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Full text of "Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society"

GENEALOGY 
974.3 
V59EP 
1905-1906 



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^EYNOLD^ H'-TORIC^L 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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GENEALOGY 
974.3 
V59SP 
1905-1906 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 



http://www.archive.org/details/proceedingsofverOOinverm 







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* 




George Gkenville Benedict. 



PROCEEDINGS 



:) 



OF THE 



Vermont historical 



society^ 



1905-1906 




WITH LISTS OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

REMARKS 

By the President. 

ADDRESS 

On Thaddeus Stevens, by Hon. Wendell Phillips Stafford, Judge 
of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. 

PAPER 

On Prehistoric Vermont and evidences of occupation by Indian 
tribes, by George Henry Perkins, Professor of Natural History, 
Geology and Zoology in the University of Vermont. 

APPENDIX 

Containing additional lists of Revolutionary Soldiers buried in 
Vermont. 

JOURNAL 

Of Surveyor-General James Whitelaw 



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■ i 

^ c ^ TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

V Page 

*■ -j Joint Resolution of Legislature 4 

,3 An act to provide for cataloguing the Library of the Vermont 
• ~ Historical Society 5 

43 List of Officers, 1906-7 9 

*^ Standing Committees 10 

. \j List of Active Members 10 

£ Corresponding and Honorary Members 16, 17 

2 Constitution and By-Laws 18 

V^v Proceedings, 1905 .24 

. Proceedings, 1906 29 

* Necrology 35 

— J — Address, Thaddeus Stevens 49 

<*? -Prehistoric Vermont 87 

Life of General James "Whitelaw 103 

Journal of General James Whitelaw 119 

George Grenville Benedict 161 

Report of Managers, 1906 178 

Appendix 178 



General Assembly of the State of Vermont. 

Joint Resolution. 



Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives: 

That the Clerk of the House of Representatives be di- 
rected to procure the printing of fifteen hundred (1500) 
copies of the Proceedings of the annual meetings of the 
Vermont Historical Society, October 17, 1905, October 16, 
1906, and of the adjourned annual meeting November 9, 
1906, including the address in the Hall of the House of Rep- 
resentatives by the Hon. Wendell P. Stafford, Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, on "The 
Life and Services of Thaddeus Stevens, Statesman and Re- 
former," the paper by Prof. George H. Perkins, on "Pre- 
historic Vermont and Relics and Evidences of Early Occu- 
pation by Indian Tribes," the Journal of General James 
Whitelaw and Sketch of his Life, and a reprint of the life 
of Ira Allen by D. P. Thompson, said copies to be dis- 
tributed as follows : 

To each member of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, one copy ; to each town and city clerk, one copy ; 
to each college, normal school, academy and public library, 
one copy; to the Governor, each of the heads of depart- 
ments, each Judge of the Supreme Court, and each Su- 
perior Judge, one copy; to the Vermont Historical Society, 
five hundred copies ; and the remainder to the State Library, 
subject to the control of the trustees thereof. 
State of Vermont, Office of the Secretary of State. 
I hereby certify that the foregoing is a true copy of 
the Joint Resolution providing for "The Printing of the Pro- 



ceedings of the Vermont Historical Society," as passed by 
the General Assembly of the State of Vermont at its nine- 
teenth biennial session. 

Approved December 19, 1906. 

as appears by the files and records of this office. 

Witness my signature and the seal 
of this office at Montpelier, this twen- 
(SEAL) ty-second day of December, one thousand 
nine hundred and six. 

Frederick G. Fleetwood, 

Secretary of State. 



AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR CATALOGUING THE 
LIBRARY OF THE VERMONT HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 

// is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the 
State of Vermont: 

Section i. The sum of twelve hundred dollars, or so 
much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated 
as hereinafter provided for the work of fully and properly 
cataloguing the books, manuscripts, maps, medals and col- 
lections of the Vermont Historical Society, to be done un- 
der the direction of the state librarian, on bills and vouchers 
approved by him and by the librarian of the Vermont His- 
torical Society, and audited by the auditor of accounts, who 
shall draw his orders therefor. Such appropriation is con- 
ditioned upon the assumption by said society of the entire 
work as above specified, and of any additional expense neces- 
sary to complete the same, without further cost to the state. 

SEC 2. This act shall take effect from its passage. 

Approved December 18, 1906. 



OFFICERS 1906-7 

OF THE 

Vermont Historical Society 



President. 
GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT, Burlington. 

Viee-Presidents. 

WILLIAM W. STICKNEY, Ludlow. 
FRED A. HOWLAND, Montpelier. 
H. CHARLES ROYCE, St. Albans. 

Recording Secretary. 
JOSEPH A. DE BOER, Montpelier. 

Corresponding Secretaries. 

THEODORE S. PECK, Burlington. 
CHARLES S. FORBES, St. Albans. 

Treasnrer. 

HENRY F. FIELD, Rutland. 

Librarian. 

EDWARD M. GODDARD, Montpelier. 

Curators. 

EZRA BRAINERD, Addison County. 
SAMUEL B. HALL, Bennington County. 
REV. HENRY FAIRBANKS, Caledonia County. 
REV. JOHN E. GOODRICH, Cbittenden County. 
PORTER H. DALE, Essex County. 



10 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

WALTER H. CROCKETT, Franklin County. 

NELSON WILBUR FISK, Grand Isle County. 

CARROLL S. PAGE, Lamoille County. 

DR. GEORGE DAVENPORT, Orange County. 

F. W. BALDWIN, Orleans County. 

PHILIP R. LEAVENWORTH, Rutland County. 

HIRAM CARLETON, Washington County. 

BERT EMERY MERRIAM, Windham County. 

GILBERT A. DAVIS, Windsor County. 

FREDERICK G. FLEETWOOD, Secretary of State, 

HORACE F. GRAHAM, Auditor of Accounts. } 

GEORGE W. WING, State Librarian. 



} 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 

On Library. — Joseph A. De Boer, E. M. Goddard, John E. 
Goodrich. 

On Printing. — Theodore S. Peck, Fred A. Howland, Walter 
H. Crockett. 

On Finance. — Henry F. Field, Joseph A. De Boer, Fred A. 
Howland. 



LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE VERMONT HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 

Alger, John L Johnson, Vt. 

Allen, Charles E Burlington, Vt. 

Allen, Heman W Burlington, Vt. 

Allen, Martin Fletcher Ferrisburg, Vt. 

Anderson, George P Boston, Mass. 

Andrews, Wallace G Montpelier, Vt. 

Bacon, John L White River Junction, Vt. 

Bailey, Horace Ward Newbury, Vt 

Baldwin, Frederick W Barton, Vt. 

Barnum, Elmer Shoreham, Jft. 

Barstow, John L Shelburne, Vt. 

Bascom, Robert O Fort Edward, N. Y. 

Beckett, George . . Williamstown, Vt. 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. U 

Beebe, William A Morrisville, Vt 

Bell, Charles J Walden, Vt. 

Benedict, George Grenville » Burlington, Vt 

Benedict, Robert Dewey 363 Adelphi Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Benton, Josiab Henry, Jr Ames Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

Bisbee, Arthur Brown Montpelier, Vt. 

Blanchard, Fred Montpelier, Vt. 

Blanchard, George Lawrence Montpelier, Vt. 

Blanchard, Herbert H Springfield, Vt. 

Bradley, Charles H P. O. Box 1486, Boston, Mass. 

Brainerd, Ezra Middlebury, Vt. 

Brainerd, John B 18 Huntington Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Briggs, George Montpelier, Vt. 

Briggs, William A Montpelier, Vt 

Brock, James W Montpelier, Vt. 

Brooks, John Vail Montpelier, Vt 

Brown, George B Burlington, Vt 

Buckham, Matthew Henry Burlington, Vt. 

Burditt, Dan Deming Pittsford, Vt. 

Butterfield, Franklin George Derby, Vt. 

Carleton, Hiram Montpelier, Vt 

Carpenter, Henry Otis Rutland, Vt. 

Chandler, Albert B Randolph, Vt. 

Cheney, Thomas Charles Morrisville, Vt 

Clark, Osman Dewey Montpelier, Vt. 

Clark, Henry O Orange, N. J. 

Clark, Isaiah R 54 Devonshire St, Boston, Mass 

Colburn, Robert M Springfield, Vt. 

Coleman, Edward Park Montpelier, Vt 

Collins, Edward D Barton Landing, Vt 

Comstock, John M Chelsea, Vt. 

Converse, John Heman 500 North Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Craig, William 93 Faneuil Hall Market, Boston, Mass. 

Crockett, Walter H St. Albans, Vt 

Crosby, Francis Marion Hastings, Minn. 

Cross, Lewis Bartlett Montpelier, Vt. 

Cudworth, Addison Edward South Londonderry, Vt 

Cushman, Henry T North Bennington, Vt 



12 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Cutler, Harry M Montpelier, Vt 

Dale, Porter H Brighton, Vt 

Darling, Charles Kimball 294 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 

Darling, Hale Knight Chelsea, Vt 

Davenport, George East Randolph, Vt 

Davis, Gilbert A Windsor, Vt 

Davis, Edward Aaron Bethel, Vt 

Day, Henry C, M. D Bennington, Vt 

Deavitt, Thomas Jefferson Montpelier, Vt 

Deavitt, Edward Harrington Montpelier, Vt 

De Boer, Joseph Arend t Montpelier, Vt 

Dewey, Davis Rich Mass. Inst, of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Dewey, William Tarbox Montpelier, Vt 

Dillingham, William Paul Waterbury, Vt 

Downer, Charles Sharon, Vt 

Dutton, Walter A Hardwick, Vt 

Ellis, William Arba Northfield, Vt 

Estee, James Borden Montpelier, Vt 

Estey, Jacob Gray Brattleboro, Vt 

Fairbanks, Rev. Edward T St Johnsbury, Vt 

Fairbanks, Rev. Henry St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Farwell, Arthur Daggett Montpelier, Vt 

Field, Henry Francis Rutland, Vt 

Field, Edward Davenport Montpelier, Vt 

Fifield, Benjamin Franklin Montpelier, Vt 

Fiske, Rev. E. S. Montpelier, Vt 

Fisk, Nelson Wilbur Isle La Motte, Vt 

Fleetwood, Frederick G Morrisville, Vt 

Fitts, Clarke C Brattleboro, Vt 

Fletcher, Allen M Cavendish, Vt 

Forbes, Charles Spooner St. Albans, Vt 

Foss, Eugene N 34 Oliver St., Boston, Mass. 

Foster, David J Burlington, Vt 

Gates, Walter Benton .' Burlington, Vt 

Gifford, James Meacham 319 West 102d St, New York City. 

Gilmore, William H Fairlee, Vt. 

Goddard, Edward M Montpelier, Vt 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. 13 

Goodenough, Jonas Eli Montpelier, Vt. 

Goodrich, John Ellsworth Burlington, Vt. 

Goss, Frank Keeler Montpelier, Vt. 

Gordon, John Warren Barre, Vt. 

Graham, Horace French Craf tsbury, Vt. 

Greene, Frank Lester , St. Albans, Vt. 

Hall, Samuel B North Bennington, Vt. 

Hapgood, Marshall Jay Peru, Vt. 

Harvey, Erwin M Montpelier, Vt. 

Harvey, John Nelson Montpelier, Vt. 

Haselton, Seneca .Burlington, Vt. 

Hatch, William Moore Strafford, Vt. 

Hawkins, Gen. Rush C 21 West 20th St., New York City. 

Hawley, Donly C Burlington, Vt. 

Hayes, Lyman S Bellows Falls, Vt. 

Hazen, Rev. William Skinner 29 Abbott St., Beverly, Mass. 

Hines, G. A Brattleboro, Vt. 

Hogan, George Maynard St. Albans, Vt. 

Holton, Henry Dwight, M. D Brattleboro, Vt. 

Howard, Charles Willard, M. D Shoreham, Vt. 

Howe, Willard Bean Burlington, Vt. 

Howland, Fred A Montpelier, Vt. 

Husband, William Walter Montpelier, Vt. 

Hulburd, Roger W Hyde Park, Vt. 

Hutchins, Robert H 52 William St, New York City. 

Jackson, John Henry Barre, Vt. 

Jackson, S. Hollister Barre, Vt. 

Jeffrey, William H Burke, Vt. 

Jennings, Frederick B New York City. 

Jones, Matt Bushnell Ill Parker St., Newton Center, Mass. 

Jones, Walter Edwin Waitsfield, Vt. 

Kemp, Harlan Wesley Montpelier, Vt. 

Keyes, Wade 1040% Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

Laird, Fred Leslie Montpelier, Vt. 

Leavenworth, Philip R Castleton, Vt. 

Lewis, Rev. Alonzo N New Haven, Conn. 

Lord, Charles Sumner Winooski, Vt. 



14 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mansur, Zophar M Newport, Vt 

Mather, Charles Duane Montpelier, Vt. 

Mathewson, O. D Barre, Vt 

Martin, James L Brattleboro, Vt 

McCulIough, Hall Park Bennington, Vt. 

McCullough, John G Bennington, Vt 

Mclntyre, Hamden W Randolph, Vt 

Mead, John Abner Rutland, Vt. 

Merriam, Bert Emery Rockingham, Vt. 

•Merrifield, John H Newfane, Vt 

Merrill, Olin Enosburgh, Vt. 

Michaud, Rt Rev. John Stephen Burlington, Vt 

Mimms, John H St. Albans, Vt 

Morrill, Charles H Randolph, Vt 

Moulton, Clarence E Montpelier, Vt 

Munson, Loveland Manchester, Vt 

Noble, Robert Burlington, Vt 

North, Clayton Nelson Shoreham, Vt 

Osgood, Arthur G Randolph, Vt 

Page, Carroll S Hyde Park, Vt. 

Partridge, Frank C Proctor, Vt 

Parker, Myron Melvin Washington, D. C. 

Pease, Frederick Salmon Burlington, Vt 

Pease, Mary Everett Burlington, Vt. 

Peck, Theodore Safford Burlington, Vt 

Peck, Cassius Burlington, Vt 

Peck, Hamilton Sullivan Burlington, Vt. 

Pennoyer, Rev. Charles Huntington Springfield, Vt 

Perkins, George Henry Burlington, Vt. 

Piatt, Frederick S Poultney, Vt. 

Plumley, Frank Northfield, Vt 

Powers, Horace Henry Morrisville, Vt 

Proctor, Redfield Proctor, Vt 

Proctor, Fletcher D Proctor, Vt 

Prouty, Charles A Newport, Vt. 



•Deceased 1907. 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. 15 

Prouty, George H Newport, Vt 

Putnam, George K Montpelier, Vt. 

Putnam, Ralph Wright Putnamsville, Vt. 

Quimby, William Lorenzo Ames Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

Ranger, Walter E Providence, R. I. 

Richards, Frederick Barnard Fair Haven, Vt. 

Roberts, Robert Burlington, Vt. 

Robinson, Daniel W Burlington, Vt. 

Robinson, Arthur L Maiden, Mass. 

Roscoe, Edward Mortimer Springfield, Vt. 

Rowell, John W Randolph, Vt. 

Royce, Homer Charles St. Albans, Vt. 

Sargent, John G Ludlow, Vt. 

Scott, Olin Bennington, Vt. 

Senter, John H Montpelier, Vt. 

Shaw, William A Northfield, Vt. 

Sheldon, Henry L Middlebury, Vt. 

Sheldon, Nelson Lewis 108-111 Niles Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

Silver, Elmer E Boston, Mass. 

Slack, Leighton P St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

Smalley, Bradley B Burlington, Vt. 

Smilie, Melville Earle Montpelier, Vt. 

Smith, Charles Albert Barre, Vt. 

Smith, Clarence L Burlington, Vt. 

Smith, Edward Curtis St. Albans, Vt 

*Smith, Fred Elijah Montpelier, Vt. 

Southwick, John L Burlington, Vt. 

Spalding, Rev. George Burley Syracuse, N. Y. 

Stafford, Wendell Phillips St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

Stanton Zed S Roxbury, Vt. 

Stewart, W. D Bakersfield, Vt. 

Stickney, William B. C Bethel, Vt. 

Stickney, William Wallace Ludlow, Vt. 

Stone, Arthur F St. Johnsbury, Vt. 

Stone, Mason Sereno Montpelier, Vt. 



♦Deceased 1907. 



16 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Stratton, George Oren Montpeller, Vt 

Swift, Benjamin Orwell, Vt 

Taylor, W. H Hardwick, Vt. 

Theriault, William Napoleon Montpelier, Vt. 

Thomas, Isaac Burlington, Vt. 

Thompson, Charles Miner, care Youth's Companion, Boston, Mass. 

Tinkham, Henry Crain Burlington, Vt 

Towne, Harriet Belle 100 No. Willard St., Burlington, Vt 

Tracy, Mary Louise Johnson, Vt 

Tuttle, Albert Fair Haven, Vt. 

Van Patten, William J Burlington, Vt 

Walt, Horatio Loomis 110 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Waite, Herschel N Johnson, Vt 

Walbridge, J. L Concord, Vt 

Walker, Roberts 71 Broadway, New York City. 

Watson, Alfred Edwin Hartford, Vt. 

Watson, Charles Douglas St. Albans, Vt 

Webb, William Seward Shelburne, Vt 

•Wells, Edward Burlington, Vt. 

Wells, Frank Richardson Burlington, Vt. 

Wells, Henry Burlington, Vt 

Wheeler, James R 433 W. 117th St., New York City. 

Whitcomb, Charles Warren Cavendish, Vt. 

Wilbur, Lafayette Jericho, Vt 

Wing, George Washington Montpelier, Vt 

Woodbury, Urban A Burlington, Vt 

Wright, George M 280 Broadway, New York City. 

Wright, James Edward, D. D Montpelier, Vt 

COBBESPOXDDfG MEMBERS. 

Benton, Everett C Boston, Mass. 

Bixby, George F Plattsburg, N. Y. 

Canfield, James H Librarian Columbia Univ., New York City. 

Clarke, Albert 77 Bedford St., Boston, Mass. 

Denio, Herbert W Westfield, Mass. 

Houghton, Edward R Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass. 



♦Deceased 1907. 



ACTIVE MEMBERS. 17 

Kellogg, David Sherwood, M. D Plattsburg, N. Y. 

Lord, George Dana Hanover, N. H. 

Phelps, James T 159 Devonshire St. , Boston, Mass. 

Walker, Rev. Edwin Sawyer Springfield, 111. 

Winslow, Rev. Wm. Copley, D. D...525 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Burgess, John W New York City. 

Clark, Charles Edgar, Rear Adm'l U. S. N Philadelphia, Pa. 

Darling, Charles Hiram Burlington, Vt. 

Dewey, George, Admiral, U. S. N Washington, D. C. 

Simpson, John W 25 Broad St., New York City. 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. 



As revised by Special Committee, submitted to the 
members, and adopted October 18, 1904. 

CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE I. 

This association shall be called "The Vermont Histori- 
cal Society," and shall consist of Active, Corresponding, 
and Honorary Members. 

ARTICLE 11. 
The object of the Society shall be to discover, collect, 
and preserve whatever relates to the material, agricultural, 
industrial, civil, political, literary, ecclesiastical and military 
history of the State of Vermont. 

ARTICLE in. 
The officers of the Society, who shall constitute its 
Board of Managers, to be elected annually and by ballot, 
shall be a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Recording 
Secretary, two Corresponding Secretaries of foreign and 
domestic correspondence, a Librarian and a Cabinet-Keeper, 
a Treasurer, and a Curator from each county in this State. 

ARTICLE iv. 
There shall be one annual, and occasional meetings of 
the Society. The annual meeting for the election of officers 
shall be at Montpelier on Tuesday preceding the third Wed- 



CONSTITUTION. 19 

nesday of October; the special meetings shall be at such 
time and place as the Board of Managers shall determine. 

ARTICLE v. 

All members, (Honorary and Corresponding members 
excepted,) shall pay, on admission, the sum of two dollars, 
and an additional sum of one dollar annually. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Members shall be elected upon the recommendation of 
any member of the Society. 

ARTICLE VII. 

This Constitution and the By-Laws may be altered or 
amended at the annual meeting by a vote of two-thirds of 
the members present, provided notice of the proposed 
change shall have been given at the next preceding annual 
meeting. 



BY-LAWS. 

CHAPTER I. 

RELATING TO MEMBERS. 

1. Members only shall be entitled to vote or to be 
eligible to any office. 

2. No member who shall be in arrears for two years, 
shall be entitled to vote, or be eligible to any office, and any 
failure to pay annual dues for two consecutive years, after 
due notice from the Treasurer, shall be considered a for- 
feiture of membership; and no person thus expunged from 
the roll of the Society can be eligible to re-admission with- 
out the payment of his arrears. 



20 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

3. No person shall be elected an Active Member until 
he shall have previously signified his desire to become such 
in writing. 

4. The yearly assessment is payable at the time of the 
annual meeting in October. 

CHAPTER II. 

OF OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE. 

1. The President, or in his absence the highest officer 
present, shall preside at all meetings of the Society, and 
regulate the order thereof, and be ex-oiUcio chairman of the 
Board of Managers, and when required give the casting 
vote. 

2. The Recording Secretary shall keep the minutes 
of all meetings of the Society in a suitable book, and at the 
opening of each one shall read those of the preceding one. 
He shall have the custody of the Constitution, By-Laws, 
Records and all papers of the Society, and shall give notice 
of the time and place of all meetings of the Society and shall 
notify all officers and members of their election and com- 
municate all special votes of the Society to parties interested 
therein. In the absence of the Recording Secretary his 
duty shall be performed by one of the Corresponding Sec- 
retaries. 

3. The Corresponding Secretaries shall conduct all the 
correspondence of the Society committed to their charge. 
They shall preserve on file the original of all communica- 
tions addressed to the Society and keep a fair copy of all 
their letters in books furnished for that purpose. They 
shall read, at each meeting, the correspondence or such ab- 
stracts from it as the President may direct. 



CONSTITUTION. 

4. The Treasurer shall collect, receive and disburse 
all moneys due and payable, and all donations and bequests 
of money or other property to the Society. He shall pay, 
under proper vouchers, all the ordinary expenses of the So- 
ciety, and shall deposit all its funds in one of the Vermont 
Banks, to the credit of the Society, subject to his checks as 
Treasurer ; and at the annual meeting shall make a true re- 
port of all the moneys received and paid out by him, to be 
audited by the Committee on Finance provided for here- 
after. 

5. It shall be the duty of the Librarian and Cabinet- 
Keeper, to preserve, arrange, and keep in good order, all 
books, manuscripts, documents, pamphlets, articles, and pa- 
pers of every kind, belonging to the Society. He shall keep 
a catalogue of the same, and take especial care that no book, 
manuscript, document, paper, or any property of the Society, 
confided to his keeping, be removed from the room. He 
shall also be furnished with a book, in which to record all 
donations and bequests of whatsoever kind, relating to his 
department, with the name of the donor, and the time when 
bestowed. 

6. The Curators, with the President, Vice-Presidents, 
Corresponding and Recording Secretaries, Librarian, and 
Treasurer, shall constitute a Board of Managers, whose duty 
it shall be to superintend the general concerns of the Society. 
The President shall, from this Board, appoint the following 
Standing Committees, viz. : On the Library and Cabinet, 
on Printing and Publishing, and on Finance. 

7. The Committee on the Library and Cabinet shall 
have the supervisory care of all printed publications, manu- 
scripts and curiosities. They shall, with the Librarian, pro- 



22 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

vide suitable shelves, cases and fixtures, in which to ar- 
range and display them. The printed volumes and manu- 
scripts shall be regularly numbered and marked with the 
name of "The Vermont Historical Society." They shall 
propose at the regular meeting, such books or manuscripts, 
pertaining to the objects of the Society, as they shall deem 
expedient, which, when approved, shall be by them pur- 
chased and disposed of as above directed. They shall be re- 
quired to visit the library at least once a year, officially, and 
shall provide a book or books, in which the Librarian and 
Cabinet-Keeper shall keep a record of their proceedings — 
and be entrusted in general, with the custody, care and in- 
crease of whatever comes within the province of their ap- 
pointed duty. 

8. The Committee on Printing and Publishing shall 
prepare for publication whatever documents or collections 
shall be ordered by the Society; shall contract for and su- 
pervise the printing of the same, and shall furnish the Re- 
cording Secretary and Librarian and Cabinet-Keeper, with 
such blank notices, summonses, labels, etc., as may be 
deemed requisite. 

9. The Committee on Finance shall consist of at least 
one member of each of the former committees, and shall 
have the general oversight and direction of the funds of the 
Society. They shall examine the books of the Treasurer, 
vouch all accounts of moneys expended, and audit his an- 
nual report. 



CONSTITUTION. 23 

CHAPTER III. 

OF THE CABINET, LIBRARY, ETC. 

1. All donations to the Cabinet or Library, when prac- 
ticable, shall have the donor's name, legibly written or 
printed, affixed thereto. 

2. All donations shall be promptly acknowledged by 
the Librarian and Cabinet-Keeper on behalf of the Society, 
and shall be specified by that officer in his report to the 
Society to be made at the annual meeting. 

3. The Librarian and Cabinet-Keeper shall make a 
written report of the condition of the Library and Cabinet 
at the annual meeting. 

4. All reports of Committees must be in writing, and 
addressed to the President, and shall be recorded by the 
Recording Secretary, unless otherwise ordered by a vote of 
the Society. 

5. It shall be deemed the duty of all members, if con- 
venient, to contribute to the Library and Cabinet such pa- 
pers, pamphlets and books (rare or out of print), as possess 
historical interest. 

6. There shall be a public meeting of the Society in 
the year in which the Legislature sits. Such meeting shall 
be under the charge and supervision of the President, who 
shall make, on such occasion, the President's address and 
shall also invite (with such counsel as he may require from 
the Board of Managers) to address the Society at such 
meeting, one or more speakers, on subjects relating to the 
history of this State. 

7. Notices of the deaths of such members of this His- 
torical Society, and eminent Vermonters, as may decease 



24 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

during the year preceding the annual meeting of the Society, 
shall be prepared under the direction of the Board of Man- 
agers and be read at the annual meeting, and be deposited 
in the archives of the Society for future use and reference. 



VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
PROCEEDINGS. 



Proceedings oe Annual Meeting, October 17, 1905. 

Pursuant to printed notice, the Vermont Historical So- 
ciety held its sixty-seventh annual meeting at its rooms in 
the State Capitol, on Tuesday, October 17, 1905. The fol- 
lowing members were in attendance : G. G. Benedict, J. L. 
Barstow, J. W. Brock, F. A. Howland, C. S. Forbes, E. M. 
Goddard, W. W. Husband, W. N. Theriault, R. W. Put- 
nam, G. K. Putnam, E. D. Field and J. A. DeBoer. 

The meeting was called to order at 2:00 P. M. by 
President Benedict. 

The minutes of the meetings of October 18, October 
27 and November 15, 1904, were read by the Secretary and 
on motion approved. 

The report of Treasurer H. F. Field was presented 
and, on motion of Mr. Forbes, accepted and ordered placed 
on file. It showed a balance on hand October 24, 1904, of 
$433.70; receipts during the year of $167.00; disburse- 
ments, during the same period, $165.46; cash on hand, 
balance, $435- 2 4- 

The Librarian, E. M. Goddard, read his report and on 
motion of Mr. Howland it was accepted and ordered placed 
on file. Mr. Goddard reported an increase in the Society's 
library during the year of 42 bound volumes and 61 
pamphlets. He discussed the needs of the library and re- 
newed the suggestions of his preceding reports relative to 
2 



26 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL, SOCIETY. 

securing a larger annual appropriation from the State and 
the need of more room. 

The report of the Board of Managers was presented 
verbally by President Benedict. He said that the Society 
had lost by death during the past year the following mem- 
bers: George F. Bixby, of Plattsburgh, N. Y. ; Arthur 
Ropes, of Montpelier, Vt. ; William N. Piatt, of Shoreham, 
Vt. ; Wilder L. Burnap, of Burlington, Vt. ; Charles Dewey, 
of Montpelier, Vt., and Martin L. Hamblet, of Lowell, 
Mass. An invitation was received June 29, 1905, from the 
Committee on Arrangements for the 300th anniversary of 
"Weymouth's Voyage of Discovery" at Thomaston, Maine, 
July 6, 1905, and Prof. Davis R. Dewey of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology was appointed a delegate for 
the occasion. The President reported that Mr. W. H. 
Crockett had found many names of Revolutionary soldiers 
in addition to those printed in the last published proceedings. 

President Benedict presented an invitation from the 
Geographical Society of Mexico to join, May 20, 1906, in 
a celebration of the fourth Centenary of the death of Chris- 
topher Columbus. The Society voted to accept the invita- 
tion and referred the same to a committee of three, to be ap- 
pointed by the chair. F. A. Howland, W. W. Stickney and 
Hiram Carleton were named as such committee. 

President Benedict presented a copy of the original 
"Declaration of Independence" by Vermont Citizens March 
5, 1776, which was received from Hon. C. S. Palmer. The 
original of this document is now held at Bennington. 

Applications for membership were received as follows: 

George Pomeroy Anderson, Boston, Mass. Proposed 
by Charles S. Forbes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL MEETING. 27 

Jacob Gray Estey, Brattleboro, Vt. Proposed by George 
A. Hines. 

Walter E. Jones, Waitsfield, Vt. Proposed by Fred 
A. Howland. 

Henry C. Day, M. D., Bennington, Vt. Proposed by 
Charles M. Bliss. 

All were elected by a viva voce vote of the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Goddard, the President was in- 
structed to appoint a nominating committee of three to pre- 
sent a list of officers for the year next ensuing. The Presi- 
dent appointed Messrs. Goddard, Field and Barstow. 

On motion by Mr. Howland, it was voted to make the 
salary of the Librarian $100 per year, payable quarterly, 
until further ordered by the Society. 

On motion of Mr. DeBoer, it was voted to instruct the 
Board of Managers to secure, if possible, from the Legisla- 
ture of 1906 an increase in the annual State appropriation 
from $100 to $500, as recommended by the Librarian, the 
same committee to make provision for any necessary change 
in the law for its distribution. 

Mr. Field presented the report of the nominating com- 
mittee, which, on motion by Mr. Forbes, was adopted and 
the following were elected, without dissent, to serve as offi- 
cers for the year ensuing: 

President — George G. Benedict, Burlington, Vt. 

Vice-Presidents — William W. Stickney, Ludlow, Vt. ; 
Walter H. Crockett, St. Albans, Vt.; Fred A. Howland, 
Montpelier, Vt. 

Recording Secretary — Joseph A. DeBoer, Montpelier, 
Vt. 



28 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL, SOCIETY. 

Corresponding Secretaries — Theodore S. Peck, Bur- 
lington, Vt. ; Charles S. Forbes, St. Albans, Vt. 

Treasurer— Henry F. Field, Rutland, Vt. 

Librarian — Edward M. Goddard, Montpelier, Vt. 

Curators — Ezra Brainerd (Addison) ; Henry D. Hall 
(Bennington) ; Henry Fairbanks (Caledonia) ; John E. 
Goodrich (Chittenden) ; Porter H. Dale (Essex) ; Frank 
L. Greene (Franklin) ; Nelson W. Fisk (Grand Isle) ; Car- 
roll S. Page (Lamoille) ; Dr. George Davenport (Orange) ; 
F. W. Baldwin (Orleans) ; Frank C. Partridge (Rutland) ; 
Hiram Carleton (Washington) ; Bert E. Merriam (Wind- 
ham) ; Gilbert A. Davis (Windsor) ; and ex-ofhcio, Fred- 
erick G. Fleetwood, Secretary of State ; Horace F. Graham, 
State Auditor; and George W. Wing, State Librarian. 

The President appointed the following standing com- 
mittees : 

On Library — J. A. DeBoer, J. E. Goodrich, E. M. 
poddard. 

On Printing— T. S. Peck, F. A. Howland, D. W. Rob- 
inson. 

On Finance — Hiram Carleton, H. F. Field, F. C. 
Partridge. 

On motion of Mr. Goddard, the meeting adjourned. 

Attest to record : 

Jos. A. DeBoer, 
Secretary. 



proceedings, adjourned annual meeting. 29 

Proceedings of Annual Meeting, October 16, 1906. 

The Vermont Historical Society met in accordance with 
printed call, at the rooms of the Society in the State House, 
on Tuesday afternoon, October 16, 1906, at 2 :oo o'clock. 

Members present: George W. Wing, Edward M. 
Goddard and J. A. DeBoer. 

On motion of Mr. Goddard the meeting adjourned to 
the 9th of November, 1906, at two o'clock in the afternoon. 
A true copy. 
Attest : 

Joseph A. DeBoer, 
Recording Secretary. 



Adjourned Annual Meeting, November 9, 1906. 

In pursuance to adjournment, the Vermont Historical 
Society held its sixty-eighth annual meeting at its rooms in 
the State Capitol on Friday, November 9, 1906, at 2 o'clock 
in the afternoon. 

The following members were in attendance: G. G. 
Benedict, George Davenport, F. L. Greene, M. F. Allen, 
George Blanchard, W. A. Shaw, F. A. Howland, C. S. 
Forbes, T. S. Peck, F. E. Smith, G. W. Wing, H. D. Hol- 
ton, W. W. Stickney, J. A. DeBoer, E. D. Field, Lafayette 
Wilbur, G. H. Perkins, E. H. Deavitt, J. L> Southwick, M. 
S. Stone, W. N. Theriault, W. W. Husband, W. J. Van 
Patten. 

The records of the meetings of October 17, 1905, and 
October 16, 1906, were read by the Secretary and approved. 

The report of the Board of Managers was read by Sec- 
retary DeBoer and, on motion of Dr. George Davenport, 
adopted and ordered recorded. (See "Appendix A"). 



30 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Treasurer's report was read by Mr. C. S. Forbes, 
in the absence of Treasurer Field, and on motion of Dr. 
Davenport it was adopted and ordered recorded. (See 
"Appendix B"). 

Librarian E. M. Goddard presented his report. It was 
accepted and ordered placed on file. He reported the num- 
ber of bound volumes and pamphlets added to the library 
during the year as 312 and called attention to the following 
historical articles and relics which have been presented to 
the Society but of which no previous mention has been 
made: 

(1) Model of a steam engine built by Capt. Samuel 

Morey of Fairlee. This is a model of the engine 
built by Capt. Morey for which he was granted 
a patent March 25, 1795. This model was 
presented to the Society by Mrs. Amelia S. 
Kibbey of Fairlee. 

(2) Two swords and six military and society badges and 

about twenty-five commissions and diplomas of 
the late General Merritt Barber. Presented by 
Mrs. Delilah W. Barber. 

(3) Two swords, epaulettes and sash of Col. Oscar S. 

Tuttle, 6th regiment, Vt. Volunteers. Presented 
by Mrs. Ellen M. Tuttle. 

(4) Wooden case containing a gavel and block and other 

articles made from material secured from vari- 
ous historical places. Presented by the Bunker 
Hill Massachusetts Historical Society. 

(5) Case containing a collection of hair flowers made by 

Mrs. John Floyd of Randolph in 1856-7, and 
presented by her daughters. 



PROCEEDINGS, ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 31 

Applications for membership were received from 22 
gentlemen and 3 ladies. They were all elected by a viva 
voce vote of the Society. For names, residences and en- 
dorsements see "Appendix C." 

