1919. Fishing in Venezuela. Sci. Monthly, vol, 8, pp. 81-88. 

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1899. Note sur les poissons recueillis par M. F. Geay dans I'Apure et ses 

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1903. Contribution k I'etude anatomique, biologique, et taxonomique des 

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1908. Description de deux poissons nouveaux de I'Amerique du Sud, de la 

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1909. Mission g6od6sique de I'Equateur. Collections recueillis par M. Le 

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1909. Les poissons du genre Vandellia C. and V. Bull. Soc. Philom. 

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Peters, Wilhelm. 

1860. Eine neue von Hrn. Jagor im Atlantischen Meere gefangene art der 

Gattung Leptocephalus vor und fiigte mittheilungen liber einige 

andere neue Fische des Zoologischen Museums hinzu. Monatsb. 

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1877. t)ber die von Hrn. Dr. C. Sachs in Venezuela gesammetlen Fische. 

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1903a. Description of a new fish of the genus Chaetostomus from Venezuela. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 11, p. 599. 
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1904. A monograph of the fishes of the family Loricariidae. Trans. Zool. Soc. 

London, vol. 17, pt. 3, pp. 191-326, 13 pis. 
1905a. Description of a new loricariid fish of the genus Xenocara from 

Venezuela. Novi. Zool., vol. 12, p. 242. 
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Nannacara, Acaropsis, and Astronotus. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, 

vol. 15, pp. 329-347. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 209 

J 905c. A revision of the fishes of the American cichlid genus Cichlosoma and 
of allied genera. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 7, vol. 16, pp. 60-77, 225- 
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1905d. On drawings of fishes of the Rio Negro. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
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1906. On the fresh-water fishes of the Island of Trinidad, based on the col- 
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Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1906, pt. 1, pp. 378-393, 5 pis. 

1908. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Pisces, 203 pp., 2 maps, 26 pis. 

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1913. A revision of the cyprinodont fishes of the subfamily Poecihinae. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1913, pp. 977-1018, 3 pis. 

RiBEIRO, A. M. 

1911. Fauna Brasiliense. Peixes. T. IV(A) Eleutherobranchios aspirophoros — 
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1918. Lista dos pei.xes brasileiros do Museu Paulista. Rev. Mus. Paulista, 
vol. 10, pp. 705-736. 
RoHL, Edttardo. 

1942. Fauna descriptiva de Venezuela, 432 pp., 230 figs. Peces, pp. 353- 

413, figs. 172-230. Caracas. 

ROULIN, M. 

1829. Description d'une Pastenaque fluviatile du Meta (Pastenaque de 
Humboldt). Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 16, pp. 104r-107, 3 figs., 1 pi. 
Sachs, Carl. 

1879. Aus den Llanos. Schilderung einer Naturwissenschaftlichen Reise 
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ScHULTz, Leonard P. 

1943. Two new characinid fishes from South America of the genus Gilbertolus 

Eigenmann, Joum. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 33, No. 9, pp. 
273-275. 

1944a. The catfishes of Venezuela, with descriptions of thirty-eight new 
forms. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 94, pp. 173-338, 5 figs., 14 pis. 

1944b. The stingarees, much feared demons of the seas. U. S. Naval Med. 
Bull., vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 750-754, 3 figs. 

1944c. A new loricariid catfish from the Rfo Truando, Colombia. Copeia, 
1944, No. 3, pp. 155-156. 

1944d. A new species of cichlid fish of the genus Petenia from Colombia. 
Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 34, No. 12, pp. 410-412, 1 fig. 

1944e. A revision of the American clingfishes, family Gobiesocidae, with 
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vol. 96, pp. 47-77, 1 pi. 

1944f. The fishes of the family Characinidae from Venezuela, with descrip- 
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1944g. Two new species of fishes (Gymnotidae, Loricariidae) from Caripito, 
Venezuela. Zoologica, vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 39-44, 2 figs., 1 pi. 

1945a. Pygidium mondolfi, a new catfish from Venezuela. Journ. Washing- 
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1945b. Emmelichthyops otlanticvs, a new genus and species of fish (family 
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Journ. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 132-136. 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

1945c. Three new sciaenid fishes of the genus Ophioscion from the Atlantic 

coasts of Central and South America. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

vol. 96, pp. 123-137, 4 figs. 
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1948. The ways of fishes, 264 pp., 80 figs. New York. 
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265-270. 
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dem Rio Meta in Venezuela und iiber die relativen Langenmasse bei 

O. rostrata (Sp.). Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 47, pp. 410-411. 
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Akad. Wlss. Wien, vol. 93, pp. 15-106 4 figs., 13 pis. 
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ToRTONESE, Enrico. 

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gonopterinae, Glandulocaudinae e Stethaprioninae (Teleostei 

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49, ser. 4, No. 117, pp. 11-86, 8 figs., 4 pis. 



ICHTHYOLOGY OF VENEZUELA — SCHULTZ 211 

Ulrey, Albert B. 

1895. The South American Characinidae collected by Charles Frederick 
Hartt. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 257-300. 
YEPfis, AgustIn Fernandez. 

1945. Un nuevo loricarido para Venezuela. Descripcion de uu ejemplar 
de Loricariidae colectado en el Rio Encantado afluente del Rio 
Tuy por medio Rio Grande. Mem. Soc. Cien. Nat. La Salle, 
Caracas, Venezuela, Ano 5, No. 14, pp. 27-34, figs. 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

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Vol. 99 Washington: 1949 No. 3236 

THE WEEVILS OF THE GENUS TACHYGONUS IN THE 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, WITH DESCRIP- 
TIONS OF NEW SPECIES 



By Oscar Monte ^ 



The author received from the United States National Museum to be 
studied a fine collection of weevils of the genus Tachygonus ^ 
Schoenherr numbering 47 specimens, comprising 20 species, of which 
12 are new to science, some of these being represented by unique types. 
There are also several new geographical records. 

He takes the opportunity to express his thanks to the authorities of 
the United States National I\Iuseum for their permission to study this 
material and to L. L. Buchanan, of the Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, for the offer of specimens in his charge for the 
study of this interesting genus from South and Central America. 
The author is greatly indebted also to Mrs. Ruth C. Altieri for making 
the fine illustrations. 

The type specimens of new species described herein are in the col- 
lection of the United States National Museum. Certain paratypes 
have also been deposited, as indicated in the text, in the Monte 
collection. 

TACHYGONUS RUFUS Hustache 

Four specimens, Vi^'osa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, April 14, 1933, col- 
lected by E. J. Hambleton, taken on an undetermined species of 
Apocynaceae. The original description was based upon three speci- 
mens collected at Jatahy, Goiaz, Brazil. 

^ The author of this paper was connected with the Institute Biol6gico, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 
He died on July 1, 1948, after his manuscript had been submitted for publication. — Editor. 
2 Coleoptera : Curculionidae. 

S10274— 49 213 



214 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Three specimens have the posterior tibiae blackish. Tliis character 
is not mentioned in the original description; the fourth specimen 
has the tibiae of the same color as the elytra, and this color is variable 
from reddish yellow to ferruginous. The pectinate white scales are 
not so scattered. The author thinks such characters do not differ 
sufficiently to warrant a varietal description. 

Length 1.65-1.73 mm. (type 1.5 mm.) ; width 1.13 mm. 

TACHYGONUS BUCHANANI, new species 
FiGUEE 21 

Black, shining, the anterior and intermediate legs and posterior 
tarsi ferruginous. Head pitted, with a patch of pectinate white scales 
on the sides. Kostrum ferruginous, with the basal portion blackish, 
strongly pitted and with sparse, short, yellowish bristles laterally, the 
central area smooth. Antennae yellowish, the club paler. 






Figure 21. — Tachygonus buchanani, 
new species, X5. 



Figure 22. — Tachygonus bicolor, 
new species, X5. 



Pronotum thickly pitted laterally, rather sparsely so medially, 
with a few black, erect hairs, except along the narrow smooth median 
space; the flanks of the pro-, meso-, and metathorax thinly covered 
with pectinate white scales, the scales sparser on the mesothorax than 
on the other two segments. 

Elytra very broad, cordiform, flat to the third interstice, strongly 
declivous posteriorly, deeply pitted, and covered with long, brown- 
red hairs; two or three forked scales in postscutellar region; suture 
toward apex with a few yellowish- white setae ; elytra a short distance 



WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONUS — MONTE 215 

beyond the middle with a series of setae in two transverse rows, 
forming a faint band from the sixth to tenth interstices. 

Posterior femora dark, thicker apically than basally, granulose, 
covered with black and white setae, the latter most numerous on the 
basal half ; armed with numerous scattered minute teeth and with three 
long, black teeth, the second slightly the longest, first and third sub- 
equal, the most distal of the three teeth placed on the interior edge, 
the other two on the exterior edge. Posterior tibiae rather broad, 
arcuate, provided with strong, erect setae on the external border, and 
long adpressed ones within. Tarsi ferruginous and covered with long 
white hairs. 

Length 2.17 mm.; width 1.73 mm. 

Type.—V.S.l^M. No. 58186. 

One specimen, Teffe, Amazonas, Brazil, December 10, 1919. Col- 
lection Bovie through Buchanan. 

This species is most closely allied to T. guerini Monte but is smaller ; 
elytra with the interstices lower, the pits deeper, and with the pectinate 
white scales on the external margin extending across the middle ; the 
posterior femora with fewer teeth. It is smaller than T. hydropicus 
Chevrolat, a species which has the teeth on the posterior femora dif- 
ferently placed. The species is named in honor of L. L. Buchanan, 
who has taken great interest in weevils. 

TACHYGONUS BICOLOR, new species 
Figure 22 

Black, shiny. Legs yellowish. Rostrum smooth, dark at base with 
the sides pitted, the tip ferruginous. Antennae yellowish white. 
Prothorax and elytra densely covered by testaceous and whitish hairs. 
Prothorax with shallow pits; the sides of the prothorax and of the 
meso- and metathorax densely covered with white pectinate scales. 

Elytra very broad, lightly pitted, apical third of the suture with 
some crossed, erect, yellow setae ; a scutellar patch on each elytron with 
pectinate white scales; the pectoral channel and the last (third and 
fourth visible) abdominal segments covered densely with white scales, 
the genital (fifth) segment with long white hairs instead of scales. 

Posterior femora very elongate, covered with long, black and white 
hairs, armed with three long, strong teeth, two of which are opposite 
each other, forming a pair at apical two-sevenths, the other principal 
tooth submedian, the latter placed between two very short teeth. 
Posterior tibiae swollen, arcuate, yellowish, but with the external 
border reddish. 

Length 2.17 mm.; width 1.56 mm. 

Type.— U.S.N.M. No. 58187. 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL IMUSEUM vol. 99 

One specimen, Bolivia, Huachi, Beni. W. M. Mann, 1922. Miilf ord 
Biol. Expl., 1921-22. 

Closely related to T. rufovarius Kirsch but distinguished by the 
color of the posterior legs and by the shape and larger size of the 
posterior tibiae. 

TACHYGONUS MONTANUS, new species 
FiGUEE 23 

Black, shiny, rounded subquadrate, with a red, arrow-shaped mark 
on the elytra (formed by a reddish sutural line, which is branched 
near the postscutellar patch). 

Prothorax black, shiny, sparsely pitted ; the flanks red and covered 
by pectinate scales, which are spread along the dorsal and basal edges. 
Flanks of meso- and metathorax densely clothed with white pectinate 
scales. 

Rostrum black, but testaceous at tip; the sides pitted. Antennae 
cream white. 

Elytra black, shiny, with two dense white postscutellar tufts; the 
interstices raised; terminal part of the suture with a series of about 
eight pairs of short, yellow, strongly crossed setae. Abdominal seg- 
ments with white hairs and a few white pectinate scales. 

Anterior and intermediate legs yellowish ; the posterior ones black, 
with the femora reddish apically, and armed with several small teeth 
and also with four long teeth, one pair at apical two-sevenths, one 
tooth at the middle and basad of this a shorter one. Posterior tibiae 
sinuate, with short, yellowish setae. Hind tarsi with the first segment 
ferruginous, the rest missing. 

Length 1.73 mm. ; width 1.30 mm. 

7V;>e.— U.S.N,M. No. 58188. 

One specimen, Bolivia, Cosincho, Beni, collected by G. L. Harring- 
ton. 

Near T. neivai Monte but distinguished by the posterior femora 
being totally black and narrower at tip. 

TACHYGONUS MIRUS, new species 

Figure 24 

Ferruginous, with dark spots somewhat variable in size and location. 
Head dark, its dorsal surface with small, somewhat elongate punctures 
separated by very narrow, longitudinal, more or less cariniform lines, 
this sculpture less distinct laterally; sides of head with some white 
pectinate scales. In one of the paratypes the dark color of head is 
separated by a narrow reddish streak. 

Antennae whitish yellow. Eostrum dark brown, lighter at apex, 
with strong pitting at base and flanks. Dorsum of prothorax dark, 



WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONUS — MONTE 



217 



sliiny, very little pitted, and bearing long brown hairs, which are pres- 
ent also on elytra; flanks of prothorax ferruginous, densely covered 
with white pectinate scales, which extend along the basal margin. 
The flanks of meso- and metathorax covered by dense white scaling, 
forming layers. Elytra widened in front, narrowing toward the 
apex, with numerous wide but shallow pits; interstices raised; base 
dark, this color extending on external margins to nearly half the 
length, declivity with two patches of the same color; postscutellar 
region marked by two patches of white pectinate scales; lateral mar- 
gins of elytra with a series of white pectinate scales ; sutural interstices 
with a series of crossed white setae. In one of the para types the same 
type of scaling can be noted on last interstices. Genital segment with 
white erect hairs. 





Figure 23. — Tachygonus montanus, 
new species, X5. 



Figure 24. — Tachygonus mirus, new 
species, X5. 



Posterior femora with basal two-thirds dark and apical third fer- 
ruginous and with white and dark hairs, the white ones more numer- 
ous on basal two-thirds and the dark on apical third ; granulose, armed 
with 4 long teeth, 2 of which are better developed and form a pair 
at about apical two-sevenths, 1 tooth at middle, and another at basal 
third, and also with a series of about 10 small teeth, some almost re- 
duced to tubercles, the 2 near apex larger. Hind tibiae ferruginous, 
dark on external margin, slightly spatulate, bearing various brown 
hairs. Hind tarsi yellow, with plentiful white hairs. 

Underside of body dark. 

Length 2.39 mm. ; width 1.65 mm. 

ry;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58189. 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL IVIUSEUM vol. 99 

Four specimens, San Mi<?iiel, Peru, two collected on September 1. 
1911, and the other two, including the type, in July 1911, by the Yale 
Peruvian Expedition, at G,000 feet. One paratype in the collection 
of the author. 

These specimens suggest T. rufovanus Kirsch, described from Peru, 
because one of them has black patches on the elytra placed as called 
for in the original diagnosis of this species, but mirus differs by having 
the tibiae and base of femora darker, by having the pronotum not 
densely pitted, the elytra elongated, the femoral teeth, of which four 
are well developed, different, and in being larger. 

TACHYGONUS COMPTUS, new species 

Figure 25 

Shiny black; anterior and intermediate legs yellow, with apex of 
the tibiae usually dark and with various whitish hairs, and two fringes 
formed by curved and golden hairs, one fringe on inner edge and ex- 
tending entire length of tibiae, the other, on outer edge, short, apical 
and extending to a little above the tibial claw; all the tarsi dark with 
last segment paler. 

Head strongly pitted, sparsely so on sides, and there with small 
pectinate scales. 

Rostrum smooth, shiny and dark, slightly ferruginous at apex. An- 
tennae light yellow. 

Prothorax black, shiny, pitted, dorsal pitting smaller, flanks with 
abundant pectinate white scales. Flanks of meso- and metathorax, 
and posterior margins of abdominal segments with dense pectinate 
white scales which in some places form layers. 

Elytra black, cordiform, the white postscutellar patch well marked, 
each sutural interval with a series of white setae, the setae crossing 
in about apical half of elytra. 

Posterior femora armed with a series of numerous small tubercles 
and with four well-developed teeth, a subapical pair of which the 
inner tooth is a good deal larger than outer, a rather long submedian 
tooth, and, in line with it, a smaller one at about basal third; distad 
of the subapical pair of larger teeth are two or three small teeth on 
inner edge. Hind tibiae more or less thickened, with numerous 
tubercles on external and internal margins; white and brown hairs 
spread over femora and tibiae. Hind tarsi covered with pale hairs, 
dark, the last segment yellow. 

Length 2.1T mm. ; width 1.41 mm. 

r?/;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58190. 

Five specimens; four, including the type, from San Miguel, Peru 
(G.OOO feet), September 1, 1911, and one specimen from Paltaybamba 
(5,000 feet), August 6, 1911, Yale Peruvian Expedition. One para- 
type in the collection of the author. 



WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONUS — ^MONTE 



219 



Similar to T. rugosipennis Hustache but differs by having the fem- 
ora more pointed and the femoral teeth differently placed, the scal- 
ing denser and the elytra somewhat narrower. Differs from T. scu- 
tellaris Kirsch in the pectinate scales of abdomen, by the posterior legs 
being totally black, and by the nonflattened tibiae. 

TACHYGONUS CASEYI Champion 

Two specimens, Bequeren, Puerto Rico, Cabassa Finca, R. G. Oakley, 
collector. On Guacima guacima. Heretofore known from Mexico 
and Guatemala. 

TACHYGONUS NIGER, new species 

Figure 26 

Shining black, the first two pairs of legs light brown. Rostrum 
ferruginous, dark at base, smooth and shining, slightly pitted at sides 
and with a small depression at base. 

Head rugose, with a few scales laterally. Antennae yellowish, with 
a silky white club. 





Figure 25. — Tachygonus comptus, 
new species, X5. 



Figure 26. — Tachygonus niger, new 
species, X5. 



Dorsum of prothorax smooth, shallowly pitted and with some fine 
hairs; flanks covered with pectinate white scales. 

Elytra wide, with salient shoulders, strongly pitted and with whitish 
yellow hairs over whole surface and with setae of same color on de- 
clivity. The white pectinate scales in postscutellar spot every dense. 
Flanks of meso- and metathorax covered with same type of scales, 
these more numerous on mesothorax. 

Hind femora long, granulated, with light and dark hairs, armed 
with numerous small teeth reduced to tubercles and with three well- 
developed teeth, a subapical pair and one submedian tooth; there are 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

also four smaller teeth, three situated between subapical pair and apex 
of tibia, the fourth based of the submedian tooth. Hind tibiae paler 
than femora, serrated on inside, curved and bearing white and dark 
hairs, tarsi with first two segments ferruginous and the last two 
yellowish, all covered with white hairs. 

Lenth 2.00 mm. ; width 1.39 mm. 

Type.—V.S.'NM. No. 58191. 

One specimen. Las Mercedes, Santa Clara, Costa Rica, 200 to 300 
meters, collected by F. Nevermann, December 1921. 

Extremely close to T. curvicrus Champion but differentiated in the 
placing of the hind femoral teeth. The present species has four teeth, 
a pair close to apex, one more or less in the middle, another at the basal 
third ; there are several others almost reduced to tubercles. 

Differentiated from T. femoralis Monte by the shape of the femora. 

TACHYGONUS LATICRUS Champion 

Two specimens, Coronado, Costa Rica (1,400 to 1,500 meters), col- 
lected by F. Nevermann, May 24, 1925, on leaves of Inga edulis. 

This species is of the same group as guerini Monte and bondati 
Marshall. It is distinguished from guerini by its smaller size, fewer 
teeth on posterior femora, and by its shorter and stouter tibiae. 

Length 2.39 mm.; width 1.91 mm. 

TACHYGONUS FERRUGINEUS, new speciea 

Figure 27 

General color ferruginous; fore and middle legs yellowish; hind 
legs dark brown. Rostrum of same color as elytra. 

Head slightly darker than prothorax, upper surface with some fine, 
longitudinal punctate striations, flanks with white scaling and with 
pitting which becomes somewhat denser close to eyes. Antennae 
ferruginous, with whitish club. 

Prothorax with wide and shallow pits; flanks of pro-, meso-, and 
metathorax covered with pectinate white scales. Elytra and dorsum 
of prothorax with long, erect, yellow hairs. 

Elytra wide and flattened, shoulders slightly produced ; besides the 
hairs strong setae are present, some of the setae fringing external 
margin of elytra; postscutellar region with a few white scales. 

Posterior femora very long, dark brown, lighter at base, granulose, 
with a pair of subapical teeth, and a smaller submedian tooth, and 
also a series of small teeth along inner edge; tibiae spatulate, dark, 
paler at base, the external margin with a series of four to five rigid, 
erect setae, the internal margin with abundant hairs. Hind femora 
and tibiae with various white and brown hairs. Hind tarsi with first 



WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONTJS — ^MONTE 



221 



two segments ferruginous and the last two yellow, all covered by 
dense white hairs. 

Underside of body dark. 

Length 1.82 mm. ; width 1.30 mm. 

Ty^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58192. 

One specimen from Guapiles, Santa Clara, Costa Kica, collected by 
F. Nevermann, February 17, 1924. 

Perfectly distinct from all described species. 

TACHYGONUS ATRO-SIGNATUS, new species 

Figure 28 

General color brown, elytra lighter than prothorax and marked 
with dark patches of which the largest is close to the shoulder. 

Head light brown with a small, dark, median patch close to eyes, 
and laterally with numerous white scales. 





Figure 27. — Tachygonus ferrugineus, 
new species, X5. 



Figure 28. — Tachygonus atro-signatus, 
new species, X5. 



Rostrum rather stout, brown, darker medially, strongly pitted at 
sides. Antennae yellowish, club whitish and covered with silky hairs. 

Prothorax ferruginous, dorsum dark and with wide but shallow pits 
and erect brown hairs ; flanks with abundant whitish-yellow scales. 

Elytra with deep pits and raised interstices, pale ferruginous, tinged 
with black near shoulders, laterally, and a little posterior to the 
postscutellar patch; postscutellar patch formed of white, pectinate 
scales; apical part of the suture with yellowish-white crossed setae. 
Flanks of meso- and metathorax with pectinate white scales. 

Front and middle legs yellowish ; hind legs ferruginous. Posterior 
femora with numerous small tubercles and with four big teeth, two 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 09 

at about apical third, one median, and one behind middle, the last 
the smallest. Hind tibiae darkish brown covered with white and 
dark hairs. Hind tarsi yellowish and densely covered with long white 
hairs. 

Length 2.21 mm. ; width 1.48 mm. 

Type.—{].S.^M. No. 58193. 

One specimen, Hamburg Farm, Reventazon, Ebene Limon, Costa 
Rica, F. Nevermann, collector, on a shrub, August 10, 1924. 

This species is chiefly distinguished by the disposition of the teeth 
on the posterior femora and by the dark spots on the elytra. 

TACHYGONUS VALIDUS. new species 

Figure 29 

Black, the elytra slightly brown at the shoulders. Prothorax pitted 
dorsally, the pits larger at sides than medially. The whole body bear- 
ing long dark-brown hairs. The sides (flanks) of the pro-, meso-, 
and metathorax with -white pectinate scales. Elytra wide, the pitting 
rough, shoulders salient, a few white pectinate scales in the post- 
scutellar region forming a vaguely defined patch, suture from this 
patch to apex with a series of brown, crossed setae. 

Anterior and intermediate legs yellowish; posterior legs with 
femora dark medially, reddish at the apex and base, the basal reddish 
part with abundant white hairs which are more numerous on the 
external surface. Hind femora granulose, the dark median part with 
four stout teeth on the internal edge (two larger and two smaller) 
and also with two on the external edge, of which the antemedian tooth 
is opposite one of the large teeth on internal side and forms a pair 
with it, the second of the external teeth quite distant from the others 
and placed slightly beyond basal third of femur. Hind tibiae curved 
and widening toward the apex, which is ferruginous and bears a few 
white pectinate scales; remainder of tibia dark and covered with 
abundant dark hairs ; hind tarsi ferruginous and covered with white 
hairs. 

Length 2.82 mm. ; width 2.08 mm. 

Type.—U.S.l^M. No. 58194. 

One specimen taken by Dr. R. E. Blackwelder, at Ciricito, Panama 
(Canal Zone), March 3, 1930. 

Similar to T. quinquedentatus Champion but differentiated by the 
femoral teeth, by the widening of the hind tibiae, and by the indistinct 
postscutellar patch, which is formed by about six pectinate scales on 
each side of the suture. Near to T. hondari Marshall, but smaller, 
with narrower tibiae, the femora with four teeth on the inside (two 
larger and two smaller) and small tubercles, and with two teeth widely 
separated from each other on the external side. 



WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONUS — ^MONTE 



223 



TACHYGONUS FEMORALIS. new species 

Figure 30 

Shiny black ; fore and middle legs yellowish, hind legs with ferru- 
ginous femora and black tibiae. Rostrum ferruginous. Antennae 
yellowish white. 

Prothorax smooth and sparsely pitted above, with few erect hairs, 
flanks with abundant white pectinate scales; flanks of meso- and 
metathorax with similar scales, diese more abundant on metathorax. 

Elytra dark, lightly ferruginous in the center ; a white patch formed 
by pectinate scales, on the postscutellar region; yellowish, crossed 
setae along the suture and long, fine hairs dispersed over the elytral 
surface. 





Figure 29. — Tachygonus validus, new 
species, X5. 



Figure 30. — Tachygonus femoralis, 
new species, X5. 



Posterior femora much thickened (which characterizes the species), 
constricted at the apex, bearing small tubercles and long white hairs 
basally, and brown hairs apically; femoral teeth placed as follows: 
On the inside a large one at about apical fourth, and two very small 
ones clistad of it ; on the external side are two short ones of which the 
more distal is fairly large and opposite the large tooth on the internal 
side, the next one (proceeding toward base of femur) reduced nearly 
to a tubercle, this followed by three others of which the second is 
well developed on the left femur but much reduced on the right. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Hind tibiae dark and curved, the internal surface slightly serrated 
and covered with white hairs. Hind tarsi dark brown, the last seg- 
ment yellowish, all segments covered densely with white hairs. 

Length 2.00 mm. ; width 1.52 mm. 

7\/pe.~U.S.^M. No. 58195. 

One specimen, Porto Bello, Panama (Canal Zone), collected by A. 
Busck, February 20, 1911. 

Close to T. curvicrus Champion but with more teeth on the femora 
and with much thickened femora (thicker than the tibiae). 

TACHYGONUS SEMIRUFUS Champion 

Six specimens, Paraiso, Panama (Canal Zone), collected by E. A. 
Schwarz, January 26, March 16, April 17, and May 10, 1911. 

Sometimes the color is red brown, in this case the posterior femora 
and tibiae are dark, but lighter on the apex of the former and on the 
base of the latter. 

TACHYGONUS GOWDEYI Marshall 

Eight specimens, El Salvador, on madre de cacao, A. K. Salman, 
collector, March 20, 1925. 

TACHYGONUS NITIDUS. new species 

Figure 31 

Shining black ; front and middle legs, basal two-thirds of the hind 
femora, and entire hind tarsi ferruginous. 

Kostrum with basal half darker and with whitish hairs near the 
eyes. Head with delicate pitting. 

Prothorax with wide but shallow pitting, upper surface with brown, 
erect hairs, the flanks with fine, white, pectinate scales, which are also 
present on the flanks of meso- and metathorax, the scales on meta- 
thorax more abundant on metepisternum than on sides of 
metasternum. 

Elytra with deep pitting, each pit being the origin of a fine light- 
brown hair, the interstices with longer ones of the same color. Post- 
scutellar patch wanting. 

Posterior femora with the basal two-thirds ferruginous, the remain- 
der black. White hairs are present on the basal part and black ones on 
the apical. The femora are armed with five teeth on the internal side, 
the one nearest apex very short, the second longer, the remainder 
gradually diminishing in length. Hind tibiae black, slightly serrated 
inwardly, with hairs subappressed, the external margin with a few 
erect setae. Hind tarsi brown, with short, dark hairs. 

Length 1.56 mm. ; width 1.21 mm. 



WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONUS — ^MONTE 



225 



Type.—U.S.^M. No. 58196. 

Two specimens, Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala, collected 
by Schwarz and Barber, on cacao, April 18, 1906. 

Very near to T. goiodeyi Marshall but distinguished by the absence 
of the postscutellar patch and by the placing of the femoral teeth. 
T. hidentatus Champion is another allied species. 

TACHYGONUS FLOHRI Champion 

One specimen, Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala, on cacao, 
Schwarz and Barber, collectors, April 4. 

TACHYGONUS RUGOSUS, new species 

Figure 32 

Shiny black ; pronotum, elytra, femora, and tibiae bearing plentiful 
Jong, erect, rigid, black setae; postscutellar patch wanting, base of 
pronotum at middle with a small tuft of white pectinate scales. 






Figure 31. — Tachygonus nitidus, new 
species, X5. 



Figure 32. — Tachygonus rugosus, new 
species, X5. 



Pronotal pits sparse but wide; flanks of prothorax covered with 
pectinate white scales. Flanks of meso- and metathorax covered with 
similar scales, these more abundant on the metathorax. 

Antennae ferruginous, club lighter. Rostrum dark brown, sides 
with delicate yellow hairs. 

Elytra rugose, interstices distinctly raised, pits wide and deep. 
Abdominal sternites laterally with a few white pectinate scales. 

Posterior femora thick, black with yellowish apex, rugose, pits wide 
but sparse; armed with a long, strong tooth situated between two 
shorter ones, and with various small tubercles placed in lines on the 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

two margins. Posterior tibiae short, black, yellow at extreme base, 
rugose, internal side with light-brown hairs, the external side with 
about four strong, erect setae. Hind tarsi light brown, with dark and 
rigid setae on upper side, and abundant white hairs on under. 

Length 1.82 mm. ; width 1.48 mm. 

Tijpe.—V.S.'NM. No. 58197. 

One specimen, Cordoba, Mexico, collected by Frederick Knab, April 
8, 1908. 

Close to T. pectinisquamis Champion but without scutellar patch. 
T. rugosus is characterized by the short femora and by the patch of 
erect scales on base of pronotum. 

TACHYGONUS MINUTUS Blatchley 

Three specimens, Tampico, Mexico, collected by E. A. Schwarz. 
Length 1.30 mm. ; width 0.86 mm. 

TACHYGONUS PECTINISQUAMIS Champion 

One specimen, Temescaltepec, Mexico, May 20 to June 4, H. E. Hin- 
ton and R. L. Usinger, collectors, collection E. C. Zimmerman, 1941, 
which does not agree exactly with the description of pectinisquamis^ 
but whether the apparent differences are significant or not could only 
be determined by a comparison with the type. 

Length 1.65 mm.; width 1.13 mm. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Blatchley, W. S. 

1920. Notes on some Coleoptera taken in the vicinity of Dunedin, Florida, in 
the spring of 1920, with descriptions of new species. Can. Ent., vol. 
52, pp. 263-264. 
1922. Notes on the Rhynchophora of eastern North America, with character- 
izations of new genera and descriptions of new species. Journ. 
New York Ent. Soc, vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 98-99. 
Blatchley, W. S., and Leng, C. W. 

1916. Rhyncliophora or weevils of northeastern America, pp. 93-95. 
Casey, Thomas L. 

1897. Coleopterological notices, VII. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 9, 
pp. 679-681. 
Champion, G. C. 

1906. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Coleoptera, vol. 4, pt. 5, pp. 131-138. 
1910. lUd., pt. 7, p. 210. 
Chevkolat, L. a. a. 

1829-1844. In Guerin, Iconographie du R&gne animal, vol. 3, p. 155, pi. 38, 
fig. 9. 
Faust, J. 

1896. Reise von E. Simon in Venezuela. Stett. Ent. Zeit., vol. 57, pp. 99-100. 
Gyllenhal, L. 

1833. In Schoenherr, Genera et species Curculionidum . . ., vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 
312-313. 



"WEEVILS OF GENUS TACHYGONUS — ^MONTE 227 

HUSTACHE, A. 

1932. Curculionides de la Guadeloupe. In Gruvel, Faune Colonies Frangaises, 

vol. 5, pt. 3, p. 48. 
1939. Curculionides nouveaux de TAmerique m^ridionale, qui se trouvent 

dans le Deutsches Entomologisches Institut. Arb. Morph. und Taxon. 

Ent., vol. 6, pp. 170-173. 
1941, Nouveaux Curculiouidts du Brfeil. Rev. de Ent., vol. 12, Nos. 1-2, 

pp. 134-136. 
KiRSCH, Th. 

1875. Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Peruanischen Kaferfauna. Deutsch. Ent. 

Zeitschr., vol. 19, pp. 252-254. 
Klima, a, 

1936. Coleopterorum catalogus (Junk) : Subfamily Tachygoninae, pars. 146, 
pp. 1-2. 
LeConte, J. L. 

1868. New Coleoptera collected on the survey for the extension of the Union 
Pacific Railway, E. D. from Kansas to Fort Craig, New Mexico. 
Trans. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 2, p. 55. 
LeConte, J. L., and Horn, G. H. 

1876. Rhynchophora of America north of Mexico. Proe. Amer. Philos. Soc, 

vol. 15, pp. 265-267. 
Marshall, Q. A. K. 

1926. On new Neotropical Curculionidae (Col.) Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser. 

9, vol. 18, pp. 542-543. 
1938. New Brazilian Curculionidae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, vol. 2, 
pp. 46-48. 
Monte, Oscab. 

1941. Novas esp^cies do genero Tachygonus Schoenherr (Col. Curculionoidea). 

Pap. Avulsos, Dept. Zool., Sao Paulo, vol. 1, pp. 245-254, 3 figs. 
1944a. Uma nova especie de Tachygonus (Col. Curculionidae). Rev. Brasil. 

Biol., vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 49-50, 1 fig. 
1944b. Notas sobre Curculionideos. Rev. Brasil. Biol., vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 
289-291, 2 figs. 
Schoenherr, C. J. 

1833. Genera et species Curculionidum . . ., vol. 1, pt. 1, pp. 311-312. 
1839. Hid., vol. 5, pt. 1, pp. 454-455. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRfNTlNG OFFICE: 1949 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



ssued 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington: 1949 No. 3237 



THE SPECIES OF ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF THE GENUS 
CARDIOCHILES OCCURRING IN AMERICA NORTH OF 
MEXICO 



By YiNG-Tou Mao 



The Cardiochilinae are a comparative!}' small subfamily of 
ichneumon-flies of the family Braconidae. Cardiochiles Nees is the 
only genus in North America. It is a distinct group, differing rather 
noticeably from other Braconidae in having the third abscissa of 
radius arched forward (pi. 4, figs. 4, 5) . The species tend to fall into 
two well-defined groups, one with hairy eyes and the habitus of a 
microgasterine and the other with bare eyes and the habitus of a 
sawfly. Although apparently best represented in the southern part of 
the United States, Cardiochiles occurs as far north as southern Canada. 
Little is known concerning the host relationships of members of the 
genus. The hosts are probably always lepidopterous larvae, but few 
species have been reared. C. nigriceps Viereck is a conspicuous excep- 
tion. It has been obtained abundantly from larvae of the tobacco hwd.- 
worm. Heliothis vlrescens (Fabricius). 

This study was carried out under a fellowship granted by the 
Science, Education and Art Division, Department of State, Wash- 
ington, D. C, U. S. A. The problem was suggested by C. F. W. Muese- 
beck. Division of Insect Identification, U. S. Bureau of Entomology 
and Plant Quarantine, to whom the author is very much indebted for 
his guidance during the course of the investigation. Thanks are due 
to Dr. H. K. Townes, Jr., R. A. Cushman, and A. B. Gahan of the 
same Division for their valuable suggestions and criticisms. The 
author is also indebted to Dr. E. A. Chapin, curator of insects, U. S. 
National Museum, for the use of facilities at the Museum, and to Miss 

810273—49 1 229 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

M. M. Carpenter for arranging interlibrary borrowings. In addition, 
thanks are due E. T. Cresson, Jr., of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, for the loan of the Cardiochlhs collection of that 
institution for study and to Prof. H. B. Hungerford, of the University 
of Kansas, for the loan of the type of Cardiochiles nigroclypeus 
Viereck. 

Subfamily Cardiochilinae Ashmead 

Cardiochilinae Ashmead, in Smitb, Insects of New Jersey, p. 592, 1900 ; Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, p. 129, 1901.— Sz^pugeti, in Wytsman, Genera 
insectorum, fasc. 22, p. 142, 1904. 

Frons impressed and with a more or less distinct median longitudi- 
nal carina; scape and pedicel polished, flagellum dull; cheek, temple, 
and occiput not margined ; clypeus not impressed to form a rounded 
depression with the mandibles ; mandibles crossing at tips. Mesono- 
tum with notaulices meeting, usually in an acute angle ; mesopleuron 
with a f oveolate groove at its posterior margin ; prepectus margined 
or not; forewing with three cubital cells, the second cell longer than 
wide; radial cell elongate, extending to near the apex of wing; third 
abscissa of radius curved or subangulate basally; subdiscoidal vein 
originating below middle of discoidal vein; nervulus postf ureal; 
stigma broad or lanceolate; hind wing with radiellan cell divided. 
Abdomen subsessile, with the usual sutures; articulation between 
second and third tergites rigid. 

Genus CARDIOCHILES Nees 

Cardiochiles Nees, Nov. Acta Acad. Nat. Caes. L<eop. Carol., vol. 9, p. 307, 1818, 
no species ; Hymenopterorum icbneumonibus affinium monographiae . . ., 
vol. 1, p. 224, 1834, one species. (Type, Ichneumon saUator Fabricius, first 
included species.) 

Toxo7ieuron Say, Journ. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, p. 258, 1936. (Type, 
Toxoneuron viator Say, by designation of Viereck, 1914.) 

Tenthredoides Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, vol. 4, p. 290, 1865. (Type, 
jf'. seminiger Cresson.) (Monobasic.) 

Ditherus Camerox, Jouru. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. 14, p. 434, 1902. (Type, 
D. ruficollis Cameron.) (Monobasic.) 

Schonlnndella Cameron, Rec. Albany Mus., vol. 1, p. 169, 1904. (Type, S. 
nigromaculata Cameron, by designation of Viereck, 1914.) 

Ernestiella Cameron, Spolia Zeylauica, vol. 3, p. 81, 1905. (Type, E. nigromacu- 
lata Cameron.) (Monobasic.) 

^Sartemita Cameron, Wien. Ent. Zeit., vol. 29, p. 99, 1910. (Type, H. latipcs 
Cameron.) (Monobasic.) (New synonymy.) 

^ Psil07nmiscus Enderlein, Arch. Naturg., vol. 78, p. 98, 1912. (Type, P. suma- 
fronMs Enderlein.) (Monobasic.) (New synonymy.) 



1 This new generic synonymy is on the authority of C. F. W. Muescbeck who has seen 
the genotypes. 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 231 

Eye hairy or bare; scape and pedicel shining and with longer 
pubescence than the flagellum ; antennae miiltiarticulate, the number 
of segments not constant within species; scape rather stout, pedicel 
short and globular; face 1.0 to 3.0 times as wide as long and usually 
with a medial tubercle or short ridge above, or with a median longitudi- 
nal carina; occiput more or less concave, immargined; notaulices al- 
ways distinctly impressed, usually f oveolate, rarely smooth ; prepectus 
immargined; mesopleuron with upper, lower, and posterior grooves 
(pi. 4, fig. 3), the first two foveolate or smooth, the posterior groove 
always foveolate; propodeum usually rugose and usually areolated; 
third abscissa of radius arched or subangulate basally ; interanal vein 
represented by a short stump continued as a pigmented line, or by a 
pigmented line only, rarely absent; hind tibia sometimes simple but 
often somewhat compressed and broadened more or less toward apex, 
which may be expanded into a flaring process; hind basitarsus more 
or less flattened ; tibial spurs long, hind tarsal claws usually pectinate 
or toothed ; first abdominal suture curving slightly to the margin or 
extending obliquely forward to the margin (pi. 4, figs. 10, 11) ; second 
tergite usually shorter than, rarely as long as, the third; ovipositor 
sheath short or long but never longer than the abdomen. 

CARDIOCHILES ABDOMINALIS (Cresson) 

Toxoneuron aldominale Ckesson, Can. Ent., vol 5, p. 68, 1873 (male). 
Toxoneura abdominalis Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 51, 

1894. 
Cardiochiles abdominalis Ashmead, in Smith, Insects of New Jersey, p. 592, 1900. 

Female. — Length 6.5 mm. Head and thorax black ; inner orbit nar- 
rowly, outer broadly, and ventral incompletely, ferruginous, eye gray- 
ish black; clypeus pale ferruginous, its apical margin black; wings 
fuliginous; legs ferruginous, except coxae, trochanters basally, and 
femora basally, black and hind tarsi dusky; abdomen ferruginous; 
ovipostor sheath black. Antenna around 32-segmented ; eye bare; 
ocelli elevated ; vertex smooth, polished ; f rons polished with a slight 
depression below anterior ocellus followed by a weak, median, longi- 
tudinal elevation ; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, punctate, con- 
vex, with a short median ridge above and below this slightly elevated ; 
clypeus punctate, its median basal portion elevated, its apical margin 
slightly flaring, and not notched; temple bulging, wider than eye in 
dorsal view ; malar furrow about 0.G7 as long as the basal width of the 
mandible; galea tapering, slightly shorter than the long axis of the 
eye. Posterior portion of lateral face of pronotum rugose medially; 
median lobe of mesoscutum with a shallow longitudinal depression 
each side of the median line ; notaulices moderately foveolate ; upper 
groove of mesopleuron foveolate ; lower groove weakly foveolate ; pos- 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

terior groove coarsely rugose with ;i smooth depression tit the middle 
anterior to the groove ; metapleuron rugose, median lower part of an- 
terior portion smooth ; propodeum rugose, carinae of areola moderate- 
ly distinct but costulae not well defined, spiracle ovate. First abscissa 
of radius longer and thicker than that of basal vein ; third abscissa of 
cubitus longer than fourth; recurrent vein and second abscissa of cu- 
bitus about equal ; nervulus postfurcal by about 0.67 of its own length ; 
first abscissa of submedius slightly shorter than second ; interanal vein 
represented by a short pigmented stump. Fifth segment of fore tar- 
sus longer than second; apex of hind tibia thickened and expanded 
outwardly into a flaring process; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.67 
as long as basitarsus, second and fifth segments of middle tarsus about 
equal ; inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as basitarsus, which 
is slightly longer than the next three tarsal segments combined, second 
and fifth tarsal segments about equal. First abdominal suture slightly 
curved to the margin; second tergite shorter than third medially; 
hypopygium about as long as the first three tergites combined, plow- 
share-shaped, ovipositor sheath sparsely pubescent, spatulate, pol- 
ished, its exposed part about 0.67 as long as hypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 40) . 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In addition to the type the author has examined specimens from 
Dallas, Tex., September 22, 1905 ; Addis, La., October 26, 1912 ; Lafay- 
ette, La., November 6, 1938; Illinois; Washington, D. C, September 
16, 1883 ; and Tifton, Ga. 

CARDIOCHILES APICALIS (Cresson) 

Toxoneuron upicale Cresson, Can. Ent., vol. 5, pp. 66, 68, 1873. 

Toxoneura apicalis Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 51, 1894. 

Cardiochiles apicalis Ashmead, iti Smith, Insects of New Jersey, p. 592, 1900. 

Female. — ^Length 4.20 mm. Black, eye blackish gray ; pedicel dark 
ferruginous apically ; middle part of mandible light ferruginous ; wings 
with apical third fuliginous, the rest hyaline; apical two-thirds of 
fore femur, fore tibia, apical half of middle femur, and basal third of 
middle tibia, ferruginous; fore and middle tarsi, apical two-thirds of 
middle tibia, and spurs of fore and middle tibiae, blackish. Antenna 
27-segmented ; eye hairy, ocelli elevated; vertex smooth, polished; 
frons smooth, polished, and with a median longitudinal carina; face 
slightly less than 2.50 times as wide as long, its median line slightly 
elevated and with a short tubercle above ; clypeus smooth, its apical 
median margin distinctly notched; temple wider than eye in dorsal 
view ; galea short. Median portion of lateral face of pronotum wrink- 
led ; median lobe of mesoscutum nearly smooth, flat, and without a dis- 
tinct depression on each side of the median longitudinal line ; notauli- 
ces narrow, finely f oveolate ; upper groove of mesopleuron f oveolate, 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 233 

lower groove weakly foveolate, posterior groove coarsely foveolate; 
metapleiiron rugose, median ventral part of its anterior portion 
smooth; propodeum rugose, carinae moderately high, spiracle short 
ovate. First abscissae of radius and basal vein about equal ; third ab- 
scissa of cubitus much shorter than fourth; nervulus postf ureal by 
about half of its length ; first abscissa of submedius shorter than second ; 
interanal vein represented by a lightly pigmented stump. Second arid 
fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal ; apex of hind tibia not thick- 
ened or expanded into a flaring process; inner spur of middle tibia 
about 0.75 as long as basitarsus, second tarsal segment slightly longer 
than fifth; iimer spur of hind tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, 
basitarsus about as long as the next three tarsal segments combined, 
second tarsal segment longer than fifth ; hind tarsal claws pectinate. 
First tergite weakly sclerotized laterally; first abdominal suture ex- 
tending obliquely forward to the margin ; second tergite shorter than 
the third medially; hypopygium in profile plowshare-shaped, about 
as long as the first two tergites combined, its median ventral line 
folded; ovipositor sheath about as long as the first five abdominal 
tergites combined, pubescent, slightly broadened apically, and its tip 
bent ventrally (pi. 5, fig. 26). 

Male. — Essentially similai- to the female. 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In addition to the type the author has studied specimens from Atco, 
N. J., June 7, 1893 ; Plummers Island, Md., June 1914 ; Glen Echo, Md., 
summer, 1922 ; Glencarlyn, Va., June 9, 1912 ; Champaign, 111. ; Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa, May 26, 1934; Onaga, Kans.; and Chickamauga, Ga., 
July 10, 1898. 

CARDIOCHILES ARUGOSUS. new species 

Female. — Length about 5.5 mm. Head and thorax black; eye 
grayish black ; wings light fuliginous on about apical half, subhyaline 
basally; legs ferruginous, coxae, fore and middle trochanters, hind 
trochanters basally, and fore and middle femora basally, black; hind 
tibia apically and apical four segments of fore and middle tarsi 
blackish ; tibial spurs blackish, fore tibial spur ferruginous ; hind tarsus 
black; abdomen ferruginous, first tergite black medially; ovipositor 
sheath black. Antenna about 38-segmented, eye bare ; ocelli elevated ; 
vertex smooth, polished; frons smooth, polished, and with a slight 
depression below the anterior ocellus followed by a median longitudi- 
nal elevation ; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, polished, with a 
short median ridge above, its median line slightly elevated; clypeus 
smooth and polished, its apical margin not notched; temple slightly 
wider than eye in dorsal view; galea short. Posterior portion of 
lateral face of pronotum rugose medially; median lobe of mesoscutum 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

smooth, without a distinct longitudinal depression on each side of the 
median line; notaulices finely foveolate, meeting in a rather acute 
angle ; upper groove of mesopleuron somcAvhat broadened, and striately 
partitioned, lower groove foveolate, posterior groove coarsely foveolate 
with a depression at the middle leading anteriorly to the lower groove ; 
metapleuron rugose, median ventral part of anterior portion plain; 
propodeum rugose, carinae moderately distinct, spiracle long ovate ; 
first abscissa of radius longer than that of basal vein ; third abscissa 
of cubitus shorter than fourth; recurrent vein shorter than second 
abscissa of cubitus; nervulus postf ureal by about half of its own 
length; first abscissa of submedius slightly shorter than second; in- 
teranal vein represented by a pigmented stump. Second and fifth 
segments of fore tarsus about equal ; apex of hind tibia not expanded 
outwardly into a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.70 
as long as basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments subequal ; inner 
spur of hind tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, basitarsus slightly 
shorter than the next three tarsal segments combined, second tarsal 
segment longer than fifth, third and fifth tarsal segments about equal ; 
hind tarsal claws pectinate. First abdominal suture slightly curved 
to the margin ; second tergite shorter than third ; hypopygium small, 
slightly shorter than first tergite, in profile rounded posteriorly, its 
median ventral line without a longitudinal fold: ovipositor sheath 
short, pubescent, its exposed part about half as long as hypopygium 
(pi. 5, fig. 36). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

T^y^pe.— U.S.N.M. No. 58282. 

Type locality. — Auburn, Ala. (June 6, 1897, C. F. Baker). 

Described from numerous specimens of both sexes collected at lo- 
calities in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, New Jersey, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, South 
Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Utah, Oregon, and Ontario. 

CARDIOCHILES ARUGOSUS var. PULLUS, new variety 

This variety differs from typical arugosus only in having the wings 
uniformly fuliginous. 

ry;>e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58283. 

Type locality.— Hov^^ell, Utah (June 7, 1930, G. F. Knowlton). 

Described from eight females (one type) and four males. The 
paratypes are from Mount Hood, Oreg. ; Riverton, N. J., June 13, 
1901; Rusk County, Tex., June 18, 1940; Newell, S. Dak., June 28, 
1923 ; Franklin County, Ohio, June 13, 1942 ; Onaga, Kans. ; Opelousas, 
J.a., April 30, 1897 ; and Salt Lake City, Utah, May 3, 1928. Four 
paratypes are in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia and two in the collection of Ohio State University. 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 235 

CARDIOCHILES BREVITARSIS, new species 

Female. — Length about 7 mm. Head black, narrow inner and broad 
outer orbits ferruginous; cheek ferruginous below. Thorax ferrugi- 
nous, proepisternum, anterior margin of lateral face of pronotum, 
lower part of mesopleuron, and propodeum black, metanotura infus- 
cated ; foreleg ferruginous, coxa and trochanter black, and last tarsal 
segment fuscous ; middle leg similar ; hind leg ferruginous, coxa partly- 
black and tarsus fuscous. Wings fuliginous, veins and stigma dark. 
Abdomen ferruginous. Pubescence of head chestnut-brown. Anten- 
na (incomplete) ; eye bare and slightly bulging; ocelli elevated; ver- 
tex smooth and polished ; f rons smooth, polished, and with a median 
longitudinal elevation ; face about 2.50 as wide as long, punctate, with 
a short median longitudinal ridge above ; clypeus punctate, with longer 
pubescence than face, slightly elevated medially on basal half, apical 
margin, truncate, not notched ; temple slightly narrower than eye in 
dorsal view ; galea short. Median lobe of mesoscutum with a shallow 
longitudinal depression each side of median line ; notaulices shallow 
and smooth ; mesopleuron polished, upper and lower posterior grooves 
shallowly foveolate; metapleuron rugose, median lower part of an- 
terior section smooth; propodeum rugose, carinae prominent; areola 
large, broader than spiracular area ; spiracular area acute posteriorly, 
spiracle ovate. First abscissa of radius slightly longer than that of 
basal vein; third abscissa of cubitus shorter than fourth; recurrent 
vein slightly longer than second abscissa of cubitus; nervulus post- 
f ureal by 0.67 its own length ; first abscissa of submedius shorter than 
second; interanal vein represented by a short stump. Second and 
fifth segments of fore tarsus subequal; apex of hind tibia slightly 
thickened outwardly at apex but without a flaring process ; inner spur 
of middle tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, second segment of 
middle tarsus shorter than fifth ; inner spur of hind tibia more than 
half as long as the basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments about 
equal, basitarsus broad, flattened, and shorter than the last four tarsal 
segments combined ; hind tarsal claws pectinate, each with four to five 
visible teeth basally. First abdominal suture slightly curved to the 
margin ; second tergite about half as long as third medially ; hypopyg- 
ium very similar to that of rubidus., in profile obtuse, slightly shorter 
than hind basitarsus, its median ventral line without a longitudinal 
fold. Ovipositor sheath spatulate, slender (more slender than that of 
ruhidus) , small, pubescent, the exposed part about 0.67 as long as the 
hypopygium. 

Ty^g.—U.S.N.M. No. 58284. 

Type locality. — ^Los Angeles, Calif. (Coquillett). 

Described from the type, a female paratype from San Diego, Calif., 
August 25, 1927, and one specimen without abdomen from Los Angeles, 
Calif. 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CARDIOCHILES CALIFORNICUS (Ashmead), new combination 

ioxoneura californica Ashmead, rroc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 50, 
1894 (female). 

