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PROCEEDINGS 



CtENeral meetings for scientific business 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 



1901, vol II. 

(MAY~Di:OEMBER.) 



J^ 



JAN 5 -1929 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
AKD SOLD AT THEIR HOUSE IN HANOVEE-SQUARE. 

LONDON : 

MESf>RS. LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO., 

PATER^■O^TKR ECSV. 



1. 1 S T 

Oh- 'nui 

COUNCIL AND OFFICERS 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1901. 



COUNCIL. 

{Elected April 29th, 1901.) 
His GiiACE The Duke of BEDroBD, K.G., President. 



William Batlsok, Esq., F.ll.S., 
Yice-Prealdent. 

William T. Blanfokd, Esq., 
LL.D., E.R.S., Vice-President. 

Geoege a, Boulejstger, Esq., 
E.II.S. 

William E. de Winton, Esq.- 

Hekbert Deuce, Esq. 

CuAELES Deummond, Esq., Trea- 
surer. 

8iii Joseph Fayeee, Bt., F.Il.8., 
Fice-Presider.t. 

Dr. Charles H. Gattx, LL.D. 

Peoeessoe Gteoege B. Howes, 
LL.D., E.E.S., Vice-PresideM. 

Lt.-Ool. Leonaed H. Ieby. 



Sir Hugh Low, G.C.M.G. 
George S. Mackenzie, Esq., 

C.B. 
The Lord Medway. 
P. Chalmers Mitchell, Esq., 

D.Sc. 
Sir Thomas Paike. 
Howard Saunders, Esq., F.L.S,, 

Vice-President. 
Philip Luxley Sclater, Esq., 

M.A., D.Sc, F.B.S., Secretary. 
Dr. David Sharp, F.R.S. 
Oldeibld Thomas, Esq., E.li.S. 
Dr. Henry Woodward, E.B.S., 

■Vice-President. 



PBINCIPAL OEEICEBS. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., M.A., D.Sc, E.li.S., Secretary. 

Frank E. Beddard, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., Vice-Secretary aud 
Prosector. 

Me. Claeence Barxlett, Superintendent of the Gardens. 

Me. Arthur Thomson, Head-Keeper and Assistant Super- 
intendent. 

Mr. F. H. Wateehouse, Lihrarian. 

'Mr. John Baeeow, Accountant. ■ - 

Mr. W. H, Cole, Chief Clerl-. 

Mr. George Aexhue Dourleday, Clerh of Publications. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 



May 7,1901. 

The Secretary. Report on the xidditious to the Society's 

Menagerie in April 1901 , . 1 

Mr. Sclater. Notice of a Zebi'a (apparently Equua fjrcvyi) 

taken from Ludolphus's work on iibyssinia 2 

Mr. C. Uavies 8herborji, 1\Z.8. Remarks on tlie progress 

of the ' Index Auimalium ' , 2 

Dr. W. Gr. Ridewood, E.Z.8. Exhibition of, and remarks 
upon, some microscopic preparations of the hairs of 
Antelopes, Giraffe, and Zebra 3 

Mr. Sclater. Exhibition of an original Avater-colour painting 
by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., and remarks upon the 
newly- discovered African Mammal, the Okapi. (Plate I.) 3 

1. On Spiders of the Eamily Attidce found in Jamaica. By 

Gr. W. Peokham and E. Gr. Peckham. (Plates II.-IY.) 

2. On the Hymenoptera collected during the " Skeat Ex- 

pedition " to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. By 

P. Oameeok IG 

3. Ou the Arachnida collected during the " Skeat Expedition " 

to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. By M. Eugene 
Si:mox, President of the Entomological Society of Erance. 45 



May 21, 1901. 

Mr. R. 1. Pocock, P.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, 
nests of a tree Trap-door Spider from Rio Janeiro .... 

-( 2 



Page 

1. Oil the more notable Mauimals obtained by Sir Harry 

Johnston in the Uganda Protectorate, By OLDriELD 
Thomas. (Plate V.) 85 

2. On some Arctic Nemerteans. By R. C. Puxnett, B.A. 

(Plates VI. & yJI.) '. 90 

3. On the Anatomy of Gogia breviceps. By AV. BlaxlajS'D 

Benham, M.A., U.Sc, F.Z.S., Professor of Biolojry in 
the University of Otago, New Zealand. (Plates Vlil.- 
XI.) " 107 

4. Descriptions of two new Chameleons from Mount Euwen- 

zori, British East Africa, By Gr. A. Boulenger, P.R.S. 
(Plates XII. & XILL) 135 

■5. A List of the Reptiles and Batrachiansobtained by Mr. A. 
Blayney Percival in Southern Arabia. By the late Dr. 
J, Andee?::on, LL.D., P,E.S. With Notes by the Collector. 
(Plates XJV. & XV.) 137 

6. Description ot a now Fish of the Genus Gohius obtained 
by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in South Arabia. By G. A. 
BOIJLEI^GEE, F.E.S 152 



June 4, 1901. 

1. Notes on the Type Specimen of Rhinoceros lasiotis Sclater ; 

with Remarks on the (xeuerie Position of the Living 
Species of Rhinoceros. By Olbfieli) Thomas 154 

2. On a small Collection of Fishes from Lake Victoria made 

by order of Sir li. H. Johnston, K.C.B. By G-. A. 
BouLEm-{ER, F.E.S 158 

3. On the Structure and xAffinities of Udenodon. By R. 

Beoom, M.D., B.Sc. (Plates XVI.-XVIII.) ....".... 162 

4. On some Species of Earthworms of the Genus BenJuimia 

from Tropical Africa. By Feank E. Beddaed, F.R.S. &c. 190 

5. On the Second Occurrence of Becli stein's Bat (VespertiUo 

becJisteini) in Great Britain, By J, G. Millais, F.Z,S, 216 

6. On Australian and New Zealand Spiders of the Suborder 

Mygalomorphse, By H, E, Hogg, M.A,, F.Z.S 218 



June 18, 1901. 

The Secretary, Report on the Additions to the Society's 

Menagerie in May 1 iMil 279 



V 

Piiga 

Prof. E. liny Laiikester, F.E.S. Exhibition of, and remarks 
upon, two skulls and a skin of the neAvly-discovered 
African Mammal [Ohaina johnstoni) 279 

Tlie Hon. Walter Eothsc-liild, E.Z.S. Exhibition of, and 
remarks upon, sj^ecimens of the Ibex of Abyssinia 
{Capra ivalie Kiipp.) 281 

The Hon. Walter Eothschild, E.Z.S. Exhibition of, and 
remarks iipon, a specimen of the Abyssinian Wolf (Canis 
simeiisis Rlipp.) 283 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, 

a peculiar Stag's frontlet and horns from Borneo 284 

Mr. E. Shelford, C.M.Z.S. Exhibition of a series of lantern- 
slides illustrative of mimicry amongst Bornean Insects. . 284 

1. On a new Hedgehog from Transcaucasia ; with a Eevision 

of the Species of the Genus Erinaeeus of the Eussian 
Empire. By Constantino Satunin, C.M.Z.S 284 

2. Field-IVotes on the xintelopes of the White Nile. By 

Captain Henry N. Dunn ". 291 

3. On a Collection of Birds made by Dr. Donaldson Smith in 

Northern Somali-land. By E. Boavdlbr Sharpe, LL.D., 
E.Z.S '. , 298 

4. Oil the Evolution of Pattern in Feathers. Bv J. L. Bon- 

HOTE, M.A., F.Z.S. (Plates XTX. & XX.) ' 316 

5. The Mollusca of the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and 

Arabian Sea, as evidenced mainlv through the Collections 
of Mr. F. W. Townsend, 1893-191J0 ; with Descriptions 
of new Species. By James Cosmo Meltill, M.A., 
F.L.S., F.Z.S. , and Eobert Standee, Assist.-Keeper, 
Manchester Museum.— Part I. (Plates XXI.-XXIV.) 327 

6. Further Eesearches concerning the Molluscs of the Great 

African Lakes. By J. E. S. Moore. (Plates XXV. & 
XXVI.) ..' 46i 



November 19, 1901. 

The Secretary. Eeport on the Additions to the Society's 
Menagerie in June, July, August, Septembei-, and 
October, 1901 470 

The Secretary. Announcement of the offer of a pair of young 

Giraffes to the Society by Col. B. Mahon ' 471 



A'l 

Pase 
The Secretary. Exhibition of a small collection of Mammals 

presented to the Society by M. C. Satunin 472 

Ml-. Sclater. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some heads 
of Antelopes obtained by Sir W. Grarstin in the Egyptian 
Sudan • • • -^72 

Mr. Lydekker. Exhibition of, on behalf of the President, 
aiid remarks upon, a photograph of shed horns of Pere 
David's Deer . . . .\ . . 472 

Prof. E. Hay Lankester, E.E S. Notice of a Memoir on 
■ Olcapia, a new Grenus of Griraffidre, from Central Africa. . 472 

1. On ihe Eive-horned Giraffe obtained by Sir Harry 

Johnston near Mount Elgoii. By Olbeield Tho^sfas, 
P.E.S., P.Z.8 474 

2. On the Male Genito-Urinary Organs of the Leindosiren 

and Protopterus. By J. Graham Kerr. (Plates XXVII. 

& XXVIII.) .....! 484 

3. Pield-notes on the Antelopes obtained during a Journey in 

Somaliland and Southern Abyssinia in 1900-1901. By 
Alfred E. Pease, M.P., P.Z.S 499 



December 3, 190]. 

The Secretary. Report on the Additions to the Society's 

Menagerie in November 1901. (Plate XXIX.) '. . 503 

Mr. Sclater. Remarks on the herd of Pi'jevalsky's Horse at 

Vi^oburn Abbey 505 

Mr. W. E. de Winton, P.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks 

upon, a large specimen of the Grey Mullet 505 

1. On the Myriapoda collected during the " Slceat Expedition " 

to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. By F. G. Siwlair 
(formerly P. G. Heathcote), M.A., " P.L.S., Trinity 
College, Cambridge. (Plates XXX.-XXXII.) '. 505 

2. On the Crustacea collected during the " Skeat Expedition " 

to the Malay Peninsula, together with a Note on the 
Genus Actceopsis. By W. P. Lanchester, M.A., King's 
College, Cambridge. — Part I. (Plates XXXIII. ^& 
XXXIV.) , 533 



Vll 

Page 

3. List of a Collection of Snakes, Crocodiles, and Chelonians 

from the Malay Peninsula, made by Members of tbe 
" Skeat ExpeditioD," 1899-1900. By F. F. Laidlmv, 
B.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator at Owens 
College. With an Appendix containing a list of the 
names of tbe places visited hv the " 8J(eat Expeditioi)." 
By W. W. Skeat. (Plate XXXV.) i>7^ 

4. Notes upon the Anatomy and Systematic Position of ' 

Jihynclma. By Fbakk E. Bbddard, M. A. , F.K.S., Vice- 
Secretary and Prosector to the Society 587 

5. On some Anatomical Differences between the Common 

Snipe (Gallinac/o coeJestis) and the Jaclv Snipe (GaUinar/o 
ffaUinnh). By Frank E. Beddabd, M.A., F.R.S., Yice- 
Secretary and Prosector to the Society , 59G 

6. Oji the Collection of Birds made by Dr. A. Donaldson 

Smith on his last Expedition to Lake Rudolf and the 
Nile. Ey R. Bowdler Shabpe, LL.D., F.Z.S., &c. 
(Plate XXXYI.) 602 

7. Descriptions of two new Fishes discovered by Dr. W. J. 

Ansorge in Southern Nigeria. By G. A. "Bottlenger, 
F.R.S. (Plate XXXVTL) " 623 



December 17, 1901. 

Mr. Gr. Metcalfe and Mr. 0. Thomas. Eemarks on the repro- 
duction of the Duckbill 62-1 

Dr. C. I. Forsyth Major, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks 
upon, the skull of a new Fossil Mammal {Enliydrictis 
galictoides) 625 

Mr. J. S. Budgett. Notice of a Memoir on the Structure 

of the Larval Poly]pierus 628 

1. On the Anatomy of Gruiform Birds ; with special reference 

to the Correlation of Modilicatious. By P. Chalaiees 
Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc.Oxon.,F.Z.S., Lecturer on Biology 
at the London Hospital Medical College, University of 
London 629 

2. On the Muscles of the Ungulata. By Bertram C. A. 

WiwDLE, D.Sc, M.D., M.A., F.R.S. , Professor of 
Anatomy in the University of Birmingham ; and F. G. 
PxVBSONS, F.R.CS., F.Z.S. , F.L.S., Lecturer on Fluman 
and Comparative Anatomy at St. Thomas's Hospital, and 
Hunterian Professor in the Roval College of Surgeons, 
Enfflaud.— Part 1 * ' 656 



Till 

Pngo 

8. On the Spermatophores of the Earthworms of the Genus 

Benhamm. By Fbats^k E. Beddabd, M.A., E.R.8 701 

4. Eurther Notes on the African Batrachians Trichohatrachus 

and Gampsosteonyx. By G. A. Boulen&er, E.E.S, 
(Plate XXXVIII'.) 709 

5. On Butterflies from St. Lucia, W. Indies, collected by 

Major A. H. Cowie. By Aethue G. Butlee, Ph.D", 
E.L.S., E.Z.S., &c ■ 711 

6. On the Spawn and Young of a Polychsete Worm of the 

Genus Marphysa. By L. A. Boeeadaile, M.A., E.Z.S., 
Lecturer in Natui'ai Sciences of Selv^yn College, 
Cambridge. (Plate XXXIX.) 714 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



C O N T R I B U T 11 S, 



WuJi References to the several Articles contributed bj/ each. 



Page 
Andebsok, Dr. Johk (the late), LL.D,, F.R.S. 

A List of the Reptiles and Batrachiaus obtained by 
Mr. A. Blayney Percival iii fSouthern Arabia. With Xotes 
by the Collector. (Plates XIV. & XY.) 137 

Beddaed, Fra^^k E., M.A., F.E.S., Vice-Secretary and 
Prosector to the Society. 

On some Species of Eai'thworms of the Genus Benhamla 
from Tropical Africa 190 

Notes upon the Anatomy and Sj^steraatic Position of 
BhyncJicea 587 

On some Anatomical Differences between the Common 
Snipe (Gallmacfo coelestis) and the Jack Snipe {GalHnago 
galUmda) 596 

On the Spermatophores of the Earth worms of the Genus 
Benhamia , 704 



X 

Page 

Benham, Prof. W. Blaxlawd, D.Sc, M.A., F.Z.S., Otago 
University. 

On the Anatomy of Ooc/ia hreviceps. (Plates VIII. -XT.) 107 



BoisTHOTE, J. Lewis, M.A., F.Z.S. 

On the Evolution of Pattern in Feathers. (Plates 
XIX. & XX. ) B16 

BoRBADAiLE, L. A., M.A., F.Z.S., Lecturer in Natural 
Sciences of Selwyn College, Cambridge. 

On the Spawn and Young of a Polychsete Worm of the 
G-enus Mariiliysa. (Plate XXXIX.) ...-..■... 714 

BOULBNGEB, GrEOEGE ALBERT, F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

Descriptions of two new Chameleons from Mount 
.Buwenzori, British East Africa. (Plates XII. & XIII.) . 135 

Description of a new Fish of the Genus Oohius obtained 
by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in South Arabia 152 

On a small Collection of Fishes from Lake Victoria made 
by order of Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.B 158 

Description of two new Fishes discovered by Dr. W. J. 
Ansorge in Southern Nigeria. (Plate XXXVII.) Q23 

Further Notes on the African Batrachians Trichohatra- 
cJius and Gampsosteonyx. (Plate XXXVIII.) 709 

Broom, Dr. E,, B.Sc, Pearstown, S. Africa. 

On the Structure and Affinities of Udenoclon. (Plates 
XVL-XVIII.) 162 

BUDGETT, J. S., M.A., F.Z.S. 

Notice of a Memoir on the Structure of the Larval 
Polypterus ()'2S 



Butler, Arthur Gr., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

On Butterflies from St. Lucia, W. Indies, collected by 
Major A. H. Cowie 711 

CAMEROif, Peter. 

On the Hymenopf-era collected dariDg tlie " Skeat 
Expedition "to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900 16 

De Winto^, W. E., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a large specimen of 
the Grey Mullet .505 

Dunn, Henry N., Capt. Egyptian Army. 

Eield-Notes on the Antelopes of the White Nile 291 

Hogg, H. E., M.A., E.Z.S. 

On Australian and New Zealand Spiders of the Sub- 
order Mygalomorphfe 218 

Kerr, J. Graham, E.Z.S. 

On the Male Genito-Urinary Organs of the Lepidosiren 
and Protopterus. (Plates XXVII. & XX VIII.) 484 

Laidlaw, E. E., B.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator 
at Owens College. 
List of a Collection of Snakes, Crocodiles, and Chelonians 
froin the Malay Peninsula, made by Members of the 
"Skeat Expedition," 1899-1900. With an Appendix 
containing a list of the names of the places visited by the 
"Skeat Expedition." By W. W. Skeat. (Plate XXXV.) 575 

Lanchestbr, W. E., M.A., King's College, Cambridge. 

On the Crustacea collected during the " Skeat Expedi- 
tion " to t]\e Malay Peninsula, together -with a Note 
on the Genus Actceojjsis. — Part I. (Plates XXXIII. & 
. XXXIV.) 533 



Xlt 

Page 

Lankestee, E. Eay, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., E.Z.8., Director 

of the Natural History Departments of the British 

Museum. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, two sliuUs and a skin 
of the newly-discovered African Mammal {Okapia 
johnstoni) 279 

Notice of a Memoir on Ohapia, a ne^v Gfenus of Giraffidte, 
from Central Africa 472 

Ltdekkee, E., B.A., E.R.S., E.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, on behalf of the President, and remarks 
upon, a photograph of shed horns of Pere David's Deer. . 472 

Major, Dr. C. I. Foesyth, E.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the skull of a new 
Fossil Mammal (Enhi/dricfis gcdietoides) 025 

Meltill, James Cosmo, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.8.,and Sta^^bets-, 
EoBEET, Assistant-Keeper, Manchester Museum. 

The Mollusca of the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and 
Arabian Sea, as evidenced mainly through the Collections 
of Mr. F. W. Townsend, 1898-1900 ; with Descriptions 
of new Species.— Part I. (Plates XXI.-XXIV.) 327 

Metcalee, G., of Sydney, N.S.W. 

Eemarks on the reproduction of the Duckbill 624 

MiLLAis, J. G., F.Z.S. 

On the Second Occurrence of Bechstein's Bat ( Vespertilio 
bechsteini) in Great Britain 216 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers, M.A., D.Sc. Oxon., F.Z.S. , 
Lecturer on Biology at the London Hospital Medieul 
College, University of Loudon. 

On the Anatomy of Gruiform Birds ; with special 
reference to the Correlation of Modifications 629 



Xlll 

Page 
MooEE, J, E. 8., fioyal College of Science, South Keusiugtou. 

Further Ee.searches concerning the Molluscs of the 
Great African Lakes. (Plates XXV. & XXVI.) 4(31 

Pajisons, p. Gt., P'.R.C.S., P'.Z.S., P.L.S., Lecturer on Human 
and Comparative Anatomy at St. Thomas's Hospital, 
and Hunterian Professor iii the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons, England ; and Windle, Bebtram C. A., 
D.Sc, M.D., M.A., F.E.S., Professor of Anatomy 
in the University of Birmingham. 

On the Muscles of the Uugulata. — Part 1 656 

Pease, Alfred E., M.P., F.Z.S. 

F'ield-notes on the Antelopes ohtained during a Journey 
in Somaliland and Southern Abyssinia in 1900-1901 .... 499 

Peckham, Gr. W., and Peckham, Elizabeth (1. 

On Spiders of the F'amily Atti'Uc found in Jamaica. 
(Plates II.-IV.) 6 

PococK, E. I., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarlcs upon, ue.sts of a tree Trap- 
door Spider from Bio, Janeiro 85 

PUNNETT, E. C, B.A., F.Z.S. 

On some Arctic Neuierteans. (Plates VI. & VII.) . . 90 

EiBEWOOD. W. Gr., D.Sc, F\L.S., F\Z.S., Lecturer on Biology 
at the Medical School of St. Mary's Hospital. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some microscopic 
preparations of the hair of Antelopes, Giraffe, and Zebra. 3 

EoTHSCHiLD, The Hon. L. Walter, M.P., Ph.D., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, specimens of the Ibex 
of Abyssinia {Capra ivalie Eiipp.) 281 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a specimen of the 
Abyssinian AVolf (Oanis mneiisis Eiipp.) 288 



Satunin, Gokstantin, C.M.Z.S. 

On a new Hedgehog from Transcaucasia ; with a Revi- 
sion of the Species of the Genus Erinaceus of the Russian 
Empire 284 

ScLATER, Philip Lutley, M.A., D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., 
Secretary to the Society. 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
April 1901 1 

Notice of a Zehra (apparently Equus grevyi) taken from 
Ludolphus's work on Abyssinia 2 

Exhibition of an original water-colour painting by 
Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., and remarks upon the 
newly-discovered African Mammal, the Okapi. (Plate I.) 3 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
May 1901 279 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
June, July, August, September, and October, 1 901 .... 470 

Announcement of the offer of a pair of young Giraffes 
to the Society by Ool. B. Mahon 471 

Exhibition of a small collection of Mammals presented 
to the Society by M. C. Satunin 472 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some heads of Ante- 
lopes obtained by Sir W. Garstin in the Egyptian Sudan. 472 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
November 1901. (Plate XXIX.) 503 

Remarks on the herd of Prjevalsky's Horse at Woburn 
Abbey 505 

SiiAapE, R. BownLEii, LL.U., P.Z.S., British Museum, 
Natural History, South Kensington. 

On a Collection of Birds made by Dr. Donaldson Smith 
in Northern Somali-land 298 

On the Collection of Birds made by Dr. A. Donaldson 
Smith on his last Expedition to Lake Rudolf and the 
Nile. (Plate XXXVI.) 602 



Page 
WuELroEU) R., C.M.Z.8., Curator, Surawak Museum. 

Exhibitiou of a series of lautern-slides illustrative ol: 
mimicry amongst Bornean Insects 284 

!Shee]30bn, C. Davies, P.Z.S. 

Eemarks on the progress of the ' Index Animalium ' . . 2 

Simon, M. Eug-ene, President of the Entomological Society 
of Erance. 

On the Arachnida collected during the " Skeat Expedi- 
tion " to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900 45 

SiKOLAiB, E. Gr. (formerly E. G-. Heathoote), M.A., F.L.S., 
Trinity College, Cambridge. 

On the Myriapoda collected during the " Skeat Expedi- 
tion " to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. (Plates XXX.- 
XXXII.) 505 

Skeat, W. W. 

List of Place-names in the Siamese Malay States visited 
by Members of the " Skeat Expedition " 583 

StajSTDen, Eobbbt, Assistant-Keeper, Manchester Museum, 

and Melvill, Jambs Cosmo, M.A., E.L.S., E.Z.S. 

The Mollusca of the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and 

Arabian Sea, as evidenced mainly through the Collections 

of Mr. E. W. Townsend, 1893-1900 ; with Descriptious 

of new Species.— Part I. (Plates XXI.-XXIV.) 327 

Thomas, Oldeield, E.E.S., E.Z.S. 

On the more notable Mammals obtaiued by Sir Harry 
Johnston in the Uganda Protectorate. (Plate V.) 85 

Notes on the Type Specimen of UJuuuccrun limoiis 
Sclater ; with Remarks on the Generic Position of the 
Living Species of Rhinoceros 154 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a peculiar Stag's 
frontlet and hox'ns from Borneo 284 

On the Eive-horned Giraffe obtained by Sir Plarry 
Johnston near Mount Elgon 474 



Page 
WiNBLE, Bebtham C. A., D.Sc, M.D., M.A., F.E.S., Pro- 
fessor of Anatomy in the University of Birmingham ; 
and Parsons, F. G-., F.E.C.S., F.Z.S., F.L.8., Lec- 
turer on Human and Comparative Anatomy at 
8t. Thomas's Hospital, and Hunterian Professor in 
the Royal College of Surgeons, England. 

On the Muscles of the Ungulata. — Part I, . 656 



LIST OF TLATES, 

1901.— Vol. II. 



Plate Page 

I. The Okapi {Okapia jolmstoni) 3 



II.-] 

III. \ : 

IV. J 



III. }>NewAttid£e from Jamaica. 

IV. 

V. Genetta victories 85 

VI I 

■ > Arctic Nemerteans 90 

VIII. ^ 

y' r Anatomy of Cogia 107 

XI.) 
XII. Chamcuhon xenorhinns 



. 135 
XIII. Chamceleon johnstoni 

XIV. 1. Bunopus spatalura. 2. Aganiodon arabicus . . . . i -,07 

XV. Uromastix le7iti i 

XVI. Skfileton of Udenodon gracilis j 

XVII. Skull, Vertebra, & Hind Limb of Udenodon > 1 62 

XVIII. Limb-bones & Sternum of Udenodon ) 

XIX I 

■ \ Evolution of Pattern in Feathers ..;... 316 

XX. 1 

XXI. I 

^^' [ MoUusca of the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea ... . 327 

XXIV. ) 
XXV. Mollusca of Tanganyika (iVeoif/iazw;?/? and Vivipara). 461 
XXVI. Mollusica, of Taiagsinyika, {Neothau7na and Kgtra) .. 461 

XXVII. Genito-Urinary Organs of Male Lepidoriiren 482 

XXVIII. Genito-Urinary Organs of Male Lepidosiren andl ^g^ 

Protopterus 1 

XXIX. Equus granti 603 

XXX. 1 

XXXI. i Myriapoda from the Malay Peninsula 605 

XXXII. ) 

h 



XV HI 

Plate Page 

AAAiii. [ Crustaceans from the Malay Peninsula >534 

XXXIV. I "^ 

XXXV. Snakes from the Malay Peninsula 575 

XXXVI. 1. Cossi/pha oinoensis. 2. Floceipasser clonaldsoni . . C02 
XXX VII. New West- African Fishes. 1. Phractura ansorgii.\ 

2. Fundulus ffularis, meile. S. FundtdusffularisA 623 

female ) 

XXXVIII. 1. TricJiobatraclms robustvs. 2, 3. Gampsosteonyx [ ^.qq 

batesi : i 

XXXIX. Young of a Worm of the Genus Marphysa 714 



LIST OF TEXT-FIGURES. 
1901.— Vol. II. 



Page 

1. Diagram of anterior ■part of vascular system of Amphiporus 

thompsoni 91 

2. Drepanophorus horealis. Section tlirough the commissural 

region of the brain showing the opening of the cerebral 

organ 97 

3. Drepanopliorus horealis. Section slightly behind the preceding 

one, showing the expansions of the rhyuchoccelomic diverti- 
cula over the cerebral organ 98 

4. Amphiporus, &c 103 

5. Malacobdella 103 

6. Malacobdella according to Biirger 103 

7. Muscles of penis of Eisso's Grampus, seen from below 128 

8. Muscles of penis of Greenland Right Whale, seen from below . 129 

9. Gohius 2^ereivali 153 

10. A composite figure of the SkuU of TJdenodon 165 

11. Skull of a primitive Theriodont, Ictidosuchus pruncevus 165 

12. Ventral view of the anterior segments ol Benhamia moorei. .^, 193 

13. Spermiitheca of Benhamia moorei 197 

14. Two setse of Benhamia johtistoni 200 

15. Ventral surface of clitellar segments of ^e?i/(«w««yo7;??s^o?«' .. 200 

16. Peuial setae of Benhamia 205 

17. Penial seta of Benhamia aiisteni _ 208 

18. Extremity of penial seta of Benhamia (jamhiana 212 

19. Penial seta of Benhamia michaelseni 214 

20. Vespertilio hechsteini 217 

21. Eriodon rugosum. Male palp. B. insigne. Eyes, male palp . . 223 

22. Eriodon incerhim. Eyes, male palp 224 

23. Eriodon rubrocapitatum. Eyes of male, eyes, of female, left 

and right male palps 226 

24. Arhanitis gilliesii. Eyes, rear tarsal claws. Supposed A, 

huttoni. Rear tarsal claws 234 

25. Maoriana dendyi. Eyes, profile, lip, and sternum showing 

sigillas 237 



XX 

Page 

26. Eyes oi Idioctis helva. I. pahnarum. Eyes of I. paliiiarHm . , 242 

27. iSelenocosmia stlrlviyi. Mule palpal org-au, extremity enlarged 

from upper and under sides, eyes 245 

28. Selenocosmia vulpina. Papal bulb from above and beneath, 

whole of palp, eyes, profile 247 

29. Selenof,y2nis pjlumipes. Eyes 2J9 

30. Anmne grisea. Eyes 253 

31. Aname arborea. Eyes 254 

32. Aname pellucida. Eyes 256 

33. Ixamatus gregorii. Male paip, eyes 259 

34. Ixamatus broumi, Male palp, tibial joint of first pair of legs, 

eyes 260 

35. Chenistonia maculata. Tibial and metatarsal joints of first 

pair of legs of male, end of palp, eyes 262 

36. Chenistonia major. Eyes 264 

37. Porrhothele simoni. Eyes, profile 269 

38. Steny grocer cus hroomi. Eyes, profile 271 

39. Atrax rohustus. Eyes, tarsal claws 273 

40. Hadronyehe cerberea. Eyes, right and left male palp 275 

41. Hexathele hochstetteri. Eyes, male palp, tibia, and metatarsus 

of male, underside of abdomen, profile 277 

42. Head of old male Eive-horned Giraffe, showing the position of 

the mizen horns 476 

43. Posterior part of the skull of an old Five-liorned Giraffe 478 

44. Postero-esterual view of the occipital region of a young 

Giraffe, showing the swelling wliich represents the mizen 

horn , ■i/8 

45. Occipital view of the skull of an old male Eive-horned Giraffe . 479 

46. Young Okapi. Postero-external view of the occipital crest . . 480 

47. Bramatherium perimetise. Diagrammatic side-view of the 

skull, showing the position of the horns , , 481 

48. Bramatherium perimense. Diagrammatic back-view of the 

skull . . 48-2 

49. The genito-urinary apparatus of the male Lepidosiren 485 

50. Transverse section of the genito-urinary apparatus of Lepido- 

siren 488 

61. Section through the Malpighian capsule of Lepidosiren 489 

52. Transverse section through the genito-urinary organs of the 

male Lepidosiren 490 

53. The genito-urinary apparatus of Frotopiteriis 492 

54. Diagrammatic sketch of the genito-urinary system in certain 

Fishes 496 

55. Grant's Zebra 504 

66. Portion of windpipe of RhynchcBa capensis, $ 589 

67. Portion of windpipe of Woodcock {Scolopax rusticula) 589 

68. Portion of windpipe of Common Snipe (Gallinago coelestis) .... 589 

69. Skull of Rhynchcea capensis, ventral aspect 591 

60. Skull of Bliynclicea capensis, dorsal aspect 591 



61. Extremity of bouy bill of Scolopax rusticula 593 

62. Extremity of bony bill of Tringa canutus 593 

63. Extremity of bony bill of Rhynchcsa cnpensis 693 

64. Base of skull of Common Snipe (Gallmago ccelestis) 597 

65. Base of skull of Jack Snipe (Gallinaf/o r/allinula) . . 597 

66. Skull of Common Snipe (G. coelestis), lateral aspect 598 

67. Skull of Jack Snipe ((?. gnllinula), lateral aspect 598 

68. Syrinx of Gallinago gallinula S > front view 600 

69. Syrinx of G. gallinula J , lateral view 600 

70. Wiug-structure of Rallus longirostns 631 

71. Wing-structure of Pso^^hia obscura 633 

72. Wing-structure of Otis tarda 634 

73. Wing-structure of Rhinochetiis jiibatus , 634 

74. Shoulder-muscles of Rallus longirostris 637 

75. Shoulder-muscles of Psophia obscura 637 

76. Alar muscles of Rhinochetus jubatus 640 

77. Alar muscles of Rallus longirostris 640 

78. Alar muscles of Seliornis fulica 640 

79. Thigh-muscles of Psophia leucoptera 646 

80. Thigh-muscles of Aramus scolopaeeus 648 

81. Knee-muscles of Rallus longirostris 650 

82. Knee-muscles of Aramus scolopaeeus 650 

83. Knee-muscles of Otis tarda 651 

84. Knee-muscles of Seliornis fulica . 651 

85. Deep plantar tendons of Gruiformes 654 

86. Facial muscles of the Duiker-bok 662 

87. Facial muscles of the Mouflon 663 

88. Hyoid muscles of the Duiker-bok 669 

89. Hyoid apparatus of the Duiker-bok 671 

90. Shoulder-muscles of the Hyrax 680 

91. Arm and shoulder-muscles of the Hyrax 682 

92. Spermatheca of Benhamia austeni . 705 

93. Spermatheca of Benhamia austeni, with an incompletely 

formed spermatophoie 705 

94. Longitudinal section through duct of spermatheca oi Benhamia. 

atisteni, to show portion of spermatophore in position 707 



LIST OF NEW GENERIC TEEMS 

PROPOSED IN THE PRESENT VOLUME (1901. vol. II.). 



Page 

Actites ( Crustacea) 574 

Argyropeza (Moll.) 371 

Atanyjoppa (Hyrnenopt.) 37 

Cheni'stonia (Arachn.) 251, 261 

Enhydrictis (Mamm.) 627 

Maoriana (Arachn.) 230, 236 

Nilakantha (Arachn . ) 8 



Okapia (Mamm.) 280 

Panysinus (Arachn.) 74 

Skeatia (Hyrnenopt. ) 39 

Taurongia (Arachn.) 279 

Vagenatha (Hyrnenopt.) 41 

Verpulus (Arachn.) 84 

Zygometis (Arachn.) 63 



tx, 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



aENERAL MEETmaS FOR SCIEMIPIC BUSINESS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 
1901, vol. II. 



PART I. 

CONTAINING PAPERS READ IN 
MAY AND JUNE. 



OCTOBER 1st, 1901. 



M h-Vz 






PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
SOLD AT THEIE HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE. 

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M 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 

1901._VoL. 11. 
Part I. 



May 7, 1901. 

Pag« 
The Secretary. Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in ApriM901 1 

Mr. Sclater. Notice of a Zebra (apparently Equus grevyi) taken from Ludolphus's work 

on Abyssinia 2 

Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S. Remarks on the progress of the ' Index Animalium ' . . , . 2 

Dr. W. Gr. Ridewood, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, some microscopic 

preparations of the hairs of Antelopes, Giraffe, and Zebra . . ". 3 

Mr. Sclater. Exhibition of an original water-colour painting by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., 

and remarks upon the newly-discovered African Mammal, the Okapi. (Plate I.) . . . 3 

1. On Spiders of the Family Aftidm found in Jamaica. By G. W. Peckham and 

E. G. Peckham. (Plates II.-IV.) 6 

2. On the Hvmenoptera collected during the " Skeat Expedition " to the Malay Peninsula, 

1899-1900. By P. Cameron 16 

3. On the Arachnida collected during the " Skeat Expedition " to the Malay Peninsula, 

1899-1900. By M. Eugene Simon, President of the Entomological Society of France . 45 



May 21, 1901. 

Mr. R. I. Pocock., F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, nests of a tree Trap-door 

Spider from Rio Janeiro ■• 85 

1 On the more notable Mammals obtained by Sir Harry Johnston in the Uganda 

Protectorate. By Oldfield Thomas. (Plate V.) ■ 85 

2. On some Arctic Nemerteans. By R. C. Punnett, B.A. (Plates VI. & VII.) 90 

3 On the Anatomy of Cogia breviccps. By W. Blaxland Benham, M.A., D.Sc, F.Z.S., 

Professor of Biology in the University of Otago, New Zealand. (Plates VIII. -XI.), . 107 

4 Descriptions of two new Chameleons from Mount Ruwenzori, British East Africa. By 

G. A. BouLBNGER, F.R.S. (Plates XII. & XIII.) 135 

f) A List of the Reptiles and Batrachians obtained by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in Southern 
Arabia. By the late Dr. J. Anderson, LL.D., F.R.S. Vi^ith Notes by the Collector. 
(Plates XIV. & XV.) 137 

6 Description of a new Fish of the Genus Gobms obtained by Mr.^A. Blayney Percival in 

South Arabia. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. ...^ 152 

Contents coiitinued on page 3 of Wrapper. 



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1865 


. 4s. 


Gd. .. 


. . 6s 


.. 9s. 




... 12s 


. . 33s. 


9d. .. 


. . 45s. 


1866 


. 4s. 


(5d. .. 


.. 6s.*.... 


.. 9s. 




... 12s.t.... 


.. 33s. 


9d. .. 


. . 45s. 


1867 








.. 9s. 




... 12s.*.... 


.. 33s. 


9d. .. 


. . 45s. 


1868 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 33s. 


9d. .. 


. . 45s. 


1869 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


. . 33s. 


9d. .. 


. . 45s. 


1870 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


. . 33s. 


9d. .. 


.. 45s. 


Index, 


1861 


-1870 




.. 4s. 


6d. . 


. . . 6s. 








1871 








.. 9s. 




... 12s.*.... 


. . 33s. 


Qd. .. 


. . 4os. 


1872 








.. 9s. 




... 12s.*.... 
... 12s 


. . 33s. 
.. 33s. 


9d. .. 
9d. .. 


. . 45s. t 


1873 








.. 9s. 


. . 45s. 


1874 








.. 9s. 




... ISs.f.... 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s.t 


1875 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1876 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




. . 48s. 


1877 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




. . 48s. 


1878 


• . • . 






.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1879 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 365. 




.. 48s, 


1880 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


Index, 


1871 


-1880 




.. 4s. 


Gd. . 


. . . 6s. 








1881 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1882 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1883 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1884 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1885 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1886 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


1887 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 3es. 




.. 48s. 


1888 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 

... 12s 


.. 36s. 
.. 36s. 




. . 485. 


1889 








.. 9s. 


.. 48s. 


1890 








.. 9s. 




... 12s 


.. 36s. 




.. 48s. 


Index 


1881 


-1890 




.. 4s. 


6^. . 


... 6s. 








* 


So perfect copies in stock. 








t Out of pi 


int. 



PROCEEDINGS of the GENERAL MEETINGS for SCIENTIFIC 
BUSINESS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

8vo. 11 vols. 

Price to Price to the 

Fellows. Public. 

1891 36s 485. 

1892 36s 48s. 

1893 36s 48s. 

1894 36s 48s. 

1895 36s 48s. 

1896 36s 48s. 

1897 36s 48s. 

1898 36s 48s. 

1899 365 48s. 

1900 36s 48s. 

1901, vol. I 18s 24s. 

,. II., Pt. 1 9s 12s. 



LISTS OF THE ANIMALS IN THE SOCIETY'S GARDENS. 

List of Vertebrated Animals Living in the Gardens of the Zoological 

Society of London. (First Edition.) 8vo. 1862. Price Is. 6c?.* 
List of Vertebrated Animals Living in the Gardens of the Zoological 

Society of London. (Second Edition.) 8vo. 1863. Price Is. 6cZ. 
List of Vertebrated Animals Living in the Gardens of the Zoological 

Society of London, (Third Edition.) 8vo. 1865. Price Is. 6d. 
List of Vertebrated Animals Living in the Gardens of the Zoological 

Society of London. (Fourth Edition.) 8vo. 1866. Price Is. 6<i. 
Revised List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the 

Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. (Fifth Edition.) 

8vo. 1872. Price 2s.* 

Revised List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the 

Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. — Supplement, 

containing Additions received in 1872, 1873, and 1874. 8vo. 

1875. Price Is. 

List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the Gardens 

of the Zoological Society of London. (Sixth Edition.) Cloth. 

8vo. 1877. Price 3s. 6d. 

List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the Gardens 

of the Zoological Society of London. (Seventh Edition.) Cloth. 

8vo. 1879. Price 3s. 6d. 

List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the Gardens 

of the Zoological Society of London. — First Supplement, con- 
taining Additions received in 1879. 8vo. 1880. Price Is. Qd. 
List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the Gardens 

of the Zoological Society of London. (Eighth Edition.) Cloth. 

8vo. 1883. Price 3s. 6d. 

List of the Vertebrated Animals now or lately Living in the Gardens 

of the Zoological Society of London. (Ninth Edition.) 8vo. 

1896. * Out of print. Price 4s. 6d. 

THE^OOLOGICAL RECORD. 

The Zoological Record for the years 1864-1893. Thirty volumes. 
8vo. Price £9 10s., Net. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-first, Being Records of 
Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1894. Edited 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by David Shakp, Esq., 
M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. London, 1895. 8vo. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-second, Being Records of 
Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1895, Edited 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by David Shakp, Esq,, 
M,A., r,R.S,, F.Z.S. London, 1896. 8vo. Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-third. Being Records of 
Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1896. Edited 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by David Sharp, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.Z,S., &c, London, 1897. 8vo. Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-fourth. Being Records of 
Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1897. Edited 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by David Shaep, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c, London, 1898, 8vo, Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-fifth, Being Records of 
Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1898. Edited 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by David Shakp, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.Z.S., &G. London, 1899. 8vo. Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-sixth. Being Records of 
Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1899. Edited 
(for the Zoological Society of London) by David Sharp, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.Z.S., &G. London, 1900. 8vo. Price 30s. 

Catalogue of the Library of the Zoological Society of London. 
(Fourth Edition.) Cloth, 8vo. 1887. Price 4s. 

These publications may be obtained at the Society's Office 
(5 Hanover Square, ^V-), d Messrs. Longmans' {Paternoster Roi 



THE ZOOLOGICAL RECORD. 



oJ<Ko 



'PHE object of the Zoological Record is to give, by means of an 
annua] Yolume, complete lists of the Works and Publications 
relating to Zoology in all its branches that have appeared during 
the year preceding the issue of the Volume ; together with full 
information as to the points they deal with, arranged in such a 
manner as to serve as an Index to the literature of Zoology in all 
parts of the globe, and thus to form a repertory which will retain 
its value for the Student in future years. 

The ' Zoological Record ' is published for the Society by Messrs. 
Gurney and Jackson at the price of 30s. per volume. But all 
Members of the Zoological Society of London have the privilege 
of receiving it, including the cost of delivery (within the United 
Kingdom), at a subscription price of 20s. per annum. This Sub- 
scription is due on the 1st of July in every year, but the privilege 
of Subscription is forfeited unless the amount be paid before the 
1st of December following. 

The Zoological Society, having purchased the entire stock of 
the 'Zoological Record,' are able to supply complete sets of the 
first thirty volumes at the price of £9 10s. Yolumes of any 
single year (exclusive of the last five volumes and Yol. 6) can 
likewise be supplied at 10s. per volume. 

Members of the Society wishing to subscribe to the ' Record ' 
are requested to apply at this office for a Form, to be returned 
when filled up and signed by the subscriber. In order to facilitate 
the payment of the subscription, a Banker's Order Porm is also 
furnished to those who prefer that mode of payment. This order, 
when filled up and signed, should be sent to the Society's office for 
registration ; it wiU then be sent to the Agents named therein. 

Learned Societies and Institutions and members of the former 

Zoological Record Association are permitted to subscribe to the 

' Record ' on the same conditions as are accorded to Members of 

the Zoological Society. 

P. L. SCLATER, 

Secretary. 
October, 1901. 

Zoological Society or London, 
3 Hanover Squark, W. 



LIST OF VOLUMES or the 'ZOOLOGICAL EECOED.' 



. The Eecord of Zoological Literature, 1864. Volume First. 
Edited by Albert C. L. G. Gunthek, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., P.Z.S., &c. 
London, 1865. Price 10*. 

The Record of Zoological Literature, 1865. Volume Second. 
Edited by Albert C. L. G. Gunther, M.A., M.T)., Ph.D., E.Z.S.,&c. 
London, 1866. Price 10s. 

The Record of Zoological Literature, 1866. Volume Third. 
Edited by Albert C. L. G. GtiNiHEK, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. London, 1867. Price 10s. 

The Record of Zoological Literature, 1867. Volume Fourth. 
Edited by Albert C. L. G. GiJnther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. London, 1868. Price 10s. 

The Record of Zoological Literature, 1868. Volume Fifth. 
Edited by Albert C. L. G. Gunther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. London, 1869. Price 10s. 

The Record of Zoological Literature, 1869. Volume Sixth. 
Edited by Albert C. L. G. Gijnther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S., &c. London, 1870. Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record for 1870 ; being Volume Seventh of the 
Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Alfred Kewton, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. London, 1871. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1871 ; being Volume Eighth of the 
Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Alfred Newtojst, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. London, 1873. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1872 ; being Volume Ninth of the 
Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Alfred Newton, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., &c. London, 1874. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1873 ; being Volume Tenth of the 
Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edward Caldwell 
Rye, F.Z.S. London, 1875. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1874 ; being Volume Eleventh of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edward Caldwell 
Rte, F.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1876. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1875 ; being Volume Twelfth of the 
Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edward Caldwell Rye, 
F.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1877. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1876 ; being Volume Thirteenth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edward Caldwell 
Rye, F.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1878. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1877 ; being Volume Fourteenth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edward Caldwell 
Rye, F.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1879. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1878 ; being Volume Fifteenth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edward Caldwell 
Rye, F.Z.S., M.E.S. London, ] 880. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1 879 ; being Volume Sixteenth of 
the Record of Zoolgical literature. Edited by Edward Caldayell 
Rye, F.Z.S., M.E.S. London 1881. Price 10s. 



The Zoological Record for 1880 ; being Volume Seventeenth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edwaed Caldwell 
Rye, E.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1881. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1881 ; being Volume Eighteenth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edwaed Caldwell 
Rye, E.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1882. Price 10*. 

The Zoological Record for 1882 ; being Volume Nineteenth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edwaed Caldwell 
Rye, E.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1883. Price 10*. 

The Zoological Record for 1883 ; being Volume Twentieth of 
the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Edwaed Caldwell 
Rye, E.Z.S., M.E.S. London, 1884. Price 10*. 

The Zoological Record for 1 884 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
first of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by F. Jepeeey 
Bell, M.A. London, 1885. Price 10*. 

The Zoological Record for 1885 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
second of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by F. Jeffrey 
Bell, M.A. London, 1886. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1886 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
third of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Feank E. 
Beddaed, M.A., F.Z.8. London, 1887. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1887 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
fourth of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Feank E. 
Beddaed, M.A., F.Z.S. London, 1888. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1888 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
fifth of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Feank E. 
Beddaed, M.A., F.Z.S. London, 1890. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1889 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
sixth of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Feank E. 
Beddaed, M.A., F.Z.S. London, 1890. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record for 1890 ; being Volume the Twenty- 
seventh of the Record of Zoological Literature. Edited by Feank 
E. Beddaed, M.A., F.Z.S. London, 1892. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Twenty-eighth ; being 
Records of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1891. 
By J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekker, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, B. B. Woodward, C. Warburton, R. I. Pocock, 
D. Sharp, E. A. Minchin, A. Willev, and S. J. Hickson. Edited by 
D. Shaep, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1892. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Twenty-ninth ; being 
Records of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1892. 
By J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekker, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, B. B. Woodward, R. I. Pocock, D. Sharp, F. A. 
Bather, Florence Buchanan, S. J. Hickson, and R. Hanitsch. Edited 
by D. Shaep, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1893. Price 10s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirtieth ; being Records 
of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1893. By J. A. 
Thomson, R. Lydekker, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, W^. A, 
Herdman, B. B. Woodward, R. I. Pocock, D. Sharp, F. A. Bather. 
Florence Buchanan, S. J. Hickson, and R. Hanitsch. Edited by 
D. Shaep, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1894. Price 10s. 



The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-first ; being 
Records of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1894. 
By J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekker, R, Rowdier Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, B. B. Woodward, D. Sharp, F. A. Bather, Florence 
Buchanan, and R. Hanitsch. Edited (for the Zoological Society of 
London) by D. Shaep, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1895. 
Price 10*. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-second ; being 
Records of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1895. 
By J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekker, R, Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, B. B. Woodward, R. I. Poeock, D. Sharp, F. A. 
Bather, Florence Buchanan, R. T. Giinther, R. von Lendenfeld, 
W. F. Hume, and F, Chapman. Edited (for the Zoological Society 
of London) by D. Shaep, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1896. 
Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-third ; being 
Records of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1896. 
By J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekker, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, B. B. Woodward, A. W. Brown, D. Sharp, Florence 
Buchanan, R. T. Giinther, and R. von Lendenfeld. Edited (for 
the Zoological Society of London) by David Shaep, M.A,, F.R.S,, 
F.Z.S., &c. London, 1897. Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-fourth ; being 
Records of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1897. 
By J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekkei, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, E. R. Sykes, E. A. Smith, G. C. Crick, A. W. 
Brown, D. Sharp, F. A. Bather, Florence Buchanan, and R. von 
Lendenfeld. Edited (for the Zoological Society of London) by David 
Sharp, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1898. Price '30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirty-fifth ; being Records 
of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1898. By J. A. 
Thomson, R. Lydekker, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, W. A. 
Herdman, E. R. Sykes, E. A. Smith, G. C. Crick, A. W. Brown, 
D. Sharp, F. A. Bather, Florence Buchanan, R. T. Giinther, and 
R. von Lendenfeld. Edited (for the Zoological Society of London) by 
David Shaep, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1899. Price 30s. 

The Zoological Record, Volume the Thirth-sixth ; being Records 
of Zoological Literature relating chiefly to the year 1899. By 
J. A. Thomson, R. Lydekker, R. Bowdler Sharpe, G. A. Boulenger, 
W. A. Herdman, E. R. Sykes, E. A. Smith, G. C. Crick, A. Willey, 
A. W. Brown, D. Sharp, F. A. Bather, and R. von Lendenfeld. 
Edited (for the Zoological Society of London) by David Shaep, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. London, 1900. Price 30s. 



These publications may be obtained at the Society's Office 
(3 Hanover Square, W.), of Messrs. Gueney akd Jackson (Pater- 
noster Mow, E.G.), or through any bookseller. 



LIST OF INSTITUTIONS 

TO WHICH 

COPIES OF THE SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS AEE PEESENTED 



AFRICA. 

The South- African Museum, Cape Town. 

The South-African Philosophical Society, Cape Town. 

The Museum, Durban, Natal. 

AMERICA, SOUTH. 

The National Museum, Buenos Ayres. 

The Museum of Natural History, Santiago, Chili. 

The Museum of La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Ayres. 

AUSTRALASIA. 

The Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart. 

The Zoological and Acclimatization Society of Victoria, Melbourne. 

The Linnean Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales, Sydney. 

The New-Zealand Listitute, Wellington. 

AUSTRIA. 

The Hungarian National Museum, Budapest. 
The Imperial Academy of Sciences, Vienna. 
The Zoological and Botanical Society, Vienna. 

BELGIUM. 

The Congo Free State Museum, Tervueren, Brussels. 
The Entomological Society of Belgium, Brussels. 
The Malacologieal Society of Belgium, Brussels. 
The Royal Academy of Sciences, Brussels. 
The Royal Museum of Natural History, Brussels. 

BRITISH INDIA. 

The Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. 
The Geological Survey of India, Calcutta. 
The Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

CANADA (DOMINION OP). 

The McGill College, Montreal. . 

The Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 

The University of Toronto, Toronto. 



CHINA. 

The China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Shanghai. 

EAST INDIES. 
The Eoyal Society of the Dutch East Indies, Batavia. 

FRANCE. 

The Linnean Society of Normandy, Caen. 

The Agricultural Society, Lyons. 

The Entomological Society of France, Paris. 

The Museum of Natural History, Paris. 

The National Society of Acclimatization, Paris. 

The Zoological Society of France, Paris. 

GERMANY. 

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, Berlin. 

The Society of Friends of Natural History, Berlin. 

The Natural-History Union for Rhineland and Westphalia, Bonn. 

The Senckenbergian Society, Frankfort-on-Main. 

The New Zoological Society, Frankfort-on-Main. 

The Natural History Society, Freiburg-in-Breisgau. 

The Royal Society of Sciences, Gottingen. 

The Imperial Leopoldino-Carolinian Academy of Naturalists, 

Halle. 
The Natural-History Society, Halle. 
The Natural-History Union, Hamburg. 
The Medical and Natural-History Society, Jena. 
The Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Munich. 
The Union for Natural History of Wiirtemberg, Stuttgardt. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

The Belfast Natural History and Philosoj)hica] Society, Belfast. 

The Philosophical Society, Cambridge. 

The Royal Dublin Society, Dublin. 

The Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 

The Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh. 

The Royal Society, Edinburgh. 

The Free Public Library and Museum, Liverpool. 

The Athenaeum Club, London. 

The British Museum of Natural History, London. 

The Entomological Society, London. 

The Geological Society, London, 

The King's College Library, London. 

The Linnean Society, London. 

The London Instituiion. 



The E.05-al College of Physicians, London. 

The Royal College of Surgeons, London. 

The Eoyal Geographical Society, London. 

The Eoyal Institution, London. 

The Royal Society, London. 

The University College, London. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester 

The Owens College, Manchester. 

The Natural History Society, N'ewcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural-History 

Society, Plymouth. 
The Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. 
The Yorkshire Philosophical Society, York. 

HOLLAND. 

The Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam, 
The Royal Zoological Society, Amsterdam. 
The Dutch Society of Sciences, Haarlem. 
The Dutch Entomological Union, The Hague. 
The Royal Museum of the Netherlands, Leyden, 

ITALY. 

The Royal Institute of Superior Studies, Florence. 

The Civil Museum of Natural History, Genoa, 

The Italian Society of Natural Sciences, Milan. 

The Zoological Station, Naples. 

The Royal Academy of the Lincei, Rome. 

The Royal Academy of Sciences, Turin. 

JAPAN. 
The Science College of the Imperial University, Tokyo. 

RUSSIA. 

The Society of Naturalists, JurjefF (Dorpat). 
The Society of Sciences of Finland, Helsingfors. 
The Imperial Society of Naturalists, Moscow. 
The Entomological Society of Russia, St. Petersburg. 
The Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. 

SCANDINAVIA. 

The Bergen Museum, Bergen. 
The Society of Sciences of Christiania, Christiania. 
The Royal Danish Society of Sciences, Copenhagen. 
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. 
The Royal Academy of Sciences, Upsala, 



SPAIN. 
The Royal Academy of Sciences, Madrid. 

SWITZERLAND. 

The Philosophical and Natural-History Society, Geneva. 
The Yaud Society of Natural Sciences, Lausanne. 
The Society of Natural Sciences, Neuchatel. 
The Natural-History Society, Zurich. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

The Boston Society of Natural History, Boston. 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

The Field Columbian Museum, Chicago. 

The niinois State Laboratory of Natural History, Illinois. 

The American Journal of Science, Newhaven. 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

The New- York Academy of Sciences, New York. 

The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 

The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 

The Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 

The Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 

The United States Fish Commission, Washington, D.C. 

The United-States Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

The United-States National Museum, Washington, D.C. 

WEST INDIES. 

The Institute of Jamaica, Kingston. 



The Publications (except in special cases) are sent out direct as 
soon as they are issued. It is requested that they may be ac- 
knowledged by the return of the form of receipt sent with them, 
in order that any mis-delivery may be brought to notice. 

Publications sent in exchange to this Society should be addressed 
to the Librarian at this Office. It is requested that they may be 
sent direct by jyost, as much delay is caused by their transmission 
through booksellers and in other ways. 

By order of the Councilj 

P. L. SCLATEE, 

Secretary, 
3 Hanover SqtjapvE, London, W., 

October, 1901. 



PROCEEDINGS 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1901, Vol. II. (May to December). 



May 7, 1901. 



Prof. Gr. B. Howes, LL.D., F.E.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions made 
to the Society's Menagerie in April 1901 : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
month of April were 200 in number. Of these 52 Avere acquired 
by presentation, 51 by purchase, 2 were born in the Gardens, and 
95 were received on deposit. The total number of departures 
during the same period, by death and removals, was 156. 

His Majesty The King has ordered some animals, lately kept at 
Windsor, to be transferred to the Society's Gardens and placed 
under our care. Amougst these is the beautiful female Grevy's 
Zebra (Equus grevyi) which was presented (along with a male of 
the same animal) to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria in August 
1899, and was subsequently removed from the Gardens (where 
they were temporarily deposited) to Windsor. This animal is now 
in most perfect health and condition, and through the kind efforts 
of Lt.-Col. Harrington, H.B.M. Representative in Abyssinia, 
we are hoping to obtain a youug male of the same species. 

I may also call attention to two beautiful birds — a Rufous- 
necked Scimitar Babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis) and a Golden- 
backed Woodpecker {Brachyjiternus aurantins) — presented on 

Pboc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II, No. I. 1 



2 ME. C. D. SHEEBOE.N OK THE ' INDEX AKIMALIUM.' [May 7, 

April nth by Mr. W. H. Harper, F.Z.S., who continues to send 
lis most interesting additions to our collection of Indian Birds ; 
and to a fine young male Eland, bred at Woburu, and presented to 
us on April 26th by H.Gr. the Duke o£ Bedford, which will make 
an excellent match for our young female purchased in April 1899. 



Mr. Sclater stated that Mr. E. Bidweli had kindly pointed out 
to him the following passage in Ludolphus's work^ on Abyssinia, 
published in 1682, which apparently referred to G-revy's Zebra 
{Equus grevyi) : — 

" But there is a beast which is called Zecora, which for beauty 
exceeds all the four-footed creatures in the World. They of Congo 
give it the name of Zebra. This creature is about the bigness of 
a Mule, and is brought out of the woods of Habessinia, and the 
countries possessed by the Galans, and easily tam'd. A present 
of great esteem and frequently given to the Kings of Habessinia. 
TeJIez briefly desci'ibes him thus, — 'A Circle of black colour 
encompasses his Loyns like a girdle ; adjoining to which, Nature 
has pencilled out several others, some broader, some narrower, 
some black, and some of a bright shining Ash -colour ; with so 
much Elegancy and order, as no Painter's Art can equalize. His 
ears are the only thing that disfigures him ; being of a dispro- 
portionable length : for which reason he is called by the Portugals 
" Burro do Matto " (though improperly) the wild Ass.' But you 
may guess at bis beauty, by his price, for King Susneus having 
given one of these beasts to the Turkish Basha of Suaqena, be 
sold the same for Two thousand Venetian Pieces, to a certain 
Indian, that bought him for a present to the great Mogul." 



Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S., remarked that it had been his 
privilege to bring before the Society, from time to time, the 
progress of the ' Index Animalium.' He had now to inform the 
Society that the Index was completed from the 1st of January, 
1758, to the 31st of December, 1800. This portion of the manu- 
script was ready for press, and negotiations with the Cambridge 
University Press w^ere in progress for printing it. 

One of the chief difficulties that the compiler had to contend 
with was the inaccessibility of much of the literature. With the 
exception of about twenty books, which from their titles might 
possibly contain specific names, this difficulty had been successfully 
grappled with, either with the help of those interested in the work 
or by purchase. He alluded to the impossibility of accurate com- 
parison of various editions, copies of which were in different 
institutions, and lamented the fact that even in the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.), where the collection of books was very com- 
plete, this matter of editions had not been fully grasped. He had 

1 LuDOLPiius, J. A New History of Ethiopia, being a full and Accurate 
Description of the Kingdom of Abyssinia .... called the Empire of Prester 
John. By the Learned Job Ludolphus. Made English by J. P. Gent. 
Plates. Folio. London, 1682, 



P.Z,S.1901,vol.]l.Pl.]. 




H.H. JolixvstorL pirac 
P. J.STmtlitK, 



(xediicaoL ( 



THE OKAPI. 

(OKAPIA JOHT^rSTONl) 

! }\alf iVom. Sir Harry JoKriston's orjg"ina-l painting ) 



JVli.i:vt QTr\. Bi- o s . im.p . 



190].] Oj!f A ISfEW AFRICAK MAMMAL. 3 

himself been instrumental in purchasing many hundreds of volumes 
dealing with systematic zoology, published before 1800, and these 
were now in public libraries and therefore accessible to zoologists. 
Instancing Buffon's ' Histoire Naturelle,' Mr. Sherborn said that 
he had purchased no less than six editions, published before the 
close of the eighteenth century, all of which included specific 
names of importance to systematists, and none of which had 
previously been seen in this country. These and many other 
books were essential to proper work. 

A great deal of manuscript had been accumulated towards the 
1801-1900 portion of the Index, but as it was beyond the powers 
of one man to deal with the vast literature of the last hundred 
years, progress would necessarily be slow unless further assistance 
were forthcoming. Mr. Sherborn hoped that the first volume 
would be of service to zoologists, as that would no doubt be an 
incentive to the further support desirable. This part 1, 1758- 
1800, had taken him over eight years to compile, arrange, and get 
ready for press. 

Dr. W. G. Eidewood, T.Z.S., exhibited and made remarks on 
a series of microscopic preparations of the hairs of Antelopes, 
Griraffe, Zebra, and the so-called Eqims jolmstoni, pointing out 
that the hairs of the last-named animal were similar to those of 
the Giraffe as well as those of the Zebra, but differed from those 
of the Antelopes. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited an original water-colour painting (Plate I.) 
made by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., F.Z.S., of the new Mammal \ 
which he had discovered in the forest on the west side of the SemJiki 
Eiver, on the south-western boundary of Uganda, and portions of 
the skin of which had been already laid before the Society (see 
P. Z. S. 1900, pp. 774, 950 ; 1901, vol. i. p. 50). 

Mr. Sclater read the following extracts from a letter addressed 
to him by Sir Harry Johnston on the subject, dated Eldama 
E-avine, Uganda Protectorate, 31st March, 1901 : — 

" I am sending you by this mail a water-colour painting I have 
made of the new animal. I have done this painting with the 
utmost care from the skin while it was in a fresh condition. I 
have used the skull to assist me in delineating the exact shape of 
the head. I have also questioned various Cougo natives who are 
with me as to the shape and appearance of the animal, and the 
result is this drawing, which I think will be found to be a fairly 
faithful representation of this wonderful new creature. 

" I wish to impress on you this, that the colours in the drav/ing 
are absolutely not exaggerated in any way in brightness. I say 
this, because the skin may have a dulled and faded appearance 
when it reaches England. I scarcely remember ever coming 

^ See below (June 18tb) for the origin of the scientific name now applied 
to this animal. — P. L. S. 



4 MR. P. L. SCLATBR OK A [May 7, 

across the skin of a mammal which came so near to having actual 
bright red in it, I think you will agree with me that the general 
coloration is of the most extraordinary kind, and that if the skin 
were not there as evidence, it would be thought to be an in- 
vention of my imagination. If you examine the skin, however, 
you will see that my drawing is correct in the tiniest details of 
the stripes. In my drawing I have made the tail a trifle longer, 
because from information received I gathered that the tail of 
the specimen had suffered a little at its extremity. I am also 
told that the animal having been roughly skinned, some of the 
skin on the inner side of the legs and belly is absent. 

" These missing portions are not considerable, and were of a 
creamy-white colour, except in regard to the stomach and chest, 
of which the fur is blackish-brown. The missing hoofs were 
bluish-black." 

Mr. Sclater remarked that there could now be no doubt that 
Sir Harry Johnston had made a most important discovery. The 
animal portrayed in the drawing (Plate I.) was, of course, not 
a Zebra, nor even a member of the family Equidce. "What should 
be its proper position it would only be possible to say when the 
skin and two skulls, recently obtained by Sir Harry, were received 
in this country. It was probable, however, that Sir Harry was 
not far wrong when, in one of his letters, he called it a Hellado- 
thenum, and that it would be found to be allied to that or to one 
of the other extinct forms of Mammals allied to the G-iraffe. 

The leading facts as yet known concerning this new and extra- 
ordinary discovery had been fully given in an article published in 
' The Times ' of this day, from which the following extracts were 
read : — 

" After sending home incomplete fragments of skin which he 
obtained in situ from the natives of the Congo forest near the 
Semliki Eiver (fragments of which were considered to indicate 
the existence of a new species of Horse, which was tentatively 
named by Mr. Sclater Equus jolmstoni), Sir Harry Johnston has 
at last secured, through the kindness of the Belgian authorities at 
the frontier post of Fort Mbeni, a complete skin and two skulls 
of this animal, which is now shown to be not at all a horse, but a 
cloven-hoofed rimiinant of extraordinary coloration and appear- 
ance, which seemingly is either of the extinct genus Uelladotherium, 
or is some closely-allied creature belonging to that somewhat 
vaguely-defined group of which the Giraffe is an exemplar. The 
skin and the skulls which have been forwarded by Sir Harry 
Johnston to the British Museum were obtained by native soldiers 
of the Congo Free State, in the vicinity of Fort Mbeni, and were 
very kindly presented to Sir Harry Johnston by Mr. K. Eriksson, 
a Swedish otficer in the service of that State, who has until recently 
been the Commandant of Fort Mbeni. It is to be hoped that 
these invaluable specimens will reach London safely. 

" We are informed that the complete skin sent home now shows 
the animal to be coloured in the most extraordinary manner. The 



1901.] NEW AFRICAN MA.MMAL. 5 

cheeks of the rather large head are yellowish-white, and the 
tapering muzzle is blackish-brown. The foi'ehead is a most vivid 
red, narrowing down into a thin black line continued along the 
ridge of the nose to the nostrils. The long ass-like ears are of a 
deep reddish-brown, with silky black fringes. The neck, shoulders, 
stomach, and back are a deep reddish-brown, which in parts has 
almost a crimson tinge, and in others becomes blackish. The hind- 
quarters and hind legs, down to the hocks, and the front legs from 
the elbow to the wrist-joint are boldly striped in purplish-black 
and white, the white having here and there faint touches of orange. 
The hind legs from the hock downwards are of a creamy colour. 
The front legs are also cream-colour, but a bold black line rans 
dowji the front of the leg in an oblique manner. The fetlocks of 
all four feet are black and cream-colour. The tail is bright reddish- 
brown, with a black tuft at the end. There are no horns, but it 
may be seen from the skulls that far back in its history this 
creature possessed three horn-cores similar to those of the Giraffe, 
but that by long disuse these horn-cores have degenerated into 
rounded bumps on the skull, two of them being situated a little 
above the eyes, and one at the beginning of the nasal bones. On 
the skin, just over the two bigger bumps, are two tiny and comical 
little twists of hair, which I'e present all that remains outwardly 
of horns or horn-cores. The animal stands slightly higher at the 
withers than at the hindquarters, but its neck is not proportionately 
longer than that of a horse. The head is rather large in propor- 
tion to the body, and in outline slightly resembles the head of a 
Tapir. The nostrils are two long slits, completely covered with 
hair, and resembling the nostrils of the Giraiie. The lips apparently 
taper to a point. There are, of course, no front teeth in the 
upper jaw, as the animal is a true E-uminant. The front teeth in 
the lower jaw are so small and feeble as to suggest the idea that 
the creature, like the Giraffe, must possess a prehensile tongue for 
furnishing food for the molar teeth to grind. If this is not the 
case, then the rather long and prehensile lips secure most of the 
animal's nutriment, which consists of leaves. Other particulars 
will, no doubt, be furnished to us before long by the authorities of 
the British Museum, when they are able to examine the specimens. 
The build of the animal is rather heavy in the case of the male. 
The female is said to be much more lightly built, and her skull is 
considerably smaller than that of the male. It is not yet known 
whether any difference of coloration exists between the male and 
female ; the natives say that they differ only in size. The same 
authorities state that the creature is found only in the densest 
parts of the forest, and that it goes about in pairs of male and 
female. It would seem to be quite inoffensive, and very easily 
killed. It is ordinarily captured in pitfalls, and from what Sir 
Harry Johnston ascertained on the spot its extinction is being 
rapidly carried out by the natives of the Congo Tree State. Now 
that this discovery has been made by joint action on the part of 
British and Belgian officials, we may look with confidence to King 



6 MR. AND MRS. PBCKHAM OK [May 7, 

Leopold to issue stringent orders for the protection of this 
remarkable creature. Its flesh is said to be excellent eating, and 
there is no reason why an attempt should not be made to domesti- 
cate it. 

" At the present time the known habitat of the Okapi (as this 
animal is called by the natives) consists of the forests of the Ituri 
and the western banks of the Semliki in the Congo Tree State, 
and the adjoining district of Mboga in the Uganda Protectorate." 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On Spiders of the Family Attida found in Jamaica. 
By G. W. Peckham and E. Gr. Peckham \ 

[Eeceived April 12, 1901.] 

(Plates II.-IV.') 

Most of the Spiders described in this paper were collected 
by us some years ago. "We have also received some specimens 
from Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, and from Mr. Taylor of Kingston. 
Other Attidse that have been described from Jamaica are : — 
Mayjjtusa melanognathus Lucas ; Saitis annce Cockerell, ' Canadian 
Entomologist,' p. 343, 1894 ; AnoTca peckhamii, Cockerell, 'Journal 
of Institute of Jamaica,' vol. ii. p. 221, 1893 ; Zygohallus suavis 
Peckham, " Spiders of the Homalattus Group," Occ. Papers 
Nat. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. ii. p. 173. Anoica moneagua 
Peckham, " Spiders of the Marptusa Group," Occ. Papers 
Nat. Hist. Soc. of Wisconsin, vol. ii. p. 127, 1894, is identical 
with Anol'a ^^ecMainu Cockerell. The thirteen species now 
described probably give a fair idea of the Attid fauna of the 
island. The genera are like those of Central and North America, 
excepting Gybele, which we have from St. Vincent, and Nilalcantha, 
which is new. 

Key to the Attidse of Jamaica. 

Males. 

(^Legs of the first, third, and fourth pairs nearly equal ; cephalo- 
I thorax with red hairs and white bands on the thoracic slope 

1 ■{ and lower sides ; length 5"5-6'5 mm Cybele grisea. 

I First and fourth, or first and third, or third and fourth legs 

^ plainly longer than the others 2 

f Legs 13 4 2; palpus blackish, with a fringe of very long white 

o J hairs on each side to the end of tarsus Cybele albopcdpis. 

1 First and fourth legs longer than the others 3 

[Third and fourth legs longer than the others 4 

1 Communicated by E. I. PococK, F.Z.S. 

^ For the explanation of the Plates, see pp. 15, 16. 



p. Z.S. 1901, vol.11 PL. 11. 




Bale it Daniels son L'.' 



NEW ATTID^ FROM JAMAICA. 



p. Z.S.1901, vol, 11. PL.m 




Bale ^Danielsson L'."]- 



NEW ATTID^ FROM JAMAICA. 



p. Z.S.1901, vol.11. PL. IV. 




Bale &Damelssoii L'.4 



NEW ATTID_^ FROM JAMAICA. 



1901.] SPIDERS FROM JAMAICA. 7 

/'Legs 14 3 2; spiders small (4'5 mm.), and pale yellow in colour, 
with four square black spots on the eye-region 

Nilakantha cockerelli. 

Legs 1 4 a 2 ; small spiders (2-3 mm.) ; palpus brown, with a 

narrow white 1 ine on the outer side Pi-ostheclina viaria. 

Legs 14 2 3; small spiders (4'5 mm.) ; cephalothoras brown, 
with white br.uds on sides and red down on upper surface 

and around eyes Anoka pecJchami. 

3 \ Legs 14 2 3; small spiders (3"5 mm.) ; abdomen brown, en- 
circled with white, with tliree or four pairs of white spots . . . 

Bendryphantes i^rudens. 
Legs 14 2 3; small spiders (4-5 mm.) ; cephalo thorax and abdo- 
men bronze-brown encircled with white Benclryphanii taylori. 

Legs 14 2 3; medium-sized spiders (8 mm.) ; abdomen with 

median band of dark rufous and white sides 

MarpUisa melaiiognathus. 
Legs 14 2 3; falces long, oblique ; quadrangle of eyes occupying 
V more than one-half cephalothorax Zygobcdlus suavis. 

{ Legs 3 4 12; length about 4"5 mm. ; cephalothorax fawn- 
coloured, with light bands on sides, curying backwards over 
thorax to dorsal eyes Pellenes translatus. 

Legs 3 4 12; body and legs with crimson and green iridescent 

scales Prostheclina perplexa. 

Legs 3 4 12; abdomen iridescent, with four velvety black 

spots Prostheclina morgani. 

4'{ Legs 3 4 12; abdomen brown, with longitudinal, median, yellow 

band Prostheclina venatoria. 

Legs 4 3 2 1; cephalothorax with red hairs and white bands on 

sides Saitis (?) inutilis. 

Legs 4 3 12; length about 3'5 mm. ; cephalothorax and abdo- 
men each with a V-shaped black mark ; palpus with terminal 
portion red-brown, becoming black at end ; middle portion 
*- with tuft of shining white hairs Saitis annce. 

Females. 

1 / Legs 1 423 Anoka peckhami. 

I Legs not 14 23 2 

o rLegs4 1 23 or 4T 2 3 3 

"lLegsnot41 2 3 or 4 1 23 4 

f Quadrangle occupying plainly more than one-half of the cephalo- 
j thorax ; cephalothorax plainly widest at the dorsal eyes ; 

3; legs 4 1 2 3 Zygoballus siiavis. 

I Quadrangle occupying less than one-half of the cephalothorax ; 

I cephalothorax not widest at dorsal eyes ; legs 4 12 3 

^ Bendryphantes prudens, 

fLegs43 1 2 orT3 1 2 6 

I Legs 3 4 12, 3 4T2or34 1 2 6 

f Spiders small (4'5 mm.), pale yellow, with four square black 

I spots on eye-region ; legs 43 12 Nilakantha cockerelli. 

Spiders large (9'5 mm.) ; dorsum of abdomen grey, with wavy 

kJ outlines; dark bands on sides ; legs 4 3 1 2 

' Marptusa melanognathus. 

Spiders small (4'5 mm.) ; cephalothorax with golden iridescent 

scales except a white band on thorax ; legs 4 3 1 2 

I Saitis defl'OCcatiis. 



8 ME. AND MES. PECKHAM ON [May 7, 

f Spiders covered with light brown hairs and a few longer black 

I hairs; 34 12 Pellenes banksi. 

I Abdomen brown, with a longitudinal, median, yellow band ; 

Qj legs 3 4 1 2 Prostheclina venatoria. 

\ Abdomen iridescent, with four velvety black spots ; legs 3 4 12. 

1 Prostheclina morgani. 
Grreen and crimson iridescent scales on cephalothoras, abdomen, 

^ and legs Prostheclina perplexa. 

NiLAKANTHA, n. gen. 

Small, pale spiders. 

The cephalothorax is moderately high and is widest and highest 
behind the dorsal eyes. The sides are slightly contracted in front 
and behind. The cephalic part is a little inclined, and the thorax 
falls steeply from just behind the dorsal eyes. The quadrangle 
of the eyes is one-third wider than long, is a little wider behind 
than in front, and occupies one-half of the cephalothorax. The 
first row of eyes is plainly curved downward, the eyes being all 
close together, with the middle twice and a half as large as the 
lateral. The second row is nearer the first than the third, and 
the third row is as wide as the cephalothorax at that place. The 
legs in the male are 1 4 3 2, and in the female 4 3 12. 

This genus resembles, in a general way, our Plexippus puerjoerns 
Hentz (Attidae of North America, p. 33), but the spiders are 
smaller, the curve of the first row is different, and the middle 
eyes of this row are larger. 

NiLAKANTHA COCKEEELLI, n. sp. (Plate II. figs. 1-1 g.) 

(S . Length 4'5 mm. Legs 14 3 2, first a little stoutest. 

2 . Length 4-5-5-5 mm. Legs 4 3 12, first stoutest. 

This is a small, pale, yellow species, with four square black 
spots on the eye-region. The lateral eyes of the first row and 
the small eyes of the second row are upon the front pair of spots, 
and the dorsal eyes on those that are further back. The clypeus 
and the sides of the cephalothorax are covered with light yellow 
hairs, which are found also in the spaces between the four black 
spots. The abdomen is marked with black specks, which form, 
more or less distinctly, lines of chevrons over the dorsum. The 
male has a baud of yellow hairs around the front end and the 
sides. The falces, palpi, and legs are yellow, a little darker in 
the male. 

We have one male and three females from Moneague and 
Kingston, Jamaica. 

This species is named after Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, of Las 
Cruces, New Mexico. 

Ctbelb geisea, n. sp. (Plate II. figs. 2-2 e.) 

Length, cf 5"5-6'5 mm., 5 6-7 mm. 

Legs, cJl342; $4312, not very unequal. 

The cephalothorax is high, with the cephalic part inclined. 



1901.] SPIDERS FROM JAMAICA. 9 

while the thoracic falls very slightly in the first third, and then 
abruptly. The sides are vertical and nearly parallel, there being 
a very slight widening behind the dorsal eyes. The anterior eyes 
are close together in a straight row. They are large, the lateral 
being two-thirds the size of the middle. The second row is about 
halfway between the first and the third, and the third is about as 
wide as the cephalo thorax. The quadrangle of the eyes is one- 
fourth wider than long, occupies one-half of the eephalothorax, 
and is equally wide in front and behind. 

In the male, the eephalothorax is covered with red hairs, 
excepting bands of white hairs on the lower sides, and a white 
median band on the thoracic slope, running backward from the 
third row of eyes. On the abdomen the hairs are golden-yellow ; 
down the middle, in the anterior half, is a narrow white band, 
which changes, in the posterior half, into a band of white chevrons. 
A narrow white baud runs around the anterior end and onto the 
sides, curving upward and inward opposite the point at which 
the chevrons begin. The legs are pale, with the femur dark in 
some specimens. The palpus has the patella much elongated, 
nearly equalling the tibia and tarsus. The patella and tibia 
are flattened and rugose on the dorsal surface, and there is an 
apophysis on the inner distal end of the patella. There is a 
fringe of white hairs throughout the whole length of the palpus, 
on the inner side. The falces are as wide as the middle eyes 
and are transversely rugose. In the middle, on the outer edge, 
is a small apophysis which is edged with minute notches, and 
below this, near the insertion of the fang, there is a longer, 
pointed apophysis. The lip is narrow, and only half as long as 
the maxillas, which are notched on the middle of the outer edge 
and project at the outer corner. The female has golden-yellow 
hairs on the cephalic plate, and has the eyes on dark spots. 
There are indistinct bands of a lighter colour on the sides and 
down the median line of the thoracic part. On the abdomen the 
hairs are red, and there is a yellowish band which passes around 
the front end onto the sides, from which a short projection runs 
backward in the middle line. On the middle dorsum there is a 
white region with wavy outlines, which is mottled with red. 

We have numerous examples of both sexes. 

Ctbele albopalpis, n. sp. (Plate II. figs. 3-3 b.) 

S . Length 5*5 mm. Legs 13 4 2, the first plainly stoutest, 
and longer than the second by the tarsus and half the metatarsus. 

The eephalothorax is rather high, and slants in both directions 
from the dorsal eyes, the hinder slope being almost continuous. 
The anterior eyes are large, and form a slightly curved row, the 
middle ones touching, and the lateral a little separated from them. 
The middle are less than twice as large as the lateral. The second 
row is about halfway between the first and the third. The dorsal 
eyes are large, and form a row which is as wide as the cephalo- 



10 MR. AND MRS. PECKHAM ON [May 7, 

thorax at that place. The sides of the cephalothorax are vertical, 
and are nearly parallel, widening a little in the middle. The 
quadrangle of the eyes is plainly wider in front than behind, is 
one-fifth wider than long, and occupies one-half of the cephalo- 
thorax. 

In our specimen the hairs are all rubbed from the abdomen. 
The cephalothorax is blackish, with red hairs on the eye-region, a 
white band down the middle of the thoracic slope, and white bands 
low on the sides. Under alcohol the pattern appears as in the 
drawing. The palpus is blackish, v/ith a fringe of very long white 
hairs on each side, extending to the end of the tarsus. The tibia 
is flattened. The first leg has the femur and tibia reddish, but 
otherwise the legs are pale, with many line black spines. The 
falces are vertical and moderately stout. This species differs from 
C. grisea in having no apophyses on the falces, in the maxillae, 
which are rounded and short, and in having the patella of the 
palpus shorter than the tibia, instead of much longer. 

We have a single male of this species. 

Saitis (?) inutilis, n. sp. (Plate III. figs. 4-4 6.) 

S ' Length 3"5 mm. Legs 4 3 2 1, all slender, and decreasing 
very gradually in length from the fourth to the first. Second 
longer than first by tarsus. 

The cephalothorax is rather high, and falls distinctly, in both 
directions, from the dorsal eyes. Its widest point is plainly at 
the front end, the sides contracting gradually behind. The quad- 
rangle of the eyes occupies about one-half of the cephalothorax. 
It is only one-fifth wider than long, and is a very little wider in 
front than behind. The anterior eyes are all large, and are placed 
close together in a plainly curved row, the middle being less than 
twice as large as the lateral. The eyes of the second row are 
about halfway between the lateral and the dorsal, and the thii'd 
row is as wide as the cephalothorax at that place. 

When under alcohol the cephalothorax is brown above, with a 
pale scalloped band down the middle, and is pale on the sides. 
The abdomen has the sides brown speckled with white, and a pale 
central band, which has an enlargement at the middle point, and 
which is crossed by a number of short pale bars, which form 
chevrons. In one specimen there is, on each of the anterior sides, 
a pale spot, and further back there is a short curved pale band, of 
which only the extremities are visible from above. When dry the 
upper part of the cephalothorax is seen to be covered with red, 
and the sides with white hairs. The red hairs grow a little longer 
above the eyes of the first row, and below them the clypeus is 
covered with white or yellowish-Avhite hairs. On the abdomen 
the dark parts are covered with red, and the pale with white hairs. 
The legs are brown, flecked with pale, the first and second being 
darker than the third and fourth. The palpus is brown, with 
rather long white hairs on the tibia and tarsus. The falces are 
small, vertical, and brown. 

We have two males of this spider. 



1901,] SPIDERS FROM JAMAICA. 11 

Saitis defloccatus, 11. sp. (Plate III. figs, 5, 5 a.) 

2 . Length 4-5 mm. Legs 4 3 12, all slender. The first is 
almost as long as the third and fourth, but the second is distinctly- 
shorter, the first exceeding it by the length of the tarsus. 

The cephalothorax is high at the dorsal eyes, from which point 
it is strongly inclined in both directions. The upper surface is 
rounded. The sides are widest at the dorsal eyes, narrowing 
before and behind, and widening again at the front end. The 
anterior eyes are close together, the middle being nearly twice as 
large as the lateral, and form a row which is a little curved down- 
ward. The clypeus is narrow. The quadrangle of the eyes is 
wider in front than behind, is one-fourth wider than long, and 
occupies nearly one-half of the cephalothorax. 

Under alcohol the spider appears as in Mr. Emerton's drawing, 
but when dry the cephalothorax is seen to be covered with light, 
golden, iridescent scales, excepting a central white band on the 
thoracic part. The abdomen has a white band around the front 
end, but is otherwise covered with silvery iridescent scales, there 
being some wavy black lines and spots on the posterior part of the 
dorsum. The legs and palpi are pale brown, ringed with darker 
brown. The falces are small and brown. 

We have one female from Kingston. 

Pelleites translatus, n. sp. (Plate III. figs. Q-6 c.) 

J . Length 4*5 mm. Legs 3 4 12. The first and second are 
considerably shorter than the third and fourth, and the third is 
longer than the fourth by the length of the tarsus ; first stoutest. 

The cephalothorax is moderately high. The cephalic plate 
slants forward ; the upper surface and sides are normal for the 
genus. The anterior legs are close together in a straight row ; 
the middle are not twice as large as the lateral. The quad- 
rangle is a little wider behind, and nearly one-fourth wider than 
long. The second row is halfway between the outer two, and 
the third row is as wide as the cephalothorax at that place. One 
specimen is a good deal rubbed, and under alcohol it appears as in 
Mr. Emerton's drawing ; but when dry, the upper surface of the 
cephalic part is covered with fawn-coloured hairs, and on each 
side of the head and thorax there is a wide band of white hairs. 
These bands are on the lower edge, and unite behind with a wide 
white band that runs back, on each side, from just behind the 
dorsal eye, down the posterior slope of the thorax. The space 
between the t\AO white bands on the posterior slope of the thorax 
is dark-coloured. The lower white bands, as they pass forward, 
do not unite in front on the clypeus, but turn down and end in a 
narrow point on the front face of each falx. The space thus left, 
under the 'middle eyes of the first row, is dark-coloured. There 
are a very few red hairs around the first row of eyes. The abdo- 
men is dark above, nearly surrounded by a wide white band which 
passes very far down on the sides and stops at the spinnerets. 
There is a central longitudinal white band from base to apex of 



12 MR. AND MRS. PECKHAM ON [^^J 7, 

the abdomen. The femora of all the legs are pale, darker at the 
distal ends, and the first and second pairs have black bands on the 
front faces, running obliquely from end to end. This band is 
much less distinct on the second pair. The other parts of the 
legs are darker, and all have many white hairs. The palpi have 
pale femora and patellae, covered with white hairs, while the other 
joints are dark. The dark spot on the clypeus, just under the 
large middle eyes, is characteristic, and serves to distinguish this 
from all other spiders thus far found in Jamaica. 
Found by Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell at Mandeville. 

Pellenes banksi, n. sp. (Plate III. figs. 7, 7 a.) 

2 . Length 5 mm. Legs 3 4 12: first and second much 
shorter than third and fourth ; second is shorter than third by 
the length of the metatarsus and tarsus ; the length of the third 
is due to the elongation of the femur; the first and second 
stoutest. 

The quadi'angle is one-fourth wider than long, is a little wider 
behind than in front, and occupies two-fifths of the cephalothorax. 
The anterior eyes are close together and are a little curved. The 
middle are not twice as large as the lateral. The second row is 
halfway between the others, and the third is as wide as the 
cephalothorax at that place. The whole body and the legs are 
covered by short hairs, light brown in colour, with a few longer 
black hairs. Under alcohol the pattern appears as in the drawing. 

We have a single female fi-om Kingston. 

Peostheclina peeplexa, n. sp. (Plate III. figs. 8-8 d.) 

A brilliantly iridescent species. 

c^ 5 . Length 5 mm. Legs 3 4 12, the third and fourth 
decidedly longer than the first and second. 

The quadrangle of the eyes is wider in front than behind, 
occupies two-fifths of the cephalothorax, and is one-fourth wider 
than long. The anterior eyes project forward and form a slightly 
curved row, all four being close together, and the middle being 
plainly less than twice as large as the lateral. The second row 
is about halfway between the first and third, and the third is 
narrower than the cephalothorax at that place. 

Although we have a good many specimens of this beautiful little 
spider, they are all more or less rubbed. Under alcohol it appears 
as in the drawing, with brown background and pale bands. When 
dry it shows iridescent scales of bright green and crimson on the 
cephalothorax, and around the front end of and down the middle 
line of the abdomen, which is otherwise covered with fawn- 
coloured or golden hair. The clypeus is covered with long 
iridescent hairs, and the front surface of the falces with iridescent 
scales. The same scales appear on all of the legs, and on the tibia 
and tarsus of the palpus. The males are darker than the females, 



1901.] SPIDERS FROM JAMAICA, 13 

and have at the end of the femur, and on the patella of the palpus, 
a buuch of loug snow-white hairs. 

We have numerous examples from Maudeville. 

Prostheclina MORaAjsri, n. sp. (Plate IV. figs. 9--9 cZ.) 

Length, d 4 mm., 2 4-3 mm. Legs, <? 3^ F2 ; $ 3~4 1 2 ; 
the first and second are slightly the stoutest and are plainly shorter 
than the others. 

The quadrangle of the eyes is one-fourth wider than long, is a 
little wider in front than behind, and occupies nearly one-half of 
the cephalothorax. The anterior eyes are close together in a 
straight row, the lateral being nearly three-fourths as large as the 
middle. The second row is halfway between the first and the 
third, and the third is nearly as wide as the cephalothorax at that 
place. 

The cephalothorax is covered with a mixture of white and irides- 
cent scales. The abdomen is also iridescent with the exception of 
four large velvety, black spots. The legs are pale brown with 
white scales. The palpus has iridescent scales mixed with white 
hairs on the patella and tibia, and with dark hairs on the tarsus. 
The white hairs are long and conspicuous in the male. The clypeus 
and falces have white scales in the female, and iridescent scales in 
the male. 

The apophysis on the palpus of the male is notched along the 
inner edge, like a saw. 

We have six specimens from Kingston. 

Prostheclina venatoria, n. sp. (Plate IV. figs. 10-10 d.) 

d 2 • Length 3-5 mm. Legs 3 4 12, the third being longest 
thi'ough the elongation of the femur, and exceeding the second by 
the length of the tarsus. The first and second are the stoutest. 

The cephalothorax is moderately high. The sides are parallel in 
the female, but widen a little toward the front in the male ; they 
are nearly vertical. The cephalic part is rounded and inclined 
forward. The thorax falls but little in the first half, and is 
narrowed and rounded above, widening out a little below. The 
quadrangle of the eyes is one-fifth wider than long, is plainly wider 
in front than behind, and occupies a little more than two-fifths of 
the cephalothorax. The anterior eyes are close together in a 
straight row, the lateral being nearly two-thirds as large as the 
middle. They are rather large for the size of the spider. The 
second row is plainly nearer the third than the first, especially in 
the male. The third is about as wide as the cephalothorax at that 
place. 

Our specimens are rubbed. The male shows some metallic scales 
on the eye-region, and has, on each side, a band of yellow hairs, 
starting from the lateral eye, and widening as it passes backward 
to join the one of the opposite side beyond the dorsal eyes. The 
cephalothorax is otherwise dai'k brown. The abdomen is brown 



14 ME, AND MRS. PECKHAM ON [May 7, 

and has, down the median line, a yellow band which becomes in- 
distinct behind. The anterior sides show some greenish metallic 
scales. The legs are brown excepting the tarsal and the proximal 
ends of the femoral joints, which are pale. The palpus has black 
hairs on the femur, and yellow hairs on the patella, tibia, and tarsus, 
most marked on the patella, and on all the joints there is a scat- 
tering of metallic scales. The female shows no hairs nor scales, 
but is brown with a yellow, median, longitudinal band on the 
abdomen. The legs are pale. 

We have one male and one female from Port Antonio. 

Pbostheclina viabia, n. sp, (Plate IV. figs. 11-116.) 

d" . Length 2-5-3 mm. Legs 1 4 S 2, femur slightly enlarged 
in first and second ; the first and fourth are nearly equal, and are 
longer than the third by onlj^ a part of the tarsus ; the first is 
longer than the second by the tarsus and a part of the metatarsus. 

The cephalothorax is moderately high. The sides are a very 
little wider in front and are nearly vertical. The highest point is 
at the dorsal eyes, the cephalic plate being inclined, while the 
thoracic part falls but little for about one-third of its length, and 
then abruptly, the upper surface not being so much narrowed and 
rounded as is usual in Prostheclina. The clypeus is narrow. The 
anterior eyes are close together in a straight row, the lateral being 
two-thirds as large as the middle. The second row is much nearer 
the third than the first, and the third is nearly as wide as the 
cephalothorax at that place. The quadrangle of the eyes is very 
slightly wider in front than behind, is one-fourth wider than 
loDg, and occupies one-half of the cephalothorax. 

Our specimens are badly rubbed. Under alcohol the pattern 
appears as in the drawing, but when dry the whole body looks dark, 
with a covering of light brown hairs. In the first and second legs the 
femur has the proximal end pale, and the distal end dark. Other- 
wise the legs are pale with darker rings. The palpus is brown, 
with a narrow line of white hairs running along the outer side of 
all the joints. 

We have two males from Moneague, 

Dekdryphantes tayloei, n. sp. (Plate IV, figs. 12-12 b.) 

(S . Length 4-5 mm. Legs 14 2 3, the first a very little the 
stoutest, all being rather slender; the first and fourth do not 
differ greatly in length, but these two are plainly longer than the 
second and third. The coxa of the first leg is twice as long as that 
of the second. 

The quadrangle of the eyes is one-third wider than long, is wdder 
behind than in front, and occupies one-half of the cephalothorax, 
approaching, in this respect, the genus Eris. The first row is 
straight, with the middle eyes subtouching and about twice as large 
as the lateral, which are a little separated from them. The second 
row is a little nearer to the first than to the third. The abdomen 



1901.] SPIDEBS FKOM JAMAICA, 15 

is bronze-brown, with a white band around the front end, which 
runs, on the sides, nearly to the spinnerets, with a break at about 
the middle point. There are two pairs of white spots or transverse 
bars on the dorsum, one pair across the middle, and the other 
further back. The cephalothorax is bronze-brown, with a white 
band across the clypeus which runs back on to the sides. The legs 
are dark brown, with the tarsi and the proximal ends of the meta- 
tarsi lighter. The palpi are long, curving over tbe falces, and have 
the femur and patella covered, above, with white hairs. The falces 
are brown in colour, and are long, oblique, and divergent, with a 
long fang. 

We have a single male. 

Dendkyphantes prpdens, n. sp. (Plate IV. Hgs. 13-136.) 

Length, S 3-5 mm., $ 4-5 mm. Legs, c? 142 3, $ 41 23, 
the first stoutest. 

The quadrangle of the eyes occupies two-fifths of the cephalo- 
thorax, is one-fourth wider than long, and is a little wider behind 
than in front. The first row is curved, with the middle eyes sub- 
touching and less than twice as large as the lateral, which are a little 
separated from them. In the male, the cephalothorax is bronze- 
brown with white bands on the sides. The abdomen is brown with 
an encircling band of white, and three or four pairs of white spots 
on the dorsum. The legs are barred with lighter and darker brown. 
The female has the cephalothorax brown with tawny hairs, the 
abdomen pale with some brown chevrons, and the legs yellow. 
The falces are brown, short, and vertical. The male has an 
apophysis on the tibia of the palpus. 

We have two males and one female from Kingston. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. NilaJcantha cockerelli (p. 8), dorsal view of female ; 1 a, dorsal view 
of male ; 1 b, side view of cephalothorax of female ; 1 c, face of male ; 
1 d, epigynum ; 1 e, dorsal view of palpus ; 1/, side view of palpus ; 

1 g, ventral view of palpus. 

Fig. 2. Cybele grisea (p. 8), dorsal view of male ; 2 a, dorsal view of female ; 

2 b, epigynum ; 2 c, ventral view of palpus ; 2 d, side view of palpus ; 
2 e, face and falces of male. 

Fig. 3. Cybele albopalpis (p. 9), dorsal view of male ; 3 a, ventral view of 
palpus ; 3 b, side view of palpus. 

Plate III, 

Fig. 4. Saitis (?) imitilis (p. 10), dorsal view of male ; 4 a, ventral view of 

palpus ; 4 b, side view of palpus. 
Fig. 5. Saitis defloccatus {'^. W), AovsdiWiQVf oi female ; 5 a, epigynum. 
Fig, 6. Pelleiies translatus (p. 11), dorsal view of male ; 6 a, ventral view of 

palpus ; 6 b, dorsal view of palpus ; 6 c, side view of palpus. 
Fig. 7. Pellenes banksi (p. 12), dorsal view of female ; 7 «, epigynum. 
Fig. 8. ProsthecUna ferpUxa (p. 12), dorsal view of male ; 8 a, dorsal view of 

female ; 8 b, ventral view of palpus ; 8 c, side view of palpus ; 8 d, 

epigynum. 



16 MR. P. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 9, Prosthcclina morgani (p. 13), dorsal view of male ; 9 a, dorsal view 
of female ; 9 b, ventral view of palpus ; 9 c, side view of palpus ; 

9 cl, epigynum. 

Fig. 10. Prosthedina venatoria (p. 13), dorsal view of male ; 10 a, dorsal view 
of female ; 10 h, ventral view of palpus ; 10 c, side view of palpus ; 

10 d, dorsal view of palpus. 

Fig. 11. Prosthedina viarla (p. 14), dorsal view of male ; 11 a, ventral view of 

palpus ; \\h, side view of palpus. 
Fig. 12. hcndryphantes taylori (p. 14), dorsal view of male; 12 «, ventral view 

of palpus ; 12 h, side view of palpus. 
Fig. 13. Bendryp^Mutes prudens (p. 15), dorsal view of male ; 13 «, ventral view 

of palpus ; 13 b, side view of palpus. 

2. On the Hymenoptera collected during the '^ Skeat 
Expedition" to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. By 
P. Cameron \ 

[Eeceived April 15, 1901.] 

The Hymenoptera of the Malay Peninsula are far from well 
known. In addition to the species of Aeuleata from Tenasserim 
mentioned in Bingham's ' Fauna of British India, Hymenoptera,' 
our chief, almost our sole, authoi-ity on the subject is the late 
F. Smith, who in 1858 described (Journ.Linn. Soc. ii. pp. 42-130) 
the species found by Dr. A. E. Wallace at Malacca and Singapore. 
Including Ants (which are not dealt with in this paper) Mr. Smith 
enumerated 1 36 species from the Peninsula. The collection on 
which this paper is based was formed by Messrs. Annandale, Evans, 
and Laidlaw, members of the Skeat Expedition, chiefly on the eastern 
side of the Peninsula, which entomologically is the least known part. 
Though small, the collection contains examples of several new and 
interesting forms. 

In Bingham's ' Hymenoptera of British India,' out of a total 
of 995 species of Aeuleata (other than Ants) no less than 376 are 
recorded from Tenasserim, the extreme northern district of the 
Malay Peninsula ; and there can be no doubt that if the Peninsula 
were adequately explored it would prove to be extremely rich in 
Hymenoptera. 

I have included a few species that were not found by the members 
of the Skeat Expedition, and also some allied forms from neigh- 
bouring regions. As a matter of convenience these are placed in 
their pi-oper positions and are distinguished by square brackets. 

MUTILLIDvE. 
MUTILLA MALAYANA, sp. U. 

Nigra, abdomine ferrugineo, basi apiceque nigris; capite thoi'acequ 

dense albo-pilosis ; alls violaceis. S • 
Long. 20 mm. 

^ Communicated by Dr. D. Sharp, F.Z.S. 



1901.] HYMENOPTEEA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 17 

Hah. Bukit Besar, Jalor (District of Pataiii State), Malay 
Peninsula. 

Antennae black ; the Hagellum opaque, covered with a pale dull 
down ; the scape on the upperside is covered with pale pubescence ; 
the underside is bare, hollowed in the middle, the outer sides more 
acutely pointed and narrower than the inner. Front and vertex 
strongly punctured and thickly covered with white hair, the front 
being much more thickly covered than the vertex. Face smooth 
and shining, stoutly keeled down the middle. Over the clypeus 
are 6 foveae, close to each other in a row, the outer is the largest ; 
the sides are furrowed. Mandibles aciculated, and not very sharply 
pointed at the apex. Thorax thickly covered with silvery pubes- 
cence ; there is a broad band of depressed pubescence on the hinder 
edge of the pronotum. Mesonotum shining, coarsely, hut not very 
closely, punctured ; there is a keel down the centre and a furrow 
on either side of it ; the hair is close and deep black. Scutellum 
pyramidal ; rugosely punctured, except the upper two-thirds of the 
base in the centre ; the base has an oblique, straight slope, as has 
also the apex from below the smooth top, which slightly projects ; 
the smooth part of the basal slope projects and is clearly separated ; 
the top is almost transverse ; below the centre are two small fovese. 
Median segment closely reticulated ; its base thickly covered with 
depressed silvery pubescence, the apical slope with long white hair ; 
the basal area reaches to the top of the apical slope ; its basal third 
is dilated ; the base of the dilated part has the sides straight, the 
apex has them obhquely narrowed ; the segment has the sides 
broadly and roundly dilated ; the outer side on the basal half is 
bordered by a smooth keel. The base of the propleurse is rugosely 
punctured, the punctured portion being bordered by a row of 
elongated fovese, which are narrowed obliquely at the apex on 
either side and are there clearly separated from each other. 
Mesopleurse, except behind, coarsely punctured and densely covered 
in the middle with silvery pubescence. Mesosternum densely 
covered with silvery pubescence. Metapleurse reticulated. 

MUTILLA SKEATI, Sp. n. 

Nigra, tliorace femoribusque rujis ; ahdomine pallide aureo 
piloso. 2 ■ 

Long. 13-14 mm. 

Bab. Kuala Aring, State of Kelautan, Malay Peninsula. 

Antennse entirely black, short and stout ; the scape thickly 
covered with white hair ; the flagellum with white pubescence ; 
the 3rd joint is as long as the 4th and 5th imited. Head as wide 
as the thorax, coarsely rugosely punctured, sparsely covered with 
long black hair ; the upper part of the front bears shorter golden 
hair, the lower is more thickly covered with longer white hair. 
Antennal tubercles black, the part between them obscure rufous. 
Eyes oval. Mandibles longish, becoming gradually narrowed 
towards the apex ; the upperside at the middle grooved. Thorax 
of nearly uniform width, only very slightly and broadly narrowed 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. II. 2 



18 MR. P. CAMEROiir ON THE [May 7, 

in the middle ; above coarsely, uniformly, and rugosely punctured ; 
the punctation on the lower half of the apical slope is much 
weaker and the apex itself is almost impunctate. Pleurae smooth 
and shining. Legs black, thickly covered with white hair; the 
spines on the tibise are black, on the tarsi bright rufous ; the 
calcaria of a paler rufous colour. Abdomen black ; its base bears 
longish white hair ; the basal segment is rather broad at the base 
and projects laterally iu a bluntly triangular smooth and shining 
tooth ; behind the middle of the 2nd segment are two oval 
marks of pale golden pubescence ; the 3rd segment has the apical 
two-thirds covered with similar pubescence ; the 4th has a similar 
baud, but widely interrupted in the middle ; the last is thickly 
fringed on the sides with long pale fulvous hair ; it is closely 
rugose. The ventral keel on the basal segment becomes gradually 
raised to the apex, which projects roundly, the lower slope being 
oblique. The ventral segments are all fringed with pale fulvous 
hair ; on the sides of the 2nd segment is a longish longitudinal 
furrow, covered with pale rufous pubescence. The thorax is fully 
twice longer than broad ; it is rounded in front, transverse 
behind. 

ScOLIIDjE. 
SCOLIA PROOEEA 111. 

One example of this fine species from Patalung State. 

ScoLiA SPECIOSA Smith. 

Bukit Besar. 

The male has not been described. Its head is reddish yellow, 
except behind between the antennae and at the ocelli, where it is 
black ; above it is smooth and shining ; the clypeus is strongly, but 
not very closely, punctured. Thorax thickly covered with short 
black pubescence ; the mesonotum is closely punctured, except the 
space on either side of the centre; the scutellum is similarly 
punctured except at the apex, where it is smooth; the median 
segment is more closely punctui'ed, and if anything more strongly, 
the hair, too, on it is longer and thicker. It has the base of the 
3rd abdominal segment reddish yellow, as in the female ; this j^ellow 
line may be interrupted in the centre and is covered with rufous 
hair. 

S. sijeciosa has hitherto only been recorded from Borneo. 

SCOLIA RUBIGINOSA Pab. 

One example : Eastern Malay Peninsula, without exact station. 

SCOLIA LATHONA, Sp. U. 

Nigra, thorace abdomineque opdlina pulcherrime lavatis ; alis 

fusco-violaceis. S . 
Long, 22 mw?. 

Hah. Kuala Aring, Malay Peninsula. 
Antennae much shorter than usual, distinctly shorter than the 



1901.] HTMENOPTEEA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION'." 19 

thorax ; black, stout ; the scape strongly punctured, sparselj^ 
haired ; the flagellum opaque. The lower part of the front 
broadly depressed ; the basal part clearly separated, broadly 
rounded above ; the apex transverse, with the sides broadly 
rounded: the upper third is smooth, impunctate ; the lower strongly 
punctured, except in the middle and at the apex. The front is 
distinctly keeled ; the sides of the keel oblique and punctured ; 
the top smooth. The upper half of the clypeus is deeply punc- 
tured ; the lower smooth, opaque, except at the apex, which is 
depressed and shining. Except very slightly on the vertex, the 
head wants the violaceous tint. Thorax very shining; it has all 
over very brilliant violaceous and blue shining reflections, and is 
covered with black pubescence ; the upper part is closely and uni- 
formly punctured all over, as is also the upper part of the propleurse 
and the greater part of the mesopleuree ; the metapleurse punctured 
on the upper edges. The apex of the median segment is transverse 
in the middle ; the sides are oblique. The legs have the violaceous 
tints of the body ; they are thickly covered with black hair ; the 
front tibiae and the tarsi bear dark fuscous pubescence behind ; 
the calcaria black, except the anterior, which are dark piceous 
and curved. "Wings dark fuscous, with a slight violaceous tint, 
rather dull, without brilliant reflections. Abdomen black, with 
brilliant violet and blue micaceous reflections and thickly covered 
Avith black hair, which is longer and denser on the apex and ventral 
surface ; the basal segment has a distinct neck at the base ; the last 
dorsal segment is smooth and bare on the apex. 

Comes near to S. ojDalina Smith, from Borneo. No mention is 
made of the form of the head in Smith's description, and presumably 
the front is not depressed : it is said to have only a few scattered 
punctures, not strongly punctured as in the present species ; the 
disc of the mesothorax has a smooth space, which is not the case 
here. 

Elis (Dielis) thoracica King. 

This species is in the collection from Singora and from Kota 
Bharu in Baman (District of Patani). All belong to the form Mith 
the pubescence on the collar and mesonotum red, this being also the 
case with all the specimens I have seen from Singapore and Java. 
In India the red-haired form is very rare compared with the white. 

Elis (Dielis) aglaea, sp. n. 

Nigra, Jiavo-maculata ; femoribus tibiisqne anterlorihus femori- 
busque jJOSticis subtus jlavis ; alis fusco-violaceis. cJ . 

Long. 20 mm. 

Hab. Biserat in Jalor, Malay Peninsula. 

Head covered with pale hair; black, the clypeus yellow, except the 
middle at the apex, where it is black ; the lower part of the front is 
strongly and closely punctured ; the vertex below and on either side 
of the ocelli sparsely punctured ; the eye-incisions are more closely 
but not so strongly punctured ; the part above the antennae has 

2* 



20 MR. P. CAMERON ON THE [May 7? 

iin oblique slope. Clypeus smooth and shining; the base of the 
mandibles is broadly yellow ; they are fringed with long pale hair. 
Thorax black ; the edge of the pronotiim broadly, two large marks 
in the centre of the scutellum, and a mark in the centre of the post- 
scutellum — transverse in front, rounded behind — yelloA\'. Meso- 
notum minutely and not very closely punctured all over ; this is 
also the case with the scutellum, except behind, where it is smooth 
and impunctate. Median segment closely, strongly, and uniformly 
punctured and thickly covered with long white hair and with a 
silvery down. Pleurae thickly covered with long pale hair; the 
hinder part of the meso- and the metapleurae are thickly covered 
with silvery pubescence. Legs black ; the front coxfe below, the 
four front femora broadly towards the apex, the four front tibiae 
except at the apex in front, and the hinder femora below, yellow ; 
the legs are thickly covered with long white hair ; the calcaria 
black ; the tarsal spines pale. Wings fuscous, darker in the 
middle, where they have a violaceous tinge. Abdomen black, thickly 
covered with white hair ; the basal three segments are banded with 
yellow at the apex ; the band on the basal segment is broader than 
the others. 

PoMPILIDiE. 
[PSEUDAGENIA MALAYANA, sp. n. 

Nigra, femoribus posticis rujis ; alls hyalinis. $ . 

Long. 7 mm. 

Hah. Singapore (Mr. George Lewis). 

Kesembles P. arethnsa Cam.\ but is a smaller species, has only 
the binder femora red ; the wings are clearer ; the apex of the 
clypeus rounded, not transverse ; the 2nd transverse cubital nervure 
is roundly and distinctly curved ; the transverse anal nervure in the 
hind wings is not interstitial, but received distinctly in front of 
the transverse cubital. It also resembles P. tincia Smith ; but that 
is a larger and stouter species, has the head more hairy, the hair 
being longer and thicker, and the hinder tarsi are shorter compared 

^ [Pscuclagenia arethusa Cam., above alluded to, is an undescribed species from 
Khasia represented in Mr. Rothney's collection. 

Nigra, femorihus tibiisque anterioribus late nojis ; abdominis apice supra albo ; 
alls hyalinis. (^ . 

Long. 8 mm. 

Comes into Bingham's Section "C " (Fauna of India, Hymenopt. i. p. 108): 
"Wings clear hyaline"; and b, b'. Scape of antennse densely clothed with 
short white hair ; the flagellum with a close, black, microscopic down. Vertex 
closely punctured and sparsely covered with longish fuscous hair ; the front 
more strongly punctured than the vertex and obscurely transversely striated ; 
it projects immediately over the antennas ; the projection is keeled down the 
middle ; the keel becomes wider towards the apex. The cheeks, the part below 
the antennse, and the clypeus thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the 
clypeus strongly and closely punctured ; roundly dilated, the sides at the apex 
oblique ; the ajsex transverse ; the silvery hair is mixed with some longer golden 
hair ; on either side near the middle is an obscure yellowish-white spot ; palpi 
pale testaceous ; the mandibles reddish before the middle, Pronotuui rounded 



1901.] HYMENOPTEEA OP THE " SKBAT EXPEDITION." 21 

with the length of the tibiae ; the tarsi, too, in tincta are distinctly 
spined, which is not the case with P. malayana. 

Head opaque ; the cheeks and clypeus covered with silvery pubes- 
cence, the front and vertex sparsely covered with longish pale hair ; 
the apex of the clypeus rounded, the sides at the base not sharply 
oblique ; the palpi testaceous ; the hinder ocelli are separated from 
the eyes by a distinctly greater distance than they are from each other. 
Thorax thickly covered with a silvery pile; the scutellumand median 
segment more sparsely with fuscous hair. The median segment 
has a gradually rounded slope, is closely obscurely transversely 
striated in the middle ; the oblique furrow ou the mesopleurae is 
narrow but distinct ; its lower part at the base is depressed, clearly 
separated from the rest, and more strongly punctured. Legs 
pruinose, the four anterior femora more or less obscure reddish 
beneath, the hinder femora bright ferruginous, except at the 
extreme apex ; the hinder tarsi are much longer than the tibiae, 
which are almost spineless. Wings clear hyaline ; the stigma 
fuscous ; the nervures darker ; the 2nd cubital cellule at the top 
and bottom is distinctly, but not much, shorter than the third ; 
the first and second transverse cubital nervures are roundly curved, 
the first is distinetl}^, the second scarcely oblique; the first reemTent 
nervure is received in the middle, the second distinctly in front of 
the middle of the cellule ; in the hind wings the transverse anal 
nervure is received distinctly in front of the cubital. Abdomen 
pruinose, shining ; the segments are testaceous at the apex.] 

[POMPILUS SINaAPOEEKSIS, sp. n. 

Niger^ dense argenteo-jyruinosus ; alls liyalinis, ajnce fumato. $ . 

Long. 10 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

Antennae densely pruinose, like the body. The eyes distinctly 
converge above, where they are separated by nearly the length of 
the 3rd antennal joint ; the hinder ocelli are separated from each 
other by the same distance as they are from the eyes ; the front 



thickly coyered with silvery pubescence. Mesonotum closely punctured, the 
middle in front slightly raised ; from the base of the tegulis runs an oblique 
narrow furrow. The postscutellar region is closely and finely, at the base 
towards the apes more strongly transversely striated. Median segment with a 
gradually rounded slope ; opaque, finely transversely granular ; the middle and 
apex thickly covered with long white hair. The middle of the propleura raised ; 
the lower part triangularly depressed ; the mesopleuras granular, opaque ; the 
apex on the lower part and the sternum thickly covered with long white hair ; 
the base of the metapleurce obscurely obliquely striated. Legs longish ; the 
apex of the fore femora, tlie fore tibias, and the greater part of the tarsi, the 
apical two-thirds of the middle femora except at the extreme apex, the middle 
tibiie except behind, the hinder femora except at the base, and to a less extent 
at the apex, red. Wings hyaline, but with a uniform fuscous tinge ; the 2ud 
and 3rd cubital cellules are subequal at the base and apex above and beneath ; 
the first recurrent nervure is received near tlie middle, the second shortly before 
the basal third of the cellule. Abdomen pruinose ; the apical segment above 
white, fuscous at the apex.] 



22 ME. p. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

has a narrow furrow down the centre. Clypeus transverse in the 
middle ; its sides broadly rounded. Mandibles black ; the base 
thickly covered with greyish pile ; the middle rufous. Palpi black, 
covered with a grey pile. The sides of the pronotum behind are 
straight and oblique. The median segment is distinctly furrowed 
down the middle. The cloud in the fore wings commences at the 
end of the radial cellule ; the radial cellule is wide in the middle ; 
the apical abscissa of the radius is oblique ; the apical half has a 
different angle from the basal. The spines on the tibiee and 
tarsi are black ; the calcaria are two-thirds the length of the 
metatarsus. The first and third transverse cubital nervures are 
roundly curved ; the second straight and slightly oblique ; at the 
top the second cubital cellule is not quite half the length of 
the first. 

Comes near to F. pulverosus Sm., which may be known from it 
by the cloud commencing " beyond the first submarginal cell," and 
the calcaria are nearly as long as the metatarsus. The description 
of P. pulverosus is not very complete. A revision of the Hymeno- 
ptera collected by Dr. A. E-. Wallace in the Malay region, and now 
in the Hope Museum, Oxford, is a great desideratum. At present 
the determination of many of the species from the description is 
mere guesswork. A¥ith the LarricUe, for example, one is never 
certain whether the species described belongs to Larra, Notogonia, 
Tacliysphex, or Tacliytes.'\ 

[S ALIUS MISERUS, Sp. U. 

Niger, cajnte, pronoto, apice mesonoti scutelloque jlavo-testaceis ; 
pedihus rufo-testaceis ; coxis posticis nigris ; alis fusco-Jlavis, 
apice fusco-violaceis. S • 

Long. 22 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

Antennae rufous ; the scape hollowed on the underside ; the 
outer edge is much sharper than the inner ; the apical joints are 
roundly curved above. The head fulvous ; the face pale yellow ; 
the vertex (especially at the ocelli) fuscous black. Eyes large, 
slightly converging above ; the lower part parallel ; the ocelli 
large, placed in a triangle, the hinder are separated from each 
other by a slightly greater distance than they are from the eyes ; 
there is a narrow shallow furrow in the middle of the front. Pro- 
thorax rufo-fulvous ; the lower and hinder parts of the pleurae 
darker coloured. The apical half of the mesonotum, the scutellum, 
and postscutellum ai'e rufo-fulvous ; the black on the mesonotum 
is triangularly narrowed at the apex. Median segment, except at 
the apex, transversely striated ; it is covered with a golden down 
and some longish pale fulvous hairs. The scutellum is thickly 
covered with long pale fulvous hair. Legs rufo-fulvous ; the 
hinder coxge black ; the inner tooth of the claws is half the length 
of the outer. Wings fulvo-hyaline at the base ; the apex with an 
obscure violaceous-fuscous tinge, which is deeper in the radial and 
cubital cellules ; the discoidal cellule is hyaline, with an elongated 



1901.] HYMENOPTERA or THE " SKEAT EXPEDITIOK." 23 

fuscous cloud in the centre : this cloud is sharply narrowed towards 
the apex ; the apical abscissa of the radius is curved ; the first 
cubital cellule is shortly but distinctly shorter than the second ; the 
third transverse cubital nervure is roundly curved. Abdomen 
black ; the apical dorsal segment rufous. 

Belongs to Bingham's Section B a (Fauna of India, p. 124).] 

[Salius tapbroba^s'jE, sp. n. 

Niger, antennis, jtedihus, apice pronoti, mesonoto, scutello posl- 
scutelloque rufis ; coxis troclianterihusque nigris j alls Jtavis, 
apice famatis. $ . 

Long. 25 mm. 

Hah. Trincomali, Holraputtana, Ceylon (Colonel Yerhury). 

Belongs to the section with one tooth on the claws, and comes 
near to S.jiavus. 

Antennae stout, bare, ferruginous ; the scape darker. Head 
ferruginous, sparsely covered with long black hair ; the vertex 
thickly covered with depressed golden pile. The apex of the 
clypeus is almost transverse in the middle ; the apex of the labrum 
is slightly rounded and is densely fringed with reddish hair. Thorax 
black ; the apical half of the pronotum, the mesonotum, scutellum, 
and postscutellum densely covered with silky depressed golden 
pubescence. The depressed belt behind the postscutellum is dark 
testaceous, is furrowed down the middle, and is transversely but 
not closely striated. The median segment is coarsely transversely 
striated, except on the apical third ; the striae have a brownish hue. 
The upper part of the metapleurse is obliquely striated ; the apex 
of the propleur^e is brownish above. Legs ferruginous ; the coxae 
and trochanters are black. Wings yellowish ; the apical margin 
distinctly smoky all round. Abdomen entirely black, shining ; the 
pygidium and the epipygium velvety and thickly covered with long 
black hairs.] 

Salitts sycophant a Grrib. 

An example from Patalung {Evans) is the usual form ; one from 
Kuala Aring has the wings much darker, the fulvous tinge being 
much darker at the apex ; the apex itself is not clouded, and the 
darker colour of the basal region extends nearer to the apex ; the 
hind wings want the basal tint entirely. 

Salius malayensis, sp. n. 

Long. 16 mm. 

Hah. Kuala Aring. 

This species has the coloration of the body and wiugs of S. perer- 
grinus Sm., with which it is closely related. S. peregrinus may 
readily be known from it by the 3rd cubital cellule on the top being, 
if anything, longer than the 2ud, whereas in the present species it 
is not much more than one-half its length ; there is also a marked 
distinction in the shape of the 2nd transverse cubital nervure, 
which in peregrinus is straight, whereas in malayensis it is, on the 



24 ME. p. CAMBROlf ON THE [May 7, 

lower side, obliquely bent backwards towards the base of the wing, 
while the upper two-thirds are roundly curved towards the apex. 
The same character separates it frora the closely-allied Khasia 
species, S. suhfervens Cam. 

Head fulvous, yellowish along the eye-orbits ; the ocellar region 
and the middle of the front are black ; this black mark extends 
behind the ocelli to the end of the eyes, where it is roundly 
narrowed ; it is roundly incised at the sides of the ocelli, below 
which it is roundly and broadly dilated ; the lower part is incised. 
The eyes distinctly converge above ; the hinder ocelli are separated 
from each other by about the same distance they are from the eyes. 
The clypeus is broadly rounded at the apex ; the labrum is broadly 
black in the middle, its apex fringed with bright fulvous hair. 
Mandibles broadly black at their apices. Thorax black ; the 
prothorax (except the lower half of the pleurse), the sides of the 
mesonotum, its centre largely from near the base to the apex, 
the scutellum, and postscutellum, rufo-fulvous. The apical two- 
thirds of the pronotum are farrowed in the centre ; this furrow is 
widest at the base. Wings uniformly fuscous-violaceous ; the 
stigma is pale fulvous in the middle ; the first cubital cellule is 
about twice the length of the second ; the first and third transverse 
cubital nervures are oblique and roundly curved, the second is 
straight and oblique on the lower third, the rest roundly curved 
towards the upper apex of the cellule ; the first recurrent nervure 
is received near the base of the apical foux'th, the second near the 
base of the apical third of the cellule. Legs coloured like the 
thorax ; all the coxae and trochanters, the base of the four anterior 
femora, and almost the basal half of the hinder pair black ; the 
apical joint of all the tarsi black. Abdomen black, except the upper 
part of the last segment, which is pale fulvous. 

POMPILUS ANALIS Pab. 

One example, without special locality, of this widely distributed 
Eastern species. 

Sphegid^. 

Sphex lobatus Fab. 

Patalung, Biserat, Gunong Inas (Perak), and Bukit Besar. 
A common Indian species. 

Sphex umbeosus Christ. 
Bukit Besar. 

Sphex aueulentus Pab. 

The form of this species agrees with the description of Sphex 
flavo-vestita Sm., a species placed by Kohl, in his monograph of 
the genus, among the unidentified species. According to some 
specimens in the Cambridge Museum from North Borneo, it stores 
its nests with young grasshoppers, and spins a cocoon, which is 



1901.] HTMEIfOPIERA OF THE " SKBAT EXPEDITION." 25 

smooth, bare, brown, and shining on the inner side ; on the outer 
side it is thickly covered with pale, long, woolly yellow hair. 

Ammophila ateipes Smith. 

1'he female example is very large and has bright red legs ; the 
males are not much more than half its size and have the legs 
almost entirely black. Special locality not stated. 

Scelipheon javanum Lep. 

Singora. Several examples of this fine species. 

Sceliphkon madeaspatanum Fab. 
Singora. One example. 

[Bembbx lactea, sp. n. 

Long. 22 mm. 

Hah. Khasia (coll. Rothney). 

This species wauts the U-shaped yellow mark on the mesonotum, 
and comes into Bingham's Section B near to B. latitarsis (Fauna of 
India, Hymenopt. p. 285). 