On motion of General Peck the president was instructed 
to appoint a committee of three to nominate officers for the 
ensuing year. He appointed Messrs. Peck, Smith and Al- 
len. 

The Society voted to accept the deed of trust from the 
Dewey Monument Committee amounting to $2,524.18, 
mentioned in the report of the Board; of Managers, and, on 
motion of Mr. DeBoer, it was voted to transfer the fund to 
Treasurer Field and authorize him to invest the same in ac- 
cordance with the terms of the deed of trust. 

On motion of Mr. Goddard, the Managers were in- 
structed to procure whatever cases were needed for the care 
of articles or books belonging to the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Goddard, a committee was appointed, 
consisting of Messrs. Goddard, Wing and DeBoer, to se- 
cure, if possible, from the Legislature of 1906, an appro- 
priation for the purpose of fittingly cataloguing the li- 
brary and historical relics of the Society. 

General Peck presented the report of the nominating 
committee, which was accepted and adopted, and the entire 
list so placed in nomination were duly elected. For list of 
officers elected see "Appendix D." 

Mr. M. J. Hapgood brought to the attention of the So- 
ciety a suggestion for the erection of suitable memorials 
to Seth Warner and Remember Baker. The Society was 
informed that a bill for this purpose had been introduced 
in the present legislature and, on motion Messrs. Benedict 



32 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and Forbes were elected a committee on the part of the So- 
ciety to confer with the committee of the legislature which 
has this matter under consideration. 

The resignation of R. N. Preble of Shoreham was re- 
ceived and accepted. 

On motion, E. D. Field was appointed temporary treas- 
urer to receive dues and remit them to Treasurer Field of 
Rutland, who could not be present. 

The matter of securing the usual authority from the 
legislature for the printing and distribution of the Proceed- 
ings of the Society was referred to a committee composed 
of Messrs. DeBoer and Goddard. 

A memorial concerning the preservation of the Ameri- 
can frigate "The Constitution" was presented by President 
Benedict. Mr. Goddard moved that, in view of the action 
which had been taken by Congress since the issuance of the 
memorial, it be referred to the Managers for proper ac- 
knowledgment, and it was so voted. 

The suggestion of Librarian Goddard that a transcript 
of General Whitelaw's Diary be included in the proceed- 
ings for 1 905- 1 906 was referred to the Committee on Print- 
ing with power to act. 

The Secretary reported that biographical sketches had 
been prepared of the members of the Society who have de- 
ceased since the last report and it was voted to include them 
in the Proceedings. 

The President appointed the following standing com- 
mittees for the year ensuing. 

On Library— J. A. DeBoer, E. M. Goddard, J. E. Good- 
rich. 



PROCEEDINGS, ADJOURNED ANNUAL MEETING. 33 

On Printing— T. S. Peck, F. A. Howland, W. H. 
Crockett. 

On Finance— H. F. Field, J. A. DeBoer, F. A. How- 
land. 

The meeting adjourned to meet in the Hall of the House 
of Representatives at 7:30 o'clock in the evening for the 
biennial public exercises. 
A true record. 
Attest : 

Joseph Arend DeBoer, 
Recording Secretary. 



NECROLOGY. 



Hon. Henry Ballard. 

Henry Ballard was born in Tinmouth, Vermont, 
April 20, 1836, son of Jeffrey B. and Amelia (Thompson) 
Ballard. Obtaining his early education at Castleton Sem- 
inary, he entered the University of Vermont, from which he 
was graduated with high honors in 1861, and was selected 
to deliver the master's oration at the college commence- 
ment three years later. He was graduated from the Al- 
bany Law School in May, 1863. Returning to Burlington, 
which became his home, he entered the law office of Daniel 
Roberts and remained there until his admission to the bar 
in September, 1863, when he opened an office of his own in 
his adopted city. A year later he was admitted to practice 
in the United States district and circuit courts. Mr. Ballard 
obtained the reputation of being one of the best criminal 
lawyers Vermont ever had. He was emphatically a trial 
lawyer and as a jury advocate stood among the best. 

Soon after the commencement of the Civil War and 
immediately after his graduation from college, Mr. Ballard 
enlisted as a private and was mustered into service as 2nd 
Lieutenant of Co. I, 5th Vt. Vols. He served throughout 
the peninsular campaign and was present at the battles of 
Lee's Mills, Williamsburg, and the seven days' fight before 
Richmond. He was obliged to resign from the army in 
July, 1862, because of ill health. Mr. Ballard was an ardent 
Republican and an effective political speaker. From 1868 



NECROLOGY. 35 

until recent years his services on the stump were always in 
demand during political campaigns, not only in Vermont, but 
in New York, New Hampshire and Massachusetts. 

Among the civil and political honors which came to 
Mr. Ballard were the following : State Senator from Chit- 
tenden county, 1878; City Attorney of Burlington for two 
years; delegate to Republican National Convention, 1884, 
where he served as chairman of committee on credentials; 
delegate to National G. A. R. Encampment in San Fran- 
cisco, 1886; one of the reading clerks at the National Re- 
publican Convention in 1888; and Representative from the 
City of Burlington, 1888. 

He was a member of Stannard Post, G. A. R. ; Web- 
ster Historical Society of Boston; Home Market Club of 
Boston; American Institute of Civics of New York City; 
charter member Vermont Commandery, Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion, and of the Vermont Fish and Game 
League. In religious circles, Mr. Ballard was an Epis- 
copalian. He also took an active interest in the Young 
Men's Christian Association. 

December 15, 1863, Mr. Ballard was united in marriage 
to Annie J., daughter of Robert and Huldah (Bailey) Scott 
of Burlington. Five children were born to them. He is 
survived by Mrs. Ballard and three of their children, Harry, 
Kate (Mrs. James B. Henderson) and Maude. 

He died at the home of his son, Dr. Harry E. Ballard, 
in Hartford, Conn., on Sunday, September 23, 1906, at the 
age of 70 years. 

16??0192 



36 the vermont historical society. 

Charles Miller Bliss. 

Charles Miller Bliss, M. A., was born in Hartford, 
Conn., January I, 1827, and fitted for college at the Hart- 
ford High School. He entered Yale in 1848 and was grad- 
uated in 1852. After graduation he spent a few months 
at Hartford in miscellaneous study and reading and went 
to Europe in May, 1853, remaining abroad till June, 1854. 
In September following he removed to Woodford, Vermont, 
where he engaged in farming and lumbering. After 1870 
his home was at Bennington, Vermont. At the beginning 
of the Civil War he entered the service of his country as 
Sergeant of the 2nd Vermont Infantry, and a few months 
later was promoted 2nd Lieutenant. He participated in the 
first battle of Bull Run and in several of the skirmishes and 
most of the battles of McClellan's Peninsular Campaign. He 
afterwards engaged in the work of the U. S. Sanitary Com- 
mission. He was a frequent contributor to newspapers in his 
vicinity, discussing educational, political and agricultural 
topics, and from August, 1870, till November, 1871, he was 
editor and proprietor of the Bennington Free Press. In the 
autumn of 1875 he commenced a movement for a monument 
to commemorate the Battle of Bennington. In the two 
years following he spent much time and money in pushing 
forward this movement and also the celebration of the one 
hundredth year of Vermont's existence as a state, and the 
Centennial of the Battle of Bennington, during the week of 
the 16th of August, 1877. The success of those celebrations 
was due largely to his efforts. 

He married, February 15, 1870, Miss Sarah Adell God- 
frey, daughter of Samuel L. and Ruth B. Godfrey, of Ben- 
nington. They had no children. 



NECROLOGY. 37 

He died suddenly, December 21, 1905, aged 78 years, 
II months and 20 days. 

He was a writer of much ability and well informed on 
many historical and public subjects. Though not a church 
member or a church-goer, he was a Puritan in his life and 
conduct. 



Wilder Luke Burnap. 

Wilder Luke Burnap was born September 3, 1839, 
in Canojoharie, N. Y., where his parents, Luke and Abigail 
(Robbins) Burnap then resided. They removed later to Gro- 
ton, Vt., and in that town Mr. Burnap spent his boyhood 
and youth. He fitted for college at Leland Seminary and 
entered Dartmouth College in 1859. I n his junior year he 
enlisted, in June, 1862, in the company composed of students 
of Dartmouth College and Norwich University, which be- 
came a part of the first Regiment of Rhode Island Cavalry 
and has been described as the only company composed 
wholly of college students in the Union Army. The com- 
pany did gallant service in the Shenandoah Valley and in 
Maryland. After the Battle of Antietam, the company was 
mustered out and young Burnap returned to college and was 
graduated with credit in 1863. He removed to Burlington, 
Vermont, studied law in the office of Wales & Taft; was 
admitted to the Bar of Chittenden County in 1866 ; and soon 
after opened an office in Burlington as an Attorney and So- 
licitor in Bankruptcy. He soon gained an enviable stand- 
ing by his ability, care in the conduct of his cases and gift 
as a speaker. He was State's Attorney of Chittenden Coun- 
ty 1871-1875. In 1882 he was elected to the State Senate 



38 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and was a prominent and influential legislator in that body. 
In 1895 he succeeded Hon. E. J. Phelps as Professor of 
Medical Jurisprudence in the Medical Department of the 
University of Vermont, and held the office for ten years 
and until his death. He was City Attorney of the city of 
Burlington, 1885-1887, was School Commissioner of Bur- 
lington, 1 898- 1 904, and held several other local offices. He 
was a loyal son of his Alma Mater and was President of the 
Alumni Association of Dartmouth College for a number of 
years. He possessed a fine literary and artistic taste. As 
a lawyer, no member of the Bar of Vermont stood higher 
than he for legal learning, integrity and ability, and as a 
citizen he commanded respect by his sturdy independence of 
thought and action and devotion to high ideals of life and 
conduct. He was a staunch Republican in politics. 

He died July 15, 1905, from internal hemorrhage, fol- 
lowing, after several weeks, an operation for appendicitis. 

He married May 11, 1870, Miss Fannie Castle of Bur- 
lington, who survives him with three sons, Robert L., James 
W. and Clement F. Burnap. 



Charles Dewey. 

Charles Dewey, who died at his home in Montpelier, 
Vermont, August 31, 1905, was born in Montpelier, March 
27, 1826, eldest son of Dr. Julius Y. Dewey, in direct descent 
from Thomas Dewey, of Sandwich, County of Kent, Eng- 
land, who settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1633. 

He was educated in the local schools, fitted for college 
in the Washington County Grammar School, and was grad- 
uated from the University of Vermont in 1845. ^ n *h e 



NECROLOGY. 39 

same year he was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Ver- 
mont Mutual Fire Insurance Company. In 1850 he was 
elected Secretary of the company and so continued for twen- 
ty-one years, and as a director for thirty years. In 1871 he 
left the Vermont Mutual to become Vice-President of the 
National Life Insurance Company, and succeeded to the 
presidency on the death of his distinguished father in 1877, 
remaining in that position until his retirement from active 
business in 1900. Among the other positions of trust and 
responsibility with which he was honored were: Director, 
Vice-President and President of the First National Bank, of 
Montpelier; Director, Vice-President and President of the 
Lane Manufacturing Company, the chief industry of Mont- 
pelier; 1864, Trustee of the Washington County Grammar 
School, and from 1877 President of the Board; 1867-1869, 
State Senator from Washington County; 1882, State In- 
spector of Finance by appointment of Governor Barstow; 
for over half a century a vestryman and for a third of a cen- 
tury a warden of Christ Church, Montpelier. 

He was married May 3, 1848, to Betsey Tarbox, of 
Randolph, Vermont. To them were born three sons and 
six daughters. 

Mr. Dewey was an intense lover of his state, his city, 
his church, his home and the business with which he was 
identified, devoting an active and full life to their interests 
and discharging his trust with fidelity. 



Dwight H. Kexton. 

Major Dwight H. Kelton, U. S. A., was born in 
Montpelier (now East Montpelier), Vermont, October 4, 
1843. Son of Stillman S. and Ursula (Sprague) Kelton. 



40 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

He came of pioneer New England stock, two of his ancestors 
being Mayflower passengers and his great grandfather, Dr. 
Philip Vincent, being the first resident physician in Mont- 
pelier, where he located in 1793. 

His education was obtained in the common schools and 
at Barre Academy, from which he ran away to enlist in the 
13th Vermont Volunteers, but was rejected, being under 
age. He then spent two years at Norwich Military College. 
He enlisted in the 98th New York Infantry January 29, 
1864; was commissioned Captain of the 115th United States 
Colored Infantry October 15, 1864; and was honorably 
mustered out February 10, 1866. He re-entered the serv- 
ice July 20, 1866, as 2nd Lieutenant, U. S. A., was commis- 
sioned 1st Lieutenant March 26, 1868, and Captain Feb- 
ruary 16, 1885. He was retired with the rank of Captain 
March 6, 1888, for disabilities received while in the line of 
duty, and by special act of Congress April 23, 1904, was 
brevetted Major. The only extended leave had by him 
during the almost a quarter of a century of service in the 
Army, was in 1873, when he spent nearly a year in European 
travel and in study at Leipsic. 

Although he saw much active service on the frontier; 
being stationed in Kentucky, Dakota, Texas, Michigan, New 
Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, he found time to publish a 
history of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal and the Annals of 
Fort Mackinac, besides a volume entitled "Indian Names," 
which has a peculiar value because in it are collected and 
arranged in permanent form some hitherto unpublished 
facts and legendary tales of a disappearing race. 

On July 19, 1889, Major Kelton married Miss Anna 
L. Donnelly of Mackinac Island, Mich.,, who alone survives 
him. 



NECROLOGY. 41 

He died at his home in Montpelier, August 9, 1906, and 
was buried in the National Cemetery at Arlington. 



Arthur Ropes. 

Arthur Ropes, editor and publisher of the "Vermont 
Watchman," and the "Montpelier Daily Journal," died at 
Montpelier, Vermont, April 1, 1905. 

He was born at Newbury, May 5, 1837, the son of 
George and Miriam (Johnson) Ropes. Was educated in 
the common schools of his native town, at St. Johnsbury 
Academy and one year at Dartmouth College in the class 
of 1864. Taught school in Newbury and Waterford, be- 
came an instructor in St. Johnsbury Academy and for a time 
principal of the public schools in that town. He began his 
business career as bookkeeper for a St. Johnsbury lumber 
firm ; was teller of the old Passumpsic Bank ; cashier of the 
Northfield National Bank; a surveyor in the Lake Superior 
region for a year because of ill health ; twelve years in manu- 
facturing business in Waterbury and Montpelier; in 1880 
entered the "Vermont Watchman" office and from that time 
until his death was actively engaged in newspaper work. 
He was assigned to editorial work practically from the start 
and became editor and publisher of the "Vermont Watch- 
man" in 1888. In 1899 h e established the "Montpelier 
Daily Journal." 

Mr. Ropes was an editorial writer of great force. His 
pen was a power in Vermont and was especially forceful 
and earnest when he was writing about forestry, mineralogy, 



42 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

roadmaking, public schools and kindred topics directly af- 
fecting her interests. An ardent Republican, he was one 
of the most earnest and able advocates of party principles, 
both state and national, that the Republican party in Ver- 
mont has every had. Devotion to his family, state and 
country were marked characteristics of the man. 

He was married June 28, 1864, to Mary J. Hutchins 
of Waterbury, who survives him with two daughters, Mrs. 
William E. Harlow and Mrs. John P. Adams. 



PUBLIC MEETING. 



Public Meeting, November 9, 1906. 
The society met at 7 130 o'clock in the Hall of the House 
of Representatives and was called to order by President 
Benedict. Prayer was offered by Dr. J. Edward Wright. 
Introductory remarks were made by the President as fol- 
lows: 

Remarks of the President. 

Members of the Vermont Historical Society, and Ladies 
and Gentlemen. 

We may congratulate ourselves this evening upon the 
facts that our State Historical Society has reached its sixty- 
eighth annual meeting with a larger membership and com- 
prising more leading citizens than it has ever had, since 
its organization in 1838; and that it enjoys distinct marks 
of confidence and approval on the part of the people of 
Vermont. We must have noted with gratification, the in- 
creased interest in the career of our Commonwealth, as 
evidenced by the recent multiplication of monuments and 
memorials erected to commemorate historic events within 
our borders, or in honor of history-making Vermonters. 
Since the last previous meeting of our Society in this hall 
an imposing memorial tower of stone, has been erected by 
the Vermont Society Sons of the American Revolution, upon 
an eminence commanding wide stretches of land and water, 
upon the farm in Burlington, which was once the home of 
43 



44 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

General Ethan Allen, and upon which he died. The tower 
was dedicated with impressive ceremonies and an imposing 
military parade on the 16th of August, 1905. The oc- 
casion was graced by the presence of the Vice-President 
of the United States, of the Secretary of the Interior, Hon. 
Ethan Allen Hitchcock, direct descendant from the Hero of 
Ticonderoga, who was present as the personal representa- 
tive of President Roosevelt, and by Governors, ex-Governors, 
U. S. Senators and ex-Senators, Representatives and ex-Rep- 
resentatives, and many other persons of marked distinction 
in this and other States. The addresses and exercises were 
of high interest and dignity, and have been published in a 
volume for permanent preservation. 

In July of last year the Vermont Society of Colonial 
Dames unveiled with appropriate ceremonies a monument 
to Ann Story, the heroic pioneer woman, celebrated in his- 
tory and in fiction, upon or near the site of her cottage in 
Salisbury. The massive marble block for this was the 
gift of Hon. Fletcher D. Proctor, and an admirable address 
was delivered by Judge Stafford of the Supreme Court of 
the District of Columbia, who is to address us this evening. 

A great granite boulder was placed in the cemetery 
in Waitsfield through the interest and efforts of two broth- 
ers, Walter E. Jones of Waitsfield and Matt Bushnell Jones, 
of Newton, Mass. A tablet upon the face of the stone 
bears the names of thirty-one soldiers of the American 
Revolution, buried in that town. The tablet was unveiled 
September 15, 1906, when a valuable historical address was 
delivered by Mr. Matt B. Jones, in which he gave an inter- 
esting sketch of the life of General Benjamin Wait, from 
whom the town took its name. 



PUBLIC MEETING. 45 

A tall and fine soldiers' monument has been recently 
erected in Middlebury as the gift of Col. Ilsley, a generous 
citizen of that town. 

A massive stone now stands to mark the ground in 
Brattleboro, upon which so many regiments of Vermont 
volunteers were mustered into the army, during the War for 
the Union. And steps are in progress to procure the erec- 
tion of similar monuments in other towns at an early day. 

In arousing the historical interest which has led to the 
erection of these monuments, this Society may claim some 
share. It is to be hoped that the number of such memorials 
for the instruction of posterity and promotion of patriotic 
feeling, may steadily increase; that we may see monuments 
erected, better late than never, in memory of Col. Seth War- 
ner and Captain Remember Baker; that the ladies who are 
planning to mark the site of the first settlement by white 
men on the soil of Vermont, at Fort St. Anne on Isle 
La Motte, may accomplish their worthy purpose; that the 
old Constitution House in Windsor may be replaced on its 
ancient site and be suitably preserved; and that other 
similar projects may materialize in the coming years. 

I may barely allude to the standing which this Society 
has gained among similar societies, as evidenced by the 
fact that it was one of the seven Historical Societies in- 
vited to be represented — : as it was represented by its presi- 
dent — at the celebration of the 200th anniversary of the birth 
of Benjamin Franklin at Philadelphia on the 17th to the 20th 
of last April. 

On the day the celebration began the great earthquake 
and fire which destroyed San Francisco occurred, and the 
dust and smoke of that terrible catastrophe, almost blotted 



46 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

out the Franklin Bicentenary from the sight of the public at 
large. But it was one of the most imposing functions of its 
kind on record in our land. One hundred twenty-four uni- 
versities and Scientific and Historical Societies of England, 
Scotland, France, Spain, Germany, Austria, Italy, Holland, 
Mexico and other countries, as well as of the United States 
and Canada, were represented by some 300 delegates, in- 
cluding many men of world-wide fame. The State of Penn- 
sylvania appropriated $20,000 towards the expenses of the 
celebration, and there were other large contributions. The 
arrangements were planned and carried out. in a most 
sumptuous and distinguished manner under the auspices of 
the American Philosophic Society, of Philadelphia. Among 
the striking features of the celebration was the presentation 
of the great gold medal, voted by Congress, to the Republic 
of France, in recognition of the sympathy and assistance re- 
ceived by Franklin at the hands of that Republic. The 
presentation of the medal was made by Secretary of State 
Elihu Root, and the medal was received in a graceful speech 
by M. Jusserand, the French ambassador to this country. 
Other features of the occasion were of the highest interest ; 
but I must detain you no longer from the addresses which 
are the chief attractions of this meeting. 

President Benedict then introduced Judge Wendell 
Phillips Stafford, as a jurist who had gained distinction 
on the bench of the Supreme Court of Vermont, and was 
winning national fame as an orator and judge of the Su- 
preme Court of the District of Columbia, who spoke upon 
the "Life and Services of Thaddeus Stevens, Statesman and 
Reformer." 



PUBLIC MEETING. 47 

i 

It was followed by a paper by Prof. George Henry Per- 
kins on "Prehistoric Vermont and Relics and Evidences of 
Early Occupation by Indian Tribes." 

The meeting attracted a distinguished audience which 
filled the hall. The judges of the Supreme Court occupied 
seats near the speaker's desk and the members of Marquis 
de LaFayette Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, attended in a body. 

The following resolutions were proposed and unani- 
mously adopted by a viva voce vote of the Society : 

By Mr. W. W. Stickney: 

Resolved, That the Vermont Historical Society hereby tenders 
to the Honorable Wendell Phillips Stafford, Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the District of Columbia, its sincere thanks for 
his able and scholarly address on "The Life and Services of 
Thaddeus Stevens, Statesman and Reformer," and requests him 
to supply a copy of the same for publication in the Proceedings 
of the Society. 

By Mr. Frank L. Greene: 

Resolved, That the Vermont Historical Society express to 
Prof. George Henry Perkins its sincere thanks for his most in- 
teresting historical address on "Prehistoric Vermont and Relics 
and • Evidences of Early Occupation by Indian Tribes," and re- 
quest him to furnish a copy of said address for publication in the 
Proceedings of the Society. 



Mr. Matt Bushnell Jones, of Newton, Mass., was pro- 
posed for membership by Mr. Fred A. Howland and he was 
elected by a viva voce vote. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 



THADDEUS STEVENS 



AN ADDRESS BY 



WENDELL PHILLIPS STAFFORD 

Judge of the Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia 



Delivered at the annual meeting of the Vermont 
Historical Society held on the ninth day of November, 
1906, in the hall of the House of Representatives, at 
Montpelier, Vermont. 



4 i -^o 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 



When I was a boy there was a picture tacked up on the 
dingy wall of my father's factory office, which I used to 
gaze upon with wonder and awe. It was the picture of an 
old man seated in a chair. I remember he had a club foot 
and seemed to be distorted with age and pain ; yet the face 
was one of commanding power. There was scorn in the 
firm-shut lips ; there was a defiant glance in the eagle eyes ; 
and yet it was a face that even as a child I felt that I could 
trust. "Who is that old man, father?" I asked. And, as 
nearly as I can remember, he replied: "That is Thaddeus 
Stevens of Pennsylvania. He was born over here in Dan- 
ville or Peacham. He was leader of the House of Rep- 
resentatives at Washington during the war and afterwards 
until he died. They called him the great commoner, be- 
cause he believed in the common people and fought like a 
tiger for the rights of all men rich and poor, black and 
white. He hated slavery with a hatred that knew no 
bounds and he poured out on rebels and traitors all the vials 
of his wrath. When you are older you can read and judge 

Note. — The address here printed brings to light no new 
facts concerning the career of Thaddeus Stevens. The material 
presented is all to be found in existing sketches and histories, 
and most of it in the admirable biography of Stevens by Samuel 
W. McCall, in the American Statesmen series. My effort is anal- 
ogous to that of a painter who attempts the portrait of one who 
has been faithfully photographed already. It may present some- 
thing of the artist's personality, but can hardly be expected to 
add anything of historical value. For these reasons I should 
have been glad to have been excused from furnishing a copy for 
the proceedings. — W. P. S. 

57 



52 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

for yourself; but I tell you, he was a great man, that old 
Thad Stevens !" And so when I found I was to make this 
address my mind went back to that early impression, and 
I said to myself: "I will try to draw the portrait of that 
strong old man, — that true son of Vermont, who fought as 
bravely and as mightily for the Union in the halls of Con- 
gress as any of her sons fought upon the field, and who 
finally breathed her own implacable hatred of oppression into 
the three great amendments to the constitution." That is 
how it happens that I am speaking to you to-night of 
Thaddeus Stevens, War Leader of the House of Representa- 
tives and Father of the Constitutional Amendments. 

Thaddeus Stevens was the spirit of Vermont incar- 
nate. Even in his faults and his failings he was ours. He 
came as honestly by his defects as he did by his virtues. 
Imperious, irascible, he carried in his breast a heart as tender 
as a child's. When he was a child himself his mother had 
gone about among the neighbors nursing the sick through 
a terrible epidemic. Thad saw her sacrifice, and never for- 
got the lesson. Human suffering never failed to touch him 
to tears. His own infirmity made him especially solicitous 
for the halt and lame. He gave to his physician this order : 
"Doctor, whenever you come across a poor boy who has 
any trouble with his legs, do the best you can for him and 
send the bill to me." Even to the careless and improvident 
he was kind and generous — that is, if he had any thing him- 
self. Sometimes his own pockets were empty. If that was 
the case he would never disclose the fact but would put his 
refusal to give on the ground that they were unworthy 
to receive, and give them a sharp lecture on their shiftless 
ways. There was never a particle of sham piety about him. 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 53 

He hated cant with all the intensity of his nature. He had 
a near relative who was very punctilious to ask a blessing 
at every meal. Thad said to him : "Morrill, why don't you 
take some rainy day in the fall and bless all your garden 
sauce at once, and save this everlasting repetition?" Yet 
no one loved genuine righteousness in man or nation more 
than he and no one gave himself more resolutely to secure it. 
Nobody seems to remember much about his father. 
Some say he was a worthless sort of fellow and ran away. 
Some say he was killed in the war of 1812. We know he 
was a shoemaker and taught Thad to cobble. And tradition 
says he was a great wrestler and could throw any man in 
the county. But there is no need to inquire about his father. 
His greatness is all accounted for by his mother; and that 
is where greatness usually begins. She had four sons. The 
others were well and able-bodied — Thad was sickly and 
lame. You can guess which was the favorite. A poet once 
wrote : 

These mothers are like God — they love 
Ugly and fair alike. 

He made a great mistake; they love the ugly and mis- 
shapen far the best ; on them they lavish their tenderest care ; 
for them they are ready to labor and go without. "It is 
plain Thad can never make his way by physical labor. He 
must go to the academy and college and if I have to work 
my fingers off he shall." And he did. Do you wonder 
that Stevens' heart always melted at mention of his mother ? 
The greatest pleasure his prosperity brought him was the 
ability to give her the fine farm she wanted and the bright 
gold pieces she loved to drop in the contribution box. 
"Every thing I have done, every thing I am, I owe to my 



54 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



mother." So he said. And when he died his will provided 
that her grave in Peacham should be carefully tended and 
its corners planted with roses "or other cheerful flowers" 
to the end of time. Oh, harsh and forbidding old man, we 
have found your secret out. Your sternness was only a 
mask to hide the over-tender nature. How many of the 
softest hearts that beat put on this appearance of hardness 
for their own protection! When Jesus was on earth he 
saw through such disguises, just as he saw through the 
mask of hypocrisy and pretence the Pharisee put on. He 
drew about him such men as this — men on whom the re- 
ligious world of his day looked askance but whom the Son 
of Man saw to be kind and true of heart. Thad Stevens 
never belonged to any church but when the "ordained 
hypocrites" of his time turned their backs upon the slave, 
"the least of these my brethren," Stevens went to him and 
gave him all he had. Whether he was a Christian or not, 
judge ye ! Once, later in life, he was betrayed into a theo- 
logical discussion. He showed such a profound familiarity 
with the subject that the listeners asked him, if he had 
not at some period of his life studied for the ministry. 
Stevens parried the query with his customary snort: 
"Humph ! I have read their books." 

No doubt he had read them and read them well. That 
was a habit he had. He bent himself to his task with an 
iron will, and studied relentlessly. He never meant that 
anything he set out for should get away from him — least 
of all an idea. He went through the academy at Peacham ; 
he spent a term or two in the university at Burlington ; but 
he finally graduated from Dartmouth. That was in 1814. 
Then he went to Pennsylvania to teach school and study 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 55 

law. When he was ready to take his examination he found 
that the lawyers had passed a rule to keep him out. The 
rule required that the applicant should not have been en- 
gaged in any occupation except the study of law during 
the years of his preparation. 

Stevens had been teaching school daytime and studying 
law nights. So he crossed into Maryland and took the 
examination there. Then he came back and settled down in 
Gettysburg where the great battle was afterwards fought. 
He had a right to practice in Pennsylvania then, being a 
member of the bar in Maryland. But it is one thing to 
have the right and it is another thing to get the chance. It 
was a long time before Stevens got a chance, and in the 
meantime he nearly starved. Again and again he was al- 
most ready to give up. One day he said to an acquaintance : 
"I can't stand it any longer. I have got to go away." 
The next day opportunity knocked at his door. It was a 
murder case. The old story. He was offered the chance 
to defend because the case was too poor for any body else 
to touch. Stevens seized the chance. He could not win 
his case but he tried it with such astonishing ability that 
his reputation in that community was made, and from that 
hour he never lacked for business. The plea was insanity. 
In those days it was a new fashioned plea and very un- 
popular ; but Stevens believed thoroughly in the truth of the 
defence. Long afterwards he said he had defended fifty 
murder cases, and succeeded in every one but this; and 
yet that this was the only man in the whole lot that ought 
to have been acquitted. 

But Stevens found better business than defending mur- 
derers. They were * close by Maryland. Fugitive slave 



56 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

cases were common and these enlisted every faculty of 
body, mind and heart that he possessed. If he couldn't 
save the poor wretch in court he would buy him rather 
than let him be taken back. He saw the wicked, cruel 
system close at hand. He knew it in its most hideous as- 
pect. His soul flamed whenever slavery showed itself. 
He brought to the borders of the slave states the spirit of 
the free hills and mountains of the north, and he never lost 
it as so many others did. 

I must tell you a story to illustrate his method in court. 
A Quaker miller in that part of Pennsylvania had been very 
active in assisting runaway slaves to make their escape. He 
was put on trial for doing so in one instance, and the charge 
was that he had levied war against the United States. The 
case was tried before Justice Grier, afterwards of the Fed- 
eral Supreme Court. When the evidence was all in, the 
district attorney made an extended argument upon the ques- 
tion of law, reading from volume after volume to show 
what conduct might constitute the crime in question. Ste- 
vens listened in immovable contempt, silent to the end. 
When the attorney had taken his seat he rose, hobbled over 
to the clerk's desk, leaned upon it, and looked Grier in the 
eye. "I have listened to this long and labored argument 
with the gravest anxiety — not for my client, but for you. 
Because it is now for you to tell this jury whether a Quaker 
miller, white with the dust of his occupation, and riding on 
a bob-tailed sorrel nag, can be found to have been levying 
war, under any construction to be given to the constitution." 
And he sat down. He always knew when to sit down. I 
sometimes think that is the hardest lesson a lawyer ever 
has to learn. 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 57 

The constitution declared that persons held to service 
in one state, if they escaped into another, should not be 
discharged therefrom but should be surrendered on claim 
of the owner. "Very well," said Stevens, "then we will 
do it. But it doesn't say the rest of us shall turn out and 
join the hunt. It doesn't say that a man shall not have 
a trial by jury to decide whether he is a freeman or a slave. 
We will stand by the constitution but we won't stretch it a 
hair's breath in the interest of slavery." Case after case 
he defended for nothing ; but he was no Hessian. He never 
let out his sword to the oppressor. Those were the days 
that molded the great advocate of freedom. These were 
the experiences that burned into his soul the lesson the 
whole country was finally to learn. 

• Stevens didn't make the mistake so many young law- 
yers make — of going at once into politics. I think it would 
trouble you to name a really great lawyer who did not give 
the first years of his professional life entirely to the law. 
Those are the days that determine what he is to be. With 
the sure instinct of genius Stevens devoted himself for 
fifteen years to the mastery of his calling. In those years 
he laid broad and deep the foundations of his massive 
learning and acquired the accomplishment of his consummate 
skill. When he died Jeremiah Black declared that he had 
not left his equal at the American bar ; and Jeremiah Black 
was a rival, a political opponent — himself accounted by many 
the greatest lawyer of his time. 

Stevens always went to the heart of his subject. He 
always laid his finger on the sore spot of his adversary's 
case. He never wasted words. He had pondered well 



58 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the Greek saying, "The half may be more than the whole." 
He never took a note during a trial. He trusted his memory 
and his memory never betrayed the trust. He flew at the 
decisive point with all the ferocity of his nature and fastened 
upon it with a grip that nothing could relax. Airs and 
graces he despised, but his words quivered with the intensity 
of his conviction, and his wit illumined the obscurity of his 
subject as the lightning lays the landscape bare beneath a 
midnight sky. His sarcasms stung like hornets and his 
drollery was indescribable and unique. Senator Morrill said 
he wasted wit enough every day to make the reputation of 
an ordinary humorist. The most mirth provoking things 
he ever said were spoken with a face of unmoved, funeral 
solemnity. When he was leader of the House at Washing- 
ton he could at any time put the chamber in a roar without 
an effort. If you read the record you will find, "laughter," 
"great merriment," following remarks of his which, having 
lost the manner in which he made them, have lost their whole 
significance and charm. After all the great secret is per- 
sonality, and no analysis can penetrate to that. 

Stevens was forty-one when he first went to the legis- 
lature. Instantly he took his place in the front rank. The 
next year he was returned and took a hand in the great fight 
for free schools. I must linger a moment upon that. Penn- 
sylvania furnished education for the rich at established rates 
and if a father was too poor to pay, he was obliged to make 
application for assistance on the ground of poverty. Class 
distinction sprang up and sensitive parents kept their chil- 
dren at home rather than send them to be looked upon as 
paupers. This year the legislature passed an act provid- 
ing for public education for rich and poor alike at the 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 59 

public charge. But this meant more taxes for the comfort- 
able people who had no children of their own. A mighty re- 
action set in. The Pennsylvania pocket book was as sen- 
sitive as any other pocket book, and a legislature was elected 
pledged to repeal the law. The Senate did its part at once. 
Then the repeal bill came before the house. A test vote was 
taken on a preliminary question and showed a majority 
of thirty in favor of repeal. Then Stevens appeared upon 
the scene. He had been absent until now. The friends 
of free education gathered round him and told him it was 
useless to oppose the tide. The mercenary wave had swept 
every thing before it. Now one man stood up against it. 
Stevens immediately moved to strike out the whole bill 
after the enacting clause and to substitute for it a bill of 
his own strengthening the free school law. Upon this mo- 
tion he made a speech which for immediate practical effect 
upon its hearers has never been equaled in a legislative as- 
sembly in this country. The house was packed. The Sen- 
ate which had just passed the bill crowded in to hear this 
audacious argument against their action. His biographer 
says : "Stevens then in the prime of life was erect and ma- 
jestic. His form had outgrown the slenderness of youth. 
It was not yet bent with the heavy weight of years." A 
witness declares "he looked like a descended God." He 
was inspired by his great subject. He spoke with the fire of 
a Hebrew prophet. The house was electrified. It voted 
as soon as Stevens took his seat and carried his motion 
almost two to one — and the Senate hurried back to its cham- 
ber, revoked its former action and concurred. To under- 
stand the magnitude of his triumphs we must remember that 
the men whom Stevens convinced and persuaded were not 



60 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

merely opposed to his motion when he began. They had 
been elected on that very issue. They had been commanded 
by their constituents to vote for the repeal. Yet such was 
the force of reason, such was the power of righteousness in 
Stevens' speech, that everything was forgotten save the 
mighty elemental truths he brought to bear ; and before many 
days Pennsylvania herself, clothed and in her right mind, 
was ready to praise and bless him for the service. So it is 
always. No matter what the hue and cry of the moment 
may be, no matter how the multitude may be hurried away 
to do evil, the leader who dares to utter the deepest, noblest, 
truest word, he it is who is certain to be acknowledged in 
the end as the true voice and tribune of the people. Is it 
strange that Stevens always looked back upon this victory 
as the crowning achievement of his life? Often he said 
that he would be paid and overpaid for all his labors if a 
single child of destitution who had found the blessing of 
education through his help should come to drop a tear of 
gratitude upon his grave. 