Female. — Length about 6.5 mm. Black, upper orbit dark ferrugi- 
nous; eye grayish black; wings light fuliginous on apical 0.40, the 
rest hyaline; coxae and trochanters black; tarsi blackish; femora 
ferruginous, more or less black basally; tibiae including spurs fer- 
ruginous. Antenna 28-segmented ; eye bare; ocelli elevated; vertex 
smooth and polished; frons smooth, polished, with the median por- 
tion below the anterior ocellus weakly rugulose ; face slightlj'^ less than 
2.50 times as wide as long, punctate, and with a short median ridge 
above; clypeus mostly smooth, its basal half slightly elevated, its 
apical margin truncate and slightly arched; temple wider than eye 
in dorsal view ; galea about two-thirds as long as the long axis of eye. 
Median portion of lateral face of pronotum rugose; mesoscutum and 
scutellum evenly punctate; median lobe of mesoscutum with a shal- 
low longitudinal depression along each side of the median line ; notaul- 
ices distinct and finely f oveolate ; mesopleuron finely punctate, upper 
groove widened posteriorly and coarsely pitted, lower groove foveolate, 
posterior groove strongly foveate; metapleuron rugose on posterior 
section, the anterior portion smooth; propodeum rugose, areola de- 
fined by low carinae, other areas not clearly delimited, pleural carinae 
very strong. First abscissae of radius and basal vein about equal; 
third abscissa of cubitus shorter than the fourth ; recurrent vein and 
second abscissa of cubitus about equal; nervulus postf ureal by 0.67 
its length; first and second abscissae of submedius about equal; in- 
teranal vein represented by a short pigmented stump. Second and 
fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal; apex of hind tibia thick- 
ened but not expanded into a strongly flaring process; inner spur 
of middle tibia about half as long as basitarsus, second and fifth 
tarsal segments about equal; inner spur of hind tibia about half as 
long as the basitarsus, which is about as long as the next three tarsal 
segments combined, second tarsal segment longer than the fifth ; hind 
claws pectinate basally. Second tergite shorter than the third medi- 
ally : hypopygium very prominent, plowshare-shaped, surpassing last 
<ergite, about as long as the first five tergites combined, its median 
ventral line without a longitudinal fold; ovipositor sheath bare, 
polished, bent downward at apex, its exposed part about 0.80 as long 
as hypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 20). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female; antenna 33-segmented. 

r?/;?^.— U.S.N.M. No. 2171. 

Known only from the three specimens comprising the type series 
and four specimens in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia. All are from California. 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 237 

CARDIOCHILES DIGNUS, new species 

FeinaJe. — Length 7.5. Black except the following: Narrow inner 
and broad outer orbital markings, outer half of tegula, lateral margins 
of first and second tergites, and a spot in each basal lateral angle of 
third tergite ferruginous; eye grayish black; forewing with about 
apical 0.40 fuliginous, the remainder yellow; stigma, part of meta- 
carpus, costa, first abscissa of radius, basal vein, part of first abscissa 
of cubitus, medius, and most of submedius ferruginous; hind wing 
yellow on basal half, infuscated on apical half, veins ferruginous, 
second abscissa of metacarpella, radiella, and cubitella dark; legs 
ferruginous, with all coxae and trochanters black, the apical segment 
of hind trochanter mostly ferruginous, hind tarsi blackish ; ovipositor 
sheath black. Antenna incomplete, 32 segments remaining; eye bare; 
ocelli elevated; vertex and frons smooth and polished; face about 2.50 
times as wide as long, punctate, and with a low median tubercle above, 
below which it is broadly, slightly elevated ; clypeus rougher than face, 
slightly elevated on basal median half, its apical margin not notched 
but distinctly reflexed ; temple narrower than eye in dorsal view ; galea 
short. Median portion of the lateral face of pronotum rugose ; mesono- 
tum very minutely punctate; mesopleuron minutely punctate, upper 
and lower grooves foveolate, posterior groove weakly foveolate; meta- 
pleuron rugose, w^ith the basal triangular portion mostly smooth; 
propodeum rugose, the areola sharply defined by prominent carinae 
but costulae weak and indistinct, spiracular area open posteriorly, 
spiracle long ovate. First abscissa of radius longer than that of basal 
vein ; third abscissa of cubitus longer than fourth ; recurrent vein and 
second abscissa of cubitus equal; nervulus postf ureal by about its 
length ; first abscissa of submedius shorter than second ; interanal vein 
represented by a short pigmented stump. Fifth and second segments 
of fore tarsus about equal ; hind tibia flattened toward apex, but not 
expanded into a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.67 
as long as basitarsus; inner spur of hind tibia about 0.67 as long as 
basitarsus ; middle and hind tarsi incomplete. First abdominal suture 
slightly curved to the margin ; second tergite shorter than third ; hypo- 
pygium short, in profile obtuse, its median ventral line without a 
longitudinal fold ; ovipositor sheath short, pubescent, its exposed part 
about half as long as the hypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 29). 

ry/?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58285. 

Type locality. — Victoria, Tex. 

Described from a single female specimen collected April 27. 1912, by 
J. D. Mitchell. 

S10273 — 49 2 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CARDIOCHILES DILATUS. new species 

Female. — ^Length 6 mm. Head and thorax black ; orbits and middle 
part of clypeus ferruginous ; middle of mandible dark red ; wings fulig- 
inous, darkest apically, stigma and costa more or less ferruginous, at 
least basally ; coxae and trochanters black, femora ferruginous, tibiae 
ferruginous, apex of hind tibia blackish, fore tarsus blackish, basal half 
of fore basitarsus ferruginous, middle tarsus blackish, hind tarsus 
black; abdomen ferruginous, median portion of first tergite black; 
ovipositor sheath black. Pubescence of head short; antenna 32-seg- 
mented in type; eye bare; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth, polished; 
f rons smooth, polished, with a transverse pit below anterior ocellus ; 
clypeus slightly elevated along basal margin, its apical margin trun- 
cate, slightly arched, and not notched ; temple slightly wider than eye 
in dorsal view ; malar furrow about half as long as basal width of 
mandible; galea much shorter than long axis of eye. Posterior por- 
tion of lateral face of pronotum weakly rugose ; median lobe of meso- 
scutum with a shallow longitudinal depression each side of the median 
line ; notaulices narrow, finely f oveolate ; upper groove of mesopleuron 
foveolate, its lower groove weakly foveolate, metapleuron rugose, ex- 
cept lower part of anterior portion which is smooth ; propodeum finely 
rugose, its carinae, except pleural carinae, low and very indistinct. 
First abscissae of radius and basal vein about equal ; third and fourth 
abscissae of cubitus about equal ; recurrent vein and second abscissa of 
cubitus about equal ; nervulus postf ureal by 0.80 its own length ; first 
and second abscissae of submedius about equal ; interanal vein repre- 
sented by a short stub continued as a pigmented line. Second and fifth 
segments of fore tarsus about equal ; apex of hind tibia thickened on 
outer margin and expanded into a flaring process ; inner spur of middle 
tibia slightly less than 0.67 as long as basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal 
segments about equal ; inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as 
basitarsus, basitarsus about as long as the next three seginents com- 
bined, second tarsal segment longer than the fifth ; hind claws pectinate 
basally. Second tergite shorter than the third medially ; hypopygium 
large but not surpassing last tergite, about as long as first three tergites 
combined ; ovipositor sheath thinly pubescent, about as long as the 
l^ypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 22). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female except that the abdomen is 
more extensively marked with black and the femora are more or less 
blackish basally. 

ry;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58286. 

Type locality.— Y^Yvcio, Calif. (April 28, 1937, M. Cazier) . 

Described from the type, four males, Roseville, Calif., swept from 
grass, April 10, 1931, C. C. Wilson, and one male and one female from 
Los Angeles, Calif. 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 239 

CARDIOCHILES EXPLORATOR (Say) 

Bracon (Toxoneuron) explorator Say, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, pt. 3, 
p. 259, 1836 (female, male) ; in LeConte, Complete writings of Thomas Say on 
the entomology of North America, vol. 2, p. 710, 1859. 

Toxoneuron explorator Ckesson, Can. Ent., vol. 5, p. 67, 1873. 

Toxoneura explorator Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 50, 
1894. 

Cardiochiles explorator Vikbeck, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., vol. 19, p. 288, 1905. 

Female. — Length about 4.0 mm. Black; middle part of mandible 
brownish yellow ; wings light to dark fuliginous ; femora ferruginous, 
fore and middle femora black basally ; tibiae and spurs ferruginous, 
middle and hind tibiae dark apically; fore and middle tarsi dusky, 
hind tarsus black; ovipositor sheath black. Antenna 30-segmented; 
first flagellar segment longer than second, the second and third about 
equal; eye hairy; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth, polished; frons 
smooth, polished, face about twice as wide as long, smooth, polished ; 
clypeus polished, its apical margin distinctly notched; temple slightly 
wider than eye in dorsal view ; galea short. Lateral face of pronotum 
smooth and shining ; mesoscutum smooth and shining ; notaulices nar- 
row, very finely foveolate, meeting in an acute angle and extending 
nearly to the transverse fossa; mesopleuron smooth and polished, 
upper groove broad and finely foveolate, lower groove usually smooth, 
posterior groove rather coarsely foveolate, metapleuron rugose on 
posterior section, smooth and shining on triangular anterior section; 
propodeum rugose, the carinae rather prominent and the areas usually 
well defined, spiracle ovate. First abscissae of radius and basal vein 
subequal ; third abscissa of cubitus about half as long as fourth ; recur- 
rent vein slightly longer than second abscissa of cubitus; nervulus 
postf ureal by a little more than half its length ; first abscissa of sub- 
medius slightly shorter than second ; interanal vein represented as a 
pigmented line. Apex of hind tibia not thickened into a flaring 
process; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.80 as long as basitarsus, 
second and fifth tarsal segments about equal ; imier spur of hind tibia 
about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, basitarsus slightly shorter than the 
next three tarsal segments combined, second tarsal segment longer than 
fifth, third and fifth segments about equal ; hind claws pectinate. Sec- 
ond tergite shorter than third; hypopygium not surpassing last 
tergite ; ovipositor sheath about as long as first three tergites combined, 
narrow basally, broadened apically, its tip slightly bent downward 
(pi. 5, fig. 15). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

Type. — Lost. 

The material studied includes specimens from Indiana, Illinois, 
Kansas, Missouri, Colorado, Ohio, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 
One specimen is labeled as having been reared from the garden web- 



240 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. sg 

Moim, Loxoaiege similalis (Guenee) . Published records citing Gnori- 
inoschema operculella (Zeller) as host presumably apply to the closely 
similar new species, insculptus. 

CARDIOCHILES FLORID ANUS (Ashmesd), new combination 

Toxoneura floridaiw Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Sue. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 50, 1894 

(male). 
Toxoneuron flwidanum Patton, Psyche, vol. 7, p. 179, 1894. 

Female.— h&ngth. about 6 mm. Black; middle part of mandible 
ferruginous; wings fuliginous, veins dark; coxae and trochanters 
black ; femora ferruginous, fore and middle femora black basally ; fore 
and middle tibiae ferruginous, apex of the latter black, hind tibia black, 
its basal 0.67 dark ferruginous ventrally ; fore tibial spur ferruginous, 
spurs of middle and hind tibiae black; tarsi black, the four basal seg- 
ments of fore tarsus dark ferruginous. Antenna of type incomplete ; 
eye conspicuously hairy ; ocelli elevated ; vertex smooth, polished ; f rons 
smooth, polished, with a weak median longitudinal carina; face 
slightly less than twice as wide as long, smooth ; clypeus flat, smooth, 
its apical margin notched medially, clypeal furrow weak; temple 
slightly wider than the eye in dorsal view ; galea short. Median por- 
tion of lateral face of pronotum rugose ; mesonotum smooth ; notaulices 
narrow, sharp, finely foveolate; mesopleuron i3olished, upper groove 
widened and partitioned, lower groove foveolate, posterior groove 
coarsely foveate, with a smooth shallow groove at the middle leading 
anteriorly to the lower groove ; metapleuron rugose, its anterior portion 
mostly smooth and polished ; propodeum rugose, carinae distinct and 
high, spiracular area long, spiracle long ovate. First abscissa of 
radius slightly longer than that of basal vein ; third abscissa of cubitus 
much shorter than fourth; recurrent vein and second abscissa of 
cubitus about equal ; nervulus postf ureal by slightly more than half its 
length ; first abscissa of submedius shorter than second ; interanal vein 
represented by a pigmented line. Second and fifth segments of fore 
tarsus about equal; hind tibia not expanded into a flaring process; 
inner spur of middle tarsus about as long as basitarsus; inner spur of 
hind tarsus about 0.67 as long as basitarsus; basitarsus of hind leg 
about equal to the next three tarsal segments combined, third tarsal 
segment longer than fifth. Second tergite shorter than third medially ; 
hypopygium plowshare-shaped, not or barely surpassing last tergite. 
Ovipositor sheath pubescent, broadened apically, and about as long as 
first three abdominal tergites combined (pi. 5, fig. 30). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female but with middle and hind 
tibiae almost entirely black. 

ry/^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 50155. 

Specimens examined, in addition to the type, which is from Jack- 
sonville, Fla., include a male reared at Manhattan, Kans., May, 1940, 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 241 

from EpipcLschla zelleri Grote ; an unlabeled female ; a female from Al- 
bany, Ga., April 20, 1938, P. W. Fattig; a male from Ontario, Canada, 
Jmie, R. C, Osburn; and a male from Guadalajara, Mexico, August 
2, 1913. 

CARDIOCHILES INSCULPTUS. new species 

Female. — Length about 3 mm. Black; middle part of mandible 
ciark red ; foreleg yellowish brown, coxa, trochanter, and bas;il half of 
femur black, last three tarsal segments blackish ; middle leg yellowish 
brown, coxa, trochanter and basal part of femur black, apical half of 
basi tarsus and all of the following tarsal segments blackish; hind leg 
yellowish brown, coxa and trochanter black, apex of tibia and tarsus 
blackish. Antennae of specimens in type series incomplete; first 
flagellar segment and scape about equal ; eye closely hairy ; ocelli ele- 
vated; vertex smooth, polished; frons smooth, polished, and with a 
weak median longitudinal carina ; face about twice as wide as long, 
smooth, polished, with a short median ridge above; clypeus smooth, 
polished, and with apical margin notched medially; temple slightly 
broader than the eye ; galea short. Lateral face of pronotum striate 
medially on its anterior half; notaulices finely foveolate, meeting in 
a rather broad angle; mesopleuron smooth, polished, upper groove 
foveolate, lower groove completely, finely foveolate, posterior groove 
foveolate, with a smooth groove from the middle leading to the lower 
groove; metapleuron rugose on posterior section, smooth and polished 
on anterior section; propodeum rugose, areola and spiracular areas 
delimited, costulae obsolete. First abscissa of radius longer and 
thicker than that of basal vein ; fourth abscissa of cubitus 1.50 times as 
long as third; recurrent vein slightly shorter than second abscissa of 
cubitus; nervulus postf ureal by about half its own length; interanal 
vein represented by a pigmented line. Hind tibia not thickened apical- 
ly and without a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.75 
as long as basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments equal; inner 
spur of hind tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, basitarsus shorter 
than the next three tarsal segments combined, second tarsal segment 
longer than the fifth, third and fifth segments about equal ; hind tarsal 
claws pectinate. First abdominal suture extending obliquely forward 
to the margin ; second tergite slightly shorter than third ; hypopygium 
not extending as far as apex of last tergite, about as long as the first 
three tergites combined, in profile pointed, its median ventral line fold- 
ed longitudinally. Ovipositor sheath spatulate, pubescent, about as 
long as the hypopygum (pi. 5, fig. 23) . 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

ry;?e.— U.S.N.M.No. 58287. 

Type locality. — Beaufort, N. C. 

Described from two females and one male from the type locality 
labeled "with potato tuberworm, June 25. 1942, C. F. Stahl, TCA 817." 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CARDIOCHILES LEVIS, new species 

Female. — Length about 5 mm. Ferruginous except as follows: 
Antenna, eye, vertex, frons medially, face above, basal margin of 
clypeus, clypeal foveae, lower part of temple, proepisternum, lower 
part of mesopleuron, pectus, lateral margin of first abdominal tergite, 
part of second tergite, tip of abdomen, and ovipositor sheath black; 
wings fuliginous; coxae and trochanters black; fore and middle 
femora black basally; tibiae black apically; fore and middle tarsi 
blackish; hind tibiae black. Pubescence of head short, yellowish 
brown ; antenna 27-segmented in type ; eye bare ; ocelli elevated ; ver- 
tex smooth, polished; frons smooth, polished, impressed, with a low 
tubercle below anterior ocellus ; face about three times as wide as long, 
smooth, polished, and without a short median ridge above; clypeus 
polished, its median basal portion slightly elevated, and its apical 
margin weakly notched medially ; temple bulging, wider than eye in 
dorsal view ; galea short. Lateral face of pronotum smooth ; mesoscu- 
tum smooth and polished; notaulices fine, not foveolate; mesosulcus 
weak, not foveolate; mesopleuron smooth, polished, its upper and 
lower grooves smooth, not foveolate, posterior groove finely foveolate, 
with a smooth groove at the middle leading toward the lower groove ; 
metapleuron smooth and shining; propodeum mostly smooth except 
for carinae defining the areas, spiracle short ovate. First abscissae of 
radius and basal vein long and about equal ; fourth abscissa of cubitus 
about twice as long as third ; second abscissa of cubitus slightly longer 
than recurrent vein ; nervulus postf ureal by about half of its length ; 
first abscissa of submedius shorter than second ; interanal vein repre- 
sented by a short stump continued as a pigmented line. Fifth segment 
of fore tarsus longer than second ; apex of hind tibia not expanded into 
a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.67 as long as the 
basitarsus, second tarsal segment shorter than fifth ; inner spur of hind 
tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, basitarsus shorter than the last 
four tarsal segments combined, second and fifth tarsal segments about 
equal; hind tarsal claws pectinate basally. First abdominal suture 
extending obliquely forward to the margin ; second and third tergites 
about equal medially ; hypopygium very large, about as long as the 
first five tergites combined but not surpassing last tergite ; ovipositor 
sheath pubescent, broad at base, narrowing apically, slightly curved 
downward, the exposed part little shorter than the hypopygium (pi. 
5, fig. 31). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female except that head is mostly 
black, and black markings on thorax, abdomen, and legs are more 
extensive. 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Type locality. — Pecos, N. Mex. (June 23). 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 243 

Described from two females and a male. The allotype and para- 
type are in the U. S. National Museum; the female is from Juarez, 
Mexico, and the male from Albuquerque, N. Mex., both collected by 
T. D. A. Cockerell. 

CARDIOCHILES MAGNUS, new species 

Female. — Length about 8 ram. Head and thorax black with the 
following parts ferruginous: Narrow inner and broad outer orbits; 
median basal part of clypeus ; mesoscutum and scutellum ; upper por- 
tion of mesopleuron. Middle portion of lateral face of pronotum 
dark reddish. Wings fuliginous; costa and stigma dark. Coxae and 
trochanters black ; femora ferruginous, black basally ; tibiae ferrugi- 
nous, hind tibia black at apex ; tibial spurs testaceous. Abdomen fer- 
ruginous, its tip and hypopygium except base, black. Head elliptical 
in front view; antenna around So-segmented; eye bare; ocelli ele- 
vated; vertex smooth, polished; frons smooth, polished; face about 
2.50 as wide as long, punctate, and with a short median longitudinal 
ridge above, below which it is broadly a little elevated ; clypeus punc- 
tate, its median basal portion slightly elevated, its apical margin 
truncate, not notched ; temple bulging, wider than eye in dorsal view ; 
malar furrow about 0,67 as long as basal width of mandible; galea 
much shorter than long axis of eye. Median portion of lateral face 
of pronotum rugose ; mesoscutum and scutellum smooth and sliining ; 
median lobe of mesoscutum with a shallow longitudinal depression 
on each side of median line; notaulices foveolate; mesopleuron mi- 
nutely punctate, upper groove foveolate, lower groove coarsely f oveate ; 
anterior triangular portion of metapleuron smooth, posterior portion 
rugulose; propodeum rugose, the carinae prominent, spiracle long 
ovate. First abscissa of radius longer than that of basal vein ; third 
and fourth abscissae of cubitus about equal ; recurrent vein and second 
abscissa of cubitus about equal ; nervulus postf ureal by somewhat less 
than its length; first abscissa of submedius shorter than second; 
interanal vein represented by a short stump continued as a pigmented 
line. Second and fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal; inner 
spur of middle tibia about half as long as basitarsus, second and 
fifth tarsal segments about equal; apex of hind tibia thickened on 
outer margin and expanded into a flaring process, inner tibial spur 
less than half as long as basitarsus, basitarsus shorter than remaining 
tarsal segments combined, second segment longer than fifth; hind 
tarsal claws pectinate, each with four or five short teeth on basal 
half. First abdominal suture slightly curved to the margin ; second 
tergite shorter than third, hypopygium plowshare-shaped, very large, 
surpassing apex of last tergite, about as long as the first five tergites 
combined; ovipositor sheath longer than hind tibia, broadest at the 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

middle, smooth, polished, and sparsely pubescent on apical half (pi. 5, 
fig. 14). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

Ty/^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58289. 

Type locality. — Plainview, Jefferson County, Colo. (July 1922). 

Described from the type and the following eight female and three 
male paratypes : Male, Platte County, Colo., August 7 ; female, Plain- 
view, Jefferson County, Colo., July 1922 ; male and two females, Mexia, 
Tex.. September 13, 1905, parasite of Schinia sp. (Phalaenidae) ; male. 
Clarendon, Tex., September 19, 1905; female, Garden City. Kans., 
September 1896, W. H. Menke; male, Wellington, Kans., E. G. Kelly; 
female, Albuquerque, N. Mex. ; and two female paratypes of Cardio- 
chiles seminlgrum (Cresson) from Colorado. The two last paratypes 
are in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; the others 
are in the U. S. National Museum. 

CARDIOCHILES MINUTUS (Cresson), new combination 

Toxoneuron minutum Cresson, Can. Ent., vol. 5, p. 67, 1873 (female). 
Toxoneura minuta Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, p. 49, No. 2, 1894 
(female). 

Female. — Length 2.50 mm.. Black, apical part of pedicel dark fer- 
ruginous; wings fuliginous; foreleg black, femur apically, tibia, and 
first four tarsal segments yellowish w^hite; middle leg black, femur 
apically and first four tarsal segments yellowish white, tibia blackish; 
hind leg black, tibia and tarsus blackish, tibial spur yellowish white; 
lateral part of first tergite and anteroventral corner of second tergite 
chestnut brown. Antenna 23-segmented, pedicel about 0.40 as long as 
the first flagellar segment; eye hairy; ocelli elevated; vertex striate, 
frons impressed, transversely striate, and with a median longitudinal 
carina; face about twice as wide as long, irregularly punctate, and with 
an indistinct tubercle above; clypeus somewhat w^rinkled, its apical 
margin distinctly notched ; temple slightly wider than the eye in dorsal 
view ; occiput roughened ; galea short. Median portion of lateral face 
of pronotum and the mesonotum irregularly punctate; notaulices 
sharply impressed, finely f oveolate ; upper groove of mesopleuron wid- 
ened and rugose, lower groove foveolate, posterior groove coarselj"" 
foveate with a smooth depression at the middle leading to the lower 
groove; metapleuron rugose, the small anterior portion smooth and 
polished; propodeum rugose, carinae moderately prominent and the 
areas distinctly delimited, spiracle short ovate. Wings iridescent; 
first abscissa of radius and basal vein about equal ; fourth abscissa of 
cubitus about 1.50-2.0 times as long as the third; recurrent vein and 
the second abscissa of cubitus about equal; nervulus postf ureal by half 
its own length; first abscissa of submedius slightly longer than the 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 245 

second; interanal vein absent or represented by a pigmented line. 
Second and fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal, apex of hind 
tibia not thickened or expanded into a flaring process ; inner spur of 
middle tibia about as long as basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal seg- 
ments about equal; inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as basi- 
tarsus, basitarsus shorter than remaining tarsal segments combined, 
second tarsal segment longer than fifth. First abdominal suture ex- 
tending obliquely forward to the margin ; second tergite shorter than 
third ; hypopygium pointed in profile, and about as long as first two 
abdominal tergites combined ; its median ventral line without a longi- 
tudinal fold ; ovipositor sheath pubescent, its exposed part slightly less 
than the first three tergites combined (pi. 5, fig. 27) . 

Described from the type. 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In addition to the type, which is from Illinois, about 25 specimens 
have been examined. These are from localities in Virginia, Iowa, 
Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada. 

CARDIOCHILES NEBRASCENSIS, new species 

Female. — Length, about 6 mm. Head and thorax black, narrow 
inner and broad outer orbital markings and basal median part of 
clypeus yellowish brown ; pedicel apically, middle part of mandibles 
and lateral face of pronotum medially, deep ferruginous ; mesoscutum 
with a small yellowish brown spot inside each posterolateral corner. 
Wings fuliginous, stigma and costa blackish, the costa light brown 
basally ; legs ferruginous, with fore and middle coxae and trochanter 
black, the last two tarsal segments of fore and middle legs fuscous ; 
hind coxa with a small black spot on outer side, hind tibia infuscated 
at extreme apex and hind tarsus black. Abdomen entirely ferrugi- 
nous ; ovipositor sheath black, ferruginous basoventrally. Antenna in- 
complete; eye bare; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth, polished; frons 
smooth, polished, and with a median longitudinal carina ; face about 
2.50 times as wide as long, punctate, and with a median tubercle 
above, below which a groove extends to the clypeus between two slight- 
ly raised areas; clypeus with a median elevation basally, its apical 
margin not notched ; temple wider than the eye in dorsal view ; galea 
at least 0.80 as long as the long axis of the eye, rounded apically. 
Median lobe of mesoscutum depressed medially ; notaulices f oveolate, 
coarsely so posteriorly ; mesopleuron finely punctate, upper groove of 
mesopleuron widened and partitioned, lower groove foveolate, poste- 
rior groove coarsely f oveate ; metapleuron rugose, the small anterior 
triangular section smooth, with only minute, scattered punctures ; pro- 
podeum rugose, areola and spiracular areas defined by prominent 

810273—49 3 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

carinae, costulae weak or indistinct, spiracle long ovate. Forewings 
incomplete, third abscissa of cubitus longer than the fourth ; nervulus 
postf ureal by about half its own length ; interanal vein represented by 
a short stump continued as a pigmented line. Fifth segment of fore 
tarsus longer than second ; apex of hind tibia thickened on outer dorsal 
margin and expanded into a strongly flaring process; inner spur of 
middle tibia about 0.60 as long as basitarsus, second tarsal segment 
shorter than fifth; inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as 
basitarsus, basitarsus shorter than the last four tarsal segments com- 
bined, second tarsal segment longer than fifth. First abdominal suture 
slightly curved to the margin. Second tergite very slightly shorter 
than third medially; hypopygium a little longer than the first two 
tergites combined, its median ventral line without a longitudinal fold ; 
ovipositor sheath smooth, polished, spatulate, its exposed part slightly 
shorter than the hypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 17). 

Ty^pe.— U.S.N.M. No. 58290. 

Type locality. — Nebraska. 

Described from a single female specimen collected by T. Pergande. 

CARDIOCHILES NIGRICANS, new species 

Male. — Length 5.5 mm. Intensely black, foretibial spur brownish 
yellow ; f orewing with apical 0.40 fuliginous, the rest hyaline, and hind 
wing with about apical third fuliginous. Head covered with thick, 
unusually black hair; antenna 48-segmented ; eye bare; ocelli elevated; 
vertex smooth and polished ; f rons impressed, and with a weak median 
longitudinal elevation; face polished, flat, more than three 
times as wide as long, with a low median tubercle above; clypeus 
polished, about 2.50 times as wide as long, the median apical margin 
not notched ; temple and eye subequal in width in dorsal view ; galea 
short. Median portion of lateral face of pronotum rugose; median 
lobe of mesoscutum with a shallow depression on each side of median 
line; notaulices sharp, finely foveolat^; mesopleuron polished, with 
scattered, minute punctures; upper groove foveolate; lower groove 
weakly foveolate, posterior groove finely foveolate; metapleuron 
rugose, a flat, polished area on its anterior portion ; propodeum rugose, 
carinae, including costulae, prominent, areola smaller than spiracular 
area, spiracle ovate. First abscissa of radius longer than that of basal 
vein; third abscissa of cubitus slightly shorter than fourth; second 
abscissa of cubitus longer than recurrent vein ; nervulus postf ureal by 
0.67 its own length ; first abscissa of submedius slightly shorter than 
second ; interanal vein represented by a short pigmented stump. Fore 
femur fringed with long pubescence ventrally, fifth segment of fore 
tarsus longer than second ; hind tibia somewhat compressed and broad, 
ened toward apex, but without an apical thickening, and not expanded 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 247 

into a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.75 as long as its 
basitarsus, second tarsal segment slightly shorter than fifth ; inner spur 
of hind tibia about 0.67 as long as its basitarsus, basitarsus about as 
long as the next three tarsal segments combined, second tarsal segment 
slightly shorter than fifth ; hind tarsal claws pectinate, each with five 
short, visible teeth basally. First abdominal suture slightly curved to 
the margin ; second tergite much shorter than third medially. 

Type.—U.S.^M. No. 58291. 

Type locality. — Jacumba, Calif. 

Described from a single male collected by D. J. and J. N. KnuU, 
May 18, 1941. 

CARDIOCHILES NIGRICEPS Viereck 

CardiochUes nigriceps Vieeeck, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 43, p. 578, 1912 (female, 
male). — Chamberlin and Tenhet, Jour. Agr. Res., vol. 33, p. 21, 1926. 

Toxoneuron sp. Morgan and McDonough, U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' BuU. 819, 
p. 6, 1917. 

When he described this species Viereck suggested that it might prove 
to be only a race of viator or seminiger. It is quite distinct from 
viator, differing in the much shorter galea and labium, in the dark costa 
and stigma, and in not having apex of hind tibia expanded into a 
strongly flaring process. Essentially it is very similar to seminiger 
(Cresson) and perhaps is only subspecifically distinct, but for the pres- 
ent at least it seems advisable to give it specific rank. It may be 
separated from seminiger by the following color differences : Pronotum 
black, median part of lateral face sometimes red or yellowish brown ; 
anterior part of mesoscutum, or at least anterior part of median lobe, 
black ; fore and middle femora largely black or piceous. The middle 
lobe of the mesoscutum slopes more gradually to the pronotum than in 
seminiger (pi. 4, figs. 6, 7), and the first intercubitus is angulate and 
often appendiculate below the middle. 

Type.—V.S.^M. No. 15007. 

In addition to the type series from Georgia and Florida, the author 
has examined specimens from South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Vir- 
ginia, District of Columbia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Ar- 
kansas, and Colorado. The species is commonly reared as a parasite 
of the tobacco bud worm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) . 

CARDIOCHILES NIGROCLYPEUS Viereck 

CardiochUes nigroclypeus Viekeck, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., vol. 19, p. 275, 
1905 (male). 

Male. — ^Length 6.5 mm. Head and thorax black. Wings entirely 
dark fuliginous ; legs ferruginous, coxae, trochanters, fore and middle 
femora basally, apex of hind tibia, and tarsi black, tibial spurs dark, 
except spur of foreleg which is ferruginous; abdomen ferruginous; 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

external genitalia black. Pubescence chestnut brown. Antenna 45- 
segmented, eye bare, ocelli elevated, vertex smooth, polished; frons 
transversely striate, and with a median longitudinal elevation; face 
slightly less than three times as wide as long, smooth, polished, slightly 
convex, and with a minute, median tubercle above, clypeus smooth, 
polished, its median apical margin slightly flaring, not notched; 
temple and eye of about equal width; occiput aciculate; galea short. 
Median portion of lateral face of pronotum rugose; median lobe of 
mesoscutum without a distinct longitudinal depression on each side 
of median line; notaulices finely foveolate; scutellum sculptured 
apically ; mesopleuron strongly punctate or ruguloso-punctate, upper 
groove wide and coarsely rugulose; lower groove foveolate, posterior 
groove finely foveolate ; metapleuron rugose, with a triangular, smooth 
and shining area on anterior portion ; propodeum rugose, its carinae 
including costulae moderately high, areola smaller than the spirac- 
ular area, spiracle ovate. First abscissa of radius longer than that 
of basal vein ; third abscissa of cubitus shorter than fourth ; recurrent 
vein and second abscissa of cubitus about equal ; nervulus postf ureal 
by half of its own length ; first abscissa of submedius slightly longer 
than second ; interanal vein represented by a pigmented line, second 
and fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal; hind tibia without 
apical thickening or a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 
0.60 as long as the basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments about 
equal ; inner spur of hind tibia about 0.60 as long as basitarsus, basi- 
tarsus slightly shorter than the last three tarsal segments combined, 
second and third tarsal segments longer than fifth ; hind tarsal claws 
pectinate, each with seven short teeth basally. First abdominal suture 
slightly curved to the margin ; second abdominal tergite shorter than 
the third. 

Tyj)e. — In the University of Kansas. 

In addition to the male type, from Morton County, Kans., the 
writer has seen three male specimens simply labeled "Texas." 

CARDIOCHILES ORIZABAE (Cresson), new combination 

Toxoneuron orizabae Cresson, Can. Ent., vol. 5, pp. 66, 67, 1873 (male). 

Male. — ^Length 4.2 mm. Black; legs black, with foreleg more or 
less yellowish brown beyond base of femur, and knee of middle leg 
yellowish brown; wings light fuliginous. Antenna 30-segmented ; 
eye hairy ; ocelli slightly elevated ; vertex about as long as the frons, 
smooth, shining; frons smooth, shining, and with an incomplete, low, 
median longitudinal carina; face less than one and one-half times 
as wide as long, smooth, shining, with a small median tubercle above ; 
clypeus smooth, shining, its apical margin notched medially; temple 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES MAO 249 

and eye of about equal width in dorsal view; galea short. Lateral 
face of pronotum wrinkled medially on anterior half; mesonotum 
smooth and polished ; notaulices fine, indistinctly f oveolate ; mesopleu- 
ron smooth and shining, upper groove broad, rugulose, irregularly 
partitioned, lower groove weakly foveolate, posterior groove strongly 
foveate with a delicate curved groove from its middle leading to the 
lower groove ; metapleuron rugose, a large, smooth and polished area 
anteriorly ; propodeum rugose, its carinae, including costulae, promi- 
nent, spiracle ovate. First abscissa of radius longer and thicker than 
that of basal vein ; fourth abscissa of cubitus about 1.50 times as long 
as the third ; second abscissa of cubitus and recurrent vein about equal ; 
interanal vein represented by a pigmented line. Second and fifth seg- 
ments of fore tarsus about equal ; inner tibial spur of middle leg very 
nearly as long as basitai-sus, second tarsal segment longer than fifth, 
third and fifth segments about equal ; apex of hind tibia not broadened, 
inner tibial spur about two-thirds as long as the basitarsus, basitarsus 
about as long as the next three tarsal segments combined, second tarsal 
segment longer than third, third longer than fifth ; hind tarsal claws 
pectinate basally. First abdominal suture extending obliquely for- 
ward laterally ; third tergite slightly over 1.50 times as long as second. 
(Redescribed from the male type.) 

Female. — Essentially similar to the male. Hypopygium about as 
long as hind basitarsus, plowshare-shaped, not surpassing apex of 
last tergite ; ovipositor sheath about as long as the first three segments 
of hind tarsus combined and pubescent (pi. 5, fig. 34) . 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In addition to the type from Orizaba, Mexico, numerous specimens, 
collected at localities in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Arkansas, Kansas, 
Louisiana, Texas, and Mexico have been studied. 

CARDIOCHILES PLUTO (Ashmead), new combination 

Tomoneura pluto Ashmead, Proc. Eut. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 48, 49, 
1894 (female). 

Male. — Length about 7 mm. Black; apical end of pedicel, outer 
orbit, basal part of clypeus, middle part of mandible weakly suffused 
with red; wings fuliginous; genitalia black. Head with long black 
hair that is shorter, however, than in nigricans; antennae incomplete; 
eye bare; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth, polished; frons smooth and 
polished ; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, smooth, polished, and 
with a short median ridge above ; clypeus smooth, polished, its apical 
margin slightly flaring medially, not notched ; temple wider than eye 
in dorsal view ; galea short. Posterior portion, except broad margins, 
of lateral face of pronotum rugose ; mesoscutum without a longitudinal 
depression along each side of the median line ; notaulices narrow, finely 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

f oveolate ; mesopleuron polished, its upper groove widened, and coarse- 
ly partitioned, lower groove finely f oveolate, posterior groove coarsely 
foveate; metapleuron rugose, anterior triangular portion mostly 
smooth ; propodeum rugose, carinae rather prominent, the areas well 
defined, costulae distinct, spiracle ovate. First abscissa of radius 
longer than that of basal vein ; third and fourth abscissae of cubitus 
about equal; recurrent vein slightly longer than the second abscissa 
of cubitus; nervulus postf ureal by half its length; first and second 
abscissae of submedius about equal; interanal vein represented by a 
short stump continued by a pigmented line. Forefemur fringed with 
long pubescence ventrally ; hind tibia broadened at apex but not ex- 
panded into a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia a little more 
than half as long as the basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments 
about equal ; imier spur of hind tibia slightly more than half as long 
as basitarsus, basitarsus about as long as the next three tarsal seg- 
ments combined, second tarsal segment longer than fifth ; hind tarsal 
claws pectinate. First abdominal suture slightly curved to the mar- 
gin ; second tergite shorter than third medially. 

Type.—U.S.^M. No. 2170. 

Redescribed from the type, from Los Angeles, Calif., and a paratype 
male, San Bernardino County, Calif., the only known specimens. 

CARDIOCHILES RUBICUNDUS, new species 

Female. — Length 5.5 mm. Ferruginous; antenna, eye, tips of man- 
dibles and ocellar area black ; wings fuliginous, costa and stigma fer- 
ruginous ; antennae black, anterior surface and basal part of posterior 
surface of scape ferruginous; ovipositor sheath dark ferruginous. 
Pubescence of head very short, golden; antenna 33-segmented ; eye 
bare; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth and polished; frons smooth, 
polished, impressed, slightly elevated down the middle; face about 
2.25 times as wide as long, convex, punctate, with a median longi- 
tudinal ridge above, below which it is a little elevated ; clypeus punc- 
tate, slightly elevated along basal margin, apical margin truncate, a 
little flaring, not notched ; temple wider than the eye in dorsal view ; 
malar furrow about 0.67 as long as basal width of mandible; galea 
moderate, but considerably shorter than long axis of eye. Lateral 
face of pronotum smooth and shining except in the median longi- 
tudinal groove, median lobe of mesoscutum with an indistinct median 
longitudinal elevation; notaulices f oveolate; mesopleuron polished, its 
upper groove coarsely foveolate, its lower groove straight, foveolate, 
posterior groove foveate ; metapleuron mostly smooth ; propodeum ru- 
gose, carinae moderately high, costulae distinct, spiracle long ovate. 
First abscissa of radius longer than that of basal vein ; third abscissa of 
cubitus slightly longer than fourth ; recurrent vein longer than second 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 251 

abscissa of cubitus ; nervulus postf ureal by 0.67 its length ; first abscissa 
of submedius slightly shorter than second ; interanal vein represented 
by a short stump continued by a pigmented line. Fifth segment of 
fore tarsus longer than second; hind tibia flattened and broadened 
toward apex, its outer apical margin thickened and expanded into a 
flaring process ; hind femur broad, nearly half as wide as long ; inner 
spur of middle tibia about 0.75 as long as its basitarsus ; inner spur of 
hind tibia slightly less than 0.67 as long as basitarsus ; second segment 
of middle leg shorter than fifth ; basitarsus of hind leg shorter than 
the remaining four tarsal segments combined; second and fifth seg- 
ments of hind tarsus about equal; hind tarsal claws pectinate, each 
with five short visible teeth basally. First abdominal suture slightly 
curved to the margin; second tergite shorter than third medially; 
hypopygium in profile obtuse at apex, about as long as second and 
third tergites combined, its median ventral line without a longitudinal 
fold ; ovipositor sheath more than half as long as hypopygium and a 
little shorter than hind basitarsus (pi. 5, fig. 32) . 

Type.—U.S.'NM. No. 58292. 

Type locality. — Las Cruces, N. Mex. 

Described from a single female collected by T. D. A. Cockerell. 

CARDIOCHILES RUBIDUS, new species 

Female. — Length 7.5 mm. Ferruginous; antenna, eye, vertex and 
frons medially, mesosternum, propodeum, posterior portion of meta- 
pleuron, and ovipositor sheath black ; wing fuliginous ; costa and stig- 
ma ferruginous; hind tarsus fuscous; pubescence of head golden 
brown. Antennae incomplete ; eye bare ; ocelli elevated ; vertex and 
frons smooth and polished; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, 
smooth and shining, with a low median tubercle above ; clypeus smooth, 
its basal half slightly elevated medially, its apical margin truncate, 
not notched ; temple slightly narrower than eye in dorsal view ; galea 
very short. Central portion of lateral face of pronotum weakly sculp- 
tured ; median lobe of mesoscutum with a shallow longitudinal depres- 
sion on each side of median line; notaulices moderately foveolate; 
mesopleuron smooth, upper groove foveolate and widened posteriorly, 
lower groove with more or less elliptical f oveae, posterior groove f ove- 
ate ; metapleuron with posterior portion rugulose and anterior portion 
smooth ; propodeum rugose, areolar carinae low, costulae weak, areola 
broader than spiracular area, spiracular area acute posteriorly, spiracle 
long ovate. First abscissae of radius and basal vein equal; third 
abscissa of cubitus shorter than fourth ; recurrent vein slightly longer 
than second abscissa of cubitus; nervulus postf ureal by slightly over 
0.67 its length; first abscissa of submedius shorter than second: 
interanal vein represented by a short stump continued by a pig- 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

merited line. Second and fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal; 
hind tibia somewhat thickened apically but not expanded into a 
flaring process; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.67 as long as 
basitarsus; inner spur of hind tibia slightly more than half as long 
as basitarsus ; second and fifth segments of middle tarsus about equal ; 
second and fifth segments of hind tarsus about equal ; basitarsus of 
hind legs slightly flattened, about as long as the next three segments 
combined ; hind tarsal claws pectinate, each with three or four teeth 
on basal half. First abdominal suture slightly curved to the margin, 
second tergite shorter than third medially; hypopygium in profile 
obtuse, about as long as second and third tarsal segments of hind leg 
combined, its median ventral line without a longitudinal fold. Ovi- 
positor sheath short, pubescent, its exposed part about one-third the 
length of hypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 25). 

Type.— U.S.^M. 58293. 

Type locality. — Six miles west of Lakeview, Oreg., 5,100 feet. 

Described from two females; the type is labeled as collected July 8, 
1937, by Bolinger and Jewett; the paratype bears only the label 
"Ariz." 

CARDIOCHILES RUFOSTIGMA, new species 

Female. — ^Length 7 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen black with 
the following parts reddish yellow: Narrow inner and broad outer 
orbits ; lateral lobes of mesoscutum posteriorly ; and basal half of ab- 
domen except first and second tergites medially. Antenna black. 
Wings fuliginous, base of costa, stigma except apex, and base of sub- 
costella reddish yellow. Coxae and trochanters black. Femora red- 
dish yellow, darkened outwardly at their bases. Tibiae and their 
spurs testaceous, hind tibia black at apex. Tarsi black, the basal three 
and a half segments of the fore tarsus and the basal half of the first 
segment of the middle tarsus pale. Ovipositor sheath black. Pubes- 
cence of head rather long, chestnut brown in color ; antennae incom- 
plete ; eye bare ; ocelli slightly elevated ; vertex smooth and polished ; 
frons smooth and polished; face about 3.0 as wide as long, finely 
punctate, with a short median longitudinal ridge above; clypeus 
punctate, the punctures a little coarser than those of the face, basal 
portion slightly elevated, apical margin truncate, not notched ; temple 
wider than eye in dorsal view ; galea very short. Central portion of 
lateral face of pronotum rugose; median lobe of mesoscutum with a 
weak longitudinal depression each side of median line; notaulices 
moderately foveolate; mesopleuron punctate, its upper groove foveate 
and widened posteriorly, lower groove foveolate, posterior groove 
foveate; metapleuron rugose except on the anterior portion; propo- 
deum rugose, carinae moderately prominent, costulae present, spiracu- 
lar area about as large as areola, spiracle long ovate. First abscissa 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 253 

of radius sliglitly shorter but thicker than that of basal vein ; third 
abscissa of cubitus slightly shorter than fourth ; recurrent vein longer 
than second abscissa of cubitus ; nervulus postf ureal by 0.67 its length ; 
first abscissa of submedius shorter than second ; interanal vein repre- 
sented by a short stump continued by a pigmented line, second and fifth 
segments of fore tarsus about equal ; apex of hind tibia thickened on 
outer margin at apex and expanded into a flaring process ; imier spur of 
middle tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus; inner spur of hind tibia 
about half ns long as basitarsus; second and fifth segments of middle 
tarsus about equal; second segment of hind tarsus longer than fifth; 
hind tarsal claws pectinate basally, each with three or four visible teeth. 
First abdominal suture slightly curved to the mai-gin, second and third 
tergites about equal medially; hypopygium in profile obtuse, about 
as long as combined length of first two tergites, its median ventral line 
without a longitudinal fold; ovipositor sheath about 0.67 as long 
as hypopygium, smooth, polished, spatulate, with short pubescence 
(pl.5, fig. 37). 

Male. — Similar to the female except slightly smaller, mesoscutum 
entirely black, hind femur and tibia wholly ferruginous, fore and mid- 
dle tarsi pale. 

Type.—V.^.'^M. No. 58294. 

Tyjje locality.— Faiviiix, Calif. (May 1, 1921, C. T. Dodds) . 

Described from two females and two males; the paratypes are 
merely labeled "So. Cal." Two paratypes are in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

CARDIOCHILES SEMINIGER (Cresson) 

Tenthredoides seminiger Cresson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, vol. 4, p. 291, 1865 

(female, male). 
Toxoncuron seminigrum Ckesson, Trans. Amer. Eat. Soc, vol. 4, p. 179, 1872. — 

Camekon, Biologia Centrali-Americana, Hymenoptera, vol. 1, p. 411, No. 5, 

1887. 
Toxoneura seminigra Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 49, 

52, 1894. 
Cardiochiles seminigrum Viereck, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol. 19, p. 275, 1905. 

Female. — Length about 7 mm. Head black, narrow inner and broad 
outer orbits and basal half of clypeus ferruginous; middle part of 
mandible dark red ; thorax and abdomen ferruginous, proepisternum, 
anterior margin of the lateral face of pronotum, pectus, ventral half 
and posterior margin of mesopleuron, metapleuron, and propodeum, 
black ; wings fuliginous, veins dark ; legs ferrugious, coxae, trochanters, 
and femora basally, black ; apex of hind tibia, last tarsal segment of 
foreleg and middle tarsus blackish, hind tarsus black ; first tergite black 
medially ; ovipositor sheath black. Antenna 39-segmented in the type, 
eye bare ; ocelli elevated slightly ; vertex smooth and polished ; f rons 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

smooth and polished ; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, minutely 
punctate, with a low median tubercle above ; clypeus slightly elevated 
along basal margin, apical margin not notched, and slightly arched out- 
wardly ; temple wider than eye in dorsal view ; galea short. Posterior 
part of lateral face of pronotum rugose ; median lobe of mesoscutum 
weakly elevated down the middle, the depression on each side of median 
line weak or indistinct; notaulices finely foveolate; upper and lower 
grooves of mesopleuron foveolate, posterior groove foveate, metapleu- 
ron rugose, except on the small anterior portion which is minutely, 
shallowly punctate ; propodeum rugose, carinae moderately prominent, 
costulae present, areola rather narrow, spiracle ovate. First abscissa 
of radius longer than that of basal vein; third abscissa of cubitus 
slightly longer than fourth; nervulus postf ureal by about 0.67 its 
length ; recurrent vein shorter than second abscissa of cubitus ; first ab- 
scissa of submedius shorter than second ; interanal vein represented by 
a short stump continued by a pigmented line. Second and fifth seg- 
ments of fore tarsus about equal ; hind tibia broadened at apex but not 
expanded into a flaring process; inner spur of middle tibia slightly 
over half as long as basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments about 
equal ; inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as basitarsus, basitar- 
sus flattened and shorter than the last four tarsal segments, second tar- 
sal segment longer than fifth ; hind tarsal claws pectinate basally. First 
abdominal suture slightly curved to the margin ; second tergite shorter 
than third medially; hypopygium in profile acute at apex, about as 
long as the first two tergites combined, its median ventral line without 
a longitudinal fold; ovipositor sheath about 0.75 as long as hypo- 
pygium, longer than hind basitarsus, slightly pubescent, weakly de- 
curved at apex (pi. 5, fig. 28). 

Male. — Essentially like the female. 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

In addition to the type, which is from El Paso County, Colo., the 
author has studied specimens from Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Utah, 
New Mexico, Texas, Iowa, and Arizona. 

CARDIOCHILES TENNESSENSIS, new species 

Female. — Length 6 mm. Head and thorax black, with broad outer 
and incomplete, narrow inner orbital markings, and posterior half 
of mesonotum, ferruginous; lateral face of pronotum and metanotum 
also more or less ferruginous; wings dark fuliginous; coxae, trochan- 
ters, and fore and middle femora black ; hind femur ferruginous ; fore 
and middle tibiae and tarsi blackish, hind tibia ferruginous, broadly 
blackish apically, tibial spurs ferruginous ; abdomen ferruginous ; ovi- 
positor sheath black. Pubescence of head not especially long or thick, 
chestnut-brown; antenna 36-segmented ; eye bare; ocelli elevated; 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 255 

vertex smooth and polished; frons smooth, polished, with a small, 
shallow pit below anterior ocellus, and with a low median longitudinal 
elevation; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, smooth, and with a 
median tubercle above ; clypeus with longer pubescence than the face, 
median basal part convex, apical margin not notched ; temple slightly 
wider than eye ; galea short. Middle portion of lateral face of prono- 
tum weakly ruguloso-punctate ; median lobe of mesoscutum with a 
depression each side of the median line; notaulices finely foveolate; 
upper groove of mesopleuron wide, shallow, distinctly partitioned, 
lower groove weakly, finely foveolate ; and posterior groove coarsely 
foveate; metapleuron ruguloso-punctate, triangular anterior portion 
plain, a deep pit on the margin between the anterior and posterior 
portions, and a deep, coarsely foveate groove along upper margin of 
posterior face; j^ropodeum finely rugose, carinae delimiting areola 
low, costulae not defined, spiracle short ovate. First abscissae of 
radius and basal vein about equal; third abscissa of cubitus longer 
than fourth ; first intercubitus sharply angulate and with a short stump 
of a vein from the angle; second abscissa of cubitus 1.50 times as long 
as recurrent vein ; nervulus postf ureal by 0.67 its length ; interanal vein 
absent. Second and fifth segments of fore tarsus about equal ; hind 
tibia slightly curved, widened at apex, but not expanded into a strongly 
flaring process ; the inner spur of middle tibia slightly more than half 
as long as basitarsus, second and fifth tarsal segments about equal; 
inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as basitarsus, basitarsus 
about as long as the last four tarsal segments combined, second tarsal 
segment longer than fifth ; hind tarsal claws pectinate, each with four 
visible teeth basally. First abdominal suture slightly curved to the 
margin ; second and third tergites of equal length medially ; hypopyg- 
ium about as long as third and fourth abdominal tergites combined, 
its median ventral line without a longitudinal fold ; ovipositor sheath 
short, the exposed part about 0.25 as long as the hypopygium, smooth 
and polished (pi. 5, fig. 21). 

Type.—U.S.'NM. No. 58295. 

Type locality. — Clarksville, Tenn. 

Described from a single female reared August 1909 "from bud- 
worm." Presumably the host was the tobacco budworm, Heliothis 
virescens (Fabricius). 

Very similar to nigriceps Viereck, the common parasite of Helio- 
this virescens^ but it may be distinguished from that species by the 
much less strongly sculptured metapleura and propodeum and by the 
relatively long second tergite. 

CARDIODHILES TEXENSIS, new species 

Female. — Length 7.5 mm. Head and thorax black, with narrow 
inner and broad outer orbital markings and spot on clypeus, ferrugi- 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

nous. AViii<^s dark fuliginous, veins and stigma blackish. Legs fer- 
ruginous, their coxae and trochanters black and tarsi fuscous; abdo- 
men ferruginous; ovipositor sheath black. Pubescence of head short 
and sparse. Antenna H7-segmented in type; eye bare; ocelli elevated; 
vertex and frons smooth and polished; face convex, punctate except 
medially, and with a median longitudinal ridge above extending down 
to the middle; clyi)eus punctate, elevated basally, apical margin trun- 
cate and not notched ; temple narrower than the eye in dorsal view ; 
galea very long, its exposed part longer than the long axis of the 
eye, tapering apically. Median lobe of mesoscutum nearh' flat, with- 
out a depression on each side of the median line ; notaulices moderately 
foveolate; mesopleuron smooth except for exceedingly minute seti- 
gerous punctures, upper groove unusually narrow, linely foveolate, 
lower groove finely foveolate anteriorly, coarsely so posteriorly, pos- 
terior groove coarsely foveate; metapleuron mostly smooth, rugose 
onl}^ on apical third of the large posterior section ; propodeum rugose 
with prominent carinae defining the areas, areola diamond-shaped, 
costulae distinct, spiracular area not acute posteriorly, spiracle ovate. 
First abscissa of radius longer than that of basal vein ; first intercubitus 
not angulate ; third and fourth abscissae of cubitus about equal ; second 
abscissa of cubitus longer than recurrent vein ; nervulus postf ureal by 
about 0,80 its length ; first abscissa of submedius shorter than the sec- 
ond ; interanal vein represented by a short stump continued by a pig- 
mented line. Fifth segment of foretarsus longer than the second; 
apex of hind tibia much thickened outwardly and expanded into a 
strongly flaring process; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.67 as 
long as basitarsus, second segment of middle tarsus shorter than fifth; 
inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as basitarsus, second and 
fifth tarsal segments about equal, basitarsus shorter than the last four 
tarsal segments combined; hind tarsal claw pectinate with three to 
four visible teeth basally. First abdominal suture slightly curved 
to the margin ; third tergite longer than second medially ; hypopygium 
very prominent, extending far beyond apex of last tergite, in profile 
acutely pointed, about as long as the first five tergites combined, its 
median ventral line without a longitudinal fold. Ovipositor sheath 
as long as hind tarsus, narrowing conspicuously from middle to apex, 
sparsely pubescent (pi. 5. fig. 16). 