5 . Antennae black ; the scape of the antennse yellow, except the 
apical half above, the 2nd joint, and the base of the 3rd beneath, 
which are black. The yellow colour has a distinct pale olive tint ; 
on the head, the clypeus, the labrum, the front, except for two large 
oblique marks on the top continued from the black on the vertex, 
the inner orbits to near the ocelli, the outer orbits more narrowly 
from near the top, and the mandibles are yellow. The eyes slightly 
diverge below ; the front and vertex are thickly covered with long 
fuscous hair ; the front is broadly keeled ; on the top of the 
clypeus are two oblique, large, iri'egular black marks. Mesonotum 
black ; the scutellum black, except for a large transverse line in the 
centre, which is dilated behind at the sides ; the base of the post- 
scutellum is broadly yellow at the base. Median segment yellow, 
except broadly in the middle at the base and two oblique lines — 
broad at the base, becoming gradually nai'rowed towards the apex 
— across the middle and one across the apex, black. The base of 
the pronotum, an irregular mark on the propleurse behind, the 
upper two-thirds of the mesopleurae at the base, the sutures 
narrowly, and an irregular large mark on the apex of the meta- 
pleurte, black. Legs of the yellow colour of the body ; the femora 
and tibiae broadly lined with black — the former in front and behind, 
the latter behind only. The ventral surface of the abdomen 
entirely, the basal segment except for a large oblique line on either 
side extendiug near to the middle of the segment and becoming 
gradually narrowed from the outer to the inner side, black ; the 
second and third segments are broadly black at the apex, the black 
bands triangularly dilated in the middle at the apex ; near the 
centre of these segments are two transverse black marks ; on the 
base of the fourth segment is a large black mark, which projects 
obliquely broadly at the apex and to a less extent on the inner 



26 ME. p. CAMERON OS THE [May 7, 

side ; the black band between these marks triangularly projects 
in the middle ; two larger black marks, not projecting at the 
sides, are on the fifth segment ; the sixth is entirely black. 

The male is similarly coloured to the female, except that the 
black marks on the clypeus are much smaller, the yellow line on 
the scutellum is narrower and is interrupted in the middle, the 
abdominal segments have only their apices narrowly black, and 
the marks on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments are much narrower ; 
the last segment is yellow, black round the edges, and more 
broadly and irregularly at the base, where the black band projects 
broadly in the middle. The 8th, 9th, and 10th joints project and 
are minutely spined below ; the 11th and 12th joints are broadly 
hollowed, smooth, bare, and brownish below ; the last has the apex 
obliquely rounded. The anterior tarsi are broader than usual ; 
the metatarsus is of almost uniform width and has its lower edge 
slightly irregularly waved ; the 2nd joint is not much narrowed 
at the base ; the 3rd and 4th become gradually wider towards the 
apex ; the middle femora are irregularly, minutely, and closely 
spined or serrate on the lower edge, the outer two serrations are 
wider, more regularly rounded than the others. The spine on the 
2nd ventral segment is large, becooies gradually wider from the 
base to the top ; its apex has an oblique slope ; on the penultimate 
segment is a distinct rounded tubercle. 

A distinct species related to B. pinguis and B. latitarsis.~\ 

BeMBEX MELANCHOLICA Sm. 

Except that the yellow lines on the mesonotum are indistinct 
and very short, an example from Singapore agrees very well with 
the description of this species. In the male the incised apex of 
the last abdominal segment is a characteristic feature. 

[Bembex boeneana, sp. n. 

Long. 22 mm. S • 

Hah. Borneo. 

This species has the pale lacteous colour of B. melancliolica, and 
is closely related to it ; but it may be at once separated by the fact 
that the last abdominal segment is not incised in the middle. 

Antennae black ; the scape yellow below ; the apical two joints 
are hoUoAved below ; the last has its apex obliquely truncated and 
is broadly, roundly incised ; the 12th is more obliquely and 
slightly incised; the 11th is obliquely narrowed at the base; the 
10th is slightly spinose in the middle ; the 9th is sharply spinose ; 
the 8th has a less distinct spine. Head thickly covered with long, 
soft, white hair; black, the inner orbits to near the top, the 
clypeus, labrum, and mandibles, except at the apex, livid yellow ; 
below the antennae are two black marks, longer than broad, 
rounded above, obliquely narrowed on the inner side. Mesonotum 
black ; an interrupted U-shaped yellow mark in its centre, and 
there is a wider line alongside the tegulse. Scutellum black, 
yellow round the apex ; postscutellum for the greater part yellow. 
Median segment yellow ; a somewhat triangular black mark on 



1901.} HTMENOPTBEA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 27 

either side at the base : on the inner side they are produced nar- 
rowly and obliquely to the middle of the segment and outwardly 
down the metapleurae, where they become much narrowed on the 
lower end. On the pleurae there is an elongated pyriform black 
mark near the tubercles. Legs coloured like the body ; the femora 
and tibise lined with black above ; the front tarsi are broadly 
dilated ; the 2nd joint is roundly dilated on the outer side, the 
dilated part is clearly separated ; the base of the joint is not con- 
tracted ; the middle femora are not toothed beneath ; near the 
apex on the lower side is a shallow incision. The apical slope of 
the basal segment and the apical third of the others are black ; 
the black bands are dilated broadly and irregularly backwards in 
the middle ; behind the middle of the segments are two narrow, 
transverse, short lines ; the apical segment is black, with two 
large, somewhat triangular yellow marks in the middle ; its apex 
is broadly, bluntly rounded.] 

[PiSON FUSCIPALPIS, sp. n. 

Niger, niticlus, dense argenteo-pilosus ; alis Jtyalinis, stigmate 
nervisque nigris. $ . 

Long. 6 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

Scape and pedicle of antennae densely covered with silvery 
pubescence; the flagellum less densely with a pale pile. The 
lower part of the front and of the eye-incision, the face, and the 
clypeus are densely covered with silvery pubescence ; the upper 
part of the front and the vertex with short silvery pubescence ; 
the front and vertex are shagreened and can hardly be called 
punctured ; the front has a shallow but distinct furrow down its 
centre. The mandibles are broadly rufous in the centre; the 
palpi are fuscous. Thorax shagreened and thickly covered with 
silvery pubescence. Pronotum clearly separated behind. The 
basal part of the median segment has a distinct keel down the 
middle ; a stout keel runs from the spiracles to the apex of the 
segment ; the apex of the segment has an oblique slope ; on the 
upper half is a deep furrow ; on either side of this are five curved 
striae. Wings clear hyaline ; the apex slightly inf uscated ; the 
nervures and stigma are black ; the pedicle is longer than the 
lower two transverse cubital nervures, which are roundly curved ; 
the second recurrent nervure is received almost in the middle of 
the cellule ; the first recurrent about the length of the top of the 
apical cubital cellule from the transverse cubital nervure. Legs 
densely pruinose ; the calcaria pale. The basal segment of the 
abdomen is as long as the second segment ; the two are clearly 
separated. 

The tegulae are piceous on the outer side ; the basal two segments 
df the abdomen have their margins depressed ; the anterior pai*t 
of the pronotum i"s distinctly separated from the larger posterior 
part ; both have oblique slopes. 

A distinct species from P. suspiciosus Sm., vi'hich is also from 
Singapore.] 



28 MR. p. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

CRABEONIDiE. 

[Ceabeo impetugsus, sp. n. 

Niger, abclomine maculis Jlavis sex ; geniculis tibiisque Jlavo- 
lineatis ; alishyalinis, 7iervis stigmateque nigris. $. 

Long. 6-7 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

Head black ; the front and vertex almost bare, alutaceous ; the 
ocelli are in a curve, the hinder are separated from each other by 
a slightly less distance than they are from the eyes, which, on the 
inner side above, are obliquely narrowed. The sides of the clypeus 
are thickly covered with silvery pubescence ; the middle has a 
distinct keel. The basal half of the mandibles is yellow. Thorax 
black, opaque ; yellow are two lines on the pronotum, two marks 
on the scutellum, and the tubercles. The postscutellum is longi- 
tudinally striated. The base of the median segment is depressed 
and bears stout keels ; the basal area is defined by a wide furrow, 
w^hich is traversed by the strife ; the apical half has a deep furrow 
in the centre ; the sides of the segments are bounded by a stout 
keel, at the base of which, on the inner side, are two small areae. 
Propleurse strongly aciculated ; the hinder part is striated. Meso- 
pleuraj alutaceous ; the furrow is crenulated ; the apex is obliquely 
narrowed, with a keel at the base, behind which is a narrow crenu- 
lated furrow, Metapleurae closely and minutely striated, except 
at the base above, where there is a strongly striated part, bordered 
behind by a furrow. Wings clear hyaline; the nervures black ; 
the radial cellule is slightly infuscated. Legs black ; the four 
anterior knees, the tibiae (except broadly behind), the hinder tibiae 
behind (except at the apex), and the calcaria yellow. The petiole 
is nearly as long as the following three segments united ; it is 
opaque and dilated at the apex ; there are two yellow oblique 
lines in the middle of the 2nd segment, two longer ones on the 
base of the 3rd, and a broad one on the base of the 4th ; the latter 
is slightly incised in the middle at the apex.] 

[Trypoxylon varipilosum, sp. n. 

Nigrum, abclomine rufo, petiolo nigro ; pedihus testaceis, tarsis 
posticis nigris ; facie clypeoque dense aureo-pilosis ; alis hyalinis, 
nervis nigris, stigma te fusco. 5 , 

Long. 16 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

Antennae testaceous, paler towards the base. The front and 
eye-incisions are covered with golden pubescence ; on the face and 
clypeus the pubescence is denser and more silvery in hue. The 
apex of the clypeus is rufo-testaceous ; its middle broadly but not 
very much projects, the projection is slightly waved in the centre. 
Mandibles testaceous, paler, more yellowish towards the apex. 
The upper part of the front is broadly but not- deeply furrowed ; 
the lower is stoutly keeled. The hinder part of the head is 
thickly covered with golden-silvery pubescence. Thorax smooth 



1901.] lITMElSrOPTEK-V OP THE " SKEAT EXPEDITIOX." 29 

and shining, thickly covered with longish silvery hair ; on the 
mesonotum the hair has a golden tinge. The basal half of the 
median segment has a wide shallow fnrrow, which becomes 
gradually wider towards the apex ; the furrow on the apical slope 
is wide on the basal two-thirds, much nari'ower and shallower on 
the apical. Legs testaceous : the four front femora are more 
rufous in colour ; the posterior darker hi tint and are lined with 
black on the inner and outer sides : the apex of the hinder tibise and 
the hinder tarsi black. Abdomen ferruginous ; the petiole, except 
at its apex, black. 

Comes nearest, apparently, to T. coloratum Smith. The legs 
probably vary in tint; the hinder coxse are black at the base 
behind. The pleurae have a plumbeous tint. There are curved 
lateral furrows on the base of the median segment, but they are 
not deep or very distinct.] 

V E s P I D jE. 

Vespa cincta Fab. 

Biserat. The common Indian form, not the Malayan var. 
affinis. In most of the workers the rufous colour of the abdomen 
extends on to the basal segment. 

PoLiSTES sagittaeius Sauss. 

One specimen of this common species from Biserat. 

ICAEIA LEPTOGASa?EK, Sp. n, 

Plava, capite supra, mesonoto medioque pronoti nigris ; alls 
hyalinis, nervis stigmateque testaceis. $ . 

Long. 14-15 mm. 

Hah. Patalung, Malay Peninsula. 

$ . Antennae dark rufous ; the scape darker in colour. On the 
head the vertex, the front (except near the eyes and immediately 
above the antennae), and the part below the antennae and above 
the clypeus, and bordered on the outer side by the sutures, are 
black ; there is an obscure line down the clypeus, which does not 
extend quite to the apex. The mandibular teeth are black. Meso- 
notum black. On the apex of the scutellum is a triangular black 
mark : its central furrow is deep, and does not extend to the base. 
The furrow on the median segment is narrow at the base ; the rest 
of it is much wider, with the sides obliquely sloped ; the centre 
has a narrow keel. Legs coloured like the body ; the apices of the 
four posterior tibiae and their tarsi black. Abdomen elongate, 
without black ; the petiole is nearly as long as the 2nd and 3rd 
segments united. 

This is a larger species than S. sulciscutis ; the femora want 
entirely the black colour so conspicuous in the last-named species ; 
the abdomen is distinctly longer compared with the thorax, and 
the rest of the abdomen is clearly longer compared with the 
petiole ; the second segment itself is longer compared with its 
width at the apex. 



30 ME. P. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

[ICAEIA SULCISCUTIS, Sp. 11. 

Fallide Jlava, supra late nicjro-maoalata ; pedihus pallide Jlavis, 
tarsis nic/ris ; scutello sulcato ; alis hyalinis, stigmate nervisque 
nigro-fvscis. ^ . 

Long. 13 mm. 

Bah. Bukit Tomah, Siugapore. 

Aiitennse deep black, stout ; the joints of the flagelluin clearly 
separated. Head pale yellow ; brownish black are the front, ex- 
cept the orbits of the ocelli and a mark above the antennae, the 
outer orbits broadly, and the clypeus, except for a black line down 
its middle on the basal two-thirds, the line becoming wider towards 
the apex. The black mark on the front is dilated outwardly on 
the lo^^■er edges ; there is a narrow but distinct furrow extending 
from the ocelli to the antennae ; on the black mark between the 
antennae are two small yellow marks. The apex of the clypeus is 
acutely pointed in the middle. Mandibles pallid yellow, except 
that the teeth are black. The prothorax is black, except the hinder 
edges narrowly, the upper edges and a broader, more irregular line 
before the middle. The scutellum is broadly furrowed down the 
middle ; it is yellow, except the middle, narrowly behind, and a large 
triangular mark behind. The median segment is edged with brown 
behind and more narrowly down the centre ; this central line is 
much narrowed on the top. The basal line extends obliquely to 
the spiracles ; the pleural furrows are clearly defined; the furrow on 
the centre of the median segment is keeled. The middle femora 
are brownish on the basal two-thirds above ; the hinder are 
entirely black, as are also the four hiuder tarsi and the apices of 
the four hinder tibiae. The petiole is brown, its apex and sides 
pallid yellow ; the other segments are brownish, with the apices 
and the ventral surface pallid yellow.] 

EUMENES CIECINALIS Fab. 

Hah. Patalung, Singora, Malay Peninsula. 

The three examples are very dark-coloured, and all differ from 
each other in coloration. 

[Odyneeus mephitis, sp. n. 

Niger, jlavo-maculatus ; abdominis hasi rufa; pedibus Jlavis, 
femoribus rufis, tibiis posticis nigris ; alis hyalinis, stigmate 
fusco. 2 ' 

Long. 6 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon. 

Belongs to the section without a suture on the i)etiole, and 
comes close to 0. miniatus and 0. diffinis. 

Scape of antennae bright yellow below ; the base of the flngellum 
rufous. Head closely and uniformly punctured; black; the oblique 
sides of the clypeus, a mark above the antennae, roundly dilated on 
either side below the middle, the lateral, the upper, and lower 
portions being not clearly separated, the end of the eye-incisions, 



1901.] HYMEKOPTEEA or THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 31 

and the outer upper half o£ the eye-orbits, pale yello\\-. The 
central part of the clypeus is flat and strongly punctured ; the 
sides are oblique ; the apex transverse. Pro- and mesothorax 
closely and strongly punctured, as are also the scutellum and 
postscntellum ; the postscutellum has an oblique slope, and does 
not project at the apex. Median segment opaque, rugose, and 
thickly covered with silvery pubescence. Legs pallid yellow ; the 
femora rufous ; the middle tibiae are lined behind with black ; the 
posterior are entirely black. On the thorax there are two yellow 
marks on the pronotinn, which become gradually wider outwardly ; 
the tegulic are yellow at the base and apex ; the sides of the 
scutellum and of the postscutellum more widely are also yellow. 
Wings clear hyaline, the stigma fuscous ; the nervures are darker 
coloured. The basal half of the petiole is rufous ; its apex and 
the apex of the second segment are yellow ; the apical three 
segments are marked with yellow in the middle ; on the sides of 
the second segment behind the middle is a small yellow mark.] 

[Ehtnchium taproban^, sp. n. 

Nigrimi, ahdomine flavo-lineato ; femorihus rvfis ; alls violaceo- 
hyalinis, nervis stigmateque nigris. § . 

Long. 9 mm. 

Hah. Ceylon. 

Antennae black, brownish beneath. Head black, a hue on the 
lower side of the eye-incision, a small triangular mark over the 
antennae, and a large curved mark on either side of the top of the 
clypeus, yellow. Erout and vertex closely and strongly pimctured ; 
the lower part of the front, of the eye-incision, and the face and 
clypeus covered with silvery pubescence; there is a stout keel 
between the antennae. Clypeus obliquely narrowed towards the 
apex, where it is roundly but not deeply incised ; the sides are 
triangular. Pro- and mesothorax closely and strongly punctured ; 
the median segment is more deeply, more rugosely, punctured : 
the postscutellum has a sharp edge behind and is slightly depressed 
in the centre there ; the sides of the median segment, seen from 
above, are straight and oblique. The base of the thorax is trans- 
verse ; in the centre are tv^ o small yellow marks ; the tegulae are 
black. Wings fuscous-violaceous ; the violaceous tint is more 
distinct at the apex and base ; the nervures and stigma are deep 
black. Legs black ; the four posterior femora are rufous ; the 
anterior and the anterior tibiae in front are of a darker rufous 
colour. The abdomen is closely and rather strongly punctured ; 
the basal segment is cup-shaped, and behind is clearly separated 
from the 2nd, which becomes distinctly narrowed towards the 
base ; the basal two segments are banded with yellow all round ; 
the 3rd is banded with yellow above ; the ti'ansverse suture on 
the base of the second ventral segment has a blistered appearance 
and is not punctured. The sides of the median segment are 
broadly rounded, not angular or toothed ; the postscutellum is 
more distinctly raised than usual and is broadly rounded behind. 



32 MR. p. CAMEBOisr o"N THE [May 7, 

This species looks not unlike, at first sight, a small example of 
li. Jlavomarginatwm, but is abundantly distinct; e. g. the sides of the 
median segment do not angularl}^ project.] 

Afiu jE. 

[XTLOCOPA MALAY A.NA, sp. U. 

Nigra, thorace supra abdominisque basi dense fulvo-jjiloins ; tursis 
anteriorilms longe alho-pilosis ; alis fusco-violaceis. c? ■ 

Long. 25-26 mm. 

Hab. Singapore. 

Antennae black : the scape and the fourth and following joints 
rufous beneath ; the scape is only rufous in the middle. Head 
distinctly narrower than the thorax ; black, closely punctured ; the 
vertex behind is covered with yellowish-fulvous pubescence ; the 
sides of the face to the middle of the clypeus with shorter white 
pubescence ; the hair on the upper part of the outer orbits is black, 
on the lower piceous. In the middle of the clypeus is a pale yellow- 
streak, which reaches near to the apex, which is smooth and shining 
and is clearly separated ; below it is fringed with rufous hair. The 
mandibles are widely grooved above, narrowly below ; the tooth is 
long and becomes gradually narrowed towards the apex ; there is 
no subapical or upper tooth ; the space above the lower tooth is 
roundly curved. The entire upper part of the thorax is thickly 
covered with bright yellow pubescence ; the pro- and metapleurse 
are shining and only sparsely haired ; the mesopleura) black, closely 
punctured and thickly covered with black, mixed with pale, hair ; 
the hair on the breast is much shorter ; the apex of the metapleurse 
may be piceous. The four anterior tarsi are thickly fringed with 
very long white hair ; the hair on the four front tibiae is black, 
white on the top in front and on the apex behind ; on the posterior 
legs the hair is entirely black. The hair on the basal segment of 
the abdomen is yellow, passing gradually on the 2nd and 3rd 
segments into olive colour ; on the other segments it is black. The 
basal ventral segments are more or less rufous ; the sides of the 
2nd segment bear yellowish hair ; those of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th 
white, the others black hair ; the hair on the last segments is long 
and black. The wings are uniformly deep fuscous-violaceous ; the 
stigma and nervures are deep black. 

The ocelli are in a curve • . • ; the hinder are separated from 
each other by about the same distance they are from the eyes.J 

[Xtlooopa ceylonica, sp. n. 

Dense ferrugineo-pilosa, thorace supra abdominisque basi olivaceo- 
pilosis ; alis fusco-violaceis. d- 

Long. 27-28 mm. 

Hab. Ceylon. 

This species closely resembles X. riifescens, but is more slenderly 
built; the head is narrower compared with the mesothorax, it wants 
entirely the yellow markings on the face and clypeus ; the hair on 



1901.] HYMBIfOPTEKA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 33 

the top of the thorax aud base of abdomen has a distinct ohve 
tuit ; the 2nd recurrent nervure is not broadly and roundly curved, 
but has the upper and lower parts straight and oblique, and the 
face and clypeus are much more densely covered with rufous hair. 

The underside of the scape is pale yellowish ; the lower part of 
the flagellum rufous ; the third joint darker coloured than the 
others. Head densely covered with rufous pubescence, which is 
shorter on the face and clypeus than on the front and vertex. The 
clypeus is closely and distinctly punctured, except in the centre, 
where it is smooth, which is also the case with the apex, where 
it is very smooth and shining; the labrum is more projecting 
than usual and is keeled in the middle. The ocelli are in a curve; 
the hinder are separated from each other by a distinctly greater 
distance than they are from the eyes. Thorax covered with olive- 
yellow pubescence ; the olive tint is more noticeable above than on 
the pleurae. The pubescence on the base of the abdomen has a 
slight olive tint : on the rest it is bright rufous above and below. 
The pubescence on the legs is long, dense and bright rufous ; the 
apices of the tarsi are piceous. Wings fuscous, with bronzy tints. 

The anterior femora are brownish in front ; the front trochanters 
ti'iangularly project at the apex.] 

Xtlocopa oollaeis Linn. 

Xylocopa pictifrons Smith. 

6 . One example of what agrees fairly well with Bingham's 
description of this species in his Fauna of India, Hymenop. 
p. 538 ; but not with Smith's original description, Trans. Ent. Soc. 
ii. (1852) p. 42, and in his Monograph of the genus, Trans. Ent. 
Soc. 1874, p. 275. 

Xtlocopa grajstdioeps, sp. n. 

Nigra, dense fulvo-pilosa ; tarsis ferrugineo-jnlosis ; alls fulvo- 
hyalinis, nervis nigris. 2 • 

Long. 20 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

Head large, nearly as wjde as the thorax. Ocelli larger than 
usual, they are placed in a triangle ; the hinder are separated from 
the eyes by one-half the distance they are from each other. 
Clypeus closely and strongly punctured ; its apex has a depressed 
margin ; in the centre is a stout, shining, smooth tooth. The apical 
tooth of the mandibles is large, triangular ; the subapical distinctly 
projects, is large and rounded at the apex. The front distinctly 
projects between the antennae ; it is, as is also the vertex, closely, 
uniformly, and distinctly punctured. The thorax is thickly covered 
with long rufo-fulvous hair ; the mesonotum is smooth and shining ; 
the scutellum is strongly, but not very closely punctured, as is also 
the median segment, except the basal area, which is alutaceous ; 
the segment has a semiperpendicular slope and is rounded at the 
top. Wings fulvo-hyaline ; rufous in tint along the fore margin ; 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. III. 3 



34 MR. p. OAMEHOK ON THE [Mav 7, 

the 1st recurrent nerviire is not interstitial, but is received shortly 
beyond the 2nd transverse cubital. Tegailse rufous, black round 
the inner edges. The hair on the legs is dense, long and bright 
rufous ; the tooth on the apex of the fore tibife is short, bhmt, and 
hollowed on the outer side. The hair on the abdomen is similarly 
coloured to that on the thorax ; it is sparse on the back ; the ven- 
tral segments are fringed with long hair ; unless the segments are 
distorted, the 4th is distinctly longer than the 3rd. 

A distinct species; the rufous colour of the pubescence makes it 
resemble rufesceyis Smith ; but, apart from other differences, that 
species is a Koptortliosoma, whereas the present species is a Xylocopa 
s. str. It is a well-marked species, through its head being larger 
and more particularly wider, compared with the thorax, than usual, 
most of the species having the head very perceptibly narrower than 
the mesothorax ; the ocelli too are larger and are placed in a 
triangle, while with most of the species, e. g. rufescens, they are 
placed in a curve ; they are also placed nearer to the eyes than in 
the typical species of Xylocopa.'] 

KOPTORTHOSOMA CjERULETJM Fab. 

One example from Kuala Aring. 
KoPTORTHOSOMA ^STUANS Linn. 
Common, as elsewhere in the Oriental Region. 

KoPTORTHOSOMA LATiPES Drury. 
Common. 

Megaohile ertthropoda, sp. n. 

Nigra, pedihus rufis ; capite dorsoque thoracis dense rufo-pilosis ; 
scapo antennarum rufo ; alis fulvo-hyalinis, apice fere fumatis, 
stigmate nervisque fulvis. $ . 

Long. 14-15 mm. 

Hah. Singapore. 

The scape of the antennse rufous ; the fliagellum black, brownish 
beneath. Except on the clypeus the head is thickly covered with 
bright fulvo-rufous hair ; the face is strongly punctured : the 
clypeus is more closely rugosely punctured and is strongly keeled 
on the upper two-thirds ; it is covered (but not so thickly as the 
front) with longish dark rufous hair ; on its sides there is a patch 
of thick fulvous hair, which is obliquely narrowed towards the 
apes. The apical tooth of the mandibles is bluntly rounded ; the 
subapicai tooth is shoi't, broad, bluntly rounded, and is furrowed 
broadly, but not deeply, in the middle. The entire upper part of 
the thorax is tliickly covered with bright rufous hair, except in the 
centre of the median segment. The pleuree are also thickly covered 
with similar pubescence. Mesosternum closely rugosely punc- 
tured and covered with pale fulvous hair. Legs rufous ; the coxse 
and the four anterior trochanters black ; the hair is thick, stiff, and 
dark rufous ; the tarsi are darker in colour, especially towards the 
apex. Wings fulvo-hyaline, the apex slightly smoky ; the stigma 



1901.] HYMEiSrOPTBEA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION. " 35 

and uervures are fulvous. The base of the basal segment of the 
abdomen and its sides are covered with fulvous pubescence ; its 
apex and the apex of the second are fringed with similarly coloured 
hair : the hair on the rest of the segment and the ventral scopa 
deep black. Teguloe rufous. 

The apex of tbe clypeus is transverse in the middle and has the 
sides rounded ; the central part has an irregular margin, almost 
toothed on the outer side ; the hinder ocelli are separated from each 
other by twice the distance they are from the eyes. 

Comes near to M. dimidiata Sm. 

Megachile eeedebici, sp. n. 

Long. 21 mm. 5 . 

Hob. Kuala A-ring, Malay Peninsula. 

This species closely resembles one from Borneo which is also 
undescribed. They both agree in being large, in having the pubes- 
cence black, except on the apex of the abdomen (where it is pale) 
and the scopa (which is bright red). The differences between the 
two may be expressed thus : — 

Head and thorax closely and strongly punctured ; the apical 
segment of the abdomen clothed with pale pubescence ; the 
mesonotum not furrowed laterally. Length 21 mm. frederici. 

Head and thorax sparsely punctured ; the apical two seg- 
ments of the abdomen clothed with pale pubescence ; the 
mesonotum with a wide, deep furrow on either side. Length 
23-24 mm hicanaliculata. 

Head strongly and closely punctured ; the face is not so strongly 
or regularly punctured and in the middle is shagreened only ; it is 
distinctly separated from the face. The inner part of the man- 
dibles is irregularly punctured ; the outer side has the punctures 
smaller and more widely separated ; the apical tooth is bkmtly 
triangular ; the subapical is a bluntly rounded small tubercle. 
Mesonotum with the scutellum closely, uniformly, and strongly 
punctured ; the postscutellum is closely and minutely punctured : 
the basal area of the median segment is smooth and shining ; the 
rest of it is closely and minutely punctured ; the base of the seg- 
ment is fringed with long white hair. Pro- and mesopleurse closely 
punctured, the metapleura coarsely shagreened. Legs deep black, 
with deep black pubescence ; the pubescence on the underside of 
the basal joint of the tarsi is bright rufous ; the calcaria dull 
red, almost brown. Wings hyaline, slightly suffused with fulvous 
tints ; the nervures are fuscous black, the stigma darker coloured. 
Abdomen black ; the back almost bare to the last segment, which is 
thickly covered with greyish-white pubescence ; the segments are 
sparsely punctured at the base and apex ; the scopa is bright rufous ; 
the basal ventral segment is for the greater part reddish brown. 

[Megachile bicanalicitlata, sp. n. 

Long. 23-24 mm. 

Hah. Borneo, Matang, 3000 feet (Shelf ord). 

3* 



36 ME. p. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

Vertex shiniug, sparsely punctured ; the punctures shallow, 
irregular. Belo^A the anterior ocellus is a V-shaped hollow, bordered 
with stout keels ; the sides have an oblique slope. The part of the 
face below the antennse is roundly convex and bordered on its 
lower edge by a keel ; the clypeus is keeled down the middle and 
is more strongly and regularly punctured than the face, its apex is 
alutaceous, opaque, and impunctate, its sides are roundly, but not 
very much, dilated. Mandibles opaque, their basal half sparsely 
punctured ; their apical tooth is bluntly rounded, the subapical is 
indistinct and rounded. Mesonotum shining, sparsely punctured, 
and having a blistered appearance ; its central part is bordered by 
two shallow, wide furrows ; outside these is a narrow, deeper, and 
more clearly defined one ; the outer edge is distinctly and sharply 
raised and furrowed on the inner side. The scutellum is irregularly 
punctured like the mesonotum. Median segment closely, distinctly, 
but not very strongly, punctured ; the basal area is smooth and 
shining, except at the edges (where it is opaque) and at the base on 
the outer side (where it is punctured) ; the middle is furrowed ; the 
sides are thickly covered with long white hair. Pleurae and sternum 
rugosely punctured; under the wings, below the tegulse, is a 
thick patch of white pubescence. Wings hyaline, the apex slightly 
smoky ; the nervures and stigma black. Legs black, thickly 
covered with stiff black hair. Abdomen black ; the dorsal segments 
closely and minutely punctured ; the basal slope is covered with 
longish, white, soft hair ; the apices of the basal four segments are 
fringed with white hair ; the apical two are thickly covered with 
short white pubescence and with longer white hair ; the ventral 
scopa is bright rufous.] 

Trigona collina Sm. 

Patalung. Described by Smith from Mount Ophir, Malacca. 

Trigona testaceitaesis, sp, n. 

Nigra, capite thoraceque dense albo-pilosis ; scapo antennarum 
apiceque tarsorum testae eis ; alls Jiyalinis, nervis stigmateque 
piceis. ^ . 

Long, fere 4 mm. 

Hah. Patani, Malay Peninsula. 

Scape of antennse and the second joint testaceous ; the 
flagellum dark testaceous, black on the upperside. Head smooth 
and shining ; densely covered with short white pubescence ; the 
edge of the clypeus is testaceous ; the labrum dark testaceous. 
Mandibles obscure testaceous, darker in the middle. Thorax 
densely covered with short pale pubescence, except on the median 
segment ; on the pleurse and sternum it is denser and longer than 
it is on the mesonotum. Legs black, the tarsi testaceous, the 
basal joint of the hinder black ; the hair on the legs is black, paler 
on the apical joints of the tarsi. Wings hyaline, highly iridescent ; 
the stigma and nervures are testaceous or piceous. Abdomen 
smooth and shining ; the basal segment may be brownish. 

Patani. Several workers. 



1901.] HYAIEN'OPTBBA OP THE " SKEA.T EXPEDITION.'* 37 

ICHNEUMONIDJS. 
JoPPESn. 

Atanyjoppa, gen. nov. 

Antennae short, distinctly shorter than the abdomen, thickened 
and compressed beyond the middle. Clypeus not separated from 
the face by a suture ; a fovea on either side of it above ; its apex 
slightly and roundly incurved in the middle ; the labrurn distinctly 
projecting. Face flat. Mandibles bidentate at the apex ; the lower 
tooth much smaller than the upper. Occiput margined, roundly 
incised. 8cutellum flat, broader than long, its sides keeled. 
Median segment depressed in the middle at the base ; it is distinctly 
areolated. Gastrocoeli not very distinct, elongate, narrowed towards 
the apex. Areolet 5-angled, narrowed above, the recurrent nervure 
is received in its centre ; the apical abscissa of the radius is curved 
upwards at the base. Legs stout ; the base of the front tibiae 
deeply incised ; the claws are simple. Abdomen long, three times 
the length of the thorax, which is not much longer than the basal 
two segments united. Petiole curved at the apex ; its spiracles 
are placed near the base of its apical fourth ; the ventral fold 
extends to the apex of the 4th segment ; the segments are prod uced 
laterally at the apex ; there ax'e 7 segments, the last two are large 
and form a sharp, somewhat triangular point. Ovipositor short. 
The middle segments of the abdomen are longitudinally striated. 

In Ashmead's classification of the Joppini (Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Museum, xxiii. p. 13) this genus comes nearest to the American 
genus Lindigia, Kreichbaumer, which is, however, very different 
in form. The characteristics of the genus are the very short, 
strongly dilated antennae, the very long abdomen, with its middle 
segments sharply dilated at the apex, projecting labrum, and flat, 
stroufflv keeled scutellum. 



'tiV 



[Atanyjoppa flavomaoulata, sp. u. 

Nigra, promesothoraceque alho-maculatis ; metathorace rufo; abdo- 
tnine late albo-lineato ; pedihus anteriorihus alhis, posticis nigris, 
basi tihiarum late alba; alls hyalinis, stigmate testaceo. 5 . 

Long. 17-18 mm. 

Hab. Borneo {Shelford). 

Antennae short, scarcely longer than the thorax. Thorax and 
basal two segments of the abdomen black ; the scape beneath, the 
basal joints of the flagellum at the apex, and the 7th to 15th more or 
less white ; the scape smooth, thickly covered with long pale hair. 
Head large ; the face, labrum, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, the inner 
orbits (widest in the middle and behind the ocelli), and the outer 
orbits (narrow above and becoming wider towards the bottom) 
yellow ; the black on the front and vertex has a plumbeous hue ; 
the front and vertex are very smooth and shining ; the face is 
obscurely punctured in the middle, the clypeus at the base. 
Labrum thickly fringed with long hair. Thorax : the edge of the 



38 MB. p. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

pronotum all round above and slightly wider at the apex, a short 
line on either side of the mesonotum, the sides of the scutellum 
broadly, its apex more narrowly, the postscutellum, the edge of 
the propleurse broadly, the lower half of the mesopleurse, the 
tubercles, the edge of the apex of the mesopleurae, and the sides of 
the metanotum at the apex, yellow. The mesonotum at the base 
and sides obscurely punctured ; the middle with large deep 
punctures : it is thickly covered with short black hairs, especially 
at the base. Scutellum flat, large, slightly narrowed towards the 
apex ; the sides with a stout keel, which extends from the base 
to near the apex ; except along its edges it bears large deep 
punctures ; the apex is longitudinally striated ; the depression at 
the base is narrow and shallow. Postscutellum smooth and 
shining. The base of the median segment is coarsely shagreened : 
the rest strongly punctured ; the arese are not distinctly indicated, 
the keels being faint ; the supramedian is longer than broad, and 
obliquely narrowed at the base ; there are no teeth ; the apex in 
the middle is depressed, shining, and finely transversely striated ; 
the keels on the apex of the segment are more distinct than they 
are on the base ; the posterior median area is triangularly nar- 
rowed at the base. PropleuraB shining ; the upper part strongly 
obliquely striated : the apex furrowed ; the mesopleurae punctured, 
more strongly below than above ; the middle behind smooth, 
plumbeous ; the apex is crenulated. Metapleurse strongly find 
closely punctured. Legs stout, thickly covered with white hair ; 
the four anterior tibiae and the femora are lined above with black ; 
the hinder coxae are black, except in the middle behind ; the basal 
joint of the trochanters and the basal half of the hinder tibiae 
yellow ; the tarsi spinose ; the metatarsus and the base of the 2nd 
joint are testaceous. Wings hyaline, the nervures blackish ; the 
areolet narrowed above, being there somewhat less in length than 
the space bounded by the first transverse cubital and the recurrent 
nervures ; the latter is received nearly in the middle ; the wings 
are rather short, and hardly reach to the apex of the 4th abdominal 
segment. The petiole becomes gradually widened from the middle 
to the apex ; yellow, the dilated part blackish, and obscurely 
longitudinally shagreened ; the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments are 
broadly yellowish at the base ; the apical three are entirely white ; 
the 2nd and 3rd segments punctured and longitudinally striolated 
in the middle ; the gastrocoeli are shallow, and not very clearly 
indicated ; the ovipositor projects, its sheath is black.] 

[Atakyjoppa rufomaculata, sp. n. 

Long. 22 mm. $ . 

Hob. Khasia {Roilmey). 

Agrees closely with the preceding species, from which it may 
be known by the median segment being broadly black at the base 
and in the middle, while the metapleurse are also broadly black at 
the base. 

Antennae black : the scape beneath and the 7th joint to the 



1901.] STNEifOPTERA OJ? THE " SKEAI EXPEDITIOJ^." 39 

commencement of the dilatation M'hite ; the dilated apex has a 
brownish hue. Head pale yellow ; the middle of the front and of 
the vertex broadly, the occiput, and the hinder part of the outer 
orbits to shortly below the middle, black. Face and clypeus shining, 
flat, sparselv and indistinctly punctured ; the face is covered with 
short, the clypeus with longer pale, hair ; the apex of the clypeus 
is more distinctly punctured than the rest ; the projecting labrum 
is smooth and is fringed with long hair. Mandibles yellow, black 
at the apex. Thorax black ; the edge of the pronotum, two short 
marks, narrowed at the base and apex, the sides of the scatellum 
broadly and of its apes more narrowly, the postscutellum, an 
irregular mark behind the metathoracic spiracles, the apex of the 
segment from behind the middle and extending obliquely on to the 
pleurae, the low^er edge of the propleurae and slightly less than 
the lower half of the mesopleurae, yellow. Mesonotum smooth, 
closely punctured in the middle, where the yellow spots are. 
Scutellum strongly, but not very closely, punctured. Post- 
scutellum sparsely punctured. Propleurae closely and distinctly 
punctured ; in the middle are some curved keels, at the apex 
short striae; the yellow, lower part of the mesopleurae closely 
punctured. Median segment closely, rugosely punctured all over ; 
the posterior median area coarsely, closely, transversely striated. 
The four front legs are yellow ; the femora and tibiae are black 
behind ; the hinder coxae are yellow, black below and at the base 
above ; the hinder femora entirely, and the apical part to near the 
middle and the base narrowly, black ; the hinder tarsi are blackish 
behind. Wings clear hyaline ; the stigma testaceous ; the apical 
nervures fuscous. Abdomen black ; the basal four segments to 
near the middle and the apical two segments entirely yellow ; the 
postpetiole is closely shagreened and closely striated ; the middle 
segments are closely punctured ; the 2nd and 3rd segments are 
longitudinally striated at the base.] 

Mesostenini. 
Skeatia, gen. nov. 

(^ . Antennae shorter than the body ; the basal joints of the 
fl.agellum elongated, the middle ones roundly and broadly dilated 
on the lower side ; the apical ones dilated, about three times 
broader than long. Thorax three times longer than broad ; the 
parapsidal furrows deep, reaching to shortly beyond the middle. 
Median segment, except at the base, coarsely, irregularly reticu- 
lated ; the basal smooth part is bounded by a stout transverse 
keel ; in its centre is a small square area. Metapleural keel 
distinct, long. Areolet small, square ; the apical nervure is faint ; 
the transverse median nervure is received behind the transverse 
basal ; the hind wings as in Mesostenus. Legs slender, long ; the 
fore tarsi nearly twice the length of the tibiae ; their claws are 
small ; the hinder coxse elongate, about three times longer than 



40 MR. P. CAMERON ON THE [May 7, 

wide. Petiole of abdomen long, slender, curved, not much dilated 
towards the apex. 

The malar space is moderate ; the eyes reaching to the end of 
the clypeal fovese, which are deep. Clypeus roundly convex ; not 
separated by a suture above. Mandibles large, bidentate ; the 
upper tooth is slightly smaller than the lower. Mesopleural 
furrow wide and deep. Scutellum roundly convex, only keeled at 
the base ; postscutellum bifurcate at the base. Median segment 
armed with two long teeth ; it is moderately long. Palpi long ; 
the second joint of the maxillary is dilated towards the apex. The 
propleurse are stoutly keeled laterally in front. The head is 
wider than the thorax ; it is obliquely narrowed behind the eyes ; 
the occiput is sharply keeled. The seutellar depression is large, 
deep, and bears two keels in the middle. 

The female has the antennae stouter than in the male, and they 
are slightly thickened beyond the middle ; the abdominal petiole is 
shorter and broader towards the apex ; the apex of the abdomen 
is bluntly pointed ; the last segment (the 8th) is very short 
above, belovv it is much moi'e largely developed ; the ovipositor 
is not one-half the length of the abdomen. 

The metathoracic spiracles are small, oval, about twice longer 
than they are broad ; the median segment is depressed at the 
base, the seutellar and postscutellar furrows are deep and crenu- 
lated. The last joint of the hinder tarsi is about equal in length 
to the third. 

Skeatia albispina, sp. n. 

JSligra, facie, clypeo, mandibulis tarsisque albis; coxis trochanter- 
ibusque anteriorihus pallide Jlavis ; alis fere hyalinis, nervis 
stigmateque nigris. (S . 

Long. 13 mm. 

Hah. Bukit Besar, Malay Peninsula. 

Antennas black ; the 7th to 24th joints white beneath ; the 
scape pale yellow in the middle below ; the scape is covered with 
short pale pubescence. Head smooth and shining ; black ; the 
face, clypeus, mandibles, and palpi pale yellow. Ocelli large. 
Pront depressed ; a stout keel runs down its centre from the ocelli. 
Eyes large, parallel. Mesouotum and scutellum smooth and 
shining. Propleuras stoutly longitudinally keeled behind. Meso- 
pleursB opaque and closely longitudinally striated, except on the 
upper part behind. Metapleurse above closely, below more 
stoutly, irregularly, and not so closely, reticulated. The meso- 
sternal furrow is wide and deep, especially at the base, and is 
closely striated. The base of the median segment is smooth and 
shining ; there are a few narrow irregular striae on either side of 
the central area ; the basal keels in the middle are curved and end 
in a squarish area, which is stoutly keeled down the middle ; the 
rest of the segment is stoutly reticulated ; the spines are long, 
curved, and white. All the coxse are pale yellow (actually they 
are testaceous yellow, but this may be owiug to discoloration) ; 



1901.] HYMENOPTEBA OP THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 41 

the front legs, the middle femora at the base, and the greater part 
of the middle tibiae are testaceous ; the basal joint of the middle 
tarsi and the basal third of the posterior and the hinder tro- 
chanters, the femora, tibiae, and calcaria are black. Abdomen 
black, except the apical segment, which is white. 

Skeatia nigeispina, sp. n. 

Nigra, coxis, trochanteribus et feonofibus anterioribus, basi 
femormn posticorum late tarsisque posticis flavis ; alis hyalinis, 
nervis stigmateqwe nigris. $ . 

Long. 13, terebra 3 mm. 

Hab. Bukit Besar, Malay Peninsula. 

Antennae as long as the body, thickened towards the apex ; 
the 6th to 13th joints white, except above. Front and vertex 
shining; the front below the ocelli stoutly, irreg'ularly longitudinally 
striated; the lower part excavated, smooth except for a stout 
keel down the middle. Face coarsely aciculated, slightly and 
broadly projecting in the centre, where it is yellow ; clypeus 
broadly, roundly convex ; its lower part projecting and slightly 
oblique. Mandibles dark testaceous ; their lower border keeled. 
Mesonotum aciculated ; the scutellum is more shining, the post- 
scutellum still more so. The basal region of the median segment 
has two keels in the centre, which converge towards the apex ; 
the parts nearest to them are smooth and shining ; the rest 
opaque, with some thin oblique striae on the inner portion. The 
middle part of the propleurae is stoutly striated. Mesopleurae 
closely striated, except above. Except at the base above, the 
metapleurse are closely, stoutly, obliquely striated. The meso- 
pleural keel is curved, deep, not very wide, and striated. Meso- 
sternum smooth and shining. The median segment behind the 
transverse keel is closely reticulated ; the apical slope is irregu- 
larly transversely striated ; the teeth are stout, cuiwed, black, dull 
testaceous towards the apex. Legs black ; the four anterior coxae, 
trochanters, and femora, the hinder coxae, basal two-thirds of the 
femora, and the hinder tarsi except the extreme base, yellow. 
Abdomen black : the apical two segments lemon-yellow above ; 
the 2nd and 3rd segments are shagreened, the others smooth and 
shining. 

Vagenatha, gen. nov. 

Edges of pronotum and median segment stoutly spined. Para- 
psidal furrows distinct ; the first joint of the flagellum distinctly 
longer than the second. Median segment with one incomplete 
transverse keel. Middle segments of the abdomen distinctly 
separated and narrowed at the base ; the edges of the second, 
third, and fourth on the lower edges at the apex projecting into 
spines. Petiole broadly dilated at the apex, the postpetiole 
clearly defined ; the spiracles are nearer to each other than to the 
apex ; on the loAver side at the base are two sharp, oblique teeth. 



42 MK. p. OAMEBON ON THE [May 7, 

Metapleural keel complete. Head wider than the mesothorax ; 
its front and vertex reticulated, without spines or keels. Scutellar 
depression large, shallow, and bearing longitudinal keels. Areolet 
large, about twice longer than wide ; the transverse cubital ner- 
vures are parallel and only slightly oblique ; the recurrent nervure 
is received near the base of the apical fourth of the cellule ; the 
transverse median nervure is received behind the transverse basal. 
Both the transverse cubital nervures are distinct. 

The eyes largely project ; the head behind them is obliquely 
narrowed and is well-developed there ; the occiput is sharply 
margined ; the scutellum is flat and has the sides keeled ; on the 
basal half of the second segment are two oblique, wide, shallow 
furrows, which enclose a triangular space ; at the apes of this is a 
narrow transverse furrow ; there is a similar, but nob quite so 
distinct, furrow on the third segment. The legs are long; the 
tarsi are spinose, the anterior are twice the length of the tibia? : 
the median segment is coarsely, irregularly reticulated ; the 
spiracles are about three times longer than wide ; in the hind 
wings the transverse median nervure is angularly broken by the 
subdiscoidal nervure shortly below the middle. 

In Ashmead's system (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. xsiii. p. 44) this 
genus comes near Mesostenoideus and Christolia. Characteristic 
are the clearly separated middle abdominal segments, spined at 
their apices, and the spines on the basal ventral segment. 

[Vagenatha spiisrosA, sp. n. 

Nigra, Jiavo-maculata, spinis Jiavis ; pedihus flavis, coxis posticis, 
apice femorum fosticnrum apiceque tibiarum posticarum nigris ; 
alis hyalinis, nervis stigmateque nigris. c? . 

Long. 16 mm. 

Rah. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennae as long as the body ; black, the scape beneath and the 
middle of the flagellura broadly white. Head black ; the clypeus 
yellow. Front and vertex smooth and shining, except the front, 
which is irregularly reticulated in the middle — more broadly above 
than below. The face is opaque, coarsely shagreened, and sparsely 
haired ; the outer orbits are thickly covered with longish white 
pubescence. The spines on the pronotum are large. Mesonotum 
Tclosely, rugosely punctured, opaque ; the parapsiclal furrows are 
irregularly striated. The scutellar depression is large ; in the 
centre are two stout longitudinal keels, with a thinner one betM^een 
them ; on their outer side is another narrow keel. Scutellum 
sparsely punctured at the base. Median segment strongly, closely, 
rugosely reticulated. Propleurse obliquely, stoutly striated ; the 
striae distinct and clearly separated. Mesopleurae on the base and 
lower side closely, rugosely punctured ; the middle obliquely 
striated 5 the apex behind smooth and shining above. Metapleurae 
strongly, obliquely striated ; below thickly covered with white 
pubescence. Legs yellow ; the femora with a more fulvous hue ; 



1901.] HYMBKOPTEKA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 43 

the hinder coxae, except above, the base of the trochanters, the 
apex of the hinder femora and of the hinder tibiae, black. Abdomen 
black ; the base and apex of the petiole and the apical third of the 
other segments yellow ; they are closely and distinctly punctured, 
the petiole more coarsely than the others. 

There is a short broad tubercle on the centre of the median 
segment ; it is joined to the teeth by an oblique broad yellow 
band ; all the thoracic spines are yellow, as are also the tegulae, 
scutellum, and tubercle.] 

Beaconid.^. 

Iphiaulax MALAY anus, sp. n. 

Luteus, capite, avtennis tai'sisque posticis nic/ris ; facie clypeoque 
pallide Jfavis ; cdis fusco-violaceis, ad basin late Jlavis. 5 . 

Long, 12, terebra 4 mm. 

Hah. Singora, Malay Peninsula. 

Antennae entirely black, as long as the body ; the scape smooth 
and thickly covered with long fuscous hair ; it is more shining 
than the flagellum. Head black, shining; the face from shortly 
below the antennae, the oral region, and the malar space pale 
yellow. Pace smooth ; in its centre, below the antennae, is a deep 
furrow with oblique sides. The clypeus is surrounded by a keel, 
which is more distinct on the top, where it forms a semicircle. 
Thorax smooth and shining ; above, and on the sternum, it is 
thickly covered with long pale hair. The meso- and metapleural 
furrows are smooth, wide, and deep. Legs coloured like the body, 
thickly covered with white hair ; the hinder tarsi are deep black. 
Wings to shortly beyond the transverse median nervure yellowish 
hyaline ; the rest deep fuscous, with a violaceous tinge, except the 
base of the stigma broadly and a narrow oblique mark on the base 
of the first cubital cellule. Petiole smooth, except the raised 
central part, which bears large, deep, elongated punctures. The 
second segment is closely, rugosely punctured ; the central basal 
part is smooth and is not prolonged into a keel ; the basal depres- 
sion is deep ; the basal branch is striated in the bottom, the wider 
apical one is smooth ; at its apex are four narr(.)vv keels. Securi- 
form articulation deep, wide, stoutly, but not very closely, longi- 
tudinally striated ; the apical furrow on the segment is narrow, 
deep, and smooth ; the 2nd and 3rd furrows are deep and closely 
striated, those on the apices of the segments are smooth and 
deep. 

E VAKIID^. 

[EVANIA SHELFORDI, sp. n. 

Nigra, hasi jiagdli antennarum, trocTianteribus anterioribus, basi 
tibiarum posticarum basique tarsorum posticorum late., albis ; 
alls fusco-violaceis. $ . 

Long. 12 mm. 



44 ON THE HYMEISTOPTERA OE THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." [May 7, 

Hah. Borneo (Shelford). 

Antennae black ; the 3rd joint, except at the apex, white. The 
front and vertex are stoutly, acutely, longitudinally striated ; the 
face is similarly, but more obliquely, striated ; the outer parts of 
the head are obliquely, and not quite so strongly, striated. The 
hinder ocelli are separated from each other by about the same 
distance as they are from the eyes. The lower tooth of the 
mandibles is rufous before the apex ; the palpi are dark fuscous. 
The base of the pronotum is raised ; the raised part slightly 
projects laterally ; the sides are oblique ; the base is not quite 
transverse, the edges being rounded ; it bears rcjund, deep, clearly 
separated punctures. The central part of the mesonotum is 
alutaceous and impunctate at the base ; the rest of it irregularly, 
deeply, but not very closely punctured ; this punctured part is 
bordered by a deep furrow ; outside this it is opaque and aluta- 
ceous, and bears two thin keels on the outer side- Scutellum in 
the middle strongly, irregularly punctured ; the centre has a 
longitudinal keel ; the sides are stoutly, obliquely striated ; on the 
postscutellum are two stout keels. Propleurss alutaceous and 
bearing some scattered, shallow punctures. The upper two-thirds 
of the mesopleurae are smooth and shining, except for an oblique, 
clearly defined, depressed area ; this has the bordering keels more 
distinct in front than behind and bears, except at the base and 
apex, some stout keels ; the lower part is closely, but not very 
deeply punctured. Sternum smooth. Median segment closely 
reticulated ; the central portion more closely, rugosely, and ir- 
regularly than the rest. The basal part of the wings is fuscous, 
with a distinct violaceous tinge ; the apical part below the radial 
and second cubital cellules is similarly, but more lightly, clouded. 
The metasternal fork is short and stout, and obliquely diverges at 
the apex : behind it is a stout, smooth keel. The front tibiae and 
tarsi are fuscous ; the four anterior trochanters are broadly white 
at the base, as is also the base of the hinder tibiae narrowly, the 
basal joint of the hinder tarsi, and the second joint broadly in the 
middle. Petiole smooth at the base ; its sides bear stout, oblique 
striae ; the apical half above is irregulai'ly, coarsely punctured. 
The hinder tibiae and tarsi are shortly spined. The sides of the 
median segment are broadly rounded ; the middle transverse ; the 
abdomen is very smooth, shining, and piceous. 

This comes nearest, of the known species, to the Australian 
E. princeps AVest.] 



1901.] 0?r THE ARAOHTSriDA OT THE " SKBAT EXPEDITIOIS^." 45 

3. Ou the Araclmida collected during the " Skeat Expedi- 
tion " to the Malay Peninsula, 1899-1900. By M. 
Eugene Simon, President of the Entomological Society 

of France \ 

[Eeceived April 15, 1901.] 

[This collection of Aracbnida contains examples of 129 species, 
of which 48 are described as new, and there are also 4 new sub- 
species. Three new genera are characterized. A few species of 
Acariua — chiefly Ixodidae — were obtained, but have not been de- 
termined. Not one of the members of the 8keat Expedition was a 
specialist in Arachnida, so that the large percentage of novelties 
iu this collection indicates that a great deal of work still remains 
to be done at this class of animals in the region in question. — 
D. S.] 

Ordo AEANE^. 
Eamilia Avioulakid^. 

1. Selenocosmia javaneksis (Walckenaer). 

Mygale javanensis Walck., Apt. i. 1837, p. 216. 
M. monstrosa C. Koch, Arachn. v. 1839, p. 14, f. 346. 
Biserat in Jalor (District of Patani). 

En tout semblable aux exemplaires de Java auxquels je I'ai 
compare. 

Connu de Java, de Sumatra, de Celebes et des lies Nicobars. 

2. Omothymus thoeelli, sp. nov. 

Cepli.th. long. 19 mm., lat. 18. Peel. max. 44 mm. Peel. i. 

81 mm. ; ii. 70 m')n. ; iii. 63 mm. ; iv. 76 mm. 

Cephalothorax nigricans, crebre et longe Jlavido-piibescens^ Jmmilis, 
non multo longior quam latior sed antice valde attenuatus, fronte 
sat angusta, fovea tJio^ricica recte transversa, sat profunda sed 
tuberculo ocidorum fere dnplo angustiore, impressionihus radi- 
antibus distinctis. ■Tuberculum ocidorxmi modice altum, ovato- 
transversum et fere duplo latins quam longius. Oculi quatuor 
antici in lineam leviter procurvam, inter se fere cequidistantes 
{spatiis interocidaribus diametro minore oculi lateralis non 
latioribus), medii rotundi, laterales longe ovati atque obliqui 
mediis saltem ^ minores. Oculi medii postici albi, parvi, obtuse 
iriquetri, ocidi laterales jiostici ovati et obliqui, mediis posticis 
majores sed lateralibus anticis midto minores. Glypeus si>b 
oculis mediis convexus, diametro majore ocidi lateralis paido 
latior. Chelce nigricantes, flavido-pubescentes, supra setis 
longissimis fulvo-rufulis Mrsutce, extus crebre scopidatce, subtus 
marginibus sulci cum margine interiore coxarum pedum- 

^ Oommunicated by Dr. D. Sharp, F.Z.S. 



46 M. BU&ENE SIMON" ON THE [May 7, 

mcuoilJarium crehre coccineo-crinitis. Ahclomeii breve, setis 
lonyissimis et erectis, ad basin fuscis ad a^iice^n 2J<-dlide ferru- 
(jineis crebre vestitum. Pars labialis ste'nmm pedesque n-igella, 
Jlavido vel cinereo-Jiavido crebre pidjescentia. Pars labialis 
crebre et minute gramdosa. Pedes setis validis fuscis vel nigris 
hirsuti et setis fulvo-riifidis multo longioribus cmispersi, tarsis 
oimctis, metatarsis V paris usque ad tertiam partem basilarem, 
metatai-sis 2'" parts usque in medio, metatarsis posticis tanium ad 
apicem late et crebre nigro-cinereo-scopulatis. Tibia V paris 
apophysi brevi crassa leviter incurva, apice late et obtuse truncata, 
spinulis nigris incurvis creberrime vestita, intus ad apicem 
instructa. Pedes-maxillares longissimi, bulho ad basin nigro, 
pra^terea. fusco-rufido, piriformi, spina intus directa, attenuata 
sed obtusa, subtiliter striata et supra acute carinata. 
Ab Omotliymo schioedtei Thorell, cui verisimiliter affinis est, differt 

imprimis tuberculo ociilorum duplo (baud triplo) latiore quam 

longiore et oculis lateralibiis posticis anticis multo minoribus. 
Perak : Ulii Selama. 
NoTA. — II est a noter que le sternum est assez fortement attenue 

en avaut, caractere attribue par E. I. Pocock au genre Phormingo- 

chilus. 

3. Chilobrachts annandalei, sp. nov. 

5 . Oeph.th. long. 16-3 mm., lat. 13'5. Pedes i. 47"5 mm. ; ii. 
40*5 mm. ; iii. 39*5 mm. ; iv. 48 mm. 

Ceplialothorax fuscus, cinereo-fulvo-puhescens, sat humilis, evidenter 
longior quam latior, aiitice modice atienuatus, fovea thoracica 
profunda sat 7nagna, tuberculo oculorum non multo angustiore, 
valde procurva semilunari. Tuberculum oculorum ovato- 
transversum, saltern duplo latius quam longius. Oeidi quatuor 
antici, superne visi, in lineam vix procurvam, medii inter se 
quam a, lateralibiis vix remotiores (spatio inter oculum. medium 
et lateralem utrinque diametro minore lateralis minore), medii 
rotundi, laterales longe ovati et obliqui mediis paulo minores, 
oculi medii postici albi, p)ai'vi, ovati, recti et leviter angulosi, 
latei-ales ovati et obliqui mediis m,ajores sed lateralibiis anticis 
evidenter minores. Clypeus diametro majore oculorum lateralium 
latior. Abdomen oblongum, fiiscum, fulvo-ferrugineo-pubescens 
et hirsutum. Chelcp, fiiscce, supra fiilvo-ferrugineo-pubescentes et 
longe hirsutce, extiis fere glcdirce et nitidce sed prop)e margiyiem 
inferiorem 'minute et creberrime spinulosce, marginibus sulci 
cum margine interiore coxarum pediim,-m,axillarium crasse 
coccineo-ciliatce. Partes oris, coxce sternumque obscure fusca, 
sat breviter nigro-setosa. Pars labialis apice convexa, minutissime 
et crebre granulosa. Coxce pediim-inaxiUai'iu'm intus aculeis 
pronis bacilliformibus biseriatis, inferioribus longioribus, in- 
structce. Pedes sat longi, robusti, sed metatarsis tarsisque 
posticis sat gracilibus, fusci, fulvo-rufulo pubescentes et hirsuti, 
aculeis parvis apicalibus metatarsorum posticorum exceptis, 
mutici, tarsis metatarsisque quatuor anticis usque ad basin crasse 



1901.] ARAOHNTDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEIJITION." 47 

sc02'>u/atis, tarsis posticis scopulatis sed scopuTis tarsorum 4'2'«''?« 
Uiiea pared setosa snbdivisis. Ungues tarsorum (^saltern posii- 
coruni) dentihus paucis parvis et reniotis, in medio muniti. 
.Talor : from floor of cave. 

Familia PsECHEiDiE. 

4. PSECHKUS ABGEKTATUS (Doleschall). 

Jalor : Biserat. Ligeh : Belimbing. 

Troiive pour la premiere fois dans la presqu'ile Malaise, espece 
repandue dans TAustro-Malaisie et la Nouvelle-Gruinee. 

5. (?) PsEOHRUS siN&APORENSis Thorell. 

PsecJirus singaporensis Thorell, Boll. Soe. ent. Ital. xxvi. 1894, 
p.l. 

Perak : TJlu Selama. 

Determination incertaine, les individus recueillis dtant tons 
jeunes. 

Pamilia IJLOBORiDiE. 

6. Uloboetjs gekiculaius (Olivier). 

Ul. zozis Walck., Apt. ii. 1841, p. 197. 
Ul. latreillei Thorell, Vet. Ak. Forh. xv. 1858, p. 197. 
OritJiyia toiUiami Blackvvall, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. ii. 
1858, p. 331. 

Ul. domesticus Doleschall, Tweede Bijdr. etc. 1859, p. 46. 

Ul. horhonims Vinson, Aran. Eeun. etc. 1863, p. 258, pi. 1. f. 3. 

Jalor : Biserat. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Espece repandue dans toutes les regions tropicales du monde. 

7. Uloborus pteeopus (Thorell). 

Philoponus pteropus Thorell, in Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. xxv. 1887, 
p. 128. 
Patalung. 
Decrit de Birmanie. 

Familia SioaeiidjE. 

8. Soytodes marmoeata L. Koch. 

Scytodes marmorata L. Koch, Ar. Austr. i. 1872, p. 292, tab, 
xxiv. f . 4. 

Jalor: Biserat. 

Espece tres repandue dans toute I'Asie tropicale, la Malaisie et 
la Polynesie. 

Eamilia Zodaeiid^. 

9. Stoeena pseliophoea Thorell. 

St. pseliopJiora Thorell, Bih. t. K, Sv. Handl. xx. 1894, p. 5. 



48 M. EUGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

St. annulipes Thorell, Bull. Soc. ent. Ital, xxiv. 1892, p, 209 
(non L, Koch). 
Perak : TJlu Selama. 
Decrit de Singapore. 

10. STOliENA OBNFBILA, sp. UOV. 

5 . Long. 6'5 mm. — Cepnalotliorax oi'ahis, valde convexus., fronte 
obtusa, nigro-nitidus et glaher. Oculi cuncti parvi et suhceqiiales, 
lineas binas validissime et fere cequaliter j^rocurvas designantes, 
medii ctntici et -postici a sese subcontigui sed a latercdibus 
latissime distantes^ aream parallelam fere dupJo longiorem quam 

, latiorem, occupantes. Clypeus latvs. Abdomen breviter ovatwn, 
sv,pra dur,h(sculum , nigro-nitidiim et glabrum^ sed postice., supra 
mamillas, minute albo-testaceo, notatum, subius confuse dilutius. 
Mamillce aJho-testacece. Chelee stemumque fusco-rufula sub- 
Icevia. Pedes, prceserthn antici, sat breves et rohisti, lutei, 
tibiis ad basin late olivaceis, pedes quatuor antici femorihus 
supra parce acideatis, tibia V paris subtus acideis binis parvis 
setiformibiis uniseriatis, meiatarso aculeo basali aculeisque 
apicalibus binis similibus, tibia 2* paris sid)tus acideis trinis 
uniseriatis acideisque binis interioribus, metatarso acideis binis 
subbasilaribus acideisque apicalibus binis, cunctis parvis et 
debilibus, armatis. Pedes postiei acideis vcdidioribus numerosis 
muniti. Metatarsi antici usqxie ad basin, postiei ad apicem 
crasse nigro-pilosi. Pedes-maxillaresfidvo-rufidi, robusti, tarso 
acuminata. Regio epigasteris leviter coriacea, rufula, postice 
tenuiter nigro-marginata et plagula media rvfula minutissima 
notata. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. 

Species fere inter Storenam et Asceuam. 

11. Stoeena soiophana, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. 8 mm. — GepTialotTiorax ovatus, modice conveccus, fronte 
obtusa, nigro-piceus, omnino subtilissime coriaceus, opacus et 
glaber. Oculi quatuor postiei in lineam validissime procurvam 
semicircularem, medii a lateralibus quam inter se saltem ^ re- 
motiores, quatuor antici in lineam minus procurvam, inter se 
anguste et fere ceque separati, oculi medii antici cum lateralibus 
posticis lineam leviter recurvam designantes, oculi quatuor medii 
aream subquadratam occupantes, antici reliquis oculis, inter se 
subcequalibus, midto majores. Clypeus altissimus. Abdomen 
ovatum, supra nigrum, immaculatum., sed postice, supra mamillas, 
minute testaceo -notatum, subtus obscure fulvo-testaceum et vittis 
trinis parallelis sat angustis nigricantibus notatum, regione 
epigasteris leviter coriacea rufida, mamillis fulvis. Chelce 
robustce, subtiliter coriacece, nigro-picece, apice leviter dilutiores. 
Sternum fusco-rufulum, subtiliter coriaceum, parce nigro- 
setosum. Partes oris fuscce apice dilutiores et iestacece. Pedes 
longi fulvo-rufuli, cocvis trochanteribusque dilutiorihus, femoribus 



1901.] ABACHNIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 49 

infuscatis et olivaceis. Fovea (jenitalis ssmicircularis, plcujulani 
rufulam transversam leviter procurvam includens. 
Pei'ak : Ulii Selama. 

Familia Hehsiliid^. 

12. Heesilia savignyi Lucas. 

Hersilia saviijnyi Lucas, Mag. Zool. 6'^ Anu, 1836, cl. viii. p. 10, 
tab. xiii. f. 1. 

? H. calcuttensis Stoliczka, J. A. S. Beng. xxxviii. ]869, p. 216, 
pi. XX. f. 9. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. Eaman : Kota Bliaru, 

Espece tres repandiie clans I'lnde et la Birmanie. 

Eamilia FkoIiCIDM. 

13. Pholcus opiLioNoiBES (Schrauk). 

Perak : Gunong Inas. 

Espece repandue eu Europe, dans I'Asie centrale et eu Chine. 

Trouvee sur le Mt. Inas (environ 6000 pieds). 

14. Pholcus t-notatus Thorell. 

Pholcus v-notatus Thorell, St. Rag. Mai. etc. 1878, p. 163 (300). 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Decrit d'Amboine, indique depuis de Birmanie (Bhamo) par 
Thorell. 

15. Pholcus vesculus, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. 4'5 mm.- — Ceplialothorax fere orhiculatus, pallide luteus, 
parte, tJioracica macida fusca media magna postice ampliuta et 
subtriquetra, linea media pallida divisa, notata, parte cephalica 
thoracica vix altiore, clypeo leviter infuscato sed linea media 
pallida notato. Octdi ordinarii, quatuor antici apicibus in 
lineam rectam, medii parvi, nigri, a sese contigui a lateralibw; 
spatio oculo laterali own majore distantes. Oculi laterales 
utrinque a sese contigui, anticus reliquis paido m,ajor. Abdomen 
sat longe ovatuon, supra conve.vum, postice longe declive, nee 
truncatum nee angidosum, albidum, supra in dimidio basali, 
linea longitudinali fusca angusta et leviter lanceolata notatmn, 
subtus vittis binis obscurioribus parum exp>ressis, postice valde 
divaricatis et leviter ampliatis ornatum. Ohela', partes oris, 
sternum pedesque lutea, patellis fuscis, tibiis annido apicali fusco 
'parvo notatis. Tuberculum genitale magnum, altum et sub- 
globosum, albidum sed p)Ostice, in decUvitate, rima transversa 
fusco-rufula coriacea notatum. 
Perak : Grunong Inas. 

16. Pholcus diopsis, sp. nov. 

(S . Long. 5-6 mm. — CepJialothoraa^ fere orbicidatus, luteo- 
I'ufesceyis, pjarte thoracica in medio confuse infuscata, cephalica 
brevi, late truncata, in medio setis erectis inordinatis munita, 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. IV. 4 



50 M. EUGEifE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

utrinque tuberculo lonr/o {parte ceplialica haud breviore) 
divaricato, luteo apice nic/ro, gracili, versus basin sensim anyustiore, 
apice minute mucronato, oculos laterales gerente^ insigniter 
instructa. Oculi medii antici minutissimi fere obsoleti, ocidi 
laterales utrinque mediocres, longissime pediculati. Abdomen 
longum, teretiusculum, apice leviter coyivexum, omnino albido- 
testaceum. Chelce debiles, rufula;, intus prope apicem tuberculo 
nigro, obtuso, cariniformi et granulosa inunitce. Partes oris, 
sierniiin p^c^esg'Me longissimi pallide lutea, pafellis leviter 
infuscatis, tihiis ad apicem minute fuscis. Pedes-maxillares 
ma.vimi ; trocTiantere parvo, siibtus ad apicem apophysi lutea, 
erecta, acuta et sat longa armato ; tibia longe et late ovata ; 
tarso brevi, supra apice acuminato ; apophysi fusco-rufula, 
longa, leviter sinuosa. 
$ . Long, 6-7 mm. — Ceplialothorax pallide luteus, paido latior 
quam longior, utrinque ample rotundus. Ocidi antici in lineam 
rectam, medii a sese contigui, minutissimi et punctiformes, a 
lateralibus late distantes {spatio interocidari oculo laterali midto 
latiore). Oculi laterales utrinque contigui, interior reliquis 
p>aido minor. Tuberculum genitale magnum, latum seel apice 
acuminatum, p>ostice verticale, triquetrum, planum, testaceum sed 
utrinque rufidvm et leviter coriaceum. 
Griia GJap ("Dark Cave"), Biserat, Jalor. 

A P. podoplithalmo E. Sim. (ex ins. Taprobane), cui sat affinis est, 
jmprimis differt, tuberculis oculiferis apice minute ampliatis haud 
truneatis sed minute et acute raucronatis, tarso pedum-maxillarium 
apice acuminato, haud truncato, etc. 

17. Spermophoea tessbllata, sp. nov. 

$ . Long. 2 mm. — CeplialotJiorax pallide luteus, parte ceplialica 
clypeoque infuscatis fere nigris, brevis, latior quam longior, 
utrinque ample rotundus, parte ceplialica a thoracica sulco 
profundo semicirculari discreta, antice leviter elevata. et latissime 
truncata, thoracica convexa, sidco longitudinali profundo secta. 
Oculi in turmas duas, inter se late remotas, ordinati, utrinque 
tres, duo exteriores inter se contigui, alter interior a reliquis 
leviter sejunctus, paulo minor et ovatus. Abdomen valde con- 
vexum et postice subverticale, albido-testaceum, inaculis nigris 
iniquis, medianis major ibus et subquadratis, parum regulariter 
seriatis, sipra ornatum, subttis late nigricanti-plagiatum, 
mamillcB prominentes. Cheloi debiles, fuscce, antice opacce et 
leviter incequales. Sternum latins quam longius, nigrum, 
sublceve. Partes oris et p)edes-maxillares mimitissimi, fiisci. 
Pedes tenues et longi, minutissirae rugosi, lutei, femoribus, 
prcesertim posticis, pirope apicem leviter infuscatis et suhanmdatis. 
Plaga genitalis maxima, medium ventris occupans, rufida et 
convexa. sed in medio depressa, latior quam longior, utrinque 
oblique truncata, postice leviter prondnula. 

Jalor: Biserat. 

A S. macidata Thorell, cui verisimiliter affinis est, differt parte 
thoracica haud vittata, tibiis pedum haud annulatis, etc. 



1901.] ARACHNIDA OF THE " SKEAX EXPEDITION." 51 

Genus Uthina E. Simon. 

Uihina Simon, Hist. Nat. Ar. 2^ ed. t. i. p. 476. 

Belisana Thorell, in Ann. Mas. civ. Gren. 2^ s. xix. 1898, p. 278. 

18. UtHIIS^A ATillGULAEIS, sp. nOV. 

$ . Long. 3 mm. — Ceplialotliorax liaud longlor quam latior, 
utrivque ample rotu7idus, parte cephalica brevi, lata et convexa, 
sulco semicirculari profundo disareta, luteo-testaceus nitidus, 
regione oculari chjpeoque {^raargine excepto) nigi'is, p>arte 
thoracica area ovaia long Itttdinall fusco-marginata notata. 
Oculi utrinque valde prominuli et pyediculati a sese contigui, 
anticus reliquis major, spatio inter tuber cida sat angusto, leviter 
convexo, a clgpeo, leviter proclivi, stria transversa discreto. 
Abdomen angustum et longissimum, titrinque leviter bisinuosum, 
albido-testaceum, supra tenuiter albido-pubescens sed vitta media 
glabra et postice maculis wgris biseriatis, parvis, longis et 
ohliquis ornatum, subtus glabrum, duriusculum, et nitidum. 
Chelce tt partes oris nigricantes, Jice testaceo-marginatce. Sternum 
pedesque pallide lutea, patellls cunctis nigris, tibiis ad ap)icem 
minute nigris. Area genitalis subrotunda, magna, latitudinent 
epigasteris totam occupans, antice convexa, nigricans, Icevis et 
semicircular is, prceterea rufula, depressa et transversim rugata. 
Ab U. luzonica E. Sim. imprimis diifert oculis utrinque lougius 

pediculatis, clypeo nigro, femoribus annulo fusco subapicali 

carentibus, etc. 

19. MiCEOMEETS VEEMIEOEMIS E. SimOU. 

Calapnita vermiformis E. Simon, Ann. Soc- ent. Er. 1892, p. 42 
Determination incertaine, le seul individu recueilli etant en 
mauvais etat. 

Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Eamilia Theridiid^. 

20. Aetamnes plagellum (Dol.) nigeitus, subsp. nov. 

2 . Long. 29 mm. — CcpjhalotJiorax nigricans, prope marginem 
vix dilutior. Abdomen longissimum et vermiforme, obscure 
fusco- testaceum, vitta dorsali lata et integra nigricanti et utrinque 
punctis nigris inordinatis notaiian. Sternum fuscum, utrinque 
fulvo- marginatum. Pedes obscure fusci, crebre nigricanti- 
piivctati, coxis trochanteribusque anticis luteis, femoribus anticis 
prope basin luteis et subvittatis. Pedes-maxillares nigricatites. 
Pat along. 

21. Aegi'eodes MiNiACEUs (Eoleschall). 

Patalung : Ban-Kong-Eak. Eaman : Kota-Bharu. 

Vit en parasite sur la toile de JSepJiila imperialis Doleschall. 

22. Aegieobes pissieeons 0. P. Cambridge. 

A.Jissifrons O. P. Cambr. in Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. x. 1869, 
p. 380, tab. xii. ff. 31-38. 

4* 



U2 ' , M. EUGESE SIMOJS OJS TUE [Maj 7, 

^. inguinalis et Jissifrons Thorell, St. Bag. Mai. etc. ii. 1878, 
pp. 145-148. 

A. procrastincDis O. P. Cambr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud. 1880, 
p. 330, tab. xxix. f. 9. 

Kelaiitaa : Kuala Aring. 

Vit en parasite sur la toile des Nephila. 

Espece tres repaudue dans I'lnde et la Malaisie. 

23. Pkoronoidia lygeana (Walckenaer). 

Plectana lygeana Walck. Apt. ii. 1841, p. 11. 
Phor. acrosomoides \. Hasselt, Midd.-iSum. etc., Ar. 1882, p. 30, 
tab. i. f. 7. 

Kelantan : Kuala Aring. Perak : Guuong Inas. 
. Decrit de Sumatra. 

24. Episinopsis ehomboidalis E. Simon. 

. Episinopsis rhomhoidalis Simon, in Ann. Soc. ent. Er. 1895, 
p. 136. 

Jalor : Bukit Besar. 
Decrit de Singapore. 

25. Theeidion BuriPES Lucas. 

Jalor: Biserat. 

Espece repandue dans toutes les regions tropicales du monde. 

26. Theeidion munbulum L. Koch. 

Th. mundulam Kocb. Ar. Austr. i. 1872, p. 263, tab. xxii. f. 3, 
Th. amoeuum Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. i. 1877, p. 463. 
Ligeh. 

Decrit d'Australie, trouve depuis a Celebes, en Birmanie et a 
Penang. 

27. Theeidion nigeum (O. P. Cambridge). 

Argyrodes nigra O. P. Cambr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1880, 
p. 341, tab. XXX. f. 20. 

? 'Theridion oojyurum Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. iv. i. 1889, 
p. 265. 

Nawng-Chik. 

Decrit de Ceylan, indique depuis de Java. 

28. Theeidion subeadiatum, sp. nov. 

cJ . Long. 4 mm. — Ceplialothorax niger postice sensim dilutior et 
rufescens. Oculi quatuor antici in linearru leviter procurvam,^ 
inter se anguste et fere ceque separati, medii lateralibus paulo 
majores. Oculi postici ininores, inter se cequi, in lineam leviter 
procurvam, medii a lateralibus quam inter se viw remotiores. 
Area quatuor medioruni subquadrata. Clypeus area oculorum 
non multo latior, chelis multo brevior, sub oculis depressus, dein 
coiivexus. Abdomen breuiter ovatwn, convexum, supra nigrum, 



1901.] ABACHKIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPBDITI0T5T." 53 

linen media longitudinali integra, sat angusta, sed postice in 
dedivitate vnlde ampliata et macidam magnam triquetram 
formante, prope medium Tinea transversa simili recta angvsta 
sed utrinque ahrupte et valde dilatata et maculam subrotundam 
formante, albis, decoratum, sidAus fidvo-testaceum, sed vitta 
media latissima mamillas iucludente et antice ad rimam vitta 
transversa angustiore nigris notatum. Mamillce fulvo-rufulce. 
Chela} et partes oris fusco-ferruginece, lamince longer et angusta;. 
Sternum nigrum, opacum. Pedes longi et robusti, inter se valde 
ina;quales, pallide lutei, rufulo nigi'oque annulati, femoribus 
V paris annido medio rufulo annidoque apicali nigro ornatis, 
reliquis femoribus immaculatis, pateUis (B exceptis) rufulis, 
tibiis V paris et 4' paris apice nigro-annulatis, reliqids tibiis 
apice rufulo-annulatis, metatarsis tenuibus immacidatis, setis 
longis, in anmilis nigris densioribus, conspersi, patellis ad 
apicem seta sp)iniformi erecta et longa, tibiis setis similibus 
hinis supra instructis. Tubereidum genitale magnum, ovato 
transversum, foveola postice lobata marginata et septo triquetro 
divisn, inipressum, 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 
A T. plumipedi V. Hasselt et saropodi Thorell, cui versimiliter 

affine est, differt cephalothorace sternoque fere nigins, metatarsis 

pedum concoloribus, baud annulatis. 

29. Steatoda peeakexsis, sp. no v. 

cJ . Long. 6 mm. — Cephalothorax ovatus, postice sat abrupte 
angustior et breviter productus, parte cephalica elevata, sulcis 
profundis discreta, niger, valde coriaceus, granulis parvis 
setiferis conspersus, in j^'t'ocessu postico transversim striatus. 
Oculi magni, inter se suba^quales, postici albi, in lineam sub- 
rectam, inter se fere cequidisiantes (spatiis interocidaribus octdis 
saltern duplo minoribus), antici in lineam sat procurvam, inter 
se ceque et anguste distanfes, medii nigri latercdibxis albis saltern 
hand majores. Area quatuor mediorum, subquadi'ata, antice 
convexa. CJypeus area, oculorum saltem Jiaud angustior, sub 
oculis depressus, ad marginem valde eonvexus. Chelce angristce 
et sat Icngce, fusco-picecB, nitida?., prope basin minute et parce 
rugosce. Laminae incUnatce, picece, in medio late depressoi. 
Pars labialis nigra, latior quam longior, transversim plicata. 
Sternum postice acuminatum, nigrum, antice par ce postice crebre 
arcuaio-rrigosum et subvermiculatum. Abdomen sitbglobostiin, 
supra duriuscidum, opacum et parcissime setosnm, nigrum., 
lineolis paucis transversis exilihus testaceis vix expressis serj- 
mentatum, ad marginem anticum, supra processum cephalo- 
tlioracis, promimdum et obtuse emarginatum, subtus regione 
epigusteris convexa, sublcevi el ferrugineo-tincta. Pedes longi, 
parum robusti, parce tenuiter et sat longe setosi, femoribus 
anticis subtus subtiliter rugosis, nigri, metatarsis tarsisque 
cunctis fusco-piceis, coxis et prcesertim trochanteribus j)osticis 
dilutioribus. Pedes-maxillares fusco-picei vel nigricantes ; 



54 M. EUGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

femore lonc/o, recto apicem versus sensim et levissime ampliato ; 
2}ateUa convexa ; tibia j)citeTla longiore, ad basin angustiore sed 
amcem versus sensim et vnlde ampliata ; tarso magno, ovato, 
apiee acuminato, bidbo magno. 
Perak : Ulu Selama. 

Espece de classification incertaine, differant des Steatoda typi- 
ques par ses yeux anterieurs egaux ; des Teutana par ses yeux 
anterieurs en ligne fortement procurvee ; des Crustidina par son 
sternum acumine en arriere. 

Familia M i m e t i d jE, 

30. MiMETTJS MAEGAEITIFEK, sp. IIOV. 

5 . Long. 4 mm,. — Cephalothbrax pallide fulvus, Icevis, nitidus 
et glaber, sed setis nigris longissimis et erectis biseriatis (5-5 
vel 6-6) supra munitus, conveccus, antice longe attenuatus. 
Oculi medii, prcesertim postici, a lateralibus quam inter se 
multo remotiores, aream ptaido longiorein quam latiorem 
et antice quam postice latiorem occupantes, antici prominuli, 
posticis vix g majores. Oculi laterales utrinque parvi, cequi, 
contigui et prominuli. Clypeus oculis mediis anticis vix latior. 
Abdomen sat longum, ovatum et convexum, fulvo-testaceum, 
utrinque, prcesertim antice late, et fere inordinate albo-opaco 
plagiatum, supra tuberculis 7'ufulis et nitidis subglohosis sed 
longe setiferis, quadriseriatis, medianis majoribus, insigniter 
ornatum, subtus parce et minute albido-punctatum. Chelce 
fiduo-rufulce, angusta; et longissimce, a partibus oris sat late 
distantes, antice fere plance, subtus, pra^sertim ad basin, convexce. 
Partes oris, sternum pedesque lutea, tibiis metatarsisque anticis 
rufuJo tinctis late et confuse annulatis, pedes cuncti numerose et 
longissime aculeati, tibiis et metatarsis anticis (valde curvatis) 
intus aculeis erectis longissimis aculeisque parvis et uncatis 
numerosissimis et uniseriatis armcitis. Tuberculum genitale 
oiigrum, travsversum. 

Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Espece tres reraarquable qui pourrait devenir le type d"un genre 
special. 

Eamilia Aegiopid^. 

Subfamilia Lintphihst^. 

31. Sphecozone dentimanus (E. Simon). 

Nematoqmus dentimanus E. Simon, in Act. Soc, Linn. Bord. xl. 
1886 (p. 21). 

Perak : Gunong Inas. 

Kepandu dans I'lndo-Chine et a Ceylan. 

32. LiNYPHIA PASSEECULA, Sp. nOV. 

J . Long. 4 mm. — Ceplialothorax subtilissime coriaceus et opacus, 
rufescens, regione oculorum leviter infuscata et ocidis, prcesertim 



1901.] ARACHKIDA OP THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 55 

mediis 2^osticis, singulariter nigro-cinctts. Oculi quatuor antici 
in lineatn leviter procurvara, parvi et inter se siibcequales, meclii 
nigri a sese apirropinquati a latendihus plus trip>lo remotiores. 
Oculi postlci in lineam fere cequaliter procurvam, seel inter se 
fere mquidistantes et medii reliquis oculis evidenter inajores. 
Oculi quatuor onedii aream liaud longiorem quam latiorem et 
postice quam antice fere duplo latiorem occupantes. Oculi 
laterales iitfiaque parvi cequi et contigui. Clypeus area 
ocidorum latior, antice oblique proclivis. Abdomen sat lonqe 
ohlongum, antice rotundum, postice leviter amp)liatum, obtusum 
et convexurn, antice fusco-olivaceum, postice nigro-nitidum, in 
medio cingido dAliitiore albido cinctum. Chela; longce et paral- 
leloi, fidvo-rufulce, fere Iceves, margine inferiore sidci dentibus 6 
(4 et 5 reliquis paulo minoribus), margine superiore dentibus 
minutissimis 7 vel 8, lineam sinuosam designantibus, armatis. 
Sternum fusco-rufescens, subtilissime coriaceum et opacum, 
p)arcissime setosum. Pedes graciles et longi, minute et parce 
aculeati, obscure olivacei, coa:is cunctis, femoribus quatuor anticis 
usque ad apicem, posticis ad basin dilutiorlbus et Jlavido- 
aurantiacis. Pedes-maxdlares obscure fusci vel nigri, femore 
tereti ad basin dilutiore, patella parva convexa et nodosa, tibia 
majore, cequaliter convexa onutica sed superne longe nigro- 
crinita, tarso bulboque maximis late ovatis, reliquis articulis 
simul sumptis haud vel vix breuioribus. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

NoTA. — Le genre Linyjyhia est represente dans I'Asie tropicale et 
dans la Malaisie par des especes analogues aux nofcres mais coufinees 
dans les regions les plus elevees des montagues, ou elles trouvent 
sans doute des conditions de vie analogues a celles d'Europe. 
Thorell en a decrit deux {L. beccarii et L. pjhyllophora) du Mont 
Singalang a Sumatra. 

Subfamilia Teteagnathinje. 

33. Teteagnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, 

Tetragnatha mandibulata Walckenaer, Apt. ii. 1841, p. 211. 
T. minatoria E. Simon, in Anu. Soc. ent. Er. 1877, p. 83. 
T. leptognatha Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. i. 1877, p. 441 (101). 
Patalung : Ban -Kong- Eak. 

Espece largement distribuee en Asie, en Malaisie et en Poly- 
nesie. 

34. Teteagnaxha novia, sp. nov. 

c? . Long. 7-10 mm. — Cephalothorax angustus et longus, obscure 
fulvus, plus minus olivaceo fuscove reticulatus, fovea thoracica 
profunda, transversa sulcisque cephalicis impressa, f'onte lata, 
parte thoracica vix angustiore. Ocidi singulariter nigro-cincti, 
quatuor ijostici, superne visi, in lineam sat recurvam, inter se 
cequi et ccquidistantes, quatuor antici, antice visi, in lineam. 
paulo angustiorem, rcdidissime recurvam, medii lateralibus 



56 M. EUGENE SIMON ON THE [Maj 7, 

plus triplo majores et a lateralihus quam inter se plus triplo 
remctiores. Octdi qiiatuor mecUi aream saltern hand longioreni 
quam postice latiorem et antice quam postice multo angustiorem 
occupantes, antici posticis vix majores. Oculi laterales utrinque 
a sese appropinquati {spatio interoculari oculo postico von 
majore), anticus postico plus duplo minor. Abdomen angustum 
et longissimum, omnino fidvum. Clieloi eephalothorace Tiaud vel 
vice hreviores, proclives, fidvo-rufulce, Iceves, supra in parte 
apicali extus apophysi longa, gracili, areuata apice minute 
bifida, et supra dente minore nigro et conico armata?, margins 
superiore sulci dente 1" mediocri recto vel leviter uncato, ad 
radicem unguis sat remoto, dente 2° minutissimo et uncato 
(scepe obsoleto), dente S'' maxima recto et acuto (reliquis dentibus 
multo majore) et prope basin denfibus seriatis 6-7, versus basin 
sensim ininonbus, margine inferiore dente \°, prope radicem 
unguis sito, parvo, dente 2" fere duplo majore antice oblique 
directo, dente 3^ valde remoto minore et prope basin dentibus 
parvis 4 vel 5, versus basin sensim minoribus, ai^matis, xwgue 
longo, simplicl haud dentato. Pay's labialis sfernumque fupco- 
testacea, lamince pedesque fulvi. Pedes longissimi, tibiis anticis 
utrinque aculeis quatuor aculeisque dorsalibus binis, metatarsis 
aculeis basilaribus binis aculeisque exterioribus binis (rarius 
trinis), cdtero subbasilari altera submedio, armatis. Pedes- 
maxillares ordinarii. 
§ . Long. 10 mm. — A mari, cui subsimilis est, differt cTielis 
brevioribus et validioribus, apophysi denteque superioribus 
carentibus, margine supeynore sulci dentibus 1, 2 et 3, inter se 
subsimilibus, sat late et fere ceque distantibus, 1° antice oblique 
directo, clein dentibus minoribus et inter se appropinquatis 
4 vel 5, margiyie inferiore dente 1" parvo, dente 2" reliquis 
dentibus majore, dente ?>° paulo minore, reliquis dentibus 3 vel 4 
multo Qninoribus. Pedes-maxiUares lutei, tarso infuscato, 
patella seta apicali longa suprcc munita sed tibia mutica. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

35. EucTA isiDis E. Simon. 

Espeoe commune a I'Egypte et a I'Incle. 

36. Orsinome phetgtana, sp. nov. 

(S . Long. 4 mm. — Cephalothorax fusco-olivaceus, parte tlioracica 
late dilutiore sed vitta media fusca notata et versus marginem 
sensim infuscata. Oculi antici in lineam leviter recurvam, 
inter se fere ceque et non late distantes, medii praminuli, late- 
ralihus circiter g majores. Oculi postici in lineam fere cequaliter 
recurvam, medii majores et a lateralibus quam inter se remotiores. 
Oculi quatuor medii magni, aream haud vel vix longiorem qtiam 
latiorem et antice quam, postice paulo latiorem, occupantes. Oculi 
laterales utrinque valde promimdi et subcontigui, ayiticus postico 
major. Clyj^eus ocidis mediis anticis paido angustior. Abdo- 
men breviter ovatum, supra obscure fulvum, utrinque et postice 



1901.] AKACHNIDA OE THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 57 

albido-teslaceum et grosse arr/enteo-pitnctatum, area fulva dorsdli, 
in dimidio hasali vitta nigra Jlexuosa marginata et maculis 
medlis hinis magnis et suhrotimdis Icete argenteo-punctatis, in 
dimidio apicali maadis parvis nigris seT biseriatis ornatitm, 
suhtus atrum sed utrinque dilutlus. Chdce fidvo-nifulce, Iceves, 
longce, apicem versus nttenuatce et leviter divaricatre. Partes 
oris sternumque fusco-olivacea, Icevia. Pedes longi, aculeis 
nigris ordinariis longissimls instructi, lutei, femorihus tihiisque 
annulo medio anmdoque apicali olivaceis vel nigricantihus 
notatis, patellis cunctis, coxa trocJiantereque V paris fiiscis. 
Pedes-maxillares pallide lutei, tarso nigra, hulho olivaceo ; 
femore gracili apicem versus sensini et leviter ampliato atque 
arcuato ; patella convexa seta longissima supra munita ; tibia 
jyatella poido longiore ; tarso ovato, intus ad basin apophgsi 
divaricata, grncili, recta snl ap>ice uncata armato ; bulbo 
maxima, simpli et nitido, subgloboso, leviter renifarmi. 
Jalor: Bukit Eesar. 

37. Aegyroepeiea elegans (Thorell). 

Meta elegants Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. i. 1877, p. 416. 
Callinethis elegans Thorell, in. Ann. Mus. Civ. Gren. S'' ser. v. 
1887, p. 134. 
Jalor: Biserat. 
Decrit de Celebes, trouve depuis en Birraanie. 

38. Argteoepeira fastigata (E. Simon). 

Meta fastigata E. Simon, in Ann. See. ent. Fr. 1877, p. 70, 
t. iii. fig. 10. 

Ligeh. 

Eepnndu dans una grande partie de la Malaisie et aux lies 
Philippines. 

39. Aegyeoepeira gemmba (V. Hasselt). 

Meta gemmea V. Hasselt, Midd.-Sura. etc., Aran. 1882, p. 26, 
t. ii. f. 4. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. Jalor : Bukit Besar. 
Conn a de Sumatra, de Singapore et de Pinang. 

40. Aegtegepeiea tessellata (Thorell). 

Callinethis tessellata Thorell, in Ann. Mus. Civ. Gren. xxv. 1887, 
p. 135. 

Jalor : Bukit Besar. 
Decrit de Birmanie. 

41. Aegyeoepetea vei^tealis (Thorell). 

Meta ventralis Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. i. 1877, p. 423. 
Nawng-Chik. Eaman. 



58 M. EUGEN"E SIMON o^T THE [May 7, 

Deerit de Celebes, indique depiiis de Birmanie et des iles 
Nicobars. Se trouve aussi a Java et a Sumatra. 

NoTA. — Tiepond a la description du Dr. T, Thorel), sauf pour 
la taille qui est plus forte (S a 9 mill.). 

Subfamilia Nephilinje. 

42. Nephila impeeialis (Doleschall). 

Nephila fiagellans L. Koch, Ar. Austr. i. 1872, p. 153, t. xii. 
f. 5-6. 

N. haeri E. Simon, in Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 1877, p. 82. 
N. Jiolmerce Thorell, St. Rag. Mai. etc. iii. 1881, p. 141. 
Patalung. Jalor. Eaman. 
Trouve en grand nombre. 

43. Nephila maculata (Fabricius). 
Forma typica. 

Patalung. Nawng-Chik. 

44. Nephila maculata (Fabr.) jaloeensis, subsp. nov. 

$ (subadulta). A typo differt pedihus nigricantihus coxis luteis, 
femoribus subtiis tibiis metatarsisque crehi'ius et longhis nigro- 
pilosis sed tibiis V pai^is et 4' paris annulo subbasilari et meta- 
tarsis 4' paris annulo angustiore subbasilari fulvis, brevius et 
parcius pilosis ornatis, abdomine supra olivaceo, in medio 
lineolis longitudinalibus parallelis subcontiguis 3 vel 4, in 
lateribus lineolis numerosis sinuosis et inordinatis dilutioribus et 
breviter albo-argenteo pilosis ornato, py^ope marginem anticum 
vitta transversa lata albida, dein zonis transveris fuscis leviter 
procurvis quatuor fuscis notato. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

45. Nephila malabaeensis (Walckenaer). 

Perak : Ulu Selama. Eaman. Ligeh. Kelantan. 
Espece repandue dans presque toutes les regions tropicales. 

Subfamilia AEGiOPiNiE. 

46. Aeqiope pulchella Thorell. 

Argiope pulchella Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. iii. 1881, p. 74. 

Patalung : Ban-Kong-Rak. 

Repandu en Birmanie, dans le Siam, etc. 

47. Gea decoeata Thorell. 

Gea decorata Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. iv. i. 1890, p. 105. 
Perak : Gunong Inas. Jalor : Bukit Besar. 
Deerit de Sumatra. 



1901.] ARA.CHNIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 59, 

48. Gea festiva (Thorell) nigeierons, subsp. nov. 
A typo cliff 6rt ceplialothoracis regione frontcdi nigra. 
Jalor: Biikit Besar 

Le type est decTit de Birmanie et indique de Singapore. 

49. Gea nocticoloe Thorell. 

Gea nocticolor Thorell, in Ann. Mus. civ. Gon. xxv. 1887, 
p. 170. 
Ligeh. 
Decrit de Birmanie. 

50. Cyetophoea cicateosa (Stoliczka). 

Epeira (Nephila) cicatrosa Stoliczka, in Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, xxxviii. p. 11, no. iv. 1869, p. 242, pi. xx. £. 5. 
Epeira salebrosa Thorell, St. Rag. Mai. etc. ii. 1878, p. 49. 
Jalor : Biserat. 
Eepandu dans I'lnde, I'lndo- Chine et la Malaisie. 

51. Ctetophoea unicoloe (Doleschall). 

Epeira unicolor Dol., in Nat. Tijdr. Nederl. lud. xiii. 1857, 
p. 419. 

Epeira stigmatisata Karsch, in Zeitschr. f. g. Natnrvv. li. 1878, 
p. 326. 

Epeira serrata Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. iv. i. 1890, p. 33. 

Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

52. Aeachnuea melanuea E. Simon. 

Araclmura melanura E. Simon, in Eev. et Mag. de Zoologie. 
1867 (p. 3). 

Jalor : Bakit Besar. 
Connu de I'lnde et de Java. 

53. Akaneus caput-lupi (Doleschall). 

Jalor : Biserat. 

Indique de Sumatra, des Moluques, de N.-Guinee, etc. 

51. Aeat^eus submuceokatus (E. Simon). 

Epeira suhmucronata E. Simon, in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
Ivi. p. 11, no. 1, 1887, p. 106. 

NoTA.— Cette espece a ete reunie a tort, par le Dr. Thorell, a 
VA. de Tiaani Dol. ; elle en differe par les tubercules des yeux 
lateraux plus longs et plus acumines, le sternum garni de granula- 
tions beaucoup plus grosses, inegales et irregulieres. Son abdomen 
est pourvu a Tangle apical de trois tubercules coutigus dont le 
median est plus gros, ce qui s'observe quelquefois aussi chez 
A. de haani. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. 



60 M. BUG ETN'B siMOJT ON THE [May 7, 

55. AnAffEUS LAGLATZET (E. Simon). 

Epeira thomiftoides Doleschall, Bijdr. etc. 1857, p. 422. 
Epeira laglaizei E. Simon, in Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 1877, p. 65. 
Epeira thehira Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. ii. 1878, p. 84 (273-293). 
Ligeb. 

Tres re'pandu en Malaisie, en Oee'anie et dans I'Indo-Chine. 

56. Aeaneus isTAUTicus (L. Koch). 

Perak : Uln Selarna. 

Eepandu dans presque toates les regions tropicales duraonde. 

57. Cyclosa bieida (Del.) macefba Thorell. 

Epeira macrura Thorell, St, Eag. Mai. ere. i. 1877, p. 404. 
Kelantan : Kna1a Aring. 

58. Cyclosa i^tsulana (Costa). 

Jalor: Biserat. Ligeh. Kelantan: Kuala Aring. 

59. C^ROsTEis PARADOXA (Doleschall). 
Patalung : Ban-Kong-Eak. 

60. Gasteracantha eornicata (Eabr.) jaloreksts, subsp. nov. 

5 . Ahd. long. 8*5 mm., lat. 18'5 mm. — A typo differt magni- 
tudive majors., aculeis lateralihus principalihus lotigiorihus sed 
aculeis posticis minorihus. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

61. Gasteracai^tha arcuata (Fabricius). 
Patalung. Nawng-Chik. Kelantan. 

62. Gasteracantha hasselti (C. Koch). 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

63. Gastebacatstha perakensis, sp. nov. 

$ . Scutum ahd. long. 7 mm., lat. 9*5 mm. Acvl. angid. long. 
4"7 mm. — CephaJothorax niger, margins clypei avgnste testaceo, 
parte cephalica obtuse sulcata, albido-pilosa, apice minute et 
parc€ granulosa. Oculi medii inter se suhcpqvales (antici vi.v 
majores), aream paulo latiorem quam longiorem et antiee quam 
postice angvstiorem, occupantes. Oculi latendes utrinque valde 
prominuli. Abdomen vi.v i- latius quam longius, antiee trim- 
catum, postice valde ampliatum et late truncatum ( fere ut in 
G. hasselti C. K.), supra nitidum, Jlavum, utrinque in sigillis 
nigro-bimaculatum., actdds sex nigris armatum, ^driv que aculeis 
binis, ad angulum anticiim quam. a sese plus dupdo rem otiorihv s, 
antico mediocri, gracili. recto, acuiissiwo et antiee oblique directo, 
altero, angtilari fere triptlo lorigiore, in parte basedi era sso suhtvs 
convea-o et granuloso, in parte apicali abrupte angustiore, Icevi, 
recto et acuto, ad marginem poslicum aculeis binis, lateralibus 



1901.] A11A.C1IXIDA or THE " SKEAX EXPEDITIOK." 61 

anticis fere duplo longioribus, rectis et acutis, sed ad basin 

leviter incrassatis et granulosis ; sigillis anticis quatuor parvis 

longis et rectis, in lineam reciam, utrinque, in declivitate, sigillis 

trinis paulo majoribus, antico ovato alteris subrotundis, sigillis 

r)osiicis sex in lineam rectam, laterali ovato et obliquo, alteris 

minutissirnis, sigillis medianis quatuor sat parvis, arearn trajjezi- 

formeni haud longiorem quam latioreni occuj^antibus, subtus sat 

crebre granidosum, in inedio convexum haud tubercidatum, 

nigrum, maculis flavis sat parvis et iniquis conspersum. Sternum 

valde et crebre granulosum sed antice tuberculo parvo humillimo 

Iceviore et rufulo notatwn, nigrum, utrinque ad marginem 

maculis parvis flavis trinis ornatum. Chelce nigro-nitidce. 

Pedes fulvo-rufuli, versus extremitates sensim obscuriores, meta- 

iarsis tarsisque anticis fere nigris. 

A G. globidata Walckenaer, cui valde affinis eb subsimilis est, 

differt imprimis sigillis abdominis, prsesertim auticis, multo 

minoribus, aculeis angularibus iu parte basali minus globosis, in 

parte apicali gracilibus efc divaricatis haud erectis. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

64. Gasteeacaiv'tha leucomelas (Doleschall). 

Oastcracantha annamita E. Simon, iu Act. Soc. Linu. Bord. xl. 
1886, p. 14. 

Jalor. Ligeh. Eaman. 

Espece tres repandue dans Tin do- Chine et la Malaisie. 

65. Anepsia EUSCOLiMBATA, sp. nov. 

2 . Long. 3 mm. — Ab A. depressa Thorell, cui affinis est, differt 
maqnitudine saltetn duplo minore, cephalothorace Icevi et nitido, 
pallide luteo sed regione frontali et clypei infuscata, sterna luteo 
(haud nigro), abdomine breviore, subrotundo, supra plario, 
nitido, grosse sed parce impresso-punctato, sigillis medianis 
obsoletis, supra pallide luteo sed utrinque late fusco-marginato, 
subtus, pone plicam genitalem, vitta media fusca sat angusta et 
confusa notato, mamillis fusco-marginatis, pedibus fere muticis, 
obscurioribus, fusco-olivaccis, femoribiis quatuor anticis fere 
niqris, coxis cunctis femoribusque posticis, prceserthn subtus, 
dilutioribus, unco vulvce fulvo obtusiore. 

Perak : Gunoug luas (6000 ft.). 

66. Anepsia depkessa (Thorell). 

Paraplectana depressa Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. i. 1877, p. 14 
(354). 

Jalor : Biserat. 
Decrit de Celebes. 

67. Pkonous aeeinis, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. 3 onm. — Cephalothorax parce et minute rugosus, parce 
et longe albo-sctosus, fusco-rifescens, regione frontali sensim 
nigra. Area oculorum mediorum magna, leviter prominula, 



62 M. EUGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

liaud lonc/ior quam latior et antice quam postice vix angustior, 

oculi medii postici anticis saltern ^ majores. Chfjyevs sub- 

verticcdisy area ocidorum mediorwm circiter cequilatus. Abdomen 

convexum, breviter oblongum, antice leviter attenuatum atqve 

obtitsmn, postice pendulum ampliaturn, obtusum sed svpra 

tuberculis duobus latis et humilli'mis notaium, fusco-lividum, 

nitidum, fere glabrum, antice linea longitudinali abbreviata 

alba, utrinCjue, prope medium., macula parva et postice macula 

majore nigris, notatum, std/tus atro-pjurpureiim. CJielce 

rufescentes, glabrae et Iceves. Sternum fusco-pupureum, incequale 

et valde coriaceo-granulosum. Pedes fusco-olivacei, femoribus 

diluiioribus et luteis sed fusco-vittatis. Tuberculmn genitale 

simplex, brtve, ovato-transversum, nigro-nitidum. 

A P. taprobanico E. Sim., cui affinis est, imprimis diifert 

tuberculo genitali altiore et minus transverse, subrotundo, 

pictura corporis obscuriore sed steruo rufulo baud nigro. 

Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

68. Theeidiosoma nebulosum, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. 2 myn. — Cephcdothorax Icevis et nitidus, fulvo-olivaceus, 
•parte cephalica confuse infuscata, regione ocidorum nigra. 
Ocidi medii postici a sese subcontigui. Oculi quatuor antici a 
sese subcontigui, medii nigri, lateralibus albis vix majores. 
Area qtiatuor mediorum subdirecta, longior quam latior et 
subparcdlela, oculi medii antici posticis minores. Abdomen 
magnum, subglobosum, atro-olivaceum, zonis transversis paulo 
dUutioribus vix expressis atque antice maculis magnis obliquis 
bims convergentibus albo-punctatis supra notatum, subtus atrum. 
Sternum nigrum, in medio late dilutius et rufescens. ChelcB 
p)edesque obscure oKvacei, coxis femoribiisque (apice excepto) 
dihdiorilus et tcstaceis. Pedes breves, parce sed longe setosi. 
Tubercidum genitcde maximum fere Tberidiosomatis gemmosi 
L. K., transversim ovatum, antice Iceve et rufulum, postice fovea 
magna iestacea semicirculari, marginata et apice minute excisa, 
notatum. 
Jalor : Biserat. 

A T. picteti E. Sim. (ex Java) et fasciato Workman (ex Singa- 
pore) preesertim diiSert abdomine cingulo argenteo carente. 

69. Andasta OYCLOSiNA, sp. nov. 

$ . Long. 3'5 mm. — Ceplialotliorax Imvis et nitidus, atro-olivaceus, 
parte thoracica vitta media lata fulvo-rufida notcda, cephalica 
angusta et longa, antice leviter attenuata, piosiice a thoracica 
sulco tenia semicirculari discreta, fronte angusia, regione ocidari 
postice leviter depressa. Oculi quatuor postici, prcesertim medii, 
maximi, inter se anguste et fere aque distantes {sp>atiis inter- 
ocularibus ondis mcdiis triplo minoribus). Ocidi antici in 
lineam rectam, inter se subcontigui, medii nigri latercdibus cdbis 
majores. Area quatuor mediorum sulquadrata, antice valde 
prominida, supreme convexct. Glyjjeus ocidis mediis anticis 



1901.] ABACHNIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDHION." 63 

latior, sub oculis leviter depressus. Abdomen longius quani 
latius, supra deplanahim, antice rotundum, postice sensim 
attenuatum et pone mamillas in tuberculuin obtusum jji'o- 
ductum, supra p)arce et longe albido-pihsum, nigrum, antice 
macula maxima testacea, utrinque lobata et vittam mediam albo- 
p)unctatam includente, notatum, subtus atrum vel testaceum et 
vitta fusca lata notatum, mamillce inferiores rufulce extus 
fusco-vitfata?, reh'qiue testacece. Sternwm fusco-rufescens, nigri~ 
canti-marginatum. Pedes breves et robusti, sat longe setosi haud 
acideati, lutei, femoribus tibiisque anticis apice late nigris, 
reliquis minute fusco-notatis, coxls scepe macidatis. Plaga 
genitalis parva, rufula, unco inigro gracili et brevi recto sed 
apice minute uncato munita. Chelarum margo superior dentibus 
quatuor valde iniquis, 1" et 2° parvis, 3° mulfo longiore et 
acuto, ultimo mediocri, margo inferior dentibus binis validis et 
subcequis instructi. 
Perak : Gunong Inas. 

Ah A. semiargentea E. Sim. (ex ins. Taprobane) imprimis diifert 
magnitudine multo majore, abdomine postice aciiminato et pro- 
ducto, oculis quatuor posticis inter se sequidistantibus, et plaga 
genitalis unco munita. 

ramilia T H o m i s i d .e. 

70. Amycijea foeticeps (O. P. Cambridge). 

Amycle forticeps 0. P. Cambr., in Pr. Zcol. Soc. Lond. 1873, 
p. 122. 

Nawng-Cbik. 

Espece tres commune a Ceylan, indiquee aussi de Singapore, de 
Birmanie et de Java. 

Zygometis, no v. gen. 

A Euncinia cui affinis est imprimis dijftrt ceplialothorace piano, 
haud longiore quain latiore, utrinque ample rotundo, oculis 
mecliis posticis et anticis a lateralibus quam inter se midto 
remotioribus, oculis quatuor anticis in lineam rerta7n, tibiis 
quatuor anticis omnino muticis, metatarsis aculeis 4-4 tantum 
armatis, abdomine brevi, antice posticeque recte truncato, postice 
ampliato fe7-e Thomisi. 

71. Zygometis cristulata, sp. nov. 

$ (pullus). Long. 5 mm. — CephalotJiorax latus, utrinque ample 
rotundus, planus, fronte late truncata subcarinata, utrinque 
ante oculum lateralem posticum minute tu7-binata, sitbtilissime 
coriaceus et gramdis nigris minutissimis, in parte tJioracica 
lineas radiantes abbreviatas design aniibus, ornatus, pallide 
Jlavus, regione ondorum alba sed antice linea eccili fusca, oculos 
anticos includente, li'mitata, piarte cephcdica lineis binis fiexuosis, 
tJioracica maculis submarginalibus iniquis et laciniosis albo- 
opacis ornatis. Abdomen paulo latius quam longius, postice 



64 ' M. EUGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

valde ampliatum, antice ])Osticeque recte sectum, supra fulvo- 
cinereo-testaceuin leviter albido-variegatimi et pontice in decUvitate 
vitta transversa lata fusca notatum, granulis nigris j^c-i^ci^ 
conspersum, suhtus alhidum. Chela;., partes oris, sternum 
pedesque pallide Jlavida, patellis quatuor anticis superne macula 
obliqua, tibiis suhtus annulo submedio, metatarsis tarsisque 
suhtus vitta obliqua fusco-olivaceis notatis, tibiis muticis, oneta- 
tarsis V paris aculeis injeriorihus 4-4 interioribus (superiorihus) 
minoribus, metatarsis 2' paris acideis 4-4, exteriorihus (inferi- 
oribus) minoribus, instructis. 
Perak : Gunong Inas. 

Familia Clubionid^. 

Subfamilia Selenopin^. 

72. Selenops aculeatus, sp. nov. 

$ . Long. 7 mm. — Ce2j7ialothorax planissimus, latior quaralongior, 
pallide fidvus, tenuiter fusco-marginatus, margitie frontali ad 
oculos nigra, Jlavido-sericeo pubescens, ad marginem longe et 
valde crinitus. Ocidi quatuor antici a sese contigui, in lineam 
subrectam vice recurvum, medii lateralibus evidenter minores. 
Oculi exleriores mi7iutissimi albi et ovati a lateralibus anticis 
parum distantes. Oculi postici utrinque promimdi reliquis 
ocidis majores. Abdomen planissimiim, longius quam latius, 
pallide fulvum, Jlavido-sericeo pubescens, pjostice anguste fusco- 
marginatum. Sternum 'pedesque lutea, femoribus 1' paris suhtus 
usque ad basin, femoribus 2' paris ad apicem late nigricanti- 
plagiatis, tibiis metatarsisque superne minute, parce et inordinate 
fusco-variatis, tibiis quatuor anticis aculeis 7-7 {interioribus 
longioribus), metatarsis aculeis 5-5 suhtus armatis. Plaga 
genitalis nigra, fovea testacea magna, postice ampliata, truncata 
et tuhercula ininuta ovata et obliqua includente, impressa. 
Perak : Gunong Inas. 

A S. montigena E. Sim., cui praesertim afRuis est, imprimis 
differt magnitudine minore, tibiis metatarsisque anticis aculeis 
numerosioribus instructis (in >S'. montigena metatarsis anticis 
3-3 aculeatis). 

Subfamilia Spaeassin^e. 

73. Heteropoda hegia (Pabr,). 

Heteropoda vencUoria auct. (uou Arcmea vencttoria L.). 

Perak. Kelantan. Kaman. Patalung. 

Kepandu dans les regions tropicales du moude entier. 

74. Hetekopoda jlepeosa E. Simon. 

Heteropoda leprosa E. Simon, in Ann. Mus. civ. Gen. xx. 1884, 
p. 336. 

Perak : XJlu Selama. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. Jalor : Bukit 
Besar. 

Decrit de Birmanie. 



1901.] ARACHNIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 65 

75. Heteropoda sexpunctata E. Simon. 

Heteropoda sexpunctata E. Simon, in Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x. 
1885 (p. li). 
Ligeh. 
Decrit de I'Inde Centrale. 

76. Spariolbnus tigbis E. Simon. 

Spariolenus tigris E. Simon, Eev. Sparass. 1880, p. 61. 
Jalor : Biserat. 
Decrit du Bengale. 

77. Sparassus Ais'is'AifDALEi, sp. nov. 

2 . Long. 11 mm. — Cephalotliorax convexus, vix longior quam 
latw, fronte lata, fulvus, albido-sericeo puhescens, regione 
fi'ontali leviter obscuriore et rufescenti-tincta. Oculi quatuor 
antici in lineam plane rectam, inter se fere cequidistantes 
[spatiis interocularihus oculis paulo minoribiis), medii lateralibus 
paulo majores. Oculi quatuor postici multo minor es et inter se 
subcequales, in lineam latiorem vix procurvum, a sese late et fere 
ceque separati. Area quatuor mediorum circiter aique longa ac 
lata etpostice quam antice angustior, medii antici posticis saltern 
duplo majores. Clypeus ocidis mediis anticis angustior. Abdo- 
men oblongum, fulvum, crebre et longe sericeo-p%d)escens, supra 
in dimidio apicali linea media fusca exili notatum, subtus 
concolor. Gheloi valida; et convexce, nigro-rufescentes, Iceves et 
parce crinitce, margine inferiore sulci dentibus validis quatuor 
contiguis, idtimo reliquis paulo minore, armato. Partes oris 
castanece. Pars labialis convexa, evidenter latior quam longior. 
Sternum, pedes-maxillares pedesque lutea, tarso pedum-maxil- 
larium metatarsis tarsisque pedum, prcesertim anticis, obscuri- 
oribus et rufido-tinctis, tarsis cunctis, metatarsis anticis usque 
ad basin, metatarsis 4' paris ad apicem, longe et crebre cinereo- 
scopulatis, aculeis ordinariis longis. Plaga genitalis magna, 
fulva et nitida, parallela, postice truncata, in parte secunda 
sidco longitudinali divisa. 
Nawng-Chik : Ban. 
Trouve dans uue coque de tissu tres resistant logee dans une 

feuiUe roulee et contenant un cocon ovigere globuleux de tissu 

simple et assez mince applique sur les oeufs. 

78. Rhittmka xanthopijs, sp. nov. 

$ . Long. 21 mm. — Cephalotlwrax latior quam longior, nigro- 
piceus, postice in declivitate paulo dilutior et rufescens, albido- 
luteo-pubescens et longe hirsutus. Oculi medii antici lateralibus 
paulo majores et a lateralibus quam inter se circiter g remotiores. 
Abdomen ovatum, antice leviter emarginatum, supra crebre 
flavido-pubescens et setis erectis longissimis pallide Jlavidis 
conspersum, antice Uneolis binis convergentibus, dein inacula 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. V. 5 



66 M. EUGEisTE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

ovata vel suhrotunda, postiee arcuhus transversis seriatis tenuihus 
et utrinque evaaescentihus, nigricantihus supra ornatum, subtus 
crebre fulvo-pubescens, regione ventrali lineis nigricantibus binis 
leviter incurvis notata. Ohelce validissimce et convexce, nigra}, 
nitidce et glabrce, sed marginibus sulci longe et crasse rubro- 
pilosis, inferiore dentibus trinis subcontiguis, 1" paulo minore 
armato. Partes oris nigrce ad marginem crasse rubro-pilosce. 
Sternum coxmque nigra, nigro-setosa. Pedes crassi et longi, 
fusco-picei, supra fulvo-pilosi et longe hirsuti, subtus patellis 
niqris, femoribus tibiisque crebre et longe flavo- pilosis etJiirsutis, 
sed femoribas cunctis annulo apicali, tibiis P 'paris annulo sub- 
apicali, reliquis tibiis annidis binis nigris ornatis, metatarsis 
ta^'sisque usque ad basin crasse nigro-scopulatis. Pedes-macoil- 
lares nigri, nigro-pilosi. Plaga genitalis subrotunda, rubro- 
nitida, costis parvis trinis, lateralibus antice divergentibus, 
notata. 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

A B. ingenti E. Sim. (ex Java), cui affinis est, imprimis differt 
oetilis mediis anticis a sese minus distantibus, femoribus tibiisque 
subtus flavo (baud albido) pilosis, tibiis 1' paris annulo nigro 
singulo notatis et plaga genitali rubra baud nigra. 

79. Sebamba pennata, sp. nov. 

(^ . Long. 9 mm. — Oephalothorax late ovatus, antice valde attenu- 
atus, front e sat angusta, fidvo-rufescens, Icevis, parce albido- 
pilosus, linea marginali vittisque dorsalibus binis latis et dentatis, 
tenuiter fusco-reticulatis parum expressis notatus. Oculi antici 
in Uneam leviter procurvam, inter se eeque et sat anguste distantes 
{spatiis interocidaribus ocidis minoribus), medii lateralibus 
majores. Oculi postici multo minores, in Uneam latiorem leviter 
procurvam, inter se stibcequales et fere cequidistantes. Area 
quatuor mediorum latior quam longior, medii antici posticis fere 
duplo majores. Abdomen sat anguste ovatum, postiee attenuatum, 
testaceum, supra utrinque valde nigricanti-maculatum, antice 
vitta longitudinali, postiee arcubus transversis fuscis seriatis, 
apicem versus sensim minoribus et scepe confiuentihus, supra 
ornatum, subtus parce fusco-punctatum. Mamillce inferiores 
testaceoi, superiores fuscce. Chelce, sternum pedesque fulvo- 
rufescentia. Ohelw sat debilcs, margine inferiore sulci dentibus 
ininutissimis 6 armato. Tibioi anticce aculeis inferioribus longis 
(^apicalibus minoribus) 6-Q et utrinque lateralibus minoribus 
binis, metatarsis aculeis inferioribus longissimis 2-2, lateralibus 
exteriorih'us trinis interioribus binis instructis. Pedes-maxillares 
lutei, tibia rufescenti, tarso bulboque fuscis nigrisve ; tibia 
patella breviore et latiore, supra et extus valde ampliata et 
apopJiysibus nigris iniquis armata, apophysi superiore subrecta, 
crassa apice leviter arcuata et truncata, media paididuni sinuosa 
et acutissima, inferiore minore et dentiformi ; tarso late ovato, 
extus ample rotundo, intus subrecto ; btdbo magno. 
Na\A'ns-Chik. 



1901.] ARACHIflDA or THE " SKBAT EXPEDITION." 67 

Subfamilia CiiUBiONiN^. 

80. (?) Chiracanthium melai^ostoma (Thorell). 

Entitiha melanostoma Thorell, Descr. Cat. Spid. Burma, 1895, 
p. 44. 

Jalor : Biserat. 
Decrit de Birmanie. 

81. ChiracajS^thium oaudatum (Thorell). 

Entittha caudata Thorell, in Aun. Mus. civ. Gen. xxv. 1887, 
p. 58. 

Pataluug : Ban-Kong-Eak. 
Decrit de Birmanie. 

82. Matidia aeria B. Simon. 

Matidia aeria E. Simon, in Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. 1896, p. 503. 

Patalung : Ban-Kong-Rak. 

Espece tres repandue, decrite de Jolo (Philippines). 

Subfamilia Ctenin^. 

83. Ctenus valvularis V. Hasselt. 

Otenus valvularis V. Hasselt, in Midd.-Sum. etc., Ar. 1882, 
p. 45, tab. V. f. 12, 

Ctenus valvidaris Thorell, St. Rag. Mai. etc. iv. 2, 1891-92, 
p. 135. 

Jalor : Biserat. 

Decrit de Sumatra, indique depuis de Java. 

84. Caloctenus oreus, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. Ki mm. — Ceplialotliorax ovatus, jparta cejjhalica attenuata 
et antice leviter accUvi, thoracica convexa, sulco profunda et 
longo secta, fusco-olivaceus, vitta media Integra et fere jjarallela.i 
lineaque submargmali angustiore et jlexuosa dilutiorihus alho 
fulvoque pilosis ornatus. Ocidi medii aream Jiaud longiorem 
quam latiorem et antice quam postice multo angustiorem 
occupantes, antici posticis fere du_plo minores. OcuU laterales 
antici parvi ovati et albi prope marginem inferiorem oculorum 
mediorwn posticorum siti. Glypeus verticalis planiiyS, area 
oculormn mediorum circiter cequilatus, fuscus, utrinque dilutior. 
Abdomen oblongum, supra atrum, obscure cervino-cinereo- 
pubescens, vitta media sat angusta, antice acuminata, postice 
leviter ampliata et dentata albido -fulvoque pilosa et utrinque 
punctis nigris seriatis 4-5 notatum, subtus paido dilutius et 
obscure cinereo-pubescens. GhelcH longce, cylindratce, fusco- 
rufulce, Iceves et nitidce, margine inferiore sidci quinquedentato. 
Partes oris fidvo-rufulce., pars labialis infuscata, eonvexa, 
circiter ceque longa ac lata, dimidium laminarum liaud attingens 
et apice truncata. Sternum pedesque fulva. Pedes lonqissimi 

5* 



68 M. BUttENE SIMON ON THE [MaV 7, 

et gracillimi, tihiis aniicis aculeis ])ronis longissimis (aplcalibus 
minorihus) 8-8 vel 9-9, metatarsis aculeis similibus 4-4 suhtus 
instructis. Tuherculum genitale paulo latius quam longius, 
rufulum, in medio valde crinitum utrinque incisura vel fovea 
l^arva impressu'tn. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

Subfamilia LiocRANiNiE. 