The speech made his name a household word through- 
out the state and Pennsylvania was proud to call him her 
son. But after all he was only an adopted son. He really 
belonged to us. I suppose you have all heard the witticism 
that was sprung on a banquet of Pennsylvanians. They 
had been praising their state ad nauseam as is apt to be the 
case at all state meetings. Finally a guest arose and said: 
"I give you a toast — The three greatest Pennsylvanians, 
Benjamin Franklin, of Massachusetts, Albert Gallatin, of 
Switzerland and Thaddeus Stevens of Vermont!" 

A year or two after the free school victory a conven- 
tion was called to amend the state constitution. Stevens 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 61 

was a member. It was a stormy time and Stevens was in 
his element. Every attempt to carry class or race distinc- 
tions into the organic law found in him a constant and de- 
termined foe. You can see how early and consistent a 
friend he was of equal suffrage. The constitution as the 
convention left it limited the right to white citizens. 
Stevens having fought in vain against the odious dis- 
crimination, utterly refused to affix his name to the docu- 
ment that contained it. And that was away back in 1837. 

About the same time he attended another convention. 
It had been called by the supporters of slavery. They 
thought the only way to save the Union was to put a stop 
to the anti-slavery agitation. How Stevens ever managed to 
get a seat in such a body no one seems to understand, but 
he did, and he succeeded in making it so ridiculous that 
there was nothing left for it to do but to adjourn. Of course 
he was the champion of the very views the convention was 
called to denounce. Yet he made himself the central figure 
of the scene and by his mastery of parliamentary tactics, by 
resolutions, points of order, by wit, eloquence, sarcasm, he 
turned the whole movement into a rout. His own self- 
command was complete. His countenance was imperturb- 
able. His sallies kept the convention in alternate bursts of 
laughter and applause. Nothing was too personal or ad 
captandum for his use. A minister rose and bitterly de- 
nounced him for bringing a firebrand into the convention. 
Stevens solemnly rebuked the reverend gentleman for in- 
dulging in personalities, gravely pretending to believe that by 
"firebrand" he was referring to a member with flaming red 
hair who had come in with Stevens and sat at his side. 
Whereupon the convention nearly exploded. I cannot re- 



62 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



call another instance where a single unsupported member, 
hostile to the sentiment of the assembly and gaining ad- 
mittance for the sole purpose of defeating its objects, has 
been able by sheer force of personal address and manage- 
ment to turn a serious gathering into a farce and utterly 
frustrate its whole design. Surely it was only the rarest 
combination of humor, eloquence and forensic skill that 
could make such a performance possible. 

After this he devoted himself a great deal to politics and 
of course he was an intense partisan. In the last years of 
his life, when he was leader of the House, he came in one 
day just in time to vote on a contested election case, and 
asked a member of his own party how the matter stood. 
"Not much choice," he replied. "They are both damned 
rascals." "Very well," said Stevens, "which is our damned 
rascal?" Yet this was only dealing with things as he found 
them. Partisan as he was, he was wise and just enough to 
see the folly of determining such questions by a party 
vote and advocated another method. He proposed that 
they should be referred to a committee who should hear 
and decide the question judicially as is done in England. 

Well, he devoted so much time to politics that when he 
was fifty years old he woke up one morning and found him- 
.self poorer than he was when he landed in Pennsylvania. 
He had been engaged in a large iron business and his part- 
ner had run him in debt $200,000. Stevens went to work 
and paid it up to the last cent. In the course of his life he 
made and lost three fortunes and yet left a comfortable 
estate at the last. He went to Lancaster and fought his 
way to the front in a new field. He drew young men about 
him as a magnet draws the steel filings. He had nine stu- 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 63 

dents in his office at one time. In politics the machine was 
against him but the people were for him and by a great 
majority they elected him to Congress. That was in 1849 
and Stevens was fifty-eight years old. 

He had now reached that chamber where with the pos- 
sible exception of John Quincy Adams he was one day to 
become the greatest figure that ever dominated its debates. 
But that supreme period of his life was even then some 
fifteen years away. On his first appearance the little com- 
pany of Free Soilers and Conscience Whigs rallied around 
him and adopted him as their leader. He was their candi- 
date for speaker. It was 1850 — the year of the second 
great compromise on the subject of slavery. The war with 
Mexico was ended. A vast region had been gained. New 
territories were to be organized, new states were to come in. 
California stood knocking for admission — "California," as 
Seward described her, "the youthful queen of the Pacific in 
her robes of freedom gorgeously inlaid with gold." Con- 
gress, controlled by the slaveholders, hesitated to admit her. 
The Mexican war had been kindled and carried on to make 
more slave states and behold, the first state in the new 
territory ready for admission had spurned slavery from her 
threshold and adopted a free constitution. New Mexico and 
Utah were to be given territorial governments. How about 
slavery in these? Should it be provided for or prohibited? 
These and other great issues arose and at the bottom of each 
was the burning question of slavery. Thirty years before, 
Missouri had asked for admission as a slave state. She was 
finally admitted but upon the express condition that through 
the rest of that vast region purchased from France and 
known as Louisiana a line should be drawn at 36 ° 30' — and 



64 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

north of that line slavery should be forever prohibited. That 
was the famous Missouri compromise of 1820. Now a new 
compromise was proposed by Henry Clay and in the end it 
was adopted. Among other things it provided for a 
stronger fugitive-slave law. It took away trial by jury and 
required the citizens of free states to actively assist in the 
capture and return of slaves. On this proposition Stevens 
made his first speech in Congress. It was a topic where he 
was at home and which roused him as no other subject 
could. For almost the first time Congress heard the voice 
of the unterrified north speaking the bitter, blasting truth 
on the subject of slavery where it had so long listened to 
the soft phrases of conciliation and persuasion. It was a 
new experience and I am still Yankee enough to think that 
it was wholes6me. "Keep slavery where it is," he declared, 
"and it will die of its own poison. Let it spread and the 
whole body will become diseased. Surround it with a cor- 
don of freemen and in twenty years not a single slave state, 
but will have on its statute books a law for the gradual ex- 
tinction of the system." With merciless sarcasm he handled 
the pretension that the negro was better off as a slave ; that 
when he had tried freedom he had been known to return 
and voluntarily receive the yoke. That delusion held its 
ground even after the beginning of the war. One day a 
Union officer happened to meet a slave running away to- 
wards the north. He had known him in the days of his 
servitude. "Why Sambo," he said, "why should you run 
away? You had a good home, plenty to eat and drink and 
the most considerate of masters!" "Well, sah," Sambo re- 
plied as he continued his flight, "yo' can put in yo' applica- 
tion — de situation am vacant." 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 65 

But Stevens was speaking in 1850, and he was a decade 
ahead of his time. The fugitive slave law was enacted. 
The compromise was adopted, and once more the slave 
question was put to sleep. Stevens was not a man to com- 
promise on a question of principle. He lost interest in the 
politics of such a period and went back to the law. When 
he appeared in that chamber again it was on the eve of civil 
war. The years that had come and gone had been big 
with events. The nation had moved steadily towards free- 
dom. , If the south had kept the compromise of 1850 it 
might have held the scepter for another generation. But 
it was not in the slave party to rest on any ground it had 
gained. It struck out at every point. It repealed the 
Missouri compromise, held sacred by the north for thirty- 
four years. It disputed the power of Congress to keep 
slavery out of the territories. It flaunted the Dred Scott 
decision from the highest seat of judgment. It strove with 
bullet and bowie-knife to force slavery upon Kansas; and 
with culminating impudence it proposed a revival of the 
slave trade. Meanwhile a great political party had been 
born pledged to resist the further extension of slavery. The 
election of i860 was almost at the door, at the close of which 
it was to be truly said that "for the first time in the history 
of the republic the slave had elected a president of the Uni- 
ted States." 

It was December, 1859, and Stevens was on the verge 
of three score years and ten. He had not expected to come 
to Washington again. When he had retired a few years 
before he had delivered his valedictory; and now as he 
reappeared he sadly confessed the consciousness of failing 
powers. "More graceful would it be to retire — for us who 



66 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

find by repeated trials that we can no longer bend the bow 
of Ulysses. Fitting would it be to lay down the discus 
we have not the strength to hurl." It was the new hope 
for liberty that moved him to put on the armor — that 
marvellous political awakening — that "marshalling of the 
conscience of a nation to mould its laws." It was his op- 
portunity — at last his hour had come. It had come to him 
in his age. If he had died before he would have been for- 
gotten. "I have no history" was his melancholy exclama- 
tion a few months before. "It is my life long regret that 
I have lived so long and so uselessly." It is as a gaunt, 
infirm and aging man but with the undying fire of lib- 
erty and genius in his spirit that he will be painted for the 
times to come. He did not stand now as he stood in the days 
of his youthful vigor fighting his way to the head of a 
hostile bar. He looked no longer as he looked on that day 
in the statehouse at Harrisburg when he swept house and 
senate by his impassioned speech and compelled them to do 
right by the children of the poor in Pennsylvania. He was 
nearing the end of a long and lonely life that had been child- 
less and wifeless. Age had bent his frame. Infirmity had 
crippled his gait. Suffering had blanched his cheek. 
Thought and care had plowed deep into his forehead. Strife 
and passion had left the mark of bitterness and scorn upon 
his sunk and withered lip. But with the clear vision of a 
prophet he saw that one of the crises of the world's his- 
tory was at hand, and denying to himself the comfort and 
quiet of age, he gathered up all the remnants of his ancient 
strength to strike his last and mightiest blow for freedom. 
The house was eight weeks in choosing a speaker. The 
question was whether the new Republican party could 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 67 

muster strength enough to organize and control the body. 
One day a Democratic member got up and invited all who 
were opposed to the Republican program to meet in one 
caucus and act together. That only meant that the rest 
should give up and vote for the Democratic candidate. Ste- 
vens punctured the proposal with one of his favorite 
weapons — ridicule. He said it made him think of the happy 
family described in "The Prairie," where the owl, the prairie 
dog and the rattlesnake all lived in one hole. Stevens 
helped to keep the contest lively. Now and then he relieved 
the strain by his humor. For instance he rose with a seri- 
ous countenance to a quesion of privilege — saying that one 
of his votes had been criticized in the public press and he 
desired to make an explanation. He sent the newspaper 
to the clerk's desk and asked that it be read. The clerk 
looked at it blankly and replied that the paper was printed 
in German and he could not read it. "Very well then," 
said Stevens with unaffected gravity, "I will postpone my 
explanation till the clerk can read it." Finally the various 
forces hostile to slavery came together and the Republican 
candidate was seated in the chair. 

Let us come at once to December, i860. Lincoln has 
been elected, but the party that elected him is terrified by the 
consequence of its victory. Secession conventions have been 
called, and Congress goes down on its knees begging the 
south to come back and take everything it ever claimed. Both 
houses pass a constitutional amendment to make slavery per- 
petual in this government. Yes, two-thirds of house and 
senate voted for this horrible measure. I rejoice to-night 
that Stevens opposed every syllable of the weak-kneed, 
cowardly proposition. "The time for compromises has gone 



68 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

by," he cried, "what we need now is courage, calm, un- 
wavering courage that no danger can . appall. We will 
faithfully execute the present compact, but if it be torn in 
pieces by rebels our next United States will have no foot of 
ground a slave can tread — no breath of air a slave can ever 
breathe." 

Senator Dawes, then a member of the House from 
Massachusetts, has left us a striking picture of the scene. 
"No one who saw it," he declares, "can ever forget it. All 
I can say of it or of him is tame without the inspiration of 
the time and of his presence. It was the last of Buchanan's 
administration. Lincoln had been elected. The House 
resembled a powder magazine more than a deliberative as- 
sembly. His denunciation of traitors to their face was 
terrible, his exposure of the barbarism of their pretended 
civilization was awful. Nearly fifty southern members rose 
to their feet and rushed towards him with curses and threats 
of violence. As many of his friends gathered round him 
and moving him in a hollow square in the space in front of 
the speaker's desk opened before his assailants and stood 
guard over him while he arraigned the slavocracy in an 
indictment that surpassed even the great arraignment of 
Sumner. He was nearly seventy. On his form and voice 
time had made sad inroads, but he stood at that moment 
erect as at thirty-five. Calm and self-possessed as a judge 
he lashed them into fury, and then bade them compose 
themselves at their leisure. The excitement beggars all 
description and can live only in the memory of those who 
witnessed it." The long subserviency of the north was near 
its end. In that uncompromising tribune of the people the 
old domineering south had at last found its master. 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 69 

But the time had not yet come for the great radical to 
lead. A little longer the counsels of fear were destined to 
prevail. Bear in mind, state after state had already seceded. 
The president of the confederate congress had declared the 
separation perfect and perpetual. A president of the new 
republic had been elected and his cabinet appointed, yet even 
then Congress hugged the old delusion to its heart that by 
surrendering all it might bring the rebels back — and it voted 
to surrender all. It was only when that full offer was 
spurned that the north sadly and reluctanly took up the 
gage of battle, which was not to be laid down until the prin- 
ciples for which the old commoner contended had been em- 
blazoned in the constitution of the Union and in the con- 
stitution of every single state that had rebelled. 

You remember how cautiously Lincoln began; how 
tenderly he pleaded with the South in his inaugural; how 
slowly he moved until Sumter was fired upon and he knew 
he had a solid North behind him. On the 4th of July 
Congress met in answer to his call. Union men were in 
the saddle now. In the House of Representatives there 
was no looking about for a leader. All eyes were turned 
on Stevens. James G. Blaine, by no means a partial ad- 
mirer, declares: "He was the natural leader and took his 
place by common consent." It was Blaine, also, who said, 
"He had the courage to meet any opponent, and was never 
overmatched in intellectual conflict." He stood at the head 
of the committee charged with the duty of raising money to 
support the government and carry on the war as well as 
the duty of advising how it should be spent. It was ex- 
actly the duty Milton described in his noble sonnet to Sir 
Henry Vane — / 



70 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Then to advise how war may, best upheld, 
More by her two main nerves, iron and gold, 
In all her equipage. 

In three days he brought in a bill to raise $250,000,000. 
He followed it with another appropriating $160,000,000 for 
the army, and for the navy $30,000,000 more. They passed 
at once. Then he bent himself to the task of raising a 
revenue to answer these enormous calls. With courage, 
with tact, with patience, he brought Congress and the coun- 
try to his plans. Yet, burdened as hardly ever man was 
burdened, his eye swept the horizon, and his capacious mind 
was already busy with the outcome of it all. He seemed 
to see the end from the beginning. 

You remember the Crittendon resolution? It declared 
that war was not waged for conquest nor to interfere with 
slavery, but only to restore the old order of things, and 
that when that end was accomplished the war should cease. 
Senate and House hurried to adopt it. Stevens stood out 
almost alone against it. He did not believe in apologizing 
for the war or going about to explain it. "Ask those who 
made the war what is its object. The laws of war must 
govern our conduct now." He saw that the struggle was 
to be long and bloody. He had a vision of the tremendous 
price that must be paid — the awful sacrifice that was to be 
exacted. He did not believe in the nation tying its hands 
by resolutions. If it should become necessary to free the 
slave or arm him against his master, if new conditions must 
be imposed to secure the peace hereafter, he would not pass 
a resolution now to stare us in the face. The resolution 
did pass, but a few months saw it broken. When the next 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 71 

session had to deal with the same matter Stevens moved to 
lay it on the table and his motion was sustained. 

Southern citizens were devoting their property to the 
rebellion. Stevens said "confiscate it." Masters were 
setting their slaves to build forts and dig trenches. "Set 
them free," said Stevens, "every man that is employed 
against us. If the war goes on the time will come when 
we shall arm every rebel's slave to fight upon our side." The 
bill failed, but the day came when the House was glad to 
pass it. 

At the outset the south had one enormous advantage. 
Her vast crops could be raised by slaves exactly as in time 
of peace. She could keep her fighting strength untouched 
and send the products of her plantations to buy the sup- 
plies of war in European markets. Stevens would have 
snatched this advantage from her. Even before Lincoln 
was inaugurated he brought in a bill to do it. A year later 
he brought it up again. "Repeal," said he, "the laws 
creating southern ports of entry. Then foreign nations 
cannot enter them. It would be an act of war against this 
country. A nation has a right to close its own ports. It 
can do so by a law. That law is better than a fleet. But 
blockade them and you must keep everybody out by force. 
They have a right to enter if they can. Worse than all, if 
you blockade them you acknowledge them as belligerents, 
and foreign nations will do the same." What would have 
happened if his advice had been heeded we shall never 
know. We proclaimed the blockade and Europe acknowl- 
edged the belligerency of the south. 

From the very beginning Stevens' mind was occupied 
with the great question of reconstruction. Never doubting 



72 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the ultimate triumph of our arms he was sounding the 
depths of the profound problem which, a few years later, 
was to engross the attention of the people and their leaders. 
He came to his conclusion early, announced it boldly, ad- 
vocated it without ceasing and adhered to it until he died. 
Distrusted, doubted, opposed in the beginning, the logic of 
events confirmed it and it had to be accepted and adopted 
in the end. No dreamer, no speculator, no spinner of fine 
theories, but a practical man of affairs and the hardest- 
headed lawyer of his day, he wasted no time seeking to dis- 
cover in the constitution itself provision for the steps that 
must be taken toward the seceding states. The constitu- 
tion did not contemplate an effort on the part of its mem- 
bers to dissolve the union. The power to preserve its own 
existence against a parcel of rebellious states was not to 
be looked for in its phrases but in the powers of war which 
pertain to every nation fighting for its life. The southern 
states had repudiated, spurned and spit upon the con- 
stitution; could they at the same time claim the protection 
of its terms? Stevens said, "You cannot, indeed, destroy 
the constitution but you can place yourself outside of its 
protection while you are waging public war against it." 
Already he was grappling with the question that would 
face us when the war was closed. When the rebel states 
should be subdued would they have a right to be treated as 
back again in the old Union, under the old terms, bringing 
the same old sources of controversy with them, or would 
Congress have a right to prescribe the terms on which they 
should be received? Should they come back slavery and 
all? Should they continue to hold seats in Congress for 
themselves and for the black race too? Should they have 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 73 

power to repudiate the debt that had been made in putting 
their rebellion down? Should the loyal men of the south 
be liable to pay the debts of disloyalty and treason? With 
a mind that pierced like a sword even to the dividing of 
the joints and marrow, he drove the question home. He 
saw that the whole case turned upon one point. If the 
trouble was only a domestic insurrection it was to be sup- 
pressed by criminal prosecutions in the courts, and the in- 
surgents were entitled to the protection of the constitution 
and the ordinary laws. But if it was a public war, then 
they were subject to the laws of war alone. He proved by 
all the oracles of the law of nations that when a republic 
is broken into two armed camps it is civil war and while 
the war continues the two factions stand towards each 
other as separate and independent powers. Was this a pub- 
lic war? Europe had acknowledged the belligerency of the 
South. We had acknowledged it ourselves. We had blockaded 
their ports, exchanged prisoners of war and sent flags of 
truce. It was not a mob, nor a riot nor an insurrection, but 
war, public war, and the greatest civil war in history. While 
it lasted, no paper obligations could be relied upon by the 
south against the north, and when the rebellious faction 
should be vanquished it would be for the victor to lay down 
the terms of peace. So was he preparing the minds of men 
for the time when, conquered in the field, the rebel states 
should demand to be restored as of right to every priv- 
ilege under the old constitution which they had renounced 
and defied. 

The shilly-shallying military movements that marked 
the early stages of the war — you can guess what sort of a 

5 



74 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

critic Stevens was of these. Here is the way he described 
McClellan's march to Antietam: "The President ordered 
him to pursue the enemy. He started after them with an 
army of 120,000 men before him and marched that army 
at the rapid rate of six miles a day until they stopped and he 
caught up with them!" 

Throughout the whole struggle Stevens was bending 
his best energies to remove the cause. No man knew bet- 
ter where it lay. "Now is the time to get rid of slavery. 
There can be no solid peace, no permanent union so long 
as it remains. Let our generals liberate the slaves that flee 
to them and arm them against the enemy. We shall never 
conquer until we adopt a new method. Southern soldiers 
are as brave as ours, their leaders as intelligent. The 
swamps and mountains will be their allies. The climate will 
kill our armies off. We keep a vast army at home to till the 
field and run the factory ; but every white man in the south 
can fight and not a single hand be missed from the planta- 
tions. The slave does not carry a gun but he is the main- 
stay of the war. Call him to your side and let him fight 
for his freedom. He will not prove inhuman. I do not 
look to see the day when in a Christian land merit shall 
counterbalance the crime of color; but give him an equal 
chance to meet death in battle. Let him find equality in 
the grave — the only place where all the children of God are 
equal." For more than a week, against every form of 
obstruction and opposition, Stevens stood on the floor of 
the house and battled for negro enlistment. Finally the 
measure passed, and the humane valor of hundreds of thou- 
sands of black soldiers vindicated its justice and its wisdom. 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 75 

Slowly but steadily Congress and the country moved to- 
wards the great goal — emancipation. First the House and 
Senate resolved that Federal aid be extended to any state 
that would voluntarily adopt a measure for gradual 
emancipation. Stevens said it was "the most diluted milk 
and water gruel proposition ever offered to the American 
people ;" but he voted for it. Then he moved to abolish slavery 
in the District of Columbia, and it was done. Then he sup- 
ported Lovejoy's bill prohibiting slavery in the territories, 
and it passed. Then Lincoln warned the rebel states that 
unless they laid down their arms by January first he would 
set their slaves free. January first came and he kept his 
word. From that hour the God of Battles smiled upon 
our cause. The crest of the rebellion broke on the field 
of Gettysburg and the long refluent wave of confederate 
disaster and defeat began its ebbing course. The next day 
Vicksburg fell and the morning of deliverance began to 
break. But Lincoln's proclamation did not affect the slave 
states that were not in the rebellion. There slavery still re- 
mained. His right to issue the proclamation at all was cer- 
tain to be questioned in days to come. There was only one 
way to set the matter at rest and that was by constitutional 
amendment. The North was ready for emancipation now. 
The thirteenth amendment which makes slavery forever im- 
possible under the Stars and Stripes stands to-day almost in 
the very words in which Stevens cast his motion. 

Reconstruction! Never since the constitution was 
adopted had the statesmen of this country been called upon 
to face so grave a question. It had shown itself in Con- 
gress as early as the second year of the war. We gained 
a foothold in Louisiana and the attempt was made to erect 



76 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL. SOCIETY. 

a loyal government there. Congress and the President were 
not agreed. The war was yet to be fought out and so the 
question was put aside for the time being. When it came 
up again Lincoln was in his grave and a president of another 
sort was in his seat. Congress and Lincoln might have 
come together. Congress and Johnson never could. He 
began by threatening to hang all the rebels. Ben Wade, 
you remember, advised him to content himself with a baker's 
dozen and kindly offered to name the right ones. In six 
weeks Johnson had turned completely round and from that 
time on was the champion of the south. He tried to go 
on without Congress. He said "The war is over. The 
southern states stand just where they did to start with. They 
have all and the same rights with the rest. There is noth- 
ing to do but repair their state machines a little and set them 
going." He called on the south to do it. The same men 
who had headed the rebellion were the ones that were to do 
the work. It was soon done. New governments were 
quickly running in all the rebellious states and senators and 
representatives were chosen. Now up to this time there 
was little sentiment in the north in favor of negro suffrage. 
But emancipation was another matter. The north could not 
forget that slavery had been the root and cause of the re- 
bellion and it did watch with anxiety to see whether 
emancipation was to be a theory only or a fact. It did not 
have long to wait. As soon as Johnson's legislatures could 
put pen to paper they had the negro back in his chains. 
Under the thin disguise of vagrant and apprentice laws they 
resumed over the black race a dominion as absolute and in 
some respects more cruel than the old. They did not even 
pretend to treat the races as equal before the law. They 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 77 

made one law for the white man and another for the black. 
Let me remind you of a single instance. If a white man 
broke his contract with a negro it was only ground for a 
civil suit. If a negro broke his contract with a white man 
he could be whipped with thirty lashes or put to labor for 
a year. Such was the first fruit of the presidential plan. 
It did not taste well on the lips of those who had given their 
own blood, or blood that was dearer than their own, to 
make every foot of the republic free. 

Congress came together. It was December, 1865. 
Would the new members be seated ? Would Johnson's new 
governments be recognized? Stevens sat with a great ma- 
jority behind him, the undisputed leader of the House. He 
wished to gain time. He wanted the president's policy to 
have a chance to bring its bitter fruit to ripeness before the 
contest with the White House should be on. Before the 
President's message could be received he put through his 
resolution for a joint committee. It was to look into the 
condition of the southern states and report whether they 
were entitled to representation in either house. Till then no 
member from an ex-confederate state should be received. 
He was at the head of the committee on the part of the 
House. Before the session was two days' old he had 
brought forward a series of amendments to the constitution. 
They would have changed the basis of representation in 
Congress so that the south would have no seats there on 
the basis of her black population unless she gave them the 
ballot. They forbade the payment of the rebel debt. They 
declared all citizens of whatever race or color equal be- 
fore the law. These he said were the conditions on which 
the rebel states should be received. Even then, you must 



78 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

notice, he did not propose to compel the south to adopt negro 
suffrage. He would leave it for her to say whether she 
would enfranchise the negro and have eighty-three seats or 
refuse to do it and content herself with forty-six. If his 
form of amendment had been adhered to this would have 
been the result. Unfortunately it was changed and under 
its provisions time has defeated the old commoner's purpose. 
To-day nobody in the south pretends the negro is allowed to 
vote and yet the south holds nearly half her seats in Con- 
gress and wields half her political power by virtue of the 
very race that she excludes. 

On the 30th of April, 1866, Stevens reported to the 
House the famous fourteenth amendment substantially as we 
have it now, — that sublime guarantee of freedom and 
equality worthy to be inscribed in letters of gold and sure 
to be revered by after ages with the Petition of Right and 
Magna Charta. How was it treated by these states that 
were demanding recognition? Every one rejected it. In 
some of the legislatures there was not a solitary vote in its 
support. If such was the temper of the white people of 
the south, what hope was left that free governments could 
be established there at all? Think for a moment what it 
meant. Consider the attitude taken by the southern states. 
What they said, in effect, was this: We will not consent 
that the war debt of the Union shall be paid. We reserve 
the right to make the country pay our own debt when we 
get the power. We will not give a single black man the 
ballot ; yet we claim the right to send representatives to Con- 
gress for the black as well as for the white. We have passed 
these laws annulling emancipation and we propose to en- 
force them. What are you going to do about it? 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 79 

Stevens said, "There is only one thing to do. Give 
every black man the ballot. Not otherwise can we protect 
him in the freedom we have given him. Without him the 
Union has not friends enough in the south to organize loyal 
government. With his aid free constitutions may be 
adopted." It is easy now to say that suffrage ought not 
to have been conferred upon the black man all at once. But 
what should we have done? That was the condition that 
confronted them, statesmen as wise and brave as ever sat in 
council. It was not a question between allowing free gov- 
ernment to be set up and carried on by the white race on 
the one hand or the black race on the other ; it was a question 
whether there should be free government at all; it was a 
question whether the war had been won or lost. It was a 
question whether we were still in the clutches of the merci- 
less power that had held free institutions by the throat for 
seventy years, — whether the dead had really died in vain, 
and whether government of the people by the people and 
for the people had not perished from the earth. 

Then it was that Stevens made his great plea for uni- 
versal suffrage — the same ground he had taken in the con- 
stitutional convention for Pennsylvania thirty years before. 
It was the speech that to all appearances would be his. last. 
He was white and haggard, worn and broken by his vast 
labors in the cause of freedom. There was little hope that 
another session would find him in his place. The house was 
hushed to hear his farewell message and his words came 
with unparalleled solemnity and power. "I desire to make 
one more, perhaps an expiring, effort to do something use- 
ful for my fellow men. It is easy to protect the rich and 
the powerful; it is labor to guard the down-trodden and 



80 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL, SOCIETY. 

the poor, — the eternal labor of Sisyphus, forever to be re- 
newed. I believe we must all account hereafter for the 
deeds done in the body. I desire to take to the bar of 
final settlement the record I shall make here to-day on this 
great question of human rights. It cannot atone for half 
my errors, but some palliation it may be. Who is there that 
will venture to take this list with his negative seal upon it 
and unroll it before that stern judge who is the father of 
the immortal beings they have trampled under foot, — whose 
souls they have been crushing out ?" 

Congress was not ready for the measure then and it 
went over to the next session. Meantime a political cam- 
paign almost without a parallel in the history of the country 
had brought the north to the position occupied by Stevens. 
Johnson himself had opposed the fourteenth amendment. 
Three of his cabinet had broken with him on the question 
and resigned. He had made his appeal to the country 
against what he called the tyranny of Congress. The chief 
humorist of the day said the question was whether political 
power should be concentrated in the Senate and House of 
Representatives or whether it should be diffused through 
the person of the President. The country thought such 
concentration safer than such diffusion — especially as Con- 
gress was for saving the fruits of the war, and the Presi- 
dent was for throwing them away. Stevens himself had 
been too feeble to take any part in the campaign. As it 
proved, he had little more than a year to live. But he 
husbanded his failing strength and took his seat once more. 
He looked more like a spirit than a man, but he was the 
spirit of a united north now — a north that had come at 
last to espousal of the very principles for which during more 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 81 

than forty years he had been as the voice of one crying in 
the wilderness. His theory of reconstruction was adopted. 
The southern states were recognized as conquered provinces. 
They were divided into military districts under generals of 
the army charged with the maintenance of law and order. 
They were not to be recognized as states until they should 
ratify the fourteenth amendment and adopt constitutions in 
harmony with it. In framing their new constitutions the 
blacks must be allowed to vote as well as the whites, and 
their constitutions, when adopted, must wipe out all dis- 
tinctions of race and color and guarantee equal rights to 
all. This was that momentous reconstruction bill, which, 
passing house and senate over Johnson's veto, became the 
law of the land, the full, ripe harvest of the seed that had 
been sown in the proud ordinances of secession. 

The old commoner's work was done. And yet we are 
to have a final glimpse of him in another role, perhaps the 
most dramatic and impressive of all, — as he stood at the 
bar of the senate to impeach Andrew Johnson, President 
of the United States, of high crimes and misdemeanors in 
office. It was February, 1868, and Stevens died in August. 
Already the hand of death was on him. Day after day dur- 
ing the trial that succeeded he was carried to and from the 
senate in a chair. Such was the tenacity of life in his 
wasted frame that he turned to the stalwart negroes who 
bore him and asked, "Who will carry me, boys, when you 
are dead and gone ?" The representatives of the people had 
been roused to fury by Johnson's long, bitter, obstinate 
resistance to the people's will. Finally they had voted to 
impeach him. It was Stevens who had checkmated him 
at every play. For three years, almost, at the head of 



82 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

a loyal and determined house he had thwarted him in every 
attempt to nullify the results of war. Again and again he 
had met and over-ridden his veto with the constitution at 
two-thirds majority. It was fitting that it should be re- 
served for him to rise from his deathbed to bring to the bar 
of the senate that unique and tremendous accusation. He 
did it like the great lawyer that he was. "Who can forget," 
said Charles Sumner, "his steady, solemn utterances of that 
great arraignment? I doubt if words were ever delivered 
with more effect. They were few but they will resound 
through the ages." 

When Congress took its recess near the end of July, 
Stevens was too weak to be taken to Pennsylvania. The 
others scattered to their homes. He staid behind in Wash- 
ington, and there in a few days he died. Undaunted to the 
last he said: "I am going to die in harness. I mean to 
die hurrahing." A few of his kin were by him. Two sis- 
ters of charity watched at his side. Two colored clergy- 
men came and asked leave to say a prayer for him, and he 
gave them his hand. One of the sisters took a glass of wa- 
ter and tenderly baptized him, and like a little child falling 
asleep in his mother's arms that indomitable spirit passed 
away. 