Type.—U.S.'NM. No. 58296. 

Type locality. — Calvert, Tex. 

Described from two females. The type was collected on Hetero 
theca subaxillaris by F. C. Bishopp in October; the paratype was taken 
at College Station, Tex., October 11, 1936. 

Apparently related to magnus but is not so stout; it differs further 
in having the galea much longer, the temple much narrower, and the 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 257 

hypopygiuni more produced; in color it differs especially in having 
the thorax bhick, 

CARDIOCHILES THERBERIAE Rohwer 

Cardiochiles therbcriac Rohwer, Proc. U. S. Nat. Miis., vol. 57, pp. 226-227, 1920 
(female). 

Female. — ^Length 5.5 nini. Head black; incomplete orbital mark- 
ings,, lower part of face, clypeus, lower end of cheek, anterior surface 
of scape, and apical part of pedicel, brownish yellowish; thorax 
ferruginous; wings strongly fuliginous, costa and stigma brownish 
black; foreleg brownish yellow, with coxa, trochanter, and femur 
basall}^, black; middle leg black, apex of femur, basal two-thirds of 
tibia, and tarsus brownish yellow; hind leg black or blackish, tibia 
dark brown on basal half; spurs of fore and middle tibiae ferruginous, 
and of hind tibia dark ferruginous ; abdomen black, its first and sec- 
ond tergites ferruginous medially. Antenna 33-segmented in type; 
eye hairy; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth, polished, and flat; frons 
smooth and polished, and with a low median longitudijial keel; face 
slightly less than twice as wide as long, smooth and shining; clypeus 
smooth, polished, its apical margin notched at the middle; temple 
slightly wider than eye in dorsal view; galea short. Median lower 
portion of lateral face of pronotum slightly wrinkled; median lobe of 
mesoscutum without a longitudinal depression each side of median 
line; notaulices sharply impressed, finely foveolate; mesopleuron 
smooth, polished, upper groove smooth, lower groove incompletely and 
weakly foveolate, posterior groove foveolate and with a distinct smooth 
groove from its middle to the lower groove; metapleuron smooth 
except ventroposterior corner of posterior portion which is rugose; 
in-opodeum rugose, the carinae prominent, areas sharply delimited. 
First abscissa of radius about 1.50 times as long as that of basal vein ; 
tiiird abscissa of cubitus slightly shorter than fourth; second abscissa 
of cubitus about 1.50 times as long as recurrent vein; recurrent vein 
about one-third as long as second abscissa of basal vain ; nervulus post- 
f ureal by about half of its length ; first abscissa of submedius shorter 
tliaii second; interanal vein represented by a pigmented line. Second 
segment of fore tarsus shorter than fifth; apex of hind tibia not ex- 
panded into a flaring process; inner spur of middle tibia longer than 
basi tarsus; second and fifth segments of middle tarsus about equal; 
inner spur of hind tibia about 0.75 as long as basitarsus, basitarsus 
shorter than the last four tarsal segments combined, second tarsal seg- 
ment slightly longer than fifth; hind tarsal claws pectinate. First 
abdominal suture extending obliquely forward laterally ; second tergite 
shorter than third; hypopygium slightly shorter than first tergite, its 
median ventral line folded; ovipositor sheath about 0.33 as long as 
tiie abdomen and pubescent (pl. 5. fig. 39). 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL AIUSEUM vol. 99 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female except as follows : Length 
4.5 mm. ; cheek, temple, and face black ; antenna 32-segmented ; third 
abscissa of cubitus distinctly shorter than fourth. 

This species is very close to C. ttioracicus (Cresson) . 

ry/?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 22033. 

Redescribed from the type female and a paratype male, both from 
Sabino Basin, Santa Catalina Mountains, Ariz. ; and one male from 
Victoria, Tex., September 18, 1913. 

CARDIOCHILES THORACICUS (Cresson), new combination 

Toxoneuron thoracwum Cresson, Can. Ent., vol. 5, p. 68, 1873 (female). 
Toxoneura thoracica Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, No. 8, pp. 49, 
51,1894 (female, male). 

Female. — Length 4.5 mm. Head ferruginous, with antennae, 
cheeks below and lower part of face between cheek and clypeus black; 
eye grayish black ; apical margin of clypeus dark ferruginous ; thorax, 
abdomen, and legs black ; pronotum, proepisternum, mesonotum, tegu- 
lae, upper part of mesopleuron, apical third of fore femur, and fore 
tibia and tarsus, ferruginous; wings fuliginous. Antennae incomplete 
in type ; eye hairy, ocelli elevated ; vertex smooth, polished, and flat ; 
frons smooth, polished, impressed, and with a median longitudinal 
carina ; face slightly less than twice as wide as long, smooth and pol- 
ished, slightly elevated medially and with a very indistinct, short, 
median ridge above; clypeus about 1.50 times as wide as long, smooth 
and polished, and notched medially on apical margin ; temple broader 
than eye in dorsal view ; galea short. Median portion of lateral face of 
pronotum rugose ; median lobe of mesoscutum without a longitudinal 
depression each side of median line ; notaulices distinct and f oveolate ; 
mesopleuron smooth and polished, upper and lower grooves foveolate 
and posterior groove rather coarsely foveolate with a short smooth de- 
pression at the middle leading to the lower groove; anterior portion of 
metapleuron smooth and polished, posterior portion rugose with an- 
terior half plain ; propodeum rugose, the carinae high and distinct, and 
the spiracle ovate. First abscissa of radius 1.50 times as long as that 
of basal vein ; third abscissa of cubitus shorter than fourth ; recurrent 
vein slightly longer than second abscissa of cubitus and about one-half 
as long as second abscissa of basal vein ; nervulus postf ureal by about 
0.33 its own length ; interanal vein absent. Second and fifth segments 
of fore tarsus about equal; apex of hind tibia not expanded into a 
flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia longer than basitarsus, sec- 
ond and fifth tarsal segments of middle leg about equal ; inner spur of 
hind tibia about 0.80 as long as basitarsus, the basitarsus shorter than 
the last four tarsal segments combined, second and third tarsal seg- 
ments longer than fifth ; hind claws pectinate basally. First abdomi- 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 259 

nal suture extending obliquely forward to the margin ; second tergite 
slightly shorter than third medially; ovipositor sheath about 0.67 as 
long as abdomen (pi. 5, fig. 38) . 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female, a transverse black band 
on vertex between eyes ; clypeus notched rather strongly. 

Type, — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Redescribed from the type female, from Cordova, Mexico, and a 
male, also from Mexico, in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia. The male from Arizona, recorded by Ashmead, is not in 
the U. S. National Museum. 

CARDIOCHILES TIBIATOR (Say) 

Bracon tiUator Say, Keating's Narrative of an expedition to the source of St. 

Peters River . . ., vol. 2, Append., p. 323, No. 1, 1824 (female). — LeConte, 

Complete writings of Thomas Say on the entomology of North America, 

vol. 2, p. 716, No. 17, 1859. — Cresson, Can. Ent., vol. 5, p. 68, 1873. — Ashmead, 

Proe. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 51, No. 7, 1894. 
Bracon {ToxUneuron) tibiator Say, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 259, 

No. 17, 1836. — LeConte, Complete vpritings of Thomas Say on the entomology 

of North America, vol. 2, p. 715, No. 17, 1859. 
CardiocJiiles tihiator Ashmead, in Smith, Insects of New Jersey, p. 592, 1900. — 

ViEKECK, Connecticut Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 22, p. 183, 1917. — Leonard, 

Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Stat. Mem. 101, p. 913, 1928. 

Female. — Length 5.5 mm. Black, anterior wing hyaline with apical 
third contrastingly fuliginous ; posterior wing hyaline, inf uscated at 
apex ; apex of fore femur, fore tibia and tarsus entirely, basal half of 
middle tibia, middle tarsus, and basal third of hind tibia, yellowish 
white; pedicel dark ferruginous apically; middle part of mandible 
dark ferruginous. Antenna about 37-segmented ; eye hairy; ocelli 
elevated; vertex shining, wrinkled and with a transverse low eleva- 
tion bordering the occiput ; f rons transversely striate and with a very 
weak median longitudinal carina; face about twice as wide as long, 
convex, and with a complete median longitudinal carina; clypeus 
punctate, apical margin distinctly notched at middle, median basal 
part slightly elevated ; temple striate, and bulging, broader than eye 
in dorsal view ; galea short. Pubescence of thorax silvery or whitish ; 
central portion of lateral face of pronotum rugose; median lobe of 
mesoscutum very shallowly impressed medially, sometimes with a 
shallow longitudinal impression each side of median line; the three 
lobes of mesoscutum a little roughened ; notaulices coarsely f oveolate ; 
upper groove of mesopleuron rugose, lower groove foveate or rugoso- 
foveate, posterior groove foveolate with a smooth depression at the 
middle leading anteriorly to the lower groove; metapleuron rugose, 
anterior triangular portion mostly smooth; propodeum with abun- 
dant, long, silvery hair, rugose, carinae prominent, areola diamond- 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

shaped, spiracle long ovate. First abscissae of radius and basal vein 
about equal; third abscissa of cubitus much shorter than fourth; 
recurrent vein and second abscissa of cubitus about equal; nervulus 
postf ureal by about 0.67 its own length; first and second abscissae 
of submedius about equal ; interanal vein represented by a light pig- 
mented line. Fifth segment of fore tarsus thicker and longer than 
second, hind tibia flattened and broadened toward apex, but not ex- 
panded on outer apical margin; inner spur of middle tibia slightly 
shorter than basitarsus, second tarsal segment shorter than fifth; 
inner spur of hind tibia about half as long as basitarsus, basitarsus 
flattened and broadened, and longer than the last four tarsal seg- 
ments combined; hind tarsal claws pectinate basally. First ab- 
dominal suture extending obliquely forward to the margin; second 
tergite about half as long as third ; liypopygium in profile pointed, 
about as long as the first two tergites combined, its median ventral 
line folded ; ovipositjor sheath about as long as hind basitarsus, pubes- 
cent, broadened to near apex, its greatest width about equal to length 
of second segment of hind tarsus, the tip bent ventrally (pi. 5, fig. 19). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

Type. — Lost. 

The material studied includes specimens from Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Virginia, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Georgia, and Kansas. 

CARDIOCHILES TRANSVERSUS, new species 

Female.— LQwgth. 6 mm. Black, upper, outer orbits narrowly fer- 
ruginous; wings light fuliginous; fore and middle legs ferruginous, 
their coxae, trochanters, femora basally, and tarsi black; hind leg 
ferruginous, with coxa, trochanter basally, apex of tibia, and tarsus 
black ; ovipositor sheath black. Head with long, mostly dark, hairs ; 
antenna 33-segmented in type ; eye bare ; ocelli elevated ; vertex smooth 
and polished; frons smooth and polished, and with a weak, median 
longitudinal raised line ; face about three times as wide as long, smooth, 
polished, and with a short median tubercle above; clypeus smooth, 
polished, basal margin slightly elevated, apical margin truncate, not 
notched; temple slightly wider than eye in dorsal view; galea short. 
Median portion of lateral face of pronotum f oveolate ; mesonotal lobes 
smooth and polished, impunctate; notaulices finely f oveolate; upper 
groove of mesopleuron coarsely f oveolate, lower groove finely f oveolate, 
short, posterior groove evenly f oveolate ; metapleuron rugose, the small, 
triangular, anterior portion smooth; propodeum finely rugulose, the 
carinae prominent, spiracle ovate. First abscissae of radius and basal 
vein about equal ; third abscissa of cubitus slightly shorter than fourth ; 
recurrent vein and second abscissa of cubitus about equal ; nervulus 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 20 1 

postf ureal by 0.67 its own length; first and second abscissae of sub- 
niedins about equal ; interanal vein represented by a pigmented line. 
Second and fifth segments of foretarsus about equal ; apex of hind tibia 
not conspicuously thickened or expanded into a flaring process ; inner 
spur of middle tibia slightly over half as long as basitarsus, second and 
fifth tarsal segments about equal ; inner spur of hind tibia slightly over 
half as long as basitarsus, basitarsus flattened, shorter than the last 
four tarsal segments combined, second tarsal segment longer than fifth ; 
hind tarsal claws pectinate basally. First abdominal suture extending 
obliquely forward to the margin, second tergite shorter than third 
medially; hypopygium in profile obtuse, about as long as first three 
tergites combined, its median ventral line without a longitudinal fold ; 
ovipositor sheath smooth and polished, pubescent and broadly rounded 
at tip (pi. 5, fig. 24). 

Male. — Essentially like the female. 

Ty^^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58297. 

Type locality. — Los Angeles, Calif. 

Described from three females and two males, all from the type 
localit}^ 

CARDIOCHILES TRUNCUS, new species 

Female. — Length 8 mm. Ferruginous except the following: Eye 
grayish black ; antenna except base of scape, vertex and f rons except 
narrowdy at the eyes, occiput medially, pectus, and anteroventral 
margin of lateral face of pronotum black; apical margin of clypeus 
and tip of mandible dark ferruginous; mouth parts blackish; proepis- 
ternum partly blackish; propodeum mostly blackish; tegulae ferru- 
ginous; wings fuscous, stigma and veins blackish, costa and costella 
ferruginous basally; legs ferruginous, fore and middle coxae entirelj^ 
and hind coxae largely, basal segments of all trochanters, apex of 
hind tibia, last tarsal segment of foreleg, apical part of basitarsus 
and the remaining segments of middle tarsus, and hind tarsus, black. 
Pubescence very short and inconspicuous; antenna 38-segmented in 
type; eye bare; ocelli elevated; vertex smooth and polished; frons 
smooth and polished, with a small pit below anterior ocellus, and 
with a low median longitudinal elevation ; face about 2.50 times as wide 
as long, punctate, with a short median ridge above, below which it is 
broadly, slightly elevated; clypeus punctate, the median basal part 
elevated, the apical margin truncate and slightly flaring, not notched; 
temple wider than eye in dorsal view ; malar furrow about 0.80 as long 
as basal width of mandible; galea about 0.82 as long as long axis of 
eye. Median portion of lateral face of pronotum rugose ; median lobe 
of mesoscutum distinctly though minutely punctate, lateral lobes 
smooth; notaulices moderately foveolate; mesopleuron closely, 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

minutely punctate, upper, lower, and posterior grooves foveolate, the 
lower groove long, almost complete; metapleuron rugose, except the 
small triangular basal poi-tion which is smooth; propodeum rugose, 
carinae prominent, spiracle ovate, strongly oblique. First abscissa of 
radius longer and thicker than that of basal vein; third and fourth 
abscissae of cubitus about equal; second abscissa of cubitus slightly 
shorter than recurrent vein; nervulus postf ureal by slightly over 
half of its length; first abscissa of submedius shorter than second; 
interanal vein represented by a short stump continued hj a pigmented 
line. Fifth segment of f oretarsus longer than second ; apex of hind 
tibia strongly thickened and expanded into a flaring process; inner 
spur of middle tibia about 0.67 as long as basitarsus, second and fifth 
tarsal segments about equal; inner spur of hind tibia slightly over 
half as long as basitarsus, basitarsus flattened and slightly shorter 
than the next four tarsal segments combined, second tarsal segment 
longer than fifth; hind claws pectinate basally. First abdominal 
suture slightly curved to the margin ; second abdominal tergite slightly 
shorter than third medially; hypopygium about as long as the first 
three tergites combined, its median ventral line without a longi- 
tudinal fold ; ovipositor sheath polished, pubescent at tip, spatulate, 
its exposed part about half as long as the hypopygiimi (pi. 5, fig. 18). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female but with face medially, 
posterior part of temple, metanotum except lateral depressions, lower 
half of mesopleuron, metapleuron, and propodeum black; genitalia 
f uscof erruginous ; antenna 41-segmented. 

Type. — In the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Type locality. — Pine Ridge, Nebr. (July). 

Described from two females and one male. The allotype is from "18 
mi. E. of Lamar, Colo., 3,900 ft. elev.," H. A. Scullen. 

CARDIOCHILES VIATOR (Say), new combination 

Bracon {Toxoneuron) viator Say, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 258, 
No. 15, 1836 (female, male). — LeGonte, Complete writings of Thomas Say 
on the entomology of North America, vol. 2, j). 710, No. 15, 1859. 

Toxoneuron viator Cressox, Can. Ent, vol. 5, p. 69, 1873.— Patton, Psyche, vol. 7, 
pp. 178-179, 1894. 

Toxoneura viatcyr Ashmead, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 3, pp. 49, 52, No. 11, 
1894. 

Cardiochiles viator Viereck, Connecticut Geol. Nat. Hist. Survey Bull. 22, pp. 183- 
184,1917 (1916). 

Female. — Length 7.0 mm. Body ferruginous except the following : 
Antenna, vertex and f rons mostly, median spot on face, occiput, lower 
and posterior part of cheek, malar region, apical and lateral margin of 
clypeus, proepisternum, sometimes more or less of middle lobe of 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 263 

mesonotum, mesopleuron except anterior upper part, pectus, meta- 
pleuron, propodeum, and ovipositor sheath, black; metanotum black- 
ish, eye grayish black ; mouth parts black ; wings fuliginous, costa and 
stigma ferruginous ; legs ferruginous, with coxae and trochanters and 
usually anterior and middle femora basally, black, tarsi brown or 
blackish. Antenna usually with 31 to 33 segments; eye bare; ocelli 
elevated, vertex sm.ooth and polished ; f rons smooth and polished, with 
a small depression below the anterior ocellus and with a median longi- 
tudinal keel ; face about 2.50 times as wide as long, punctate, polished, 
and with a small median tubercle above; clypeus punctate, its basal 
median part slightly elevated, its apical margin slightly flaring, not 
notched ; temple bulging, wider than eye in dorsal view ; galea long and 
slender, about as long as the long axis of eye, tapering apically. 
Median part of lateral face of pronotum weakly rugose ; median lobe 
of mesoscutum flat, smooth and shining like lateral lobes; notaulices 
moderately foveolate; mesopleuron closely, finely punctate, upper 
groove coarsely foveate, lower groove foveolate, posterior groove 
coarsely foveate; metapleuron punctate, rugose at apex; propodeum 
rugose, carinae defining areola prominent, the costulae often indis- 
tinct, spiracle long ovate. First abscissa of radius longer than that of 
basal vein ; third and fourth abscissae of cubitus about equal ; second 
abscissa of cubitus slightly longer than recurrent vein ; nervulus post- 
f ureal by about 0.67 its length; first abscissa of submedius slightly 
shorter than second ; interanal vein represented by a short stump con- 
tinued by a pigmented line. Fifth segment of fore tarsus longer than 
second ; apex of hind tibia thickened on outer margin and expanded 
into a flaring process ; inner spur of middle tibia about 0.67 as long as 
basitarsus, and second tarsal segment slightly shorter than fifth ; inner 
spur of hind tibia about half as long as basitarsus, basitarsus shorter 
than the next four tarsal segments combined, second and fifth tarsal 
segments about equal; hind tarsal claws pectinate, with short teeth 
basally. First abdominal suture slightly curved to the margin; sec- 
ond tergite shorter than third medially; hypopygium in profile 
pointed, about as long as the first three tergites combined ; its median 
ventral line without a longitudinal fold; ovipositor sheath polished, 
spatulate, pubescent at tip, its exposed part about 0.75 as long as 
hypopygium (pi. 5, fig. 35). 

Male. — Essentially similar to the female. 

Type. — Lost. 

The material studied includes specimens from Connecticut, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Colorado, and Texas. 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CARDIOCHILES OF AMERICA 
NORTH OF MEXICO 

1. Eyes hairy 2 

Eyes bare 10 

2. Vertex and fi-ons transversely striate or wrinkled 3 

Vertex ami frons smooth 4 

y. Face with a median longitudinal carina ; apical third of forewing fuliginous, 
the rest hyaline; about basal 0.40 of hind tibia yellowish white; hind tarsal 

claw pectinate basally ; length about 6 mm tibiator (Say) 

Face without a median longitudinal carina; forewing uniformly fuliginous; 
hind tibia entirely blackish ; hind claw toothed basally ; length about 
2.50 mm minutus (Cresson) 

4. Thorax at least partly ferruginous 5 

Thorax entirely black 6 

5. Thorax entirely ferruginous ; second abscissa of cubitus about 1.50 times as 

long as recurrent vein ; recuri-ent vein about one-third as long as second 
abscissa of basal vein ; interanal vein represented by a pigmented line. 

therberiae Rohwer 

Thorax black, varied with ferruginous ; second abscissa of cubitus slightly 

shorter than recurrent vein ; recurrent vein about half as long as second 

abscissa of basal vein; interanal vein absent thoracicus (Cresson) 

6. Only apical third of forewing lightly iufumated apicalis (Cresson) 

Forewing entirely iufumated 7 

7. Third segment of hind tarsus nearly 1.50 times as long as fifth; hind tibia 

black 8 

Third and fifth segments of hind tarsus about equal ; hind tibia testaceous, 
sometimes blackish apically 9 

8. Fore femur black, brownish yellowish apically ; fore tibia black or blackish ; 

length about 4.5 mm orizabae (Ci-esson) 

Fore femur and tibia testaceous; length about 6 mm — floridanus (Ashmead) 

9. Notaulices meeting posteriorly in an acute angle (pi. 4, fig. 9) ; mesopleural 

furrow usually smooth explorator (Say) 

Notaulices meeting posteriorly in a broad angle (pi. 4, fig. 8) ; mesopleural 
furi'ow foveolate to anterior margin of mesopleuron. 

insculptus, new species 

10. Anterior margin of clypeus slightly notched at middle ; notaulices and 

mesosulcus smooth ; upper and lower grooves of mesopleuron smooth ; 
metapleuron smooth and polished ; propodeum areolate, the areas smooth. 

levis, new species 
Anterior margin of clypeus not notched; notaulices foveolate (except in 
hrcvitarsis) ; mesosulcus foveolate; upper and lower grooves of meso- 
pleuron usually foveolate ; metapleuron always rugose on posterior sec- 
tion ; propodeum usually areolate and always rugose 11 

11. Apex of hind tibia expanded outwardly into a strongly flaring process (pi. 4, 

fig. 13) 12 

Apex of hind tibia often thickened but not expanded into a strongly flaring 
process, outer edge nearly straight 20 

12. Galea nearly or quite as long as long axis of eye 13 

Galea much shorter 17 

13. Second segment of middle tarsus noticeably shorter than fifth 14 

Second segment of middle tarsus as long as fifth 16 

14. Costa and stigma yellowish ferruginous viator (Say) 

Costa and stigma dark brown or piceous 15 



ICHNEUMON-FLIES OF GENUS CARDIOCHILES — MAO 265 

15. Temple, in dorsal view, narrower than eye ; galea tapering strongly on apical 

half, its apex subacute; hypopygium far surpassing apex of last tergite 

in female texensis, new species 

Temple, in dorsal view, wider than eye; galea not tapering conspicuously, 
broadly roundeil at apex ; hypopygium not surpassing apex of last tergite 
in female nebrascensis, new species 

16. Thorax black; tegulae blackish abdominalis (Cresson) 

Thorax with pro- and mesonotum reddish yellow ; tegulae reddish yellow. 

truncus, new species 

17. Hind femur unusually broad, its extreme width nearly half its length ; usually 

mesonotum, and sometimes entire thorax ferruginous ; plate of first tergite 

usually ferruginous 18 

Hind femur much more than twice as long as its extreme width; thorax 
black, occasionally mesonotum varied with ferruginous ; plate of first ter- 
gite black 19 

IS. Head, thorax, legs including coxae, costa, and stigma reddish yellow. 

riibicundus, new species 

Head and thorax black, varied with ferruginous ; all coxae black ; costa and 

stigma blackish magnus, new species 

19. Propodeal carinae well-developed, the areas sharply defined ; wings strongly 

infumated throughout rufostigma, new species 

Propodeal carinae very weak, the areas not defined ; wings strongly infumated 
apically, subhyaline basad of stigma dilatus, new species 

20. Legs entirely black 21 

Legs more or less extensively ferruginous 22 

21. Wings entirely fuliginous; second segment of middle tarsus about as long 

as fifth pluto (Ashmead) 

Wings hyaline with apical third to two-fifths fuliginous; second segment 
of middle tarsus shorter than fifth nigricans, new species 

22. Thorax entirely black 23 

Thorax more or less ferruginous 28 

23. Costa and stigma bright ferruginous; head with ferruginous orbital mark- 

ing.s dignus, new species 

Costa and stigma dark brown or piceous ; head entirely black, except some- 
times clypeus obscurely reddish 24 

24. Abdomen black 25 

Abdomen more or less extensively, often entirely, ferruginous 26 

25. Mesoscutum and scutellum closely, finely punctate; face closely punctate, 

its vestiture short, not conspicuous ; propodeal carinae weak, only the 

areola distinctly defined calif ornicus t Ashmead) 

Mesoscutum and scutellum smooth and polished; face polished, impunctate, 
and clothed with conspicuous, long, blackish hair ; propodeal carinae promi- 
nent, all areas sharply defined transversus, new species 

26. Frons distinctly wrinkled behind scapes ; occiput aciculate ; scutellum sculp- 

tured on apical half ; mesopleuron mostly rugulose punctate. 

uigroclypeus Viereck 
Frons, occiput, and scutellum smooth and shining; mesopleuron smooth — 27 

27. Wings subhyaline on basal half, infumated on apical half. 

arugosus, new species 
Wings entirely infumated arugosus var. pullus, new variety 

28. Costa and stigma bright orange ; head, except large spot on front and vertex, 

ferruginous inibldus, new species 

Costa and stigma dark brown or piceous ; head largely black 29 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

29. Propodeum finely rugulose, the median area defined by weak carinae, the 

other areas not delimited ; second tergite as long as third. 

tennessensis, new species 

Propodeum coarsely rugose, areas defined by prominent carinae; second 

tergite shorter than third 30 

30. Notaulices smooth ; hind tarsus not longer than hind tibia. 

brevitarsis, new species 
Notaulices foveolate ; hind tarsus a little longer than hind tibia 31 

31. Mesoscutum entirely ferruginous; anterior and middle femora and tibiae 

reddish yellow, tlie former sometimes blackish basally ; first intercubitus 

gently curved, not angulate seminiger (Cresson) 

Mesoscutum black anteriorly ; anterior and middle femora and tibiae largely 
black or piceous; first intercubitus usually distinctly angulate below 
middle nigriceps Viereck 



ABBREVIATIONS USED ON PLATES 

AM, anterior portion of metapleuron ; AS, antennal socket ; B-B, basal vein ; 
BR, brachial vein ; C-C, cubitus ; CH, cheek ; CL, clypeus ; CX, coxa ; D-D, 
discoidal vein; E, eye; FC, face; FR, frons; G, galea; HP, hypopygium ; lA, 
interanal vein ; L, labrum ; LG, lower groove of mesopleuron ; LM, lateral lobe 
of mesonotum; LP, lateral face of pronotum; M, medius; MD, mandible; MF, 
malar furrow ; MM, median lobe of mesonotum ; MN, mesonotum ; MP, meso- 
pleuron ; MSC, mesoscutellum ; MT, metacarpus ; MTN, metanotum ; MTP, meta- 
pleuron ; NT, notaulix ; NV, nervulus ; OC, ocelli ; PE, proepisternum ; PG, i)OS- 
terior groove of mesopleuron ; PM, posterior portion of metapleuron ; PP, propo- 
deum ; RO, recurrent vein; R-R, radius; SD, subdiscoidal vein; SP, spiracle; 
S-S, submedius ; ST, stigma ; TF, transverse fossa ; TG, tegula ; TP, temple ; UG, 
upper groove of mesopleuron ; V, vertex ; IAS, first abdominal suture ; IIC, first 
intercubital vein ; IT, first tergite ; 2IC, second intercubital vein ; 2T, second 
tergite ; 3T, third tergite ; 8T, eighth tergite. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 99 PLATE 4 




1, Cardioch 
diagramma 



les viator, front view of head; 2, C. floridanus, front view of head; 3, Cardiochiles, 
^.«5,.c».„.natic lateral view of thorax; 4, C. apicalis, forewing; 5, C. nigriceps, part of fore- 
wing; 6, C. seminiger, lateral view of anterior part of mesonotum; 7, C. nigriceps, lateral 
view of anterior part of mesonotum; 8, C. operculellus, dorsal view of anterior part of 
mesonotum; 9, C. explorator, dorsal view of anterior part of mesonotum; 10, C. seminiger, 
first three abdominal tergites; 11, C. iibiator, first three abdominal tergites; 12, C. tibiator, 
tibia; 13, C. magnus, tibia. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 5 




Hypopygium and ovipositor sheath of Cardiac hiles: 14, C. magnus; b, C. explorator; 16, 

C. texensis; 17, C. nebrascensis; 18, C. iruncus; 19, C. tibiator; 20, C. calif ormcus; 21, C. 

ten7iessensis; 22, C. dilatus; 23, C. insculptus; 24, C. /ra«jtrr/M.f; 25, C. rubidus;lb C. 

a^tVfl/iV; 27, C. minutus; 28, C. seminiger; 29, C. (^zgMMj; 30, C. flortdanus; 31, C. /mj;; 

32, C. rubicundus: 33, C. nigriceps; 34, C. orizabae; 35, C. t'za/or; 36, C. arMgojuj; 37, C. 

rufostigmus; 40, C abdominalis. 
Ovipositor sheath: 38, C. thoracicus; 39, C. iherberiae. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington: 1949 No. 3238 

A KEVIEW OF THE MITES OF THE FAMILY 

CHEYLETIDAE IN THE UNITED STATES 

NATIONAL MUSEUM 



By Edward W. Baker 



The family Cheyletidae Leach, 1814, as previously considered in- 
cluded two groups of mites, those with small, poorly developed, non- 
grasping palpi {Myobia^ etc.) and those with large, highly developed, 
grasping palpi {Gheyletus^ etc.). The former are parasitic mites and 
are adapted to live on such hosts as birds, snakes, and rats, while 
the latter are primarily free-living predators. 

Ewing (Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 40, No. 7, p. 180, 1938) 
erected the subfamily Myobiinae to include those mites of the genus 
Myohia and its generic derivatives. In this paper, Myobiinae is raised 
to family rank and is considered to include the following genera: 
Amorphdcarus Ewing, Harpyrhynchus Megnin, Myohia Heyden, 
Ophioptes Sambon, Picobia Haller, Protomyohia Ewing, Psorergates 
Tyrrel, Radfordia Ewing, and Syringophilus Heller. 

The family Cheyletidae is now considered to include the following 
genera : Acaropsis Moquin-Tandon, Chelacaropsis new genus, Chel- 
etoids Ouclemans, Cheletogenes Oudemans, Cheletomimus Oudemans, 
Cheletomorpha Oudemans, Cheletonella Womersley, Cheletophanes 
Oudemans, Cheletophyes Oudemans, Cheletopsis Oudemans, Cheleto- 
soina Oudemans, Chelonotus Berlese, Cheyletia Haller, Cheyletiella 
Canestrini, Cheyletus Latreille, Eucheyla Berlese, Eucheyletia new 
genus, Eutogenes new genus, and Neocheyletiella new genus. 

The Cheyletidae are prostigmatic mites with short styletlike 
chelicerae; with a short palpal tarsus located on the posterior part 
of the palpal tibia rather than on tip and in most cases bearing 
comblike and sicklelike setae; palpal tibia with a strong claw which 

810275—49 1 267 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

extends beyond the palpal tarsus ; with none, one, or more plates on 
the dorsum of the body; and with the palpi large and pincerlike. 

These mites as a whole are free-living predators, although some are 
to be found in rabbit fur, squirrel fur, bird feathers, on cats, etc. 
The free-living forms are found associated with infestations of acarid 
mites (Acaridae), eriophyid mites (Eriophyidae), and scale insects 
(Coccoidea), but as yet they do not appear to be of great importance 
in controlling mites or insects. Carter et al. (Carter, H. F., Wedd, 
G., and D'Abrera, V., Indian Med. Gaz., vol. 79, No. 4, pp. 163-1G8, 
1944) report finding numerous mites in the sputum of patients suf- 
fering from lung disorders, among these being a Cheyletus sp. Habits 
of each species are listed in the main body of this report. Because 
of their free-living habits the distribution of many of these mites is 
world-wide. 

Since several of the genera are established on the number of dorsal 
plates, confusion may arise because some of the nymphal forms have 
two or more dorsal posterior plates instead of one. For example, the 
n3^mph of Cheletofhyes haivaliensis, new species, possesses two dorsal 
posterior plates, the nymph of Cheyletus cacahuamilpensis, new spe- 
cies, possesses four dorsal posterior plates, and Oudemans (1921) in 
discussing the generic status of GheJetomwms states that the nymjph 
of €heyletia squamosa (Degeer) has two dorsal posterior plates. 
Adults of CheJetoneJJa and Gheleto'psis have only the single dorsal 
anterior plate; adults and nymphs of Cheletonmnus have a single 
anterior plate and two posterior plates ; and adults of the other genera 
have the usual anterior and posterior plates. 

The descriptions are based on material mounted on slides in balsam, 
modified Berlese fluid, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) , and in most cases 
the material has been flattened to some degree. The so-called balloon 
setae of certain mites have been seen only on specimens which have 
been mounted, and have been drawn as seen. The exact nature of these 
setae on living mites is not known. Certain other types of setae pre- 
sent the same problem. 

Only species in the National Museum Collection have been de- 
scribed and figured. The other species are placed in the keys and are 
listed in the text. 

Since Oudemans monographed the family in 1906, only a selected 
bibliography of publications prior to that date is given, but references 
to all important taxonomical publications since then are listed. Vitz- 
thum (Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 54-56, 1929) 
gives keys to the European species, and Rodendorf (Wiss. Ber. Mos- 
kauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, pp. 69-98, 1940) gives keys to the 
Russian species. 

Types of new species, unless otherwise stated, are deposited in the 
United States National Museum. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 269 

KEY TO THE GENERA 

1. Palpal tarsus with comblike and/or sicklelike setae 3 

Palpal tarsus with only simple setae 2 

2. Tarsus I without claws but with a rayed pulvillus Cheyletiella Canestriui 

Tarsus I with claws Neocheyletiella, new genus 

3. Palpal tarsus with both sickle- and comblike setae 4 

Palpal tarsus with 2 sickle- and no comblike setae ; hysterosomal shield only. 

Cheletoides Oudemans 

4. Palpal tarsus with 2 sickle- and 2 comblike setae 5 

Palpal tarsus with 2 sickle- and 1 comblike setae 15 

5. Leg I normal, with 2 claws 8 

Leg I a sensory organ, without claws 6 

6. With lenslike eyes 7 

Without lenslike eyes ; no claws or pulvillus on legs I Eutogenes, new genus 

7. Tarsus I attenuate at tip, with pulvillus but without claws. 

Cheletomorpha Oudemans 
Tarsus I ending bluntly, without claws or pulvillus— Cheletogenes Oudemans 

8. With more than 1 dorsal shield 9 

With a single hysterosomal shield Cheletonella Womersley 

9. With 2 dorsal shields 10 

With 3 dorsal shields, 1 propodosomal and 2 hysterosomal. 

Cheletomimus Oudemans 

10. With a pair of lenslike eyes 11 

Without lenslike eyes 14 

11. Both sicklelike palpal tarsal setae normal 12 

One palpal tarsal sicklelike seta clavate ; dorsal body setae broad, reticulate ; 

dorsum of body may be reticulate Eucheyla Berlese 

12. Palpal claw with basal teeth 13 

Palpal claw toothed along entire inner margin Clieletophanes Oudemans 

13. Dorsal body setae squamiform Cheyletia Haller 

Dorsal body setae long, rodlike, ciliated Cheletophyes Oudemans 

14. Dorsal marginal setae squamiform ; dorsal setae cloudlike. 

Eucheyletia, new genus 
Dorsal marginal setae featherlike, or pilose ; dorsal setae when present stag- 
hornlike Cheyletus Latreille 

15. With 1 or more dorsal shields 16 

Without dorsal shields Chelacaropsis, new genus 

16. With propodosomal and hysterosomal shields 17 

With propodosomal shield only Cheletopsis Oudemans 

17. With the 2 dorsal shields separate 18 

With the 2 dorsal shields contiguous, covering entire dorsum and part of 

venter Chelonotus Berlese 

18. Anterior shield trapezoidal Acaropsis Moquin-Tandon 

Anterior shield pentagonal Cheletosoma Oudemans 

In A. M. Buitendijk's paper, "Voorloopige Catalogus van de Acari 
in de Collectie— Oudemans" (Zool. Meded., vol. 24, p. 332, 1945), a 
reference is made to C aenocheyletes franseni Oudemans, 1933. This 
is probably a manuscript name, since I have been unable to find a pub- 
lished description. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Genus CHEYLETIELLA Canestrini 

Oheyletiella Canesteini, Prospetto dell' Acarofauna Italiana, vol. 2, pp. 109, 170, 

1886. 
Cheletiella (Canestrini) Oudemans, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 211, 1906. 
Ewingella Vail and Augustson, Journ. I'arasitol., vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 419, 421, 

1943. (Type, ExoingeUa americana Vail and Augustson (monotypic) = 

Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Megnin).) 

Type, Cheyletus parasitivorax Megnin (monotypic). 

CHEYLETIELLA PARASITIVORAX (Megnin) 

Plate 6, Figures 1-3 

Cheyletus parasitivorax Megnin, Journ. Anat. and Physiol., 1878, p. 10, pi. 38. 
Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Megnin) Canestkini, Prospetto dell'Acarofauna 

Italiana, vol. 2, pp. 169, 170, 1886. — Beulese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones 

hucusque in Italia reperta, Prostigmata, fasc. 28, No. 3, 1886. — Hikst, Brit. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. Econ. Ser. 13, p. 73, fig. 40, 1922.— Coopeb. Journ. Parasitol.. 

vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 480-482, 1946. 
Cheletiella parasitivorax (Megnin) Hirst, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 20, p. 132, 

1917. — Pillars, Vet. Journ., London, vol. 81, pp. 96, 97, 1925. — Womersley, 

Rec. South Austral. Mus., vol. 7, p. 59, 1941. 
Ewingella americana Vail and Auguston, Journ. Parasitol., vol. 29, No. 6, 

pp. 419-421, figs. 1-3, 1943. 

Female. — Palpi short but strong ; palpal femur with a long, serrate, 
dorsal seta ; genu with a short, serrate seta ; tibia with a short simple 
seta ; palpal claw curved downward, with many weak teeth. Rostrum 
short, broad; peritreme with lateral branches composed of large seg- 
ments, the anterior transverse portion composed of many small seg- 
ments. Propodosomal shield with three pairs of short anterior lateral 
setae and a posterior transverse row of four simple setae; two pairs 
of long, serrate propodosomal shoulder setae. Hysterosoma without 
shield; with an anterior transverse row of four setae, the outer pair 
serrate and longer than the simple inner pair (outer setae 106/a long, 
inner setae 83/x long) ; on the posterior third of the hysterosoma a 
pair of long, serrate, marginal setae, and anterior to these a pair of 
short, simple setae. Posterior margin of hysterosoma with a pair of 
long, simple setae (about 200/a long), a pair of short simple setae 
inside the long pair, and two pairs of short, simple setae anterior 
to anal opening ; three pairs of short, simple setae lateral of the anal 
opening. Two pairs of genital setae and a transverse row of four 
setae anterior to the genital opening. Legs short; leg I reaches to 
tip of palpi ; leg IV reaches past posterior margin of body. Tarsus I 
short, without claws but with pulvillus as figured. Length of body 
320/A, including rostrum 386 ; width 266/x,. 

Type host. — Rabbit ; preying on listrophorid mites. 

Type locality. — Probably France. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 271 

The foregoing description was taken from mites collected on rabbits 
at Albany, K Y., May 7, 1942, by R. D. Glasgow. 

This is a well-lmown species which appears to be universally dis- 
tributed on rabbits. It has been stated that it preys on species of 
Listrophorus, Psorergates, Myobia, and Notoedtms which inhabit the 
fur. Pillars (1925) states that he found this mite causing lesions on 
a rabbit, and also mentions a mange of man attributed to this species. 
Vail and Agustson (1943) report lesions being found on a rabbit 
infested with this mite. Cooper (1946) , in a review of the literature 
on the mite, states that he can find no satisfactory evidence that 
Cheyletiella parasitivorax attacks its mammalian hosts or causes mange 
in rabbits and man. Hirst (1917) , Pillars (1925) , and Cooper ( 1946) 
report finding this species on cat. Cooper (1946) also discusses the 
synonymy of Ewingella americana Vail and Augustson with 
CheyletielJa parasitivorax (Megnin) . 

H. E. Ewing (Illinois Univ. Studies, vol. 3, No. 6, p. 77, pi. 3, fig. 15, 
1909) described a mite as Cheyletiella americana. Examination of 
the type reveals that the original placement is incorrect; it belongs 
to the genus Pseudocheylus in the family Pseudocheylidae. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA, new genus 

Palpal tarsus without comblike setae ; all tarsi with claws. With 
at least a rudimentary dorsal shield. 

Type, Neocheyletiella rohweri^ new species. 

This genus has been erected to include the species formerly placed 
with Cheyletiella which possess claws on tarsus I. Biologically this 
group differs from Cheyletiella in being found on birds rather than 
on rabbits or cats. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF NEOCHEYLETIELLA 

1. Empodium split into 2 sections between daws 2 

Empodium with 2 small combs 3 

2. Epimera I separated macronycha (Megnin) 

Epimera I joined microrhyncha (Berlese and Trouessart) 

3. Large protuberance on dorsal distal surface of tarsus I ; smaller on tarsus II_. 4 
Tarsi I and II more normal, no protuberance 7 

4. One dorsal shield 5 

Two dorsal shields; dorsal marginal setae about as long as body is wide. 

canadensis (Banlcs) 

5. First three pairs of propodosomal setae of approximately equal length 6 

First 2 pairs of propodosomal setae much shorter than third pair. 

heteropalpus (Megnin) 

6. Posterior marginal setae about one-third longer than anterior marginal setae; 

1 pair posterior setae serrate smallwoodae, new species 

Posterior marginal setae about twice as long as anterior marginal setae ; all 
posterior setae simple rohweri, new species 

7. One dorsal shield ; palpal claw very small— chanayi (Berlese and Trouessart) 
Two dorsal shields; palpal claw moderately large pinguis (Berlese) 



272 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEU]VI vol. 99 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA MACRONYCHA (Megnin), new combination 

Cheyletus macronycha Megnin, Journ. Anat. and Physiol., 1878, p. 12, pi. 29, 

figs. 7, 8. 
Cheletiella macronycha (Megnin) Oudemans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, 

pp. 212, 213, 1906. 

Type host. — Passerine birds (exotic). 
Type locality.' — Bengal. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA MICRORHYNCHA (Berlese and Trouessart), new combination 

Cheyleticlla microrhyncha Beblese and Tkoxxessart, Bull. Bibl. Sci. Quest., vol. 

2, p. 136, 1889. 
Cheletiella microrhyncha (Berlese and Trouessart) Oudemans, M6m. Soc. Zool. 

France, vol. 19, p. 213, 1906. 

Type host. — Unknown. 
Ty2)e locality. — France. 

The publication containing the original description could not be 
found. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA CANADENSIS (Banks), new combination 

Plate 6, Figures 4, 5 
Cheyleticlla canadensis Banks, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 11, p. 133, 1909. 

Female. — Anterior shield covering most of propodosoma, with a 
pair of long setae in the posterior marginal corners ; five pairs of long 
marginal setae on propodosoma; all setae about length of propodo- 
soma. Posterior shield covering most of hysterosoma, posterior mar- 
gin of shield concave and with a short seta in each corner as figured ; 
a pair of long shoulder setae, and two pairs of long posterior setae on 
abdomen, all as long as propodosomal setae. Tarsi I and II with 
dorsal protuberance. Length 253jLt; width 167/*. 

Type Ao5^.— "Bluebird." 

Type locality. — Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 

This species is similar to Neocheyletiella heteropalpus (Megnin) in 
having the tarsal protuberances, but it differs in having two dorsal 
shields and extremely long dorsal setae; it differs from N. pinguis 
(Berlese) in having the long propodosomal setae and in having two 
pairs of long posterior setae rather than one long and one short pair. 
The above description was taken from the type which is in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA HETEROPALPUS (Megnin), new combination 

Cheyletus heteropalpus Megnin, Journ. Anat. and Physiol., 1878, p. 11, pi. 29. 
Cheyletiella heteropalpus (Megnin) Berlese, Aeari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones 

hucusque in Italia reperta, Prostigmata, fasc. 28, No. 2, 1886. 
Cheletiella hetcropalpa (Megnin) OZ45ffl(&:, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 

213, 1906. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 273 

Type host. — Pigeons and passerine birds. 
Type locality. — Probably France. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA SMALLWOODAE, new species 

Pi^vTE 6, Figures 6-9 

Female. — This species is broad, rounded, with small rostrum and 
palpi. Palpal setae long, the palpal femur and genual setae serrate, 
and the tibial and ventral setae appear simple ; claw small and simple. 
Peritreme composed of 10 rather large segments. Propodosomal 
shield small, longer than wide, angularly pyriform with a pair of 
anterolateral setae; two pairs of anteromarginal setae and three pairs 
of shoulder setae ; all propodosomal setae appear finely serrate. Hys- 
terosoma with three pairs of anterior setae, the outer two pairs long 
and distinctly serrate, the inner pair short and appearing slightly 
serrate; two pairs of simple dorsal setae around anal opening; three 
pairs of longer setae on posterior margin of body, the anteromarginal 
pair serrate, the other two pairs simple. Legs short; leg I about 
155/x long; leg IV about same length and reaches to posterior edge 
of body. Tarsus I as figured, distinctive in having a strong dorsal 
anterior protuberance with heavy spines. Tibia I with a minute rod- 
like sensory seta. Length of body 455ju,, including rostrum 546/1, ; width 
323/i. 

Male. — ^In general similar to female. Propodosomal setae arranged 
as in female, but as far as can be determined the shield setae are simple, 
and the pair of inner shoulder setae appear to be simple. Hystero- 
soma with few setae, a single pair of long serrate anteromarginal setae ; 
genital opening dorsal and in center of hysterosoma, the genital plates 
with three pairs of short simple setae, and anterior and lateral to the 
genital opening are three pairs of short setae as figured, only the outer 
pair appearing slightly serrate. Leg I not reaching to tip of rostrum ; 
leg IV reaching past posterior margin of body. Length of body 300/i, 
including rostrum 366/i, ; width 260/x. 

Type host. — Leucosticte australis. 

Type locality. — Guffey, Colo. 

ry^oe.— U.S.N.M. No. 1755 . 

The type female, two paratype females, and one male were collected 
by C. Rohwer, December 5, 1939. Another female was collected from 
robin at Fort Dupont, Del., April 13, 1933, by H. S. Peters. 

This mite differs from N eocheyletiella heteropalpus (Megnin) as 
figured, in that Megnin's species possesses much long body setae, ex- 
cept for the two anterior propodosomatic pair which are extremely 
short in the female. 



274 PROCEEDESrGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA ROHWEKI, new species 

Plate 6, Figuke 10 

Female.— Mite with small rostrum; palpal setae long, femur and 
genual setae serrate; tibial and ventral setae appear simple; palpal 
claw small ; palpi similar to those of A', heteropalpus. Peritreme com- 
posed of 11 large segments. Propodosomatic shield rather rudimen- 
tary, small, longer than wide, and broadest near anterior edge, with 
a single pair of serrate setae. Anterior to shield is a pair of serrate 
setae arising from ventral portion of propodosoma; slightly laterad 
of shield setae is a pair of serrate setae, on posterior corners of propo- 
dosoma are three pairs of serrate setae ; all propodosomatic setae are 
of medium length. On anterior portion of hysterosoma are two pairs 
of medium length lateral serrate setae and a pair of short dorsomedian 
serrate setae ; on posterior margin of mite are three pairs of very long 
simple setae which are about twice as long as the other setae, two pairs 
are dorsal and the inner pair is slightly ventral. All body setae large. 
Tarsi as in heteropalpus, with a large tubercle on tarsus I and slightly 
smaller one on tarsus II ; tarsal claw^s large. Length of body 300;u,, 
including rostrum 367/Ji ; width 233/x. 

Type host. — Sitta pygmaea melanotis. 

Type locality. — Guffey, Colo. 

T'ype.— U.S.N.M. No. 1756. 

A single female was taken at the type locality by C. Kohwer, De- 
cember 5, 1939. 

This species is differentiated from smallwoodae by the presence of 
the long, simple posterior setae, in having larger (stronger) body 
setae, and in having comparatively larger tarsal claws. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA GHANA YI (Berlese and Trouessart), new combination 

Plate 6, Figxires 11-13 

CheyletieUa chanayi Berlese and Teouessabt, Bull. Bibl. Sci, Quest, vol. 2, 
p. 135, 1889.— Berlese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque In Italia 
reperta, Prostigmata, fasc. 56, No. 3, 1889. 

Female. — Mite with broad rostrum ; slender but short palpi. Femur 
of palpi with short simple setae on venter and a long serrate dorsal 
seta ; genu with a long dorsal serrate seta and a simple lateral seta ; 
tibia with simple setae of varying lengths as figured; claw small, 
curved and apparently without teeth. Peritreme composed of long, 
slender segments. Propodosomal shield small, anterolateral margin 
with a pair of long outer setae and a pair of short inner setae ; posterior 
portion of shield with a pair of long and a pair of short setae. Hyster- 
osoma without shield; two pairs of short simple anterior setae and 
a pair of posterior dorsal submedian setae, all of which appear to arise 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 275 

from small plates ; near posterior margin of body a pair of long setae 
and several pairs short setae. Two pairs of long setae arising near 
genital opening and extending past margin of body. Legs short, leg 
I reaching to tip of palpns and leg IV to posterior edge of abdomen. 
Tarsus I with two claws and comblike pulvillus, and with simple 
terminal setae. Tibia I with a short rodlike sensory seta and several 
simple setae of varying lengths. Length of body 493/a, including ros- 
trum 553/^; width 333/x,. 

Type host. — FringUla coelebs. 

Type locality. — ^Lyon, France. 

The above description is based on a United States National Museum 
specimen which is from the Berlese collection. In Europe the mite 
has been reported from Motacilla alba and FringUla coelehs. 

NEOCHEYLETIELLA PINGUIS (Berlese), new combination 

Cheyletiella pinguis Bkrlese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia 

reperta, Prostigmata, fasc. 56, No. 3, fig. 2, 1889. 
CJieletiella pinguis (Berlese) Oudemans, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 213, 

1906. — WoMERSLEY, Rec. South Austral. Mus., vol. 7, No. 1, p. 59, figs. 6A, 

B, C, 1941. 

Type host. — Turdiis merula {=Merula nigra). 
Type locality. — Florence, Italy. 

Genus CHSLETOIDES Oudemans 

Chelefoides Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 17, p. 154, 1904, 
Type, Syringophilus uncinatus Heller (monotypic). 

CHELETOIDES UNCINATA (Heller) 

Syringophilus uncinatus Heller, Die Schmarotzer ... p. 188, 1880. 
Cheletoidcs uncinatus (Heller) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc, 

17, p. 154, 1904. 
Cheletoidcs uncinata (Heller) Oudemans, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 

204-211, figs. 63-66, 1906. 

Type host. — Pavo cristatus. 

Type locality. — Kiel, Germany. According to Oudemans (1906), 
this species probably is to be found wherever the host is established. 

Genus CHEYLETUS Latreille 

Clieyletus Latreille, Precis des caract^res gSn^riques des insectes ... p. 179, 

1796. 
Eutarsus Hessling, lUustr. Med. Zeit., vol. 1, p. 258, 1852. (Type, Eutarsus 

cancriformus Hessling (monotypic) — C'heyletus eruditus (Schrank).) 
Chelctes (Latreille) Oudemans, Tijdschr. Ent, vol. 46, p. 121, 1903. 