85. Tetjtamus politus Thorell, 

Teutamus politus Thorell, in Ann. Mus. civ. G-en. 2 ser. x. 
(1890), p. 281. 

Perak : Gunong Inas, Ulu Selama. 
Decrit de Pinang. 

Familia Pisaueid^. 

86. Hygropoda longimakus (Stoliczka). 

Dolomedes Zow^rmawtts StoUczka, in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xxxviii. 
pt. 2, p. 218, tab. XX. f. 3. 
Eamau : Kota Bharu. 
Decrit du Bengale. 

87. Thalassius albooinctus (Doleschall). 

Dolomedes albocinctus DoL, in Verb. N. V. Ned. Ind. v. 1859, 
p. 9. 

Titurius marginellus E. Simon, Ann. Mus. civ. Gren. xx. 1884, 
p. 329. 

Eaman : Kota Bharu. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Repandu dans I'Indo-Cbine, la Birmanie et uue partie de la 
Malaisie. 

88. Dolomedes 'PAROCULUS, sp. no v. 

2 (subadulta). Long. 18 mm. — OephalotJwrax fusco-olivaceus, 
hreviter cervino-puhescens, utrinque, prope marginem et antice 
in clypeo, maculis parvis, iniquis et inordinatis alho-pilosis, 
vittam latam confusam designantibus, in medio vitta longitudinali 
Jlavido-pilosa, in parte ceplialica lata et linea media exili secta, 
in parte thoracica ahrupte angustiore, ornatus. Oculi quatuor 
antici inter se cequi et fere cequidistantes, m,edii leviter prominuli. 
Oculi quatuor postici maximi in luieam valde recurvam, 
laterales prominuli, medii a lateralibus quccm inter se remotiores 
(spatio interoculari ocido plus duplo minore^ et spatium 
traiisversum ocidorum linea antica tota non invito angustius 
occupantes. Area quatuor mediorum circiter ceque longa ac 
lata et antice quam postice multo angustior, medii antici 
posticis plus triplo minores. Clypeus subverticalis, area 
oculorum mediorum latior. Abdomen magnum, ovatum, obscure 
fulvum, ccrvino-pulescens, antice linea media angusta dilutiore, 



1901.] AEACHNIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEl)ITIO>\" 69 

uirinqtie et pro'sertim j^ostice maculis parvis lineolisqne Jie-xnosis 
alho-pilosis ornahim, s^ihtvs concolor. Chelcp longa\ paralleled, 
fi'sco-riffida', crehre et longe alhido-Jiirsutce, marginibus sulci 
longis, infenore clentihiis quatuor, I'' reliquis paulo majore, 
armato, Sternum, partes oris pedesque olivacea. Pedes versus 
extremitates senshn ohsmriores, cervino-pidjescentes, maculis 
alhis parvis conspersi et suhannidati, aculeis ordinariis, validis 
et longis wnnati, tarsis gracilibus s'iihtus setosis utrinque 
angztste scopidatis. 

Eaman : Kota Bharu. 

Species fere inter Dolomedem et Anotero2yem, oculis posticis 
insigniter magnis, eximie distincta. 

Familia Lycosid^. 

89. Paedosa irretita E. Simon. 

Pardosa irretita E. Simon, in Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. xl. 1886 
(p. 6). 

Ligeh. 

Decrit du Cambodge, retrouve depuis a Saigon, a Singapore et a 
Borneo. 

90. Paedosa laidlawi, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. 6 mm. — Cephalothorax nigellus, vitta media lata, 
antice oculos haud attingente, in parte thoracica leviter dentata 
atque attenuata fidvo-7-ufula, antice ftdvo-rufulo postice cdhido- 
pUosa, lineaque submarginali fidva exili et dentata ornatus, 
clypeo in medio nigro utrinque dilutiore. Oculi antid in 
lineam procurvam, medii eviclenter major es et a sese quam a 
lateralihus remotiores (spatio interocidari oculo haud angustiore), 
Icdercdes a margine clypei quam ah oculis magnis ser. 2'^ plus 
duplo remotiores. Area ocidorum quatuor posticorum postice 
quam antice latior. Abdomen oblongum, nigellum, area media 
vel vitta latissima dilutiore, antice cdbido postice fulvo-pAlosa, 
antice lineolisbinisnigrisjtguram acute lanceolatumdesignantibus, 
postice arcubus transversis fuscis seriatis albo-pilosis ornata, 
supra notatum, subtus dilutius, obscure testaceum, alhido-cinereo- 
pubescens. CJielce nigrce vel fuscce, parce albo-pilosce. Sternum 
nigrum, albo-pilosum, soipe antice minute testaceo-maculatum. 
Pedes longi, obscure fulvo - rufescentes, metatarsis tarsisque 
dilutioribus, coxis infuscatis, femoribus annulis nigris quatuor 
valde sinuosis, tihiis valde, metatarsis vix distincte fusco- vel 
olivaceo-annidatis, tibiis metatarsisque anticis aculeis tenuibus et 
longis 2-2 acideisque apicalibus binis midto minoribus subtus 
armatis. Plaga genitalis ovato transversa, tdrinque nigra sed 
pilis crassis niveis convergentibus munita, in medio depressa, 
late foveolata et carinida fidva tenui et integra divisa. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. 

A P. birmanica Thorell verisimiliter affinis. 



70 M. EUGENE SIMOK ON THE [May 7, 

Pamilia Oxyopid^. 

91. OXYOPES LINEATIPES (C. Koch). 

Spliasus lineatipes, C. Koch, Arachn. xy. 1848, p. 55, fig. 1455. 
Oxyopes lineatipes Thorell, St. Rag. Mai. etc. iv. 2, 1891-92, 
p. 190. 

Kelantan : Kiiala Aring. 

Espece tres repandue en Birmanie et en Malaisie. 

92. OXYOPES PATALONGENSIS, Sp. nOV. 

S . Long. 10 mm. — CeplialofJiorax altus sat brevis, fronte lata et 
obtusa, fusco-ferruc/ineHS, jnlis simplicibus pronis fuscis, versus 
marginem, prcesertim postice, nigricantibus, vestitus, sed zona 
marginali incequali paulo dilutiore et subglabra cinctus, regione 
clypei leviter obscure reticulata (Jmud lineata), regione oculorum 
nigra et jiavido-pilosu. Oculi ordinarii. Abdomen sat an- 
gtistum, antice rotundum, postice valde atienuatum et cylin- 
draceum, supra nigrum, obscure olivaceo-pubescens sed utrinque 
vitfa niveo-pilosa, laciniosa, extremiiates haud attingente, mar- 
ginatum, stddiis antice fulviim et aurantiaco-p)ubescens, prceterea 
nigrum et lineis tenuibus trims, media abbreviata, albo-pilosis, 
ornatum. Mamillce nigrce. Clielce fusco-ferrugineo', leviter 
reticulata. Sternum fulvum. Pedum coxce, trocTianteres femo- 
raque lutea, aniica, subtus, usque ad. basin, infuscata et 
subvittata, femora postica apice infuscata, reliqui articuli nigri- 
cantes supra parce albo-pilosi, sed, tarsi (prcesertim antici) 
dilutiores et sublutei, aculeis ordinarHs longissimis nigris armati. 
Pedes-maxillares sat breves et robusti, nigri, femore utrinque 
dilutiore, tibia supra ad apicem mi7iute albo-pilosa ; tibia 
patella haud longiore, ecctus ad apicem minute dentata, subtus 
depressa et apopJiysi nigro-nitida crassa obtusissima et oblique 
costiformi munita ; tarso magno, supra valde convexo, adj 
apicem, breviter acuminato, extus ad basin breviter prominenti et 
anguloso. 

Patalung. 

Fauiilia SaltioiDjE. 

1''. SalticidaB pluridentati. 

93. Linus eimbeiatus (Doleschal]). 

Salticus fimbriatus DoL, in Verb. N. V. Ned. Ind. v. 1859, p. 22. 
Sinis Jimbriatus Thorell, St. Eag. Mai. etc. ii. 1878, p. 270. 
Jalor: Biserat. 

Espece largement distribuee, commune dans la Malaisie et la 
Papuasie, a Gey Ian et a Madagascar. 

Genus Padillothorax E. Simon. 

A Bavia differt cepJiaJothorace Jiumiliore et multo longiore ovato, 
parte thoracica quadrangulo oculorum fere duplo longiore^ 



1001.] AEACHTvIDA or THE " SKBAT EXPEMTION." 71 

impressione transversa -parva sulcoque retnotis submedns munita, 
oculis anticis inter se contiguis et validissime ioiiquis, clyjjeo 
ivngustissimo c/lahro, octdis lateralihus anticis et posticis 
minoribus. 

94. Padillothorax semiosteinus, sp. nov. 

c? . Long. 7'5 mm. — Cephalothorax Jmmilis, longus et ovatus, 
rubro-castaneus versus marginem infuscatus, valde coriaceo- 
vermicidatus sed p>arte tJioraciea in medio Iceviore, ])arte 
cepJialica antice et idi-inque, sub oculis, pilis albo-an/enteis 
ornata, tJioracica vitiis medianis binis latis subcontiguis, lineaque 
marginali exili, albo-argenteo-jnlosis decorata. Pili oculorum 
pauci albidi. Clypeus angustissimus nudus. Abdomen 
angustum et longisshmim., supra fvsco-violaceum, vitta media 
lata et integra hiteo-testacea, antice lineis postice macidis 
seriatis albo-argenteo-pilosis marginata, ornatum, utrinque in 
lateribus antice linea recta postice lineis obliquis binis cdbis, 
notatum, subtus fidvum, mamillce fuscce, ChelcB nigro-nitidee, 
breves sed divaricates, extus convexce, intus subcostatce, margine 
inferiore sidci depresso, dein valde elevato et dentibus seriutis, 
contiguis, medianis majorihus, armato. Partes oris nigrce, 
lamince apice truncates, convexce, sed angulo compresso et leviter 
prominulo. Sternum hdeum. Pedes V paris reliquis multo 
longiores et crassiores, femore clavato, tibia longe ovata, fusco- 
castanei, coxa femoreque nigris, tarso luteo, tibia metatarsoque 
subtus sat longe sed parum dense nigra- ciliatis. Reliqui pedes 
■pallide lutei, acideis paucis et par vis, ut in Bavia ordinatis, 
muniti. Pedes-maxillares sat parvi, pallide lutei, crasse albo- 
pilosi ; tibia pjatella breviore, extus ad apicem apophysi sat 
longa, antice directa, apice nigra et acuta, instructa. 
Jalor : Biserat. Kelantan : Kuala Ariug. 

95. COPEOCEOSSA * POLITIYENTRIS, Sp. DOV. 

c? . Long. 4 mm. — Cephalothorax humilis et longus, leviter ovatus 
atro-purpureus, prope ocidos niger, supra planus et glaber, in 
medio crebre, antice posticeque pareius impresso-punctatus, 
utrinque in declivitate pjarum dense alho-pilosiis. Oculi antici 
inter se validissime incequales et contigui, medii maxirni, alti- 
tudinem faciei totam occupantes. Clypeus nullus. Chelce 
brevissimo}, nigrce, reclinatce et antice planm. Abdomen angustum 
et longum, teretiusculmn, supra nigro-nitidum, micanti-tinctum, 
glabrum, sed in lateribus zonis obliquis abbreviatis albo-pilosis 
ornatum, subtus atrum. Sternum et partes oris nigro-nitida , 
lamince extus ad apicem prominulce et divaricatce sed obtusce. 
Pedes V paris longissimi, nigro-nitidi, coxa in lateribus et subtus, 
metatarso (basi excepta) tarsoque jjallide luteis, femore compresso 
longo, patella sat parva, tibia longissime ovata, subtus, in 
dim,idio apicali, aculeis brevibus sed robustis et singulariter 

^ Coproerossa= Ste7iodina E. Simon (olim), nomen prffioccupatura. 



72 M. eugJ:ne simon ois" the [jVIay 7, 

elevatis 3-3, armata, metatarso gracili sat longo, prcesertim ad 
hasin curvato, suhtus aculeis minutissimis et ereetis 2-2 munito. 
Heliqui pedes pallide lutei, omnino mutici. Pedes-maxiUares 
parvi fusci, apice tarso bidboque luteis ; tibia tereti, patella 
paido breviore, extus ad apicem apophysi parva acuta et leviter 
curvata armata ; tarso tibia midto longiore sed vix latiore ; 
bulbo ad basin valde convexo et stdjgloboso, ad ap>icem stylo 
valido nif/ro, circuliim magnum for mante, munito. 
Perak : GunoBg Inas. 

96, Mtemabaohne akkaijdalbi, sp. noA^ 

S . Long. 6-5 mm. — Cephalothorax niger, opacus,parce et tenuiter 
olivaceo alboqtte pubescens, in contractura linea fulva sat exili, 
valde biangulosa atque in medio interrupta, notatus, parte 
cephalica alta super ne plana, tlioracica cephalica cequilonga vel 
paido breviore, in medio convexa, antice profunde et late depressa 
nostice declivi. Ocidi antici inter se valde incequales et contigui, 
apicibus in lineam rectum, pilis albis longis cincti. Glypeus 
angustus, fere glaber. Pediculum abdominale sat breve, superne 
visum sid)quadratum. Abdomen breviter ovatum, supra scuto 
duriusculo tiitido et glabro nigro omnino obtectum, subtus atrum, 
mamillce testacece. Clielce porrecta', cephalotJiorace paido bre- 
viores, superne plana} et muticce, extus dilatato-arcuatce, fusco- 
rufulce, valde rugosoi et parce albo-pilos<x, margine superiore 
sulci, prope apicem, dentibus trinis subcequis, 1" paulo validiore 
et uncato, dente minore submedio, dentibusqiie parvis binis 
remotis, margine inferiore dentibus minutissimis 6 vel 7, ap*"~ 
calibus inter se distantibus, reliquis appropinquatis, instructis, 
ungue ad basin atque ad apicem curvato, subtus carinato sed 
mutico. Partes oris longissiince, pars labialis fusca, lamina} 
dilutiores. Sternum angustum fusco-olivaceum. Pedes tenues, 
obscure olivacei, patelUs tibiisque anticis, tarsis posticis tro- 
chanteribusque 4' j^:)aris dilutioribus ; pedes V paris, patella 
longa, tibia subtus aculeis 7-7 longis et pronis (^apicalibus 
minoribus), metatarsis tibiis midto brevioribus, actdeis similibus 
2—2 munitis ; pedes 2' paris tibiis aculeis debiliorihus subtus 
armatis sed pedes quaJuor postici omnino mutici. Pedes- 
maxillares fusco-cenei ; femore compresso subtus carinato ; patella 
tibia tarsoque superne deplanatis ; tibia patella longiore, versus 
apicem sensim et valde ampliata subtriquetra, extus ad apicem 
ap>opTiysi gracili sinuoso-arcuata armata ; bulbo ovato simplici, 

Kelautan : Kuala Aring. 

M. (Toxeo) maxilloso C. Koch et M. (Saltico) nemoreo Peckham 
sat affinis. 

2°. Salticidae unidentati. 

97. Chrysilla versicolor (C. Koch). 

Plexippus versicolor C, Koch, Arachn. xiii. 1846, p. 103, 
L 1165 (cJ). 



1901.] AllACHNIBA OF THE " STCRAT EXPKBITTON." 73 

Mcn'in pkta C. Koeh, Araclm. xiv. 1848, p. 72, f. 1328 

( S jn.j- 

OJiri/siUa versicolor Thorell, K. Sv. Yet.-Ak. Haudl. xxiv. 2, 
1891, p. 117. 

Jaloi* : Biserat. Ligeb. 

Decrit de Bintang, indiquc depuis de Siugapore, de Pinaug et de 
Sumatra. 

98. Thtania bhamoensis Thorell. 

Thiania hhamoensis Thorell, in Ann. Mus. civ. Genova, xxv. 
1887, p. 357. 

Kelantan ; Kuala Aring. 
Decrit de Birmanie. 

99. Thiania subseeena, sp. nov. 

$ . Long. 8 imn. — Cephaloihorax Icevis et nitidus, niger, parte 
thoracica in medio vix dilutiore, utrinque et postice sat breviter 
pallide hiteo-pilosus, antice et in medio squamulis viridihus 
parvis conspersus. Pili ocidorum pallide lutei. Pili clypei 
longissimi, aJhidi. Abdomen longe oblongum, supra nigro- 
nitidum, squamidis parvis et longis viridi-micantibus conspersum 
{fere omnino depile), subtus obscure testaceum., vitta media fusca 
lata, postice attenuata et mamillas hand attingente notatum. 
Mamilloi nigrce. Chelae nigrce, antice deplanatce, coriacea?, 
valde et inordinate transversim rugatce. 1 artes oris sternumque 
nigro-nitida. Pedes V paris reliquis robustiores, ftisco-castanei, 
coxa tarsoque luteis, femore ad basin, tibia patellaque in medio 
p)aido dilutioribus, reliqui pedes lutei femoribus ad apiceni 
infuscatis et subannulatis, tibiis 2' et 3' parium ad basin 
atque ad apicem minute fuscis et tibiis 2* paris subtus nigro- 
vittatis. Tihia V paris subtus acideis validis et longis 3-3 et 
utrinque lateralibus minoribus binis^ metatarszis acideis in- 
ferioribus longis et validis 3-3 aculeoque minore exteriore 
apicali instructi. Tibia 2^ paris similiter aculeata, sed meta- 
tarsus acideis inferioribus 2—2 et utrinque lateralibus binis, 
basali longiore, armatus. Plaga genitalis magna rufula, antice 
fovea testacea transversa, acute emarginata, impressa. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. 

100. BlANOB DIVEESIPES, Sp. UOV. 

2 . Long. 4 mm. — CepJialothorax niger, subfilissime coriaceus, 
supra parce et tenuissime setosus, utrinque, in declivitate, parum 
dense luteo-pubescens, p>arte thoracica in medio pilis crassis 
pronis niveis vestita. Pili ocidorum et faciei lutei. Pili clypei 
longissimi decumbantes nivei. Oculi quatuor antici apicibus in 
lineam rectam, inter se contigui et valde incequales, medAi 
maximi vii'idi-cenei. Abdomen oblongum, atrum, luteo-pubescens, 
ad marginem anticum setis albis longis ornatum. Clielce, partes 
oris sternumque nigra, chelce antice valde rugosoi et parce albo- 



74 M. EUGENE siMOisr o"N THE [May 7, 

crinitci'. Pedes V j[)aris roln(,stissimi,fhiiore compresso et late 
clavato nigro sed supra fvseo-rufuJo et subvittato, patella nigra., 
tibia ad basin fusco-rufula ad apicein nigra., metatarso pallide 
fiisco-mfido, tarso luteo, patella tibiaque et subtus et intus 
longissime et sat crebre albo-setosis, reliqui pedes omnino lutei, 
aculeis ordinariis armati. 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

101. Htlltjs iakthinus (C. Koch). 

Pleocip>pus ianthinus C. Koch, Arachia. xiii. 1846, p. 97, f. 1160. 
(?) Plexippus succinctus 0. Koch, Arachn. xiii. 1846, p. 98, 
f. 1161. 
Ligeb. 
Eepandu en Malaisie et eu Birmanie. 

102. Pseud AMYCus albomaculatus (V. Hasselt). 

Amyous albomaculatus V. Hasselt, in Midclen-tSumatra, etc., 
Aran. p. 52, tab. iii. f. 10. 

Perak : Gunong Tnas. Ligeb . 
Connu de Sumatra. 

103. Plexippus culicivorus (Doleschall). 

Perak. Jalor. Rahman. 
Tres repandu en Malaisie. 

104. Plexippus paykulli (Audouin). 

Ligeh. 

Repandu dans toutes les regions tropicales et subtropicales du 
monde. 

3". Salticidae fissidentati. 

Pantsi]S"us, nov. gen. 

Ab iLasa^rio prcesertim differt metatarsis anticis aculeis inferioribus 
et salteyn intus aculeis lateralibus binis instruciis, a Chapoda 
Peckh. differt oeulis quatuor anticis a sese sicbcontiguis et 
lineam rectam sen subrectam designantibus. — Typus P. niten 
E. Sim. 

105. Panysinus nitens, sp. nov. 

5. Long. 5 inm. — Cephalotlwrax niger, squamulis lanceolatis et 
striatis viridi-aureis crebre vestitus, parte thoracica linea mar- 
ginali exili alba, linea submarginali paido latiore lutea et 
utrinque, pone octdos, macida parva alba, notata. Pili oculorum 
densi et longi JIavi. Glypeus subglaber, parce albo-setosus. 
Abdomen oblongum, supra atrum et cupreo-squamidatwn, zonis 
transversis recurvis viridi-aureis et posiice utrinque macida alba 
supra ornatum, subtus luteum, argenteo-micanti-squamulatum. 
Ohela' convexm, nitidce et glabrce, sternum et partes oris fusco- 
olivacea, chelarum margine superiore dentibus princip>aMbus 



1901.] ARAOHNIDA or THE " SKE AT EXPEDITION." 75 

hinis a'quis dentihusqiie minoribus binis, inferiore cariimla sat 
lonr/a fere cequaliter bifida, armatis. Pedes hUei, parce nitido- 
squamulati, femoribus quatuor anticis subtus late nigricanti- 
vittatis. Plaga genitalis fidvo-nitida, utrinque area magna 
subrotunda, in medio carinida triqiietra notata. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar. 

106. LOLLIANUS PERAKENSIS, sp. nOV. 

c? . Long, 5-6 mm. — Cejyhalotlioraa.' niger, subtiliter coriaceus et 
opacus, pilis simplieibus sed crassis, obivsis et pronis, jlavo- 
nitidis parum dense vestitus. Pili ocalorum ffavi. Clypens sub 
omlis glaber, ad marginem pUis longissimis uniseriatis pallide 
Jlavidis munitus. Ocidi antici magni et contigui, apicibus in 
linearn rectam. Chjpeiis dimidio oculorum mediorum pjaulo 
angustior. Abdomen breviter ovatum, supra fusco-piceum et 
flavo-pilosum sed postice, supra mamillas, nigrum et suhglabrma, 
subtus paido dilutius, mamillce sat longce lutece. CJieloi validce, 
glabrce, nigro-virescentes, valde coriacece et intus, prope apicem, 
valde rugatce. Partes oris fusco-picece. Sternum obscure 
fidviim, Iceve et glabrum, Coa-ce trochanteresque lutei, antici 
paulo obscuriores. Pedes V paris reliquis robustiores et paido 
hngiores, nigricantes, tarso vix dilutiore, patella tibiaque supra, 
metatarso ad basin flavido-pilosis, subtus sat longe sed parcissime 
nigro-seiosis, tibia acideis inferioribus mediocribus 3-3 et 
latercdibus interioribus binis, metatarso acideis midto longioribus 
2-2 subtus armato sed acideis lateralibus carente. Pedes 2' 
paris fusci, femore ad basin, metatarso tarsoque luteis, subtus 
similiter acideatis sed tibia utrinque acideo laterali submedio, 
metatarso aculeis lateralibus interioribus binis armatis. Pedes 
quatuor postiei longitudine fere cequi (iv via? hngiores), minute 
et sat parce aculeati, metatarso 3' paris aculeis subbasilaribus 
binis aculeisque apicalibus verticillatis munito, sed metatarso 
4* paris, aculeis apicalibus parvis binis eaxeptis, mutico. Pedes- 
maxillares fulvo-rufuli, breves et robusti ; femore crasso,curvato, 
subtus ad basin obtuse prominido ; patella convexa, Jiaud longiore 
quam latiore ; tibia patella breviore, ecrtus ad apicem apoptliysi 
gracili longissima, articulo plus duplo longiore, incurva et 
antice, secundum tarsum directa, insigniter armata ; tarso longo, 
cylindraceo ; bidbo maximo, ad basin valde promimdo et globoso, 
ad apiicem sensim atienuato. 

Perak : Ulu Selama. 

107. SiLEE PULCHEB, sp. nOV. 

c? . Loyig. 4 mm .— CephalotJiorax niger, crebre olivaceo-puhescens, 
versus marginem late dilutior et coccineo-pilosus sed tinea 
marginali exili nigra pallide viridi-scpiamidata cinctus. Pili 
oculorum albidi. Clypeus angustus fere nudus. Abdomen 
angustum longum et teretiusculum, nigrum, supra in dimidio 
basali Icete coccineo-pubescens et maculis quatuor pallide viridi- 
micantibus, anticis longis obliquis et arcuatis alteris minoribus et 



76 M. BTJG-EXE siMoi^ OTN THE [May 7, 

ovatis decoratum, in parte altera violaceo-micanti squamulatum, 
suhtus parce micanti-squamulatum et pone plicam yenitalem 
alhido-pilosimi. Chela' antice deplanata?, valde coriaceo-granu- 
losa', fusco' apice sensim rufido', margine inferior e sidci carintda 
Tonga tenidssime serrata et oblique secta cum angido postico 
prowinido armato. Partes oris sternumque ohscure fulva, 
alhido-pilosa et parce squamulata. Pedes V pans rohusti, 
ftdvo-rufuli, patella et pjrcesertim tibia valde infuscatis, metatarso 
tarsoque pallide luteis, patella Icete violaceo-micanti-squamulata, 
femore clavato subtus ad marginem exteriorem in dimidio apicali 
tibia et subtus et supra longissime nigro-jimbriatis. Reliqui 
pedes graciliores, lutei, pateTlis tibiisque cunctis, metatarsisque 
4 posticis utrinque tenuiter fusco-lineatis. Pedes-maxillares 
lutei, crasse nigro-'pilosi ; tihia patella breviore haud vel vix 
longiore quam latiore, extus ad apicem apophysi nigra brevi, 
compressa valde uncata atque acuta instructa, tarso longe ovato, 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

108, Hakmochirus malaccensis E. Simon. 

HarmocTiirns malaccensis E. SimoD, in Bull. Soc. zool. Er. 1885, 
p. 441. 

A typo differt magnitudine duplo majore. 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Ordo PEDIPALPI. 
Earailia Tarantflid^. 

109. Sttgophrtnus cbrbeetjs, sp. nov. 

Long. 20-28 mm. — Fusco-piceus, abdomine paulo dilutiore,pedibus, 
saltern sex p>osticis, fidvo-rufidis, tegumentis cepJialotTioracis et 
pedum-maxillarmm subtiliter rugosis et gi'anuUs parvis nigris 
conspersis, abdominis subtilius rv.gosis, pedum femoribus granulis 
minutis nigris seriatis ornatis. Pedes -maxillare^ ceplialothorace 
fere triplo longiores, trocJiantere intus spinis mediocribus iniquis 
plurimis atque ad marginem apicalein spina multo longiore 
arcuata (non truncata) compressa et superne leviter et obtuse 
serrata armato; femore subtus ad marginem superior em spinis 5, 
I'' minore et obliquo a 2° fere contiguo, S'^ reliquis longiore, 5^ 
minore, ad marginem inferiorem spinis 4, 2° reliquis longiore ; 
tibia (bracMo) ad marginem superiorem, in dimidio apicali, 
leviter dilatata spinis longisslmis et inter se suba'quis trinis, 
spinisque minoribus trinis, 1° ante spinas principales, 2" leviter 
uncata, inter spinas princ. 2" et 3°, 3" apicali, margine inferiore 
spinis 4 et inter eas spinis parvis numerosis seriatis, spina 
princ. 3° reliqids multo longiore, 4" apicali brevi sed crassa 
et dentiformi ; metatarso (manu) utrinque spinis parvis 4 
(apicalibus longioribus) et prope basin spina longissima et 
divaricata, inferiore simplici, superiore subramosa subtus ad 
basin dente brevi sat valido et leviter retro directa armata, 
instructis. 



1901.] ARACHNIDA OP THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 77 

A S. cavernicola Thorell praesertim differt tegumentis corporis 
pedura-maxillarium femorumque subtiliter rugosis et parce granu- 
losis, magnitiidine multo majore, spina minore inter spinas 
principales marginis superioris tibiae pedum-maxillarium et ramulo 
inferiore spinse superiore metatarsi crassiore et divaricate. 

Jalor : Caves (v.-vi. 1899), Gua Griap (" Dark Cave '"), Biserat 
(26 V. 1899). 

110. Catag^us eimosus, sp. nov. 

5 . Long. 7 mm. — Pusco-piceus, suhtus dilutior, cephcdotliorace 
leviter rufulo-variegato, jpedihus-m^axillarihus clielisque rufescen- 
tibus, pedibus versus apicem sensim fulvis. Cephalothoraoo 
impresses et incequalis, subtiliter et crebre rugosus, pilis ritfulis 
brevibus, obtusis et subclaviformibiis conspersus^ margine frontali 
angusta, spinis rufulis quatuor, raedianis longioribus, munita. 
Segmenta abdominalia subtilissime rugosa. Pedes-maxillares 
robusti, subtiliter eoriacei, pili^ spiniformibus rufidis conspersi ; 
trochantere intus spinis parvis 2 vel 3, ad marginem apicalem 
subtus, spina vel apopliysi majore, ad marginem inferiorem 
tridentato spinaque minore armato ; femore sitbtus, ad marginem 
superiorem, spinis 4 inter se fere cequidistantibus, basali paulo 
longiore, ajncali minore, ad marginem inferiorem, spinis 3, basali 
longiore ; tibia (brachio) ad marginem superior era spinis 5 vel 6 
(basali minutissimo vel obsolete), upicali (6") mediocri, sub- 
apicali longissima apice acutissima et leviter cui'vata, 3° prce- 
cedenti paulo breviore, reliquis basin versus sensim minoribus ; 
metatarso (manu) ad marginem inferiorem spina unica submedia, 
ad marginem superiorem acideis longis acutis et leviter curvatis, 
inter se subsimilibus, armato ; tarso (ungue) ad marginem su- 
periorem, prope basin, spinis minutissimis binis muiiito. 
A CatagcBo pusillo Thorell imprimis differt manu pedum- 
maxillarium ad marginem superiorem aculeis binis, inter se sequis 
armato (in G. pusillo aculeo 2° V multo minore atque recto, sec. 
Kraepelin, Eev. Tarant. fig. 34). 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Familia Thelyphonid^. 

111. Htpocton[js kbabpelinj, sp. nov. 

5 . Long, 30-32 mm. — CephalotJiorax segmentaque dorsalia ab- 
dominis nigro-opaca, segmenta ventralia rufula et nitida, pedes- 
maxillares {coxis ececeptis) nigerrimi et nitidi, pedes V paris 
obscure fusci, reliqui pedes ruji. CephalotTiorax antice sat grosse 
et crebre, prcpAerea tenuiter granulosus, antice, ante oculos 
laterales, depressions media longitudinali leviter lanceolata, 
minus granulosa et utrinque costa lata obliqua et obttisissima 
Icevi munita. Tuber oculorum mediorum Iceve et nitidum, inter 
oculos leviter convexum et subcosfatum, spatio inter ocidos medios 
oculo non multo latiore. Segmenta dorsalia abdominis opaca, 
minute et parce granulosa, cuncta ad marginem posticum granulis 



'78 M. EUGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

minutissimis densioribus et uniseriatis munita, segmenta ventralia 
nitida. Segmentum anale nitidum, macula albida ocidifonni 
jjarva utrvnque inunitum. Pedes-maxillares robusti, niti- 
dissimi ; trocJiantere supra dente angidari sat valido et acuto, 
ad marginem anteriorem dente simili, ad interiorem dentibus 
trinis paulo minoribus, inter se aiquis et cequidistantibus armato ; 
apophysi tibiali valida sed acuta, ad marginem interiorem 
dentibus sat parvis 6-7 inter se cequidistantibus {basalibus binis 
minoribus), ad 'inarginem exteriorem dente apicali minutissimo 
denteque subbasilari paulo majore instructa. Pedes V paris 
tarsi articulo 2" j^jZms triplo longiore quam latiore, 3" saltern 
duplo longiore quam latiore, 4^, 5", 6" paulo brevioribus inter 
se subcequis. Pedes 3'^ paris tibia mutica. Pedes 4^ paris tibia 
aculeo medio-apicali subtus arrnata. 

Ab II. saxatili Gates, qui verisirailiter affinis est, differt imprimis 
tibia 3' paris mutica. 

Jalor : Biserat. Nawng-Cbik : Bukit Grab. 

112. Thelyphonus lin&anus C. Kocb. 

Thehjplionus linganus C. Kocb, Aracbn. x. 1843, p. 31, f. 774. 
Thelyphomis ja%orensis Gates, in Joiirn. Asiat. Soe. Beng. Iviii. 
1889, p. 11. 

Thelgphonus linganus Kraepelin, Eev. TJropygi, 1897, p. 25. 
Perak : Uki Selama. Kelantan : Kuala Ariug. 

Grdo SCGEPIONES. 
Familia Buthidje. 

113. Aechisometrus scutatus (C. Kocb). 

Lychas scutatus (scutillus) C. Koch, Aracbn. xii. 1845, p. 3, 
f. 962. 

Isonietrus weberi Karscb, in Berl. ent. Zeitscbr. xxvi. 1882, 
p. 184. 

Isometrus messor E. Simon, in Ann. Mus. civ. Genova, xx. 1884, 
p. 371. 

Isometrus phipsoni Gates, in J. Bombay Soc. iii. 1888, p. 248. 

Archisometrus scutatus Kraepelin, in Tierr., Scorp. et Fed. 1899, 
p. 44. 

Jalor : Bukit Besar. Patalung : Ban-Kong-Eak. 

Familia SooKPioNiDiE. 

114. Palamn^eus longimanus (Herbst). 
Forma angustimanus Tborell. 
Patalung: Singgora. 

Forma tJiorelli Pocock. 

Jalor: Bukit Besar, Biserat, Patani. Patalung: Ban-Kong-Eak. 



1901.] ARACHNIDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION"." 79 

115. HofiMURUS AUSXEALASiiE (Fabricius). 

Perak : Gnnong Inas, Ulu Selama. Kelanfcan : Kuala Aring. 
Jalor : Biserat, Bukit Besar. Patalung : Ban-Kong-Eak. 

116. HoRMUEUS CAUDiouLA (L. Koch). 
Ligeh. 

Familia Ch^iieilid^. 

117. Ch^rilus truncatus Karsch. 

Ohcerilus truncatus Karsch, in Mitt. Miiuch. eut, Ver. iii. 1879, 
p. 108 ; Kraepelin, loc. cit. p. 163. 

Jalor : Biserat. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Ordo CHEENETES. 
Eamilia Garypid^. 

118. Gartpus personatus, sp. nov. 

Long. 3-5 mm. — Sat longus, postice sensim ampliatus, subtiliter et 
uniformiter coriaceus, pills carens (?). Oeplialothorax evidenter 
longior qiiam latior, antice, usque ad oeulos, leviter attenuatus, 
ante oculos ahrupte angustior, longe productus, ohlique proclivis 
et leviter sidcatus, prope medium vix distincte transversim de- 
pressus. Oculi utrinque bini, a sese juwta contigui, anticus 
postico vix minor. Pedes-maxillares longi, sat graciles, subtiliter 
coriaceo-rugosi, digitis setis tenuissimis paucis munitis ; tro- 
chantere brevisshne pedicidato, dein lata, convexo sed intus haud 
producto, saltem haud longiore quam latiore; femore longo, 
parallelo, haud pediculato ; tibia femore fere ^ breviore, circiter 
cequilata, basin versus sensim et longe attenuata ; tnanu tibia 
circiter ceqidlonga, haud duplo latiore, longe ovata, intus quam 
extus paido convexiore ; digitis tenuibus, leviter curvatis, manu 
saltem haud brevioribus. — Truncus falvo-testaceus, regione 
frontali fusca, maculam postice laciniosam, formante, segmentis 
abdominis macidis fuscis parvis quadriseriatis ornatis. Pedes- 
maxillares fusco-olivacei, digitis pallidioribus rafulis. Pedes 
pallide lutei subpellucentes. 

Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Familia Cheliteeid^. 

119. CflELiEER (Lamprochbrnbs) JAY ANUS Thorell. 

Ghelifer javanus Thorell, in Ann. Mus, civ. Geneva, xviii. 
1882, p. 37, tab. v. f. 20-23. 
Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 
Espece tres repandue en Malaisie. 

120. Ohblieee cocophilus, sp. nov. 

Long. 4 mm. — Sat depressus, cephalothorax anophthalmus (sed 



80 M. EIJGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

antice utrinque macula testacea oculiformimumtus)fusco-olivaceus 
vel nig er, minute et crehre rugosus, sed postice {pone sulcum 2"™) 
albo-testaceus atqtie in medio fusco-macidatus, sideis transversis 
binis tenuihus et rectis, V submedio, cdtero a sidco 1° atque ad 
m,arginem posticum fere ceque remoto. Segmenta abdominalia 
supra subtilissime coriacea, antica testacea, postica infuscata, 
subtus Icevia, nitida et pallide testacea, pilis simplicibus tenu- 
ibiis et brevibus conspersa. Pedes-maxillares longi et robusti, 
et supra et subtus Iceves et nitidi, nigri, dAgitis rufulis, pilis 
simplicibus tenuibus et sat brevibus conspersi ; trocJiantere 
breviter pediculato, vix longiore quam latiore, supra convexo 
et obtusissimo ; femore crasso, intus recto, extus valde convexo, 
ad basin brevissime et abrupte pedicidato ; tibia femore 
circiter ceque longa et lata {vel vix latiore), longe ovata, ad basin 
atque ad apicem fere cequaliter attenuata, intus quam extus 
convexiore, ad basin breviter pediculato ; manu tibia latiore, ad 
basin globosa, apicem versus parum attenuata, digitis robusfis, 
curvatis, manu circiter cequilongis. Pedes breves, luteo-olivacei, 
subpellucentes. 
Kelantan : Kuala A ring. 

Ordo OPILIONES. 
1". Opiliones plagiostethi. 

Synopsis specierum. 

1. Truncus supra tnuticus spina carens 2. 

Truncus supra spina media vel spiuis duabus 

instructus 3. 

2. Tuber oculorum bumile. Pedum-maxil- 

larium patella intus ad apicem ramulo 
longo munita. Pedes nigricantes tibiis ad 

apicem late albis Zaleptus festivtis Th. 

Tuber oculorum angustum et altum. Pedum- 
maxillarium patella simplex ramulo 
carens. Pedes nigricantes concolores ... Verpulus spumatus s. \\. 

3. Tuber oculorum supra, ante oculos, dentibus 

sat longis binis munitum. Scutum abdo- 
minale spinis duabus armatum. Patella 
pedum-maxillarium intus ad apicem 

ramulo longo munita Gagrella hicornigera s. n. 

Tuber oculorum muticum vel minute bi- 
seriatira dentatum. Scutum abdominale 
spina unica armatum. Patella pedum- 
maxillarium simplex ramulo carens 4. 

4. Tuber oculorum humillimum, saltem duplo 

latius quam longius, ad basin baud augus- 
tatum. Scutum abdominale antice parce 
et inoi'dinate granulosum, postice subti- 
lissime coriaceum, spina crassa deuticulis 

validis scabrosa Gagrella semigranosa s. n. 

Tuber oculorum sat altum, versus basin 
angustatum. Scutum abdominale uni- 
formiter grauosum vel coriaceum, spina 
graciliore armatum 5. 



1901.] ARACHNIDA OP THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 81 

5. Tuber oculorum supra, inter oculos, clentibus 

parvis biseriatis 4-4 muuitum. Corpus 

omnino nigrum Gagrella patalungensis s. n. 

Tuber oculorum Iteve et muticum nee denta- 
tum nee spinulosum 6. 

6. Tarsus pedum-maxillarium subtus in parte 

basalilineaspinularum parvarum armatus. Gagrella illusa s. n. 
Tarsus pedum-maxillarium muticus, linea 
spinosa careus 7. 

7. Truncus niger, abdomine maculi8 albis 

pulveridentis albis biseriatis ornato, spina 

dorsali Iseviarmato Gagrella biscriaia s. n. 

Truncus Itete fulvo-rufescens, tubere oculo- 
rum apice nigro-^neo, scuto abdominali 
in medio late nigro-opaco, spina nigra 
minute scabrosa armato Gagrella atroruhra s. n. 

121. Zaleptus pestiyus Thorell. 

Zalej)tus festivus Thorell, in Ann. Mus. civ. Gen. 2^ ser. vii. 
1889, p. 611. 

Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 
Decrit du Tenasserim. 

122. G-ageella bicoenigeea, sp. nov. 

Long. 3 inm. — Ti'uneus hrevis^ subrotundns, conveocus, rufo-cocci- 
neus, tubere oculorum spinisque abdominis nigris, crebre et 
minute rugosus, spinis duabus gracilibits, acutissimis et subtilissime 
rugosis, antica altera paido minore, armatus, margine antico 
cephalotJioracis longe declivi, tubercidis rugosis binis geminatis 
onunito. Tuber ocidorum modice altum, antice visum midto latius 
quam altius et basin versus angustius, supra, inter ocidos pro- 
funde sulcatum, minute granosum et ante ocidos tuberculis binis, 
erectis, leviter divaricatis atque obtusis armatum. Truncus subtus 
cum coccis subtiliter coriaceus et opacus. CJielce lutea;, loives et 
nitidce, articulo 2° {manii) cylindrato. Pedes-maxillares lutei, 
graciles et longi, patella supra ad apicem convexa sed intus haud 
producta ramido carente ; tibia saJtem quadruplo longiore quam 
latiore. Pedes longissimi, mutici et parce dentati, obscure fusci, 
coxis troclianteribusque dilutioribus sed femoribus ad basin 
sensim infuscatis fere nigris. 
Ligeh. 
A G. bidentata Thorell, cui verisimiliter valde affinis et subsimilis 

est, divert (see. Thorell) corpore subtus coriaceo (haud laeye) et 

femoribus pedum ad basin fere nigris. 

123. Gageella illusa, sp. nov. 

Long. 4'8 mm. — Truncus niger, ceplialotliorace utrinque macula 
magna subtriquetra, scuto abdominali vittis binis longitudinalibus 
angustis, sinuosis, soipe extus dentatis et antice abbreviatis albis 
et pulverulentis ornatus, breviter ovatus, convexus, crebre et sat 
minute granidosus, spina media erecta, gracili et acutissima 
omnino Icevi (Jiaud granulosa) armatus. Tuber oculorum 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. VI, 6 



82 M, EUGENE SIMON ON THE [May 7, 

muticum, nee dentatum nee Sjoinosum, altum, antice visum, hand 
latins quam cdtius, versus basin angustius, supra, inter oculos, 
profunde sidcatum, ante et pone oculos minute et obtuse pi-omi- 
nulum. Hegio ventralis coxceque materia subcerea albida omnino 
obtectce. GTielce Imves et nitidce, ftdvo-rufala;, articido basali 
infuscato, apicali cylindrato. Pedes-maxillares mediocres, 
femore patellaque mgricantes,pra}tereafidvo-rufuli, feinore subtus 
minute et inordinate dentato, patella simplici ramxdo carente, 
tibia patella paido longiore et graciliore sed nan triplo longiore 
quam latiore, subtus omnino Icevi et mutica, tarso subtus in 
dimidio basali, prope marginera interiorem, linea spinularum 
parvarum armato. Pedes longissimi, nigri, aplcem versus vies 
dilutiores, minutissime et parce spinidosi. 
Jalor : Bukit Besar, in silvis. 

124, G-AGBELLA BISEEIATA, Sp. nOV. 

Long. 4"5 mm. — Truncus niger, cepiJialotJiorace utrinque tnacidis 
albis binis, antica subtriquetra, altera (^prope tuber oculorum sita) 
longa, obliqua et scepe arcuata, scuto abdominali utrinque ad 
marginem pSlus minus testaceo plagiato, supra maculis parvis 
albis biseriatis (5-5 vel 6-6) ornato. Tuber oculorum altum, 
ad basin angustius, supra, inter oculos, prof unde sulcatum, haud 
prominulum, sed ante oculos scepe minute dentatum. Scutum 
crebre granulosum, spina media, erecta, gracili et acutissima 
loivi, haud granidosa, armatum. Megio ventralis cowceque 
materia subcerea albida obtectm. Chela". Iceves et nitidw, fulvo- 
rufulw, articido basali infuscato, apicali cylindrato. Pedes- 
maxillares mediocres, femore patellaque nigricantes, proiterea 
fulvo-rufidi, femore subtus sat minute inordinate et crebre 
dentato, patella simplici, ramtdo carente, tibia patella paulo 
longiore et graciliore sed non cluplo longiore quam latiore, subtus 
ad marginem exteriorem, prcesertim ad basin, spinulis parvis 
armata, tarso oinnino mutico, laivi. Pedes longissimi, nigri, 
apicem versus vix dilutiores, minutissime et parce spinulosi. 

Perak : Gruoong Inas. 

A prsecedente, ciii valde affinis est, imprimis differt tibia pedum- 
maxillarum subtus spinulosa sed tarso mutico, linea granulosa 
carente. 

125, GrAGEELLA PATALTJNGENSIS, Sp, nOV. 

Long. 4*5 mm.- — Omnino niger. Truncus breviter ovatus, convexus, 
cephalothorace segmentisque abdominis posticis sat subtiliter 
coriaceis et opacis, scuto abdominis crebre et uniforniiter coriaeeo- 
granuloso, spina media erecta sat gracili et acutissima, parce 
granulosa, armato. Tuber oculorum sat altu'in, versus basin 
angustatum, Iceve sed supra, inter oculos, denticulis parvis 
biseriatis 4-4, duobus ante ocidos reliquis a sese subcontiguis et 
pone ocidos sitis, armatum. Chelce Iceves et nitidce, articido 2" 
(manu) angusie cylindrato apicem versus paido dilutiore. Pedes- 
maxillares mocliee longi, fusci apice dilutiores, femore subtus 



1901.] ARACHTSriDA OF THE " SKEAT EXPEDITION." 83 

minute et sat crebre dentieulato, patella simplici ramulo carente, 
tibia Jiaud triplo longiore quam latiore subtus minutissime crebre 
et inordinate spinulosa, tarso leviter curvato, compresso, apicem 
versus levissime ampliato, tibia cum patella simid sumptis onidto 
longiore. Processus sfernalis coxceque sat grosse sed parce 
granosi, segmenta ventralia abdominis subtiliter coriaceis Jiaud 
granosis. Pedes nigricantes, longissimi, femoribus minutissime 
inordinate et parce spimdosis. 
Patalung : Ban-Kong-E-ak. 

A G. histrionica Thorell, cui prsesertim affinis est, differt trunco 
sat grosse baud subtiliter coriaceo-granuloso, maculis albis carente, 
pedibus-maxillaribiis fuscis, patella simplici ramulo carente. 

126. GrAGKELLA SEMIGEA]S"OSA, sp. nOV. 

Long. 4'8 mm. — Truncus breviter ovatus, valde convexus, inter- 
dum omnino niger, interdutn fulvo-ferrugineo-variatus (^cephalo- 
thorace late mai^ginato, scuto abdominali antice lineis binis 
sinuosis postice convergentibus et postice vitta marginali latissima 
et dentata), subtiliter coriaceus et opacus, parte abdominali 
antice gramdis transversim uniseriatis, scuto in dimidio anteriore 
granulis similibus inordinatis sat parce consperso, spina media 
erecta, crassa sed acuta, fere usque ad apicem granulis grossis 
et iniquis dentiformibus instrucia. Tuber oculorum muticum, 
nee spnnosum nee dentatum, insigniter liumile, saltern duplo latius 
quam cdtius, ad basin liaud angustatum et vix sulcatum. Chelce 
Iceves et nitidce, fusco-rufida;, articuLo 2° (manu) cylindrato. 
Pedes-maxillares modice longi,fusci apicedilutiores,femore subtus 
nainute et sat parce dentato, patella simplici, ramido carente, 
tibia haud triplo longiore quam latiore, subtus spinulis minu- 
tissimis paucissimis munita, tarso leviter curvato, cmnpresso, 
apicem versus levissime ampliato, tibia cum, patella simid 
sumptis multo longiore. Processus sternalis coxaque sat grosse 
sed parce granosi, segmenta ventralia abdominis subtiliter 
coriacea et granulis pinrvis transversim seriatis munita. Pedes 
longissimi, nigri, metatarsis tarsisque dilutioribus et obscure 
fidvis, interdum pedes fusco-rufuli cum bast femorum patellisque 
nigricantibus, femoribus minutissime inordinate et parce 
spimdosis. 

Jalor : Biserat, Bukit Besar. Kelantau : Kuala Aring. 

A G. epJiippiata Thorell (ex Sumatra) verisimiliter sat affinis. 

127. Gagrella atroetjbra, sp. nov. 

Long. 4*5 mm. — Truncus brevis subrotundus, valde convexus, 
fulvo-rufescens, scuto abdominali cum spina nigro, antice et 
utrinque testaceo-marginato, maculam magnam subquadratam 
formante, segmentis posticis dorsalibus nigris, ultimis binis 
macula m,edia albida notatis, cep>halothorace fere Icevi, in 
declivitate anteriore minutissime vix distincte etparcissime rugoso, 
scuto segmentisque posticis opads, minutissitne et regulariter 
granulosis, spina dorsali erecta, longa, sat gracili et acutissima, 

6* 



84 OK THE AEACHNIDA Or THE " SKEAT EXPEDITIOK." [May 7, 

suhlcevi, parce et minute scahra. Tuher oculorum ad hasin 
luteum ad apicem nigro-ceneum, longum, reclinatum^ ad basin 
valde angustatimi, muticum, nitidAssimuni et profunde sulcatum, 
Clielce Ititece, nitidm, articido 2" {manu) cylindrato. Pedes- 
maxillares mediocres, fidvo-riifuli, tarso luteo, femore suhtus in 
medio denticulis parvis triseriatim ordinatis munito, patella 
tibiaque utrinque minutissime et parce dentatis, patella simpUci, 
intus ad apicem leviter convexa, sed ramulo carente, tibia Jiaiid 
triplo longiore quam latiore, tarso gracili compresso, tibia cum 
patella longiore. Goxcb minutissime et pan'ce granosce. Processus 
sternalis segmentaque abdominis sid-)tus Jiaud granosa fere Icevia. 
Pedes longissimi, fusco-i-ufuli, trocJianteribus femoribusque 
dilutioribus sed femoribus 4^ paris ad basin infuscatis, spinulis 
minutissimis et inordinatis conspersi. 
Perak : Gunong Inas. Kelantan : Kuala Aring. 

Veepultjs, nov. gen. 

A Gagrella differt scuto abdominali dorsali mutico, spinis tubercu- 
lisque carente et tubere oculorum, altiore quam latiore, ab Hypsi- 
buno Thorell differt tubere oculorum reclinato, angusto sed apice 
leviter ampliato omnino mutico et Iceve, et pedibus-maxillaribus 
simplicibus, patella convexa intus liaud produeta ramulo carente 
et tibia patella haud longiore. 

128. VEE.i'irLtrs spumatus, sp. nov. 

Long. 2*5 — 3 mm, — Truncus brevis, subrotundus, minute et 
crebre rugosus, niger, ceplialothorace materia subcerea favida 
crasse obtecto, tuberculo oculorum sat recMnato, Icevi et mutico, 
altiore quam latiore, apice sensim incrassato et subrotundo, inter 
oculos hand sulcato sed convexo, ad basin rufalo ad apicem nigro. 
Ghelce Iceves, articido basali nigro, ap>icali fidvo-rufulo angusto, 
teretiusculo, a basi haud prominido, digitis apice nigris. Pedes- 
maxillares simplices fusci, tarso fulvo, patella convexa, intus 
haud promimda, tibia patella circiter cequHonga, paulo angus- 
tiore, haud triplo longiore quam latiore. Pedes longissimi, nigri, 
metatarsis tarsisque leviter dilutioribus. Processus sternalis, 
coxcB segmentaque abdominis subtus coricccea et opaca. 

Jalox' : Bukit Besar. 

2". Opiliones mecostethi. 

129. Oncopus tbuwcatus Thorell. 

Oncopus truncatus Thorell, in Ann. Mus. civ. Grenova, 2^ ser. x. 
1891, p. 764. 

Perak : Grunong Inas. 

Connu de Singapore et de Pinang. 



1901.] ON MAMMALS FROM UttANBA. 85 

May 21, 1901. 
Dr. W. T. Blanfoed, E.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S., exhibited two nests of a tree Trap- 
door Spider, brought by Mr. J. T. Maury from Eio Janeiro, 
as an instance of the perfection of the instinct displayed by 
these animals in the construction of their domiciles on the trunks 
of trees. One of these nests was still tenanted by a living Spider 
with her family. It was suggested that the Spider probably 
belonged to the species known as PseucUdiops rastratus, described 
in the ' Proceedings ' for 1889, p. 250, specimens of which had been 
kept alive in the Insect House of the Society's Gardens. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On the more notable Mammals obtained by Sir Harry 
Johnston in the Uganda Protectorate. By Oldfield 
Thomas. 

[Eeceived May 7, 1901.] 
(Plate V.O 

The valuable scientific exploring and collecting work which 
Sir Harry Johnston did in JSFyasaland, during his residence there, 
he has continued while acting as Special Commissioner in the 
Uganda Protectorate. With his usual generosity he has sent all 
the specimens obtained by him to the National Museum, and 
I have had the pleasure of working out the Mammals. 

During the autumn of last year Sir Harry made an expedition 
to investigate the Fauna and Flora of Mount Euwenzori, and 
obtained a number of interesting forms, by far the most remark- 
able of which is the wonderful new Mammal, of which Mr. Sclater 
gave us an account at the last meeting (see above, p. 3). Other 
specimens obtained at the same time were exhibited to the Society 
by Mr. Sclater on March 19th (see P. Z. S. 1901, vol. i. p. 222), 
but these he has been good enough to hand over to me, and an 
account of them is included in the present paper. 

On this occasion it has not been thought worth while to record 
all the mammals sent, and my notes are restricted to the rarer 
and more remarkable forms. 

COLOBUS EUWENZORII, Sp. n. 

Two native skins ; Buamba Country, N.W. flank of Euwenzori. 
A black and white Cohhus aUied to G. palliatus and G. ango- 
lensis. 

Fur of back enormously long, longer than that of any known 

^ For explanation of the Plate, see p. 87. 



86 MB. OLDFIELD THOMAS OK [May 21, 

Species, and wavy, so that it is very like that of a long-haired 
Angora Groat, Over the shoulders the black hairs are 9 to 11 
inches in length, isolated ones being found up to 13 inches long. 
White cheek-tufts long and bushy. Distribution of black and 
white very much as in G. palliatus, there being apparently a white 
superciliary band, although this is cut away entirely in one 
specimen, and there is only a faint indication of it in the other 
(the type). In the anal region, however, the white is more 
extended, for an area from 4 to 6 inches each way below the 
callosities is either white or grizzled with white, while in G. palli- 
atus only a small spot or streak in the middle line is white. The 
tail differs markedly from that of the allied species by having 
practically no white tuft at all, for the terminal 6 inches are 
merely grizzled, more blackish than white, and it is only the hairs 
at the extreme end (and these are only some 21 inches in length) 
which are altogether white. 

Type. B.M. No. 1.8.9.13. 

This splendid monkey is probably the Colobus referred to 
by Scott Elliot (P. Z. S. 1895, p. 311) as seen by him in the 
Teria and Msonje valleys, near Butanuka, Euwenzori, but he was 
not able to obtain a specimen. 

Colobus ocoidentalis Eochebr. 

2 . Mpanga Forest, September 1900. " Iris light hazel." 
A beautiful skin, with skull, of this rare species, which is as yet 
very imperfectly represented in our collections. 

The tail-tuft of this monkey is as well-developed as in 
Rochebrune's figure, and shows no approximation to the reduction 
said to be characteristic of C matschiei Neumann \ 

Colobus rupomiteatus Peters. 

Several specimens from the Euahara Eiver, altitude 4000 ft., 
August 1900. 

" Eyes bright hazel." 

The occurrence in the Uganda Protectorate of this remarkable 
monkey, not hitherto represented in bhe Museum collections, is of 
much interest. It was originally discovered by the German 
traveller Dr. G. A. Eischer on the Tana Eiver, and was described 
and figured by Dr. Peters ^. It does not appear to have since 
been met with, and the present is therefore only its second recorded 
occurrence. 

So far as Dr. Peters's figure and descriptions enable me to 
judge, there is no difference at all between the Tana and Euahara 
specimens, 

Ceecopithecus stuhlmanni Matsch. 

6 . Mpanga Eorest, altitude 4000 ft., Sept. 1900. 
The local representative of G. pluto Gray. 

1 SB. Ges. nat. Fr. Berl. 1899, p. 15. 

2 MB. Ak. Berl. 1879, p. 829, pi. I a. 



1901.] MAMMALS FROM UGANDA. 87 

GrENETTA VICTORIA, sp. u. (Plate V.) 

A single skin from Entebbe. 

Size nearly twice as great as in any known species of the genus, 
and almost rivalling that of a Civet, to which at first sight there is 
a general resemblance. Fur comparatively short, very close and 
thick ; hairs of back about 23-26 mm. in length. Median dorsal 
crest not or scarcely developed, though there is a black line in its 
usual position. Marldugs throughout very strong and prominent. 
Light ground-colour above yellowish white, the hairs smoky grey 
basally, with, a subterminal ring of yellowish white and a black tip. 
Top of muzzle and centre of face between eyes whitish, with a 
black median line commencing level with the anterior canthus. 
Sides of muzzle and a narrow orbital ring black ; a prominent 
white suborbital spot. Crown and nape with a very handsome 
intensification of the usual Grenet markings ; the two dark 
divergent bands which ran backwards from behind the ears very 
prominent and sharply defined, deep glossy black, contrasting with 
the clear yellowish-white bands outside them ; outside these again, 
on the sides of the neck, the usual dark blotches are deep glossy 
black. Spots on body generally very numerous, well-defined, 
black. Centre of posterior back with a black line, but its hairs 
not lengthened into a crest. Under surface spotted black and 
whitish, not defined from the dorsal colour. Shoulders spotted 
like body ; forearms and hands fuscous brown throughout, ob- 
scurely spotted proximally. Hind limbs similar to fore. Tail 
long, bushy, cylindrical, its hairs about 25-30 mm. in length ; 
prominently and completely ringed with black and white, the 
black bands about twice the breadth of the white ones, which 
latter are six in number ; the tip black. 

Dimensions (approximate, taken on a badly made skin) : — 
Head and body 540 mm. ; tail 400 mm. ; breadth of naked 
rhinarium below nostrils 14 mm. (as compared with less than 
10 mm. in a well-grown ordinary Genet). 

Hab. Entebbe, Uganda. — Date and other particulars not 
recorded. 

Type. B.M. No. 1.8.9.29. 

This fine animal, which appears to be nearly double the bulk of an 
ordinary Genet, is quite distinct from any species hitherto known. 
With its large size, conspicuous banding, and ringed tail, it has a 
general resemblance to a Civet, but the character of its foot-pads 
and other details of structure show that it is really a Genet. 
Unfortunately no skull was obtained. 

Htstrix gale at a Thos, 

A fine adult skull of this Porcupine, hitherto only represented 
in the Museum by the immature type from Lamu, measures : — 

Basilar length 149 mm. ; greatest breadth 91 ; nasals 101 x 60 ; 
frontal suture 27 ; parietal suture (measured to occiput) 39 ; 
palate from henselion 84. 



88 ME. OLDFIELD THOMAS ON [May 21, 

Peooavia ceawshayi Thos. 

Three specimens from the Euwenzori region. 

This Dassie does not appear to be distinguishable from the 
species which I described from Kenya and Eoromo, from specimens 
obtained respectively by Messrs. Mackinder and Crawshay. 

It is evidently a variable species, as Sir H. Johnston's three 
specimens differ considerably among themselves. 

Peocatia (Dendeohteax) maemota, sp. n. 

Nearly allied and very similar externally to the West-African 
P. dorsalis, but smaller and with some cranial differences. 

Fur long and shaggy, hairs of back 40-50 mm. in length, a few 
much longer hairs being intermixed. Greneral colour dark fuscous 
brown, very like that of specimens of P. dorsalis in faded fur. 
Dorsal area rather darker, sides rather paler, the hairs being here 
subterminally ringed with dull isabelline. Bases of hairs deep 
brown on back, whitish brown on sides. Under surface dull brown, 
but little paler than sides, the hairs tipped with dull buffy ; in the 
inguinal region they are buffy throughout. Hands and feet 
uniformly brown. 

Naked part of dorsal gland about 35 mm. long by 12 mm. wide. 
Hairs surrounding the gland black for their basal and dull white 
for their terminal halves ; the resulting white line on the back 
about 3 inches in length. 

Skull, as compared with that of P. dorsalis, more slender in the 
muzzle, the nasals narrower, and the zygomata more expanded 
anteriorly, so that their broadest point is opposite the back of the 
orbit. Postorbital bar complete. Malar bones feebler, their least 
height (opposite the temporal fossa) about 5 instead of at least 
7 mm. Temporal crests less developed than in P. dorsalis, and the 
fossae not running so far back on the skull, terminating 14 mm. 
from the lambdoid edge. 

Molar teeth smaller and lighter, the breadth of in^ 6"0 as against 
6-6-6-8 in P. dorsalis. 

Dimensions of the type, immature, measured in skin : — Head 
and body 430 mm. ; hind foot 70. Skull : basal length 85 ; greatest 
breadth 50'5 ; nasals 24*3 x 17*7 ; interorbital breadth 19-5 ; 
distance between temporal fosssB across parietals 22 ; diastema 16 ; 
length of palate 46 ; length of tooth-row (Qiip^ to m^) 31'5. 

Hab. Mengo, N. of Entebbe, Uganda. 

Tyj^e. Immature female. B.M. No. 1.8.9.42. Collected 
December 8, 1900. 

" Iris dark hazel." 

This Dassie is no doubt most closely allied to the West-African 
P. dorsalis, which it appears to represent in Uganda. 

The type is in Stage V. of my table of age-stages \ but the skull 
is neither so large, so stoutly built, nor so heavily ridged as that of 
a P. dorsalis in Stage III. 

' P. Z. S. 1892, p. 53. 



1901.] MAMMALS FROM U&ANDA. 89 

Oephaiophfs joknstoki, sp. n. 

Most closely allied to C. lueynsi Thos/, but fur thicker and 
woollier, and general colour very much darker. 

Size, so far as can be judged from a young specimen, about as 
in C. iveynm. Hairs of middle line of nape reversed forwards 
as in that species. 

Forehead grizzled blackish brown ; coronal tufts uniform chest- 
nut rufous (rather darker than Eidgway's " hazel"). Cheeks paler 
brown. Anteorbital region dull buffy ; an inconspicuous buffy- 
orange supraorbital streak present. Outer side of ears blackish 
brown. Neck and fore-quarters shining brown, gradually redden- 
ing posteriorly until the whole rump and hind-quarters are a deep 
reddish russet ; middle line of back not markedly darker than 
sides. Belly dull brownish. Fore limbs brown, darkening termi- 
nally to black on the fetlocks ; hind limbs reddish to the hocks, 
then brown darkening to black. Tail black along its upper surface 
and white below. 

Owing to the youth of the type, the only dimensions worth 
giving are : — Hind foot, including hoof, 205 ; ear (contracted) 65. 
Combined length of three milk-premolars 29. 

This species is related on the one side to C. lueynsi Thos., of the 
Congo, and on the other to C. sjxidix True, of Mt. Kilima-njaro. 
From the former, of which one of the co-types is of just similar 
age to the present specimen, it differs by its much thicker fur 
and darker colour, being dark brown and dark rufous as compared 
with pale brown and pale rufous ; it shares, however, with 0. iveynsi 
the characteristic reversal of the nuchal hairs. From C. spadix, 
on the other hand, it differs by this reversal of the hairs, that 
species having the neck-hairs all directed backwards, and also by 
the more rufous colour of the posterior back, for Mr. Miller tells 
me that the general colour of C. spadix is " Fronts brown, 
darkening to nearly black along spine and on rump, buttocks, and 
tail." The coronal tufts of C. spadix are partly black, and the 
tail is only whitish at the tip, not throughout its length below. 

Hah. Toro, east of Euwenzori. 

Type. Young female. B.M. No. 1.8.9.64. July 1900. 

Cephalophus kubidus, sp. n. 

Fur thick, close and slightly woolly. General colour of 
neck and body uniform rich chestnut-rufous, something between 
" hazel " and " cinnamon-rufous " of Eidgway, but brighter and 
richer than either ; bases of the hairs rather greyer, and along 
the middle Hne of the back, especially posteriorly, these greyer 
bases are more decidedly grey-brown, and, showing through, give a 
darker hue to the dorsal line. Hairs of neck directed backwards 
as usual. Middle line of nape rather browner, probably in 
continuation of a darker area on the head. Sides of neck particu- 
larly bright rufous. Under surface paler rufous, not sharply 

^ Described for the Belgian Congo Museum, and now in the press. Oo-types 
in that collection and in the British Museum. 



90 MR. E. C. PUNNETT Olf [^^J 21, 

defined ; axillae and groins whitish. Shoulders darker rufous, this 
colour darkening downwards on the fore limb until at the knee 
(and probably thence to the hoof) it is blackish brown. Hind 
limbs similarly deep chestnut rufous on the thighs, changing at the 
hocks to black or blackish brown. Tail short, only about two 
inches in length ^ ; above black, more or less grizzled with rufous 
and white, below and at the extreme tip grizzled white. 

In all probability this handsome Duiker is most nearly related to 
the West- African C nigrifrons Gray, but differs in its thicker and 
more woolly hair, deeper and more uniform general colour, and by 
the greater extent of the black on the hind feet. 

Hah. Suwenzoi-i district. 

Type a flat skin, without head, purchased from the natives. 
B.M. No. 1.8.9.65. 

KOBUS THOMASI Scl. (?). 

A single native skin from the Semliki Valley is marked in an 
unusual and striking manner with grey, so symmetrically arranged 
that it has been supposed to represent a new species. 

But without further material I am not prepared to give in my 
adhesion to this view, and would rather suggest that the grey mai-king 
is due to senility, just as domestic dogs and other animals occasion- 
ally turn grey in patches. I would fi'eely admit that I know of no 
such striking case as the present ; but as the skin agrees in all 
other respects with one from approximately the same region 
brought home by Mr. Scott Elliot, and of the usual fulvous colour, 
I do not at present feel justified in describing Sir H. Johnston's 
specimen as a distinct species. 



2. On some Arctic Nemerteans. By E. C. Punnett, B.A.^ 

[Received April 20, 1901.] 
(Plates VI. & VII.=') 

(Text-figures 1-6.) 

The Nemerteans described below formed part of the collection 
in the Museum of University College, Dundee, and were kindly 
handed to me for examination by Prof. D'Arcy "W. Thompson, 
after whom I have much pleasure in naming one of the new forms. 
I have been able to refer two to species already known, whilst five 
other forms are new, viz, : — AmpMporus thompsoni, A. arcticus, 
A. paulinus, Drepanophorus horealis, and Oerehratulus greenlandicus. 
It is worthy of note that whilst the Metanemerteans, and especially 
the genus Amphipoms, are well represented, only two specimens 
of Heterouemerteans, belonging to the same species, were found. 

'^ Although not obviously imperfect, it is possible that the tail has been 
broken and healed in life. 

^ Communicated by Dr. S. F. Haumer, F.Z.S. 

* For explanation of the Plates, see p. 106. 



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1901.] SOME AECTIO NEMERTEANS. 91 

In the following paper I have first given an account of the new 
species, and have added at the end some notes on such points of 
more general interest as have arisen in connection with them. 

^Mbtanemertini. 

Amphipoeus thompsoni, n. sp. (Plate YI. fig. 6 & Plate VII. 
fig. 8.) 

Numerous examples from thx'ee localities, i. e. N. Greenland 
(collected by Herr Lohmaun), Upernavik, and Davis Strait, 

Average length about 50 mm., with a breadth of 3 mm. when 
not greatly contracted. Body rounded and tapering at either end. 
One very large specimen measured 120 mm. in length and 6 mm. 
in breadth. Colour dorsally reddish brown, ventrally pale 
yello\Wsh buff, probably white in life. A darker streak occurs on 
the snout dorsally (Plate VI. fig. 6), and behind this there are two 
transverse white lines marking the position of the head-furrows. 

The epithelium, which is devoid of unicellular glands, rests on 
a basement-membrane of about one-half its thickness. In the 
head-region the basement-membrane is pierced by numerous small 
nerves. The muscular system is of the usual type. The circular 
muscle-layer is of about one-third the thickness of the basement- 
membrane {i. e. about 20 ^x). The longitudinal layer is about 5 
times as thick as the circular. Dorso-ventral muscle-strands 
occur in the oesophageal and intestinal regions. The vascular 
system shows a well-marked cephalic loop. The limbs of this loop 
converge to pass through the nervous ring, and as they lie upon 
the ventral commissure the median dorsal vessel is given off from 
either the right or the left, and not from both as is usually the case 
where a median dorsal vessel exists. A similar arrangement was 
observed by Dr. Willey in a small Amphiporid from New Britain. 

Text-fig. 1. 

median dorsal 
vessel 
.... 1 lateral 

cephalic locp . vessel 






Diagram of anterior part of vascular system of Amphiporus thompsoni. 
(For explanation, see text.) 

In the oesophageal region of A. tJiompsoni, where the excretory 
tubules are present, the lateral vessels give off dorsal branches 
which are united by a longitudinal vessel running for a short 
distance along the side of the proboscis-sheath (vide text-fig. 1). 
The dorsal blood-vessel leaves the proboscis-sheath very soon after 
the brain ends, and before the level of the excretory pore 
(Plate VII. fig. 8*). 

^ The classification given in Biirger's Monograph (1895) has been followed. 



92 MR. E. c. PUNNETT ON [May 21, 

The alimentary canal presents no peculiar features. The most 
anterior pair of the blind-gut diverticula do not reach to the 
brain. The oesophagus opens into the rhynchodseum about half- 
way between the tip of the snout and the commencement of the 
brain. The proboscis-sheath extends back to the posterior 
extremity of the body. 

The proboscis is well developed. Its armature consists of a 
central stylet 210 fj. in length attached to a rather shorter base, 
185 yLi long. There are two pockets of reserve stylets each con- 
taining 4. A somewhat remarkable variation ^ occurs in the number 
of the proboscis-nerves. Whilst the females shoAV 12 nerves in the 
probosci'3, the males may have either 12, 17, or 18. The excretory 
system resembles that usually found in the genus. The branched 
tubules commence just behind the cerebral organ and extend 
backwards for several mm. (Plate VII. fig. 8). There is a single 
excretory pore on either side shortly behind the brain ; it opens 
laterally and somewhat ventrally. 

The gonidial sacs are numerous and irregularly arranged. Both 
ova and spermatozoa are almost or quite ripe. 

The nervous system shows no marked peculiarities. Shortly 
after its commencement the dorsal ganglion gives off laterally a 
nerve to the cerebral organ. A small median dorsal nerve is 
present. There is a supra-anal nerve commissure posteriorly. 

The cerebral organs are well developed and lie for the most part in 
front of the brain. Seen in transverse section, their height some- 
what exceeds their breadth (av. height 350 /j., av. breadth 250 jj.). 
Their opening is in front of the brain about 5 of the distance 
between the anterior extremity of the brain and the tip of the 
snout (Plate VII. fig. 8). 

Numerous eyes are present, amounting to about 40 on each side. 
They are arranged as a row from the tip of the head to the anterior 
brain-region, where they form a cluster. 

Scanty head-glands are present opening ventrally. 

Amphipoeus PAULiisrFS, n. sp. (Plate VIIc fig. 11.) 

Several specimens collected by Prof. D'Arcy Thompson in the 
Pribyloff Is., Behring Straits. In external form a long slender 
species tapering at either end. The specimens varied in length 
from about 50-90 mm. In a specimen 90 mm. long the greatest 
breadth Avas 4 mm. — which proportions in the preserved state 
point to this species being longer and more slender than most other 
members of the genus. Colour after preservation a pale yellowish 
brown dorsally and almost white ventrally. There are no distinctive 
markings. 

The epithelium is high, and rests upon a comparatively thin 
basement-membrane (about 18 fi thick). 

The circular layer of the muscidar system is rather thicker than 
the basement-membrane. Ventrally there is a thin diagonal layer 

^ See note on p. 104. 



1901.] SOME ARCTIC NEMEETEANS. 93 

between the circular and longitudinal layers. The last layer is not 
very strongly developed. 

On either side of the animal, and lying partly in the longitudinal 
muscle-layer, partly in the gelatinous connective tissue within the 
body oi" the animal, is a well-marked layer of giand-cells (Plate VII. 
fig. 11, gll.). This layer stretches back to the intestinal region. 
Their secretion does not stain with borax-carmine, picric acid, or 
nigrosin, but takes an intense pui'ple hue with thionin. The glands 
pierce the circular muscle-layers and the basement-membrane to 
open to the exterior. They are really the backward extensions of 
the enormously developed head-glands, which in the snout-region 
comprise the bulk of the tissue lying within the basement- 
membrane. A similar arrangement is found in the genera 
Prosadenoporus^ 2in.^ Eunemei^tes' (some species), and also in one 
other species of Ampliiponis, viz. A. carinelloides ^. In the last- 
named species the backward extent of these glands is not so great 
as in A. paulinus. 

The vascular system is of the normal Amphiporid type. The 
median dorsal vessel is formed by both branches of the head loop. 
The vessels are small throughout. 

The blind gut does not reach nearly to the brain. Its anterior 
limit is halfway between its point of origin and the tip of the 
snout. 

The proboscis-sheath does not extend to the end of the body, 
being wanting in the posterior ^th. 

The proboscis is about | of the total body length. It is found 
coiled in the anterior 5 of the rhynchoccelom. Behind this the 
proboscis-sheath becomes much smaller. The proboscis contains 
1.5 nerves. Its epithelium is raised into numerous large papillae. 
The armature consists of a central stylet and two pockets each 
containing 4 reserve stylets. The stylet and base are of the 
same length, viz. 130 /x. 

The excretory system commences shortly after the brain. The 
tubules lie round the lateral nerve-cords, and are numerous and 
fairly large (Plate VII. fig. 11, ext.). There is a single duct on 
either side situated at the junction of the anterior 5 with the 
rest of the system. The backward extent of the tubules is greater 
than in A. thompsoni (Plate VII. fig. 8), and considerably greater 
than in A. arcticus (Plate VII. fig. 9). 

The brain is fairly well developed. The ventral commissure is 
very short and straight ; the dorsal fine and curved. The median 
dorsal nerve is very small. The side stems form a strong supra- 
anal commissure. 

The cerebral organs lie just in front of the brain. They are 
small, and the greater part of their bulk consists of gland-cells. 

The head-furrows are small, not encircling more than half the 

^ Biirger, O. : " Untersuchungen iiber die Anatomie und Histologie der 
Nemertinen, u.s.w.," Zeit. f. wiss. Zool. 1890 (p. 30). 

^ Burger, O. : Naples Monograph, The Nemertines, 1895 (p. 126). 
^ Burger, O. : ibid. (p. 559). 



94 MR. R. c. PFNNETT OUT [May 21, 

circumference of the head. The openings of the cerebral organ 
are ventro-lateral and rather in front of the organ. 
Numerous eyes are present. 

Amphipoetjs aectious, n. sp. (Plate VII. fig. 9.) 

A single specimen from Davis Strait. Length 28 mm. and 
greatest breadth 3-5 mm. The anterior end is slightly blunted ; 
the posterior end tapers to a point. Colour a uniform pale buff 
in preserved specimen. There is a weU-marked groove round the 
head. 

The epithelium is about 70-80 mm. high, and contains a number 
of small oval glandular concretions M'hich take a brilliant yellow 
stain with picric acid. The basement-membrane is about half the 
thickness of the epithelium in the oesophageal region. The circular 
muscle-layer is well developed, its thickness being about the same 
as that of the basement-membrane. The longitudinal muscle- 
layer is also well developed. 

The vascular system is of the normal Amphiporid type. The 
limbs of the cephalic loop lie closely apposed to the cerebral organ 
in the region where this is present. 

The alimentary canal is more complicated than the usual 
arrangement in the genus. It closely resembles that figured by 
Joubin for A. marmomtus \ The ventral unpaired diverticulum, 
however, is longer than in this last species, extending past the 
median portion of the true blind gut. The blind-gut pockets do 
not reach forward as far as the brain. 

The rhynchocoelom extends throughout the whole length of the 
animal, being spacious even in its hinder portion. It reaches 
backwards over the hind nerve commissure, a condition which is 
apparently of rare occurrence according to Montgomery -. 

The proboscis is large and contains only 10 nerves. The arma- 
ture has unfortunately been dissolved out. 

The excretory system extends forward past the brain to the 
anterior level of the cerebral organ (Plate VII. fig. 9). The 
backward extent of the tubules is, however, short. The excretory 
duct is found on either side at the junction of the hindermost ^ 
of the system with the rest. 

The genital sacs, which contain ova, are large and alternate 
fairly regularly with the intestinal diverticula, a somewhat unusual 
condition in the genus. They open just dorsally to the nervous 
side-stems. 

The brain is well developed. 

The cei'ebral organ is small and is situated just in front of the 
brain (Plate VII. fig. 9, corg.). Its greatest size in transverse 
section is 150 fx in breadth and 200 fi in depth. 

Numerous eyes are present. 

The head-glands are well marked and extend backwards, though 

1 Joubin, L. : Archiv. Zool. Exp. et Gen. 1890, p. 564. 

^ Montgomery, T. H. : Zoolog. Jabrb., Abt. Syst. 1897, p. 4. 



1901.] SOilE AECTIC NEMERTEANS, 95 

they are sometimes scantier here, to the side of the cerebral organs, 
where many of them open. 

AMPHrPORTJS LBUCIODUS. 

Eef. Goe, W. E. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sc. 1901. 

To this species 1 have referred several small white Nemerteans 
labelled from " Copper Island '97." The largest specimen measured 
not more than 18 x 1"5 mm. They agree as regards their anatomy 
fairly closely with Coe's description. Owing, however, to the 
circumstance of their having been preserved in formalin the pro- 
boscis armatm^e is not present. For this reason it is impossible 
to be absolutely certain that these specimens belong to the species 
to which I have referred them. The excretory ducts are numerous, 
being about 10-12 in number on either side. The posterior ones, 
however, have not the dorsal position described by Coe (Joe. cit. 
p. 53) for his specimens. There are 12 nerves present in the 
proboscis. In his account of A. leuciodus this feature is omitted 
by Coe. All the specimens collected by Prof. D'Arcy Thompson 
were immature. 

Deepakophoeus boeealis, n. sp. (Plate VI. figs. 4, 5, 7; 
Plate VII. figs. 13-17 ; and test-figs. 2, p. 97, and 3, p. 98.) 

Several specimens obtained from Davis Strait. Even making 
allowance for the contracted state of the specimens, this is an 
extremely broad form compared with its length. The following 
are the dimensions in millimetres found in two entire specimens : 

Length. Ereadth. Depth. 

(1) 58 16 4 

(2) 35 10 3-5 

Prom this it -s^dll be seen that after preservation the breadth is 
more than a quarter of the depth, making this the relatively 
broadest Nemertean, with the possible exceptions of Pelagonemertes, 
Nectonemertes, and Malacobdella. 

Both anterior and posterior ends are somewhat blunted. The 
colour and markings are characteristic. The dorsal surface is dark 
reddish brown. Towards the tip of the head the colour is deep- 
ened and there is a white band on either side, extending nearlj^ to 
the mid-dorsal line (Plate VI. fig. 7) and marking the position of 
the head-furrows. The lateral margins of the dorsal surface, and 
the whole of the ventral surface, are nearly white. It is some- 
what remarkable that the coloration and markings should so 
closely resemble those of A. thompsoni, a representative of another 
genus from a neighbouring region. 

The epithelium is high and almost devoid of gland-cells. It 
rests upon a strong basement-membrane which is considerably 
thicker than the circular muscle-layer (Plate VI. fig. 5). The 
relative thickness of the vaiious body-layers is best seen in the 



96 MR. K. c. PUNNETT ON [May 21, 

following table, whicli refers to the ventral surface in the middle 
of the body : — j^ 

Epithelium 110 fi 

Basement-membrane 75 yu 

Circular muscle 2>5 jx 

Longitudinal muscle ] 85 // 

The epithelium is relatively somewhat higher dorsally. The 
basement-membrane is considerably thinner below the epithelium 
of the head-furrow. Powerful dorso-ventral muscles occur 
throughout the body behind the brain. 

The vascular system shows the ordinary arrangement, such as 
has been figured by Oudemans^ for B. sjjectabilis {=ruhrostriatus). 
The alimentary canal offers no points of special interest. There 
is a short well-marked proctodseum lined by comparatively low 
epithelium. The first pair of blind-gut pouches reach forwards 
and lie against the hinder portion of the cerebral organ. 

The proboscis- sheath exhibits the peculiar basket-work arrange- 
ment of the circular and longitudinal muscle-fibres characteristic 
of the genus. It possesses also the peculiar diverticula. In this 
species they are slender with a fine layer of muscle-fibres, and the 
whole surrounded by a layer of parenchyma-cells (Plate VI. fig. 
4, rcl). The 1st two diverticula unite with one another anteriorly 
(cf. D. lankesteri Hubrecht, Challenger Eeports, vol. ix. p. 106). 
They form an irregular network which extends anteriorly over the 
brain and here gives off a number of large expansions (Plate VI. 
fig. 4, rde) whose wall consists only of the rhynchocoelomic epi- 
thelium — the muscular and parenchymatous layers disappearing. 
Consequently in the cerebral region we meet with 4 distinct sets 
of cavities lying in the gelatinous connective tissue, viz. : 

(1) Blood-vessels. 

(2) Excretory tubules. 

(3) Ehynchocoelomic diverticula and their expansions. 

(4) Irregular spaces in the connective tissue (Plate VI. 

fig. 4, cts.). 

The proboscis is well developed and of about the same length 
as the body. Its epithelium is raised up into large papillae, and 
through the extremely thick basement-membrane, upon which they 
rest, may be traced strong nerves entering their bases. The pro- 
boscis contains 14 nerves and is attached near the end of the body 
to the ventral wall of the proboscis-sheath. 

The excretory system reaches forward to the cerebral organ, 
and backward some way along the posterior division of the 
oesophagus (" Magendarm ")■ The duct is situated at the level of 
the hind end of the cerebral organ. The tubules lie closely round 
the lateral nerve-cords. 

The gonads are large and arranged in three rows either side, which 
all open on the dorsal surface. They take the form of elongated 
^ Loc. cit. pi. i. fig. 7. 



1901.] 



SOME ARCTIC NEMERTEANS. 



9; 



tapering sacs, the widest portion of which is near the ducts (Plate 
VI. fig. 5). A most interesting feature is that they show ova at 
all the various stages of development. These are referred to in 
more detail on p. 104. The brain is well developed. In shape 



Text-flo-. 2. 




Brepanophoncs borecdis. Section through the commissural region of the brain, 
showing the opening of the cerebral organ, x 30. 

hm.., basement-membrane ; cc, ciliated canal of cerebi-al organ ; cl., cephalic 
vascular loop ; dc, dorsal nervous commissure ; dg., dorsal ganglion ; 
ep., epithelium ; get., gelatinous connective tissue ; mc, circular muscle- 
layer ; ml., longitudinal muscle-layer ; oes., oesophagus ; fs., proboscis- 
sheath ; rd., rhynchocephalic diverticulum ; rcle., expansions of rhyncho- 
coelomic diverticula ; vc, ventral brain- commissure ; vg., ventral ganglia. 

it is considerabty flattened, so that the dorsal ganglion comes to lie 
on the outer side of the ventral, and not above it as is usually the 
case. The ventral commissure is short, straight, and strong ; the 
dorsal thinner and more curved. A single large neurochord-cell 
occurs on either side. It is oval in shape, measuring about 83 /i x 
40 fjL. Its nucleus measures 25 ^ x 18 /i and contains a well-marked 
circular nucleolus 8 ^ in diameter. 

The lateral nerve-cords lie ventrally, and each is situated at the 
same distance from its fellow as it is from the lateral margin of 
the body. They are united by ventral commissures at intervals, 

Peoc'. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. VII. 7 



98 



ME. E. C. PUNJSTETT ON 



[May 21, 



There are no dorsal commissures. There is a well-marked supra- 
anal commissure behind the termination of the proboscis-sheath 
and the dorsal vascular commissure. 

The cerebral organ is large. It begins shortly after the com- 
mencement of the brain, to the outer side of which it lies. It 
extends backwards behind the brain, where it lies dorsally and 
slightly externally to the ventral nerve-cord. It is very large, i. e. 
about half as large again as the dorsal ganghon, and is richly clothed 
with gland-cells, especially on the dorsal surface. The opening of 
the ciliated canal is ventro-lateral, and is situated at the anterior 
end of the organ. The organ is innervated by a single large nerve 
which is given off from the hind end of the dorsal ganglion. 

Text-fig. 3. 



dbv. 




oes...//j 



Drepajw^phorus borealis. Section slightly behind the preceding one, showino- 
the expansions of the rhynchocoelomic diverticula over the cerebral oro-an. 
(The details of the cerebral oi'gan are omitted.) x 30. 

corff., cerebral organ ; cts., spaces in gelatinous connective-tissue ; dbv., median 
dorsal blood-vessel ; ext., excretory tubules. 

Other letters as in text-figure 2. 

Portion marked by * enlarged on PL VI. fig. 4. 

There is a well-marked transverse head-furrow on either side, 
and the two furrows between them surround more than half the 
circumference of the head. 



1901.] SOME ARCTIC NBMERTBANS, 99 

About 4 large eyes are present on each side just in front of the 
brain. They are arranged in an irregular horizontal row. The 
total number of eyes is smaller than in any other member of the 
genus \ D. willeyanus coming next with a total of 1 6. 

EuNEMBKTEs NEESi (CErsted, 1844). 

Nemertes neesi, Mcintosh, 1873-74. 

Eunemertes neesi, Biirger, 1895. 

Fragments of a large specimen from Grreenlaud, amounting to 
35 cm. in length with a breadth of 7 mm. I have compared a 
series of sections from this animal with a similar series from a 
specimen of E. neesi procured at Plymouth. The Greenland speci- 
men is typical both with regard to external colour and form and 
also internal anatomy. 

HETBEONEMERTIlSri. 

Cerebratultjs aREENLAKDicus, u. sp. (Plate VI. figs. 1-3 and 
Plate VII. figs. 10, 12.) 

Portions of two specimens from Grreenlaud and from North Green- 
land (collected by Herr Lohmann). The anterior end was preserved 
in each case. The fragments from Greenland amounted to about 
8 cm. in length and 7 mm. in width. The fragments from N. 
Greenland belonged to a larger specimen and amounted to 44 cm. 
in length and 8 mm. in breadth. The worms were of a pale dirty 
brown hue, all traces of the original coloration having probably 
been extracted by a 10 years' sojourn in alcohol. The head-slits do 
not extend so far as the mouth, which is very evident as a round 
hole. 

The epithelium is faii'ly high and contaius a few unicellular 
glands (Plate VII. fig. 12). It rests upon a fine basement-mem- 
brane, beneath which is the delicate circular muscle-layer of the 
cutis. The connective tissue is fairly well developed in the cutis. 
Its more superficial portion contains small scattered bundles of 
longitudinal muscle-fibres (Plate VII. fig. 12, mlc). Beneath these 
are the cutis-glands, which rest directly upon the outer longitudinal 
muscle-layer of the body-wall. 

In the oesophageal region the outer muscle-layer is about 2| times 
as thick as the circular layer. The last-named layer is of the same 
thickness as the inner longitudinal layer. The three muscle- 
layers preserve approximately the same proportions in the intestinal 
region. There is no well-marked layer of horizontal muscles over 
the mouth. IVo diagonal muscle-layer. 

The vascular system in the head-region presents some slight 
points of divergence from that usually found in the Lineidse. In 
front of the brain there is a single lacuna which is not divided up 
by muscle-strands (Plate VII. fig. 10, da.). It possesses a longi- 
tudinal muscle-coat which, together with the rhynchodeeum, is 

^ Punnett: Willey's Zoological Eesults, pt. v. p. 571. 

7* 



100 MR. E,. c. PUNNETT ON [May 21, 

surrounded by a fine circular muscle-layer. Just in front of the 
brain this lacuna divides into two limbs which almost immediately 
reunite. From this junction is given oflP the median dorsal vessel, 
which at once enters the proboscis-sheath. A little more pos- 
teriorly the main lacuna gives off two large trunks — the lateral 
lacunse, which extend over the cerebral organ and surround its 
hinder portion. Almost immediately after giving off the lateral 
lacunae to the cerebral organ, the median lacuna ends by giving off 
two lateral branches — the buccal lacunse, which at once fuse with 
the lateral lacunse in the region of the cerebral organ. The chief 
points of divergence from the usual arrangement lie in the single 
head-lacuna, and in the short course and large size of the buccal 
lacunse. A similar cephalic lacuna has, so far as I am aware, only 
been described among the Lineidae for L. sanguineus \ 

The backward extent of the rhynchocoelom relative to the body- 
length cannot, owing to the imperfection of the specimen, be 
given. The proboscis is slender, measuring in the smaller indi- 
vidual not more than "75 mm. in cross-section. Its layers are 
arranged in the following order — proboscis epithelium, nervous 
layer, circular muscles, longitudinal muscles, rhynchocoelomic 
epithelium. There are two ill-defined muscle crosses. 

The excretory system is extensive and possesses numerous ducts 
on either side (Plate VII. fig. 10, excl.). Most of these make an 
angle of about 45° with a line joining the nervous side-stems. 
Some open nearer the level of the side-stems, though none open 
more dorsally. The excretory tubules do not extend ventral to 
the level of the nervous side-stems. Many of them project as long 
tufts into the lateral lacunse, which here are easily distinguished 
from the cesophageal lacunse. 

The brain is fairly well developed, the dorsal ganglia being half 
as large again as the ventral. The dorsal commissiTre is very short, 
and the ganglion-cells of the two dorsal ganglia here almost meet 
dorsally over the proboscis-sheath. The dorsal lobe of the dorsal 
ganglion does not reach as far as the commencement of the cerebral 
organ. No neurochord-cells are present. 

The cerebral organ is not large. It lies directly over the side- 
stems (Plate VI. figs. 1, 2, 3). It is rounded in transverse section, 
and is almost completely sheathed in gland-cells. 

The head-slits are deep and end before the level Avhere the 
cerebral organ starts (Plate VII. fig. 10). The head-glands are 
well marked dorsally and ventrally. Before the level of the brain 
they merge into the cutis-glands. 

A small frontal organ of the typical Line id form is present. 
Eyes are absent. 

Synopsis of the Genus Amphiporus. 

By adding new species to the genus Amphiporus this paper raises 
the total of the named species referred to that genus to over 40. 
^ OudemaDS, A, C : loc. cit. p. 45. 



<=0D 



Eel 
leng 

an( 
base 


Number 

af reserve 

stylet- 


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S'^ 



o P 



Ji£ 



PM' 



.£3 iJ .S 53 

;3 (ii_j O CD 



PM'^^Ph 


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C 


j'B 


^ 


.^ ^ 


o 


^ i 


is 






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fl 



'l^ 


a 


rl 


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03 




en 


> 


o 


13 


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0) 










& 


03 


w 


r-; 




'^ 






Ly 


CB 






A II 



^ m I'M § 



• CM 



PH !!-■ PM ■^- 



°-f 


o 




^•Ph ■ 


3 ^ 

43 CD 

o o 

Ph 


organ 

relative 

brain. 


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In fron 



PM Ph 



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i £^ 

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1901.] SOME ARCTIC NEMBRTEANS. 101 

As descriptions of these species are scattered over numerous papers, 
it has seemed worth while to collect them into a list and to give in 
each case a brief diagnosis based upon such characters as have been 
shown to exhibit marked and definite divergences among the various 
species (see Table facing this page). The details necessary for 
forming a complete list are not forthcoming in all the species, and 
the list has in part been made with the idea of drawing to such 
omissions the attention of those who may be able to remedy them. 
In the original description of some species the external appearance 
alone has been chronicled. The names of such species are given 
in a footnote at the bottom of the table. The species have been 
tabulated according to their geographical distribution. In the 
nomenclature of the marine regions the classfication suggested by 
Ortmann ^ has been follovi-ed. The species found in the North 
Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are fairly well known, though 
perhaps the region for which our knowledge is most accurate is 
the North Pacific, owing to the recent publication of a valuable 
paper by Coe ". With the exception of a few South-Georgian 
forms described by Biirger, we have practically no knowledge of 
the genus south of the Equator. Until our knowledge of Southern 
and Tropical forms is somewhat more extensive, it is safest to 
avoid any elaborate discussion on the aifinities of the groups of 
species inhabiting the various regions. A few points, however, 
call for short notice. Numerous collections of Nemerteans have 
now been worked out from the tropics — more particularly from 
the Indian Ocean. A feature of such collections is the almost 
total absence of species of Amphiporus. As nearly all the species 
of the genus are of fair size, often very plentiful, and readily 
found where they occur, it would appear that they are relatively 
scarce in the tropics, where their place is taken by the genera 
Drepanophorus and Prosadenoporus. Whether the genus is well 
represented or not in the South, it is not yet possible to say. The 
few Antarctic species worked out by Biirger are interesting when 
compared with those from other regions. A careful examination 
of the table will bring out the fact, that whilst the species of 
Ampliiporus inhalDiting the Arctic circumpolar, the Atlantic boreal, 
and the Mediterranean respectively, show as groups considerable 
amount of resemblance, they differ as much from the Pacific 
boreal forms as these do from the Antarctic forms. In fact it 
might be said that the Pacific boreal forms are more closely allied 
to the Antarctic forms than to the North-Atlantic forms. In the 
Pacific boreal and Antarctic forms, as compared with the rest, the 
cerebral organ is more often in front of the brain, the average 
number of proboscis-nerves is a great deal higher (about 20 7o): 
the number of reserve stylet-pockets is much more frequently 
greater than two, and lastly there is a greater tendency for tlie 
central stylet to be shorter than its base. That there should be 

^ Ortmann, A. E. : ' Grundziige der marinen Tiergeograpbie,' Jena, 1896. 
- Coe, W. R. : " Papers from the Harriman Alaska Expedition : The Nemer- 
teans," Proc. Wash. Acad. Sc. 1901. 



Pnoc. Zo«L. Soc.— 1901, Vol. II.j 



iTofm-i 11. 101. 











Foaition of 
cerebral 


., , Position of 
.Number i3tblind- 




Number 


Kelatire , 
lengths of 
stylet (S) 

and its . 
base(B). 














or^n 

relflUve to 

bmin. 


"'V'^ gnt pockets 
l"*™- relaUreto 
nerves. , (jrajp^ 


Eyes. 


of reserve 
stylet- 
pockets. 


Pecnliar features. 














SIcI. 


















/ //. puIcAfT 


Behind. 


14 1 Not to br. 

■ P. 


Many. 


2 


S>B 
Mel. 


0. 
















A. /aciijtoreus 


In front. 


U 1 To br. 


Many. 


2 


S=B 


Many excretory ducts. 












P 


P.; p. 


P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 








I. Arctic 
Circuiiipolnr. 


A. nrciicuB 


In front. 


10 


Not to br. 


Many. 


? 


? 


(Esophagus with dorsal and 
ventral unpaire<l diverticula. 


















P. 


p. 


P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 










//. fhompsoni 


In front. 


10-18 


Not to br. 


Many. 


2 


S>B 


Vnsenhu* network in o:?sopha- 
























geal region. 










' A. puhhi-T 






(See 


above) 
















A. marmorafits ... 


licsidc. 


10 


Not to br. 


JIany. 


2 


S=B 


a. 

(Esoplnigns with dorsJil and 
ventral impaired diverticula. 










A. lactijlorcus ... 






(See 


above) 




McI. 












A. hioculeUus 


? 


? 


? 


2 


2 


Mol. 










II. Atlnntic 










Mol. 


Mel. 


O. 






i 




A. hastaius 


? 


? 


? 


Many. 


•1 


S=| 


Uoplialio vascular lacuuiu in- 
stead of loop. 












t^ 






R. 






R. 














A. dissimiilam ... 


In front. 






Many. 












p 






M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 








o 




A. firccnnmni 


Beside. 


U 


To brain. 


Few. 


2 


S=B 








-»1 






M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 








-^ 




L A. f/hifi)io.vis 


Beside. 


11 


To brain. 


Fe-,v. 


2 


S>B 














P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 


P. 










A. iKudhucs 


In front. 


15 


Not to br. 


Many. 


2 


S = B 


Kead-glands reach to intes- 
tine. 












C, 


C. 


C. 


0. 


C. 


C. 


0. 










A. aiujidotus 


In front. 


17-20 


To brain, 


Many. 


2 


S = B 


Occasionally more than one 
pair of excretory ducts. 












C. 


C. 


C. 


0. 


0. 


C. 












A. himarulaius ... 


Beside. 


Hi 


To brain. 


Many. 


4 


S = 2B 










III. Pnciflc 




0. 




C. 


0. 


0. 


C. 










boroiil. 


A.li</rmu.. 


In front. 


? 


Not to br. 


Many. 


2 














C. 


c. 


C. 


0. 


C. 


" C. 


0. 










yi. '/n-bulosus 


In front. 


17 


To brain. 


Many. 


2 


S = B 


Lateral glands in oesopliagcal 












C. 




C. 


0. 


C. 


C. 


C. 










A. Icuciodus 


In fj-ont. 


? 


To brain. 


Many. 


3 


S<:B 


Many excretory ducts. 












C. 




C. 


0. 


0. 


0. 


C. 










A.crUi^ 


In front. 


? 


To brain. 


Many. 


G-l-J 


S<B 


Many excretory ducts opening 






















dorsally. 








I. Iiulo-Pucine. 


A. anihohicitiiU ... 
' A. puldwr 


Beside. 


? 


Not to br. 
(See 


? 
above) 


y 


? 


Diagonal nuiscle-laycr. 

10 proboscis-nerves. S=B. 

Opening of cerebral oi'gan in 










A. rcticulnfiis 


Boiiind. 


i'o 


? 


Many. 


2 


S=B 
























front of brain. 










A. fflaiidulo.-iics ... 
A, sttiHuittsi 


Behind. 
Behind. 


? 

14- 


To brain. 
Jiot— to-br.— 


12 


2 


S=B 
? 








— g — 










(See 


above) ' 
















A, vivfifttus 


Beside. 


14 


Not to br. 


Many. 




S = B 








s 

M 




A. diibhis 


In front. 


? 


To brain. 


2 


S<B 


Cerebral organ far in front of 
brain. 






II. West Arvicau. 


A. ahjcnsis 


In front. 


? 


? 


Many. 
Many. 




s=? 






1 


(Mcditcn'iinoun.) 


A. oltaaounnatits . 
A. poli/ommttttts... 


In iront. 




Over br. 


2 


?" 








s 




In front. 


■/ 


To brain. 


Many. 


2 


? 








g 




A. hctijloreiis 






(See 


above) 












6 




A. cariiicUoidcs ... 


In front. 


i'i 


To brain. 


None. 


2 


? 


Well developed subepithelial 






M 


















glands in front of brain. 








A. langUcgemimis . 


In front. 


12 


Not to br. 


None. 


2 


S=J 












A. validissimvs ... 


In front. 


? 


To brain. 


Many. 


3 


S = B 












A. /msfatits 

A. pui/na.v 






(See 


above) 
















? 




y 






? 










(G«me>,.) 


A. duhitts 

A. spitiostis 


In front. 


18 


(tec 
Not to br. 


above) 
None. 


8 


S-=rB 








B g 








o g 3 




A. spimtsissimus . 


In front. 


16 


Not to br. 


None. 


11-12 


S<;B 








4« 




A. crm-iittus 


In front. 


IG 


Not to br. 


None. 


3 


? 







Tlio letters occurring in the table above each statement denote the authors on whoso authority the facts are given. 0. = Coe, 
J.=Joubin, M.=Montgomery, MeI.=MeIntosh, 0. = Oudemans, P. = Punnett, R. = Riche3. Where no letter occurs the state- 
ment concerned is due to Biirger. The following species have been made by Verrill (Trans. Connecticut Acad. 1892) on 
external features alone— -J. mullisoriis, heterosoriis, te/rasuriis, ochraceus, frontalis, mesorus, crucntatus, at/ilis. 

Hubreelit also (' Challenger ' Reports, vol. is.) has described two additional species, A. marioni and A. 7mselei/i, but the 
n>orphological details given are insufficient to make it worth while tabulating them. 



1.02 MB. E. c. puNNETT OK [May 21, 

this agreement in the features chiefly relied upon in classification, 
would seem to point to a connection between the Amphiporids of 
these two regions closer than that between those of either of them 
and the Northern Atlantic forms. It is possible that the present 
wave of Antarctic enterprise may bring to light fresh forms which 
may help to settle an interesting point. 

With the affinities of the new species other than Amphiporus 
described in this paper, I hope to deal on some future occasion 
when considering in detail the genus Drepanopliorus and the family 
of the Lineidas, 

Note on the Yascular System of Metanemerteans. 

In the writings of several authors who have treated of this 
group are to be found discrepancies with regard to the somewhat 
important point of the relation of the lateral blood-vessels and 
cephalic loop to the brain and the rhynchodseum. Mcintosh \ in 
his monograph on the British Nemerteans, states that " At the 
ganglionic region the vessels which go to form the cephalic arch 
pass below the commissures {i. e. brain-commissures) and unite in 
front beneath the channel of the snout {i. e. the rhynchodseum) ; " 
and his conception of the arrangement is represented by a dia- 
gram on p. 42 of the same work and by several figures of AmpM- 
porus among the plates. On the other hand, the excellent figure 
representing the anatomy of Tetrastemma candidum (pi. xiv. 
fig. 1) shows the cephalic loop entirely above the rhynchodasum 
and the lateral vessels passing through the nervous ring. This is 
the condition described by Oudemans for the Metanemerteans, and 
arrived at after studying nine members of various genera by the 
method of serial sections. Oudemans ^ finds " in the head two 
vessels which communicate in front, forming a vascular loop above 
the proboscidian sheath (=rhynchod8eum). These vessels also 
communicate within the cerebral ring, but now beneath it (i. e. the 
rhynchodseum)." I have been unable to find any specific state- 
ments for the Metanemerteans with regard to these points in 
Biirger's monograph. In a previous paper ^, however, he mentions 
that " Die Seitengefasse vereinigt in der Kopfspitze vor dem 
Gehirn liber dem Ehynchodseum eine geraumige Kopfschlinge," 
though here again he does not distinctly state whether the two 
vessels are surrounded by the nervous ganglionic ring or pass 
beneath it. Moreover, his figures are at variance with regard to 
the last point. In his Naples monograph, Biirger distinctly 
represents the cephalic vessels of Tetrastemma coronatum (pi. ix. 
fig. 7) and of Amphiporus virgatus (pi. vii. fig. 16) as passing 
beneath the ventral commissure of the brain ; whilst in another 
place (pi. xvi. fig. 16) he figures a section of the last-named 
species showing these vessels lying ujpon the ventral brain-com- 

^ Loo. cit. p. 80. 
^ Loc. cit. p. 58. 
3 Zeitsch. flu- wiss. Zool. 50 Bd. 1890, p. 204. 



1901.] 



SOME ARCTIC NBMBRTEAKS. 



103 



missure, within the nervous ring. This last arrangement, which 
I take to be the true one, is also shown by Biirger in section for 
other Metanemei'teans, viz., for Eunemertes marioni (pi. xv. 
fig. 10), for Drepanoplwrus cdholineatus (pi. xvii. fig. 2), for 
Tetrastemma cruciatum (pi. xviii. fig. 6), and for Ototyj>hlone- 
mertes duplex (pi. xviii. fig. 17). On pi. xviii. fig. 3, however, 
Biirger figures a section through the brain and its commissures 
in Mcdacohdella grossa, where the lateral vessels are shown 
lying entirely outside the nervous ring. In a series of sections 
made through a specimen of this species, I have been unable 
to confirm this arrangement. In my specimen the cephalic 
loop divided just before the brain, and whilst one branch ran 
along the lateral edge of the body, as in Biirger's figure, the other 
Isbj just over the ventral brain-commissure, and consequently 
within the nervous ring. The vessels lying outside the nervous 
ring are probably to be regarded as secondary. In many Metane- 
merteans (esp. AmpJiiporus and Drepanopliorus') the cephalic and 



Text-figs. 4-6. 
5. 




rCs 


S^ 


dorsal 
■vessel 

lateral 
..-' vessel "--- 


f 



Amphj^iorus, &c. Malacohdella. Malacobdella according 

to Biirger. 

lateral vessels are strongly bent just before entering and just 
after leaving the nervous ring (text-fig. 4). It is probably by the 
confluence of these arches that the outer lateral vessels of Mala- 
cobdella are formed (text-fig. 5). If now we suppose the portion 
of the lateral vessels lying within the nervous ring, anterior to the 
point of origin of the median dorsal vessel, to disappear, we arrive 
at a condition similar to that described ,by Biirger (text-fig. 6). 
Such a condition must, however, be regarded as secondary, and 
derived from the normal Metanemertean type. The conclusion 
then, I think, is justified, that in the Metanemerteans, as in all 
the rest of the phylum, the lateral blood-vessels pass throiigJi the 
nervous ring formed by the brain and its commissures, and that 
the limbs of the cephalic loop unite at the tip of the snout above 
the rhynchodaeum. 

I have laid upon this point partly because of its morphological 
importance, and partly because eiToneous statements on this head 
tend to become perpetuated in text-books. Thus in the ' Cambridge 
Natural History,' vol. ii. p. 106, Miss Sheldon gives a diagram in 



104 MB. E. c. PFNNETT Ojst [May 21, 

which the relations of the vascular system on both these points • 
are entirely wrong. At the same time the accoant given in the 
text is erroneous. 

Note on a Secondary Sexual Character in a Nemertean. 

Hitherto no instance of an anatomical difference between the 
sexes of any species of JN^emerfcean has been observed. Occasion- 
ally during the breeding-season the male may be distinguished by 
its colour from the female, but such differences are always directly 
due to the hue of the gonads themselves. It has already been 
mentioned (p. 92) that the number of proboscis-nerves in 
A. tliomjpsoni is subject to considerable variation. Fourteen speci- 
mens taken at random were sectioned, and the number of their 
proboscis-nerves and their sex noted. From the subjoined table 
it will be seen that the sexes are in almost equal proportions. 
All were collected together from the same locality, all were of 
about the same size, and all were sexually mature. 

No. of proboscis-nerves 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

2 1 — 6 ______ 

6 __4----2 2 

Erom this it would appear that whilst the female has 12 
nerves or less in the proboscis, the male has either 12 or else a 
much greater number, i.e. 17 or 18, though this proboscis itself 
was in all cases of about the same size. If a considerably greater 
number could be examined with regard to these points, it is not 
improbable that we should obtain for the male a bimodal curve, 
such as has been described by Bateson and Brindley ^ in the case 
of certain earwigs and beetles. It is interesting to notice that we 
have here a case of sexual dimorphism where the organ affected is, 
so far as we know, in no way concerned with sexual functions. 
That the proboscis has nothing to do with copulation may be 
gathered from Mcintosh's '^ interesting account of the deposition 
of the ova and spermatozoa in an allied form — Eunemertes gracilis, 
where the individuals of either sex did not approach within three 
inches of one another, and fertilization took place in the surround- 
sea-water. Into the possible raison cSetre of such a phenomenon 
as this it seems at present useless to enquire. It is sufficient 
here to draw to such facts the attention of those who propound 
theories concerning secondary sexual characters. 

Develojiment of the Ovum in Drepanophorus borealis. 

That the ovary of Drepanophorus borealis contains eggs in 
various stages has already been seen (p. 97). Throughout the 
greater portion of the intestinal region the ovaries are large and 
usually contain one almost or quite ripe ovum, and a number of 

1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1892, p. 588. 
^ Loc. cit. p. 89. 



1901.] SOME ARCTIC NEMEBTEANS. 105 

othei's in stages fairly well advanced (Plate VI. fig. 5). Towards 
the hind end of the body, however, earlier stages in the formation 
of the ovary may be found. At certain spots within the copious 
gelatinous connective tissue surrounding the intestine may be seen 
a very young ovum (Plate VII. fig. 13), around which a space is 
commencing to appear. The connective-tissue nuclei around this 
space are somewhat more plentiful than in other parts. The 
ovum at this stage is surrounded by a small amount of yolk- 
material, though whether this represents its own protoplasm or 
has been derived from other cells which apply themselves to it, I 
am unable for certain to say. At a somewhat later stage the 
cavity in the connective tissue has become larger, with a more 
definite outline, whilst at the same time the ovum has increased 
in size and is seen to be surrounded by cells (Plate VII. fig. i4) 
composed mainly of yolk-material. In some of these cells is to 
be found a well-marked nucleus and a nucleolus of similar staining 
reactions to those of the ovum itself. In others the large nucleolus 
alone can be recognized, whilst in others again all traces of both 
nucleus and nucleolus have disappeared. It seems reasonable to 
suppose that these cells are in reality primitive ova which apply 
themselves to the functional ovum and become converted into yolk- 
material around it. The ovum now increases greatly in size, and 
the ovarian cavity becomes lined with a flattened epithelium 
derived from the cells of the gelatinous connective tissue. This 
epithelium may be traced passing over and covering the ovum 
(vide some of sioallest ova in Plate VI. fig. 5), where it gives rise 
to a peculiar coat of follicle-cells. The follicular layer takes the 
form of a layer of irregular-shaped cells, with branched processes 
on the outer side, forming delicate strands connecting the ovum 
with the adjacent ovarian wall or other follicle-cells, whilst on the 
inner side are more regular processes like little waterspouts pro- 
jecting through the delicate limiting membrane of the ovum into 
the sea of yolk beneath (Plate VII. figs. 15 & 16). As the 
ovum nears the ripe condition it becomes coated with a shell-like 
structure. On the ventral surface of the ovum (^. e. on the surface 
furthest from the dorsal opening of the ovary) the follicular layer 
degenerates into an undulating homogeneous deeply staining 
covering to the ovum (Plate VII. fig. 15). At the same time the 
surface of the ovum in this region takes on a similar appearance. 
This process gradually spreads round the ovum. Between the 
two layers are small spaces which subsequently disappear, though 
the two layers can still be recognized by the fact that the outer 
takes on a far deeper stain, owing probably to its containing more 
chromatin derived from the nuclei of the follicle-cells (Plate VII. 
fig. 17). The outer egg-covering is undoubtedly derived from the 
follicle-cells ; the inner layer is formed within the fine limiting 
membrane of the ovum, though the material which composes it 
has probably been derived also from the follicle-cells. The largest 
ova observed were irregularly oval in shape, measuring about 
700 X 420 {x. 



106 



ON SOME ARCTIC NEMBRTBANS. 



[May 21, 



The foregoing account differs in several points from that given 
by Burger ^ for two other species of the genus, viz. D. crassus and 
D. cerinus. In the former species, whilst the ova are still quite 
small, an oval deeply staining body is found lying in close proximity 
to each of them. These subsequently increase in number, surround 
the ovum, and later become metamorphosed into yolk. At a 
later stage, when the ova are already of considerable size, there is 
developed around them a delicate follicular tissue like a network, 
in the meshes of which the ova then lie. What the nature of the 
coverings of the ova are, and whether the follicular epithelium 
plays any part in their formation, Biirger does not state. 

The process which occurs in D. horealis throws some light upon 
tlie peculiar nuclear-like little bodies which give rise to the yolk 
in D. crassus, and which have also been found by Hubrecht" in 
Amphiporus marioni. They are probably to be regarded as 
primitive ova in which the nucleolus has greatly increased in size 
at the expense of the rest of the cell, and it seems plausible to 
regard the enormous development of the nucleolus at the expense 
of the rest of such primitive ova as a stage in their conversion 
into yolk. The peculiar behaviour of the follicle-cells in D. horealis 
is probably correlated with the relatively great size attained by 
the ova in this species. Whilst in D. crassus the nearly ripe ova 
measure 144 ju x 100 jw,, in D. ho^-ealis thev attain the dimensions 
of 700/ix420/x. 

Gatty Marine Laboratory, 
St. Andrews, N.B. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Lettering in both Plates. 



bm., basement-membrane. 
cc, ciliated canal of cerebral 

oi'gan. 
cl., cephalic vascular loop. 
da., cephalic lacuna. 
coTff., cerebral organ. 
cts., spaces in gelatinous connective 

tissue. 
dbv., median dorsal blood-vessel. 
dc, dorsal nervous commissure. 
dg., dorsal ganglion. 
ep., epithelium. 
exd., excretory duct. 
ext., excretory tubules. 
fr., frontal organ. 
get., gelatinous connective tissue. 
glcorg., glands of cerebral organ. 
gll., lateral glands. 
gs., gonidial sac. 



hs., head-slit. 
Ibv., lateral blood-vessel. 
II., lateral blood-lac ana. 
m., mouth. 

■mc., circular muscle-layer. 
mcc., circular muscle-layer of cutis. 
ml., longitudinal muscle-layer. 
mlc., longitudinal muscle-layer of 

cutis. 
mlo., outer longitudinal muscle- 
layer. 
(US., oesophagus. 
ps., proboscis-sheath. 
rd., rhynchocoelomic diverticulum. 
rde., expansioiis of rhynchocoelomic 
diverticula. 
ss., nervous side-stem. 
vc, ventral brain commissure. 
vg., ventral ganglion. 



» marks point vrhere the median blood-vessel leaves the proboscis-sheath. 



1 Zeitsch. fiir wiss. Zool. 50 Bd. 1890, p. 243, and pi. x. 
^ ' Challenger ' Reports, vol. ix. (the Nemertea) p. 120. 



p. z . s. 1901, -^oiiiPi.vin. 







«%Vk '-«k. 



.-^ ^' 




^ E 




M P.Parker llth. 



JVNATOMY OF COGI_A. 



Ps-rksv ii "West imp. 



p. Z. S. 1901, -v-olJI.Pl.IX. 








,4''"^^/1p^ 



M.P.PaAei-latV.. 



Fa-Tker & "West imp. 



ji^lSTATOMY OF COGIA. 



p. Z. S. 1901, -7-ol.II.Pl.X. 




MP Parker Titk. 



Parker & "West imp. 



j^intatomy of cqgia.. 



p. Z. S. 1901, •^^ol.3I.Pl.XI 





MP Parker lith. 






-Cxt. 

V.Ac 
A Er 




-Bph. 



Packer &'West imp. 



AlsTATOMY OF COGIA.. 



1901.] ON THE ANATOMY OF COGTA BEETICEPS. 107 

Plate VI. 

Figs. 1, 2, & 3. Cerebratulus greenlandiciis (p. 99). Sections through cerebral 
organ and neighbouring parts, taken at intervale of about 50 p. X 45. 

Fig. 4. I)repano2)horus borealis (p. 95). Section through i-hynchocoelomic diver- 
ticulum at the point where it gives off an expansion. Enlarged view 
of * in text-fig. 3, p. 98. X 85. 

The minute structure of the cerebral organ is not shown. 

5. B. borealis. Section through a gonad. X 45. 

6. Amphiporus thompsoni (p. 97). Dorsal view of anterior end. X f . 

7. B. borealis. Dorsal view of anterior end. X 1. 

Plate VII. 

Fig. 8. Ajnphiporus thompsoni. Schematic reconstruction of anterior end, 
showing the relations of the various systems. The alimentary canal, 
proboscis, and its sheath are omitted. The vascular system is more 
arched than shown here (c/. text-fig. 1, p. 91). X 10. 
9. A. arcticus (p. 94). Similar to fig. 8. X 10. 

10. Cerebratulus greenlandiciis. Similar to fig. 8. X 5. 

11. A. paiclinus. Transverse section through oesophagus, just before the 

first appearance of the blind gut. X 45. 

12. C. greenlandieiis. Section through skin of oesophageal region. X 85. 

13. B. borealis. Very young stage of ovum. X 410. 

14. B. borealis. Slightly later stage than fig. 13. The functional ovum 

has become surrounded by several primitive ova, in one of which the 
nucleus and its contained nucleolus are seen, whilst in others the large 
nucleolus alone can be made out as a deeply staining body. X 410. 

15. B. borealis. Older ovum, in which the greater part is surrounded by 

waterspout follicle-cells. At the lower pole the follicle-cells and the 
outer surface of the ovum are forming the egg-coverings. X 85. 

16. B. borealis. Enlarged view of a few follicle-cells from the ovum shown 

in preceding figure. X 410. 

17. B. borealis. Portion of the outer wall of a nearly ripe ovum, showing 

the two coverings of the egg enclosing the yolk {y). X 410. 



3. On the Anatomy of Cogia breviceps. By W, Blaxland 
Benham, M.A., D.Sc, F.Z.S., Professor of Biology in 
the University of Otago, New Zealand. 

[Eeceived April 30, 1901.] 

(Plates VIII.-XI. ') 

(Text-figures 7 & 8.) 

At the end of August, 1900, 1 received information that a "young 
Sperm- Whale " had come ashore at Parakanui, a spot about 
12 miles north-east of Dunediu. Next morning, accompanied by 
the museum taxidermist, I went down by train to the spot, where 
I ascertained that the whale had been thrown ashore just a week 
previously. We found the carcase at about high-water mark, 
nearly entirely covered by sand, which had preserved the animal 
from decomposition, so that the carcase did not present the 
unpleasant odou.r usual to deceased whales. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, the animal had been much cut about ; but I at once saw that 

^ For explanation of the Plates, see p. 132. 



108 PRor. w. B. BBisrHAM ON THE [May 2l, 

it was not a " young Sperm- Whale," but a full-grown " Small 
Cachalot," or Cogia hrevicejys. The head had been most skilfully 
disarticulated from the cervical vertebrae, and remained close to 
the body ; the lower jaw had been cut away and was missing. I 
found, later, that it was in the possession of an old whaler, who 
intended to keep it as a curio, but who parted with it for a small 
consideration. 

The " flukes," too, had been cat off and carried away by the 
finder of the whale ; while much of the flesh of the head and trunk, 
including the dorsal fin, had also been removed for the purpose of 
extracting the oil. I subsequently obtained the flukes, but the 
damage done to the carcase prevented me making any observations 
of value on the contour of the body or its coloration, or accurate 
measurements. This is the more to be regretted, as I gather from 
Flower and Lydekker's ' Mammals ' that some uncertainties exist 
as to these matters. 

The abdominal wall had been cut through and the viscera were 
scattered about on the sand near the body ; the thorax, also, had 
been opened and the lungs and heart abstracted. 

Thus I obtained the entire skeleton, which together with some 
of the viscera were packed in barrels and taken to Dunedin. At 
the time I was unaware of the rarity of Cogia, otherwise I should 
have taken care to preserve all the viscera, and to have taken 
fuller measurements, even though these would have been imperfect. 
The only organs that I removed for study were the larynx, 
stomach, and penis, while the narial canals remained adherent to 
the skull. 

An account of the larynx I have already presented to the 
Society, it agrees closely with that of other Odontocetes. The 
present contribution deals with the remaining organs. 

I, External Features. 

The general form of the body of Cogia has been described and 
figured by Owen [7] for specimens from India, and Von Haast [2] 
gave an account of a specimen from New Zealand seas. These 
are the only accounts accessible to me. 

The dorsal surface of the Parakanui specimen was black ; the 
under surface dirty white with a tinge of yellow in it, especially 
noticeable on the under surface of the pectoral fin. Von Haast 
says the " belly is greyish white"; Owen states (from Eliott's 
MS.) that the lower surface was " pinkish." Possibly these varia- 
tions from pure white — which is usual in the Cetacea — -are due to 
postmortem changes. In a young Eorqual that reached me in a 
perfectly fresh condition early in August, within 48 hours after 
its death, the belly was pure snow-white, but after exposure to 
the air for a couple of days the white took on a bluish tinge. 