It was a sweet and fitting act to touch his rugged brow 
with the sign of our redemption; but I cannot think they 
would have missed it in the world to which he went. For 
the motive that inspired Thaddeus Stevens's life was, in 
the profoundest sense, a religious one. He was not im- 
pressed by the signs and symbols of religion; he was not 
convinced by the creeds in which the subtlest intellects of two 
thousand years have expressed their belief in a spiritual 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 83 

world; he was not a mystic, lost in solitary contemplation 
of the divine presence ; he was not a poet captivated by the 
beautiful mythology that gathers about any faith that finds a 
home in the heart of man. But religion speaks with a thou- 
sand voices; it has its own appropriate appeal for every 
human soul. To Thaddeus Stevens the Son of Man came 
in the likeness of the poor and enslaved of his own genera- 
tion. In their unhappy faces, with their beseeching, black 
and bruised hands, he made to Thaddeus Stevens his ap- 
peal, and he did not appeal in vain. The consecration of 
a divine, unselfish purpose kindled his brain and touched his 
lips with the fire of prophecy. It is a false and shallow 
view that looks upon this man merely as a fierce and bitter 
partisan, or as a keen, determined lawyer, or even as a sound, 
farseeing statesmen. He was something more than these; 
he was a witness to the truth. He was caught up by a 
breath of that great spirit that is forever moving over the 
face of the human deep lifting now one and now another to 
be leader and a light to the wandering and shipwrecked race. 
He felt himself upborne on the wings of eternal truth. The 
words he spoke were not his own but the words of justice, 
that cannot fail. Heaven and earth might pass away, but 
its words would not pass away . Apostle or martyr was never 
persuaded of the necessity or the sanctity of his witness. 
That is what electrified his hearers. That is what gave him, 
on his great day at Harrisburg, the appearance of a 
descended God. That is what forced Senator Dawes to 
say of him : "There were moments when he did not look 
like any other man I ever saw and scarcely like a 
man at all." God gave him to see with unobstructed 
vision the absolute equality in which all men stand before 



84 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

their Maker and in which they shall one day stand before 
the law. For that ideal he battled. And when he was near 
his end he pledged his friends to bury him, not with the pros- 
perous and powerful, not in any burial place that would 
exclude the race for which he had labored, but in a certain 
small and obscure graveyard where the dead of every class 
and color were received. And so they did. His very grave 
stands as a witness to the principles he fought for in his life. 
To that humble far off resting-place our thoughts go 
out from this assembly with peculiar tenderness and pride. 
We think of his boyhood of poverty and promise, of genius 
and deformity. We think of the mother whose unquestion- 
ing sacrifice made all his triumphs possible. We see him far 
from home, struggling for a foothold among strangers, 
forging his way over every opposition to the first place at 
the bar. We see him defending the forlorn and helpless fugi- 
tive in the court of justice, freely devoting to the defence of 
liberty the skill and learning and eloquence which all the 
money of oppression could not buy; and when the law 
claims its victim we see him paying the ransom out of his 
own slender store. We see him standing up alone against 
an unjust movement of the people and by the single might 
of moral earnestness defeating it and putting it to shame. 
We see him refusing to put his name to a state constitution 
that presumes to draw a line between the sons of men ac- 
cording to the color of their skin. We see him at last in 
the halls of Congress facing the fiery and despotic south with 
a spirit as intense and uncompromising as its own. We see 
him returning to those halls again after years of silence, 
the infirmity of age upon his body but the fire of an exalted 
purpose in his soul, determined to die in harness now that the 



THADDEUS STEVENS. 85 

battle is really on. We think of the marvellous foresight 
that took in every element of the problem and had it solved 
before his fellow statesmen understood its terms. We hear 
him day by day and month after month expounding his prin- 
ciples, preparing the way for the measures that he knew 
must come, waiting with patience till the country was ready 
to adopt his view, and then pouring the hot lava of free- 
dom into the mold of unassailable and enduring law. We 
think of his wit, his eloquence, his logic, his skill, the cour- 
age that never wavered, the resources that never failed, 
all dedicated to a lofty and unselfish plan — the iron will that 
nothing could bend or shatter and underneath the stern 
forbidding countenance the heart as tender as a child's ! 
Then, indeed, we are eager to stretch out our hands and 
claim him. Sleep sweetly in your unfrequented grave 
among the poorest of God's creatures. If no sculptor has 
given your rugged figure to the eyes of men, if no poet has 
sung your praises, if the dark despairing multitudes for 
whom you strove never knew of their benefactor, you 
would not care for that. Your work still stands in the very 
framework of free government where you imbedded it. 
Your spirit still lives in millions who accept without a ques- 
tion the principles you vindicated against the greatest odds. 
And here among the hills where you were born, where in 
your youth you girded up your loins and went forth to battle, 
men still love liberty and hate oppression, — still cherish the 
grand ideal of absolute justice and equal rights for all that 
made your life heroic. You were worthy of Vermont and 
Vermont is proud of her son. 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT 

Evidences of Early Occupation by 
Indian Tribes 

BY 

GEORGE HENRY PERKINS, Ph. D. 



*<» 



-frS 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 



That the area now covered by the state of Vermont 
was more or less fully occupied by Indian tribes long be- 
fore it was seen by white men is conclusively proved by 
remains of village sites, camp grounds and thousands of 
objects fashioned from shell, copper, bone, earthenware and 
most of all, of stone. These, now found buried in the earth, 
were in common use when the first Europeans wandered 
hither. Village sites are few and it seems probable that for 
many years previous to the coming of Europeans the per- 
manent villages were few and small. 

The savage allies who journeyed with Champlain when 
he made that well known first visit to the lake which bears 
his name explained this. They told him, that because of 
long continued feuds between themselves, Algonquins, and 
the Iroquois who lived on the west side of the lake, the re- 
gion about it was not inhabitable. This does not account 
however for the apparently similar absence of villages from 
the eastern part of Vermont. Still there may have been a 
similar condition of things in the Connecticut River Valley. 
At any rate, whatever was the cause, the fact remains that 
few evidences of long continued settlement have been found 
anywhere in the State. 

Camping grounds, some of which were undoubtedly 

occupied season after season and for months continuously, 

are numerous. The early inhabitants of Vermont appear to 

have been accustomed to spend the coldest part of the win- 
6 



90 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ters in the dense forests and in the spring or early summer 
to have moved from their shelter to some pond or lake 
where fishing was good and near which there could be 
found fertile soil. Here they brought their skin tents and 
what few possessions they had and settled down for 
the season. The squaws made such rude clearings as they 
could with the stone implements which the men had 
fashioned and scratching over the surface of the rough 
ground, they planted corn, melons, squashes, tobacco and 
possibly a few other vegetables and waited for the growing 
and maturing of the crops. The squaws did the farm 
work, all of it, the men went hunting, fishing or on the war 
path or in default of these occupations, lounged about the 
camp. In the fall, the fruits of both agriculture and hunt- 
ing were packed in bundles and with the other property, 
carried into winter quarters, that is into the thick spruce 
forests. Here the winter was passed in idleness for the 
most part, story telling, working on stone implements or 
sleeping. All the early writers tell us that these people 
were surprisingly improvident and that while during the 
early part of the winter, when food was plenty, they gorged 
thmselves by continual feasting, during the latter weeks, 
the food supply having usually given out, they almost 
starved. Although only a very small part of what is now 
Vermont was occupied for any long time by the Indians a 
considerable part of its area was crossed and recrossed by 
trails leading from friendly villages to others of like mind 
or, and perhaps more often, the paths were the thorough- 
fares of war parties seeking plunder, blood and revenge. 
As it was less laborious and much safer to travel in canoes 
than on foot the longer journeys were always made, so 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 91 

far as possible, by lakes and streams. There can be no 
doubt that by far the most commonly traversed route was 
that which led through Lake Champlain, for here they could 
paddle their canoes at leisure, while far enough from either 
shore to be out of danger of ambush or sudden attack from 
the enemies. Most of these lines of travel led from the 
villages or camps about the St. Lawrence to those in eastern 
New York or southern New England. Hence the main 
object of the wandering tribes was to get from North to 
South or the reverse. When the Algonquins of the north 
set forth on a raid upon the Iroquois they went through 
the St. Lawrence west as far as what they called the River 
of the Iroquois and paddling their canoes up this into 
Lake Champlain they proceeded as far south as they chose 
and then landed and marched into the Adirondack forests 
toward the villages west of the lake. Or if they had other 
matters in view they paddled south through the lake till 
they reached the mouth of the Winooski. Then they turned 
eastward and followed the windings of that stream as far 
as they could and if they wished to go farther, they made 
a not long carry over to the White River and down this into 
the Connecticut and on to the Sound if they chose to sail 
so far. Another not uncommon route appears to have been 
by the lake as far as Otter Creek, then up to its head waters, 
thence by carry to the Black River, thence to the Connecticut 
and southward as they chose. More easterly courses were 
from the St. Lawrence via the St. Francis into Memphre- 
magog and south through that lake to the Clyde or Barton 
Rivers and so on by carries and streams to the Connecticut 
or beyond. Other shorter routes were numerous. 



92 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

As would be expected, by far the larger number of 
the specimens that are in our collections were found along 
the river valleys or in the vicinity of lakes. In number 
and quality these specimens surprise one not familiar with 
Vermont relics. No other New England state has given 
to the collector such variety of form and character, or such 
elegance of finish as may be found in any large collection 
of Vermont Indian relics. Most of the objects were I make 
little doubt made and used by the Iroquois and Algonquins, 
but there are some which appear to have been obtained either 
by trade with other and distant tribes or to have been taken 
in war. Archaeologically I think that Vermont, the Cham- 
plain Valley at any rate, is more closely allied with New 
York and the west than with the rest of New England. I 
do not intend when speaking of the elegance of some of 
our archaeological specimens to intimate that all are of this 
sort. Quite the contrary is true. By far the larger part 
of our specimens are rude, some of them very rude, but those 
that are made with most care and of finest material equal 
the best found anywhere in the country. I have mentioned 
evidence of some sort of trade with other and distant tribes. 
This is found in objects made from materials not occurring 
near Vermont. Pieces of white coral more or less worked 
have been found near Burlington. Native copper is not 
found in place anywhere this side of Lake Superior but 
chisels, gouges, awls, beads, etc., of this copper are found 
in several parts of the State. So, too, occasionally, a spear 
point or a knife has been found quite unlike most of those 
so commonly discovered here, not only finely formed, but 
made from some of the brightly colored stones of the Ohio 
Valley. Copper objects are nowhere common, but we have 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 93 

a dozen or two of knives, spear heads, bars, chisels, etc., and 
a larger number of beads. For many years no objects of 
bone were found, but we have now a very respectable col- 
lection of awls, pottery, stamps and other objects made 
from bone. Most of these have been found by one of my 
collectors, Mr. Griffin, near Malletts Bay at an old camp- 
ing ground which he discovered there. The big leg bones 
of deer appear to have furnished material for most of these, 
though the tines of the horns were also much used. 

Many pages might easily be written upon the pottery 
of our former inhabitants, but only brief mention of the 
many varieties of patterns, seen on the hundreds of fragments 
which have been picked up can be made here. No painted 
pottery or that ornamented with raised figures or made in 
the forms of animals such as has so often been found in 
the west, ever occurs here. Our ware is always decorated 
by indented or stamped figures or lines in more or less 
geometrical patterns. Thus we find lines, circles, dots, tri- 
angles, crescents, zig-zags, serrations, etc., arranged in end- 
lessly varying designs. Without illustrations it is impos- 
sible to give any adequate conception of the variety and 
character of these ancient attempts at artistic work. Our 
jars are of all sizes from little ones that would hold less than 
a pint to those that hold 12-15 quarts. 

Our earthenware is nearly always in pieces, only three 
entire specimens found in Vermont being at present in ex- 
istence, but many of the fragments are so large that the 
form and ornamentation can be easily understood. More- 
over sometimes, several bits are found that may be put to- 
gether and thus a large part of the original jar be restored. 
The form in this region was always globular, at least the 



94 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

lower part is, the upper may be square or even pentagonal 
and those that are more elaborately shaped are always more 
carefully ornamented than others. The paste from which 
these jars were made was always the same or nearly so. 
It consisted of finer or coarser bits of quartz, feldspar, mica 
and sometimes other materials, all obviously obtained by 
pounding up pieces of granite or some similar stone and 
mixing this with more or less clay. Naturally the fine or 
coarse character of the jar depends upon the make-up of 
the paste. Finally the whole was coated outside and in- 
side with fine clay in order that a smooth surface may be 
produced. After the jar was formed from a mass of this 
mixture and coated it must have been allowed to dry par- 
tially and then upon the soft surface the pattern was im- 
pressed. Then the dish was burned. In some of the jars 
there is little decoration except around the always thick 
rim. In others the figures may cover nearly the entire sur- 
face and some are decorated inside the rim. The rim itself 
may be dentellated, scalloped or otherwise worked into 
ornamental shape. Every now and then some new find of 
pottery fragments discloses new designs. I am sure that no 
one can examine a collection of Vermont pottery of the olden 
time without realizing the skill and real artistic feeling of 
the makers and also the endlessly varied designs wrought 
upon the surfaces of the jars. Not only globular jars were 
fashioned by the potters, who were usually, if not always 
squaws, but pipes of earthenware are not very uncommon. 
These are usually of the finest material and often are ex- 
ceedingly well made. When such vases and jars as those 
the Indians made could be so easily fashioned from the clay 
paste it would seem a waste of labor to work stone into 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 95 

dishes and yet we do find a few of this harder material. 
These are of quite different shape from the deep jars of 
earthenware, being more like the modern wooden chopping 
dishes, shallow and thick. All are made from soapstone. 
As has already been suggested, most of the implements and 
also weapons and ornaments were fashioned from some of 
the harder sorts of stone. Flint, quartzite, white and 
crystaline quartz and even agate and jasper were used more 
than any other rocks for the smaller objects, while granite, 
greenstone, trap or other hard, fine grained stones were 
used for the axes, celts and other large objects. Softer ma- 
terials were also occasionally taken, usually when the ob- 
ject to be made was designed more for ornament than use. 
Slate, talcose rock, soapstone and the like were all more or 
less in use. Some of the pipes, amulets, gouges and even 
what appear to have been used as knives were made from 
these softer materials and many of them are well nigh per- 
fect in regularity or form and elegance of finish. No 
modern sculptor could carve from the rough mass any 
more perfect specimens of his handiwork than is seen in 
the best of these slate or soapstone objects. But the above 
commendation of the work of the aboriginal artist need not 
be limited to articles made of soft stone, for some of the 
very finest examples of their work are wrought from the 
hardest material they could find. It is difficult to estimate 
the amount of time and careful, patient labor which must 
have been given to the fashioning of many a gouge, pipe 
or amulet which has been thrown up by the plow of the 
Vermont farmer. We can only marvel at the untiring skill 
and artistic sense which we find exhibited. Perhaps no 
other class of objects so well shows this as do the pipes. 



96 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

While we cannot by any means bring forward such an array 
of elaborately carved and superbly finished pipes as has been 
taken from the mounds of the Ohio Valley, we are never- 
theless able to show no mean assortment of exceedingly 
well formed and finished specimens of this class. Steatite, 
slate, gypsum, these and similar soft rocks were chosen 
when a pipe was to be made and most generally, the work 
was well done. The form was sometimes that familiar to 
us, but more frequently it was quite different. Some of 
them would scarcely be recognized even by our most per- 
sistent smokers. Besides platform, bell shaped, trumpet 
shaped and other strange forms we find certain straight 
tubes some of which are twelve or even fifteen inches long 
which we should scarcely recognize as pipes at all did not 
some of the California tribes to this day use similar tubes 
as pipes. The small size of most of the pipes would quite 
disgust a modern devotee of the weed. It must, however, 
be remembered that among the American Indians, through- 
out the continent, smoking was very largely a ceremony, 
not a pastime. A single whiff or at most a few, and the 
pipe was passed on. Smokmg for the mere enjoyment of 
it was not by any means unknown, but it was not the rule, 
apparently. Far more often smoking was a religious and 
solemn ceremony. A sort of burnt offering to the spirits 
above. The tubular pipes just mentioned are noticeably ex- 
ceptional in size and may have been used differently from 
the much more numerous small pipes. 

Nowhere common, but always attracting attention when 
found, are what, for want of a better name, are called Orna- 
mental Stones. Even the object for which these were de- 
signed is conjectural. It is supposed that some of them at 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 97 

least, were intended to be worn as ornaments, others were 
very likely amulets or charms, medicine, as an Indian would 
call them. They are generally of handsome material, reg- 
ular form and ground to smooth or even' polished surfaces. 
The common stone chisel or celt is found everywhere 
made of a great variety of material sometimes finished in 
the best manner, sometimes rudely flaked with no sign of 
rubbing to an even surface. Many of these celts were un- 
doubtedly used as chisels and therefore held in the hand, 
but many were attached in one way or another to a wooden 
handle and thus they became axes. One of the old writers 
tells us that a common method of fastening the handle to 
the axe was as follows. After the stone had been laborious- 
ly worked down to the desired form and this might have 
been the work of months, or even years, the owner took it 
to the forest where he selected a suitably sized and shaped 
branch growing on some tree. This he trimmed somewhat, 
but did not otherwise injure it, except that he made a cleft 
in the branch at some distance from the tree to which it was 
growing. Into this cleft the stone axe was fastened and 
left for months until the wood had grown about it and be- 
come firmly fastened. The branch was then cut from the 
tree and worked into a handle. The owner's mark set upon 
the stone effectually secured it against removal. Probably 
few implements were so generally used or for so great a 
variety of purposes as was the celt. It was of every size 
from those only three or four inches long to large and heavy 
specimens twelve inches or more in length and sometimes 
very heavy. Some were ground to an edge at each end 
and a few were celt at one end and gouge at the other. 
Gouges are almost wholly New England implements, being 



98 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

found only very seldom outside of our territory. And in 
New England, they are far more varied and more carefully 
made in Vermont than elsewhere. The names well in- 
dicate the general form of these implements. Their 
use is quite uncertain. Some of the larger gouges 
are as carefully wrought as the most perfect orna- 
mental stone objects and these finer specimens often do not 
show the least sign of having been used. Many are ruder 
and of harder stone and these were without doubt ordinary 
tools, but what can we say of those elegant, highly polished 
specimens which have been now and then the fortunate 
find of some collector? They do not seem likely objects 
for ceremonial use and yet it is difficult to think of any other 
service which they could have rendered. 

' As the celt on the one hand passes into the gouge, so 
on the other it develops into the grooved axe. In the west 
and south these grooved axes, often of large size, are far 
more common than in Vermont. Apparently our forerunners 
here did not make or use many of them. The grooved axe 
is evidently merely a celt made short and wide, bearing 
about its upper part a shallow groove by which it could be 
more readily attached to a handle. Some of these are tiny, 
but most are large and heavy. 

The mortar and pestle, articles of essential importance 
in all Indian tribes were not absent from the ancient Ver- 
mont household. The mortars were generally rude, little 
more labor, usually, having been put into their making than 
was necessary for the excavation of a shallow depression in 
a large boulder or similar piece of stone which was other- 
wise in its original condition. 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 99 

The pestle, however, always shows more careful work. 
This was hammered into a more or less cylindrical form and 
sometimes its surface was polished. More rarely, the upper 
end was rudely carved so that it bore some resemblance 
to the head of a bird or other animal. Some of our finest 
pestles are over two feet long, the longest that I have seen 
is twenty-nine inches. It may be that these long pestles 
were rather clubs. If we may credit some of the older 
writers the squaws were shrewd enough to aid themselves 
when pounding corn or whatever they wished to break up, 
by placing the mortar under the elastic branch of some con- 
venient tree and fastening the upper end of the pestle to this 
by a strip of buckskin, secure its help in lifting the imple- 
ment as they pounded. 

Occasionally a flaked or chipped celt or axe has been 
found, but nearly all of the classes of objects thus far con- 
sidered, though very probably at first roughed out by flak- 
ing or chipping, were finished by grinding, or rubbing on a 
stone with sand. This process was necessarily tediously 
slow if the stone from which the implement was to 
be made was very hard as it usually was. Not only 
months or even years were occupied, at intervals un- 
doubtedly, in the making of the best celts or axes or 
amulets, but we are told by the old writers that some of the 
more elaborate objects were passed on from one maker to 
his son and were only brought to their final perfection af- 
ter several generations had expended much labor upon them. 
Of course when people have little to occupy them, neither 
time nor labor count for much. 

There are other sorts of ground and polished objects 
which appear in our collections, but they must be left with- 



100 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

out further comment. Many times more abundant than the 
ground and polished objects are those that were shaped by 
chipping or flaking. Except for a few finely finished slate 
points, all the spear heads, arrow points and most of the 
knives were made in this way. Some of the many forms 
of quartz were used in the manufacture of these objects 
and many of them are prettily colored and exceedingly well 
made. The Vermont points, while of many sorts of quartz, 
are by far most commonly made of a grayish or bluish 
quartzite which occurs in many localities in the State. This 
is the most common material and the triangular outline is 
most frequent. These of course, were without haft or barbs, 
but hafted and sharply barbed specimens, though less com- 
mon than forms without these are yet numerous and 
some of them will not suffer by comparison with. similar 
specimens from any part of the country or indeed 
the world. Still these delicately pointed and sym- 
metrically shaped points are exceptional here. For the most 
part our Vermont points, spear and arrow, are less finely 
formed and regular than those from the region of the 
mounds. We have some specimens as fine as the finest, 
but they are few, and our average is composed of specimens 
of good workmanship, indeed, but yet inferior to those found 
in the west. 

Not only were the smaller points made by flaking and 
chipping, but spear heads a foot long have been found and 
still larger oval or ovate objects which are supposed to 
have been used as spades or hoes. Other chipped imple- 
ments are drills, long, narrow pointed, scrapers, with blunt 
rounded edges, knives of all shapes and sizes, and various 



PREHISTORIC VERMONT. 101 

nondescript articles, the use of which is wholly prob- 
lematical. 

I have by no means mentioned all of the many varieties 
of Indian implements or ornaments which have rewarded 
the search of diligent and patient collectors. The different 
classes mentioned are those which are most numerous and 
therefore most commonly found. At the advent of the 
white man all the tribes of North America were living in 
the stone age but they had most of them advanced far be- 
yond what in European archaeology is called the rude stone 
age, and while they were savages, they were nevertheless 
savages who had in many respects risen far above the lower 
stages of savagery. This is shown not only by those ob- 
jects which we have been considering but also by their 
political, social and religious organization. 



LIFE OF 

GENERAL JAMES WHITELAW 

Read before the 

Vermont Historical Society 

AtlSt. Johnsbury, 1864, by Thomas Goodville, of 
Barnet, Vt. 

From manuscript in possession oi the Vermont Historical Society 



JAMES WHITELAW. 



James Whitelaw, Esq., of Ryegate, in the County of 
Caledonia, and State of Vermont, was the son of William 
Whitelaw, and was born February n, 1748, at New Mills, 
in the parish of Oldmonkland, Lanarkshire, Scotland. In 
his youth he was well educated, especially in the art ol land 
surveying, and its kindred subjects. His large manuscript 
books, written while he was studying surveying, are still 
preserved in his collection of papers, and show that he was 
a careful and diligent student. The large number of 
diagrams, correctly and beautifully delineated, and the long 
descriptions and demonstrations these large manuscript 
volumes contain, prove conclusively that he acquired a thor- 
ough knowledge of the art of surveying. February 17, 
1773, 140 persons, most of whom were farmers, residing 
in Renfrewshire, Scotland, formed themselves into a com- 
pany called "The Scots-American Company of Farmers" to 
purchase a large tract of land in America for settlement. 
By the members who settled on their land in Ryegate, it 
was commonly called the "Inchinan Company," because 
most of the members belonged to the parish of Lrachinan, 
and also to distinguish it from another Scots-American 
Company formed in Stirtingshire, Scotland, whose agent 
was Col. Alexander Harvey, who purchased and settled a 
large tract of land for that company in the adjoining town 

7 

j oS~ 



106 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of Barnet. In the books of the Inchinan Company, General 
Wnitelaw is called a ''Land Surveyor of Whiteinch in the 
Parish of Geran." Having become a member of the com- 
pany, he and David Allen, another member, were appointed 
by the company commissioners to go to America and search 
out and purchase a suitable tract of land for the Company 
to settle. They sailed from Greenoch March 25, 1773, and 
after a voyage of 60 days landed in Philadelphia, Pa., on 
the 24th day of May following. From the time Gen. 
Whitelaw left his native country till 1794, when his agency 
for the company ceased, he kept a well written journal, 
which is still preserved, and which shows that he was a 
man of extensive and accurate observation and deep prac- 
tical judgment. He recorded in the town books of Ryegate 
the rules and regulations of the company which are numer- 
ous and lengthy. The day he landed he accidentally be- 
came acquainted with Rev. John Witherspoon, D. D., one 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and then 
president of the College of New Jersey, who informed him 
that he had a large tract of land in Ryegate, on the Con- 
necticut River, and in the Province of New York, consisting 
of 23,000 acres, which he desired to sell, but advised the 
commissioners to make thorough search in the country be- 
fore they bought lands anywhere. The commissioners be- 
ing directed in their commission to begin their search for 
lands in the Province of New York, went to New York City 
by Princeton, N. J., where they visited Dr. Witherspoon 
and received information about the lands in Ryegate from 
John Hindman, who had just returned from viewing the 



— • JAMES WHITELAW. 107 

lands in that township. Having obtained a description of 
lands in different places to be sold, they sailed up ttye Hud- 
son River to Albany, and went and viewed the lands of 
Sir William Johnston, on the Mohawk River west of 
Schenectady. Here they purchased horses, and afterwards 
travelled on horseback in search of lands to purchase. They 
came by Saratoga and Stillwater to Salem, N. Y., where 
dwelt Dr. Thomas Clark, who with other Scotchmen pro- 
cured from the Governor of New York, December 21, 1774, 
a large tract of land on the head branches of the Passumpsic 
River, in Caledonia County, Vt. From Salem, they came 
to Manchester, Vt., crossed the Green Mountains by a 
spotted line in woods, and on the 26th day of June they ar- 
rived at Charleston, N. H., where dwelt John Church, a 
joint owner with Dr. Wither spoon of the township of Rye- 
gate, and who accompanied them to show them the lands 
in that town. They arrived in Ryegate June 30th, at the 
house of Mr. Hosmer, who with his family were the only 
persons living in town. Gen. Whitelaw writes in his 
journal, "On our way to Ryegate we lodged at Hanover, 
N. H., where Mr. Wheelock has his Indian Academy or 
college. We called on him and told him what we heard before 
leaving Scotland concerning his lands. He said he had about 
as much land left as would serve about thirty families, which 
he would give to settle if they would but come and live on 
it. He said he would prefer Scotch people before any 
other, as he thought much of their religion and mode of 
church government. He told us that he had at his college 



108 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL. SOCIETY. 

about 80 students, above 30 of whom were upon charity 
and 17 of them Indians." 

The commissioners having examined the lands in Rye- 
gate returned by Hartford and New York to Princeton, 
N. J., where they were kindly received by Dr. Wither- 
spoon on the 15th of July. He proposed to them that "if 
they would buy the whole township of Ryegate, excepting 
2,000 acres, they should have it at 2 shillings sterling per 
acre; if they took three- fourths of the town, excepting 1,500 
acres, they should have it for three shillings and 3 pence, 
York currency, per acre, and if they took one-half the town, 
they should have it at 3 shillings, York money, per acre." 
But he advised the commissioners to take all due pains to 
find out a better place for their purpose, as he was very 
anxious that the company should succeed. Gen. Whitelaw 
in his journal writes "Princeton is a handsome little town 
and stands in a pleasant situation. The college building is 
said to be the largest and best in America. At present the 
•college contains more than 100 students, besides about 80 
Latin scholars." 

On the 19th of July, 1773, after dining with the presi- 
dent of the college, they went to Philadelphia, where they 
obtained information of lands for sale in Pennsylvania, and 
provinces further south. Leaving that city July 26th, they 
passed through Carlisle, Shippensburg and Chamberstown, 
Pa., Hagerstown, Md., and crossed the Potomac at 
Shepardston, and went through Alexandria and Fredericks- 
burg, Va., and arrived at Edinton, N. C, on the 13th day 
of August. In his journal the general gives a particular 



JAMES WHITELAW. 109 

description of the places they_ visited and the lands they 
viewed, giving the price, climate, soil, growth of timber, ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of location, distance from the 
market, # and other circumstances. Having returned to 
Princeton, N. J., the commissioners bargained with Dr. 
Witherspoon on the second of October for one-half the 
township of Ryegate, which was a New Hampshire grant 
chartered September 8, 1763, but at the time of the purchase 
it was claimed by New York as belonging to the county of 
Gloucester in that province, and is so described in the deeds 
given at that time. The commissioners came by New York 
and Hartford to Newbury, Vt., where they arrived the first 
day of November, 1773. On the 10th day of the month, 
John Church, as agent for Dr. Witherspoon, came, and on 
the 19th of the same, they divided the township of Ryegate 
into two parts, by a line running westerly from Dodge's 
Falls, on the Connecticut River to the west line of the town. 
The commissioners chose the southern half of the town, 
judging it for several good reasons superior to the northern 
half. 

Mr. Hosmer, the first person who lived in town, seems 
to have acquired some rights in town, as the places he had 
improved were excepted in the sale. He had pitched his 
camp nearly opposite the narrows on Connecticut River, 
about a mile and a half from the southeast corner of the 
town, which is near the mouth of Wells River. When the 
commissioners returned to Ryegate, John Hindman with 
his family had just moved into town and was building his 
house on a lot of land presented to him by Dr. Witherspoon 



110 • THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

for moving the first family into town as permanent settlers. 
The commissioners lodged with him the winter of 1773-4, 
and after assisting him to finish his house, they built one 
for themselves which stood a few rods southeast from the 
present residence of William T. Whitelaw, the general's 
grandson. They finished their house about the first of 
January, 1774, and then they cut down the woods and made 
a large clearing. Gen. Whitelaw then went to Portsmouth, 
N. H., and Newburyport, Mass., and bought and brought 
a sleighload of such necessaries as they required. In April 
the commissioners made about 60 pounds of maple sugar, 
after which they commenced the surveying of the land they 
had purchased for the company. This is the first surveying 
performed by Gen. Whitelaw in America. On the 13th of 
May ten of the colonists, one of whom was accompanied 
with his family, arrived in Ryegate from Scotland. Having 
finished the survey, Gen. Whitelaw drew a chart of the south 
half of Ryegate and recorded in his journal the number of 
lots, (400) and marked the quantity of land in each. This 
was the first chart he made in America. David Allen, the 
other commissioner, left Ryegate August 1st, 1774, to re- 
turn to Scotland to report to the company, and lay before 
them a plan of the land the commissioners had purchased 
for them in America. All the colonists conveyed him to 
Gen. Bailey's in Newbury, and one of them went with him 
to Newburyport, Mass. In the meantime Gen. Whitelaw 
had some log houses and one frame house, 17 by 38 feet, 
built to accommodate the colonists as they arrived, till they 
improved the lots of land they had chosen and built houses 



JAMES WHITELAW. fc 111 

on them. They were generally well pleased with their sit- 
uation. About the beginning of January, 1775, Gen. White- 
law purchased a part of a lot of land lying between Rye- 
gate and Wells River and containing the half of that river 
with the great falls on it, for the purpose of erecting grist 
and saw mills for the use of the colonists. About the middle 
of August the same year he raised a house for himself on 
the lots he had taken. This was the first frame dwelling- 
house erected in Ryegate, a part of which is now standing, 
(1864). It was in this house that the first school in Rye- 
gate was kept. About the same time the frame of the grist 
mill was raised. In the beginning of October, 1775, the 
saw mill was raised, and on the 28th day of the same month 
the grist mill was set going, and the saw mill in the end of 
July the next year. Having received an alarming report 
that St. Johns had been taken by the British regulars, and 
that Indians would be sent through the country to lay it 
waste, all the inhabitants of Ryegate July 1, 1776, fled to 
Newbury for safety. After waiting ten days and no In- 
dians appearing, they all returned to their own houses in 
Ryegate. When Gen. Whitelaw came to Ryegate to settle, 
he had travelled 2700 miles on horseback in this country in 
the service of the "Scots-American Company of Farmers." 
The colony he had planted in Ryegate was checked in its 
prosperity by the Revolutionary war, after which trying 
period it increased and flourished. In 1794, being Surveyor- 
General of Vermont and otherwise engaged, he resigned 
his office of agent for the company which he had held for 
nearly 20 years. About this time he opened a land office 



112 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. * 

in which he continued to do business till his death in 1829. 
He was early chosen to different offices by the town of Rye- 
gate, and was town clerk and town treasurer for about 46 
years. It appears by his accounts against the state that he 
Tiad surveyed some town lines as early as 1780. In 1783 
after Great Britain had acknowledged the Independence of 
the United States, he was appointed a Deputy Surveyor to 
the Surveyor-General. Messrs. Whitelaw, Savage and Coit 
petition the legislature October 18, 1787 and state that they 
had been engaged the most of their time for four years past 
as deputies of the Surveyor-General in surveying towns in 
the northern part of Vermont, and that they had received no 
remuneration for their services, or pay for their expenses, 
-amounting to one hundred pounds, and expressing their 
-willingness to take grants of salable lands for their pay- 
ment. Accordingly, the legislature, October 26, 1788, 
granted them three tracts of land situated in different parts 
of the state, and equal in the whole to one township of land. 
In October, 1787, Gen. Whitelaw was elected by the legis- 
lature Surveyor-General of the State of Vermont. To this 
■office he was annually reelected till November, 1804, a 
period of more than seventeen years. He surveyed the town 
lines or chartered limits of a considerable number of towns 
in the middle and northern part of the state, some of which 
"he allotted. It appears from his accounts as Surveyor-Gen- 
eral against the State, that in October, 1788, he was en- 
gaged several days in making a plan of the state. In 1796 
he drew a small map of the state, finely delineated. From 
this beautiful manuscript map which is still preserved, he 



JAMES WHITELAW. 4 113 

published the same year a map of the state of Vermont 
which he improved and republished in 1810. These maps 
are of a large size, 30 by 44 inches. He secured the copy- 
right, which is dated November 1, 1796. In 181 3 he pub- 
lished a map of the northern part of the United States, and 
the southern part of Canada, 22 by 15 inches, designed to 
show the seat of the war between the United States and 
Great Britain in 18 12-15. It appears by a letter written 
to him by his father, October 23, 1783, that he had sent 
an order to Scotland to John Gardner to make him a sur- 
veying compass, and that Gardner was then making it, and 
that they expected to have an opportunity to send it to him 
as soon as the next spring. This surveying compass and 
chain, with his magnet, and some of his mathematical in- 
struments, are in the possession of Mrs. Susan White, his 
granddaughter, in Griggsville, Illinois.* If the compass 
she has in her possession is the one made by John Gardner, 
it is probable, if not certain, that it is the compass Gen. 
Whitelaw used for many years while he was both a Deputy- 
Surveyor and Surveyor-General. If these surveying in- 
struments should be obtained by the Historical Society of 
Vermont, they would be a valuable addition to their his- 
torical collection. 

By the legislature he was empowered to settle disputes 
about town lines, and appointed one of the trustees of the 
Caledonia County Academy, and named in the charter 
granted October 27, 1795. This office he continued to hold 
till September 4th, 181 1. When he resigned the Board of 



•Now in the possession of the Vt. Historical Society. 



114 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Trustees "voted that the thanks of this board be presented 
to him for his eminent services to this Institution." By 
John Adams, President of the United States, he was ap- 
pointed July 17, 1798, a commissioner for the third district 
of Vermont under an Act of Congress passed July 9, 1798, 
"to provide for the valuation of lands and dwelling-houses 
and enumeration of slaves within the United States." In 
the General's collection of papers was found a slip of paper 
on which he had written the following, viz. : 

"The whole valuation of the State of Vermont, as re- 
turned by the assessors and equalized by the commissioners 

Dwelling-houses above $100 $ i,557»339- 86 

Land and small houses i5» I 57» o8 3- I 3^ 



$16,714,422.99^ 

It is the glory of Vermont that it required no "enumera- 
tion of slaves." In 1800 he was appointed postmaster of 
Ryegate. Most probably it was by his exertions that the 
mail was first extended from Newburyport, Caledonia Coun- 
ty, through Ryegate and Peacham to Danville, and after- 
ward to Barnet and St. Johnsbury. He continued post- 
master of Ryegate till his death. 

Dr. Witherspoon at Newbury, Vt., June 17, 1783, gave 
a power of attorney to Gen. Whitelaw and Col. Harvey to 
sell the land he owned in Ryegate and Newbury. These 
two men were fellow pioneers in the settlement of Cale- 
donia County. The legislature of Vermont out of regard 
for these two Scotchmen, and the two large and flourish- 
ing colonies of their countrymen, they had planted and 



JAMES WHITELAW. 115 

nurtured in Barnet and Ryegate, called the county "Cale- 
donia" the ancient Roman name of their native country. 