Type, Acarus eruditus Schrank (monotypic). 

In the other genera of the Cheyletidae most of the species are based 
on the females, but in Gheyletus we find some species based entirely 

810275—49—2 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

on heteromorphic males. Because of this difficulty the key to the 
species is given for both sexes. It is hoped that in the future the sexes 
can be correlated. 

Cheyletus hutleri Hughes and C. munroi Hughes, both males, were 
described by A. M. Hughes in "The Mites Associated with Stored 
Food Products," Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, London, 1948, 
which was received after this paper was submitted for publication. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHEYLETUS 
Females 

1. Dorsal setae pilose 2 

Dorsal setae smooth (?) parumsetosus Karpelles* 

2. Inner palpal comb with at least 8 teeth 3 

Inner palpal comb with 6 teeth promptus Qudemans* 

3. Femur of palpus distinctly longer than wide 4 

Femur of palpus about as long as wide 6 

4. Palpal claw with 3 distinct basal teeth 5 

Palpal claw with 2 simple basal teeth ; posterior dorsal shield with 3 pairs 

of setae eruditus (Schrank) 

5. Tarsus I sensory organ shorter than the guard seta hendersoni, new species 

Tarsus I sensory organ longer than the guard seta doddi, new species 

6. Anterior dorsal shield with 4 pairs of dorsal setae; posterior shield with at 

least 2 pairs 7 

Anterior dorsal shield with 6 pairs of dorsal setae; posterior shield with 1 
pair strenuus Oudemans 

7. Shoulder setae simple, pilose 8 

Shoulder setae lanceolate ; posterior shield with 3 pairs of marginal setae. 

trouessarti Oudemans 

8. Claw of palpus with more than 1 tooth 9 

Claw of palpus with 1 tooth fortis Oudemans 

9. Palpal claw with 2 teeth 12 

Palpal claw with 3 or more teeth 10 

10. Palpal claw with 3 teeth 11 

Palpal claw with 4 teeth, the basal pair smaller than others. 

linsdalei, new species 

11. Posterior shield scarcely narrower than anterior shield ; dorsal palpal femoral 

seta pilose schneideri Oudemans 

Posterior shield considerably narrower than anterior ; dorsal palpal femoral 
seta simple trux Rodendorf 

12. Posterior dorsal shield with less than 4 pairs of marginal setae 13 

Posterior dorsal shield with 4 pairs of marginal setae ; tarsus I guard seta 

pilose, about 4 times as long as sensory seta_ cacahuamilpensis, new species 

13. Posterior shield with 3 pairs of marginal setae 14 

Posterior shield with 2 pairs of marginal setae ; tarsus I guard seta pilose, 

about twice as long as sensory seta beauchampi, new species 

14. Tarsus I guard seta not longer than sensory seta 16 

Tarsus I guard seta about twice as long as sensory seta 15 

15. Sensory seta on tarsus I strongly lanceolate aversor Rodendorf 

Sensory seta on tarsus I slightly lanceolate davisi, new species 

♦ See p. 319. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 277 

16. A distinct ventral condyle on venter of rostrum over trochanter; shoulder 

seta smooth ; coxa III with a lanceolate-serrate seta rapax Oudemans 

A minute ventral condyle on venter of rostrum over trochanter ; shoulder seta 
pilose ; coxa III with a simple pilose seta m^alaccensis Oudemans 

Males 

1. Palpal claw with a single tooth 2 

Palpal claw with more than 1 tooth 15 

2. Dorsal anterior plate with 5 pairs of setae 3 

Dorsal anterior plate with 6 paii's of setae 4 

3. Palpal claw with a strong basal tooth ; palpal femoral seta extending to tip 

of palpal claw trouessarti Oudemans 

Palpal claw with a weak, hardly discernible basal tooth ; palpal femoral seta 
not surpassing palpal tibia trux Rodendorf 

4. Femur of palpus swollen 5 

Femur of palpus not swollen 8 

5. Dorsal posterior plate with 5 pairs of setae 6 

Dorsal posterior plate with 6 ' pairs of setae malaccensis Oudemans 

6. No pilose seta between cosal plates II and III 7 

A pilose seta between coxal plates II and III fortis Oudemans 

7. Small tooth on palpal claw ; inner palpal comb without teeth on proximal 

portion audax Oudemans 

Large tooth on palpal claw ; inner palpal comb with teeth along entire inner 
edge rapax Oudemans 

8. Palpal claw tooth lateral 9 

Palpal claw tooth more or less dorsal alacer Oudemans 

9. Palpal claw tooth distinct, width equal to length 10 

Palpal claw tooth very weak, hardly discernible, much longer than wide. 

carnif ex Zakhvatkin 

10. Inner comb with 5 or 6 teeth 11 

Inner comb with 8 or more teeth 12 

11. Rostrum narrow, with smooth edges venator Vitzthum 

Rostrum broadening toward rear and with tuberculate edges. 

rabiosus Rodendorf 

12. Inner comb with 8 or 9 teeth 13 

Inner comb with about 18 teeth acer Oudemans 

13. Anterior to peritreme 4-6 longitudinal rows of tubercles 14 

Anterior to peritreme a transvere row of tubercles directed back toward 

peritreme ferox Berlese and Trouessart 

14. Dorsal posterior plate with straight lateral border ; femur of palpus without 

swelling ; in front of peritreme is a space without tubercles. 

intrepidus Oudemans 
Dorsal posterior plate with concave lateral borders ; femur of palpus with 
slight inner swelling ; a mass of tubercles in front of peritreme. 

vorax Oudemans 

15. Rostrum with lateral teeth 16 

Rostrum smooth, without lateral teeth ; palpal claw with 2 small but well- 
defined teeth eruditus (Schrank) 



* Based on Oudeman's key (1906). The shield boundary is not distinct, and there may 
be five pairs of setae present, thus keying out to rapax, which, when types can be studied, 
may prove to be the same as malaccensis. 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

IG. Kostrum with sharply angular protuberances or lateral teeth; palpal claw 
with 2 or 3 weak teeth ; palpal claws broad and slightly curved. 

furibundus Rodendorf 

Rostrum with small, readily discernible lateral teeth; palpal claw with 2 

short thick teeth ; palpal claw thin and long praedabundis Kuzin 

CHEYLETUS ERUDITUS (Schrank) 

Plate 7, Figures 14-16 

Acarus eruditus Scheaxk, Enumeratio insectorum Austriae indigenorum, p. 513, 

1781. 
Eutarsiis cancriformis Hessling, Illustr. Med. Zeit, vol. 1, p. 25S, 1852. — 

Ottdemans, Tijdschr. Ent., vol. 81, p. Ixxv, 1938. 
Cheyletus ferox Banks, Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 7, p. 134, 1906 (new 

synonymy ) . 
Cheletes eruditus (Schrank) Oudemans, M^m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 

84-88, fig. 18, 1906. 
Cheyletus seminivorus (Packard) Ewing, Illinois Univ. Studies, vol. 3, No. 6, 

pp. 76, 77. 1909 ; Journ. Econ. Ent., vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 416-420, 1912. 
Cheyletus churneus Hardy, i7i Andre, Ann. des Epiphyt. Annee 19, No. 6, pp. 336, 

344, 349, 350, 1933. 

Female. — Palpus slender; femur of palpus II/2 times as long as 
wide, the dorsal seta about as long as the segment; genual seta on 
posterior margin of segment; palpal claw relatively weak, with 2 
basal teeth of equal size ; outer comb with 15 teeth, about II/2 times as 
long as inner comb which has 16 teeth. Rostrum simple, narrow, 
broadening slightly to rear; peritreme with 9 or 10 segments. 
Propodosomatic shield rounded anteriorly, widening posteriorly, 
covering most of the propodosoma, with four pairs of narrow 
lanceolate pilose marginal setae. Hysterosomal shield small, rounded, 
with three pairs of marginal setae. Tarsus I, 146/^ long; tibia I, 
93/A long ; tarsal sensory setae about one-fourth as long as tarsus ; guard 
seta simple, one-half as long as sensory seta; small rodlike sensory 
seta on tibia I. Leg I, 428/i long ; leg IV, 400^ long. Length of body 
514ju, including rostrum 714/li; width 371/a. 

Male (after Oudemans, 1906). — Similar to female but with two 
pairs of dorsosubmedian propodosomatic setae and j&ve pairs of mar- 
ginal setae on posterior shield. 

Type hah it at. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Austria. 

This is a widespread, free-living species recorded from Australia, 
Holland, India, Portugal, Mexico, Scotland, Jugoslavia, England, 
Germany, Japan, Colombia, Chile, Madeira, and the United States. 
In the United States it has been taken from house sparrow, Ithaca, 
N. Y. ; on Sciurus cai'oUnensis at Thomasville, Ga. ; and from Cali- 
fornia, Minnesota, and Oregon in warehouses, in grains. The descrip- 
tion of the female is based on material from Voorhout, Holland, in- 
tercepted at Philadelphia, Pa. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 279 

CHEYLETUS HENDERSONI, new species 

Plate 7, Figures 17-19 

Female. — Femur of palpus li/^ times as long as wide ; genual setae 
located on posterior margin of segment ; palpal claw with 3 basal teeth, 
but 1 specimen with 4 basal teeth on 1 side ; outer comb about one-third 
longer than inner, with about 17 teeth and inner comb with about 24 
teeth. Rostrum simple, widening posteriorly. Anterior shield large, 
covering propodosoma, with four pairs of pilose marginal setae. 
Posterior shield large and covering most of hysterosoma, narrowing 
toward rear, with two pairs of marginal setae. Tarsus I, 83/x long; 
tibia I, 50/x long ; tarsus with a short rodlike sensory seta and a longer 
simple guard seta ; short rodlike set on tibia I. Length of body 313/x, 
including rostrum 446ju, ; width 190/^. 

Type habitat. — On "mummy.-' 

Type locality. — Arkansas Cave, Ark. 

Type.—V. S'. N. M. No. 1757. 

Female type and three paratypes (two in poor condition) collected 
on a "mummy" by W. C. Henderson, letter of July 16, 1935. 

This mite is similar to Cheyletus erud'dus (Schrank) but differs 
in the number of palpal claw teeth, peritreme, dorsal shields, and in 
the arrangement of the setae on tarsus I. 

CHEYLETUS DODDI, new species 

Plate 7, Figukes 20-22 

Female. — Palpal femur Xy^ times as long as wide; femoral and 
genual setae long, pilose ; genual seta located on posterior margin of 
segment ; palpal claw with 3 basal teeth, the 2 posterior teeth appear 
to be a bifurcation of a single large tooth ; palpal combs of about equal 
length and both with about 15 teeth. Rostrum simple, widening 
toward rear ; peritreme composed of small segments. Anterior shield 
large, covering most of propodosoma, rounded anteriorly and convex 
posteriorly, with four pairs of long, simple, pilose marginal setae. 
Hysterosomal shield with rounded corners, narrowing posteriorly, 
and with two pairs of marginal setae. Tarsus 1, 113/* long ; tibia 1, 73/^ 
long ; tarsus I with a rodlike sensor^'- organ of medium length ; guard 
seta simple, about half as long as sensory organ; tibia with a short 
rodlike sensory seta and several long simple setae. Leg I about 335/i 
long. Length of body 386/x, including rostrum 500/^; width 233/x. 

Type habitat. — In "feed." 

Type locality. — Ithaca, N. Y. 

Type.—\].^:^M. No. 1758. 

The female type and three paratypes were collected by C. R. Crosby 
(letter of September 28, 1922) in feed at Cornell University, Ithaca, 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

N. Y. Three additional female paratypes were collected by F. O. 
Dodd at Xew York, March 1, 1935, when intercepted in quarantine 
in valones (nuts) originating in Turkey. 

This species is similar to Cheyletus hendersoni^ new species, but 
differs in having the anterior tooth on the palpal claw smaller, in the 
relative sizes of the palpal comb and number of teeth, in the shape of 
the dorsal shields, and in the relative lengths of tarsus I guard setae 
to the sensory setae. 

CHEYLETUS STRENUUS Ondemans 

Cheletes eruditus {femina monstrosa) Oudemans, Tijdschr. Ent., vol. 46, p. 127, 

pi. 13, fig. 46, 1904. 
Cheletes strenuus Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. IS, p. 161, 1904; 

M^m. See. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 83, 1906. 

Type habitat and type locality. — Unknown. 

CHEYLETUS TROUESSARTI Ondemans 

Cheyletus irouessarti Oxtoemans, Tijdschr. Nederl. Dierk. Ver., ser. 2, vol. 8, 

p. xvi, 1903. 
Cheletes trouessarti Oudemans, Tijdschr. Ent., vol. 46, pp. 129-132, pi. 13, figs. 

47-51 ; M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 88, 1906. 
Cheyletus macrocherus Hardy, in Andre, Ann. des Epiphyt. Ann6e 19, No. 6, 

pp. 350, 351, 1933. 

Type habitat and type locality. — ^Unlaiown. 

CHEYLETUS FORTIS Oudemans 

Plate 7, Figures 23-25 

Cheletes fortis Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 161, 1904; 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 96-99, figs. 22, 23, 1906. 

Female. — Large mite with strong palpi. Palpal femur as wide as 
long; dorsal femoral and genual setae pilose, genual seta on posterior 
margin of segment ; palpal claw with a large single basal fiat tooth ; 
outer comb with about 20 teeth ; inner comb only two-thirds as long as 
outer and with about 27 teeth. Rostrum simple, broadening toward 
rear ; peritreme composed of medium-sized segments. Anterior shield 
large but not covering entire propodosoma, anterior corners broadly 
rounded, widening to rear and with four pairs of lanceolate serrate 
marginal setae. Hysterosomal shield small, almost square but nar- 
rowing slightly to rear, with three pairs of lanceolate serrate marginal 
setae. Tarsus 1, 150)u, long ; tibia 1, 100/x long ; tarsus I with short lan- 
ceolate sensory seta and a still shorter simple guard seta ; tibia I with 
a short rodlike sensory seta. Leg I, 460/* long; leg IV, 428;u, long. 
Length of body 500/^, including rostrum 743/i, ; width 428/*. 

Type host. — On skin of parakeet. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 281 

Tyfe locality. — New Guinea (specimen in Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Paris. 

The description was made from two specimens on one slide with 
the following data (translation, original in Japanese) : "Public Health 
Department of Formosa, Eesearch Laboratory of Medical Zoology." 
Two other specimens were collected on Gallosciurus sladeni midas 
Thomas at Myitkyina, Burma, August 6, 1945, by members of the 
United States of America Typhus Commission. 

This species is closely related to Gheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 
and may prove to be only a variety. 

GHEYLETUS LINSDALEI, new species 

Plate 8, Figures 26-29 

Female. — Palpi of normal size; palpal femur perhaps slightly 
longer than wide; femoral and genual setae serrate, the genual seta 
short, on posterior margin of segment, reaching only to basal part of 
palpal claw; palpal claw usually with 4 teeth but occasionally one 
side with 3 teeth ; outer palpal comb with about 17 teeth, inner comb 
with about 22 teeth. Rostrum short, broadening to rear; peritreme 
with eight i:)airs of large segments. Propodosomal shield widening 
to rear with four pairs of marginal setae which are clublike, serrate ; 
on posterior portion of shield at least three pairs of setal bases which 
probably bore staghornlike setae. Hysterosomal shield broad, nar- 
rowing only slightly to rear, with three pairs of clublike, serrate 
marginal setae and five pairs of dorsomedian setal bases as found on 
the anterior shield ; a p)air of clublike setae laterad of anterior corners 
of posterior shield ; body shoulder setae long, simple, serrate. Tarsus 
I, 83/x long; tibia I, 50/x long; sensory seta on tarsus I short, not much 
longer than width of base of tarsus ; guard seta simple, shorter than 
sensory seta. Body about 353;u, long, including rostrum about 500/*; 
width about 140/a. 

Type hahltat. — On Citellus heecheyi. 

Type locality. — Monterey, Calif. 

r2/;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1760. 

The type female was collected January 28, 1943, and four paratypes 
were taken December 3 and 4, 1942, on Citellus teecheyi^ Monterey, 
Calif., by J. M. Linsdale. 

This species differs from others in the arrangement of the teeth 
on the palpal claw and especially in the type of dorsal body setae. 

CHEYLETUS SCHNEIDERI Oudemans 

Cheyletus schneideri Oxtdemans, Tijdschr. Nederland. Dierk. Ver., ser. 2, vol. 8, 

p. XV, 1903 ; Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 16, p. 16, pi. 2, figs. 52-54, 1904. 
Cheletes schneideri Oudemans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 84, 1906. 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Type habitat. — Dead leaves. 
Type locality. — Italy. 

CHEYLETUS TRUX Rodendorf 

Oheyletus trux Rodendoef, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, pp. 87, 
88, figs. 1, 2, 17, 19, 21, 1940. 

Type habitat. — Granaries and sheep fodder. 

Type locality. — Ivanovo ; Agriz, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

CHEYLETUS CACAHUAMILPENSIS, new species 
Plate S, Figures 30-34 

Female. — Palpi strong; no basal condyle; femur about as long as 
wide, with a short pilose seta ; genual seta pilose, on posterior margin 
of segment ; palpal claw with 2 basal teeth, the proximal tooth about 
twice as long as the distal with a nearly flat surface ; outer palpal comb 
with about 18 teeth ; inner comb two-thirds as long and with 20 teeth. 
Rostrum of normal size ; peritreme composed of eight large segments. 
Anterior shield covering most of propodosoma; four pairs of long, 
lanceolate serrate marginal setae; one pair of posterior dorsosub- 
median staghornlike setae. Hysterosomal shield with four pairs of 
marginal setae and one pair of dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae on 
anterior margin of shield. Genital-anal setae appear simple, although 
the anal setae may be serrate. Tareus I, 80/x long ; tibia I, 34^ long, 
tarsus I sensory seta short, rodlike; guard seta pilose, four times as 
long as sensory seta ; tibia I with small clavate seta and short pilose 
setae. Coxae III with a lanceolate serrate seta. Length of body 2G7/i, 
including rostrum 380/a; width 200/;,. 

Type habitat. — In bat guano. 

Type locality. — Cave of Cacahuamilpa, Guerrero, Mexico. 

Type. — In the collection of F. Bonet, Mexico, D. F. 

The female type and a nymph were collected December 15, 1939, by 
F. Bonet. 

The setal pattern of the dorsal shields and the tarsus I sensory and 
guard setae are distinctive. 

CHEYLETUS BEAUCHAMPI, new species 

Plate 8, Figukes 35-38 

Female. — Palpi and rostrum of normal size. Palpal femur not 
much longer than broad ; genual seta on posterior margin of segment ; 
tarsal claw with 2 basal teeth, the lower tooth flat, not notched ; outer 
comb with about 17 teeth ; inner comb with 29 teeth and almost as long 
as outer comb. Rostrum gradually widening to rear ; peritreme sim- 
ple, composed of medium-sized segments. Lateral margins of pro- 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 283 

podosomatic shield concave ; four pairs of lanceolate serrate marginal 
setae and a pair of posterior dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae. 
Shoulder setae simple, pilose. Hysterosomal shield almost square, 
narrowing slightly to rear, with posterior margin concave ; two pairs 
of lanceolate serrate marginal setae and a pair of posterior dorso- 
submedian staghornlike setae. Anterior to the posterior plate is a 
pair of lanceolate serrate setae ; posterior to plate two pairs of simple, 
pilose setae. Anal setae pilose ; genital setae simple. Legs short, legs 
I and IV about 335/^ long ; tarsus I, 120/a long ; tibia I, 67)u. long ; tarsus 
I sensory seta only one-half as long as the simple guard seta ; tibia I 
sensory seta lanceolate rather than clavate. Length of body 414ju,, 
including rostrum 586/i, ; width 300ju,. 

Type habitat. — In straw mats. 

Type locality. — Portugal, intercepted at Boston, Mass. 

Ty^se.— U.S.N.M. No. 1761. 

The mite was collected December 11, 1939, by J. T. Beauchamp. 

The palpal claws, comb, and hysterosomal shield setae are 
distinctive. 

CHEYLETUS AVERSOR Rodendorf 

Cheyletus aversor Rodendoisf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, pp. 
86-87, figs. 18, 20, 1940. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Ordzhonikidze, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

CHEYLETUS DAVISI, new species 

Plate 8, Figtires 39-42 

Female. — Palpi and rostrum of normal size. Palpal femur not 
much longer than broad ; genual seta on posterior margin of segment : 
palpal claw with 2 basal teeth, the lower one large and notched ; outer 
comb with 15 teeth, about one-third longer than inner comb which 
has 20 teeth. Rostrum broadening posteriorly ; peritreme composed 
of medium-sized segments. Propodosomatic shield rounded anteri- 
orly ; lateral margins rounded ; posterior margin almost straight ; four 
pairs of lanceolate serrate marginal setae; a single pair of posterior 
dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae. Shoulder setae simple, pilose. 
Hysterosomal shield almost square, slightly narrowing toward rear, 
posterior margin straight ; three pairs of lanceolate serrate marginal 
setae and a single pair of submedian staghornlike setae. Two pairs 
of dorsoposterior pilose setae. Anal setae pilose ; two pairs of long, 
simple, genital setae. Legs short ; leg I, 280/x long, not reaching much 
past palpus ; leg IV, 266/x long, reaching past posterior margin of body. 
Tarsus I, 97/t long; tibia I, 57/x long; tarsus I sensory seta short, 

810275 — 49 3 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEULI vol. 99 

about one-half as long as the simple guard seta; ventral tarsal seta 
pilose; tibia I sensory seta clavate, short. Length of body 428/x, in- 
cluding rostrum 571/^; width 314/a. 

Type habitat. — In onions. 

Type locality. — Italy, intercepted at Boston, Mass. 

Type.—\}.'^MM. No. 17G2. 

A single specimen was collected July 6, 1938, by Davis and Freeman. 

The palpal claws and combs distinguish this from the closely 
related species. 

CHEYLETUS RAP AX Oodemans 

Cheletes rapax Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 12, p. 84, 1903 
(the female of this species is wrongly cited as Cheletes vorax Oudemans on 
p. 84) ; Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. lOS-lOS, figs. 25, 26, 1906. 

Type habitat. — On skins of birds and mammals. 

Type locality. — Uncertain, believed to be either the Marianas Is- 
lands or Colombia. 

There is a possibility that this species may be the same as O. malac- 
censis Oudemans. 

CHEYLETUS MALACCENSIS Oudemans 

Plate 9, Figubes 43-49 

Cheletes malaccensis Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 12, p. 84, 1904 ; 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 88-96, figs. 19-21, 1906. 

Female. — Strong palpi; a minute ventral condyle between palpal 
coxa and trochanter ; palpal femur longer than wide with dorsal pilose 
seta ; genual seta pilose, on posterior margin of segment ; dorsal tibial 
seta simple but ventral seta pilose ; palpal claw with a large fiat basal 
tooth and a smaller single distal tooth as figured; outer palpal comb 
with 16 teeth ; inner comb shorter and with 20 teeth. Rostrum nor- 
mal; peritreme composed of small segments. Propodosomatic shield 
relatively small, with rounded corners, four pairs of lanceolate serrate 
marginal setae. Shoulder setae pilose. Hysterosomal shield rec- 
tangular, longer than wide, with three pairs of lanceolate serrate mar- 
ginal setae. Tarsus I, 146/x long; tibia I, 83/x long; tarsus I with a 
short lanceolate sensory seta and a simple guard seta of equal length; 
tibia I with a short rodlike sensory seta and several long pilose setae. 
Legs I and IV, 428/a long. Coxae III with a pilose seta. Length of 
body 614/A, including rostrum 714/^; width 342;u,. 

Male. — Long, slender palpi; palpal femur about twice as long as 
wide with serrate seta which is shorter than tarsus ; femoral and gen- 
ual setae as in female ; palpal tibia with a simple dorsal seta ; palpal 
claw with a single small basal tooth ; outer comb with 12 teeth ; inner 
comb shorter, with 9 or 10 teeth. Gnathosoma deeply notched anteri- 
orly ; anterior dorsum of rostrum covered with sharp tubercles ; peri- 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 285 

treme small ; that part of rostrum overlying the palpal trochanter has 
two sharp teeth as figured. Anterior shield relatively large, covering 
most of propodosoma ; four pairs of lanceolate serrate marginal setae ; 
two pairs of dorsosubmedian lanceolate serrate setae. Hysterosomal 
shield narrowing posteriorly; with four or five pairs of lanceolate ser- 
rate marginal setae. Tarsus I, 113/^ long; tibia I, OOju, long; tarsus I 
with a large lanceolate sensory organ and a small simple guard seta ; 
tibia I with a short rodlike sensory seta. Leg I, 428/a long; leg IV, 
328/i long. Length of body 400/a, including rostrum 571ju,; width 
285ju. 

Type habitat. — On bird skin, Psittinus cyanurus {=P. incertus), 
probably preying on feather mites. 

Type locality. — Malacca, Straits Settlements. 

Oudemans (1906) gave tlie above information on habitat and distri- 
bution. The following interception records are available (if taken 
on plant material the host is not listed) : Azores, at New York, N. Y. ; 
Belgium, at Charleston, S. C. ; Holland, at Philadelphia, Pa.; Italy, 
at New York, N. Y. ; Portugal, at New Orleans, La. ; China, at Hawaii ; 
Japan, at Seattle, Wash. ; Java, at Hawaii ; Philippine Island, at San 
Francisco, Calif.; Straits Settlements, at Norfolk, Va. ; Malaya, at 
Hawaii ; west coast of Africa, at Philadelphia, Pa. ; Barbados, at New 
York, N, Y. ; British Guinea, at New York, N. Y. ; Colombia, at New 
York, N. Y. ; Cuba, at Norfolk, Va. ; Mexico, at Brownsville, Tex. 
Material is also on hand from Cuzco, Peru ; Barranquilla, Colombia, 
on Araeocerus fasciatus eggs ; St. Croix, Virgin Islands, on domestic 
fowl; Richmond, Va., on Ephestia elutiella; Shreveport, La.; Red- 
wing, Minn,, on wheat screenings; Dallas, Tex,; Atlanta, Ga., in 
"powder" ; Farrington, 111. 

Cheyletus malaccensis resembles closely G. rapax Oudemans, and 
the differences between them may prove to be a variation within a 
single species. The fact that there appear to be five pairs of setae on 
the hysterosomal shield strengthens this belief. 

CHEYLETUS AUDAX Oudemans 

Cheletes audax Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 162, 1904; 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 99-103, fig. 24, 1906. 

Type host.— Skin of "bird." 

Type locality. — New Guinea (in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris). 

CHEYLETUS ALACER Oudemans 

Cheletes alacer Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl, Ver., vol. 1, fasc, 18, p, 162, 1904; 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 108-112, fig. 27, 1906. 

Type host. — Skin of Pyrrhura cruentata { = Conurus cruentata). 
Type locality. — Colombia (in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris). 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CHEYLETUS CARNIFEX Zakhvatkin 

Cheyletus carnifex Zakhvatkin, A short key to the granary mites, 2d ed., p. 30, 
1935 (?). — RoDENDORF, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, pp. 
89, 90 figs. 27, 28, 1940. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

CHEYLETUS VENATOR Vitzthum 

Cheyletus venator Vitzthum, Arch, fiir Naturg., vol. 84A, No. G, p. 2, figs. 1-3, 
1920 (1918). 

Type habitat. — In nest of Kopthortosoma nigrita, preying on 
acarids. 

Type locality. — German East Africa. 

CHEYLETUS RABIOSUS Rodendorf 

Cheyletus rabiosus Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, 
p. 86, fig. 14, 1940. 

Type habitat. — On wheat. 

Type locality. — Kazakli, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 

CHEYLETUS ACER Oudemans 

Cheletes acer Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 162, 1904; 
M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 112-115, fig. 28, 1906, 

Type host. — "Birdskin." 

Type locality. — Colombia (in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris). 

CHEYLETUS FEROX Trouessart 

Cheyletus ferox Trouessakt, Bull. Bibl. Sci. Quest., vol. 2, p. 134, 1889. — Oude- 
mans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 115-119, fig. 29. 

Type host. — Bird skin, Coracopsis nigra barhlyi. 

Type locality. — He Praslin, Seychelles (island in Indian Ocean). 

CHEYLETUS INTREPIDUS Oudemans 

Cheletes intrepidus Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 12, p. 84, 1903 ; 
M6m. Soc. Zool. Fi-ance, vol. 19, pp. 119-122, fig. 30, 1906. 

Type host. — Bird skin. 

Type locality. — Colombia (in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris). 

CHEYLETUS VORAX Oudemans 

Cheletes vorax Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 12, p. 84, 1903 (by 
error the female of rapax is cited here under the name of vorax) ; Mem. Soc. 
Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 122-126, fig. 31, 1906. 

Type host. — On bat. 

Type locality. — Marianas Islands (in Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris) . 

CHEYLETUS FURIBUNDUS Rodendorf 

Cheyletus furibundus Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol 
42, p. 85, fig. 15, 1940. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 287 

Tyfe habitat. — ^Unknown, 

Type locality. — Ivanov, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

CHEYLETUS PRAEDABUNDUS Knzin 

Cheylelms praedahundus Kuzin, in Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. 
Zool., vol. 42, p. 85, 1940. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Rostov on Don, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

UNCERTAIN SPECIES 
CHEYLETUS SAEVUS Gudemans 

Cheletes eruditus (Schrank) Oudemans, Tijdschr. Ent., vol. 46, p. 123, pi. 12, 

figs. 34-47, 1904 (protonymph). 
Cheletes saevus Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. IS, 161, 1904 ; Mem. 

Soc, Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 84, 1906. 

Type habitat. — In dust. 
Type locality. — Netherlands. 

There is the possibility that this may be an immature stage of 
Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank). 

CHEYLETUS CLAVISPINUS Banks 

Cheyletus cKwispinus Banks, Can. Ent., vol. 34, p. 172, 1902. 

Type habitat. — Beneath wings of an Aradus. 

Type locality. — Indianapolis, Ind. 

Inadequately described and not figured. Type not found. 

CHEYLETUS PATAGIATUS Nordenskiold 

Cheyletus patagiatus Nordenskiold, Medd. Soc. Faun. Fenn., vol. 26, p. 37, 
figured, 1900. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 
Type locality. — Finland ? 

CHEYLETUS BURMITICUS Cockerell 

Cheyletus burmiticus Cockerell, Psyche, vol. 24, p. 41, fig. 2, 1917. 

From Burmese amber; inadequately described and figured; palpi 
similar to those of Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) in length and width 
of segments. 

Cheyletus nigripes Mola (Zool. Anz., vol. 32, p. 43, fig. 3, 1907) 
is not a mite, but an insect. 

Genus CHELETOPHYES Oudemans 

Cheletophyes Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 4, fasc. 78, p. 101, 1914. 
Type, Cheletophyes vitzthumi Oudemans (monotypic). 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHELETOPHYES 

1. Palpal femur about as wide as long 2 

Palpal femur longer than broad ; palpal setae rodlike, serrate ; palpal claw with 

a single tooth philippinensis, new species 

2. Palpal femur setae squamiform, V-like 3 

Palpal femur setae rodlike 4 

3. Posterior part of rostral shield reticulated ; tarsus I sensory seta twice as long 

as guard seta hawaiiensis, new species 

Posterior part of rostral shield longitudinally striated ; sensory and guard 
setae of tarsus I of same length marshalli, new species 

4. Hysterosomal shield minute, on rear of abdomen vitzthumi Oudemans 

Hysterosomal shield longer than propodosomal shield semenovi Kuzin 

CHELETOPHYES PHILIPPINENSIS, new species 

Plate 9, Figxjees 50-54 

Female. — ^Medium to large mite with rather thin palpi and medium- 
sized rostrum. Palpal femur only slightly swollen externally, about 
one-third longer than wide, dorsal seta rodlike, serrate, lateral ventral 
seta same; genual seta rodlike, serrate, on posterior margin of seg- 
ment; palpal tibial setae simple; single tooth or claw on basal half 
near center; outer comb about one-third longer than inner, outer with 
about 23 teeth and inner comb with 26-28 teeth. Kostrum with shield 
as figured; peritreme simple, composed of small segments. Single 
pair eyes. Dorsal body setae long, rodlike, serrate, propodosomal 
setae 133-150/x long and posterior abdominal setae 150/t long. Propo- 
dosomal and hysterosomal shields large, covering entire dorsum of 
mite, coarsely striated; two pairs of dorsal submedian and four pairs 
of marginal setae, three pairs near eye and one pair in posterior corner ; 
very long shoulder seta; hysterosoma with six pairs of marginal 
setae and three pairs of dorsal submedian setae. Legs I and IV long; 
about 400/A long, and IV about 413/a long. Tarsus I with sensory 
seta about twice as long as the simple guard seta, sensory seta about 
one-third as long as tarsus ; tibia I with usual short sensory seta and 
four long serrate setae. Length of body 366/t, including rostrum 
520/x; width 280/x. 

Type host. — Pandanus tectorius. 

Type locality. — Bataan, Philippine Islands. 

Ty^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1763. 

The type and one female paratype were collected July 26, 1920, by 
H. L. Sanf ord ; a second slide with additional specimens has the same 
data. 

Palpi and tarsi are distinctive. 

The anal-genital region of this mite indicates it to be a female, 
although the dorsal and the marginal setae are rodlike instead of the 
staghorn type that normally occurs in females. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 289 

CHELETOPHYES HAWAIIENSIS, new species 
Plate 10, Figxjres 55-59 

Female. — Kostrum and palpi narrow. Palpal femur swollen on 
outer margin, dorsal seta rodlike, serrate; dorsolateral setae split 
as figured ; lateral ventral setae rodlike, serrate. There is no dorsal 
genual seta ; the usual number of femoral setae is 4, but in this case 
there are 5, the extra one appearing to be the dorsolateral seta; tibial 
setae simple ; palpal claw long, slender with 9 basal teeth ; inner comb 
with about 34 teeth, weaker and shorter than outer comb which has 
about 20 teeth and is not as long as palpal claw. Eostrum covered 
with shield and patterned as figured ; peritreme simple, composed of 
small segments. Propodosomal and hysterosomal shield of about same 
length, covering most of body ; four pairs of rodlike serrate setae on 
margin of anterior shield and four pairs of such setae on posterior 
shield margin; anterior shield with four pairs of dorsal submedian 
staghorn setae ; three pairs of similar setae on shield on hysterosoma. 
One pair of eyes. Leg I, 433f(, long; leg IV, only 266/x long. Tarsus I, 
although superficially like that of Cheletomorpha lepidopteroruTn in 
general structure, has minute claws; sensory seta rodlike, about as 
long as segment, guard seta serrate, one-half as long as sensory seta. 
Tibia with short rodlike sensory seta and three long serrate setae. 
Length of body 300^, including rostrum 413/^ ; width 213/i,. 

Male. — Similar to female generally but differing in the dorsal shields 
and type and arrangement of the dorsal setae. Anterior shield not 
covering all of propodosoma, with four pairs of long rodlike serrate 
marginal setae and three pairs of dorsosubmedian setae which are sim- 
ilar to the marginal setae. Two pairs dorsal shields on hysterosoma, 
a large anterior pair bearing three pairs of setae, and a small posterior 
pair with two pairs of shorter setae; a pair of dorsosubmedian setae 
between the anterior pair of shields and pair of setae behind the pos- 
terior pair of shields. Length of leg I, 300/^, leg IV, 180/>t. Length 
of body 300(11, including rostrum 400fi ; width 24G/x. 

Type habitat. — On tropical fruits (free-living predator), associated 
with other mites. 

Type locality. — Kailua, Oahu, Hawaii. 

Type.—V.S.'^.M. No. 1764. 

The type female was collected from papaya fruits, Kailua, Oahu, 
Hawaii, March 26, 1941, by W. C. Look. Allotype male and 24 para- 
type females collected on litchi, Lanapape, Kanai, Hawaii, September 
15, 1943, by T. Nishida. Six female paratypes were collected from 
loquat, Panoa Koad, Honolulu, Hawaii, February 23, 1943, by T. 
Nishida; two from Chinese banana, Wailuku, Maui, Hawaii, August 
31, 1943, by Holdaway and six from Hau, Waikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii, 
July 8, 1943, by W. Storey. 

The mouth parts and tarsi I are distinctive. 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

CHELETOPHYES MARSHALLI, new species 
Plate 10, Figukes 60-64 

Female. — Kostnim and palpi broad. Palpal femur broadly rounded 
on outer margin ; femoral and genual setae as in G. haroa'iiensis ; dorso- 
median seta broadly lanceolate, serrate, dorsolateral seta broad, ser- 
rate, split as figured ; ventral lateral seta rodlike, serrate ; palpal tibial 
seta simple; claw strong, with 9 or 10 basal teeth; outer comb with 
about 24-2G teeth, about twice as long as inner comb which has 35-38 
teeth. Eostrum broadening toward rear; shield striated longitudi- 
nally; peritreme simple, composed of small segments. Dorsal body 
shields with transverse tuberculate striations, propodosomal shield 
longer than hysterosomal, both shields covering body; one pair of 
eyes; four pairs of long rodlike serrate marginal setae on anterior 
shield and four pairs of dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae ; posterior 
shield with four pairs of marginal setae and two pairs of dorsosub- 
median staghornlike setae ; anterior marginal setae about 153/x long, 
posterior marginal setae about 146;u, long. Leg I, 40Gju. long ; tarsus I 
with rodlike sensory seta and serrate guard seta of same length, both 
about two-thirds as long as tarsus ; tibia I with short rodlike seta and 
three long serrate and one simple setae. Length 300/x, including ros- 
trum 366/* ; width 220/x. 

Type habitat. — ^Unknown. 

Type locality. — Imboden. Ark. 

ry^e.—U.S.N.M. No. 1765. 

The single specimen was sent in by Byron C. Marshall, January 14, 
1935. 

The mouth parts and tarsi are distinctive. 

CHELETOPHYES VITZTHUMI Oudemans 

Cheletophyes vitsthumi Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 4, fasc. 78, pp. 
101, 102, 1914 ; Arch, f iir Naturg., vol. SIA, No. 5, p. 51, 1915 ; vol. 84A, No. 
6, p. 6, 1920 (1918). 

Type hahitat. — From Copt or thos 0771a caf/^a (Hymenoptera). 
Type locality. — Willowmore, Cape Colony, Africa. 

CHELETOPHYES SEMENOVI Kuzin 

Cheletophyes semenovi Kuzin, in Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Uuiv. 
Zool., vol. 42, p. 94, 1940. 

Type hahitat. — On cotton seeds. 

Type locality. — Uzbekistan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

Genus EUCHEYLA Berlese 

Euchcyla Beklese (subgenus), Rcdia, vol. 9, pp. 79, 80, 1913. 
Eucheyla Berlese, Vitzthum, Handbuch der Zoologie, p. 146, 1931. 

Type, Oheyletus (Eucheyla) Zonca^a Berlese (monotypic). 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 291 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF EUCHEYLA 

1. Palpal claw with more than 1 tooth 2 

Palpal claw slender, with a single basal tooth ; tarsus of palpus with a broadly 

clavate seta loricata (Berlese) 

2. Palpal claw with 8 teeth, body partially reticulate dorsally. 

panamensis, new species 
Palpal claw- with 5 teeth ; entire body reticulate dorsally. 

whartoni, new species 

EUCHEYLA LORICATA (Berlese) 

Cheyletia (Eucheyla) loricata Beeu:se, Redia, vol. 9, pp. 79, 80, pi. 1, fig. 7, 1913. 

Type habitat. — Moss. 
Type locality. — Italy. 

EUCHEYLA PANAMENSIS, new species 

Plate 10, Figures 65-68 

Female. — Eostrum small. Palpal femur longer than wide, only 
slightly swollen on outer margin, with two dorsal squamiform serrate 
setae ; apparently no dorsal genual seta ; palpal claw short, broad, with 
teeth along entire margin; outer comb strong, with few teeth; inner 
comb much weaker and with fine teeth ; apparently only one normal 
sicklelike seta, the other being mildly clavate ; sensory rod short and 
clavate. Rostrum broad, with M-like peritreme composed of narrow 
segments ; at posterior ends of peritreme a pair of tympanlike organs of 
unknown function. Body covered by shields ; dorsal body setae large, 
squamiform, serrate ; four pairs of marginal setae and three pairs of 
dorsosubmedian setae on anterior shield. Single pair of eyes present. 
Posterior shield with six pairs of marginal setae and two pairs of 
dorsosubmedian setae. On each side of body, apparently just beneath 
skin is a long reticulated area as figured. A single pair of squami- 
form serrate anal setae; other anal and genital setae simple. Legs 
short ; leg I about 200]^ long, leg IV about 266/a long. Tarsus I, 87/a 
long ; tibia I, 30/i long. Tarsus I with a short rodlike sensory seta and 
a long broadly lanceolate serrate guard seta ; ventral tarsal seta serrate. 
Tibia I with a small rodlike sensory seta, a simple ventral seta, and four 
long, broadly lanceolate serrate setae. Length of body 366/a, including 
rostrum 446/x ; width 266)li. 

Type hahitat. — Among eggs of termites. 

Type locality. — Panama. 

T'y^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1766. 

The above description is based on a single mite, the type taken from 
among eggs of termites in Panama, 1923. 

The palpal claw and dorsal reticulations are distinctive of this 
species. 

810275 — 49 4 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

EUCHEYLA WHARTONI, new species 

Plate 11, Figtjres 69-71 

Female. — Propodosoma of mite covering rostrum. Palpi short, 
broad, small, dorsal femoral seta squamiform and lateral ventral seta 
lanceolate, ventral setae squamiform; dorsal genual seta not seen if 
present; dorsal tibial seta not seen, ventral seta squamiform; outer 
palpal comb strong, with about 10 stout teeth ; inner palpal comb not as 
stout and with more teeth. Palpal claw with four large teeth extend- 
ing almost to tip of claw. Dorsal body surface reticulate; dorsal 
marginal setae large, squamiform, reticulate, situated on body edge 
but not on reticulate pattern ; shoulder setae similar to marginal setae ; 
no dorsomedian setae seen. A pair of eyes present. Posterior anal 
setae squamiform ; other anal-genital setae simple. Leg I, about 233/x 
long; tarsus I, 83)a long; tibia I, 33/a long. Leg setae large, broadly 
squamiform, some quite long ; guard seta of tarsus I broad, long, ex- 
tending to tip of tarsus ; sensory seta short, rodlike. Length of body 
366//, width 226/i. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Birnamwood, Wis. 

ry;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1767. 

The type and two paratypes are mounted with Cheyletia squamosa 
(Degeer) ; all were collected by I. G. Sanders, date unknown. 

The dorsal reticulation and rostrum are distinctive. 

Genus CHELETONELLA Womersley 

Cheletonella Womeesley, Rec. South Austral. Mus., vol. 7, No, 1, p. 60, 1941. 
Type, Cheletonella vespertilionis Womersley (monotypic). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHELETONELLA 

1. Palpal claw with three basal teeth vespertilionis Womersley 

Palpal claw toothed along entire margin rugosa (Womersley) 

CHELETONELLA VESPERTILIONIS Womersley 

Cheletonella vespertilionis Womeeslet, Rec. South Austral. Mus., vol. 7, No. 1, 
pp. 60, 61, fig. 7, 1941. 

Type host. — Bat. 

Type locality. — Glen Osmond, South Australia. 

CHELETONELLA RUGOSA (Womersley), new combination 

Cheletophanes rugosa Womersley, Rec. South Austral. Mus., vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 62, 
63, fig. 9, 1941. 

Type habitat. — Oii Oalymmaderus (Coleoptera). 
Type locality. — Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 293 

Womersley placed this species in the genus Cheletophanes since the 
palpal claw is toothed along the entire margin. It is included here 
with GheletonelJa because of the single dorsal shield. 

Genus CHELETOMIMUS Oudemans 

Cheletomimus Oxjdemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 163, 1904; 
vol. 5, fasc. 120, p. 359, 1921. 
Type, Cheletomimus trux Oudemans =6' AeZe^es herlesei Oudemans 
(monotypic). 

CHELETOMIMUS BERLESEI (Oudemans), new combination 

Plate 11, Figuees 72-75 

Cheyletus omatus Canestrini and Fanzago, Berlese, Acari, Myriapoda et 

Scorpiones hucusque in Italia, reperta, Pi-ostigmata, fasc. 28, No. 6, 1886. 

(Misidentifled.) 
Cheletes herlesei Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 17, p. 154, 1904. 
Cheletomimus trux Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 163, 1904. 
Cheletomimus omatus (Berlese) Oudemans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, 

pp. 136-139, figs. 84, 35, 1906.— Vitzthum, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, vol. 

3, No. 3, p. 55, 1929.— Bakek, Bull. California Dept. Agr., vol. 28, No. 4, 

p. 273, 1939. 
Female. — A small, round mite with a short, broad gnathosoma. 
Femur of palpus short, broad, rounded externally with a dorsal 
squamiform serrate seta and a lanceolate serrate ventral seta; genu 
with a squamiform serrate seta on posterior margin; tibial setae of 
palpus lanceolate, serrate; palpal claw with 7 basal teeth; outer comb 
as long as the claw and with 14 teeth ; inner comb smaller and with 
27 teeth. Kostrum broad, covered with areoli; peritreme composed 
of simple, strong segments. Propodosomatic shield trapezoidlike with 
posterior margin convex ; single pair of eyes ; three pairs of lanceolate 
serrate marginal setae and four pairs of similar dorsal submedian 
setae. A pair of longer shoulder setae set in a minute plate as are 
all the setae which are not on the anterior or posterior shields. Hys- 
terosoma with two small shields, each with a single seta ; anterior to 
shields is a transverse row of four setae ; behind the shield a row with 
two setae ; then a row of four, and finally a posterior row of two setae. 
Two pairs of simple genital setae ; three pairs of simple posterodorsal 
anal setae. Legs short ; leg I reaches almost to tip of palpal claw ; legs 
I and IV about 166^ long. Tarsus I with a rodlike sensory seta of 
medium length and a short guard seta ; tibia I with a short clublike 
sensory seta and two lanceolate setae. Femur of leg I with lanceolate 
serrate dorsal seta ; other leg setae lanceolate, serrate ; those on tibia 
I of equal length. Body 313/^ long, including rostrum 420fi; width 
260jM. 

Type habitat. — Plants. 
Type locality. — Italy. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Two specimens, a female and a nymph, of this European species were 
found in the leaf bud of fig {Ficus cai^a) at Berkeley, Calif., No- 
vember 17, 1936, a?sociated with the fig mite, Acei^ feus (Cotte) ; 
collector, E. W. Baker. A single specimen, which is deposited in the 
British Museum, was found among mites collected on citrus "branches- 
leaves," Beit-Hanun (Gaza) , Palestine, "4^-2-46," by P. Jolles. 

EUCHEYLETIA, new genus 

Palpal tarsus with two sicklelike and two comblike setae; marginal 
setae of dorsal shields scalelike; dorsomedian setae cloudlike; two 
dorsal shields ; all tarsi with claws ; and without a pair of lenslike eyes 
on anterior shield. This last character and the presence of the cloud- 
like dorsomedian setae separate this genus from Cheyletia Haller. 

Type, Eucheyletia hishoppi, new species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF EUCHEYLETIA 

1. Palpal claw with 2 basal teeth, guard seta on tarsus I simple 2 

Palpal claw with 3 basal teeth, guard seta on tarsus I pilose, about 3 times 

as long as sensory seta ; 5 pairs of marginal setae on posterior dorsal 
shield harpyia (Rodendorf) 

2. Posterior anal setae squamiform serrate 3 

AH anal-genital setae simple hardyi, new species 

3. Three pairs of marginal setae on posterior dorsal shield- flabellif era (Michael ) 
Five or six pairs of marginal setae on posterior dorsal shield. 

bishoppi, new species 

EUCHEYLETLA. HARPYIA (Rodendorf), new combination 

Plate 11, F1:gukes 76-79 

Cheyletia harpyia Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, 
pp. 90-92, figs. S, 29, 30, 1940. 

Feinale. — Palpi strong; femur as long as wide, swollen on outer side 
and straight on inner side, dorsal seta long, squamiform serrate, ventral 
palpal setae shorter and narrower than dorsal seta ; broad squamiform 
serrate seta on posterior margin of genu ; palpal claw thin and pointed, 
with 3 basal teeth; outer comb longer than claw, with 17 or 18 teeth; 
inner comb only slightly curved, with many fine, short teeth. Rostrum 
of medium size with an irregular dorsal reticulate design ; peritreme 
simple, composed of small segments. Propodosomatic shield wider 
than long, Avith four pairs of lateral squamiform setae ; five pairs of 
dorsal submedian cloudlike setae as figured; no eyes. Hysterosomal 
shield wider than long, tapering posteriorly, with five pairs of lateral 
squamiform serrate setae and six pairs of dorsol submedian cloudlike 
setae. Three pairs anal bristles, the posterior pair squamiform ser- 
rate, the other anal and genital bristles simple. Tarsus I, 123/i, long; 
tibia I, 53/x long; tarsal hairs on tip 113 and 77/* long, respectively; 
sensory rod short; guard (?) seta very long, serrate; long simple ven- 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 295 

tral seta. Tibia I with a short rodlike sensory seta and four strongly 
lanceolate serrate setae. Length of body 366/u,, including rostrum SOOju, ; 
width 300/.. 

Male. — As figured and described by Rodendorf , with four pairs of 
squamiform marginal setae and three pairs of submedian setae on 
propodosomatic shield; hysterosomal shield with three pairs of mar- 
ginal and two pairs of submedian setae. 

Type habitat. — Storehouses. 

Type locality. — Ivanovo ; Agriz, Union of Soviet Socialist Eepublics. 

The description of the female was taken from three specimens col- 
lected in Bonibus nest, Beaver Mountains, Alaska, March 1, 1942, by 
C. A. Fowler. The peculiar cloudlike setae of the female were ap- 
parently overlooked in the original description, and only the setal 
stems were seen and mentioned as being short, asymmetrical. 

EUCHEYLETIA FLABELLIFERA (Michael), new combination 

Cheyletus flabelUfer Michael, Trans. Roy. Micr. Soc, vol. 1, p. 135, 1878. 
Cheyletus (Cheyletia) flaheJ lifer Michael, Berlese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones 

hucusque in Italia reperta, Prostigmata, p. 74, 1893. 
Chelctia fiabcllifera (Michael) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nedeii. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 

18, p. 162, 1904 ; M4m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 127-136, fig. 33, 1906. 

According to Oudemans' (1906) redescription of this species it is in 
general like bishoppi, new species, but is diiferentiated in having a 
simple ventral seta on the genu of palpus, in having smaller shields, 
in having fewer marginal setae on posterior shield in that the anal 
squamiform setae are longer than the simple setae, and in having 
simple ventral setae on the tibia of the third pair of legs. 

Type habitat. — Dust of caves. 

Type locality. — England. 

EUCHEYLETIA BISHOPPI, new species 

Plate 11, Figures 80-82; Plate 12, Figures 83-88 

Female. — Medium-sized mite, small palpi. Palpal femur strongly 
swollen on outer side and concave on inner side; dorsal palpal setae 
squamiform serrate ; genual seta on posterior margin of segment ; genu 
of palpus with ventral lanceolate serrate seta ; palpal claw with 2 long, 
narrow teeth ; outer comb about as long as claw, with about 15 teeth ; 
inner comb about one-half as long as outer and with about 24 teeth. 
Rostrum of medium size, gradually widening posteriorly, with a few 
longitudinal sculpturings. Peritreme composed of short, fairly strong 
segments. Propodosomatic shield wider than long, anterior corners 
rounded ; four pairs of marginal squamiform serrate setae ; seven pairs 
of cloudlike dorsal submedian setae as figured. No eyes. Hystero- 
somal shield with five or six pairs of marginal squamiform serrate 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

and eight pairs of dorsosubmedian cloudlike setae (the anterior lateral 
setae may or may not be on edge of shield) ; shield about as wide as 
long, narrowing to rear which is rounded. Three pairs of anal bristles, 
the posterior pair squamiform serrate, other anal and genital setae 
simple. Leg I about 300/i long; IV, 266/t long. Tarsus I, 127/* long; 
tibia I, 57 fi long; all tarsal setae simple, not squamiform; dorsally a 
long rodlike sensory seta ; guard seta slightly longer than sensory seta ; 
tibia I with three squamiform setae and a short, curved clublike 
sensory seta. Tibia III with two dorsal squamiform serrate setae, and 
ventrally a lanceolate serrate seta and a simple seta. Length of body 
513/1, length including rostrum 680]^; width about 380ju,. 