The total length of this specimen of Cogia, which is a full- 
grown male, was 8 feet 9 inches, measured in a straight line from 
the tip of the snout to the bottom of the notch in the flukes. 



1901.] AN ATOMY OF COGIA BEEVICEPS. 109 

This total is obtained by adding together the measurements of the 
separated head (1 ft. 4 in.), trunk (5 ft. 10 in.), and tail (1 ft. 
7 in.) ; it is, therefore, liable to a small error owing to shrinkage 
of the flesh, and to the fact that the tape would follow slightly 
different lines and curves in the three separate pieces, instead of 
one line ; but the error cannot be greater than an inch or two 
one way or the other. 

At any rate this specimen is considerably longer than the female 
described by Von Haast, which was 7 ft. 2 in. long, and much 
longer than Owen's Indian male, which was only 6 ft. 8 in. 
Plower and Lydekker state that the adult may attain a length of 
10 feet, and the head is about one-sixth of the length of the body ; 
from the above it is seen that the head is contained in the total 
length 6| times, or in body alone 5| times. 

This was the only measurement I took, for naturally the cir- 
cumference &c. could not be measured with anything approaching 
accuracy. 

The pectoral fin measured 14 inches in a straight line from base 
to tip, or 15 inches along the curved anterior margin ; it was 
5 inches across the oblique base of attachment, 5| across the 
widest part. 

The shape of the fin does not differ much from that usual in 
the Cetacea ; its anterior margin is slightly conves ; its posterior 
margin is angulate, the rounded angle being enclosed by a short 
proximal limb of 4 inches, and a longer distal limb of 8 inches, 
which is slightly excavated. 

The colour of the fin was very dark grey on the upper surface 
— probably black in life ; for in the young Eorqual the jet-black 
of the fresh animal gave place to a dark grey after exposure to air 
for a few days. The under surface of the flipper was yellowish 
white ; but the dark tint of the upper surface passes round the 
margin and comes on to the lower surface, so that there is a narrow 
black margin nearly all the Avay round. 

The '■^JluJces" measured 2 ft. 3 in. from tip to tip ; the notch 
was 5| in. deep, i. e. from a line joining the tips ; and the distance 
from the base of origin of the flukes across the lobe, parallel to 
the long axis of the body, is 12 inches ; the flukes are black below. 

II. The Nasal Passages. 

The top of the head had suffered like the other parts of the 
body, and much of the flesh anterior to the blowhole had been cut 
away. There is but a single blowhole as in other Odontocetes ; 
it is not median in position nor symmetrical in shape. 

It is a crescentic slit, situated just to the left of the median 
line, W'ith the horns of the crescent directed backwards and slightly 
towards the middle line (PI. VIII. fig. 1), so that its concavity is 
backwards \ 

^ In the Porpoise, Grampus, and others, the blowhole, situated on the right 
side of the top of the head, has its concaTity forwards. In 'Physeter it is on 
the left side, slightly sigmoid and near the anterior end of the snout. 



110 PROF. W. B. BENHAM OlS" THE [May 21, 

It is situated about 12 inches from the tip of the snout ; but as 
the measurement was made after the removal of skin and blubber, 
it is probable that the fissure containing the blowhole has shrunk 
backwards a little ; for in Owen's 6-foot specimen the blowhole is 
only 5 inches from the tip of the snout. 

The distance between the horns of the crescent is 2| inches ; the 
inner horn terminates (1| inch) further forwards than the outer. 

The blowhole is the external opening of a " vestibule " into 
which open the two narial canals, of which the right is much the 
smaller. The anterior wall of the opening has a sharply marked 
edge or lip (PI. VIII. fig. 2, a), especially well-marked towards the 
left, where it overlaps the posterior lip or " opercular fold " (d). 
The hinder limit of the blowhole is, however, quite ill-defined ; the 
surface of the head slopes gradually downward and disappears 
behind the above lip, forming a kind of flap or operculum. 

On a closer examination of this apertm^e, it is seen to be im- 
perfectly divisible into two portions : a small portion on the right 
(b) just above the median line, and a much longer curved slit (a) 
forming the greater moiety of the cresceuu ; the separation is indi- 
cated by an interruption in the lip, for over a short space (c) the 
anterior limit of the blowhole slopes gradually forwards to pass 
below the operculum (d). 

On pressing apart the lip and operculum, or by cutting across 
the lip, the crescentic blowhole is found to open into a shallow, 
but wide chamber — the " spiracular sac " as Von Baer termed it in 
Dolphins, or the " vestibule " as I would term it here. This is 
lined by a blaek-pigmented epithelium continuous with that 
covering the head, and passing downwards into the narial canal 
on the left side. 

The greater part of this vestibule is, in reality, the upper end 
of the large left narial canal, its floor is highly convex owing to 
the existence of a very prominent fleshy "valve" (PL VIII. fig. 3, E) 
which is developed on the mesial wall of the canal, but which, as 
it approaches the top of the head, assumes a transverse and nearly 
horizontal position. This valve becomes less convex as it approaches 
the surface of the head, with which it is continuous at the spot c, 
where the above-mentioned interruption in the lip of the spiracle 
occurs. This valve reduces the cavity of the vestibule to a horse- 
shoe-shaped cleft, the limbs of which pass anteriorly and posteriorly 
towards the right ; the bend lying towards the left, where the cleft 
deepens suddenly to form the left narial canal. 

In the Delphinidse this " spiracular sac " or vestibule is described 
by Murie [4] as possessing in its fioor a pair of smooth, convex, 
obliquely transverse cushions ; the above-mentioned " valve '' 
appears to correspond with the left of these, but I find no mention, 
in either of the works consulted, of the continuance of this con- 
vexity down into, and along the wall of, the narial canal itself. 
Indeed, in these papers, more attention has been paid to the 
muscular arrangements than to details as to the dispositions of the 
sacs and canals. 



1901.] AXATOMY OF COGIA BEEVICEPS. Ill 

Turning our attention to the posterior cleft on the floor of the 
vestibule, it is seen to be a groove between the convex floor (valve) 
and the hinder lip of the blowhole {d\ which here bends suddenly 
downwards to form a vertical wall to the vestibule : on pressing it 
backwards, a horizontally disposed furrow (g) is seen about half- 
way down — a furrow which is about | inch deep and nearly co- 
extensive with the length of the wall ; it appears to be connected 
with the working of the lip itself. At the extreme right corner 
of the cleft is the small entrance to the right narial canal, having 
the form of a horizontal slit, aboiit | inch in length, bounded by 
smooth, inconspicuous lips (fig. 4). The " spiracular sac," or 
vestibule, then receives both right and left narial canals, which 
are extx'emely disproportionate in size and are very different in 
structure. 

The left narial canal being the more conspicuous, and having a 
simple course, may be considered first. From the vestibule it 
passes outwards for a brief space, and then abruptly downwards 
with a slightly inward bend towards the median line, to reach the 
bones of the facial region of the skull ; it passes through these to 
open into the naso-palatine canal. The " valve " which was seen 
in the vestibule is continued throughout the entire length of the 
canal as a well-marked convex, typhlosole-like ridge on its mesial 
wall, and is visible at the lower opening of the canal into the naso- 
palatine canal (Pi'. VIII. fig. 5 ; PL IX. fig. 9). 

This left narial canal, then, is quite simple ; but it is otherwise 
with the right canal, which is complicated by the existence of a 
couple of dilatations to form " spiracular chambers," similar to 
those occurring in the Delphinidae, from which, however, they 
differ in two or three particulars. 

The right " nostril " is a small slit-like orifice bounded by thin 
muscular lips ; it leads into a short canal which passes across the 
middle line, obliquely forwards, downwards, and to the right. It 
terminates in a considerable chamber, but on its way gives rise to 
branches that pass towards the left, and subdivide to form a number 
of narrow, anastomosing tubules, lying in front of the left narial 
canal (PI. IX. fig. 9, n). 

The chamber, or upper chamber {A) as it may be called to 
distinguish it from a second one lower down, is irregularly ovoid 
in shape, with its longer diameter transversely disposed; this 
longer axis measures about 5 inches ; its shorter axis, or height, is 
3 inches. The chamber is situated immediately below the fibro- 
muscular dermis, and is lined by a smooth, greyish membrane ; its 
wall is not muscular, and relatively thin, though it is embedded in 
the muscles of this region. 

Its roof is formed of a series of trabecul^e having, in general, a 
transverse direction ; these, by lateral branches, connect with one 
another, so as to form a kind of network, leaving shallow pits 
between the trabeculse. Some of these are deeper, and lead into 
short ceecal tubes projecting backwards ; whilst lower down on the 
binder wall are a few larger, circular apertures leading into similar 



112 PEOF, W. B. BENHAM OlST THE [May 2] , 

tubes, most of wliicli lie behiud the chamber itself. These tubes, 
as well as those that are in connection with the canal itself, are 
similarly lined with a greyish membrane. 

On the floor of the chamber, towards the median line, is a 
prominent aperture, somewhat curved, and provided with raised 
black lips. I took this, at first, for the true right nostril, but, for 
reasons given below, this is probably not the correct interpretation. 
This aperture leads into a short canal, curved towards the right, 
and then bending backwards towards the left, which in its turn 
opens intoalovser and larger spiracular chamber ^ This lower 
chamber (PI. IX. fig. 7, B) rests, by its posterior wall and its sides, 
against the bones of the cranial region of the skull ; its anterior 
wall (/S), however, is soft, reddish, thick and muscular, and is 
evidently capable of considerable movement. The chamber is 
irregularly pyriform, the dorso-ventral diameter being much greater 
than its transverse diameter ; it is, too, wider near the dorsal than 
at the ventral end. The longer axis is not truly dorso-ventral, but 
is somewhat oblique, the lower end being slightly more forwards 
than the upper, which is situated behind the upper chamber (see 
diagram, PI. IX. fig. 9). The roof is cojieave and asymmetrical ; the 
anterior and posterior walls meet beloM' at an angle, where it is 
apparently closed ; but in the middle of the angular furrow the 
reddish colour of the anterior wall becomes feebly pigmented with 
black, and here, by closer inspection, is to be found a very small 
aperture — about | inch in diameter — which leads by a short canal 
into the nasopalatine canal (PI. VIII. fig. 5,j; PI. IX. fig. 9, c). 

It is stated by Owen, in his ' Comparative Anatomy,' that the 
right bony canal in the skull does not transmit a narial canal : this 
is an error (which may probably have already been pointed out). 
The right narial canal is perfectly evident, though much smaller 
than the left one. 

This lower chamber (PI. IX. figs. 7, 9, B) is about twice the size 
of the upper chamber, or even greater; but I omitted to make a 
note of the dimensions. It is lined by a membrane that differs in 
character in the antei-iorand posterior walls. The former is lined 
by a smooth, reddish " mucous membrane," the latter and the sides 
and roof are covered by a shining, grey, tough membrane, covered 
with small closely-set papillae, which I at first mistook for some 
kind of parasite. 

These papillae (PI. IX. fig. 8) are vascular. Each is short and 
somewhat club-shaped, measui'ing ^ inch in height by ^ inch 
across. They are most numerous, and quite densely aggregated, 
on the roof, and the upper part of the hind wall and sides : lower 
down they become sparser (in the drawing they are not represented 
in their true abundance). 

The junction of the side walls with the back of the chamber 
is crossed by a number of narrow tendinous strands, some 
of which are covered with papillae. The microscoine structure of a 

^ This short canal has been severed, but no part appears to hare been 
removed. 



1901.] ANATOMY OF COGIA BBEVICEPS. 113 

papilla is as follows: — it is more or less circular in transverse 
section ; its epithelium consists of about three layers of cells, the 
most superficial of which are well-defined, ref ringent, and somewhat 
cuticular in aspect. The nuclei of these cells are not much more 
flattened than those of the deeper cells, which are arranged with 
the long axis parallel to the surface ; the upper ones, however, are 
smaller and take the stain less deeply than the others. The bulk 
of the wall of the papilla is formed of concentric fibres of elastic 
connective tissue, which is somewhat looser externally than 
internally. Below this comes white fibrous tissue penetrated 
by numerous capillaries and small blood-vessels. The centre of 
the papilla is occupied by a cavity (? lymphatic) in which an 
unstainable coagulum was noted : it is lined by a layer of flat 
cells. 

Towards the lower end of the papillae the white fibrous tissue 
becomes more abundant, and passes gradually into that of the 
membrane lining the chamber, while the elastic tissue decreases. 

I have no suggestions to make as to the functions of these 
peculiar structures. 

The muscles that act upon these chambers in the Delphinidae 
have been fully described by Sibson, Murie, and others : un- 
fortunately the head of my specimen was too much injured to 
allow me to trace them out in Gogia. 

Remarks. — A comparison of the foregoing account of the 
spiracular sacs in Gogia with that given by various authors for 
members of the family Delphinidse brings out several differences 
which seem to be of importance. 

In the Delphinidae the single blowhole opens into a " vestibule " 
or spiracular cavity, which is in communication with (1) the two 
narial canals, and (2) from four to seven diverticula, that are 
known as " spiracular " pouches or sacs. (The nomenclature of 
the parts is in need of revision.) 

In Gogia the " vestibule" is extremely reduced ; indeed it seems 
rather to be represented by the upper, slightly dilated end of the 
left narial canal, into which the small right narial canal has come 
to open, having pushed its way across the middle line in order to 
reach it. The " spiracular chambers " are here dilatations in the 
course of the right narial canal : they are unpaired and are not 
diverticula. 

This being the case, it seems impossible to homologise them 
with the functionally similar pouches in the Delphinidse. At the 
same time I must confess that the only accounts to which I have 
access ai'e those of Sibson [10], Murie [4, 5, 6 j, and Struthers [12], in 
addition to that by Huxley in his ' Manual.' Of these, the first gives 
a detailed description of the relations of the various sacs to the 
" spiracular vestibule " and to the narial canals ; and he gives 
figures of actual dissections in illustration thereof. Murie deals 
chiefly with the muscular arrangements, and discusses the 
homologies of the apparatus with structures present in other 
mammals ; while Struthers's account is in a footnote, and merely 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. VIII. 8 



114 PROF. W. B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

enumerates the pouches present in the White Whale. Huxley's 
account is descriptive but not illustrated ; and, unfortunately, his 
account does not agree with Sibson's in regard to the point of 
origin of the sacs; so that I am in some doubt whether my 
conclusions as to the interpretation of the " upper chamber " (A) 
are correct or not. In the Porpoise there are five pouches, two 
pairs and an unpaired one ; in the White Whale two pairs only ; 
in the Grampus seven pouches in all. 

According to Sibson the fire pouches in the Porpoise all com- 
municate W'ith the " vestibule" above the openings of the narial 
canals into that cavity. He writes : — " Connected with the 
channel [i. e. vestibule] that leads from the external opening 
[blowhole] down to the two bony conduits [^. e. narial canals] is a 
series of pouches."' 

His figures indicate, but do not show quite clearly, that the 
pouches are outgrowths of the vestibule, with w-hich they com- 
mimicate above the entrance of the narial canals. 

On the other hand, Huxley in his ' Manual ' describes for the 
Porpoise the " spiracular chamber " (i. e. vestibule) as receiving 
the two nasal passages, the openings of which are guarded by 
valves ; and then goes on to say that " Each nasal passage, after 
it ceases to be surrounded by bone, sends off two diverticula, one 
forward and one backward." 

The accounts given by the other authors referred to do not aid 
us in deciding which of these two accounts is correct. But, 
apart from this point of disagreement, all accounts agree that the 
various pouches are, in the Delphinida?, not dilatations of the 
canal but diverticula, either of the narial canal or of the 
" vestibule." 

With regard to the " upper chamber " in the present Whale, it 
is a possible view that it is the " vestibule," asymmetrically 
expanded towards the right side, receiving the large left narial 
canal near the external '• blowhole," and the small right narial 
canal deeper down : in other words, that the slit carried by the 
prominent papilla in the floor of the " upper chamber " is the 
true right nostril. The chief facts that seem to me to be opposed 
to this contention is that this " upper chamber " has a thin, grey 
wall, and is devoid of that black pigmentation that appears to 
characterize the " vestibule " in Delphinidse ; and, secondly, there 
is no convex valve on the floor of the " upper chamber," as we 
should expect if it were a " vestibule." 

But, however this may be, there is no uncertainty about the 
lower one (B) : it communicates below \vith the naso-palatine 
canal, while above it opens, by a canal, into the upper chamber : 
it is a dilatation in the course of the narial canal. So that, which- 
ever view is taken as to the upper chamber, it is clear that in 
Oogia there are tw^o asymmetrically placed sacs, which though 
physiologically, no doubt, corresponding with the series of paired 
spiracular sacs in the Delphinidse, are morphologically different. 
I have therefore avoided the use of the descriptive terms 



1901.] ANATOMY or COGIA BREVIOEPS. 115 

" maxillary " aud " premaxillary,'' that Murie uses in describing 
the analogous chambers in that family. 

III. The Buccal Cavity. 

The lower jaw having been removed, the skull disarticulated, 
and the larynx severed from its position, I am unable to make 
any remarks upon the tongue or pharynx. 

The tough gum on each side was provided with 13 shallow pits 
for the reception of the 13 teeth borne by the corresponding 
ramus of the lower jaw. Further, each premaxilla bears a tooth : 
that on the right side was sufficiently long to project for ^ inch 
beyond the gum ; but the left tooth could only be felt ; it had 
not been " cut." This premaxillary tooth was about 1| inches 
from the anterior end of the snout ; it is conical and slightly 
curved, with the point directed backwards. 

In the loiver jaw there are thirteen teeth on each side, of the 
shape usual in the genus ; that is, each is a rather slender cone, 
curved, and sharply pointed. They are all so arranged that the 
points ai'e directed inwards, and, with the exception of the first, 
slope slightly outwards ; those in the middle of the series having 
a greater slope than those at the ends. 

The front tooth projects | inch, and the last | inch above the 
(dried) gum, (The lower jaw had been removed and was 
partially cleaned when I obtained it.) The series of teeth, or 
" dental area," measures b\ inches, and the individual teeth are 
separated by a space of | inch, though the two hindmost are 
nearer together. 

The dental formula, then, for the Parakanui specimen is 

r|^ = 28, which is the same as that of von Haast's specimen. 

In another skull in the Otago University Museum, obtained 
from Napier, on the East coast of the North Island, in 1892, the 

formula is j^Eis- ^^' is true that the premaxillary teeth are 

absent in the specimen, and that there are only 14 teeth 
remaining on each side of the lower jaw, the tip of which has 
been broken across at the level of the sockets of the front teeth ; 
the sockets are, however, quite visible at the fracture. 

This skull is rather larger than that of the Parakanui specimen 
(which I hope to describe in the future), and the teeth are longer 
and stouter ; the anterior teeth measuring | inch, the hinder ones 
§ inch above the dried gam. The dental area measures 6| inches, 
allowing for the front teeth ; and the dental interval is | inch, 
except for the hinder 3 teeth, which are separated by a space of 
only -^ inch ; these last teeth have their points turned backwards, 
though whether this is dae to the shrinkage and distortion of 
the gum in drying I am unable to say. 

I have referred to this skull, since in Plower and Lydekker's 
' Mammals' it is stated that Cogia has 9 to 12 teeth in the lower 
jaw. Owen gives 9 for the Indian specimen. I have not access 



116 PROI'. W. B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

to other accounts, but it is worthy of note that the three specimens 
described from New Zealand have each more than the above 
maximum. Moreover, Owen states (p. 41) that " the teeth are 
small, straight, conical, obtuse, not exceeding 8 lines in length," 
&c. It is, I understand, generally believed that there is but one 
species of this Small Cachalot ; it is therefore worth noting these 
small differences. 

The soft folate had been partially cut away, and the broad naso- 
palatal canal exposed. A short slit was all that was needed to 
exhibit the lower ends of the narial canals, which are shown m 
PI. VIII. fig. 5. 

IV. Alimentary Tract. 

My observations are incomplete, as the gut had been cut across, 
close to the stomach, and indeed across the narrow chamber of this 
organ. When removing the viscera — which were buried in sand— 
this fact was overlooked, and the intestine with the rest of the 
stomach was left behind, so that I am unable to give measure- 
ments of the entire canal. 

The hindmost portion (about 7 feet) of the intestine remained 
attached to the body ; and at a point about 3 feet 6 inches from the 
anus the intestine suddenly dilates to form a sac, filled with a very 
dark-brovrn fluid, of considerable density, which, when smeared on 
the paper of my note-book, left a dark sepia-coloured mark. 

Sir W. Turner [15] describes a similar rich brown fluid in the 
hind gut of Eisso's Grampus, and suggests that it is derived 
from the sepia of the ink-sacs of the cuttles on which the 
cetacean had fed ; and further explains the absence of the dark 
material in the stomach and anterior part of the intestine, by 
supposing that the ink-bags pass uninjured into the posterior 
region of the gut, where their walls become dissolved and the 
fluid released. This seems to be the case in Cogia, for the small 
intestine did not contain the dark fluid. 

This specimen of Cogia contained in its stomach a great 
quantity of cuttle-beaks, lenses of eyes, and the remains of the 
pens of some Loligo-like species, probably OmmastrepJies sloanil ; 
also some partially digested red membranes which appear to have 
been cylindrical. Each bears, near one end, a thick, firm, white 
patch on which, and on the membrane, are horny, conical teeth- 
like structures, recalling gizzard-teeth of Aplysia, but no dark 
fluid. 

Von Haast [2] states that in the specimen studied by him, " the 
contents of the stomach consisted of a dark slimy matter ;" and 
noting the absence of cuttle-beaks, and the small size and the 
position of the mouth, he concluded that Cogia is " probably a 
ground-feeder, perhaps on the smaller hydroid polyps." This 
view is, evidently, negatived by the presence of beaks in the 
Parakanui specimen. 

The stomach (PI. IX. fig. 10), as I have said, is imperfect ; but 
I will describe so much as remains, for in some respects it confirms 



1901.] AKATOMY or COGIA BEBVICEPS. 117 

Turner's accounts (13, 14) of the organ in Odontocetes, though it 
diiFers from that of Porpoise or Dolphin, and appears to agree 
with that of the Sperm Whale. The oesophagus, which is 2 
inches across (externally), is dilated below the entrance to the 
true stomach, to form a large ovoid pouch or " paunch " 7 inches 
in length and 5 in breadth \ 

The true stomach arises from the side of the oesophagus just 
above the commencement of the crop-like dilatation. It has the 
form of a long wide sac, somewhat like a curved sausMge, extending 
beyond the end of the paunch, and measuring 15 inches in a 
straight line taken from its anterior margin to the hindmost end. 

This sac may be termed the " cardiac chamber." It presents a 
" greater curvature " directed towards the right side, and a " lesser 
curvature," facing the paunch. Along the lesser curvature there 
are two slight constrictions, so that this chamber seems to be 
subdivided; but in reality it is one great sac. The constrictions 
are mere indentations of the wall, and there is no corresponding 
fold of the mucous membrane internally. On the dorsal surface 
of this cardiac chamber, at about midway along its length, and 
close to the lesser curvature, there arises a small sac, which soon 
becomes a distinct tube. Most unfortunately this had been cut 
across. It is the second chamber of the true stomach ; and we are 
at present ignorant of how many chambers there are in Oogia, 
though probably only these two. For convenience I will term it 
the " pyloric chamber " for reasons that will become evident 
later. 

This pyloric chamber commences as a depressed, subcircular, 
thin-walled swelling on the side of the cardiac chamber. It soon 
becomes tubular; but for about 4 inches remains adherent to 
the cardiac chamber, then leaves it as a free tube, one inch in 
diameter; but only about one inch of this tube remains in the 
specimen. 

The hardened and distended stomach was opened by cutting 
windows, of convenient size, in the walls. The cardiac orifice is 
on the side wall of the oesophagus. It is usually stated that in 
Dolphins and other Cetacea in which a paunch is present, this 
and the cardiac chamber communicate with the oesophagus " at the 
same point," thereby inferring a sort of bifurcation of the oesophagus ; 
but in Cogia the cardiac orifice (PL X. fig. 14) is a wide oval 
aperture, about 4 inches long, on the side wall of the oesophagus. 
It is surrounded by a very prominent rounded ridge (g), recalling a 
sphincter muscle, though it is a fold of the mucous membrane and 
the submucosa only, and the muscular coat is not involved. From 
the margin of this orifice the lining (h) of the oesophagus projects 

1 This and the following measurements were obtained from the preserved 
and not from the fresh specimen. The stomach and paunch having been emptied 
of their contents and thoroughly washed with water, were distended by filling 
them with strong alcohol, the ends being tightened ; the alcohol was poured in 
through a funnel, not injected, so that the distension is not exaggerated. The 
whole was then laid in strong alcohol for about four months before I had time 
to examine them. 



118 PROP. W. B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

into the stomach as an irregular fringe, or, as Huxley describes it 
in the Porpoise, as a " prominent rugose lip." 

The communication between oesophagus and paunch is by M'ay 
of a deep groove bounded by a couple of high and thick folds {d.cl) 
on the outer wall of the oesophagus. It is similar to the groove 
between the oesophagus and psalterium in the Cow's stomach. It 
is evident that the paunch is a blind, downward prolongation 
of the oesophagus, beyond the entrance of the latter to the 
stomach. 

The passage from, the cardiac to the pyloric chamber is between 
two stout curved folds of mucosa and submucosa, forming valves, 
which only incompletely circumscribe the aperture. One valve, 
the superior, is contiuuous with the surface of the cardiac 
chamber, and its free edge is concave backwards ; the other, or 
inferior valve, is at a slightly diiferent level, being the projection 
forwards of the adherent wall of the pyloric chamber ; this fold 
is concave forwards, and its right end overlaps that of the superior 
valve. Eurther, as part probably of the apparatus, there is a 
stroug rounded ridge (3 inches in length) in the ventral wall of 
the pyloric chamber, passing forwards and curving over the 
inferior valve. 

The mucous membrane of these parts exhibit very characteristic 
differences, both macroscopic and microscopic ; these have been 
described for some Cetacea by Sir W. Turner in some detail 

The lining of the oesophagus (PL IX. fig. 11), which in the 
preserved specimen is whitish and hard to the touch, is thrown 
into labyrinthine folds, the general trend of which is transverse. 

In sections, the epithelium is seen to be " stratified," consisting 
of some 6 or 7 layers of cells : the nuclei of the deepest layer are 
oval and closely set ; the upper ones are more or less flattened, and 
those on the free surface quite flat. These last take the stain 
(haematoxylin) much more faintly than the deeper ones. The 
surface of the epithelium is very ill-defined and irregular, due 
partly no doubt to the manipulation it had undergone ; though, 
partly, this seems to be a natural character, for even in the deep 
pits formed by the above-mentioned foldings, where the tissue 
would be less liable to disturbance, the epithelium is comparatively 
thin. Moreover, it is everywhere of very irregular depth, as the 
subumucosa rises up into it at intervals in such a way that the 
epithelium seems to dip downwai-ds in the form of solid columns ; 
and I imagined that these were tangential sections of small pits ; but 
I failed even in thin sections to determine the existence of any- 
thing of the kind. I find that Sir W. Turner notices the same 
thing in the Porpoise, and suggests that they are " in all probability 
slender folds of the mucous membrane, which when vertically 
divided look in sections as if separated by papillse " of the under- 
lying connective tissue. 

There are no glands, either macroscopic or microscopic, in the 
wall of the oesophagus. 



1901.] ANATOMY OP CO&IA BBEVICEPS. 119 

Opposite the entrance to the cardiac chamber, the mucous mem- 
brane is thrown into a few powerful longitudinal folds, two of 
which are more prominent than the rest, about one inch in height, 
and delimit the groove that leads to the paunch. Below the point 
there are 10 well marked ridges, which radiate from the groove, 
along the wall of the paunch ; some reach almost to the hinder end, 
others die out half-way along. In addition to these longitudinal 
folds, a few irregular ones originate from them and pass in a 
transverse direction. 

The mucous membrane (Pi. X. fig. 12) is in the paunch distinctly 
yellow ; it is marked by irregularly arranged, straight, narrow, and 
shallow furrows, appearing as lines crossing one another at 
various angles, but i;here is nothing approaching the labyrinthine 
character seen in the oesophagus. 

Sections show that the epithelium is stratified ; but it is much 
thicker than in the oesophagus, and more closely resembles the 
epidermis of a mammal than the epidermis of part of the gut. In 
fact, it is from the character of this epithelium that this region is 
recognized as being part of the oesophagus, and not part of the true 
stomach. 

The epithelium consists of very well marked stratum mal- 
pighii and st. corneum, of about equal depth. The lowermost 
nuclei of the st. malpighii are oval, closely set, with the long axis 
vertical to the plane of the surface ; the others are rounder, till 
immediately below the st. corneum the nuclei undergo sudden 
degeneration, and are represented by small, horizontal, and almost 
linear groups of deeply stained granules ; two to four rows of 
such cells exist, evidently the st. granulosum. There is a very 
sharp line between them and the overlying st. corneum, which is 
coloured yellow (m the sections that were stained on the slide in 
Delafield's haematoxyliu) except the outermost margin, which is 
faintly purple ; the whole stratum is distinctly " lamellate," with 
small linear groups of ref ringent, unstained granules interspersed 
here and there between the lamellae. 

The free surface is slightly irregular, the cells appear to be 
dropping away, and are somewhat swollen. 

In short the lining of the paunch is a typical epidermis. 

The mucous membrane of the cardiac chamber (PI. X, fig. 13) is 
pinkish, even in the preserved stomach ; it is thrown into more 
or less pronounced and irregular folds, and the surface is furrowed, 
marking out rounded gyri of larger size than those of the oesoph- 
agus. Towards the hiuder end the membrane is smoother. A few 
stray ridges start from the cardidc orifice, but soon die down, giving 
rise to the above-mentioned irregular folds. In sections, the 
epithelium is seen to be typically " gastric ; " it is many times 
thicker than that of the paunch, and consists of closely-set, long, 
tubular and branched " peptic glands." The cells at the surface 
had macerated off, but in the deeper parts of the glands they, 
though displaced, remain ; and the two kinds of cells — " chief " or 
" central" and oxyatic or parietal — are recognizable. 



120 PROF, W. B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

In the pyloric chamber " the raucous membrane is smooth, soft, 
and of a darker red than in the preceding chamber. Sections show 
that here, too, peptic glands occur ; though of a different shape and 
length. From the ill-preserved state it is difficult to give an 
accurate detailed account, but ifc appears that the " duct " of each 
gland is much longer, and the branching takes place deeper in the 
epithelium than in the cardiac chamber. The mucous membrane is 
not uniformly thick, but in a given section the free surface describes 
undulations ; in the thinner parts of the sections the g^lands consist 
of one kind of cell only, recalling the pyloric glands of ordinary 
mammals ; but in the thicker parts patches of glands occur which 
show the osyutic cells quite plainly, and even in greater numbers 
than in the cardiac chamber. 

Although figures are apt to be misleading, yet the following 
afford an idea of the relative thickness of the mucous membrane in 
these different parts : — 

In oesophagus it is 0-025 mm. 
„ paunch ifc is 0*37 mm. 
„ cardiac chamber it is 1'5 mm. 
„ pyloric chamber it is from 0-4 to 0-75 mm. 

BemarJcs. — It is well known that in the Cetacea the " stomach " 
consists of several chambers, and Sir W. Turner (13, 14) has 
given an account of the arrangements met with in different families 
of the Order. It appears that in the majority of Odontocetes the 
" first chamber " is in reality a dilatation of the cesophagus ; a 
fact that was recognized more than 200 years ago by Edward 
Tyson [16] who, according to Turner, recognized that this first 
compartment is " lined by a continuation of its inward tunic, which 
we now know to be of squamous epithelium," so that it seems to be 
a sac-like dilatation of that tube ; or, in short, a " paunch." Only 
in the Ziphioids is this paunch absent; in them, notwithstanding 
the many chambers, all are true gastric chambers, lined by 
glandular epifchehum. Although other authors, as for example 
Murie [4] for the Caa'ing Whale, compares this first chamber to a 
ruminant paunch, and Huxley in his Textbook (p. 395) also speaks 
of the first chamber as " a kind of paunch lined by a thick epi- 
thelium " (see also Yf iedersheiin), yet it appears that Turner was 
the first to investigate the character of the mucous membrane by 
means of microscopic sections ; the literature at my disposal is 
sparse, but Turner gives no reference to anyone who had previously 
cut sections of the stomach-wall. 

It seems necessary to insist on this fact that the first chamber is, 
in the majority of Cetace:i., a " paunch " since in some English 
textbooks, even of recent years, the complex of chambers is still 
spoken of as " stomach." Turner has pointed out, and no doubt 
other workers on the group have done so, that this 'paunch" 
serves not merely for receiving and holding food, in the way that the 
paunch of the Euminant does, but that there is abundant evidence 
that the digestive juice is discharged from the true stomach into 



1901.] ANATOMY or COGIA BEEVICBPS. 121 

this chamber ; for fish-bones, cuttle-beaks, and other indigestible 
remains of the food are found in the paunch, and never in the 
stomach : that, in fact, it is a " macerating chamber : " that these 
things are rejected through the mouth, just as owls reject the 
undigested parts of their food. 

In view of his own insistence on the oesophageal nature of this 
first compartment, it is to be regretted that Turner does not, 
in his memoirs, speak more definitely of it as a " paunch " and thus 
draw attention to it more strongly ; in his figures, for instance, 
he labels it " 1 " as he also does the first compartment of the 
ziphioid stomach. It may be objected that "paunch" is used for 
a particular part of the ruminant stomach ; that in this no digestive 
juice is poured on to the food while it is retained there ; that it is 
a mere reservoir, and not a macerating chamber. But according to 
Prof. Fleming (Chauveau's Comp. Anat. 1891) both the paunch 
and the reticulum are lined by " stratified epithelium," and there- 
fore are as much oesophageal dilatations as the 1st chamber of the 
" stomach " in Cetacea ; they are morphologically similar, even if 
physiologically dissimilar. 

In these days of ' precise nomenclature,' it is strange that such 
a word as '' stomach " is so very vaguely employed for all sorts of 
sacs : primarily used for the digestive chamber in man, the meaning 
of the woi'd has been extended to include a variety of dilated 
portions of the alimentary system in different animals, e.^., the 
gizzard of the Crayfish is not a " stomach," although frequently so 
termed, nor is the paunch of Cetacea or Ruminants. 

Messieurs Pilliet and Boulart [8] have pointed out that the 
stomach of Cetacea cannot be compared in detail with that of 
Ruminants : but it seems that, so far as this first compartment is 
concerned, there is a morphological resemblance, and to some 
degree a physiological one \ 

The true "stomach" consists, as we know, of a "pars cardiaca"aud 
a " pars pylorica " ; and while both these are present in the Cetacea 
and Ruminant, there is in addition an oesophageal paunch. In the 
whales, the pars pylorica and perhaps the pars eardiaca may be 
further subdivided. 

Returning, now, to Cogia ; the mutilated condition of the 
organ prevents us comparing it in detail, as I should have wished 
to do, with that of other Odontocetes ; but so much as remains 
indicates that it differs from the stomach of the Delphinidse, in the 
fact that the "pyloric chamber" (=3rd chamber in the sense of 
other authors) soon becomes free from the wall of the cardiac (or 
2nd chamber), and is evidently the commencement of a tubular 
region; whereas in Porpoise, Dolphin, &c., this " 3rd chamber" is 
totally adherent to wall of the " 2nd " (as in Glohicephalus, where 
Murie calls it the " burrowing passage "), or it is globular in form, 
whilst additional chambers exist. Naturally one turns for elucidation 
to Physettr macrocejohalus, of which but little seems to be known. 

^ I have beeu unable to consult either this or Mas Weber's valuable work 
in the Morph. Jahrb. xiii. 1888, or Pouchet and Beauregard in the original. 



122 PBor. w. B. BENHAM OK THE [May 21, 

I quote from Turner's memoir [13], who summarizes the account 
given by Dr. Jackson [3] of the stomach of the Sperm Whale. 
" The iirst cavity is nearly globular, and is lined by a 
continuation of the cuticle and cutis from the oesophagus. The 
2nd cavity opens freely into both oesophagas and the iirst cavity. 
It is elongated, and the rugae on its inner surface are nowhere 
strongly marked. The 3rd cavity is elongated, narrow at its 
commencement, but becomes dilated and curved upon itself. The 
mucous coat is less rugose than in the 2nd cavity. There is no 
small intermediate chamber between the 2nd and 3rd. The 3rd 
cavity opens into a dilatation by an orifice ^ inch in diameter ; this 
dilatation ends in the intestine." 

Of course by " 1st cavity" is meant what in his paper Turner 
speaks of as " paunch ; " the " 2nd cavity " is the cardiac chamber, 
and the 3rd cavity is the pyloric chamber. Unfortunately, this 
summary does not enable us to form a very vivid picture of the 
Sperm-whale's stomach, as we are not told where the 3rd chamber 
originates from the 2nd, nor the relative size of the parts ; but, so 
far as it goes, it appears that Gogia has a stomach of the same kind. 
At any rate, we have the evidence, that Prof. Turner desired to 
have, that in the Physeteridse the ]st chamber is a pannch. 

According to the account of the Cachalot's stomach given by 
Pouchet and Beauregard [9] the " first chamber " is, in its upper 
part, lined by a mucous membrane similar to that of the oesophagus, 
while in the lov^er part a " gastric epithelium " exists. Thus this 
chamber is partly " paunch," partly cardiac region of stomach. 
It appears that though the boundary between the two kinds of 
mucous membrane is distinct, there is no constriction here. 

The " pyloric chamber " is separated from the two following or 
" duodenal chambers " by a short definite duct. 

Of the two " duodenal chambers," the first is lined by a smooth 
mucous membrane ; while, in the second, valvulce conniventes are 
present \ 

Without access to the original account, it is difficult to correlate 
this description with Jackson's with certainty. But it seems that 
the " narrow commencement " of the 3rd elongated chamber of his 
account corresponds to the "true duct" of Pouchet and Beauregard, 
and their " first duodenal chamber " with its smooth lining is 
Jackson's dilated part of the 3rd chamber. 

There is one point in the above account that is of general 
importance, viz. : the absence of any constriction between the 
paunch and cardiac region of the stomach. Have we, here, a 
commencement of the process by which a part of the stomach 
becomes modified to serve as a receptacle for food, by the down- 
growth of the oesophageal membrane ? or, is an original paunch 
being invaded by gastric epithelium ? 

^ But it is not clear from the abstract in the Zool. Jaliresher. whether the 
2nd "cavite" is the pyloric, or whether a third "chambre" (pyloric) also 
exists. 



1901.] ANATOMY or COGIA BEEVICEPS. 123 

No doubt this matter is dealt with by the French authors ; but 
in view of the condition of the " stomach " in other Oetacea, that 
of the Cachalot is rather puzzling. 

It appears, then, that in the family Physeteridae the apparatus is 
simpler than in the Delphinidae, and agrees with the Platanistidae in 
having only three chambers, viz., a paunch, a cardiac chamber, and 
a pyloric chamber. 

V. The Penis. 

The body- wall between the anus and the aperture of the penial 
sheath had been cut about, so that the position of these apertures 
and their distance apart, with regard to the body-length, could not 
be ascertained. 

In the arrangement of the muscles at the base of the organ, and 
some other matters, Oogia differs from the accounts given for the 
Dolphin and the Eight Whale'(by Professors Turner and Struthers 
respectively), so that it is worth while to put on record the arrange- 
ments in the present whale. The total length of the apparatus, in 
the fresh condition, was 28 inches, measured from the base of the 
" accelerator urinjB " muscles to the end of the penial sheath, but 
more detailed measurements of the preserved material show that 
a certain amount of shrinkage had occurrred. 

In dealing with the penis, it will be convenient to distinguish 
three regions : — 

(1) A basal portion consisting of the crura penis, surrounded by 

the muscles, which in Oogia are 4 in number, a pair of 
medial acceleratores urince and a pair of lateral erectores penis. 
This region measures, in the preserved specimen, 7 inches in 
length and about 5 inches at the broadest. 

(2) The middle region or " body of the penis," rather more than 

6 inches in length, formed almost wholly by the single 

corpus cavernosum. 

And (3) the distal region of 12 inches, extending from the 

insertion of the sheath or prepuce into the penis, up to the 

external pore. The terminal region of the penis, enclosed 

within the sheath, is 8| inches in length : this region may 

be termed the ' glans,' though it contains a continuation of 

the corpus cavernosum. 

We will consider the middle region or body of the penis first. 

It consists of a single corpus cavernosum, having the usual struc- 

ure, with a thick tunic of fibrous tissue, and enveloped in a looser 

connective tissue carrying blood-vessels and nerves (PL X. fig. 16), 

The body is not quite cylindrical, but is slightly higher than broad 

(1| inch by 11 inch, in the measured specimen) ; it was not straight, 

but somewhat undulating ^. 

The upper surface is convex. There is no dorsal furrow, such 
as is described for Balcenoptera, and the plexus of blood-vessels 

^ The only figure of transverse sections of a Cetacean penis that I have seen 
is that given by Murie (4) for Balmnoptera, where it is broader than high. 



. 124 PROP. w. B, BEifHAM ON THE [May 21, 

destined for the glans is not in the mid-dorsal line, but consists of 
a right and left group of veins and arteries, lying on either side of 
the upper surface of the penis. Only for a short space, just behind 
the attachment of the penial sheath, do the two bunches of vessels 
widen out so as to meet dorsally, but almost immediately they 
separate again as the " glans " is entered, and take up a still more 
distinctly lateral position (PI. X. fig. 17, Bv). 

The ventral surface of the c. cavernosum embraces, as usual, the 
corpus spongiosum, in which the urethra is contained in a slightly 
asymmetrical position. 

In transverse section the c. spongiosum is ^ inch in height by 
I inch across. 

While the tunic of the c. cavernosum is very thick and dense, 
that of the c. spongiosum is quite thin, and to the naked eye is not 
distinguishable from the tissue of the spongy body itself. 

As the distal region or glans is approached the relative sizes of 
the parts change. The glans is an elongated cylindrical cone, 
terminating in a blunt and slightly upturned point, the slit-like 
urinogenital pore, which is | inch in length, being subterminal. In 
the preserved specimen the skin of the glans has a yellowish tint, is 
smooth but much wrinkled transversely, owing no doubt to shrinkage. 
Soon after the c. cavernosum has entered the glans, it undergoes a 
considerable reduction in size : thus, at a distance of 6 inches from 
the tip (PI. X. fig. 17) it is, in transverse section, circular in outline, 
with a diameter of only | inch, while the c, spongiosum has 
slightly increased in size. Pui-ther forwards, two inches from 
the tip (PI. X. fig. 18), the cavernous body has almost disappeared. 
It is but I inch in diameter, while the spongy body is now | inch 
across, and is practically circular. The rest of the substance of the 
penis is now occupied by fibrous tissue with abundant vessels, chiefly 
laterally placed, derived from the previously mentioned dorso- 
lateral " plexus." 

The urethra has enlarged, and here commences the usual dila- 
tation to form the " fossa navicularis." Turning to the proximal 
region, we find a very interesting condition of affairs. After 
dissecting away the muscles — or rather by slicing them away — 
the usual crura penis (c. c. spongiosi) are exposed (PI. X. fig. 19), 
each embedded in a muscle fchat appears to be the " erector penis " 
(or M. ischio-cavernosus). But the c. spongiosum instead of 
terminating posteriorly in the usual bulb at the angle of origin of 
the crura, bifurcates ; and each limb or the cms c. spongiosi is enclosed 
in one of the " accelei-ator urinae " muscles (or M. bulbo-cavernosus), 
within which it enlarges to several times its former size (PI. XI. 
fig. 20). Bach crus of the spongy body is 2| inches in length, and 
is as long as the crus penis : it is here irregularly oval in section, 
and measures g by | inch across. 

The crus c. spongiosi lies ventrad and mediad of the crus c. 
cavernosi of its side, and the upper and external face rests against 
the tough tunic of the latter, while on the other three sides it is 
enveloped in muscle. 



1901.] ANATOMY OE COGIA J3E.EVICEPS. 125 

This forked character of the c. spoBgiosum in Cogia is readily 
seen both in transverse sections and horizontal sections. So far 
as I have been able to find out from textbooks, the Kangaroo (and 
perhaps some other Marsupials) presents a similar condition 
(according to Owen). In Cetacea no mention is made of the phe- 
nomena, and generally a " bulb " is described and figured, as in the 
majority of mammals. 

It is, of course, in this basal region that the urethra enters the 
penis, and in the general disposition of parts Gogia is quite 
typical. The thick- walled, muscular urethra passes obliquely back- 
wards and downwards towards the angle formed by the crura 
penis ; it dilates to form the thin-walled bulbus urethrce, and here 
the angulation of the tube occurs : it then enters the c. spongiosum, 
through which it runs, slightly to the right side. 

The prostate gland in Cogia agrees very closely with the account 
given by previous authors {e. g. Turner, 15) for other Whales ; 
it is a loose glandular and vascular tissue surrounding the lower 
half of the bulbus urethrse. Above the gland is a circular muscle, 
the "compressor prostatse" or " comp. urethrce." (PI. XI. figs. 24, 
25, Cm.) 

The seminal ducts deserve a few words. For a considerable part 
of their lower portion, each duct takes a straight course, as a wide, 
thin-walled tube ; the internal lining of which is raised into a 
series of imperfectly transverse, thin membranous valves (PI. XL 
fig. 21). They do not form a continuous spiral, as they do in the 
Rorqual and the Dolphin, according to Beauregard and Boulart(l), 
who compare the arrangement to the well-known spiral valve of the 
Elasmobranch intestine. 

Below the valves, for a distance of about an inch and a half, the 
mucous membrane is thrown into a number of very fine, lamellose, 
longitudinal ridges, which continue almost to the entrance of the 
sperm duct into the urethra. 

The verumontanum (PI. XL fig. 22) is a long, narrow, but well- 
marked ridge, fading out anteriorly, and higher and broader 
posteriorly. At this point, on the posterior ventral wall of the 
" bulbus urethras," is a transversely oval aperture (a) situated on a 
slight, rounded prominence. This aperture, which has a rounded 
margin, leads into a shallow, but well-marked pit, into which, right 
and left, the seminal duets open by slightly curved slit-like pores, 
guarded by distinct and whitish lips. These pores are quite below 
the general level of the mucous membrane, and between them is a 
very slight recess, in the substance of the urethral wall, which no 
doubt represents the uterus masculinus (cf. Beauregard and 
Boulart). 

The pores of the prostate gland (PI. XL fig. 22, Pro.) open behind 
this oval aperture ; on each side of which, and behind it, a number 
of delicate transversely dispersed ridges or lamellae occur. Most 
of the prostate pores are placed between the outer ends of neigh- 
bouring ridges : four on the left side, three on the right, but two 
others on this side are at a different level, and lie at the side of 



126 PROF. W. B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

the longitudinal ridge of the verumontanum, between it and a 
smaller lateral ridge. 

There appear, from the preliminary account by the above- 
named authors, to be various differences in this arrangement 
from the conditions in Dolphin and Rorqual. 

The basal region of the penis is perhaps of the most interest, 
as we shall find striking differences in the arrangement of the 
muscles in Cogia, Bcdcena, and Grampus. 

In the whale under consideration there are, as I have said, two 
pairs of muscles, to which I apply the older names " accelerator 
urinee " and " erectores penis." The two accelerators lie side by 
side on each side of the middle line, and have a length of 7 inches 
on the ventral surface. (PI. XI. figs. 20, 22, 24, 25, Ac, Er.) 

The fascicles of which the muscle is composed are strikingly large, 
and have in general a transverse, i. &. circular, disposition. At 
the extreme anterior end, the fascicles of the right and left muscle 
interdigitate ; but for the most part they are separated by a 
distinct median septum of connective tissue. (T'ig. 20, 1.) 

By the passage of the retractor penis, the accelerators are 
divisible into a larger anterior moiety (^c), and a smaller posterior 
moiety (^c'), where the fascicles are oblique, with their mediad 
extremities directed slightly backwards. 

The anterior moiety of the accelerator embraces and conceals 
the cms corporis spongiosi of its side, and the fascicles are 
arranged as follows. (See PI. XI. fig. 20.) 

Each muscle-fascicle is a broad band, thicker in the vertical than 
in the horizontal direction (with regard to the surface of the 
muscle), so that we may distinguish two faces and two edges, as 
well as two ends. 

The faces are pressed against the faces of neighbouring 
fascicles ; one edge is directed outwards and forms the surface of 
the muscle ; the other edge is fixed to the thin connective tissue- 
sheath of the crus c. spongiosi. The ends are attached to the 
vertical longitudinal septa, one of which separates the right 
accelerator from the left (fig. 20, i) ; the other separates the 
accelerator from the erector of its side (fig. 20, 2') ; and in part 
these outer ends are inserted in the crus corporis cavernosi, with 
which this septum is continuous. 

It is evident that the contraction of these circularly disposed 
fibres must exert considerable pressure upon the spongy body. 

The posterior moiety of the accelerator is marked off from 
the anterior, by the passage of the retractor penis (PI. XI. 
fig. 23, Re^). On the ventral surface there appears to be a very 
marked break in the muscle at this point ; but this is less marked 
on the dorsal surface (PL XI. fig. 25), where the transversely 
disposed fascicles of the anterior moiety only gradually take on 
an oblique direction ; the mediad ends are directed backwards, and 
the last 3 or 4 fascicles enter the mass of muscle constituting 
the " sphincter ani," but do not mix with it. They are, here, 
inserted in a semicircular septum or sheath, concave anteriorly. 



1901.] ANATOMY or COGIA BREVICEPS. 127 

which is continuous laterally with the longitudinal septa above 
referred to. 

The fascicles in this region are, then, attached only to the septa, 
and are independent of the crus c. spougiosi. 

The erector penis (Er.) is a plano-convex muscle, enclosing the 
crus corporis cavernosi of its side. It is shorter than the acce- 
lerator, being only 4 inches in length. It is made up of large 
fascicles, the direction of which varies in different parts of its 
extent ; in fact, they radiate from a small circular tendinous patch 
on the outer svirface near the binder end of the muscle (t). 

From this area the most anterior fascicles pass directly forwards 
to be inserted in the corpus cavernosum ; those in the middle of the 
series pass directly inwards, and the most posterior ones backwards 
and inwards. The opposite ends of these fascicles are attached to 
the fibrous tunic of the crus penis. 

A small separate muscle (PI. XI. figs. 24, 25, m.) arises from 
this tendinous patch, the fibres of which pass backwards and enter 
the sphincter ani. It seems probable that this represents the muscle 
marked " a" in Struthers's figures 13 & 14, arising from the hinder 
end of the pelvic bone, and which he terms the " caudal muscular 
mass.'^ 

Prof. Turner found no muscle attached to the hinder end of the 
pelvic bone in the Grampus. 

The retractor penis {Re.) is, as usual, a double muscle, though the 
two are closely bound together. Each is band-like, and measured 
-| inch across and ^ inch in thickness. They are attached at one 
end to the corpus cavernosum, immediately proximal to the insertion 
of the penial sheath ; posteriorly they lie in the groove between 
the two accelerators, and finally burrow upwards between the 
anterior and posterior moieties of these muscles, to gain the dorsal 
surface. They then pass behind the posterior margin of the 
" pelvic fascia " and enter the muscle surrounding the rectum 
(PL XI. fig. 25). 

The retractors are 13 inches long, and they lie quite loosely 
separated from the penis, except at the two ends. 

The upper surface of the accelerator muscles is covered by a 
tough, inextensible membrane, the margins of which had been cut. 
But from its relation to the muscles and other structures, it 
appears to be the " pelvic fascia" (PI. XI. fig. 24, Z.). Anteriorly, it 
bears on its under surface the two seminal ducts ; on each side is 
seen an artery {ar.) — dipping downwards below it — the pudic 
artery, and posteriorly it is slightly reflected on to the rectum. 

A short distance behind the anterior, cut edge is a depression 
caused by the origin, from its under surface, of a couple of muscles, 
which pass forwards, diverge, and embrace the urethra, just above 
the prostate gland. The muscle-fibres enter the muscular coat of 
the urethra on its anterior face (Pi. XI. fig. 25, C.u.). This almost 
circular muscle appears to be the " compressor urethras" ( = com- 
pressor prostatae of Turner). In the Grampus, however, it is 
rather a sheet of muscle-fibres, covering the whole of the upper 



128 



PROF. W, B. BENHA.M ON THE 



[May 21, 



surface of the prostate, and encircling also the seminal ducts and 
the urethra ; it arises, however, from the " interpelvic ligament " 
(which represeuts the " pelvic fascia "). I find that in Cogia 
some of the fibres of this muscle originate from the inner and 
upper faces of the crura penis. 

Another muscle, though cut through, may be mentioned. On 
each side, and immediately below the cut edge of the pelvic 
fascia, is a fairly stout bundle of longitadinal fibres (PL XI. 
fig. 24, lev.), which, passing backwards, loses itself in the mass of 
muscle above referred to as " sphincter ani "; this pair of muscles 
appears to be the levatores ani. • 

Text-fig. 7. 




Muscles of Penis of Risso's Grrampus, seen from below (copied from Turner). 

A. M. accelerator urin£e. 
A'. Its posterior moiety. 

B. M. erector penis. 
pel. Pelvic bone. 



Remarhs. — 1£ we compare the penial muscles of Gogia with 
those in Grampus as described by Prof. Turner [15], and with 



1901.] 



ANATOMY OP OOGIA BEBVICEPS. 



129 



those in the Greenland Eight "Whale as described by Prof. 
Struthers [12], we shall find an interesting series of stages in 
their arrangement. 

For this purpose I reproduce the figures given by these authors 
(see text-figs. 7 and 8). 

In the Grampus (text-fig. 7, p. 128) there are two pairs of 
distinct muscles ; also a pair of accelerators (A), which only differ 
from those in Cogia by their smaller size, for in the Small Cachalot 
they extend mucla beyond the " erectores " and are, relatively, much 
more conspicuous. JSTo doubt this is in relation to the much 
greater development of the posterior end of the corpus spongiosum 
and its bifurcation. 

Text-fig. 8. 




Muscles of Penis of Greenland Eight Whale, seen from below (copied from 

Struthers). 

S. Horseshoe-shaped septum; other letters as in text-fig. 7, p. 128. 

Compare text-figs. 7 & 8 with the figure of these muscles in Cogia (PI. XI. fig. 23). 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. IX. 9 



130 PEOF. W, B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

The retractor penis (B) is seen to have precisely the same 
relation in both, and the hinder moiety of the accelerators (A') 
presents the same modification described above. But the muscles 
for which I have used the name " ereetores penis " are in the 
G-rampus represented by a much larger pair (B), termed by Turner 
(and others) the " ischio-cavernosi." In this whale, each arises 
from, and almost entirely conceals, the pelvic bone (pel.). Apart 
from this, the relations are similar to those in Cogia. 

When removing the viscera from Cogia, I sought for the pelvic 
bone, and not iinding it in the neighbourhood, imagined that 
it would be concealed within the lateral ereetores ; but on dis- 
secting these muscles I find no trace of it. I think, then, we may 
conclude that there is no pelvic bone in Cogia. I cannot speak 
with absolute certainty, since the body- wall was much cut about ; 
but if it had been present it would have been connected with the 
penis ; and there is no trace of any muscle, other than I have 
described, which would have been attached to it. We may take it, 
then, that the pelvic bone is absent, and that the " ereetores " are 
homologous with the m. ischio-cavernosi. 

At first sight, the account and figure given by Struthers from 
the Greenland Eight Whale differs considerably from the other 
two Cetacea. On the ventral surface (text-fig. 8) there is a great 
muscular mass consisting of a right and left half, sepai-ated by a 
median raphe or septum. This mass is subdivided into an anterior 
(J5) and a posterior {A) muscle by a " horseshoe-shaped septum " 
(/S). To this great muscle he gives the name " compressor." 
The anterior compressor consists of fibres with various origins, 
but with in general an antero-external direction, as seen from 
below. The hindmost fibres arise from the inner surface of the 
hinder part of the pelvic bone (as in the case of the mus. ischio- 
cavernosus in the Grrampus) ; they pass forwards to be inserted, 
on the dorsal surface, into the median septum or raphe : the 
deeper fibres are inserted in the outer surface of the crus penis. A 
second lot of fibres arise on the ventral surface from this septum 
and pass round the corpus cavernosum to be inserted in its 
dorsal surface : these, in fact, surround the base of the corpus 
cavernosum. 

On p. 306, the author goes on to say : — " This vast muscle in 
Mysticetus corresponds to two muscles in human anatomy : the 
part from the inner slope on both aspects of the [pelvic] bone to 
the erector penis (ischio-cavernosus), enormously developed ; the 
part from the mesial raphe, on the under surface, to the anterior 
part of the accelerator urinse (bulbo-cavernosus)." 

Before giving reasons for controverting this view, I will continue 
his account (p. 307) of the posterior part of the great compressor 
(A) behind the horseshoe-shaped septum. 

Its fibres are only visible from the ventral aspect ; they arise 
from the median raphe, pass foi'wards and outwards, towai'ds the 
horseshoe-shaped septum, and "are inserted into the whole fibrous 
surface covered by this muscle : tJie deeper into the fibrous coat 



1901.] A]SrATOMT OE COGIA BEEVICEPS. 131 

of the bulb ^ ; the most superficial into the hinder surface of the 
horseshoe-shaped septum ; the intervening and greater part into 
the hard fibrous coat of the crus." 

Behind this muscle he represents a gi'oup of curved fibres 
(A', fig. 2), the ends of which arise from the horseshoe-shaped 
septum in front ; the right and left by a median raphe. These 
cross over behind the retractor penis. To this muscle he gives 
the name — with some hesitation owing to the mutilation — " levator 
ani" (p. 308). 

This " horseshoe-shaped septum " is a vertical sheet of fibrous 
tissue, attached to the lower faces of the crura penis and of the 
bulbus spongiosi. " In sections the septum appears as a prolonga- 
tion of the special fihrous stratum ivhich thickens the under surf ace of 
the crus^, and may be regarded as a continuation of that stratum, 
shelving to the surface in relation to the attachment and action 
of the posterior compressor muscle " (p. 306). 

From the relations of the " anterior compressor " (B) — that part 
which lies in front of the horseshoe-shaped septum — it seems to 
me that, not merely one part of it, but the whole is homologous 
with the erector penis or ischio-cavernosus, while the " posterior 
compressor" (A) is nothing else than a much reduced " accelerator 
urinse" ; for, like it, it is related to the corp. spongiosum, and the 
account of its attachments agrees with that given by Sir W. Turner. 
Further, the so-called " levator ani " (A ') has relations practically 
identical wdth the " posterior moiety" of the accelerator. 

As to the horseshoe-shaped septum, it seems to correspond with 
the longitudinal septum that, in Cogia, separates the acceleratores 
from the erectores (PI. XI. fig. 20, 2), which, owing to the short- 
ening of the median muscle and the great development of the 
lateral ones, has assumed this curved form. 

A comparison of the arrangement in the three genera shows the 
same two pairs of muscles in each, but an interesting disproportion 
in the relative sizes. At one end of the series, Cogia, we find the 
accelerators {A) relatively enormously developed, probably in re- 
lation to the bifurcation of the corp. spongiosum ; at the other 
end of the series, in B. mysticetus, the accelerator is much reduced, 
while the erectores (B) are enormously developed — no doubt in 
relation to the great size of the pelvic bone and to the existence of a 
rudiment of the hind limb, both of which are absent in Cogia. 
The Grampus occupies a middle place in the series, in which a 
pelvic bone is present, but with neither a hind limb nor crura c. 
spongiosi. 

List of Papers referred to in the text. 

1. Beatjeegaed & BouLAET. — " Sur FUtricule prostatique et les 
Canaux deferents des Cetaces." C.E. Ac. Sc. vol. 119, 1895, 
p. 596. 

^ Note. — The italics ai-e mine. 



132 PEOF. W. B. BENHAM ON THE [May 21, 

2. V. Haast. — " On tlie Occurrence of a new Species of Euphyseies 
&c. on the N. Z. Coast." Tr. N. Z. Inst. vi. 1873, p. 97, and 
P. Z. S. 1874, p. 260. 

3. Jackson, J. B. S., in Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. v. 1845. 

4. MuBiE. — " Anatomy of the Caa'ing Whale, Glohiceplialus 
melas." Tr. Zool. Soc. viii. 1867. 

5. MuME. — " Notes on the White-beaked Bottle-nose, Lageno- 
rynchus albirostris." Journ. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) xi. 1870, 
p. 141. 

6. MuRiE. — "On Eisso's Grampus." Journ. Anat. Physiol. 

(ser. 2) iv. 1871, p. 118. 

7. Owen. — " On some Indian Cetacea." Tr. Zool. Soc. vi. 1865, 
p. 17. 

8. Pilliet & BoTJLAET. — " L'Estomac des Cetaces." Journ. de 
I'Anat. et Physiol, xxxi. 1895, p. 250. [Abstract in Zool. 
Jahresber.] 

9. PotroHEx & Beaubegaed, — " Sur I'Estomac du Cachalot." 

C.E. Biol. Soc. ix. 1889, p. 92. [Abstract in Zool. Jahresber.] 

10. SiBSON. — " On the Blowhole of the Porpoise." Phil. Trans. 

1848, p. 117. 

11. Steuthees. — "On the Bones, Articulations and Muscles of 
the Rudimentary Hind Limbs of the Eight Whale {B. mystiee- 
tus)." Journ. Anat. Physiol, xv. 1881, p. 301. 

12. Steuthees. — " Anatomy of Beluga." Journ. Anat. Physiol. 
(3rd ser.), x. 1893. 

13. Tuenee. — "Anatomy of Sowerby's Whale." Journ. Anat. 

Physiol. XX. 1886, p". 144. 

14. TuENEE. — "Additional observations." Journ. Anat. Physiol, 
xxiii. 1889. 

15. TuENEE. — "Notes on some of the Viscera of Eisso's Grampus." 

Journ. Anat. Physiol, xxvi. 1892, p. 258. 

16. Tyson. " Phoccena, or the Anatomy of the Porpoise." 
London, 1680. 

Dunedin, March 8, 1901. 



EXPLANATION OP PLATES VIII.-XI. 

Anatomy of Coyia hreviceps. 

Plate VIII. 

Figs. 1-9 illustrate the structure of the Nasal Passages. 

Fig. 1. Outline of the head, to show the position of the blowhole (reduced). 
This is not absolutely correct, as the flesh of the head had been partially 
x-emoved. 

2. Enlarged view of the blowhole (nat. size), a, h, the anterior lip; 

c, the interruption in the lip, where the lip becomes continuous with 
the skin of the head ; d, posterior lip. mm, the median line of head. 
X points to region that, in the next figure, has been cut across. 

3. The spiracular vestibule, exposed by cutting across the auterior lip at 

r, and turning backwards the hinder lip d (nat. size), h, the right-hand 



1901.] ANATOMY or COGIA BREVICEPS. 133 

corner of the blowhole. E, the valve, vrhich is continued down the 
left narial canal. /, vertical wall of the hind-lip of blowhole ; g, the 
recess in this, h, left narial canal ; h', probe passed into it. i, probe 
passed into the right narial canal, mm, median line of head, a, c, as 
in fig. 2. 
Fig. 4. The right-hand corner of the foregoing figure, enlarged, showing the 
right narial canal and its lips. Letters as in fig. 3. 

5. The naso-palatine canal exposed by slitting open the soft palate, seen 
from behind, h, the lower end of left narial canal, j, the lower end 
of right narial canal. S, valve. fcj;i.,basisphenoidbone. p^'ery., ptery- 
goid, prs., presphenoid. 

6. Dissection of the head, exposing {A) the upper spiracular chamber, 
the front wall of whichis laid open (nat. size), h, the narial canal passing 
to the lower spiracular chamber, fib., fibro -muscular dermis. 
i, probe passes through the left nostril into the spiracular chamber. 
m, another probe passed into the nostril and issuing through the cut 
end of a branched canal similar to n. mus., cut muscle. 



Plate IX. 

Fig. 7. Further dissection exposing lower spiracular chamber, the front wall 
of which is turned downwards (^ nat. size). A, posterior, inferior 
face of the upper chamber. B, the opened lower chamber ; r, its 
posterior wall ; S, its anterior wall, mics., mvisoles. fib., fibrous 
dermis. /, right narial canal disappearing behind the surrounding 
tissue, b', the lower end of a probe passed through the inter-cavity 
canal (/') of the previous figure, b" and V", another probe passed 
through the dissevered part of this same canal ; //", its entrance into 
the lower chamber, c, probe passed down into the naso-palatine 
canal. 

8. A group of papillfe from the wall of the lower chamber ( X 4). 

9. Diagram of the nasal jjassages in the form of a projection seen from 
in front, a, blowhole, b, intercavitary portion of right narial canal, 
c, lower end of right narial canal. E, longitudinal valve in the left 
narial canal, h, left narial canal. _;', upper end of right narial canal. 
n, branching outgrowths of this right narial canal, q, nasopalatine 
canal. A, upper spiracular chamber. B, lower spiracular chamber, 
the dotted outline indicates its dorsal extension behind A. m.e.s,, me- 
dian line of the head. 

Figs. 10-14 refer to the Alimentary Canal. 

Fig. 10. View of the dorsal surface of the paunch and stomach (^ nat. size). 
a, oesophagus, b, paunch, c, cardiac chamber, d, commencement of 
pyloric chamber which had been cut short. 
11. Surface view of the lining of the oesophagus (slightly enlargedl, a, 
section through the same. 



Plate X. 

Fig. 12. Epithelial lining of the paunch (slightly enlarged). 

13. Mucous membrane of the cardiac chamber (slightly enlarged). 

14. A part of the wall of the cardiac chamber has been removed, and the 

cardiac orifice thus exposed (^ nat. size), a, oesophagus, b, paunch. 
c, cardiac chamber, d, the two ridges bounding the furrow leading 
from oesophagus to paunch. E, probe passing from oesophagus. 
/, probe passed along the furrow into the paunch, c/, circular ridge 
of mucosa and submucosa surrounding the orifice, k, k, free fold of 
oesophageal mucosa projecting through the orifice. 



134 ON THE ANATOMY OF COGIA BEEVlCEIPS. [May 21, 

Figures 15-25 refer to the Penis. 

Fig. 15. View of the entire penis from the right side (| nat. size): the penial 
sheath is opened to show the tip of the gians. A portion of the abdo- 
minal wall (B) is represented to show the connection of the nmscles of 
the sheath. 

16. Transverse section of the body of the penis (nat. size). 

17. Transverse section of penis about 6 inches from the tip (nat. size). 

18. Transverse section of penis two inches below the tip (nat. size). 

19. A dissection of the base of the penis (J nat. size) : the upper half of 
the muscles and of the corp. cavernosum and corp. spongiosum has 
been sliced away so as to expose the crura of these two bodies. 



Plate XI. 

Fig. 20. Transverse section of the base of the penis at the point of bifurcation 
of the erectile tissues (^ nat. size, somewhat diagrammatic). It 
exhibits the relation of the muscles to the crura. 1, 2, connective- 
tissue septa. 

21. A sperm -duct opened, a, its upper region ; h, its lower region. 

22. Internal surface of the hind wall of the bulbus urethrje and the 
commencement of the penial region of the uretlira. a, the mouth of 
shallow pit, which is drawn on an enlarged scale at the side to show 
the apertures of the two sperm-duets. 

23. Ventral view of the base of the penis {^ nat, size). 

24. Dorsal view of the base of the penis (^ nat. size), with the pelvic fascia 
in situ, and a couple of lymphatic glands on the left. In the centre, 
forwards, the origin of the compressor urethras (C.u.) in the under sur- 
face of the fascia is indicated. 

25. Dorsal view of the base of the penis after removal of the pelvic fascia 
(I nat. size). The "sphincter ani"has been turned backwards to 
show the compressor urethras and termination of the retractor penis 
in the rectal muscles. 



Explanation of the lettering. 

Ac, accelerator urina muscle. Ac' , its posterior division, ar., pudic 
artery. Bv., blood-vessels on penis. Ca., corpus cavernosum. 
Cr.ca., crus. corp. cavernosi. C'r.Sp., crus corp. spongiosi. a.m., cir- 
cular muscles in sheath of penis. Ct., connective-tissue coat of penis. 
C.U., compressor urethrEe muscle, ep., epidermis of glans penis. 
Er., erector penis muscle, g, lymphatic gland, gl-p., glans penis. 
L, pelvic ligament, fey., levator ani muscle. «;., muscle of doubtful 
homology. P., external aperture of penial sheath. Pro., prostate 
gland or its pores. B., rectum. Be., retractor penis muscle, r, longi- 
tudinal ridges in sperm-duct. S.d., sperm-duct, or its opening into 
ux'ethra. 5'A.,shc;cilh of penis. <Sjd., corpus spongiosum. /SpA., sphincter 
ani muscle, t., tendinous patch on erector muscle, tu., tunic of corp. 
cavernosum. IT., urethra, v., valves in sperm-duct. 



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1901.] ON NEW CHAMELEONS FEOM BRITISH BAST AEEICA. 135 

4. Descriptions of two new Chameleons from Mount 
E-uwenzori, British East Africa. By G. A. Boulenger, 
F.R.S. 

[Eeceived May 6, 1901.] 

(Plates XII. & XIII.^) 

The already long list of East- African Chameleons has receatly 
been enriched hj the discovery of two most strikingly new species 
represented in Sir Harry Johnstons collection, which I have been 
authorised to describe. Examples of these new species were 
obtained on Mount Euwenzori at an altitude of 6000 feet, together 
with specimens of 0. ellioti, Gthr. 

Chameleon xenokhinus. (Plate XII.) 

Casque elevated posteriorly, very much in the male, with 
strong, curved parietal crest ; the distance between the commissure 
of the mouth and the extremity of the casque equals the length 
of the buccal cleft in the male, a little less in the female ; lateral 
crest distinct all round the head, strong and tubercular ; upper 
head-scales large, unequal in size ;. interorbital region concave ; 
the snout of the male terminating in two large compressed 
bony processes directed forward and slightly upward, closely 
appressed, fused together at the base, nearly twice as long as deep; 
in the female, the processes replaced by two ver}^ small tubei'cular 
knobs ; no trace of occipital lobes. Body covered with rather coarse 
granules, intermixed with numerous feebly enlarged flat tubercles. 
A feeble dorsal crest in the male, barely indicated in the female ; 
no gular or ventral crest ; enlarged flat tubercles on the side of 
the throat. No tarsal process. Tail longer than head and body, 
not crested. Male uniform dark olive, the rostral appendage and 
part of the tail lighter. Eemale purplish brown, with a large 
blackish, light-edged blotch on each side of the body. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 240 197 

Erom end of snout to extremity of 

mandible (rostral process excluded) . . 25 21 

From end of snout to extremity of 



casque 



38 25 



Length of rostral appendage 14 — 

Greatest width between lateral cranial 

crests 16 13 

Depth of skull (mandible included) 26 16 

Width of head 16-5 14 

Body 75 66 

Tibia 17 15 

Tail 140 110 

Two specimens, male and female. 

This species stands nearest to G. fischeri, Reichen. 

^ For an explanation of the Plates, see p. 136. j 



136 ON NEW CHAMELEONS PROM BRITISH EAST AERICA. [May 21, 

Chameleon johnstoni. (Plate XIII.) 

Casque feebly raised posteriorly, with obtusely angular posterior 
contour, with a short, feeble parietal crest ; the distance between 
the commissure of the mouth and the extremity of the casque 
equals the length of the buccal cleft ; lateral crest strong and 
tubercular, but absent on the snout ; no canthus rostralis ; inter- 
orbital region concave ; male with three long, conical, smooth, 
horn-like processes with circular striae, directed forward and 
slightly upwai'd, one in front of each orbit and the third on the 
snout ; the rostral horn a little thicker, but not longer than the 
orbitals ; no trace of such appendages in the female ; scales on 
upper surface of head unequal, moderately large ; no trace of 
occipital lobes. Body with angular spine, but without crest, 
coarsely granular, with scattered small flat tubercles ; no gular 
or ventral crest. No tarsal process. Tail as long as head and 
body, not crested. Uniform dark olive ; horns yellowish. 

millim. millim. 

Total length 224 220 

From end of snout to -extremity of 

mandible 24 24 

From end of snout to extremity of casque 33 33 

Eostral horn 16 — 

Praeorbital horn 17 — 

Grreatest width between lateral cranial 

crests 13 13 

Depth of skull (mandible included) . . 21 21 

Width of skull 17 17 

Body 88 80 

Tibia 22 20 

Tail 112 115 

Three male specimens, one female and one young. 

The Chameleon which I have the pleasure of naming after 
Sir Harry Johnston, K.O.B., is most nearly related to the one 
described by me as C. jacksoni, from which it is easily distinguished 
by the more feeble occipital crest, the finer granulation of the 
body, and the absence of large tubercles on the spine, forming a 
dorsal crest. 

EXPLANATION OP THE PLATES. 

Plate XII. 

Chamceleon ccenorhinus, male, with upper view of head, and side view of head 
of female. 

Plate XIII. 

Ckamcsleon johnstoni, male, with upper view of head, and side view of head of 
female. 



P.Z.S.1901,vol.II.Pl.XIV, 





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1901.] ON KBPTILES AND BATEACHIA.NS TEOM ARABIA. 137 

5. A List of the Reptiles and Batrachians obtained by 
Mr. A. Blayney Percival in Southern Arabia. By the 
late Dr. J. Anderson, LL.D., F.R.S. With Notes by 
the Collector.^ 

[Received May 14, 1901.] 

(Plates XIV. & XV.^) 

REPTILIA. 
LACERTILIA. 

GrBCKONID^. 

1. Stenodacttlus dobi^ Blanf. 

Three specimens from the Abian country. One, an adult 
female, the largest of the species I have seen, measures 60 mm. 
from the snout to the vent, and the tail 46 mm. The second 
female is about half -grown ; the third is a male, also young. It 
has two well-developed preanal pores. All three were collected 
by Mr. Percival in the Abian country. 

The adult female has well-defined large brown spots on the 
back and much smaller whitish ocelli, margined with brown, inter- 
mixed among the brown speckling. The other two individuals 
have no large brown dorsal spots, but the pale brownish of the 
back is marked by numerous round white spots, with a dark ring 
encirchng each, intermixed among the dark rings and dark brown 
speckling. The coloration is much the same as that of the Egyptian 
S. elegcms, from which this form differs chiefly by the divided 
character of the scales or plates on the under surface of the toes. 

2. BuNOPUS SPATALTJEUS, sp. n. (Plate XIV. fig. 1.) 

Head oval, flattened from between the eyes and backwards to 
the occiput. Snout short and somewhat broad, its length equalling 
once and a half the longitudinal diameter of the eye and one-third 
the total length of the head on the upper surface. Eorehead 
convex ; a short depression behind each nostril. Eye rather large, 
its longitudinal diameter equal to the distance between the hinder 
border of the ear and external canthus. Ear a narrow oval 
slit placed obliquely, from above downwards and forwards, about 
half the long diameter of the eye. Body not depressed but 
rather compressed, covered with somewhat imbricate or juxtaposed 
scales of irregular size, the larger more numerous than the 

^ This paper had been prepared shortly before his death by the author, whose 
MS., however, comprised no introduction. For an account of Mr. Percival's 
Expedition, see P. Z. S. 1900, p. 95. 

^ For an explanation of the Plates, see p. 152. 



138 DR. J. AKDERSON ON REPTILES AND [May 21, 

smaller scales, some of them ou the middle of the back showing a 
tendency to carination. • Scales of the upper surface of the head 
juxtaposed, flat, rounded, hexagonal. A few I'ounded tubercles 
on the temporal and occipital regions. B-ostral once and nearly 
one half as broad as high, upper external angles rounded off, mesial 
line cleft in its upper half. Nostril defined by the rostral, first 
labial, and three nasals. Ten upper and lower labials. Mental 
nearly as broad as long, outer margin opposed to first labial, concaye, 
with another shorter concave margin behind it, against which lies a 
small shield, the most anterior of the line of enlarged granules 
which lies below the lower labials. Gular scales granular. Ventral 
scales more or less pointed and feebly carinated. Tail verticillate 
throughout, cylindrical in its anterior half, and flattened from above 
downwards in its posterior moiety, with the tip slightly laterally 
expanded ; no enlarged scales inferiorly. Limbs moderate ; 
digits slender, with two or three of the distal phalanges 
forming an angle with the base as in Gymnodactylus, covered with 
transverse lamellae more or less spiny or tubercular. Four preanal 
pores. General colour greyish, the head finely and obscurely 
speckled irregularly with black. A broad black band passing 
from side to side across the nape of the neck from behind the 
temporal region, succeeded by five similar broad bands on the 
trunk and eight on the tail, the intervening greyish areas being not 
quite so broad as the black bands. The dark bands are continued 
down on both sides of the trunk, but on the tail they form rings. 
Underparts whitish. 

Prom snout to vent 35 millimetres ; tail 23. 

This species is of considerable interest, as it seems somewhat to 
connect the two genera Bunopus and Gymnodactylus together. Its 
flattened tail somewhat expanded at the tip and the character of 
the body-scales are its most striking features. 

Only one specimen was collected by Mr. Percival, in the Wadi 
Jimil. 

3. Pristurus jlatipunctatus Eiipp. 

Numerous examples from the hills north of Lahej, towards 
Jimil, and from the Jimil Valley. 

4. Prisiurus Cruciper Val. 

Numerous examples from the same localities as the preceding, 
and also from the hill-country east of Aden, from Wadis between 
Lahej and the mountains and below Mount Manif. 

5. Pristurus collaris Steindachner. 

Two specimens from the hills north of Lahej towards Jimil, and 
one from the Wadis between Lahej and the mountains. These 
specimens are exactly like those described from the Hadramut \ 
This is the first time it has been recorded from Aden. 

^ Herpetology of Arabia (Anderson), 1896, p. 34. 



1901.] BATEAOHIANS FEOM ARABIA. 139 

These specimens do not throw any additional light on the 
relation between this species and P. carteri (Gray) ^. 

[We found these strange little beasts on the very hottest stony 
deserts near Manif , and again amongst the black volcanic rocks in 
the xibian country : they are extremely quick and are also very 
fragile, tails breaking off without any provocation. I obtained 
several with a pistol by shooting at the stone where they sat, the 
splashes of lead from bullet killing them. When sitting on a stone 
the tail is usually curled round, something like a chameleon's. 
They look almost white when alive. As I passed the stone on 
which they were, they would move round it so that their head was 
to be seen over the top. — A. B. P.] 

6. Hemidaottlus verbueyi Anderson. 

2 (S . Erom the Bungalow at Lahej. 

1 c?, 1 $ . North of Lahej, 

These specimens agree in all their details of structure and in their 
coloration with the types. 

[Very common on walls and roof of the Bah Bungalow at 
Lahej ; also about the Sultan's palace. — A. B. P.] 



Agamid^. 

7. Agama siisTAiTA Heydeu. 

1 c? & 1 $ . Wadis between Lahej and the mountains. 
1 c? & 1 $ • Wadis below Mt. Manif, north of Lahej. 

1 J & 1 $ . Lahej. 

These specimens resemble the examples of this species from the 
Hadramut in their large dorsal scales. They consequently differ 
from the Sinaitic and Egyptian Hzards ; but as this is the only 
featm-e by which they can be distinguished, and as they have the 
third digit the longest, possess an enlarged plate under each claw, 
and have brown spines on the transverse plates of the digits, all 
of which are characteristic of this species, the enlargement of the 
dorsal scales is only a local variation which begins to show itself 
to the north at Medina, where the species is traced to the south 
from the Sinaitic Peninsula. 

8. Uromastix (Apoeoscelis) bbnti Anderson. (Plate XV.) 

2 S adnlt and 1 $ . Between Mt. Manif and Jimil. 
1 S • Abian Mountain. 

' This species, originally described from the Hadramut, was 
obtained by Captain Nurse about four years ago from the hills 50 
miles to the north of Aden ". The present specimens differ in no 

1 Oouf. Boulenger, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2)xvi. 1896, p. 549. 
^ Herpetology oi Arabia (Anderson), 1896, p. 63. 



140 DR. J. ANDERSON ON REPTILES AND [May 21, 

respect from those obtained by Captain Nurse, nor from the 
Hadramut type. 

Mr. Percival has added the accompanying note regarding this 
Lizard, which, as is well known, is a vegetable-feeder. He says 
it is much hunted by the Beduins, who eat it. 

[This fine lizard is fairly numerous in the hills of Southern 
Arabia. It is a vegetable-feeder, and is much hunted by the 
Beduins, who eat it. The specimens now in spirit in my collections 
all contained small twigs and grass in stomach. The first specimen 
was brought me at J. Manif cut to pieces by a spear. I impressed 
upon the briuger that I did not want them in that state, and he 
promised to get some more alive : next day he brought one alive 
and in nice condition. Two days later at Jimil I got two more 
specimens ; and on the last trip into the Abian country, to the east 
of Aden, I got two more specimens, the live one I brought 
home being one of them. It is a slow beast, and when seen is very 
easily captured, unless, as happened to me, they get into a crack 
in the rocks and so escape. There are, I think, one or two more 
species, as the Beduins say that in Dethina there is a larger species 
that is particularly good-eating. I did not try the lizard as an 
article of food, much as some of the men wished me to. I was 
told that they were particularly numerous along the sides of 
W. Teramis, but I saw only one and that one escaped me into a 
crack in rocks ; it was on the northern side. — A. B. P.] 

The larger species referred to by the natives as occurring at 
Dethina may probably prove to be U. ornatus. 

The figure here given of this beautiful lizard is taken from the 
living specimen brought home by Mr. Percival. 

Vaeanid^. 

9. Vaeanus griseus Daud. 

[Native name "Waral." I saw only one specimen of this fine 
Lizard. They are not uncommon, as we often saw their spoor. 
Seem to live in same holes as the large Jerboa Eats (Tuft-tail 
Eats).— ^. B. P.] 

AmPHISBjENIDjE. 

10. Agamodon aeabicus, sp. n. (Plate XIV. fig. 2.) 

Body much compressed, its transverse breadth at the middle 
being little more than one-half of its depth, whilst before the 
vent it is less than half of the depth. Head very short, higher 
than broad. Eostral considerably broader than long, triangular ; 
the apex or labial border curved downwards and slightly back- 
wards and nearly half the breadth of the base of the shield. Frontal 
more or less concave from side to side, the lateral margins of this 
shield, as well as of the rostral, projecting and raised aboA^e the 
shields on the sides of the head. Nostril elongated, parallel to the 



1901.] BATRACHIANS PROM ARABIA. 141 

outer border of the rostral, in a single shield resting on the 1st, 2nd, 
and 3rd upper labials. Pive upper labials, the fourth and fifth the 
largest, the first lying below and close to the nostril. A large 
quadrangular postnasal lying above the 3rd, 4lh, and 5th labials 
and below the anterior half of the ocular shield. Ocular plate 
considerably longer than deep, partially divided about the middle 
of the eye ; a large postoeular with three shields between 
it and the hinder margin of the gape. A subocular, higher 
than broad, lying between the postnasal and the shield below the 
postoeular. Three lower labials, the first only in contact with the 
mental ; the last very large and elongated from above downwards, 
separated from its fellow of the opposite side by seven scales which 
are shut off from the posterior end of the chin-shield and from the 
first and second labials by seven other shields and scales, one or 
two of the shields being in contact with all the lower labials. 
Mental very elongate and ribbon-shaped, reaching as far back as 
the posterior border of the second labial. 161 annuli on the body, 
18 on the tail. About 55 scales round the body, including the 
irregular scales of the vertebral and ventral lines, in the former of 
which there are about 7 and in the latter 3; each annulus containing 
about 45 quadrangular segments. 

Salmon-coloured in life, the majority of the segments of the 
annuli being generally partially or wholly marked by a dark 
brown spot, absent, however, from the lower half of the sides and 
ventral aspect ; head-plates yellowish. 

A single specimen, from the Abian country, measuring 144 
millimetres. 

This species is the first of the Emphyodont group of Amphis- 
bsenidse which has been recorded from the Asiatic Continent, but 
Pachy calamus is found in Socotra. 

Three species of Agamodon are known, viz., A. anguliceps Peters \ 
the type of the genus, A. compi'essus Mocquard ^, and A. arabicus 
Anders. The first was described from a specimen obtained at 
Barava, and the second also from Somaliland. They constitute 
three well-defined species distinguished from one another by 
the number of annuli round the body. In the first they do 
not exceed 133. In A. compressus there are as many as 147, 
and in A. arabicus there are over 160. A. ay^hicus has a greater 
number of upper labials than in the African forms, but it is 
quite possible that with further materials the supposed dis- 
tinction will vanish. It also differs from the other species in 
the way in which the second lower labial is broadly excluded from 
the mental. 

A. arabicus has the compressed form of A. compressus, from 
which it is at once distinguished by the shape of its frouto-parietal 
in addition to the other characters here enumerated. 



1 Peters, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Berl. 1882, p. 579, pi. x. 

2 Mocquard, Mem. Cent. Soc. Philom. 1888, p. 121*, pi. xi. figs. 2, 2 a to 2 c, 



142 



DE. J. ANDERSON OK REPTILES AND 



[May 21, 









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1901.] 



BATBACHIASrS PEOM ARABIA. 



143 



Peters's definition of the genus is as follows : — " Dentes maxil- 
larum tomiis innati. Caput siiperne scutis duobus, rostrali fronto- 
parietalique, obtectum. Oculi distineti, superolaterales. Corpus 
subbreA' e ; segmenta lateralia quadrangularia, dorsalia ventraliaqne 
media minora, squamiformia ; sulcus lateralis nullus, spinalis 
obsoletus,abdominalis medianus distinctus ; pori prseanales distineti. 
Cauda compressa, apice acuminato." In his further explanation 
of the generic characters he states that the nasal was sickle-formed, 
and in his account of the specific characters he states that there 
were three upper labials, but that in the type the first upper 
labial had united with the nasal, separating only two labials, the 
nasal entering the labial border, there, however, being in reality 

3 upper labials. 

Mocquard, who had 9 examples of A. anguliceps Peters under 
observation, viz., 7 males and 2 females, states that they all had 

4 upper labials instead of 3 as described by Peters, so that in 
A, angulieeps these shields may vary from 2 to 4, the smaller of 
these numbers being due to the first labial amalgamating with the 
nasal. Pour, however, would appear to be the prevalent number 
in this species. 

In the specimen 88.1.12.1 there are two well-developed and 
prominent preanal pores, whereas in the individual 89.12.16.32 
there are four small blackish orifices in the position of pores 
exactly as figured by Peters. If these pores are confined to the 
males, then the specimen 96.9.24.16 and the type of A. arabicus 
are females. 

[This burrowing reptile I obtained at Ai Khaur from a ploughed 
field, it being thrown out by the plough just as I passed. It was 
salmon-pink in colour when alive. — A.B.P.^ 



Lacertid^. 
11. AcANTHODACTYLUs cajsttoris Grunther. 





02 


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1 


juv. $ 

$ 

juv. 2 

2 


621 

60 

39 

53 

36 

46 


152 

? 

9 
? 
? 

107 


32 

34 
39 
32 
34 
39 


14 
14 
13 
14 
14 
14 


11 

14 
13 
12 
12 
10 


L. E. 

20 21 

21 20 

22 22 
21 20 
21 20 
17 20 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 



1 Measurements throughout in millimetres. 



144 



DB. J. ANDERSON ON REPTILES AND 



[May 21, 



No. of 



specimens. 
1 &2. 2 
3, 1 juv. 



. Wadis between Lahej and the moiiu tains, 
, Wadi below Mount Manif north of Lahej. 

4. 2 ' Hills north o£ Lahej towards Jiinil. 

5. Juv. Jirnil Valley. 

6. Abian hill-country east of Aden. 

None of the examples of this species hitherto recorded from 
Aden and its neighbourhood have had fewer than 38 scales trans- 
versely and dorsally between the ventrals at the middle of the 
body, but in some of the foi'egoing examples there are as few as 
32, so that now the range of variation in the number of dorsal scales 
in the region indicated is as much as 25, the highest number 
occurring in Baluchistan, and the lowest in the Aden district, 
where the variation may be as much as 13. 

12. ACANTHODACTYLUS BOSKIANUS Daud. 











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10 
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17 

17 


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11-4 
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20 12 

21 21 
23 23 


2 


3 





1. 1 ? . Wadi between Lahej and the mountains. 

2. 1 $ . Wadis below Mt. Manif. 

3. 1 c? . Abian country. 

These specimens belong to the variety aspera, as is shown by the 
small number of scales between the ventrals across the back. 
Thirty-four is a lower number than has hitherto been recorded. 

13. Latastia longioaudata Eeuss. 

1 c? . Shaikh Othman. 

Snout to vent 98 mm., tail 320 mm. 

The only distinction in which this male differs from African 
specimens is in the greater number of its femoral pores. The 
highest number yet recorded in Africa is 14, whereas in this South 
Arabian specimen there are as many as 16. The following are 
the numbers of plates and scales present in this individual : — 

Ventrals from side to side 6. Ventrals between collar and 
preanal region 31. Collar-plates 9. Upper labials 9 (6th below 
eye). Scales round middle of body 58. 



1901.] 



BATEACHIANS FROM AllABIA. 



145 



This is the second occasion on which this species has been 
recorded from Asia. In the iirst instance it was found at Tor on 
the Sinaitic Peninsula, and these specimens constituted the types 
of the species. 

14. Latastta haedeggeei Steind. 

Latastia hardeggeri, Steind. Ann. Hofmus. Wien, vi. 1891, 
p. 371, ph xi. ; Blgr. Zool. Eec. 1893, Eept. p. 23; id. Ann. & Mag. 
N. H. (7) V. 1898, p. 130. 

Eremias heterolejns, Boettg. Zool. Anz. 1893, pp. 115 & 193. 

Philodiortiis neumanni, Matschie, SB. Ges. naturf. Er. Berl. 
1893, p. 30. 

Latastia neumanni, Anders. P. Z. S. 1895, p. 643, pi. xxxvii. 
fig. 1 ; id. Herpet. of Arabia, 1896, pp. 73, 80, 85, & 88. 

1 (S , 1 2 1 ^^^ 1 ji^'^' 



Snout to Tent 

Vent to tip of tail 

Ventrals across body . . 
Ventrals, collar to preanal 

region 

Plates of collar 

Upper labials 

Upper labials under eye 

Scales round middle of body. . . 
Femoral pores 



d- 


2- 


Juv. 


74 


82 


51 


205 


190 


? 


6 


6 


6 


32 


31 


31 


8 


8 


9 


9-9 


8—8 


9-9 


6-7 


5-5 


6—6 


38 


39 


39 


16—15 


15—14 


16—15 



Berbera. 
Juv. c?. 



43 
122 

6 

30 

8 
9—9 
6—6 

34 

12 



The first specimen of this species from Aden which came under 
my observation had 42 and 47 rows of scales across the middle of 
the body between the ventrals. These recent specimens from 
practically the same locality have only 38 and 39 rows of scales. 
In an example in the British Museum from Berbera there are 
only 34 rows of scales. Mr. Bouleuger, in identifying this example 
of L. hardeggeri in 1898 \ remarked that in fact "nothing but 
a smaller number of scales across the body (about 30 exclusive of 
the ventrals) distinguishes it " from L. neumanni. The specimen, 
however, with which he dealt, he states had 34 rows. The 
circumstance that there is only a difference of 4 rows of scales 
between the recent acquisition from Aden and the Berbera lizard 
referable to L. hardeggeri, causes the supposed distinction to break 
down, and L. neumanni must be relegated as a synonym to 
L. hardeggem. The range of scales exclusive of the ventrals has 
now been ascertained to be from 30 to 47. 

15. Eeemias guttulata Licht. 
1 5 . Jimil valley. 
1 2 . Abian country east of Aden. 

The palpebral disk of these specimens consists of two semifrans- 
1 Ann. & Mag. N. H. (7) ii. 1898, p. 130. 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II, No. X. 10 



146 



DB, J. ANBEfiSOJS^ ON KEPTILBS AND 



[May 21, 



parent plates, of about equal dimensions, as in Egyptian examples 
of this species. In both the interparietal is directly in contact 
with the occipital. 



Snout to 

vent. 


Tail. 


Scales round 

body including 

ventrals. 


Mesial longitu- 
dinal line of 
ventrals. 


Position of 
subocular be- 
tween labials. 


Femoral 
pores. 


46 

38 


73 
? 


49 
56 


30 
30 


L. R. 

4 5 

L. 4&5 
E. 5&6 


13-13 
12-13 



Secently figured, see ' Symbolse Physicse, seu Icones adhuc 
ineditse,' of Hemprich & Ehrenberg, Zool. i. Amph. pi. ii. fig. 1. 

SCINCIDjE. 



Wadis between Lahej and the mountains. 

>> _ »i J? J» J5 

2 . Abian hill-country E. of Aden. 
Juv. of foregoing specimen. 

5J 55 5) 

In membranes of foregoing specimen. 
Abian country. 
Jimil Valley. 













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15 



1901.] BATEACHIANS FitOM ABADIA. 147 

This lizard and the specifically identical Euprepes pyrrhocephalus 
Wiegm. have been figured in the recently published work entitled 
' Symbolse Physicae, seu Icoues adhuc ineditae &c.,' of Hemprich & 
Ehrenberg, Zool. i. Amph. pi. v. figs. 1 & 2. 

The large female, the mother of the young ones, is complerely 
devoid of white spots. The dark longitudinal lines ax-e only feebly 
indicated, but the small dark brown spots by which they are niarlied 
are very distinct. The white lateral band is more or less distinct. 
The specimen ]So. 2 has much the same characters, but there are 
here and there faint traces of white spots. In the large female 
No. 1 the dark lines and dark brown spots are present, and white 
spots on the anterior part of the body. In the adult male the 
general colour is pale brown, each scale having a dark brown 
margin. A few white spots occur on the sides of the body. The 
pale lateral band is present, and below it is a broadish dark band 
extending back from the eye to the hind limb, blackish on the sides 
of the head and neck, but becoming pale brown behind the axilla. 
The sides of the body below the band are of a pale livid tint ex- 
tending on to the throat, which is dark-spotted ; white spots on 
the upper and lower labials. 

The young is marked dorsally by two broad, very pale brown 
bands defined by a mesial and by a very narrow pale whitish band 
externally. These three lines converge on the base of the tail. 
There are six longitudinal lines, each consisting of 18 well-defined 
black spots from the head to the interfemoral region, but beyond 
that they are prolonged on to the tail. There are two transverse 
sets of spots to each of the broad brownish areas, and another 
somewhat more transversely elongated set of black spots along the 
side on a somewhat pale brownish lateral band from the eye to 
the hind limb, the sides of the body below it being also black- 
spotted. The upper surface of the fore limbs is pale brownish with 
obscure whitish spots, whereas the corresponding aspect of the 
hind limb is markedly black-and-white spotted. Underparts pure 
white. The mesial white longitudinal dorsal line disappears in the 
adult, but the white lateral line of each side is more or less per- 
sistent throughout life. In none of the very young which I have 
examined are white spots associated \Aith the dark spots as occur 
in some adults. Young lizards with the foregoing coloration corre- 
spond to M. pulclira Matschie. 

In two of the fcetuses the male generative organs are extruded. 

17. SciNCUS HEMPEiciiii Wiegm. 

1 6 . Shaikh Othman. 

1 c? . Lahej and south to Shaikh Othman. 

This lizard has been recently figured in the part of the ' Symboise 
Physicse ' entitled " Icones adhuc ineditae &c.," 1899, Zool. i. Amph. 
pi. iv. figs. 1 & 1 a. 

The Aden specimen described by me in 1895 differed from 
the type preserved in the Berlin Museum and from Professor 

10* 



148 



DE. J. AlSTDERSOlSr OK EEPTILES AICD 



[May 21, 



Bcettger's Aden example of the species in having 24 instead of 22 
rows of scales round the body, whereas out of the three speciaiens 
now recorded 22 is the prevailing number. 

In all of these specimens the frontoparietals and frontal are 
normal, also the supi^aorbitals. 









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26 


31 


24 


" 



18. Chalcides ocellatus Forskal. 

1. Wadis between Lahej and the mountains. 
1. Wadis below Mount Manif north of Lahej. 
1 juv. Abian country. 





















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102 


107 


7 


19 


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27 


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1 &2 
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2 


E. 8-6 
L. 8-7 


5 


30 


124 


90 


8 


20 


23 


29 


rostral 
and 1st 
labial. 


1 &2 


2 


R. 8-7 
L. 8-7 


5 


30 


46 


43 


4 


9-5 


11 


14-5 




1&2 


2 


R.7— 6 
L. 8— 6 


5 


30 



In both the adults, the broken, more or less oblique or transverse 
black dorsal bands, the breadth of a scale, are well-defined, 
each dorsal and lateral scale included in the black band being 
provided with the usiial pure white narrow spot. In the smaller 
of the two, the black bands with the white spots constitute 
about 26 transverse dorsal bands, whereas in the larger specimen 
they are nearly obliterated. In the young there are no black 
bands, but many of the scales have a white spot margined with 
blackish, but on the tail there are feebly indicated pale brown 
dorsal bands with white spots, as in the last mentioned adult. 
The coloration of these lizards thus conforms to that distinctive 
of the typical form of this species. 



1901.] 



BATRACHIANS PROM ARABIA. 



149 



The largest of the two adults is four millimetres longer than the 
largest male yet recorded by me \ 

[JN'ot uncommon in desert between Lahej and Shaikh Othman : 
only obtained at night by going out with a lantern and looking 
for tracks in sand and by throwing the sand aside which indicated 
where the animals had gone down, until they were thrown or had 
come out again. Chahides ocellatus was very common in and 
around Lahej, and in fact everywhere we went. — A. B. P.] 

EHIPTOGLOSSA. 

CHAM^LE02fTIDJ5. 

19. Cham.eleojS' calcarifer Peters. 

1 S . Lahej. 

2S. Shaikh Othman. 

1 juv. 2 . Abian country. 



Sex. 


Snout to eud 
of casque. 


Angle of mouth 

to summit of 

casque. 


Snout to 
vent. 


Vent to tip 
of tail. 


6 

6 

6 

? 


74 
71 
39 
25 


54 
60 
26 
17 


230 

195 

108 

74 


265 

220 

122 

80 



In the adult and semiadult the anterior border of the casque is 
nearly straight, whereas in the other two much younger 
specimens it is decidedly concave in its curvature. The occipital 
lobes of the second specimen are somewhat more developed 
relatively than in the adult. 



OPHIDIA. 

CoLTTBRIDjB. 

20. Zamenis rrodorhachis Jan. 
1. Abian country. 

Snout 
to vent. 

$...655 

This snake is of a uniform greyish-blue or slate-colour along 
two-thirds of the length of the trunk, whereas in the latter third 
and on the upper surface of the tail it passes into purplish brown. 

1 Herpet. Arabia, 1896, p. 50; Zool. of Egypt, Eept. & Batr. 1898 p. 219. 



Tail. 


V. 


A. 


0. 


Scales. 


Upper 
labials. 


Labials 
entering eye 


245 


221 


1/1 


131 


19 


9+9 


5&6. 



150 



DR. J. ABTDERSOK OlST REPTILES AND 



[May 21, 



Oa the neck there is a narrow interrupted blackish mesial line, 
becoming more marked as it is traced backwards, and so broad at 
the anterior fourth as to cover the greater part of the back, 
ultimately extending over the whole of the dorsal surface and pro- 
ducing the purphsh-brown colour already referred to. Externally 
to the dark area, about the middle of the body, there are a few black 
scales on the sides and on the angles of the ventrals. The upper 
surface of the head olive-greyish. Upper lips pale greyish-yellow. 
Under surface of neck anteriorly yellowish, passing into dusky, 
which is the general colour of the ventrals, which have darker 
borders, whereas the under surface of the terminal fourth of the 
body is dark purplish-brown. 

It recalls in its coloration the snake from Ogaden in Somaliland 
described by Boettger^ under the name of Z. ladacensis var. 
suhnigra, but differs from it in some details, but of such little 
importance that the type of coloration first indicated by Boettger 
may be said to be common to individuals of Z. rhodorhacMs from 
both sides of the Eed Sea in the latitude of Aden. 

The type of Boettger's var. suhnigra had ventrals 213, anals 1/1, 
caudals 118, and scales 19. 

21. Tarbophis GUEifTHERi Andcrsou. 
1 $ . Abiau country. 
Snout 



to vent. Tail. 

650 125 

Number of 

dark dorsal 

spots. 

Ill-defined, not 
sufficiently distinct 
to be counted. 



V. 

229 



A. 
1 



Prceocular, 
1 



C. Scales. 

65 21 

Eelation of 
prEeocular 
to frontal. 

In contact. 



Upper 
labials. 

9+9 



Post- 
oculars. 



Labials 
entering eye. 

3, 4, & 5 



Temporals. 

R. 2 + 3. 

L. 2+4. 



The coloration of this specimen resembles that of the specimen 
already recorded from Lahej. The undivided anal, the number 
of the scales round the body being less than 23, and the 
arrangement of the labials entering the orbit, are all characters 
distinctive of this form, which, however, is very closely allied to 
T. obtusus Heuss. 

22, CCELOPELTIS MOILENSIS EeUSS. 

1 2 • Abian country. 

Snout to Upper Labials 

vent. Tail. V. A. C. Scales. labials. entering eye. 

495 135 167 1/1 69 17 8 4&5 

Relation of 
prseocular and 



Pr£BOcuIars. frontal. 

1 Widely separated. 



Post- 
oculars. 

2f2 



Temporals. 
2-f3 



Nasal. 
1 



Loreal. 
1 



^ Zool. Anz. 1893, p. 118. 



1901.] BATEACHIA^"S FROM ARABIA. 151 

This species was first recorded from Arabia by Eiippell, In 1895 
it was met with for the first time at Aden by Col. Yerbury \ and 
in 1896 Bent brought it back with him from the Hadramut. In 
the smallness of the dark spots the present example corresponds to 
the Egyptian snakes. Those from Suakin are distinguished by large 
black spots and more vivid colouring. 

23. PsAMMOPHis SCHOKAEI Porskal. 



1. Abian 


country. 








Snout to vent. Tail. 


Ventrals. 


Anals. Caudals. 


Scales. 


228 


155 


181 


1/1 154 


17 


Upper 
labials. 


Labials 
entering eye. 


Relation of 
praeocular 
to frontal. 


Temporals in 
contact with 
postoculars. 


Number of 
nasals. 


9 


5&6 


Broadly in 
contact. 


2 


2 



A dusky band from the nostril through the eye to the temporal 
region. Upper parts pale gi'eyish, under surface white, but with a 
minute black spot generally present in the angle of each ventral. 
The lineated form of this snake also occurs in the Aden district. 
154 caudals is the highest number yet recorded in Arabia, in which 
the individuals of this species are distinguished from those found 
in Africa by the more numerous caudals. 

VlPERID^. 

24. Cerastes cornutus Hasselq. 

1 2 ' Abian country. 

Snout Upper Scales between 

to vent. Tail. V. A. C. Se. labials. labials and eye. Horns. 
335 42 139 1 37 28 L. 13, R. 12 5 None. 

The two extremes, or nearly so, of the range of variation in the 
ventrals are met with in South-east Arabia, as this individual 
possesses 139 ventrals, whereas in the Hadramut the highest 
number of ventrals (164) hitherto recorded of the species is met 
with. An Aden specimen obtained by Colonel Yerbury in 1895 
had as many as 159 ventrals. 

25. EcHis CARiNATUS Schneider. 
1 2 • Lahej. 

Snout to vent. Tail. Ventrals. Anal. Caudals. Scales. 

610 52 167 1 27 29 

Nasals and 
Nasals. supranasals. Scales round eye. Upper labials. 

2 In contact with L. 19. R. 21. L. 12. R. 11. 

rostral. Left supra- 
nasal excluded. 

^ Proc. Zool. Soc. 1895, p. 656 ; Herpet. of Arabia, p. 52. 



152 ME. G. A. BOULEisraER ON A [May 21, 

Hitherto the specimens from South-east Arabia have bad never 
less than 30 subcaudals. 

BATEACHIA. 

1. Eana ctanophlyctis Schneider. 
1 (S . Abian country. 

2. BUFO ANDEKSONI Blgr. 

1. Shaikh Othman. 

3. BuFO PENTONi Anderson. 

3. Wadis below Mount Manif north of Lahej. 

2. Abian country. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. Jjunop'iis sjjatalurus, p. 137. 

\a. Upper view of head, x 2. 

16. Side „ 

]c. Lower „ „ „ 

2. Agamodon arabiciis, p. 140. 

'2a. Upper view of head. X 3. 

'lb. Side 

2c. Lower ,, „ „ 

Plate XV. 
TJromastw {Aporoscelis) benii, p. 139. |. 



6. Description of a new Fish of the Genus Gobius obtained 
by Mr. A. Blayney Percival in South Arabia. By 
G. A. BOULENGER, F.E.S. 

[Eeceived May 14, 1901.] 

(Text-figure 9.) 

The collection made by Mr. Percival, the Mammals, Birds, and 
Eeptiles of which have been reported upon by Mr. O. Thomas 
Mr. W. E. O. Grant, and the late Dr. Anderson, contaiued 
examples of only two species of Pishes, viz., the widely distributed 
Cyprinid Discognathus lamta, and a fiue Goby which I propose 
to name 

GoBiTJS peecivali, sp. n. (Text-fig. 9, p. 153.) 
No canine teeth. Depth of body 4 times in total length, length 
of head 3^ times. Head slightly longer than broad; diameter of 



]901.] 



NEW FISH OF THE GENUS GOBIUS. 



153 



eye 6| times in length of head, twice in interocular width ; snout 
slightly shorter than postocular part of head ; upper jaw extending 
somewhat beyond the lower ; maxillary not extending to below 
anterior border of eye. First dorsal with 6 rays, the length of 
which is I that of head ; its base f length of head ; its distance 
from the eye nearly equal to that between the end of the snout 
and the border of the prseoperculum. Second dorsal with 11 rays, 
1| as long as and slightly deeper than the first. Anal as much 

Text-fig. 9. 





Gobius percivali. 



developed as the second dorsal, with 11 rays. No silk-like 
filaments to the pectoral. The extremity of the ventral halfway 
between its base and the vent. Caudal rounded. Caudal peduncle 
slightly longer than deep. 60 scales in a longitudinal series, 28 
in a transverse series. Pale olive-brown above, white beneath ; 
dorsal and caudal fins with numerous dark dots. 

Total length 165 millim. 

A single specimen from a Wadi (= stream) near Lahej, coming 
down from the hills in the interior. 



154 MB. OLDFIELD THOMAS ON" [June 4, 

This Oobius, which I have much pleasure in naming after 
Mr. Percival, is closely allied to another large Arabian species, 
described by me from specimens obtained at Muscat by Dr. 
Jayakar, G. jayakari (P. Z. S. 1887, p. 663, pi. liv. fig. 2). It 
differs from G. jayakari in the shorter mouth, not extending to 
below the eye, in the broader interocular region, and in the 
shorter caudal peduncle. 



June 4, 1901. 
Dr. W. T. Blanford, P.E.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : — 



1. Notes on the Type Specimen o? Rhinoceros lasiotis Sclater; 
with Remarks on the Generic Position of the Living 
Species of Rhinoceros. By Oldfield Thomas. 

[Eeeeived May 7, 1901.] 

On August 31st, 1900, there died in the Gardens of the Society 
the famous female Ehiuoceros from Chittagong which has so often 
been referred to in our 'Proceedings,' and the characters of which 
it is only fitting should be here noted, now that its skull and head- 
skin have passed into the possession of the National Museum. 

As the animal was captured in January 1868, its age at death 
was more than 32 years. 

The first reference to this specimen is an account of its external 
characters given by the late Dr. Anderson, the Superintendent of 
the Calcutta Museum (P. Z. S. 1872, p. 129). Then followed 
{t. c. p. 185) an announcement of its purchase for .£1250. In 
March of the same year (t. c. p. 493, pi. xxiii.) our Secretary gave 
the history of the specimen's capture, and a figure of it, and in 
a footnote assigned to it the name of R. lasiotis, given after 
comparison with a Malaccan example of R, sumatrensis which 
arrived in August. In November {t, c. p. 790) he gave his full 
reasons for separating the two forms, accompanied by figures of 
the heads, and of the Malaccan specimen. 

Dr. Gray, however (Ann. Mag. N. H. (4) x. p. 207, 1872), with 
a total disregard to the geography of the question, considered that 
it was the Chittagong animal that was the true B. sumatrensis, 
assigning the Malaccan animal first to his B. crossii(P. Z. S. 1854, 
p. 250) and afterwards (Ann. Mag. N. H. (4) xi. p. 357, 1873) 



1901.] RHINOCEROS LASIOTIS. 155 

giving it the special name of Ceratorhinus niger (nee Rhinoceros 
niger, Schinz, Syn. Mamm. ii. p. 335, 1845). 

In the latter paper Gray, perceiving (as I think rightly) that 
the skulls figured in Blyth's valuable paper of 1863, quoted below, 
belonged to different forms, gave the name of Ceratorhinus hlyihii 
to some of them, but so M^orded his remarks that it is not easy to 
make out to which he applied the name. This point is, however, 
of but little importance, as the term hlythii is antedated by names 
covering all the forms figured. 

Other references bearing on the subject are as follows : — 

Sclater, Ann. Mag. N. H. (4) x. p. 298 (1872). 

Blyth, t. c. p. 399 ; also J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 151 (1863), and xhv. 
Burmese Appx. p. 51 (1875). 

Mower, P. Z. S. 1876, p. 443, and 1878, p. 634. 

As might have been expected, after so many years in confinement, 
the animal had become very much diseased, and after its death it 
was found that the skull and the head-skin were alone worth 
preservation, and it is on these that my observations have been 
taken. 

For comparison I have had before me 13 skulls belonging to the 
group of R. sumatrensis, four of them having been kindly lent me by 
Prof. Stewart from the College of Surgeons collection (Nos. 2142, 
2143, 2145, and 2146 of the 1884 Catalogue), and the others being 
those belonging to the British Museum. 

In the first place, with regard to the external characters of 
colour and hair development, a comparison of the head-skin of 
R. lasiotis with the two specimens in the Museum of " Ceratorhinus 
niger " leads me to the conclusion that the differences described 
were mainly due to age. For it will be remembered that the 
" C. niger" (that is to say the specimen determined by Sclater as 
sumatrensis and used by him for his comparison with lasiotis) was 
very old, while the type of lasiotis was then quite young. In its old 
age the latter has become practically quite like the former, for the 
tufts on the ears do not exceed 1^-2 inches in length, and are in 
no way noticeably different from those of the Malaccan specimen. 
In fact Dr. Anderson's supposition (P. Z. S. 1872, p. 130) that the 
tufts on the ears might wear off with age, seems to me entirely 
confirmed by the evidence, so far as can be judged from a mena- 
gerie specimen. 

Nor is there in colour any difference worthy of note, that 
described by Sclater having apparently disappeared with advancing 
age. 

Turning to the skull, we find that in size the type of R. lasiotis 
surpasses all the other thirteen skulls examined, but differs in 
no other tangible character, so that the question of the validity of 
R. lasiotis as a special form seems to depend purely on the matter 
of size. The following are its measurements, given in inches for 
comparison with those published by Sir W. Flower in 1878 : — 

Length from occipital crest to end of nasals, in straight line 23|, 
with tape over curve of. nasals 24-5; greatest zygomatic breadth 



l56 MR. OLDFIBLD THOMAS ON [Juue 4, 

12| ; interorbital breadth 8. [Teeth and palate too much diseased 
for measurement.] 

From these measurements it appears that R. lasiotis exceeds 
considerably the equally aged skull of '* O.niger" (Flower's No. 2) 
from Malacca, and is only approached by No. 5 (R. C. S. No. 2142), 
said to be from Sumatra. 

Allowing for its much more youthful couditiou, the latter skull is 
practically of the same size as the Chittagong one, and therefore, 
if it really came from Sumatra, disposes at once of the claim of 
li. lasiotis to distinction on the gi'ound of size. 

But I am not satisfied about the question of locality, for 
Sir Stamford Baffles, as a collector of Natural History objects, and 
a great Governor and Administrator, might easily have had 
brought to him a skull from any part of the East Indies ; so that, 
merely on the evidence of this skull only, I do not like to dismiss 
the claims of B. lasiotis to distinction, since such dismissal would 
carry with it the assumption, otherwise unsupported, that the 
skulls o£ the Sumatran Rhinoceros vary in size to so considerable 
an extent. 

The Pegu skull (Theobald, B.M. No. 68.4.15.1, Flower's No. 4) 
is intermediate in size, as in locality ; while all the Malaccan and 
other Sumatran skulls are comparatively small, as are those from 
Borneo. 

For the time being therefore, on the assumption that the Raffles 
skull referred to was not really from Sumatra, 1 should consider 
R. lasiotis as a tenable northern subspecies of R. sumatrensis, 
characterized mainly by its greater size. As noted by Flower in 
the case of the Pegu skull, and borne out by that from Chittagong, 
the post-glenoid processes appear to be longer in proportion than 
in the Malaccan and Sumatran Rhinoceros. 

Of course it follows, from the tentative nature of this conclusion, 
that further material is badly wanted, both from the North, to see if 
the form found there is constantly larger, and from Sumatra, to see 
if any such skull as R. C. S. No. 2142 may really occur there. 

Further material may also prove that the typical horn of Gray's 
" Rhinoceros crossii " belongs to the northern subspecies, in which 
case the name crossii will have to supersede lasiotis. But this 
identification is as yet too doubtful to be definitely accepted. 

Now with regard to the general question of the nomenclature of 
Rhinoceroses and the genera in which the recent species should 
be placed, I would draw attention to the recent important paper 
by Prof. Osborn on the " Phylogeny of the Rhinoceroses of 
Europe " ^ 

^ Bull. Amer. Mus. N. H. xiii. p. 229 (1900). I should demur to the charac- 
terization of B. bicornis as a dolichocephalic form, for its short stumpy head is 
one of its most marked distinctions from its long-headed congener i?. 6m2te% but 
in all other respects Prof. Osborn's conclusions seem justified. In conjunction 
with Mr. Lydekker, I have compared the fine skull in the Museum of R. platy- 
rhinus, hitherto usually considered related to the sinuis group, and after careful 
consideration we have come to the conclusion advocated by Osborn, that, in spite 
of its tooth characters, it is really most nearly allied to the sutnatrensis grouij. 



1901.] EHIIS'OCEEOS LASIOTIS. 157 

In this paper no less than six groups of the family are recognized, 
distinguished mainly by the characters of the skull, those of the 
teeth being considered to be of less phylogenetic value. Of these 
six groups, which are treated by the author as subfamilies, three are 
still existent, the " Ceratorhinse " (sumatrensis), the " Atelodinse " 
{simiis and hicornis), and the " EhinocerotinsB " (unicornis and 
sondaicus), groups which were also recognized by Flower as genera 
in his paper of 1876. 

Now if there is to be any sort of uniformity in the value of 
genera as recognized among Mammals, it appears to me impossible 
to continue to include such essentially different animals in one 
genus Rhinoceros. Elower came to this conclusion in 1876, 
although he did not cany it out in his later works ; aud now that 
Osborn arrives at a like opinion from the palaeontological side, 
I venture to think the generic groups should be accepted for 
ordinary use. 

But in so doing it would be advisable to start with the names 
for them which have technical priority, so that no name-changing 
may hereafter become necessary. Both Atelodus and Ceratorhinus, 
used by Plower and Osborn, are antedated by earlier names, as the 
following synonymy will show : — 

I. Ehinoceeos. 

Type. 
Rhinoceros, Linn. Syst. Nat. (10) i. p. 56 (1758) . . R. unicornis. 
Eurhinoceros, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 1009 R. unicornis. 

One-horned. Occipital plane much slanted forward. Meatus 
closed in below by the junction of the post-tympanic and post- 
glenoid processes. Functional incisors present above, and canines 
below. 

1. Rhinoceros unicornis L. 

2. R. sondaicus Desm. Mamm. ii. p. 399 (1822). 

II. DiOEEOEHINUS. 

Type. 
Dicerorhinus, Gloger, Naturg. p. 125 (1841) . . D. sumatrensis. 
Oeratorhinus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 1021 .... D. sumatrensis. 

Two-horned. An open groove below the meatus. Incisors and 
canines as in Rhinoceros. 

1. Dicer orhinus sumatrensis G. Cuv. 
la. JD. sumatrensis lasiotis Selater. 

III. DiCEEOS. 

Tvpe. 
JDiceros, Gray, Med. Repos. xv. p. 306 (1821). . D. hicornis. 
Coelodonta, Bronn, Jahrb. Min. Geol. 1831, p. 51 D. aniiquitatis. 
Oj)siceros, Gloger, Naturg. p. 125 (1841) .... Z). hicornis. 



158 ME. G. A. BULTLEKGEE ON [June 4, 

Type. 

Atelodus, Pomel, Ann. Sci. Auvergne, xxvi. 

p. 114 (1853) D. bicornis. 

RUnaster, Gerrard, Cat. Eones Mamm. B. M. 

p. 282 (1862) D. Ucomis. 

Keitloa, Gray, t. c. p. 1025 B. hiconiis. 

Ceratotherium, id. t. c. p. 1027 D. simus. 

Two-horned. Occipital plane slanted backward. Auditory 
region as in Dicerorhinus. Incisors and canines rudimentary or 
absent. 

1 . D. bicornis Linn. 

2. D. simus Burch. 

(Should D. simus, on the ground of its much longer skull and 
the different structure of its molars, be separated generically 
or subgenerically from D. bicornis^ it and its fossil allies would 
have to bear the name of Gcelodonta, Bronn. 

These conclusions are practically identical with those to which 
Sir W. Flower came in his classical paper on the craniology of the 
group (P. Z. S. 1876, p. 443), but unfortunately his study of 
the nomenclature did not carry him back to the names now shown 
to have priority. 



2. On a small Collection of Fishes from Lake Victoria 
made by order of Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.B. By 

G. A. BOULKNGER, F.B/.S. 

[Received May 21, 1901.] 

The Fishes which have reached the Natural History Museum 
from the Victoria Nyanza through Sir H. H. Johnston are 
referable to seven species only, four of which were previously un- 
represented in the National Collection, two being besides new 
to science. 

1. Pkotoptebus ^thiopiuus Heck. 

Three specimens, two adult measuring 1 m. 35 and 1 m. 10, and 
a young one measuring 160 millim. The latter was taken from 
the crop of a Balceniceps. 

In the adult specimens the length of the head is contained 4| 
times in the length from snout to vent, the diameter of the eye 
is 15 or 20 times in the length of the head and 4i or 5| times in 
the interocular width ; dorsal fin originating nearer the vent than 
the head ; pectoral fin twice length of head, ventral fin If ; vent 
sinistral ; 65 scales in a longitudinal series to above vent, 44 or 50 
round middle of body ; no traces of extenial gills. The scales 
show very distinctly the punctulations of (jaiioiae already noticed 
by Kolliker. 



1901.] risHES riioM lake tictobia. 159 

In the young the length of the head is 4 times in the length 
from snout to vent, the diameter of the eye 8 times in the length 
of the head and twice in the interocular width ; dursal tin origi- 
nating a little nearer the vent than the head ; pectoral tin 2| length 
of head, ventral fin 1| ; vent dextral ; about 65 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series to above vent and 40 round middle of body ; no 
traces of external gills. 

2. MOEMTEUS KANNUME Forsk. 

3. Labeo yicioeianus, sp. n. 

Body compressed, its depth equal to length of liead and con- 
tained 4^ to 4|- times in total length. Head 1^ as long as broad ; 
snout rounded, strongly projecting beyond the mouth, with small 
horny warts ; eye perfectly lateral, in the middle or a little anterior 
to the middle of the head, its diameter 6 to 6-| times in length of 
head, 3 to 3i times in width of interorbital region, which is slightly 
convex ; width of mouth, with lips, not much more than half greatest 
width of head, 21 to 2| times in length of head ; rostral flap and 
anterior border of lip not denticulated ; posterior border of lip very 
indistinctly denticulated ; inner surface of lip with numerous 
transverse plica, formed of closely-set obtuse papillse ; a minute 
barbel, hidden in the folds at the side of the mouth. Dorsal III 
9-10, with notched upper border ; the longest ray equals the 
length of head ; fin equally distant from the end of the snout and 
the root of the caudal. Anal II 5 ; longest ray about | length of 
head. Pectoral subfalciform, as long as head, not reaching base of 
ventral. Ventral not reaching vent, its first ray falling under the 
seventh (fourth branched) ray of the dorsal. Caudal deeply 
forked, with pointed lobes. Caudal peduncle about 1-^ as long as 
deep. Scales 38-39 — ^ ; 4 or 5 series of scales between the 

lateral line and the root of the ventral. Olive above, whitish 
beneath ; fins greyish. 