Gen. Whitelaw must be placed at the head of the list 
of great men of this county, for he was most probably the 
first man in the county who held office under the state of 
Vermont and the United States, and long he held office un- 
der both governments. At his death he had 614 volumes 
of newspapers, 254 of which were bound. Most of these 
volumes were destroyed when the capitol of this state was 
burnt. Most of his papers belonging to his office of Sur- 
veyor-Deputy and Surveyor-General, are in possession of 
Henry Stevens, Esq., of Burlington.* The remaining part 
of his large collection of papers is in possession of William 
T. Whitelaw, Esq., of Ryegate, the General's grandson. 
They consist chiefly of manuscript books and papers in his 
own handwriting, together with more than 5000 letters from 
correspondents, relating chiefly to business in his land of- 
fice. Four small folio volumes contain more than 8000 
answers to letters received. Some of these answers are 
transcribed in full, but only the substance of the majority 
is recorded. He kept copies of his letters to his relatives, 
and the Company in Scotland. These contain some valuable 
and interesting information with respect to the early his- 
tory of Caledonia County. In his collection of papers are 
some rare and valuable documents. One of these is a deed* 
beautifully written on a very large sheet of parchment 
which is signed and sealed by Dr. Witherspoon.* 



•Now in the possession of the Vt. Historical Society. 



116 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL, SOCIETY. 

In stature General Whitelaw was about six feet and ten 
inches high, with a large and robust frame. He seemed 
to have sprung from a strong and healthy Scotch family. 
His uncle, James Whitelaw, lived one hundred and six 
years, and walked ten miles to a funeral the week before 
his death. He was generally very healthy, but three years 
before his death he had a severe fever which lasted three 
months. His last illness was palsy, which continued two 
weeks, but did not deprive him of speech. He was a very 
diligent man and in his lifetime performed a great amount 
of labor, manual and mental. After his labors for more 
than ten years in settling Ryegate, he was actively engaged 
in surveying for 12 or 14 years. He performed an immense 
amount of writing in his land office and surveyorship. He 
had a very remarkable power of resisting cold. He often 
surveyed land at a great distance from home in the winter 
using snow shoes, and remained in the woods night and 
day for weeks in the coldest weather. He very seldom used 
gloves or mittens in working or traveling in the coldest 
weather in winter. He possessed a great talent for trans- 
acting business, which was well done and gave great satis- 
faction to those who employed him. His fees as land agent 
and surveyor were moderate. At one time he lost $2600 
by suretyship for a friend. Though he was never rich, he 
always had a competence and lived comfortably and respect- 
ably. He was hospitable and charitable, and generously 
gave away much of his property. His disposition was 
pleasant and kind, and he acted often and successfully the 
part of a blessed peacemaker. He was naturally very 



JAMES WHITELAW. 117 

modest and unassuming, so that he appeared to strangers 
reserved, but with his friends he was social and facetious. 
He was uniformly very exact and prompt in performing his 
work, and cheerful and faithful in performing the duties 
of a husband, father and friend. His moral character was 
pure and good. All who were acquainted with him 
esteemed him highly, and had the utmost confidence in his 
ability and integrity. He sprang out of a pious family and 
was a member of the Church of Scotland. He observed 
the worship of God in his family, and gave his children a 
literary and religious education. He liberally supported the 
public ordinances of the Gospel, and attended the religious 
services of the Associate Presbyterian Church of Ryegate. 
The writer visited him on his death bed when the dying 
man requested him to pray for him that he might have 
the Grace of Christ. 

He died calmly April 29, 1829, aged eighty-one years. 
He was interred in the graveyard at the center of Ryegate, 
and a monument has been erected to his memory. 

Gen. Whitelaw was married March 5, 1778, to Abigail 
Johnston, of Newbury, Vt., by whom he had four children, 
two sons and two daughters, who survived him but are all 
now dead. 

He was married the second time November 23, 1790, 
to Susannah Rogers of Bradford, Vt., who was a descendant 
of the ninth or tenth generation from John Rogers, the 
famous English Martyr, who was burnt at the stake, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1555. 



,118 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

He was married the third time August 29, 1815, to 
Mrs. Janet Harvey, of Barnet, Vt, who was the widow of 
his friend, Col. Alexander Harvey, of Barnet. 

Barnet, Vt., A. D., 1864. 

Thomas Goodwiuje. 



JOURNAL 

OF 

GENERAL JAMES WHITELAW 

SURVEYOR-GENERAL OF VERMONT 

FROM A MANUSCRIPT 

PRESENTED TO 

THE 

Vermont Historical Society 

BY 

Oscar L. Whitelaw and Robert H. Whitelavv 

1898 



This journal is copied from the original manuscript 
now in the possession of the Vermont Historical Society 
which was presented to the society in April, 1898, by Mr. 
Oscar L. Whitelaw and Mr. Robert H. Whitelaw of St. 
Louis, Mo., great-grandsons of General James Whitelaw. 

It is to be noted that a portion of the journal is missing. 
Pages one and two at least are lacking. The entries begin 
on the top of page three under date of April 8th (1773). 
The journal covers pages 3 to 76 inclusive of the manu- 
script, the rest of the space being taken up with entries re- 
lating to taxes in the various towns in Vermont made 
some years later than the others. There are also some en- 
tries in the back of the volume dated from 1790 to 1794 
of no general interest being merely memoranda regarding 
the state of the weather and items relating to the care of 
the farm. It has not been thought worth while to print 
these items. 

Montpelier, Vt., January, 1907. 



JOURNAL. 



Thursday, Aprile 8th, on the morning the weather 
turned calm, by which time we were in Lat. 40 ° and Lon. 
about 1 8° during which time nothing passed worth remark- 
ing, excepting that we saw the main mast of a ship go along 
our side one morning. 

It remained calm till Saturday, the 10th, on the morn- 
ing of which the wind shifted N. E., from which point we 
had a good breeze, and continued a S. W. course till Sun- 
day, the 25th, when we were in Lat. 30 and Lon. 46 30'. 

Sunday, the 9th of May, we spoke a sloop from Vir- 
ginia bound for Nevis, John Robertson, Master, fifteen days 
out, and in Lon. 62 ° 30' by his account, though by ours 
we were only in 61 ° 48'. We had not seen any other ves- 
sel since Saturday, Aprile 10th. 

We kept sailing between the Lat. of 30 and 33 from 
the 25th of April till Friday, the 14th of May, at which 
time we were in Lon. 68°. We stood then to the N. W., and 
on Wednesday, the 19th, we spoke the brigantine Carpenter, 
from Philadelphia, bound for Lisbon, Samuel Williams, 
Master, 35 leagues, E. S. E. of Cape Henlopen. 

Thursday, the 20th, about 3 o'clock afternoon, we 
had the first sight of America, and about 9 o'clock at night 
we came to an anchor in Delaware bay in order to wait 
for a pilot. 

8 



122 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Friday, the 21st, about 7 o'clock in the morning, we 
got our pilot aboard, when we loosed, and at night we came 
again to an anchor at the head of the bay. 

Saturday, the 22nd, we loosed again about 7 o'clock 
in the morning, and about 3 o'clock we came to an 
anchor about a mile below Newcastle ; about 6 o'clock same 
night the wind springing up fair we again loosed and got 
as far as the high lands of Crastine, where we again 
anchored. 

Sunday, the 23d, we had the wind all down the river, 
and was obliged to turn up with the tide, and about 12 
o'clock at night, came to an anchor below Philadelphia, 
where we were obliged to stay till the health officer came 
on board to visit the passengers, each of which had to pay 
to him one shilling sterling. 

Munday, the 24, at 12 o'clock, we came to one of 
the wharfs, the whole distance we sailed being about 5000 
miles by the log. 

When we arrived here Alexander Semple was stand- 
ing on the wharf ready to receive us in order to conduct us 
to his brother's house, where accidentally we met with 
Dr. Witherspoon, who informed us that he had a township 
of land called Ryegate, in the Province of New York, upon 
Connecticut River, containing about 23,000 acres, which he 
was ready to dispose of, in order to serve us, in case we 
thought it would sute our purpose, but in the meantime 
desired us to make every other trial, and not be too hasty 
in making a bargain, and instantly desired us to call for 
him at Princetown, on our way to New York. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 123 

We stayed in Philadelphia three days, where we were 
very kindly entertained by our friends and acquaintances, 
part of which time we spent in viewing this city, which 
perhaps is the best laid out in the world, the streets are all 
broad and straight, and all cross each other at right angles, 
extending itself upon the banks of the Delaware between 
two or three miles, and about one mile back here is an 
excellent market for every article that farmers or others 
have to sell and commonly ready money. We had several 
offers of lands in this province, but deferred the viewing 
of them at this time as by our commission we were first 
to begin at New York, for which place we set out with the 
stage on Thursday, the 27, at six o'clock in the morning, and 
arrived at Princetown at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, where 
we again met with Dr. Witherspoon, Robert and John 
Hyndman and James Findlay we stayed here till the next 
stage day, which time we spent in viewing Doctor Wither- 
spoon's plantations, as also receiving particular intelligence 
about the township of Ryegate from James Findlay and 
John Hyndman, who had both been lately on the ground. 

We set off again with the stage and arrived at New 
York on Tuesday the first of June in the afternoon. On 
the road from Philadelphia to New York we came through 
several handsome little towns and crossed several navigable 
rivers. 

The country here is generally well cleared & makes 
a very pleasant appearance especially in the province of 
Pensilvania. 



124 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On our arrival at New York we were conducted to one 
Mr. Winter's house for lodging, by Mr. Robert Hyslap, 
one of our fellow passengers, who had been eight years in 
this place before. 

Wednesday, June 2d, we were directed to Mr. Mason 
by the same person, where we had the pleasure to meet with 
Mr. Marshal from Philadelphia, and having delivered our 
letters of recommendation to them, they promised to do 
everything in their power to serve us, being exceedingly 
well pleased with our plan, and went immediately along with 
us to several gentlemen in this city who they knew had 
lands to dispose of and desired them to make out their pro- 
posals to us as soon as possible, on account that we wanted 
soon to leave the town. 

We stayed here eight days, which time we employed 
in informing ourselves where lands was to be got from 
surveyors and others that was acquaint in the country, and 
several gentlemen in this place have given us letters to their 
correspondents in the country to show us their lands. 

Saturday, the 5th, the Matty arrived here from Phila- 
delphia, & on the 8th we wrote home. 

Wednesday, the 9th, having got our business over in 
this place, we set off in a sloop for Albany, commanded by 
one Captain Cuyler, and on Thursday, the 10th, about 4 
o'clock in the morning, the wind being contrary, we came 
to an anchor at a place called the butterhill about 66 miles 
above New York, and on Friday night we came to Pokeep- 
sie wharf, which is 33 miles from York from whence we 
loosed on Saturday morning, and at night we arrived at 



JAMES WHITELAW. 125 

Albany, and was conducted to the house of Mr. Cartwright 
for lodging by our Captain. 

The banks of Hudsons River from a little above New 
York to within twelve miles of Albany appears to be very 
barren, being mostly rocky on both sides, and in some 
places exceeding high and all covered with small wood. 

Albany is much about the size of Port Gasgon, the 
houses built of brick and wood, and the streets very broad, 
and pretty regular, and the country on the river side is 
very pleasant. 

On Monday, the 14th, we delivered the letters we had 
from our friends in N. York to several men in this place, 
especially one to Mr. Campbell, who informed us that he 
knew a good many lands in several parts of the Province, 
but the best he knew of was on the Mohawk river belong- 
ing to Sir William Johnston Bart, and was so good as 
to give us a letter of recommendation to him. 

On Tuesday, the 15th, we set out for Johnstown, and 
arrived there on Wednesday, the 16th, about 5 o'clock 
afternoon, and lodged with one Mr. Tice. From Albany 
to Scenectady, which is 16 miles, the country is barren 
sand covered with pine. Scenectady is a handsome little 
town, and stands on the south bank of the Mohawk river, 
at which place we ferried over the river. The flats upon this 
river from this to Johnstown are all very fine land, but 
as you ascend the country it is very stoney, tho the soil is 
good and covered with oak, beech, walnut, and hickory and 
divers other kinds of wood. About an hour after we came 
to Johnstown we met with Sir William Johnston at our 
lodging, who told us that he had plenty of lands either to 



126 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

set or sell, and appointed to-morrow at 9 o'clock to meet with 
him at his house which appointment we kept, but he being 
taken ill of a cholic we could have no access to him till Fri- 
day afternoon, at which time he ordered a surveyor to go 
along with us to show us the lands of which Mr. Camp- 
bell spoke, which is one of the places which he had a mind 
to sell. 

On Saturday morning we set off along with the sur- 
veyor to view the above mentioned lands, and having passed 
over a large patent of very fine land, which he only leases 
on the following terms, viz. : The first five years free, and 
ever after at six pounds the hundred acres, York currency, 
reserving to himself all coals or other minerals which may 
be found in the ground. We next came upon the lands he 
proposed selling to us, which also is tolerable good land tho 
not so good as the last mentioned tract. The situation 
seemed to us not very agreeable, being about 12 or 14 miles 
from the Mohawk river and over a high hill, and some 
large swamps, also the price we thought high, being a dol- 
lar an acre. While we stayed here we bought two horses, 
viz. : one from Dr. Adams at eight pounds, and the other 
from Billy Luckey at nine York currency. 

On Munday, the 21st, we set off from Johnstown by 
the same road we went up, till we came to Scenectady from 
whence we went along the south bank of the Mohawk river 
through an old Dutch settlement of excellent low land 
abounding with wheat and all other kinds of grain, and at 

night lodged at Loudons ferry. 

(Two things very remarkable happened since we left 

York, viz. : on the 12th of June the frost was so strong that 



JAMES WHITELAW. 127 

the ice in many places was as thick as a dollar and did a deal 
of harm to Indian Corn, potatoes and other tender plants, 
and on the 17th Colonel Johnston's house was burnt by 
lightning, both things are very uncommon in this place). 

On the 22nd we set out from Loudons ferry, and after 
crossing the Mohawk river we came through a large tract 
of barren land, after which we came into a fine, large, well 
inhabited flat of good land on the banks of Hudsons river,, 
and going up the river we went through Stillwater and 
Saratoga, a little above which we crossed the Hudsons 
river, and went along through a large flat covered with 
pines for three or four miles, then crossed battenkill, which 
is a pretty large river and good land in many places on 
its banks, and at night we came to the house of Mr. Reid 
at Whitecreek, where John White stays, where we lodged 
till the 23d, on which we set out for Dr. Clark's where we 
were kindly entertained, and he gave us many friendly ad- 
vices how to behave concerning our affairs, and several 
letters of recommendation to his acquaintances in several 
parts of America, and he told us he had some good lots 
Of land to dispose of but not so much as to serve our pur- 
pose. 

On the 24th we set out from Dr. Clarks and came along 
the banks of Battenkill a great way, which is all high 
ground, and the settlers here apply themselves mostly to 
raising stock. By night we got as far as Manchester, where 
we lodged with one Mr. Allan. 

The 25th in the morning we set out from Mr. Allans 
and for ten miles we had no road but only the trees marked 
and some places it was almost impossible to go through by 



128 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

reason of rocks, boggs, high mountains and other difficultys. 
We saw no house till twelve o'clock when we came to one 
Mr. Uttlies where we dined, then set out again on a road 
which was cut but as there was little repair on it, it was all 
choaked up in many places by old trees falling across it 
which made it little better than the former. Here we 
traviled 16 miles without seeing any house (except two 
or three which were forsaken by their inhabitants on ac- 
count of some dispute which has subsided for some years 
between the Governments of New York and New Hamp- 
shire concerning their boundary line, so that the people 
which settled under one Government were so harrassed by 
the other that they have left their plantations and got new 
ones in places where there is no dispute). At night we 
lodged at Chesters and on the 26th we crossed Con- 
necticut river and came to Charlestown in New Hampshire, 
where Mr. Church lives who is partner with Dr. Wither- 
spoon in Rygate, and Munday, the 28th, we set out along 
with him to view it and arrived at it on Wednesday, the 30th 
in the morning, when we set out from the house of Mr. 
Hosmar, who lives on the town about a mile from the south- 
east corner. On our first outset we went along the River 
side through barren, hilly land, the wood mostly hemlock, 
and we crossed two pretty large brooks, both fit for mills, 
after which we went westward over a tract of pretty good 
land, the wood, beech, mapple and some Hemlock and birch, 
till we came to the place pitched on by John Hyndman, 
then continuing west we went over a small piece of rocky 
land, then over a large tract of good land, the wood mostly 
beech and maple, with some ash and birch, and well watered 



JAMES WHITELAW. 129 

with plenty of small brooks, then over about four chains of a 
rockey hill, then good land as before for a considerable way, 
then we came to a large pond, the banks of which are steep, 
barren land and mostly covered with hemlock and pine. We 
continued westward along the side of a large hill, in many 
places pretty steep and stoney, tho good ground and may be 
excellent pasture, the wood, beech, mapple, basswood and 
some ash, after which we traviled southward over a very 
large tract of exceeding good land, all lying towards the 
south and pretty level and may be very easy cleared, as the 
trees are at a distance from one another, and scarce any 
undergrowth, the wood, beech, maple and basswood, after 
which we went east ward over an excellent meadow, then 
over a small piece of barren, sandy ground covered with 
pines, then over good land till we came near the river side 
which is barren as before, and so ended our course. 

On Friday, July 2nd, we returned and arrived at 
Charlestown on Saturday night. All this way which is 
about 72 miles is filled with new settlers, and the country 
in many places good land, but the most inconveniency is 
its distance from navigation. Ryegate lies more than 200 
miles above Hartford, which is the farest that sloops come 
up Connecticut river, above which it is only navigable for 
canoes, and theire are four falls which makes about ten miles 
of land carriage, the nearest seaport to Ryegate is Ports- 
mouth, which is about 100 miles and the road not good, 
however, they can sell the produce of their farms pretty 
high in the meantime to new settlers, they sell wheat 
commonly about four shell: ster. a bushel, Rye about the 
same, and Indian corn about three shillings. Beef about 



130 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

two pence and mutton the same, and pork about five pence, 
butter about 6 pence and Cheese about four pence half 
penny per pound, all ster: 

On our way to Ryegate we lodged at hanover, where 
Mr. Wheelock has his Indian Academy or College. When 
we went and called for him and told him what we had heard 
concerning his land before we left Scotland and he said he 
had about as much land now as would serve about 30 fam- 
ilies, which he would give to settlers if they would but come 
and live upon it, and he said he would prefer Scotch people 
before any other, as he thought much of their religion and 
manner of Church government, but as the country settle9 
so fast he expects it will all be settled in a short time, he 
told us he had at his College about 80 Students, above 30 of 
which were upon Charity and 17 of them Indians. 

On Munday, the 5, we left Charlestown and got on 
our way to York, and as the nearest and best road is down 
the east side of Connecticut River, we came through three 
of the New England Governments, viz.: Newhampshire, 
Massachusets Bay and Connecticut, we had the river al- 
ways in our view, every now and then till we came to Hart- 
ford, in the Massachusets Bay Government, and it has 
many shallows and rifts in it all that way, but is so deep 
below that, that small sloops come that length, we saw 
nothing remarkable all this way, the part of Newhamshire 
government which we came through for many miles 
below Charlestown is poor, barren ground, but toward the 
lower end of it the ground is good and all well settled and 
has several pretty large towns, of which the most remark- 
able are Northfield, Sunderland, old Hadly and South Had- 



JAMES WHITELAW. 131 

ly, then we came into the Massachusets Bay government,. 
which has been all settled for a long time, and is a well in- 
habited and pleasant Country, abounding in all kinds of grain 
and has abundance of large orchards, and has many towns 
of Considerable bigness, such as Springfield, Suffield, Wind- 
sor, Hartford, Weathersfield, &c, next we came through 
Connecticut government, which is likewise an old, settled 
place, and pretty good land in many places, tho in most 
places very stoney, but the whole road is almost shaded with 
fruit trees, so that you may pull as many cherries and apples 
in their season as you please without going out of your road, 
and it is not uncommon for one farmer to make one hun- 
dred Barrels of Cyder in one year, each barrel containing 
eight Scotch Gallons. There are many large towns likewise 
in this government, such as New Haven, Milford, Strat- 
ford, Fairfield, Norwalk, Stamford and Horseneck. These 
are all along the Sea Coast. Next we came again into York 
Government, which in this place is exceeding stoney, though 
the soil is in many places pretty good, and they have likewise 
abundance of large orchards. And after coming through 
several small towns on the coast, such as Rye, New Rochel,. 
East Chester, and Kingsbridge, we arrived again at New 
York on Munday the 12 of July, after a seven days' ride 
from Charlestown. 

The people here are affable and discreet and of a fair 
Complexion. The women in particular are very handsom 
and beautiful. The Indians, of which we saw plenty at 
Johnston, are of a tawny Complexion, and of an ordinary 
size, and goes almost naked excepting a kind of blanket which 
they wrap about their shoulders, and two pieces of skin, one 



132 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of which hangs down before and another behind to cover 
their nakedness. They seem to be very fond of jewels, a 
great many of them wearing ear rings, braclets and nose 
jewels, which is an ear ring which they hang between their 
mouth and nose, the gristle of their nose being pierced for 
that use. They have their faces for the most part painted 
with red and black Stroaks. They have straight black hair, 
which their squas or women always wear long. We seed 
one man of them in particular, which besides all the fore- 
mentioned jewels, had a round piece of leather hung before 
his breast, which was all drove full of white headed nails, 
and had a great number of buttons and other trinkets hung 
round it. He had a cap made of some beasts skin, with the 
hair on it, and a long tail hanging down to the small of his 
back and about 20 or 30 womens Thimbles hung to the end 
of it, and as he went along made a mighty noise by the 
tinkling of his Thimbles, buttons and other jewels. 

They have here an excellent breed of horses, black 
cattle, sheep, and vast numbers of hoggs, and their land 
produces Indian Corn, Rye, Wheat, peas, barly, oats and 
flax. Their Indian Corn will produce 50 bushels per acre, 
Rye and wheat from 20 to 30 bushels per acre, barly, 
peas and oats about the same quantity, the common 
prices through this province are much the same as those 
which you find before in the description of Ryegate. They 
sow their flax very thin, as their only intention is to raise 
seed and they do not pull it till it be quite ripe. 

The weather since we came to this country has been 
mostly dry and for the most part clear. The heat tho 
they tell us, has been for some weeks rather more than 



JAMES WHITELAW. 133 

common is noways intolerable, tho a good deal warmer than 
at home. We stayed at New York three days, which time 
we spent informing ourselves about the Southern Provinces, 
and also to refresh our horses, which were very much 
fatigued. 

On the 15th, at noon, we set off for Philadelphia and 
come to Princetown on the 16th at night, here we staid 
till the 19th. Dr. Witherspoon being so good as to find us 
pasture for our horses, which was very rare to be got on 
account of the great drought, the like of which has not been 
known these many years. 

Doctor Witherspoon has now made us his proposals 
concerning Rygate, and his terms are these, if we take the 
whole, reserving to them 2000 acres, two shillings ster: P 
acre, if three-fourths reserving them 1500 acres, 3-3 York 
Currency, and if we take only one half, three shillings York 
money. But he advised us to be at all due pains, and if 
we should find a better place for our purpose, to take it, as he 
is very fond that our scheme should succeed. 

Princetown is a handsom little town and stands on a 
pleasant situation, and the College is said to be the best 
and the largest building in America, and at present contains 
upwards of 100 students, besides about 80 Latin scholars. 

On the 19th, after dining with the President, we left 
this place and arrived at Philadelphia on the 20th, in the 
afternoon. Here we stayed till the 26th, which time we 
spent informing ourselves about this and the Southern 
Provinces, in which we was much assisted by Mssrs. 
Semple, Sproat, Milliken, Stewart and Marshal, who gave 
us letters themselves, and also caused others of their ac- 



134 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

quaintances to give us letters to their several correspondents, 
to give us any assistance or advice that they could. 

On the 26th in the afternoon we left this place and pro- 
ceeded on our way to Shamokin or Fort Augusta, and ar- 
rived there on the 30th. The lands on this road are pretty 
flat and also good for the most part for about 50 miles from 
Philadelphia, and the houses mostly built of stone and 
mostly possessed by Dutch and Germans, but as you ad- 
vance the country it is mountainous and exceeding rockey 
so that it is scarce fit for settling, tho the lands are all taken 
up and surveyed till you come within 8 miles of the fort, 
where the land becomes more flat and very good. We had 
a good deal of difficulty to find provisions on this road, 
as at one place we had 17 miles without a house and the 
next stage we had 23 miles, and little to be got when we 
came to these houses at fort Augusta. We lodged with 
one Mr. Hunter till the 2d of August, which time we em- 
ployed in informing ourselves about the lands here and on 
the other parts of the Susquhanna, which had been much 
recommended to us by some people in Philadelphia but we 
found that there was no one place large enough for our pur- 
pose but plenty too large for our money, as wood lands sells 
here from 20 to 50 shillings pr. acre. Here they have laid 
out a new town much after the plan of Philadelphia which 
is building very fast. Here we met with some more of our 
old friends, the Indians, who spoke English very well, and 
were likewise very courteous, particularly one John Hen- 
drick, son to King Hendrick, one of the Mohawk Sachems, 
who was much renowned for a great warrior. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 135 

On the 2d of August we left this place and set out 
for Carlile. We rode the Susquehanna a little below the 
new town (which is called Sanbury) where it was upwards 
of half a mile broad, as it took us 22 minutes to cross it, 
and it is about 2 feet deep upon an average from side to 
side, and the stream pretty rapid, and at this time it is at its 
lowest pitch. 

The ground along the banks of this river is very flat 
and good for about 8 miles, and watered by two small rivers, 
called Penns Creek and Middle Creek, then it is rocky for 
several miles, then tolerable flat and good till you come to 
the Blue Mountain, and well watered by Juniatta river, 
after Crossing the blue Mountain we came into the County 
of Carlile, which is pretty level and good land about the 
town and all well settled. This, like all other American 
towns, is laid out in squares, with straight streets, and con- 
tains a good deal of inhabitants. 

On Thursday, the 5th, we set out on our way to Alex- 
ander Thomson's, and on our way lodged with Allan Scrogg, 
a farmer from Scotland, to whom we had been rec- 
ommended. Here we met with an uncommon large spring, 
which in the dryest season of the year affords sufficient wa- 
ter for two breast milns. From this we went to Alexn. 
Scrogg's, who is brother to the former, they have both got 
large plantations, and Alexander in particular told us that 
about 36 years ago they came over young men and he had 
only twenty pounds of stock and went along viewing the 
country till he spent a great part of it, then went to labour 
for some time after, after which he bought a large plan- 
tation, and when his old son married, he gave him one half 



138 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of it, and bought another to his second son for 700 pounds, 
and what he has yet in his own hand free of debt he says 
he will not part with for a thousand pounds. 

From this we came to Shippensburgh which is a small 
town containing 50 or 60 houses, — here we got directions 
for finding Alexander Thomson's which is about seven miles 
from this place, and we arrived at his house in the after- 
noon, where we was kindly entertained, as he had been look- 
ing for us a long time. Here we stayed ten days to refresh 
our horses, which was in very much need of it by this time. 
He has got an excellent plantation of 400 acres of land for 
which he paid 50o£ currency, which is nigh 30o£ ster: It 
lies about 150 miles from Philadelphia, but their nighest 
landing is Baltimore in Maryland, which is only 90 miles 
from him, though they have to cross the blue ridge in go- 
ing to it. This is a fertile soil and all lying upon limestone 
and this valley continues through all the Provinces of Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland and Virginia, and lies between the Blue 
ridge and North Mountain, and as it goes southward grows 
wider till it is so broad that one can scarce see over it. The 
south side of it is all limestone and exceeding good land, 
and the north part of it is what they call slate land and 
is not very good. 

Alexander Thomson had 50 acres Clear when he bought 
his plantation, and has cleared other 50 himself, he has 
plenty of all kinds of grain, and he seems to be exceedingly 
well pleased with his situation, and they have never one of 
his family been sick since he came to this place, and he says 
he thinks people are in general more healthy there than in 



JAMES WHITELAW. 137 

Scotland. He told us that all the lands in or nigh that 
place was taken up but he could buy plenty of single planta- 
tions with improvements on them for about three pounds 
sterling an acre, as He told us that many people in that 
neighborhood was selling their plantations and going back 
to the Ohio, and he thought that would be the best place 
for us. But after we made all the enquirey about it that we 
could, we did not think it a fit place for us. For though it 
is allowed by all to be the best land in America, yet it lies 
entirely out of the way of all trade, being 300 miles of land 
carriage from the nearest navigation, and the river itself 
is fit for no other vessels but canoes or battoes of two or 
three tons burden, and the lowest settlements on the Ohio 
are above 2000 miles from the mouth of the Mississippi, 
and tho two men can go down with one of those battoes in 
twenty days, yet twelve men will have much adoe to bring 
it up again in five months, so that there is little probability 
of ever having much trade there, and though the people 
can have some sale for their produce in the meantime to 
new settlers, yet in a few years that market will naturally 
cease, and though they can raise all the necesarys of life, 
they can never have any money for their grain, as the price 
of two bushels will have adoe to bring one to market, 
and salt sells there just now at 20 shillings a bushel. Rum, 
and all other things which are brought from the sea coast 
sells at the like extravagant price. 

The province of Pennsylvania seems the most desirable 
to live in of any place we have yet seen, but it is mostly 

settled where it is good, and what is to settle is very dear as 
9 



138 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

you cannot have an acre of good land within 150 miles of 
any landing for less than twenty or thirty shill. 

Here the people are kind and discreet, except the Dutch 
or Germans who inhabit the best lands in this province, who 
are a set of people that mind nothing of gayety, but live 
niggardly and gather together money as fast as they can 
without having any intercourse with anybody but among 
themselves. Most of the people in this Province look fresh 
and healthy, except the women who have for the most part 
lost their teeth, with eating too many fruits which they have 
here in great plenty. 

Here they have plenty of good horses and all other 
kinds of cattle, and the ground produces wheat, barley, Rye, 
Indian Corn, oats, buckwheat, flax, peas and beans of various 
kinds. They have likewise Melons, Cucumbers, squashes, 
gourds and pumpkins growing in the open fields, and their 
gardens are well supplied with all kinds of roots and other 
garden stuffs that are to be found in Europe. 

The air is commonly clear, and the country is as healthy 
as any place in Europe, excepting only where there are 
large Marshes or ponds of stagnated water, which is 
dangerous for agues but we have not yet seen one have the 
ague since we came to the Country. The summer is pretty 
hot, but not to such a degree as people at home are taught 
to believe. They tell us the winters are mostly frosty, but 
clear, sun shine weather, which prevents it from being so 
cold as it would otherways be. 

On Tuesday, August 17, we left Alexander Thomsons 
and set out towards the south, and after passing a very 
small town called Chamberstown, we came into the Province 



JAMES WHITELAW. 139 

of Maryland, and lodged at night in a handsom little town 
of about 150 houses, called Heagerstown. We left this in 
the morning, and came next to Sharpsburg, which is about 
the same bigness, and about mid-day came to Potomack 
river, and crossed over to Sheepherclstown in Virginia. 

This small part of Maryland which we came through 
is part of the forementioned valley and is very good land 
and all settled. 

Sheepherdstown is upon the banks of the Potomack 
(but about 70 miles above the falls) and contains about 70 
or 80 houses. Here we met with Thomas White, and he 
and us spent the evening in viewing the town and the coun- 
try about it, and in the morning went along with us to his 
acquaintances through the country to make what inquiry 
we could about lands, but could hear of none in this gov- 
ernment without going 2 or 300 miles from navigation. 
The country here is very good and the people healthy. 

We next set out for Carolina and after Crossing Shan- 
adore river we came over the blue ridge and down to the 
heart of Virginia, and we went down the south side of 
Potomack river and came through several towns such as 
Alexandria, Colchester, Dumfriee and Aquaia, and then 
across the Country and crossed Rappahanock River between 
falmouth and fredericksburgh and next we crossed the head 
of York River at Herrs bridge, then over James river and 
so through the country and over Roanoak at Taylor's Ferry, 
after which we came into North Carolina. 

The people in the lower parts of Virginia complain much 
of sickness at this season of the year, but higher up they 
are pretty healthy. Here they have excellent Indian Corn 



140 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

in some places, but the ground is mostly sandy and poor, 
and the places that are good are all planted with Tobacco, 
and here is but little wheat or other grain. The planters 
here live well and are all quite idle, as none but negroes work 
here, of which some planters will have several hundreds, 
which at an average are worth 60 or 70 pounds ster : apiece, 
and in these all their riches consists, for there are few of 
them but are in debt to the storekeepers, and it commonly 
takes all their Crops to Cloath themselves and their negroes. 
But those that are industrious and labour themselves, and 
particularly they who make grain, can make a good deal of 
money, as the grain sells pretty well and does not require 
one half of the labour that tobacco does. 

About four miles from Roanoak we came into North 
Carolina, and went right to Mr. Allason's house. The land 
from the line of the province to this place is for the greatest 
part very sandy and much of it covered with pines, and in 
some places a kind of red clay mixed with sand, and the 
wood mostly oak here. Mr. Allason has got a good planta- 
tion lying along the side of a creek, and he tells us he has 
bought two other good plantations, and could buy plenty 
more very reasonably, but he does not think that our scheme 
will suit this place well, as there are no tracts of good land to 
be had in one place, as the good lands lie mostly in narrow 
strips along the water sides, and the people settle on these 
places and keep the high grounds for range to their Cattle, 
for which they are excellent, as these pine grounds are all 
covered with excellent grass. (We arrived here on Tues- 
day, August the 31 in the afternoon). The lands here 
sells from ten to twenty shillings P. acre, and we can hear 



JAMES WHITELAW. HI 

of no person that has any large tract in one place to dis- 
pose of. 

On Wednesday, the 8th of September, we left Mr. Al- 
lasons and at night arrived at Bute, where we were kindly 
entertained by Mr. William Park, from Renfrew and after 
telling him our plan, he advised us to Call upon one Mr. 
Montfort, in Halifax, who he told us had the best tract of 
land to dispose of that he knew of in that country.. Mr. 
Park was so kind as to give us a letter of recommendation 
to him, we had likewise a letter of recommendation 
to him from Mr. David Sproat in Philadelphia. 

On Thursday, the 9th, we left Bute and arrived at Halli- 
fax on Friday forenoon when we went and Called for the 
above mentioned Mr. Montfort who used us very civilly and 
told us of several tracts of land that he had to dispose of, 
one of which lay in Bute County and was the one rec- 
ommended to us by Mr. Park. He told us that it contained 
nearly 6000 acres, the whole as well watered as any tract 
of the same quantity in America, having many very constant 
and fresh running streams through it. There is not 200 
acres in the whole but what he told us is fit for tillage and 
much of it excellent for wheat and tobacco. He told us 
there were 4 plantations Cleared and tended thereon, per- 
haps the 4 Containing in all about 400 acres of cleared 
land, all the rest wood land. He told us likewise that there 
was a good grist miln on a fine constant stream, which has 
never too much nor too little water, and that there are sev- 
eral barns & small houses on the different plantations and 
his price is 9000^ Virginia Currency or 700o£ sterling. He 
likewise told us that he had a tract of land in Halifax County 



H2 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of about 2400 acres, one part of which is within 4 miles 
of Halifax town, and the farthest part of it is about 7 or 
8 miles from said town. There is in this tract a great 
variety of kinds of soil, it is all level and pretty well watered, 
is mostly wood land, some a light sandy soil, some a very 
strong Marley soil, and very stiff, other parts a mixture be- 
tween the two, finely timbered with Pine, oak and Hickory, 
a great deal of it proper for making the finest meadows. 
This land he will sell for 1000 pounds ster. if taken soon, 
and he says is worth a great deal more. 