Male. — Palpi long, slender ; palpal femur 21/2 times as long as broad, 
the dorsal seta squamiform; genu with a squamiform dorsal and a 
slightly broadened ventral seta ; femoral and genual setae as in female ; 
palpal claw with a single small basal tooth; outer comb with about 
19 teeth ; inner comb with about 22 teeth. Rostrum long, narrow, with 
a few longitudinal markings ; peritreme composed of seven pairs small 
segments. Propodosoma entirely covered by shield, with four pairs 
of marginal and three pairs of dorsal submedian squamiform serrate 
setae. Shield covering all of hysterosoma ; shield with four pairs of 
marginal and two pairs of dorsal submedian squamiform serrate setae. 
Genital opening on posterior-rear. Tarsus I, 116ju, long; tibia I, 90/* 
long. Tarsus I sensory seta long, extending past tip of tarsus ; guard 
seta simple, less than one-half as long as sensory seta. Tibia I with 
lanceolate serrate setae. Length of body 307/t, including rostrum 513/i ; 
width about 266/a. 

Type host. — Neotoma fuscipes (occupied nest). 

Type locality. — Monterey, Calif. 

Type.—V.S.^.U. No. 1768. 

The female type and a male were collected from an occupied nest 
of Neotoma fuscipes^ February 14, 1946, and a female paratype was 
collected on N. fuscipes^ March 16, 1946, at ISIonterey, Calif., by J. M. 
Linsdale. Two females were collected on pine mouse, College Park, 
Md., June 14, 1933, by F. C. Bishopp, and another female was collected 
on pine mouse. Burnt Mills, Md., March 29, 1932, by R. Greenfield. 

The peritreme, palpi, and setal arrangement on the dorsal posterior 
plate and type of setae on tibia III distinguish this species from 
Eucheyletia -fiabeUifera (Michael). 

EUCHEYLETIA HARDYI. new species 

Plate 16, Figtoes 140-144 

Female. — Palpi and rostrum somewhat large in proportion to body. 
Palpal femur strongly swollen on outer side; dorsal palpal femoral 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 297 

seta squamiform serrate; dorsal genual setae squamiform serrate, on 
posterior margin of segment ; ventral seta simple ; lateral seta of femur 
absent ; palpal claw stout with 2 large teeth, the basal tooth broader 
and shorter than the distal tooth ; outer comb with approximately 17 
teeth ; inner comb with approximately 35 teeth. Rostrum of medium 
size, with a few tubercles. Peritreme composed of six pairs of short, 
fairly strong segments, Propodosomatic shield wider than long ; four 
pairs of marginal squamiform serrate setae ; only three pairs of cloud- 
like dorsal submedian setae discernible, all such setae with convolu- 
tions. No eyes. Hysterosoma shield with two pairs of marginal 
squamiform serrate and three pairs of dorsosubmedian cloudlike setae ; 
shield wider than long, narrowing to rear. All anal-genital setae 
simple. Leg I about 330/i long; IV, 300/a. Tarsus I, 116/x long; tibia I, 
57 IX long; no squamiform setae present on tarsus I; dorsally a short 
rodlike sensory seta ; guard seta simple and about twice as long as sen- 
sory seta ; ventral seta only slightly serrate ; tibia I with a very short 
clublike sensory seta and three squamiform serrate setae, as well as a 
setae base with seta missing. Tibia III with two dorsal squamiform ser- 
rate setae, and ventrally a similar seta as well as a simple seta. Length 
of body about 430ju,, including rostrum 585/ji,; width about 328/a. 

Type habitat. — In Neotoma microfus nest. 

Type locality. — Harlingen, Tex. 

Type.—\]. S. N. M. No. 1769. 

The single specimen, the female type, was collected August 22, 
1945, by Hardy and Wooley. 

This species differs from E. hishoppi in having two instead of six 
pairs of setae on the margin of the hysterosomal shield, in the num- 
ber of cloudlike setae, and in having all simple genital-anal setae. 

Genus CHEYLETIA Haller 

Cheyletia Hallek, Arch, fur Naturg., vol. 1, pp. 233, 234, 1884. 

Cheletia Haller, Oudemans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 126, 1906. 

Type, Cheyletus laureata Haller = J. carws squamosus Degeer (ac- 
cording to Oudemans, 1897) (monotypic). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHEYLETIA 

1. Dorsal palpal femoral setae strong, but no more than lanceolate serrate in 

form 2 

Doi'sal palpal femoral setae squamiform 3 

2. Palpal claw with 10-12 teeth ; dorsum of rostrum with tuberculate shield ; 

dorsal body setae squamiform pyriformis (Banks) 

Palpal claw with 9 or 10 teeth ; dorsum of rostrum with few tubercles and a 
reticulate pattern ; dorsal body setae long and broadly lanceolate. 

virginiensis, new species 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

3. Palpal claw with 8 teeth; palpal tibial seta lanceolate serrate; inner palpal 
femoral seta squamiform ; dorsal setae of tibia I of leg short, squamiform ; 
ventral seta simple; dorsomedian setae of body appear staghornlike or 

squamiform wellsi, new species 

Palpal claw with 5 teeth ; palpal tibial seta large, squamiform ; inner palpal 
femoral seta squamiform-split ; dorsal and ventral setae of tibia I of leg 
long, broadly lanceolate ; serrate ; dorsomedian body setae not known. 

squamosa (Degeer) 

CHEYLETIA PYRIFORMIS (Banks), new combination 

Plate 12, Fiquees 89-94 

Cheyletus pyriformis Banks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 28, pp. 17, 19, fig. 17, 

1904 ; Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 7, p. 135, 1906. 
Cheletia flabellifera (Michael), male of Oudemans, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 

19, pp. 127-146, fig. 32, 1906. (Misidentification.) 
Cheyletus longipalpus Ewing, Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., vol. 18, p. 54, pL 7, 

fig. 1, 1909 (new synonymy). 

Female. — Rostrum long, narrow. Femur of palpus swollen later- 
ally, with a dorsal strongly lanceolate serrate seta; genual seta 
lanceolate serrate, on posterior margin of segment ; other setae simple ; 
palpal claw with 12 teeth ; palpal combs of about equal length, outer 
comb with 17 teeth, inner comb with about 24 teeth; tarsal sensory 
seta of palpus strongly clavate. Tuberculate shield covering posterior 
portion of rostrum ; peritreme simple, composed of narrow segments. 
Propodosomatic shield tuberculate; wider than long; with a single 
pair of eyes; with four pairs of squamiform serrate marginal setae 
and five pairs of dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae. Hysterosomal 
shield tuberculate, as long as wide, with five pairs of squamiform 
serrate marginal setae and four pairs of dorsosubmedian staghornlike 
setae. Genital region not seen. Tarsus I, (jOjx long ; tibia I, 50p. long ; 
tarsus I with minute claws, almost invisible under low power ; sensory 
rod long, more than one-half as long as tarsus; tibia with a small 
clavate sensory organ and two dorsal squamiform serrate setae. 
Length of body 353/x, including rostrum 466/i; width 246/^. 

Male. — Palpi, rostrum long, narrow. Femur of palpus long, nar- 
row, with almost parallel sides, distally and dorsally with a long 
narrow tubercle bearing a strong lanceolate serrate seta ; genu with a 
smaller similar seta but not arising from tubercle, on posterior margin 
of segments, other setae simple; palpal claw with 8 basal teeth; 
outer palpal comb with about 17 teeth; inner combs with about 2-4 
teeth; palpal tarsal sensory seta clavate. Rostrum covered with 
tuberculate shield. Body shields tuberculate ; anterior shield with a 
single pair of eyes, four pairs of squamiform serrate marginal setae 
and three pairs of similar dorsosubmedian setae. Posterior shield 
with three pairs of marginal setae and two pairs of dorsosubmedian 
setae. Genital area not seen. Leg I, 333/a long; tarsus I, 73/* long; 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 299 

tibia I, llO/x long; tarsus I with minute claws and a long rodlike 
sensory organ more than one-half as long as tarsus ; tibia I with long 
clavate sensory seta and one large and two small lanceolate serrate 
setae. Claws on legs II, III, and IV normal as in female. Length 
of body 266;Li, including rostrum 380/^; width 166^. 

Type habitat. — Associated with grapevine scale. 

Tyf& locality. — Kirkwood, Mo. 

The mite was first named and figured by Banks in 1904 and described 
in 1906. In his 1906 description Banks stated that the mites were 
collected from grapevine scale {Asjndiotus uvae) by Professor Web- 
ster at Lafayette, Ind., in December. However, in checking over the 
original notes made by Pergande it was found that the mites were sent 
in by Miss Murtfeldt from Kirkwood, Mo., in December 1888, from 
grapevine scale. These mites were of both sexes. Other specimens 
examined were Swing's type, male, which was taken under log, Ur- 
bana. 111., July 1, 1908, by H. E. Ewing; male and female specimens 
on slide without data; males from gall on sycamore branches, Jack- 
sonville, 111., March 1926 ; a female collected in rice straw from India 
by Lennox and Rosanoff at New York, December 15, 1944 ; and a male 
and a nymph collected in 1947 at Mount Holyoke College, South 
Hadley, Mass., by Alice Deardorff. 

CHEYLETIA VIRGINIENSIS, new species 

Plate 13, Figures 95-98 

Female. — Medium-sized mite. Palpi only slightly swollen ; palpal 
femur about as long as broad, rounded laterally, with 2 dorsal lanceo- 
late serrate setae, one near anterior margin; the outer ventral setae 
smaller and lanceolate serrate; no dorsal seta on genu; palpal claw 
with 9 basal teeth ; outer combs shorter than claw, with 29 teeth ; inner 
comb shorter than outer with at least twice as many teeth. Rostrum 
normal; tuberculate dorsally with a slight reticulate pattern, peri- 
treme simple, composed of slender segments. Propodosomatic shield 
wider than long, with rounded corners ; a single pair of eyes ; four pairs 
of lanceolate serrate marginal setae ; five pairs of dorsosubmedian stag- 
hornlike setae. Hysterosomal shield wider than long, rounded post- 
eriorly, with five pairs of lanceolate serrate marginal setae and four 
pairs of dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae. Areas around anterior 
and posterior shields striated-tuberculated, the tubercles being very 
large. Genital area normal, all setae simple. Leg I, 643/x long; leg 
IV, 428/i long. Tarsus I, 166)li long ; tibia I, 150/a long ; tarsus I with a 
rodlike sensory seta which is punctate on basal half and more than 
one-half as long as tarsus ; tibia I with a short rodlike sensory organ 
and four long serrate setae and one simple seta. Length of body 455jn, 
including rostrum 655/i ; width about 350/x. 



300 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Tyj>e habitat. — ^Associated with Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmer- 
mann. 

Type locality. — Gloucester County, Va. 

Ty/^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1T70. 

Described from a single female collected by L. A. Hetrick, May 1939. 

The palpi, dorsal setae, and tarsal tibial setae arrangement are dis- 
tinctive for this species. 

CHEYLETIA WELLSI, new species 
Plate 13, Figxjbes 99-102 

Female. — Small mite. Palpi short, thick ; palpal femur wider than 
long, swollen, with small dorsal tubercles and squamiform dorsal seta ; 
genu with similar seta on posterior margin of segment ; seta on palpal 
tibia narrow, slightly spined; claw with G-8 teeth; outer comb as long 
as claw with about 15 teeth; inner comb shorter and with about 20 
teeth. Eostrum covered with tuberculate shield ; peritreme composed 
of medium-sized segments; posterior of rostrum without tubercles, 
striated. Anterior shield trapezoidlike, covering most of propodo- 
soma, corners rounded, with four pairs of squamiform serrate mar- 
ginal setae and five pairs of dorsosubmedian staghornlike setae. A 
single pair of eyes on edge of shield. Hysterosomal shield narrowing 
rapidl}' toward rear, corners broadly rounded, with four pairs of 
squamiform serrate marginal setae and two pairs of dorsosubmedian 
staghornlike setae; a single pair of squamiform serrate setae near 
anterior corners of shield. Genital setae simple; anal setae serrate. 
Tai^sus I, 76)u. long; tibia I, 30/a long; tarsus with a simple sensory 
organ more than one-half as long as tarsus ; guard seta not seen but 
probably short, fine, and simple; tibia with a large dorsal squamiform 
serrate seta and a small clavate sense organ. Legs I and IV short, 
about 186/1, long. Length of body 253/x, including rostrum 363/*; 
width 200/x. 

Type habitat. — On navel orange. 

Type locality. — Azores, intercepted at Philadelphia, Pa. 

T'y^^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1771. 

The female type was collected from navel orange, Azores, inter- 
cepted at Philadelphia, Pa., February 9, 1945, by A. B. Wells, for 
whom the mite is named. Other specimens were collected as follows: 
On Eibiscm leaf, Mexico, at Hidalgo, Tex., May 1, 1936, by F. E. 
Swan and A. L. Williamson; on Saccharum, oiflcinarum^ Mayagiiez, 
Puerto Kico, April 29, 1912, by H. K. Plank; on Ananas sp., Canal 
Zone, at Hawaii, July 16, 1936, by Uyeda; on Lantana camara., St. 
Augustine, Trinidad, British West Indies, May 28, 1937, by R. G. 
Fennah; on pineapple leaf, Cuba, at New York, May 18, 1936, by 



MITES OF FALIILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 301 

Woodbury; on pineapple leaves, Jamaica, at Portland, Oreg., June 
8, 1936, by L. M. Scott ; and free-living in Takabannare Shima, an 
island off Okinawa, June 17, 1945, by A. B. Hardcastle. 

These mites show variation in the number of dorsomedian pro- 
podosomal setae. This variation ranges from one pair in the Okinawa 
specimen to five pairs in the type specimen. However, of two speci- 
mens from Puerto Kico, one has one pair of setae and the other has 
tAvo pairs, and of the two specimens from Mexico, one has three pairs 
and the other has four pairs of setae. 

The species is distinctive in the number of palpal claw teeth, and 
in the type of the setae. The specimen from Jamaica possesses dorsal 
propodosomal setae which are normally squamiform, not staghorn- 
like. This would indicate that the staghornlike structure is an arti- 
fact, probably due to mounting technique. This may be true of the 
other types of setae found. 

CHEYLETIA SQUAMOSA (Degeer) 
Plate 13, Figures 103-105 

Acarus squaniosus Degeer, Memoires pour servir a I'histoire des insectes, vol. 7, 

p. 116, pi. 7, fig. 4, 1778. 
Cheyletia laureata Haller, Arch, fiir Naturg., vol. 1, pp. 234. 235, pi. 16, fig. 9, 

1884. — Karpelles, Math. Naturw. Ber. Ungarn., vol. 11, p. 124, pis. 18, 19, 

figs. 3, 6, 6a, 1893. 
Cheyletus squamosa (Degeer) Oxtdemans, Tijdschr. Ent., vol. 40, pp. 126-135, 

pi. 5, 1897. — ViTZTHUM, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, vol. 3, No. 3, p. 55, 

1929.— RoDENDORF, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, p. 90, 1940. 
Cheletia squamosa (Degeer) Oudemans, M^m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 126, 

127, 1906. 

Female. — Small mite. Femur of palpus strongly elbowed on outer 
side, with two dorsal squamiform serrate setae, the inner seta split; 
genual seta similar and covering most of claw, located on anterior 
portion of genu; a ventral lanceolate serrate seta present; palpal 
claw with only five basal teeth; outer comb strong, as long as claw, 
inner comb about three-fourths as long as claw ; sickle setae two in 
number, normal; rodlike sensory seta on palpal tarsus. Rostrum 
stout, peritreme simple. Body of mite covered by two shields; no 
dorsosubmedian setae but several setal bases located; one pair of 
lateral eyes ; four pairs of squamiform serrate setae on anterior shield 
and six pairs on posterior shield. A pair of squamiform anal bristles, 
other anal and genital setae simple. Legs short ; leg setae, except those 
on tibiae and tarsi, broadly squamiform ; those on tibiae-tarsi broadly 
lanceolate serrate. Tarsus I, 63/:^ long; tibia I, 29)U, long; tarsus I with 
a short rodlike sensory seta. Length of body 280ju., including rostrum 
366ja; width 213jit. 

Type habitat. — Associated with scale insects. 

Type locality. — France. 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Specimens examined were collected at Birnannvood, Wis., May 14 
(?),byL G.Sanders. 

These mites check almost perfectly with the figures given by Oude- 
mans (1897), whose interpretation is being followed. 

Genus CHELETOMORPHA Oudemans 

Cheletomorpha Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 162, 1904. 

Type, Acarus lepidopterorum Shaw, 1794 ( = Cheyletus venustissima 
Koch, 1839) (synonymy of Oudemans, 1937) (monotypic). 

CHELETOMORPHA LEPmOPTERORUM (Shaw) 

Plate 13, Figures 106, 107; Plate 14, FiGxmEs 108-112 

Acarus lepidopterorum Shaw, Nat. Misc., vol. 6, pi. 187, 1794. 

Cheyletus vcnustissimus Koch, Deutschlands Crustaceen, Slyriapoden und 
Arachniden, fasc. 23, fig. 22, 1839. 

Cheyletus seminivorus Packard, A guide to the study of insects, p. 665, 1860. 

Cheyletus longipes Megnin, Journ. Anat. and Physiol., 1878, p. 8. — Banks, Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 11, p. 133, fig. 9, 1909 (new synonymy). 

Cheleto'morpha venustissima (Koch) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, 
fasc. 18, p. 162, 1904 ; I\I^m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 144-153, figs. 37-39, 
1006. — Chebian, Journ. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, new ser., vol. 27, No. 1, p. 145, 
1932 (1931).— RoDENDORF, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, 
p. 92, 1940.— WoMEBSLEY, Rec. South Austral. Mus., vol. 7, No. 1, p. 62, 1941. 

Cheyletus rufus Hardy, in Andre, Ann. des Epiphyt. Ann^e 19, No. 6, p. 352, 1933. 

Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum (Shaw), Oudemans, Kritisch Historisch Over- 
zicht der Acarologie IIIc, pp. 1115-1117, 1937. 

Female. — Long-legged mite with long body and leg setae which 
are serrate, rodlike, and slightly flattened on end. Palpal femur 
strongly swollen externally and straight internally, with 3 long, rod- 
like, serrate setae and 2 single ventral setae ; no dorsal seta on genu ; 
other palpal setae simple; palpal claw long, slender, with a single 
basal tooth ; outer comb about as long as claw, with approximately 24 
teeth; inner comb shorter and with perhaps twice as many teeth. 
Rostrum long, narrow, sides concave; covered with a simple shield. 
Peritreme simple, of small segments. Propodosomatic shield slightly 
wider than long, with broadly rounded corners, three pairs of long, 
serrate rodlike marginal setae near eye and one pair on posterior 
corner; two pairs of dorsal submedian short simple setae; a pair of 
long serrate rodlike shoulder setae. Hysterosomal shield wider than 
long, rounded posteriorly, with two pairs of lateral marginal anterior 
setae and three pairs of posterior marginal setae, as well as two pairs 
of short simple dorsal submedian setae; a pair of long setae on 
posterior edge of abdomen. Leg I, 670/a long; IV, 4:57 ix long; legs 
II and III shorter. Tarsus, 106/a long; tibia I, IQGfi long; tarsus I 
sensory seta short, rodlike, with a serrate guard seta of about three 



MITES OF FALIILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 303 

times the length of the sensory; sensory seta on tibia 1 very short. 
Tarsus I lacking claws but with pulvillus. Length of body 500/i,, 
including rostrum 643jli ; width 340/x. 

Male. — Similar to female; palpal claw with two or three smaller 
teeth ; femoral and genual setae rodlike, serrate, and in normal posi- 
tion ; body setae longer than in female ; dorsal submedian setae short, 
spatulate, and serrate ; tarsus I sensory seta about one-half as long as 
guard seta. Length of body 314/^, including rostrum 428/*; width 
228/x. 

Tyye habitat. — Moth wing. 

Type locality. — England. 

These mites are^ound on various importations from all parts of 
the world and are one of the most striking of the cheyletids. The 
description of the female is based on material collected on cauliflower 
leaf, "British," at Boston, Mass., October 24, 1937, by J. T. Beauchamp ; 
and the description of the male was taken from a specimen collected 
in straw packing, Spain, at St. Louis, Mo., March 24, 1944 (no collec- 
tor's name given). Other United States National Museum records 
are England, France, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Australia, Java, 
Philippines, Japan, China, India, Mexico ; and in the United States, 
Texas, Virginia, Maryland, and California. 

CHELETOMORPHA ORIENTALIS Gudemans 

Cheletomorpha orientalis Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 7, fasc. 162, 
p. 343, 1928. 

The species supposedly differs from C. lepidopterorum in having 
eyes located near the shield, not on it, and in having rodlike setae 
instead of the somewhat flattened ones. Possibly a synonym of O. 
lepidopterorum. Not seen. 

Type habitat. — On leaves of an orchid, Phalaenopsis sp. 

Type locality. — Java. 

Genus CHELETOPHANES Oudemans 

Cheletophanes Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol, 1, fasc. 18, p. 162, 1904. 
Type, Cheyletus montandoni Berlese and Trouessart (monotypic). 

KEY TO SPECIES OF CHELETOPHANES 

1. Palpal claw with 13 teeth; dorsal body striations forming concentric 

rings montandoni (Berlese and Trouessart) 

Palpal claw with 10 teeth; dorsal body surface rugose peregrinus Berlese 

CHELETOPHANES MONTANDONI (Berlese and Trouessart) 

Cheyletus montandoni Berlese and Tkouessabt, Bull. Bibl. Sci. Ouest., vol. 2, 
p. 133, 1889. 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Cheletophanes montandoni (Berlese and Trouessart) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. 
Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 162, 1904 ; M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 140-144, 
fig. 36, 1906. 
Type hahitat.— Taken on elytra of Aradus varius. 
Type locality.— '''Bvosienn (Valache de Nord)." The town of 
Brosteni in northern Rumania is evidently this locality. 

CHELETOPHANES PEREGRINUS Berlese 

Cheletophanes peregrinus Beblese, Redia, vol. 14, p. 194, 1921. 
Type habitat. — Rotten bark on ground. 
Type locality. — Florence, Italy. 

EUTOGENES, new genus 

Tarsus I lacks claws and pulvillus. No eyes. Two dorsal shields, 
dorsal setae squamiform serrate, with two comblike and two sicklelike 
setae on palpal tarsus. 

This genus is similar to Oheletogenes in lacking tarsal I claws and 
pulvillus, but differs in not having the lenslike eyes. 

Type, Eutogenes foxi^ new species. 

EUTOGENES FOXI, new species 

Plate 14, Figuee 113-116 

Female.— k. small mite. Palpal femur with few dorsal tubercles; 
dorsal setae of femur and genu broad, serrate ; genual seta on posterior 
margin of segment; other palpal setae simple; no teeth on palpal 
claw. Few tubercles or dorsum of rostrum ; peritreme simple, com- 
posed of four segments. Propodosomal shield without eyes ; 12 pairs 
of squamiform serrate setae on shield; 12 pairs of similar setae on 
hysterosomal shield. Genital-anal setae simple. Tip of tarsus I with 
two very long and a slightly shorter seta ; approximate and anterior 
to sensory seta is a long seta; sensory seta rodlike, about as long as 
tarsus. Tibia I with lanceolate serrate setae. Tarsus I, 36.6/x long; 
tibia I, 60ju, long. Squamiform serrate setae on coxa, femur, genu, 
and tibia of all legs. Length of body 253/x, including rostrum 316/^; 
width about 200/i. 

Type habitat. — On rose stems. 

Type locality. — Brownsville, Tex. 

ryjpe.— U.S.N.M. No. 1772. 

The type female, a paratype, and nymph were collected on rose 
stem, originating in Mexico, at Brownsville, Tex., December 27, 1946, 
by Edgeworth. Another specimen was collected on rat at Camp 
O'Reilly, Puerto Rico, September 7, 1945, by Irving Fox, and is in the 
collection at the School of Tropical Medicine, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 305 

Genus CHELETOGENES Oudemans 

Cheletogenes Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 21, p. 208, 1905. 
Type, Cheyletus ornatus Canestrini and Fanzago (monotypic). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHELETOGENES 

1. Palpal claw with teeth 2 

Palpal claw without teeth quadrisetosus Berlese 

2. Palpal claw not toothed along entire inner margin ; rostral pattern of areoli 

or tubercles 3 

Palpal claw with teeth along entire edge ; rostral shield pattern of 
striations ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago) 

3. Palpal femoral setae broadly clavate or squamiform; palpal tibial setae 

broadly clavate 4 

Palpal femoral setae strong, serrate, but not squamiform ; palpal tibial setae 
simple ; gnathosoma with areoli only buckneri, new species 

4. Dorsal shields with areoli ; palpal femur about as long as wide. 

oaklandia, new species 

Dorsal shields punctate and with large tubercles ; palpal femur longer 

than wide traubi, new species 

CHELETOGENES QUADRISETOSUS Berlese 

Cheletogenes quadrisetosus Berilese, Redia, vol. 9, p. 79, pi. 1, fig. 6, 1913. 

Type habitat. — Not given. 

Type locality. — ^Java. 

In the figure by Berlese tlie single pair of eyes are located dorsally, 
far in from the margin, and not in the usual marginal position between 
the second and third pair of setae. 

CHELETOGENES ORNATUS (Canestrini and Fanzago) 

Plate 14, Figures 117-119 

Cheyletus ornatus Canestrini and Fanzago, Att. Soc. Veneto-Trentina, 1876, 

p. 106. 
Cheyletus saccardianus Berlese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque in 

Italia, Prostigmata, fasc. 32, No. 2, 1886. 
Cheletia ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 

1, fasc. 154, 1904. 
Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., 

vol, 1, fasc. 21, p. 208, 1905 ; M^m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 153-159, figs, 

40, 41, 1906.— Womerslet, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia, vol. 66, No. 1, p, 

85, fig. 2, 1942— McGregor, California Citrograph, vol, 30, No, 2, p. 53, illus., 

1944. 
Cheyletus cocciphilus Banks, Journ. Ent. and Zool., vol, 6, p, 56, fig. 10, 1914 

( new synonymy ) . 

Female. — A small round mite with short broad rostrum and palpi. 
Femur of palpus strongly swollen on outer margin; femoral and 
genual setae squamiform, serrate ; genual seta on posterior margin of 
segment ; palpal claw of medium size, curved, with many teeth along 
entire inner margin; outer comb about same length as claw, stout; 
inner comb about same length as outer but finer; both combs with 



306 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSETIM vol.99 

many teeth. Rostrum broad, covered with a peculiary striated shield 
as figured; peritreme composed of sausagelike segments. Anterior 
shield covering most of propodosoma, covered with large rounded 
tubercles. Single pair of eyes ; four pairs of squamif orm serrate mar- 
ginal setae and three pairs of similar dorsal submedian setae; single 
pair of shoulder setae. Hysterosomal shield not touching anterior 
shield, small, covering about one-half of anterior part of hysterosoma ; 
tuberculate, with one pair of anteriomarginal setae and one pair of 
dorsal submedian setae. Three pairs of setae off lateral margin of 
shield on hysterosoma and four pairs behind shield ; hysterosoma with 
sinuous irregular striations. Anal and genital setae simple. Legs 
short, I and IV about 133/x long. Tarsus I, 23/^ long; tibia I, 36.5/i 
long; tarsus I with two long terminal setae and a short rodlike sensory 
seta which is about one-half as long as tarsus; tibia I with a short 
minute clavate sensory seta and four squamif orm serrate setae. Length 
of body 246/A, including rostrum 320/a ; width about 213/x. 

HI ale. —QimilnY to female but with large rodlike sensory setae on 
tarsi III and IV. Length of body IGT/^i, including rostrum 213/x; 
width 120/x. 

Type habitat. — On plants. 

2'i/pe locality. — Italy. 

The above description is based on specimens collected by A. M. 
Boyce in lemon buds with Aceria sheldoni (Ewing) at Santa Paula, 
Calif., July 30, 1937. United States National Museum records are 
Italy, China, Hawaiian Islands, West Indies, and Florida, Louisiana, 
and California in the United States. Womersley (1942) records it 
from Australia. It is usually found associated with scale insects or 
with eriophyid mites on which it preys, and McGregor has reported 
it predaceous on Tarsonemus haheri Ewing in California. The mite 
referred to in an article by Boyce and Korsmeier ( Journ. Econ. Ent., 
vol. 34, No. 6, p. 754, 1942) as Gheletomimus ornatus Berlese is actu- 
ally Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago). 

CHELETOGENES OAKLANDIA. new species 

PiATE 15, Figures 120-122 

Female. — Small mite, more elongated than Cheletogenes ornatus^ 
with narrow rostrum. Femur of palpus short, broad, swollen on 
outer margin, with broadly squamiform dorsal seta and two simple 
ventral setae, the lateral seta missing; genu with broadly squamiform 
serrate seta on posterior margin; other palpal setae simple; palpal 
claw toothed for about two-thirds of its length, with 11 teeth ; outer 
palpal comb large, with about 20 teeth; inner comb small, about one- 
half as long as outer, with about same number of teeth. Rostrum 
long, narrow, covered with a very characteristic shield, which is 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 307 

tuberculate in front of the peritreme and behind the peritreme has 
longitudinally directed areoli as figured. Propodosomatic shield with 
longitudinal pattern similar to that of the posterior portion of rostral 
shield. Single pair of eyes. Laterad to shield are coarse striations 
with large tubercles; shield with four pairs of squamiform serrate 
marginal setae and two pairs of similar dorsal submedian setae. A 
shoulder seta, longer and narrower than the dorsal setae, is present. 
Hysterosomal shield of same pattern as anterior shield but much 
narrower ; five pairs of marginal setae and three pairs of dorsal sub- 
median setae which are squamiform, serrate. One pair of anal setae 
are squamiform and the other anal and genital setae are simple. Legs 
short, leg I about 166|a long; tarsus I, 48ju, long; tibia I, 34/i, long; 
tarsus I with two long and two short terminal setae and two very 
minute distal setae, a long rodlike sensory organ and a simple ventral 
seta of medium length ; tibia I Avith a short, slightly clavate sensory 
seta, three squamiform serrate setae, and one simple and one serrate 
ventral seta. Length of body 300/^, including rostrum 393/*; width 
200/1. 

Type habitat. — In fig buds. 

Type locality. — Oakland, Calif. 

ryit?^.— U.S.N.M. No. 1773. 

The type and two paratype females (on the same slide) were col- 
lected January 12, 1938, by E. W. Baker. 

This species differs from Gheletogenes quadrisetosus Berlese in 
having squamiform setae on tibia I and in having teeth on the palpal 
claws. The rostral shield pattern is also distinctive. 

GHELETOGENES TRAUBI, new species 

Plate 17, Figures 145-148 

Female. — Medium-sized mite, somewhat elongated, with narrow 
rostrum. Femur of palpus li/^ times as long as wide, with a dorsal 
squamiform seta and 2 simple ventral setae, the lateral seta missing; 
genu with a squamiform seta on posterior margin ; palpal claw with 
8 basal teeth ; outer comb with about 20 teeth ; inner comb about two- 
thirds as long and with about 17 teeth. Rostrum long, narrow, widen- 
ing toward rear; rostral shield tuberculate on anterior portion and 
with a few longitudinal areoli on posterior portion. Peritreme simple, 
composed of four pairs of long segments. Propodosomatic shield 
large, widening to rear with a single pair of eyes and four pairs of 
squamiform marginal setae. Hysterosomal shield large, touching 
propodosomal shield, with five pairs of squamiform marginal setae. 
Both shields covered with a pattern composed of minute and large 
tubercles as figured. Genital and anal setae simple except for a single 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

posterior pair of squamiform setae. Legs relatively long, about 260jt* 
in length. Tarsus I, 4:7 fi long; tibia I, 60/i long; tarsus similar to 
that of Cheletogenes oaklandla; tibia, however, with onl}' a single 
squamiform seta. Length of boch^ 3GG/n, including rostrum 533^; 
width about 260/x. 

Type hahitat. — Crawling in tent. 

Type locality. — Assam, Stillwell Eoad, near Ledo at 12.4-mile mark. 

ry;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1778. 

The single female was collected by members of the United States 
of America Typhus Commission in 1945. 

The dorsal shields and palpi distinguish this species from others in 
the genus. 

CHELETOGENES BUCKNERI, new species 

Plate 15, Figures 123-125 

Female. — Medium-sized mite, somewhat elongated, with narrow 
rostrum. Femur of palpus II/2 times as long as wide, with a dorsal, 
slightly broadened serrate seta and 2 simple ventral setae, the lateral 
seta missing; genu with a simple dorsal seta on posterior margin; 
palpal claw with 6 basal teeth ; outer comb broad, with 12 teeth ; inner 
comb about one-half as long as outer comb, with about 9 small teeth. 
Rostrum widening toward rear ; rostral shield outline indistinct, with 
a pattern of longitudinally lined areoli; peritreme simple, composed 
of long slender segments. Propodosomatic shield rounded, narrowing 
toward rear, with a single pair of eyes, and five pairs of squamiform 
serrate marginal setae ; inside shoulder setae is another pair of setae. 
Hj^sterosomal shield in center of hysterosoma, rounded anteriorly, and 
slightly pointed toward rear, with two pairs of marginal setae; six 
other pairs of dorsal setae on body off shield as figured. Both shields 
with areoli. Anal and genital setae simple. Legs short, I and IV 
166/t long. Tarsus I, 45/a long; tibia I, 37ja long; tarsus similar to 
that of Cheletogenes oaklandia., but sensory seta shorter, guard seta 
simple, short; tibia with rodlike sensory seta and four simple setae of 
medium length. Length of body 320/*, including rostrum 413ju, ; width 
200/A. 

Type hahitat. — On lemon fruits. 

Type locality. — Santa Paula, Calif. 

Type.—V.^.'^.U. No. 1774. 

The type was collected under the button of a lemon fruit, February 
23, 1939, by E. W. Baker; paratype with same data but collected 
March 25, 1939. Anotlier paratype collected on same host and locality 
October 29, 1938, by W. E. Buckner. 

The shields, mouth parts, and tarsal-tibial setal arrangements are 
distinctive. The tibia I setae are simple, rather than narrowly clavate 
as in Cheletogenes quadrisetosus Berlese. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 309 

The mite was found associated with the citrus bud mite, Aceria 
sheldoni (Ewing), and is probably predaceous on that species. 

Genus CHELETOPSIS Oudemans 

Cheletopsis Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 163, 1904. 
Type, Cheyhtits norneri Poppe (original designation) . 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHELETOPSIS * 

1. Propodosomatic shield trapezoidal with straight rear edge ; the 3 pairs of setae 

are outside the shield 2 

Propodosomatic shield usually oval, with strongly rounded posterior margin ; 
the 3 paii's of setae on the shield major Oudemans 

2. Body very long, narrow ; legs longer than body is broad 8 

Body at most twice as long as broad ; legs shorter than width of body. 

anax Oudemans 

3. The 2 pairs of anterior marginal shield setae of equal length 4 

The inner anterior and posterior pairs of marginal setae of shields short, of 

equal length ; the outer anterior pair about 3 times as long as inner and 
posterior pairs impavida Oudemans 

4. Propodosomatic shield at most lYz times as long as wide; the lateral dorsal 

setae over trochanter III long 5 

Propodosomatic shield at least twice as long as wide; the lateral dorsal 
setae over trochanter III short 6 

5. The lateral dorsal setae over trochanter IV short, about as long as trochanter. 

norneri (Poppe) 
The lateral dorsal setae over trochanter IV long, twice as long as trochanter. 

basilica Oudemans 

6. Claw of palpus with 2 basal teeth animosa Oudemans 

Claw of palpus with 1 basal tooth magnanima Oudemans 

CHELETOPSIS MAJOR Oudemans 

Cheyletus major Trouessabt, in Berlese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque 

in Italia, Prostigmata, pp. 74-75, 1893 {nomen nudum). 
Cheletopsis major Oihjemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 163, 1904 ; 

Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 200-204, fig. 62, 1906. 

Type habitat. — On Hemiprocne mystacea {^Dendrochelidon mys- 
tacea). 

Type locality. — New Guinea. 

CHELETOPSIS ANAX Oudemans 

Cheletopsis anax Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 19, p. 170, 1904 ; 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 195-200, figs. 59-01, 1906. 

Type habitat. — In shafts of wing feathers of Crocethia alba ( = To- 
tanus calidris) . 

Type locality. — France. 

* None of these species is represented in the National Museum. 



310 PROCEEDmCS OF THE NATIONAL MUSETJM vol. 99 

CHELETOPSIS IMPAVIDA Oademans 

Chcletopsis impavida Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 19, p. 170, 
1904 ; M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 175-180, fig. 48, 1906. 

Type habitat. — In shafts of wing feathers of Crocethia alba ( = To- 
tanus calidris) , and also free living. 
Type locality. — France. 

CHELETOPSIS NORNERI (Poppe) 

Cheyletus norneri Poppe, Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremeu, vol. 10, p. 239, pi. 2, figs. 4, 

5, 1888. 
Chcletopsis norneri (Poppe) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 19, 

p. 170, 1904 ; Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 180-186, figs. 52-54, 1906. 

Type habitat. — In shafts of tail feathers of Sterna hinmdo. 
Type locality. — France. 

CHELETOPSIS BASILICA Oudemans 

Cheletopsis basilica Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 19, p. 170, 1904 ; 
M§m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 186-189, fig. 55, 1906. 

Type habitat. — In shafts of feathers of Crocethia alba ( = Totarms 
calidris) . 

Type locality. — France. 

CHELETOPSIS ANIMOSA Oudemans 

Chcletopsis animosa Oitdemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 19, p. 170, 1904; 
Mem Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 189-193, figs. 56, 57, 190G. 

Type habitat. — In wing-feather shafts of Tringa totanus ( = Totanus 
tot anus). 

Type locality. — France. 

CHELETOPSIS MAGNANIMA Oudemans 

Cheletopsis magnanhna Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 19, p. 170, 
1904 ; M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 193-195, fig. 58, 1906. 

Type habitat. — On Tringa ilavipes ( = Gambetta f.avipes)., probably 
in shafts of the large feathers. 

Type locality. — Angers, France. Material collected on bird skin 
in museum. 

Genus CHELONOTUS Berlese 

Chelonotus Beulese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque in Italia reperta, 

Prostigmata, p. 73, 1893. 
Chelonotus Tkouessabt, Oademans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 158, 159, 

1900. 

Type, Chelonotus selenirhynchus Berlese (monotypic). 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 311 

The original description is based on a key to the genera by Berlese. 
Although he credits the genus and species to Trouessart, who sent 
him specimens, the description and figure are actually by Berlese, 
who is here established as the author. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CHELONOTUS 

1. Gnathosoma not covered by propodosoma ; coxae II and III not touching— 2 
Gnathosoma covered by propodosoma ; coxae I, II, III, and IV contiguous. 

oudemansi, new species 

2. Rostrum sharp, conical; palpal comb slender, with 10 teeth; peritreme com- 

posed of 17 pairs of segments ewingi, new species 

Rostrum blunt, not conical ; palpal comb short, broad, with 5 teeth ; peritreme 
composed of 9 pairs of segments selenirhynchus Berlese 

CHELONOTUS OUDEMANSI, new species 

Plate 15, Figures 126, 127 

Female. — ^ISiedium-sized mite, blunt on anterior end, and sharply 
narrowing to rear. Gnathosoma entirely covered by propodosoma. 
Palpal segments short, broad ; femur broader than long, with simple 
seta ; genu with simple seta on posterior margin ; palpal claw with a 
single basal tooth about two-thirds as long as claw; palpal comb 
slender, with 11 teeth ; sensory ogran on palpal thumb short, lanceo- 
late. Peritreme made of approximately eight pairs of large segments. 
Dorsal body setae long, simple, as figured for C. ewingi, new species. 
Tarsus I 84/i long, tibia I 50/x long ; tarsus I with a long sensory rod- 
like seta ; guard seta, if present, not seen. Coxae I, II, III, and IV 
contiguous. Length of body 585 fi; width 328/t. 

Type host. — Baginia tenuis evidens Miller and Hollister (squirrel). 

Type locality. — Pulosembeh, Celebes. 

7^2/^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 1775. 

The single female was taken from a squirrel received from the 
Celebes by the United States National Museum. 

The covered rostrum and arrangement of the coxae distinguish this 
species from the others in the genus. 

CHELONOTUS EWINGI, new species 

Plate 15, Figuees 128-130 

Female. — Elongated mite ; body narrowing rapidly anteriorly and 
posteriorly; rostrum almost triangular; palpi short and swollen. 
Femur of palpus large, swollen, about as long as wide, dorsal and 
ventral setae simple; other palpal setae simple; palpal claw large with 
a single large basal tooth ; a single coarse palpal comb with 10 teeth 
and a short, broad, lanceolate sensory organ on palpal tarsus. Peri- 
treme distinctive, as figured. Dorsal body setae long, simple, discern- 
ible only on lateral margins of body ; three pairs of setae on propodoso- 



312 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

matic shield and four pairs on hysterosomal sliield ; shields contiguous 
on dorsum and covering part of venter. Ventral setae long, simple. 
Legs not long in proportion to body ; leg setae simple ; tarsus I with 
sensory seta missing (broken), but otherwise as figured for G. oude- 
mansi, new species; tibia I with a very short rodlike sensory seta. 
Coxae I-II and III-IV separated into two gi'oups. Length of body 
628/A, including rostrum 743/x ; width 328|ii. 

Type host. — Callosciuriis prevostii nibiventer Miiller and Schlegel. 

Type locality. — Temboan, Celebes. 

The type, U.S.N.M. No. 1776, was collected on a squirrel from the 
Celebes in the collection of the United States National Museum. No 
other data given. 

The gnathosomal characters distinguish this species from Chelonotus 
selenirhynchus. 

CHELONOTUS SELENIRHYNCHUS Berlesc, new author combination 

Chelonotus seleniriiynchus Beelese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones hucusque in 

Italia, Prostigmata, p. 77, pi. 1, fig. 6, 1893. 
Chelonotus selenirhynchtis Trouessart, Oudemans, M6m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 

19, pp. 159-162, fig. 42, 1906. 

Type host. — Baginia tenuis lowii Thomas {=Sciurics lowii). 
Type locality. — Borneo. 

Since the original description is by Berlese and not by Trouessart, 
Berlese is here established as the author. 

Genus ACAROPSIS Moquin-Tandon 

Acaropsis Moquin-Tandon, filaments de zoologie medicale . . ., p. 314, 1863. 
Type, Tyroglyphus mericourti Laboulbene, 1851 (monotypic). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF ACAROPSIS 

1. Dorsal setae pilose 2 

Dorsal setae smooth mericourti (Laboulbene) 

2. Palpal claw with a single tooth 3 

Palpal claw with more than 1 tooth 4 

3. Male : Palpi very long, palpal femur 4 times as long as wide ; anterior shield 

very broad, even with width of body; posterior shield shorter and narrower 

than anterior and with 2 pairs of marginal setae sellers Kuzin 

Male: Palpi and palpal claw long, with a single tarsal tooth; 9 pairs of 
dorsal setae rufus (Karpelles) 

4. With not more than 4 teeth on palpal claw 6 

With more than 6 teeth on palpal claw 5 

5. Palpal claw with 6 teeth ; anterior shield widening towai'd rear ; posterior shield 

covering most of abdomen ; dorsal setae clavate, serrate. 

kulagini Rodendorf 
Palpal claw with 8 teeth ; anterior shield wider anteriorly than posteriorly ; 
posterior shield minute; dorsal setae lanceolate, serrate. 

travisij new species 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 313 

6. Palpal femur li/^ to 1% as long as wide ; palpal claws with 2 or 3 teeth. 

docta Berlese 
Palpal femur more than twice as long as wide ; palpal claw with 3 or 4 teeth. 

callida Kuzin 

ACAROPSIS MERICOURTI (Laboulbene) 

Tyroglyplius mericourti Laboulbene, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ser. 2, vol. 9, p. 302, 

pi. 9, fig. 4, 1851. 
Acaropsis pectinata (Laboulbene) Moquin-Tandon, Elements de zoologie 

medicale . . . , p. 314, 1863. 
Acaropsis mericourti (Laboulbene) Oxjdemans, Mtoi. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, 

p. 163, 1906. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Newfoundland, Canada. 

ACAROPSIS KULAGINI Rodendorf 

Acaropsis kulagini Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, 
p. 78, 1940. 

Type habitat. — In Indian-corn grain. 

Type locality. — Stavropolsk and Blagodarnoe, Union of Soviet 
Socialist Republics. 

ACAROPSIS TRAVISI, new species 

Plate 16, Figubes 131-135 

Female. — Palpi and rostrum long; palpal femur about lYn times as 
long as broad, outer margin swollen and inner margin more or less 
straight ; palpal setae simple ; genual seta on posterior margin of seg- 
ment ; apparently 8 basal teeth on palpal claw ; palpal comb about two- 
thirds as long as claw, with about 14 long teeth. Peritreme of strong 
segments as figured. Single pair of eyes ; dorsal setae short, lanceolate, 
serrate. Propodosomal shield hard to distinguish, wider anteriorly 
than posteriorly, longer than wide, with five pairs of marginal setae, 
three pairs in the anterior corners and two pairs in the posterior 
corners. A pair of very long shoulder setae about 100/^ long, and 
anterior to these a pair of short setae. Hysterosomal shield very small, 
hard to distinguish, without setae but with setae near the anterior and 
posterior margins as figured ; other dorsal hysterosomal setae arranged 
as figured. Genital area with two pairs of simple setae; three pairs 
of anal setae. Legs normal, leg I about 200/^ long ; leg IV about IQQfi 
long; leg setae similar to body setae; tarsus I, 73/x long, tibia I, 33/ut 
long ; tarsus sensory seta long, rodlike, guard seta minute ; tibia with 
short, slightly clavate sensory seta, other setae simple. Length of body 
25Sfi, including rostrum 386/x; width 153/*. 

Type host. — Sceloporus looodi. 

Type locality. — Newton, Ga. 

ry^e— U.S.N.M. No. 1776. 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUjSI vol. 99 

Described from the type collected September 1, 1937, by B. V. 
Travis. A paratype mite is on the same slide. 

ACAROPSIS SOLLERS Knzin 

Acaropsis sollers Kuzm, in Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., 
vol. 42, pp. 78, 79, 1940. 

Type habitat. — Unknown. 

Type locality. — Leningrad, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

ACAROPSIS RUFUS (Karpelles) 

Cheyletus rufus Karpelles, Deiiin. Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 28, p. 231, figs. 104, 1884. 
Acaropsis riifa (Karpelles) Oudemans, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 163, 
1906. 

Type hahitat. — Associated with Coleoptera. 
Type locality. — Congo region of central Africa. 

ACAROPSIS DOCTA (Bcrlese) 

Plate 16, Figuees 136-139 

Cheyletus docta Beelese, Acari, Myriapoda et Scorpiones bucusque in Italia 
reperta, Prostigmata, fasc. 33, No. 1, 1886. 

Acaropsis docta (Berlese) Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 21, p. 
209, 1905 (1904) ; I\I§m. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 163-168, figs. 43, 44, 
1906.— ViTzTHUM, Die Tierwelt Mitteleuropas, vol. 3, No. 3, p. 55, 1929. — 
RODENDOBF, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool., vol. 42, pp. 80, 81, 1940. 

Female. — Palpal femur about I14 to 1% as long as wdde; palpal 
femur seta long, finely pilose; other setae simple; genual seta on 
posterior margin of segment; palpal claw thin, with 3 basal teeth; 
comb about two-thirds as long as claw, with about 15 heavy teeth. 
Peritreme simple, rounded. Propodosomatic shield with single pair 
of eyes; setae broadening distally, elongate, pilose, three pairs on 
anterolateral margin of shield, four pairs of dorsal submedian setae; 
a pair of long simple shoulder seta not on shield. Hysterosomal shield 
widely separated from anterior shield, longer than wide and broadly 
rounded posteriorly, tending to narrow somewhat toward rear; two 
pairs of lateral lanceolate setae and four pairs of similar dorsal sub- 
median setae ; a single pair of setae posterior to the shield ; a single 
pair of setae on body near anterior angles of shield. Genital opening 
w^ith three pairs of simple setae, one median and two posterior ; three 
pairs of simple anal setae. Legs normal ; leg I, 333/i, long ; tarsus I, 
90/x long; tibia I, 73;a long; tarsus I with a simple, long, straight, rod- 
like sensory seta; sensory seta on tibia I short, rodlike. Length of 
body 57lfi, including rostrum 714ju, ; width about 385/i.. 

Male. — Not seen, but as figured by Rodendorf very similar to female 
but with long anterior pair of legs and larger anterior shield. 

Type hahitat. — In building. 

Type locality, — Florence, Italy. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 6 




Species of Cheyletiella and neocheyletiella. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 316. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 7 




Species of Cheyletus. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 316. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOU 99 PLATES 




SPECIES OF CHEYLETUS. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 317. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99. PLATE 9 




SPECIES OF CHEYLETUS AND CH ELETOPH YES. 
FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 317. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 10 




SPECIES OF CHELETOPHYES AND EUCHEYLA. 
FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 317. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL 99 PLATE II 




Species of Eucheyla. Cheletomimus. and Eucheyletia. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 317. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 12 




SPECIES OF EUCHEYLETIA AND CHEYLETIA. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 318. 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL 99 PLATE 13 




Species of Cheyletia and Cheletomorpha. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 318. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 14 




Species of Cheletomorpha, Eutogenes. and Cheletogenes. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 318. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 15 




Species of Cheletogenes and Chelonotus. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 318. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL 99 PLATE 16 




Species of Acaropsis and Eucheyletia. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGES 318-319. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL 99 PLATE 17 




Species of Cheletogenes and Chelacaropsis. 

FOR EXPLANATION SEE PAGE 319. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 315 

This appears to be a cosmopolitan species. The specimens in the 
United States National Museum collection were taken on wheat at 
Chambersburg, Pa., November 14, 1930, by J. O. Chambers. 

ACAROPSIS CALLIDA Kuzin 

Acaropsis callida Kuzin, in Rodendorf, Wiss. Ber. Moskauer Staats Univ. Zool,, 
vol. 42, pp. 79, 80, 1940. 

Type habitat. — In grain infested with mites. 

Type locality. — Rostov on Don, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 

Genus CHELETOSOMA Oudemans 

Cheletosoma Oudemans, Eut. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 21, p. 207, 1905 
(1904). 

Type, Cheletosoma tyrannus Oudemans (monotypic). 

CHELETOSOMA TYRANNUS Oudemans 

Cheletosoma tyrannus Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 21, p. 207. 
1905 (1904) ; Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, pp. 168-174, 1906. 

Type hahitat.— In shafts of wing feathers of Aramus guaraunu 
{= A. scolopaceus) . 
Type locality. — ^"Tropical America." 

CHELACAROPSIS, new genus 

Palpal tarsus possessing only one comblike seta and two sicklelike 
setae; a pair of eyes present on propodosoma; dorsal body setae 
broadly clavate-serrate ; no dorsal shields. 

Type, C helacaropsis moorei^ new species. 

This genus, erected to include a male and female cheyletid, is related 
to the genus Acaropsis., but differs in having no indication of dorsal 
shields and in having broadly clavate-serrate dorsal body setae. 

CHELACAROPSIS MOOREI, new species 

Plate 17, Figures 149-154 

Female. — Small mite with narrow body and rostrum. Palpi elon- 
gate, femur ahnost twice as long as wide, the dorsal seta simple, ser- 
rate ; other palpal setae simple ; palpal claw long, narrow, with 3 basal 
teeth ; palpal tarsus with 2 sicklelike setae and only 1 comblike seta 
which possesses 13 short teeth. Pattern on dorsum of rostrum com- 
posed of longitudinal striations; peritreme simple, possessing seven 
pairs of segments. No dorsal shields or indications of shields ; stria- 
tions on anterior portion of propodosoma and hysterosoma longitu- 
dinal striations on posterior portions transverse. A pair of lateral 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

eyes. Dorsal setae broadly squamiform, serrate, six pairs on propodo- 
soma and eight pairs on hysterosoma. Leg I about 230/t long ; femur 
of all legs with a dorsal squamiform serrate seta similar to those on 
dorsum of mite. Tarsus I, 24/x long; tibia I, 52/x long; sensory seta of 
tarsus I almost half as long as tarsus; guard seta, if present, not seen. 
Length of body 300/t, including rostrum 407)a; approximate width 
ISG/x. 

Male. — Similar to female. Palpi elongate; femur about twice as 
long as wide, dorsal seta simple, serrate ; ventral seta appears to be on 
large tubercle; other palpi setae simple; palpal claw with 4 basal 
teeth; venter of rostrum with a series of about 11 teeth jutting out 
beneath base of palpus. Peritreme with seven pairs of segments; 
dorsal pattern between peritreme composed of longitudinal striations. 
Body setae and striations more or less as in female; seven pairs of 
setae on propodosoma and six pairs on hysterosoma. Leg I about 213/x 
long ; femur of all legs with squamif orm-serrate seta. Tarsus I, 67/i 
long; tibia I, 47/a long; sensory seta on tarsus I slightly more than half 
as long as tarsus; guard seta, if present, not seen. Length of body 
233/x, including rostrum 400/i ; width 140/x. 

Type habitat. — Found on Glaucomys volans querceti (Bangs). 

Type locality. — Welaka, Fla. 

Type.—U.^kM. No. 1777. 