Total length 285 millim. 

Three specimens. 

L. victo7'ianus stands nearest to L. forskalii, from which the more 
perfectly lateral eyes and the smaller mouth easily distinguish it. 

4. DiSCOGNATHUS .TOHNSTONI, sp. n. 

Depth of body equal to length of head, 5 times in total length. 
Head moderately depiessed, with nearly flat interorbital region ; 
eye supero-lateral, in the second half of the head, its diameter 41 
times in length of head, twice in interorbital width ; two very 
short barbels on each side ; width of mouth ^ length of head ; 
upper lip moderately developed, lower large, semicircular ; no 
denticulate fringe to the lips. Dorsal II 7, equally distant from 
the nostrils and from the root of the caudal ; first branched ray 
longest, I length of head. Anal II 5; first branched ray longest, 
I length of head. Pectoral | length of head, widely separated 



160 MB. G. A. BouLEifGEE ON [June 4, 

from the ventral, which is situated below the posterior half of the 
dorsal. Caudal a little shorter than head, with deep crescentic 
emargination. Caudal peduncle 1 5 as long as deep. Scales 38 |f ; 
4 series between lateral line and root of ventral. Upper parts and 
fins blackish olive ; lips, gular and pectoral regions yellowish white, 
belly brown. 

Total length 110 millim. 

A single specimen. 

In its very minute barbels, this species is intermediate between 
D. Imnta and allies, in which they are well developed, and D. im- 
herhis, in which they are altogether absent. A species from Syria, 
Transcaspia, the Tigris, and Persia, D. variabilis Heckel, to which 
I refer specimens from Kushk and the Helmand\ agrees in the very 
small size of the posterior barbels, but differs in the total absence 
of the anterior and also in the more backward position of the 
dorsal, which is equally distant from the occiput and the root 
of the caudal, the position of the eyes, which are nearly perfectly 
lateral and occupy the middle of the length of the head, and the 
longer caudal fin. The scales number 33 to 37 in the lateral line, 
4 or 5 between the latter and the ventral fin. 

In the i\byssinian and Erythrean specimens which have been 
previously referred to B. lamta ", and for which I propose the 
name D. blanfordi, the barbels are much longer, as inZ*. kmita, the 
eye is perfectly lateral and a little anterior to the middle of the 
head, the interorbital width is more than half the length of the 
head, the dorsal is equally distant from the eye and the root of 
the caudal, or a little nearer the latter, which is longer than the 
head, the scales number 33-35 |J, 3 or 4 between the lateral line 
and ventral fin. 

A third African species has been described by Vinciguerra ^ from 
Shoan specimens, under the name of D. cMarinii. It has two pairs 
of well- developed barbels, a larger eye (its diameter contained 
only 3|- times in the length of the head), a little anterior to the 
middle of the head, and smaller scales (L. lat. 42). 

I have recently received from Mr. Loat several small specimens, 
measuring from 38 to 45 millim., obtained on the Nile in a pond 
in the cataract country about 3 miles north of Kermeh, which 
approach D. cJiiarinii in the size of the eye (3^ diameters in length 
of head), the length and number of the barbels, and the position 
of the dorsal, but which may be distinguished from it by the 
larger scales, numbering 37 or 38 in the lateral line and 3 between 
the latcer and the ventral. For this new species I propose the 
name D. vinciguerrce. 

^ Recorded by Giinther, Tr. Linu. Soc. (2) v. 1889, p. 107, under the name 
of B. lamta. Recently described as B. rossicus by Nikolsti, Ann. Mus. St. 
Petersb. v. 1900, p. 239. 

- Blanford, Zool. Abyss, p. 460; Vinciguerra, Ann. Mus. Genova, xviii. 1883, 
p. 695, fig. 

3 L. c. p. 696, fig. 



1901.] nSHES FROM LAKE VICTOEIA. 161 

5. Claeias lazeka C. et V. 

6. SmroDONTis aeeo-fischbei Hilgend. 

Hilgendorf, Sitzb. Ges. nat. Fr. Beii. 1888, p. 77; Pfeffer, 
Thierw. O.-Afr., Fische, p. 37 (1896). 

The following description is taken from the single specimen 
sent by Sir Harry Johnston : — 

Body compressed, its depth equal to the length of the head 
and contained 3f times in the total length. Head little longer 
than broad, granulate above, the granulate area extending on the 
snout to half-way between nostrils and eyes ; frontal fonta- 
nelle large ; snout rounded, a little shorter than postocular part 
of head ; interorbital region slightly convex, its width half length 
of head ; eye supero-lateral, its diameter 5 times in length of head, 
twice in interorbital width ; occipital region neither keeled nor 
teetiform, simply convex. Lips moderately developed ; maxillary 
barbel simple, a httle longer than the head, extending to anterior 
third of pectoral spine ; mandibular barbels inserted on a straight 
transverse line, the outer f length of head and with slender simple 
branches, the inner ^ length of head and with shorter but ramified 
branches. Prasmaxillaiw teeth small and numerous, forming a broad 
band ; anterior mandibular teeth small, curved, f the diameter of 
the eye, 44 in number. Gill-cleft not extending inferiorly beyond 
the base of the pectoral fin. Nuchal shield convex, not keeled, 
rugose and pitted, 1^ as long as broad, ending in two sharp points, 
which extend a little beyond the base of the dorsal spine. Humeral 
process covered with granular asperities, about fi as long as 
broad, sharply pointed, not extending qaite so far back as the 
occipito-nuchal shield. Skin villose on the sides of the anterior 
part of the body. Dorsal I 7 ; spine strong, 1| as long as the 
base of the fin, nearly as long as head, striated and armed behind 
with 11 retrorse serree. Adipose dorsal 3^ times as long as deep, 
I5 as long as its distance from the rayed dorsal, | the length of 
the head. Anal III 8, Pectoral spine very strong, as long as 
that of the dorsal, striated, with 31 to 33 strong teeth on the 
anterior border and 11 much stronger still and retrorse on the 
posterior border. Ventral not reaching anal. Caudal very deeply 
notched, crescentic. Dark brown above and beneath, with some 
lighter, yellowish-brown marbliugs ; fins dark grey, with transverse 
series of blackish spots having a tendency to form cross-bars. 

Total length 135 millim. 

7. Paeatilapia seebanus. 

Hemichromis serranus, Pfeffer, Thierw. O.-Afr., Fische, p. 23 
(1896). 

Paratilapia serranus, Bouleng. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1898, p. 143. 

Adult specimens, measuring 125 millim., agree well with 
Pfeffer's description, drawn up from an example obtained by 
Stuhhnann at Bukoba, a German station of L. Victoria at about 

Proc. Zool, Soc— 1901, Vol. II, No. XI. 11 



162 BB. E. BEOOM Olf THE STETJCTUEE AND [June 4, 

1° 21' S. lat, except for the depth of the bod}^ which is 4^ to 4|- 
times in the total length, the maxillary not extending quite to below 
the anterior border of the eye, the diameter of which is 4|- times 
in the length of the head. 9 gill-rakers on lower part of anterior 
arch. D. XV- XVI 9; A. Ill 8-9; Sq. 30-32 ^; Lat. 1. 20-21/ 
13-14.' 6 or 7 scales between the first dorsal spine and the lateral 
line. 

Smaller specimens (85-95 millim.) differ in the smaller head, 
the larger eye (3^4 times in length of head), and the lower jaw 
not projecting beyond the upper. The dark longitudinal bands 
are very indistinct and are traversed by 7 or 8 ill-defined dark 
cross-bars. 

In all the specimens the ventral fins are of a bright yellow. 



3. On the Structure and Affinities of Udenodon. 
By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc' 

[Eeceivecl May 21, 1901.] 

(Plates XVI.-XVIII.) ^ 

(Text-figures 10 & 11.) 

A considerable number of skulls of Udenodon and of the closely 
allied genus Dicynodon have long been known, and there have also 
been found many other bones of the skeletons ; but as in almost all 
the specimens the association of the skull and other bones has 
been quite lost, it is at present impossible to refer limb-bones to 
their proper species of which the skulls are the types, and it is 
only with some doubt that they can be referred even to their 
proper genei*a. In a few cases some bones of the skeleton have 
been found in association with Dicynodon-sknWs, but in the case 
of Udenodon the post-cranial skeleton is quite unknown. 

The most important specimen in which the Dicynodont skull is 
in association with a considerable portion of this is the little form 
which has been described by Seeley (1) as " Keirognathus cordylus." 
In this specimen the skull, upper vertebrae and ribs, front limbs, 
shoulder-girdle, aud sternum are shown, but all in a very bad 
state of preservation. There is scarcely a doubt that the skeleton is 
that of a young Dicynodon, and it is specially valuable as showing 
the relations of the shoulder-girdle, sternum, and interclavicle. 
Seeley's restoration is unsatisfactory. 

In the Lower Karroo beds of Pearston, S. Africa, while the 
remains of various species of Bicynodon are met with, the genus 
which most commonly occurs is Udenodon and from the specimens 
which I have recently discovered I am now in a position to give 
an almost complete account of its skeleton. 

1 Communicated by Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., F.E.S., F.Z.S. 
- * For an explanation of the Plates, see p. 190. 



p. Z . S. 1901, -vol. II. PI. XVI. 




B..B del. 

MP. Parker litK. 



Pa-rlier &'Westiiap. 



SKELETON OF UDETSTODOTST GRACILIS. 



p. Z . S. 1901, -N7-olII.Pl.XVII. 





R.B del. 

"MP- Parker lltli 



Paurker & "West imp. 

SKULL, VERTEBRA, & HIND LIMB OF XJDEKODON. 



p. z . s. 1901, -v-oi ii.Pi.xvni. 




R.B iel. 

M. p. Packer litK. 



P&rfer (Jb'Westirarg. 



LIMB-BONES & STERNUM OF UDENODON. 



1901.] APMifiTiES or UBEisroDoisr, 163 

When an endeavour is made to classify the specimens found, one 
is beset with a number of difficulties. Almost every specimen 
exhibits some degree of crushing ; and when two skulls of the same 
species have been crushed in dilferent directions, the appearances 
would readily make one believe that he was dealing with two 
species. One skull of Udenodon baini in my possession has the 
maxilla of one side so crushed as to give an appearance very like 
that in the specimen described by Owen (2) as " Udenodon 
strigiceps." Another difficulty is due to our ignorance of the 
extent to which differences in specimens may be due to the sex 
and age. The identification of any specimen therefore must in 
the meantime be subject to some doubt. 

The following is a list of the specimens which I have found 
and on which my researches are based : — 

1. An almost complete skull of a small form, which I regard as 

new, and for which I propose the name of Udenodon 
gracilis (PI. XVII. figs. 2 & 3). 

2. An almost perfect skeleton of apparently the same species. 

The skull unfortunately has been so much weathered that 
it is impossible to decide the species with certainty 
(PI. XVI.). 

3. A lower jaw of possibly the same species. 

4. A fairly good skeleton of Udenodon baini. 

5. A second very imperfect skeleton of presumably the same 

species, but with the head missing. 

6. A moderately complete skull of Udenodon baini, but much 

crushed on one side. 

7. A second imperfect and much crushed skull of the same 

species. 

8. A third imperfect skull, also probably of U. baini. 

9. A moderately complete but somewhat crushed skull of a 

young animal, probably U. megalops. From a much higher 
stratum than the other specimens. 

10. An imperfect skull of a young animal, apparantly U. greyi. 

11. The posterior portion of a skull referred to Udenodon, but 

possibly belonging to a Dicynodon. 

12. The mandible and front part of snout of a small Udenodon. 

13. Imperfect middle region of a small Udenodon-^'kxAl. 

14. A number of detached portions of mandibles, maxillae, humeri, 

vertebrae, and other bones referred to Udenodon. 

Of these specimens all have been discovered in the neighbour- 
hood of Pearston, S. Africa, with the exception of specimen 10, 
which is from the Bedford district and was kindly presented to 
me by Mr. D. D. Prazer, Junr. 

Before beginning an account of the general structure of 
Udenodon, I think it will be well to give a brief description of 
specimens 1 and 2. 

The small skull which I take as the type of Udenodon gracilis 
(PI. XVII. fig. 2) is somewhat crushed on the right side, and 

11* 



164 DB. E,. BROOM ON THE STRUCTUBE AND [June 4, 

on the same side the temporal arch and the lower jaw are missing, 
but otherwise the skull is almost perfect. The skull is more 
elongated than is usual in Udenodon, and differs from most 
species in having the inter orbital region very considerably 
wider than the parietal region. The eyes are moderately 
small and directed more outwards than upwards. The nostrils 
(n.) are placed far forwards and rather small. The nasal bones 
are prominent immediately behind the nostrils. The caniniform 
ridges are flat and slender and directed well forwards. The 
suborbital arch is moderately round and rather feeble. The 
frontal region is broad and moderately fiat, and is characterized 
by a rather prominent median ridge (r.f.). Posteriorly, the 
frontals are considerably wider than in front. The postfrontals, 
where they join the frontals are flat and broad and to a considerable 
extent roof over the orbits. Externally they are rather slender. 
A distinct ridge runs from the posterior border of the postorbital 
portion of the postfrontal bone inwards, then backwards along the 
posterior part of the postfrontal. The parietal region is about 
two-thirds the width of the frontal region, and is characterized 
by the presence of two well-marked postfrontal ridges {r.jp.f.), 
with an intervening depressed parietal portion. The squamosals 
are large, and the anterior portions which form the temporal arches 
are developed considerably, horizontally outwards. 

The second specimen (PI. XVI. fig. 1) referred to is an almost 
perfect skeleton of a small Udenodon, and it is especially valuable 
in that the bones are scarcely at all displaced. The specimen was 
found in an impure and fairly hard shale. The skull had evidently 
been long exposed, and is so badly weathered that very little now 
remains of the bones of the upper side of the head. The post- 
orbital arches are quite lost, though evidences of their positions 
are given by the underlying matrix. The squamosal, so far as it is 
displayed, agrees very closely with that in Udenodon gracilis, and 
nothing in the other parts of the head seems to oppose this 
determination. 

When the slab in which the skeleton lay was split, it w-as 
found that this had been so arranged that the remains were 
almost equally divided between the two sides. In the larger of 
the two portions, which may be looked upon as the main slab, are 
preserved the almosr. perfect left fore-limb, the impressions of a 
number of vertebrse, a large number of ribs and impressions of ribs, 
the sacrum and caudal region, the left ilium {il.), and the left hind- 
limb, which unfortunately is twisted and has not been fully 
displayed, and the right ischium (is.) and pubis {ph.). In the 
counterpart slab is seen the head, the right fore-limb, almost all 
the vertebrae and ribs, and the right ilium with the right hind-limb 
extended and almost perfectly displayed. In the drawing (Plate 
XVI.) the bones and impressions on the main slab are with the 
skull figured and shaded in true relative position, while the bones 
of the counterslab are in outline in proper relationship with those 
of the main slab. 



1901.] 



AFETSriTIES OF UDENODON. 



165 



In the follo^\^ng account of the structure of Udenodon, that 
part dealing with, the skull is founded mainly on the skulls I have 
obtained at Pearston, while the account of the post-cranial 
skeleton is mainly based on the little skeleton of Udenodon 
gracilis. 

Shull. 

The Dicynodont skull has been described by Owen (2), Cope (3), 
Huxley (4), and others, but the fullest description is that given by 
Seeley (5). Even Seeley's account, however, leaves many points 
in doubt, and a considerable number of his determinations are 
very questionable. I have therefore thought it well to give an 
independent description of the skull, dealing but briefly with those 
elements whose structure is well known, and moi'e fully with the 
points open to dispute. 

Text-fig. 10. 




Text-fig. 11. 




A composite figure of the skull of Udenodon (text-fig. 10) showing details from 
the left side, for comparison with the skull of a primitive Theriodont, 
letidosuchus primmvus (text-fig. 11). 

a., angulare ; ar., articulare ; d., dentary ; fr., frontal ; pi., jugal ; fc., lachi-ymal ; 
mx., maxilla; na., nasal; /;«., parietal; ■p.mx., premaxilla ; ^o/., post- 
frontal ; pr.f., prefrontal ; c[., quadrate ; sq., squamosal ; s.a., suraugulare. 



166 DB. E. BBOOM ON THE STRtTCTUEE AKD [Juiie 4, 

In Udenodon (text-fig. 10, p. 167) the whole beak has had a horny 
covering, which in some species at least covers not only the 
alveolar margin, but almost the whole of the facial surface of the 
maxilla {mx.) ; and in probably in all the species the hoi'ny layer 
was specially developed over the caniniform development of the 
maxilla. 

The premaxilla in Udenodon and Bicynodon is better deve- 
loped than in the majority of reptiles, having not only a M'ell- 
developed facial portion passing up between the two nostrils, but 
also a large palatal portion. The two premaxillae, as in the bird, 
must have veiy early united into a single bone (cf. PI. XVII. 
fig. 2), as in even comparatively young specimens there is no trace 
of a suture between the two elements. As I have elsewhere 
shown (6), the premaxilla forms almost the whole of the bony 
palate, including by far the greater part of the median ridge, which 
has almost invariably been regarded as the vomer. In the paper 
referred to, a section through the posterior part of the hard 
palate of Udenodon truncatus is figured, and it is there shown that 
though the maxillae have internal plates which form a sort of 
secondary palate, these are almost completely covered by the 
great palatal development of the premaxilla. From the palatal 
portion of the premaxilla there passes up internally a prominent 
median ridge which runs from the facial portion of the premaxilla 
backwards to articulate with the vomer, and to a considerable 
extent divides the nasal cavities. 

The maxilla differs in shape greatly in different genera, and it 
is highly probable that there is considerable difference in shape in 
the two sexes of the same genus. In all, however, there is a 
more or less well-marked caniniform development. In some 
species a prominent external descending ridge gives the tusk-like 
development a triangular shape ; in others the descending process 
is almost flat. The maxilla resembles that of man in having a 
large antrum maxillare. From the region of the antrum, which 
may be regarded as the centre of the bone, the maxilla is 
developed upwards, forming the greater part of the side of the 
snout (c/. text-fig. 10, p. 165) and bounded by the nostril and the 
nasal (na.), the prefrontal {jpr.f.) and the lachrymal {Ic.) inwards, 
forming part of the secondary palate ; and backwards, meeting the 
jugal, are the palatine and the pterygoid bones. The caniniform 
ridge is continued back into the ridge formed by the anterior bar 
of the pterygoid and forms the border of the palate. 

I can find no evidence of any ossified turbinal bones. 

The nasals {na.) are moderate-sized bones irregularly ti'iangular 
in shape. They are joined to each other by a fairly long median 
suture. Their anterior sides are formed by the premaxilla {p.mx.), 
the nostrils, and the maxillas. The posterior and outer side of 
each nasal is bounded by the frontal (/V.), the prefrontal (pr.f.), 
and maxillary (ni.v.). 

The lachrymal (Ic.) is quite mammalian in structure. It forms 
a considerable part of the anterior wall of the orbit — fitting in 



1901.] AFFINITIES OF UDENODON. 167 

between the prefrontal above and the jugal (ju.) below. It has a 
large lachrymal canal opening within the orbit. 

The prefrontal {pr.f.) is a somewhat quadrate bone — three sides 
being formed by the orbit, the frontal, and nasal respectively, and 
the fourth side by the lachrymal and maxilla. It forms a con- 
siderable portion of the anterior and upper wall of the orbit. 

The f rentals (fr.) lie between the orbits and are usually well 
developed. In Udenodon greyi they are narrow ; in U. gracilis 
almost exactly as broad as long. They usually form the borders 
of the upper sides of the orbits. Each frontal articulates with 
the nasal and prefrontal in front, and with the parietal and post- 
frontal behind. 

The postfrontal (jjo./.) forms, as in Dicynodon and many Therio- 
donts,an outer limb which forms the postorbital arch, and a posterior 
which runs backwards by the side of the parietal. The postorbital 
arch varies considerably in different species, but is usually rather 
broad above, forming a sort of roof to part of the orbit. In the 
middle it is generally narrow and round ; while inferiorly it 
broadens out and articulates with the squamosal and the jugal. 
From the upper end of the postorbital portion the posterior part 
runs abruptly backwards, forming the greater part of the inuer 
wall of the temporal fossa, and to a great extent hiding the 
parietal. Posteriorly it curves outwards a little and meets the 
squamosal (cf. text-fig. 10, p. 165). 

The parietals early unite to form a single bone, which though 
of moderate size is very largely hidden by the postfrontals. Near 
the centre of the bone is a fairly large pai'ietal foramen. 
Posteriorly the parietal articidates in the middle with the inter- 
parietal, and laterally with the squamosals (sq.). 

The jugal is rather a small bone (ju.) Avhich forms the greater 
part of the infraorbital arch. Anteriorly it forms a considerable 
pai't of the wall of the orbit at its anterior and lower side, meeting 
the lachrymal and being clasped by the maxilla. Internally, the 
anterior part meets the palatine. The squamosal (sq.), which lies 
on the outer side of the jugal in its middle and posterior regions, 
to a large extent hides it from view. Where the jugal meets the 
postfrontal it is fairly deep in some species, but in others only 
slightly increased in depth. Posteriorly it flattens out and lies on 
the inner side of the squamosal, forming with it the temporal 
arch. 

The squamosal is by far the largest bone in the skull (cf. sq., text- 
fig. 10, p. 165). It comprises a large broad posterior portion which 
descends from its union with the parietal and postfrontal, along 
the outer border of the supra- and exoccipitals, to give articulation 
to the quadrate, and an anterior branch, which springs from the 
upper half of the posterior portion and passes forwards to form 
with the jugal the temporal arch. 

The quadrate (q.) consists of a broad flat part which lies against 
the front of the descending portion of the squamosal, and a large 
articular head. The articular face of the quadrate has a deep 



168 DK. B. BBOOM OTST THE STEUCTUBE AND [June 4, 

antero-posterior groove running across it, which divides it into 
an outer semicircular button-like portion and an inner very 
prominent antero-posterior ridge. Both the outer and inner 
portions of the articular face have an antero-posterior convexity 
o£ fairly wide radius. 

The structure of the palate I have elsewhere dealt with (6), 
and I have little further so add to my previous description. The 
pterygoids, as in the other Dicynodonts, are greatly developed, 
meeting each other in the middle line and sending processes 
forwards to the maxillse and backwards to the quadrates. Between 
the two anterior processes lie the palatines and the vomer. The 
vomer is quite mammalian in structure, and is present as a 
median plate, extending from the fork formed by the anterior 
branches of the pterygoids forwards to articulate with the palatal 
median and internal median ridges of the premaxilla. Superiorly 
the vomer articulates with the sphenoid, the mesethmoid, and 
the ethmoid cartilage. Towards the posterior and upper part 
it gives off: a pair of small lateral wings which articulate with 
the palatines, and Avith them form the roofs of the nasal passages. 
The palatines pass outwards and downwards from the articu- 
lations with the vomer, by the side of the anterior branches of the 
pterygoids. Each palatine then sends a process forwards and 
inwards to form a sort of rudimentary secondary palate, and a 
second process outwards above the anterior lobe of the pterygoid 
to meet the jugal. 

Where the two pterygoids meet in the middle hue they rest on, 
and are articulated to, the basisphenoid. This latter bone shows 
on the under surface of the skull to a considerable extent, sending 
two plates backwards to clasp the large paroccipital. processes. 
From the region where the pterygoids meet, the basisphenoid sends 
a comparatively narrow median plate upwards and forwards 
resting on the vomer, and probably in adult specimens articulating 
with the mesethmoid. This plate may be the presphenoid, but I 
have not seen any specimens in which it is distinct from the basi- 
sphenoid. The mesethmoid is a median plate which forms the 
greater part of the interorbital septum. Above it is clasped by 
the orbital plates of the frontals, and below it rests on the 
vomer. 

Immediately behind the point where the pterygoids meet, there 
passes upwards from each pterygoid a slender columella cranii. 
In forms with a deep narrow skull, e. g. U. greyi, the columella is long 
and slender : in those species where the skull is broad and rather 
flat, the columella is comparatively short. In all forms, however, 
it is very slender. It appears to articulate with the parietal above. 

The peri otic bones appear to form the lateral walls of the brain- 
case in a manner very similar to that seen in lizards ; but I have 
not seen any specimens in which their exact limits could with 
certainty be determined. 

The occiput has long been well known in a number of Dicy- 
nodonts, especially Ptychosiagum. A small occiput is figured by 



1901.] ArriNiTTES or UDENODOisr. 169 

Lydekker in the Britisb Museum Catalogue of Fossil Reptiles, 
which is probably that ot a species of Udenodon. The supra- and 
exoccipitals are bordered by the interparietal and the squamosals, 
while the lower corners of the large exoccipital processes also 
articulate with the quadrates. 

Between the quadrate and the descending process formed by 
the exoccipital and basioccipital, there lies a remarkable little 
dumbbell-shaped bone, which with one end fits into a hollow of 
the occipital process and with the other supports the quadrate. 
As it is but loosely articulated, it is lost from the majority of 
Dicynodon and Udenodon skulls discovered. This bone differs so 
markedly from any bone found in the posterior region of the skull 
in known Eeptiles or Mammals, that one hesitates in giving an 
interpretation. As, however, it forms with the notch in the 
lower border of the exoccipital an oval aperture, and as the 
columella auris lies in this same notch of the exoccipital, it seems 
to me most probable that it is the homologue of the mammalian 
tympanic. 

Lower Jaw. 

The lower jaw is almost typically reptilian in structure {cf. text- 
fig. 10, p. 165). In front, the two large toothless dentaries (d.) 
are anchylosed together as in the tortoise. Each dentai'y is con- 
siderably deeper than in the tortoise, and differs in forming a 
single edge above, instead of two ridges as in the Chelonian. In 
U. yreyi the outer surface of the dentary is moderately flat ; but 
in U. gracilis there passes outwards from the posterior part of 
the bone a very prominent horizontal ridge. On passing back- 
wards the dentary divides into an upper and a lower lobe, which 
meeting respectively the suraugular {sa.) and the angular (a.) 
encloses with these a fair-sized oval vacuity. The angular 
is a rather large flat element which articulates with the dentary 
in front, the surangular above, the splenial below, and the articular 
(ar.) behind. The surangular is a fairly strong bone which fits 
into a deep cavity in the posterior end of the upper part of the 
dentary. The splenial extends along almost the whole length of 
the jaw, from the articular behind to the symphysis in front. 
Posteriorly it is fairly stout, but on passing forwards it becomes 
a rather thin plate. The articular is a large thick bone, but, as in 
Ohelonians, short. 

I am unable to give any account of the hyoid apparatus, as 
though there are evidences of hyoid bones, they are disconnected 
and their interpretation is quite uncertain. 

Vertehroe. 

In the little skeleton of Udenodon gracilis (PL XVI.) most of 
the vertebrae are preserved, but none are well displayed. The atlas 
and axis are hidden by matrix, but from the 3rd cervical (4th ?) 
there are indications of almost all the other vertebrae. The skeleton 
does not show where the division lies between the cervical and 



170 DB. R, BROOM ON THE STRUCTURE AKD [June 4, 

the thoracic series ; and in Udenodon, as in most other Thero- 
morphous reptiles, there is no division of the body vertebrae into 
thoracics and lumbars. Assuming that the first cervical vertebra 
displayed is the 3rd cervical, then it is moderately certain that in 
U. gracilis there are 27 presacral vertebrae. 

The vertebrae which I take to be 3rd and 4th cervicals, so far as 
displayed, agree fairly closely with the 3rd and 4th cervicals of 
Tropidostoma dunni Seeley (5) [ = according to Lydekker (7) 
Ptychosiagum microtrema Seeley]. The bodies of the vertebrae 
have well-marked lateral processes arising from the anterior and 
outer angles of the ventral surfaces, for articulation with the 
cervical ribs. 

In the skeleton of Udenodon gracilis, though most of the 
vertebrae of the thoraco-lumbar series are shown, unfortunately 
only the bodies are displayed ; but in the imperfect skeleton of 
U. haini (spec. 4) a number of presacral vertebree are well 
preserved. 

As has long been known in other Dicynodonts, the vertebrae 
consist of deeply cupped bodies to which are articulated arches 
closely resembling the arches in mammals. In the dorsal series 
(c/. Plate XVII. fig. 4) the bodies are considerably elongated 
and moderately constricted in the middle. On the body just 
below the neuro- central suture in front is the articular surface 
for the head of the rib. The pedicle is stout, and a ridge runs up 
obliquely from near the front of the neuro-central suture to the 
transverse process. The transverse processes {tr.) are short and 
strong, directed outwards and slightly upwards, and lie well above 
the level of the top of the neural canal. The spine {sp.) is quite 
short, and situated well backwards over the posterior zygapo- 
physes. Both the anterior and posterior zygapophyses are 
situated fairly closely together, and the articular surfaces make 
approximately a right angle with each other. A large opening is 
formed between each pair of vertebrae for the exit of the spinal 
nerves. 

The ribs in the thoracic region (c/. Plate XVI.) are long and 
slender ; the anterior ones being, however, slightly stouter than the 
others. The upper end of the rib is expanded so as to form a 
distinct head for articulation with the centrum and a tubercle for 
attachment to the transverse process. As the border of the rib 
between the head and the tubercle is almost straight, and the 
ridge on the vertebra between the articular surface and the 
transverse process is only slightly concave, there must be but 
little of a foramen left between the rib and the vertebra. The 
ribs in the lumbar region have their upper ends less expanded 
and may possibly have been articulated to the transverse processes 
alone. 

The sacrum is very badly preserved in the skeleton of U. gracilis, 
but appears to have been composed of 5 vertebrae. 

The tail has evidently been short, but it is impossible to say 
of how many vertebrae it may have been composed. Those that 



1901.] APriNITIES OF UDBNODON. 171 

are shown in the little skeleton have their centra about half the 
length of those in the thoracic series. The vertebrae are much 
crushed and fractured, so that it is difficult to be certain of the 
identification of the fragments. By the side of one of the vertebrae 
is a well-developed process, which may be a spine, but which I 
am rather inclined to believe to be an autogenous transverse 
process. 

Shoulder-girdle and Sternum. 

In the little skeleton of Udenodon gracilis the shoulder-girdle, 
though present, is almost completely hidden by matrix and could 
not be displayed without injury to other parts. In the skeleton of 
U. baini (spec. 4, PL XVIIl. fig. 10) the scapula (sc), precoracoid 
(p.co. fig. 11) and coracoid (co.) are well preserved, and also in the 
very imperfect skeleton (spec. 5), while in specimen 5 the sternum 
is also shown. 

The scapula, precoracoid and coracoid agree pretty closely with 
the corresponding bones in the Dicynodont shoulder-girdle as 
figured by Owen (2), Seeley (1), and Lydekker (7). The scapula is 
somewhat stouter than that figured by Lydekker, but on the whole 
closely agrees with it. The upper part of the scapula is broad and 
flat and only moderately curved inwards. The anterior border is 
grooved for the lodgment of the cleithrum. A little below the 
middle of the scapula there is a well-marked acromion process 
(ac, PI. XVIII. fig. 10) which passes forwards, upwards, and 
slightly inwards as a fan-like expansion. The lower end of the 
scapula has a large glenoid surface (gl.) which looks downwards 
and a little outwards, and an anterior flattened continuation which 
articulates with the precoracoid. 

The coracoid (co.) is comparatively small, but has a large glenoid 
surface (gl-) which looks mainly outwards, and which is separated 
from the outer surface of the bone by a very prominent bony border. 

The precoracoid (p.co.) is a moderately flat bone, but slightly 
larger than the coracoid. On its upper border is a deep notch (fo.) 
which closed by the lower border of the scapula becomes a large 
oval foramen. The precoracoid articulates behind by a straight 
suture with the coracoid, and above with the scapula. It appears 
to furnish a small portion of the glenoid cavity. 

I have failed to identify the interclavicle or cleithrum in any of 
the specimens in my possession, but in the skeleton of U. gracilis 
one of the clavicles is fairly complete (cZ., PI. XVI. & PI. XVIII. 
fig. 8). It is curved very much like the human clavicle. It 
appears to have articulated with its neighbour in the middle line, 
and to have rested ou the anterior part of the interclavicle. The 
inner half of the bone is flattened antero-posteriorly, and the outer 
vertically. 

The sternum, or perhaps more correctly prsesternum (PI. 
XVIII. fig. 9), is a moderately large four-sided median plate, with 
the angles pointing forwards, backwards, aud to the sides. The 



172 DE. B, BROOM ON THE STEFCTUBE AND [June 4, 

anterior angle is notched, probably for the lodgment of the inter- 
clavicle; the outer angles are rounded and the posterior angle 
truncated as if to give attachment to a cartilaginous meso- or 
xiphisteruum. For its lower two-thirds there is a well-marked 
median ridge for the attachment of the pectoral muscles. The 
bone is a little longer than broad. 

Humerus. 

In the little skeleton of Udenodon gracilis (PI. XVI.) one of the 
humeri {Im.) is perfectly preserved and beautifully displayed ; the 
other though less perfect has the opposite side showing. In speci- 
men 4 one humerus is fairly well preserved, and of the other the 
lower half is almost perfect ; while in specimen 5 one humerus is 
shown, but in bad condition. The difference between the humeri 
in U. gracilis and U. baini is very striking, and much greater than 
one could have expected to find in two species apparently so closely 
allied. 

In Udenodon gracilis (PL XVI.), the humerus, while constructed 
on the well-known Dicynodont type, is characterized by a number 
of peculiarities. The delto-pectoral crest (c.d.) is greatly developed, 
its border curving forwards and downwards from the articular 
surface and ending, as in '■'■Platypodosaurus rohustus,'" in a somewhat 
hooked process. The ento-tuberosity is developed to a greater 
extent than is met with in the humerus of any S. African reptile 
hitherto discovered, and forms a long flattened tapering process 
•which ends in a rather sharp point. Near the middle of the bone on 
its inner side is developed a very prominent tricipital ridge resem- 
bling more that seen in Echidna than the I'ounded prominence on the 
humerus of '■'Plah/podosaurus." The articular surface of the head 
of the bone resembles greatly that in Ornithorhynchus and Echidna 
in being considerably developed transversely, while it is but very 
narrow. As in the Monotremes, a sharp ridge runs down from 
the articular head to the external condyle ; and this is very 
peculiarly developed, in that while in the humeri hitherto dis- 
covered though it may be very prominent it is generally slender, it 
is here a markedly rounded boss (ex.). The internal condyle is 
not very large. The entepicondylar foramen is only of moderate 
size, and is situated a little more distally than is usually the case 
in Dicynodonts. The ridge of bone which forms the bridge 
over the foramen runs up to the base of the delto-pectoral crest. 

In Udenodon baini the humerus varies much less from the 
normal dicynodont type. The delto-pectoral crest is not developed 
downwards to form a hooked process in front ; the tricipital ridge 
appears to have been small ; while the external condyle is not more 
greatly developed than is the case in Ornithorhynchus. 

Radius and Ulna, 

The radius and ulna are very mammal-like in form (c/. Plate 
XVI.). 

The radius (rd.) is considerably shorter than the humerus. Its 



1901.J AFFINITIES OF UDENODON. 173 

upper half is moderately rounded, and from the head to a little 
below the middle of the bone it steadily decreases in thickness, so 
that at the middle the diameter is only about one-half that of the 
head. In its lower third the bode becomes flattened out to give a 
broad articulation to the radiale (*•«.). The broad end of the bone 
has a deep depression on both its upper and under sides. Its 
articular surface looks downwards and slightly outwards. 

The ulna (ul.) is very nearly twice as long as the radius, and 
considerably longer than the humerus ; its great length being due 
to the greatly developed olecranon process (oL; cf. also Plate XVIII. 
fig. 7). The upper half of the bone is very strongly developed, and 
the olecranon extends about as far beyond the sigmoid articulation 
as it does in such typical lowly mammals as the Wombat and the 
Porcupine. The point of the olecranon is directed slightly out- 
wards, but it is not dilated like that of the Monotremes. On the 
outer side of the ulna a short prominent ridge is seen bordei'ing 
the sigmoid articulation. On the inner side the upper part of 
the ulna is deeply excavated after the manner seen in that of 
Echidna, but to a much greater extent, as the border of the bone 
forms a much more prominent ridge. The lower half of the ulna is 
much flattened. Like the radius, the lower end is slightly expanded ; 
while the articular surface looks slightly towards the radius. 

Carj)us (Plate XVI.). 

In the skeleton of Udenodon gracilis the carpus is almost per- 
fectly preserved, and the various bones composing it have scarcely 
been at all disturbed in position. In the proximal row are four 
bones — radiale (ra.) interrtiedium {i.\ ulnare (un.), and pisiform 
(pi.) ; in the distal row are five carpals ; while in the middle is a 
single centrale (c). 

The radiale or scaphoid (ra.) is a broad and considerably flattened 
bone which occupies the greater part of the articular end of the 
radius. Its dorsal surface shows a considerable depression 
towards its outer end. It articulates with the radius, with the 1st 
carpale, the centrale and the intermedium. 

The intermedium or lunar (i.) lies between the end of the radius 
and the ulna and ulnare. On the upper side it has a fairly large 
surface, but on the under it is ^apparent as a slender plate fitting 
in between the radius atid the ulnare. 

The ulnare or cuneiform (un.) is considerably shorter in its 
transverse diameter than the radiale, but of much greater length 
antero-posteriorly. It articulates with the ulna, the intermedium, 
the 4th and 5th carpalia, the pisiform, and probably with the cen- 
trale. Bordering the side by which it articulates with the ulna 
there is a prominent little oblique ridge, and at the distal and 
inner corner of the bone is a little rounded eminence. 

The pisiform (-pi.) is a little bone which articulates with the 
outer side of the ulnare, and curves outwards and upwards, forming 
part of the articulation for the ulna. 



174 DE. B. BROOM ON THE STEUCTUEE AND [June 4, 

The centrale (c.) is a rounded, moderate-sized element, which 
occupies the centre of the carpus. It articulates with the radiale, 
intermedium, and probably with ulnareof the proximal carpal bones, 
and with the 1st, 3rd, and 4th carpalia of the distal series. It is 
possible that a small second central element may have lain between 
the centrale and the ulnare, but I regard this as improbable. 

The 1st carpale is a short flattened bone which iits in between 
the radiale and the 2nd carpale. On its outer end it gives an 
articulation to the pollex. Its inner end articulates with the 3rd 
carpale and the centrale. 

The 2nd carpale is a very small bone which articulates with the 1st 
and 3rd carpalia, and supports the metacarpal of the 2nd digit, 
and possibly shares with the 1st carpale the support of the 1st 
metacarpal. 

The 3rd carpale is a fair-sized element which fits in between the 
2nd and 1st carpalia, the centrale, and the 4th carpale, and gives 
articulation to the 3rd metacarpal. 

The 4tli carpale is a large quadrangular element. Distally it 
gives articulation to the 4th metacarpal and to a slight extent to 
the 3rd and 5th metacarpals. Proximally it articulates with the 
centrale and the ulnare, and fits in between the 3rd and 5th carpalia. 

The 5th carpale is very small, and is so closely articulated to the 
4th carpale as to render it not improbable that the two elements may 
be anchylosed as age advances. In the little skeleton, which is 
probably immature but not very young, the two elements are quite 
distinct. The little 5th carpale articulates also with the ulnare, 
and gives articulation to the 5th metacarpal. 

Metacarpals and Phalanges. 

In the raanus there are five well-formed digits, but I fail to 
detect any trace of a praepoUex. The three median digits are 
somewhat stronger than the other two. 

Of the pollex only the metacarpal and part of first phalanx are 
preserved. The metacarpal is a small rectangular bone about as 
broad as long. The 1st phalanx is probably very similar. 

In the second digit, as in the first, only the metacarpal and a 
portion of the 1st phalanx are preserved. The metacarpal is a fair- 
sized element appreciably longer than broad. In the middle it is 
somewhat constricted, and at its distal end considerably expanded. 
The 1st phalanx was probably considerably smaller than the 
metacarpal. 

The third digit is complete except the ungual phalanx. The 
metacarpal is very similar to that of the 2nd digit, but somewhat 
larger. Like the latter, it is constricted in the middle and 
expanded distally. The 1st phalanx is a quadrangular bone 
only slightly longer than broad, and slightly constricted in the 
middle. It is about one-half smaller than the metocarpal. The 
2nd phalanx is very similar in shape to the 1st, but still smaller. 

The fourth digit is almost perfect. The metacarpal is about 
equal in size to that of the 3rd digit, but is less constricted in the 



1901.] AFFINITIES OF UDENODON. 175 

middle. The 1st phalanx is a quadrangular bone slightly broader 
than long and only slightly constricted in the middle. The 2nd 
phalanx is a small bone very distinctly broader than it is long. 
It gives articulation to a large claw. The terminal or ungual 
phalanx is narrow, slightly curved, and almost as long as the meta- 
carpal and the other two phalanges together. 

The fifth digit has a small metacarpal, about as broad as long, 
and but slightly narrowed in the middle. The 1st and 2nd 
phalanges are both small quadrangular bones, the 1st being 
considerably smaller than the metacarpal, and the 2nd than the 1st. 
The ungual phalanx is almost as large as that of the fourth 
digit, and like it but slightly curved. 

In Udenodon baini the metacarpals and phalanges appear to be 
very like those in U. gracilis, but the ungual phalanges are much 
shorter and broader, and the whole digits appear proportionally 
stronger. 

Pelvis. 

In the skeleton of Udenodon gracilis (Plate XYI. and Plate 
XVII. fig. 6) the almost perfect ilium (il.) is displayed. On the 
right side the ischium (is.) and pubis (ph.), with a portion of the 
ilium , are shown attached to the main slab, while the greater 
portion of the right ilium remains adherent to the counter slab. 

The ilium resembles considerably the ilium of Ptychosiagum 
orientale figured by Lydekker (7) in being directed upwards and 
forwards, and in being greatly expanded antero-posteriorly. As 
the acetabulum (ac.) is fairly large, the lower end of the ilium 
which articulates with the pubis and ischium is broad. On passing 
upwards it becomes somewhat constricted into a short neck, from 
which it again rapidly broadens into a large fan-like expansion. 
The anterior part of the blade of the ilium lies much in advance of 
the axis formed by the neck and the acetabulum, the anterior border 
of the bone forming a graceful gentle curve forwards. The posterior 
part of the blade is of much less size, and the posterior border 
curves almost abruptly backwards from the neck and at right angles 
to its axis. The iliac blades are moderately flat, being only slightly 
concave antero-posteriorly on their outer side and with some 
muscular ridges. 

The pubis (pb.) is peculiarly twisted, so that while the upper part 
looks outward the lower looks mainly downward. The pubis forms 
a little more than a quarter of the acetabulum, and bounds the 
articular cavity by a prominent ridge. The outward facing portion 
of the pubis is triangular in shape. In front of the acetabulum 
is a little prominence — apparently the pectineal tubercle ; while at 
the lower and anterior angle of the triangular portion is another 
small tubercle, which in position corresponds with the tubercle 
which in Orniihorhynchus assists in the articulation of the marsupial 
bone. A ridge runs obliquely from this lower tubercle towards the 
lower border of the acetabulum, and from it the pubis passes at 
first directly inwards and then downwards and inwards. The 
exact size of the obturator foramen (f.ob.) is not clearly shown 



176 DE. E. BEOOM ON THE STEUCTTJEE AND [June 4, 

in this skeleton, but it is situated immediately below the oblique 
ridge not far from the lower border of the acetabulum. The lower 
part of the pubis is moderately flat, and does not extend farther 
forward than the level of the lower tubercle. The anterior border 
between the lower tubercle and the symphysis is straight, as if for 
the articulation of a cartilaginous epipubic element. There is a 
long articulation between the pubis and the ischium below the 
obturator foramen. 

The ischium (is.) in Udenodon gracilis is proportionally very 
considerably smaller than in the Dicynodoyi pelvis figured by 
Lydekker, and looks much less downwards than in that specimen. 
Prom the point where the ischium meets the ilium the posterior 
border curves downwards and then backwards, ending abruptly at the 
ischial tuberosity. From the tuberosity the lower border curves 
gently round to meet the pubis. The lower part of the ischium is 
flat except in being slightly concave in the neighbourhood of the 
obturator foramen. Eound the posterior border of the acetabulum 
the ischium forms a prominent ridge, but the ridge formed by the 
ischium is not continuous with that formed by the pubis, a gap 
occurring at the ischio-pubic suture. From the acetabular border 
a prominent thickening or ridge runs backwards to the upper end 
of the ischial tuberosity. 

There is no evidence of any marsupial bones, and from the con- 
dition of the skeleton this may almost be taken as conclusive proof 
that such bones did not exist in Udenodon. There is evidence, 
however, in favour of there having been a cartilaginous epipubis. 

In Udenodon haini the ilium is very similar to that in U. gracilis, 
but the ischium is proportionally considerably larger though its 
general characters are A^ery similar. The obturator foramen if. oh.) 
is oval with the long axis directed antero-posteriorly and situated 
close under the border of the acetabulum. The long axis of the 
foramen measures about half the diameter of the neck of the ilium. 

Femur. 

In Udenodon gracilis the right femur has its posterior side well- 
displayed, and as its upper half has been broken loose its anterior 
side can also be examined with the exception of the head. 

In its general proportions the femur (Plate XVII. fig. 5, fm.) 
agrees with that of the Monotremes, though in its characters it 
differs somewhat. It is much flattened throughout its whole length, 
and considerably broadened out both at its upper and lower ends. 
From the head to the greater trochanter the measurement is nearly 
three times as great as that across the middle of the shaft. From 
a little below the middle of the bone, the outer border forms an 
almost straight line to the top of the great trochanter. The inner 
border curves very markedly inwards to the head, and the curve is 
interrupted by the presence of the small trochanter, which forms a 
small but very distinct inwardly directed ridge. On the anterior 
surface of the bone so far as displayed is a small vertical groove a 



1901.] AFFINITIES OF TJDEIfODON. 177 

little to the outside of the middle line ; while to the inside of the 
great trochanter is a distinct but shallow concavity. On tbe pos- 
terior side of the bone there is a fairly deep concavity below the 
head and on the inner side of the small trochanter. On the outer 
edge of the posterior side there runs down, from a little below tbe 
great trochanter to beyond the middle of the shaft, a small sharp 
backwardly directed ridge. In the middle of the shaft a section is 
almost oval, showing a small but distinct medullary cavity. The 
lower end of the femur resembles very considerably the lower part 
of the bone in Echidna or Ornitliorhynchus. The condyles are small 
and rather widely apart, and, as in the Monotremes, the whole lower 
end of the femur is much flatter than in the Eutherians. From the 
neighbourhood of the inner condyle an oblique ridge runs upwards 
and outwards towards the outer side of the middle of the shaft, 
apparently corresponding to the oblique ridge on the back of the 
lower end of the femur of Echidna. 

In the skeleton of Udenodon haini (spec. 4) both femora are 
shown but in rather bad preservation, having been much crushed. 
The chief differences in this species are in the bone being propor- 
tionally stronger, in the greater development of the great trochanter, 
and in tbe small trochanter being less marked. 

Tihia and Fibula. 

In the skeleton of Udenodon gracilis (PI. XVI.) both tibiae and 
fibulae are shown, but those of the left leg are not well displayed, 
and those of the right only show the posterior surface and have 
been slightly injured in clearing off the matrix. 

The tibia (tb. Plate XVII. fig. 5) is considerably shorter than the 
femur, and resembles closely the tibia in Echidna. It is a moder- 
ately straight bone with a large flat head, a shaft tapering down to 
between the middle and lower thirds, and a distal end moderately 
dilated and with an oblique articular surface. It has a distinct 
though small medullary cavity. 

The fibula (fb.) is a longer though more slender bone. As in 
Monotremes and most Marsupials the head is large, giving an 
articulation to the femur and having a portion passing up beyond 
the head of the tibia to give attachment to some of the leg- 
muscles. On passing downwards the fibula is directed slightly 
upwards, and it then curves inwards so as to form a wide inter- 
osseous space. At its lovver end the bone is dilated considerably, 
and its articular surface is directed slightly inwards. 

In Udenodon baini the tibia, like the femur, is proportionally 
a much stronger bone than in U. gracilis, and it is also propor- 
tionally shorter. The head is very large, and from it there runs 
down the front of the bone a very prominent crest. The fibula, 
as if to compensate for the greater strength of the tibia, is propor- 
tionally more slender than in the small species. It gives an 
articulation to the femur, but the head is much smaller and is 
scarcely extended beyond the level of the head of the tibia. It is 

Pboc, Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XII. 12 



178 BR. E, BEOOM OK THE STEUCTITEE AND [June 4, 

more curved than in U. gracilis, and there is thus formed a larger 
interosseous space. 

There does not seem to have been an ossified patella in Udenodon. 

Tarsus. 

The tarsus of the right side (PI. XVI.) has its under surface 
well shown, and though a dorsal view would have been more 
satisfactory, a good idea is obtained of the structure of the joint 
even though a little doubt may remain on one or two points. The 
tarsus of the left side is so twisted that it is difficult to be sure of 
some of the elements. 

Articulating with the tibia and fibula respectively (PL XYII. 
fig. 5) are two large elements^ — manifestly the tibiale (tl.) and the 
fibulare ifl.), with a small bone lying between, doubtless the inter- 
medium (■».). The distal row of the tarsus is formed by five 
tarsalia ; while in the centre, between the distal row and the 
tibiale and fibulare, is a ceutrale (c), small as displayed on the under 
surface, but probably of much larger size on the upper. 

The tibiale, or astragalus, as displayed, is a fair-sized somewhat 
pentagonal bone with the upper and outer angle sharp and pro- 
duced. By its proximal and probably its inner face it articulates 
with the tibia. On its outer face the little intermedium comes 
between it and the fibulare, but it is probable that an articulation 
between the two large elements takes place above and distally to 
the intermedium. On the distal border of the tibiale lies the small 
centrale. It is probable that the tibiale does not articulate with 
any other element. As the tarsus is displayed in the specimen, 
there appears to be no element between the 1st tar sale and the 
tibiale, and one might infer that the tarsale had articulated with 
the tibiale, and that these elements are slightly displaced ; but it 
seems much more probable that what appears to be a very small 
centrale is merely a projection, showing on the under side, from 
a moderately large centrale which fits in between the 1st tarsale 
and the tibiale, as does the navicular in mammals. 

The intermedium (i.) is a very small element, at least so far as 
displayed, fitting in between the tibiale and the fibulare, and 
articulating with these two elements and with the fibula. It is 
possible that the element may not be a true intermedium, but a 
small sesamoid bone ; its being deeply implanted, however, between 
the other tarsal elements, and its occupying the exact position 
where an intermedium would be looked for, leads me to believe 
that I have rightly interpreted it as that. 

The fibidare is a large, elongated, four-sided element, nearly as 
large as all the other tarsal elements together. Its proximal side, 
by which it articulates with the fibula, is the shortest of the 
four. The inner side, which is half as long again as the proximal, 
articulates with the intermedium, the tibiale, and the centrale. 
The distal end of the element, which is a little shorter than the 
inner side, but much broader than the proximal end, articulates 
with the fourth and fifth tarsalia and with the fifth metatarsal. 



1901.] ArFINITIBS OF UDENODON. 179 

The centrale, as seen iii the specimen, would appear to be a 
small element fitted in between the tibiale, the fibulare, and the 
third tarsale, but it seems probable that the dorsal view of the 
tarsus would show it to be a much larger element. This is rendered 
highly probable by the fact that there appears to be an unoccupied 
gap between the first tarsale and the tibiale. This must either 
have been occupied by the centrale or the 1st tarsale must have 
articulated with the tibiale, and in the specimen has been displaced. 
The positions occupied by the other tarsal elements lead me to 
favour the former alternative. 

The 1st tarsale (ts. 1, Plate XVIL fig. 5) is a large element much 
resembling a metatarsal in shape. Its proximal end is expanded, 
and, assuming that it is in an undisturbed position in the specimen, 
the outer side of this end articulates with the 2nd tarsale. The 
proximal end must either articulate with the tibiale direct, or a 
portion of the centrale was interposed. 

The 2nd tarsale is a very small element, articulating laterally 
with the 1st and 3rd tarsalia, and most probably with the centrale 
proximally. It gives support to the 2nd digit. 

The 3rd tarsale is about twice as large as the 2nd. It articu- 
lates with the 2nd and 4th tarsalia and with the centrale, and 
givps support to the 3rd toe. 

The 4th and 5th tarsaha (ts. 4, 5) are so closely united that 
there is some doubt as to whether the element present may not be 
entirely the 4th tarsale. The element is a somewhat oval-shaped 
bone with the distal side slightly concave. It fits in between the 
fibulare and the 3rd tarsale, and possibly articulates with the 
centrale. It gives support to the 3rd, 4th, and 5th metatarsals. 
Near its outer end there is an indication of a transverse suture, 
which seems to point to there being a small 5th tarsale closely 
united to, if not anchylosed with, the 4th. In dealing, however, 
with so small a structure, where the bones so closely resemble the 
matrix in colour that it is difficult at times to decide what is bone 
and what matrix, one cannot place much reliance on an indication 
so minute. 

The hallux has a short quadrangular metatarsal (mt. 1) and a 
phalanx (ph.) almost exactly similar in shape and size, and a short 
ungual phalanx less than twice the length of the 1st phalanx. 

The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th toes are so similar in all respects 
that a description of any one would suit, Avith very slight modifica- 
tions, any of the othei's. In all four the metatarsals are elongated 
bones with rounded proximal ends, flattened distal ends, and with 
their shafts constricted in the middle. The first phalanx in all 
four toes is a quadrangular bone slightlv longer than broad. In 
the fourth toe the phalanx is somewhat stouter than in the others. 
The second phalanx is a little shorter than the first, and very 
similar in all four toes. The ungual or terminal phalanx has in 
all five toes been provided with a short claw, only slightly curved. 

Though the fore and hind limbs are fairly equal in length, the 
pes is very much smaller than the manus. All the digits are much 

12* 



180 DE. E. BEOOM OF THE STETJCTTJEE A?fD [June 4, 

more feeble, and the claws have been only about one-third the 

size of those in the manus, 

" Platypodosaueus eobustus, Owen." 

In 1880 and 1881 Owen (8, 9) described in two papers parts of 
the skeleton of a large Anomodont reptile to which he gave the 
name of Platypodosaurus robusius. The remains comprised a 
number of vertebrae, a scapula, a humerus, the sternum, the greater 
part of the pelvis with the sacrum, a portion of one femur, and 
some phalanges. Unfortunately the head was missing. Owen 
recognized a number of affinities between the bones and those of 
Dicynodon, but was chiefly impressed by the many Mammal-like 
characters displayed, and particularly by the striking resemblances 
many of the bones showed to those corresponding in the Mono- 
tremes ; and he suggests that the Monotremes may be the de- 
scendants of reptiles closely resembling Platypodosaurus. 

Lydekker (7), in the ' British Museum Catalogue of Fossil 
Reptiles,' places Platypodosaurus among the Dicynodontia as a 
doubtful species, and expresses his opinion that from the general 
Dicynodont character of the specimens, the remains "■ are referable 
either to Udenodon or Eudothiodon" 

As nothing has hitherto been known for certain of any of ,the 
bones of either Udenodon or Eudothiodon except the skull, no 
advance beyond Lydekker's position has been possible. Now, 
however, that the limb-bones of at least two species of Udenodon 
are known, it is possible to come nearer a solution of the Platyjoo- 
dosaurns-'pYohlem. 

The chief distinctive features of the Platypodosaurus specimens 
are the great development in the humerus of the delto-pectoral 
crest which forms a downward projection, and the presence of a 
marked tricipital prominence. In Udenodon gracilis both of these 
characters are found, and the general proportions of the humerus 
are strikingly similar to those in Platypodosaurus. The sternum 
of Platypodosaurus does not differ greatly from that of Udenodon 
baini. The scapula agrees so closely with that of U. baini that 
had that of the latter been found alone it would almost certainly 
have been referred to a young specimen of Platypodosaurus, 
The femur of Platypodosaurus, so far as is known, differs somewhat 
from thatt; of U. gracilis, especially in the greater development 
of the great trochanter, and in the less development of the small 
trochanter ; but it agrees closely with the femur of U. baini. 
The pelvis of the larger anomodont, so far as it is preserved, 
agrees very closely with that of U. gracilis in its general 
proportions, and, if allowance be made for imperfections, probably 
also in its contours. The vertebrae differ very considerably 
from those of U. baini which I have figured. This is probably 
due to their belonging to different regions of the column in the 
two species. 

From the close agreement between the bones of Platypodosaurus 
and those of Udenodon gracilis and U. baini, there seems to be 



1901.] AFFINITIES or riDENODOJS'. 181 

very little doubt that the Platypodosaihrus robustus remains are the 
bones of a large species of Udenodon. The large skull figured by 
Owen (3) as Udenodon magnus bears almost the same proportion to 
the limb-bones of " Platypodosaurus robustus " that the skall of 
Udenodon gracilis does to its Kmb-bones. It seems, therefore, very 
probable that the bones described as Platiipodosaurus robustus are 
parts of the post-cranial skeleton of Udenodon magnus, Owen. 
Lydekker (7), in his British Museum Catalogue, holds that 
Udenodon magnus is a synonym of Udenodon jyrognatlms Owen. 
It is impossible for one away from the original specimens to offer 
an opinion on the subject, and though the figures seem to show 
a number of distinctive characters, Lydekker's work among the 
Anomodonts has been so carefully and conscientiously done, that 
any opinion expressed by him must always cany very great 
weight. 

Affinities of Udenodon. 

The genus most nearly allied to Udenodon is Dicynodon ; in 
fact so great is the resemblance between the two genera that it 
has been suggested that Udenodon was the female of Dicynodon. 
The discovery of the limb-bones shows that the two genera are 
distinct though very closely related ; and there seems to be very 
little doubt that Udenodon is merely a slightly modified Dicynodon 
in which tlie tusks have ceased to develop. 

When the bones of Udenodon or Dicynodon are compared with 
those of other Vertebrates, we find that the group has many marked 
affinities with the Theriodonts and the Mammals ; some affinities, 
but less marked, with the primitive reptilian types such as Paria- 
saurus, and even with the E;hynchocephalians, Plesiosaurs, and 
Chelonians ; but that the relationships with the more highly 
specialized reptiles, such as the Crocodiles, Dinosaurs, and Ptero- 
dactyles, are rather I'emote. 

In Udenodon the anterior half of the skull is so greatly modified 
in connection with the toothless beak that the affinities are 
masked. There is little doubt, however, that the beak is derived 
from that of a Theriodont type, hitermediate stages being found in 
Cryptocynodon and Dicynodon. 

In the structure of the posterior part of the skull Udenodon 
agrees closely with the Theriodonts and Mammals ; and differs 
markedly from all the regular Reptilian types. 

In the majority of typical reptiles the temporal region of the 
skull is protected by two bony arches — a supra-lateral arch formed 
by the postf rental or postorbital and the squamosal or supra- 
temporal, and an infra-lateral formed by the jugal and quadrato- 
jugal. This arrangement, or a modification of it, occurs in the 
Ehynchocephalians, Pelycosaurians, Crocodilians, Dinosaurs, and 
other groups. The more primitive lizards differ in having lost 
the lower arch. In the Dicynodonts, as in the Theriodonts and 
Mammals, there is but a single arch formed by the jugal and 
squamosal ; and some difference of opinion has been held as to 



182 DB. R. BROOM ON THE STEIJCTURE AND [June 4, 

whether this single arch is the homologue of the upper or o£ the 
lower arch in the typical reptiles. As, however, the single arch in 
the Dicynodonts differs in structure from either of the normal rep- 
tilian arches, and as it is moderately certain that the reptiles with 
the two arches have been derived from the ancestral forms which 
had the temporal region completely roofed, by quite a different 
line from that by which the Dicynodonts have arisen, the single 
arch in the latter cannot be regarded as homologous with either 
of the arches in the more typical reptile. In the branch which 
gave rise to the majority of Eeptilian orders the temporal roof 
became transformed on either side into a couple of arches by 
an upper fenestra formed between the parietal, squamosal, 
postorbital, and postfrontal, and a lower fenestra between the 
jugal, quadrato-jugal, supratemporaP, and postorbital. In the 
other great Eeptilian branch which gave rise to the Anomodonts, 
Theriodonts, and Mammals, a single fenestra only has been formed 
in the temporal roof, corresponding to the upper fenestra of the 
branch from which the Ehynchocephalians and allied forms have 
sprung. After the formation of the fenestra, or possibly before, 
the skull in the anomodont line became much simplified by the 
reduction and loss of a number of elements and the corresponding 
increase in size of others. The squamosal increased apparently 
early iu relative size, and with its increase the supratemporal and 
the quadrato-jugal became first reduced and then lost. In a 
number of different lines of descent we find a similar process 
has gone on. Thus, in Sphenodon the squamosal by its increase 
has led to the complete loss of the supratemporal and the great 
reduction of the quadrato-jugal ; in Aetosaurus the increased de- 
velopment of the squamosal has led to the loss of both the supra- 
temporal and the quadrato-jugal ; and in the Plesiosauria, which 
are possibly an offshoot from the Anomodont stem, we find a very 
large squamosal with complete loss of the supratemporal and 
quadrato-jugal. The temporal region of Udenodon only differs 
from that in the Plesiosaur in that, whereas the latter has both a 
postfrontal and a postorbital, one of those elements is lost in 
the former ; in my opinion it is the postorbital which is lost in 
the Anomodont. 

The only essential difference between the structure of the 
postero-lateral region of the skull in the Mammals and that in 
the Anomodonts and Theriodonts is that the mammalian skull 
has become further simplified by the loss of the postfrontal and 
the almost complete loss of the quadrate. A number of years ago 
I advanced (10) the view that the reptilian quadrate had its 

^ Concerning the two bones found in the upper and posterior temporal 
region, opinions have differed as to which is to be regarded as the squamosal 
and which supratemporal. The opinion to which I have been led is that it is 
invariably the upper and inner which is the squamosal — an opinion which 
agrees with that of Baur, but differs from that of most British authorities, 
including Parker. When only the one element is found it appears to be 
always the squamosal. 



1901.] APPimilES OP tTDENODOlf. 183 

homologue in the mammal in the interarticular cartilage of the 
lower jaw. If recent advances in palaeontology have not fully 
confirmed this view, they have at least shown that practically all 
the alternative theories are untenable. 

In the higher Theriodonts, e. g. Cynognaihiis, the zygomatic 
arch, though composed of the same elements as in Udenodon, 
differs very greatly in the relative proportions of the parts ; but 
in the lower Theriodonts, i. e. IctidosucJms (11), the zygomatic 
arch bears much resemblance to that in the Anomodonts. 

The palate in Dicijnodon and Udenodon differs considerably from 
the normal reptilian type, and agrees essentially with that in the 
Theriodonts and Mammals. 

All Jinown Reptiles have palates more or less modifi.ed from a 
primitive type such as is found in Parioticlius or Procolophon, and 
which consists of the following elements : — an anterior pair of 
bones which meet in the middle line, and which are usually 
regarded as " vomers " ; a pair of large pterygoids, which have 
each a posterior and outer branch to the quadrate, an outer and 
anterior branch joining the transpalatine, and an anterior and 
inner branch which usually meets the so-called "vomer'"; a pair 
of palatmes lying on the outer side of the anterior and inner 
branches of the pterygoids ; a pair of transpalatines ; and a 
median element passing forwards from the basisphenoid between 
the two pterygoids, and usually referred to as the " parasphenoid." 
This arrangement we find with only slight modifications in all 
the early groups, including types so dissimilar as Fareiasaurus, 
Procolophon, Ichthyosaurus, Flesiosaurus, JDimetrodon, and Sphe- 
nodon. 

The palates of the Theriodonts and Anomodonts are very con- 
siderably modified derivatives of the same type. Unfortunately 
in none of the primitive Theriodonts is the palate at all well 
known. We know, however, that a secondary palate was not 
formed in either Gorgonops or Ictidosuchus, nor apparently in 
j^lurosaurns. In Udenodon we have an imperfect secondary 
palate, and in the higher Theriodonts a secondary palate as well- 
developed as that in mammals, and essentially similar to that in 
mammals. As the general structure of the skeleton of Udenodon 
is essentially Theriodont, and as the palate only differs from that 
of the typical Theriodont in the specialization of the beak and iu 
the secondary palate being imperfect, one is justified in concluding 
that the Anomodonts are a specialized offshoot from the earlier 
Theriodonts. In the evolution of the Theriodont palate from the 
primitive Reptilian type, the changes which have taken place 
appear to have been the following : — The anterior and internal 
branch of the pterygoid has become greatly reduced and finally 
lost, and its place and function to a large extent has been taken 
up by a great increase in the so-called " parasphenoid '' ; while the 
anterior and outer branch has become more developed, and with 
its increase the palatine has come to lie rather internal than 
external to the pterygoid. With the development of a secondary 



184 DE. R. BROOM ON THE STEUCTUEE AND [ Juiie 4, 

palate the anterior paired element — the so-called " vomer " — being 
no longer required as a bony floor for the nasal cartilages, has become 
reduced, and is only retained to give support to the cartilages of 
Jacobson's organ. This is the condition we find in Gomphognathus 
(12). The " parasphenoid," having now a new function — that 
of forming a support for the secondary palate — becomes greatly 
developed as a median plate, which is unquestionably the homo- 
logue of the mammalian vomer. From this it follows that the 
element called Parasphenoid in the Reptiles generally ought to be 
called the Vomer ; while the anterior paired element, usually 
regarded as the " vomer," but which is the homologue of the 
dumbbell-shaped bone in OniitJiorJiynchus, may be called the 
" anterior vomer," or by the name I have elsewhere (13) proposed 
for convenience, the Prevomer. 

In Udenodon the true vomer is greatly developed, but the 
anterior vomer or prevomer is lost — no doubt owing to the great 
palatal development of the premaxillary. The vomer in the 
Anomodonts agrees with the mammalian vomer even more closely 
than does the vomer in the higher Theriodonts. 

In the Chelonians, probably as the result of a parallel develop- 
ment, the palate bears considerable resemblance to that in the 
Anomodonts, and it even appears that the median vomer is a true 
vomer, as in Dicynodon and its allies. 

The lower jaw of Udenodon differs greatly in appearance from 
that in the Theriodonts, owing to its being toothless and to the 
absence of a well-developed coronoid process. As the elements 
are apparently the same, the difference is probably due largely to a 
degeneration in the Anomodont jaw, similar to that which has 
taken place in the toothless mandibles of such mammals as 
Echidna or the Whales. 

The vertebrae appear to be essentially similar in structure in the 
Anomodont and in the Theriodont ; but in the Anomodont the 
type is somewhat more primitive, in that the ribs of the lower 
trunk vertebras are not specialized as they are in the higher 
Theriodont at least. 

The shoulder-girdle in Udenodon belongs to the type which is 
found to persist with little variation from the lower forms such as 
Pareiasaurus up to the Monotremes. The cartilaginous elements 
consist of a scapula, a coracoid, and a distinct precoracoid, while 
the membrane-bone elements are a clavicle, a supra-clavicle or 
cleithrum, and a median interclavicle. In the Anomodonts the 
coracoid and the precoracoid are extremely like those in the 
Theriodonts, both the higher and the lower ; but, curiously enough, 
the scapula agrees with that in the higher Theriodonts such 
as Cynognathus, and differs from that in the lower Therio- 
donts,^ e. g. Ictidosuclius, in having a moderately well-developed 
acromion. 

The humerus closely resembles that in the Theriodonts, but 
whereas in the latter, as in the typical terrestrial mammals, the 
humerus is elongated, in the Anomodonts, as in the Monotremes, 



1901.] AiTINITlES or UDENODON. 185 

the humervTS is short and broad. As pointed out by Owen in 
PJatypodosaurus, the humerus bears a most remarkable resemblance 
to that in Echidna. There is little doubt, however, that the 
humeri in both the Mouotremes and the Anomodonts have been 
derived by a parallel development from the more elongated 
Theriodont type. 

The radius and ulna closely resemble these bones in both the 
Theriodonts and in the Mammals. The ulna is remarkable by its 
having a very well-developed olecranon, somewhat resembling that 
which Seeley has shown to occur in Theriodesmus, but developed 
to a much greater extent. 

The carpus is strikingly like that of both the Theriodont and 
the Mammal. In Theriodesmus it is moderately certain that there 
are four bones in the proximal row as shown by von Bardeleben 
(14), and not three as according to Seeley's restoration (15). 
JFrom the condition found in Udenodon it will be seen that 
Seeley's objection to placing four bones in the proximal row is of 
no weight. Bardeleben figures two centralia, but as these two 
are figured by Seeley as a single bone, there must still remain 
some doubt as to whether Tlieriodesonus has one or two centralia. 
The carpus of Theriodesmus resembles that of Udeyiodon in the 
small size of the 2nd carpale, but differs in the apparent absence 
of the 5th carpale. Theriodesmus further differs from Udenodon 
in having a small praepollex. In the structure of its carpus 
Udenodon seems to be more primitive than the Theriodont, and 
shows affinities with a number of the earlier reptilian types. In 
Sjphenodon the carpus is very similar, but differs in having two 
centralia. The carpus of Lacerta as figured by Wiedersheim is 
almost similar to that of Udenodon, only differing slightly in the 
relative size of one or two of the elements. In Proterosaurus 
the carpus is again formed on the same type, though apparently 
with the absence of the pisiform ; and in the Chelonians we have 
another slight modification of type. 

In many mammals we find the carpus vei"y closely agreeing 
with that of Udenodon, but with the 5th carpale invariably lost. 
It is remarkable that in the lowest mammalian orders — the 
Monotremata, the Marsupialia, and the Edentata — the os centrale 
is absent. It is, however, retained in many Eodents, most 
Insectivores, the Seals, in the Hyrax, and in the Primates. Even 
in Man in early foetal life a distinct central element can be 
seen. 

The manus agrees with that of the mammal, not only in the 
number of digits, but in the number of phalanges in each. 

The pelvis belongs to that type with expanded ilium and small 
obturator foramen, which can be seen as far back as Myops 
among the Labyrinthodonts, and which is still found in the 
mammals of to-day. As in the Pariasaurians, the ilium lies 
mainly in front of the acetabulum, and the ischium and pubis are 
well developed. The obturator foramen, however, is considerably 
larger than in these primitive forms. In Gynognathus the ilium 



186 DE. R. BEOOM ON THE STEUCTUEE AND [June 4, 

is even more greatly expanded antero-posteriorly than in Udeno- 
don, and the ischium is produced backwards to a greater extent, 
while the obturator foramen is considerably larger. The pelves in 
the two forms are, however, manifestly closely related, though the 
Theriodont pelvis comes nearer to the Mammalian type than does 
the Anomodont ; while the latter retains more of the primitive 
characters. 

The femur does not greatly resemble the femora of those few 
Theriodonts in which that bone is known. It shows hardly any 
of the remarkable features of the femur of Ictidosuchus, There 
is, however, a distinct depression immediately inside the great 
trochanter corresponding to the deep pit in the femur of that 
early Theriodont. It is probable, however, that in man}'' Therio- 
donts the femur was as little specialized as in Udenodon. In 
Cynodraco the distal end of the femur is fairly like that in the 
Anomodont. On the whole it must be admitted that the Anomodont 
femur resembles the Mammalian type more than that of any other 
known Reptilian group. 

The fibula agrees with that in the Monotremes and Marsupials, 
in having the upper end expanded and passing beyond the head 
of the tibia. A similar condition is seen in Aristodesmus. 

The tarsus is especially interesting, in that while it shows close 
affinities with the primitive types, it also foreshadows the tarsus 
of the mammal. Assuming that my interpretation of the 
elements is correct, the tarsus would show some resemblance to 
that in the Pelycosauria, where, according to Cope (16), a distinct 
intermedium and centrale are present. In the large majority of 
Eeptiles the intermedium and the centrale become early united 
with the tibiale. In the mammal it would appear that the astra- 
gulus is the tibiale, the calcaneum the fibulai-e, the navicular the 
centrale, and that the intermedium is missing. The condition of the 
elements in Udenodon would seem to favour this view. By Gegen- 
baur, Flower, and others the mammalian astragalus has been held 
to represent the united tibiale and intermedium ; while according 
to Emery the astragalus represents a fusion of the intermedium 
and a paracentrale. When, in any form, a single cartilage or bone 
occupies the situation held by two elements in an ancestral type, 
many morphologists incline to regard the single element as morpho- 
logically equivalent to the two ; but in the very large majority of 
cases there is good reason to believe that the single element is 
only functionally equivalent to the two, and that it is the homo- 
logue of only one, the other being completely lost. Thus, if we 
compare the human carpus with that of the Baboon, we might 
readily conclude that the scaphoid or radiale in Man was equivalent 
to the small scaphoid and centrale together of the loM^er form ; 
but we know from development that a rudiment of the centrale 
is present and quite distinct in man in early foetal life, and that 
as development advances it completely disappears. Very many 
similar instances might readily be given. Of course this rule does 



1901.] AFFINITIES OF TJDENODON. 187 

not apply to those cases where two elements distinct in early life 
coalesce or anchylose as development advances, but it appears to 
apply to membrane-bones as well as cai'tilage. 

In Udenodon the small size of the intermedium seems to 
indicate that it is on the point of disappearing, and in mammals 
it is apparently quite lost. The centrale, though as displayed it 
is small, occupies the position of the navicular in the mammal, 
which has generally been regarded as the centrale of the 
tarsus. 

The digits and the phalanges agree in number with those of the 
Mammalia. 

Conclusion, 

Prom the structure of the skull and other parts of the skeleton, 
Udenodon is very manifestly closely related to both the Theriodonts 
and to the Mammals, and though the higher Theriodonts are too 
specialized to have been the ancestors of the Anomodonts, the 
lower Theriodonts may very well have been the ancestors not only 
of the Anomodonts but of the Mammals. The lower Theriodonts 
may have sprung from forms allied to Pareiasaurus with the 
temporal region completely roofed ; and it seems probable that 
the bones forming the temporal roof have been reduced in number 
before the first formation of the fenestra. From the same line by 
which the Theriodonts have arisen, it is probable that the Plesio- 
saurs have sprung as an offshoot arising early and becoming 
greatly specialized, and it is also possible that the Cheiouians have 
branched off from near the same point. 

All the other reptilian groups appear to have arisen by a different 
branch or branches from the primitive forms. Prom forms with 
the temporal region completely roofed as in ParioticJius, it is 
probable that a group arose with the roof fenestrated at first in 
the supralateral region, and then later in the infralateral region 
as well, and giving rise to a group of which PalceoJiatteria may 
be regarded as the type. Prom this group it is highly probable 
that the Pelycosauria have arisen by one branch, the Crocodilia 
by another, the Dinosauria, and probably the Ornithosauria, by a 
third ; while a fourth branch has given rise to the Ehyncho- 
cephalia and the Squamata. The Ichthyosauria appear to have 
either sprung directly from the primitive group, or to have 
branched off very early from the PcdceoTiatteria stem. All the 
orders along this main branch have the palate directly derived 
from a Sphenodon-WkQ type, and in most instances the modification 
from the type is sHght. 

What appear to be the mutual relationships of the principal 
Orders are best seea when an endeavour is made to arrange them 
phylogenetically, thus : — 



188 



DE. R. BEOOM ON THE STEUCTUEE AND 



[June 4, 




1901.] ArriNiTiES or udenodon. 189 



List of Papees eeeekred to. 

1. Sbeley, H. Gr. — " On associated Bones of a small Anomodont 

Reptile, Keiroynatlms cordylus (Seeley)." Phil. Trans, vol. 
179 B. (1888), iJ. 487. 

2. Owen, E. — ' Catalogue o£ Possil Eeptilia of S. Africa.' 

1876. 

3. Cope, E. D. — " On the Homologues of some of the Cranial 

Bones of the Eeptilia, and on the systematic arrangement 
of the Class." Proc. Amer. Assoc, for Adv. of Sci. 1870. 

4. HuxLEr, T. H. — " On some Amphibian and Reptilian Remains 

from S. Africa and Australia." Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc. 
vol. XV. 1859. 

5. Seeley, H. Gr. — " Researches on the Structure, Organization, 

and Classification of the Fossil Reptilia. — VI. On the 
Anomodont Reptilia and their Allies." Phil. Trans, vol. 
180B. (1889), p. 215. 

6. Broom, R. — •' On the Structure of the Palate in Dicynoclon 

and its Alhes." Trans. S. African Phil. Soc. vol. xi. part iii. 
1901. 

7. Ltdekkbr, R. — " Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and 

Amphibia in the British Museum," Part IV. 1890. 

8. Owen, R. — "Description of parts of the Skeleton of an 

Anomodont Reptile {Platypodosaurus rohustus Ovv.) from 
the Trias of Graaff Reinet, S. Africa." Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. 1880. 

9. Owen, R. — " Description of parts of the Skeleton of an 

Anomodont Reptile {Platijpodosaurus rohustus Ow.). 
Part II. The Pelvis." Quarts Journ. Oeol. Soc. 1881. 

10. Broom, R. — " On the fate of the Quadrate in Mammals." 

Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Nov. 1890. 

11. Broom, R. — " On Ictidosuchus primcevus." Trans. S. Afr. Phil. 

Soc. vol. xi. part iii. 1901. 

12. Broom, R. — "On the occurrence of an apparently distinct 

Prevomer in GompJiognathus." Journ. Anat. & Phys. 
vol. xxxi. 1897. 

13. Broom, R. — " On the Homology of the Palatine Process of 

the Mammalian Premaxillary." Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 
1895. 

14. Bardblebbn, K. — " On the PreepoUex and Praehallux, with 

observations on the Carpus of Theriodesmus phylarchtis." 
P. Z.S. 1899, p. 259. 

15. Seeley, H. Gr. — " Researches. — III. On the parts of the 

Skeleton of a Mammal from Triassic rocks of Klipfontein, 
S. Africa." Phil. Trans, vol. 170 B. (1888), p. 141. 

16. Cope, E. D. — " The relations between the Theroraorphous 

Reptiles and the Monotreme Mammalia." Proc. Amer. 
Assoc, for Adv. Sci. vol. xxxiii. p. 471 (1885). 



190 



MB. F. B. BEDDARD ON EAETHWORMS 



[June 4, 



Fig. 



Fig. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate XVI. 

1. Skeleton of a small Udenodon, presumably U. gracilis. The parts in 
outline are from the remains on the counter slab. X t%. 

Plate XVII. 

2. Ujaper view of skull of Udenodon gracilis. Nat. size. 

3. Side view of skull of Udenodon gracilis. Nat. size. 

4. Vertebra (probably lower thoracic) of Udenodon bainii. Nat. size. 

5. Posterior view of right hind-limb of Udenodon gracilis. Nat. size. 

6. Inner view of pelvic bones of right side of Udenodon gracilis. Nat. 

size. 

Plate XVIII. 

Fig. 7. Posterior or under side of right arm-bones of Udenodon gracilis. 
Nat. size. 

8. Right clavicle of Udenodon gracilis. Nat. size. 

9. Sternum of Anomodont — believed to be Udenodon baini. Nat. size. 

10. Right shoulder-girdle of Udenodon baini. Nat. size. 

11. Right coracoid and precoracoid of Udenodon baini, from within. 

Nat. size. 

Reference Letters. 



ac. 


acetabulum. 


n., 


anterior nares. 


acr. 


acromion process. 


na.. 


nasal bone. 


c. 


centrale. 


ol., 


olecranon process. 


c.d., 


deltoid ridge. 


pb., 


pubis. 


c.e., 


external condyle. 


ph., 


phalanges. 


cl, 


clavicle. 


pi. 


pisiform. 


CO., 


coracoid. 


p.co,, 


precoracoid. 


./. 


femur. 


ra. 


radiale. 


fb., 


fibula. 


rd.. 


radius. 


fl. 


fibulare. 


r.f., 


frontal ridge. 


fr,i. 


femur. 


f-V-f., 


postfrontal ridge. 


fo., 


precoracoid foramen. 


So., 


scapula. 


f.ob.. 


obturatur foramen. 


Sp., 


neural spine. 


gi-^ 


glenoid facet. 


tb.. 


tibia. 


hu., 


humerus. 


tl, 


tibiale. 


i., 


intermedium. 


tr., 


transverse process. 


il. 


ilium. 


is., 


tarsalia (1 & 4-5). 


is. 


ischium. 


id., 


ulna. 


mt. 


metatarsals. 


un.. 


ulnare. 



4. On some Species of Earthworms of the Genus BenJiamia 
from Tropical Africa. By Frank E. Beddard, F.R.S. &c. 

[Received May 20, 1901.] 

(Text-figures 12-19.) 

The genus Benliamia was originally instituted by Dr. Michaelsen^ 
and withdrawn from Acanthodrilus, in which it had been formerly 
included. Quite recently^ the same authority has proposed to drop 
this generic name, and has placed the species which belong to it in 

^ JB. Hamb. wiss. Anst. vi. p. 6. 

^ Oligochseta in ' Das Tierreich,' 1900, p. 334. 



1901.] or THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 191 

the genus Diehogaster (originally instituted by myself ^), which has 
priority. This genus Bicliogaster was also extended so as to include 
Microdrilus, Millsonia, and Balanta. The extended genus will 
contain therefore at the present moment no less than 70 species. 
If it can he avoided, it appears to me to be imdesirable to divide 
families into such large genera. I do not for a moment deny that 
the difference between the several types, which were distinct 
enough at the time of their creation as genera, are through further 
discovery rendered small. Nevertheless it appears to me to be 
still possible to retain the genus Benhamia (which perhaps must 
include Trigaster) for those Acanthodrilid worms in which the 
male pores are quite independent at their orifice from the spermi- 
ducal glands, and which in all cases (save only in Benhamia viridis) 
open on to a segment (the xviiith) lying between those upon 
which open the two pairs of spermiducal glands. But B. viridis 
is not exceptional in the fact that the sperm-ducts are quite 
independent at their orifice of the spermiducal glands, Benhamia 
is, at least mainly, an African genus — tropical African. Some 
38 species are confined to that continent, and two others have been 
found in the Malay Archipelago as well, while a third has been met 
with in many parts of the world. Four are, so far as we know at 
present, confined to the Oriental region, while 9 (exclusive of the 
species of the genus Trigaster) are Central- American and West- 
Indian. It is held, and as I think rightly held, by Michaelsen 
that the real home of the genus is tropical Africa, and that 
there is a great possibility that the species not found within 
that area have been accidentally transferred. As to the ease 
with which this may have occurred there is plenty of evidence 
which I need not recapitulate here. There are, as it appears 
to me, two strong pieces of evidence in favour of the view that 
it has occurred in the case of this particular genus, which are 
these : — firstly, three species are common to Africa and to some 
other part or parts of the globe : secondly, the species of the genus 
Benhamia of Western Africa are different from those of Central 
and Eastern Africa, Now migration across the continent must 
■ surely be an easier matter than migration so far as the Malay 
archipelago ; we thus are forced to conclude that if so trifling a 
barrier, comparatively speaking, as the breadth of equatorial Africa 
has prevented the intermingling of western and eastern species, 
the enormous tracts of land and sea which intervene between 
Benhamia holaui in Africa and the same species in other parts of 
the world must have been traversed by some other means than 
unaided effort. 

(1) Benhamia moorii, n. sp. 

Mr. Moore has very kindly placed in my hands two specimens 
of earthworms collected by him in Africa. One of these is well 
preserved, and is a large and, as I believe, new species oi Benhamia, 

^ Quart. Jouvn. Micr. Sci. xxis. p. 251. 



192 MR. p. E. BEDDARD ON EARTHWORMS [Juiie 4, 

The worm was found upon the Kurungu mountains north of Lake 
Kivu. 

This Benhamia is of a leaden colour with a distinct tinge of pink. 
It is also, on account of its darkly pigmented body, beautifully 
iridescent. It measures some 280 mm. in length, and is thus one 
of the larger species of the genus ; the extreme diameter (behind 
the clitellum) is 15 mm. ; it is thus a stoutly built M'orm. Towards 
both ends of the body it tapers somewhat. As will be seen from 
the drawing exhibited (text-fig. 12), many of the preclitellar segments 
are biannulate. The jJ'i^osto'mium is quite small and entirely re- 
tracted within the buccal cavity. It is continued back by a slender 
prolongation a short distance over the buccal segment. The dorsal 
pores of this worm are apparently rather remarkable in one matter. 
They commence between segments v./vi., as in many species of 
the genus. Four plainly obvious pores follow the first one, which 
is not so pronounced as they are. Then there is a gap where two 
pores ought to be. It might be imagined that this gap was appa- 
rent and not real, due simply to the greater contraction of the body 
at this part. On dissection, however, the pores were exceedingly 
plain. And I observed that on the border-line of the three seg- 
ments, where the dorsal pores were apparently absent, the longi- 
tudinal muscle which acts as an expansor muscle of the pore was 
carried right across the place where the pore should be, instead of 
ending at its mai'gin as is the case when the pore is present. There 
seems to be thus no doubt as to the real absence of these pores 
from the segments mentioned, a curious circumstance which I,, do 
not recollect having seen referred to in any other species. Between 
segments xii./xiii. the pores recommence and continue in an un- 
broken line to the very end of the body. On the clitellum a median 
groove partly obliterates the actual pores ; it runs from pore to pore 
and on the anterior part of the clitellum is continuous for some 
distance ; there are traces of it also elswhere upon the clitellum. 
It is not a furrowing of the integument, but a slight folding which 
may of coitrse be due to contraction ; and yet this is not certain, 
since it is the ventral side of this worm which was most contracted, 
a circumstance which ought to have resulted in a tauter condition 
of the opposite side of the body. 

The setce, as is universal in this genus, are strictly paired, and lie 
entirely upon the ventral surface of the body. 

The clitellum is fairly extensive. It begins Avith the xiiith and 
ends with the xxiiird segment, thus occupying eleven segments. 
The middle region of the clitellum, including segments xiv.-xxi., 
is more compacted, owing to a reduction in the depth of the inter- 
segmental furrows. The ventral surface of a considerable poz*tion 
of this is deeply depressed, as in other species of Benhamia, and thus 
forms a sucker-like structure, extending from about the fifteenth to 
the twentieth segment. This area surrounds of course the male 
pores. The arrangement of these will be apparent from an inspec- 
tion of the drawing exhibited (text-fig. 12). The species shows no 
ereat differences from the conditions which have been observed 



i 



1901.] OP THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 193 

Text-fig. 12. 



Ventral view of the anterior segments of Benhamia moorei. X 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XII] . 13 



194 MR. F. E. BEDDABD ON EARTHWORMS [Jvine 4, 

and described in other species of Benhamia. The four pores of the 
sjoermiducal glands lie as usual upon the xviith and xixth segments. 
Their position corresponds to that of the ventralmost setae ; from 
each protrudes a single penial seta, whose structure will be dealt 
with immediately in connection with that of the male efferent 
apparatus. A nearly circular fold of integument surrounds each 
pore, and is continuous with a fold which demarcates a groove 
putting the two pores of each side of the body into communication. 
This seminal gutter has a curvature which is not usual in the 
genus. As a rule it is absolutely straight, or, if curved, the con- 
vexity of the curve is to the outside. In the present species the 
curvature is, as may be seen in the figure, in the reverse directiou, 
the concavity of the curve being directed outwards. Between the 
two gutters the integument is traversed by a regular series of 
grooves which subdivide its surface as I have shown (text-fig. 12). 
I presume that the orifices of the sperm-ducts lie in the groove on 
each side of the body. But the groove was so deep that I was 
unable to detect them. Moreover I am unable to assert definitely 
whether or not the ventral pair of setae are present upon the sviiith 
segment. It was thought for a time that the absence of these 
sete was distinctive of the genus Benhamia (sensu stricto) ; but, as 
Michaelsen has found that this is not always the case, the character 
must be dropped : still it remains true that in the majority of 
species which have been carefully examined these setae are really 
absent. On the clitellum generally of this worm, large though it 
is, the setae are not at all conspicuous. Just behind each of the 
anterior penial setae and just before each of the posterior penial setae 
there is, to the side, an isolated and smallish tract of integument 
which I regard as a genital ])a]iilla. The two pairs of genital 
papillae would thus appear to be situated on the border lines of 
segments xvii./xvhi. and xviii./xix. Although the appearance of 
the integument which forms these structures does not differ 
markedly from the appearance of the surrounding integument, yet 
the groove which surrounds them seems to mark them out as some- 
thing distinct ; and they are, as I think, to be looked upon as 
genital papillae, which are sometimes, though not very generally, 
present in the species of this genus. I could not find either the 
pores of the oviducts or those of the spermathec;e. As to the 
latter, a dissection assured me that they are ventral in position and 
correspond fairly closely to the position of the pores of the spermi- 
ducal glands. 

Internal Anatomy. 

When the worm was cut open, the relative thickness of various 
regions of the integument was found to vary considerably. 
Anteriorly to the clitellum the body-wall was much thinner than in 
the clitellar region and behind it I may remark that a difference 
of colour distinguished the two layers of the clitellar epithelium. 

Intersegmental Sejita. — The considerable deficiency of septa in the 
anterior region of the body may perhaps account for the thinness 



1901.] OP THE GEISTS BENHAMIA. 195 

of the integument already referred to. It is very unusual to find 
so few — and those such thin — septadividing the anterior segments. 
Their arrangement, moreover, is very puzzling when taken in re- 
lation with the exteriial segmentation and with the location of 
organs internally. The first recognizable septum is fairly thick 
and separates segments v. and vi. Its insertion on the body-wall 
corresponds quite accurately to the external furrow separating 
those segments. There is then an appai'ent gap of considerable 
extent in which there are no septa at all, though the oesophagus 
and the gizzai'ds are bcmnd to the parietes byafew muscular threads. 
The next actual septiun is very thin ; it is inserted behind the last 
of the two gizzards on to the alimentary canal, but to the body- 
wall at about the middle of the ixtli segment, as mapped by the 
dorsal pores which are quite conspicuous from the inside of the 
body. It might therefore be held that the few muscular strands, 
already referred to, represented the otherwise missing septa vi./vii. 
and vii./viii., and perhaps viii,/ix. Obvious though this determi- 
nation seems on a dissection, it is apparently not correct. If we 
count the septa from a fixed point such as the segment lodging, 
aud containing the external orifice of, the anterior spermiducal 
gland, we find that up to as far forwards as the xivth segment 
there is a correspondence between the insertion of the septa and 
the segments which they deuiarcate. Between the septum which 
defines the fifteenth segment anteriorly and the second recogniz- 
able septum just described, I find six septa crowded together. It 
seems to follow therefore that that septum, in spite of the place of 
its attachment to the body-wall, is really septum vii./viii. and that 
the only really missing septum is vi./vii. 

As this latter septum would if present lie between the two 
gizzards, it is not surprising to find itabsent, a state of affairs which 
is very characteristic of the gizzard segments of Pericluvta (syn. 
Amyntas and Phevetima). 

None of the septa as already mentioned are particularly thick ; 
those dividing segments xii./xvii. are the most developed. 

Alimentary Canal. — The pharynx occupies the first five segments 
of the body. The two gizzards are separated by a very short tract 
of thin-walled oesophagus. The anterior of the two gizzards is 
really preceded by a third rather rudimentary gizzard, for the walls 
of the end of the oesophagus are nearly as thick as those of 
the gizzard and are divided from it by a brief thin-walled region. 
Erom what has been said with regard to the septa of this part of 
the body, it should be clear that the two fully developed gizzards 
lie in segments vi. and vii., a quite reasonable determination of 
their situation. Segments v. and vi., however, are more usually 
occupied by the gizzards in this genus. The calciferous glands are 
in segments xv., xvi., and xvii. The first pair differ from the rest in 
being whiter in colour. Each gland is somewhat kidney-shaped 
but with a number of transverse depressions dividing it into lobules. 
The glands open separately into the oesophagus, by wide and easily 
visible ducts. 

13* 



196 MR. "F. E. BEDDABD ON EAETHWORMS [June 4, 

Generative organs. — The testes 1 did not detect. The ovaries were 
very small, though easily recognizable in their usual segment 
(the xiiith). There are two pairs of funnels, which seem at first 
sight to be situated farther forward than is the rule ; they lie in 
fact beneath, and are quite concealed by, the lai'ge gizzards. The 
shifting of the septa, however, already referred to, accounts for 
this appearance ; and I have little doubt but that the funnels lie in 
segments x. and xi. They are large, much folded, and of an opaque 
white colour as is usual with the funnels of the terrestrial Oligo- 
chEeta. The si)erm-sacs are apparently but slightly developed, that 
is if I am right in my identification of these structures. In 
segment xii. and attached just behind the posterior pair of funnels 
to the septum near to the ventral body-wall, is a pair of small 
pear-shaped bodies which I took at first for testes^ so small are 
they, and of so unusual a form for sperm-sacs. Nevertheless I 
imagine that they must be sperm-sacs, though I could make out 
nothing decisive in their structure when teased in glycerine. A 
second pair of apparently similar sacs lie above them and protrude 
into their segment through an obviously natural foramen in the 
septum. A series of sections enable me to state definitely that 
these are sperm-sacs. The sjjermiducal glands are large and much 
coiled, so that they occupy only two or three segments. They 
appear, however, above the gut in this region. The muscular duct 
in which they end is thinnish and of some extent. 

This Benliamia has the usual tw^o pairs o£ sjyermatheco', which are 
large and completely hidden by the gizzards ; their external orifices 
are, however, between segments vii./viii. and viii./ix. Each sac 
(text-fig. 13, p. 197) consists of a thin-walled receptacle of somewhat 
irregular form owing to its being not very full of secreted matter, 
and to unequal pressure by the other viscera in the preserved worm. 
Leading from this pouch is the thick-walled and more muscular 
duct, which is quite of equal length to the pouch. Attached to 
the duct nearer to its external opening than to the pouch is a single 
diverticulum, which is composed of a rosette of flattened seminal 
chambers which are chalk-white from the enclosed semen. 

Penial Setce. — It is rather extraordinary that the very fragile 
penial setse were absolutely intact. Protruding from each of the 
four spermiducal gland-apertures was a single long penial seta 
of a brown horn-colour, and some four or five millimetres long. 
That they were protected by the deep depression in which the 
male orifices lie is possibly the cause of their preservation ; for I 
found them very brittle. These four setae stand up perfectly 
straight without a bend, except at the very tip, which is hooked. 
It is a curious fact that they were symmetrically disposed ; each 
pair stood as it were back to back, with the hooks directed outward. 
I do not think that this regularity in the position of the penial 
setsD has been commented upon before. 

The appearance of these setse under the microscope (see text- 
fig. 16, p. 205) is characteristic. Very nearly the whole of that 
part of the seta which is exposed at the surface of the body is marked 



1901.] OF THE GEIfUS BENHAMIA, 197 

by complete rings of a different texture, or at least appearance, to 
the interspaces. It can be readily seen that these rings are not 
superficial markings upon the seta, as they have been — perhaps 
wrongly — stated to be in the case of similar seta in other worms. 
They are, as was correctly stated by Michaelsen in another species 
of earthworm, caused by some differentiation of the material of the 

Text-fig. 13. 




Spermatheca of Benhamia moorei. X 3. 

seta below the outermost layer. Towards the hooked end of the seta 
these riugs get to be closer together and at the same time of less 
diameter. In addition to these markings the extremity of theseta 
is pitted— this time quite superficially— with minute excavations. 
The tip is strongly hooked, and before this the seta regularly but 
rapidly decreases in calibre, not suddenly as Michaelsen has figured 
and described in Benhamia itiolensis. 

fSjiermatojiJiore.—I found a spermatophore in this species ; but I 
do not give a full account of it, and as the existence of spermato- 
phores in this genus is not my discovery, I do not give a special 
section to an elaborate description of it. It is curious how rarely 
spermatophores have been met with in the enormous number of 
species (some 550) belonging to the family Megascohcidae (from 
which I exclude the Eudrilidse). Indeed I am only acquainted 
with their description in two forms belonging to the same genus 
as the subject of the present communication. Dr. Michaelsen has in 
fact figured and briefly noticed a spermatophore in Benhamia monti- 
cola and B. itiolensis \ The spermatophore of the species described 
here is apparently slightly different in form. I may remark first of 
all that it lay entirely in the muscular duct of the spermatheca, and 

1 Regenwurmer in Deutsch-Ost-Afrika, p. 28, pi. i. fig- 4. 



1 98 ME. -p. E, BBDDARD ON EABTHWOBMS [June 4, 

that it is too large to have been moulded in the narrow muscular 
part of the sperraiducal gland. The end turned towards the 
spermatheca was oval in form, and this region gradually narrowed 
and then terminated abruptly in a large roughly rounded mass, of 
greater diameter than the oval end of the spermatophore. The 
structure was very hard, and a little brittle, and of the usual chitin 
yellow. When viewed with the naked eye, or with a lens, the 
distal end of the spermatophore was white from the enclosed 
sperm. The finer middle region was of a golden yellow, since the 
canal here within the spermatophore was narrow. The walls are 
thick, especially of course those of the rather irregularly shaped 
terminal sAvelling. Whether there is a terminal pore I do not know. 
1 conclude with a brief definition of this new species, which I 
propose to name after Mr. Moore : — 

Benhamia moorei, u. sp. 

Length 280 mm.f diameter 10-15 mm. Prostomium very small, 
prolonged for a short ivay on to the buccal segment. Dorsal pores 
commence v./vi. Clitellum xiii.-xxii. MalS pores on deep depression ; 
seminal gutter convex imuards. Tivo pairs of genital papillce on 
xuii./xviii. and xviii.jxix. Gizzards in vi. and vii.; calciferous 
glands in xv., xvi., xv'ii., opening separately into oesophagus. No 
septa very thick ; septum vi./vii. tuaniing. Dorsal vessel single ; last 
heart in xii. Two pairs of sperm-duct funnels, Spermiducal glands 
large and coiled. Fenial setce one to each gland, hooked at the tip 
and marked throughout the greater part ivith fine rings ; at the very 
tip very slightly pitted. BpermatJieccB with long muscular duct as 
long as thep>ouch. Near to tlie beginning of the muscular chict a rosette 
of four or five diverticula. Spermatophores pn'esent . 

Hal). Kurungu Mts., East Central Africa. 

(2) Benhamia johnstoni, n. sp. 

Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., has sent to the Natural History 
Museum three Earthworms which prove to be all of the same species, 
and are closely allied to B. moorei which has just been described. 
I am indebted to the kindness of Sir Harry Johnston as well as to 
Dr. Lankester for allowing me the opportunity of examining these 
worms. The species, which I propose to name after their 
collector, is in many respects so near to B. moorei, that at first I 
thought that I had before me some larger examples of that species. 
Nevertheless, as I shall show, there are a number of points of 
structure in which the two differ. 

B. johnstoni is a larger worm, though its actual length is less 
than that of B. moorei ; the largest of the three specimens was 
250 mm. in length, but quite 20 mm. in breadth, indeed a milli- 
metre or two more in places. It is thus an exceptionally stout 
species. The colour during life must have been very marked; 
even in the preserved worms the contrasts of colours are 
striking. The general colour above is of a red-brown, which 
pales into a yellowish upon the ventral surface. The dorsal 



1901.] or THE GENUS BENHAMlA, 199 

pores are surrouuded by a small pale area and the elitelliim is 
yellowish. 

The jii'ostomium is larger than that of B. moorei ; it is retracted 
within the buccal cavity, and is divided off from the buccal 
segment by a complete groove which dips faintly into the segment. 
The arrangement of the prostomium is that denominated " pro- 
epilobisch " by Dr. Michaelsen. It is convenient to have terms 
for the varying condition of the prostomium which is so frequently 
of use in the discrimination of species or genera, as in the present 
instance. But it would be as well perliaps to convert Michaelsen's 
terms into more purely Grreek compounds. I would suggest that 
the terms should be epicheilous, &c. The dorsal iwres have au 
interesting arrangement in this species. In one of the three 
examples no pores were missing from the intersegmental groove 
v./vi. onwards. In another, one was not visible externally and 
internally, the muscles, which are present in every case, running 
from margin to margin of the successive pores, were exceedingly 
feeble at tliis point. In the third example, which I did not open, 
there was no doubt of the fact that the dorsal pores between 
segments x./xi. and xi./xii. were absent ; for in that worm the other 
pores happened to be particularly conspicuously distended. There 
is thus in the present species a series of stages which culminates 
in the loss of the two dorsal pores immediately preceding the 
clitellum. In B. moorei, as has been stated, the same pores are 
absent ; but it may be of course that other examples would show 
some trace of their presence. I should observe that the muscles 
whose function it is to distend the pores are exceptionally well 
developed in this species, and that the feeble muscles running from 
the places which should be occupied by the missing dorsal pores 
ended where the pores should be, and did not, as in B. moorei, 
continue their course over this spot without a break. 

The setce have the usual strictly paired and ventral position. 
The individual setse are very plainly ornamented, as is the case 
with other species ; the ornamentation is in the form of slight 
ridges over the distal entl of the seta. The seta as a whole is 
rather straight, and has often a somewhat peculiar ending in its 
epidermic sac, which is illustrated in the accompanying drawing 
(text-fig. 14, p. 200). The setae cannot be considered to be small 
except proportionately, the worm being exceptionally large. 

The clitellum is largely composed of segments whose mutual 
demarcations have been to a great extent obliterated ; but in front 
of, and behind, this region are two segments which belong to the 
clitellum, though they are not so thoroughly amalgamated with the 
middle segments as the latter are with each other. The clitellum 
extends from segment xii. to xxiii. inclusive, and is thus longer than 
that of B. moorei. The ventral surface which bears the several 
male pores is deeply depressed as shown in the drawing (text- 
fig. 15, p. 200). 

The figure of B. moorei shows the tesselated appearance of the 
integument in the region of the male pores ; this appearance is 



200 



ME. r. E. BBDDAED ON EARTHWORMS [Juoe 4, 



Text-fig. 14. 




Two setiB of Benhamia johnstoni (highly magnified). 



Test-fig. 15. 



Ventral surface of clitellar segments of Beiihcinita johnstoni. x | 



1901.] or THE GENUS BBNHAMIA. 201 

exaggerated in the present species (text-fig. 15, p. 200), the condition 
of the integument somewhat obscuring the actual orifices of the 
spermiducal glands. The penial setas projected from the latter 
precisely as in B. moorei. The groove which connects the two 
spermiducal gland-pores of each side is straighter than in B. moorei, 
and in the two not fully mature examples was perfectly straight. 
The groove itself is a little difficult to see owing to the numerous 
lines which divide up the ventral area into detached tracts. 

The internal structure of this worm also shows a few small 
differences from both B. moorei and B. itiolensis. The two gizzards 
are so close together that it is diificult to note their line of division. 
Moreover strands of muscle pass over this line of division. I am 
disposed to believe that the gizzards lie respectively in segments 
vii. and viii. It is rather hard to be certain upon this point ; but 
in any case I counted six septa in front of that which divides 
segments xiv./xv. In front of the last of these six septa lies the 
posterior of the two gizzards. It cannot therefore be behind the 
viiith segment, though it is possible that the gizzard really lies in 
vii. as in B. moorei. The calciferous glands are in segments xv., 
xvi., xvii. They differ slightly from those of B. moorei, in that 
the first and the third pairs are equal, while the middle pair are 
rather the smallest. 1 observed no difference of colour such as 
distinguishes the first pair of these glands in B. moorei. The 
intestine in this species commences in segment xix. There is 
apparently no difference from B. moorei, as far as I can see, in this 
particular. 

The organs of reproduction are, moreover, much the same. I found, 
as in B. moorei, masses of sperm in segments xi., xii. I could find 
no wall to these masses, which seemed to be merely freely floating 
and agglomerated heaps of developing spermatozoa freed from the 
testes. I have adverted to the very small size of the sperm-sacs 
in B. moorei. In the present species I could not discover them at 
all ; they must therefore be small if present. It is remarkable that 
in mature examples of both species the sperm-sacs are so small, 
and that both concur in having large and freely floating masses of 
sperm. In B. itiolensis, Michaelsen was unable to record the 
position and appearance of the sperm-sacs ; while in Benhamia 
viridis and Trigaster lanhesteri the sperm-sacs, dwindling as it 
appears in the former three species, have entirely disappeared. 
The sjpermidiical glands are very large and massive. Each of them 
occupies two segments, the connection between the two masses 
being by a single loop of the tube which perforates the septum ; 
thus the appearance of four pairs of glands is produced. The 
arrangement is obviously not quite the same as has been flgured 
by Michaelsen in B. itiolensis. But in the so-called variety 
ccerulea, the same arrangement as that characteristic of B.johnstoni 
appears to occur. The jpenial setce of the present species are quite 
different in form from those of B. moorei, as will be seen from a 
comparison of the accompanying drawings (text-fig. 16, p. 205). 
The general form and the remarkable straightness is the same in 



202 MR. F. E. BEDDAUD ON EARTHWORMS [June 4, 

both, as is the series of transverse bars which mark the setae tlirough- 
out. At the distal end, however, there are phxin differences. In 
B.johnstoni the seta swells ovally just before its termination, and 
on the ventral side of this there is a sharply marked ridge ; the 
actual extremity is bent almost like a crozier, the end lying parallel 
with the main shaft ; the very tip is slightly bifid. It is clear that 
this does not agree with the figure given by Micbaelsen of 
Benhamia itiolensls. Nor does his description of the penial setee 
of the variety coerulea fit itself to what I have observed. Of the 
seta in B. itiolensis var. coerulea, he remarks that it has a much 
narrower distal extremity (as in B. johjistoni), and that there is also 
an oval swelling which precedes this terminal hook (also as in 
B. johnstoni) ; but the tip is apparently not so much hooked as in 
B.johnstoni, and no mention is Diade of the bifid extremity. 

The two species Benhamia johnstoni and B. moorei evidently 
come near to B. itiolensis ^ But they both differ in a number of 
recognizable features from that large and also Eastern African 
Benhamia. To begin with, B. itiolensis is distinctly larger, it 
measures 380 mm. Its colour seems to be somewhat different. 
The anterior segments are some of them triannulata instead of 
biannulate, as is the case with the species described in the present 
paper. Nothing is said by Micbaelsen of the missing dorsal pores ; 
but in a variety of the type named by him var. coerulea, the 
pores are stated not to begin until the intersegment xii./xiii. The 
clitellum of B. itiolensis is more limited than in its allies ; but the 
seminal gutter is convex inwards as in those two species. At least 
that is not the case with the type itself, but with the form coerulea. 
The spermiducal glands of B. itiolensis are very much smaller 
than those of B. johnstoni or B. moorei, though their size appears 
to be increased in the var. coerulea. The penial sette as figured 
by Micbaelsen are more like those of B. johnstoni, but the hooking 
of the extremity is more marked in the latter form ; moreover, no 
ornamentation is described. In var. coerulea the extremity of the 
seta is more hooked, and therefore more like that of B. johnstoni. 
Finally, B. itiolensis has no free diverticula to the spermathecae, a 
feature which is so obvious in the species described by myself that 
Micbaelsen would hardly have overlooked it did it exist in his 
Benhamia itiolensis. The differences between many species of this 
genus (which requires revision) are often so small, that a very 
careful and detailed statement of the characters is necessary. Tor 
this reason I have not hesitated to deal with my supposed new 
species at considerable length. 

It may be convenient to contrast the characteristics of the four 
species in a tabular fashion. I shall consider the variety coerulea to 
rank as a species ; its differences from B. itiolensis are quite as great 
as those which divide many other recognized species of the genus. 

1 Micliaelseu, " Beschreibung der von Herrn Dr. Fr. Stuhlmann am Victoria 
Nyanza geasammelten Terricolen," JB. Hamb. wiss. Aust. ix. p. 3 ; ibid., xvi. 
p. 116 ; Regenwiirmer in DeutsebOst-Afrika, iv. p. 25; Oligochteta in 
Thierreicli, 1900, p. 360. 



1901.] 



OE THE GENUS BENHAMIA.. 



203 



B. itiolensis. B. ccerulea. B. moorei. B. johnstoni. 

Prostomium ProepivheUous. Epicheilous. Epicheilous. Procpicheilous. 

Anterior segonents . Triannulate. Bianniilate. Bianmdate. 

Dorsal pores v.jvi. xii./xiii. v./vi. v./vi. 

Clitellum xiv.-xxii. (?) xiii.-xxHi. xil.-xxiii. 

Seminal gutter ... Straight. Convex inwards. Convex inwards. Convex inwards. 

Gizzards (?) viii. ^ ix. (?). vi., vii. vii., viii. 

Cakiferous glands, xv. smallest. xv. smallest, xv. smallest. xvL smallest. 

Spermathecce No extern, div. No extern, div. Extern, div. Extern, div. 

Penial setm Suddenly Suddenly Gradually Suddenly 

diminish into diminish into diminish into diminish into 

slightly curved slightly curved slightly curved very curved 

hook. hook. hook. hook. 

Erom the above account of its structure I can abstract the 
following definition of the species which, I may remark, contains 
certain statements not described in any further detail in the 
foregoing. 

Eenhamia johnstoni, n. sp. 

Length about 250 mm. ; diameter 15-20 mm. Prostomium rather 
large, retracted ivitliin mouth-cavity, not prolonged over buccal segment, 
hut ivith slight median 'projection. Dorsal pores commence v.jvi. 
Clitellum x'l.-xxiii. Male pores on deep depression ; seminal gutter 
slightly convex inwards. Integument surrounding male pores 
rnarhedly tesselate. Gizzards in vii., viii. ; calciferous glands xv,, 
!xvi., xvii., opening separately .into oesophagus ; middle pair the 
smallest. No septa very thieve. Dorsal vessel single ; last hearts in 
xii. Spermiducal glands lie in two masses in two segments each. 
Penial setce, one to each gland, slightly swollen before strongly hooked 
tip, ivhich is bifid at extremity, marlfed throughout with fine rings. 
Spermathecoi with strong muscular duct longer than poiich, into the 
duct opens a rosette of five or six diverticula. 

Hab. Huwenzori, 6500 ft. 

(3) Benhamia mollis, n. sp. 

In the above table of the specific distinctions between the species 
B. johnstoni, B. moorei, B. itiolensis, and B. coerulea, I have not in- 
cluded the characters of a second species of Benhamia placed in 
my hands by Mr. Moore. This worm is of a very dark brown 
colour and is very soft. I naturally put down this softening to 
inferior preservation ; but Mr. Moore informs me that the living 
worm was exceeding soft and that the specimen which I have ex- 
amined is in reality as well preserved as is the type of B. moorei. 
I have not compared its characters in a tabular form with those 



204 MB. F. E. BEDDARD ON EARTHWORMS [June 4, 

of the other species for the reason that, although I believe it to 
be a distinct form, it is not easy to define by marked characters 
as can be made use of in such a table, and indeed it comes very 
near to B. jolinstoni. 

It is, however, a smaller and more slender species than is the 
last named. My example measured some 205 mm. in length by a 
diameter of about 7 mm. There is the same curious absence of 
two dorsal pores from the preclitellar series that is so noticeable in 
B. moorei and B. jolinstoni. 

The genital area is a deep excavation ; and the integument in 
this region is tesselated in appearance, being divided up into 
numerous small areas b_y grooves. The seminal gutters are nearly 
straight, only slightly bulging inwards. The siugle penial seta, as 
in the other species, projects from the apertures on segments xvii. 
and xix. The ditellum is a little less extensive, and seems to 
occupy only segments xiv.-xxii. T am sure that the ventral setae of 
segment xviii. are wantiug, and this adds probability to their appa- 
rent absence in the other two species of which the present memoir 
treats. As in B. jolinstoni, the middle pair of calciferous glands are 
the smallest of the three pairs. The glands are somewhat flattened 
from side to side, more so than in B. jolinstoni, and much more so 
than in B. moorei. The intestine begins in segment xix. The two 
gizzards are certainly in vii. and viii. ; the same segments apparently 
are occupied by the gizzards in B. jolinstoni. The last heart is in 
xii. The sperm-sacs in this species were more in evidence than in 
the other two species of Benhamia dealt with here. They lie in 
segments xi., xii., and are somewhat elongated transversely, curving 
up in a somewhat horn-like fashion. The penial setoi of B. mollis 
are recognizable as different from those of the other two species. The 
setae of all three species are figured in the accompanying drawing 
(text-fig. 16, p. 205). It will be noticed that their structure is inter- 
mediate between that of the penialsetse of B. moorei and B.jolm- 
stoni. As in the former, the distal end of the seta is not very strongly 
curved ; as in the latter, the shaft of the seta is swollen before the 
terminal hook. But the swelling is not so marked a feature of 
the setae of the present species. Nor is the difference in diameter 
between the hook and the rest of the seta so suddenly changed. 
Moreover, the markings upon the end of the seta which appear to 
be of the nature of pits are much more pronounced in B. mollis 
than in its allies. No one, after inspecting the figures referred to, 
can doubt the difference of the penial setae in the three species. 
The spermiducal glands are, as in B. jolinstoni, contained each in 
two segments, one half or thereabouts of the gland lying in each 
segment. The junction between the two is a siugle tube, i. e, the 
gland only perforates the intersegmental septum once. The sper- 
matlieccB are most like those of B. jolinstoni. The muscular duct 
of the spermatheca is humped on one side, where a series of five 
or six inconspicuous diverticula debouch into the duct. The 
diverticula are less separated from the tube into which they open 
than they are in B. moorei. 



1901.] 



or THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 

Text-fig. 16. 



205 






m 



Penial setsB of Benhamia, (highly magnified). 

A, distal extremity of that of B. johnstoni ; B, seta of B. moorei ; 

C, distal extremity of that of B. mollis. 



206 ME. F. E. BEDBAED ON EABTHWORMS [June 4, 

It must be admitted that the principal reason for separating 
this species from B.joJinsfoni is the chai'acter of the penial setae. 
It is, however, a smaller species, with a different coloration. As 
to the clitellum, it is possible that other specimens would show an 
extension equal to that of B. jolinstoni. 

(4) Benhamia austeni, n. sp. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Austen for kindly col- 
lecting for me a considerable number of specimens of a species of 
Benhamia, which I believe to be new. The worm.s were collected 
about forty miles from Blantyre in Nyassa-land. 

The species is not a large one, but I cannot give accurate 
measurements of length as the worms were rather softened, I 
should say that a length of 150 mm. by a diameter of 5 mm. was 
a fair statement of their dimensions. 

The seke have the usual strictly paired and ventral arrangement. 
Those of the three or four anterior segments are smaller than those 
which follow ; they gradually increase in size, and the larger ones 
show a distinct ornamentation in the form of ridges which produce 
a scale-like appearence — a form of ornamentation found in other 
species of the genus. On segments vi.-ix. or so the set« are 
especially enlarged ; it will be noted that these segments are in 
the neighbourhood of the spermathecal pores, and the strong pairs 
of setae on the segments between which those pouches open are 
particulai'ly noteworthy. It is only the ventral setse which are 
thus specially enlarged. Now it will be remembered that in 
Benhamia liheriensis ^ there is a similar enlargement of the ventral 
pair of setae of segment vii. But in this species the setae when 
extracted are seen to be quite as much modified as are the genital 
setae of segments xvii. & xix. in the same and other species of 
Benhamia. This is not the case with Benhamia austeni ; but the 
enlargement and increase of the ornamentation upon the setae is a 
step in that direction. The circumstances are exactly paralleled 
by the slightly modified setae in the neighbourhood of the male 
pores in certain species of Perionyx^, vi'hich in the allied genus 
Megascolex become the much more modified penial setae. 

There are no ventral setae upon segment xviii. 

The dorsal jiores commence between segments v./vi. They 
appear to go on without intermission to the end of the body. No 
such break as I have described in Benhamia moorei seems to exist. 

The oviducal pores are paired. Each pore lies on the fourteenth 
segment to the inside of, and quite in line with, the ventralmost 
seta ; it looks, on an inspection by a lens, precisely like a third 
seta in this position, by reason of its dark appearance. 

It is important to note the position of the oviducal pores, which 
vary in the genus, and would appear to offer characters of specific 

^ Horst, " Descriptions of Earthworms : IX. On two new Henhamia-speciefi 
from Libei'ia." Notes Leyd. Mus. xvii. p. 21. 

- Beddard, "On some new Species of Earthworms from various Parts of the 
World." P. Z, S. 1892, p, 688. 



1901.J OF THE GENUS BENHAMIA, 207 

value by this variation in position. Foi' example, in Benhamia 
crassa the pores lie in front, though also slightly to the inside, of 
the ventralmost seta. 

The clitellum extends from segments xiii.-xx. and'leaves only the 
area which is occupied by the male pores free. The latter lie upon 
the segments which they universally occupy in this genus. The 
seminal groove which connects the two successive pores of each 
side of the body is quite straight. 

The internal anatomy is like that of the genus, and only shows 
some slight differences from other species. Tlie sejyta Avhich divide 
segments x./xiv., i. e. four septa, ai'e specially thickened. 

The gizzards occupy segments v. & vi. The calciferols glands 
are in segments xv., xvi., xvii. The glands are bean-shaped, and 
the upper surface is traversed by a few longitudinal furrows, 
which divide the glands into segments. 

The last pair of hearts are in the twelfth segment, and the dorsal 
vessel is throughout a single tube. 

The S])erm-sacs are in the same segments as those of the last 
species described, i. e. xi. & xii. They are large and racemose. 
There is no doubt that this species, like at any rate some others, 
has sperm-reservoirs also which enwrap the funnels and testes. I 
cannot attempt an accurate description of them, but can assert 
that a pair project forwards, just as these pouches generally do 
when they are present, into the xth segment. 

The spermiducal glands are fairly long and coiled ; I occasionally 
observed the posterior pair to be the smaller. The muscular ter- 
minal duct is longish. The glands lie in two segments. The shape 
of the j^>eu?a? setcn of this species is quite peculiar for the genus, 
and would serve at once to distinguish it, if there were no other 
characteristics. One of the setae is shown in the drawing exhibited 
(text-fig. 17, p. 208). Its shape is, as will be seen, straight in the 
shaft like tliat of the other East- African species already dealt with 
here. The end imbedded in the body-wall is curved slightly and 
thicker. The opposite extremity of the seta is also curved and in 
the same direction : it does not end in a very fine point but 
diminishes gradually and not very much in width. The termination 
is therefore a blunt point. It is the ornamentation of the genital 
seta which is so characteristic. This consists of two rows of 
spines which commence about half-way down the seta or a little 
less. They appear to be much like the penial setse of Stidihnannia 
variabilis ^ figured by Michaelsen. In two setae which I examined 
I found slight differences in the arrangement of these spinelets ; 
in one which I have selected for figuring the two rows ran to the 
end of the seta, and between them not far from their origin are 
indications of a third row consisting of two separated tracts of 
spinelets. In another example this middle row ran to the end of 
the seta, and the lateral row of one side ceased a little way from 

' " Bescbreibung der von Herrn Dr. Fr. Stublraann auf Sansibar, &c." JB. 
Hamb. wiss. Anst. ix. 1891, pi. ii. fig. 12. 



208 



ME, r. E. BEDDAED ON EAETHWORMS [June 4, 



Text-fig. 17. 




it a 



m 



Penjal seta of Benhamia austeni (highly magnified). 



1901.] OF THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 209 

its commencemeut. I may add that each seta-sac contained only 
one seta, as in the other East-African species. 

The sjoermatliecxe of this species lie in segments viii. and ix. 
Each consists of a tliin-walled sac and of a dact. Into the com- 
mencement of the latter opens a single diverticulnm. The thin- 
balled sac is divided by a constriction into two nnequally sized 
chambers, of which the upper is the larger. Its diameter exceeds 
that of the duct. The smaller division is of about the same 
diameter as the duct, and without a microscopical examination 
might therefore be confounded with the duct. The great thick- 
ness of the muscular walls of the latter serve to distinguish it 
easily. Also the character of the lining epithelium. The duct of 
the spermatheca is of about the same length as the pouch ; its 
walls are, as already said, very muscular, which gives to them a 
nacreous appearance. The muscles are disposed in two layers of 
which the thicker and internal layer consists of circular fibres. 
The outer thinner layer is made up of longitudinally running fibres. 
The diverticulum is an oval, almost spherical, pouch, which is 
appended to the spermatheca by a short and slender duct. This 
opens into the spermatheca just at the junction of the thin-walled 
pouch with the thick-walled duct. It might appear from my 
figure of the spermatheca oi Benhamia moorei (text- fig. 13, p. 197), 
that this species differs from BenTiamia austeni by the fact that the 
diverticula open into the muscular duct itself, and at some little 
distance from the union of the duct with the pouch ; this is, how- 
ever, not the case, as I have assured myself by microscopic sections 
of the spermatheca of B. moorei. In that Avorm the diverticula 
are certainly appended to the muscular duct itself ; but the tubes 
which put them into coBimunication with the interior of the 
spermatheca run upwards {i. e. away from the external pore) and 
open into the commencement of the thin-walled portion of the 
spermatheca, which, however, in this species is rather thicker- 
walled (in correspondence with its larger size) than the corres- 
ponding portion of the spermatheca of Benhamla austeni. 