He told us also of another tract of land that he had 
on the head of Broad River, in Tryon County, Containing 
nearly 7000 acres, and all of it as rich, fine land as any 
yet discovered in America, being all of it Cane land or high 
low grounds, which never overflows and grows full of Cane 
reeds, well timberd and watered and most excellent for 
raising cattle and Horses. It is all naturally enclosed by the 
steep, high mountains from the west side round by the 
north by the east, and is only open to the southeast where 
a waggon road may go easy and level along the river side 
into the land. This place was formerly known by the name of 
the great cove and is of late years known by the name of 
Montfort's Cove. This land pays to the Crown four 
shillings Proclamation money of North Carolina P. hun- 
dred quit rent P. annum. 

He will take one thousand five hundred pounds ster. for 
this tract of land if a purchaser offers soon and pays down 
at the time of agreement and receiving title, but unless 
that happens within six or seven months of this time, he 
says he will not take under two thousand that money. He 



JAMES WHITELAW. 143 

says if the whole is not as good land as to be found in the 
upper, he will not desire any person to be bound by the bar- 
gain they make for it. 

About 80 miles from this land there are one or two 
places of trade on rivers Navigable for large Boats — it lies 
200 miles to Charlestown on a fine waggon road. 

After having dined with Mr. Montfort we set out on 
our way for Edinton, where we arrived on Monday, the 13th. 
The country a good way down from Halifax is nothing but 
barren sand, and when you go lower down the ground is 
low, flat and marshy and along the banks of the Roanoak 
the lands are very rich, but so low and flate that in great 
freshets the river overflows it for several miles and sweeps 
all before it. The land about Edinton is all either barren 
sand or watery swamps. When we came to Edinton we 
called for Mr. Smith, to whom we had been recommended 
by Mr. Sproat in Philadelphia. He told us of large tracts 
of good land upon pretty good navigation, but the price 
high and the Climate sickly. As to the soil of Carolina we 
have told in the beginning of our description of it that there 
are strips of good ground along the sides of rivers and 
creeks, and the rest sandy and mostly Covered with pines 
and fit for nothing but raising of cattle which is the only 
thing the people in this country depend upon. The grass in 
the woods is rank and good, and the winter being short they 
can rear cattle without much cost or care. The soil will 
produce Indian Corn pretty well, which is the only grain the 
people live upon. Some of their ground will produce wheat, 
but in small quantitys and it must be thrashed out imme- 
diately when cut, or else they lose it by being eat by a 



144 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

small insect called a wevle. They have cotton, tobacco and 
some small quantitys of indigo and rice in some places, but 
the Culture of indigo is so unhealthy that they reason if 
a negro lives ten years and works among it they have a 
good bargain of him. 

As to the climate, it is exceedingly hot in June, July 
ai-d August, and very Cold in January and february, and 
the rest of the year temperate, and in the back parts the 
people are healthy, but after we came below Hallifax we 
did not enter one single house but we found sick persons, 
and in some we could not find one whole person to feed 
our horses. As to religion, we scare saw any appearance 
of it in this Country, but the establishment is Episcopal. 

Finding that we could do nothing there, we left Edin- 
ton on Monday afternoon, and returned on our way to the 
North Country again, and in our way passed through 
Suffolk, which is a handsom little town in the lower parts 
of Virginia, and on Wednesday, the 15th, we got to Nor- 
folk, which is the largest town in Virginia, and stands on 
a river deep enough to bring large ships up to the town. 
This town seems to be about the bigness of Greenock, and 
seems to have a good deal of trade. Here we was obliged 
to stay till Saturday before we could get a fair wind to 
Carry us over the Bay. This passage is about 60 miles, 
viz. : from Norfolk down to the Bay 25 miles across the 
"bay to the eastern shore 35 miles. We crossed this bay (viz. 
Cheesapeak) within sight of the Capes of Virginia, and by 
going this road we brought 14 ferry s all into one which 
we would have had to cross if we had gone by the post 
road, and we likewise shortened our road above 20 miles. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 145 

After crossing at this place we went through several hand- 
som little towns, such as Snowhill, Crossroads, Dover, Wil- 
mington, Chester and Derby, and arrived at Philadelphia on 
the 26th of September, all the way from Edinton till you 
come within about 60 miles of Philadelphia the ground is 
light and sandy and for the most part does not produce above 
10 or 12 bushels of wheat P. acre, but when you come with- 
in 60 miles of Philadelphia, the ground Changes from sand 
to good brown earth and will produce large crops of wheat 
or any other grain, here it is exceeding pleasant traveling 
at this season of the year, as the fields are all quite green 
with young wheat which makes a much better appearance 
than it does in Scotland at this time of the year. 

We traveled about 500 miles (viz. from Hallifax in 
Carolina to Dover which is within 80 miles of Philadelphia) 
without seeing a stone of any kind, or any sort of eminence, 
the ground being for the most part sandy and perfectly 
level, and in all that 500 miles we was not in five houses 
but some of the people was sick of the fever and ague or 
somes other desease, but we have reason to bless God that 
though we have traveled through such a sickly country, we 
are now arrived in perfect health at a place where such sick- 
nesses seldom or never appear. 

After having refreshed ourselves and horses and dis- 
cussed what business we had to do, we left Philadelphia on 
the first of October and came to Princetown that night, and 
next day we bargained with Dr. Witherspoon for one-half 
of the township of Ryegate. 






146 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

We left Princetown on the 5th and arrived at New- 
York on the 6th, and James Henderson arrived here from 
Philadelphia, with his chest and tools on the 9th and having 
found a sloop to carry James Henderson with his and our 
Chests and what Tools and other utensils we had purchased, 
to Hartford, on the Connecticut river, and having discussed 
what other business we had to do, we left New York on 
19th of Oct., and arrived at Newbury or Kohass on the 1st 
day of November, and put up with Jacob Bayly, Esq., to 
whom we was recommended by John Church, Esq., one of 
the proprietors of Ryegate, and James Henderson arrived 
about a week after us in a canoe with our chests and tools 
and some provisions we had bought down the Country, such 
as Rum, Salt, Molasses, etc. On the 30th of the month Mr. 
Church came up and we divided the town, the south part 
whereof has fain to us, which in our opinion, and in the opin- 
ion of all that knows it, has the advantage of the north in 
many respects. 1st, it is the best land in general. 2d, 
nearest to provisions which we have in plenty within 3 
or 4 miles and likewise within 6 of a grist and two 
miles of a saw miln, all which are great advantages to a new 
settlement. 3d, we have several brooks with good seats 
for milns, and likewise Welds River runs through part of 
our purchase and has water enough for 2 breast milns at 
the driest season of the year, of which the north part is 
almost entirely destitute. 4th, there is a fall in Connecticut 
river just below our uppermost line which causeth a car- 
rying place for goods going up or down the river. 5th, we 
are within six miles of a good Presbyterian meeting and 
there is no other minister above that place. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 147 

When we came here John Hyndman was building his 
house, so we helped him up with it both for the conveniency 
of lodging with him till we built one of our own, and also 
that he might assist us in building ours. Having finished 
his house, we began to build our own, and had it finished 
about the beginning of January, 1774. Nothing worth 
noticing happened till the spring, only we cut down as much 
wood as we could and James Henderson made what wooden 
utensils we had occasion for, and James Whitelaw went 
down to Portsmouth and Newburyport and brought a slea 
load of such necessarys as we wanted. In the month of 
April we made about 60 lbs. of sugar, after which we be- 
gan the surveying of the town, and first ran lines from 
north to south (& vice versa) at every forty rods distance, 
which lines are above three miles long and upwards of 40 in 
number, one half of which we marked for the ends of the 
lots and the other half we did not mark, but only run them 
to know the quality of the ground. 

On Monday, the 23rd of May, arrived here from Scot- 
land David Ferry, Alexander Sim and family, Andrew and 
Robert Brocks, John and Robert Orrs, John Wilson, John 
Gray, John Shaw and Hugh Semple, and as we had not 
finished the surveying, Alexander Sim went to work with 
Colonel Bayley and all the rest with the managers for the 
company where they continued till the first of July, when 
we got their lots laid off for them, and David Ferry took 
possession of No. 1st, Hugh Semple of No. 2nd, 3rd, 4th 
& 5th, John Orr and his brother of No. 6th & 7th for them- 
selves, & No. 8th and 9th for William Blackwood, John 



148 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Gray of No. ioth for himself and No. nth. for John Barr, 
John Wilson of No. 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th & 17th, 
Andrew and Robert Brocks of Nos. 21st, 22nd, 23d, 24th, 
25th, 26th, 27th, & 28th, Alexander Sim of Nos. 29th & 30th, 
and John Shaw of Nos. 31st and 32nd for himself, and 
of 33d, 34th, 35th & 36th for William Warden, and of No. 
37th, 38th, 39th & 40th for James Laird. 

July the 5th we agreed with Archibald Harvie and 
Robert Orr for one year's work for the company and on 
the nth we agreed with John Shaw and on July 30 with 
David Ferry, all for one years work. 

On Monday, the 1st of August, after having determined 
the quantitys of the several lotts and drawn a plan of them, 
and likewise a plan of the town spot, David Allen set out 
from this place on his way home to Scotland, when the 
whole of the Ryegate Colonists attended him to Colonel Bay- 
ley's and James Henderson went along with him to New- 
buryport where he took his leave of him. 

After finishing the plan of our half of Ryegate we found 
the Contents to be as follows: 



Here are inserted the tables covering pages 51 to 57 in- 
clusive of the original manuscript. 



On the first of October John Waddels, James Neilson 
and Thomas McKeach arrived here, and Patrick Long and 
family, William Neilson and family and David Reid and 
his wife arrived the 7th. They were all hearty and had a 
good passage and good usage from their captain. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 149 

James Neilson took possession of lots 41 & 42, and 
William Neilson of Nos. 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 & 50, 
and Patrick Long of Nos. 51, 52, 53, and 54 for himself, and 
of Nos. 55, 56, 57 & 58 for his brother-in-law, and David 
Reid took possession of Nos. 59 & 60. 

On the 8th of Oct. arrived here Robert Gemmil and his 
son, Robert Tweedale and his wife an4 Andrew and James 
Smiths. About this time we began to build a frame house 
of 17 feet wide and 38 long, which will accommodate 4 
familys on occasion. On the 13th we built a small logg 
house, as these we formerly built could not contain all the 
people that arrived at that time. 

On the 22nd of Oct. Andrew Smith departed this life. 
He was the first Scotsman that died in this place. He was 
in good health on the morning of the 21st, but about 11 
o'clock forenoon he was seized with a cholic (to which he 
had formerly been subject) of which he died at 3 o'clock 
next morning. James Whitelaw with the rest of the new 
Colonists made choice of a spot near the east side of the 
common for a burying place where he was decently interred 
same evening. 

James Smith took possession of lots No. 61, 62 & 63 
for himself, and of No. 64 for John Gray ; Robert Tweedale 
of No. 65, 66, 67 & 68 and Robert Gemmil of Nos. 69 & 70. 
Before the beginning of December all the people had houses 
built on their lots, and they were generally well pleased 
with their situations. 

About the 8th of December James Whitelaw received 
a letter from Archibald Taylor who was at Salem waiting 
for an opportunity to come up. 



150 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL. SOCIETY. 

About the beginning of January, 1775, James Whitelaw 
purchased the part of lot No. 120 of Newbury that lies on 
the North side of Wells River (which contains the great 
falls) with one-half the privilege of the river for the pur- 
pose of building milns for the company. About which time 
James Henderson begun to block out wood for building 
them. 

On the first of February, Archibald Taylor and his fam- 
ily arrived here and took possession of Lot No. 113. 

About the 16th of April John Scot came here and took 
possession of Lots No. 18, 19 & 20. 

About the middle of August we raised the frames of 
the grist miln and first frame house in the town, and about 
the beginning of October we raised the saw miln, and on the 
28th of Oct. we set the grist miln agoing. 

On the 14th of May, 1776, we met in order to choose 
military officers for the town, when we chose James Hender- 
son Capt. Robert Brock, Lt. Capt., and Bartholomew Sum- 
mers, Ensign. 

The third Tuesday of May being appointed for the 
yearly town meeting for choosing the necessary officers for 
the town, John Gray and James Whitelaw were chosen for 
assessors ; Andrew Brock treasurer ; Robert Tweedale and 
John Orr overseers of the highway ; Patrick Long and John 
Shaw overseers of the poor; John Scot, Collector, and 
Archibald Taylor, James Smith, William Neilson and David 
Reid, constables. 

About this time James Whitelaw took possession of lots 
No. 114th, 115, 116 and 117, and James Henderson 



JAMES WHITELAW. 151 

of Lots No. 118, 119, 120, and John Waddle of lot 121, and 
Thomas McKeach of lot 122. 

On the first of July upon the alarm coming of St. Johns 
being retaken by the Regulars, and that Indians would 
be sent through to lay waste the Country, all the people of 
Ryegate moved down to Newbury, where they had more 
company and foolishly thought there was less danger, but 
after staying there about ten days, and seeing no appearance 
of danger, they all returned to their respective houses. 

A few days after this we set the saw miln agoing, which 
answers her end very well. 

Nothing more happened worthy of notice till the 9th of 
Jan., 1777, when James Henderson was married to Agnes \^ 
Sym and on the 17th of the same month Robert Brock was 
also married to Elizabeth Stewart, which were the two first 
marriages which ever was in Ryegate. 

Tuesday, May the 20th, being the day appointed for 
the annual town meeting for choosing officers, &c, the 
same persons who were chosen last year, both for civil and 
military officers were all unanimously rechosen for another 
year. 

Thursday, June 12th, the inhabitants all met in order 
to choose their house lots in the town spot when Walter 
Brock made choice of lot No. 357, John Orr of No. 356, Rob- 
ert Orr of No. 355 for himself, and Nos. 353 and 354 for 
William Blackwood, John Gray of 319 for himself, and No. 
320 for John Barr, John Wilson of Nos. 2, 3, 4, 321, 322, 
323, John Scott of Nos. 276, 277, 278, Andrew Brock of 
Nos. 349, 350, 351, 352, Robert Brock of Nos. 75, 76, 77, 



152 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

78, Alexander Sym of Nos. 347, 348, John Shaw of Nos. 
196, 197 for himself, and Nos. 198, 199, 200, 201 for William 
Warden, and Nos. 202, 203, 204, 205 for James Laird, 
James Neilson of Nos. 273 and 274, William Neilson of Nos. 
265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, Patrick Lang of Nos. 
260, 261, 262, 263, and for Wm. Craig 264, 291, 292, 293, 
David Reid of Nos. 289, 290, James Smith of Nos. 286, 287, 
288, for himself, and No. 285 for John Gray, Robert Tv/eed- 
ale of Nos. 281, 282, 283 & 284, Hugh Gemmil of Nos. 279 
and 280, for his father, Archibald Taylor, of No. 206, James 
Whitelaw of Nos. 207, 208, 209, 210, James Henderson of 
Nos. 211, 212, 213, and John Waddle of No. 214. 
\yS Friday, the 13th of June, this day John Gray is to be 
married to Jean McFarlan. 

On Thursday, the 2nd of Aprile, 1778, the inhabitants 
met in order to choose selectmen, and other officers, when 
James Whitelaw was chosen town dark, John Shaw, Patrick 
Lang and Alex. Sym, Selectmen, John Wilson and 
Robert Orr, Constables, John Gray and James Henderson, 
assessors, Walter Brock and John Hyndman, surveyors of 
highways, William Neilson and Robert Summers, fence 
viewers, and Bartholomew Summers, Lieutenant. 

On Tuesday, May 18th, 1779, the inhabitants met and 
chose James Whitelaw, town dark, James Henderson, Rob- 
ert Brock and William Neilson, Selectmen, John Hyndman 
and John Gray, surveyors of highways, Bartholomew Sum- 
mers and John Orr, constables. 

On the 17th of May the inhabitants of Ryegate met in 
order to Choose their Town officers, when they appointed 



JAMES WHITELAW. 153 

Robert Brock Town Cleark, John Gray, John Scot and John 
Hyndman selectmen, James Henderson and Andrew Brock, 
surveyors of highways. 

The inhabitants of Ryegate having met in order to 
consult of some method of finishing the house and barn, 
and for Clearing up what is cut down, and not finished in 
the Common, and putting the same under improvement, 
and having Considered of the same, Concluded that the best 
way was to let some person finish the same and have the 
use of the whole Common for such a number of years as 
he and they could agree upon for his pay, when John 
Scot offered to finish the clearing of what was cut down and 
put the same under improvement, and likewise to board 
the sides and cover the roof of the barn and lay a good 
floor in it and also to finish the house in a good and sufficient 
manner and make a Cellar under the whole of it, and to keep 
the fences in repair at his own cost for ten years' use of the 
Common, viz. : from the first of May, 1780 to the first of 
May, 1790, and in Case the Company in Scotland wanted 
the use of it sooner, they were to have it on paying him 
what cost he had been at, and if any of the Company here 
that had their house lots in the Clear land, wanted to take 
them up before the expiration of the foresaid ten years, 
they are to Clear as much land in any other place of the 
Common where the said John Scot shall choose or satisfy 
him any other way that they can agree. 

1 June 1783, Thomas Clark took possession of lots No. 
81, 82, 83 and 84, and John Young of No. 85. 
10 



154 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Ryegate, March 26, 1793. 

The members of the Scotch American Company residing 
in this town, being legally warned, met and made choice 
of William Neilson, James Henderson and Hugh Gardner 
for managers, then Voted that James Whitelaw, who now 
holds the Deeds of the Company's land shall deed it to 
the managers and their sucessors in office. 

(Here follows, on pages 68 to 72 of the original manu- 
script the "Rate Bill for the halfpenny tax for the Township 
of Ryegate to be paid into the State treasury by the first 
of April, 1794," and it has been thought best to print only 
the names of the land-owners and to omit the numbers of 
their lots, the acres and the amount of the tax. The names 
of the land-owners are as follows) : 



SOUTH DIVISION. 



David Reid. 
Joshua Hunt. 
Hugh Gemmil. 
Joseph Smith. 
George Ronald. 
Wm. Neilson. 
Jas. Neilson. 
Esq. S. Heaths. 
Nich. Chamberlin. 
Jesse Heath. 
Daniel Heath. 
John S. Bay ley. 
Wm. Johnson. 
E. Johnson &c. 
Widow & J. Taylor. 
James Whitelaw. 
Robt. Brock. 
Jas. Henderson. 
Benj. Wright. 
John Wallace. 



Josiah Page. 
John Goodwin. 
Campbell Sym. 
Thos. Johnson. 
Andrew Brock. 
Hugh Gardner. 
Jas. McKinley. 
John Gray. 
John Orr. 
John Remick. 
Alexr. Millar. 
John Ritchie. 
William Craig. 
Allen Stewart. 
William Harvey. 
Alexr. Ewen. 
Scotch American Coy, 
John Cameron. 
John C. Jones. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 155 



NORTH DIVISION. 



John Witherspoon. John Tomas. 

John Pagan. Josiah Page. 

John Church. Nathan B. Page. 

John Gray. John Buchanan. 

Caml. Sym. Alexr. Simpson. 

(To the rate bill above mentioned is attached the fol- 
lowing certificate), viz: 

The preceding is the rate bill for the halfpenny tax 
agreeable to the Act granting said tax passed by the Legis- 
lature of the State of Vermont at their session at Wind- 
sor in Oct., 1791. 

JOSIAH PAGE, ) 

JAMES WHITELAW, [ * electmen - 

The preceding is a true copy. 

Attest: JAMES WHITELAW, T. C. 



(On pages 73, 74, 75 and 76 of the diary are the fol- 
lowing entries), viz: 

LAND UNDER MY CARE. 

The land belonging to Franklin and Robinson N. 
York. 



The land belonging to Mr. Alexr. Ewen of Portsmouth. 



The lands belonging to Jeremiah Harris Junr., Nor- 
wich, Connecticut. 



The right of Benjn. Libbee in Ryegate belonging to 
David Todd of Suffield, Connecticut. 



156 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The right of Lyman Potter in Groton. 



The lands in Victory that Jesse Gilbert has put under 
my care. 



The lands belonging to Capt. James Rogers in Con- 
cord, East Haven, Averill, Burke, Caldersburgh, Calais, 
Woodbury, Montpelier and Walden. 



The lands belonging to Jonathan W. Edwards of Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, in the towns of East Haven and Mont- 
gomery. 



The lands of John Titus of Greenwich in the County of 
Fairfield, Connecticut. 



The lands of Daniel Marsh in Caldersburgh being the 
rights of Samuel Burr and half the right of Henry White. 



The lands of William Douglass in the State of New 
York being the rights of Nathaniel Bartlett and Gordon 
Merchant in Averill — the rights of Asa Douglass, Jr., & 
Nathl. Douglass, Jr., in Groton — and the right of Wheeler 
Douglass in Easthaven. 



The lands in Newark belonging to John Moriarty of 
Salem, Massachusetts being his own rights and the rights 
of David Ferguson. 



The lands in St. Johnsbury belonging to Thomas Denny 
put under my care by Col. John Hurd. 



JAMES WHITELAW. 157 

The right of Israel Noble in Minehead belonging to 
Isaac Beers in Newhaven. 



The lands belonging to John W. Blake of Brattleboro 
in the towns of Mansfield, Brunswick and Minehead and in 
Averys gore now Huntington. 



The lands belonging to James A. Wells of Hartford in 
the towns of Caldersburgh and Warren. 



The lands belonging to Chauncey Goodrich of Hart- 
ford, in the township of Caldersburgh. 



The lands in Ryegate belonging to Nathaniel Adams 
of Portsmouth being lots No. 7, 8 & 16 in the 1st Range, 
No. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12 & 17 in the 2nd Range, No. 7, 9, 17 in 
the 3d Range, No. 8, 13, 16 in the 4th Range and No. 15 
in the 5th Range North Division. 



George Grenville Benedict. 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 



George Grenville Benedict, for 54 years connected with 
the Burlington Free Press and for 40 years its editor-in- 
chief, died in Camden, S. C, at 12:45 o'clock Monday 
morning, April 8, 1907. 

On February 4 Mr. and Mrs. Benedict left Burlington, 
with the intention of passing the balance of the winter and 
the early spring in the South, Miami, Fla., being their ob- 
jective point. In St. Augustine, where they stopped with 
the intention of remaining a few days, Mr. Benedict suffered 
on February 11 a serious attack of heart failure, being un- 
conscious for an hour. He rallied from the attack and 
seemed to gain in strength, although slowly. The trip to 
Miami was abandoned and Mr. and Mrs. Benedict remained 
in St. Augustine until April 1, when they started North 
stopping first in Savannah, Ga., and reaching Camden Thurs- 
day, April 4. A letter written by Mr. Benedict the follow- 
ing day was received in Burlington Monday morning, a 
few hours before the telegram came announcing his death. 
In the letter Mr. Benedict said that he stood the journey 
well, but the final summons came very suddenly from an- 
other attack of heart failure. 

Mr. Benedict was born in Burlington December 10, 
1826, a direct descendant of Lieut. Thomas Benedict, who 
came from Nottinghamshire, England, to America in 1638. 
He prepared for college in the Burlington Academy, grad- 



162 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

uated from the University of Vermont in 1847 and three 
years later received from the same institution the degree 
of master of arts. After leaving college he was a teacher 
in the Washington Institute in New York City for about a 
year, and for the three years following was occupied in 
building and superintending the lines of the Vermont & 
Boston Telegraph Company, of which company he was 
president from i860 to 1865. 

In August, 1862, Mr. Benedict enlisted as a private in 
Company C, 12th regiment of Vermont volunteers. In 
January following he was promoted to a lieutenancy and 
was subsequently detailed as aide-de-camp on the staff of 
Gen. George J. Stannard, commanding the second Vermont 
brigade. He received a medal of honor, awarded by Con- 
gress for distinguished conduct in the battle of Gettysburg, 
July 3, 1863. He was mustered out of service July 14, 
1863. He later served as assistant inspector-general of the 
State militia, with the rank of major, and in 1866 was aide- 
de-camp on the staff of Governor Paul Dillingham, with the 
rank of colonel. A close student of army matters and a 
graceful writer, Mr. Benedict was in 1878 appointed State 
military historian, in which capacity he prepared the history 
of "Vermont in the Civil War," in two volumes. He also 
published "Vermont at Gettysburg" and a volume of army 
letters entitled "Army Life in Virginia." 

Mr. Benedict's interest in the University of Vermont 
was active and unceasing from the years when he was a 
student there. His father was for 23 years a professor, 
while three of his brothers, a son and several nephews were 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 163 

students at different times. For 40 years Mr. Benedict has 
been a trustee and secretary of the institution and for a 
long time one of the executive committee. 

In politics Mr. Benedict was always a staunch repub- 
lican. He served at different times as secretary and chair- 
man of the State committee of his party and was a dele- 
gate to various State and national conventions. He was 
postmaster of Burlington 1861-65. In 1869 he was elected 
State senator from Chittenden County and was re-elected 
the following year. For the next four years he was for the 
second time postmaster of Burlington and from 1889 to 
1893 was collector of customs for the district of Vermont. 
In non-political offices he at different times was President 
of the Vermont Press Association, president of the Vermont 
Historical Society, president of the Vermont Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, governor of the Vermont 
Society of Colonial Wars and was a member of. the Grand 
Army of the Republic and of the Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion. He was a devoted member and for a long 
term of years clerk of the College Street Congregational 
Church, a corporator of the Burlington Savings Bank and 
a director of the National Life Insurance Company of Mont- 
pelier. 

Mr. Benedict became associated with his father in the 
management of the Free Press in 1853 and 13 years later, 
in 1866, took up the duties of editor-in-chief, a position 
which he held at the time of his death, being the dean of 
Vermont journalism. 



164 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Benedict was twice married, his first wife being 
Mary A. Kellogg of Canaan, N. Y. She died in 1857, 
leaving a daughter, Mary. In 1864 Mr. Benedict married 
Katharine A. Pease. She survives him, together with a 
son, Prof. George Wyllis Benedict of Providence, R. I. 
Two brothers, Robert D. and B. Lincoln, reside in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 



PRESIDENT BUCKHAM'S TRIBUTE. 

The funeral of the late George Grenville Benedict was 
held at the College Street Congregational Church at 2:30 
o'clock Thursday afternoon, being preceded by a brief 
service at his long-time home on South Prospect Street. 
The church was filled with friends from all walks of life and 
at no funeral ever held in Burlington have there been more 
societies and organizations from all parts of the State rep- 
resented. Many places of business were closed and Chit- 
tenden County Court took a recess from two to four o'clock. 

The honorary bearers were ex-Gov. U. A. Woodbury, 
J. A. DeBoer of Montpelier, Charles E. Allen, C. W. Wood- 
house, Prof. J. E. Goodrich, United States Senator W. P. 
Dillingham, C. P. Smith, D. W. Robinson, H. W. Allen and 
ex-Gov. J. L. Barstow, all long-time friends and many rep- 
resenting some of the organizations to which Mr. Benedict 
belonged. The body bearers were members of the Free 
Press editorial staff and heads of departments who have 
been connected with the establishment for many years, as 
follows : Business Manager W. B. Howe, J. L. Southwick, 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 165 

W. J. Bigelow and W. B. Gates from the editorial rooms ; 
Cashier W. H. Murdock; A. H. Duhamel, foreman of the 
news room; J. B. Turcot, foreman of the press room; and 
C. R. Kent, foreman of the job department. 

As a part of the funeral service the following tribute 
to Mr. Benedict was paid by President M. H. Buckham of 
the University of Vermont : 

One of the most expressive emblems of the havoc 
wrought by mortality in our human experience is the pros- 
trate pillar — not the broken column — if the words will bear 
the distinction — not individual eminence fallen and in ruins 
— but the social pillar, removed from its firm footing on 
the foundations, and bereaving the mass above of its sup- 
porting strength. When the tidings come to us of the pass- 
ing of such a man as Mr. Benedict, the first thought is one 
of personal loss — of friendship sundered — of a great gap 
in our family and neighborhood intimacies and affections. 
The wrench thus made, the pain it brings, the soreness it 
leaves, is in a good degree a measure of the worth of a 
man to those who loved him and whom he has loved. And 
the sorrow and sense of loss when such a man goes out from 
among us, is by no means mitigated — it may even be en- 
hanced — by the consideration that he has lived out a long 
and full life, has brought his powers to their ripest maturity, 
has finished his work, and earned his right to be released 
into the higher sphere where the rewards of a good life 
are awaiting him. But this heavy price we pay for our 
priceless human affections is not the ultimate tribute we 
give to the worth of such a life as that of the man we mourn 



166 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to-day. The sense of social deprivation, the withdrawal of 
powers and resources on which the community relied for its 
highest well-being, this most truly expresses our valuation 
of a good man's services to our common life. That is a 
grossly unjust figure, the product surely of a dull imagina- 
tion, and an ungrateful heart, which likens the life of a 
single individual, however great and good, to a something 
floating on the sea for a brief minute, then to be swallowed 
up and forgotten as though it had never been. Rather is 
a good life like the once firm pillar, which, shaken out of 
its place, leaves the heavy load to be carried by the rest of 
the cluster, the whole fabric weakened and imperilled, un- 
til another pillar equally strong, if that may be, is slowly 
built into its place. The tribute we pay to Mr. Benedict 
to-day is not so much that in the past we have admired and 
loved him, as that in the future we shall miss him, and long 
and sorely miss him. We shall miss the editor; the his- 
torian; the clear-headed and farsighted citizen of the city, 
the State and the nation; the devoted Christian; the ex- 
emplary and honorable man in all the walks of life. 

As a public man Mr. Benedict was more than anything 
else, the publisher of a newspaper. In our times the news- 
paper has come to be one of the elemental and all pervasive 
forces of our civilization. For good or for evil, it has come 
to be a power second to none in our social, political and 
moral life. When on the right side of public questions it 
is a force more than competent to deal with all opposing 
forces, when on the wrong side, it is a menace to every 
good cause and every sound institution. What can you ex- 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 167 

pect of a certain city, it is shrewdly said, when its morn- 
ing papers make vice attractive and its evening papers 
make virtue odious? Happy the city, happy the 
State, whose newspaper press does its utmost to make 
vice odious and virtue attractive! I count among the chief 
influences that have made Burlington the city it is, a city 
in which the prevailing influences favor morality and every- 
thing that is good between man and man, that for more 
than 50 years past, the leading newspaper has invariably 
and persistently and bravely stood against what its editorial 
conscience thought to be evil and in favor of what it thought 
to be right, "uncaring consequences." Father and son were 
equally resolute on this point. Woe to the evil that dared 
to lift its head in this community while George W. Benedict 
was in the editorial chair. With swift and crushing stroke 
he smote it to its hurt and often to its death. With gentler 
and defter and not less effective work, the son has made 
the paper such that he was proud to see it rank among the 
best 100 papers in the United States. And may I add as a per- 
sonal tribute, that I have sometimes trembled at the thought 
of the evil that might have been done in a university town, 
with its schools, public and private, if the newspaper that 
everybody reads, old and young, had sympathized with the 
baser side of life, had sneered at religion, had frowned upon 
temperance, had sold its columns to advertisers of im- 
morality; whereas we have had occasion for rejoicing and 
giving thanks r that whether or not we all agreed with its 
politics we were always sure that its moral influence was 
safeguarded by a man of the finest spiritual temper and the 



168 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

highest ideals of public and private virtue. We were sure 
too that its endeavors were correct, not only in good morals, 
but in good literature, good history, good English, good 
taste. Mr. Benedict's supreme faculty as editor was in 
his ability to take a subject on which other men had written 
"about it and about it," and had so confused and muddled 
it that the right of it was hopelessly obscured, and in the 
course of a column and a half so to clear it up and settle it, 
that there was no more to be said and no more 
was said. And the secret of this was that along 
with intellectual keenness and good logical sense there 
was in Mr. Benedict that passion for lucidity, that 
impatience with everything tortuous and evasive, that 
marks the man of sound moral discernment. The pure in 
heart not only see God because they are pure in heart, they 
see all truth with clearer vision. 

Of Mr. Benedict's military career others will doubtless 
speak as only comrades can speak, and as ampler time will 
permit. Some of us can remember when the days were 
darkest, and the strain grew to be more tense than young 
hearts could bear, how Mr. Benedict enlisted as a private, 
spent his evenings drilling with Captain Page's company, 
left home and office for the front with no hope or thought 
of promotion, received a commission as lieutenant and aide- 
de-camp on the staff of the Second Vermont Brigade, 
served with distinction on General Stannard's staff, at the 
Battle of Gettysburg, survived the perils of field and camp, 
and returned to serve and honor still further his State and 
country by writing the "History of Vermont in the Civil 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 169 

War," one of the best — it has been called the very best — 
of the State histories of the war, a work through which 
posterity will know how glorious a part Vermont acted in 
that great drama for freedom and right. 

Of the other relations in which Mr. Benedict stood to 
the community, I shall speak of only two — and of those 
two because they are those of which, if of any, he would 
have wished me to speak. First, as to his connection with 
the university. It was to be a professor in the university 
that his father came to Burlington, and of that father four 
sons and four grandsons have been among its graduates — 
a university family of three generations. President Eliot 
has said that a large part of the success of Harvard Univer- 
sity is due to the fact that a sufficient number of capable 
men can be always found, residing within easy distance from 
the university, who are willing to give without pay their 
time and their best of service in the capacity of trustees, to 
the work of carrying on the institution. To this class of 
men belonged Mr. Benedict. For 42 years he has been a 
trustee of the university and the secretary of the board of 
trustees. He has been the intimate and confidential adviser 
of two presidents, both of whom, I may confidently say, 
would testify that the university owes to him a large part 
of any successes which have come to the institution during 
their administrations, and for which both they, and the uni- 
versity, and all its friends and well-wishers owe him ever- 
lasting gratitude. But it was to him all a labor of love and 
nothing for reward. All the mo"re for that reason will we 

11 



f70 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL, SOCIETY. 

enshrine his memory in our hearts and teach our successors 
and our children to remember him among those whom the 
university will always delight to honor. 

And lastly I would speak a brief word of his member- 
ship in the church which meets for public worship in the 
house where we are assembled. I have never known a man 
— I believe few men exist anywhere — to whom their church 
means more, is more dear and precious than this church has 
been to Mr. Benedict. Outside of his own family, I think 
it may be said that here was where he garnered up his heart. 
I mean, of course, not only this particular body of com- 
municants and worshippers, though he did with a special 
Christian affection love these very men and women, but 
what this church stands for and represents and tries to live 
out, of Christian truth and piety. He was one of the 
original members of the church, was for many years its 
clerk, and undoubtedly knew personally more of its mem- 
bers, living and dead, than any pastor or officer the church 
has had. He was constant in his attendance upon both the 
Lord's day and weekly services and often contributed in his 
delightful way to the uplifting and edification of his fellow- 
members. He did not profoundly study the new questions 
which modern research has spread out before the Christian 
Church, but he had an open mind and welcomed every new 
truth which brought with it reasons for faith or help to ex- 
perience. But he clung mainly to the essential and un- 
changeable truths, to the things that remain because they 
cannot be shaken. Not to overdo the figure of the pillar 
removed from its place, this audience room will never be 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 171 

quite what it has been now that we see no more his erect 
and military figure on which his 80 years had imposed no 
stoop — and church meetings will not be the same now that 
we must miss his strong support of every good thing ma- 
terial and spiritual for which this church and every church 
stands. 