The single type female and allotype male were collected by S. C. 
Moore, August 16, 1946. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 
Plate 6 

1-3. Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Megnin) : 1, Gnathosoma, female; 2, tarsus 
and tibia I, female ; 3, dorsal view of body, female. 

4,5. Neocheyletiella canadensis (Banks) : 4, Dorsal view of body, female; 5, 
tarsus I, female. 

6)-9. Neocheyletiella smallwoodae, new species : 6, Guatbosoma, female ; 7, 
tarsus and tibia I, female ; 8, dorsal view of body, male ; 9, dorsal view of 
body, female. 
10. Neocheyletiella rohweri, new species : 10, Dorsal view of body, female. 
11-13. Neocheyletiella chanayi (Berlese and Trouessart) : 11, Gnathosoma, fe- 
male ; 12, dorsal view of body, female ; 13, tarsus and tibia I, female. 

Plate 7 

14-16. Clieyletus eruditus (Schrank) : 14, Gnathosoma, female; 15, dorsal view 

of body, female ; IG, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
17-19. Cheyletus hendersoni, new species: 17, Gnathosoma, female; 18, dorsal 

view of body, female ; 19, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
20-22. Cheyletns doddi, new species: 20, Gnathosoma, female; 21, dorsal view 

of body, female ; 22, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
23-25. Cheyletus fortis Oudemans : 23, Gnathosoma, female; 24, dorsal view of 

body, female ; 24A, dorsal body seta ; 25, tarsus and tibia I, female. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 317 

Plate 8 

26-29 CheyleUis UnsdaJel, new species: 26, Gnathosoma, female; 27, palpal 
claw variations in female ; 28, dorsal view of body, female ; 29, tarsus 
and tibia I, female. 

30-34. Cheyletus cacahuamilpensis, new species: 30, Gnathosoma, female; 30A 
palpal claw, female ; 31. dorsal body seta, female ; 32, dorsal view of 
body, female ; 33, genital-anal region, female ; 34, tarsus and tibia I, 
female. 

35-38. Cheyletus ieauchampi, new species: 35, Gnathosoma, female; 35A, pal- 
pal claw, female ; 36, dorsal body seta, female ; 37, dorsal view of body, 
female ; 38, tarsus and tibia I, female. 

39^2. Cheyletus davisi, new species: 39, Gnathosoma, female; 39A, palpal 
claw of female ; 40, anterior corner of propodosomatic shield, female ; 
41, dorsal view of body, female ; 42, tarsus and tibia I, female. 

PLATE 9 

43-49. Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans : 43, Gnathosoma, female; 44, dorsal 
view of body, female; 44A, dorsal body seta, female; 45, tarsus and 
tibia I, female ; 46, gnathosoma, male ; 47, dorsal view of body, male ; 
48, detail of genital region, male ; 49, tarsus and tibia I, male. 

50-54. Cheletophyes philippinensis, new species: 50, Gnathosoma, female; 51, 
dorsal palpal seta, female ; 52, dorsal view of body, female ; 53, genital- 
anal region, female ; 54, tarsus and tibia I, female. 

Plate 10 

55-59. Cheletophyes hawaiiensis, new species: 55, Gnathosoma, female; 56, 
dorsal seta of palpus, female; 57, dorsal view of body, female; 58, 
tarsus and tibia I, female ; 59, nymph. 

60-64. Cheletophyes marshalli, new species : 60, Gnathosoma, female ; 61, dorsal 
view of body, female; 62, dorsal marginal body seta, female; 63, 
dorsal submedian seta, female; 64, tarsus and tibia I, female. 

65-68. Euchcyla panamensis, new species: 65, Gnathosoma, female; 66, dorsal 
view of body, female; 67, detail of reticulation, female; 68, tarsus 
and tibia I, female. 

Plate 11 

69-71. Euchcyla whartoni, new species: 69, Dorsal view of body, female; 70, 

detail of dorsal reticulation, female; 71, tarsus, tibia and genu of 

leg I, female. 
72-75. Cheletomimus lerlesei (Oudemans) : 72, Gnathosoma, female; 73, dorsal 

view of body, female; 74, dorsal body setae, female; 75, tarsus and 

tibia I, female. 
76-79. Eucheyletia harpyia (Rodendorf) : 76, Gnathosoma, female; 7", dorsal 

view of body, female ; 78, tarsus and tibia I, female ; 79, genital-anal 

region, female. 
80-82. Eucheyletia bishoppi, new .species : 80, Gnathosoma, female ; 81, palpal 

combs, female ; 82, genital-anal region, female. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.89 

Plate 12 

83-88. Eucheyletia iishoppi, new siiecies : 83, Dorsal view of body, female ; 84, 
tarsus and tibia I, female; 85, tarsus and tibia III, female; 86, 
gnatliosoma, male ; 87, dorsal view of body, male ; 88, tarsus and tibia 
I, male. 

89-&4. Chcyletia pi/riformis (Banks) : 89, Gnathosoma, female; 90, dorsal view 
of body, female; 91, tarsus and tibia I, female; 92, gnathosoma, male; 
93, dorsal view of body, male ; 94, tarsus and tibia I, male. 

Plate 13 

95-98. Chcyletia virginiensis, new species: 95 Gnathosoma, female; 96, dorsal 

view of body, female; 97, dorsal body seta, female; 98, tarsus and 

tibia I, female. 
99-102. Chcyletia tcelisi, new species : 99, Gnathosoma, female; 100, dorsal view 

of body, female; 101, tarsus and tibia I, female; 102, genital-anal 

region, female. 
103-105. Chcyletia squamosa (Degeer) : 103, Gnathosoma, female; 104, dorsal 

view of body, female ; 105, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
106-107. Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum (Shaw) : 106, Gnathosoma, female; 107, 

tarsus and tibia I, female. 

Plate 14 

108-112. Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum (Shaw) : 108, Dorsal view of body, fe- 
male; 109, gnathosoma, male; 110, dorsal view of body, male; 111, 
tarsus and tibia I, male ; 112, dorsal submedian seta, male. 

113-116. Eutogenes foxi, new species: 113, Gnathosoma, female; 114, dorsal view 
of body, female ; 115, genital-anal region, female ; 116, tarsus and tibia 
I, female. 

117-119. Cheletogenes ornatus (Canestrini and Fanzago) : 117, Gnathosoma, 
female; 118, dorsal view of body, female; 119, tarsus and tibia I, 
female. 

Plate 15 

120-122. Cheletogenes oaklandia, new species: 120, Gnathosoma, female; 121, 

dorsal view of body, female ; 122, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
123-125. Cheletogenes huckneri, new species: 123, Gnathosoma, female; 124, 

dorsal view of body, female ; 125, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
126,127. Chelonotus oudemansi, new species: 126, Ventral view of body, female; 

127, tarsus and tibia I, female. 
128-130. Chelonotus ewingi, new species: 128, Dorsal view of body, female; 129, 

ventral view of body, female ; 130, detail of gnathosoma, female. 

Plate 16 

131-135. Acaropsis travisi, new species: 131, Gnathosoma, female; 132, dorsal 
view of body, female; 133, palpal comb, female; 134, tarsus and tibia 
I, female; 135, detail of anterolateral margin of propodosomatic 
shield. 

136-139. Acaropsis docta (Berlese) : 130, Gnathosoma, female; 137, dorsal view 
of body, female; 138, palpal comb, female; 139, tarsus and tibia I, 
female. 



MITES OF FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE — BAKER 



319 



140-144. Euclieyletia hardyi, new species: 140, Gnathosoma, female; 141, dorsal 
view of body, female ; 142, tarsus and tibia I, female ; 143, tarsus and 
tibia III, female ; 144, genital-anal region, female. 

Plate 17 

145-148. Cheletogenes trauM, new species : 145, Gnathosoma, female ; 146, dorsal 
view of body, female ; 147, genital-anal region, female ; 148, tarsus and 
tibia I, female. 

149-154. Chelacaropsis moorei, new species : 149, Gnathosoma, female ; 150, dorsal 
view of body, female; 151, tarsus and tibia I, female; 152, ventral 
view of gnathosoma, male ; 153, dorsal view of body, male ; 154, tarsus 
and tibia I, male. 



The following two species were inadvertently omitted from the 
general text : 

Cheyletus parumsetosus Kakpelles, Berlin. Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 28, fasc. 2, pp. 232, 
1'38, 18S4. — OuDEMANS, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 81, 1906. 

Cheyletus promptus Oudemans, Ent. Ber. Nederl. Ver., vol. 1, fasc. 18, p. 161, 
1904 ; Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 19, p. 81, 1906. 



INDEX TO GENERA AND SPECIES 

(Synonyms are printed in italics) 



Acaropsis, 267, 269, 312 
acer, Cheyletus, 277, 286 
alacer, Cheyletus, 277, 285 
americana E\Ying, Pseudocheylus, 271 
americana Vail and Augustson, Chey- 

letiella, 270 
Amorphacarus, 267 
anax, Cheletopsis, 309 
animosa, Cheletopsis, 309, 310 
audax, Cheyletus, 277, 285 
aversor, Cheyletus, 276, 283 

basilica, Cheletopsis, 309, 310 
beauchampi, Cheyletus, 276, 282 
berlesei, Cheletomimus, 293 
bishoppi, Eucheyletia, 294, 295 
buckneri, Cheletogenes, 305, 308 
burmiticus, Cheyletus, 287 
butleri, Cheyletus, 276 

cacahuamilpensis, Cheyletus, 268, 276, 

282 
Caenocheyletes, 269 
callida, Acaropsis, 313, 315 
canadensis, Neocheyletiella, 271, 272 
cancriformis, Cheyletus, 275, 278 
carnifex, Cheyletus, 277, 286 
chanayi, Neocheyletiella, 271, 274 
Chelacaropsis, 267, 269, 315 
Cheletes, 275 



Cheletia, 297 
Cheletiella, 270 
Cheletogenes, 267, 269, 305 
Cheletoides, 267, 269, 275 
Cheletomimus, 267, 269, 293 
Cheletomorpha, 267, 269, 302 
Cheletonella, 267, 269, 292 
Cheletophanes, 267, 269, 303 
Cheletophyes, 267, 269, 287 
Cheletopsis, 267, 269, 309 
Cheletosoma, 267, 269, 315 
Ghelonotus, 267, 269, 310 
Cheyletia, 267, 269, 297 
Cheyletiella, 267, 269, 275 
Cheyletus, 267, 269, 275 
elavispinus, Cheyletus, 2S7 
cocciphilus, Cheletogenes, 305 

'lavisi, Cheyletus, 276, 283 
(locta, Acaropsis, 314 
doddi, Cheyletus, 276, 279 

eturneus, Cheyletus, 278 
eruditus, Cheyletus, 275, 276, 277, 278 
eruditus {femina monstrooa), Cheyle- 
tus, 280 
eruditus (protonymph), Cheyletus, 287 
Eucheyla, 267, 269, 291 
Eucheyletia, 267, 269, 294 
Eu tarsus, 275 



320 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Eutogenes, 267, 269, 304 

Eii-inyeUa, 270 

ferox Banks, Cheyletus, 278 

fcrox Ti-ouessart, Cheyletus, 277, 286 

flahelUfcra (male of Oudemans), Chey- 

letia, 298 
flabellifera (Michael), Eucheyletla, 295 
fortis, 276, 277, 280 
foxi, Eutogenes, 304 
franseni, Caenocheyletes, 269 
furibundus, Cheyletus, 278, 286 

hardyi, Eucheyletia, 294, 296 
harpyia, Eucheyletia, 294 
Haipvrhvnchus, 267 
hawaiiensis, Cheletophyes, 288, 289 
hendersoni, Cheyletus, 276, 279 
heteropalpus, Neocheyletiella, 271, 272 

inipavida, Cheletopsis, 309, 310 
intrepidus, Cheyletus, 277, 286 

kulagini, Acaropsis, 312, 313 

laureata, Cheyletia, 301 
lepidopterorum, Cheletomorpha, 302 
linsdalei, Cheyletus, 276, 281 
longipalpus, Cheyletia, 298 
longipes, Cheletomorpha, 302 
loricata, Eucheyla, 291 

macrocherus, Cheyletus, 280 
macronycha, Neocheyletiella, 271, 272 
magnanima, Cheletopsis, 309, 310 
major, Cheletopsis, 309 
malaccensis, Clieyletus, 277, 284 
marshalli, Cheletophyes, 288, 290 
mericourti, Acaropsis, 312, 313 
microrhyncha, Neocheyletiella, 271, 272 
montandoni, Cheletophanes, 303 
moorei, Chelacaropsis, 315 
munroi, Cheyletus, 276 
Myobia, 267 
Myobiinae, 267 

Neocheyletiella, 267, 269, 271 
nigripes, Cheyletus (Insecta), 287 
norneri, Cheletopsis, 309, 310 

oaklandia, Cheletogenes, 305, 306 
Ophioptes, 267 

orientalis, Cheletomorpha, 303 
ornatus (Berlese), Cheletomimus, 293 
ornatus (C. & F.), Cheletogenes, 305 
ornatus (C. & F.), Cheletomimus, 293 
oudemausi, Chelenotus, 311 



panamensis, Eucheyla, 291 
parasitivorax, Cheyletiella, 270 
parumsetosus, Cheyletus, 276, 319 
patagiatus, Cheyletus, 287 
pectinata, Acaropsis, 313 
peregrinus, Cheletophanes, 303, 304 
philippinensis, Cheletophyes, 288 
Picobia,267 

piuguis, Neocheyletiella, 271, 275 
praedabundus, Cheyletus, 278, 287 
promptus, Cheyletus, 276, 319 
Protoniyobia, 267 
Pseudocheylidae, 271 
Pseudocheylus, 271 
Psorei'gates, 2(57 
pyriformis, Cheyletia, 297, 298 

quadrisetosus, Cheletogenes, 305 

rabiosus, Cheyletus, 277, 286 
Radfordia, 267 
rapax, Cheyletus, 277, 284 
rohweri, Neocheyletiella, 271, 274 
rnfus Hardy, Cheletomorpha, 302 
rufus (Karpelles), Acaropsis, 312, 314 
rugosa, Cheletonella, 292 

saccardinnus, Cheletogenes, 305 
saevus, Cheyletus, 287 
schneideri, Cheyletus, 276, 281 
selenirhynchus, Chelonotus, 311, 312 
semenovi, Cheletophyes, 288, 29() 
seminivorus, Cheletomorpha, 278, 302 
smalhvoodae, Neocheyletiella, 271, 273 
sollers, Acaropsis, 312, 314 
squamosa, Cheyletia, 298, 301 
strenuus, Cheyletus, 276, 280 
Syringophilus, 267 

traubi, Cheletogenes, 305, 307 
travisi, Acaropsis, 312, 313 
trouessarti, Cheyletus, 276, 277, 280 
trnx Oudemans, Cheletomimus, 293 
trux Rodendorf, Cheyletus, 276, 277, 282 
tyrannus, Cheletosoma, 315 

uncinata, Cheletoides, 275 

venator, Cheyletus, 277, 286 
venustissima, Cheletomorpha, 302 
vespertilionis, Cheletonella, 292 
virginiensis, Cheyletia, 297, 299 
vitzthumi, Cheletophyes, 288, 290 
vorax, Cheyletus, 277, 286 

wellsi, Cheyletia, 298, 300 
whartoni, Eucheyla, 291, 292 



U. S. SOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington: 1949 No. 3239 



A NEW SPECIES OF COPEPOD OF THE GENUS 
CORYCAEUS FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN COAST 



By Mildred Stratton Wilson 



Plankton collections from two coastal areas of North America, 
sent to the United States National Museum for identification, have 
been found to contain an unknown species of the cyclopoid copepod 
genus Corycaeus. These collections were recently made at Beaufort 
Inlet, North Carolina, by William H. Sutcliffe, Jr., and in the Gulf of 
Mexico by Joel W. Hedgpeth. In addition, examination of a single 
female from the Chesapeake Bay area, reported by C. B. Wilson 
(1932) as Corycaeus lubhockii Giesbrecht, shows that it also is refer- 
able to this species. 

Family CORYCAEIDAE 
Genus CORYCAEUS Dana 

CORYCAEUS (DITRICHOCORYCAEUS) AMERICANUS, new species 

Plate 18 

Corycaeus luMockii, C. B. Wilson, 1932, p. 42. 

/Specimens examined. — 1 female, 8 males, collected in plankton tow 
just inside Beaufort Inlet, N. C, at high tide, June 20, 1947, by Wil- 
liam H. Sutcliffe, Jr. Occurring with Corycaeus {Ditrichocorycaeus) 
amazonicus F. Dahl. 

4 females, 4 males, collected in plankton tow, Point Aransas, Tex., 
April 18, 1946; 1 female, near shore, Texas coast. Gulf of Mexico, 
April 20, 1947, by Joel W. Hedgpeth. Also occurring with C. 
amazonicus. 

818709 — 49 321 



322 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

1 female, U. S. N. M. No. 58530, collected at the 100-fathom line, 
outside Chesapeake Bay, August 21, 1920. 

Types.— llolotype female, U. S. N. M. No. 85980; allotype male. No. 
85979 ; locality, Beaufort Inlet, N. C. 

Diagnosis. — Possessing these characters of the subgenus Ditricho- 
cori/caeus M. Dalil: Constituent of coastal plankton; small size; 
rounded ventral process; leg 4 with its endopod bearing 2 setae, and its 
second basal segment with a small protuberance inside ; spine of basal 
segment of second antenna of female three times longer than that of 
the second segment, only slightly longer in the male. Distinguished 
by: Well-defined fourth thoracic segment; both sexes having the 
genital segment approximately twice the length of the anal, with the 
caudal rami divergent and longer than the abdomen in the female, 
iibout three-fourths of its length in the male ; genital segment of female 
inflated dorsally, that of both sexes with a medial ventral hook; 
exopod of leg 4 having long spines on segments 1 and 3. 

DescrljHion. — Female (pi. 18, figs. 1, 2) : Total length about 1.10- 
1.18 mm. Eyes small, Metasome composing 70 percent of the total 
length of the body. Cephalic segment more or less distinctly sepa- 
rated from thorax, equaling almost half of the total length of the 
metasome. First thoracic segment overlying the second a consider- 
able amount; the latter with a lateral hyaline flange ending in a 
pointed tip. Wing of third segment broad, acutely pointed, reaching 
just beyond the middle of the genital segment in dorsal view, inside 
margin with a spinous point near the middle. Fourth thoracic seg- 
ment entirely demarcated from third, wing with a rather large spinous 
tip. Fifth segment hardly visible dorsally. 

Urosome composing 30 percent of total length of body. Genital 
segment about twice the length of the anal, caudal rami longer than 
both segments combined; proportional length of segments, lateral 
view, ventral side: approximately 22:11:44. Genital segment (pi. 
18, fig. 4) considerably inflated dorsally; distal margin with a fringe 
of small spinules ventrally ; medial ventral hook small ; genital open- 
ing witli a long plumose seta, reaching just beyond the end of the anal 
segment. Caudal rami considerably divergent; with a lateral seta 
distally and a terminal row of spinules; caudal setae 3 (pi. 18, fig. 3), 
none as long as the ramus, the shortest spiniform, toothed on one 
margin ; the others slender setae, of which the inner is the longer. 

First antenna having the first two segments broad, the others 
slenderer; the fourth segment the longest, the terminal the shortest. 
Segment 1 with two short setae. Second segment with eight setae, 
two of which are as long as the segment is wide, and four of which 
reach to the apex of the appendage. Segment 3 with two stalked 
setae reaching beyond the terminus of the appendage. Fourth seg- 



A NEW SPECIES OF CORYCAEUS — WILSON 323 

ment with one long stalked seta and a pedicel bearing two short ones. 
Fifth segment with a long seta distad on each side, that of the 
outer side accompanied by a much shorter one. Terminal seg- 
ment with one short lateral, two long subterminal, and two long 
terminal setae. 

Second antenna (pi. 18, fig. 7) having the basal segment about half 
the length of the second, its spine about one-fifth longer than the 
second segment, minutely serrate. The second segment half as wide 
as long ; with a small lobe at its inside basal margin ; its spine on a 
short pedicel, also minutely serrate on inner margin ; inflated lamella- 
like inner portion with a stout, outer spinous process and a more 
rounded projection inside. Seta like processes of third segment ob- 
liquely truncated at ends, each bearing a minute hair subterminally ; 
accessory claw stout, but not reaching to end of segment, three-fifths of 
the length of the terminal claw, a very small spinous process at its base. 
Terminal claw only slightly shorter than the spine of second segment, 
and a little shorter than the third segment. 

Terminal inside spines of exopods of legs 1-3 comparatively 
straight ; that of leg 1 set at a very slight angle and having two foliate 
structures between it and the shorter outside spine ; setae shorter than 
the terminal inside spine. Terminal spine of exopod of second leg 
(pi. 18, fig. 6) hardly curved, inside margin with long, fine hairs; 
serrate outer flange not reaching to distal end and not continued across 
the spine to inner edge ; terminal seta a little longer than the spine. 
Terminal spine of exopod of third leg very straight, longer than the 
third segment, proportions of spine to segment about 11:8; inside 
setae reaching a little beyond the spine. 

Leg 4 (pi. 18, fig. 5) with the exopod approximately as long as the 
second basipod segment is wide. Top of second basal segment with 
a small central hump, set marginally with fine hairs ; inside protuber- 
ance a comparatively large, well-rounded lobe. Segment 1 of exopod 
very narrow and long, about three-fourths as long as segments 2 and 
3 combined; proportional lengths of segments, outer edge: approxi- 
mately 27 : 15 : 20. Spines of segments 1 and 3 long, nearly equal to 
one another, that of segment 1 reaching at least to the distal end of 
the second segment. The five inner setae of the third segment all 
laterally placed, the sixth much broader at the base, in a terminal 
position, the apex and seta indistinctly demarcated from the rest of 
the segment (pi. 18, fig. 5, a). (The figures of M. Dahl, 1912, show 
variation from this usual pattern in a few species of Ditnchocory- 
caeus.) 

Male (pi. 18, figs. 12, 13) : Total length 0.93 to 1.0 mm., Propor- 
tions of metasome to urosome approximately 73 : 27. Division of 
cephalic and first thoracic segments more or less discernible. First 



324 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

thoracic segment overlying second as in female. Second thoracic 
segment -with the lateral hyaline flange having larger tips than in the 
female. Wing of third segment reaching to abont the middle of the 
genital segment, inside margin rounded at the center, without a spin- 
ous point as in the female; fourth segment separated dorsally, the 
distal processes usually extending a little beyond the basis of the 
abdomen, tipped with short spines. Fifth segment somewhat visible 
dorsally. Eyes larger than those of female. 

Urosome very slender; proportions of genital and anal segments 2 
to 1 as in female, but segments relatively longer and the caudal rami 
relatively shorter; approximate proportions, lateral view, ventral side : 
26: 13:30. Ventral hook of genital segment large (pi. 18, fig. 11) ; 
lobed genital flaps with two rows of fine hairs on the surface, the 
seta long, nonplumose, accompanied inside by a stout median spine 
and a short process with a broadened base (pi. 18, fig. 10). Caudal 
rami about three-fourths the length of the abdomen, with a short 
lateral seta distally; terminal setae 3 (pi. 18, fig. 14), the inner the 
longest, stout and spiniform, equaling the ramus in length and adding 
to the superficial appearance of great length of the urosome; the 
outer also spiniform, about one-fourth as long as the inner ; the third 
slightly longer, slender and sinuous, placed subterminally near the 
dorsal inner edge. 

Second antenna (pi. 18, fig. 8) with the basal segment about half the 
length of the second; its spine finely serrate and about as long as 
the second segment. Lamina on inner margin of second segment 
with a stout outer spinous process, the central portion of the lamina 
very thin, but produced into a second spinous projection ; surface of 
segment near middle with a row of minute teeth, hardly visible except 
at high magnification ; spine with stout barbules which are most thickly 
set in the central portion. Third segment with the basal process very 
slender, its tip divided, reaching about to the end of the segment. 
Accessory claw stout basally, otherwise very slender, reaching by al- 
most half its own length beyond the base of the terminal claw; its 
tip also divided; a secondary spine, with a 3-pronged apex, at its 
base. Terminal claw stout, blunt ended, slightly exceeding in length 
the two basal segments combined. 

Exopod of first leg (pi. 18, fig. 9) having the distal part of the 
terminal inside spine a little recurved, but the whole directed in- 
ward, the apex of the segment being incised centrally for a short 
distance, the resulting two portions having each a hyaline, foliate 
structure inside; this whole condition suggested in the female, but 
much more strongly developed in the male. The hyaline flanges of 
the outer margin of the segment minutely serrate; that of the distal 
portion rather short due to the excessive development of the distal 



A NEW SPECIES OF CORYCAEUS — WILSON 325 

spinous process. Setae short, not reaching to the distal end of the 
terminal inside spine. 

Leg 4 like that of the female, except that the inside protuberance 
of the second basal segment is not quite so large, the outer margin 
lacks the setose hump, and the first exopod segment is wider, with its 
spine reaching a little beyond the distal end of the second segment. 

Remarks. — This species occurred in the Beaufort and Gulf of 
Mexico collections with Gorycaeus amazonicus F. Dahl. The two are 
apparently the chief representatives of the subgenus Ditrichocory- 
caeus on the American Atlantic coast. C. amazonicus was originally 
described from near the mouth of the Amazon River, and M. Dahl 
(1912) has reported it farther south along the Brazilian coast and 
from the coastal waters of the Tortugas and Bermuda Islands. 
Gorycaeus lubbockii Giesbrecht, with which C. B. Wilson confused 
G. americanus, has been shown by M. Dahl (1912) and Gumey (1927) 
to be an Indo-Pacific form of the subgenus. 

G. amoBonicus and G. ainericajius are similar in size and in certain 
distinguishing characters of the appendages. They are the only 
species of the subgenus having the terminal portion of the exopod of 
the male first leg incised, and the inside spine thus set somewhat at an 
angle; this is most pronounced in amazonicus. Likewise, they alone 
have the spines of the first and third segments of the exopod of the 
fourth leg so elongate. In the male of G. amazonicus, this condition 
is apparently somewhat variable, some specimens examined having 
the spine of the first segment reaching well beyond the middle of the 
third segment. The arrangement of the setae of the third segment of 
the fourth leg is also similar in the two species, but they differ in 
having the protuberance of the second basal segment scarcely developed 
in G. amazonicus, and in the relative proportions of the segments of 
the exopod — in G. amazonicus the second and third segments are 
subequal. 

Both females of the two species have the genital segment inflated 
dorsally but are easily distinguished from one another by the relative 
proportions of the abdominal segments and caudal rami. The genital 
and anal segments of G. amazonicus are approximately equal (the anal 
only a little longer in lateral view), and the caudal rami are only 
slightly longer than the anal segment. In addition, the wings of the 
third thoracic segment are exceptionally long, reaching to the distal 
end of the genital segment. In the male of G. amazonicus, the anal 
segment is about two-thirds the length of the genital, and the caudal 
rami are slightly longer than the anal segment. 

The proportions of the two segments of the abdomen of Gorycaeus 
americanus approach most closely those of the females of G. africanus 
F. Dahl and G. farrani Fruchtl. Both of these species are also dis- 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.90 

tinguished by having long caudal rami; in each instance, however, 
they do not attain the length of the abdomen. Corycaeus ameri- 
cantis differs not only from these species, but from all other species 
of the subgenus known to me, in having the caudal rami of the female 
longer than the two abdominal segments combined. 

LITERATURE CITED 
Dahl, Makia. 

1912. Die Copepoden der Plankton-Expedition, I : Die Corycaeinen. Mit 
Berucksichtigung aller bekannten Arten. Erbegn. Plankton-Ex- 
ped. Humboldt-Stiftung, vol. 2, pt. 1, 136 pp., 16 pis. Kiel and 
Leipzig, 

GURNEY, ROBEKT. 

1927. Zoological results of the Cambridge Expedition to the Suez Canal, 
1924. VIII, Report on the Crustacea : Copepoda and Cladocera of 
the plankton. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 22, pp. 139-172, 
14 figs. 

Wilson, Charles Branch. 

1932. The copepod crustaceons of Chesapeake Bay. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 80, art. 15, 54 pp., 5 pis. 



U. S. SUVERNMENT PRINTINS OFFICE: 1949 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 99 PLATE If 




Corycaeui\ameTicanus, new species. Femalk: 1, Dorsal view; 2, lateral \ iew; 3, terminal 
portion of caudal ramus, dorsal view; 4, detail of abdomen and fifth thoracic segment 
with leg 5, lateral view; 5. leg 4; 5a, detail (oil immersion) of terminal portion of exopod 3, 
leg 4; 6, leg 2, terminal portion of exopod 3, with detail (oil immersion) of apex of inner 
terminal spine; 7, second antenna (oil immersion). Male: 8, Second antenna (oil im- 
mersion); 9, leg 1, terminal portion of exopod 3; 10, genital flap, ventral view (oil 
immersion); 11, genital segment and fifth thoracic segment with leg 5, lateral view; 12, 
lateral view; 13, dorsal view; 14, terminal portion of caudal ramus, dorsal view. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



'ssued (^?(vA 0*^1) ^y '^^ 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington : 1949 No. 3240 

NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES FROM MEXICO, CENTRAL 
AND SOUTH AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES 



By W. S. Fisher 



A STUDY lias been made of new buprestid beetles that have accumu- 
lated in the collection of the United States National Museum, Speci- 
mens have been received at various times for identification, many of 
which are undescribed forms, and they are described in this paper so 
that names will be available for use in economic studies. Twenty 
species in eight genera are herein described as new. 

Genus POLYCESTA Solier 

POLYCESTA CAMPOSI, new species 

Female. — Elongate, broadly rounded in front and behind, mod- 
erately convex above, uniformly black, with distinct greenish or 
purplish reflections in different lights, and the bottom of the punc- 
tures sometimes cupreous ; body beneath more strongly shining than 
above, greenish black, with a distinct purplish or cupreous tinge, and 
the tarsi violaceous-blue. 

Head in front slightly depressed and uneven, densely, coarsely, 
confluently punctate, sparsely clothed with moderately long, semi- 
erect, inconspicuous hairs; epistoma shaJlowly emarginate in front. 

Pronotum strongly transverse, twice as wide as long, slightly nar- 
rower in front than behind, widest just behind middle ; sides strongly 
obtusely angulated just behind middles, strongly, obliquely converg- 
ing anteriorly and posteriorly; anterior margin truncate, without a 
median lobe; base nearly truncate, feebly lobed in front of scutellum; 
disk broadly, rather deeply depressed at middle; surface coarsely, 
deeply, irregularly punctate, the punctures more or less confluent to- 
ward sides, intervals irregular in shape shining on anterior part, 

818706—49 1 327 



328 PROCEEDmCS of the national museum vol.09 

opaque along base, and sparsely, irregularly clothed with short, in- 
conspicuous hairs. Scutellum smooth, round, or oblong. 

Elytra slightly wider than pronotum at base; humeral angles ob- 
tusely angulated or broadly rounded ; sides nearly parallel from bases 
to apical thirds, then arcuately converging to the tips, which are con- 
jointly broadly rounded, the margins coarsely serrate near apices. 
Each elytron with four or five more or less distinct longitudinal cos- 
tae; presutural costa when present, extending from base to basal 
fourth ; two distinct median costae extending from base to apex, and 
expanded toward base; two more or less distinct prelateral costae, 
the inner one distinct at middle, interrupted anteriorly and posteriorly, 
the outer one only distinctly elevated toward apex; with 10 rows of 
coarse, deep, distinctly separated punctures arranged in double rows 
between the costae; intervals between costae more or less rugose 
basally, finely, sparsely, irregularly punctate, and with a few short 
inconspicuous hairs. 

Abdomen beneath finely, densely punctate, confluently toward sides, 
rather densely clothed with short, recumbent, whitish hairs ; intervals 
smooth and shining ; first sternite slightly flattened and vaguely punc- 
tate at middle; last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex. Pro- 
sternum strongly convex ; slightly gibbose on each side along anterior 
margin, coarsely, deeply punctate, the punctures coarser and confluent 
toward sides, rather densely clothed with moderately long, recumbent, 
whitish hairs; anterior margin slightly elevated, feebly, broadly 
emarginate; prosternal process smooth, sparsely, finely punctate, 
without marginal grooves, sides obliquely converging to apex, which 
is narrowly rounded. 

Male. — Differs from the female in being smaller, in having the first 
abdominal sternite finely, densely punctured, and the last visible 
abdominal sternite narrowly rounded at the apex. 

Length 11-25 mm., width 4.5-9.75 mm. 

Type locality, — Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

Type^ allotype^ and paratypes. — U. S. N. M. No. 58782. 

Described from 48 specimens (1 type). The type, allotype, and 42 
paratypes were collected at the type locality by F. Campos E, ; three 
paratypes were collected at the same locality during 1915 by W. F. 
Goding; and one paratype was collected in the vicinity of Piurat, 
Peru, during February 1940, by J. Soukup. 

This species is very closely allied to Polycesta velasco Castelnau and 
Gory, but it differs from the description given for that species (de- 
scribed from Mexico) in having the sides of the pronotum angulated 
behind the middle and the surface rather deeply depressed at the 
middle, the elytron with only two longitudinal costae extending from 
the base to the apex, and the first abdominal sternite of the male 
without a densely pubescent spot at the middle. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 329 

POLYCESTA BRUNNEIPENNIS, new species 

Female. — Broadly elongate, broadly rounded in front and behind, 
moderately convex above; head, pronotum, scutellum, and underside 
of body black, elytra reddish brown, usually with the longitudinal 
costae blackish. 

Head in front flat, without depressions, coarsely, deeply, confluently 
punctate, sparsely clothed with short, erect, inconspicuous hairs; 
epistoma broad, truncate in front. 

Pronotum strongly transverse, twice as wide as long, distinctly 
narrower in front than behind, widest at basal third; sides strongly 
diverging from apical angles to basal thirds, where they are obtusely 
angTilated, then obliquely converging to posterior angles, which are 
rectangular; anterior margin deeply, arcuately emarginate, with a 
feeble, broadly rounded median lobe, and the margin smooth and 
narrowly elevated ; base sinuate, with the median lobe feebly, broadly 
rounded; disk with a broad, shallow, median depression; surface 
densely, coarsely, deeply punctate, punctures more or less confluent 
toward sides, each puncture with a short, inconspicuous hair, the 
intervals smooth. Scutellum small, nearly round, smooth. 

Elytra slightly wider than pronotum at base ; humeral angles broadly 
rounded ; epipleural lobes not dentate at apices ; sides nearly parallel 
anteriorly, broadly expanded behind middles, then arcuately converg- 
ing to the tips, which are acute, the margins slightly serrate near 
apices. Each elytron with five longitudinal costae, the presutural 
costa extending from base to basal third; two distinct median ones 
extending from base to apex ; and two more or less distinct prelateral 
costae interrupted anteriorly and posteriorly, and with nine rows of 
coarse punctures aranged in double rows (except lateral row) between 
the costae, the punctures deep and variable in size; intervals very 
sparsely, finely, irregularly punctate, with a few very short, incon- 
spicuous hairs. 

Abdomen beneath rather densely, finely punctate, sparsely clothed 
with short, recumbent hairs; intervals smooth and shining; first 
sternite strongly convex at middle; last visible sternite narrowly 
rounded at apex. Prosternum strongly convex, coarsely punctate, 
more or less confluently toward sides, sparsely clothed with short, 
recumbent hairs; anterior margin truncate, feebly elevated; pro- 
sternal process short, broad, nearly flat, without marginal grooves, 
sides nearly parallel to behind coxae, broadly rounded at apex. 

Male. — Differs from the female in being usually smaller, slenderer, 
and in having a denselj'- punctured and pubescent spot on the median 
part of the first abdominal sternite. 

Length 16-23 mm., width 6-9 mm. 

Type locality. — Barranquilla, Colombia. 

Type^ allotype^ and paratypes. — U.S.N.M. No. 58783. 



330 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Described from five specimens (one type). The type and one 
paratype were collected at the type locality July 10, 1935, and Jan- 
uary 8, 1938, by Brother Gines; one paratype was collected at Rio 
Magdalena, Colombia, during January or February, boring in a 
telephone pole, by F. Luis Gallego; and the allotype and one para- 
type were collected in British Honduras, during June 1911, by 
N. K. Bigelow. 

This species resembles Polycesta perlucida Kerremans, but it differs 
from that species in being larger and broadly elongate, in having 
the head flat in front without a median carina, the pronotum more 
strongly expanded at the basal third and the surface more coarsely 
and deeply punctured, and the elytra uniformly reddish brown with 
distinct prescutellar costae. 

Genus TYNDARIS Thomson 

TYNDAKIS DEPRESSICOLLIS, new species 

Elongate, rather robust, subcylindrical, rather strongly shining, 
brownish black, with distinct purplish, greenish, bluish, and coj)- 
pery reflections in different lights, and each elytron ornamented with 
yellow markings as follows: A round and an elongate spot at base, 
a round spot at humeral angle, a large spot in front of middle along 
sutural margin, sometimes joined to a narrow, arcuate vitta extend- 
ing backward from lateral margin at basal fourth to middle of disk 
behind middle, and a zigzag fascia at apical third, joined at middle 
to a narrow, arcuate vitta extending backward to near apex and 
sutural margin. 

Head flat in front, longitudinally carinate on vertex and occiput, 
without a median depression, coarsely, deeply, rather densely punc- 
tate on front, more shallowly, confluently punctate on occiput, sparse- 
ly clothed with moderately long, recumbent, whitish hairs; intervals 
smooth; epistoma deeply, angularly emarginate in front; antenna 
serrate beginning with sixth segment. 

Pronotum strongly convex, slightly gibbose toward base, slightly 
wider than long, slightly narrower at apex than at base, widest at 
middle; sides strongly arcuately rounded; lateral margin when 
viewed from side entire and strongly arcuate ; base truncate on each 
side, the median lobe strongly produced and feebly emarginate in 
front of scutellum ; disk with a deep, elongate-triangular depression, 
the depression wide at middle becoming narrower toward anterior 
margin, and with a vague, oblique depression on each side near apical 
angles; surface coarsely, confluently punctate toward sides, finely, 
densely scabrous on each side of median depression, sparsely, irregu- 
larly clothed with short, recumbent, white hairs. Scutellum small 
and round. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 331 

Elytra at base as wide as pronotum at base; sides nearly parallel 
from bases to behind middles, then arcuately converging to the tips, 
which are broadly truncate, each with a distinct serrate preapical 
carina and armed at each angle with large tooth; lateral margin 
thick, armed posteriorly with two rows of broad teeth ; disk strongly 
convex, slightly uneven; surface finely, shallowly striate, densely, 
finely and coarsely, irregularly punctate, sparsely clothed with short, 
recumbent, scalelike, white hairs, each elytron with an elongate, 
smooth, impunctate space along sutural margin extending from basal 
fifth to apex. 

Abdomen beneath finely, densely, uniformly punctate, impunctate 
along posterior margins of sternites, densely, uniformly clothed with 
moderately long, recumbent and semierect, white hairs; posterior 
margin of second sternite broadly lobed at middle ; last visible stern- 
ite broadly depressed, and acutely angulated at apex, with a finely, 
densely toothed preapical carina. 

Length 10.5 mm., width 4 mm. 

Type locality. — Argentine Republic (no definite locality). 

Type.—V. S. N. M. No. 58784. 

Described from a single specimen intercepted at New York, March 
21, 1936, in a shipment of grapes from Argentine Republic. 

This species is allied to Tyndaris planata Castelnau and Gory, but 
it differs from that species in having the pronotum deeply and tri- 
angularly depressed on the disk, and uniformly brownish black, and 
the elytra more deeply striate, with distinct zigzag yellow markings. 

TYNDARIS UNICOLOR, new species 

Short, robust, strongly shining, uniformly brownish black, with dis- 
tinct purplish, greenish, and bronzy reflections in different lights, and 
with last tergite and margins of last visible sternite bluish. 

Head flat in front, without depressions or median carina, densely, 
rather finely, uniformly punctate, sparsely clothed with moderately 
long, recumbent, whitish hairs; intervals smooth; epistoma deeply, 
arcuately or angularly emarginate in front ; antenna serrate beginning 
with sixth segment. 

Pronotum moderately convex, one-third wider than long, distinctly 
narrower at apex than at base, widest behind middle ; sides strongly 
arcuately rounded, more strongly converging anteriorly; lateral 
margin when viewed from side entire and slightly arcuate ; base nearly 
truncate, feebly, acutely angulated in front of scutellum ; disk broadly, 
shallowly depressed at middle; surface finely, densely, uniformly 
punctate, more or less rugose, nearly glabrous at middle, densely 
clothed at sides, with short, recumbent, white hairs. Scutellum very 
small and round. 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Elytra at base as wide as pronotum at base; sides parallel from 
bases to middles, then arcuately converging to the tips, which are 
separately broadly rounded or subtruncate ; lateral margins not ser- 
rate, but with a large tooth near apices; disk moderately, uniformly 
convex ; surface more or less distinctly, longitudinally costate, coarsely, 
densely punctate, the punctures arranged in double rows between the 
costae, rather densely, irregularly clothed with short, recumbent, 
whitish hairs. 

Abdomen beneath finely, densely, uniformly punctate, impunctate 
along posterior margins of sternites, densely, uniformly clothed with 
moderately long, recumbent and semierect, white hairs ; posterior mar- 
gin of second sternite truncate ; last visible sternite depressed on each 
side of middle, and terminating in an acute spine. 

Length 8.5-10.5 mm., width 3.5-4.5 mm. 

Ty^pe locality. — Piura, Peru. 

Type and paratype.—V.S.'NM. No. 58785. 

Described from two sepcimens (one type). The type was collected 
at the type locality and the paratype was collected at Lullana, Peru, 
both by C. H. T. Townsend. 

This species is allied to Tyndaris marginella Fairmaire, but it differs 
from that species in being uniformly brownish black, without any 
yellow spots, and in having the elytra distinctly costate with the coarse 
punctures arranged in double rows between the costae. 

TYNDARIS REEDI, new species 

Short, robust, rather strongly shining ; head and pronotum cupreous, 
the latter with five small, round equally spaced orange-red spots along 
anterior margin ; elytra black with a vague brownish tinge, and each 
elytron ornamented with four or five small orange-red spots, two at 
base, one at humeral angle, one at middle equally distant from sutural 
and lateral margins, and sometimes one at apical third a short distance 
from sutural margin; body beneath black, with distinct purplish, 
greenish, or bronzy reflections in different lights. 

Head feebly, uniformly convex, longitudinally carinate on vertex 
and occiput, without a median depression; surface coarsely, densely 
punctate on front, confluently punctate on occiput, sparsely clothed 
with short, recumbent, whitish hairs; intervals smooth; epistoma 
broadly, shallowly, arcuately emarginate in front; antenna serrate 
beginning with fifth segment. 

Pronotum very strongly, uniformly convex, slightly wider than 
long, distinctly narrower at apex than at base, widest at middle ; sides 
strongly arcuately rounded; lateral margin when viewed from side 
entire and slightly arcuate ; base sinuate on each side, the median lob© 
strongly produced and vaguely emarginate in front of scutellum; 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 333 

disk narrowly, longitudinally depressed from middle to base, the de- 
pression carinate at bottom and broader posteriorly; surface finely, 
confluently punctate toward margins, finely rugose at middle, very 
sparsely clothed with short, inconspicuous hairs. Scutellum large 
and nearly square. 

Eljrtra at base slightly wider than pronotum at base ; sides parallel 
anteriorly, broadly, feebly expanded at middles, then arcuately con- 
verging to the tips, which are separately broadly rounded or sub- 
truncate ; lateral margins coarsely, irregularly serrate posteriorly ; disk 
moderately convex, broadly depressed behind scutellum, and each 
elytron with an elongate depression at lateral declivity extending from 
near humeral angle to behind middle ; surface finely, shallowly striate, 
densely, finely and coarsely, irregularly punctate, with a few very 
short inconspicuous hairs toward apices. 

Abdomen beneath coarsely, densely, uniformly punctate, the punc- 
tures elongate on basal sternites, impunctate along posterior margins 
of sternites, sparsely, irregularly clothed with short, recumbent, in- 
conspicuous hairs ; posterior margin of second sternite truncate ; last 
visible sternite deeply depressed and acutely angulated at apex. 

Length 12 mm., width 5 mm. 

Type locality. — Elqui, north Chile. 

T^y^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58786. 

Described from a single specimen collected during 1937, by Dr. 
Edwyn P. Reed. 

This species is allied to Tyndaris planata Castelnau and Gory, but 
it differs from that species in having the pronotum more strongly con- 
vex, with an elongate median depression on the disk and with five 
small, orange-red spots along the anterior margin, the elytra more 
deeply striate and more densely punctured, and each elytron with 
four or five orange-red spots. 

Genus ACMAEODERA Eschscholtz 

ACMAEODERA RURICOLA, new species 

Narrowly elongate, subcylindrical, strongly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, dark brown, with 
a distinct aeneous or cupreous tinge, and each elytron ornamented 
with yellow as follows : A broad band along lateral margin extending 
to middle of disk, the inner margin of band very irregular and inter- 
rupted at various places, and the band interrupted in apical region 
by a small spot and transverse, brown fascia. 

Head flat in front, broadly, shallowly, longitudinally depressed 
between the eyes, shallowly, transversely depressed behind clypeus, 
coarsely, shallowly, confluently ocellate-punctate, sparsely clothed 
with long, erect, inconspicuous hairs; clypeus broadly, deeply, arcu- 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vor,. 99 

ately emarginate in front. Antenna extending to middle of prono- 
tum; segment 1 elongate, as long as following 3 segments united; 
segment 2 globose ; segments 3 and 4 slightly longer than wide ; seg- 
ments 5-11 compact, strongly transverse, twice as wide as long, and 
subequal in length and width to one another. 

Pronotum twice as wide as long, distinctly narrower at apex than 
at base, widest in front of middle ; sides broadly rounded anteriorly, 
more strongly converging posteriorly, with the margins narrow and 
visible anteriorly from above; disk moderately convex above, nar- 
rowly, transversely depressed on each side along anterior margin, 
broadly, shallowly depressed at middle on basal half, with a broad, 
oblique depression on each side extending forward from base to mid- 
dle near lateral margin ; surface coarsely, confluently alveolate-punc- 
tate toward sides, and sparsely clothed with long, erect, inconspicuous 
hairs. 

Elytra moderately convex, transversely flattened along base, at 
base slightly wider than pronotum at base ; sides nearly parallel along 
basal halves, then arcuately converging to the tips, which are con- 
jointly broadly rounded ; lateral margins coarsely serrate behind mid- 
dles. Surface rather densely, irregularly punctate basally, striately 
punctate posteriorly, striae deeply impressed toward apices, the punc- 
tures in the striae separated from one another by about one-half 
their own widths ; interstrial spaces on sutural regions slightly con- 
vex, two to three times as wide as the strial punctures, wider and more 
strongly convex toward sides, rather coarsely, sparsely, regularly 
punctate, with a moderately long, fine, erect, white hair arising from 
each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath finely, densely punctate, more sparsely punctate 
on basal sternites, rather densely clothed with moderately long, fine, 
erect and recumbent, white hairs; intervals indistinctly granulose; 
last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without a subapical 
carina. Prosternum coarsely, densely, deeply punctate at middle, 
coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, rather densely clothed with long, 
fine, semierect, white hairs ; anterior margin emarginate. 

Length 7 mm., width 2.4 nrni. 

Type locality. — Rio Balsas, Guerrero, Mexico. 

Tyye.~\]. S. N. M. No. 58787. 

Described from a single specimen collected August 16, by H. F. 
Wickham. 

This species belongs to Horn's Emarginatae group. It is allied to 
Acmaeodera horni Fall but differs from the description given for that 
species by being smaller, and of a uniformly dark brown color, and 
in having the upper surface of the body clothed with white hairs, 
the pronotum at the middle distinctly wider than the elytra, obliquely 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 335 

depressed on each side, and densely, uniformly punctured, and the 
fifth interstrial spaces on the elytra not elevated. 

ACIVIAEODERA UNICOLOK, new species 

Narrowly elongate, subcylindrical, strongly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, moderately shin- 
ing, uniformly coppery brown, with a faint aeneous tinge on underside 
of body. 

Head slightly convex in front, transversely depressed behind clyp- 
eus, ccyarsely, confluently ocellate-punctate, sparsely clothed with 
short, broad, erect, white hairs; clypeus broadly, deeply, arcuately 
emarginate in front. Antenna extending to apical third of pronotum ; 
segment 1 elongate, as long as following three segments united; seg- 
ment 2 globose : segments 3-5 narrower, slightly longer than wide, and 
subequal in length to each other ; segments 6-10 compact, twice as wide 
as long; segment 11 round. 

Pronotum one and one-half times as wide as long, narrower at apex 
than at base, widest at middle ; sides broadly rounded, with the mar- 
gins narrow and scarcely visible from above ; disk strongly, uniformly 
convex, without distinct depressions, but with a deep, elongate fovea 
on each side along base near posterior angle ; surface deeply, coarsely, 
densely punctate at middle, deeply, confluently alveolate-punctate or 
arcuately rugose toward sides, and sparsely clothed with short, broad, 
erect, white hairs. 

Elytra strongly convex, deeply transversely depressed along base at 
middle, at base subequal in width to pronotum at base ; sides slightly 
constricted in front of middles, then arcuately converging to the tips, 
which are conjointly broadly rounded ; lateral margins feebly serrate 
behind middle. Surface rather deeply striately punctate, the punc- 
tures in the striae large, separated from one another by about one- 
half their own widths; interstrial spaces on sutural regions flat and 
twice as wide as the strial punctures, wider and slightly convex toward 
sides, rather densely, finely, regularly, punctate, with a short, broad 
erect, white hair arising from each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath densely, finely, shallowly punctate, densely 
clothed with short, rather broad, erect, white hairs; intervals smooth; 
last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without a subapical ca- 
rina. Prosternum coarsely, sparsely, rather deeply punctate at middle, 
coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, nearly glabrous; anterior margin 
truncate. 

Length 5.5-6 mm., width 1.75-2 mm. 

Type locality. — Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Type and paratype.—U.S.'NM. No. 58788. 

S18706 — 49 2 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. o» 

Described from two specimens (one type) collected June 30 by Fred- 
erick Knab. 

This species belongs to Horn's Truncatae group. It differs from all 
the described American species of this group in being uniformly 
coppery brown. 

ACMAEODERA NEONEGLECTA, new species 

Narrowly elongated, subcylindrical, strongly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, moderately shin- 
ing, dark brown, with a distinct cupreous tinge, especially on prono- 
tum, head, and underside of body, and each elytron ornamented with 
yellow as follows: The lateral margin from near humeral angle to 
apex, an irregular, more or less square spot behind humerus, an 
irregular, narrow vitta on disk extending from middle to apical fifth 
and connected to lateral margin at middle and apical fifth, and with 
two small, round spots arranged longitudinally behind middle near 
sutural margin. 

Head slightly convex in front, not distinctly depressed behind 
clypeus, coarsely, shallowly, confluently ocellate-punctate, sparsely 
clothed with moderately long, rather broad, semierect, white hairs; 
clypeus broadly, shallowly, angularly emarginate in front. Antenna 
extending to middle of pronotum ; segment 1 elongate, as long as fol- 
lowing two segments united; segment 2 globose; segments 3 and 4 
narrower, distinctly longer than wide, and subequal in length to each 
other; segments 5-10 not very compact, more or less triangular, 
slightly wider than long; segment 11 round. 

Pronotum twice as wide as long, slightly narrower at apex than at 
base, widest at middle; sides broadly rounded, with the margins 
narrow and visible from above; disk strongly, uniformly convex, 
without distinct depressions, but with three small indistinct foveae 
along base, one median and one on each side toward posterior angle ; 
surface coarsely, deeply, densely punctate at middle, confluently alveo- 
late-punctate toward sides, and rather densely clothed with moderately 
long, rather broad, erect, white hairs. 

Elytra strongly convex, deeply, transversely depressed along base 
at middle, at base subequal in width to pronotum at base ; sides nearly 
parallel along basal halves, arcuately converging posteriorly to the 
tips, which are conjointly broadly rounded; lateral margins rather 
coarsely serrate toward apices. Surface rather deeply striately punc- 
tate, the punctures in the striae oblong, separated from one another 
by about one-half their own widths; interstrial spaces on sutural 
regions flat, and two to three times as wide as the strial punctures, 
wider and slightly convex toward sides, sparsely, finely regularly 
punctate, with a short, rather broad, erect, white, hair arising from 
each puncture. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 337 

Abdomen beneath rather sparsely, uniformly, finely, shallowly 
punctate, rather sparsely clothed with moderately long, rather broad, 
semierect, white haii^ ; intervals finely granulose ; last visible sternite 
broadly rounded at apex, without a subapical carina. Prosternum 
coarsely, sparsely, deeply punctate at middle, ocellate-punctate at sides, 
sparsely clothed with short, rather broad, semierect, white hairs; 
anterior margin truncate. 