I may extract from the foregoing the following definition of 

Benhamia austeni, n. sp. 

Length about 150 mm., diameter 5 mm. Dorsal pores commence 
v.jvi. Glitellum ociii.-xx. Male pores on a deep depression con- 
nected hy a straight seminal gutter. No genital papillce. Gizzards 
in v., vi., ; calciferous glands in xv.-xvii. Septa x.jxiv. thickened. 
Dorsal vessel single ; last hearts in xii. Two pairs of sperm-duct 
funnels, Sptermiducal glands large and coiled. Denial setce tvith 
tivo rows of spinelets, one to each sac. Spermathecce ivith long 
muscular duct and a single stalked spherical to oval diverticidum. 
Spermatophores ^ present. 

Hah. Near Blantyre, East Africa. 

1 I intend to describe these structures, which differ from those of Benhamia 
moorei, later. 

Proo. Zooj.. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XIV. 14 



210 MR. r. E. BEDDABD ON EABTHWORMS [Juiie 4, 

I am indebted to Mr. Bu dgett, of Trinity College, Cambridge, for 
a number of specimens of Earthworms from McCarthy Island in 
the Gambia, which he collected during a recent visit. The speci- 
mens were at first put aside under the impression that they belonged 
to a species recently characterized by myself as Benliamia budgetti^. 
A further examination has, however, shown that they are not of 
that species, but represent two other species of the same genus 
upon which I propose to offer some notes. The preponderance 
of the known species of this genus are of West-African habitat, 
some 25 having been described from that part of the continent ; 
there are some 18 East and Central African forms. 

The species of this genus are not at all easy to identify, and 
there is a group of West-African forms to which the specimens 
described in the present paper belong which are all characterized 
by the calciferous pouches usually lying in the xivth to the xvith 
segments, and of a form like the "quarter" of an orange; by 
spermathecse unprovided with an externally visible diverticulum, 
the anterior pair being often the smaller ; and often by genital 
papillas in the neighbourhood of the male pores. This group con- 
tains the species B. buettikoferi, B. horsii, B. beddardi, B. stampjlii, 
B. schlegelii, B. liberiensis, and B. hudgetti. To the first of the 
new forms described here I shall give the name of 

(5) Benhamia gambiana, sp. n. 

I have examined three examples all of which were sexually 
mature. The length of the worms, which were somewhat softened 
in condition, was about 170 mm. ; the diameter not more than 
5 mm. except in the more swollen clitellar region. 

The prostomium is I'ather broad and does not notch the buccal 
segment ; it belongs to the type termed " prolobisch " by Dr. 
Michaelsen, but which I prefer to call "procheilous." 

The setce are in closely approximated pairs, and, as is the case 
in this genus, lie upon the ventral surface of the worm. 

The clitellum occupies segments xiii.-xx., and is not developed 
upon the ventral area which bears the genital orifices of the male 
system. The latter part was to be distinguished from the yellow 
clitellum by its grey colour. 

The seminal gutters uniting the two orifices of the spermiducal 
glands of each side of the body are bracket-shaped, the main portion 
of each being perfectly straight and only bending inwards and 
that at right angles at each eud, where it becomes confluent with 
the aperture of the spermiducal gland. This species has a number 
of very conspicuous genital pa2nllai in the neighbourhood of the 
male pores. These lie intersegmeutally, and in the intersegments 
xv./xvi., xvi./xvii., xviii./xix., xis./xx. One pair of papillae there- 
fore lie within the genital area. A remarkable fact about these 
papillae is that although paired their mutual distance (of each pair) 
increases gradually in successive papillae commencing with the 

1 VroQ. Zool, Soc. 1900, p. 653. 



1901.] OP THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 211 

earliest. Thus those of xv./xvi. are quite in contact, and finally 
the last pair, those on the intersegment xix./xx., ai-e farther apart 
than are the ventralmost setae of the neighbouring segments. 
Papillae with the arrangement just described were only found in 
one example; in another the intersegment xv./xvi. bore but a 
single median papilla which was followed by only two pairs, i. e. 
intersegments xvi./xvii. and xix/xx. A third example had still 
fewer papillae, the anterior pair or single papilla, as the ease may 
be, having disappeared. In this specimen there are, therefore, 
only two pairs of papillae. 

I observed that the ovichical pores lie on a level with and to the 
inside of the ventralmost seta of each side. The male pores and 
the spermatlieccd pores correspond in position to the ventral pair 
of setae. 

In a third individual, which was rather more contracted in the 
clitellar region, the papillae have become also contracted and look 
like half-closed eyes lying between segments xv./xvi., xvi./xvii., 
and xix./xx. They are not obvious, and might be missed by any- 
one who had not seen them in a more fully expanded worm. 

The dorsal pores of this species, as of B. budgetti, are by no 
means plain. They appear to be quite absent in front of the 
clitellum, and behind the clitellum I could only see them hj 
examining microscopically pieces of stripped-oif cuticle. The 
condition of the dorsal pores in this species shows how careful 
one should be in stating the absence of these structures. The 
internal anatomy of this species shows very few characters of 
difference from its allies. The two gizzards are separated from 
each other by a considerable tract of soft-walled oesophagus ; 
there is not that close connection between the two gizzards that 
obtains in some other species — for instance in Benliamia johnstoni. 
The position of these gizzards is perfectly plain in one specimen ; 
they lie in the vth and vith segments. In others it appeared to 
me that the vith and viith segments were those occupied by the 
gizzards ; but in view of the very clear appearances shown in the 
individual (that with a contracted clitellum) where they were to 
be relegated to segments v. and vi., I imagine that the thin 
septum dividing segments vi. and vii. had escaped my attention. 
The calciferous glands lie in segments xiv., xv., xvi., as in many of 
these West- African species of the genus. The anterior pair were 
smooth and smaller than the others, whose superior surface is 
broken up by a few transverse grooves ; the shape of the glands 
is that of a segment of an orange, the top being flat. I have not 
ascertained whether they open separately into the oesophagus or 
by a common duct. The intestine begins in segment xix. It is 
noticeable that when the calciferous glands are in .segments xv., 
xvi., xvii., the commencement of the intestine is at least sometimes 
not thrown a segment farther back. 

The dorsal vessel is single, and the last hearts lie in segment xii. 
The sperm-sacs are large and lie in segments xi. and xii. There 
are also two pairs of sperm-duct funnels which are in x. and xi, 

14* 



212 



MR. F. E. BEDBARD Olf EARTHWORMS 



[June 4, 



The spermiducal glands are confined each to its segment (the 
xviith and xixth). These glands have a rather short muscular 
duct which is not half the diameter of the glandular tube. The 
latter is only bent upou itself once or twice ; there is no complicated 
coiliug such as occurs in many species. The anterior spermiducal 
glands are rather the smaller. 'Ih.Q penial setce are about 1'25 mm. 
in length. Each sac contains two of these seta? equally developed. 
The two setae are of precisely the same form, there being no 
differentiation of the penial setae such as characterizes many 
species. Each seta is gracefully curved in an elongated S. It 

Text-fig. 18. 

n - - 



Extremity of penial seta of Benhamia gamhiana (highly magnified). 

diminishes in breadth at the free end, but not suddenly or markedly. 
Eor a little distance before the end it is covered with fine spine- 
lets. The actual end of the seta seems to be excavated on one 
surface, as is shown in the accompanying drawing (text-fig, 18) ; 
the outlines of this terminal excavation are plainly to be seen. 
The tip of the seta is somewhat expanded in a way reminiscent of 
the " cap '' which covers the penial seta of Benhamia horsti^. This 
I'egion has a granular appearance. 

^ " TJeber eine neue Gattung unci vier neuen Arten der Unterfamilie Ben- 
hamini," Mitth. Naturh. Museum, Hamburg, xv. p. 11, fig. 3. 



1901.] or THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 213 

The two pairs of sperynaihecce occupy the usual position that 
characterize this genus. The anterior pair of pouches are rather 
the smaller. Each consists of a roughly spherical pouch which is 
almost sessile upon the body-wall ; external diverticula are not 
visible. But a microscopical examination shows a cavity filled with 
sperm within the walls of the organ. 

(6) Benhamia michaelseni, n. sp. 

Of this species, also new, which comes from the same locality 
as the last, I have had but a single specimen for examination, 
which proves, however, to be fully mature. It measured 200 mm. 
in length by 5 mm. in diameter. It is thus of much the same 
size as the last, and has B. hudgetti, B. heddm-cU, and B. liorsti 
among its nearest allies. 

• The setcp^ w-hich show the usual paired arrangement, are smaller 
upon the first few setigerous segments and gradually increase in 
size up to the fifth (setigerous) segment. A distinct ornamention 
can often be traced in the form of transverse rings. 

The genital area is much more deeply sunken than in the last 
species. The arrangement of the genital papillce is also different. 
But in B. michaelseni, as in B. gambiana, the seminal gutter i^ 
straight. The only two genital papilloi that I could find are situated 
respectively on the border-lines of segments xxi./xxii. and xxii./xxiii ; 
each papilla is small and round and perfectly obvious ; it lies 
exactly in the middle ventral line of the body. In the neighbour- 
hood of the male pores the integument is swollen here and there 
into papilla-like outgrowths ; but I do not put these down under 
the category of papillte, since they are not so plain and uu mistake- 
able as are those which I have just described. Where the area 
surrounding the male pores is depressed, there are usually such 
inequalities in the surface of the integument. These naturally 
produce, as they do in the present species, a chequered surface 
upon the cuticle when this is viewed after having been stripped off 
from the body. 

In its internal structure this species does not offer many 
differences from B. gambiana or B. budgetti, except in the sculp- 
turing of the penial setae. The gizzards, however, seem to me to 
be in vi. and vii. instead of v. and vi. The calciferous glands 
are in xiv., xv., and xvi., and, as in other species, the first pair are 
smaller and of a smoother contour than those which follow. The 
large sperm-sacs are in xi. and xii. There are two pairs of funnels. 
The spermiducal glands are decidedly larger and more coiled than 
in B. gambiana. The penial setoe, are of quite a different pattern, 
as may be seen from a comparison of the drawings (text-figs. 16-19, 
pp. 205-214) exhibited. In the present species, as in the last, 
each sac contains two setae which are curved in form. They are 
nearly twice the size of those of B. gambiana and measure 2 mm. 
The end is not much hooked and ends in a rather blunt termination. 
A large part of the distal portion of these setae is beset with 



214 



MR. P. E. BEDDARD ON EARTHWORMS [June 4, 

Text-fig. 19. 



Penial seta of Beiihamia michaclseni (highly magnified).. 



1901.] OP THE GENUS BENHAMIA. 215 

numerous fine spiuelets which are four or five rows in the optical 
diameter of the seta. The arrangement, however, is not a regular 
one. These spinelets are precisely those of B. gambiana, but a 
much larger part of the seta is beset with them. 

The sjpermatliecce, again, are very like those of the last species. 
The specimen being, however, in a rather better state of pre- 
servation as regards these organs, their form could be more 
accurately ascertained. Each pouch is roughly globular and is 
nearly sessile upon the body-wall, a short and thick duct putting 
it into communication with the exterior. There were no visible 
diverticula. 

It will be, I trust, obvious from the foregoing descriptions that 
the two species with which I am concerned in the present com- 
munication are distinct from any of those Avhich have been 
previously described by myself or others. As, however, the seven 
West-African species to which I have referred on p. 210 are so 
extremely like each other and like B. gambiana and B, michaelseni, 
I append a brief series of statements of the chief characters in 
which they diverge from those treated of in the present paper. 
I have not been anxious to emphasize the difl:erences which the 
seven species show from each othei", since their distinctness will 
be generally allowed. The points used serve to discriminate 
B. budgetti, B. gambiana, and B. michaelseni from any of those. 

(1) Benliamia buttikoferi. A larger and thicker worm. 230- 

320 mm. by 10 mm. Olitellum xiii.-xix. Last 
hearts in xiii. Sperm-sacs in xii. only. 

(2) Benhamia Jiorsti. Of similar size, but seminal gutter strongly 

convex outwards. Papillse more numerous. Penial 
setse with fine spinelets arranged in transverse 
rings and covered by a cap-like structure. 

(3) Benhamia beddardi. Of similar size, but seminal gutter convex 

outwards. Calciferous glands in xv.-xvii. No 
papillae. Sexual setse on vii. and viii. Duct of 
spermatheca long. 

(4) Benhamia stamjJ'Jlii. A larger worm, 330 mm. by diameter of 

10 mm. No papillae, 

(5) Benhamia schlegeli. Larger worm, 350-750 mm. ; diameter 

15 mm. No papillso, Calciferous glands in xv.- 
xvii. Last heai'ts in xiii. Penial setae "like an 
elephant's tusk " in form, 4 mm. long. 

(6) Benhamia liberiensis. Larger worm, 350 mm., diameter 10 mm. 

Papillae diiferent in arrangement. Calciferous 
glands in xv.-xvii. Penial setae dilated at end. 

(7) Benhamia budgetti. Of similar size, but genital papillae different. 

Penial setae with few spinelets distally. 

The characters of these seven species may be compared with 
those of the two new species Benhamia gambiana and Benhamia 
michaelseni. 



216 ME. J. G. MiLLAis ON [June 4, 

(1) Benhamia gamhiana. 170 mm. by 5 mm. Clitellum xiii.-xx. 

Seminal gutters straight. Genital papillae in pairs, 
intersegmental xv./xvii., xviii./xx. Calciferous 
glands in xiv.-xvi. Last hearts in xii. Penial 
setae 1"25 mm., with not very many spinelets at 
end which is scooped out on one side. 

(2) Benhamia micliaelseni. 200 mm. by 5 mm. Seminal gutter 

straight. Grenital papillae unpaired, intersegmental 
xxi./xxiii. Calciferous glands in xiv.-xvi. Penial 
setae with very numerous spinelets covering a large 
part of seta ; end bluntish. 



5. On the Second Occurrence of Bechstein^s Bat [Vespertilio 
bechsteini) in Great Britain. By J. G. Millais^ F.Z.S. 

[Eeceivecl May 31, 1901.] 

(Text-figure 20.) 

On the 10th of March, 1901, whilst exploring a chalk cave in 
the neighbuorhood of Henley-on-Thames, Mr. Heatley Noble and 
I captured six Bats. There were 2 Natterer's Bats, 2 Daubenton's 
Bats, 1 Long-eared Bat, and an unknown stranger, tlie identity of 
which we were quite unable to determine. 

The peculiar features of this last-named creature differed so 
materially from every other British Bat, that it was easy to 
see that it belonged to some i-are species of which the written and 
figured descriptions were inadequate. After carefully examining 
Mr. Harting's and Mr. Hall's excellent collections of British Bats, 
I was still in doubt as to my specimen, though I thought, from Bell's 
description, the animal must be V. bediateini ; and it was only 
after a close examination by Mr. W. De Winton (who kindly took 
it to the British Museum, consulted with Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 
and compared it with others there), that all doubt as to its identity 
was set at rest. 

A few words of description of this rare Bat as it appeared 
in hfe may be of interest to the student of small mammals. In 
general appearance this species resembles V. nattereri : in colour it 
is identical, and the tragus and formula of dentition are the same ; 
but, on the other hand, it differs in possessing an entire and simple 
margin of the interfemoral raembrame, and in the fact that the 
adult animal is of greater size and the ears much larger and quite 
different in shape. The gape, too, is unsualiy wide, extending to 
the base of the ears, and the wings are different in form. 

However, by far the most striking feature, and one which 
even the most superficial observer cannot fail to notice, is the 
great size and peculiar shape of the ears of V. bechsteini. These 
first bend outwards at an angle of 75 degrees, and then turn 
upwards to the perpendicular, coming to a rounded point as 



1901.J 



BECHSTEIN S BAT. 



217 



shown in the iUustration (text-fig. 20), which is a woodcut made 
direct from a photograph taken soon after death. This proves 
how misleading are the pictures on pp. -iO, 41 of 'Bell," whose 
artist evidently drew his examples from dried skins, and that 
naturalist himself describes the ears as "oval"' which they certainly 
are not. 

Text-fig. 20. 




Vesperiiliu hcchsic iiii. 

The Bat, when captured, showed itself to be very wide awake ; 
it resented disturbance in the usual bat-fashion by biting and 
uttering a series of querulous screeches not unlike that emitted by 
a young child. 

This second occurrence of Bechstein's Bat in the British Islands 
should now set at rest any doubts that have been expressed as to 
its claim to be a British mammal ; for even so eminent an authority 
as Mr. Lydekker has expressed his opinion that the species has 
" a very doubtful claim to rank in our fauna." The first examples 
of this Bat which occurred in England were taken many years ago 
in the New Forest by Mr. Millard, and are now in the British 
Museum. 



218 ME. H. B. HOGa ON [Juue 4^ 

6. On Australian and New Zealand Spiders of the Suborder 
Mygalomorph^ \ By H. R. Hogg, M.A.., F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived May 21, 1901.] 

(Test-figures 21-41.) 

The suborder now dealt with is synouymous with M. Eugene 
Simon's family Aviculariidse ^ Mr. E. I. Pocock, in arranging 
the Indian genera of the same '\ raised the family to a suborder, 
and its subfamilies to families, which, as remanets of an older 
era, is without doubt their proper position relatively to most of 
the other families of the Aranese. 

1 will, however, in the present paper, for the sake of conveni- 
ence of reference, retain M. Simon's nomenclature. 

Owing to the imperfect state and small number of any fossil 
remains, the line of descent of our various families of Arachnida 
has as yet been by no means clearly established. 

With the single exception of the genus Liphistius Schiodte, a 
curious remanet in South-eastern Asia, the Mygalomorphte are 
believed to contain the oldest forms of all known Spiders, 

The representatives of the suborder in Australasia are especially 
interesting from the fact that, being of a simple form, they are 
probably indicative, like much of the rest of the fauna of the 
continent, of early types. 

Of the seven subfamihes into which M. Simon divides the 
Aviculariidse of the world, six are represented, the absentee 
Paratropidinse comprising two species only, from the Upper 
Amazon in S. America and the Island of St. Vincent respectively. 

Those we have to deal with may be roughly distinguished as 
follows : — 

A. No projecting claw-tufts. Three tarsal claws. 

a. A rastellum, or digging apparatus, consisting of hard 

teeth on the frontal portion of the upper mandibular 

joint* (falx). 

a. The cephalic part of the cephalothorax rising abruptly 

from the thoracic part and very highly arched. 

The eyes spread out across nearly the whole frontal 

region. The mandibles projecting horizontally from 

the front of and as large as the whole cephalic 

region AcTinopodin.E. 

^ I have not included Tasmanian species because, many as are the gaps to be 
filled in ouv knowledge of what I am now describing, we jjnow still less of the 
Tasmanian region, and I am unhappily not in a position to supplement that 
knowledge. As we find to be the case in other orders, Tasmania will no doubt 
contain some forms which have disappeared on the mainland. Its northern 
and western ranges have been scarcely investigated at all. 

2 Histoire Naturelle des Araignees, 1892, vol. i, p. 65. 

3 Fauna of British India — Arachnida, 1900, p. 157. 

■* These teeth, though of somewhat the same nature, must not be confounded 
with those on the margin of the fsh.-shcath underneath, used for preventing 
the escape of prey. 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 219 

(S. The cephalic part still arched, but not so highly. The 
eyes collected in a more or less compact group 
slightly raised in the centre of the cephalothoi-ax. 

Mandibles less formidable Ctenizin j:. 

b. No rastellum, or only slight hardened bristles on the 
lower front part of the fals. 
a. The mandibles normally long and reaching out in 

front horizontally Diplurin.e. 

j8. The mandibles very short, convex and horizontal 

near the base only, thence inclined almost vertically. Migin.b. 
B. Tufts of bristles projecting beyond the anterior end of the 
tarsi ; the 3rd, or lower, claw absent. 

a. A rastellum, though in some cases not strongly developed 

(Idiommafa). The superior spinnerets short and 

stout, the 3rd joint almost hemispherical Barychelin.e. 

b. No rastellum. The superior spinnerets long ; the 2nd 

and 3rd joints being about the same length as the 1st . Aviculaeiin^e. 

Subfamily Actinopodin^. 
This is represented by one genus only. 

Genus Ekiodotst Latreille. 

Eriodon Latreille, Diet. Nouv. d'Hist, Nat. appliquee aux Arts, 
torn. xxiv. 1804, p. 134. 

Missulena C. A. Walckenaer, Tableaux des Araneides, 1805, p. 8. 

Fachiloscelis H. Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vol. iii. 1834 (ad 
part, nigrijies, rufipes), pp. 362-4. 

Sphodros Walck". Ins. Apt. vol. i. 1837, p. 246. 

Eriodon H. Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. ser. 4, vol. v. 1865, 
p. 309, pi. 8. fig. 

Closterochilus A. Ausserer, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, vol. xxi. 
1871, p. 141. 

Theragretes Auss. ibid. p. 142. 

Eriodon Latr., Auss. ibid. p. 142. 

Eriodon L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, p. 454. 

Eriodon E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 1892, p. 81. 

The specimen on which Latreille founded this genus was probably 
the first spider brought from Australia to Europe. 

The genus has not so far been recorded outside the continent of 
Australia. 

The males are generally smaller than the females, and often of 
much more brilliant colouring about the head and falces. 

Eleven species have been described, in every case from either the 
male only or female only. The evidence connecting species of 
opposite sex either by locality or similarity of some featiu'e is 
rather slight, but I think they can be reduced to eight at most. 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. Eyes all small and of about the same size. 
Bodies whole-coloured black-brown (in fe- 
males at least) 2. 

Eyes of clearly very unequal size 3. 



220 MR. H. E. HOGG ON [J line 4, 

2. Eyes sessile, front middle very minute, at least 

4 diameters apart E.formidabileGskmhr. 5. 

Side eyes protuberant, front middle eyes about 
1 diameter apart (sec. Lucas) E. occatorium Walck. ^ . 

3. Cephalothorax and mandibles whole-coloured 

brown or black-brown in male as well as 

female 4. 

Cephalic part or mandibles bright scarlet (in 
male at least) 5. 

4. Front middle eyes upriglit, oval, larger than 

rear side. 2nd and 3rd pairs of legs of equal 

length E. rugosum KnsB. J. 

Front side eyes largest, middle eyes small and 

round. 3rd pair of legs longer than 2nd in 

female (sec. Cambr.) E. crasstmi C&mhv. $. 

Eyes as in preceding. Cephalic part of 

cephalothorax deeply pitted in male (.sec. 

Cambr.) (? Same as above.) E. gramdosum Cambr. J . 

5. Cephalic part dark reddish black. No spines 

on lip or maxilla! E. incertum Gamhr. (^ . 

Cephalic part bright scarlet 6. 

6. Spines on lip and maxilla^. 4th pair of legs 

longest E. insigne Gamhr. (^ . 

No spines on lip or maxillje, 1st pair of legs 
longest 7. 

7. Front middle eyes upright, oval, black centre 

on pale yellow iris, or (.sec. Rainbow) brown. 

Stigma of palp in male about twice the lengtli [ ^j" , ? ^ . 

of bulb E. ruhrocapitatwm Auss. 

Stigma of palp "very long" {sec. Simon). 
(? Same as above) ' E. semkoccineum Siuion. 

Thoracic part of cephalothorax black, cephalic part 
bluish black. Abdomen yellow above, or 
yellow hairs only, black beneath. Characteris- 
tics doubtful (.sec. Simon) . . ? Same. Male E. nigripcs Lucas. 

and Female E. rufiqns Lucas. 

Eriodon occatorium Walck. 

Missulejia occatoria C. A. Walokenaer, Tableau des Araueides, 
p. 8, pi. 2. tigs. 11-14 (1805) ; id. Ins. Apt. 1837, vol. i. p. 252. 

Eriodon occatorium Walck., Lucas, Ann. See. Ent. Fr. ser. 4, 
vol. V. 1865, p. 309, pi. 8. 

Eriodon occatorium Walck., L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, 
p. 457. 

The original specimen, female, from which Walckenaer described 
this type-species {sec. Lucas), was the same as that from which 
Latreille formed the genus, the previous year, having been brought 
from New Holland by M. F. Peron\ naturalist to Capt. Baudin's 
expedition with the French ships ' La Geographe ' and ' La 
Naturaliste,' iu 1802. They passed several months refitting in 
Port Jackson, so probably the spider was from New South Wales. 

In colour it was brown all over. 

Walckenaer gives two drawings of the eyes, in one of which 
the front middle pair are quite small, about three diameters apart ; 

^ Voyage de d(^couvertes aux Terres Au&trales, redige par M. F. Peron. 
Paris, 1807. 



190L] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



221 



iu the other, somewhat larger, one and a half diameters apart. In 
the former also the rear side-eyes are nearer together than the 
front side, and iu the other drawing both distances are the same. 
The first is from above, the second from in front, M. H. Lucas 
in a long paper ou the genus (he. cit.), in 1865, says that the front 
middle eyes are close together ; he gives a drawing in which they 
are small and about a diameter apart. His specimen was pur- 
chased by the Paris Museum in 1859, and came from 'les environs 
de Melbourne ' ; he was able to compare it w ith the original type- 
specimen, then 60 years old ; still his identification should be 
correct. It was 20 mm. long — whether including mandibles or 
not does not appear. It is to be hoped some fresh specimens may 
be forthcoming from Melbourne or Sydney. 

In the British Museum are two specimens from Hunter River, 
N.S.W., and Western Australia labelled E. occatorium, females 
also, old dried specimens ; but they are different from one another, 
and do not agree with M. Lucas's description. 

In these the rear row of eyes is shorter than the front. The 
two front middle are small, about three diameters apart, but stand 
on larger round, slightly raised bases, which may or may not 
have been originally part of the eyes, but in the dried state are 
now clearly separable from the seeing part. This probably 
accounts for the discrepancies above mentioned. The side-eyes 
are all slightly raised. 

The colour is a uniform rich dark brown, the mandibles black- 
brown, and the cephalothorax smooth and shiny. 

In the largest there are 11 teeth on the inner margin of the 
falx-sheath, 9 on the outer, and about 13 smaller in two inter- 
mediate rows. 

On the superior tarsal claws are 2 or 3 rather long pectinations 
about the middle of the shaft and 1 on the inferior. There are 
numerous spines on lip and base of maxillae. 

The measurements of the largest of the above in millimetres 
are as follows : — 







Long. 


Broad. 








Cephalothorax . . 


9 


^ 








Abdomen 




6 


6 








Mandibles 




7 

Trochanter 


5 

Patella 


Metatarsus 








Coxa. 


& femur. 


& tibia. 


& tarsus. 






Legs . . 


1. 4 


7 


6 


^ 


= 


22i 




2. 4 


7 


6 


5 


= 


22' 




3. 4 


7 


5i 


5^ 


■^ 


22 




4. 4 


8 


71 


6" 


= 


25i 


Palni 


.. 3 


6 


5 


3 





17 



In this specimen the teeth on the falx-sheath are numerous, 
pectinations on tarsal claws few, posterior legs relatively longer, 
and spines on lip and maxillae numerous. 

These two are more likely the female (unknown) of E. rubro- 
capitatum Auss. and of E. crassum Cambr. respectively. 



222 MB. H. E. HOGG OK [June 4, 

Eeiodon formibabile Cambr. 

Eriodon formidahile Eev. 0. P. Cambridge, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
Zool. vol. X. 1868, p. 266 ; L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, 
p. 454. 

This was described by Mr. Cambridge from an old dried speci- 
men in the Hope Museum at Oxford, which had lost its palpi and 
hind legs. He gives its length as 12^ lines (or 26 mm.). 

There is a mutilated specimen in the National Museum of 
Victoria, Melbourne, which I attribute to the same. 

It is very similar to E. occatorium both in colouring (dark 
chocolate) and eyes. The front middle pair are very minute, about 
four diameters apart. The eyes, which are all small, seem more 
sessile, the front and rear rows about equal in length, and the 
middle eyes of rear row nearer to the side-eyes of same than 
to the front middle. Front row in a straight line. The whole 
creature is larger than the foregoing, and the species are probably 
distinct. 

Mr. Cambridge says his specimen had six spinnerets, which, if 
correct, would make it differ from the rest of the genus. But old dry 
specimens are very difficult to handle and apt to be deceptive. In 
the female I examined the rear half of the, abdomen was destroyed. 

Locality. Swan Hill (Eiver Murray), A^ictoria. 

Eriobok ceassitm Cambr. 

Eriodon crassum Rev. O. P. Cambridge, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. 
vol. X. 1868, p. 269 ; L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, p. 456. 

This again is very like E. occatorium (sec. Cambr.), but smaller, 
7g lines. The front side-eyes twice the diameter of front middle. 
Legs 4, 3, 2, 1. Eemale from Swan Eiver, W. Austr. (Hope Mus., 
Oxford). 

The specimen in Brit. Mus. labelled as E. occatorium'^, men- 
tioned above, has the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pairs of legs all about equal 
length, but, coming from the same locality and in other respects 
agreeing with the description of this species, I think it must be 
taken to be the same. 

Eeiobon geanulosum Cambr. 

Eriodon gramdosum Rev. 0. P. Cambridge, Journ. Linn. Soc, 
Zool. vol. X. 1868, p. 268 ; L. Koch. Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, 
p. 455. 

Male. Length 7 lines. Swan Eiver, W. Austr. (Hope Mus., 
Oxford), sec. Cambridge. 

Cephalothorax black above and below, as also legs and palpi. 
Eyes, as drawn, very similar to those of E. crassum. Ealces as long 
as cephalothorax, strong black spines at upper extremity. Legs 
long, 4, 3, 2, 1 , with black hairs ; black spines on underside of meta- 
tarsi and tibine. Margin of cephalothorax and caput rough and 
granulose (a common feature in males of this genus). Male palp 
W'ith a double bulb and stigma of about the same length. 

This reads very much like the male of the preceding. 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDBES. 



223 



EmoDON iNSiGNE Cambr. (Text-fig. 21, figs, a, 6.) 
Eriodon hisigne Eev. O. P. Cambridge, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 4, vol. xix. 1877, p. 29. 

Cephalic part of ceplialothorax and mandibles bright scarlet ; 
thoracic part black. Abdomen black. Thoracic fovea deep and 
strongly procarved. Front middle eyes largest, oval, upright, 
close together. Eear middle eyes nearer to rear side than to front 
middle. Scopula on tarsus and two-thirds of metatarsus of 3rd and 
4th pairs of legs. Superior claws lightly pectinated, 5 or 6 on 
inner, 3 on outer ; 2 on inferior. S teeth on inner falx-edge, 

Text-fig. 21. 




Eriodon rugosmn. c. Male palp. 
E. insigne. a. Ejes. b. Male palp. 

4 on lower part of outer, and 5 Very small intermediate at lower 
end. Club-shaped spines on lip and lower inner edge of maxillae. 
A rather large protuberance on the inner fore corner of maxilla. 
Trochantal joint of maxillse long and cylindrical. Posterior 
sternal sigillge large and removed from margin. Porehead slightly 
granulated, not so much as E. incertum. 

I have several of these males from Dimboola, Victoria, but no 
females that I can attribute as cospecific with them. 

The males of E. insigne Cambr., E. incertum Cambr,, E. riibro- 
capitatum Auss., and apparently E. semicoccineum Simon, are all 
very much alike, with their black thoracic part, abdomen, and legs, 
and scarlet head and mandibles. No scarlet-coloured females have 
been found ; probably they are of the normal black-brown or 
chocolate colour, and may not differ even so much as the males. 



224 MR. H. II. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Of the four species known to me I have figured the palps, the 
bulb and stigma of which will be seen to be of a somewhat similar 
type, the latter nearly straight, from once and a half to twice the 
length of the bulb. 

Measurements in millimetres. 
Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax .... 4| 5 

Abdomen 4 3;^ 

Pat. & Metat. 
Coxa. Tr. &feui. tib. &tars. 

Legs 1. 2| 6 4i 4^ = 17| 

2. 2i 5 4 4~ = 15| 

3. 2k 5 4 41 = 16 
Or 4, 1,3,2. 4. 2i 6 4^ 5 = 18 

Palpi 1| 2 & 4 5^ 1 = 13| 

Eriodok incertum Cambr. (Text-fig. 22.) 
Eriodon incertum, Eev. 0. P. Cambridge, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 4, vol. xix. 1877, p. 30. 

Text-fig. 22. 




Eriodon incertum. a. Ej'es. h. Male palp. 



Described from a male from Swan Eiver. 

Cephalic part of cephalothorax dark reddish black ; mandibles 
bright scarlet ; thoracic part black. Abdomen black-brown. 

Thoracic fovea very deep and procurved. 8 teeth on inner falx- 
edse ; 5 teeth on outer falx-edge, and bunch of about 7 small 



1901.] ATJSTRALIAN SPIDEES. 225 

intermediate at lower end, away from fang. There are no spines 
on lip or masillag. 

Eyes : the front middle are the largest, OA^al, inclined to one 
another, bases half their short diameter apart. Side-eyes about 
equal in size, in length equal the short diameter of front middle 
eyes. The cephalic part above the eyes is deeply pitted with 
numerous coarse indentations. 

The rastellum is on a pad on the inner side of the falx. The 
sternal sigillse are large, away from margin, and the same as in 
E. insigne and E. rubrocapitatum. 

A thick low undivided scopnla on tarsus and metatarsus iii. and 
iv. reaches nearly to the base of the latter. There are 5 pectinations 
on superior inner tarsal claw, 3 on outer, and 3 short on inferior. 

These particulars are from a male from Perth (H. W. J. Turner) 
in the British Museum. 

Measut'sinents in millimetres. 
Long. Broad. 
Cephalothoras 5 6 

Abdomen .. 5|- 5 Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. (fefem. tib. &tars. 

Legs 1. 21 5f 5 4i = 17f 

2. 21 5 41 4' = 16 

3. 21 5 4" 4 = 151 
Or 1,4, 2, 3. 4. 21 5 4^ 4|- = 164 

Palpi If 2 & 4 5f 1 = 141 

Eeiodox eugosum Auss. (Text-fig, 21 c, p. 223.) 

Eriodon rugosum Auss., Verb, der k.k. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 
Band xxv. 1875, p. 141, Taf . v. figs. 5 & 6. A male from Australia. 

One male, Keyserling Coll., British Museum. Total length 
14 mm. 

The front side- eyes are largest and oval. The front middle are 
likewise oval, long diameter vertical, slightly smaller ; their short 
diameter apart. 

The whole cephalothorax and mandibles are deep black, the legs 
and palpi inclining to reddish brown — the colour of E. occatorium, 
from which however the eyes differ entirely. The abdomen 
considerably overhangs the cephalothorax. 

Measurements in millimetres. 
Long. Broad. 
Ceph. (without mandibles) . . 7 7 

Abdomen 6^ 5 

Mandibles 4 

Pat. & Metat. 
Coxa. Tr. & fem. tib. & tars. 
Legs 1. 21- 51 41 41 = 17 

2. 21. 5 4 4 = 15^ 

3. 21 5 4 4 = 151 
Or 4, 1,2,3. 4. 21 6 5 5 = 18^ 

Palpi 21 5 5 11 = 14 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XV, 15 



226 



ME. H, E. HOGG ON 



[June 4, 



Eeiobon eubeooapitatum Auss. (Text-fig. 23.) 

Erom the specimen in Keyserling Coll., Brit. Mus., I take the 

following pai'ticulars. 

Cephalic part of cephalothorax and mandibles rather brownish 

red ; thoracic part black. Legs and palpi lighter brown than 



Text-fig. 23. 




Efiod<yii ruhrocapitatum. a. Eyes of male. b. Eyes of female (labelled 
E. occatormm), probably female of this, c, cl. Left and right male palps. 

latter (not so bright as E. insigne), but the specimen is old and 
may have lost its colour somewhat. Thoracic fovea deep and pro- 
curved. Sternal sigillse removed from margin ; posterior pair 
very large ; anterior pair small and on sternum below lip-fold. 
Scopula on tarsus and lower two-thirds of metatarsus iii and iv. 
3 large and 5 small teeth on inner edge of falx-sheatb, 2 large and 



1901.] AUSTBALIAN SPIDEES. 227 

2 small near lower part of outer edge ; intermediate row of 4 very 
small at lower end of same. About 5 or 6 pectinations on outer 
superior tarsal claws, 3 on inferior ; 4 or 6 pectinations on inner 
superior tarsal claws. No club-shaped spines on lip or maxillse. 
Pemale below has spines on both. The front middle eyes are 
small, on pale yellow prominences (Mr. Eainbow says brown). 
The tibial joint of palp is unusually long and swollen in the 
middle. The trochantal joint of same is also unusually long 
(as in E. insigne and E. incertum). 

Mr. Eainbow, of Sydney, describes a male from Menindie, 
N.S.W., which is the same as this one labelled Australia only. 



Measurements in millimetres. 







Long. 


Broad. 










Cephalothorax 


. . 


5 


6 










Abdomen . . . 




4 


4 


Pat.& 


Metat. 










Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


& tars. 






Legs 


1. 


2 


6 


5i 


5 


= 


18i 




2. 


2 


51 


5 


5 


= 


m 




3. 


2 


H 


4 


4 


= 


14i- 




4. 


2 


H 


5 


5 


= 


m 


Palpi 




H 


2&4i 


7 


1 


= 


16 



A female in British Museum, with eyes the same, dark centre on 
pale yellowish brown, measures : — 







Lone. 


Broad. 










Cephalothorax 




71 


9 










Abdomen . . . 


. . . 


11^ 


10 










Mandibles . . . 




5 


4 each. 
















Pat.& 


Metat. 










Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


& tars. 






Legs 


1. 


3 


7 


5i 


H 


= 


20 




2. 


3 


6 


H 


H 


= 


19 




3. 


3 


7 


5i 


5 


= 


201 




4. 


H 


8 


H 


5i 


= 


231 


Palpi 




3 


5i 


5 


3 


= 


16i 



Eeiodon nigripes Lucas (sec. Simon). 

Pachyloscelis nigripes Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. vol. iii. 1834, 
p. 364, pi. vii. figs. 1 & 2. 

Sphodros abboti Walck. Ins. Apt. vol. i. 1837, p. 243. 

Eriodon nigripes E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 1892, 
p. 81 note. 

Described as from Brazil. M. Simon, however, thinks that this is 

15* 



228 MR. H. R. HOGG ON [June 4, 

probably a mistake, as on examination of Lucas's type of the above- 
named species, he finds it to be a male Eriodon. 

He further ascertained that Spliodros ahboti Walck. (loc. cit.) 
was described from the same specimen. 

The cephalothorax is described as black, the cephalic part blue- 
black, the abdomen yellow above and black underneath. 

M. Lucas at the same time described a female as P. rvfipes 
(loc. cit.), which from the colouring (black all over, bluish head- 
part, yellow hairs on abdomen) would appear to be the female of 
the above. 

The rear middle eyes are depicted in this female as close up to 
the rear side, while in the male they are about half-way, which 
may doubtless have led M. Simon to reject it as cospecific; the 
drawings given of details of other parts, however, are clearly not 
to be taken too literally. Of course there is the doubt as to its 
locality, and it has not been recognized since. 

Eriodon semicocoineum Simon. 

Eriodon semicoccineum Simon, Liste der Arachn. der Semon'sehen 
Sammlung in Australien und dem Malay ischen Archipel (E. Simon, 
1896). 

Black, with cephalic part and mandibles red ; 9 mm. long. Erom 
Burnett River, Queensland. 

From M. Simon's description (loc. cit.) it is not clear that this 
differs from E. rvhrocapitatiim Auss., unless the " very long, 
straight, thin " palpal stigma mentioned means something more 
than about twice the lenath of the bulb. 



Subfamily M i G i N ^. 

This subfamily is represented only by the genus Migas Jj. Koch, 
which is confined to New Zealand. Unlike the other members of 
the family, the mandibles are short, convex, kneed at the base and 
thence almost vertical. The thoracic fovea is recurved, and the 
front row of eyes (sec. Koch) straight or (sec. Goyen) procurved. 
The New Zealand species are unknown to me. I recorded a muti- 
lated specimen from Central Australia (Horn Expedition, Zool. 
vol. ii. p. 334) as probably M. paradoxus L. K. ; but on recon- 
sidering my notes I feel sure that it must be a new genus — to be 
described when more material is available. 



Genus Migas L. Koch. 

Migas L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, p. 467 ; E, Simon. 
Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 1892, p. 84. 
Type, M. paradoxus L. Koch. 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 229 

MiGAS PARADOXUS L. Koch (loc. cit.). 

Front row o£ eyes straight ; a remarkable double row of spines 
on raetatarstis iv. 

Female from Auckland. 

MiGAS DiSTiNCTUS Cambr. 

(Female.) Eey. O. P. Cambridge, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1879, 
p. 783. 

(Male.) P. Goyen, Proc. New Zealand Inst. vol. xix. 1886, 
p. 210. 

(Sec. Goyen). Both, rows of eyes procurved. No spines on lip 
or maxillse. Length 9 mm. 

Locality. At the back of the sea-beach between Duuedin and 
Oamaru, Otago. 

MiGAS SANDAGERI Goyeu. 

Migas sandageri Goven, Proc. N. Z. Inst. vol. xxiii. 1890, 
p. 123. 

(Sec. Goyen.) Both rows of eyes procurved. Lip and maxillae 
studded with spines. Length 9 mm. 

Weaves a nest on trunks of trees. 

Locality. Mokohinou Islands. 

Subfamily Ctets'Iziis'^. 

Three claws and a rastellum. Eyes on a more or less raised 
prominence in the centre of the frontal area. 

Of the six groups into which M. Simon divides this subfamily 
we have only three into which any of our genera can fall. 
IdiojjecB — in which the front side-eyes are brought so far forward 
as to be separated from the others ; Cyrlaucheniece and Nemesiece, 
which M. Simon separates on the procurvedness or straightness 
of the thoracic fovea, and these so overlap the borders that no 
satisfactory dividing line between the groups can be drawn. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

1. Eear middle eyes at least two of their longer 

diameters distant from the rear side-eyes 2. 

Eear middle eyes not more than their longer 
diameter from the rear side-eyes 3. 

2. Abdomen coriaceous, wrinkled, short spines on bact. 

Anterior lateral eyes brought forward to margin 
of clypeus (as in Icliops) and not more than their 

diameter apart .....,>... Idiosoma Auss. 

Abdomen clothed with rather thick and long hair ... 4. 

4. Rear row of eyes procurved ; long spines on the 

upper side of the abdomen Atiidiops Pocock. 

Eear row of eyes recurved 5. 

5. Cephalothorax only very slightly longer than broad Eucyrtops Pocock. 
Cephalothorax one third longer than broad Aganippe Cambr. 



230 



ME. H. R. HOGG ON 



[June 4, 



Lip broader than long. Thoracic fovea deep and 

strongly procurved. Posterior sternal sigillse 

large and removed from margin. Long thin 

spines on upper and under side of abdomen . . . Maoriana, nov. gen. 
Lip nearly square. Thoracic fovea straight or 

only slightly divergent therefi-om. Sternal sigill^ 

moderate in size and marginal Arhanitis L. Koch. 



Greuus Idiosoma Ausserer. 

IcUosoma Ausserer, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 150. 

Acanthodon Guerin, E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 1892, 
p. 91. 

Idiosoma Auss., E. I. Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. xix. 1897, p. 109. 

Attached by M. Simon to the genus Acanthodon and group 
Idiopece, to which the position of its front side-eyes entitles it. 
The rear side-eyes are, however, at least twice the diameter of the 
front middle instead of nearly equal, and the lip broader than 
long, instead of equally so. No spines on lip, instead of a row of 
a few large ones. I think, therefore, that Mr. Pocock is right in 
restoring Ausserer's genus. 

Type, /. sigillatum. 

Idiosoma sigillatum Cambr. 

Idiosoma sigillatum Cambr., E. 1. Pocock, loc. cit. 
Idiops sigillatus Cambr. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 105, pi. viii. 
fig. 2. 

This, the only species of the genus, was described originally 
from a male from Perth, W.A. However, a female was received 
by the British Museum from the same neighbourhood a few years 
since, from which I have taken the following few points in addition 
to those pubHshed by Mr. Pocock. 

Teeth on inner falx-edge 7 

5, outer „ 4 

3 smaller intermediate at lower end. 



Measurements in millimetres. 







Long. 


Broad. 










Cephalothorax 




8 


6 










Abdomen . . . 




11 


9 










Mandibles . . . 




4 




Pat.& 


Metat. 










Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


& tars. 






Legs 


1. 


3 


6 


51 


4 


= 


18i 




2. 


3 


H 


5 


4 


= 


17| 




3. 


3 


5 


H 


4 


^ 


161 


Or 4, 1, 2, 3. 


4. 


3 


6 


7 


5i 


= 


2ii 


Palpi ....... 


. . . 


3| 


5 


5 


31 


= 


17! 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



231 



G-enus Aganippe Cambr. 

Aganippe Cambr. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xix. 1877^ 
p. 28 ; Simon, Hisfc. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. p. 106 (1892) ; Pocock, 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xvi. 1895, p. 223 ; id. ibid, 
vol. xix. 1897, p. 112. 

Type, Aganippe subtristis Cambr., loc. cit. 

Described from a dried specimen in the British Museum received 
from Adelaide (S. Australia), and not recorded since. 

The cephalothorax and legs are bright chestnut-brown ; the eye- 
space and mandibles darker reddish brown ; abdomen reddish brown, 
rough and hairy. The sternum is pyriform, broadest behind. 
The posterior sternal sigillse lai'ge and removed from the margin ; 
a smaller pair between these and the anterior margin of sternum. 
The sternum and coxae are copiously pitted. 

The lip is small, as long as broad. Club-shaped spines on base 
of maxillse, none visible on lip. 

In this the I'astellum extends in three rows of teeth right across 
the lower end of falx. 



Measurements in millimetres. 



Long. 
Cephalothorax . . 12 

Abdomen 11 

Mandibles 8 falx 

5 fang. 

Coxa 
Legs 1. 5 

2. 4 

3. 4 
Or 4, 1,2, 3. 4. 5 

Palpi 5i 



Broad. 










9 










n 


Tib. & 


Metat. 






•. & fern. 


pat. 


& tars. 






H 


81 


5i 


= 


28|- 


8 


8 


5i 


^ 


251 


71 


7 


6 


= 


241 


10^ 


9i 


8i 


= 


33 


^ 


H 


^ 


= 


23 



Genus Anidiops Pocock. 

Anidiops Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix. 1897, 
p. 114. 

Type, Anidiops manstridgei Pocock, loc. cit. 

Described from a dried female specimen from Lawlers, East 
Murchison, W.A., and not since recorded. 

The front middle eyes are yellow with black centres, their 
diameter apart. The rear side-eyes are largest, two thirds diameter 
of front middle. The rear row strongly procurved. The front 
side-eyes project beyond the margin of the carapace, and are their 
diameter apart, one third more than front middle. 

Eastellum along inner front of falx and over rather large area 
behind same. 



232 



MR. H. B. HO&G ON 



[June 4, 



Measurements in millimetres. 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalotliorax . . 9 7 

Abdomen 8 6| 

Mandibles 6 

Pat. & Metat 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. 

i^egs 1. 4 61 6-^ 

2. 3i 6 6 

3 3^ 6 5 

4. 31 71 71 

Palpi 5" 6| 61 



& tars. 






51 


= 


221 


4^ 


r= 


20 


5 


= 


19 


7-1 

' 2 


= 


26 


4 


= 


22 



Genus Eucyetops Pocock. 

Aganippe Cambr. {ad partem, latio7'), Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 4, vol. xix. 1877, p. 29, pi. vi. fig. 4. 

Eucyrtops Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xix. 1897, 
p. 113. 

Eucyetops latioe Cambr., he. cit. 

Eemoved by Mr. Pocock from Aganippe in consequence of a 
difference, which he considers sufficient, in the arrangement of 
the eyes in the type, and only, species from that of Aganippe 
suhtristis Cambr. 

There does not appear to me much difference beyond that the 
rear roAV is rather more recurved, and the front middle eyes equal 
in size to the rear middle, instead of larger. The four side-eyes 
are also equal, \h diameter of the medians, and they are all slightly 
raised on low tubercles. However, in Eucyrtops the cephalothorax 
is broad er, apparently the reason of its specific name. 

Type (in British Museum), one dried female from Perth, W. A. 
Not recorded since. 

Measurements in millimetres, 









Long. 


Broad. 










Cephalothorax 




H 


9 










Abdomen 






7 


H 










Mandibles . 






5 

Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. 


Pat. & 
tib. 


Metat. 
& tars. 






Legs 




1. 


4 


•5| 


6 


51 


= 


21 






2. 


3i 


51 


6 


5* 


= 


201 






3. 


3i 


5 


51 


5 


= 


19 






4. 


4 


n 


7 


6 


^ 


241 


Or 4, 1, 2, 


3. 
















Palpi 






H 


51 


H 


H 


= 


20 



1901.] AIJSTEALIAN SPIDERS. 233 

Genus Arbanitis L. Koch. 

Pholeuon L. Koch (nom. prcBOCc), Arachn. Aiistr. 1873, p. 472. 

Arhanitis L. Koch, Arachn. Austr, 1874, p. 491. 

Arianitis E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d, Araign. vol. i. p. 115 (1892). 

Arhanitis differs primarily from Nemesia {sec. Simon) in having 
the pectinations on the tarsal claws in one row instead of two. 
Judged by this standard, all the species from Australia and New 
Zealand described under the two genera must be included in the 
former. 

M. Simon has already removed N. gilliesii ; and as Mr. 
Urquhart's description of his JSf. JcirJcii is apparently clear on the 
point, though he does not state it directly, that must also follow 
suit. 

Type, A. longipes L. Koch. 

Synopsis of Species. 

1. Middle eyes of front row about ^ diameter apart 

{sec. L. Koch) A. longipes L. Koch. 

Middle eyes of front row more nearly 1| diameter 
apart 2. 

2. Cephalothoras of adult ( cJ or $ ) not exceeding 

about 6 mm. in length {sec. Cambr. & Groyen). A. huttonii Oambr. 
Cephalothoras of adult {S or $) 8-14 mm. in 
length 3. 

3. No club-shaped spines on lip A. gilliesii Cambr. 

Lip covered with small papillEe, or club-shaped 

spines {sec. JJrq.)... if coming ivitlmi subfamily... A. Jcirkii Urq. 

Aebanitis gilliesii Cambr. (Text-fig. 24, a, h.) 

Arhanitis gilliesii Cambr., Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 
p. 115 (1892). 

Nemesia gilliesii Cambr. Trans. N. Z. Inst. vol. x. (1877) p. 284, 
plate X. 

Nemesia gilliesii Cambr., A. T. Urquhart, Trans. N. Z. Inst. 
vol. xxiv. (1891) p. 221. 

A female sent me by Prof. Dendy from Christchurch, N.Z., 
I attribute to this species, the colouring and pattern agreeing. 
Mr. Cambridge described his species from one male and two 
females sent by Captain Button from Oamaru, Otago. 

The thoracic fovea is straight, or slightly recurved. Mr. Cam- 
bridge draws his procurved, but does not mention the point. The 
scopu-lse on tarsus and metatarsus of two front pairs of legs are 
thick and undivided. With three long single spines in the 
scopulse of the metatarsus ; none on tarsus. On the two pos- 
terior pairs there are a good many short spines on the underside 
of the tarsus, and a row on the anterior end of metatarsus. There 
are very long bristles on the anterior end and sides of the sternum ; 
bristles, but no club-shaped spines, on the lip, which is as broad 
as long, square in front, and sunk below the maxillae. There 



234 



MR. H. B. HOG& ON 



[June 4, 



is a bunch of club-shaped spines on inner side of base of the 
latter. 

The front middle eyes are 1| diameter apart, they are wholly 
above the highest point of the side-eyes, \¥hich are twice their 
diameter, and the same distance away from both front middle and 
rear side-eyes. The rear row is recurved, the side-eyes being 1^ 
diameter of front middle. The whole eye-space is twice as long 
as broad, the sides being parallel, and the front side-eyes are 
their long diameter removed from the margin of the clypeus. 

Text-fig. 24. 




Arhanitis gilliesii. a. Eyes. h. Rear tavaal claws. 
Supposed A. huttoni. c. Rear tarsal claws. 



f-'The outer superior tarsal claw has two very long pectinations 
between two shorter, and the inner claw two long and one short 
intermediate ; none on the inferior claw ; one large at base of palpal 
claw : this is on front edge of the tarsus-end, and not, as Mr. 
Cambridge draws it, close up to the other claws. 

The inferior mammillae are one diameter apart. The superior 
have the first joint longest and stoutest, the second one fourth its 
length, the third conical, I'ounded at the end, the same length as 
the second. 

There are fine spines on both upper and under side of the 
abdomen. 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 235 

Mecimrements in millimetres. 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax . . 14 11 

Abdomeu 15 10 

Mandibles Si- 

Tib. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. pat. & tars. 

Legs 1. 6 11 lOi 8i = 36 

2. 5i 10 91 8" = 33 

3. 5" 8i 8 7i = 29 

4. 51 Hi 13 111 = 411 
Palpi 6" 8 7 5 = 26 

One female in British Museum from J. V. Jennings, Otago, 
1891, differs slightly in the following particulars. 

Eyes the same as the foregoing (supposed A. gilUesii), but 
distance between the front side pair and the margin of the clypeus 
rather narrower. Thoracic fovea deeper and slightly procurved. 
The Eev. O. P. Cambridge draws his recurved, but does not 
mention it in his description. No spines on the back of the 
abdomen, and only a few light bristly ones in two of the folds on 
the underside. Anterior abdominal (genital) fold double — the 
same in both species. Sternal sigillse about the same size and mar- 
ginal. The two rear coxae not quite contiguous. Spinnerets 
about the same as foregoing. 

Three small spines at front end of tarsus i. & ii. One larger 
pair at anterior end of metatarsus i. & ii., and two single in the 
middle and at the posterior end. A single row of large teeth 
(about eight) on inner falx-edge. The inner superior claw of 
tarsus iv. has about the middle one very long pectination, with 
another a good deal shorter nearer to the base, and a very small 
one between. On the outer claw is a long one near the base, 
followed by two short, and on the other side higher up one very 
long and one short — a sort of rudimentary double pectination. 
This might, however, almost equally well be a rudimental row 
crossing the claw, as in the Di-plurince. On the other claws the 
pectinations are all single. 

Measurements in millimetres. 



Long. 
Cephalothorax . . 11 

Abdomen 13 

Mandibles 4 

Coxa. 
Legs 1. 5 

2. 4i 

3. 4 

4. 4i 
Palpi 4| 



Broad. 






8i 






8 








Pat. & 


Metat, 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


& tars. 


H 


9 


71 


9 


8 


61 


8 


H 


6* 


9i 


11 


10 


7i 


7 


5 



31 

28 
26 
35 

24j 



236 ME. H. E. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Aebakitis huttonii Cambr. (Text-fig. 24 c, p. 234.) 

Arbanitis huttonii Eev. O. P. Cambridge, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
(24 Sept.) 1879, p. 682, plate Hi. fig. 1 (male). 

Arbanitis huttonii Cambr., A. T. Urquhart, Tr. N. Z. Inst, 
vol. xxiv. 1891, p. 221 ; P. Goyen, ibid. p. 255. 

Described from an adult male sent by Captain Hutton from 
Dunedin in 1879 ; female by Mr. Groyen in 1891. 

Aebanitis kiekii Urquhart. 

Nemesia hirhii A. T. Urquhart, Trans. N. Z. Inst. vol. xxvi. 
1893, p. 204. 

One female from Wellington. 

Mr. Urquhart says : — 

Eyes. Posterior row moderately procurved, anterior row slightly 
recurved (unless this is a misprint it is of course quite different 
from anything else in the group). 

The cephalic fovea is circular. (In the other species it is long.) 
The superior tarsal claws have 12 teeth, and the inferior 4. The 
palpal claw 7 stout open pectinations. In A. huttoni and A. gilliesii 
the superior claws have 4 pectinations, the inferior none, and the 
palpal claw one. 

The position of the species must, therefore, be considered very 
doubtful. 

Aebanitis longipes L. Koch. 

Arbanitis longipes, L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1874, pp. 472 
(Pholeuon), 491 (Arbanitis). 



Maoeiana, nov. gen. 

This genus, though near Arbanitis, differs from it in several 
essential particulars. The line joining the centres of the front 
row of eyes is only slightly procurved, the upper margins of the 
laterals being in a line with the centres of the median. The front 
lateral eyes are twice the diameter of the median, and are close 
to the margin of the clypeus, so that the clypeus is very much 
narrower. The line joining the centres of the rear row is about 
straight. The thoracic fovea is deep and procurved. The lip is 
broader than long and hollowed in the front margin. The pos- 
terior sternal sigillae are large, lying half-way between the margin 
and the central line of sternum, and the others are away from 
the side-margin. 

Maoriana agrees with Arbanitis in having thick seopula on the 
two front pairs of tarsi ; none on the two rear pairs. Long 
thhi spines on both upper and under side of abdomen. Superior 
tarsal claws pectinated in one row, but with not many in number. 
E-ow of teeth on inner side of falx-sheath only. Eye-space much 
broader than long; sides parallel. Eyes well apart. Superior 



1901.J 



AUSTEALIAN SPIDERS. 



237 



spinnerets short, stout and tapering; first joint longest, third quite 
short and hemispherical. 
Type, Maoriana dendyi. 

Maoriana dendyi, n. sp. (Text-fig. 25.) 

Cephalothoras, mandibles, legs, and palpi bright yellow-brown, 
with a few pale yellowish hairs on the cephalothoras, trochanter, 
and femur, darkening into brown and thicker on the remainder 
of the leg. Two longitudinal belts of yellowish-brown bristles on 
the face of the falx are separated by bare spaces. The teeth of 
the rastellum are black. The sternum, coxse, lip, and maxillse are 
dull orange, furnished \^'ith brown bristles springing from round 

Text-fig. 25. 

i 
I 




Maoriana dendyi. a. Eyes. b. Profile (nat. size). 
c. Lip and sternum, showing sigillte. 

roots ; the fringes are pinkish yellow. The fangs dark red, almost 
black at base. The abdomen is black above with yellow spots in 
transverse bands ; underneath black irregularly mottled with 
yellow. Spinnerets, gill-covers, and anterior section above genital 
aperture yellow-brown; a few long thin spiues on both upper and 
under side of abdomen, and short yellow hairs. 

The thoracic part of the cephalothorax is flat, rounded at sides 
and narrowed at rear ; the cephalic part rises rather abruptly from 



238 ME, H. R, HO&G OK [June 4, 

the deep and strongly-procurved fovea to about half its length, 
whence it slightly slopes downward to the anterior margin. The 
side striations are broad, shallow and straight, making the cephalic 
part almost triangular. 

The front row of eyes is slightly procurved, the median pair 
1^ diameter apart on a common black oval prominence ; the 
laterals are twice their diameter, the same distance away as the 
median from one another. The rear row is recurved. Side-eyes 
l-L diameter of front median, and that distance from the front 
laterals. The rear median are narrow pear-shaped, the length of 
the front middle, and just clearly separated at their apex from the 
side-eyes. 

The sternum is broadest posteriorly, and very convex, hollowed 
in front opposite the Up, and slightly pointed between the rear 
cos£e, covered with long upstanding bristles on round roots. 
The posterior sigillae are transversely oval, once and a half of their 
long diameter from the margin and the same distance from the 
central line. 

The lip is broader than long, hollowed in front, and curved 
posteriorly with the sternum. It is very convex, and clothed with 
bristles on roots, but no small club-shaped spines. 

The maxillae are rather long, straight in front, a rounded pro- 
tuberance at the heel and thence hollowed over the lip. A few 
club-shaped spines are sprinkled from the inner corner to half- 
way up. 

Legs short and stout. Scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi of front 
two pairs. A few short stout spines on all tarsi and metatarsi, 
and longer ones on underside of tibia. 

The superior tarsal claws have one very long tooth near the 
base ; the inferior claw is bare. One row of teeth only on falx- 
sheath. On the outside of patella iii. and iv. is an area covered 
with short stout spines very similar to those forming the rastellum. 

The inferior spinnerets are one diameter apart. The superior 
are short, thick and tapering, the first joint longest and thickest, 
the third is hemispherical and only visible above the second from 
the underside. 

Measurements in millimetres. 
Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax 8 7 

Abdomen 10 6 

Mandibles (horizontally) . . 3 

Superior spinnerets 2i 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. ^ 6 5 4 = 181- 

2. ^ 5i ^ 4 = l^ 

3. 3 5 4 4 = 16 



5i 


41 

^2' 


5 


4 


7 


6 


^ 


4 



4. 31 7 6 6 = 22-1- 



Palpi •• 31 41 4 3 = 15 

One female from Christchurch, N.Z., sent me by Prof. Dendy. 



1901.] ATJSTBALIAN SPIDEES. 239 

Subfamily BARYCHELiwiE. 

Group Baetchelb^. 

In this subfamily we find the tarsal scopulse projecting in strong 
bristly tufts beyond the claws at the end of the foot, and from 
consequent disuse the third claw has disappeared. Although 
the members of this group make their home in burrows in 
the soil which has to be dug out, the rastellum has not been 
developed into the strong teeth which are so typical in the pre- 
viously described families ; but in most cases the bristles on the 
front edge of the mandibles are simply hardened, retaining their 
bristly form. The spinnerets, as the name of the group implies, 
are short and stout ; the first joint is longer than the remaining 
tw^o together, the third shortest and nearly hemispherical. 

The genera of which we have representatives in Australia all fall 
into the one group of Barychelew, distinguished by the strongly 
procurved front row of eyes ; the front laterals being brought 
down to a position on the margin of the clypeus, where they are 
near together, forming a pattern of which the extreme form is 
seen in Idiops Perty, the whole group being at least not broader 
than long. 

Grenus Idiommata Auss. 

Idiommata Auss., E. I. Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, ser 6 
vol. xvi. 1895, p. 225. 

Idiommata Auss., Eev. 0. P, Cambridge, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1870, p. 154. 

Idiommata Auss. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 183. 

Idiommata Auss., L. Koch, Arachn. Austr. 1874, p. 474. 

Encyocrypta E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. 1888, p. 247. 

Idiommata Auss., E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 1892, 
p. 121. 

Type, Idiommata blachivalli Cambr. 

In the year 1895 Mr. Pocock, on re-examining Mr. Cambridge's 
type specimen, discovered (loc. cit.) that (in the male at least, 
the female not being known to him) Id. hlackivalli is furnished 
with a Wood-Mason's stridulating organ, which the females, at any 
rate those in the British Museum, identified as Id. reticulata 
L. Koch, had not. /. hlackwalli being the type of the genus 
Idiommata Auss., it is clear that the other species, until proved 
to have the stridulating organs, cannot be included in the same 
genus ; and Mr. Pocock therefore re-characterized the genus 
Encyocrypta Simon, for the non-stridulated species. I record them 
as such, as it is necessary to obtain and examine more specimens 
before it can be seen how far the males and females agree re- 
spectively with those of /. hlacTcwalli. 



240 ME. H. R. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Idiommata black walli Cambr. 

Idiommata blacJiwalli Eev. O. P. Cambridge, he. cit. ; L. Koch, 
Joe. cit. ; E. I. Pocock, he. eit. ; Ausserer, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. 
Wien, Band xxv. 1875, p. 164. 

Described from male only. 

Herr Ausserer states {he. cit.) tliat the cephalothorax and back 
of abdomen are thickly clothed with silver hair. Legs and palpi 
dark, nearly black. 

Genus Enotocrypta Simon. 

Encyoevypta Simon, li. I. Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, 
vol. svi. 1895, p. 225. 

Eneyoerypta E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. 1888, p. 247. 

Idiommata Auss., E. Simon, Hist, Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. (1892) 
p. 121. 

Type, E. meleagris. 

This genus was created by M. Simon for a New Caledonian 
member of the group {meleagris), but was subsequently merged 
by him in the genus Idiommata Auss., from which, under the 
circumstances above detailed, it was again resuscitated by Mr. 
Pocock. 

Erom Herr Ausserer's synopsis of species (Verb. k.k. zool.-bot. 
Ges. Wien, Band xxv. 1875, p. 164) I translate the following : — 

1. Cephalothorax and upper side of abdomen not clothed 

■with silver hair 2. 

2. Front middle eyes of second group at least their 

diameter apart ; cephalic fovea deep half-moon 

shape with the opening in front E. fusca L. K. 

Front middle eyes of second group less than their 
diameter apart ; thoracic fovea sti-aight 3. 

3. Abdomen brownish yellow, with a dark reddish-brown 

network spread on it E. reticulata Jj. li. 

Abdomen black-brown, with yellowish-brown hairs 
without any network marking E. aussereri L. K, 

Encyocbtpta beticulata L. Koch. 

Encyocrypta reticulata E. I. Pocock {he. cit.). 

Idiommata retieidata L, Koch, Ai'achn. Austr. 1874, p. 47. 

Erom British Museum specimens (three females from Eock- 
hampton) labelled E, retieidata, I take the following particulars : — 

The colour is chestnut-brown to lighter yellow-brown all over. 
The abdomen is clothed with thick short brown hair, intermingled 
with bristles and some spines. The six rear eyes yellow, the two 
front black. 

A light rastellum of spinous bristles. 8 large teeth on inner 
margin of falx-sheath ; 12 quite small intermediate at lower end ; 
1 large at lower end of outer edge. Thoracic fovea procurved (?). 

Sternum a broad oval. Of the sternal sigillse the three pos- 
terior pairs are moderate in size and marginal ; the anterior pair 
under the lip very large. 



1901.] AUSTRAMAlSr SPIDERS. 241 

The lip broader than long, strongly convex; no club-shaped 
bristles ; it is somewhat rounded anteriorly, with a thick bunch 
of bristly hairs. On the lower end of the maxillae is a distinct 
heel with 7 or 8 club-shaped spines. There is a thick divided 
scopula on all tarsi, the metatarsi of the front two pairs, and at 
the anterior end of the rear two pairs. All the tarsi are without 
spines ; the front two pairs of metatarsi are without them ; the 
other two pairs of metatarsi have a good many spines on both 
upper and under side. The inferior mammillae are very minute and 
close together ; in the superior pair the second joint is nearly as 
long as the first, the third short and hemispherical. 

Measurements in millimetres. 

Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax . . 11 7|- 

Abdomen 10 6 

Mandibles 4 

Tib. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. pat. & tars. 

Legs 1. 4 8 8 5-i- = 25i 

2. 4 1\ 7i 5 = 24" 

3. 31 61 6| 6|- = 23 

4. 4'^ 8i 81 10 = 31 
Palpi 31 6 5" ^ = 17 

Encyocevpta pusoa L. Koch (E. I. Pocock, loc. cit.). 
Idiommata fusca L. Koch, Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 475. 

Encyocetpta atjssereei L. Koch (R. I. Pocock, loc. cit.). 
Idiommata aussereri L. Koch, Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 476. 

Enoyoceypta pulighnata Thor. 

Idiommata fuliginata Thor. Ann. Mus, Gen. xvii. 1881, p. 243. 

Male from Cape York. 

Grenus Teittame L. Koch, Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 482. 
Trittame L. Koch, E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. (1892) p. 124. 
The type species, Trittame gracilis L. Koch. No specimen 
recorded since. 



Grenus Idiootis L. Koch. 

Idioctis L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 483. 

Idioctis L. Koch, Simon, loc. cit. p. 125. 

Type, Idioctis helva L. Koch, from Ovalau, Fiji. 

Idioctis (Koch) has the eyes in one group (Idiommata in two). 
According to Simon, it only differs from Idiommata in having the 
lip longer than broad, an exceptional character in this group. 

Peoo. Zooi,. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XVI. 16 



242 



MR. H. K. HOaG ON 



[June 4, 



This statement will be seen to be only a printer's error in the 
description o£ the genus, as in that of the type species it is the 
other way — the lip is broader than long, and no exception to 
the rest. However, the eye-space is certainly much shorter than 
in Idiommata or Encyocrypta (at any rate than in E. reticulata 
L. K.) ; and I think the genus shoixld stand, 

I recorded specimens of Idioctis helva L. Koch as having come 
from Central Australia (Horn Expedition, vol. ii. p. 335). On 
comparing my notes with specimens of /. lielva in the British 
Museum, this must clearly be a new species, which I describe below 
under the name of /. palmarum. 

Genus Idioctis L. Koch. 
Idioctis palmaeum, n. sp. (Text-fig. 26.) 
Text-fig. 26. 




a. Eyes of Idioctis helva (Keyserling Collection), b. I. palmanim. 
c. Eyes of I. palmarum. 

Cephalothorax, mandibles, legs, and palpi walnut-brown ; 
sternum, lip, and maxillae rather paler. Abdomen — upperside 
yellowish brown with dark-brown median line, six dark lines on 
either side, thence sloping towards the rear ; underside rather 
paler without distinct markings, posteriorly the yellow shading 
into grey. 

Cephalothorax ovate, truncate anteriorly, rounded at rear ; 
cephalic part distinctly separated by lateral furrow. Thoracic 
fovea transverse, straight. 

Pront side-eyes rather less than their diameter apart ; front 
median two-thirds diameter of latter, half their diameter apart ; 



1901.1 



AUSTEALIAN SPIDERS. 



243 



rear side-eyes about the same diameter as front middle. "Whole 
eye-space broader than long ; an oval tubercle between the median 
and side pairs of front row of eyes has long bristles curling back- 
wards. 

The lip is broader than long, almost triangular, with a small 
triangular process at the apex, but without spines. The 
maxillae are divergent, hollowed at base round the lip ; rather 
thickly bespined at the basal part. The falx-sheath has six large 
teeth on the inner edge. Patella iii. has a thick row of spines on 
the anterior side. 

The abdomen is oval, rounded at the sides. 

Measurements in millimetres. 







Long, 


Broad. 






Cephalothorax 
Abdomen . . . . 


• • 


6 

^ 


3 in front 
5 in middle. 
6J- 










"4 

Tib. & 


Metat. 








Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. pat. 


& tars. 




Legs 


1. 


2 


5 5 


4 = 


16 




2. 


2 


4i 4| 


4 = 


15 




3. 


2 


^ 4 


4 = 


14i 




4. 


21 


6 6 


6 = 


201 



Locality. Palm Creek, Central Australia. 

Besides its larger size, this differs from L. Koch's /. helva, from 
Ovalau, in having the sides of the lip more sloping, the second, 
third, and fourth pairs of legs longer in proportion, and both median 
pair and laterals of front row of eyes respectively nearer together. 



Subfamily AvicuLAEiiiir^. 

This subfamily, which contains all the largest members of the 
Mygalomorphae, is characterized by being without both the third 
claw and rastellum. Of the ten groups into which M. Simon 
divides it, we are only concerned with two, the Ischnocolece and 
SelenocosmiecB ; and if Mr. Pocock's supposition be found correct, 
that after examination of more specimens of the former, they may 
possibly all prove to be the young of other genera, we shall have 
only about two genera, both falling into the latter group. So far 
no specimens have been recorded from New Zealand. 

The groups may be characterized as follows : — 

Having no stridulating organs. Scopulffi of all tarsi divided. 

(Simon, Nat. Hist, des Ai-aign. vol. i. 1892, p. 132.) IsCHNOCOLaE. 

Havinga Wood-Mason's stridulating organ, consisting of spini- 
form setffi on mandible and an oval cluster of bacilli ; 
without fringe of hairs on maxillae. Tarsal scopulse of 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd legs undivided. (Fauna of Brit. India, 
Aracbn., E. I. Pocock, 190O.'>.^ Selenocosmie^, 



244 MR. H. B, HOGG ON [June 4 

Group ISOHNOCOLE^. 

This group has been formed on the distinction of the tarsal 
scopulse being divided by a line of setse ; but, as shown by Mr. 
Pocock (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xvi. (1895) pp". 225- 
230), among those species which in an adult state have an 
integral scopula, it is always more or less divided in its earlier 
stages, and also that a considerable number of types of described 
species of Isclinocolus Auss. are certainly the young of members 
of other genera ; so that it is possible that this may be the case with 
the only one recorded in Australia. 

Grenus Ischngcoltjs Auss. 

Ischnoeolus Auss. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. "Wien, Bd. xxi. (1871) 
p. 184. 

Type, /. holosericeus Auss. 

ISCHNOCOLUS LUCUBEAKS L. Koch. 

Isclinocolus lucuhrans L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 487 ; 
Auss. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Bd. xxv. (1875) p. 173. 

This species is unknown to me. It is distinguished (sec. Auss.) 
by the underside of metatarsus ii. having no spines at the fore 
end, and by the rear-side and middle eyes being equally large — 
points also applicable to Selenocosmia crassipes L. Koch. Seleno- 
cosmia is, of course, easily distinguishable by its stridulating organs, 
which Mr. Pocock has shown (loc. cit.) that several so-called 
Ischnocoli possess. 

Herr Koch's type of this species is not available. I leave the 
record as it stands, but the presence of the genus in Australia 
requires confirmation. 

Group Selenocosmib^. 

Synopsis of Australian Genera. 

Eear legs less stout and not longer than front legs. Front 

row of eyes straight or procurved Selenocosmia Auss. 

Eear legs longer and stouter than front pair. Front row of 

eyes recurved Selenotypus Pocock, 

Genus Selenocosmia Auss. 

Selenocosmia A. Ausserer, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Band xx. 
(1871) p. 204. 

Phrictus L. Koch, Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 488 {nom. prceocc). 

Phlogius E. Simon, Bull. Soc. Ent. Er. (6) vol. vii. (1887) 
p. cxcv ; Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. (1892) p. 146. 

Selenocosmia Auss., E. 1. Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 6, vol. xv. (1895) p. 170; ibid. vol. xvi. (1895; p. 229, 

Type, S. javanensis Walck. 



1901.] 



AUSTEALIAN SPIDEBS. 



Synopsis of Species. 



245 



Line joining centres of front row of eyes straight. 

Eyes in same about equal in size. Legs whole- 
coloured throughout S. stirlingi, n. sp. 

Line joiniug centres of front row of eyes procurved. 2. 

(Male.) First and fourth pairs of legs about equal 
in length. In the front row of eyes a line touching 
the lower part of the middle pair passes through 
the centres of the latei'als. Femur i. & ii. chocolate- , o „,,>•„ „ „„ 
bro^vn underneath 1 ^iS crca-ine&'Li Koch 

(Female.) First pair of legs distinctly longer than ^ ' " -^ ' 

the fourth. Front row of eyes so far procurved 
that a line touching the lower points of the middle 
pair passes above the side-eyes (sec. Thor.) 8. strenua Thor. 

Selenocosmia cbassipes L. Koch. 

Phrictus crassipes L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. (1874) p. 490. 
Phlogius crassipes E. Simon, loe. cit. 

Selenocosmia stirlingi, n. sp. (Text-fig. 27.) 

Text-fig. 27. 




Selenocosmia stirlingi. a. Male palpal organ ; h, extremity, enlarged 
from upper and under sides, c. Eyes. 

This species has a wider range over Australia apparently than 
any other of the group. I have met with specimens from New 
Gruinea through Queensland to about the northern border of New 
South Wales, through Central and South Australia, to lat. 25° 30', 
and in Western Australia from the latitude of Perth. Until the 



246 ME. H. B. HOGG ON [June 4 

male was known it was supposed to be L. Koch's S. crassipes, 
from whicli it differs in the coloration of the legs. 

To many female specimens I have only seen one male, sent to 
the British Museum from Crown Point Station, S. Australia. 

The measurements (in millimetres) compare as follows : — 

Female. 
Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax . . 18 < ,g 

Abdomen 28 20 

Mandibles ...... 6|- 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. &fem. tib. &tars. 

Legs 1. 9 17 17 15 = 58 

2. 8 14 14 14 = 50 

3. 7 12 12 14 = 45 

4. 8 16 16 18 = 58 
Palpi 9 12 12 7 = 40 

Male. 
Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax . . 16 14 

Abdomen VJ\ 14 Spinnerets 8. 

Mandibles 6 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. 81 18 19 18 = Q^ 

2. 7 16 171 16 = 561 

3. 6 14 15 19 = 54 

4. 7 17 18 22 = 64 
Palpi 61 13 14 4 = 37^ 

The point of the stigma of palpal bulb of male is broadened 
into a flattened scoop, but not to the same extent as in S. vuljnna, 
n. sp., below. 

Selenocosmia strekua Thor. 

Selenocosmia strenua Thor. Ann. Mus, Genova, vol. xvii. (1881) 
p. 253. 

Described from an adult female from Somerset, Cape York 
(Gulf of Carpentaria). 

This species is unknown to me ; but the Austrahan Museum at 
Sydney possesses specimens from New Guinea, identified by 
Mr. W. J. Eambow, P.L.S. 

SELEifocosMiA VULPINA, n. sp. (Text-fig. 28, p. 247.) 

Male. — Colour. The cephalothorax is black-brown, covered with 
short matted yellowish-brown hair which extends over the whole 
of the falces but is longer on the lower half. The sheath-fringe 



1901.] 



AUSTBAlilAN SPIDERS. 



247 



is darker reddish brown. Lip and maxillae bright red ; sternum 
dark brown. The legs and palpi yellowish brown above, darker 
and redder on tarsi and metatarsi. The coxae of all legs, and the 
underside of the femur and trochanter of 1st and 2nd pairs are a 
rich chocolate-brown. Scopulae a dirty dark brown. Abdomen 
above is a rather pale reddish brown, yellower underneath ; spin- 
nerets darker. 

The cephaloihorax is a tenth part longer than broad, tapering at 
front and rear to little more than half its greatest breadth. 
Thoracic fovea procurved. 

Text-fig. 28. 




Selenoeosmia vulpina. a. Palpal bulb from above ; b, ditto from beneath, 
c. Whole of palp. d. Eyes. e. Profile. 

The eye-space is about twice as wide as long, a good deal 
raised, the prominence extending 1^ times the diameter of the 
front middle eyes beyond them, to over the margin of the clypeus. 

The front row of eyes is rather procurved; the middle pair being 
three-fourths of their diameter apart. The oval side-eyes obliquely- 
set, once and a half the diameter of middle and once and a half 
their diameter away from middle. (A line across the top of the 
middle eyes passes quite clear of the laterals, across the bottom 



248 ME. H. E. HOGG OK [June 4, 

about through their centre.) The rear side-eyes, oval, have their 
long diameter equal to that of the front middle. The rear middle 
eyes are truncate posteriorly, half the diameter of the rear side 
therefrom, the line joining the centres of the four being slightly 
recurved. Front and rear laterals clearly separated. The front 
middle eyes have yellow rims with black centres. 

The mandibles are as long as the front patella, thickly clothed 
with short down-lying hair merging into longer at the front end 
and on the inner side of the fals. Fangs rather long. 

The onaxillce are divergent, the base being curved round the lip 
to a narrowish heel at the outer corner. There is a bunch of 
numerous club-shaped spines about the middle of the base. The 
upper inner corner alongside the insertion of the trochanter is 
moulded into a small rounded protuberance. 

The Z?j:> is unfortunately broken and its form not distinguish- 
able. 

The abdomen is oval, long and narrow, thickly covered with a 
mat of rather long bristly hair, but no spines. The superior 
spinnerets straight and tapering, one half the length of femur and 
trochanter iv. 

The ijaljn are comparatively short. The femoral joint incurved, 
the patellar and tibial joints covered with long bushy hair ; meta- 
tarsal quite short. The bulb is rather large and well rounded, 
twisting at the top so that the stigma, which in length equals 
twice the diameter of the bulb, proceeds from the inner side of 
the basal portion. The apex of the stigma is much dilated (as in 
S, lanipes Auss. Arachn. Austr. 1875, p. 187 & plate), but the bulb 
is much more globular. 

The legs are powerful, the front pair being thicker than the 
rear, and thickly covered with long bushy hair. The scopula on 
the fourth metatarsi reach slightly beyond half-way up the joint, 
but merges into bristles. There are no spines or marks of them 
visible on any of the legs. 

Measurements in millimetres. 







Long 


Broad. 








Cephalothorax 




161 


f 8 front. 
1 15 middle 








Abdomen . . . 


• . . 


18 


10 








Spinnerets 4, 3 


9-1 


= 91. 


Pat.& 


Me tat. 










Ooxa. Tr.&fem. tib. 


& tars. 






Legs 


1. 


8 


19 24 


19 


= 


70 




2. 


8 


17 18 


17 


= 


60 




3.' 


7 


14 15 


17 


= 


53 




4. 


7 


18i 21 


23 


:=: : 


69i 


Pabi 




7 


13 14 


4 


= 


38 



This species (a single male from Cape Upstart, near Bowen, 
Queensland, dried specimen in Brit. Mus. jN. H. received in 1873) 



1901.] AUSTEALIAlSr SPIDERS 249 

is very much smaller than S. lanipes Auss., which it somewhat 
resembles, the cephalothorax being only two-thirds the length. 
The colouring is apparently lighter, no bare streaks on patellae 
and femora nor on inner side of rear femora. 

The 1st and 4th pairs of legs are about equal in length, instead 
of 4th much longer, and 3rd shorter than 2Qd instead of slightly 
longer. The process of the palp is not so much curled though the 
end is about the same in shape. 

Coraing from the same neighbourhood, this may prove to be the 
male (unknown) of L. Koch's S. crassipes. 



Genus Selenottpus E. I. Pocock. 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xv. p. 176 (Feb. 1895). 

For a Spider, a female, from Major's Creek, Towusville, 
Queensland, Mr. Pocock rightly constituted a new genus. 

It differs from Selenocosmia Auss. in having the cephalic part not 
so much convex, the fovea deeper and more procurved, the front 
row of eyes recurved, the oval laterals of same not more than 
three-fourths the diameter of the median, the rear median nearly 
as large as the front lateral and larger than the rear, the whole of 
the clearly recurved rear row rather widely separated one from 
the other, and the 4th pair of legs much longer as well as stouter 
than the 1st. 

Type, S. plumipes Pocock. 

Sblenotypus plumipes Pocock. (Text-fig. 29.) 
Selenotypus plumipes Pocock, loc. cit. 

This fine species is the largest of all our Australian Spiders, 
having a total length of 59 mm. It is much more thickly covered 




Selenotypus plumipes. Eyes. 



with hair than is Selenocosmia crassipes L. Koch, or indeed than 
any others of the group. 

I make the measurements as follows, but from a dried specimen 
it IS difficult to take them with perfect accuracy. 



250 



ME. H. E. HOGG ON 



[June 4, 



Measurements in millimetres. 



Long. 



Broad. 



Cephalothorax .. 22^ { n/^^dle. 

Abdomen 30 20 

Mandibles 7 

Pat. & Metat, 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. 

Legs 1. 10 17| 191 

2. 8 15 16 

3. 7 15 14 

4. 9 19 22 
Palpi 10 13 15 



& tars. 



15 


z= 


62 


14^ 


= 


53i 


16 


= 


52 


24 


z;: 


74 


n 


= 


45i 



Subfamily DiplueiNjE. 

This subfamily is distinguished by having three claws, no rastel- 
lum, and the lip free. The superior mammillae vary from less than 
one-third the length of the cephalothorax {Hadronyche L. Koch) 
to more than the whole length (GetJiegiis Thorell). The group 
Masteriece, though represented in New Guinea and the Pacific 
Islands, has not been found in Australia or New Zealand. 

The genera resolve themselves into fairly definite groups as 
follows : — 

1. Six spinnerets HEXATi-iELEiE. 

Four spinnerets only 2. 

2. Tarsal claws with two rows of pectinations. Inferior 

niammill£e near together (not more than 2 diameters 
apart). Tarsi nnbespined. Scopul« on front two 
pairs of tarsi and at least partially on same metatarsi. 
No teeth on the outer margin of the falx-sheath. 
Sternal sigillse of moderate size and marginal. Front 
row of eyes procurved. Superior spinnerets generally 

not exceeding half the length of the cephalothorax Beachvthele j;. 

Tarsal claws with one row only of pectinations 3. 

3. Inferior mammillae widely separated, about 4 of their 

diameters apart. No scopulje on any legs. No row of 
teeth on outer margin of falx-sheath. Sternal sigillse 
of moderate size and marginal. Superior mammillse at 

least not much shorter than the cephalothorax Macrotiiele^. 

Inferior mammillee close together, about 1 diameter apart. 
Tarsi of all legs thickly bristled and bespined. Two 
rows (besides an intermediate at lower end) of teeth 
on falx-sheath. Sternal sigillse large and removed 
from margin. Superior mammillse short, hardly exceed- 
ing two-fifths the length of the cephalothorax Atkace^b. 



Group Beaohythelb^. 

The group into which the genera hereunder collected fall is 
associated by M. Simon with the genus Biplura under the name 
of Diplurece, In the first place, however, we have no genera to 
record following the Diplura side of it. Secondly, as shown by 
Mr. P. O. Pickard-Cambridge (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1896, 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 251 

p. 716), at least some of the species hitherto attributed to that 
genus (Trechona C. Koch, and those for which he has constituted 
the genera Harmonicon F. 0. P.-C, and Melodeus F. 0. P.-C, he. 
cit.) are furnished with stridiilating organs ; and it is not impos- 
sible that the type species itself, D. macrura L. Koch, may on 
examination prove to have them also, in which case the whole 
group would require remodelling. Thirdly, the genera centring 
around Brachytliele Auss. seem to form a better antithesis to 
M. Simon's other well distinguished group of Macrotheleoe. 

In spite of the fact, therefore, that none of the Austrahan 
species examined by me really conform exactly to the genus itself, 
the characters represented by Brachytheh Auss. seem to form the 
better natural group round which to collect them, and I have 
adopted it as the type genus. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

1. Thoracic fovea procurved. Tarsi and metatarsi of 

front two pairs scopiilated but not to full length 
of latter. 3rd Joint of superior spinnerets not 
longer than the 1st joint. Front row of eyes 
procurved though in some cases very slightly ... Aname L. Koch. 
Thoracic fovea straight 2. 

2. Tarsi only of front two pairs with seopula. None 

on metatarsi. 3rd joint of superior spinnerets 

longer than 1st (or 2nd), thin and tapering Ixamatus E. Sim. 

Metatarsi of front two pairs of legs at least par- 
tially scopulated 3. 

3. Front row of eyes procurved, side larger than 

middle. Tibia i. of male furnished with a single 
spur springing from an enlargement in the middle 

of the joint , Chenistonia, n, gen 

Front row of eyes straight. Tibia i. of male fur- 
nished vrith an apical spur. i^Sec. Auss, ad ^a,v- 
i&m B. platipus.) Brackt/thele Auss. 



Grenus Aname L. Koch. 

Brachythele Ausserer, Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. "Wien, 1871, p, 174. 

Aname L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. (1873) p. 469, 

Brachythele Auss., E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. i. p. 180(1892). 

Type, Aname pallida L. Koch. 

M. Simon apparently considered {loc. cit.) Herr Koch's genus 
Aname to be synonymous with Ausserer's older genus Brachythele 
(type, B. icterica C. Koch). While, however, we have a group of 
several species agreeing with the genus formed for A. pallida, 
they differ in the following important respects from Brachythele. 

The thoracic fovea is procurved instead of straight, (M. Simon 
forgives this.) 

The front middle eyes (in A. arhorea and pellucida, n. sp.) 
range up to 2 diameters apart, instead of being (parum disjuncti) 
near together. In general the row is procurved and not straight. 
The rear middle eyes are, except in A. pellucida, smaller than the 



252 ME. H. E. HOGG ON [June 4, 

rear side, instead of nearly equal, nor are the latter (except in 
that species) smaller than the front side-eyes. 

The two front metatarsi are scopulated only two-thirds up the 
joint instead of to the base ; and lastly, but most important, the 
male has no apical spur on tibia i. 

The species may be distinguished as follows : — 

1. The middle eyes of front row less than or about their 

diameter apart 2. 

The middle eyes of front row more than (more nearly 
two) their diameter apart 3. 

2. On the upperside of the abdomen a black median 

longitudinal stripe with side stripes depending there- 
from on a yellowish ground. {Sec. L. Koch.) A. pallida. 

Dark grey above with no recognizable pattern A. grisea, n. sp. 

3. On back of abdomen two longitudinal rows of large 

yellow spots on black ground. Front and rear side- 
eyes the same length, rear middle shorter ; front 

row procurved A. arborea, n. sp. 

Black median and side stripes on yellowish ground on 
back of abdomen. Front side-eyes longer than rear 
side ; rear side and middle eyes of equal length ; 
front row nearly straight A. pellucida, n. sp. 

Aname pallida L. Koch. 

Aname ])aTlida L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. (1873) p. 469. 

This species was unfortunately described by Herr Koch from a 
newly moulted specimen, at which time the whole of the cephalo- 
thorax, mandibles, fangs, mouth-parts, sternum, &c., are of a pale 
yellow colour, quite different from the normal dark brown or 
yellowish brown ; and consequently the description is deceptive to 
the student. The yellow-brown hair of the cephalothorax looks 
almost black or dark grey in consequence. The dark median 
and side stripes on abdomen, and front middle eyes only half a 
diameter apart, serve to distinguish it. 

I have seen no specimen, however, which I can recognize as 
being the same. 

Aname geisea, n. sp. (Text-fig. 30, p. 253.) 

Cephalothorax and mandibles a dull yellowish brown, with dark 
brown hairs and black bristles on the latter. Legs and palpi yellow 
shaded with brown, with lighter brown hairs. Lip and maxillae 
brownish yellow ; sternum and rear coxae bright golden yellow 
with brown bristles. Abdomen above black, mottled with irregular 
yellow spots, with long upstanding hairs medium to pale brown; 
underneath yellow, with small black mottlings and long dark 
brown hairs. Spinnerets pale yellow, with pale brown hairs. 

Cephalothorax rather oblong, truncate both anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly, sides curving slightly towards the rear. Cephalic part 
rather high, sloping to its highest point behind the eyes, thence 
rather downwards to the margin ; clearly separated by a long, 
deep, straight thoracic fovea and deep side striations from the 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDEES. 



253 



thoracic part, on each side of which are three somewhat oval 
depressions. 

Eyes. The front row is only shghtly procni'ved ; the two median 
three fourths their diameter apart ; the side-eyes farther away, 
about one third longer in diameter than the median. The front 
and rear side are equal in diameter and almost contiguous. The 
middle eyes of rear row touch the laterals with their upper corner. 

Stetmum broad, shield-shaped, very convex. Sigillse quite mar- 
ginal, the posterior pair rather large. 

Text-fig. 30. 





Aname grisea. a. Eyes. 

Li]) convex, cup-shaped, broader than long, sides rounded, the 
front and rear edges both recurved and parallel ; one or two club- 
shaped spines. Maxillae rather broad, straight in front, a deep 
rounded heel at the outer posterior corner, thence curving inwards 
round the lip. Above this incurved part a thick group of club- 
shaped spines. 

On inner margin of falx-sheath 8 large teeth and a few small 
intermediate at the lower end. 

The superior tarsal claws have two rows of pectinations of 4 or 
5 each, the 3rd claw without teeth. The tarsi are all unbespined. 
Scopulae on the two front pairs reach two-thirds up the metatarsi 
also. The tibiae and metatarsi are all bespined, and there are three 
short ones on the anterior side of patella iii. 

The inferior spinnerets are their diameter apart. The superior 
tapering, the 1st and 3rd joints equally long, the 2nd shorter. 



254 MR. H. -R. HOGG OK [June 4, 

Measurements in millimetres. 

Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax . . 4 3J 

Abdomen 4 3 

Superior spinnerets 2i 

Pat, & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fem. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. If 31 4 3i = 12| 

2. If 3 3^ 3 = 111 

3. 11 2f 3^ 2f = 10 

4. If 34 4 4 = 131 
Palpi li 2| 2i 1|- = 7f 

Three females from Macedon, Victoria. 

Aname aeboeea, n. sp. (Text-fig. 31.) 

Cepbalothorax deep yellow, thinly covered with down-lying 
pale yellow hairs and a darker belt of longer hairs round the margin. 

Text-fiff. 31. 




Aname arborea. a. Eyes. 

Mandibles yellow-brown, with a longitudinal belt of brown hair 
beginning one-fourth their length from the base, thence widening 
iind thickening to the lower end of the falx, where the bristles 
lengthen and harden into a light rastellum. Sternum, lip and 



1901.] AUSTEAIilAN SPIDEES. 255 

masillse, legs and palpi a bright golden yellow, with dark brown 
hairs and bristles. The abdomen has a black ground on the upper 
side, with a double longitudinal row of large yellow spots joined 
anteriorly and reaching to the spinnerets ; beyond these on the 
side slopes smaller irregular yellow spots ; underneath a yellow 
ground with a few black mottlings. 

The eye-space is black, twice as wide as long. The front middle 
eyes are green, the remainder yellow. 

The front row of eyes is clearly procurved. On a common pro- 
tuberance of their own the median are 1^ diameter apart but only 
one half their diameter from the laterals, whose long diameter is 
1 1 times that of the median. The rear row is slightly recurved, its 
laterals the same siiie as the front laterals, are half their diameter 
away. The rear middle eyes are smaller than the laterals, and touch 
them with their upper corner. 

The falx-sheath has 7 large teeth on inner margin and 2 small 
off the row to the outside. 

The patella and tibia of all legs have two bare long streaks with 
an intervening row of hairs. 

The superior spinnerets have the 3rd joint but shghtly longer 
than the 2nd, both being shorter than the 1st. 

In other respects this agrees with the foregoing {A. grisea). 
It differs from A. pallida L. Koch in coloration of abdomen, 
and in the front middle eyes being 1| diameter instead of only 
g diameter apart. 

Measurements in millimetres. 

Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax . . 6 4|- 

Abdomen 6 3|- 

Superior spinnerets 3^ 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. 21 5i 51- 4 =17^ 

2. 21 41 41 3i = 15 

3. 2 4 3 3 = 12 

4. 21 51 6 6 = 19| 
Palpi 2 3 21 11 = 9 

Two females from Macedon, Victoria. 

Aname pellucida, n. sp. (Text-fig. 32, p. 256.) 

Cephalothorax, legs, and mandibles rather bright pale yellow; hairs 
brownish grey. Cephalic part not so much raised up as in A. grisea. 
Abdomen black above, with yellow side-streaks 5 in number. (The 
other parts are pale cream-colour, probably from recent moulting.) 

The eyes are all pale yellow. The front median, each on a round 
■black tubercle, are 2 diameters apart. The front side-eyes are 
longer than the rear side Ig of their diameter. The long diameter 
of the rear middle eyes is the same as that of their laterals, from 
which they are just clearly separated. The front middle are the 



256 



ME. H. R. HOGG ON 



[June 4, 



same distance (their diameter) from the rear middle and the front 
side. The centres of the front row are in a straight line, those of 
the rear row recurved. 

Text-fiff. 32. 




Aname peUucida. Eyes. 



Measurements in millimetres. 

Long. Bi'oad. 
Cephalothorax . . 8^ 6i 

Abdomen 9 5^ 

Mandibles 3 

Superior spinnerets 2^, 1, 1^ = 4|. 

Pat. & Metat. 
Coxa. Tr. &fem. tib. &tars. 

Legs 1. 4 7 71 6i = 25 

2. 31 61 7 6 = 23 

3. 3 51 5^ 6| = 201 

4. 31 7 8 8 = 26| 
Palpi 31 51 5 3 = 17 

In other points the same as the foregoing (A. arborea). 

Besides its much greater size, this differs from A. pallida L. 
Koch in the greater distance and colour of its front middle eyes, 
the equality in size of its middle and side eyes of rear row, the 
straighter front row ; the 1st and 4th pairs of legs being more 
nearly equal in length. 

One female from Macedon. 



Genus Beachtthele Auss. 

This genus should have the front row of eyes straight. Thoracic 
fovea straight. Front tibia of male furnished with an apical spur. 
Tarsus and metatarsus of front two pairs fully scopulated. 

Type, B. icterica C. Koch. 

On comparing the Australian with some S.- American specimens 
of BracJiythelece recently to baud, they certainly agree in many 
points. In eyes, spines of lip, shape of maxillae and sternum, 
and type of superior mammillae they agree. In the Australian the 
cephalic part is leather more raised up and the fovea deeper ; the 
inferior mammillae are nearer together. In the S, -American all the 
tarsi are scopulated instead of only the front two pairs, and are 
more flexuous instead of straight and firm. 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 257 

The generic differences of Aname Koch and loaamatus Sim. 
are very slight, and they might well be combined, though they 
can be clearly distinguished from Brachythele Auss., and Hapalo- 
tJiele Lenz. 



Brachttkble platipus Auss. 

Brachythele platipus Auss. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1875, 
p. 159. 

Described by Ausserer from a cephalothorax only, from Herr 
L. Koch's collection and marked New Holland, without further 
description. 

The length of cephalothorax is 7*5 mm. = tibia + patella iv., as 
in all the species of Aname L. Koch. Breadth of cephalothorax 
5'8 mm. 

The front middle eyes are somewhat more than their diameter 
apart ; and the hair-covering of the cephalothorax is dingy yellow- 
brown. 

The description is inadequate to show in what it differs from 
the species of Aname above described, to which genus it probably 
belongs; but I leave it as given until proof can be shown, from more 
material, of the genus to which it should really be attached. 

Grenus Ixamatus Simon. 

Lvalus L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, p. 469 {nom.prceocc). 

Hapalothele H. Lenz, Zool. Jahrb. 1886, Band i. pp. 396-7. 

Ixamatus E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. 1887, Bull. (note). 

Hapalothele Lenz, E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. 
p. 180. 

Type, /. varius L. Koch. 

M. Simon gave the above name to Herr Koch's genus Ixalus, 
which name had been used before, for a group of mammals. He 
subsequently, however, referred it to Lenz's Hapalothele, type 
H. reuteri, from the island of Nossi-be off N.W. coast of 
Madagascar. 

In Lenz's genus the male has an apical spur on tibia i., 
which is not the case in either of the species below, which 
follow exactly Ixamatus Simon. Further, the front row of eyes 
is straight or recurved, instead of procurved as in Ixamatus, and 
its members have no scopula, instead of having tarsi i. & ii. thickly 
scopulated ; moreover the tarsal claws have only one row of 
pectinations apparently crossing them, as in the Macrothelece and 
Atracece groups, whilst in the Australian species of Ixamatus they 
are strongly biseriated. 

The superior spinnerets are slender, the last joint tapering and 
longer than either of the others. 

The thoracic fovea is straight, and the metatarsi are not 
scopulated on any of the legs. 

Prog. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XVII. 17 



258 ME. H. E. HOGG ON [June 4, 

The species may be distinguished as follows : — 

The front row of eyes about equally large ... 1. 

Side-eyes of front row nearly twice the diameter of 
middle 2. 

1. Front row clearly procurved. Palpal stigma in male 

twisted and dilated at apex 7. gregorii, n. sp. 

— Front row straight. Palpal stigma in male tapering 
to a point and about the length of the bulb {sec. 
L. Koch) I.varmsJj.'KoGh.. 

2. Palpal stigma in male very long and attenuated 

(twice the length of bulb) I, broomi, n. sp. 

IxAMATUS VARIUS L. Koch. 

Ixamatus varius L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. (1873) p. 469. 

Described from a male from Bo wen, Queensland : the species is 
unknown to me. 

According to L. Koch, the legs are much shorter in proportion to 
the cephalothorax and abdomen than either of the other two species 
described below ; his measurements being : ceph. 7 mm., abd. 8, 
palpi 10 ; legs 16, 15, 13, and 18 mm. respectively. 

Ixamatus geegoeii, n. sp. (Text-fig. 33, p. 259.) 

The cephalothorax and mandibles are dark yellowish brown, 
with down-lying yellow hair and a belt of upstanding brown 
bristles round the margin of the former and on the front of the 
latter. A straight deep fovea and bare side-streaks separate the 
long and rather narrow cephalic part from the thoracic. 

The legs and palpi are the same, yellowish brown shaded in 
places with darker brown ; the tibiae and metatarsi wholly dark 
brown. They are thickly covered with a mixture of long yellow, 
grey, and brown bristly hairs. The tarsi of the front two pairs 
have pale yeJlow, almost white scopulae which extend half-way up 
the corresponding metatarsi. 

The lip, maxillae, sternum, and coxae are yellow shaded with 
brown, and furnished with upstanding bristly brown hair, paler on 
the coxae. 

The abdomen above is dark grey mottled with large yellow spots; 
below yellow, with smaller black mottlings. 

The superior spinnerets are pale yellow above, greyer under- 
neath, with yellowish-grey hairs. 

This differs from /. broomi in having the front and rear side- 
eyes equal in diameter to the front middle, which are half their 
diameter apart ; in having the last joint of the superior spinnerets 
equal in length to the second and shorter than the first. The 
legs much more bristly; the thoracic fovea straighter; a few 
spines on the front of the lip ; the style of the male palp short and 
curling, the length only of the bulb. 

The tarsi also are weak and sinuous, the front two metatarsi 
partially scopulated, and on the anterior side of patella iii. are 
three short stout spines as in Aname grisea described above (p. 253), 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 

Text-fig. 33. 



259 




Ixamatus gregorii. a. Male palp. b. Eyes. 



Measurements in millimetres. 








Long. Eroad. 








Cephalothorax .... 4^ 3| 








Abdomen 4^ 3 








Superior spinnerets I5, 1, 1 = 8|. 








Pat. & 


Metat. 






Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. 


& tars. 






Legs 1. 2^ 41 5 


H 


^ 


17 


2. 2 41 4| 


5 


r= 


16| 


3. If 3| 3| 


^ 


= 


13| 


4. 2 41 5 


6 


= 


I7i 


Palpi If 21 41 


1 


= 


9| 



This specimen (a male) from Macedon, Victoria, I have named 
after my friend Prof. Gregory, of Melbourne University. 

17* 



260 



MR. H. R. HOea ON 



[June 4, 



IxAMATUS BROOMi, n. sp. (Text-fig. 34.) 

The cephalothorax is dull reddish brown ; the mandibles, which 
are paler and more yellow-brown, have a bare streak along the 
outer edge and long brown bristles over the remainder. The 
legs and palpi are reddish brown above, deep yellow underneath, 
with brown hair, bristles and spines. The lip, maxillae, sternum, 
and coxse are bright golden yellow. 

Text-fig. 34. 




Ixamatus broomi. 



a. Male palp. , . . 

c. Eyes, 



I. Tibial joint of first pair of legs. 

'es. 



On the underside of the abdomen the chitinous shield forward 
of the breathing-slits is bright golden yellow, the gill-coverings 
and the spinnerets are the same colour, behind the breathing- 
slits pale yellow mottled with black. Along the back is a dark 
median stripe, on each side of M'hich large yellow spots are 
irregularly distributed on a black ground. 

The cephalothorax is a short oval, the cephalic part only slightly 
higher than the thoracic. The fovea is rather long and deep, and 
clearly recurved. 

The front row of eyes, seen from the front, is slightly procurved; 
the median pair half their diameter apart, and rather less from the 
laterals, of m hich the long diameter is once and a half that of the 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 261 

median. The rear row is recurved. The laterals in length equal 
the diameters o£ the front middle eyes. They are clearly separated 
from the still smaller rear middle eyes. 

The whole eye-space is well raised up, the eyes yellow on a 
black ground. 

The sternum is ovate, rather convex, covered with short stiff 
bristles ; the sigillse are nearly marginal and moderately large. 

The lip is without spines, broader than long, rather straight at 
the sides and hollowed in front. The maxillae are only slightly 
hollowed round the lip, with a bunch of quite small spines above 
that portion. 

The falx- sheath has one row of 7 medium-sized teeth and no 
intermediate. 

The legs and palpi are rather long and slight, thickly clothed 
with stout upstanding bristly hair ; the tibiae and metatarsi well 
bespined, the front two pairs of tarsi have a light scopula which 
does not extend along the metatarsi. 

The tarsal claws are large and have 7 or 8 pectinations on the 
inner edge, one less on the outer. 

On the underside of tibia i. of the male are 10 irregularly 
placed spines, but no spur. 

The thin, finely curved style of the male palp is 21 times tlie 
length of the genital bulb. 

The abdomen is oval, sparsely covered with fine upstanding 
bristles on round roots. The inferior mammillae are two diameters 
apart. The superior pair have the third joint cylindrical and 
longest, the second shortest. 

Measurements in millimetres. 

Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax .... 6 5 

Abdomen 4^ 4 

Superior spinnerets 1, f , 1^ = 3. 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. 3 6 51 6-| = 21 

2. 21 51 5" 51 = 18-1 

3. 2 5 4 5 = 16 

4. 21 6 5| 7 = 21 
Palpi 21 4 4 1 = 11^ 

A single male in the British Museum, sent by Dr. Broom from 
Hill G-rove, New South Wales. I have named the species after 
that industrious collector. 

Chbnistonia, nov. gen. 

Differs from Aname L. Koch in that tibia i. of the male is 
furnished with a powerful single spur springing from an enlarge- 
ment in the centre of the joint. The front row of eyes is slightly 



262 



ME. H. R. HOGG OIT 



[June 4, 



procurved, the side-eyes being larger than the middle. The front 
and rear side-eyes are distinctly separated. The thoracic fovea is 
straight. 

Type, C. maculata, n. sp. 

Chenistonia maculata, n. sp. (Text-fig. 35.) 

Cephalothorax and mandibles rich red-brown. Palpi and legs 
somewhat paler, with fine down-lying yellow hair and brown 
upstanding bristles. Coxse, sternum, lip, and maxillse deep orange, 
with upstanding brown bristly hair. 

Abdomen, above, black ground with transverse rows of medium- 
sized yellow spots, rather thick short yellow hair ; on the under- 

Text-fig. 35. 




Chenistonia mccculata. a. Tibial and metatarsal joints of first pair 
oi legs of male. b. End of palp. c. Eyes. 

side a yellow chitinous shield in front, behind it black and yellow 

motthngs witn brown hair. Spinnerets yellowish with yellow hair. 

Ihe cephalothorax is oblong, only slightly narrower in front 

thlX'thoracT' °^^^ straight; cephahc part not much higher 

Front row of eyes slightly procurved, median pair their diameter 
apart ; laterals li diameter of former, i diameter distant. Eear 



1901.] ATJSTRALIAIf Si^IDBRS. 263 

row recurved, laterals, the diameters of, or very slightly longer 
than front middle, rear middle nearly as large. Front and rear 
laterals clearly separated. 

Sternum nearly round, convex, furnished with upstanding 
bristles ; sigillae rather round, marginal, and moderate in size. 

Lip small, only slightly broader than long, hollowed in front ; 
no spines. Maxillse straight in front, round at heel, thence 
hollowed round lip, the whole base covered with thick club-shaped 
spines. 

The falx-sheath has 8 large teeth on the inner side and 5 small 
intermediate at the lower end. 

The male has a powerful lateral spur springing from an enlarge- 
ment in the middle of tibia i., but none at the apex. 

The genital bulb is a long pear-shape, with a short stylus not 
more than one-fourth of its length. The bulb springs from the 
end of a specially long metatarsal joint of the palp. 

Measurements in millimetres. 

Female. 
Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax .... 6 4i 

Abdomen 7 4 

Superior spinnerets Ij, 1, 11= 3|. 

Pat. & Metat. 
Coxa. Tr. &fem. tib. &tars. 
Legs 1. 2,i 41 5 4 = 15| 

2. 2 4 4 H = 13| 

3. I4 ^2 % ^2 — ^^4" 

4. 2i 41 5 5 = 16| 
Palpi 1| 31 3^ If = 101 

Male. 
Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax .... 6 4| 

Abdomen 6 d^ 

Superior spinnerets 1^, 1, 1^=4. 

Pat. & Metat. 
Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 
Legs 1. 21 51 61 51 = 20 

2. 21 41 5 5 = 161 

3. 2 41 4^ 5 = 15| 

4. 21 51 5f 6| = 20^ 
Palpi 2 41 41 11 = 12|- 

Locality. Macedon, Victoria. 

Chenistonia major, n. sp. (Text-fig. 36.) 

Besides its much larger size, though similar in colouring, this 
differs from 0. maculata in the pattern of the upper part of the 
abdomen having a black median stripe with about 5 pairs of mottly 
diagonal side stripes on a buS ground ; underneath all yellow. 



264 



ME. H. n. HO&G ON 



[June 4, 



The front middle eyes are nearer together, | diameter apart, 
and the front side only slightly larger, about 1| diameter. The 
rear side are the same diameter as the front middle, the rear 
middle broad and truncate at the top. 

Text-fig. 36. 




Chenistonia major. Eyes 

The mandibles are much more heavily clothed with hair and 
bristles. 

The superior maxillsB are shorter in comparison, stout and 
tapering and darker in colour. 

Also tarsi are scopulated and a portion of metatarsi i. & ii. 

Lip rather round, with 3 or 4 spines in one row in front. 

Measurements in millimetres. 
Long. Broad. 

Cephalothorax .... 11 8 

Abdomen 14 10 

Mandibles ^ 

Superior spinnerets 2, 1^, 2=5|. 

Pat. & Metat. 
Gosa. Tr. & fern. tib. &tars. 
Legs ...... 1. 5 9 9 8 =31 

2. 4 8i 8i 8 = 29 

3. 3| 7 7 7i = 25 

4. 4 ^ ^ ^ = 321 

Palpi 4 61 6 3 = 19^ 

Among a good many females I have not found a male. 
Another female : — 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax .... 11 9 

Abdomen 17 11 

Superior spinnerets 2\, 1\, l|=5i. Sternum 5| x4. 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs ...... 1. 5 10 10 9 =34 

2. ^ 9 10 8| = 32 

3. 4 8 8 9 = 29 

4. ^ 9i 10| 10| = 35 
Palpi 4 7 7 4 = 22 

Locality. Upper Macedon, Victoria. 



1901.] AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 265 



Group Macrothele^. 

This group is very clearly distinguished from the foregoing by 
the greater length of the superior mammillse, which are not much, if 
any, shorter than the cephalothorax, by the distance between the 
inferior mammillae, which are some four diameters at least apart ; 
the tarsi and metatarsi of all the legs being without scopulae, and 
the tarsal claws having the pectinations in a single row only, 
crossing the claw diagonally from one side to the other. They 
resemble one another in the sternal sigillse, which are of moderate 
size and marginal, and in having the teeth on the falx-sheath in 
one row only on the inner side, or one row and a small inter- 
mediate at the lower end. 

The genera may be distinguished as follo-^s : — 

1. Mandibles protruding horizontally and normal... 2. 
Mandibles short, strongly kneed at base and 

nearly perpendicular (as in Migas L. Koch, 

sec. Thor.) Cethegus Thor. 

2. Front row of eyes procurved. Lip smooth or 

only bespined at apex ; all tarsi generally be- 
spined ; all legs the same thickness ; last joint 
of spinnerets not longer than the middle, but 

finer, smooth and straight Stenygrocercus B. Sim. 

Front row of eyes straight or lightly procurved. 
Lip profusely bespined nearly to base; last 
joint of spinnerets as long as, or longer than 
second 3. 

3. No spines on tarsi. Front pair of legs stouter 

than others Porrhothele Sim. 

All tarsi bespined. First and fourth pairs of legs 
the same thickness Macrothele Auss. 



Grenus Cethegus Thorell. 

Cethegus Thorell, Ann. Mus. G-enova, 1881, p. 241. 

This genus, formed for a specimen brought from Cape York by 
d'Albertis, I only connect provisionally with this group. It is 
unknown to me ; and although {sec. Thor.) it has very long 
spinnerets, the form of the mandibles would seem to make it 
doubtful whether it should not rather be joined to the Migince. 

Cethegus lugubris Thor., he. cit. 

Grenus Porrhothele Simon. 

Mygale Walck. Ins. Apt. vol. i. 1837 (ad part, antipodiana). 
Oteniza White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 3 (ad part, hexops and 
mitipodurii). 

Hexops Auss. 1871 (ad part, tvhitei). 
Macrothele Cambr. 1873 (ad part, huttoni). 



MR. H. E. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Macroihele Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1891, p. 307 (ad part. 
insignipes). 

Porrhothele Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. (1892) p. 185. 

Type, P. antipodiana Walck. 

This is evidently the New Zealand form o£ the genus Macrothele 
Auss. ; but the only real difference between the two is that, whereas 
in the latter {sec. Auss.) the tarsi are all bespined, in the corre- 
sponding species of New Zealand they are without spines and 
the front pair of legs is somewhat stouter than the others. 

M. Simon makes the lip in Macroihele only bespined at the apes, 
but in comparing the type species M. calpetana Walck. with the 
New Zealand specimens, I find no difference in this respect, the 
lip of both being profusely bespined to nearly the base. The 
front row of eyes in Porrhothele is straight or slightly procurved 
according to the point of view. 

M. Simon says {loc. cii. & Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. 1891, p. 307) that 
in P. antipodiana the eyes of the front row are slightly recurved. 
He has seen the type specimen, while I have not ; but I would point 
out that Baron Walckenaer, though he is not quite clear in his 
original description, rather suggests the contrary i, that no speci- 
men has been since described with the row in question recurved, 
and the type specimen, I think a dried one, is between 60 and 
70 years old, under which circumstances examination is difficult 
and likely to be deceptive through shrinkage. 

Amongst some Spiders sent me by Prof. Dendy from Canterbury, 
N.Z., unfortunately all females, there are two distinguishable 
species of this genus, and I have little doubt that this includes all 
therefrom. It has not so far been met with on the mainland 
of Australia, but Mr. Urquhart has described a species from 
Tasmania {M. acideata, Proc. E,. Soc. Tasm. 1893, p. 94), so it 
is not unlikely that it may be found somewhere on the mainland. 

I distinguish the species as follows : — 

Front middle eyes not quite their diameter apart ; 
thoracic fovea deep and round. Oephalothorax 
bright orange or light red, with dark median 
stripe from eyes to fovea ; mandibles black- 
brown P. antipodiana Walck. 

Front middle eyes their full diameter apart (at least 
in female) ; thoracic fovea long and transversely 
straight. Oephalothorax and mandibles rich 
chocolate-brown P. simoni, n. sp. 

POBEHOTHELE ANTIPODIANA Walck. 

Mygale antipodiana Walck. Hist. Nat. des Ins. Apt. vol. i. 
(1837) p. 230. 

Mygale quoyi Lucas, in d'Orbigny, Diet. d'Hist. nat. vol. viii. 
p. 503. 

Cteniza hexops White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 3. 

1 " Les yeux intermediaires anterieurs .... sont sur la meme ligne que les 
laberaux exterieurs." 



1901.] AUSTEALIAN SPIDERS. 26.7 

Gteniza antvpodum "White, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 3. 

Hexops tvhitei Auss. Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 155. 

Macrothele huttonii Cambr. Trans. & Proc. JST. Z. Inst. vol. vi. 
(1873) p. 200. 

Macrothele huttonii Cambr., A. T. Urquhart, ibid. vol. xxiv. 
(1891) p. 221. 

Macrothele insignipes Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1891, p. 308. 

Macrothele (or Hexops) Auss., R. I. Pocock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. ser. 6, vol. xvi. (1895) p. 224. 

Porrhothele antipodiana Walck., E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. Araign. 
vol. i. (1892) p. 185. 

This species was originally described by Baron "Walckenaer in 
1837, from a specimen collected in New Zealand and brought to 
Paris by Messrs. Quoy & Gaimard. It would appear to be fairly 
common in New Zealand, and has certainly been the subject of 
several descriptions since, but some so vaguely drawn as to leave 
the cbaraeteristics of their types a matter of considerable doubt. 

Tbe 'Erebus' and 'Terror' Expedition brought bome several 
specimens in 1847, in various stages of growth, from which 
Mr. Adam White described two species under the names of Gteniza 
antipodum and Gteniza hexops respectively. 

Fortunately the types of these (two each) are preserved in the 
British Museum, and Mr. Pocock (loc. cit.) has shown that they 
are both the same. They are certainly also the same as two larger 
specimens of mine (from Canterbury as aforesaid, p. 266). 

Baron Walckenaer's original description of his type specimen 
of antipodiana further agrees with these. (One of the names 
chosen by Mr. White rather suggests that he had himself a 
suspicion that he might be dealing with this species.) 

M. Simon says that his Macrothele insignipes differs from 
M. antipodiana, but the only difference he quotes is the differ- 
ence in size, which goes for very little in the females ; and also 
he says that the front row of eyes of antipodiana is recurved, 
which I think, from reasons given above, must be taken as 
doubtful. His very careful description applies word for word to 
my specimens. 

Mr. Cambridge's description of his P. huttoni has no points 
which disagree with these or by which a different species can be 
established. 

I therefore conclude that, at least until some difference is shown 
between the males, the whole of these species with pale red or 
orange cephalothorax are really the same, and, moreover, the same 
as Walckenaer's type-specimen of antipodiana. 

The unusuaDy bright colour of the cephalothorax, with darker area 
about the eye-space, dark line from eye-space to the thoracic fovea, 
which is deep and round ; front middle eyes as large as side-eyes 
and less than their diameter apart ; black-brown mandibles ; black 
or dark abdomen, with large round bronchial opercula yellow at 



71 


in 


31 


7* 


= 


31 


8 


^ 


29 


H 


= 


321 



268 MB. H. B. HO&G ON [ June 4, 

the margins and brown inside, are features common to all the 
descriptions. The measurements of the largest specimen I have 
are as follows (in millimetres) : — 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax .... 12 10 

Abdomen 13^ 11 

Superior spinnerets 10| 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. 5 91 9 

2. 5 91 9 

3. 4 81 81 

4. 41 91 9 
Palpi 41 61 5 4 = 20 

.The superior tarsal claws have about 7 pectinations (in one row 
crossing the claw). 

Tibia iv. above has 1 pair of spines in front, 2 pairs in middle 
close together, and 1 spine on outer side between. 

Metatarsus i. has 1 pair of spines in front and 1 spine in middle 
of underside. 

On the inner margin of the falx-sheath are about 11 irregularly 
sized teeth, with 8 smaller in a row at the lower end intermediate 
between the two edges. 

As is well known, Mr. White, after his description of Cteniza 
heccops, mentions (casually in a postscript) that it has only six eyes, 
on which statement Herr Ausserer constituted a new genus. 
Hence arose the discussion (Pocock, loc. cit.) as to whether, on the 
discovery that the supposed type specimen had eight eyes, the 
generic name Hexops Auss. should or should not stand in place of 
the later named genera. 

The eyes of this species are so particularly large and distinct, 
that it is difficult to believe that anyone looking at it sufficiently 
closely to describe a new species could possibly have made such a 
mistake as that attributed to Mr. White. 

I happen to have a specimen (of P. simoni, n. sp.) with one side- 
eye missing from the front row, without the faintest mark of its 
ever having been there, and have had similar experience in other 
genera. Now if Mr. White's specimen had similarly lost two 
corresponding eyes, he may well have made the observation he did ; 
and afterwards substituted for the type dupUcate specimens, instead 
of the one he had pulled about and perhaps broken. In that case 
the type specimen of Ausserer's genus would simply have been un- 
wittingly destroyed, and when a similar one reappears the genus, 
out of respect to its founder, can come back into our lists. Apart 
from this there must surely be an implied authority to rectify any 
obvious mistake, as when a name intended to be descriptive through 
an error (or carelessness) becomes misdescriptive. 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



269 



PoRRHOTHELE siMONi, n. sp. (Text-fig. 37.) 

Mandibles black. Cephalothorax and sternum rich shining dark 
brown. Coxae, lip, and maxillae rather lighter brown. Legs and 
palpi medium reddish brown, with brown hairs, bristles, and spines. 
Abdomen dull black -brown, with small yellow spots here and there 
and rather rough corrugations ; hair yellow-brown. Gill-covers 
brown, edged with yellow. Spinnerets dark brown. The cephalic 
part is only moderately raised ; fovea deep and straight or slightly 
procurved. 

The front row of eyes is slightly procurved, the median pair 
their diameter apart. Laterals scarcely, if any, larger, and half 
that distance away. The rear row is recurved, the laterals the 
same size as the front and three-quarters of the diameter away. 
The rear median are two-thirds the diameter of the others, rather 
square, half as far from the rear side as the front middle. 

The falx-sheath has 10 large and 2 small (1st and 6th) teeth 
on its inner margin, with a median row of 8 small teeth at the 
lower end. 

Text-fig. 37. 




Po7'rhothele simoni. a. Eyes. b. Profile. 