Fellow citizens of Burlington, of Vermont; friends of 
Mr. Benedict, neighbors, comrades, life-long readers, you 
who have been associated with him in politics, in business, 
in the care of the university; you, brethren of his college 
fraternity, have I said too much in his praise ? Have I said 
half enough ? By gifts and opportunities Divine Providence 
laid upon him great obligations. He gave him good an- 
cestry, health, education, religious nurture, family friends, 
a versatile and well-balanced mind, openings into almost any 
career he might choose. Variously endowed, he was a man 
of many accomplishments and of manifold virtues. The fruit- 
age of all these gifts, all these attainments, he has bestowed 
upon the community, upon us. He was not a self-seeking 
man. He turned to his own personal account only a very 
small share of all that he was capable of being and doing. 
Take him for all in all, he was a man in respect of whom 
our long remembrance and our lasting thought will be that 
God has crowned all His many other gifts to our community 
by giving to us such a man as George Grenville Benedict. 



172 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

MR. SOUTHWICK'S TRIBUTE. 

The following appeared as an editorial in the Free 
Press of April 9th, and was written by J. L. Southwick of 
the editorial staff: 

While the death of the Hon. George Grenville Benedict 
comes as a distinct shock to this whole community, his 
loss will be so felt nowhere outside of the immediate fam- 
ily circle as on the staff of the journal with which his name 
had been inseparably associated for over half a century. The 
recent announcement of serious inroads on his health, com- 
bined with his advanced age, had prepared his associates 
in newspaper work for his practical retirement from active 
service, but they had hoped that with the return of milder 
weather they might still enjoy the benign influence of 
his presence as sage, counsellor, friend. Recent letters 
written by him, one of which came to this office on the 
morning of his death, had spoken of his constantly im- 
proving condition, and his staff, as the members of one 
family, were looking forward to the time when they could 
welcome him back to the city he so dearly loved. He 
passed away, however, as he had hoped, suddenly and with- 
out a long period of helplessness, and he closed his event- 
ful life rich in years and honors. 

A comprehensive sketch of the life and public service 
of Mr. Benedict is printed elsewhere, but it is fitting that 
we should speak of those charming qualities of person which 
s he possessed to an abundant degree, and which are made so 
manifest nowhere outside of the home life perhaps as among 
associates in the conduct of a daily journal. The newspa- 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 173 

per is constantly coming into contact with all phases and 
conditions of life, and the manifold problems and trials 
presenting themselves are well calculated to bring out every 
side of a man's character. Amid conditions like these Mr. 
Benedict ever remained the same kindly and genial gentle- 
man of the old school, inflexible in his insistence on the 
carrying out of the high standards he set for his newspaper. 
He was sturdy in his advocacy of what he believed to be 
right, fearless in his championship of any cause he espoused, 
utterly unmindful of consequences, in his battle for truth, 
good government, right living, morality, and religion. 

It is only a few months since in commemorating the 
observance of Mr. Benedict's eightieth anniversary the 
members of his newspaper staff in common with other 
fellow townsmen paid him a marked tribute of their respect 
and esteem. Few know better than the editor the prone- 
ness of human nature to err, and while Mr. Benedict was 
quick to detect infractions of the rules he sought to enforce, 
he was invariably the patient monitor, constantly endearing 
himself to subordinates and thus increasing their desire to 
please him and at the same time attain to the lofty standards 
he ever held before them. Wherever he might be, in sick- 
ness or in health, at home or abroad, his thoughts were 
daily with his paper, and this interest in the progress and 
welfare of the Free Press was kept up to the very day of 
his death. 

Mr. Benedict was a versatile and many-sided man. He 
loved art. He was an excellent musical and dramatic critic. 
He was a thorough student of affairs. His letters of travel 



174 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

were the delight of all who read them. He possessed what 
may be termed the historical instinct to a degree that falls 
to the lot of few men ; and the entire State of Vermont is 
the gainer thereby. Not only in the press but also through 
his books, historical papers, pamphlets and other writings 
he helped to preserve the records of many events in the 
Green Mountain State's history which would otherwise have 
been lost or left in form or condition unavailable for library 
reference or student research. His history of "Vermont in 
the Civil War" is regarded by good authorities as one of 
the most careful, comprehensive and well written military 
works of the kind possessed by any State. His long con- 
tinued and efficient work in connection with the Vermont 
Historical Society, of which he was long president, is known 
wherever lives a Vermonter. His love of the historical led 
him to bring down to date and prepare for publication Gil- 
man's Bibliography of Vermont, which is invaluable for the 
newspaper office, the historical student and others who need 
to consult a complete list of books, newspapers, magazines 
and pamphlets printed in Vermont since the founding of 
the State. 

Mr. Benedict pursued some elusive historical fact or 
missing point with all the ardor of the huntsman and the 
patience of the angler combined, sparing neither time nor 
effort to clear up the matter ; and if his wearisome research 
was rewarded and the record in hand thus made complete, 
his satisfaction was a joy to behold. It was this inability 
to take any important fact for granted that accounts for 
the wonderful accuracy of Mr. Benedict's historical writings. 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 175 

It was his love of accuracy which led him to rewrite whole 
chapters of his military history, when those to whom he 
had written for facts about certain points neglected to 
reply until he had the first volume of the work practically 
completed. It was this accuracy which made him the ex- 
emplar of reliable newspaper writers and the terror of 
the shiftless reporter, and rendered it so difficult to meet 
his ideal of what the daily chronicle should be — a faithful 
record of all important events and a reliable reflex of all 
momentous currents of the day. 

Mr. Benedict not only wrote history ; he also helped 
to make history. For half a century he was a participant 
in some of Vermont's most important councils, and his 
voice and pen helped to shape some of the State's most 
far reaching policies and measures. Whether as legislator, 
or as delegate to national or State convention, or as member 
of civic or military organization, or as a private citizen work- 
ing for public welfare, he was ever thorough, ever alert, 
ever watchful for the right and when he had once satisfied 
himself on this point there was no shadow of turning, but 
constant struggle to promote the right. 

Mr. Benedict loved Vermont. It would be difficult to 
find a more zealous or loyal Vermonter than was he, at all 
times. He was proud of the Green Mountain Boys' strug- 
gle for liberty, and of the existence of Vermont for a brief 
period as a veritable republic, with its own government and 
public service complete. He gave his country the same de- 
voted support, and when secession threatened the existence 
of the nation, he was prompt to respond to the call of 



176 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the Union, doing loyal as well as efficient service for the 
cause of freedom. His interest in all military matters kept 
pace with his patriotism and his love for his fellow soldiers 
continued unabated to the end. 

Mr. Benedict loved Burlington. He was never tired 
of singing the praises of the city he did so much to help 
develop, and he was fond of quoting praises of our proud 
position on Lake Champlain. He gloried in our educational 
progress, in which he was so conspicuous a figure, and in 
our institutions. His interest in the University of Ver- 
mont was absorbing, and his love for his alma mater was 
only second to that for his newspaper. He liked to watch 
the city's growth and expansion. But above all he loved the 
people of Burlington. He was interested in their welfare 
and health and prosperity and if any resident was afflicted 
in any of these respects, none was more solicitous than he. 
All Burlington was his home. 

But while Mr. Benedict stood conspicuous as citizen, 
soldier, legislator, educator, historian, Christian gentleman, 
he was best known in his capacity as a gifted and versatile 
editor. Much of his public service was performed during 
a generation now passed away, but he continued his work 
as editor-in-chief up to the very last. His are the traditions 
which the Free Press is trying to exemplify to-day. 
His are the policies that still live though he has passed out 
from among us. No one better knew than he the ethics 
of journalism. No one could stand for more lofty ideals; 
none strive more zealously to attain the ideal. Though he 
has left us, his ideals and lofty standards remain and so long 



GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT. 177 

as the Free Press is true to the traditions he so firmly 
established, it will be true to its own best interests and those 
of the community he loved. 



APPENDIX A. 
report of the board of managers. 

Montpelier, Vermont, Oct. 16, 1906. 

Hon. G. G. Benedict, President: 

The Board of Managers, consisting of the officers of 
the Society, respectfully submit the following report : 

The Society has lost by death since our last report the 
following members : Henry Ballard, of Burlington, dis- 
tinguished member of the Chittenden County Bar; Charles 
M. Bliss, of Bennington, identified with the origin of the 
Bennington Battle Monument; Wilder L. Burnap, of Bur- 
lington, lawyer, scholar and gentleman; Charles Dewey, of 
Montpelier, financier; Dwight H. Kelton, of Montpelier, a 
loyal citizen of the state; Dr. William N. Piatt, of Shore- 
ham, trustee of the State Asylum ; and Arthur Ropes, of 
Montpelier, learned writer and editor. Brief biographical 
sketches of these men have been prepared and will form 
part of the Proceedings of the present meeting. 

The Librarian of the Society, Edward M. Goddard, 
has made numerous effective changes in the public presenta- 
tion of its collections, to which your special attention is di- 
rected, but it is very evident that lack of room and a marked 
want of working facilities continue to greatly hamper the 
progress of the Society, as has been pointed out over 
and over again. The fact that the State of Vermont, 
by law and by the agreement of this Society, holds 
an irrevocable reversionary interest in all of its prop- 
erty should be sufficient reason for a more decided 
support and provision for its well-being and extension 



APPENDIX. 179 

by the State, apart from the much more cogent reason 
that the Society, which now includes the leading citizens of 
the State among its membership, is devoted to the conserva- 
tion of its material, agricultural, industrial, civic, political, 
literary, ecclesiastical and military history. 

The program for the public exercises on the evening 
of November 9th, in the Hall of the House of Representa- 
tives, will include a brief introductory address by the Presi- 
dent and an address by Judge Wendell Phillips Stafford of 
the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, Washing- 
ton, D. C, formerly of St. Johnsbury, on "The Life and 
Services of Thaddeus Stevens, Statesman and Reformer," 
and a paper by Professor George Henry Perkins of Bur- 
lington on "Prehistoric Vermont and Relics and Evidences 
of Early Occupation by Indian Tribes." 

There will be presented to the Society at this meeting 
a considerable list of applications for membership, all of 
which applicants have had due consideration and are rec- 
ommended for election. 

It is pleasant to record, also, the fact that the Vermont 
Association of Boston has seen fit this year to include in its 
itinerary to the home State participation in the public exer- 
cises of the Vermont Historical Society. 

It is a matter of the utmost satisfaction to report that 
interest in the objects of our Society continues to increase. 
We earnestly urge upon our members that they lend their 
influence to the utmost extent in furtherance of its purpose 
and especially to the securement in their respective cities and 
towns, if not already existing, of adequate, up-to-date local 
histories, in order that a true record of events and of men 
may not be lost through local neglect. The present time is 



180 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

especially auspicious and opportune for the preservation of 
much, — in some cases, of practically everything — relating to 
the origin and history of Vermont towns. It is entirely 
reasonable to urge that such records deserve the attention of 
the localities to which they appertain, and that individuals, 
public-spirited and otherwise interested in general affairs, 
apart from themselves merely, should make it their specific 
duty to obtain a positive action in this regard. 

We also respectfully suggest that any member of the 
Society who has the time and inclination would perform a 
distinct service by preparing an index to the Hemenway 
Gazetteer, which work, while full of useful information, 
loses much of its value because it lacks suck accessible and 
ready index of its contents. 

The charter of the Society, dating back to 1838, was 
amended December 9, 1904, by the General Assembly of 
this State, authorizing it, among its other rights, to accept 
"property loaned or committed to it on trust or on con- 
dition." Acting under this grant of power r your officers 
have undertaken the deed of trust described in the following 
correspondence : 

"deed oe trust." 

"Whereas in 1899 the Dewey Monument Committee 
composed of Everett C. Benton, of Waverley, Mass. ; James 
T. Phelps, of Boston, Mass. ; Levi P. Morton, of Xew York 
City; John M. Thurston, of Nebraska; Wallace F. Robin- 
son, of Boston, Mass. ; Joseph W. Babcock, of Wisconsin ; 
John B. Corliss, of Michigan ; Rome G. Brown, of Minne- 
apolis, Minn. ; L. L. Coburn, of Chicago ; and Stephen A. 
Foster, of Chicago, was organized with the object of se- 
curing and presenting to the State of Vermont a monument 
to commemorate Admiral Dewey's victory at Manila, such 



APPENDIX. 181 

purpose being set forth more fully in the circular letter 
used by said Committee in collecting funds, as follows : 

" 'At the porch leading to the State House at Mont- 
pelier there is now a very appropriate and striking statue 
of Ethan Allen, commemorating his heroic deeds. It is now 
proposed that the natives of Vermont who have by the for- 
tunes of time chosen other sections of the country in which 
to reside erect a statue recognizing the brave and worthy 
acts of one of their number who has brought great honor, 
not only to the State and Nation, but to humanity in gen- 
eral. As a slight token of such appreciation they wish to 
present to the dear old State a fitting memorial of Admiral 
George Dewey. When this is done future generations will 
observe that on the left Ethan Allen, denoting strength, and 
the one on the right George Dewey, to establish. To- 
gether they will always be a reminder of God's promise that 
in strength would be establish his Kingdom. 

" 'It is desirable that this be done by a general con- 
tribution from all Vermonters now resident outside of the 
State, and the Committee solicits from you a cash sub- 
scription, as your means may permit, of from $1.00 to 
$io.oo.' 

"And Whereas said Committee has collected and 
now has in its possession the sum of $2,524.18, which 
amount is considered insufficient for carrying out the ob- 
ject in view, and the contributors of the small amounts 
making up said sum desire so far as can be learned that the 
money collected be in some manner devoted to the purpose 
originally contemplated, 

"Now Therefore the members of said Committee here- 
by give, assign and transfer to the VERMONT HIS- 
TORICAL SOCIETY, a corporation organized and exist- 
ing by special charter under the laws of Vermont, and an 
organization devoted among other things to preserving 
whatever relates to the military history of the State of Ver- 
mont, the moneys collected by said Committee for the pur- 
pose aforesaid, amounting to $2,524.18, in trust and upon 
condition that the said Vermont Historical Society retain 
said fund and invest the same in such securities as it is 
permissible under the laws of Vermont for savings banks 



182 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to invest their funds until such time as such fund with its 
accretions and any additions thereto by gift or otherwise 
may in the judgment of the Board of Managers of said So- 
ciety be sufficient to erect a statue of George Dewey, the 
Admiral of the Navy, in the portico of the State Capitol at 
Montpelier, or if that be not possible or advisable at such 
place in Montpelier as said committee may determine. 

"This Deed of Trust is to become effectual and the 
moneys herein described to be paid over upon the endorse- 
ment on this Deed of Trust by the President of said Ver- 
mont Historical Society of the acceptance of said trust un- 
der authority of action of the Board of Managers of said 
Society ; and Everett C. Benton, of Waverley, Mass., and 
James T. Phelps, of Swampscott, Mass., members of said 
Committee, are hereby authorized to turn over said fund 
to the said Vermont Historical Society, and are also directed 
to deliver to said Society for preservation in its archives 
the original list of subscriptions received by said Commit- 
tee. 

"In Witness Whereof the members of said Dewey 
Monument Committee hereunto set their hands this third 
day of May, A. D. 1906. 

"Everett C. Benton 

James T. Phelps 

Levi P. Morton 

John M. Thurston 

Wallace F. Robinson 

Jno. B. Corliss 

Rome G. Brown 

L. L. Coburn 

Stephen A. Foster 

Joseph W. Babcock 

"20 Kilby St., Boston, Mass., May 10, 1906. 

"To the President and Secretary of the Vermont Historical 
Society, care of Joseph A. DeBoer, Montpelier, Vt. 

"Gentlemen : — Acting under authority of the Dewey 
Monument Committee, and in conformity with recent corre- 
spondence with Mr. DeBoer. it gives me pleasure to hand 
you a certified cheque on the United States Trust Company 



Dezcey 
Monument 
Committee.' 



APPENDIX. 183 

of Boston, transferring to your Society the sum of twenty- 
five hundred twenty- four dollars and eighteen cents — ($2,- 
524.18), with the accompanying deed of trust signed by all 
the members of the Committee, namely, Everett C. Benton, 
James T. Phelps, Levi P. Morton, John M. Thurston, Wal- 
lace F. Robinson, Jno. B. Corliss, Rome G. Brown, L. L. Co- 
burn, S. A. Foster and Joseph W. Babcock, — the said deed 
showing the history of the fund and the conditions of its 
transfer to your Society. I also hand you a statement, 
showing, so far as it is possible for the Committee to ob- 
tain, the names and addresses of subscribers. These sub- 
scribers were obtained in answer to a printed call, and were 
all voluntary, without special solicitation. 

"The total amount of money 
received from subscribers 
was $2326.35 

As moneys were received, 
they were by the Treas- 
urer deposited in the 
United States Trust Co. 
of Boston, total sum of de- 
posits amounting to.... 2326.35 

The interest allowances by 

the Bank amounted to... $303. 53 

The expense charge, which 
was limited to actual out- 
lay for printing and post- 
age, amounted to 105.70 



Leaving a gain on the Fund of. * 97-83 



Making total of $2524.18 

"If it is the pleasure of your Society, I should be glad 
to receive acknowledgment of this amount, covering the 
points mentioned in this letter, which I can hold as a dis- 
charge for the Committee of its disposal of the Fund. 

"Yours very truly, 
"Everett C. Benton, Chairman." 



184 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

We record, accordingly, not merely the acceptance of 
the aforesaid trust but further that the sum named, $2524.18, 
was deposited May 12, 1906, in the Montpelier Savings Bank 
& Trust Company under the title of the "Dewey Monument 
Fund, Vermont Historical Society," subject to the prevail- 
ing rate of interest from said date. 

We advise that said fund be now transferred by vote 
of the Society into the hands of its Treasurer and that the 
Deed of Trust and the List of Subscribers to said fund be 
passed to the Librarian for permanent care. We further 
advise that said fund be safely invested in accordance with 
the discretion of the Society's Treasurer and that the earliest 
opportune time be taken for the consummation of the pur- 
pose and intent which originally inspired the creation of this 
fund and for the effective discharge of this trust. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Jos. A. De Boer, 
Recording Secretary, for the Board of Managers. 



APPENDIX B. 

TREASURER'S REPORT, 1905-1906. 

Henry F. Field, Treasurer, in account with the Vermont 
Historical Society, ipoj-ipo6. 



Dr. 




Oct. 16, '05, To balance last reported. . . . 
To annual dues for 1904 


$435-24 


paid during the year .... 
To annual dues for 1905 


2.00 


paid during the year .... 
To annual dues for 1906 


84.00 




90.00 



APPENDIX. 185 

To annual dues for 1907 

paid in advance 6.00 

To annual dues for 1908 

paid in advance 1.00 

To membership dues Geo. 

P. Anderson for 1905. . . . 2.00 

To membership dues Francis 
M. Crosby, candidate for 
1906 2.00 

To membership dues Chas. 
W. Howard, candidate for 
1906 2.00 

To membership dues Chas. 
D. Watson, candidate for 
1906 2.00 

To membership dues Geo. 
M. Hogan, candidate for 
1906 2.00 

To interest on deposit 
with Montpelier Savings 
Bank and Trust Co. to 
July, 1905 9.14 

To interest on deposit 
with Montpelier Savings 
Bank and Trust Co., to 
July, 1906 942 



Cr. 

Oct. 20, '05, by paid J. A. DeBoer, 

Sec'y. bill for postage $ 4.61 

Nov. 21, '05, by paid Free Press 

Ass'n. bill for letter heads... 2.25 

Jan. 6, '06, by paid E. M. Goddard, 

Librarian, 3 months' salary . . 25.00 

Jan. 6, '06, by paid Argus & Patriot, 
bill, notices annual meeting, 
etc 2.75 

12 



$646.80 



186 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

April 21, by paid E. M. Goddard, 

Librarian, 3 months' salary. . 25.00 
April 21, by paid E. M. Goddard, 

Librarian, disbursements .... 6.59 
April 21, by paid Mather & Temple, 

bill material for library 10.00 

April 21, by paid Union Card Co., 

bill material for library 1.26 

April 21, by paid Pneumatic Hand 

Stamp Co., bill 1.13 

April 11, by paid E. M. Goddard, 

Librarian, 3 months' salary . . 25.00 
April 11, by paid E. M. Goddard, 

Librarian, disbursements .... 5.55 
Oct. 11, by paid E. M. Goddard, 

Librarian, 3 months' salary . . 25.00 
Oct. 18, by paid Tuttle & Co., bill 

receipt books for Treasurer. . 2.75 
Nov. 8, by paid Henry F. Field, 

Treasurer, disbursements for 

postage, 1903-1906 5.36 

$142.25 
Balance in Treasurer's hands. .504.55 



$646.80 



Rutland, Vermont, November 8, 1906. 



APPENDIX. 



187 









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188 THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

APPENDIX D. 

OFFICERS 1906-7 

President. 
GEORGE GRENVILLE BENEDICT, Burlington. 

Vice-Presidents. 
WILLIAM W. STICKNEY, Ludlow. 
FRED A. HOWLAND, Montpelier. 
H. CHARLES ROYCE, St. Albans. 

Becording Secretary. 
JOSEPH A. DE BOER, Montpelier. 

Corresponding Secretaries. 

THEODORE S. PECK, Burlington. 
CHARLES S. FORBES, St. Albans. 

Treasurer. 
HENRY F. FIELD, Rutland. 

Librarian. 
EDWARD M. GODDARD, Montpelier. 

Curators. 

EZRA BRAINERD, Addison County. 
SAMUEL B. HALL, Bennington County. 
REV. HENRY FAIRBANKS, Caledonia County. 
REV. JOHN E. GOODRICH, Chittenden County. 
PORTER H. DALE, Essex County. 
WALTER H. CROCKETT, Franklin County. 
NELSON WILBUR FISK, Grand Isle County. 
CARROLL S. PAGE, Lamoille County. 
DR. GEORGE DAVENPORT, Orange County. 
F. W. BALDWIN, Orleans County. 
PHILIP R. LEAVENWORTH, Rutland County. 
HIRAM CARLETON, Washington County. 



APPENDIX. 



189 



BERT EMERY MERRIAM, Windham County. 
GILBERT A. DAVIS, Windsor County. 
FREDERICK G. FLEETWOOD, Secretary of State, 
HORACE F. GRAHAM, Auditor of Accounts. 
GEORGE W. WING, State Librarian. 



} 



ex-offcio. 



STASDOG COMMITTEES. 

On Library. — Joseph A. De Boer, E. M. Goddard, John E. 
Goodrich. 

On Printing. — Theodore S. Peck, Fred A. Howland, Walter 
H. Crockett. 

On Finance. — Henry F. Field, Joseph A. De Boer, Fred A. 
Howland. 



APPENDIX E. 



NAMES OF REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS BURIED 
IN VERMONT. 

Compiled by Walter H. Crockett, of St. Albans, Secretary of the 
Vermont Society, Sons of the American Revolution, additional to the 
list printed in the Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society for 
1903-04. 



Addison. 

Lorain Evarts, 
Samuel Pond, 
Jacob Post, 
John Strong. 

Albany. 

Marshall Pillsbury, 
Samuel Russell, 
Ebenezer Watson. 

Alburgh. 

Ichabod Babcock, 
John Babcock. 



Andover. 

Joseph Abbott, 
Jonas Adams, 
Luther Adams, 
Peter Adams, 
Hart Balch, 
John Barton, 
David Burton, 
Jonathan Crane, 
Joseph Dodge, 
Ebenezer Farnsworth, 
David Hazleton, 
Solomon Howard, 
Daniel Knight, 
Samuel Manning, 



Jesse Parkhurst, 
Peter Putnam, 
Joseph Stickney, 
Samson Walker, 
Moses Warner. 

Arlington. 

Constant Barney. 
Ephraim Blowers, 
Israel Burritt. 
John Calkins. 
Capt. Martin Deming, 
John Gray, 
Benoni Hawkins, 
Simeon Littleneld. 



190 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Athens. 

Ezra Chaffee, 
Charles Colton, 
George Porter. 

Bakersfield. 

Aaron Barlow, 
' Joshua Barnes, 
Jonathan Farnsworth, 
Foster Paige, 
Maj. Elisha Parker. 

Baltimore. 

Seth Houghton. 

Barnard. 

Samuel Bennett, 
William Bennett, 
Hollan Blackmer, 
Jacob Boyden, 
William Buckman, 
William Chamberlin, 
Moses Davis, 
Robert Dean, 
John Foster, 
Peter Foster, 
Elisha Freeman, 
William Freeman, 
Sergt. Charles French, 
William Harlow, 
Ezra Spaulding, 
Samuel Stewart. 

Barnet. 

Levi Hall, 
Stephen Rider, 
John Waddell. 

Benson. 

Bristol Bennett, 
Rufus Ewen, 
Eli King, 
Timothy Prince. 

Berkshire. 

Arthur Danow, 
Levi Darling, 
John Perley, 



Ezekiel Pond, 
Elisba Shaw, 
Edward Whitmore. 

Berlin. 

Allen Andrews, 
Elijah Andrews, 
Daniel Hayden, 
Job Reed, 
Lemuel Stickney. 

Bethel. 

Jason Bannister, 
Moses Bragg, 
Reuben Brooks, 
Stephen Cleveland, 
Bibye Cotton, 
Amos Crain, 
Stephen Fisk, 
Joel Marsh, 
Nehemiah Noble, 
Ezra Putnam, 
Benajah Strong. 

Bloomfield. 

Adin Bartlett. 

Braintree. 

Edward Bass, 
Simeon Curtis, 
Elijah Huntington, 
Thomas Kenney, 
Matthew Pratt. 

Barre. 

Daniel Averill, 
William Farwell, 
Elisha Gale, 
Ebenezer Putnam, 
Col. Enos Walker. 



Barton. 

John Adams, 
Benoni Burnham, 
Joseph Hyde, 
John Monsam, 
Jonathan Robinson, 
Lemuel Sturtevant. 



Belvidere. 

Moses Brown, 
Eliphalet Carpenter, 
John Rosier. 

Bennington. 

David Avery, 
Caleb Austin, 
Ephraim Bowen, 
Cornelius Bracy, 
Solomon Clark, 
Charles Cushman, 
Aaron Deming, 
Jeremiah Field, 
Job Greene, 
Peter Hardwood, 
Simeon Harvey, 
David Hinman, 
Benjamin Hoadley, 
Jesse Loomis, 
Abner Noble, 
Lieut. John Noble, 
Martin Norton, 
Jonathan Robinson, 
Samuel Rockwood, 
Samuel Safford, 
Simeon Thayer, 
Isaac Tichenor, 
Col. Ebenezer Walbridge. 

Bradford. 

John Putnam, 
Arad Stebbins. 

Brandon. 

Simeon Bigelow, 
William Dodge, 
Stephen Durkee, 
Zeeb Green, 
Nathaniel Harris, 
Solomon Hinds, 
Jonathan Merriam, 
Ebenezer Squires, 
Roger Smith. 

Brattleboro. 

Elnathan Allen, 
John Carpenter, 
Stephen Greenleaf, 



APPENDIX. 



191 



Ruthford Hayes, 
Reuben King, 
George Loveland, 
Ephraim Nash, 
Asa Putnam, 
Daniel Stearns, 
Reuben Stearns. 

Bridgewater. 

Isaac Bisbee, 
George Boyce, 
Joseph Boyce, 
James Crooker, 
George Denison, 
Sergt. Sam'l Denison,' 
Daniel Dike, 
James Fletcher, 
Seth Fletcher, 
'Joseph French, 
Josiah Gibbs, 
Elisha Gilbert, 
Asa Green, 
Capt. John Hawkins, 
Asa Jones, 
Stephen Knowlton, 
Rowland Leonard, 
Amos Murdell, 
Thomas Palmer, 
Benjamin Perkins, 
Nathan Pratt, 
Eleazer Robinson, 
Phineas Sanderson, 
Beriah Smith, 
Thomas Southgate, 
Noah Thompson, 
James Topliff. 

Bridport. 

David Cory, 

Asa Hemenway, 
Jacob Hemenway, 
Samuel Hemenway, 
Phineas Kitchell, 
Sergt. Abel Rice, 
Dr. William Vaughn. 

Bristol. 

Rufus Barnard, 
Joseph Bird, 
Walcott Burnham, 



Jeriah Chamberlin, 
John Corry, 
Ebenezer Cushman, 
Robert Dunshee, 
Cyprian Eastman, 
Asahel Hall, 
Samuel Hall, 
Jeremiah Hatch, 
John D. Holly, 
Paul P. Holly, 
William Howden, 
Jeremiah Mead, 
Asaph Parmelee, 
Benjamin Plumley, 
Amos Scott, 
Abraham Vreedenburgh 
David Whitney. 

Brookline. 

Samuel Bennett, 
Eleazer Cushman, 
Luther Newcomb. 



Brookfield. 

Reuben Adams, 
Barna Bigelow, 
Experians Fisk, Jr., 
Nathan Fisk, 
Timothy Kendall, 
John Paine, 
Noah Paine. 

Brownington. 

Humphrey Nichols, 
Joel Priest, 
Isaac Smith, 
Samuel Smith. 

Brunswick. 
Simeon Wait. 

Burke. 

Seth Clark, 

Abner Coe, 

Sergt. Benj. Farner, 

Daniel Hall, 

Sergt. Isaac Martin. 



Burlington. 

Alanson Adams, 
John Adams, 
Reuben Bostwick, 
Capt. Amos Burnham, 
Daniel Castle, 
Samuel Hitchcock, 
William Kilbourne, 
John Pierce, 
Nathan Seymour. 

Cabot. 

Moses Ainsworth, 
Benjamin Andrews, 
Eliphalet Bill, 
Joseph Hoyt. 

Calais. 

Solomon Janes. 

Cambridge. 

James Campbell, 
Amos Fassett, 
John Fassett, Jr., 
Elihu Grant, 
Benjamin Griswold, 
Parker Page, 
Joel F. Perham, 
Sergt. Truman Powell. 

Canaan. 

Gilman Clough, 
Oliver Goss, 
John Hughs, 
John Weeks. 

Castleton. 

Joseph Babcock, 
William Bromley, 
William Cushman, 
Sgt. Jonathan Deming, 
Daniel Eaton, 
Preserved Kellogg, 
Daniel Lowden. 

Cavendish. 

Benjamin Adams, 
Timothy Adams, 



192 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL. SOCIETY. 



Isaac Baldwin, 
Samuel Burbank, 
Capt. John Coffeen, 
Joel Davis, 
Nathaniel Fair, 
Asaph Fletcher, 
Nehemiah Green, 
John McLane, 
Elnathan Reed, 
William Spalding, 
Samuel Stearns, 
Oliver Whitney. 

Charleston. 

John Palmer, 
William Sawyer. 

Charlotte. 

Isaac Cogswell, 
Ephraim Page, 
Stephen Turrill. 

Chelsea. 

Sherman Allen, 
Ananiah Bohonon, 
Abraham Brigham, 
Daniel Buck, 
Benjamin Burgess, 
Frederick Calkins, 
Asa Dearborn, 
Hiram Huntington, 
William Killown, 
John Martin, 
Thomas Parker, 
David Perry. 

Chester. 

Benjamin Blaney, 
Nathan Boyden, 
Thomas Caryl, 
Joshua Church, 
Ephraim Clark, 
Jeremiah Dean, 
Stephen Dyer, 
David Earl, 
Timothy Eastman, 
Ebenezer Farrington, 
Daniel Fletcher, 
Paul Fletcher, 



Surg. Laban Gates, 
Moses Gile, 
Joshua Jordan, 
Simeon Keith, 
John Kibling, 
Arohelous Putnam, 
John Putnam, 
Stephen Randall, 
Waitstill Ranney, 
Reuben Ray, 
Jason Rice, 
Stephen Riggs, 
Ezra Sargent, 
Jabez Sargent, 
WilJiam Stoodley, 
John Thurstoh, 
Amasa Turner, 
Richard Ward, 
Amos Weatheifcy, 
Benjamin Whitmore, 
Solomon Wilson. 

Chittenden. 

Asa Durkee. 

Clarendon. 

Sergt. Abel Horton, 
Dr. David Palmer, 
Ephraim Parker, 
Sergt. Samuel Parker, 
Isaac Southworth, 
Jesse Sprague, 
Lewis Walker. 

Colchester. 

Alexander Alford, 
Jeremiah Fisher, 
Peter Gale, 
John Law, 
Amos Mansfield, Jr., 
Claud Monty, 
Amos Preston, 
Lemuel Tubbs, 
David Webster. 

Concord. 

Joseph Ball, 
Elias Cheney, 
Jonathan Corser, 



Josiah Goodale, 

David Hibbard, 

Hinds Reed, 

Noah Vilas, 

Capt. Samuel Wetherbe, 

Capt. Samuel Witherell. 

Corinth. 

Jeremiah Dewey, 
Eleazer Porter, 
Eleazer P. Putnam. 

Comioall. 

Jared Abernethy, 
John Alvord, 
John Boynton, 
Joseph Cogswell, 
Isaiah Gilbert, 
■ Reuben Hall, 
Israel C. Jones, 
Gideon Miller, 
Reuben Peck, 
William Pratt, 
John Rockwell, 
William Samson, 
Daniel Scovel, 
William Ward. 



Coventry. 

Frederick W. Herman, 
David Lathe, 
Joseph Priest, 
Edward Welch. 



Crafts oury. 

Capt. Ebenezer Crafts, 
Daniel Davison, 
John Hadley, 
Joseph Scott, 
Sergt. Rob't Trumbull. 

Danoy. 

Bradford Barnes, 
Minor Hilyard, 
Elijah Lilly. 



APPENDIX. 



193 



Danville. 

Uri Babbit, 
Jethro Batchelder, 
Jesse Cheney, 
Thomas Colby, 
Jonathan Danforth, _ 
Salma Davis, 
Benjamin Deming, 
Stephen Dexter, 
Samuel Hawley, 
Thomas Hoyt, 
John Rollins, 
Ebenezer Sawyer, 
Caleb Stiles, 
Joseph Tilton. 

Derby. 

Abram Alexander, 
Simon Davis, 
John Healey, 
Isaac Hinman, 
Timothy Hinman, 
Simeon Pope. 

Dorset. 

Peletiah Dewey, 
Benedict Eggleston, 
Asa Farwell, 
Isaac Farwell, 
Asahel L. Fenton, 
Noah Fuller, 
John Sargent, 
Benjamin Tenney, 
James Wrin. 

Dover. 

Benjamin -Baldwin, 
Balah Kendall, 
Capt. Elijah Stearns. 

Dummerston. 

Daniel Bemis, 
John Bemis, 
Nathaniel Bixby, 
Thomas Boyden, 
William Boyden, 
Ellis Griffith, 
John Reed, 



William Robertson, 
Daniel Tenney. 

Duxbury. 

John Colt. 

East JHontpelier. 

Eseck Howland. 

Eden. 

Jonas Harrington, 
Eli Hinds, Jr., 
Isaac Lackey, 
Samuel Plumley, 
Peter Wylie. 

Elmore. 

Ebenezer Copin. 

Enosburg. 

Job Libbey, 
James Miller. 

Essex. 

France Faxon. 

Fairfax. 