Length 5.5 mm., width 1.5 mm. 

Type locality. — Mexico, no locality given. 

ri/;?e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58789. 

Described from a single specimen collected at Brownsville, Tex., 
December 21, 1937, in mesquite {Prosopis sp.) from Mexico. 

This species belongs to Horn's Truncatae group. It is very closely 
allied to Acmaeodera neglecta Fall, but it differs from that species in 
being more cylindrical, more strongly acuminate posteriorly, and 
more strongly shining, and in having the strial punctures on the elytra 
finer and more elongate, and the interstrial spaces two to three times 
as wide as the strial punctures. 

ACMAEODERA KNABI, new species 

Narrowly elongate, subcylindrical, strongly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed posteriorly, rather strongly 
shining; head, pronotum, and underside of body coppery brown, the 
latter with a distinct aeneous tinge ; elytra bluish black, with a dis- 
tinct violaceous tinge, and each elytron ornamented with six small 
yellow spots arranged longitudinally, three along lateral margin and 
three on disk. 

Head flat in front, slightly depressed between eyes, transversely 
flattened behind clypeus, with a narrow, longitudinal carina on vertex 
and occiput, coarsely, shallowly, confluently alveolate-punctate, 
sparsely clothed with long, erect, white hairs; clypeus broadly, deeply, 
arcuately emarginate in front. Antenna extending to base of prono- 
tiun ; segment 1 elongate, as long as following three segments united ; 
segment 2 globose ; segments 3 and 4 narrower, twice as long as wide ; 
segments 5-10 not compact, triangular, about as wide as long ; segment 
11 oval. 

Pronotum one and three-fourths times as wide as long, narrower 
at apex than at base, widest at middle; sides broadly rounded, with 
the margins narrow, but not visible from above ; disk strongly convex, 
narrowly, transversely flattened along anterior margin, feebly, longi- 
tudinally grooved at middle, with three small f oveae along base, one 
median and one on each side near posterior angle; surface densely, 
coarsely, deeply, uniformly punctate, the punctures confluent toward 
sides, and rather densely clothed with short, erect, inconspicuous 
hairs. 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Elytra strongly convex, transversely depressed along base at middle, 
at base siibequal in width to pronotum at base; sides broadly con- 
stricted at basal fourths, then gradually converging to the tips, which 
are conjointly narrowly rounded; lateral margins coarsely serrate 
along apical fourths. Surface striately punctate, the punctures in 
the striae separated from one another by about their own widths; 
interstrial spaces on sutural regions flat, about as wide as the strial 
punctures, wider and slightlj^ convex toward sides, sparsely, coarsely, 
regularly punctate, with a rather long, fine, semierect, white hair 
arising from each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath densely, finely, deeply punctate, densely clothed 
with long, fine, erect and recumbent, white hairs; intervals smooth; 
last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without a subapical 
carina. Prosternum coarsely, rather densely, deeply punctate at mid- 
dle, coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, densely clothed with long, fine, 
semierect, white hairs ; anterior margin truncate. 

Length 12 mm., width 3.25 mm. 

Type locality. — Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. 

ry^e.— U.S.N.M. No. 58790. 

Described from a single specimen collected July 2, by Frederick 
Knab. 

This species belongs to Horn's Truncatae group. It is allied to 
Acmaeodera wheeleri Van Dyke, but it differs from that species in 
being much larger, and in having the head and pronotum black, the 
head slightly depressed at the middle, the pronotum transversely 
flattened along the anterior margin, with a longitudinal groove at 
the middle, the elytra with 12 yellow spots instead of 14, and the 
elytra and underside of the body clothed with rather long, fine, semi- 
erect, white hairs. 

ACMAEODERA RUSTICA, new species 

Rather broadly elongate, robust, slightly flattened above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, moderately shin- 
ing above, more strongly shining beneath, black, with a faint aeneous 
tinge on underside of body, and each elytron ornamented with yellow 
markings as follows : A small, elongate spot behind humerus, a small, 
irregular, transverse spot along lateral margin at middle, three small 
spots arranged longitudinally on disk (a small spot at basal fifth, an 
irregular spot at middle, and a small one at apical third) , and a small 
spot near sutural margin in apical region. 

Head flat in front, broadly, shallowly depressed on vertex, slightly, 
transversely flattened behind clypeus, coarsely, shallowly, confluently 
ocellate-punctate, sparsely clothed with long, rather broad, erect, white 
hairs; clypeus broadly, shallowly, triangularly emarginate in front. 
Antenna extending to basal third of pronotum ; segment 1 elongate, 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 339 

cas long as following three segments united; segments 2-4 globose; seg- 
ments 5-10 wider, compact, scarcely triangular; slightly wider than 
long; segment 11 oval. 

Pronotum nearly twice as wide as long, distinctly narrower at apex 
than at base, widest along basal half ; sides parallel along basal halves, 
strongly, arcuately converging anteriorly, with the margins narrow, 
but not visible from above ; disk moderately convex, narrowly, trans- 
versely flattened along anterior margin, with a broad, shallow, triangu- 
lar, median depression on basal half, a broad, oblique depression on each 
side extending forward from base to middle near lateral margin, and 
trifoveolate along base; surface coarsely, deeply, densely punctate at 
middle, coarsely, confluently alveolate-punctate toward sides, and 
sparsely clothed with long, rather broad, erect, whitish hairs. 

Elytra moderately convex, deeply, transversely depressed along base 
at middle, at base subequal in width to pronotum at base ; sides nearly 
parallel along basal halves, then arcuately converging to the tips, which 
are conjointly broadly rounded; lateral margins, coarsely, serrate be- 
hind middles. Surface striately punctate, striae deeply impressed 
posteriorly, the punctures in the striae large, separated from one an- 
other by about one-half their own widths ; interstrial spaces on sutural 
regions flat, and from one-half as wide to nearly as wide as the strial 
punctures, wider, strongly convex, and more or less interrupted to- 
ward sides, rather densely, finely, regularly punctate, with a short, 
rather broad, erect, white hair arising from each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath rather sparsely, uniformly, finely, shallowly punc- 
tate on basal sternites, ocellate-punctate on apical sternites, sparsely 
clothed with short, rather broad, semierect, white hairs; intervals 
smooth ; last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without a sub- 
apical carina. Prosternum coarsely, sparsely, deeply punctate at 
middle, coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, sparsely clothed with short, 
rather broad, erect, white hairs ; anterior margin sinuate, with two 
distinct, ohtusely rounded, slightly produced lobes near middle. 

Length 7 mm., width 2.5 mm. 

Tyfe locality. — Puente de Ixtla, Morelos, Mexico. 

T'y^e.—U.S.N.M. No. 58791. 

Described from a single specimen collected by H. F. Wickham. 

This species belongs to Horn's Sinuatae group. It resembles Ac- 
maeodera tubulus Fabricius very closely, but it differs from that species 
in having the anterior margin of the prosternum slightly lobed on each 
side of the middle, the pronotum obliquely depressed on each side with 
the sides parallel behind the middle, the strial punctures on the elytra 
coarse, and the interstrial spaces on the sutural regions about as wide 
as the strial punctures. 



340 iPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MXTSEUM vol.99 

AC»LA.EODERA OAXACAE, new species 

Narrowly elongate, subcylindrical, strongly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, moderately shin- 
ing, uniformly black, with a faint coppery or greenish tinge, and each 
elytron ornamented with a small, triangular, red spot at middle along 
lateral margin. 

Head nearly flat in front, broadly, shallowly, longitudinally de- 
pressed between eyes, transversely depressed behind clypeus, coarsely, 
deeply, densely punctate, rather densely clothed with moderately 
long, erect, inconspicuous, white hairs; clypeus deeply, triangularly 
emarginat« in front. Antenna extending to middle of pronotum; 
segment 1 elongate, as long as following 3 segments united ; segment 
2 globose ; segments 3 and 4 narrower, slightly longer than wide, and 
subequal in length to each other ; segments 5-10 somewhat triangular, 
slightly wider than long; segment 11 round. 

Pronotum one and one-half times as wide as long, narrower at apex 
than at base, widest at middle ; sides slightly rounded, more strongly 
anteriorly ; slightly constricted near bases, with the margins narrow, 
but not visible from above; disk strongly convex, without distinct 
depressions, vaguely, transversely flattened along anterior margin, and 
with three indistinct foveae along base; surface densely, coarsely, 
deeply punctate, the punctures separated at middle but more or less 
confluent toward sides, rather densely clothed with long, erect, incon- 
spicuous, white hairs. 

Elytra strongly convex, deeply, transversely depressed along base 
at middle, at base subequal in width to pronotum at base ; sides con- 
stricted at basal fourths, then arcuately converging to tips, which are 
conjointly narrowly rounded; lateral margins coarsely serrate along 
apical thirds. Surface striately punctate, striae deeply impressed 
posteriorly, the punctures in the striae large, separated from one 
another by about their own widths ; interstrial spaces on sutural regions 
flat and as wide as the strial punctures, wider, slightly convex, and 
more or less interrupted toward the sides, sparsely, minutely, regu- 
larly punctate, with a moderately long, fine, semierect, white hair 
arising from each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath densely, finely punctate, more sparsely punctate 
on basal sternites, densely clothed with long, fine, erect, white hairs, 
intervals smooth ; last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, with- 
out a subapical carina. Prosternum coarsely, densely punctate at 
middle, coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, densely clothed with long, 
fine, erect, white hairs; anterior margin sinuate, with two distinct, 
obtusely rounded, strongly produced lobes near middle. 

Length 6.5-8.5 mm., width 2-2.75 mm. 

Type locality. — Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 341 

Type and paratyyes.—V.'^:^M.. No. 58792. 

Described from 10 specimens (one type) collected at tlie type local- 
ity, Jmie 30-July 1, by Frederick Knab. 

This species belongs to Horn's Sinuatae group and is closely allied 
to Acmaeodera faceta Fall, but it differs from the description given 
for that species in being uniformly black, with a small triangular 
red marginal spot at the middle of each elytron, instead of at the 
apical fourth, and in not having a subapical carina at the apex of 
the last visible abdominal sternite. 

ACMAEODERA MONTICOLA, new species 

Broadly elongate, robust, moderately convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, rather strongly 
shining, dark brown, with distinct cupreous and aeneous tinges; 
pronotum ornamented with a narrow, yellow vitta on each side along 
lateral margin, extending from base to apical third; each elytron 
ornamented with yellow as follows : Lateral margin along basal third, 
three irregular, strongly interrupted fasciae extending from lateral 
margin to near sutural margin, and four small spots on disk (three 
in front of middle and one near apex) . 

Head fiat in front, deeply, broadly depressed between eyes, trans- 
versely depressed behind clypeus, coarsely, deeply, confluently alveo- 
late-punctate, sparsely clothed with very long, erect, brownish hairs ; 
clypeus broadly, deeply, angularly emarginate in front. Antenna 
extending to middle of pronotum; segment 1 elongate, as long as 
following three segments united ; segment 2 globose ; segments 3 and 
4 slightly narrower and longer than 2, and subequal in length to 
each other; segments 5-11 compact, twice as wide as long, and sub- 
equal in length and width to one another, the fifth more or less 
triangular. 

Pronotum twice as wide as long, distinctly narrower at apex than 
at base, widest at base; sides nearly parallel along basal halves, 
arcuately converging anteriorly, with the margin rather narrow and 
visible from above ; disk slightly convex, broadly flattened at middle 
on basal half, with a narrow, oblique depression on each side extend- 
ing forward from base to near apical angle ; surface coarsely, deeply, 
uniformly punctate at middle, confluently alveolate-punctate toward 
sides, and sparsely clothed with long, semierect, black hairs. 

Elytra moderately convex, transversely depressed along base at 
middle, at base subequal in width to pronotum at base; sides nearly 
parallel along basal halves, then arcuately converging to the tips, 
which are conjointly broadly rounded ; lateral margins coarsely ser- 
rate along apical halves. Surface rather densely, irregularly punc- 
tate basally, striately punctate posteriorly, the punctures in the striae 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

small, separated from one another by about twice their own widths ; 
interstrial spaces on sutural regions flat, about three times as wide 
as the strial punctures, wider and more convex toward sides, sparsely, 
finely, regularly punctate, with a long, fine, erect, brownish hair aris- 
ing from each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath finely, sparsely punctate on basal sternites, 
sparsely, coarsely punctate on apical sternites, sparsely clothed with 
long, fine, erect and recumbent, white hairs; intervals smooth; last 
visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, with an irregular, short 
subapical carina at apex. Prosternum sparsely, coarsely, deeply 
punctate at middle, coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, sparsely 
clothed with long, fine, recumbent, white hairs; anterior margin 
emarginate, with two vaguely indicated, indistinct lobes near the 
middle. 

Length 9-10 mm,, width 3.5-4 mm. 

Type locality. — Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Type andparatype.—V.S.^M., No. 58793. 

Described from two specimens (one type) from the Wickham 
Collection collected September 1894, at an altitude of 5,000 feet. 

This species belongs to Horn's Sinuatae group. It is allied to Ac- 
maeodera serena Fall, but it differs from that species in being uni- 
formly dark brown with a distinct coppery or bronzy tinge, and in 
having the head broadly depressed between the eyes and confluently 
punctured, the elytra clothed with long, fine, erect, brownish hairs and 
with the sides nearly parallel to behind the middle, the lobes on the 
anterior margin of the prosternum vaguely indicated, and the sub- 
apical carina on the last visible abdominal sternite irregular and very 
short. The markings on the elytra are variable in shape. 

ACMAEODERA AENEICOLLIS, new species 

Broadly elongate, cuneiform, strongly flattened above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed posteriorly, strongly shining; 
pronotum, head, and underside of body aeneous, the pronotum orna- 
mented with a broad, yellow spot on each side along lateral margin, 
extending from base to near apex; elytra black, with a distinct vio- 
laceous or gi-eenish tinge, and each elytron ornamented with yellow 
as follows : The yellow markings variable but usually with a broad 
fascia, more or less interrupted, along lateral margin, and two broad 
transverse fasciae behind the middle. 

Head flat in front, slightly depressed between eyes, transversely 
flattened behind clypeus, with a short, longitudinal carina on occiput, 
rather deeply, coarsely, confluently ocellate-punctate, sparsely clothed 
with rather long, erect, yellowish-brown hairs; clypeus broadly, 
rather deeply arcuately emarginate in front. Antenna extending 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 343 

nearly to base of pronotum ; segment 1 elongate, as long as following 
three segments united ; segments 2 and 3 globose ; segment 4 obconic, 
slightly longer than 3 ; segments 5-11 not compact more or less trian- 
gular, distinctly wider than long, and subequal in length and width 
to one another. 

Pronotum twice as wide as long, distinctly narrower at apex than 
at base, widest at base; sides arcuately converging from bases to 
apices, the margins narrow and visible anteriorly from above; disk 
slightly convex, narrowly, transversely depressed on each side along 
anterior margin, broadly flattened toward sides, with a broad, rather 
deep, median, triangular depression; surface rather densely, deeply 
punctate, the punctures rather fine at middle becoming coarser and 
deeper toward sides, and sparsely clothed with rather long, erect, 
brownish hairs. 

Elytra slightly convex, flattened on disk, at base subequal in width 
to pronotum at base ; sides converging from bases to tips, which are 
conjointly broadly rounded ; lateral margins finely serrate near apices. 
Surface striately punctate, the punctures in the striae small, and 
separated from one another by about their own widths; interstrial 
spaces on sutural regions slightly convex, and twice as wide as the 
strial punctures, wider toward sides, sparsely, finely, regularly punc- 
tate, with a rather long, fine erect, brownish hair arising from each 
puncture. 

Abdomen beneath sparsely, finely punctate, sparsely clothed with 
long, fine, erect and recumbent, white hairs; intervals smooth; last 
visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without a subapical carina. 
Prosternum coarsely, rather sparsely, deeply punctate at middle, 
coarsely, confluently ocellate-punctate at sides, sparsely clothed with 
short, fine, erect, white hairs ; anterior margin sinuate, with two dis- 
tinct, obtusely rounded, slightly produced lobes near the middle. 

Length T.5-11.5 mm., width 2.6-4.5 mm. 

Type locality. — ^Maracaibo, Venezuela. 

Type arid paratypes. — U.S.N.M. No. 58794. 

Described from nine specimens (one type). The type and six 
paratypes were collected at the type locality ; one paratype from the 
Mason Collection was collected July 11, 1920, at the Cartagena chap- 
arral, Bolivar, Colombia; and one paratype was collected May 13, 
1938, at San Juan, Puerto Rico, in "box cuttings" from Caracas, Vene- 
zuela. 

This species belongs to Horn's Sinuatae group. It is allied to 
Acmaeodera fiavoinarginata Gray, but it differs from that species 
in having the lateral margins of the pronotum narrow, scarcely vis- 
ible from above, and not narrowed near the posterior angles, with 
the surface strongly shining, finely punctured at the middle, and with 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

a broad, yellow spot along the sides, the pronotum not wider than the 
elytra, the interstrial spaces on the sutural regions of the elytra about 
twice as wide as the strial punctures, and without a subapical carina 
on the last visible abdominal sternite. 

ACMAEODERA STRIATA, new species 

Narrowly elongate, subcylindrical, strongly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed behind middle, strongly shining; 
pronotum, head, and underside of body cupreous; elytra brownish 
black, with a vague purplish reflection, and each elytron ornamented 
with yellow as follows : Lateral margin along basal half, three nar- 
row, transversely oblique fasciae extending from lateral margin to 
disk, and with numerous small, irregular spots on disk and along 
sutural margin. 

Head flat in front, without distinct depressions, coarsely, rather 
deeply, confluently alveolate-punctate, sparsely clothed with long, 
rather broad, erect, whitish hairs; clypeus broadly, shallowly, arcu- 
ately emarginate in front. Antenna extending to apical third of pro- 
notum; segment 1 elongate, nearly as long as following three seg- 
ments united ; segment 2 globose ; segment 3 obconic, slightly longer 
than 2 ; segment 4 wider than 3 and somewhat triangular ; segments 
5-11 compact, twice as wide as long, the fifth triangular and the 
eleventh oval. 

Pronotum nearly twice as wide as long, narrower at apex than at 
base, widest at middle; sides strongly rounded, the margins narrow 
and visible from above ; disk strongly convex, narrowly, transversely 
flattened along anterior margin, with three small indistinct foveae 
along base, one median and one on each side near posterior angle; 
surface coarsely, densely, deeply punctate at middle, confluently alveo- 
late-punctate toward sides, and sparsely clothed with short, rather 
broad, erect, whitish hairs. 

Elytra moderately convex, transversely depressed along base at 
middle, at base subequal in width to pronotum at base; sides con- 
verging from bases to tips, which are conjointly broadly rounded; 
lateral margins coarsely serrate near apices. Surface striately punc- 
tate, striae deeply impressed posteriorly, the punctures in the striae 
coarse and nearly confluent basally, posteriorly separated from one 
another by about their own widths ; interstrial spaces on sutural re- 
gions slightly convex, about three times as wide as the strial punc- 
tures, wider and more strongly convex toward sides, sparsely, finely, 
regularly punctate, with a rather long, fine, erect, white hair arising 
from each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath sparsely, finely punctate, sparsely clothed with 
moderately long, fine, semierect, white hairs; intervals smooth; last 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 345 

visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without at subapical carina. 
Presternum coarsely, sparsely, deeply punctate at middle, coarsely, 
shallowly ocellate-punctate at sides, sparsely clothed with short, fine, 
recumbent, white hairs ; anterior margin sinuate, with two indistinct, 
obtusely rounded, slightly produced lobes near the middle. 

Length 7.5 mm., width 2.25 mm. 

Type locality. — Caracas, Venezuela. 

Type.—\J. S. N. M. No. 58795. 

Described from a single specimen collected May 13, 1938, at San 
Juan, Puerto Rico, in "box cuttings" from Caracas, Venezuela. 

This species belongs to Horn's Sinuatae group. It is allied to 
Acmaeodera meridionalis Kerremans, but it diffei^ from that species 
in being more cylindrical and in having the pronotum widest at the 
middle, with the sides regularly rounded, the sides of the elytra con- 
verging from the bases to the apices, the strial punctures on the 
elytra finer, and the interstrial spaces on the sutural regions about 
three times as wide as the strial punctures, and the abdominal ster- 
nites finely and sparsely punctured. 

ACMAEODERA DANFORTHI, new species 

Narrowly elongate, subcylindrical, slightly convex above, broadly 
rounded in front, strongly narrowed posteriorly, strongly shining, 
black, with a distinct cupreous or purplish tinge above and a feeble 
aeneous tinge beneath, and ornamented with yellow markings as 
follows. A round, median spot on head at vertex, a large triangular 
spot on each side of pronotum covering basal half, extending along 
base to near middle and obliquely forward to near apical angle, the 
spot not extending to base or lateral margin, and each elytron with 
three broad, transverse lateral spots (one at basal fourth, one at 
middle, and one at apical third), and an elongate, triangular spot 
at apex, the spots extending from lateral margin to near sutural 
margin. 

Head nearly flat in front, coarsely, deeply, confluently punctate, 
and with a few short, erect, inconspicuous hairs; clypeus broadly, 
arcuately emarginate in front. Antenna extending to basal fourth 
of pronotum; segment 1 elongate, as long as following three seg- 
ments united ; segment 2 globose ; segments 3 and 4 narrower, slightly 
longer than wide, and subequal in length to each other, the fourth 
slightly triangular; segments 5-10 compact, twice as wide as long; 
segment 11 oblong. 

Pronotum nearly twice as wide as long, narrower at apex than 
at base, widest at basal third ; sides broadly rounded, more obliquely 
anteriorly, with the margins narrowly flattened and visible from 
above; disk moderately convex, narrowly, transversely depressed 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL 3MTJSEUM vol. 09 

along anterior margin, with three small, obsolete foveae along base, 
one median and one on each side near posterior angle; surface 
coarsely, deeply, rather densely punctate, sparsely clothed with 
short, erect, inconspicuous hairs. 

Elytra slightly flattened on disk, at base slightly narrower than 
pronotum at basal third; sides gradually converging from bases to 
tips, which are conjointly broadly rounded ; lateral margins coarsely 
serrate posteriorly. Surface striately punctate, striae rather deeply 
impressed, the punctures in the striae coarse and separated from 
one another on the basal half by about their own widths, but becom- 
ing finer and more distant toward apices; interstrial spaces on sutural 
regions slightly convex, and about as wide as the strial punctures, 
wider and more strongly convex toward the sides, sparsely, finely, 
regularly punctate, with a short, fine, erect, white hair arising from 
each puncture. 

Abdomen beneath coarsely, shallowly, rather sparsely punctate, 
sparsely clothed with moderately long, semierect, white hairs; inter- 
vals smooth; last visible sternite broadly rounded at apex, without 
a subapical carina. Prosterniun coarsely, deeply, rather densely 
punctate at middle, coarsely ocellate-punctate at sides, sparsely 
clothed with long, semierect, white hairs; anterior margin slightly 
sinuate. 

Length 6.5 mm., width 2.25 mm. 

Type locality. — Hog Island, Grenada, British "West Indies. 

Type.—\3. S. N. M. No. 58796. 

Described from a single specimen collected August 1, 1935, by S. T. 
Danforth. 

This species belongs to Horn's Sinuatae group. It is allied to 
Acmaeodera subcylindrica Fisher, but it differs from that species in 
having the pronotum shorter, more strongly expanded at the basal 
third, transversely depressed along the anterior margin, and with 
a large triangular yellow spot on each side covering the basal half, 
the head with a round yellow spot on the vertex, and each elytron 
ornamented with three transverse and one elongate yellow spots along 
the lateral margin. The species is named for S. T. Danforth, the 
collector. 

Genus EUPLECTALECIA Obenberger 

EUPLECTALECIA KNABI. new species 

Elongate, attenuate anteriorly, acuminate posteriorly, strongly shin- 
ing, bright green, more or less distinctly reddish, cupreous and brown- 
ish on pronotum and elytra, underside of tarsi yellowish, antenna 
blackish purple, except first three segments, which are green, and each 
elytron ornamented with a longitudinal row of three small, more or 
less distinct, purplish-black spots. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 347 

Head shallowly, broadly, longitudinally depressed, with a narrow, 
longitudinal groove on occiput, rather densely, coarsely, irregularly 
punctate. Antenna extending to base of pronotum ; segments 3 to 11 
narrowly elongate-triangular. 

Pronotum wider than long, slightly narrower at apex than at base ; 
sides vaguely narrowed from bases to apices, slightly divergent at 
posterior angles ; base slightly sinuate ; disk more or less uneven, with 
an inconspicuous round gibbosity on each side toward apical angle; 
surface rather densely, finely, uniformly punctate, the punctures well 
separated; prescutellar fovea indistinct. Scutellum impunctate, 
transversely oval, nearly twice as wide as long. 

Elytra at base slightly wider than pronotum ; sides nearly parallel 
from bases to behind middles, then strongly narrowed to tips, which 
are separately narrowly rounded and each armed with a short spine ; 
disk feebly striate posteriorly, uneven toward sides, broadly depressed 
along lateral margins behind humeri ; surface finely, rather densely, 
irregularly punctate. 

Body beneath rather densely, finely, uniformly punctate, sparsely 
clothed with very short, recumbent, inconspicuous hairs; last visible 
abdominal sternite broadly, feebly, transversely sinuate at apex, and 
deeply grooved along apical margin. 

Length 13-14.5 mm., width 4r-4.75 mm. 

Type locality. — Bluefields, Nicaragua. 

Type and paratypes.—V.S.^M. No. 58797. 

Described from three specimens ( one type) . The type was collected 
at the type locality, April 20, 1909, by F. Knab, and the two paratypes 
were collected at Punta Patuca, Honduras, April 11, 1909, by the same 
collector. 

This species is closely allied to Euplectalecia heltii (Saunders), but 
it differs from that species in being more slender, and of a brighter 
green color, and in having the last visible abdominal sternite broadly 
and transversely sinuate at the apex. The two paratypes are slightly 
more greenish on the dorsal surface than the type. 

Genus PERONAEMIS Waterhouse 

PERONAEMIS CUPRICOLLIS, new species 

Broadly agriliform, broadly rounded in front, strongly narrowed 
posteriorly, glabrous, and rather strongly shining; head green, median 
part with a distinct reddish-purple tinge in different lights; pronotum 
reddish cupreous, with anterior and lateral margins, and a large spot 
at posterior angles greenish; elytra olivaceous-green, with distinct 
purplish reflections in different lights; body beneath uniformly 
bronzy green, with a distinct purplish tinge, the tarsi slightly more 
bluish orreen. 



348 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEU]M vol. 09 

Head nearly flat; surface coarsely, deeply, uniformly, confluently 
punctate; epistoma wide and slightly depressed between antennal 
cavities, broadly, feebly, arcuately emarginate in front. 

Pronotum strongly convex, strongly deflexed at sides, nearly one- 
third wider than long, slightly wider at base than at apex ; sides nearly 
parallel from bases to apical sixths, then arcuately narrowed to apical 
angles; lateral margins when viewed from side sharply defined and 
sinuate ; disk with three deep, oblong, basal depressions extending to 
middle of pronotum, the median one with a narrow, longitudinal 
groove at middle ; surface coarsely, deeply, densely, uniformly punc- 
tate. Scutellum twice as wide as long, feebly rounded at sides, and 
surface smooth. 

Elytra as wide as pronotum at base ; sides strongly, angularly ex- 
panded behind humeral angles, broadly, feebly arcuately constricted 
at middles, then strongly, obliquely converging to tips, which are 
acute ; lateral margins coarsely serrate posteriorly ; basal depressions 
shallow, broadly transverse; surface slightly transversely rugose bas- 
ally, irregularly striato-punctate, the striae slightly impressed toward 
apices; intervals finely, densely granulose, with a few coarse, incon- 
spicuous punctures intermixed. 

Abdomen beneath coarseh-, sparsely punctate, intervals finely, in- 
conspicuously reticulate, sparsely clothed with short, recumbent, whit- 
ish hairs ; last visible sternite deeply, narrowly, arcuately emarginate. 

Length 11 mm., width 3.5 mm. 

Tyfe locality. — Indiera Alta Maricao, Puerto Rico. 

Type.— U. S. N. M., No. 58798. 

Described from a single specimen collected June 5, 1944, by J. A. 
Ramos. 

This species is closely allied to Peronaemis thoracicus Waterhouse, 
but it diilers from that species in having the sides of the pronotum 
parallel posteriorly and not expanded at the bases, and the basal de- 
pressions shallower, the elytra uniformly olivaceous green without 
any distinct brownish or cupreous spots, and the underside of the ab- 
domen uniformly brownish green. 

Genus TAPHROCERUS Solier 

TAPHROCERUS HAITIENSIS, new species 

Broadly elongate, strongly attenuate posteriorly, moderately con- 
vex above, moderately shining, black, with a vague greenish or bronzy 
tinge in different lights. 

Head subequal in width to pronotum at base, and when viewed from 
above truncate in front, without a distinct longitudinal groove; front 
wide, with a broad, shallow depression between the eyes, and with the 
sides nearly parallel ; surface coarsely granulose, coarsely, shallowly. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 349 

irregularly punctate, clothed with a few short, inconspicuous hairs 
behind the epistoma, and with the two median pores along anterior 
margin separated from each other by the diameter of the pores ; eyes 
large, elongate, more acutely rounded beneath than above, but not 
projecting; epistoma strongly elevated, broadly, deeply, arcuately 
emarginate in front. 

Pronotum moderately convex, with a shollow, transverse depression 
along anterior margin, nearly twice as wide as long, subequal in 
width at base and apex, widest at apical third; sides when viewed 
from above, arcuately rounded, more strongly narrowed posteriorly ; 
posterior angles obtusely angulated ; anterior margin nearly truncate ; 
base truncate on each side, deeply, arcuately emarginate in front 
of scutellum; surface nearly glabrous, coarsely granulose, coarsely, 
sparsely, shallowly, irregularly punctate, each puncture with a very 
short, recumbent, inconspicuous hair. Scutellum triangular, rounded 
in front. 

Elytra at base as wide as pronotum at apical third; humeral 
angles broadly rounded; sides broadly, shallowly constricted along 
basal halves, then obliquely narrowed to the tips, which are separately 
broadly rounded and finely serrulate ; surface irregularly rugose, more 
coarsely basally, with indistinct rows of shallow punctures, the punc- 
tures becoming obsolete toward apices, and clothed with a few short, 
recumbent, white hairs, and with the intervals finely granulose ; each 
elytron with a broad, transverse basal depression. 

Abdomen beneath finely granulose, coarsely, very shallowly, 
sparsely, irregularly punctate, with a few short, recumbent, white 
hairs; last sternite narrowly flattened and truncate at apex, with a 
deep, arcuate apical groove following outline of apical margin. Pres- 
ternum finely, densely reticulate. Anterior and middle tibiae slightly 
arcuate, posterior pair straight. 

Length 4 mm., width 1.25 mm. 

Type locality. — Lac Azuei, Haiti. 

Type and paratijpes. — U. S. N. M. No. 58799. Paratypes returned 
to J. A. Ramos and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Described from 84 specimens. The type and 80 paratypes were 
collected at the type locality during June 1938 by J. A. Ramos, by 
sweeping over low vegetation in a mangrove swamp; one paratype 
was collected at Petite Saline, Haiti, August 21, 1925, by W. A. 
Hoffman; and two paratypes were collected at Trou Caiman, Haiti, 
September 4, 1934, by P. J. Darlington. 

This species is closely allied to Taphrocerus aeneocupreus Fisher, 
but it differs from that species in being black with only a vague 
greenish or bronzy tinge, in having the head only shallowly depressed 
between the eyes, the epistoma strongly elevated, the pronotum con- 
vex posteriorly, and the two median pores along the anterior margin 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

of the head separated from each other by the diameter of the pores, 
whereas in aeneocupreus^ these pores are separated from each other 
by from two to three times the diameter of the pores. 

Genus 3IAST0GENIUS Solier 

MASTOGENIUS PERUVIANUS, new species 

Elongate, subcylindrical, strongly shining, glabrous, uniformly 
dark brown, with a distinct cupreous tinge. 

Head broadly, very deeply depressed in front, with a deep, round 
fovea in the depression between eyes; surface densely, coarsely, uni- 
formly punctate, the intervals finely granulose or reticulate; eyes 
with inner margins nearly parallel to each other. Antenna extending 
to middle of pronotum, serrate from fourth segment ; second segment 
short, globose; third segment about twice as long as second and dis- 
tinctly narrower ; the following segments, short and triangular, except 
the eleventh, which is oblong, and acute at apex. 

Pronotum regularly convex, about one and one-half times wider 
than long, narrower at apex than at base; sides nearly parallel or 
feebly sinuate; posterior angles obtuse; anterior margin and base 
truncate ; surface densely, coarsely, uniformly punctate, the intervals 
indistinctly granulose. Scutellum triangular, smooth. 

Elytra strongly convex, as wide as pronotum at base ; sides nearly 
parallel from humeral angles to middles, arcuately expanded at apical 
thirds, then arcuately converging to the tips, which are separately 
broadly subtruncate; humeral angles rectangular; surface deeply, 
transversely depressed along bases, feebly, broadly depressed along 
sides behind humeri, very densely, coarsely, uniformly punctate, the 
intervals smooth. 

Abdomen beneath strongly convex, coarsely, rather sparsely, uni- 
formly punctate, intervals indistinctly reticulate ; last sternite broadly 
rounded at apex, and clothed with a few inconspicuous, erect hairs. 
Prostemum without antennal grooves, coarsely, confluently punctate 
or rugose. Posterior margin of hind coxal plate straight. 

Length 2.75-3.25 mm., width 1-1.25 mm. 

Type locality. — Caiiete, Peru. 

Types and paratypes. — U.S.N.M. No. 58800. 

Described from six specimens (one type) collected at the type 
locality, January 13, 1938, by J. E. Wille. 

This species resembles Mastogenius subcyaneus (LeConte), but it 
differs from that species in being glabrous and uniformly dark brown, 
with a distinct cupreous tinge, and in having the front of the head 
deeply depressed at the middle, the sides parallel or feebly sinuate, 
and the anterior margin truncate, and the elytra more coarsely and 
uniformly punctured. 



NEW BUPRESTID BEETLES — FISHER 351 

Genus TRIGONOGYA Schaeffer 

TRIGONOGYA INSULARIS. new species 

Elongate oval, strongly shining, sparsely pubescent, black, with a 
distinct purplish tinge, bright blue along base of elytra, and tarsi 
brownish yellow. 

Head convex, without a median depression ; surface finely, shallowly, 
sparsely punctate, the intervals finely reticulate; eyes with inner 
margins nearly parallel to each other. Antenna extending beyond 
middle of pronotum (broken). 

Pronotum regularly convex, twice as wide as long, distinctly nar- 
rower at apex than at base, widest at apical fourth; sides broadly, 
arcuately diverging from apical angles to apical fourths, then feebly, 
obliquely converging to the posterior angles, which are rectangular ; 
anterior margin feebly, arcuately emarginate ; base truncate ; surface 
sparsely, finely, shallowly punctate, the intervals smooth, and sparsely 
clothed with rather short, semierect, inconspicuous hairs. Scutellum 
triangular, smooth. 

Elytra strongly convex, as wide as pronotum at base ; sides nearly 
parallel from humeral angles to behind middles, then arcuately con- 
verging to the tips, which are conjointly broadly rounded; humeral 
angles obtusely rounded ; surface deeply, transversely depressed along 
bases, very finely, sparsely, indistinctly punctate, intervals smooth, 
sparsely clothed with very short, semierect, inconspicuous hairs. 

Abdomen beneath strongly convex, finely, indistinctly punctate, 
finely, longitudinally reticulate, sparsely clothed with short, incon- 
spicuous hairs ; last sternite finely granulose and broadly rounded at 
apex. Prosternum longitudinally reticulate, with distinct, deep 
antennal grooves extending to middle of prosternum. Posterior mar- 
gin of hind coxal plate slightly arcuate. 

Length 2 mm., width 1 mm. 

Type locality. — Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. 

Type and paratype. — U.S.N.M. No. 58801. 

Described from two specimens (one type), collected at the type 
locality, October 24, 1918, by Harold Morrison. 

This species is allied to Mastogenius uniformis Waterhouse, but it 
differs from the description given for that species in being black, 
with a distinct purplish tinge, and in having the bases of the elytra 
bright blue and the dorsal surface of the body sparsely clothed with 
short hairs. Waterhouse, in his careful description of uniformis, does 
not mention any pubescence, and if the type was pubescent it is very 
doubtful that he had overlooked that character. Mastogenius uni- 
fomiis Waterhouse has the antennal grooves on the prosternum and 
should be placed in the genus Trigonogya Schaeffer (new combination) . 

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 



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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Vol. 99 Washington : 1949 No. 3241 

THE PIMA COUNTY (AKIZONA) METEORITE 




By E. P. Henderson and Stuart H. Perry 



Tlie name Pima County is provisionally given to a small but most 
unusual iron meteorite acquired by Stuart H. Perry in 1947 from Prof. 
Eldred G. Wilson, of the University of Arizona at Tucson. Its history 
is unknown except that it was brought to the university many years ago 
by someone who is supposed to have found it in the vicinity of Tucson, 
Pima County, Ariz. 

The specimen, which has been given to the United States National 
Museum by Mr. Perry, weighed only 210 grams. It is pyramidal in 
shape, the base, which apparently was the evenest of the four sides, 
having been partly polished. Standing on that surface, the pyramid 
is about 11/2 inches high and 1% by 1% inches in the other two direc- 
tions. Though the polished surface did not seem to have been sawed, 
but only partly rubbed down, this iron may have been part of a larger 
mass. If so, the larger mass is unknown, and the authors know of no 
other nickel-poor ataxite having the same microstructure. 

The most striking feature of this iron is the remarkable flow struc- 
ture developed on three of its pyramidal sides, consisting of deep fur- 
rows and ridges which cover the surface and curve around one of the 
edges between them. The fourth side is not furrowed and ridged but 
shows some minute droplets of melted metal. The fused metal in 
these flight markings shows minute pores formed by bubbles during 
the time the iron was molten. 

The microstructure of the Pima County meteorite is that of a nickel- 
poor ataxite, consisting of kamacite with a profuse dispersion of min- 
ute particles of schreibersite. Generally grain boundaries are not 

818711 — 49 353 



354 



iPROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



apparent, though in places there are faint remnant gamma boundaries 
along which phosphide particles are disposed. 

At numerous points the phosphide particles are thickly crowded 
in round areas, which appear to the eye as dim lighter spots on the 
etched surface and at moderate magnification suggest galaxies in a 
photograph of the stars. At high magnification the phosphide par- 
ticles appear irregular in shape, fairly uniform in size, and without 
orientation. In places these groups or "galaxies" of phosphide par- 
ticles inclose small irregular black inclusions of unusual character — 
a dense aggregate of phosphide particles in a phosphide-poor ground- 
mass. At low magnification they resemble areas of black gamma- 
alpha aggregate, but they are definitely proved to be phosphide. 

On a thin slice cut from the base of the jDyramidal mass the specific 
gravity was determined and a chemical analysis made, after all fused 
material from the outer edge of the slice had been removed. The 
sample was placed in a flask and covered with dilute hydrochloric 
acid, and the gas given off was passed through a train of lead-acetate 
solution to precip)itate any sulphide gas as lead sulphide. There was a 
small residue in the flask after it had stood in contact with the acid 
for 20 hours. This insoluble material was filtered off and washed 
several times with dilute hydrochloric acid to make certain that it 
was free from kamacite. The residue was then taken up in aqua 
regia, diluted to volume, and analyzed separately from the portion 
soluble in hydrochloric acid. 

The weight of the material soluble in hydrochloric acid and called 
kamacite, and that of the material insoluble in hydrochloric acid and 



ANALYSIS OF PIMA COUNTY METEORITE 
(E. P. Henderson, Analyst) 





Element 


Meteorite 


Schreibersite 


Kamacite 




Percent 


Ratio • 


Percent 


Ratio 1 


Percent 


Ratio I 


Fe 


93.67 
5.64 
0.52 
0.10 
0.003 
0.05 


1.678 
0.096 
0.008 


54. 17 
28.50 
2.03 
15.27 


0.9700 
0.485 
0.034 
0.492 


93.98 
5.48 
0.55 

None 


1 683 


Ni 


093 


Co 


009 


P... 




S 






Insol 
























Sp. G 


7.695 
16. 13 






Mol. ratio, 


Fe 




16 5 




Ni+Co 













' The molecular ratios are obtained by dividing the percentage of each element found by the atomic 
weight of the element. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 19 




Fig. 1. — Pima Cuunty (Arizona) luuLrwnLL — a remarkable exhibition of flow structure, 
the result of jetting during flight. There are some globules of metal in the deeper 
furrows and also a few bubblelike inclusions. About twice natural size. 




Fig. 2. — Sharply marked groups o: phosphide particles, two inclosing dense areas com- 
posed of t'lickly crowded phosphide particles. Picral 40 seconds; X about 3>. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

!r\ 



« "^ 









^€ 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 20 




4\ 



S^ 



a 



■ 







JT' 



o ^ 











^-. 



<^ 



^r^ 







"?> 









<^' "O -G . 2 



ON , ii O 
"" >. C CI, 



5 •.^- v^ > 

o c -^ P 



l-S"? ^> 



~i ^ i C 

,j u t: -a £ 
n rf o X t- 







c 



5 .. 

^ O 



o o 



THE PIMA COUNTY METEORITE — HENDERSON AND PERRY 355 

called schreibersite, are both unknown. The results of the determi- 
nations in both portions were used to calculate the percentage of the 
elements present in each portion. The analysis reported for the mete- 
orite was obtained by combining the analyses of schreibersite and 
kamacite. 

This schreibersite is unusually high in cobalt, considerably above 
any other analysis of this mineral found in the literature. Since the 
analysis was made by dissolving the residue, which was insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid, in aqua regia and dividing the solution into ali- 
quot parts, there was no chance for any check determinations. The 
authors have no reason, however, to question the results. The ratio 
between FeNiCo and P is 3.02 to 1 and is consistent with the theoreti- 
cal ratio for this mineral. The general composition of this iron is 
in close agreement with other nickel-poor ataxites. 

The only other nickel-poor ataxite known from Arizona is the 
Navajo iron, which is now in the Chicago Natural History Museum. 
Unfortunately, that important specimen has never been studied, and 
the only published information as to its composition is a short note by 
George P. Merrill ^ in which its type was announced and a statement 
made that the nickel content was 5.81 percent. 

The Pima County iron, though of unknown origin, will be consid- 
ered a separate and distinct meteorite unless otherwise proved from 
later information. 



1 Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 5, vol. 3, p. 154, 1922. 



U. S. 60VERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; 1949 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

issued |^2rva.-SE^i ^.V '"^ 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington : 1949 No. 3242 



THE LINWOOD (NEBRASKA) METEORITE 



By E. P. Henderson and Stuaet H. Perry 



The meteorite here described was discovered in 1940 or 1941 on 
the farm of Joseph W. Vrana, 1% miles south and I14 miles west of 
Linwood, Butler County, Nebr., in section 3, township 16, range 4 
(latitude 41°26' N., longitude 96°58' W.) . It was found buried about 
7 or 8 inches beneath the surface of the soil while Mr. Vrana was 
operating a disk harrow. 

The meteorite as received by Mr. Perry weighed 46,000 grams and 
was presented to the United States National Museum intact except 
for a 1- or 2-ounce fragment removed from one end. The dimensions 
are approximately 12 by 11 by 5 inches. The surface is evenly cov- 
ered with iron oxide, and there are no remaining structures of flight 
markings or original crust. It is definitely not a recent fall. There 
are many "thumb marks" of varying size on the surface but no unusual 
features worthy of special note. 

The Linwood iron is a coarsest octahedrite with many silicate in- 
clusions (pi. 21, fig. 1) . The octahedral pattern is irregular and quite 
different from the coarse octahedrites of almost identical composition. 
The kamacite bands are mostly short and vary in wadth from 2 to 4 
nun. or a little more, but in some places polyhedral masses nearly 
half an inch across are found. The kamacite shows abundant Neu- 
mann lines. The individual kamacite areas are not granulated as 
they would be if there had been reheating followed by quick cooling, 
yet the general structure of the octahedral pattern gives the impres- 

818712—49 357 



358 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM 



sion of being granulated. No taenite lamellae or plessite is visible, 
though the microstriicture shows occasional minute atypical plessite 
fields with a diversity of structure (pi. 21, fig. 2; pi. 22, figs. 1, 2) and 
occasional small schreibersite bodies. A few small thin scales believed 
to be taenite were found attached to the kamacite when the silicate 
inclusions were broken out for study. No rhabdites were observed. 
There are veinlets of silicates separating some of the kamacite areas, 
and in several cases these extend from one silicate area to another, 
but always around the edges of a kamacite boundary. 

The most distinctive feature of this meteorite is the silicate in- 
clusions. These are numerous, colored black wnth carbon, and of 
irregular shapes, usually elongated or sprangling, with dimensions 
up to 2 inches or more. The bodies of the inclusions in many places 
extend into the octahedral structure as black irregular veins or lines, 
often of considerable length, and resemble cracks invaded by iron 
hydroxide. Actually little hydroxide is present except around the 
edges of the slice close to the outer surface. Occasional particles 
of silicates are found in the kamacite inclosed in the silicate areas. 
The structure of the iron indicates that the inclusions segregated be- 
fore the octahedral structure was fully established. There are, how- 
ever, some small rounded or irregular-shaped masses of iron appar- 
ently isolated within the silicate areas. Although these appear, in 
the section cut, to be islands of iron, they may be little tongues of 
metal projecting into the silicate areas from the underside of the 
inclusion. 

To provide a sample for study a slice was cut and etched, and from 
this slice areas of iron were selected which were free from inclusions. 
Likewise, portions rich in silicates were cut out to yield suitable mate- 
rial for a study of these inclusions. 

COMPARISON OP THE LINWOOD, EL BURRO, AND MURNPEOWIE METEORITES 



Element 


Lin wood, 

Nebraska 

(E.P.Henderson, 

analyst) 


El Burro, 

Mexico (E. P. 

Henderson, 

analyst) 


Murnpeowie, 

SouthAustralia 

(M. H. Hey, 

analyst) 


Fe 


Percent 
93.47 
5.98 
0.39 
0.05 
None 
0.01 


Percent 

93.10 
6.02 
0.34 
0.32 
None 
0.01 


Percent 

93.88 
6.32 
0.32 


NI 


Co 


P 


S 


0.006 
20 


Insol 






Sp. O 


7.813 
15.63 


7.884 
15.57 




Mol. ratio, ^^„ 


15.00 


Ni+Co - 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 21 




Fig. 1. — Slice of Linwood meteorite showing the well-developed octahedral pattern and the 
distribution of the silicate inclusions, black because of the large quantity of carbon present. 
One-half natural size. 



ft 





Fig. 2. — A light plessite field, the taenite lamella gray because of supersaturation with 
respect to kamacite. Picral 85 seconds; X about iS. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 22 




Fig. 1.- An irrcjular plessite field containinu lamellae of taenitc (.eray) and small 
areas of incompletely transformed gamma-alpha aggregate. Small schreibersite 
bodies surrounded by h_\'droxide. Picral 85 seconds; X about .vv 



Fig. 2. — A plessilc field with a pearlitic structure of kamacite and taenite lamellae, 
almost surrounded by hydroxide. At this magnification it resembles similar areas of 
pearlitic structure in a number of other irons (e. g., Leeds, Seelasgen, Youndegin) in 
which the white lamellae are kamacite and the gray are taenite. Picral 30 seconds; 
X about 40. 



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PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 23 




c -Z 






X 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 24 




Fig. 1. — Irregular edge of an inclusion. The silicate at one point extends in a streamer 
from the mass. Three small isolated particles of silicate in kamacite. Picral 30 sec- 
onds; X about 45. 






Fig. 2. — An area at the edge of the slice showing, at lower left, a zone of alltration in 
which the normal structure has been replaced by a secondary granulation. The dark 
area at lower right is probabh' Indroxide; that at upper left is silicate. Picral 120 
seconds; X about 30. 



THE LINWOOD METEORITE — HENDERSON AND PERRY 359 

The composition of the metallic portion of the Linwood meteorite 
agrees very closely with that of the El Burro/ although in the latter 
the kamacite bands are very broad (2-3 cm.) and fairly regular in 
direction. The structure of the Murnpeowie ^ is entirely different, 
consisting of rounded grains, small to moderate in size, without rec- 
ognizable octahedral structure. 

Qualitative chemical tests were made upon the inclusions in order 
to determine their nature. Graphitic carbon is present in all the sili- 
cate inclusions; troilite was positively identified by collecting the 
hydrogen sulphide gas liberated when the powder was treated with 
hydrochloric acid; schreibersite was recognized by its physical habit 
and its strong magnetic properties. The acid extract from the sili- 
cates was found to contain magnesium, calcium, iron, nickel, traces of 
phosphorus, and soluble silica. 

The bulk of the silicates is olivine, but there may be a small quantity 
of anorthite present since the quantity of calcium found in the acid sol- 
uble extract appears too large to be calcium derived from impurities 
in olivine. The silicates insoluble in hydrochloric acid were washed 
with dilute sodium-carbonate solution to remove the silica which had 
separated by acid attack on the olivine, and then air-dried for optical 
examination. Because of the complex nature of these silicates and 
the difficulty of obtaining enough material to make mineral separa- 
tions and chemical analysis, the authors decided that an optical study 
would give results capable of more accurate interpretation. 

The general character of the olivine was determined by assuming 
that all the magnesium found in the acid soluble portion was derived 
from olivine, combining it with the total of the acid-soluble silica and 
then adding enough FeO to give the theoretical olivine ratios. 

COMPOSITION OF OLIVINE FROM LINWOOD, NEBRASKA, METEORITE 



3 



SiO. 0.0468 grams 0.1470 1 

MgO 0.0707 grams 0.1753 

'FeO 0.1187 grams 0.1187 

^ Calculated. 

The partial analysis given above indicates an olivine with a com- 
position midway between the magnesium and iron ends of the series 
very close to Fo6oFa4o. 

Optical properties of the silicates in the acid-insoluble residue of 
the Linwood, Nebraska, meteorite were determined by Miss Jewell J. 
Glass, of the U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr. Harry H. Hess, of 
Princeton University, to whom grateful acknowledgment is made. 
The following data are quoted from their reports : 

"Most of the insoluble residue consists of graphite. 

1 Henderson. E. P., Amer. Min.. vol. 26. pp. 655-656. 1941. 

2 Spencer, L. J., Min. Mag., vol. 24, No. 148, pp. 13-20, 1935. 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

"Enstatite. About two-thirds of the nonopaque insohible material 
is composed of enstatite. The enstatite grains are minute ; the crushed 
grains show distinct prismatic cleavage. Its color is gray ; colorless in 
thin fragments. Luster vitreous. Transparent to translucent. Opti- 
cally positive with a large axial angle, 2F=T5°— 78°. Dispersion 
distinct, r>v for most grains. The indices of refraction are : a= 1.659, 
/8= 1.664, y= 1.670. The composition of the enstatite, estimated from 
the optical properties, is En 93-94FS 6-7. 

"Chrome diopside. This green pyroxene is less abundant than the 
enstatite in the insoluble residue. Its grains are rounded, transparent 
to translucent. Optically positive; 2F approximately 60°. Disper- 
sion distinct, r>v. Indices of refraction: a= 1.689, /?= 1.695, 
y= 1.704. Birefringence measured in bakelitic mount by comparison 
with quartz using Berek compensator 0.0264. Optical angle 55° — 60° ; 
ZA(7 39°-40°. 

a= 1.6766, Na light on temperature cell. 

;8= 1.6828, calculated. 

7=1.7030, calculated from birefringence. 
This pyroxene has enstatite exsolution lamellae perfectly developed 
paralled to (001), which indicates very slow cooling in its original 
environment. Estimate composition from the optical properties is 

W046En48FS6. 

"Oligoclase. This feldspar is present in amounts equal to the py- 
roxene. Colorless with a good cleavage. Optically negative; 2F 
moderately large. Indices of refraction are: a= 1.538, /3= 1.543, 
y= 1.546. These properties indicate a composition close to AbgoAuao. 

"Maskelynite. A small amount of an isotropic material with an 
index of refraction of 1.539 was observed which is probably mask- 
elynite." 

COMPOSITION OF THE SILICATES IN LINWOOD, NEBRASKA, METEORITE 

Olivine Fo9„Fa4o 

Enstatite En93-94FsFse-7 

Chrome diopside WowEn^sFsa 

Oligoclase AbsoAnjo 

Chemically the pyroxenes are in equilibrium. 

Carbon is distributed through all the inclusions but not always 
uniformly within each inclusion. Troilite is usually more or less 
concentrated around the rims of inclusions, bordering the metal. 
Only a few schreibersite bodies were observed in these inclusions, but 
they seem always to occur adjacent to the metallic iron and not as 
isolated masses in the graphite and silicate material. 