The sternum is a broad oval, flat, with thin upstanding brown hair. 
The sternal sigillse are moderately large and quite marginal. 

The lip is rather square, straight in front, and very convex. It 
is profusely covered with club-shaped spines from front nearly to 
base. The maxillae are broad, with a protuberant inner front corner, 
a thick group of club-shaped spines reaches to two-thirds the 
length. 

The superior tarsal claws are large, with one row of 11 pectina- 
tions, longest in the middle, running diagonally across the claws. 
The inferior tarsal claw is smooth. The female palp-claw has 
six pectinations. The inferior spinnerets are long, and about four 
of their diameters apart. The superior pair have the first and third 
joints equal and longer than the second. 

The abdomen is oval, high, and rounded at the sides. 



270 MR. H. R. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Measurements in millimetres. 
Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax .... 11^ 7 in front, 

10 in middle. 

Abdomen 14 11 

Sternum 5 4| 

Superior spinnerets 3|, 2^, 3|=8|. 

Pat. & Metat. 

Coxa. Tr. & fern. tib. & tars. 

Legs 1. 5 9 9 8 = 31 

2. 5 9 9 8 = 31 

3. 4 8 8 9 = 29 

4. 4 9A 10 10 = 331 
Palpi ........ 4 61 51 3i = 19i 

Two females from Christchurch, N.Z. 

Genus Stenygeooeecus E. Simon. 

Macrothele E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. 1888, p. 245 (ad part. 
silvicola). 

Stenygrocerms E. Simon, Hist. Nat. des Araign. vol. i. (1892) 
p. 185. 

Type, S. silvicola Simon. 

M. Simon has constituted the genus Stenygrocercus, with a 
New Caledonian species as type, in which the lip is rather 
square, both that and the maxillse free from spines. The superior 
mammillse have the first and second joints of about equal length, 
the last joint being not longer than middle, and the whole slim, the 
first two joints about four times as long as wide. In many cases, 
if not always, the second joint of the superior mammillae all through 
this family is certainly retractile, and its comparative length there- 
fore difficult to estabHsh unless fully extended. Apart from this, 
however, the great diff'erence between the unbespined lip and maxillae 
in this genus, and the profuse bespining of both in the two genera 
Macrotliele and PorrJiotJiele, is a good generic characteristic. There 
is no obvious thickening of the first pair of legs as in PorrJiothele. 

The front middle eyes are much smaller than the side, thus 
greatly differing from those of Porrliotliele. 

Stentgeoceecits beoomi, n. sp. (Text-fig. 38, p. 271.) 

Cephalothorax, mandibles, sternum, and coxae deep chocolate- 
brown ; eye-space and mandibular fangs black. Legs and palpi, 
lip and maxillse rather lighter, edges of the latter paler and ruddier. 
Eront median eyes greenish, remainder bright yellow. Hairs on 
cephalothorax yellowish, on legs, palpi, and sternum dark brown. 
Abdomen dark grey ground, with small paler yellow-brown pit- 
marks over the upper surface. 

The cephalothorax is Ij mm. longer than broad, only slightly 
narrowing in front and rear. A deep round fovea and four well.- 
marked depressions on either side. 



1901,] AUSTEAMAN SPIDEES. 271 

The raised eye-space twice as long as broad and half its breadth 
from the edge of the carapace. The front row of eyes is procurved. 
Laterals 2| times the diameter of the median, the latter one diar 
meter apart, and the same distance from the lowest point of the 
side-eyes. The side-eyes of rear row are smaller than front laterals, 
^ their diameter away. Eear median 1^ diameter of front median, 
their apex is close up to the side-eyes. 

The mandibles set rather divergently, are the length of the front 
patellae, and are furnished with long stout bristles on the lower 
half. Palx-teeth about 8 of irregular size on inner margin, 
with a few small in an intermediate row at lower end of falx- 
sheath. 

The sternum, a broad oval, and the coxae are covered with long 
stout upstanding bristles each springing from a raised round radical. 
The anterior sigillse are very large and situated in a broad shallow 

Text-fig. 38. 




O O 




Steny grocer cus broomi. a. Eyes. b. Profile. 

depression behind the hp, which is widest at base, slightly wider 
than long and narrowing to a straight front edge. This is alto- 
gether without spines, as are also the maxillse, which are square with 
a small rounded protuberance at front inner corner. 

The metatarsi and tarsi are all bespined, the latter rather weakly ; 
two small pairs underneath only on the front two pairs. 6 or 7 
pectinations in a single row cross the superior tarsal claws. 5 or 6 
short teeth on the female palp-claw. 

The abdomen is oval, rounded at the sides. It has a little 
light-coloured down-lying hair and long spinous bristles with 
bases. 

The anterior mammillae are well developed, more than four times 
their width apart. The superior pair are about as long as the 
cephalothorax, the last joint tapering, the others cylindrical. 

Two females were sent to the British Museum by Dr. Broom 
from HiU G-rove, N.S.W. 



272 MB. H. E. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Measurements in millimetres. 



Cephalothorax .... 
Abdomen 


Long. 

11 


Broad. 

7 
8 








Mandibles 


3 










Superior mammillae 4, 


3, 2i = 


= 91. 


Pat. & 


Metat. & 






Coxae. 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


tars. 




Legs 1. 


3i 


H 


6i 


6 = 


22i 


2. 
3. 

Or 4, 3, 2, 1. 4. 


^ 

3i 




6i 
H 

8* 


6 = 

n = 


22A 

24 

29 


Palpi 


3 


H 


5* 


3 = 


17 



Grroup Ateaoe^. 

The two genera Atrcix Cambr. and Hadronyche L. Koch, which I 
have detached to this group, differ considerably from either of the 
two previous genera. 

The sternal sigillse are large and removed from the margin, and 
the teeth on the falx-sheath are in two rows on interior and exterior 
margins, with an intermediate row of small ones at the lower end. 

The superior spinnerets are short and the inferior even closer 
together than in Brachythele ; while the tarsal claws are pectinated 
in one row across the claw as in Macrothele, and the lip very thickly 
bespined. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

Last joint of superior spinnerets longer than second, cylin- 
drical and smooth Atr ax Camhr. 

Last joint of superior spinnerets short and conical HaclronycheJj. Koch. 

Grenus Ateax Cambr. 

Atrax Rev. O. P. Cambridge, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. xix. (1877) p. 26 ; E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Pr. 1891, p. 302 ; 
id. Hist. Nat. d. Araign. vol. i. (1892) p. 186. 

Type, A. rohustus Cambr. 

Synopsis of Species. 

Front middle eyes more than their diameter apart, and 

distinctly less in their diameter than side-eyes of 

same row ; patellre of two rear pairs furnished with 

one or two spines ; all four pairs of tibiae bespined. . . A. rohustus Oarabr. 
Front middle eyes less than their diameter apart, and 

about the same in diameter as the front side- eyes ; 

patellae of third pair furnished with numerous 

spines, fourth pair none ; and the front four tibi^ 

without any , A. modesta Simon. 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



273 



Ateas eobusttjs Cambr. (Text-fig. 39.) 

Atrax robustus Cambr. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xix. 
1877, p. 26, pi. vi. fig. 1 ; E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Er. vol. Ix. 
1891, p. 301. 

This rather powerful-looking spicier varies in the colour of the 
cephalothorax, from a rich red-brown to a black-brown. Abdomen 
yellowish grey'to darker grey, with fine dark brown hairs. The front 
middle eyes stand on raised shiny black rims which make them look 
larger and nearer together than they really are, and these again 
are raised on a common protuberance outside of which lie the side- 
eyes and rear middle. The front row only looks in any way pro- 
curved when seen from right in front. 



Text-fiff. 39. 





Atrax robustus. a. Eyes. h. Tarsal claws. 



There are seven pectinations in a curved row across the superior 
tarsal claws, the inferior tarsal claw being smooth. 

There are 13 large teeth on the outer margin of tbe falx-sheath, 
11 on the inner, and 9 rather large in an intermediate row. 

The metatarsi and tarsi of all legs are thickly bristled and be- 
spined, but have no real scopula. There are three or four short 
spines at anterior end of tibia i. and ii., and the same with more, in 
the middle of tibia iii. and iv. 

There are female specimens from Queensland and New South 
"Wales in the British Museum, and from New South Wales in that 
of Paris, but no male recorded. 

I give the following measurements in millimetres of about the . 
largest. 

Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No. XYIII. 18 









Pat. & 


Metat. 






Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


& tars. 




1. 


7 


12 


12i 


11 = 


421 


2. 


6 


11 


11* 


10 = 


38| 


3. 


5 


10 


10 


10 = 


35 


4. 


6 


12 


111 


lU = 


41 




.. 6 


9 


8 


5' = 


28 



274 MB. H, R. HOGG ON [June 4, 

Long. Broad. 
Cephalothorax . . 15 12 

Abdomen .... 12| 11 

rSuperior spinnerets 2-1-, 1, 21=6. 



Legs 

Palpi 

Ateax modesta Simon. 

j^traa; modesta E. Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Erance, vol. Ix. 1891, 
p. 302. 

Described by M. Simon from a female in the Paris Museum from 
Melbourne. I have not seen it, but it is apparently smaller and 
darker in colour. I have given (above, p. 272) the differences 
deduced from M. Simon's description. 

Genus Hadkonyche L. Koch. 

Hadronyclie L. Koch, Die Arachn. Austr. 1873, p. 463 ; E. Simon, 
Hist. Nat. d. Araign. i. 1892, p. 186. 

This genus diifers fi-om Atrax in having the pars cephalica of the 
cephalothorax more raised up and rounder, but not so much so as 
in Eriodon. The superior mammillae are short and tapering ; the 
first joint, divided at the back but not all round, is equal in length 
to the remaining two, the second being slightly longer than the 
third. The inferior mammillae are near together, cylindrical, and 
truncate at end. The lip is square in front but not nearly so long 
as broad, unless the whole distance from the sternum is included. 

Type, H. cerherea ,L. Koch. 

Hadeontohe ceeberea L. Koch. (Text-fig. 40, p. 275.) 

Hadronyche cerherea L. Koch, loc. cit. 

Herr Koch's description is from two female specimens from 
Sydney, for which he gives measurements : — Ceph. 11 mm, long; 
abd. 14 ; legs (without coxae) 26, 24, 22, 27g mm. respectively. 

I have a fully developed male from Macedon, Victoria, a good 
deal smaller, but in which I can distinguish no specific difference 
from his description. Still of course the question is doubtful. 

'Male. Cephalothorax chocolate-brown, with paler marginal edging. 
Abdomen yellowish grey. 

Eront row of eyes straight and equal in size ; middle their 
diameter apart, half that distance from nearest point of side-eyes ; 
rear side-eyes smaller than front and rear median rather close up 
to them, smaller still. 

Lip broader than long, straight in front, round at sides and rear, 
much bespined. The maxillae have a short rounded projection at 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



275 



upper inner corner. There are 11 teeth on outer edge of falx- 
sheath, 9 larger on inner, and 5 or 6 very small in intermediate 
row at lower end. 

The superior tarsal claws have one row of pectinations with 
about 6 teeth apparently crossing the claw. The lower claw 

Text-fig. 40. 




Hadronyche cerherea. a. Eyes. b. Right, and c, left male palp. 

smooth. There are two rows of stout spines on metatarsus i. 
and ii. Scopulse and numerous spines on all four pairs of tarsi. 
Thoracic fovea deep and procurved. 

The stigma of the male palp is about as long as the bulb, the 
apex is somewhat flattened but not dilated : the bulb is divided by 
a deep long fovea underneath, but round and undivided above ; 
metatarsal joint short. 

18* 



276 MB. H. E. HOGG ON [ Juiie 4 

Measurements in millimetres. 



Long. 
Cephalothorax 6g 
Abdomen . . 6 


Broad. 
5 
4 








Superior spinnerets 2 mm. 




Pat. & 


Metat. & 




Coxa. 


Tr. & fern. 


tib. 


tars. 




Legs ...... 1. 2^ 


6 


6 


6 = 


20| 


2. 2| 

3. 2| 


5 


5^ 
5 


5 = 


18| 

in 


4. 2^ 
Palpi 2 


61 
3" 


3^ 


7 = 
1 = 


221 
9 



Group Hexathele^. 

Genus Hexathele Auss. 

HexatJiele Aus.serer, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 171 ; 
L. Koch, Arachn. Austr. 1873, p. 459 ; E. Simon, Hist. Nat. d. 
Araign. i. 1892, p. 188. 

The genus {sec. Auss.) hardly differs from Macrothele except 
in the addition of two small spinnerets to the usual group 
of four, but with no scopulae on tarsal joint or spines on front 
two pairs. The known species, of which two only have been 
described, are confined to N. Zealand, 

Type, H. Jwchstetteri Auss. 

Hexathele hochstetteei Auss. (Text-fig. 41, p. 277.) 

HexatJiele JiocJistetteri Auss. loc. cit. p. 172 ; L. Koch, loc. cit. 

Since the above was written, two specimens, a male and a female, 
have fortunately arrived at the British Museum. They were 
collected from Pahiatua, Wellington, N.Z., and forwarded by 
Capt. Hutton. They are larger than the specimens previously 
described by Ausserer and L. Koch, in both cases females, but 
fairly well conform to the descriptions of IT. Tiochstetteri Auss. 
I am therefore able to give the following particulars of this 
previously imperfectly known species. 

Cephalothorax and legs bright reddish brown ; mandibles dark 
red-brown. 

Abdomen dark grey-broAvn above, dark but rather yellower below, 
no pattern distinguishable. 

Pront middle eyes half their diameter apart. Pront and rear 
side-eyes of equal size, their long diameter 1| of front middle 
and I of same apart. The long diameter of the rear middle eyes 
equal to that of the front middle. 

Thoracic fovea straight and deep. 

Sternum ovate, broadest posteriorly ; sigillaB moderate in size 
and nearly marginal. 



1901.] 



AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



277 



Numerous rather large club-sliaped spines on both hp and 
maxillge. The latter has a rounded prominence at the inner fore 
corner and a pronounced heel at the lower outer. 

On the inner margin of falx-sheath is a row of about 15 teeth, 
and a thick fringe of orange-coloured hair on the outer. 

The first and third joints of the superior spinnerets are equal 
and longer than the second ; the last cylindrical, the others tapering. 
The second pair are about three diameters apart, and the small 
third pair below and outside these. 

The tarsi of the female are all without scopulse. 



Text-fig. 41. 




Hexatkele hochstetteri. a. Eyes. b. Male palp. c. Tibia and metatarsus of 
male. d. Underside of abdomen, e. Profile. 



The front two pairs of tarsi in the male have a divided scopula 
but without setae, and a small pair of spines near the anterior end ; 
only the posterior two pairs have a double row of setae in the 
division of the scopula and a row of spines on each side. 

One row of about 8 pectinations crosses the superior tarsal 
claws. The inferior claw is bare. 

The palpal stigma of the male is about twice the length of 
the bulb, the first half flattened but tapering into a very fine 
point. 



278 



OJSr AUSTRALIAN SPIDERS. 



[June 4, 



Measurements in inilllmetres. 
Female. 



Cephalothorax 

Abdomen 

Superior spinnerets 3, 2, 3 



Long. 
14 



Broad. 

9 

11 

8. 



Legs 



Palpi 



1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 



Ooxa. 
5 

4i 

4* 

4| 



Tr. & fern. 
9 

8A 
7" 
9 
6 



Pat. & 
tib. 

8 
7 
9 
6 



Metafc. & 
tars. 



10 
4 



= 31 

= 29 

= 26i 

= 32| 

= 20i 



Long. 
lOi 
111 



Male. 

Broad. 
9 

n 



Cephalothorax 

Abdomen . . 

Spinnerets 1st pair 3, 2, 3 = 8 ; 2nd pair 2; 3rd pair 1, 

Distance apart „ 3 ; ,, 2 ; „ 4. 



Legs 



Palpi 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 



3; 

Coxa. 
5 
4 
4 
4 
4 



Tr. & fem. 
9 

7 



Pat. & 
tib. 

H 
9 

8i 

9i 

7 



Metat. & 

tars. 

9i 

Qi 

11 

12 

2 . 



33J 

313 

32 

35 

20 



Hexathele peteeii Goyen. 

H.petreii P. Goyen, Proc. N. Z. Inst. vol. xix. (1886) p. 207. 

H. petrerii, A. T. IJrquhart, ibid, vol, xxiv. (1891) p. 221. 

Pemale found by and oamed after D. Petrie, Esq. ; locality Otago. 

Total length 20 mm. (sec. Groyen). 

Abdomen (overhanging ceph.) 12 mm. long. 

Mr. Goyen makes no mention of how his species differs from 
the type species. Except a discrepancy in the eyes I can find no 
difference in the descriptions of these two species. 

Ausserer says of the genus, " eyes as in JSfemesia," i.e. front row 
procurved, rear row recurved. Lateral eyes oval. 

Mr. Goyen says, "anterior row bent backward and the posterior 
forward." If this is meant in the German sense, his description 
tallies with. H. JwchsteUeri ; if be means recurved and procurved 
respectively, it must be something very different from the genus 
Hexathele of Dr. Ausserer. 

Note. — In a former paper (Proceedings Eoyal Society of Victoria, 
August 1900), I gave the name Hylobius to a new genus of the 
family Dictynid*. I now find that it has been previously applied 



1901.] ON OKAPIA JOHNSTONI. 279 

to a genus of Coleoptera. I therefore change it to Tawongia, after 
the locahty where the tj'pe specimens described were obtained. 

In conchasion, I cannot too gratefully express my thanks to 
Mr. E. I. Pocock, of the British Museum Natural History Depart- 
ment, for kindly advice and ready assistance always at my service, 
and in allowing me access to the Collections under his charge ; 
without which it would have been impossible fcr me to have in- 
vestigated many points of interest and doubt, some of which I 
trust I have been able to make clear. 



June 18, 1901. 
Prof. G. B. Howes, LL.D., P.E.S., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions to the 
Society's Menagerie during the month of May, 1901 : — 

The total number of registered additions to the Society's Mena- 
gerie during the month of May was 226, of which 23 were by 
presentation, 7 by birth, 16 by purchase, and 180 were received on 
deposit. The total number of departures during the same period, 
by death and removals, was 150. 

Amongst the additions attention may be called to : — 

1. Pour hybrid Macaws bred at Milan, in Italy, between a male 
Eed-and-Blue Macaw {Ara macao) and a female Military Macaw 
(Ara militaris). These birds have been deposited under our care 
by the Hon. W. Eothschild, M.P., P.Z.S. This is, so far as I 
know, the only instance on record of hybridism between two 
species of Macaw in captivity. 

2. A young male African Elephant (ElepJias africanus), pur- 
chased on May 21st. This animal was imported from Massowah, 
and is said to have been captured in the Italian colony of Eritrea. 
It is about four feet high, and is presumed to be about four years 
old. 

3. A Guilding's Amazon (Ghrysotis guildingi) from St. Vincent, 
presented by the Earl of Crawford, P.Z.S., on May 25th. This 
addition renders our series of the peculiar Amazons of the Lesser 
Antilles complete. We have now in the Parrot Plouse specimens 
of four species of these Amazons, viz., Chrysotis guildingi from 
St. Vincent, O. augusta and bouqueti from Dominica, and C. versi- 
color from St. Lucia. 

4. A male Eed-flanked Duiker {Cephcdoplms rufilatus) from 
West Africa, presented by M. Th. Leportier on May 28th. We 
have received no specimen of this Antelope since 1880. 



Two skulls and the skin of the new Mammal, the Okapi, dis- 
covered by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., P.Z.S. , which had been 
sent to the Natural History Museum, were exhibited, and the 
following remarks, by Prof. E. Eay Lankester, P.E.S., P.Z.S., were 
read : — 



280 PROP. B. RAY LAIS'KESTER ON OKAPIA JOHXSTONI. [June 18, 

The skin and two skulls of the Okapi, sent by Sir Harry 
Johnston, arrived at the Museum on June 17th. The larger of 
the two skulls is stated by Sir Harry Johnston to belong to the 
skin. It is not adult, and probably not more than two-thirds 
grown. There are traces of external male genital organs in the 
skin, which is probably, though by no means certainly, that of a 
male. The paired ungual phalanges are preserved in both fore and 
hind feet, but not the horny hoofs. My attention was immediately 
given to the skulls, the larger of which is exhibited to the Society 
this evening. It at once showed itself to be that of a Giraffine 
animal, and not that of a Bovine. The characters thus indicating 
Giraffine affinity are the almost complete absence of the angle 
between the basicranial and basifacial axes ; the great relative length 
of the postorbifcal or true cranial portion of the sku.ll ; the large 
lacrymal vacuity bounded anteriorly by the maxillary bones ; the 
swollen frontal margin of the orbit; the widely expanded and 
laterally depressed form of the hinder part of the nasal bones ; 
the brachydont molars with rugose enamel ; and the excessive 
length of the diastema between the prsemolar teeth and the 
anterior group of canine and incisor teeth in the lower jaw. 

The " Okapi " differs from the genus Giraffa not only in the 
relative shortness of the neck, the greater equality in the length 
of the limbs, and the colour- marking of the hair as shown by the 
skin, but in the absence, in both male and female, of the bony 
outgrowths of the frontal region which form the " horns " of 
Giraffa. These are represented in the Okapi by a posteriorly 
placed dome-like upgrowth of each frontal and a knob-like 
thickening in the skin. 

The Okapi cannot, in my opinion, be associated generically with 
any of the described extinct genera of hornless forms allied to 
Giraffa, such as Ilelladotlierium and Lahyiherium, though it has 
similar relations to Giraffa and is undoubtedly allied to those 
extinct forms. It dififers essentially from Helladotherium in the 
presence of a large lacrymal vacuity. This is present in Lydekker's 
Hydaspitherium; which, however, had horns. It differs also from 
Helladotherium in the form of the orbifc, which is oblong and 
depressed in that genus, whereas it is equal in height and breadth 
in the Okapi. It differs further from Helladotherium in the 
absence of the frontal bosses in the case of that genus. I have 
been able to compare the Okapi's skull with that of a Hellado- 
therium from India, preserved in the Natural History Museum, 
and with the drawings of Gaudry, the founder of the genus. 

I propose to establish the genus Olcapia for Sir Harry John- 
ston's new animal, and provisionally characterize it as foUows : — 

Ok APIA, nov. gen. 
A genus of Giraffine animals allied to the short-necked, horn- 
less, extinct forms known as Helladotherium, &c. Distinguished 
from Giraffa by its shorb neck, absence of horns, and the uniform 
reddish-brown coloration of the hair of the body, neck, and head, 



1901.] O^ THE IBEX OF ABTSSIKIA. 281 

accompanied by a striping in dark brown and white of the fore 
and hind limbs. 

Distinguished from Helladotheriimi by the presence of large 
prfe-lacrymal vacuities in the skull as in Glraffa, by the presence 
of a pair of lateral posterior dome-like prominences on the f rentals 
(representing the bony outgrowths of Glraffa), and, lastly, by the 
presence of a minute accessory tubercle on the mediad face of the 
first upper true molar, which exists sometimes in Gira-ffa but is 
absent in Hellaclotherium. 

Species. Okapia. JOHisrsTo:?^!. 

(= Equus johnstoni Sclater, P. Z. S. 1901, vol. i. p. 50.) 
The only species known, now represented by two skulls and a 
complete skin, was originally described as Equus johnstoni by 
Dr. P. L. Sclater, from two pieces of skin which it appears were 
cut from the striped region of the hind limbs. 

Sir Harry Johnston, who was himself present, gave an account 
of the facts connected with his discovery of the Okapi. 

Sir Harry also stated that during his last excursion to the north 
of Mount Elgon he had found large herds of a Giraffe in that 
country which appeared to be distinct from previously known 
forms of this mammal in having five horns, four placed in pairs 
and one anterior in the middle line. Pour examples of this 
animal were now on their way home, and would soon be here to 
settle the validity of this presumed new species. 



The Hon. "Walter Eothschild, M.P., P.Z.S., exhibited specimens 
of a mounted male and two unmounted males and a female of the 
Ibex of Abyssinia {Oapra ivalie Eiippell), and made the following 
remarks : — 

When Mr. E. Lydekker wrote his great work 'The Wild Oxen, 
Sheep, and Groats of All Lands,' in 1898, this fine species was 
only known from the type specimens in the Senckenberg Museum 
at Frankfort. Since then a few pairs of horns have been un- 
earthed, collected at various times by Herr Menges, the wild- 
beast trapper, but it has remained for Captain Powell-Cotton to 
clear up the history of Capra walie by the fine series he has 
collected of this fast-vanishing form. 

EiippeH's original description is as follows : — " Pront and upper- 
side of head, neck, and back beautiful chestnut-brown ; muzzle, a 
curved streak between eye and ear, sides of neck, body, and rump 
reddish umber-brown. Region under the eye and ear, the chin, 
throat, chest, and inner surface of the thighs and belly dirty 
white. Outer side of thighs and legs and sides of belly dirty grey. 
Peet whitish, with a large spot at the fetlock and a stripe down 
the legs black. Eoot of tail chestnut- brown, tip black. Inner 
side of ears white, with a reddish border, outer surface red-brown. 
Iris of eye pale brown, pupil dark blue." 



282 HO]sr. w. eothschild on [June 18, 

The specimen of the female exhibited to-night is the first known 
female collected and brought to Europe. 

The following notes were given me by Captain Powell-Cotton: — 

" This Ibex is called Wala by the Abyssinians and is said to exist 
only in the mountains of Simien. 

"I shot these specimens at the commencement of autumn (end 
of June), just at the beginning of the rutting-season. 

" There were slight falls of snow and hail, and it was very cold 
at night. There are said to be two feet of snow on the hilltops in 
August. 

" On 25th June I saw two males and one female ; later on, 
on same day, I saw a larger male by itself and shot it. 

" On the 26th, I saw two large males feeding by themselves, and 
later on found them with thirteen females. 

" On the 27th, I found the same herd and shot the two large 
males and one female. 

"These were the only three large males on the ground. I 
searched a good deal of country round but only saw old tracks. 

" The natives hunt these animals persistently for their flesh, 
skins, and horns (which they use for tumblers), and now that 
they are so much better armed, I believe in a very few years the 
animals will be extinct. 

" I was told of some other hunting-ground farther to the ^.E., 
but had not time to visit it. 

" The three specimens shot and the head picked up all have the 
points of the horns turned inwards, but a pair of horns, which 
were said to have been obtained on Mount Hay, had the points 
turned outwards. 

" I found them on the eastern slope of Mount Buiheat, one of 
the highest in the Simien range — in the French maps it is marked 
as 4510 m. in elevation. The top is undulating grass-land, with a 
much-frequented path running along close to the edge of the 
cliffs, at the foot of which is the Ibex-ground. 

" The cliffs being too high for a shot, and, so far as I could dis- 
cover, there being no direct path down, it seemed to be a favourite 
amusement of passing caravans to roll over stones in the hope of 
seeing a herd disturbed. At the foot of the first line of cliffs, and 
below several lesser ill-defined lines lower down, are the runs and 
lying-up places of the Ibex and Klipspringer. 

" The earth and stones dropping from above have formed banks 
some little distance from the face of the cliffs, while here and 
there an overhanging rock forms a roomy shelter under it. 

" The Ibex appear to regularly use these partly concealed runs 
in moving from one part of the ground to another, and it was in 
them that I found numerous traces of where native shikarees had 
lain up to get a shot at them, generally overlooking a drinking- 
place or a favourite shelter. 

" The steep ground between the different lines of clifl's is covered 
with long coarse grass, among which the curious Tree-Lobelia 
(Lobelia rhynchojaetcdum) grows, besides firs, birch, and many 



1901.] THE ABYSSIJflAN WOLF. 283 

scrubby bushes, the whole reminding me very much of where I 
have shot Thar in Kistowar, Kashmir, and being quite unKke any 
ground where I had previously seen Ibex. 

" Even when the animals were feeding in the early morning and 
late afternoon, it was by no means easy to make them out amongst 
the undergrowth. 

" At the foot of the mountain large flocks of sheep and goats 
were grazing, being sheltered at night iu caves, the openings of 
which were protected by stone walls and wattles. 

" Lower down there was a large stretch of cultivated laud, and 
several groups of huts forming the village of Lourey. 

" Although I had a special letter from the Emperor Menelik to 
the Governor of Simien, and from the latter to the different 
headmen, they placed every sort of passive obstacle in the way of 
my shooting Ibex, and one and all seemed most anxious to get 
me out of the country as quickly as possible, in spite of their 
receiving all the meat killed, besides presents and liberal rewards." 

Mr. Rothschild pointed out that the principal differences 
separating this Ibex from Capra nubiana were the shorter beard 
and the horns, which are thick and stout and more like those of 
Capra sibiriea. It differed from all the other Ibexes in the bony 
pi'otuberance on the forehead. 

E-iippell's type had the horns only 25 inches long, measured 
over the curve ; but Captain Powell-Cotton's largest adult male 
had horns 43^ and 43-| in., while his smallest had them 41^- and 
41 in. 

The Hon. Walter Eothschild also exhibited a mounted speci- 
men of the Abyssinian Wolf (Oanis simensis Eiippell), and made 
the following remarks : — 

This very distinct and curious species has hitherto only been 
known to science from the type specimen in the British Museum, 
and the accounts of its discoverer. Dr. Edward Eiippell. Last 
year, during his very successful expedition through Abyssinia, 
Captain Powell-Cotton obtained four males and one female, one of 
which forms the basis of this note. Captain Pov/ell-Cotton first 
met with this curious animal in the highlands of Gogain, just 
north of Abbai. None were observed in the low hot country or 
along the west of Lake Tana, except on 2nd April, 1900, when 
three were met with together, evidently in search of a female. 
They were always seen singly and in the neighbourhood of large 
colonies of a short-tailed brown rat with pale hind-quarters, 
which is their chief food. They appear to be about in the early 
morning and at night. The colour of this animal is a curious 
mixture of chestnut and greyish white, which produces the effect 
of the colour known in horses as " red roan." 

This species can at once be distinguished from all other true 
Wolves by its very long and narrow and slender skull. 

Dr. Eiippell records it as inhabiting most provinces of Abys- 
sinia, hunting sheep and smaller wild animals iu packs, and 



284 M. c. sATUjS"i]sr oir [June 18, 

never being dangerous to human beings ; but, except as regards 
its non-dangerous character, this was quite contrary to Captain 
Powell-Cotton's experiences. 



Mr. Oldfield Thomas exhibited and made remarks on a peculiar 
Stag's frontlet and horns which had been obtained by Mr. Charles 
Hose in Borneo. Mr. Hose had informed him that the Deer 
came from a hitherto unvisited part of Borneo, the Pa Bauan 
country in the far interior, and that he had been told that several 
people had procured similar horns from that district. 



Mr. E. Shelford, C.M.Z.S., exhibited a series of lantern-slides, 
exemplifying mimicry amongst Bornean insects, especially amongst 
the Longicorn division of the Coleoptera. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On a new Hedgehog from Transcaucasia ; with a Revision 
of the Species of the Genus Erinaceus of the Russian 
Empire. By Constantin Satunin, C.M.Z.S. 

[Received May 29, 1901.] 

In the autumn of 1900, I made an excursion into the sandy 
district lying along the foot of Mount Ararat, with the intention 
of studying its Pauna. 

This locality is highly interesting, inasmuch as its Plora bears 
a great resemblance to the Plora ol: the Transcaspian province, the 
sands being for the greater part covered by shrubs of Calligonum 
polygonoides Pall., met nowhere else in Transcaucasia but which 
is exceedingly common in Transcaspia. I likewise found a great 
similitude between the faunas of these sands. 

Of special interest for the locality near Ararat is the long-eared 
Hedgehog of the district, which belongs to a new species, and 
which shows closer affinities to the Transcaspian Erinaceus alhulus 
than it does to the E. auritus of the Northern Caucasus. 

I name this Hedgehog E. calligoni on account of its area in 
Transcaucasia being entirely limited to the distribution of Calli- 
gonum polygonoides. 

I give the following description made by me from six specimens 
collected near the village of Aralyk, which lies some 40 versts to 
the south of Erivan, 

Ebi^staceus calligoni, sp. nov. 

This new species belongs to the group of E. auritus and resembles 
the young individuals of that species, but diifers in some external 
characters as well as in the structure of the skull. It is even 
smaller than E. auritus, and is thus the smallest of the Russian 
Hedgehogs. The length of my largest specimen does not exceed 
160 mm. from snout to vent, whereas a large E. auritus attains 
a length of 210 mm. The colouring of E. calligoni is lighter 



1901.] A NEW HEDGEHOG. 285 

than that of E. auritus, and this depends on the circumstance that 
in the last-named species the ends of the spines are brown, whereas 
in the former the ends of the spines are wholly white. The 
dusky bases of the spines are broader, and the space between the 
latter and the black baud is not white as in E. auritus, but light- 
grey. The upper part of the head, the ears, and the lateral line 
on the margin which separates the spiny surface from the fur 
are, as in E. auritus, brown. The upper surface of the foot has 
a brownish tinge. The whole underside is white ; claws white. 
The ears are comparatively larger ; the snout more acuminate. 

The callosities on the under surface of the fore and hind 
extremities are sharply defined and deeply separated. The spines 
attain a length of 20 mm., and have from 16 to 17 finely tubercu- 
lated low longitudinal ridges. 

The skull bears great resemblance to the skull of E. alhulus. 
The relation of the greatest zygomatic breadth to the basal length 
of the skull is 1 : 1"6, as in E. alhulus ; whereas in E. auritus it is 
sometimes, and that only in very young specimens, 1 : 1*5 ; in 
full-grown animals it is always 1 : 1-4. The other ])eculiarities 
presented by the skull are shown at the end of this article, in the 
table of measurements (p. 290). 

Measurements. , 

a. 0. c. 

$ senior. 5 adult. (^ adult. 

mm. mm. mm. 

From snout to vent 160 143 142 

From vent to tip of tail 25 26-5 16 

From snout to external meatus . . 37 39 41 

From snout to the middle of the 

eye 26 2% 25 

Length of hind-foot with claws .34 36 33-5 

It seems therefore that within the boundaries of European 
Eussia and of the western part of her Asiatic possessions there 
are not less than six species of Erinaceus. 

As there is but little to be found about the Eussian Hedge- 
hogs in existing literature, and as our information of their geo- 
graphical distribution is very scanty and, for the greater part, 
erroneous, I will give here a brief revision of the species, following 
the classification adopted by the late Dr. J. Anderson (P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 414). 

A. The pterygoid fossae are well developed and the pterygoids 

do not contribute to the enlargement of the auditory 

chamber. 

a. Postgienoid process of the squamosal solid and much 

smaller than the mastoid. A narrow tract, bare of spines, 

on the middle of the head. 

1. Erinaceus eueop^us L. 

Erinaceus europceus,'Lmnseus,'8yst.'Na,i. -p. 15 (1766); Pallas, 
Zoogr. Eosso-Asiat. i. p. 137 (1811) ; Eversmann, Nat. Hist. 



286 M. c. SATUNiN ON [June 18, 

District Orenburg, ii. p, 75 (1850) (Eussian) ; Simashko, Fauna of 
Russia, ii. p. 66, pi. vi. fig. 1 (1851) (Eussian); Blasius, Saugeth. 
Deutschl. p. 153 (1857); Sabaneieff, The Vertebrata of the 
Northern TJral, p. 12 (1874) (Eussian); Dobson, Monogr. of the 
Insectivora, i. p. 8 (1882). 

The distribution of the common Hedgehog in Europe is pretty 
well known. In European Eussia the northern limit of its dis- 
tribution descends eastward and reaches, in the St. Petersburg 
government, Wego, 61° N. lat., whilst in the Ural mountains it 
does not go farther north than 59°, — e. g., in the Verkhotursk 
district of the government of Perm, where the species is already 
scarce. In Central and Southern Eussia and in the Caucasus this 
Hedgehog is everywhere common and more or less numerous, being 
found as well in forests and the steppes, together with E. auritus, 
as in the hills, up to 8000 feet. In the Transcaucasus these Hedge- 
hogs attain a very great size. 

We have but very scanty and little trustworthy data as to its 
distribution in Asia. According to Pallas it is absent on the other 
side of the TJral chain. But Sabaneieff ^ says that it is met with 
on the eastern slope of the Ui-al and that, there, it increases yearly 
in number. This author thinks that it is but recently that this 
species has penetrated into the Trans-Ural, and that Pallas's state- 
ment of its absence there is thus simply explained. Slowzoff ^ found 
it in the government of Tobolsk ; Schrenck ^ andEadde^ in Eastern 
Siberia ; but, according to Prof. Kastchenko, it is wanting in the 
government of Tomsk. Schrenck {I. c.) distinguishes the Amoor 
Hedgehog as a separate variety. Eadde (I. c.) does not find it 
possible to distinguish the Daoorian Hedgehog from the common 
one. It is difficult to come to any decided conclusion from the figure 
given by the last-named author, but it looks as if the skull figured 
on plate v. of Eadde's work did not belong to K europceus, but 
to some other species. According to Dobson, E. dealbatus 
Swinhoe, from Peking, scarcely differs from E. europceus. It is 
therefore evident that our knowledge of the distribution of E. eu- 
ropceiis in Asia is in the hands of future explorers. 

h. Postglenoid process of the squamosal as large as the 
mastoid process and is internally concave. JS'o bare 
space on the head. 

2. Ebustaceus aueitus GmeL 

Erinaceus auritus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. Linn. i. p. 116 (1788) ; 
Pallas, Zoogr. Eosso-Asiat. i. p. 138 (1811); Eversmann, Nat 
Hist. District of Orenburg, ii. p. 76 (1850) (Eussian) ; Simashko, 
Fauna of Eussia, ii. p. 72, pi. vi. fig. 2 (1851) (Eussian) ; Dobson, 
Monogr. Insectivora, i. p. 16 (1882). 

1 Sabaneieff, Vertebrat. of North. Ural, p. 12 (1874) (Eussian). 

2 Slowzoff, The Vertebrata of the district Tiimen, p. 212 (1892) (Eussian). 

3 Schrenck, Eeis. im Amur-Lande, i. p. 100, Taf. iv. fig. 2 (1858). 

<" Eadde, Eeis. im Siiden von Ost-Sibir. p. 117, Taf. v. fig. 1 a, c (1862). 



1901.] A NEW HEDGEHOG. 287 

Differs manifestly from E. alhulus, with wliich it has been eon- 
founded by many authors, in its smaller size, shorter ears, darker 
colouring, and broader skull, as will be seen in the table of 
measurements at the end of the present note. The geographical 
distribution of this species is far more restricted than it was 
commonly supposed to be. It does not go farther south than the 
Ust-Urt in the Transcaspian province, whence it has been re- 
corded by Zaroudnoi, Eadde and Walter, and others. These data are 
based on the confusion of this species with E. albulus. I have come 
to this conclusion after having examined the specimens in the 
Caucasus Museum (collected by Dr. Eadde and Dr. Walter), as well 
as a great number of Hedgehogs received by me from Transcaspia 
through my correspondents. I know, from there, only E. auritus 
and E. macr acanthus. The distribution of E. aiiritushegms in the 
steppes of the Northern Caucasus, in the plains of the Manytsh ; 
it then extends to the north between the Don and the Yolga, 
up to the hillocks of Ergheni, and thence goes eastward through 
the Volga-Dral and the Kirghiz steppes approximately between 
45° and 55° IN", lat. How far its distribution extends to the 
East is not well known. Pallas says that it reaches Lake Baikal, 
but the long-eared Hedgehogs which live along the Eiver Irtysh 
are much larger ; and those of the Trans-Baikal attain a size even 
greater than does E. enropceus, so that they doubtlessly belong 
to some other species. It seems probable that the long-eared 
Hedgehog does not extend to the East beyond the Balkhash- 
depression and the 80th deg. of E. long. (Paris merid.). This sup- 
position is confirmed by the fact that, though Middendorff ', 
Schrenck ^, and Eadde ^ mention in their works E. auritus from 
Eastern Siberia, they do so on the testimony of Pallas, but have 
not themselves succeeded in finding this species there. 

What E. dauuricus Sundev.'' is, I do not know, but according 
to what Pallas says of the long-eared Hedgehogs of Daooria, 
it is very probable that it belongs to some distinct, but now over- 
looked species. 

3. Eeikacetjs albtjlus Stoliczka. 

Hemiechinus albulus, Stoliczka, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1872, 
p. 226. 

Erinaceus albulus, Blanford, Scient. Ees. Second Tarkand Mis- 
sion, Mamm. p. 14, pi. i. fig. 2, pi. ii a. fig. 1 (1879) ; Dobson, 
Monogr. Insectivora, i. p. 17 (1882). 

Erinaceus auritus, Lichtenstein in ' Naturhistorischer An- 
hang ' zu ' Eeise von Orenburg nach Buchara ' v. E. Eversmann, 
p. 124(1823); Brandt in 'Zoolog. Anhang' z. A. Lehmann's 'Eeise 
nach Buchara und Samarkand,' p. 299 (1852) ; M. Bogdanoff, The 
Oasis of Khiva and the desert Kyzil-Koom, p. 79 (1882) (Eussianj; 

1 Sibirische Eeise, ii. 2, p. 76 (1853). 

^ Eeis. in 4mur-Lande, i. p. 105 (1858). 

^ Eeis. im Siiden v. Ost-Sibirien, i. p. 124 (1862). 

^ Wiegmann's Archiv, 1843, ii. p. 27. 



288 M. c. SATUNiN ON [June 18, 

Nikolsky, in the ' "Works of the St. Petersb. Soc. of Naturalists,' 
vol. xvii. pt. 1, p. 384(1886) (Eussian) ; Eadde & Walter, Zoolog. 
Jahrbiich., Syst. iv. p. 1006, partim (1888) ; Zaroudnoi, Eech. 
Zool. d. la Contree Transcaspienne, separ. p. 33 (Bull. Kat. 
Moscou, 1889-90) ; Tikbomiroff, in the News of the Imp. Soc. of 
Lovers of IS at. Sciences, t. Ixxxvi. p. 23, partim (1894) (Eussian) ; 
Severzoif, Vex-t. and Horiz. distr. anim. of Turkistan, p. 61 (1873) 
(Eussian). 

"Within the limits of the Eussian Ejupire, this Hedgehog is very 
common in the Transcaspian province, where it takes the place of 
the foregoing species. The specimens from this locality agree 
perfectly with the excellent description and drawing in Blanford's 
work. This species will probably also be found to inhabit the 
southern parts of Eussian Turkestan. 

4. Ekinaceus oalligoki Satunin. 

Known for the present only from the sandy district along the 
foot of Mount Ararat, near the village of Aralyk, about 40 versts 
to the south of Erivan. 

It is possible that the long-eared Hedgehog of Mesopotamia 
belongs to this species, as the true E. auritus can certainly not 
exist there. 

B. The pterygoid foss® almost disappearing, the pterygoids being 
enlarged and bullate, the cavity contributing to the enlarge- 
ment of the auditory chamber. On the top of the head a 
well-marked bare space, covered by folds of the skin. 

' 5. EaiNACEUS MACE ACANTHUS Blanford. 

Erinaceus macracanthus, Blanford, Ann. Nat. Hist. (4) xvi. 
p. 310 (1875); Blanford, East. Persia, ii. p. 27, pi. i. (1879); 
Dobson, Monogr. Insectivora, pt. i. p. 15 (1888); Zaroudnoi, 
Eech. Zool. Contr. Transcaspienne, separ. p. 34 (1889-90). 

Erinaceus ambitus (partim !), Eadde & Walter, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. 
iv. p. 1006, albino (1888). 

Obviously not scarce in the South-eastern part of Transcaspia, 
whence I have received several specimens. More commonly met 
with in the neighbourhood of Askhabad. 

The dark colouring, as given by Blanford, I find only in young 
animals. With age the colouring gets lighter, and in old speci- 
mens it becomes of a uniform yellowish-white. 

6. EuiNACEUS HYPOMELAS Brandt. 

Erinaceus hypomelas, Brandt, Bull. Soc. d. I'Acad. des Sci. St. 
Petersb. 1836, t. i. p. 32 ; Brandt in The Eauna of Eussia, by 
Simashko, p. 74, pi. vi. fig. 3 (1851) (Eussian) ; Eversmann, Nat. 
Hist, of the District of Orenburg, ii. p. 77 (1850) (Eussian) ; 
Brandt in ' Zool. Anhang ' z. A. Lehmann's ' Eeise nach Buchara, 
etc.,' p. 300 (1852). 



1901.] A NEW HBBGEHO&. 289 

Erinaceus auritus juv. ?, Dobson, Monogr. Insectivora, i. p. 16 
(1888). 

Of late there has prevailed a very false idea about this species, 
which has been forgotten for full half a century. This is probably 
due to the fact that Brandt described an apparently young specimen, 
and that the description of the full-grown animal, given by 
Eversmann, and the more detailed one of Brandt, were written in 
Eussian and were published in works that have long ago become 
bibliographical rarities. That is the reason why I find it necessary 
to dwell at some length on this species. 

It was evident, from the study of the existing literature, that 
Dobson's opinion as to E. liypomelas being the young E. auritus 
could not stand, as the young Hedgehogs of the last-named species 
are much lighter-coloured than are the old ones, and they are 
nearly white on the under surface of the body. I was myself dis- 
posed to think that E. hypomelas might prove to be the young of 
E. macracanthus. 

In the summer of 1900 I had the opportunity of examining 
Eversmann's specimens in the Zoological Museum of the Kazan 
University, which had served him as types for his description. 
These were two well-preserved stuffed specimens, one of them 
having a nearly perfect skull, which I had the good luck to ex- 
tricate entire. 

This skull differed from the skulls in my possession of 
E. macracanthus only by its greater length (61 mm.) ; and I think 
that it would be difficult to distinguish the two species by the 
skulls alone. 

The bare space on the head is as well-defined as it is in E. ma- 
cracanthus. In his article, P. Z. S, 1895, Anderson says (footnote 
on p. 421) that Biichner, the then curator of the Mammalian 
Department of the Zool. Museum of the St. Petersburg Academy 
of Sciences, told him that the type which had served for Brandt's 
description had no bare space on the head and that the spines were 
disposed as in E. auritus. Now I think that there must have 
been a mistake about this point, and that it is sometimes quite 
impossible to see this character in stuffed specimens and espe- 
cially in such a very old one (dating from 1838) as Brandt's type 
specimen, which was the skin of a very young animal \ In both 
the adult specimens of the Kazan Museum this bare space is well 
marked. That both Brandt and Eversmann have described the 
same species was made clear to me by the following circumstance : 
on the drawing made from the St. Petex'sburg specimen (Simashko, 
pi. vi.) of E. hypomelas, as well as on the stuffed specimens of the 
Kazan Museum, there is a very noticeable character which neither 
Brandt nor Eversmann has mentioned, — namely, in E. liypo- 
melas the whole head up to the hind part of the crown is quite 

1 At my request, Prof. N. Kastchenko has obligingly examined this speciraen, 
and has found on the head a bare area of which he has sent me a drawing. 
This leaves no doubt as to the bare space on the head of E. hypomelas haying 
exactly the same appearance as it has in E. onacracanthios. 

Pbqc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. II. No, XIX. 19 



290 



[. 0, SATUJS'iN ON A NEW H.EDGEHO&. [June 18, 



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1901.] ON THE ANTELOPES OE THE WHITE NILE. 291 

spineless, and the spines begin only somewhat behind the line 
that unites the bases of the inner margins of the ears ; whereas in 
E. macracantJms the spines begin considerably in front of this 
line. 

I give here the following description of an adult specimen of 
this little-known species : — 

Size of a large E. europceus. 

Ears comparatively a little smaller than in E. auritus. Head 
and upper part of neck whitish, with a rufous tinge on the upper 
part of the head. The spines are very long, up to 43 mm., and 
have a white base and two black and two white bands, and their 
long black apex has a blue lustre which gives to the whole colour- 
ing of this Hedgehog a very dark appearance. The fur behind the 
ears and on the sides of the body is brownish ; the abdomen and the 
feet are pure black. 

This Hedgehog has only been found in the country named 
Ust-Urt, which lies between the Caspian and the Aral seas. At 
present this is a quite out of the way place, distant from all roads. 
This is the reason, I think, that it has not been visited for a very 
long time by a naturalist, and that the animals described from 
this country have been almost forgotten, e. g., Ovis arlcal Brandt. 

It is very likely that besides the above named species of 
Hedgehogs, there will also be found in the Transcaspian province 
E. megalotis Blyth, so common in Afghanistan. I may also state 
tliat Zaroudnoi speaks of a Hedgehog found by him in the Tedgen 
oasis and along the middle course of the Murgab (Bull. Nat. 
Moscou, 1889), which, in its characters, according to this 
author, does not agree with any of the species enumerated here. 
Unfortunately I have not had the opportunity of examining 
the specimens collected by him. 



2. Field-Notes on the Antelopes of the White Nile. 
By Captain Henry N. Dunn \ 

[Eeceived May 29, 1901.] 

On putting together these few notes on the Antelopes of the 
While Nile, I am merely giving information as to what I know 
personally of their habits, and will speak only of those species 
observed by myself, and that mainly, too, from a sportsman's point 
of view. Not having my diary at hand, I am unable to give exact 
dates. 

My only opportunity of shooting on the upper reaches of the 
White Nile was when attached, as Medical Officer, to an expedition 
formed for the purpose of clearing away the sudd-obstruction in 
the Bahr-el-Jebel. 

' Communicated by the Secretary. 

19* 



292 CAPT, H. F. DUNN 0"t«r THE [June 18, 

The expedition left Omdurman in December 1899 and returned 
early in May 1900, and as I had received only a few weeks' notice of 
my appointment to the expedition, I had very little time for making 
preparations, and had no idea that any of the Antelopes we might 
meet would be particularly interesting from a scientific point of 
view. 

Having remained almost the whole five months at the Base Camp, 
on the right bank, within a few miles of the junction of the Bahr- 
el-Zeraf with the White Nile, I had much better opportunities of 
shooting than the other members of the expedition, who were 
mostly engaged in working on the sudd itself. The season being an 
exceptionally dry one we had good sport ; and as most of the game 
was secured in much the same sort of country, I may as well 
describe what it was like in and around our Base Camp. The 
Base Camp was situated at Gabt-el-Megahid, on the right bank, 
six miles north of the junction of the Bahr-el-Zeraf with the White 
Nile, and -was pitched in the midst of a patch of red-gum scrub 
interspersed with larger trees. This site was chosen, as fuel for 
the steamers was our main object. The jungle extended more or 
less thickly for seven or eight miles along the bank, with an average 
depth of from a quarter to half-a-mile. Outside the jungle stretched 
an undulating plain, as far as the eye could reach, covered by coarse 
brown grass averaging from a few inches to 2 or 3 feet in height, 
but in few places affording much cover for stalking purposes. 

In the rainy season, of course, these conditions are greatly 
changed, and from all accounts the grass is then several feet high 
and the whereabouts of game is only to be ascertained by climbing 
trees. 

On the bank opposite to our camp the country was somewhat 
different, as the ground was more low-lying, and the grass was longer 
and higher and afforded excellent cover. Stalking was difficult 
owing to the numerous low-lying strips of land containing water 
(khors) and mud. The natives of the country, Shuluks, burn the 
grass as soon as the dry-season has set in, and these fires were in 
full swing on our arrival. 

The following were the Antelopes that I met with : — 

1. Damalisous tiang. (The Tiang.) ^ 

Several large herds of this Antelope were seen on the left bank 
between El Duem and Fashoda, but it was well into January before 
I personally secured a specimen. My best heads carried horns 
of 22 and 22| inches, but I subsequently saw one of 23 inches. 
The horns of the female are lighter and more slender, and appar- 
ently average from 12 to 16 inches. The herds were generally 
met with in the drier ground, and, as is the case with most 
Antelopes, coming down to water in the evening or moving up 
from the river as the sun rose. Even with the aid of good field- 
glasses, I always found it exceedingly difficult to distinguish males 
from females, except that, if I remember correctly, the males were 

1 Scl. & Thorn. Bk. of Ant i. p. 63. 



1901.] ANTELOPES OE THE WHITE NILE. 293 

of a decidedly lighter colour. On one occasion I came across an 
immense herd of fully three or four hundred of this Antelope, on 
the left bank opposite the junction of the Bahr-el-Jebel with the 
White Nile. They allowed me to approach within 400 yards ; and 
a splendid sight it was to see them galloping along when startled 
and changing direction like so much cavalry, the leading buck on 
either flank going more slowly and the wings wheeling round, the 
whole herd galloping off in the fresh direction when squared. 

The "Tiang," when wounded, is sometimes dangerous to 
approach. I know of one instance in which a buck charged so 
viciously, that it was only stopped by being clubbed across the 
head with a rifle, the sportsman breaking his weapon in doing this. 
In March and April I saw several young ones, but apparently the 
mothers and young kept apart from the males in small herds. 
When not vdth their young, the animals seem to move about either 
alone or in small parties, and are comparatively easily stalked, even 
in the open. Sometimes single bucks attached themselves to a herd 
of Water-buck, and on one occasion I observed a buck of this 
species attempt to have connection with several females of the 
herd, although the male Water-buck resented it. The Tiang at 
times takes an extraordinary amount of killing, and I have seen a 
buck carry off eight -303 bullets in him, and only finally brought to 
grass after a long hunt, and when he had apparently but one sound 
leg left to travel with. The flesh of the Tiang is excellent. 

2. OuEEBiA MONTANA. (The Abyssiniau Oribi.) ^ 

These animals were found in considerable numbers close to 
the Camp, and in fact afforded one of our main supplies of 
meat for our men. They were not at all shy, and generally moved 
about in pairs, or in pairs with a single fawn. When wounded 
they will lie extraordinarily close at times in the long grass, so 
close, indeed, that I found it much simpler to approach a wounded 
buck with a double twelve-bore and No. 4 shot ; otherwise it was 
not an easy thing to kill him, as he bounded away through the reeds. 
I have never seen Oribi actually drinking at the river, but have 
little doubt that they do so, having noticed numbers of tracks 
along the bank. When startled and galloping through high grass 
the Oribi at times bounds much after the manner of a Black Buck. 
The natives apparently kill numbers by trapping. A small fence 
of split reeds is made, enclosing a strip of river-bank on which 
the grass is exceptionally good grazing, and to which the Oribi 
come to feed at night-time. Small gates are left in the fencing, 
and in these openings the traps are laid. The trap used is made by 
lashing a stick to one upright of the opening, bending over the 
fore end and pegging down an attached noose to the ground m 
the middle of the opening. Beneath, where the noose is pegged 
out, a small pit covered by pieces of bark, has been prepared 
beforehand. By a trigger-like arrangement, the Oribi, in thrusting 

1 Scl. & Thorn. Bk. of Ant. ii. p. 25. 



294 OAPT. H. N. DUNN ON THE [June 18, 

his foot through the bark, sets free the pegged-down noose and is 
caught by the leg as the bent stick springs upright. The natives 
attach a rattle made of dome-palm nut to the string, so that the 
Oribi is heard as soon as he struggles to escape. 

3. CoBUS DEPASSA. (The Defassa Water-Buck.) ^ 

This "Water-buck is plentiful along both banks of the White 
Nile from the north of El Duem to the junction with the Bahr-el- 
Jebel. They generally moved about in herds of from four to six 
up to forty, and on one occasion I counted sixty-four, young and 
adults of both sexes intermingled. 

On our first arrival at the Base Camp, buck were plentiful in 
the proportion of about 1 to 4 females, but owiug to the necessity 
of obtaining meat, they had become greatly thinned-out before 
our departure. My best heads measured 31 and 31^ inches, but I 
believe one of 34 inches was shot by Major Peake, S.A. 

Its native name here was " Tetel," but this does not go for 
much, as I have heard the same term applied to other animals, 
including Tiang and White-eared Kob. During the daytime the 
herds moved out from the river into the open, and seemed to 
spend their time in grazing and lying up in the long grass, coming 
down towards the river again as the sun became lower. It was a 
pretty sight at times to watch a herd of the Water-bucks approach- 
ing the river of an evening. The herd, led by the largest buck, 
generally moved slowly along through the grass in single file, 
pausing every few yards and gazing around to see whether the 
coast was clear or not. The massive horns of the bucks and dark 
coats showed up well against the yellow background of the sun- 
parched grass. When alarmed the herd rushed together, but 
were at times very easy to approach ; and I have stalked single 
bucks in the open by merely creeping along, keeping my eyes fixed 
on the tips of the animal's horns as he fed, and dropping down 
when he began to raise his head. When feeding anywhere close 
to jungle, they almost invariably grazed head on and towards the 
direction they feared danger. 

On one occasion one of my natives had a narrow escape from a 
wounded buck. He attempted to grasp the buck's horns prepara- 
tory to cutting the animal's throat, but was struck full in his 
chest by the horns, receiving a couple of nasty wounds, which, if 
lower, might easily have proved fatal. The meat of the Water- 
buck is poor-eating, but the hide was greatly sought after by our 
workmen for making sandals, to protect their feet from the thorns 
of the red gum-trees. 

4. CoBus MARIA. (Mrs. Grray's Waterbuck.) ' 

So far as my personal experience goes, I have only seen this 

Antelope along the left bank of the Nile almost opposite the 

.anction of the Bahr-el-Zeraf, on the right banli in small herds 

1 Scl. & Thorn. Bk. of Ant. ii. p. 115, pi. xxxvi. 
^ Ibid., p. 121, pi, xxxvii. 



1901.] ATTTBLOPES OV THE WHITE TiTILE. 295 

between Lake No and the Bahr-el-Zeraf, and once in the less 
swampy portion o£ the stidd itself, close to Hellet-el-Nuer. Cobus 
maria is almost invariably found in swampy ground or close to it. 
During several trips up the Bahr-el-Zeraf river, J never saw one 
at any great distance from the Nile itself ; the banks of the 
Bahr-el-Zeraf at that season of the year being very dry and 
without much cover. When we arrived at the Base Camp there 
was a large herd of from fifty to a hundred of these Antelopes on 
the opposite bank, and several specimens were shot from time to 
time by members of the expedition, I constantly watched them 
from our steamer with a telescope. During the day the herd 
selected an open bare-burnt patch of ground to lie out on, feeding 
down towards the river in the evening, and roaming about on the 
higher and more open ground during the earlier hours of the day . 
The herd seemed to keep very much together ; and all the various 
gradations of colour, from the yellow and dirty white of the 
females and young of both sexes, to the tawny black and almost 
pure white of the mature bucks, were to be seen intermingled. 
At first we had a certain amount of difficulty in distinguishing 
them from the White-eared Kob, not knowing anything about 
their distinctive markings ; and it was not until I had shot a 
specimen, and noticed the smooth kid-like appearance of the skin 
on the back of the fetlock, between the supernumerary and true 
hoof, that I knew they must be of a different species ; the White- 
eared Kob having no such distinctive feature. Of course, the white 
patch on the withers of Cobus maria is very striking ; but it is 
next to impossible to distinguish the young and females from 
those of Cobus leucotis at a distance. In fact, the young buck 
C. maria, too, before the horns have become long enough to take 
on the spiral twist, and while the coat is still yellow, is very like a 
young C. leucotis, except that, no doubt, it is a heavier animal ; and 
I could never be certain as to which species they belonged unless 
I got close to the herd. On one occasion, having shot a young 
buck C. maria, showing an almost entire absence as yet of the 
black and white markings of the more mature animal, I took 
the trouble to skin it. As the sun was hot and I had been out 
since daylight, I left the feet-bones in the skin (intending to 
remove them on arrival in camp), and gave the skin to a native to 
carry to the boat. On arriving at the boat I found, much to my 
disgust, that the native had cut the feet off for the sake of the 
bones attached. This annoyed me so much at the time, that I 
threw the skin away, and so lost what would have been an 
interesting specimen for the Museum. As I have already stated, 
we, at the Base Camp, had an exceptionally good opportunity of 
getting specimens and observing the Mrs. G-ray's Antelopes. 
That portion of the bank on which the herd lived was a semi- 
detached strip of land, of about seven miles in length by four or 
five in breadth, and bounded behind by an arm of the river, along 
the bank of which, on the higher ground, the ShuUuks had built 
their villages ; and curiously enough, during the entire five months 



296 OAPT. H. N. DUNN ON THE [June 18, 

of our stay at the Base Camp, the herd never left this portion of 
the bank. At first the herd was fairly easy to approach, but, of 
course, they became more wary later on. The young and females 
(in January and February) kept, as a rule, close to the bucks, and 
this was probably due to the more or less constant worrying they 
had from the Shuliuks and their dogs, who were always on the 
look-out to cut off a stray doe with young. Once, when shooting 
along with another officer, opposite the mouth of the Bahr-el- 
Zeraf, a female dashed past within forty yards of our camp, hard 
pressed by a Shulluk dog : my friend was just in time to cram in a 
cartridge and put a bullet into a second dog who was following, 
much to the disgust of the owner, who shortly afterwards 
appeared on the scene. 

This Antelope will take readily to the water when pressed. On 
the day after our arrival at the Base Camp, a magnificent buck, 
wounded by a ShuUuk's spear and hard-pressed by a dog, dashed 
into the river immediately opposite to our steamer and was shot 
froDi the deck itself. I once shot a rather fine buck under somewhat 
peculiar circumstances. Having set my heart on a particularly 
fine head, I had been following the herd for close on three hours, 
but could not manage to get a shot at the animal I wanted. 
Eventually I noticed a buck separate himself from the herd and 
disappear into some long reeds close to the river. This had also 
been observed by the natives on one of our expedition's sailing- 
boats, who, when I ari'ived, were just turning out, armed with 
sticks and knives, to make what they thought an easy capture of 
a badly wounded animal. Knowing that I could not have possibly 
wounded him myself, I formed the men up in a line and commenced 
beating up through the reeds, having taken a commanding position 
on some high ground. It was as well I had done so, as the buck 
lay until almost walked over, and then, springing up, dashed off at 
full speed, giving me an easy shot as he passed broadside on, not 
more than forty yards off. To my surprise I found on examining 
the body, that he had an old un-united fracture of the, left shoulder, 
due to an accident probably, as I could find no external wound. 
He had evidently become tired at being kept so long on the move, 
and had lain down for a rest, as his leg was no doubt giving him 
trouble. 

The full-grown Maria buck is a fine animal, his head having 
very much the appearance of that of an Ibex, except, of course, that 
the beard is replaced by the somewhat shaggy and coarse hair of 
the neck and throat. When alarmed the herd dashes off, led by 
one or two of the old bucks, and tailing out to almost single file. 
When galloping the buck carries his muzzle well forward, horns 
thrown back, and moves with a much more lumbering gait than 
one might expect. I never observed these Antelopes spring into 
the air, and they appeared rather to dash through than attempt to 
clear small obstacles. The meat of this Antelope is excellent. 
The horns of my best specimen measured 29| inches, and I got 
a single horn of 32 inches. 



1901.] AiraELOPES OP THE WHITE NILE, 297 

5. CoBUS EEUcoTis. (The White-eared Kob.)^ 

This species is found in great numbers along both banks of 
the White Mle, Bahr-el-Zeraf, and Bahr-el-Grhazal Eivers, but 
chiefly on the left bank of the Nile between Lake No and the 
junction of the Bahr-el-Zeraf. They were to be seen in all numbers, 
from solitaiy bucks or females with young to herds of forty or 
sixty, or even more. The young with their mothers, apparently 
accompanied the bucks in March and April, although I have often 
observed herds of bucks only. The female carries no horns, and 
it is almost impossible to distinguish it at a distance from the 
female Mrs. Gray's Waterbuck, both being of much the same 
colour and size. This remark applies also to the young males of 
both species. The female does not change in colour as she 
becomes older, but the buck develops the characteristic black and 
white markings as age advances ; and bucks in all stages of reddish 
yellow with indistinct whitish markings, to the mature animal of 
an almost pure black and white, may be seen in the same herd. 
When compared side by side, Cobus leucotis is no doubt a much 
lighter and smaller animal than Cobus maria. My best horns 
measured 20| and 20|- inches. 

The White-eared Kob is at times exceedingly easy to approach, 
but sometimes hard to kill, and its fl.esh is excellent eating. The 
females are very inquisitive and will frequently approach to within 
a hundred yards, circling slowly round and making a peculiar 
whistling sound at intervals. It is stated that the male bounds into 
the air at times like a Bless-bok ; personally I cannot say I have 
noticed this, and, so far as I can remember, they gallop with a 
much less springy action than might be expected from their build. 

6. Ceevicapea bohoe. (Bohor Antelope.)^ 

The single specimen of this Antelope obtained by me was shot 
lying down in some long grass when I was stalking a Tiang. I was 
attracted by the peculiar shape of the animal's horns, shot it, and 
in my hurried inspection of the body was disgusted at having killed 
what I took at the time to be a young White-eared Kob. On my 
return to camp, I found that the natives had cut up the animal and 
had merely kept the horns and skull, and these I threw away on 
I'eaching the Base Camp. On examining some heads shot by other 
members of the expedition subsequently, I came to the conclusion 
that my specimen was also a Bohor, and I was lucky enough to 
retrieve the horns and skull, which I had thrown aside. 

7. Gazella eueierons. (Eed-f routed Gazelle.)^ 

I only shot one specimen of this Gazelle south of Fashoda, and 
that was on the right bank of the Bahr-el-Zeraf, about 20 miles 
upstream. In fact, the only place I saw a Gazelle south of Fashoda 
was on the Bahr-el-Zeraf. 

1 Scl. & Thorn. Bk. of Ant. ii. p. 127, pi. sxxviii. 

2 Ibid., p. 165. 3 jj^i^^^ iii^ p igg^ pi i^^ji 



298 DB. R. B. SHARPB ON fJune 18, 

I presented the skin I shot on the Bahr-el-Zeraf to Capt. Flower, 
and see that he has naaied it Oazella rufifrons (P. Z. S. 1900, 
p. 55). I have shot Gazelles at other places on the White Nile, 
but have never noticed such distinct markings as ou those found 
on the Zeraf. 

8. HipPoxRAGUS EQUiNUs BAKERi. (Baker's Antelope.)'- 

I shot only one of these Antelopes and that was on the 
Bahr-el-Zeraf, and I found them very easy to approach. There 
is one point worth mentioning, and that is in connection with the 
name " Marif," applied by Baker to this species. " Marif' in 
Arabic literally means " I do not know," and is constantly used 
by natives when asked the name of an animal. 



3. On a Collection of Birds made by Dr. Donaldson Smith 
in Northern Somali-land. By R. Bowdler Sharpe, 
LL.D., F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived June 18, 1901.] 

During the early part of 1889, Dr. Donaldson Smith conducted 
an expedition of several months' duration through Northern 
Somali-land for the purpose of making collections for the Baroda 
Museum. It was hoped at first that H.H. the Gaikwar of Baroda 
would have accompanied the expedition, but he was unfortunately 
not able to do so, and Dr. Smith's only companion was Mr. Carlile 
Fraser. 

Starting from Bulbar at the beginning of January, the route 
taken ran south towards Hargeisa, and a stay of some days was 
made at Ania, and again at Magog, which was reached on the 
11th of February. Thence the expedition proceeded in an 
easterly direction to Adadle, and on the 17th of February Dr. 
Donaldson Smith went after " big game " in the Hand, leaving 
Mr. Fraser to collect birds and insects in the Adadle district. 
Leaving here, they went by Gan Liban (Feb. 22) to Berbera, 
whence short expeditions were made to the Goolis Mountains. 

H.H. The Gaikwar has very kindly presented to the British 
Museum such specimens as were desiderata to that Institution. 

List of Authorities. 

The following books and papers are referred to in the present 
paper : — 

1. Shelley, G. E.— " On Mr. E. Lort Phillips' Collection of 
Birds from SomaU-land." Ibis, 1885, pp. 389-118, plates 
X., xi., xii. 

1 Scl. & Thorn. Bk. of Ant. iv. p. 4. 



1901.] BIEDS FEOM SOMALI-LAND. 299 

2. OusTALET, E. — " Catalogue des Oiseaux rapportes par M. G-. 

Eevoil de son deuxieme Voyage aux Pays de Qomalis." 
Bibl. Ecole Hautes-Etudes ; Sci. Nat. sxxi. Art. x. pp. 1-12 
(1886). 

3. Salvadoei, T. — " Uccelli del Somali raccolti da D. Eugenie dei 

Principi Euspoli." Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. 
pp. 547-564 (1894). 

4. Shaepe, E. Bowdlee. — " On a Collection of Birds made by 

Dr. Donaldson Smith during his recent expedition in 
Western Somali-land." P. Z. S. 1895, pp. 457-520, plates 
xxvii., xxviii. 

5. Salt adoei, T.—" Uccelli raccolti da D. Eugenio dei Principi 

Euspoli durante I'ultimo suo viaggio nelle regione dei 
Somali e dei Galla." Ann. Mus. G-enov. (2) xvi. pp. 43- 
46 (1896). 

6. Phillips, E. Loet. — " On Birds observed in the Goolis Moun- 

tains in Northern Somali-land." Ibis, 1896, pp. 62-87, 
plate ii. 

7. Elliot, D. G.— " Catalogue of a Collection of Birds obtained 

by the Expedition into Somali-land." Eield-Columb. Mus. 
Ornith. Series, vol. i. no 2, pp. 29-67 (1897). 

8. Phillips, E. Loet. — " Narrative of a visit to Somali-land in 

1897, with Eield-notes on the Birds obtained during the 
Expedition." Ibis, 1898, pp. 382-425, plates viii., ix., x. 

9. Hawkee, E. McD. — " On the results of a Collecting-tour of 

three months in Somali-land." Ibis, 1899, pp. 62-81, 
plate ii. 
10. Peel, C. V. A. — Somali-land ; being an Account of tv^o Ex- 
peditions into the far Interior. 1900. Appendix: Birds, 
pp. 305-333. 

List of Species. 

1. Ehinocoeax affinis. 

Corvus afflnis (Eiipp.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 389. 

Whinocoracc affi^nis (Eiipp.) ; Elliot, Field-Columb. Mus. Orn. i. 
p. 30 (1897); Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 394; Peale, Somali- 
land, App. p. 305 (1900). 

No. 26. 6 ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 1, 1899. 

No. 268. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 25, 1899. 

2. COSMOPSAEUS EEGIUS. 

Cosmopsarus regius Eeichen. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 411 ; 
Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 559 (1894) ; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 459 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 58 ; Peel, 
Somali-land, App. p. 306 (1900). 

No. 181. 6 ad. Adadle, Feb. 16, 1899. 

No. 189. c? ad. Adadle, Feb. 20, 1899. 

No. 220. d ad. Adadle, March 8, 1899. 

No. 221. c? ad. Adadle, March 8, 1889. 



300 DR. R. B. SHARPE ON [June 18, 

3. Amydrus bltthi. 

Amydrus hlythi (Hartl.) ; Elliot, Field-Columbian Mus., Orn. i. 
p. 31 (1897) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 395 ; Peel, Somali-land, 
App. p. 305 (1900). 

No. 31. S imm. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, 1899. 

No. 199. 6 ad. G-an Liban (4700 ft.), Feb. 23, 1899. Eye 
green. 

No. 203. 2 ad. Gan Liban (4700 ft.), Feb. 24, 1899. Eye 
black or very dark blue. 

No. 240. ■$ ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March, 14, 1899. Eye 
black and reddish-yellow. 

No. 244. S ad.' Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 15, 1899. 

ISo. 262. 2 ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 22, 1899. 

4. LaMPROOOLIUS CHALTB^US. 

LamprocoUus chalybceus (Ehr.) ; Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. 
Torino, (2) xHv. p. 559 (1894) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 460 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 84, 1898, p. 394 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 59 ; Peel, Somali-land, App. p. 306 (1900). 

No. 239. 6 ad. G-an Liban (5900 ft.), March 14, 1899. 

5. Hbtbeopsar albicapillus. 

Heteropsar albicapillus (Blvth); Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. 
Tor. (2) xliv. p. 559 (1894) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 461 ; Elliot, 
Field-Columb. Mus., Orn. i. p. 32 (1897) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 395; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 59: Peel, Somali-land, 
App. p. 306 (1900). 

Notauges albicapillus, Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 413 ; Oustalet, Bibl. 
Haut.-Etudes, xxxi. Art. x. p. 11 (1886). 

No. 83. $ ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. Eye yellow. 

No. 187. ? ad. Adadle, Feb. 20, 1899. 

6. Spreo superbus. 

Sjjreo superbus (Riipp.); Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 461 ; Elliot, 
Field-Oolumb. Mus., Orn. i. p. 32 (1897); Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 396 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 59. 

Notauges superhm (Eiipp.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 412; Oust. 
Bibl. Haut-Etudes, xxxi. Art. x. p. 9 (1886) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1896, p. 83. 

Lamprotornis superbus. Peel, Somali-land, App. p. 306 (1900). 

No. 28. ? ad. Near Bulbar, .Jan. 2, 1899. 

No. 85. S ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. 

No. 105. S ad. Laskarato, Jan. 27, 1899. 

a. S ad. Adadle, Feb. 20, 1899. 

7. BUPHAGA ERTTHRORHYNCHA, 

Buphaga erythrorJiyncha (Stanl.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 410; 
Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 561 (1894) ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 461 ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) xvi. p. 45 



1901.] BIRDS FROM SOMALI-LAND. 301 

(1896) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 82 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 33 (1897) : 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 390 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 59 ; 
Peel, Somali-land, App. p. 306 (1900). 

No. 158. c? ad. Sheikh Abukadle, Feb. 9, 1899. Eye black and 
yellow, eyelid bright yellow ; bill red. 

Nos. 210. $ ; 211, 212. S ad. Adadle, March 1, 1899. Eye 
black and yellow, lid yellow ; bill red ; feet green. 

Nos. 225, 226. S 2 ad. Adadle, March 9, 1899. 

8. BUCHANGA ASSIMILIS. 

Buclianga assimilis Bechst. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 401 ; Salvad, 
Mem. R. Accad. Torino, (2) sliv. p. 555 (1894) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 462 ; Lort PhiUips, Ibis, 1896, p. 76 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 33 
(1897); Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 396; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 60 ; Peel, Somali-land, App. p. 306 (1900). 

Ko. 19. c? ad. Near Bulbar, Dec. 30, 1898. 

No. 72. 2 ad. Biji (1200 ft.). Jan. 15, 1899. 

No. 191. $ ad. Adadle, Eeb. 20, 1899. 

No. 198. d ad. Gan Liban (4700 ft.), Eeb. 23, 1899. 

No. 242. 2 ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 15, 1899. 

9. Gkanaxina hawkeei. 

Urceginthus ianthinog aster, Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 408. 

Qranatina ianthinog astr a (nee. Eeichen), Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, 
p. 467 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 35 ; Hawker, t. c. p. 62 ; Peel, Somali-land, 
App. p. 307 (1900). 

Qranatina haivJceri, Lort Phillips, Bull. B. O. C. viii. p. sxiii 
(1898). 

No. 12. 2 ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 27, 1898. 

No. 122. ■? 2 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 4, 1899. 

No. 123. cS ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 4, 1899. 

No. 127. ? 2 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 4, 1899. 

No. 138. 2 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 5, 1899. 

10. Akapleotes melanotis. 

Anaplectes melanotis (Lafr.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. 
p. 413 (1890); Shelley, B. Afr. i. p. 35(1896). 

Nos. 121, 125. S 2 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 4, 1899. 

This species, which is the true A. melanotis and not A. hlundelli 
Grant, seems to have hitherto been unrecorded from Somali-land. 
The red on the head appears to vary slightly, being darker in some 
individuals than in others. The female is greyish brown, with no 
red on the back, but having red margins to the greater coverts and 
primaries ; the under surface is dull white, slightly tinged with 
ochreous brown on the fore neck and chest. Total length 6 inches, 
culmeu 0"7, wing 3'2, tail 1*95, tarsus 1*08. 

It differs very conspicuously from the female of A. ruhriceps, as 
it has none of the yellow colour on the head and throat. 



302 DR. E. B. SHARPB ON [June 18, 

11. HYPHANToaiiris galbtjia. 

Hyphantornis gcdbula (Riipp.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 468 ; 
Elliot, Field-Columb. Mas., Orn. i. p. 35 (1897) ; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 397 ; Peel, Somali-land, App. Birds, p. 308 (1900). 

Nos. 49, 51. d ad. Biji, Jan. 8, 9, 1899. 

12. DiNEMELLIA DINEMELLI. 

Texior dinemelU Eiipp. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 409 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 82. 

DinemeHia dinemelU, Salvad. E.. Accad. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 558 
(1894) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 469 ; Elliot, Eield-Columb. Mus., 
Orn. i. p. 36 (1897); Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 397 ; Hawker, 
Ibis, 1899, p. 62 ; Peel, Somali-land, App. Birds, p. 308 (1900). 

No. 169. Ad. Magog (4000 ft.), Feb. 14, 1899. 

13. Peteonia pyrgita. 

Gymnorliis pyrgita (Heugl.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 408. 

Petronia pyrgita, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 469 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 35 
(1897) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 397 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 63 ; Peel, t. c. p. 309 (1900). 

No. 11. $ ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 27, 1898. 

No. 96. S ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 22, 1899. 

No. 201. c? ? ad. Gan Liban (4700 ft.), Feb. 24, 1899. 

No. 209. S ad. Adadle, Feb. 28, 1899. 

No. 213. Adadle, March 1, 1899. 

14. Sebinus maoulioollis. 

Serinus macuUcoUis, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 471, pi. xxvii. fig. 1 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 36 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 399 ; Hawker, Ibis, 
1899, p. 63 ; Peel, t. c. p. 309. 

No. 136. 2 ad. Ania, Feb. 5, 1899. 

No. 200. 2 ad. G-an Liban (4700 ft.), Feb. 24, 1899. 

15. Embeeiza poliopleuea. 

Emberiza poliopleura (Salvad.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 471 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 36 ; Hawker, t. c. p. 64 ; Peel, t. c. p. 309. 

Nos. 116, 134, 135. S ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 2-5, 1899. 

16. MlEAEEA GILLETTI. 

Mirafra giUetti, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 472 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 37 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 401 ; Hawker, t. c. p. 64; Peel, t. c. 
p. 310 (1900). 

No. 173. S ad. Magog (4000 ft.), Feb. 14, 1899. 

17. G-ALEEITA CEISTATA. 

Galerita cristata (Linn.) ; Oust. t. c. p. 8 (1886) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 472 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 401 ; Hawker, t. c. 
p. 65. 



]901.] BIKDS FEOM SOMALI-LAND. 308 

Nos. 44, 50. S 2 ad. Biji, Jan. 7, 8, 1899. 
No. 172. Ad. Magog, 4000 ft., Eeb. 14, 1899. 
These specimens appear to be identical with the Red Sea form 
of G. cristata, and, if separable, should be called G. senegalensis. 

18. Ammomakes akeleii. 

Ammomanes deserti (nee Licht.), Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 473. 
Ammomanes aJceleyi, Elliot, t. c. p. 39 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 401 ; Hawker, t. c. p. 65 ; Peel, t. e. p. 311. 

Nos. 1. Ad. ; 2. c? ad. Near Bulbar, Dec. 25, 1898. 
No. 174. <S ad. Magog, Feb. 14, 1899. 

19. Pteehulauda melanauchen. 

Pyrrhulauda melanauclien (Cab.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 472 ; 
Peel, t. c. p. 310. 

No. 18. S ad. Near Berbera, Dec. 3, 1898. 

20. MOTACILLA ALBA. 

Motacilla alba Linn. ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 66. 

Nos. 5. c? ; 6, 14. $ . Near Bulbar, Dec. 25-28, 1898. 

The White Wagtail has been obtained by Mr. Hawker at 
Gebili, but the species is omitted by Mr. Peel in his list of Somali 
birds. 

21. NECTAEmiA METALLIC A. 

Hedydipna metallica (Licht.) ; Elliot, t. c. p. 41 ; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 404. 

JSectarinia metallica. Peel, t. c. p. 312. 

Nos. 163, 164. d 2 ad. Magog, Feb. 12, 1899. 

22. CiNNTEIS ALBIVEN'XEIS. 

Cinnyris alhiventris (Strickl.) ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Torino, 
(2), xliv. p. 556 (1894); Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 474; Lort 
Philhps, Ibis, 1896, p. 82; Elliot, t. e. p. 41; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 403 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 67 ; Peel, t. c. p. 312. 

No. 38. c? ad. So Midgan, Jan. 5, 1899. 

No. 141. 2 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 6, 1899. 

23. CiNNYEIS HABESSIKICA. 

Cinnyris hahessinica (Hempr. & Ehr.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 406 ; 
Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 556 (1894) ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 474 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 81, 1898, p. 402, 
cum fig. ; Hawker, t. c. p. 67 ; Peel, t. c. p. 312. 

Nos. 33, 39. c? ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, 5, 1899. 

No. 166. c? ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Feb. 13, 1899. 

Nos. 192, 210. $ ad. et juv. Adadle, Feb. 20, March 1, 1899. 

Nos. 263, 264. c? $ ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 23, 
1899. 



304 DR. B. B. SHARPS ON [June 18, 

24. ClNNYRIS HAWKERI. 

Cinnyris osiris (nee Finseh), Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 81 ; 
Elliot, Field-Columb. Mus., Orn. i. p. 40 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 66 ; Peel, Somali-land, App. p. 312. 

Cinnyris mariquensis hawheri, Neum. Orn. M.B. vii. p. 24 
(1899). 

Nos. 118, 139. c? ? ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 3-5, 1899. 

25. Parus thruppi. 

Parus thruppi, Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 406, pi. xi. fig, 2 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 476 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 404 ; Hawker, 
t.c. p. 67; Peel, i.e. p. 313. 

No. 41. S ad. So Midgan, Jan. 5, 1899. 

Nos. 119, 137. 6 ad. Ania, Feb. 3, 5, 1899. 

26. Lanius antinorii. 

Lanius antinorii Salvad. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 477 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 76; Elliot, t.c. p. 42; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 

1898, p. 404 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 68 ; Peel, t. c. p. 312. 
No. 25 fl. 2 ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 1, 1899. 

Nos. 47, 48. d ? ad. So Midgan, Jan. 7, 1899. 

No. 55. d ad. Biji (1200 ft.), .Jan. 10, 1899. 

Nos. 87, 88. 2 c? ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. 

27. Lanius phcenicuboides. 

Lanius phcenicuroides Severtz. ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 77; 
id. Ibis, 1898, p. 404 ; Peel, t. c. p. 313. 

No. 66. 2 imm. Biji (1200 ft.), .Jan. 13, 1899. 

28. Laniarius cruentus. 

Laniarius cruentus (Hempr. & Ehr.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 402; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 477 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 77 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 42 ; Lort PhiUips, Ibis, 1898, p. 405 ; Hawker, Ibis, 

1899, p. 68 ; Peel, t. c. p. 313. 

Rhodoplioneus cruentus, Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Torino, (2) xliv. 
p. 555 (1894). 

No. 79. S ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. 

Nos. 148, 149. S imm. Ania (5000 ft.), Jan. 30, 1899. 

Nos. 146, S; 154, 157. $ ad. Sheikh Abukadle, Feb. 9, 1899. 

No. 176. 2 ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Feb. 14, 1899. 

No. 186. 2 ad. Adadle, Feb. 19, 1899. 

No. 261. S ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 22, 1899. 

29. Drtoscopus ^thiopicus. 

Dryoscopus cetliiopicus (Gm.); Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 478: 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 405 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 69 ; Peel^ 
t. c. p. 313. 

No. 249. 2 ad. G-an Liban (5900 ft.), March 16, 1899. 



1901.] BIRDS PKOM SOMALI-LAND. 305 

30. DrTOSCOPUS rUNEBRIS. 

Dryoscopus fimebris Hartl. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 478 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 77 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 42 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 406 ; Peel, t. c. p. 314. 

a. (S ad. Gan Liban, March 13, 1899. Iris black. 

31. EUKOCEPHALUS ETJEPPBLLI. 

Eurocephalus i-ueppelli Bp. ; Shellev, Ibis, 1885, p. 403 ; Oust. 
t. c. p. 5 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 480 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 78 ; 1898, p. 406 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 69 ; Peel, t. c. p. 314. 

No. 89. 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 20, 1899. 

No. 103. $ ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 25, 1899. Iris dark 
green. 

No. 132. S ad. Ania, Feb. 4, 1899. 

32. Bbadyoenis pumilus. 

Braclyornis pumilus, Shai'pe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 480 ; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1896, p. 76 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 44 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 406 ; Peel, t. c. p. 314. 

No. 40. S ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 5, 1899. 

No. Q2. Ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 12, 1899. 

No. 130. 2 ad. Ania, Eeb. 4, 1899. 

33. Sylvia cin-erba. 

Sylvia cinerea (Bechst.) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 407 ; 
Peei, t. c. p. 314. 

No. 260. S ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 22, 1899. Iris 
black and red. 

34. Eremomela elaviorissalis. 

Eremomela flavicrissalis, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 481 ; Elliot, t. c. 
p. 44; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 409; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 70; 
Peel, t. c. p. 315. 

No. 222. Ad. Adadle, March 9, 1899. 

35. Calamonastes simplex. 

Oalamonastes simplex (Cab.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 482 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 80 ; Elhot, t. c. p. 44 ; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 410 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 71 ; Peel, t.c. p. 315. 

No. 111. c? ad. Laskarato (3500 ft.), Jan. 29, 1899. 

This male seems to be rather large when compared with an 
example from the Goolis Mts. The dimensions are as follows : — 

Total 

length. Oulmen. Wing. Tail. Tarsus. 
(S . Laskarato (Donaldson 

Smith) 6-1 0-7 2-4 2-4 0-9 

c? . Goolis Mts. (E. Lort 

Phillips) 5-1 0-7 2-25 1-8 . 0-85 

Pboo. Zool. Soc— 1901, YoL, II. No. XX. 20 



306 DE. B. B. SHAKPE ON [June 18, 

36. Sylviblla gaikwaei. 

Sylviella isahelUna (nee Elliot), Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 70. 

Sylviella gaikwari, Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xi. p. 47 
(1901). 

No. 117. S ad. Ania, Eeb. 3, 1899. 

This is the bird called by Mr. Hawker (t. c.) Sylviella isabellina 
Elliot. I find, however, that both Mr. Hawker's specimen and 
the one obtained by Dr. Donaldson Smith have the entire upper 
surface grey, and have not a " buff rump " as described by Dr. 
Elliot, so I have named the species after H.H. The Gaikwar of 
Baroda. 

37. Sylviella miceuea. 

Sylviella micrura Eiipp. : Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 482 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 409 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 70 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 318. 

No. 32. 2 ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, 1899. 

No. 64. 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 13, 1899. 

No. 112. cf ad. Near Ania, Jan. 29, 1899. 

38. Deyodeomas smithi. 

Dryodromas smithi, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 482 ; Elliot, t. c. 
p. 44 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 409 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 70 ; Peel, t. c. p. 316. 

No. 129. S ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 4, 1899. 

No. 219. Ad. Adadle, March 7, 1899. 

39. Eeytheoptgli letjcoptbea. 

Erythropygia leucojatera (Eiipp.) ; Shelley, Ibis, ] 885, p. 406 ; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 483 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 80 ; 
id. Ibis, 1898, p. 410; Peel, t. c. p. 318. 

Nos. 65, 76. 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 13, 17, 1899. 

No. 101. $ ad. Laskarato, Jan. 25, 1899. Iris black. 

No. 217. 2 ad. Adadle, March 6, 1899. 

40. MeEULA LUDOVIOIiE. 

Merida ludovicice, Lort Phillips, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, iv. 
p. xxxvi ; id. Ibis, 1895, p. 383 ; 1896, p. 78, pi. ii. ; 1898, p. 410 ; 
Peel, t. c. p. 315. 

Nos. 237, 266. c? $ ad. ; 267. $ juv. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), 
March 14, 25, 1899. 

Bill and feet yellow ; iris black and red. 

41. MONTICOLA SAXATILIS. 

Monticola saxatilis (Linn.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 485 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 410 : Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 72 ; Peel, 
t. c. p. 315. 

No. 29. S ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 3, 1899. 

No. 73. S ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 15, 1899. 

No. 227. Ad. Adadle (4000 ft.), March 11, 1899. 



1901.] BIRDS FROM SOMALI-LAND. 307 

42. MONTICOLA CTANUS. 

Monticola cyanus (Linn.) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 411 ; 
Peel, t. c. p. 315. 
No. 7. S ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 26, 1898. 

43. MONTIOOLA RUEOCINEREA. 

Monticola rufocinerea (Eiipp.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 404 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 79; id. Ibis, 1898, p. 411 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 315. 

Nos. 197, 204. 2 ad. Gan Liban (4700 ft.), Peb. 22, 24, 1899. 

Nos. 229, 235. S ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 13, 14, 
1899. 

44. Saxicola isabellina. 

Saxicola isahellina Eiipp. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 405 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 485 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 80 ; Elliot, t. c. 
p. 46; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 412 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 72; Peel, t c. p. 316. 

No. 80. c? ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. Iris black. 

No. 177. S ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Eeb. 14, 1899. 

No. 184. ? ad. Adadle, Eeb. 17, 1899. 

No. 238. 2 ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 14, 1899. 

45. Saxicola phillipsi. 

Saocicola pliiUijpsi, Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 404, pi. xii. ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 486 ; Lort PhiUips, Ibis, 1896, p. 79 ; Elliot, t. c. 
p. 46 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 412 ; Peel, t. c. p. 316. 

No. 16. d ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 29, 1898. 

No. 97. 2 ad. Laskarato, Jan. 24, 1899. 

No. 179, 182. c? 2 ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Feb. 11-14, 1899. 

No. 218. 6 ad. Adadle, March 6, 1899. 

46. Saxicola pleshanka. 

Saxicola morio Hempr. &Ehr. ; Oustalet, t. c. p. 7; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 413 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 72 ; Peel, t c. p. 316. 

No. 156. d ad. Sheikh Abukadle, Eeb. 9, 1899. Iris dark 
green. 

No. 178. 2 ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Eeb. 14, 1899, Iris black. 

No. 259. 2 ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 12, 1899. Iris 
black. 

47. Saxicola deserti. 

Saxicola deserti Temm. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 405 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 79 ; Ibis, 1898, p. 413 ; Hawker, Ibis, 
1899, p. 72 ; Peel, t. c. p. 316. 

No. 155. 6 ad. Sheikh Abukadle, Eeb. 9, 1899. 

20* 



308 DE. B. B. SHARPS ON [June 18, 

48. Myembcocichla melanttra. 

MyrmecocicMa melanura (Temm.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 486 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 79 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 47 ; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 413 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 72 ; Peel, t. c. p. 316. 

Ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 25, 1899. 

49. Crateropus smithi. 

Crateropus smithi, Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, iv. p. xli; id. 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 487 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, p. 80 ; Hawker, Ibis, 
1899, p. 73 ; Peel, t. c. p. 317. 

No. 245. 2 ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 19, 1899. 

50. Pycnonotus arsinoe. 

Pycnonotus arsinoe (Hempr. & Ehr.) ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 413; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 73 ; Peel, t. c. p. 317. 

No. 34. (S ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, 1899. 

No. 142. Ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Eeb. 6, 1899. 

Nos. 196, 241. S ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), Eeb. 22, March 15, 
1899. 

51. Mtopornis boehmi. 

Parisoma hoehmi Eeichenow ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 490 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 48 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 74 ; Peel, t. c. p. 317. 

Myopornis hohmi, Eeichenow, J. f. O. 1901, p. 285; Sharpe, 
Hand-1. B. iii. p. 243 (1901). 

Nos. 167, 175. $ ad. Magog (4700 ft.), Feb. 13-14, 1899. 

52. Terpsiphone cristata. 

TerpsipJione cristata (Gm.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 400 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 490 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 76 ; Elliot, 
t. c. p. 48 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 414 ; Peel, t. c. p. 318. 

No. 206. d imm. Gan Liban (4700-5900 ft.), Eeb. 25 to 
March 16, 1899. 

53. Crtptolopha umbrivirens. 

Cryjotolopha umhrivirens (Eiipp.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. iv. 
p. 401 (1879); id. Hand4. B. iii. p. 274. 

No. 231. d ad. Gan Liban, March 13, 1899. 

54. Campotheba nubica. 

Campotliera nubica (Gm.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 393 ; Salvad. 
Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 552 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 492 ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) xvi. p. 44 ; EUiot, 
t, c. p. 49; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 415; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 74 ; Peel, t. c. p. 319. 

No. 52. 2 ad. Biji, Jan. 9, 1899. 

55. Dendeopicus hemprichi. 

Dendropicus hemprichi (Hempr. & Ehr.); Shelley, Ibis, 1885, 
p. 393 ; Salvad. Mem, E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 552 ; 



1901.] BIEDS FROM SOMALI-LAND, S09 

Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 491 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 48; Lort Phillips, 
Ibis, 1898, p. 414 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 74 ; Peel, t. c. p. 319. 

Nos. 60-89. c? ad. Biji, 1200 ft., Jan. 12-20, 1899. 

No. 152. 2 ad. Near Ania, Feb. 4, 1899. 

56. Indicator indicator. 

Indicator indicator (Gm.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 492. 
Nos. 153, 216. S 2 ad. Morobegih (4100 ft.), Feb. 8 to March 
6, 1899. 

No. 230. $ ad. Gan Liban, March 13, 1899. 

57. Traohyphonus margaritatus. 

Trachyphonus margaritatus (Cretzschm.) ; Elliot, t. c. p. 49 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 415 ; Peel, t. c. p. 319. 

No. 100. 6 ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 25, 1899. 

58. Trichol^ma blandi. 

Tricholcema blandi, Lort Philhps, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, iv. p.xlvii; 
id. Ibis, 1898, p. 415, pi. xi. fig. 1 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 75 ; 
Peel, t. c. p. 320. 

No. 140. 2 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 6, 1899. 

59. PCEOCEPHALUS RUPIVENTEIS. 

PoeocepJialus rufiventris (Eiipp.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 393 ; 
Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 551 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 494 ; Salvad. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) xvi. p. 44 ; 
Lort Philips, Ibis, 1896, p. 72 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 50 ; Peel, t. c. p. 323. 

No. 77, 2 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 17, 1899. 

No. 104. S ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 27, 1899. 

Nos. 193, 224. S ad. Adadle, Feb. 20 to March 9, 1899. 

60. Coccystes glandarius. 

Goccystes glandarius (Linn.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. 
p. 212 (1891) ; id. B. Africa, i. p. 123 (1896). 
Nos. 48, 51. 2 ad. Biji, Jan. 8, 1899. 

61. SCHIZORHIS LEUCOGASTER. 

Schizorhis leucogaster Riipp. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 400 ; Salvad. 
Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 552 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 495; Lort Philhps, Ibis, 1896, p. 74 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 51 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 416 ; Peel, t. c. p. 320. 

Nos. 25, 30. S 2 ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 3, 1899. 

No. 59. 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 12, 1899. 

Nos. 98, 99. 2 S ad. Laskarato, Jan. 24, 1899. 

62. CORACIAS NiEVIUS. 

Goracias ncevius Daud. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 399 ; Salvad. 
Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 554 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, 



310 DR. R. B. SHARPE OK [June 18, 

p. 496 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 74 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 51 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 416 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 75 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 323. 

No. 24. $ ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 1, 1899. 

No. 90. S ad. Laskarato (3175 ft.), Jan. 21, 1899. 

No. 114. S ad. Ania, Peb. 1, 1899. 

63. LOPHOCEROS MEDIAKUS. 

Lojjlioceros erythrorJn/nc7ms (Heugl.) ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. 
Sci. Torino, (2) xhv. p.' 553 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 52 ; Peel, t. c. p. 322. 
Lophoceros medianus, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 498. 
No. 115. d ad. Anai, Feb. 1, 1899. 

64. Lophoceros elavirostris. 

Lophoceros flavirostris (Eiipp.) ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci, 
Torino, (2) xliv.p. 554; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 499; Elliot, i. c. 
p. 53 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 417 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 75; 
Peel, t. c. p. 322. 

Nos. 194, 195. d $ ad. Adadle, Feb. 21, 1899. 

65. Uptjpa somalensis. 

TJpupa senegalensis Swains. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 397. 
Upupa somalensis Salvin ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 500 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 73 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 53 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 

1898, p. 417 ; Peel, t. c. p. 321. 

No. 102. 2 ad. Laskarato (3025 It.), Jan. 25, 1899. 

66. Irrisor erythrorhtnohus. 

Irrisor erytJirorhyncJius (Lath.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 395 ; 
Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 500 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 72 ; 
EUiot, t. c. p. 54 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 417; Hawker, Ibis, 

1899, p. 76 ; Peel, t. c. p. 321. 

No. 56. 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 11, 1899. 

Nos. 128, 131. 6 ad. Ania, Feb. 4, 1899. 

No. 145. S ad. Laskarato, Jan. 30, 1899. 

Nos. 248, 250. S ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 16, 1899. 

67. Ehinopomastus minor. 

Irrisor minor (Eiipp.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 397. 

Rhinopomastus minor, Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) 
xliv. p. 553 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 500 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 54 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 417 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 76 ; Peel, 
t. c. p. 321. 

Nos. 45. S ad.; 46. $ juv. Biji, Jan. 7,1899. 
No. 190. d ad. Adadle, Feb. 20, 1899. 

68. Mblittophagus cyanostiotus. 

Melittophagus pusillus cyanostictus (P. L. S. Miill.) ; Shelley, 
Ibis, 1895, p. 398. 



1901.] BIRDS FROM SOMALI-LATS^D. 311 

Melittophagus cyanostictus, Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
(2) xliv. p. 553 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 501 ; Lort PhilUps, 
Ibis, 1896, p, 73; Elliot, t. c. p. 54; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 418 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 76 ; Peel, t. c. p. 321.^ 

Merops cyanostictus (Cab.) ; Oustalet, Bibl. Haut.-Etudes, xxxi. 
Art. X. p. 4. 

Melittophagus sharpei Hartert, Sharpe, Hand-l . B. ii. p. 72 (1900). 

No. 35. d? ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, 1899. 

Nos. 70, 71. 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 15, 1899. 

No. 113. S ad. Laskarato, Jan. 29, 1899. 

No. 132. <S ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb 4, 1899. 

69. Melittophagus revoili. 

Merops revoili Oust, in Eevoil's Faune et Flor. Comalis, Ois, p. 5, 
pi. 1 (1882) ; Peel, t. c. p. 321. 

Melittophagus revoili, SheUey, Ibis, 1885, p. 398 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 502 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 74 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 55. 

Merops (MelittopJiagus) revoili, Oust. t. c. p. 4. 

No. 159. 2 ad. Sheikh Abukadle, Feb. 9, 1899. 

70. COLIUS MAORURUS. 

Colius macrurus (Linn.) ; Oust. t. c. p. 3 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, 
p. 502 ; ElHot, t. c. p. 56 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1898, p. 77 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 320. 

No. 36. 6 ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, 1899. 

Nos. 182, 183. 6 ad. Adadle, Feb. 16, 1899. 

71. Caprimulgtjs nubicus. 

Caprimulgus nubicus Licht. ; Elliot, t. c. p. 56 ; Peel, t. c. p. 321. 

No. 69. c? ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 14, 1899. 

Nos. 108, 109. S 2 ad. Laskarato (3500 ft.), Jan. 28-29, 1899. 

72. Caprimulgus inornatus. 

Caprimulgus inornatus Heugl. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 503 ; 
Lort PhilHps, Ibis, 1898, p. 418 ; Peel, t. c. p. 321. 
No. 78. Ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 17, 1899. 

73. Bubo oinerascens. 

Bvibo cinerascens Gruer. ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino (2) 
xliv. p. 550 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 78. 
No. 258. c? ad. Adadle, March 5, 1899. 

74. Carine spilogaster. 

Oarine spilogaster (Heugl.) ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
(2) xliv. p. 551 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 504; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 418 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 77 ; Peel, t. c. p. 323. 

No. 9. d ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 26, 1898. 

No. 42 a. S ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 5, 1899. 

No. 93. ? ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 22, 1899. 

No. 144. S ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 6, 1899. 



312 jDjR. E. B. SHAEPE OK [June 18, 

75. MblIEEAX fOLIOPTEEUS. 

Melierax polioptems (Cab.) ; Salvad. Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) 
xliv. p. 550; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 506; Elliot, t. c. p. 57 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 419 ; Peel, t. c. p. 324. 

No. 10. $ ad. Bihen Dula (1400 ft.), Dec. 27, 1898. 

No. 54. $ ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 9, 1899. 

No. 185. <S ad. Adadle, Peb. 17, 1899. 

76. Melieeax gabae. 

Melierax gabar (Daud.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 391; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 506 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 77 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 325. 

No. 146. c? imm. Ania, Feb. 3, 1899. 

77. Melieeax nigee. 

Melierax niger (Heugl.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 506 ; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 419; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 77; Peel, 
t. c. p. 325. 

No. 257. $ ad. Adadle, March 5, 1899. Iris dark brown. 

78. Aquila albicans. 

Aquila rapax, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 507 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 57 ; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 419 ; Peel, t. c. p. 325. 
No. 151. § ad. Laskarato (4500 ft.), Jan, 24, 1899. 
No. 150. c? ad. Jifa Tri (5000 ft,), Jan. 26, 1899. 
No. 215. S ad. Adadle, March 3, 1899. 

79. MiLVUS ^GYPTIUS. 

Milvus a^gyptius (Gm.) ; Oust. t. c. p. 2 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, 
p. 509 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 420 ; Peel, L c. p. 325. 
No. 67. d ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 13, 1899. 
No. 253. (S ad. Gan Liban, March 21, 1899. 

80. POLIOHIBEAX SEMITOEQUATUS. 

Poliohierax semitorquatus (Smith) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 391 ; 
Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 550 ; Sharpe, 
P.Z. S, 1895, p. 510; Elliot, t. c. p. 58;. Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 420 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 78 ; Peel, t. c. p. 324. 

No. 22. $ ad. Near Bulbar, Dec. 31, 1898. 

Nos. 81, 82. $ 6 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. 

No. 124. $ ad. Ania, Feb. 4, 1899. 

81. CeEOHNEIS TINNUlSrOULUS. 

Tinnunculus tinnunculus (Linn.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 392. 

Gerchneis tinnunculus, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 510 ; Lort 
Phdlips, Ibis, 1898, p. 420 ; Peel. t. c. p. 324. 

No. 165. 6 ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Feb. 12, 1899. 

Nos. 208, 236. S ad. dan Liban (5900 to 6700 ft.), Feb. 27 to 
March 14, 1899. 



1901.] birds from somali-land. 313 

82. Ceechneis fieldi. 

Cerchneis Jieldi, Elliot, Field- Col amb. Mus., Orn. i. p. 38; 
Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 79 ; Peel, t. c. p. 324. 
No. 180. 6 ad. Adadle, Feb. 16, 1899. 

83. LoPHOGYPS occipitalis. 

Lophogyps occipitalis (Burch.) ; Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. 
Torino, (2) xliv. p. 550 ; id. Ann. Mus. Grenov. (2) xvi. p. 43 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 59 ; Peel, t. c. p. 326. 

No. 68. $ ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 14, 1899. 

84. NeOPHROIS" PERCIfOPTERUS. 

Neophron percnopterus (Linn.); Sbarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. 
p. 17 (1874) ; Peel, t. c. p. 326. 

No. 8. Ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 26, 1898. 

85. Necrostetes monachus. 

Neophron monachus (Temm.) ; Shai'pe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. i. 
p. 19 (1874) ; Shelley, B. Africa, i. p. 155 (1896). 

Necrosyrtes monachus, Sharpe, Hand-1. B. i. p. 243 (1899). 
No. 57. S ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 12, 1899. 
No. 107. S ad. Laskarato, Jan. 28, 1899. 

86. Heteeotetrax humilis. 

Heterotis humilis (Blyth) ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
(2) xliv. p. 562. 

Heterotetrax humilis, Sharpe, Cat. B. xxiii. p. 297 (1894) ; id. 
Hand-1. B. i. p. 174 (1899) ; Peel, Somali-land, App. Birds, 
p. 330 (1900). 

No. 37. c? ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 4, ] 899. 

87. LOPHOTIS GINDIANA. 

Lophotis gindiana (Oust.) ; Salvad. Mem. S. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
(2) xliv. p. 563; id. Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) xvi. p. 45; Lort 
Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 86 ; Elliot, t, c. p. 60 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 
1898, p. 421 ; Peel, t. c. p. 330. 

No. 20. Ad. Near Bulbar, Dec. 30, 1898. 

No. 86. Ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 19, 1899. Iris very light 
yellow. 

88. (Edicnemus aeeinis. 

(Edicnemus affinis Heugl. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 513 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 61 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 421 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 331. 

No. 43. $ ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 6, 1899. Tarsus 3-2 in. 

No. 223. 6 ad. Adadle, March 9, 1899. Tarsus 3-9 in. _ 

The difference in the length of tarsus in these two individuals 
is somewhat remarkable. 



314 DR. R. B. SHARPB ON" [JuDe 18, 

89. Ehinoptilus cinctus. 

Bhinojitilus cinctus (Heugl.); Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 416 ; Sharpe, 
P. Z. S. 1895, p. 513 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 62 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 421 ; Peel, t. c. p. 331. 

No. 23. 2 ad. Near Bulbar, Dec. 31, 1898. 

No. 63. d ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 12, 1899. 

No. 143. 5 ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 6, 1899. 

90. CUESORIUS SOMALEIS-SIS. 

Oursorius gracilis somalensis, Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 415. 

Oursorius somalensis, Salvad. Mem. R. Acead. Sci. Torino, (2) 
xliv. p. 563 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, p. 86 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 62 ; 
Lort PhilHps, Ibis, 1898, p. 422 ; Peel, t. c. p. 330. 

No. 10. $ ad. Bihen Dula, Dec. 26, 1898. 

No. 27. d ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 2, 1899. 

No. 170. 2 ad. Magog (4300 ft.), Feb. 14, 1899. 

Nos. 205, 251. c? $ ad. Gan Liban (4700 ft.), Feb. 24 to 
March 19, 1899. 

91. Stephanibyx coronata. 

Chettusia coronata (Grin.) ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 417; Oustalet, 
t.c. p. 12; Peel, t.c. p. 331. 

Stephanibyx coronata, Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) 
xliv. p. 564; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 514; Elliot, t.c, p. 62; 
Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 422 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 80. 

Nos. 94, 95. 2 6 ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 22, 1899. 

92. JEgialitis bubia. 

uEgialitis clubia (Scop.) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiv. p. 263 
(1896) ; Shelley, B. Africa, i. p. 190 (1896). 
No. 4. d ad. Near Berbera, Dec. 25, 1898. 
No. 110. 2 ad. Laskarato, Jan. 29, 1899. 

93. VlNAGO WAALIA. 

Treron waalia (Grm.); Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 414. 

Vinago waalia, Salvad. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. 
p. 561 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 516 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1896, 
p. 85 ; 1898, p. 424 ; Peel, t. c. p. 328. 

No. 106. S ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 27, 1899. 

Nos. 233-235. S ad. Gan Liban (4700-5900 ft.), Feb. 24 to 
March 13, 1899. 

94. OOLTJMBA ARQUATETX. 

Columba arquatriv Temm. & Knip ; Salvad. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. 
xxi. p. 276 (1893) ; Shelley, B. Africa, i. p. 135 (1896). 

No. 207. 2 ad. Gan Liban (5800 ft.), Feb. 25, 1899. Bill 
and feet yellow. 



1901.] BIEDS FEOM SOMALI-LAND. 315 

95. TUETUE SBNEGALENSIS. 

Turtur senegalensis (Linn.) ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 517; Elliot, 
t. c. p. 64 ; Peel, t. c. p. 328. 

No. 21. 2 ad. Near Berbera, Dec. 31, 1898. 
No. 28. ? ad. Near Bulbar, Jan. 2, 1899. 

96. TUHTUE DAMAEENSIS. 

Turtur damarensis Hempr. & Ebr. ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 518 ; 
Elliot, t. c. p. 65 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 81 ; Peel, t. c. p. 328. 
Nos. 53, 84. cJ 2 ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 9, 1899. 
Nos. 243, 265. d ad. Gan Liban (5900 ft.), March 16, 1899. 

97. TUETUE SEMITOEQUATUS. 

Turtur semitorqitatus (Rlipp.) ; Salvad. Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxi. 
p. 416 (1893) ; Shelley, B. Africa, i. p. 136 (1896). 
No. 61. Juv. Biji, Jan. 12, 1899. 

98. (Ena capensis. 

(Ena capensis (Linn.) ; Oust. t. c. p. 11 ; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. 
Sci. Torino, (2) xliv. p. 561 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 518 ; EUiot, 
t.c. p. 65; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 424 ; Hawker, Ibis, 1899, 
p. 81 ; Peel, t. c. p. 329. 

Nos. 74, 75. c? ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 16, 1899. 

99. PtEEOCLES LICHTBNSa?EINI. 

Pterocles Uchtensteini Blyth; Salvad. Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
(2) xHv. p. 561 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 424 ; Peel, t. c. 
p. 329. 

Nos. 91, 92. 5 ad. Laskarato (3025 ft.), Jan. 22, 1899. 

No. 160. 2 ad. Sheikh Abukadle, Eeb. 10, 1899. 

100. Eeancolinus geanti. 

Fmncolinus cjranti Hartl. ; Shelley, Ibis, 1885, p. 414 ; Salvad. 
Mem. E. Accad. Sci. Torino, (2) xhv. p. 562 ; Sharpe, P. Z. S. 
1895, p. 520 ; Lort PhiUips, Ibis, 1896, p. 85 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 66. 

Nos. 126. d ; 133, 168. $ ad. Ania (4000 ft.), Feb. 4, 1899. 

101. Eeancolinus kieki. 

Francolinus kirJci Hartl. ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, p. 425 ; 
Hawker, Ibis, 1899, p. 81 ; Peel, t. c. p. 329, 

No. 17. d ad. Bihen Dula (1400 ft.), Dec. 28, 1898. 

102. Ptbenistes inefsoaius. 

Pternistes infuscatus Cab. ; Salvad. Mem, R. Accad. Sci. Torino, 
(2) xliv. p. 562 ; Elliot, t. c. p. 66 ; Lort Phillips, Ibis, 1898, 
p. 425 ; Peel, t. c. p. 329. 

S ad. Gran Liban, April 3, 1899. 



316 ME. J. L. BONHOTB ON THE [June 18, 

103. NUMIDA PTILORHYKCHA. 

Numida ptilorhyncha Licht. ; Grrant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxii. 
p. 379 (1893) ; Peel, t. c. p. 330. 

No. 58. S ad. Biji (1200 ft.), Jan. 12, 1899. 

4, On the Evolution of Pattern in Feathers. 
By J. L. BoNHOTE, M.A., F.Z.S. 

[Eeceived May 30, 1901.] 
(Plates XIX. & XX.^) 

The pattern on the feathers of birds is a subject deserving of a 
somewhat more careful study than has been hitherto accorded to it ; 
my attention was first drawn to the subject by having at different 
times observed several notable varieties of young Sparrow-hawks. 
I have since studied the very large series of that species in the 
National Collection. The feathers on the breast of the typical young 
Sparrow-hawk are shown in diagrammatic representation in the 
drawing (Plate XIX. fig. 1). The ground-colour of the feather is 
white, while along the proximal edge of each of the transverse bars, 
which ai-e dark brown, there is a light margin of yellowish, as well 
as in the centre of the terminal spot. Such, then, are the markings 
of the typical breast-feather of a young Sparrow-hawk; but, from a 
study of a large series of these birds, endless varieties of this pattern 
may be noticed, showing clearly the gradual evolution of the barred 
markings from a simple longitudinal streak, and giving as, as I hope 
to show, a clue to the patterns on the feathers of all birds, or rather 
on all the birds treated of in this article, and also giving us a hint as 
to what extent of evolution they have undergone. A reference to 
the figures will enable the evolution of one pattern from another to 
be more clearly understood. The figures (see Plate XIX.), although 
diagrammatic, are accurate representations of actual feathers of 
Accipiter nisus. In fig. 2 ^ we may note a simple darkening of the 
rhachis, but with the colour more intense at certain places. The 
next stage may be noticed in fig. 3, where the rhachis is pure 
white in between thicker blotches of the darker colour. Figs. 4, 5 
show further stages in the gradual forming of a bar. 

Another mode of attaining the same result is shown in fig. 6, 
where the longitudinal stripehas not become broken, but has merely 
spread out into bars still connected by a darker portion along the 
rhachis. Fig. 7 is another stage of this method in which the 
proximal bar has become cut off and distinct, while the terminal 
spot is much larger and has a great tendency to reach the bars 
above it. From this to fig. 8 is an easy stage in which the horns 
have grown up rather more and are farther removed from the edge 
of the feather, forming a heart-shaped marking. It may be noticed, 
by the way, that this form most nearly approaches the typical 
feather fig. 1 ; the only difference being that in fig. 1 the space 

^ For explanation of the Plates, see p. 326. 

^ Where no Plate is mentioned the figures refer to Plate XIX. 



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1901.] EVOLUTION or PATTEBN IN PEATHBRS. 317 

between the two horns has been filled in. Pigs. 9 and 10 show a 
further stage in the gradual cutting-off of the upper part of the 
spot to form a bar \ I'igs. 11 and 12 represent two other stages 
in another line of development, showing the formation of the 
crescent. 

Disregarding the pattern for a minute we may turn to the 
question of colour, and imagine the typical feather with its dark 
bars. At first, as I mentioned above, there is a slight tinge of 
lighter colour towards the upper margin of the feather (not shown 
in the figure) ; in other specimens we notice that the dark bars 
are narrower, and that the hghter colour has a reddish tinge and 
appears on both sides of the bars. In another specimen, again, the 
bar is still narrower, and the red darker and overspreading a 
much larger area, while what is left of the bar has, so to speak, 
been unevenly eaten away, so that merely a thin vermiculated stripe 
is left ; and finally the feather is almost entirely suffused with red 
which is rather more intense where the bars were ; this last stage 
being that found in some adult males. In these stages, however, 
although the intensity of the red may vary considerably, the original 
position of the bars may always be traced. 

Lest I should be misunderstood, I would mention that in all 
these cases the feathers have been taken from different birds, and 
that I have no proof of the pattern on any individual feather being 
changed as some writers (cf. E. B. Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 44) 
have suggested : it may be so, or it may not, but that contingency 
has not been taken into account in this paper. 

I propose now to make a few deductions from these various 
patterns, and then, if possible, prove them to hold good by taking 
examples from various species in widely different Orders. 

Pirst, I would suggest that the most primitive feathers were 
entirely colourless, or of a dull dingy grey, the first trace of a 
pattern being a longitudinal stripe of colour down the rhachis. 
Possibly the feathers of some species became self-coloured without 
undergoing any pattern stage, but this is doubtful ; and in the 
majority of self-coloured birds, even when white, the self-coloration 
has been subsequently assumed. The self-coloured feathers are 
those in which it is most difficult to fix the period of evolution. 
They may, for instance, be merely the very much enlarged longi- 
tudinal stripe, as in the case of those birds whose young show light 
edgings to their feathers. This is probably the most usual form ; 
or they may come about by the gradual reabsorption of the bai-s, 
the colour spreading over the entire feather ; or they may be of a 
later stage altogether, as in the breast of G-ulls and many other 
birds, where the light colour of the underparts has probably been 
assumed for protection. 

The following tree will perhaps give a closer idea of the possible 
stages in the evolution of pattern. 

^ It may be noted that in most of the figures four bars are shown, and that 
therefore the terminal spot in figs. 7-10 probably represents the two terminal 



318 



MR. J. L. BONHOTE ON THE 



[June 18, 






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1901.] EVOLUTION or PATTERN IN EEATHEES. 319 

The distinctive patterns o£ birds caused by different patterns on 
a number of feathers taken together owe their origin to other 
causes, and must not be taken into account in this paper except in 
so far as they have been directly modified from these primitive 
patterns. This class of markings, although the most important 
for the bird's welfare, is probably the most unstable, being con- 
tinually altered to keep the race distinct when it meets with various 
other nearly allied members of its genus, either in extending its 
range, or from some other cause. It is worth mentioning on this 
subject that when a race finds it essential to differentiate itself 
from a closely allied form, it has to cover up its distinctive mark as 
well as to evolve a new one ; and consequently we may suppose 
that some of the markings on birds are the degenerate race-marks 
of former generations. The genus Fringilla offers a good example 
of this. 

There are eight species or forms known, namely : — 

F. teydea inhabiting Teneriffe. 

F. ccelebs „ Europe generally. 

F. maderensis „ Madeira. 

F, maderensis moreleti . . „ Azores. 

F. maderensis canariensis ,, Teneriffe. 

F. maderensis palma .... „ Las Palmas, Canaries. 

F. spodAogenys „ Algeria. 

F. montifringilla „ Europe generally. 

The whole of these species (with one exception, F. teydea) may 
be recognized by two distinct cross-bars on the wing, especially 
noticeable when the bird is flying ; these cross-bars being formed 
by a more or less broad white tip to certain of the wing-coverts. 

In only two places is more than one species of this genus found, 
namely, in Europe, where we find F. ccelebs and F. montifringilla, 
the latter having, however, a different breeding range ; and at 
Teneriffe, where there is a very restricted forest-form, F. teydea, and 
a species of the more normal type, F. canariensis. 

It is instructive therefore to notice that in these two cases only, 
where the risk of intermingling between the species might occur, 
do we find any attempt on the part of one or other of them 
to alter or modify the characteristic cross-bars of the wing. 
F. teydea accomplishes this more completely and successfully than 
F. montifringilla ; but, considering its restricted range and the com- 
paratively greater amount of in-breeding which must go on, such a 
result is only natural. F. teydea obliterates the cross-bars altogether, 
and does not assume any other distinctive mark, the confined 
space of its range tending to render such a mark unnecessary. 

With F. montifringilla the case is different, and while the 
cross-bars are being obliterated, it has assumed a further distinctive 
marking in having a white rump. We are, however, I think, 
quite justified in coming to the conclusion that this species is still 
in a state of transition, since it is seldom that the rump is purely 
white, being frequently interspersed with darker feathers, while 



320 MR, J. I;, BONHOTE ON THE [June 18, 

on the cross-bars feathers are found of all shades from deep orange 
to yellowish white. 

These remarks, although somewhat beside the point, have been 
inserted as showing one of the many causes by which the develop- 
ment of the pattern in the feather would tend to be altered and 
modified, in the young birds no less than in the adults, to such an 
extent as to overturn at first sight the theory contained in this paper. 

It is, perhaps, needless to add that these are the patterns on 
which the large majority of species are based; they have in reality 
but little in common with the markings on a feather itself, about 
which this paper is written. Other causes such as protection, 
vigour, and adornment, all play a part in the general pattern and 
markings on the birds ; but, leaving the modification caused by all 
these as far as possible out of consideration, let us look at a few 
examples from widely-spread Orders, and see to what extent the 
process of evolution as set forth above is borne out by the 
facts. 

In the young Peregrine the back is of a uniform brovt-n, 
with a light edging ; after its first moult the feathers are clearly 
referable to the type in fig. 6, while those on the tail are of a 
similar type, but with the tips of the bars ([uite joined up in an 
exaggerated form of fig. 7. In the adult bird the bars on both 
the back and the tail are complete. On the pattern of the breast 
it is unnecessary to enlarge, for it is similar to that of the Sparrow- 
hawk. It is worth noting, however, that while the back and breast 
have undergone similar changes, the back has become considerably 
darker, having been presumably modified for protective purposes. 
The Kestrel, on the other hand, offers an example in which, in 
the young bird, the tail and the back have complete bars which are 
afterwards to a great extent lost, while on the breast the bars are 
either very incomplete or we have merely the very early form of 
longitudinal stripe. This is but one case of a very common 
phenomenon to which I shall have occasion to refer again, namely : 
that when the upper and under sides of the plumage show different 
stages of evolution, the upper parts are generally the most 
advanced. 

Before leaving the Hawks, where similar observations may be 
made on most species, we might look at the back and tail of the 
adult male Sparrow-hawk. At first sight the whole of the upper 
surface will appear self-coloured, but a closer look will reveal two 
or three darker patches on the tail showing the last remnants of 
the bars. It will then seem that in this case the tail has not 
advanced so quickly as the body-feathers in its rate of evolution. 
If, however, the feathers of the back be raised up, we find that these 
feathers are in reality a modified form of the type shown in fig. 8, 
with the terminal marking relatively very large and quite concealing 
the white base of the neighbouring feather. With regard to the 
Strigidse as a group, I have not had time or opportunity to go into 
the matter very thoroughly ; but, in those I have examined, the 
patterns lend themselves to classification as in other groups, 



1901.] EVOLUTIOTf OF PATTERN IN FBATHBRS. 321 

although at first sigbt they appeav somewhat puzzling. The vermi- 
culatedforin of pattern is very common among them, and in some 
extreme cases, e. g. Asio otus, the whole feather seems to be mottled 
indiscriminately, while in others, e. g. Scojjs, the vermiculation is 
confined to the bars, or the area that should be covered by bars. 
The Barn Owl, however (Plate XX. fig. 5) forms a good connecting 
link for this vermiculated pattern, which has broken off from the 
main line of evolution at an early stage. Fig. 4 shows the earliest 
beginnings of it in the typical series. It will be noticed on refer- 
ence to Plate XX. fig. 5 that all the markings are confined to the 
tip of the feather, and that no distinct bars can be made out in the 
vermiculation itself ; but if this vermiculated part be omitted from 
consideration for a minute, we have clearly the stage very nearly 
approaching fig. 3. 