James Bellows, 
Archibald Cook, 
Joseph Cross, 
E. Faxon, 
George Majors, 
Israel Richard&on, 
Bradstreet Sparford.- 

F airfield. 

Whitmore Beardsley. 
Jabez Burr, 
Oliver Cleveland, 
Abel Fairbanks, 
Jabez Hawkins, 
Josiah Osgood, 
Philip Priest, 
Silas Safford, 
• Dyer Sherwood. 



Fair Haven. 
Samuel Stannard. 

Fayston. 
William Newcomb. 

Ferrisburg. 

Daniel Champion, 
Josiah Johnson, 
William Kellogg, 
Abel Thompson, 
Nathan Walker. 

Fletcher. 

Daniel Bailey, 
Henry Campbell, 
Samuel Danforth,_ 
Rufus Montague. 

Franklin. 

Paul Gates. 

Georgia. 

Capt. Jonat'n Danforth, - 
Loammi Pattee, 
John Wood, 
Reuben Wood. 

Glover. 

Paul Cook, 
Paul Hardy. 
Jesse Thomas, 

Goshen. 

Enoch Reynolds. 

Grand Isle. 

Capt. John Stark. 

Granville. 

Abiathar Austin, 
Eli Lewis, 
Abraham Parker, 
James Shaw, 
Jeremiah Snow, 



194 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Grafton. 

David Blood, 
Simeon Conant, 
Nathaniel Cutler, 
Henry Davis, 
David French, 
Abraham Gibson, 
David Gibson, 
Jonathan Gibson, 
Solomon Gibson, 
Enoch Hale, 
John Kidder, 
Samuel Spaulding, 
William Stickney, . 
Joseph Thatcher, 
Jonathan Warner, 
Samuel Whitney, 
Asa M. Wyman. 

Greensboro. 

Samuel Badger, 
John Cross, 
Amos Smith, 
Lieut. Thos. Tolman. 

Groton. 

John Clark, 
Ebenezer Fisk. 

Guildhall. 

John Cook, 
Capt. Benoni Cutler, 
David Denison,-^ 
Moses Hale, 
David Hopkinson, 
Samuel Howe. 

Guilford. 

Nehemiah Andrews, 
Daniel Boyden, 
James Boyden, 
Ebenezer Chamberlain, 
Jeremiah Graves, 
Thomas Harris, 
Samuel Larabee, 
William Marsh, 
Cyrus Martin, 
Jasper Patridge, 



Adonijah Putnam, 
Micah Rice, 
Seth Rice, 
Eliel Washburn, 
Aaron Wilder. 

Halifax. 

Thomas Adams, 
James Babcock, 
Abner Bemis, 
Joel Cutler, 
John Farnham, 
David Goodall, 
Jesse Guild, 
John Harris, 
Israel Jones, 
Moses Larned, 
Francis Phelps, 
Elijah Pike, 
Newton Ransom, 
Hezekiah Smith, 
Eleazer Whitney, 
Artemas Woodard. 

Hancock. 

Charles Church, 
Capt. Nath'l Cushman. 

Hardwick. 

Charles Bailey, 
Abel Carpenter, 
Abel Conant, 
Jonathan Curtis, 
John Fox, 

Sergt. Thomas Fuller, 
Sergt. David Norris, 
Eleazer Nutting, 
Samuel Stevens, 
Joseph Weeks, 
Reuben Wheatley. 

Hartford. 



Joshua Dewey, 
Shadrack Dodge, 
Lieut. Israel Gillet, 
John Gillet, 
Sergt. Jacob Hall. 
Willis Hall, 
Samuel Harrington, 
Daniel Hazen, 
Elijah Hazen, 
Hezekiah Hazen. 
Capt. Joshua Hazen, 
Solomon Hazen, 
Thomas Hazen, 
Benjamin Hoyt, 
Capt. Abel Marsh, 
Daniel Marsh, 
Eliphalet Marsh, 
Elisha Marsh, 
John Marsh, 
Col. Joseph Marsh, 
David Newton, 
John Paddock, 
Samuel Pease, 
Daniel Pineo, 
Eliot Porter, 
Rowland Powell, 
Amos Richardson, 
Thomas Richardson, 
Amos Robinson, 
Francis W. Savage, 
Seth Savage. 
Thomas Savage, 
Darius Sessions, 
Philip Sprague, 
Solomon Strong, 
William Strong. 
Sergt. Andrew Tacy, 
Reuben Tenney, 
Josiah Tilden, 
Oliver Udall. 

Hartland. 



Noah Aldrich, 
Eldad Alexander, 
Sgt. Luth. Bartholomew,Quartus Alexander. 
Daniel Beard, Simeon Alford, 

Capt. William Bramble, Wm. Symmes Ashley, 
James Call, Thomas Bagley, 

Simeon Chapman, Moses Barron, 

David Coburn (or Col- John Billings, 
burn), Nathan Billings, 



Eliazer Bishop, 
Chap. Daniel Breck, 
Solomon Brown, 
Isaiah Burk, 
Jonathan Burk, 
Marston Cabot, 
Nathan Call, 
Samuel Capron, 
Lieut. Ephraim Carey, 
Capt. Nathaniel Cole, 
Melvin Cotton, 
Thomas Cotton, 
Holmes Cushman, 
Ichabod Cushman, 
\Col. George Denison, 
John Dunsmore, 
Asahel Doubleday, 
John Dunbar, 
Robert Dunbar, 
Elisha Flower, 
William Flower, 
Elisha Gallup, 
William Gallup, 
Zelates Gates, 
Peter Gibson, 
Peter Gilson, 
Joseph Grow, 
Samuel Hearley, 
Thomas Hoadley, 
Jonathan Hodgman, 
Maj. Lot Hodgman, 
Phineas Killam, 
Thomas Lawton, 
Darius Liscomb, 
Nehemiah Liscomb, 
John Lull, 
Timothy Lull, 
Isaac Maine, 
Gardner Marcy, 
Joseph Marcy, 
Isaac Morgan, 
Robert Morrison, 
John Robbins, 
Eliphalet Rogers, 
Isaac Sargent, 
Lemuel Scott, 
Thomas Shaw, 
Jesse Smeod, 
Leonard Spaulding, 
Lieut. Daniel Spooner, 
Eliakim Spooner, 



APPENDIX. 

Paul Spooner, 
John Sumner, 
Asa Taylor, 
Nathaniel Waldron, 
Jonathan Whitney, 
Capt. Aaron Willard, 
Oliver Willard, 
Abel Wright, 
Zadock Wright. 

Highgate. 

Philip Shelters. 

Hinesburgh. 

Moses Dow, 
Asa Forbes, 
John Green, 
Dan Howard, 
Jonathan Stearns, 
Eliphaz Steel. 

Holland. 

John Bishop, 
Isaac Clement, 
Qm. Eber Robinson, 
Isaac Sargent. 

Huntington. 

Ebenezer Cutler, 
Zebediah Joslin, 
John Moses, 
Jonas Shattuck. 

Hyde Park. 

John Collins, 
John McCloud. 

Ira. 
Joseph Tower, 

Irasburgh. 

Benjamin Barton, 
Amos Conant, 
Benjamin Hardy. 

Jamaica. 

John Bradley, 
Nathaniel Cheney, 



195 

Timothy Fisher, 
Ichabod Higgins, 
Joel Hill, 
Bailey Rawson, 
Gideon Stoddard. 

Jericho. 

Peter L. Allen, 
Isaac Benham, 
Ichabod Burnham, 
Benoni Chapin, 
Ichabod Chapin, 
Noah Chittenden, 
Simeon Davis, 
Azariah Rood, 
Roger Stevens, 
J. I. Warner. 

Johnson. 

William Boyes, 
Solomon Briggs, 
Jonathan Burnham, 

Chase, 

Elisha Dodge, 
Ralph Ellingwood, 
David Erwin, 
William Heath, 
Jonathan McConnell, 
Jeremiah McDaniel, 
Samuel Miller, 
Daniel Perkins, 
Arunah Waterman. 

Kirby. 

Zebulon Burroughs, 
Jonathan Lewis, 
Asa Parker, 
Stephen Watkins. 

Landgrove. 

David Carpenter, 
Hezekiah Ward Clark, 
Ephraim Hildreth, 
Reuben Holt. 

Leicester. 

Isaac Atwood, 
Benjamin Whitman. 



196 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Lincoln. 

Joshua Rugg. 

Londonderry. 

Abraham Abbott, 
David Cochran, 
Bithiah Howard, 
Edmund Ingalls, 
Lincoln Stiles, 
Jeremiah Wheeler, 
Nathan Whiting. 

Lowell. 

Jonathan Powers. 

Ludlow. 

Sergt. Levi Adams, 
Ephraim Dutton, 
Jesse Fletcher, 
Josiah Fletcher, 
Josiah F. Richardson, 
John Spafford, 
Jesse Spaulding, 
Thomas Weatherby, 
Jonathan Whitcomb. 

Lunenburgh. 

Louis Cook, 
Zuriah Marshall, 
Samuel Martin, 
Samuel Nash, 
Timothy Nash, 
Azariah Webb. 

Lyndon. 

John Bly, 
Ozias Caswell, 
Stephen Eastman, 
Moses Evans, 
Erastus Harvey, 
Oliver Hartwell, 
Sergt. Henry Hoffman, 
Jacob Houghton, 
Ebenezer Howland, 
Jona. Locklin, 
John McGaffey, 
William Miles, 



Rufus Moore, 
Ephraim Niles, 
Job Olney, 
Sergt. Gaias Peck, 
Nathaniel Phillips, 
Elijah Ross, 
Moses Root, 
James Sherman, 
Jonas Sprague, 
Jonathan Swan. 

Maidstone. 

Sergt. Jacob Schoff. 

Manchester. 

Samuel Mitchell, 
Gideon Moody, 
Sergt. Eli Pettibone, 
Samuel Walker. 

Marlboro. 

James Cutler, 
Boomer Jenks, 
Erastus Mather, 
Phineas Mather, 
John Philips, 
Amos Prouty, 
Jonas Whitney. 

Marshfield. 

Joshua Cheney, 
Ebenezer Dodge, 
Joseph T. Eaton, 
Stephen Rich. 

Mendon. 

Hilkiah Grout, 
Isaac Sanderson. 

Middlebury. 

Sergt. Ethan Andrews, 
Jonathan Blin, 
Alpheus Brooks, 
Justus Cobb, 
Samuel Cook, 
James Crane, 
George Griswold, 



Calvin Goodno, 
Robert Huxton, 
Bela Manzer, 
Ely Nichols, 
Elijah Olmstead, 
Benoni Shurtleff, 
Jesse Spencer, 
Seth Storrs, 
Israel Wadsworth. 

Middlesex. 

Jeremiah Clark, 
Jeremiah Leland, 
Ebenezer Putnam. 

Middletown Springs. 

Jedediah Edgerton, 
Richard Hoskins, 
David Parker, 
Gamaliel Waldo. 

Milton. 

Benjamin Adams, 
John Blake, 
Thomas Dewey, 
Elihu Herrick, 
William Hewes, 
Oliver Howard, 
Elisha Owen. 

Monkton. 

William Niles, 
Lieut. Daniel Spooner, 
William Spooner, 
John Stearns, 
Lemuel Tracy. 

Montgomery. 

Lieut. John Clapp, 
Bliss Hoisington, 
John A. Ripley, 
Joshua Wade. 

Montpelier. 

Elias Metcalf, 
John Putnam, 
Edward West. 



APPENDIX. 



197 



Morgan. 

Joshua Bailey, 
Nathaniel S. Clark, 
James Taylor, 
Nathan Wilcox. 



Moretoicn. 

John Burdick,- 
Joshua Freeman, 
Joseph Haseltine, 
Amos Spalding. 



Morristown. 

Elisha Bugbee, 
John Cole, 
Michajah Dunham, 
James Little, 
Joshua Merrill, 
Comfort Olds, 
William Small, 
Adam Sumner, 
Sergt. Jos. E. Westgate 
Thomas Youngman. 



Newfane. 

Jacob Allen, 
Ephraim Hall, 
William Hills, 
William King, 
Nathan Knowlton, 
Zebediah Marsh, 
Marshall Newton. 

Neio Haven. 

John Conant, 
John Coon, 
Elisha Fuller, 
Ephraim Munson, 
Joseph Prime, 
Caleb Rich, 
Simon Stickney, 
Benjamin Taintor. 

Newport. 

Stephen Barnard, 
John Jenness, 
Archippus Wheeler. 

Northfield. 



Roswell Adams, 
William Ashcroft, 
Thomas Averill, 
John Brown, 
Aquila Jones, 
Samuel Richardson, 
Sergt. Joseph Daggett, Stanton Richardson, 
Gideon Tabor. Eliphus Shipman. 



Mount Holly. 
Joel Earle. 

Mount Tabor. 



Newbury. 

Peter Bagley, 
Thomas Eastman, 
David Haseltine, 
Daniel Heath, 
Joseph Herriman,- 
Samuel Johnson, 
John Mellen, 
Tarrant Putnam, 
John Smith, 
Asa Tenney, 
David Tenney, 
William Tice, 
Charles P. Walker. 



North Hero. 

Samuel Doty, 
Abram Woodard. 

Norwich. 

Daniel Baldwin, 
Nath'l Boardman, Jr. 
Capt. Elijah Burton, 
Henry Burton, 
Jacob Burton, 
Solomon Cushman, 
Hezekiah Goodrich, 
John Goodrich, 
John Gould, 



Joseph Howes, 
Jerome Hutchinson, 
Samuel Hutchinson, 
Calvin Johnson, 
Surg. Joseph Lewis, 
David Lyman, 
Timothy Nichols, 
Daniel Nye, 
Samuel Patridge, 
Ebenezer Percival, 
Jeremiah Percival, 
Calvin Seaver, 
Jonathan Spear, 
Joel Stinson, 
Mendwell Strong, 
Joseph Tucker, 
Solomon White. 

Orange. 

Nathaniel Bacheller, 
Sgt. Jonathan Conant, 
Samuel Judkins, 
Samuel Richardson. 

Omcell. 

Jonathan Belden, 
Thomas Eggleston, 
Ira Kilbourn, 
Billy Monger, 
Capt. James Noble, 
Sampson Spaulding. 

Pawlet. 

David Comstock, 
Eldad Curtis, 
Phineas Meigs, 
Moses Porter, 
Jacob Sacks, 
Nathan Spalding. -w_ 

Panton. 

Rupee Bacheller, 
Dan Smith, 
William Shepherd. 

Peacham. 

Abijah Bailey, 
James Bailey, 
Hastings Blanchard, 



198 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Henry Blake, 
Wells Burbank, 
Abiel Chamberlain, 
Col. John Chandler, 
Edward Clark, 
Samuel Davis, 
Jonathan Elkins, 
Judson Farrar, 
Capt. Nathan Hurd, 
Joab Kimball, 
Ashbel Martin, 
David Martin, 
James Miner, 
Lemuel Northrop, 
John Skeele, 
Ebenezer Spencer, 
Simeon Walker. 

Peru. 

Benjamin Barnard, 
Luther Barnard, 
Aaron Dewey, 
Peter Gould. 

Pittsfield. 

Josiah Babcock, 
Sergt. Pennel Child, 
Joseph Durkee, 
Elijah Segar. 

Pittsford. 

Robert Andrews, 
Davi Hall, 
Thomas Hammond, 
Amos Harwood, 
Amos Lawrence, 
Ezekiel Longley, 
Dennis Miller, 
Zebulon Pond, 
Peter Powers, 
Jeremiah Rann, 
James Walker, 
Rufus Wheeden, 
Phineas Whitney, 
Joel Willis, 
Oliver Wolcott. 

Plainfield. 

Isaac Vincent. 



Plymouth. 

Samuel G. Allen, 
Robert Bishop, 
Sergt. Daniel Clark, 
John Coolidge, 
Henry Fletcher, 
Benjamin Green, 
John Mudge, 
Caleb Snow. 

Pomfret. 

Elnathan Allen, 
James Burnham, 
Josiah Chandler, 
John Cheadle, 
William Child, 
John W. Dana, 
Eliphalet Fales, 
Oliver Goff, 
Timothy Harding, 
Elijah Hoar, 
Seth Hodges, 
Elijah Mason, 
Reuben D. Massey, 
Matthew Miller, 
Thomas Nocnan, 
Lieut. Ephraim Peake, 
Abidah Smith, 
John O. Thacher, 
Isaiah Tinkham, 
William Whitman, 
Ebenezer Winslow. 

Pownal. 

John Downer, 
Louis Dunham, 
Obadiah Dunham, 
Benjamin Grover, 
Moses Hastings, 
Zaccheus Hovey, 
David Jepson, 
John Magoon, 
Benjamin Morgan, 
Capt. Eli Noble, 
John Noble, 
Josiah Noble, 
William Ray, 
John Sherman, 
Joseph Thorp. 



Poultney. 

Samuel Adams, 
Azariah Dewey, 
John Herrick, 
Henry Hyde. 
Abraham Kilboume. 
James Powers, 
William Ward. 

Putney. 

Lieut. John Gates, 
Benjamin Read, 
Timothy UnderwoccL 
Joseph Winslow. 

Randolph. 

Simeon Belknap, 
Moses Bragg, 
David Carpenter, 
Jonathan Carpenter. 
Jesse Cogswell, 
John Cogswell, 
Alvin Edson, 
Sergt. Josiah Edson. 
Isaac Grow, 
John Hobart, 
Joseph Morton. 
Capt. Samuel Paine, 
Moses Pearsons, 
Samuel Steele, 
Chancy L. Temple, 
Nathaniel Throop, 
Abner Weston, 
Horace Wheeler, 
Jonathan Wills. 

Reading. 

David Burnham, 
Timothy Fullam, 
Jonathan Jones, 
William Morison, 
Stephen Rice, 
Thomas Townsend. 

Readsooro. 

Archilous Dean, 
Ezra Keyes, 
Ebenezer Stearns. 



APPENDIX. 



199 



Richford. 

Daniel Jones, 
Gideon Wood. 

Richmond. 

Oliver Cutler, 
Sergt. John Devereaux, 
William Humphrey, 
Daniel Robbins, 
Bigford Spooner. 

Rochester. 

Thomas Bailey, 
Josiah Chandler, 
Timothy Clark, 
David Clough, 
Sergt. Enoch Emerson, 
John McAllister, 
Seth Tinkham, 
Sergt. Retire Trask, 
John Young. 

Rockingham. 

Philip Adams, 
Benjamin Burt, 
Charles Church, 
Ebenezer Clark, 
Nathaniel Clark, 
Timothy Clark, 
John Dudley, 
John Fish, 
Benjamin Gould, 
Jacob Gould, 
Ebenezer McAlvin, 
Jonathan Morison, 
Joseph Muzzy, 
John Stearns, 
Jonathan Stearns, 
Sergt. William Stearns 
William Stearns, Jr., 
Abraham Tuttle, 
Joshua Webb, 
John White, 
Nathan Wooley. 

Roxbury. 

Dr. David McClure, 
Darius Spaulding, 
Silas Spaulding. 



Royalton. 

David Ames, 
Matthew Atherton, 
Lyman Bache, 
Stephen Backus, 
John Billings, 
Richard Bloss, 
Lieut. Benj. Bosworth, 
Samuel Cleveland, 
Squier Cleveland, 
Benjamin Cole, 
Darius Dewey, 
Ebenezer Dewey, 
John Hutchinson, 
Daniel Lovejoy, 
Samuel Metcalf, 
Benjamin Parkhurst, 
Willard Pierce, 
Isaac Pinney, 
Daniel Rix, 
Jeremiah Rust, 
Isaac Skinner, 
Elias Stevens, 
Samuel Stewart, 
Daniel Sumner, 
Zachariah Waldrow, 
Abraham Waterman, 
Sergt. Wm. Waterman, 
Silas Williams. 

Rupert. 

John Blanchard, 
Isaac Clapp, 
Levi Doane, 
Enoch Eastman, 
Israel Hayes, 
John Parker, 
Moses Sheldon, 
Enoch Sherman, 
Ashbel Sykes, 
Harry Sykes, 
Joel Taylor, 
Daniel Warner. 

Rutland. 

Sgt. Tim'y Boardman, 
Agel Cone, 
Thaddeus Dunklee, 
Moses Head, 
John Johnson, 



Nathan M.Loundsberry, 
Nathan Osgood, 
Sergt. Simeon Post, 
Maj. Israel Smith, 
Roswell Staples, 
Artemas Tatt, 
Daniel Williams. 

Ryegate. 

Wells Goodwin, 
Samuel Johnson, 
Sylvanus Learned, 
Allen Stewart. 

Salisbury. 

Stephen Rice. 

Sandgate. 

Abel Buck, 
Asa Cogswell, 
John Cogswell, 
Adam Hurd, 
John Wyman. 

Shaftsoury. 

Hezekiah Carey, 

Aaron Denio, 

Capt. Cyprian Downer, 

John Fuller, 

Giles Olin, 

John Olin, 

James Sweet, 

Abiathar Waldo, 

Prosper Wheeler. 

Sharon. 

Joel Barrett, 
James Carpenter, 
Ebenezer Currier, 
Seth Hart, 
Nathan Hitchcock, 
Asahel Holt, 
Benjamin Metcalf, 
Oliver Sexton. 
Reuben Spaulding, 
Nicholas C. Wells. 



200 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Shelburne. 

Phineas Hill, 
Samuel Mills. 

Sheldon. 

Ebenezer Chamberlain, 
Capt. Barth. Durkee, 
Elim Gilbert, 
Uriah Higgins, 
Ruel Keith, 
Joseph Lamb, 
Josiah Peckham, 
Ebonezer Stebbins. 

Sherbtirne. 

Joseph Adams, 
Sergt. Amasa Fuller. 

Shoreham. 

Eliakim Culver, 
Joel Doolittle, 
Elisha Kellogg, 
Stephen King, 
Jonas Newton, 
Lieut. John Smith, 
Samuel Sunderland, 
William Watson, 
Jonathan Wilson. 

Shrewsbury. 

Jeffrey A. Barney, 
Abram Eaton. 

Somerset. 

Elijah Morse. 

South Hero. 
Ephraim Holland. 

Springfield. 

Col. John Barrett, 
Josiah Belknap, 
Capt. Abner Bisbee, 
John Bisbee, 
William Bragg, 
Elisha Brown, 
Nathaniel Burgess, 



Moses Chase, 
Samuel Damon, 
Stephen Dyer, 
Samuel Dyke, 
Joseph Ellis, 
Oliver Fairbanks, 
William Griffith, 
Daniel Griswold, 
John Griswold, 
Levi Harlow, 
Joseph Hulett, 
Ephraim Lewis, 
Jonathan Luke, 
Lieut. Isaac Parker, 
Silas Parker, 
Jonas Pierce, 
Sergt. Asahel Powers, 
Jacob Sartwell, 
Oliver Sartwell, 
Samuel Shattuck, 
Simeon Spencer, 
Taylor Spencer, 
Simon Stevens, 
Moses Stickney, 
David Stinson, 
Isaac Tower, 
Jed Ward, 
Lemuel Whitney. 

St. Albans. 

Azariah Brooks, 
Eleazer Brooks, 
John Delaway, 
Jehiel Holdridge, 
John Mitchell, 
David Powers, 
Qm. Silas Robinson, 
Jeremiah Virginia, 
Solomon Walbridge. 

Stamford. 

Ira Hill, 

Elisha Raymond. 

Starksboro. 

Abraham Hall, 
Hebard Morrill, 
Elisha Norton, 
Ezekiel Pease. 



St. George. 

Joseph Doane. 

St. Johnsbury. 

Samuel Clark, 
Jed'ediah Coe, 
Comfort Healey, 
Oliver Phelps, 
Reuben Spaulding, 
Isaac Stowell. 

Stockbridge. 

Stukely Angell, 
John Durkee, 
Sergt. Elias Keyes., 
Jonathan Norris, 
Walter Pollard, 
Daniel Ranney. 

Stowe. 

Adam Alden. 
Joseph Bennett, 
Joseph Churchill, 
Aaron Clough, 
Nehemiah Doane, 
Daniel Fuller, 
Asa Kimball, 
Abraham Moses, 
William Pettengill, 
Lieut. Martin Pitkin, 
Asa Poland, 
Noah Robinson, 
Paul Sanborn, 
Lieut. David Thomas, 
Moses Thompson, 
Elisha Town, 
James Town. 

Strafford. 

Jethro Batchelder, 
Nathan Cobb, 
Edward Filch, 
Nathaniel Morrill, 
Aaron Pennock, 
Benjamin Preston, 
John Reynolds. 

Stratton. 

Jonathan M. Bissell, 
Amos Parsons. 



APPENDIX. 



201 



Sudbury. 

Jesse Tenney. 

Sunderland. 

Capt. Lemuel Bradley, 
John Rowen. 

Swanton. 

Peter Barsha, 
John Pratt. 

Thetford. 

Bethuel Bryant, 
Asa Corser, 
Reuben Dickinson, 
Jeremiah Dodge, 
Azriah Faxon, 
James Lock, 
Beriah Loomis, 
Bethuel Newcomb, 
Leonard Robinson. 

Tinmouth. 

Isaac Libby, 
Edmund Luens, 
Col. Isaac Putnam, 
Thomas Rogers, 
David Spafford, 
Orange Train. 

Townshend. 

George Austin, 
Eleazer Cobleigh, 
Bagalee Frost, 
Sergt. Amos Gray, 
Capt. John Livingston, 
Thomas Lowe, 
Jonathan Shattuck. 

Troy. 

Cyrus Allen. 

Tunbridge. 

Benjamin Adams, 
William Ballou, 
Jonathan Foster, 
13 



Daniel Hackett, 
Enoch Hoyt, 
Joseph Hoyt, 
Ichabod King, 
Nathan Noyes, 
John Selly, 
William White, 
William Wright. 

Underhill. 

Samuel Calhoun, 
Asa Rider, 
Josiah Sheldon. 

Vergennes. 

Noah James, 
David Tyler. 

Vernon. 

Jabez Clark, 
Benjamin Lee, 
Jesse Lee, 
Elijah Stebbins. 

Vershire. 

Moses Bartholomew, 
Samuel Comstock, 
Enos Flanders, 
Lemuel Southwick. 

Waitsfield. 

Samuel Barnard, 
Abijah Brown, 
Moses Chase, 
Caleb Colton, 
Thomas Green, 
Joseph Hamilton, 
Ezekiel Hawley, 
Lieut. John Heaton, 
Jesse Mix, 
William Newcomb, 
Joseph Osgood, 
Jonathan Palmer, 
Bissell Phelps, 
Samuel Pike, 
Lemuel Richardson, 
Phineas Rider, 
Salma Rider, 



Amasa Skinner, 
Jared Skinner, 
Salah Smith, 
Daniel Taylor, 
Elias Taylor, 
Ezra Wait, 
Jeduthun Wait, 
William Wait. 

Walden. 

Nathan Barker, 
Elisha Cate, 
Benjamin Dow, 
Nathaniel Dow, 
Nathaniel Perkins, 
Timothy Shurtleff. 

WaUingford. 

Asa Anderson, 
Philbrook Barrows, 
Eli Calkin, 

Sgt. Nathan Dennison; 
Cyrenius Dewey, 
Jerathunel Doty, 
Andrew Hewitt, 
Nathaniel Keyes, 
Philip White. 

Waltham. 
John Preston. 

Wardsboro. 

Elisha Allen, 
Pearley Fairbanks, 
Sergt. Silas Gates, 
Daniel Harris, 
Sergt. Rufus Harvey, 
Abner Lewis, 
Ebenezer Pierce, 
Aaron Rawson, 
Thomas Simpson, 

Warren. 
William Chase. 

Water ford. 

John Chaplin, 
Samuel Hill, 
Moses Huntley, 



202 



THE VERMONT HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



John Melendy, 
Thaddeus Potter. 

Waterville. 

Daniel Morse. 

Weathersfield. 

Jewett Boynton, 
Col. John Boynton, 
Isaac Brown, 
Oliver Chamberlin, 
John Chase, 
Asa Grout, 
John Haskill, 
Samuel Holmes, 
Abner Jackman, 
Caleb Litchfield, 
John Mallord, 
William Nichols, 
Moses Peabody, 
Thomas Prentiss, 
Stephen Reed, 
Col. Elijah Robinson, 
Clark Toles, 
Benjamin Worcester. 

Wells. 

Ebenezer Butts, 
Andrew Clerk, 
Roswell Clark, 
Stephen Clark, 
John Davis, 
Jonathan Francis, 
Nathan Francis, 
Rufus Glass, 
Daniel Goodsell, 
Samuel Goss, 
Joshua Howe, 
Samuel S. Merriam, 
Hallowell Merrills, 
James Paul, 
Gould Stiles, 
Jason Tyler. 

West Fairlee. 

Cephas Child, 
Samuel Morison, 
William Morris, 
Maj. John Simpson. 



Westfield. 

Medad Hitchcock, 
Benjamin Stebbins, 
Bethuel Stebbins, 

Westford. 

Thomas Atwood, 
Sylvester Crandal, 
Isaac Gale, 
Jesse Ide, 
David Sawyer. 

West Haven. 

Sergt. Isaac Cutler, 
Augustus Pease. 

Westminster. 

Hezekiah Abby, 
Samuel Adams, 
Silas Burk, 
Simeon Burk, 
Barnabas Clark, 
Scatto Clark, 
Joshua Cone, 
Samuel Cone, 
Josiah Eaton, 
Maverick Eaton, 
Elisha Johnson, 
Reuben Lippenwill, 
Jabez Paine, 
John Priest, 
Elijah Eanney, 
Thomas Ranney, 
William Ranney, 
Amaziah Richmond. 

Weston. 

Jeremiah Blanchard, 
Henry Hall, 
Nicholas Lawrence, 
William Lee, 
Gideon Pease, 
Thomas Piper, 
Samuel Proctor, 
Ezra Ritter. 

West Windsor. 

Abel Adams, 
Isaac Adams, 
Lieut. Sam'l Myrick, 



Jerome Sawin, 
Joseph Wakefield, 
Asa Worcester. 

i 
Weyoridge. 

Samuel Clark, 
Thomas Dickinson, 
Benjamin Hagar, 
John Halsey, 
Pliny Stannard. 

Wheelock. 

Abner Hoyt, 
Edward Magoon, 
Nehemiah Phillips. 

Whiting. 

Gershom Justin, 

Whitingham. 

Nathan Green, 
David Jillson, 
Samuel Parker, 
Stephen Putnam. 

Williamstown. 

Samuel Adams, 
Asa Hatch, 
Elijah Whitney. 

Williston. 

Joseph Blish, 
Ebenezer Bradley, 
Martin Chittenden, 
Zachariah Hart, 
Lenard Hodges, 
Daniel Isham, 
Stephen Randall, 
Parce Stearns. 

Wilmington. 

Calvin Bill, 
Henry Chandler, 
Barnabas Cushman, 
Ezra Mudge, 
Calvin P. Perry, 
Daniel Rice, 
Col. Wm. Williams, t 



APPENDIX. 



203 



Windham. 

Edward Aiken, 
Nathaniel Aiken, 
Peter Aiken, 
William Ellis, 
John Gould, 
David Howard, 
Samuel Howard, 
Neil Noyes, 
Benjamin Pierce, 
James Smith, 
James White, 
Abiel Whitman. 

Windsor. 

Israel Aiken, 
John Blood, 
Briant Brown, 
Solomon Burk, 
Nathaniel Cobb, 
Nathan Coolidge, 
Sergt. Thomas Cray, 
Oliver Diggins, 
Abel Fling, 
William Gilkey, 
Isaac Green, 
Jonathan Hall, 

Houghton, 

William Hunter, 
Stephen Jacob, 
Reuben McAlister, 
David Morison, 
Oliver Osgood, 
Simeon Pomeroy, 
Rufus Root, 
Andrew Spalding, 
Alden Spooner, 
Dr. Thomas Stearns, 
Henry Stevens, 
Samuel Stickney, 
Nahum Trask, 
Joseph Willis. 



Winhall. 
Daniel Benson. 

Wolcott. 
Jabez Newland. 

Woodford. 

Elkanah Danforth, 
Ebenezer Temple. 

Woodstock. 

Jabez Bennett, 
William Bennett, 
Sergt. Jacob Bevins, 
Moses Bradley, 
Ephraim Brewster, 
Lieut. Col. Ebenezer 

Bridge, 
Joel Burbank, 
John M. Call, 
Barnabas Caswell, 
Binney Cobb, 
Sergt. William Cone, 
Nathan Cook, 
Timothy Cox, 
Noah Crocker, 
Standish Day, 
Asahel Doubleday, 
Josiah Dunham, 
Simeon Dunham, 
Samuel Dutton, 
Sergt. Ephraim Eddy, 
James Emerson, 
Jonathan Farnsworth, 
Arunah Fullerton, 
Benjamin Green, 
Zebedee Hackett, 
Edmund Harvey, 



James Howland, 
Abraham Kendall, 
Isaac Kendall, 
Jacob Kendall, 
Timothy Knox, 
William Labaree, 
George Lake, 
Jonathan Lake, 
Elisha Lord, 
Frederick Mather, 
William McCloy, 
Joshua Nye, 
Gershom Palmer, 
Oliver Palmer, 
Capt. Wm. Perkins, 
William Perry, 
Phineas Powers, 
Stephen Powers, 
William Powers, 
John Ransom, 
Lt. Richard Ransom, 
William Raymond, 
Jason Richardson, 
Lysander Richardson, 
Henry Roby, 
Elijah Royce, 
Joseph Safford, 
Philemon Samson, 
George Sampson, 
Sylvanus Shaw, 
Samuel Slayton, 
Stephen Smith, 
Abram Snow, 
Gardner Spooner, 
Andrew Thomas, 
Seth Washman, 
Benuel Williams, 
Jesse Williams, 
Phineas Williams, 
Roger Williams, 
Eleazer Wood, 
Joseph Wood. 



INDEX. 



Active Members, 1906-7 10-16 

Address, Hon. Wendell Phillips Stafford 49-85 

Annual Meeting, 1905 25 

Annual Meeting, 1906 29 

Adjourned Meeting, Nov., 1906 29 

An act to provide for cataloguing the Library of the Vermont 
Historical Society 5 

B. 

Ballard, Hon. Henry, sketch of 34 

Benedict, G. G., President's Address 43 

Benedict, George Grenville, sketch of 159 

Burnap, Wilder Luke, sketch of 37 

By-Laws 19-24 

C. 

Constitution 18-19 

Corresponding Members 16 

D. 
Dewey, Charles, sketch of 38 

• E. 

Election of Officers, 1905 27 

Election of Officers, 1906 33 

H. 
Honorary Members 17 

J. 

Joint Resolution of General Assembly 4 

K. 
Kelton, Dwight H., sketch of 39 



N. 
New Members, 1906 187 

0. 

Officers, 1905-6 27 

Officers, 1906-7 9-10, 188 

P. 

Perkins, George Henry, Ph. D., paper by 87 

Prehistoric Vermont, paper on 87 

R. 

Report of Managers, 1905 26 

Report of Managers, 1906 178 

Reports of Treasurer 24, 184 

Revolutionary Soldiers Buried in Vermont 189 

Ropes, Arthur, sketch of 41 

S. 

Standing Committees 28,32 

Stevens, Thaddeus, address on ,49 

W. 

Whltelaw, Gen'l James, Life of 103 

Whitelaw, Gen'l James, Journal of 119 



3014