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issued 



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Vol. 99 Washington : 1949 No. 3243 

THE NEARCTIC SPECIES OF THE FAMILY 
STEPHANIDAE (HYMENOPTERA) 



By Henry Townes 



The Stephanidae are a family of relatively large, elongate parasitic 
Hymenoptera usually regarded as rare, but sometimes common in the 
Tropics. They have a spherical head, long neck, stalked abdomen, 
long hind coxa, swollen hind femur, and long ovipositor: characters 
that together give an appearance unlike any other insects except 
certain groups of Braconidae. In these features (except the oviposi- 
tor length) the primitive genus Schlettererius is conservative, and 
the more specialized genera progressively more extreme. 

The family may be at once distinguished by habitus (pi. 25, figs. 1, 
2) and the crown of five blunt to acute teeth surrounding the median 
ocellus of all species. The multisegmented antenna, the wing vena- 
tion, and other structural features suggest close relation to the Brac- 
onidae. The crown of teeth on the head, shape of the mandible, 
venation, and some other features are reminiscent of the Orussidae. 

Stephanids are often collected on dead tree trunks. Because of 
this and their habitus, the species are generally presumed to be para- 
sites of wood-boring Coleoptera. Other possible hosts are aculeate 
Hymenoptera nesting in wood. The only known rearing record is of 
a short series of Diastephmms leueostictus in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, from Agrihis kalshoveni in Java. The adults are 
sluggish and awkward in walking and slow in flight. 

Two genera containing six species are known from America north 
of Mexico. The types of the described species have been studied, 
except for these of the names Stephanus Hcoloi" Westwood and S. 
sickmanni Schletterer. Most of the specimens studied are in the 

818708 — 49 361 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

United States National Museum at Washington, D. C. The loca- 
tions of specimens in institutional collections are indicated (in paren- 
theses) by the name of the city in which they are stored or, in private 
collections, by the name of the owner. 

KEY TO THE NEARCTIC GENERA OF STEPHANIDAE 

First nbdouiinal teriiite about 2.") as long as wide, not fused with its sternite ; 
hind wing with nervellus ; hind femur with three larger teeth beneath; hind 
tarsus of female with five segments; eighth tergite of female with a median 
apical point. (See pi. 25, fig. 1) Schlettererius 

First abdominal tergite at least 4.0 as long as wide, fused with its sternite; 
hind wing without nervellus ; hind femur with two larger teeth beneath (apical 
tooth often subdivided) ; hind tarsus of female with three segments; eighth 
tergite of female (of Nearctic species) without a median apical point. (See 
pi. 25, fig. 2) Megischus 

Genus SCHLETTERERIUS Ashmead 

Plate 25, Figure 1 

Schlettererius Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, p. 20, 1900. Type: 
Stephanus cinctipes Cresson. Monobasic. 

The free first abdominal sternite and exceptionally complete vena- 
tion mark this genus as the most primitive of the family. The 5-seg- 
mented hind tarsus of the female, three teeth on the under side of 
the hind femur, and several venational features indicate rather close 
relation to Stephanus^ a monotypic genus of Europe. 

Schlettererius contains only the species below. Stephanus ruflpes 
Say has been referred to Schletterenus^ but it belongs in the Bracon- 
idae, as evidenced by the following characters in Say's description: 
Abdomen sessile, the petiole not visible; thorax not remarkably 
attenuate before ; propodeum with two slightly elevated, longitudinal, 
distant lines; stigma large, triangular, and fuscous; length 5 mm. 
Say placed the species in Stephanus largely on similarity of wing 
venation with Jurine's figure of Stephanus serrator. It has never 
been correctly identified since it was first described. 

SCHLETTERERIUS CINCTIPES (Cresson) 

Plate 25, Figuke 1 

Stephanas cinctipes Cbesson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 8, proc. xviii, 1880. 
Type: $, Washington Territory (Philadelphia). 

Forewing of male 8-13 mm. long, of female 8-16 mm. long ; oviposi- 
tor sheath about 2.0 as long as the body. Easily distinguished by the 
characters pointed out in the key to genera. See plate 25, figure 1 
for an illustration. 



NEARCTIC STEPHANIDAE — TOWNES 363 

Black. Second and third abdominal segments, first abdominal seg- 
ment except more or less of its base, and sometimes the fourth 
abdominal segment of male basally, ferruginous; labrum, ventro- 
lateral triangles on frons of male, basal 0.15 to 0,3 of tibiae, apices 
of front and middle femora, and a very broad subapical band on 
ovipositor sheath white; tegula brown; extreme base of wing white; 
forewing light brown beyond the basal vein, with a narrow hyaline 
band diagonally across the discal cell and across the base of the second 
discoidal cell; apical 0.5 of hind wing light brown; tarsi whitish to 
light brown, darkest apically. 

Specimens. — 9 5 , 21 2 , from Arizona (Cochise County) ; British 
Columbia (Pender Harbor, Robson, and Vancouver) ; California 
(Alta, Bass Lake, Cisco, Fallen Leaf Lake in El Dorado County, 
McCloud, Meyers, Pinecrest, Porterville, Riverton in El Dorado 
County, and Yreka) ; Idaho (Coeur d'Alene) ; Oregon (at 6,500 feet 
on Antelope Mountain in Harney County, and Ashland) ; and Wash- 
ington (Ashford, Mount Rainier, and Kooskooskie in Walla Walla 
County) . Dates of collection run from June 1 to August 29. 

This species has about the same range as Pseudotsuga taxifolki 
(Douglas fir) and seems to be most common in forests of this tree. 

Genus MEGISCHUS Brulle 

Plate 25, Figure 2 

Megischus Brull6, Histoire naturelle des insectes, Hym^nopteres, vol. 4, p. 537, 

1846. Type: {Meyischus annulator Brulle) =/Mrccr<?/s Lepeletier and 

Serviile. Designated by Viereck, 1914. 
Bothrioccnis Sichel, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, ser. 3, vol. 8, p. 759, 1860. Type: 

Bothriocerus europoeus Sichel. Designated by Viereck, 1914. 
Hemistcphanus Endeblein, Stettin. Ent. Zeit., vol. 67, p. 301, 1906. Type: 

Stephanus macrurus Schletterer. Original designation. 

Megischus is a pantropic genus containing about 60 described spe- 
cies, but at least 20 of these appear to be synonyms. Most of the 
species now stand in literature under the generic name Stephamis. 
Megischus differs most conspicuously from Stephanus and Schletter- 
erius in having only three segments in the female hind tarsus, and from 
all other genera in the family in its more complete venation. 

Five Nearctic species are included, divisible into three species groups 
as indicated in the key to species. 

KEY TO THE NEARCTIC SPECIES OF MEGISCHUS 

1. First tergite mat, smooth; pronotnm mat {texanus group) 2 

First tergite polished and with conspicuous transverse wrinkles (pi. 25, fig. 2) ; 
pronotum polished 3 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. w 

2. Posterior half of pronotum mat and with fine transverse striation (pi. 25, 

fig. 3); mesopleurum mat and rugulose; brachial vein distinct; body 

dark brown 1. californicus, new si)ecies 

Posterior half of pronotum mat, not striate (pi. 25, fig. 4) ; mesoplernm mat 
and with large shallow punctures; brachial vein subobsolete; body light 
brown 2. texanus Cresson 

3. Outer face of hind femur mat ; pronotum, as seen from above, with a deep 

subapical notch on each side, and with a weak subbasal swelling (pi. 25, 
fig. 5) ; iimer edge of hind femur of female with a weak submedian indenta- 
tion {bicolor group) 4 

Outer face of hind femur polished ; pronotum, as seen from above, without a 
deep subapical notch on each side, and with a strong subbasal swelling 
(pi. 25, figs. 6, 7) ; inner edge of hind tibia of female with a strong, almost 
semicircular indentation (hrunneus group) 5 

4. Head and pronotum blackish 3a. bicolor sickmanni (Schletterer) 

Head and pronotum ferruginous 3b. bicolor bicolor (Westwood) 

5. Ovipositor sheath with a subapical white band ; pronotum sculptured as in pi. 

25, fig. G, with a subapical pair of short ridges on each side; lower half of 
temple with scattered weak or obsolescent punctures. 

4. arizonicus, new species 

Ovipositor sheath without a white subapical band ; pronotum sculptured as in 

pi. 25, fig. 7, with a subapical set of about four sharp cross ridges ; temple 

with coarse punctures next to the eye, or these punctures weak or absent. 

5. brunneus Cresson 

1. MEGISCHUS CALIFORNICUS. new species 

Plate 25, Figube 3 

Mesopleurum rugulose. 

ForewinfT of males about 5 mm. long, of females 5.5-6.5 mm. long; 
temple rugulose in its lower 0.6 ± and in its upper 0.15 ±, the rest 
polished; pronotum mat, the front 0.3 with cross ridges, the rest with 
fine cross striae (pi. 25, fig. 3), which are often obsolescent in smaller 
specimens; mesoiileurum and propodeum rugulose; brachial and sub- 
discoidal veins weak but distinct; outer face of hind femur mat, 
apically somewhat rugulose; hind tibia of female pinched laterally 
at its basal 0.35, most strongly indented on its outer side, beyond 
the pinch swollen to the width of the hind femur, its inner edge 
without a noticeable median indentation; hind basitarsus of female 
narrow, not expanded apically ; first tergite mat and somewhat rugu- 
lose, in the female about 5,5 as long as wide ; ovipositor sheath about 
1.15 as long as the body. 

Dark brown to blackish, with the antenna and legs a little paler. 
Cheek mostly pale brown ; wings lightly inf uscate ; ovipositor sheath 
with a subapical white band. 

Type.— 9 , U.S.N.M. No. 58647, Los Angeles County, Calif., D. W. 
Coquillett (Washington). 

Paratopes. — California : $ , Carville, Trinity County, 2,400-2,500 
feet, June 3, 1934 (Townes). 9, Greenhorn Mountains, Tulare 



NEARCTIC STEPHANIDAE — TOWNES 365 

County, May 7, 1931, E. C. Van Dyke (San Francisco). $ , Mount 
Diablo, Contra Costa County, June 25, 1939, E. C. Van Dyke (San 
Francisco), $ , Mount Wilson, 5,000 feet. May 26, 1918, J. O. Martin 
(San Francisco). 5, Pinon Flat, Santa Rosa Mountains, May 27, 
1941, D. J. and J. N. Knull (Washington) . 11 5 , Santa Rosa Moun- 
tains, May 27 to July 4, 194G, D. J. and J. N. Knull (Columbus and 
Townes). $, Switzer's Camp, San Gabriel Mountains, June 1927 
(Cambridge). 

2. MEGISCHUS TEXANUS Cresson 

Plate 25, Figure 4 

Mcgischns texanus Cresson, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 4, p. 190, 1872. Type: 
9, Comal County, Tex. (Philadelphia). 

Mesopleurum mat and sparsely punctate- hody light hroion. 

Forewing of males 4r-5 mm. long, of females 5-8 mm. long ; temple 
with a few weak punctures, weakly mat in its lower 0.6 ± and in its 
upper 0.15 ±, the rest polished; pronotum mat, its anterior 0.3 to 0.4 
with cross ridges (pi. 25, fig. 4) ; mesopleurum mat, with sparse large 
shallow punctures; propodeum mat, its central part, especially api- 
cally, more or less punctate to punctato-rugose ; brachial and sub- 
discoidal veins subobsolete; outer face of hind femur with a few 
shallow punctures, mat, most strongly mat toward its apex; hind 
tibia of female pinched laterally at its basal 0.35, most strongly in- 
dented on the outer side, beyond the pinch swollen to the width of 
the femur, its inner edge without a noticeable median indentation; 
hind basitarsus of female narrow, not expanded apically; first ter- 
gite mat, smooth, in the female about 7.0 as long as wide; ovipositor 
sheath about 0.9 as long as the body. 

Light brown. Wings tinged with brown ; tergites 2-5 with a more 
or less distinct darker brown apical band, and the apical part of the 
abdomen often darker brown than the rest of the body; ovipositor 
sheath with a subapical white band. 

Specimens. — AmzoNA : 9 , Chiricahua Mountains, June 3, 1935, 
J. N. Knull (Washington) . $ , Douglas, April 13, 1939, W. W. Jones 
(Washington). $, Huachuca Mountains, June 11, 1933, R. H. 
Beamer (Lawrence). 5 , Huachuca Mountains (Washington). 2, 
Prescott, May 19, Barber and Schwarz (Washington). $ , Tucson, 
July 20, 1940, D. J. and J. N. Knull (Washington). 5 , Sunnyside 
Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, July 9, 1940, R. H. Beamer (Law- 
rence). 5 , southern Arizona (Cambridge). 

California : 5,2$, Santa Rosa Mountains, July 4, 1946, D. J. and 
J. N. ICnull (Columbus and Townes). 

Mexico: 5 , Nogales, Sonora, June 25, 1942 (Washington). 

Oklahoma : $ , Wichita National Forest, Jime 26, 1936, R. H. 
Beamer (Lawrence). 



366 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

Texas : $ , Brownwood, August 23, 1921, R. H. Painter (New York) . 

$ , Chisos Mountains, July 17, 1946. D. J. and J. N. Knull (Columbus) . 

9 , College Station, September 30, 1936 (Townes). 5 , Davis Moun- 
tains, July 2, 1940, D. J. and J. N. Knull (Washington). 2 5, 1 9 , 
Eastland County, April 4, May 9, and June 10, 1941, Grace O. Wiley 

(Columbus) . 9 , Gillespie County, May 2, 1935, J. N. Knull (Wash- 
ington) . S , 9 , Gillespie County, May 7, 1946, D. J. and J. N. Knull 

(Columbus). 9, New Braunfels, June 2, 1901 (Cambridge). 5, 
Nueces River, July 2, 1917 (Ithaca). 9 , Star County, July 5, 1938, 
R. H. Beamer (Townes). 9, Uvalde, June 21 (Washington). 

9 , Texas (Washington). 

3. MEGISCHUS BICOLOR (Westwood), new combination 

Plaie 25, FiGDUEs 2, 5 

PronotK77i, as seen from ahove^ with a deep snhapical notch in each 
side (pi. 25, fig. 5). 

Forewing of males 4.5-8.5 mm. long, of females 6.5-11 mm. long; 
temple polished, with a few fine punctures ; pronotum polished, weakly 
swollen subbasally, medially and subbasally with irregular coarse cross 
ridges and subbasally with some large indistinct punctures ; pronotum 
subapically with a large dorsal quadrate impression that connects on 
each side with a very deep notch (pi. 25, fig. 5) ; mesopleurum polished, 
with large round punctures separated by about 0.4 their diameter; 
brachial and subdiscoidal veins usually distinct, sometimes obsoles- 
cent in small specimens; outer face of hind femur mat, subpolished 
basally; hind tibia of female pinched sharply at its basal 0.4, beyond 
which it is swollen to 0.8 the width of the hind femur, its inner face 
somewhat indented at the apical 0.4 ; hind basitarsus of female rather 
narrow, weakly expanded apically; first tergite jjolished, with close 
interrupted cross ridges, in the female about 9.0 as long as w^ide; 
ovipositor sheath about 1.12 as long as the body. 

Blackish brown, or sometimes more or less dark ferruginous, the 
ferruginous most often restricted to the head and fore part of the 
thorax but sometimes covering the entire body. Cheek mostly stra- 
mineous ; antenna, hind margin of pronotum, tegula, front and middle 
legs, hind trochanters, and basal 0.33 of hind tibia usually paler than 
the ground color, often brownish ferruginous; wings subhyaline; 
ovipositor sheath with a white preapical band. 

This species occurs in mesic woods from Ontario to Florida, west 
to Iowa, Texas, Arizona, Utah, and southern California. On the basis 
of color it is divisible into two subspecies, the typical subspecies occu- 
pying the Lower Austral and Tropical Zones of the Southeastern 
States, and tlie other subspecies the rest of its range. 



NEARCTIC STEPHANIDAE — TOWNES 367 

3a. MEGISCHUS BICOLOR SICKMANNI (Schletterer), new combination 

Strphanus siekmnnni Schletterer, Berlin. Ent. Zeitschr., vol. 33, p. 152, 1889. 

Type: 9, Georgia (Berlin). 
Megischus cnnndensis Davis, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 24, p. 349, 1898. Type: 

$, Toronto, Ontaria (Philadelphia). New synonymy. 

Head and pronotum brown to blackish. 

Specimens. — 15 <? , 26 9 , from Arizona (Chircahiia Mountains and 
Sabino Canyon) ; California (Santa Rosa Mountains) ; Connecticut 
(Cornwall) ; Delaware (New Castle County) ; District or Coluimbia 
(Washington); Iowa; Kansas (Leavenworth County); Maryland 
(Plummers Island and Takoma Park) ; Massachusetts (Framing- 
ham and Holliston) ; Michigan (Deerfield Township and Midland 
County) ; Missouri (Kansas City) ; New Jersey (Cresskill) ; New 
York (Auburn, Bronxville, Farmingdale, Ithaca, and Wading River 
on Long Island) ; North Carolina (Hertford County) ; Ohio (Dela- 
ware County and Puritas Spring) ; Pennsylvania (Glenside and 
Hummelstown) ; Texas (Austin, Brownsville, Cisco, Dallas, and Sab- 
inal) ; Utah (Emery County) ; Virginia (Cape Henry, Falls Church, 
and Nelson County) ; and West Virginia (West Sulphur) . The spec- 
imen re})orted above from Kansas City, Mo., was reported and de- 
scribed by Viereck (Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol. 19, p. 325, 1905) 
as Stephanus acutns of Lepeletier and Serville. The true '"'' Stephanus''' 
acutus is a Neotropical species. 

Adults are on the wing through the summer and are most com- 
monly taken in July and August. Some early and late dates of col- 
lection are April 25 at Dallas, Tex., June 6 at Plummers Island, Md., 
and September 10 at Cape Henry, Va. An adult was reared from 
Quercus hicolor at Hummelstown, Pa., by J. N. Knull, and one taken 
on dead Populus grandidentata at Ithaca, N. Y., by W. W. Middle- 
kauff. I took a short series on a standing dead beech {Facfus grandi- 
folia) at Takoma Park, Md. The tree had been dead about 4 years, 
and the bark was beginning to fall off but most of it still adhered 
tight l3^ On the bark of the trunk the stephanid looked much like a 
Xorides (Ichneumonidae) , but one male and one female were seen 
with the head and fore part of the thorax raised high from the trunk 
and the hind legs spread wide apart. In the case of the female the 
hind legs were closely applied to the bark. The male in this position 
was cleaning its antennae. When a net was put near a specimen on 
the trunk, it would walk away backward and would be slow to take 
flight. Flight, walking, and other movements were all sluggish. 

3b. MEGISCHUS BICOLOR BICOLOR (Westwood). new combination 

Stephanus Ucolor Westwood, Ann. Nat. Hist, vol. 7, p. 538, 1841. Type: $, 
Georgia (Llnnaean Soc, London). 



368 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Stephanus bicolor Westwood, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, ser. 1, vol. 3, p. 276, 1843. 

Fuither description. 
Megischus floridanus Davis, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 24, p. 349, 1898. Type: 

$, Florida (Philadelphia). New synonymy. 

Head and pronotum, and often more of the bod}' ferruginous. 

Specimens. — Florida : $ , Biscayne Bay, A. T. Slosson (New York) . 
9, Elliots Key (Washington). $, Enterprise (Washington). $, 
Fort George, June 1883 (Washington) .39, Hilliard, August 19, 
1930, J. Nottingham and R. H. Beamer (Lawrence and Townes). 
9 , Key West, November 1945, H. L. Black (Washington). 9 , Long 
Pine Key, March, Clench and Schevill (Cambridge). 9, Miami, 
August 27, 1933, Frank N. Young (Gainesville). 9 , Miami Beach, 
April 18, 1918, T. E. Snyder (Washington). $ , Paradise Key, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1919, E. A. Schwarz (Washington). 9, Plymouth, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1918, G. G. Ainslie (Washington). 9 , Florida (Washing- 
ton). 

Louisiana: 9, Ruston, October 10, 1908, H. S. Smith (Washing- 
ton). 

South Cakolina : 9 , Charleston, ISIay 24, 1934, J. C. Watts 
(Townes) . 

No data: 9 (Washington). 

4. MEGISCHUS ARIZONICUS, new species 
Plate 25, FiGtrsE 6 

Pronotum polished, strongly sioollen suhhasally, anteriorly with 
a pair of high sharp carinae on each side (pi. 25, fig. 6) . 

Type female: Forewing 12.5 mm. long; temple polished, its lower 
0.5 with sparse large shallow punctures; pronotum polished, with a 
strong subbasal swelling that bears a few punctures, medially very 
coarsely rugose, and apically with a strongly impressed area bordered 
on each side by two sharp oblique ridges (pi. 25, fig. 6) ; mesopleurum 
polished, with scattered large deep punctures separated by 1.0 or more 
their diameter; propodeum polished, coarsely rugoso-punctate ; 
brachial and subdiscoidal veins distinct; outer face of hind femur 
polished, with a few shallow punctures; hind tibia sharply pinched 
near the middle, just beyond which on each side is a blunt transverse 
ridge and on the inner face an almost semicircular dip; apical half 
of hind tibia swollen to about 0.7 the width of the hind femur; hind 
basitarsus 4.7 as long as wide, a little expanded apically ; first tergite 
4.5 as long as wide, polished, and with rather close cross ridges ; ovi- 
positor sheath 1.1 as long as the body. 

Piceous. Cheek mostly stramineous; top half of head tinged with 
ferruginous ; hind margin and hind corner of pronotum, tegula, knees, 
trochanters, tarsi (the front tarsi missing), and propodeum except 



NEARCTIC STEPHANIDAE — TOWNES 369 

laterally, dark ferruginous; wing weakly infumate, the forewing 
marked with brown along the veins near the outer end of the brachial 
cell ; abdomen ferruginous basally, shading to dark ferruginous api- 
cally ; ovipositor sheath with a preapical white band. 

Paratype male : Similar to the type female but smaller (forewing 
6.5 mm. long) and with weaker sculpture and the punctures less reg- 
ularly formed. The punctures on the lower 0.5 of the temple are al- 
most obsolete, and the pair of high sharp carinae on each side of the 
front end of the pronotum are almost transverse rather than strongly 
oblique. The first tergite is 10 times as long as wide and almost 
smooth. 

Type. — 9 , U.S.N.M. No. 58648, on white oak, Bear Canyon, Cata- 
lina Mountains, Ariz., M. Chrisman (Washington). 

Paratype. — 5, San Domingo, Baja California, July 19, 1938, 
Michelbacher and Ross (San Francisco). 

5. MEGISCHUS BRUNNEUS Cresson 

Plate 25, Figure 7 

Megischus bmnneus Ceesson, Proc. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, vol. 4, p. 84, 1865, 
Type: 9, Cuba (Philadelphia). 

Pronotum polished, anteriorly with about four sharp high cross 
catrinae {pi. £5, jig, 7); ovipositor sheath without a subapical white 
hand. 

Forewing of male 8 mm. long, of female 9-16 mm. long; temple 
polished, in larger specimens with large irregular punctures behind 
the eye; pronotum polished, subbasally with a strong swelling that 
bears coarse irregular punctures, medially with a raised transvei^se 
area that is coarsely rugoso-punctate, and apically with about four 
high sharp transverse carinae, some of which are usually interrupted 
medially (pi. 25, fig. T) ; mesopleurum polished, with large round 
punctures separted by about 0.7 their diameter ; propodeum polished, 
with rather close large round punctures; brachial and subdiscoidal 
veins distinct ; outer face of hind femur polished, with a very few fine 
shallow punctures ; hind tibia of female sharply pinched at its basal 
0.35, just beyond this with a sharp rounded dip in its anterior face; 
apical half of female hind tibia swollen to the width of the hind 
femur; hind basitarsus of female about 3.0 as long as wide, strongly 
expanded apically; first tergite polished, with rather coarse cross 
ridges, in the female about 6.0 as long as wide ; ovipositor sheath about 
1.1 as long as the body. 

Piceous. Cheek mostly stramineous ; hind margin and hind comer 
of pronotum, tegula, sometimes the propodeum, front and middle legs, 
trochanters, basal part of hind tibia, hind tarsus, and basal part of 



370 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. w 

fii-st tergite usually more or less stained with ferruginous; wings 
weakly infumate, the forewing marked with brown along the veins 
near the outer end of the brachial cell ; ovipositor sheath uniformly 
blackish. 

Specimens. — Cuba : ^,29, taken on trees, Central Jaronii, Novem- 
ber 10, 1930, L. C. Scaramuzza (Washington). 9 , Taco Taco, April 
1-6, 1922, S. C. Bruner, J. Acuila, and C. H. Ballou (Washington). 

Florida : 9 , on buttonwood, Cape Sable, February 28, 1940, C. F. 
Rainwater (Washington) . 9 , Miami, August 1, 1938 (St. Paul) . 



U. S. SOVERNMENr PRINTINS OFFICE: 1949 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 99 PLATE 25 




5 M Bl COLOR 



6 M ARIZONICUS 



7. M BRUNNEUS 



1, Schlettererius cincli pes {Cvesson); 2, 5, Megisckus bicolor (West-wood); 5, M. californicus, 
new species; 4, .1/. texanus Cresson; 6, M. arizonicus, new species; 7, M. brunneus 
Cresson. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



issued \i0iik^)i 0?M1 ^y ^^'^ 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Vol. 99 Washington: 1949 No. 3244 



NINE NEW XYSTODESMID MILLIPEDS FROM VIRGINIA 
AND WEST VIRGINIA, WITH RECORDS OF ESTAB- 



LISHED SPECIES 



By Richard L. Hoffman 



The millipeds reported herein were accumulated largely through 
field work by the author and by Dr. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., during 
the summer of 1947. Five of the species listed were collected near 
the author's home, in Alleghany County, Va., and four species are 
due to Dr. Hobbs' field work at Mountain Lake, Va., and in southern 
West Virginia. The others, with a few exceptions, were obtained on 
a trip through southwestern Virginia in June and July by Hubert I. 
Kleinpeter and the author. Lloyd G. Carr sent a number of speci- 
mens from Augusta County, and Charles M. Wilson and Miss Mar- 
garet Walton have contributed a large amount of material from 
Mountain Lake. Individual specimens have been donated by Dr. 
L. R. Cleveland, Lewis Wright, and Miss Mary Timberlake. 

Of the IG species here listed, 9 are described as new. In addition, 
records of the occurrence of established species are given, wherever the 
collections were able to provide new distributional stations. In con- 
nection with previously described forms, it seemed pertinent to add 
a citation to the original description as well as to mention the type 
locality. A brief diagnosis is supplied for each genus — in some cases 
quoted from the original generic description. 

In previous descriptions of xystodesmids there has been no uniform- 
ity about the aspects from which the male gonopods have been drawn. 
I believe that com.parisons of species would be facilitated greatly if 

R18888— 49 1 371 



372 PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL MUSEUlvI vol.99 

the figures were made with some deference to uniformity of position. 
The drawings that accompany the following descriptions were made 
to show the configuration of the left gonopocl and were made from 
direct cephalic and lateral or mesial aspects after the appendage had 
been removed and oriented properly. 

I take pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to H. F. Loomis 
for examining specimens and supplying information, to Lawrence M. 
Carter for assistance with the drawings, and to Dr. Hobbs for many 
courtesies attendant upon the work as well as for many collections. 

Family XYSTODESMIDAE Cook 

Xystodesiuidae Cook, Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 11, p. 5, 1895. (Type genus : 
Xystodesmus Cook.) 

Genus APHELORIA Chamberlin 

Apheloria Chambebun, Can. Ent., vol. 53, p. 232, 1921. (Genotype: Fontaria 
montana Bollman.) 

Telopodite of male gonopod a simple coiled blade, with a small 
curved basal spine. 

APHELORIA ADELA Chamberlin 

Apheloria adela Chamberun, Bull. Univ. Utah, vol. 30, No. 2, p. 10, fig. 34, 1939 
(Ithaca, N. Y.). 

Virginia: Grayson County: Mount Rogers, east side near top, 1 
male, ELH No. 7-147-2b; Tazewell County: Burkes Garden, 1 male, 
RLH No. 6-3047-lb. 

These records constitute a very considerable extension in the known 
range of adela, which heretofore has been reported only from Ithaca, 
N. Y,. Doubtless it ranges southward in the Appalachians and will 
be found in West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. 

It is not impossible that future studies may show adela to be a syn- 
onym of A. coriacea, but for the time being it seems possible to dis- 
tinguish the former on minor differences in the gonopods and pattern. 

APHELORIA ANTROSTOMICOLA, new species 

Plate 26, Figures 1, 2 

Diagnosis. — Telopodite of male gonopod strongly recurved, form- 
ing slightly more than a complete circle, bent mesiad with distal end 
directed cephalically ; color black, with yellow keels and large crescent- 
shaped orange spots on the posterior margins of the tergites. 

Description. — A medium-sized species. Length of holotype, 38, 
width, 8.8 mm.; length of allotype, 40, width, 8.5 mm. Width of 
body averages 22 percent of length. Segments between fourth and 



NEW XYSTODESMID MILLIPEDS — HOFFMAN 373 

fifteenth of full width. Keels broad, continuing slope of dorsum, 
usually slightly separated. Anterior corners of keels rounded; pos- 
terior corners through twelfth segment forming right angles, there- 
after becoming increasingly produced caudally. Most keels with an- 
terior corners lobed cephalad. Dorsolateral edges of keels produced 
into ridges, most conspicuously so on posterior segments; repugna- 
torial pores dorsal in position, near middle of keel. 

Collum with posterior margin relatively straight in both sexes. 

Anal segment truncate distally and bearing a small terminal tuft 
of setae, triangular in dorsal aspect, slightly longer than broad, its 
base Avider than the distance between keels of penultimate segment. 
Anal valves slightly inflated, glabrous, their mesial edges produced 
into ridges, a tiny tubercule on each valve near the center of the 
mesial margin, no other sculpturing. Preanal scale triangular, as 
broad as long, somewhat rounded distally, with three terminal lobes 
of which the median lobe is conspicuously larger than the other two, 
in this respect differing from most other species. 

Bases of the last pair of legs almost in contact mesially. Sternites 
and coxae unarmed, femora with long spines ; legs hirsute, terminat- 
ing in heavy curved claws. Coxae of the second pair of legs of the 
male with the usual rounded knobs, which are truncate and flat 
distally. 

Gonopods typical of the genus in consisting of a somewhat enlarged 
basal portion and a rounded, loosely coiled telopodite blade, which in 
this species makes somewhat more than a complete circle and is bent 
mesiad and then distad, as shown in the drawings. Basal spine rather 
small and slightly curved, arising from a cephalolateral shoulder. 
Mesial side of base with a rounded setiferous shoulder. 

In life, dorsum black with caudolateral two-thirds of keels bright 
yellow. A central row of large crescentic reddish-orange blotches on 
posterior margins of the tergites ; in males these blotches are usually 
separated from the yellow keels but in females tend to be in contact — 
in which case the demarcation between the colors is a sharp one. 
Head light brown, margins of labrum and antennae light brown, 
sides of head and antennal sockets yellowish. Each article of an- 
tennae white distall3^ Sides of body a burnished yellow, legs light 
yellow, sternites tan. Anal valves yellowish, usually with a central 
brown mark. 

Ty'pe s'pecimens. — Holotype and female allotype in the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, No. 1802. Additional male and female topopara- 
types in my personal collection. No. 6-10-17-lb. 

Type locality. — Sinkhole at entrance to Stull's Cave, on property 
of C. R. Stull, 8 miles southwest of Lowmoor, Alleghany County, 
Va., on County Route 608. Seven specimens were collected during 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. s9 

the course of about 10 minutes in the leaf mold accumulated in the bot- 
tom and on the sides. No specimens were found in the adjacent 
woods. 

Remarks. — As far as color pattern goes, this species is like A. Virginia 
Chamberlin from Pittsylvania County, Va., and the new species de- 
scribed in this paper as A. picta from Mountain Lake, Va. However, 
according to the description, Virginia has the keels orange and the 
median spots yellow, a reversal of the pattern in the other two species. 
The median spots of antrostomicola tend to merge into the yellow of 
the keels, whereas in none of my specimens of picta does this condi- 
tion obtain. Besides, the gonopod of antrostomicola^ although simi- 
lar to that of ficta^ presents several differences. 

The specific name of this species refers to the habitat in which the 
types and only known specimens were collected. 

APHELORIA ASPILA Chamberlin 

Apheloria aspila Chamberlin, Bull. Univ. Utah, vol. 30, No. 2, p. 10, fig. 33, 1939 
(Soco Falls, N. C). 

Virginia : Grayson County : Mount Kogers, east side near top, RLH 
No. &-3047-2b (one male). 

Previously known only from the type locality, which is near Waynes- 
ville, Haywood County, N. C. This new record extends the range 
northward in the southern Blue Ridge to the Balsam Mountains. A. 
aspila, like Boraria Carolina, which is also known only from Soco 
Gap and Momit Rogers, may be found to be widespread in western 
North Carolina. 

APHELORIA CORIACEA (Koch) 

Fontaria coriacea Koch, System der Myriapoden, p. 141, 1847 ("Pennsylvania"). 

Virginia: Albemarle County: Stony Point, RLH No. 10-3047-le 
(1 male) ; Alleghany County: 2 miles northwest of Clifton Forge, 
RLH No. 6-1447-la (3 males, 4 females) ; Augusta County: Sherando 
Lake, near Lyndhurst, RLH No. 8-1547-lb (many males and females 
collected by Carr) ; Roanoke County: Roanoke, RLH No. 7-547-1 
(1 male collected by Wright). 

The occurrence of this form at Clifton Forge is interesting. It 
is common at and aromid a large, deserted sawmill, but only once in 
many years' acquaintance with the region have I seen a specimen in a 
different place. This exceptional creature was across a small ridge 
from the sawmill and no more than a thousand yards away from it. 

At Roanoke, where I have seen fragments of this form, it seemed 
to be common, of all places, in pine woods on a dry shale monadnock. 
Bleached specimens could be found under rocks and logs, and Mr. 
Wright (who later secured a living specimen nearby) informed me 



NEW XYSTODESMID MILLIPEDS — HOFFMAN 375 

that in wet weather he had seen the millipeds crawling about in the pine 
stands. 

The locality at which Mr. Carr obtained a large series of speci- 
mens is at the base of the Blue Ridge, in a moist hardwood forest 
with many ponds and marshes. 

All the specimens listed above are very large, some attaining a 
length of 45 mm. The keels are bright reddish pink, and the posterior 
margins of the keel are marked by broad yellow bands. ]Mr. Loomis, 
upon examination of a specimen, suggested that Koch's name be used 
for my material, an allocation with which I gladly concur. The male 
gonopods of the specimens are identical with those of many large, 
cross-banded Aphelorias from Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. 
The status of the banded Aphelorias is confused, and some hesitation 
attends my identification of some of the Virginia material. A thor- 
ough revision of the genus, based on adequate series of specimens, is 
much to be desired. 

APHELORIA KLEINPETERI, new species 

Plate 26, Figures 3, 4 

Diagnosis. — A medium-sized species characterized by the color pat- 
tern of black dorsum and red keels and by the structure of the male 
gonopods, the telopodite of which is expanded distally into a spatu- 
late portion suggesting that of Sigiria,. 

Description. — Length of holotype, 37, width, 7.2 mm., length of 
allotype, 39.1, width, 8.1 mm. Width of body averages 20 percent of 
length. Segments between fourth and fifteenth of full width. Keels 
moderately broad, not overlapping. Anterior corners lobed, rounded ; 
posterior corners through twelfth segment approximately right- 
angled, becoming caudally produced on the posterior third of body. 
Keels of segment 18 almost enclosing those of 19. All keels with dorso- 
lateral edges raised, particularly so on last 10 segments; repugnatorial 
pores on dorsal side of swellings. 

Collum crescentic in shape, as long as the next two segments com- 
bined, its posterior edge with a median emargination, ventrolateral 
extremities directed slightly caudoventrad. 

Anal segment triangular in dorsal aspect, longer than broad, base 
slightly wider than distance between keels of penultimate segment; 
end truncate, bearing a few setae. Anal valves slightly inflated, gla- 
brous, their mesial edges produced into ridges each of which bears a 
single setiferous papilla. Each valve with a small knob near the center, 
otherwise unsculptured. Preanal scale very broadly triangular, 
rounded, with one terminal and two smaller lateral lobes. 

Bases of last pair of legs almost in contact mesially. No coxal or 
sternal armature. Trochanter and femur with large spines. Femora 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.09 

practically glabrous, trochanters and terminal podomeres very hirsute. 
Terminal claw curved, strong. Male with coxae of second pair of 
legs bearing the usual knobs, these rounded distal ly. 

Gonopod with the loosely coiled blade and basal spine characteristic 
of ApheloHa; distinct in the large subterminal expansion of telopo- 
dite, with a small distal acumen. Blade of telopodite bent slightly 
mesiad. In situ, blades lie against each other and directed at right 
angles to the longitudinal axis of the body. In mesial aspect, a fur- 
ther distinction can be seen in the deep sinus on the base of the telopo- 
dite just behind the setiferous shoulder. Basal spine medium in size, 
borne on a small cephalolateral shoulder. 

In life, dorsum very dark brown or black, with outer and cephalic 
margins of collum, caudolateral halves of keels, and tip of anal seg- 
ment bright red. Underparts yellowish tan, legs becoming lighter 
distally, claws brown. Head dark brown above, margins of labrum 
light yellowish brown. Antennal sockets and first three articles yel- 
low, becoming darker distally. 

Type specimens. — Holotype and female allotype in the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, No. 1803. Two male paratypes in my personal col- 
lection. No. 6-304T-lc. The allotype was collected by J. E. Graf 
on Jmie 5, 1940, the others were taken on June 29-30, 1947, by Klein- 
peter and me. 

Type locality. — Burkes Garden, Tazewell County, Va. The tops 
of the surrounding mountains belong to the Canadian Zone. A speci- 
men (the type) was taken at 4,600 feet on Beartown Mountain, in a 
very wet forest of maple-spruce-redbud association, with mesophytic 
herbs such as Impatiens pallida. The paratypes were found in Mill 
Gap, at 2,900 feet, in a hemlock-laurel association. The allotype was 
collected on Clinch Mountain (eastern rim of Burkes Garden) at 
4,300 feet. 

A. kleinpeterl shows no close relationships with any other known 
member of the genus. The gonopods represent, perhaps, a further 
development of the pi<;ta type; but the red and black coloration is 
unique for the genus. 

I take pleasure in naming this handsome species for my good friend 
and tireless field companion, Hubert I. Kleinpeter, who secured the 
holotype as well as many other diplopods during our investigations. 

APHELORIA PICTA, new species 

Plate 26, Figuees 5, 6 

Diagn/)sis. — A medium-sized species, characterized by the color 
pattern of yellow keels and large reddish median blotches, and by 
the gonopod of the male, which is very much recurved, slender, and 
bent mesiad and distad, with a conspicious subterminal "heel." 



NEW XYSTODESMID MILLIPEDS — HOFFMAN 377 

DescHption. — Length of holotype, 41, width, 9.4 mm.; length of 
allotype, 39, width, 9 mm. Width of body averages 23 percent of 
length. Sides of body subparallel, segments 4 through 15 of full 
width. Keels moderately broad, continuing slope of dorsum, usually 
well separated. Anterior corners of keels rounded, posterior corners 
also somewhat rounded, not as sharply angular as in other species. 
Keels of segment 15 not produced caudally, those of 16 noticeably 
produced. Dorsolateral edges of keels raised into ridges; repugna- 
torial pores situated clorsally, at about middle of keel. 

Collum with both cephalolateral and caudolateral margins tapering 
distally. 

Anal segment triangular in dorsal aspect, longer than broad, its 
basal width approximately equal to distance bewteen keels of the 
penultimate segment ; truncate distally, bearing a few scattered tufts 
of setae. Anal valves slightly inflated, bearing a few scattered setae, 
their mesial margins raised into ridges each of which bears a single 
seta. Preanal scale triangular, somewhat longer than broad, with 
three terminal lobes of which the median one is conspicuously larger 
than the other two — in this respect agreeing with A. antrostomicola. 

Bases of last pair of legs very slightly separated. Sternites and 
coxae unspined. Trochanters and femora spined. Legs terminating 
in a strong curved claw, with many stiff bristles around its base. 
Coxae of second pair of legs of males with the usual cylindrical knobs 
which in this species are flattened distally almost to the extent found 
in antrostomicola. 

Gonopods resembling those of antrostomicola in being almost cylin- 
drical and narrowly tapering, not flattened or bladelike and in being 
bent mesiad and distad in more than a complete circle; differing 
from antrostomicola in the curves of the telopodite being rather angu- 
lar with straight interspaces and in the subterminal "heel," which 
gives the distal third of the appendage the appearance of an Oriental 
slipper. Base of telopodite with a mesial setiferous shoulder and 
a cephalolateral should which bears the basal spine. 

Dorsum black, with caudolateral half of keels, tip of anal segment, 
and legs yellow. A large, reddish-orange crescentic blotch on pos- 
teromedian margin of each tergite. Collum with distal ends of dorsal 
surface yellow, and a dorsomedian hourglass-shaped marking of 
orange. Front of head black, margin of labrum brown. Antennae 
light brown, distal portions of the articles not white. Sternites pos- 
terior to gonopods tan (except last), sides of body brownish tan, 
anal valves brown. 

Type specimens. — Holotype and female allotype in the U. S. 
National Museum, No. 1804. Additional male and female topopara- 
types are in my personal collection, Nos. 6-2647-1, 7-247-lb. All 
specimens collected by Hobbs, Wilson, and Walton. 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

Type locality. — Mountain Lake, Giles County, Va. Most specimens 
collected near the University of Virginia Biological Station, with pre- 
dominating forest cover of deciduous trees such as oak, maple, and 
yellow pojjlar. The undergrowth is largely of ericaceous shrubs. 
Mountain Lake is located on the top of Salt Pond Mountain, in central 
Giles County, at an elevation of about 3,800 feet. 

Remarks. — This species has its closest affinities with Apheloria 
antrostomicola, from which it may be only subspecifically distinct. 
The similarities in pattern, gonopods, preanal scale, and coxal lobes 
all suggest such an association. The type localities for the two species 
are less than 40 miles apart and are in the same moiuitain range. 
Collecting in the intervening region will prove interesting, as it is not 
yet known whether antrostomicola occurs in humus away from lime- 
stone regions. 

APHELORIA TRIMACULATA (Wood) 

Polydesmus (Fontaria) trimaeulata Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
vol. 6, p. 6, 1S64 (Susquehanna County, Pa.). 

Virginia: Alleghany County: McGraws Gap, 3 miles northwest of 
Clifton Forge, EHL Nos. 3-3047-3b, 5-1847-lb, 6-147-lb, 6-1447-lb, 
and 6-2147-1; Augusta County: Sherando Lake, near Lyndhurst, 
EHL No. 8-1547-lc (male and 2 females collected by Carr) ; Elliotts 
Knob, 10 miles west of Staunton (1 dead female seen in August 1947) ; 
Bath County : Douthat State Park, female seen June 15, 1947. 

A. trimaeulata has also been reported from Mountain Lake, Va., by 
Loomis (Psyche, vol. 51, p. 175, 1944). The accuracy of the locality 
data, however, is not beyond suspicion, inasmuch as a summer of very 
thorough collecting at Mountain Lake has not revealed any xystodes- 
mids that might be considered tr'nnaculata. 

The specimens listed above are all rather large, exceeding previ- 
ously published measurements. Since Wood's figure of the gonopod of 
trimaeulata is not very useful for comparison with specimens, it seems 
advisable to relegate this large southern form tentatively to trima- 
eulata until topotypic material can be examined. 

A. trimnculata is a very common form near Clifton Forge, and on 
damp or rainy da3''s one can observe many specimens out wandering 
around. At other times no special effort is needed to dig specimens 
out of the leaf mold. They are often seen on hemlock logs, but I have 
yet to find one inside a log. Large numbers of unpigmented young 
of this species are found during the spring months, becoming scarce 
later in the year, and specimens almost mature are very rarely seen. 
The change from seventh instar larvae to adults takes place during 
August. Mating occurs throughout the summer, from early in June 
through August. 



NEW XYSTODESMID MILLIPEDS — HOFFMAN 379 

Genus BORARIA Charaberlin 

Boraria Chamberon, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 56, p. 143, 1943. (Geno- 
type: Aporiaria Carolina Chamberlin.) 

Gonopod of male a relatively straight cylindrical process, abruptly 
tapering distally into a slender acnmen, mesial side of telopodite with 
a slender distally directed spine, 

BORARIA CAROLINA (Chamberlin) 

Aporiaria Carolina Chamberlin, Bull. Univ. Utah, vol. 30, No. 2, p. 6, fig. 10, 1939 
(Soco Falls, N. C). 

Virginia: Grayson County: Mount Rogers, east side near top, 
RLH Xo. 7-147-la (2 males). 

As this species was originally described from Soco Gap Falls, near 
Waynesville, Haywood County, N. C, its discovery on Mount Rogers 
extends the known range considerably to the north, and suggests that 
the species will be found at intervening places. Both of the speci- 
mens at hand match Chamberlin's description and drawing perfectly. 

Genus BRACHORIA Chamberlin 

Brachoria Chambeelix, Bull. Univ. T'tah. vol. .30, No. 2, p. 3, 1939. (Genotype: 
B. initialis Chamberlin.) 

Broad short species with posterior corners of keels of segments 1 
through 12 rounded instead of angular; blade of telopodite of male 
gonopod with one or two joints, basal spine on the lateral side, not ris- 
ing from a conspicious shoulder. 

BRACHORIA ETHOTELA (Chamberlin) 

Brachoria ethotela CHAiiBEKLiN, Bull. Univ. Utah, vol. 32, No. 8, p. 5, 1942 (Mar- 
ion, Va.) 

Virginia: Tazewell County: Burkes Garden, RLH No. 6-2947-2c 
(male and female). 

This species was described from specimens taken at Marion, in 
Smyth County ; thus the new material constitutes but a small extension 
of the range. The Burkes Garden specimens were found on Bear- 
town Mountain at an elevation of about 4,600 feet in wet deciduous 
woods. 

Genus DELTOTARIA Causey 

Deltotaria Causey. Ent. News, vol. 53, p. 165, 1942. (Genotype: DcJiotarin 
brimleii Causey. ) 

"This genus resembles Apheloria in the curvature and the length 
of the principal blade of the telopodite of the male gonopod s, but 
differs in having a thin subterminal process on the blade. It differs 
from other genera of this family in tliat the gonopods bear a large 

8188SS — 49 2 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.99 

medial pointed coxal pec: in addition to the characteristic sickle-like 
coxal spine." (Causey, op. cit.) 

DELTOTARIA CORONATA, new species 

Platk 2G, Figures 7, S 

Diagnosis. — Distinguished by the presence of three terminal proc- 
esses on the telopodite blade and by the color pattern of black on the 
back, with the keels and anterior margin of collum bright yellow. 

Description. — A somewhat longer and narrower form than the geno- 
type. Length of holotype, 36, width, 8 mm. ; length of allotype, 37.5, 
width, 8 mm. Width of body averages 21.5 percent of length.^ Keels 
of the anterior and midbody segments with the corners rounded some- 
what, those of the posterior segments with the posterior corners pro- 
duced caudally. Keels of the penultimate segment small, not 
enclosing anal segment or enclosed by those of the antepenultimate 
segment. Dorsolateral edges of all keels slightly raised into ridges. 
Repugnatorial pores dorsal in position, about at midline of keel. 

Collum slightly longer than succeeding segment, posterior margin 
rather straight in males, but tapering cephalad toward the ends in 
females. 

Anal segment triangular in dorsal aspect, longer than broad, the tip 
truncate and bearing a few setae. Anal valves glabrous, with the 
mesial margin of each produced into a ridge, not otherwise sculp- 
tured. Preanal scale broadly triangular, wider than long, with a. 
median and two lateral lobes. 

Bases of last pair of legs in contact mesial ly. Sternites very weakly 
spined, trochanters and femora strongly spined ; legs with strong termi- 
nal claws. Coxae of second pair of legs of males with prominent 
rounded knobs. 

Gonopods of male relatively large and prominent. In situ the main 
axis of the telopodite blade lies at a right angle to that of the body, 
the gonopods at rest having the blades in contact and frequently 
hooked together. The gonopod resembles that of D. brirnleii as fig- 
ured by Causey (op eit., fig. 1) in general appearance but differs in 
having three terminal teeth on the telopodite. as well as a prominent 
knob between the coxal projection and base of the blade. Coxal pro- 
jection large. 

Dorsum glossy brownish black, with caudolateral two-thirds of 
keels, anterior margin of collum, and tip of anal segment lemon- 
yellow. Underparts yellowish tan. Head dark brown, except margin 
of labrum which is light brown; antennae light brown with distal 
portion of each article white. Claws of legs brown, sternites of a 

* 27.5 percent in brimleii, according to CniiBey's mensurements. This is probably due to 
the dried and doubtless telescoped condition of the lypes. 



U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 99 PLATE 26 










GoNOPODs OF New species Of Apheloria and Deltotaria 

1, 2, Apheloria antrostomicola (1, mesial view; 2, cephalic view); 3, 4, A. kleinpeteri (3, 
mesial view; 4, cephalic view); 5, 6, A. picta (5, mesial view; 6, cephalic view); 7, 8, 
Deltotaria coronata (7, mesial view; 8, cephalic view). [Setae have been omitted to show 
basal structure more plainly.] 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 99 PLATE 27 








GONOPODS OF New species of nannaria and sigmoria 
9, \0 Nannaria ericacea (9, lateral view; 10, cephalic view); 11, 12, .V. laminata (11 lat- 
eral view; 12, cephalic view); 13, 14, A^. siynplex (13, lateral view; 14, cephalic view) 
l3, 16, A;, ivilsom (b, lateral view; 16, cephalic view); 17, 18, Sigmoria furcifera (17, 
mesial view; 18, cephalic view). [Setae have been omitted to show basal structure 
more plainly.] 



NEW XYSTODESMID MILLIPEDS — HOFFMAN 381 

darker shade than legs. A faint dark spot in the yellow of the keels 
just above each repugnatorial pore. 

Type specimens. — Holotype, female allotype, and a male paratype 
in the U. S. National Miisemn, No. 1805; additional paratypes are 
retained in my personal collection, Nos. 6-3047-2a, T-147-lb, and 
7-14T-2a. Most of the above specimens were collected on June 30- 
July 1, 19-47, but one female was found in the saddle between Mount 
Rogers and White Top Mountain on eluly 15, 1947, by Dr. L. R. Cleve- 
land. 

Remarks. — This attractive species is fairly common on Mount Rog- 
ers below the evergreen forest line, and was frequently seen out during 
the day, crawling on logs and across the trails. One evening four 
specimens were taken as they wandered about atop an old sawdust 
pile. A pair was seen in copulation on the night of July 1. 

Deltotaria coronata is, apparently, the only xystodesmid milliped 
in eastern United States with the conspicuous and brilliant yellow 
band across the front of the collum. T]ie specific name is given in 
recognition of the marking. 

Genus NANNARIA Chamberlin 

Nannaria Chamberlin, Psyche, vol. 25, p. 124, 1918. (Geuotyye: Natinaria 
minor Chamberlin.) 

Small, narrow-bodied forms characterized in part by the repugna- 
torial pores being lateral in position and by the uniform dorsal pat- 
tern of olive to black with the keels pink. The gonopods consist of 
a nearly straight slender lateral process and a smaller mesial process. 

NANNARIA ERICACEA, new species 

Plate 27, Figures 9, 10 

Diagnosis. — A large member of the genus characterized by the male 
gonopods, in which the telopodite is deeply bifurcated with the larger 
lateral process bearing a mesially directed terminal branch, and the 
sm.aller mesial process a simple flattened blade which reaches distad 
to the level of the branch of the lateral process. 

Description. — ^Length of holotype, 30, width, 5 mm. Body width 
averages 16 percent of length. Segments between second and fifteenth 
of full width, body abruptly rounded in front, gently tapering behind. 

Collum large, rounded in front, sides straight and with small mar- 
ginal ridges; subtrapezoidal in dorsal aspect. Posterior margin in- 
dented across body, posterior corners angular. Collum not quite as 
long as two succeeding segments. 

Second segment with keels shorter than tergite at midline, posterior 
edges of keels tapering cephalad, marginal ridges well developed. 
Segments 3 through 12 subsimiliar, anterior corners of keels rounded, 
posterior corners directed slightly caudad; all keels with prominent 



382 PROCEEDINGS OF NATIONAL MUSEUM vol. 99 

marginal ridges; keels extending caudad of median posterior portion 
of tergites. Segments 14 to 19 with posterior lobes equal in length 
to tergites at midline. All tergites comparatively flat and smooth. 
Repiignatorial pores lateral in position, in some cases directed slightly 
downward. 

Anal segment triangular in dorsal aspect, longer than broad, its 
basal width less than distance between keels of