Plate XX. fig. 6 represents the feather from the breast of a 
young Scops Owl showing the vermiculation restricted to the bar 
area. 

The Burrowing Owl does not bear out the statement that the 
upper parts (where any difference exists) show a higher form of 
evolution than the underparts. In this case the feathers of the 
back are of the form shown in fig. 7, while the underparts are 
barred. This need not, however, occasion much difficulty, for it 
will be readily seen that the habit of this bird being to sit at the 
mouth of its burrow, the underparts would be the most exposed, 
and consequently those on which laws causing evolution would tend 
to act most vigorously. 

The large order of Passeres is that to which we may next turn. 
The British Thrushes as a series show us clearly the lines of evo- 
lution. In the young of Turdus viscivorus, we find on the back 
the last bar alone persistent, so that according to the table they 
may be considered as forming a highly evolved race. The indi- 
vidual feathers on the back of the young Missel Thrush exhibit 
considerable variation : some of them show the bar as V-shaped, in 
others it is straight, while in some the dark colour is no longer to 
be found on the rhachis and is only found in two longitudinal bars 
along the centre of the vane on either side. In White's Thrush 
this stage persists in the adult, but the tip always remains as a 
bar, more or less crescentie, whereas in the Missel Thrush the 
feathers have become self-coloured. 

The young of the Song-Thrush (Plate XX. figs. 10 & 11) is similar 
to that of the Missel Thrush, except that evolution has gone slightly 
further as it is much more nearly self-coloured. On the wing-coverts 
all trace of a bar has disappeared, the two longitudinal stripes, 
representing the original arms of the V-shaped bar, have covered 
the whole vane, the rhachis being alone left of a yellowish colour 
vdth A-shaped markings of a similar colour at the tip. The feathers 
still show traces of the dark V-shaped bar ; but a tendency to slur 
over the stages is shown, so that they are not distinct as in the 
Missel Thrush. 

As regards the underparts, they are never in advance of the upper, 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1901, Yol. II. No. XXI. 21 



322 MR. J. L. BONHOTE ON THE [June 18, 

The SoDg-Thrush, Missel Thrush, Eedwing, and hen Blackbird have 
the usual Thrush marking, viz. PI. XX. fig. 8, which I take to be 
a shortening of the primitive lougitudinal streak ; in the young 
of the Missel Thrush, and sometimes in the case of the Song- 
Thrush, the terminal light edgings are visible. In the Fieldfare 
(Plate XX. fig. 9) we may note the terminal spot much enlarged, 
with a tendency to become light in the centre and form the V-shaped 
markings, whilst in White's Thrush the markings are crescentie. 
A Table of the Thrushes drawn from the original tree would 
make them break off from the 4th line in the main tree. 



Heart-shaped markings Heart-shaped marking split Heart-shaped marking ovate, 

forming crescent. in centre to form V-shaped no bars above (Fig. 8. 

{Turdus varius.) marking. (Breast of T. PL XX.). Breast of T. ms- 

pilaris. Young of T. vis- civorus, T. musicus, T. ilia- 

civorus.) cus, J T. merula. 

Two longitudinal stripes along the centre of 
either vane, with light rhachis. 

The longitudinal stripes joined, leaving only 
a light terminal spot. 

Self-coloured feather. 
(cJ T. merula and. back of T. pilaris. T. iliacus. T. musicus. T. viscivorus.) 

Judging from pattern alone, we should therefore be led to 
classify them in the following order, starting from the highest 
form : — 

(1) T. merula. (2) T. musicus. (3) T. viscivorus. (4) T. pilaris. 
(5) T. iliacus. (6) T. varius. 

T. iliacus is placed after T. pilaris owing to the markings on 
the breast being of a slightly more primitive type. This sug- 
gestion, however, is only given as showing how a study of the 
pattern might be applied. 

It would make the paper too long and tedious to take many 
examples of the Passeres, and necessitate a careful examination of 
a large series of young birds, which, unfortunately, I have not at 
hand. It may be mentioned, however, as I have noted them, that 
the back of the young Spotted Flycatcher greatly resembles that of 
the young Missel Thrush, and that the markings of a young Haw- 
finch are very similar to those of White's Thrush. Plate XX. fig. 1 
represents a feather from the breast of the Wren, showing how the 
A-marking, most clearly visible in the Nutcracker, might be 
brought about if it did not follow the line shown in the Thrushes. 

In the Wryneck we find the young with a barred plumage on 
the breast, while the adult has the V-sbaped markings ; and on 
reference to the table it will be noticed that it has followed the form 
'of evolution shown in the centre or main line, the only difference 



1901.] BYOLITTION OP PAGraERN Ilf FEATHEKS. 323 

being that all the bars are disconnected. The Woodpeckers are from 
this point o£ view a comparatively low form : in the young of Picus 
viridis very incomplete bars are seen, while in Dendropicus minor 
the longitudinal streak of an early type persists in the adult. I am 
further inclined to believe that the dull dirty white of the chin 
and throat represents the primitive patternless feather, but am not 
in a position to express a definite opinion on the point at present. 

Having already dealt with the Owls and Hawks, the next group 
to claim our attention is that of the Steganopodes. In the 
Cormorants we find a type of pattern with which we hitherto 
have not had to deal, namely, a feather with a darker margin. At 
first I was inclined to regard this as merely an exaggerated form of 
the crescent, but an examination of the young bird speedily 
dismissed that idea, as in it the pattern is identical with the adult ; 
whereas if it were, as I imagined, an exaggerated crescent, one ought 
undoubtedly to see traces of a light margin. An examination 
of a young Cormorant, in which the feathers are whitish with 
a longitudinal stripe, showed that the darker marginal border 
could be distinguished even in the case of the white feather. 
Grreen and metallic colours are almost always due, not to a 
difference of pigment, but to a condition known as " surface 
structure " due to ridges on the surface of a feather breaking up 
the colours into their component pai'ts, and acting by interference 
so that only rays of a certain colour reach the eye\ Here, then, 
is the explanation of this marking. The feather itself is a purely 
self-coloured one, but round the margin, where the feather is more 
broken, the true colour of the pigment, which has been obstructed 
by the process of surface-structure, is able to show itself and forms 
the darker margin. 

While the genus Phalacrocoraoo has been evolving in this 
manner, the G-annet (Stda) has taken another course, and by 
proceeding along the line we are more particularly studying, has 
so far evolved as to have reached a secondary white stage. It is not 
easy to see the stages between the dark brown semi-adult birds 
and the pure white adult : great irregularity is noticeable in birds 
assuming the white phimage, as regards the tracts in which it 
is first assumed (although the back, wings, and tail are invariably 
the last) ; but what is perhaps of most importance to us is the 
fact that in the parti-coloured feathers, of which there are many, 
we lose all t^'ace of the patterns which we have hitherto been able 
to refer to a common origin, however different the general appear- 
ance may have been. 

In the immature bird, however, matters follow what we may now 
pei'haps call the normal course ; and in its first plumage it starts 
at a high level, by the feathers being apparently self-coloured with 
A-shaped white tips as in the Nutcracker or young Thrush. 

Of the Ardeidae I have only had opportunity of studying a few 
commoner types, and they all seem to have very similarly 
marked feathers, which, when not self-coloured, consist of a 
' See Gadow, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 240. 

21* 



324 MK. J. L. BONHOTB ON THE [June 18, 

longitudinal stripe down the centre of each A'ane. This type is 
found in the young of Nyctieorax and also of Ardea cinerea and 
A. purpurea ; this marking was presumably assumed long ago, as 
even in young birds we get no trace of the earlier stages. In the 
Bittern, however, similar markings exist and we also find connecting 
bars, these features being especially well marked on the scapulars; 
and so we may be entitled to assume that in Ardea the former 
pattern was derived along the same line. 

Among the Anatidae we may notice that the barred form is 
the commonest and most usual type. Taking Anas boschas as our 
example, and the feathers on the breast in particular, we may 
notice that in the immature bird the feather is brownish with a 
longitudinal stripe ; this pattern also persists in the adult female. 
In the male the feathers are self-coloured on the breast, but with 
minutely vermiculated bars on the chest; in his summer dress, 
however, the pattern of the feathers is barred and not longi- 
tudinally striped, but otherwise similar in colour to the female. 
The bars vary greatly in their development, but for the most part 
they are not strikingly defined. 

Over the Common Partridge {Perdix cinerea^ — which we may 
take as practically typical of the group to which it belongs — it may 
be worth while to spend a few minutes. The most conspicuous 
parts of the Partridge's feather are the longitudinal white stripes 
along the rhachis. These stripes occur in the very young bird on 
almost all the feathers both of the back and front; but in the adult, 
although far more conspicuous, they are restricted to the flanks and 
scapulars. Starting with a very young bird which has just got its 
first feathers, we may notice that the feather has a narrow light 
centre bounded on either side by a longitudinal dark stripe, which is 
again succeeded by a lighter area. In most of the feathers this 
stripe appears uniform and unbroken, but generally a few isolated 
feathers may be found in which either the stripe on one side or 
the other is abruptly broken by a light bar, or the stripe shows 
signs of being darker and thicker in certain places. It is therefore 
obvious that this stage is not developed along the line in which 
the proximal pattern has disappeared and the terminal bar has 
grown out with elongated arms until the centre becomes obliterated, 
leaving the arms, but that each of these longitudinal dark stripes 
is made up of portions of successive bars. The key to this 
system is that in the youngest bird the light centre widens out to 
form a white tip similar in shape to that of the Nutcracker, and 
noticed previously in this paper when dealing with the Wren. 
The method of evohition will be most clearly understood by a 
study of the figures (see Plate XX. figs. 2, 3 & 4). 

The next order which we will notice is that of the Limicolse ; 
they show comparatively few feathers of interest from the point 
of view of pattern, and may be discussed in a few words. 
They are all rather primitive, and except in a few cases hardly 
reach the complete barred stage. The Norfolk Plover shows a 
very primitive form, the pattern being chiefly mere longitudinal 



1901.] EVOLTJTIOK or PATTERN IN FEATHBES. 325 

stripes ; while the Golden (Plate XX. fig, 7) and Grey Plovers 
show the most common form of marking, the yellow spot being 
the ground-colour or what is left of it, between greatly- 
enlarged and connected bars. Passing over many forms of more 
or less interest, we may take as our typical example the Knot 
(Tringa canutus). The young shows on the back a plain grey 
feather with light border and a dark arrow-shaped edge repre- 
senting the last bar ; on the breast there is the primitive dark 
stripe, especially on the throat and chest, and the whole is slightly 
suffused with pink. In the adult in winter the dark bar on the 
back has been absorbed, and we have the plain grey self-coloured 
feather ; while on the breast, which is quite white, the longitudinal 
dark markings have been replaced by bars of more or less irregular 
shape. In the summer, the adult has the feathers of the scapulars 
black with a white edge and with four or more reddish spots, the 
type of feather being as in that of the Golden Plover ; the breast is 
entirely suffused with red, having the black markings, where they 
occur, as in winter, but the majority of the feathers being self- 
coloured. 

It will be noticed by those who have borne with me so far, 
that these sequences of plumage offer some difficulty, for if we 
imagine the young to be i3he nearest to the archaic type, the winter 
bird will follow naturally as a higher form ; but then we are 
met by the fact that although the colours are much brighter, 
the pattern on the adult in summer is hardly so far evolved as 
that on either the young or the winter bird. 

This is a difficulty to which I am unable to offer a satisfactory 
solution. The tendency of young waders to resemble the breeding- 
plumage of their parents, rather than the duller plumage, has 
always puzzled me, long before any ideas of pattern entered into 
my thoughts ; and now we see that the breeding dress represents 
a lower form of evolution, if my ideas be right, than the non- 
breeding dress, the reverse of what is usually the case. The only 
suggestion I can offer is that in the young and breeding dress we 
have the plumage worn at a time when, food being more plentiful 
and its breeding-haunts more congenial, there was no need for the 
bird to undertake such long journeys, and that scarcity of food, 
causing diminished energy, combined with the necessity of a more 
protective colouring from its many new enemies met with in the 
course of its wanderings, led to the adoption of the grey winter dress. 

The Gulls and Terns need no comment ; in their young state 
they all show in various stages the longitudinal stripes, or half- 
foi'med bars, showing clearly that their adult plumage has been 
subsequently evolved. The spots of Colymbidae are the white 
interspaces between the very much overgrown bars. 

I have now been roughly through many of the main orders of 
birds, and have tried to show that the ideas suggested by the 
variations in the Sparrow-hawk hold good for all the groups on 
which I have touched, and, if so, probably for all birds. In some 
cases my reasonings may appear a little far-fetched, and in others 



326 OK THE EVOLUTION OE PATTEBN IN FEATHERS. [June 18, 

doubtless I have not chosen a correct interpretation o£ the method 
employed. The same results can be reached by several ways ; and 
without a large series of young and immature birds, not only of 
the particular species but also of those nearly allied, it is impos- 
sible to form a positive opinion. 

My object has rather been to show that all the many and diverse 
markings on the feathers of birds are in the main variations of one 
type, namely : a longitudinal stripe with great tendency towards 
lateral expansions into transverse stripes, and that on modifications 
of this, by suppressing one portion or increasing another, all the 
various patterns have been built up. I have not entered into the 
question of the more peculiarly marked feathers in the cases 
where groups of feathers form conspicuous patterns, as such 
markings must have been subsequently acquired, for the recogni- 
tion of the species by its own race, and do not in consequence 
enter into the pui'port of this paper. The main question that 
now remains to be answered is that relating to the method in 
which the pigment groups itself to form these markings, but that 
is a matter which I hope to be able to investigate when dealing 
with the question of colour-chauge. At present I will only say 
that there is usually, if not always, but one pigment in any 
particular feather, the difference in shade or colour being due, in 
the case of shade to a greater or lesser concentration of the 
pigment, and in the case of colour to surface-structure. 

To sum up — Apart from the main principles of the evolution as 
shown in the table (p. 318), and through one or other lines of 
which all birds seem to have passed, it should be noted that the 
most exposed portions of a bird, generally the upper parts, undergo 
a further evolution than those less conspicuously situated, and if 
there be any difference between the sexes, the male shows the 
higher form. 

I should like to add that this paper has no pretensions at being 
in any way complete or exhaustive. The subject has, so far as I 
am aware, not hitherto been treated from this standpoint, and I 
shall be most grateful to any who may care to honour me with 
their criticisms regarding it. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate XIX. 
Figs. 1-13. Diagrammatic representation of the pattern on the feathers of 
various individuals of the Sparrow-hawk (Accipiter nisus). 
Fig. 14. Diagrammatic representation of the pattern on the feather from the 
breast of a Night-Heron {Nycticorax griseiis). 

Plate XX. 
Fig. 1. Feather from the breast of Wren {Troglodytes •parmdus). 
Figs. 2, 3, 4. Feathers from Partridge : figs. 2 & 3 are from young birds. 
Fig. 5. Feather from Barn-Owl {Strix flammea). 

6. „ „ Scops Owl (5'coj»s_§fm). 

7. „ „ Grolden Plover {Gharadrms pluvialis). 

8. „ „ breast of Song-Thrush (Turdus musicus). 

9. „ „ „ „ Fie[di'a.re (Tiirdtis pilaris). 
Figs. 10 & 11. ,, „ young of Song-Thrush. 



p.z.s^iaoi, vol. II. PI .XXI 




J.Greert del -etli-L'h.. 



^nterTtBros . Oa-t 



MOLLUSCA OF THE PERSIAN GULF 
AND ARABIAN SEA. 



P.Z.S.1901,vol.lI.PLXXII 




.Tl . Gt e eTL del . et IJtK . 



MiTi.tern.Bro s . imp. 



MOLLUSCA OF THE PERSIAN GULF 
AND ARABIAN SEA. 



p. z . s , 1901 ,voi .n . PI . xxm . 




23. 



24-. 



J.Qreen- Ael. etHtK. 



Hin-teriLBros imp. 



MOLLUSCA OF THE PEP-SIAN GUILF 
AND ARABIAlsr SEA. 



p. z . 5 . 1901, vol. n. PI. XXIV. 




J. Green- del . et litli. , 



24. 



IfOLLUSCA OF THE PERSIAN GULF 
AND ARABIAN SEA. 



KELn-terrv Br □ a.iinji . 



1901.] ON MOLLUSKS FEOM TSB PERSIAN &ULP. 327 

5. The Mollusca of the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and 
Arabian Sea, as evidenced mainly through the Collections 
of Mr. F. W. Townsend, 1893-1900 ; with Descriptions of 
new Species, By James Cosmo Melvill. M.A., F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., and Robert Standen, Assist. -Keeper, Manchester 
Museum. 

Part I.~CEPHAL0P0DA, GASTEOPODA, SCAPHOPODA. 

[Received June 4, 1901.] 

(Plates XXI.-XXIV. ') 

It is certainly remarkable that the nineteenth century should 
have passed away without any serious attempt to chronicle sys- 
tematically the Mollusca inhabiting the Persian Gulf and Arabian 
Sea having been made, and more especially so, since the waters of 
the last named wash the Western shores of our great Indian 
Empire itself, where are situate, amongst other towns of lesser 
note, those two important centres of commerce and civihzing 
influences, Karachi and Bombay, either of which might, one 
cannot help thinking, have ere this have provided both the 
opportunity and the man to carry out so desirable a project of 
research. 

However, there have been, during the past forty years especially, 
several distinguished pioneers in the field, such well-known names 
occurring to the mind at once as the late Dr. F. Stoliczka, the late 
Mr. Geoffrey Nevill, formerly of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
his brother Mr. H. jSFevill, the late Dr. S. B. Fairbank of Bombay, 
the late Mr. Henry F. Blauford, F.E.S., formerly Meteorological 
Eeporter to the Indian Government, Mr. W. T. Blanford, F.E.S., 
formerly of the Geological Survey of India, besides the late 
Dr. Anderson, F.E.S., and J. Wood-Mason, late Superintendent 
and Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum respectively; 
and lastly Dr. A. Alcock, F.E.S., whose deep-sea dredgings, mostly 
in the Bay of Bengal, or amongst the Laccadive group, just south 
of our proposed limit as regards the Mollusca treated of in this 
paper, have resulted in so many discoveries. Most of the above- 
named JSlaturalists collected material more or less largely, and, 
indeed, went further in contributing various treatises and papers 
from time to time, which form the bases of our knowledge. 

In addition, mention must be made of the late Major Baker, 
author of a short list of Karachi Mollusca^; Mr. W. D. Gumming, 
of the Persian Telegraph Service ; the late Mr. E. MacAudrew, 
donor of much valuable material, especially of Col. Felly's collections 
from the Persian Gulf, many species of which have been described by 

^ For explanation of the Plates, see p. 459. 
2 Cf. Woodward, Man. Moll. ed. ii. p. 73. 



328 MESSES, MELYILIi AJSTD STANDEN ON [June 18, 

Mr. Edgar Smith ; Col. G. B. Maiu waring, Mr. W. Theobald; and, 
more recently, Capt. Cartwright, E.N., Commander E. E. Shopland, 
K.I.M., M. 'E. Houssay, Mr. W. C. Oarphin, Mr. J. O. Twells, 
Lt.-Col. H. D. Olivier, Mr. Alexander Abercrombie of Bombay, 
and Mr. Frederick W. Townsend. 

It is especially with the collections o£ the last-named that we 
are dealing at the present opportunity. 

Mr. Townsend has been lor many years officially connected with 
the Indo-European Company, whose cable extends from Bushire 
in the Persian Gulf along the Mekran Coast to Karachi, where, 
at Manora, he resides, the total distance being considerably over 
one thousand miles. 

Eor the past eight or nine years, as Chief of the Telegraph Staff 
of the Indian Government steamer 'Patrick Stewart,' he has 
been assiduously dredging wherever opportunity offered, and not 
only exercising the greatest possible care and discrimination as to 
the quality of the specimens gathered, but making notes, at the 
time, of locality, depth, and other particulars, which so much 
increase the value of the material dredged. 

Though, perhaps, not quite exhaustive, we imagine the larger 
proportion of the species of MoUusca actually inhabiting this 
vast region will be found catalogued in the accompanying List. 

It was in 1892-93 that Mr, Townsend's earliest consignments 
were despatched home ; and Mr. G. B. Sowerby described certain 
new forms from these, of which we would especially mention 
Mangilia townsendi, Ifiso venosa, Spondylus eoeilis, Pecten towns- 
endi, and Sunetta kurachensis ^. 

Just at the same juncture, too, Mr. Alexander Abercrombie 
began to turn his attention to the Molluscan Fauna of the vicinity 
of Bombay, as far south as Ratnagiri, and, in coadjutorship with 
one of the present authors, essayed a preliminary Catalogue ", 
numbering in all some 325 species. It was then that this Eauna 
was termed ' specialized/ so many interesting new forms did 
it produce, and we wrote then in ignorance of what, so shoi'tly, 
Mr. Townsend's successful dredgings would reveal. By far 
the greater part of the 52 species differentiated as new to 
science from Mr, Abercrombie's collections reappeared, some in 
great quantity, especially from the neighbourhood of Manora and 
Charbar ; and, as several were described from poor or insufficient 
material, it is gratifying to say with regard to nine-tenths of them, 
that the examination of fine specimens more than endorses the 
reasons for their differentiation. Some indeed, are very plentiful, 
such as MargineUa mazagonica, Engina zea, Columhella euterpe, 
Ocinebra bombayana, Purpura blanfordi, Sistrum xutJiedra, Pyr- 
gulina callista, Odostomia sy7-noloides, Cyclostrema solariellum, and 
Tellina lechriogramma. 

These Bombay gatherings, mainly made by Mr. Abercrombie, 
slightly supplemented by Mr. Townsend, supplied the primary 

^ Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond. i. p. 214 sqq., 278 sqq. etc. 
2 Mem. Manclj. Soc. vii. pp. 17-51. 



1901.] MOLLUSKS PROM THE PERSIAN GULP, 329 

constitueDts of our own investigations into this fauna, and we have 
thought it best to enumerate them all in the following pages, as 
tending to make the Catalogue more complete. 



The region we are now discussing forms the N.W. portion of 
the imtDeuse Indo-Pacific Province, an area so vast, and yet so 
homogeneous in the general character of its natural productions, as 
to preclude the desirability of further subdivision. 

If the map of Asia be examined, it is seen at once that the 
Persian Grulf and Gulf of Oman constitute a ' cul-de-sac,' and that, 
indeed, the northern portion of the Arabian Sea may all be con- 
sidered land-locked, the continent of India, with Ceylon, extending 
as far south as lat. 6° N. while, on the west, the Arabian shores 
trend obliquely to Aden, lat. 13° N. Under the circumstances, we 
hardly think it surprising that so many endemic forms have been 
brought to light, both in the Mollusca and in other branches of 
zoology, especially the Pishes and Crustacea ; and as regards the 
former, at all events, Erythraean^ affinities seem more prevalent 
than Ceylonese. Most of the genera and many of the leading 
species, it is true, have a wide range, and are identical on both 
sides of Hindostau, but not, we think, to so large an extent as 
might be surmised. Por instance, when working at the Booley 
collections - from the Andaman Islands, only two of the new 
species desci'ibed recently from the Townsend collections occurred, 
viz., Cerithiopsis liinduorum Melv., and a variety (andamanica) 
of Natica strongyla Melv. 

And, again, in an account of the Marine Mollusca of Madras ^ 
we published in 1898, out of about 400 names there given about 
70 also occurred at Bombay, mostly widely-spread species, but 
including a few comparatively recently described, e. g., Terebra 
persica Smith, and Mangilia chilosema (erroneously identified as 
homeana Sm.), Columhella euterpe, G. Jlavilinea, Aclis eoa, Sistrum 
konkanense, and Solarium delectahile, all of Melvill. 

These seem a very small proportion out of about 240 species 
differentiated during the past decade, if we include those described 
in this paper. As might be supposed, a considerable number of 
these belong to the smaller and more obscure groups, which, though 
several have near allies in the outlying portions of the Indo-Pacific 
Province, especially Japan, it has not been found feasible to unite 
with species already recorded by A. Adams and others. We have 
paid special attention to the many minute forms described by this 
author, the types of which are mostly in the British Museum (Nat. 
Hist.), though, unfortunately, so few have as yet been figured, or 

'^ Since this was written, a rough comparison made between our Catalogue 
and that compiled by Commander E. E. Shopland (Journ. Bombay N. Hist. 
Soc. s. pp. 217-235, with Addenda t. c. pp. 503, 534) has elicited the fact 
that out of 501 species of Gastropoda enumerated from Aden, 189 occur in the 
region treated of by us. 

2 Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond. ii. p. 164 sq^q., iii. p. 35 sqq., p. 220 sqq. 

^ Journ, of Oonch. vol. ix. pp. 30 sqq,, 1 pi. 



330 MESSRS. MELVILL AND STAKDEN 01«' [June 18, 

indeed described fully enough to satisfy the more exigent require- 
ments of the present time. G-reat care has also been taken in 
the comparison with the types described by the Eev. E. Boog 
Watson as collected during the voyage of the s.s. ' Challenger.' 

In many instances we had to be content with descriptions or 
figures, notably in the case of the Marquis de Folin's species 
(mostly Andamanese), or M. Velain's. These last consist mainly 
of Turbonillce and Odostomics from the South Indian Ocean, one 
or two of which are found to occur in our lists. The Erythraean 
species also, mostly described by Arturo Issel and Dr. F. Jous- 
seaume, have so far as practicable been examined. Certain Medi- 
terranean species exhibit near alliances, but we believe the 
axiom a correct one, that only about a dozen species are common 
to the northern and southern shores of the Isthmus of Suez, 
though since the Canal was opened for traffic a few have extended 
their boundaries, and the numbers will probably increase yearly. 
It is fortunate, therefore, that investigations as to this point were 
made beforehand. 

"We are informed by Mr. W. T, Blanford, that the greater 
portion of the large collections made by him ^ some time ago, off 
Grwadur, on the Mekran Coast, and Tumb Island, Persian Gulf, 
and one or two other localities, are in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, and that only a few have yet been worked out, it being 
otherwise happily with his Bombay series, which are in the British 
Museum, and have been of the greatest service to us. We feel it to 
be unfortunate that circumstances have not allowed an examination 
of these stores at Calcutta, and not only of these, but of the 
collections made by Messrs. Geoffrey and Hugh Nevill, also, we 
believe, in the same museum. The former (Mr. G. Nevill) indeed 
treated of a few families in his fragmentary ' Hand-list of the 
MoUusca in the Indian Museum,' but even in this publication 
too many are put down as ' species novse,' with neither name, 
description, nor figure added. 

It will be noted that we have included some of these references, 
mainly of Rissoidce and PUurotomidce, in order that the list may be 
made as representative and perfect as possible. 



It would take far too much space to closely dilate upon the 
peculiarities of the fauna of the Persian Gulf : sufiice to say, that 
the section Leptoconus of Gonus here attains its maximum develop- 
ment, while many peculiar Mitrce and Nassce occur. Nas^saria and 
Cyllene abound, rare in most other seas. Oliva hardly occurs, while 
Ancilla is well represented. Valuta is absent; but certain species 
of Marginella, some handsome (obtusa), others small, but mostly 
apparently endemic, are very frequently met with throughout the 
whole area. Some peculiar and beautiful Scalarice, Cancellarice, 

^ Cf. Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xliv. pt. 2, p. 103, where Messrs. G. & 
H. Nevill estimate the number of species collected by Mr. W. T. Blanford at 
from 600 to 700. 



1901.] MOLLUSKS FROM THE PERSIAN GULr. 331 

and Tricliotropis are especially noteworthy, as, among the Strom- 
bidag, are S. beluchiensis Melv., Rostellaria curia Sowb., and JR. deli- 
catula jNevill ; this last, originally discovered at Arakan, is now 
found to occur at considerable depths in the Gulf of Oman, in all 
stages of growth. 

Many ColumbeJlidce, Engince, and Ricinulce seem peculiar ; while 
the Pleurotomidce are by far the most numerously distributed 
family in these Seas, abounding in forms either endemic or 
extending only as far as Aden and the Eed Sea. 

Fusus, Lotorium, and Murex do not exhibit here their larger repre- 
sentatives, but those that do occur are refined and select examples 
of their genera ; some, e. g. Ocinebra homhayana Melv., being akin to 
a Mediterranean species : the same may be said with Purpura. In 
Terehra there are many, mostly endemic, small species, mainly 
described by Mr. Edgar Smith from Col. Felly's collections. 
Coralliojpliila rubro-coccinea, described in this paper, is an interesting 
addition to a circumscribed genus. Bullia here rivals its South 
African series in interest : B. cerojplasta Melv., kurracJiensis Sowb., 
and persica E. Sm., are all endemic. Natica abounds ; so do 
Cerithiidce, Littorinidce, and allied small families, the Bissoidoi 
being especially interesting. In Turritella, T. fidtoni Melv,, 
discovered at Ormara, is now found larger and more generally 
distributed on the Mekran Coast ; many endemic Trochidce 
likewise occur, but few Baliotis, Fissurellce, or Patellce. Two 
Siplionai'ia (kurracJiensis Sowb., and basseinensis Melv.) from the 
coasts of India are peculiar. Among the Scaphopoda, Gadulus 
possesses two or three curious forms, and Dentcdium abounds. 
The Polyplacop>hora a,ve hardly seen, indeed we have no occurrences 
in our Catalogue ; but, on the other hand, the Tectibranchiates are 
very well represented, many new kinds being chronicled, and 
there being still some which, for want of proper material, we are 
compelled to leave untouched for the present. Indeed, this is the 
case in other Orders as well. 

We wait to give a resume of the Pelecypoda until they are 
finally worked out, and we hope their enumeration will form a 
second part o£ our paper, at no very distant date. 

The following are the titles of the chief works and papers 
bearing on this subject during the last 45 years : — 

1894. Abeeceombie (Alexander). — The Common Shells of the 
Bombay shore. Journ. Bombay Soc. N. H. viii, pp. 212- 
221 & 335-345, 

1867. Blaneoed (W, T.). — Description of Irawadia, n. gen. 

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxvi. pt. 2, pp. 56-57. 

1868. Id. — Fairbanhia, a new genus and species of Rissoidae from 

W. India. Ann, Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. ii, pp. 399-401. 
[N.B, Nine-tenths of Mr. Blanford's writings on the Molluscan 
Fauna of India deal with the Terrestrial and Eluviatile 
species alone, and the same may be said regarding the 
papers of his brother, the late Mr. H. F. Blanford, F.E.S.] 



332 MESSRS. MELVILL AND STANDEN OK [June 18, 

1891. EiscHER (Dr. Paul). — Liste de Coquilles recueilles par 

M. ¥. Houssay dans le Grolfe Persique. Journ. de Conchyl. 

xxxix. pp. 222-230. 
The enumeration of a small collection made near Bander- 

Bouchir (Bushire), Persian Grulf, thirty-three species in all, 

of which six remain doubtful as to name. 
(See also Woodward, S. P.) 

1892. Gellatly, A. — The Pearl Molluscs of the Persian Grulf. 
P. Phys. Soc. Edinb. xi. pp. 30-31. 

1865. IssEL (Arfcuro). — Catalogo del Molluschi raccolti della 
Missione Italiana in Persia. Mem. delle Eeale Accademia 
della Scienze di Torino, ser. ii. vol. xxiii., 1865. 

[Mainly giving an account of but 17 species, collected by 
Gr. Doria and Philippi at Bunder Abbas and the island 
of Ormuz.] 
1874. Von Martens (Dr.E.). — Ueber Vorderasiatische Conchylien. 
Cassel, 1874. 

[An enumeration of forty-nine species of Mollusca collected 
at Bushire by Dr. Haussknecht.] 

1893. Melvill(J. C.)and Abercrombie (A.).— The Marine Mol- 

lusca of Bombay. Mem. Manch. Soc. ser. 4, vii. pp. 17-51. 

1893. Melyill (J. C.) — Descriptions of twenty-five species of 

Marine Shells from Bombay. Op. cit. vii. pp. 52-61, 1 pi. 
Reprinted in J. Bombay Soc. viii. pp. 234-245, 1 plate, 

1894. Id. — Description of a new species of Engina (E. epidro- 

midea) from Bombay. P. Malae. Soc. London, i. p. 162, 

fig- . . 

1896. Id. — Descriptions of new species of minute Marine Mollusca 

from Bombay. P. Malac. Soc. Lend. ii. pp. 108-116, 1 pi. 
Eeprinted in J. Bombay Soc. xi. pp. 406-514, 1 pi. (1898). 

1897. Id. — Description of Plecotrema syhesii, n. sp., from Karachi. 

P. Malac. Soc. Lond. ii. p. 292, fig. 

1897. Id. — Descriptions of thirty-four new species of Marine 

Mollusca from the Arabian Sea, Persian Grulf, and Gulf of 
Oman. Mem. Manch. Soc. xli. no. 7, pp. 25, 2 pis. 

1898. Id. — Further investigations into the Molluscan Fauna of 

the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman, with 
descriptions of forty species. Mem. Manch. Soc. xlii. 
no. 4, pp. 40, 2 pis. 

1898. Id. — Description of a new Strombus from the Mekran coast 
of Baluchistan, Op. cit. pp. 37-38. 

1899. Id. — Notes on the Mollusca of the Arabian Sea, Persian 

Gulf, and Gulf of Oman, mostly dredged by Mr. F. W. 

Townsend, with descriptions of twenty-seven species. 

Ann. Nat. Hist, iv. pp. 81-101, pis. i, & ii. 
1899. Id. & Standen, E. Description of Conus clytospira, sp. n,, 

from the Arabian Sea. Ann. Nat. Hist, iv. pp. 461-463. 
1887. Murray (J. A.).— The Conchology of the Sind Coast. Ind. 

Ann. i, pp. 26-28, 
[No new forms mentioned.] 



1901,] MOLLTJSKS FROM THE PEESIAN GULF. 33B 

1875. Nevill (Geoffrey & Hugh). — Descriptions of new Marine 
Mollusca from the Indian Ocean. Journ. Asiat. Soc. 
Bengal, xliv. pt. 2, pp. 83-104, pis. vii. & viii. 
\_I)rillialucida, ClafJmrella smitlii, lemniscata, frova the Persian 
Gulf; Mangilia fulvocinta, fairhanJci, ClatlmreUa perplexa, 
Cythara gradata, Marginella inconspicua , from Bombay ; 
Nassa ohesa from Kuteh, described and figured.] 

1884. IiD. — Descriptions of new Mollusca from the Indian Ocean, 

by G. & H. Nevill. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xliii. pt. 2, 
pp. 21-30. 

1885. Nevill (Geoffrey). — Hand-list of Mollusca, Indian Museum, 

Calcutta. Part ii. Gastropoda : Prosobranchia — Neuro- 
branchia, cont. Calcutta. Printed by order of the Trustees, 
1885. 

[Contains descriptions of many Sissoidce, Littorinidce, and 
Planaxidce in the Museum, some collected by Mr. W. T. 
Blanford, G. Nevill, and others at Gw adur, Mekran Coast, 
Tumb Id., Persian Gulf, &c.] 
1877. Smith (Edgar A.).— Ann. Nat. Hist. [4] xix. p. 226 sqq. 

[In this paper many Terebrce, collected by Col. Pelly in the 
Persian Gulf, are described.] 
1882. Id.— Ann. Nat. Hist. [5] x. p. 206 sqq. 

[Various Pleurotomidse, including P. soror, alhicaudata, and 
macandrewi, from the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, 
described.] 
1884. Id. — Diagnoses of new Species of Pleurotomidce in the 
British Museum. Ann. Nat. Hist. [5] xiv. p. 317 sqq. 
[Here Brillia jportia, pupiformis, scitula, Clathurella horneana, 
&c. from the Persian Gulf, and P. liicida, Bombay, are 
described.] 

1887. Id. — Description of Conus milesi, from Maskat. Journ. of 

Conch. V. p. 244. 

1888. Id. — Diagnoses of new species of Pleurotomidce in the 

British Museum. Ann. Nat. Hist. [6] ii. p. 300 sqq. 
[Brillia crassa, Mangilia fortistriata, Bombay, and Mangilia 
recta, Persian Gulf, described.] 

1894. Id. — Beport upon some Mollusca dredged in the Bay of 

Bengal and the Arabian Sea.^ Ann. Nat. Plist. [6] xiv. 
pp. 137 sqq., & 366-368, 3 plates. 
[Contains descriptions, inter alia, of Murex malaharicus, 
Nassaria coromandelica, Lacuna indica, Sigaretus tener, &c.] 

1895. Id. — Eeport upon Mollusca dredged in the Bay of Bengal 

and the Arabian Sea in 1893-94 \ Ann. Nat. Hist. [6] 
xvi. pp. 1-19, 2 plates. 
[Mostly abyssal species, from the Bay of Bengal and Ceylon, 
very few from the Arabian Sea.] 
1895. Id.— Ditto, in 1894-95 \ Ann. Nat. Hist. [6] xvi. pp. 262- 
265. 

^ These collections were obtained by H.M. Indian Marine Survey steamer 
Investigator,' under the command of Commdr. 0. F. Oldham, R.N. 



334 MESSBS. MBLVILL AND STANDEN ON" [June 18, 

1896. Smith (Edgar A .). — Descriptions of new Deep-Sea Mollusca. 
Ann. Nat. Hist, [6] xviii. p. 367 sqq. 
\_Natica ahyssicola described from Cutch.] 
1899. Id.— Natural History Notes from H.M. Indian Marine 
Survey Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander T. H. Homing, 
E.N. — No. I. On Mollusca from the Bay of Bengal and 
the Arabian Sea. Ann. Nat. Hist. [7] iv. pp. 237-251. 
[Mostly from South Indian Ocean.] 
1894. SowEBBT (George B.). — Descriptions of nine new Species of 
Shells. Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond. i. pp. 214-217. 
[_Gomis elegans from Persian Gulf, Pecten townsendi and Sunetta 
hurachensis from Karachi, all collected by Mr. P. W. 
Townsend, described.] 

1894. Id. — Descriptions of four new Species of Shells from the 

Persian Gulf and Bay of Zaila. Op. cit. i. pp. 160-161, 
1 plate. 
\_CanceTlaria paucicostata, Donax toivnsendiJ] 

1895. Id. — New Species of Shells from Karachi and the Mekran 

Coast collected by Mr. F. W. Townsend. Op. cit. i. 

pp. 278-280, 1 plate. 
\_Mangilia townsendi, Bidlia nitida, Niso venosa, Enida toiuns- 

endi, MinoUa c/radata, Spondylus exilis, and Meretrix tumida.l 
1856. Woodward (S. P.). — A Catalogue of Mollusca collected at 

Karachi by Major Baker, 1850; numbering about 100 

species. Manual of the Mollusca, ed. ii. p. 73. 
[This catalogue is also given in full by P. Pischer (Man. de 
■ Conchyliologie, p. 160, 1887.] 

We have restricted the area embraced in these investigations to 
the entire Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and that portion of the 
Arabian Sea lying north of an imaginary line running obliquely 
from Eas-el-Hadd, S.E. of Maskat, to Panjim on the Indian coasts 
This will include not only Bombay and Eatnagiri, but also the 
Angrias Bank and that portion of the Eastern Telegraph Co.'s Cable 
that was examined by Mr. Townsend and Captain Tindall in 1899, 
with such very successful results. Since the coasts of Arabia, from 
Aden to Eas-el-Hadd, with its contiguous seas, have not yet been in 
the least explored scientifically, it seems useless to propound Lat. 15° 
N. as the boundary, as we had at one time contemplated. 

We would further, for the sake of convenience, propose three 
subdivisions, as follows : — 

(i) P.G. The whole Persian Gulf, including the Gulf of Oman, 
with Maskat and Jask, bordered to the East by Long. 59° 
48' E. 
(ii) M,C. The Mekran Coast of Persia and Baluchistan, between 

Long. 59° 48' E. and the Eiver Hab. 
(iii) I. The Coast of Continental India, from East of Eiver Hab, 
abutting on Karachi, say. Long. 66° 40' E., S.E. to Panjim, 
Lat. 15° 50' N., Long. 74° E. 

1 From Lat. 22° 34' N., Long. 51° 48' E. to Lat. 15° 50' N., Long. 74° E, 



1901.] MOLLUSKS FROM THE PERSIAN GULP. 335 

At our request, the following particulars have been kindly 
drawn up by Mr. Townsend of the chief places exploited by him 
during the past ten or more years, starting from Karachi, and 
finishing with Eeshire and Fao, at the head of the Persian Grulf. 

(A.) Karachi Harhonr. 

This is essentially a backwater harbour, in area about 20 square 
miles, the navigable portion of which is small and consists of a deep 
channel, about ^ to | a mile wide, running inland some 3 miles 
from the entrance, the remainder being mud-flats of great extent 
intersected by numerous creeks. This is the one locality which 
has been most thoroughly worked, both as regards dredged 
specimens and those to be found above low-water mark, a short 
description of it having already been given in the Memoirs 
and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society, vol. slii. Part 2, 1897-98. Of the numerous mouths 
of the Indus south of Karachi, only two have been worked and 
these only very slightly, viz. : the Hajamro about 50 miles, and 
the Dubba 30 miles S.S.E. of Karachi. At the former, large 
quantities of dead specimens of two kinds of PJiolas were found, 
and doubtless living specimens could have been obtained at the 
same place if time had admitted of digging in the hard thick black 
mud ; there were several other species of dead bivalves at the same 
place, and also at the water's edge. On a very low tide, many 
fine living specimens of Bullia Icurrachensis Sowb. were found. 
The ground at both these places is chiefly hard sandy mud with 
patches of clean sand. Going west from Karachi, the first part of 
the coast examined was Eas Kuchar, distant about 55 miles. The 
coast here is of hard sandstone rocks, and though a whole afternoon, 
on a very low tide, was spent here no shells were obtained, even 
the most common forms not being found. 

(B.) Mekran Coast. 

Ormara, or Eas Ormara, is a mountain 1550 feet high, 7 miles 
long east and west, 2 miles being its greatest width north and 
south ; it is joined to the mainland by a low sandy spit 1 j mile 
wide, and on this spit is situated the village of Ormara, containing 
a population of about 3000 inhabitants, chiefly fishermen. The 
Government of India have a Telegraph-station here, the telegraph 
land-line, which is laid from Karachi to Jask, passing through. 
Dredging has been done in the bays on both sides of the village, 
but the bottom is a hard clay-mud from which good results are 
seldom obtained ; young Bullia kurracJiensis, B. nitida Sowb., 
Meretrix iumicla Sowb., are, however, found here. Between the 
tide-marks the ground is chiefly hard sand or muddy sand ; and it 
is on the clean sand that the pretty Bullia ceroplasta Melv. is 
found, also Bullia malabarica Hanley, but little else of interest. 

Bas Basul, 23 miles west of Ormara. A small river, dry except 
during the rains, comes out here. In the sand and mud at the 



336 MESSKS. MELViLL Aj!^d standbk ON [June 18, 

mouth are to be found numerous dead bivalves, while on the rocks 
which jut out from the high land on the east side of the river, are 
a few of the commonest species of univalves, none of which were 
worth collecting. 

Astola Island, 40 miles west of Ormara, is in appearance very- 
like the Ormara headland on a small scale, being a little over 
2 miles long east and west, half a mile wide north and south, and 
only 213 feet high ; it is about 15 miles from the nearest point on 
the mainland. The island rises perpendicularly out of the sea, 
except at the north-west end, where there is a small sandy bay, at 
one corner of which is a low ledge of rocks, uncovered at low tides. 
These have been well searched ; but beyond fine specimens of the 
ordinary Cyprcece (C. arahica, C. turclus, C. ocellata, G. pallida), a,nd 
tlie usual common species met with on most rocky places, nothing 
was found. Five miles south of the island is a rocky shoal, called 
Weib harik, with 3 fathoms on it at low tide. The bottom between 
the shoal and the island is very uneven and rocky, the very worst 
kind there is to dredge on. A few short drags were, however, made 
here some years ago, and some nice things obtained, amongst them 
one or two new species, but at; the expense of the heavy iron 
dredge, which was smashed to pieces. 

Giuadur, 130 miles west of Ormara, is very much like that place, 
having two large bays formed by a long narrow isthmus of sand, 
joining on to a highi hammerhead-shaped headland 270 feet high. 

The town of Grwadur is of considerable importance owing to the 
trade which is carried on by native craft to Indian Ports, there 
being a good caravan track to the Port through the mountains 
from the Kej Valley, &c. The British India mail-steamers call 
here once a fortnight, both going up and returning from the Gulf. 
The land-line telegraph from Karachi to Jask passes through here. 
The sea-bottom in the bays is hard blue clay, much the same as in 
the Ormara bays, the few species obtained being common to both 
places. 

Charbar, 110 miles west of Gwadur, is the first place we have 
so far spoken of that can be called really good, from the shell- 
collector's point of view. The village itself is of small importance, 
containing some few hundred inhabitants, mostly Baloehis and 
Khojas, the chief industi-y being the manufacture of matting from 
the pish palm. 

Charbar Bay proper is a great bay, 7| miles wide east and west 
and 12 miles deep north and south, the depth of water being 8 fms., 
to 3 or 4 at the head. The nature of the bottom varies consider- 
ably : across the mouth of the bay, or between the east and west 
points, only a few short drags with the dredge have been made, 
when patches of clear sand alternating with others of soft black 
mud were met with ; both bottoms yield good results, as will be 
seen from the Catalogue, the species from the different bottoms 
being quite distitsct. This bay is quite well worth carefully 
working, and no opportunity is missed of putting the dredge over, 
when going to or leaving Charbar. 



1901.] MOLLTJSKS FROM THE PEESIAN GULP. 337 

The little bay inside the large one, and near which the village 
is situated, has a clean sandy bottom, and this from a depth of 
2 to 5 fathoms has been carefully dredged over, with the result 
that several new species have been discovered and added to the 
List. From the sandy shore that has been examined, nothing has 
been obtained, while the rocky point on the east corner of the bay 
is rich in some forms, particularly cowries and cones — 10 species 
of the former and 9 of the latter having been found here, the 
names of which appear in the List. To the south of this point in 
7 fathoms one drag was made, but the ground was too foul for the 
dredge though otherwise good, the single drag resulting in examples 
of two or more new species. We also dredged to the north-east of 
the big bay off Tiz Valley, which is I believe the only place on the 
coast that retains its original name, or at least the name it went under 
when Alexander the Great passed along the Mekrau Coast, leading 
his army inland, the fleet accompanying off the coast. In Tiz Valley 
itself are the ruins of what at one time must have been a city 
of considerable size, the graves on the surrounding hills are very 
numerous : I have dug up many of them hoping to find something 
in the shape of seals or money that would help to identify the period 
to which they belonged. Off this valley, in 5 fathoms, I have 
dredged with no success, the bottom being coarse sand with overfalls 
or loose boulders and stones. One peculiar thing will be noticed 
on reference to the List, viz., that several of the species found at 
Charbar have also been found at Muscat, and nowhere else ; and 
this is the more remarkable as the two places are 150 miles apart, 
the depth of water between them being in places as great as 1900 
fathoms. 

Jash, 165 miles west of Charbar, which may be considered the 
western extreme of the Mekran Coast, or commencement of the 
Gulf of Oman, has been fairly well exploited for shells, both on 
the adjacent shores and by dredging, with moderate success. 
Many of the Charbar species are repeated here, both places being 
in many respects very similar in character. Charbar has, however, 
the advantage in the number of species found. On the rocky 
ledge off Jask Point, which dries at low tide, numbers of Cyprcea 
arabica and C turdus are to be found, and two or three common 
cones such as 0. tceniatus and C. minimus, but very little else 
except the common rock-creatures which are met with almost 
everywhere. Between the rocky point and the clean sandy beach 
forming Jask bay, where is the usual landing-place, the fore-shore 
is, for about 200 yards, composed of dirty muddy sand, and it is 
here that many of the creatures mentioned in the List are found, 
amongst them being several species new. On the clean sandy 
beach, as at Charbar, nothing has been found. Three miles north 
of the landing-place is a small salt-water creek, the entrance to 
which dries at very low tides, when mud-banks of considerable 
extent are exposed : on these are found numbers of dead bivalves, 
as is the case at the mouths of all the creeks on the Mekran Coast. 
At the mouth of the creek at high- water mark the beach, at a little 

Pkoc. Zool. Soo.— 1901, Vol. II. No. XXII. 22 



338 MESSRS. MELViLL AKD STANDEE OK [June 18, 

distance, presents a very pretty pink appearance caused by large 
quantities of dead specimens of Umbonium vestiarum Linn, having 
been washed up there ; living specimens can be obtained in 
any quantity and many varieties, by dredging in 3 to 6 fathoms 
off the north of the creek. In Jask bay itself, the bottom 
is a hard muddy sand and hardly worth dredging over, as, with 
few exceptions, the same species found there can be collected 
with less trouble at low tides on the small stretch of muddy 
beach mentioned above. Four miles west of the point is Mason 
Shoal, a coral patch of small extent : this has been well dredged 
over and a good many things obtained, none however of any 
interest. Conus quercinus and C tessellatus L., both the orange 
and brown varieties, are plentiful here. The Government Sub- 
marine cables between Karachi and Bushire land here, the 
Telegraph Staff being accommodated in a large imposing looking 
stone building. There are also barracks for about 200 ISTative 
troops, these, like the Telegraph-building, having been built by the 
Indian Government. At the present time there are about 40 
British Indian soldiers stationed here under a Native Officer, to 
protect the Telegraph Staff in case of a rising amongst any of the 
surrounding tribes, which is always more or less imminent. The 
Native village is small and insignificant, and there is little or no 
trade, though the British Indian mail-steamers call once a fortnight 
both on the upward and downward trip to the Gulf. 

In concluding the remarks about the Mekran Coast, it may 
be said that the sea-bottom has not been anywhere dredged over 
at a greater depth than 100 fathoms, and only in one or two places 
beyond 50 fathoms, inside which the Government Submarine 
Telegraph-cable is laid. The bottom is generally a stiff blue clay 
or mud, with occasional patches of thin black mud, the former 
yielding a very small return for the most careful dredging ; in 
the soft black mud more specimens are generally obtained. 

On the cable itself there is, as a rule, very little shell-growth; when 
it does occur, it is genei-ally when the line passes near rocky patches 
or submerged reefs. A few specimens of Eostellaria curta Sowb. 
have been dredged inside the 50-fathoms line, but as dead specimens 
of this are plentiful all along the coast, is is probable that they 
would be found in numbers at a greater depth. In some places 
numbers of young Murex malabaricus Sm. have come up adhering 
to the telegraph-cable, so that adult specimens of this species 
mnst be plentiful in the neighbourhood. The only other large 
species found is Murex ternispina, which seems to be common 
from 3 to 50 fathoms. 

(C.) Gulf of Oman. 

Proceeding west from the Mekran Coast, the next locality to be 
described is the Gulf of Oman, which may be said to lie within 
the following limits, namely: on the south and east, a line drawn 
from Jask to Muscat, and on the north one from Mussandam Id. 
due east to the Persian coast. 



1901.] M0LLUSK8 FROM THE PEESIAK GTJXF, 339 

In October last a rough survey was made by the Indiau 
Government Telegraph-steamer ' Patrick Stewart ' (Capt. W. 
A. Tindall), outside the 100-fathoms contour, between Jask and 
Muscat, including the great bight to the south and west of the 
direct line between those two places. 184 soundings were taken, 
the greatest depth attained being 1785 fathoms (mud) in lat. 24° 
12' N., long. 58° 32' E. 

Except on the direct course between Jask and Muscat, no 
soundings were taken at night, the strong currents experienced in 
those localities rendering it impossible to obtain correct positions 
for each sounding when the land was not visible. 

The procedure followed was to put down a mark-buoy at dusk, 
when the last position was taken, and then to anchor the ship close 
to it with a large deep-sea trawl, and in the early morning draw it 
over the bottom by steaming ahead or astern for about an hour. In 
this way a good deal of material was collected, and all the shells 
have been sent to Mr. Cosmo Melvill, who, as opportunity offers, 
is working them out. 

A fish-trap was each time attached to the moorings of the mark- 
buoy, and by this means some fish, crabs, &c., were obtained, 
which have been sent to the British Museum. Mr. Boulenger, 
F.R.S., has written a short paper on them which will be published 
in the ' Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' 

The following are the positions where the trawl was put down, 
with the soundings, &c. noted : — 

Lat. 25° 22' N. Long. 57° 47' E. Sounding 225 fms. ; bottom mud. 

25 24 „ 57 27 „ 243 „ 

25 31 „ 57 14 „ 198 „ „ & mud-worms 

25 12 „ 57 03 „ 500 „ 

24 49 „ 56 56 „ 225 „ 

, 24 21 „ 57 5 „ 179 „ „ & dead sheik 

24 05 „ 57 35 „ 205 „ 

23 56 „ 58 05 „ 142 „ 

The drag made in 500 fathoms unfortunately was vtdthout much 
result, as the net fouled the frame of the trawl in lowering. 

The following temperatures of the sea-bottom were observed : — 

53° at 425 fms. 60° at 230 fms. 51° at 500 fms. 62° at 205 fms. 
37° at 1495 fms. 45° at 700 fms. Surface temperature 84°. 

Muscat. (Maskat). — Several days were spent dredging in and 
near Muscat Cove, in from 5 to 20 fathoms, with very good 
results. The bottom varies considerably in nature — shingle, coarse 
sand, fine sand, muddy sand, and weeds, sandy mud, and mud, all 
being met with on the ground dredged over. It would be difficult 
to say which particular kind of bottom is the best to dredge on, 
when, as in this case, all are profitable from a shell-collector's point 
of view. One of the most beautiful shells in the collection, Sca- 
laria fimhriolata Melv., was found here on mud, in the Cove itself. 

Kuhhatt Ghazira or Malcolm Inlet. — Reference to the Admiralty 
Chart shows that this is a deep inlet about 3 miles wide at the 
entrance, and running inland 8| miles ; the surrounding shores are 

22* 



340 MESSBS. MELViLL AND STANDEE ON [June 18, 

very precipitous except where the few little sandy bays occur. Near 
some of these are small villages consisting of a few loose stone 
huts, the inhabitants of which obtain their living by fishing. 

The soundings are from 20 to 35 fathoms— a few casts of the 
dredge have been made here, the bottom being hard sandy mud ; 
the shells obtained were chiefly dead specimens, some of which 
were in good condition and have proved to be new species. 

The Government of India's Submarine cables, from Jask to 
Bushire, are, in the Gulf of Oman, laid in from 40 to 60 fathoms 
on a soft muddy bottom, and when picked up in any part for 
repairs the marine growth on them is usually found to be slight, 
and to consist chiefly of worm-cases. 

(D.) Persian Gulf. 

Henjam Island. — A large rocky island 5 miles long, north 
and south, and about 2 miles broad, separated from the great 
Island of Kishm, on the north, by a deep narrow channel 
1^ mile wide. The usual anchorage for vessels is close in, in 
5 to 8 fathoms, off the spit of sand on the extreme north of the 
island. Since the Government cables were removed from here in 
1881, steamers very rarely visit the island, the object of the few 
that do call being to lie in a sheltered anchorage while loading 
salt, which is brought in small native craft from the salt caves of 
Kishm, distant about 25 miles. Large native craft also use this 
anchorage while loading salt. The reefs and sandy beach on the 
north and west sides of the island have been well searched for 
shells, but none except the most common species obtained. At 
and to the north of the anchorage, a little dredging has been done, 
with moderate success. In the very thin black mud met with in 
12 fathoms a mile north of the anchorage, several young living 
specimens of Conus elegans Sow. were obtained : this species has 
not been found in a living state anywhere else, though dead ones 
are very common amongst shingle on the Jask beach. To the 
north-east of the island, in 25 fathoms (mud), and due east 
in 15 fathoms (sandy mud), a few short drags have been made, but 
the things obtained were chiefly dead and uninteresting. A few 
drags have also been made to the west of the island in 6 to 15 
fathoms, with no better results. 

Jezirat Nabiya Tamb {or Tumh).- — A small rocky island, steep all 
round, the soundings being .30 to 50 fathoms to within a quarter of 
a mile. The coast-line consists of low rocky cliffs alternating with 
small sandy bays. Dredging has been attempted within half a mile of 
the shore, with no success, the bottom being rocky and uneven. A 
heavy iron dredge was lost here owing to the foul bottom. On 
the sandy beach large quantities of dead shells are washed up, most 
of which have not been found in a sufficiently good state to put in 
the cabinet or include in the List. 

Linja. — Dredging has been done on several occasions at and near 
the anchorage here, close in to the boat harbour, in 4 fathoms. The 
bottom is hard coarse sand, amongst which are many minute 



1901.] MOLLTJSKS PROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 341 

species. Further off the shore, in deeper water, the bottom is soft 
black mud, from which several interesting specimens have been 
obtained, as will be seen from the List. 

Gais {or Kais) Island. — An oval-shaped island, about 8 miles 
east and west by 4 north and south, low-lying, and chiefly 
composed of dead coral and sandstone. Dredging has been done 
on the north with little or no success, the bottom from 20 to 8 
fathoms being hard muddy sand, with loose rocks. On the south 
side very good results have been obtained, the coarse coral-sand 
which seems to extend all along the south side of the island, 
from 15 to 10 fathoms, being particularly rich in many forms, 
as is also the muddy sand. Stones and living coral are found close 
in, in 5 to 10 fathoms. 

Hindarabi and Shaikh Shuaib Islands. — The former in shape 
and formation vexy like Grais, only much smaller, being only 4 miles 
east and west and 2 north and south. The latter is consider- 
ably larger than either Grais or Hindarabi, being about 13 miles 
east and west and 2^ north and south, though otherwise much 
the same. Dredging has been done round both these islands, and 
the bottom found to be similar to that round Gais, the same species 
being common to all these. 

The inhabitants of both Gais and Shaikh Shuaib send a good 
many boats to the pearl-iishery on the Arabian side of the Gulf. 
Pearl-diving is also done somewhere close to the island, but the 
exact spot where the pearl-oysters are to be found appears to be 
kept secret by the inhabitants. It seems to have been a custom 
formerly to land quantities of oysters near the villages, when the 
women opened and examined them for pearls. About 12 years 
ago I saw them doing this near the village of Laz, on Shaikh 
Shuaib Island ; and two years later landed and examined the heaps 
of empty shells and refuse, amongst which were great numbers of 
Cyprwa lentiginosa^ C. turdus, and C. fimbriata. I have visited the 
same place on several occasions since, but there did not appear to 
be any fresh heaps of shells. At Gais Island no opportunity has yet 
offered of landing to examine the shell-heaps, which are known to 
be there, as when steaming close past the south side of the island 
a couple of years ago, with a telescope the women were clearly 
to be seen at work, opening oysters. 

Bushire. — The bottom at the anchorage here is soft mud, a little 
of which has at different times been sifted and found to contain 
many minute species of shells, most, if not all, of which have been 
found at other places in similar kind of mud. 

Rishire (or Beshire). — This is the place where the Government 
cables land, and is situated about 8 miles south of the Bushire 
anchorage ; the bottom is the same as at that place, similar species 
being obtained from it. 

Government Gables. — The single cable between Rishire and Fao is 
mostly laid in 30 to 20 fathoms, on a soft black-mud bottom, and 
when picked up for repairs in more tlian 10 fathoms of water it is 
invariably found to be thickly coated with shell and weed growth ; 
immense quantities of oysters are found on any part that has been 



342 MESSES. MBiiViLL AND STANDEN 01^ [June 18, 

immersed more than 3 or 4 years, the common species being 
0. imbricata Lam. From Eishire to Jask the two cables are in 30 
to 50 fathoms, bottom mostly blue mud, tbe shell and weed growth 
being considerable in most places where they have been laid any 
length of time, but only off Mussandam is it as great as on the Eao 
cable. The original Persian Gulf cable, which was condemned in 
1885, was picked up as opportunity offered during the next few years, 
200 or 300 miles being recovered after I joined the Department in 
1887. Unfortunately I took no interest in shells at that time, for 
there has never been such a good oppoi'tunity for a collector since 
the old cable was all removed. Two miles an hour is the maximum 
speed at which the cable is wound in, and when recovering this 
old cable it often took 6 and 8 men, working as hard as they 
could, to shovel the shells and weed overboard as it came in. In 
recovering one length of about 20 knots, hundreds of the very 
pretty Latiaocis diadema Sowb. came in, and I saved some on account 
of their beauty to give away, and when I commenced to collect 
for myself I found I still had a couple of specimens. Since that 
time not a single example has been procured. 

There does not seem to be anything more of interest to say about 
the places where collecting has been done, but any one wishing 
farther information on the Grulf generally, might find all they want 
in the ' Persian Gulf Pilot,' an Admiralty publication, which can be 
obtained from J. D. Porter, 11 King Street, Tower Hill, London, 

F. W. TOWNSEND. 

Mr. B. T. Pfinch, CLE., Director General of Indian Telegraphs, 
Captain W. A. Tindall of the s.s. ' Patrick Stewart,' Mr. Julian 
Adrian O'Maley, of the same ship, and other friends of 
Mr. Towusend, have aided him in his researches by all means in 
their power ; and we are requested by him to say that had it not 
been for the kindness especially of Captain Tindall, ably seconded 
by all his officers and crew, much would have been left undone, 
notably the deep soundings and dredgings in the Gulf of Oman. 

We would take this opportunity ourselves of thanking Mr. 
Towusend for all the care and zeal bestowed by him in the col- 
lecting and preserving of his collections, it is, indeed, but rarely 
that they come to hand in such perfect order. And we must also 
record our indebtedness for advice and assistance to Mr. W. T. 
Blanford, F.R.S., Mr. Edgar A. Smith, F.Z.S., Mr. Hugh Fulton, 
Mr. G. B. Sovverby, F.L.S., Mr. Alexander Abercrombie, Com- 
mander Shopland, E.I.M., Mr. W. E. Hoyle, F.E.S.E., Mr. W. 
Neville Sturt, the Eev. Professor Gwatkin, D.D., and Mr. E. E. 
Sykes, F.Z.S. Nor must we forget Mr. Stephen Pace, who examined 
with much care the whole of the Columbellidse, and gave us the 
benefit of his wide experience in the arrangement of this difficult 
family, which we have followed implicitly. "We are also obliged 
to Mr. C. Davies Sherborn, F.Z.S. , for information on one or two 
points of nomenclature. 

Eegarding the Classification adopted in this Catalogue, we have 
relied on the generic sequence proposed by P. Pelseneer in his 



1901.] MOLLUSKS PEOM THE PBESIAN GULP. 343 

* Introduction a I'etude des Mollusques ' \ and likewise referred 
often to P. Fischer's ' Manuel de Concbyliologie,' 1887. Tor the 
characters of the species we have to some extent followed Tryon's 
' Manual of Mollusca,' so admirably continued by Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, 
but we have at all times allowed our own views fair latitude. 

Economy of space being imperative we have, excepting in a 
few isolated instances, omitted all synonymy, but have endeavoured 
in every case to give the name sanctioned by the laws of priority. 



Catalogue op the Species. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

Order DIBEANCHIATA. 

Suborder OCTOPODA. 

Fam. Aegonautid^. 

Aegonauta hians Soland. 

P.S. North beach of Henjam island. 

GASTHOPODA. 

Order PEOSOBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder i. DIOTOCAEDIA. 

(a) D o c o G L o s s A. 

Earn. Patbllid^. 

Patella (Scutellaeia) pica Reeve. 

M.C. Not very frequent, but no special locality given. 

Helcioniscus TESTUDiis^AEiirs (L.) ; Dall, 1871. 

Patella iestudinaria L. Syst. Nat. s. p. 783. 

M.C. 

Heloiokiscus novem-eadiatus Q. & G-. (Patella). 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie), as Patella aster Eeeve. 

(&)Ehipidoglossa. 

Sect. i. Zygobranchiata. 
Fam. FissuEELLiD^. 
Glyphis bombayana (Sowb.). (Fissurella Lam. in pt.) 
I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

1 Mem. Soc. Malacol. Belg. xxvii. (1892) pp. 31-243, and (1894) as a 
aeparate publication. 



344 MESSRS. MELVILL AND STANDBN ON [June 18, 

Glyphis funiculata (Eeeve). 
P.G. Bushire. 

M,C. Gwadur. Charbar. 3 fathoms, sand. 
I. Karachi, mouth of the Indus. 
Var. indusica Rve. 
Var. dactylon Rve. 
I. Karachi. Both these varieties collected by the late 
Major Baker. 

Gltphis jukbsii (Eeeve). 

Fissurella juJcesii Eeeve, Conch. Icon. f. 45, 1849. 
Fissurella fimhriata Eeeve, Conch. Icon. f. 104, 1850. 
P.G. Gulf of Oman. Mason Shoals, Jask. 
M.C. Ormara Bay. 

This is identified without much doubt as identical with a well- 
known Australian species. 

Gltphis lima (Sowb.). 
I. Bombay {Ahercrombie). 

Gltphis euppellii (Sowb.). 
M.C. 

Glyphis salbbeosa (Eeeve). 

I. Karachi, particularly near the mouth of E. Indus. 

Glyphis subeosteata (Gray). 

M.C. The type came from St. Vincent. Identified with a 
little doubt. 

Glyphis tenuisteiata (Sowb.). 
P.G. On the telegraph-cabb 

Glyphis townsendi (Meiv.) 

I. Karachi. 

Allied to G. corbicula Sowb. 

Fam. Emaeginulid^. 
Emaeginula elongata Costa. 
I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

A Mediterranean and Atlantic species, seemingly very widely 
distributed. 

Emaeginula eadiata Gould. 
I. Bombay {Abercrombie). 
An Australian form. 

SUBEMAEGINULA NOT ATA (L.). 

Clypidina notata Ad. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 87. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

The West Indian habitat is probably erroneous. 



1901.] MOLLUSKS PEOM THE PERSIAN GULE. 345 

ElMULA PEOPINQUA A. Ad. 

P.a. (W. T. Blanford). 

SCUTUS UNGUIS (L.). 

P.G. & M.C. Fairly general. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). On muddy rocks and imder stones ; 
extending south to Eatnagiri, Groa, and Panjim (Lt.-Col. H. D. 
Olivier). 

Fam. Haliotide^. 

Haliotis kueescens Sowb. 

I. Bombay {Abercrombie), rare, extending southwards to Ceylon. 

Sect ii. Azygobranchiata. 
Fam. Stomatellid^. 
Stomatblla elegans Gray. 
I. Karachi. Found under rocks at low tide. 

Stomatella imbeicata Lam. 
I. Karachi. 

Stomatella sulcifera Lam. 

I. Karachi. Both these last occur in Col. Baker's list. 

Stomatia dcjplicata Sowb. 

P.Gr. Gais (or Kais) Island, 10 fathoms. Gulf of Oman, 
Maskat, 10-15 fathoms, coral-sand. 

M.C. Charbar. Dead shells only, but fine and large. 

Stomatia phymoiis Helbl. 
I. Karachi. 

Fam. Cyclostrematid^. 

Ctclosteema caeinatum H. Ad. 

Hob. P.G. Lat. 26° 44', long. 52° 30'. On telegraph-cable, 
40 fathoms, sand and mud. 

Differs from its congeners in greater solidity and incrassate 
spiral ribs. It is, however, undoubtedly very akin to C'. cingu- 
liferum A. Ad., from Japan and the Philippines; this latter species, 
judging from our examples, showing generally less boldness in 
sculpture. 

Ctclosteema cingulatum Dkr. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, lat. 26° 23' N., long. 54° 55' E. 
25 fathoms, sand. 

I. Bombay {Abercrombie). 

Ctclosteema cingulieeeum A. Ad. 
I. Karachi. 



346 MESSRS. MEL VILL AND STASTDEN ON [June 18, 

CrCLOSTBEMA EBURNEUM Nevill. 

P.Gr. Bushire, Eishire, Kishen Island. 

M.C. Charbar. 7 fathoms, sand and mud. 

Assuming our identification to be correct, we fail to appreciate 
the real distinctness of this species, described by Nevill from the 
Bay of Bengal, from the original type of the genus, G. cancellatum, 
as founded by the late Captain Marryat ', Trans. Linn. Soc. 1818, 
vol. xii. p. 338. 

Ctclostbema micans a. Ad. 

I. Karachi. Bombay (Abercrombie), under name Liotia pul- 
cliella Dkr. 

Ctclostbema oorinium ^ sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 1.) 
C. testa umbilicata, alba, delicata; anfractibus quatuor, quorum 
apicalis vitreus, mamillatus, ad apicem ipsum depressus, apud 
suturas pauUum canaliculatis et ecvcavatis, longitudinaliter 
arctissime et pidcherrime costulatis, costulis angulatis, ad 
angulos gemmulatis, ultimo anfractu quinque-angulato, simul ac 
circa regionern umbilicarem fortiter spiraliter angidatim gemmu- 
lifero, deinde costidis longitudinalibus in umbilicum ipsum 
descendeniibus ; apertura circulari, alba ; peristomate extus 7-8- 
crenidato, continuo; margine columellari parum versus umbilicum 
ecctenso, nitido, albo. 
Alt. 2, diam. 3 mm. 

Hab. Persian Gulf, lat. 25° 44' N., long. 52° 30' E. ; on tele- 
graph-cable, at 40 fathoms, mud and sand. 

This exquisite and very delicate Cyclostrema is slightly com- 
parable with O. anaglyptum A. Ad., from Japan, but is smaller, 
not so conical, and destitute of spiral ribs. The longitudinal rib- 
lets are very close and fine, say 26 in number on the basal wboi-1, 
five-angled, that surrounding the umbilicus at the base being the 
strongest and most conspicuous. Regular rows of shining 
gemmae on the costulae at the point of the angular projections 
take the place of spiral lirse ; the interstices are plain, vitreous- 
white; mouth circular, peristome continuous, outer lip crenulate ; 
columellar margin not reflexed over the umbilicus, which is deep 
and conspicuous. 

Ctclosteema quadeioaeinatum, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 2.) 

C. testa depressa, straminea, umbilicata, solidula; anfractibus 3-|-, 
apicali depressulo, vitreo, caiteris longitudinaliter undique 
arctissime sub lente tenuistriatis, ultimo rapide accrescente, acute 
quadricarinato J peristomate extus sexangulato, incrassato, con- 
tinuo ; operculo corneo, multispirali. 

Alt. 1, diam. 2*25 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 49' N., long. 55° 56' E. 
225 fathoms, sand and mud. 

^ Captain Francis Marryat, E..N., the famous novelist, only known to have 
described one other species — Mitra sonata, from the Mediterranean. 
^ oKjQts, a projection. 



1901. J MOLLUSKS FEOM THE PERSIAN GULF. 347 

Highly sculptured, the angle minute, the whorls being 3^, the 
upper small, the body-whorl larger in proportion, four-keeled, the 
carinse acute. With the aid of a lens the surface is seen to be 
longitudinally extremely shagreened or striate. The peristome is 
continuous, six-angled externally, aperture round. The operculum 
is present, horny and multispiral. The nearest ally, 0. tri- 
carinatum Smith, from W. Africa, we have compared with our 
species. There is some affinity, but, as its name implies, that 
species is but three-angled and is likewise radiately lirate. 

Cyclostbema solaeiellum Melv. 

P.G. Fao. Bushire. Gulf of Oman, lat. 26° 23' N., 
long. 54° 55' E. 25 fathoms, mud ; with C. cingulatum but much 
more frequent. 

I. Karachi, fine and large. Bombay (Ahercromhie), only worn 
examples, from one of which the type was described in 1893, 

This species has the aspect of a small Torinia, and by some 
malacologists would perhaps be relegated to that genus. We 
await examination of the soft parts and operculum before deciding. 

Cyclostbema (Dabonia) subdisjunctum Ad. 

P.G. Grulf of Oman, Maskat. 15 fathoms, muddy sand and 
loose stones. Always local, the range is wide, extending from 
the North Arabian Sea, through Ceylon, to the Andaman Isles 
{G. H. Booley). 

Fam, LiOTiiD^. 
LiOTiA cidaris Eeeye. 
I. Angrias Bank {CapU W. A. Tindall). 

Fam. TrochidjE. 
Trochus bioinctus Phil. 
M.C. Charbar. 3 to 7 fathoms, sand. 
We cannot satisfactorily locate this species. 

Teoohus (Ineundibulum) eeythe^us Brocchi. 

Var. persica Piseh., J. de Conch, xxxix. p. 226, 1891. 
P.Gr. Linjah. 3| fathoms. Noted by M. F. Houssay in the 
Gulf. 

M.C. Charbar. 

Trochus (Ineundibulum) ecltoni Melv. 

P.G. At the entrance to the Gulf proper through the Gulf of 
Oman. 

Teochus (Infundibulum) kotschyi Phil. 

P.G. Noted as abundant at Bushire by M. Houssay. 

Trochus (Ineundibulum) radiatus Gmel. 
P.G., M.C. Common and generally distributed on rocks at low 
tide. Dredged mostly young. 

I. Bombay, abundant (Abercrombie ), where T. incrassatus 



348 MESSRS. MELTILL AND STANDEN OK [June 18, 

Lam. probably also occurs. Also near Groa and Panjim (Lt.-Col. H. 
D. Olivier). 

Trochus (Belangbria) soabrosus Phil. 
P.Gr. Grulf of Oman, Maskat. 10 fathoms ; coral-sand. 
I. Bombay (^Abercrombie). 

Clancultjs atropurpureus Gould. 
M.C. Very local. 

Clanculus oetlanicus JSTevill. 
I. Bombay (Abe7^Grombie). 

Clanculus depiotus A. Ad. 

I. Karachi (F. W. T. Sf J. 0. Twells). On rocks at low tide. 
Bombay (Abercrombie). Near Groa and Panjim (Lt.-Col. H. D. 
Olivier). 

There seems close affinity between this species and Belangeria 
scabrosa Phil. 

Clanculus microdon A. Ad. 

M.C. Generally found on rocks from low-tide mark to 
7 fathoms. This species extends to the Andaman Isles {Booley). 

Clanculus pharaonius L. 

M.C. 

Its headquarters are Erythraean. 

MONODONTA LABIO L. 

I. Karachi (IF. C. Garphin). 

MoNODONTA VBRMICULATA Fisch. 

I. Karachi. Abundant on rocks at half -tide. Reported by 
Pilsbry (Man. Conch, xi. p. 90) from Maskat, but not found there 
yet by Townsend. 

Widely distributed ; South and East African. 

Thalotia beluohistana Melv. 
M.C. Charbar. 7 fathoms, rock. 

Might almost, with equal reason, be by some considered a 
Calliostoma. 

Canthaeidus kotschti Phil. 
M.C. Dead examples only. 

I. Karachi ( W. C. Carphin). 

GiBBULA DEOLivis Eorsk. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 7 to 10 fathoms ; coral-sand 
and stone bottom. 

GiBBULA EANULOIDES Eisch. 

P.G. Shaikh Shuaib Island. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 
10 fathoms ; coral-sand and stone. Lat. 24° 55' N., long. 57° 
59' E. 37 fathoms, sand and mud. 



1901.] MOLLTJSKS rBOM THE PERSIAN GULE. 349 

Glbbula pulcheemma a. Ad. 

M.C. A superb example. 

Forskalia H. & A. Ad. is now entirely submerged in Gibbula 
Risso. 

GriBBULA (Canthaeidella) ph^dra Meh. 

M.C. Charbar Point. 7 fathoms. 

Allied to the Ceylonese G. stoUczhana Gt. Nevill. 

Gibbula (Bnida) townsendi Sowb. 

M.C. Generally distributed, and locally abundant. 

MoNiLEA ASTOLENSis Melv., nom. emend. 

M.C. Astola I. 

By a clerical error this species was described (Mem. Manch. 
Soc. vol. xli. No. 7, p. 15) as astrolabensis with locality " Astrolabe 
Island." We submit that the law of priority does not insist 
on the perpetuation of so evident a " lapsus calami." 

MONILEA OALLIEEBA Lam. 

Var. masoni Nevill. 
M.C. 

MONILEA SWAUfSONT A. Ad. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Peioteochus sepulchralis Melv. 

P.G. Kais Island. 7-14 fathoms, coral-sand. Gulf of Oman, 
Maskat, 10 fathoms. The first examples procured were dredged 
in a semi-fossilized condition ; hence the specific name. 

I. Karachi. 

MiNOLiA biangulosa a. Ad. 
P.G. Henjam Island, 15 fathoms. 

MiNOLIA CLIMACOTA Melv. 

M.C. Charbar. 

I. Karachi. 
At 7 fathoms, muddy sand. Many very beautiful varieties occur, 
MiNOLiA EUDELi Desh. 
P.G. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 15 fathoms. 

I. Karachi. Angrias Bank (Ca^>^. W. A. TindaU). 

MiNOLIA GILTOSPLENDENS Melv. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 55' N., long. 57° 59' E. 
37 fathoms, sand and mud. 

The type was described (Journ. of Conch, vi. p. 407, pi. ii. fig. 8) 
from the Phihppine Islands, based upon specimens formerly in the 
collection of the late Mr. T. Lombe Taylor. 

MiKOLIA GEADAXA Sowb. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, Maskat, Jask. 2 fathoms, mud. 
M.C. Charbar. 



350 MESSRS. MELVILL AKD STAKBEK ON [June 18, 

MlNOLIA NEDYMA Melv. 

' P.Gr, Off anchor, Bunder-Abbas. Gulf of Oman, Jask, 
26 fathoms. 
M.C. Charbar. 
I. Karachi. 

MlWOLIA (CONOTEOOHUS) HOLDSWOBTHIANA Gr. & H. Nevill. 

Minolia (Conoirochus) holdsworthiana G. & H. Nevill, Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. Bang. 1871, p. 3, pi. i. fig. 18. 

Minolia variabilis A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1873, p. 207, pi. xxiii. fig. 10. 
P.G. Rishire, Gulf of Oman (W. T. Blanford), abundantly. 
I. Karachi. In mud, 3 to 7 fathoms, rarely. 

Oalliostoma pea&um Phil. {Zizyphinus Leach). 
P.G. Galig Island. At low tide, alive. 
M.C. Off Charbar. On rocks at 7 fathoms. 

I. Karachi. Eock and sandy mud at 3 fathoms. 

Calliostoma funiculabe Melv. 

P.G. On cable, lat. 27° N., long. 52° E. Amongst shell- 
growth, 30-50 fathoms, mud. 

Calliostoma laugieei Payr. 

P.G. No special locality mentioned. The two examples we 
have seen are somewhat narrower than the Mediterranean species. 
It is hoped that more material will be shortly forthcoming. 

Calliostoma poltohroma A. Ad. 
P.G. Hindarabi Island. 

Calliostoma scobinatum A. Ad.^ 

I. Bombay, where it is apparently endemic {Ahercromhie). 

EucHELUS ASPEE Gmel. {Aradasia Gray). 

I. Karachi. Pound in quantity amongst muddy rocks at low 
tide. Bombay to Goa {Lt.-Col. H. D. Olivier). 

EuoHELUS ateatus Gmel. 
I. Karachi. 

EuCHELUS CLATHEATUS H. Ad. 

I. Karachi, Bare. 

EuCHELUS i'OVEOLATUS A. Ad. 

Var. angulatus Pease. 
M.C. Charbar. 7 fathoms. 

I. Angrias Bank {Gapt. W. A. TindaU). 

1 C. duricasteUum Melvill, Mem. Manch. Soc. vol. xlii. pt. 2, p. 26, pi. i. 
fig. 14, described from specimens in F. W. Townsend's collection, was only- 
obtained by Captain TindaU at Batticaloa, Ceylon, far south of our limit. 



1901.] MOLLUSKS PEOM THE PBESIAK GULF. 351 

EUCHELUS HOREIDUS Phil. 

M.C. I. Karachi. 

EuCHELUS IKDICTIS A. Ad. 

I. Bombay. Abundant (Ahercromhie). Groa (Lieut-Col. H. D. 
Olivier). 

EucHELUS PEESicus V. Mart. 

P.G. Bunder- Abbas (if. F. Houssay). 

1. Karachi (W. 0. Carphin). 
Nearly allied to E. atratus Gm. 

EuCHELUS PfiOXIMFS A. Ad. 

I. Karachi. At 5 fathoms, hard muddy sand. 

EucHELTJs QUADE.ICAEINATUS Chemn. 

I. Bombay {Abercrombie), 

Turcica (Peeeinia) stellata A, Ad. 

P.Gr. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 15 fathoms, alive. 

M.C. Charbar. 7 fathoms, dead examples only. 

Umbonium TESTiAEiUM L. (Rotellcc Lam.). 

P.G. Bunder- Abbas (M. F. Houssay). 

M.C. Abundant. 

I. Karachi (W. C. Carj)hin). Bombay (^6ercrom&{e), in count- 
less thousands, possessing all the shades of colour, variety, and 
differentiation in marking. Bassein and Goa (Lt.-Ool. H. D. 
Olivier), 

Var. depressa Ad. (sp.). 

I. Karachi. Inseparable specifically from the type. 

Ethalia caeneolata Mel v. 

P.G. Shaikh Shuaib Is. 10 fathoms, coral-sand. Gulf of 
Oman, Maskat. 10 fathoms. 

Ethalia minolina Melv. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. At 10 fathoms, muddy and 
coral-sand. Much rarer than E. carneolata. 

ISANDA CEENELLIEEEA A. Ad. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Eor some information about this species and its allies, cf. Journ. 
Linn. Soc, Zool. vol. xxvii. pp. 177, 178. 

Earn. TuEBiNiD^. 

Phasianella elachista Melv., nom. nov, 

Phasianella minima Melv. P. Malac. Soc. Lond. ii. p. 115, non 
Phil. 

P.G. Bu shire. Off anchor, Bunder- Abbas. 

I. Karachi. Abundant, found amongst muddy stones in 
shoal-water. Bombay {Abercrombie). 



352 MESSRS. MBLTILL AND STANDEN ON [June 18, 

The name originally propounded is antedated by P. minima 
Phil., from the Peruvian coast. 

Phasianella vaeiegata Lam. 

M.C. Generally, from 3 to 7 fathoms, mud. 

Var. nivosa Eeeve (sp.). 
M.C. Charbar. Ormara Bay. 

I. Karachi. 
Usually found from 3 to 7 fathoms, sand and mud. Young 
shells abound on dredged algae. 

Turbo corokatus Gmel. 

I. Karachi. On rocks at half-tide. 

Several interesting embryonic examples occurred, all distinctly 
and prominently angled at the periphery. 

Turbo intercostalis Menke (=elegans Phil.). 

I. Karachi, on rocks at low tide. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Turbo radiatus Gmel. 

P.G. On coral-reefs that were uncovered at low tide. 

M.C On rocks at low water. 

The form T. chemnitzianus Reeve (sp.J occurs at I., Karachi, 
the three transverse spiny ridges on the body-whorl being charac- 
teristic. T. ticaonicus Reeve, a species common farther east, has, 
we think on insufficient data, also been recorded from Karachi. 

ASTRALIUM STELLATUM Gmel. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Leptothtra filipera Desh. 
M.C. Charbar beach. 

Leptothyra l^ta Montr. 

I. Lat. 18° 58' N., long. 71° 45' E. 

This may possibly be an undescribed species near the New 
Caledonian L. Iceta, being more finely striate. It is of a fine 
uniform pink colour externally. 

Leptothyra pilula Dunker. 

I. Karachi. 

Another species may likewise occur, a specimen not quite 
referable to either of the preceding species having been recently, 
forwarded from the Persian Gulf. This may possibly be identical 
with L. yemenensis Melv., from Aden (Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, 
vol. i. p. 201, pi. xii. fig. 7). 



1901.] MOLLUSKS FBOM THE PERSIAN GULT'. 353 

Fam. Neeitid^. 
Neeita albicilla L. 

I. Karachi. Upon rocks at half -tide. Bombay (Abercrombie) ; 
southwards to Goa (Lt.-Col. H. D. Olivier). 

Neeita chameleon L. 

Var. arabica Eeeve (sp.). 
P.G. Grulf of Oman, Maskat. Upon rocks at half-tide. 

Var. quadricolor Gmel. (sp.). 
I. Bombay. 

Neeiia longii Recluz. 

I. Karachi, at half-tide. Eecorded likewise from Bombay, 
where, however, Mr. A. Abercrombie did not succeed in procuring 
it. 

Neeita oetzaetjm Eecluz. 

1. Bombay, very abundant {Abercrombie). 

Neeita plexa Chemn. 

M.C. On rocks at high-water mark, generally distributed ; I 
have also found them above high-water mark, where they could 
only possibly be reached by spray {F. W. T.). 

I. Karachi. 

Neeita (Pila) cheysostoma Eecluz. 
I. Karachi, at half-tide. 

Neeita (Odontostoma) polita L. 

I. Bombay {Abercrombie) ; not reported as yet farther north. 

Neeita (Heminbeita) anodonta Melv. 

I. Karachi {J. 0. Tiuelh per G. B. Sowerby). 

Neeitina (Dostia) ceepidulaeia Lam. 

T. Karachi (var. depressa). Bombay {Abercrombie ; Olivier). 

Though, properly speaking, an inhabitant of brackish waters, it 
is so frequently found on the sea-shore, especially at the mouths of 
rivers, that it is not out of place to include it in a list of Marine 
MoUusca. 

Suborder ii. MONOTOCAEDIA. 

(a) Ptbnoglossa. 

Pam. Ianthinid^. 

Ianthina feagilis Lam. 

I. Bombay {Abercrombie). 

Ianthesta globosa Swains. 

P.Gr. Gulf of Oman, near Maskat, particularly large and fine. 

I. This is probably the species undifferentiated by Mr. Aber- 
crombie, as occurring at Bombay with /. fragilis Lam. {communis 
Lam.). 

Peoc Zool. Soc— 1901, Vol. IL No. XXIII. 23 



354 MBSSBS. MELYILL A.ND STANDEN ON [June 18, 

Eecltjzia hollandiana Petit. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). A rare species. 

Pam. ScALiD^. 

ScALA ALATA Sowb. (Scaluria Lam.). 
P.G. Gralig I., at low tide. 
M.C. Cbarbar. 

SCALA CLEMEKTINA Grat. 

I. Karachi. At 3 to 7 fathoms, amongst loose rocks and 
sandy mud. 

SCALA CONEUSA Sm. 

M.C. On the borderland towards I., 10 to 25 miles W. of 
Karachi. 

SCALA &LABEATA Hinds. 

P.Gr. Gais (or Kais) Island. 14 fathoms. 

"Near the better-known S. maculosa, Ad. & Eve., from which it 
differs in the smooth and continuous lamellae which are never 
angled nor uncinate below the sutures. 

SOALA lEEEGULAEIS Sowb. 

M.C. Gwadur. 2 fathoms, hard mud. 

SCALA LAXATA Sowb. 

P.G. Gais (or Kais) Island. 14 fathoms, amongst broken 
coral, much rarer than S. c/labrata which occurred with it. 

SOALA LINEOLATA Sowb. 

M.C. Pairly general. 

I. Near Karachi. 5 fathoms, muddy sand. 

ScALA MACULOSA Ad. & Eve. 

P.G. Gais (or Kais) Island. 14 fathoms, amongst broken 
coral. 

SCALA PALLASI fSowb. 

I. Karachi ; no full-grown examples occurring. 

ScALA PEETiosA Lam. 

P.G. No special locality given, at 26 fathoms, mud. 

M.C. Fairly general, 3 to 7 fathoms, amongst loose rocks and 
muddy sand. At Ormara, a fine dead specimen found measures 
II X 1 in. 



I. Bombay (Abercrombie), rare. 

SCALA EEPLICATA Sowb. 

P.G. Lat. 26" 50' N., long. 52° 50' E. 29 fathoms, mud. 
Off Jask Point. 8 fathoms, mud. 



1901.] MOLLUSKS PEOM THE PERSIATST GULE. 355 

ScALA (Clatheus) aculeata Sowb. 

I. Karachi. 3 fathoms, muddy stones. Common at Bombay. 

Scj\la (Clatheus) clatheus L. 
M.C. Charbar. 

ScALA (Clatheus) gloeiola, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 6.) 

S. testa ovaio-fiisiformi, imperforata, teniii, delicata, alba ; anfracti- 
bus 9, quorum apicales duo, Iceves, suhpellucidi, cceteris turritis, 
apud suturas impressis, lonyifudinaliter arctissime et tenuissime 
lamellatis, lamellis papyraceis, fragilihus, undique serrulato- 
uncigeris, uncidis acutis, pauUum incurvis, albis, nitidis, circa 
novem ad undecim apud anfractus idtimis lamellas, lamellis ipsis 
in eodem anfractu septem et viginti, interstitiis omnium anfrac- 
tuum spiraliter quadrato-cancellatis ; apertura rotunda^, labro 
extus serrulato, uncinate, planato, incrassato j peristomate fere 
continuo. 

Long. 8, lat. 3'50 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 75 fathoms. 

One of the most truly exquisite of the genus, renowned though 
it already be for forms of surpassing beauty, albeit S. gloriolais but 
of small dimensions. But few of its congeners have their lamellae 
so thickly disposed nor with such elaboration of sculpture, the 
serrulatioDs being regular though extremely fragile and deciduous. 
The body-whorl possesses 27 lamellae, and each of these, in turn, 
from 9 to 11 hooked serruiations. Five minute cancillse give a 
quadrate appearance to the narrow interstices when view^ed with 
a good lens. The aperture is round, peristome almost continuous; 
outer lip flattened, shining, incrassate, beautifully serrulate 
exteriorly. 

S. echinicosta d'Orb., from the West Indies, would appear to be 
allied, though not very nearly. 

ScALA (Clatheus) maloolmensis Melv. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman : Malcolm Inlet (Kubbatt Ghazira), 24 
fathoms. 

The winged, expanded lamellae to some extent resemble those of 
S. (Opalia) diana; Hinds, from Amboyna ; but notwithstanding this, 
being more comparable in other particulars with S. (GlatJirus) 
muricata E.isso, from the Mediterranean, it is best, at all events 
provisionally, to place it near this last species. 

SoALA (Clathefs) ovalis Sowb. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). Identified with but little doubt, but 
worn examples only found. 

Soala (Clatheus) phillippinaefm Sowb. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman : Jask, dead examples dredged at 
7 fathoms, 

23* 



356 MESSES. MELVILL AKD STANDBN ON [June 18, 

ScALA (Opalia) lamellosa Lam. 

Scalaria dathrus L. Syst. Nat. xii. 1769, 1237. 

M.C. Charbar, and other localities, not infrequent. 

Var. pseudoscalaris Brocchi. 
I. Karachi. Among seaweed, low-tide mark. 
We cannot separate this variety from Brocchi's Mediterranean 
species. 

ScALA (Opalia) consoes Crosse & Fischer. 

I. Bombay (Abercroynbie). 

Some little doubt attaches to this name, the type being Australian, 
but IS. 'perplexa Pease seems identical ; this last is merged by Tryon 
(Man. Conch, ix. p. 74) into a variety of 8. lamellosa Lam., and 
it would be perhaps best to treat S. consors likew^ise as subspecific 
only. 

SCALA (Am^A) RAEICOSTATA Lam. 

P.Gr. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. From 10 fathoms, coral-sand. 
Small, but quite adult, examples. 

SoALA (Cirsotrema) crassilabrum Sowb. 
M.C. Charbar. 

ScALA (Cirsotrema) timbriolata Melv. 

P.Gr. Gulf of Oman. Two off Maskat, 10 fathoms, black mud. 
One of these, constituting the most elegant and refined, perhaps, 
of all the Mollusca collected by Mr. Townsend, is 52 mm. in length. 
The whorls are not nearly so ventricose as in decussata Kien., and 
the lamellae more delicately fringed. 

I. Karachi. Small, and not fully grown. 

SoALA (Cirsotrema) hidryma Melv. 
I. Karachi. 

SoALA (Cirsotrema) kieneri Tapp.-Canefri. 
Scalaria (Cirsotrema) decussata Kien. 
I, Angrias Bank {Gapt. W. A. Tindall). 

SoALA (Acrilla) acuminata Sowb. 

I. Karachi, 15 fathoms, very rare. Bombay {Ahercromhie), 
not infrequent, but fragmentary, in shell-sand. 

ScALA (Acrilla) minor Sowb. 
Scalaria {Acrilla') gracilis A. Ad. non Sowb. 
M.C. Charbar, 5 fathoms, mud. In colour of a darker brown 
than is typical, lamellae more distant and fewer in number. 
I. Karachi, 3 fathoms, among muddy stones. 

ScALA (Constantia) standeni Melv. 

L Karachi. Alsoin lat. 18°58']N'.,long.7P45' E. 40 fathoms. 



l90l,] MOLLUSKS FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. B57 

Egmsia leptomita Melv. & Sykes. 

Turritella leptomita Melv, & Sykes, Proc. Mai. Soc. Lond. vol. ii. 
p. 171. 

P.G. Linjah, 3| fathoms. 

The extremes seem distinct from E. tricarinata Ad. & Eve., but 
the species is evidently, though rare, very widely distributed, and 
intermediates may, in time, be found to occur. 

I. Lat. 18° 58' N., long. 71° 45' E. 40 fathoms. 

ACLIS? ATEMELBS Mel P. 

1. Bombay (Abercrombie), 

It seems doubtful whether this species be rightly relegated to 
this genus. From the descinption, it might be nearer allied to 
Onoba. Unfortunately, the type having been accidently broken, 
the question is not easily cleared up. 

AcLis CALOTROPis \ sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 3.) 
A. testa minuta, attenuato-fusifoi'mi, gracili, pellucente, tenui, 
nitida ; anfractibiis 10, quorum duo apicales mamillati, vitrei, 
simplices, cceteris nitidis, Icevibus, spiraliter tornatis, obscure 
liratis, apud medium conspicue acutimrinatis, idtimo anfractu 
pauUulum producto, versus basim spiraliter lirato ; apertura 
ovata; labro tenui, ad basim' angulato ; columella recta, producta. 
Long. 3, lat. 1 mm. 

Eab. Gulf of Oman ; lat. 2^° 05' N., long. 57° 35' E. 205 
fathoms. 

A very delicate species, vitreous, 10-whorled, delicately spirally 
Urate ; the Hrae distant, few, and conspicuously once acutely keeled 
at the centre of each whorl ; the last whorl is slightly prolonged ; 
mouth ovate, lip thin ; columella produced, causing a slight angular 
projection at the base of the lip. 

AcLis ENiLDA, sp. n, (Plate XXII. fig. 4.) 

A. testa pergracili, delicata, subvitrea ; anfractibus 12, quorum 
apicales tres, Iceves, vitrei, cceteris ventricosis, apud suturas 
multum impressis, nitidis, undique spi^'aliter arete et regulariter 
liratis, Uris filosis, albidis, pellucentibus ; apertura rotunda ; 
labro effuso, tenui ; columella fere recta. 

Long. 8, lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Grulf of Oman, Maskat. 15 fathoms. 

A peculiarly refined and exquisite shell, allied in form to A. 
loveniana A. Ad. from Japan, but abundantly distinct. It is not 
unlike a small Turritella, being twelve-whorled, including three 
apical smooth and vitreous, the remaining nine being ventricose, 
much impressed at the sutures, uniformly closely spirally lirate, the 
lirse threaded, subpellucid; mouth rounded, outer lip thin, effuse; 
columella almost straight. 

^ KaXorpoTTis, with beautiful keel. 



358 MESSES. MBLViLL AND siANDEN ON [June 18, 

AcLis EOA Meiv. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

Has likewise occurred at Madras, vide J. of Conch, ix. p. 75. 

(h) TjBNIOGLOSSA. 

Sect. i. Platypoda. 

Fam. NaticidjE. 

jVatioa ALA PAPiLioNis Ch. (=N. tmiicitct Menke). 

P,Gr. Henjam Island. Gulf of Oman : Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

Jask, 3-5 fathoms. 
M.C. East of Jask, not infrequent. 

Natioa antoni Phil. 
P.G. Shaikh Shuaib I. 5 fathoms. 
M.C. Between Gwadur and Charbar {Mr. J. 0. Twells). 

Natica bubiasensis Eecluz. 
P.G. Bahrein I. 

ISTatica dillwtni Payr. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman : Jask beach, at very low tides only. 

Natica euzona Phil. 
P.G. Very rarely, on telegraph-cable. 

Tryon (Man. Conch, viii. p. 22) considers this a variety of 'picia 
Eecluz. 

Natica lineata Lam. 

I. Karachi. Bombay {Abercrombie); extending southwards 
{Lt.-Col. H. D. Olivier). 

Natica maculosa Lam. 

I. Bombay {Abercrombie; Olivier). Karachi; 3-7 fathoms, 
muddy sand. 

Natica ponsonbyi Melv. 

P.G. Linjah, 3| fathoms. Maskat, 15 fathoms. 

I. Karachi. 
Dredged also by Captain Tindall off Ceylon, near Batticaloa. 

Natica pulicaris Phil. 
M.G. Generally 3-7 fathoms, sandy mud. 
I. Karachi ; adult specimens of a smaller variety. Bombay 
{Ahercr ombie). 

Natica queketti Sowb. 

P.G. Henjam Island. I. Karachi. 

The type is South African. 

Natica eupa Born. 

I. Karachi. Bombay {Abercrombie). 



1901. J MOLLUSKS FBOM THE PEESIAN GULF. 359 

Natica steongtla Melv. 

P.Gr. Shaikh Shuaib I. Kais (or Gais) Island. Hindarabi I. 
Usually about 7-10 fathoms, on coral-sand bottom. Extends to 
the Andamans {Booley). 

Natica traillii Eeeve. 

P.G. Grulf of Oman : Maskat, 15 fathoms. I. Karachi. 
Natioa (Eunatica) tranquilla, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 5.) 
N. testa glohosa, nitida, solidiusciday apud umbilicum alho-ccdlosa, 
umhilico angusto, profunde perforata; anfractihus, apicaliincluso, 
sex, perlcevibus, ventricosidis, apud suturas paidlidmn eoscavatis, 
pallide albo-cinereis, obscurissime castaneo-vittatis vel fasciatis, 
ultimo anfractu rapide accrescente, omnino Icevi, fascia centrali 
castanea circa regionem umbilicareni pulchre et regidariter 
sagittifera ; apertura ovata, castaneo-tincta ; labro, prcecipue 
circa columellam, albo-calloso, nitido ; opercido albo, nitido, 
centraliter Icevissimo, fortiter marginato, nucleo centrali. 
Alt. 11, cliam. 13 mm. 
Hab. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 10 fathoms. 
This Natica differs from all forms of the protean and widely 
distributed N. marocJiiensis Gmel., with which Tryon (Man. Conch, 
vol. viii. p. 22) has merged nearly thirty so-called species, in its 
perfectly smooth surface at the sutures, nor trace of any plications 
being visible. Likewise the operculum is peculiar ; the strong 
marginal ridge not being present in marocJiiensis, which is com- 
pletely smooth throughout. We may add, that we consider the 
operculum an important factor in the differentiation of, at all events, 
the typical section of this difficult genus, so many species of which 
are very nearly allied. 

Natica (Nevbrita) didyma Bolten (JSf. ampla Phil.). 
M.C. Generally distributed. 

I. Karachi. Bombay {Abercrombie), and southwards (Lt.-Ool. 
H. D. Olivier). 

Usually found from low tide to 3 fathoms, mud and hard sand. 

Natioa (Mamma) albumen L. 

I. Lat. 18° 58' N., long. 71° 45' E. 40 fathoms. A semi- 
pellucid variety. 

Natica (Mamma) cumingiana Eecluz. 
P.G. Henjam Island. 10 fathoms, sandy mud. 
Mr. Townsend notes as a curious fact that his single specimen, 
though alive when dredged, was destitute of an operculum. 
Tryon unites this with N. powisiana Eecluz. 

Natica (Mamma) mamilla L. 
P.G. Gulf of Oman,M askat. 

M.C. Occurs generally from low-tide mark to 10 fathoms, on 
muddy sand. 

The above localities include records for N. pgriformis Recluz, 
which seems hardly even a variety. 

I. Bassein. Bombay ; common southwards (Lt.-Ool. H. D. Olivier). 



360 MESSES. MELVILL AND SXANDEN ON [June 18, 

Natica (Mamilla) melanostoma Grmel. 

Var.^6rosa Souleyet. 
P.Gr. Gulf of Oman, Maskat. 24 fathoms, mud. 

Var, zanziharica Recluz. 
M.C. No special locality mentioned. 
I. Bombay {Ahercrombie). 

SlGABETTTS OUVIEEIANUS EecluZ. 

I. Bombay {Ahercrombie), 

Stgaretus neritoideus L. 
I. Karachi. 

SiGARETUS PLANULATUS EecluZ. 

I. Bombay {Ahercrombie), 
SiGARETUS (Eunaticina) eibula Eve. 
I. Bombay {Ahercrombie). 

SiGARETUS (Eukaticina) PAPILLA Gmel. 
P.G. Gulf of Oman, Jask. 
M.O. East of Jask to Charbar. 

I. Karachi. Bombay {Ahercrombie). 

SiGARETUS (EuNATICINA) PELLUCIDUS EvB. 

P.G. Kais Island. 14 fathoms, among broken shells and coral, 
sand. 

SiGARETUS (EuNATIOINA) POMATIELLA MbIv. 

Naticina pomatiella Melv. Mem. Mauch. Soc. vii. p. 62. 
P.G. Linjah, 3| fathoms. 

I. Bombay {Ahercrombie). 
Was dredged off Ceylonese coast {Capt. W. A. Tindall). 

Eam. Trichotropid^. 
Tbichotropis TOwisrsENBi, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 7.) 
T. testa parva, imperforata, alba, epidermide fuscata coniecta, 
triplici setarum serie spirali prcedita ; anfractihus 4g, quorum, 
apicales 1| nitidi, candidi, perlceves, depressi, cceteris arete 
decussato-cancellatis et alveatis, interstitiis quadratulis, ultimo 
anfractu usque ad basim alveato, cmteros inagnopere superante; 
apertura suhquadrata, alba, tenui, ad basim breviter rostrato, 
truncatulo. 
Alt. 5, diam. 3*25, sp. maj. 

Hah. P.G. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 5' N., long. 57° 35' E., at 205 
fathoms, mud ; and lat. 25° 31' N., long. 57° 14' E., at 198 fathoms, 
mud._ Also lat. 25° 14' N., long. 59° 45' E., 80 fathoms. 

It is very interesting to announce the discovery of an Arctic 
genus^in Indian waters. Though, as seen by the dimensions just 
given, it is a small species, T. townsendi is one of the most re- 
markable of the many forms discovered by him whose name it 



1901.] MOLLUSKS from: IHE PERSIAN GULF. 361 

aptlj^ now bears. It is four-and-a-half whorled, the apex being 
flattened and much depressed. Of the ten or twelve examples we 
have examined, two only possess the epidermis ; this is dark fuscous, 
covering the whole surface, and emitting a bristle at regular 
intervals on the three spiral ribs, viz. at the point of junction 
with the cancellations. The shell, when decorticated, is milky- 
white, the surface to the base of the last whorl being entirely 
cancellate, the interstices deeply alveate. Mouth somewhat square, 
outer lip effuse; columella straightened down to the short truncated 
rostrum. 

The genus is almost wholly Arctic or North Boreal, occurring 
in Europe (r.6orm& Brod. & Sowb.), this species also having a 
wide range in the far North, where T. coronata Grould, T. Tcroyeri 
Phil., T. insignis Midd., and the conspicuous T. hicarinata Brod. & 
Sowb., occur, though most of these are local, and restricted in their 
habitats. T. clathrata A. Ad., comes from New Zealand, and 
several N. Japan species have been described, the only ones from 
absolutely tropical waters being T. migrans Dall, from Cuba, 
while Mr. Brazier has also described two from N. Australia, T. tri- 
cariiiata and T. graeilenta. These last we have not seen. 

LiPFlSTES GEATi A. Ad. {Separatista, Grray). 
M.O. Charbar. Earely amongst shingle. 

LiPPISTBS HELICOIDES Mtft. 

Separatista chemnitzii A. Ad. 
I. Karachi, dredged in fine condition. 

The position of this genus is not yet quite fixed, but it seems 
to have a certain amount of affinity with the Trichotropiclce. 

Fam. Vanikoeid^. 

Vanikoeo cancellata Lam. 

P.Gr. Hindarabi I. Linjah, 3| fathoms. 
I. Karachi. 

Vanikoeo clatheata Eecluz. 
Var. granulosa Recluz (sp.). 

P.G. Hindarabi Island. 

Perhaps only a variety of V. cancellata Lam., as we have seen 
intermediate forms. 

Yar. Gumingiana Eecluz (sp.). 
P.G. Jask, on borders of Mekran Coast. 

Pam. Xenophoeid^. 

Xenophoea coeeugata Eeeve. 

P.Gr. M.C. Sparingly but generally distributed at about 
7 fathoms, mud and stones. 



362 MESSRS. MELVILL AND STANDBN ON [June 18, 

XeNOPHORA (OnUSTUS) SOLARIS L. 

P.G. M.C., off Cape Monze, in mud, living. 

Pam. CapulidtE. 
Cruoibulum scutbllatum Gray. 
Var. pectinatum Carp. (sp.). 
P.G. Gulf of Oman : Maskat, mud, adhering to shells. 
Var. violaceum Carp. (sp.). 
I. Bombay {Ahercrombie). 
Var. verrueosum Reeve (sp.). 
M.C, Charbar, adhering to the apex of Conus Jlavidus. 

Calyptr^a edgariana Melv. 

P.G. Adhering to shells on telegraph-cable, October 1894. 
The type comes from Aden (Shopland), described Ann. N". H. 
ser. 7, vol. i, p. 201. 

Caltptr^a pellucida Reeve. 
I. Bombay {Ahercromhie). Very near sinensis L. 
Crepidula (Siphopatella) walshi Herm. 
I. Bombay {Abercrombie), abundant. 
Calyptr^a (Trochita) spinifera Gray. 
I. Karachi. 3 fathoms, among stones. 
Capulus LissTJS E. Sm. 

M.C. Adhering to telegraph-cable, 55 fathoms, mud. Lat, 
25= 58' N., long. 57° 08' E. 

Capulus violaoeus Angas. 

M.C. Charbar. Dead specimens only, collected amongst 
shingle. 

Amathina tricostata Gmel. 
I. Karachi (Ool. Baker). 

As explained in Man. Conch, viii. p. 133, this is not the Patella 
tricarinata L. 

Earn. HiPPONYCiB^. 

MiTRULARIA EQU1STRI8 L. 

P.G. On cable, dead. 

Var. layardi Reeve (sp.). 
M.C. Ormara Bay. I. Karachi. 

Earn. SoLAEiiDiE. 
Solarium l^vigatum Lam. 
P.G. No special locality given. 
M.C. Charbar. I. Karachi. 

Generally found at from 3 to 7 fathoms, amongst loose rocks 
and muddy sand. 



1901.] MOLLUSKS FfiOM THE PERSIAN GULF. 363 

SOLABIUM PEESPECTIVDM L. 

P.Gr. Henjam I. 15 fathoms, mud. Eemarkably fine. 
M.C. Near Charbar. At 5 to 10 fathoms, amongst loose rocks 
and muddy sand. 

SoLAKiiTM EEGiTJM Hanlej. 

I. A fine single specimen only, dredged at 4 fathoms, Karachi, 
amongst loose rocks. 

Solarium (ToEiifiA) c^la'xum Hinds. 
P.Gr. Henjam Island. 10 fathoms, sand. 

Solarium (Torinia) cylindraceum Chemn. 

M.C. Charbar. T. chemnitzii Kien., from the Layard Coll. 
in Brit. Mus., is identical. 

Solarium (Torinia) doesuosum Hinds. 
P.G. Shaikh Shuaib I. 
M.C. Charbar. I. Karachi. 

Eound generally from low-tide mark to 7 fathoms, amongst 
muddy rocks and sand. 

Solarium (Torinia) delectabile Melv. 

I. Karachi. Dredged at 7 fathoms, several examples. The 
type from Bombay (Abercromhie). 

Solarium (Torinia) homalaxis Melv. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 05' N., long. 57° 35' E. 205 
fathoms. Very young examples are smooth, semi-nacreous, thin, 
ammonitiform, with large globular protoconch, the sculpture 
commences on the third whorl only. 

I. Karachi. Bombay (Abercromhie), found at low tide among 
muddy rocks. Lat. 18° 58' N., long. 71° 45' E., 40 fathoms. 

Until specimens quite full-grown are obtained, this must 
necessarily be considered a somewhat doubtful species ; the white 
colour seems fairly constant and characteristic, its nearest ally being 
^S". dorsuosum Hinds. 

Solarium (Torinia) pbrspectiviunculum Dillw. 
P.G. Shaikh Shuaib Island. Perhaps only a variety of the 
next. 

Solarium (Torinia) yariegatum Gmel. 

P.G. Kais Island. 

M.C. Charbar. I. Karachi. 

Found usually from 3 to 7 fathoms, among sand and stones. 

Earn. LiTTORiNiD^. 

LiTTORINA TENTRICOSA Phil. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie, W. T. Blanford), abundant. 



364 MESSES, MELTILL AND STANDEN OH" [June 18, 

LioraoEHSTA (Melaraphe) scabea L. 
Var. carinifera Menke (sp.). 
Var. intermedia Phil. (sp.). 
Var. neivcombi Eeeve. 
Var. punctata Phil. 
NdbV. pyramidalis Gr. Nevill. 
I. Karachi. Bombay (G. Nevill, var. punctata; Eev. S. B. 
Pairbank, W. T. Blanford, var. intermedia ; S. B. F., W. T, B., 
var. carinifera and var. pyramklalis). 
Intermedia seems the most abundant form. 

Littoeina (Mblaeaehe) undulata G-ray. 
I. Karachi. 

Tectaeius aematus Issel. 

P.G. Henjam I. 

M.C. Gwadur {W. T. Blanford in G. Nevill). 

Tectaeius nodulosus Gmel. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, Jask. Rocks at high-water mark. 
I. Bombay. Abundant (Abercrombie) (and, under name T. 
trochoides Gray, F. Stoliczka, 0. Nevill, W. T. Blanford). 

Tectaeius geanulaeis Gray (= millegranus Phil.). 

P.G. Maskat {W. T. Blanford). Gulf of Oman, .Jask, with 
the preceding. 

Lacuna tenuisteiata Melv. 
P.G. Maskat, 7 fathoms. 

EiSELLA (Peasiella) isseli Semper. 

P.G. Gulf of Oman, Maskat ( W. T. Blanford). 

Pam. PossaeiDjE. 
PossAEUS BiCARiNATUS A. Ad. {Fossar Adanson). 
I. Karachi. 

FossAEus fenesteatus a. Ad. 

P.G. Kais (or Gais) Island. 7 fathoms, coral-sand. Not 
perhaps quite typical. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

FossAEUs suLCATus S. Wood. 

Fossarus tornatilis Gould. 

Fossarus stoliczJcanus Nevill. 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie, Rev. S. B. Fairbank). 

All these probably forms of one variable species. 

FoSSAEUS TEOCHLEAEIS A. Ad. 

I. Bombay (StoliczJca, W. T. Blanford, G. Nevill, J. Wood- 
Mason, A. Abercrombie). 



1901.] MOLLUSKS FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 365 

FossARUS (Couthouyia) appresstjs G. Nevill. 
P.G. Larah. Tumh I. (W. T. Blanford). 

EossARUs (Couthouyia) reticulatus A. Ad. 

Var. delicatula Gr. Nevill. 
I. Bombay (Rev. S. B. Fairhmik). 

FossARUs (Couthouyia) solutus G. Nevill. 
M.C. Gwadur (IF. T. Blanford). 

FossARUs (Couthouyia) styliferinus G. Nevill. 
I. Bombay. 

FossARUS (Couthouyia) subreticulatus G. Nevill. 
P.G. Tumb I. {W. T. Blanford). 
M.C. Gwadur (W. T. B.). 

I. Bombay {Rev. S. B. Fairbank). 

FossARus (Conradia) adamsiana G. Nevill. 
P.G. Gulf of Oman {W. T. Blanford). 

FossAKUs (Conradia) doliaris a. Ad. 

Var. minor G. Nevill. 
P.G. Tumb I. ( W. T. Blanford). 

I. Bombay (Rev. S. B, Fairbank • also A. Abercrombie). 

Fam. EissoidjE. 

EissoA (Apicularia) charope, sp. n, (Plate XXII. fig. 8.) 
E. testa vix rimata, rotundo-ovata, Candida, nitida, calcarea; 
anfractibus 5, quorum apicales duo loaves, albi, caiteris gradatis, 
multum apud suturas impressis, undique acutlcostatis, costis 
fere rectis, infra, juccta suturas noduliferis, nitidis, ad 
ultimum circa sedecim, ad basim continuis, sed obscuris, inde 
fortiter spiraliter sulculosis ; apertura rotunda, labro tenui ; 
columella tenui, simplice. 
Long. 1*75, lat. 1 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 05' N., long. 57° 35' E. 205 
fathoms. 

Similar to the R. xantJiias and R. pyrrMas Watson, dredged off 
Culebra I., W. Indies, during the ' Challenger ' Expedition. Our 
species is, hov^ever, a little smaller than either, and possesses more 
ribs, which are sharp and more angled at the upper part, the 
granuled spiral row of shining nodules being conspicuous. 

EissoA (Apicularia) versoyerana Melv. 

I. Karachi, Amongst muddy rocks at low tide, common 
Bombay (Abercrombie). One of the most characteristic of the 
smaller mollusks of that locality. 



366 MESSRS. MELVILL A.ND STANDEN ON [June 18, 

EissoA (Manzonia) peteonella, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 9.) 
Bi, testa minutissima, jjagodceformi, solidula, alba ; anfractibus 
5-6, quorum apicalis crassus, alho-vitreus, raamillatus, cceteris 
crassicostatis, apud suturas niultum impressis, costis nodulosis, 
prominuUs, albis, interstitiis planatis ; apertura circularly 
peristomate inerassato, continuo. 
Long. 2, lat. 1 mm. 
Hah. Karachi. 

A very minute, elegant, white pagoda-shaped species, with 
angled nodulous ribs, sutures much impressed, peristome thickened, 
continuous, mouth circular. "We have provisionally located it in 
the subgenus or section Manzonia Brus., of which the European 
B. costata Ads. is the type. 

EissoA (Onoba) delicata Phil. 
P.G. Bushire. 

I. Karachi; also reported from Bombay {Bev. S. D. Fair- 
hank), not collected by Abercrombie. 

E.ISSOA (Onoba) egeegta a. Ad. 

P.G. Kishm Island. 5 fathoms, mud. 

Very beautiful, the whorls delicately longitudinally multi- 
plicate. 

EissoA (Alvania) alveata, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 10.) 
E. testa ovato-ohlonga, solida, alho-calcarea • anfractibus quinque, 
apicalibus duobus Icevibus, subpellucidis, inclusis, cceteris tribus 
angidatim, proynimdis, apud suturas imj)ressis, spiraliter 
fortiter hi- in tdtimis quinquecostatis, undique alveolatis et 
decussatis, interstitiis quadratis, profundis ; apertura rotunda ; 
labro crasso, alho, extus crenulato ; columella incrassata, peris- 
tomate continuo. 
Long. 3, lat. 1*25 mm. 

Rah. Angrias Bank, "W.S.W, of Bombay {Capt. Tindall). 
Also recorded from Quilon, further south, on the Malabar Coast. 

A stout, incrassate Alvania, the upper two (or sometimes three) 
whorls simple and smoothish, the remainder ruggedly angled, 
uniformly cancellate, the interstices being deep and square ; outer 
lip very thickened. Of the same character as the W. Indian 
A. didyma Watson, or the Australian A. austrcdis Sowb. 

EissoA (Alyania) inteefossa Nevill. 
I. Indian Coast (O. NevilT). 

EissoA (Alvania) mahimensis Melv. 

I. Bombay (Abercronihie). 

In Gr. Nevill's ' Hand-hst of the Mollusca of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta," p. 112, an Alvania sp. is marked with a var. 
h. rohusta Nevill, from Bombay, an unique instance, perhaps, of 
the name of a variety being gazetted before that of its type-form. 

The nearest ally of this species is E. interfossa Nevill. 



1901.] MOLLITSKS FROM THE PEBSIAN GTJLF. 367 

RiSSOIKA AMBIGUA Gould. 

I. Bombay. Old record. 

Eeported from both Aden and Ceylon. There are no typical 
specimens in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from our area (c/. 
a. Nevill, Hand-list of MoUusca, Calcutta, 1885, p. 73.) Of the 
var. perpusilla Nevill, examples occur from P.Gr. Henjam 1., and 
I. Bombay, collected by Mr.' W. T. Blanford, 

ElSSOINA MICANS A. Ad. 

P.G". Tumb I., Kishm I., and Mutef (W. T. Blanford in 
G. Nevill, Hand-Hst). Gulf of Oman, lat. 26° 23' N., long. 56° 
53' E. ; also lat. 24° 44' N., long. 55° 56' E. 205 fathoms. 
Var. perstriatula Nevill. 
P.G. Tumb I. ( W. T. Blanford, 1. c). 
EissoiNA scEPTEUM-EEGis, sp. n. (Plate XXII. fig. 11.) 
E. testa suhperforata, pergracili, nitida, solida, alheseente ; anfrac- 
tibus 12i, quorum 3| apicales, mamillati, parvi, vitrei, coiteris 
nitentihus, Icevissimis, longitudinaliter recticostatis, costis Icevibus, 
ad suturas imp>ressis, tumidulis, idtimo anfractu infra inedium 
costis evanidis, deinde ad basim spiraliter sex vel septem lirato ; 
apertiira rotando-ovata ; labro incrassato, ad basim paullum 
effuso ; columella simplice, nitida. 
Long. 9*50, lat. 2 mm. 

Hab. Gulf of Oman, lat. 24° 05' N., long. 57° 35' E. 205 
fathoms. 

One of the most interesting of the abyssal species dredged at 
over the 100-fathoms line. It is quite unlike any Eissoid known 
to us, and there is nothing approaching it in the National Collec- 
tion, or depicted in any monograph of the family. From the 
figure of B. nevillana Weink., from Hongkong, a rapprochement 
is, we fancy, discernible, and for the present, at all events, would 
place it among the Eurissoinas, near that species. 

It is a solid, shining, smooth, hardly perforate, attenuately slender, 
whitish cinereous shell, with very faint, almost imperceptible 
ochi'eous tinge below the sutures ; the 3| apical whorls are small, 
shining, vitreous, the next rapidly increasing proportionately in 
size, and then with but gradual increase to the body-whorl. All 
these whorls are longitudinally smoothly costate, the 10 ribs of 
the body-whorl vanishing below the middle, which is thence to the 
base six or seven times spirally lirate. The mouth is oval ; outer 
lip thickened, only slightly effuse towards the base ; columella 
simple, white. 

EissoiNA (Eissolina) distans Anton (=:canaliculata Schw.). 

I. Bombay (Abercrombie). 

EissoiNA (Eissolina) pachystoma Melv. 

P.G. Bushire. 

I. Karachi. Bombay (Abercrombie), 
The few ribs, eight on the body-whorl, and smooth interstices 



368 MESSRS. MELVILL AND STAIfDEK ON [June 18, 

between the ribs, the outer lip being extremely incrassate, may 
serve to distinguish this species. It has only occurred in small 
quantity. 

EissoiNA (Eissolina) plicatula Gould. 
P.G-. Kishm I. (W. T. Blanford). 
I. Bombay. Old record. 

EissoiNA (Eissolina) plicaxa Ad. 

Var. heriheloti Aud. 

Var. scalarina A. Ad. 
P.G. Kharg (W. 2\ Blanford). Kishm I. (var. hertheloti : 
W. T. B.). 
I. Karachi. Common. 

EissoiKA (EissoLiisrA) PSEUDo-scALARis, sp. n. (Plate XXII. 
fig. 13.) 

E. testa minuta, fusiformi^ solida, nitida, Icevi, albida ; anfractibus 
octo, quorum apicales 3| attenuati, apice ipso brunneo, omnibus 
vitreis, cceteris albo-calcareis, longitudinaliter paueioostatis, costis 
lamellarum instar, ultimo in anfractu circa undecim, prope ante 
basim eva